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Library of trhe 'theological ^eminarjp 

PRINCETON • NEW JERSEY 



Mrs. Robert Lenox Kennedy 

ChnrrVh hlotn^r *>■,,** 
BR 1607 .F5 1837 v. 4 
Foxe, John, 1516-1587. 
The acts and monuments of 
John Foxe 



THE ACTS AND MONUMENTS 
OF JOHN FOXE: 



A NEW AND COMPLETE EDITION 



WITH A PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION", 
BY THE 

REV. GEORGE TOWNSEND, M.A. 

OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, 

PREBENDARY OF DURHAM, 
AND VICAR OF NORTHALLERTON', YORKSHIRE. 



EDITED BY THE 

REV. STEPHEN REED CATTLEY M.A. 

or queen's college, Cambridge, 

RECTOR OF BAGTHORP, NORFOLK, 

AND CHAPLAIN TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE EARL OF SCARBROUGH. 



VOL. IV. 



PUBLISHED BY R. B. SEELEY AND W. BURNSIDE ; 

AND SOLD BY L. & G. SEELEY, 

FLEET STREET, LONDON. 

MDCCC XXXVII. 



LOKoojr: 

< i, \v, l.iu.A D-8TRSBT-HILL, 
T0»8' COMMON g. 



CONTENTS 



VOL. IV. 



CONTINUATION OF BOOK VI. 

PERTAINING TO THE LAST THREE HUNDRED YEARS FROM THE LOOSING 
OUT OF SATAN. 

A.D. PAGE 

1485. Henry VII, ,°> 

1486. Maximilian the Emperor ibid. 

1490. The Burning of Joan Boughton, and others 7 

1499. Hieronymus Savanarola, with two Friars, Martyrs .... 8 

Articles objected against Hierome and the two Friars ... 9 
1499 The Ten Grievances complained of by the Germans, and the 

to Remedy against them 11 

1503. An Advertisement unto the Emperor Maximilian, of the Subtle 

Practices of the Pope and Popish Prelates 13 

A certain Godly Exhortation unto the Emperor's Majesty . . ibid. 

The Edict of Maximilian the Emperor 14 

A Letter of Jacobus Selestadiensis to the Emperor Maximilian, 
in Answer to the Edict ibid. 

1503. The History of the Turks 18 

Ottoman, the First great Emperor of the Turks, a. d. 1300 . 25 

Orchan, the Second Emperor ibid. 

Amurath, the Third Emperor 26 

Bajazet, the Fourth Emperor 27 

Calephine, the Fifth Emperor 29 

Orchan, Mahomet, and Amurath, the Sixth, Seventh, and 

Eighth Emperors 30 

Mahomet II., the Ninth Emperor 36 

Bajazet II., the Tenth Emperor 41 

Selim, the Eleventh Emperor 48 

Solyman, the Twelfth Emperor 51 

A Notice touching the Miserable Persecution, Slaughter, and 
Captivity of the Christians under the Turks, and the Authors 

of the Turks' Story . 79 

The Division of Asia Minor, called Cheronesus 88 

Africa 91 

6 






\ I. 
1503 



'II,, i',,,|,i„ , ii of the Holy Scriptures considered, touching 

ii,. i ng up, and final Ruin and Destruction, of thu 

wicked Kingd of the Turks; with the Revelations jukI 

of other autBon concemina the sa . 93 

\( pariaon between the Syrians and the Turks .... 06 

Xhe Prophi i i( oi Mi thodiu , Hildegarde, and others, con- 
cerning the Reign and Ruin of the Turks 100 

Ini. rpretation of Prophecy |« 

\ Prayer again A the Turks '-' 

1500 William Tylsworth, Martyr, burned at Amershani .... 123 

i,, The cruel handling of Thoma iCha ie, of Amersham ; wickedly 

i nd martyred in the I'.i hop i Pri ion af Woburn, 

ondei William Smith, Bishop of Lincoln 134 

Lau Ghe t, Martyr .••.-.• '"'' 

1008 \ notable Story «»t' a faithful Woman, burned in Chipping 

Sudbury '"' 

\ , , .,-. upon Thomas Wittington, who was slain by a bull . 129 
1509 John Blomstone, and eighl others, persecuted al Coventry , 133 

The Name i of the Archbishops of Canterbury contained in the 
Sixth Book ; -. ■ 138 

\ Brief Note, with e Recapitulation of Ancient Ecclesiastical 
Laws, by sundry Kings of tHis realm ordained, for Govern 
ineni of the Church before the Conquest ibid. 

The pi I primacy of Popes described : in order of their rising 

up, by little and little, from faithful Bishops and Martyrs, 

to beci • Lords and Governors over Kings and Kingdoms, 

exalting themselves in the Temple of God, above all thai is 
called God - 130 

The I'm I Ri ing oi thi Bishops of Rome 140 

The Words of St. Paul expounded 141 

The Exaltation of Popes above Kings and Emperors, out of 
Mi i 142 

The [mage of Antichrist exalting himself in the Temple of 
God, above all thai is called God; out of his own decrees, 
decretals, extravagants, pontificals, &c, word fot word, as 
ii is mil of the laid lunik, here alleged and quoted . . ■ 145 

\n Uphabetical List of the Authorities here alluded to . . 157 

Casus.rapales LI. apud Fratrem Astesai , rive de At. Doc 

torem solemnera in lumma confessionis. Item apud I [ostien- 
lem, de offlc. legat. reperti el hi irersibu i comprehensi. . 161 

(.i . i Papal t" the number of one and fifty; wherein the Pope 
bath powei to dispense, and none else besides .... l<>2 



BOOK vil. 



ri.KTAlM'... ro HI! LAS1 i 1 1 1: i i HUNDRED MARS PROM THE LOOSING OU1 01 

1509, Huxi \ III Hifi 

The Tenor of the Pope's Bull, for the Conception of the Virgin 

to be without sin [68 

1509 The State and Succession of Princes 17:5 

'" The Hi tor} of dii d Men and Women, persecuted for 

1518. Ri ligion in the city and diocese of the Bishop of London : 

U A --Hi of the Registi i of Ri< hard Pitzjames ; 

with tli.ir Examinations ibid. 

■I ' Baki r, and thirt) nine others 17.') 

The Death and Martyrdom of William Sweeting and John 

I ISO 

John Brown Mart] r , ISJ 






Vk'ji. 



1500 The Story of Richard Htm, Martyr; with the Art: 

to bim 

New Ai t him after bk death . . ,186 

ofFitzjamec Hun 

beiri£? dead . . 

The Verdict of the Inquest 190 

derby, 

Allen Cresswell, and Richard Horsenail J 02 

of Richard 1 B of London, 

to Cardinal Wokey 196 

the Lord*, 

in the- Parliament-house 

the Coronet 
- in behalf of Kit-hard Htm . . J 07 
A \i • !:ard Htm, i and 

Alarm* Copm .199 

Ehzah and others 20-j 

rs, who, in ': 

if, abjure 200 

John South wick 

John Stilman, an'i I him 207 

206 

Ogham, and Wjhiam Sweeting, alias 

... 214 

215 

. . .2)7 
. . the Bishop 

of Lincoln, in Kxaminau-s 219 

1518 A TaUe deacribinj the 

.. with 
1521. 

: out of the 

:j. \'j2\ 221 

id, Bishop 
ante of Christ, falsely then called 

'. 211 

fhoae who were abjured in the D 
: 
. 
■joined under pain of rel<- snd, 

. . . ' . . ibid. 
The ' 



J'auls 23', 

rreh of Cfcriri 

the '. r 250 

| 



described 200 

. . . 

f ardjnal 271 

1021. r. at 



■ 



A I). 

1521 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 



Pope Adrian VI. to the renowned Princes of Germany, and to 
the Piers of the Roman Emperors 295 

Instructions given by Pope Adrian to Charegatus, his Legate, 
touching his Proceedings in the Diet of Nuremberg, how and 
l»v what persuasions the Princes were to be moved against 
Luther. 29S 

The Answer of the Noble and Reverend Princes, and of the 
States of fads Sacred Roman Empire, exhibited to the Pope's 
Ambassador • • • 30.3 

Certain Grievances or Oppressions of Germany, against the 
Court of Rome, collected and exhibited by the Princes, at 
the Council of Nuremberg, to the number of a hundred, 
whereof certain Specialities follow 308 

1523, An Intimation given by Philip Melancthon to his Auditory at 

Wittenberg, of the decease of Martin Luther, a.d.'1546 . . 320 

A Prayer after the manner of Luther 321 

Summary of Popish Decrees made at the Council of Ratisbon. 325 
The History of the Helvetians or Switzers ; how they first re- 
covered their liberty, and afterwards were joined in league 

together . ibid. 

The Acts and Doings of Uldricus Zuinglius : and the Receiving 

of the Gospel in Switzerland 327 

Constitutions decreed in the CouiTcil of Bern 329 

Answer of the Tigurines, or Men of Zurich, to the five Towns 

of the Switzers 

Message from the Council to the City of Strasberg .... 339 
A Letter of Uldricus Zuinglius to N., his brother in the Lord. 34G 
llrh v Noes and John Esch, Friars Augustine, burnt at Brus- 
sels, A.n. 1523 349 

1524. Henry Sutphen, Monk, a Martyr at Dithmarsch 350 

Letter of Solyman the great Turk, to the Master of the Rhodes, ibid. 
The lamentable Martyrdom of John Clerk, at Meaux, in 

France 361 

\o2~>. The History of a good Pastor, murdered for preaching of the 

Gospel: written by John CEcolampadius 365 

Tlie like History of the Death of a certain Minister, named 

Master Peter Spengler, who was drowned: collected by 

GEcolampadius 366 

Another History of a certain Man of the Country, wrongfully 

put to death : collected by John CEcolampadius .... 369 
The Story and Martyrdom of Woll'gangus Schuch, a German, 

burned at Lorraine 371 

1526. John Huglein, Martyr, burned at Mersburg 373 

1527. George Carpenter, of Emerich, Martyr, burned in the town of 

Munich, in Bavaria 374 

The History of Leonard Keyser, Martyr, burned at Schar- 

dingham 376 

Wendelmuta, Widow, Martyr; at the Hague 377 

Peter Flisteden and Adolphua Clarebacb, put to death at 

Cologne 378 

1534 A Talile of tlie Names and Causes of such Martyrs as gave their 

to lives for the testimony of the Gospel, ill Germany, France, 

Spain, Italy, and other Foreign Countries, since Luther's 

time : in which table are contained the Persecutions, the 

Martyrs, and the Causes of their Martyrdom: 

The Martyrs of Germany ....." 379 

Great Persecution in Gaunt, and other parts of Flanders, by 

the Friars and Priests thereof . 383 

Another Table of those that suffered in France, for the like 

to wit:, | . pel : 

1560. The French Martyrs 396 



CONTENTS. V 

A.D. PAGE 

1540 A Table of certain Martyrs, who, for the cause of Religion, 

to suffered in Spain : 

1560. The Spanish Martyrs 117 

The Fonn and Manner of the Execrable Inquisition of Spain. 451 
Thirty Christian Prisoners brought before the Council of the 

Inquisition 453 

1546 A Table of such Martyrs as suffered for the testimony of the 

to Gospel, in Italy : 

1560. The Italian Martyrs 45S 

Eighty-eight Martyrs in one day, with one butcherly knife, 

slain like sheep. Sixteen hundred others also condemned 

at Calabria 472 

1530 A Notable History of the Persecution and Destruction of the 

to People of Merindol and Cabriers, in the Country of Pro- 

1547. vence 474 

An Oration of Catiline, that is, the Oration of the Bishop of 

Aix, seditious and bloody 482 

An Oration of Bassinet in reply to the Bishop of Aix, followed 

by another 483 

Supplication of the Inhabitants of Cabriers, and the Answer of 

Cardinal Sadolet 

The Words of Durand to the Merindolians, with their Answer. 496 
Notes upon the History of Merindol, above recited .... 505 
1555 The History of the Persecutions and Wars against the people 

to called Waldenses or Waldois ; in the Valleys of Angrogne, 

1561. Lucerne, St. Martin, Perouse and others; in the county of 
Piedmont 507 

Substance of the Articles and Confessions of the Angrognians, 
exhibited to the President ; with their Interrogatories and the 

Answer to them 510 

The Crafty Message of the Lord of Trinity to the Angrognians, 

with their Answer 525 

Conditions and Articles proposed to the Waldois 548 

Conclusions and Articles lastly agreed upon between the Right 
Honourable Lord of Ranconis, on the part of the Duke's 
Highness, and those of the Valleys of Piedmont, called the 

Waldois 549 

The Conclusion of the Story of Merindol and Cabriers . . . 553 
The Story of a Christian Jew martyred by the Turks . . . 555 
The Conclusion ibid. 

BOOK VIII. 

CONTINUING THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH MATTERS APPERTAINING TO BOTH STATES, 
AS WELL ECCLESIASTICAL AS CIVIL AND TEMPORAL. 

1519 The History of Seven Godly Martvrs burnt at Coventry . . 557 

to Robert Silkeb, a. d. 1521 558 

1527. Patrick Hamelton, martyred at St. Andrew's, in Scotland, 

a. d. 1527 ibid. 

Articles and Opinions objected against Master Patrick Hamel- 
ton, by James Beton, Bishop of St. Andrew's; followed by 
his Sentence 559 

1527. The Copy of a Letter congratulatory sent from the Doctors of 

Louvain to the Archbishop of St. Andrew's and Doctors of 
Scotland, commending them for the Death of Master Patrick 
Hamelton 561 

1528. A Brief Treatise of Master Patrick Hamelton, called ' Patrick's 

Places;' translated into English by John Frith, with the 
Epistle of the said Frith prefixed before the same ; treating 
of the Doctrine of the Law ; the Doctrine of Faith ; of 
Hope ; of Charity, etc 563 



I OK II NT-.. 

PAGE 



A l> 

I .28 



Certain Brief Notes or Declarations upon the aforesaid places 

of Master Patrick Hamelton . . . • • •■ • ■ ■ ■ JJJ 
Henry Forest martyred at St. Andrews, in Scotland. . . . o/b 
Fames Hamelton, Katherine Hamelton j a wife of Leith; 
Stratan, and Master Norman Gurleyj the two last 



burned 



579 



Thomas Harding, an aged Father, dwelling at Chesham in 
Buckinghamshire, a. d. 1532 • •••••••• -580 

Persecution of simple men in the diocese of Lincoln . . .582 

A Tahle of all such as were abjured in King Henry's days, 
after the first beginning of Luther 585 

\ Brief Discourse concerning the Story and Life of Thomas 
Wolsej . late Cardinal ofYoric, by way of digression ; wherein 
ia t,, be seen and noted the express image of the proud, vain- 
glorious Church of Rome, how far it differeth from the true 

(lunch of Christ Jesus • r >87 

I 527 The Sacking of Rome and Taking of Pope Clement .... 592 
'," The Copy of an ambitious Letter written by Thomas Wolsey, 
1530, Cardinal of York, unto Stephen Gardiner, one of King 
Henry's Orators in the Court of Rome, for procuring of the 
papal dignity to the said Cardinal 600 

Instructions sent by the King's»Highness to his Trusty Coun- 
cillors and Servants, Master Stephen Gardiner, Doctor of 
both Laws; Sir Francis Brian, Sir Gregory de Cassalis, 
Knights; and Mr. Petre Vanne, the King's Secretary for the 
Italian tongue; his Ambassadors in the Court of Rome, for 
the Election of the Cardinal of York to the Papacy, if Pope 
Clement were dead 

Grievances objected against the Clergy of England . . . .611 

Articles objected against Cardinal Wolsey 614 

1530. The Trouble of Humphrey Mummuth, Alderman of London . 617 

Thomas Hitten, burned at Maidstone 619 

Thomas Bilney ; also Thomas Arthur, who abjured at Nor- 

wich ibid. 

1531, Articles against Thomas Arthur 623 

Interrogatories objected against Arthur and Bilney . . . .624 

Bflney's Answers to the Interrogatories 625 

\ Brief Summary or Collection of certain Depositions, deposed 

by the several witnesses aforenamed, upon certain interroga- 
tories ministered unto them for the inquiry of Master Bil- 
nev's Doctrine and Preaching; with certain other articles . 627 
A Dialogue between Friar John Brusierd and Master Thomas 
Bilney at Ipswich, concerning Worshipping of Images . . 628 

The Submission of Master Thomas Bilney 631 

A Letter of Master Thomas Bilney to Cuthbert Tonstal, Bishop 

of London 633 

Another Letter from the same to the same 636 

\ Letter of Master Bilney, to Tonstal, Bishop of London, fruit- 
ful and accessary for all Ministers to read 639 

M- ter Stafford, of Cambridge G56 

The Story of Master Simon Fish, author of 'The Supplication 

of Beggars 1 ibid. 

\ ci rtain Libel or Book entitled 'The Supplication of Beggars,' 

thrown and scattered at tile Procession ill Westminster, oil 
Candlemas-day, before King Henry VIII.; for him to read 
and peruse. Made and compiled by Master Pish . . . <>.")!> 
The Names of the Hooks tbat were forbidden at this time, 

ther with the New Testament 667 

\ compendious old Treatise, showing how we ought to have 

tin- Scriptures in English 671 

A Proclamation for the resisting and withstanding of most 
damnable i ! . i . - i •, .own within this Realm by the Disciples 



CONTEXTS. VII 

A.D. PAGE 

1531. of Luther and other Heretics, perverters of Christ's Re- 
ligion 676 

The Copy of a Letter sent by Bishop Nixe, of Norwich, which 
was taken out of the Letter subscribed with his own hand . 679 

Richard Bayfield, Martyr 680 

Articles laid against Richard Bayfield, and his Answers to them. G82 

The Sentence given against him 684 

The Sentence of Degradation given against blessed Bayfield, 

with the Proceedings thereon 686 

The Letters of Requiry, directed to the Mayor and Sheriffs of 
the City of London, that they should be present that day, 
when the Sentence should be given, to receive the Heretic 

(as they called him) that was condemned 687 

John Tewkesbury, leatherseller, of London, Martyr . . . 688 
The Examination of John Tewkesbury, before Tonstal, bishop 

of London G89 

Articles extracted out of the Book of 'The Wicked Mammon.' 690 
Another Examination of John Tewkesbury, on Articles drawn 

out of ' The Wicked Mammon ' 691 

Additional Articles objected against John Tewkesbury . . . 692 

The Sentence against him 693 

John Randall • • • 694 

The Story and Apprehension of Edward Freese, a Painter . ibid. 

James Bainham, Lawyer and Martyr 697 

Interrogatories against James Bainham 698 

1532. The Process against James Bainham, in case of Relapse . . 702 

John Bent, Martyr 706 

One Trapnel, Martyr &«*• 

Robert King, Robert Dedham, and Nicholas Marsh, Martyrs, ibid, 



fLLUSTRATIONS IN VOL. IV 



Ki\f. Henri tut. Eighth in Council page 16.5 



Thb Murder of Richard Hun 

Seven Godli Martyrs burnt at Coventry . . 
Thomas Bilnbi twn e plucked from the Pi lpit 



. 18 i 
. 557 
. 627 



ACTS AND MONUMENTS. 



VOL. IV. 



VOL. IV. 



ACTS AND MONUMENTS. 



CONTINUATION OF BOOK VI. 

PERTAINING TO 

THE LAST THREE HUNDRED YEARS FROM THE LOOSING OUT 

OF SATAN, i 



HENRY THE SEVENTH. 

When king Henry, by the providence of God, had obtained this Henry 
triumphant victory and diadem of the realm, first sending for Edward VIL 
Plantagcnet earl of Warwick, son to George duke of Clarence, and A.D. 
committing him to safe custody within the Tower, from Leicester he 1485 - 
removed to London ; and not long after, according to his oath and 
promise made before, espoused to him the young lady Elizabeth, heir 
of the house of York; whereby both \he houses of 'York and Lan- The two 
caster were conjoined together, to the no little rejoicing of all English S*"«£5 
hearts, and no less quiet unto the realm, which was a.V 1485. This t ? nc * ste > 
king reigned twenty-three years and eight months, and being a prince S". 
of great policy, justice, and temperance, kept his realm in good 
tolerable rule and order. And here, interrupting a little the course 
of our English matters, we will now (the Lord willing) enter the story 
above promised, of Maximilian the emperor, and matters of the empire, 
especially such as pertain to the church. 

Uaajrimtlian tfje <£mper.or. 

In the year of our Lord I486, Frederic waxing aged, and partly ad i486 
also mistrusting the hearts of the Germans, who had complained before 
of their grievances, and could not be heard; and therefore, misdoubt- 
ing that his house, after his decease, should have the less favour among 
them, for that cause in his lifetime did associate his son Maximilian Beta 
to be joined emperor with him ; with whom he reigned the space of ; ""' 
seven years, till the death of the said Frederic his father, who do- Br2dl° f 
parted a.d, 1494, after he had reigned over the empire fifty-three 

mPiiSPZ T*n* -Fn Ed - ] "°' p - m - Ed " 15rc ' p - ro '- x:d - 1583 ' '•• 729 - EJ - 159 «. P-cro. 



ric, the 
emperor. 



I il 



TMF. CKF.AT LBAKNIJJG OF MAXIMILIAN' THE EMPEROR. 

yean lacking but three yean of the- reign of Augustus Caesar, under 

_ whom was the birth ..four Lord and Saviour Christ. 

vi.. This Maximilian, as he was a valiant emperor, prudent and smgu- 

i ' s,; - 1 u-lv learned bo was his reign entangled in many unquiet and difficult 

wan • first in the lower countries of Flanders and Brabant, where the 

said '.Maximilian was taken captive, but shortly after rescued and 

uua,. delivered again by his father, a.d. 1487. It was signified before, 
how this Maximilian, bv the advice of the Burgundians, had to wife 
Mary the only daughter of Charles duke of Burgundy afore men- 
tion.'.! ■ by whom he had two children, Philip and Margaret, a.d. 1477; 
which Mary not long after, about a.d. 1481, by a fall from her horse, 
f. 11 into an ague, and departed. Other wars, many more, the same 
Maximilian also achieved, both in France, in Italy, in Hungary, and 
diven besides. 

The So happy was the education of this emperor in good letters, so 

expert he was in tongues and sciences, but especially such was his 

«»«u«n. dexterity and promptness in the Latin style, that he, imitating the 

Writer <rf example of Julius Caesar, did write and comprehend in Latin histories 
his own acts and feats done, and that, in such sort, that when he had 
given a certain taste of his history to one Picamerus, a learned man, 
asking his judgment how his warlike style of Latin did like him, the 
said Picamerus did affirm and report of him to John Carion (the 
witness and writer of this story), that he did never see nor read in 
anv German story, a thing more exactly (and that in such haste) done, 
as 'this was of Maximilian. Moreover, as he was learned himself, so 
was he a singular patron and advancer of learned students, as may 
i !1 appear by the erecting and setting up the university of Witten- 
berg. By this emperor many in those days were excited to the em- 
bracing as well of other liberal arts, as also, namely, to the searching 
out of old antiquities of histories, whereby divers were then by him 
first occasioned in Germany, to set their minds, and to exercise their 
diligence, in collecting and explicating matters pertaining to the know- 
ledge of history, as well of ancient as also of later times, as namely 
Cuspinian, Nauclerus, Conrad, Peutinger, Manlius, and others. 

Here now it began right well to appear, what great benefit was 
broached to the world by the art and faculty of printing, as is before 
mentioned. Through the means of which printing, the church and 
commonwealth of Christ began ttOW to be replenished with learned 
men, as both may appear by this emperor, being so endued himself 
with BUch excellent knowledge of good letters, and also by diven 
oili.r famous and worthy wits, who began now in this age exceedingly 

(into to increase and multiply: as Baptista Mantuanus, Augustus Poli- 
tianus, rlermolaus Barbaras, Picus Mirandula, and Franciscus his 

• 1 " m - cousin, Rodolphus Agricola, Pontanus, Philippus, Beroaldus, Mar- 
mImis Ficinua, Volateranus, Georgius Valla, with infinite others. 

Among whom is also to fie numbered Weselus Ghroningensis, other- 
wise named Basiliu8,who was not long after Johannes dcW'csalia above 
recited ; Ii,,i|i much about one time, and both great friends together. 

A »" D Wi elus died a. i). 1490. After that Johannes, doctor of 
W ■ alia aforesaid, was condemned, this Weselus, being familiar witfi 
him thought that the inquisitor would come and examine him also, 
Uarj waanlecc to king Bdw, IV. 



THE DOCTRINE OP WESELUS. D 

as he himself, in a certain epistle, doth write. He was so notable and »«■» 
worthy a man, that of the people he was called ' Lux Mllfidi, 1 that is, _ ' "' 
4 The' light of the world/ A. I). 

Concerning his doctrine, first he reprehended the opinion of the 14!i() " 
papists, as touching repentance, which they divided into three parts, 
of the which three parts, satisfaction and confession he did disallow. 
Likewise purgatory and supererogation of works and pardons he did 
disprove, both at Rome and at Paris. He spake against the pope's 
indulgences, by the occasion whereof divers of the pope's court, per- 
suaded by him, began to speak more freely against the same matter 
than he himself had done. 

The abuses of masses, and praying for the dead he disallowed ; The 
and likewise the supremacy of the pope he utterly rejected (as g^ e ! 
appeareth in a book of his, ' De Sacramento poenitentije 1 ), denying ",^ i ' t f c . ll 
utterly that any supreme head or governor ought to be in the world against. 
over all others ; affirming also, and saying many times, that the pope 
had no authority to do any thing by commandment, but by truth 
(that is, so far as truth goeth with him, so far his sentence to stand) ; 
neither that he ought to prevail by commanding, but only by teach- 
ing, so as every true christian bishop may prevail over another. 1 Also, 
in some place in his writings he denieth not, but that popes and their 
spiritual prelates, proceeding against Christ's doctrine, be plain anti- 
christs. Such as were infirm, and not able to perform the bond of 
chastity taken upon them, he said, they might well break their vow. 

Also the said Weselus witnesseth, that the forefathers who Avere 
before Albert and Thomas, did resist and withstand the pope's in- 
dulgences, calling them in their writings plain idolatry ; mere fraud 
and error ; adding moreover, that unless the severity of some good 
divines had withstood these pardons and indulgences of the pope, 
innumerable errors had overflowed the church. 

Amongst these works of Weselus, there is a certain epistle of one 
who had written to him, in which the author of the epistle confesseth, 
that in his time there was a certain learned man at Paris, called 
Master Thomas de Curselis, a dean ; who, being in the council of 
Basil, when divers began to advance the power of the pope too far, 
declared and affirmed, to be said to him of Christ, " Quicquid liga- Christ's 
veris super terram, erit ligatum et in ccelo, 11 &c, and not '* quicquid ;'''■,",','' 
dixeris esse ligatum ;"" that is, " Whatsoever thou shalt bind upon de cur- 
earth, shall be bound in heaven," 1 " 1 but not, " whatsoever thou sayest touching 
to be bound. 11 As who should say, the pope cannot and doth not J^,,, 
bind therefore, because he so saith, except truth and righteousness 'Ou'^ 
go also with him : then, he doth so bind indeed. 2 There is a certain gaveris.* 
book of this man., amongst divers others, which he entitled, ' De sub- 
ditis et superioribus, 1 in which he disputeth greatly against the pope 
and his prelates ; affirming that the pope, unless his faith and doctrine 
be sound, ought not to be obeyed. He affirmeth also that the pope 
may err, and when he errcth, men ought by all manner of means to Against 
resist him. Item, That great and superfluous riches in the clergy do ***£ 
not profit, but hurt the church. That the pope doth wickedly dis- church. 

(1) Ex lib. D. Weseli. De sacramento poenitentis. 

(2) Not whatsoever is said to be loosed on earth, is loosed in heaven ; but whatsoever is loosed 
In very deed in earth, that is also looted indeed in heaven. 



I lull. 



6 BODULPHUS AGUK'OI.A, MARTYR. 

Henry tribute the rents of the church, and the church itself, to unworthy 

rn _ ministers by simonv, for his own profit and gain, whereby it may 

A.U. appear, that he neither carcth for God, nor for the health of the 

'• church. Item, That the precepts and commandments of the pope 

me pre- and prelates be no otherwise, but as the counsels and precepts of 

. physicians, binding no further than they are found to be wholesome, 

uteVhTw ;mi1 ■tandig with" the truth of the word. Item, That the pope can 

command no man under pain of deadly sin, except God command 

iTta" him before. He saith, that the keys of the pope and of the prelates 

be Dot Bach wherewith they open the kingdom of heaven, but rather 

shut it, as the Pharisees did. Concerning vows, he disputeth that 

such as be foolish and impossible ought to be broken; that the 

. hearers ought to discern and judge of the doctrine of their prelates, 

and not to receive every thing that they say, without due examination. 

He showcth, moreover, that the sentence of excommunication is of 

*" more force, proceeding from a true, godly, honest, simple, and learned 

man, than from the pope ; as in the council of Constance, Bernard 

was more esteemed than Eugene. Also if the pope with his prelates 

govern and rule naughtily, that the inferiors, be they ever so base, 

ought to resist him. 

Writing moreover of two popes, Pius II. and Sixtus IV., he 
saith, that Pius II. did usurp unto himself all the kingdoms of the 
whole world, and that Sixtus the pope did dispense with all manner 
of oaths, in causes temporal, not only with such oaths as have been 
already, but also with all such as shall be made hereafter: which was 
nothing else but to give liberty and license for men to forswear them- 
selves, and deceive one another. 
a pro- This Wcsclus, being a Phrygian born, and now aged in years, on a 

certain time when a young man called Master Johannes Ostendorpius 1 
came to him, said these words : " Well, my child, thou shalt live to 
that day, when thou shalt sec that the doctrine of these new and con- 
tentious divines, as Thomas and Bonaventurc, with others of the 
same sort, shall be utterly rejected and exploded from all true christian 
divines." And this, which Ostendorpius, then being young, heard 
W < ->lus to speak, he reported himself to Noviomagus, who wrote 
the Btory, \.n. 1520, and heard it at the mouth of the said Weselus 
a.d. 1 fc90, March 18. 

Philip Melancthon, writing the life of Rodulphus Agricola, 

saith, that Josquinus Groningensis, an ancient and a godly man, 

reported thai when he was young, he was oftentimes present at the 

Rodni- sermons of Rodulphus and Weselus, wherein they many times 

lamented the darkness of the church, and reprehended the abuses of 

J;;;.'"" the mass, and of the single life of priests. 2 Item, That they disputed 

!!["u,''.''" oftentimes of the righteousness of faith, why St. Paul so oftentimes 

did inculcate, that men be justified by faith, and not by works. The 

same Josquine also reported, that they did openly reject and disprove 

the opinion of monks, who say that men be justified by their works. 

Item, Concerning men's traditions their opinion was that all such 

m re deceived, whosoever attributed unto those traditions any opinion 

udorpiui wu ■ man wall learned, and oanon of the minster of Lubeck. Ex 

lphu« Agricola wa» of good Judgment, though the friars 
after* " 



JOAN BOUGHTON, MARTYR ; AND OTHERS. 1 

of God's worship, or that they might not be broken. And thus much fiaw* 
for the story of doctors Wesalia and Weselus. _ 



By this it may be seen and noted, how, by the grace of God and A. I). 
gift of printing, first came forth learning ; by learning came light, to 14L>0 - 
judge and discern the errors of the pope from the truth of God's 
word ; as partly by these above said may appear, partly by others 
that follow after (by the grace of Christ) shall better be seen. 

3Cfjc burning of %aan 25ougf)ton, ana (©tfjecjS. 

About the very same time and season, when the gospel began thus a d.h9». 
to branch and spring in Germany, the host of Christ's church began 
also to muster and to multiply likewise here in England, as by these 
histories here consequent may appear. For not long after the death 
of this Weselus, a.d. 1494, and in the ninth year of the reign of 
king Henry VII., the 28th of April, was burned a very old woman 
named Joan Boughton, widow, and mother to the lady Young, Joan 
which lady was also suspected to be of that opinion which her mother SSJj 8 *" 
was. Her mother was fourscore years of age or more, and held eight j 1 ^ 1 }!" . ,0 
of Wickliffs opinions (which opinions my author doth not show) for Young, 
which she was burnt in Smithfield the day abovesaid. My author mart>r 
saith, she Avas a disciple of Wickliff, whom she accounted for a saint, 
and held so fast and firmly eight of his ten opinions, that all the 
doctors of London could not turn her from one of them ; and when 
it was told her that she should be burnt for her obstinacy and false 
belief, she set nothing by their menacing words, but defied them : for 
she said, she was so beloved of God, and his holy angels, that she 
passed not for the fire ; and in the midst thereof she cried to God to 
take her soul into his holy hands. The night following that she was 
burnt, the most part of her ashes were had away by such as had a 
love unto the doctrine that she died for. 

Shortly after the martyrdom of this godly aged mother, a.d. 1497, A.D.1497. 
and the 17th of January, being Sunday, two men, the one called wa^nde. 
Richard Milderale, and the other James Sturdy, bare faggots before g*™ s y 
the procession of Paul's, and after stood before the preacher in the 
time of his sermon. And upon the Sunday following stood other 
two men at Paul's cross all the sermon time ; the one garnished with 
painted and written papers, the other having a faggot on his neck. 
After that, in Lent season, upon Passion Sunday, one Hugh Glover Hugh 
bare a faggot before the procession of Paul's, and after, with a faggot, £„„,"■ 
stood before the preacher all the sermon, while at Paul's Cross. And, "^"s 
on the Sunday next following, four men stood, and did their open faggots. 
penance at Paul's, as is aforesaid, in the sermon time, and many of 
their books were burnt before them, at the cross. 

Furthermore, the next year following, which was a.d. 1498, in the a.d.mm. 
beginning of May, the king then being at Canterbury, there was a burnt" 
priest burnt, who was so strong in his opinion, that all the clerks and 
doctors then there being, could not remove him from his faith : 
whereof the king being informed, he caused the said priest to be 
brought before his presence, who, by his persuasion, caused him to 
revoke ; and so he was burnt immediately. 

In the same year (a.d.1498), after the beheading of Edward Plan- 



An. .1.1 
burned 



BAVAUABOI.A, AND TWO FBIAAS, MARTYRS. 

r*H taitenet earl of Warwick, and son to the duke of Clarence, the king 
™L aS oneen being removed to Calais, a certain godly man and a con- 
v 17 rtant n artyr of Christ, named Babram, in Norfolk, was burnt m the 
WW. month f July, as is in Fabian recorded, after the copy which I have 
written. Albeit in the Book Fabian printed, his burning is referred 

to the next year following, which is a.d. 1499. 1 

About which year likewise, or in the year next following, the 20th 

day of July, was an old man burnt in Smithfiehl. 

tycronnmitf &atoanarola, toitfj ttoo fttotf, J&artntf. 

In the same year also (a.d. 1499), fell the martyrdom and 
burning of HieronymnB Sayanarola, a man no less godly in heart 
than constant in hi's profession; who, being a monk in Italy, and 
sinzularjy well learned, preached sore against the evil life and living 
of the spiritualty, and specially of his own order; complaining sore 
upon them, as the springs and authors of all mischiefs and wickedness. 
Whereupon, by the help of certain learned men, he began to seek 
reformation in his own order. Which thing the pope perceiving, and 
fearing that the said Hierome, who was now in great reputation amongst 
all men, should diminish or overthrow his authority, he ordained his 
vicar ox provincial to see reformation of these matters; which vicar 
with great superstition began to reform things, but the said Hierome 
did always withstand him ; whereupon he was complained of to the 
pope, and, because that contrary unto the pope's commandment he 

Prophecy did withstand his vicar, he was accursed. But for all that Hierome 
left not off preaching, but threatened Italy with the wrath and indig- 
nation of God, and prophesied before unto them, that the land should 

Pope" be overthrown for the pride and wickedness of the people, and for 

%%£*' the untruth, hvpocrisf, and falsehood of the clergy, which God would 
not have unrevenged; as afterwards it came to pass, when king 

Araeh Charles came into Italy and to Rome, and so straightly beset pope 

kind. - ■*- - - •■• -i i i • 

t.. appear 

he was commanded to appear before the pope, to give account ot his 
new learning (for so then they called the truth of the gospel); but, 
by means of the manifold perils, he made his excuse that he could 
not come. Then was he again forbidden by the pope to preach, and 
ut'erau. his learning pronounced and condemned as pernicious, false, and 

seditious. 

This Hierome, as a man worldly wise, foreseeing the great perils 
and dangers that might come unto him, for fear, left off preaching, 
liut when the people, who sore hungered and longed for God's word, 
were instant upon him that he would preach again, he began again 
to preach a.d. 1496, in the city of Florence ; and albeit that many 
counselled him that he should" not so do without the pope's com- 
mandment, yet did he not regard it, but went forward freely of his 
own rood will. When the pope and his shavelings heard news of 
thi , th( y were grievously incensed and inflamed against him, and now 
again cursed him, as an obstinate and stitmecked heretic. But for all 
that, 1 1 ierome proceeded in teaching and instructing the people, saying 

( 1 ) I'.x Fabianio, ct alio scripto codice. 



..I Ban 
nwola 



Alexander, that he was forced to make composition with the king. 



drained, 



ARTICLES OBJECTED AGAINST THEM. ] 

that men ought not to regard such curses, which are against the Hew 
true doctrine and the common profit, whereby the people should be //; ' 
learned and amended, Christ's kingdom enlarged, and the kingdom of A.I), 
the devil utterly overthrown. ] '■'•'■ 

In all his preaching he desired to teach no other thing than the 
only ptire and simple word of God, making often protestation that all 
men should certify him, if they had heard him teach or preach any 
thing contrary thereunto ; for, upon his own conscience, he knew not 
that he had taught any thing but the pure word of God. What his 
doctrine was, all men may easily judge by his books that he hath 
written. 

After this (a.d. 1498) he was taken and brought out of St. Mark's Hierom, 
cloister, and two other friars with him, named Dominic and Silvester, otherM 



mitttd to 



godly meditation upon that most comfortable thirty-first Psalm : " In prison. 
te Domine speravi, non confundar in seternum, scd in justitia tua libera mentvy 
me ;" wherein he doth excellently describe and set forth the continual p^" m 
strife between the flesh and the spirit. xx *'- 

After this the pope's legates came to Florence, and called forth 
these three good men, threatening them marvellously ; but they con- 
tinued still constant. Then came the chief counsellors of the city, 
with the pope's commissioners, who had gathered out certain articles 
against these men, whereupon they were condemned to death ; the 
tenor of which articles hereafter ensue. 

Articles objected against Hierome and the two Friars. 

I. The first article was as touching our free justification through faith in 
Christ. 

II. That the communion ought to he ministered under both kinds. 

III. That the indulgences and pardons of the pope were of no effect. 

IV. For preaching against the filthy and wicked living of the cardinals and 
spiritualty. 

V. For denying the pope's supremacy. 

VI. Also, that he had affirmed that the keys were not given unto Peter alone, 
but unto the universal church. 

VII. Also, that the pope did neither follow the life nor doctrine of Christ; 
for that he did attribute more to his own pardons and traditions, than to Christ's 
merits ; and therefore he was Antichrist. 

VIII. Also, that the pope's excommunications are not to he feared, and that 
he who cloth fear or flee them is excommunicate of God. 

IX. Item, that auricular confession is not necessary. 

X. Item, that he had moved the citizens to uproar and sedition. 

XI. Item, that he had neglected and condemned the pope's citation. 

XII. Item, that he had shamefully spoken against, and slandered the pope. 

XIII. Item, that he had taken Christ to witness of bis naughtiness and 
heresy. 

XIV. Also, that Italy must be cleansed through God's scourge, for the 
manifold wickedness of the princes and clergy. 

These and such other like articles were laid unto them and read 
before them. Then they demanded of the said Hierome and his 
companions, whether they would recant and give over their opinions. 
Whereunto they answered, that through God's help they would 
steadfastly continue in the manifest truth, and not depart from the 



10 PROPHECIES OF SAVANAIIOLA. 

Jiwy same. Then were they degraded one after another by the bishop of 

V.i-ion, and BO delivered over to the secular rulers of Florence, with 

\.D. straight commandment to carry them forth, and handle them as 

obstinate and stiflheeked heretics. 

savana- Thus was the worthy witness of Christ, with the other two afore- 

[.,' 1 ; i r, ltb said, first hanged up openly in the market-place, and afterward burnt 

3J2* to ashes, and the ashes gathered up, and cast into the river Arno, the 

J4thofMay, a.d. 1499.' 

A* the This man foreshowed many things to come, as the destruction of 

t Tc"'° f Florence and Rome, and the renewing of the church; which three 

dings have happened in these times within our remembrance. Also 

e Foreshowed that the Turks and Moors, in the latter days, should 

' be converted unto Christ. He also declared that one, like unto 

Cyrus, should pass the Alps into Italy, who should subvert and 

destroy all Italy : whereupon Johannes Franciscus Picus, earl of 

Alirandula, called him a holy prophet, and defended him by his 

writings against the pope. Many other learned men also defended 

the innocency of the said Savanarola. Masilius Ficinus also, in a 

certain epistle, doth attribute unto him the spirit of prophecy, greatly 

commending and praising him. In like manner Philippus Comi- 

neas, a French historiographer, who had conference with him, 

witnesseth that he was a holy man/and full of the spirit of prophecy, 

forasmuch as he had foreshowed unto him so many things which in 

event had proved true. 2 

There were besides these, many others, not to be passed over or 
forgotten: as Philip Noricc, an Irishman, professor at Oxford, who 
albeit he was not burned, yet (as it is said) he was long time vexed 
and troubled by the religious rout. But would to God, that such as 
have occupied themselves in writing of histories, and have so dili- 
gently committed unto memory all other things done in foreign com- 
monwealths, had bestowed the like diligence and labour in noting and 
writing those things which pertain unto the affairs of the church; 
whereby posterity might have had fuller and more perfect under- 
standing and knowledge of them. 

This Savanarola above mentioned, suffered under pope Alexander 
VI., of which pope more leisure and opportunity shall serve hereafter 
(< inist willing) to treat, after we shall first make a little digression, 
to treat of certain eases and complaints of the Germans, incident in 
the mean time, which, as they are not to be overpast in silence, so 
can they have no place nor time more convenient to be inferred. 

(II V.\ e.itil. Testium Illyricl. 

following lines, inserted in some recent editions, have been introduced since Foxe s 
death : they arc BlgO m a Dutch Martyrology, published at Dort, in 1057.— Ed. 

" Antonius Flaminlus, an Italian, and, for piety and learning, famous in that age, wrote this 
ma upon tin- death of Hieronymus Savanarola:— 

Hum fcra flamma tuos, IJiernnymc! pascitur artus, 

dllaniata comas, 
Flevit, et '0,'dlxit, ' crudeles parcite flammsc, 
Paiclte, sunt isto viscera nostra rogo.' 

Whicli may he thus Englished. 
Whilst flames unjust, blest saint ! thy body burn, 

Weeping Religion, with dishevell'd hairs, 
Cries oat and ... ' O spare his sacred urn, 

Spare, cruel flames, that lire OUT soul impairs.' " 



THE COMPLAINT OF T1JE GERMANS. 11 

What complaints of the Germans were made and moved unto the ff«w» 
emperor Frederic against the pope's suppressions and exactions, 



mention was made before ; where also was declared, how the said A. D. 
Germans at that time were twice put back and forsaken of the empe- 1499 
ror, whereby they continued in the same yoke and bondage until the ,1° 

time of Luther. Wherefore it cometh now to hand, and we think it — 

also good here briefly to declare, how the said Germans, in the time of plaint of 
Maximilian the emperor, renewing their complaints again, delivered 1^"" 
unto the emperor ten principal grievances, whereby the Germans have gainst 
been long time oppressed ; showing also the remedies against the renewed. 
same, with certain advisements unto the emperor's majesty, how he 
might withstand and resist the pope's subtleties and crafts : the order 
and tenor whereof here ensueth. 

The ten principal Grievances, complained of by the Germans. 

I. That the bishops of Rome, successors one unto another, do not think 
themselves bound to observe and keep the bulls, covenants, privileges, and 
letters, granted by their predecessors, without all derogation ; but by often dis- 
pensation, suspension and revocation, even at the instance of every vile person, 
they do gainsay and withstand the same. 

II. That the elections of prelates are oftentimes put back. 

III. That the elections of presidentships are withstood, which the chapter- 
houses of many churches have obtained with great cost and expense, as the 
churches of Spire and Hasselt do well know ; whose bull touching the election 
of their president, is made frustrate, he being yet alive who granted the 
same. 

IV. That benefices, and the greatest ecclesiastical dignities, are reserved for 
cardinals and head-notaries. 

V. That expectative graces, called vowsons, are granted without number, and 
many oftentimes unto one man, whereupon continual contentions do arise, and 
much money is spent, both that which is laid out for the bulls of those vowsons 
which never take effect, and also that which is consumed in going to law. 
Whereupon this proverb hath risen, ' Whosoever will get avowson from Rome, 
must have one or two hundred pieces of gold laid up in his chest, for the obtaining 
of the same, which he shall have need of, to prosecute the law withal.' 

VI. That Annates, or yearly revenues are exacted without delay or mercy, 
even of the bishops lately dead, and oftentimes more extorted than ought to 
be, through new offices and new servants, as by the examples of the churches 
of Mentz and Strasburg, may be seen. 

VII. That the rule of the churches is given at Rome unto those that are not 
worthy, who were more fit to feed and keep mules, than to have the rale and 
governance of men. 

VIII. That new indulgences and pardons, with the suspension and revoca- 
tion of the old, are granted to gather and scrape money together. 

IX. That tenths are exacted, under pretence of making war against the 
Turk, when no expedition doth follow thereupon. 

X. That the causes which might be determined in Germany, where there are 
both learned and just judges, are indistinctly 1 carried unto the court of Rome; 
which thing St. Bernard, writing to pope Eugene, seemeth wonderfully to re- 
prove. 

The remedy against the said Grievances. 

If it shall seem good unto the emperor's majesty, let it be declared unto the 
bishop of Rome, how grievous and intolerable a thing it is unto the Germans, 

(1) "Indistinctly," without distinction — Eu. 



] a THE REMEDY PROPOSED. 

~ ,• ,„,,„, „•.,..., charees and grievances, to pay so great annates 

%? f*Z ma S, offi lilhi and archbishops, and especially in sneh 

si, mic; where the Annates, by process of time, are enhanced, ard in many, 

A1X i hi ull . For the archbishop's see of Mente, as it is said, some- 

:, "id , 1 " 10,000 florins; which sum, when one who was chosen there 

"• r s, 1 to rive and so continued even unto his death, he who was afterwards 

: u. b£? desirous of confirmation, fearing to withstand lie apostolic 

.... offered L old sum of 10,000 florins: but notwithstandrng he could 

Z llis confirmation, except he would pay the other 10,000, which his 



ar. h 



predecessor before bin had not paid. 
" ' Bv this means be was compelled to pay 20,000 florins ; which, being enrolled 
"","<!,* in the register of the chamber, hath been exacted of every archbishop smce, 
l "' Ut " Id these our days : and not only 20,000, but also 25,000, for their new offices 
and new servants." At last, the sum drew to 27,000 florins, which James, the 
archbishop of Mente, was compelled to pay, as his commissary did report. So 
bv this means, in a little time there were seven times 25,000 florins paid out of 
tfie archbishopric of Mente unto Rome, for the confirmation ot the archbishop. 
A ad when the archbishop James had kept this archbishopric scarcely four years, 
tin' lord Uriel was elected after him, who was compelled to pay at the least 
2 I 000, or 25,000 florins; whereof a part he borrowed of merchants. But, to 
gatisfy and pay them again, he was forced to exact a subsidy of his poor sub- 
jects and husbandmen, whereof some have not yet satisfied and paid the tribute 
Vui- the bishop's pall, so that by this means our people are not. only tormented 
and brought to extreme poverty, but also are moved unto rebellion, to seek 
their liberty by what means soever they may, grievously murmuring against the 
cruelty of "the clergy. 

The pope also should be admonished,' how that, through divers and sundry 
wars and battles, the lands of Germany lie desolate and waste, and through 
many mortalities, the number of men is diminished, so that for the scarceness of 
husbandmen, the fields for the most part lie untilled, the tolls are by divers 
means diminished, the mines consumed, and the profits daily decay, whereby 
the archbishops and bishops should pay their annates unto the apostolic see, 
besides their other necessary and honest charges; insomuch that, not without 
jusl cause, .lames, the archbishop of Mentz, being even at the point of death, 
Ti,c ,mh- said, Thai he did not so much sorrow for his own death, as for that his poor 
! subjects Bhould be again forced to pay a grievous exaction for the pall. Where- 
,';,',',„'!"' fore let the high bishop, as a godly father and lover of his children, and a 
I'.uY faithful and prudent pastor, deal more favourably with his children the Ger- 

mans, lest that persecution happen to rise against the priests of Christ, and 
that men, following the example of the Bohemians, do swerve from the church 
of Koine. 

At hast, let him be more favourable, as often as any archbishop or bishop 
may happen to rule his church but a few years ; as it happened to the bishops 
of Bamberg, whereof three died within a fewyears. The like also might happen 
bj other bishoprics, whereof, as ./Eneas Sylvius witnesseth, there are in Ger- 
many to the number of fifty, besides abbots, whereof a great number are con- 
nuny. firmed at Rome. 

And admit that in Germany there were greater profits and revenues arising 
of the -round, mines, and tolls; notwithstanding the emperor and the other 
princes should lack treasure and munition of war against their enemies, and espe- 
cially the infidels, and to preserve Germany in peace and quietness, and to 
minister justice unto every man : for which purpose the council of the chamber, 
being most holily instructed, and furnished with great cost and charges, doth 
chic lly serve. Besides that, the emperor hath need of treasure, to suppress 
the rebels in the empire, to banish and drive away thieves and murderers, 
■ ■ of •' great number are not ashamed not to spoil churches only, and to rob 
them of their goods, but also to assail the clergy themselves. Finally, our 
nation and country of Germany hath need of great riches and treasure, not 
only tor the repairing of churches and monasteries, but also for hospitals 
for children that ari' laid out in the streets, for widows, for women with 
child, lor orphans, for marriage of the daughters of poor men, that they be 
not defiled for BUch as have need and necessity, for the old and weak, for 



A GODLV EXHORTATION TO THE EMPEROR. IS 

the sick and the sore, whereof (the more is the sorrow) Germany is fully re- jiennj 
plenished and filled. l JI - 

A.D. 

Ail Advertisement unto the Emperor Maximilian, of the subtle 1499 
Practices of the Pope and Popish Prelates. to 

1503. 

Let the emperor's majesty foresee and provide that the begging friars do not 

preach against his majesty, who are wont to complain gladly unto the apostolic 
see, fearing to lose their privileges, which I woidd to God were as well grounded 
upon Christ, as they are upon profit. Let the emperor's majesty also beware, 
that the pope do not give commandment unto the electors, to proceed to the 
election of a new king of Romans, as he did against Frederic II., when the 
landgrave of Thuringia, and William earl of Holland, were elected by the com- 
mandment of the pope. Let the emperor's majesty also fear and take heed of 
all the prelates of the churches, and especially of the presidents, who by their 
oath are bound to advertise the pope. Let the emperor's majesty also fear and 
beware, that the pope do not take away from his subjects their obedience, and 
provoke the people bordering upon him, to make invasion into the emperor's 
dominions and archduchy of Austria ; which those men, under colour of showing 
obedience unto the pope's commandment, be ready to do. 

Let the emperor's majesty, also, take heed of the apostolic censures, from 
which the pope will in no case refrain. Finally, let the emperor's majesty 
diligently foresee and take heed, that the pope do not persuade the people with 
most subtle arguments, contrary to the Pragmatical sanction, excusing himself, The 
and getting the good will of the simple, alleging that with great costs and JjJSLJ.- 
charges, he will repair the church of St. Peter in Rome, and build in certain „f build 
places against the Turks, and recover again the lands and patrimony pertaining '"S St. 
unto the church of St. Peter ; as he is bound by his office. Therefore let your c hurch in 
majesty diligently foresee and deliberate, how, through your most wise and discreet Rome, 
counsel, if need shall require, you will answer to those subtleties of the pope. 

A certain godly Exhortation unto the Emperor's Majesty. 

Your majesty can do nothing better, nothing more acceptable, or more A suppli- 
worthy eternal remembrance, than to moderate the great exactions and op- Ma'hni' 
pressions of the Germans; to take away all occasion from the laity, to persecute nan the 
the clergy : also to take away the benefices out of the hands of courtesans, who emperor 
can neither preach, comfort, nor counsel any man (of which benefices, asiEneas r e nre ss 
Sylvius writeth, some are equal to the bishoprics of Italy), to increase God's of the 
honour and worship ; and so to bridle the avarice and ungodliness of those clmrcl1 - 
courtesans, whereby your majesty may the better provide for the children of 
many noble and famous men and citizens in Germany ; who, being brought up 
from their youth in the universities, learning both the Scriptures, and other 
human letters, may, without unquiet vexations and most sumptuous charges 
and contentions, aspire to the ecclesiastical promotions ; who, by their counsel 
and prayers, may be helps unto the whole church : for there is no small occa- 
sion, why the realm of France should so flourish, having so many notable 
learned men in it. If the emperor would abolish this impiety, and restore Ger- 
many unto her ancient liberty, which is now oppressed with grievous tributes, 
and would make way for learned and honest men unto ecclesiastical pro- 
motions ; then might he truly and perpetually be called of all men, and in all 
places, the restorer of Germany to her ancient liberty, and the father of his 
country ; and should obtain no less glory thereby unto himself, and profit unto 
Germany, than if he had by force of anns subdued any province unto them. 
And so shall Germany render no less thanks unto the said Maximilian, than 
unto all the rest, who, having translated the empire from the Grecians unto 
Germany, have reigned many years before. 

Hereafter ensueth the copy of a certain letter of the emperor 
Maximilian, given out in manner of a decree or commandment 
against certain abuses of the clergy : whercunto we have also annexed 
the answer of Jacobus Selestadiensis unto the emperors letters, 



|| AN edict ok TKE EMPEEOE, AND A REPLY THERETO. 

■m wherein be seemeth also to have sought advice for the remedy of the 
''"■ like abuses, which we thought good here not to be omitted. 

A.I). 

1408 An Edict of Maximilian the Emperor. 

1503 We, according to the example of our dearly beloved father, Frederic em- 

'- pert* of Rome, reverencing the chief pastor of the church, and all the clergy-, 

have suffered no small revenues of the ecclesiastical dignities to be carried out 
of our dominion by the prelates and clergy that are absent, whose faults, com- 
mitted by human frailty with Constantine our predecessor, we have not dis- 
dained to hide and cover. But forasmuch as through our liberality, the decay 
of God's honour hath arisen, it is our part, (who are elect unto the empire, 
without any desert) to foresee, that among all other affairs of peace and war, 
the churches do not decay, religion quail not, nor God's true worship be dimi- 
nished ; which we have manifestly experimented, and daily do perceive by the 
insatiable covetousness of some, who are never satisfied in getting of benefices, 
through whose absence (being resident only upon one), God's honour and 
worship are diminished, houses decay, churches decrease, the ecclesiastical 
liberty is hurt, learning and monuments are lost and destroyed, hospitality and 
alms diminished, and, by their insatiable greediness, such of the clergy, as for 
their learning and virtue, were worthy of benefices, and for their wisdpm profit- 
No man able in commonwealths, are hindered and put back. Wherefore, according to the 
to have ^ cc an( j ( | ut y f our es t a te, for the love of the increase of God's honour, we 
i exhort and require, that no man from henceforth, having any canonship or 
w P»- vicarage in one city of our empire, shall occupy or possess a prebend in another 
once* at church of the same city, except he give over the first within a year's space unto 
some person fit and profitable for the church ; neither that he do, by unjust 
quarrels, vex or trouble any man in getting of benefices ; neither that any man 
do falsely feign himself to have been of the emperor's household, who hath not 
been comprehended within the league and agreement made by the princes ; 
neither that any man attempt to take away the patronages from any layman, 
or aggravate the small prebends of curates of churches, with pensions ; neither 
that they do use in getting of benefices and bulls, any fraud, deceit, false in- 
struments, corrupt witnesses, and cloaked simony ; neither that any man pre- 
sume to obtain any regress, or other thing contrary to Ihe sacred canons, right, 
honesty, equity, and reason, upon pain of the most grievous offence of treason : 
the which we will, that not only they (going so contrary to God and all ho- 
nesty), but also all their favourers, who do help, counsel, harbour, or give them 
any tiling, all their messengers and writers, proctors, sureties, and other their 
friends, shall incur, and receive condign punishment for so great offence and 
contempt of our commandment. 
From Oenopont, &c. 

Here ensueth the copy of a Letter written unto the emperor 
Maximilian. 

A Letter of Jacobus Selestadiensis, to the Emperor Maximilian, in 
answer to the Edict. 

To our most victorious lord, Maximilian the emperor, Jacobus Selestadiensis, 
with most humble commendations : 

Moat victorious emperor ! when I had read your majesty's epistle, and re- 
ceived instructions of your secretary, I prepared myself, with all my whole 
endeavour, to satisfy your majesty's desire. For even from my youth hitherto, 
I have applied all my care and study, first for the honour of your majesty, and 
'•quently, for the amplifying of the German nation, and sacred Roman 
empire. Albeit I know myself far unable to satisfy your desire and purpose, 
and there ;uv many who can fulfil this matter much better, who have greater 
learnin g and experience of these common matters. There be also with other 
princes, and in the senates of commonwealths, many excellent learned men, 
who can exomsie and beautify Germany, and persuade to reduce all the clergy 



CEMES, THE TURK S BROTHER, POISONED I!V THE POPE. 15 

Henry 



A.D. 
1499 

to 
1503. 



unto a christian discipline, and to a unity and peace of the universal church . 
wherein, not only your majesty, but also your predecessors, as Charles the " y ' 11 '- 
Great, and his son Ludovicus Pius, the Othos, Conrads, Frederics, and Henrys, 
and last of all, Sigismund, have, with all labour and diligence, travailed ; being 
stirred thereunto undoubtedly through the zeal and charity which they bear 
unto Almighty God, and thankfulness to Christ for his benefits which he hath 
bestowed upon mankind, and especially for the benefit of his most bitter — 
passion. For Christ became not poor for us, that we should live in all riot and 
wantonness upon his patrimony, and show forth our ambition and covetousness ; 
neither did he suffer hunger, that we should glut up ourselves ; nor suffered la- 
bours, chastity, and grievous torments, that we should live in idleness, wanton- 
ness, and all kind of voluptuousness. Neither they who were contributors, and 
benefactors to churches, enduing the ministers thereof with their temporal 
riches, had any such respect herein, that the clergy shoidd live only in idle- 
ness, having all things at their will, without labour. Surely there was another 
cause, why they in times past did impoverish themselves and theirs, to endow 
the church : verily, that they might the better attend unto divine service 
without care of want of living (which they might easily get and gather out 
of the fields, woods, meadows, and waters), and to the intent that they 
should liberally give alms unto the poor Christians, widows, orphans, aged and 
sick persons. For, in the institutions of the canonical profession, which we 
suppose were written by the commandment of Ludovicus Pius the emperor, 
and allowed by the council of the bishops, thus it is read; ' The goods of the 
church,' as it is alleged by the fathers, and contained in the chapters before, 
' are the vows of the faithful, and patrimony of the poor. For the faithful, 
through the ferventness of their faith and love of Christ, being inflamed, having 
an earnest desire of that heavenly kingdom, have enriched the holy church 
with their own goods, that thereby the soldiers of Christ might be nourished, 
the church adorned, the poor refreshed, and captives, according to the oppor- 
tunity of time, redeemed.' Wherefore such as have the administration of those 
goods, ought diligently to be looked upon, that they do not convert them unto 
their own proper use, but rather, according to their substance and possibility, 
they do not neglect them, in whom Christ is fed and clothed. Prosper is also 
of the same mind, affirming that holy men did not challenge the church goods 
to their own use, as their own proper goods, but as things commended unto the 
poor, to be divided amongst them : for that is to contemn that which a man 
possesseth ; not to possess a thing for himself, but for others ; neither to covet 
the church goods with covetousness to have them himself, but to take them with 
a godly zeal to help others. That which the church hath, is common to all 
those who have nothing, neither ought they to give any thing of that unto them 
(saith he) who have of their own ; for to give unto them who have enough, is 
but to cast things away. 1 

To return now to the order of popes, where we left before, speak- The order 
ing of Innocent VIII. After the said Innocent, next succeeded pope of pope6 - 
Alexander VI. ; in which Alexander, among other horrible things, 
this is one to be noted : that when Gemes (Peucer nameth him Denies) 
brother to Bajazet the great Turk, was committed by the Rhodians 
to the safe custody, first of pope Innocent, then of Alexander VI., for 
whose keeping, the pope received every year 40,000 crowns ; yet, The popP 
notwithstanding, when pope Alexander afterwards was compelled to P° is ™ e "i 
send the said Gemes to Charles VIII. the French king, for a pledge, 
because the French king should not procure the great Turk's favour 
by sending his brother Gemes to him to be slain, he (pope Alexan- 
der), being hired by the Turk, caused the said Gemes to be poisoned, 
who, in his journey going toward the French king, died at Terracina. 2 

Moreover, it appeareth, that this Alexander, taking displeasure 
with the aforesaid Charles, the French king, about the winning 01 

(l) Ex lllyrico. '2) Ex Paulo Jovto lib. ii. Ex Peucero lib. iv. El Hieronym Mario. 



Gemes, 

the'I'urk's 

brother 



](J EPIGRAMS OX I'OPE JULIUS II. 

Bam Naples, Bent to Baiazet, the Turk, to fight against the aforesaid 
Chiles.' 

\.H Munstcrus, 2 declaring the aforesaid history of G ernes something 

1 1: ' : ' otherwise, first calleth him Zizymus, and saith that he was first com- 

£, mitted by (In- Rhodians to the'French king ; and when Johannes Hu- 

. aforementioned, did labour to the French king to have him, 

thinking by that means to obtain a noble victory against the Turk, as 

raiLt i* was not unlike, this Alexander the pope, through his fraudulent 

flattcrv, got him of the French king into his own hands, by whose 

k<! means the said Gcmes afterwards was poisoned, as is in manner before 

expressed. 

Unto these poisoned acts of the pope, let us also adjoin his mali- 
Mand- cious wickedness, with like fury, exercised upon Antonius Mancinellus ; 
which Mancinellus, being a man of excellent learning, because he 
. wrote an eloquent oration against his wicked manners and filthy life, 
* with other vices, he therefore commanded both his hands and his 
tongue to be cut off, playing much like with him, as Antonius the 
tyrant once did with Marcus Cicero, for writing against his horrible 
r.'isnn litb. At length, as one poison requireth another, this poisoning pope, 
wi'lh' ted as he was sitting with his cardinals and other rich senators of Rome 
,,uUon. at ( i mner? h^ servants unawares brought to him a wrong bottle, where- 
with he was poisoned, and his cardinals about him. 
ThchiRh In the time of this pope Alexander also it happened (which is not 
iV;;'!',,"'^. to be pretermitted), how that the Angel, which stood in the high top 
thrown of the pope's church, was beaten down with a terrible thunder ; which 
order of thing seemed then to declare the ruin and fall of the popedom. After 
this pope, next succeeded Pius III. about a. d. 1503; after whom 
came next Julius IT., a man so far passing all others in iniquity, that 
Weselus, and such others of his own friends, writing of him, are 
(•(impelled to say of him, " Marti ilium quam Christo deditiorein 
fuissc ;"" that is, That he was more given to war and battle, than to 
Christ. Concerning the madness of this man, this is most certainly 
known, that at what time he was going to war, he cast the keys of St. 
Peter into the river Tibur, saying, that forasmuch as the keys of 
Peter would not serve him to his purpose, he would take himself to 
the sword of Paul. Whereupon Philip Mclancthon, amongst many 
others, writing upon the same, makcth this epigram : 

" Cum contra Gallos bellum papa Julius esset 

Gesturus, sicut fama vctusta docet: 
Ingentes Martis turmas contraxit, et urbem 

Egrcssus esevaa cdidit ore niinas. 
I rat usque sacras claves in rlumina jecit 

Tibridis, hie urbi ]><ms ubijunget aquas. 
fade manu strictum vagina duipit ensem, 

Exclamansque truci talia voce rcfert: 
' J lie gladius Pauli noa nunc defendet ab lioste, 

Quandoquicleni clavis nil juvat ista Petri.' " 

Whereupon also Gilbert Ducherius makcth this epigram. 

" In Galium, ut fama est, helium gesturus acerbtini, 
Armatum cducil Julius urbe manum. 

di Ei itii-.onjiu Mario. (2) Lib. ♦. ' eusinograph.' 



popes. 



THE WAES AND BLOODSHED OF POPE JULIUS 11. 17 

Accinctus gladio, claves in Tibridis amnem p Herny 

Projicit, et saevus talia verba facit : ri1 - 

Quum Petri nihil efficiant ad praelia claves, j^ ry 

Auxilio Pauli forsitan ensis erit." 



1503. 



The sense of these epigrams in English, is this : — 

When Julius pope against the French 

determined to make war, 
As fame reports, he gathered up 
great troops of men from far ; 
And to the bridge of Tibur then, 

marching as he were wood ; 
His holy keys he took and cast 

them down into the flood. 
And afterward into his hand 

he took a naked sword, 
And shaking it brake forth into 
this fierce and warlike word : 
• This Sword of Paul, ' quoth he, ' shall now 

' defend us from our foe ; 
' Since that this key of Peter doth 
' nothing avail thereto.' 



Of this Julius it is certainly reported, that partly with, his wars, The wars 
partly with his cursings, 1 within the space of seven years, as good as bloodshed 
200,000 Christians were destroyed. First, he besieged Ravenna ° f p°P e 
against the Venetians, then Servia, Imola, Faventia, Forolivium, 2 Bo- 
nonia, and other cities, which he gat out of princes' 1 hands, not with- 
out much bloodshed. The chronicles of John Sleiden make mention, 
that when this Julius was made pope, he took an oath, promising to 
have a council within two years. But when he had no leisure there- 
unto, being occupied with his wars in Italy among the Venetians, and 
with the French king, and in Ferrara, and in other countries, nine of 
his cardinals, departing from him, came to Milan, and there appointed 
a council at the city of Pisa ; amongst whom, the chief were Ber- 
nardus, Cruceius, Gulielmus Prenestinus, Franciscus, Constantinus, 
with divers others ; unto whom also were adjoined the procurators of 
Maximilian the emperor, and of Charles the French king. So the a council 
council was appointed a.d. 1511, to begin in the kalends of Septem- jjeposV 
ber. The cause why they did so call this council, was thus alleged, llim - 
because the pope had so broken his oath, and all this while he gave The pope 
no hope to have any council ; and also because there were divers other P* r J ured - 
crimes, whereupon they had to accuse him. Their purpose was to 
remove him out of his seat, the which he had procured through bribes 
and ambition. Julius, hearing this, giveth out contrary command- 
ment, under great pain, that no man should obey them, and calleth 
himself another council against the next year, to be begun the nine- 
teenth day of April. The French king, understanding pope Julius 
to join with the Venetians, and so to take their part against him, 
convented a council at Turin, in the month of September, in which 
council these questions were proposed : 

Whether it was lawful for the pope to move war against any prince 
without cause. 



(1) The pope's law eiveth leave to kill all that be accursed of him. 

(2) "Forolivium," Forli. in Italy.— Ed. 



VOL. IV. 



| S •lill' BEGINNING OF THE Ti'llKS. 

lunry Win ther any prince iii defending himself, might invade his adver- 
. Barv, and deny his obedience. 

\ !». 

1503. (•„,,, „],;,.], questions it was answered, that the bishop ought not 

to invade, a...! also, that it was lawful for the king to defend himself. 
. Moreover, thai the pragmatical sanction was to be observed through 

the realm of France: neither that any unjust excommunications 



ought to be feared, if they were found to be unjust 



No .in- 

I'lIlllllU- 

fi-.inii. 



The 
Turks 



After this, the king sent to Julius the answer of his council, requir- 
ing him either to agree to peace, or to appoint a general council some 
other where, where this matter might be more fully decided. Julius 
would neither of these, but forthwith accursed Charles the French king, 
with all his kingdom. At length at Ravenna, in a great war, he was 
overcome by the French king; and at last, after much slaughter, 
and great bloodshed, and mortal war, this pope died a.d. 1518, the 
twenty-first day of February. 

artje ^tftocp of tf)e teftf. 

If it were not that 1 fear to overlay this our volume with heaps of 
foreign histories, who have professed chiefly to treat of Acts and 
Monuments hut- done at home, I would adjoin after these popes 
known above rehearsed, some discourse also of the Turks' 1 story; of their 
StaB* 1 '*" rising and cruel persecution of the saints of God, to the great annoy- 
ance and peril of Christendom; yet, notwithstanding, certain causes 
there lie, which necessarily require the knowledge of their order and 
doini:-, ami of their wicked proceedings, their cruel tyranny and bloody 
victories, the ruin and subversion of so many christian churches, with 
the horrible murders and captivity of infinite Christians, to be made 
p lain aiul manifest, as well to this our country of England, as also to 
other nations. 
rir!>t First, for the better explaining of the prophesies of the New 

'"' s '' Testament, as in St. Paul's Epistle to the Thessalonians, and also in 
the Revelation of St. John; which scriptures otherwise, without the 
opening of these histories, cannot so perfectly be understood: of 
which scriptures, we mind hereafter (Christ granting) orderly, as the 
course of matter shall lead us, to make rehearsal. 
s,r,„„i Another cause is, that we may learn thereby, either with the public 

church to lament, with our brethren, such a great defection and decay 
of christian faith, through these wicked Turks; or else may fear 
thereby our own danger. 

The third cause, that we may ponder more deeply with ourselves 
the scourge of God for our sins, and corrupt doctrine; which, in the 
sequel hereof, more evidently may appear to our eyes, for our better 
admonition. 
i..iirih Fourthlj : The consideration of this horrible persecution of the 
Turks, rising chiefly by our discord ami dissension among ourselves, 
may reduce us again from our domestical wars, in killing and burning 
one another, to join together in christian patience and concord. 

Fifthly : But chiefly, these great victories of the Turks, and un- 

• I of our men fighting against them, may admonish 

and teach us. following the example of the old Israelites) how to seek 



THE HISTORY OK THE TURKS. 19 

for greater Strength to encounter with these enemies of Christ, than ham- 
ln'therto we have done. First, we must consider that the whole power du 



of Satan, the prince of this world, goeth with the Turks ; which to Jjj^™ 
resist, no strength of man's army is sufficient, but only the name, eemay to 
spirit, and power of our Lord Jesus the Son of God, going with us w1u."out d 
in our battles ; as among the old Israelites the ark of God's covenant JJJJ* 
and promise went with them also fighting against the enemies of God. aptfnst 
For so are we taught in the Scripture, that we christian men have no Turks, 
strength but in Christ only. Whether we war against the devil, or 
against the Turk, it is true that the Scripture saith, "Sine me nihil 
potcstis facere," that is, " Without me you can do nothing." Other- 
wise there is no puissance to stand against the devil, or to conquer the 
world, " nisi fides nostra, 11 that is, "our faith only," to which all the pro- 
mises of God touching salvation be annexed ; beyond which promises 
we must not go, for the word must be our rule. He that prcsumeth 
beyond the promises in the word expressed, goeth not, but wandereth 
he cannot tell whither : neither must we appoint God how to save 
the world, but must take that way which he hath appointed. Let us 
not set our God to school, nor comprehend his Holy Spirit within our 
skulls. He that made us without our council, did also redeem us as 
pleased him. If he be merciful, let us be thankful. And if his 
mercies surmount our capacity, let us therefore not resist but search 
his Word, and thereunto apply our will ; which if we will do, all our 
contentions w r ill be soon at a point. Let us therefore search the will 
of our God in his Word, and if he will his salvation to stand free to 
all nations, why do we make merchandise thereof? 1 If he have 
graciously offered his waters to us, without money or money-worth, 
let us not hedge in the plenteous springs of his grace given us. 2 And 
finally, if God have determined his own Son only to stand alone, let 
not us presume to admix with his majesty any of our trumpery. He 
that bringeth St. George or St. Denis, as patrons, to the field, to 
fight against the Turk, leaveth Christ, no doubt, at home. 

Now how we have fought these many years against the Turk, though 
stories keep silence, yet the success declareth. We fight against a 
persecutor, being no less persecutors ourselves. We wrestle against 
a bloody tyrant, and our hands be as full of blood as his. He killeth 
Christ's people with the sword, and we burn them with fire. He, 
observing the works of the law, seeketh his justice by the same : the 
like also do we. But neither doth he, nor do we, seek our justifica- 
tion as we should, that is, by faith only in the Son of God. 

And what marvel then, our doctrine being as corrupt almost as his, Rcfnrma- 
and our conversation worse, if Christ fight not with us, fighting against JeTi'Jon 
the Turk ? The Turk hath prevailed so mightily, not because Christ jj^ 1 * 
is weak, but because Christians be wicked, and their doctrine impure, fight the 
Our temples with images, our hearts with idolatry arc polluted. Our Turks ' 
priests stink before God for adultery, being restrained from lawful 
matrimony. The name of God is in our mouths, but his fear is not 
in our hearts. We war against the Turk with our works, masses, 
traditions, and ceremonies: but we fight not against him with Christ, 
and with the power of his glory ; which if we did, the field were won. 

(1J Gratis venumdati eslis, t;ratU rcrlimimini. Esay Hi. 

(2) Omnes sitiertes venite ad aquas; emite absque argento et commutation*. Buy lv. 

c2 



turn ne- 
c««Miy, 



20 THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

i»ir.,. Wherefore, briefly to conclude, saying my judgment in this behalf, 
d '"'""' what I suppose. Tins hope 1 have, and do believe, that when the 
Ma ehmch of Christ, with the sacraments thereof, shall be so reformed, 
that Christ alone shall be received to be our justifier, all other re- 
ligions, merits, traditions, images, patrons, and advocates set apart, the 
■word of the Christians, with the strength of Christ, shall soon vanquish 
the Turks 1 pride and fury. But of this more largely in the process 
of this story. 

The sixth and last cause, why I think the knowledge of the Turks 1 
history requisite to be considered, is this: because that many there 
be, who, for that they be further from the Turks, and think therefore 
themselves to be out of danger, take little care and study what hap- 
Kame»t peneth to their other brethren. Wherefore, to the intent to excite 
their zeal and prayer to Almighty God, in this so lamentable ruin of 
Christ's church, I thought it requisite, by order of history, to give 
'.,'uch this our nation also something to understand, what hath been done in 
other nations by these cruel Turks, and what detriment hath been, 
and is like more to happen by them to the church of Christ, except 
vc make our earnest invocation to Almighty God, in the name of his 
Son, to stop the course of the devil by these Turks, and to stay this 
defection of Christians falling daily unto them, and to reduce them 
■gain to his faith, who are fallen from him: which the Lord Jesus of 
ce grant with speed ! Amen. 

Before we enter into this story of the Turks and Saracens, first let 
us call to remembrance the prophecy and forewarning of St. Paul 
writing to the Thessalonians [2Thess. ii.], in these words: " Be not 
moved or troubled in your minds, either by preaching or by writing, 
or l.y letter from us, as though the day of the Lord were at hand ; for 
the Lord will not come, except there come a defection first, and the 
wicked person be revealed,' 11 &c. Of this defection, sundry minds 
there be of sundry expositors ; some thinking this defection to mean a 

T^rhc, fidling-away from the empire of Rome: some, from the obedience of 
the pope. But, as St. Paul little passed upon the outward glory of 
the Roman empire; so less he passed upon the proud obedience 
the pope. What St. Paul meant by this defection, the reading of 
these Turkish stories, and the miserable falling-away of these churches 
by him before planted, will soon declare. 

Another mystery there is in the Revelation [Apocal. xiii.], where 
the number of the beasl is counted six hundred and sixty-six. Whereby 
may seem, by all evidences, to be signified the first origin and spring- 
ing of these beastly Saracens, as by the sequel hereof may appear, by 
the first rising of this devilish sect of Mahomet. 

• a "-T- Moreover, anotl 

tint I 



- • ■ 



ter place there is [Apocal. xvi.], where we read, 
•y pouring out of the vial of God's wrath by the sixth angel, the 

P* 1 ,I " ,m| Euphrates was dried up, to let in the kings of the east; 

■ opening of which prophecy may also more evidently appear, in 
considcnng the order and manner of the coming in of "these Turks 
into Europe. 

Borne also apply to the Turks certain prophecies of Daniel, Ezekiel 
and other p] ices of the ( Md Testament, which here I omit, forasmuch 
M the prophecies of th< Old Testament, if they be taken in their 



THE HISTORY OP THE TUUKS. 21 

proper and native sense, after my judgment, do extend no further Intro- 
than to the death of our Saviour, and to the end of the Jews 1 king- ducl '""- 
dom. Albeit herein I do not prejudicate to any man's opinion, but 
that every man may abound in his own sense. 

As touching the year and time when this pestiferous sect of Ma- T he time 
hornet first began, histories do not fully consent, some affirming that ^JJ^JJ" 
it began a. d. 621, and in the tenth year of Heraclius, the emperor false 
of Constantinople; in which mind is Johannes Lucidus. As Mun- expounu- 
sterus counteth, it was a.d. 622. Martin Luther and John Carion ed ' 
refer it to the eighteenth year of the reign of Heraclius, which is a.d. 
630, unto which number the computation of the Beast, signified in 
the Apocalypse, doth not far disagree, which numbereth the name of 
the beast, with three Greek letters ^, £, <r ; which Greek letters, after 
the supputation of the Grecians, make the number of 666. 

In this all writers agree, that this damnable Mahomet was born in Maho- 
the country of Arabia, bordering on the east part of Jewry. His Xe'stock 
father was a Syrian, or a Persian ; his mother was an lshmaelite, which ?', the . 

r i i- i ■ i p a i • ii i tt Ishmael- 

lshmaeiitcs, being a people of Arabia, were called then Ha«arenes : ites, of 

- \ Arabia. 
Prodi- 
gious lies 

how he, making himself the highest prophet of all others, yet denieth pigmies 
not Christ to be a holy prophet, and next to him, and Moses also to Alcoran, 
be another. Moreover, he denieth not Mary, the mother of Christ, 
to be a virgin, and to have conceived Christ by the Holy Ghost : 
affirming further, that Christ in his own person was not crucified, but 
another called Judas for him. He greatly commendeth also John, 
the son of Zachary, for a virgin, when he himself permitteth a man to 
have four wives, and as many concubines as he is able to find ; and Maho- 
saith, that whereas Christ and other prophets had the gift given them A^oraii 
to work miracles, he was sent by force of sword, to compel men to ^Jjf led 
his religion. The prodigious vanities, lies, and blasphemies contained divers 
in this law called Alcoran, are rather to be laughed at, than recited. 

It is thought that Sergius, a Nestorian, was a great doer with Ma- 
homet, in contriving of this lying Alcoran ; and so it doth well 
appear by the scope and pretence thereof, which especially tendeth to 
this end, to take the divinity from the person of Christ, whom he 
granteth notwithstanding to be a most holy man, and also that he is 
received up to God, and shall come again to kill Antichrist, &c. 

Moreover, this ridiculous Alcoran is so blanched and powdered with 
such divers mixtures of the Christians, Jews, and the Gentiles' 1 laws, 
giving such liberty to all wantonness of flesh, setting up circumcision, 
abstaining from swines 1 flesh, and judaical lotions, and so much 
standeth upon father Abraham, that this filthy Alcoran is supposed of 
some, not to be set out in the days of Mahomet, but that certain Jews 
had some handling also in this matter, and put it out after his death ; 
and so it seemeth first to take its force about the number of years 
limited in the Apocalypse, as is aforesaid, where thus it is written : 
" He that hath intelligence, let him count the number of the beast; 
for it is the number of a man, and his number is six hundred 
and sixty-six. v ' 

After this devilish Mahomet had thus seduced the people, teaching 
them that he came not by miracles, but by force of sword to give 



Damas- 
cus sub- 
dued by 



..i Persia 
sulxlued 



HISTORY OF Tl!i'. TURKS, 

:ai(1 to* t l K . v who Mill not obey it must cither be put to 
death, or else pay tribute (for so be the words of the Alcoran) ; and 
after that 1,.- had gathered strength about him of the Arabians which 
Arabians had then occasion to rebel against the emperor, because 
their stipends were not paid them by the officers ot the emperor 
Heraclius, he began to range with force and violence m the parts ot 
Syria bordering near unto him, and first subdued Mecca, then Da- 
mascus ; and further, increasing in power, he entered into Egypt, and 

idued the same. From thence he turned his power against the 
Persians with whom Cosroes, the king of Persia, encountered with a 
puissant army, overthrew the Saracens, and put Mahomet to flight. 
i, these Persians came the Turks, who, afterwards joining with the 
Saracens, maintained them against the Christians. 1 

A Iter the death of this beast, who, as some say, was poisoned in 
hi. house, succeeded Ebocara, or Ebubccer, his father-in-law, or, as 
Bibliander ailirmcth, his son-in-law, who took upon him the govern- 
in, mi of the Saracens, and got the city Gaza, and besieged also 
Jerusalem two years. He reigned two years, having for his chief 
city Damascus. 

After him followed Omar or Ahumcr, who conquered a great part 
of Syria, and got Egypt. 

The fourth king of the Saracens, after Mahomet, was Othman ; 
■•,11 followed Hali, and after him Muhania : who, after a siege of 
Beven years, obtained and got the christian city of Caesarea; also 
overcame the Persians, with their king Orimasda, and subdued that 
law. 

Thus the wicked Saracens, in the space of thirty years, subdued 
Arabia, <, f ot Palestine, Phoenicia, Syria, Egypt, and Persia, which 
«.i!ne directly to the (i(ib* years prophesied of in the Revelation of 
St. John, as is aforesaid. And not long after they proceeded further, 
and n"t Africa, and then Asia, as in the process of their story shall 
appear, the Lord willing. 

Not long after Heraclius, emperor of Constantinople, succeeded 
Constans, his nephew, who, in the thirteenth year of his empire, 
lighting unluckily against the Saracens in Lycia, was overthrown of 
Muhanias aforesaid, a. d. 655; which Constans, if he were not 
prospered by the Lord in his wars, it was no great marvel, consider- 
ing that he had slain his brother Theodosius before at home ; more- 
over, that hi' lived in incestuous matrimony : also that, being inclined 
to certain new sects, he could not abide the contrary teachers, but 
. .-lew those who admonished him thereof. The said Constans, going 
afterwards to Italy, was also overcome by the Lombards, 2 &c. The 
ens, after this victory, spoiled also Rhodes. 

Although these cursed Saracens, in these their great victories and 

' [UestS, were not without domestical sedition and divisions among 

■< -. yel the princes of the Saracens, being called then sultans, 

had m their possession the government of Syria, Egypt, Africa, and a 
pari oj Via, about the term of four hundred years; till at 
length the Saracen king who ruled ill Persia, lighting against the 
- racen of Babylon, sought aid of the Turks, to fight with him 
■gainst the sultan of Babylon: which Turks, by little and little, 

I. 1 ) M in iK i i . .iimn His proipuelh not with the Lurd. 



,thc 
l.) them. 






THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 23 

surprised upon the sultan of Persia, and, not long after, putting him Mro. 
out of place, usurped the kingdom of Persia; who afterwards went ' / '"'"""' 
further, as ye shall hear, the Lord willing. And this is the first 
beginning of the Turks' dominion. 

These Turks, after they had thus overcome many countries and The first 
provinces, and made their power large and mighty both in Asia and [iiT* ot 
Europe, began to divide their kingdoms and countries amongst them- Tmks - 
selves. But when they could not agree, but with deadly war con- 
tended for the bounds of those kingdoms and dominions, in the mean 
time four of the principal families, conquering and subduing all the 
rest, parted the whole empire amongst themselves. And yet they The 
also, not so contented, fell to such cruel hatred, contention, war, and J^ s 
slaughter (no doubt by the just judgment of God against his bias- nion* 
phemous enemies), that there was no end thereof, until the remnant Pntofour 
of the ancient Turks was utterly rooted out. For it is evident that lamilies - 
there are few now remaining, who are Turks indeed by birth and 
blood, and that the state of that great empire is not upholden, but 
by the strength and power of soldiers, who have been Christians, 
and now are turned to Mahomet's religion ; so that even their own 
natural language is now out of use amongst them, saving in certain 
families of their nobility and gentry. 

These four families above-mentioned, with their captains and 
armies, about a. d. 1330, went raging throughout all Asia and 
Europe, and every one of them conquered some part of the countries 
where they passed. 

The causes of these great invasions and victories, were the dissen- Dissen- 
sion and discord, falsehood, idleness, inconstancy, greedy avarice, lack ^^ 
of truth and fidelity, among christian men of all states and degrees, tians 
both high and low. For, by the wilful defection and backsliding of TariL 
the Christians, the Turkish power did exceedingly increase, in that stro,1 t»'- 
many, desiring the licentious life and liberty of war, and allured with 
the prosperous success of things, forsook the church of God, and 
made themselves bondslaves to Mahomet, and his devilish sect ; both 
because fleshly liberty is delighting to all men, and partly also be- 
cause as fortune favoureth, so commonly the wills of men incline. 
And again, such as be profane and without the fear of God (whereof 
there is an infinite number in the church in all ages), arc wont com- 
monly to judge of religion, according to the success of realms and 
kingdoms. For many, not only for the variety of opinions, but also 
for the diversity of events and fortune amongst men, have inquired 
and do inquire, whether there be any church of God distinct from 
other nations ; what it is, and where it is : especially, forasmuch as 
the greatest part of men, both in the old time (when the four monar- 
chies flourished in order) were ignorant of this doctrine, which is 
peculiar to the church alone, and now also the barbarity of Mahomet 
prevaileth and reigneth in the most part of the world. And how 
standeth this with mans reason, that a small number, both miserable 
and also enfeebled and broken with many battles, should be regarded 
and loved of God ; and the others, flourishing in all wealth, pro- 
sperity, victories, authority, and power, should be rejected and 
despised of God, seeing there is no power and authority, but by the 
ordinance of God ? Albeit therefore the power of the Turks hath 



the 

Turki' 

inonli- 

pirc. 



yi HHTOKY OF THE TURKS. THEIR RISING. 

M»» been, for these two hundred years, of greater force than any other 

1 monarchy of the world besides, vet is there no imperial dignity to be 

. iteemed in that Turkish tyranny, but amongst those nations only, 

5£w where the heavenly doctrine of the gospel is preached, and other d.s- 

t ^"h" eiriines necessary for the church of God, and the common hie ot man 

' mStained and regarded ; where the laws of God, and other honest 

"""" n d civil ordinances agreeable to the same, do flourish and reign ;. 

where lawful judgment is exercised; where virtue is honoured and 

rewarded; where sin and wickedness is punished; where honest 

families are maintained and defended. 

These things are not regarded amongst the Turks, the enemies of 

the Son of Gad, and all lawful empires, because they dissolve and 

reject all godly societies, honest discipline, good laws, policies, right- 

eoufl judgment, the ordinance of matrimony, and godly families. 

F,,r what hath the empire of the Turks been hitherto, but most 

deadly, cruel, and perpetual war, to work all mischief, destruction, and 

desolation? to subvert good laws, cities, kingdoms, policies, and to 

enlarge their cruel power and dominion ? the stay and strength 

« hereof is not love and favour, proceeding of virtue and justice, as in 

lawful and well governed empires; but fear, violence, oppression, 

swarms and infinite thousands of barbarous and most wicked people, 

ministers of Satan's malice and fury': which kind of dominion and 

tyranny hath been condemned by the voice of God many years ago ; 

the testimonies whereof the Lord would have to remain in the church, 

lest the godly, being moved with the power and success thereof, 

should fall away and forsake the Son of God. 1 

christian Wherefore, let us not seek for any imperial state in that barbarity; 

tauand mit h ' 1 M 1n ' thankful, and acknowledge the great benefit of God, for 

mniiis [hat he hath reserved to us certain remnants of the Roman empire : 

b"'h° >ed and let us call upon him daily, with hearty petitions and groans, and 

iel!*' with zeal and love to the house of God, that this Turkish power, 

fb?™ ,ng j"' m 'd with the malice of Satan against the Son of God, prevail not 

whom against the poor congregations and little remnant of his church, as it 

,S '"' hath hitherto done against those strong and noble christian kingdoms 

»p«red. an j ghujcheg, where now we see the Turkish tyranny to reign, and 

Satan to have taken full possession ; whose state was once far better 

than ours is now, and more like to continue without such horrible 

overthrows and desolation. Oh that we might foresee a little the 

great danger that hangcth over our heads ! For though the Turk 

meth to be far off, yet do we nourish within our breasts at home, 

that which may soon cause us to feel his cruel hand and worse, if 

Worse may be: to overrun us; to lay our land waste; to scatter us 

amongst the infidels, the enemies and blasphemers of the Son of 

Qod ! 

Now, although these four families above-mentioned long continued 
together in bloody wars and deadly hatred, yet one of them passed 
the rest in all cruelty and tyranny, and subduing the other three 
families, took iii)i)i) him the government alone, and so became the 
lir^t monarch or emperor that reigned amongst them, called Ottoman ; 
<>t whom all that reigned after him were called Ottomans: who, 
ling orderly of his line, have occupied the same dominion and 

(1) Ezck xxx. ■;.: Apoc \t/ 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 25 

seat of the Turks, from the year of our Lord 1300, unto this present ottoman 
time, who have been the number of twelve; of the which twelve, in o?"/hm. 
such order as they lived and reigned, I intend (Christ so permitting) ~~ 
severally and compendiously something to treat, briefly abstracting, 
out of prolix and tedious writers, such specialties, as for us Christians 
shall be briefly requisite to be known. 

OTTOMAN, THE FIRST GREAT EMPEROR, OR TYRANT, OF THE 
TURKS. A. D. 1300. 

This Ottoman was at first of poor estate, and obscure amongst the 
common sort of men, coming of a base progeny, and of rustical 
parents ; but through his valiantness and activity in war, he got him 
a great name amongst the Turks. For he, being a man of fierce 
courage, refusing no labour, and delighting in war, and gathering 
together by great subtlety a multitude of common soldiers, began to 
make war, and bv conquest and victories to advance himself and his 
family. First, lie began to rob and spoil with a great band of rovers, 
and afterwards he attempted to set upon all men. Neither did he 
vex and destroy the Christians only, but set upon his own nation 
also, and sought all occasion to subdue them wholly unto him ; for 
now the princes and captains of the Turks, inflamed with ambition inward 
and desire of rule, began to fall out and contend among themselves, among 
insomuch that they fell to domestical and inward war, with all the ^ h u e rks 
power they could. 

Ottoman, having this occasion very fit and meet to accomplish that The 
which he long had sought for, gathering unto h im all such as he U p™'f ns 
thought to be given to robbing and spoiling, and set all upon mis- 0ttom <">- 
chief, in a short time began to grow in authority, and first set upon 
certain towns, as he saw opportunity to serve him ; of which towns 
some he took by force, some by yielding ; others he spoiled and over- 
threw, to terrify the rest ; thus laying the first foundation of his 
rising. In the mean time, the discord which was amongst the Chris- 
tians was no small advantage to this Ottoman, by occasion whereof, 
he, within ten years 1 space, subdued Bithynia, and all the provinces 
about Pontus : also Natolia, which comprehendeth all the dominion 
of the Greeks within Asia ; Ancyra, a city in Phrygia ; Synope, a 
city in Galatia ; and Sabastia, a city in Cappadocia. And thus still 
prevailing, he increased in short time to a mighty power, either 
through the secret judgment of God against that nation, or else 
because God would have them so far and so cruelly to prevail, for 
the punishment of the sins of other nations, like as it was prophesied 
before, that such a kingdom there should be, of Gog and Magog. 1 

This Ottoman, after he had reigned twenty-eight years, died a.d. 
1327, and departed to his Mahomet; leaving behind him three sons, 
of whom Orchan, being the youngest, killed his two brethren, whilst 
they were at variance between themselves. 

ORCHAN, THE SECOND EMPEROR OF THE TURKS. 

Orchan, the youngest of the sons of Ottoman, after he had slain 
his two brethren, took the regiment of the Turks after his father ; 

(I) Ezek. xxxv iii. 



T11K HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

Orckm who, after he had drawn to Lim the hearts of the multitude, such us 



a. had their dispositions set upon the licentious life of war, converted 
lis power further to enlarge his father's dominion, winning and sub- 
limit My.sia, Lydia, Lycaonia, Phrygia, and Caria: all which coun- 
tries, being within the compass of Asia, unto the sea-side of the 



■ 

subdued 

Tur'ks Hellespont, and the sea Euxinc, he added to the Turkish empire. 
Also he won Prusia, which was the metropolitan city of Bithynia, 
which then he made the chief seat of the Turks 1 empire. Besides 
these, moreover, he conquered Nicea, and got Nicomedia : all which 

civil wm were before, christian cities and regions. And yet all this could not 
make the christian princes in Greece to cease their civil wars, and to 

Gradam. j () j u ;iI1( ] accord among themselves: such debate and variance was 
then between Cantaguzen, on the Greeks 1 part, and Paleologus, the 

r> (he emperor of Constantinople. By reason of this, the Turks' 1 aid was 
: .nt for out of Asia, to help our Christians one to kill another, and 

'_ "^ tl,c at length to get all those parts of Europe from them both ; who, if 

Increaie. tliev had, according to their profession, so well joined in brotherly 
unity, as thev did in cruel hostility dissent, neither had Orchan so 
prevailed in getting Prusia from the Greeks, nor had the Turks so 
soon presumed into Europe as afterwards they did. Orchan, after 
these victories, when he had reigned two-and-twenty years, was 
stricken, some say, with a dart in the shoulder, at the siege of Prusia. 
The opinion of others is, that he, fighting against the Tartarians, 
where lie lost a great part of his arrnv, was there also slain himself, 
a.u. 1349. 



AMURATII. THE THIRD EMPEROR OF THE TURK'S. 



Amiimth 



The Greek writers do hold that Orchan had two sons, Soliman and 
Amurath, of which two, first Soliman reigned, albeit not long. After 
1,10 him followed Amurath, who, after that Asia now was subdued by his 
predecessors, sought by all means and ways how to proceed further, 
and to invade Europe: to whose ambitious purpose the domestical 
wars of the Christians gave unprosperous occasion, which occasion is 
nnt thus declared. Certain discord fell between the princes of Greece 
ih?Turk« (whose captain was Cantaguzen), and Paleologus, emperor of Con- 
stantinople : whereupon Paleologus, for that he was not able to make 
Ins party good with the Grecians, most unwisely sent for Amurath, 
to help him, who, being glad to have such an occasion offered, which 
he so lone had sought, sent to aid him 12,000 Turks into Thrace : 
but first he used all delays lie could of crafty policy, to the intent 
that the Greeks Erst should waste their strength and power upon 
themselves, whereby he might be more able afterwards to set upon 
them, and to accomplish his conceived desire. 

The Turks thus being called into Europe by the Christians, whether 
they, tasting the sweetness of the soil, incensed Amurath, (heir em- 
)" I'M, to make invasion, or whether Amurath, of his own head, thought 
8* " l| .'" "-' the time, in the year of our Lord 1363, he came himself 
ov( r into Europe with 60,000 Turks, railing upon the Greeks, being 
pasted and spenl with their long ware and battles before. The pretence 

• < thedeviligh Turk was to aid and assist the emperor Paleologus, 

,tl " &« ' bi would "i no, and to subdue such as had fallen from him. 



THE HISTORY OV THE TURKS. 27 

The christian ships of the Ligurians, for money were hired to conduct Aumeih 
them over, taking for every soldier a piece of gold. 1 js','j"[,-t. 

Thus the Turks 1 army, being conveyed over by the Grecian sea * 

called the Hellespont, first got Callipolis, with other towns and cities 
bordering about the sea; and there planting themselves, and pre- 
paring ships of their own for transporting their munitions out of Asia, 
advanced their power further into Thrace, and there won Philipopolis ; Thrace 
then got Adrianople, which was not far from Constantinople ; and there gJJjuiS 
Amurath made his chief seat. Then began Paleologus, the emperor, 
at length to bewail his offer and covenant made with Amurath. 
When the Turks had expugned thus a great part of Thrace, they 
extended forth their army unto Mysia, which they soon subdued : The 
from thence proceeding and conquering the Bessi and Triballi, they ]^ t s 
entered into Servia and Bulgaria, where, joining battle with Lazarus j£ to . 
Despota, prince of Servia, and with other dukes of Dalmatia and 
Epyrus, they won of them the field, and put them to the worse ; 
where Lazarus Despota, being taken and committed to prison, ended 
his life. This Lazarus had a certain faithful client or servant, who, ^X'tu- 
to revenge his master's death, with a bold courage, although seeing ™* er 
death before his eyes, yet ventured his life so far, that he came to Duath of 
the tyrant, and thrust him through with his dagger. This Amurath Amurath. 
reigned twenty-three years, and was slain a.d. 1372. 

BAJAZET, THE FOURTH EMPEROR OF THE TURKS. 

The power of the Turks began to increase in Europe, what time 
Bajazet, the first of that name, after the death of his father, entered 
the possession of the Turks 1 kingdom. This Bajazet had two 
brethren, Soliman and Sauces ; which Sauces had his eyes put out by 
his father, for striving for the kingdom. Soliman was slain by his 
brother. Thus Bajazet, beginning his kingdom with the murder of 
his brother, reduced his imperial seat from Prusia, a city of Bithynia, 
unto Adrianople, intending with himself to subdue both Asia and 
Europe to his own power. First he set upon the Servians and Bui 
garians, thinking to revenge his father's death ; where he gave the 
overthrow to Marcus Despota, with all the nobility of the Servians Marcus 
and Bulgarians, and put all those parts under his subjection, unto the s iaiTby 
confines and borders of the Illyrians. All Thrace, moreover, he {}' t l ;J r ul ' k - 
brought likewise under his yoke, only Constantinople and Peru christian 
excepted. That done, he invaded the residue of Greece, prevailing con-' 
against the countries of Thessalia, Macedonia, Phocis, and Attica, qui;red - 
spoiling and burning as he passed without any resistance ; and so, 
returning with innumerable spoil of the Christians unto Adrianople, 
lie laid siege to Constantinople the space of eight years, and had corwtan 
expugned the same, but that Paleologus, being brought to extremity, S^,, 
was driven to crave aid of the Frenchmen, and of Sigismnnd tin- eight 
emperor, who, being accompanied with a sufficient power of French- 
men and Germans, came down to Hungary, and toward Servia, against 
the Turk. Bajazet, hearing of their coming, raised his siege from 
Constantinople, and with 60,000 horsemen, came to Nicopolis, 
where he, encountering with them, overthrew all the christian army, 

(I) E.\ PeUMI ft alii.;. 



TT1K IMs'IOUY OK THE TURKS. 

ami took John, the captain of the French power, prisoner. Sigismund, 
^ who before, in the council of Constance, had burned John Huss and 
"•Jerome of Prague, hardly escaped by flying. Bajazet, after the 
thrown victory got, carried away duke John, with five others, in bands, into 
ToAm. I'rusia, where, before his face, he caused all the other christian 
prisoners to be cut in pieces. Afterwards the said John, being ran- 
somed with 200,000 crowns, was delivered. Some authors refer this 
-ton to the time of Calepine, as followeth hereafter to be seen. 

Bajazet, the cruel tyrant, after this victory won, and tyranny showed 

upon the Christians, returned again to his siege of Constantinople, 

fully bending himself to conquer and subdue the same ; which thing 

no doubt he had accomplished, but that the providence of God had 

Tinwr- found such a means, that Tamerlane, king of Parthia, with a hundred 

itirred up thousand horsemen, and swarms of footmen, like a violent flood 

1 overrunning Asia, and pressing upon Syria and Sebastia, had taken 

uieChrJs-.Ortliobules, the son of Bajazet, prisoner, and afterwards slew him, 

exercising the like cruelty upon his prisoners as Bajazet had done 

before upon the Christians, insomuch that he spared neither sex nor 

age of the Turkish multitude ; of whom he caused twelve thousand, 

at one time, to be overridden and trodden down under his horses 1 

Bqjuet feet. By reason of this, Bajazet the tyrant was enforced to raise his 

■iegefrom siege from Constantinople, and to" return his power into Asia; where 

SnoSS" ,H> * near tl,c m11 ca]1(xl Stella > pitched his tents there to encounter 

with Tamerlane. 

The fight between these two was long and great on both sides, 
which was a. d. 1397, and the second year after the slaughter of 
.!' '.-rr '.',„• ° UI ( -^ r ' st ' ans at Nicopolis in Pannonia. But the victory of this 
' i ';'t.' 1 '""' battle fell to Tamerlane at length, in which, as Munsterus writeth, 
nerijue, were s | am £00,000 Turks ; among whom Bajazet the tyrant, having 
his horse slain under him, was taken prisoner, and, to make a spec- 
a'cnui" taele of his wretched fortune, he was bound in golden fetters, and so, 
paawa. being enclosed in an iron grate (whom, before, all Greece could not 
hold), was led about and showed through all Asia, to be scorned and 
laughed at ; and, moreover, was used instead of a footstool to Tamer- 
lane, or a block, as often as he mounted upon his horse. Some add 
also, that he was made like a dog to feed under Tamerlane's table. 
The tyranny of this Bajazet against the Christians, as it was not much 
unlike to the cruelty of Valerian the Roman emperor above men- 
tioned, so neither was the example of his punishment much discrepant ; 
for, as Sapor, king of the Persians, did then with Valerian, in the 
tuned the eighth persecution of the primitive church, so likewise 
was Bajazet, tins persecutor, worthily handled by Tamerlane, king of 
the Parthians, as in manner above-said. 
'.;• >> ^ Tamerlane, after this conquest, passed with his army into Mesopo- 
tamia, Egypt, and all Syria, where he, victoriously subduing the cities 
jnd .Munitions of the Turks, at length also conquered Damascus. In 
Ins sieges Ins manner was. the firet day to go all in white attire, the 
second -lav ,„ ,cd. the third day in black, signifying thereby mercy 
the tirsl day, to them that yielded; the second day the sword; the 
Hurt day lire and ashes. At last, alter great victories, and spoils 
gotten ot the Turks, he returned into his country aeain, and there 

died, A.I.. I |<) J. ' & 



THE HISTORY OK THE TURKS 2i) 

Sebastianus Munsterns, writing of this Tamerlane, recordeth that 8<$avt. 
lie had in his army 200,000 men : and that he overcame the Parthians, c„""?,„: 

Scythians, Iberians, Albanians, Persians, Medes, and conquered all 

Mesopotamia : and after he had also subdued Armenia, passing over 
the river Euphrates with 600,000 footmen, and 400,000 horsemen, 
he invaded all Asia Minor, conquering and subduing from the flood 
Tanais 1 unto the Nile in Egypt, and was called ' terror orbis, 1 the 
' terror of the world. 1 ' 2 He left behind him two sons, who, falling 
in discord for their possessions, lost all again that their father got. 

In the mean time Bajazet, in the second year of his captivity, died, a genera- 
leaving behind him divers sons, Jesus or Joshua the eldest, Mul- ti . onuf 
suman, Moses, Celebine or Calepinc, Jesus the younger, Mustapha, 
and Hali, of whom, first Jesus the eldest was overcome and slain of 
Mulsuman, which Mulsuman afterward was delivered to Moses his 
brother, and by him was slain likewise ; which Moses had also the 
like end by his brother Calepine, having his neck broken with a bow- 
string, which was then the usual manner among the Turks in killing 
their brethren. The same Calepine, sparing only the life of Mustapha 
his brother, condemned him to perpetual prison. Jesus the younger 
was baptized, and shortly after departed at Constantinople. In these 
such discords and divisions among the Turks, what occasions were 
given to the Christians to have recovered again of the Turks, what 
they had lost, if they had not been either negligent, or in their own 
private wars otherwise occupied with themselves ! 

CALEPINE, THE FIFTH EMPEROR OF THE TURKS. 

Calepine or Celebine, was the son of Bajazet, and of four brethren 
the eldest ; who being all taken captives by the Parthians, he only 
escaped and obtained his father's kingdom. This Calepine, en- 
couraged by the sloth and negligence of the princes of Europe, and 
by the discord of the Greeks among themselves and other nations 
near about them, long troubled and vexed the Bulgarians, Servians, 
and Macedonians, even to the time of Sigismund. This Sigisnmnd, 
seeing now Bajazet to be overcome and taken by Tamerlane, and the 
power of the Turks weakened in Europe, and having such occasion 
ofFered him, as it were from heaven, to destroy and utterly to root 
out, not only out of Asia, but also all Europe, that barbarous nation, 
and cruel enemies to the name and religion of Christ: and also to 
revenge the great slaughter and discomfiture of his army fighting 
before with Bajazet at Nicopolis, a city in Mysia ; with great power 
made war against Calepine, at Columbatium, a town in Servia, as is 
also before-mentioned ; but as unluckily, and with as little success, 
as he did before against Bajazet his father : for in that battle were 
slain of the Christians to the number of twenty thousand, and the rest over- 
utterly discomfited, the. king himself escaping so hardly, that he entered ^"* of 
not again into his kingdom for the space of eighteen months after. "» imI - 
Some write that this was done under Bajazet ; others refer this battle to against 
Amurath ; but, howsoever it was, most pernicious was it to the Chris* ^ lk 
tians. 3 He reigned but six years, and died very young, a. n. 1404. 

(1) Tanais is the uttermost flood in the north side, and the Nile the uttermost Hood on the south 
6icie of Asia. 

(2) Ex Seb. Munstero Cosmograph , lib. iv. 

l«) Some stories record this conflict to he aftei the time of this Turk. 



I 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS, 



ituJumti 

and 
Amurath. 



ORCHAN - , AND MOSES HIS UNCLE, THE SIXTH AFTER OTTOMAN. 



lltj in 
hiitoriei 



After the captivity of Bajazet above-mentioned, histories diversely 
do dissent. The Greek writers, making no mention at all of Cale- 
pine ; only make mention of the sons of Bajazet, and of the contention 
among them, until the time of Mahomet. The Latin stories, writing of 
the children of Bajazet, and of their succession, do not therein agree ; 
• nine affirming, that Bajazet had two sons, Orchan, surnamed Cale- 
pine, and Mahomet his brother, who within two years slew the said 
Calepine, and entered his dominion. Others attribute to Bajazet 
more sons ; as is above-rehearsed. Some again do give to Bajazet 
only these two sons, Celebine and Mustapha ; and hold that Cale- 
pine or Celebine had two sons; to wit, Orchan and Mahomet: and 
add. moreover, that the said Orchan, being somewhat young, was 

Murder slain by his uncle Moses, who governed but two years : for Mahomet, 
1 to revenge his brother's death, slew Moses, and invaded his dominion. 

murder. The Greek stories make no mention at all of Orchan. 



Walla- 

laulted 
b] Ma 
hornet. 



The 

Turk's 
teal 

al Ailrl 

wople. 



MAHOMET, THE SEVENTH EMPEROR OF THE TURKS. 

This Mahomet, whether he was the son of Bajazet, or else of 
Calepine, converted to himself alone the kingdom, or tyranny rather, 
of the murdering Turks, who afflicted the Christians with sore wars 
within Europe, especially the country called WaJlachia, lying not far 
from the flood Danube, between Hungary and Thrace. From thence 
he removed into Asia, where he recovered divers parts in Galatia, 
l'ontus. ( 'appadocia, and Cilicia, which before Tamerlane had alienated 
from the Turks. This Mahomet planted his chief imperial seat 
in Adrianople, not far from Constantinople, within the country of 
Thrace. In some writers the conflict between Sigismund and'the 
great Turk, wherein the Christians were so discomfited, is referred 
rather to this Mahomet, than to Calepine; of which conflict mention 
is above made in the story of Sigismund. This Mahomet reigned, 
as some say, fourteen years, and died a. d. 1419: others affirm 
•seventeen years. 



Amu 



AMI-RATH, THE EIGHTH EMPEROR OF THE TURKS. 

Amurath, as Philelphus saith, was the son of Celebine : as Laoni- 
cus Chalcondilea testifieth, of Mahomet. Whose son soever he was, 
a wretched tyrant he was, and permitted as a scourge of Cod, to correct 
the sins of the Christians. In the story of Bajazet mention'was made 
before of Mustapha, his son. who was condemned to perpetual prison 
by ( 'al.pine, his brother. This Mustapha, escaping out of his brother's 
prison, was conveyed to the Greeks, where he remained long in 
custody, till at length they, understanding the purpose of Amurathj 
s t. him op with Bufficient habiliments and furniture of war, to 6ght 
a..amsi the said Aiuuiath, his nephew. But, in conclusion, he being 
not able to make his party good, came into the hands of his enemy, 
and had his neck broke with a bow-string, after the manner of the 
1 



THE HISTORY OF THE TUKKS. 31 

The Greeks then terrified with this sinister adversity', required truce Anamtk 
of the Turk; but, when that would not lie "ranted, they procured ti^ 
unto them Mustapha, the other brother to Amurath, being of the ^^ dcT 
age of thirteen years ; who likewise, being armed of the Greeks, got etii his 
the city of Nice in Bithynia, from Amurath, his brother. Albeit it was Amu'""' 
not long but he was circumvented in the same city, and brought to ^.^ 
Amurath ; who caused him likewise to taste of the same whip, as the *• 
other Mustapha had done before. Amurath, being now out of all Thrace 
fear and doubt of brethren and kinsfolk to rise against him, converted ^the 
all his power against the Greeks : and first ranging throughout Thrace, Turt 
where divers cities yielded unto him, which before belonged to the 
emperor of Constantinople, from thence he set forward to the noble 
and famous city Thcssalonica, being then under the league and pro- 
tection of the Venetians. This Thessaloniea is a city in Greece, 
bordering upon Macedonia, to the citizens whereof St. Paul writeth, 
foreshowing unto them, in his second epistle, of a defection to come 
before the coming of the day of the Lord [2 Thess. ii.], of which The de- 
apostasy or defection what the holy apostle doth mean, this story of ™^" 
the Turks may easily declare. After Thessaloniea was subdued, jf^?*- 
Phocis, with all the country about Athens, Boeotia likewise, iEtolia, ciared. 
Acarnania, with all the region beyond Peloponnesus, unto the coast 
of Corinth (to which St. Paul also wrote two other epistles), were 
brought in bondage and slavery unto the Turk. 

In Epyrus, and in that quarter that adjoineth to Macedonia named croia 
Albania, reigned then one Johannes Castriotus; who, perceiving him- theTurk. 
self too weak to match with the Turk's power, made with the Turk ^'o™' 
this convention, that, he should have Croia, a famous city in Greece, Cast™ 
and also gave to him his three sons for hostages : to wit, Constantino, ^ with 
Reposius, and George. 

In this George such towardness of noble courage, such vigour of 
mind and strength of body singularly did appear, that the Turk caused 
him more freely to be instructed after the Turkish religion and manner 
in his own court; where he, being traded up, did so shoot up as well 
in feats of activity, as in strength of body, that he excelled all his 
equals ; insomuch that he was named ' Scanderbeius, -1 which soundeth 
as much as ' Alexander Magnus.' 1 

After this Alexander was grown up to mature ripeness of age, and valiant 
was well trained up in feats of war, he was sent out by the Turk, to scander- 
war against Caraman of Cilicia, the Turk's enemy. In that ex- be,us - 
pedition he sped himself most manfully, fighting hand to hand, first 
with a footman of Scythia, then with a horseman of Persia, being 
challenged by them both to encounter, first with the one, after with 
the other ; whom he so valiantly overthrew, that he won great renown 
with the Turk : insomuch that he, trusting to the Turk's favour, when 
he heard of the decease of his father, durst ask of the Turk the grant 
of his father's dominion to be given unto him ; which request scande*. 
although Amurath the Turk did not deny him, yet notwithstanding, ^ eth 
perceiving the matter to be dallied out with fair words, he by subtle™*^ 
means and policy slipped out of the Turk's court, and came to Eyprus Turk, hu 
his own inheritance, where first by forged letters he recovered Croia. lul 
The other cities, of their voluntary mind, yielded themselves unto 
him ; who then, gathering unto him the people of Epyrus and Mace- 



THE HIST0KV OF THE TURKS. 

Amurath 



Amu 
rath' 



donia (who were not bo many in number, as with good willing minds 
they stuck unto him), so manfully and valiantly behaved himself, that 
against all the puissance both of Amurath, and also of Mahomet, he 
■"■ maintained his own, repulsed their violence, and put to flight their 
armies many years together. But, to return again to the course of 
Amurath's victories : after he had thus prevailed (as is before signified) 
against the east parts of Europe and Greece, and had convented thus 
for the dominion of Epyrus, he invaded Illyricum (otherwise called 
now Sclavonia), containing in it Dalmatia, Croatia, Istria, and Li- 
bumia : which countries after he had spoiled and wasted, he continued 
his course to Albania and Bosnia; of which regions, when he had 
subdued a great part, and had led away an innumerable multitude of 
captives, be moved further to Wallachia and Servia, upon hope to 
conquer all Pannonia. 

There reigned at the same time in Servia a certain prince, named 



An un 



«o«y Georgius Despota, who made great suit to the Turk for truce and 
Miu peace, promising to give his daughter to marriage ; for by the Turk's 
num 1 til's law they marry as many wives as they list. It was not long after 
totto* Amurath had "married the daughter of Despota, but he, contrary to 
Turk. ),is league and promise, made war upon Despota his father-in-law, and 
expelled him out of his kingdom, taking from him divers cities, as 
Scopia, Novomonte, Sophia, and all-Mysia. George himself fled into 
Hungary, leaving behind him his son, to defend the town of Sin- 
deronia. Amurath, understanding of the flight of Despota, his father- 
in-law, compassed the city of Sinderonia with a strong siege, 
Cradtj which when he in few days had expugned, he took his wife's brother, 
Tu'i'lf. the son of Despota, and without all regard of mercy and affinity, after 
the barbarous tyranny of the Turks, put out his eyes with a bason 
red hot before them; and, after that, led him about with him in 
derision, in spite of his cowardly father. 1 

Servia heing thus won and gotten, Amurath, thinking to go further 
bj*t2i into Hungary, besieged the city called Belgrade, and no doubt had 
1 " rk - also suppressed the same, had not the providence of God found means, 
that partly through slaughter of his men, partly for lack of victual 
and other forage, he was compelled to raise his siege and retire. 
johinnei In the mean time Johannes Huniades (of whom mention was made 
VaiToda. before) had got great victories against the Turkish power, and had re- 
covered part of Servia, and all Moldavia ; against whom Amurath the 
Turk, with a mighty army, moved into Pannonia. But Huniades, with 
the power and aid of Ladislaus, king. of Poland (but especially by the 
power of the Lord), did soon infringe the puissance of the Turk, and 
gave him the overthrow, recovering unto the Christians the greatest 
part of Servia and Bulgaria. 

1 n this battle, Huniades had five sundry conflicts with the Turks on 

, one day, and with five victories put them to the worse, and toward night 

did BO discomfit and overthrow the great captain of Amurath, called 

the Baasa, duke of Anatolia (which is otherwise named Asia Minor), 

/ that be slew of the Turks that day to the number of thirty thousand. 

• I ;;;; i '"' k ' Amurath, although he was not a' little thereat discouraged, yet dis- 

Uuown. m niblmg his Tear with stout countenance, sent for Carambeius, his 

principal staj and captain, with a new power brought out of Asia to 

I I ' Ebriltoph. ltichfr'.n (i;illo, et Gasp. Pcuc. et aliic 



THE HISTORY OK THE TUKKS. iY.i 

assist him in his wars. This Carembeius, in the Downs of Tran- Amurath. 
sylvania, Ladislans the aforesaid king of Poland (the Lord so working) Another 
through the industry of Johannes lluniades, so received and with ™h£ 
such celerity oppressed him unprovided, that all his stout and " i;uks - 
sturdy army either was slain downright, or else put to flight and 
disparkled, Carambeius the captain being himself taken prisoner in 
the same field. 

These victories of Huniades struck no little terror to Amurath, The great 
insomuch that for distress of mind be was ready to destroy himself, bought 
as some do write; but, being confirmed by Hclibcus Bassa, his , .'.' &* !at 
counsellor, he kept himself within the straits of mount Khodope, 
who then, hearing that Caraman invaded the same time the country 
of Bithynia, and Pontus in Asia, was glad to take truce with Ladis- He seek- 
laus and Huniades upon such conditions as they listed to make of the" 8 
themselves : which conditions were these, that Amurath should depart {j^" 
clearly from all the region of Servia, and should remove from thence 
all his garrisons, which were placed in the castles and forts of the 
same ; also he should restore George Despota (which is to say, prince 
of Servia), unto his possession, and set his children free, whom he 
had in captivity, and restore them to their inheritance. Item, that 
he should make no more claim nor title to the country of Moldavia 
above mentioned, nor to that part of Bulgaria which he had lost ; 
and that he should desist hereafter from all wrongs and injuries Truce 
against the Christians. Upon these conditions the Turks being between 
agreed, so was a truce concluded on both parts tor ten years, and ten years, 
with solemn oath between them confirmed. 

This done, Amurath the tyrant addresseth himself toward Asia, Amurath 
to resist the invasion of Caraman aforesaid ; at which time pope into Asia. 
Eugene, so soon as he heard the Turk to be returned into Asia, The 
sendeth Julianus Caesarianus, his cardinal (whose storv is before v°v e ' s 
touched), unto Ladislaus the aforesaid king, with full dispensation tion ana 
and absolution to break his oath and league with the Turk ; pro- uon" 
raising, moreover, great hope and aid, if he would go in arms stoutly abused - 
against the tyrant. 

Here by the way is to be noted, that as there is no truth of pro- His rash 
mise in that pestilent see of Rome, neither was there ever any war pemi- 
prospered, which was taken in hand by the pope's council : so was christen. 
there never any council of the pope that brought with it more detri- do1 "- 
ment to Christianity than this. But the pope belike thought, that 
as he might lawfully break promise with John Huss, and with other 
Christians, so also he needed not to observe any league or truce 
taken with the Turk ; but it turned much otherwise than the pope's 
blind brains imagined, as by the sequel is to be seen. 1 For Ladis- ^ itc ., h 
laus, being thus excited by the unadvised and sinister instigation truce 
of pope Eugene, contrary to the truce established a little before, tween the 
set out with his army from Seledinus, and so proceeding to Walla- ^"- \ U1(1 
chia and Bulgaria, came to Varna, a town of Bulgaria, where he fell l » u ' l ' urk 
sick. 

It was not long but the Turk, having thereof intelligence, left his 
wars begun with Caraman in Asia, and with great journeys made 

(1) Nothing prospereth that is taken in hand by the pope's setting on. 
VOI,. IV. D 



THE HISTORY OV THE TURKS. 

, Europe, passing over by the straits neat to Callipolis, 
_ where all the Italian navy still looking on, and whether of purpose, 
oi whether tor cowardliness, would not stir one oar to stop the passage 
of the Turkish army. When Amurath was come to Adrianople in 
Thrace, using such celerity as no man looked for, within eight days 
lie was in Bulgaria, and there encamped himself against Ladislaus. 
The day of battle being set, the armies joined on both sides. Hu- 
niades Teas himself there present, but all the matter was ruled by 
Julian the cardinal, and the pope's clergy. The fight continued three 
and three nights together, with great courage and much blood- 

Amnmth. ^ ^ ^ ^ . ^g^^ t ] iat t } ie fi e ] ( i did stand with lakes of 
blood. It seemed at first to incline to the Christians, by breaking 

The P o- the first ranks of the Turks ; but the priests and prelates who were 

at the field (who had been more fit to have been in the church), 

: ig the Turks to begin to fly, unskilfully left their array to pur- 

tSeiSeid. sue the enemy, so that they, leaving the other standings of the. 
Christians naked, gave great advantage to the Turks, with their darts 
and shot to disturb the Christian ranks, by which occasion Amurath, 
enclosing the Christians with his army round about, obtained the 
victory ; in which field, Ladislaus, the young king of Poland, having 
his horse first killed under him, was stricken down and slain. The 

A iuUh- P () P CS bishops, flying to save themselves, fell into the marshes, and 

meat were there destroyed, sustaining a dirty death, condign to their filthy 
falsehood and untruth. Julian the cardinal, who with the pope was 

, " ltan the chief doer in breaking the league, in the way was found dead, 
being full of wounds, and spoiled to his naked skin. Of the rest of 

thL-'war. the army that escaped by flying, part were drowned in the marshes, 
some perished miserably for hunger, some for cold; watching and 

HuniadM wandering in the woods. Huniades hardly escaped the danger, by the 

Mcapeth. nim .j| u i providence of God being reserved to the further profit and 
commodity of Christendom. 

Hlawor- This John Huniades, the worthy warrior, Avas born in Wallachia, 

menST" being earl of Bistrice, of all captains that ever went against the 

tion. Turks most famous and singular; prudent in wit, discreet in council, 
expert and politic in war, prompt of hand, circumspect before he at- 
tempted, quick in expedition : in whom wanted almost no good pro- 
perty requisite in a warlike captain. Against two most mighty and 
fierce tyrants, Amurath and Mahomet, through the Lord's might, he 
defended all Pannonia, and therefore was called the thunderbolt, and 
the terror of the Turks. Like as Achilles was unto the Grecians, so 
was he set up of God to be as a wall or bulwark of all Europe against 
the cruel Turks and enemies of Christ and of his Christians; nei- 
ther Mas there any king or prince that ever achieved such noble 
victories, either so many in number, or so profitable for the public 
utility of all Europe, as did he; and that not only in the days of 
this Amurath, but also of Mahomet his successor, as hereafter remain- 
ed) further to be seen. This battle of Amurath against the Christians, 

M. 1 '"' :il ^ arna m Bulgaria, was fought a.d. 1404. 

^ Amurath. by reason of this victorious overthrow against the 

Christians, surprised with no small pride, directed his journey in- 

1 continent toward the Grecians, where Castriotus was, otherwise called 

QderbehiB. And first, coming to Peloponnesus, and breaking 



THE HIST0B1' OF THK T( RKS. 89 

down the wall about the straits of Corinth, he encountered with the Amvraih. 
brother of the emperor of Constantinople, whom with his sudden coming 
he oppressed, with all the Greeks 1 army, ere they were provided. 
Paleologus the emperor, after that, did build up the Mall again, but, 
at the Turks 1 bidding, he was compelled to undo it again ; which 
wall afterwards the Venetians did repair. After the demolition ofsw 
the wall, Amurath, entering into Peloponnesus, took divers towns and ^ u l r '^' 
cities, as Sycio, and Patris ; and moreover made all the parts of 
Thessalia and Achaia tributaries unto thern. 

The next year after this battle of Amurath, fought against the Memo- 
Christians at Varna, the Turk, being now about the parts of Greece, ofsl-.u" ' 
purposed to bend all his force and main against the country of Epyrus derb ^"" 
belonging to Georgius Castriotus Scanderbeius. Of this Scander- Amurath. 
beius mention was made before, how he was brought up in the Turk's 
court, from whence we declared also how subtilely he conveyed him- 
self, and came to the possession of his own patrimony of Epyrus ; 
which Epyrus, 1 this noble and victorious Scanderbeius (whom the 
Lord also had raised up the same time with Huniades, to bridle the 
fury of the Turks) valiantly defended against all the power of Amu- 
rath ; insomuch that he discomfited and vanquished seven of the Seven 
most expert bassas or dukes of the Ottoman emperor, one after o'hIh" 18 
another, with all their armies of most picked and chosen soldiers, dis- Tu , rks 
lodged them from their tents, and expulsed them utterly out of all by Scan- 
Epyrus. Also when Amurath himself, with his whole puissance, 
had environed about the city of Croia with cruel siege and ordnance 
out of measure, yet, notwithstanding, the said Scanderbeius (through 
the power and blessing of the Lord) beat him out of the field, and 
repulsed him from the siege. 

After this discomfiture, the saying is, that Amurath, to keep his Amurath 
vow made before, after his victory at Varna, gave himself unto a re- hYs°uo RCS 
ligious order, living a contemplative life with certain other priests l^ 1 ™ 011 ' 
joined unto him, in the forest of Bithynia, renouncing the govern- m . ak s c ' h 
ment of his realm to the hands of Hali, one of the princes ; for aTurW* 
thou must understand, good reader, that the Turks also be not without ^10 " k • 
their sundry sects of religion, no more than we Christians arc without 
our friars and monks. 

In the mean time, while Amurath, this Turkish tyrant, was clois- Two 
tercd up in his monkish religion, Johannes Huniades, in the kingdom warrior" 
of Hungary, and Georgius Castriotus, in Greece, kept a great stir ^"d^ 
against the Turks. By reason whereof, Amurath was taken again J^J 3 ^ 
from his monkish vow and profession, and brought again into the the 
field : for first Huniades 2 had rescued the whole country of Hungary, ' lurks ' 
and had propulsed moreover all the might of the Turks far from 
Servia. And although the peevish practice of George, prince of 
Servia, had oftentimes disclosed his councils unto the Turks, whereby 
twice he was brought into danger, yet, notwithstanding, through the 
Lord's gracious protection, he was preserved and delivered by the said 
George unto the Hungarians again, and, after that, manfully van- 
quished the Turks ; so that they had no resting-place about those parts 
of Servia and Bulgaria, so long as he lived. 

(1) This Epynis is a country in Orcein, bordering near to the part'; of Macedonia. 

(2) This John Huniades is reported, of twenty battles with the Turk, to lose hut two. 

D fc 






THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

.inwmih On the other wde, m Greece, Castriotus Scanderbcius so foiled the 

vX'Lt Turk in defence of his country, Epyrus and Macedonia, and kept 

' "'/■* Amurath bo Bhort, that not only he was not able to win any great 

Kpyrus town in all Epyrus ; but also coming from Epyrus, in the straits he 

was bo entangled by Castriotus, that he was forced to give battle : in 

which battle ne was so vanquished, and most part of his army slain, 

that, for grief and sorrow conceived, he, falling into a raving sickness, 

Amurath vv .,^ transported out of his pavilion unto Adrianople, and there in 

fury and madness died, after he had reigned thirty-four years, which 

was about a.d. 1450. 

Tins Amurath first ordained the order of the Janizaries, who were 
the men-children of such Christians as he conquered and took captive ; 
whom he forced to renounce the faith of Christ, wherein they were 
baptized, and brought them up in Mahomet's law, and exercised them 
in the same feats of war as he did his own people ; and after that they 
came to man's estate, he named them Janizaries, that is to say, soldiers 
of a strange country, and made them to guard his person. They 
wear on their head, instead of a helmet, a white attire made of the 
grossest sort of wool, and in so many folds about their head, that it 
cannot be pierced with a sword. It hangeth down on the back with 
a tail, and before, on the forehead, it is garnished with gold and silver. 
They were wont to use bows and lances in the field, but now they 
use dags, as our horsemen do. 

At the first institution there were but eight thousand in their gar- 
rison, but now there be twice so many. This, of all bondage and 
servitude that the Christians suffer under the Turks, is most intolera- 
ble, and greatly to be of all true Christians lamented. For what can 
godly minds behold more to their grief, than to see their children 
pulled from the faith of Christ, wherein they were baptized, and by 
whose blood they should eternally be saved ; and to be instructed and 
nourished with the blasphemous doctrine of Mahomet, and to be pro- 
fessed enemies of Christ, and his church, to make war against Heaven, 
Lament* and to perish everlastingly ? And finally, what a lamentable thing is 
it, to see and behold our own children, born of our own bodies, to be- 
men*8 ian come our ni01 't a l and cruel enemies, and to cut our throats with their 
ch d d 'u mvn nan< k • r ^ ms servitude of mind is far greater than death itself; 
Turk. "~ which if our princes would well consider, it would cause them the 
rather to agree, and bend their whole force and power against this 
cruel enemy. 

MAHOMET THE SECOND, THE NINTH EMPEROR OE THE TURKS. 

Amurath left behind him three sons, Mahomet, born of the daugh- 
ter of Despota, prince ofServia, being twenty years of age, the second 
son called Tuxcmes, the third named Calepine. This Turcines being 
an infant, and but eighteen months old, was strangled at the com- 
mandment of the Turk by his servant Moses, himself being there 
present, and beholding the horrible murder. And when Moses, the 
m§ executor of the murder, had desired him not to pollute his hands with 
ruDjin the blood of his brother, he answered, that it was the manner of all 
the Ottoman Turks, that all the other brethren being destroyed, none 
brethren. Bhould be left alive but one, to govern &e empire : wherefore Moses 



Mahomet 
the ninth 
emperoi 

toman. 



THE HISTORY OB THE TURKS. 37 

was commanded by the tyrant, there presently, and in his sight, to Mahomet 

kill the infant. This horrible fact when the mother of the child an- u ' 
derstood, she cried out, and almost mad for sorrow, cursed the tyrant 
to his face. But he, to mitigate the rage of the mother, at her request, 
being desirous to be revenged upon the executor of her son's death, 
delivered the said Moses bound into her hands ; she then, in the 
presence of the tyrant, thrust him to the heart with a knife, and 
opening his side, took out his liver, and threw it to the dogs to be 
devoured. 

The third son, called Calepine, who was but six months old, the iiai.bassa 
aforesaid Amurath,his father, commended to the custody of Hali Bassa, t a u^ tor 
one of his nobles, who, to gratify and please the tyrant, betrayed the »»aster. 
infant, and brought him unto him, and thereupon he, at the tyrant's pL°rTL-uu- 
commandment, was strangled. Some affirm, that instead of Calepine, y |' tl "-'. 

l-ii rr> i i i i ^ i ■ abomma- 

another child was ottered unto the tyrant, and that Calepine was con- Me Turk. 
veyed to Constantinople, and after the taking of Constantinople was 
carried to Venice, and then to Rome to pope Calixtus, where he was 
baptized, and afterwards came into Germany, to Frederic the emperor, 
and there was honourably entertained, and kept in Austria during his 
life : where note how the merciful providence of God, whom he list God's 
to save, can fetch out of the devil's mouth. And note, moreover, Senceto 
the aforesaid Hali Bassa, the betrayer of the infant, how he escaped JJjJJ^ )o 
not unrevenged. 1 For Mahomet, understanding him to be a man of Usteth to 
great substance and riches, through forging of false crimes, with great sav 
torments put him to death to have his riches : for this tyrant was 
given to insatiable avarice. Thus this bloody Mahomet began his 
regiment with horrible murder, after the example of other cursed 
tyrants, his predecessors. 

Although this Mahomet, notwithstanding that he came of a chris- 
tian mother, being the daughter of Despota prince of Servia, and by 
her was brought up and instructed from his childhood in the precepts 
of christian religion and manners, yet he, soon forgetting all, gave 
himself to Mahomet's religion ; and yet so, that he, being addicted to 
neither religion, became an atheist, believing and worshipping no God 
at all, but only the goddess of good fortune, irriding and mocking the 
minds and judgments of men, who believe that God, by his provi- 
dence, governeth and regardeth the state of human things on earth. 

After this Mahomet had heard of the victories and conquests of 
others his predecessors, and had understanding how Bajazet lay eight 
years about Constantinople, and could not win it ; he, dispraising Ba- 
jazet, and disdaining that so long time should be spent about the 
siege thereof, and yet no victory gotten, bent all his study and device 
how to subdue the same. But, first, having a privy hatred against 
the city of Athens, and having his hands lately imbrued with the Mahomet 
blood of his brethren, this murdering Mahomet, first of all. takethhis ^"hupon 
viage to subvert and destroy the city aforesaid; being a famous Athens. 
school of all good learning and discipline: against which city he did fliefury 
so furiously rage, for the hatred of good letters, that he thought he J£""ity 
ought not to suffer the foundation thereof to stand, because that city »"d 
Was a good nurse, and fosterer of good arts and sciences. Wnerefbre Athene, 
he commanded the city to be rased and utterly subverted; and where- 

(1) Note here God's punishment upon the betrayer of innocent blood. 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

soever any monuments or books eould be found, he caused them to 
into dirty sinks, and the filthiest places of the city, or put to 
the most vile uses that could be devised, for extirpating and abolish- 
ing of all good literature: and if he understood any to lament the 
and ruin of that noble place, those he grievously punished and 
put to death. 
i Thus the famous and ancient school of Athens being destroyed and 
rverthrown, he returned his army and power into Thrace, Avherc, in 
all haste, he, gathering his power together both by sea and land, 
with a mighty multitude compassed the city of Constantinople about, 
and began to lay his siege against it, a.d. 1453 ; and in the four and 
fiftieth dav of the said siege it was taken, sacked, and the emperor 
Constantino slain. As touching the cruelty and fierceness of the 
Tnilcs in getting of this city, and what slaughter there was of men, 
women, and children, what calamity and misery were there to be 
seen, forasmuch as sufficient relation, with a full description thereof, 
hath been made before, it shall be superfluous now to repeat the 

Three same. 1 This only is not to be omitted, touching three principal causes 
' of the overthrow of this city; whereof the first was the filthy avarice 

iiinu'of of those citizens, who, hiding their treasures in the ground, would not 
employ the same to the necessary defence of their city. For so I 
find it in story expressed, that when fche Turk, after the taking of the 
city, had found not so much treasure as he looked for, suspecting with 
himself (as the truth was) the treasures and riches to be hidden under 
the ground, he commanded the earth to be digged up, and the foun- 
dations of the houses to be searched: where, when he had found 
treasures incredible, " What," quoth he, "how could it be that this 
place eould ever lack munition and fortification, which did flow and 
abound with such great riches as here are, and plenty of all things? 1 '' 2 
The second cause was the absence of the navy of the Venetians, 
which, if they had been ready in time, might have been a safeguard 
inst the invasion of the enemies. A third cause also may be ga- 
thered upon occasion incident in stories, either for that the city of 
Constantinople, fifteen years before, did yield to the bishop of Rome, 
as is before to he seen ; or else, because, as in some writers it is evi- 
dent, the images were there received and maintained in their churches, 
and by the Turks the same time destroyed. 

Johannes Ramus, writing of the destruction of this city, amongst 

Itueiax other matters maketh relation of the image of the crucifix, being there 
in the high temple of Sophia; which image the Turk took, and wri- 
ting this superscription upon the head of it, "Hie est christianorum 
Dens," i.e. "This is the God of the Christians," gave it to his soldiers 
to be Bcorned ; .and commanding the said image with a trumpet to be 
'•airie.l through all his army, made every man to spit at it most con- 
tumeliously. Wherein thou hast, good reader! by the way to note, 
whal occasion of slander and offence we Christians give unto the bar- 
, baroua infidels by this our ungodly superstition, in having images in 
* our temples, contrary to the express commandment of God in his 
Word I'm- if Si. Paul, writing to the Corinthians, saith, " We know 
Christ now no more after the flesh ;" how much less then is Christ to 
lie known of us in blind stocks and images set up in our temples, 

i Rarao.lib rerum Turcicarum. 



THE HISTORY OV THE TURKS. ,'>'.) 

serving for no other purpose, but for the infidels to laugh both us and * 

our God to scorn, and to provoke God's vengeance ? which by the _L_ 

like example, I fear, may also fall upon other cities, where such images 
and idolatrous superstition are maintained ; whereof God grant Vienna Vienna 
to take heed betimes, which hath been so long, and yet is, in such ,.' 
great danger of the Turk, and polluted with so many images, and plain 
idolatry ! 

In summa, to make the story short, such was the cruelty of these cruel 
Turks in winning the city, that when Mahomet had given license to ™y th V 
the soldiers three days together, to spoil, to kill, and to do whatso- J"^" 
ever they listed, there was no corner in all Constantinople which did faopie. 
not either flow with christian blood, or else was not polluted with 
abominable abusing of maids, wives, and matrons, without all reve- 
rence of nature. Of the citizens, some they murdered ; some they its la- 
roasted upon spits ; of some they flayed off their skin, hanging them SsSmS* 
up to consume with famine ; into the wounds of others they put salt, tio »- 
the more terribly to torment them ; insomuch that one of them con- 
tended with another, who could devise most strange kinds of new 
torments and punishments, exercising such cruelty upon them, that 
the place where the city was before, seemed now to be no city, but 
a slaughter-house or shambles of christian men's bodies. Among the 
dead bodies, the body also of Constantino the emperor was found ; 
whose head being brought to Mahomet, he commanded it to be car- 
ried upon a spear through the Avhole city, for a public spectacle and 
derision to all the Turkish army. And because he would diminish the Bloody 
number of the captives, which seemed to him to be very great, he never the Turk 
rose from his table, but he put every day some of the nobles to death, {^$^5- 
no less to fill his cruel mind with blood, than his body was filled with &"»• 
v.ine ; which he used to do so long as any of the nobles of that city 
were left alive. And of the other sort also, as the stories do credibly 
report, there passed no day in which he did not orderly slay more 
than three hundred persons ; the residue he gave to his rascal soldiers 
to kill, and to do with them what they would : where is to be noted, 
that as Constantino the son of Helena was the first emperor of Con- 
stantinople, so Constantine the son also of Helena was the last 
emperor thereof. 

Not far from the said city of Constantinople there was another The city 
little city called Pera, and once called Galatia, situated by the sea- yLuuTth, 
side ; which, hearing of the miserable destruction of Constantinople, for fear - 
and seeing the city flaming with fire, sent certain of their chief men 
with speed to Mahomet, declaring unto him, that they neither had 
sent any help to the city of Constantinople, nor yet wrought any de- 
triment to any of his army : wherefore they desired and prayed him, 
that as they would gladly yield unto him, so he would be favourable 
unto them and spare them, and not punish the guiltless with the 
guilty. Mahomet, although he was not ignorant that for fear, rather 
than of any good will, they submitted themselves, and that they would 
rather resist him, if they had been aide, yet he received for that time 
the submission of the messengers : but, sending with them his am- 
bassador into the city, he commanded also his army to follow withal, 
and to enter with him into the city, which although it was greatly 
suspected and misliked of the citizens, yet they durst nut otherwise 



40 Till HISTORY OV THE TURKS. 

MM ,1,,, but suffer tlu in to enter. This being done, the ambassador gave 

"■ a ngn bo the soldiers, every man to do whatsoever he was bidden; 

The city of whom some ran to the walls, some to the temples and churches, 

: some to the streets and houses of the city, plucking all things down 

to the ground, Backing and ranging with no less fury and abominable 

filthiness, than they had done at Constantinople before, saving only 

Dnmken that thev abstained from murder: but the same day letters came 

uur'T' from Mahomet to the ambassador, that he would spare none, but 

i' ru,lliM ' destroy and murder all that ever were in the city: which message, 

because it seemed to the ambassador to be too cruel, forasmuch as 

they had yiejded themselves, he stayed his hand a little, until night 

came, hi the mean time, drunken Mahomet, coming something to 

himself (whom drunkenness had before overcome), sent his second 

i letters to revoke the first. Where again is to be noted the merciful 

^''alnc'"" providence of God towards his people in their deserved plagues, by 

; staying the hands, and bridling the fury, many times of their enemies, 

people. * when otherwise the case seemeth to be past all remedy. 

cnnstan- Mahomet thus, being in himself not a little advanced and elevated 

madethe °. v ^' c winning of Constantinople, where he had now made the impe- 

imperjai r j a l aea t ,.f the Turkish dominion, the third year next following, to 

the Turk, adventure move masteries, set out to the siege of Belgrade, a city of 

ofBei- ege Hungary, lying near to the banks of the Danube, thinking to have 

grade. the like success there, as he had in the winning of Constantinople, 

albeit, through the Lord's disposing, it fell out much otherwise. 

Within the city of Belgrade, the same time of the siege thereof, was 

Johannes Huuiades, the valiant captain, of whom in divers places 

mention hath been made before; who with a sufficient strength of 

picked soldiers, albeit in number nothing equal to the Turks' 1 army, 

valiantly defended the city with great courage, and no less success. 

In this siege great diligence was bestowed, and many of the Turks 

slain ; among whom also Mahomet himself, being stricken with a 

pellet under the left arm, was fain to be carried out of the field for 

hall' dead, and the rest so put to flight, that of the Turks the same 

Portj time were destroyed to the number, or not much under the number, 

gjjjjy* of forty thousand, besides the loss of all their ordnance, which the 

•lata. Turks, in haste of their flight, were forced to leave behind them. 

I I nron vnius Zieglerus, writing of the siege of this Belgrade, addeth 
moreover, that when Mahomet was at the siege thereof, seeing the 
tow,, to be so small and weak of itself, that it could not be won with 
all his great multitude; he, staring and faring like a madman, com- 
manded all his brazen pieces to lie laid, to batter down the walls and 
towers of the town; so that the Christians within the Avails were 
Vehemently distressed, for the siege continued both night and day 
without intermission. 1 Among the rest of the Christians who de- 
•d the town, llieronvmus Zieglerus maketh mention of a certain 
[Bohemian, much worthy of his condign commendation; who, being 
upon the walls, and seeing a Turk with a banner or ensign of the 
J;,,ry - ' , '" rl -- to be gotten up, by the sight whereof the whole town was in 
danger to be conquered and taken, runneth unto the Turk, and 
clasping him about the middle, speaking to John Capistranus, stand* 
mg below, a ked him, whether it were' any danger of damnation to 

Ulustrll mil Qexma. rai>. 98, 



THE HISTORY OK THE TURKS. M 

him, if he, of his voluntary mind, did cast himself with that dog (so Mahomet 

he termed him) down headlong from the wall to be slain with him : L_ 

what should become of his soid, and whether he might be saved, or 
not ? To whom when the other had answered, that he should be neifrrade 
saved without doubt, he eftsoons tumblcth himself with the Turk defended 
down off the wall ; where, by his death, he saved the same time the jJJJl 018 
life of all the city. Mahomet, being so wounded, and in despair of 
winning the city, was carried (as ye heard) out of the field, who at 
length coming again to himself, partly for fear, and partly for shame, 
was ready to kill himself. And thus was the town of Belgrade at that 
time rescued, through God's providence, by the means of Johannes 
Huniades and this good Bohemian. 

This siege of Belgrade began a.d. 1456, and endured six-and- 
forty days, at which siege were numbered of the Turks two hundred 
thousand, of whom more than forty thousand (as is aforesaid) were 
slain ; where the victory fell to the Christians, through the prosperous 
success given of God to Johannes Huniades, and Capistranus. This 
Huniades, not long after the said victory, through the importune Decease 
labour and travail in defending of the said town, was taken with a of johan- 
sore sickness, and thereof departed ; to whose valiant prowess and nLW.' 
singular courage, stories do give great laud and commendation. 

Mahomet the Turk, after this done in Europe, returned into The 
Asia to war with Usumcassan a Persian, one of the Turks 1 stock, w ™ ks 
with whom he had three battles. The first was about the river Eu- JgjJUJf 
phrates, where the Turk lost ten thousand men, and was put to the san. 
worse. In the second field, likewise, he was discomfited. The third 
battle was at Arsenga, where, through the terrible noise of the brazen 
pieces, the Persian horses disturbed the camp, and so was Usumcassan 
overcome. 

From thence the Turk reduced again his power against the Chris- The Turk 
tians, and first subdued unto him Synope and all Paphlagonia : also um'.etiT 
the kingdom of Trebisond, which he, besieging both by land and ^cSri»- 
water, won from the Christians, and sent David the king of the same, tians. 
with his two sons, and Calus his uncle, unto Constantinople, where 
they were miserably and cruelly put to death, and all the stock of the 
Conneni, who were of the king's stock, by the Turk were destroyed. 
This was about a.d. 1459, at which time this mischievous Mahomet 
was first saluted emperor. 

Not long after, he got, from the Greeks, Corinth and Mitylene, dm- 
not without great slaughter of christian men ; insomuch that the §£? Turk. 
whole city of Mitylene was utterly to the ground almost destroyed. 
The isles also of Lemnos and Lesbos he won from the Venetians ; 
in which island of Lesbos is the city of Mitylene aforesaid. 

Not far from this isle of Lesbos and Mitylene, there is a country Faisc- 
in Asia, toward the sea-side bordering next to Europe, called Mysia, \[\'"\ ^ k 
or of some called Moesia, wherein stood the city of Troy. This spins' 
country Mahomet, coveting to win rather by policy anil falsehood, of Mysia. 
than by doubtful danger of war, secretly sent for the prince thereof, ^netty" 
to come to speak with him for certain causes (as he pretended), that 
would concern the profit and commodity of them both. Which 
when the king of Mysia either lor shame would not, or for fear durst 
not deny, he came to him, as if to confer upon necessary affairs in 



•!•' 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 



tukamd common US them appertaining. Mahomet, when he had brought 

"■ that to pass which he would, caused the king to be .apprehended, and 

cruelly to be .slain, or rather torn in pieces; and so, invading the 

laud of Mysia, he exercised the like tyranny upon his kindred and 

affinity. 

This Mysia by fraud being taken and lost, Mahomet flieth again 

? r< z£ a ' towards Europe, where he assailed the island of Euboea, otherwise 
called Nigropbnte, making a bridge of a marvellous frame over the 
sea Kuripus, to convey over his army out of Greece, and there laid 
his Biege to the city Chalcis, which, at length, in thirty days he over- 

crud came, not without a great slaughter of his army ; who, in the siege 
thereof, is said to have lost forty thousand of the Turks. But the 

T» rk slaughter of the Christians was greater ; for when the city was won, 
the tyrant commanded, most cruelly, none to be spared within the 
whole city, but to be put to the sword, whosoever was above the age 
of twenty years. 1 This cruelty was showed by the barbarous tyrant 
for anger and fury, because such a number of his Turks were slain at 
the siege thereof," being reckoned (as is said) to be forty thousand. 
I,i the fierce siege of this city it is memorable what is in stories re- 
corded, how that the women of that city, seeing the men begin to 

women, f a j nti . dlu \ the city to lie in present danger, took the matter them- 

rending selves in hand, and playing the raen, went to the walls, and there 
! '"• defended the city with no less trouble to the enemy, than the men 
had before done ; and so for a space continued, as long as any man's 
strength and diligence could do any good. A great cause of the loss 
of this city and island, is imputed to the cowardly timidity of the 
Venetians 1 navy ; who, being there present, and having prosperous 
wind, yet durst not, or would not adventure upon the Turks 1 bridge, 
which if they had done, the island of Eubcea, and Chalcis, had not 
so soon been overmatched by the Turks. 

Thus all the east parts of Greece being subdued to the Turkish 

cant, with all Achaia, Attica, Acarnania, and Eubcea, shortly after 

1 followed also Peloponnesus, brought into like subjection to the Turk. 

Turk. 'Within Peloponnesus were these provinces contained, Achaia, Mes- 
senia, Laconia, Argolica, and Arcadia, &c. The Venetians, in this 
Peloponnesus, had great possessions, and had made up the wall again 
towards the sea-side, near to the straits of Corinth before-mentioned, 
where, for the more speed of the work, they had thirty thousand 
workmen to the building thereof: which when it came to the know- 
ledge of the Turk, he burst into the country of Peloponnesus with 
an army of eighty thousand, and first wasted the regions of the 
Coroneans, and Methoneans, and making a great slaughter of the 
\ i netians, in short time brought the whole dominion of Pelopon- 
ii'^us under his yoke and tribute. 

Long it is, and more lamentable to recite all the victories of this 
Mahomet, gotten against the Christians both by land and sea; who, 
alter he had overcome the isle of Lesbos, above mentioned, and had 
cruelly slain Nicholas Catalusius the prince thereof, turning his army 
towards the sea Pontus Euxinus, got the country of Capha from 
« the Genoese. Before was declared how truce was taken between 
Qcorgius Scanderbeius and the Turk, for ten years; which truce 
>D Ex Johanm 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 43 

being expired, Mahomet leavcth no time unspent, no diligence un- MOumut 

sought, but maketh all his power to Epyrus and Albania, -which lie, ! — 

after long fatigation of siege, at length overcame and subdued ; in 
the which tract also he Avon from the Venetians, Scodra, Lysson, anil 
Dinastrum. Notwithstanding, when Scanderbeius, the valiant cap- 
tain, had done against the Turk what in man's strength did lie, yet, 
being overmatched with power and multitude, seeing no possibility 
to make his party good, he was forced to depart his country as an 
exile, and went to Italy ; and there, being sent for by the pope's 
letters, he openly declared that it was not possible otherwise to resist Thecoun- 
thc furious rage of the barbarous Turks by the strength of any one Icander- 
king or prince, unless all Europe, with one consent, should join their J*?™' to 
power and force together. And thus Georgius Scanderbeius, a man against 
of puissant courage, being driven out of his country, continued his 
age in exile ; whose courage and vehemency are reported to have been 
such, that in fighting against the barbarous enemy, for very eager- 
ness of spirit, his blood was seen to burst out of his lips. It is testi- a notable 
fled also of him that being provoked, he neither denied to fight, nor ofdngu- 
in his fighting ever turned his back, neither yet was ever wounded, ^ r uragt; . 
but only once with a light shaft in his foot, neither ever set against 
the Turk with more than six thousand horsemen, and three thousand 
footmen ; who is said, with his own hand to have slain above 2,000 
Turks, whom with such violence he did strike, that many of them he 
did cleave asunder from the head to the middle. 

Neither yet was the insatiable greediness of that Turkish hell- 
hound with all this satisfied, but still he conceived greater things in bis 
mind, thinking to conquer the whole world; and so, passing forward 
towards Europe, he subdued all Illyria, slaying Stephen, the king of* 
Bosnia, about a.d. 1468. But afterwards Matthias Corvinus, the 
son of Huniades aforementioned, recovered again the said kingdom 
of Bosnia, with many other cities near unto Croatia and Dalmatia, 
and moreover repulsed Mahomet the Turk, in his second siege of 
Jaitza, taking his tents and munitions left behind him. 

Moreover, the said Mahomet, passing unto Wallachia, set upon 
Dracula, the prince thereof; which Dracula, although he had no 
greater power of soldiers, yet he so enclosed and environed the 
Turk, that he had almost lost his whole army, of whom a great part, 
notwithstanding, was destroyed, and many of his ensigns taken. Into 
Dalmatia were sent two captains of the Turk, who, fighting against 
the provinces of the Venetians, made great spoil and waste about the 
regions of Stiria and Carinthia ; where also the Venetian power was stiriannd 
discomfited, and Hieronynms Novel, their captain, slain. At length SEenby* 
truce was taken between the Turk and the Venetians upon this con- t! "-' Tuj*- 
dition, that Scodra, Tenants, and Lemnos should be yielded unto 
him, and that they should pay to him yearly, eight thousand ducats, 
for the free passage of their merchants. 

After this peace concluded with the Venetians, Mahomet himself 
saileth over into Asia, sending two of his great captains abroad to 
sundry places ; of whom, Mesithcs was sent against Rhodes with a 
mighty navy: the other, called Acoinates Bassa, was sent into Italy i; 
to tike Rome, and all the west empire. Concerning the viage of bMlege 
which two captains, this was the event, that Masithes, after his great 



a i 

a 



44, THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

travail, and bloodv siege against the Rhodians, was fain to retire at 

length, with great "shame and loss. The other captain, Acomates (as 

_ is mid), was sent into Italy with a navy of a hundred ships, and fif- 

con- teen thousand men, who, by the way in his sailing, got Leucadia 

ulTiarw. (which now they call St. Maure), Cephalonia, and Zacynthus, and, 
sailing by Favclona, arrived in Apulia ; and so, passing along by the 
Bea-side, spoiled and wasted divers parts by the coast, till at length 
he came to Hydruntum, a city of Calabria in Italy, which, after long 
siege, he overcame and subdued, and brought such a terror into all 

The pope Italy, that the pope, forgetting all other things, yet mindful of him- 
lf," with all haste fled out of Rome. After the city of Hydrun 

"' l ' lurk - turn was taken, and the Turks placed in the same, which was a.d. 
I 481, Matthias Corvinus, Huniades 1 son, was sent for by the Italians, 
to Bet upon the said city ; unto the rescue whereof, when Acomates 
was about to make his return with five and twenty thousand Turks, 
in the mean time news came, that Mahomet, the great Turk, was 
(had ; by reason whereof, the siege brake up, and the city was 
delivered to the Italians again, and so was Italy delivered at that 
time out of that present peril and danger. This Mahomet won from 
the Christians two hundred cities, and twelve kingdoms, and two em- 
pires, 1 which he joined both together. He died in the year above- 
said, a.d. 14S1. 

BAJAZET THE SECOND, THE TENTH EMPEROR OF THE TURKS. 

Mahomet aforesaid had three sons; of whom Mustapha the eldest, 
through voluptuousness and carnal lust, died before his father. The 
other two were Bajazet and Denies, otherwise called Zizimus ; about 
whom great controversy arose amongst the Turks, which of them 
should succeed in their father's kingdom: for neither of them was 
present at Constantinople when Mahomet died ; Bajazet being in 
Cappadocia, and Denies, in Lycaonia. Wherefore, when great dis- 
sension was among the nobles for the succession, and great strife and 
bloodshed for the matter, the Janizaries, who Avere the Turk's guard, 
did proclaim Bajazet emperor: others, in the absence of Bajazet the 
lather, did choose Corchuthus his son. Bajazet the father, coining at 
length from Cappadocia, partly through yielding, partly by corrupting 
with money, got the wills of the Janizaries, and was made emperor. 
Denies, tin- other brother, being in Lycaonia, more near, although he 
made no less speed in his coming, yet was prevented by Bajazet, and 
B daui excluded out of Constantinople. Wherefore he, being put back from 
thVmo ;i " hope of his kingdom, incited by some of his friends, moved war 
gainst his brother; who, being overcome in three battles by Aco- 
mates, Bajazet's captain, who had got Hydruntum before, did fly to 
our the great master of the Rhodes, leaving, in a place called Came, his 
mother ami two young children, whom Bajazet slew. 

'I his 1 femes, being with the master of the Rhodes, was desired first 
of pope [nnpcenl IV., then of Ludovic II. the French king, but espe- 
cially of Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, intending by him to 
obtain great victory against Bajazet. But, in conclusion, the knights 
"! tli' Rhodes sent him to the bishop of Home, where he being kept, 

1) Those two empire., were Constantinople anil Trapez&nde. 



THE HISTORY OV THE TURKS. 45 

and afterwards sent to Charles VIII., tlic French king, for a hostage &4>«i 

of pope Alexander VI., was poisoned by the way of Terracina, by __ 

the said pope Alexander, as is before declared. After his death, f r ^ s e on 
Bajazet, to requite the aforesaid Acomatcs for his good service, put worthily 
him to the halter, partly misdoubting his power, partly for lucre-sake peased. 
to have his treasure : whose death redounded to the great profit of 
the Christians, forasmuch as he was ever an utter enemy to the reli- 
gion and name of Christ. 

Bajazet, thus being confirmed in his tyranny, made his first expedi- chris- 
tion against Wallachia, where he subdued two great forts, one called guMued* 
Lithostomus, the other called Moncastrum. From thence he 
his power, taking his viage into Asia, thinking to be revenged of the 
sultan of Egypt, who had succoured and entertained before his bro- 
ther Denies against him : where he lost two great battles, the one 
fought at Adena, the other at Tarsus; but especially at the field at The Turk 
Tarsus, the army of the Turk took such a wound, that of a hundred thrown 
thousand brought into the field, scarce the third part remained un- atTarsua. 
slain. But as touching the Rhodians, although they were succourers of 
Denies aforesaid, yet Bajazet (whether for fear, or for subtlety,) ab- 
stained to provoke them with war, but rather entreated with them the 
league of peace ; requiring the master of the Rhodes to keep his bro- 
ther safe under his custody, promising, for his yearly salary, to be 
paid unto him every year in the month of August, 45,000 ducats. 

Thus Bajazet, being overthrown and terrified with evil luck, fight- Dyra- 
ing against the sultan of Egypt, removed from Asia, and directed his take™ by 
army into Europe, where he got Dyrachium near unto Velona, and theTurk - 
had a great victory over the christian army in the country of Croatia, 
where the Illyrians, Pannonians, and Croatians, joining their powers 
together, encountered with the Turk, and lost the field, about a. d. 
1493. 

From thence the Turk, leading his army against the Venetians, The Turk 
had with them divers and doubtful conflicts, where the Turk, some- *°", lst 
times put to the worse, and sometimes again prevailing, out of Jadra ^'jj'-'" 6 " 
and divers other cities about Dalmatia, earned away great multitudes 
of Christians into captivity ; which was about a. d. 1498. 

Two years after this (a. d. 1500), Bajazet, with 150,000 armed Peiopon- 
men, entered into Peloponnesus ; which although Mahomet had ex- 2£3£ 
pugned before, yet the Venetians had defended Methonc, otherwise g™^ 
called Modon, all this while against the Turks. This Methone, Turk. 
the Turk besieged with three armies, having about the Avails five 
hundred great brazen cannons, whereof twenty-two were most violent 
and hurtful ; wherewith he battered the city both day and night. 
But the citizens who were within the city, committing themselves 
to God, defended their city as well as they could, rather choosing to 
die, than to yield to the Turk's tyranny. But the Turk prevailing, 
and they not able to withstand the siege, the Christians con vented 
together into a certain house prepared for the purpose, both men, 
women, and children ; where they, setting the house on fire, gave 
themselves rather to be burned, than to come into the tyrant's hands. 
Certain women also, with their children, cast themselves headlong into &&£§ 
the sea, by that means to avoid the Turkish captivity. Some writers *«*£*• 
there be, who affirm that the Methoncans, seeing five great ships of stroyed. 



L6 



HISTORY 01 -J11K TUKKS. 



bm the Venetians coming with men and victuals toward them, issued 

_J l _ jown from the walls to the sea-side, to receive them, who were all 

taken captives, being above the number of a thousand : who all, being 
tied with long ropes, were brought before the tyrant, and in his sight 
, cruellv slain, except certain nobles, whom Chcrseogles, son-in- 
law to Bajazet, got to be pardoned, amongst whom was Andreas Gritto. 
The city of Coron, and also PHus, cities in Greece, being terrified 
ople of the Methonians, yielded themselves to the power 
of the Turks. Crissrcum, otherwise called Caput Sancti Galli, was 
expugned by Cherscogles, by force of guns. 
latapdi These things thus achieved, although Bajazet went away victor 
ato< lonstantinople, yet, notwithstanding, the Venetians, through the 
Turk by ],,.],, f the kings of France and Spain, had won from the Turk, Ce- 
phalonia, an island very commodious for their traffic. Also they had 
ten other two islands, Lcucas and Nericus, otherwise called Sancta 
Maura, slaving all the garrison of the Turks. But afterwards, peace 
, Ik in- taken between the Venetians and the Turks, by the counsel of 

. mi ieas Gritto aforesaid, the Turks so agreed, that Leucas and Ncri- 
eiis. the islands abovesaid, should be rendered unto the Turk, and 
the Venetians should keep still the possession of Cephalonia. 
w«r »>»■ Unto this league the Turk did the rather condescend, for that he 
had to maintain war against Ismaet Sophus in Asia, king of Persia ; 



• 



1 lMIS 



Bajoset which Sophus was stirred up, by God's providence, to war with this 
Bajazet, whereby the christian churches in Europe might have some 
breathing-time, and freedom from the Turks 1 cruel tyranny and blood- 
shed. This Sophus was a valiant Turk, who, with great power and 
victories, had overrun a great compass of the east parts of Asia ; then 
passing from Assyria into Media, and returning again into Armenia, 
lie made war against the Albanians, Iberians, and Scythians, and 
from thence, coming into Asia Minor, encountered with Corchuthus, 
Bajazet's son, and afterward coming to Bithynia, fought with Cara- 
gius Bassa, Bajazets captain, whom he overcame and put to flight, 
and afterwards took him alive, and his wife, prisoners. Afterwards he 
was encountered by Hali Bassa, another captain of the Turks, whom 
Techelles, one of the said Sophus 1 captains, meeting in the plain of 
•ih, Galatia, did withstand, and so by the way slew Caragius the captain, 
captain ;tm ' n:11 W ( l n ' ni U 1 )0U a P°l e m the sight of Hali Bassa ; which Hali 
-:<»■• Bassa short I v alter was slain in war, and his army scattered, and put 

to flight. 

Thus, through the admirable examplcof God's justiceandprovidence, 
were these Turks kept occupied, and so came it to pass, that these 
barbarians, being blasphemous against the Son of God, should thus 
horribly run on to the destruction one of another, being worthily 
punished with mutual slaughter and bloodshed, for their impiety and 
blasphemy against Christ and his religion, whereby, in the mean time, 
some rest was given to the Christians. 

Bajazet, partly by these victories discouraged, partly diseased and 
languishing of the gout, and partly also broken with age, finding 
himself unwieldy to the regiment of that tumultuous kingdom, began 
to have talk with his nobles about the choosing of one to succeed him. 
' ' ,l *" '' '•'' ion whereof ministered much matter of inward wars amongst 
tnr ' inks- This Bajazet had in all six sons, whereof three died 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 47 

before him, and three yet were left alive : to wit, Acomates, Cor- ftfcud 

eliuthus, and Selim. Bajazet himself had most mind to Acomates. _. 

but the chiefest of his nobles did favour rather Selim > who, through 
their traitorous incitation, provoked him to stir war against his father: 
and, notwithstanding that he was overcome in war, yet, through inter- 
cession, he was reconciled again to his father, and afterward pro- made 
claimed again emperor against his father's will, through the help and 1™$"™ 
favour of the soldiers, entering the first be<jinnin<r of his kingdom !?'?, . 

o ~ <j o lather s 

with the murdering of his own father : the story whereof in some win. 
authors is thus declared. 

After the Janizaries had persuaded with Bajazet, for that he him- 
self was unwieldy, therefore he should do well to constitute some 
successor, and that he had assigned Acomates to succeed him, the 
Janizaries being offended with the said Acomates, because he would 
not enlarge their stipends, and bribe them, compassing about the 
king's palace with their privy swords, which they had under their 
garments, with a mighty cry required Selim to be appointed for their 
emperor. Unto whom when Bajazet had answered, that he had 
assigned Acomates, they refused him, because he was fat, gross, and 
unable thereunto ; but needs would have Selim, who was stout and 
warlike, to be made emperor : and withal, they drew out their swords, 
crying ' Selim, -1 ' Selim.'' Then Bajazet, giving place to their 
fury, showed himself content to give them Selim ; whom the Jani- 
zaries receiving, brought him unto the palace : unto whom Bajazet 
his father, giving place, willed him not to be so hasty and furious in Counsi i 
his doings, but to be modest, and take heed what he did, and not to "0 his sou. 
follow his fury, but to give place unto time, which revealeth all things, 
and think himself to be a man subject to dangers and jeopardies as 
other men are. And thus speaking, he resigned his imperial throne 
and seat unto him, and went away all heavy, entering into a certain 
order of their religion. Whereupon followed great exclamations (if 
the people, saluting Selim as emperor: who then, taking the rule 
upon him, began with great cruelty to govern, destroying many of his 
nobles, such as had stood against him, some with poison, some by 
other cruel means ; and advancing his own side, with great honours 
and promotions. 

Not long after Selim was thus settled in his kingdom, Bajazet Ins 
father, intending to see and prove how he behaved himself in his 
government, first entered into his treasure-house, where he found all 
his riches to be scattered and gone. Afterwards he came into his 
armoury, where all the spoils gotten by war were likewise wasted. 
Then he entered into the jewel-house, where all his plate and gifts 
sent from kings and princes were kept ; which likewise were dispersed 
and given away. At length he came into the stable, where also he, r>is P u-a- 
seeing his principal horses to be lacking, sighing with himself, ami iJ','^'!. 
crying, ' Vengeance upon him !' prepared himself, with the residue of against 
the treasure which was remaining, to sail over into Natolia, unto his 
eldest son ; and passing by an orchard near to the sea-side, where he 
had appointed to take ship, in the mean time, whilst the ships were 
in furnishing, he sat down under a tree, and began to curse his son, 
and to ask vengeance upon him, for that he had so despised his father, 
and was become so impious a wretch. 



IS THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

Buja-.rt Selim, understanding of his father's departure, came into the 

' n ' nd orchard where his rather was, seeming to be very heavy, and much 

*■'""• lamenting that his rather would so privily depart and go away, seeing 

i>i 5 »em- that he desired not the government of the empire, but was contented 

. only with the title thereof. " O father, 11 said he, "do not thus 

Beiimto privily depart away: do not procure this shame to your son, who so 

r tenderly loveth you. Letme have but the name only, and be you the 

emperor indeed. The end of your natural life most patiently I shall 

expect, which 1 pray God may long continue." And thus, using 

many fair and flattering words to his father, he commanded a banquet, 

with many dainty junkets, to be brought unto him, but tempered and 

infected with poison : which as soon as Bajazet had begun to taste 

i f. and felt the strength of the poison working in his body, he took 

Ulher - his last farewel] of his son, and going out of the city, accompanied 

with a great retinue of men. yelling and crying out in the streets, in 

the middle of his journey fell down, and miserably died, a.d. 1512. 

Here mayest thou see, good reader ! a cursed brood of this Turkish 

generation, where the father dieth in cursing the son, and the son 

reigneth by poisoning his father. 

SELTM, THE ELEVENTH EMPEROR OF THE TURKS. 

the After this wretched Selim had exercised his barbarous cruelty upon 

his lather, with like impiety he seeketh the destruction of his brethren 

ottoman. ;in( i t j ic j r (.^iidrcn, first beginning his murder with the five children 

his nephews, who were the sons of his three brethren before departed. 

This done, then remained his other two brethren yet alive, Acnuiates. 

and Corchnthus, with their children, likewise to be destroyed ; of 

whom the one had three sons, whom their father sent to Selim his 

In-other and their uncle, with fair and gentle words, to entreat him to 

be good unto their father, offering to him their duty and service in all 

things, honouring him also as emperor. But cruel Selim commanded 

s i in forthwith his said nephews to be strangled. The father, hearing of 

hiibro- the cruel murder of his sons, leaving house and home, went and hid 

Mphew! himself in mountains, where he lived for a space with herbs and wild 

honey; but, being bewrayed by one of his men, he was brought to 

Selim, and so was strangled. 

( 'liristopher Richer, writing of these matters, seemeth something to 
differ from other stories, and saith, that Selim, after the death of his 
brother ( lorchuthus, came to Bursa, where, under the colour of making 
a great triumph, he ordained a feast for his friends and kinsfolk, 
whereunto were called especially his nephews ; who, then, at the end 
of the feast, calling his nephews aside (as under the pretence of con- 
ferring with Mm secretly about his necessary affairs), committed them 
to his servants to be strangled and put to death. All this while 
A.comates, his other brother, through the help and instruction of his 
mother, was kept out of the tyrant's hands, till at length, after great 
labour and search made how to get him, certain forged letters were 
cast abroad, wherein was contained, that Animates, to revenge the 
great impiety, and subdue the tyranny of Selim his brother, should 
UMrAofr >h " u himself abroad : which if 'he would do, he should find friends 
■*•» enough to take his part. Acomatcs, circumvented with these subtle 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 49 

trains, partly for hope of rcvcngcmcnt, partly for desire of the empire, Seiim. 
showed himself abroad with such power and strength as he had : who, 
being set upon incontinent by Selim his brother, was overcome in 
battle, and tailing from his horse, being a man corpulent and gross, 
and his horse falling upon him, was so overpressed and slain. 

Touching the death of this Acomates, Munstcrus, somewhat dif- 
fering from this narration, addeth moreover, and saith, that he was not 
killed with the fall from his horse, but that sitting all dismayed upon 
a stone, and seeing no other remedy but death, he desired the captain, 
taking his rings from his fingers, to deliver the same to his brother, 
desiring Mm that he might not be put to any extreme cruelty of death, 
but that he gently would suffer him to be let blood in the bath, and 
so to die. But Selim, being not ignorant of this, suborneth privy The cru- 
tormentors, who, binding his hands behind him, with their feet cast g^^f 
him down upon the ground, and so, twisting his neck with a cord, against 
did strangle him. This Acomates had two sons, who, hearing of the tuer aco- 
death of their father, did fly for succour, the one to Sophus, in Persia, mates ' 
and the other to the sultan, in Egypt, 

By means hereof, new occasion of war grew unto Selim, whereby 
he was kept in Asia, at home, to fight against the Persians and 
Egyptians : so that, through the Lord's providence, Christendom by 
that means was delivered from great danger and peril of the Turk's 
tyranny. For otherwise the Turk was wholly minded, -with all his 
force and puissance, to invade the Christians ; being in doubt whether The pro- 
first to begin with Rhodes, or whether to assault Pannonia, or else to God, in 
set upon Italy, being then at great discord within itself: but this ^j^f. 
cause occupied the Turk's mind otherwise, and kept him at home ; si . ons f <* 
such was then the providence of the Lord, for the safeguard of his people. 
people. 

Wherefore, forasmuch as the affairs and doings of this Turk were 
spent for the most part in the Turkish and Heathenish countries, it 
shall not be greatly necessary to trouble our Christian stories there- 
with, but only shall suffice to contract them in a brief sum, declaring 
superficially *vhat unquietness was amongst them there, who could 
never be quiet, but ever working some mischief either abroad or at 
home. Amurath, the Turk's nephew aforesaid, after he had obtained war oe- 
aid of Sophus the king of the Persians, first invaded Cappadocia ; not amana 6 " 
long after whom followed Ismael Sophus, the Persian king, by reason ^p" 8 r -. 
whereof, a great battle was fought betwixt the Persians and Selim, m sianking. 
the fields of Armenia Major. In that battle, Ismael Sophus, the Per- 
sian king, was hurt on the shoulder with a pellet ; and so, being 
carried out of the field, left the victory to Selim, who, albeit he had 
an army of 150,000 men, yet he in the same field lost about 30,000 
of his Turks : -which field was fought A.D. 1514. Selim, after this 
victory, went to Tauris, the imperial city of the Persians, which he, 
by yielding, subdued. 

In this mean time it happened that one Aladulus, a king of Ar- war be- 
menia the greater, was also a helper to Ismael against the Turk ; seilmand 
whereupon Selim the Turk, taking great indignation, the next year Aladulus - 
following, leaving the Persians, fought against the said Aladulus, and 
in the end overcame him ; and afterwards, being found in a cave in a 
wood, he was taken out and brought to Selim, and so beheaded: whose 

VOL. iv. E 



50 THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

sdim. head, being first carried about Asia for a triumph, was afterwards sent 
PreMnT to the Benate of Venice for a terror unto them. The eldest son of 
Uonof AJadulus, escaping tlie hands of his pursuers, fled into Egypt. This 
twJ.n'se- battle thus fought and ended, Selim, after he had divided the king* 
ISchris. dom of Aladulua into three provinces, went to Lycaonia, and from 
"'" :s thence to Europe, there to defend the city of Samandria, against the 
Christians in Hungary : but the Hungarians, being soon repressed by 
Juno Bassa the Turk's captain, great preparation began to be made 
by the Turks, against the confines of Servia bordering upon Hungary, 
the terror whereof stirred up Maximilian the emperor, and Ladislaus 
The Turk kino- f I [ungary, and Sigismund king ol Poland, to consult together, 
row and conjoin their power for defence of Christendom. But, through 
new incumbrances incident, the Turk, leaving Europe, made haste 
again into Asia, to renew again his Avars against the Persians, who 
Ufa vow. had made a vow not to give over that war before Ismael was over- 
thrown. 

But before he entered that war, first he sent his messengers to the 

sultan of Egypt, requiring him not to intermeddle in that war : for 

this sidtan before had promised to assist the Persians against the 

Campson Turk. The name of the sultan who reigned then in Egypt, was 

orrnierrf Campson, set up by the Mamalukes. These Mamalukes were a cer- 

tians'.^ 11 tain order amongst the Egyptians, much like the Janizaries about the 

Turk, who, being the children of christian men, and after denying 

Christ, were the chiefest doers in the sultan's court, and, being grown 

into a great multitude, did degenerate into a Turkish barbarity, or 

rather became worse than Turks. This Campson, unto the messengers 

of the Turk gave this answer, that unless he would leave off this war 

against Ismael, and restore the son of Aladulus, he would not lay 

down his armour. 

Selim being incensed not a little with this insolent answer of the 
sultan, leaving all other wars aside, with great celerity advanced 
caier- his power against the sultan ; which sultan, partly through the false- 
fais" 8 to hood of his captain Caierbeius, partly by the suddenness of the Turk's 
jjjj ma8 " coming, not far from the city of Damascus encountered with the 
Turk ; and there, overthrown from his horse, being a fat and gross 
The sui- body, and falling under his horse, and his horse also falling upon him, 
tao -luii. was quashed in pieces, and so died, a. d. 1516. 

The Mamalukes, of whom more than a thousand in this battle w r ere 
Tomonm- s \ a [ n ^ flying f rom thence to Memphis, set up Tomoumbeius instead of 
Campson ; whose captain Gazelles was overcome at the city of Gaza, 
and he afterwards himself driven out of Memphis, where a great part 
of the Mamalukes were destroyed. Then Tomoumbeius, flying over 
the Hood Nile, renewed his army again ; but, in theend, he was dis- 
comfited and chased into a marsh, where he was found standing in the 
water up to the chin ; and so, being brought to Selim, he was put to 
the rack and greal torments, to make him confess where Campson's 
treasures were. But, when he would not declare, he was carried about 
the town wish a halter round his neck, and hanged up upon a high 
gibbet, for b Bpectade to all Egypt; which was a.d. 1517. And 
thus wo-e the two sultans of Egypt destroyed with the Mamalukes, 
who there had l.onie the rule in Egypt the space of two hundred and 
forty-three years; the progeny of which Mamalukes remaining of the 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 51 

wars, the Turk commanded, in the prison-gates of Alexandria, to be sen*,, 
cut in pieces. Selim from thence triumphing, departed to Constan- so"i"man. 

tinople, intending to spend the rest of his time in persecuting the 

Christians. But in that mean space he was stricken with a cankered The 
sore rotting inward, and died, after he had reigned seven years like seura° 
a beast, a.d. 1520. 

The reign of this Turk was but short in number of years ; but in 
number of his murders and cruel bloodshed it might seem exceeding 
long, who lived more like a beast than a man ; for he never spared 
any of his friends or kindred. His father first he poisoned, his bre- 
thren and all his cousins he quelled, leaving none of all his kindred o/se'ilm 
alive. Moreover, his chief and principal captains for small occasions ^ inrt 
he put to death, as Mustapha, Calogere, Chendeme, Bostang his son- kindred. 
in-law, and Juno Bassa. 

It is said moreover, that he intended the poisoning of his own son 
Solyman, sending unto him a shirt infected with poison, because he 
seemed something freely to speak against the cruel demeanour of his 
father : but, by the means of his mother, the gift being suspected, was 
given to another, who was his chamberlain, who, putting on the shirt, 
was stricken with the poison thereof, and therewithal died. 

As touching this Turk Selim, by the way here may be noted, how a note of 
the secret providence of the Lord kept him occupied with his Turkish P r°ovi- 
wars at home, while the reformation of Christian religion here in Eu- Jherefor- 
rope, at the same time begun by Martin Luther, might the more nation of 
quietly take some rooting without disturbance or interruption. For 
so it appeareth by the computation of time, that in the days of this 
Selim, Martin Luther first began to write against the pope's indul- 
gences, which was a. d. 1516. 



SOLYMAN, THE TWELFTH EMPEROR OF THE TURKS. 

Solyman, the only son of Selim, succeeded after his father's soiyman, 
death, who, in the first beginning, seemed to some to be simple and twelfth 
sheepish, and not meet for the Turkish government : wherefore cer- * ner 0t - 

n 1 • i i • i i i- • ii toman. 

tain of his nobles, consulting how to depose him, intended to set up 
another emperor; in which conspiracy are especially named Caierbeius 
and Gazelles. This Caierbeius was he that betrayed before Campson 
the sultan of Egypt to Selim, as is aforesaid ; who now also being 
in consultation with Gazelles and others about this matter, detected 
them also unto Solyman. Wherefore the said Gazelles and his fellows, 
being thus detected, were put to death by Solyman : declaring thereby 
that he was not so sheepish as he was thought of them to be ; and as 
also by his acts afterwards did more appear. 

Solyman, after this execution done upon the conspirators, taking Belgrade 
his voyage into Europe, first besieged Belgrade, which, being a city of^'eged 
in Hungary, was the strongest fort of all the Roman empire, and the ]w |£ e 
chief defence at that time of all Christendom ; which also, assaulted 
before time by Amurath II., was valiantly defended by Johannes 
Huniades, as is above specified. But here now lacked such a one as 
Huniades was : for the kingdom of Hungary at that time was under 
the government of Ludovic, a young king, inexpert and of a simple 
wit ; whom other princes, and especially the covetous churchmen, did 
e2 



52 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 



DUeord 
gunonRit 
Christian 



*o pill and poll, that they left him nothing but only the bare name 
an/title f his kingdom ; 'whereby he, being unfurnished both of men 
and money, was unable to match with such an enemy. 

Another advantage also the Turks had in besieging Belgrade, for 
thftChriBtian minces, at that time, were in civil dissension and vari- 
ance amongst themselves ; and the pope with his churchmen also were 
a&n* go busy in" suppressing Luther, and the gospel then newly spring- 
1,r " u: ''"' ing that they minded nothing else, except it were to maintain the 
wealth of their own bellies; which pope, if he had set his care (as his 
duty was) as much in stirring up princes against the common, enemy, 
as be was bent to deface the gospel, and to persecute the true pro- 
fessors thereof, soon might he have brought to pass, not only that 
Belgrade might have been defended against the Turk, but also that 
to l>e recovered again, which was lost before ; and, moreover, he might 
have stopped the great dangers and perils which now are like to fall 
upon the religion and church of Christ; which the Lord of his great 
mercy avert and turn away. 
The pope Certes, whatsoever the pope then did, this had been his duty, 
u buy setting all other things apart, to have had an earnest compassion of 
Sithw, so many miserable and lost captives, who were fallen from their faith 
m-Kkct'- and religion, unto the misery and slavery of the Turk, and thraldom 
rSnof °' ^ e devil, an d t0 nave sou ght a ^ means possible to have reduced 
Chiitttn- them, as lost sheep, into the fold again; which then might soon 
have been done, if prelates and princes, joining together in christian 
concord, had loved as well the public glory of Christ, and souls of 
Christians, as they tendered their own private, worldly, and frivolous 
Tme quarrels. And admit that the pope had conceived ever so much 
SSSS'iMk- malice against Luther, his quarrel also being good; yet the public 
ing in the church, standing in such danger as it then did, by the invasion of 
the Turk, reason would, nature led, religion taught, time required, 
that a good prelate, forgetting lighter matters, should rather have laid 
his shoulder to the excluding of so great a danger, as then was immi- 
nent both to himself, and the universal church of Christ. But now, 
his quarrel being unjust, and the cause of Luther being most just 
and godly, what is to be said or thought of such a prelate, who, for- 
bearing the Turk, whom in a time so dangerous he ought chiefly to 
have resisted, persecuted the truth which he should specially have 
maintained ? But Christ, of his mercy, stand for his church, and stir 
up zealous princes and prelates, if not to recover that which is lost, 
\<t at least to retain that little which is left ! 
nf''i!, r i' y Solyman therefore, taking this occasion, and using the commodity 
I tune, while our princes were thus at variance betwixt themselves, 
without any resistance or interruption brought his army unto Bel- 
grade, ,\.t>. 1521; which city being but slenderly defenccd, the 
Turk, through his undcrminers, guns, and other engines of war, 
without great difficulty, and with little loss of his soldiers, soon 
ubdued and overcame. 
After this victory, Solyman resting himself a whole vear, and 
in his mind how to make all sure behind him, for fear of 
enemies to conic upon his hack, thought it expedient for his purpose, 
if he might obtain the island of Rhodes; lor that only remained 
vt christian betwixt him and Asia. Wherefore, the next vear 



THE HISTORY OK THE TURKS. 53 

following, he brought his navy of four hundred and fifty ships, with Soiyman. 
three hundred thousand men, to the besieging thereof. This Rhodes Rhodes 
was a mighty and strong island, within the Mediterranean sea ; the ^^g^- 
inhabitants whereof, at the first, did manfully resist the Turk, sparing- 
no labour, nor pains for the defence of themselves and all Christen- 
dom. But afterwards, being brought to extremity, and pinched with 
penury, seeing also no aid to come from the Christians, they some- 
what began to languish in themselves. The Turks, in the mean 
time, casting up two great mountains, with strength of hand, two 
miles off from the city, like rolling trenches carried them before 
them near unto the city, in the tops whereof they planted their ord- 
nance and artillery, to batter the city. The master of the knights 
of Rhodes was then one Philippus Villadamus, a Frenchman, in 
whom no diligence was lacking, that appertained to the defence of 
the city. The Rhodians, likewise, so valiantly behaved themselves 
upon the walls, that with their shot all the ditches about the city 
were filled with the carcases of dead Turks. Besides this, such a 
disease of the bloody flux reigned in the Turks 1 camp, that thirty 
thousand of them died thereof ; and yet for all this Soiyman would 
not cease from his siege begun : who, at length, by undermincrs 
casting down the vaumures and uttermost parts of the city, won 
ground still more and more upon the Rhodians, and with mortar- 
pieces so battered the houses, that there was no free place almost 
standing in all the city. And thus continued the siege for the space 
of five or six months, and yet all this while came no help unto them 
from the Christians. Wherefore they, being out of all hope, through 
the advice of Villadamus, yielded themselves unto the Turk, upon 
condition that he would spare them with life and goods : which con- 
vention the Turk kept with them faithfully and truly. 

Thus Soiyman, with his great glory, and utter shame to all Christian 
christian princes, and also ruin of all Christendom, got the noble isle negligent 
of Rhodes ; although not without great loss and detriment of his _ J 
army, insomuch that at one assault twenty thousand Turks about the fe3o» 
walls were slain with fire, sword, stones, and other engines : whereby 
it may be conjectured what these Rhodians might, or would have 
done, if succour had come to them from other christian princes, as 
they looked for. This city was won upon Christmas-day, a.d. 1522. 

This conquest of Rhodes obtained, Soiyman, the fourth year after, christian 
bringeth back his army again into Hungary, where he found none to against 
resist him but only Ludovic the young king, who, being accompanied ^,^ urk 
with a small army, and nothing able to match with the Turk, yet, of si"-;' well 
a hasty rashness and vain hope of victory, would needs set upon Jam; guiding 
.vho, if he had staid but a little, had prospered the better, for °[ t !^!' 
Johannes Vaivoda, being a captain well exercised in Turkish wars 
before, was not far off, coming with a sufficient power of able soldiers. 
But Paul, the archbishop of Colosse, a Franciscan friar, a man more 
bold than wise, with his temerity and rashness troubled all their 
doings ; for the whole sum of the army of the Hungarians contained 
in all but only four and twenty thousand horsemen and footmen, 
who, at length coming unto the battle, and being compassed about 
with a great multitude of the Turk's army, were brought into great 
distress. The Turks twice shot off their pieces against the christian 



in help- 
ing tliei 



r. | THE HISTOBY OF THE TURKS. 

soi^man. army ; yet scarce was any Christian touched with the stroke thereof: 

which was thought to be done on purpose, because they were 

chris- Christians who had the ordering of the guns (for then the special 
I'c're the gunners of the Turks were Christians), whom for the same cause 
.i^-ciai t j, C y spared. Then the Turks 1 horsemen, coming upon the back of 
fodie the christian army, compassed them about, and by reason of their 
Turk ' multitude overcharged their horsemen ; amongst whom was slain, at 
The rash the same time, the archbishop friar abovesaid, with the bishops of 
bishop Striegau and Waradein, and many other nobles beside. Also the 
fnar king himself, being destitute of his necessary aid and succour, was 
Kij.p Lu- compelled to fly into a marsh, where he, falling from his horse, being 
JtatotiT heavy laden with his harness, was not able to rise again, but there 
miserably perished. 

Solyman the Turk marvelled at the foolishness of Ludovic the 

king, who, with so small an army, would presume to encounter with 

6uch a great host of two hundred thousand. This battle in Hungary 

was fought a.d. 1526. 

Ferdi- After the decease of Ludovic, Ferdinand succeeded in the king- 

Hung«ry. dom, being duke of Austria and king of Hungary. Then Solyman, 

setting contention betwixt Johannes Vaivoda and Ferdinand, for the 

kingdom of Hungary, sped his voyage to the city of Buda, which 

also, in short time, he made to be yielded unto him upon condition 

that they should escape with their lives and goods : which condition 

con- some say he kept, and some say he did not. Besides Buda, divers 

ulc Turk, places and munitions the said Turk, contrary to his league made 

before, did spoil and waste ; as Waradein, Fiinf kirchen, and 

other forts and munitions more, bordering about the coasts of 

Hungary. 

conten- In the year of our Lord, 1529, Ferdinand, king of Hungary 

nv"en e " aforesaid, recovered divers holds gotten of the Turk before, and also 

nandand warrm £ against Johannes Vaivoda, his enemy, with whom he had 

vaivoda. variance (as ye heard before), expulsed him out of his kingdom ; 

vowoda whereupon Vaivoda, flying to the Turk, desired his aid. The Turk, 

Bieth to g] a j t0 take that occasion, with great preparation addressed himself 

Turk., to return into Hungary, where he, recovering again the city of Buda, 

which Ferdinand had gotten from him a little before, removed his 

army into Austria, spoiling and destroying by the way all that came 

to his hands; showing many examples of great cruelty and tyranny 

"anMci m °?' lamentable to hear and understand. For of some he put out 

3tK? c ' their eyes, of some he cut off their hands, of some their ears and 

cruelty. noscs ; and their children he shamefully mutilated. The maidens he 

t corrupted, the matrons had their breasts cut off, and such as were 

with child were ripped, and their children cast into the fire. And 

these examples of horrible and barbarous tyranny this wretched Turk 

perpetrated by the way coming toward Vienna, a noble city in 

Austria; besides the captives which he took by the way and led 

into servitude most miserable, amounting to the number of thirty 

thousand. 

Amnnu other holds by the way the Turk came, there was a castle 
called Altenburg, Btrongly by nature situated, and by art defenced; 
which castle the Turk, intending not to overpass, because he would 
HUkc all things sure behind him, began to make his assault, and lay 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS 5 •*> 

his ordnance against it. The warders and keepers of the castle, so Soiyman. 
soon as the Turk began to lay siege against them, making no resist- 
ance, of a womanly cowardliness sent their messengers to the Turk, 
to yield themselves ready to do his commandment, and further him 
with their victual ; amongst whom were three hundred Bohemians, Attei?. of 
who were commanded to follow the host, that the Turk by them ^ r 1 , il 1 ( ', <1 tii 
might learn what strength was in the city of Vienna ; also where the the Tun.. 
king was, and what was to be done for the winning thereof. 

Of whom when the Turk had understanding how all things stood, 
and how that there were but twenty thousand men in Vienna able to. 
bear armour, and that other cities of Austria would soon yield if that 
were gotten, and that Vienna was victualled but for two months, and 
that the king was of late in Bohemia ; thus, the Turk of all things 
being certified, having no doubt in his mind of victory, made speed Neapolis 
toward Vienna ; and first coming to Neapolis, a city but eight miles by*af ed 
distant from Vienna, he required them to yield themselves ; who, Jj* rk 
notwithstanding, withstood them, and repulsed them valiantly. Then Turk's 
the Turks assigned a place for the pitching of their tents, which, twohuo- 
because it seemed something too little for such a great multitude, ^?^„. 
they took in more ground, to the compass of seven miles circuit, sand soi- 
The multitude of his army, which he there planted, is accounted of prepata- 
some to extend to two hundred and fifty thousand soldiers. The j""^* 
Turks thus being planted, made daily excurses over all the country of ° f Vienna 
Austria, especially about the city of Vienna, wasting and spoiling, Turk! 
with great cruelty and murder, amongst the poor Christians. 

Moreover, to make all things more sure towards the preparation 
of the siege, scouts were sent abroad, and ambushments were laid 
about the side of the river Danube, to provide that no aid nor 
victual should be brought to Vienna. So it pleased the providence 
of the Lord (who disposeth all things), that three days before the 
coming of the Turk, Frederic the earl Palatine, who was then Frede- 
assigned by the empire to take the charge of Vienna, was come down paiatfiie. 
by the river Danube with 14,000 men, and with a certain troop of y^™" 1 
horsemen well appointed and picked for the purpose. After the 
coming of this Frederic, provision also of victual was appointed to 
follow shortly after by the said river Danube. 

In the mean time, they who had the carriage and transporting 
thereof, hearing how the ways were laid, and all the passages ten 
miles about Vienna stopped by the Turks, although they knew the 
city to stand in great need of victual, yet seeing there was no other 
remedy, rather than it should come to the enemy's hand, thought it 
best to sink their boats with their carriage ; and so they did : whereby 
albeit the Christians wanted their relief, yet were the Turks dis- 
appointed of their prey and purpose. The captains who had the captains 
keeping of the city, who were chiefly Frederic the carl Palatine, u'o"^ ','- 
William Rogendorff, and Nicholas earl of Salm, seeing themselves v V^ a 
so straitened contrary to their expectation, although they had great 
causes to be discouraged, yet calling their courage unto them, they 
consulted together for the best way to be taken : and seeing that the 
little city Neapolis, above mentioned, being eight miles distant from 
them, so valiantly withstood the Turks, that in one day they sustained 
seven grievous assaults against all the main force of the Turkish 



g t ; THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

5,/,™.-.. annv; by fcheir example and manful standing being the more ani- 

mated and encouraged, they thought to abide the uttermost before 

they would give over; and first, plucking down all the suburbs and 

buildings without the walls, whereby the enemy might have any 

succour" they willed all the farmers and inhabitants about the city to 

save themselves, and to bring in their goods within the walls. Such 

Prapu» places us were weak within the walls, they made strong. About the 

[,';'",," ,!h towers and munition of the walls they provided rampiers and bulwarks, 

"'y distant eighty foot one from another, to keep off the shot ; and every 

iuxu'rk. man had his place and standing awarded to him upon the wall, and 

his office appointed what to do. But especially that side of the city 

which lieth to the river Danube, they fortified after the best wise : 

Provijioo for that way only now remained for victual to be transported from 

visual-' the Bohemians unto them. Wherefore eight ensigns were assigned 

'"'* th8 to the keeping of the bridge ; and in the plain, which was like an 

island enclosed within the river, a sufficient garrison of horsemen 

were placed, lying within gunshot of the city ; to the intent that 

if any grain or victual were sent from the Bohemians, they might 

provide the same safely to be brought into the city. 

Good These things thus being disposed and set in order, lord William 



. Rogendorff, to assay the strength of. the Turks, made divers roads 



out with his horsemen, albeit much against the minds of the Austrians ; 
who, knowing the manner of the Turks, thought it better to suffer 
them, while either with time they might be overwearied, or for lack 
of victuals consumed. Among many and sundry skirmishes which 
the Christians had with the Turks, one especially was to our men 
unprospcrous ; in which certain of the horsemen, espying a small 
troop of the Turks scattering abroad from their company, made out 
after them ; who suddenly and guilefully were enclosed and circum- 
vented by the Turks, before they could recover the gates of the city, 
and so were all taken alive : of them three were sent by the Turks 
into the city, to declare to the Viennians what strength they had seen 
in the camp of their adversaries, and to solicit them to yield their 
iy for fear of punishment which would follow. The residue they 
theTurki reserved to torments and punishment, whom, in the sight of the 
3£ciwt. w!lolc arm .v, ant l of the Christians (who should tell the same to the 
a**- citizens), they caused, every man, with four horses, to be drawn to 
pieces, and so to be dismembered and plucked asunder. 

After this dune, the barbarous Turk immediately sent his herald 
to talk with the captains of the city, whether they would yield the 
city upon honest conditions, or else would abide the arbitrement of 
war. If* they would gently submit themselves, they should have all 
gentleness to them showed. If they would be stubborn, and stand 
to their defence, he would also stand to his siege begun, so that he 
ould par. neither man, woman, nor child. To this the captains 
owwered again, That they were contented that Solyman should 
stand to his siege begun, and do his utmost, what he would, or what 
''«• could. As tor them, they were at a point to defend themselves 
and thar citj as long as they might: that the event and fall of vic- 
lorv was doubtful, and many times so happeneth, that they who 
1,1 "-'■" ,1 "' *tt we wearied, sooner than they who be provoked: 
leithei that they were so unmindful either of themselves, or of their 



..r the 
Turk tn 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 57 

country, but that they did remember well what they arc, and what soiyman. 
they be called ; named to be Germans, who use always first to assay 
the adversary, what he is able to do, and not rashly to commit them- 
selves into their enemies 1 hands. 

Soiyman, not a little disdaining at this answer, first burning and soiyman 
consuming all the villages, houses, and places round about the city ; e?hv?? h ' 
infecting also the springs and fountains which gave water into the [ l , ^; l . wiUl 
city ; and so stopping all passages, that no relief should have way B«at «- 
unto them, began with angry mood to approach more near to the mie8, 
city, with three great camps, sending them word in scorn and con- 
tumely by one of his captives, That if they stood in need of help of 
soldiers, he would send unto them the three hundred Bohemians 
(mentioned a little before), to aid them in their defence. To whom 
the Palatine directed answer again, That they had more soldiers in 
the city than they needed. As for the Bohemians who had yielded 
themselves, he might do with them what he would, for Vienna stood 
in no great need of them. 

In the mean time a messenger coming from Ferdinand was privily a meg- 
let in by night into the city, who brought word that they should play ^lf,y„ m 
the men in keeping out the enemy awhile : for it would not be long, l"^u> 
but both Ferdinand and Charles, his brother, with the strength of all Vienna. 
Germany, would be ready to rescue them. At this message the 
hearts of the soldiers began somewhat to be cheered, and to contemn 
the huge multitude of the adversaries, being so great as they never 
did behold, nor did ever almost hear of before ; the largeness of 
whose army extended to no less in compass (as is abovesaid) than 
of seven miles round about the city walls. 

Long it were to recite the whole order of this terrible siege, with The siege 
all the parts and circumstances thereof. Briefly to touch so much as begin 
shall suffice for this history, with fewer words than were stripes given ,Rth 
at the siege thereof; this is to be judged and confessed, whosoever 
beholdeth the number and fierceness of the Turks, the absence of 
king Ferdinand, the lack of provision and victual within the city, the 
noise of the guns, the violence of the shot, the terror of the sight, 
and yet no succour sent unto them ; that the custody of that city 
was no man's doing, but the arm only of the Lord God of Hosts, The 
according to the true saying of the Psalm, " Unless the Lord do p«4ei 
keep the city, the watchmen watch in vain, which watch to save it : ^dence 
unless the Lord do build the house, the builder striveth in vain jjj**?- 
which taketh upon him to build itf experience whereof, in keeping city, 
this city, may well appear. 

First Soiyman, bending his shot and ordnance against the city, beat 
down to the ground the vaumures, with all the uttermost suburbs of 
the city ; and that in such a short moment of time, that the hearts of 
the Viennians, a little before refreshed, were now as much appalled 
again with fear, misdoubting with themselves, lest the Turk, with the 
same celerity and violence, would have prevailed against the inward 
walls, as he did in beating down the outward vaumures. And no 
doubt the same time the Turk had put the city in great hazard, had 
not night, coming on, broken off the siege for that day. 

In the mean time the citizens laboured all night in repairing and 
refreshing the walls, to make all things sure against the next assault. 



the man 



Turks. 



Another 
assault of 



5g Tilt HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

socman. The next day, early in tlie morning, the Turks, approaching the city 
in with anew assault, thinking to scale the walls, were so repulsed 
and manfully resisted by the Germans, that scarcely any ditches about 
ub.''uY.h e the walls could be Been, for the bodies of the dead Turks, wherewith 
vSbjul they were replenished; so that the Turks were fain to fight standing 
upon the bodies of them that were slain : by which calamity, the force 
oj the enemy was not a little abated. 
Mlllli . it happened the same time, that a company of the Turks being 
vSmm- T i,,! oUt ot t ' 10c '' t y wandering out of order, the captain Rogendorff, 
•i"'' 1 " with two legions of horsemen issuing out of the city gate called Sal- 
ami bo passing closely under the bill's side, did so set upon them, 
that tliey slew a great number of them, the rest being driven to take 
the river ; whom with stones and shot likewise they destroyed, and 
so retired back into the city again. By this victory the captain 
Rogendorff began to be terrible to the Turks: for in the same 
skirmish, as after was known, were slain of them so many, that of five 
thousand three hundred horsemen and footmen, scarce one hundred 
and forty escaped alive. 

Solyman, disdaining at this repulse, thought to prove another way, 
thrTurks and so bringing his power toward the gate called the King's Gate, 
'\\"»L then' making his trenches and bulwarks, planted his ordnance; with 
the violence whereof the walls were so battered and shaken, that no 
man was able there to stand. Wherefore the Turk, seeing two great 
breaches made in the wall, commanded his soldiers covertly, in the 
dark smoke of the gunpowder, to press into the city. The like also 
was done at the Scottish tower, whereby the city Avas invaded in two 
sundry places at one time. The Viennians, at first, freshly began to 
withstand them, new soldiers still coming in the place of them that 
were slain and hurt ; and so this assault continuing more than six 
hours together, our men began at length to languish and faint not only 
in strength, but also in courage, whereby the city had been in great 
danger of losing, had not the two aforesaid captains, Rogendorff in 
the one place, and the earl of Salm in the other place, manfully en- 
couraged the soldiers to abide the brunt, and to bear out awhile the 
violence of the Turks ; promising that immediately they should have 
aid from Ferdinand. 

In the mean time the Turks came so thick, for greediness of the 
victory, scaling, climbing, and fighting upon the walls, that had it not 
been for the press and throng of the great multitude of the Turks, 
coming so thick that one of them could not fight for another, Vienna 
that same day had been taken and utterly lost. But, by the policy 
"I the captains giving a sign within the city, as though new soldiers 
were (ailed for, our men began to be encouraged, and the Turks 1 
hearts to be discomfited. 

W hen Solyman saw his army the second time repulsed, he began 
t" attempt a new way, purposing, by undermining, to overthrow the 
city; in which work specially he used the help of the Illyrians, of 
whom he had a great number in his camp, expert in that kind of feat. 
I hese lllyrians, beginning to break the earth at the gate Carinthia, 
; "" 1 coming mar to the foundations of the tower, which they by 
strength of hand attempted to break, could not work so closely under 
th( ground, but they were perceived by certain men above, who were 



AnntliiT 

oi the 



Vienna 
under- 
mined. 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 59 

skilful and expert in that kind of matter ; who, contrariwise, under- soiyman. 
mining against them, and filling their trenches as they went with gun- 
powder, so conveyed their train, that when fire should be set unto it, 
the violence thereof should burst out by the trenches of the enemies : 
which done, suddenly the ground beneath made a great shaking, so 
that the tower did cleave asunder, and all the underminers of the 
Turks, working in their trenches, were smothered and destroyed, 
which came to the number (as it was supposed afterwards) of eight 
thousand persons ; insomuch that yet till this day a great number of 
dead men's sculls are found in the ground. 

When Soiyman saw that this way also would not serve, and had Another 
privy intelligence that the walls about the gates of Stubarium were {JJX?* 
negligently kept, and that he might have there more easy entrance ; Turks - 
secretly he conveyeth about ten garrisons of fresh soldiers, in such 
sort as the townsmen should not perceive them ; who came so sud- 
denly upon them, that they had filled their ditches, and were upon 
the top of the fortresses and munitions, before our men were aware of 
them, or could make themselves ready to resist them. For, although 
there was no lack of soldiers within the city, yet, forasmuch as the 
Avhole brunt of the siege did lie especially at the two gates aforesaid, 
from whence the soldiers who were there warding, could not be well 
removed ; for a shift, the rescuers (who within the city were ready for 
all sudden adventures) were sent to the walls; by whose coming, 
those few who kept the enemies off before, being sore hurt and 
wounded, were succoured and sent to surgery ; and thus the said as- 
sault continued terrible and doubtful, until (the dark night coming 
upon them) they could not well know the one from the other. In this 
bickering were counted of the Turks to be slain more than five thousand. 

Then the captain Rogendorff, commending the valiant standing of 
his soldiers, misdoubting with himself (as it happened indeed) that 
the Turks would not so give over, but would set upon him the next 
day with a fresh assault, providing with all diligence for the purpose, 
made up the breaches of the walls, and prepared all things necessary 
for resistance. The next morning following, which was something dark 
and misty, the Turks, thinking to prevent our men with their sud- 
den coming, began again busily to bicker upon the top of the walls. 

It would require a long tractation here to describe the great dis- 
tress and danger that the city, those three days following, was in ; 
during all which time there was no rest, no intermission, nor diligence 
lacking, either in the enemies, fighting against the city, or in our men 
in defending the same. For the Turks, besides the multitude of the 
great ordnance, wherewith (as with a great tempest of gun-shot) they 
never ceased still battering the walls, and beating the munitions of 
the city, sent also such heaps and multitudes of the Turks to the 
scaling and climbing of the walls, that scarcely with all the ordnance and 
shot of the city, either their violence could be broken, or the number 
of them diminished ; till at last, the soldiers of the Turks, perceiving The 
themselves able by no means to prevail, but only to run in danger of variance 
life, and to do no good, began to wrangle among themselves, grudging a ™™P 
and repining against their dukes and captains, imputing the whole cause selves, 
only to them, that the city was yetuntaken, seeing there was nthem nei- 
ther diligence nor goodwill lacking: and so ceased the siege for that time. 



GO THE HISTOJIY OF THE TURKS 

seigman After this, when Solyman had purposed in liimself, with his last 
ami strongest siege, to try against the city the uttermost that he 
was able to do, and had encouraged his soldiers to prepare themselves 
riK-Turk in most forcible wise thereunto, the soldiers showed themselves much 
Millie' 5 unwilling to return again, from whence they were so often repulsed 
cannot before i ' ,v r eason whereof great commotion began to arise in the 
Turk's camp. The rumour whereof when it came to Solyman's ears, 
lie sendeth his grand captain to keep all the soldiers in order and 
obedience ; or, if they would be stubborn, to compel them, whether 
they would or not, to accomplish his commandment : who, coming to 
the soldiers, showed to them the great Turk's message ; and, to 
animate and encourage them, declared that the opportunity of the 
time present was not to be neglected, neither could they now, without 
great shame, give over, after so many assaults attempted ; who, if 
they would sustain but one brunt more, the victory were in their own 
hands. The townsmen, he said, were wasted, and their victuals spent ; 
and the more to enflame their minds, he promised them not only 
great thanks and reward of their emperor, but also the whole spoil of 
the city, in recompense of their travail, 
compui- But when all this could not stir up the sturdy stomachs of the tired 
men Turks, using compulsion where persuasion would not serve, he ap- 
notwten pointed a number of horsemen to be set at their backs, whereby to 
dtfend- d enmrce tucm either to go forward, or, if they be denied, with guns 
•■tii. and spears to destroy them. The Turks seeing themselves in such 
a strait, that whether they went or tarried it was to them like peril, 
yet would they not set forward, except the captain would take the 
venture before them ; who, warding forward in his array, thus spake 
unto his fellows, saying : " Do you forsake your faith and allegiance, 
and betray the emperor of Constantinople unto the Christians, if you 
will, but I will discharge my duty towards the commonwealth, and my 
emperor ;" and with that word advanced his ensign, making toward the 
city walls. Whom when others followed, and still more and more 
onhe 1 "" P rcssc ^ after ' so it came to pass that whole routs of them were over- 
Turks at thrown and slain by our men upon the walls, before it was known what 
they meant. Others, terrified by their example, gave back and left 
their array, and winding themselves by by-ways, and under covert of 
hills, returned again into their tents ; and so came it to pass, that the 
strength of the enemies daily more and more decreasing, they had less 
and less hope (-very day than the other, of obtaining the city. For 
besides the innumerable slaughter of Turks upon the walls, the towns- 
men also, watching the foragers and purveyors of the Turks, as they 
ranged about for victual for the camp, ever as occasion served them 
did compass them about, and so encountered with them by the way, 
that of a whole legion scarcely the tenth part returned again to their 
Fellows alive; by means whereof the courage of the enemies began 
Breauyto faint. Whereby such a marvellous alteration happened, 
J'" 1 l ""i' men began to receive more hope and courage, so the Turks 
began still more to droop and to languish with despair; so that at 
length scarce durst they appear without the bounds where they were 
intrenched, but only in light skirmishes, when they were provoked 
bv '""' """ '" come out and to show themselves. 
Solyman, perceiving his soldiers thus daily to go to wrack, of whom 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 61 

he had lost already more than eighty thousand, and that with long 8otgmam. 
tarrying he could do no good, being also in lack of forage, for that Tiie~Turk 
the country about him was wasted, beginneth to consult with his ["Jft",,, 
captains and councillors, what remained best to be done ; of whom *«*« 
the most part advised him to raise his siege, and betimes to provide retire. 
for himself: which to do, many causes there were that moved him. 
First, the loss of his men, who daily were cut from him by gnat num- 
bers, besides those who lay in his camp wounded, or sick, or famished. 
Secondly, lack of purveyance. Thirdly, the near approach of winter. 
lint the chiefest cause was, for that he heard Frederic Palatine above- 
mentioned, was coming with a great army at Ratisbonc, towards 
Vienna, and there had done great molestation to a great number of the 
Turkish foragers, whom by the way he prevented, and so inclosed in 
the woods, that he slew them : whereof when Solyman had intelligence, Soiyman 
thinking it not best to abide the coining of the Palatine, he made ShST"*' 
haste with bag and baggage to remove his camp, and to retire ; and Vienn »- 
first sending away his carnage before him, he made speed himself with 
his army to follow shortly after. 

The Viennians, when they heard of the removing away of the 
Turks, although at first they scarcely believed it to be true, being 
afterwards certified out of doubt both of their removing, and also of 
the order thereof, how it was in the manner of a flight or chase, were 
greatly desirous to make out of the city after them. Wherein, albeit 
the presence of the Palatine with his army, if he had been there pre- 
sent, might have stood them in great stead, yet, notwithstanding, 
they took the opportunity of the time present, and issuing out of the 
city, in most speedy wise set after them with their horsemen : and 
first overpassing the tents (where the Turks had pitched their stations me 
or pavilions) for haste of the way, they made such pursuit after them, ^ a l ^ s 
that within little time they overtook the rear-ward or latter end of the P"™ u ?? 
army, whereof they made such havoc and destruction, that (as the flight 
author reporteth) there was never a shot of the pursuers, nor weapon 
drawn, nor stroke stricken, which lighted in vain ; which was no 
hard thing for our men to do, for, as the Turks in their flight went 
scattered out of order and array, neither would they in the fore- 
rank (being so far off from jeopardy) return back to help their 
fellows, it was easy for our men, without resistance, to come upon xhepnvy 
their backs as they would. Yet, notwithstanding, in long pursuit, ;; t "[!;;: SL ' 
when our men could not see the carriage of the Turks, which was Turks 

1? 1 i 1 x" prevent- 

wont in armies to come away behind alter the host, and suspecting e <i. 
(as truth was) some ambush to be left in privy wait behind them, 
to come betwixt them and home, they called themselves to retreat, 
and consulted upon the matter, thinking good, first to send out 
certain scouts, to espy and bring them word where the enemies lay, 
and what was the number of them. Whereof when intelligence was 
given them that the remnant of the Turk's army was remaining in 
the tents behind, word was sent to their fellows in Vienna to issue 
out, and to join also with them against the tail of the Turks, who 
had entrenched themselves within the earn]). Others were appointed 
to follow the chase, lest peradventurc the Turks, seeing our men to 
recule back, might return again upon them and help their fellows. 
Which things being thus ordered and appointed, in the mean time, 



oftba 

Turks 



gg THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

Solfum w l u ]e part of the Viennians were hovering after the main army, the 
" rest encountered with them that were left in the camp, who, seeing 
themselves overmatched, first defenced their camp with a deep ditch 
and bulwark, to delay the time, until some help might come to them 
from the army : secondly, they directed messengers to the Christians, 
to treat for peace : thirdly, they conveyed their privy letters untoSo- 
lyman, for speedy aid and rescue; but all the ways and passages 
Being topped by the Christians, their letters were intercepted. And 
bo the miserable Turks, being destitute of all hope and succour, seeing 
no other remedy, made out of their camp, to hazard and prove the 
uttermost for their defence ; but, in conclusion, in their desperate ven- 
ture they were inclosed about by our men on every side, and there 
put to the sword and slain, a few only excepted, who, escaping out 
very hardly by secret passages, shifted after the rest of their fellows, 
i\"\n In as well as they could. Their carriage, and other furniture left behind 
"' '""'' them in their tents, was distributed amongst the soldiers; only such 
things reserved as might serve for the public use and commodity of 
the city. 
Merciful Thus, through the merciful protection and benefit of Almighty God, 
fioTof Austria was delivered from the fierce and barbarous hostility of the 
Gmi over crU el Turks, notwithstanding that neither Ferdinand the king, nor 
don!!' " the emperor his brother, was there present ; but only the power of 
God, through the valiantness of the worthy Germans, defended that 
city, in defence whereof consisted the safety and deliverance, no doubt, 
of all these west parts of Christendom : for which, immortal praise and 
cod's thanks be unto our immortal God in Christ our Lord, according as 
Jjl^ s th ng he hath of us most graciously and worthily deserved. Wherein, by 
r" '•'inta'in- *"' 1C wa )'' * aKC ^ ms wr a n °t e ? gentle reader ! how and after what man- 
enorui net God's blessing goeth with the true reformers of his religion; and 
■Mp ami" so much the more is it to be noted, for that the Turks in so many 
religion, battles and sieges heretofore, were never so repulsed and foiled, as at 
this present time in encountering with the protestants, and defenders 
of sincere religion. This city of Vienna was besieged and delivered, 
a. i). 1529. The assaults of the Turk against the city are numbered 
to be twenty, and his repulses as many. The number of his army 
which he first brought, was 250,000, whereof were reckoned to be slain 
eighty thousand and above. During the .time of his siege he led 
away, out of the country about, many captives ; virgins and matrons 
he quelled, and cast them out naked ; the children he stuck upon 
stakes. 

Solyman, thus put from the hope of the victory of Vienna, after he 
had breathed himself a while at home, the second year after, which 
was a. d. 1531, repairing his host, returned again into Hungary, with 
no less multitude than before; where first he got the town called 
( I mis, bring but slenderly kept with a small garrison, by reason whereof 
tin townsmen and soldiers, yielding themselves unto the Turks, were 
cod trained to agree upon unreasonable conditions. 1 

M'Miior Soitcrus, in his second book, writing ' De bello Pan- 
nomco, 1 touching the aforesaid town of Guns or Gunzium, differeth 
herein something from Ramus, declaring how this Guns, being a 
small town in Hungary, and having in it but only a hundred soldiers 

(1) Ex Johanne Ramo, 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 63 

(or, as Wolfgangus Drcclislcrus in his Chronicle reporteth, at the Soiyman. 
most but two hundred soldiers), under the valiant captain Nicholas Nicholas 
Jurescbitz defended themselves so manfully and wonderfully, through ^Itta 
the notable power of God, against the whole puissance of two liun- valiant 
dred thousand Turks, that they, notwithstanding being distressed capUin 
with lack and penury of purveyance, and suddenly of the Turks 
invaded, yet with pure courage and promptness of heart sustained the 
uttermost force and violence of thirteen assaults of that great multi- 
tude, for the space of twenty-five days together. 

Although the narration of the author may seem to some incredible, Minwu- 
yet thus he writeth, That what time the great ordnance and battering i""pie X of 
pieces of the Turks were planted upon two mountains much higher ,he Lord ' s 
than the town, whereby they within the town were oppressed both Son and 
before and behind, insomuch that eight ensigns of the Turks were {J^e. 
already within the town ; yet by reason of women and children, and 
other impotent persons, who in the middle of the town were congre- 
gated in a house together, such a noise and clamour went up to 
heaven, praying and crying to God for help, that the Turks within 
the Avails, supposing a new army of fresh soldiers to be sent into the 
town, for sudden fear voided the town, and leaped down from the 
walls again (which before they had got), whom no man either pur- 
sued or resisted ; for never a soldier almost was left on the walls, 
who was not either slain or else wounded with the Turks 1 ordnance. 
At that time, through the Lord's providence, it so happened, that one 
Ibrahim Bassa, near about the Turk, seeing both the town to be 
small, and the great destruction of the Turks in the siege thereof, 
and that the captain in no case would yield, persuaded so the Turk, 
declaring how the town, being so little, was not worth the loss of so 
many men, in the winning whereof there was no glory, and if he were 
repulsed, great dishonour might follow; whereby the Turk, being 
persuaded, did follow his counsel, which was this : That Nicholas, the 
christian captain, being called unto him under pledges and safe- 
conduct, should receive the town as of his hand and gift, with con- raiseth 
dition that he should do no violence to his soldiers left behind and ^^ ese 
wounded, but should procure such means as he could for the re-curing Guns, 
of them. And so he, raising his siege, departed. 

Another cause also, which moved him so suddenly to raise his 
siege, might be for that he heard the Palatine not to be far off in 
pursuing after him ; and therefore, taking his flight by the mountains 
of the Noricians, he returned with much spoil of christian men's 
goods unto Constantinople. 1 For so it was provided the same time 
in Germany, after the council of Augsburg and Ratisbone (at what 
time the controversy of religion between the protestants and the 
papists was deferred and set off to the next general council), that 
Charles V., and Ferdinand his brother, having understanding of the 
Turk thus ranging in Hungary, should collect of the Germans, Hun- The em _ 
garians, Spaniards, and others, an able army of eighty thousand foot- P, eror 
men, and thirty thousand horsemen, to repulse the invasions of the and Fer- 
Turk. But Soiyman, having intelligence of this preparation of the J^n'to 
christian power coming toward him, whether for fear, or whether to J^L.. 
espy further opportunity of time for his more advantage and our the Turk. 

(1) Ex Mclchiore Soit. lib. li. de bello Paul 



(J4 THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

sotymau. detriment, refused at that time to tarry their coming ; and so, speeding 

Lis return nnto Constantinople, retired with much spoil and prey sent 

before him, as is above premised: which was a.d. 1532. 
TtoTmk Not long after, being the year of our salvation, 1534, Solyman, 
^^ intending two wars at once, first sent Conradine Barbarossa, 
rfTunS tlu ' a,nilir:U °f n ^ s nav i es > mto Africa, to war against the king of 
Tunis ; whom then Barbarossa also dispossessed and deprived 
of his kingdom : but Charles the emperor, the next year follow- 
ing (a.d. 1535), restored the said king again into his kingdom, 
and delivered in the same voyage twenty thousand captives out of 
servitude. 

The same time the Turk also sent another captain into Hungary, 
to Avar against Vaivoda, while he himself, taking "his course to Persia, 
Tauris planted his siege against the city Tauris, which he in short space 
thr l j'i!/k subdued and expugned. Albeit he long enjoyed not the same ; for 
Twenty Tuliaincs king of the Persians, suddenly coming upon the Turks un- 
orthem d prepared, slew of them twenty thousand, and took his concubines, to 
siain. t j ie g reat f il a nd reproach of the Turk. 

cmeyra Two years after this, which was a. d. 1537, Solyman, who could 
Md* 8 * no ^ De ( l lue t a * home, nor rest in peace, returning again out of Asia 
•polled, into Europe with two hundred and seventy ships, great and little, set 
upon Corcyra, another island belonging to the Venetians, which he 
besieged ten days, wasting and burning the towns and fields as he 
unit, beside the destruction of much people therein, whom partly he 
z.u-in- slew, partly he led away captives. From thence he sailed to Zacyn- 
cythaw. d thus, and to Cythara, another island not far from Corcyra, bordering 
•polled. near t0 t,] ie coas t s f Epyrus and Greece, where he, suddenly by night 
invading the husbandmen in villages and fields, sleeping and mis- 
trusting no harm, drew them out of their houses and possessions, 
faptivcf men and women, besides children, to the number of nine hundred, 
chile- whom he made his bondslaves ; burning moreover their houses, and 
tiau. earning away all the goods and cattle being without the said city of 

Xacvnthus and Cythara. 1 
w.ir be- From thence these hellhounds turned their course to the siege and 
SnrtT 6 s P oil of Egina, a rich and populous island, lying between Greece and 
i"llkl' e Asia ' w,iere first tne Eginians did manfully in battle resist them, and 
were like to have prevailed ; but being wearied at length, and op- 
pressed with innumerable thousands of fresh Turks, who still were 
sent in, to rescue the others who were overcome before, they were 
compelled to fly into the city of Egina. That city the cruel Turks 
(oi rather devils on earth), with much labour, and violence of their 
jivat ordnance fetched out of their ships, subdued and cast down to 
the ground ; the citizens and inhabitants whereof, the Turk, after he 
had burned their houses, and ransacked their goods, commanded to 
be dun and killed every one. The women, both noble and unnoble, 
wKli their infants, were given to the mariners to be abused, and from 
thence being shipped unto Constantinople, were led away to perpe- 
tual misery and slavery ; which was a.d. 1537. 

111 the same journey Solyman also took the isle in the said sea of 

'nut",' x 1 ''*- r "" n - ,al1 " 1 Paros; also the isle adjoining to the same, named 

\ ma, and made them to him tributaries; the duke whereof was he 

(1) Ex Johan. C'rispo. 



THE HISTORY OK THE TURKS. (',', 

who wrote the story both of these islands aforesaid, and also of the Soigman. 
other islands, called Cyclades ; and other dukes. 1 

This done, Solyman directed his navy unto Apulia, where he set 
on land ten thousand footmen, and two thousand horsemen, who 
spoiled, likewise, and wasted those parts, while the emperor, the pope, 
and the Venetians, were together in war and dissension. 2 Further- 
more, the next year following (a.d. 1538), great attempts began in 
Stiria ; but, by the resistance of the inhabitants, the force of the 
barbarous Turks was repulsed, notwithstanding great spoils of men 
and cattle were carried from thence, and the country miserably spoiled. 
In that year also, the Turk, turning into Hungary, gave battle unto 
the Christians in Savia ; where, through the fraudulent falsehood of the 
captain Cassianerus (Wolfgangus nameth him Calcianus), being (as 
they say) corrupted with money, our men were put to the worse, 
a.d. 1538. 

After the Turks had invaded the island of Corcyra abovesaid, the False- 
Venetians, with Solyman the Turk, had joined truce for a certain ^° %°J lk 
time, for which they gave the Turk three hundred thousand crowns, with thi; 
with the city of Neapolis, and Maluasia, in the borders of Mace- tfent 
donia. But within four or five years, the Turk, to get a new 
stipend of the Venetians, brake his league, and invaded their domi- 
nions, whereby they were enforced to enter new conditions again 
with him. 

In the year of our Lord 1540, the restless Turk, making his return Novum 
toward Hungary, by the way passing by Dalmatia, lay against the SS^et. 
town called Novum Castellum, being defended by the Spaniards; in thrown by 
which town, because they refused to yield themselves, all the inha- theTurk- 
bitants and soldiers were put to the sword, and slain every one. This 
Novum Castellum, or New Castle, was a strong fort of the Christians, 
which being now in the Turk's power, he had great advantage over 
all those quarters of Dalmatia, Stiria, Carinthia, and Hungary. From 
thence he proceeded further, keeping his course into Hungary, where 
he planted his power against the city of Buda. This Buda was a 
principal city in Hungary, about which great contention had been (as conten- 
ye have heard before) between Johannes Vaivoda and Ferdinand ; by Hungary 
reason whereof the Turk, occasioned by Vaivoda, came into Hungary, between 
and delivered the city to Vaivoda. This Vaivoda, living not long nand and 
after, left behind him a son, whom, being an infant, he committed to JnThw* 
the government of one Georgius Monachus, who, being left tutor suc 
unto the infant, reduced all Transylvania, Buda, Pest, with other 
parts of Hungary, which belonged to Vaivoda before, to the subjec- 
tion of the child. Ferdinand, hearing thereof, in a great haste and 
anger levied an army to recover his lands in Hungary, and bo laid 
siege to Buda. Monachus, seeing his party weak, first sent his legate 
to Ferdinand, desiring him to talk and confer with him upon matters, 
as he pretended, pertaining to the behoof of them both : whereupon, 
both the parties being agreed, the place and manner of their conven- 
tion was appointed, and also the day and time assigned. Thur* the 
parties, according to the agreement, conventing together wi/.h their 

(1) Ex Johanne Crispo, Buce Xaxi, £ c. 

(2) Note what hurt conieth by the dissension of christian priiires. 
(8) Stiria is a country or province nearly adjoining to Austria. 

vol . IV. ., 



son}. 



G(J THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

soigman. armies, withdrawing a little aside, as they were entered in communi- 

comm.i- cation, suddenly among Ferdinand's men happened a dag to be heard, 

"j* rthm which, by the heat of the day, as is thought, loosing of its own accord, 

Mo..a- gave a crack ; the sound whereof coming to the ears of Monachus, 

F h erdi-" d he, supposing the same to have been discharged against him, in great 

what anger drew out his sword, bidding Ferdinand avaunt with his doubling 

tiunuiay dissimulation, saying, that he would never anymore trust the pro- 

raTsus- mises of Christians. And immediately upon the same, he sent to 

pidon. ^ u ] vllian t i, e Turk for aid against the Christians, promising that he 

would surrender to him free possession of Hungary, if he would come 

The Turk and vanquish the army of Ferdinand lying about the siege of Buda. 

a'ain into T1 1C Turk maketli no long tarrying, but taketh the occasion, and 

liun-ary. vv it], a mighty power flieth into Hungary, and eftsoons discharging 

the host of Ferdinand, and putting them off from the siege of Buda, 

getteth the city into his own hands, commanding the son of Vaivoda, 

with his mother, to follow after his camp. 

In the history of Johannes Ramus it followeth, that when Sol yman 
the Turk had thus prevailed against the city of Buda aforesaid, and 
against other parts besides of Hungary, by the assent of the empire, 
one Joachim, duke of Brandenburg, prince elector, was assigned with 
a puissant army of chosen soldiers of all nations collected, to recover 
the city of Buda from the Turk, and to deliver the other parts of 
cowardly Christendom from the fear of the Turk [a.d. 1542] ; which Joachim, 

Joachim, 



at his first setting forth, appeared so courageous and valiant, as though 

Branu'cn- ^ 1C M ' ou ^ nave conquered the whole world. But this great heat was 

I'urg, so slacked in short time by the Turk, that before any great jeopardy 

the Turk, was offered unto him, he was glad to be discharged of the viage, and 

with shame enough returned home again. And would God he had 

left behind him in the fields no more but his own shame ! for the 

enemies having intelligence before of his cowardly departure, thinking 

to work some point of mastery or victory before his going, did set 

upon the right wing of his army (which chiefly consisted of Dutch- 

a num- men of Low Germany), out of which they took away with them above 

christian five hundred strong and valiant soldiers, not killing them, but carrying 

them away alive : for whom it had been much better to have stood 

theJurks. to their weapon, and to have died manfully upon the Turks, than by 

yielding themselves, to be disgarnished of weapon and armour, and so 

to be left to the cursed courtesy of the foul Turks. To whom what 

courtesy was showed, by the sequel did appear. For, after the Turks 

Dunlth* ^ ' ct * ^ lcm out °^ Hungary into their own dominions, after a most 

horrible and beastly sort they disfigured and mangled them ; and so 



111. tits 



victory. Their kind of punishment was thus: first, they had their 
right arm thrust through with an iron red hot, whereby they should 
be unable and unmeet to all labour and warfare : secondly, their 
heads vera shaven to the very sculls, after the manner of our friars 
and monks, when they are newly shaven : thirdly, they were all most 
dreadfully mutilated; which wound was so grievous unto them, that 
'lest part of them died thereupon : the lew that recovered the 
tormenl thereof, led a life more bitter and more miserable than death 
itself. Ami tins kind of cruelty was executed in order upon them all. 
In much like sort did cruel Pharaoh exercise his tyranny against the 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 



G7 



people of God in Egypt ; who, to destroy the generation of them, sohjman . 
caused all the male children to be drowned in the river. Whereby 
it is the more to be hoped, that seeing the tyranny of this Turkish Pha- 
raoh is come to such an extremity, the merciful goodness of God will 
the more shortly send some Moses or other, unto us, for our speedy 
deliverance. This was by the cruel Turks done, a.d. 1542, wit- 
nessed by Johannes Ramus, who not only writeth the story, but by 
the testimony also of his own eyes recordcth the same to be true, 
beholding with his eyes one of the same number in the city of Vienna, 
who, having wife and children in Brussels, either for shame or sorrow, 
had no mind to return home to his own house. 1 

But to return again to the city of Buda, from whence we have Falseness 
digressed ; "here is not to be pretermitted what falsehood and what iJah in 
cruelty the Turks used toward the Christians there after their victory. j^"_ g 
For, after that Solyman the Turk, upon the yielding and submission of miwwith 
the men of Buda, had given to them his promise of safety and life, tians. 
within a short time the said Turk, picking a quarrel with them for 
selling oxen unto the Christians, and for bargaining with them, slew 
all the magistrates of the said city of Buda : like as in all other cities, 
wheresoever the Christians yielded unto him, he never, or very rarely, 
kept his promise with them, neither did ever any Christians speed 
better with the Turk, than they who most constantly did resist him. 

And as his promise with the magistrates of Buda was false and Horrible 
wretched, so his cruelty with the soldiers thereof, was much more " the e 
notorious and abominable. For in the expugnation of Buda, amongst of" 6 , 1 , 1 /' 
the rest who were slain, two cohorts or bands of christian soldiers Turks. 
came alive to his hands. To whom, when he seemed at the first to 
grant pardon of life, he commanded to put on their armour again, and 
to dispose themselves in order and battle array, after the warlike 
manner of the Christians ; which when they had accomplished readily, 
according to his commandment, and he, riding about the ranks of 
them, had diligently viewed and beholden them a certain space, at 
length he commanded them to put off their armour again. This 
done, certain of the tallest and strongest of them he picked out ; the 
residue he commanded, by his soldiers coming behind them with 
swords, to be cut in pieces and slain. Of the others, whom he had 
elected and chosen, some he set for marks and butts to be shot at ; 
some he appointed to his two sons, for them to slash with their swords 
and try their strength, which of them could give the deeper wound, 
and (as they termed it) the fairer blow, whereby the most blood might 
follow out of their christian bodies. 2 

After the winning of Buda, the Turk, purposing not so to cease 
before he had subdued and brought under his obedience all Hungary; 
proceeding further with his army, first, brought under a strong hold 
of the Christians, named Pestum or Pest, where a great number of 
christian soldiers partly were slain, partly were led away to more cruel 
affliction. 

Then he came to another castle called Walpo, situate in the con- Thcoas- 
fines of Bosnia, Croatia, and Hungary, which fort or castle he be- P o % ou ; ' 
sieged three months, while no rescue or aid was sent unto them, 

tl) Ex Johanne Ramo de Rebus Turcicis, lib. ii. 

(2) Ex Epist. Mart. Stcll.t Ue Succcssibus Turcarum, &-c. 



63 THE HISTORY OK THE TURKS. 

soiymnn. neither from Ferdinand king of Hungary, nor from any other chris- 

tian prince or princes : whereupon, at length, the fort was given up 

to the Turk, but more through the false treachery, or cowardly heart 
a notaUe f the soldiers, than of the captain. Wherein is to be noted an ex- 
" Go^f" ample not unworthy of memory ; for when the cowardly soldiers, 
menti cither for fear or flattery, would needs surrender themselves and the 
UgbHng p] ace un to the Turk, contrary to the mind of the captain, who in no 
i case would agree to their yielding, they, thinking to find favour with 
hUahood the Turk, apprehended their captain and gave him to Solyman. But 
toward see ] 10W the justice of God, sometimes by the hand of the enemy, 
cent disposcth the end of things to the rewarding of virtue and punishing 
of vice. For where they thought to save themselves by the danger 
of the faithful captain, the event turned clean contrary ; so that the 
Turk was to the captain bountiful and very liberal, and the soldiers, 
notwithstanding that they had all yielded themselves, yet were all put 
to death, and commanded piteously to be slain. 1 
me city There is in Hungary another town, bearing the name of the Five 
cinches Churches, called Quinque Ecclesise, which being partly spoiled 
gelded to before, as is above-mentioned, but now, through the loss of Walpo, 
Turks, and by the hugeness of the Turk's army (containing in it two hun- 
The dred and twenty thousand fighting men) so discouraged, and put out 
bi^op of hope and heart, that the bishop and chief nobles of the town, fled 
his nock before the jeopardy : the rest of the commons, who were partly pre- 
biiers. vented by the sudden coming of the Turks, partly for poverty, could 
not avoid, sent their messengers to the Turk, to yield and surrender 
the town, upon promise of life, into his hands ; whose promise how firm 
it stood, the story leaveth it uncertain. This is affirmed, that three 
days after the yielding of this Quinque Ecclesise, never a Turk durst 
enter the city. a. d. 1543. 2 
sociosia, The next fort or hold gotten by the Turks in Hungary, was So- 
Hnngary, elosia. The town, at the first invasion of the Turks, was won, sacked, 
subdued. am i fj re( j # rp ne cast ] e w jthin the town did something hold out. for a 
time; and first requiring truce for fourteen days, to see what aid 
should be sent unto them ; and to deliberate upon the conditions that 
should be proposed unto them, after the fourteen days expired, they, 
trusting to the situation and munition of the place, which was very 
strong, began, for a certain space, stoutly to put back the enemy. 
But afterwards, seeing their walls to be battered, their foundations to 
VJltX sna k e _ (for the Turk had set twelve thousand underminers under 
the ditches of the castle), and their strength to diminish, and mis- 
.' doubting themselves not to be able long to hold out, agreed in like 
manner to yield themselves, upon condition to escape with life and 
goods : which condition of saving their goods was the losing of their 
fives, especially of the richer sort; for the Turks perceiving by that 
Tbt condition that they were of wealth and substance, omitting the inferior 
[,'.','* ,i, " r 1,:iMT s,>rti ,( " "l"" 1 the wealthy men for their riches, and slew 
them every one. a.d. 1548. 8 In the which his history, this is also 
to Denoted, that during the time the castle of Sociosia was besieged, 
ill'' nUages and pages round about the same, came of their own ac- 
cord, submitting and yielding themselves unto the Turk, bringing in, 
fel thej were commanded, all kind of victual and forage into the 

Hartino Stella de rurcarum in Hungaria sm-ecssibus, &c. 



THE HISTOliY OF THE TURKS. \}\f 

Turk's camp : which done, Solyman the Turk commanded all the Soiyman. 
headmen of the pages to appear before him, who humbly obeyed and Kxaniple 
came. Then the Turk warned them to return again the next day £jjj£ th 
after, every one bringing with him his inferior retinue and household i>y Cbris- 
servants ; which when they had with like diligence also, according to his ,',','!',', s 
commandment, accomplished, the Turk immediately commanded them ^ e ^. ng 
every one, in the face of his whole army to be slain : and so was this Turk, 
their reward : which reward, the more it deelareth the bloody cruelty 
of the Turk, the more encouragement it may minister to our men the 
more constantly to withstand him. 1 

Another strong town there is in Hungary, named Stricgau, distant stri^o- 
from Buda abovesaid the space of five Dutch miles, against which the atrfega" 
Turks made great preparation of ordnance, and all other instruments J^ t ';,f d 
of artillery necessary for the siege thereof; which city, in like man- Turk. 
ner, began also to be compassed and inclosed by the Turks, before it 
could be sufficiently prepared and garnished by our men, but only that 
the archbishop of Striegau privily conveyed unto them two hundred 
oxen ; such was then the negligence of Ferdinand, king of Hungary, 
who so slenderly looked unto the necessary defence of his towns and 
cities. Moreover, such was the discord then of christian kings and Negii- 
princes, who in their civil dissension and wars were so occupied and christian 
hot in needless quarrels, that they had neither leisure nor remem- gi£ 8 in 
brance to help in time, there, where true need required : which slender defence. 
care and cold zeal of the christian rulers, in not tendering the public 
cause, while they contended in private trifles, hath caused the Turk 
to come so far as he hath ; and yet further is like, unless the mercy 
of the Lord do help, more than our diligence. One of the chief cap- 
tains within the city was Martin us Lascanus, a Spaniard. 

The Turks, in the beginning of the siege, began first to tempt 
the citizens, with fair words and accustomed promises, to yield and 
gently to submit themselves; but they, not ignorant of the Turk's 
promises, wisely refused, and manfully stood so long asthey could to the 
defence of their city ; now and then skirmishing with them in out-cor- 
ners, and killing certain numbers of them ; sometimes with their shot 
disturbing their munitions, and breaking the wheels of their guns, &c. 

Three special means the Turks use in winning great forts and Three 

.. r , , . i 1 • special 

cities : great multitude of soldiers ; great ordnance and mortar pieces ; helps or 
the third is by undermining : all which here, in the siege of this city, theTurks - 
lacked not. This siege continued vehement a certain space; in 
which the Striegaunians had borne out four strong assaults, and slain 
many thousands of the Turks ; till at length the Turks either depart- 
ing away, or else seeming to depart unto Buda, the people at last 
being so persuaded and made to believe of some chief rulers of the 
city (peradventure not the truest men), the citizens, being erected 
with hope and comfort, and singing Te Deum, as though the city had 
been free from all danger, suddenly (by whose counsel it is unknown) 
conveyed themselves all out of the city : three hundred horsemen ^^* 
also passed over the river and departed. The Italians, who were Btrtegra 
under Franciscus Salamanca, a Spanish captain, hardly could be per- dty ' c 
suaderl by him to abide, who were in all scarce six hundred. 

Within three days after, three hundred German soldiers, with two 

(I) Ex Martino Stella. 



-,, THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

soiyman. bUds laden witli shot, powder, and artillery, were privily let into the 

— town, so that of our men in all there were scarce one thousand three 

dMuS^" hundred soldiers; who, seeing the small quantity of their number, 

ed ' burning and casting down the town and suburbs, took them to the 

castle; from whence they beat off the Turks valiantly with their 

ordnance a good space, and with wildfire destroyed great companies 

of them, till at last, seeing their walls to fail them, and the whole 

castle to shake by undermining, but especially by the working of a 

certain Italian surnamed Presbyter, they gave over. This Italian, 

whether for fear or falsehood, secretly, unknown to the rest of the 

soldiers, accompanied by two others, conveyed himself down from the 

walls, and being brought into the tents of the next captain or bassa 

of the Turks, there, in the name of all his fellows, con vented with the 

An u.v Turks, to give up to them the castle : whereupon the Turks were bid 

tayteM- t0 cease tne shooting. This Italian, shortly after, with two other 

i»f- ; »ie Turks, was sent back to Salamanca, his captain, with the Turk's mes- 

striegau sage. The going out of this Italian being privy to the residue of his 

Turk fellows, contrary to the laws and discipline of Avar, although it seemed 

to come of his own head, yet, forasmuch as the other soldiers were not 

sure, but rather suspected lest the other Italians, his countrymen, 

had been in some part of consent therein, and would take his part, 

they neither durst offer him any harm for that his doing, nor yet 

could well advise with themselves what was best to do, for fear of 

privy confederacy, within themselves. 

a Turk- Thus, while Lascanus the chief captain of the Christians aforesaid, 

taken"" *&h his fellow-soldiers, were in a maze what to do, or not to do ; in 

ciids-' 10 the mean time came one running, who giving a sign both to the Chris- 

tiani, tians and the Turks to hold their hands and weapons, for that it was 

knowing against all law of war to fight after peace and truce taken, our men, 

thea-of. as t ] ie y were comm anded, went into the inward tower. The Turks, 

in the mean time, had got into the castle, and occupied all the outer 

parts. Then was Salamanca, by the consent of the rest, sent out to 

the Turk, who, being stayed there that night, the next morrow the 

Turk's bull or warrant Avas sent into the castle, permitting free liberty 

The false to the Christians to depart with bag and baggage ; who now being 

ve'/trao * ready to depart, first were commanded by the Turks, compassing them 

JJj.P[°- round about, to cast from them their dags, lances, and battleaxes, into 

the trench. Then coming to the gate to go out, their swords were taken 

from them, looking then for nothing but present death. 

At last, when they were come a little further, others were sent to 
them to discharge them of their helmets, their targets, cuirasses, and 
Miserable whatsoever piece of harness was about them : whereupon great fear 
" came upon them, lest some great cruelty should be showed upon them. 
1 Bolyman, after he had long deliberated with himself, whether to kill 
them or not, at last, contrary to all expectation, granted their lives : 
but, before they should be dismissed, he first caused them, in derision 
•'I ( 'liristiauity, to be baited with scorns and mocks throughout all the 
'I urkish army; and so the next day commanded them, being stript 
"ut ot then- coats and apparel, to be reduced again into the castle by 
companies, setting over them certain Turks with cudgels and bats to 
,:| . V "I"" 1 1,l(ir backs and sides, causing them to bury the dead car- 
et! et, and to gather up the rubbish broken down from the castle-walls, 



THE HISTORY OF THK TIKKS. 71 

nnd to scour the ditches. This done, the next day following lie de- Soiyman. 
inanded of them, by an interpreter, whether they would enter wages Holy soi- 
with him, and take horse and armour to serve him in his wars ; which |j|£tj« d 
condition, divers for fear were contented to take, seeing no other ffii\ 
remedy to avoid present death. Sonic, neither bv menacing words, for their 
nor for any fear of death, could be compelled thereunto ; of whom [Idigkra, 
certain, who stood stoutly in refusing thereof, were presently 
slain, whom I may worthily recite in the number and catalogue of 
holy martyrs. 

Of the aforesaid Christians, part were carried over the river Danube, 
not without great villany, and contumely most despiteful. For some 
had their wives taken from them, and earned away; some had their wives 
abused before their face ; and such as made or showed any resistance 
thereat, had their wives before them cast into the river and drowned ; 
also their infants and young children, being appointed by the Turks 
to the abominable order of the Janizaries, mentioned before, their 
parents, not consenting thereunto, were precipitated and thrown into 
the river, and drowned. All these things are testified by John 
Martin Stella, in his epistles in print extant, written to his two 
brethren, William and Michael ; which Martin Stella, moreover, 
addeth and affirmeth this : that he himself, being the same time at 
Vienna, did see one of the aforesaid wives, who, being held fast by 
the hair of the head, yet notwithstanding, having her hair plucked 
off, cast herself into the river Danube, for the singular love to her 
husband, and so swam to the ship where he was. And thus this mi- 
serable company of Germans, Spaniards, and Italians mixed together, 
macerated with labours, with hunger pined, with watchings, dolors, 
and sorrow consumed, came at length to Schinda. 

When the tidings thereof were noised at Vienna, partly with fear Divers 
and dread, partly Avith indignation, all men's hearts were moved and °J? "™ ua 
vexed diversely. Some thought them not worthy to be received into J^ nni " 
their city, showing themselves so dastardly and cowardly. Others touching 
thought again, that mercy was to be showed unto them, and com- Jrabi"" 
mended their fact, for that they, being so few, and unfurnished with aid, " ^- e ^ 
neither able to match by any means with such an innumerable multi- 
tude of the Turks, kept themselves till better time might serve them. 
But howsoever the matter was to be thought of, the captains brought 
the poor remnant of that rueful company unto Possidonium, where 
the said captains were laid fast, and there kept in durance, to render 
account of the whole matter, how it was wrought and handled. And 
thus have ye the lamentable story of Striegau. 

The Turk proceeding in his victories, conducted his army next unto Tata sub- 
Tata, and to the parts lying near about Comaron. This Tata was u^ d '' y 
also a stronghold in Hungary, wherein were placed certain garrisons, Turks - 
partly of the Germans, partly of the Italians. The chieftain of the 
Italians was one Annibal Tasso, constituted by Philippus Tornelius. victory 
This Tasso was a man well expert in prowess of war, but of a filthy ha,h s " e " 
corrupt life, and also a foul swearer, and horrible blasphemer of God cess uu- 
and his saints. To make the story short, this fort of Tata, before any wicked 
siege was laid unto it, was yielded and given up to the Turks ; upon a^, ,a '"' 
what conditions, or by whose means, the author showeth not. Tims iwoawr. 
much he showeth, that the said Annibal, shortly upon the same, 



The 

Turka' 

device in 



the 

Turks, 



yj thk history of the turks. 

st^man. returning into Italy, was commanded by Tornelius aforesaid, U) be 

apprehended and beheaded. 
Aiba Re- After the Turks had subverted and destroyed the fort of Tata, they 
SegedL* turned tlieir power against Alba, surnamed Regalis, for that the kings 
of Hungary have been always wont there to be crowned and buried. 
This Alba is a little well-compacted city in Hungary, having on the 
one side a marsh somewhat foggish or fenny, which made the town less 
assaultable. But, near to the same was a wood, from which the Turks 
every day, with six hundred carts, brought such matter of wood, and 
">' trees, felled for the purpose, into the marsh, that, within less than 
w'arsh. twelve davs, they made it apt and hard to their feet ; which the towns- 
men thought never could be gone upon, but only in the hard frosts 
strata- of winter. At the first beginning of the siege, there stood, a little 
&?< 'ifris- without the munitions, in the front of the city, a certain church or 
1 ■*»■ monastery, into which the citizens, pretending to maintain and keep 
against the Turks, had privily conveyed light matter easily to take 
flame, with powder in secret places thereof, and had hid also fire 
withal : which done, they (as against their wills being driven back) 
withdrew themselves within the munitions, waiting the occasion when 
this fire would take. Thus the Turks having the possession of the 
church, suddenly the fire coming to the powder, raised up the church, 
and made a great scatter and slaughter among the barbarous Turks. 
This was not so soon espied of them within the town, but they issued 
out upon them in this disturbance, and slew of them a gTeat number. 
Among whom, divers of their nobles also the same time were slain, 
and one bassa, a eunuch, who was of great estimation with the Turks. 
a note Moreover, in the same skirmish was take none of those gunners, which 
touching ^ c p ronc ] 1 j^g j s ga ^ to j iave gen t £ t jj e Turk a little before : 

Engthat wm cb if it be true, let the christian reader judge what is to be thought 
Sen was. of those christian princes, who, not only forsaking the common cause 
of Christ's church, joined league with the Turk, but also sent him 
gunners to set forward his wars to the destruction of Christ's people, 
and to the shedding of their blood ; for whom they know the blood 
of Christ to be shed. If this be not true, I show mine author ; l if it 
be, then let the pope see and mark well, how this title of ' Christian- 
i-Minus 1 can well agree with such doings. 

But to let this matter sleep, although the Turks, (as ye heard) had 

won the fen, with their policy and industry, against the city of Alba, 

yet all this while the Albanes were nothing inferior to their enemies, 

through the valiant help and courageous endeavour of Octavianus 

Scruzatus, a captain of Milan, by whose prudent counsel and constant 

standing, the busy enterprises of the Turks did little prevail a long 

time ; till at length, suddenly arose a thick fog or mist upon the city, 

whereas, round about besides, the sun did shine bright. Some said 

it came by art magical, but rather it may appear to rise out of the 

bn or marsh, being so pressed down withmehs feet, and other matter 

laid upon it. 

Ti.rr.ut- J lie Turks using the occasion of this misty darkness, in secret wise 

vaiUfot approaching the walls, had got up to a certain fortress Avhere the Ger- 

Tulki. nana "rere, before our men could well perceive them; where they 

pressed in bo thick, and in such number, that albeit the christian 

|1) Ex Epist. John. Marti. Stella .id fratrcs do Turear. in Hungaria successlbus. 



swim as well as they could into the city, where many of them, stick- dj 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. i O 

soldiers, standing strongly to the defence of their lives, did what ^l— ' 
valiant men in cases of such extremity were able to do ; yet, being 
overmatched by the multitude of the Turks, and the suddenness of 
their coming, they gave back, seeking to retire unto the inward walls, 
which when their other fellows did see to recule, then was there flying 
of all hands, every man striving to get into the city. There was 
between the outward walls or vaumures, and inward gate of the city, 
a strait or narrow passage, cast up in the manner of a bank or cause- 
way, ditched on both sides, which passage or ingress happened at the 
same time to be barred and stopped ; by reason whereof the poor Miserable 

to ' 

tian sol- 
ing in the mud, were drowned, one pressing upon another : many 
were slain of their enemies coming behind them, they having neither 
heart nor power to resist. A few, who could swim out, were received 
into the city ; but the chief captains and warders of the town were 
there slain. 

The citizens, being destitute of their principal captains and war- 
riors, were in great perplexity and doubt among themselves what to 
do, some thinking good to yield, some counselling the contrary. 
Thus, while the minds of the citizens were distracted in divers and 
doubtful sentences, the magistrates, minding to stand to the Turk's 
gentleness, 1 sent out one of their heads unto the Turk, who, in the 
name of them all, should surrender to him the city, and become unto 
him tributaries, upon condition they might enjoy liberty of life and 
goods. This being to them granted, after the Turkish faith and as- 
surance ; first, the soldiers who were left within the city, putting ofF 
their armour, were discharged and sent away; who, being but only three 
hundred left of four ensigns of Italians, and of one thousand Ger- 
mans, by the way were laid for by the Tartarians for hope of their 
spoil ; so that they, scattering asunder one one way, and another 
another, to save themselves as well as they could, fled every one what 
way he thought best ; of whom, some wandering in w r oods and 
marshes fainted for famine ; some were taken and slain by the Hun- 
garians : a few, with bare, empty, and withered bodies, more like 
ghosts than men, escaped, and came to Vienna. And this befell upon 
the soldiers. 

Now understand what happened to the yielding citizens. So in the 
story it followeth, that when the Turk had entered the town, and had 
visited the sepulchre of the kings, for three or four days he pretended 
much clemency toward the citizens, as though he came not to oppress 
them, but to be revenged of Ferdinand their king, and to deliver 
them from the servitude of the Germans. On the fourth day, all the what it is 
chief and head men of the city were commanded to appear before the {^j 1 ,^" 

Turk, in a plain not far from the city, where the condemned persons ■"**? 
i 1111 111 stIck l0 

before were wont to be executed, as though they should come to his pro- 
swear unto the Turk. At this commandment of the Turk, when the mise ' 
citizens in great number, and in their best attire were assembled, the 
Turk, contrary to his faith and promise, commanded suddenly a 
general slaughter to be made of them all. And this was the end of 
the citizens of Alba. 

(1) Let good Christiana never stand to the Turk's gentleiteu. 



74 THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

Mpm. In tlic mean time, during the siege of Alba, the Hungarians,. 
JIalf a meeting sometimes with the horsemen of the Tartarians, who were 
>' ou "p sent out to stop their victuals from the city, slew of them, at one 
found in bickering, three thousand Turks : in which story is also reported and 
ei'of a Ch ' mentioned of mine author, a horrible sight and example of misery, 
coming concerning a certain captain (a Christian belike), who, coming unto 
ftomtha Vienna, was found to have in his scrip or satchel the half of a young 
child of two years old, which remained yet uneaten, the other half 
being eaten before, a.d. 1543. 1 

Next after this, was expugned the castle of Papa by the Turks. 

Let the castle of ' Papa 1 now take heed, lest one day it follow after ! 

visegrade The like fidelity the Turks also kept with the fort of Visegrade, 

brthef" 1 an( l tne s °l u i ers thereof. This Visegrade is situate in the mid-way 

Turks, between Buda and Striegau ; of which fort or castle, the highest 

tower so mounteth upon the hill, that unless it be for famine or lack 

of water, they have not to dread any enemy. Notwithstanding so it 

happened, that the lower piece being won, they in the higher tower 

abiding four days without drink, were compelled, with liberty granted 

The false of life and goods, to yield themselves. But the devilish Turks, 

theTuxks keeping no faith nor promise, slew them every one : only Petrus 

'thr'ruris Amandus, the captain of the piece, excepted ; who privily was con- 

tians. ' vcyed by the captain of the Turks, out of the slaughter, a.d. 1544. 

Novum To these, moreover, may be added the winning of Novum Cas- 

C um te !n tellum, in Dalmatia, where he slew all that were within, both soldiers 

Datoatia and others, for that they did not yield themselves in time. Thus the 

theTu'rks. Turk, whether they yielded to him or not, never spared the people 

and flock of Christ. 

As the false and cruel Turk was thus raging in Hungary, and 

intended further to rage without all mercy and pity of the Christians, 

and might easily then have prevailed and gone whither he would, for 

_. that Charles the emperor, and Francis the French kin" 1 , were at the 

Discord . . l l "Y> ii i i • 

of elms- same tune in war and hostility, and also other christian princes; as 
priacei. Henry, duke of Brunswick, against John Frederic, duke of Saxony ; 
The pro- also princes and rulers were contending among themselves : behold 
(;','„'] "l,' r " the gracious providence of our Lord and God toward us, who, seeing 
t 1 ian8. hris " tllc mis ery, and having pity of his poor Christians, suddenly, as with 
wcasTon rk ? snan: H reined this raging beast, and brought him out of Europe 
ed to re- into his own country again, by occasion of the Persians, who were 
.Vf Ku'rope tnen in great preparation of war against the Turks, and had invaded his 
dominion ; by reason whereof the Turks were kept there occupied, 
fighting with the Persians a long continuance. Which wars at length 
being achieved and finished (wherein the said Turk lost great victories, 
with slaughter of many thousands of his Turks), he\vas not only 
provoked by the instigation of certain evil disposed Hungarians, but 
also occasioned by the discord of christian princes, to return again 
into Europe, in hope to subdue all the parts thereof unto his domi- 
nion. Whereunto when he had levied an army incredible of such a 
multitude of Turks, as the like hath not lightly been heard of, see 
again the merciful providence and protection of our God toward his 
people. As the Turk was thus intending to set forward with his 
innumerable multitude against the Christians, the hand of the Lord 

11 Bl i:,msI. Marti. Stella ad fratres ds Turcar. in Kfl&gWTM successions. 



nitu Asia. 



THE HISTORY OF THE TL'KKS. 75 

sent such a pestilence through all the Turk's army and dominion, s u i y mnn. 
reaching from Bithynia, and from Thrace to Macedonia, and also to 
Hungary, that all the Turk's possession seemed almost nothing else, 
but as a heap of dead corpses, whereby his voyage for that time was 
stopped, and he almost compelled to seek a new army. 

Besides this plague of the Turks aforesaid, which was worse to Another 
them than any war, other lets also and domestic calamities, through of 3° 
God's providence, happened unto Solyman, the great rover and robber 2™ v c ' e ~ 
of the world, which stayed him at home from vexing the Christians ; 
especially touching his eldest son, Mustapha. 

This Mustapha being hated, and partly feared of Rustan, the chief 
councillor about the Turk, and of Rosa, the Turk's concubine and 
afterwards his wife, was divers times complained of to his father, 
accused, and at length so brought into suspicion and displeasure of 
the Turk, by them aforesaid, that, in conclusion, his father caused him 
to be sent for to his pavilion, where six Turks with visors were ap- 
pointed to put him to death : who, coming upon him, put, after their 
manner, a smal'l cord or bow-string full of knots about his neck, and 
so, throwing him down upon the ground, not suffering him to speak 
one word to his father, with the twitch thereof throttled and strangled soiyman 
him to death, his father standing in a secret corner by, and beholding eth Mus- 
the same. Which fact being perpetrated, afterwards, when the Turk own^on!" 
would have given to another son of his and of Rosa, called Gianger, 
the treasures, horse, armour, ornaments, and the province of Mustapha 
his brother, Gianger, crying out for sorrow of his brother's death : 
" Fye of thee !" saith he to his father, " thou impious and wretched 
dog, traitor, murderer ; I cannot call thee father. Take the treasures, 
the horse, and the armour of Mustapha to thyself ;" and with that, 
taking out his dagger, thrust it through his own body. And thus 
was Solyman murderer and parricide of his own sons : which was in 
a.d. 1552. 

Herein, notwithstanding, is to be noted the singular providence The lov- 
and love of the Lord toward his afflicted Christians. For this Mas- dence of 
tapha, as he was courageous and greatly expert and exercised in all fo/ijjs™ 1 
practice of war, so had he a cruel heart, maliciously set to shed the jj£*j"" 
blood of Christians : wherefore great cause have we to congratulate, 
and to give thanks to God, for the happy taking away of this Mus- 
tapha. And no less hope also and good comfort we may conceive of 
our loving Lord hereby ministered unto us, to think that our merciful Go °<i 
God, after these sore afflictions of his Christians under these twelve Gods 
Turks afore recited, now, after this Solyman, intendeth some gracious JjJE^Si 
good work to Christendom, to reduce and release us out of this so long ^^ 
and miserable Turkish captivity, as may be hoped now, by taking tians. 
away these young imps of this impious generation, before they should 
come to work their conceived malice against us : the Lord therefore 
be glorified and praised. Amen ! 

Moreover, as I was writing hereof, opportunely came to my hands Good 
a certain writing out of Germany, certifying us of such news and theTurta 
victory of late achieved against the Turk, as may not a little increase p^Ja^ 
our hope, and comfort us, touching the decay and ruin of the Turk's thechris- 
powcr and tyranny against us ; which news are these : That after the 
Turkish tyrant had besieged, with an army of 30,000 men. the famous 



~<j THE H1ST0KV OK THE TLKKS 

socman, and strong town and castle of Gyula, in Hungary lying forty Dutch 

miles beyond the river Danube, which city had by the space ot six 

weeks sustained many grievous assaults, God, through his great mercy 
and goodness, so comforted the said town of Gyula, and the poor 
Christians therein, at their earnest prayers, that the Turk, with all his 
host, was driven back by the hands of the general, called Karetshim 
Laslaw, and his valiant company ; who not only defended the said 
town, but also- constrained the Turks to retire, to their great shame 
and confusion, with a great slaughter of the Turkish rabble ; for which 
the everlasting God be praised for ever. 

The manner of the overthrow was this : As the aforesaid general 

Kand did see his advantage, with captain George and other horsemen of the 

IVaYn s Silesians and Hungarians, they set on the rearward of the Turks, and 

killed about eight thousand of them, and took also some of their 

artillery, and followed them so fast, that the Turks were constrained 

to flee into a marshy ground, and to break the wheels of the rest 01 

their artillery to save themselves ; and therewith they got a very rich 

booty, rescuing besides, and taking from the Turks, a great number 01 

Chris- christian prisoners. Like thanks are also to be given to God, for the 

'-uedand prosperous success given to Magotsehy, the valiant captain of Erlan, 

take.. 3 " who, making toward the Turks and encountering with the Tartarians, 

Turk S the slew of them about eight hundred.' 

a great Not long after this it happened, through the like providence of 
captain our Q 0( \, that a Turkish captain called Begen. accompanied with a 
Torta thousand fresh horsemen, came newly out of Turkey, to go toward the 
citv named Quinque Ecclesise, or Fiinfkirchen, with whom the 
carl of Serin, by the way, did encounter, and in the night, setting upon 
him, killed the captain, and took eight camels, and eight mules laden 
with treasure, and also got two red guidons, 1 with a whole great piece 
of rich cloth of gold, and with another fair and strange jeAvel. The 
horse of this aforesaid Turkish captain was betrapped and decked 
most richly ; the saddle whereof had the pommel and back part 
covered over with plate of fine Arabic gold, and the rest of the saddle, 
besides the sitting place, was plated with silver very fair gilded. The 
scat of the saddle was covered with purple velvet ; the trappings and 
bridle beset with little turquoises and rubies : which horse was sent 
to Vienna, unto the emperor Maximilian, for a present. 

Although the earl would very fain have saved the captain, not 
knowing what he was, yet the Janizaries, labouring to carry away 
their captain, so stiffly defended themselves, that the earl, with his 
company, was constrained to kill both them and their captain. From 
whom the said earl of Serin, the same time, got fifteen thousand 
Turkish and Hungarian ducats; which money was brought for the 
payment of the Turkish soldiers in the aforesaid town of Fiinf- 
Ivirchen. All which be good beginnings of greater goodness to 
be hoped for hereafter, through the grace of Christ our Lord; espe- 
cially if our christian rulers and potentates, first, the churchmen and 
prelates for their parts, then, the civil powers and princes for their 
parts, withholding their affections a little, will turn their brawls and 
variance into I irothcrly concord and agreement; which the Lord of 
Peace put in their minds to d<>. Amen ! Or otherwise, if it will so 



and 



I : ■ OumI.'hn,"' standards.— Ed 



THE HISTORY OF THE TIKKS. "7 

please the Lord that the Turk conic further upon us, so'as lie hath Soigmam 
begun for our punishment and castigation, his grace then give to the i^ 
flock of his poor Christians, constancy of faith, patience in suffering, T " rk . s 
and amendment of life. For so I understand by public fame, although Suoitafy. 
uncertainly rumoured by the voice of some, that the Turks 1 power of 
late, this present year of our Lord, 156"b', hath pierced the parts of 
Apulia within Italy, wasting and burning the space of a hundred 
miles toward Naples : which if it be certain, it is to be feared, that 
the Turk having thus set in his foot, and feeling the sweetness of 
Italy, will not so cease before he get in both head and shoulders also, 
so far into Italy, that he will display his banners within the walls of 
Rome, and do with old Rome the like as Mahomet, his great grand- 
father, did with new Rome, the city of Constantinople, and as the 
Persians did with Babylon. 

The causes why we have so to judge, be divers : first, that the see Conjec- 
of Rome hath been defended hitherto and maintained, with much why'it is 
blood ; and therefore it may seem not incredible, but that it will not f° a ^ d 
long continue, but be lost with blood again, according to the verdict that the 
of the gospel : " He that striketh with the sword, shall perish with ^tnome! 
the sword," &c. Another cause is, the fulfilling of Apocalypse xviii., 
where it is written, " That great Babylon shall fall, and be made an 
habitation of devils, and a den of unclean spirits, and a cage of filthy 
and unclean birds :" the fall whereof shall be like a mill-stone in the 
sea, that is, which shall not rise again. And that this is to come 
before the day of judgment, the text of the said chapter doth apertly 
declare ; where the words do follow, showing, That the kings of the 
earth, and the merchants, which had to do with the whorish city, 
standing afar off for fear of the heat, and beholding the smoke of the 
said city flaming and burning with fire, shall bewail and rue her 
destruction and desolation, &c. What city this is, called Great 
Babylon, which, like a mill-stone, shall fall and burn, and be made 
a habitation of unclean spirits and beasts, let the reader construe. 
This is certain and plain, by these her kings and merchants standing The pro- 
afar off for fear, and beholding her burning, that the destruction of A P oca- of 
this city (what city soever it be) shall be seen here on earth before ] JW 
the coming of the Lord's judgment, as may easily be gathered by expoimd- 
these three circumstances ; that is, by the standing, the beholding, ed ' 
and the bewailing of her merchants; by which merchants and king? 
of the earth, peradventure, may be signified the pope, the rich car- 
dinals, the great prelates, and the fat doctors, and other obedientiaries 
of the Romish see, who, at the coming of the Turks, will not adven- 
ture their lives for their church, but will flee the city, no doubt, and 
stand afar off from danger. And when they shall see with their 
eyes, and hear with their ears, the city of Rome to be set on fire and 
consumed by the cruel Turks, the sight thereof shall seem to them 
piteous and lamentable, to behold the great and fair city of Rome, 
the tall castle of St. Angelo, the pope's mighty see (where they were 
wont to fish out such riches, dignities, treasures, and pleasure), so to 
burn before their eyes, and to come to such utter desolation, which 
shall never be re-edified again, but shall be made a habitation of 
devils and unclean spirits ; that is, of Turks and heathen sultans, and 
barbarous Saracens, &c. This, I say, peradventure, may be the 



78 THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

soiymnn. meaning of that prophetical place of the Apocalpse ; not that I have 
here any thing to pronounce, but only give my guess, what may pro- 
bably be conjectured. But the end at length will make this, and all 
other things, more plain and manifest ; for mystical prophecies lightly 
arc never so well understood, as when the event of them is past and 
accomplished. 
TWru Another cause, concurring with the causes aforesaid, may be col- 
cause. Jected out of Paulus Jovius, who, writing of the subversion of Rhodes, 
which was, as ye heard a. u. 1522, upon Christmas day, saith, that 
it chanced suddenly, the same day, in Rome, that as pope Adrian VI. 
was entering into the church to' his service, suddenly over his head 
the upper frontier or top of the chapel door, which was of marble, 
immediately as the pope was entering, fell down, and slew certain 
of his guard waiting upon him. Whereby peradventure may be 
meant, that the ruin of Rome was not long after to follow the loss 
of Rhodes. 
Fourth The fourth cause I borrow out of Johannes Aventinus, who, in 
cau " e - his third book, alleging the names, but not the words of Hildegard, 
a pro- Briget, and other prophetical persons, hath these words ; " Si vera 
phec> ' sint carmina et vaticinia, D. Hildegardse, et Brigittse, Sybillarum 
Germanise, et Bardorum fatidicorum, qui ea quae nostro sevo com- 
pleta vidimus longo ante, tempore nobis cecinerunt ; Agrippinensis 
Colonia, nolimus, velimus, Turcarum capui erit," &c. ; that is, " If 
the sayings and prophecies of Hildegard, of Briget, and other pro- 
phetical persons, be true, which, being foretold long before, we have 
seen now in these our days accomplished ; the town of Cologne, will 
wc, nill we, must needs be the head city of the Turks."" 1 

And this I write, not as one pronouncing against the city of Rome 

what will happen, but as one fearing what may fall : which if it 

come to pass (as I pray God it may not), then shall the pope well 

understand, whither his wrong understanding of the Scriptures, and 

his false flattering glossers upon the same, have brought him. 

a caveat Wherefore my counsel to the pope, and all his popish maintainers 

bishop of am l upholders is, to humble themselves, and to agree with their 

h.""!T ' f brethren betimes, letting all contention fall : lest that while the 

wise. bishop of Rome shall strive to be the highest of all other bishops, it 

so fall out shortly, that the bishop of Rome shall be found the lowest 

of all other bishops, or, peradventure, no bishop at all. 

Whereupon also another cause may be added, taken out of 
Hieronymus Savanarola, who prophcsieth, that one like unto 
Cyrus shall come over the Alps, and destroy Italy : whereof see 
more before. 

This Solyman, if he be yet alive, hath now reigned forty-six years, 
who began the same year in which the emperor Charles V. was 
crowned, which was a. D. 1520, and so hath continued, by God's per- 
mission, for a scourge to the Christians, unto this year now present, 
I •">»>(>. This Solyman, by one of his concubines, had his eldest son, 
called Mustapha. By another concubine called Rosa, he had four 
sons, Mahomet, Bajazet, Selim, and Gianger: of w r hich sons, Mus- 
tapha and Gianger were slain (as ye heard before) by means of their 

(1) Anna), lib. .1, fol. 30. 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 79 

own father. And thus much concerning the wretched tyranny of the fofcmaa. 

Turks, out of the authors hereunder written. 1 



A NOTICE TOUCHING THE MISERABLE PERSECUTION, SLAUGH- 
TER, AND CAPTIVITY, OK THE CHRISTIANS 
UNDER THE TURKS. 

Hitherto thou hast heard, christian reader ! the lamentable perse- rerseeu- 
cutions of these latter days, wrought by'the Turks against the people ^the" 
and servants of Christ. In the reading whereof, such as sit quietly Tuit 
at home, and be far from jeopardy, may see what misery there is 
abroad ; the knowledge and reading whereof shall not be unprofitable 
for all Christians earnestly to weigh and consider, for that many there 
be, who, falsely deceiving themselves, imagine that Christianity is a 
quiet and restful state of life, full of pleasure and solace in this pre- 
sent world ; when indeed it is nothing less, as testified by the mouth 
of our Saviour himself, who, rightly defining his kingdom, teacheth 
us, that his kingdom is not of this world ; premonishing us also 
before, that in this world we must look for affliction, but in him we 
shall have peace. Examples hereof in all parts of this history, through compa- 
all ages, are plenteous and evident to be seen, whether we turn our tweentile 
eyes to the first ten persecutions in the primitive church, during the £" n S g „f" 
first three hundred years after Christ; or whether we consider the the p"- 
latter three hundred years in this last age of the church, wherein the and the 
poor flock of Christ hath been so afflicted, oppressed, and devoured, church, 
that it is hard to say, whether have been more cruel against the 
Christians, the infidel emperors of Rome, in the primitive age of the 
church, or else these barbarous Turks, in these our later times of 
the church now present. 

Thus, from time to time, the church of Christ hath had little or 
no rest in this earth : what for the heathen emperors on the one side ; 
what for the proud pope on the other side ; on the third side, what 
for the barbarous Turk : for these are, and have been from the be- Three 
ginning, the three principal and capital enemies of the church of^mles 
Christ, signified in the Apocalypse by " the beast, the false lamb, and "''Christ's 
the false prophet, from whom went out three foul spirits, like frogs, 
to gather together all the kings of the earth to the battle of the day 
of the Lord God Almighty.' 1 '' [Apoc. xvi.] The cruelty and malice The cru- 
of these three enemies against Christ's people hath been such, that to Ldous ' e 
judge which of them did most exceed in cruelty of persecution, it is ^"[j^" 
hard to say ; but, that it may be thought that the bloody and beastly 
tyranny of the Turks especially, above the rest, incomparably sur- 
mounteth all the afflictions and cruel slaughters that ever were seen 
in any age, or read of in any story : insomuch tliat there is neither 
history so perfect, nor writer so diligent, who, writing of the miserable 

(1) The Authors of the Turks' Stories. 

Leonicus Chalcondyla. Ludovicus Vives. Paulus Jovius. 

Nicolaus Eboicus Episc. Sagun- Bernard as de Breydenbach. Jolian. Martinus Stella. 

tinus. Sabellicus. Caspar Peucerus, ,vr. 

Johannes Ramus. Mityleneus Archiepisc. N'itolaus a Motlen Burgundus. 

Andrajas a Lueana. Isiodorus Ruthtrus. Sebast. Munsterus. 

Wolfgangus Drechslerus. Marimia Barletus. Baptists Egnatius. 

Johannes Crispus. Henricus lVnia.de hello Rhodio. Uarthol. Peregrinus., 

Johannes Faber, Melchior Soiterus. 



SO THE HISTORT OF THE TURKS. 

soiymnn. tyranny of the Turks, is able to express or comprehend the horrible 
^l examples of their unspeakable cruelty and slaughter, exercised by these 
! , !li "o' d twt 'lve Turkish tyrants upon poor christian men's bodies, within the 
in the compass of these latter three hundred years. Whereof although no 
1 " rk " sufficient relation can be made, nor number expressed ; yet, to give 
to the reader some general guess or view thereof, let us first perpend 
and consider what dominions and empires, how many countries, king- 
doms, provinces, cities, towns, strongholds, and forts, these Turks 
have surprised and won from the Christians; in all which victories, 
being s0 many, this is secondly to be noted, that there is almost no 
place which the Turks ever came to and subdued, where they did not 
cither slay all the inhabitants thereof, or led away the most part 
thereof into such captivity and slavery, that they continued not long 
after alive, or else so lived, that death, almost, had been to them 
more tolerable. 

Like as in the time of the first persecutions of the Roman empe- 
rors, the saying was, that no man could step with his feet in all 
Rome, but should tread upon a martyr ; so here may be said, that 
almost there is not a town, city, or village, in all Asia and Greece, 
also in a great part of Europe and Africa, whose streets have not 
flowed with the blood of the Christians, whom the cruel Turks have 
murdered : of whom are to be seen in histories, heaps of soldiers 
slain, of men and women cut in pieces, of children sticked upon poles 
and stakes, whom these detestable Turks most spitefully, and that in 
the sight of their parents, use to gore to death. Some they drag at 
their horse's tails, and famish to death ; some they tear in pieces, 
tying their arms and legs to four horses ; others they make marks to 
shoot at r upon some they try their swords, how deep they can cut 
and slash, as before ye have read. The aged and feeble they tread 
under their horses ; women with child they spare not, but mangle their 
bodies, and cast the infants into the fire, or otherwise destroy 
them. Whether the Christians yield to them, or yield not, all is a 
matter. As in their promises there is no truth, so in their victories 
there is no sense of manhood or mercy in them, but they make 
havoc of all. 1 

So the citizens of Croia, after they had yielded and were all pro- 
mised their lives, were all destroyed, and that horribly. In Mysia, 
after the king had given himself to the Turk's hand, having promise 
of life, Mahomet the Turk slew him with his own hands. The 
princes of Rasia had both their eyes put out, with basons red hot set 
before them. Theodosia, otherwise called Capha, was also surren- 
dered to the Turk, having the like assurance of life and safety ; and 
yet, contrary to the league, the citizens were put to the sword and 
slain. At the winning and yielding of Lesbos, what a number of 
youn<j men and children were put upon sharp stakes and poles, and 
so thrust through ! At the winning of the city of Buda, what tyranny 
was showed and exercised against the poor Christians who had yielded 
themselves, and against the two dukes, Christopher Bisserer, and 
Johnn Tranbinger, contrary to the promise and hand-writing of 
the Turk, is to be seen in the story of Mclchior Soiterus, ' De bello 
Pannonico/ 2 The like also is to be read in the story of Bcrnardus de 

(I) Ex Marino Barlctio de Scod. cxpugnat. lib. ii. (2) Lib. i. M. 515. 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 81 

Breydenbacli, 1 who, writing of the taking of Hydruntum, a city In socman. 
Apulia, testifieth of the miserable slaughter of the young men there T|1( , 6U _ 
slain, of old men trodden under the horses' feet, of matrons and pe»a- 
virgins abused, of women with child cut and rent in pieces, of the otto*" 
priests in the churches slain, and of the archbishop of that city, who, ^^ tM 
being- an aged man, and holding the cross in his hands, Mas cut 
asunder with a wooden saw, &c. The same Bernard, also, writing of 
the overthrow of Nigropont, otherwise called Chalcides, a. n. 1471, 
describeth the like terrible slaughter which there was exercjsed, where 
the Turk, after his promise given before to the contrary, most cruelly 
caused all the youth of Italy to be pricked upon sharp stakes ; some 
to be dashed against the hard stones, some to be cut in sunder in the 
midst, and others with other kinds of torments to be put to death : 
insomuch, that all the streets and ways of Chalcides did flow with the 
blood of those who were there slain. In that history the aforesaid 
writer recordeth one memorable example of maidenly chastity, worthy 
of all Christians to be noted and commended. The story is told of a not*- 
the praetor's daughter of that city, who, being the only daughter of ^y*,: 
her father, and noted to be of an exceeding singular beauty, was maidenly 
saved out of the slaughter, and brought to Mahomet the Turk, to be 
his concubine. But she, denying to consent to his Turkish appetite 
and filthiness, was commanded therewith to be slain and murdered, 
and so died she a martyr, keeping both her faith and her body nude- 
filed unto Christ Jesus her spouse. 

The like cruelty also was showed upon those who kept the castle, Miserable 
and afterwards, yielding themselves upon hope of the Turk's promise, chrisui*' 
were slain every one. What should I speak of the miserable slaughter ™^ d s 
of Modon, and the citizens thereof, dwelling in Peloponnesus ? 
who, seeing no other remedy but needs to come into the Turk's 
hands, set the barn on fire where they were gathered together, men, 
women, and children ; some women also with child, voluntarily cast 
themselves into the sea, rather than they would sustain the Turk's 
captivity. 

Miserable it is to behold, long to recite, incredible to believe, all 
•the cruel parts, and horrible slaughters, wrought by these miscreants 
against the Christians through all places almost of the world, both in 
Asia, in Africa, but especially in Europe. Who is able to recite 
the innumerable societies and companies of the Greeks martyred by 
the Turk's sword in Achaia, Attica, Thessalia, Macedonia, Epvrus, 
and all Peloponnesus ? besides the island of Rhodes, and other 
islands and cyclades adjacent in the sea about, numbered to two and 
fifty; of which, also, Patmos was one, where St. John, being banished, 
wrote his Revelations. Where did ever the Turks set any foot, but 
the blood of Christians there, without pity or measure, went to wrack ? 
and what place or province is there almost throughout the world, 
where the Turks either have not pierced, or are not likely shortly to Brierre . 
enter ? In Thrace, and through all the coasts of the Danube, in <*ai tf 
Bulgaria, Dalmatia, in Scrvia, Transylvania, Bosnia, in Hungary, also towns 
in Austria, what havoc hath been made by them of christian mcifs ™m%T 
bodies, it will rue any christian heart tq remember. At the siege of jj| c 1 , 1 u " rlt 
Moldavia, at the winning of Buda, of Pest, of Alba, of Walpo, rope. 

(1) Ex Bernardo de Breydenbach. Dccan. Eccl. Magnus. 
VOE. IV. G 



go THE HISTOEY OF THE TL'RKS. 

m. Strieg.ui, Soclosia, Tata, Vissegrade, Novum Castellum in Dal- 

matia, Belgrade, Waradein, Quinquc Ecclesise : also at tlie battle 

of Vama, where Ladislaus, king of Poland, with almost all his army, 

through the rashness of the pope's cardinal, were slain. At the 

winning, moreover, of Xabiacchus, Lyssus, Dynastrum : at the siege 

of Guns, and of the faithful town Scorad, where the number of the 

shot against their walls, at the siege thereof, was reckoned to be 

Cruelty of two thousand five hundred and thirty-nine. Likewise at the siege 

S«tort k °f Vienna, where all the christian captives were brought before the 

thedtt- whole army and slain, and divers drawn in pieces with horses: but 

Vienna, especially at the winning of Constantinople, above mentioned. Also 

ins cruel- at Croia and Modon, what beastly cruelty was showed, it is un- 

^^r l speakable. For as in Constantinople, Mahomet, the drunken Turk, 

suncrsof n ever rose from dinner, but he caused every day, for his dispoit, 

three hundred christian captives of the nobles of that city to be slain 

before his face : so, in Modon, after that his captain Omar had 

sent unto him at Constantinople, five hundred prisoners of the 

Christians, the cruel tyrant commanded them all to be cut and 

divided asunder by the middle, and so, being slain, to be thrown out 

into the fields. 1 

a Btrange Leonicus Chalcondyla, writing of the same story, addeth, more- 
over, a prodigious narration, if it be true, of a brute ox, which, being 
,,; in the fields, and seeing the carcases of the dead bodies so cut in two, 
to- made there a loud noise after the lowing of his kind and nature : and 

dead a afterwards, coming to the quarters of one of the dead bodies lying in 

bujy. tian tnc nc ^i nrst to °k U P tne one na ^> an( i tncn coming again, took up 
likewise the other half, and so, as he could, joined them both toge- 
ther. Which being espied by those who saw the doing of the brute 
ox, and marvelling thereat, and word being brought thereof to Ma- 
homet, he commanded the quarters again to be brought where they 
were before, to prove whether the beast would come again ; who 
failed not (as the author recordeth), but, in like sort as before, taking 
the fragments of the dead corpse, laid them again together. It fol- 
lowcth more in the author, how that Mahomet, being astonied at the 
strange wonder of the ox, commanded the quarters of the christian 
man's body to be interred, and the ox to be brought to his house, 
and much made of. Some said it was the body of a Venetian ; some 
affirmed, that he was an Illyrian ; but, whatsoever he was, certain it 
is, that the Turk himself was much more bestial than was the brute 
ox ; which, being a beast, showed more sense of humanity to a dead 
inan, than one man did to another. 2 

"»■ «- To this cruelty add, moreover, that besides these five hundred 

' Modonkns thus destroyed at Constantinople, in the said city of 

Modon, all the townsmen, also, were slain by the aforesaid captain 

''■""• < taaar, and, among them, their bishop likewise was put to death. 3 

John Paber, in his oration made before king Henry VIII., at the 
appointment of king Ferdinand, and declaring therein the miserable 
cruelty of the Turks toward all Christians, as also toward the bishops 
and ministers of the church, testifieth, how that in Mitylene, in 

(l) r ; * Leonleo Chalcondula de rebus. Tuicicla. lib. x. (2) Kx Leonic Chalcondyla, 

(3) ix Amir, do Lacuna, et ex Wolfg. it aliis. 



THH HISTORY OF THF TURKS. 83 

Constantinople, and in Trapczunda, what bishops and archbishops, Soiyman 
or other ecclesiastical and religious persons the Turks could find, — 
they brought them out of the cities into the fields, there to be slain 
like oxen and calves. 1 The same Faber also, writing of the battle 
of Soiyman in Hungary, whore Ludovic, the king of Hungary, was 
overthrown, declareth, that eight bishops in the same field were 
slain. And moreover, when the archbishop of Striegau, and Paul, 
the archbishop of Colosse, were found dead, Soiyman caused them to 
be taken up, and to be beheaded and chopped in small pieces, a. d. 
1526. 

What christian heart will not pity the incredible slaughter done Cruelty <,f 
by the Turks in Euboea, where the said Faber testified),' that innu- * e E ^! rk 
merable people were stuck and gored upon stakes, divers were thrust bflea - 
through with a hot iron, children and infants not yet weaned from 
the mother, were dashed against the stones, and many cut asunder in 
the midst ! 2 

But never did country taste and feel more the bitter and deadly The 
tyranny of the Turks, than did Rascia, called Mysia Inferior, and now ^ of 
Servia, where (as writeth Wolfgangus Dreschlerus) the prince of the sfain'o " d 
same country, being sent for under fair pretence of words and pro- the Turk. 
mises to come and speak with the Turk, after he was come of his ^"uT/ 
own gentleness, thinking no harm, was apprehended, and wretchedly prince 
and falsely put to death, and his skin flayed off, his brother and sister Turk. ie 
brought to Constantinople for a triumph, and all the nobles of his 
country (as Faber addeth) had their eyes put out, &c. 

Briefly to conclude : By the vehement and furious rage of these The 
cursed caitiffs, it may seem that Satan, the old dragon, for the great birred u P 
hatred he beareth to Christ, hath stirred them up to be the butchers °?, th t J; de ~ 
of all christian people, inflaming their beastly hearts with such malice H^ *■ 
and cruelty against the name and religion of Christ, that they, de- Christ, 
generating from the nature of men to devils, neither by reason will xurksare 
be ruled, nor by any blood or slaughter satisfied. Like as in the butchers 
primitive age of the church, and in the time of Dioclesian and Maxi- chris- 
milian, when the devil saw that he could not prevail against the tians ' 
person of Christ, who was risen again, he turned all his fury upon his 
simple servants, thinking by the Roman emperors utterly to ex- 
tinguish the name and profession of Christ out from the earth : So in 
this latter age of the world, Satan, being let loose again, ragcth by the 
Turks, thinking to make no end of murdering and killing, till he 
have brought, as he intendeth, the whole church of Christ, with all 
the professors thereof, under foot. But the Lord, I trust, will once 
send a Constantine, to vanquish proud Maxentius ; a Moses, to drown 
indurate Pharaoh ; a Cyrus, to subdue the stout Babylonian. 

And thus much hitherto touching our christian brethren who were Misery of 
slain and destroyed by these blasphemous Turks. Now, forasmuch uaVcap"-" 
as besides these aforesaid, many others were plucked away violently ^\^' 
from their country, from their wives and children, from liberty, and Turk. 
from all their possessions, into wretched captivity and extreme The buy- 
poverty, it remaineth likewise to treat somewhat, also, concerning the ^tog of 
cruel manner of the Turk's handling of the said christian captives. ca P tives - 

(1) Ex Johan. Fabro, in c-atioue ad rcprm Hen. VIII. (2) Ex Johan. Fabro, et difc. 

G 2 



S4. THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

soiyman. And first here is to be noted, that the Turk never cometh into 

Europe to war against the Christians, but there followeth after his 

army a great number of brokers or merchants, such as buy men and 
children to sell again,' bringing with them long chains in hope of 
great escheats : in which chains they link them by fifty and sixty 
together, such as remain undestroyed with the sword, whom they buy 
of°the spoils of them that rob and spoil the christian countries; 
which is lawful for any of the Turks' army to do, so that the tenth 
of their spoil or prey (whatsoever it be) be reserved to the head 
Turk ; that is, to the great master thief. 
curiatiM Of such as remain for tithe, if they be aged (of whom very few be 
SSwdb. reserved alive, because little profit cometh of that age), they be sold 
the Turk, to the use of husbandry, or keeping of beasts. If they be young men 
or women, they be sent to certain places, there to be instructed in 
their language and arts, as shall be most profitable for their advan- 
tage ; and such are called in their tongue, Sarai. And the first care 
of" the Turks is this : to make them deny the christian religion, and. 
to be circumcised ; and, after that, they are appointed, every one as 
he seemeth most apt, either to the learning of their laws, or else to 
learn the feats of war. Their first rudiment of war is to handle the 
bow ; first beginning with a weak bow, and so, as they grow in 
strength, coming to a stronger bow ; and if they miss the mark, they 
are sharply beaten : and their allowance is two pence or three pence 
o wick- a dav, till they come and take wages to serve in war. Some are 
pMstng brought up for the purpose to be placed in the number of the wicked 
an^mise- Janizarje^ that i Si the order of the Turk's champions, which is the 
most abominable condition of all others. Of these Janizaries, see be- 
fore. And if any of the aforesaid young men or children shall appear 
t to excel in any beauty, he is compelled to serve their abominable 
o misery abomination ; and, when age cometh, then they serve instead of 
i'n'i'crics ! eunuchs, to wait upon matrons, or to keep horses and mules, or 

else to be scullions and drudges in their kitchens. 

The *er- Such as be young maidens and beautiful, are deputed for concu- 

young ° bines. Those who be of mean beauty, serve for matrons to their 

eaptirea drudgery work in their houses and chambers, or else are put to 

spinning, and such other labours ; but so, that it is not lawful for 

them either to profess their christian religion, or ever to hope for any 

liberty. And thus much of those who fall to the Turk by tithe. 

The others, who are bought and sold amongst private subjects, first 
are allured with fair words and promises to take circumcision ; which 
if they will do, they are more favourably treated : but all hope is 
taken from them of returning again into their country ; which if they 
attempt, the pain thereof is burning. And if such, coming at length 
to liberty, will marry, they may; but then their children remain in 
bond to the lord, for him to sell at his pleasure ; and, therefore, such 
as are wise amongst them will not marry. Those who refuse to be cir- 
cumcised, are miserably handled ; for example whereof, the author 
(who givetfc testimony hereof) doth infer his own experience. Such 
captives as he expert in any manual art or occupation, can better shift 
lor themselves; but, contrariwise, they who have no handicraft to live 
upon, are in worse, ease. And therefore such as have been brought 
up m learning, or be priests or noblemen, and such others whose 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 85 

tender education can abide no hardness, are the least reputed, and Soiy,,,,,,,. 
most of all others neglected of him that hath the sale or keeping of ~~ 
them, for that he secth less profit to rise of them, than of the others ; 
and, therefore, no cost of raiment is bestowed upon them, but they 
are carried about barehead and barefoot, both summer and winter, in 
frost and snow. And if any faint and be sick in the way, there is no 
resting in any inn, but first he is driven forward with whips, and if 
that will not serve, he is set peradventure upon some horse ; or if his 
weakness be such that he cannot sit, then is he laid overthwart the 
horse upon his belly, like a calf; and if he chance to die, they take 
off his garment, such as he hath, and throw him in a ditch. 1 

In the way moreover, besides the common chain which doth inclose 
them all, the hands also of every one are manacled, which is, because 
they should not harm their leaders : for many times it happened, that 
ten persons had the leading of fifty captives ; and, when night came, 
their feet also were fettered, so that they lodged in no house, but lay 
upon the ground all night. 

The young women had a little more gentleness showed, being car- Miserable 
ried in panniers in the daytime. But when night came, pity it was "'chris* 
to hear the miserable crying out of such as were inclosed within, by ^, a e " wo " 
reason of the injuries which they suffered by their carriers, inso- under the 
much that the young tender age of seven or eight years, as well of the 
one sex, as of the other, could not save them from the villany of t 
the Turks. 

When the morning cometh, they are brought forth to the market Christian 
for sale, where the buyer, if he be disposed, plucking off their gar- brought 
ments, vieweth all the bones and joints of their body ; and if he k° e ™aud 
like them, he giveth his price, and carrieth them away into miserable sold. 
servitude, either to tilling of their ground, or to pasture their cattle, or 
to some other strange kind of misery, incredible to speak of: insomuch Put to 
that the author reporteth, that he hath seen himself, certain of such ( t ')™" m 
christian captives yoked together like horses and oxen, and to draw the P lou gii. 
plough. The maid-servants likewise are kept in perpetual toil and 
work in close places, where neither they come in sight of any man, 
neither be they permitted to have any talk with their fellow-servants, 
&c. Such as are committed to keep beasts, lie abroad day and night 
in the wild fields, without house and harbour, and so, changing their 
pasture, go from mountain to mountain ; of whom also, beside the 
office of keeping the beasts, other handy labour is exacted at spare 
hours, such as pleaseth their masters to put unto them. 

Out of this misery there is no way for them to flee, especially for Danger of 
them that arc carried into Asia beyond the seas ; or if any do attempt ^f" W ho 
so to do, he taketh his time chiefly about harvest, when he may Jj^™ 1 of 
hide himself all the daytime in the corn, or in woods or marshes, and 
find food ; and in the night only he fleeth, and had rather be devoured 
of wolves and other wild beasts, than to return again to his master. 
In their fleeing they use to take with them a hatchet and cords, that 
when they come to the sea side, they may cut down trees, and bind 
together the ends of them, and so, where the sea of Hellespont is 
narrowest, about Sestos and Abydos, they take the sea, sitting upon 

(1) Ex Bartholo. Geor-rioniz. Pcrigrena lib de afflictionibua Cbristianorum sub Turco. 



gg TIIK HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

soiyman. trees, where, if the wind and tide do serve luckily, they may cut over 

D er of i n f our or five hours. But the most part either perish in the floods, 

our men or arc driven back again upon the coasts of Asia, or else be devoured 

«a: hL of wild beasts in the woods, or perish with hunger and famine. If any 

escape over the sea alive into Europe, by the way they enter into no 

town, but wander upon the mountains, following only the north star 

for their guide. 

As touching such towns and provinces as are won by the Turk, 
and wherein the Christians are suffered to live under tribute, first, 
all the nobility there they kill and make away; the churchmen and 
clergy hardly "they spare. The churches, with the bells and all the 
furniture thereof, cither they cast down, or else they convert to the 
use of their own blasphemous religion ; leaving to the Christians cer- 
tain old and blind chapels, which when they decay, it is permitted to 
our men to repair them again for a great sum of money given to the 
Turk. Neither be they permitted to use any open preaching or 
ministration, but only in silence and by stealth to frequent together; 
nor is it lawful for any Christian to bear office within the city or pro- 
vince, or to bear weapon; or to wear any garment like to the Turks. 1 
And if any contumely or blasphemy, be it ever so great, be spoken 
against them, or against Christ, yet must thou bear it, and hold thy 
peace. Or if thou speak one word against their religion, thou shalt 
be compelled (whether thou wilt or no) to be circumcised : and then, 
if thou speak one word against Mahomet, thy punishment is fire and 
burning. And if it chance a Christian, being on horseback, to meet, or 
ass by a Mussulman, that is, a Turkish priest, he must alight from his 
lorse, and with a lowly look devoutly reverence and adore the Mussul- 



C'hris- 

tiana 



lllrt'tlllga 

Turkish 
priest 

""'re man ; or if he do not, he is beaten down from his horse with clul 
him. an d staves. 

Furthermore, for their tribute they pay the fourth part of their 
substance and gain to the Turk ; besides the ordinary tribute of the 
Christians, which is to pay for every poll within his family a ducat 
unto the Turk, which if the parents cannot do, they are compelled to 
sell their children into bondage. Others being not able to pay, go 
chained in fetters from door to door begging, to make up their pay- 
ment, or else must lie in perpetual prison. 
Misery of And yet notwithstanding, when the Christians have discharged all 
away duties, it reiiiaineth free for the Turks, to take up among the Chris- 
chHdren t' ans1 children whom they best like, and them to circumcise, and to 
frma take them away, being young, from the sight of their parents, to far 
parents, places, to be brought up for the Turks'" wars, so that they may not 
return to them again ; but first are taught to forget Christ, and then 
their parents ; so that if they come again amongst them, yet are they 
not able to know their kinsfolks and parents, 
omisory! This misery, passing all other miseries, no man is able with tongue 
to utter, or with words to express. What Aveeping and tears, with 
Borrow and lamentation; what groaning, sighs, and deep dolour, doth 
tear ami rend asunder the. wol'ul hearts of the simple parents, at the 
plucking away of their babes and children ? to see their sons and their 
own children, whom they have born and bred up to the service of 

■ 1 1 irChrlstUni may not po like Turks, why should our gospellers ko like papists.' The Tuiba 
have tneii lire and hggoti as well u 3 our papists. 



THE HISTOBY OK THK TU11KS. 87 

( hrist Jesus the Son of God, now to be drawn away violently from Spifum. 
them to the warfare of Satan, and to fight against Christ ? to see their 
babes, born of christian blood, of Christians to be made Turks, and 
so to be plucked out of their arms, and out of their sight, without 
hope ever to return to them again ? to live perpetually with aliens, 
barbarous and blasphemous Turks, and so to become of the number 
of those who are called fatherless and motherless P 1 

Albeit the same children afterwards do greatly degenerate from the privy 
faith of Christ, yet very many of them have privily about them the g??S£f™ 
gospel written by St. John, " In principio erat verbum,' 1 £>ce. which, key- 
for a token or remembrance of their christian faith, thev carry under 
their arm-hole, written in Greek and Arabic : who greatly desire, and 
long look for the revenging sword of the Christians, to come and de- An old 
liver them out of their dolorous thraldom and captivity, according as fouchfni; 
the Turks themselves have a prophecy, and great! v stand in fear of ^j 1 ® Chris- 
the same. Whereof more shall be said, Christ willing, in the chap- sword. 
ter following. 

And thus have ye heard the lamentable afflictions of our christian 
brethren under the cruel tyrannv and captivity of the Turks, passing 
all other captivities that ever have been to God's people, either under 
Pharaoh in Egypt, or under Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon, or under 
Antiochus in the time of the Maccabees : under which captivity, if 
it so please the Lord to have his spouse the church to be nurtured, 
his good will be done and obeyed ! But if this misery come by the 
negligence and discord of our christian guides and leaders, then have 
we to pray and cry to our Lord God, either to give better hearts to 
our guiders and rulers, or else better guides and rulers to his flock. 

And these troubles and afflictions of our christian brethren suffered 
by the Turks, I thought good and profitable for our country people 
here of England to know, for as much as by the ignorance cf these, 
and such like histories worthy of consideration, I see much incon- 
venience doth follow : whereby it cometh to pass, that because we 
Englishmen, being far off from these countries, and little knowing ^ eces . 
what misery is abroad, are the less moved with zeal and compassion t s h 'e yt,iat 
to tender their grievances, and to pray for them, whose troubles we troubles 
know not. Whereupon also it tolloweth, that we, not considering church be 
the miserable state of others, are the less grateful to God, when any kno ""- 
tranquillity by him to us is granted. And if any little cloud of 
perturbation arise upon us, be it ever so little, as poverty, loss of 
living, or a little banishment out of our country for the Lord's cause, 
we make a great matter thereof, and all because wc go no further 
than our own country, and, only feeling our own cross, do not com- 
pare that which we feel, with the great crosses whercunto the churches 
of Christ commonly in other places abroad are subject. Which if we 
did rightly understand, and earnestly consider, and ponder in our 
minds, neither would wc so excessively forget ourselves in time of 
our prosperity given us of God, nor yet so impatiently be troubled, 
as we are in time of our adversity ; and all because either wc hear not, 
or else we ponder not, the terrible crosses which the Lord layeth 
upon our other brethren abroad in other nations, as by this present 
story here prefixed may appear. 

(J) This is with tears rather than with words to he expressed. 



33 THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

siyman. Now consequently remainetli, as I have showed hitherto what 

" tyranny hath been used of the Turks against Christ's people, so to 

•• declare likewise, how far this tyranny of the Turks hath extended 
TuiVs and spread itself; describing, as in a table, to the christian reader, 
d ? mi ' what lands, countries, and kingdoms, the Turks have won and got 
from Christendom; to the intent, that when christian princes shall 
behold the greatness of the Turk's dominions spread almost through 
all the world, and how little a part of Christianity remaineth behind, 
they may thereby understand the better, how it is time now for them 
to "bestir them, if ever they think to do any good in God's church. 
And therefore, to make a compendious draft, as in a brief table, 
of such countries, kingdoms, and dominions, got from us by the 
Turks, we will first begin with Asia, describing what tracts, countries, 
cities, and churches, the Turk hath surprised, and violently plucked 
away from the society of christian dominions, taking only such as 
be most principal, and chiefly them that be in Scripture contained, 
for that it were too long to discourse all and singular such places by 
name, as the Turk hath under his subjection. 

The world being divided commonly into three parts, Asia, Africa, 
and Europe ; x Asia is counted to be the greatest in compass, contain- 
ing as much as both the others, and is divided into two portions, the 
one called Asia Major ; the other called Asia Minor. And although 
the empire of the Turk extendeth unto them both; yet especially his 
dominion standeth in the other Asia, which is called Asia Minor, 
which reacheth from the coasts of Europe unto Armenia Major, 
beyond the river Euphrates, and comprehendeth these regions and 
cities following. 

THE DIVISION OF ASIA MINOR, CALLED CHERONESUS, 

With the particular Countries and Cities belonging to the same. 

COUNTRIES. 

Pontus 2 and Bitliynia. 3 

CITIES. 

Nicea. Heraclea. Nicomedia. 

(lialcedon. Prusa or Bursa. Apamea.* 

Natolia, or Anatolia, containeth divers countries, with their cities, 
as followed) : 







COUNTRIES. 




Mysia Minor. 5 
Phrygia Minor. 6 
Troas. 7 


Mysia Major. 8 
Phrygia Major. 9 
Lydia. 10 
IE.oY\s. 


Ionia. 

Caria. 11 

Doris. 






CITIES. 




Cizicus. 
Parimn. 
Lainpaacus. 


Dardanum. 

Callipolis. 

Abydus. 


Alexandria or Troas. 

Ilium. 

Assos. 13 



(1) On the 4th of August, 1408, the Great Continent of America was discovered by Columbus j 
Ibe above observations were made by Foxe, about 15(56.— Ed. (2) Acts ii. (,'i) Ibid. xvi. 

1 '' Apami i is a ciiv in P.ithynin, ;i1m> another in Mesopotamia, Apamea Cybotus ; alsoacityin 
Great Phr\j;i;», and another also in Parthia. (5) Acts xvi. 

(6) \i, ii. Phrygia Minor in Ptolomy is called Troas. (7) Acts xx. 

t«x»i. (9)Ibid. ii. (10) Isa. lwi. (11) 1 Mace. xv. 

(H) Acts \w. (18) ibid. xx. 



THE HISTORY OK THE TURKS. 



80 



Scepsis 

Adramitium. 1 

Hierapolis. 1 

Pi tan e 

Apolloaia. 

Myrina. 



CITIES. 

Plioccca. 

Smyrna. 3 

Erythrse. 

Laodicea. 4 

CaTura. s 

Thvatira. 

Philadelphia.' 



Pergamos 
(unia. 
Ephesus. 9 
Sardis." 

Halicarnassus. 
Miletus. 12 



Thus far reacheth the compass of Natolia ; next follow : 



Lycia. 13 Paraphilia. 1 -> 

Galatia,velGallogra?cia. 14 Pisidia. 
Paphlagonia. Cappadocia. 1 



COUXTil IKS. 



ColoSSBB. 1 

Patara." 

Pinara. 

Xaiithus. 

Andriacae. 

Myra, 19 

Ancyra, 

Gordium. 

Tharma. 

Pessenus. 

Amisus. 

Sinope. 

Corambis. 



ocia. IG 

CITIES. 

Perga." 

Attalia- 2 ' 

Aspendus. 

Phaselis. 22 

Trapesus. 

Themiscyra. 

Comana Pontica. 

Amasia vcl Eupatoria.s 

Masa vel Caesarea. 

Naziantium. 24 

Comana Cappadocia 

Miletena. 

Nicopolis. 



Armenia Minor. 
Cilicia. 

Laconia. 



Leandis. 

Claudiopolis. 

Juliopolis. 

Tharsus.- 5 

Coricus.'-' 6 

Solimuntis, vel Trajano- 

polis. 
Issus, vel Iaiassa. 
Augusta. 27 
Iconhun. 28 
Lystra.2 9 
Derbe. 3 ° 
Antiochia Pisidia 3 . 31 



Syria comprehendcth in it divers particular Provinces, with their 
Cities, as followeth : 



Syria. 32 

Palestina Judea. 
Chanaan. 
Samaria. 33 
Galilsea. 34 



COUNTRIES. 

Phoenicia. 35 

Damascene. 
Ccelosyria. 
Cassiotis. 
Comagena. 



Seleucis. 
Laodicene. 
Apamene. 
Idumaea. 36 



Hierosolyma. 37 
Cassarea Stratonis. 38 
Bethlehem. 89 
Emmaus. 40 

Jericho. 41 

Joppe, 42 or Japheth. 43 

Tvberias. 44 



CITIES. 

Accaron. 45 

Azotus. 40 

Ascalon. 47 

Gaza. 48 

Bersabee. 40 

Antipatris- 50 

Assaron. 61 



Bethania. 52 

Lydda.5 3 

Nazareth. 54 

Capernaum. 

Cana. 50 

Tyrus. 57 

Sydon, vel Sichem. 



(1) Acts xxvii. (2) Col. iv. (3) Apoc. ii. (4) Ibid iii. 

(5) At Carina, a certain man with a company of harlots being there lodged, suddenly happened 
an earthquake in the city, wherein he, and all they were swallowed up. Pius 2 Papa, lib. de 
Descriptione cap. 16. (6) Apoc. ii. (71 Ibid. iii. 

(S) Apoc. ii. (9) Ibid. (10) Ibid. iii. (1 1) 1 Mace. xv. (121 Acts xx. 

(1,1) Acts xxvii. (H)Ibid.xvi. (1.5) Ibid. ii. (16) Ibid. (17) Col. i. 

(18) Acts xxi. (19) Ibid. xiii. (20) Ibid. (21) Ibid. xiv. (22) Mace. xv. 

(23) Here Badlina Magnus was bishop. (24) Here Gregorius Nazianzenus was bishop 

(25) Acts xxii. The country where St. Paul was born. 

(26) Another Coricus is also in the isle of Creta (27) Acts xxvii. 
(29) Acta xvi. (SO) Ibid. xiv. (31) Ibid. xi. (324 Ibid. xv. 
(34) Matt. iii. (35) Acts xi. (36) Mark iii. (37) Acts i. 
(39) Matt. ii. (40) Mark i. (Ill Matt. xx. (12) Josh. xv. 
(44) John vi. (45) Josh. xiH (46) Actaviil. (47) Jurlg. ii. 

(49) Josh. xix. Bersabee is a city in Jury, also another in [dumea. 

(50) Acts xxiii. (51) Ibid. ix. (52) Mark xi. (53) Acts (x. 
(55) Matt. iv. (56) John ii. (57) Luke vi. (58) Ibid. 



(2S) Ibid xiv. 

(33) Ibid. 

(?8) Ibid. viii. 

i43) Acts ix. 

(48) Acts viii. 

(54) Matt. iv. 



90 THE HISTORY OF THE TLRIiS. 



CITIES. 

Ptolomais. 1 Antiochia, sub Tauro. Paradisu 

Cjesarea I'hilippi." Alexandria apud Issum. Jabruda. 

Damascus. 3 Nicopolis.o Nazamm 

Philadelphia. 4 Gephyra. Apamia. 

Buthis, vel Pella. Gindarus. Besannna, vel Bersabee. 

Antiochia apud Orontem, Seleucia. 7 Eulc 

vel Theophilis. 5 Imma. Ma 

Samosata. Laodicsea. 8 



ieusa. 

lassa. 



CITIES. 




vel Hur Cbaldaeorum, 


which is now ci 


where Abraham was 


Sujas. 


born. 16 


Phasis. 


Patara. 


Lubium. 


Azara. 


Artanissa. 


Gerusa. S. Georgius. 


Armachica. 


Sinda. 


Getara, vel Gangara. 


Dioscuria vel Sebastia, 


Chabala. 



Thus far rcachcth the compass of Syria. 
Asia Minor. 

COUNTRIES. 

Arabia. 9 Carra, or Charan, where Sarmatia 

Arabia Petaea, or Naba- Abraham dwelt. Colchis, 

tjea. Selucia. 10 Iberia. 

Arabia Felix. Mesopotamia. Albania, and Armenia. 13 

Arabia Deserta. Babylonia. 12 



Sahara. ve l Hur Cbaldaeorum, which is now called 

Edessa, 14 which is now 

railed Orpha, and in 

the story of Tobias, 

called Rages. 
BybluB. 

Babylon, vel Baldach. 15 
Orchoe, vel Urchoa, 

And thus far reaeheth the compass of Asia Minor, with the 
countries and provinces to the same pertaining, which being once 
brought to the faith of Christ, are now in a manner all subdued to 
the Turks. 

Islands belonging to Asia Minor. 

The islands belonging to the regions of Asia Minor aforesaid, gotten 
by the Turk, are these • 

Thinias, belonging to Bi- Possidium to iEolis. Carpathus to Doris 

tliynia. Samos to Ionia. 19 Rhodus to Lycia. 23 

Tenedoa to Troaa. Trogyllium. 20 Cyprus.- 4 

Chios to Lydia." ("nidus, to Doris. 21 Pancluea. 

Patmns." Cos.-* 

(1) Acts xxi. (2) Matt. xvi. (8) Sal. i. (■!) Apoc. i. 

(5) Antiochia, apud Orontem, a chief ci!y in Syria, where the disciples of Christ were first named 
Christians, Acts xi. 

8) Nicopolis, is a city also in Macedonia, mentioned in the epistle of Saint Paul to Titus, 
chap. iii. 

(7) Acts xiii. Seleucia, is a city in Syria. Also another in l'amphylia, another in Cilicia Pisidia, 
another in Ctt-lo-Syria, and in Mesopotamia another. 

II, In this Laodioeawas the council kept, which is called Concilium Laodicense. There 
is aimiher l.aodicea in Lydia, near to Colossac in Asia Minor. Colos. iv. 15. Laodicea also is the 
ii I'hrvgia 1'acatiana, near to Galatia, Acts xviii. 1 Tim. vi. 
Qal 1.4. (10) Acts vii. (1 1) Psalm lix. 

ih 'ii, Hi. Babylon in Chaldaea, where Nebuchadnezzar reigned. It was alter destroyed, and 
by Seleucua Nicanor. Another is in Egypt called Alcayrus. In the country of Baby- 
lonia, is alsu a certain region appointed for philosophers and astronomers, called Chaldea. Jer. 1. 

i \ i i l . Armenia Major is divided from Armenia Minor by the river Euphrates. This 
Armenia Major and Minor, this day he both under the Turks. 

(Ill In Edessa reigned king Ahgatus, mentioned in Eusch. lib. i. cap. 15, to whom Christ wrote, 
promising to send onto him alter his death. (15) Acts vii. (lfi) Gen. xi. 15. 

(17) Actixx. (lS)Apoc.i. (1!)) Acts xx. (20) Ibid. (21 ) Ibid, xxvii. 

cj'Ji ibid nd. (38) ibid. 

21) Acts xi. This Cyprus king UK-hard I. did once subdue, limiting against the Saracens. 



THE HISTORY OF THE TUBKB. 91 

^neas Sylvius, otherwise pope Pius II., in describing Asia Soiynwn. 
Minor, 1 reciteth a certain fact of a worthy virgin ; who at that A memo- 
time the Turks were besieging a certain town in Lesbos, and had ™ b a le fact 
cast down a great part of the walls, so that all the townsmen had virgin, in 
given over, putting on man's harness, stepped forth into the breach, f her* 
where not only she kept the Turks from entering in, but also slew of cuuutr y- 
them a great sort. The citizens seeing the rare courage, and good 
success of the maiden, took to them again their hearts and harness, 
and so lustily laid about them, that an incredible number of the Turks 
were slain. The rest being repulsed from the land, rcculed into their 
ships ; who being then pursued by a navy of Calisa, were worthily 
discomfited likewise upon the sea. And thus was the isle of Lesbos 
at that time by a poor virgin, that is by the strong hand of the 
Lord working in a weak creature, preserved from the Turks. 

Beside these regions and countries of Asia Minor above described, 
Sebastian Munster, in the fifth book of his Cosmography, declareth 
moreover, that the Turks and Sultans have under their subjection 
both Arabia, Persia, and also India Exterior, wherein is Calcutta. 
The which Persia, although it be under the Sophi, who is an 
enemy to the Turk, yet it is to be thought, that he is a Sultan, 
one of the Turkish and Mahometan religion. This Persia and India 
were once seasoned with Christ's gospel, as may appear by the primi- 
tive church. And thus have you the parts of Asia described, which in 
times past being almost all christened, do now serve under the Turk. 



After the description of Asia, let us next consider the parts and 
countries of Africa. Where, although the greatest part either con- 
sisteth in deserts desolate, or is possessed by Prester John, who 
professeth Christ and his gospel ; yet the Turk hath there also no 
little portion under his dominion, as these . 



Egypt. 2 
Regnum Tunece. 



Alexandria. 

Memphis. 
Arsinae. 



COUNTRIES. 

Africa Minor. 
Cyrene. 3 

CITIES. 

Charlago. 
Aphordisum. 



Mauritania 



Hippo. Here Saint Au- 
gustine was bishop. 



A description of the Countries and Cities in Europe, which were 
before christened, and now are subdued and subject to the Turk. 





COUNTRIES. 




Thracia. 


Amphilochia, 


Corintbia. 


Samothracia. 4 


Ambracia. 


Argia. 


Graecia. 5 


Achaia. 7 


Laconia. 


Macedonia. 8 


Attica. 


Messenia. 


Thessalia. 


Bceotia. 


Elis. 


Epyrus. 
Chaonia. 


Phocis. 


Sicyona. 


jEtolia. 


Arcadia. 


Thresprotia. 


Peloponnesus. 





(1) Ex Mne. Sylv. lib. De Orbis Descrin. rap. 74. El Sob. Munst. lib. 5. 

(2) Matt. ii. (3) Acts ii. (1) Ibid. .\vi. | (5) Ibid, xx. (B) Rpin. JV. (7) Ibid. 



92 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 



Soli/man. 



Constantinople, or Bizan- Actum. 
Torona. 
Azelia. 
Acarnanon. 



tium. 
lYla. 

Adrianopolis 
Trajanopolis 
Caliopis. 
Sestos. 
Apollonia. 
Tliessalonica. 1 
Philippic 
IK nutrias. 
Neapolis.' 
Ainpliipolis. 4 
Apollonia Mygdonia?. 
Berhsa.* 
Ambracia. 



Argos. 7 
Astacus. 
Omphaiium. 

Athens. 

Magaris. 

Theba?. 

Delphos. 

Egris. 

Chalydon. 

Locris. 

Naupactus. 

Corinthus. 8 



Messena. 
Tegea. 

Argos. 

Lacedsemon, or Sparta. 9 

Epidaurus. 

Helice. 

Lerna. 

Leuctrum. 

Methone. 

Mycenae. 

Megalipolis. 

Nemaea. 

Nauplia. 

Olympia. 

Sicyon. 

iEgyra. 



Islands bordering about Greece, 10 won likewise by the Turk from 
the Christians. 



Eubcea, or Nigropontus. Cyclades. 14 
Creta. 11 Cephalenia. 



Salniime. 1 -' 

Clauda. 1 * 



Lemnos. 



Ithaca. 
Samos. 



Zacynthus, or Zanthus. Corcyra, 



Corsica 16 



Chalcis. 

Charistus. 

Cerinthus. 



Gerestus, 

Pulchri Portus." 
Lasaea. 18 



Phoenice. 19 
Salaniis. 

Delos.- 



After the Turk had subdued Thrace and Greece, proceeding 
farther into Europe, he invaded other regions and cities, which als< 
he added to his dominions : as, 



COUNTRIES. 



Mysia Superior. 21 

Mysia Inferior 

Dalmatia. 22 

Corinthia. 

Corvatia. 

Croatia. 



Istria. 

Bosnia. 

Bulgaria. 

Wallachii 



Servia. 
Rascia. 

Moldavia. 
Hungaria. 



Transylvania, or Septem Austria. 
Castra. 



lihri'tiaria. 
Ncsmis. 

Ulpianum. 



Scupi 

Sigindunum, or Singet. 

Triballorum (Escus. 



Tirista. 

Axiuni, or Chilia. 

Labacus, Metropoli 



;l) Arts xvii. (2) Tbid. xvi. '3) Ibid. (i) Ibid. xvii. (5) Ibid. (C) Ibid. 

(T| Argot, Is a city Id Amphilochis, and another also in Peloponnesus. 

ii (il Corinth Strabo writeth, that more than a thousand virgins there in the temple 
'< Venui, used yearly to be set out as common; and therefore not without cause Saint Paul 
Eratli icortatorei, Idolatne,' &c. l Cor.vL (9) 2 Mace. v. 

(10) i be lalanda about Gratia i Bee above. 
illj Actl wii. in Creta St Paul ordained Titus to he bishop and overseer. 

' «vil. (Hi) Ibid. (14) Fifty three islands. (15)Actsxx. 

(Ill) Corsica, is an island beyond Italy, which the Turk's navy joining with the French, did ovcr- 
oome, a . n. I8S8. 
(17) An (18) Ibid. (19) Ibid. xvii. (20) 1 Mace. xv. 

(21) The rip. in of Mysia is divided into two parts; whereof the one is in Asia, and is divided into 
or, and Mysia Minor. The other is in Europe, and is divided into Mysia (or Mcesla} 
Superior, and Myaia Inferior. (22) 1 Tim. iv. 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 



Epidaurus, 1 or Ragusium. Tergovistus, or Tervifl. Walpe. 

Milea, or Meleda. Huniad. 3 Novigradum. 

Senia, or Segna. flermenstat. Varna. 5 

Enona, or Hona. Cfonestat Buda, or Ofen 

Jadra, or Zara. Saltzburg. Alba regalia. 

Sebenica. Alba Julia, or Wessen- Belgradum, or Taurinum. 

Stridon, where St. Jerome burge. Strigonium. 

was born. Cyula. Varadinum. 

Quinque Ecclesiae. Samandria. Neopolis, Major, et Minor 

Jaitza, Metropolis of Columbetz.* Pestum. 

Bulgaria. - 

As I was writing hereof, a certain sound of lamentable news was 
brought unto us, how the Turk, whom we had hoped before to have 
been repulsed by the emperor Maximilian out of Christendom, hath 
now of late, this present year 1566, got the town of Gyula about 
Transylvania, after they had sustained sixteen of his most forcible 
assaults, destroying in the same most cruelly many thousands of our 
Christian brethren, men, women, and children ; but because we have 
no full certainty, we will refer the story thereof to further in- 
formation. 

THE PROPHECIES OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES CONSIDERED, 

aToucfjinn, tfje comma up, anb final ftuin and destruction, of tljr? 
toiefceo fiintjDom of tlje Cutrtf, 

WITH THE REVELATIONS AND FORESHOWINGS ALSO OF OTHER 
AUTHORS CONCERNING THE SAME. 

Forasmuch as you have hitherto sufficiently heard, to what 
quantity and largeness the dominion of the Turks hath increased, 
and do understand what cruel tyranny these wretched miscreants 
have and do daily practise most heinously wheresoever they come, 
against the servants and professors of Christ; it shall not be unprofit- 
able, but rather necessary, and to our great comfort, to consider and 
examine in the Scriptures, with what prophecies the Holy Spirit of the 
Lord hath premonished and forewarned us before, of these heavy per- 
secutions to come upon his people by this horrible Antichrist. For 
as the government and constitution of times, and states of monarchies 
and policies, fall not to us by blind chance, but be administered and 
allotted unto us from above; so it is not to be supposed, that such 
a great alteration and mutation of kingdoms, such a terrible and 
general persecution of God's people almost through all Christendom, 
and such a terror of the whole earth as is now moved and engendered 
by these Turks, cometh without the knowledge, sufferance, and 

(1) Epidaurus, is a city in Illyria, and also another in Peloponnesus. These regions were in 
former times called by the name of Illyria or Illyricum, and afterward, by reason of certain Scy- 
thians coming thither, they were also called Sclavonia. Stephanus, king of Bosnia, and afterward 
of Rascia and Mysia, was by subtle train allured to come and speak with Mahomet the Turk, 
■who, being come, was taken and his skin flayed off. 

(2) All this tract of Bulgaria, Wallachia, Transylvania, Servia, Rascia, and Moldavia, was wont 
to be called Dacia, but afterward was severed into divers lands and dominions. Bulgaria was won 
of Bajazet the Turk from the crown of Hungary, through the unprospiTous war of Sigfamund, 
at the field of Nicopolis, a.d. 1395. This Sigismund was the burner of John Huss, and the 
persecutor of his doctrine. 

(3) Where Johannes Huniades was horn. 

(4) At Columbetz, Sigismund lost the field, fighting against the Turks. 

(5) in Varna, a city in Rascia, .Ladislaus, king of Hungary, fought with the Turk, and was 
overcome, a.d. 1444. Vide supra. 



Prophecy. 



9 J, THE HISTOID OF THE TURKS. 

pro Ph co determination of the Lord before, for such ends and purposes as his 
divine wisdom dotli best know. For the better evidence and testi- 
mony whereof, he hath left in his Scriptures sufficient instruction 
and declaration, whereby we may plainly see, to our great comfort, 
how these grievous afflictions and troubles of the church, though 
thev be sharp and heavy unto us, yet they come not by chance or 
by man's working only, but even as the Lord himself hath appointed 
it, and doth permit the same. 
Two And first to begin with the time of the Old Testament, let us 
,M "um t0 seriously advise and ponder, not only the scriptures and prophecies 
■idered therein contained, but also let us consider the whole state, order, and 
!",,!!• and regiment of that people; the church, I mean, of the Israelites. For 
ttoow although the scriptures and prophets of the Old Testament were 
Testa, properly sent to that people, and have their relation properly to 
things done, or that should be clone in that commonwealth, of which 
prophets John Baptist was the last and made an end, as our Saviour 
himself witncsseth, saying, the law and prophets be unto the time of 
John, &c. ; yet, notwithstanding, the said people of that Old Testa- 
ment bear a lively image and resemblance of the universal church 
which should follow, planted by the Son of God through the whole 
earth. So that as the prophets of God, speaking to them from the 
mouth and word of God, prophesied what should come to pass in 
that people ; so, likewise, the whole course and history of those 
Israelites exemplified and beareth a prophetical image to us, declaring 
what is to be looked for in the universal church of God dispersed 
through the world, planted in Christ Jesus his Son, according as 
Philip Melancthon, gravely gathering upon the same, testifieth in 
divers places in his commentary upon the prophet Daniel. 

As first the history of godly Abel, slain by wicked Cain, what 
doth it import or prophesy, but the condition of the people and 
servants of God, who commonly go to wrack in this world, and are 
oppressed by the contrary part, which belongeth not to God ? 

The like may be said also of Isaac and Ishmael ; of Jacob and 

Esau : of whom those two who were the children of promise, and 

belonged to the election of God, were persecuted in this world by 

The the others who were rejected. Where, moreover, is to be noted con- 

Mna'of cerning Ishmael, that of his stock, after the flesh, came the Saracens, 

iabmaei, whose sect the Turks do now profess and maintain. And as Ishmael 

through had but twelve sons ; so it were to be wished of God, that this Soly- 

oTtoman nian who is the twelfth of the Turkish generation, may be the last. 

uuikb. I3nt of this, better occasion shall follow (the Lord willing) hereafter. 

Furthermore, of the twelve tribes of Israel, the sacred history so 

reporteth, 1 that after they had a long season continued together by 

the space of eight or nine hundred years, at length, for their idolatry 

and transgression of their forefathers, ten tribes of them were cut off, 

and dispersed among the Gentiles a hundred and thirty years before 

The old the captivity of Babylon ; so that but two tribes only remained free, 

the ' ° an< I they also at last, after a hundred and thirty years, were captived 

imeHtoj under the Babylonians for a certain time. No otherwise hath it 

public happened with the church of Christ almost in the universal world, of 

ChrtK. which church the greatest part, both in Asia, in Africa, and almost in 

(1) 5 Kings xvii. 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 95 

Europe (where the holy apostles so laboured and travailed), wc ?ee Prophecy. 
now to be disparkled among the Turks, and their candlesticks re- — 
moved : the Lord of his great grace reduce them again, Amen ! So 
that of twelve parts of Christendom, which were once planted in 
Christ, scarce two parts remain clear, and they, how long they shall 
so continue, the Lord knoweth. And, albeit through the mercy of 
the Lord they escape the danger of the Turks, yet have they been 
so beaten by the pope, that they had been" better almost to have been 
in the Turks 1 hands. 

Again, after the said Israelites returned, being restored by Cyrus, 
let us consider well their story, the continuance of time, the manner 
of their regiments, and what afflictions they sustained in the time of 
the Maccabees ; and we shall see a lively representation of these our 
days expressed in that prophetical people, according as St. Paul, 
writing of them, showeth how all things happened to them in figures, 1 
that is, the actions and doings of that one nation, be as figures and 
types of greater matters, what shall happen in the latter times of the 
whole church universally in Christ collected. 

So the transmigration and deliverance again of those two tribes, The 
declareth to us the affliction of Christ's church for sin ; and yet that ae Jew. 
God will not utterly reject his people for his Sons sake : as by mani- cUSS. ' 
fold examples of the church hitherto may well appear. 

Again, the continuance of the law first given by Moses, unto the 
destruction of the said people by Titus, amounteth to one thousand 
five hundred and sixty-four years ; so we, counting the age of the 
New Testament, and reckoning from the day of our redemption 
unto this present, be come now to the year 1534, lacking but only 
three and thirty years of the full number. 2 

Likewise, in counting the years from their deliverance out of cap- Times or 
tivity to the end of their dissolution, we find five hundred and sixty- ehur°ch, 
four years, during which years, as the church of the Jews was not ^^ 
governed under the authority of kings, but the high priests took all new. 
the power and authority to themselves ; so we Christians, for the priestfin 
space especially of these latter five hundred and sixty-four 'years, *J*J2J[ 
what have we seen and felt, but only the jurisdiction and domination wealth, 
of the pope and high priests playing the ' Rex 1 in all countries, and prelates 
ruling the whole ? whereby, by the count of these years, it is to be compared, 
thought the day of the Lord's coming not to be far off. 

Furthermore, in those latter years of the Jews 1 kingdom, what 
troubles and afflictions that people sustained three hundred years 
together, but chiefly the last hundred and sixty-six years before the 
coming of Christ, by Antiochus and his fellows, the history of the ^ 
Maccabees can report; wherein we have also notoriously to odulSi ;, 
understand the miserable vexations and persecutions of christian *&£ ot 
churches, in these latter ends of the world, by Antichrist ; for, by chrf* 
Antiochus, Antichrist no doubt is figured and represented. This m !iv.' 
Antiochus surnamed Magnus, and Antiochus Epiphancs, his son, *™ Uyot 
came of the stock of Scleuchus Nicanor ; much like as Mahomet Tm*«. 
the Turk, and Solyman, came of the stock of Ottoman. 

Wherein this is to be noted and pondered, that, like as of the said 
Seleucus issued twelve Syrian kings one after another, of that gene- 

(1) 1 Cor. x. (2) Ex Phi. Melanct. in Dan cap. 9. 



(JC) THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

rmphtcy. ration, wild reigned over the Israelites with much severity and 
— tvmnnv; so, of this devilish generation of Ottoman, have come 
twelve Turkish tyrants, whereof this Solyman is now the twelfth ; 
God o-rant he may be the last ! And as the two last Antiochi, being 
sons of the two brethren, did fight together for the kingdom, and in 
fighting were both slain, and shortly after the kingdom fell to the 
[tomans ; bo the Lord grant, for Christ's sake, that the bloody brood 
of this old Solyman (who hath reigned now six and forty years) may 
BO fight together, and perish in their own blood, that this bloody 
tyranny of theirs may come to a final end for ever. Amen. 

And that the truth hereof may the better appear to such as be 
disposed to meditate more upon the matter, I thought good and 
profitable for the reader, to set before his eyes, in table-wise, the 
catalogue of both these Antichristian families, with the names and 
succession of the persons, first of the twelve Syrian kings, then of 
the twelve Ottomans, in like number and order. 

A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE SYRIANS AND THE TURKS. 

The Syrians. 

YEARS. 

1. Seleucus reigned . 33 

2. Antiochus Soter 19 

3. Antiochus Theos, who killed Bernice hv: mother-in-law, and his young 

brother 15 

4. Seleucus Callinicus, with Antiochus Hierax his brother ; which two 

brethren warred one against the other 20 

5. Antiochus Magnus 3G 

(i. Seleucus I'hilopater 12 

7. Antiochus Epiphanes, or rather Epimanes 

8. Antiochus Eupater 

9. Demetrius, brother of Epiphanes, who killed Eupater his cousin . 

10. Demetrius Nicanor, whom Antiochus Sedetes, his brother, expulsed 

from his kingdom 

1 1. Antiochus Sedetes. These two last being brethren had two sons . . 
•12. Antiochus Gripus, and Antiochus Ciricenus. These two, striving 

together for the kingdom, were both slain, and so, not long after, 
the kingdom of Syria came to the hands of Tygranes king of Arme- 
nia, and so being taken from him came to the Romans in the time 
of Pompey 

The Turks. 

YEARS. 

1. Ottoman reigned . 28 

2. Orehan : he slew his two brethren 22 

3. Amurath : he put out the eyes of Sauces, his own son 23 

4. Bajazet : he slew Solyman, his brother 

5. Calepine: the Greek stories make no mention of this Calepine. The 

Latin stories say that Calepine and Orehan were both one, and that 

he was slain by Mahomet his brother 6 

6. Orehan, whom Moses his uncle did slay 

7. Mahomet the First : he slew Mustapha, his brother 14 

8. Amurath the Second : he slew Mustapha, his brother 34 

■9. Mahomet the Second : he slew his two brethren, Turcine, an infant, 

.Hid Calepine 37 

10. Bajazet the Second: he warred against his brother Denies, which 

Deme8 was afterwards poisoned by pope Alexander VI 33 

1 1. S.lini ; h' e poisoned Bajazet bis father, and his two brethren Acomates 

and Corcuthufl, with all their children, his own cousins .... 7 

12. Solyman : he slew Mustapha, his own son, and was also the death of 

(■ianvrr, his second son 10 



of Anti- 
hrist ex- 
amined. 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 97 

These two pestilent families and generations, rising out, doubtless, Prophecy. 
from the bottomless pit, to plague the people of God, as in Dumber 

of succession they do not much differ, so in manner of their doings 
and wicked abominations, they be as near agreeing, being both ene- 
mies alike to the people and church of Christ, both murderers and 
parricides of their own brethren and kindred, both blasphemers of 
God, and troublers of the whole world. Wherein we have all to 
learn and note, by the way, the terrible anger of Almighty God 
against the sin and wickedness of men. 

Furthermore, whoso is disposed to consider and cast the course of 
times, and to mark how things be disposed by the marvellous opera- " 
tion of God's providence, shall find the times also of these two adver- 
saries in much like sort to concur and agree. For, in considering 
with ourselves both the testaments and churches of God, the first 
of the Jews, the second of the Christians, look what time the Syrian 
kings had to rage then in Jerusalem, the same proportion of time 
hath now the tyranny of the Turks to murder the Christians ; so that oneAnti- 
the one Antichrist may well represent and prefigure the other. For, prenWes 
as by the book of Maccabees may appear, Antiochus Epiphanes a,,other - 
was about the hundred and ninety-first year before the Passion of our 
Saviour, and day of our redemption ; so now casting the same number 
from this present year backward, we shall find it to be about the 
6ame year and time, when Bajazet, the fourth Turk after Ottoman, 
began to remove his imperial seat fiom Bursa in Bithynia to Adria- 
nople in Europe, which is a city of Thrace ; in which year and time 
began all the mischief in Europe, as is to be seen before, and this 
was a.d. 1375, unto which year, if we add 191, it maketh 1566', 
according to the prophecy of the Apocalypse, chap, xx., where it is 
prophesied of Gog and Magog, that they shall compass about the 
tents of the saints, and the welb-beloved city, by which well-beloved 
city is meant, no doubt, Europe ; and this was in the year abovesaid, 
1375. Although touching the precise points of years and times, it 
is not for us greatly to be exquisite therein ; but yet where diligence, 
and studious meditation may help to knowledge, I would not wish 
negligence to be a pretence to ignorance. And thus much for the 
times of Antiochus and his fellows. 

Now what cruelty this Antiochus exercised against the people of Furious 
God, it is manifest in the history of the Maccabees ; ' where we ofAn'uo- 
read that this Antiochus, in the eighth year of his reign, in his second Jj™^ 
coming to Jerusalem, first gave forth in commandment, that all the o«d's 
Jews should relinquish the law of Moses, and worship the idol of VC01 "' 
Jupiter Olympus, which he set up in the temple of Jerusalem. The 
books of Moses and of the prophets he burned. He set garrisons of 
soldiers to ward the idol. In the city of Jerusalem he caused the 
feasts and revels of Bacchus to be kept, full of all filth and wicked- 
ness. Old men, women, and virgins, such as would not leave the law 
of Moses, with cruel torments he murdered. The mothers that 
would not circumcise their children, he slew. The children that were 
circumcised, he hanged up by the necks. The temple he spoiled 
and wasted. The altar of God, and the candlestick of gold, with the 
other ornaments and furniture of the temple, partly he cast out, 

(1) Mac. lib. i. cap. 1. 
VOL. IV. H 



93 THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS, 

mm* partly he carried away. Contrary to the law of God, he caused them 

to offer and to eat swine's flesh. Great murder and slaughter he 

made of the people, causing them cither to leave their law, or to lose 
their lives. Among whom," besides many others, with cruel torments, 
he put to death a godly mother with her seven sons, sending his 
cruel proclamations through all the land, that whosoever kept the 
observances of the sabbath, and other rites of the law, and refused to 
condescend to his abominations, should be executed : by reason 
whereof the city of Jerusalem was left void and desolate of all good 
men, hut there were a great number who were contented to follow 
and obey his idolatrous proceedings, and to flatter with the king, and 
became enemies unto their brethren. Briefly, no kind of calamity, 
nor face of misery could be showed in any place, which was not there 
seen. Of the tyranny of this Antiochus it is historied at large in the 
book of Maccahees ;' and Daniel, prophesying 2 before of the same, 
dcclareth that the people of the Jews deserved no less for their sins 
and transgressions. 
Antio- By consent of all writers, this Antiochus beareth a figure of the 

^ur'eof great Antichrist, who was to follow in the latter end of the world, 
the Turk. anc i j g a i re;u iy come, and worketh what he can against us. Although, 
as St. John saith, there have been, and be many Antichrists, as parts 
and members of the body of Antichrist, who are forerunners, yet, to 
speak of the head and principal Antichrist, and great enemy of Christ's 
church, he is to come in the latter end of the world, at which time 
shall be such tribulation as never was seen before ; whereby is meant, 
no doubt, the Turk, prefigured by this Antiochus. 3 By this Anti- 
christ I do also mean all such as, following the same doctrine of the 
Name of Turks, think to be saved by their works and demerits, and not by 
duist, their faith only in the Son of God, of what title and profession eke 
romain- SOL ' vcr they be ; especially if they use the like force and violence for 
eti> the same, as he doth, &c. 

Of the tyranny of this Antiochus aforesaid, and of the tribulations 

of the church in the latter times, both of the Jews' church, and also 

* of the christian church to come, let us hear and consider the words of 

Daniel in the nineteenth, and also in his seventh chapter, prophesying 

of the same as i'olloweth : 

' lie shall return, and fret against the holy covenant ; so shall he do : lie shall 
even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant. 
And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, 
and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall set up the abominable 
desolation. And such as wickedly break the covenant, shall flatter with him 
deceitfully ; but the people that do know their God, shall prevail and prosper. 
And they that understand among the people, shall instruct many ; yet they shall 
fall by sword and by flame, by captivity and by spoil, many days. 

4 Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help, but many 
shall cleave unto them feignedly. And some of them of understanding shall 
tall to be tried, and to be purged, and to make them white, till the time be out : 
fur there is a time appointed. And the king shall do what him listeth : he shall 
exalt himself, and magnify himself against all that is God, and shall speak 
marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the wrath be 
accomplished ; for the determination is made. Neither shall he regard the God 
of his fathers, nor the desires of women, nor care for any God; for he shall 
magnify himself above all. But in his place shall he honour the god Mauzziin, 
(1)1 Mac. L (2) Dan. ix. (3) Ex Lyra in Gloss. Ordin. c. 1 Mac. 



THE HISTORY OP THE TURKS. 99 

and the god whom his fathers knew not, dial] he honour with gold, and with Prophecy 

silver, and with precious stones and pleasant things*. 

' Thus shall he do in the holds of Mauzzim with a strange god, whom he shall 
acknowledge; he shall increase his glory, and shall cause them to rule over 
many, and shall divide the land for gain. And at the end of time shall the 
king of the south push at him, and the king of the north shall come against 
him like a whirlwind, with chariots and with horsemen, and with many ships, 
and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass through. He 
shall enter also into the pleasant land, and many countries shall he overthrown; 
hut these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom and Moab, and the chief of 
the children of Ammon. He shall stretch forth his hands also upon the coun- 
tries, and the land of Egypt shall not escape ; but he shall have power over the 
treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt, and of 
the Lybians, and of the black Moors where he shall pass. Bui the 'tidings out 
of the east and the north shall trouble him ; therefore he shall go forth with 
great wrath, to destroy and root out many. And hi! shall plant the tabernacles 
of his palace between the seas, in the glorious and holy mountain ; yet he shall 
come to his end, and none shall help him.' 

To this place of Daniel above prefixed, might also be added the 
prophecy of the said Daniel written in the seventh chapter, and much 
tending to the like effect ; where he, treating of his vision of four 
beasts (which signify the four monarchies), and speaking now of the 
fourth monarchy, hath these words : 

' After this, I saw in the visions by night, and behold the fourth beast was 
grim and horrible, and marvellous strong. It had great iron teeth; it devoured 
and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue under its feet; and it was unlike 
the other beasts that were before it, for it had ten horns. As I considered the 
horns, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom 
there were three of the first horns plucked away. And behold, in this horn 
were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking presumptuous things, 
and it seemed more stout than the others. Which horn also, when I looked on, 
made battle with the saints, and prevailed against them ; until the Old Aged 
came, and judgment was given to the saints of the Highest, and till the appointed 
time was come, that the saints should have the kingdom.' 

Thus have ye heard the plain words of Daniel ; in which as he doth 
manifestly describe the coming of Antiochus, the great adversary, 
toward the latter end of the Jews ; so by the same Antiochus is figured 
also to us the great adversary of Christ, who is the Turk. 

Although some there be, notwithstanding, who, with great learning 
and judgment, do apply this place of Daniel above recited, not to the 
Turk, but rather to the pope ; and that for six or seven special 
causes herein touched and noted. 1 

The first is this : that the wicked transgressors of the covenant 
shall join with him deceitfully and hypocritically, who shall pollute 
the tabernacle of strength, and take away the perpetual sacrifice, and 
bring in the abomination of desolation. ' 

The second note is, that the prophet declareth, how the learned 
among the people shall teach many, and that they shall fall upon the 
sword, into fire and captivity, and shall be ban'ished, whereby they 
shall be tried, chosen, and made bright and pure, ccc. ; all which, say 
they, is not among the Turks to be seen, but only in the pope's 
church ; where the faithful preachers and teachers of the people arc 
slain and burned, and go to wrack, &C. : where, likewise, it followeth, 
that they shall be holpen against Antichrist, and that many false 

()) Vide Rodul. Gunlf. <"x- AntichristO. 
H 2 



100 THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

prophecy, brethren should join unto them disscmblingly, &c To this they 

allege that the Christians have no such help against the Turk, where- 

unto Buch false brethren should join themselves, as is and hath been 

commonly Been among the Christians against the pope, from time to 

„ el 10f time, almost in all countries ; as in Germany, by the Protestants and 

"••auto- f rrt . citieg ; in England, in king Henry's time, by the lord Cromwell, 

SLi and afterwards by king Edward, and now by queen Elizabeth; in 

tiu- pope. St . ()t ] an( [ i, y t i, e godly nobility | in France, by the queen of Navarre 

and her son ; and also by the prince of Conde and the worthy admiral, 

and his two brethren, and many others ; in Flanders by those whom 

the regent called beggars; so as was in the time of the Maccabees, 

against Antiochus. 

Thirdly, that the king shall exalt himself above all that hath the 
name of God, and shall lift up his mouth to speak presumptuously 
against God. 

" Fourthly, that he careth not for the desires of women ; which may 
seem to note how the pope's doctrine shall forbid the honest and 
lawful marriage in churchmen. 

The fifth specialty which they apply to the pope, is that which 
followeth in the prophet, saying, " Neither shall he regard the God 
of his fathers, nor any god ; but, instead of him, shall set up his god 
Mansim Mauzzim, and shall worship him with silver and gold, and precious 
»wpope'a stone5 " & c-i -which they do apply to the pope, setting up his god of 
bread, and worshipping him with glistering golden ornaments, and 
most solemn service. 

Sixthly, it followeth, " and he shall increase them with much glory 

and riches, and shall divide unto them lands and possessions,"" &e. ; 

meaning that the pope, having dominion over treasures of gold and 

silver, and all precious things of the land, shall endue his cardinals, 

prelates, his flattering doctors, with friars, monks, and priests, and all 

such as shall take his part, with great privileges, liberties, revenues, and 

possessions. And thus, I say, some there be who apply this prophecy 

The of the seventh and eleventh chapters of Daniel, unto the bishop of 

and Rome ; whom, although I take to be an extreme persecutor of Christ's 

chnptew church, yet I judge rather those two chapters of Daniel concerning 

"' Daniel, tin- little horn in the middle of the ten horns, and the great destroyer 
mean the . ' . o j , 

great An- of the pleasant land and glorious holy mountain, to mean first Anti- 
theTurk. ochus, and by him, secondly, to mean the great Antichrist, the Turk ; 
who hath now set already the tabernacles of his palace between the 
seas, according to the prophecies of Daniel, as is above said. 

Over and besides these prophecies above alleged, may be added 
also the prophecy of Ezekiel [chap, xxxix.], speaking of Gog and Ma- 
gog, which, as it maybe applied to the oppression of the Jews under 
the heathen multitude which stopped the building of the city, and 
mulct- the Syrian kings, &c. ; yet in the same also arc expressed the 
calamities and afflictions of Christ's church in these latter times, under 
the Saracens and the Turks, &c. 

Proceeding further in this matter, let us come now to the prophecies 
"I Iji' Nt -w Testament, and mark the words of St. Paul, writing to 
the Thessalonians, 1 who then were christened, and now arc cither 
Turkish, or under the Turk, which words be these: "Be ye not 

(1) 2 Tltess. ii. 



THE HISTOEY OK THE TUKKS 101 

suddenly moved in your mind, nor troubled, neither by spirit, nor Pro phecy. 
by word, nor by letter as sent from us, as though the day of Christ 
■were at hand. Let no man deceive you by any means, for the Lord 
will not come before there come a detection, or a departing first, and 
that wicked man be revealed, the son of perdition, which is an adver- 
sary, and is extolled above all power, and that which is called God; 
so that he shall sit in the temple of God, boasting himself to be 
God, 1 *' &c. Although this defection and departing may have a double Defection 
understanding, as well of the pope's sect (which is gone and departed A,ui" eof 
from the free justification by faith only in Christ, through the pro- j c '^ ed 
mise of grace) as of the Turks ; yet, leaving a while to speak of the 
pope, because it appeareth more notoriously in the Turk, we will 
chiefly apply it to him, in whom so aptly it doth agree, that unless 
this great defection from faith in so many churches had happened by 
the Turk, it had been hard to understand the apostle's mind, which 
now, by the history of these Turks, is easy and evident to be known, 
considering what a ruin hath happened to the church of Christ by 
these miserable Turks ; what empires, nations, kingdoms, countries, 
towns, and cities, be removed from the name and profession of 
Christ ; how many thousands and infinite multitudes of christian 
men and children, in Asia, in Africa, and in Europe, are carried 
away from Christ's church to Mahomet's religion, some to serve 
for the Turk's guard among the Janizaries, some for soldiers, 
some for miners, some for gunners, to fight and war against the 
Christians ; so that the most part of all the churches, planted once 
by the apostles, are now degenerated into Turks, only a small hand- 
ful of Christians reserved yet in these west parts of Europe, of 
which small residue what shall also become shortly, except Christ 
himself do help, Christ only himself doth know. How great this 
defection spoken of by St. Paul hath been, thou mayest sec, gentle 
reader, in the table above described. 

Notwithstanding this text of the holy apostle, as I said before, 
may be verified also with no less reason upon the bishop of Rome, 
than upon the Turk, both for that he is a man of sin, that is, his seat 
and city is a great maintainer of wickedness, and also for that he is an 
adversary, that is, contrary, in all his doings and proceedings, to Christ. 

Thirdly, For that he sitteth in the temple of God, and so did 
not Mahomet. 

Fourthly, Because he is an exalter of himself, and sitteth more 
like a god than a man in Rome, whereof see more in the book set 
forth in English, called, ' The Contestations of the Popes.' 

Fifthly, For that he seduccth, and hath seduced, by his apostasy, 
the most" part of all Christendom from the doctrine and free promises 
of God, into a wrong and strange way of salvation, which is, not to 
be justified freely before God only by our faith in Christ his well- 
beloved Son (unto which faith the' promise of God freely and gra- 
ciously hath annexed all our salvation only, and to no other thing), 
but hath taught us to work out our salvation by an infinite number 
of other things ; insomuch that he bindcth the necessity of our salva- 
tion also to this, that we must believe, if we will be saved, and re- 
ceive him to be the vicar of Christ on earth, &c.' 

',1) Ex Bonifaeis extravag. 



The 
seventh 
Seal ex- 



•102 THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

i-r.yhcni. But to return again to the Turks, among all the prophecies botli 

" of the Old Testament and of the New, there is none that painteth 

out the Antiehristian kingdom of the Turks better than doth the 
Revelation of St. John, whose words let us weigh and consider, who, 
in Apocalypse ix., where he speaketh of opening the seventh and 
last seal (which signifieth the last age of the world), and there, writing 
of the seven trumpets of the seven angels, at the sounding of the 
sixth angel saith : 

' Loose the four angels which are hound in the great river Euphrates. And 
the four angels were loosed, which were ready both day, and hour, and month, 
and year, to slay the third part of men. And the number of horsemen were 
twenty thousand times ten thousand : and I heard the number of them. And 
thus I saw in a vision horses, and them that sat on them, having fiery haber- 
geons, and of jacinth-stone, and of brimstone, and the heads of the horses were 
as the heads of lions, and out of their mouths went forth fire, and smoke, and 
brimstone : of these three plagues was the third part of men killed, that is, ot 
the fire, smoke, and brimstone, which proceeded out of their mouth,' &c. 

By the seventh seal, is meant the seventh and last age of the 
world, which last age of the world is from Christ to the judgment 
pounded. an( } resurrection of the dead. 

By the seven angels with their seven trumpets, is signified the 
seven plagues that come in this seventh and last age of the world. 
The swth By the sixth trumpet of the sixth angel, is meant the sixth plague 
trumpet. commo . ] as t and next before the plague of the great judgment day, 
which sixth plague is here described to come by the east kings, that 
is, by the Turks, as followeth to be seen. 
loosing By loosing the angels who had rule of the great river Euphrates, 
angefa is signified the letting out of the east kings, that is, the Turks, out 
3ve* iu C - °f Scytbia, Tartary, Persia, and Arabia, by whom the third part of 
phiates. Christendom shall be destroyed, as" we see it this day hath come to 
pass. 

It followeth in the prophecy, " Their power shall be in their 
mouths, and in their tails. For their tails be like serpents, having 
heads, and with them they hurt, 1 ' &c. ; meaning that these Turks, 
with the words of their mouths, shall threaten great destruction of 
fire and sword to them that will not yield unto them ; and in the end, 
when the Christians shall yield unto them, trusting to their promises, 
they, like serpents, shall deceive them in the end, and kill them ; as 
appeareth by the story of the Turks above past. 

The like prophecy also, after the like words and sense, is to be 

seen and read in Apocalypse xvi., where St. John, treating of seven 

cups filled with the wrath of the living God, given to the hands of 

seven angels by one of the four beasts (that is, in the time of one of 

The tarn the four monarchies, which was the monarchy of Rome), speaketh 

mean likewise of the sixth angel, who poured his vial of God's wrath upon 

roonar- ^ 1C g rcat river Euphrates, and the waters thereof dried up, that the 

chics. W ay of the kings of the cast should be prepared, &c. 

By the sixth angel with the sixth vial, is meant, as before, the last 
plague save one, that shall come upon the Christians. By the kings 
of the east are meant the Saracens, and twelve Ottoman Turks. By 
drying up the river Euphrates, is signified the way of these Turks to be 
prepared by the Lord's appointment, to come out of the east to the 



THE HISTORY' OK THE TURKS. 103 

west parts of the world, to molest and afflict the Christians. It Pr» P ><ec V . 
followeth more in the text : " And I saw three unclean spirits like K~i^~o7 
frogs, come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of ^ eeart > 
the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet, for they are Euphr* 
the spirits of devils, doing wonders, to go unto the kings of the tes ' 
whole earth, to assemble and gather them together to the battle, 
against the day of the great God Omnipotent," &c. And it followeth 
shortly after, "And he assembled them together into a place which 
is called in Hebrew Armageddon, that is, a trap or train of destruc- 
tion."" And immediately it followeth in the same place, "And the 
seventh angel poured out his vial in the air, and a mighty voice 
came from heaven, out of the throne, saying, ' factum est, 1 it is 
done, or finished," &c. : whereby it is to be understood, that toward 
the last consummation of the world, great force shall be seen, and 
a mighty army of the enemies shall be collected and gathered 
against the people and saints of the highest, and then conieth the 
consummation, with ' factum est, -1 &e. 

Wherefore it is not for nought that the Holy Spirit of God in An ex 
the same place, a little before the sixth angel doth pour out his vial, of the " 
doth exhort all the faithful, saying : "Behold, I come like a thief in q^J s1 10 
the night ; blessed is he that watcheth and keepeth his garments, lest {** faith " 
he walk naked, and men sec his filthiness,*" &c, 

Nicholas de Lyra, and Paul, bishop of Burdens, and Matthias 
Dorinkc, writing upon Apocalypse xiii. and expounding the mystery 
of the second beast rising out of the earth, having the horns of a 
lamb, &c, do apply the same to Mahomet and the Turks, with a 
solemn declaration made upon the same. Which interpretation of 
theirs, although in some points it may seem to have some appearance 
of probability, neither can it be denied but that Mahomet and the 
Turk be pestilent and wicked enemies of Christ our Lord, and most 
bitter persecutors of his church ; yet, as touching the proper and 
natural meaning of the apostle in ihat place, speaking of the false 
lamb, Sec, if we consider well all the circumstances of that beast, The beast 
and mark the consequence of the text, both of that which goeth hormifike 
before and followeth after, we must needs grant, that Nicholas de tlie lamb - 
Lyra with his fellows, and with all such-like of the pope's school the' pope, 
that follow that school, be deceived, and that the description and 
interpretation of that false horned lamb must necessarily be applied 
only to the bishop of Rome, and none other; which is to be proved 
by six principal causes or arguments : 

The first is, for that this beast is described to bear the horns of a The first 
lamb; bv which lamb, no doubt, is meant Christ. By the horns ^hy.' 1 ' 
of the lamb is signified the outward show or resemblance of Christ 
our Saviour; which show or resemblance can have no relation to 
Mahomet, for that he taketh himself to be above Christ, and Christ, 
as an excellent prophet of God sitting at his feet. Wherefore seeing 
Mahomet cometh neither as equal to Christ, nor as vicar under 
Christ, this prophecy cannot agree in him, but only in him who 
openly, in plain words, protested), that all Christ's lambs and sheep 
not singularly, but universally through the whole world, arc committed 
to him as vicar of Christ, and successor of Peter; and that all men 
must confess the same of necessity, or else they arc none of Christ's 



second 
rem n. 



](>4 THE HISTORY OF THE TIRKS. 

Prophet*, sheep,' &c. : wherein it is easy to see where the pretenseel horns of 

the lamb do grow. 
The The second argument ; " And he spake like the dragon," &c. 

A lamb's horns and the mouth of a dragon do not agree together. 
And as they do not agree together in nature, so neither can they be 
found in any one person, either Turk or other (if we will judge 
trul v) so lively, as in the bishop of Rome. When thou hearest him 
call himself the apostolical bishop, the vicar of Christ, the successor 
of Peter, the servant of God's servants, &c. ; thou seest in him the 
two horns of a lamb, and wouldst think him to be a lamb indeed, 
and such a one as would wash your feet for humility ; but hear him 
Bpeak, and you shall find him a dragon. See and read the epistle 
of pope Martin V., above-mentioned, charging, commanding, and 
threatening emperors, kings, dukes, princes, marquises, earls, barons, 
knights, rectors, consuls, proconsuls, with their shires, their counties, 
and the universities of their kingdoms ; provinces, cities, towns, 
castles, villages, and other places. See the answer of pope Urban II., 
and his message to king William Rufus. Behold the works and 
doings of pope Innocent against king John. 
The im r e Note also the answer of another pope to the king of England, who, 
hora»'of for the price of the king's head, would not grant unto him the in- 
:. imiih, y t . s ting of his bishops. Mark well the Avords and doings of pope 
mouth oi Hildebrand against the emperor Henry IV. ; also of pope Alex- 
ander II., treading upon the neck of Frederic Barbarossa, not like a 
lamb treading upon a dragon, but like a dragon treading upon a lamb ; 
so that his own verse might be turned upon himself, " Tanquam aspis 
et basiliscus super oviculam ambulans, et tanquam leo et draco con- 
eulcans agnum." Consider moreover the behaviour, manner, condi- 
tion, and property of almost all the popes who have been these six 
hundred years, and what dragon or serpent could be more viperous 
than their own doings and words can speak and give testimony against 
themselves. 
Thw It followeth, moreover, in the same prophecy of the Apocalypse 

for the third argument, " And he doth all the power of the first beast 
presently before his face, and causeth the earth, and all the inhabitants 
therein, to honour the first beast, the stripe of whose deadly wound 
was cured,'" &c. 
rhetwo [n this prophecy two things are to be noted; first, what the first 
H ' Ih!,"i, beast is, whose power the second beast doth execute. Secondly, what 
this second beast is, which so doth exercise its power in its sight. The 

bp"c'' 



first of these beasts described here in the Apocalypse, having seven 
luads and ten horns, must needs signify the city of Rome, which may 
easily be proved by two demonstrations. First, by the exposition of 
the same Apocalypse xvii., where is declared and described the said 

D beast to stand on seven hills, and to contain ten kings, having the 

whole power of the dragon given; and also the same city to be 
named 'The whore of Babylon, drunken with the blood of the 

"•""• saints :' all which properties joined together, can agree in no wise 
QUt only to the heathen empire of Rome, which city, at that time of 
H rit in- these prophecies, had the government of the whole world. The 
second demonstration or evidence may be deduced out of the number 

0) K.\ Uonilac VIII Extra, ilc Majorit, ct Obcil. 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 105 

of the months assigned to this beast [Apoc. xiii.], for so it is written, Prophecy. 
that this beast had power to make, that is, to work his malice against 
Christ's people, forty-two months, which months, counted by sabbaths 
of years (that is, every month for seven years), make up the just number 
of those years in which the primitive church was under the terrible 
persecutions of the heathen emperors of Rome, as is afore specified. 

Which thing thus standing, proved and confessed, that the first The beast 
beast must needs signify the empire and city of Rome; then must it JwohSni 
necessarily follow that the second beast, with the lamb's horns, must °™* 
signify the bishop and pope of the same city of Rome. The reason 
hereof is evident and apparent by that which followcth in the pro- 
phecy, 1 where it is declared, that the second beast, having two horns 
of a lamb, received and exercised all the power of the first beast, 
before or in the sight of the said beast, which cannot be verified 
either in the Turk or in any other, but only in the pope of Rome, 
who, as you see, receiveth, usurpeth, and deriveth to himself all the The pope 
power of that city and monarchy of Rome ; insomuch that he saith, ] ^"J 
that when Constantine or Ludovicus yielded unto him the rule and rule a,ld 
kingdom of that city, he gave him but his own, and that, which of Rome, 
right and duty belonged to him before. 

And this authority or power over all the empire of Rome, he 
worketh not in Asia, nor in Constantinople as the Turk doth, but in 
the sight of the beast which gave him the power ; that is, in the city 
of Rome itself, which is the first beast here in this prophecy of the 
Apocalypse described. 

Fourthly, It followcth moreover, " And he causeth the earth and Fourth 
all the inhabitants therein, to worship and honour the first beast, 2 reason - 
which had a deadly wound, and was cured, 1 '' &c. The interpretation 
of this part, as also of all the other parts of the same chapter, standeth 
upon the definition of the first beast : for, it being granted, as cannot 
be denied, that the first beast signifieth the city and empire of Rome, 
it must consequently follow, that the bishop (whom we call the 
pope) of the said city of Rome, must be understood by the second 
beast, forasmuch as neither Turk nor any other, but only the bishop 
of Rome, hath holden up the estimation and dignity of that city, 
which began to be in ruin and decay by the Vandals, Goths, Heru- 
lians, and Lombards, about a. d. 456 ; but afterwards by the bishop 
of Rome, the pristine state and honour of that city revived again, and 
flourished in as great veneration as ever it did before. And this it 
is which the Holy Ghost seemeth here to mean of the first beast, 
saying, " That he had a wound of the sword, and was cured ;" for so 
it followeth. 

Fifthly, " And he caused all the inhabitants of the earth to make Fifth 
the image of the beast, which had the stripe of the sword and lived. 
And it was given to him to give life to the image of the beast, and 
to make the image thereof to speak, and to cause all them that 
worshipped not the image of the beast, to be killed ; forcing all 
persons, both little and great, rich and poor, bond and free, to take 
the mark of the beast in their right hand, or in their foreheads, and 
that none might buy or sell, but they which had the mark, or the 
name of the beast, or the number of his name,'" fee. 

(1) Aroc. xiii. (2) 'Engine* rur Otiyiov. Apoc. xiii. 



n .(miii. 



106 THE HISTOUY OF THE TURKS. 

Prophecy. By giving life to the image of the beast, and making it to speak, 

J^ is to be presupposed that the beast was at a near point of death, and 

lie™ 1 Kv speechless before, insomuch that the city of Rome began to lose 

rliied and change its name, and was called awhile Odacria, of Odacer, king 

odacria. Q f tuc Herulians, who, by dint of sword, surprised the Romans; and 

yet, notwithstanding, by means of this Roman prelate, the said city 

of Rome, which was then ready to give up the ghost, so recovered her 

majesty and strength again, that it is hard to say whether Rome did 

ever ruffle and rage in her tyranny before, in the time of Nero, 

Domitian, Dioclesian, and other emperors, more tragically than she 

hath done under the pope; or whether that Rome had all kings, 

queens, princes, dukes, lords, and all subjects more under obedience 

and subjection, when the emperors reigned, or now in the reign 

i.ifc in of the pope. And therefore it is said not without cause by the 

the image jj^ q^^ t ] lat j t j s gi ven to him, " to give life and speech to the 

beast. 
The 

image 

Koine 



again as 
cruelly as 



image of the beast, causing all them to be slain which will not worship 
of the image of the beast, 111 Sec. As for example hereof, who seeth not 
I'eaketh what numbers and multitudes of christian men, women, and children 
in all countries have been put to fire and sword? Stories of all times 
will declare, what havoc hath been made of christian blood about 
the pre-eminence and majority of the see of Rome. What churches 
and countries, both Greek and Latin, have been excommunicated ? 
what kings have been deposed, and emperors stripped from their 
imperial seat ? and all because they would not stoop and bend to the 
image of the beast, that is, to the majesty raid title of Rome, advanced 
up so highly now by the bishop thereof, as it was never higher before 
in the reign of Nero or Dioclesian. Wherefore, taking the first beast 
to signify the empire of Rome, which cannot be denied, it is plain 
that the second beast must necessarily be applied to the pope, and 
not to the Turk, forasmuch as the Turk seeketh nothing less than 
the advancement of that empire, but rather striveth against it to 
pluck it down. 
Sixth The sixth and last argument is grounded upon the number of .the 

Number name of the beast, expressed by the Holy Ghost in the same prophecy, 
name e of '*>' tnc u ' tters X^ E> *> m which letters, although there lieth great dark- 
I'" '-'st ness and difficulty to be understood, yet certain ancient Fathers who 
were disciples and hearers of those who heard St. John himself, 
as IienaMis and others, do expound the said letters, conjecturally, to 
contain the name of the beast, and to be the name of a man under 
this word XorcTvos :'- whereas else, no other name lightly of any per- 
son, either in Greek or Latin, will agree to the same, save only the 
foresaid name Xartlvo; ; although some later writers, giving their 
conjectures upon the same, do find the name of Lateranus, in Hebrew 
letters, to answer to the same number. Some feign other names, as, 
avTB/MOS or retroi/, made words, which signify nothing, as Diclux, or 
Luduuic, by Roman letters, &c. lint of all names properly signifv- 
j , ,',',i,',!" rag any man, none eometh so near to the number of this mystery (if 
chajlter " S° ty order of letters) as doth the word XaTELVog aforesaid. And 
thus much by the way and occasion of Nicholas dc Lyra, Paulus 
Burgen, Matthias Dorinke, the author of Fortalilium Fidci, and other 

- ; "i' '"I non udoraverin) imaginem bestias.' Apoc. 






raaketb the full numbex oi'OGfi. 



THE IIISTOUY OK THE TUKKS. 107 

commentators more, of the same faction ; who, writing upon tliis xiiitli Pnphetg. 
chapter of the Apocalypse, and not considering the circumstances 
thereof, both are deceived themselves, and deceive many others, ap- 
plying that to the Turk, which cannot otherwise be verified, but only 
upon the pope, as may appear sufficiently by the premises. Not that 
I write this of any mood or malice, cither to the city of Rome, or to 
the person of the bishop, as being God's creature ; but being occa- 
sioned here to treat of the prophecies against the Turks, I would wish 
the readers not to be deceived, but rightly to understand the simple 
Scriptures according as they lie, to the intent that the true meaning 
thereof, being bolted out, it may be better known what prophecies 
directly make against these Turks ; what otherwise. 

In the which prophecies against the Turks, now to proceed, let us 
come to Apocalypse xx., wherein the holy Scripture seemeth plainly 
and directly to notify the said Turks. The words of the prophecy be 
these : " And I saw an angel descending from heaven, having the 
key of the bottomless pit, and a great chain in his hand ; and he took 
the dragon, the old serpent, which is the devil and Satanas, and bound 
him up for a thousand years, and cast him into the pit, and sealed 
him up, that he should not seduce the people any more, till the thou- 
sand years were expired : and, after that, he must be let loose for a 
little while," &c. And it followeth after, "And when the thousand 
years' shall be complete, Satanas shall be let out of his dungeon, and 
shall go abroad to seduce the people, which are on the four corners of 
the land of Gog and Magog, to assemble them to battle; whose num- 
ber is like to the sands of the sea. And they Avent up upon the 
latitude or breadth of the earth, and compassed about the tents of the 
saints, and the well-beloved cities,"" &c. 

To the perfect understanding of this prophecy, three things are Thwe 
necessary to be known. First, what is meant by the binding up and be'noted 
loosing out of Satan as the old dragon. Secondly, at what time and jj» "*• 
year he was first chained up and sealed for a thousand years. Thirdly, and i«w- 
at what year and time these thousand years did end, when he should staton?* ' 
be loosed out again for a little season. Which three points being 
well examined and marked, the prophecy may easily be understood 
directly to be meant of the Turk : albeit analogically, some part 
thereof may also be referred, not improperly, unto the pope, as is 
above notified. 

First, by binding and loosing of Satan seemeth to be meant, the what is 
ceasing and staying of the cruel and horrible persecution of the hea- Mnd"ng b ' 
then emperors of Koine against the true Christians, as is to be seen in g*j£ 
the ten first persecutions in the primitive church above described in 
the former part of these Acts and Monuments; in which most bloody 
persecutions Satan the devil then raged without all measure, till the 
time it pleased Almighty God to stop this old serpent, and to tic him 
shorter. And thus have you to understand what is meant by the 
binding up of Satan for a thousand years; whereby is signified, that 
the persecution against the Christians, stirred up by the beast (that is, 
in the empire of Rome, through the instigation of Satan), shall not 
always continue, but shall break up after a certain time, and shall 
cease for a thousand years, &c. 

Now at what time and year this persecution, that is, the fury and 



K),^ THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

p,n,,hec,j rage of Satan should cease, is also declared in the Apocalypse before ; 

r uf ' where, in the xith and xiiith chapters, we read, that the beast afore- 

Mnding mentioned shall have power to work his malice and mischief the space 

a "' of forty-two months, and no more ; and then that Satan should be 

locked up for a thousand years. The computation of which months, 

tat; two being counted by sabbaths of years (after the example of the sixty- 

"•JjJJ" nine weeks of Daniel, chapter xi.), it doth bring us to the just year 

Ap«»- and time, when that terrible persecution in the primitive church 

,ypM ' should end ; and so it did. For, give to every month a sabbath of 

years, that is, reckon every month for seven years, and that maketh 

two hundred and ninety-four years, which was the full time between 

the 18th year of Tiberius (under whom Christ suffered) and the 

death of Maxentius, the last persecutor of the primitive church in 

Suppuu- Europe, subdued by Constantino, as may appear by calculating the 

''■.'.'rs'iR- years, months, and days between the said year of the reign of 

tween the Tiberius, and the latter end of Maxentius : and so have you the 

lI'in-'.iiKi supputation of the year and time when Satan was first bound up, 

!,', u!,'.'" after he had raged in the primitive church two and forty months ; 

li'ms'in" which months, as is said, being counted by sabbaths of years, after 

thepri- the usual manner of the Scripture, amount to two hundred and 

church, ninety-four years ; and so much, was the full time between the 

passion of our Lord, which was in the 18th year of Tiberius, unto 

the last year of Maxentius. 

Tiiepope And here, by the way, cometh a note to be observed, that for- 

Be cond asnmch as by the number of these forty-two months specified in the 

, "'" t . Apocalypse, the empire of Rome must necessarily be confessed to 

mention- l • ■ r > I . J M 

ed. be the first beast; therefore it must by like necessity follow, the 

bishop of Rome to be the second beast, with the two horns of 
the lamb, for that he only hath and doth cause the said empire 
of Rome to revive and to be magnified, and so doth not the Turk, 
but rather laboureth to the contrary. Wherefore, let every chris- 
tian man be wise, and beware betimes how he taketh the mark of 
the beast, lest peradventure it follow upon him, that he drink 
of that terrible cup of wrath mentioned in the xivth chapter of 
the Apocalypse. 1 
Third Thirdly, it remaincth to be discussed touching the third point 

tV,'. rt ,.'ro- m tn ' s aforesaid prophecy, that as we have found out (through 
i '" •'•>'• the help of Christ) the year and time of Satan's binding, so we 
search out likewise the time and season of his loosing out, which, 
by the testimony of Scripture, was proved to be a thousand years 
after his binding up ; and so rightly, according to the time appointed, 
Begin- it came to pass. For if we number well by the Scripture the year 
',',",'. '" r of his binding up, which was from the passion of our Lord two 
hundred and ninety-four years, and add thereto a thousand years, it 
mounteth to one thousand two hundred and ninety-four ; which was 
the very year when Ottoman, the first Turk, began his reign ; which 
was the first spring and wellhead of all these woful calamities that 
the church of Christ hath felt, both in Asia, Africa, and Europe, 
almost, these three hundred years past. For so we find in chronicles, 
that the kingdom of the Turks being first divided into four families. 
A.D. 1280, at length the family of Ottoman prevailed, and therc- 

1) ' Kt. Uic bibet do vino toe lJci ' Apo. xiv. 



,„..„••■ 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 109 

upon came these, whom we now call Turks ; which was about the Propt teg. 
same time when pope Boniface VIII. was bishop of Rome. 

Here by the way, this is again to be noted, that after the decree Time of 
of transubstantiation was enacted in the council of Latcran by pope sta"tia b " 
Innocent III., a.d. 1251, not long after, about a.d. 1260, were stirred Jg,™ - 
up the power and arms of the Oguzians, and of Orthogule, father of Turks. 
Ottoman, who, about a.d. 1294, began first to vex the Christians 
about Pontus and Bithynia; and so beginning his kingdom, a.d. 
1300, reigned twenty-eight years, as is afore-mentioned. 1 

Mention was made before of Ezekiel prophesying against Gog, j^ ffiff * 
whose words divers expositors do apply against the Turk, and are xxxviu. 
these : 

' Thou shalt come from thy place out of the North parts, thou and much 
people with thee, all riding upon horses, a great and a mighty army ; and thou 
shalt come up against my people of Israel as a cloud, to cover the land. Thou 
shalt be in the latter days, and I will bring thee upon my land, that the heathen 
may know me, when I shall be sanctified in thee, O Gog ! before their eyes. 
Thus saith the Lord God, Art not thou he, of whom I have spoken in the old 
time by the hand of my servants the prophets of Israel, that prophesied in those 
days and years, that I would bring thee upon them ? At the same time also 
when Gog shall come against the land of Israel, saith the Lord God, my wrath 
shall arise in mine anger ; for in mine indignation, and in the fire of my wrath 
have I spoken it. Surely at that time there shall be a great shaking in the 
land of Israel, so that the fishes of the sea, the fowls of the heaven, the beasts 
of the field, and all that move and creep upon the earth, and all the men that 
are upon the earth shall tremble at my presence ; the mountains shall be over- 
thrown ; the stars shall fall; and every man shall fall to the ground,' &c. 



THE PROPHECIES OF METHODIUS, HILDEGARD, AND OTHERS, 
CONCERNING THE REIGN AND RUIN OF THE TURKS. 

Unto these testimonies above excerpted out of the holy Scriptures, Metho- 
let us add also the prophetical revelations of Methodius, Hildegard, ph^ieT' 
Sibylla, and others. This Methodius is thought of some to be the 
same Methodius of whom Jerome and Suidas make mention ; who 
was bishop first of Olympus in Lycia, then of Tyre, and suffered 
martyrdom in the last persecution of the primitive church under 
Dioclesian ; unto whom also Trithemius attributeth the book entitled His boot 
' De quatuor novissimis temporalis.'' But that cannot be, forasmuch mistaken - 
as the said Methodius doth cite and allege the master of sentences, 
namely, in his second book and sixth distinction, which master of 
sentences followed more than a thousand years after Christ ; besides 
certain other fabulous matters contained in the same book. Albeit, 
because he speaketh there of many things concerning the state of the 
church under Antichrist, and the reformation of religion, as seemcth 
rightly to come to pass, and more is like to follow, I thought not 
to defraud the reader thereof, leaving the credit of the author to his 
arbitrement, to esteem and judge of him, as he seeth cause. 2 Among 

(1) Ex Leonico Chalcondyla, lib. i. 

(2) The prophecies of Methodius have not been fulfilled ; a specimen of the strange effusions of 
Hildegard will be seen in vol. ii. p. 353. Justin laid great stress apqn the few remaining works of the 
Sibyllte, and some of the Christians of the early church were so prejudiced in their favour that ir 
gave occasion to Celsus to stigmatize them with the name of " Sibyllists." The christian reader 
may peruse these prophecies with curiosity, but he will return, with firmer confidence, to that 



\\{) THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

rrophtcy. divers other places of Methodius, prophesying of the latter time, 
these words do follow : 

His pro- « After the children of Ishmael had multiplied in their generations to an infi- 

phe.-ies n j te an j i nnum erable multitude in the desert aforesaid, they came out of the 

Jngth?" wilderness of Araby, and entered into the habitable land, and fought with the 

Turk*. kings of the Gentiles, who were in the land of promise, and the land was filled 

witii them. And after seventy weeks and a half of their power, wherewith 

they have subdued all the kingdoms of the Gentiles, their heart was exalted ; 

seeing themselves so to have prevailed, and to have conquered all things,' &c. 

And afterwards it followeth of the same matter in this sort : 

' It shall come to pass that the said seed of Ishmael shall issue out and obtain 

the whole world, with the regions thereof, in the entering of peace, from the 

land of Egypt unto Ethiopia ; and from the flood Euphrates unto India ; and 

from the river Tigris to the entering of Nabaot, the kingdom of Jonithus, the 

The first son of Noah ; and from the North unto Rome and Illyricum, Egypt and Thes- 

itate of s.-Jonica and Albania, and so forth to the sea Ponticum, which divideth the 

'"riling" said kingdoms from Germany and France ; and their yoke shall be double upon 

'he the necks of all nations and Gentiles; neither shall there be nation nor kingdom 

the'safa^ under heaven, which shall be able to stand against them in battle, until the 

cens. number of eight weeks of years,' 1 &c. 

Briefly, as in a gross sum, this shall suffice to admonish the reader 
touching the meaning and method of the prophecies of Methodius, 
which Methodius, first describing the long and tedious afflictions of 
Christ's church, thus maketh mention of the seed of Ishmael : 

' The seed of Ishmael, coming out of the parts and deserts of Araby, shall 

destroy,' saith he, ' and vanquish the whole earth, so that the Christians shall 

be given of God to the hands of the filthy barbarians, to be slain, polluted, and 

Chris- captived : Persia, Armenia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Syria, Egypt, the east parts, 

U JS ri Asia, Spain, all Greece, France, Germany, Agathonia, Sicily, the Romans 

by them, also, shall be slain and put to flight ; also the islands of the seas shall be brought 

to desolation and captivity, and put to the sword. Which tribulation of the 

Christians shall be without mercy or measure; the ransom of gold and silver 

and other exaction.-: intolerable ; but especially the dwellers in Egypt and Syria 

shall be most in the affliction of those times. And Jerusalem shall be filled 

with multitudes of people brought thither in captivity, from the four winds 

which are under heaven ; so that boasts also, and fowls, and fish in the water, 

and the waters of the sea, shall be to them obedient. Cities and towns, which 

were before full of people, shall be laid waste. Women with child shall be 

\ smitten; their children sticked ; infants taken from their mothers, and cast in 

the streets, and none shall bury them. The riders and sage of the people shall 

be slain, ond thrown out to the beasts. Churches shall be spoiled; the priests 

destroyed; virgins abused, and men compelled to sell their children; and the 

coining of them shall be chastisement without mercy ; and with them shall go 

these four plagues, captivity, destruction, perdition, and desolation.' 

Me addeth much more, which for brevity I overpass. "And this 
affliction, 11 saith he, " shall last eight weeks, or sabbaths of years ;"" 
which I take to signily eight hundred years, &c. 

Secondly, After these terrible plagues thus described by Metho- 
dius upon the Christians, which he saith shall fall upon them for their 

•more sure word of prophecy,' which rarae 'not by the will of man,' but in which ' holy men of 
old «pakc as llicv wire moved by the Holy Ghost.'— Ed. 

(H Btffbl weeks „i years, counting every week for a sabbath of years, that is, every dav for a 
>roj, i oiiu-tl- to lilt v six years. 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. Ill 

wicked abominations recited in the first and second chapters of St. Prophecy 
Paul to the Romans ; the said Methodius afterward, in this great second ~ 
distress of the Christians, being out of all hope and comfort of relief, "",'}' .[[\- Xf . 
declareth and speaketh of a certain king of the Greeks or Romans, Jiang, re- 
who sliall restore peace again to the Christians ; in which peace they theit 
shall re-edify their cities and mansions again, the priests shall be deli- i jla t' ues - 
vered from their grievances, and men at that time shall rest from their 
tribulations ; and then shall the king of the Romans dwell in the city 
of Jerusalem a week or sabbath, and a half of times, Sec. 

Thirdly, During the time of this peace the said Methodius saith, JSSof" 
that men shall fall into licentious security, and careless life; and by the' 
then, according to the words of the apostle, saying, " When of"!!"" 
they shall say, Peace, peace, sudden destruction shall .fall upon Turks 
them :" 

'Then,' saith he, ' shall be opened the gates of the North, and the beastly 
people shall break in, which king Alexander the Great did close up within two 
mountains, making his prayer unto the Lord God, that he would bind up that 
bestial and execrable people, lest with their filthy and detestable pollutions they 
should come out and pollute the Holy Land. Whose intercession being heard, 
the Lord commanded them to be inclosed within two mountains in the north 
parts, to the deepness of twelve cubits,' which signifieth, peradventure, twelve 
hundred years, ' so that neither by witchcraft, nor by any means, they could 
get out, or any might come unto them, until the time of the Lord appointed, 
which is,' saith he, 'the latter times; and then, according to the prophecy of 
Ezekiel, in the latter time of the consummation of the world, Gog and Magog, 
out from the North, shall come forth into the land of Israel, and shall work all 
this mischief against the Christians, above recited. And then,' saith Metho- 
dius, proceeding in his prophecies, ' shall the king of the Romans, after he hath 
reigned in Jerusalem a sabbath of times, and a half, 1 that is,' saith Methodius, 
1 ten years and a half, take the crown from his head, 2 and yield it up to the cross 
in Golgotha, where Christ was crucified, and shall die. And the cross with 
the crown shall be taken into heaven, which shall not appear again before the 
coming of the Lord.' 

Fourthly, It followeth then, moreover, in the prophecies of Me- 
thodius, who declareth that when the week or sabbath and half week 
of times sliall end, and when the king of Romans shall give up his 
crown in Jerusalem, and die : 

' Then immediately shall Antichrist, the son of perdition, begin to appear, and 
be born in Jewry, of the tribe of Dan, whereof also came Judas Iscariot ; and 
he sliall be born,' saith Methodius, ' in Chorazin, and shall be bred in IJcthsaida, 
and shall reign in Capernaum ; to which three cities, Christ the Lord gave his 
third ' Vac.' And when great tribulation shall increase and multiply in the days 
of this Antichrist, and all lordship and dominion shall be destroyed, the Lord shall 
send his two faithful and dear servants, Enoch and Elias, to reprove and detect 
the false, seducing, and lying forgeries of this Antichrist, openly before all men ; 
so that the people, seeing themselves falsely beguiled and seduced by this son of 
perdition, coming out of the temple dissemblingly, to the destruction of many, 
shall leave and flee from him, and join themselves to the said two holy prophets : 
which son of perdition and Antichrist, seeing his proceedings so to be reproved, Oestruc- 
and brought into contempt, in his fury and anger shall kill the two prophets rf^^J" 
God. And then sliall appear,' saith Methodius, 'the sign of the coming of the 
Son of Man ; and he shall come in the clouds of heavenly glory, and shall destroy 
the enemy with the spirit of his mouth,' &c. 

(T) The reign of christian kings in Jerusalem lasted eighty-eight years. A. n. 1187. 

(2) By this resigning up the crown to the crucifix in Grjlgotha, is signified the ceasing of tho 
Christians in Jerusalem till the coming of Christ. By this tribe of Dan, and the cities Chorazin, 
Bethsaida, and Capernaum, are signified God's great malediction upon Antichrist. 



ofAn- 



112 THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS 



INTERPRETATION OF PROPHECY 



To these prophecies and testimonies of Methodius, what credit is 
to be given, I leave it to the reader. But if the meaning of his 
prophecies go by such order of times as is set and disposed in his 
book, he seemeth to describe unto us four principal states and altera- 
tions of times to come. 
The com- The first state and alteration is by Mahomet and the Saracens, 
Itaacena? who be the offspring and sons of Ishmael, coming out of Araby, in 
the time of Heraclius, emperor of Constantinople, a.d. 630, Avho, 
rebelling against Heraclius, increased and prevailed still more and 
more against the Christians, both in Asia and Africa, and also in 
many places in Europe ; especially in Spain and Italy. 
The com- The second state and alteration he prophesieth to come by the 
Turkl. tlie Turk, who, first coming out of the far parts of Scythia, that is, out of 
the north, first overcame the Saracens, subdued the Persians, and 
afterwards, joining together with the Saracens, conquered the king- 
dom of Jerusalem, about a.d. 1187; then subdued Syria and most 
part of Asia, &c. And these be they whom Methodius seemeth to 
mean, speaking of the vile and miserable people closed up of the 
Lord God, at the intercession of Alexander the great captain in the 
north, between two mountains the deepness of twelve cubits, lest that 
filthy corrupt nation should pollute the earth with their wickedness : 
whereby are meant these Turks, who coming out from the uttermost 
scythia parts of the north, that is, out of Scythia, and the mountains of Cau- 
i'l.^m.' 111 casus, or else Imaus, were withholden and kept back of Almighty 
God, for Christ's cause, that they might not harm his church a long 
space, during the time of twelve hundred years: yea, and then the 
sins of the Christians so deserving, they were permitted of Almighty 
God to break out, and to invade the church ; who, now joining 
together with the Saracens, have wrought, and daily do work, all these 
grievances against our christian brethren, as we see this day is come 
to pass : and more is like to follow, except the hand of the Lord, which 
let them out, do pluck them in again. 

Moreover, in the same space, between the reign of the Saracens 
and the Turks, where Methodius speaketh of the king of Romans, 
who should restore quietness to the church, and should reign in Jeru- 
salem a sabbath of times, and half a sabbath ; thereby seemeth to be 
understood the voyage of christian princes out of the west parts oi 
y Europe, under Godfrcd, duke of Lotharing, and his two brethren, 
and many other christian princes, with three hundred thousand foot- 



of Jeru- 

udem 



i,y the men, and one hundred thousand horsemen ; who, fighting against the 
Saracens, recovered again from them the city of Jerusalem, a.d. 1099, 
cen/" 8 " wm( ' n city before had been in their possession the term of four hun- 

Rensed 



ti. ins from 



I.)- died and ninety years. 1 After which victory got, first Godfrcd, then 
eighty- Baldwin, his brother, and others after them, to the number of nine 
Bight 

yiarv ; 
.•mil won 
from 



christian kings, reigned in Jerusalem the space of eighty-eight years; 

and alter that, through the discord of the Christians' not agreeing 
tLra amongst themselves, both Jerusalem and Syria, with other parts or 
■£>■*» Asia besides, were Bubdued ami won of the Turks, which yet to this 

day they still keep. And this was a.d. 1187. 

(1) Ex Paulo Jovio. 



inks. 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS'. \\ .', 

About which year and time (as followeth in Methodius), when the w< v ,/„, ?/ . 
city of Jerusalem shall be won of the Turks, then shall Antichrist v imil „, 
begin to be born of the tribe of Dan, of whom came Judas Iscariot, ^ k 
and shall be born in Chorazin, and bred in Bcthsaida, and reign in Ami 
Capernaum : meaning that this Antichrist, or son of perdition, shall scX,!.' " 
be full of God's malediction, noted by Judas Iscariot, and these three 
cities, against whom was spoken thrice ' Vse, 1 ot the Lord. 

And here is moreover to be noted, that Methodius saith, not that 
Antichrist shall be born among the Saracens or Turks, but among 
the people of God, and of the tribe of Israel. Whereby is to be 
collected, that Antichrist shall not come of the Saracens, nor Turks, 
but shall spring up among the Christians, and, saith Methodius, 
" shall seem to come out of the temple, to deceive many, 11 &c. 
Whereby the pope may seem, rather than the Saracen or the Turk, 
to be described, forasmuch as the pope, being elected, nourished, and 
reigning, in the midst of God's people at Rome, sitteth in the temple, 
and very place of Christ ; and, no doubt, deceiveth many, &c. 

And now, to come to the time assigned of Methodius, here is to 
be added also, that which we read in Antoninus, part 3, that about 
this said present time, a certain bishop of Florence preached that 
Antichrist was then coming : but the pope commanded him to keep 
silence, and to speak no more thereof. Now, why the pope so did, 
and why he could not abide the preaching of Antichrist, I refer it to 
those who list to muse more upon the matter. This is certain, that 
about this time here assigned by Methodius, came Peter the Lom- 
bard, Gratian, and pope Innocent III., the first authors and patrons 
of transubstantiation. At which time also began the first persecution Trangnb . 
by the church of Rome against the Albigenses or Waldenses, about tton. 15 * - 
Toulouse, Bourges, and Avignon, of whom seventeen thousand the The lirsl 

• i-iii ill- persecu- 

same time were slam, by the popes crossed soldiers, among whom Bon. 
friar Dominic was then the ehiefest doer; about which time also was n'"!"'" 
friar Francis, of which two came the two orders of begging friars : all llancis - 
which began much about one time together, a.d. 1215, which were 
nearly within twenty years after the kingdom of the Christians was 
taken of the Turks, according to the prophecy above-said. 1 

It followeth, moreover, in Methodius, " In his time, all lordship The pope 
and domination shall cease and give over, 11 &c. ; the verity whereof ^^ 
we see now accomplished in the pope, for, where the pope with his 
double sword and triple crown doth come, there all secular power 
must give place ; both emperors, kings, and princes must stoop. 

So king John yielded up his crown to Pandulph, the pope's legate, Notes of 
and was in his hands five days, a.d. 1217. ^SSit 

Childeric, the French king, had his crown taken from him, and 
given to Pepin, a.d. 747. 

Henry IV., emperor, was forced to submit himself and his sceptre 
to pope Hildebrand, a.d. 1077. 

Frederic Barbarossa, emperor, in St. Mark's church in Venice, was 
fain to lav down his neck under pope Alexander's feet, a.d. 1~77; 
which Frederic also before was fain to hold the stirrup to pope 
Adrian, Sec. 

What should I speak of the ambassador of Venice, named Fran- 

(1) Ex Antonin. part iii. tit. 1!>, cap. I. 
VOL. IV. I 



]]4 THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 

p,,.ri,,r,,. ciscus Dandulus? who, being sent to pope Clement V., was made to 
' lie under the pope's table like a dog, and gather up the crumbs; 

mentioned in Sabellicus JEnn. ix. lib. 7. 

Henry III., being emperor, had his diadem first set on with the 

feet of the pope, and afterwards struck off from his head with the 



pope ! 



foot again. 



Nearnens 
of the 



And what shall T speak more hereof, when Charlemagne submit- 
ted himself so low as to kiss the feet of pope Leo, a.d. 800? 
It followeth then in the prophecy of Methodius : 

' In the tribulation of those days shall be sent from God two special prophets, 
Enoch and Elias, to reprove and disclose the fraudulent falsehood of Antichrist; 
and many, seeing his delusion, shall forsake him, and follow them : whereat 
Antichrist being grieved, shall kill them,' &c. 

We never read yet, in any story, of any such two prophets to be 
sent either to the Saracens, or to the Turks : whereas, against the 
pope, we read John Huss and Jerome of Prague, two learned martyrs 
and prophets of God, to have been sent, and to have reproved and 
described the anatomy of Antichrist; and, at last, to have been 
burned for their labour. And what prophet can speak more plainly, 
either Enoch or Elias, than did Jerome of Prague, prophesying of the 
coming of Martin Luther, a hundred years after him ? when the 
pope and his fellows should answer to God and to him. The time 
we see came just. Now let the pope with his fellows see, what 

i.ords answer thev can make. It followeth further ill Methodius, con- 

ment. eluding Ins prophecy : 

' And then shall appear the coming of the Son of man in the clouds of heaven, 
with celestial glory,' &c. 

Wherefore after the burning of these two notable prophets, with 
many other thousands burned also since their time by the bishop of 
Home, it is to be thought that the coming of Christ's judgment in 
the clouds, is not far off. " Veni cito Domine." Amen ! 

And thus much touching Methodius, of whose prophecies, how 
much or how little is to be esteemed, I leave it indifferent unto the 
reader. For me it shall suffice simply to have recited his words, as 
I find them in his book contained ; noting this by the way, that of 
this book of Methodius, c Dc novissimis temporibus,' neither Jerome 
in his catalogue, nor Suidas, nor yet Aventinus, in the place where 

Prophecy he treateth purposely of such prophecies, maketh any mention. As 
(i touching Hildegard and Briget, and others, whom the French call 

Briget. Bardi, for their songs and prophetical verses, sufficient hath been 
alleged, before out of Aventinus: 2 who, in his third book of 
Chronicles, writing of the testimonies of Hildegard, Briget, and the 
Bardi, seemeth to ground upon them, that the Turks, whether we 

A caveat will or not, shall have their imperial seat at Cologne; and I pray God 

Had? 8 " ,,nt 't come not to pass, that the Turk do give some attempt against 
England by the seas, before that he come to Cologne by land. 3 

Brevity causeth me to cut off many testimonies and revelations of 
these above said, or else 1 could here rehearse the prophetical words 

in Vid. Inprlmo Tom. operum Julian. Hus. deAnatomia. 

'' A\cntin. lib. iii. Annalium. (8) Ex Brigltta. lib. iv. c. 57. 



THE HISTOKY OF THE TURKS. 



11 



of Briget, lib. iv. c. 57, concerning the city and church of Rome, of r™v>^>.i- 
which she saith thus ■ 

' It must be purged and scoured with three tilings, to wit, with sharp sword, Prophe- 
with fire, and with the plough, and that God will do with that city, as one that g" "[ 
removeth plants out of one place unto another : and, finally, that the city of 
Rome shall sustain the sentence, as if a judge should command the skin to be 
flayed oft', the blood to be drawn from the flesh, and the flesh to be cut in small 
pieces, and the bones thereof to be broken ; so that all the marrow may be 
squeezed from the same,' &c. 

But for brevity I let Briget pass, and will declare something out Prophe- 
of Erythrea Sibylla, in her book of prophecies found in St. George's E^tSrea 
church in Venice ; where she, prophesying many things of the birth ^£a 
of Christ under Augustus, and of the birth of John Baptist, and of EnpaUa. 
baptism, of the apostles, of the conversion of the Gentiles, and of 
Constantine, &c. hath these words : l 

'After the peaceable bull shall conclude all the climes of the world under 
tribute, in those days a heavenly lamb shall come. And the days shall conic, 
when the power of the flowing stream shall be magnified in water, and the lion, 
the monarch, shall be converted to the lamb, which shall shine to all men, and 
subvert kingdoms.' 

Moreover saith Sibylla : 

' In the latter age God shall be humbled, and the divine offspring shall be Prophe- 
abased, and deity shall be joined with humanity, the lamb shall lie in hay, and ^.jf af 
God and man shall be bred up under a maiden's attendance : signs and won- Christ. 
ders shall go before amongst the circumcised,' &c. Also, 'An aged woman 
shall conceive a child, having knowledge of things to come. The world shall 
marvel at Bootes 'the star,' which shall be a leader to his birth; he having 
thirty-two feet, and six thumbs, shall choose to himself out of fishers and 
abjects, the number of twelve, and one devil, not with sword, nor with battle,' &c. 

Afterwards thus it followeth, moreover, in Sibylla, saying : 

'The health of the lamb lying 5 shall be clothed with a few spoils of the lion. 
Black shall be turned into red. He shall subdue the city of /Eneas, and kings, 
but in the book of the fisher: In dejection and poverty he shall conquer riches, 
and shall tread down pride with his own death. In the night he shall rise up, 
and be changed, he shall live and reign, and all these things shall be consum- 
mated, and regeneration or 'new things' be made : at last he shall judge both 
good and evil,' &c. 

And thus much briefly collected out of Sibylla Erythrea, concern- 
ing Christ our Lord. 

Furthermore, touching the state and course of the church, and of 
Antichrist, it followeth in the said Sibylla, saying: 

1 Then shall four winged beasts 3 rise up in testimony ; they shall sound out 
with trumpets the name of the lamb, sowing righteousness, and the law irre- 
prehensible; against which law the beast shall gainstand, and tin- abomination 
and froth of the dragon. But a marvellous star -hall rise, having the image of 
the four beasts, and shall be in a marvellous multitude ; it shall bring light to 
the Greeks, and shall illustrate the world. The lake of the fishes shall bring 

(1) Ex Erythrea Sibylla in suo Nazilographo. i. Imperiali soripto. 

(2) The lamb lying, that is, the church, without travail shall be maintained with some living or 
possessions of the chief rulers. 

(3) By these four beasts is meant the four monarchies of the world, that is, the multitude of all 
the kingdom of the Gentiles, as in the Apocal Jiy the city of .Eneas is meant Home. 

i 2 



116 THE llf STORY OF THE TUltKS. 

Prophecy, the name of the lamb with power into the city of iEneas, unto the end of the 
" world or time.' 'Then in the city of JEneas the star joined shall loose such as 

wore bound of the devil, and thereof he shall rejoice and glory, and glorious 

-hall be his end,' &c. 

After this Sibylla writing, as it seemeth, of Antichrist, importeth 
these words : 

Prophecy ' And it shall come to pass, that an horrible beast shall come out of the east, 
of Sibylla whose roaring shall be heard to Africa, to the people of Carthage, which hath 
ciirut" seven heads, and sceptres innumerable, feet six hundred and sixty-three. 1 He 
shall gainstand the lamb, to blaspheme his testament, increasing the waters of 
the dragon. The kings and princes of the world he shall burn in intolerable 
swat, and they shall not diminish his feet. And then two stars, like to the 
first star, shall arise against the beast, and shall not prevail, till the abomination 
shall be come, and the will of the Lord shall be consummated.' 

And again, speaking of the same matter, he inferreth these words 
of the aforesaid two stars above mentioned : 

' And towards the latter days two bright stars shall arise, 3 raising up men 
lying dead in their sins, being like to the first star, having the face of the four 
beasts, which shall resist the beast, and the waters of the dragon, testifying [or 
preaching] the name and law of the lamb, the destruction of abomination and 
judgment, and shall diminish his waters ; but they shall be weakened in the 
bread of affliction, and they shall rise again in stronger force,' &c. 

And it followeth moreover : 

1 After the abomination, then shall truth be revealed, and the lamb shall be 
known, to whom regions and countries shall submit their necks, and all earthly 
men shall agree together in one, to come into one fold, and to be ruled under 
one discipline ; and after this shall be but a small time,' &c. 

And shortly after, the said Sibylla speaking of the latter judgment 
to come, declareth how all the abominations of sins shall come before 
l he Lamb; and that terrible fire shall fall from heaven, which shall 
consume all earthly things created unto the top of heaven, &c. 

And thus much out of Sibylla, touching her prophecies of Christ 
and Antichrist, according as I found them alleged by a certain ca- 
tholic Romish writer, in his book entitled ' Onus Ecclesise,'' ex- 
cerpted, as he saith, out of the library of St. George, in the city o. 
Venice. 

Philip Mclancthon, in his preface upon ' Bartholomams Georgienitz 
Peregrinus, 1 writing of the origin and manners of the Turks, allegeth 
a certain prophecy of Hiltcnus, mentioned hereafter, which foresaid 
that the Turks should bear rule in Italy and in Germany, a.d. 1600. 

Now it remaineth, in conclusion of these prophecies of the Turks, 
something to say of the Turks 1 own prophecies, concerning the en- 
during and ending of their own kingdom, whose prophetical prog- 
nostication, being taken out of their own language, and their own 
books, I though! here to insert, as I find it alleged in the book of the 
aforesaid Bartnolomseus Georgienitz, as followeth : 

(1) The six hundred and sixty-three feet do mean the years of his reign. 

(2) These two Stan seem to mean lluss and Jerome, who being put to death by the pope, 
theii doetrine rose again more strongly than before. 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 117 

A Turkish Prophecy in the Persian Tongue, of the Reign and Ruin Pr " i ' ,u ' c!f - 
of the Turks. 

Patissahomoz ghelur, Ciafcrum memleketi alur, kcuzul alniai alnr, Kapzeiler 
iediy ladegh Gyaur keleci csikmasse, on ikiyladogh onlaron beghlig eder : eufi 
iapar, baglii diker bahesai baghlar, uglikczi olur, onichi yldensora Hristianon 
Keleci csichar, ol Turchi gerestine tus cluire. 

The same in Latin. 

Imperator noster veniet, ethnici principis ' regnum capiet, rubrum quoque 
pomum capiet, in suam potestatem rediget: quod si septinunn usque annum 
Christianorum gladius non insurrexit, usque ad duodecimum annum eis domi- 
nabiUir. Domos aedificabit, vineas plantabit, hortos sepibus muniet, liberos 
procreabit, et post duodecimum annum apparebit Christianorum gladius, qui 
Turcam quaqua versum in fugam aget. 

The same in English. 

Our emperor shall come ; he shall get the kingdom of the Gentiles' prince ; 
also he shall take the red apple, and shall bring it under his subjection : and if 
the sword of the Christians shall not rise unto the seventh year, he shall have domi- 
nion over them unto the twelfth year. He shall build houses, plant vinevards, shall 
hedge about his orchards, shall procreate children ; and after the twelfth year shall 
appear the sword of the Christians, which shall put the Turk to flight every where. 

Those who make declaration of this Turkish prophecy, do expound 
this twelfth year to signify the twelfth year after the winning of Con- 
stantinople ; which Constantinople, say they, is meant by the red 
apple : and after that twelfth year, say they, shall rise the sword of 
the Christians, &c. And this prophecy, being written and translated 
out of the Persian tongue, with this exposition upon the same, is to Exposi- 
be found in the book of Bartholoniseus Georgienitz. Albeit, concern- tu"^ 1116 
ing the exposition thereof, it seemeth not to be true, which is there prophecy. 
spoken of the twelfth year after the winning of Constantinople, being 
now one hundred years since the winning thereof. 

Wherefore it may rather seem probable, that by the seventh and 
twelfth years of the Turks, this to be the meaning; that if the seventh 
of the Ottoman Turks do escape the sword of the Christians, they 
shall continue, build, and plant, &c, until the twelfth Turk, who is 
this Solyman ; and then, after that, shall rise the Christian's sword, 
which shall put them to flight, and vanquish them in all quarters. 
And this exposition may seem to accord with the place of Genesis 
xxv. ; wherein is written of Ishmael, that he had twelve sons, and no Another 
more : so, that this Solyman, being the twelfth Turk after Ottoman, ^ osl " 
may (by the grace of Christ) be the last ; whom we heard credibly to 
be reported, at the printing hereof, 2 to be dead. But, howsoever 
this prophecy is to be taken, it appeared] by their own oracles, that at 
length they shall be overcome by the Christians. 

A Table describing the times and years of the Saracens, Turks, and 
Tartarians, for the better explaining of the Story above prefixed. 

A. D. 632. The kingdom of the Saracens or Arabians, began after the death Saracens 
of Mahomet, the first ringleader of the mischief; which Saracens, reigning in bc ei»- 

(1) By the prince of the Gentiles, the Turks do here mean the kingdoms and dominions of the 
Christians, whom they call Gentiles, because they are not circumcised after their manner. 

(2) Solyman died in 1566. The Second Edition of the Acts and Monuments was printed in 
London in 1570, at which period the above report of Solyman'l deatu arrived.— Ed. 



118 THE HISTOKY 01< TIIK TUItKS. 

Propha*. Babylon over Persia and Asia, continued abovit one hundred and ninety-eight 

A. D. GG7. Jerusalem was taken by the Saracens. These Saracens, after 
they had subdued Ormisda king of Persia, set up to themselves a new king- 
dom, calling tbeir chief prince Caliph, which signifieth a general lord ; and 
under him Seriphes, that is an under prince ; and again, under him their Soldan, 
w'uo is a ruler or captain ; under which soldans all the provinces were divided. 
And thus ruled they the space above said, of one hundred and ninety-eight 
years. 

A. D. 703. The Egyptians being weary of their subjection under the Ro- 

Egyptian mans, called for help of the Saracen caliph ; and so, casting off the Romans, 

Saracens, submitted themselves to the law of the Saracens, and had also their caliph, 

o*Snl- iin( ] (heir Babylon called Cairo, where their caliphs continued unto Saraco or 

Syracinus, four hundred and forty-seven years. 

A. D. 810. Mauginet, or Muchumet, the chief sultan of Persia, being at 

cent' arV variance with Imbraell, the sultan of Babylon, sent for the aid of the Turks out 

1 of Scythia ; by whom when he had got the victory against the Babylonians, 

ceaaeth. ^ ^ Turks s j lort iy a f ter conquered the Persians, and subdued their country 

within the space of twenty years. 

A. D. 830. The Saracens, being expidsed out of Asia by the Turks, wan- 
dered about Africa, Spain, and Italy, and were in divers places dispersed, and 
so remain. 

A. D. 830. The Turks, after they had expulsed the Saracens out of Asia, 
Turk's began to reign in Asia, in Persia, and in Arabia; and there reigned without 
kingdom interruption, till the coming of the Tartarians, the space of one hundred and 
neth!" ninety-two years. 

A. D. 1009. The Turks won the city of "Jerusalem from the Saracens; which 
city the sultan of Egypt won again from the Turks shortly after, and possessed 
the same till the coming of Godfred. 

A. 1). 1051. The first king of the Turks, called Zaduke, began to reign in 
Asia, and joined league with the caliph of Egypt, and there reigned till the 
conquest of Godfred and the Christians the space of forty-six years. 

A. D. 1078. Solyman, nephew to Aspasalcm, the Turkish king in Asia, 
otherwise called Tarquinia, subdued Cappadocia, which hath continued now, 
, the space of live hundred years. 
A. J). 1099. Godfred Bulion, duke of Lotharing, a christian prince, taking 
his viage into Asia with seven hundred thousand christian soldiers, first got 
the city of Nice against the sultan of the Turks; then Lycaonia, Silicia, Syria; 
afterwards Mesopotamia, and Comagena : then Antioch, a. d. 1098, and the 
next year recovered Jerusalem, being then in the hands of the Saracens, which 
they, a little before, had won from the Turks, as is aforesaid. After this 
Godfred. succeeded eight christian kings, who kept the kingdom of Jerusa- 
lem and Asia, both from the Turks and Saracens, the space of eighty-eight 
years. 

A. I). 1 100. The Georgians, who be a people of Armenia the greater, van- 
quished tlie Turks out of the kingdom of Persia, after they had cut their king 
in pieces: whereby the Turks, Hying to Cappadocia, there remained under So- 
lyman, and joined themselves to the soldan of Egypt, and waxed then strong in 
Asia .Minor, called HOW Turquinia. 

A. 1). 1170. When Almeric, the seventh king of Jerusalem after Godfred 
had overcome the caliph, or sultan of Egypt, the sultan being overcome, called 
for the help of Saraeon, the sultan of Syria. This Saraeon, after he had expulsed 
the Christians out of Egypt, turned his power against the sultan of Egypt, and 
vanquishing him, took to himself the kingdom of Egypt: which kingdom he 
with his posterity did hold till the coming of the Tartarians and the Mamalukes 
ahniit the Bpace of eighty-eight years. 

A. 1). 1 187. Saladine, the nephew of Saraeon the sultan of Egypt, perceiv- 
ing the dissension among the christian states of Palestine, got Antioch, where 
I lew Raymuud the prince with his own hands : then he got Tiberias. From 
tie nee he weui In Acre, where be took Guido king of Jerusalem, and the master 
of the Templars, prisoners; for whose ransom the Turk had Ascalon yielded 
up to liim by the Christians. That done, he subdued Jerusalem, which had 
bei n in tin- hands of the Christians before, the space of eighty-eight years. 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 119 

A. D. 1189. Frederic the emperor, Philip the French king, and Richard Prophec,,. 

king of England, made their viage into Asia, where Frederic, washing in a 

river in Cilicia, died. In this viage, at the siege of Acre, Saladine won the 
field of our men, of whom two thousand were slain in ihe chase. Achre at 
length was got hy the Christians. King Richard got Cyprus. The two kings 
fell at strife. Philip retired home without any good doing. King Richard laid 
siege to Jerusalem, hut in vain, and so returning homeward, was taken near to 
Vienna in Austria, after he had taken truce before with the soldan, upon such 
condition as pleased him. And this good speed, had the pope's sending out 
against the Turks. 

A. D. 1215. There was another council holden at Rome by pope Innocent Transub 
III., where was enacted a new article of our faith, for transubstantiation of stantia- 
bread and wine, to be turned into the body and blood of our Saviour. In this 
council also great excitation was made by the pope, and great preparation was 
through all Christendom, to set forward for recovery of the Holy Land. A 
mighty army was collected of dukes, lords, knights, bishops, and prelates, that, 
if God's blessing bad gone with them, they might have gone throughout all 
Asia and India. 

A. D. 1219. The Christians after eighteen months' siege, got a certain town 
in Egypt, called Damietta, or Elipolis, with much ado, hut not much to the pur- 
pose. For afterwards, as the christian army of the pope's sending went about 
to besiege the city of Cairo, or Babylon, the sultan, through his subtle train, so 
entrapped and inclosed them within the danger of the Nile, that they were 
constrained to render again the city of Damietta, with their prisoners, and all 
the furniture thereof as they found it, into the soldan 's hand; and glad so with 
their lives to pass forward to Tyre. A. D. 1221. 

In the mean time the Egyptian Turk caused the city of Jerusalem to be 
rased, that it should serve for no use to the Christians. What great thing 
else was done in that viage, it doth not greatly appear in stories. Albeit 
Frederic II., emperor, was not unfruitfully there occupied; and much more 
-night have done, had it not been for the violence and persecution of the bishop 
of Rome against him ; whereby he was enforced to take truce with the sultan 
for ten years, and so returned. After which things done, not many years after, 
at length the last city of all belonging to the Christians, which was Ptolomais, 
or Acre, was also taken from them by the sultan, so that now the Christians 
had not one foot left in all Asia. 

A. D. 1230. Thus the Christians being driven out of Asia by the sultans 
and Turks, yet the said Turks and sultans did not long enjoy their victory. 
For eftsoons the Lord stirred up against them the Tartarians, who, breaking into Tartari- 
Asia by the ports of Caspius, subdued divers parts of Asia, namely about Co- a »s. 
mana, Colchis, Iberia, Albania, &c. These Tartarians, as they had got many 
captives in their wars, so for gain they used to ship them over customably to 
Alexandria in Egypt, to be sold; which servants and captives Melechsala, the 
great sultan, was glad to buy, to serve him in his wars. Which captives and 
"servants after they had continued a certain space in Egypt, and through their 
valiant service grew in favour and estimation with the said Melechsala, and 
began more to increase in number and strength ; at length they slew him, and Satadinrt 
took to themselves the name and kingdom of the sultan. And thus ceased the £^ m 
stock of Saracon and Saladine aforementioned, which continued in Egypt about ceaseth. 
the space, as is said, of one hundred years. 

A. D. 1240. After the "death of Melechsala, the army of these aforesaid 
rascals and captives set up to themselves a king of their own company, whom 
they called Turquemenius : who, to fdl up the number of their company, that 
it should not diminish, devised this order, to get or to buy christian men's 
children, taken young from their parents, and the mother's lap; whom they 
used so to bring up, as to make them to deny Christ, and to be circumcised, 
and instructed in Mahomet's law, and afterwards to be trained in the feats of 
war; and these were called Mainalukes : among whom this was their order, Mama- 
that none might be advanced to be king but out "of their own number, or else |?^?" in 
chosen by them ; neither that any should be made knights or horsemen, but " v ' 
only the children of Christians who should deny Christ before, called Mama- 

lukcs. Also it was among them provided, that to this dignity neither Saracens 
nor Jews should be admitted. Item, that the succession thereof should m. 



I . I TIIK HISTOKY OF THE TURKS. 

Prophecy descend to the children and offspring of these Mamalukes. Also that the suc- 

__1 cession of the crown should not descend to the children of the aforesaid sultans, 

but should go by voice and election. 

'flu- Tartarian* with Turquemenius their king, about this time obtained Tur- 
quia, that is, Asia Minor, from the Turks, and within two years after, prevail- 
ing against the Turks, expelled them from their kingdom ; and so continued 
these Mamalukes reigning over Egypt, and a great part of Asia, till the time of 
Tomumbeiua their last king, who was destroyed and hanged at the gates of 
Memphis, by Selim the Turk, father to this Solyman, as in his history is 
declared. These Mamalukes continued the space of two hundred and sixty 
years. 

A. D. 1245. These Tartarians, ranging through the countries of the Geor- 
gians, and all Armenia, came as far as Iconium, which was then the imperial 
city of the Turks. 

A. D. 1289. The soldan of Egypt and Babylon got from the Christians 
Trtpolis, Tyre, Sidon, and Berithus in Syria. 

A. D. 1291. Lastly, Ptolomais, which also is called Acre, was surprised by the 
said soldan, rased, and cast down to the ground, and all the Christians therein 
(who were not many left) were slain. And this was the last city which the 
Christiana had in Asia; so that now the Christians have not one foot (as is said 
before) left in all Asia. Thus the Egyptian soldans, and the Tartarians, reigned 
and ranged over the most part of Asia above the Turks, till the reign of Otto- 
man the great Turk, about the space of eighty years. 

And thus have ye the whole discourse of the Turkish story, with 
their names, countries, towns, dominions ; also with their times, con- 
tinuance, interruptions, and alterations, in order described, and in 
years distinguished : which, otherwise, in most authors and writers be 
so confused, that it is hard to know distinctly, what difference is be- 
tween the Saracens, Turks, Tartarians, the Sultans or Soldans, Mama- 
lukes, or Janizaries ; what is their Caliph, their Seriphes, their Sultan, 
or Bassa ; in what times they began, and how long, and in what order 
of years they reigned. All which, in this present Table, manifestly to 
thine eve may appear. 
why the Wherein this thou hast moreover, gentle reader! to consider (which 
nX>ru-" ' s worthy the noting), how the bishop of Rome all this season, from 
vail the first beginning of the Turk's reign, hath not ceased from time to 
tbe time continually, calling upon christian princes and subjects to take 
lurks, the cross, and to war against the Turks ; whereupon so many great 
viages have been made to the Holy Land, and so many battles fought 
against the Turk and Soldan for winning the holy cross ; and yet no 
lucky success hath followed thereof hitherto, nor ever came it pro- 
sperously forward, whatsoever through the exciting of that bishop hath 
been attempted against that great enemy of the Lord : insomuch that 
the Christians have lost not only all that they had in Asia, but also 
are scarce able to defend that little they have in Europe against his 
violence. What the cause is of this hard luck of the bishop's doings, 
it is hard for man to define. Let men muse as their mind leadeth, 
and as the gospel saith, " He that hath eyes to see, let him see." 
This is certain, that as there hath lacked no care nor diligence in the 
bishop of Rome, to stir men up to that business; so on the princes"' 
behalf, there hath lacked no courage nor strength of men, no contri- 
bution of expenses, no supportation of charges, no furniture or habili- 
ment of war; only the blessing of God seemeth to have lacked! The 
reason and cause whereof I would it were as easy to be reformed, as 
it may be quickly construed. For what man, beholding the life of 



THE HISTORY OF THE TURKS. 121 

us Christians, will greatly marvel, why the Lord goeth not with our Prophecy. 
army to fight against the Turks ! And if my verdict might here ~~ 
have place, for me to add my censure, there appeareth to me another 
cause in this matter, yet greater than this aforesaid : which, to make 
plain and evident, in full discourse of words, leisure now doth not 
permit. Briefly to touch what I conceive, my opinion is this, that if 
the sincere doctrine of christian faith, delivered and left unto us in 
the word of God, had not been so corrupted in the church of Rome ; 
or, if the bishop of Rome would yet reclaim his impure idolatry and God <>r- 
profanations, and admit Christ the Lamb of God to stand alone, with- w,"h ed 
out our impure additions, to be our only justification, according to ^°^ Uy 
the free promise of God's grace ; I nothing doubt, but the power of wrong 
this faith, grounding only upon Christ the Son of God, had both theChiii- 
framed our lives into a better disposition, and also soon would, or yet tians- 
will, bring down the pride of that proud Holofernes. But otherwise, 
if the bishop of Rome will not gently give place to the mild voice of 
God's word, I think not contrary, but he shall be compelled at last 
to give place and room to the Turk, whether he will or not. And 
yet notwithstanding, when both the Turk and the pope shall do 
against it what they can, the truth and grace of God's testament shall 
fructify and increase by such means as the Lord shall work, which be- 
ginneth already (praise to the Lord) to come graciously and luckily 
forward, as in most places. 

A Prayer against the Turks. 

O eternal Lord God ! Father of our Lord Jesus Christ ; Creator and disposer 
of all things ; just, gracious, and wise only ; in the name and reverence of thy 
Son Jesus, we prostrate ourselves, desiring thine Omnipotent Majesty to look 
down upon these afflicted times of thy poor creatures and servants : relieve thy 
church, increase our faith, and confound our enemies : and as thou hast given 
thine only-begotten Son unto us, promising with him life to all that shall believe Gal. iv. 7. 
upon his name, so incline the obedience of our faith to thy promises in him, 
that our hearts may be far off from all other sinful additions and profane inven- 
tions, which are beside him, and not in him, grounded upon thy will and 
promise. And grant, we beseech thee, to thy church, more and more to see 
how terrible a thing it is, to set up any other means or help of salvation, but 
only in him whom thou only hast sent and sealed. Reform thy church with 
perfect doctrine and faithful teachers, that we, seeing our own weakness, may 
put off ourselves, and put on him, without whom we can do nothing. So shall 
we stand strong, when nothing standeth in us, but thy Son alone, in whom thou 
art only pleased. Renew in this thy church again the decayed faith of thy 
Son Jesus, which may plentifully bring forth in us, not leaves only, but fruits 
of christian life ; and forgive our wretched idolatry, and blind fantasies past, 
wherewith we have provoked manifold ways thy deserved indignation against Wisd.v.6. 
us. For our hearts have been full of idols, our temples full of images, our ways 
full of hypocrisy : thy sacraments profaned, and thy religion turned to super- 
stition : because the lantern of thy word went not before us, therefore we have Psa.cxix. 
stumbled. Miserably we have walked hitherto, like sons, not of Sarah, but of los - 
Hagar, and therefore these Turkish Hagarenes have risen up against us. Many 
hard and strait ways we have passed, but the ways of the Lord we have not 
found. Much cost we have bestowed on bread that assuageth no hunger, but that 
bread which only feedeth and cometh freely we have not tasted. We have Isa. Iv. 2. 
sailed far and near in barks of our own building, but have not kept within the 
ark only of thy promise; and therefore these floods have taken us. We have Gen.vi.14. 
prayed much, but not in thine appointed temple ; and therefore we have not Jud. jrfv 
been heard. We have ploughed and tilled, bill without thy heifer; and there- llS " 
fore this untidy ground of ours bringeth forth so many weeds. We do fish J° 1XI ' 



122 ENGLISH HISTORY RESUMED. 

n.ury apace and that all night, but because we fish not on the right side of the boat, 
;// in our fishing we catch never a fin. Our buildings be full of good intentions 
„ and great devotions, but because the groundwork is not surely laid upon the 
..' rock of thy promise [Luke vi. 48], the east wind riseth and shaketh them all 
to shivers. We walk, and have walked along, after the precepts and doctrines 
, .!' . of men haying a show of wisdom, but not as holding the head [Colos. i. 19], 
,J '' where lieth all our strength ; and therefore these Philistine Turks have hitherto 
so prevailed against us. Briefly, all the parts and bones of the body be shaken 
out of place. Wherefore, we beseech thee, O Lord, put to thy holy hand, and 
set them in the right joint again : and finally, reduce this same thy mystical 
body again to its perfect and natural head, which is thine only Son Jesus Christ, 
and none other: for him only hast thou anointed and appointed; neither is 
there any other head, that can minister strength and nutriment to this body, 
but he alone ; forasmuch as all other heads be sinful, and are not able to stand 
in thy sight, but make this body rather worse than better. Only this thy 
well-beloved and perfect Son is he, in whom only dwelleth all our strength and 
fulness; him only we confess and acknowledge; for whom and with whom, we 
beseech thee, O Lord God of hosts, grant to thy church strength and victory 
against the malicious fury of these Tm - ks, Sai'acens, Tartarians, against Gog and 
Magog, and all the malignant rabble of Antichrist, enemies to thy Son Jesus, 
our Lord and Saviour. Prevent their devices, overthrow their power, and dis- 
solve their kingdom, that the kingdom of thy Son so long oppressed, may recover 
and flourish over all ; and that they who wretchedly be fallen from thee, may 
happily be reduced again into the fold of thy salvation, through Jesus Christ, 
our only Mediator and most merciful Advocate. Amen. 



Tn this long digression, wherein sufficiently hath been described the 
grievous and tedious persecution of the Saracens and Turks against 
tin- Christians, thou hast to understand, good reader ! and behold, the 
bnage of a terrible Antichrist, evidently appearing both by his own 
(bungs, and also by the Scriptures, prophesied and declared to us before. 
Now, in comparing the Turk with the pope, if a question be asked, 
whether of them is the truer or greater Antichrist, it were easy to see 
ami judge, that the Turk is the more open and manifest enemy against 
Christ and his church. But, if it be asked whether of them two hath 
been the more bloody and pernicious adversary to Christ and his mem- 
bers ; or whether of them hath consumed and spilt more christian 
liliHid, lie with sword, or this with fire and sword together, neither is 
it a light matter to discern, neither is it my part here to discuss, who 
do only write the history, and the acts of them both. Wherefore, 
after the story of the Turks thus finished, now to re-enter again there, 
where we lei't off, in describing the domestical troubles and persecutions 
here at home under the bishop of Rome ; after the burning of Bahrain 
in Norfolk above declared. 
Troubles I signified also of another certain aged man, mentioned in an old 
!a,ni." R written chronicle borrowed of one in the Tower, entitled ■Polychroni- 
con, 1 (although I find not his name in the said chronicle expressed,) 
who suffered the pains of burning in Smithfield, about the same time, 
which was a. o. 1500. This aged father, I. suppose, is he of whom 
1 find mention made in certain old papers and records of William 
Can, citizen (albeit the day of the month doth a little differ), wherein 
is thus testified, that on the 20th day of July, \. n. 1500, upon the 
day of St. Margaret, there was an old man burned in Smithfield for 
a heretic ; and the same person, on (lie 10th day, before he was burnt, 
would have stolen out of the Lollards 1 tower, and so falling out of the 



CERTAIN GODLY MEN BEARING FAGGOTS 123 

tower, did foully imrt himself ; whereupon be was earned in a cart to #«■»» 

his death, as he went to his burning. VIL 

In the aforesaid papers of ancient record, is furthermore declared, A.D. 

how, in the year above prefixed, which was a.d. 1499, in the time of l5 °0 
one Pcrsevel, many were taken for heretics in Kent, and at Paul's *" 
cross they bear the faggots and were abjured; and shortly after, the — - — - 
same year, there went thirteen Lollards afore the procession in Paul's ; Kemish 
and there were of them eight women and a young lad, and the lad's ™ n f bear ~ 
mother was one of the eight, and all the thirteen bear &ggotS on their sots. 
necks afore the procession. 

BDilliam Cnlstoortf), jaactnr, burned at %mctfyam. 

Forasmuch as the world is come now to such a morosity and peevish 
insensibility in these contentious and cavilling days of ours, that 
nothing can be so circumspectly written and storied, but shall lie in 
danger of one sycophant or another, who never will credit there, where 
they list not to like ; neither will they ever like that which seemeth 
prejudicial to their faction, or not to serve the humour wherewith 
their fantasies be infected : therefore, to stop the mouths of such 
carping cavillers with as much possibility as I may, be it known to all 
and singular such persons, who, by evidence of truth and Avitness, will 
be satisfied, that in the town of Amersham be yet alive both men and 
women, who can and do bear witness of this that I shall declare. Also 
there is of the said company, one named William Page, an aged father 
and yet alive, witness to the same. Also another, named Agnes 
Wetherly, widow, being about the age of a hundred years, yet living 
and witness hereof; that in the days of king Henry VII. a. d. 1506, 
in Buckinghamshire, in the diocese of Lincoln (William Smith being 
bishop of the same diocese), one William Tylsworth was burned in 
Amersham, in a close called Stanley, about sixty years ago : at which 
time one Joan Clerk, being a married woman, who was the only T ho 
daughter of the said William Tylsworth, and a faithful woman, was ^ g en«i 
compelled with her own hands to set fire to her dear father; and at to set he 
the same time her husband John Clerk did penance at her father's iatiur. 
burning, and bare a faggot ; as did also these : 

Robert Bartlet. John Milsent, and his William Grinder. 

Richard Bartlet. wife. Thomas Homes. 

John Bartlet. William White. Yoniand Dorman. 

Thomas Harding, and John Mumbc, and his William Scrivener. 

his wife. wife. John Scrivener. 

Henry Harding. Richard Bennet. Thomas Chase. 

Richard Harding. Roger Bennet. John Cracher. 

Robert Harding. John Fip. 

All these bare faggots, and afterwards were compelled to wear ecr- Amer- 
tain badges, and went abroad to certain towns to do penance; as to Sen" 
Buckingham, Avleshury, and other towns besides. And also divers ^'^"f 
of these men were afterwards burned in the cheek, as William Page, 
who at this present is alive, and likewise did bear a faggot with the 
aforesaid. Furthermore, the aforesaid Amies Wetherly testifieth, 
that at the burning of this "William Tylsworth, were sixty and above, 
that were put to bear (kggots for their penance; of whom divers wen 



martyr. 



124 THE CRUEL HANDLING OF THOMAS CHASE OF AMERSHAM 

iienry enjoined to bear and wear faggots, at Lincoln, the space of seven years* 
V1L somc a t one time, some at another, &c. In which number was also 
A. D. one Robert Bartlct, a rich man, who, for his profession's sake, was put 
1500 0U £ f jjj s f arm an( J goods, and was condemned to be kept in the mo- 
-'",. nastery of Ashridge, where he wore on his right sleeve a square piece 
— of cloth, the space of seven years together. 

It followeth, moreover, in the testimony of the aforenamed, that 
about the same time of the burning of William Tylsworth (as 
the Amersham men do say), or the next day after (as iecordeth 
Father the aforesaid Agnes) was one father Roberts burned at Bucking- 
Roberta, } iam# He was a miller, and dwelled at Missenden ; and at his burn- 
ing there were above twenty persons, that were compelled to bear 
faggots, and to do such penance as the wicked Pharisees did compel 
them. After that, by the space of two or three years, were burned at 
Amersham, Thomas Barnard, a husbandman, and James Mordon, a 
labourer ; they two were burned both at one fire, and there was Wil- 
liam Littlcpage, who is yet alive, compelled to be burned in the right 
Father cheek, and father Rogers, and father Rever, alias Reive, who after 
was burned. This father Rogers was in the bishop's prison fourteen 
weeks together, night and day, where he was so cruelly handled with 
cold, hunger, and irons, that after his coming out of the said prison, 
he was so lame in his back, that he could never go upright as long as 
he lived; as can testify divers honest men that be now living. Also 
Men of there were thirty more burned in the right cheek, and who bare faggots 
at the same time. The cause was, that they would talk against super- 
stition and idolatry, and were desirous to hear and read the holy 
for God's" Scriptures. The manner of their burning in the cheek was this: 
word- their necks were tied fast to a post or stay, with towels, and their 
hands holden fast that they might not stir; and so the iron, being 
hot, was put to their cheeks : and thus bear they the prints and marks 
of the Lord Jesus about them. 



Cfje cruel ijantting of Chomfli* «£ha£e of 5tmet^am, 

WICKEDLY STRANGLED AND MARTYRED IN THE BISHOp's PRISON 
AT WOBURN, UNDER WILLIAM SMITH, BISHOP OF LINCOLN. 

Among these aforesaid, who were so cruelly persecuted fur the 
gospel and word of Christ, one Thomas Chase of Amersham was one 
of them that was thus cruelly handled : which Thomas Chase by the 
report of such as did know him, was a man of a godly, sober, and 
honest behaviour (whose virtuous doings do yet remain in memory), 
and who could not abide idolatry and superstition, but many times 
would speak against it. Wherefore the ungodly and wicked did the 
more hate and despise him, and took him and brought him before the 
rXfthe , ' 1 "" 1 ^hop, being at that time at Woburn, in the county of Buck- 
ingham, ami, as it is written in Acts xii., that wicked Herod did vex 
certain of the congregation, and killed James the brother of John 
with the sword ; and because he saw that it pleased the Jews, &c, he 
proceeded further, and had this same Thomas Chase before him, 
asking him many questions touching the Romish religion, with many 
taunts, clucks, and rebukes ; but what answer this godly man, Thomas 



Rei 

marty 



Amer 
sham 
burnt in 
the cheek 



GOD REVEAI.ETH THE SECRET MURDERS OF THE PAPISTS. 125 

Chase, made them, it is unknown. Howbcit it is to be supposed nam 
that his answer was most zealous and godly in professing Christ's 



true religion and gospel, and to the extirpation of idolatry, and super- AD - 
stition, and hypocrisy, for the said Thomas Chase was commanded to 1,50 ° 
be put in the bishop's prison, called 'Little Ease, 1 in the bishop's " 
house at Woburn ; which prison had not been ministered unto him, — - — - 
had not his answers been sound and upright. There Thomas Chase jj° m " ne(l 
lay bound most painfully with chains, gyves, manacles, and irons, ".' ""' .. 
oftentimes sore pined with hunger, where the bishop's alms were prison 8 
daily brought unto him by his chaplains ; which alms were nothing ™uuL 
else but checks, taunts, rebukes and thrcatenings, floutings and mock- Ease -' 
ings. All which cruelty the godly martyr took most quietly and atasofa 
patiently, remembering and having respect to Christ's promises bish °i>- 
[Matt, vii.] : " Blessed are they which suffer persecution for right- pa ti 



IVrttvt 



Blessed are ye when men revile you and persecute you ;" &c. Chase - 
When the bishop, with his band of shavelings, perceived that by their 
daily practices of cruelty they could not prevail against him, but 
rather that he was the more fervent and earnest in professing Christ's 
true religion, and that he did tolerate and bear most patiently all 
their wickedness and cruelty ministered unto him, they imagined 
how and which way they might put him to death, lest there should 
be a tumult or an uproar among the people. And as Richard Hun 
shortly after was hanged or strangled in Lollard's tower, about 
a. d. 1511, even so these blood-suppers most cruelly strangled and chase 
pressed to death this said Thomas Chase in prison, who most heartily murdJre.i 
called upon God to receive his spirit ; as witnesseth a certain woman in f rison - 
that kept him in prison. 

After these stinging vipers, being of the wicked brood of Anti- 
christ, had thus most cruelly and impiously murdered this faithful 
Christian, they were at their wits' end, and could not tell what shift 
to make, to cloke their shameful murder withal : at last to blind the 
ignorant silly people, these bloody butchers most slanderously caused 
it by their ministers to be bruited abroad, that the aforesaid Thomas Falsely 
Chase had hanged himself in prison ; which was a most shameful }l™ang' 1 
and abominable lie, for the prison w r as such, that a man could not himself, 
stand upright, nor lie at ease, but stooping, as they do report that 
did know it. And besides that, this man had so many manacles and 
irons upon him, that he could not well move either hand or foot, as 
the women did declare that saw him dead ; insomuch that they con- 
fessed that his blood-bulk was broken, by reason they had so vilely 
beaten him and bruised him. And yet these holy Catholics had not 
made an end of their wicked act in this both killing and slandering 
of this godly martyr; but, to put out the remembrance of him, 
they caused him to be buried in the wood called Norland Wood, in 
the highway betwixt Woburn and Little Marlow, to the intent he 
should not be taken up again to be seen : and thus commonly are 
innocent men laid up, by these clerkly clergymen. But He that is Go <i 
effectually true of himself hath promised, at one time or at another {^jS* 
to clear his true servants, not with lies and fables, but by his own thewcret 
true word. "No secret," saith He, "is so close, but once shall be of the pa- 
opened; neither is any thing so hid, that shall not at the last be pis,s ' 



] g6 THOMAS XORIS AND OTHERS, MARTYRED. 

iienry known dearly." 1 Such a sweet Lord is God always to those that are 
vlL his true servants. Blessed be his holy name, therefore, for ever and 



A. D. ever, Amen ! 

1500 Thomas Hardin.? being one of this company thus molested and 

r? r troubled, as is aforesaid, in the town of Amersham, for the truth of 

'' ■ the gospel, after his abjuration and penance done, was again sought 

for, and brought to the fire, in the days of king Henry VIII., and 

under Dr. Longland then bishop of Lincoln, succeeding after cardinal 

Wolscv ; of whose death and martyrdom we shall likewise record 

(Christ willing and granting) in order, when we shall come to the 

time and year of his suffering. 

Thomas After the martyrdom of these two, I read also of one Thomas 

martyr. Noris, who likewise, for the same cause, that is, for the profession of 

Christ's gospel, was condemned by the bishop, and burnt at Norwich, 

a.d.1507. the last day of March, a. d. 1507. 

Elizabeth In the next year following, which was a.d. 1508, in the consistory 
Sampson. ^ j^^fo^ was collve nted Elizabeth Sampson, of the parish of 
Aldermanbury, upon certain articles, and especially for speaking 
against pilgrimage and adoration of images ; as the image of our lady 
at Wilsdon, at Staines, at Crome, at Walsingham, and the image of 
St. Saviour of Bermondsey ; and against the sacrament of the altar, 
and for that she had spoken these* or like words : That our lady of 
Wilsdon was but a burnt tailed elf, and a burnt tailed stock ; and if 
she might have holpen men and women who go to her on pilgrimage, 
she would not have suffered her tail to have been burnt : and what 
should folk worship our lady of Wilsdon, or our lady of Crome ; for 
the one is but a burnt tailed stock, and the other is but a puppet : 
and 1 letter it were for the people to give their alms at home to 
poor people, than to go on pilgrimage. Also she called the image 
of St.. Saviour, ' Sim Saviour with kit lips ; 1 and that she said she could 
make as good bread, as that which the priest occupied ; and that it 
was not the body of Christ, but bread, for that Christ could not be 
both in heaven and in earth at one time. For these and certain 
other articles, she was compelled to abjure before Master William 
Horsey, chancellor, the day and year above written. 2 

Laurence <£fje£t, Mattyz. 

Lamentable it is to remember, and a thing almost infinite to com- 
prehend, the names, times, and persons of all them that have been 
slain by the rigour of the pope's clergy, for the true maintaining of 
Christ's cause, and of his sacraments; whose memory being regis- 
tered in the book of life, albeit it need not the commemoration of 
our stories, yet for the more confirmation of the church, I thought it 
not unprofitable, the suffering and martyrdom of them to be notified, 
who innocently have given their blood to be shed in Christ's quarrel. 
In the catalogue of whom, next in order, cometh the memorial of 
Laurence Chest, who was burned in Salisbury for matter of the 
;;;>;;;;;" sacrament, in the days of king Henry VII. He was of a comely 
boor. ami tall person, ami otherwise (as appeareth) not unfriended; for 
which the bishop and the close were the more loath to burn him, but 

(1) Matt, x.; Luke xii. (2) Kx Rcgist. Loml. 



a faithful woman burned. 127 

kept him in prison the space of two years. This Laurence had a Henry 
■wife and seven children. Wherefore they, thinking to expugn and 



persuade his mind by stirring of his fatherly affection toward his A. D. 
children, when the time came which they appointed for his burning, 1508. 
as he was at the stake, they brought before him his wife and his 
aforesaid seven children; at the sight whereof, although nature is 
commonly wont to work in others, yet in him, religion overcoming 
nature, made his constancy to remain immovable ; in such sort, as 
when his wife began to exhort and desire him to favour himself, he 
again desired her to be content, and not to be a block in his way, would 
for he was in a good course, running toward the mark of his salva- P 011 ^, 
tion: and so, fire being put to him, he finished his life, renouncing w »fe »'<« 
not only wife and children, but also himself, to follow Christ. As but died 
he was in burning, one of the bishop's men threw a firebrand at his a man > r - 
face ; whereat the brother of Laurence, standing by, ran at him with 
his dagger, and would have slain him, had he not been otherwise 
staid. 

Testified and witnessed by the credible report of one William witness 
Russel, an aged man dwelling of late in Coleman-street, who was { " { ^y. 
there present, the same time, at the burning of Laurence, and was 
also himself burned in the cheek, and one of the persecuted flock in 
those days, whose daughter is yet living. The same is confirmed 
also by the testimony of one Richard Webb, servant sometime to 
Master Latimer, who, sojourning in the house of the said William 
Russel, heard him many times declare the same. 

2C notable &torj> of a faitfjful UDoman bucneo in Cfjipptng^uDbucu. 

But amongst all the examples of them, whereof so many have 
suffered from time to time for Christ and his truth, I cannot tell if 
ever were any martyrdom more notable and admirable, wherein the 
plain demonstration of God's mighty power and judgment hath at 
any time been more evident against the persecutors of his flock, than 
at the burning of a certain godly woman put to death in Chipping- 
Sudbury, about the same time, under the reign of king Henry VII. 

The constancy of which blessed woman, as it is glorious for all 
true godly Christians to behold ; so again the example of the bishop's 
chancellor, who cruelly condemned the innocent, may offer a ter- 
rible spectacle to the eyes of all papistical persecutors to consider, 
and to take example; which the living God grant they may. Amen. 
The name of the town where she was martyred, was, as is said, 
Chipping-Sudbury ; the name of the woman is not as yet come to 
my knowledge; the name of the chancellor, who condemned her, ciiancei- 
was called doctor Whittington ; the time of her burning was in the J;',^, 1 ;'!," 
reign and time of king Henry VII., orderly therefore in this place i>"secu- 
and time, to be inserted. Wherein is to be Doted moreover the 
opportunity of this present history brought to my hands, and that in 
such convenient season, as 1 was drawing toward the end of the 
aforesaid king's reign, so that it may appear to thus.- who behold 
the opportunity of things, not to be without God's holy will and 
providence, that this aforesaid example should not lie hid and un- 
rcmembcred, but should come to light and knowledge ; and that 



]gg DR. WHITTINGTON SLAIN BY A BULL. 

Henry in such order of placing, according as the due course of our story, 
rIL hitherto kept, rcquireth. 

A. D. After this o-odly woman and manly martyr of Christ was condemned 
1508. DV t] )e wretched chancellor above named, doctor Whittington, for the 
~~ faithful profession of the truth, which the papists then called heresy, 
and the time being now come when she should be brought to the 
place and pains of her martyrdom, a great concourse of all the multi- 
tude, both in the town and country about (as the manner is at such 
times), was gathered to behold her end. Among whom was also the 
aforesaid doctor Whittington, the chancellor, there present to see the 
a faithful execution done. Thus this faithful woman, and true servant of God, 
ggESf constantly persisting in the testimony of the truth, committing her 
burned, cause to the Lord, gave over her life to the fire, refusing no pains nor 
torments to keep her conscience clear and unreprovable in the day of 
the Lord. The sacrifice being ended, the people began to return 
homeward, coming from the burning of this blessed martyr. It hap- 
pened in the mean time, that as the catholic executioners were busy 
compari- in slaying this silly lamb at the town's side, a certain butcher was as 
between busy within the town, slaying a bull ; which bull he had fast bound 
and the"' m r '°P es > ready to knock him on the head. But the butcher (belike 
pope's"" not so skilful in his art of killing beasts, as the papists be in murder- 
in^mini- fog Christians), as he was lifting his axe to strike the bull, failed in 
sters - his stroke, and smote a little too low, or else how he smote, I know 
not : this is certain, that the bull, although somewhat grieved at 
the stroke, but yet not stricken down, put his strength to the ropes, 
and brake loose from the butcher into the street, the very same time 
as the people were coming in great press from the burning. Who, 
seeing the bull coming towards them, and supposing him to be wild 
(as it was no other like), gave way for the beast, every man shifting 
for himself as well as he might. Thus the people giving back, and 
a rare making a lane for the bull, he passed through the throng of them, 
;!,"'i' ex C touching neither man nor child, till he came where the chancellor 
am R lc ° f was : against whom the bull, as pricked with a sudden vehemency, 
pumsh- ran full butt with his horns ; and taking him upon the paunch, gored 
God upon him through and through ; and so killed him immediately : carrying 
t^kta 1 " his guts, and trailing them with his horns, all the street over, to the 
i,\ a imii. great admiration and wonder of all them that saw it. 

Although the carnal sense of man be blind in considering the 
works of the Lord, imputing, many times, to blind chance the things 
which properly pertain to God's only praise and providence ; yet in 
this so strange and so evident example, what man can be so dull or 
ignorant, which sceth not herein a plain miracle of God's mighty 
power and judgment, both in the punishing of this wretched chan- 
cellor, and also in admonishing all other like persecutors, by his 
example, to fear the Lord, and to abstain from the like cruelty ? 

Now, for the credit of this story, lest I be said upon mine own 
head to commit to story things rashly, which I cannot justify, there- 
fore, to stop such cavilling mouths, I will discharge myself with 
witness authority, I trust, sufficient, that is, with the witness of him who both 
btory 6 w; i* a papist, and also present at the same time at the burning of the 
woman, whose name was Rowland Webb : which Rowland, dwelling 
then in Chipping-Sudbury, had a son named Richard Webb, servant 



VERSES TOUCHING THE SAME; 129 

sometime to master Latimer, who also, enduring with him in time of n**ri 
his trouble six years together, was himself imprisoned and persecuted . 

for the same cause: unto which Richard Webb, being now aged, A.D. 
then young, the aforesaid Rowland, his lather, to the intent to exhort J^^L 
him from the sect of heresy (as he then called it), recited to him 
many times the burning of this woman, and withal added the story 
of the bull aforesaid, which he himself did see and testify. This 
Richard Webb is yet living, a witness of his own father's words and 
testimony, which I trust may satisfy all indifferent readers, except 
only such as think no truth to be believed, but that only which is in 
their portues. 

Verses touching the same, by Thomas Hatcher. 

" Mira legis, quicunque legis, portenta nefandi 

Exitus, ut poenas addita poena luat. 
Vera legis, Domini cuicunque potentia nota est, 

Ut delinquentes ira severa premat. 
Saepe fit ut fusus cumuletur sanguine sanguis, 

Saepe fit ut pcenis obruat ira novis. 
Omnia sunt Domini dextrse subjecta potenti, 

Qui ciet arbritrio bruta, hominesque suo. 
Carnificis taurus, luctando corniger ictus 

Evitans, fracto fune repente fugit. 
Forte viam qua turba frequens confluxerat ante, 

Fceminea ut cernat membra perire rogo, 
Taurus iit, fertur qua confertissima turba ; 

Lsesus at ex tanta solus et unus erat. 
Solus et unus erat, rapidos qui misit in ignes, 

Et misere parvum sparsit ovile Dei. 
Et quasi consulto ferretur, prasterit omnes, 

Comibus hunc tollit, proterit bunc pedibus, 
Ille jacet, madido fcedatur sanguine corpus, 

Eruta perque vias viscera sparsa jacent, 
Quis non a Domino, nutu qui temperat orbeni, 

Cogitet hrec fieri, non repetendo tremat 1 
Ultio tembiles comitatur justa procellas, 

Sera licet, certis passibus ilia venit." 

And thus much concerning the state of the church ; wherein is to 
be understood, what storms and persecutions have been raised up in 
all quarters against the flock and congregation of Christ, not only by 
the Turks, but also at home, within ourselves, by the bishop of Rome 
and his retinue. Where also is to be noted, in the days and reign 
of this king Henry VII., how mightily the working of God's gospel 
hath multiplied and increased, and what great numbers of men and 
women have suffered for the same with us in England, as by these 
stories above past may be apparent. 

Now these things declared, which to the church matters be appcr- The state 
taining, consequently it remaincth something to treat of the state, ^,jj£aa. 
likewise, of the commonwealth, which commonly doth follow the state Wi,h 
of the church. Where the church is quietly and moderately governed, iy foiiow- 
and the flock of Christ defended by godly princes in peace and safety, siM'tJ 1 .'.!- 
from devouring and violence of bloody wolves ; the success of civil t ^ ach 
estate, for the most part, there doth flourish, and the princes long 
continue, through God's preservation, in prosperous rest and tran- 

VOL. VI. k 



1 3() A PROPHECY CF SAVANAROLA. 

Hmmt quillity. Contrariwise, where either the church of Christ through the 

'"■ _ negligence of princes, or the poor members of Christ, through their 

A.D. setting on, be persecuted and devoured, shortly after ensueth some 

1''<>S- just recompense of the Lord upon those princes, that either their lives 

nuty of Jo not long continue, or else they find not that quiet in the common- 

§$rod ! " wealth, which they look for. Examples hereof, as in all other ages be 

''riorum abundant, so-in this present time be not lacking, whether we consider 

t' 10 the state and condition of other countries far off, or else of our own 

daughter , . i 

of the country near at home. 

Koine.' ° f And here, not to wander in our story farther than to France only, 
let us a little behold the example of king Charles VIII., who, living 
in this king's time, died also not long before him. This Charles is 
commended of Philip de Comines, to be a moderate, valiant, and 
victorious prince, adorned with many special virtues to a prince apper- 
taining. And yet the same king, because he was slack and remiss in 
defence of Christ's church, neither did use his authority, nor did take 
his occasion offered to him of Grod, to amend and reform the estate of 
the bishop and clergy of Rome when he might, he was therefore 
himself punished and cut off of the Lord, as by his story ensuing 
may right well appear. For so it is of him recorded, that being mar- 
vellously excited and provoked, of his own mind (contrary to the 
counsel of most of his nobles) he took his journey into Italy, neither 
being furnished with money, nor the season of the year being con- 
venient thereunto. And that this may appear the better to proceed of 
the Lord's doing, to the intent he would have the church and clergy 
of Rome reformed by the prince's sword, which so vexed all Christen- 
dom at that time, we shall hear Avhat is testified in the Commentaries 
of the said Philip de Comines, 1 writing in this wise : 

Prophecy ' There was in the city of Florence, the same time, a Dominic friar, named 
■rfHfe; Hieronymus Savanarola,' of whom mention was made before, 2 ' a man of a right 
'anaroia*. godly and approved life ; who in the said city of Florence preached and pro- 
phesied long before, that the French king should come with an army into Italy, 
being stirred up of God to suppress the tyrants of Italy, and none should with- 
stand him. He should also come to the city of Pisa, and the state of Florence 
should be altered : all which happened true. He affirmed, moreover, to be 
signified to him of the Lord, that the ecclesiastical state of the church must be 
redressed 'per vim armorum,' i.e. 'by the sword or force of arms.' Many 
things also be prophesied of the Venetians, and of the French king, saying, 
that the king with some danger and difficulty shoidd pass that journey, yet 
notwithstanding should overcome it and escape, albeit his strength were never 
so slender ; for God would safely conduct him in that journey, and safely bring 
him home again. But because he had not done his office, in amending the 
state of the church, and in defending his people from injury, and from de- 
vouring, therefore it should come to pass,' saith he, ' and that shortly, that some 
incommodity or detriment should happen to the king: or if he should escape 
that danger of his sickness and recover health, then if he did resist the cruelty 
of tliu wicked, and procure the safety of the poor and miserable, God would 
show mercy unto him,' &c. 

And tliis the said Hicrome declared before to Philip de Comines, 

one of the king's counsellors, who was the writer of the story, and 

required him to signify the same unto the king; who so did, and 

be, moreover, himself coming to the presence of the king, declared 

no less. 

(i) Ex Commentariis Phil. Cominai. De Bello Neapolitano, lib. iii. 
(I) See vol. iv. page 8.— Ed. 



GODLY KINGS PROSPER WITHOUT THE POPE'S BLESSING. 131 

All which things as he had forctohl, came directly to effect. For Henry 
the king, being but easily accompanied, with a small power entered 



into Italy; where first he came to Austi, then to Genoa, and to A.D. 
Pisa, from thence proceeded to Florence, which also he obtained, 1508 - 
displacing there Peter dc Medici the duke, who had used great 
tyranny upon the subjects. From thence he removed toward Rome, 
where a great part of the city wall, at the coming of the French king, 
fell down. 

Afterward, when the king was entered into the city, and the pope 
(who then took part with Alphonsus king of Naples against the 
French king) had immured himself within the Mount of Adrian, the 
wall of the castle fell down of itself; whereby when the king was 
both occasioned, and exhorted also by his captains, to invade the pope, 
and to depose him, and to reform the church of Rome (which he 
might then easily have done, as it had pleased him) ; yet all these 
occasions, offered so opportunely of God, moved not the king to do 
his duty, and to help the poor church of Christ : wherefore shortly 
after, returning home into France from Naples, cither the same year, 
or the next year following, he was stricken with a sudden sickness at 
Amboisc, as he was looking on them that played at tennis, and that 
in the stinkingest place in all the castle, where he fell down and died 
within twelve hours, according to the forewarning of Hieromc, who 
wrote unto him a little before, both of his son's death, and of his 
own, which was about a.d. 1498. 1 

Like examples we have many here also in this our realm of Eng- 
land. So long as king John kept out of the realm the pope's autho- 
rity and power, he continued safe and quiet with his nobles : but as 
soon as he brought the realm under tribute and subjection to that 
foreign bishop, God stirred up his nobles against him, whereby he had 
much disquiet and trouble, and soon thereupon decayed. 

Of all the kings of England from William the Conqueror to this Kinps of 
king Henry VII., were none who either longer continued, or more £",j?i""j.;, 
prosperously flourished, than king Henry II., king Henry III., king ^'^'j ,',;'' 
Edward I., and king Edward III. ; of whom the first, how stout he longpro- 
was in withstanding Thomas Becket and pope Alexander III., is^-,?,/' 
sufficiently before comprehended. to thT 3 

The second, who was son of king John, albeit through the wretch- bishop or 
edness of that time his power was not sufficient to repulse the pope's 
usurped jurisdiction out of the realm, yet his will was good : at least 
he so defended and provided for his subjects, that they took no great 
wrong at the pope's hands; who reigned one year longer than Au- 
gustus Csesar, 2 which hath not commonly been seen in any prince. 

The tlu'rd, who was king Edward I., so vigilantly behaved himself 
for the public commodity and safety of his people, that he defended 
them from all foreign power and hostility both of the Scots (then our 
enemies, now our friends), and also from the bishop of Rome, taking 
part with them against us, as may appear above. 3 Furthermore of 
the same king, and of his worthy nobles and house of parliament, 
how valiantly they stood in denial of the pope's subsidies, and also 
how the said king secluded out of his protection the bishops, and 

(1) Ex Philip. Cominaco. De bolln Neapolitano, lib, 

(2) Augustus reigned fifty-nine years. '.■■)> En 

K 2 



132 DEATH OK KING HENRY VII. 

Henry especially the archbishop Peckham, for standing with the pope, read 

VU before. 1 

A. D. Now as touching king Edward III., how little he regarded, how 

1509. p r i; 1C ely he with his nobles likewise resisted, the pope's reservations 

~~ and provisions, how he bridled the archbishop John Stratford, and 

rejected the vain authority of the bishop of Rome, both in defence 

of his subjects, and also in defence of claiming his right title in the 

realm of France, read before. 2 

Not that I do here affirm or define, as in a general rule, that worldly 
success and prosperity of life always follow the godly, which we see 
rather to be given more often to the wicked sort ; but, speaking of 
Diir.r- the duty of princes, I note and observe by examples of histories, that 
t C wee n be " such princes as have most defended the church of Christ committed 
moderate to t ] le i r governance, from injury and violence of the bishop of Rome, 
and those have not lacked at God's hand great blessing and felicity : whereas 
per'seoT 6 contrariwise, they who either themselves have been persecutors of 
tors. Christ's members, or have not shielded them by their protection from 
foreign tyranny and injuries, have lacked at God's hand that protec- 
tion, which the others had, as may appear by king Edward II., 
Richard III., king Henry IV., king Henry V., king Henry VI., &c., 
who, because either negligently they have suffered, or cruelly caused, 
such persecuting laws to be made, and so much christian blood inju- 
riously to be devoured ; therefore have they been the less prospered 
of the Lord, so that either they were deposed, or, if they flourished 
for a while, yet they did not long continue, almost not half the time 
of the other kings before named. 

And therefore, as the state of the commonwealth doth commonly 
follow the state of the church, as ye heard before ; so it had been to 
be wished, that this king Henry VII., being otherwise a prudent and 
temperate prince, had not permitted the intemperate rage of the 
pope's clergy so much to have their wills over the poor flock of Christ, 
as then they had ; according as by these persecutions above men- 
tioned may appear. Which king Henry VII., albeit he had a suffi- 
cient continuance, who had now reigned twenty-four years, yet 
notwithstanding here cometh the same thing to be noted whereof I 
spake before, that when the church of Christ beginneth to be injured 
with violence, and to go to wrack through misorder and negligence, 
the state of the commonwealth cannot there long endure without 
some alteration, and stroke of God's correction. But, howsoever this 
mark is to be taken, thus licth the story : that after the burning and 
vexing of these poor servants of Christ above recited, when the per- 
secution began now to be hot in the church, God called away the 
ii' .ti, of king, the same year above mentioned, which was 1509, after he had 
H.nry reigned the term of twenty-four years ; who, if he had adjoined a 
V1L little more pitiful respect, in protecting Christ's poor members from 
tlic lire of the pope's tyranny, to his other great virtues of singular 
wisdom, excellent temperance, and moderate frugality ; so much had 
be been comparable with the best of those princes above compre- 
hended, as he had been inferior but to a few : but this defect, which 
larked in him, was supplied most luckily (blessed be the Lord !) by 
his posterity Buoceeding after him; of\vhom in the next volumes 

(1) 8e« vol. ii. ),. 609.— Ed. (2) See vol. ii. p. C88.— Ed. 



CERTAIN PERSONS PERSECUTED AT COVENTRY. 133 

following (Christ thereunto assisting us), we have to specify more Henry 
at large. 



A.D. 

1509. 



Among many other things incident in the reign of this king Henry 
VII., I have overpassed the history of certain godly persons perse- J^H*- 
cuted in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, as we find them in secuted. 
the registers of the diocese recorded ; here following. 

In the year of our Lord 1485, March 9th, amongst divers and 
sundry other good men in Coventry, these nine hereunder named, 
were examined before John, bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, in 
St. Michael's church, upon these articles following in order : 

3|ohn SMomgtone, anD eio.fjt otljeriS per^ecuteD at Cobcntc?. 

First, John Blomstone was openly and publicly infamed, accused, 
reported, and appeached as follows : 

That he was a very heretic, because he had preached, taught, holden, and The 
affirmed, that the power attributed to St. Peter in the church of God, by our P°*' er of 
Saviour Jesus Christ immediately, did not flit or pass from him, to remain with mtteth 
his successors. not to his 

Item, That 
Virgin Mary. 

Item, That prayer and alms avail not the dead ; for incontinent after death, Purga- 
he goeth either to heaven or hell : whereupon he concludeth there is no pur- t0 . Ti . de ~ 
gatory. 

Item, That it was foolishness to go on pilgrimage to the image of our Lady of Images 
Doncaster, Walsingham, or of the Tower of the city of Coventry : for a man not s l ° be 
might as well worship the blessed Virgin by the fire-side in the kitchen, as in P e± P 
the aforesaid places, and as well might a man worship the blessed Virgin, when 
he seeth his mother or sister, as in visiting the images ; because they be no 
more but dead stocks and stones. 

Item, That he said in English, with a frowning countenance, as it appeared : 
1 A vengeance on all such horson priests, for they have great envy that a poor 
man should get his living among them.' 

Richard Hegham of the same city was accused, as under : 

That he was a very heretic, because he did hold that a christian man being Merits 
at the point of death, should renounce all his own works good and ill, and condemn- 
submit him to the mercy of God. 

Item, That it was fondness to worship the images of our Lady of the 
Tower, in the aforesaid city, or of other saints ; for they are but stocks and 
stones. 

Item, That if the image of our Lady of the Tower were put into the fire, it Against 
would make a good fire. images. 

Item, That it were better to deal money unto poor folks, than to offer to the 
image of Christ and other saints, which are but dead stocks and stones. 

Robert Crowther of the same city was accused as follows : 

That he was a heretic, because he did hold, that whoso receiveth the sacra- 
ment of the altar in deadly sin, or out of charity, receiveth nothing but bread 
and wine. 

Item, That neither bishop, nor priests, nor curates of churches, have power in 
the market of penance to bind and loose. 

Item, That pilgrimage to the image of our Lady of the Tower is foolishness; Pihrrim 
for it is but a stock or a stone. a fc'<-' 



|34 CERTAIN PERSONS PERSECUTED AT COVENTRY. 

*«p John Smith was accused, as under : 

„ 'p] iat h c was a very heretic, because lie did hold, that every man is bound to 
1 -,','.,' know the Lord's Prayer, and the Creed in English, if he might ; for all these 

' Item That whoso believed as the church then did believe, believed ill : and 
that a man had need to frequent the schools a good while, ere that he can attain 
to the knowledge of the true and right faith. 

Item, That no priest hath power to assoil a man, in the market of penance, 
from lils sins. 

Koo-er Brown of the same city, was also accused as follows : 

I That he was a heretic, because he did hold that no man ought to worship 

pilgrim- the image of our Lady of Walsingham, nor the blood of Christ at Hales, but 
■**■ rather God Almighty, who would give him whatsoever he woidd ask. 

Item, That he held not up his hands, nor looked up, at the elevation of the 
eucharist. 

Item, That he promised, one to show him certain books of heresy, if he would 
swear that he would not utter them, and if he would credit them. 
Flesh in Item > That he did eat flesh in Lent, and was taken with the manner. 
Lent. Item, If any man were not shriven in his whole life long, and at the point of 

Against death would be confessed, and could not, if he had no more but contrition only, 
i ur atoiy ] 1C should pass to joy without purgatory: and if he were confessed of any sin, 
fessio° a " an ^ were enjoined only to say for penanqe one Pater-Noster, if he thought he 
auricular, should have any punishment in purgatory for that sin, he would never be con- 
fessed for any sin. 

Item, Because he said all is lost that is given to priests. 
Item, That there was no purgatory, that God would pardon all sins without ( 
confession and satisfaction. 

Thomas Butler of the same city was likewise openly accused to 
this effect : 

That he was a very heretic, because he did hold that there were but two 
ways, that is to say, to heaven and to hell. 

Item, That no faithful man should abide any pain after the death of Christ, 
for any sin, because Christ died for our sins. 
Against Item, That there was no purgatory ; for every man immediately after death 
purga- passeth either to heaven or hell. 

Merits Item, That whosoever departeth in the faith of Christ and the church, how- 

soever he hath lived, shall be saved. 

Item, That prayers and pilgrimages are nothing worth, and avail not to pur- 
chase heaven. 

John Falks was accused as follows : 

That he was a very heretic, because he did affirm, That it was a foolish thing 
to offer to the image of our Lady, saying, Her head shall be hoar ere I offer to 
her: What is it but a block? If it could speak to me, I would give it an half- 
penny worth of ale. 

Item, That when the priest carrieth to the sick the body of Christ, why 
carrieth he not also the blood of Christ? 

Ili in, That he did cat cow-milk upon the first Sunday of Lent. 

item, That as concerning tin- sacrament of penance and absolution, no priest 
hath power to assoil any man from his sins, when he can not make one hair of 
his head. 

Item, That the image of our Lady was but a stone or a block. 1 

| i stone is a stone, and a block is a block! 



PICUS, EAttL OV MIUANDULA. 1 ).", 

Richard Hilman was accused, as under : 7m» 

in. 

That he was a very heretic, because he did say and maintain, That it was 

butter to part with money to the poor, than to give tithes to priests, or to offer A. D. 
to the images of our Lady ; and that it were better to offer to images made by 1509. 
God, than to the images of God painted. Richard 

Item, That he had the Lord's Prayer and the salutation of the angel and the Hilmaa. 
Creed in English, and another book did he see and had, which contained the Scrip- 
epistles and gospels in English, and according to them would he live, and 2Sttk 
thereby believed to be saved. 

Item, That no priest speaketh better in the pulpit than that book. 

Item. That the sacrament of the altar is but bread, and that the priests make 
it to blind the people. 

Item, That a priest, while he is at mass, is a priest ; and after one mass done, 
till the beginning of another mass, he is no more than a lay-man, and hath no 
more power than a mere lay-man. 

After they were enforced to recant, they were assoiled and put to 
penance. 

In the year of our Lord 1488, the third of April, Margery Govt, 
wife of James Govt of Ashburn, was brought before the aforesaid 
John bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, and was there accused as 
follows : 

That she said, that that which the priests lift over their heads at mass, Against 
was not the true and very body of Christ ; for, if it were so, the priests the sacra- 
could not break it so lightly into four parts, and swallow it as they do ; for S™ito 
the Lord's body hath flesh and bones : so hath not that which the priests 
receive. 

Item, That priests buying forty cakes for a halfpenny, and showing them to 
the people, and saying, that of every of them they make the body of Christ, do 
nothing but deceive the people and enrich themselves. 

Item, Seeing God in the beginning did create and make man, how can it be 
that man should be able to make God? 

This woman also was constrained to recant, and so was she assoiled 
and did penance. 

Thus much I thought good here to insert, touching these aforesaid 
people of Coventry, especially for this purpose, because our cavilling 
adversaries be wont to object against us the newness of Christ's old 
and ancient religion. To the intent, therefore, they may sec this 
doctrine not to be so new as they report, I wish they would consider 
both the time and articles here objected against these aforesaid persons, 
as is above-premised. 

I should also in the same reign of king Henry VII., have intro- ricus, 
duced that story of Johannes Picus. earl of Mirandula, the mention Miran- 
of whose name partly is touched before. This Picus, earl of Miran- dub ' 
dula, being but a young man, was so excellently witted. and so singu- 
larly learned in all sciences, and in all tongues, both Latin, Greek, 
and Hebrew, Chaldce, and Araby, that coming to Koine booted and 
spurred, he set up ninety conclusions, to dispute in the same with 
any in all Christendom, whosoever would come against him; of which 
conclusions divers were touching the matter of the sacrament, ecc. 
And when none was found in all Rome, nor in Europe, that openly 
would dispute with him, privily and in corners certain of the popes 
clergy, prelates, lawyers, and friars, by the pope appointed, consulted 
together to inquire upon his conclusions; whereupon they did articu- 



136 ANCIENT ECCLESIASTICAL LAWS OF THIS REALM. 

Mmm% late against him for suspicion of heresy. And thus the unlearned 

VIL c .] c . ri r V of Rome privily circumvented and entangled this learned earl 

A.I), in their snares of heresy, against whom they durst never openly dis- 

1509- pnte. He died being of the age of thirty-two years, of such wit and 

towardness, as is hard to say whether Italy ever bred up a better. In 

his sickness Charles VIII. the French king, moved with the fame of 

his learning, came to visit him. The furniture of his books cost him 

seven thousand florins. A little before his death his mind was to 

give all away, and to take a cowl, to go about and preach; but the 

Lord would not permit him. His story requireth a long tractation, 

which, if place do serve, we will not peradventure forget. With two 

popes, that is, with pope Innocent, and Alexander VI., he had much 

vexation. 

The names of the Archbishops of Canterbury in this sixth Book 
contained. 

62 John Stratford, held the 66 Thomas Langton, 1 held the 

see for 8 years. see for years. 

63 John Kempe .... 3 „ 67 Henry Dene .... 2 „ 

64 Thomas Bouchier . .33 „ 68 William Warham . . 2S „ 

65 John Morton .... 14 ,, 



A BRIEF NOTE OF ECCLESIASTICAL LAWS ORDAINED BY 
ANCIENT KINGS IN THIS REALM. 

Forasmuch as it is, and hath been a persuasion long engendered 
in the heads of many, that the bishops of Rome be the universal 
heads of the whole militant church of Christ in earth, and have 
always so continued from the beginning of the primitive time ; and 
that no prince, king, nor emperor, in his own realm, hath any interest 
to intermeddle with matters and laws ecclesiastical, but only the said 
bishops of Rome : to refell and remove that opinion out of the heads 
of all Englishmen, as a thing most false, and contrary both to 
histories of time, and examples of ancient kings and governors of 
this realm, I thought to fill up a little end of paper here left, with 
some such brief rehearsal of laws devised and appointed by kings 
and rulers of this land, for the ordering of the church, and causes 
ecclesiastical ; to the intent that all the world may see that the 
government of Christ's church here in earth under Christ hath not 
depended only of the pope from ancient time, but hath been rather 
directed by such kings and princes as God here had placed under 
hiin, to govern the people of this realm of England : as followeth 
here in this present table to be noted. 

A BRIEF RECAPITULATION OF ANCIENT ECCLESIASTICAL LAWS, BY 
SUNDRY KINGS OF THIS REALM ORDAINED, FOR GOVERN- 
MENT OF THE CHURCH, BEFORE THE CONQUEST. 

Ecclesiastical Laws of King Inas, or Ina. 

I- Inst, king Inas, who reigned in this land a. d. 712, commanded that 

" '' ls should frame their conversation of life; according to the form in laws 

prescribed. 

ll) Thl I i was elected aichbiehop, but died before he was confirmed.] 



ANCIEXT ECCLESIASTICAL LAWS OF THIS REALM. 137 

II. That infants should he baptized within thirty days. Umry 

III. Item, That no man, lay or spiritual, free or bond, should labour on the yu - 

A.l). 

1509. 



Sunday. 

IV. Item, He established immunity of churches, and sanctuary. Also he 
took order. for the true payment of church duties, and of the first-fruits of all 
that was sown, to be paid at the day of St. Martin. 

Ecclesiastical Laws of King Alured, or Alfred. 

I. King Alfred, after he had ordained divers judicial punishments for vio- 
lating the holy precepts of God commanded by Moses, he also confirmed and 
enlarged the privilege of sanctuary : he laid double pain upon such as com- 
mitted offences in the solemnities of certain feasts; also against them that 
committed sacrilege. 

II. He made a law against priests committing murder. 

III. Also he made a law against whoredom, adultery, and fornication. 

IV. He appointed days of fasting, and ceasing from labour. 

V. Item, He set order for making and keeping vows. 

Ecclesiastical Laws of King Edward the Elder, and Gythram the 
Dane King. 

I. First, They agreed upon the sanctuary; they forbade gentility and 
paganism ; tltey laid punishment upon the clergy committing theft, perjury, 
or murder, fornication, or any capital crime. 

II. They punished priests, that pretermitted their office in pronouncing 
festival, or fasting days. 

III. They made a law against all labour, buying and selling upon the 
sabbath, also for keeping of feasts. 

Item, For no execution to be done on the Sunday. 
Also against witches and sorcerers, &c. 

Ecclesiastical Laws of King Athelstan. 

I. King Athelstan, who reigned a.d. 924, commanded that every village of 
his own should give a monthly corody 1 to a poor person. 

II. That fifty Psalms should be sung daily in the church, for the king, &c. 

III. He also ordained punishment for witches and sorcerers, &c 

Ecclesiastical Laws of King Edmund 

I. After king Athelstan followed king Edmund about a.d. 940, who esta- 
blished and provided laws against the unchaste living of churchmen. 

II. Item, He made laws concerning tithes, with first-fruits of every man's 
crop, and alms-money duly to be paid. 

III. He enacted, That bishops, of their own proper charges, should repair 
churches, and should also admonish the king for the furnishing of the same. 

IV. For perjury also, and for fighting within the church, he set laws and 
pains. 

Ecclesiastical Laws of King Edgar. 

I. King Edgar, who began his reign about a.d. 959, amongst other consti- 
tutions ecclesiastical, ordained that the Sunday should be kept holy from Satur- 
day at noon, till Monday in the morning. 

II. Item, He ordained and decreed concerning liberties and freedoms of the 
church ; for tithes also, and first-fruits of corn, and paying of Peter-pence. 

III. Item, For holy days and fasting days. 

IV. Item, That assemblies or synods should be kept twice every year, 
whereat as well the bishop of the diocese should be present, as the civil 
magistrate. 

the king, for the maintenance of one of 



138 ANCIEKT ECCLESIASTICAL LAWS OF THIS REALM. 

"^ King Ethelred, a.d. 979 



A. D. King Etlielred also, who succeeded after Edgar and Edward, appointed 
L509. divers laws for public regiment, whereof we find but few touching matters 

ecclesiastical ; for tithes, lights, feasts, and nothing else, and therefore we pass 

further, to the laws of Canute. 

Ecclesiastical Laws of King Canute. 

Canute the Dane, king, began to reign in this land a.d. 1016. The said Canute 
(as Ethelred had done before) divided his laws into ecclesiastical and temporal. 

I. That ecclesiastical persons, being accused of fighting, murder, or anv other 
offence, should purge themselves thereof. 

II. That priests should be degraded for perjury, and put in sureties of good 
behaviour. 

III. He prayeth priests, that they will live chaste, and commanded other 
religious. 

IV. He limited the degrees of marriage. 

V. Item, he commanded celebration of the Sabbath from Saturday at noon, 
till Monday morning, as Edgar had done before, forbidding markets, huntings, 
labours, and court-keepings, during the said space. 

VI. He ordained each christian man to come to the housel, 1 thrice yearly at 
least ; that they might search and inquire after God's law, and his command- 
ments. 

VII. That every christian man understand the points of his faith, and that 
at least he learn perfectly the Lord's prayer and the creed ; and that whosoever 
cannot, the same shall be excluded from the eucharist, and shall not be received 
to undertake for others in baptism. 

VIII. That bishops and priests should do their duties; that they cry out and 
warn their flocks when the wolf cometh. 

IX. That at the court of every shire the bishop of the diocese shall be present 
with the sheriff, and that the one shall teach them God's law, and the other 
man's law; as ye heard in king Edgar's laws before. 

Kings of Many other laws, both ecclesiastical and temporal, besides these, 
',';'!;!!v"'i!' were enacted by these and other kings here in England, before the 
conquest Conquest ; but these be sufficient to give the understanding reader to 

governors 1 ' . , s , ,-, ■ n to 1 . . .-, 

as well in consider how the authority ot the bishops ot Komc, all this while, 
.'..TK-Vins- extended not so far to prescribe laws for government of the church, 
temporal but that kings an( l pi'inces of the realm, as they be now, so were then, 
full governors here under Christ, as well in causes ecclesiastical as 
temporal, both in directing orders, instituting laws, in calling of synods, 
and also in conferring bishoprics and benefices, without any leave of 
the Romish bishops. Thus Odo, Dunstan, Oswold, Ethelwold, Adel- 
lnus, and Lanfranc, although they fetched their palls afterward from 
Home, yet were they made bishops and archbishops by kings only, 
and not by popes. 

And thus stood the government of this realm of England all the 

', time before the Conquest, till pope Hildebrand, through the setting 

J ,;;;;;.'/',',;',' on of the Saxons, began first to bring the emperor (who was Henry 

pope'i I \ .) underfoot. Then followed the subduing of other emperors, 

'ton" kings, and subjects after that; as namely here in England, when 

Lanfranc, Anselm, and Bccket, went to complain of their kings and 

governors, then brought they the pope's judicial authority first from 

Rome over this land, both over kings and subjects; which ever since 

(i; " Housel," the sacrament of the Lord's Supper.— Ed. 



THE PROUD TRIMACY OF POPES DESCRIBED. YS9 

hath continued, till these latter years. Albeit the said kings of this Bccidas- 
realm of England, being prudent princes, and seeing right well the y/,1™^. 

ambitious presumption of those Romish bishops, did what they could 

to shake off the yoke of their supremacy, as appeareth by the laws 
and acts of their parliaments, both in king Edward IIL's time, king 
Richard II., and king Henry IV., above in their parliament notes 
specified ; yet, for fear of other foreign princes, and the blind opinion 
of their subjects, such was then the calamity of that time, that they 
neither could nor durst compass that which fain they would ; till, at 
last, the time of their iniquity being complete, through the Lord's 
wonderful working, their pride had a fall, as in the next pages ensu- 
ing (the Lord so granting), shall by process of history be declared. 

€fje prouD JDrimacn of $ope£ Described, 

IN ORDER OF THEIR RISING UP, BY LITTLE AND LITTLE, FROM 
FAITHFUL BISHOPS AND MARTYRS, TO BECOME LORDS AND 
GOVERNORS OVER KINGS AND KINGDOMS, EXALTING THEM- 
SELVES IN THE TEMPLE OF GOD, ABOVE ALL THAT IS CALLED 
GOD. 1 

In the history of the primitive church before described hath been, Martyr- 
gentle reader! set forth and exhibited the grievous afflictions and^ d 
sorrowful torments, which, through God's secret sufferance, fell upon w^p* 
the true saints and members of Christ's church in that time, especially wicked 
upon the good bishops, ministers, and teachers of the flock, of whom erai ' L ' rors - 
some were scourged, some beheaded, some crucified, some burned, 
some had their eyes put out, some one way, some another, miserably 
consumed : which days of woeful calamity continued (as is foreshowed) 
near the space of three hundred years. During that time the dear 
spouse and elect church of God, being sharply assaulted on every side, 
had small rest, no joy, nor outward safety in this present world, but, 
in much bitterness of heart, in continual tears and mourning under 
the cross, passed over their days, being spoiled, imprisoned, contemned, 
reviled, famished, tormented, and martyred every where ; who neither 
durst well tarry at home for fear and dread, and much less durst 
come abroad for the enemies, but only by night, when they assembled 
as they might, sometimes to sing psalms and hymns together. In all 
which their dreadful dangers, and sorrowful afflictions, notwithstand- 
ing the goodness of the Lord left them not desolate ; but the more 
their outward tribulations did increase, the more their inward consola- 
tions did abound : and the further off they seemed from the joys of 
this life, the more present was the Lord with them, with grace and 
fortitude to confirm and rejoice their souls : and though their posses- 
sions and riches in this world were lost and spoiled, yet were they Tlu . ,,„,. 
enriched with heavenly gifts and treasures from above, a hundred-fold. [* chea "' 
Then was true religion truly felt in heart. Then was Christianity church. 
not in outward appearance showed, but in inward affection received, 
and the true image of the church, net in outward show pvetensed, but 
in her perfect state effectual. Then was the name and fear of God 
true in heart, not in lips alone dwelling. Faith then was fervent, 
(l) 2 Then ii. 



140 THE FIRST RISING OF THE BISHOPS OF ROME. 

Ecdetio, zeal ardent ; prayer not swimming in the lips, but groaned out to 
ll'Znj. God from the bottom of the spirit. Then was no pride in the church, 

nor leisure to seek riches, nor time to keep them. Contention for 

trifles was then so far from Christians, that well were they when they 
could meet to pray together against the devil, author of all dissension. 
Briefly, the whole church of Christ Jesus, with all the members 
thereof, the farther it was from the type and shape of this world, the 
nearer it was to the blessed respect of God's favour and supportation. 

THE FIRST RISING OF THE BISHOPS OF ROME. 

After this long time of trouble it pleased the Lord at length merci- 
fully to look upon the saints and servants of his Son, to release their 
captivity, to release their misery, and to bind up the old dragon the 
devil, which so long vexed them ; whereby the church began to aspire to 
some more liberty, and the bishops, who before were as abjects, utterly 
contemned of emperors, through the providence of God (who disposeth 
all things in his time after his own will) began now of emperors to be 
esteemed and had in price. Furthermore, as emperors grew more in 
devotion, so the bishops more and more were exalted, not only in fa- 
vour, but also preferred unto honour, insomuch that in short space they 
became not quarter-masters, but rather half emperors with emperors. 
After this, in process of time, as 'riches and worldly wealth crept 
into the clergy, and that the devil had poured his venom into the 
church (as the voice was heard the same time over Constantinople) 1 so 
true humility began to decay, and pride to set in his foot, till at last 
they played as the ivy doth with the oak tree, which, first beginning 
with a goodly green show, embraceth him so long, till at length it 
overgroweth him, and so sucketh all his moisture from him, setting 
his root fast in his bark, till at last it both stifleth the stock, and 
killeth the branches, and so cometh to be a nest for owls and all 
unclean birds. Not untruly, therefore, it was said of Augustine, 
spiritual " Religio peperit divitias, &c. filia devoravit matrem \'" 2 that is, " Re- 
nt ligion begat riches, and the daughter hath devoured the mother." 



the 



tam°d* ^ ie ver ^y whereof notoriously may appear above all others in the 
worldly church of Rome, and the bishops of the same ; for after the church of 
Rome, through favour of emperors, was endued with lands, donations, 
possessions, and patrimonies, so that the bishops thereof, feeling the 
smack of wealth, ease, and prosperity, began to swell in pomp and 
pride; 3 the more they flourished in this world, the more God's Holy 
Spirit forsook them ; till at last the said bishops, who at the first 
were poor, creeping low upon the ground, and Avere persecuted a long 
time, every man treading upon them in this world ; now of persecuted 
people, began to be persecutors of others, and to tread upon the 
necks even of emperors, and to bring the heads of kings and princes 
under their girdle. And not only that, but furthermore, through 
pride and riches, they were so far gone from all religion, that in the 
very end they became the great adversary of God (whom we call 
Antichrist), prophesied of so long before by the Spirit of God to 
come, sitting in the temple of God, &c, of whom thus we read in the 

(1) This retell to an event which is said to have occurred at the period when temporal immuni- 
•• "1 mi the church by Constantine : whenan angelic voice was heard in the air, saying, 
llortu- i-tluxum i-st vencnum in cr-desia sancta Dei." See Wick'.itl', Dialog, lib. iv. ch. 18.— Eu. 
V) Ex lib. Serin. Disciimli. (3) Look to Tyndal, in his book of the Practice of Prelates. 



the words of sr. paul expounded. 141 

epistle of Paul [2 Thess. ii.], where he saith, " We beseech you, Seeiuuu- 
brethren, by the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and by our fellow- mrt£g- 

ship together in him, that ye be not suddenly moved in your mind, . 

nor troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor letter, as it were adversary 
from us, as though the day of Christ were at hand. Let no man in Ami'- 1 
any wise deceive you, for that day shall not come except there come %$%£*' 
a departing first, and that man of sin be revealed, even the son of 
perdition ; that adversary which cxalteth himself above all that is 
called God, or that is worshipped, so that he shall sit in the temple of 
God, as God, and set forth himself as he were God," &c. 

THE WORDS OF ST. PAUL EXPOUNDED. 

By which words of St. Paul, we have divers things to understand : 
First, That the day of the Lord's coming was not then near at hand. 
Secondly, The apostle, giving us a token before, to know when that 
day shall approach, biddeth us look for an adversary first to be re- 
vealed. Thirdly, To show what adversary this shall be, he cxpresseth 
him not to be as a common adversary, such as were then in his time. 
For although Herod, Annas, and Caiaphas, the high priests and 
Pharisees, Tertullus, Alexander the coppersmith, Elymas, and Simon 
Magus, and Nero the emperor, in Paul's time, were great adversaries ; 
yet here he meaneth another besides these, greater than all the rest ; 
not such a one as should be like to priest, king, or emperor ; but such 
as, far exceeding the state of all kings, priests, and emperors, should 
be the prince of priests, should make kings to stoop, and should tread 
upon the neck of emperors, and make them to kiss his feet. More- 
over, where the apostle saith, that he shall sit in the temple of God ; 
thereby is meant, not the personal sitting of the pope in the city only 
of Rome, but the authority and jurisdiction of his see exalted in the 
whole universal church, equal with God himself. For let men give to The pope 
the pope that which he, in his laws, decrees, and in his pontifical, re- Smsei" 8 
quireth, and what difference is there between God and the pope ? If * ven with 
God set laws and ordinances, so doth he. If God hath his creatures, 
so hath he. If God require obedience, so doth he. If the breach of 
God's commandments be punished, much more be his. God hath his 
religion, the pope also hath his ; for God's one religion, he hath 
a hundred. God hath set up one advocate, he hath a hundred. 
God hath instituted but a few holy days ; for God's one, he hath 
instituted forty. And if the holy day that God hath appointed be 
' simplex,' the feast that the pope appointeth, is ' duplex,' and ' tri- 
plex.' Christ is the head of the church ; so is the pope. Christ 
giveth influence to his body ; so doth the pope. Christ forgivcth sin ; 
the pope doth no less. Christ cxpelleth evil spirits by his power ; so 
pretendcth the pope by his holy water. Furthermore, where Christ 
went barefoot upon the bare ground, he with his golden shoes is car- 
ried on men's shoulders ; and where Christ was called Sanctus Sanc- 
torum, he is called Sanctorum Sanctissimus. Christ never practised 
but only the spiritual sword ; he claimeth both spiritual and temporal. 
Christ bought the church ; he both buycth and selleth the church. 
And if it be necessary to believe Christ to be the Saviour of the 
world ; so it is necessary to believe the pope to be the head of tlic 
church. Christ paid tribute unto Caesar; he maketh Caesar pay 



]4Q EXALTATION OF TOPES ABOVE PHINCES. 

Seetefa* tribute unto him. Finally, the crown of Christ was of sharp thorns ; 
the pope hath three crowns of gold upon his head, as far exceeding 

— ■ — - Christ the Son of God in the glory of this world, as Christ exceedeth 
him in the glory of heaven ; the image and pattern of whose intole- 
rable pride and exaltation, according as St. Paul doth describe him in 
his epistle aforesaid, we have here set forth, not only in these histories 
to be seen, and by his own facts to be noted, but also in his own 
words and registers, Clementines, extravagants, and pontificals, ex- 
pressed, as in order (the Lord willing) shall follow. 

THE EXALTATION OF POPES ABOVE KINGS AND EMPERORS, OUT 
OF HISTORIES. 

The pa- First, After Italy and the city of Rome were overrun by the 
constant Goths and Vandals, so that the seat of the empire was removed to 
s'uil'I'uL.i Constantinople, then began John, the patriarch of Constantinople, 
by the to put forth himself, and would needs be called universal bishop of 
xuo'the the world ; but the bishop of Rome in no case would suffer that, 
emperor's . m( i s t pp C( i it. After this came the emperor's deputy, and exarch of 
tenant of Ravenna, to rule Italy ; but the bishop of Rome, through aid of 
the king of Lombards, soon quailed him. 

Not long after, about a. d. 500, came Phocas the murderer, who 

slew the emperor of Constantinople, his master Mauritius and his 

now the children. By -which Phocas the bishops of old Rome aspired first 

'.';,", , ,',", l ' s "' to their pre-eminence, to be counted the head bishops over the whole 

toT til-' (, ' ,m ' cn 5 an( l so 5 together with the Lombards, began to rule the city 

head of Rome. 1 Afterwards, when the Lombards would not yield unto 

18 opSl liini in accomplishing his ambitious desire, but would needs require 

of the bishop the said city of Rome ; he stirred up Pepin, but first 

deposed Childeric the king of France, and so thrusting him into an 

abbey, set up in his place Pepin and his son Charlemagne, to put 

down the said king of Lombards, called Aistulphus. And so he 

translated the empire from Constantinople into France, dividing the 

spoil between him and them ; so that the kings of France had all 

the possessions and lands which before belonged to the empire, and 

he to receive of them the quiet possession of the city of Rome, with 

such donations and lordships, which now they challenge unto them 

under the name of St. Peter's patrimony, which they falsely ascribe 

to that donation of Constantine the Great. 

It followeth then in process of time, after the days of Pepin, 
Charlemagne, and Ludovic (who had endued these bishops of Rome, 
died now popes, with large possessions), when the kings of France 
were not so appliable to their beck, to aid and maintain them against 
the princes of Italy, who began then to pinch the said bishops for 
theii wrongfully usurped goods, they practised with the Germans to 
"luce the empire to Otho, first of that name, duke of Spain, re- 
ferring the election thereof to seven princes electors of Germanv, 
Inch wus about a.d. 1002; notwithstanding, reserving still in his 
hands the negative voice, thinking thereby to enjoy that they had 
in quietness and security, and so did for a good space. 

A i length, when some of these German emperors also after Otho 

" ■ 111 obtained ut Phocas to be called universal bishop. 



Donation 



villi tho 



till- nil 

pin "i 
G 



WAtt AGAINST CONRAD I!Y BISHOPS OF I10MK. 14 » 



began a little to spurn against the said bishops ami popes of Rome ; Kcci™™- 
some of them they accursed, some they subdued and brought to the History. 
kissing of their feet, some they deposed, and placed others in their 
possessions. 

So was Henry IV. by these bishops accursed, the emperor himselt Emperors 
forced with his wife and child to wait attendance upon the pope's H^'tiic- 
pleasure three days and three nights in winter, at the gates of Canossus, pope, 
or Canusium. 1 Besides all this the said pope raised up Kodulph to 
be emperor against him ; who being slain in war, then the said pope 
Chregory VII., not resting thus, stirred up his own son Henry V. 
to fight against his own natural father, and to depose him ; which 
Henry V. was also himself afterwards accursed and excommunicated, 
and the Saxons at last set up by the bishops to fight against him. 

After this, the emperors began to be somewhat calmed, and more 
quiet, suffering the bishops to reign as they listed, till Frederic I., 
called Barbarossa, came and began to stir coals against them. How- 
beit they hampered both him, and his son Henry in such sort, that 
they brought first the neck of Frederic, in the church of Venice, under 
their feet, to tread upon ; and after that, the said bishops, crowning 
Henry his son in the church of St. Peter, set his crown on his head 
with their feet, and with their feet spurned it off again, to make him 
know that the popes of Rome had power both to crown emperors, 
and depose them again ; whereof read before. 

Then followed Philip, brother to Henry aforesaid, whom also the 
popes accursed, about a. d. 1198, and set up Otho duke of Saxony. 
But when the said Otho began to be so saucy, to dispossess the bishops 
of their cities and lands which they had encroached into their hands, 
they could not bear that, but incontinent they put him beside the 
cushion. The like also fell upon Otho IV., that followed after 
Philip, who was suffered no longer than four years to reign, about 
a. d. 1209. 

At this time Frederic II., the son of Frederic Barbarossa above- Hono-^ 
mentioned, was but young, whom the bishops of Rome, supposing to Gregory 
find more mortified and tamed to their hand, advanced to be emperor j;^; . 
after his father. But that fell out much contrary to their expectation ; ^ u n t '- 
for he, perceiving the immoderate pomp and pride of the Roman Frederic 
bishops, which he could in no case abide, so nettled them and cut J or c, " p "' 
their combs, and waxed so stout against them, intending to extirpate 
their tyranny, and to reduce their pompous riches to the state and 
condition of the primitive church again, putting some of them to 
flight, and imprisoning some of their cardinals, that of three popes, 
one after another, he was accursed, circumvented by treason, at last War 
deposed, and after that poisoned; and, at last, forsaken and died. raised^ 

After this Frederic, followed his son Conrad, whom the aforesaid Conn ^ ( 
bishops for his disobedience soon despatched, exciting against him in |&££ gof 
mortal war the Landgrave of Thuringia, whereby he was at length aome. 
driven into his kingdom of Naples, and there deceased. 

Tins Conrad had a son called Conradine, duke and prince of 
Suevia. 2 When this Conradine, after the decease of his father came 
to enjoy his kingdom of Naples, the said bishops stirred up against 
him Charles the French king's brother, in such sort, that through 

1) See vol. ii. p. 128.— Ed. (2) El Aventino. 



144 SUPPLICATION OF KING JOHN TO POPE INNOCENT III. 

Ecciesias- crafty conveyance, both Conradinc who was descended of the blood 
Hitiory. of so many emperors, and also Frederic duke of Austria, were both 

taken, and after much wretched handling in their miserable endurance, 

unseeming to their state, at length were both brought under the axe 
by the pope's procurement, and so both beheaded. And thus ended 
the imperial stock of Frederic I., surnamed Barbarossa. 

The like as happened to Frederic the emperor, had almost also 
fallen upon Philip the French king, by pope Boniface VIII., who, 



Insolency 
of pope 
lioniface 

vhl because he could not have his commodities and revenues out of 



lnliiip, France after his will, sent out his bulls and letters patent to dis- 
place king Philip aforesaid, to possess Albert I. king of Romans in 



the 
French 

ki "°- his roor 



And thus hitherto of foreign stories. Now touching our country 
princes here in England, to speak somewhat likewise of them : did 
not pope Alexander III. presumptuously taking upon him where he 
had nothing to do, to intermeddle with the king's subjects, for the 
death of Becket the rebel ? Albeit the king sufficiently cleared him- 
self thereof, yet, notwithstanding, did he not wrongfully bring the 
said king Henry II. to such penance as it pleased him to enjoin, and 
also violently constrained him to swear obedience to the see of Rome ? 
the like also was showed before in this story to happen to king John 
his son ; for when the said king, like a valiant prince, had held out 
the tyranny ot those bishops seven years together, were not all the 
churches in England barred up, and his inheritance with all his 
dominions given away by pope Innocent III. to Ludovicus the 
French king, and he afterwards compelled to submit both himself, 
and to make his whole realm feudatory to the bishops of Rome ? and, 
moreover, the king himself driven also to surrender his crown to 
Pandulph the pope's legate, and so continued as a private person five 
clays, standing at the pope's courtesy, whether to receive it again at 
his hands or no ? And when the nobles of the realm rose afterwards 
against the king for the same, was not he then fain to seek and sue 
to the aforesaid pope for succour, as by his own letter, 1 hereunder 
to be seen, taken out of the public rolls, may appear ? 

And yet, all this notwithstanding (though the said king John did 
so yield to the pope), he was both pursued by his nobles, and also in 
the end was poisoned by a subject of the pope's own religion, a monk 
of Swinstead ; as I have sufficiently to prove, not only by William 
Caxton above in my story alleged, but also have testimony of the 
most part of chronicles for the same (a few only excepted), as of 
Thomas Gray in his French Chronicle; also of another French 
chronicle in metre, of Ranulphus Cestrensis: Thomas Rudburn also 
•loth witness the same; so doth Richard Rede, in 'Novo Chronico 

(1) The Supplication of King John to Pope Innocent the Thirds 

Rcvcrcndis. Domino suo et Patri Sanctis. Innocentio Dei gratia, Johan. eadera gratia Rex Anglic, 
' i 'larones Angliae nobis devoti essent, anteiinam 008 et nostram terrain do- 
cre curassemns, ex tunc in nos specialiter ob hoc, sicut publico dicunt, violenter 

, , ' '" ' wr " prater Ileum vos specialem doininum et patronum babentes, defensionem 

,,',' ;''", ' . '"""' "'■:■"'• quod vestrum esse credimus, vestrae paternitati cbmmissam, et nos quan- 
...... ,'" e «. curam el solicitudinein istam vestrae resignamus dominationi, devotius suppli- 

malta. vV ""l' N '" '"'"" ,us noBtris, qua veatra sunt, consilium et auxilium efficax apponatis, prout 
u.iiius, viuemis txpedu-e, latorea pnesentium, &c. Teste meiuao apud Dour. is. Septem. 6. 

(1) Ex itotulo patent, de an. Rcgni Reg. Johannis VlIL 



THE IMAGE OF ANTICHRIST. ! 1 -."i 

ad tempora, 1 Henry VI. ; the like also doth the chronicle called BccImUu 
1 Eulogium Monachi Cant. 1 The words of Walter Gishurn, an BbuHy. 
ancient historiographer, be plain. No less is to be found in Johannes 
Major, ' De Gestis Scotorum,' lib. iv. cap. 3, fob 56, where he not 
only niaketh mention of the monk and of the poison, but also of the 
abbot, of his absolution, and of the three monks every day singing 
for the said monk's soul. To these I could also annex divers other 
writers both English and Latin, without name, who witness that king 
John was poisoned ; one beginning thus, " Here beginneth a book Writers 
in the English tongue, called ' Brute, 1 " &c. Another beginneth, Zh"ul\ 
" Because this book is made to tell what time any thing, notable, 11 &c. L ? tin 
The third in English beginneth, " The reign of Britain that now is name, 
called England, 11 &c. Of Latin books which have no name, one 
beginneth thus : " Britannia, quso et Anglia dicitur, a Bruto nomen 
est sortita, 11 &c. Another hath this beginning : " Adam pater generis 
humani, 11 &c. 

Besides this king Henry II., and king John his son, what kings 
have here reigned in England since their time, until the reign of king 
Henry VIII. ; who, although they were prudent princes, and did 
what they could in providing against the proud domination of these Hen. in. 
bishops, yet were forced at length sore against their wills, for fear, to JileTifee 
subject themselves, together with their subjects, under their usurped «£*» 
authority, insomuch that some of them (as Matthew Paris writeth of legate. 
king Henry III.) were fain to stoop and kiss their legate's knee. 

arfje SImage Df 3Cnticfjr$t, ejraftmg ijirttfelf in tlje Ctmple of <©od, 
abotoe all tfjat tf named <£>oo, a 

OUT OF HIS OWN DECREES, DECRETALS, EXTRAVAGANTS, PON- 
TIFICALS, ETC., WORD FOR WORD, AS IT IS OUT OF THE 
SAID BOOKS HERE ALLEGED AND QUOTED. 

1 Forasmuch as it standeth upon necessity of salvation, for every 
human creature to be subject unto me the pope of Rome, it shall be 
therefore requisite and necessary for all men that will be saved, to 
leai-n and know the dignity of my see, and excellency of my domina- 
tion, as is here set forth according to the truth and very words of 
mine own laws, in style as followcth : 2 First, my institution began in 
the Old Testament, and was consummated and finished in the New, 
in that my priesthood was prefigured by Aaron ; and other bishops 
under me were prefigured by the sons of Aaron, that were under 
him ; 3 neither is it to be thought that my church of Rome hath been 
preferred by any general council, but obtained the primacy only by 
the voice of the Gospel, and the mouth of the Saviour, 4 and hath in it 
neither spot nor wrinkle, nor any such like thing. 'Wherefore, as 
other seats be all inferior to me, and as they cannot absolve me, so 
have they no power to bind me or to stand against me, no more than 
the axe hath power to stand or presume above him that heweth with 
it, or the saw to presume above him that ndeth it. "This is the holy 

(a) 2 Thess. ii. 

O) Tope Bonifarius VIII. Extra«ag. de Majori. el Obed. C. ' I'nam.' 
(2) Distinct. 12. c. ' Decretis. (8) Pope Pelagius, dlBt. 21. e. •Ouamvjs.' 

(4) Pelagius, ibidem. (5) Pope Nicolaus. dist. 21. c. ' Inferior.' 

(6) Pope Lucius, 24. q. i. c. 2. ' Recta.' 
VOL. IV. L 



]46 T1TF. IMAGE OF ANTICHRIST. EXALTING HIMSELF 

Eccieria*- and apostolic mother-church of all other churches of Christ ; 7 from 
jhst'tr, whose rules it is not meet that any person or persons should decline ; 

" but like as the Son of God came to do the will of his Father, so 

must you do the will of your mother the church, the head whereof is 
the church of Rome ; "and if any other person or persons shall err 
from the said church, either let them be admonished, or else their 
names taken, to be known who they be, that swerve from the customs 
of Rome. 

"Thus then, forasmuch as the holy church of Rome, whereof I am 
governor, is set up to the whole world for a glass or example, reason 
would what thing soever the said church determineth, or ordaineth, 
that to be received of all men for a general and a perpetual rule for 
ever. 10 Whereupon we see it now verified in this church, that was 
fore-prophesied "by Jeremy, saying, " Behold, I have set thee up over 
nations and kingdoms, to pluck up and to break down, to build and 
to plant," &c. "Whoso understandeth not the prerogative of this 
my priesthood, let him look up to the firmament, where he may see 
two great lights, the sun and the moon, one ruling over the day, the 
other over the night : .so in the firmament of the universal church, 
12 God hath set two great dignities, the authority of the pope, and of 
the emperor ; of which two, this our dignity is so much more weighty, 
as we have the greater charge to give account to God for kings of the 
earth, and the laws of men. 

13 Wherefore be it known to you emperors, who know it also right 
well, that you depend upon the judgment of us : we must not be 
brought and reduced to your will. u For, as I said, look what differ- 
ence there is betwixt the sun and the moon, so great is the power of 
the pope ruling over the day, that is, over the spiritualty, above 
emperors and kings, ruling over the night ; that is, over the laity. 
15 Now, seeing then the earth is seven times bigger than the moon, and 
the sun eight times greater than the earth ; it followeth that the 
pope's dignity fifty-six times doth surmount the estate of the empe- 
rors. "Upon consideration whereof, I say therefore and pronounce, 
that Constantine the emperor did wrong, in setting the patriarch of 
Constantinople at his feet on his left hand. 17 And although the said 
emperor wrote to me, alleging the words of St. Peter, commanding 
us to submit ourselves to every human creature, as to kings, dukes, 
and others for the cause of God, &c. [1 Pet. ii.], yet, in answering 
again in my decretal, I expounded the mind and the words of St. 
Peter to pertain to his subjects, and not his successors ; willing the 
said emperor to consider the person of the speaker, and to whom it 
was spoken. For if the mind of Peter had been there to debase the 
order of priesthood, and to make us underlings to every human crea- 
ture, then every Jack might have dominion over prelates ; which 
maketh against the example of Christ, setting up the order of priest- 
hood to bear dominion over kings, according to the saying of Jeremy, 
Behold, I have set thee up over kings and nations, 11 &c. 

< ,-ilixtus rtist. 12. c. ' Non decet.' (8) Pope Innocentius II. c. 'Quis.' 
(8) Pope Btephan. <:ist. 19. c. ' Enimvero.' 

(10) Pope Bonliac. VIII. Extravag.c. 'Unam sanctam.' Item, pope Johannes XXII. Extravag. 
r; M> ' Bupei (ID Pope Innocent. III. art. tie Major, et obe. c. ' Solitffi.' 

(12) Pope Qelasus diet. 96. c. ' Duo.' 13) Ibidem. 

(M) bwocentlue da Major. et obe. c. 'Solita.' (15) Glossa. Ibidem. (16) Ibidem. 
1 1/ 1 Imioi entJui. Ibid. 



\ 



ABOVE ALL THAT IS CALLED GOD. 147 

18 And as I feared not then to write this boldly unto Constantine, so AeM» 
now I say to all other emperors, that they, receiving of me their niuJry. 

approbation, unction, consecration, and crown imperial; must not dig- — 

dain to submit their heads under me, and swear unto me their alle- 
giance. I9 For so you read in the decree of pope John, how that 
princes heretofore have been wont to bow and submit their heads 
unto bishops, and not to proceed in judgment against the heads of 
bishops. 20 If this reverence and submission were wont to be given 
to bishops, how much more ought they to submit their heads to me 
being superior, not only to kings, but emperors ? and that for two 
causes : first, for my title of succession, that I, pope of Rome, have 
to the empire, the room standing vacant ; also for the fulness ot 
power that Christ, the King of kings and Lord of lords, hath given 
to me, though unworthy, in the person of Peter ; 21 by reason whereof, 
seeing my power is not of man, but of God, who by his celestial 
providence hath set me over his whole universal church, master and 
governor, it belongeth therefore to my office, to look upon every 
mortal sin of every christian man ; 22 whereby all criminal offences, as 
well of kings as all others, be subject to my censure, 23 in such sort, 
that in all manner of pleading, if any manner of person at any time, 
either before the sentence given, or after, shall appeal to me, it shall 
be lawful for him so to do : "neither must kings and princes think 
it much to submit themselves to my judgment ; for so did Valen- 
tinian the worthy emperor, so did Theodosius, and also Charlemagne. 

25 Thus you see all must be judged by me, and I of no man. Yea, 
and though I, pope of Rome, by my negligence or evil demeanour, be 
found unprofitable or hurtful, either to myself or others ; yea, if I 
should draw with me innumerable souls by heaps to hell, yet may 
no mortal man be so hardy, so bold, or so presumptuous, to reprove 
me, 26 orto say to me, "Domine cur ita facis •" that is, " Sir, why do 
you so P 11 "For although you read that Balaam was rebuked by his 
ass, by which ass our subjects, by Balaam we prelates, are signified ; 
yet that ought to be no example to our subjects to rebuke us. 28 And 
though we read in the scripture, that Peter, who received power of 
the kingdom, and being chief of the apostles, might, by virtue of his 
office, control all others, was content to come and give answer before 
his inferiors, objecting to him his going to the Gentiles ; yet other 
inferiors must not learn by this example to be checkmate with their 
prelates, because Peter so took it at their hands; showing thereby rather 
a dispensation of humility, than the power of his office : by which 
power he might have said to them again in this wise, " It becometh 
not sheep, nor belongeth to their office, to accuse their shepherd. 
29 For else, why was Dioscorus patriarch of Alexandria condemned and 
excommunicated at Chalcedon ? Not for any cause of his faith, but 
only for that he durst stand against Pope Leo, and durst excommuni- 
cate the bishop of Rome : for who is he that hath authority to accuse 
the seat of St. Peter ? 30 Albcit I am not ignorant what St. Jerome 

(18) Pope Clement V. Clement de jurc-jurando. c. ' Romani.' 

(19) Pope Johannes dist. 96. c. ' Nunquam.' 

(20) Pope Clement V. Clement de Sentent. ot de rejudi pasloralis. 

(21) Pope Innocent III. De judiciis c. ' Novit.' (22) Ibidem 

i23) Pope Marcellus, caus. 2. q.6. c. ' Ad Romanam.' (24) Innocent. ' Novit ille.' 

(25) Bonifacius Martvr. dist. 40. c. 'Si Papa.' (26) Glossa I'.xtr. de lede vacant. Ad apostolatus 

(27) Pope Leo, caus. 2. q. 7. c. ' Nos. (28) Greg. II. q. 7. c. ' Petnu.' 

(28) Pope Nicolaus, dist. 21. c. 'In cantum.' (30) Jer. cans ?. q. 7. c. ' Paulus.' 

1,2 



|4g THE IMAGE OF ANTICHRIST, EXALTING HIMSELF 

Acta** writeth, that Paul would not have reprehended Peter, unless he had 
li'LZn thought himself equal unto him ; 31 yet Jerome must thus be ex- 

pounded by my interpretation, that this equality betwixt Peter and 

Paid eonsisteth not in like office of dignity, but in pureness of con- 
vocation: 32 for who gave Paul his license to preach but Peter? 
and that by the authority of God, saying, " Separate to me Paul and 
Barnabas," &c. 

33 Wherefore, be it known to all men, that my church of Rome is 
prince and head of all nations; 34 the mother of the faith; "the 
foundation cardinal, whereupon all churches do depend, as the door 
doth depend by the hinges; 36 the first of all other seats, without all 
spot or blemish; 37 'lady mistress,' and instructer of all churches; 38 a 
glass and a spectacle unto all men, to be followed in all, whatsoever 
she observeth ; 39 who was never yet found to slide or decline from 
the path of apostolic tradition, or to be entangled with any newness 
of heresy; 40 against which church of Rome whosoever speaketh any 
evil, is forthwith a heretic, "yea, a very pagan, a witch, and an ido- 
later or infidel ; 42 having fulness of power only in her own hands in 
ruling; " deciding, absolving, condemning, casting out, or receiving 
in. 44 Albeit I deny not but other churches be partakers with her in 
labouring and carrying : 45 to which church of Rome it is lawful to 
appeal for remedy, from the churches. 

Although it was otherwise concluded in the general council of 
Millevitane, that no man should appeal over the sea under pain of 
excommunication, yet my gloss cometh in here with an exception : 
" Nisi forte Romanam sedem appellaverint, r ' i. e. " Except the appeal 
be to the see of Rome ;" &c. 46 by the authority of which church of 
Rome all synods and decrees of councils stand confirmed, 47 and who 
hath always full authority in hei hands to make new laws and decre- 
ments ; and to alter statutes, privileges, rights or documents of 
churches ; to separate things joined, and to join things separated, 
upon right consideration, either in whole or in part, either personally 
or generally. 48 Of which church of Rome I am head, as a king is 
over his judges ; 49 the vicar of St. Peter, 50 yea, not the vicar of 
Peter properly, but the vicar of Christ properly, and successor of 
Peter; "vicar of Jesus Christ, "rector of the universal church, 
director of the Lord's universal flock, 53 chief magistrate of the whole 
world; "Cephas, i.e. caput, the head and chief of the apostolic 
church ; "universal pope, and diocesan in all places exempt, as well 
as every bishop is in places not exempt; "most mighty priest; 
57 " lex animata in ten-is," i.e. 5S " a living law in the earth," judged to 

(31) Glossa Gratiani. lb. (32) Glossa in Diss. 11. c. 'Quis.' 

(33) Caus. 2. q. 7. c. ' Beati.' (34) Pope Nicolaus, (list. 22. e. ' Omnes.' 

(35) P. Anaclct, dist. 22. c. Sacrosancta. (36) P. Pelagius. (list. 21. c. ' Quamvis.' 

(37) P. Nicolaus. dist. 21. c. ' Oenique.' (38) P. Steph. (list. 29. c. ' Enimvero.' 

? I 'ope Lucius, (list. 24. q. 1. ' Arect.' (40) P. Nicolaus. (list. 22. c. ' Omnes.' 

Ill] I'. Grcgor. .list. 81. c. ' Si qui.' (42) P. Leo, caus. 3. q. 6. c. ' Multum.' 

I 20. Decretales, (44) Pope Julius, caus. 2. q. C. ' Oui se.' 

( I i) Causa. 2. q.G. Arguta. Item. c. ' Ad Romanam.' caus. 2. q. 6. c. ' Placuit.' Glossa. Gratiani. 
(40) Pope Gelasi. 25. q. 1. c. ' Coniidimus.' 
J) P. Urbanus, 25. q. 1. c. ' Sunt.' P. Pelagius, 25. q. 2. c. ' posteaquam.' 
H) Bulla Donations, dist. 96. c. ' Constant.' (49) P. Paschalis, dist. 63. c. ■ Ego.' 

1 lenient. V. Clement, c. • Romani Glossa.' (51) P. Bonif. VIII. Sext. Decret. c. ' Obi.' 
,82) lbi.ltfn. (53) p. Bonif prohem. Sext. Decrct. ab ' Sacrosancta.' 

'"" . (list. 22. c.' Sacrosancta.' 

lv ■ Sext Oecret, de panic et rcmis. c. 5. Glossa. Item Alexand. 4. Sext. decret. 

'• ;."' £"■* (5fl) P. Hilarius, 25. q. 1. • Nulii.' 

(57) Sext Decret cap. ■ Ab ArCitris." Glossa. 

(58) I . lionif. Sext. decrct. de const, c. ' Licet.' 



X 



ABOVE ALL THAT IS CALLED GOD. 



149 



have all laws in the chest of my breast ; 69 bcaring the room of no BecieHa*- 
pure man ; 60 being neither God nor man, but the admiration of the mXry. 
world, and a middle thing betwixt both; G1 having both swords in "~ 
my power, both of the spiritual and temporal jurisdiction ; (V2 so far 
surmounting the authority of the emperor, that I, of mine own power 
alone, without a council, have authority to depose him, or to transfer 
his kingdom, and to give a new election, as I did to Frederic and 
divers others. G3 What power then or potestatc in all the world is 
comparable to me, who have authority to bind and loose both in 
heaven and earth ? 64 that is, who have power both of heavenly things, 
and also of temporal things ; 65 to whom emperors and kings be more 
inferior, than lead is inferior to gold. 66 For do you not see the 
necks of great kings and princes bend under our knees, yea and 
think themselves happy and well defenced, if they may kiss our 
hands ? 67 Wherefore the saucincss of Honorius the emperor is to 
be reprehended, and his constitution abolished, who, with his laity, 
would take upon him to intermeddle, not only with the temporal 
order, but also with matters ecclesiastical, and election of the pope. 

68 But here percase some will object the examples and words of 
Christ, saying, "That his kingdom is not of this world;" and where 
he, being required to divide betwixt two brethren their heritage, did 
refuse it. But that ought to be no prejudice to my power; cy for 
if Peter, and I in Peter — if we, I say, have power to bind and loose 
in heaven, how much more then is it to be thought, that we have 
power on earth to loose and to take away empires, kingdoms, duke- 
doms, and what else soever mortal men may have, and to give them 
where we will ? 70 And if we have authority over angels, who be the 
governors of princes, what then may we not do upon their inferiors 
and servants ? 71 And, for that you shall not marvel that I say angels 
be subject to us, you shall hear what my blessed clerk Antoninus 
writeth of the matter, saying, That our power, of Peter and me, is 
greater than the angels in four things : first, in jurisdiction ; secondly, 
in administration of sacraments ; thirdly, in knowledge ; fourthly, 
in reward, &c. 72 And again, in ' Bulla Clementis, 1 do I not there 
command, in my bull, the angels of paradise, to absolve the soul of 
man out of purgatory, and to bring it into the glory of paradise ? 

73 And now, besides my heavenly power, to speak of mine earthly 
jurisdiction : Who did first translate the empire from the Greeks to 
the Almains, but I ? 74 And not only in the empire am I emperor, 
the place being empty, but in all ecclesiastical benefices have lull 
right and power to give, to translate, and to dispose after my arbitre- 
ment. 73 Did not I, Zacharias, put down Childeric the old king of 
France, and set up Pepin? 76 Did not I, Gregory VII., set up 

(69) Pope Innocentius III. de trans, c. ' Quanto.' 

(60) Prohem. Clement. Gloss. Papa Stupor mundi, &c. ' Nee Deus es, nee homo, quasi neuter cs 
inter utrumciue.' , 

(61) P. Bonif. Extravag. de Majorit, ct obed. c. ' Unam.' Item, dist. 22. c. ' Omnes. 

(62) Sext. Deer, de sentent. et re. ra. 'Ad apostoli.' Item in (iloss. Ibid. 

(63) Pope Nicolaus, dist. 22. c. ' Omnes.' (64) (iloss. Ibid. 

(65) Pope GelaMiis, dist. 9G. c. ' Duo.' (66) Pope Gela«iua Ibidem. 

(67) Dist. 96. c. ' lllud. ' (68) Ex citatione Micro. Mam. 

(69) Pope Hildebraudus. alias Gregorius VII. Ex Platina, in vita Gregorii. 

(70) llildvbrandus. Ibidem. (71) Antoninus, in tertia parte Suinm.x- majonv 
(72) Bulla Clementis. (78) Pope Innocent deelectione, c. ' Benerabilem.' 

(74) Extrav. de praebend. ct dig. c. ' Execrabilis.' 

(75) Pope Zacharias, Caus 15. q.6. c. ' Alius.' 

(76) Pope Hildebiand. alia;. Gregor. VII. Clement, C. ' l\i>ioralis. 



150 THE IMAGE OF ANTICHRIST, EXALTING HIMSELF 

Ecctcsms- Robert Wysard, and make him king of Sicily and duke of Capua ? 
HiZry. &c. "Did not I, the same Gregory, also set up Rodulphus against 

Henry IV., emperor ? 78 And though this Henry was an emperor of 

most stout courage, who stood sixty-two times in open field against 
his enemies, 79 yet did not I, Gregory, bring him ' coram nobis,'' and 
make him stand at my gate three days and three nights, bare-foot and 
bare-leg, with his wife and child, in the deep of winter, both in frost 
and snow, entreating for his absolution ; and afterwards did excom- 
municate him again, so that he was twice excommunicated in my 
days ? 

80 Again, did not I, Paschal, afterwards Gregory, set up the son of 
the said Henry against his father in war, to possess the empire, and 
to put down his father ? and so he did ! 81 Item, Did not I, pope 
Alexander, bring under Henry II., king of England, for the death 
of Thomas Becket, and cause him to go barefoot to his tomb at 
Canterbury with bleeding feet ? 82 Did not I, Innocent III., cause 
king John to kneel down at the feet of Pandulph my legate, and 
offer up his crown to his hands ; also to kiss the feet of Stephen 
Langton bishop of Canterbury, and besides amerced him in a thou- 
sand marks by year ? 83 Did not I, Urban II., put down earl Hugo 
in Italy, discharging his subjects from their oath and obedience to 
him ? 84 Did not I, Paschal, excommunicate also his son Henry V., 
and get out of his hands all his right and title of elections and dona- 
tions of spiritual promotions ? Did not I, Gelasius II., bring the 
captain Cintius under, unto the kissing of my feet ? and after 
Gelasius, did not I, Calixtus II., quail the aforesaid emperor 
Henry V., and also bring in subjection Gregory, whom the said 
emperor had set up against me to be pope, bringing him into Rome 
upon a camel, his face to the horse's tail, making him to hold the 
horse's tail in his hand, instead of a bridle? 83 Further, did not I, 
Innocent II., set up and make Lothaire to be emperor for driving 
pope Anacletus out of Rome ? 86 Did not I, the said Innocent, take 
the dukedom of Sicily from the empire, and make Roger to be king 
thereof, whereby afterwards the kingdom became the patrimony of 
St. Peter? 87 Did not I, Alexander III., suspend all the realm and 
churches of England for the king's marriage, a. d. 1159 ? 

88 But what do I speak of kings ? Did not I, the said Alexander, 
bring the valiant emperor Frederic I. to Venice, by reason of his 
son Otho there taken prisoner, and there, in St. Mark's church, make 
him fall down flat upon the ground, while I set my foot upon his 
neck, saying the verse of the Psalm, " Super aspidem et basiliscum 
ambulabifi ?" &c. 89 Did not I, Adrian pope, an Englishman born, 
excommunicate William king of Sicily, and refuse his peace which 
he offered ? and had not he overcome me in plain field, I would have 
shaken him out of his kingdom of Sicily, and dukedom of Apulia ! 
Also did not I, the said Adrian, control and correct the aforesaid 

BUldebrandl. (78) Baptista Egnatius. 

« ,,!""''• "'""" N:ll 'derus. (80) l'latina, Egnatius, Benno. 

[81 1 ...ydc.re Virgil, llistoria Jornalensis de rebus Anglorum, 

" ' vcrnacula. (83) Pope Urbanus, Caus. 15. q. fi. c. ' Juratos.' 

,,' M ' '"I"' '■•'■■• I'.ilis I'msulanus. Platina. Vincentius, Stella, Antoninus, Mattheus Parisiensis, 
T' . 'v ", ls ; Popa CaM3ttu * "• Plat, de vitis pnntificum. ',85) Pope Innocentius II. 

(87) Pope Alexander III. de spousal, et matr. c. ' Non est.' 
-i Vm,h, ,, ; . .„!,, Horn, pontifieum. (80) Pope Adrian, vit. Horn, pontincum. 



ABOVE ALL THAT IS CALLED GOD, 151 

Frederic, emperor, for holding the left stirrup of my horse, when lie Eccinsias- 
should have holden the right ? 9I And afterwards, did not I excom- mulry. 
municate and curse him, for that he was so saucy to set his own 
name in writing before mine? 92 and, although a poor fly afterwards 
overcame and strangled me, yet I made kings and emperors to 
stoop ! 93 Did not I, Innocent III., deject Philip, brother to Fre- 
deric, from the imperial crown, being elected without my leave, and 
after set him up again ? and also set up Otho of Brunswick, and 
after did excommunicate and also depose the same four years, 
setting up the French king to war against him ? 94 Then was 
Frederic II. set up by me, and reigned thirty-seven years ; and yet, 
five years before he died, 95 did not I, Honorius, interdict him, for 
not restoring certain to their possessions at my request ? 96 whom 
also Gregory IX. did excommunicate twice together, and raised up 
the Venetians against him ; 97 and at length Innocent spoiled him of 
his empire : after that he caused him to be poisoned, at length to be 
strangled by one Manfred, and did excommunicate his son Conrad 
after him, not only depriving him of his right inheritance, but also 
causing him, with Frederic duke of Austria, to be beheaded ! 98 Thus 
then did I not excommunicate and depose all these emperors in order ? 
Henry IV., Henry V., Frederic I., Philip, Otho IV., Frederic II., 
and Conrad his son ? "Did not I interdict king Henry VIII., 
100 and all his kingdom of England? l01 and had not his prudence and 
power prevented my practice, I had displaced him from his kingdom 
also ! 

Briefly, who is able to comprehend the greatness of my power and 
of my seat ? m for by me only, general councils take their force and 
confirmation ; l03 and the interpretation of the said councils, and of all 
other causes hard and doubtful, ought to be referred and stand to 
my determination. 104 By me the works of all writers, whatsoever 
they be, be either reproved or allowed: 105 then how much more 
ought my writings and decrees to be preferred before all others, 
106 insomuch that my letters and epistles decretal be equivalent with 
general councils. lo7 And whereas God hath ordained all causes of 
men to be judged by men, he hath only reserved me, that is, the 
pope of Rome, without all question of men, unto his own judg- 
ment. 108 And therefore, where all other creatures be under their 
judge, only I, who in earth am the judge of all, can bejudgedbynone, 
neither of emperor, nor of the whole clergy, nor of kings, nor of 
the people : 109 for who hath power to judge upon his judge ? I10 This 
judge am I, and that alone, without any other resistance of any 
council joined to me. For I have power upon councils : councils 
have no power upon me. But if the council determine amiss, it is 
in my authority alone to infringe it, or to condemn whom I lust, 
without any council ; U1 and all for the pre-eminence of my predc- 

(91) Bulla Adriani contra Ca:sarem. (92) Acta Ro. pont. 

(93) Pope Innocentius III. Ex vitiset Actis Rom. pontificum. Kx Ab. Ursperg. 

(9-t) Ex eodem. (9.5) Pope Honor. III. Ex Mario. (»G) Pope Greg. IX. Ex eodem. 

(97) Pope Innocent IV. Hieronymus Marius. Petrus de Vincis. 38) Ex Chronic. Carionis. 

(99) Hist. Anglorum. (100) Ibidem. (101) Ibidem. 

(102) Pope Marcellus, dist. 17. c. ' Synodum.' (103) Dist. 20. Decrctales. 

(104) Pope Nlcolaus, (list. 19. 'Si Romanorum." (105) Ibidem. 

(100) Dist. 20. Decietales. (107) Symmachus Pope, it. q 8. ' Aliorum.' 
(108) Pope Innocentius VI. q. 3. c. ' Nemo.' (109) Ibidem. 

(110) Pope Gelasius IX. q. 3. c. ' Cuncta. (HI) Ibid. 



152 THE IMAGE OF ANTICHRIST, EXALTING HIMSELF 

Ecdesiai- ccssor blessed St. Peter, which, by the voice of the Lord he received, 

nutlry. and ever shall retain. 

m Furthermore, and whereas all other sentences and judgments, both 

of councils, person, or persons, may and ought to be examined, 113 for 
that they may be corrupted four ways, by fear, by gifts, by hatred, 
by favour; only my sentence and judgment must stand, n, *as given 
out of heaven by the mouth of Peter himself, which no man must 
115 break, nor retract; 116 no man must dispute or doubt of. m Yea, if 
my judgment, statute, or yoke, seem scarcely tolerable, yet for re- 
membrance of St. Peter, it must be humbly obeyed. m Yea, and 
moreover, obedience is to be given, not only to such decrees set forth 
by me in time of my popedom, but also to such as I do foresee and 
commit to writing before I be pope. 119 And although it be thought 
by some writers, to be given to all men to err, and to be deceived, 
120 yet neither am I a pure man. 121 And again, the sentence of my 
apostolic seat is always conceived with such moderation, is concocted 
and digested with such patience and ripeness, and delivered out with 
such gravity of deliberation, that nothing is thought in it necessary 
to be altered or retracted. 122 Wherefore it is manifest, and testified 
by the voice of holy bishops, that the dignity of this my seat is to be 
reverenced through the whole world, in that all the faithful submit 
themselves to it, as to the head of the whole body, ,23 whereof it is 
spoken to me by the prophet, speaking of the ark : " If this be 
humbled, whither shall vou run for succour, and where shall your 
glory become ?" 

Seeing then this is so, that holy bishops and scriptures do so wit- 
ness with me, what shall we say then to such as will take upon them to 
judge of my doings, to reprehend my proceedings, or to require homage 
and tribute of me, to whom all others are subject ? 124 Against 
the first sort, the Scripture speaketh in Deuteronomy, " Thou 
oughtest not to put thy scythe into another man's corn C which thing 
to attempt against me, what is it but plain sacrilege 125 according to 
my canonists ? who thus define sacrilege to consist in three things : 
either when a man judgeth of his prince's judgment ; or when the 
holy-day is profaned ; or when reverence is not given to laws and 
canons. 

126 Against the second sort maketh the place of the book of Kings, 
where we read the ark of God was brought from Gaba to Jerusalem ; 
and, in the way, the ark inclining by reason of the unruly oxen, Ozias 
the Levite put to his hand to help, and therefore was stricken of the 
Lord. By this ark is signified the prelates; by the inclination 
thereof, the fall of prelates; 127 who also be signified by the angels 
that Jacob did see going up and coming down the ladder ; 128 also by 
tlie prophet, where he saith, " He bowed down the heavens and came 
down, 1-1 &c. By Ozias, and by the unruly oxen are meant our sub- 
lccts. l29 Then, like as Ozias was stricken for putting his hand to 

(112) Anastasius Patriarch. D. q. 3. c. ' Antiquis.' (113) Pope Greg. a. q. 3. c. ' Quatuor.' 

"*) Pope Agatho Dist. 19. c. ' Sic omncs.' (115) Pope Nicholas, 0. q. 3. ' Patet.' 

(118) Pope Innocenl II. Art. 17. q. I. 'Siquis.' (117) Dist. 19. c. ' In memoriam.' 

(118) Bext. Decret. Tit, 7. Detenunciat. Quoniatn Glossa, (119) Oilic. lib. 1. 

ISO oiotia Extra. lie veil), sifiuif. c. 'A<1.' (121) Pope Greg. Cans. 35. q. 9. ' Apostolica-.' 

It S\ !„,„• Sym,u;,<l,us. Cans. 9. q. 3. ' Aliorum.* (123) Ibid. 

(184) FopeGreg VI. ,, 8, • Seriptum est.' (125) Caus. 17. q.4. Kamleg. Glossa. 

fl -'• <l 7. C. Plierumqua GlnsM-ina Gratiani. Item. (127) Ibid (123) Ibid. 

(IJH) Ibid. 



AUOVE ALL THAT IS CALLED GOD. 155 

the ark inclining, no more must subjects rebuke their prelates going F.ccusiai- 
awry : l30 albeit, here may be answered again, that all be not prelates msttry. 
who so be called ; for it is not the name that maketh a bishop, but 
his life. 

131 Against the third sort, of such as would bring us under the tri- 
bute and exactions of secular men, maketh the New Testament, where 
Peter was bid to give the groat in the fish's mouth, but not the head 
nor the body of the fish. No more is the head or body of the 
church subdued to kings, but only that which is in the mouth ; that 
is, the extern things of the church. And yet not they neither; 
,32 for so we read in the book of Genesis, that Pharaoh, in time of 
dearth, subdued all the land of the Egyptians ; but yet he ministered 
to the priests, so that he neither took their possessions from them, 
nor their liberty. 

If then the prelates of the church must be neither judged, nor re- 
prehended, nor exacted, how much more ought I to be free from the 
same, 133 who am the bishop of bishops, and head of prelates ? 134 For 
it is not to be thought that the case betwixt me and other prelates ; 
betwixt my see and other churches, be like ; 135 although the whole 
catholic and apostolic church make one bride-chamber of Christ, yet 
the catholic and apostolic church of Rome had the pre-eminence given 
over all others by the mouth of the Lord himself, saying to Peter, 
" Thou art Peter," &c. 

136 Thus a discretion and difference must be had in the church as it 
was betwixt Aaron and his children ; 137 betwixt the seventy-two dis- 
ciples, and the twelve apostles ; betwixt the other apostles and 
Peter. ,38 Wherefore it is to be concluded, that there must be an 
order and difference of degrees in the church betwixt power superior 
and inferior ; without which order the university of the whole cannot 
consist. 139 For as amongst the angelical creatures above in heaven 
there is set a difference and inequality of powers and orders, some be 
angels, some archangels, some cherubim and seraphim: 140 so in the 
ecclesiastical hierarchy of the church militant on the earth, priests must 
not be equal with bishops, bishops must not be like in order with arch- 
bishops, or with patriarchs or primates, 141 who contain under them three 
archbishops, as a king contain eth three dukes under him ; in which 
number of patriarchs cometh also in, the state of 142 cardinals or princi- 
pals, so called, because as the door turneth by his hinges, so the univer- 
sal church ought to be ruled by them. 143 The next and highest order 
above these is mine, who am pope, differing in power and majority, 
and honour reverential, from these and all other degrees of men : 
144 for the better declaration whereof, my canonists make three kinds 
of power in earth ; ' immediate, 1 which is mine immediately from 
God ; ' derivata,' which bclongeth to other inferior prelates from me ; 
145 ' ministralis, 1 belonging to emperors and princes to minister for me, 
For which cause the anointing of princes, and my consecration, do 
differ ; for they are anointed only in the arms or shoulders, and I in 

(130) Ibid. Hisita. (131) Pope Urbanus 23. q. 'Tributum.' 

(132) Ibidem. ' Quamvis.' (133) Pope lienedict. Extr. Oc ant. et nsu. pallii. c. 'Sancta.' 

(134) Pope Stephanus. dist. 19. ' Enim vero.' (135) Pope PelaglM (list. 21. ' Quamvis.' 

(136) Dist. 21. Decretia. (137) Pope Anaclet. dist. 22. ' In novo.' 

(138) Pope Bonifacius et Grep. Dist. 89. ' Ad hoc' (189) [bid. (HO) (list. 89. c. 'Singula.' 
(141) Ex citatione Flu: oecre. 5. ser. 3. ( 1 1-') De officio Arcliipvxsbyt. in Glossa. 

(M3) 143 •*• (144) Ex 3. parte Sunima? majoris b. Antonini. 

(145) Pope Innocent III. De sacra unctione, 'Qui veniiut.' 



154 THE IMAGE OF ANTICHRIST, EXALTING HIMSELF 

Bcdesias- the head, to signify the difference of power betwixt princes and 

tical 

Hutnry. me. 

,4(i This order, therefore, of priests, bishops, archbishops, patriarchs, 

and others, as a thing most convenient, my church of Rome hath set 
and instituted through all churches, following therein, not only the 
example of the angelical army in heaven, but also of the apostles : 
117 for amongst them, also, there was not a uniform equality or insti- 
tution of one degree, 148 but a diversity or distinction of authority and 
power. Albeit they were all apostles together, yet it was granted 
notwithstanding to Peter (themselves also agreeing to the same), that 
he should bear dominion and superiority over all the other apostles ; 
149 and therefore he had his name given him Cephas, that is, head or 
beginning of the apostlehood. 15 ' Whereupon the order of the priest- 
hood first in the New Testament began in Peter, to whom it was said, 
" Thou art Peter, and upon thee I will build my church ; 151 and I will 
give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven ; and thou being converted 
confirm thy brethren. 152 I have prayed for thee that thy faith shall not 
fail." Wherefore seeing such power is given to Peter, 153 and to me in 
Peter, being his successor, 134 who is he then in all the world that ought 
not to be subject to my decrees, which have such power in heaven, 
in hell, in earth, with the quick and also the dead ? 155 commanding 
and granting in my bull of lead, sent to Vienna, unto all such as died 
in their peregrination to Rome, that the pain of hell should not touch 
them : and also, that all such as took the holy cross upon them, should 
every one at his request, not only be delivered himself, but also de- 
liver three or four souls, whomsoever he would, out of purgatory. 

156 Again, having such promise and assurance that my faith shall not 
fail, who then will not believe my doctrine ? for did not Christ him- 
self first pray for Peter, that his faith should not fail? 157 Also have 
I not a sure promise of Paul's own mouth, writing to my church 
scripture in these words : "God is my witness, whom I serve in my spirit, in the 
lUieii'and gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always 
cierk! in my prayers ?" [Rom. i.] 158 Wherefore, as I condemn all such 
worthily, who will not obey my decrees, to be dispossessed of all their 
honour without restitution ; ,59 so all they that believe not my doc- 
trine, or who stand against the privilege of the church, especially the 
church of Rome, I pronounce them heretics ; 160 and as the other 
before is to be called unjust, so this man is to be called a heretic. 
161 For why? hegoeth against the faith, who goeth against her who is 
the mother of faith. 

102 But here may arise, percase, a doubt or scruple, that if my faith 
and knowledge stand so sure by the promise of Christ, and by the 
continual prayer of St. Paul ; whether is it true, or is it to be granted, 
that any other should excel me in knowledge, or interpretation of 
holy Scripture ? 163 for look, whose knowledge is grounded on most 

fl«) P. Nicholas, Dist. 22. c. ' Onirics.' (147) P. Clement, Dist. 80. c. ' In illis.' 

(I4H) 1'. Anacletus Dist. 22. c. ' Sacrosancta.' 

(M9| Ibidem. Uuasi vero Petrus non a Petra, Bed Kt'^ar aVo t^ HtQuw ducatur 

[1801 DUt. 21. c. 'In novo.' (151) Ibid. (152) Dist. 21. c. Decrctls. 

(.-..) ope 1-co dist. 19. c. ' Ita Dominus.' (154) P. Nicholaus in tantum, dist. 22. 

IIM1 ( lemeils, in Bulla Vienna: in scriniis privilegiorum. (15(1) Dist. 21. c. ' Decretis.' 

(157) Pope Anacletus, dist. 22. c. • Sacrosancta.' 

(158) Pope Damasus. 25. <i. c. •Omnia.' Item Pope Greg. Dist. 19. Null. 

( ..») I Nicola, 18 l>U. 22. e. 'Omncs.' (160) Ibid. (Hill ibid 

(161) Dim. SO. Deerttales. (I(i3) Ibid 



ABOVE ALL THAT IS CALLED GOD. 155 

reason, his words should seem to be of more authority. l64 Where- JtocietUu- 
unto I answer and grant, that many there be, and have been more uuu>ry. 
abundantly endued with fuller grace of the Holy Ghost and greater — 
excellency of knowledge ; and therefore that the tractations of 
Augustine, Jerome, and others, ought to be preferred before the con- 
stitutions of divers popes. Yet, I say, in determination of causes, 
because they have not the virtue and height of that authority which is 
given to me, therefore in expounding of Scriptures, they are to be 
preferred ; but in deciding of matters they stand inferior to my autho- 
rity : by virtue of which authority, ,66 both they themselves be allowed 
for doctors, and their works approved, and also all other matters be 
ruled, through the power of the keys, which is given to me imme- 
diately of Christ. 

Although I deny not but the same keys, be also committed to 
other prelates, as they were to other apostles besides Peter, 166 yet it 
is one thing to have the keys, another thing to have the use of the 
keys. 167 Wherefore here is to be noted a distinction of keys, after 
the mind of my school-doctors ; one key which is called ' Clavis or- 
dinis, 1 having authority to bind and loose, but not over the persons 
whom they bind and loose ; and this authority they take not imme- 
diately of Christ, but mediately by me the vicar of Christ. The other 
key is called ' Clavis jurisdictionis,"' which I the vicar of Christ take 
immediately of him, having not only authority to bind and loose, but 
also dominion over them on whom this key is exercised. By the 
jurisdiction of which key the fulness of my power is so great, that 
whereas all others are subjects, 168 yea and emperors themselves, ought 
to subdue their executions tome; only I am a subject to no creature, 
l69 no, not to myself, except I list ; ' in foro pcenitentiee,' to my ghostly 
father submitting myself as a sinner, but not as pope ; so that my 
papal majesty ever remaineth unminished ; superior to all men ; 
170 whom all persons ought to obey, 17, and follow, m whom no man 
must judge or accuse of any crime, either of murder, adidtery, simony, 
or such like ; 173 no man depose, but I myself. 174 No man can excom- 
municate me, yea though I communicate with the excommunicated, 
for no canon bindeth me : whom no man must lie to, 175 for he that 
lieth to me is a church robber, ,76 and who obeyeth not me, is a 
heretic, and an excommunicated person. 177 For, like as all the Jews 
were commanded to obey the high priest of the Levitical order, o. 
what state or condition soever they were, so are all christian men more 
and less bound to obey me, Christ's lieutenant on earth: concerning 
the obedience or disobedience of whom ye have in Deut. xvii. ; 
178 where the common gloss saith, that he who denieth to the high 
priest ' obedientiam, 1 lieth under the sentence of condemnation, as 
much as he that denieth to God his 'omnipotentiam.'' 

Thus then it appeareth, that the greatness of my priesthood 
179 began in Melchisedec, was solemnized in Aaron, continued in the 

(164) Dist. 20. Decretales. (165) Dist. 19. 'Si Romanorum.' 

(166) Gabriel Biel, lib. iv. Dist. 19. (167) Petrus de Palude. 

(168) Dist. 95. c. ' Imperator.' (169) Gabriel, lib. iv. Dist. 19. 
(170) P. Nicholaus Dist. 19 c. 'Si Romanorum in Glossa.' (171) Item 24. q. 1. Hacc est. 

(172) Dist. 40, c. 'Si Papa.' (173) 2. q. 7. ' Nos si * in Glossa. 

(174) Extravap;. de. elect. Innotuit. (175) De panitentia, dist. I. c. 'Serpens 'in Glossa. 

(176) Dist. 19. c. ' Nulli." (177) August, de Ancho. (178) Glossa 'Ordinaris.* 
(179) Antoninus. 



]56 THE IMAGE OF ANTICHRIST, EXALTING HIMSELF 

Ecderia,- children of Aaron, perfcctionated in Christ, represented in Peter, 
n'iZ'r exalted in the universal jurisdiction, and manifested in Silvester, &c. 

— So that through this pre-eminence of my priesthood, having all things 

subject to me, 180 it may seem well verified in me that was spoken of 

Christ [Psalm viii.], "Omnia subjecisti sub pedibus ejus, oves et boves, 

it universa pecora campi ; volucres cceli et pisces maris, 11 &c. i.e. 

" Thou hast subdued all things under his feet, sheep and oxen, and 

all cattle of the field, the birds of heaven, and fish of the sea, 11 &c. ; 

181 where it is to be noted, that by oxen, Jews and heretics ; by cattle 

of the field, Pagans be signified. For although as yet they be out 

of the use of my keys of binding and loosing, yet they be not out 

of the jurisdiction of my keys, but if they return, I may absolve 

them. ,82 By sheep and all cattle, are meant all christian men both 

great and less, whether they be emperors, princes, prelates, or others. 

Iiy birds of the air you may understand the angels and potestates of 

heaven, who be all subject to me, in that I am greater than the 

angels ; and that in four things, as is afore declared ; and have power 

to bind and loose in heaven, ,83 and to give heaven to them that fight 

in my wars. 184 Lastly, by the fishes of the sea, are signified the 

souls departed in pain or in purgatory, as Gregory, by his prayer, 

delivered the soul of Trajan out of hell, and I have power to deliver 

out of purgatory whom I please. 185 Lastly, by the fishes of the sea, 

arc signified such as be in purgatory, insomuch that they stand in 

need and necessity of other men's help, and yet be in their journey 

Antoni- ' viatores, et de foro pape, 1 that is, passengers and belonging to the 

August, court of the pope : therefore they may be relieved out of the store- 

( '!,'; o A £- h house of the church, by the participation of indulgence. And for- 

i>art4. asmuch as some do object that my pardons cannot extend to them 

that be departed, for that it was said to Peter, " Whatsoever thou 

shalt loose upon earth ;" and therefore seeing they are not upon earth, 

they cannot be loosed of me : here I answer again by my doctors, that 

this word ' super terrain, 1 &c. i.e. 'upon the earth, 1 may be referred 

two manner of ways ; first to him that is the looser, so that he who 

shall loose, shall be upon the earth ; and so I grant that the pope 

being dead, can loose no man. Also it may be referred to him that 

is loosed, so that whosoever is loosed, must be upon the earth, or 

about the earth ; and so the souls in purgatory may be loosed, which 

albeit they are not upon the earth, yet they are about the earth : at 

least they be not in heaven. 

August. And because ofttimes one question may rise upon another, and 

, : , the heads of men now-a-days are curious, a man hearing now that I 

*"JjJ|j can deliver out of purgatory, will ask here a question, whether I be able 

totum also to empty all purgatory at once, or not ? To whom my canonist 

riumex- Augustine doth answer by a triple distinction: " Quantum ad abso- 

Abtoiuta hitam mcam jurisdictionem, quantum ad ordinatam executioncm, 

ilo^Doc M ua,num :i( l divinam acceptationem. 11 First, touching my absolute 

ton agree jurisdiction, he saith, I am able to rid out all purgatory together, 

i"r'" rM for as many as be under my jurisdiction, as all be, except only 

dr'Ai?'' ' n ^ :uits unbaptized 'in limbo, 1 and men departed only, 'cum bap- 

tisino Baminis, 1 that is, with the baptism of the Spirit/ and such as 



loiiinus. 



tOHlnUl, Summ.T majoris 8. part, Pist. 22. .(1S1) Ibid. 

1182) ibid. (188) 88 q. c. ' Omnium.' (184) Idem Antoninus in Ibid. (185) Ibid. 



ABOVE ALL THAT IS CALLED GOD. 157 

have no friends to do for them that, whcrc-for pardons be given, these Eccienut- 
only excepted. For all others besides, the pope (he saith) hath power a&toy. 

to release all purgatory at once, as touching his absolute jurisdiction : 

albeit Thomas Aquinas (part iv.) denieth the same, forasmuch as 
Christ himself (he saith) when he came down, did not utterly at 
once release all purgatory. As touching my ordinary execution they ordinata 
hold, that I may if I will, but I ought not to do it. Thirdly, as gggS" 
concerning the divine acceptation, that is, How God would accept it a . ccc P ta - 
if I did it, that (they say) is unknown unto them, and to every 
creature, yea, and to the pope himself. 

And to the intent I would all men to see and understand that I 
lack not more witnesses besides these, if I list to bring them out, 
you shall hear the whole choir of my divine clergy brought out, 
with a full voice testifying in my behalf, in their books, tractations, 
distinctions, titles, glosses, and summaries, as by then - own words 
here followeth. aa The pope (say they), being the vicar of Jesu 
Christ through the whole world, instead of the living God, hath 
that dominion and lordship which Christ here in earth would not 
have, although he had it ' in habitu, 1 but gave it to Peter ' in actu ;' 
that is, the universal jurisdiction both of spiritual things, and also of 
temporal : which double jurisdiction was signified by the two swords 
in the gospel, and also by the offering of the wise men, who offered 
not only incense, but also gold; to signify not only the spiritual 
dominion, but also the temporal, to belong to Christ and to his vicar. 
For, as we read, "The earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof; 1 '' and 
as Christ saith, "All power is given to him both in heaven and earth: 1 ' 
so it is to be affirmed inclusive, that the vicar of Christ hath power on 
things celestial, terrestrial, and infernal ; which he took immediately 
of Christ : all others take it immediately by Peter and the pope. 
Wherefore such as say that the pope hath dominion only of spiritual 
things in the world, and not of temporal, may be likened to the coun- 
sellors of the king of Syria [1 Kings xx.], who said, " The gods of the 
mountains be their gods, and therefore they have overcome us ; but 
let us fight against them in the low meadows, and in valleys where 
they have no power, and so we shall prevail over them. 1 '' So evil 
counsellors now-a-days, through their pestiferous flattery, deceive 
kings and princes of the earth, saying : " Popes and prelates be 

(aa) An Alphabetical List of the Authorities here alluded to. 

Antonin. in Summulis. Caspar. Ockam in dialogo, parte 1 lib. v. 

Augustinus de Ancho in Deere, (iratianus in Decretis. Oytanus. 
Astesanus Midorita Gerson, doctor illuminatissimus 

ecclesiastica postestate. Petrus de Palude. 

Baptista de Salvin. sua. Petrus de Tharam. 

Baptistiniana. Hugo Cardinalis in postilla. Petrus de Aliaco. 

Bonaventura. Hostiensis. Panormitanus Alexander de 

Holkot. Alex. 
Campensis, lib. controversiarum. Hosius. 

Coelstu. Raymundus in summa de ess 

Johannes Andrea. sibus. 

Durandus in speculo. Innocentius. Richardus. 

Dreido. de eccle. Scripturis et Johan. de Turre Cremata de Babanus, sup. Mat. cau. xvi. 

dogmat. ecclesia summa. Uupertus Tuitiensis. 

Edwardus Pevcllus,Anglus, con- I.anfrancus contra Wiclif. Scotua doctor subtilis. 

tra Luthe. Lilius Historicum Anglus. 

Erhius in Enchir. Lapus. Thomas Aquin. 

Laurentius. 
Franciscus. Ulricus. 

Fnlgo. Magister sententiarum. 

Waldenus, ronfessionate, et de 
Gabriel. Biel. Spica. Nicolaus. Sacramentis. 



158 THE IMAGE OF ANTICHRIST, EXALTING HIMSELF 

EccUsias. gods of mountains, that is, of spiritual things only, but they be not 
Hutl'r a ods of valleys ; that is, they have no dominion over temporal 

things, and therefore let us fight with them in the valleys, that is, 

in the power of the temporal possessions, and so we shall prevail over 
them." But let us hear what saith the sentence of God to them. 
" Because," saith he, " the Syrians say that the god of mountains 
is their god, and not the god of valleys, therefore I will give all this 
multitude into your hand, and ye shall know that I am the Lord." 
What can be more effectually spoken to set forth the majesty of 
my jurisdiction, which I received immediately of the Lord ? of the 
Lord, I say, and of no man. For, whereas Constantine the emperor 
gave to Silvester, enduing him with this possession and patrimony ; 
that is so to be expounded and taken not so much for a donation, 
as to be counted for a restitution made of that which tyrannously 
was taken from him before. 

And again : whereas I have given at sundry times to Ludovicus and 
other emperors, of my temporal lands and possessions, yet that was 
done not so much for any recognising of homage to them, as for keep- 
ing peace with them : for I owe to emperors no due obedience that 
they can claim ; but they owe to me, as to their superior ; and, there- 
fore, for a diversity betwixt their degree and mine, in their consecra- 
tion they take the unction on their arm, I on the head. And as I am 
superior to them, so am I superior to all laws, and free from all con- 
stitutions ; who am able of myself, and by my interpretation, to pre- 
fer equity not being written, before the law written ; having all laws 
within the chest of my breast, as is aforesaid. And whatsoever this my 
sec shall enact, approve, or disprove, all men ought to approve or re- 
prove the same, without either judging, disputing, doubting, orretracting. 
Such is the privilege given of Christ, in the behalf of Peter, to the 
church of Rome, l86 that what country soever, kingdom, or province, 
choosing to themselves bishops and ministers, although they agree 
with all other Christ's faithful people in the name of Jesu, that is, in 
faith and charity, believing in the same God, and in Christ, his true 
Son, and in the Holy Ghost ; having also the same creed, the same 
evangelists and scriptures of the apostles : yet, notwithstanding, 
unless their bishops and ministers take their origin and ordination 
from this apostolic seat, they are to be counted not of the church ; so 
that succession of faith only, is not sufficient to make a church, except 
the ministers take their ordination by them who have their succession 
from the apostles. So their faith, supremacy, the chair of Peter, 
keys of heaven, power to bind and loose, all these be inseparable to 
the church of Rome : so that it is to be presumed, that God always 
providing, and St. Peter helping the bishopric and diocese of Rome, 
it shall never fall from the faith. 

And likewise it is to be presumed and presupposed that the bishop 
of that church is always good and holy. Yea, and though he be not 
always good, or be destitute of his own merits, yet the merits of St. 
Peter, predecessor of that place, be sufficient for him, who hath 
bequeathed and left a perpetual dowry of merits, with inheritance of 
innocency, to his posterity. 187 Yea, though he fall into homicide or 

(186) Johan. Driedo. De dogmatibus variis, 1. 4. 

(187) IIuko, in glossa dist. 40. c. • Non Not/ 



ABOVE ALL THAT IS CALLED GOD. 159 

adultery, he may sin, but yet he cannot be accused, but rather ex- BecietUu- 
cuscd by the murders of Samson, the thefts of the Hebrews, the i/'Z',,,. 

adultery of Jacob. 188 And likewise, if any of his clergy should be 

found embracing a woman, it must be expounded and "presupposed 
that he doth it to bless her. 

Furthermore, the pope (say they) hath all the dignities, and all 
power of all patriarchs. In his primacy, he is Abel ; in government, 
the ark of Noah ; in patriarchdom, Abraham ; in order, Melchisedec ; 
in dignity, Aaron ; in authority, Moses ; in scat judicial, Samuel ; in Kay, thou 
zeal, Elias; in meekness, David; in power, Peter; in unction, ^daYf 
Christ. My power (they say) is greater than all the saints ; for whom 
I confirm, no man may infirm : I may favour and spare whom I 
please, ,89 to take from one and to give to another. And if I be 
enemy to any man, all men ought to eschew that person forthwith, 
and not tarry and look while I bid them so to do. 

All the earth is my diocese ; and I the ordinary of all men, 
having the authority of the King of all kings upon subjects. I am 
all in all, and above all, ,90 so that God himself, and I the vicar of God, 
have both one consistory, ,91 and I am able to do almost all that God 
can do, ' clave non errante V 192 Item, It is said of me that I have 
a heavenly arbitrement, and therefore am able to change the nature 
of things, ' substantialia unius applicando alteri,' and of nothing to 
make things to be ; and of a sentence that is nothing, to make it 
stand in effect ; in all things that I list, my will to stand for reason : 
for I am able by the law to dispense above the law, and of wrong to 
make justice, in correcting laws and changing them. 

You have heard hitherto sufficiently out of my doctors. Now 
you shall hear greater things out of mine own decrees. 193 Read there 
dist. 96. 'Satis. 1 194 Also 12. Caus. 11. q. Leap. ' Sacerdotibus/ 
195 Also 12. q. 1. cap. ' Futuram."' Do you not find there expressed, 
how Constantine the emperor, sitting in the general council at Nice, 
called us prelates of the church, all gods ? 196 Again, read my canon 
decretal, De transl. episc. cap. ' Quanto.' Do you not see there 
manifestly expressed, how not man, but God alone separateth that 
which the bishop of Rome doth dissolve and separate ? Wherefore, 
if those things that I do, be said to be done not of man, but of God ; 
what can you make me but God . ?aa Again, if prelates of the church 
be called and counted of Constantine for gods, I then, being above all 
prelates, seem by this reason to be above all gods. Wherefore no 
marvel, if it be in my power to change time and times, to alter and 
abrogate laws, to dispense with all things, yea with the precepts of 
Christ : for, where Christ biddeth Peter put up his sword, and admo- 
nished his disciples not to use any outward force in revenging them- 
selves, ,97 do not I, Pope Nicholas, writing to the bishops of France, 
exhort them to draw out their material swords in pursuing their 
enemies, and recovering their possessions ; setting against the precept 

(188) Gloss, in caus. 11. q. 3. c. * Absis.' (189) Gloss, in c. 11. q. 3. 'Si inimicus.' 

(190) Hostiensis in c. ' Quanto de transl. praeb.' (191) Ex summa casuum fratris Baptista. 

(192) Ex Citatione Henr. Bulling, de fine Seculi. orat. prima. Item, ex Citatione Jacobi An- 
dreae, adversus Hossum, lib. v. Item, ex Citatione Jer. Marii in actis, 2 Divi. 

(193) Pope Nicolaus Dist. 96. c. Satis. (194) 11. q. '.1. 'Sacerdotibus.' 
(195) 12. q. 1. ' Futurum.' (196) Decretal, de Transl. Epist. c. ' Quanto.' 

(aa) Thus you may see it verified, that St. Paul prophesieth of the adversary sitting in the 
temple as God, and boasting himself above all that is named God, 4c. 2 Thess. ii. 
(197) Pope Nicolaus, Causa 15, q. 6. c. ' Autoritatem.' 



16() THE IMAGE OF ANTICHRIST, EXALTING HIMSELF 

Swarf*- of Christ, the prophet saying, " Dissolve colligationes impietatis li 

Heal K 
Hisioru. «C i-i-i • n 

Item, whereas Christ was present himself at the marriage in Oana 

of Galilee, 198 do not I, pope Martin, in my distinction, inhibit the 
spiritual clergy to be present at marriage-feasts, and also to marry 
themselves ? Item, where matrimony, by Christ, cannot be loosed but 
only for whoredom, 199 do not I, pope Gregory junior, writing to Bo- 
niface, permit the same to be broken for impotency or infirmity of 
body ? 200 Item, against the express caution of the gospel, do not I, 
Innocent IV., permit ' vim vi repellere?"' 201 Likewise, against the 
Old Testament, I do dispense in not giving tithes. 202 Item, against 
the New Testament in swearing, and that in these six causes, 203 Pax, 
fama, fides, reverentia, cautio damni, defectus veri, poscunt sibi magna 
caveri ; wherein two kinds of oaths are to be noted, whereof some be 
' promissoria, 1 some be ' assertoria," 1 &c. 304 Item, in vows, and that 
' ex toto voto, 1 whereas other prelates cannot dispense ' ex toto a 
voto,' I can deliver ' ex toto a voto,' like God himself. 205 Item, in 
perjury if I absolve, my absolution standeth : 206 where also note, that 
in all swearing, always the authority of the superior is excepted. 
207 Moreover, where Christ biddeth to lend without hope of gain, do not 
I, pope Martin, give dispensation for- the same ? and notwithstanding 
the council of Thuron enacted the contrary, yet with two bulls I 
disannulled that decreement ! 

2,8 What should I speak of murder, making it no murder nor homi- 
cide to slay them that be excommunicated ? 209 likewise against the 
law of nature ; 210 item, against the apostles : 2U also against the canons 
of the apostles, I can and do dispense ; for where they, in their canon, 
command a priest for fornication to be deposed, I, through the 
authority of Silvester, do alter the rigour of that constitution, 212 con- 
sidering the minds and bodies also of men now to be weaker than 
they were then. 

213 Briefly, against the universal state of the church I have dispen- 
sation, " scilicet quando status ecclesise non decoloratur ;" and for 
marriage in the second degree of consanguinity and infinity; "in col- 
lateralibus sequali linea;" that is, between the brethren's children, 
although not ' ineequali linea,'' so that the uncle may not marry his 
niece, unless for an urgent and weighty cause. As for all such 
contracts betwixt party and party, where matrimony is not yet 
consummated by carnal connexion, it is but a small matter for me 
to dispense withal. 

In summa : if ye list briefly to hear the whole number of all such 
cases as properly do appertain to my papal dispensation, which come 
to the number of one and fifty points, that no man may meddle 

(198) Pope Martin Dist. 14. c. ' Lector.' 

(199) Pope Greg. Junior, 3?. q. 7. c. 'Quod proposuisti.' 

(200) Pope Inno. IV. Sect. Decret. desententia excoin. c. ' Dilecto.' 

(201) Pope Alexander III., De decimis, c. ' Ex parte.' 

(202) Pope Nicolaus, 15. q. 6. ' Autoritatem.' 

De elect, et elect, potestate. Signifkasti in Glossa. 
■ '■ s.ilis, lii Summa ciMium ex Panornvitano 
(205) Pope I lino. IV. De elect. Venerabilem. 

(206] Ext De Jure-Jurando cap. Venientes. Item Dist. De Klect. Siguiftcasti in Glossa. 
(20i Pop Minimis V. Extra, c. ' Hegimini Universalis Ecclesise.' 
(208) Pope Urbanut 11. Cans. 28. q. 5. c. ' Excommunicatorum.' 

ipe Nicolaus, cnus. 15. q. G. ' Autoritatem.' ^.210) Ibid. 

(211) Di-i ,82 I Pnubyter. (212) Pope Pelagius, Dist. 31. c. ' Fraternitatis 

(213) Baptista de Salis, fol. • 



licul 
Hittory. 



ABOVE al:. THAT IS CALLED ecu. |(j I 

withal but only I myself alone, I will recite them first in Latin, then £«■/,„•«. 
in English, as they be set forth in my canonical doctors. 

Casus Papalcs LI. apud Fratrem Astcsanum, sive de Ast. Doctorcm 
soleiunem in suinma confessionis. Item apud llostienscm, de 
offic. legal, reperti ct his versibus comprehensi. 

Si sit catholicus, Papain non judicat ullus. 
Erigit et subdit cathedraa ; dividit, unit, 

i.e. votum terra: siuclce. i.e. degradatos. I.e. episcopos et alios. 
Mutat vota crucis. Restituit. Eximit. Ad se 
Majores causae rei'eruntur. Legitimatque, 

i.e. insujftcicntes. i.e. intrantes religionem. 

Promovet, appellare vetat, prohibet profiteri. 

i.e. defectum regi vacante regno 

Deponit, fcransfert, suppletque, renunciat illi 

Symonia, juramentum, excommunicato a Papa facta' 
Prassul, et exemptus. Simon, jurans, anathema, 

tarn Papa quam legati. 
Vel proprium, vel legati, vel lex utriusque. 

i.e. sulvitur Papa. 
Turn neque participans : etsi quern sponte salutat, 
Quern canon damnat, sibi soli quando reservat, 

qui irrcyularitatcm incur) it. 

Solvitur a Papa nee non quern regula damnat. 

scilicet, addas. 
Addas suspensum, causam, cum fertur ad ipsum. 

i.e. Addas. i.e. Piuralitalem beneficiorum. 

Rescriptum, fidei dubium : confert bona plura. 
Irritat infectum, legem condit generalem. 

i.e. Impcratorcm. 

Approbat imperium, finnat, deponit, et ungit. 

canonizat. 

Concilium generale facit. Sacrat quoque sanctos. 

de aliquo facit nihil, de nihilo aliquid. 

Ens non esse facit : non ens, fore. Pallia semper 
Portat. Concedit, legi non subjacet ulli. 
i.e. immediate. 
Appellatur ad hunc medio sine, judiciumque 

De monaclto non monachum facit. 
Est pro lege suum. Monachum rcvocat renuentem. 

i.e. incestum, fyc. 
Majus adulterio solvit generaliter; arctat 

i.e. impedimentum matrimoniale. 
Et laxat quiquid sponsis nocet. Ordinat extra 

i.e. extra 4. tempora. 
Tempore dando sacrum; promotum promovet idem. 
Ordinat atque die qua consecratur et ipse. 

i.e. sacerdolium confert nondum vacant. 
Viventisque locum concedit, jureque privat. 

Insignia Episcopalia concedit. i.e. decimis eximit. i.e. piabytero, 
concedit infantes ungcrc. 

Insignit. Laico sacra donat; chrisma ministro. 
Suinma sede sedet, plenusque vicarius extat. 
Si sit catholicus Papain non judicat ullus. 



vol v 



J (J2 THE IMAGE OF ANTICHRIST, EXALTING HIJISELF 

Eccu,ias- Cases Papal, to the number of one and fifty, wherein the Pope only 
mdor hath power to dispense, and none else besides, except by special 

license from him. 

First : the determination of doubts and questions belonging to faith. a 

Translation ofa bishop, elect or confirmed : likewise of abbots exempted. 1 * 

Deposition of bishops. c 

The taking of resignation of bishops. d 

Exemptions of bishops, not to be under archbishops.* 5 

Restitution of such as be deposed from their order. f 

The judicial definition, or interpretation of his own privileges^ 

Changing of bishoprics, or dimission of covents, &c. New correction of bishops' 

seats, or institution of new religions. 11 
Subjection or division of one bishopric under another. 1 
Dispensation for vowing to go to the Holy Land.* 
Dispensation for the vow of chastity, or of religion, or of holy orders. 1 
Dispensation against a lawful oath, or vow made.™ 
Dispensation against divers irregularities, as in crimes greater than adultery, 

and in such as be suspended for simony. n 
Dispensation in receiving into orders him that had two wives. 
Dispensing with such as, being within orders, do that which is above their order ; 

as if a deacon should say mass, being not yet priest.P 
To receive into orders such as be blemished or maimed in body.1 
Dispensation for murder, or for such as willingly cut off any member of man's 

body. 1 
Dispensation to give orders to such as have been under the sentence of the 

greater curse or excommunication. 8 
Dispensation for such as being suspended with the greater curse do minister in 

any holy order.* 
Dispensation for such as be unlawfully born to receive orders or benefices. 11 
Dispensation for pluralities of benefices. 31 

Dispensation to make a man bishop, before he be thirty years old.y 
Dispensation to give orders under age. z 

The pope only hath power to make and call a general council. 8 * 
The pope only hath power to deprive an ecclesiastical person, and give away 

his benefice being not vacant. bb 
The pope alone is able to absolve him that is excommunicated by name. 00 
The pope only is able to absolve him, whom his legate doth excommuni- 
cate.' 1 ' 1 
The pope both judgeth in the causes of them that appeal unto him, and where 

he judgeth, none may appeal from him. ee 
Only he hath authority to make deacon and priest, whom he made subdeacon, 

either upon Sundays, or upon other feasts. ff 
Only the pope, and none else, at all times, and in all places, weareth the 

pall.gg 
The pope only dispenseth with a man, either being not within orders, or being 

unworthy to be made bishop. nh 
He only either confirmeth or deposeth the emperor when he is chosen." 
A man being excommunicated, and his absolution referred to the pope, none 

may absolve that man but the pope alone.kk 
The same hath authority in any election, before it be made, to pronounce it 

none, when it is made. 11 

(a) 24. q. 1. 'Quoties.' (6) Extr. de transl. c. ' Inter.' 

(c) 8. q. fi. ' Quamvis.' (rf) 9. q. 3. ' Dewique.' (c) 16. q. 1. ' Frater." 

(/) 2. q. 6. ' Idco.' (g) Extr. de rest. ca. ' cum venis.' 7. q. 1. 'temporis.' 

(A) 1C. q. 1. '.Felix.' (t) 16. q. 1. « Et Christ.' (ft) Extr. de vota. Ex multa. 

(/) Kxtr. de statu Monaclii c. 'Cum ad.' (m) Extr. de juramento c. 'Venientes.' 
(n) Extr. dc judicio, c. ' At si clerici.' (o) Extr. de Bigamia, c. 'nuper.' 

(p) Kxtr. de clcrico non ord. ministrante. (</) Extr. de corpore vitiatis et di. 55. 
(r) l>ist. 50. ' Miror.' (s) Extr. de sententia et excom. c.'cum illorum.' 

Ifl Ibid. («) Kxtr. de filiis Presbyt. c. ' Is qui.' {x) Extr. dc Prebend, cap. 'de multa.' 
(&) Kxtr. de elect, c. 'Cum nobis.' (z) Extr. de aetate et qualit. generalem. 

('ml Dint. 16. per tot. (46) 9. q. 3. Per principale. {cc) De elect, c. ' Venerabilem.' 

(dil) Kxtr de officio lcgati, c. 'querenti.' (ec) 9. q. 3. Aliorum. 

(//) Extr. de Tempi] online, c. ' Cum indistrib.' (gg) Extr. de usu Pallii. c. *ad honore'"- 

(AA) Ext! de elect, c. ' Dudum.' («i) Extr. de elect, c. ' Venerabilem.' 

(ft*) Traclntu. de lenturic. {II) Extr. de elect, c. 'Innocuit.' 



ABOVE ALL THAT IS CALLED GOD. \6tt 

• He doth canonize saints, and none else but he. mm Eccleiiat- 

Uispensation to have many dignities and personages in one church, and without ! ,cal 

charge and cure of soul, belongeth only to the pope. nn 
To make that effectual which is of no effect, and contrariwise, belongeth only 

to the pope. 00 
To pluck a monk out of his cloister both against his own will and the abbot's, 

pertaineth only to the pope.PP 
His sentence maketh a law. . * 

The same day in which the pope is consecrated, he may give orders." 
He dispenseth in degrees of consanguinity and affinity. 88 
He is able to abolish laws, 'quoad utrumque forum;' that is, both civil and 

canon, where danger is of the soul.' 1 
It is in his dispensation to give general indulgences to certain places or 

persons." 1 * 
Item, To legitimate what persons soever he please, as touching spiritualties ; in 

all places, as touching temporalties, as honours, inheritance, &c. xx 
To erect new religions, to approve or reprove rules or ordinances, and cere- 
monies in the church.)'}' 
He is able to dispense with all the precepts and statutes of the church. zz 
Item, To dispense and to discharge any subject from the bond of allegiance, or 

oath made to any manner of person. 
No man may accuse him of any crime, unless of heresy ; and that neither, except 

he be incorrigible. 
The same is also free from all laws, so that he cannot incur aaa into any sentence 

of excommunication, suspension, irregularity, or into the penalty of any crime, 

but into the note of crime he may well. D0D 
Finally he, by his dispensation, may grant, yea, to a simple priest, to minister 

the sacrament of confirmation to infants ; also to give lower orders, and to 

hallow churches and virgins, Src. ccc 
These be the cases wherein I only have power to dispense, and no man else ; 

neither bishop, nor metropolitan, nor legate, without a license from me. 

After that I have now sufficiently declared my power in earth, in The 
heaven, and in purgatory, how great it is, and what is the fulness andpos- 
thereof, in binding, loosing, commanding, permitting, electing, con- If*™* 
firming, deposing, dispensing, doing and undoing, &c. I will entreat P°P e - 
now a little of my riches likeAvise, and great possessions, that every 
man may see, by my wealth and abundance of all things, rents, tithes, 
tributes, my silks, my purple mitres, crowns, gold, silver, pearls and 
gems, lands and lordships, how God there prospereth and magnifieth 
his vicar in the earth. For to me pertaineth first the imperial city 
of Rome ; the palace of Lateran ; the kingdom of Sicily is propel to 
me, Apulia and Capua be mine. Also the kingdom of England and 
Ireland, be they not, or ought they not to be tributaries to me ?*" 

To these I adjoin also, besides other provinces and countries both 
in the Occident and Orient, from the north to the south, these 
dominions by name : 215 Soriano, Monte Albodo, Rocca dc Sintra, the 

(mm) Extr. de religione et veneratione. Sanct. c. 1. (nn) Extr. de Prebend, c. 'de multa.' 

\oo) Extr Qui. si. sin t. leg. c. 'Tanta.' 

(pp) 9. q. 3. c. ' Ultimo.' (qq) Extr. de sentent. et re juriic. c. ' in causis.' 

(rrt Extr. de elect, cap. ' Quod sicut.' (.%■.%■) Extr. de restit. spo. Literas. 

(//) Ext. de prescript, cap. ult. et tie judicio c. ' Novit.' (uu) Thomas. 

(.r.r) Extr. Qui si. sint. legit, c. ' Per venerabilem.' (yj) Petrus de Paliide, lib. iv. 

(zz) Secundum Tbomam in 4. 7. q. :i. Per principalem. Dist. 40. ' Si Papa.' 

(aaa) ' Incur,' fall under.— Ed. (bbb) Ibid. (ccc) Dist. 32. c. ' prater hoc' Verum. 

(214) Dist. !>(!. Constantinus. 

(215) Ex Commentariis Theoderici Niemi. quern citat Illyricus [Flacms] in Catalogo testium, 
fol. 228. [The editor has endeavoured to select from the best authorities the English names of the 
places contained in the following sentence, copied verbatim from the original. A few names, which 
are more difficult to explain, and distinguished with asterisks, are left in the text nearly in the 
form in which Foxe gives them; the Case only being altered from the accusative to the nomina- 
tive. The authority upon which the alteration from ancient to modern orthography is made is 
principally Monsieur Baudrand. "Surianum, Montembordon, et Lunae m,iilam, Corsica' Kcgnum, 
ParvamMantuam,Myiitemselete,InsulamVenetiarum,DucatumFerraria',Canelluin,Caniodam,Duca- 

.11 3 



[04 Till: IMACK OF ANTICHRIST EXALTING HIMSELF. 

Eeoimtm kingdom of Corsica, Little Mantua, Monselice, Venice, the duchy of 
li'iZ'ru. Perrara, Canclli, Canioda,* the duchy of Histria, Dalmatia, the 

Exarchate of Kavenna, Favcntia, Cesena, Castro, Tiberiatus,* Rocca, 

Milan, Ceperano, Cudelaff, 210 Imola, Rimini, Centa, MontfeiTat, II 
Mlonte Olympe, Castrum Exforii,* Ruvo, 217 Gubio, Urbino, Fossom- 
brone, 11 Galli, Senigaglia, Ancona, Gosa,* the duchy of Perugia, 
( hv'utto, Todi, Segnino, the duchy of Spoleto, Tiano, Calabria, 
the duchy of Naples, the duchy of Benevento, Salerno, the promon- 
tory of Lorento, Sardinia, the isle of Ansa, the territory of Cutisa,* 
the territory of Pra?ncste, Silandum, Chiusi, Fondi, Terra Vegeta,* 
Terra Claudia,* Camerino, Fabrianese, Siros, Porto with the island 
Archis,* Ostia with its ports ; the state of Aquino, the state of Lamen- 
tano, Civita Castellana, Fidense, Farento, Celano, Naples, and Galli- 
polis, with divers others more, 218 which Constantine the emperor 
gave unto me. Not that they were not mine before he did give 
them ; 21D for in that I took them of him, I took them not as a gift 
(as is before mentioned), but as a restitution ; and in that I rendered 
them again to Otho, I did it not for any duty to him, but only for 
peace sake. 

What should I speak here of my daily revenues, of my first-fruits, 
annates, palls, indulgences, bulls, confessionals, indults and rescripts, 
testaments, dispensations, privileges, elections, prebends, religious 
houses, and such like, which come to no small mass of money ? inso- 
much that, for one pall to the archbishop of Mentz, which was wont 
Above to be given for 10,000 florins, 220 now it is grown to 27,000 florins, 
bishop- which I received of Jacobus the archbishop, not long before Basil 
Germany. counc 'l ' besides the fruits of other bishoprics in Germany, coming 
/Eneas to the number of fifty, whereby what vantage cometh unto my coffers, 
it may partly be conjectured. But what should I speak of Ger- 
many, 221 when the whole world is my diocese, as my canonists do 
say, and all men are bound to believe ; 222 except they will imagine 
(as the Manichees do) two beginnings ; which is false and heretical ? 
For Moses saith, In the beginning God made heaven and earth, and 
not in the beginnings. 223 Wherefore as I began, so I conclude, 
commanding, declaring, and pronouncing, to stand upon necessity of 
salvation, for every human creature to be subject to me. 

turn Histrioe.Dalmatiam.Exarchatum Ravennae, Faventiam,Cesenam, Castrum, Tiberiatus, Roccam 
Mediolanum, Castrum Ceperianum, Castrum Cusianum, Terrain Cornulariam, Ducatum Arimini, 
Contain, Montem Ferretum, Montem Capinia? seu Olympicum, Castrum Exforii, Robin. Eugu- 
bin [bigium,] Urbin [um.] Forum Sempronii, Gallii, et Senogalli, Anconam, Gosam, Ducatum Per- 
usii, Urbenutam, et Tudertum, Castrum Sinianum, Ducatum Spoletanum, Theanum, Calabriam, 
Ducatum Neapolim, Ducatum Beneventi, Selenium, Sorenti insulam, Cardiniam insulam, Aiicias 
insulam, Territorium Cutisan, Territoriam Pranestinum, Terrain Silandis, Terram Clusium, 
('•ainirinon], Terram Fundan, Terram Vegetan, Terram Claudianan, Terram Camisinam, Terram 
l'ab[rjicnsein, Terrain Siram, Terram Portuensem, cum insula Archis, Terram Ostiensem cum 
martrlmlB, Civitatem Aquinemsem, Civitatem Lamentum et Suft'orariam, Civitatem Falisenam, 
iidenam, Feretium, Clitemam, Neapolim, Galiopolim."— Ed.] 

(21fi) Cusi or Cudelaff. (217) Rubi in Apulia, now Ruvo. 

(^1S) Hist. HG ' Constantinus.' (219) Antoninus. In Summa majore 3. part. 

J 2 ™] Ei lib. lira, nominum nationis Germanics. 

I 22 ') s ^»t. decret. De penis c. ' Felicia,' in Glossa. Item de privilegiis, c. ' Autoritatem,' in 

(222) Pope Bonifacius 8. Extr. de Majo. et obed. c. Unamsanctam,' (223) Ibid 



i M) OF ROOK THE SIXTH. 



ACTS AND MONUMENTS. 



BOOK VII. 



TERTAINING TO 



THE LAST THREE HUNDRED YEARS FROM THE LOOSING OUT 
OF SATAN. 



HENRY THE EIGHTH. 1 

NOTES SUMMARILY COLLECTED AND REPEATED OF THINGS 
DONE IN THE TIME OF KING HENRY VII. 

As touching the civil state and administration of the common- Henry 

■wealth, and likewise of the state of the church under the reign of _ 

king Henry VII. ; how he entered first into possession of the crown ; A - D. 
how the two houses of York and Lancaster were in him conjoined 150 °" 
through marriage with Elizabeth, the eldest daughter to king Edward 
IV., by the prudent counsel of John Morton, then bishop of Ely, 
after archbishop of Canterbury, and cardinal ; how long the said king 
reigned, and what persecution was in his time for lack of search and 
knowledge of God's word, both in the diocese of Lincoln under 
bishop Smith (who was erector of the house of Brazcnnosc in 
Oxford), as also in the diocese of Coventry, and other places more : 
and further, what punishment and alteration God commonly sendeth 
upon cities and realms public, for neglecting the safety of his flock, 
sufficiently in the former book hath been already specified ; wherein 
many things more amply might have been added, incident in tlie 
reign of this prince, which we have for brevity pretermitted. For 
he that studieth to comprehend in story all things which the common 
course and use of life may offer to the writer, may sooner find matter 
to occupy himself, than to profit others. Otherwise 1 might have i Vr kin 
inferred mention of the seditious tumult of Perkin Warbcck, with ^ 1 ;',', 1 "' k 
his retinue, a.d. 1494, also of Blackheath field by the blacksmith, i ^m.i 
a.d. 1496. I might also have recited the glorious commendation oftobf 
George Lily 2 in his Latin chronicle, testifying of king Henry VII., J^f 1 " 
how he sent three solemn orators to pope Julius II., to yield liis » 
obedience to the see of Rome, a.d. 1506; and likewise how pope heatb 
Alexander IX., Pius III., and Julius II., sent to the said king BeW ' 

[V Edition 1563, p. 373. Ed. 1570, p. 935. Ed. 1576, p. 773. E.I. 1683, p. 709. Ed. 1596, p. 7."S. 
Ed. ir.84, vol. ii. p. 1.— Ed. 
(2) Chronicun Regum Angli.x ; 8vo. Basilea?, 1561.— Ed. 



166 MAEEIAGK OF HENRY THE EIGHTH. 

licnrx Henry VII., three sundry famous ambassadors, with three swords 
and three caps of maintenance, electing and admitting him to be the 



A. I), chief defender of the faith : the commendation of which fact, how 
1509. o-lorious it is in the eyes of George Lily and Fabian, that I leave to 
them. This I suppose, that when king Henry sent to pope Julius 
three orators with obedience, if he had sent him three thousand harque- 
bussicr.s to furnish his field against the French king fighting at Ra- 
venna, he had pleased pope Julius much better. If George Lily had 
been disposed to illustrate his story with notes, this had been more 
worthy the noting, how Ludovic XII., the French king, calling his 
parliament, moved this question against pope Julius, whether a pope 
might invade any prince by warlike force without cause, and whether 
the prince might withdraw his obedience from that pope or not? And 
it was concluded in the same parliament with the king, against the 
pope. 1 Also it was concluded the same time (which was in the reign 
of this king Henry VII.), that the Pragmatical Sanction 2 should be 
received in full force and effect through all the realm of France. 

And forasmuch as we are fallen into the mention of George Lily, 
this in him is to be found not unworthy noting, how, after the burn- 
Note ing of Thomas Noris above mentioned, 3 at the city of Norwich, the 
plagues same y ear followed such a fire in Norwich, that the whole city well 
t'ii'c'imn'f near was therewith consumed. Like as also after the burning of the 
ing of aforesaid good aged father in Smithfield the same year, a.d. 1500, 
people, we read in the chronicle of Fabian, that a great plague fell upon the 
city of London, to the great destruction of the inhabitants thereof : 
wherein again is to be noted, as is aforesaid, that according to the 
state of the church the disposition of the commonwealth commonly 
is guided, either to be with adversity afflicted, or else in prosperity to 
flourish. But after these notes of king Henry VII., now to the story 
of king Henry VIII. 
children This king Henry VII., finishing his course in the year abovesaid, 
Henry 8 wmcn was 1509, had, by Elizabeth his wife abovenamecl, four men- 
v "-. children, and of women-children as many; of whom three only sur- 
onady Ke vived, to wit, prince Henry, lady Margaret, and lady Mary : of 
ando'r rel whom, king Henry VIII. succeeded his father ; lady Margaret was 
«jy . married to James IV., king of Scots ; lady Mary was affianced to 

Charles king of Castile. 
Prince Not long before the death of king Henry, prince Arthur his 
marries eldest son had espoused lady Katharine, daughter to Ferdinand, 
Katha. being of the age of fifteen years, and she about the age of seventeen ; 
!'»; "is and shortly after his marriage, within five months he departed at Lud- 
King' low, and was buried at Worcester. After his decease, the succession 
marrieth of the crown fell next to king Henry VIII., who, being of the age of 
eighteen years, entered his reign a.d. 1509, and shortly after 
married with the aforesaid Katharine, his late brother prince Arthur's 
wife, to the end that her dowry, being great, should not be trans- 
ported out of the land ; in the which his marriage (being more politic 
than Bcripture-like), he was dispensed with by pope Julius, at the 
request of Ferdinand her father. The reign of this king continued 

(i) Kx Maiaeo, lib. ao. 

(2 I'rngmatiia K. mi tin, was a practising or a determination of a certain parliament in Fratice 
against the bli nor ' ' l( "■" ■ In defence of certain matters of religion concluded in the council of 
BOalL r Bee vol iv. p 120. -Ed. 



Iirntliei 



pensa 



THK DOMINIC AXD FRANCISCAN FRIABS. ] G' 

with great nobleness and feme the space of thirty-eight years; during //.<•«>■., 

•whose time and reign was great alteration of things, as well to the 1 

civil state of the realm, as especially to the state ecclesiastical, and A.l). 
matters to the church appertaining. For by him was exiled and 150a - 
abolished out of the realm the usurped power of the bishop of Rome, 
idolatry and superstition somewhat repressed, images and pilgrimages 
defaced, abbeys and monasteries pulled down, sects of religion rooted 
out, Scriptures reduced to the knowledge of the vulgar tongue, and 
the state of the church and religion redressed. Concerning all which 
things, in the process of the volumes here following, we will endea- 
vour (Christ willing) particularly and in order to discourse; after that 
first, we shall comprehend a few matters, which, within the beginning 
of his reign, are to be noted and collected: where (leaving off to 
write of Empson and Dudley, who, in the time of king Henry VIL, 
being great doers in executing the penal laws over the people at that 
time, and purchasing thereby more malice than lands, with that which 
they had gotten, were, shortly after the entering of this king, beheaded, 
the one a knight, the other an esquire : leaving also to intermeddle 
with his wars, triumphs, and other temporal affairs), we mean in these 
volumes principally to bestow our travail in declaration of matters 
concerning most chiefly the state of the church, and of religion, as 
well in this church of England, as also of the whole church of Rome. 

Herein first cometh to our hands i a turbulent tragedy, and a 
fierce contention, which long before had troubled the church, and 
now this present year, 1509, was renewed afresh between two certain 
orders of Begging Friars, to wit, the Dominic Friars and the Francis- 
cans, about the conception of the Virgin Mary, the mother of Christ. 

The Franciscans were they who did hold of St. Francis, and Frand 
followed the rule of his testament, commonly called Grey Friars or j££», 
Minorites. Their opinion was this, that the Virgin Mary, prevented 
by the grace of the Holy Ghost, was so sanctified, that she was 
never subject one moment in her conception to original sin. The 
Dominic Friars were those, who, holding of Dominic, were commonly Dom 
called Black Friars, or preaching friars. Their opinion was this : that 
the Virgin Mary was conceived as all other children of Adam be ; 
so that this privilege only belongeth to Christ, to be conceived with- 
out original sin : notwithstanding, the said blessed virgin was sancti- 
fied in her mother's womb, and purged from her original sin, so as 
was John Baptist, Jeremy, or any other privileged person. This i 
frivolous question kindling and engendering between these two sects „ 11M , 
of friars, burst out into such a flame of parts and sides-taking, that Jj^J, 
it occupied the heads and wits, schools and universities, almost for the 
through the whole church; some holding one part with Scotus, some tionof 
the other part with Thomas Aquinas. The Minorites holding with ^M«y. 
Scotus their master, disputed and concluded, that she was conceived 
without all spot or note of original sin ; and thereupon caused the 
feast and service of the conception of St. Mary the Virgin, to be 
celebrated and solemnized in the church. Contrary, the Dominic friars, 
taking side with Aquinas, preached, that it was heresy to affirm that 
the blessed virgin was conceived without the guilt of original sin; 
and that those who did celebrate the feast of her conception, or said 
any masses thereof, did sin grievously and mortally. 



line. 



lil(H> dis- 



]68 DISSENSION BKTWEKN THE 1TUAKS 

if<-ir,j Tn the mean time, as this fantasy waxed hot in the church, the one 

_^_ side preaching against the other, came pope Sixtus IV., a.d. 1476, 

who, joining side with the Minorites or Franciscans, first sent forth his 

decree by authority apostolic, willing, ordaining, and commanding all 

nun to solemnize this new-found feast of the conception, in holy 

church for evermore : offering to all men and women, who, devoutly 

•'.Mtion'of frequenting the church, would hear mass and service from the first 

iheVir- even-song of the said feast, to the octaves of the same, as many days 

of pardon, as pope Urban IV., and pope Martin V., did grant for 

hearing the service of Corpus Christi day, &c. And this decree was 

given and dated at Rome, a.d. 1476. 

Moreover the same pope, to the intent that the devotion of the 
people might be the more encouraged to the celebration of this con- 
ception, added a clause more to the Ave Maria, granting great indul- 
gence and release of sins to all such as would invocate the blessed 
a new Virgin with the same addition, saying thus : "Ave Maria gratia plena, 
Ha of ti'e Dominus tecum, benedicta tu in mulieribus, et benedictus fructus 
making vcntr i s tlu ' J esus Christus ; et benedicta sit Anna mater tua, de qua, 
He add- sine macula, tua processit caro Virginia. Amen." That is, " Hail ! 
wiwds of 8 M ar }'i fi^l °f grace, the Lord is with, thee ; blessed art thou among 
scripture, women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus Christ ; and 
blessed is Anna thy mother, of whom thy virgin's flesh hath pro- 
ceeded without blot of original sin. Amen. 1 '' 
Three ab- Wherein thou mayest note, gentle reader ! for thy learning three 
t',"i,' M things: First, how the pope turneth that improperly into a prayer, 
which properly was sent of God for a message or tidings. Secondly, 
how the pope addeth to the Avords of the Scripture, contrary to the 
express precept of the Lord. Thirdly, how the pope exempteth 
Mary the blessed Virgin, not only from the seed of Abraham and 
Adam, but also from the condition of a mortal creature. For if there 
be in her no original sin, then she bareth not the image of Adam, 
neither doth she descend of that seed, of whose seed evil proceedeth 
upon all men and women, to condemnation ; as St. Paul doth teach, 
Rom. v. Wherefore if she descend of that seed, then the infection 
of original evil must necessarily proceed unto her. If she descend 
not thereof, then cometh she not of the seed of Abraham, nor of the 
seed of David, &c. Again, seeing that death is the effect and 
stipend of sin, by the doctrine of St, Paul [Rom. vi.], then had her 
flesh injury by the law, as Christ himself had, to suffer the maledic- 
tion and punishment of death ; and so should she never have died, if 
original sin had no place in her, &c. But to return unto our story: 
This constitution of the pope being set forth for the conception of 
the Messed Virgin, which was a.d. 1476, it was not long after but 
the said pope Sixtus, perceiving that the Dominic friars with their 
complices would not conform themselves hereunto, directed forth, by 
the authority apostolical, a bull in effect as followcth :' 

I he tenor of the Pope's Bull, for the conception of the Virgin to 
be without original Sin. 
V. Iicicis the holy church of Rome hath ordained a special and proper service 
for the puhlic Bolemnwing of the feast of the conception of the blessed Virgin 
■"■■ ta "R ! i • ; i e iiti meralae, seiniterqiie virgih&C fcc 



IKitrd. 



ON THK CONCEPTION OK THE VIRGIN MARY. 169 

Mary ; certain orders of the Black Friars, in their puhlic sermons to the people u,„ r ,, 
in divers places, have not ceased hitherto to preach, and yet daily do, that all y '"- 
those who hold or affirm the said glorious Virgin to have been conceived without . n 
original sin, be heretics ; and those who celebrate the service of the said her \ V .!, ' 
conception, or do hear the sermons of those who do so affirm, do sin grievously : ' ' 

Also, not contented herewith, they do write and set forth books moreover, 
maintaining their assertions, to the great offence and ruin of godly minds: We, 
therefore, to prevent and withstand such presumptuous and perverse assertions 
as have arisen, and more hereafter may arise, by such opinions and preach- 
ings aforesaid, in the minds of the faithful; by the authority apostolical, dp 
condemn and reprove the same; and by the motion, knowledge, and authority 
aforesaid, decree and ordain, That the preachers of God's word, and all other 
persons, of what state, degree, order, or condition soever they be, who shall 
presume to dare affirm, or preach to the people these aforesaid opinions and 
assertions to be true, or shall read, hold, or maintain any such books for true, 
having before intelligence hereof, shall incur thereby the sentence of excom- 
munication, from which they shall not be absolved otherwise than by the bishop 
of Rome ; except only in the time of death. 

This bull, being dated a. d. 1488, gave no little heart and en- 
couragement to the Grey Friars Franciscan, who defended the pure 
conception of the holy Virgin against the Black Dominic friars, with 
their confederates, holding the contrary side ; by the vigour of which 
bull, the grey order had got such a conquest of the black guard of 
the Dominies, that the said Dominies were compelled at length, for a 
perpetual memorial of the triumph, both to give to the glorious 
Virgin every night an anthem in praise of her conception, and also 
to subscribe unto their doctrine ; in which doctrine these, with clivers 
other points, be contained. 

I. That blessed Mary the Virgin suffered the griefs and adversities in this 
life, not for any necessity inflicted for punishment of original sin, but only be- 
cause she would conform herself to the imitation of Christ. 1 

II. That the said Virgin, as she was not obliged to any punishment due for Filthy ab- 
sin, as neither was Christ her Son, so she had no need of remission of sins; but surdities 
instead thereof had the divine preservation of God's help, keeping her from all JJLe'g 
sin, which grace only she needed, and also had it. doctrine. 

III. Item, That whereas the body of the Virgin Mary was subject to death, How the 
and died; this is to be understood to come not for any penalty due for sin, but w ! r rJ.", 
either for imitation and conformity unto Christ, or else for the natural consti- j, 1 1 to 
tution of her body, being elemental, as were the bodies of our first parents : who, death, 
if they had not tasted of the forbidden fruit, should have been preserved from |rf^> 
death, not by nature, but by grace, and strength of other fruits and meats in opinions, 
Paradise : which meats because Mary had not, but did eat our common meats, 
therefore she died, and not for any necessity of original Bin. 2 

IV. The universal proposition of St. Paul, which saith, That the Scripture 
hath concluded all men under sin, is to be understood thus ; as speaking of all 
those who be not exempted by the special privilege of God, as is the blessed 
Virgin Mary. 

V. If justification be taken for reconciliation of hiin that was unrighteous 
before, and now is made righteous; then the blessed Virgin is to be taken, not 
for justified by Christ, but just from her beginning by preservation. 

VI. If a Saviour be taken for him who savetb men fallen into perdition and 
condemnation ; so is not Christ the Saviour of Mary, but is her Saviour only in 
this respect, for sustaining her from not falling into condemnation, ike. 

VII. Neither did the Virgin Mary give thanks to God, nor ought so to do, 
for expiation of her sins, but for her conservation from case of sinning. 

(1) Ex Jod. Clitoviro de puritate conceptions, lib. ii. 

(J) CHtovaeus, lib. ii. cap. 2. [" ClitOVSDUS," a Frenchman and canon of ChatrC3. II!s writings arc 
enumerated in Ant. Possevini apparatus sneer; Col. Agrip. 1608: torn, i p. 900: ate also the 
Autographa Lutheri aliorndiqtie ; Brunt i Iga 1096, torn. i. p. 42.— Ed.] 



170 DISSENSION BETWEEN THE FMARS. 

Bmrw VIII. Neither did she pray to God at any time for remission of her sins, but 

VIII. 011 i v f or the remission of other men's sins she prayed many times, and counted 

. n their sins for hers. 

V IX. If the blessed Virgin had deceased before the passion of her Son, God 

lo() - ) - would have reposed her soul not in the place among the patriarchs, or amongst 

Good the just, but in the same most pleasant place of Paradise, where Adam and Eve 

* tufn were, before they trail 



These were the doting dreams and fantasies of the Franciscans, and 
of other papists, commonly then holden in the schools, written in 
their books, preached in their sermons, taught in churches, and set 
forth in pictures. 1 So that the people Avere taught nothing else almost 
in the pulpits all this while, but how the Virgin Mary was conceived 
immaculate and holy, without original sin, and how they ought to 
call to her for help, whom they with special terms do call, ' the way 
of mercy,'' ' the mother of grace, 1 ' the lover of piety,' the com- 
forter of mankind,'' * the continual intercessor for the salvation of the 
faithful, 1 and ' an advocate to the King her Son that never ceaseth," 1 
idolatry & c - 2 And although the greatest number of the school-doctors were 
{*» *• of the contrary faction, as Peter the Lombard, Thomas Aquinas, 
virgin. Bernard, Bonaventure, and others ; yet these new papists shifted off 
their objections with frivolous distinctions and blind evasions, as thus: 
" Peter the Lombard,'''' they said, " is not received nor holden in the 
schools as touching this article, but is rejected."' 13 
Otyec- Bernard, 4 although he seemeth to deny the conception of the 

l.'l'hiv" blessed Virgin to be void of original sin, saying, that she could not 
■aimed, be holy when she was not, and lived not : to this they answer, that 
albeit she was not yet in essence, yet she was holy in her conception, 
and before conception, in the, divine prescience of God, who had 
chosen and pre-elected her before the worlds, to be the mother of 
the Lord. 

Again ; where Bernard doth argue, that she was not without ori- 
ginal sin conceived, because she was not conceived by the Holy 
Ghost : to this they answer, that the Holy Ghost may work two ways 
in conception ; either without company of man, and so was Christ 
only conceived ; or else with company and help of man, and thus was 
the blessed Virgin conceived. 6 
Popisii Bonaventure (say they) was a holy father, but he spake then after 

.N.A'i'in"' the custom and manner of his time, when the solemnity and purity 
ti'nu'' ' y °f tms conception was not yet decreed nor received by the public 
consent and authority of the church. Now, seeing the authority of 
the church of Rome hath established the same, it ought not to be 
contraried, nor can, without dangerous disobedience. In all men's 
actions diligent respect of time must be had. That which bindcth 
not at one time, afterwards the same by law being ratified, may bind 
at another. 
verity Finally, for the number and multitude on the contrary side, thus 

i„ they answer for themselves, as we now in these our days likewise, in 
defence of the truth, may well answer against the pope, and all his 
popish friars, turning their own weapons against themselves " Mul- 

(1) The Grey Friars had made a picture of Joachim and Anna kissing, by which kbs Anna was 

i '1 with Mary. 1.x Hob. Lycio Minorita. 
(21 Verba papas Sexti In decret. (S) CUtovseus, lib. ii. cap. 15. 

ILugdunens. (5) Cut. lib. ii. cap. 14. (C) Ibid. 



OX THE CONCEPTION OF THE VJBGIK MARY. 171 

titude," say they, " ought not to move us ; victory consisteth not in rimy 
number and heaps, but in fortitude and. hearts of soldiers ; yea, rather ' 



fortitude and stomach cometh from heaven, and not of man. Judas A1) - 
Maccabeus, with a little handful, overthrew the great army of Anti- l ' A> ' h 
oclms. Strong Samson, with a poor ass's bone, slew a thousand to, y !» 
Philistines. David had no more but a silly sling, and a lew stones, tudeof 
and with these struck down terrible Goliath the giant," 1 &c. soldiers. 

With these and other like reasons the grey Franciscans voided 
their adversaries, defending the conception of the Virgin Mary to be 
unblemished, and pure from all contagion of original sin. Contrari- 
wise, the black guard of the Dominic friars, for their parts, were not 
all mute, but laid lustily from them again, having great authorities, 
and also the Scripture on their side, out yet the others, having the The 
see apostolical with them, had the better hand, and in fine got the Side 
victory triumphantly over the others, to the high exaltation of their JJJJJ^ 
order. For pope Sixtus, as I said, by the authority apostolical, after scnp- 
he had decreed the conception-day of the Virgin perpetually to be tur 
sanctified, and also, with his terrible bull, had condemned for heretics 
all those who withstood the same ; the Dominic friars, with authority 
oppressed, were driven to two inconveniences : the one was, to keep 
silence ; the other was, to give plaee to their adversaries the Francis 
cans. Albeit, where the mouth durst not speak, yet the heart would 
work ; and though their tongues were tied, yet their goodwill was 
ready by all means possible to maintain then: quarrel and their esti- 
mation. 

Whereupon it happened the same year, a.d. 1509, after this dis- 
sension between the Dominic friars and the Franciscans, that certain 
of the Dominies, thinking by subtle sleight to work in the people's 
heads that which they durst not achieve with open preaching, devised 
a certain image of the Virgin 2 so artificially wrought, that the friars, 
by privy gins, made it to stir, and to make gestures, to lament, to 
complain, to weep, to groan, and to give answers to them that asked ; Four 
insomuch that the people therewith were brought in a marvellous I,™ . lt 
persuasion, till at length the fraud being espied, the friars were taken, Bcl " L - 
condemned, and burnt at Berne, in the year above-mentioned. 3 

In the story of John Stumsius, this story aforesaid doth partly 
appear : but in the registers and records of the city of Berne, the 
order and circumstance thereof is more fully expressed and set forth 
both in metre and prose, and is thus declared : 

In the city of Berne 4 there were certain Dominic friars, to the 
number chiefly of four principal doers and chieftains of that order, 
who had inveigled a certain simple poor friar, who had newly planted 
himself in the cloister; whom the aforesaid friars had so infatuated 
with sundry superstitions, and feigned apparitions of St. Mary, St. 
Barbara, and St. Katharine, and with their enchantments, ami im- 
printing, moreover, in him the wounds of St. Francis, that he believed 
plainly that the Virgin Mary had appeared to him, and had offered 

(1) Lib. eod. cap. 13. 

(2) E.\ Casparo Peucero [Chronicon Carionis auct. Casp. Peuccro : Witcb. 1566; torn. iv. 
p. 330.— En.] Sebast. Minister. COBUlOg. lib. ill 

(3j Ex Pcucer. Si'bast. Munstero, Carione, et ;iliis. In tin- Centuries "f John Hale I find their 
names to be, John Vctter, Francis Uliscus, Stephen Bolishorst, ;uul Henry SUinegger. 

(4) Ex llistoria Iiernensi nonscripta v ulnar i et Latino sermone. [See also the "Tragical History 

of Jetrer," E;c. fol. Loudon: 1G7'J; also "Protestant Journal," 13u'i, p. 121. — Eu] 



172 MISERABLE BLINDNESS OF THE TIMES. 

Henry \{ xm a red host consecrated with the blood also of Christ miraculous; 

1 IIL which blessed Virgin also had sent him to the senators of Berne, 

A 1 } - with instructions, declaring unto them from the mouth of the Virgin, 

150!j - that she was conceived in sin ; and that the Franciscan friars were 

not to be credited, nor suffered in the city, who were not yet reformed 

from that erroneous opinion of her conception. He added moreover, 

that they should resort to a certain image there of the Virgin Mary 

(which image the friars by engines had made to sweat), and should do 

their worship, and make their oblations to the same, &c. 

This feigned device was no sooner forged by the friars, but it was 
as soon believed of the people ; so that a great while the red-coloured 
host was undoubtedly taken for the true body and blood of Christ, 
and certain coloured drops thereof sent abroad to clivers noble per- 
sonages and states for a great relic ; and that, not without great 
recompense. Thus the deceived people in great numbers came 
flocking to the image, and to the red host and coloured blood, with 
manifold gifts and oblations. In brief, the Dominic friars so had 
wrought the matter, and had so swept all the fat to their own beards 
from the order of the Franciscans, that all the alms came to their 
box. The Franciscans, seeing their estimation to decay, and their 
kitchen to wax cold, and their paunches to be pinched, not able to 
abide that contumely, and being not' ignorant or unacquainted with 
such counterfeited doings (for as the proverb saith, " It is ill, halting 
before a cripple"), eftsoons espied their crafty juggling, and detected 
their fraudulent miracles. Whereupon the four chief captains above- 
named were apprehended, and put to the fire, of whom the provincial 
of that order was one. 



Friars And thus much touching the beginning and end of this tumultuous 

can agree and popish tragedy, wherein evidently it may appear to the reader, 
them- h° w neither these turbulent friars could agree among themselves, and 
nor e etdo ^ ct m w ^*' ^ vo ' ous trifles they wrangled together. But to let these 
tUnagree ridiculous friars pass with their trifling fantasies, most worthy to be 
vain" derided of all wise men, in the mean time this is to be lamented, to 
trifles, behold the miserable times of the church, in which the devil kept the 
minds of Christ's people so attentive, and occupied in such friarly 
toys, that nothing else almost was taught or heard in the church, but 
only the commendation and exaltation of the Virgin Mary : but of 
our justification by faith, of grace, and of the promises of God in 
Christ, of the strength of the law, of the horror of sin, of difference 
between the law and the gospel, of the true liberty of conscience, &c, 
no mention, or very little, was heard. Wherefore in this so blind a 
time of darkness it was much needful and requisite, that the Lord of 
his mercy should look upon his church, and send down his gracious 
reformation, which also he did: for shortly upon the same, through 
the gracious excitation of God, came Martin Luther, of whom the 
order of story now requireth that we should, and will entreat (Christ 
willing), alter the story of Richard Hun, and a few other things pre- 
mised, for the better opening 1 of the story to follow. 

Mention was made sufficiently before of the doings of pope Julius, 
,ihii„' and ol his warlike affairs, for which he was condemned, and not un- 
"" r "' r justly, in the council of Tours in France, a.d. 1510, and vet all this 



PERSECUTION IX THE DIOCESE OF LONDON. 173 

could not assuage the furious affection of this pope, but the same iienry 

year he invaded the cities of Modena and Mirandola in Italy, and 

took them by force of war. This pope Julius not long after, a.d. A.D. 

1512, refusing peace offered by Maximilian the emperor, was en- 1509 - 
countered by Louis the French king about Ravenna, upon Easter- The pope 
day, where he was vanquished, and had of his army slain to the ?*" a ™™ e 
number of sixteen thousand. 1 And the year next following, a.d. 

1513, this apostolical warrior, who had resigned his keys unto the 
river Tibur before, made an end together both of his fighting and The 
living, after he had reigned and fought ten years. After whom sue- p ^ e ° 
ceeded next in the see of Rome, pope Leo X. ; about the compass Jlllius 
of which time great mutations and stirs began to work, as well in 
states temporal, as especially in the state of the church. 

The State and Succession of Princes. 

YEARS 

Pope Leo X., in Rome .... a.d. 1513 .... reigned . 9 

Charles V., emperor of Germany ... 1519 39 

Francis, king of France 1515 32 

Henry VIII., king of England .... 1509 38 

James V., king of Scotland 1514 29 

In the time of which pope, emperor, and kings of England, France, 
and Scotland, great alterations, troubles, and turns of religion were 
wrought in the church, by the mighty operation of God"s hand, in 
Italy, France, Germany, England, and all Europe ; such as have not 
been seen (although, much groaned for) many hundred years before : 
as in further discourse of this history, Christ willing, shall more mani- 
festly appear. 

But before we come to these alterations, taking the time as it lieth 
before us, we will first speak of Richard Hun, and certain other godly 
minded pe\sons here in England, afflicted for the word of Christ's 
gospel in great multitudes, as they be found and taken out of the 
registers of Fitzjames, bishop of London, by the faithful help and 
industry of R. Carket, citizen of London. 

THE HISTORY OF DIVERS GOOD MEN AND WOMEN, PERSECUTED 
FOR RELIGION IN THE CITY AND DIOCESE OF THE BISHOP OF 
LONDON ; BRIEFLY EXTRACTED OUT OF THE REGISTERS OF 
RICHARD FITZJAMES. 

Amongst and besides the great number of the faithful martyrs and i "*- 1 * 09 
professors of Christ, that constantly, in the strength of the Holy Ghost, 
gave their lives for the testimony of his truth, I find recorded in the 
register 2 of London, between the years of our Lord 1509 and 1527, 
the names of divers other persons, both men and women, who, in the 
fulness of that dark and misty time of ignorance, had also some por- 
tion of Goofs good Spirit, which induced them to the knowledge of 
his truth and gospel, and were diversely troubled, persecuted, and 
imprisoned for the same. Notwithstanding by the proud, cruel, and 
bloody rage of the Catholic seat, and through the weakness and frailty 
of their own nature (not then fully strengthened in God), it was again 
(l) Ex Chron. Carion. (2) F.x Registrk Fitzjames. 



PERSECUTION IN TIIK DIOCESE OF LONDON. 



A.I). 
1.309 

to 
1518. 



in them for the time suppressed and kept under, as appearcth by their 
several abjurations made before Richard Fitzjames, then bishop of 
London (in his time a most cruel persecutor of Christ's church), or 
else before his vicar-general, deputed for the same. And forasmuch 
as many of the adversaries of God's truth have of late days disdain- 
fully and braggingly cried out, and made demands in their public 
assemblies, and yet do, asking, Where this our church and religion 
Mas within these fifty or sixty years ? I have thought it not altogether 
vain, somewhat to stop such lying crakers, both by mentioning their 
names, and likewise opening some of the chief and principal matters 
for which they were so unmercifully afflicted and molested: thereby 
to give to understand, as well the continuance and consent of the true 
church of Christ in that age, touching the chief points of our faith 
(though not in like perfection of knowledge and constancy in all), as 
also by the way something to touch what fond and frivolous matters 
the ignorant prelates shamed not in that time of blindness to object 
against the poor and simple people, accounting them as heinous and 
great offences, yea, such as deserved death both of body and soul. 
But lest I should seem too prolix and tedious herein, I will now 
briefly proceed with the story, and first begin with their names, which 
are these : 

Thomas Austy? 

Joan Austy. 

Thomas Grant. 

John Garter. 

Christopher Ravins. 

Dyonise Ravins. 

Thomas Vincent. 

Lewis John. 

Joan John. 

A.D. 1512. 

John Webb, alias Baker. 
A.D. 1517. 

John Houshold. 

Robert Rascal. 
A.D. 1518. 

Elizabeth Stanford. 

George Browne. 



A.D. 1510.1 
Joan Baker. 
William Pottier. 
John Forge. 
Thomas Goodred. 
Thomas Walker, alias 

Talbot. 
Thomas Forge. 
Alice Forge. 
John Forge, their son. 
William Cowper. 
'John Calverton. 
John Woodrof. 

A.D. 1511. 
Richard Woolman. 
Roger Hilliar. 
Alice Cowper. 



John Wikes. 
John Southake. 
Richard Butler. 
John Samme. 

A.D. 1521. 
William King. 
Robert Durdant. 
Henry Woolman. 
Edmund Spilman. 

A.D. 1523. 
John Higges, alias 
Noke, alias Johnson, 

A.D. 1526. 
Henry Chambers. 
John Higgins. 

A.D. 1527. 
Thomas Egleston. 



THE PARTICULAR EXAMINATION OF ALL THOSE ABOVE NAMED 
HERE FOLLOWETH. 

To these were divers and sundry particular articles (besides the 
common and general sort accustomably used in such cases) privately 
objected ; even such as they were then accused of either by their 
curate, or others their neighbours. And because I think it somewhat 
superfluous to make any large recital of all and every part of their 
several process, I mind therefore briefly only to touch so many of 
their articles as may be sufficient to induce the christian reader to 
judge the sooner of the rest; being (I assure you) of no greater im- 
portance than these that follow: except that sometimes they were 
charged, most slanderously, with horrible and blasphemous lies against 
the majesty and truth of God; which as they utterly denied, so do I 
now lor this present keep secret in silence, as well for brevity's sake, 

(1) Ex Hcgist. R. Fitzjnincs. 



PERSECUTION 1 IN THK DIOCESE Of LONDON'. 175 

as also somewhat to colour and hide the shameless practices of that Bmrv 
lying generation. But to our purpose. 



A. D. 

Sloan 3a&eu anD tfjictn^ninc otfjetf. 15 t ° 9 

1518. 



The chief objections against Joan Baker were as follows : That si 



1C 



would not only herself not reverence the crucifix, but had also persuaded 
a friend of hers, lying at the point of death, not to put any trust or 
confidence in the crucifix, but in God who is in heaven, who only Against 
worketh all the miracles that be done, and not the dead images, which ^ 
be but stocks and stones ; and therefore she was sorry that ever she ^ o y uci " 
had gone so often on pilgrimage to St. Saviour and other idols. Also, cross. 
that she did hold opinion, that the pope had no power to give pardons, Jy^™^ 
and that the lady Young (who was not long before that time burned) tady 
died a true martyr of God ; and therefore she wished of God, that she martyr. 
herself might do no worse than the said lady Young had done. 

Unto William Pottier, besides divers other false and slanderous wiiiiam 
articles (as that he should deny the benefit and effect of Christ's pas- p°j^ er ' 
sion) it was also alleged as under : That he should affirm there were slander of 
six Gods: the first three were the holy Trinity, the Father, the Son, venaries. 
and the Holy Ghost ; the fourth was a priest's concubine being kept 
in his chamber ; the fifth was the Devil ; and the sixth, that thing 
that a man setteth his mind most upon. 

The first part of this article he utterly denied, confessing most Answer. 
firmly and truly, the blessed Trinity to be only one God in one unity 
of Deity. As to the other three he answered, that a priest delight- 
ing in his concubine, made her as his God : likewise a wicked person, 
persisting in his sin without repentance, made the devil his God : 
and lastly, he granted, that he once, hearing of certain men, who by 
the singing and chattering of birds would seek to know what things 
were to come either to themselves or others, said, That those men 
esteemed their birds as gods ; and otherwise he spake not. 

Amongst the manifold and several articles objected against Thomas j" 10 ™' 
Goodred, Thomas Walker, Thomas Forge, Alice Forge his wife, Thomas' 
John Forge their son, John Calverton, John Woodrof, Richard Wool- ^J;,"' 
man, and "Roger Hilliar (as that they should speak against pilgrimages, ^e, 
praying unto saints, and such like), this principally was propounded : others. 
That they all denied the carnal and corporal presence of Christ's body A S ainst 
and blood in the sacrament of the altar ; and further, had concealed JJJJjjJ" 
and consented unto their teachers and instructors in that doctrine, and Hon and 
had not, according to the laws of the church, accused and presented presence. 
them unto the bishop or his ordinary. 

Also great and heinous displeasure was conceived against Richard 
Woolman, for that he termed the church of Paul's a house of thieves, 
affirming, that the priests and other ecclesiastical persons there were 
not liberal givers unto the poor (as they ought to be) but rather takcrs- 
away from them of what they could get. 

Likewise as Thomas Austy, Joan Austy his wife, Thomas Grant, 



J7G PERSECUTION IX THE DIOCESE OF LONDON. 

Henry John Garter, Christopher Ravins, Dyonise Ravins his sister, Thomas 

VIU - Vincent, Lewis John, Joan John his wife, and John Webb, were of 

A. D. one fellowship and profession of faith with divers of the last before 

1509 rec ited ; so were they almost all apprehended about one time, and 

-,r°\a chiefly burdened with one opinion of the Sacrament : which declareth 

— - — - evidently, that notwithstanding the dark ignorance of those corrupted 

times, yet God did ever in mercy open the eyes of some to behold 

the manifest truth, even in those things whereof the papists make now 

greatest vaunt, and brag of longest continuance. 

Furthermore, many of them were charged to have spoken against 
pilgrimages, and to have read and used certain English books repugn- 
ing the faith of the Romish church, as the four Evangelists, Wickliffs 
Wicket, a Book of the Ten Commandments of Almighty God, the Re- 
velation of St. John, the Epistles of Paul and James, with other like, 
which those holy ones could never abide. And good cause why : for 
as darkness could never agree with light, no more can ignorance, the 
maintained of that kingdom, with the true knowledge of Christ and his 
gospel. 

It was further particularly objected against Joan John, the wife of 
Lewis John, that (besides the premises) she learned and maintained, 
Holy- that God commanded no holy days to be kept, but only the Sabbath- 
day8 ' day, and therefore she would keep none but it ; nor any fasting days, 
affirming, that to fast from sin, was the true fast. Moreover, that she 
Against had despised the pope, his pardons and pilgrimages ; insomuch that 
!!.''«,' "nd wnen an y P oor body asked an alms of her in the worship of the Lady 
a.iura- f Walsingham, she would strait answer in contempt of the pilgrimage, 
images. "The Lady of Walsingham help thee:"" and if she gave any thing 
unto him, she would then say, " Take this in the worship of our Lady 
in heaven, and let the other go." Which declareth, that for lack of 
better instruction and knowledge, she yet ignorantly attributed too 
much honour to the true saints of God departed, though otherwise 
she did abhor the idolatrous worshipping of the dead images. By 
which example, as also by many others (for shortness* sake at this 
present omitted), I have just occasion to condemn the wilful subtlety 
of those, who, in this bright shining light of God's truth, would yet, 
under colour of godly remembrance, still maintain the having of 
images in the church, craftily excusing their idolatrous kneeling and 
praying unto them, by affirming, that they never worshipped the dead 
images, but the things that the images did represent. But if that 
were their only doctrine and cause of having of them, why then would 
their predecessors so cruelly compel these poor simple people thus 
openly, in their recantations, to abjure and revoke their speaking 
against the gross adoration of the outward images only, and not 
against the thing represented ; which many of them (as appeareth 
partly by this example), in their ignorant simplicity, confessed might 
be worshipped? Howbcit, God be thanked (who ever in his mercy 
continue it!) their colourable and hypocritical excuses cannot now 
take such place in the hearts of the elect of God as they have done 
heretofore, especially seeing the word of God doth so manifestly forbid 
as well the worshipping of them, as also the making or having of them 
for order of religion. 



PERSECUTION IN THE DIOCESE OF LONDON. 177 

ft was alleged against William Cowper, and Alice Cowper his wife, £mp 
as follows : That they had spoken against pilgrimages, and worshipping 



of images; but^ chiefly the woman, who, having her child, on a time, A.D. 
hurt by falling into a pit or ditch, and being earnestly persuaded by 1509 
some of her ignorant neighbours to go on pilgrimage to St. Laurence 1 -J' I ' S 
for help for her child, said, That neither St. Laurence, nor any other — 
saint could help her child, and therefore none ought to go on pilgrim- t"^- 
age to any image made with man's hand, but only to Almighty God ; £ ° d of 
for pilgrimages were nothing worth, saving to make the priests rich. ima e ee - 

Unto John Houshold, Robert Rascal, and Elizabeth Stamford, as Against 
well the article against the sacrament of the altar was objected, as J"™^ 
also that they had spoken against praying to saints, and had despised •'"" ■"" l 
the authority of the bishop of Rome, "and others of his clergy. But Tth'J ny 
especially John Houshold was charged to have called them antichrists pqpe * 
and fornicators, and the pope himself a strong strumpet, and a 
common scandal unto the world, who with his pardons had drowned * 
in blindness all christian realms ; and that for money. 

Also among clivers other ordinary articles propounded against George 
George Browne, these were counted very heinous and heretical : First, Browne - 
that he had said, that he knew no cause why the cross should be Agninst 
worshipped, seeing that the same was a hurt and pain unto our Saviour $ the* 10 " 
Christ in the time of his passion, and not any ease or pleasure ; cross - 
alleging for example, that if he had had a friend hanged or drowned, 
he would ever after have loved that gallows or water, by which his 
friend died, rather worse for that, than better. Another objection 
was, that he had erroneously, obstinately, and maliciously said (for immo- 
so are their words), that the church was too rich. This matter, I may (£"« 
tell you, touched somewhat the quick, and therefore no marvel that of ,h , e 
they counted it erroneous and malicious ; for take away their gain, clergy. 
and farewell their religion. They also charged him to have refused 
holy water to be cast about his chamber, and likewise to have spoken 
against priests, with other vain matters. 

The greatest matter wherewith they burdened John Wikes was, John 
that he had often and of long time kept company with divers persons w M " 
suspected of heresy (as they termed them), and had received them 
into his house, and there did suffer and hear them sundry times read 
erroneous and heretical books, contrary to the faith of the Romish 
church ; and did also himself consent unto their doctrine, and had 
many times secretly conveyed them from the taking of such as were 
appointed to apprehend them. 

Like as the greatest number of those before-mentioned, so were John 
also John Southakc, Richard Butler, John Sam, William King, K* e ' 
Robert Durdant, and Henry Woolman, especially charged with speak- " n l '} u ' r ' 
ing words against the real presence of Christ's body in the sacrament others. 
of the altar, and also against images, and the rest of the seven sacra- ajfreai 
ments. Howbeit they burdened the last five persons with the reading presence 
of certain English heretical books, accounting most blasphemously 
the gospel of Jesus Christ, written by the four evangelists, to be of 

vol. IV. x 



178 PERSECUTION IN THE DIOCESE OF LONDON. 

iienry tliat nnwiTiCT, as appeareth evidently by the eighth article objected by 
,11L Thomas Bennet, doctor of law, chancellor and vicar-general unto 
A. D. Richard Fitzjames, then bishop of London, against the said Richard 
1509 Butler; the very words of which article, for a more declaration of 
truth, I have thought good here to insert, which are these : 



to 
ilS. 



' Also we object to you, that divers times, and especially upon a certain night, 
about the space of three years last past, in Robert Durdant's house of Iver-court, 
near unto Staines, you erroneously and damnably read in a great book of heresy 
of the said Robert Durdant's, all that same night, certain chapters of the evan- 
gelists in English, containing in them divers erroneous and damnable opinions 
and conclusions of heresy, in the presence of the said Robert Durdant, John 
Butler, Robert Carder, Jenkin Butler, William King, 1 and divers other suspected 
persons of heresy, then being present, and hearing your said erroneous lectures 
and opinions.' 

To the same effect and purpose tended the tenor of some of the 

articles propounded against the other four ; whereby (as also by other 

like ones before specified) Ave may easily judge what reverence those, 

who yet will be counted the true and only church of Christ, did bear 

to the word and gospel of Christ ; who shamed not to blaspheme the 

same with most horrible titles of erroneous and damnable opinions 

and conclusions of heresy. But why should we marvel thereat, seeing 

the Holy Ghost, in sundry places of the Scripture, doth declare, that 

in the latter days there should come such proud and cursed speakers, 

who shall speak lies through hypocrisy, and have their consciences 

marked with a hot iron ? Let us therefore now thank our heavenly 

.Father for revealing them unto us ; and let us also pray him, that of 

his free mercies in his Son Christ Jesus, he would (if it be to his 

glory) cither turn and mollify all such hearts, or else (for the peace 

and quietness of his church) he would, in his righteous judgment, 

take them from us. 

Death of About this time Richard Fitzjames ended his life, after whose 

Fi't C z' an death Cuthbert Tunstall (afterwards bishop of Durham) succeeded in 

j™""; of the see and bishopric of London ; who soon, upon his first entry into 

i.nmion. the room, minding to follow rightly the footsteps of his predecessor, 

Tnnatau. caused Edmund Spilman, priest, Henry Chambers, John Higgins, 

and Thomas Eglestone to be apprehended, and so to be examined 

upon sundry like articles as before are expressed ; and in the end, 

either for fear of his cruelty, and the rigour of death, or else through 

hope of his flattering promises (such was their weakness), he com- 

1 polled them to abjure and renounce their true professed faith touching 

!k'nicd! L the holy sacrament of Christ's body and blood ; which was, that 

Christ's corporal body was not in the sacrament, but in heaven ; and 

that the sacrament was a figure of his body, and not the body itself. 

Moreover, about the same time there were certain articles objected 

pinst John Higges, alias Noke, alias Johnson, by the said bishop's 

""" \ icar-general, amongst which were these : First, that he had affirmed, 

that it was as lawful for a temporal man to have two Avives at once, 

T.sti- ns ''"' u l"' il ' st to have two benefices. Also, that he had in his custody 

many a hook of the four evangelists in English, and did often read therein"; 

(') Of tin : b men nee more hereafter in the tabic following, page 221. 



PERSECUTION IN THE DIOCESE OF LONDON. ] 79 

and that he favoured the doctrines and opinions of Martin Luthei fr„™ 
openly pronouncing, that Luther had more teaming in his little finger *'"''• 
than all the doctors in England in their whole bodies; and that all A.D. 
the priests in the church were blind, and had led the people the wrong 1509 
way. Likewise it was alleged against him, that he had denied pur°- , *? 
gatory, and had said, that while he was alive he would do as much 1518 ' 
for himself as he could, for after his death he thought that prayers Lather 
and alms-deeds could little help him. 

m These and such like matters were those wherewith these poor and 
simple men and women were chiefly charged, and as heinous heretics 
excommunicated, imprisoned, and at last compelled to recant: and 
some of them, in utter shame and reproach (besides the ordinary 
bearing of faggots before the cross in procession, or else at a sermon) 
were enjoined for a penance, as they termed it, as well to appear once 
every year before their ordinary, as also to wear the si^n of a fa^ot The 
painted upon their sleeves, or other part of their outward garment; 3^ h 
and that, during all their lives, or so often and long as it pleased P cna " ce - 
their ordinary to appoint. By which long, rigorous, and open punish- 
ing of them, they meant, as it should seem, utterly to' terrify and 
keep back all others from the true knowledge of Jesus Christ and his 
gospel. But the Lord be evermore praised, what effect their wicked 
purposes therein have taken, these our most lightsome days of God's 
glorious gospel do most joyfully declare. 

There were also troubled, besides these, certain others more sim- 
ple and ignorant, who, having but a very small smack or taste of the 
truth, did yet at first (as it may seem) gladly consent unto the same ; 
but, being apprehended, they quickly again yielded, and therefore had 
only assigned them for their penance, the "bearing of a little candle 
before the cross, without any further open abjuring or recanting. 
Amongst these I find two especially ; the one a woman called Ellen The tnm- 
Heyer, to whom it was objected, that she had neither confessed her- Sta? 
self unto the priest, nor yet received the sacrament of the altar by ^p* 
the space of four years ; and notwithstanding, had yearly eaten flesh Robert 
at Easter, and after, as well as others that" had received the same, "ay kt " 
contrary to the usual manner and conversation of all other christian 
people. 

The other was a man named Robert Berkcway, who (besides most 
wicked blasphemies against God which he utterly denied) was 
charged to have spoken heinous words against the pope's holy and 
blessed martyr, Thomas Beckct, calling 'him micher 1 and thief, for 
that he wrought by crafts and imaginations. 

Thus have I, as briefly as I could, summarily collected the princi- 
pal articles objected against these weak, infirm, and earthy vessels; not 
minding hereby to excuse or condemn them in these their fearful falls 
and dangerous defections : but, leaving them unto the immeasurable 
rich mercies of the Lord, I thought only to make manifest the unsa- 
lable bloody cruelty of the pope's kingdom against the gospel and 
true church of Christ ; nothing mitigating their envious rage, no, not 
against the very simple idiots ; and that sometimes in most frivolous 

(1) "Micher," a covetous man.— Ed- 

N.2 



Against 
transub- 
stantia- 



180 PERSECUTION IN THE DIOCESE OF LONDON. 

iicnry and irreligious cases. But now, leaving to say any further herein, I 

' IIL will, by God's grace, go forward with other somewhat more serious 

A1) - matters. 
1509 

1518 Cfje ^eartj and JEartpruom of ODiniam &toeettn0, and %*ty\ 

23reto#ec. 

In searching and perusing of the register, for the collection of the 
names and articles before recited, I find that within the compass of 
the same years there were also some others, who, after they had once 
showed themselves as frail and inconstant as the rest (being either 
therewith pricked in conscience, or otherwise zealously overcome with 
the manifest truth of God's most sacred Word), became yet again as 
earnest professors of Christ as ever they were before ; and for the 
same profession were the second time apprehended, examined, con- 
demned, and in the end w T ere most cruelly burned. Of this number 
were William Sweeting, and John Brewster, w r ho were both burned 
together in Smithfield, the 18th day of October, a. d. 1511. 

The chief case of religion alleged against them in their articles, w r as 
their faith concerning the sacrament of Christ's body and blood, 
X 'T\T\ wn i cn ' because it differed from the- absurd, gross and Capernaitical 
presence, opinion of the new schoolmen, was counted as most heinous heresy. 
There were other things besides objected against them, as the reading 
of certain forbidden books, and accompanying with such persons as 
Cruel ri- were suspected of heresy. But one great and heinous offence counted 
fheca- amongst the rest, was their putting and leaving off the painted 
thoiic faggots, which they were at their first abjuring enjoined to wear as 
against badges during their lives, or so long as it should please their ordinary 
professors t° appoint, and not to leave them off upon pain of relapse, until they 
''L"' e i were dispensed withal for the same. The breach of this injunction 
was esteemed to be of no small weight, and yet the matter well and 
thoroughly considered, it seemeth by their confessions, they were both 
thereunto by necessity enforced. For the one, named Sweeting, 
being for fear of the bishop's cruelty constrained to wander the coun- 
tries to get his poor living, came at length unto Colchester, where, by 
the parson of the parish of Mary Magdalen, he was provoked to be 
the holy water clerk, and in that consideration had that infamous badge 
first taken away from him. The other (who was Brewster) left off 
his at the commandment of the comptroller of the earl of Oxford's 
house, who, hiring the poor man to labour in the earl's household 
business, would not suffer him, working there, to wear that counter- 
feit cognizance any longer : so that, as I said, necessity of living 
seemeth to compel both of them at first to break that injunction. 
And therefore, if charity had borne as great sway in the hearts of the 
pope's clergy, as did cruelty, this trifle would not have been so 
liiinously taken, as to be brought against them for an article, and 
cause of condemnation to death. But where tyranny once takcth 
place, as well all godly love, as also all human reason and duties, are 
quite forgotten. 

Well, to be short, what for the causes before recited, as also for 
that tluy had once already abjured, and yet, as they term it, fell 
again into relapse, they were both, as you have heard, in the end 



JOHN BROWNE, MARTYR, CRUELLY HANDLED. 181 

burned together in Smithfield ; although the same parties, as tin- re- fifcwy 
gistcr recordeth, did again, before their death, tearfully forsake their ""' _ 
former revived constancy, and submitting themselves unto the disci- A- D. 
pline of the Romish church, craved absolution from their exconinm- 1309 
nication. Howbeit, because many of the registers 1 notes and records ,£?„ 
in such cases may rightly be doubted of, and so called into question, ■ '' ' ' - 
I refer the certain knowledge hereof unto the Lord (who is the trier riSST 1 *" 
of all truths), and the external judgment unto the godly and discreet ^taton* 
reader: not forgetting yet by the way (if that the report should be of*e 
true) upon so just an occasion, to charge that catholic clergy, and catholics? 
their wicked laws, with a more shameless tyranny and uncharitable 
cruelty than before : for if they nothing stay their bloody malice 
towards such as so willingly submit themselves unto their mercies ; 
what favour may the faithful and constant professors of Christ look 
for at their hands ? I might here also ask of them, how they follow 
the pitiful and loving admonition (or rather precept) of our Saviour 
Christ (whose true and only church they so stoutly brag to be), who 
in Luke xvii. saith, " Though thy brother sin against thee seven 
times in a day, and seven times in a day turn to thee, saying, It re- 
penteth me ; thou shalt forgive him." But what go I about to 
allure them unto the following of the rule and counsel of Him, unto k mercy 
whose word and gospel they seem most open and utter enemies? '"^ 
Wherefore not purposing to stay any longer thereupon, I will leave church, 
them unto the righteous revengement of the Lord. 

Hereunto let us now adjoin the story of one John Browne, a good 
martyr of the Lord, burnt at Ashford about this fourth year of king 
Henry VIII., whose story hereunder followeth. 

3!ohn 2&rotone, Haactnc* 1 

The occasion of the first trouble of this John Browne, was by a 
priest sitting in a Gravesend barge. John Browne, being at the same 
time in the barge, came and sat hard by him ; whereupon, after cer- 
tain communication, the priest asked him ; " Dost thou know," said 
he, " who I am ? thou sittest too near me, thou sittest on my clothes :" 
" No, sir," said he, " I know not what you are." " I tell thee I am 
a priest." " What, sir ! are you a parson, or vicar, or a lady's chap- 
lain ?" " No," quoth he again, " I am a soul-priest, I sing for a 
soul," saith he. " Do you so, sir ?" quoth the other, " that is well 
done ; I pray you sir," quoth he, " where find you the soul when 
you go to mass "?" " I cannot tell thee," said the priest. " I pray 
you, where do you leave it, Sir, when the mass is done ?" " I can- 
not tell thee," said the priest. " Neither can you tell where you find 
it when you go to mass, nor where you leave it when the mass is done ; 
how can you then have the soul ?" said he. " Go thy ways," said the 
priest, "thou art a heretic, and I will be even with thee." So at 
the landing, the priest, taking with him Walter More, and William 
More, two gentlemen, brethren, rode straightways to the archbishop 
Warham. Hereupon the said John Browne within three days 

(1) This John Browne was father to Richard Browne, who was in prison in Canterbury, and 
should hare been burned, with two more besides himself, the next day after the death of quocn 
Mary, but that by the proclaiming of queen Elizabeth, they escaped. 



JS2 JOHN BKOWXK, MAETYE, CBUELLY HANDLED. 

mnry after, his wife being churched the same clay, and he, bringing in a 
""■ m ess of pottage to the board to his guests, was sent for, and his feet 
A.D. boiuul under his own horse, and so brought up to Canterbury ; neither 
1509 his wife, nor he, nor any of his, knowing whither he went, 1 nor 
lr l ?o whither he should : and there continuing from Low-Sunday, till the 
— - — — Friday before Whitsunday (his wife not knowing all this while 
where he was), he was set in the stocks overnight, and on the mor- 
row went to death, and was burned at Ashford, a. d. 1517. The 
same night, as he was in the stocks at Ashford, where he and his 
wife dwelt, his wife then hearing of him, came and sat by him all the 
night before he should be burned : to whom he, declaring the whole 
story how he was handled, showed and told, how that he could not 
set his feet to the ground, for they were burned to the bones ; and 
John told her, how by the two bishops, Warham and Fisher, his feet were 
Browne heated upon the hot coals, and burned to the bones, " to make me, 1 ' 
AstSbrd said he, " to deny my Lord, which I will never do ; for if I should 
fourth the deny my Lord in this world, he would hereafter deny me. 11 " I pray 
•] | l ^ r of thee, 11 said he, " therefore, good Elizabeth ! continue as thou hast 
vni. begun, and bring up thy children virtuously, and in the fear of God." 
And so the next day, on Whitsunday even, this godly mart}!: was 
1 turned. Standing at the stake, this prayer he made, holding up his 
hands : 

' O Lord, I yield me to thy grace, 
Grant me mercy for my trespass; 
Let never the fiend my soul chase. 
Lord, I will bow, and thou shalt beat, 
Let never my soul come in hell-heat.' 

1 Into thy hands I commend my spirit ; thou hast redeemed me, O Lord of 
truth.' 

And so he ended. 2 

At the fire one Chilton, the baily-arrant, bade cast in Browne's 
children also, for they would spring, said he, of his ashes. 

This blessed martyr, John Browne, had borne a faggot seven years 
before, in the days of king Henry VII. 

As it is the property of Satan ever to malice the prosperous estate 
of the saints of God, and true professors of Christ ; so ceaseth he not 
continually to stir up his wicked members to the effectual accom- 
plishing of that which his envious nature so greedily desireth ; if not 
always openly by colour of tyrannical laws, yet, at the leastwise, by 
some subtle practice of secret murder; which thing doth most plainly 
appear, not only in a great number of the blessed martyrs of Christ's 
church, mentioned in this book, but also and especially in the dis- 
course of this lamentable history that now I have in hand, concerning 
the secret and cruel murdering of Richard Hun, whose story here 
consequently ensueth, decerped and collected partly out of the regis- 
ters of London, partly out of a bill exhibited and denounced in the 
parliament-house. 

(1) Chilton of Wey, a baily-amnt, and one Benre of Willesborough, with two of the bishop's ser- 
vants, set him upon the horse, and so carried him away. 

testimonio Alicia Browne, ejus Alias, cuius mariti nonien diccbatur Stiat. in parochia 
Bt. Puled. 



ARTICLES AGAINST HUN. 



l.V, 



€tyt ;§>torn of fiictjatD i'Jun, jUartpjr.' &gj 

There was in the year of our tjord 151 1, one Richard Hun, 

merchant-tailor, dwelling- within the city of London, and freeman of "• 1 i ) - 
the same, who was esteemed during his life, and worthily reputed, to 
and taken not only for a man of true dealing and good substance, but i-,is. 
also for a good catholic man. Tliis Richard Hun had a child at nurse 
in Middlesex, in the parish of St. Mary Matsilon, which died ; by the 
occasion whereof one Thomas Dryfield, clerk, being parson of the said 
parish, sued the said Richard Hun in the spiritual court, for a bearing- 
sheet, which the said Thomas Dryfield claimed unjustly to have of 
the said Hun, for a mortuary for Stephen Hun, son of the said 
Richard Hun ; which Stephen being at nurse in the said parish, died, 
being of the age of five weeks, and not above. Hun answered him 
again, That forasmuch as the child had no propriety in the sheet, he 
therefore neither would pay it, nor the other ought to have it. 
Whereupon the priest, moved with a covetous desire, and loath to 
lose his pretended right, ascitcd him to appear in the spiritual court, 
there to answer the matter : whereupon the said Richard Hun, being 
troubled in the spiritual court, was forced to seek counsel of the 
learned in the law of this land, and pursued a writ of praemunire 
against the said Thomas Dryfield, and others his aiders, counsellors, 
proctors, and adherents, as by the process thereof is yet to be seen. 
Which when the rest of the priestly order heard of, greatly disdain- 
ing that any layman should so boldly enterprise such a matter against 
any of them, and fearing also, that if they should now suffer this 
priest to be condemned at the suit of Hun, there would be thereby 
ever after a liberty opened unto all others of the laity to do the like 
with the rest of the clergy in such like cases, they straightways, both The de- 
to stop this matter, and also to be revenged of him for that he had demean- 
already done, sought all means they possibly could how to entrap and °^ tlie 
brincr "him within the danger of their own cruel laws. And thereupon hoi y ca- 
making secret and diligent inquisition, and seeking ail corners they be noted, 
could against him, at length they found a means how to accuse him 
of heresy unto Richard Fitzjames then bishop of London, and so did; 
who (desirous to satisfy the revenging and bloody affection of his 
chaplains), caused him thereupon to be apprehended and committed 
unto prison within the Lollards 1 tower at Paul's, so that none of his 
friends might be suffered to come to him. Thus Richard Hun, being Huncom- 
clapt in the Lollards 1 tower, shortly after, at the earnest instigation ™; i , 1 , /,;! 1 '." 
of Dr. Horsey, the bishop's chancellor (a man more ready to prefer tower. 
the clergy's cruel tyranny, than the truth of Christ's gospel), was 
brought before the bishop at his manor of Fulham, the 2d day of 
December, in the year before mentioned, where, within his chapel, he 
examined him upon these articles following, collected against him by 
the said Horsey and his accomplices : 

Articles objected against Richard Hun. 
I. That he had read, taught, preached, published, and obstinately defended, 
against the laws of Almighty God, that tithes, or paying of tithes, was never 
ordained to be due, saving only by the covetousnoss of priests. 

(1) The strenuous and successful efforts made by the leaden of the Popish party, and the rti n 
ful exposures which ensued, render the history of llichard Ilun one of the most Interesting ou 
record.— Ed. 



134 ARTICLES AGAINST HUN. 

fTimry [I* Item, That he had read, taught, preached, published, aud obstinately 
VIII. defended, that bishops and priests be the Scribes and Pharisees that did crucify 
Christ, and damned him to death. 

III. Item, That he had read, taught, preached, &c, that bishops and priests 
be teachers and preachers, but no doers, neither fulrillers of the law of God; but 
catching, ravening, and all things taking, and nothing ministering, neither 
giving. 

IV. Item, Where and when one Joan Baker was detected and abjured of 
many great heresies (as it appeareth by her abjuration), the said Richard Hun 
said, published, taught, preached, and obstinately took upon him, saying, that 
he would defend her and her opinions, if it cost him five hundred marks. 

V. Item, afterwards, where and when the said Joan Baker, after her abjura- 
tion, was enjoined open penance according to her demerits, the said Richard 
Hun said, published, taught, and obstinately did defend her, saying, ' The 
bishop of London and his officers have clone open wrong to the said Joan Baker, 
in punishing her for heresy ; for her sayings and opinions be according to the 
laws of God : wherefore the bishop and his officers are more worthy to be 
punished for heresy than she is.' 

VI. Item, That the said Richard Hun hath in his keeping divers English 
books prohibited and damned by the law ; as the Apocalypse in English, epistles 
and gospels in English, Wickliff's damnable works, and other books containing 
infinite errors, in which he hath been a long time accustomed to read, teach, 
and study daily. 

Particular answer unto these several objections in the register I 
find none, saving that next under them there is written in his name, 
with a contrary hand, these words following : " As touching these 
articles, I have not spoken them as they be here laid ; howbeit unad- 
visedly I have spoken words somewhat sounding to the same, for 
which I am sorry, and ask God mercy, and submit me to my lord's 
This charitable and favourable correction ;" which they affirm to be written 
smeUeth with Hun's own hand : but how likely to truth that is, let the discreet 
radcxafty wisdom of the reader indifferently judge by the whole sequel of this 
lacking, process. And further, if it were his own act, what occasion then had 
they so cruelly to murder him as they did ? seeing he had already so 
willingly confessed his fault, and submitted himself to the charitable 
and favourable correction of the bishop (for which, even by their own 
law, in cases of most heinous heresy, he ought to be again received 
and pardoned) ; except perhaps they will account horrible murder to 
Arpi- be but the bishop's favourable correction. Again, it seems they had 
and tear very few credible witnesses to prove certainly that this was his answer 
proving an( i hand-writing; for the registrar, or some other for him, appointed 
B«?er a "ot *° rccor( t tnc sam c, hath certified it as of hearsay from others, and not 
to be ot of his own proper sight and knowledge, as the words noted in the 
margin of the book, adjoining to the aforesaid answer, plainly do 
declare, which arc these : " Hoc fuit scriptum manu propria Ricardi 
limine, ut diciiw? Now if he had any sure ground to establish 
this certificate, I doubt not but he would, instead of " ut dicitur, 1 ' 
have registered the names of the assistants at the time of his examina- 
tion (which he confesseth to be many), as generally they do in all 
their acts, especially in cases of heresy, as they term it. But how 
scrupulous those good fellows that spared not so shamelessly to murder 
him, would be to make a lie of him that was already dead, let, as I 
said, the indifferent judgment of the godlywisc discern. 

This examination ended, the bishop sent him back again the same 
day onto the Lollards' tower; and then, by the appointment of Dr. 




s 



M 



136 ARTICLES AGAINST HUN AFTER HIS DEATH. 

Hm*v most likely, that if the party were once condemned of heresy, the inquest 
rt "- dust not then but find him guilty of his own death, and so clearly 
A. I), acquit them from all the former suspicion of privy murder. This de- 
1509 termination of theirs they did immediately put in practice, in order as 

*? followcth: 

1,)]S - First, besides the articles before mentioned, which they affirm were 

Dr. Hed 0D j ec t e d against him in his life-time, Dr. Hcd did now also after his 

°f«i»e " death collect certain others out of the prologue of his English Bible, 

remaining then in the bishop's hands, which he diligently perused, not 

to learn any good thing therein, but to get thereout such matter as he 

thought might best serve their cursed purpose ; as appeareth by the 

tenor of the articles, which arc these :' 

New Articles commenced against Hun after his Death. 

I. First, The said book damneth all holy' canons, calling them ceremonies 
and statutes of sinful men and uncunning, and calleth the pope Satan, and Anti- 
christ. 

II. Item, It damneth the pope's pardons, saying they be but leasings. 

III. Item, The said book of Him saith, that kings and lords, called christian 
in name, and heathen in conditions, defile the sanctuary of God, bringing clerks 
full of covetousness, heresy, and malice, to stop God's law, that it cannot be 
known, kept, and freely preached. 

IV. Item, The said book saith, that lords and prelates pursue full cruelly 
them that would teach truly and freely the law of God, and cherish them that 
preach sinful men's traditions and statutes ; by which he meaneth the holy 
canons of Christ's church. 

V. Item, That poor men and idiots have the truth of the holy Scriptures, more 
than a thousand prelates, and religious men, and clerks of the school. 

VI. Item, That christian kings and lords set up idols in God's house, and 
excite the people to idolatry. 

VII. Item, That princes, lords, and prelates so doing, be worse than Herod 
that pursued Christ, and worse than Jews and heathen men that crucified Christ. 

VIII. Item, That every man, swearing by our lady, or any other saint or 
creature, giveth more honour to the saints than to the Holy Trinity; and so he 
saith they be idolaters. 

IX. Item, He saith that saints ought not to be honoured. 

X. Item, He damneth adoration, prayer, kneeling, and offering to images, 
which he calleth stocks and stones. 

XI. Item, He saith, that the very body of the Lord is not contained in the 
sacrament of the altar, but that men receiving it, shall thereby keep in mind 
that Christ's flesh was wounded and crucified for us. 

XII. Item, He damneth the university of Oxford, with all degrees and facul- 
ties in it, as art, civil, canon, and divinity ; saying, that they hinder the true 
way to come to the knowledge of the laws of God and holy Scripture. 

XIII. Item, He defendeth the translation of the Bible and the holy Scrip- 
ture into the English tongue, which is prohibited by the laws of our mother, holy 
church. 2 

These articles thus collected, as also the others before specified, they 
caused, for a more show of their pretended justice and innocency, to 
be openly read the next Sunday following, by the preacher at Paul's 
Cross, with this protestation made before. 

' Masters nnd friends, for certain causes and considerations, I have in £om- 
mandment to rehearse, show, and publish here unto you, the articles of heresy 

(1) Ex Regint, R. Fitzjamcs, Lond. 

(2) A 'holy mother church' which cannot abide the word of Uodto be translated! 



THE CONDEMNATION OF HUN. 187 

upon which Richard Hun was detected and examined : and also other great jiewy 

articles and damnable points and opinions of heresy contained in some of his f iJ '- 

books, which be come to light and knowledge here ready to be shown.' ^ ^) 

1509 
And therewith he read the articles openly unto the people, con- to 
eluding with these words : 



1511 



' And masters, if there be any man desirous to see the specialty of these The 
articles, or doubt whether they be contained in this book or not, for satisfying 1 | ,sh °P s 
of his mind let him come to my lord of London, and he shall see it with good J",'/, at 
will. P**'* 

'- Moreover, here I counsel and admonish, that if there be any persons that !|™?* st 
of their siir.pleness have been familiar and acquainted with the said Richard Hun. 
Hun in these articles, or have heard him read upon this book, or any other 
sounding to heresy, or have any like books themselves, let them come unto my 
lord of London betwixt this and Candlemas next, and acknowledge their fault, 
and they shall be charitably treated and dealt withal, so that both their goods 
and honesty shall be saved : and if they will not come of their own offer, but 
abide the process of the law, then at their own peril be it, if the rigour of the 
law be executed against them.' 

After which open publication and admonition, the bishop at sundry 
times examined clivers of his priests, and other lay-persons, upon the 
contents of both these articles. Among which examinatcs there was 
a man-servant and a maid of the said Hun's, who, although they had 
of long time dwelt with him, were not able to charge him with any 
great thing worthy of reprehension, no, not in such points as the 
bishop chiefly objected against him. But yet the priests (through 
whose procurement this mischief was first begun) spared no whit stoutly 
and maliciously to accuse him, some in the contents of the first articles, 
and some in the second. Wherefore having now, as they thought, 
sufficient matter against him, they purposed speedily to proceed to 
his condemnation ; and because they would seem to do all things for- 
mally, and by prescript order, they first drew out certain short and 
summary rules, 1 by which the bishop should be directed in this solemn 
session ; which are these : 

I. First, Let the bishop sit in his tribunal-seat in our lady's chapel. 

II. Secondly, Let him recite the cause of his coming, and take notaries to 
him, to enact what shall be there done. 

III. Thirdly, Let him declare, how upon Sunday last, at Paul's Cross, he Mark the 
caused to be published a general monition or denunciation, that all fautors and [£?""*™ f 
maintainers of Richard Hun should come in as by this day, and submit them- ce^i,'^, 
selves : and let him signify withal, how certain have come in, and have appeared 
already. 

IV. Fourthly, Let him protest and say, that if there remain any yet behind, 
who have not appeared according to the former monition and denunciation, 
yet if they will come and appear, and submit themselves, they shall be heard 
and received with grace and favour. 

V. Fifthly, Let the bishop, or some other at his appointment, recite the 
articles objected against Richard Hun in the time of his life, and then the 
other articles likewise, which were out of his great book of the Bible extracted. 

VI. Sixthly, Let the answers and confessions of the said Richard Hun smn- 
marily be recited, witli the attestations made to the same articles. Also let 
his books be exhibited, and then Thomas Brooke, his servant, be called for. 

VII. Seventhly, Let it be openly cried at the choir door, that if there be 
any who will defend the articles, opinions, books, or the memory of the said 

P) li:< I'.r 1st. a. Fi..:j.i:i>cs. Lund. 



188 THE SENTENCE DEFINITIVE AGAINST HUN AFTER HTS DEATH. 

_ Richard Hun, let them come and appear, and they shall be heard as the law in 
rill, that behalf shall require. 

' VIII. Eighthly, Let it he openly cried, as in manner hefore, for such as he 

1509 m . e j vt . rs favourers, defenders, or believers of the said Richard Hun, that all 
t<x such do appear and submit themselves to the bishop, or else he intendeth to 
1518. proceed to the excommunication of them in general, according to the exigence 
of the law in that behalf. 

IX. Ninthly, Let the bishop speak to the standers-by, aud to those of the 
clergy who sit with him upon the bench, demanding of them, what their judg- 
ment and opinion is touching the premises ? and whether they think it con- 
venient and agreeable for him to proceed to the sentence against the said 
Richard Hun, in this part to be awarded ? 

X. Tenthly, After their consent and counsel given, let the bishop read out 
the sentence. 

XL Finally, After the sentence read, let the bishop appoint the publication 
and denunciation of the aforesaid sentence to be read at Paul's Cross, or else- 
where, as to him shall seem expedient; with a citation likewise generally against 
all those that be receivers, favourers, and believers of the said Hun, to give to 
understand why he ought not further to proceed against them, &c. 

A SOLEMN PROCESS OF FITZJAMES, BISHOP OF LONDON, AGAINST 
HUN, BEING DEAD. 

Now according to the tenor of these prescripts and rules, the 
bishop of London, accompanied with the bishops of Durham and 
Lincoln, sat in judgment the 16th day of December then next follow- 
ing, within the place by the same appointed ; adjoining also unto 
them, as witnesses of their proceedings, six public notaries, his own 
register, and about twenty-five doctors, abbots, priors, and priests of 
name, with a great rabble of other common anointed catholics : 
where, after a solemn proclamation made, that if there were any that 
would defend the opinions and books of Richard Hun, they should 
presently appear and be heard according to law, he commanded all 
the articles and objections against Hun openly to be read before the 
assembly: and then, perceiving that none durst appear in his defence, 
by the advice of his assistants he pronounced the sentence definitive 
against the dead carcase, condemning it of heresy ; and therewith 
committed the same unto the secular power, to be by them burned 
accordingly. This ridiculous decree was as fondly accomplished in 
Smithfield on the twentieth day of the same month of December 
(being full sixteen days after they had thus horribly murdered 
death, him) to the great grief and disdain of all the people. And because 
the bishop, in his sentence definitive, useth a more formal and ample 
order of words than accustomably is used in others, and also pre- 
tendcth full hypocritically in the beginning, as it were by way of 
induction, divers causes that moved him to proceed against the 
dead carcase; I thought good therefore here to adjoin the same, 
as a final conclusion of their crafty coloured tragedy, the tenor whereof 
is hereunder written. 1 

(1) The sentence definitive against Richard Hun after his death. 

In Del nomine, Amen. Cum nuper (pendente sacra synodo, et general] pnrlatomm et cleri 
provincial Cantuariensis convocatione, in ecclesia nostra cathedrali sancti Pauli London, per 
prcelatoi el clerum provincial Cantuariensis, actualitcr ibidem exercita) contijiisset, quod quidam 
ELichardui Hunnede parocliia sancta- Marjjaret.-p in Ilrifre-strcte Lond. de ct super crimine ha-rc- 
OetB pravitatis iintatus ct ditlamatus extitisset: revcrendissimus in Christo pater et dominus, 
don linns Williclinus miseratione divina Cantuariensis archiepiscopus, totius Anglia- prinias, it 
•I 11 '"in ■<• M-'lis li'iratus, ipsius vcneraliilis cactus et convocations caput et praisidens, ex vehe- 
mentibua el vlolentU (quae contra eundem Richardum limine super ha-rctica pravitate tune 
babebat) pwesumptlonibua contra eundem Richardum, debitam faceie Inquieitionem cuplens, ut 



The 

corpse of 
Hun 
burned 

alter his 



THE SENTENCE DEFINITIVE AGAINST HUN, AFTEK HIS DEATH. 189 

Notwithstanding, after all this tragical and cruel handling of the '//•»'.</ 
dead body, and their fair and colourable show of justice, yet the in- 



quest no whit stayed their diligent searching out of the true cause 1 •"><)<) 
and means of his death. Insomuch that when they had been divers *° 

times called both before the king's privy-council (his majesty himself ° 

being sometimes present), and also before the chief judges and justices 
of this realm, and that the matter being by them throughly examined, 
and perceived to be much bolstered and borne withal by the clergy, 
was again wholly remitted unto their determination and ending ; they 
found by good proof, and sufficient evidence, that Dr. Horsey the Dr. Hor- 
chancellor, Charles Joseph the simmer, and John Spalding the bell- ceMar, " 
ringer, had privily and maliciously committed this murder; and j ( , ) ' s " rl " 
therefore indicted them all three as wilful murderers. Howbcit, and 
through the earnest suit of the bishop of London unto cardinal murder-' 
Wolsey (as appeareth by his letters hereafter mentioned), means Rf c °/ ar(1 
were found, that at the next sessions of gaol-delivery the king's H"»- 
attorney pronounced the indictment against Dr. Horsey to be false 
and untrue, and him not to be guilty of the murder ; who, being 
then thereby delivered in body, having yet in himself a guilty con- 
science, gat him unto Exeter, and durst never after for shame come 
again unto London. But now that the truth of all this may seem 
more manifest and plain unto all men's eyes, here shall follow, word 
by word, the whole inquiry and verdict of the inquest, exhibited by 

(si ratione hseresis hujusmodi membrum fuissct a corpore Christi mystico praeeisum) ipsum ad 
caput et corpus (id est, Christum, sancta;que matris ecclesiae unitatem) per salutaria monita etcon- 
dignani pcenitentiam revocaret et reduceret : ne idem Richardus inter simplices et devotas Christi 
fidelium et catholicorumanimas coerrando, et zizania haeretica seminando, fidelium mentes macu- 
laret et inficeret, et sinistris ac perversis assertionibus et opinionibus, a veritatis semita et vera 
fide Christiana aberrare faceret; ad effectumcitandi eum ad comparendum coram dicto reverendis- 
simo patre et domino architpiscopo, suisque coepiscopis et suffraganeis, cajterisque illius concionis 
sive sacra synodi praelatis, super praemissis responsurum perquiri fecit et mandavit. Verum 
idem Richardus apprehendi non potuit. Unde dictus reverendissimus Pater suum tam pium, tarn 
sanctum et laudabile propositum ad effectum perducere non potuit. Quod cum nos Richardus 
permissionedivina Londinensis episcopus, dicti Richardi ordinarius, (cui etiamtanquam de haeresi 
Buspectus, idem Richardus a multis retroactis temporibus delatus et detectus extiterat) intellexe- 
rimus, non volentes nee audentes pra?dicta facinora silentio et conniventibus oculis pertransire et 
praetermittere, ne ob nostram negligentiam, et torporem sanguis ejus in districto examine, sive 
Dei judicio, de manibus nostris requiratur, volentes certiorari et informari an ea quae de ipso et 
contra eum nobis delata et dicta fuerant, veritate aliqua fulcitentur, et an in luce vel in tenebris 
ambularet, ne fortasse ovis morbida existens, innocuas animas gregis dominici pestifera lueresi 
corrumperet et inficeret, ad informandum animum nostrum, ipsum coram nobis vocandum, et 
super praemissis diligenter interrogandum et examinandum, omniaque faciendum, quae secundum 
canonicas sanctiones erant facienda (ejus animam pio et paterno zelantes affectu), descendimus et 
properavimus : contra quern objectis judicialiter et propositis publice in judicio articulis, de et 
super quibus nobis (utpra'fertur) delatus, detectus, et notatus fuerat. Quos pervenerabilcm virum 
magistrum Johannem Downam hie publice jam lectos, pro hie lectis et insertis habemus et haberi 
volumus; habitisque etreceptis ad eosdem articulos responsionilms et confcssionlbus suis. Deinde 
testes fide dignos de et super eisdem articulis et aliis contra dictum Richardum in debits juris 
forma recepimus, admisimus, et diligenter examinari fecimus; propositdquc nuper per nos verbo 
Dei ad crucem divi Pauli, ejus detestabiles haereses eterrores, in articulis et libris suis, quibus usus 
est, comprehensas, in ejus et ipsorum detestationem et damnationem publicantcs, atque publico 
recitantes, populo in magna multitudine ibidem tunc congregato, notificavimus et intimavinius: 
Quod isto die contra eundem Richardum, tanquam contra hareticum, ad ipsiusque condemna- 
tionem et excommunicationem in specie, ad aliaque in hac parte requisita, necnon ad excommu- 
nicationem receptatorum, defensorum, fautorum, et credentium ipsius in genere, juxta canonicas 
sanctiones, sanctorum patrum decreta, et omnem juris vigorem et dispositionem, Deo duce, pro- 
cedere intendebamus : monitionemque sive denunciationem quandam generalem dedimus et feci- 
mus tunc ibidem, videlicet, quod si qui fuerint ejus receptatores.defensores, fautores, et credentes, 
uu6d citra hunc diem ad nos et sanctae matris ecclesi:e giemium redirent, et se submitturent : 
quod si facerent (de misericordia omnipotentis Dei conlisi), polliciti sumus quod ipsos de errori- 
bus et reatibus suis hujusmodi pcenitentes, cum gratia, benignitate, misericordia, et favore, adani- 
niarum suarum solatium et salutem reciperimus, quodque bonestatem eorum pro posse serva- 
remus in hac parte. Alioquin si sic sponte venire non curarent, sed juris ordinarium processum 
expectarent ; scirent nos hoc admissum adversus eos severius exeouturos, in quantum jura permit- 
terent. Adveniente itaque jam die isto, ad praeniissa et infra scripia facienda, sic ut praefertur, 
per nos praetixo, nos Richardus episcopus antedictus, in negotio Lnquisitionis ha-rctica; pra- 
ditatis praedictre legitime procedentes, volentesque, hujusmodi Degotium sine debito terminare, 
solenne concilium tam in sacra theologica facilitate, quam jure canonico et civili doctorum, 
et hunc venerabilem ccetum cleri et populi coram nobis fecimus congregarv; et visis, auditis, 
intelleetis, rimatis, ac diligenter et niatura dcliberatione discussis meritis et ciicumstantiis 



100 THE VERDICT OF THE INQUEST CONCERNING HUN 

Henry tllClll UJltO th( 

his own hand. 



iienry them unto the coroner of London, and so given up and signed with 



THE VERDICT OF THE INQUEST. 

L r >1S. The fifth and the sixth day of December, in the sixth year of the reign of our 
sovereign lord king Henry VIII., William Barnwell, coroner of London, the 
day and year abovesaid, within the ward of Castle-Baynard of London, assem- 
bled a quest, whose names afterward do appear, and hath sworn them truly to 
inquire of the death of one Richard Hun, which lately was found dead in the 
Lollards' tower within Paul's church of London : Whereupon all we of the in- 
quest together went up into the said tower, where we found the body of the 
said Hun hanging upon a staple of iron, in a girdle of silk, with fair counte- 
nance, his head fair kemped, and his bonnet right sitting upon his head, with 
his eye and mouth fair closed, without any staring, gaping or frowning, also 
without any drivelling or spurging in any place of his body : Whereupon by one 
assent all we agreed to take down the dead body of the said Hun, and as soon 
as we began to heave the body it was loose : whereby, by good advisement, we 
perceived that the girdle had no knot about the staple, but it was double-cast ; 
and the links of an iron chain, which did hang on the same staple, were laid 
upon the same girdle whereby lie did hang ; Also the knot of the girdle that 
went about his neck, stood under his left ear, which caused his head to lean 
towards his right shoulder. Notwithstanding there came out of his nostrils 
two small streams of blood to the quantity of four drops. Save only these four 
drops of blood, the face, lips, chin, doublet, collar, and shirt of the said Hun 
were clean from any blood. Also we find that the skin both of his neck and 
throat, beneath the girdle of silk, was fret and failed away, with that thing 
which the murderers had broken his neck withal. Also the hands of the said 
Hun were wrung in the wrists, whereby we perceived that his hands had been 
bound. 

Moreover, we find that within the said prison was no mean whereby a man 

negotii memorati, actisque et actitatis in eodem productis et deductis praedictorum, digesto et 
mature concilio (cum nullus appareat contradictor seu defensor, qui dicti Richardi opiniones, 
articulos, et memoriam defendero velit), solum Deum oculis nostris, proponentes ad sententiam 
nostram contra eum, ejus opiniones et libros, receptatoresque, fautores, defensores, et credentes, 
se nobis juxta tenorem et formam monitionis et denunciationis nostrarum pnedictarum minimi 
submittentes, nee ad gremium sanctae matris ecclesiae redire curantes, licet quidam salvationis 
pii filii citra monitionem et denunciationem nostras praedictas ad nos venerunt, et se submise- 
runt, quos cam gratia et favore recepimus in hac parte ferendam, sic duximus procedendum 
et procedimus in hunc qui sequitur modum. Quia per acta actitata, inquisita, deducta, confessata, 
et probata, necnon per vehementes et urgentes prasumptiones, et judicia perspicua compcrimus 
luculenter, et invenimus dictum Richardum Hunne crimine hfereticaa pravitatis multipliciter 
irri'tihim, atque hoereticum fuisse et esse, nonnullasque opiniones et assertiones detestabiles et 
haereses damnates, dum in humanis agebat, et vitales caperet auras, afhrmasse, proposuisse, et 
recitasse, librisque suspectis, et de jure damnatis, et nonnullas haereses pestiferas in se continen- 
tibus usum fuisse, receptisque, admissis et examinatis testibus per commissarios ad hoc depu- 
tatos de et super impcenitentia finali, pertinacia, et obitu dicti Richardi Hunne: Idcirco nos 
Rlchardus episcopus antedictus, servatis servandis (prout in tali negotio postulat ordo juris), 
( a ) dicti Richardi Hunne impcenitentia ac finali" obstinatia et pertinacia, per evidentia signa testibus 
legitimis, vehementissimis et violentis praesumptionibus comprobatis, prout jam coram nobis 
legitime extitit facta fides, edicto apud crucem ,divi Pauli, die dominico ultimo prasterito, ad 
audiendum et per nos ferendum sententiam, ad hunc diem per nos publice facto et proposito : 
propterea de hujux vcnerabilis coctus (videlicet, reverendorum patrum, dominorum Thomas 
Dunelnuiisis, et Wilhclmi Lincolniensis, ac Johannis Calipolensis, episcoporum, necnon in sacra 
theologia, decretorum, et legum dectorum, et cleri, atque proborum et venerabilium virorum, 
domini majoris, aldermanorum, et vicecomitum civitatis Londinensis, et populi hie congregato- 
runi, et nobis in hac parte assidentium et assistentium) consensu, assensu, et consilio, eundem 
Richardum Hunne diversarum haresium libris, dum vixit, usum fuisse, ac notorium et pertina- 
cem impenitentem haereticum fuisse, ac in haeresi decesisse, atque conscientia criminis et metu 
fntur;c Bententiae, animo pertinaci et impcenitenti, corde indurato obiisse et decesisse, praeraisso- 
rumque prretextu de jure excommunicatum fuisse et esse, atque in excommunicatione hujusmodi 
decessisse, ipsiusque receptatores, fautores, defensores, et credentes, etiam in genere de jure 
fcxcon.inunicatns, atque sententia majoris excommunicationis innodatoset involutos fuisse et esse 
pronunciamus, deceniimus, et declaramus: ipsum Richardum Hunne et libros suos lux'reticos de 
jure damnatos, suamque ac librorum ipsorum memoriam in detestationem et damnationem sceleris 
it crftnlnis liiijusmodi condemnamus : dictumque Richardum Hunne (ob prcemissa), ecclesiastica 
can-re dc-bcre sepultura sententiamus, etiam pronunciamus, decernimus, et declaramus, et in foro 
< la-iirn t.iiu|ii:un membrum putridum projicimus, corpusque suum et ossa brachio et potestati 
ncnJaii teUnqulmui et coimnittimus, juxta et secundum canonicas et legitinias sniictiones, con- 

*'"'" " j 1 "' ' ludabllei in regno Anglia- ah antiquo usitatas et ohservatas, in opprobrium sempi- 

icriitiin .-I ,|. I, ■•.tationcm rrimuiis ncfandissimi pnedicti, ad reternamque hujus rei memoriam, 
rnmquc Chnsti hdelium metum atque terrorem, per banc nostram sententiam, sive 
cnale aecretum, quam sive quod ferimus et promulgamus in his scriptis. 

.!,"} m'',' , 1 ll " ;,l , 1 , ' ,K ' ,i ,"^y •», ^ l»im, when you say before, that by his own hand-writing he 
MibmitU'd himself to the biflhop'e favourable correction! 



THE VERDICT OF THE INQUEST CONCERNING HUN. 191 

might hang himself, but only a stool ; which stool stood upon a bolster of a bed, Henry 
so tickle, that any man or beast might not touch it so little, but it was ready to iUI - 
fall : whereby we perceived, that it was not possible that Hun might hang , ,. 
himself, the stool so standing. Also all the girdle from the staple to his neck, i.' Q ' 
as well as the part which went about his neck, was too little for his head to ' 

come out thereat. Also it was not possible that the soft silken girdle should 15]8 

break his neck or skin beneath the girdle. Also we find in a corner, somewhat ° ' ' 

beyond the place where he did hang, a great parcel of blood. Also we find 
upon the left side of Hun's jacket, from the breast downward, two great 
streams of blood. Also within the flap of the left side of his jacket we find a 
great cluster of blood, and the jacket folden down thereupon : which thing the 
said Hun could never fold nor do after he was hanged : whereby it appcareth 
plainly to us all, that the neck of Hun was broken, and the great plenty of 
blood was shed, before he was hanged. Wherefore all we find, by God and all 
our consciences, that Richard Hun was murdered. Also we acquit the said 
Richard Hun of his own death. 

Also there was an end of a wax-candle, which, as John the bellringer saith, 
he left in the prison burning with Hun that same Sunday night that Hun was 
murdered ; which wax-candle we found sticking upon the stocks, fair put out, 
about seven or eight foot from the place where Hun was hanged, which candle, 
after our opinion, was never put out by him, for many likelihoods which we 
have perceived. 

Also at the going up of master chancellor into the Lollards' tower, we have 
good proof that there lay on the stocks a gown, either of murrey, 1 or crimson 
in grain, furred with shanks : whose gown it was we could never prove, neither 
who bare it away. All we find, that Master William Horsey, chancellor to my 
lord of London, hath had at his commandment both the rule and guiding of the 
said prisoner.. Moreover, all we find, that the said Master Horsey, chancellor, 
hath put Charles Joseph out of his office, as the said Charles hath confessed, 
because he would not deal and use the said prisoner so cruelly, and do to him 
as the chancellor would have had him to do. Notwithstanding the deliverance 
of the keys to the chancellor by Charles, on the Saturday night before Hun's 
death, and Chailes riding out of the town on that Sunday in the morning en- 
suing, was but a convention made betwixt Charles and the chancellor to colour 
the murder. For the same Sunday that Charles rode forth, he came again to 
the town at night, and killed Richard Hun, as in the depositions of Julian 
Littel, Thomas Chicheley, Thomas Simondes, and Peter Turner, doth appear. 

After colouring of the murder betwixt Charles and the chancellor conspired, 
the chancellor called to him one John Spalding, bellringer of Paul's, and de- 
livered to the same bellringer the keys of the Lollards' tower, giving to the 
said bellringer a great charge, saying, I charge thee to keep Hun more straitly 
than he hath been kept, and let him have but one meal a day ; moreover, I 
charge thee let nobody come to him without my license, neither to bring him 
shirt, cap, kerchief, or any other thing, but that I see it before it come to* him. 
Also before Hun was carried to Fulham, the chancellor commanded to be put 
upon Hun's neck a great collar of iron, with a great chain, which is too heavy 
for any man or beast to wear, and long to endure. 

Moreover, it is well proved, that before Hun's death the said chancellor Proofs of 
came up into the said Lollards' tower, and kneeling down before Hun, held J 1 "^ 5 
up his hands to him, praying of him forgiveness of all that he had done to him, 
and must do to him. And on Sunday following the chancellor commanded the 
penitentiary of Paul's to go up to him and say a gospel, and make for him holy 
water, and holy bread, and give it to him, which he did : and also the chan- 
cellor commanded that Hun should have his dinner. And the same dinner- 
time Charles, the boy, was shut in prison with Hun, which was never so before; 
and after dinner, when the bellringer fetched out the boy, the bellringer said 
to the same boy, ' Come no more hither with meat for him till to-morrow at 
noon, for my master chancellor hath commanded that he should have but one 
meal a day.' And the same night following Richard Hun was murdered, which 
murder could not have been done without consent and license of the chancellor, 
and also by the witting and knowledge of John Spalding, bellringer ; for there 
(1) " Murrey," mulberry colour. — Ed. 



MIIIIIRT. 



192 DEPOSITIONS CONCERNING THE MURDER OF HUN. 

Henry could no man come into the prison but by the keys, being in John the bellringer's 
/'///. keeping. Also, as by my lord of London's book doth appear, John the bellringer 

' is a poor innocent man. Wherefore all we do perceive, that this murder could 

not be done but by the commandment of the chancellor, and by the witting 
1 ^ 9 and knowing of John the bellringer. 
1518. Charles Joseph, within the Tower of London, of his own free will, and un- 

' — constrained, said, That master chancellor devised, and wrote with his own 

n, 1 '^ "r'" hand, all such heresies as were laid to Hun's charge; record John God, John 
Charlei True, John Pasmere, Richard Gibson, with many others. Also Charles Joseph 
" |lh saith, That when Richard Hun was slain, John the bellringer bare up the stairs 
into the Lollards' tower a wax-candle, having the keys of the doors hanging on 
his arm ; and I Charles went next to him, and master chancellor came up last : 
and when all we came up, we found Hun lying on his bed ; and then master 
chancellor said, ' Lay hands on the thief;' and so all we murdered Hun : and 
then I Charles put the girdle about Hun's neck; and then John bellringer 
and I Charles did heave up Hun, and master chancellor pulled the girdle over 
the staple ; and so Hun was hanged. 

The Deposition of Julian Littell, late servant of Charles Joseph, by 
her free will, unconstrained, the sixth year of our Sovereign Lord 
King Henry the Eighth, within the chapel of our Lady of Beth- 
lehem, showed to the Inquest. 

First, Julian saith, That the Wednesday at night, after the death of Richard 
Hun, Charles Joseph her master came home to his supper : then Julian said to 
him, ' Master, it was told me that ye were in prison.' Charles answered, ' It 
is merry to turn the penny :' and after supper Charles trussed up a parcel of his 
goods, and with help of Julian, bare them into Mr. Porter's house to keep : 
and that done, Charles said to Julian ; ' Julian, if thou wilt be sworn to keep 
my counsel, I will show thee my mind.' Julian answered, ' Yea, if it be 
neither felony nor treason.' Then Charles took a book out of his purse, and 
Julian sware to him thereupon. Then said Charles to Julian, ' I have destroyed 
Richard Hun!' 'Alas, master,' said Julian, 'how? he was called an honest 
man.' Charles answered, 'I put a wire in his nose.' 'Alas,' said Julian, 'now 
be ye cast away and undone.' Then said Charles, ' Julian, I trust in thee that 
thou wilt keep my counsel :' And Julian answered, ' Yea, but for God's sake, 
master, shift for yourself.' And then Charles said, ' I had leefer than 100 pound 
it were not done ; but what is done cannot be undone.' Moreover Charles said 
then to Julian, ' Upon Sunday, when I rode to my cousin Barington's house, I 
tarried there and made good cheer all day till it was night ; and yet before it 
was midnight I was in London, and had killed Hun. And upon the next day 
I rode thither again, and was there at dinner, and sent for neighbours, and 
made good cheer.' Then Julian asked Charles, 'Where set you your horse 
that night you came to town, and wherefore came you not home ?' Charles an- 
swered, ' I came not home for fear of bewraying.' And then Julian asked 
Charles, ' Who was with you at the killing of Hun V Charles answered, ' I will 
not tell thee.' And Julian saith that upon the Thursday following Charles 
tarried all day in his house with great fear : and upon Friday following, early 
in the morning before day, Charles went forth, as he said, to Paul's; and at his 
coming in again he was in a great fear, saying hastily, ' Get me my horse ;' and 
with great fear and haste made him ready to ride ; and bade Master Porter's 
lad lead his horse into the field by the backside. And then Charles put into 
his sleeve his mace, or masor, with other plate borrowed of Master Porter, both 
gold and silver ; but how much I am not sure : and Charles went into the field 
utter his horse, and Julian brought his budget after him. Also upon Friday in 
Christinas week following, Charles came home late in the night, and brought 
with him three bakers and a smith of Stratford, and the same night they carried 
out of Charles's house, all his goods by the fieldside, to the Bell in Shoreditch, 
and early in the morning conveyed it with carts to Stratford. 

Moreover Julian saith, That the Saturday at night before the death of Hun, 
Charles came home, and brought with him a gurnard, saying, it was for Hun ; 
and Charles's boy told Julian, that there was also ordained a piece of fresh 
Salmon, which John the bellringer had. 



DEPOSITIONS CONCERNING THE MURDER OF HUN. 193 

Also Charles said to the said Julian, ' Were not this ungracious trouble, I Henry 

could bring my lord of London to the doors of heretics in London, both of men vni 

and women, that be worth a thousand pounds; but I am afraid that the ungra- A.D. 

cious midwife shall bewray us all.' 1509 

Also Charles said unto Mrs. Porter likewise and more largely, speaking of to 

the best in London : whereto Mrs. Porter answered, 'The best in London is 1518. 
my lord mayor.' Then Charles said, ' I will not excuse him quite, for that he 
taketh this matter so hot.' 

Whereas Charles Joseph saith he lay at Neckhill with a harlot, a man's wife, 
in Barington's house, the same night that Richard Hun was murdered, and 
there abode until the morrow at eleven of the clock ; and thereupon brought 
before the king's council, for bis purgation, the aforesaid woman, Barington's wife, -f 
and also the other woman : this purgation we have proved all untrue, as 
right largely may appear, as well by the deposition of Julian Littel, as of 
Thomas Chicheley, tailor, Thomas Simondes, stationer, of Robert Johnson and 
his wife, and of John Spalding, bellringer : also of Peter Turner, son-in-law of the The wit- 
aforesaid Charles Joseph ; who said before, to an honest woman, a wax- " ess of 
chandler's wife, that before this day seventh-night Hun should have a mis- T^er. 
chievous death, &c. Also of John Enderby, baker, to whom John Spalding The wit- 
himself declai-ed these words : That there was ordained for Hun so grievous "ess of 
penance, that when men hear of it, they shall have great marvel thereof, &c. ; spaidiu C 
besides the deposition moreover of Allen Creswell, wax-chandler, and Richard iiimstir. 
Horsenail, bailiff of the sanctuary town called Godsture, in. Essex. Which 
testimonies and depositions hereafter follow 

* The Deposition of Thomas Chicheley, Tailor. 1 

The said Thomas sayeth : The same Monday that Richard Hun was found 
dead, within a quarter of an hour after seven o'clock in the morning, he met 
with Charles Joseph, coming out of St. Paul's, at the nether north door, going 
toward Paternoster row, saying, ' Good morrow, Master Charles !' and the said 
Charles answered, ' Good morrow !' and turned his back, when he was without 
the church door, and looked upon the said Chicheley. 

* The Deposition of Thomas Simondes, Stationer. 

He sayeth, That the same morning that Hun was dead, within a quarter of 
an hour after seven o'clock in the morning, Charles Joseph came before him at 
his stall, and said, ' Good morrow, gossip Simondes!' and the said Simondes 
said, ' Good morrow' to him again ; and the wife of the said Simondes was by 
him ; and because of the deadly countenance and hasty going of Charles, the 
said Thomas bade his wife look whither Charles goeth ; and as she could per- 
ceive, Charles went into an alehouse standing in Paternoste.r-row, by the alley 
leading into the road of Northern, or into the alley, whither, she could not well tell. 

* The Deposition of Robert Johnson and his Wife, dwelling at the 
Bell, in Shoreditch. 2 

The said Robert sayeth, That Charles Joseph sent his horse to his house upon a 
holyday, at night, about three weeks before Christmas, by a boy ; which horse was 
all besweat and all bemired : and the said boy said, ' Let my father's horse stand 
saddled, for I cannot tell whether my father will ride again to night or not ;' and 
the said horse stood saddled all night, and in the morning following, Charles came 
booted and spurred about eight of the clock, and asked if his horse was saddled ? 
and the servant answered, ' Yea.' And the said Charles leaped upon his horse, 
and prayed the host to let him out of his back gate, that he might ride out by 
the field side ; which host so did. And, because he was uncertain of the day, 
we asked him if he heard speak of the death of Hun at that time or not, and he 

(1) The depositions of witnesses, distinguished hy asterisks, arc inserted from the edition of 1563, 
pp. 393-395.— Ed. 

(2) Where Charles Joseph set up his horse, the night that he came to town to murder Richard 
Hun. 

VOL. IV. f) 



A.D. 


1509 


ti> 


1518. 



194, DEPOSITIONS CONCERNING the murder OF HUN. 

Bmn answered, 'Nay!' But shortly after he did. Nevertheless Peter Turner, 
rill. Charles's son-in-law, who brought the horse by night into the Bell, which was 
Robert Johnson's house, confessed it was the same night, before that Hun was 
found dead in the morning. Moreover the Friday before Hun's death, Peter 
Turner said to an honest woman, a wax-chandler's wife, dwelling before St. 
Mary's, Spitalgate, that before this day seven-nights, Hun should have a mis- 
chievous death. And, the same day at afternoon, on which this Hun was 
found dead, the said Peter came to the same wife and told her that Hun was 
hanged ; saying, ' What told I you?' 

Also James, the chancellor's cook, the Friday before Hun's death, said to 
five honest men, that Hun should die ere Christmas, or else he would die for 
him. And on the Monday that Hun was found dead, the said James came to 
the same men and said, ' What told I you ? is he not now hanged ?' And we of 
the inquest asked both of Peter Turner, and of James Cook, where they had 
knowledge that Hun should so shortly die? and they said, 'In Master Chancel- 
lor's place, by every man.' 

* The Deposition of John Spalding, Bellringer. 

First the said deponent sayeth, That on Saturday the 2d day of December, 
a. d. 1514, he took the charge of the prison at four of the clock in the after- 
noon, by the commandment of Master Chancellor, and so took the keys ; 
whereupon he gave commandment to the deponent, that he should let no man- 
ner of person speak with the prisoner, except he had knowledge of them ; and 
so at five of the clock the same day, the said deponent went to the prisoner him- 
self alone, and saw him, and cherished him, where he gave the said deponent a 
piece of fresh salmon for his wife. And after that, the said deponent sayeth, 
that he went to Master Commissary's, to supper with his fellow, where he re- 
membered that he had left his knife with the said prisoner ; whereupon, by the 
counsel of Master Commissary, he went to the prisoner and fetched his knife, 
when he found the prisoner saying of his beads, and so the said deponent re- 
quired his knife of the said prisoner, and the said prisoner delivered the knife 
to the said deponent gladly ; and so he departed for that night. 

And after that, on the Sunday next following, the said deponent came to the 
prisoner at nine o'clock, and asked him what meat he would have to his dinner ? 
and he answered, 'but a morsel ;' and so the said deponent departed and went 
to the chancellor into the choir, and he commanded that he should take the 
penitentiary up to the prisoner with him, to make him holy water and holy bread, 
and made the said deponent to depart the prison-house for a while ; and after 
that he brought him his dinner, and locked Charles's boy in with him all 
dinner time, unto the hour of one o'clock, and so let the lad out again, and 
asked him what he would have to his supper ? and he answered, that he had 
meat enough ; and so departed until six of the clock ; and then the said de- 
ponent brought him a quart of ale. And at that time one William Sampson 
went with the said deponent to see the prisoner where he was, and saw him, and 
spake together; and so, from the hour of six aforesaid, unto twelve o'clock on 
the morrow, the said deponent came not there, and when he came there, he 
met the chancellor, with other doctors, going to see the prisoner where he 
hanged. 

* The Deposition of Peter Turner, Son-in-law of Charles Joseph. 

First, he sayeth, That his father-in-law rode out of the town, upon Sunday 
the 4th day of December, a. d. 1514, at six o'clock in the morning, wearing a 
coat of orange tawny, on a horse, grizzle colour, trotting. 

He saith, the Sunday next before that, one Button's wife gave knowledge to 
the said deponent, that his father should be arrested by divers sergeants as soon 
as he could be taken ; and thereupon the said deponent gave knowledge to the 
said father-in-law at the Mack Friars at the water side, whereupon he avoided ; 
and, the same night, Master Chancellor gave the keys to Thomas, bellringer, 
and gave him charge of the prisoner. And on the said Sunday the said depo- 
nent, with John, bellringer, served the said prisoner with his dinner at twelve 



DEPOSITIONS CONCERNING THK MURDER OF HUN. 195 

o'clock, and then John, bellringer, said to the deponent, that he would not come Benry 
to him until the morrow, for my lord had commanded him that the prisoner VUI 
should have but one meal's meat on the day. Notwithstanding that, the said j± j) 
John, bellringer, after that he had shut St. Paul's church doors, went to the i/jqjJ 
aforesaid prisoner, with another with him, at seven of the clock at night t0 
the said Sunday. 1518. 

And the said deponent sayeth, That he came on the Monday, at the hour of - 

eight o'clock in the morning, to seek John, bellringer, and could not find him, 
and tarried until the high mass of St. Paul's was done, and yet he could not 
find the said John ; and then one William, John the bellringer's fellow, delivered 
the keys to the said deponent, and so the said deponent, with two officers of my 
lord's, being somners, went to serve the said prisoner, and when they came, the 
prisoner (they said) was hanged ; his face to the wallward. And, upon that, 
the said deponent immediately gave knowledge to the chancellor, whereupon 
the chancellor went up with the Master of the Rolls, and Master Subdean, with 
other doctors unknown, to the number of a dozen, and their servants. 

* The Deposition of John Enderby, Barber. 

The said John Enderby sayeth, The Friday before the death of Richard Hun, 
betwixt eight and nine o'clock in the morning, he met with John the bellringer in 
Eastcheap, and asked him how Master Hun fared ? the said bellringer answered, 
saying : There is ordained for him so grievous penance, that when men hear of 
it, they shall have great marvel thereof. 

The witnesses that heard John, bellringer, say these words, were John Rutter, 
scrivener, and William Segar, armourer. 

Also the said John Enderby saith, The same Monday that Richard Hun was 
found dead, he met with the aforesaid John at the Conduit, in Gracious 
street, 1 about nine of the clock in the morning, asking the said bellringer how 
Master Hun fared ? the said bellringer answered, saying : he fared well this day 
in the morning betwixt five and six of the clock ; howbeit, I am sorry for him, 
for there can nobody come to him until I come, for I have the keys of the doors 
here by my girdle ; and showed the keys to the said Enderby.* 

The Deposition of Allen Creswell, Waxchandler. 

The said Allen saith, That John Granger, servant with my lord of Lon- 
don, in my lord of London's kitchen, at such time as the said Allen was 
serving of Hun's coffin, told him, that he was present with John the bell- 
ringer the same Sunday at night that Richard Hun was found dead on the 
morrow, when the keepers set him in the stocks ; insomuch that the said Hun 
desired to borrow the keeper's knife : and the keeper asked him what he would 
do with his knife ; and he answered, ' I had leifer kill myself than to be thus 
treated.' This deposition the said Allen will prove as far forth as any christian 
man may; saying, that Granger showed to him these words of his own free 
will and mind, without any question or inquiry to him made by the said Allen. 
Moreover the said Allen saith, that all that evening Granger was in great fear. 

The Deposition of Richard Horsenail, Bailiff of the Sanctuary-Town 
called Godsture in Essex. 

The said Richard saith, That the Friday before Christmas-day last past, one 
Charles Joseph, sumner to my lord of London, became a sanctuary-man, and 
the aforesaid Friday he registered his name ; the said Charles saying it was for 
the safeguard of his body, for there be certain men in London so extreme 
against him for the death of Richard Hun, that he dare not abide in London. 
Howbeit the said Charles saith, he knowledgcth himself guiltless of Hun's 
death; for he delivered the keys to the chancellor in Hun's life. Also the said 
bailiff saith, that Charles paid the duty of the said registering, both to him and 
sir John Studley, vicar. 

(1) So it stands in the original. —Ed. 



]J)6 THE STORY OF THE MURDER OF RICHARD HUN. 

r//Z Copy of the Letter of Richard Fitzjames, then Bishop of London, 
~ r~^~~ sent to Cardinal Wolsey. 

1 509 ] beseech your good lordship to stand so good lord unto my poor chancellor now 
to in ward, and indicted by an untrue quest, for the death of Richard Hun, upon 

15 1 8. tin- only accusation of Charles Joseph made by pain and durance ; that by your 
— intercession it may please the king's grace to have the matter duly and suffi- 
ciently examined by indifferent persons of Ins discreet council, in the presence 
of the parties, ere there be any more done in the cause : and that upon the 
innocency of my said chancellor declared, it may further please the king's 
grace to award a placard unto his attorney, to confess the said indictment to be 
untrue, when the time shall require it : for assured am I, if my chancellor be 
tried by any twelve men in London, they be so maliciously set, ' in favorem 
hsereticac pravitatis,' that they will cast and condemn any clerk, though he were 
as innocent as Abel. ' Quare si potes beate Pater, adjuva infirmitates nostras, 
et tibi in perpetuum devinctierimus !' Over this, in most humble wise I beseech 
you, that I may have the king's gracious favour, whom I never offended wil- 
lingly ; and that by your good means I might speak with his grace and you : 
and 1 with all mine shall pray for your prosperous estate long to continue, 

Your most humble orator, Richard London. 

Lastly, now it remaineth to infer the sentence of the questmen, 
■which followeth in like sort to be seen and expended, after I have 
first declared the words of the bishop -spoken in the parliament-house. 

The Words that the Bishop of London spake before the Lords in 
the Parliament-house. 

Memorandum, That the bishop of London said in the parliament-house, that 
there was a bill brought to the parliament, to make the jury that was charged 
upon the death of Hun, true men ; and said and took upon his conscience, that 
they were false perjured caitifs. And said furthermore to all the lords there being, 
' For the love of God look upon this matter ; for if you do not, I dare not keep 
mine house for heretics :' and said, that the said Richard Hun hanged himself, 
and that it was his own deed, and no man's else. And furthermore said, that 
there came a man to his house, whose wife was appeached of heresy, to speak 
with him ; and he said that he had no mind to speak with the same man : 
which man spake and reported to the servants of the same bishop, that if his 
wife would not hold still her opinions, he would cut her throat with his own 
hands ; with other words. 

The Sentence of the Inquest, subscribed by the Coroner. 

The inquisition intended and taken at the city of London, in the parish of 
St. Gregory, in the ward of Baynard Castle in London, the sixth day of Decem- 
ber, in the sixth year of the reign of king Henry VIII., before Thomas Barnwell, 
coroner of our sovereign lord the king, within the city of London aforesaid. 
Also before James Yarford and John Mundey, sheriffs of the said city, upon 
the sight of the body of Richard Hun, late of London, tailor, who was found 
hanged in the Lollards' tower; and by the oath and proof of lawful men of the 
same ward, and of other three wards next adjoining, as it ought to be, after the 
custom of the city aforesaid, to inquire how, and in what manner-wist the said 
Richard Hun came unto his death: and upon the oath of John Bernard, 
Thomas Stert, William Warren, Henry Abraham, John Aborow, John Turner, 
Robert Allen, William Marler, John Burton, James Page, Thomas Pickhill, 
William Burton, Robert Bridgwater, Thomas Busted, Gilbert Howell, Richard 
Gibson, Christopher Crafton, John God, Richard Holt, John Pasmere, Edmund 
Hudson, John Arunsell, Richard Cooper, John Tyme : who said upon their 
oaths, that whereas the said Richard Hun, by the commandment of Richard 
bishopoi London, was imprisoned and brought to hold in a prison of the said 
bishops, called Lollards' tower, lying in the cathedral church of St. Paul in 
London, m the parish of St. Gregory, in the ward of Baynard Castle aforesaid j 



THE STORY OF THE MURDER OF RICHARD HUN. 197 

William Horsey, of London, clerk, otherwise called William Heresie, chancellor Henry 

to Richard bishop of London ; and one Charles Joseph, late of London, sumner, *M 

and John Spalding of London, otherwise called John Bellringer, feloniously as . ^ 

felons to our lord the king, with force and arms gainst the peace of our sove- , I, ' 
reign lord the king, and dignity of his crown, the 4th day of December, the 

sixth year of the reign of our sovereign lord aforesaid, of their great malice, at . ° 
the parish of St. Gregory aforesaid, upon the said Richard Hun made 



fray, and feloniously strangled and smothered the same Richard Hun, and also Hun 
the neck they did break of the said Richard Hun, and there feloniously slew &%£ 
him and murdered him. And also the body of the said Richard Hun, after- inquest, 
ward, the same fourth day, year, place, parish, and w aid aforesaid, with the P ot t0 
proper girdle of the same Richard Htm, of silk, black of colour, of the value of{£ngeel 
twelve pence, after his death, upon a hook driven into a piece of timber in the himself. 
wall of the prison aforesaid, made fast, and so hanged him, against the peace 
of our sovereign lord the king, and the dignity of his crown. And so the said 
jury have sworn upon the holy evangelists, that the said William Horsey, clerk, 
Charles Joseph, and John Spalding, "of their set malice, then and there feloni- 
ously killed and murdered the said Richard Hun in manner and form above- 
said, against the peace of our sovereign lord the king, his crown and dignity. 
Subscribed in this manner : 

Thomas Barnwell, Coroner of the city of London. 

After that the twenty-four had given up their verdict, sealed and The par- 
signed with the coroner's seal, the cause was then brought into the jud'^-'tn 
parliament-house, where the truth was laid so plain before all men's ^dari 
faces, and the fact so notorious, that immediately certain of the bloody Hon. 
murderers were committed to prison, and should no doubt have suf- 
fered what they deserved, had not the cardinal, by his authority, prac- practice 
tised for his catholic children, at the suit of the bishop of London. naiwlY 
Whereupon the chancellor, by the king's pardon, and secret shifting, se >' for 
rather than by God's pardon and his deserving, escaped, and went, clergy. 
as is said, to Exeter, &c. Nevertheless, though justice took no place 
where favour did save, yet because the innocent cause of Hun should 
take no Avrong, the parliament became suitors unto the king's majesty, 
that whereas the goods of the said Hun were confiscate into the king's 
hands, it would please his grace to make restitution of all the said 
goods unto the children of the said Hun. Upon which motion, the 
king, of his gracious disposition, did not only give all the aforesaid 
goods unto the aforesaid children under his broad seal yet to be seen ; 
but also did send out his warrants (which hereafter shall follow) to 
those that were the cruel murderers, commanding them, upon his 
high displeasure, to re-deliver all the said goods, and make restitution 
for the death of the said Richard Hun : all which goods came to 
the sum of fifteen hundred pounds sterling, besides his plate and 
other jewels. 

The Tenor of the King's Letter in behalf of Richard Hun. 

Trusty and well-beloved ! we greet you well. Whereas by the complaint to The 
us made, as well as also in our high court of parliament, on the behalf and part ¥"$* I 1 ',' 
of Roger Whapplot of our city of London, draper, and Margaret his wife, late restitu- ' 
the daughter of Richard Hun : and whereas you were indicted by our laws, of Hon ?f 
and for the death of the said Richard Hun, and the said murder cruelly com- ^"[J^ 
mitted by you, like as by our records more at large plainly it doth appear, about 
the fifth day of December, in the sixth year of our reign ; the same we abhor ; 
nevertheless we of our special grace, certain science, and mere motion, pardoned 
you upon certain considerations us moving : for the intent that the goods of the 
said Richard Hun, and the administration of them, were committed to the said 



A DEFENCE OF HUN AGAINST MORE AND COPE. 

Ro^er Whapplot. We then supposed and intended your amendment, and 
restitution to be made by you to the infants, the children of the said Richard 
Hun • as well for his death, as for his goods, embezzled, wasted, and consumed, 
by your tyranny and cruel act so committed, the same being of no little value ; 
and as hitherto ye have made no recompense, according to our laws, as might 
stand with equity, justice, right, and good conscience, and for this cause due 
satisfaction ought to be made by our laws : wherefore we will and exhort, and 
otherwise charge and command you, by the tenor of these our special letters, 
that ye satisfy and recompense the said Roger Whapplot, and the said Margaret 
his wife, according to our laws in this cause, as it may stand with right and good 
conscience, else otherwise at your further peril ; so that they shall have no cause 
to return unto us, for their further remedy eftsoons in this behalf, as ye in the 
same tender to avoid our high displeasure : otherwise that ye upon the sight 
hereof, set all excuses apart, and repair unto our presence, at which your hither 
coming you shall be further advertised of our mind. 
From our manor, &c. 

A DEFENCE OF RICHARD HUN AGAINST SIR THOMAS MORE 
AND ALANUS COPUS. 

I doubt not but by these premises, thou hast, christian reader ! 
sufficiently to understand the whole discourse and story of Richard 
Hun, from top to toe. First, how he came in trouble for denying the 
bearing-sheet of his young infant departed ; then how he was forced, 
for succour of himself, to sue a praemunire ; and thereupon what con- 
spiracy of the clergy was wrought against him, what snares were laid, 
what fetches were practised, and articles devised, to snarl him in the 
trap of heresy, and so to imprison him. Furthermore, being in prison, 
how he was secretly murdered ; after his murder, hanged ; after his 
hanging, condemned ; after his condemnation, burned ; and after his 
burning, lastly, how his death was required by the coroner, and cleared 
by acquittal of the inquest. Moreover, how the case was brought 
into parliament, and by parliament the king's precept obtained for 
restitution of his goods. The debating of which tragical and tumul- 
tuous story, with all the branches and particular evidences of the 
same, taken out as well of the public acts, as of the bishop's registers 
and special records remaining in the custody of Dunstan Whapplot, 
the son of the daughter of the said Richard Hun, there to be seen, 
I thought here to unwrap and discover so much the more, for three 
special purposes : ' 
Three First, as is requisite, for testimony and witness of truth falsely 

omsider- s l an d ere d, °f innocency wrongfully condemned, and of the party 
ed. cruelly oppressed. 

The second cause moveth me for sir Thomas More's Dialogues, 
wherein he dallieth out the matter, thinking to jest poor simple truth 
out of countenance. 

The third cause which constraineth me, be the Dialogues of Alan 
Cope ; which two, the one in English, the other in Latin, railing and 
barking against Richard Hun, do double-Avise charge him, both to be 
a heretic, and also a desperate homicide of himself: which as it is 
false in the one, so it is to be found as untrue in the other, if simple 
truth, which hath few friends, and many times cometh in crafty 
handling, might freely come to indifferent hearing. Wherefore, as I 
have hitherto described the order and manner of his handling, with 
the circumstances thereof, in plain and naked narration of story, 

(I) Ex publicis actis. Kit archivis et Regist. Lond. 



A DEFENCE OF IIUN AGAINST MORE AND COPE. 199 

simply laid out before all men's faces ; so something here to intermit Btmn 

in the defence as well of his oppressed cause, as also in discharge of 

myself, I will now compendiously answer to both these aforesaid A. D. 

adversaries, stopping, as it were, with one bush two gaps ; and the 15 ^ 9 
mouths also, if I can, of them both together. And, first, against 
sir Thomas More, albeit in degree worshipful, in place superior, in 



to 
1518. 



wit and learning singular, if his judgment in Christ's matters had ^ail" 
been correspondent to the same, being otherwise a man with many ^|' s r ^. tv 
worthy ornaments beautified : yet, being but a man, and one man, I tag many 
lay and object against the person of him, the persons and censures of fu"s, had 
twenty four questmen, the deposition of so many jurats, the judg- °" c e e great 
ment of the coroner, the approbation of the parliament ; and, lastly, His P er - 
the king's bill assigned for restitution of his goods, with his own broad tervaiied. 
seal confirmed, &c. And thus much to the person and credit of 
sir Thomas More. 

Now as touching his reasons : whereas he, coming in with a flim-flam His 
of a horse-mill, or a mill-horse (in his own terms I speak), thinketh refuted 3 
it probation good enough, because he could not see him taken by the 
sleeve who murdered Hun : against these reasons unreasonable of his, 
I allege all the evidences and demonstrations of the history above 
prefixed, to be considered, and of all indifferent men to be poised. 

First, how he was found hanging, with his countenance fair, with his The ai- 
beard and head fair kemped, his bonnet right set on his head, with his stances of 
eyes and mouth fair closed, without any driveling or spurging. His g™^ 
body being taken down, was found loose (which by hanging could not condder-i 
be), his neck broken, and the skin thereof beneath the throat, where the e ' 
girdle went, fretted and faced away ; his girdle notwithstanding being 
of silk, and so double cast about the staple, that the space of the girdle 
between the staple and his neck, with the residue also that went about 
his neck, was not sufficient for his head to come out at. His hands, 
moreover, wrung in the -wrists ; his face, lips, chin, doublet, and shirt- 
collar, unstained with any blood : when, notwithstanding, in a manner 
somewhat beyond the place where he did hang, a great quantity of 
blood was found. Also, whereas the staple whereon he hanged was so 
that he could not climb thereto without some mean, there was a stool 
set up upon the bolster of a bed, so tickle, that with the least touch in 
the world it was ready to fall : and how was it possible that Hun might 
hang himself upon that staple, the stool so standing ? besides the 
confession, moreover, of Charles Joseph's own mouth to Julian Littell, 
of Robert Johnson, John Spalding the bellringer, Peter Turner, and 
others. All which testimonies and declarations being so clear ami 
undeniable, may suffice, I trust, any indifferent man to see where the 
truth of this case doth stand : unless Master More, being a gentleman 
of Utopia, peradventure after some strange guise of that country, Utopia 
useth to carry his eyes not in his head, but in his affection; not Mon - 
Seeing but where he likcth, nor believing but what he listeth. 

Finally, where sir Thomas More, speaking of himself, so con- 
cludeth, that he, hearing the matter what well might be said, yet 
could not find contrary, hut Hun to he guilty of his own death : so 
in as many words to answer him again, 1, perusing and searching in 
the story of Richard Hun what may well be searched, cannot but 
marvel with myself, either with what darkness the eyes of Master More 



1509 

to 
1518. 



20() A DEFENCE OF HUN AGAINST MORE AND COPE. 

Hemy be dared, 1 not to see what is so plain ; or else with what conscience 
VUI - ] ie could dissemble that which shame cannot deny, And thus by the 
A. D. way to the Dialogues of sir Thomas More. 

Thirdly, touching the Dialogues of Alan Cope, who had rather the 
bishop's chancellor and officers to be accounted among thieves and 
murderers, than Hun to be numbered among the martyrs, I have 
tn'r^ms herein not much to say, because himself saith but little : and if he 
','nt R»<*- had said less, unless his ground were better, it had made as little 
matter. But forasmuch as he, saying not much, sendeth us to seek 
more in More ; so with like brevity again I may send him to William 
Tindall, to shape him an answer. Yet notwithstanding lest Cope, in 
saying something, should think Hun's innocent cause to lack some 
friends, who will not, or dare not, adventure in defence of truth ; 
somewhat I will answer in this behalf, 
nun And first, touching this murder of Hun not to be his own wilful 

| i ';,' t ir i'!y lt ' d act, but the deed of others : besides the demonstrations above pre- 
imTb lf ' m i se d to sir Thomas More, now to Master Cope ; if I had no other 
others, evidences but only these two, I would require no more ; that is, his 
cap found so straight standing upon his head, and the stool so totter- 
Not pos- ing under his feet. For how is it, I will not say likely ; but how is 
iiun.'so 1 it possible, for a man to hang himself in a silken girdle double cast 
i':',wa K ' aDout d staple, in such shortness, that neither the space of the knot 
hang could well compass his head about, and yet have his cap so straight 
set upon his head as his was ? 

Again, how is it possible, or can it be imagined, for him to hang 
himself, climbing up by a stool which had no stay for him to stand 
upon, but stood so tickle, that if he had touched the same never so 
little, it must needs have fallen? 

But Cope, being something more provident in this matter, seemeth 
to exceed not altogether so far as doth Master More. For he, under- 
standing the case to be ambiguous and doubtful, so leaveth it in sus- 
pense ; neither determining that Hun did hang himself, and yet not 
Cope admitting that he died a martyr, no more than those who are quelled 
him'to' °y thieves and murderers in high-way sides. Well, be it so as Cope 
''''■ I doth argue, that those who die by the hands of felons and murderers 

martyr. ...°. , , J ., ,. .... 

in thievish ways, be no martyrs ; yet, notwithstanding this, his own 

similitude, comparing the bishop's chancellor and officers to thieves 

and murderers, doth grant at least that Hun died a true man, although 

The no martyr. Now if the cause be it, and not the pain, that maketh a 

not the martyr, in pondering the cause why Hun was slain, we shall find it 

!;,",;!;. Ml ,, not altogether like to the cause of those who perish by thieves and 

martyr, robbers. For such commonly, because of their goods, and for some 

worldly gain to be sought by their death, are made away, and being 

true men, may peradventure have the reward, although not the name 

of martyrs : whereas this man's death being wrought neither for money, 

nor any such temporal lucre to redound to his oppressors ; as it hath 

tik- another cause, so may it have another name, and deserve to be called 

Abrff by the name of martyrdom. Like as Abel, being slain by wicked 

;;; ■ * Cam, albeit he had no opinion of religion articulated against him, but 

! ■!,',',',' '" °' s l )iu ' ,,n '. v an( l °f ,nancc was made away, yet notwithstanding is 

pared, justly numbered among the martyrs : so what let to the contrary, but 

(\) ' Dared,' harmed or-pained.— Ed. 



A DEFENCE OF HUN AGAINST MORE AND COPE. 201 

that Hun also with him may be reckoned in the same society, seeing nnrj, 
tK. cause wherefore they both did suffer, proceeded) together out of. 



one fountain ? And what, moreover, if a man should call Naboth A. I), 
(who for holding his right inheritance was slain) a martyr, what great l;)0y 
injury should he do either to the name, or cause, of the person, 15 ^ 8 

worthy to be carped at ? Against Thomas Becket, you know Master '- 

Cope, no special article of faith was laid, wherefore he died: 1 and 
why then do you bestow upon him so devoutly the title of a martyr, 
for withholding that from the king, which by the law of God, and of 
the realm, did belong unto him ; and cannot suffer Hun to be entitled 
a martyr, dying in his own right, by the hands of spiritual thieves 
and homicides, as you yourself do term them ? But what do I strain 
my travail any further to prove Hun a martyr, when Cope's own 
confession doth import no less, though I said nothing ? For, if I 
should take no more but his own very words, and say, that he was 
known to be a heretic, as Cope doth affirm, what could I say more, 
seeing he died for their heresy, to prove him to die a martyr ? for to 
die a heretic with the papists, what is it else (to say truth) but to die 
with God a martyr ? 2 

But howsoever it pleaseth either sir Thomas More to jest, or 
Alan Cope to scold out the matter, and to style Richard Hun for 
a known and desperate heretic : yet to all true godly disposed men, 
Hun may well be known to be a godly and virtuous person, no 
heretic, but faithful and sound, save that only he seemed rather half 
a papist ; at least no full protestant, for that he resorted daily to Hun ..o 
mass, and also had his beads in prison with him, after the catholic testant. 
manner ; albeit he was somewhat inclining (as may appear) toward the 
gospel. And if the name of a martyr be thought too good for him, 
yet I trust Master Cope will stand so good master to him, to let him 
at least be a martyr's fellow. But what now if I go further with 
Master Cope, and name Richard Hun, not only for a martyr, but 
also commend him for a double martyr ? Certes, as I suppose, in so 
saying, I should affirm nothing less than truth, nor any thing more than 
may truly be said, and justly proved. But to give and grant this 
confession unto the adversary, which notwithstanding might be easily 
proved, let us see now the proof's of Master Cope, how he argueth 
that Richard Hun is no martyr : " because," saith he, " true men, 
being killed in high-ways by thieves and murderers, are not therefore 
to be counted martyrs, 11 &c. And was there nothing else in the cause 
of Hun, but as in true men killed by thieves and murderers? They 
that are killed by thieves and murderers, are killed for some prey, or 
money about them : and what prey or profit was in the death of Hun, 
let us see, to redound to those who oppressed him ? If it were the 
mortuary, or the bearing-cloth, that was a small thing, and not worthy 
his death. If it were the ; praemunire, 1 the danger thereof pertained 
to the priest, and not to them. If they feared lest the example 
thereof once begun, should afterward redound to the prejudice of the 
whole church, then was the cause of his death not private but public, 
tending to the whole church and clergy of Rome : and so is his death 
not altogether like to the death of those, who, for private respects, 
arc killed by thieves and murderers. 

(1) Cope, Dial. 0, p 847. '2) Cope, ibid. 



I lull's 

secret 



202 A DEFENCE OF HUN AGAINST MORE AND COPE. 

ifmnj " But he was a heretic," saith Cope. By the same reason that 

Cope taketh him for a heretic, I take him the more to be accepted 

for a martyr : for by that way which they call heresy, the living God 

is served, and by no way better. And if he were a heretic, why 

then did they not proceed against him as a heretic while he was alive ? 

When they had him at Fulham before them, if they had been sure 

of to entrap him in that snare, why did they not take their advantage, 

when they might with least jeopardy ? why did they not proceed and 

murder condemn him for a heretic ? why made they such haste to prevent 

'lX""" his death before? why did they not tarry the sentence of the law, 

having the law in their own hands ? But belike they perceived that 

he could not be proved a heretic while he lived, and therefore thought 

it best to make him away privily, and to stop the praemunire, and 

afterwards to stop the pursuit of his death by making him a heretic. 

crafty And therefore were articles devised by the chancellor (as is proved 

practice. before ^y j. ne witness of Charles Joseph and another) against him, 

and he condemned for a heretic, and all his favourers also, whosoever 

durst stir to take his part ; and so thereupon was recommitted to the 

Hun hid secular power, and burned : wherein they did him double wrong ; 

wrong, first, in that they burned him for a heretic, having before submitted 

himself to their favourable correction, as it appeareth yet in the 

bishop's registers by his own hand, as it is there pretended ; which 

was against their own laws. Again, if he had not submitted himself 

at that time, yet did they him wrong to burn him before they knew 

him and heard him speak (as Tindall saith) whether he would recant 

or no. And yet, admit that he was condemned and burned for a 

heretic, yet to be killed and burned of them for a heretic, that taketh 

not from him the name of a martyr, but rather giveth him to be a 

double martyr. 

cope's Hut Cope yet proceeding in his hot choler against Richard Hun, 

why'iTun a ^ er ne l' a( l ma de him first no martyr, and then a heretic, thirdly he 

should now maketh him also a murderer of himself, and saith, that no other 

him»eif. man was any part of his death but only his own hands, and that, 

cither for indignation and anger, or for desperation, or for some cause 

he knoweth not what. And in his Epilogue, to make it probable, he 

allegeth the example of one, but nameless, who, in queen Mary's 

time, in like sort went about to hang himself, had he not been taken 

in the manner and rescued. 

Furthermore, as touching the chancellor he argueth, that there was 

no cause why he should attempt any such violence against him, both 

for his age, for his dignity, for his learning, and for the greatness of 

his own peril which might ensue thereof; who, if he had maligned 

the man, and had been so disposed to work his destruction, had 

means otherwise, without danger, to bring that about, having him 

within his danger convicted and fast tied for heresy. Whereunto I 

num.- answer, that to all this matter, sufficient hath been answered by the 

mre? stoi 7 lt *^' °f hi s death, above specified; namely, by the manner of 

ProoA his death, by circumstances of his handling and hanging, by his neck 

aidnot broke, by his body loose, by his skin fretted, by his wrists wrung, by 

hunt'cif ^' S K n 'dle m such shortness double cast about the staple, by his cap 

right upon his head, by his hair kemped, by his eyes closed, by the 

cake of blood found on the floor, by his shirt-collar, doublet, jacket, 



A DEFENCE OF HUN AGAINST MORE AND COPE. 2( 

and other outward parts of his garments without drop of blood, un- Bmn 
spotted ; by the stool so standing upon the bolster, by the chancellor's - 
murrey gown, found the day after upon the stocks, the wax candle A. D. 
fair put out : Furthermore, by the verdict of the inquest, by the l509 
attestation of the witnesses sworn, by the coroner's judgment, by the 1518 

assent of the parliament, by the king's letters assigned, and broad - 

seal for restitution of his goods ; and finally, by the confession of the 
parties themselves who murdered him, &c. And yet thinkcth Cope 
to make men such fools, having yet their five wits, to ween yet that 
Hun did hang himself, after so many demonstrations and evidences 
to the contrary, as in every part of this story may appear ? And 
though it were, as it was unlikely, and hard for a man to believe, that 
Dr. Horsey, a man of such age, dignity, and learning, would so much 
forget himself to attempt such a villany ; yet so great is the devil 
sometimes with man, where God permitteth, that he worketh greater 
things than this, and more incredible. For who would have thought 
it likely that Cain would ever have killedAbel, his own natural brother ? 
which was more than for a bishop's chancellor to kill a citizen : yet Manifest 
so he did. And where Cope prctendeth the causes of anger and Scopei 
desperation whereby Hun did hang himself, how is it like, or who 
ever did hear, a man being in such extremity of desperation, to stand 
first trimming himself, and kemping his head, before he go to hang 
himself ? No more credit is also to be given to that which followeth Another 
in the same Cope, where he saith, that Richard Hun being in prison, Hated.* 
was convicted of heresy : by which word convicted, if he mean that 
Hun was proved a heretic, that is false ; for that he, being at Fulham 
examined upon certain articles, both denied the articles to be true as 
they were objected ; and also if they were true, yet he submitted 
himself to their favourable correction ; and therefore, not standing 
obstinately in the same, could not be proved a heretic. And if by 
this term convicted, he mean that he was by sentence cast ; so was 
Hun never cast by any sentence for a heretic, so long as he lived, 
but after his death, when he could nothing answer for himself. And cope 
because this untruth should not go without his fellow, sec how he J] 
huddleth up one false narration on the neck of another ; affirming ^ lhn . 
moreover, that Hun was cast into prison before he entered Ids suit of untruth, 
prsemunire against the priest : which is utterly false and untrue, both 
disagreeing to other stories, and also refuted by the words of sir 
Thomas More, his own author ; who reporteth, that Hun (in suing 
his praemunire against the priest), being set upon a glory of victory, 
made his boasting among his friends, that trusted to have the matter 
long spoken of, and to be called Hun's case. Whereby it appeareth 
that Hun was not then in prison clapt up for heresy, but was abroad 
seeking counsel among the lawyers, and boasting among his friends, 
as write th More. 1 

After this heap of untruths above passed, add yet further another Another 
copy of Cope's false dealing; who, seeking all corners and every- taCop* 
where how to pick matter against my former history,- charged, me with noted 
arrogancy, as though I took so highly upon me to undo and derogate 
the king's acts and judgments in the acquittal of Dr. Horsey. 
If it so pleased the king to acquit Dr. Horsey by his gracious pardon, 

(1) Dial. b. lii. (2) The lirst edition, 1503.— Eu. 



uddles 
upi 



A DEFENCE OF HUN AGAINST MORE AND COPE. 

enry I am not against it, neither do I deny but the king so did : neither 

' IIL do I say, nor ever did, but the king, of his supereminent prerogative, 

A. D. may so do : and wherein then do I unrip or loose the king's acts here 

1509 jone an d concluded ? But if the question be this, Whether Dr. 

,*?„ Horsey with his conjurats, did kill Richard Hun or no ? then do I 

say, that the pardon of the king doth not take away the verity of the 

toOoprt crime committed, but removeth away the penalty of the law deserved : 
' '•" ' ill:i " and so if the lives of them were saved by way of pardon (as Mr. More 
himself seemeth not to deny), then was it not through their innocency 
claiming justice, that they escaped, but through petition standing in 
need of mercy. For what needeth pardon, where justice absolved) ? 
yea, who sueth pardon, but in so doing must yield himself guilty ? 
for pardon never cometh lightly, either with God or man, except the 
Ti,e es- crime be first confessed. Wherefore if they escaped by justice, as 
Horse K ° f C°P e pretendeth, how then doth Master More say, they were saved 
came ra- by pardon ? And if they escaped by pardon, how then doth Cope 
favour say they were not guilty ? And be it admitted, that the sentence of 
demerits, the king's attorney in the king's name did absolve them as unguilty, 
according as the king was then informed by the cardinal and suit of 
friends ; yet afterwards the king, being better informed by the par- 
liament, and the truth better known, detested and abhorred their fact, 
and yet continued his pardon unto them, as by the king's own acts and 
his broad seal appeareth, yet remaining in records to be seen. 

And as touching my former histories set forth in Latin and in 
English, which spake first of the foreman of the quest, then of the 
king's attorney, to be laboured with some gifts or money : ] as Cope 
hath yet proved no untruth in my saying, so less can he find any re- 
pugnance or disagreeing in the same. For he that speaketh of bribing, 
first of one person, and then afterwards of another, where both might 
be bribed together, is not contrary, I think, to himself, but rather doth 
comprehend that in the one book, which he before leaveth out in the 
other ; and yet no great repugnance either in the one or in the other, 
seeing that which is said may be verified in both, as it is no other 
like but in this matter it was. For how is it otherwise likely or pos- 
sible, but that there must needs be found some privy packing in this 
matter, seeing after such evidence found and brought in by the coro- 
ner's inquest and jury of twenty-four chosen persons, after so many 
marks and tokens of the murder so clear and demonstrable, and laid 
forth so plain to the eyes of all the world, that no man could deny, or 
not see the same ; yet through the handling of tfie aforesaid attorney, 
and of the foreman of the quest, the murderers were borne out and 
confessed to be no murderers. If such bolstering out of matters and 
partiality were then such a rare case in the realm of England, in the 
time of cardinal Wolsey (who then under the king and in the king's 
name did what he list), then let it seem untrue what I have written in 
my former stories. And yet the words of my story, which Cope 
carpeth at so much, be not mine, but the words of Edward Hall, nis 

(1) In the first Edition of the Acts and Monuments, London, 1563, page 39], Foxe says, "So 
upon good evidence Dr. Horsey the chancellor, and Belringer, with Charles Joseph the somner, 
vv ' ' '' '"dieted for the murder; but afterwards, by the means of the spiritualty and nwncij; Doctor 
Horsey eavised the king's attorney to confess him, on his arraignment, not to be guilty, and so he 
atoned and went to Exeter.' See the Latin Edition also; page 121. ISasle ; 1559. ' Ille, largiti- 
onibus corrupto pnecoue,' &c. piofugit Exoniam.— Ed. 



<>w 



to 
1518. 



PERSECUTION IX THE DIOCESE OF LINCOLN'. 205 

n author. 1 Wherefore, if his disposition be so set, tli.it he must &** 
needs be a censor of other men's writings, let him expostulate with VIII _ 
Hall, and not with me. A.D. 

But I trouble the reader too much in this matter of Richard Hun, * 
being of itself so clear, that no indifferent judge can doubt thereof. 
As for -wranglers and quarrelers, they will never be satisfied. Where- 
fore I return again to the purpose of our story intermitted. 

«E{i$abetlj ^tamforb, ant> otfjer£. 

In the table above, containing the names of those who, about this 
time of Richard Hun, were forced to deny and abjure their professed 
opinions, mention was made of Elizabeth Stamford, John Houshold, 
and others, abjuring about a. d. 1517 ; -whose vexation and weakness, 
although it be pitiful to behold, yet to consider the confession of their 
doctrine in those ancient days, it is not unprofitable ; wherein we have 
to see the same form of knowledge and doctrine then taught and 
planted in the hearts of our fore-elders, which is now publicly re- 
ceived, as well touching the Lord's sacrament of his body, as also other 
specialties of sincerity. And although they lacked then public autho- th 
rity to maintain the open preaching and teaching of the gospel, which J| r 
the Lord's merciful grace hath given us now : yet in secret knowledge former 
and understanding they seemed then little or nothing inferior to these be con 
our times of public reformation, as may appear by this confession of dered - 



ti-acliinj; 
the 



Elizabeth Stamford hereunder written ; which only may suffice for 
example, to understand what ripe knowledge of God's Word was then 
abroad ; although not in churches publicly preached, for danger of the 
bishops, yet in secret wise taught and received of divers, in number of 
whom was this Elizabeth Stamford ; who, being brought and examined 
before Fitzjames bishop of London, a. d. 1517, confessed, that she Thomas 
was taught by one Thomas Beele (sometime dwelling at Henley) Beeie. 
these words eleven years before : 

' Christ feedeth, and fast nourisheth his church with his own precious body, 
that is, the bread of life coming down from heaven : this is the worthy Word 
that is worthily received, and joined unto man, to be in one body with him. 
Sooth it is, that they be both one, they may not be parted : this is the wisely 
deeming of the holy Sacrament, Christ's own body : this is not received by 
chewing of teeth, but by hearing with ears, and understanding with your soul, 
and wisely working thereafter. Therefore, saith St. Paul, I fear me amongst 
us, brethren, that many of us be feeble and sick ; therefore I counsel us, brethren, 
to rise and watch, that the great day of doom come not suddenly upon us, as 
the thief doth upon the merchant.' 

Also the said Beele taught and showed her, that the sacrament of 
the altar was not the very body of Christ, but very bread : and that 
the sacrament was the very body of Christ put upon the cross, after 
a divine and mystical manner. And moreover, that the said Thomas 
Beele did many times and oft teach her this aforesaid lesson, that she 
should confess her sins to God, and that the pope's pardons and indul- 
gences were naught worth, and profited not, and that worshipping of 
images and pilgrimages is not to be done. 

To this Elizabeth Stamford, may also be annexed the doctrine and 

(1) Ex Ed. Hal), in vit. Henry VIII. anno C. 



206 pEBSECITTION IN THE DIOCESE OF LINCOLN. 

iienry confession of Joan Sampson, wife of John Sampson, carpenter, of 
' Aldermanbury in London : against whom, being cited and examined 



A.I), before the bishop of London, certain witnesses were producted ; who, 
1509 U pon their oath, being sworn, did detect and denounce the said Joan 
, J? 8 Sampson in these articles and opinions following : 



Articles I. That she being in her labour, what time Joan Sampson her predecessor, 
oi Joan l j ien being alive, was with her, and after the manner then of women, called 
Sampson. muc ^ U p on the help of the Virgin Mary, she, spitting thereat, was in such sort 
aggrieved, that the other party was compelled to forsake the house. 

II. Also, that she spake against pilgrimage, and the worshipping of the blessed 
Virgin, and of all saints, affirming that there is none holy but one. 

III. Item, Another time, in the hearing of one Margaret Anworth, when she 
and other women were invocating the blessed Virgin to help in woman's labour, 
she stood against them, and contumeliously spake against the invocators. 

IV. Item, That she, speaking against the pilgrimage of our lady of Wilsdon 
(as she was then called) and of St. Saviour at Bermondsey, called the said St. 
Saviour, St. Sawyer. 

V. Item, For having two certain books in English, one bigger, and another 
lesser, which she committed to one John Anstead a cook ; which books in the 
register be not named. 

Against VI. Item, That the said Joan Sampson, at a supper, in the hearing of certain 

the sacra- meri) anc j f a certain widow named Joan White, spake openly in contempt of 

tile altar, the sacrament of the altar ; saying, that the priests were idolaters who did lift 

up the bread over their heads, making the people to worship it, and making 

the people to believe that it was the Lord's body ; and that it was better to eat 

the altar-cloth, if it might be eaten and digested as easily as the other. 

Here follow, moreover, the names of divers others who, in the regis- 
ters, be specified to abjure : 

William Jacum, carpenter. John Hatchot. Geo. Laund, prior of St. 

John Stradling. Jacob Sturdey. Sithe. 

John Newman, shereman. Thomas Purual, tailor. Henry Coll. 

Robert Boshel. John Bitam. William Man. 

Thomas Edward, dyer. Robert Hutton, pinner. William Sweting. 

Richard Dewar. Robert Pope. Jacob Brewster. 

Richard Apulby. John Geeste of Stafford. Sabine Manne. 

John Osburne. John Brian of the parish John Spencer. 

Robert Roger. of St. Stephen. Patrike Dowdal, alias 

John Eton. John Bol. Capper. 

John Chapman. Richard Wescot. Robert Aleyn. 

William Chakon. William Crosse. John Finch, cook. 

Richard Mildnal. John Southwick. 

3Iofjn &out[jtoicfc. 

Against this John Southwick last named, it was laid and objected, 
that when one Rivelay, coming from the church of the Grey Friars 
in London, had said to his wife (asking where he had been), that he 
had heard mass, and had seen his Lord God in fonn of bread and 
wine over the priest's head, the aforesaid John Southwick there 
present answered again and said ; " Nay, William ! thou sawest 
not thy Lord God, thou sawest but bread, wine, and the chalice."" 
And when the said William answered again in the same words as 
before, saying, " I trust verily that I saw my Lord God in form of 
bread and wine, and this I doubt not;" the other replying again, 
answered and said as before, " Nay, I tell thee thou sawest but only 



PERSECUTION IX THE DIOCESE OF LINCOLN. 207 

a figure or sacrament of him, which is in substance bread and wine," /w v 
&c. This was a.d. 1520, in which he was compelled to abjure. VU1 

All these abovenamed, in one key of doctrine and religion, did A. D. 
hold and concord together : against whom wore objected five or six 150y 
special matters; to wit, for speaking against worshipping of saints, , ° 

against pilgrimage, against invocation of the blessed Virgin, against '- 

the sacrament of the Lord's body, and for having Scripture books in Sdoc"' 
English ; which books I find to be especially named, as these ; the trin 
book of the four evangelists, a book of the epistles of Paul and Peter, 
the epistle of St. James, a book of the Apocalypse, and of Anti- 
christ, of the Ten Commandments, and Wickliff's Wicket, with 
other such. 

3fol)n 4btifman, Jlartpc. 

It would ask a long tractation, and tedious, to recite in order the a.d.isis, 
great multitude and number of good men and women, besides these 
above-rehearsed, who, in those days, recanted and abjured about the 
beginning of king Henry's reign and before : among whom, yet not- 
withstanding, some there were whom the Lord reduced again, and 
made strong in the profession of his truth, and constant unto death ; 
of which number one was John Stilman by name, who, about Sept. 
24, a.d. 1518, was apprehended and brought before Richard Fitz- 
james then bishop of London, at his manor of Fulham, and by him 
was there examined and charged, that notwithstanding his former 
recantation, oath, and abjuration, made about eleven years then past, 
before Edmund then bishop of Salisbury, as well for speaking against 
the worshipping, praying, and offering unto images ; as also for 
denying the carnal and corporal presence in the sacrament of Christ's 
memorial : yet since that time he had fallen into the same opinions 
again, and so into the danger of Telapse : and further he had highly 
commended and praised John Wickliff, affirming that he was a saint 
in heaven, and that his book called The Wicket was good and holy. 1 ^j^ef* 
Soon after his examination he was sent from thence unto the Lollards 1 
tower at London, and on October 22, then next ensuing, was brought 
openly into the consistory of Paul's, and was there judicially examined 
by Thomas Hed the bishop's vicar-general, upon the contents of 
these articles following : 

Articles laid against John Stilman. 

I. First I object unto you, that you have confessed before my lord of Lon- Years of 
don, and me Dr. Hed, his vicar-general, that about twenty years past, one antiquity 

Stephen Moone of the diocese of Winchester (with whom you abode six or '"J*. 
is \ i-i i ii- ii —\ noted. 

seven years alter), did teach you to believe that the going on pilgrimage and a godly 
worshipping of images, as the lady of Walsingham and others, were not to be martyr, 
used. And also that afterwards one Richard Smart, who was burned at Salis- s „' Kl ' r t 
bury about fourteen or fifteen years past, did read unto you Wickliff 's Wicket, burned at 
and likewise instructed you to believe that the sacrament of the altar was not f aI i 1 ro3 ,ry ' 
the body of Christ: all which things you have erroneously believed. 

II. Item, You have divers times read the said book called WicklifF's Wicket, 
and one other book of the ten commandments, which the said Richard 
Smart did give you; and-at the time of your first apprehension you did hide 
them in an old oak, and did not reveal them unto the bishop of Salisbury, 
before whom you were abjured of heresy about eleven years since ; where you 

(1) Ex Rcgist. Fitzjames, London. 



208 PERSECUTION IN THE DIOCESE OF LINCOLN. 

iTenni promised, by oath upon the evangelists, ever after -to "believe and hold as the 

vni - christian faith taught and preached, and never to offend again in the said here- 

sies, or any other, upon pain of relapse. And further, you there promised to 

1509 

to 



perform all such penance as the said bishop of Salisbury did enjoin you : who 
then enjoined you, upon the like pain, not to depart his diocese without his 
, special license. 

lt >1 " j JII. Item, It is evident that you be relapsed, as well by your own confession, 
as also by your deeds, in that about two years after your abjuration you went 
into the said place where you had hidden your books ; and then taking them 
away with you, you departed the aforesaid diocese without the license of the 
bishop, and brought them with you to London ; where now, being attached and 
taken with them upon great suspicion of heresy, you are brought unto the 
bishop of London : by reason of which your demeanour, you have showed by 
your impenitent and dissembled conversation, both your errors, and also your 
unfaithful abjuration and disobedience unto the authority of our mother "holy 
church, in that you performed not the penance : in which behalf you be volun- 
tarily perjured, and also relapsed, in that you departed the said diocese without 
license. 

IV. Item, You be not only (as afore is said) impenitent, disobedient, volun- 
tarily perjured and relapsed, by this your aforesaid heretical demeanour, but 
also, since your last attachment upon suspicion of heresy, you have maliciously 
spoken erroneous and damnable words, affirming before my lord of London, 
your ordinary, and me, judicially sitting at Fulham, that you were sorry that 
ever you did abjure your said opinions, and had not suffered then manfully for 
them, for they were, and be, good and true ; and therefore you will now abide 
by them to die for it. And furthermore, you have spoken against our holy 
father the pope, and his authority, damnably saying that he is Antichrist, and 
not the true successor of Peter, or Christ's vicar on earth ; and that his pardons 
and indulgences, which he granteth in the sacrament of penance, are naught, 
and that you will none of them. And likewise that the college of cardinals be 
limbs of the said Antichrist : and that all other inferior prelates and priests are 
the synagogue of Satan. And moreover you said, that the doctors of the 
church have subverted the truth of holy Scripture, expounding it after their 
own minds, and therefore their works be naught, and they in hell : but that 
Wickliffis a saint in heaven, and that the book called his Wicket is good, for 
therein he showeth the truth. Also you did wish that there were twenty 
thousand of your opinion, against us scribes and pharisees, to see what you 
would do for the defence of your faith. All which heresies you did afterwards 
erroneously affirm before the archbishop of Canterbury, and then said that you 
would abide by them to die for it, notwithstanding his earnest persuasions to 
the contrary : and therefore, for these premises you be evidently relapsed, and 
ought to be committed unto the secular power. 

All these articles thus , propounded, and his constant persevering 
in the truth perceived, Dr. Hcd, vicar-general, Oct. 25, by his sentence 
definitive, did condemn him for a relapsed heretic, and so delivered 
him the same day unto the sheriffs of London, to be openly burned 
in Smithfield. 

ftfjomajci JUan, Mattpz. 

Next to John Stilman abovementioned, followeth in this order of 
blessed martyrs, the persecution and condemnation of Thomas Man; 
who, March 29, a.d. 1518, was burned in Smithfield. This Thomas 
Man had likewise been apprehended for the profession of Christ's 
gospel about six years before (Aug. 14, 1511), and being at that 
time brought before Dr. Smith, bishop of Lincoln, was by him ex- 
amined upon divers and sundry articles, the effect whereof is this: — 

The Articles of Thomas Man. 

I. First, That he had spoken against auricular confession, and denied the 
corporal presence of Christ's body in the sacrament of the altar. 



THE CAUSE OF THE MARTYKPOM OF THOMAS MAN. 209 

II. Item, That ho believed that all holy men of his sect were only priests. limn, 

III. Item, That he had affirmed that the Father of heaven was the altar, Vl " 
and the Second Person the sacrament; and that upon the ascension day the . .. 
sacrament ascended unto the altar, and there abideth still. 1500 

IV. Item, That he believed not aright in the sacrament of extreme unction. . 

V. Item, That he had called certain priests, meanly arrayed, pilled knaves, ,-j^ 

VI. Item, That he had said that pulpits were priests' lying stools. ! - 

VII. Item, That he had believed that images ought not to be worshipped, 
and that he neither believed in the crucifix, nor yet would worship it. 

VIII. Item, That he had affirmed that he heard say, the word of God and 
God to be all one, and that he that worthily receiveth the word of God, receiveth 
God. 

IX. Item, That he had said that the popish church was not the church of 
God, but a synagogue ; and that holv men of his sect were the true church 
of God. 

For these and such like matters was he a long time imprisoned, 
and, at last, through frailty and fear of death, was content to abjure 
and yield himself unto the judgment of the Romish church, and 
thereupon was enjoined, not only to make his open recantation, but 
also from thenceforth to remain as prisoner within the monastery of Thomns 
Osney beside Oxford, and so to bear a faggot before the first cross, JJ a th e sent 
at the next general procession within the university. Howbeit not m °n f aste - 
long after, the bishop having need of the poor man's help in his osney, 
household business, took him out of the said monastery, and placed 
him within his own house until his business was ended ; and then (his 
turn once served) he appointed Dr. Wilcocks his vicar-general, that 
in his next judicial session within the priory of Frideswide at Oxford, he And of 
should assign him to remain within the said priory, and not to depart ^ilT 
thence without license of the prior for the time being, upon pain of 
relapse : and upon like pain he also enjoined him to wear the sign of 
a faggot under his uppermost garment, until he were dispensed withal 
for the same. All which notwithstanding (being belike both sorry 
for his offence in denying the truth, and also weary of his servile and 
prison-like bondage), he bethought himself how he might best escape 
their cruel hands ; and therefore, after a while, seeing good opportu- 
nity offered him, he fled the diocese and jurisdiction of Lincoln, and Fieesout 
seeking abroad in other counties for work, thereby to sustain his poor n^,?™ ' 
life, he most commonly abode, sometimes in Essex, sometimes in 
Suffolk; where also he associated and joined himself unto such godly 
professors of Christ's gospel, as he there could hear of. But within 
few years after (such is the cruel rage of Satan and his wicked mem- 
bers, who never suffer the godly long to continue untroubled,) he was 
again accused of relapse by the inquest of the inquisition of London, 
and thereupon was apprehended and brought before Richard Fitz- Thomns 
james then bishop of London, and, Feb. 9th, 1518, he was examined """mi' 1 
by Dr. Hed, the bishop's vicar-general, within his palace at London : ti r ^ e ^; 
where the said Hed, judicially assisted by divers of his complices, ed. 
declared first unto Man, that forasmuch as he was, since his first ab- Thecause 
juring, again detected and accused, by certain credible and honest martyr- 
persons, of the same heresies which he had once before recanted : riom - 
and further (contrary to the order of penance enjoined him by the late 
bishop of Lincoln), he had departed the priory of St. Frideswide, and 
the diocese of Lincoln, without leave either of the bishop or prior ; 
and was now also found within the diocese of London, and that with- 



210 ARTICLES OBJECTED AGAINST THOMAS MAX. 

Henry out liis badge assigned him by the said bishop's vicar-general : he 
VUI - therefore, as chancellor and vicar-general unto the bishop of London, 
A. 1). deputed for that purpose, did then mean to proceed against him as a 
1509 relapse, by order of the ecclesiastical laws in that behalf provided. 
t0 Wherefore he appointed him to appear again in the consistory of 

— Paul's, on the 12th of February next after, there to answer unto such 

articles as then should be propounded against him. At which day 
and place, the chancellor (first reciting the causes above mentioned, 
why he did then proceed against him) objected unto him these articles 
following : — 

Articles again objected against Thomas Man. 

I. First, That he was of the diocese of London. 

II. Item, That he was a christian man, and professed Christ's faith, and the 
determinations of holy church concerning the seven sacraments, and other 
articles of the catholic faith. 

III. Item, That it was not lawful for any man (especially a layman) erro- 
neously and obstinately to hold, teach, or defend any opinion contrary unto the 
determinations of the said church ; and that the person so doing is a heretic. 

IV. Item, That within one of the twelve months of the year of our Lord 
1511, he had been detected before the bishop of Lincoln that then was, of divers 
points of heresy ; as that he had affirmed, that the very body and blood of 
Christ was not in the sacrament of the altar, but material bread and wine, and 
that he had received it at Easter as holy bread : and likewise had affirmed, that 

crament. the crucifix and other images in the church, were not to be worshipped ; and 
also, that confession made unto a priest was of no effect; with divers other 
like opinions and heresies. 

V. Item, That for these and such like points of heresy he had been abjured 
in St. Mary's church at Oxford, before Dr. Wilcocks, chancellor unto the said 
bishop of Lincoln, in the month of October, in the year last above-said, and 
there did renounce them and all other, promising to fall no more into the like. 

VI. Item, That there also he had taken a solemn oath, to do such penance as 
should be enjoined him by the authority of the said bishop. 

VII. Item, That then he was enjoined to abide within the monastery of 
Osney by Oxford ; and also there to Dear a faggot before the first cross in the 
general procession. 

VIII. Item, That after a certain time that he had been in the monastery of 
Osney, the bishop of Lincoln (for certain causes) took him into his own house 
and service, respiting his penance for a time. 

IX. Item, That afterwards, which was on the 9th of October, 1512, the said 
bishop's chancellor, judicially sitting in the chapter-house of the priory of St. 
Frideswide, in Oxford, did enjoin him that he should tarry within the said 
priory, and not go out of the gates thereof without license of the prior for the 
time being, until he had other commandment from the bishop ; upon pain of 
relapse : and further, that he should from thenceforth, upon the like pain, wear 
a sign of a faggot under his uppermost garment. 

X. Item, That after his abjuration, and since the promises thus done, he was 
yet again detected to the bishop of London by open fame, and denounced by 
worshipful and credible persons, that he had used like false errors and heresies, 
and had spoken and taught certain conclusions of heresy against the christian 
faith, and determinations of holy church : and that he had fallen into the like 
heresies as before his abjuration, both against the sacrament of the altar, against 
pilgrimages and worshipping 6f images : and had blasphemed our blessed lady, 
calling her Mahly. 1 

XI. Item, That when he wrought with one John Bates, in Stratford Lang- 
thorn, in Rogation-week then three years past, and being bidden by the said 
Bates's wife to go and hear the gospel, he answered and said unto her, ' I will 
not go there ; go you if you list ; ye shall have as much need for it, as to put your 
finger in the Cue and to burn it.' 

(1) He meant some image or picture of the Virgin, set up in some blind place to be worshipped. 



FALSE WITNESSES AGAINST HIM. 211 

XII. Item, That in times past, for fear of abjuration, lie had fled from Col- Smn 

Chester to Newbury, and after that unto Amersham, and had there damnably fJ,J - 
accompanied with heretics, and had taught heresies among them : and also 

since the time of his abjuration he had said, that lie and his wife had turned six . I ' 

to 
1518. 



seven hundred people unto those opinions which he was abjured of, and 
others also, contrary to Christ's faith, and determinations of holy church. 



His answer unto these articles was, that as touching the first nine, 
he granted them in part to be true ; confessing to the second, that he 
was a true Christian, and did profess the true christian faith : but the 
contents of the last three he utterly denied to be true ; affirming for 
certain answer unto the eleventh article, that at the time mentioned 
in the same he did not work in the town of Stratford. Upon which 
answer, the chancellor called forth two witnesses to be sworn and False 
examined against him, willing him that if he had any just matter ",!'X>";.i 
against any of them, he should refuse them. But to what purpose ■»■*>»•* 
this his fair offer and trim show of upright justice served, 1 cannot Man. 
see, for, notwithstanding that he charged one of the witnesses with 
theft and adultery (for that having a wife of his own, he did yet run 
away with another man's wife and goods), and also alleged that the 
other was too young to be a sworn witness in case of life and death : 
yet were they both still retained and allowed by the chancellor, and 
sworn not to depart away or hide themselves, but to be always ready 
to justify that which they had to say against the said Thomas Man. 
And so for that time, as well they as also all the rest were commanded 
to depart, and the prisoner sent again to his prison. 

And here, in the order of the oath ministered unto these witnesses, 
I find one note, me thinketh, worthy of present remembrance, both 
for that it is mentioned in this process, and also because it somewhat 
openeth the foolish, ridiculous, and feigned figurative ceremonies of 
the papists, who do attribute a spiritual signification unto almost 
all their doings. The register, discoursing at large the manner of 
their oath, hath these words : x " He caused them to swear upon the The cere- 
holy evangelists, with their three middle fingers stretched out right, SSma 
and laid upon the book in sign of the Trinity and catholic faith ; and rf *£ 
the other two (to wit, the thumb and the little finger) put downwards minis 
under the book, in token of damnation of body and soul, if they did {j^ " f 
not depose the truth in the matter." This ceremonial order and oath - 
exposition of theirs, as it is of their own fond invention, without any 
ground or example of the Scriptures of God, so mind I to leave it 
still unto themselves, with other their apish toys and ridicules, as 
things worthy to be laughed at ; and will now further proceed with 
the rest of this process which I have in hand. 

On the 15th of February, Dr. Hed the eliancellor, again judicially Thomas 
sitting in the consistory at Paul's, commanded Thomas Man to be at .'"\ u 
brought before him, and there causing the articles objected against j^'Vu',!! 
him by the bishop of Lincoln, with his order of abjuration and <ii 

})cnance, and also his own articles last propounded, to be first read ; 
ic called forth a third witness to be sworn and examined upon the 
same. But because he would seem to do all things by order of 

(1) " Ad sancta Dei evangelia Jurari fecit, tribus meiliis digitis erectis, et super librum positis, in 
signun. Trinitatis, et fidci catholicae: et duobw (videlicet pollice et auriculari) suppositis et sup- 
presais, et sub libro positis, in signum damnations corporis et animac, si non deposuerint veri- 
talem in liac parte.", 

p2 



Lor. 



l.'.lS. 



2] 2 FALSE WITNESSES AGAINST HIM. 

Jfmry justice, and nothing- against law, he therefore appointed unto the said 
vuu Thomas Man certain doctors and advocates of the Arches, as his 
A. D. counsellors to plead in his behalf; which was even like as if the 
1509 lamb should be committed to the defence and protection of the wolf, 
or the hare to the hound. For what good help could he look for at 
their hands, who were both most wicked haters and abhorrers of his 
nip"" 3 christian profession, and also stout upholders and maintainers of that 
commie- an ti c hristian law, by which he was for the same condemned ? And 
that full well appeared by the good advice and profitable counsel 
which they gave him against his next examinations. For as well 
upon the twentieth, and also the twenty-third of the same month of 
February, in their several sessions, he seeing his own negations to 
their objections to take no place against their sworn witnesses, had no 
other thing to allege for himself, but that, through his twenty weeks 
of hard imprisonment under the bishop of Lincoln, he was forced to 
recant and abjure ; which was a poor shift of counsel, God knoweth : 
The sub- and yet Dr. Rayncs being one of his chief assigned advocates, instead 
tuXniie of advice, could, by his subtle questioning, then make him confess, 
church- that certain talk whereof one of the witnesses had accused him, was 
""•" spoken about five years before past : which, because it was since his 
recantation, was rather an accusation of himself, than an excusing : and 
therefore it is easy to judge with how favourable and uprightful hearts 
they took upon them to be his advocates and defenders. The chan- 
cellor likewise charged him upon the same twenty-third day, that 
since his last imprisonment, he had said unto Robert Cluny the 
bishop's sumner, and his keeper, that as far forth as he could see or 
perceive for his part in this his matter, the laAvs of the church were 
The laws grounded upon Pilate and Caiaphas : which objection he granting to 
church of ' )e true, the chancellor did for that time dismiss the court, until the 
grounded ^ rs ^ ^ °^ March next following. Upon that day (minding to 
upon pi- make quick dispatch) he in few words asked Man, what matter he 
Caiaphas. l laf l to allege for himself why he should not then (considering the 
premises) be pronounced a relapsed heretic, and receive such punish- 
ment by the secular power, as to such was due by order of law ? But 
he, having no other allegations than before, which might take place 
with them, was finally condemned as a heretic ; and notwithstanding 
that, as the register noteth (but how truly, God only knoweth), he 
did again forsake his former renewed profession of Christ's gospel, 
and yielded himself unto the bishop of Rome, requiring to be ab- 
solved from his curse of excommunication, and contented to do such 
penance as they should enjoin him, he was yet, the 29th of March, 
delivered by Dr. Hed to the sheriff of London, to be then presently 
burned, with this protestation made before, that he might not consent 
to the death of any, and therefore he desired the sheriff that he would 
receive this person as relapsed and condemned, and yet to punish him 
otherwise than by rigorous rigour. 1 The words to be marked in 
their sentence be these : 2 " We desire, in the bowels of our Lord 
•bsus Christ, that the punishment and execution of due severity, of 

II) The popish chancellor would not seem to consent to his death, but yet could send birr to the 
Bhamhles to be killed. 

(•2) ■ Rogamiuattente In riseeribue JesuChristi, ut hujusmodi digne scveritatis ultioetexecutio 
".' '''," contra te In hac parte liendataliter modcretur, ut non sit ri^or rigidus. nequc mansuefudo 
diasoluta, >ed ad lalutem <-t ganitatem anima fuse," Sec. 



BURNING OF THOMAS MAN, AND OTHERS. 213 

thee and against thee, in this part, may so be moderated, that there «wp 
be no rigorous rigour, nor yet no dissolute mansuetude, but to the 



health and wealth of thy soul," &c. Wherein these catholic church- A. I >. 
men do well declare, according to the words of Thomas Man before l509 
expressed, that the laws of their church be grounded upon Pilate and ]: j'|' s 

Caiaphas. For like as Caiaphas, with his court of Pharisees, cried — 

against Christ unto Pilate : " It is not lawful for us to put any man 
to death," but " if thou let him go, thou art not Caesar's friend ;" 
even so they, first condemning the saints of God to death, and then 
delivering them unto the secular magistrate to be thereupon exe- 
cuted, would yet cover their malignant hearts with the cloak of hypo- 
critical holiness and unwillingness to shed blood. But God be 
thanked, who bringeth all things to light in his due time, and un- 
covereth hypocrisy at last, that she may be seen and known in her 
right colours ! 

Thus Thomas Man, the manly martyr of Jesus Christ, being con- a '■'■■ 
demned by the unjust sentence of Hed the chancellor, was delivered SSSed „> 
to the sheriff of London sitting on horseback in Paternoster-row, 'J 
before the bishop's door (a. d. 1518), he protesting to the said I ••»»> •«;»•• 
sheriff, that he had no power to put Man to death ; and therefore la " 
desiring the sheriff to take him as a relapse and condemned, to see 
him punished ; " et tamen citra mortem," that is, " without death," 
as the words stand in the register. The sheriff, receiving neither 
articles to be read at his burning, nor any indentures of that his de- 
livery, immediately carried him to Smithfield, and there, the same 
day in the forenoon, caused him to be " put into God's angel ;" ac- 
cording to the words of the said Thomas Man before, saying, that if 
he were taken again of the pilled knave priests, as he called them, he 
wist well he should go to the Holy Angel, and then be an angel in 
heaven. 

In the deposition of one Thomas Risby, weaver, of Stratford - 
Langthorn, against the aforenamed martyr Thomas Man, it appeareth 
by the registers, that he had been in divers places and countries in 
England, and had instructed very many, as at Amersham, at London, 
at Billericay, at Chelmsford, at Stratford-Langthorn, at Uxbridge, at 
Burnham, at Henley-upon-Thames, in Suffolk and Norfolk, at New- 
bury, and divers places more : where he himself testifieth, that as he 
went westward, he found a great company of well-disposed persons, 
being of the same judgment touching the sacrament of the Lord's 
supper that he was of, and especially at Newbury, 1 where was (as he six score 
confessed) a glorious and sweet society of faithful favourers, who had ^dthree 
continued the space of fifteen years together, till at last, by a certain 'Jj;^ r 
lewd person, whom they trusted and made of their council, they were "Jural 
bewrayed ; and then many of them, to the number of six or seven sixty ury 
score, were abjured, and three or four of them burnt. From thence y earsa e°- 
he came then (as he confessed) to the forest of Windsor, where he, 
hearing of the brethren who were at Amersham, removed thither, 
where he found a godly and a great company, which had continued 
in that doctrine and teaching twenty-three years, which was from 
this present time seventy years ago. And this congregation of 
Buckinghamshire men remained till the time of John Longland, 

(1) Ex Resist. Ric. Fitzjames, fol. 798. 



214 ROBERT COSIN ANL WILLIAM SWEETING, MARTYRS 

Henry bishop of Lincoln, whereof we shall (Christ willing) hear more 
vin. r 

anon. 



A. D. A "ainst these faithful Christians of Amersham, were great trouble 
150y and persecution in the time of William Smith bishop of Lincoln, 
.r^'o about a.d. 1507, at which time divers and many were abjured, and 

— it was called ' abjuratio magna,' ' the great abjuration ;' and those 

maRna!' who were noted of that doctrine and profession, were called by the 
men W or name of ' known men, 1 or ' just fast men,' &c. In this congregation 
just-Vast- f the faithful brethren, were four principal readers or instructors ; 
Amer- a whereof one was Tylsworth, called then Dr. Tylsworth, who was 
' b * ID ' burnt at Amersham, mentioned in our history before, by the name 
of William Tilseley, whom I suppose to be rather called Tylsworth. 
Another was Thomas Chase, called amongst them Dr. Chase, whom 
we declared before to be murdered and hanged in the bishop of Lin- 
coln's prison at Woburn, called Little-ease. 1 The third was this 
Thomas Man, called also Dr. Man, burned as is here mentioned in 
Smithfield, a.d. 1518, who, as by his own confession, and no less 
also by his travail appeareth, was God's champion, and suffered much 
Thomas trouble by the priests for the cause and law of God. He confesseth 
g[eat a re a- himself in the same register, that he had turned seven hundred 
mon%he P eo pl e to his religion and doctrine, for which he thanked God. He 
brethren conveyed also five couples of men and women from Amersham, Ux- 
snam! er bridge, Burnham, and Henley-upon-Thames, (where they dwelt), 
unto Suffolk and Norfolk, that they might be brought (as he then 
termed it) out of the devil's mouth. The fourth was Robert Cosin ; 
named likewise among them Dr. Cosin. 

Robert Co#n, of SBucfiinpham, Hftattpc. 

This Robert Cosin seemeth to be the same who in the former part 
of this history is mentioned, being called by the name of father Ro- 
ii is bert, 2 and was burnt in Buckingham. Of this Robert Cosin, I find 
!m'<uoc g m tne registers of Lincoln, that he, with Thomas Man, had instructed 
trine. and persuaded one Joan Norman, about Amersham, not to go on 
pilgrimage, nor to worship any images of saints. Also when she had 
vowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of her child, they dis- 
suaded her from the same, and said, that she needed not to confess 
herself to a priest, but that it was sufficient to lift up her hands to 
heaven. Moreover, they were charged by the bishop, for teaching 
^ ri ' the said Joan, that she might as well drink on the Sunday before 
mass, as on any other day. And thus you see the doctrine of these 
good men, for which they were in those days abjured and condemned 
to death. 3 

HDtUiam ^rucetina, alia£ Cler&e, JBattnr. 

William Sweeting, otherwise named Clerke, first dwelt with the lady 
Percy, at Darlington, in the county of Northampton, for a certain 
Bpace, and from thence went to Boxtcd, in the county of Essex, 
where he was the holy water clerk the space of seven years : after 
that, lie was bailiff and farmer to Mrs. Margery Wood, the term of 
thii ti en years. From Boxtcd he departed and came to the town of 

U) Sec vol. Iv. page 123. (2) Ibid, page 124. (3) Ex Regist. Johan. Longland. 






JAMES BREWSTER, MARTYR. 215 

St. Osithe, where he served the prior of St. Osithe's, named George Bmma 
Laund, the space of sixteen years and more ; where lie had so turned ' 



the prior by his persuasions, that the said prior of St. Osithe was A.D. 
afterwards compelled to abjure. 1 This William Sweeting, coming 1509 
up to London with the aforesaid prior, for suspicion of heresy 15 ^ 8 

was committed to the Lollards 1 tower, under the custody of Charles '- 

Joseph, and there, being abjured in the church of St. Paul, was con- Eaumi! 
strained to bear a faggot at Paul's Cross, and at Colchester ; and jjj'"^,, 
afterwards to wear a faggot upon his coat all his life, which he did two atjured. ' 
years together upon his left sleeve, till at length the parson of Col- 
chester required him to help him in the service of the church ; and so 
plucked the badge from his sleeve, and there he remained two years, 
being the holy water clerk. From thence afterward he departed, and 
travelling abroad, came to Rederiffe, in the diocese of Winchester, 
where he was holy water clerk the space of a year. Then he went to 
Chelsea, where he was their neatherd, and kept the town beasts ; in 
which town, upon St. Ann's day in the morning, as he went forth 
with his beasts to the field, the good man was apprehended and 
brought before the bishop, and his chamber searched for books ; this 
was a.d. 1511. 

The crimes whereupon he was examined, were these : — 

First, For having much conference with one William Man, of Boxted, in a 
hook which was called Matthew. 

Item, That he had familiarity, and frequented much the company of James 
Brewster, who had heen before abjured. 

Item, That when his wife should go on pilgrimage, he asked of her, what Against 
good she would receive by her going on pilgrimage ? adding moreover, that as P u 8*>m- 
he supposed it was to no purpose nor profit ; but rather it were better for her to 
keep at home, and to attend her business. 

Item, That he had learned and received of William Man, that the sacrament Tranaub- 

' the priests' altar, was not I 
ceived in memorial of Christ. 

Item, That he had propounded and affirmed the same doctrine to James 
Brewster. 

Item, Because he had reprehended his wife for worshipping the images in the Against 
church, and for setting up candles before them. images. 

And thus have you all the causes and crimes laid against this 
William Sweeting wherefore he was condemned : who then being 
asked what cause he had, why he should not be judged for a relapse, 
said, he had nothing else, but only that he committed himself to the 
mercy of Almighty God. 

3jame£ 2Breto£ter, of Colcheter, JEtartuc. 

With William Sweeting also the same time was examined and con- 
demned, James Brewster, of the parish of St. Nicholas, in Colchester. 
This James Brewster was a carpenter, dwelling ten years in the town 
of Colchester ; who, being unlettered, could neither read nor write, 
and was apprehended upon the day of St. James, in one Walker's 
house, in St. Clement's parish. 

About six years before, which was a. d. 1505, he had been abjured 
by William Warham, archbishop of Canterbury, the sec of London 

(1) Ex Regist. Ric. Fitzjaiiics, fol. CO. 



216 BURNING OF SWEETING AND 1IREWSTER. 

iienry being then vacant ; and after other penance done at Colchester, was 
enjoined to wear a faggot upon his upper garment during his life, 



A.D. which badge he did bear upon his left shoulder near the space of two 
years, till the comptroller of the earl of Oxford plucked it away, because 
he was labouring in the works of the earl. 

The crimes whereupon he was examined, and which he confessed, 
were these : — 



150!) 

to 
1518. 



Crimes First, That he had been five times with William Sweeting in the fields keep- 
objected ing beasts, hearing him read many good things out of a certain book : at which 
lfrewster reacmi g a ' so were present at one time Woodroof or Woodbinde, a netmaker, 
with his wife ; also a brother-in-law of William Sweeting ; and another time 
Thomas Goodred, who heard likewise the said William Sweeting read. 

Item, Because he used the company and conference of Henry Hert, carpen- 
ter, of Westminster, and wrought with him in his science at Westminster. 

Item, For having a certain little book of Scripture in English, of an old 
writing almost worn for age, whose name is not there expressed. 

Item, Because he, hearing upon a time one Master Bardfield, of Colchester, 
thus say : ' He that will not worship the Maozim ! in heart and thought, shall 
die in sight,' he asked afterwards of William Man, what that word Maozim 
should mean? who told him, that it signified as much as the masing 2 God, to 
wit, the sacrament of the altar. 

Item, That he had much conference with Henry Hert, against oblations and 
images, and that it was better bestowed mtmey which was given to the poor, 
than that which was offered in pilgrimage. 

Item, For that he had communication and conference with Roger Helliar, 
and one Walker, a thicker of St. Clements, concerning divers such matters of 
pilgrimage, offering to images, worshipping of saints, and the sacrament of the 
altar. 
a peri- Item, When Thomas Goodred, William Sweeting, and he, in the fields keep- 

ings j n g beasts, were talking together of the sacrament of the Lord's body, and like 
matters, this James Brewster should thus say : ' Now the Son of the living God 
help us:' unto whom William Sweeting again should answer: ' Now Almighty 
God so do.' 3 

And thus have you the causes likewise and crimes laid against 
James Brewster, upon which he, with William Sweeting, were toge- 
ther examined and condemned. Then being asked, as the Romish 
manner is, Whether he had any cause why he should not be adjudged 
for a relapse ; he, trusting to find favour and grace in submitting 
himself, said, that he submitted him to the mercy of Almighty God, 
and to the favourable goodness of him his Judge. And likewise did 
William Sweeting submit himself; trusting belike that they should 
find some favour and relief in this humble subjecting themselves unto 
their goodness. 
The un- But note here the unmerciful and unchristian dealing of these 
',',',', n',,!'. catholic fathers, who, upon their submission, were contented to give 
de.'Sing" out a s °lemn commission, the tenor whereof was to release and par- 
'^ji'^ don them from the sentence of excommunication, which they had 
papist., incurred : but immediately after upon the same, the bishop, all this 
swr. r>.,.. notwithstanding, pronounced upon them the sentence of death and 
Brewster condemnation; whereupon they were both delivered to the secular 
slnitb,'" P°*er, and both together burnt in Smithfield at one fire, the 18th 
"* day of October, a. d. 1511. 

(1) Maozim i n Dan. ii.is amidol, and Bignlfleth as much as torts and munitions. 
CI) " Masing," fanciful.— En. ( ;i) Ex. Hegist. Lund. 



WILLIAM SMITH AND JOHN LONGLAKD, PERSECUTORS. VI' 

Cfjrtftopfjer &fjoemafcer, of feat nai^enben, lEtnrtnt. rSSH 



To these blessed saints before-named, we will also adjoin Christopher A. I). 
Shoemaker, of whom this I find briefly in the register of sir John 150y 
Longland ; that the said Christopher Shoemaker, a parishioner of l " 

Great Missenden, came to the house of John Say, and after other - 

matters of talk, read to him out of a little book the words which 
Christ spake to his disciples. And thus coming to his house about 
four times, at every time he read something out of the same book 
unto him, teaching him not to be deceived in the priests 1 celebration 
at mass ; and declaring that it was not the same very present body 
of Christ, as the priests did fantasy ; but in substance bread, bearing 
the remembrance of Christ : and taught him moreover, that pilgrimage, 
worshipping and setting up candles to saints, were all unprofitable. 
And thus the said John Say, being taught by this Christopher, and 
also confirmed by John Okenden and Robert" Pope, was brought to 
the knowledge of the same doctrine. Thus much briefly I find in {Jj5J£ 
that register concerning Christopher Shoemaker : declaring further, burilt '" 
that he was burned at Newbury about this time, which was a.d. 1518. bury" 
And thus much out of the registers of London. 

In turning over the registers and records of Lincoln likewise, and 
coining to the year of our Lord 1520, and to 1521, I find that as 
the light of the Gospel began more to appear, and the number of 
professors to grow, so the vehemency of persecution, and stir of the 
bishops began also to increase ; whereupon ensued great perturbation 
and grievous affliction in divers and sundry quarters of this realm, 
especially about Buckinghamshire and Amersham, Uxbridge, Henley, 
Newbury, in the diocese of London, in Essex, Colchester, Suffolk, 
and Norfolk, and other parts more. And this was before the name 
of Luther was heard of in these countries among the people. Where- 
fore they are much beguiled and misinformed, who condemn this kind 
of doctrine now received, of novelty ; asking, " Where was this 
church and religion forty years ago, before Luther's time ?" To 
whom it may be answered, that this religion and form of doctrine Theanti- 
was planted by the apostles, and taught by true bishops ; afterward ut'JUll 
decayed, and now reformed again. Although it was not received nor '^\\ T J.''■' 
admitted of the pope's clergy before Luther's time, neither yet is ; gospel. 
yet it was received of others, in whose hearts it pleased the Lord 
secretly to work ; and that of a great number, who both professed 
and suffered for the same, as in the former times of this history may 
appear. And if they think this doctrine be so new that it was not 
heard of before Luther's time, how then came such great persecution 
before Luther's time here in England ? If these were of the same 
profession which they were of, then was their cruelty unreasonable, 
so to persecute their own catholic fraternity. And if they were 
otherwise, how then is this doctrine of the gospel so new, or how arc 
the professors thereof so late started up as they pretend them to be ? 
But this cometh only of ignorance, and for not knowing nor con- igno- 
sidering well the times and antiquities of the church which have been mildly 
before us ; which if they did, they should see and say, that the church 
of England hath not lacked great multitudes who tasted and followed 



to 
1518 



latter 

times 



218 WILLIAM SMITH AMD JOHN LON'GLAND, PEIISECUTOKS. 

}f, nrv the sweetness of God's holy word almost in as ample manner, for the 
riIL number of well-disposed hearts, as now. Although public authority 
A.I), then lacked to maintain the open preaching of the gospel, yet the 
lr \° (J secret multitude of true professors was not much unequal : certes the 
fervent zeal of those christian days seemed much superior to these 
our days and times ; as manifestly may appear by their sitting up all 
umcsof night in reading and hearing; also by their expenses and charges in 
''<•! 'c"ui buying of books in English, of whom some gave five marks, 1 some 
pared more, some less, for a book : some gave a load of hay for a few 
these chapters of St. James, or of St. Paul in English. In which rarity of 
books, and want of teachers, this one thing 1 greatly marvel and muse 
at ; to note in the registers, and to consider how the word of truth, 
notwithstanding, did multiply so exceedingly as it did amongst them : 
wherein is to be seen no doubt the marvellous working of God's 
mighty power. For so I find and observe in considering the registers, 
how one neighbour, resorting and conferring with another, eftsoons 
with a few words of the first or second talk, did win and turn their 
minds to that wherein they desired to persuade them, touching the 
Earnest truth of God's word and his sacraments. To see their travails, their 
earnest seekings, their burning zeal, their readings, their watchings, 
their sweet assemblies, their love and concord, their godly living, their 
Christ's faithful demeaning with the faithful, may make us now, in these our 
s ° bl ' c ' days of free profession, to blush for shame. 

Four principal points they stood in against the church of Rome : 
in pilgrimage, in adoration of saints, in reading Scripture-books 
in English, and in the carnal presence of Christ's body in the 
sacrament. 
Abjuratio After the great abjuration aforesaid, which was under William 
Smith, bishop of Lincoln, they were noted and termed among them- 



zeal of 
our fore 
fathers I 

following 



'ii.i-ii.i. 



rn"n]"st- selves by the name of ' known-men,' or ' just-fast-men :' as now they 
fast-men. are called by the name of Protestants. 

Prac- As they were simple, and yet not uncircumspect in their doings, 

Romish s0 the crafty serpent, being more wily than they, by fraudulent 
prelates. su btlety did so circumvent them, that he caused the wife to detect 
the husband, the husband the wife, the father the daughter, the 
daughter the father, the brother to disclose the brother, and neighbour 
the neighbour. Neither were there any assemblies nor readings kept, 
but both the persons and also the books were known ; neither was 
any word so closely spoken, nor article mentioned, but it was dis- 
covered. So subtilely and sleightly these catholic prelates did use 
their inquisitions and examinations, that nothing was done or said 
among these ' known-men,' so covertly, fifteen or twenty years before, 
but it was brought at length to their intelligence. Such captious 
interrogatories, so many articles and suspicions they had, such espials 
and privy scouts they sent abroad, such authority and credit they had 
with the king, and in the king's name ; such diligence they showed 
in that behalf, so violently and impudently they abused the book of 
the peaceable evangelists, wresting men's consciences upon their oath, 
swearing them upon the same to detect themselves, their fathers and 
mothers, and other of their kindred, with their friends and neighbours, 
and that to death. All which things in the further process of the 

(1) A mark was anciently valued at thirty shillings, afterwards at thirteen and fourpence.— Ed. 



INTERROGATORIES MIXISTERED AGAINST THE EXAMIXATES. 219 

table ensuing (Christ willing), which we have collected out of some Henry 
part of the registers of Lincoln, shall appear. 



For the better declaration whereof, first here is to be premonished A - L>- 
by the way, touching the see of Lincoln, that after William Smith 150y 
succeeded John Longland. This William Smith, although he was 15 ° 8 
somewhat eager and sharp against the poor simple flock of Christ's „ 
servants, under whom some were burned, many abjured, a great number Smith, 
molested, as partly hath been afore declared ; yet was he nothing so u^om*' 
bloody or cruel as was the said Longland, who afterwards succeeded John 
in that diocese ; for so I find of him, that in the time of the great bShop of' 
abjuration and troublesome affliction of Buckinghamshire men, where- Lillcoln - 
in many were abjured, and certain burned ; yet divers he sent quietly 
home without punishment and penance, bidding them go home and 
live as good christian men should do ; and many who were enjoined israzcn- 
penance before, he did release. This Smith died about a. d. 1515, oxford? 
by whom was builded, as is aforesaid, the college of Brazennose in huM ^- 
Oxford. 

Not long after him followed John Longland, a fierce and cruel 
vexer of the faithful poor servants of Christ ; who, to renew again the 
old sparkles of persecution which were not yet utterly quenched, first 
began with one or two of those who had been abjured., whom he 
thought to be most notorious, causing them, byforce of their oath, 
to detect and bewray, not only their own opinions touching points of 
religion, but also to discover all others of their affinity, who were 
either suspected or abjured before. And them likewise he put to 
their oath, most violently constraining them to utter and confess both 
themselves, and whom else soever they knew : by reason whereof an Longland 
incredible multitude of men, women, and maidens, were brought forth ousperse- 
to examination, and straiehtly handled ; and such as were found in C " U '. T °, { 

l 11 mi l l l • l • • Christ s 

relapse were burned. 1 he rest were so burdened with superstitious people, 
and idolatrous penance and injunctions, that either through grief of con- 
science they shortly died, or else with shame they lived. All which 
tragical doings and proceedings of the bishop against these ' known 1 
and ' just-fast-men, 1 in these tables hereunder following (Christ 
granting) shall appear, both with the accusers, and with the parties 
themselves accused, and also the crimes objected. 

But before we enter into the table, it shall be requisite first to hear 
the order and copy of his captious and crafty interrogatories, whereby 
he constrained the simple poor men to accuse and impeach one 
another : which interrogatories were these in order as followeth. 

CAPTIOUS INTERROGATORIES MIXISTERED COMMONLY BY TriE 

BISHOP OF LINCOLN, AGAINST THliSE EXAMINATES 

HERE FOLLOWING. 

The inteiTogatories or articles which Longland, bishop of Lincoln, 
used most commonly to minister to these examinates or ' known-men, 1 
in number were nine, and are these as followeth. 

I. First, Whether they or any of them did know, that certain of the parish of 
Amersham had been convented before William Smith, late bishop of Lincoln, 
for heresy ? 



220 INTERROGATORIES MINISTERED AGAINST THE EXAA1INATES. 

Jienry II. Item, Whether they knew that they, so convented before the said bishop, 
11 "■ did err in the sacrament of the altar, or in any other sacrament of the church : 
. n and if they did, in what sacraments, and in which of them? Also whether they 
", -„,." knew that the said parties so convented did confess their errors, and receive 

. penance for the same? 

■ir-io III. Item, Whether they, or any of them, were of the society of those so 

L convented for heresy : and if they were, what fellowship they had with them, 

and with whom ? 

IV. Item, Whether they, or any of them, were ever conversant with such a 
one (naming the person whom they knew suspected, as with Thurstan Little- 
page) ? And if they were, what conversation they had with him, how long, 
and when : and whether they knew the said person to have been suspected of 
heresy ? 

V. Item, Whether they, or any of them, were ever conversant witli him ; 
or with him (naming some other person whom they suspected, as Alexander 
Mastall) ? and if they were, how, and how long? and whether they knew the 
said person to be suspected of heresy ? 

VI. Item, Whether they or any of them had been beforetime detected of 
heresy, to the office of the aforesaid William bishop of Lincoln : and if they 
were, by what person or persons they were detected ? or else, whether they only 
were called by the aforesaid William bishop for heresy ? 

VII. Item, Whether he or they be noted and holden for heretics; or be re- 
puted and defamed to be of the sect of those who were convented for heresy ? 
and whether he or they be named for a 'known-man' amongst them? 

VIII. Item, Whether "he or they have been ever at any readings of such as 
have been so convented for heresy"? 

IX. Item, Whether he or they were ever in any secret communication or 
conventicle with them? whom or which of them he knew to be named and 
reputed for a 'known-man,' or holding against the sacrament of the altar, or 
other sacraments and articles of faith ? and if they knew any such, to declare 
where and when, and what they were, and who were present the same time? 

These articles and interrogatories thus declared, now followcth to 
be showed a certain brief sum compendiously collected out of the 
registers of John Longland, bishop of Lincoln, declaring, in order of 
a table, the names first of those who by oath were constrained against 
their wills to detect and accuse others. Secondly, The persons that 
were accused. Thirdly, The crimes to them objected ; as in the 
process of this table shall follow to be seen. 

And first; forasmuch as the bishop perceived that Roger Bennet, 
William Chedwell, Edmund Dormer, Thomas Harding, Robert 
Andrew, with such others, were men especially noted to be of that 
side, therefore, to work his purpose the better, he began with them ; 
producing the same as witnesses, to detect first Robert Bartlet of 
AnuTsham, and Richard his brother ; understanding that these afore- 
named witnesses, because they had been abjured before, durst now 
•In no other, upon pain of relapse, but needs confess whatsoever was 
put unto them. And therefore, because Robert Bartlet and Richard 
his brother, being called before the bishop, and sworn upon their 
oath, would confess nothing against themselves; the bishop, to con- 
vict them by witnesses, went first to William Chedwell, lying sore 
sick in his bed, causing him upon the evangelists to swear, whether 
he knew the aforesaid Robert and Richard Bartlet to be ' known- 
men. 1 Which being done, the bishop then called before him Robert 
Andrew, Roger Bennet, John Hill, Edmund Dormer, John Milsent, 
Thomas Bernard, Thomas Littlepage, John Dossct (all Anicrsham 
men), who, being abjured before, as is said, durst no otherwise do 



PERSECUTION IN THE DIOCESE OF LINCOLN) 221 

but confess upon their oath that Robert ami Richard Bartlet were Bm 
'known-men. 1 Ami yet the bishop, not contented with this, caused VI " 
also their two wives, to wit, Margaret the wife of Robert Bartlet, and a . i>. 
Isabel the wife of Richard Bartlet, to depose and give witness against 1509 

their own natural husbands. Albeit Isabel Bartlet, being somewhat .J? 8 

more temperate of her tongue, refused utterly to confess any thing of L 

hcr husband, and denied her husband's words to be true; till at last, 
she being convicted of perjury, was constrained to utter tin- truth, as 
in the process of this table following, more particularly followcth to 
be seen. 



A TABLE, DESCRIBING THE GRIEVOUS AFFLICTIONS OF GOOD 
MEN AND WOMEN IN THE DIOCESE OF LINCOLN, UNDER JOHN 
LONGLAND THE BISHOP; WITH THE NAMES BOTH OF THE 
ACCUSERS, AND OF THEM THAT WERE ACCUSED : ALSO WITH 
THE CRIMES TO THEM OBJECTED : OUT OF TITF. REGISTERS 
OF THE SAID DIOCESE, A. D. 1521. 1 

William Chcdwell, sick in his bed ; Robert Andrew, Robert Bennet, 
John Hill, Edmund Dormer, John Milsent, Thomas Bernard. 
Thomas Littlepagc, John Dosset, Margaret Bartlet, Isabel Bartlet : 
these being before abjured, were now compelled by oath to detect 

Robert Bartlet and Richard Bartlet, his brother. 

This Robert Bartlet, and Richard his brother, were detected by these afore- A.D. 
said accusers, to be ' known-men,' that is, to be of the same company and affinity ] 5 1 s 
with these jurats, and others who had been abjured before in the time of Wil- to 
Ham Smith, bishop of Lincoln, about a. d. 1508 ; and that in the house of Thomas 1521. 
Harding they were so noted, by the words of Harding's wife, who, speaking to 
Robert Bartlet, said, That she was glad that he was converted to grace, and 
chosen to Almighty God ; requiring him never to forsake that he was called to ; 
for if he did, there was no sacrifice left for him. Also the said Harding's wife, 
speaking to Richard Bartlet coming into her house, said, ' Here cometh a good 
man, and I hope he will be a good man : but he hath so much mind of buying 
and Belling and taking of farms, that it putteth his mind from all goodness.' 
' By which words it appeareth,' said they, ' that he is a 'known-man.' Item, 
That Robert Bartlet, speaking to Harding's wife, said, he had thought to have 
called William Tylsworth false heretic; but now he was better advised. Item, 
That they used the lectures and readings of that company. 

This Robert Bartlet, and Richard his brother, first being sworn, and yet con- 
fessing nothing before the bishop, at last were convicted by witness, as above 
appeareth, and noted therefore of perjury. Wherefore incurring into greater 
danger, they were constrained at their next examination to Utter themselves, 
and confess what they had both done and said; that is, that the said Robert For road- 
had read unto Richard his brother a parcel of Scripture beginning thus : ' James >ng «rip- 
the servant of God, to the twelve kinds,' & r c. Item, that lie heard William English, 
Tylsworth say, that images of saints were but stocks and stones, and dead 
things ; and that he taught the same to his brother Richard, and concealed the 
words of William Tylsworth. Item, That he partly believed Thomas Mastal, 
teaching him that the true presence of Christ was not in the sacrament; and 

(1) Had we no other evidence but these registers of bishop Longlind, we should have abundant 
testimony to prove that the church of Rome is an enemy to the diffusion of the word of God. Lei 
the reader peruse the nature of the charges preferred against the above honest and weB-dis] 
persons; let the crimes alleged be weighed against the p u ni sh ments Inflicti d ource from 

whence the persecution arose ; the object against which Romish vengeance was principally directed, 
be respectively, dispassionately, and attentively considered, and it will not now excite surprise, 
that infidelity and Romanism are twin sisters, leagued In Impious companionship, tn quench the 
spirit of religion, to suppress the word of Cod, and to subvert the course of pure and undefiled 
Christianity.— Ed. 



222 FROM THE REGISTERS OF BISHOP LONGLAND. 

Henry likewise of images and pilgrimages. Item, for receiving the communion at 
vui- Easter without shrift, &c. 

A.D. 

1518 Robert Bartlet brought to examination, was caused by his oath to 

detect these persons : 

Richard, Brother of Robert Bartlet. 



to 
1521 



The bro- The crime whereof Robert Bartlet impeached his brother Richard was this : 
ther de- Because, be said, his brother Richard had been much conversant with Thurstan 
the'bro- Littlepage, and had learned of him the counsels and secrets of those men : also 
ther. that he had learned of him some of the epistle of St. James, thus beginning : 
'James the servant of God, to the twelve kinds,' &c. 

Isabel Bartlet, wife of Robert Bartlet. 
The The cause wherein Robert Bartlet did detect his wife, was this : That when 

d'tectetl tne bishop's servant was come for her husband, she uttered these words, say- 
the wife, ing, Alas ! he was now an undone man, and she but a dead woman. 

Futhermore, the said Robert being demanded of the bishop, whether he knew 
Isabel his wife to be of the sect of heretics before he married her, said, ' Yea.' 
Being asked again, if she had not been of that sect, whether then he would 
have married her ? he granted the same likewise. 

Agnes Wellis, his Sister. 

The Futhermore, the said Robert Bartlet detected his own sister, in that he had 

acenseth tw * ce instructed her not to worship images, and also had taught her in the 
the sister, epistle of St. James. 

Elizabeth Dean, wife of Richard Dean of West Wycombe, Emmar Tylsworth, 
wife of William Tylsworth, William Grinder and his wife, John Scrivener, 
Alexander Mastal, William Tylsworth, Thurstan Littlepage, and John Bartlet, 
his brother. 

The said Robert Bartlet detected also these to be of the number of ' known- 
men,' for that they resorted many times together, reading and conferring 
among themselves, and talking against worshipping of images, and pilgrimage. 
And if any carae in amongst them that were not of their side, then they would 
say no more, but keep all silence, &c. 

Richard Bartlet, by his oath, was constrained to detect the follow- 
ing person : 

Agnes Wellis, wife of John Wellis, his Sister. 

T hc . This Agnes was detected of her brother in three points ; first, for learning 

acciueth the epistle of St. James in English of Thurstan Littlepage ; secondly, 
liis sister, for not believing the bodily presence in the sacrament; thirdly, for speaking 
against worshipping of images, and going on pilgrimages. 

Also of old Father Bartlet, his own Father. 

The _ This Richard Bartlet also in his confession said of his father, that he was a 

j J'J s better man than he was taken for: for the other day there came a man to him 
Almighty as he was threshing, and said, ' God speed, father Bartlet, ye work sore:' 'Yea,' 
threshed sa \^ i le < j thresh God Almighty out of the straw!' 1 

out of the ' ° J 

straw. 

Against this Agnes Wellis brought and examined before the 
bishop, were ministered these interrogatories, which for certain causes 
I thought here to insert, for our posterity to note and consider ; and 
they are these that follow : 

(I) How (Vibrant must be the idolatry of the popish service at the elevation and adoration of 
the host, to have provoked a rustic of the sixteenth century to utter such a bitter sarcasm !— Ed. 



PERSECUTION IN THE DIOCESE OF LINCOLN, 223 

Articles ministered to Agnes Wellis. Bnr$ 



I. Whether she knew that certain of the parish of Amersham were con- 



vented before Wiiliam Smith, late bishop of Lincoln, for heresy ? ; U- 

II. Item, Whether she knew that certain of them, so convented before the 1518 
bishop for heresy, did err in the sacrament of the altar, or in other sacraments, *° 
and what errors they were, and wherein ? laLI. 

III. Item, Whether she knew any others to be suspected of the same heresy 
or sect, beside those of Amersham so convented ? who they were, and how many ? 

IV. Item, Whether she had been of the same company, or sect, or opinion 
with them that were convented before the bishop for heresy ? and if she were, 
what company she used, and whose ? 

V. Item, Whether she was at any time conversant with Thurstan Littlepage? 
and if she were, how oft she had been in his company, how, what time, in what 
place, who else were present, for what causes, and whether she knew him to be 
suspected for heresy? 

VI. Item, Whether she knew and had been conversant with Alexander 
Mastal ? and if she were, how, when, in what place, who were present, for 
what causes, and whether she knew him suspected for heresy ? 

VII. Item, Whether she was ever detected to the office of William Smith, late 
bishop of Lincoln, at what time, or since the time that Littlepage and Mastal 
were convented before the bishop for heresy ? and whether she was then called 
and convented before the bishop for heresy, or not ? 

VIII. Item, Whether she had been, or is now noted, had, holden, reputed, 
or defamed to be of the same sect with Thurstan Littlepage, or others convicted 
of heresy ? and whether she be, or hath been nominated for a ' known woman' 
among them ? 

IX. Item, Whether she had been present at any time at the readings or 
conferrings between Thurston Littlepage and other convicts ? 

X. Item, Whether Thurston Littlepage did ever teach her the epistle of St. For read- 
James, or the epistles of St. Peter or Paul in English ? and whether she had j? 8 ,** 6 
repeated ofttimes the epistle of St. James unto the said Thurston, in the pre- S„ E n} ,_ 
sence of Richard Bartlet her brother ? Ksh. 

XL Item, Whether Richard Bartlet her brother did teach her at any time 
the epistle of St. James ? and if he did, how oft, and in what place ? 

XII. Item, Whether she had been instructed by Thurstan Littlepage, or by 
any other in the aforesaid sect, that in the sacrament of the altar was not the 
true body of Christ, but only the substance of bread ? 

XIII. Item, Whether she had been instructed by Thurstan Littlepage, or 
any other, that pilgrimage was not to be used, nor the images of saints to be 
adored ? 

XIV. Item, Whether she did credit the said Thurstan Littlepage, or any 
other, teaching her in the premises ? and whether she did believe or expressly 
consent with them in the foresaid articles ? 

XV. Item, Whether Robert Bartlet her brother did ever teach her the 
epistle of St. James ? and if he did, how often, and where ? 

XVI. Item, Whether the said Robert Bartlet had taught her, that pilgrimage 
was not to be used, and that images were not to be adored? 

XVII. Item, Whether she knew such a law and custom among them, that 
such as were of that sort did contract matrimony only with themselves, and 
not with other Christians ? 

XVIII. Item, Whether she did ever hear Thurstan or any other say, that 
they only who were of their doctrine were true Christians ? 

XIX. Item, When she came to receive, and was confessed, whether she did 
utter and confess her heresies to the priest ? 

Unto these captious and cruel interrogatory articles ministered 
against Agnes Wellis, she answered negatively almost to all of tliem, 
refusing to utter any person unto the bishop. But soon aftor, being 
otherwise schooled, I cannot tell how, by the catholics, she was com- 
pelled to detect both herself, her brother Robert Bartlet, Thurstan 
Littlepage, and also Isabel Morwin, wife of John Morwin, &C. 



224 FROM THE REGISTERS OF BrSHOP LOXGLAND. 

n,,,r; Examination of Isabel Bartlet. 

in/. 

Isabel Bartlet was then brought and examined before the bishop : where she 

A. D being asked whether she spake these words following to her husband, at the 

1518 coming of the bishop's man : ' Alas ! now are you an undone man, and I but 

to a dead woman?' First, she stood in long denial of the same; and although 

1521. her husband gave witness against her, yet stood she that her husband said not 

Shc ex . truth. At last she was compelled to grant those words to be spoken ; and then 

ctuetb being asked what she meant by them? thus she excused herself, that her 

her <m n husband ] ia( l been unkind to her a long time, and therefore she desired to 

depart from him ; whereupon now for sorrow she spake these words, &c. 

which words her husband did excuse something otherwise, saying, that his 

wife spoke those words between the threshold and the hall-door, because of a 

vehement fear for the loss of her goods. 

Also she accused Richard Hobbes of Hichenden; Henry Hobbes of Hichen- 
den ; Heme's wife : Heme widow of Amersham : Thomas Cowper of Amer- 
sham, husbandman. 

William Chedwel of Amersham accused John Stamp, wheeler, of Amersham ; 
and Alice Harding, wife of Thomas Harding. The crime laid to Alice Hard- 
ing was this : because when the priest was coming to Richard Bennet to give 
him the howsel, she went before, and instructed him what he should do. 

Roger Bennet, by like compulsion of his oath, was caused to 
detect these persons : 

William Rogers, tiler; William Harding, Roger Harding. These were 
detected by Roger Bennet, for that they being admonished to appear before the 
bishop's chancellor at Amersham, neglected so to do. 
For John Jennings, servant to James Morden ; George, servant of Thomas Tochel ; 

' |'~ hs '' and Thomas Gray, servant of Roger Bennet. These were detected for carry- 
ing about certain books in English. 

William Smith, wheeler ; the wife of John Milsent ; the wife of W. Rogers ; 
Ro. Stamp and his wife ; also the wife of Robert Bartlet. These good women 
here named were detected to the bishop by Roger Bennet, for that upon the 
holidays, when they go and come from the church, they use to resort unto 
one J. Collingworth's house, and there to keep their conventicle. 

The wife of David Lewis, and her father. This woman was charged for 
speaking these words : That the churchmen in the old time did lead the people 
as the hen doth lead her chickens ; but our priests do now lead the people to 
the devil. 
Ex Re- Agnes Frank, wife of William Frank, because she turned away her face from 
the cross, as it was carried about on Easter-day in the morning of the resurrec- 
tion. Also J. George, J. Gardiner, J. Samme, and James Morden. 

Thomas Rowland, put likewise to his oath, did detect 

John Scrivener, the elder ; for carrying about books from one to another. 

Also Thomas Rowland ; for these words following : ' If I lie, curse, stoi-m, 
swear, chide, fight, or threat, then am I worthy to be beat ; I pray you, good 
master of mine, if I offend in any of these nine, amend me with a good 
scouring.' 

James Morden, compelled in like manner by his oath, did detect 

Thomas Chase ; because he heard him twice recite the epistle of St. James, 
beginning, ' James, the servant of God, and of our Lord Jesus Christ, to the 
twelve kinds,' &c. Also for these words : ' It was in the days of Herod, king of 
the Jews, that there was a priest, Zachary byname, and he came of the sort of 
Abias, and his wife of the daughters of Aaron; both they were just before God, 
goinj; in all the commandments,' &c. 

Also William Norton, and Agnes Ashford, of Chesham, The cause laid to 
this Agnes was for teaching this James Morden the words following; ' We be 
the Bait of the earth; if it be putrefied and vanished away, it is nothing worth. 



gist. fol. 



FROM THE REGISTERS OF RISHOP LONGLAND. Q2-. 

A city set upon a hill may not be hid. Teen ye not a candle, and put it under // .„,,, 

a bushel, but set it on a candlestick, that it may give a light to all in the house? VU1 
So shine your light before men, as they may see your works, and glorify the " 

Father that is in heaven. No tittle nor letter of the law shall pass over till all A - 1) - 

things be done.' And five times went he to the aforesaid Agnes to learn this 1518 
lesson. Item, That the said Agnes did teach him to say this lesson : ' Jesus, seeing *° 

his people, as he went up to a hill, was set, and his disciples came to him; he 15 



opened his mouth, and taught them, saying, Blessed be the poor men in spirit,. Note 
for the kingdom of heaven is theirs. Blessed he mild men, for they shall weld **«* >»«- 
the earth.' And twice he came to her to learn this lesson. 1 here!* 

And these lessons the said Agnes was bid to recite before six bishops, who 
straightway enjoined and commanded her, that she should teach those lessons 
no more to any man, and especially not to her children." 

The aforesaid James Morden detected Richard Ashford, smith ; also Agnes Accuser. 
Ashford, and Thomas Chase ; because these two did exhort him thrice, that he 
should keep the things they spake of, as secret in his stomach, as a man would 
keep a thief in prison. 

Thomas Tredway of Chesham : also Robert Pope, John Morden, and his 
wife ; because they were heard, in the presence of this James Morden their 
nephew, to recite the Ten Commandments in their house in English. 3 

Alice Atkins, because of him she learned the Pater Noster, Ave Maria, and 
Creed in English, and the five Marvels of St. Austin ; also another piece of an 
English book, beginning, ' Here ensue four things by which a man may know 
whether he shall be saved,' &c. Also Marian Morden, his own sister, because 
she did not worship images ; and after these little things he intended to teach 
her of the sacrament. Also he detected W. Africke or Littlepage, John Africke 
or Littlepage, Emme Harding or Africke, and John Phip, physician. 

To this James Morden, with other abjurers, it was enjoined by bishop Smith, 
for seven years to visit the church of Lincoln twice a year from Amersham. 
And when divers had got license of the bishop, for length of the journey, to 
visit the image of our Lady of Missenden for the space of five years, this Jamea 
Morden, when he could not obtain license so to do, yet notwithstanding, for the 
tediousness of the way, went with them to the same image ; and thereupon was 
charged for violating the bishop's injunction. 

Also because, to get his living, he wrought half a year out of the diocese, 
when he had been enjoined by the bishop not to go out of the diocese of Buck- 
ingham. 4 

This Jame3 Morden confessed, that he used his Pater Noster and Creed so 
much in English, that he had forgotten many words thereof in Latin ; and 
therefore was enjoined by bishop Smith to say it no more in English, but 
only in Latin ; and because he kept not this injunction, he fell therefore into 
relapse. 

Roger Bennet, by like compulsion of his oath, was caused to detect these fol- Accuser, 
lowing to be ' known persons :' William Rogers, tiler, and his wife ; W. Harding ; 
Roger Harding ; Joan Jenings ; George, servant to Thomas Tochel ; Thomas 
Gray, servant of Roger Bennet ; Agnes Franke ; Joan Collingworth ; W. Smith ; 
the wife of John Milsent; Robert Stampe and his wife; the wife of Robert 
Bartlet ; the wife of David Lewis of Henley ; John Frier, servant to Master Penn ; 
John Tracher; John Morden's wife ; Richard Ashford ; W. Littlepage, some 
time apprentice of John Scrivener; Emme his wife; John Scrivener : also Isabel 
Morwin, for teaching Copland's wife her errors. 

Thomas Halfeaker, swoni upon his oath, did detect these persons here fol- Accuser, 
lowing : John Milsent and his wife ; Roger Harding and his wife ; Thomas 
Bernard; Thomas Afrike and his wife ; W. Rogers; W. Harding and his wife; 
Katharine Bartlet, the mother of Robert and Richard Bartlet; Thomas Harding 
and his wife ; W. Frank and Agnes his wife : because these, coming to the 
church, and especially at the elevation-time, would say no prayers, but did sit 
mum (as he termed it) like beasts. Also Katharine Bartlet, because she, being 

(l) Ex Regist. Longlaud. fol. 11. (2) Ibid. (S) Fol. 15. '1) Fol. 11. 

vol.' iv. u. 



226 PERSECUTIONS IN THE DIOCESE OF LINCOLN, 

Went* of good health, came but seldom to the church, but feigned herself sick. And 

viu. t ecause William Frank married Agnes his wife, she being before abjured. 

. D This Halfeaker also detected Robert Pope, because he fled away when the 

K18 E* 60 * abjuration was at Amersham; also for having certain English books : J 

° t Also Emme Afrike, alias Harding ; John Afrike ; Henry Milner ; Heme's wife, 

,.-91 li0W the wife of Waiver ; William Tilse worth ; Emme Tilseworth, of London; 
Thomas Tilseworth and his wife ; the wife of Robert Tilseworth ; William 



The p-eat Glasbroke : Christopher Glasbroke, miller ; Thomas Grove and Joan his wife ; 
ttn'was Thomas Man, by Bristol, 

A.D.15I1. 

Thomas Holmes detected Henry Milner, counted for a great heretic, and 
earned in the Scripture ; John Schepard ; the wife of John Schepard of 
Dorney ; the elder daughter of Roger Harding of Amersham ; Nicholas Stoke- 
ley, cooper, and his wife, of Henley ; John Clerke ; Thomas Wilbey of Henley ; 
W. Stokeley; Hobs, with his sons, of Hichenden ; the wife of John Scrivener, 
smith, of Woburn; Thomas Clerke the elder; Thomas Clerke the younger; 
Wigmer, farmer, of Hichenden ; Robert Carder, weaver ; John Frier, servant to 
Master Penn ; John Morwin and Isabel his wife ; Eli2abeth Hover, wife of 
Henry Hover of Little Missenden ; Richard White, fuller, of Beaconsfield. 
Andrew Randal and his wife of Rickmansworth : because they received into 
their house Thomas Man flying for persecution, and for reading WicklhTs 
Wicket. Also the father of Andrew Randal. 

Also Bennet Ward, fuller. This Bennet Ward was denounced by John 
Merston, for saying, ' That it booteth no man to pray to our Lady, nor to 
any saint or angel in heaven, but to God only, for they have no power of 
man's soul.' 

Also the said Thomas Holmes denounced the wife of Bennet Ward and her 
daughter, for saying that Thomas Pope was the devoutest man that ever came 
in their house ; for he would sit reading in his book to midnight many times. 

Also he denounced Thomas Tailor and his wife of Uxbridge ; Robert Quicke : 

Robert Cosine ; Thomas Clerke and his wife of Ware ; one Geldener about 

Hertford ; John Say and W. Say his son, of Little Missenden ; the wife of John 

Wellis of Amersham ; Joan Glasbroke, sister to William Glasbroke of Harrow 

on the Hill; Thomas Susan, wheeler; John a Lee, smith; John Austy, 

shearman ; John Frier ; Edmund Harding ; John Heron, carpenter of Ham- 

bledon ; Henry Miller. Also John Phips. He was very ripe in the Scripture. 

Emme wife of Richard Tilseworth. John Phip. He was a reader or rehearser 

to the other. John Say of Missenden ; William Stokeley ; also Roger Squire, 

for saying to Holmes, ' This is one of them that make all this business in our 

town with the bishop; I pray God tear all the bones of him!' 

Also Roger Heme, and a certain tanner. 

For read- The said Thomas Holmes also detected John Butler, carpenter ; Richard 

Scripture Butler ' Wilu ' am King, of Uxbridge : these three sat up all night in the house 

i„ K„ g . of Durdant of Iver Court by Staines, reading all the night in a book of 

lis ti. Scripture. 

Also John Mucklyf, weaver, for speaking against holy bread and holy 
water ; and Thomas Man, for saying that Christ was not substantially in the 
sacrament. 

Thomas Stilman, a*id Jenkin Butler, for receiving an English book given 
him by Carder his father, who, after his abjuration done before bishop Smith, 
fell sick and died. 

Accuser. Thomas Holmes also detected these : Richard Vulfard, of Riselip ; one Hackar ; 
Thomas King. Also Joan Cocks, the wife of Robert Wywood, husbandman ; for 
desiring of Durdant her master, that he, being a ' known-man,' would teach her 
some knowledge of God's law ; and desiring the same also of the Butlers. 

Robert Carver, of Iver, detected these: Nicholas Durdant, of Staines; Davy 
Durdant, of Ankerwick ; the wife of old Durdant ; the wife of Nicholas Durdant. 
These were detected, for that old Durdant of Iver-court, sitting at dinner with 
his children and their wives, bidding a boy there standing to depart out of the 
house, that he should not hear and tell, did recite certain places unto them out 
of the Epistles of St. Paul, and of the Gospels. 



to 
1521 



FROM THE BEGISTERS OF BISHOP LONGLAND. 99S\ 

Richard White, father-in-law to Bonnet Ward of Bcaconsfield. lie was Bm*% 
detected, by Robert Carder, to be a ' known-man,' because, after the deatli of mi- 
bishop Smith, he was heard to say these words ; ' My lord that is dead, was a A ^ 
good man, and divers known-men were called before him, and he sent them ikiq' 
home again, bidding them that they should live among their neighbours as 
good christian men should do.' 'And now,' said he, ' there is a new bishop, 
who is called a blessed man ; and if he be as he is named, he will not trouble 
the servants of God, but will let them be in quiet.' 

Marian Morden was forced upon her oath to utter, James Morden, her own Accuser, 
brother, for teaching her the Pater Noster, Ave, and Creed in English ; and 
that she should not go on pilgrimage nor should worship saints or images, which 
she had not done by the space of six years past, following and believing her 
brother. 

James Morden was forced upon his oath to utter, John Littlepage ; Henry Accuser. 
Littlepage ; William Littlepage ; Joan Littlepage ; Richard Morden, his bro- 
ther, of Chesham ; and Erame his wife : Alice Brown, of Chcsham ; Radulph 
Morden his brother, of Chesham, and his wife ; John Phips ; Elizabeth Hamon. 

Thomas Coupland, forced by his oath, detected a canon of Missenden ; Accuser. 
Thomas Grove, of London ; Isabel Morwin ; the wife of Norman of Amersham ; 
Thomas Cowper, of Woodrow : also Roger Harding, and W. Grinder ; because 
these two could not say their creed in Latin. Coupland also detected the wife 
of Robert Stamp of Woodrow 

T. Rowland, T. Coupland, Richard Stephens, and Roger Bennet, were forced Accusers, 
by their oath to accuse, Thomas Harding, of Amersham, and Alice Harding his 
wife, because, after their abjuration in bishop Smith's time, divers 'known- 
men,' as they then termed them, who were abjured before, had much resort to 
their house. Also they accused Agnes Squire, for speaking these words : 
' Men do say, I was abjured for heresy ; it may well be a napkin for my nose, 
but I will never be ashamed of it.' 

John Sawcoat, upon his oath, did impeach the vicar of Little Missenden ; also Accuser 
Thomas Grove, and his wife. Grove was detected, for that he did give to Dr. 
Wilcocks twenty pounds, to excuse him that he might not be brought to open 
penance. 

Also Thomas Holmes, for that he was heard to say these words, after the great 
abjuration, when he had abjured, that ' the greatest cobs were yet behind;' and 
Richard Sanders of Amersham, because he ever defended them that were sus- 
pected to be 'known-men.' Also because he bought out his penance, and 
carried his badge in his purse. 

Bishop Longland, seeking how to convict John Phip of perjury (who, being 
charged with an oath, did not answer affirmatively unto such suspicions as were 
laid unto him by Thomas Holmes and other several accusers), did examine 
Sybil Africk, his own sister, upon her oath to detect John Phip, her brother, of 
relapse ; but she so answered, that the bishop could take by her no great hold 
of relapse against him. Wherein is to be noted the singular iniquity and abuse 
in the church of Rome, which, by virtue of oath, setteth the sister to procure 
the brother's blood. The like also was sought of Thomas Africk, his sister's 
husband; but they had by him no advantage. 

Jenkin Butler did impeach John Butler, his own brother, for reading to him Accuser. 
in a certain book of the Scripture, and persuading him to hearken to the same : 
also Robert Carder; Richard Butler, Ids brother ; Henry Vulman, of I'xhridge ; 
Richard Ashford, of Walton (otherwise called Richard Nash, or Richard Tred- 
way) ; and William King, of Uxbridgc. 

He did also detect the following : Isabel Tracher, wife of John Trachcr, Accuser. 
because she came not to the church oftener on the work-days, being admonished 
both by the churchwardens, by the graduates of the church, and by Dr. Cock's 
commissary, but followed her business at home. Also because she purposed to 

a2 



228 



Henry 

rui. 



Father 
Robert, 

martyr. 



PEHSECUTIONS IN THE DIOCESE OF LINCOLN, 

set her daughter to Alice Harding, saying, that she could better instruct her 
than many others. Also, because she cursed the priest after he was gone, who 
had given to her the eucharist, saying, that he had given to her bitter gall. 
Also Jenkin Butler did detect Thomas Clement, of Chesham. 

William Ameriden did detect Alice Holting, for that she, being great with 
child, did dine before she went to church to take her rites; saying, that 
Isabel Trecher did so tell her, that she might dine before she received the 
sacrament. 

Also William Trecher, of Amersham ; for keeping Thomas Grove in his house 
on Easter and Christmas-day, because he would not come to the church. 

Joan Norman did impeach Robert Cosine, and Thomas Man ; also Alice 
Harding, for dissuading from pilgrimage, from worshipping of images, and from 
vowing money to saints for health of her child. Also for saying, that she 
needed not to confess to a priest, but that it was enough to lift up her hands to 
heaven. Also for saying, that she might as well drink upon the Sunday before 
mass, as any other day, &c. 

John Scrivener, forced by his oath, did accuse the following persons : Henry 
Miller, wire-drawer, who from Amersham fled to Chelmsford : that he abjured 
and did penance in Kent before, and afterwards coming to Amersham, taught 
them (as he said) many heresies. 

John Barret, goldsmith, of London; with Joan Barret, his wife; and Jude, 
his servant : because he, John Barret, was heard in his own house, before his 
wife and maid there present, to recite the epistle of St. James, which epistle, 
with many other things, he had perfectly without book. Also Joan his wife, 
because she had lent to this John Scrivener the gospel of St. Matthew and 
Mark, which book he gave to bishop Smith. 

The aforesaid John Scrivener was also forced by his oath to accuse the fol- 
lowing persons : John Merrywether, his wife, and his son ; Durdant by Staines ; 
Old Durdant; Isabel, wife of Thomas Harding; Hartop, of Windsor; Joan 
Barret, wife of John Barret, of London ; Henry Miller ; one Stilman, tailor. 
All these were accused, because at the marriage of Durdant's daughter they 
assembled together in a barn, and heard a certain epistle of St. Paul read ; which 
reading they well liked, but especially Durdant, and commended the same. 

Thomas Rowland, of Amersham. It was objected to Rowland for speaking 
these words : ' Ah, good Lord ! where is all our good communication which 
was wont to be amongst us when your master was alive ? ' 

Thomas Grove, of London, butcher ; William Glasbroke, of Harrow on the 
Hill ; Christopher Glasbroke, of London ; William Tilseworth, of London, gold- 
smith (apprentice sometime to John Barret). These were impeached because 
they used to resort and confer together of matters of religion in the house of 
Thomas Man, of Amersham, before the great abjuration. 

John Newman was impeached, because he was present in the house of John 
Barret, at the reading of Scripture. 

John Wood, of Henley ; William Wood ; Lewis, of Henley, a serving-man ; 
Wilie, and his son. This Wilie was impeached because he taught the gospel of 
Matthew to John Wood and William Wood, after the great abjuration ; and 
father Robert did teach them St. Paul's epistle, which old father was after that 
burned at Buckingham. 

William Littlepage, forced by his oath, did accuse the following persons : 
Thurstan Littlepage, and Emme his wife. This Thurstan had taught him the 
saying of Solomon, that ' wrath raiseth chiding ;' had taught him also the Pater 
Noster and Ave in English. His Creed in English he learnt of his grandmother. 
I'lif said Thurstan also taught him, Christ not to be corporally in the sacrament. 

John Littlepage, his brother, and Alice, wife of Thurstan Littlepage; because 
the said John was said to have learned the ten commandments in English of 
Alice, Thurstan's wife, in his father's house. John Frier: because he had 
taught him, the said William, the Ten Commandments in English. 

Also Thomas Grove ; Heme's wife; the wife of John Morwin; Richard 
Bartlet: Robert iiaitlet; Thomas Bernard. 



FROM THE REGISTERS OV BISHOP LONGLAND. Q20 

Likewise Joan Clerk, of Little Missenden ; for saying she never did believe ]/,nr,j 
in the sacrament of the altar, nor ever would believe in it. John Home, of ' Ul - 
Ambleden. — T~7T "' 

John Gardiner did impeach the following persons : his sister, Agnes Ward; 1518 
Ward's wife, of Marlow; and Nicholas Stokeley ; because that when this Gardiner *° 
said, ' God help us, and our Lady, and all the saints of heaven;' then she said, J -' 
• What need is it to go to the feet, when we may go to the head V 

Also William Stokeley; the wife of William Deane ; William Ramsey, of 
Newbery; John Simon's wife, of Marlow; John Gray, of Marlow; Davy 
Schirwood; William Schirwood; Raynold Schirwood. 

John Say did detect Christopher Shoemaker; John Okenden ; and Robert Accuser. 
Pope. This Christopher Shoemaker had been burned a little before, at Newbury. 

Bishop Longland, seeking matter against Isabel Morwin (of whom he could Accuser, 
take no great advantage by examination), called and caused Elizabeth Copland, 
her own sister, to testify against her in manner as followeth : First, because in talk 
together, coming from their father being at the point of death, Isabel said to her 
sister Elizabeth, that all who die, either pass to hell or heaven : ' Nay,' said the 
other, ' there is between them purgatory.' Again ; when Elizabeth came from 
the rood of rest, Isabel said, that if she knew so much as she had heard, she 
would go no more on pilgrimage while she lived ; for all saints, said she, be in 
heaven. Then asked Elizabeth, wherefore pilgrimage was ordained by doctors 
and priests ? The other said, for gain and profit. ' Who hath taught you this V 
quoth Elizabeth, ' man or woman ? Your curate, I dare say, never learned you 
so.' ' My curate,' said she, ' will never know so much.' And moreover, 
Isabel said to Elizabeth her sister, that if she would keep counsel, and not tell 
her husband, she would say more. And when Elizabeth answered that she 
would not tell : ' But,' saith the other, ' I will have you to swear :' and because- 
she would not swear, the other would not proceed any further. 

Alice Brown was forced by her oath to detect John Tracher, of Chesham. Accuser. 
The cause why this John Tracher was denounced was this : for that he taught 
her in the gospel this saying of Jesus, ' Blessed be they that hear the word of 
God, and keep it.' Also because he taught her the eight beatitudes in English. 

Likewise Emma Tilseworth, because she refused to detect others by virtue of 
her oath, and denied such mattei as by witness and by the bishop's acts were 
proved against her. In pain of relapse the bishop enjoined her to make certain 
faggots of cloth, and to wear the same both before her upper garment and 
behind so long as she lived. 

W. Phips was forced by his oath to detect Thomas Africke, for asking how Accuser, 
his cousin, Widmore Clerk the elder, and John Phip did at Ilitchenden? whether 
they kept the laws of God as they were wont ? 

Also he detected Roger Parker, deceased ; John Phip, for saying that images 
are not to be worshipped, because they are made and carved with man's hand, 
and that such ought not to be worshipped ; John Gardiner, for that to the said 
William, this Gardiner said, that all who are burned for this sect are true 
martyrs. Also John Stilman. 

John Butler, by his oath, was forced to detect Thomas Geffrey, first of Ux- ,\, 
bridge, then of Ipswich, tailor; for reading and teaching him in the Acts and 
preachings of the Apostles. 

Item, for having a Scripture-book in English ; which book the said Geffrey 
gave to the bishop of London when he was accused. 

Item, that the said Geffrey said, that true pilgrimage was, barefoot to go and 
visit the poor, weak, and sick; for they are the true images of God. 

Also he was forced to detect Richard Vulford. This Vulford and Thomas 
Geffrey told the said John Butler, that the Host consecrated was not the very 
true body of Christ; in proof whereof they said, that let a mouse be put in the A itorj oi 
pix with the Host, and the mouse would eat it up. And for move proof they a )l J' t '" 1 ' N1 ', 
declared unto the said John Butler, that there were two priests in Essex, who put the pix. 
a mouse in the pix to a consecrated Host, and the mouse did eat it : afterward, 



0,30 PERSECUTIONS IN THE DIOCESE OF LINCOLN, 

Henry the fact of these priests being known, and brought to the bishop, one of the 
VIII. priests was burned for the same. 

7T~~ The aforesaid John Butler did also detect John Clerke, of Denham, for that 

, » ' the same Vulford and Geffrey told him and the said John Clerke, that holy 

*' bread and holy water were but a vain-glory of the world; for God never made 

*° them, but they were men's inventions ; and that God neither made priests, for 

■ J -l- in Christ's time there were no priests. Moreover, that Thomas Geffrey caused 

Dr. Colet this John Butler divers Sundays to go to London, to hear Dr. Colet. : 

''"",. Also John Butler detected Andrew Fuller, of Uxbridge, because this John 

Butler had an old book of Richard Vulford. Also another great book of Andrew 

Fuller, for which he paid six shillings and fourpence ; and another little book of 

Thomas Man, which he brought to the bishop. 

Moreover, this Thomas Man was impeached, because he read to this depo • 
nent ten years ago, how Adam and Eve were expelled out of Paradise ; and for 
speaking against pilgrimage, and worshipping of images, and against the 
singing-service used then in churches. — This Thomas Man was burnt and died 
a martyr, of whom mention is made before, page 208. 

William King. This William King was appeached because he lodged Thomas 
Man in his house upon a certain holy day at divine service ; unto whom resorted 
Richard Vulford, and John Clerke, and this John Butler: to whom the said 
Thomas Man declared that pilgrimage was nought, and that images were not 
to be worshipped. 

The aforesaid John Butler did likewise detect Robert Carder; one Dur- 
dant ; Richard Butler, his own brother ; and William King : to these was laid, 
that Thomas Carder brought this John Butler to Durant's house at Iver-court 
by Staines, where was Richard Butler his brother, and William King, reading 
in a certain English book ; at which time Durdant desired them not to tell that 
he had any such English book in his house, lest he should be burned for the 
same. 

Also another time, that he, the aforesaid John Butler, with Richard Butler 
his brother, and Robert Carder, went to the house of Richard Ashford or Nash, 
to hear the same Ashford read in a certain little book, but which contained 
many good things. 

Richard Vulman, of London. — This Vulman was detected upon this, for that 
he would have read to this John Butler a certain English book, and spake against 
pilgrimages and images. 

Accuser. John Butler was also compelled by his oath to detect Henry Vulman and his 
wife, of Uxbridge ; Rafe Carpenter, of London ; a daughter of John Phip ; a 
daughter of William Phip. This Rafe Carpenter was detected for having certain 
books of the Apocalypse in English. Also for that this Carpenter and his wife 
did bring him, and the wife of Henry Vulman, to a corner house of Friday-street, 
where the good man of the house, having a stump foot, had divers such books, 
to the intent they should hear them read. 

R. Butler, Jenkin Butler, his own brethren; the mother of Richard Ashford; 

and J. Butler his other brother : these were detected, partly for holding against 

the sacrament of the altar ; partly also because they were reading two hours 

together in a certain book of the Acts of the Apostles, in English, at Chesham, in 

Ashford's house. 

For read- Also the wife of Robert Pope, for having certain books in English, one bound 

j'llVn " k3 * n Doai "d s » an d three with parchment coverings, with four other sheets of paper 

lish. written in English, containing matter against the Romish religion. Also another 

book of the service of the Virgin Mary in English. 

John Phip was compelled by his oath to detect Thomas Stilman, for that he 
told William Phip, how that he, being in Lollards' tower, did climb up the 
steeple where the bells were, and there, cutting the bell-ropes, did tie two 
of them together, and so by them slipped down into Paid's church-yard, and 
escaped. 

Accuser. Thomas Tredway compelled by his oath to detect John Morden, of Ashley- 
green, and Richard Ashford, his brother. These were accused and detected, 
because John Morden had in his house a book of the Gospels, and other chap- 



FROM THE REGISTERS OF BI3HOF LONGLAND. 231 

ters, in English, and read three or four times in the same ; in which book his ii,nr,j 

brother Ashford also did read once. Item, because John Monlen spake against VllL 

images, and said these words : 'Our Lord Jesus Christ saith in his gospel, . 

Blessed be they that hear the word of God, and keep it,' &c. . V ' 
Tredway also detected Agnes Ashford, his own mother, for teaching him that 



he should not worship the images of saints 



to 

l.-.L'l. 

Likewise Joan Bernard, being accused by Robert Copland, was sworn by her Accuser, 
oath to detect Thomas Bernard her own natural father, for speaking against *"™ ^ l '" 
pilgrimage, against worshipping of saints, and against dirges, and praying for tecting 
the dead ; and for warning his daughter not to utter any of all this to her ghostly ,ur ""■ " 
father. * \ ***' 

The like oath also was forced on Richard Bernard, that he should in like Richard 
manner detect Thomas Bernard his own natural father, for teaching him not to JsteetiM 
worship images, nor to believe in the sacrament of the altar, but only in God hie own 
who is in heaven ; and that he should not utter the same to the priest. father. 

The vicar of Iver, and Richard Tailor witness, "accused Richard Carder, for Accusers, 
defending the cause of Jenkin Butler, and for saying that the bishop did him 
injury. 

Item, for saying, that if he had known the bishop's man would have fetched 
him so to the bishop, he would have given him warning thereof before. 

Item, for saying, that if he should call him, he would confess nothing, although 
he burned him. 

Agnes Carder, wife of Richard Carder, detected Richard Carder, her husband, Accusers, 
for saying that he suspected that she was too familiar with the vicar of Iver ; 
and when she answered again, How could he be evil with her, seeing he saith 
mass every day, and doth confess himself before ? Then her husband said, that 
he could confess himself to a post, or to the altar. 

Here note, that the bishop then examining her of that offence, whether she 
was culpable, and whether she was commonly in the voice of the people defamed 
with him or no? she confessed it so to be. Whereupon no other penalty or 
penance for that crime of adultery was enjoined her of the bishop, but only this, 
that she should frequent the vicar's house no more. 

John Clerke, of Denham, forced by his oath to detect Richard Vulford, of Accuser. 
Riselip, for speaking against images, pilgrimages, oblations, and against the j^","!*' 
sacrament of the altar. 

Item, When this John Clerke had made a wheel for fish, Richard Vulford 
coming by, asked him, when he had made his wheel, whether the wheel now 
could turn again, and make him? and he said, No. ' Even so,' quoth he, ' God 
hath made all prie"sts, as thou hast made the wheel ; and how can they turn 
again, and make God V 

Also John Clerke detected John Butler. 

Jolin Mastal detected the daughter of John Phip, of Hichendcn, for saying, Accuser, 
that she was as well-learned as was the parish priest, in all things except only 
in saying of mass. 

Robert Rowland, William Frank, Thomas Houre, Thomas Rowland, Joan Accusers. 
Frank, John Baker, all detected certain persons, namely Alice Sanders, wife of 
Richard Sanders, of Amersham, forgiving twelve-pence to Thomas Holmes, to 
buy a certain book in English for her daughter ; to whom Thomas Holmes an- 
swered again, that a noble would not suffice to buy it. Another time, for giving 
six-pence to the buying of a certain book in English, which cost five marks. 
Another time Thomas Houre coming from Woburn, she asked, Wli.it news? 
and he said, that many were there condemned of heresy, and therefore he would 
lean to that way no more. Then said she, If he did so, he would gain nothing 
thereby. Whereby he bad no more work with her husband, and after was put 
from lus holy-water clerkship in that town. Another time, for saying to Tho- 
mas Rowland these words: 'Ye may see how Thomas Houre and others, who 



1521 



232 PERSECUTIONS IN THE DIOCESE OF LINCOLN, 

llenru laboured to have heretics detected before bishop Smith, are brought now to 
via beggary ; you may take example by them.' 

^* Joan Franke, William Franke the elder, William Franke the younger, and 

1;)1 ^ Alice Tredway detected Joan Collingbome, for saying to one Joan Timberlake, 

*P and Alice Tredway, ten years ago, That she could never believe pilgrimages to 

be profitable, nor that saints were to be worshipped ; and desired them not to 

tell their curate : which Alice immediately caused her to be called before the 

bishop. 

Accuser William Carder upon his oath was forced to detect Isabel Tracher, his mistress, 
the wife of William Tracher ; for that she being not sick, but in good health, 
and being rebuked divers times of her husband for the same, yet would not go 
to the church, but tarried at home, and kept her work, as well holy-day as 
work-day, the space of three years together. 

Accusers. Isabel Gardiner and John Gardiner were forced by their oath to detect the 
vicar of Wycombe, also Thomas Rave, of Great Marlow ; for speaking against 
pilgrimages in the company of John and Elizabeth Gardiner, as he was going 
to our lady of Lincoln for his penance enjoined by bishop Smith. Also the 
same time as he met certain coming from St. John Shorne, for saying they were 
fools, and calling it idolatry. Also in the same voyage, when he saw a certain 
chapel in decay and ruin, he said, 'Lo, yonder is a fair milk-house down.' 
\ Item, when he came to Lincoln, he misbehaved himself in the chapel, at mass- 
time, excusing himself afterwards that he did it of necessity. Item, the same 
time, speaking against the sacrament of the altar, he said, that Christ sitteth in 
heaven at the right hand of the Father Almighty : and brought forth this para- 
ble, saying, that Christ our Lord said these words when he went from his dis- 
ciples, and ascended to heaven, that once he was in sinner's hands, and would 
come there no more. Also that when the said Rave came to Wycombe, there 
to do his penance, he bound his faggot with a silken lace. Also being demanded 
of Dr. London, whether he had done his penance in coming to our Lady of 
Lincoln? he answered, That bishop Smith had released him to come to our 
Lady of Missenden for six years ; and three years he came, but whether he came 
any more, because he did not there register his name, therefore he said he could 
not prove it. 

They likewise detected the wife of Thomas Potter, of Hychenden. 

Accuser. Roger Bennet, forced by his oath to detect the wife of William Tilseworth, 
now of Hawkwell, for not thinking catholicly, that is, after the tradition of 
Rome, of the sacrament of the altar. Also the wife of Robert Stampe, for not 
accomplishing her penance enjoined by bishop Smith. 

Marian Randal, and John Butler. The latter for having of the said 
Roger Bennet, a certain book in English, containing a ' Dialogue between a 
Jew and a Christian.' 

Accuser. Richard Vulford detected these persons : his own wife, deceased ; and John 
Against Clerke, of Denham ; for communing with him against images, pilgrimages, and 
ill' nt"jf a ^ e sacramen t of the altar. Also Thomas Geffrey, of Uxbridge, and his wife 
the altar, departed ; for communing against the sacrament of the altar, worshipping of 
saints, pilgrimages, &c. 

Henry Vulman of Uxbridge, for speaking and teaching against the sacrament 
of the altar eleven years ago, and saying it was but a trifle. 

Also the mother of William King, of Uxbridge; William King, Robert Car- 
der the elder, John Baker, of Uxbridge. 

Accuser. John Scrivener the elder detected Geldener the elder, and his two daughters, 
For read- f° r being present and hearkening unto Richard Bennet, reading the epistle of 
inn tiio St. James in English. Also Em me, sister of William Tylsworth, martyr; and 
nirt!' ^ ' in ^ ee > carpenter, of Henley 

Here is to be noted, that in the town of Chesham were two men, one named 
Robert Hutton, the other John Spark ; of which two, the one called the other 



JKOM THE REGISTERS OF BISHOP LONG LAND. 233 

heretic, the otlier called him again thief. Spark.', who called Ilution thief, was Bmrrn 

condemned to pay for his slander ten shillings; but Sutton, who called the Y1 'i- 

other heretic, paid nothing. It happened that' the wife of this Sparke not long ~a~7) _ 

after had certain money stolen, for which the said Sparke her husband sent for '.: i3 * 

the counsel of two friars, who gave him counsel to make two halls of clay, and * t() 

to put them in the water, and in the same halls to enclose the names of them | - !!j 
whom he suspected : and so doing, the said Sparke came to his money again. 



And this was detected to hishop Longland the same time by Thomas Clement. Wi,0M 
But of all this matter there was no inquisition made, nor interrogatories minis- "*" 



craft 

unen- 



tered, nor witness produced, nor any sentence given. 1 nitW 

John Grosar, being put to his oath, detected Thomas Tykill, Thomas Spen- Accuser, 
cer, and his wife ; and John Knight. This John Grosar was examined whether For hav- 
he had a book of the Gospels in English; who confessed that he received such a g^V'turc 
book of Thomas Tykill, morrow-mass priest in Milk-street, and afterwards lent In Eng- 
ine same book to Thomas Spencer, which Thomas Spencer with his wife used li8h - 
to read upon the same. After that it was lent to John Knight, who at length 
delivered the book to the vicar of Rickmansworth. 

John Funge was forced by his oath to detect Francis Funge, his brother, and Accuser. 
Thomas Clerke. Francis Funge was examined for speaking these words to his 
brother John, which words he had learned of Thomas Clerke : ' If the sacrament 
of the altar be very God and man, flesh and blood, in form of bre.'d, as priests 
say that it is, then have we many gods; and in heaven there is but one God. And 
if there were a hundred houseled in one parish, and as many in another, then 
there must needs be more than one God. I will not deny but it is a holy thing, 
but it is not the body of the Lord that suffered passion for us ; for he was once 
in man's hands here, and ill entreated, and therefore he will never come in 
sinful men's hands again.' Also for speaking these words: 'The pope hath no 
authority to give pardon, and to release any man's sold from sin, and so from 
pain ; it is nothing but blinding of the people to have their money.' Also for 
these words, or such like : ' If a man do sow twenty quarters of corn, as wheat, 
or barley, or other corn, he ought to deduct his seed, and of the residue to tithe, 
or else he hath wrong,' &c. 

Francis Funge and Alice his wife were put to their oath to detect Thomas Accuseis. 
Clerke, for speaking against the real presence of Christ in the sacrament, unto 
Francis Funge, as before, &c. Also Robert Rave, of Dorney, for saying these 
words, that the sacrament of the altar is not the body which was born of the 
blessed Virgin Mary. Item, For speaking such words fourteen years past : 
That folks were ill occupied, that worshipped any things graven with man's 
hand; for that which is graven with man's hand is neither God nor our Lady, 
but made for a remembrance of saints. Nor ought we to worship any thing 
but God and our Lady; and not images of saints, which are but stocks and 
stones. 

Henry Dein, forced by his oath to detect Edmund Hill, of Penne ; likewise Accuser. 
Robert Freeman, parish-priest of Orton by Colebrook, for having and reading 
upon a suspected book, which book, when he perceived to be seen in his hand, 
he closed it, and earned it to his chamber. 

John Hill, forced by his oath, did detect Thomas Grove and his wife, of Accuser. 
Amersham ; also Matild Philby, wife of Edward Philby, of Chalvey ; likewise 
Joan Gun, of Chesham, because she instructed and taught the said Hill, before 
his abjuration, in the Epistle of St. James, and other opinions. Also William 
Atkins, of Great Missenden ; Richard Murden, of Chesham ; Enune Murden, 
his wife. 

William Gudgame, forced by his oath to detect Joan Gudgame, his own wife, Accuser, 
for being in the same opinion of the sacrament that he was of; who notwith- 
standing did swear the same not to be true that her husband said. Also Alice 
Nash, or Chapman, of Missenden. 

(1) Ex Regist. Longland, fol. 50. 



A. D. 
1518 



234 PERSECUTIONS IN THE DIOCESE OF LINCOLN, 

Henri, Matild Symonds, and John Symonds her husband, put to their oath, detected 

vni. ne Ha»-<nir, of London, for speaking in their house, a. d. 1520, these words : 

' That there should be a battle of priests, and all the priests shoidd be slain, and 

that the priests should awhile rule ; but they should all be destroyed, because 

they hold against the law of holy church, and for making of false gods ; and 

_ t .° after that they should be overthrown.' Item, Another time he said, 'That men of 

1^-1- t} ie church should be put down, and the false gods that they make ; and after 

that, he said, they should know more, and then should be a merry world.' 

Accuser Thomas Gierke, forced by his oath, did detect Christopher, tinker, of Wycombe. 
The cause of this tinker's trouble was, for that he coming to this man's house, 
and complaining to him of the poverty of the world, had these words : That 
there was never so misgoverned a people ; and that they bare themselves so 
bold upon pardons and pilgrimages, that they cared not whatsoever .they did : 
and so he departed. And seven days after that, this tinker, coming again, 
asked him, how his last communication with him did please him ; and he said, 
Well. Then the tinker said, he knew more, and that he could tell him more : 
and bade him that he should believe in God in heaven ; for here be many 
gods in earth, and there, is but one God ; and that he was once here, and was 
ill dealt with, and would no more come here till the day of doom : and that 
the sacrament of the altar was a holy thing, but not the flesh and blood of 
Christ that was born of the Virgin ; and charged him not to tell this to his wife, 
and especially not to his wife's brother, a priest. Afterwards, as the priest was 
drying singing-bread, being wet, which his sister had bought, the aforesaid 
Thomas Clerke said, that if every one of these were a god, then were there 
many gods. To whom the priest answered, That till the holy words were spoken 
over it, it was of no power, and then it was very God, flesh and blood ; saying 
moreover, that it was not meet for any layman to speak of such things. These 
words of the priest being after recited to the tinker by the said Clerke, then 
said he, ' Let every man say what they will, but you shall find it as I show 
you,' &c. ; 'and if you will take labour to come to my house, I will show you 
further proof of it, if you will take heed,' &c. 

Accuser. Robert Pope, first of Amersham, after of West Hendred, caused by his oath, 
did detect these following : Thomas Africk, alias Littlepage, and his wife. To 
these was objected, that they had communication and conference with this 
Robert Pope in the Gospel of St. Matthew, before the great abjuration, in the 
town of Amersham. 

Thomas Scrivener, father to Thomas Holme's wife. This Scrivener was de- 
tected, for that the said Pope had of him a book of the Epistles in English. 

Bennet Ward, of Beaconsfield, and his father, Edmund Dormer. To Ward, 
this was laid, that the aforesaid Pope had received a book of the Ten Com- 
mandments. He had also the Gospels of Matthew and Mark. Of the same 
Ward he learned his Christ-Cross row : five parts of the eight Beatitudes. 

Thomas Harding, and his wife ; John Scrivener, and his wife ; Thomas Man, 
and his wife ; another Thomas Man, and his wife. These were detected for 
this, because they had communed and talked with the said Robert Pope often- 
times in books of Scripture, and other matters of religion, concerning pil- 
grimage, adoration of images, and the sacrament of the Lord's body. 

The same Robert Pope did detect these who follow : Thomas Bernard ; Thomas 
Grove ; Thomas Holmes ; Robert Rave ; William Gudgame, and his wife ; Nash 
the elder, and his wife ; William Gray, of East Hendred, miller ; Edward Gray 
and his wife, of East Hendred ; Margery Young, widow, of East Hendred ; Isabel 
More, sister to the said Margery, of East Hendred ; Richard Nobis, fowler, and 
his wife, of East Hendred. 

Also Richard Colins, of Ginge, and his wife. This Colins was among them 
a great reader, and had a book of Wicklift" s Wicket, and a book of Luke, and 
one of Paul, and a gloss of the Apocalypse. 

Robert Pope did also detect William Colins, brother of Richard. Also Thomas 
Colins, the father of Richard and William. William had a book of Paul, and 
B book ct' small epistles : 

John (Olins, of Betterton; Robert Lyvord, of Stcventon ; William Lyvord, of 
Steventon ; father Amevshaw, of Stcventon; one Smart, of Steventon, miller; 



FROM THE REGISTERS OF BISHOr LONGLAND. .' | .", 

Thomas Hall, of Hungcrford ; John Eden, of Ilungerford; John Ludlow, of Vtmrt 
Hungerford ; Thomas New, of Wantage, thatcher ; Joan Taylor and her mother, TUL 
of Bisham; Humfrey Shoemaker, of Newbury; John Semand, of Newbury, . n 
fishmonger; Robert Geydon and his wife, of Newbury, weaver; and John jVrd" 
Edmunds, of Burford. This John Edmunds was charged for having a book 
named ' William Thorpe ;' also for reading in an English book after a marriage. , -", 

Robert Pope did likewise detect the following : Robert Bulges and his wife, 
of Burford ; John Colins^of Burford ; John Colins and his wife, of Asthall ; 
John Gierke, of Claufield. This Clerke was heard say, that all the world was 
as well hallowed as the church or church-yard ; and that it was as good to be 
buried in the field, as in the church or church-yard. 

William Gun and his wife, of Witney, tanner; John Baker, of Witney, 
weaver ; John Brabant the elder, of Stanlake ; John Brabant the younger, of 
Stanlake ; John Kember, of Heniiybarkes ; Walter Kember his brother, of 
Hennybarkes ; John Rabettes, of Chawley, and Thomas Widmore, of Ilichenden ; 
also John Phip, and William Phip, for reading a certain treatise upon the Pater 
Noster in English, which this John Phip did read to him, and to his father. 

This aforesaid Robert Pope moreover detected Edward Pope, his own father, The son 
of Little Missenden, for hearing the Gospel of Matthew read unto him, and for detecting 
communing upon the same with this Robert Pope his son. He detected like- father, 
wise Edward Pope his brother. 

Furthermore, he detected his own wife, who had before abjured under bishop 
Smith, to continue still in her opinions. 

This Robert Pope, being before abjured, did further detect these here follow- 
ing : Thomas Clerke the elder, of Hichenden ; Lawrence Heme, of Ilichenden ; For the 
William Holiday, of East Hendred. This Haliday was detected for having in his f"vils- C 
custody a book of the Acts of the Apostles in English, which the said Robert lish. 
Pope brought unto him at the taking of Roger Dodd. 

William Squire and his brother, of Shaw ; Thomas Stephenton and Matild For read- 
his daughter, of Charney. Also Thomas Philip, painter ; and Laurence Tailor, JSL2?_ 
of London ; for that these two, being in the house of Richard Colins at Ginge, i n Eng- 
there did read in an English book the Epistle of St Paid to the Romans ; and lis ' 11 - 
Laurence did read the first chapter of St. Luke's Gospel. 

Andrew Maysey, of Burton. Also the wife of Richard Colins, of Ginge. 
John Harris's wife ; and Alice Colins, wife of Richard Colins. These two, 
being together at Upton in John Harris's house, did talk of the Apocalypse, 
and of the Acts of the Apostles, and therefore were suspected, and thus de- 
tected. 1 Item, Because John Harris spake against pilgrimage, images, and 
was heard to talk of seven lean and seven fat oxen. 

Robert Colins, of Hertford-Wallis, mason ; also Thomas Gray, of West 
Hendred, for receiving certain books of this Robert Pope. Margaret House, 
wife of William House, of East Ginge, for keeping company, and receiving the 
doctrine of Alice Colins. 

John Nash, of Little Missenden; Henry Etkin and his mother, of Little 
Missenden ; and Richard Dell, of Missenden. 

Robert Colins, being sworn upon the evangelists, did detect Richard Colins, Accuser, 
of Ginge, first, for that this Richard Colins did read unto the said Robert Colins 
the Ten Commandments, and after taught him the Epistle of St. James, and For read- 
another small Epistle of Peter ; and, after that, took him the Gospel of St. John L ng d t, |* . 
in English, and bade him read therein himself. Also for teaching him not to j„ ^g. 
worship images, nor to set up candles, nor to go on pilgrimage. Another crime Hah. 
against Richard Colins was because he taught this Robert, that in all such 
things wherein he offended God, he should only shrive himself to God ; and in 
what things he offended man, he should shrive himself to man. Also for Against 
teaching him, that the sacrament of the altar is not very God, but a certain jjj'^j?" 
figurative thing of Christ in bread ; and that the priest hath no power to con- the altax. 
secrate the body of Christ. Also, for that the said Richard did teach him, in 
Wickliff "s Wicket, how that a man may not make the body of our Lord, who 
made us; and how can we then make him again? The Father is unbegottcn, 
and unmade ; the Son is only begotten, and not made : and how then can man 

(1) Ex Uegist. Longland, fol. 71. 



PERSECUTION'S IS THB DIOCESE OF LINCOLN, 

make that, which is unmade? said ne. And in the same book of WieklhTs 

rili. Wicket follow the words of Christ thus speaking : ' If my words be heresy, then 

am I a heretic ; and if my words be leasings, then am I a liar,' &c. Also another 



Henry 



A.D. 
1518 

to 
1521. 



idolatry. 



crime against Richard Colins, for having certain English books, as WicklifFs 
Wicket, the Gospel of St. John, the Epistles of St. Paid, James, and Peter in 
English, an Exposition of the Apocalypse, a book of our Lady's Matins in 
English, a book of Solomon in English, and a book called * the Prick of Con- 
science.' 

j? or John Edmunds, of Burford, tailor, and John Harris. The crime against 

^making John Edmunds, was for having a certain English book of the commandments. 
The crime against John Harris was, for communing with him of the first chapter 
of St. John's Gospel: ' In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with 
God, and God,' &c. Also for communing of a chapter in Matthew, of the 
eight Beatitudes. Item, Thomas Hall, for counselling him not to go on pilgri- 
inage to saints, because they were idols. 

The aforesaid Robert Colins, being sworn upon the Evangelists, did detect 
also these persons : — Robert Livord; W. Livord; one Bruges and Joan his wife; 
one Harris and his w T ife ; and Richard Collins. All these were detected, for that 
they, being together in Bruges's house at Burford, were reading together in the 
book of the exposition of the Apocalypse, and communed concerning the 
matter of opening the book with seven clasps, &c. 

John Ledisdall, or Edon, of Hungerford ; John Colins, of Burford; John Colins 
and his wife of Asthall ; John Clerke, of Claufield. The wife of Richard Colins, 
of Ginge ; Thomas Colins and his wife, of Ginge. This Thomas Colins was 
charged for having a book of Paul and James in English. 

William Colins ; Robert Pope, of Henred ; one Hakker, of Coleman-street in 
London. Also Stacy, brickmaker, of Coleman-street, for having the book of 
the Apocalypse. 

Thomas Philip ; Laurence Wharfar, of London, for reading the Epistle of St. 
Peter in English, in the house of Robert Colins, of Asthall. 

Joan Colins his own sister, of Asthall; Thomas Colins his cousin, of Asthall; 
Mistress Bristow, of London ; John Colins, son of Richard Colins, of Ginge ; 
Joan Colins, daughter of Richard Colins, of Ginge; Henry Stacy, son of Stacy, 
of Coleman-street ; Thomas Steventon of Charney, in Berkshire ; John Brabant, 
in Stanlake ; and John Baker, weaver, of Witney. 

John Colins, of Burford, impeached to the bishop the persons here named : 
Richard Colins. The words of Richard Colins were these: that the sacrament 
was not the true body of Christ in flesh and blood ; but yet it ought to be 
reverenced, albeit not so as the true body of Christ : 

Thomas Colins, of Ginge, his own natural father : the crime against Thomas 
Colins was, that for eight years past this Thomas Colins the father had taught 
this John his son, in the presence of his mother, the Ten Commandments, and 
namely, that he should have but one God, and should worship nothing but 
God alone ; and that to worship saints, and go on pilgrimage, was idolatry. 
Also, that he should not worship the sacrament of the altar as God, for that it 
was but a token of the Lord's body : which thing so much discontented this 
John Colins, that he said he would disclose his father's errors, and make him 
to be burned ; but his mother entreated him not so to do. 

Robert Colins, of Asthall. The crime against Robert Colins; that this 
Robert read to him in a certain thick book of Scripture in English. 

John Edmunds and his wife. The crime laid to John Edmunds was for 
that he read to this John the Ten Commandments, and told him that John 
Baptist said, that one should come after him', whose buckle of his shoe he was 
not worthy to undo. 

Alice, wife of Gunn, of W'itney ; and John Hakker and his son, of London. 
This John Hakker, of London, coming to Burford, brought a book speaking of 
the ten plagues of Pharaoh. Also after that, another book treating of the seven 
sacraments. 

Laurence Tailor, of Shoreditch ; Thomas Philip, of London; Philip, servant 
of Richard Colins ; Waunsell, fishmonger, of the Vise ; Joan Robert; Bmges's 
wife ; John Boyea and his brother; a monk of Burford; Thomas Baker, father 
toGunn's wife, of Whateley; Agnes, daughter of John Edmunds; the mother 



PJIOM THE REGISTERS OF RISHOP LON'C.I.ANn. 237 

of John Boycs, of Sudbury; Edward Red, schoolmaster, of Burford; Robert u,; iry 
Hickman, of Lechelade. Till. 



Elenor Higges, of Burford. This Elenor was charged, that she should bum . „ 
the sacrament in an oven _ ; 

J ohn Through, of the priory of Burford. The mother of Robert Burges's wife. 

Roger Dods, of Burford, by his oath was compelled to utter the person " ' 
here named:— Sir John Drury, vicar of Windrish, in Worcestershire. The Accuser. 
crime against this sir John Drury was, for thai when Roger Dods came first to 
him to be his servant, he sware him upon a book to keep his counsel in all 
things; and after that he showed him a certain woman in his house, whom he 
said to be his wife : counselling moreover the said Roger Dods, upon an 
Ember day, to sup with bread and cheese ; saying, that which goeth into a 
man's body, defileth not a man's soul ; but that which goeth out of the body, 
defileth both body and soul. Also that the said vicar taught him the A, B, C, 
to the intent he should have understanding in the Apocalypse, wherein he said, 
that he should perceive all the falsehood of the world, and all the truth. He said 
furthermore unto him, when he had been at the Lady of Worcester, at the blood 
of Hailes, which had cost him eighteen pence, that he had done as an ill 
husband that had ploughed his land, and sown it, but nothing to the pur- 
pose ; for he had worshipped man's handy-work, and cast away his money, 
which had been better given to the poor : for he should worship but one God, 
and no handy-work of man. Item, When the people would offer candles, 
where he was vicar, to Mary Magdalen, he would take them away, and say 
that they were fools that brought them thither. 

Also the same Roger Dods by his oath was compelled to utter these other 
persons here named : — Elizabeth More, of East Ilendred ; Robert Pope, of West 
Hendred ; and Henry Miller, of Tucke-by-Ware. This Henry did shew to 
Roger Dods a certain story of a woman in the Apocalypse, riding upon a red 
beast. The said Henry was twice abjured. 

John Phip, of Hichenden ; for reading unto the said Roger Dods a certain 
Gospel in English. 

William Phip, of Hichenden, and Henry his son. This William had ex- 
horted Roger Dods that he should worship no images, nor commit idolatry, 
but worship one God ; and told the same Roger, that it was good for a man to 
be merry and wise, meaning that he should keep close that was told him ; for 
else strait punishment would follow. 

Roger Parker, of Hichenden. This Parker said to John Phip, for burning 
of his books, that he was foul to blame, for they were worth a hundred marks. 
To whom John answered, that he had rather burn his books, than that his 
books should burn him. 

The wife of Thomas Widemore, daughter of Roger House, of Hichenden ; 
old Widemore's wife, sister to John Phip, of Hichenden. Also John Ledis- 
dall, of Hungerford, for reading of the Bible in Robert Burges's house at Bur- For read . 
ford, upon Holyrood day, with Colins, Lyvord, Thomas Hall, and others. tog the 

Robert Colins and his wife. Also John Colins and his wife, for buying a gjjj^j 
Bible of Stacy for twenty shillings. 

The aforesaid Roger Dods, by his oath, was also compelled to utter these 
persons here named : The father of Robert Colins, who had been of this doe- 
trine from a.d. 1480. Also Thomas Baker, of Whateley ; Robert Livord ; 
John Sympson, of Steventon ; Thomas Reiley, of Burford ; John Clemson, 
servant to the prior of Burford ; James Edmunds, of Burford ; William Gun, of 
Witney. To these was laid, that they being in the house of John Harris, of Up- 
ton, at the marriage of Joan the wife of Robert Binges, did read in a book 
called Nicodemus's Gospel, who made the cloth which our Lord was buried in 
(as the register saith), and in that book is the story of the destruction of Jerusalem. r ,, r r ,.. v] . 

John Baker, weaver, of Witney; the bailiff of Witney ; John Hakker; John 
Brabant and his wife; John Brabant his son, with his wife ; John Brabant the « ri P tlw 
younger son, with his wife; Reginald Brabant of Stanlake, for reading in a English. 
certain English book of scripture, they being together in John Brabant's house 
of Stanlake. 

Also Henry Phip. The crime and detection against this Henry, was, for 
that he, being asked of this Dods, a. d. 1515, whether he would go to Wycombe 



A. D. 


1518 


to 


1521. 



238 PERSECUTIONS IN THE DIOCESE OF LINCOLN, 

Henri, or not ? answered, that he was chosen roodman, that is, keeper of the roodloft, 
VHf. saying, that he must go and tind a candle before his ' Block Almighty.' 

Oliver Smith, of Newline, and his wife ; and William Hobbis. This William 
Hobbis was detected first by Radulph Hobbis his brother, to bishop Smith : 
but was delivered through the suit of the curate of West Wycombe. 

John Edmunds, otherwise called John Ogins, of Burford, did detect Philip 
Accuser. Brabant, servant of Richard Colins, for saying that the sacrament of the altar 
was made in the remembrance of Christ's own body, but it was not the body 
of Christ. 
Against The Shepherd's Kalendar was also accused and detected, because the same 
the Edmunds said, that he was persuaded by this book, reading these words, That 

Presence tne sacrament was made in the remembrance of Christ. 

of the The book of William Thorpe likewise was much complained of, both by this 

sacra- John Edmunds and divers others. 

Richard Colins, of Ginge. This Richard Colins, as he was a great doer 

among these good men, so was he much complained upou by divers, and also 

The book by this Edmunds, for bringing with him a book called ' The King of Beeme ' 

King oV e " lt0 tne i r company, and that he did read there of a great part unto them, in this 

Reeme. Edmund's house of Burford. 

For Alice Colins, wife of Richard Colins. This Alice likewise was a famous 

having woman among them, and had a good memory, and could recite much of the 
the Ten Scriptures, and other good books ; and therefore when any conventicle of these 
mand- men did meet at Burford, commonly she was sent for, to recite unto them the 
nunts in declaration of the Ten Commandments, and the Epistles of Peter and James. 
" g ls " Joan Colins, daughter of Richard and of Alice Colins. This Joan also, fol- 
lowing her father's and mother's steps, was noted, for that she had learned with 
her father and mother the Ten Commandments, the seven deadly sins, the seven 
works of mercy, the five wits bodily and ghostly, the eight blessings, and five 
chapters of St. James's epistle. 
The fa- John Edmunds also did detect Agnes Edmunds, his own daughter. This 
ther ac- Agnes Edmunds was detected by her father, that he brought her to the house 
hi'sown °f Richard Colins to service, to the intent she might be instructed there in God's 
daughter, law ; where she had learned likewise the Ten Commandments, the five wits 
bodily and. ghostly, and the seven deadly sins. 

John Edmunds also did detect Alice Gunn, W. Russel, of Coleman-street ; 
one mother Joan ; father Joan, of Hungerford ; John Taylor, servant of John 
Harris, of Burford ; Thomas Quicke, weaver, of Reading ; Philip Brabant, 
weaver ; John Barbar, clerk, of Amersham ; John Eding, of Hungerford ; one 
Brabant, brother to Philip Brabant, of Stanlake. 

Accusers. Thomas White, and Thomas Clerke, did impeach Robert Butterfield, and 
William Dorset. The words of William Dorset were these : That pilgrimage 
For say- was f none e ff ec t ; a nd offering candles or other things to saints, stood in no 
i'.'liiy'is stead, and was but cost lost. Also when his wife was going on pilgrimage, and 
in hear lie asked, ' Whither ?' and she said, ' To our Lady of Willesdon :' ' Our lady,' said 
vtn- he, 'is in heaven.' 

Accuser. John Baker, being urged upon his oath, did disclose John Edmunds. This 

John Edmunds was detected, because that he, talking with the said Baker, of 

The pilgrimage, bade him go ofTer his money to the image of God. When the other 

GodT ° f as kcd what that was, he said, that the image of God was the poor people, blind 

and lame ; and said, that he offended Almighty God in going on pilgrimage. 

Amiscr. William Phip, adjured by his oath, did accuse Henry Phip, his own son, for 
ther •'■'"- communm g with Roger Dods against pilgrimage and adoration of images. 
enaetfa his 
Amumt.' • Henry Phip, heing examined and abjured by the bishop, was compelled to 

disclose his own words spoken to Roger Dods, saying to him, that he must light 
Block Al- a candle before his ' Block Almighty,"' being then roodman. Also he was com- 
mlghty. peUed to accusc R oger Barker, and William Phip, his own father, for talking 

together against pilgrimage and idolatry. 



to 
1521. 



FROM THE REGISTERS OK BISHOP LOKGLAND. 239 

John Brabant, the elder son of John Brabant, did nominate the following : / 
John Hakker, and Robert Pope, for reading the holy Scripture in his father's '"' 
house, and for saying these words : 'Christ made his Maundy, 1 and said, Take a. 1). 
this bread, eat it ; this is my body : Take this wine, drink it ; this is my blood : \;,\ s 
and priests say by these words, that the sacrament of the altar is the"body of 
Christ.' 

John Brabant his father, and his mother, for being present when Hakker 
was reading the Scripture in their house. 

Also Philip Brabant, his uncle. The words of Philip Brabant were these : 
That it was deadly sin to go on pilgrimage. 

Concerning this John Brabant, here is to be noted, the form and effect of the 
bishop's examination, asking and demanding thus of the said Brabant : Whe- 
ther he ever heard John Hakker read the holy Scripture, against the determi- 
nation of the church ? 3 By which words, if they mean that it is against the 
determination of the church to read the holy Scripture, it may thereby appear 
to be a blind church. And if they mean that the holy Scripture contaiiicth any 
such thing in it which is against the determination of the church, then it 
appeareth their church to be contrary unto God, seeing it determineth one 
thing, and God's Word another. 

John Baker did detect Robert Pope, Richard Nobbis, and John Edmunds ; Accuser. 
for speaking against going on pilgrimage, and against image worship. 

John a Lee denounced John a Weedon. When this John a Lee had told the Accuser, 
said Weedon, how the bishop had said in his sermon these words ; That all who 
were of the sect of heretics, believed that God was in heaven, but they believed 
not that the body of Christ on the altar was God. To this he, answering again, 
said, ' Ye be bold upon that word,' deriding the bishop in so saying. 

Also William Dorset, of King's Langley ; for saying that images stood for 
nothing, and that pilgrimage served to spend folks' money, and nothing else. 

Joan Steventon denounced Alice Colins, for teaching the said John Steventon, Accuser, 
in Lent, the Ten Commandments, thus beginning, ' I am thy Lord God, which 
led thee out of the land of Egypt, and brought thee out of the house of thral- 
dom : thou shalt have no alien gods before me ; neither make to thee any 
image graven with man's hands, that is in heaven above, neither in the earth 
beneath,' &c. Item, For teaching her the first chapter of St. John's Gospel: 
* In the beginning was the Word,' &c. 

Also John Harris, for teaching her the first chapter of Peter. 

Sir John, 3 a priest, and also Robert Robinson, detected Master Cotismore, of Accusers. 
Brightwell. Also Mistress Cotismore, otherwise called Mistress Dolly, for 
speaking these words to one John Bainton, her servant : That if she went to 
her chamber, and prayed there, she should have as much merit as though she 
went to Walsingham on pilgrimage. Item, When the said Sir John came to her 
after the death of Master Cotismore his master, requiring her to send one John 
Stainer, her servant, to our Lady of Walsingham, for Master Cotismore, who in 
his lifetime, being sick, promised in his own person to visit that place, she would 
not consent thereto, nor let her servant go. Item, for saying, that when women Carpcn- 
go to offer to images or saints, they did it to show their new gay gear : that to™ 
images were but carpenters' chips ; and that folks go on pilgrimage more for c ups ' 
the green way, than for any devotion. 

John Hakker did detect Thomas Vincent, of London, to whom it was objected Accuser, 
for giving this Hakker a book of St. Matthew in English. Also Mistress Cotis- 
more, otherwise Dolly, and Richard Colins. The latter for receiving of the said 
Hakker a book of the Ten Commandments in English. Hakker did also detect 
the following: Goodwife Bristow, of Wood-street, in London; William Gunn, 
for receiving of Hakker a book of the ten plagues sent of God to Pharaoh ; the 

(1) " His Maundy," or Mandy, perhaps " Dies Mandati ;" thus " Maundy Thursday," the day on 
which Christ commanded the disciples to cat the Passover. — En. 

(2) An unquam audivit Johannem Hakker legentem sacram Scripturam contra determinationem 
Ecclesije?— Ex Regist. Joh. Longland, fol. 85. 

(3) " Sir John," or ' Sir John Lack Latin,' a term of derision for the lower orders oJ the popish 
clergy.— Ed. 



A.D. 


1518 


to 


1521. 



£|,0 PERSECUTIONS IN THE DIOCESE OF LINCOLN. 

ffenrfi wife of Thomas Widmore, of Chichcndcn ; Elizabeth, the daughter of this Hak- 
WU. ker, and Robert her husband, otherwise called Fitton of Newbury; William 

Stoicely, of Henley ; John Simonds and his wife, of Great Marlow ; John Austy. 

of Henley; Thomas Austy, of Henley; Grinder, of Cookham ; and John 

Heron, for having a book of the exposition of the Gospels fairly written in 

English. 

Accusers. Thomas Grove, and John of Reading, put to their oath, did detect Richard 
Grace, for speaking these words following : That our blessed lady was the god- 
mother to St. Katharine ; and therefore the legend is not true, in saying that 
Christ did marry with St. Katharine ; and bid Adrian put on his vestment, and 
say the service of matrimony ; for so Christ should live in adultery for marrying 
with his godsister; which thing if he should do, he should be thought not to do 
well. Item, For saying by the picture of St. Nicholas being newly painted, 
that he was not worthy to stand in the rood-loft, but that it better beseemed 
him, to stand in the belfry, &c. 

In this table above prefixed, thou hast, gentle reader ! to see and 
understand ; first, the number and names of these good men and wo- 
men, troubled and molested by the church of Rome, and all in one 
year ; of whom few or none were learned, being simple labourers and 
artificers ; but as it pleased the Lord to work in them knowledge 
and understanding, by reading a few English books, such as they 
could get in corners : Secondly, What were their opinions we have 
also described : And thirdly, Herein is to be noted moreover the 
blind ignorance and uncourteous dealing of the bishops against them, 
not only in that they, by their violent oath and captious interrogato- 
ries, constrained the children to accuse their parents, and parents the 
children, the husband the wife, and the wife the husband, &c. ; but 
especially in that most wrongfully they so afflicted them, without all 
good reason or cause, only for the sincere verity of God's Word, and 
reading of holy Scriptures. 
The rea- Now it remaineth, that as you have heard their opinions (which 
s .'r"ba a - nd principally in number were four), so also we declare their reasons and 
tions of Scriptures whereupon they grounded ; and after that consequently 
trine. the order and manner of penance to them enjoined by the bishop. 
And first, against pilgrimage, and against worshipping of images, they 
used this text of the Apocalypse, chap. ix. 

' I saw horses in a vision, and the heads of them as the heads of lions ; smoke, 
fire, and brimstone came out of their mouths. With these three plagues, the 
third part of men were slain of the smoke, and of the fire, and of the brimstone, 
that came out of the mouths of them. They that were not slain of these three 
plagues, were such as worshipped not devils, and images of gold and silver, of 
brass, of tree, and of stone.' ' 

Also they used and alleged the first commandment, that there is 

but one God, and that they ought not to worship more gods than one. 

And as touching the sacrament, and the right doctrine thereof, they 

WicMiffa had their instruction partly out of Wickliff s Wicket, 2 partly out of the 

■nll-sh!',,- Shepherd's Kalcndar ; where they read that the sacrament was made 

k'»dar Kcl ~ ^ remembrance of Christ, and ought to be received in remembrance 

of his body, &c. Moreover they alleged and followed the words of 

(1) F.x Regisl. Longland, fol. 72. 

(2) " Wickliff's \\ 1. 1.. it" was reprinted .it the university press at Oxford, In 12mo. 1828. edited 
by Key. X. P. I'antin.- Ki>. 



TUF. KINGS LETTER TO THE BISHOP OF LINCOLN'. 241 

Christ 6poken at the supper, at what time lie, sitting with his disciple-, I 
and making with them his Maundy, took bread, and blessed, and 
brake, and gave to his disciples, and said, " Eat ye this," reaching forth V ! > ; 
his arm, and showing the bread in his hand ; and then noting his own 'j () S 
natural body, and touching the same, and not the bread consecrated, j.yji. 

" This is my body, which shall be betrayed for you ; do this in rcmeni- 

brance of me. 11 And he likewise took the wine and bade them drink, 
saying, "This is my blood which is of the New Testament," Sec 1 

Item, That Christ our Saviour sittcth on the right hand of the Father, 
and there shall be unto the day of doom. Wherefore they believed 
that in the sacrament of the altar was not the very body of Christ. 

Item, said one of them, " Men speak much of the sacrament of the 
altar : but this will I abide by, that upon Share Thursday, 2 Christ 
brake bread unto his disciples, and bade them cat it ; saying, it was 
his flesh and blood. And then he went from them, and suffered pas- 
sion ; and then he rose from death to life, and ascended into heaven, 
and there sittcth on the right hand of the Father ; and there he is to 
remain unto the day of doom, when he shall judge both quick and 
dead ;" and therefore how he should be here in the form of bread, he 
said, he could not see. 

Such reasons and allegations as these and other such like, taken out 
of the Scripture, and out of the Shepherd's Kalendar, WicklifFs Wicket, 
and other books they had amongst them. And although there was 
no learned man with them to ground them in their doctrine, yet they, 
conferring and communing together among themselves, did convert 
one another, the Lord's hand working with them marvellously : so 
that in short space the number of these ' known' or ' just-fast-men, 
as they were then termed, did exceedingly increase ; in such sort 
that the bishop, seeing the matter almost past his power, was driven The 
to make his complaint to the king, and required his aid for suppression com^Sn- 
of these men. Whereupon king Henry, being then young, and jf^ tlic 
inexpert in the bloody practices and blind leadings of these aposto- 
lical prelates, incensed with his suggestions and cruel complaints, 
directed down letters to his sheriffs, bailiffs, officers, and subjects, 
for the aid of the bishop in this behalf; the tenor of which letters 
here ensueth : 

The Copy of the King's Letter for the aid of John Longland, Bishop 
of Lincoln, against the Servants of Christ, falsely then called 
Heretics. 

Henry (lie Eighth, by the grace of God king of England and of France, lord of 
Ireland," defender of the faitli : to all mayors, sheriffs, bailiffs, and constables', 
and to all other our officers, ministers, and subjects, these our l< tters hearing or 
seeing, and to every of them, greeting. Forasmuch as the right reverend father 
in God, our trusty and right well-beloved counsellor the bishop of Lincoln hath 
now within his diocese no small number <>f heretics, as it is thought, to his bo 
little discomfort and heaviness: we therefore, being in will and mind safely to 
provide for the said right reverend father in God and his officers, that neither 
they, nor any of them, shall bodily be hurt or damaged by any of the said 
heretics or their fautors, in the executing and ministering of justice unto the 
said heretics, according to the laws of holy church : do straitly charge and com- 
mand you, and every of you, as ye tender our high displeasure, to be aiding, 
helping, and assisting the said right reverend father in God, and his said officers, 
(1) Ex Regist Joh. Lou-laud. Lincoln, foL 105. (2) "Share Thursday," Maundy Thursday.- En. 

VOL. IV. R 



U2 



THE NAMES OF THOSE WHO WERE ABJURED, 



Henry in the executing of justice in the premises, as they or any of them shall require 
you so to do ; not failing to accomplish our commandment and pleasure in the 
premises, as ye intend to please us, and will answer to the contrary at your 
uttermost perils. 

Given under our signet, at our castle of Windsor, the twentieth day of 
October, the thirteenth year of our reign. 1521. 



A.D. 
1518 

to 
1521. 



The bishop, thus being armed no less with the authority of the 

Icing's letter, than incited with his own fierceness, foreslacked no time, 

but eftsoons, to accomplish his moody violence upon the poor flock 

of Christ, called before him, sitting upon his tribunal-seat, both these 

afore-named persons, and all other in his diocese, who were ever so 

little noted or suspected to incline towards those opinions ; of whom 

to such as had but newly been taken, and had not before abjured, he 

enjoined most strait and rigorous penance. The others in whom 

The cmei he could find any relapse, yea, albeit they submitted themselves ever 

oV bishop so humbly to his favourable courtesy ; and though also, at his request, 

hind!" an d f° r no P e °f pardon, they had showed themselves great detecters 

of their brethren, being moreover of him feed and flattered thereunto ; 

yet notwithstanding, contrary to his fair words, and their expectation, 

lie spared not, but read sentence of relapse against them, committing 

them to the secular arm to be burnt. 

And first, as touching those, who being brought to abjuration, were 
put to their penance ; long it were to recite the names of all. Certain 
I thought to recite here in a catalogue : first reciting the persons ; 
afterwards the rigorous penance to them enjoined. 



The Names of those who were abjured in the diocese of Lincoln, 
A.D. 1521. 



William Colins. 

John Colins. 

Joan Colins. 

Robert Colins. 

John Hacker. 

John Brabant the father. 

John Brabant his son. 

John Brabant the younger 

son. 
John Edmonds. 
Edward Pope. 
Henry Phip. 
John Steventon. 
Joan Steventon. 
Robert Bartlet. 
Thomas Clerke. 
John Clerke. 



Richard Bartlet. 
William Phip. 
John Phip. 
Thomas Couper. 
William Littlepage. 
John Littlepage. 
Joan Littlepage. 
John Say. 
John Frier. 
Richard Vulford. 
Thomas Tredway. 
William Gudgame, 
Roger Heron. 
Francis Funge. 
Robert Pope. 
Roger Dods. 
John Harris. 



Robert Bruges. 

John Stampe. 

Joan Stampe. 

Richard White. 

Be net Ward. 

John Baker. 

Agnes Wellis. 

Marian Morden. 

Isabel Morwin. 

John Butler. 

John Butler the younger. 

Richard Carder. 

Richard Bernard. 

Joan Bernard. 

John Grace. 

John French. 

John Edings. 



The Towns, Villages, and Countries where these aforesaid Persons did 
inhabit, are named chiefly to be these. 



Amcrsham. 


Asthall. 


Claufield. 


Chesham. 


Beaconsfield. 


Walton. 


Hichenden. 


Denham. 


Marlow. 


Missenden the Great. 


Ginge. 


Dorney. 


Missenden the Less. 


Betterton. 


Iver. 


East-hundred. 


Cliamcy. 


Burton. 


West-hundred. 


Stanlake. 


Uxbridge. 



A. U. 

1518 

to 

1521. 



FROM THE REGISTER OF BISHOP LOXGLAND. 243 

Woburn. Hungerford. Shoreditch by London. Henry 

Henley. Upton. St. Giles in London. V[ U- 

Wycombe. Windsor. Essex. 

West-Wycombe. London. Suffolk. 

Newbury. Coleman-street in London. Norfolk. 

Burford. Cheapside in London. Norwich. 

Witney. 

The books and opinions -which these were charged withal, and for 
which they were abjured, partly are before expressed, partly here 
follow, in a brief summary to be seen. 

A brief Summary of their Opinions. 

The opinions of many of these persons were, That he or she never believed 
in the sacrament of the altar, nor ever would ; and that it was not as men did 
take it. 1 

For that he was known of his neighbours to be a good fellow, meaning, that 
ho was a known-man. 2 

For saying, that he would give forty pence on condition that such a one knew 
as much as he did know. 3 

Some for saying, that they of Amersham, who had been abjured before by 
bishop Smith, were good men, and perfect Christians, and simple folk who could 
not answer for themselves, and therefore were oppressed by power of the bishop. 4 

Some, for hiding others in their barns. 5 

Some, for reading the Scriptures, or treatises of scripture, in English : some, 
for hearing the same read. 

Some, for defending, some for marrying with, them that had been abjured. 

Some, for saying that matrimony was not a sacrament. 6 

Some, for saying that worshipping of images was mawmetry ; some for calling 
images carpenters' chips ; some for calling them stocks and stones ; some for 
calling them dead things. 

Some, for saying that money spent upon pilgrimage, served but to maintain 
thieves and harlots. 7 

Some, for calling the image in the rood-loft, ' Block-almighty.' 

Others for saying, that nothing graven with man's hand was to be worshipped. 8 

Some, for calling them fools who came from Master John Shorne in pilgrimage." 

Another, for calling his vicar a poll-shorn priest. 10 

Another, for calling a certain blind chapel,being in ruin, an old fair milk-house. 11 

Another, for saying that he threshed God Almighty out of the straw. 12 

Another for saying, that alms should not be given before they did sweat in 
a man's hand. 13 

Some, for saying, that those who die, pass straight either to heaven or hell. 14 

Isabel Bartlet was brought before the bishop and abjured, for lamenting her 
husband, when the bishop's man came for him ; and saying, that he was an 
undone man, and she a dead woman. 15 

For saying, that Christ, departing from his disciples into heaven, said that 
once he was in sinner's hands, and would come there no more. 16 

Robert Rave, hearing a certain bell in an uplandish steeple, said, ' Lo, yonder 
is a fair bell, an it were to hang about any cow's neck in this town ;' and there- 
fore, as for other such-like matters more, he was brought ' coram nobis!' 

Item, For receiving the sacrament at Easter, and doubting whether it was 
the very body of Christ, and not confessing their doubt to their ghostly father. 

Some for saying, that the pope had no authority to give pardon, or to release 
man's soul from sin, and so from pain ; and that it was nothing but blinding of 
the people, and to get their money. 

The penance to these parties enjoined by this John Longland, 
bishop of Lincoln, was almost uniform, and all after one condition ; 

(1) Ex Regist. fol. 32. (2) Fol. 32. . (3) Fol. 33. (4) Fol. 34. (5) Fol. 34. 

(0) Fol. 36. (7) Fol. 33. '(8) Fol. 37. (9) Fol. 40. (10) Fol. 40. (11) Fol. 40. 

(12) Fol. 4. (13) Fol. 34. (11) Fol. 35. (15) Fol. 9. (10) Fol. 45. 

R 2 



Ordei of 

penance. 



24<4< OIIDER OF PENANCE ; FROM THE BISHOp's REGISTER. 

Henry save only that they were severally committed and divided into several 
and divers monasteries, tlicrc to be kept and found of alms all their 
life, except they were otherwise dispensed with by the bishop. As 
for example, I have here adjoined the bishop's letter for one of the 
said number, sent to the Abbey of Ensham, there to be kept in per- 
petual penance ; by which one, an estimation may be taken of the 
rest, who Avcre bestowed likewise sundrily into sundry abbeys, as to 
( )sney, to Frideswide, to Abingdon, to Thame, to Bicester, to Dor- 
chester, to Netley, to Ashridge, and divers more. The copy of the 
bishop's letter, sent to the abbot of Ensham, here followeth under- 
written. 

Copy of the Bishop's Letter to the Abbot of Ensham. 

My loving brother, I recommend me heartily unto you : And whereas I have, 
according to the law, put this beai-er R. T. to perpetual penance within your 
monastery of Ensham, there to live as a penitent, and not otherwise ; I pray 
you, and nevertheless according unto the law command you, to receive him, 
and see ye order him there according to his injunctions, which he will show 
you, if ye require the same. As for his lodging, he will bring it with him ; and 
for his meat and drink, he may have such as you give of your alms. And if he 
can so order himself by his labour within your house in your business, whereby 
he may deserve his meat and drink ; so may you order him as ye see con- 
venient to his deserts, so that he pass not the precinct of your monastery. And 
thus fare you heartily well : From my place, &c. 

As touching the residue of the penance and punishment inflicted 
on these men, they do little or nothing disagree, but had one order 
in them all ; the manner and form whereof in the said bishop's 
register doth proceed in condition as followeth : 

Penance enjoined under pain of relapse, by John Longland, Bishop 
of Lincoln, the 19th day of December, a.d. 1521. 1 

In primis, That every one of them shall, upon a market-day, such as shall 
be limited unto them, in the market-time, go thrice about the market at Bur- 
ford, and then to stand up upon the highest greece 2 of the cross there, a quarter 
of an hour, with a faggot of wood every one of them upon his shoulder, and 
every one of them once to bear a faggot of wood upon their shoulders, before 
their procession upon a Sunday, which shall be limited unto them at Burford, 
from the choir-door going out, to the choir-door going in ; and all the high 
mass time, to hold the same faggot upon their shoulders, kneeling upon the 
greece afore the high altar there ; and every of them to do likewise in their 
own parish church, upon such a Sunday as shall be limited unto them : and 
once to bear a faggot at a general procession at Uxbridge, when they shall be 
assigned thereto ; and once to bear a faggot at the burning of a heretic, when 
tin y shall he admonished thereto. 

Also every one of them to fast, bread and ale only, every Friday during their 
life ; and every Even of Corpus Christi, every one of them to fast bread and 
water during their life, unless sickness unfeigned let the same. 

Also, to be said by them every Sunday, and every Friday, during their life, 
once our lady-psalter ; and if they forget it one day, to say as much another 
day for the same. 

Also neither they, nor any of them, shall hide their mark upon their cheek, 
neither with hat, cap, hood, kerchief, napkin, or none otherwise- nor shall 
suilir their beards to grow past fourteen days; nor ever haunt again together 
with any suspected person or persons, unless it be in the open market, fair, 
church, or common inn or alehouse, where other people may see their conver- 
sation. 

(1) Es Reghtro, fol. 00. (2) "Greece," astop.— Ed. 



CHILDREN FORCED TO SET FIRE TO THEIR PARENTS. 2i5 

And all these injunctions they and every of them to fulfil with their penance, Henry 
and every part of the same, under pain of relapse. Via. 

A. 1)7 
And thus have you the names, with the causes and the penance of 1518 
those who were at this present time abjured. By this word • abjured 1 to 
is meant, that they were constrained by their oath, swearing upon 1521 ' 
the evangelists, and subscribing with their hand, and a cross to the 'Abjured. 

o 7 o 7 what it 

same, that they did utterly and voluntarily renounce, detest, and signi- 
forsake, and never should hold hereafter these or any other like opi- 
nions, contrary to the determination of the holy mother church of 
Rome : And "further, that they should detect unto their ordinary, 
whomsoever they should see or suspect hereafter to teach, hold, of 
maintain the same. 

THE NAMES OF THEM THAT WERE CONDEMNED FOR RELAPSE, 
AND COMMITTED UNTO THE SECULAR POWER. 

Among these aforenamed persons who thus submitted themselves, A.D.1521. 
and were put to penance, certain there were, who, because they had 
been abjured before, 1 as is above-mentioned, under bishop Smith, 
were now condemned for relapse, and had sentence read against 
them, and so were committed to the secular arm to be burned : 
whose names here follow : Thomas Bernard, James Morden, Robert 
Rave, and John Scrivener, martyrs. 

Of these mention is made before, both touching their abjuration, 
and also their martyrdom ; unto whom we may adjoin, Joan Nor- 
man, and Thomas Holmes. 

This Thomas Holmes, albeit he had disclosed and detected many 
of his brethren, as in the table above is expressed ; thinking thereby 
to please the bishop, and to save himself, and was thought to be a 
feed man of the bishop for the same : yet, notwithstanding, in the 
said bishop's register appeareth the sentence of relapse and con- 
demnation, written and drawn out against him ; and most likely he 
was also adjudged and executed with the others. 

As touching the burning of John Scrivener, here is to be noted, children 
that his children were compelled to set fire unto their father; in like tHe'tV™ 
manner as Joan Gierke also, daughter of William Tylsworth, was j£*j£ 
constrained to give fire to the burning of her own natural lather, as ther. 
is above specified. 2 

The example of which cruelty, as it is contrary both to God and 
nature, so it hath not been seen or heard of in the memory of the 
heathen. 

Where moreover is to be noted, that at the burning of this John 
Scrivener, one Thomas Dorman, 3 mentioned before, was present, and 
bare a faggot, at Amersham ; whose abjuration was afterwards laid 
against him, at what time he should depose for recovery of certain 
lands from the school of Bcrkhamstead. This Thomas Dorman 4 (as 
I am credibly informed of certain about Amersham) was then uncle 

(1) Sec vol. iv. page 205.— Ed. 

(2) [bid. page 123.— Ed. 

(3) " Thomas Dorman." See vol. iv. p. 123, where he is called " Yomand Dorman:" he was 
probably Thomas Dorman, yeoman.— En. 

(4) This Master Dorman, because he was put to school by his ancle at Berkhamstead to Master 
Reeve, being a protestant, therefore he, for the same cause, in the lirst sentence of his preface 
saith, that he was brought up in Calvin's schcol. 



A.D. 


1">]8 


to 


1521. 



2i6 THE COMMENDATION OF DR. JOHN COLET. 

iienry to this oiir Dorman, and found him to school at Berkhamstead, 
FJ/J- under Master Reeve ; who now so uncharitably abuseth his pen in 
writing against the contrary doctrine, and raileth so fiercely against 
the blood of Christ's slain servants, miscalling them to be a dunghill 
of stinking martyrs. 

Well, howsoever the savour of these good martyrs do scent in the 
nose of Master Dorman, I doubt not but they give a better odour 
and sweeter smell in the presence of the Lord : " Pretiosa enim in 
conspectu Domini mors sanctorum ejus ;" " Precious in the sight of 
the Lord is the death of his saints." And therefore, howsoever it 
shall please Master Dorman with reproachful language to mistcrm 
the good martyrs of Christ, or rather Christ in his martyrs ; his un- 
seemly usage (more cart-like than clerk-like) is not greatly to be 
weighed. For, as the danger of his blasphemy hurteth not them 
that arc gone, so the contumely and reproach thereof as well com- 
prehended! his own kindred, friends, and country, as any others else; 
and especially redoundeth to himself, and woundeth his own soul, and 
none else, unto the great provoking of God's wrath against him, 
unless he be blessed with better grace, by time to repent. 

doctor 3Jo{jn Colet, ^can of &t. $aul'$. 

Much about this time, or not past two years before, died Dr. John 

Colet, of whom mention was made in the table above ; to wdiose 

sermons these 'known-men,'' about Buckinghamshire, had a great 

mind to resort. After he came from Italy and Paris, he first began 

Faiii's to read the epistles of St. Paul openly in Oxford, instead of Scotus 

epistles i » • Ti i l-n-i-iii" 

first read and Aquinas, bi'om. thence he was called by the king, and made 
oxford!" dean of Paul's ; where he accustomed much to preach, not without a 
great auditory, as well of the king's court, as of the citizens and 
commen- others. His diet was frugal, his life upright ; in discipline he was 
Dr.'coiet. severe, insomuch that his canons, because of their straiter rule, 
complained that they were made like monks. The honest and 
honourable state of matrimony he ever preferred before the unchaste 
singleness of priests. At his dinner commonly was read either some 
chapter of St. Paul, or of Solomon's Proverbs. He never used to 
sup. Although the blindness of that time carried him away after 
the common error of popery, yet in ripeness of judgment he seemed 
something to incline from the vulgar trade of that age. The reli- 
gious order of monks and friars he fantasied not ; as neither he could 
greatly favour the barbarous divinity of the school-doctors, as of 
Scotus, but least of all of Thomas Aquinas : insomuch that when 
ins judg- Erasmus, speaking in the praise of Thomas Aquinas, did commend 

me lit of , . ,i i l i i 1 iii • 

Thomas nun, that lie had read many old authors, and had written many new 
ls - works, as ' Catena Aurea,' and such like, to prove and to know his 
judgment: Colet, first supposing that Erasmus had spoken in jest, 
but after supposing that he meant good faith, burstcth out in great 
vehemency, saving, " What tell you me," quoth he, " of the com- 
mendation of that man, who, except he had been of an arrogant and 
presumptuous spirit, would not define and discuss all things so 
boldly and rashly; and also, except he had been rather worldly- 
minded than heavenly, would never have so polluted Christ's whole 



THE COMMENDATION OF DR. JOHN COLET. 247 

doctrine with man's profane doctrine, in such sort as he hath -">'»-? 

dr.,, VIII. 

one r 



The bishop of London at that time was Fitzjames, of age no less A. D. 
than fourscore; who (bearing long grudge and displeasure against J ^ 18 
Colet), with other two bishops taking his part, like to himself, entered 132 i. 

action of complaint against Colet to the archbishop of Canterbury, — 

being then William Warham. The matter of his complaint was accused. 
divided into three articles : the first was for speaking against worship- 
ping of images. The second was about hospitality, for that he, 
treating upon the place of the gospel, " Pascc, pasce, pasce," " Feed, 
feed, feed : M when he had expounded the two first, for feeding with 
example of life, and with doctrine ; in the third, which the school- 
men do expound for feeding with hospitality, he left out the outward 
feeding of the belly, and applied it another way. The third crime The 
wherewith they charged him, was for speaking against such as used to London" 
preach only by bosom sermons, declaring nothing else to the people, foh" ]u my 
but what they bring in their papers with them ; which, because the 
bishop of London used then much to do for his age, he took it as 
spoken against him, and therefore bare him this displeasure. The bishop,*" 
archbishop, more wisely weighing the matter, and being well ac- £f V D r rer 
quainted with Colet, so took his part against his accusers, that he at Colet - 
that time was rid out of trouble. 

William Tyndale, in his book answering Master More, addeth 
moreover, and testifieth, that the bishop of London would have made 
the said Colet, dean of Paul's, a heretic, for translating the ' Pater 
Noster"* into English, had not the bishop of Canterbury holpen the 
dean. 

But yet the malice of Fitzjames the bishop so ceased not ; who, 
being thus repulsed by the archbishop, practised by another train 
how to accuse him unto the king. The occasion thus fell. It hap- 
pened the same time, that the king was in preparation of war against 
France ; whereupon the bishop with his coadjutors, taking occasion 
upon certain words of Colet, wherein he seemed to prefer peace 
before any kind of war, were it never so just ;* accused him therefore 
in their sermons, and also before the king. 

Furthermore it so befell at the same time, that upon Good Friday 
Dr. Colet, preaching before the king, treated of the victory of Christ, 
exhorting all Christians to fight under the standard of Christ, against 
the devil ; adding moreover, what a hard thing it was to fight under 
Christ's banner, and that all they that upon private hatred or ambition 
took weapon against their enemy (one Christian to slay another), did 
not fight under the banner of Christ, but rather of Satan : and there- 
fore concluding his matter, he exhorted that christian men, in their 
wars, would follow Christ their prince and captain, in fighting against 
their enemies, rather than the examples of Julius or Alexander, &c. 
The king, hearing Colet thus speak, and fearing lest by his Dr. colet 
words the. hearts of his soldiers might be withdrawn from his wars before 
which he had then in hand, took him aside and talked with him i n thekin e- 
secret conference, walking in his garden. Bishop Fitzjames, Bricot, 
and Standish, who were his enemies, thought now none other, but 
that Colet must needs be committed to the Tower ; and waited for 

(1) ' Iniqua pax juslissimo bello pneferemla.' 



A.D. 

1518 



218 THE WORTHY FOUNDATION OF PAUL'S SCHOOL. 

iTcnry his coming out. But the king, with great gentleness entertaining 
Dr. Colet, and bidding him familiarly to put on his cap, in long 
courteous talk had with him in the garden, much commended him for 
his learning and integrity of life ; agreeing with him in all points, 
1521. uut tnat on ty ne required him (for that the rude soldiers should not 
•^ — rashly mistake that which he had said) more plainly to explain his 
meiukth words and mind in that behalf; which after he did. And so, after 
ul huu ' long communication and great promises, the king dismissed Colet 
with these words, saying: "Let every man have his doctor as him 
jiketh, this shall be my doctor;" and so he departed. Hereby none 
of his adversaries durst ever trouble him after that time. 
founda- Among many other memorable acts left behind him, he erected the 
tionof worthy foundation of the school of Paul's (I pray God the fruits of 
School s the school may answer the foundation), for the cherishing up of youth 
in good letters, providing a sufficient stipend as well for the master, 
as for the usher ; whom he willed rather to be appointed out of the 
number of married men, than of single priests with their suspected 
chastity. The first moderator of this school, was William Lily, a 
man no less notable for his learning, than was Colet for his founda- 
tion. 1 This Colet died the year of our Lord 1519. 
j!Xment Not long before the death of this Colet and Lily, lived William 
of Gro- Grocine and William Latimer, both Englishmen also, and famously 

ci no upon , , rp,, . ~ . .' o l ■ ii i ■ 

Hierar- learned. 1 his Grocme, as he began to read m his open lecture, in 
ci"Jias- C " ^hc church of St. Paul, the book of Dionysius Arcopagita, commonly 
Uca - called Hierarchia Ecclesiastica (for the reading of the holy Scriptures 
in Paul's was not in use), in the first entry of his preface cried out 
with great vehemency against them, whosoever they were, Avho either 
denied or stood in doubt of the authority of that book : in the number 
of 'whom he noted Laurence Valla, and divers others of the like 
approved judgment and learning. But afterwards the same Grocine, 
when he had continued a few weeks in his reading thereof, and did 
consider further in him, he utterly altered and recanted his former 
sentence, protesting openly, that the aforenamed book, in his judg- 
ment, was never written by that author Avhom wc read in the Acts of 
the Apostles to be called Dionysius Arcopagita. 2 

The tractation of these two couples above rehearsed, doth occasion 

me to adjoin also the remembrance of another couple of like learned 

men : the names of whom, not unworthy to be remembered, were 

Thomas Thomas Linacre, and Richard Pace ; which two followed much upon 

and* " 5 ' the time of Colet and William Lily. But of Richard Pace, who was 

Pace?"? ^ ean nex * a ^ er the aforesaid John Colet, more convenient place shall 

serve us hereafter to speak, coming to the story of cardinal Wolsey. 

[:^"'J r Moreover, to these two I thought it not out of season, to couple 

and John also some mention of Geoffrey Chaucer and John Gowcr ; who, 

although being much discrepant from these in course of years, yet 

may seem not unworthy to be matched with these aforenamed persons, 

in commendation of their study and learning. Albeit concerning 

the full certainty of the time and death of these two, wc cannot find ; 

yet it appeareth in the prologue of Cowers work, entitled 'Confessio 

Amantis, 1 that he finished it in the sixteenth year of king Richard IT. 

And in the end of the eighth book of his said treatise, he dcclarcth 

(1) Ex Epist. Erasm. ad Jodoe. Joiunu. (2) Ex Eraam. ad revisions 



CHAUCER AMD GOWEH COMMENDED. 241) 

that lie was both sick and old when lie -wrote it; whereby it may ii.-,,,-,. 



appear that he lived not long after. Notwithstanding, by certain !_ 

verses of the said Master Gower, placed in the latter end of Chaucer's A. I), 
works both in Latin and English, it may seem that he was alive at 1,,ls 
the beginning of the reign of king Henry IV., and also by a book 152 i 

which he wrote to the same king Henry. By his sepulture within 

the chapel of the church of St. Mary Overy's, which was then a 
monastery, where he and his wife lie buried, it appearcth by his chain 
and his garland of laurel, that he was both a knight, and flourishing 
then in poetry ; in which place of his sepulture were made in his 
grave-stone three books : the first bearing the title, ' Speculum medi- B /*? k , s 

° . , , , .. . O . . ' }, . ot John 

tantis; the second, Vox clamantis ; the third, 'Contessio amantis. oower. 
Besides these, divers chronicles and other works more he compiled. 

Likewise, as touching the time of Chaucer, by his own words in chauc« 
the end of his first book of Troilus and Crcssida, it is manifest that G "^ er 
he and Gower were both of one time, although it secmcth that Gower com - 
was a great deal his ancient ; both notably learned, as the barbarous for their 
rudeness of that time did give ; both great friends together, and both Sercke. 
in like kind of study together occupied ; so endeavouring themselves, 
and employing their time, that they, excelling many others in study 
and exercise of good letters, did pass forth their lives here right 
worshipfully and godly, to the worthy fame and commendation of 
their name. Chaucer's works be all printed in one volume, and 
therefore known to all men. 

This I marvel to see the idle life of the priests and clergymen of 
that time, seeing these lay-persons showed themselves in these kinds 
of liberal studies so industrious and fruitfully occupied. But much 
more I marvel to consider this, how that the bishops, condemning 
and abolishing all manner of English books and treatises which might 
bring the people to any light of knoAvledge, did yet authorise the 
works of Chaucer to remain still and to be occupied ; who, no doubt, cimucer 
saw into religion as much almost as even we do now, and uttercth in %$$££ 
his works no less, and seemeth to be a right Wicklevian, or else there levi:m - 
was never any. And that, all his works almost, if they be thoroughly ma 
advised, will testify (albeit it be done in mirth, and covertly) ; and books# 
especially the latter end of his third book of the Testament of Love, 
for there purely he toucheth the highest matter, that is, the com- 
munion. Wherein, except a man be altogether blind, he may espy 
him at the full : although in the same book (as in all others he useth 
to do), under shadows covertly, as under a visor, he suborneth truth 
in such sort, as both privily she may profit the godly minded, and 
yet not be espied of the crafty adversary. And therefore the bishops, 
belike, taking his works but for jests and toys, in condemning other 
books, vet permitted his books to be read. 

So it pleased God then to blind the eyes of them, for the more Men 
commodity of his people, to the intent that through the reading of these to truth 
treatises, some fruit might redound thereof to his church; as no doubt hTg'c^iu- 
it did to many. As also I am partly informed, of certain who knew cer '* 
the parties, who to them reported, that by reading of Chaucer's works, 
they were brought to the true knowledge of religion. And not unlike 
to be true : for, to omit other parts of his volume, whereof some arc 
more fabulous than others, what talc can be more plainly told than 



250 THE REFORMATION OF THE CHURCH OF CHRIST. 

iienry the Tale of tlic Ploughman? or what finger can point out more directly 

the pope with his prelates to be Antichrist, than doth the poor pelican 

A. D. reasoning against the greedy griffon ? Under which hypotyposis, or 
1518 poesy, who is so blind that seeth not by the pelican, the doctrine of 
lr ,2i Christ and of the Lollards to be defended against the church of Rome ? 
" or who is so impudent that can deny that to be true which the pelican 
Plough- there affirmeth, in describing the presumptuous pride of that pretensed 
rX'in church ? Again, what egg can be more like, or fig, unto another, than 
Chaucer. t\ ie WO rds, properties, and conditions of that ravening griffon resem- 
ibleth the true image, that is, the nature and qualities of that which 
we call the church of Rome, in every point and degree ? And there- 
fore no great marvel if that narration was exempted out of the copies 
of Chaucer's works ; which notwithstanding now is restored again, 
and is extant for every man to read who is disposed. This Geoffrey 
Chaucer, being born, as is thought, in Oxfordshire, and dwelling in 
Woodstock, lieth buried in the church of the minster of St. Peter at 
Westminster, in an aisle on the south side of the said church, not far 
from the door leading to the cloister ; and upon his grave-stone first 
were written these two old verses : 

Galfridus Chaucer Vates, et fama Poesis 
Maternae, hac sacra sum tumulatus humo." 

Afterwards, about a. d. 1556, one Master Brickham, bestowing 
more cost upon his tomb, did add thereunto these verses following : 

" Qui fuit Anglorum Vates ter maximus olim, 
Galfridus Chaucer conditur hoc tumulo. 

Annum si quaeras Domini, si tempora mortis, 
Ecce notae subsunt, quae tibi cuncta notent. 
25 Octob. Anno 1400." 



HERE BEGINNETH THE REFORMATION OF THE CHURCH OF CHRIST, 
IN THE TIME OF MARTIN LUTHER. 

The cor- Although it cannot be sufficiently expressed with tongue or pen of 
<>f't'h° n man, into what miserable ruin and desolation the church of Christ 
described. w »s brought in those latter days ; yet partly by the reading of these 
stories afore past, some intelligence may be given to those who have 
judgment to mark, or eyes to see, in what blindness and darkness the 
world was drowned, during the space of these four hundred years here- 
tofore and more. By the viewing and considering of which times and 
histories, thou mayest understand, gentle reader, how the religion of 
Christ, which only consist eth in spirit and verity, Avas wholly turned into 
outward observations, ceremonies, and idolatry. So many saints we had, 
so many gods ; so many monasteries, so many pilgrimages ; as many 
churches, as many relics forged and feigned we had : again, so many 
relics, so many lying miracles we believed. Instead of the only living 
Lord, we worshipped dead stocks and stones: in place of Christ immor- 
tal, we adored mortal bread : instead of his blood, we worshipped the 
blood of ducks. How the people were led. so that the priests were fed, 
no care was taken. Instead of God's Word, mans word was set up: 
instead of Christ's Testament, the pope's testament, that is, the canon 



IN THE TIME OF MARTIN LUTHER. 251 

law : instead of Paul, the Master of Sentences took place, and almost Henry 
full possession. The law of God was little read, the use and end thereof . ' i 



was less known ; and as the end of the law was unknown, so the differ- A. I), 
ence between the gospel and the law was not understood, the benefit 1,31S 
of Christ not considered, the effect of faith not expended : through .)!. 
the ignorance whereof it cannot be told what infinite errors, sects, and — °- = - : - 
religions crept into the church, overwhelming the world as with a 
flood of ignorance and seduction. And no marvel: for where the 
foundation is not well laid, what building can stand and prosper ? The Ftanda- 
foundation of all our Christianity is only this : The promise of God christlaft. 
in the blood of Christ his Son, giving and promising life to all that rcli ° iun - 
believe in him : ' giving (saith the Scripture) unto us, and not bar- 
gaining or indenting with us : and that freely (saith the Scripture) 
for Christ's sake ; and not conditionally for our merit's sake. 2 

Furthermore, freely (saith the Scripture) by grace, 3 that the pro- 
mise might be firm and sure; and not by the works that Ave do, which 
arc always doubtful. By grace (saith the Scripture), through promise 
to all and upon all that believe ; 4 and not by the law, upon them that 
do deserve. For if it come by deserving, then it is not of grace : if 
it be not of grace, then it is not of promise, 5 and contrariwise, if it be' 
of grace and promise, then is it not of works, saith St. Paul. Upon 
this foundation of God's free promise and grace first builded the patri 
archs, kings, and prophets : upon this same foundation also Christ the 
Lord builded his church : upon which foundation the apostles likewise 
builded the church apostolical or catholical. 

This apostolical and catholic foundation so long as the church did 
retain, so long it continued sincere and sound : which endured a long 
season after the apostles' time. But after, in process of years, through 
wealth and negligence crept into the church, as soon as this foundation 
began to be lost, came in new builders, who would build upon a new 
foundation a new church more glorious, which we call now the church 
of Rome ; who, not being contented with the old foundation, and 
the Head-corner-stone, which the Lord by his word had laid, in place 
thereof laid the groundwork upon the condition and strength of the 
law and works. Although it is not to be denied, but that the doctrine 
of God's holy law, and of good works according to the same, is a thing 
most necessary to be learned, and followed of all men ; yet it is not 
that foundation whereupon our salvation consisteth : neither is that 
foundation able to bear up the weight of the kingdom of heaven, but 
is rather the thing which is builded upon the foundation ; which foun- 
dation is Jesus Christ, according as we are taught of St. Paul, saying ; 
" No man can lay any other foundation beside that which is laid, 
Christ Jesus," &c. 

But this ancient foundation, with the old ancient church of Christ, Docttns 
as I said, hath been now of long time forsaken ; and instead thereof, "l^' u 
a new church with a new foundation hath been erected and framed, wwrupt- 
not upon God's promise, and his free grace in Christ Jesus, nor upon 
free justification by faith, but upon merits and deserts of men's work- 
ing. And hereof have they planted all these their new devices, so 
infinite, that they cannot well be numbered; as masscs-trcccnarics, 

(1) Rom. iii. 22. (2) Rem. iv. .">. (8) Rom. iv. G (4) Rom. iii. 22. 

15] Rom. xi. 6. 



cd. 



15% THE REFORMATION IN THE TIME OF MARTIN LUTHER. 

nmry dirges, obsequies, matins, and hours-singing-service, vigils, midnight- 
rising, bare-foot-going, fish-tasting, Lent-fast, ember-fast, stations, roga- 



to 
1521. 



corrupted. 



A.D. tions, jubilees, advocation of saints, praying to images, pilgrimage- 
1518 walking, works of supererogation, application of merits, orders, rules, 
sects of religion, vows of chastity, wilful poverty, pardons, relations, 
• indulgencies, penance, satisfaction, auricular confession, founding 
of abbeys, building of chapels, giving to churches : and who is able 
to recite all their laborious buildings, falsely framed upon a wrong 
ground ; and all for ignorance of the true foundation, which is the 
free justification by faith in Christ Jesus the Son of God. 

Moreover note, that as this new-found church of Rome was thus 
deformed in doctrine, so no less was it corrupted in order of life and 
deep hypocrisy, doing all things only under pretences and dissembled 
titles. So, under the pretence of Peters chair, they exercised a ma- 
jesty above emperors and kings. Under the visor of their vowed 
chastity, reigned adultery ; under the cloke of professed poverty, they 
possessed the goods of the temporalty ; under the title of being dead to 
the world, they not only reigned in the world, but also ruled the world ; 
under the colour of the keys of heaven to hang under their girdle, they 
brought all the states of the world under their girdle, and crept not 
only into the purses of men, but also into their consciences. They 
heard their confessions ; they knew their secrets ; they dispensed as 
they were disposed, and loosed what them listed. And finally, when 
they had brought the whole world under their subjections, yet neither 
did their pride cease to ascend, nor could their avarice be ever satisfied. 1 
And if the example of cardinal Wolsey and other cardinals and popes 
cannot satisfy thee, I beseech thee, gentle reader ! turn over the afore- 
said book of ' the Ploughman's Tale 1 in Chaucer, above-mentioned, 
where thou shalt understand much more of then demeanour than I 
have here described. 

In these so blind and miserable corrupt days of darkness and igno- 
onhe tlon ranee, thou seest, good reader ! I doubt not, how necessary it was, 
. c L mr . d L.. and high time, that reformation of the church should come, which 
now most happily and graciously began to work, through the merciful 
and no less needful providence of Almighty God ; who, although he 
suffered his church to wander and start aside, through the seduction 
of pride and prosperity a long time, yet at length it pleased his good- 
ness to respect his people, and to reduce his church into the pristine 
foundation and frame again, from whence it was pitcously before 
decayed. Hereof I have now consequently to entreat ; intending by 
the grace of Christ to declare how, and by what means this reforma- 
tion of the church first began, and how it proceeded, increasing by 
little and little unto this perfection which now we see, and more I 
trust shall see. 

And herein we have first to behold the admirable work of God's 
wisdom. For as the first decay and ruin of the church before began 
of rude ignorance, and lack of knowledge in teachers ; so, to restore 
the church again by doctrine and learning, it pleased God to open to 
man the art of printing, the time whereof was shortly after the burn- 
ing of Huss and Jerome. Printing being opened, incontinently 
ministered unto the church the instruments and tools of learning and 

(!) 'HabcntcB speciem pittatis. scd vim ejus abnegantcs.' 2 Tim. iii. 



The re- 



necessary. 



reforma- 
tion. 



PROPHECIES GOING BEFORE MARTIN LUTHER. XbZi 

knowledge ; which were good books and authors before lay hid and s*w* 

unknown. The science of printing being found, immediately fol — 

L >wed the grace of God ; which stirred up good wits aptly to conceive ^ ; R- 
the light of knowledge and judgment : by which light darkness began to 
to be espied, and ignorance to be detected ; truth from error, religion 1521. 
from superstition, to be discerned, as is above more largely discoursed, 
where was touched the inventing of printing. 1 

Furthermore, after these wits stirred up of God, followed others Tj»e first 
besides, increasing daily more and more in science, in tongues, and mngot 
perfection of knowledge ; who now were able not only to discern in 
matters of judgment, but also were so armed and furnished with the 
help of good letters, that they did encounter also with the adversary, 
sustaining the cause and defence of learning against barbarity ; of 
verity against error ; of true religion against superstition. In number 
of whom, amongst many other here unnamed, were Picus, and Fran- 
ciscus Mirandula, Laurcntius Valla, Franciscus Pctrarcha, Doctor dc 
Wesalia, Revelinus, Grocinus, Doctor Colet, Rhenamus, Erasmus, &c. 
And here began the first push and assault to be given against the 
ignorant and barbarous faction of the pope's pretensed church ; who, 
after that by their learned writings and laborious travail, they had 
opened a window of light unto the world, and had made, as it were, 
a way more ready for others to come after : immediately, according to 
God's gracious appointment, followed Martin Luther, with others 
after him ; by whose ministry it pleased the Lord to work a more 
full reformation of his church, as by their acts and proceedings here- 
after shall follow (Christ willing) more amply to be declared. 

2 And noAv coming to the time and story of Martin Luther, whom 
the Lord did ordain and appoint, * through his great mercy,* to be the 
principal organ and minister under him, to reform* and re-edify the 
desolate ruins of* religion ; to subvert the see of the pope; * to abolish 
the abuses and pride of Antichrist, which so long had abused and de- 
ceived the simple flock of Christ's church ;* first, before we enter into 
the tractation hereof, it shall not be impertinent to the purpose, to 
infer such prophecies and forewarnings as were sent before of God, by 
divers and sundry good men, long before the time of Luther, who 
foretold and prophesied of this reformation of the church to come. 

PROPHECIES, GOING BEFORE MARTIN LUTHER, TOUCHING THE 
REFORMATION OF THE CHURCH. 

And first to begin with the prophecy of John Hussand Jerome, it Prophecy 
is both notable, and also before- mentioned, what the said John Huss, hum. 
at the time of his burning, prophesied unto his enemies, saying : That 
after 'a hundred years come and gone, they should give account to 
God and to him.' Here is to be noted, that counting from the year 
1415 (in which year John Huss was burned), or from the year 1416, 
(when Jerome did suffer), unto the year 1516 (when Martin Luther 
began first to write), we shall find the number of a hundred years 
expired. 

Jjikewisc to this may be adjoined the prophetical vision or dream, Another 
which chanced to the said John Huss, lying in the dungeon of the l 

(1) See Vol. III. p 718.-ED. (2) Collated with the edition oflSG.I, p. 400.- E n 



254 

Bears 

VII I. 

A.D. 
1518 

to 
1521. 



PROPHECIES GOING BEFORE MARTIN LUTHER. 

Friars in Constance, a little before he was burned. His dream, as he 
himself reporteth in his epistles writing to Master John de Gum, and 
as I have also before recorded the same, 1 so do I now repeat the same 
again, in like effect of words hereunder written, as he wrote it himself 
in Latin, 2 the effect of which Latin is this : 

' I pray you expound to me the dream which I had this night. I saw that 
in my church at Bethlehem (whereof I was parson) they desired and laboured 
to abolish all the images of Christ, and did abolish them. I, the next day fol- 
lowing, rose up, and saw many other painters, who painted both the same, and 
many more images, and more fair, which I was glad to behold. Whereupon 
the painters, with the great multitude of people, said : Now let the bishops and 
priests come, and put out these images if they can. At which thing done, much 
people rejoiced in Bethlehem, and I with them. And rising up, I felt myself 
to laugh.' 

This dream Master John of Gum first expounded. Then he, in 
the next epistle after, expounded it himself to this effect: 3 

' The commandment of God standing, that we must observe no dreams, yet, 
notwithstanding, I trust that the life of Christ was painted in Bethlehem by me, 
through his word, in the hearts of men ; which preaching they went about in 
Bethlehem to destroy, first, in commanding that no preaching should be, neither 
in the church of Bethlehem, nor in the chapels thereby : secondly, that the 
church of Bethlehem should be thrown down to the ground. The same life of 
Christ shall be painted up again by more preachers much better than I, and 
after a much better sort, so that a great number of people shall rejoice thereat; 
all such as love the life of Christ: and also I shall rejoice myself, at what time 
I shall awake, that is, when I shall rise again from the dead.' 



Another 
prophecy 
of John 
Hogg. 



Also in his forty-eighth epistle he seemeth to have a like prophetical 
meaning, where he saith ; that he trusted that those things, which he 
spake then within the house, should afterwards be preached above on 
the house top, &c. 

And because we are here in hand with the prophecies of John 
Huss, it is not to be omitted what he writeth in a certain treatise, 
"De Sacerdotum et Monachorum carnalium abominatione," thus 
prophesying of the reformation of the church. 



' The church cannot be reduced to its former dignity, and reformed, before all 
things first be made new (the truth whereof appeareth by the temple of Solo- 
man) ; as well the clergy and priests, as also the people and laity. Or else, 
except all such as now be addicted to avarice, from the least to the most, be first 
converted and renewed, as well the people as the clerks and priests, things 
cannot be reformed. Albeit, as my mind now giveth me, I believe rather the 
first, that is, that then shall rise a new people, formed after the new man, which 
is created after God: Of which people, new clerks and priests shall come forth 
and be taken, who all shall hate covetousness and glory of this life, labouring 
to a heavenly conversation. Notwithstanding, all these things shall be done 
and wrought in continuance and order of time, dispensed of God for the same 
purpose. And this God doth, and will do of his own goodness and mercy, and 
for the riches of his patience and sufferance, giving time and space of repentance 



(1) See vol. iii. p. 508.— En. 

(2) " Somniuni hujus noctis exponatis. Videbam quod in Bethlehem volebantdelere omnes ima- 
gines Christi, et delebant. Ego surrexi sequent! die, et vidi multos pictores, qui pulchriores 
imagines ct plures fecerant, quas late aspexi, et pictores cum multo populo dicebant, veniant epi- 
scopi et eacerdotes ct dcleant nobis? Quo facto multi gaudebant in Bethlehem, etego cum eis, et 
excitatus sensi me ridere." From the lirst edition, page ■100, quoted from the 45th epistle of 
John lluss. — Ed. 

(i) ' Stante mandate Dei,' &c. 



PROPHECIES GOING BEFORE MARTIN LUTHER. 2i)J 

to thorn that have long lain in their sins, to amend and flee from the face of the Henry 
Lord's fury, until at length all shall suffer together, and until both the carnal vin - 
people, and priests, and clerks, in process and order of time, shall fall away and A.D. 
be consumed, as is the cloth consumed and eaten by the moth,' &c l 1518 

to 

With this prophecy of John Huss above-mentioned, speaking of 1521. 
the hundred years, accordeth also the testimony of Jerome, his fellow- prophecy 
martyr, in these words : "And I cite you all to answer before the "ome. 
most high and just Judge, after a hundred years." 

This Jerome was burnt a. d. 1416 ; 2 and Luther began to write, 
a. d. 1516, which was just a hundred years, according to the right 
account of Jerome's prophecy. 

Philip Melancthon, in his Apology, 3 testifieth of one John Hilton, Another 
a monk in Thuringia, who, for speaking against certain abuses of the by°John 
place and order where he lived, was cast into prison. At length, j^f^ f 
being weak and feeble through imprisonment, he sent for the warden Trunin-. 
of the covent, desiring and beseeching him to have some respect of 
his woful state and pitiful case. The warden rebuking and accusing 
him for what he had done and spoken ; he answered again and said, 
That he had spoken nothing which might be prejudicial or hurtful to 
their monkery, or against their religion : but there should come one 
(and assigned the year 1516), who should utterly subvert all monkery, 
and they should never be able to resist him, &c. 4 

Long it were to induce here all prophecies that be read in histories : 
certain I mind briefly to touch and pass over. And first to omit the 
revelations of Briget 5 (whereunto I do not much attribute), who, 
prophesying of the destruction of Rome, saith : 

' Rome shall be scoured and purged with three things — with sword, fire, and Briget 
the plough. Resembling, moreover, the said church of Rome to a plant re- s^ui'of 
moved out of the old place into a new : also to a body condemned by a judge to reforma- 
have the skin flayed off; the blood to be drawn from the flesh ; the flesh to be tlon - 
cut out in pieces ; and the bones thereof to be broken ; and all the marrow to 
be squeezed out from the same ; so that no part thereof remain whole and 
perfect,' &c. 

But to these speculations of Briget I give no great respect, as 
neither do I to the predictions of Katharine de Senis. 

And yet notwithstanding, Antoninus, 6 writing of the same Katha- 
rine in his third part, reciteth her words thus (prophesying of the 
reformation of the church) to friar Reymund her ghostly father : 

' By these tribulations (saith she) God after a secret manner unknown to Katha- 
man, shall purge his holy church ; and after those things, shall follow such a nna se- 
reformation of the holy church of God, and such a renovation of the holy pas- propi'esy- 
tors, that only the cogitation and remembrance thereof, makcth my spirit to ing of 
rejoice in the Lord. And, as I have oftentimes told you heretofore, the spouse, ^ f ° rma " 
which is now all deformed and ragged, shall be adorned and decked with most 
rich and precious ouches 7 and brooches ; and all the faithful shall be glad and 
rejoice to see themselves so beautified with so holy pastors. Yea, and also 
the infidels, then allured by the sweet. savour of Christ, shall return to the 
catholic fold, and he converted to the true bishop and shepherd of their souls. 
Give thanks therefore to God; for after this storm he will give a great calm,'&c. 

(1) John Huss de Sacerd. et monachortim carnalium abominatione, cap. 73; [or rather, Histo- 
ria et Monumenta Jo. Huss et liicrom. Pragensis ; Korimb. 1715.— Ed.] 
C2) See vol. iii. p. 525.— Ed. (3) Cap. de Votis Monast. 

(4) Ex Phil. Melanc. in Apologia, cap. de Monast. (5) Ex Revel. Briget. 1. 4. cap. 17. 

(6) Antoninus, part 3. Hist, titul. 23. cap. 14. 

(7) " Ouch," a collar of gold formerly worn by women.— Ed. 



A.D. 
1518 

to 
1521. 



256 PROPHECIES GOING BEFORE MARTIN LUTHER. 

Henry Of the authority of this prophetess I have not to affirm or adjudge, 
but rather to hear what the catholic judges will say of this their own 
saint and prophet. For if they do not credit her spirit of prophecy, 
why then do they authorize her for a pure saint among the sisters of 
dear St. Dominic ? If they warrant her prophecy, let them say then, 
When was this glorious reformation of the church ever true or like 
to be true, if it be not true now, in this marvellous alteration of the 
church in these our latter days ? or when was there any such conver- 
sion of christian people in all countries ever heard of, since the 
apostles 1 time, as hath been since the preaching of Martin Luther ? 
prophecy Of Hicronimus Savonarola I wrote before, showing that he pro- 
rome' phesied, that one like to Cyrus should pass over the Alps, who 
roia° na ' snou ^ subvert and destroy all Italy : which may well be applied to 
God's word, and the gospel of Christ, spreading now abroad since 
Luther's time. 

Thcodoric, bishop of Croatia, lived near about the time when 
Huss and Jerome were martyred ; who, in the end of his prophetical 
verses, which are extant in print, declareth, 

Prophecy • That the see of Rome, which is so horribly polluted with simony and avarice, 
of Theo- s i ia u f.j^ an( j no m ore oppress men with tyranny, as it hath done, and that it 
' ° nc ' shall be subverted by its own subjects ; and that the church and true piety 
shall flourish more again, than ever it did before.' 

prophecy Noviomagus testifieth, that he, a.d. 1520, heard Ostendorpius, a 
Weseias, canon of Daventer, say, that when he was a young man, doctor 
Weselus, a Friesian, who was then an old man, told him, that he 
should live to see this new school divinity of Scotus, Aquinas, and 
Bonaventure, to be utterly forsaken and exploded of all true 
Christians, 
pmphecy In a book of Charles Boville, mention is made of a certain vision 
which one Nicholas, a hermit of Helvetia, had ; in which vision he 
saw the pope's head crowned with three swords proceeding from ins 
face, and three swords coming toward it. This vision is also printed 
in the books of Martin Luther, with his preface before it. 

Nicholas Medler, being of late superintendent of Brunswick, 
affirmed and testified, 

That he heard and knew a certain priest in his country, that told the priests 
there, that they laid aside Paul under their desks and pews ; but the time 
would come, when Paul should come abroad, and drive them under the desks 
and dark stalls, where they should not appear,' &c. 

Matthius Flaccius, in the end of his book entitled, ' De Testibus 
Vcritatis,' speaketh of one Michael Stifelius : 

This Michael, being an old man, told him, that he heard the priests and 
monks say many times, by the old prophecies, that a violent reformation must 
needs come amongst them: and also that the said Michael beard Conrad 
Stifelius his father many times declare the fame : who also, for the great 
hatred he bare against this filthy sect of monks and priests, told to one Peter 
Pirer, a friend and neighbour of his, that he should live and see the day ; and 
therefore desired him, that when the day came, besides those priests that he 
should kill for himself, he would kill one priest- more for his sake.' J 

: (l) This anecdote occurs in the Catalogue Testium Veritatis, drawn up by M. Flaccius 111) ri- 
cus, and re edited by Simon Uorilart, a.d. 1C08; at p, 1924. — Eu 



of the 



PROPHECIES AND PROVERBS OF THE CHURCH OF ROME. 257 

This Stifelius thought, belike, that this reformation should be jf enry 

wrought by outward violence, and force of sword ; but he was therein vni - 

deceived; although the adversary useth all forcible means, and violent A.D. 

tyranny, yet the proceeding of the gospel always beginncth with 1518 

peace and quietness. . l ° 

In the table of Amersham men I signified a little before, how one 
Haggar of London, speaking of this reformation to come, declared, 
that the priests should make battle, and have the upper hand a 
while, but shortly they should be vanquished and overthrown for 
ever. 

In the time of pope Alexander VI. and about a.d. 1500, as is The fail 
before specified, the high angel which stood on the top of the pope's popedom 
church and castle of St. Angclo, was thrown down with a terrible fjfjS* 6 * 
thunder into the river Tibur : whereby might seem to be declared fail of 
the ruin and fall of the popedom. from"the 

To this may be adjoined, that which in certain chronicles, and in {J^cii 
John Bale, 1 is recorded ; which saith, that in the year of our Lord top. 
1516 (which was the same year when Martin Luthur began), pope 
Leo X. did create one and thirty cardinals : in which year and day 
of their creation, there fell a tempest of thunder and lightning in 
Rome, which so struck the church where the cardinals were made, Another 
that it removed the little child Jesus out of the lap of his mother, ^l"^' 
and the keys out of St. Peter's hand : which thing many then did ** Pj* 6 ' 8 
interpret to signify and foreshow the subversion and alteration of the sion. 
see of Rome. 

Hitherto pertaineth also a strange portent and a prodigious token Bloody 
from heaven, a.d. 1505, in which year, under the reign of Maxi- "herd's 
milian the emperor, 2 there appeared in Germany, upon the vestures 
of men, as well of priests as laymen ; upon women's garments also, 
and upon their rocks 3 as they were spinning, divers prints and tokens 
of the nails, of the sponge, of the spear, of the Lord's coat, and of 
bloody crosses, &c. : all which were seen upon their caps and gowns, 
as is most certainly testified and recorded by divers, who both did 
see, and also did write upon the same. Of these the first was 
Maximilian the emperor, who both had and show r ed the same to 
Franciscus Mirandula, who wrote thereupon a book in Latin metre 
called ' Staurosticon f wherein, for the more credit, these verses be 
contained : 

" Non ignota cano, Caesar monstravit, et ipsi 
Vidimus : Innumeros prompsit Germania testes," &c. 

Of this also writeth John Carion, Functius, Philip Melancthon, Expo . 
Flaccius, with divers others. These marks and tokens, as they were Jjjjjj^) 
very strange, so were they diversely expounded of many, some think- tent 
ing that they portended affliction and persecution of the church to 
draw near : some, that God by that token did admonish them, or 
foreshowed unto them the true doctrine of their justification, which 
only is to be sought in the cross and passion of Christ, and in no 
other thing. This I marvel, that Christianus Masseus, and others of 

(1) Ex Baleo, cent. 8. (2) Ex Johan. Carione Franc. Mirandula, et aliis. 

(3) " Rock;" an instrument used in spinning flax.— Ed. 
VOL. IV. S 



seen mi 



gar- 
ments. 



258 PROPHECIES AND PROVERBS OF THE CHURCH OF ROME. 

Henry that profession, do leave it out. Belike they saw something in it 

L that made not to their liking. For, whether it signifieth persecu- 

A. D. tion to come upon the Germans, they cannot be evil that suffer and 

1518 bear the cross with Christ: or whether it signifieth the true doctrine 

15 oj of Christ coming to the Germans, it cannot otherwise be, but that 

— — — the doctrine of the bishop of Rome mnst needs be wrong, which is 

contrary to this which God hath stirred up in Germany. 

By these and such-like prophecies, it is evident to understand, the 
time not to be far off, when God, of his determinate providence, was 
disposed to reform and to restore his church. And not only by these 
prophecies the same might well appear, but also, and much rather, 
by the hearts of the people at that time ; whose minds were so 
incensed and inflamed with hatred against the pomp and pride ot 
Rome, both through all nations, and especially the people of Ger- 
many, that it was easy to perceive the time was near at hand, when 
the pride of popish prelacy would have a fall. Such disdain there 
was, such contempt and derision began to rise on every side then, 
against the pope and the court of Rome, that it might soon appear, 
by the hearts of the people, that God was not disposed to have it 
long to stand. For neither were their detestable doings so secret, 
that men did not see them, neither did any man behold them, having 
any sparkle of godliness, that could abide them. And thereupon 
grew these proverbs to their derision, in every country, as in Ger- 
many it hath been a proverb amongst them. 

Proverbs against the corrupt See of Rome: 

8Da£ #t nu in Dec toerlt fur em toe£en, 
Wit moesen fur Den pfaffen mcJjt gene^en. 

What is this, to see the world now round about, 

That for these shaveling priests no man that once may rout ? 

Quam primum elericus suscipit rasuram, statim intrat in eum diabolus : i. e. 
As soon as a clerk is shorn into his order, by and by the devil entereth into him. 

' In nomine Domini, incipit omne malum :' i. e. ' In the name of God begin- 
nethall evil :' alluding to the pope's bulls, which commonly so begin. 

Item, When bulls come from Rome, bind well your purses. 
The nearer Rome, the further from Christ. 
Item, He that goeth once to Rome, seeth a wicked man : 
He that goeth twice, learneth to know him : 
He that goeth thrice, bringeth him home with him. 
Item, The court of Rome never regardeth the sheep without the wool. 
Once were wooden chalices, and golden priests : 
Now we have golden chalices, and wooden priests. 
Once christian men had blind churches, and light hearts : 
Now they have blind hearts, and light churches. 

Item, Many are worshipped for s-aints in heaven, whose souls be burning in 
hell.i 

What should I speak of our English proverb, which so vilely 
estcemeth the filthy friars, that it compareth them to something 
which, to save thy reverence, good reader, we mention not. 

(1) Ex Aventino. 



1521. 



PROPHECIES AND PROVERBS OF THE CHURCH OF ROME. 259 

In France, Gallus Senoncnsis, writcth four hundred years ago, that Jw</ 
amongst them it was an old saying, " Romae solvi Satanam in per- 
niciem totius ecclesise :" that is, " That Satan was let loose at Rome A. I), 
to destroy the -whole church." 1518 

Thomas Becket himself, in his time, writing to the college of , .*',', 
cardinals, denieth it not but to be a common word both through 
town and city, " Quod non sit justitia Romoe :" that is, " That there 
is no right at Rome."" 

To these may be adjoined also the A, B, C, which we find in the 
margin of a certain old register to be attributed to William Thorpe, 
whose story we have comprehended before. 1 

The A, B, C, against the pride of the Clergy. 

A wake, ye ghostly persons, awake, awake, 
B oth priest, pope, bishop, and cardinal ! 
C onsider wisely, what ways ye take, 
D angerously being like to have a fall. 
E very where the mischief of you all, 
F ar and near, bveaketh out very fast ; 
G od will needs be revenged at the last. 

H ow long have ye the world captived, 

I n sore bondage of men's traditions ? 

K ings and emperors ye have deprived, 

L ewdly usurping their chief possessions : 

M uch miseiy ye make in all regions. 

N ow your frauds be almost at their latter cast, 

O f God sore to be revenged at the last. 

P oor people to oppress ye have no shame, 
Q uaking for fear of your double tyranny. 
R ightful justice ye have put out of frame, 
S eeking the lust of your god, the belly. 
T herefore I dare you boldly certify, 

V ery little though you be thereof aghast, 

Y et God will be revenged at the last. 

By these and such-like sayings, which may be collected innume- 
rable, it may soon be seen what hearts and judgments the people 
had in those days of the Romish clergy ; which thing, no doubt, was 
of God as a secret prophecy, that shortly religion should be restored; ' 
according as it came to pass about this present time, when Dr. Martin 
Luther first began to write ; after Picus Mirandula, and Laurentius 
Valla, and last of all Erasmus of Rotterdam, had somewhat broken 
the way before, and had shaken the monks 1 houses, lint Luther The arti . 
gave the stroke, and plucked down the foundation, and all by opening f^" 1 ,^" 
one vein, long hid before, wherein lieth the touchstone of all truth fication 
and doctrine, as the only principal origin of our salvation, which is, downVn 
our free justifying by faith only, in Christ the Son of God. The ertors - 
laborious travails, and the whole process, and the constant preachings 
of this worthy man, because they arc sufficiently declared in the 
history of John Sleidan, I shall the less need to stay long thereupon ; 
but only to run over some principal matters of his life and acts, as 
they arc briefly collected by Philip Melancthon. 

(1) See vol. iii. page 249.— Ed. 



260 THE HISTORY OF MARTIN LUTHER. 



€f)C ^i^tocp of doctor J&actin Eutljer, 



Henry 
VIII. 

A.D. WITH HIS LIFE AND DOCTRINE DESCRIBED. 

1518 

to Martin Luther, after lie was grown in years, beinp born at Eisleben 

1521. 



in Saxony, a.d. 1483, was set to the university, first of Magdeburg, 
then of Erfurt. In this university of Erfurt, there was a certain 
aged man in the convent of the Augustines (who is thought to be 
Weselus above mentioned) with whom Luther being then of the 
same order, a friar Augustine, had conference upon divers things, 
especially touching the article of remission of sins ; which article the 
said aged Father opened unto Luther after this sort ; declaring, that 
we must not generally believe only forgiveness of sins to be, or to 
belong to Peter, to Paul, to David, or such good men alone ; but 
that God's express commandment is, that every man should particu- 
larly believe his sins to be forgiven him in Christ : and further said, 
that this interpretation was confirmed by the testimony of St. Ber- 
nard, and showed him the place, in the sermon of the Annunciation, 
Excellent where it is thus set forth : " But add thou that thou believest this, 
wonfflT ^h^ by bim thy sins are forgiven thee. This is the testimony that 
touch?* tne H°ly Ghost giveth thee in thy heart, saying, Thy sins are for- 
faith. given thee. For this is the opinion of the apostle, that man is freely 
justified by faith." 

By these words Luther was not only strengthened, but was also 
instructed of the full meaning of St. Paul, who repeateth so many 
times this sentence, " We are justified by faith."" And having read 
the expositions of many upon this place, he then perceived, as well 
by the purpose of the old man, as by the comfort he received in his 
spirit, the vanity of those interpretations, which he had read before 
of the schoolmen. And so, reading by little and little, with con- 
ferring the sayings and examples of the prophets and apostles, and 
continual invocation of God, and excitation of faith by force of 
prayer, he perceived that doctrine most evidently. Then began he 
Profit of to read St. Augustine's books, where he found many comfortable 
Kiisttnes sentences : among others, in the exposition of the Psalms, and espe- 
books. cially in the book of the ' Spirit and Letter,' which confirmed this doc- 
trine of faith and consolation in his heart not a little. And yet he 
laid not aside the sententiaries, as Gabriel and Cameracensis. Also 
he read the books of Ocham, whose subtlety he preferred above 
Thomas Aquinas and Scotus. He read also and revolved Gerson: 
but above all the rest, he perused all over St. Augustine's works with 
attentive cogitation. And thus continued he his study at Erfurt the 
space of four years in the convent of the Augustines. 
institu- About this time one Staupitius, a famous man, ministering his 
uTii"ver- he nc ^P ^° further the erection of a university in Wittenberg, and en- 
sity at deavouring to have schools of divinity founded in this new university; 
berg. when he had considered the spirit and towardness of Luther, called 
him from Erfurt, to place him in Wittenberg, a.d. 1508, and of his 
age twenty-six. There his towardness appeared in the ordinary 
exercise, both of his disputations in the schools, and preaching in 
churches ; where many wise and learned men attentively heard 
Luther, especially Dr. Mellarstad. 



luther's haity beginnings. 261 

This Mcllarstad would oftentimes say, that Luther was of such a Swrj 
marvellous spirit, and so ingenious, that he gave apparent signification, 



that he would introduce a more compendious, easy, and familiar AD - 

manner of teaching, and alter and abolish the order that then was lo } 8 
, °' to 

used. 1521. 

There first he expounded the logic and philosophy of Aristotle, 

and in the mean while intermitted no whit his study in theology. 
Three years after he went to Rome, about certain contentions of the 
monks ; and returning the same year, he was graded doctor, at the Lut her 
expense of the elector Frederic, duke of Saxony, according to the ^j^ 
solemn manner of schools : for he had heard him preach ; well under- ana 
stood the quickness of his spirit ; diligently considered the vehemency nwnceth 
of his words ; and had in singular admiration those profound matters doctor - 
which in his sermons he ripely and exactly explained. This degree 
Staupitius, against his will, enforced upon him ; saying merrily unto 
him, that God had many things to bring to pass in his church by 
him. And though these words were spoken merrily, yet it came so 
to pass anon after ; as many predictions or presages prove true before 
a change. 

After this, he began to expound the Epistle to the Romans, and, Luther 
subsequently, the Psalms : where he showed the difference betwixt r efd"the° 
the law and the gospel. He also confounded the error that reigned ^'j 6 
then in schools and sermons, teaching that men may merit remission Romans. 
of sins by their proper works, and that they be just before God by 
outward discipline ; as the Pharisees taught. Luther diligently re- 
duced the minds of men to the Son of God ; and as John Baptist 
demonstrated the Lamb of God who took away the sins of the world ; Luther 
even so Luther, shining in the church as a bright star after a long SSfJ* 
cloudy and obscure sky, expressly showed, that sins are freely remitted Christ - 
for the love of the Son of God, and that we ought faithfully to em- 
brace this bountiful gift;' * he also illustrated divers other points of 
ecclesiastical doctrine.* 

*These 2 happy beginnings of so good matters, got him great autho- 
rity, considering his life was correspondent to his profession ; and it 
plainly appeared that his words were no lip-labour, but proceeded 
from the very heart. This admiration of his holy life much allured 
the hearts of his auditors, and therefore many notable personages, 
familiarly knowing him, and seeing him innovate the usual ceremonies, 
resisted him nothing, but, in respect of the authority he procured 
before (as well for that he revealed many good matters, as that his 
life was holy), consented with him in his opinions, with which they 
saw the world divided diversely, and therefore were pensive and very 
sore grieved.* 

All this while Luther yet altered nothing in the ceremonies, but 
precisely observed his rule among his fellows. He meddled in no 
doubtful opinions, but taught this only doctrine, as most principal of 
all others to all men, opening and declaring the doctrine of repent- 
ance, of remission of sins, of faith, of true comfort in times of adver- 
sity. Every man received good taste of this sweet doctrine, and the 
learned conceived high pleasure to behold Jesus Christ, the prophets 
and apostles, to come forth into light out of darkness ; whereby they 

(1 anil 2) See Edition 1503, p. 103.— Ed. 



162 THE HISTORY OF MARTIN LUTHER. 

Henry began to tip dcrstand the difference betwixt the law and the gospel ; 
betwixt the promises of the law, and the promise of the gospel ; be- 



A. D. twixt spiritual justice, and civil things : which certainly could not 
1518 have been found in Thomas Aquinas, Scotus, and such-like school- 

1521. c l er ks- 

' ""' • It happened moreover, about this time, that many were provoked, 

np.'ia'th 3 by Erasmus's learned works, to study the Greek and Latin tongues ; 

before 7 wno perceiving a more gentle and ready order of teaching than before, 

Luther: began to have in contempt the monks' 1 barbarous and sophistical 

doctrine ; and especially such as were of a liberal nature and good 

disposition. Luther began to study the Greek and Hebrew tongue, 

to this end, that after he had learned the phrase and property of the 

tongues, and drawn the doctrine from the very fountains, he might 

give more sound judgment. 

As Luther was thus occupied in Germany, which was a.d. 1516, 
Leo X., succeeding after Julius II., was pope of Rome, who, under 
pretence of war against the Turk, sent a jubilee with his pardons 
abroad through all christian realms and dominions, whereby he 
gathered together innumerable riches and treasure ; the gatherers and 
collectors whereof persuaded the people, that whosoever would give 
Ten ten shillings, should at his pleasure deliver one soul from the pains 
pu'rdmfs. of purgatory. For this they held as a general rule, that God would 
do whatsoever they would have him, according to the saying, " Quic- 
quid solveritis super terrain, erit solutum in ccelis," &c, i. e. " What- 
soever you shall loose upon earth, the same shall be loosed in heaven ; 
but if it were but one jot less than ten shillings, they preached that 
it would profit them nothing. 1 This filthy kind of the pope's mer- 
chandise, as it spread through all quarters of christian regions, so it 
Tetzei, came also to Germany, through the means of a certain Dominic friar 
of C the her warned Tetzei, who most impudently caused the pope's indulgences 
P ardons or pardons to be carried and sold about the country. Whereupon 
Luther, much moved with the blasphemous sermons of this shameless 
The first friar, and having his heart earnestly bent with ardent desire to main- 
why 810 " tain true religion, published certain propositions concerning indul- 
wrete 1 & ences > which are to be read in the first tome of his works, and set 
against them openly on the temple that joineth to the castle of Wittenberg, 
par ons. ^ ie morrow a ft- er ^ e f eas t of All Saints, A. D. 1517. 

This beggarly friar, hoping to obtain the pope's blessing, assembled 
certain monks, and sophistical divines of his covent, and forthwith 
slander commanded them to write something against Luther. And while he 
the Mar. would not himself seem to be dumb, he began not only to inveigh 
in his sermons, but to thunder against Luther ; crying, " Luther is a 
heretic, and worthy to be persecuted with fire." And besides this, 
he burned openly Luther's propositions, and the sermon which he 
wrote of indulgences. This rage and furnish fury of this friar, en- 
forced Luther to treat more amply of the cause, and to maintain his 
matter. 

And thus rose the beginnings of this controversy ; wherein Luther, 
neither suspecting, nor dreaming of any change that might happen in 

fl) F.x Cliristia. Mass.T-o, lib. xx. [Chronical) historic utriusque Testamenti: Antvcrpi.T, 1540. 
This volume is placed liy the church of Rome in the second class of works needing expurgation. 
See Index lib. prohib. et expurgandorum, folio Madrid. 1612, p. 132.— Ed.] 



THE PRAISE OF FREDERIC DUKE OF SAXONY. 263 

the ceremonies, did not utterly reject the indulgences, but required Bmry 

a moderation in them : and therefore they falsely accuse him, who L_ 

blaze, that he began with plausible matter, whereby he might get AI) - 
praise, to the end that in process of time he might change the state 1518 
of the commonweal, and purchase authority either fur himself or 15 °j 
others. " 

And certes, he was not suborned or stirred up bv them of the 
court (as the duke of Brunswick wrote), insomuch that the duke 
Frederic was sorely offended that such contention and controversy 
should arise, having regard to the sequel thereof. 

And as this good duke Frederic was one, of all the princes of our The 
time, that loved best quietness and common tranquillity, neither J^deVuf 
was avaricious, but willingly bent to refer all his counsels to the duke of 
common utility of all the world (as it is easy to be conjectured divers ai,ony- 
ways), so he neither encouraged nor supported Luther, but often 
represented semblance of heaviness and sorrow which he bare in his 
heart, fearing greater dissensions. But being a wise prince, and 
following the counsel of God's rule, and well deliberating thereupon, 
he thought with himself, that the glory of God was to be preferred 
above all things : neither was he ignorant what blasphemy it was, 
horribly condemned of God, obstinately, to repugn the truth. Where- 
fore lie did as a godly prince should do, he obeyed God, committing 
himself to his holy grace, and omnipotent protection. And although 
Maximilian the emperor, Charles king of Spain, and pope Julius, 
had given commandment to the said duke Frederic, that he should 
inhibit Luther from all place and liberty of preaching ; yet the duke, 
considering with himself the preaching and writing of Luther, and 
weighing diligently the testimonies and places of the Scripture by 
him alleged, would not withstand the thing which he judged sincere. 
And yet neither did he this, trusting to his own judgment, but was 
very anxious and inquisitive to hear the judgment of others, who 
were both aged and learned ; in the number of whom was Erasmus, 
whom the duke desired to declare to him his opinion touching the 
matter of Martin Luther ; saying and protesting, that he would rather 
the ground should open and swallow him, than he would bear with 
any opinions which he knew to be contrary to manifest truth ; and 
therefore he desired him to declare his judgment in the matter to 
him, freely and friendly. 

Erasmus, thus being entreated of the duke, began thus jestingly Jud-- 
and merrily to answer the duke's request, saying, that in Luther S^mus 
were two great faults ; first, that he would touch the bellies of monks : j? , V? in8 
the second, that he would touch the pope's crown ; which two matters 
in no case are to be dealt withal. Then, opening his mind plainly 
to the duke, thus he said, that Luther did dwell in detecting errors, 
and that reformation was to be wished, and very necessary in the 
church : and added moreover, that the effect of his doctrine was true ; 
but only that he wished in him a more temperate moderation and 
manner of writing and handling. 1 Whereupon duke Frederic shortly 
after wrote to Luther seriously, exhorting him to temper the ve- 
hemency of his style. This was at the city of Cologne, shortly after 
the coronation of the new emperor, where also Iluttcnus, Aloisius, 

(I) Ex Chi t'asp. Pcuccr. lib. v. 



264 THE HISTORY OF MARTIN LUTHER. 

mnry Marlianus, Ludovicus Vives, Halonius, with other learned men, were 
VIU - assembled together, waiting upon the emperor. 1 

Furthermore, the same Erasmus, in the following year, wrote up to 

the archbishop of Mentz a certain epistle touching the cause of Luther; 

in which epistle thus he signifieth to the bishop : 



to 
1521. 



' Many things are in the books of Luther condemned of monks and divines, 
for heretical, which in the hooks of Bernard and Austin are read for sound and 
godly. The world is burdened with men's institutions, with school doctrines 
and opinions, and with the tyranny of begging friars ; which friars, when they 
are but the pope's servants and underlings, yet they have so grown in power 
and multitude, that they are now terrible, both to the pope himself, and to all 
princes ; who, so long as the pope maketh with them, so long they make him 
more than a God ; but if he make any thing against their purpose or commo- 
dity, then they weigh his authority no more than a dream or fantasy. Once it 
was counted a heresy when a man repugned against the gospel, or articles of 
the faith. Now he that dissenteth from Thomas Aquinas, is a heretic : what- 
soever doth not like them, whatsoever they understand not, that is heresy. To 
speak Greek is heresy, or to speak more finely than they do, that is with them 
heresy.' 

And thus much by the way concerning the judgment of Erasmus. 

review of luther's conduct and writings. 

* ' It is also apparent, that Luther promised the cardinal Cajctan 
to keep silence, provided also his adversaries would do the like. 
Whereby we may gather, that at that time he determined not to stir 
any new debates, but rather coveted the common quietness, and that 
he was provoked by little and little to other matters, through the pro- 
voking of unlearned writers. 
Dedara- Then followed disputations of the difference betwixt divine and 
tion of the ] m man law ; also of the horrible profanation of the Supper of our 

principal _ . . ', . . . * i r 

points of Lord, in selling and applying the same tor other purposes. Here he 
religion. wag f orce( i ^ eX p ress t ne cause of the sacrifice, and to declare the use 
of the sacraments. 

Now the godly and faithful Christians, closed in monasteries, un- 
derstanding that images ought to be eschewed, began to abandon that 
wretched thraldom, in which they were detained. Now Luther, the 
plainer to express the doctrine of repentance, of remission of sins, of 
faith, and of indulgences, added also to these matters, the dif- 
ference of divine and human laws, the doctrine of the use of our Lord's 
Supper, of baptism, and of vows ; and these were his principal conflicts. 
As touching the question of the Roman bishop's power, Eckius was 
the author thereof; and for no other respect, than to inflame the 
fiery wrath of the pope and princes against Luther. The symbol 
of the apostles, also of Nice and Athanasius, he conserved in their 
integrity. 

Further he sufficiently declareth in divers of his works what inno- 
vation is to be required in the ceremonies and traditions of men ; and 
wherefore they ought to be altered. And what form of doctrine and 

(1) Ex Epist. Erasm. ad Moguntinense. p. 470. [This Chronicum was published in folio, 
Argcntorati; 1537. The continuation, called Paraleipomena, was probably drawn up by Me- 
lancthon. — En.] 

(2) For the following passages in asterisks, extending to page 2G8, sec Edition 1JG3, p. 104.— Eb. 



REVIEW OF LUTHER*S CONDUCT AND WRITINGS. 26,") 

administration of the Sacraments lie required and approved, is apparent 
by the confession which the elector, John duke of Saxony, and prince 



i dan- 
gerous. 



Philip, landgrave of Hesse, presented to the emperor Charles V., A. D. 
a. i). 1530, in the assembly at Augsburg. It is manifest also by the ^ 18 
ceremonies of the church in this city, and the doctrine that is preached 15 £ j 
in our church, the sum whereof is fully comprised in this confes- ~ 

Til 1-1 1 11 • 1 1 ^ "° C0D * 

sion. 1 allege this, that the godly may consider not only what errors fession of 
he hath corrected and reproved, but also they may understand that t^l' 
he comprehended also the whole doctrine necessary for the church ; he 
hath set the ceremonies in their purity, and given examples to the 
faithful to reform the churches, and it is necessary for posterity to 
know what Luther hath approved. 

I will not here rehearse, who were the first that published both parts 
of the Supper of our Lord, who first omitted private masses, and where 
first the monasteries were abandoned : for Luther disputed very little 
of these before the assembly which was made in the town of Worms, 
a. d. 1521 : he changed not the ceremonies, but in his absence Caro- 
lostadt and others altered them. Then Luther returning (after 
Carolostadt had devised and done certain things rather to breed 
muttering than otherwise), manifested by evident testimonies, pub- 
lished abroad touching his opinion, what he approved, and what he 
misliked. 

We know that politic men evermore detested all changes : and we chanpes 
must confess, there ensueth some evil upon dissensions, and yet it is " 
our duty evermore in the church, to advance God's ordinance above 
human constitutions. The eternal Father pronounced this voice of 
his Son : " This is my well beloved Son, hear him !" And he menaced 
eternal wrath to all blasphemers, that is, such as endeavour to abolish 
the manifest verity. And therefore Luther did, as behoved a Christian 
faithfully to do : considering he was an instructor of the church of 
God. It was his office, I say, to reprehend pernicious errors, which 
the rabble of epicures most impudently heaped one upon another, and 
it was expedient his auditors dissented not from his opinion, since he 
taught purely. Wherefore if alteration be hateful, and many perils 
grow of dissension, as we certainly see many, whereof we be right 
sorry, they are partly in fault that spread abroad these errors, and 
partly they that with devilish disdain presently maintain them. I do 
not recite this to defend Luther and his auditors, but also that the 
faithful may consider now, and in time to come, what is the govern- 
ance of the true church of God, and what it hath always been : how 
God hath gathered to himself one eternal church, by the voice of the 
gospel, of this lump of sin, and filthy heap of human corruption ; 
among whom the gospel shineth as a spark in the dark. As in the 
time of the Pharisees, Zachary, Elizabeth, Mary, and many others, 
reverenced and observed the true doctrine : so have many gone before 
us, who purely invocated God, some understanding more clearly than 
others, the doctrine of the gospel. Such a one was the old man of 
whom I wrote, that oftcntimc comforted Luther, when his astonyings 
assailed him ; and after a sort declared unto him the doctrine of the 
faith. And that God may preserve henceforth the light of his gospel, 
shining in many, let us pray with fervent affection, as Isaiah prayeth 
for his hearers : " Seal the law in my disciples." Further, this 



>(56 THE HISTORY OF MARTIN LUTHER. 

advertiseni entshoweth plainly thatcoloured superstitions are notperma- 
nent, but abolished by God : and since this is the cause of changes, 
we ought diligently to endeavour, that errors be neither taught, nor 
preached in the church. 

But I return to Luther. Even as at the beginning he treated of 
this matter, without any particular affection, so, though he Mas of a 
fiery nature, and subject to wrath, yet he always remembered his 
office, and prohibited wars to be attempted, and distinguished wisely 
offices wherein was any difference, as the bishop, to feed the flock of 
God ; and the magistrates, by authority of the sword committed unto 
them, to repress the people subject tmto them. Wherefore when 
Satan contendeth by slanders to dissipate the church of God, and 
contumeliously to rage against him, and delighteth to do evil, and 
rejoiceth to behold us wallow in the puddle of error and blindness, 
smiling at our destruction ; he laboureth all he can to inflame and 
stir up mischievous instruments and seditious spirits to sow sedition ; 
as Monetarius and his like. Luther repelled boldly these rages, and 
not only adorned, but also ratified, the dignity and bands of politic 
order and civil government. Therefore when I consider in my mind 
how many worthy men have been in the church, that in this erred, and 
were abused : I believe assuredly that Luther's heart was not only 
governed by human diligence, but with a heavenly light ; considering 
how constantly he abode within the limits of his office. 

Luther held not only in contempt the seditious doctors of that time, 
as Monetarius and the Anabaptists; but especially these horned 
bishops of Rome, who, arrogantly and impudently, by their devised 
decrees, affirmed, that St. Peter had not the charge alone to teach the 
gospel, but also to govern commonweals, and exercise civil jurisdic- 
tion. Moreover he exhorted every man to render unto God that 
which appertained unto God, and to Caesar, that which belonged unto 
Csesar ; and said, that all should serve God with true repentance, 
knowledge, and maintaining of his true doctrine, invocation, and works, 
wrought with a pure conscience : and as touching civil policy, that 
every one should obey the magistrates under whom he livcth, in all 
civil duties and reverences, for God's sake. And such a one was 
Luther. He gave unto God, what belonged unto God : he taught 
God ; he invocated God ; and had other virtues necessary for a man 
that pleaseth God. Further, in politic conversation he constantly 
avoided all seditious counsels. I judge these virtues to be such ex- 
cellent ornaments, that greater and more divine cannot be required in 
Assur- this mortal life. And albeit that the virtue of this man is worthy of 
thedoc- commendation, and the rather for that he used the gii'ts of God in all 
the bo/- revercnce > y e ^ our duty is to render condign thanks unto God, that 
pel. by him he hath given us the light of the gospel, and to conserve and 
enlarge the remembrance of his doctrine. I weigh little the slander 
of the epicures and hypocrites, who scoff at and condemn the manifest 
truths ; but I stay wholly hereupon, that the universal church hath 
consented perpetually to this very doctrine, which is preached in our 
church, whereunto we must frame our life and devotion conformably. 
And I believe that this is the doctrine, whereof the Son of God 
speaketh : " If any love me, he will keep my commandments, and my 
Father will love him, and wc will come to him, and plant our dwelling 



eeview of luther's conduct and writings. 26"J 

with him." I speak of the sum of the doctrine, as it is under- " 
stood and explained in our churches, by the faithful and learned mi- 
nisters. For albeit that some one oftentimes cxpoundeth the same 
more aptly and elegantly than some other : yet, as touching the effect, 
the learned and faithful do agree in all points. 

Then weighing and perpending with myself long time, the doctrine j^ 
that hath been of all times, it seeineth unto me that since the apostles changes 
there have been four notable alterations after the first purity of the qxwties? 
gospel. Origen had his time ; albeit there were some of a sound and 
sacred opinion, as Methodius, who reproved certain suspected doc- 
trines of Origen, that he converted the gospel into philosophy in the 
hearts of many : that is to say, he advanced this persuasion, that the 
moral discipline of reason deserveth remission of sins, and that this is 
that justice, whereof is said, "The just shall live by his faith. 11 That 
age lost almost the whole difference of the law and the gospel, and 
forgat the words of the apostles ; for they understood not the natural 
signification of these words : Letter, Spirit, Justice, Faith. Now 
when the propriety of words was lost, which be notes of the very 
things, it was necessary that other things should be contrived. 

Out of this seed sprang the error of Pelagius, which wandered 
largely abroad : and therefore, albeit the apostles had given unto the 
church a pure doctrine, as clear and wholesome fountains, yet Origen 
intermixed the same with some corruption in that part. Then, to 
correct the errors of that time, or at least some part of them, God 
raised up St. Austin, who purged in some part the fountains ; and I 
doubt not, if he were judge of dissensions at this day, but he would 
speak for us, and defend our cause. Certainly, as concerning free 
remission, justification by faith, the use of the sacraments and indif- 
ferent things, he consenteth wholly with us. And, albeit that in some 
places he expoundeth more eloquently and aptly what he will say 
than in others, yet if in reading, any do carry with them a godly spirit 
and quick understanding, all evil judgment ceaseth : they shall soon 
perceive that he is of our opinion. And whereas our adversaries some- 
times do cite sentences selected out of his books against us, and with 
clamour provoke us to the ancient Fathers, they do it not for any affec- 
tion they bear unto the truth or antiquity, but maliciously to cloak 
them with the authority of the ancient Fathers, which antiquity never 
knew of any of these horned beasts and dumb idols, as we have known 
in these days. Nevertheless it is certain, there were seeds of super- 
stition in the time of the Fathers and ancient doctors ; and therefore 
St. Austin ordained something of vows, although he wrote not thereof 
so strangely as others : for the best some times shall be spotted with 
the blemish of such follies as reign in their age. For as naturally wc 
love our country, so fondly wc favour the present fashions, wherein 
we be trained and educated. And very well alluded Euripides to 
tlus effect : 

' What customs we in tender youth 

By nature's lore receive ; 
The same we love and like always, 

And loath our lust to leave.' 

But would to God, that such as vaunt they follow St. Austin, would 



2G8 THE HISTORY OF MARTIN LUTHER. 

Henry always represent one like opinion and mind, as St. Austin : certainly 
' they would not so clip his sentences, to serve their purposes. The 



A. D. light restored by St. Austin's works hath much profited posterity ; 
1513 f or Prosper, Maximus, Hugo, and some other like writers, that go- 
15°! verned studies to St. Bernard's time, have for the most part imitated 
the rule of St. Austin. And this, while the regiment and riches of 



?f e e C r cie- ty th c bishops still increased : and thereof ensued a monstrous regiment I 
111'hiistcrs P r0 ^ me an( l ignorant men governed the church, among whom, certain 
were instructed in sciences and practices of the Roman court, and some 
others exercised in pleadings. 
The be- Then the orders of Dominican and Franciscan friars began ; who, 
fw"sOTts >f beholding the excess and riches of the bishops, and contemning their 
01 friars, ungodly manners, determined to live in more modest order, or, as I 
might say, to enclose them in the prisons of discipline : but first igno- 
rance increased the superstitions. Then after, when they considered 
men's minds wholly addicted to the study of the civil laws (for plead- 
ing at Rome advanced many to great authority, and enriched them), 
they endeavoured to revoke men to the study of divinity, but they 
missed of their purpose, and their counsel failed them. Albert, and 
such like, that were given to Aristotle's doctrine, began to convert 
the doctrine of the church into profane philosophy. 
The gos- The fourth age not only corrupted the fountains of the gospel, but 

pelturned , , ° . ,-, J . . , r . . M? ±1 

into phi- also gave out poison, that is to say, opinions manifestly approving 
losophy. a ]j idolatries. Thomas Aquinas, Scotus and their like, have brought 
in so many labyrinths and false opinions, that the godly and sound 
sort of divines have always desired a more plain and purer kind of 
doctrine : neither can we deny without great impudency but it was 
expedient to alter this kind of doctrine, when it is manifest that such 
as employed their whole age in this manner of teaching, understood 
not a great part of the sophisms in their disputations. Further it is 
plainly idolatry confirmed, when they teach the application of sacrifice 
by work wrought ; when they allow the invocation of saints ; when 
they deny that sins be freely remitted by faith ; when of ceremonies 
they make a slaughter of consciences. Finally, there are many other 
horrible and pernicious devices, that when I think on them, Lord ! how 
I tremble and quake for fear.* 

Now to return, and to treat something orderly of the acts and 
conflicts of Luther with his adversaries. After that Tetzel, the afore- 
said friar, with his fellow-monks and friarly fellows, had cried out with 
open mouth against Luther, in maintaining the pope's indulgences ; 
and that Luther again, in defence of his cause, had set up propositions 
against the open abuses of the same, marvel it was to see how soon 
these propositions were sparkled abroad in sundry and far places, and 
how greedily they were caught up in the hands of divers both far and 
near. And thus the contention of this matter increasing between 
them, Luther was compelled to write thereof more largely and fully 
than otherwise he thought; which was a.d. 1517. 1 

Yet all this while Luther never thought of any alteration to come 
of any ceremony, much less such a reformation of doctrine and cere- 
monies as afterwards did follow ; but only hearing that he was accused 

(1) Ex Paralip. Abbat. Urspcrg; [p. 470.— Ed.] 



REVIEW OF HIS CONDUCT AND WRITINGS. 26*9 

to the bishop of Rome, he did write humbly unto him : in the begin- Henry 

ning of which writing he declareth the inordinate outrage of those Iu ' 

his pardon-mongers, who so excessively did pill and poll the simple A. D. 

people, to the great slander of the church, and shame to his holiness. 1518 
And so proceeding, in the end of the said his writing thus he submitteth 
Jiimself : 



to 
1521. 



' Wherefore, most holy father, I offer myself prostrate under the feet of your Submis- 
holiness, with all that I am, and all that I have. Save me, kill me, call me, re- L '°" h °r t0 
call me, approve me, reprove me, as you shall please. Your voice, the voice of the pope. 
Christ in you speaking, I will acknowledge. If 1 have deserved death, I shall 
be contented to die : for the earth is the Lord's, and all the fulness thereof, who 
is to be blessed for ever. 1 Amen.' 

This was a.d. 1518. 

After Martin Luther, provoked by Tetzel, had declared his mind The 
in writing lowly and humbly, and had set up certain propositions to dlfiofue 
be disputed ; not long after, among other monks and friars, steppeth u f r Sllves " 
up one Silvester de Priero, a Dominic friar, who first began to publish ^^ 
abroad a certain impudent and railing dialogue against him. Unto 
whom Luther answered again, first alleging the place of the apostle Luther's 
in 1 Thess. v., that wc must prove all things. Also the place in answt 
Gal. ii., that if an angel from heaven do bring any other gospel than 
that wc have received, he ought to be accursed. Item, he alleged 
the place of Austin unto Jerome, where the said Austin saith, That he 
was wont to give this honour only to the books of canonical Scripture, 
that whosoever were the writers thereof, he believeth them verily 
not to have erred. But as touching all other men's writings, were 
they ever so holy men, or learned, he doth not believe them therefore, 
because they so say ; but in that respect as they do agree with the 
canonical Scripture, which cannot err. Item, he alleged the place of 
the canon law ; 2 wherein he proved, that these pardon-sellers, in their 
setting forth of the pope^ indidgences, ought to go no further by the 
law, than is enjoined them within the letters of their commission. 
And in the latter part of his answer, thus Luther writeth to the reader, 
" Let opinions remain opinions, so they be not yokes to the Christians. 
Let us not make men's opinions equal with the articles of faith, and 
to the decrees of Christ and Paul. 11 " Moreover, I am ashamed, 11 
quoth he, " to hear the common saying of these divine school-doctors, 
who, holding one thing in the schools, and thinking otherwise in their 
own judgment, thus are wont secretly among themselves, and with 
their privy friends talking together, to say, ' Thus do we hold, and 
thus would we say being in the schools : but yet (be it spoken here 
amongst us) it cannot be so proved by the holy Scriptures, 1 11 &c. 3 

Next after this Silvester, stepped forth Eekius, and impugned the Eeuius 
conclusions of Luther. Against whom encountered Dr. Andreas Be- ^in'xt, 
denstein, archdeacon of Wittenberg, making his apology in defence Luther.' 
of Luther. 

Then was Martin Luther cited, the 7th of August, by one Hieromc, 
bishop of Ascalon, to appear at Rome. About which time Thomas 
Cajctan, cardinal, the pope's legate, was then lieger at the city of 

(1) Psal. xxiv. I. (2) Clement, de pa-nit. ct remiss, cap. ' Ahusionibus.' 

(3) Ex Parallp. Abb. Ursperg. 



270 THE HISTORY OF MARTIN LUTHER. 

Jfenry Augsburg, who before had been sent down in commission, with cer- 

VIlL tain mandates from pope Leo, unto that city. The university of 

A. D. Wittenberg, understanding of Luther's citation, eftsoons directed up 

1518 their letters with their public seal, to the pope, in Luther's behalf. 

,/£, Also another letter they sent to Carolus Miltitius, the pope's cham- 
berlain, being a German born. Furthermore, good Frederic ceased 



versityrf not for his part to solicit the matter with his letters and earnest suit 
witten- ^k cardinal Cajetan, that the cause of Luther might be freed from 
wntethto Rome, and removed to Augsburg, in the hearing of the cardinal, 
tor P ° pe Cajetan, at the suit of the duke, wrote unto the pope ; from whom he 
Luther. rece i VC( i this answer again, the three and twentieth of the aforesaid 
month of August. 

Substance of the Pope's Charge to his Legate, against Luther. 

That he had cited Luther to appear personally before him at Rome, by 
Hicrome, bishop of Ascalon, auditor of the chamber; which bishop diligently 
had done what was commanded him : but Luther, abusing and contemning the 
gentleness offered, did not only refuse to come, but also became more bold, and 
stubborn, continuing, or rather increasing in his former heresy, as by his writings 
did appear. Wherefore he would, that the cardinal should cite and call up the 
said Luther to appear at the city of Augsburg before him ; adjoining withal, the 
aid of the princes of Germany, and of the emperor, if need required ; so that 
when the said Luther should appear, he should lay hand upon him, and commit 
him to safe custody : and after, he should be brought up to Rome. And