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tihxaxy of t:he t:heolo0ical Seminary 


Mrs. Robert Lenox Kennedy 
church history fund 

BR 1607 "?F5 '1837" v*. 5 
Foxe, John, 1516-1587. 
The acts and monuments of 
John Foxe 

and Monuments 

of tfjese latter anlt ptrtllotts tiams, 
toutI)tng matters of tfte CJ)urtf), 

wherein are comprehended and described 

the great persecutions & horrible troubles, 

that haue bene wrousht and practised by 

the Rcmishe Prelates, speeiallye in this 

Kealme of England and Scotlande, 

from the yeare of our Lorde a 

thousande, unto the tyme 

nowe present. 

Gathered and collected according to the 

true copies and wrytinpres certificatorie as wel 

of the parties themseiues that suffered, 

as also out of the Bishops Reeristera, 











VOL. V. 









VOL. V. 



1533. The reign of Henry VIII. continued. 

The Story, Examination, Death, and Martyrdom, of John 

Frith 2 

The Sum of John Frith's Book of the Sacrament .... 7 
A Letter of John Frith to his Friends, concerning his 

Troubles, &c 11 

The Sentence given against John Frith 14 

The Letter of John, Bishop of London, to certify the King of 
the Condemnation of John Frith and Andrew Hewet . . 16 

Andrew Hewet burned with Master Frith ibid. 

The History of the Persecution and Death of Thomas Benet, 
burned in Exeter : collected and testified by John Vowel, 

alias Hoker 18 

The Pope's Curse with Book, Bell, and Candle 20 

The Matter between Gregory Basset and Thomas Benet . . 23 
1528 A Table of certain Persons abjured within the Diocese of 

to London, under Bishop Stokesley, with the Articles alleged 

1533. against them 26 

1531 William Tracy, Esquire, of Gloucestershire, with his Testament. 3 1 

to The Table of Abjured Persons continued 32 

1533. A Note of Richard Bayfield above mentioned; with the 

Accusation of Edmund Peerson against him 43 

1527 A compendious Discourse, comprehending the whole Sum and 

to Matter concerning the Marriage between King Henry and 

1533. Queen Anne Bullen ; and Queen Katharine divorced . . 45 

The King's Oration to his Subjects 48 

Queen Katherines Answer to the Cardinals 49 

The King's Oration to the Legates 51 

A Proclamation of the King, that nothing should be purchased 

fiiom Rome 56 

Certain Acts provided, concerning the Pope's Laws ... 58 

1533. A Table of Degrees prohibited by God's Law to many . . 60 

The Oaths of the Clergy to the Pope and to the King ... 61 

The Abolishing of the Pope out of England 68 

VOL. V. b 



1534. An old Prophecy of the Fall of the Pope; an Act for the 
King's Supremacy, and a Proclamation for abolishing the 
usurped Power of the Pope 69 

The Oaths of Stephen Gardiner, John Stokesley, Edward Lee, 
and Cuthbert Tonstal to the King 71 

A Letter of the University of Cambridge, against the usurped 
Power of the Bishop of Rome 73 

The Book of Gardiner "De Vera Obedientia;" with his 
Reasons against the Pope's Supremacy 74 

The Preface of Edmund Bonner, Archdeacon of Leicester, 
prefixed to Gardiner's Book 78 

Notes on Tonstal's Sermon against the Pope's Supremacy . 80 

Testimonies out of the Bishop's Book against the same . . 87 

Testimonies of Bishops and Doctors of England against the 
same - 89 

The True Copy of a Letter of Cuthbert Tonstal, Bishop of 
Durham, and John Stokesley, Bishop of London, to Cardinal 
Pole, proving the Bishop of Rome to have no special Supe- 
riority over other Bishops 90 

1536. The Oration of Sir Ralph Sadler, Ambassador to the Scottish 

King 103 

Message of King Henry VIIL to the French King, by his 

Ambassadoi", Dr. Edward Foxe, in defence of his Proceedings. 106 
Another Message from the same, by his Ambassador Stephen 

Gardiner 108 

The King's Answer to the French King's Request . . . .109 
The Oration of the King's Ambassador before the Emperor in 

defence of his Cause Ill 

The Life and Story of the True Servant and Martyr of God, 

William Tyndale ; who, for his notable Pains and Travail, 

may well be called the Apostle of England in this our Later 

Age 114 

The I'estimony of John Frith, in his Book of the Sacrament, 

concerning William Tyndale ; Avith Tyndale's Supplication 

to the King, Nobles, and Subjects of England .... 130 
A Letter sent from William Tyndale unto Master Frith, being 

in the Tower ; followed by another under the name of Jacob. 131 
The Death of the Lady Katherine, Princess Dowager ; also 

that of Queen Anne, with her Words at her Death . . . 134 
A Protestation in the Name of the King, the Council, and the 

Clergy of England ; why they refused to come to the Pope's 

Council, at his call 138 

1537. The King's Answer to the Rebels in Lincolnshire .... 145 

1538. A Letter of Dr. Bonner, the King's x^mbassador in France, sent 

to the Lord Cromwell, declaring the Order of his Promo- 
tions and coming up 151 

Another Letter from the same, complaining of Winchester ; 
and also declaring how he was promoted, by the Lord Crom- 
well, to the Bishopric of Hereford 152 

A Letter of Dr. Thirleby to Heynes and Bonner .... 153 

A Declaration fiom Bonner to the Loi'd Cromwell ; describing 
to him the evil Behaviour of Stephen Gardiner, with special 
causes why he mislikcd him 154 

The Oath of Dr. Bonner when he was made Bishop of Lon- 
don, together with Ecclesiastical Matters in 1538 . . . 162 

The Contents of a Book of Articles devised by the King . . 163 

The King's Injunctions, restricting the number of Holy-days : 
also Injiuictions to the Clergy for the Reformation of the 
Church; with others 165 

The Sermon of John Longland, Bishop of Lincoln, on Good 
Friday, before the King at (Greenwich, A.n. 1538; the 
Theme from Hebrews xiii 171 



153S. Friar Forrest executed for rebelling against the King's Supre- 
macy 179 

The History of the Worthy Martyr of God, John Lambert, 
otherwise named Nicholson ; with his Troubles, Examina- 
tions, and Answers, as well before Warham, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and other Bishops, as also before King Henry, 
by whom at length he was condemned to Death, and burned 
in Smithfield, 1538; also Articles laid to Lambert . . . 181 
The Answer of John Lambert to the Forty-five Articles . .184 
A Treatise of John Lambert upon the Sacrament, addressed to 

the King 237 

The Death of Robert Packington, with the Burjiing of Collins 

in London, and of Cowbridge at Oxford 251 

Putteden and Leiton, Martyrs 253 

The Burning of N. Peke, at Ipswich 254 

A Letter of King Henry to the Emperor, containing his Rea- 
sons for refusing to take pai-t in the Council of Vhicenza . 255 

1539. Certain Injunctions set forth by the authority of the King, 

against English Books, Sects, and Sacramentaries also ; with 

the putting down the Day of Thomas Becket 258 

The variable Changes and Mutations in Religion in King 
Henry s Days . 260 

1540. The Act of the Six Articles ; the Penalties upon them, with the 

Oath of the Commissioners 262 

Allegations against the Six Articles : and first of Transubstan- 

tiation 2G5 

The Words of Elfric, written to Wulfsine, Bishop of Sher- 

bourne, against Transubstantiation 275 

Another Epistle of Elfric, Archbishop of Canterbury, to Wulf- 

stane, Archbishop of York ; in Saxon, with the English . 276 
A Sermon translated out of Latin into the Saxon Tongue, by 
Elfric, against Transubstantiation, a.d. 996 : followed by the 

English Translation 280 

Verses in praise of Berengarius 296 

The Words of the Council whereby Transubstantiation was 

first established 297 

The Second Article : of both kinds 299 

The Third Article : of Private Masses, Trental Masses, and 

Dirige Masses 302 

The Fourth and Fifth Articles : of Vows and Priests' Mar- 
riage 304 

The Epistle of Volusianus, Bishop of Carthage, for Priests' 
Marriage, translated from the Latin ; with two Latin Epi- 
stles 315 

Answer to Anselm's Reasons against Priests' Marriage . . 336 
The Sixth Article : touching Auricular Confession .... 348 
A Copy of Philip Melancthon's fruitful Epistle, sent to King 

Henry, against the cruel Act of the Six Articles .... 350 
A Note out of an old Martyrology of Canterbury ; also another. 358 

An Act against Fornication of Priests 359 

1525 The History concerning the Life, Acts, and Death of the 

to famous and worthy Councillor, Lord Thomas Cromwell, 

1540. Earl of Essex 362 

The Effect and Contents of the Boston Pardons 364 

1540. Cromwell's Oration to the Bishops assembled in the Convoca- 
tion House 379 

The Archbishop of Canterbury's Oration to the Bishops, fol- 
lowed by that of Alexander Alesius, and of Foxe, Bishop 

of Hereford 380 

The Answer of the Bishop of London against Alesius . . • 383 
The Story of one Frebani's Wife longing for a piece of Meat 
in Lent 385 



1540. How the Lord Cromwell helped Cranmer's Secretary . . . 388 
The Lord Cromwell not forgetting his old Friends and Bene- 
factors 391 

A notable Story of the Lord Cromwell and an Italian . . . 392 

Lord Cromwell's Words on the Scaffold ; with the Prayer that 
he said at the Hour of his Death 402 

A Booke entitled " The Fantassie of Idolatrie" 404 

Of the Bible in English, printed in the Large Volume : also of 
Edmund Bonner preferred to the Bishopric of London, by 
means of the Lord Cromwell 410 

The King's Brief for setting up the Bible ; with a Letter of 
Edmund Bonner, for the execution of the King's Writ , . 412 

The History of Roljert Barnes, Thomas Garret, and William 
Jerome, Divines 414 

The Story of Thomas Garret, or Gerrard, and of his Trouble at 
Oxford ; testified and recorded by Anthony Dalaber, who 
was there present the same time 421 

Articles objected against Thomas Gan'et, some time Parish 
Priest, Curate of All-Hallows in Honey Lane .... 427 

The Life and Story of William Jerome, Vicar of Stepney, and 
Martyr of Christ 429 

The Story of Barnes, Jerome, and Garret, continued; with 
the Causes of their Martyrdom 430 

Winchester's Articles against Barnes 432 

The Protestation of Dr. Barnes at the Stake 434 

The Exhortation of Jerome to the People, and the concluding 
Protestation of Thomas Garret 437 

A Note of Three Papists, Powel, Fetherstone, and Abel, exe- 
cuted at this same time 438 

1541. A Note how Bonner sat in the Guildhall in Commission for the 

Six Articles : also of the Condemning of Mekins .... 440 

Richard Spencer, Ramsey, and Hewet, Martyrs, who suffered 
at Salisbury 443 

A brief Table of the Troubles at London, in the time of the 
Six Articles; containing the Persons presented, with the 
Causes of their Persecution ibid. 

Certain Places or Articles gathered out of Alexander Seton's 
Sermons by his Adversaries 449 

The Story of John Porter, cruelly martyred for reading the 
Bible in St. Raid's 451 

A Note of one Thomas Sommcrs, imprisoned for the Gospel . 452 

Thomas Bernard and James Morton, Martyrs; also Master 
Barber who recanted 454 

A merry and pleasant Nan-ation, touching a false fearful 
Imagination of Fire, raised among the Doctors and Masters 
of Oxford, in St. Mary's Church, at the Recantation of 

Master Malary, Master of Arts of Cambridge 455 

] 542. The King divorced from the Lady Anne of Clevcs, and married 

to tlic Lady Katherine Howard, his fifth Wife .... 461 

The King's Letter to Archbishop Cranmer, for the Abolish- 
ing of Idolatry; also a Proclamation concerning eating 

White Meats, &c 463 

1544. The Trouble and Persecution of four Windsor Men, Robert 

Testwood, Henry Filmer, Anthony Peerson, and John 
Marbeck, for Righteousness' sake, and for the Gospel . . 464 

The Original of Robert Testwood's Trouble, with other causes 
of the same 465 

The Original of Henry Filmer's Trouble, followed by that of 
Anthony Peerson 470 

The Examinations of John Marbeck ... - 474 

Tile Suit of Marbeck's Wife to the Bishop of Winchester, for 
her Husband 480 



1344. Other Examinations of Marbeck 482 

The Suit of Fihiier's Wife, to the Bishops who sat in Com- 
mission, for her Husband 485 

The Martyrdom of Peerson, Testwood, and Filmer ; with the 
manner of their" Condemnation, and how they died: — also 
the sparing of Marbeck after he was sentenced to Death . 486 
How all the Adversaries' Conspiracies were known .... 494 
An Answer to the Cavilling Adversaries, touching John 

Marbeck 496 

1539 The Persecution in Calais, with the Martyrdom of George 

to Bucker, otherwise called Adam Damlip, and others . . . 497 

1544. Part of a Speech delivered by Thomas Brook, in the Lower 

House, on the Bill of the Six Articles 503 

Master Hale, of Gray's Inn, in Reply to Brook 504 

The Story of William Smith, Curate ; also the Trouble of 
John Butler, Commissary ; and the Recantation of divers 

Calais Men 511 

A new Commission appointed and sent over to Calais, with 
the Second Trouble of Thomas Brook, William Stevens, 
and others 514 

1544. The Second Apprehension of Adam Damlip; with his Mar- 

tyrdom 520 

The Story of a Poor labouring Man, and also of one Dodd, a 

Scotchman, burned at Calais 523 

The Story of William Crossbowmaker, bearing a Billet in 
Calais ; followed by an Example of Dr. London's Despite 
against the Gospellers, as also the Fidelity of a Mati-on to 

her Husband 525 

Qualifications of the Act of the Six Articles 526 

1545. The Recantation of John Heywood 528 

Kerby, and Roger Clarke, of Suffolk, Martyrs 530 

The Bill set upon the Town-house Door at Ipswich, the Night 

before they were condemned 533 

1545 The King's Oration to the Parliament-House, with Notes 
to thereupon 534 

1546. The two Examinations of the worthy Servant of God, Mistress 

Anne Askew, daughter of Sir William Askew, knight, of 
Lincolnshire : martyred in Smithfield for the constant and 

faithful Testimony of the Truth 537 

1546. The latter Apprehension and Examination of the worthy 
Martyr of God, Mistress Anne Askew, before the King at 
Greenwich 543 

" The Confession of me Anne Askew, for the Time I was at 
Newgate " 545 

The Sum of her Condemnation, her Letter to the Lord Chan- 
cellor, and her Faith ; with her Cruel Handling and Rack- 
ing after her Condemnation 546 

Anne Askew's Answer to John Lacels, followed by her Purga- 
tion, her Confession of Faith, and her Prayer 548 

The Martyrdom of John Lacels, John Adams, and Nicholas 
Belenian ; followed by a Letter of Lacels, written out of Prison 55 1 

Verses on Anne Askew ; also the Story of one Rogei's, Martyr, 
burned in Smithfield . , 553 

The Story of Queen Katherine Parr, late Queen and Wife to 
King Henry the Eighth : wherein appeareth in what Danger 
she was for the Gospel, by means of Stephen Gardiner, and 
others of his Conspiracy ; and how gloriously she was pre- 
served by her kind and loving Husband the King . . . ibid. 

A Discourse touching a certain Policy used by Stephen Gar- 
diner, in staying King Henry from redressing certain Abuses 
in the Church ; also a Communication concerning the Re- 
formation of Religion as well in France as in England . .561 



1546. A brief Narration of the Trouble of Sir George Blage . . . 564 

A Proclamation for abolishing English Books, after the 
Death of Anne Askew ; with the Names of the prohibited 

Books 565 

Heresies and Errors collected by the Bishops out of the Book 

of Tyndale, named "The Wicked Mammon" 570 

Other Heresies and Errors from "The Obedience of a Christian 

Man " 577 

Others also from " The Revelation of Antichrist" .... 582 

Others also from " The Sum of the Scripture " 592 

A Private Letter of the King to Bishop Bonner 005 

1540 A History touching the Persecution in Scotland, with the 

to Names of those who suffered after the time of Patrick Hamel- 

1558. ton; especially concerning Sir John Borthwike, knight, with 

his Articles and Answers 607 

1543 The Story of Thomas Forret, Priest, and his Fellows . . . 621 

to The Manner of Persecution used by the Cardinal of Scotland, 

1558. against certain Persons in St. John's Town, or Perth . . . 623 

The Condemnation of Master George Wisehart, Gentleman, 

who suffered for the Faith of Christ at St. Andrews, in 

Scotland, A.D. 1546 ; with his Articles and Answers . . . 625 

Brief Account of the Sermon of Dean Winryme, followed by 

the Examination of Wisehart 627 

1549 The just Judgment of God upon Archbishop Beaton, with the 

to Story and Martyrdom of Adam Wallace in Scotland . . 636 

1558. The Schisms that arose in Scotland for the Pater-Noster . . 641 

1558. The Martyrdom of the blessed Servant of God, Walter Mille, 

with his Articles 644 

1511 Persecution in Kent. A Table of certain true Servants of 

to God, and Martyrs, omitted, who were burned in the Diocese 

1539. of Canterbury, under Archbishop Warham ; with the Names 

of their Persecutors and Accusers 647 

The Order and Form of Process used against these Martyrs ; 

and, first, of William Carder, A.D. 1511 648 

Three divers sorts of Judgments amongst the Papists, against 

Heretics as they call them 652 

The Martyrdom of Laimcelot, John Painter, and Giles Ger- 
mane : also of one Stile, burned in Smithfield with the 

Apocalypse 655 

The Sentence of Pope Clement against the Divorce of Queen 

Katherine 658 

A Copy of the Bull of Pope Leo X., no less slanderous than 
barbarous, against Martin Liither and his Doctrine . . . 660 

The Answer of Martin Luther to the same 672 

The Tenor and Form of the Appeal of Martin Luther from 

Pope Leo to the next general Council 688 

1547. The Death of King Henry VIIL with the manner thereof . 689 

A Tragical History of certain Friars in France, in the City of 

Orleans, a.d. 1534 693 

Bonner's Letter to Cloney, Keeper of the Coal-house for the 
abolishing of Images 695 




1547. Edward VI 697 

The Words of Cardanus in commendation of King Edward. . 702 
Certain Ecclesiastical Laws, or General Injimctions given by 
King Edward to the Church of England; followed by others 
to Thomas, Bishop of Westminster, as well from the King 
as also from the Kinjj's Commissioners 706 



A D 

1547. A Letter of Edmund Bonner to the Bishop of Westminster, 

concerning the abolishing of Candles, Ashes, and Palms, 
and other Ceremonies 716 

Letter of the Council to the Archbishop of Canterbury, for the 
abolishing of Images; followed by one from Edmund 

Letters Missive from the Council to the Bishops, concerning 
the Communion to be ministered in both kinds . . . .719 

1548. Substance of the Petition of the Lords and Commons, in Par- 

liament assembled, to the King 721 

1549. Letters to and from Edmund Bonner, concerning the Abro- 

gating of Private Masses ; especially the Apostles' Mass . 723 
An Admonition of Lord Chancellor Rich to Justices of the 

Peace 724 

A Letter from the Council rebuking Bonner for Negligence in 
setting out the Service Book; with Bonner's Letter to the 

Dean and Chapter _• • 726 

Certain Private Injunctions, Admonitions, and Articles given 

to Bonner by the Council 729 

Articles of the Commons of Devonshire and Cornwall to the 

King; with the King's Answer 731 

1547 Matter concerning Edmund Bonner, Bishop of London, with 

to Declaration of the Acts and Process entered against him in 

1549. King Edward's time 741 

The King's Letter to the Commissioners concerning the Recan- 
tation and Pardoning of Bonner . . 743 

1549. Matters put to Bonner to redress ; with special points to be 

treated by him, in his Sermon 745 

The Denunciation of John Hooper and William Latimer, 
against Bonner, to the King's Majesty, for leaving undone 

the points before mentioned 747 

The King's Commission for the Examination of Bishop Bonner. 748 
The First Act or Session against Bishop Bonner, by the King's 

Commissioners ; with the Tenor and Fonn of his Protestation. 750 
The Second Appearance of Bonner at Lambeth ; with his 
Answer to the Denunciation of Latimer and Hooper . . . 754 

The Third Session against Bishop Bonner 763 

The Answer of Bonner to the Articles objected to him by the 

King's Commissioners the first time . . ^66 

Certain Interrogatories exhibited by Bonner against the 

Witnesses, upon the Articles above mentioned 770 

A certain Declaration of the King, respecting his former 
Commission, with Licence given to the Commissioners, as ^ 
well to determine as to hear, in the case of Bonner . . . 773 
The Fourth Session in the Hall at Lambeth; with matter 

exhibited by Bonner why he ought not to be convicted . . 774 
The Information given against Hugh Latimer by Bonner . . 777 
Interrogatories educed and ministered by Bonner against the 

Witnesses ^"^ 

The Fifth Session against Bonner, with his Answers . . .781 
The Recusation of the Judgment of Thomas Smith made by ^ 

Bishop Bonner ■ • 1°'^ 

The First Appellation intimated by Edmund Bonner . . . 785 
The Sixth Session ; in the Great Hall at Lambeth . . . .788 
The Second Appeal of Bonner, with a Letter to the Lord Mayor 790 
The Seventh Session, at Lambeth; with Bishop Bonner's 
Declaration to the Commissioners ; his Third Appeal, and 

his Supplication to the Chancellor 792 

His Sentence of Deprivation, Supplication, and other Docu- 
ments '^' 


The Burning of John Frith and Andrew Hewet .... page 18 

The Martyrdom and Burning of William Tyndale 127 

The Burning of the constant Martyr, John Lambert .... 236 

The Burning of Barnes, Jerome, and Garret 438 

The Martyrdom of Peerson, Testwood, and Filmer 493 

The Burning of Anne Askew, John Lacels, John Adams, and 

Nicholas Belenian 550 


VOL. V. 







Cfje ^tocp, aEjcammation, ^catfj, and jaartpcoora of Siofjn 5Fnt{j. 

Amongst all other chances lamentable, there hath been none a Henry 
long time which seemed unto me more grievous, than the lamentable ^^^^' 
death and cruel handling of John Frith, so learned and excellent a A. D. 
young man ; who had so profited in all kind of learning and know- ^^33. 
ledge, that there was scarcely his equal amongst all his companions ; 
and who besides, withal, had such a godliness of life joined with his 
doctrine, that it was hard to judge in which of them he was more 
commendable, being greatly praiseworthy in them both : but as 
touching his doctrine, by the grace of Christ we will speak here- 

Of the great godliness which Avas in him, this may serve for ex- 
periment sufficient, for that notwithstanding his other manifold and 
singular gifts and ornaments of the mind, in him most pregnant, 
wherewithal he might have opened an easy way unto honour and 
dignity, notwithstanding he rather chose wholly to consecrate himself 
unto the church of Christ, excellently showing forth, and practising 
in himself, the precept so highly commended of the philosophers, 
touching the life of man : which life, they say, is given unto us in 
such sort, that how much the better the man is, so much the less he 
should live unto hunself, but unto others, serving for the common 
utility ; and that we should think a great part of our birth to be due 
unto our parents, a greater part unto our country, and the greatest 
part of all to be bestowed upon the church, if we will be counted 
good men. First of all he began his study at Cambridge ; in whom 

ri) Edition 1563, p. 497. Ed. 1570, p. 1173. Ed. 1576, p. 1004. Ed. 1583, p. 1031. Ed. 1597, p. 941. 
Ed. 1684, vol. ii. p. 250.— Ed. 



fiptry nature had planted, being but a child, marvellous instinctions and 


love unto learning, whercunto he was addicted. He had also a 
A. D. wonderful promptness of wit, and a ready capacity to receive and 
*^^^^' understand any thing, insomuch that he seemed hot only to be sent 
unto learning, but also born for the same purpose. Neither was there 
any diligence wanting in him, equal unto that towardness, or worthy 
of his disposition ; whereby it came to pass, that he was not only a 
lover of learning, but also became an exquisite learned man ; in 
which exercise when he had diligently laboured certain, years, not 
without great profit both of Latin and Greek, at last he fell into 
knowledge and acquaintance with William Tyndale, through whose 
instructions he first received into his heart the seed of the gospel 
and sincere godliness. 

At that time Thomas Wolsey, cardinal of York, prepared to build 
a college in Oxford, marvellously sumptuous, which had the name 
and title of Frideswide, but is now named ChristVchurch, not so 
much (as it is thought) for the love and zeal that he bare unto 
learning, as for an ambitious desire of glory and renown, and to leave 
a perpetual name unto posterity. But that building, he being cut 
off by the stroke of death (for he was sent for unto the king, accused 
of certain crimes, and in the way, by immoderate purgations, killed 
himself), was left partly begun, partly half ended and imperfect, and 
nothing else save only the kitchen was fully finished. Whereupon 
Rodulph Gualter, a learned man, being then in Oxford, and behold- 
ing the college, said these words in Latin : " Egregiiun opus, cardi- 
nalis iste instituit collegium, et absolvit popinam.''' How large and 
ample those buildings should have been, what sumptuous cost should 
have been bestowed upon the same, may easily be perceived by that 
which is already builded, as the kitchen, the hall, and certain cham- 
bers, where there is such curious graving and workmanship of stone- 
cutters, that all things on every side did glister for the excellency of 
the workmanship, for the fineness of the matter, with the gilt antics 
and embossings ; insomuch that if all the rest had been finished to 
that determinate end as it was begun, it might well have excelled 
not only all colleges of students, but also palaces of princes. This 
ambitious cardinal gathered together into that college whatsoever 
excellent thing there was in the whole realm, either vestments, vessels, 
or other ornaments, beside provision of all kind of precious things. 
Besides that, he also appointed unto that company all such men as 
were found to excel in any kind of learning and knowledge ; to re- 
cite all whose names in order would be too long. The chief of those 
who were called from Cambridge were these : Master Clerk, master 
of arts, of thirty-four years of age ; Master Frier, afterwards doctor 
of physic, and after that a strong papist ; Master Sumner, master of 
arts ; Master Harman, master of arts, afterwards fellow of Eton col- 
lege, and after that a papist ; Master Bettes, master of arts, a good 
man and zealous, and so remained ; Master Cox, master of arts, who 
conveyed himself away toward the north, and after was schoolmaster 
of Eton, and then chaplain to doctor Goodrich, bishop of Ely, and 
by him preferred to king Henry, and, of late, bishop of Ely ; John 
Frith, bachelor of arts ; Bayly, bachelor of arts ; Goodman, who 
being sick in the prison with the others, was had out, and died in 


the town ; Druinnie, wlio afterwards fell away and forsook the truth ; H'""j 


Thomas Lawney, chaplain of the house, prisoner with John Frith. 

To these join also Tavcrner of Boston, the good musician,' besides ^-p- 
many others called also out of other places, most picked young men, ^^'^ 
of grave judgment and sharp wits ; who, conferring together upon 
the abuses of religion, being at that time crept into the church, were 
therefore accused of heresy unto the cardinal, and cast into a prison, 
within a deep cave under the ground of the same college, where 
their salt fish was laid ; so that, through the filthy stench thereof, 
they were all infected, and certain of them, taking their death in the 
same prison, shortly upon the same being taken out of the prison 
into their chambers, there deceased. 

The troublers and examiners of these good men, were these : Dr. 
London ; Dr. Higdon, dean of the said college ; and Dr. Cottesford, 

Master Clerk, Master Sumner, and sir Bayly, eating nothing but 
salt fish from February to the midst of August, died all three together 
within the compass of one week. 

Master Bettcs, a witty man, having no books found in his chamber, 
through entreaty and surety got out of prison, and so remaining a 
space in the college, at last slipped away to Cambridge, and after- 
wards Avas chaplain to queen Anne, and in great favour with her. 

Taverner, although he Avas acctised and suspected for hiding of 
Clerk''s books under the boards in his school, yet the cardinal, for his 
music, excused him, saying that he was but a musician : and so he 

After the death of these men, John Frith with others, by the 
cardinaFs letter, who sent word that he would not have them so 
straitly handled, were dismissed out of prison, upon condition not to 
pass above ten miles out of Oxford ; which Frith, after hearing of 
the examination of Dalaber^ and Garret, who bare then faggots, went 
over the sea, and after two years he came over for exhibition of the 
prior of Reading (as is thought), and had the prior over with him. 

Being at Reading, it happened that he was there taken for a vaga- joim 
bond, and brought to examination ; where the simple man, who could jj^''/,', ,|,p 
not craftily enoufjli colour himself, was set in the stocks. After he ^f'^^^s at 

ii'i 1 • 1 1 •I'll 1 Reading. 

had sitten there a long tune, and was almost pined with hunger, and 
would not, for all that, declare what he was, at last he desired that 
the schoolmaster of the town might be brought to him, who at that cox?*'^'' 
time was one Leonard Cox, a man very well learned. As soon as schooi- 
he came unto him. Frith, by and by, began in the Latin tongue to there. 
bewail his captivity. 

The schoolmaster, by and by, being overcome with his eloquence, 
did not only take pity and compassion upon him, but also began to 
love and embrace such an excellent wit and disposition unlooked for, 
especially in such a state and misery. Afterwards, conferring more 
together upon many things, as touching the universities, schools, and 
tongues, they fell from the Latin into the Greek, wherein Frith did 
so inflame the love of that schoolmaster towards him, that he brought 

(I) This Taverner repented him very mucli tliat he hatl made songs to popish ditties, in the 
time of his hl'ndness. 

(7) Of this Ualiiber, read more in the story of TiuMiiab C-arret. 





his help, 
out of the 
Sir Tho- 
mas More 
a deadly 
cutor of 

The occa- 
sion of 

The occa- 
sion of 
upon the 

Tlolt a 


him into a marvellous admiration, especially when the schoolmaster 
heard him so promptly by heart rehearse Homer''s verses out of his 
first book of the Iliad ; whereupon the schoolmaster went with all 
speed unto the magistrates, grievously complaining of the injury 
which they did show unto so excellent and innocent a young man. 

Thus Frith, through the help of the schoolmaster, was freely dis- 
missed out of the stocks, and set at liberty without, punishment. 
Albeit this his safety continued not long, through the great hatred 
and deadly pursuit of sir Thomas More, who, at that time being 
chancellor of England, persecuted him both by land and sea, beset- 
ting all the ways and havens, yea, and promising great rewards, if 
any man could bring him any news or tidings of him. 

Thus Frith, being on every part beset with troubles, not knowing 
which way to turn him, seeketh for some place to hide him in. Thus 
fleeting from one place to another, and often changing both his gar- 
ments and place, yet could he be in safety in no place ; no not long 
amongst his friends ; so that at last, being traitorously taken (as ye 
shall after hear), he was sent unto the Tower of London, where he 
had many conflicts with the bishops, but especially in writing Anth 
sir Thomas More. The first occasion of his writing was this : 
Upon a time he had communication with a certain old familiar friend 
of his, touching the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ ; the 
whole effect of Avhich disputation consisted specially in these four 
points : 

I. First, That the matter of the sacrament is no necessary article of faith 
under pain of damnation. 

II. Secondly, That forasmuch as Christ's natural body in like condition hath 
all properties of our body, sin only except, it cannot be, neither is it agreeable 
imto reason, that he should be in two places or more at once, contrary to the 
nature of our body. 

III. Moreover, thirdly, it shall not seem meet or necessary, that we should 
in this place understand Christ's words according to the literal sense, but rather 
according to the order and phrase of speech, comparing phrase with phrase, 
according to the analogy of the Scripture. 

IV. Last of all, how that it ought to be received according to the true and 
right institution of Christ, albeit that the order which at this time is crept into 
the church, and is used now-a-days by the priests, do never so much differ 
from it. 

And forasmuch as the treatise of this disputation seemed some- 
what long, his friend desired him that such things as he had reasoned 
upon he would briefly commit unto writing, and give unto him for 
the help of his memory. Frith, albeit he was unwilling, and not 
ignorant how dangerous a thing it was to enter into such a conten- 
tious matter, at last, notwithstanding, he, being overcome by the 
entreaty of his friend, rather followed his will, than looked to his 
own safeguard. 

There was at that time in London a tailor named William Holt, 
who, feigning a great friendship towards this party, instantly required 
of him to give him license to read over that same writing of Fritirs ; 
which when he unadvisedly did, the other, by and by, carried it unto 
More, being then chancellor : which thing, afterwards, was occasion 
(jf great trouble, and also of death, unto the said Frith ; for More, 
having not only gotten a copy of his book of this sycophant, but 


also two other copies, which at the same time, in a manner, Avere Henry 

sent him by other promoters, he whetted his wits, and called his L 

spirits together as much as he might, meaning to refute his opinion A. D. 
by a contrary book. ^'^'^" 

The Sum of John Frith's Book of the Sacrament. 

This ih a manner was the whole sum of the reasons of Fiith's book ; first, 
to declai-e the pope's belief of the sacrament to be no necessary article of our 
faith ; that is to say, that it is no article of our faith necessary to be believed 
under pain of damnation, that the sacrament should be the natural body of 
Christ : which he thus proveth ; for many so believe, and yet in so believing 
the sacrament to be the natm'al body, are not thereby saved, but receive it to 
their damnation. 

Again, in believing the sacrament to be the natural body, yet that natural 
presence of his body in the bread, is not that which saveth us, but his presence 
in our hearts by faith. And likewise, the not believing of his bodily presence Not be- 
in the sacrament, is not the thing that shall damn us, but the absence of him thereof-"' 
out of our heart, through unbelief. And if it be objected, that it is necessary poral pre- 
to believe God's word under pain of damnation : to that he answereth that the ^'j"^^ °/ 
word taken in the right sense, as Christ meant, maintaineth no such bodily „o (j^m- 
presence as the pope's church doth teach, but rather a sacramental presence, nation. 
And that, saith he, may be further confirmed thus : 


Ce- None of the old fathers before Christ's incarnation were bound under 
pain of damnation to believe this point. 

la- All we be saved by the same faith that the old fathers were. 

rent. Ej-go, None of us are bound to believe this point under pain of 

The first part, saith he, is evident of itself; for how could they believe that 
which they never heard nor saw 1 

The second part, saith he, appeareth plainly by St. Augustine, writing to 
Dardanus, and also by a hundred places more ; neither is there any thing that 
he doth more often inculcate than this, that the same faith that saved our 
fathers, saveth us also. And therefore upon the truth of these two parts, thus 
proved, must the conclusion, saith he, needs follow. 

Another Argument. 

None of the old fathers before Christ's incarnation, did eat Christ corporally 
in their signs, but only mystically and spiritually, and were saved. 

All we do eat Christ even as they did, and are saved as they were. 

Ergo, None of us do eat Christ corporally, but mystically and spiritually in 
our signs, as they did. 

For the probation of the first part, Frith, proceeding in his dis- 
course, declareth as follows : — 

The ancient fathers, before Christ's incarnation, did never believe any 
such point of this gross and carnal eating of Christ's body ; and yet, notwith- 
standing, they did eat him spiritually, and were saved; as Adam, Abraham, 
Moses, Aaron, Phinehas, and other godly Israelites besides. All which, saith 
he, did eat the body of Christ, and did drink his blood as we do. But this 
eating and di'inking of theirs was spiritual, pertaining only to faith, and not to 
the teeth : ' For they were all inuler the cloud, and drank of the rock which 
followed them; this rock was Christ,'" who was promised them to come into 
the world. And this promise was first made xmto Adam, when it was said imto 
the serpent, ' I will put hatred between thee and the woman, between her 
seed and thy seed,'- &c. And afterwards again unto Abraham : ' In thy seed 
(1) J Cor. X. (2) Gen. iii. 

8 joHX kkith's book of the sacrament. 

Henry shall all people be blessed,'* &c. : adding also the sacrament of circumcision, 
f'^^lf- which was called the covenant ; not because it was so indeed, but because it 
. T-v was a sign and a token of the covenant made between God and Abraham ; 

153V admonishing us thereby, how we should judge and think touching the sacra- 
ment of his body and blood ; to wit, that albeit it be called the body of Christ, 

Bread is yet we should properly understand thereby the finiit of our justification, which 
body!^a's'^ plentifully floweth unto all the faithful by his most healthful body and blood, 
the sacra- Likewise the same promise was made unto Moses, the most meek and gentle 
ment of captain of the Israelites, who did not only himself believe upon Christ, who 
cisioii is was so often promised, but also did prefigurate him by divers means, both by 
called the the manna which came down from heaven, and also by the water which issued 
covenant, ^^j. ^^ ^j^^ rock, for the refreshing of the bodies of his people. 
Thewater Neither is it to be doubted, but that both manna and this water had a pro- 
r*^ck^ d P^'st^'^^l mystery in them, declaring the very self-same thing then, which the 
bread and bread and the wine do now declare unto us in the sacrament. For this saith St. 
wine, fi- Augustine, ' Whosoever did understand Christ in the manna, did eat the spiritual 
Christ's ^'^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^- -^^^^ *^h^y» w^° ^y t^^'' nianna sought only to fill their bellies, 
body. did eat thereof, and are dead.' So, likewise, saith he of the drink: ' For the 
rock was Christ.^ And, by and by after, he inferreth thus: Moses did eat 
manna, and Phinehas also ; and many others also did eat thereof, who pleased 
God, and are not dead. Why ? because they did understajjd the visible meat 
spiritually. They did spiritually hunger, and did spiritunrfy taste of it, that 
The fa- they might be spiritually satisfied. They all did eat the same spiritual meat, 
thers ate ^^^ ^^jj ^j^j drink the same spiritual drink : all one spiritual thing, but not all 
spiritual, one Corporal matter (for they did eat manna, and we another thing), but the 
but not self-same spiritual thing that we do ; and although they drank the same 
corporar spiritual drink that we do, yet they drank one thing, and we another : which 
food that nevertheless signified all one thing in spiritual effect. How did they drink all 
vedo. Qjjg thing? The apostle answereth, * Of the spiritual rock which followed them, 
for the rock was Christ.' And Bede also, adding these words, saith, 'Behold 
the signs are altered, and yet the faith remaineth one.' Thereby a man may 
perceive that the manna which came down from heaven, was the same unto 
them, that our sacrament is unto us ; and that by either of them is signified, 
that the body of Christ came down from heaven ; and yet, notwithstanding, 
never any of them said that manna was the very body of Messias ; as our sacra- 
mental bread is not indeed the body of Christ, but a mystical representation of 
Manna, the same. For like as the manna which came down from heaven, and the 
bodv'of bread which is received in the supper, do nourish the body, even so the body 
Christ. of Christ coming down from heaven, and being given for us, doth quicken up 
the spirits of the believers unto life everlasting. Then, if the salvation of both 
people be alike, and their faith also one, there is no cause why we should add 
transubstantiation unto our sacrament, more than they believed their manna 
to be altered and changed. Moreover because they are named sacraments, 
even by the signification of the name they must needs be signs of things, or 
else of necessity they can be no sacraments. 
Objection. But some may here object and say. If only faith, both unto them and also 
imto us, be sutficient for salvation, what need then any sacraments to be insti- 
Answer. tuted ? He answered, that there are three causes why sacraments are insti- 
causes tuted. The first St. Augustine declareth in these words, writing against 
whysa- Faustus: 'Men,' saith he, ' cannot be knit together into one name of religion, 
craments he it true or be it false, except they be knit by the society of signs and visible 
da!n°ed. sacraments, the power whereof doth wonderfidly prevail, in so nuich that such 
as contemn them are wicked : for that is wickedly contemned, without 
which godliness cannot be made perfect, Src. Another cause is, that they 
should be helpers to graft and plant faith in our hearts, and for the confirmation 
Sacra- of God's promises. But this use of sacraments many arc yet ignorant of, and 
jnentsnot myi-p there be who do preposterously judge of the same, taking the signs for 
shipped, the tiling itself, and worsltipping the same : even by like reason in a manner, 
as if a man would take the bush that hangeth at the tavern door, and suck it 
to slake his thirst, and will not go into the tavern where the wine is. Thirdly, 
they do serve imto this use, to stir up the minds and hearts of the faithful to 
give thanks unto God for his benefits. 

(1) Gen. xxvi. (2) 1 Cor. x. 


And these in a manner are the principal points of Frith's book. Henry 

When More (as is aforesaid) had gotten a copy of this treatise, ^^^^' 
he sharpened his pen all that he might, to make answer unto this A, D. 
young man (for so he calleth him throughout his whole book), but in ^^3.3. 
such sort, that when the book was once set forth, and showed unto More 
the world, then he endeavoured himself, all that he might, to keep it ^gains^ 
from printing : pcradventure lest that any copy thereof should come ^""'• 
unto Frith's hands. But notwithstanding, when at last Frith had Frith an- 
gotten a copy thereof, by means of his friends, he answered him out Mm^*^"' 
of the prison, omitting nothing that any man could desire to the per- 
fect and absolute handling of the matter. And as it were a great 
labour, so do I think it not much necessary to repeat all his reasons 
and arguments, or the testimonies which he had gathered out of the 
doctors ; especially forasmuch as Cranmer, the archbishop of Canter- cranmer 
bury, in his apology against the bishop of Winchester, seemed to lue'^book^ 
have collected them abundantly, gathering the principal and chiefest °^ *""'^- 
helps from thence that he leaned unto against the other ; and I doubt 
much whether the archbishop ever gave any more credit unto any 
author of that doctrine, than unto this aforesaid Frith. 

What dexterity of wit was in him, and excellency of doctrine, it 
may appear not only by his books which he wrote of the sacrament, 
but also in those which he entitled Of Purgatory. In that quarrel 
he withstood the violence of three most obstinate enemies ; that is Rociies- 
to say, of Rochester, More, and Rastal, whereof the one by the help *'=^' ^"re, 
of the doctors, the other by wresting of the Scripture, and the third tai 
by the help of natural philosophy, had conspired against him. But F^fth.^'^ 
he, as a Hercules, fighting not against two only, but even with them Frith con- 
all three at once, did so overthrow and confound them, that he con- R^asui. 
verted Rastal to his part. 

Besides all these commendations of this young man, there was also 
in him a friendly and prudent moderation in uttering of the truth, 
joined with a learned godliness ; Avhich virtue hath always so much "^ 
prevailed in the church of Christ, that, without it, all other good 
gifts of knowledge, be they ever so great, cannot greatly profit, but 
oftentimes do very much hurt. And would to God that all things, 
in all places, were so free from all kind of dissension, that there were 
no mention made amongst Christians of Zuinglians and Lutherans, 
when neither Zuinglius nor Luther died for us; but that we might be 
all one in Christ. Neither do I think that any thing more grievous 
could happen unto those worthy men, than for their names so to be 
abused to sects and factions, who so greatly withstood and strove 
against all factions. Neither do I here discourse which part came 
nearest imto the truth, nor so rashly intermeddle in this matter, 
that 1 will detract any thing from either part, but rather wish of 
God I might join either part unto the other. 

But now, forasmuch as we treat of the story of John Frith, I can- Prudent 
not choose, but must needs earnestly and heartily embrace the pru- ance and 
dent and godly moderation which was in that man, Avho, maintaining "■^,'1'™" 
his quarrel of the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, no less godly than I'litii. 
learnedly (and so as no man in a manner had done it more learnedly 
and pithily), yet he did it so moderately, without any contention, 
that he would never seem to strive against the Papists, except he had 


Henry bccn cliiven to it even of necessity. In all other matters, where 

L necessity did not move him to contend, he was ready to grant all 

A.D. things for quietness'' sake, as his most modest reason and answers did 
^^^'^' declare. For when More, disputing in a certain place upon the 
sacrament, laid against him the authority of doctor Barnes, for the 
presence of the body and blood in the sacrament, he answered unto 
More and his companions, that he would promise under this condition, 
that if the sentence of Luther and Barnes might be holden as ratified, 
he would never speak more words of it : ^ for in that point they did 
both agree Avith him, that the sacrament was not to be worshipped ; and 
that idolatry being taken away, he was content to permit every man to 
judge of the sacrament, as God should put into their hearts : for then 
there remained no more poison, that any man ought or might be 
afraid of. Wherefore, if they did agi-ee in that which was the chief 
point of the sacrament, they should easily accord and agree in the 
Modera- Thus much he wrote, in the treatise entitled " The Exile," of 
Tn°ended'' I^^^ues agaiust Morc ; which words of this most meek martyr of 
in dispu- Clirist, if they would take place in the seditious divisions and factions of 
these our days, with great ease and little labour men might be brought 
to a unity in this controversy ; and much more concord and love 
should be in the Church, and much less offence given abroad than 
there is. 

*But- I know not what cruel pestiferous fury hath secretly inter- 
meddled herself in these matters, so corrupt in all things, that there 
is almost none so light a cause or occasion wherein one man can 
bear with another, if he dissent or disagree from his opinion. And 
while every man doth seek, even by the teeth, to defend his own 
quarrel, many men Avould rather seek to give occasion, than, in any 
case, seek to relent or remit. There are also some, who will seek to 
assuage the matter, but others will willingly take the bellows in 
hand to blow the fire, and but few there are that will seek to quench 
it. But if we had but a few like this John Frith, these factions, per- 
adventure, would easily be accorded, or at least if the opinions could 
not be agreed, their minds, notwithstanding, might be united and 
joined. Albeit I do not think their opinions to be of so great force 
and effect that they should seem to be worthy of all these tragedies, 
for so nmch as they do not of necessity touch either the damnation or 
salvation of souls : and again, they are not so far discrepant amongst 
themselves, but that they may by reason be reconciled, so that there 
be some temperature of Frith's moderation adhibited thereunto, 
which may something impetrate and obtain on their part. 

Those who judge the reason of the sacrament to be spiritually 
understood, do think well, and, pcradventure, do draw near to Chrisfs 
mind and institution ; but, notwithstanding, they be never a whit 
better men than they, who, following the letter together with them, 
do take away the supeifluity of the ceremonies. They do take away 
transubstantiation from the sacrament ; the like do the others also. 
They take away the sacrifice of the private mass ; the same also do 
the others. These men put away all false worshipping ; the others 

(1) John Frith, speaking accordinp to tliat time, showed the opinion of Luther might be 
received. (2) See Editior. 15(i3, pp 500, 5U1.— Eb. 


also do not suffer it, but both parts do affirm the presence of Christ Hewry 
in the mystical supper. Hitherto they both have agreed in these arti- 

cles: what cause is there then of discord, Avhen they both, as I said, do A. D. 
confess the presence of Christ, and disagree only upon the manner of the ^'^'^^\ 
presence, which the one part do affirm to be real, and the other spiritual ? 
But how much were it better, in my opinion, if that, by a common 
consent of either party, they would come to this point ; that every 
man being contented with his own opinion, we should all simply agree 
upon the presence of Christ, that, even thus, as touching the manner 
of his presence, all manner of disputation should cease for a time, and 
so, by little and little, all controversies be turned into truce and 
quietness ; until that time should breed more love and charity amongst 
men, or that love and charity should find a remedy for these con- 

But this shall now suffice for this present, being more than I was 
determined to speak ; and, brought hither by occasion of John Frith, 
I know not myself by what wind or weather, and peradventure some- 
what too far pagsed into the German seas, now, castiiig the helm 
about, we will hold our course which we had begun, into England, and 
treat of the death and examination of John Frith.* 

John Frith, after he had now sufficiently contended in his writings Fritu 
with More, Rochester, and Rastal, More"'s son-in-law, was at last ed"befora 
carried to Lambeth, first before the bishop of Canterbury, and after- \ll^^ 
wards unto Croydon, before the bishop of Winchester, to plead his 
cause. Last of all, he was called before the bishops, in a common 
assembly at London, where he constantly defended himself, if he 
might have been heard. 

The order of his judgment, with the manner of his examination and 
the articles which were objected against him, are comprised and set 
forth by himself in a letter written and sent unto his friends, whilst 
he was prisoner in the Tower. 

A Letter^ of Jolsn Frith to his Friends, concerning his Troubles ; 
wherein, after he had first with a brief preface saluted them, entering 
then into the matter, thus he writeth : — 

I doubt not, dear brethren, but that it doth some deal vex you, to see the one 
part to have all the words, and freely to speak what they list, and the others to 
be put to silence, and not be heard indifterently. But refer your matters unto 
God, who shortly shall judge after another fashion. In the mean time I have 
written unto you, as briefly as I may, what articles were objected against me, 
and what were the principal points of my condemnation, that ye might under- 
stand the matter certainly. 

The whole matter of this my examination was comprehended in two special 
articles, that is to say, Of Purgatory, and Of the substance of the Sacrament. _ 

And first of all, as touching purgatory, they inquired of me whether I did Purga- 
believe there was any place to purge the spots and filth of the soul after this *"'■>' 
life? But I said, that I thought there was no such place : for man, (said I) doth 
consist and is made only of two parts, that is to say, of the body and the soul, 
whereof the one is purged here in this world, by the cross of Christ, which he 
layeth upon every child that he roceiveth ; as aftliction, worldly oppression, 

(1) This letter is to be seen in the end of that excellent and worthy work which he made in the 
Tower, concerning the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ. [The title of this letter is ' A 
Boke made by Johan Fryth, prysonner in the Tour of London, answering unto M. Mores letter against 
the treatyse Johan Fryth made concerning the sacrament, &c. printed at London by Anthony 
Scoloker, ir>48;and afterwards by R Jiigge, 8vo. lo'18. Ames' T.y])ograi)lucal Antiquities, by 
Dibdin, vol. iv. p. 197.— En.] 



Henry persecution, imprisonment, &c. Tlic last of all, the reward of sin, which is 
VIII- death, is laid upon us : but the soul is purged with the word of God, which we 
. 1^ receive through faith, to the salvation both of body and soul. Now if ye can 
,-■„„■ show me a third part of man besides the body and the soul, I will also grant 

'_ inito you the third place, which ye do call purgatory. But because ye cannot 

do this, I must also of necessity deny unto you the bishop of Rome's purgatory. 
Nevertheless I count neither part a necessary article of o)n- faith, to be believed 
under pain of damnation, whether there be such a purgatory or no. 

Secondly, They examined me touching the sacrament of the altar, whether it 
was the very body of Christ or no ? 
Tlie sa- I answered, that I thought it was both Christ's body and also our body, as 
crament^ St. Paul teach eth us in 1 Cor. x. For in that it is made one bread of many 
body.'^"' * corns, it is called our body, which, being divers and many members, arc associ- 
ated and gathei'ed together into one fellowship or body. Likewise of the wine, 
which is gathered of many clusters of grapes, and is made into one liquor. But 
the same bread again, in that it is broken, is the body of Christ ; declaring his 
body to be broken and delivered unto death, to redeem us from our iniquities. 

Furthermore, in that the sacrament is distributed, it is Christ's body, signifying 
that as verily as the sacrament is distributed unto us, so verily are Christ's body 
and the fruit of his passion distributed unto all faithful people. 

In that it is received, it is Christ's body, signifying that as verily as the 
outward man receiveth the sacrament with his teeth and mouth, so verily doth 
the inward man, through faith, receive Christ's body and the fruit of his passion, 
and is as sure of it as of the bread which he eateth. 
Traiisvib- Well (said they) dost thou not think that his very natural body, flesh, blood, 
stantia- ^j^^j bone, is really contained under the sacrament, and there present without all 
figure or similitude ? No (said I), I do not so think : notwithstanding I would 
not that any should count, that I make my saying (which is the negative) any 
article of faith. For even as I say, that you ought not to make any necessary 
article of the faith of your part (which is the affirmative), so I say again, that we 
make no necessary article of the faith of our part, but leave it indifferent for all 
men to judge therein, as God shall open their hearts, and no side to condemn or 
despise the other, but to nourish in all things brotherly love ; and one to bear 
another's infirmity. 

After this they alleged tlie place of St. Augustine, where he saith, ' He was 

carried in his own hands.' 

The Whereunto I answered, that St. Augustine was a plain interpreter of him- 

piace of sgif . foj. j,g \^q^\\^ Jn another place, ' He was carried as it were in his own hands :' - 

gustine which is a phrase of speech not of one that doth simply affirm, but only of one 

expound- expressing a thing by a similitude. And albeit that St. Augustine had not thus 

^ ■ expounded himself, yet, writing unto Boniface, he doth plainly admonish all 

men, that the sacraments do represent and signify those things whereof they are 

sacraments, and many times even of the similitudes of the things themselves, 

they do take their names. And therefore, according to this ride, it niay be said, 

he was borne in his own hands, when he bare in his hands the sacrament of liis 

body and blood. 

Then they alleged a place of Chrysostome, whicli, at the first blusli, may 

seem to make much for them, who, in a certain Homily upon the Supper, 

wi-iteth thus : ' Dost thou see bread and wine? Do they depart from thee into 

the draught, as other meats do? No, God forbid ! for as in wax, when it cometh 

to the fire, nothing of the substance remaineth or abideth ; so likewise think 

that the mysteries are consumed by the substance of the body,' &'c. 

The place These words I expounded by the words of the same doctor, who, in another 

sosto^nie Homily, saith on this manner; 'The inward eyes,' saith lie, 'as soon as they 

answered, see the bread, they flee over all creatures, and do not think of the bread that is 

Chryso- baked by tlie baker, but of the bread of everlasting life, which is signified by 

nimndeth ^^^^ mystical bread.' Now confer these places together, and you shall perceive 

himself, that the last cxpoundeth the first plainly. For he saith. Dost thou see the bread 

and wine? I answer by the second. Nay. For the inward eyes, as soon as 

they see the bread, do pass over all creatures, and do not any longer thin'R upon 

the bread, but upon him that is signified by the bread. And after this manner 

(1) ' Fcrabatur in manilius propriit.' (2) ' Fcrabatur taiiquam in maiiibus suis.' 


he seeth it, and again he seetli it not : for as he seeth it with his outward and iTcnry 
carnal eyes, so with his inward eyes he seeth it not; that is to say, regardeth ^'m- 
not the bread, or thinketli not upon it, but is otherwise occupied. Even as . y. 
when we play or do any thing else negligently, we commonly are wont to say, , '„ ' 

we see not what we do ; not that indeed we do not see that which we go about, L 

but because our mind is fixed on some other thing, and doth not attend unto 
that which the eyes do see. 

In like manner may it be answered unto that which followeth ; ' Do they 
avoid from thee,' saith he, ' into the draught as other meats do?' I will not so 
say, for other meats, passing through the bowels, after they have of themselves 
given nourishment unto the body, be voided into the draught : but this is a 
spiritual meat, which is received by faith, and nourisheth both body and soul 
unto everlasting life, neither is it at any time avoided as other meats are. 

And as before I said that the external eyes do behold the bread, which the 
inward eyes, being otherwise occupied, do not behold or think upon, even so 
our outward man doth digest the bread, and void it into the draught; but the 
inward man doth neither regard nor think upon it, but thinketh upon the thing 
itself that is signified by that bread. And therefore Chrysostome,' a little before 
the words which they alleged, saith ; ' Lift up your minds and hearts :' whereby 
he admonisheth us to look upon and consider those heavenly things which are 
represented and signified by the bread and wine, and not to mark the bread 
and wine itself. 

Here they said, that was not Ciirysostome's mind; but that by this example 
he declareth that there remained no bread nor wine. I answered, that was false : 
for the example that he taketh tendeth to no other purjiose, but to call away 
our spiritual eyes from the beholding of visible things, and to transport them 
another way, as if the things which are seen were of no force. Therefore he 
draweth away our mind from the consideration of these things, and fixeth it Mysteries 
upon him who is signified unto us by the same. The very words which follow, seen 
sufficiently declare this to be the true meaning of the author, where he ward 
commandeth us to consider all things with our inward eyes ; that is to say, eyes, 

But whether Chrysostome's words do tend either to this or that sense, yet do chryso- 
they indifferently make on our part against our adversaries, which way soever stome 
we do understand them. For if he thought that the bread and wine do remain, the'po- 
we have no further to travel : but if he meant contrariwise, that they do not pish doc- 
remain, but that the natures of the bread and wine are altered, then are the J""^ °^ 
bread and wine falsely named sacraments and mysteries, which can be said in ment. 
no place to be in the nature of things : for that which is in no place, how can The ob-. 
it be a sacrament, or supply the room of a mystery ? Finally, if he speak only chryso-" 
of the outward forms and shapes (as we call them), it is most certain that they stome 
do continually remain, and that by the substance of the body they are not con- ^^o'<^f:l 
sumed in any place : wherefore it must necessarily follow that the words of lemma. 
Chrysostome be to be understood in such sense as I have declared. 

Here peradventure many would marvel,^ that forasmuch as the matter touch- 
ing the substance of the sacrament, is separate from the articles of faith, and 
bindeth no man of necessity either unto salvation or damnation, whether he 
believe it or not, but rather may be left indiflTerently unto all men, freely to 
judge either on the one part or on the other, according to his own mind, so that 
neither part do contemn or despise the other, but that all love and charity be 
still holden and kept in this dissension of opinions : what then is the cause, why 
I would therefore so willingly suffer death ? The cause why I die is this : for 
that I cannot agree with the divines and other head prelates, that it should be 
necessarily determined to be an article of faith, and that we should believe, 
under pain of damnation, the substance of the bread and wine to be changed 
into the body and blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ, the form and shape only 
not being changed. Which thing if it were most true (as they shall never be 
able to prove it by any authority of the Scriptiu-e or doctors), yet shall they not 

(1) The arj^iment from Chrysostome: the helly of man cannot avoid any part of Christ's body: 
the belly of man avoideth some part of every thing tliat the mouth receiveth : ergo, the mouth of 
man receiveth not the body of Christ. 

(2) A question is here asked, with the cause declared, why that, seeing the matter of the sacra- 
ment itself importeth neither salvation nor damnation, Frith offereth himself to death for the 
same ? 


Henry SO bring fo pass, that that doctrine, were it ever so time, should be holden for 
yill- a necessary article of faith. For there are many things, both in the Scriptures 
. T^ and other places, which we are not bound of necessity to believe as an article of 
^coo' faith. So it is tnie, that I was a prisoner and in bonds when I wrote these 

L things, and yet, for all that, I will not hold it as an article of faith,' but that you 

may, without danger of damnation, either believe it, or think the contrary. 

Tiiree But as touching the cause why I cannot affirm the doctrine of transubstantia- 

causes tion, divers reasons do lead me thereunto : first, for that I do plainly see it to 

suifst'an"" ^6 ^^^^ ^"^ vain, and not to be grounded upon any reason, either of the Scrip- 

tiation is tures, or of approved doctors. Secondly, for that by my example I would not 

not to be |jg ^^ author unto Christians to admit any thing as a matter of faith, more than 

the necessary points of their creed, wherein the whole sum of our salvation doth 

consist, especially such things, the belief whereof hath no certain argument of 

authority or reason. I added moreover, that their church (as they call it) hath 

no such power and authority, that it either ought or may bind us, under the 

peril of our souls, to the believing of any such articles. Thirdly, because I will 

not, for the favour of our divines or priests, he prejudicial in this point unto so 

many nations, of Germans, Helvetians, and others, which, altogether rejecting 

the transubstantiation of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ, 

are all of the same opinion that I am, as well those that take Luther's part, as 

those that hold with (Ecolampadius. Which things standing in this case, I 

suppose there is no man of any upright conscience, who wiU not allow the 

reason of my death, which I am put unto for this only cause, that I do not think 

transubstantiation, although it were true indeed, to be established for an article 

of faith. 

And thus mucli hitherto as touching the articles and whole disputa- 
tion of John Frith, which was done Avith all moderation and upright- 
ness. But when no reason would prevail against the force and cruelty 
of these furious foes, on the 20th day of June, a.d. 15S3, he was 
brought before the bishops of London, Winchester, and Lincoln, 
who, sitting in St. Paul's, on Friday the 20th day of June, ministered 
certain interrogatories upon the sacrament of the supper, and purga- 
tory, unto the said Frith, as is above declared ; to which when he 
had answered, and showed his mind in form and effect, as by his own 
words above doth appear, he afterwards subscribed to his answers 

The sub- with his own hand, in these words :^ "I Frith, thus do think ; and 

of"ohT as I think, so have I said, written, taught, and affirmed, and in my 

Frith. books have published." 

But when Frith by no means could be persuaded to recant these 
articles aforesaid, neither be brought to believe that the sacrament is 
an article of faith, but said, " Fiat judicium et justitia :" he was con- 

Frithcon- dcmued by the bishop of London to be burned, and sentence given 

demned. j^g^-j^gj. jjj^ . ^^ tcuor whcrcof hcrc ensueth. 

The Sentence given against John Frith. 

In the name of God, Amen. We, John, by the permission of God, bishop 
of London, lawfully and rightly proceeding with all godly favour, by the au- 
thority and virtue of our office, against thee, John Frith, of our jurisdiction, 
before us personally here present, being accused and detected, and notoriously 
slandered of heresy ; having heard, seen, and understood, and with dihgent de- 
liberation weighed, discussed, and considered, the merits of the cause, all things 
being observed which by us in this behalf, by order of law, ought to be observed, 
sitting in our judgment seat, the name of Christ being first called upon, and 
having God only before oiu: eyes,^ because by the acts enacted, propounded, 

(1) This is to be weighed with the time when Frith wrote. 

'(2) ' Ego Frithus ita sentio, et quemadmoduni sentio, ita dixi, scripsi, aseerui, et affimiavi,' &c. 

(3) As they had, which crucified Christ. 


and exhibited in this manner, and by thine own confession judicially made Henry 
before us, we do find, that thou hast taught, holden, and affirmed, and obstinately ^^m- 
defended, divers errors and heresies, and damnable opinions, contrary to the doc- ^ ^ 
trine and determination of the holy church, and especially against the reverend i^^^^ 

sacrament ; and albeit that we, following the example of Christ, ' which would !_ 

not the death of a sinner, but rather that he should convert and live,' have 
oftentimes gone about to correct thee, and by all lawful means that we could, 
and most wholesome admonitions that we did know, to reduce thee again to 
the tme faith, and the unity of the universal catholic church, notwithstanding 
we have found thee obstinate and stiff-necked, willingly continuing in thy 
damnable opinions and heresies, and refusing to return again unto the true 
faith and unity of the holy mother church, and as the child of wickedness and 
darkness, so to have hardened thy heart, that thou wilt not understand the 
voice of thy shepherd, who, with a fatherly affection, doth seek after thee, nor 
wilt be allured with his godly and fatherly admonitions : We therefore, John, 
the bishop aforesaid, not wiUing that thou who art wicked, shouldest become 
more wicked, and infect the Lord's flock with thy heresy, which we are greatly 
afraid of, do judge thee, and definitively condemn thee, the said John Frith, 
thy demerits and faults being aggravated through thy damnable obstinacy, as 
guilty of most detestable heresies, and as an obstinate impenitent sinner, re- ' 
fusing penitently to return to the lap and unity of the holy mother church ; and 
that thou hast been and art, by law, excommunicated, and do pronounce and 
declare thee to be an excommunicated person : Also we pronounce and declare 
thee to be a heretic, to be cast out from the church, and left unto the judg- 
ment of the secular power, and now presently so do leave thee unto the secular 
power, and their judgment ; most earnestly requiring them, in the bowels of Modera- 
our Lord Jesus Christ, that this execution and punishment, worthily to be done H.^j^d'^" 
upon thee, may be so moderated, that the rigour thereof be not too extreme, bm non« 
nor yet the gentleness too much mitigated, but that it may be to the salvation shown. 
of thy soul, to the extirpation, terror, and conversion of heretics, to the unity 
of the catholic faith, by this our sentence definitive, or final decree, which we 
here promulgate in this form aforesaid. 

This sentence thus read, the bishop of London directed his letter Frith de- 
to sir Stephen Peacock, mayor of London, and J,he sheriffs of the Ihe'^secu" 
same city, for the receiving of the aforesaid John Frith into their lar hands. 
charge ; who, being so delivered over unto them the 4th day of July, 
in the year aforesaid, was by them carried into Smithfield to be 
burned. And when he was tied unto the stake, there it sufficiently 
appeared with what constancy and courage he suifered death ; for His con- 
when the faggots and fire were put unto him, he willingly embraced ^lath. 
the same ; thereby declaring with what uprightness of mind he 
suffered his death for Chrisfs sake, and the true doctrine, whereof 
that day he gave, with his blood, a perfect and firm testimony. The 
wind made his death somewhat the longer, which bare away the flame 
from him unto his fellow that was tied to his back : but he had 
established his mind with such patience, God giving him strength, 
that even as though he had felt no pain in that long torment, 
he seemed rather to rejoice for his fellow, than to be careful for 

This truly is the power and strength of Christ, striving and van- 
quishing in his saints ; Who sanctify us together with them, and direct 
us in all things to the glory of his holy name ! Amen. 

The day before the burning of these worthy men of God, the 
bishop of London certified king Henry VIIL of his worthy, yea, 
rather wolfish, proceeding against these men : the tenor whereof 
hereunder ensueth : 



*The Letter of John, Bishop of London, to certify the King of the 

A,D. Condemnation of John Frith and Andrew Hewet. 


. '— Unto' the most noble prince and lord in Christ, our lord Henry the eighth, by 

the grace of God king of England and of France, and lord of Ireland, defender 
of the faith : J ohn, by the permission of God, bishop of London, with all 
manner of reverence, honour, and subjection. Whereas we, in a certain busi- 
ness of inquisition of heresy against certain men, John Frith and Andrew 
Hewet, heretics, have judged and condemned either of them, as obstinate, 
impenitent, and incon-igible heretics, by our sentence definitive, and have de- 
livered the said John and Andrew unto the honourable man, sir Stephen Pea- 
cock, mayor of your city of London, and John Martin, one of your sheriffs of 
the same city (being personally present with us in judgment, according to the 
order of the law) ; and therefore all and singular the premises so by us done, 
we notify and signify unto your highness, by these presents sealed with our 

Dated the third day of July, in the year of our Lord 1533, and in the third 
year of our consecration.* 

Andrew Hewet, born in Feversliam, in the county of Kent, a 
young man of the age of four and twenty years, was apprentice with 
one Master Warren, a tailor in WatUng-street. And as it happened 
that he went upon a holy-day into Fleet-street, towards St. Dun- 
stan's, he met with one William Holt, who was foreman with the 
king's tailor, at that present called Master Malte ; and being 
suspected by the same Holt, who was a dissembling wretch, to be 
one that favoured the gospel, after a little talk had with him, he 
went into an honest house about Fleet-bridge, which was a book- 
seller s house. Then Holt, thinking he had found good occasion to 
show forth some fruit of his wickedness, sent for certain officers, and 
Hewet searched the house, and finding the same Andrew, apprehended him, 
hended ^^*^ Carried him to the bishop's house, Avhere he was cast into irons ; 
and being there a good space, by the means of a certain honest man, 
he had a file conveyed unto him,^ wherewith he filed oflP his irons, 
and when he spied his time, he got out of the gate. But being a 
man unskilful to hide himself, for lack of good acquaintance, he went 
into Smithfield, and there met with one Withers, who was a hj'po- 
crite, as Holt was. This Withers, understanding how he had 
escaped, and that he knew not whither to go, pretending a fair 
countenance unto him, willed him to go with him, promising that he 
should be provided for ; and so kept him in the country where he 
had to do, from Low-Sunday till Whitsuntide, and then brought 
him to London, to the house of one John Chapman in Hosier-lane 
beside Smithfield, and there left him for the space of two days. 

Then he came to the said Cliapman's house again, and brought 
Holt with him. And when they met with the said Andrew, they 
seemed as though they meant to do him very much good ; and Holt, 
for his part, said that if he should bring any man in trouble (as the 
voice was that he had done the said Andi-ew), it were pity but that 
the earth should open and swallow him up : insomuch that they 

(1) Sec Edition 1563, p. SOS ; where it is also given in Latin.— Ed. 

(2) The man ih;it frave him this file was Valentine Freese, the painter's brother, who was after- 
wards, with his wife, burned in \ork. 


would needs sup there that night, and prepared meat of their own J'enry 
charges. At night they came, and brought certain guests with them, ^^^^' 
because they would have the matter to seem as though it had come ^•^■ 
out by others. When they had supped, they went their way, and 
Holt took out of his purse two groats, and gave them to the said 
Andrew, and embraced him in his arms. As they w^ere gone out, 
there came in one Jolni Tibauld, who was banished from his own john Ti- 
house by an injunction, for he had been four times in prison for {'j^^g'^ 'In^ 
Christ's cause. And within an hour after that Holt and Withers ^^"^'^''o'" 
were gone, the bishop''s chancellor, and one called sergeant Weaver, 
came, and brought with them the watch, and searched the house, 
where they found the said John Chapman and the beforenamed 
Andrew, and John Tibauld, whom they bound with ropes which Hewet 
sergeant Weaver had brought with him, and so carried them to the tf^en. 
bishop"'s house : but Andrew Hewet they sent unto the Lollards' 
toAver, and kept Chapman and Tibauld asunder, watched by two 
priests' servants. The next day bishop Stokesley came from Fulham, 
and after they were examined with a few threatening words, Chaj^man chaijmau 
was committed to the stocks, with this threat, that he should tell "tockl 
another tale, or else he should sit there till his heels did drop oiF, &c. : t 
and Tibauld was shut up in a close chamber ; but, by God's pro- 
vision, he was well delivered out of prison, albeit he could not enjoy 
his house and land because of the bishop's injunction, but was fain to 
sell all that he had in Essex ; for the tenor of his injunction was, 
that he should not come within seven miles of his OAvn house. And Tibauld 
the aforesaid Chapman, after five Aveeks' imprisonment (Avhereof three "oml° 
Aveeks he sat in the stocks), by much suit made unto the lord chan- ""'"*^'" 

-' • seven 

cellor, who at that time was lord Audley, after many threatenings miles of 
was delivered : but the said Andrew Hewet, after long and cruel 
imprisonment, Avas condemned to death, and burned Avith John Frith. 
The examination of Hewet here folloAveth. 

On the 20th day of the month of April, Andrew Hewet AA'as Hewet 
brought before the chancellor of the bishop of London, Avhere Avas befoTe'tiie 
objected against him, that he believed the sacrament of the altar, '^'shop. 
after the consecration, to be but a signification of the body of Christ, 
and that the host consecrated was not the very body of Christ. Noav, 
forasmuch as this article seemed heinous unto them, they would do 
nothing in it Avithout the consent of learned counsel : whereupon the 
bishop of London, associated Avith the bishops of Lincoln and Win- 
chester, called him again before them ; AAdiere, it being demanded of 
him Avhat he thought as touching the sacrament of the last supper ; 
he ansAvered, " Even as John Frith doth." Then said one of the 
bishops unto him, " Dost thou not believe that it is really the body . 
of Christ, born of the Virgin Mary .-'" " So," saith he, " do not I not to be 
believe." "Why not.?" said the bishop. "Because," said he, f^'^^^'' 
" Clu-ist commanded me not to give credit rashly unto all men, Avho [J^^'^^^"^. 
say, ' Behold, here is Christ, and there is Christ ; for many false pro- ment. 
phets shall rise up, saith the Lord.' " 

Then certain of the bishops smiled at him ; and Stokesley, the 
bishop of London, said, "Why, Frith is a heretic, and already judged 
to be burned ; and except thou revoke thine opinion, thou shalt be 
burned also with him." " Truly," saith he, "I am content there- 

VOL, V. C 


Jtenry withal." Then the bishop asked him if he would forsake his opinions ; 

'— whereunto he answered, that he would do as Frith did : whereupon 

^- ^- he was sent unto the prison to Frith, and afterwards they were carried 

'-^ together to the fire. The bishops used many persuasions to allure 

"nltant '^^^ S^^^ ^^^^^ ^^0"^ ^^^c truth, to follow them : but he, manfully per- 

faith* sisting in the truth, would not recant. Wherefore on the 4th day of 

July, in the afternoon, he was carried into Smithfield with Frith, and 

there burned. 

iiewet When they were at the stake, one doctor Cook, a parson in Lon- 

with don, openly admonished all the people, that they should in no wise 

^''^^- pray for them, no more than they would do for a dog; at which 

words Frith, smiling, desired the Lord to forgive him. These words 

did not a little move the people unto anger, and not without good 

cause. Thus these two blessed martyrs committed their souls into 

the hands of God. 

€!)e H^iiStocp of tlje ^cvjSecution anD 5^eatfj of €:[)omas? 23enet, burned 
in ^mtz : coHccteti and tejJtifieo by gjofjn ©otael, alia^ ^Qfitt, 

This Thomas Benet was bom in Cambridge, and, by order of degree, 

of the university there made master of arts, and, as some think, was 

also a priest ; a man doubtless very well learned, and of a godly 

disposition, being of the acquaintance and familiarity of Thomas 

Benct Bilney, the famous and glorious martyr of Christ. This man, the more 

frOTi"" he did grow and increase in the knowledge of God and his holy word, 

brid 'e to ^^^^ ™^^® ^^ ^^^ mislike and abhor the corrupt state of religion then 

Devon- uscd ; and therefore, thinking his own country to be no safe place for him 

to remain in, and being desirous to live in more freedom of conscience, 

he did forsake the university, and went into Devonshire, a.d. 1524, 

and first dwelled in a market-town, named Torrington, both town and 

country being to him altogether unknown, as he was also unknown to 

all men there ; where, for the better maintenance of himself and his 

wife, he did practise to teach young children, and kept a school for 

the same purpose. But that town not serving his expectation, after 

Comes to his abodc one year there, he came to the city of Exeter ; and there, 

Exeter. i^ij.jjjg a housc iu a street called the Butcher-row, did exercise the 

teaching of children, and by that means sustained his wife and family. 

He was of a quiet behaviour, of a godly conversation, and of a very 

courteous nature, humble to all men, and offensive to nobody. His 

greatest delight was to be at all sermons and preachings, whereof he 

was a diligent and attentive hearer. The time which he had to spare 

from teaching, he gave wholly to his private study in the Scriptures, 

having no dealings nor conferences with any body, saving with such as 

he could learn and understand to be favourers of the gospel, and 

zealous of God's true religion : of such he would be inquisitive, 

and most desirous to join himself unto them. And therefore, under- 

wiuiam standing that one William Strowd, of Newnham, in the county of 

impri- Devonshire, esquire, was committed to the bishop's prison in Exeter, 

Rxltir" upo" suspicion of heresy, although he were never before acquainted 

word°**'' ^^^*'^^ ^"^^' ^ ^"* ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^'^^ letters of comfort and consolation, unto 

him ; wherein, to avoid all suspicion which might be conceived of him, 

he did disclose himself, and utter what he was, and the causes of his 



being in the country, writing among other things these words : " Be- fienry 

cause I would not be a whoremonger, or an unclean person, therefore 1_ 

T married a wife, with whom I have hidden myself in Devonshire, A. D. 
from the tyranny of the antichristians, these six years "*'' lo33. 

But, as every tree and herb hath its due time to bring forth its ^y^ 
fruit, so did it appear by this man. For he, daily seeing the glory of married. 
God to be so blasphemed, idolatrous religion so embraced and main- 
tained,^ and that most false usurped power of the bishop of Rome so 
extolled, was so grieved in conscience, and troubled in spirit, that he 
could not be quiet till he did utter his mind therein. Wherefore, His frodiy 
dealing privately with certain of his friends, he did plainly open and 
disclose how blasphemously and abominably God was dishonoured, 
his word contemned, and his people, whom he so dearly bought, were, 
by blind guides, carried headlong to everlasting damnation : and 
therefore he could no longer endure, but must needs, and would, 
utter their abominations ; and for his own part, for the testimony of 
his conscience, and for the defence of God's true religion, would yield 
himself most patiently (as near as God would give him gi-ace) to die 
and to shed his blood therein ; alleging that his death should be more 
profitable to the church of God, and for the edifying of his people, 
than his life should be. To whose persuasions when his friends had 
yielded, they promised to pray to God for him, that he might be 
strong in the cause, and continue a faithful soldier to the end : which 
done, he gave order for the bestowing of such books as he had, and 
very shortly after, in the month of October, he wrote his mind in cer- 
tain scrolls of paper, which, in secret manner, he set upon the doors Benet 
of the cathedral church of the city ; in which was written, " The bnis" "^ 
pope is Antichrist ; and we ought to worship God only, and no saints.*" the'pope. 

These bills being found, there was no small ado, and no little 
search made for the inquiry of the heretic that should set up these 
bills : and the mayor and his officers were not so busy to make 
searches to find this heretic, but the bishop and all his doctors were 
as hot as coals, and enkindled as though they had been stung with a 
sort of wasps. Wherefore, to keep the people in their former blind- 
ness, order was taken that the doctors should in haste up to the 
pulpit every day, and confute this heresy. Nevertheless this Thomas 
Benet, keeping his own doings in secret, went the Sunday following 
to the cathedral church to the sermon, and by chance sat down by 
two men, who were the busiest in all the city in seeking and search- 
ing for this heretic ; and they, beholding this Benet, said the one to 
the other, " Surely this fellow, by all likelihood, is the heretic that 
hath set up the bills, and it were good to examine him." Never- ^'/^"^[^^ 
theless, when they had well beheld him, and saw the quiet and sober tiie 
behaviour of the man, his attentiveness to the preacher, his godliness '^'""■'^''• 
in the church, being always occupied in his book, which was a Testa- 
ment in the Ijatin tongue, they were astonied, and had no power to Tiie 
speak unto him, but departed, and left him reading in his book. As ['('11^^% 
touching this point of Benet's behaviour in the church, I find the J_^^'''""s 
reports of some others a little to vary, and yet not much contrary taicii.g. 

(1) ' Ut ne scortator aut immundus essem, uxorem duxi, cum qua hisce sex annis ab istorum 
Antichrisfianorum manibus in Devonia latitavi.' 

(2) Antichristians are those who are against Christ. 



Heiyy one to thc othcr. For in receiving the letters and Avritings of a cer- 

— tain minister, who at the same time was present at the doing hereof 

^•^- in Exeter, thus I find moreover added, concerning the behaviour of 

L_ this Thomas Benet in the church. 

Doctors At that time, saith he, as I remember, Dr. Moreman, Crispin, 

friars in Casclcy, witli such others, bare the swinge there. Besides these, were 

Exeter. j^]gQ preachcrs there, one Dr. Bascavikl, an unlearned doctor, God 

knoweth ; and one Dr. David, as well learned as he, both grey friars, 

and Doctor I-know-not-who, a black friar, not much inferior unto 

them. Moreover, there was one bachelor of divinity, a gi-ey friar 

Gregory named Gregory Basset, more learned indeed than they all, but as 

Basset. \^]x\^ r^fj(^[ guperstitious as he which was most ; which Gregory, not 

long before, was revolted from the way of righteousness, to the way 

of Belial : for in Bristol, saith the author, he lay in prison long, and 

was almost famished, for having a book of Martin Luther, called his 

Questions, which he a long time privily had studied, and for the 

teaching of youth a certain catechism. To be short, the brains of 

the canons and priests, the officers and commons of that city, wxre 

very earnestly busied, how, or by what means, euch an enormous 

heretic, who had pricked up those bills, might be espied and known : 

but it was long first. At last, the priests found out a toy to curse 

him, whatsoever he were, with book, bell, and candle ; which curse 

at that day, seemed most fearful and terrible. The manner of the 

curse was after this sort. 

The One of the priests, apparelled all in white, ascended up into the 

curse, pulpit. The other rabblement, with certain of the two orders of 

no7teT' friars, and certain superstitious monks of St. Nicholas'' house standing 

whom, round about, and the cross (as the custom was) being holden up 

with holy candles of wax fixed to the same, he began his sermon with 

this theme of Joshua, " There is blasphemy in the army ;"' and so 

made a long protestation, but not so long as tedious and superstitious : 

and so concluded that that foul and abominable heretic who had put 

up such blasphemous bills, was, for that his blasphemy, damnably 

accursed ; and besought God, our lady, St. Peter, patron of that 

church, with all the holy company of martyrs, confessors, and virgins, 

that it might be known what heretic had put up such blasphemous 

bills, that God''s people might avoid the vengeance. 

The manner of the cursing of the said Benet was marvellous to 
behold, forasmuch as at that time there were few or none, unless a 
shearman or two, whose houses, 1 well remember, were searched for 
bills at that time, and for books, that knew any thing of God's 
matters, or how God doth bless their curses in such cases. Then 
said the prelate thus : 

The Pope's Curse, with Book, Bell, and Candle. 

Here is By the authority of God the Father Almighty, and of the blessed Virgin 

charity Mary, of Saint Peter and Paul, and of the holy saints, we excommunicate, we 

*'" ' ■ utterly curse and ban, commit and deliver to the devil of hell, him or her, 

whatsoever he or she be, that hath, — in spite of God and of St. Peter, whose 

church this is, in spite of all holy saints, and in spite of our most holy father 

the pope, God's vncar here in earth, and in spite of the reverend father in God, 

John our diocesan, and the worshipfid canons, masters, and priests, and clerks, 

(I) ' Est hlasplicmia in castris.' 


who sei've God daily in this cathedral church, — fixed up with wax such cursed Henry 
and heretical bills, full of blasphemy, upon the doors of this and other holy ^m 
cluirches within this city. Excommunicated plainly be he or she plenally, or ^ jj 
ihey, and delivered over to the devil, as perpetual malefactors and schismatics. 1,533 

Accursed may they be,^ and given body and soul to the devil. Cursed be they, '- 

liu or she, in cities and towns, in fields, in ways, in paths, in houses, out of 
houses, and in all other places, standing, lying, or rising, walking, running, 
waking, sleeping, eating, di-inking, and whatsoever thing they do besides. We 
separate them, him or her, from the threshold, and from all the good prayers 
of the church; from the participation of the holy mass; from all sacraments, 
chapels, and altars; from holy bread and holy water; from all the merits of 
God's priests and religious men, and from all their cloisters ; from all their 
pardons, privileges, grants, and immunities, which all the holy fathers, popes 
of Rome, have granted to them ; and we give them over utterly to the power 
of the fiend : and let us quench their souls, if they be dead, this night in the 
])ains of hell-fire, as this candle is now quenched and put out (and with that he 
put out one of the candles): and let us pray to God, if they be alive, that Mark tlie 
their eyes may be put out, as this candle light is (so he put out the other ^P'*'' 
candle) ; and let us pray to God and to our lady, and to St. Peter and Paul, of fi'iese^ 
and all holy saints, that all the senses of their bodies may fail them, and that popelings. 
tliey may have no feeling, as now the light of this candle is gone (and so he 
put out the third candle) except they, he or she, come openly now and confess 
their blasphemy, and by repentance, as much as in them shall lie, make 
satisfaction unto God, our lady, St. Peter, and the worshipful company of this 
cathedral chiuxli : and as this holy cross-staff now falleth down, so may they, 
except they repent and show themselves. 

Here, one first taking away the cross, the staff fell down. But 
Lord ! what a shout and noise was there ; what terrible fear ; what 
holding up of hands to heaven : that curse was so terrible ! 

Now this fond foolish fantasy and mockery being done and played, ^^enet 
which was to a christian heart a thing ridiculous, Benet could no at their 
longer forbear, but fell to great laughter, but within himself, and for ™''""^- 
a great space could not cease ; by which thing the poor man was 
espied. For those that were next to him, wondering at that great 
curse, and believing that it could not but light on one or other, asked 
good Benet, for what cause he should so laugh. " My friends,'" said 
he, "who can forbear, seeing such merry conceits and interludes 
])layed by the priests T'' Straightway a noise was made. Here is the 
heretic ! here is the heretic ! hold him fast, hold him fast I With 
that, there was a great confusion of voices, and much clapping of 
hands, and yet they were uncertain whether he were the heretic or 
no. Some say, that upon the same he was taken and apprehended. 
Others report, that his enemies, being uncertain of him, departed, 
and so he went home to his house ; where he, being not able to 
digest the lies there preached, renewed his former bills, and caused 
his boy, early in the morning following, to set the said bills upon 
the gates of the churchyard. As the boy was setting one of the said Benet is 
bills upon a gate, called ' The little Stile,' it chanced that one means or 
W. S., going to the cathedral church to hear a mass, called Barton's ge„|'"Ju 
Mass, which was then daily said about five o'clock in the morning, I'is biiis- 
found the boy at the gate, and asking him whose boy he was, did 
charge him to be the heretic that had set up the bills upon the gates: 
wherefore, pulling down the bill, he brought the same, together Avith 
the boy, before the mayor of the city ; and thereupon Benet, being 
known and taken, was violently committed to ward. 

(1) ' Bless and curse not,' saith tic Loid : ' curse and bless not,' saith the rope. 


n^nnj On the morrow began both the canons and the heads of the city 

joined with them, to fall to examination ; with whom, for that day, he 

A. 1). had not much communication, but confessed and said to them, " It was 
^^^^ even I that put up those bills; and if it were to do, I would yet do 
He con- it again ; for in them I have written nothing but what is very truth." 
the'cause " Couldst uot thou," Said they, " as well have declared thy mind by 
Tet^them Hiouth, as by putting up bills of blasphemy ?" " No," said he, " 1 
"P- put up the bills, that many should read and hear what abominable 
blasphemers ye are, and that they might the better know your Anti- 
christ, the pope, to be that boar out of the wood, which destroyeth 
and throweth down the hedges of God's church ; for if I had been heard 
to speak but one word, I should have been clapped fast in prison, and 
the matter of God hidden. But now I trust more of your blasphemous 
doings will thereby be opened and come to light ; for God will so 
have it, and no longer will suffer you." 
Benet ^he ucxt day after, he was sent unto the bishop, who first com- 

the mitted him to prison, called ' The Bishop's Prison,*" where he was 
prison.'' kept in stocks and strong irons, with as much favour as a dog should 
find. Then the bishop, associating unto him one Dr. Brewer, his 
chancellor, and other of his lewd clergy and friars, began to examine 
Articles him and bmxlen him, that, contrary to the catholic faith, he denied 
him"^ praying to the saints, and also denied the supremacy of the pope. 
Whereunto he answered in such sober manner, and so learnedly 
proved and defended his assertions, that he did not only confound 
and put to silence his adversaries, but also brought them in great 
admiration of him ; the most part having pity and compassion on him . 
The friars took great pains with him to persuade him from his erro- 
neous opinions, to recant and acknowledge his fault, touching the 
bills ; but they did but dig after day ; for God had appointed him to 
be a blessed witness of his holy name, and to be at defiance with all 
their false persuasions. 

To declare here with what cruelty the officers searched his house 
for bills and books, how cruelly and shamefiilly they handled his wife, 
charging her with divers enonnities, it were too long to Avrite. But 
she, like a good woman, took all things patiently that they did unto 
her ; like as in other things she was contented to bear the cross with 
him, as to fixre hardly with him at home, and to live with coarse meat 
and drink, that they might be the more able somewhat to help the 
poor, as they did to the uttermost of their power. 

Amongst all other priests and friars, Gregory Basset was most 

busy with him. This Gregory Basset, as is partly touched before, 

was learned, and had a pleasant tongue, and not long before was 

Gregory fallen froui the truth, for which he was imprisoned in Bristol a long 

pHson' at ti™c ; at whose examination was ordained a great pan of fire, where 

Bristol, ]jig ]jQ]y brethren (as the report went abroad) menaced him to burn 

IS coin- , •' V r -' 

peiied by his liauds ofF: Avhereupon he there before them recanted, and became 
to^reMnt. aftcrwards a mortal enemy to the truth all his life. This Gregory, 
uusy as it is said, was fervent with the poor man, to please the canons of 
xlfdmas ^^^ church, and marvellously tonnentcd his brains, how to turn him 
Benet. from his Opinions ; yea, and he was so diligent and fervent with him, 
that he would not depart the prison, but lay there night and day, 
who notwithstandiug htst his labolu' : for good Benet was at a point 


not to deny Christ before men. So Gregory, as well iis the other n^ 


holy fathers, lost his spurs, insomuch that he said in open audience, 

that there was never so obstinate a heretic. A.D. 


The Matter between Gregory Basset and Thomas Benet. 

The principal point between Basset and Benet was touching the supremacy 
of the bishop of Rome, whom in his bills he named Antichrist, the Tliief, the 
Mercenary, and the Murderer of Christ's Flock : and these disputations lasted 
about eight days, where, at sundry times, repaired to him both the black and 
grey friars, with priests and monks of that city. They that had some learning 
persuaded him to believe the church, and showed by what tokens slie is known. 
The others unlearned railed, and said that the devil tempted him, and spat Railing 
upon him, calling him heretic ; who prayed God to give them a better mind, ^s^-inst 
and to forgive them : ' For,' said he, ' I will rather die, than worship such a 
beast, the very whore of Babylon, and a false usurper, as manifestly it doth 
appear by his doings.' Tliey asked, What he did, that he had not power and 
authority to do, being God's vicar ? ' He doth, ' quotli he, ' sell the sacraments The 
of the chvurch for money, he selleth remission of sins daily for money, and so =ii'"ses of 
do you likewise : for there is no day but ye say divers masses for souls in to be"'"^ 
feigned purgatory ; yea, and ye spare not to make lying sermons to the people, noted. 
to maintain your false traditions and foul gains. The whole world doth begin fou'i'"" 
now to note your doings, to your utter confusion and shame.' ' The shame,' 
say they, ' shall be to thee, and such as thou art, thou foul heretic ! Wilt thou 
allow nothing done in holy church? what a perverse heretic art thou!' ' I 
am,' said he, ' no heretic, but a christian man, I thank Chiist ; and with all 
my heart will allow all things done and used in the church to the glory of God, 
and edifying of my soul : but I see nothing in your church, but what main- jlie 
taineth the devil.' * What is our church?' said they. ' It is not my church,' popt's 
quoth Benet, ' God give me grace to be of a better church, for verily your paiJ[t*ed 
church is the plain chui'ch of Antichrist, the malignant church, the second in her 
church, a den of thieves, and an awmbry of poison, and as far wide from the colours. 
true, universal, and apostolic church, as heaven is distant from the earth.' 

* Dost not thou think,' said they, ' that we jjertain to the universal church V 
' Yes,' quoth he, ' but as dead members, unto whom the church is not bene- 
ficial ; for your works are the devices of man, and your church a weak founda- 
tion : for ye say and preach that the pope's word is equal with God's word in 
every degree.' * Why,' said they, ' did not Christ say to Peter, To thee I will The keys 
give the keys of the kingdom of heaven?' * He said that,' quoth he, ' to all, alu"g'" 
as well as to Peter ; and Peter had no more authority given to him than they, apostles. 
or else the churches planted in every kingdom by their preaching are no 
churches. Doth not St. Paul say. Upon the foundations of the apostles and 
prophets ? Therefore I say plainly, that the church that is built upon a man, The 
is the devil's church or congregation, and not God's. And as every church this clmrch 
day is appointed to be ruled by a bishop or pastor, ordained by the word of ypo,'!*"'' 
God in preaching and administration of the sacraments under the prince, man, is 
the supreme governor under God, so, to say that all the churches with their the devil's 
princes and governors be subject unto one bishop, is detestable heresy ; and 
the pope, your god, challenging this power to himself, is the greatest schismatic 
that ever was in the church, and the most foul whore ; of whom John, in the 
Revelation, speaketh.' 

' O thou blind and unlearned fool !' said they, * is not the confession and Consent 
consent of all the world, as we confess and consent — That the pope's holiness °^'l'!, 
is the supreme head and vicar of Christ?' ' That is,' said Benet, ' because they ^""^ 
are blinded and know not the Scriptures : but if God would of his mercy open 
the eyes of princes to know their office, his false supremacy would soon decay.' 
' We think,' said they, ' thovi art so malicious, that thou wilt confess no church.' 
' Look !' said he, ' where they are that confess the true name of Jesus Christ ; Wieie 
and where Christ only is the head, and under him the prince of the realm, to ci',tirch"i8. 
order all bishops, ministers, and preachers, and to see them do their duties in 
setting forth the only glory of God by preaching the word of God ; and wliere 
it is preached that Christ is our only Advocate, Mediator, and Patron before 
God his Father, making intercession for us ; and where the true faith and con- 


Henry fidciicc \i\ Clirist's death and passion, and his only merits and deservuigs are 
^l^i- extolled, and our own depressed ; where the sacrament is duly, without super- 
A jv stition or idolatry, administered in rememhrance of his blessed passion and only 
jJ„„' sacrifice upon the cross once for all, and where no superstition reignetli : — of 

'— that cluuxh will I be ! ' 

' Doth not the pope,' said they, ' confess the true gospel? do not we all the 

same?' ' Yes,' said he, ' but ye deny the fruits thereof in every point. Ye 

build upon the sands, not upon the rock.' ' And wilt thou not believe indeed,' 

The pope said they, ' that tlie pope is God's vicar?' ' No,' said he, ' indeed.' ' And 

not God's \vliy V said they. ' Because,' quoth he, ' he usurpeth a power not given to him 

wliy.' ^y Christ, no more than to other apostles ; and also because, by force of that 

usurped supremacy, he doth blind the whole world, and doth contrary to all that 

ever Christ ordained or commanded.' ' What,' said they, ' if he do all things 

after God's ordinance and commandment: should he then be his vicar?' 

' Then,' said he, ' would I believe him to be a good bishop at Rome over his 

own diocese, and to have no further power. And if it pleased God, I would 

every bishop did this in his diocese : then should we live a peaceable life in the 

churcli of Christ, and there should be no such seditions therein. If every 

What in- bishop would seek no further power than over his own diocese, it were a goodly 

encefol- ^'^i'lg- Now, because all are subject to one, all must do and consent to all 

loweth, wickedness as he doth, or be none of his. This is the cause of great superstition 

that all j,^ every kingdom. And what bishop soever he be that preacheth the gospel, 

should be ''^d maintaineth the truth, is a true bishop of the church.' ' And doth not,' 

ruled by said they, ' our holy father the pope maintain the gospel?' ' Yea,' said he, ' I 

think lie doth i-ead it, and peradventure believe it, and so do you also : but 

neither he nor you do fix the anchor of yoiu" salvation therein. Besides that, 

ye bear such a good will to it^ that ye keep it close, that no man may read it 

but yourselves. And when you preach, God knoweth how you handle it ; 

The insomuch, that the people of Christ know no gospel well-near, but the pope's 

pope s gospel ; and so the blind lead the blind, and both fall into the pit. In the true 

gospel of Christ, confidence is none ; but only in your popish traditions and 

fantastical inventions.' 

Then said a black friar unto him (God knoweth, a blockhead), ' Do we not 
preach the gospel daily?' ' Yes,' said he, ' but what preaching of the gospel 
is that, when therewith ye extol superstitious things, and make us believe thiit 
we have redemption through pardons and bulls of Rome, a poena et culpa, as 
ye term it : and by the merits of your orders ye make many brethren and 
sisters ; ye take yearly money of them, ye bury them in your coats, and in 
shrift ye beguile them ; yea, and do a thousand superstitious things more : a 
man may be weary to speak of them.' ' I see,' said the friar, ' that thou art 
a damned wretch ; I will have no mcn-e talk with thee.' 

Then stepped to him a grey friar, a doctor (God knoweth of small intelligence), 
and laid before him great and many dangers. ' I take God to record,' said 
Benet, ' my life is not dear to me ; I am content to depart from it, for I am 
weary of it, seeing your detestable doings, to the utter destruction of God's 
flock ; and, for my part, I can no longer forbear. I had rather, by death 
(wliich I know is not far off), depart this life, that I may no longer be partaker 
of your detestable idolatries and superstitions, or be subject unto anticln-ist your 
pope.' ' Our pope,' said the friar, 'is the vicar of God, and our ways are the 
Benet ways of CJod.' ' I pray you,' said Benet, 'depart from me, and tell not me of 
weary of yyi^. ways. lie is only my way, who saith, I am the way, the truth, and the 
taik."^"^^ life. In his way will I walk, his doings shall be my example; not yours, nor 
your false jjope's. His truth will I embrace; not the lies and falsehood of you 
and your ])')j)e. His everlasting hfe will I seek, the true reward of all faithful 
people. Away from me, I pray j'ou. Vex my soul no longer; ye shall not 
])revail. There is no good example in you, no truth in you, no life to be hoped 
for at your hands. Ye are all more vain than vanity itself. If I should hear 
and follow you this day, everlasting death should hang over me, a just reward 
for all them that love the life of this world. Away from me : your company 
liketh me not.' 

Thus a whole week, night and day, was Benet plied by these and 
such other hvpocntes. It were an infinite matter to dcelare all tilings 



done and said to him in the time of his imprisonment ; and the hate /Wj 
of the people that time, by means of ignorance, was hot against him 

notwithstanding they could never move his patience ; lie answered to A. D. 
every matter soberly, and that, more by the aid of God's Spirit, than J^- 
by any worldly study. I think he was at least fifty years old. f^^'^^fj^' 
Being in prison, his wife provided sustenance for him ; and when she constant. 
lamented, he comforted her, and gave her many good and godlj 
exhortations, and prayed her to move him nothing to apply unto his 

Thus when these godly canons and priests, with the monks and 
friars, had done what they could, and perceived that he would by 
no means relent, then they, proceeding unto judgment, drew out 
their bloody sentence against him, condemning him, as the manner sentence 
is, to be burned. This being done, and the writ which they had ^^^^j^t 
procured ' de comburendo,'' being brought from London, they ^|.'°J^'^' 
delivered him on the 15th of January, 1531, unto sir Thomas Denis, 
knight, then sheriff of Devonshire, to be burned. The mild martyr, Benet de- 
rejoicing that his end was approaching so near, as the sheep before Jl^/sem-" 
the shearer, yielded himself with all humbleness to abide and suffer lar power, 
the cross of persecution. And being brought to his execution, in a Brought 
place called Livery-dole, without Exeter, he made his most humble ^^illl\j 
confession and prayer unto Almighty God, and requested all the ^xet"- 
people to do the like for him; whom he exhorted with such gravity 
and sobriety, and with such a pithy oration, to seek the true honour- 
ing of God, and the true knowledge of him ; as also to leave the 
devices, fantasies, and imaginations of man's inventions, that all the 
hearers and beholders of him were astonied and in great admiration ; 
insomuch that the most part of the people, as also the scribe who 
wrote the sentence of condemnation against him, did pronounce and 
confess that he was God's servant, and a good man. 

Nevertheless two esquires, namely, Thomas Carew and John 
Barnehouse, standing at the stake by him, first with fair promises 
and goodly words, but at length through rough threatenings, willed 
him to revoke his errors, and to call to Our Lady and the saints, and 
to say, " Precor sanctam Mariam, et omnes sanctos Dei," &c.^ To f^^^f^^^^ 
whoni, with all meekness, he answered, saying, "No, no; it is God to pray to 
only upon whose name we must call ; and we have no other advocate °"' ^""^y- 
unto him, but only Jesus Christ, who died for us, and now sitteth at 
the right hand of "his Father, to be an advocate for us ; and by him one Ad- 
must we offer and make our prayers to God, if we will have them to IZtt. 
take place and to be heard.' With this answer the aforesaid Barne- ^J^^'-"^- 
house was so enkindled, that he took a furze-bush upon a pike, and in 
having set it on fire, he thrust it unto his face, saying, "Ah ! hoi;e- {J'^J^^^- 
son heretic ! pray to our Lady, and say, Sancta Maria, ora pro nobis, |;^;™;^J' 
or, by God's wounds, I will make thee do it." To whom the said to our 
Thomas Benet, with an humble and a meek spirit, most patiently ^'"'^■ 
answered, " Alas, sir ! trouble me not." And holding up his hands, 
he said, "Pater! ignosce illis." Whereupon the gentlemen caused 
the wood and furzes to be set on fire, and therewith this godly man 
lifted up his eyes and hands to heaven, saying, " O Domine ! recipe ll^Jl';;^ 
spiritum meum." And so, continuing in his prayers, he did "ever and^mar-^ 
stir nor strive, but most patiently abode the cruelty of the fire, until Benet. 


his life was ended. For this the Lord God be praised, and send us 
his grace and blessing, that at the latter day we may with him enjoy 
the bliss and joy provided and prepared for the elect children of 

This Benet was burned in a jerkin of neat's leather ; at whose 
burning, such was the devilish rage of the blind people, that well was 
he or she that could catch a stick or furze to cast into the fire. 

Hitherto we have run over, good reader, the names, and the acts 

and doings of those, who have sustained death, and the tonnent of 

J'jj° ,^ burning, for Chrisfs cause, through the rigorous ])roclamation above 

prociama- specified, Set out, as is said, in the name of king Henry, but indeed 

vwe procured by the bishops. That proclamation was so straitly looked 

supra. upon, and executed so to the uttermost in every point, by the said 

popish prelates, that no good man, " habens spiramentum,"" whereof 

Esdi'as' speaketh, could peep out with his head ever so little, but he 

Avas caught by the back, and brought either to the fire, as were these 

above mentioned ; or else compelled to abjure. Whereof there was 

a great multitude, as well men as women ; whose names, if they were 

sought out through all registers in England, no doubt it would make 

too long a discourse. Nevertheless, omitting the rest, it shall content 

us at this present, briefly, as in a short table, to insinuate the names, 

with the special articles, of such as, in the diocese of London, under 

Bishop Stokesley, were molested and vexed, and, at last, compelled 

to abjure, as here may appear. 




Articles objected against Jeffery Lome, sometime porter to St. An- 
thony's School; and for which articles he was abjured.^ A.D.152S. 

Imprimis, for having and dispersing abroad sundry books of Martin Liitlier's, 
and others ; as also for translating into the English tongue, certain chapters of 
the work of Luther, ' De Bonis Operibus :' as also, certain chapters of a certain 
book called ' Piae Predicationes,* wherein divers works of Luther be compre- 

Item, For affirming and believing that faith only, without good works, will 
bring a man to heaven. 

Item, That men be not bound to observe the constitutions made by the 

Item, That we should pray to God only, and to no saints. 

Item, That christian men ought to worship God only, and no saints. 

Item, That pilgrimages be not profitable for man's soul, and should not be 

Item, That we should not offer to images in the church, nor set any lights 
before them. 

Item, That no man is boiuid to keep any manner of fasting-days, instituted 
at the church. 

Item, That pardons granted by the pope or the bishop do not profit a man. 

For these articles Jeffery Lome was abjured before the bisho])y of 
London, Bath, and Lincoln; no mention being made of any penance 
enjoined hiin. 

(1) 4 Esd. 7. 

Cl) The articles for which Lome was abjured being less fully given in recent editions, tliej are 
iutroduted from the flpst edition, (1563,) pp. '177,478,— Eb. 


Sigar Nicholson, Stationer, of Cambridge, a.d. 15^ 



His articles were like ; and moreover for having in his house certain books of ^ ' ' 
Luther, and others prohibited, and not presenting them to the ordinary. The 
handling of this man was too, too cruel, if the report be true, that he should be 
hanged up in such a manner as well suffereth not to be named. L 

John Raimund, a Dutchman, a.d. ] 528. 

For causing fifteen hundred of Tyndale's New Testaments to be printed at 
Antwerp, and for bringing five hundred into England. 

Paul Luther, Grey Friar, and Warden of the House at Ware, 
A.D. 1529. 

His articles were for preaching and saying that it is pity that there be so 
many images suffered in so many places, where indiscreet and unlearned people 
be ; for they make their prayers and oblations so entirely and heartily before 
the image, that they believe it to be the very self saint in heaven. 

Item, That if he knew his father and mother were in heaven, he would count 
them as good as St. Peter and Paul, but for the pain they suffered for Christ's 

Item, That there is no need to go on pilgrimage. 

Item, That if a man were at the point of drowning, or any other danger, he 
should call only upon God, and no saint ; for saints in heaven cannot help us, 
neither know any more what men do here in this world, than a man in the 
north country knoweth what is done in the south country. 

Roger Whaplod, Merchant Tailor, sent, by one Thomas Norfolk, 
unto Dr. Goderidge, this bill following, to be read at his sermon in 
the Spital. a.d. 1529. 

A Bill read by the Preacher at the Spital. 

' If there be any well-disposed person willing to do any cost upon the repa- 
ration of the conduit in Fleet-street, let him or them resort unto the adminis- 
trators of the goods and cattle of one Richard Hun, late merchant tailor of 
London, which died intestate, or else to me, and they shall have toward the 
same six pounds thirteen shillings and fourpence, and a better penny, of the 
goods of the said Richard Hun; upon whose soul, and all christian souls, 
Jesus have mercy !' 

For this bill, both Whaplod and Norfolk were brought and 
troubled before the bishop ; and also Dr. Goderidge, who took a 
groat for reading the said bill,* was suspended for a time from sayino- 
mass, and also was forced to revoke the same at PauFs cross ; readino- 
this bill as followeth. 

The Revocation of Dr. William Goderidge, read at Paul's Cross. 

Masters ! so it is, that where in my late sermon at St. Mary Spital, the 
Tuesday in Easter-week last past, I did pray specially for the soul of Richard 
Hun, late of London, merchant-taUor, a heretic, by the laws of holy church Dr. Gode- 
justly condemned : by reason whereof I greatly offended God and his church, "'^K'^ '^''- 
and the laws of the same, for which I have submitted me to my ordinary, and JJ"''""' 

is pray- 

done penance there-for : forasmuch as, peradventure, tlie audience that was i"? for 
there offended by my said words, might take any occasion thereby to think ^j^.j^^" 
that I did favour the said heretic, or any other, I desire you, at the instance of Hun.' 

(I) It was the manner at this time to take money for reading of biUs at sermons. Ex Regist, 


Ifenrif Almiglity God, to forgive nie, and not so to think of me, for I did it unad- 

^^li- visedly. Tlierefore, here before God and you, I declare myself that I have not 

A pj favoured him or any other heretic, nor hereafter intend to do, but at all times 

\ y^9 s^'i'di^ <lefend the Catholic faith of holy church, according to my profession, to 

.*' the best of my power. 

Robert West, Priest, a. b. 1529. 

A])jured for books and opinions contrary to the proclamation. 

Nicliolas White of Rye, a.d. 1529. 

His articles : — For speaking against the priests' saying of matins; against 
praying for them that be dead : against praying to God for small trifles, as for 
the cow calving, the hen hatching, &c. : for speaking against the relic of St. 
Peter's finger : against oblations to images : against vowing of pilgrimage : 
against priesthood : against holy bread and holy water, &c. 

Richard Kitchen, Priest, a.d. 1529. 

His articles : — That pardons granted by the pope are naught, and that men 
should put no trust in them, but only in the passion of Christ : that he, being 
led by the words of the gospel. Mat. vii. ' De via lata, et angusta,' and also by 
the epistle of the mass, beginning, ' Vir fortissimus Judas,' had erred in the 
way of the pope, and thought, that there were but two ways, and no purgatory : 
that men ouglit to worship no images, nor set up lights before them : that 
pilgrimage doth nothing avail : that the gospel was not tnily preached for the 
space of three hundred years past, &c. 

William Wegen, Priest at St. Mary Hill, a.d. 1529. 

His articles : — That he was not bound to sa}' his Matins nor other service, but 
to sing with the choir till they came to 'prime:' and then, saying no more 
service, thought he might well go to mass : that he had said mass oftentimes, 
and had not said his matins and his divine service before: that he had 
gone to mass without confession made to a priest : that it was sufficient for a 
man, being in deadly sin, to ask only God mercy for his sin, without further 
confession made to a priest : that he held against pilgrimages, and called 
images, stocks, stones, and witches. 

Item, That he being sick, went to the Rood of St. Margaret Patens ; and said 
before him twenty Paternosters ; and when he saw himself never the better, 
then he said, ' A foul evil take him, and all other images.' 

Item, That if a man keep a good tongue in his head, he fastcth well. 

Item, For commending Luther to be a good man, for preaching twice a 
day, &c. 

Item, For saying that the mass was but a ceremony, and made to the intent 
that men should pray only. 

Item, For saying, that if a man had a pair of beads or a book in his hand at 
the church, and were not disposed to pray, it was naught, &c. 

William Hale, Holy Water Clerk of Tolenham, a.d. 1529. 

His articles : — That offering of money and candles to images did not avail, 
since we are justified by the blood of Christ. 

Item, For speaking against worshipping of saints, and against the pope's 
pardons. For saying, that since the sacraments that the priest doth minister, 
be as good as those which the pope doth minister, he did not see but the priest 
hath as good authority as the pope. 

Item, "That a man snould confess himself to God only, and not to a priest, &c. 

William Blomfield, Monk of Bury. 
Abjured for the like causes. 



John Tyndale, a. d. 1530. fu? 

Foi- sending five marks to his brother William Tyndale beyond the sea, and ^ j)_ 
for receiving and keeping with him certain letters from his brother. 1530 

William Worsley, Priest and Hermit, a. d. 1530. 1533. 

His articles : — For preaching at Halestede, having the curate's license, but 
not the bishop's. 

Item, For preaching these words, ' No man riding on pilgrimage, having 
under him a soft saddle, and an easy horse, should have any merit thereby, but 
the horse and the saddle,' &c. 

Item, For saying that hearing of matins and mass, is not the thing that shall 
save a man's soul, but only to hear the word of God. 

John Stacy, Tiler, a.d. 1530. 

His articles were against purgatory, which, he said, were but a device of the 
priests to get money : against fasting days by man's prescription, and choice of 
meats : against superfluous holy days : Item, against pilgrimage, &c. 

Lawrence Maxwell, Tailor, a.d. 1530. 

His articles : — That the sacrament of the altar was not the very body of 
Christ in flesh and blood ; but that he received him by the word of God, and 
in remembrance of Christ's passion. 

Item, That the order of priesthood is no sacrament ; that there is no pur- 
gatory, &c. 

Thomas Curson, Monk of Eastacre, in Norfolk, a.d. 1530. 

His articles were these : — For going out of the monastery, and changing his 
weed, and letting his crown to grow ; working abroad for his living, making 
copes and vestments. Also for having the New Testament of Tyndale's trans- 
lation, and another book containing certain books of the Old Testament, trans- 
lated into English, by certain whom the Papists call Lutherans. 

Thomas Cornewell or Austy, a.d. 1530. 

His articles : — It was objected, that he, being enjoined afore, by Richard 
Fitzjames, bishop of London, for his penance to wear a faggot embroidered 
upon his sleeve under pain of relapse, he kept not the same ; and therefore he 
was condemned to perpetual custody in the house of St. Bartholomew, from 
whence afterwards he escaped and fled away. 

Thomas Philip, a.d. 1530. 

Thomas Philip was delivered by sir Thomas More, to bishop Stokesley by in- 
denture. Besides other articles of purgatory, images, the sacrament of the altar, 
holy-days, keeping of books, and sucn like, it was objected unto him, that he, 
being searched in the Tower, had found about him Tracy's Testament; and in 
his chamber in the Tower was found cheese and butter in Lent-time. Also, 
that he had a letter delivered unto him going to the Tower. This letter, with 
the Testament also of Tracy, because they are both worthy to be seen, we mind 
(God willing) to annex also unto the story of this Thomas Philip. As he was 
oftentimes examined before Master More and the bishop, he always stood to 
his denial, neither could there any thing be proved clearly against him, but only 
Tracy's Testament, and his butter in Lent. One Stacy first bare witness against 
him, but after, in the court, openly he protested that he did it for fear. The 
bishop then willing him to submit himself, and to swear never to hold any 
opinion contrary to the determination of holy church, he said ' he would :' and 
when the form of his abjuration was given him to read, he read it : but the 
bishop, not content with that, would have him to read it openly. But that he 
would not; and said, He would appeal to the king as supreme head of the 


llenrg church, and so did. Still the bishop called upon him to abjure. He answered, 
^iJ^- That he would be obedient as a christian man should, and that he would swear 
A p) never to hold any heresy during his life, nor to favour any heretics. 
1530 ^^^* ^^'^ bishop, not yet content, would have him to read the abjuration after 

. the form of the church conceived, as it was given him. He answered again, 

I coo that he would forswear all heresies, and that he would maintain no heresies, nor 

1- favour any heretics. The bishop with this would not be answered, but needs 

would drive him to the abjuration formed after the pope's chinch : to whom he 
said. If it were the same abjuration that he read, he would not read it, but stand 
to his appeal made to the king, the supreme head of the church under God. 
Again the bishop asked him, if he would abjiu-e or not. ' Except,' said he, * you 
will show me the cause why I should abjure, I will not say yea nor nay to it, 
but will stand to my appeal;' and he required the bishop to obey the same. 
Then the bishop, reading openly the bill of excommunication against him, 
denounced him for ' contumax,' and an excommunicated person, charging all 
men to have no company, and nothing to do with him. After this excommuni- 
cation, what became of him, whether he was holpen by his appeal, or whether 
he was burned, or whether he died in the Tower, or whether he abjured, I find 
no mention made in the registers. 

A Letter directed to Thomas Philip in the name of the Brethren, 
and given him by the way going to the Tower. 

A letter The favour of him that is able to keep you that you fall not, and to confess 
the'cou- y^"'' 1^^"^^ i" the kingdom of glory, and to give you strength by his Spirit to 
grega- confess him before all his adversaries, be with you ever. Amen, 
tion. sjj.^ ^Q brethren tliink that there be divers false brethren craftily crept in 

among them, to seek out their freedom in the Lord, that they may accuse them 
to the Lord's adversaries, as they suppose they have done you. Wherefore, if 
so it be, that the Spirit of God move you thereunto, they, as counsellors, desire 
you above all things to be stedfast in the Lord's verity, without fear ; for he 
shall and will be your help, according to his promise, so that they shall not 
minish the least hair of your head without his will ; unto which will, submit 
yourself and rejoice : for the Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of 
temptation, and how to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment, to be 
punished :' and therefore cast all your care on him, for he careth for you. ^ And 
in that you suffer as a christian man, be not ashamed, but rather glorify God 
on that behalf, ' Looking upon Christ the author and finisher of our faith, which, 
for the joy that was set before him, abode the cross and despised the shame.'* 
Notwithstanding, though we suiFer the wrong after the example of our Master 
Christ, yet we be not bound to suffer the wrong cause, for Christ himself suffered 
it not, but reproved him that smote him wrongfully. And so likewise saith 
St. Paul also.* So that we must not suffer the wrong, but boldly reprove them 
that sit as righteous judges, and do contrary to righteousness. Therefore, 
according both to God's law and man's, ye be not bound to make answer in any 
cause, till your accusers come before j'ou ; which if you require, and thereon do 
stick, the false brethren shall be known, to the great comfort of those that now 
stand in doubt whom they may trust ; and also it shall be a mean that they shall 
not craftily, by questions, take you in snares. And that you may this do law- 
fully, in Acts XX. it is written, ' It is not the manner of the Romans to deliver 
any man that he should perish, before that he which is accused have his accusers 
before him, and have license to answer for himself, as pertaining to the crime 
whereof he is accused.' And also Christ willeth that in the mouth of two or 
three witnesses all things shall stand.^ And in 1 Tim. v., it is written, ' Against 
What is a a senior, receive none accusation, but under two or three witnesses.' A senior, 
St"paul^ in this place, is any man that hath a house to govern. And also their own law 
is agreeable to this. Wherefore, seeing it is agreeable to the word of God, that 
in accusations such witnesses should be, you may with good conscience require 
it. And thus the God of grace, which hath called you unto his eternal glory 
by Christ Jesus, shall his own self, after a little affliction, make you perfect; 
shall settle, strengthen, and stablish you, that to him may be glory and praise 
for ever. Amen. 
(l)2Pet. ii. (2)lPet. V. (3) Hcb. iii. (4) Acts xxiii. (S) Matt. xvliS. 


Thus ye have heard the letter delivered to Thomas Philip. Now W'nry 
followeth the Testament of William Tracy. 


iDtlliam Ccacp, <!E^"qutce, of ^louce^tec^ijice, ^^^^^ 

A little before this time, this William Tracy, a worshipful esquire 1533. 
in Gloucestershire, and then dwelling at Toddington, made, in his will, 
that he would have no funeral pomp at his burying, neither passed he 
upon mass ; and he further said, that he trusted in God only, and 
hoped by him to be saved, and not by any saint. This gentleman 
died, and his son, as executor, brought the will to the bishop of 
Canterbury to prove : which he showed to the convocation, and there 
most cruelly they judged that he should be taken out of the ground, 
and be burned as a heretic, a.d. 1532. This commission was sent wiiiiam 
to Dr. Parker, chancellor of the diocese of Worcester, to execute Sfenup, 
their wicked sentence ; who accomplished the same. The king, ^'^"ig 
hearing his subject to be taken out of the ground and burned, without burnt, 
his knowledge or order of his law, sent for the chancellor, and laid 
high offence to his charge ; Avho excused himself by the archbishop 
of Canterbury who was lately dead ; but in conclusion it cost him 
three hundred pounds to have his pardon. 

The will and testament of this gentleman, thus condemned by the 
clergy, was as hereunder followeth : 

The Testament of William Tracy.^ 

In the name of God, Amen. I William Tracy of Toddington in the county of 
Gloucester, esquire, make my testament and last will as hereafter followeth : 
First and before all other things, I commit myself to God and to his mercy, 
believing, without any doubt or mistrust, that by his grace, and the merits of 
Jesus Christ, and by the virtue of his passion and of his resiurrection, I have 
and shall have remission of all my sins, and resurrection of body and soul, 
according as it is written, I believe that my Redeemer Hveth, and that in the 
last day I shall rise out of the earth, and in my flesh shall see my Saviour : 
this my hope is laid up in my bosom.^ 

And touching the wealth of my soul, the faith that I have taken and rehearsed 
is sufficient (as 1 suppose) without any other man's works or merits. My ground 
and belief is, that there is but one God and one mediator between God and 
man, which is Jesus Christ; so that I accept none in heaven or in earth to be 
mediator between me and God, but only Jesus Christ : all others to be but as 
petitioners in receiving of grace, but none able to give influence of grace : and 
therefore will I bestow no part of my goods for that intent that any man should 
say or do to help my soul ; for therein I trust only to the promises of Christ : 
' He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved, and he that believeth not 
shall be damned.' ' 

As touching the burying of my body, it availeth me not whatsoever be done Funeral 
thereto ; for St. Augustine saith, ' De cura agenda pro mortuis,' that the funeral pomp 
pomps are rather the solace of them that live, than the wealth and comfort of onw'^ibr 
them that are dead: and therefore I remit it only to the discretion of mine the living. 

And touching the distribution of my temporal goods, my purpose is, by the 
grace of God, to bestow them to be accepted as the fruits of faith ; so that I do 
not suppose that my merit shall be by the good bestowing of them, but my our 
merit is the faith of Jesus Christ only, by whom such works are good, according merits 
to the words of our Lord, ' I was hungry, and thou gavest me to eat,' &c. And ourTai^h 
it followeth, ' That ye have done to the least of my brethren, ye have done it to in Clirist. 
me,' &c. And ever we should consider that true saying, that a good work 

(1) See Hall's Chronicle, p. 796. Edit. 4to. 1809. There is a commentary both by Tyndale and 
Frith upon this will, vol. iii. pp. 4 and 2^G of their Works. London, 1831. — Ed. 

(2) Job six. (3) Mark 16. 




maketh not a good man, but a good man maketh a good work ; for faith 

maketli a man both good and righteous : for a righteous man liveth by faith, 

A T^ and wliatsoever springetli not of faith is sin, &c.' 

1531* ■^"^ ^'' "^y temporal goods tliat I have not given or deUvered, or not given 
- by writing of mine own hand, bearing the date of this present writing, I do 

•iroo leave and give to Margaret my wife, and Richard my son, whom I make mine 
— '■ 1- executors. Witness hereof mine own hand the tenth of October, in the twenty- 
second year of the reign of king Henry the Eighth. 

This is the true copy of his will, for which (as you lieard before), 
after he was ahnost two years dead, they took him up and burned him. 


John Periman, Skinner, a.d 1531. 

His articles were much like unto the others before ; adding, moreover, that 
all the preachers then at Paul's Cross preached nothing but lies and flatterings, 
and that there was never a true preacher but one ; naming Edward Crome. 

Robert Goldstone, Glazier, a.d. 1531. 

His articles : — That men should pray to God only, and to no saints : that pil- 
grimage is not profitable : that men should give no worship to images. Item, 
for saying, that if he had as much power as any cardinal had, he would destroy 
all the images that were in all the churches in England. 

Lawrence Staple, Serving-man, a. d. 1531. 

His articles : — For having the Testament in English, the five books of Moses, 
the Practice of Prelates, the Sum of Scripture, the A. B. C. 

Item, About the burning of Bainham, for saying, ' I would I were with 
Bainham, seeing that every man hath forsaken him, that I might drink with 
him, and he might pray for me.' 

Item, That he moved Henry Tomson to learn to read the New Testament, 
calling it The Blood of Christ. 

Item, In Lent past, when he had no fish, he did eat eggs, butter, and cheese. 

Also, about six weeks before Master Bilney was attached, the said Bilney 

delivered to him at Greenwich foiu- New Testaments of Tyndale's translation, 

which he had in his sleeve, and a budget besides of books, which budget he, 

Eating of shortly after riding to Cambridge, delivered unto Bilney, &c. 

^^^g Item, On Fridays he used to eat eggs, and thought that it was no great 

heresy, offence before God, &c. 

Henry Tomson, Tailor, a. u. 1531. 

His articles : — That which the priest lifteth over his head at the sacring- 
time, is not the very body of Christ, nor is it God ; but a thing that God hath 
ordained to be done. 

This poor Tomson, although at first he submitted himself to the 
bishop, yet they with sentence condemned him to perpetual prison. 

Jasper Wetzell, of Cologne, a. d. 1531. 

His articles : — That he cared not for going to the chmxh to hear mass, for 
he could say mass as well as the priest : That he would not pray to our Lady, 
for she could do us no good. 

Item, Being asked if he would go hear mass, he said, he had as lieve go to the 
gallows, where the thieves were hanged. 

Item, Being at St. Margaret Patens, and there holding his arms across, he 
said unto the people, that he could make as good a knave as he is, for he is 
made but of wood, &c. 

(1) Rom. xiv. (2) Ex Regisi. Lond. 



Robert Man, Serving-man, a. d. 1531, 

His articles: — That there is no purgatory: That the pope hath no more ^'^^^ 
power to grant pardon than another simple priest : That God gave no more 
authority to St. Peter than to another priest: That the pope was a knave, and ^^^^ 
his priests knaves all, for suffering his pardons to go abroad to deceive the — L_lL 
people: That St. Thomas of Canterbury is no saint: That St. Peter was never 
pope of Rome. 

Item, He used commonly to ask of priests where he came, whether a man Priests 
were accursed, if he handled a chalice, or no? If the priest would say, Yea : gj^™ by^a 
then would he reply again thus: 'If a man have a sheep-skin on his hands,' pair of 
meaning a pair of gloves, ' he may handle it.' The priests saying, Yea. ' Well f^°^^^' 
then,' quoth he, ' ye will make me believe, that God put more virtue in a sheep- xly^aL't 
skin, than he did in a Christian man's.hand, for whom he died. hand. 

Henry Feldon, a. d, 1531, 

His trouble was for having these books in English : A proper Dialogue 
between a Gentleman and a Husbandman, The Sum of Scripture, The Prologue 
of Mark, a written book containing the Pater-noster, Ave-Maria, and the 
Creed, in English ; The Ten Commandments, and The Sixteen Conditions of 

Robert Cooper, Priest, a. d. 1531. 

His article was only this : — For saying that the blessing with a shoe-sole, is 
as good as the bishop's blessing, &c. 

Thomas Roe, a. d. 1531, 

His articles were, for speaking against auricular confession and priestly 
penance, and against the preaching of the doctors. 

William Wallam, a. d. 1531. 

His opinion : That the sacrament of the altar is not the body of Christ in 
flesh and blood ; and that there is a God, but not that God in flesh and blood, 
in the form of bread, 

Grace Palmer, a. d. 1531. 

Witness was brought against her by her neighbours, John Rouse, Agnes his Against 
wife, John Pole, of St. Osithe's, for saying, 'Ye use to bear palms on Palm- bearing of 
Sunday : it skilleth not whether you bear any or not, it is but a thing used, and 
need not.' 

Also, ' Ye use to go on pilgrimage to oiu-Lady of Grace, ofWalsingham, and 
other places : ye were better tarry at home, and give money to succour me 
and my children, and others of my poor neighbours, than to go thither ; for 
there you shall find but a piece of timber painted : there is neither God nor 
our Lady, 

Item, For repenting that she did ever light candles before images. 

Item, That the sacram.ent of the altar is not the body of Christ ; it is but 
bread, which the priest there showeth for a token or remembrance of Christ's 

Philip Brasier, of Boxted, a.d. 1531. 

His articles : — That the sacrament holden up between the priest's hands is 
not the body of Christ, but bread, and is done for a signification : That con- 
fession to a priest needeth not : That images be but stocks and stones : That 
pilgrimage is vain : Also for saying, that when there is any miracle done, tlie 
priests do anoint the images, and make men believe that the images do sweat 
in labouring for them ; and with the offerings the priests find their harlots. 

VOL. V. D 







A well- 

John Fairestede, of Colchester, a. d. 1531. 

His articles : — For words spoken against pilgrimage and images. Also for 
saying these words, ' That the day should come that men should say, Cursed be 
they that make these false gods,' (meaning images.) 

George Bull, of Much Hadham, Draper, a. d. 1531. 

His articles : — That there be three confessions ; one principal to God ; ano- 
ther to his neighbour whom he had offended ; and the third to a priest ; and 
that without the two first confessions, to God and to his neighbour, a man could 
not be saved. The third confession to a priest, is necessary for counsel to such 
as be ignorant and unlearned, to learn how to make their confession with a con- 
trite heart unto God, and how to hope for forgiveness ; and also in what 
manner they should ask forgiveness of their neighbour whom they have 
offended, &c. Item, For saying that Luther was a good man. Item, That he 
reported, through the credence and report of Master Patmore, parson of Had- 
ham, that where Wickliff 's bones were burnt, sprang up a well or well-spring. 

John Raymond, Millwright, a. d. 1531. 

His articles : — For speaking and holding against pilgrimage and images, and 
against prescribed fasting-days. 

That priests and religious men, notwithstanding their vows made, may 
lawfully forsake their vows and marry. 

Item, For having books of Luther and Tyndale. 

Robert Lambe, a Harper, a. d. 1531. 

His article : — For that he, standing accursed two years together, and not 
fearing the censures of the pope's church, went about with a song in commen- 
dation of Martin Luther. 

to the 

John Hewes, Draper, a.d. 1531. 

His articles. For speaking against purgatory, and Thomas Becket. 

Item, At the town of Farnham, he, seeing Edward Frensham kneeling in 
the street to a cross carried before a corse, asked. To whom he kneeled ? He 
said. To his Maker. ' Thou art a fool,' said he, 'it is not thy Maker; it is but 
a piece of copper or wood,' &c. 

Item, For these words. Masters ! ye use to go on pilgrimage ; it were better 
first that ye look upon your poor neighbours, who lack succour, &c. 
I Also for saying, that he heard the vicar of Croydon thus preach openly. 

That there is much immorality kept up by going on pilgrimage to Wilsdon or 
Mouswell, &c. 

Thomas Patmore, Draper, a.d. 1531. 

This Patmore was brother to Master Patmore, parson of Hadham, who was 
imprisoned in the Lollards' Tower for marrying a priest, and in the same prison 
continued three years. 

This Patmore was accused by divers witnesses, upon these articles : 
That he had as lieve pray to yonder hunter (pointing to a man painted there 
in a stained cloth), for a piece of flesh, as to pray to stocks that stand in walls, 
(meaning images.) 

Item, That men should not pray to saints, but to God only : ' For why 
should we pray to saints ?' said he, ' they are but blocks and stocks.' 
The truth Item, That the truth of Scripture hath been kept from us a long time, and 
ture'^a''' ^^^^ ""* appeared till now. 

longtime Item, Coming by a tree wherein stood an image, he took away the wax 
kept from which hanged there offered. 

^"'" Item, That he regarded not the place whether it was hallowed or no, where 

he should be buried after he was dead. 


Also in talk with the curate of St. Peter's, he defended that priests might Henry 



This Patmore had long hold with the bishop of London. First, he wovdd ^ j) 
not swear, ' Infamianon prtecedente.' Then he would appeal to the king, but all 1531 
would not serve. He was so wrapt in the bishop's nets, that he could not get jq 
out : but at last he was forced to abjure, and was fined to the king a hundred 1533. 

Note in the communication between this Patmore and the priest a false 
of St. Peter's, that whereas the priest objected against him (as is the'pf-"^ 
in the register) that priests have lived unmarried and without wives, p^^^^. 
these ] 500 years in the church ; he, and all other such priests therein 
say falsely, and deceive the people, as by story is proved in these 
volumes, that priests here in England had wives by law within these 
five hundred years and less. 

Simon Smith, Master of Arts, of Gunwell-hall, Cambridge, and 
Joan Bennore his Wife, a.d. 1531. 

. This Simon Smith, and Bennore his wife, were the parties whom Master Pat- 
more, parson of Hadham, above mentioned, did marry, and was condemned for 
the same to perpetual prison. For this marriage, both the said Simon, and 
Bennore his wife, were called to examination before the bishop, and he caused to 
make the whole discourse of all his doings, how and where he married ; then, after 
his marriage, how long he tarried; whether he went beyond sea; where he 
was, and with whom ; after his return whither he resorted ; how he lived ; 
what mercery-ware he occupied ; what fairs he frequented ; where he left his 
wife ; how he carried her over, and brought her home again, and how she was 
found, &c. All this they made him confess, and put it in their register. 
And though they could fasten no other crime of heresy upon him, but only his 
marriage, yet, calling both him and her (being great with child) to examination, 
they caused them both to abjure and suffer penance. 

Thomas Patmore, Parson of Hadham, a.d. 1530. 

This Thomas Patmore, being learned and godly, was preferred to the par- 
sonage of Hadham, in Hertfordshire, by Richard Fitz-James, bishop of London, 
and there continued instructing and teaching his flock during the time of the 
said Fitz-James, and also of Tonstal his successor, by the space of sixteen years 
or more ; behaving himself in life and conversation without any public blame 
or reproach, until John Stokesley was preferred imto the said bishopric, who, 
not very long after his installing, either for malice not greatly liking of the 
said Patmore, or else desirous to prefer some other imto the benefice (as it is 
supposed and alleged by his brethren in sundry supplications exhibited unto 
the king, as also unto queen Anne, then Marchioness of Pembroke), caused 
him to be attached and brought before him ; and then, keeping him prisoner in 
his own palace, a certain time afterwards committed him to Lollards' tower, 
where he kept him most extremely above two years, without fire or candle, or 
any other relief, but such as his friends sent him ; not suffering any of tliem, 
notwithstanding, to come unto him, no not in his sickness. Howbeit sundry 
times in the mean while he called him judicially, either before himself, cr else 
his vicar-general Foxford, that great persecutor, charging him with these 
sundry articles, viz. first, whether he had been at Wittenberg ; secondly, and 
had seen or talked with Luther; thirdly, or with any Englishman, abiding 
there ; fourthly, who went with him or attended upon him thither ; fifthly, also 
what books he bought there, either Latin or English ; sixthly, and whether he 
had read or studied any works of Luther, CEcolampadius, Pomerane, or 

Besides these, he ministered also other articles unto him, touching the mar- Priests' 
riage of Master Simon Smith (before mentioned) with one Joan Bennore, charg- 'V/'J" 
ing him that he both knew of, and also consented unto their marriage, the one " 


Henry being a priest and his curate, and tlie other his maidservant ; and that he had 
^tll- persuaded his maidservant to marry with his said curate, alleging unto her, that 
A.D. though it were not lawful in England for priests to marry, yet it was, in other 
1531 countries beyond seas. And that after their said maiTiage, he (knowing the 
to same) did yet suffer the said Smith to minister in his cure all Easter-time, and 
1533. fifteen days after ; and that at their departure out of England, he supped with 

them at the Bell in New Fish-street; and again, at their return into England, 

did meet them at the said Bell, and there lent unto the said Smitli a priest's 

He objected, moreover, against him in the said articles, that he had affinned 
at Cambridge, first, that he did not set a bottle of hay by the pope's or bishop's 
curse ; secondly, and that God bindeth us to impossible things, that he may 
save us only by his mercy ; also thirdly, that though young children be baptized, 
yet they cannot be saved except they have faith ; fourthly and lastly, that it 
was against God's law to burn heretics. 

Unto these articles, after long imprisonment and great threats of the bishop 
and his vicar, he at last answered, making first his appeal unto the king, 
wherein he showed, that forasmuch as the bishop had most imjustly, and con- 
trary to all due order of law, and the equity thereof, proceeded against him, as 
well in falsely defaming him with the crime of heresy, without having any just 
proof or public defamation thereof; as also, contrary to all justice, keeping him 
in most strait prison so long time (both to the great danger of his life, by 
grievous sickness taken thereby, as especially to his no small grief, that through 
his absence, his flock, whereof he had charge, were not fed with the word of 
God and his sacraments as he would) ; and then, to minister unto him such 
ai'ticles, mingled with interrogatories, as neither touched any heresy nor trans- 
gression of any law, but rather showing a mind to pick quarrels against him 
and other innocent people ; he therefore, for the causes alleged, was compelled 
and did appeal from him and all his officers unto the king's majesty, whom, 
imder God, he had for his most just and lawful refuge, and defender against all 
injuries. From which appeal although he minded not at any time to depart, 
yet because he would not show himself obstinate against the bishop, being his 
ordinary (although he had most just cause to suspect his unjust proceeding 
against him), he was nevertheless content to exhibit unto him this his answer : 
First, that howsoever the bishop was privately informed, yet because he was 
not 'publice difFamatus apud bonos et graves,' according to law, he was not, 
by the law, bound to answer to any of those articles. 

And as touching the first six articles (as whether he was at Wittenberg, and 
spake with Luther, or any other, or bought or read any of their books, &c.), 
because none of those things were forbidden him by any law, neither was he 
publicly accused of them (for that it was permitted to many good men to have 
them), he was not bound to answer, neither was he to be examined of them. 
But as touching the marriage of Master Simon Smith with Joan Bennore, he 
granted that he knew thereof by the declaration of Master Smith ; but, that he 
gave his maid counsel thereunto, he utterly denied. And as concerning the con- 
tracting of the marriage between them, he thought it not at all against God's 
law, who at the first creation made marriage lawfiil for all men : neither 
thought he it unlawfid for him, after their marriage, either to keep him as his 
curate, or else to lend or give him any thing needful (wherein he said he 
showed more charity than the bishop, who had taken all things from them) ; 
and therefore he desired to have it proved by the Scriptures, that priests' mar- 
riages were not lawful. 

Against whom, Foxford the bishop's vicar often alleged general councils, and 
determinations of the church, but no Scriptures, still urging him to abjure his 
articles ; whi'ch Patmore long time refused, and sticking a great while to his 
former answers, at last was threatened by Foxford, to have the definitive sen- 
tence read .against him. Whereupon he answered, that he believed the holy 
church as a christian man ought to do, and because it passed his capacity, he 
desired to be instructed, and if the Scriptures did leach it, he would believe it; 
for he knew not the contrary by the Scriptvn-es, but that a priest might mari-y 
a wife ; howbeit by the laws of the church, he thought that a priest might not 
marry. But the chancellor still so urged him to show whether a priest might 
marry without offence to God, thai at length he granted that priests might not 



marry without offence to God, because the church had forbidden it, and there- Henry 
fore a priest could not marry without deadly sin. VIII. 

Now as touching the four last articles, he denied that he spake them as they ~T~r7~ 
were put against him; but he granted that he might perhaps jestingly say, .' ' 
That a bottle of hay were more profitable to him than the pope's curse, which 
he thought true. Also to the second, he affirmed that God had set before us, ^ roo 

by his precepts and commandments, the way to justice, which way was not in L 

man's power to go and keep ; therefore Paul saith [Gal. iii.], ' Quod lex erat 
ordinata per angelos ;' but yet, to fulfil it, it was ' in manu (id est, in potestate) 
intercessoris :' That none that shall be saved shall account their salvation unto 
their own deeds, or thank their own justice in observing the law ; for it was in 
no man's power to observe it : but shall give all thanks to the mercies and 
goodness of God; according to the psalm, ' Laudate Dominum omnes gentes;' 
and according to the saying of Paul, ' Ut qui gloriatur, in Domino glorietur;' 
who hath sent his Son to do for us that which it was not in our own power to 
do. For if it had been in our power to fulfil the law, Christ had been sent to 
us without cause, to do for us that thing which we ourselves could have done, 
that is to say, fulfil the law. As for the third he spake not, for he did never 
know that any may be baptized without faith ; which faith, inasmuch as it is, 
the gift of God, why may it not be given to infants? To the last he said that 
if he spake it, he meant it not of those that St. Bernard called heretics, (with 
more adulterers, thieves, murderers and other open sinners, who blaspheme 
God by their mouths, calling good evil, and evil good, making light darkness, 
and darkness light), but he meant it of such as men call heretics according to 
the testimony of St. Paul [Acts xxiv.], ' I live after the way ' saith he, ' that 
men call heresy,' whom Christ doth foretell that ye shall burn and persecute 
to death. 

After these answers thus made, the bishop, with his persecuting 
Foxford, dealt so hardly with this good man, partly by strait im- 
prisonment, and partly by threats to proceed against him, that in the 
end he was fain, through human infirmity, to submit himself, and 
was abjured and condemned to perpetual prison ; with loss, both of 
his benefice, as also of all his goods. Howbeit one of his brethren 
afterwards made such suit unto the king (by means of the queen), 
that after three years'* imprisonment, he was both released out of 
prison, and also obtained of the king a commission unto the lord 
Audley, being then lord chancellor, and to Cranmer, archbishop of 
Canterbury, and to Cromwell, then secretary, with others, to inquire 
of the injurious and unjust dealings of the bishop and his chancellor 
against the said Patmore, notwithstanding his appeal unto the king ; 
and to determine thereof according to true equity and justice, and to 
restore the said Patmore again unto his said benefice. But what was 
the end and issue of this commission, we find not as yet. 

John Row, Book-binder, a Frenchman, a.d. 1531. 

This man, for binding, buying, and dispersing of books inhibited, was enjoined, 
besides other penance, to go to Smithfield with his books tied about him, and 
to cast them into the fire, and there to abide till they were all burned to ashes. 

Christopher, a Dutchman of Antwerp, a.d. 1531. 

This man, for selling certain New Testaments in Enghsh, to John Row 
aforesaid, was put in prison at Westminster, and there died. 

W. Nelson, Priest, a.d. 1531. 

His crime was, for having and buying of Periman certain books of Luther, 
Tyndale, Thorp, &c., and for reading and perusing the same, contrary to the 
king's proclamation, for which he was abjured. He was priest at Lcith. 


"jTl Thomas Eve, Weaver, a.d. 1531. 

A. D. His articles : That the sacrament of the altar is but a memory of Christ's 

1531 passion. That men were fools to go on pilgrimage, or to set any candle before 

to images. Item, It is as good to set up staves before the sepulchre, as to set up 

153.3. tapers of wax. That priests might have wives. 

Robert Hudson of St. Sepulchre's, a.d. 1531. 

A dog His article : On Childermas-day > (saith the register) he offered in Paul's 

^"^■^ '° church at offering time, to the child bishop (called St. Nicholas) a dog 
las, "^ ° for devotion (as he said), and meant no hurt ; for he thought to have offered a 
bishop. halfpenny, or else the dog, and thought the dog to be better than a halfpenny, 

and the dog should raise some profit to the child ; and said moreover, that it 

was the tenth dog, &c.2 

Edward Hewet, Serving-man, a.d. 1531. 

His crime : That after the king's proclamation, he had and read the New 
Testament in English ; also the book of John Frith against purgatory, &c. 

Walter Kiry, Servant, a.d. 1531. 

His article : That he, after the king's proclamation, had and used these 
books ; The Testament in English, The Sum of Scripture, a Primer and Psalter 
in English, hidden in his bed-straw at Worcester. 

Michael Lobley, a.d. 1531. 

His articles : That he, being at Antwerp, bought certain books inhibited, as 
The Revelation of Antichrist, The Obedience of a Christian man. The wicked 
Mammon, Frith against Purgatory. Item, For speaking against images and 
purgatory. Item, For saying, that Bilney was a good man, and died a good 
man," because of a bill that one did send from Norwich, that specified that he 
took his death so patiently, and did not forsake to die with a good will. 

A Boy of Colchester, a.d. 1531. 

A lad in A boy of Colchester or Norfolk, brought to Richard Bayfield a budget of 
t °' di'^th books, about four days before the said Bayfield was taken ; for which the lad 
111 prison was taken, and laid in the Compter by Master More, chancellor, and there died. 
for bring- 

BaVeid William Smith, Tailor, a.d. 1531. 

his books. 

His articles : That he lodged oftentimes in his house Richard Bayfield, and 
other good men : that he received his books into his house, and used much 
reading in the New Testament : he had also the Testament of William Tracy : 
he believed that there was no purgatory. 

William Lincoln, Prentice, a.d. 1532. 

His articles : For having and receiving books from beyond the sea, cf Tyn- 
dale, Frith, Thorp, and others. Item, He doubted, whether there were any 
purgatory : whether it were well done to set up candles to saints, to go on 
pilgrimage, &c. 

John Mel, of Boxted, a.d. 1532. 

His heresy was this : For having and reading the New Testament in English, 
the Psalter in English, and the book called 'ABC 

(1) " Childennasday ;" tlie feast of the Innocents, being the 28th of December. — Ed. 

(2) Ex Resist. 

(,''.) Why then doth Master More say, tliat Bilney recanted and died a good man, if these be 
punished for commending him to die a good man? 




John Medwel, Servant to Master Carket, Scrivener. _'if^l_ 

This Medwel lay in prison twenty-four weeks, till he was almost luine. His ,, _ * 
heresies were these : — That he doubted whether there was any purgatory. He l*^'^- 
would not trust in pardons, but rather in the promises of Christ.' He doubted, *_"^ 
whether the merits of any but only of Christ did help him. He doubted whe- ^^'^'^' 
ther pilgrimages and setting up of candles to images, were meritorious or not. 
He thought he shoidd not put his trust in any saint. Item, he had in his 
custody, the New Testament in English", the Examination of Thorp, The 
Wicked Mammon, a book of Matrimony.^ 

Christopher Fulman, Servant to a Goldsmith, a.d. 1532. 

This young man was attached, for receiving certain books at Antwerp of 
George Constantine, and transporting them over into England, and selling them 
to sundry persons, being books prohibited by the proclamation. Item, He 
thought then those books to have been good, and that he had been in error in 
times past. 

Margaret Bowgas, a.d. 1532, 

Her heresies were these : — Being asked if she would go on pilgrimage, she 
said, ' I believe in God, and he can do me more good than our Lady, or any 
other saint; and as for them, they shall come to me, if they will,' &c. Then 
Richard Sharpies, parson of Milend, by Colchester, asked her if she said her 
Ave Maria. * I say,' said she, ' Hail Mary, but I will say no further.' Then, 
said he, if she left not those opinions, she would bear a faggot. ' If I do, 
better, then, I shall,' said she, adding moreover, ' that she would not go from 
that, to die there-for:' to whom the priest answered and said. She would be 
burned. Hereunto Margaret, again replying, asked the priest, 'Who made 
martyrs?' ' Tyrants,' quoth the priest, ' make martyrs, for they put martyrs Tyrants 
to death.' ' So they shall, or may, me,' quoth Margaret. At length, with ™^^ 
much ado, and great persuasions, she gave over to Foxford, the chancellor, ™" ^"' 
and submitted herself 

John Tyrel, an Irishman, of Billerica, Tailor. 

His articles were these : — That the sacrament of the altar was not the body 
of Christ, but only a cake of bread. Furthermore, the occasion being asked, 
how he fell into that heresy, he answered and said, that about three weeks Latimer 
before Midsummer last past, he heard Master Hugh Latimer preach at St. Mary, preached 
Abchurch, that men should leave going on pilgrimage abroad, and do their pf)g"im- 
pilgrimage to their poor neighbours. Also the said Master Latimer in his age. 
sermon did set at little the sacrament of the altar. 

William Lancaster, Tailor, a,d, 1532, 

The cause laid to this man was, that he had in his keeping the book of 
WicklifFs Wicket, Item, That he believed the sacrament of the altar, after the 
words of consecration, not to be the body of Christ really, &c. Item, Upon 
the day of Assumption, he said, that if it were not for the speech of the people, 
he would not receive the sacrament of the altar. 

Robert Topley, Friar, a.d. 1532. 

His articles : — He being a Friar Augustine of Clare, forsook his habit, and 
going in a secular man's weed ten years, married a wife, called Margaret A friar 
Nixon, having by her a child; and afterwards, being brought before the bishop, married. 
he was by him abjured, and condemned to be imprisoned in his former monas- 
tery ; but at last he escaped out, and returned to his wife again. 

(1 ) It is heresy with the pope, to trust only to the merits of Christ. 

(2) Ex ipsius schedula ad Episc. Scripta. 



f'm- Thomas Topley, Augustine Friar, at Stoke-clare. 

A.D. By the occasion of this Robert Topley aforesaid, place is offered to speak 
1532 something likewise of Thomas Topley, his brother belike, and also a friar of 
to the same order and house of Stoke-clare. This Thomas Topley had been con- 
1533. verted before by one Richard Foxe, priest of Bumstead, and Miles Coverdale, 
,jjjp „ insomuch that he, being induced, partly by them, partly by reading certain 
verdaie. books, cast off' both his order and habit, and went like a secular priest. Where- 
upon he was espied, and brought to Cuthbert, bishop of London, a. d. 1528, 
before whom he made this confession as foUoweth. 

The Recantation of Thomas Topley.' 

All christian men beware of consenting to Erasmus's Fables, for by consenting 
to them, they have caused me to shrink in my faith, that I promised to God 
at my christening by my witnesses. First, as touching these fables, I read in 
Colloquium, by the instruction of sir Richard Foxe, of certain pilgrims, who, as 
the book doth say, made a vow to go to St. James, and as they went, one of 
them died, and he desired his fellows to salute St. James in his name ; and 
another died homeward, and he desired that they would salute his wife and his 
children ; and the third died at Florence, and his fellow said, he supposed that 
he was in heaven, and yet he said that he was a great liar. Thus I mused of 
these opinions so greatly, that my mind was almost withdrawn from devotion 
to saints. Notwithstanding, I consented that the divine service of them was 
very good, and is ; though I have not had such sweetness in it as I should have 
had, because of such fables, and also because of other foolish pastimes ; as 
dancing, tennis, and such other, which I think have been great occasions that 
the goodness of God hath been void in me, and vice in strength. 

Moreover, it fortuned thus, about half a year ago, that the said sir Richard went 
forth, and desired me to serve his cure for him ; and as I was in his chamber, 
Wickliff's I found a certain book called Wickliif's Wicket, whereby I felt in my con- 
Wicket. science a great wavering for the time that I did read upon it, and afterwards, 
also, when I remembered it, it wounded my conscience very sore. Neverthe- 
less, I consented not to it, until I had heard him preach, and that was upon 
St. Anthony's day. Yet my mind was still much troubled with the said book 
(which did make the sacrament of Christ's body, in form of bread, but a 
Miles Co- remembrance of Christ's passion), till I heard sir Miles Coverdale preach, and 
verdaie. x^q^ my mind was sore withdrawn from that blessed sacrament, insomuch that 
I took it then but for the remembrance of Christ's body. Thus I have wretch- 
edly wrapped my sold with sin, because I have not been steadfast in that holy 
order that God hath called me unto by baptism, neither in the holy order that 
God and St. Augustine have called me to by my religion, &c. 

Furthermore, he said and confessed, that in the Lent last past, as he was 
walking in the field at Bumstead, with sir Miles Coverdale, late friar of the 
same order, going in the habit of a secular priest, who had preached the fourth 
Sunday in Lent at Bumstead, they did commune together of Erasmus's works, 
and cilso upon confession. This sir Miles said, and did hold, that it was suffi- 
cient for a man to be contrite for his sins betwixt God and his conscience, 
without confession made to a priest ; which opinion this respondent thought to 
be true, and did affirm and hold the same at that time. Also he saith, that at 
the said sermon, made by the said sir Miles Coverdale at Bumstead, he heard 
him preach against worshipping of images in the churcli, saying and preaching, 
that men in no wise should honour or worship them ; which likewise he thought 
to be true, because he had no learning to defend it. 

William Gardiner, Augustine Friar, of Clare. 

With this Topley I may also join William Gardiner, one of the same order 
and house of Clare, who likewise, by the motion of the said Richard Foxe, 
curate of Bumstead, and by showing him certain books to read, was brought 
likewise to the like learning and judgment, and was for the same abjured by 
Cuthbert, bishop, the same year, 1528. 

(1) Ex. Regist. Loud. 




Richard Johnson, of Boxted, and Alice his Wife. 

A. D. 

This Richard and his wife were favourers of God's word, and had been 1532 
troubled for the same of long time. They came from Salisbury to Boxted by to 
reason of persecution, where they continued a good space. At length, by resort 1533. 
of good men, they began to be suspected, and especially for a book of WicklifTs 
Wicket, which was in their house, they were convented before Stokesley, bishop 
of London, and there abjured. 

So great was the trouble of those times, that it would overcharge Perilous 
any story to recite the names of all them that during those bitter *^^' 
days, before the coming of queen Anne, either were driven out of 
the realm, or were cast out from their goods and houses, or brought 
to open shame by abjuration. Such decrees and injunctions then 
were set forth by the bishops, such laws and proclamations were pro- 
vided, such watch and narrow search was used, such ways were taken 
by force of oath to make one detect another so subtilly, that scarcely 
any good man could or did escape their hands, but either his name 
was known, or else his person was taken. Yet, nevertheless, so 
mightily the power of God's gospel did work in the hearts of good 
men, that the number of them did nothing lessen for all this violence 
or policy of the adversaries, but rather increased in such sort, as our 
story almost suffereth not to recite the particular names of all and 
singular such as then groaned under the same cross of affliction and 
persecution of those days ; of which number were these : 

Arthur and GefFerey Lome. 

John Tibauld, his mother, his wife, his 
two sons, and his two daughters. 

Edmund Tibauld, and his wife. 

Henry Butcher, and his wife. 

William Butcher, and his wife. 

George Preston, and his wife. 

Joan Smith, widow; also her sons 
Robert and Richard, and her 
daughters Margaret and Elizabeth. 

Robert Hempsteed, and his wife. 

Thomas Hempsteed, and his wife. 


names of 

John Hempsteed, their son. 

Robert Faire. 

William Chatwals. p,,,^^^ 

Joan Smith, widow, otherwise called of the 
Agnes, widow ; also her sons John, *°^' 
Thomas, and Christopher, and her stead, 
daughters Joan and Alice. who ab- 

John Wiggen. J"""; 

Nicholas Holden's wife. * 

Alice Shipwright. 

Henry Brown. 

John Craneford. 

All these were of the town of Bumstead, who being detected by 
sir Richard Foxe, their curate, and partly by Tibauld, were brought 
up to the bishop of London, and all put together in one house, to the 
number of thirty-five, to be examined and abjured by the said bishop. 

Moreover, in other towns about Suffolk and Essex, others also Mejiand 
were detected, as in the town of Byrbrook, these following : 

Isabel Choote, widow; also her sons 
John, William, Christopher, and 
Robert ; her daughter Margaret, 
and Katherine her maid. 

Thomas Choote, and his wife. 

Harvie, and his wife. 

Thomas, his son. 

Agnes, his daughter. 

Bateman, and his wife. 

John Smith, and his wife. 

Thomas Butcher, and his wife. 

Robert Catlin, a spoon-maker. 

Christmas, and his wife. 

William Bechwith, his wife and his two 

John Pickas, and his wife. 


of Essex 




for the 



Henrxi William Pickas, his brother. Roger Tanner. 

^'m Girling, his wife and his daughter. C'hristopher Raven, and his wife. 

^ Tx Matthew's wife. Jolni Chapman, his servant. 

1532 Johnson, his wife and his son. Richard Chapman, his servant, and 


Thomas Hills. brother to John Chapman. 

Christopher remaineth yet alive, and hath been of a long time a 

great harbourcr of many good men and women that were in trouble 

and distress, and received them to his house, as Thomas Bate, Simon 

Smith, the priesfs wife, Roger Tanner, with a number more, which 

ye may see and read in our first edition.' 

R. Chap- Touching this Richard Chapman, this, by the way, is to be noted, 

Cruelty that as he was in his coat and shirt enjoined, bare-head, bare-foot, 

formercy ^"^^ bare-leg, to go before the procession, and to kneel upon the cold 

steps in the church all the sermon time, a little lad, seeing him kneel 

upon the cold stone with his bare knees, and having pity on him, 

came to him, and having nothing else to give him, brought him his 

cap to kneel upon ; for which the boy was immediately taken into 

the vestry, and there unmercifully beaten, for his mercy showed to 

the poor penitent. 

Beside these, divers others were about London, Colchester, and 
other places also, partakers of the same cross and affliction for the like 
cause of the gospel, in which number come in these who hereafter 

Peter Fenne, priest. Robert Wigge, William Bull, and 
Robert Best. George Cooper, of London. 
John Turke. John Toy of St. Faith's, London. 
William Raylond of Colchester. Richard Foster of London. 
Henry Raylond, his son. Sebastian Harris, curate of Kensington. 
Marion Matthew, or Westden. Alice Gardener, John Tomson, and 
Dorothy Long. John Bradley and his wife, of Col- 
Thomas Parker.' Chester. 
M. Forman, bachelor of divinity, par- John Hubert, of Esdonland, and his 

son of Honey-lane. wife. 
Robert Necton. William Butcher, whose father's grand- 
Katharine Swane. father was bmnied for the same re- 
Mark Cowbridge of Colchester. ligion. 

Widow Denby. Abraham Water of Colchester.^ 
Robert Hedil of Colchester. 

All these in this table contained, were troubled and abjured, 
A.D. 1527, and A.D. 1528. 

John Wily the elder. William Wily, another son. 

Katharine Wily, lus wife. Margaret Wily, his wife. 

John Wily, son of John Wily the elder. Lucy Wily, and Agnes Wily, two 

Christian Wily, his wife. young girls. 

These eight persons were accused a.d. 1532, for eating pottage and flesh-meat, 
five years before, upon St. James's even. 

Also another time, upon St. Peter's even, as Katharine Wily did lie in child- 
bed, the other wives, with the two girls, were found eating all together of a broth 
made with the fore-part of a rack of mutton. 

Item, The aforesaid John Wily the elder had a primer in English in his 
house, and other books. 

(1) The first Edition of the Acts and Monuments, p. 419. See also vol. iv. pp. 585, 586 of this 
Edition. This catalogue of names is omitted in all other Editions. — Ed. 

(2) This Parker was abjured twentj' four years before this. 
(.3) Ex Regist. Lond. 


Also he had a young daughter of ten years old, who could render by heart Henry 

the most part of the twenty-fourth chapter of St. Matthew. Also she could VIII- 

rehearse without book, ' The Disputation between the Clerk and the Friar.' a t\ 

Item, The said John Wily had in his house a treatise of William Thorp, and i r'oo' 
sir John Oldcastle. . 


Mention was made before* of Richard Bayfield, monk of Bury, 
who, in these perilous days, amongst other good saints of God, 
suffered death, as ye have heard ; but how, and by whom he was 
detected, hath not been showed ; which now, as in searching out of 
registers we have found, so we thought good here to adjoin the same, 
with the words and confession of the same Edmund Peerson, who 
detected him in manner as followeth. 

The Accusation of Edmund Peerson against Richard Bayfield. 

The thirteenth day of September, at four o'clock in the afternoon, a.d. 1527, 
sir Richard Bayfield said, that my lord of London's commissary was a plain 
pharisee ; wherefore he would speak with him, and by his wholesome doctrine, 
he trusted in God, he should make him a perfect Christian man, and me also, 
for I was a pharisee as yet, he said. 

Also he said that he cared not even if the commissary and the chancellor both 
heard him; for the chancellor, he said, was also a pharisee, and he trusted to 
make him a christian man. 

Also he said he was entreated by his friends, and, in a manner, constrained to 
abide in the city against his will, to make the chancellor, and many more, per- 
fect christian men ; for as yet many were pharisees, and knew not the perfect 
declaration of the Scripture. 

Also he said that Master Arthur and Bilney were, and be, more pure and more 
perfect in their living to God, than was, or is, the commissary, the chancellor, 
my lord of London, or my lord cardinal. 

Also he said that if Arthur and Bilney suffer death in the quarrels and 
opinions that they be in or hold, they shall be martyrs before God in heaven. 

Also he said. After Arthur and Bilney were put cruelly to death, yet should 
there be hundreds of men that should preach the same that they have preached. 

Also he said that he would favour Arthur and Bilney, he knew their living Commen- 
to be so good ; for they did wear no shirts of linen cloth, but shirts of hair, and dation of 
ever were fasting, praying, or doing some other good deeds. And as for one ^^^^^^ 
of them, whatsoever he have of money in his purse he will distribute it, for the Arthur, 
love of God, to poor people. 

Also he said that no man should give laud or praise, in any manner of wise, 
to any creature, or to any saint in heaven, but only to God ; Soli Deo honor et 
gloria; that is, To God alone be all honour and glory.* 

Also he said, * Ah, good sir Edmund!' ye be far from the knowledge and 
understanding of the Scripture, for as yet ye be a pharisee, with many others 
of your company : but I trust in God, I shall make you, and many other more, Thegodly 
good and pei-fect christian men, ere I depart from the city ; for I purpose to ^f "g^y^ 
read a common lectm-e every day at St. Foster's Church, which lecture shall field 
be to the edifying of your souls that be false pharisees.' 

Also he said that Bilney preached nothing at Wilsdon, but what was true. 

Also he said that Bilney preached true at Wilsdon, if he said that our Lady's xiie 
crown of Wilsdon, her rings and beads that were offered to her, were bestowed people's 
amongst harlots, by the ministers of Christ's church ; ' for that I have seen ^e^olj^e^ 
myself,' he said, * here in London, and that will I abide by.' upon 

Also he said. He did not fear to commune and argue in Arthur's and Bilney 's 'w'ofs. 
opinions and articles, even if it were with my lord cardinal. 

Also he said that he would hold Arthur's and Bilney 's opinions and articles, 
and abide by them, that they were ti-ue opinions, to suffer death there-for; 
' I know them,' said he, ' for such noble and excellent men in learning.' 
(1) See vol iv. p. 080.— Ed. (2) I Tim. i. 


Henry Also he said, If lie were before my lord cardinal, he would not let to speak 
^■^'-'- to him, and to tell him, that he hath done naughtily in imprisoning Arthur and 
A Y) Bilney, who were better disposed in their livings to God, than my lord cardinal, 
, (.'.j^* or my lord of London, as holy as they make themselves. 

'— Also he said. My lord cardinal is no perfect nor good man to God, for he 

keepeth not the commandments of God ; for Christ (he said) never taught him 

The car- to follow riches, nor to seek for promotions or dignities of this world, nor did 

shoe's^ Christ ever teach him to wear shoes of silver and gilt, set with pearl and precious 

stones ; nor had Christ ever two crosses of silver, two axes, or a pillar of silver 

and gilt. 

Afso he said that every priest might preach the gospel without license of the 
pope, my lord cardinal, my lord of London, or any other man ; and that he 
would abide by : and thus he verified it, as it is written, Mark xvi., ' Euntes 
in mimdum universum, praedicate Evangelium omni creaturse.' Christ com- 
manded every priest to go forth throughout all the world, and preach the word 
of God by the authority of this gospel ; and not to rim to the pope, nor to any 
«ther man for Hcense : and that he would abide by, he said. 

Also he said, 'Well, Sir Edmund!' say you what you will, and every man. 
and my lord cardinal also, and yet will I say, and abide by it, my lord cardinal 
doth punish Arthur and Bilney unjustly, for there be no truer christian men in 
all the world hving, than they two be ; and that punishment that my lord car- 
dinal doth to them, he doth it by might and power, as one \vho would say, 
This may I do, and this will I do: who shall say nay? but he dotli it of no 

Also about the 14th day of October last past, at three o'clock at afternoon, 
sir Richard Bayfield came to St. Edmimd's in Lombard-street, where he found 
me, sir Edmund Peerson, sir James Smith, and sir Miles Garnet, standing at 
the utteniiost gate of the parsonage ; and sir Edmund said to sir Richard Bay- 
field, ' How many christian men have ye made, since ye came to the city ?' 
Quoth sir Richard Bayfield, ' I came even now to make thee a christian man, 
and these two other gentlemen with thee ; for well I know ye be all three 
pharisees as yet.' 

Also he said to sir Edmund, that Arthur and Bilney were better christian 
men than he was, or any of them that did punish Arthur and Bilney. 

By me, Edmund Peerson. 

And thus we have, as in a gross sum, compiled together the 
names and causes, though not of all, yet of a great, and too great a 
number of good men and good women, who, in those sorrowful days 
(from the year of our Lord 1527, to this present year 1533, that is, 
till the coming in of queen Anne) Avere manifold ways vexed and 
persecuted under the tyranny of the bishop of Rome. Where again 
we have to note, that from this present year of our Lord 1 533, during 
the time of the said queen Anne, we read of no great ])ersecution, 
nor any abjuration to have been in the church of England, save only 
that the registers of London make mention of certain Dutch- 
men counted for Anabaptists,' of whom ten were put to death in 
sundry places of the realm, a.d. 1535 ; other ten re])ented and were 
saved. Where note again, that tAvo also of the said company, albeit 
the definitive sentence was read, yet notwithstanding were pardoned 
by the king ; which was contrary to the pope's law. 

Com- Now to proceed forth in our matter : A fter that the bishops and 

[he'com- heads of the clergy had thus a long time taken their pleasure, excr- 

""""^ , cisinir their cruel authority against the poor wasted flock of the Lord, 

t'le and began, furthermore, to stretch torth then- rigour and austerity, 

^^^^^^' to attach and molest also other great persons of the tcmporalty ; so 

(1) The names of the ten Putchmen Anabaptists, who were put to death, were Segor, Oerick, 
Simon, Runa, Derick, Dominick, David, Cornelius, Elkcn, Milo. 





it fell, that in the beginning of the next or second year following, Hevry 

which was a.d. 1534, a parliament w^s called by the king abont the '— 

15th day of January ■} in which parliament the commons, renewing A.D. 
their old griefs, complained of the cruelty of the prelates and ordi- ^^'^'*- 
naries, for calling men before them ' Ex officio.** For such was then 
the usage of the ordinaries and their officials, that they would send 
for men, and lay accusations to them of heresy, only declaring to 
them that they were accused ; and would minister articles to them, the cie^r " 
but no accuser should be brought forth : whereby the commons were t^g'"^''^ 
grievously annoyed and oppressed ; for the party so cited must poraity. 
either abjure or do worse : for purgation he might none make. 

As these were long debating in the common house, at last it was 
agreed that the temporal men should put their griefs in writing, and 
deliver them to the king. Whereupon, on the 18th day of March, 
the common speaker, accompanied with certain knights and burgesses 
of the common house, came to the king''s presence, and there declared 
how the temporal men of his realm were sore aggrieved with the cruel 
demeanour of the prelates and ordinaries, who touched their bodies 
and goods so nearly, that they of necessity were enforced to make 
their humble suit, by their speaker, unto his grace, to take such 
order and redress in the case, as to his high wisdom might seem most 
convenient, &c. 

Unto this request of the commons, although the king at that time 
gave no present grant, but suspended them with a delay, yet not- 
withstanding, this sufficiently declared the grudging minds of. the 
temporal men against the spiritualty, lacking nothing but God''s God's 
helping hand to work in the king's heart for reformation of such haifdm 
things, which they all did see to be out of frame. Neither did the *j|™^"^ 
Lord's divine providence fail in time of need, but eftsoons ministered 
a ready remedy in time expedient. He saw the pride and cruelty of 
the spiritual clergy grown to such a height as was intolerable. He 
saw again, and heard the groaning hearts, the bitter afflictions, of 
his oppressed flock ; his truth decayed, his religion profaned, the 
glory of his Son defaced, his church lamentably wasted. Wherefore 
it was high time for his high majesty to look upon the matter (as he 
did indeed) by a strange and wondrous means, which was through 
the king's divorcement from lady Katharine, dowager, and marrying Anne" 
with lady Anne Bullen, in this present year ; which was the first ^^Yl^^h 
occasion and beffinninff of all this public reformation which hath Katha- 

o o 1 ^ rin6 

followed since, in this church of England, and to this present day, divorced. 
according as ye shall hear. 

511 CompendioujS ^i^couciSe, 




In the first entry of the king's reign ye heard before, how, after A.D. 

the death of prince Arthur, the lady Katharine, princess dowager, ^527 

and wife to prince Arthur, by the consent both of her father and his, ^^^^ 
and also by the advice of the nobles of this realm, to the end her 

(1) Ex Ed. Hall. [The twenty-third year of Henry VIII., page 784. Land. 1G09.— Ed.]. 


Henry dowTy might remain still within the realm, was espoused, after the 
^^ ^' decease of her husband, to his next brother, Avhich was this king Henry. 

A. D. *Thus' then, after the declaration of these things gone before, next 
^^^^ cometh to our hands (by the order and process of the time we are 
1500 now about), to treat of the marvellous and most gracious work of the 

— holy providence of God, beginning now to work, at this present time, 

here m England, that which neither durst be attempted before by any 
prince within this realm, nor yet could ever be hoped for by any 
subject ; concerning the abolishing and overthrow of the pope's 
supremacy here in the English church : Avho, through the false pre- 
tensed title of his usurped authority, and through the vain fear of his 
keys, and cursed cursings and excommunications, did so deeply sit in 
the consciences of men ; did keep all princes and kings so under 
him ; briefly, did so plant himself in all churches, taking such deep 
root in the hearts of all christian people so long time, that it seemed 
not only hard, but also impossible, for man's power to abolish the 
same. But that which passeth man's strength, God here beginneth 
to take in hand, to supplant the old tyranny and subtle supremacy 
of the Romish bishop. The occasion hereof began thus (through the 
secret providence of God), by a certain unlawful marriage between 
king Henry VIH. and the lady Katharine, his brother's wife ; which 
maiTiage, being found unlawfid, and so concluded by all universities, 
not to be dispensed withal by any man, at length brought forth a 
verity long hid before ; that is, that the pope was not what he was 
accounted to be ; and, again, that he presumptuously took more upon 
him than he was able to dispense withal. 

These little beginnings being once called into question, gave great 
light to men, and ministered withal great occasion to seek further : 
insomuch that at length the pope was espied, both to usurp that 
which he could not claim, and to claim that which he ought not to 
usurp. As touching the first doubt of this unlawful marriage, whether 
it came of the king himself, or of the cardinal, or of the Spaniards, 
as the chronicles themselves do not fully express, so I cannot as- 
suredly affirm. This is certain, that it was not without the singular 
providence of God (whereby to bring greater things to pass), that 
the king's conscience herein seemed to be so troubled, according as 
the words of his own oration, had unto his commons, do declare ; 
whose oration hereafter followeth, to give testimony of the same.* 
The pope This marriage seemed very strange and hard, for one brother to 
setrfor marry the wife of another. But what can be in this earth so hard or 
brother to fliffi^ult, whcrcwith the pope, the omnipotent vicar of Christ, cannot 
marry his \^y favour dispeiisc, if it please him .'' The pope that then ruled at 
wife. Rome, was pope Julius U., by whose dispensation this marriage, 
which neither sense of nature would admit, nor God's law would 
bear, was concluded, approved, and ratified ; and so continued as 
lawful, without any doubt or scruple, the space of nearly twenty 
The years, till about the time that a certain doubt began first to be 
flj?^t"'*'^'^^ moved by the Spaniards themselves, of the emperor's council, a.d. 
doubted 1523 ; at what time Charles the emperor, being here in England, 
king's promised to marry the lady Mary, daughter to the king of England ; 
marriage, ^-^j^ v'hich promisc, the Spaniards themselves were not well con- 

(1) See Ed. l.'iCS, p 455.— Ed. 


tented, objecting this, among many other causes, that the said lady Henry 


Mary was begotten of the king of England by his brother's wife. 

Whereupon the emperor, forsaking that marriage, did couple A. D. 
himself with lady Isabel, daughter to king Emanuel of Portugal, ^p'^ 
This man'iage was done a. d. 1526. After this marriage of the j^gg 

emperor, the next year following, king Henry, being disappointed 

thus of the emperor, entered talk, or rather was laboured to by the 
French ambassadors, for the said lady Mary to be married to the 
French king''s son, duke of Orleans ; upon the talk whereof, after 
long debating, at length the matter was put off by a certain doubt of 
the president of Paris, casting the like objection as the Spaniards had xhese- 
done before ; which was. Whether the marriage between the king, doubt, 
and the mother of this lady Mary, who had been his brother's wife J^'j^/g " 
before, were good or no ? And so the marriage, twice unluckily Mary was 
attempted, in like sort brake off again, and was rejected, which bwn/ 
happened a. d. 1527. 

The king, upon the occasion hereof casting many things in his Twoper- 
mind, began to consider the cause more deeply, first, with himself, FnThl"^'' 
after, with certain of his nearest council ; wherein two things there "^'P^'^ 

... , . romd. 

were which chiefly pricked his mind, whereof the one touched his con- 
science, the other concerned the state of his realm. For if that 
marriage with his brother's wife stood unla\vful by the law of God, 
then neither was his conscience clear in retaining the mother, nor yet 
the state of the realm firm by succession of the daughter. It hap- 
pened the same time that the cardinal, who was then nearest about cardinal 
the king, had fallen out with the emperor, for not helping him to the J^°pe7dt^ 
papacy, as ye before heard ; for Avhich cause he helped to set the ^^\ ''•■ 
matter forward by all the practice he might. Thus the king, per- 
plexed in his conscience, and careful for the commonwealth, and 
partly also incited by the cardinal, could not so rest ; but inquired 
further to feel what the word of God, and learning, would say unto it. 
Neither was the case so hard, after it began once to come in public 
question, but that by the word of God, and the judgments of the best 
learned clerks, and also by the censure of the chief universities of all 
Christendom, to the number of ten and more, it was soon discussed 
to be unlawful. 

All these censures, books, and writings, of so many doctors, clerks, 
and universities, sent from all quarters' of Christendom to the king, 
albeit they might suffice to have fully resolved, and did indeed resolve 
the king's conscience touching this scruple of his marriage ; yet 
would he not straightway use that advantage which learning did give 
him, unless he had withal the assent as well of the pope, as also the 
emperor ; wherein he perceived no little difficulty. For the pope, 
he thought, seeing the marriage was authorized before by the dispen- 
sation of his predecessor, would hardly turn his keys about to undo 
that which the pope before him had locked ; and much less would he 
suffer those keys to be foiled, or to come in any doubt ; which was 
like to come, if that marriage were proved undispensable by God's 
word, which his predecessor, through his plenary power, had licensed 
before. Again, the emperor, he thought, would be no less hard for 

(1) ' All quarters,' that is, the judgments of ten or twelve universities against the king's mar- 
riage, Orleans, Paris, Toulouse, Anjou, Bolcgna, Padua, the faculty of Paris, Bourges, Oxford, 
and Cambridge. 

48 THE king's scruples. 

Henry his part, Oil tlic Other side, forasmuch as the said Lady Katharine was 

the cmperor^s near aunt, and a Spaniard born. Yet, nevertheless, his 

purpose was to prove and feel what they both would say unto it ; and 

therefore he sent Stephen Gardiner to Rome, to weigh with pope 

Clement. To the emperor was sent sir Nicholas Harvey, knight, 

embassador in the court of Gaunt. First, pope Clement, not weigh- 

tifrr'a-s ^^o belike the full importance and sequel of the matter, sent cardinal 

legate. Campcius (as is said) into England, joined with the cardinal of York. 

The At the coming of these legates, the king, first opening unto them 

perfua- the grief of his conscience, seemed with great reasons and persuasions 

Bion to sufficiently to have drawn the good will of those two legates to his 

gates. side ; who also, of their own accord, pretended no less but to show a 

willing inclination to further the king''s cause. But yet the mouths 

of the common people, and in especial of women, and such others as 

favoured the queen, and talked their pleasure, were not stopped. 

Wherefore, to satisfy the blind surmises and foolish communication 

of these also, who, seeing the coming of the cardinals, cast out such 

lewd words, as that the king would, ' for his own pleasure,' have 

another wife, with like unbeseeming talk ; he therefore, willing that 

all men should know the truth of his proceedings, caused all his 

nobility, judges, and counsellors, with divers other persons, to resort 

to his palace of Bridewell, the 8th day of November, a. d. 1529, 

where, openly speaking in his great chamber, he had these words in 

effect, as folio weth. 

The King's Oration to his Subjects. 

Our trusty and well-beloved subjects, both you of the nobility, and you 
of the meaner sort : it is not unknown unto you, how that we, both by God's 
provision, and tnie and lawful inheritance, have reigned over this realm of 
England almost the term of twenty years; during which time, we have so 
ordered us (thanked be God !) that no outward enemy hath oppressed you, nor 
taken any thing from us, nor have we invaded any realm, but we have had 
victory and honour, so that we think that neither you nor any of your prede- 
cessors, ever lived more quietly, more wealthily, or in more estimation, under 
any of our noble progenitors. But when we remember our mortality, and that 
we must die, then we think that all our doings in our lifetime are clearly 
defaced, and worthy of no memory, if we leave you in trouble at the time of our 
death ; for if our true heir be not known at the time of our death, see what 
mischief and trouble shall succeed to you, and to your children. The expe- 
rience thereof some of you have seen after the death of oiur noble grandfather, 
king Edward the Fourth ; and some have heard what mischief and man- 
slaughter continued in this realm between the houses of York and Lancaster, by 
which dissension this realm was hke to have been clearly destroyed. 

And although it hath pleased Almighty God to send us a fair daughter of a 
noble woman, and of me begotten, to our great comfort and joy, yet it hath 
been told us, by divers great clerks, that neither she is our lawful daughter, nor 
her mother our lawful wife, but that we live together abominably and detestably 
in open adultery ; insomuch that when our ambassador was last in France, and 
motion was made that the duke of Orleans should marry our said daughter, one of 
the chief counsellors to the French king said, It were well done, to know whether 
she be the king of England's lawful daughter or not ; for well known it is, 
that he begot her on his brother's wife, which is directly against God's law and 
his precept. Think you, my lords, that these words touch not my body and 
soul ? Think you that these doings do not daily and hourly trouble my con- 
science, and vex my spirits ? Yes, we doubt not but if it were your cause, every 
man would seek remedy, when the peril of your soul, and the loss of your inhe- 
ritance is openly laid unto you. For this only cause I protest before God, and 


on the word of a prince, I have asked counsel of the greatest clerks in Christen- ]i,;,r,i 
dom; and for this cause I iiave sent for this legate, as a man indifiercnt, only ^'"'- 
to know the truth, and so to settle my conscience, and for none other cause, as ^ j^ 
God can judge. And as touching the queen, if it be adjudged by the law of ji^27' 
God that she is my lawful wife, there was never thing more pleasant, or more '^^ 
acceptable to me in my life, both for the discharge and clearing of my con- \r^'^'^ 

science, and also for the good qualities and conditions which I know to be in 

her. For I assure you all, that beside her noble parentage of which she is 
descended (as you well know), she is a woman of most gentleness, of most 
humility and buxomness, yea, and in all good qualities appertaining to nobility, 
she is without comparison, as I, these twenty j-ears almost, have had the true 
experiment ; so that if I were to marry again, if the marriage might be good, 
I would surely choose her above all other women. But if it be determined by 
judgment, that our marriage was against God's law, and clearly void, then shall 
I not only sorrow the departing from so good a lady and loving companion, but 
nmch more lament and bewail my unfortunate chance, that I have so long 
lived in adultery, to God's great displeasure, and have no true heir of my body 
to iiilierit tliis realm. These be the sores that vex my mind, these be the pangs 
that trouble my conscience, and for these griefs I seek a remedy. Therefore I 
require )^ou all, as our trust and confidence is in you, to declare to our subjects 
our mind and intent, according to our true meaning ; and desire them to pray 
with us that the very truth may be known, for the discharge of our conscience, 
and saving of our soul : and for the declaration hereof I have assembled you 
together, and now you may depart. 

Shortly after this oration of the hing, wherewith he stirred the The 
liearts of a number, tlien the two legates, being requested of the }af^"'^'j,,j 
king, for discharge of his conscience, to judge and determine upon tiie 
the cause, went to the queen lying then in the palace of Bridewell, ''"'"'^"' 
and declared to her, how they were deputed judges indifferent, 
between the king and her, to hear and determine, whether the 
marriage between them stood with God^s laAv or not. 

When she understood the cause of their coming, beinff thereat 
something astonied at the first, after a little pausing Avith herself, 
thus she began, answering for herself.^ 

Queen Katharine's Answer to the Cardinals. 

Alas, my lords (said she), is it now a question whether I be the king's law- 
ful wife or no, when I have been married to him almost twenty years, and in 
the mean season never question was made before ? Divers prelates yet being 
alive, and lords also, and privy coimcillors with the king at that time, then ad- 
judged our marriage lawful and honest ; and now to say it is detestable and 
abominable, I think it great marvel : and, in especial, when I consider what a 
wise prince the king's father was, and also the love and natural affection that 
king Ferdinand, my father, bare unto me, I think in myself, that neither of our 
fathers were so uncircumspect, so unwise, and of so small imagination, but they 
foresaw what might follow of our marriage ; and in especial, the king my father 
sent to the court of Rome, and there, after long suit, with great cost and charge, 
obtained a license and dispensation, that I, being the one brother's wife, and 
peradventure carnally known, might, without scruple of conscience, marry with 
the other brother lawfully, which license, under lead, I have yet to show : which 
things make me to say, and surely believe, that our marriage was both lawful, 
good, and godly. 

But of this trouble I may only thank you, my lord cardinal of York. For The 
because I have wondered at your high pride and vain glory, and abhorord fardinal 
Vbur voluptuous life and abominable lechery, and little regarded your pre- tuis'"'^ 
sumptuous power and tyranny, therefore, of malice you have kindled this fire, iiivorce, 
and .set this matter abroach ; and, in especial, for the great malice that you ^""^ "''^' 

(1) Ex E. Hallo, [pp. 754, 75r). Edit. 1S09.— Ed.] 
VOL. V. K 


TJpnry bear to my ncplicw the emperor, wliom I perfectly know you luite worse tlian 
VIII. jj scor])ioii, because he would not satisfy your ambition, and make you pope by 
A j^ force : and therefore you have said more than once, that you would trouble him 
1597' and his friends ; and yon have kept him true promise; for all his wars and 
^ vexations he may only thank you. And as for me, his poor aunt and kins- 
woman, what trouble you have put me to, by this new found doubt, God 
knoweth ; to whom I commit my cause, according to the truth. 


The cardinal of York excused himself, saying, that he was not the 
beginner nor the mover of the doubt, and that it was sore against 
his will that ever the marriage should come in question ; but he 
said that by his superior, the bishop of Rome, he was deputed as a 
judge to hear the cause ; which he sware on his profession to hear 
indifferently. But whatsoever was said, she believed him not ; and 
so the legates took their leave of her, and departed. 

These words were spoken in French, and written by cardinal 
Campeius's secretary, who Avas present ; and afterwards, by Edward 
Hall, translated into English. 

*By^ these premises it is sufficient to judge and understand what 
the whole occasion was, that brought this marriage first into doubt, 
so that there needeth not any further declaration in words upon this 
matter. But this one thing will I say, if I might be bold to speak 
what I think : other men may think what they list. This I suppose, 
that the stay of this marriage was taken in good time, and not with- 
out the singular favour of God's providence. For if that one child, 
coming of this aforesaid marriage, did so greatly endanger this whole 
reahn of England to be entangled with the Spanish nation, that if 
God's mighty hand had not been betwixt, God only knoweth what 
misery might have ensued : what peril then should thereby have 
follo7/ed, if, in the continuance of this marriage, more issue had 
sprung thereof ! 

But to return again to our matter concerning the whole process 

and discourse of this divorcement, briefly to comprehend in few 

words, that which might be collected out of many : after this answer 

was given of the queen, and her appeal made to the pope, the king, 

to try out the matter by Scriptures and by learning, sent first to the 

])opc, then to most part of all universities, to have it decided to the 


The vain In the ncxt year ensuing, a.d. 1530, at the Black Friars' of 

,';j"^P London was prepared a solemn place for the two legates : who, 

le-ates. ^ coming with their crosses, pillars, axes, and all other Romish 

andqueen ccrcmonics accordingly, were set in two chairs covered with cloth of 

before P^old, and cushions of the same. When all things were ready, then 

iiiem. t]ie ]^ing and the queen were ascited by Dr. Sampson to appear before 

the said legates the 28th day of May ; where (the commission of the 

cardinals first being read, wherein it was appointed by the court of 

Rome, that they should be the hearers and judges in the cause 

between them both) the king was called by name, who appeared by 

two proctors. Then the queen was called, who being accompanied 

Avith four bishops,^ and others of her council, and a great company of 

ladies, came personally herself before the legates ; who there, after lier 

(1) For this passp.fe between asterisks see Ed. 15(5.1, p. •157. — En. 

(i) 'Ihuse four bi!.h('p.s were Wailiam of Canterbury, West of Ely, Fislicr of Rochester, Etanilish 
of St. Asaph. 


obeisance, with a sad gravity of countenance, having not many words Henry 
with them, appealed from the legates, as judges not competent, to 

the court of Rome, and so departed. Notwithstanding this appeal, A. D. 

the cardinals sat weekly, and every day arguments on both sides ^^^^ 

were brought, but nothing definitively was determined. 2^22 
As the time passed on, in the month of June, the king being 


desirous to see an end of the controversy, and hear the determination queen 
of the matter, came to the court, and the queen came also, where he, ^^ZTlhe^ 
standing under his cloth of estate, uttered these or like words, cardinals 
* which' can best declare his own mind, and which here I thought to pope 
notify, that they who have not the chronicles present, may here read 
his mmd, and the better understand the matter.* 

The King's Oration to the Legates. 
My lords, legates of the see apostolic, who be deputed judges in this great 
and weighty matter, I most heartily beseech you to ponder my mind and in- 
tent, which only is to have a final end for the discharge of my conscience. For 
every good christian man knoweth what pain and what unquietness he sufFereth, 
who hath his conscience grieved. For I assure you, on my honour, that this 
matter hath so vexed my mind, and troubled my spirits, that I can scantly study 
anything which should be profitable for my realm and people : and to have a 
quietness in body and soul is my desire and request, and not for any gnidge 
that I bear to her that I have married; for I dare say, that for her womanhood, 
wisdom, nobility, and gentleness, never prince had such another : and there- 
fore, if I would willingly change, I were not wise. Wherefore my suit is to you 
my lords at this time, to have a speedy end, according to right, for the quiet- 
ness of my mind and conscience only, and for no other cause, as God knoweth. 

When the king had thus said, the queen departed without saying The 
any thing. *The' queen again, on the other part (who had before abuie'th 
appealed to the pope), assisted with her councillors and doctors, who a^Jea^ 
were four bishops, that is Warham of Canterbury, West of Ely, 
Fisher of Rochester, Standish of St. Asaph, with other learned men 
whom the king had licensed her to choose,* was called to know 
whether she would abide by her appeal, or answer there before the 
legates. Her proctor answered, that she would abide by her appeal. 
That notwithstanding, the councillors on both sides every day almost 
met, and debated this matter substantially, so that at last the divines 
were all of opinion that the marriage was against the law of God, if 
she were carnally known by the first brother, which thing she clearly 
denied. But to that was answered, that prince Arthur her husband 
confessed the act done, by certain words spoken ; which, being 
recorded in other chronicles, I had rather should there be read, than 
by me here uttered. Furthermore, at the time of the death of prince 
Arthur, she thought and judged that she was with child, and for that 
cause the king was deferred from the title and creation of the prince of 
Wales almost half a year : which thing could not have been judged, 
f she had not been carnally known. 

Also she herself caused a bull to be purchased, in the Avhich were 

these words : ' vel forsan cognitam,'' which is as much to say as, 

peradventure carnally known ;*" which words were not in the first 

bull granted by July, at her second marriage to the king. Which 

second bull, with that clause, was only purchased to dispense with 

(2) See Edition 1563, p. 458.— Ed. (2) See Edition 1563, p. 458.— Ed. 

E 2 


jir.nrij the second matrimony, altliough there were carnal copulation before : 

L- whicli bull needed not to have been purchased, if there had been no 

^- ^- carnal copulation, for then the first bull had been sufficient. 

Moreover, for the more clear evidence of this matter, that prince 
jrj.jjj Arthur had carnal knowledge of the said lady Katharine his wife, it 

— • appearcth in a certain book of records which we have to show touching 

this marriage, that the same time when prince Arthur was first married 
with this lady Katharine, daughter to king Ferdinand, certain am- 
bassadors of Ferdinand's council were then sent hither into England 
for the said purpose, to see and to testify concerning the full consum- 
mation of the said matrimonial conjunction ; which councillors here 
resident, being solemnly sworn, not only did aifirm to both their 
parents, that the matrimony was consummated by that act, but also 
did send over into Spain, to her father, such demonstrations of their 
mutual conjunction as here I will not name, sparing the reverence of 
chaste ears. Which demonstrations otherwise, in those records being 
named and testified, do sufficiently put the matter out of all doubt 
and question. 

Besides that, in the same records appeareth that both he and she 

not only were of such years as were meet and able to explete the 

consummation hereof, but also they were and did lie together both 

here and in Wales, by the space of three quarters of a year.* 

Three Thus, whcu the divincs on her side were beaten from the ground, 

for^queen ^^cn they fell to persuasions of natural reasons, how this should not 

Katha- })g undouc fpr three causes. One was, because, if it should be 

broken, the only child of the king should be a bastard, which were 

a gi'eat mischief to the realm. Secondly, the separation should be 

cause of great unkindncss between her kindred and this realm. And 

the third cause was, that the continuance of so long space had made 

the marriage honest. These persuasions, with many others, Avcrc 

set forth by the queen's council, and in especial by the bishop of 

Fisher Rochester, who stood stiff in her cause. But yet God''s precept Avas 

Roches- not answered ; wherefore they left that ground, and fell to pleading, 

greafdoer that the court of Romc had dispensed with that marriage. To this 

for queen gome lawycrs said, that no earthly person is able to dispense with the 

line. positive law of God, *whereunto^ all things must give place : that 

it had not been hard for the legates speedily to have defined this 

matter, if they had had the word of God before their eyes, more 

than respect of man. But the subtle legates, understanding another 

thing lying in this matter, what derogation might ensue hereby to 

the court of Rome, and to the blemish of their dignity, if the pope's 

dispensation should not be maintained as forcibly in that, as in any 

other case : therefore, with crafty delays, dissimuled the matter, and 

tracted the time, and drew off the king with many fair words, but 

performing nothing, notwithstanding the king's earnest siiit and 

request made to them to make a speedy end, and to give some 

judgment for the quieting of his conscience. Whatsoever it were, 

he would accept it. Yet they, neither following the cause, nor 

tendering the king, but only respecting their own gain and glory, 

(!) Out of a writtiii hook of records, containing certain conferences hetween the r.irdina! and 
queen Katharine's almoner about this matter,' remaining in our custody to he seen. 
(2) Sue Edition 15C,;!, pp. 158, 4-!'.— Ed. 


from month to montli protrnctcd the matter to the bctrinnin^- of Hi^'iru 

' . O o I'll I 

August. Whereupon the king, taking it not well, so to be used at _ 

their hand, especially in such a matter, being so full of disquietness A. D. 
in itself, sent the duke of Norfolk and the duke of Suffolk to the ^^^^ 
court where the legates were, requiring them to hasten to the final j^^^ 

end of the matter (what end soever it were), and to defer it no 


Now here appeared the false crafty packing of these carnal mer- 
chants. It is the manner and custom of Rome about the beginning 
of August, during the space of the dog-days, to have a solemn 
vocation, as they call it, in which time neither schools be used, nor 
any term kept. Campeius the cardinal therefore, pretending the 
order of the court of Rome, whereof he Avas a member, answered, 
that he neither would nor could go against the ordinance of the 
court, whereunto he was bound ; so that before October he would 
proceed no further in the cause. The dukes, hearing the cardinal's 
words, and perceiving their pretensed excuses, seeing that by no 
ways they would be entreated, bui'st out in manner of open defiance, 
as no great marvel was, insomuch that Charles, duke of Suffolk, 
clapping his hand upon the tabic, and swearing by the mass, said 
these words, That as yet there never came legate or cardinal from 
Rome that ever did good in England. And so with him all the 
temporal lords departed in anger from the cardinals, leaving them to 
look one upon another. The king yet notwithstanding, for quietness 
of his troubled mind, abiding the cardinaFs leisure, was content to 
wait their assigned month of October. But before October came, 
Campeius the cardinal was called home by letters fi-om the pope, 
whereby the matter was left undiscussed, or rather deluded, to verify 
the duke of Suffolk''s saying. That no cardinal came yet from Rome, 
that ever did good in England. The king, seeing himself so deluded, 
or rather abused, although justly provoked, yet patiently forbearing, 
ceased not his suit, but sent again to Clement the pope, then lying 
in Bologna, desiring to have an answer of his case according to right 
and justice. 

The pope, content to hear the message, but unwilling to satisfy 
the request, said he would take a pause till he came to Rome ; where, 
after consultation had, he would send an answer agreeing to right 
and equity. This done, the king sendeth incontinent to all the 
most famous universities abroad, to hear a resolute answer touching 
the state and condition of his marriage, whether it could stand by 
God's word or no. 

To this the universities, to the number of twelve, agreeing in 
uniform consent, make answer again in due form of writing to the 
king, affn-ming plainly his marriage, in case as it standetli, both to 
be unlawful, and repugnant to the express word of God ; and that 
no n^an is able to dispense with the same. In the mean time nothing 
yet is heard from Rome. Wherefore the king, assembling his par- 
liament the next year following, which was 1531, in the month of 
March, sent into the commons'' house the lord chancellor, and divers 
lords of the spiritualty and tcmporalty to the number of twelve, 
Avhcre the lord chancellor, speaking unto the whole house, had these 
v.ords in effect as i'olloweth : — 

54 QUEEN Katharine's case considered. 

}ienry ' You of this worshipftil house, I am sure, be not so ignorant, but you know 
r//f. ^gU ti^aj thg king, our sovereign lord, hath married hie brother's wife : for she 
. |-v was both wedded and bedded with his brother prince Arthur ; and therefore 
1 ^"^O y^^ ^^^y surely say that he hath married his brother's wife, if this marriage be 
. good, as so many clerks do doubt. Wherefore the king, like a virtuous prince, 

,,„„ willing to be satisfied in his conscience, and also for the surety of his realm, 

I_ hath with great deliberation consulted with great clerks, and hath sent my lord 

of London, here present, to the chief universities of all Christendom, to know 
their opinion and judgment in that behalf; and although the universities of 
Cambridge and Oxford had been sufficient to discuss the cause, yet because 
they be in his realm, and to avoid all suspicion of partiality, he hath sent into 
the realm of France, Italy, the pope's dominions, and Venetians, to know their 
judgment in that behalf, which have concluded, written and sealed their de- 
terminations, according as you shall hear read.' 

Then sir Bryan Tuke took out of a box twelve writings, sealed 
■with the determinations of these universities ; that is, The deter- 
mination of the university of Orleans ; of the faculties of decrees of 
Paris ; of the civilians and canonists of Anjou ; of the faculty of 
divines of Paris ; of the university of Bourges ; of the university of 
Bologna ; of the faculty of divines of Padua ; of the university of 
Toulouse : besides other universities as -well of Germany, as of Ox- 
ford and Cambridge. What the tenor and effect of these deter- 
minations was, because they are already sufficiently expressed in 
the chronicles, and we have many things else in this book to be 
comprehended, it shall be sufficient in this behalf to send the 
reader to the chronicle of Hall, where they are fully to be seen, 
v/hoso list to read them.* 

When the legates heard the opinions of the divines, and saw 
whereunto the end of this question would tend, forasmuch as men 
began so to dispute of the authority of the court of Rome,' and 
especially because the cardinal of York perceived the king to cast 
favour to the lady Anne, whom he knew to be a Lutheran, they 
thought best to wind themselves out of that brake betimes ; and so 
Cardinal cardinal Campeius, dissembling the matter, conveyed himself home 

Campeius F . i i i i j rrii i ■ • i • 

siipiietii to Kome agam, as is partly above touched. 1 he king, seeing him- 
khi"'/''" self thus to be deferred and deluded by the cardinals, took it to no 
little grief; whereupon the fall of the cardinal of York followed not 
long after. 
The king This was A. D. 1.530. Shortly after it happened, the same year, 
iTthe"' that the king by his embassadors was advertised, that the emperor 
empenir ^^^(j ([^q p^p^ ^ypj-g j^oth together at Bologna. Wherefore he directed 
pope. sir Thomas Bullen, lately created earl of Wiltshire, and Dr. Stokes- 
ley, afterwards bishop of London, and Dr. Lee, afterwards bishop of 
York, with his message to the pope''s court, where also the emperor 
was. Pope Clement, understanding the king''s case and request, and 
fearing what might follow after, if learning and Scripture here should 
take place against the authority of their dispensations ; and more- 
over doubting the emperor''s displeasure, bare himself strange off 
The from the matter, answering the embassadors with this delay, that he 
pope's presently would not define in the case, but would hear the full matter 

answer, r iii t-» i i- -ii ii 

disputed when he came to Kome, and according to right he would 
do justice. 

(1) The searching of the king's marriage brov.ght more Ihings to light. 


Although the king owed no such service to the pope, to stand to J'<^r>ry 

his arbitrement either in this case, or in any other, having both the 1_ 

Scripture to lead him, and his law in his o\m hands to warrant him, A. D. 
yet, for quietness"* sake, and for that he would not rashly break order ^■''•^^ 
(which rather was a disorder indeed), he bare so long as conveniently j^^g 
he might. At length, after long delays and much dissembling, when — - ■ ' - 
he saw no hope of redress, he began somewhat to quicken and to 
look about him, what was best both for his own conscience, and the 
establishment of his realm to do. 

No man here doubteth, but that all this was wrought not by man's «od's 
device, but by the secret purpose of the Lord himself, to bring to deuce 
pass further things, as afterwards followed, which his divine provi- ZxIt^^v 
dence was disposed to work. For else, as touching the king's intent '"V"'- '" 
and purpose, he never meant nor mmded any such thing as to seek ter. 
the ruin of the pope, but rather sought all means contrary, how both 
to establish the see of Rome, and also to obtain the good will of the 
same see and court of Rome, if it might have been gotten. And 
therefore, intending to sue his divorce from Rome, at the first be- 
ginning, his device was, by Stephen Gardiner his embassador at 
Rome, to exalt the cardinal of York, as is before showed, to be made 
pope and universal bishop, to the end that he, ruling that apostolic 
see, the matter of his unlawful marriage, which so troubled his con- 
science, might come to a quiet conclusion, without any further 
rumour of the world : which purpose of his, if it had taken effect as 
he had devised it, and the English cardinal had once been made 
pope, no doubt but the authority of that see had never been exter- 
minated out of England. But God, being more merciful unto us, Man pur. 
took a better way than so ; for botli without and contrary to the burGod 
king's expectation, he so brought to pass, that neither the cardinal f^]"'^' 
of York was po])e (which should have been an infinite cost to the 
king), and yet nevertheless the king sped of his purpose too, and 
that much better than he looked for. For he was rid, by lawful 
divorcement, not only from that vmlawful marriage which clogged 
his conscience, but also from the miserable yoke of the pope's 
usurped dominion, which clogged the whole realm ; and all at one 

Thus God's holy providence ruling the matter, as I said, Avhen the 
king could get no favourable grant of the pope touching his cause, 
being so good and honest, he was forced to take the redress of his 
right into his own hands, and seeing this Gordian knot ' would not 
be loosed at Rome, he was driven against his will, as God would, to 
play the noble Alexander himself, and with the sword of his princely 
authority knapped the knot at one stroke clean asunder, loosing, as it 
were, with one solution infinite questions. For where the doctors 
and canonists had long disjiuted, and yet could never thoroughly dis- 
cuss the largeness and fulness of the pope's tw^ swords, both temporal 
and spiritual, the king, with one swoi'd, did so cut oflTboth his swords 
that he dispatched them l)oth clean out of England, as ye shall see 
more anon. But first the king, like a prudent prince, before he 

(1) Gordiura was a city in Asia, where there was a knot so fast tied, and folded so many ways, 
that (as the sajiii;,' .vas) whosoever could loose it. sliould have all Asia. So Alexander coming to 
it, when he could not loose it with his hands, he cut it asunder with liis svord. 



n,;,nj Movili] comc to tlic head of the sore, thouglit best to ])arc aw.ay sucli 

'— ranlc flesh and putrefied phices as were about it; and therefore, to]h)\v- 

v-oo '"» ^'■'^ *^^^''^ proverb,' Hkc as one going about to cast down an old 

'jj^" rotten wall will not begin with the foundation first, but with the stones 

IS.^s. that lie at the top, so he, to prepare his way better unto the pope, 

first began with the cardinal, casting him by the law of ' Praemunire,'' 

out of his goods and possessions : and so at length, by poisoning 

himself, he procured his own death; which was a. d. 1530. 

This done, shortly after, about the year 1532, the king, to provide 
betimes against mischiefs that might come from Rome, gave forth 
eftsoons this proclamation, touching the abolishing of the pope, and 
the establishing of the king's supremacy : the tenor whereof here 

A Proclamation of tlie King, that nothing should be purchased from 


The king's highness straitly chargeth and coinmandeth, tliat no manner of 

person, what estate, degree, or condition soever he or they be of, do purchase, 

or attempt to piu'cliase, from the court of Rome, or elsewhere, or use and put 

in execution, divulge or publish any thing heretofore, within this year past 

purchased, or to be purchased hereafter, containing matter prejudicial to the 

Tlie high authority, jurisdiction, and prerogative royal of this his said realm, or to 

lope's au- ti]g let^ hinderance, or impeachment of his grace's noble and virtuous intended 

excluded purposes in the premises, upon pain of incurring his highness's indignation, 

from and imprisonment and further punishment of their bodies for their so doing, at 

Lngland. j^jg grace's pleasure, to the dreadful example of all others. 

*It^ chanced about the same tmie, or a little before, tliat the king, 
taking more heart unto him, partly encouraged by the treatise afoi'c 
mentioned, called " The Su])plication of Beggars,'" which he liad 
diligently read and perused, and partly provoked by the pride and 
stoutness of the clergy, brake off with the cai'dinal, causing him to be 
attainted in the Prsemunire, and afterwards also, to be appre- 
'iiie After this was done, the king then, proceeding further, caused the 

cirrt'yof ^c'^t of the spiritual lords to be called by process into tlie king\s bench 
];iif;iaiui to make their appearance, f(M-asmuch as the whole cleryv of iMiyland, 

111 the . . ^ \ ... , , . %'• 1 ' 1- 1 

j.raniu- in supporting and mamtaming the power iegantine ot the cardinal, 
'"""■ by the reason thereof were all entangled likewise in the Praemunire, 
and tlierefore were called into the king's bench to answer. But be- 
fore the day of their appearance, the prelates together in their convo- 
cation concluded among themselves an humble submission in writing. 
The and offered the king for a subsidy or contribution, that he would be 
gwe mo- their good lord, and release them of the pi-oenuinire by act of ])ar- 
kiiyto'"^ liament, first to be gathered in the province of Canterbury a humlred 
i.e reieas- tliousaud pouuds ; and in the province of York, eighteen thousand 
eight hundred and forty pounds and ten pence :^ which offL-r with 
much labour was accepted, and their pardon promised. In this sub- 
mission the clergy called the king suj)reme head of the church of 
England, mIucIi thing they never confessed before ; whereupon many 
things followed, as after (God willing) ye sliall hear. 

(1) The king's proverb. Loirk before, '^'ol. iv. i> Ci.S. 

/2) See edition 1563, p. 1"!' — Kn. (3) Ex Ed I!;ill. 


But first, fuiasniucli as we are in hand now with the matter, we will Uenry 


borrow by the way a few words of the reader, to speak of this clergy- 
money, of one hundred and eighteen thousand eight hundred and ^^;^^ 
forty pounds and ten pence, to be levied to the king, as is above — ^-^ 
touched. For the levying of this sum an order was taken among the 
prelates, that every bishop in his diocese should call before him all 
the priests, parsons, and vicars, among whom Dr. Stokesley, bishop 
of London, a man then counted to be of some wit and learning, but 
of little discretion and humanity (which caused him to be out of the 
favour of the common people), called before him all the priests within 
the city of London, whether they were curates or stipendaries, the 
first day of September, being Friday, in the chapter-house of St. 
Paul ; at which day the priests appeared, and the bishop's policy was The bi- 
to have only six or eight priests together, and by persuasions to have \l"^il}^°' 
caused them to grant some portion towards the payment of the afore- p,^^'^^j<,.^ 
said hundred thousand pound. But the number of the priests was money." 
so great (for thev were six hundred at least, and with them came 
many temporal men to hear the matter), that the bishop was dis- 
appointed of his purpose ; for when the bishop"'s officers called in cer- 
tain priests by name into the chapter-house, with that a great number 
entered, for they put aside the bishop's officers that kept the door. 

After this the officers got the door shut again. Then the priests 
without said, " We will not be kept without, and our fellows be 
within : we know not what the bishop will do with them." The tem- 
poral men, being present, comforted and encouraged the priests to 
enter, so that by force they opened the door, and one struck the 
bishop's officer over the face, and entered the chapter-house, and 
many temporal men with them ; and long it was ere any silence could 
be made. At last, when tliey were appeased, the bishop stood up and 
said, — 

' Brethren ! I marvel not a little why you be so heady, and know not what The bi- 
sliall be said to you; therefore I pray yon to keep silence, and to hear me s^'^p's _ 
patiently. My friends all, you know well that we be men frail of condition, sio„ to 
and no angels ; and by frailty and lack of wisdom we liave misdemeaned our- the 
selves towards the king our sovereign lord and his laws, so that all we of the ["p^y* 
clergy were in the Prjemunire ; by reason whereof, all our promotions, lands, forteit. 
goods, and chattels, were to him forfeit, and our bodies ready to be imprisoned : 
yet his grace, moved with pity and compassion, demanded of us what we could 
say, why he should not extend his laws upon us. Then the fathers of the 
clergy humbly besought his grace of mei-cy : to whom he answered, that he was 
ever inclined to mercy. Then, for all our great offences we had little penance ; 
for where he might, by tlie rigour of his law, have taken all our livelihood, goods, 
and chattels, lie was contented with one hundred thousand poimds, to be paid 
in five years. And although this sum be more than we may easily bear, 
yet by tlie rigour of his laws we should have borne the whole burden. Where- 
fore, my brethren ! I charitably exhort you to bear your parts of your livelihood 
and salary, toward the payment of this sum granted. 

Then it was shortly said to the bishop, 

' My Lord ! twenty nobles a year is but bare living for a priest ; for now The 
victuals and every thing are so dear, that poverty in a manner enforceth us to ^J^^^^^^ ^^ 
say nay. Besides that, my lord, we never oflejidcd in the Pnenumire : for we the hi- 
never meddled with the cardinal's faculties : let the ])isliops and abbots wlio -^Uop. 
have offended pay. 


urvry TlicTi the bisliop''s officers gave to the priests high Morils, whicli 
^"'' caused them to be the more obstinate. Also divers temporal men 


who were present comforted the priests, and bade them agree to no 
to" payment. In this rumour divers of the bishop's servants were buf- 
1533. feted and stricken, so that the bishop began to be afraid, and with 

fair words appeased the noise ; and for all things which were done or 

said there he pardoned them, and gave to them his blessing, and 

prayed them to depart in charity. Then they departed, thinking to 

hear no more of the matter, but they were deceived ; for the bishop 

went to sir Thomas More, then being lord chancellor (who greatly 

favoured the bishop and the clergy) and to him made a grievous 

CL-rtain couiplaint, and declared the fact very grievously. Whereupon com- 

priests p.iandment was sent to sir Thomas Pargitor, mayor of the city, to 

""'<=". attach certain priests and temporal men : and so fifteen priests, and 

ted to' five temporal men were arrested ; of whom some were sent to the 

prison. j-Q^yg^^ gQj^^P tQ tiig Fleet and other prisons, where they remained long 


Preach- Tliis being done a.d. 1532, it followeth moreover the same year, 

iT-ainst that divers preachings were in the realm, one contrary to another, 

the kins's couccming the king's marriage ; and in especial one Thomas Abel, 

r'kvV"^'^ clerk, who was the queen's chaplain, to please her withal, both 

preached, and also wrote a book, in defence of the said marriage ; 

wherebv divers simple men were persuaded. Wherefore the king 

caused to be compiled and reduced into a book the determination of 

the universities, with the judgments of great clerks ; Avhich book, being 

printed and set abroad, did again satisfy all indifferent and reasonable 

persons, who were not too much wedded to their wills. 

Mention was made a little before, of a parliament begun the 15tli 
day of January, a.d. 1533, in which parliament the commons had 
put up a supplication, complaining of the strait dealing of the clergy 
in their proceeding "ex officio."' This complaint, although at first 
it seemed not to be greatly tendered of the king, yet in prorogation 
of the parliament the time so wrought withal, that the king, having 
more clear understanding of the abuses and enormities of the clergy, 
and, in especial, of the corrupt authority of the see of Rome, provided 
certain acts against the same. 

Certain Acts provided concerning the Pope's Laws. 

First, as concerning the laws, decrees, ordinances and constitutions made and 
established by the pretensed authority of the bishops of Rome, to the advance- 
ment of their worldly glory, that whoso did or spake any thing either against 
their usurped power, or against the said laws, decrees, or constitutions of theirs, 
not approved nor grounded upon holy Scripture, or else being repugnant to the 
king's ])rerogative royal, should therefore stand in no danger, nor be impeach- 
able of heresy. And likewise touching such constitutions, ordinances, and canons 
provincial or synodal, which were made in this realm in the convocation of 
bishops, being either prejudicial to the king's prerogative, or not ratified before 
by the king's assent, or being otherwise onerous to the king and his subjects, 
or in any wise repugnant to the laws and statutes of this realm, they were com- 
mitted to the examination and judgment of thirty-two persons chosen by the 
king out of the higher and lower house, to be determined either to stand in 
strength, or to be abrogated at their discretions : and further, that all the clergy 
of this realm, submitting themselves to the king, should and did promise ' in 

(1) Thus was the -.vickcd act Ex Officio i.rokcii by tlic king. Stat. Ann. 25 re,-;. Hen. VIII. 


verbo sacerdotii,' never hereafter to presume to assemble in their convocations Uenry 
without the king's writ, or to enact or execute such constitutions without his VIII. 
royal assent, &c.* ~A~~n~ 

Further, in the same parliament was enacted and decreed, that in causes and . -'„.,* 
matters happening in contention, no person should appeal, provoke, or sue out — ' ' ' ' 
of the king's dominions to the court of Rome,^ under pain of provisors, provision, 
or praemunire. 

Item, In the same parliament was defined and concluded, that all exportation 
of annates and first-fruits of archbishoprics and bishoprics out of this realm to 
the see of Rome, for any bulls, breves or palls, or expedition of any such thing, 
should utterly cease. 

Also, for the investing of archbishops, bishops, or others of any ecclesiastical Manner 
dignity, such order in the said parliament was taken that the king should send of in- 
a license under the great seal, with a letter missive to the prior and convent, or ^y\f,e^ 
to the dean and chapter of those cathedral churches where the see was vacant, king. 
by virtue of which license or letters missive, they, within twelve days, should 
choose the said person nominated by the king, and no other ; and that election 
to stand eifectual to all intents : which election being done, then the party 
elect to make first his oath and fealty to the king, if it were a bishop that was 
elected ; then the king, by his letters patent, to signify the said election to the 
archbishop of that province, and two other bishops, or else to four bishops within 
this realm to be assigned to that office, without any other suing, procuring, or 
obtaining any bulls, breves, or other things from the see of Rome. 

Moreover, against all other whatsoever intolerable exactions and great sums Peter- 
of money used to be paid out of this realm to the bishop of Rome, in pensions, pence 
censures, Peter-pence, procurations, fruits, suits for provisions, and expeditions fjom"^'^ 
of bulls for archbishops and bishops, for delegacies and rescripts in causes of Rome, 
contentions and appeals, jurisdictions legative ; also for dispensations, licenses, 
faculties, grants, relaxations, writs called ' perinde valere,' i-ehabilitations, abo- 
litions, canonizations, and other infinite sorts of bulls, breves, and instruments 
of sundry natures, the number whereof were tedious particularly to be recited : 
in the said parliament it was ordained, that all such uncharitable usurpations, 
exactions, pensions, censures, portions, and Peter-pence, wont to be paid to the 
see of Rome, should utterly surcease, and never more be levied : so that the 
king, with his honourable coimcil, should have power and authority from time 
to time, for the ordering, redress, and reformation of all manner of indulgences, 
privileges, &c., within this realm. 

Here is to be noted by the way, as touching these Peter-pence origin of 
aforesaid, that the same were first brought in and imposed by king " 
Ina, about a.d. 720, which Ina, king of tlie Wcst-iSaxons, caused 
through all his dominion, in every house having a chimney, a penny 
to be collected and paid to the bishop of Rome in the name of 
St. Peter ; and thereof were they called Peter-pence.^ The same 
likewise did Offa king of Mercians after him, about a.d. 794. And 
these Peter-pence ever since, or for the most part, have used of a 
long custom to be gathered and summoned by the popc''s collectors 
here in England, from the time of Ina aforesaid, to this present 
parliament, a.d. 1533. 

Finally, by the authority of the parliament it was consulted and 
considered concerning the legality of the lawful succession unto the 
crown, in ratifying and enabling the heirs of the king's body, and 
queen Anne. In the which parliament, moreover, the degrees of 
marriage plainly and clearly were explained and set forth, such as be 
expressly prohibited by God's laws, as in this table may appear. 

(1) Ex Stat. Hen. Vlir. 

(2) ' No man to appeal to Rome.' Bonner, in his Prologue before • De vera obedientia,' .laitli, 
that this ravenous prey of the pope cometh to as much almost as the king's revenues. 

(3) Vide supra. 



VII I. A Tabic ot" l)o<;rces prohibited, by God's Law, to marry.* 

A. D. The son not to maiTy the mother, nor step-mother. 
153.3. The brother not to marry the sister. 

The father not to marry his son's daughter, nor his daughter's daughter. 

The son not to marry his father's daughter, gotten by his step-mother. 

The son not to marry his aunt, being eitlier his father's or his mother's sister. 

The son not to marry his uncle's wife. 

The father not to marry his son's wife. 

The brother not to marry his brother's wife. 

No man to marry his wife's daughter. 

No man to marry his wife's son's daughter. 

No man to marry liis wife's daughter's daughter. 

No man to marry his wife's sister. 

All these degrees be prohibited by the Scripture. 

separa- All tlicsc tilings tlius being defined and determined in this aforc- 
tween*tiie Said parliament, and it also being in the same parliament concluded, 
i^iie ud"'' ^'^'^'^ ^^^ man, of what estate, degree, or condition soever, hath any 
Katha- power to dispcnsc with God's laws, it was therefore, by the authority 
a'c'rof ^ aforesaid, agreeing with the authority of God's word, assented that 
nienT tlic marriage aforetime solemnized between the king and the lady 
Katharine, being before wife to prince Arthur the king's brother, 
and carnally known by him (as is above proved), should be abso- 
lutely deemed and adjudged to be unlawful and against the law of 
God, and also reputed and taken to be of no value or effect ; and 
that the separation thereof by Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Can- 
terbury, should stand good and effectual to all intents ; and also 
The mar- that the lawful matrimouv between the king and the lady Anne his 
with the wife, should be established, approved, and ratified for good and 
king and gonsouaut to the laws of Almiohty God. And further, alst), for the 
Anne.ap- establishing of this king's lawful succession, it was fidly by the said 
!'a"iia- ^ parliament adjudged, that the inheritance of the crown should remain 
'"™'- to the heirs of their two bodies, that is, of the king, and queen Anne 

his wife. 
Their Duriug thc timc of this parliament, before the marriage of queen 

iieirs. Anne, there was one Temse in the common-house, avIio moved the 
commons to sue to the king to take the queen again into his com- 
pany ; declaring certain great mischiefs like to ensue thereof, as in 
bastardizing the lady Mary, the king's only child, and divers other 
inconveniences. This being reported to the king's ears, he sent im- 
mediately to sir I'homas Audley, speaker then of the parliament, 
The expressing unto him, amongst other matters, that he marvelled much 
words to ^vhy one of the parliament did so openly speak of the absence of the 
nie'"'^ queen from him ; which matter was not to be determined there, for 
weaker, it touclicd (said lie) his soul ; and he wished the matrimony were good, 
for then had he never been so vexed in conscience. But the doc- 
tors of universities (said he) have determined the niamagc to be 
void, and detestable before God ; which grudge of conscience (he 
said) caused him to abstain from her company, and no foolish or 
wanton appetite. " For I am," said he, '' forty-one years old, at 
which age the lust of man is not so quick as it is in youth. And, 
saving in Spain and l^ortugal, it hath not been seen, that one man 

(I) Stat. ail. 2'.'). Teg. Ilcn. 



lialli married two sisters, tlie one being carnally known before : but "p'ry 
the brother to marry the brother's wife, was so abhorred amongst all — ' 
nations, that I never heard that any Christian so did, but myselt". j;„„' 

Wherefore you see my conscience troubled, and so I pray you 

report." And so the speaker, departing, declared to the commons 
the king's saying. 

*It' was touched, a little before, how that the pope had lost great 
part of his authority and jurisdiction in this realm of England ; now 
it followeth to infer, how, and by what occasion, his whole power and 
authority began utterly to be abolished, by the reason and occasion 
of the most virtuous and noble lady, Anne Bullen, Avho was not as 
yet married to the king, howbeit in great favour : by whose godly 
means and most virtuous counsel the king's mind was daily inclined 
better and better.* Insomuch that, not long after, the king, belike The 
perceiving the minds of the clergy not much favouring his cause, sent wonis to 
for the speaker attain, and twelve of the common-house, having with certain of 
him eight lords, and said to them, " Well-beloved subjects ! we had mons. 
thought the clergy of our realm liad been our subjects wholly, but now 
we have well perceived that they be but half our subjects, yea and 
scarce our subjects. For all the prelates at their consecration make spiritual 
an oath to the pope, clean contrary to the oath that they make unto tiie pope's 
us, so that they seem to be his subjects, and not ours." And so the than the 
king, delivering to them the copy of both the oaths, required them to ^»^s'^- 
invent some order that he might not thus be deluded of his spiritual 
subjects. The speaker thus departed, and caused the oaths to be 
read in the common-house, the very tenor whereof here ensueth. 

The Oath of the Clergy to the Pope. 

I, John, bishop or abbot of A., from this hour forward shall be faithful and obe- 
dient to St. Peter, and to the holy church of Rome, and to my lord the pope and 
his successors canonically entering. I shall not be of counsel or consent, that they 
shall lose either life or member, or shall be taken or suffer any violence, or any 
wrong by any means. Their counsel to me credited by them, their messengers 
or letters, I shall not willingly discover to any person. The papacy of Rome, 
the rules of the holy fathers, and regalities of St. Peter, I shall help and retain, 
and defend against all men. The legate of the see apostolic, going and coming, 
I shall honourably entreat. The i-ights, honours, privileges, and authorities of 
the church of Rome, and of the pope and his successors, I shall cause to be con- 
served, defended, augmented, and promoted ; I shall not be in counsel, treaty, 
or any act, in which any thing shall be imagined against him or the church of 
Rome, their rights, estates, honours, or powers : and if I know any sucli to be 
moved or compassed, I shall resist it to my power ; and as soon as I can, I 
shall advertise him, or such as may give him knowledge. The rules of the 
holy fathers, the decrees, ordinances, sentences, dispositions, reservations, pro- 
visions, and commandments apostolic, to my power I shall keep and cause to be 
kept of others. Heretics, schismatics, and rebels to our holy father and his 
successors, I shall resist and pei'secute to my power, I shall come to the synod 
when I am called, except I be letted by a canonical impediment. The lights^ of 
the apostles I shall visit personally, or by my deputy. I shall not alienate or sell 
my possessions without the pope's council. So God me help, and the holy 

This oath of the clergymen, which they were wont to make to the p^p^^^ 
bishop of Rome (now pope Quondam), was abolished and made void dam. 

(1) See edition I5G3, p. 508.-Ed. 

12) More probably, ' Limiiia Apritolorum,' the thresholds of the apostles. — Ed. 


Henry by statutc, aticl a new oatli ministered and confirmed for the same, 

. wherein they acknowledged the king to be the supreme head, under 

A. U. Christ, in this church of England, as by tenor thereof may appear 
^^^'^- hereunder ensuing. 

The Oath of the Clergy to the King. 

I, John B., of A., utterly renounce, and clearly forsake, all such clauses, 
words, sentences, and grants, which I have or shall have hereafter of the pope's 
holiness, of and for the bishopric of A., that in anywise have been, are, or 
hereafter may be, hurtful or prejudicial to your highness, your heirs, successors, 
dignity, privilege or estate royal : and also I do swear that I shall be faithful 
and true, and faith and truth I shall bear, to you my sovereign lord, and to your 
heirs kings of the same, of life and limb, and earthly worship above all crea- 
tures, to live and die with you and yours against all people : and diligently I 
shall be attendant to all your needs and business, after my wit and power; and 
your counsel I shall keep and hold, acknowledging myself to hold my bishopric 
of you only, beseeching you of restitution of the temporalties of the same ; pro- 
mising (as before) that I shall be a faithful, true, and obedient subject unto your 
said highness, heirs, and successors during my life : and the services and other 
things due to your highness, for the restitution of the temporalties of the sajne 
bishopric, I shall truly do, and obediently perform. So God me help and all 

These oaths thus being recited and opened to the people, were the 
occasion that the pope lost all his interest and jurisdiction here in 
England within a short Avhile after. Upon the occasion and reason 
whereof, the matter falling out more and more against the pope, sir 
Thomas More, of whom mention is made before, being a great main- 
tainer of the pope, and a heavy troubler of Christ's people, and now 
not liking well of this oath, by God's good work was enforced to 
resign up his chancellorship, and to deliver up the great seal of 
Audiey England into the king's hands. After whom succeeded sir Thomas 
Xaiice"- Audiey, keeper of the great seal, a man in eloquence and gifts 
'°'^- of tongue no less incomparable, than also for his godly-disposed mind ; 

and for his favourable inclination to Christ's religion, worthy of much 
The mar- Thcsc things being done in the parliament, the king, within short 
queen" timc after, proceeded to the marriage of the aforesaid lady Anne 
Anne. Bullcn, motlicr to our most noble queen now, who, without all contro- 
versy, was a special comforter and aider of all the professors of 
Her great Christ's gospcl, as Well of the learned as the unlearned ; her life being 
** '""■ also directed according to the same, as her weekly alms did manifestly 
declare ; who, besides the ordinary of a hundred crowns, and other 
apparel that she gave weekly, a year before she was crowned, both to 
men and women, gave also wonderfully much privy alms to widows 
and other poor householders, continually, till she was apprehended; 
and she ever gave three or four pounds at a time to the poor people, 
to buy them kine withal, and sent her subalmoner to the towns about 
where she lay, that the parishioners should make a bill of all the poor 
householders in their parish ; and some towns received seven, eight, 
or ten pounds to buy kine withal, according as the number of the 
poor in the towns were. She also maintained many learned men at 
Cambridge. Likewise did the earl of Wiltshire her father, and the 
lord Rochford her brother, and by them these men were brought in 
favour with the king ; of whom some are yet alive, and can testify 


the same ; would to God that they were now as great professors of ffenry 

the gospel of Christ, as then they appeared to be ; who were Dr. L 

Heath and Dr. Thirlby ; with whom was joined the lord Paget, who, A. D. 
at that present, was an earnest protestant, and gave unto one Raynold ^^''^'^- 
West, Luther's books, and other books of the Germans, as Francis. Sj^?V^ 

. Thirlby 

Lambert. ' De Sectis ;' and at that time he read Melancthon''s Rhe- Paget. ' 
toric openly in Trinity-hall, in Cambridge, and was with his Master p^^^^ 
Gardiner, a maintainor of Dr. Barnes, and all the protestants that^!"^!"-. 
were then in Cambridge, and helped many religious persons out of Barnes. 
their cowls. 

It hath been reported unto us by divers credible persons who were 
about this queen, and daily acquainted with her doings, concerning 
her liberal and bountiful distribution to the poor, how her grace 
carried ever about her a certain little purse, out of which she was wont 
daily to scatter abroad some alms to the needy, thinking no day well 
spent wherein some man had not fared the better by some benefit at 
her hands. And this I write by the relation of certain noble person- 
ages who were the chief and principal of her waiting maids about 
her, specially the duchess of Richmond by name. 

Also concerning the order of her ladies and gentlewomen about 
her, one that was her silkwoman, a gentlewoman^ not now alive, but 
of great credit, and also of fame for her worthy doings, did credibly 
report, that in all her time she never saw better order among the xue good 
ladies and gentlewomen of the court, than was in this good queen's ^^^"^ °}\ 
days, who kept her maids and such as were about her so occupied in in her"" 
sowing and working of shirts and smocks for the poor, that neither '™^" 
was there seen any idleness then among them, nor any leisure to follow 
such pastimes as daily are seen now-a-days to reign in princes' courts. 

Thus the king, being divorced from the lady dowager his brother's The king 
wife, married this gracious lady, making a prosperous and happy from i^jy 
change for us, being divorced from the aforesaid princess, and also Katha- 
from the pope, both at one time. Notwithstanding, as good and from tue 
godly purposes are never without some incommodity or trouble fol- at one°"^ 
lowing, so it happened in this divorcement, that the said princess, "™^- 
procuring from Rome the pope's curse, caused both the king and the 
realm to be interdicted, whereof more is hereafter to be spoken. 

In the mean time queen Anne, shortly after her marriage, being Queen 
great with child, the next year following, which was 1533, after the crow'iied 
first divorcement publicly proclaimed, was crowned with high solem- " 
nity at Westminster ; and not long after her coronation, the seventh 
day of September, she was brought to bed, and delivered of a fair 
lady ; for whose good deliverance ' Te Deum' was sung in all places, 
and great preparation made for the christening. 

The mayor and his brethren, with forty of the chief citizens, were 
commanded to be present, with all the nobles and gentlemen. The 
king's palace, and all the walls between that and the Friars, were 
hanged with arras, as was the Friars' church. Also the font was of 
silver, and stood in the midst of the church, three steps high, which 
was covered with a fine cloth, and divers gentlemen, with aprons and 
towels about their necks, gave attendance about it. Over the font 
hung a fair canopy of crimson satin, fringed with gold. About it 

(1) The name of this gentlewoman was M. Wilkinson. 



Henry was a rail covered with say.' Between the quire and the bodv of 

. the church was a close place with a pan of fire to make the child 

A. D. ready in. These things thus ordered, the child was brought into tlie 
^^'^'^- hall, and then every man set forward. First the citizens, two and 
two : then the gentlemen, esquires, and chaplains : next after fol- 
lowed the aldermen, and the mayor alone. Next the mayor followed 
the king's council : then the king's chappel :^ then barons, bishojis, 
and earls. Then came the earl of Essex, bearing the covered basons, 
gilt. After him the marquis of Exeter, with the taper of virgin- wax. 
Next him the marquis of Dorset, bearing the salt. Behind him the 
lady Mary of Norfolk, bearing the chrism, which was very rich of 
pearl and stone. The old duchess of Norfolk bare the child in a 
mantle of purple velvet, with a long train fun-ed with ermine. The 
duke of Norfolk, with his marshal-rod, went on the right hand of the 
said duchess, and the duke of Suffolk on the left hand. Before them 
went the officers of arms. The countess of Kent bare the long train 
of the child's mantle. Between the countess and the child went the 
earl of Wiltsliire on the right hand, and the earl of Derby on the 
left hand, supporting the said train. In the midst, over the child, 
was borne a canopy by the lord Rochford, the lord Hussey, the lord 
William Howard, and the lord Thomas Howard the elder. In this 
order they came unto the church door, where the bishop of London 
met it, with divers abbots and bishops, and began the observances of 
^oiiflTher ^^^^ sacrament. The archbishop of Canterbury was godfather, and the 
to the old duchess of Norfolk, and the old marchioness of Dorset, widows, 
z'abeth.' wcrc godmothcrs, and the child was named Elizabeth. 

After all things were done at the church door, the child was 
brought to the font, and christened. This done. Garter, the chief 
king-at-arms, cried aloud, " God, of his infinite goodness, send pro- 
sperous life and long, to the high and mighty princess of England, 
Elizabeth."" Then the trumpets blew, and the child was brought 
up to the altar, and immediately confirmed by the archbishop, the 
marchioness of Exeter being godmother. Then the archbishop of 
Canterbury gave the princess a standing cup of gokl. The duchess 
of Norfolk gave her a standing cup of gold, fretted with pearl. The 
marchioness of Dorset gave three gilt bowls, pounced, with a cover. 
The marchioness of Exeter, three standing bowls, gilt and graven, 
with a cover. And so, after a solemn banquet, ended with hypocras, 
wafers, and such like, in great plenty, they returned in like order again 
unto the court with the princess ; and so departed. 

At the marriage of this noble lady, as there was no small joy unto 
all good and godly men, and no less hope of prosperous success to 
God's true religion, so' in like manner, on the contrary part, the 
papists wanted not their malicious and secret attempts, as by the 
false hypocrisy and feigned holiness of a false feigned hypocrite, this 
year being espied and found out, may sufficiently appear what their 
devilish devices and purposes were. For certain monks, friars, and 
other evil-disposed persons, of a devilish intent, had put into the 
heads of many of the king's subjects, that they had a revelation of 
God and his saints, that he was highly displeased with king Henry 

(1) ' Say," a thin sort of stulT.— Ed. 

(2) The kinp's chappel ' in roapes ;' i.e. his chaplii 

iiins. Sec Stowe's Annals, 4to. p. 0j8. — En. 


for the divorcement of the lady Katharine; and surmised, among tfennj 

other things, that God had revealed to a nun, name 1 Elizabeth 1_ 

Barton, whom they called the holy maid of Kent, that in case the A. D. 
king proceeded in the said divorce, he should not be king of this ^^'^'^- 
realm one month after, and in the reputation of God, not one day Jf''^™^'*^ 
nor hour. This Elizabeth Barton, by false dissimulation, practised with her 
and showed to the people marvellous alteration of her visage and feigned 
other parts of her body, as if she had been rapt, or in a trance ; JJ^jP"' ^ 
and in those feigned trances, by false hypocrisy (as though she had prehemi- 
been inspired of God), she spake many words in rebuking of sin, 
and reproving the gospel, which she called heresy ; and among them 
uttered divers things to the great reproach of the king and queen, 
and to the establishing of idolatry, pilgrimage, and the derogation of 
God's glory : which her naughtiness being espied out by the great 
labour and diligence of the archbishop of Canterbiu-y, the lord Crom- 
wel, and Master Hugh Latimer, she was condemned and put to 
death, with certain of her affinity and counsel, in the month of 
April, A.D. 1533. The names of which conspirators with her were 
these : Edward Bocking, monk, of Canterbury ; Richard Master, 
parson, of Aldington ; John Bering, monk, of Canterbury ; Hugh 
Rich, friar, Avarden of the grey friars, of Canterbury ; Richard Risby; 
Henry Gold, bachelor of divinity, and parson of Aldermary ; Fisher, 
bishop of Rochester ; John Adeson, priest, his chaplain ; Thomas 
Laurence, the bishop's registrar, of Canterbury; Edward Thwaits ; 
Thomas Abel : of which persons, the said Elizabeth Barton, Henry 
Gold, Richard Master, Edward Bocking, John Dering, Hugh Rich, 
Richard Risby, were attainted of treason by act of parliament, and put 
to execution. 

The residue, as Fisher bishop of Rochester, Thomas Gold, Thomas 
Laurence, Edward Thwaits, John Adeson, Thomas Abel, being 
convicted and attainted of misprision, were condemned to prison, and 
forfeited their goods and possessions to the king.^ 

Edward Hall, a writer of our English stories, making mention of Maryei- 
this Elizabeth Barton aforesaid, adjoineth next in his book the narra- ment"/ 
tion of one Pavier, or Pavy, a notorious enemy, no doubt, to God's ^^°[|nst 
truth. This Pavier, being the town-clerk of the city of London, was Pavier, 
a man (saith he) that in no case could abide to hear that the gospel enemy 
should be in English : insomuch that the said Hall himself heard him wor^^ 
once say unto him, and to others by swearing a great oath, that if he 
thought the king's highness would set forth the Scripture in English, 
and let it be read of the people by his authority, rather than he would 
so long live, he would cut his own throat. But he broke promise, 
saith Hall ; for he did not cut his throat with a knife, but with a 
lialter did hang himself. Of what mind and intent he so did, God 
judge. My information further addeth this, touching the said Pavier 
or Pavy, that he was a bitter enemy, very busy at the burning of Richard 
Bainham above mentioned ; who, hearing the said Bainham at the 
stake speaking against purgatory and transubstantiation, " Set fire," 
said he, " to this heretic, and burn him." And as the train of gun- 
powder came toward the martyr, he lifted up his eyes and hands to 

(I) Ex Statut. an. 25. Reg. Hen. vni. 
vol,. V. V 


Henry heavcn, sayliig to Pavicr, " God forgive thee, and show thee more 

_ mercy than thou dost to me. The Lord forgive sir Thomas More, 

^- p. and pray for me, all good people ;" and so continued he praying, till 
the fire took his bowels and his head, &c. 
but'^"^' * After Bainhanrs martyrdom, the next year following, this Pavier, 
enemy thc town-clerlv of the city, went and bought ropes. This done, he 
Richard Went up to a high garret in his house to pray, as he was Avont to do, 
hifm' ^^ ^ ^*^*^'^^ which he had there, before which he bitterly wept: and as 
his own maid, coming up, found him so doing, he bade her take the 
rusty sword, and go make it clean, and trouble him no more ; and 
A perse- immediately he tied up the rope, and hung himself. The maid's 
hanseth licart Still tlirobbcd, and so came up, and found him but newly hanged, 
inmseif. ^^-'jjgj^^ having no power to help him, she ran crying to the church to 
her mistress to fetch her home. His servants and clerks he had sent 
out before to Finsbury, and to Master Edney, Serjeant to the lord 
mayor, d^'clling over Bisho])Vgate, to tany for him at Finsbury- 
court till he came : but he had dispatched himself before, so that they 
might long look for him before he could come. This Avas a.d. 1533. 
To this story of Pavier may also be added the like terrible example 
of doctor Foxford, chancellor to the bishop of London, a cruel per- 
secutor, and a common butcher of the good saints of God ; who was 
the condemner of all those afore named, who were put to death, 
troubled, or abjured under bishop Stokesley, through all the diocese 
The of London. This Foxford died about this present year and time ; 
hand of of wliosc terrible end it was then certainly reported and affirmed, by 
FoxfMd" such as were of right good credit, unto certain persons, of whom some 
be yet alive, that he died suddenly sitting in his chair, his belly being 
burst, and his entrails falling out before him. 
Death About the same time died William Warham, archbishop of Canter- 

hishop'" bury ; in whose room succeeded Thomas Cranmer, who was tlie king''s 
Warham; chaplain, aud a OTeat disputcr against the unlawful marriao;e of lady 

Cranmer I . ' . O i o. . n i i n i- 

chosen. Katliarmc, prmcess dowager ; bemg then so called by act oi parlia- 
Queen Yc heard before, how the parliament had enacted that no person, 

Hne-I^- ^^^^ ^ certain day, should appeal to Rome for any cause : notAvith- 
peai to standing Avhich act, the queen, now called princess doAvager, had 
appealed to the court of Rome before that act made ; so that it was 
doubted Avhethcr that appeal Avas good or not. This question Avas 
Avell handled in the parliament house, but much better in the con- 
vocation house ; and yet in both houses it was alleged, yea, and by 
books shoAved, that in the councils of Chalcedon, Africa, Toledo, and 
divers other famous councils in the primitive church, yea, in the time 
f<^n- of St, Augustine, it Avas affinned, declared, and determined, that a 
thatn.ine causc arising in one province, should be determined in the same, and 
appeal that ucitlicr the patriarch of Constantinople should meddle in causes 
"h V'*^ o """^^'^^^ '"to the jurisdiction of the patriarch of Antioch, nor any bishop 
vince. should intermeddle Avithin another's province or country. These 
things Averc so clerkly opened, and so cunningly set forth to all 
intents, that every man that had Avit, and was determined to folloAV 
the truth, and not Avilfully Avedded to his OAvn mind, might plainly 
see, that all appeals made to Rome were clearly void, and of none 
effect: Avhich doctrines and -counsels Avere shoAvcd to the lady 


Katharine, princess dowager ; but she (as women love to lose no Henry 
dignity) ever continued in her old song, trusting more to the pope's - — ^ 
ipartiality, than to the determination of Christ's verity. ^P- 

Wliereupon the archbishop of Canterbury, Cranmer above named, — Ll—L. 
accompanied with the bishops of London, Winchester, Bath, Lincoln, 
and divers other great clerks in a great number, rode to Dunstable, 
which is «ix miles from Ampthill, where the princess dowager lay.; 
and there, by a doctor, called Dr. Lee, she was ascited to appear 
before the said archbishop, in cause of matrimony, in the said town 
of Dunstable. And at the day of appearance she would not appear, 
but made default, and so was called peremptorily, every day, fifteen 
days together ; and at last, for lack of appearance, and for contumacy. Lady Ka- 
by the assent of all the learned men there being present, she was 'ofeVimiy 
divorced from the kinfj, and their marriatje declared to be void and divorced 

O' o from tnG 

of none effect ; which sentence given, the archbishop, and all the king, 
otliers returned back again. 

Here note, that although this divorce following after the new- 
marriage needed not at all to be made, the first man-iage being no 
marriage at all before God, yet, to satisfy the voice of the ])eople, 
more than for any necessity, the king was contented, through the 
persuasions of some, so to do. For else, as touching God and con- 
science, what great need was there of any divorce, where before God 
no marriage was to be accounted, but rather an incestuous and de- 
testable adultery, as the act of parliament doth term it ? But to our 
matter again. 

After the dissolution of this first marriage made between the king 
and the lady princess dowager, she nevertheless, bearing a stout 
mind, would not yet relent, neither to the determination of the uni- . 
versities, nor to the censure of the clergy, nor of the whole realm ; 
but, following the counsel rather of a few Spaniards, to molest the king 
and the realm by suit and means made to the pope, procured certain 
writings, first of monition and aggravation, then of excommunication 
and interdiction, to be sent down from Rome, wherem the pope had 
interdicted both the king and the whole realm. But the pope's curser 
being not the hardiest man, belike, that ever showed his head, thought 
it much more sure for him to discharge his popish carriage without 
the king's reach; and so, keeping himself aloof off (like a pretty man), 
set up his writings in the town of Dunkirk in Flanders: in which writinss 
town first, upon the north door of the church was set up a monition, D„nidrk 
that the king of England should surcease the suit of divorce ; which jif^'^ing. 
John Butler, clerk, then commissary of Calais, by commandment, 
took down in the nia^ht. 

After that, before AVhitsun-weck, there -was set up m the same The king 
place an excommunication, aggravation, re- aggravation, and interdic- realm'" 
tion ; for which also the said Butler, by commandment, was sent to |j'!^^J^ ^^ 
Dunkirk, to take it down. And because the council of Calais would the pope. 
be certified of his diligence therein, they sent a servant of the lord 
Lisle, then deputy of Calais, whose name was Cranvel ; and upon 
Wednesday in Whitsun-week, at seven o'clock in the morning, he 
took it down whole, and brought it with him, and delivered the same 
to the lord deputy aforesaid : which was about the year 1533. 

This being known and certified unto the king, he was motioned by 

F 2 


fr^nry his couiici], that such as were about her, and moved lier thereunto, 

_ should be put from her. And therefore the duke of Suffolk was sent 

A. D. to Bugden, beside Huntingdon, where the said lady Katharine lay; 
• who, perceiving her stomach to continue froward still, in answci-ing 

Katha''^ him witli high words, and suddenly so in a fury to part from him into 
riiie's her privy chamber, and shut the door, brake up the order of her court, 
charged^ fi-nd discharged a great sort of her household servants ; and yet left 
her a convenient number to serve her like a princess. They that 
remained still, Avere sworn to serve her as princess only, and not as 
queen ; of whom some said, they were once sworn to serve her as 
queen, and otherwise would not serve ; and so were dismissed. The 
others who were sworn to serve her as princess, she utterly refused 
for her servants, and so she remained with the fewer, living after this 
about the space of two years. 

* And' thus much hast thou, good reader, touching the king's 
divorcement ; by occasion whereof it pleased God so to work, through 
his secret and unsearchable wisdom, that the pope, who so long had 
played ' rex"* in England, lost his whole jurisdiction and supremacy.* 


These things thus finished and dispatched concerning the marriage 
of queen Anne, and divorce of lady Katharine, dowager, next fol- 
loweth the year 1534< ; in which Avas assembled the high court of 
parliament again, after many prorogations, upon the third day of 
February ; wherein was made an act of succession, for the more 
surety of the crown, to which every person being of lawful age 
should be sworn. During this parliament time, every Sunday 
preached at Paul's cross a bishop, who declared the pope not to be 
the pope, head of the church. 

After this, commissions were sent over all England, to take the 
oath of all men and women to the act of succession ;^ at which few 
repined, except Dr. .John Fisher, bishop of Rochester ; sir Thomas 
More, late lord chancellor ; and Dr. Nicholas Wilson, parson of St. 
Thomas the Apostle's in London. Wherefore these three persons, 
after long exhortation to them made by the bishop of Canterbury at 
Lambeth, refusing to be sworn, were sent to the tower,^ where they 
remained, and were oftentimes motioned to be sworn. But the 
The bi- bisliop and sir Thomas More excused them by their Avxitings, in 
Uochel which they said that they had written before that the said lady 
str'xh.f Katharine was queen, and therefore could not well go from thtii 
mas More whicli they had written. Likewise the doctor excused, that he in 
fhftower. preaching had called her queen, and therefore now could not well 
unsay it again. Howbeit, at length, he was well contented to dis- 
semble the matter, and so escaped : but the other two stood against 
all the realm in their opinion. 

From the month of March this parliament furthermore was pro- 
rogued to the third day of November abovesaid ; at what time, 
amongst divers other statutes, most graciously, and by the blessed 
will of God it was enacted, that the pope, and all his college of 

(I) See Edition 1563, p. iHO. (2) Ex Ed. Hallo. 

(3) See Hall's Chronicle, pp.814, 815 Edit. London, 1S09 — Ed. 


THE KIXg's proclamation AGAINST THE POrE. 69 

cardinals, with his pardons and indulgences, which so long had Hemy 
clogged this realm of England, to the miserable slaughter of so many " 

good men, and which never could be removed away before, were now A. D. 
abolished, eradicated and exploded out of this land, and sent home _1^-. 
again to their own country of Rome, from whence they came. God 
be everlastingly praised, therefore. Amen ! 

*An old Prophecy of the Fall of the Pope. 

Papa cito moritur, Caesar regnabit ubique, 
Et subito vani cessabunt gaudia' cleri.* 

An Act concerning the King's Highness to be the supreme head of 
the Church of England, and to have authority to reform and 
redi-ess all Errors, Heresies, and Abuses, in the same. Cap. 1. 

Albeit the king's majesty justly and rightly is and ought to be the supreme 
head of the church of England, and so is recognised by the clergy of this realm in 
their convocations ; yet nevertheless, for corroboration and confirmation thereof, 
and for increase of virtue in Christ's religion within this realm of England, and 
to repress and extirp all en-ors, heresies, and other enormities and abuses 
heretofore used in the same : be it enacted by authority of this present parlia- 
ment, that the king our sovereign lord, his heirs and successors, kings of this 
realm, shall be taken, accepted, and reputed the only supreme head in earth of 
the church of England, called ' Anglicana Ecclesia,' and shall have and enjoy, 
annexed and united to the imperial crown of this realm, as well the title and 
style thereof, as all honours, dignities, pre-eminences, jurisdictions, privileges, 
authorities, immunities, profits and commodities to the said dignity of supreme 
head of the same church belonging and appertaining. And that our said 
sovereign lord, his heirs and successors, kings of this realm, shall have full 
power and authority fi-om time to time, to visit, repress, redress, reform, order, 
correct, restrain, and amend all such errors, abuses, offences, contempts, and 
enormities, whatsoever they be, which by any manner of spiritual authority or 
jurisdiction ought or may lawfiilly be reformed, repressed, ordered, redressed, 
con-ected, restrained, or amended, most to the pleasure of Almighty God, the 
increase of virtue in Christ's religion, and for the conservation of the peace, 
unity, and tranquillity of this realm : any usage, custom, foreign laws, foreign 
authority, prescription, or any thing or things to the contrary hereof, notwith- 

The King's Proclamation for the abolishing of the usurped power of 

the Pope. 

Trusty and well-beloved ! we greet you well. And whereas not only upon 
good, and just, and virtuous grounds and respects, edified upon the laws of 
holy Scripture, by due consultation, deliberation, advisement, and consent, as 
well of all other our nobles and commons temporal, as also spiritual, assembled 
in our high court of parliament, and by authority of the same, we have, by 
good and wholesome laws and statutes made for this purpose, extirped, abo- 
lished, separated, and secluded out of this our realm, the abuses of the bishop 
of Rome, his authority and jurisdiction of long time usurped as well upon us 
and oiu- realm, as upon all other kings and princes and their realms (like as 
they themselves have confessed and affirmed), but also, forasnnich as our said 
nobles and commons, both spiritual and temporal, assembled in our high court 
of parliament, have, upon good, lawful, and virtuous grounds, and for the public 
weal of this our realm, by one whole assent, granted, annexed, knit, and united 
to the crown imperial of the same, the title, dignity, and style of supreme head ^j'fy^J-^'^ 
or governor in earth, immediately under God, of the church of England, as we pjeme' 
be, and undoubtedly have hitherto been : which title and style, both the bishops annexed 
and clergy of this oiu' realm have not only, in convocation assemble d, consented, p°J^^!j| ^j 
recognised, and approved lawfully and justly to appertain unto us, but also, by England. 

(1) See Edition 157G, p. 1028. — Ed. 


Hevry word, oath, profession, and writing under their signs and seals, have confessodj 
f^'^- ratified, corroborated and confirmed the same, utterly renouncing all other 
A. D. oaths and obedience to any other foreign potentates, and all foreign jurisdictioiia 
1534. '^"^ powers, as well of the said bishop of Rome, as of all others whatsoever 
they be, as by tlieir said professions and Avritings coiToborated with the sub- 
scription of their names, and appension of their seals more plainly appeareth : 
we let you to wit, that calling to our remembrance the power, charge, and 
commission given unto us of Almighty God, and upon a vehement love and 
affection toward our loving and faithful subjects, perceiving right well what 
great rest, quietness, and tranquillity of conscience, and manifold other com- 
modities might insurge and arise unto them, if the said bishops and otliers of 
the clergy of this our realm should set forth, declare, and preach to tliem, tliu 
true and sincere word of God ; and without all manner of colour, dissinuilatioii, 
and hypocrisy, manifest and publish the great and innumerable enonnities and 
abuses which the said bishop of Rome, as well in the title and style, as also in 
authority and jurisdiction, of long time unlawfully and unjustly hath usurped 
upon us and our progenitoi's, and also other christian princes; have therefore 
addressed our letters unto the bishop of the diocese, straightl}' charging and 
commanding him in the same, that not only he, in his own proper person, shall 
declare, teach, and preach unto the people, forthwith upon the receipt of our 
said letters unto him directed, every Sunday and other high feasts through the 
year, the true, mere, and sincere word of God ; and that the same title, style, and 
jurisdiction of supreme head appertaineth only to our crowm and dignity royal ; 
likewise, as the said bishop and all other the bishops of our realm have by oath 
affirmed, and confirmed by subscription of their names, and setting-to their seals, 
but also have given warning, monition, and charge, to all manner of abbots, priors, 
deans, archdeacons, provosts, parsons, vicars, curates, and all other ecclesiastical 
persons, within his said diocese, as well to teach, preach, publish, and declare, 
in all manner of churches, our aforesaid just title, style, and jurisdiction, every 
Sunday and high feast through the year : and further to admonish and com- 
mand all other schoolmasters within his said diocese, to instruct and teach the 
same unto the children committed unto them; as also to cause all manner o;' 
praj'ers, orisons, rubrics, canons of mass-books, and all other books in the 
churches, wherein the said bishop of Rome is named, or his presumptuous and 
proud pomp and authority preferred, utterly to be abolished, eradicated and 
rased out, and his name and memory to be never more (except to his con- 
Xiie tumely and reproach) remembered, but perpetually suppressed and obscured : 
pope's and finally,, to desist and leave out all such articles as be in the general sen- 
memory'^ teuce v.liicli is usually accustomed to be read four times in the year, and do 
abolish- tend to the gloiy and advancement of the bishop of Rome, his name, title, and 
***• jurisdiction. 

Whereupon we, seeing, esteeming, and reputing you to be of such singular 
and vehement zeal and affection towards the glory of Almighty God, and of so 
faithful, loving, and obedient heart towards us, as you will not only do and 
accomplish, with all power, Avisdom, diligence, and labour, whatsoever should 
or might be to the prefennent and setting forward of God's word, but also 
practise, study, and endeavour yourself, with all your policy, wit, power, and 
good-will, to amplify, defend, and maintain all such interest, right, title, style, 
jurisdiction, and authority, as is in any wise appertaining unto us, our dignity 
and prerogative, and the crown imperial of this our realm, have thought good 
and expedient, not only to signify unto you, by these our letters, the particulars 
of the charge, monition, and commandment given by us unto the said bishop, 
as before is specified ; but also to require, and straightly charge and command 
you, upon pain of your allegiance, and as ye shall a^oid our high indignation 
*and displeasure, at your uttermost peril, laying apart all vain affections, respects, 
or other carnal considerations, and setting only before your eyes the mirror of 
truth, the glory of God, the dignity of your sovereign lord and king, and the 
great concord and unity, and inestimable profit and utiUty, that shall, by the 
due execution of the premises, ensue to yourself and all other faithful and 
loving subjects, ye make or cause to be made diligent search and wait,' and 
especially in every place of yoiu* shirewick, whether the said bishop do truly, 
and sincerely, and without all manner of cloak, colour, or dissimulation, execute 
(n ' Wiit,' or watch— Ed. 


and accomplish our will and commandment, as is afore said. And in case yc Henry 
shall hear, perceive, and approvably understand and know, that the said bishop, ^'^I^- 
or any other ecclesiastical person within his diocese, doth omit and leave undone . p. 
any part or parcel of the premises ; or else, in the execution and setting forth , J„ .' 

of the same, do coldly and feignedly use any manner of sinister addition, wrong — 

interpretation, or painted colour : then we straightly charge and command you, 
that forthwith upon any such defaidt, neghgence, or dissimulation of the said 
bishop, or any other ecclesiastical person of his diocese, contrary to the true 
tenor, meaning, and effect of the said charge by us to him appointed aforesaid, 
ye do make indelayedly, and with all speed and diligence, declaration and 
advertisement to us and oiu- council, of the said default, and of the behaviour, 
manner, and fashion of the same. 

And forasmuch as we, upon singular trust and assured confidence which 
we have in you, and for the special love and zeal we suppose and think ye bear 
toward us, and the public and common wealth, unity and tranquillity of this 
our realm, have specially elected and chosen you among so many, for this 
purpose ; and have reputed you such men as unto whose wisdom, discretion, 
tiuth, and fidelity, we might commit a matter of such great weight, moment, 
and importance, as whereupon the unity and tranquillity of our realm do 
consist : if ye should, contrary to our expectation and trust which we have in 
you, and against your duty and allegiance towards us, neglect or omit to do, 
with all your diligence and wisdom, whatsoever shall be in your power for the 
due performance of our mind and pleasure to you before declared in this behalf, 
or halt or stumble at any part or specialty of the same, be ye assured that we, 
like a prince of justice, will so extremely punish you for the same, that all the 
world besides shall take by you example, and beware, contrary to their alle- 
giance, to disobey the lawful commandment of their sovereign lord and prince 
in such things, as, by the faithful execution thereof, ye shall not only advance 
the honour of Almighty God, and set forth the majesty and imperial dignity 
of your sovereign lord, but also bring an inestimable weal, profit, and commo- 
dity, unity and tranquillity to all the common state of this our realm, where- 
unto, both by the laws of God, nature, and man, ye be utterly bound. 

Given under our signet, at our palace at Westminster, the 9th day of 
June, A.D. 1534. 

Furthermore, that no man shall cavil or surmise this fatal fall and 
ruin of the pope to have come rashly upon the king''s own partial 
affection, or by any sensual temerity of a few, and not by the grave 
and advised judgment, approbation, and consent, generally and pub- 
licly, as well of the nobles and commons temporal, as also upon 
substantial grounds, and the very strength of truth, by the discussion 
and consultation of the spiritual and most learned persons in this 
realm: it shall be requisite, moreover, to these premises to adjoin the 
Avords and testimonies also of the bishops' own oaths and profession 
made to the king, yielding and rendering unto him only, the style of 
supreme head, next unto Christ, of the church of England ; all other 
service, subjection, and obedience to be given to any other foreign 
potentate, which should be prejudicial to the king''s highness in this 
behalf, being excluded ; and that both frankly and freely, of their 
own voluntary motion, and also upon the fliith and fidelity of their 
priesthood, as by their own words and hand-writing may appear, in 
form as hereunder foUoweth. 

The Oath of Stephen Gardiner to the King.' 

T Stephen, bishop of Winchester, do purely, of mine own voluntary accord, 
and absolutely, on the word of a bishop, profess and promise to your princely 

( ]) 'Ego Stephanus Wiiitonien. Episeopus, pure, sponte, et absolute, in verbo pontificio, pro- 
fiteer ac spondeo illustrissima vestrre legiae majestati, singulat' ac summo domino meo, ct 


Henry majesty, my singular and chief lord and patron, Henry the eighth, by the grace 
f/7/. of God king of England and of France, defender of the faith, lord of Ireland, 
, j^ and in earth of the church of England supreme head immediately under Christ, 
I 594' ^^^^^ from this day forward I shall swear, promise, give, or cause to be given to 

L no foreign potentate, emperor, king, prince, or prelate, nor yet lo the bishop of 

Rome, whom they call pope, any oath or fealty, directly or indirectly, either 

by word or writing ; but at all times, and in every case and condition I shall 

observe, hold, and maintain, to all effects and intents, the quarrel and cause of 

your royal majesty and your successors; and to the uttermost of my power 

shall defend the same against all manner of persons, whomsoever 1 shall know 

or suspect to be adversaries to your majesty, or to your successors ; and shall 

give my faith, truth, and obedience, sincerely, and with my very heart, only to 

Ptpphen your royal majesty, as to my supreme prince. I profess the papacy of Rome 

^nounc- "''^ ^° ^^ ordained of God by holy Scripture, but constantly do affirm, and 

eth the openly declare, and shall declare it, to be set up only by man, and shall cause 

pope. diligently other men likewise to publish the same. Neither shall I enter any 

treaty with any person or persons either privily or apertly, or shall consent 

thereto, that the bishop of Rome shall have or exercise here any authoiity or 

jurischction, or is to be restored to any jurisdiction hereafter. 

Furthermore, that the said bishop of Rome now being, or any that shall 
succeed him hereafter in the said see, is not to be called pope, nor supreme 
bishop or universal bishop, nor most holy lord; but only ought to be called 
bishop of Rome, and fellow brother (as the old manner of the most ancient 
bishops hath been) : this I shall to my power openly maintain and defend. 

And I shall firmly observe and cause to be observed by others, to the utter- 
most of my cunning, wit, and power, all such laws and acts of this realm, how 
and whatsoever, as have been enacted and established for the extirpation and 
suppression of the papacy, and of the authority and jurisdiction of the said 
bishop of Rome. Neither shall I appeal hereafter to the said bishop of Rome, 
nor ever consent to any person that shall appeal to him ; neither shall I 
attempt, prosecute, nor follow any suit in the court of Rome, for any cause of 
right or justice to be had, or shall make answer to any plea or action, nor shall 
take upon me the person and office either of the plaintiff or defendant in the 
said court. And if the said bishop, by his messenger or by his letters, shall 
make any means or signification imto me of any matter, whatsoever it be, I 
shall, with all speed and diligence, make declaration and advertisement thereof, 
or cause the same to be signified either to your princely majesty, or to some of 
your secret council, or to your successors, or any of tluir privy council. Neither 
shall I send, or cause to be sent, at any time any writing or messenger to the 
said bishop or to his court, without the knowledge and consent of your majesty 
or your successors willing me to send writing or messenger unto him. Neither 
shall I procure, or give counsel to any person to procure, bulls, briefs, or 
rescripts whatsoever, either for me or any other, from the said bishop of Rome 
or his court. And if any such shall be procured against my will and know- 
ledge, either in general or in special, or else howsoever they shall be granted 
unto them, I shall utter and disclose the same, and not consent thereunto, nor 
use them in any case, and shall cause them to be brought to your majesty, or 
yoiu' successors. 

Furthermore, for the confirmation hereof I give my faith and truth by firm 
promise, and in the faith of a bishop, that against this my aforesaid profession 
and promise made, I shall defend myself bj' no dispensation, exception, nor by 
any remedy or cautel of law or example, during this my natural life. And if 
heretofore I h,:;ve done or made any protestation in prejudice of this my pro- 
fession and promise here made, the same I do revoke at this present, and for 
ever hereafter, and here utterly do renoimce, by these presents. Whereunto I 
have subscribed and underwritten the name both of myself and of my 
bishopric, with my proper hand ; and thereto also have put my seal, in perpetual 
and undoubted testimony of the premises. 

Given the tenth day of February, a.d. 1534, and in the twenty-sixth year of 
our sovereign lord king Henry the Eighth. Stephen Winton. 

patrono, Henrico Dei (imtia AngliiP et Fraiiciae rcjii, fidei defensori, domino Hibernias, atque in 
tiTiis F.rek'sicC An^rlicaiu-u Supremo immediate sub Cliristo cajiiti, quod postliac ntilli externo 
inipciatori, re^i, principi aut pra;lato, ner Romano pontiiici (quern Papeni vecant) Cdelitatem et 
cbedicntiam,' iv'c 




The like Oath of John Stokesly, Bishop of London. 

I John, bishop of London, do purely, and of mine own voluntary accord, ^^'^^ 

and absolutely on the word of a bishop, profess and promise to your princely L_ 

majesty, my singular and chief lord and patron, Henry the Eighth, by the 
grace of God, king of England and of France, defender of the faith, lord of 
Ireland, and in earth of the same church of England supreme head immediately 
under Christ, &c. [Like to the oath before.] 

Johan. London. 

The like Oath and hand-writing of Edward Lee, Archbishop of 


I Edward, by the permission of God, archbishop of York, do purely, of my 
own voluntary accord, and absolutely, on the word of a bishop, profess and 

fromise to your royal majesty, my singular and chief lord and patron, &(\ 
In like form to the oath before.] 

Edwardus Eborac. 

The like Oath and hand-writing of Cuthbert Tonstal, Bishop of 


I Cuthbert, by the permission of God, bishop of Durham, do purely, of mine 
own voluntary accord, and absolutely, on the word of a bishop, profess and 
promise to your royal majesty, my singular and chief lord and patron, &c. [As 
before.] Per me Cuthbertum Dunelm. 

And so likewise all the other bishops, after the same order and 
form of oath, were obliged and bound to the king, as to the supreme 
head of the church of England immediately under Christ ; renouncing 
and abjuring utterly and voluntarily the pope's too long usurped 
jurisdiction in this realm ; testifying, moreover, the same both with 
their own hand, and also with their seal. 

Besides these confirmations and testimonials of the bishops afore- 
said, ye shall hear yet moreover the decree and public sentence of 
the university of Cambridge, written likewise and subscribed, and 
signed with the public seal of their university ; the tenor of which 
their letter here followeth. 

A Letter of the University of Cambridge against the usurped 
Power of the Bishop of Rome.^ 

To all and singular children of the holy mother church, to whose hands these 
presents shall come, the whole society of regents and non-regents of the 
university of Cambridge, sendeth greeting in our Saviour Jesus Christ. 

Whereas now of late it hath risen up in question among us, concerning the 
power of the bishop of Rome, which he doth both claim to himself by the holy 
Scripture over all provinces and nations in Christendom, and hath now of long 
time exercised in this realm of England ; and forasmuch as our censure con- 
cerning the cause is required, to wit. Whether the bishop of Rome hath any 
power or authority in this kingdom of England, allotted to him by God in the 
Scripture, more than any other foreign bishop, or no : we thought it therefore 
good reason, and our duty for the searching out of the verity of the said 
question, that we should employ therein our whole endeavour and study, where- 
by we might render and publish to the world, what our reason and censure is, 
touching the premises. For therefore we suppose, that universities were first 

(1) ' Unjversis sanctae matris ecclesiae filiis, ad quos praesentes literse perventurae sunt, coetus 
omiiis regentium et non rcRentium acadeniiae Cantabrigieiisis, salutem in omnium salvatore JeBU 
Clinsto Cum de Komani pontilicispotestate,' &c. 




The cen- 
sure of 
the uni- 
versity of 
the pope's 


bishop of 


hath no 


state in 



hath any 




provided and instituted of princes, to the end that hoth the people of Chri»t 
might, in the law of God, he instructed ; and also that false errors, if any did 
rise, might, through the vigilant care and industry of learned divines, be dis- 
cussed, extinguished, and utterly rooted out. For which cause we, in our 
assemblies and convocations (after our accustomed manner), resorting and con- 
ferring together upon the question aforesaid, and studiously debating and 
deliberating with ourselves how and by what order we might best proceed for 
the finding out of the truth of the matter ; and at length choosing out certain 
of the best learned doctors and bachelors of divinity, and other masters, have 
committed to them in charge, studiously to insearch and peruse the places of 
holy Scri])ture, by the viewing and conferring of which places together, they 
might certif^v us what is to be said to the question propoimded. 

Forasmuch therefore as we, having heard, and well advised, and thorouglily 
discussed in open disputations, what may be said on both parts of the aforesaid 
question, those reasons and arguments do appear to us more probable, stronger, 
truer, and more certain, and sounding much more near to the pure and native 
sense of Scriptiu-es, which do deny the bishop of Rome to have any such power 
given him of God in the Scripture. By reason and force of which arguments,, 
we, being persuaded, and conjoining together in one opinion, have with our- 
selves thus decreed to answer unto the question aforesaid ; and in these writings 
thus resolutely do answer in the name of the whole university, and for a con- 
clusion undoubted do affii-m, approve, and pronounce, that the bishop of Rome 
hath no more state, authority, and jurisdiction given him of God in the Scrip- 
tures, over this realm of England, than any other extern bishop hath. And in 
testimon}' and credence of this our answer and aflSrmation, we have caused our 
common seal to be put to these our aforesaid letters accordingly. 

At Cambridge, in our Regent House, a.d. 1534. 

tlie mar- 
riage of 
the king 
with his 


You have heard before of Stephen Gardiner, of Lee, of Tonstal^ 
and of Stokesley, hoM' of their vokmtary mind they made tlieir pro- 
fession unto tlie king, every one severally taking and accepting a 
corporal oath, utterly and for ever to renounce and reject the usurped 
superiority of the bishop of Rome. Now, for a further testimony 
and declaration of their judgments and opinions which then they 
were of, following the force both of truth and of time then present, 
ye shall hear, over and besides their oaths, what the aforesaid bishops, 
in their own books, prologues, and sermons, do write, and publish 
abroad in print, touching the said cause of the ]-)ope's supremacy. 

And first, God willing, to begin with Stephen Gardiner's book 
' De vera obedientia,' we will briefly note out a few of his own words, 
wherein, with great scriptures and good deliberation, he not only 
confuteth the pope's usurped authority, but also proveth the marriage 
beween the king and queen Katharine his brother's wife not to be 
good nor lawful, in these words. 

' Of which moral precepts in the old law, to speak of some (for to rehearse all 
it needs not), the Levitical precepts touching forbidden and incestuous mar- 
riages, as far as they concern chaste and pure wedlock, wherein the original of 
man's increase consisteth, are always to be reputed of such sort, that although 
they were first given to the Jews, yet because they appertain to the law of 
natiu-e, and expound the same more plainly to us, therefore they belong as well 

(I) The book of Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, ' De vera obedientia.' The original of this 
treatise appears in Browne's Fasciculus Rerum expctend. et fugiendarum, vol. 2, pp. 800—820; 
and an old translation is given in Mr. Stevens's Memoirs of Bradford. London, 1832. Appendix, 
pp. 62—138. In the Uarl. MSS. Brit. Mus No. 418, is Crannier's answer to Gardiner's book, 
translated into Latin (according to Strype) by John Foxe, employed therein hy the direction of 
Peter Martyr at Basle, and begtxn about 1554.— Ild. 


to all manner of people of the whole world for evermore. In which doubtless jicnry 
hoth the voice of nature and God's commandment agreeing in one, have for- _^^^^-_ 
bidden that which is contrary and diverse from the one and from the other. ^ j^ 
And amongst these, since there is commandment that a man shall not marry i/^'.j^' 
his brother's wife, what could the king's excellent majesty do, otherwise than — ' ■ 
he did, by the whole consent of the people, and judgment of his church ; that 
is, to be divorced fi-om unlawful marriage, and use lawful and permitted copu- 
lation? and obeying (as meet it was) conformably unto the commandment, 
cast off her, whom neither law nor right permitted him to retain, and take him 
to chaste and lawful marriage? Wherein although the sentence of God's 
word (whereunto all things ought to stoop) might have sufficed, yet his majesty 
was content to have the assisting consents of the most notable grave men, and 
the censures of the most famous universities of the wliole world ; and all to the 
intent that men should see he did both what he might do, and ought to do 
uprightly ; seeing the best learned and most worthy men have subscribed unto 
it ; showing therein such obedience as God's word requireth of every good and 
godly man ; so as it may be said, tliat both he obeyed God, and obeyed him 
truly : of which obedience, forasmuch as I am purposed to speak, I could not 
pass this thing over with silence, whereof occasion so commodiously was offered 
me to speak. 

Moreover, the said Gardiner, in tlie beforenamed book " De vera Gardiner, 
Obedientia,"" what constancy he pretendeth, Avhat arguments he an, in hL 
inferreth, how earnestly and pithily he disputeth on the king''s side, ^g^^oJ^jf. 
against the usurped state of the bishop of Rome's authority, by the dientia.' 
words of his book it may appear : wliereof a brief collection here fol- 
io weth. 

Reasons of Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, against the Pope"'s 


In the process of his aforesaid book, he, alleging the old distinction of the The 
papists, wherein they give to the prince the regiment of things temporal, and sword of 
to the church that of things spiritual, comparing the one to the greater light, cimreli, 
the other to the lesser light, he confuteth and derideth the same distinction, how far it 
declaring the sword of the church to extend no further than to teaching and g^^'^"'^" 
excommunication, and referreth all pre-eminence to the sword of the prince ; 
alleging for this the second Psalm : ' And now you kings be wise, and be 
learned ye that judge the earth,' ' &c. 

Also the example of Solomon, who, being a king according to his father's 
appointment, ordained the offices of the priests in their ministries, and Levites 
in their order, that they might give thanks, and minister before the priests, 
after the order of every day, and porters in their divisions, gate by gate.- 

And speaking more of the said Solomon, he saitli : ' For so commanded the 
man of God ; neither did the priests nor Levites omit any thing of all that he 
had commanded,' &c.* 

Beside this, he allegeth also the example of king Hezekiah.* He allegetli 
moreover the example and fact of Justinian, who made laws touching the faith, 
bishops, clerks, heretics, and such others. 

Aaron (saith he) obeyed Moses : Solomon gave sentence upon Abiathar the 
high priest. 

Alexander the king, in the Maccabees, writeth thus to Jonathan : ' Now we 
have made thee this day the high-priestof thy people,'^ &c. So did Demetrius 
to Simon.8 

Then, coming to the words of Cln-ist spoken to Peter, 'Thou art Peter,'' Src. 
upon which words the pope pretendeth to build all his authority : To this he 
answereth, that if Christ, by those words, had limited to Peter any such special 
state or pre-emincncy above all princes, then were it not true that is written, 
* Ccepit Jesus docere et facere ; forasmuch as the words of Christ should then 

(!) Ps. ii. (2) 2 Kings xxviii. (3) Exod. xxxii. (4) I Kings xxii. (5) 1 Mac. x. 

(6) 1 Mac. xiv. (7) Matt. xvi. 


Henry be contrary to liis own facts and example, who, in all his life, never either 
^^li- usurped to himself any such domination above princes (sliowing himself rather 
\ rj subject unto princes), nor yet did ever permit in his apostles any such example 
1534" of ^nibition to be seen ; but rather rebuked them for seeking any manner of 
majority amongst them. 

'1'.^^, And where he reasoneth of the king's style and title, being called king of 

Bt'yieand England and of France, defender of the faith, lord of Ireland, and supreme 
title ap- head in earth of the church of England immediately under Christ, &c., thus 
cfardTner' he addeth his mind and censure, saying, that he seeth no cause in this title, 
why any man should be offended, that the king is called head of the church of 
England, rather than of the realm of England ; and addeth his reason there- 
unto saying, ' If the prince and king of England be the head of his kingdom, 
that is, of all Englishmen that be his subjects, is there any cause why the same 
English subjects sho\ild not be subject to the same head likewise in this respect, 
because they are christians ; that is to say, for the title of godliness ? as though 
that God, who is the cause of all obedience, should now be the cause of 
rebellion ? ' 

At length thus he concludeth with an exclamation saying, 'To say,' saith he, 
' that a king is the head of the kingdom, and not of the church, what an absurd 
and a foolish saying is this ! ' 
The king And further, adding further for example the subjection of the servant and 
'1 ^'^h^'^i^ wife: ' If the servant,' saith he, 'be subject to his master, or wife to her 
of the husband, being infidels, doth their conversion afterwards, or the name of 
iiuirchas Christians, make them less subjects than they were before? As religion ihere- 

fcl.l'„'^ „, fore doth not alter the authority of the master over tlie servant, nor of the hus- 
Kingnom. i-ii<ii-i i 

band over the wile; 'no more, saith he, 'doth it between the prince and 


' Paul, making no exception or distinction of subjection, save only of that 
which beloiigeth to God, willeth all men to obey their princes ; and what 
princes? Those princes who bear the sword. And although we are bound by 
the Scripture to obey our bishops and spiritual pastors of the church, yet that 
obedience diminisheth nothing the chief and head authority that ought to be 
given to the prince, no more than the obedience of the servant to his master, or 
of the wife to her husband, exempteth them from subjection due to their 
superior powers.' 
A rule of And herewithal he inferreth a principle of the law: 'divers jurisdictions,' 
the law. gaitli ]ie, ' proceeding from one person, do not mar nor hinder themselves, but 
rather do confirm and fortify one another.' 

Again, whereas the bishop of Rome, under the name of Peter, doth appro- 
priate to himself the highest place in the church, for that he is the successor of 
Peter ; thei-eunto he answereth in one word, but in that one word he answereth 
Winches- enough, and to the full : ' I would,' saith he, ' he were ; for so in very deed he 
that the "^ might well exceed and pass all kings and princes, if not in pre-eminency of 
pope were dignity, yet in admiration and excellency of virtue : in which kind of superiority 
Peter's t]^g Lord Christ would his auostles and ministers to go before all kings and 
successor. • ^i i 1 u 1 

emperors m the whole world. 

After this, in prosecuting the argument' of Peter's confession, he argueth 
thus and saith, that as flesh and blood did not reveal to Peter that confession, 
so neither was that prerogative given to the flesh and blood of Peter, but to the 
better part, that is, to the spirit of Peter; which is to mean in respect of the 
spiritual confession of Peter, and not in respect of any carnal place or per- 
son, &c. 

Item, If the scholar ought not to be above the master, how then could either 

Peter take that upon him, which Christ his master so constantly did refuse ; or 

how can tlie bishop of Rome now claim that by succession, whereof no example 

is to be found either in the head, or his predecessor before him? for so we read 

Prima- "^ Eusebius, both of Peter, James, and John, that they did arrogate no such 

tusor primacy unto them, but were content that James, surnamed Justus, should be 

l"j™^-'9'. the bishop of the apostles. 

sign!-" And as for the name and signification of the word ' piimatus,' i. e. primacy, 

Jieih. if it be taken for tlie first nomination, or the first place given, so he granteth 

(1) The argument : Tlie prerogative was given to him viio confessed. Flesh and blood in Peter 
did not confess Christ : ergo, the prerogative was not given to the flesh and blood of Peter. 


that Peter had the preferment of the first name and place in the order of the Henry 

apostles. But it foUoweth not, that with this primacy he had also a kingdom '^^^^- 

given. And though he were bid of the Lord to confirm his brethren, yet was ^ ^ 

he not bid to exercise an empery upon his brethren : for so were they not his j ^.^^' 
brethren, but his subjects 

That Peter was ' prinms,' that is, first or chief in the number of those who Primus 
confessed Christ, it is not to be denied ; for first he confessed, first he taught the 'p"^"J'_^ "^" 
Jews, first he stood in defence of the verity, and was the fii'st and chief pro- primacy 
locutor among them. But yet that maketh not, that he should therefore vindi- js^tj|^ ^^ 
cate a general primacy and rule over all other states, and potestates of the world, virtue, 
no more than Apelles, because he is noted the first and chief of all painters, and not 
therefore ought to bear rule over all painters; or because the university of " P"^^'^'^- 
Paris is nominated for the first and chief of other universities, shall therefore 
the French king, and all other princes in their public administration, wherein 
they are set of God, become subjects and underlings to that university? 

Thus, after many other i-easons and persuasions contained in said book De 
Obedientia (for I do but superficially skim over the top only of his probations 
and arguments), finally, in the end of his probation, he concludeth the whole 
sum of his mind in this effect ; first, he denieth that the bishop of Rome had 
ever any such extern jurisdiction assigned to him absolutely from God, to 
reign over kings and princes : for the peroration whereof he hath alleged suffi- 
ciently, as he saith, the examples and doings of Christ himself, who ought to be 
to us all a sufficient document. 

And as concerning the term of ' Primacy,' albeit it be used sometimes by the 
fathers, yet the matter, being well considered and rightly expounded, maketh 
nothing for the large dominion of the bishop of Rome, which now he doth 

Also as for the prerogatives gi-anted unto Peter, by the which prerogatives 
our Saviour would crown his own gifts given unto him, crowning not the flesh 
and blood of Peter, but the marvellous testimony of his confession, all this 
maketh nothing for the pope's purpose. 

Likewise as concerning the local succession of Peter, the pope hath nothing sucres- 
thereby to claim. If he will be successor of Peter, he must succeed him in sion of 
faith, doctrine, and conditions ; and in so doing, he neither will seek, nor yet 
shall need to seek, for honour, but shall be honoured of all good men, according 
as a good man should be ; and that much more than he being a good man 
woidd require. 

And thus Stephen Winchester, taking his leave, and bidding the pope fare- Gardiner 
well, endeth with a friendly exhortation, willing him to be wise and circumspect, ! y'^J^i'^/^ 
and not to strive stubbornly against the truth. ' The light of the gospel,' saith the pope, 
he, ' so spreadeth his beams in all men's eyes, that the works of tlie gospel be but not 
known, the mysteries of Christ's doctrine are opened ; both learned and un- njj,n" 
learned, men and women, being Englishmen born, do see and perceive, that vale.' 
they have nothing to do with Rome, or with the bishop of Rome, but that 
every prince, in his own dominion, is to be taken and accepted as a vicar of 
God, and vicegerent of Christ in his own bounds. And therefore, seeing this 
order is taken of God, and one in the church shoidd bear the office of teaching, 
another should bear the office of ruling (which office is only limited to princes), 
he exhorteth him to consider the truth, and to follow the same, wherein con- 
sisteth our true and special obedience, &c. 

To this book of Stephen Winchester, De Obedientia, we will The of- 
adjoin, for good fellowship, the Preface also of Edmund Bonner, teaw" 
archdeacon then of Leicester, prefixed before the same ; to the intent "u^',;'||''' 
that the reader, seeing the judgments of these men as they were then, 
and again the sudden mutation afterwards of the said parties to 
the contrary opinion, may learn thereby what vain glory and pomp 
of this world can work in the frail nature of man, where God^s 
grace lacketh to sustain. The preface of Bonner, before the said 
book of Winchester, De Obedientia, proceedeth thus in effect, as 
followeth : 








The doc- 
trine of 
tlie gos- 

The con- 
tents of 


The Preface of Edmund Bonner, Archdeacon of Leicester, prefixed 
before Stephen Gardiner's book, De Vera Obedientia. 

Forasmuch as some there be, no doubt (as the judgments of men be always 
variable), who think the controversy which is between the king's royal majesty 
and the bishop of Home, consisteth in this point, for that his majesty hath taken 
the most excellent and most virtuous lady Anne to wife, which in very deed is 
far otlierwisc, and notlung so : to tlie intent, therefore, that all true hearty 
favourers of tlie gospel of Christ, who hate not, but love the tnith, may the more 
fully understand the chief point of the controversy, and because they shall not 
be ignorant what is the whole voice and resolute determination of the best and 
greatest learned bishops, with all the nobles and commons of England, not only 
in tliat cause of matrimony, but also in defending the doctrine of the gospel : 
here shall be published the oration of the bishop of Winchester (a man excel- 
lently learned in all kind of learning), entitled ' De vera Obedientia' ; that is, 
Concerning True Obedience. But as touching this bishop's worthy praises, 
there shall be nothing spoken of me at this time, not only because they are 
infinite,^ but because they are far better known to all Christendom, than 
becometh me here to make rehearsal. And as for the oration itself (which as 
it is most learned, so is it most elegant), to what purpose should I make any 
words of it, seeing it praiseth itself enough, and seeing good wine needeth no 
tavern-bush to utter it ? But yet in this oration, whosoever thou art, most gentle 
reader! thou shalt, besides other matters, see it notably and learnedly handled, 
of what importance, and how invincible the power and excellency of God's 
truth is, which as it may now and then be pressed of the enemies, so it cannot 
possibly be oppressed and darkened after such sort but it showeth itself again 
at length more glorious and more welcome. Thou shalt see also touching 
obedience, that it is subject to truth, and what is to be judged true obedience. 
Besides this, of men's traditions, which for the most part be most repugnant 
against the truth of God's law. And there, by the way, he speaketh of the 
king's said highness's marriage, which, by the ripe judgment, authority, and 
privilege of the most and principal universities of the world, and then with the 
consent of the whole church of England, he contracted with the most excellent 
and most noble lady, queen Anne. After that, touching the king's majesty's 
title, as pertaining to the supreme head of the church of England. Last of all, 
of the false pretensed supremacy of the bishop of Rome in the realm of England 
most justly abrogated : and how all other bishops, being fellow-like to him in 
their function, yea and in some points above him within their own provinces, 
were beforetime bound to the king by their oath. 

But be thou most surely persuaded of this, good reader ! that the bishop of 
Rome, if there were no cause else but only this marriage, would easily content 
himself, especially having some good morsel or other given him to chew upon.* 
But when he seeth so mighty a king, being a right virtuous and a great learned 
prince, so sincerely and so heartily favour the gospel of Christ, and perceiveth 
the yearly and great prey (yea so large a prey, that it came to as much almost 
as all the king's revenues) snapped out of his hands, and that he can no longer 
exercise his tyranny in the king's majesty's realm (alas, heretofore too cruel and 
bitter-*), nor make laws, as he hath done many, to the contumely and reproach 
of the majesty of God, which is evident that he hath done in time past, under 
the title of the Catholic church, and the authority of Peter and Paul (when not' 
withstanding he was a very- ravening wolf, dressed in sheep's clothing, calling 
himself the servant of servants), to the great damage of the christian common- 
wealth — here, here began all the mischief; hereof rose these discords, these 
deadly malices, and so great and terrible bustling : for if it were not thus, could 
any man believe that this Jupiter of Olympus (who falsely hath arrogated unto 
himself an absolute power without controlment) would have wrought so dili- 
gently, by all means possible, to stir up all other kings and princes so traitor- 

n oasainst this so good and godly, and so true a gospel-like prince, as he 

(1) See how these clawbacks can cling together in truth and in falsehood; and all to fashion 
themselves to the world, and the time present. 

(2) Boiuier knew well what morsel would best please his father of Home, and that money and 
bribes would soon stop his mouth. 

(3) Seeing thou knowest the pope to be such a cruel tjTant, why then wouldst thou, agamst thy 
knowledge, become his slatighterman ' 


hath done? Neither let it move thee, gentle reader! that Wincliester did not iienry 
before now apply to this opinion : for he himself, in this oration, showeth the ^^^^- 
cause why he did it not. And if he had said never a word, yet thou knowest ^ jj 
well what a witty part it is for a man to suspend his judgment, and not to be 1^53 j' 

too rash in giving of sentence. It is an old-said saw; ' Mary Magdalen pro- — '. '— 

fited us less in her quick belief that Christ was risen, than Thomas that was 
longer in doubt.' A man may rightly call him Fabius, that with his advised 
taking of leisure restored the matter. Albeit I speak not this as though 
Winchester had not bolted out this matter secretly with himself beforehand win- 
(for he without doubt tried it out long ago) ; but that running fair and softly, Chester 
he would first, with his painful study, pluck the matter out of the dark (although against 
of itself it was clear enough, but by reason of sundry opinions it was lapped up the pope 
in darkness), and then did he debate it wittily to and fro ; and so, at last, after ^j^^^^j 
long and great deliberation had in the matter, because there is no better coun- jmig. 
sellor than leisure and time, he would resolutely, with his learned and con- ment. 
siumnate judgment, confirm it. 

Thou sliouldest, gentle reader, esteem his censure and authority to be of more 
weighty credence, inasmuch as the matter was not rashly, and at all adven- 
tures, but with judgnrent (as thou seest), and with wisdom examined and 
discussed. And this is no new example, to be against the tyranny of the 
bishop of Rome, seeing that not only this man, but many men oftentimes, yea 
and right great learned men afore now, have done the same even in writing; No nev/ 
whereby they both painted him out in his right colours, and made his sleights, '^"^*j^'^ "' 
falsehood, frauds, and deceitful wiles, openly known to the world. Therefore, against 
if thou at any time heretofore have doubted either of true obedience, or of the tl.'e 
king's majesty's marriage or title, or else of the bishop of Rome's false pre- ^(^i^J ° 
tended supremacy, as, if thou liadst a good smeUing nose, and a sound judgment, 
I think thou didst not : yet, having read this oration (which, if thou favour the 
trutli, and hate the tyranny of the bisliop of Rome, and his satanical fraudulent 
falsehood, shall doubtless wonderfully content thee), forsake thine error, and 
acknowledge the truth now freely offered thee at length, considering with thyself 
that it is better late so to do, than never to repent. 

Fare thou heartily well, most gentle reader ; and not only love this most 
valiant king of England and of France, who undoubtedly was by the providence 
of God born to defend the gospel, but also honour him and serve him most 
obediently. As for this Winchestei-, who was long ago, without doubt, reputed 
among the greatest learned men, give him thy good word, with highest 

The end of bishop Bonner's prologue. 

What man reading and advising this book of Winchester, De The in- 
Vera Obedientia, with Bonner's preface before the same, would ever mutaw- 
have thought any alteration could so work in man's heart, to make Jl'/J^^g^ 
these men thus to turn the cat in the pan, as they say, and to start so and boiv- 
suddenly from the truth so manifestly known, so pithily proved, so ^"' 
vehemently defended, and (as it seemed) so faithfully subscribed ? 
Jf they dissembled all this that they wrote, subscribed, and sware unto, 
what perjury most execrable was it before God and man ! If they 
meant good faith, and spake then as they thought, what pestilent 
blindness is this so suddenly fallen upon them, to make that false now, 
which was true before ; or that to be now true, which before was false ! 
I'hus to say and unsay, and then to say again, to do and undo, and, as 
a man Avould say, to play fast or loose with truth ; truly a man may say 
is not the doing of a man who is in any case to be trusted, what- 
soever he doth or saith. But here a man may see what man is of 
himself, when God's good humble Spirit lacketh to be his guide. 

Furthermore, to add unto them the judgment also and arguments 
of Tonstal, bishop of Durham, let us see how he agreeth with them, 
or rather much excecdcth them, in his sermon made before king 


Hemry HcMy upoH Palm-Svuiday, remaining yet in print ; in which sermon, 



disputing against the Avrongful supremacy of the bishop of Rome, 

he proveth by manifest grounds most efFectuously, both out of the 

Scripture, ancient doctors, and of councils ; not only that the bishop 

mon oT ^^ Rome hath no such authority by the word of God committed to 

Tonstai him, as he doth challenge ; but also, in requiring and challenging the 

king, same, he reproveth and condemncth him with great zeal and ardent 

Palm-"" spirit, to be a proud Lucifer ; disobedient to the ordinary powers of 

Sunday. (Jq([ gg^ Qygj. ^im ; Contrary to Christ and Peter : and finally, in 

raising up war against us for the same, he therefore rebuketh and 

defieth him, as a most detestable sower of discord, and a murderer 

of Christian men. 

Notes on TonstaFs Semion against the Pope's Supremacy. 

Popes First, by the Scripture, he reasoneth thus, and proveth, that all good men 

b"h D8 ought to obey the potestates and governors of the world, as emperors, kings, 

ought to and princes of all sorts, what name soever the said supreme powers do bear or 

be subject use for their countries in which they be ; for so St. Peter doth plainly teach us, 

sove'-"^ saying, ' Be ye subject to every human creature for God's cause, whether it be 

reigns. king, as chief head, or dukes or governors,' &c.i So that St. Peter, in his 

epistle, commandeth all worldly princes in their office to be obeyed as the 

ministei's of God, by all Christian men : and according unto the same, St. 

Paul saith, ' Let every living man be subject to the high powers; for the high 

powers be of God, and whosoever resisteth the high powers, resisteth the oi'di- 

nance of God, and purchaseth thereby to himself damnation.'^ 

And in the same place of Tonstal it followeth : and lest men should forget 
their duty of obedience to their princes, it is thrice repeated, that they be ' the 
ministers of God,' whose place in their governance they represent : so that unto 
them all men must obey, apostles, patriarchs, primates, archbishops, bishops, 
priests, and all of the clergy, &c. 'And therefore,' saith he, 'the bishop of 
Rome oweth to his sovereign and superior like subjection by the word of God, 
taught unto us by Peter and Paid, as other bishops do to their princes, under 
whom they be,' &c. 

Also, another express commandment we have of Christ, who, upon the occa- 
sion of his disciples striving for superiority, discusseth the matter, saying on 
this wise, * The kings of the people and nations have dominion over them, and 
those that have power over them be called gi'acious lords ; but so it shall not be 
amongst you : but whosoever amongst you is the greater, shall be as the 
younger ; and whosoever amongst you shall be chief, shall be as a servant and 
a minister,'^ &c. 

And again, Christ speaking to Pilate of his kingdom, declareth that his king- 
dom is not of this world,'' and ' therefore ' saith Tonstal, ' those that go about to 
make of Christ's spiritual kingdom a worldly kingdom, do fall into the error of 
some heretics, that look that Christ, after the day of judgment, shall reign with 
all his saints here in the earth carnally in Jerusalem; as the Jews do believe 
that Messias is yet to come, and when lie shall come, he shall reign worldly in 

By these and such other places it may well appear, that Christ, neither before 

his incarnation (as Tonstal saith), nor after his incarnation, did ever alter the 

authority of worldly kings and princes, but by his own word commanded them 

still to be obeyed by their subjects, as they had been in the ancient time before. 

Exam- ^^" ■^"'^ ^^^ example of the same he allegcth first the example of Christ him- 

ples of self, who, being asked of the Jews, whether they sliould give tribute to Cajsar, 

Christ's or no, lie bade them give to CcEsar those things that be his, and to God those 

suhjec- things that be his ; signifying, that tribute was due to Caesar, and that their souls 

tion. were due to God,' &c. 

Also in the seventeenth of Matthew, it appearcth that Christ bade Peter pay 
tribute for him and his disciples, when it was demanded of him. And why ? 

(1) 1 Pet ii. (2) T,om. xiii. (3) Luki- Nxii. (1) John xviii. (5) Matt. xxii. 


Because lie would not change the order of obeisance to worldly princes due by iienn, 
their subjects, &c. yiii. 

Another example of Christ he citeth out of John vi., where, after Christ had \ rv 
fed five thousand and more, with a few loaves, and fewer fishes, and that the i ,-'04' 
Jews would have taken him, and made him their king, he fled from them, and ' 
^vould not consent unto them : ' For the kingdom,' saith he, ' that he came to set 
in earth, was not a worldly and temporal kingdom, but a heavenly' and spiritual 
kingdom;' that is, to reign spiritually, by grace and faith, in the hearts of all 
christian and faithful people, of what degree, or of what nation soever they be, 
and to turn all people and nations, which at his coming were carnal and lived 
after the lusts of the flesh, to be spiritual, and to live after the lusts of the Spirit, 
that Christ, with his Father of heaven, might reign in the hearts of all men, &c. 
And here, in these examples of Christ's humility further is to be noted, how 
Christ the Son of God did submit himself not only to the rulers and powers of 
this world, but also dejected himself, and in a manner became servant to his own 
a])ostles : so far off was he from all ambitious and pompous seeking of worldly 
honour. For so it appeared in him, not only by washing the feet of his apostles, 
but also the same time, a little before his passion, when the apostles fell at con- 
tention among themselves, who among them should be superior, he, setting 
before them the example of his own subjection, asketli this question : ' Who is 
superior; he that sitteth at the table, or he that serveth at the table? Is not 
lie superior that sitteth ? but I am amongst you, as he that ministereth and 
serveth,' &c.' 

The like examples Tonstal also infeiTeth of Peter's humility. For where we Exam- 
read in the Acts, how the centurion, a nobleman of great age, did prostrate l'''^** °^ 
liimself upon the ground at the feet of Peter ; then Peter, not sufiering that fuhjec- 
eftsoons took him up, and bade him rise, saying, ' I am also a man as thou art. '2 ti""- 

So likewise did the angel, to whom when John would have fallen dov/n to 
have adored him who showed him those visions, the angel said unto him, ' See 
thou do not so; for I am the servant of God, as thou art,' &c.^ 

Again, in the aforesaid Peter, what an example of reverent humility is to be 
seen in this, that notwithstanding he, with other apostles, had his commission 
to go over all the world, yet nevertheless he, being at Joppa, and sent for by 
Cornelius, durst not go unto him without the vision of a sheet let down from 
heaven ; by which vision he was admonished not to refuse the Gentiles : or 
else he knew in himself no such primacy over all people and places given unto 
him, nor any such commission so large above the others, &c. 

Furthermore, the said Peter, being rebuked of Paul his fellow brother, took 
no scorn thereof, but was content, submitting himself to due correction. 

But here, saith Tonstal, steppeth in the bishop of Rome, and saith that Peter The 
had authority given him above all the residue of the apostles, and allegeth the popfs ob- 
words of Christ spoken to him, 'Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build J*^*^^""'^- 
my church, and will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven : and 
whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, shall be bound in heaven.'* ' This said 
Christ,' saith the pope, 'and St. Peter is buried at Rome, whose successor I 
am, and ought to rvde the church, as Peter did, and to be porter of heaven gates, 
as Peter was,' &c. ' And Christ said also to Peter, after his resurrection. Feed 
my sheep f which he spake to him only, so that thereby he had authority over 
all that be of Christ's flock ; and I, as his successor, have the same. And there- 
fore whoso will not obey me, king or prince, I will curse him, and deprive him Ambi- 
of his kingdom or seigniory : for all power is given to me that Christ hath, and ''"^g ^f 
1 1 am his vicar-general, as Peter was here in earth over all, and none but I, as the pope. 
Christ is in heaven.' 

This ambitious and pompous objection (saith Tonstal) of the pope and his The 
[adherents, hath of late years much troubled the world, and made dissension, Sciip- 
'ebate, and open war in all parts of Christendom, and all by a wrong inter- fai's^jr 
Ipretation of the Scripture ; who, if he would take those places after the right rerverted 
|sense of them, as both the apostles themselves taught us, and all the ancient ^^ ^™- 
(best learned interpreters do expound them, the matter were soon at a point. 
But otherwise, since they pervert the Scriptures, and preach another gospel in 
;hat point to us, than ever the apostles preached, we have therein a general 
•ule to follow : That though an angel came from heaven, and would tell us such 

'1) Luke xxii. (2) Acts x. (C) Apcc. xix. and xxii. (4) Matt. xvi. (5) John xxi. 

VOL. y. G 



Henru new exposition of those places as are now made, to turn the words which were 
nil. spoken for spiritual authority of preacliing the word of God, and niinistenng o 

the sacraments, to a workUy authority, we ought to reject him : as bt. Faul 

willeth us in Galatians i. . •■ , r. -j j 

To open therefore the true sense of the Scripture in the places aforesaid, and 



. xo open inereioie uuc nuc acni^i^ "^ "-^ x" r . - . 

The place first to begin with Matthew xvi., here is to be observed, that the question bemg 

"'■ ^''"- put in general of Christ to all his apostles, what they thought or judged of him, 

poinded. Peter, answering for them all (as he was always ready to answer), said, ' Ihou 

art Christ the Son of the living God.' To whom Jesus answered agam, Blessed 

be thou, Simon the son of Jonah, for flesh and blood hath not revealed this 

unto tliee, but my Father which is in heaven : and I say unto thee Mjou art 

Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall 

not prevail against it.' That is to say. Upon this rock of thy confession of me 

to be the Son of God, I will build my church; for this faith containeth the 

Faith the whole summary of our faith and salvation, as it is written in Rom. x. I he 

mother of ^^^rd of faith that we do preach is at hand, in thy mouth and in thme heart. 

salvation. ^^^ .j. ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^-^1^ ^j^y j^^^uth our Lord Jesus Christ, and with thy heart 

do believe that God raised him from death to life, thou shalt be saved, cV-c. 

The And this confession being first uttered by the mouth of Peter upon the same 

.^•h^;'! confession of his, and not upon the person of Peter, Christ buildeth his church 

uponthe as Chrysostome expoundeth that place in the twenty-sixth sermon, of the feas 

co'nfes- of Pentecost, saying, ' Not upon the person of Peter, but upon the faith, Ch ist 

mer^'not hath builded his church. And what is the faith ? This : rhou art Chnst the 

u?o" the' Son of the living God. What is to say, Upon this rock ? Ihat is, Upon this 

person of confession of Peter,' &c. And with this saying of Chrysostome all ancient ex- 

^''"- positors (saith Tonstal) treating of that place, do agree ; for if we should expound 

that place, that the church is builded upon the person of Peter, we should put 

another foundation ofthe church than Christ; which is directly agamst S .Paul, 

saying, ' No man may put any other foundation, but that which is put already, 

which is Christ Jesus,' &c.' j ^i • tu * 

And because Peter was the first of all the apostles that confessed this Ihat 

Christ is the Son of God, by the which faith all men must be saved ; thereot 

cometh the primacy: that is, the first place or standing of Peter m the number 

of all tlie apostles. -, r<^ ■ ^ ^ i .\ a r 

And as Peter was the first of them that confessed Christ to be the Son of 
God so was he most ardent in his faith, most bold and hardy in Christ, as ap- 
peared by his coming out of the ship in the great tempest; and also most 
vehement in his master's cause, as appeared by dmwmg out his sword ; and 
afterwards the Lord's resurrection is declared in the Acts,Mvhere the Jews, 
withstanding the apostles preaching the faith of Christ, Peter, as most ardent 
in faith, waf ever most ready to defend the faith agamst the impugners thereof, 
speaking for them all unto the people, &c. ; and therefore hath these honour- 
able names given him by the ancient interpreters, that sometimes he is called 
names of < the mouth of the apostles;' 'the chief of the apostles; sometimes ' the prmce 
fj^fj.i'^ ofthe apostles, sometimes ' the president ofthe who e church and sometimes 
doctorl hath the name of primacy or priority attributed unto him. And ye that the 
how and said Peter, notwithstanding these honourable names given to him, should not 
l^VT^.y have a rule, or a judicial power, above all the other apostles, it is plain by 
te given. St. Paul and many others. . ,, ^ ^ fi„„i,;„ r.( 

The First, St. PauP plainly declareth the same, saying, that as the apostleship ot 

^f"ll;r"' the circumcision, that is, of the Jews, was given by Chnst to Peter; so was the 
apostleship of the Gentiles given to me among the Gentiles. Hereby it ap- 
peareth that Paul knew no primacy of Peter concerning people and places but 
among the Jews. And thereof St. Ambrose, expounding that place, saith thus. 
'The primacy of the Jews was given chiefly to Peter, albeit James and Jolm 
were joined with him ; as the primacy of the Gentdes was given to Paul, albeit 
Barnabas was joined Avith him : so that Peter had no rule over all. 

Also in Acts X., when Peter was sent for to Cornelius, a Gentde he durst 
not go to him without a special vision given him from heaven by the Lord 

Item, That all the apostles had like dignity and authority, it appeareth by 
St. Paul, where he saith, ' Now J^c are not strangers, nor foreigners but ye be 
citizens with the saints, and of the household of Almighty God, bmlded, saitb 

What is 
the pri- 
macy of 




all alike. 

(1)1 Cor. iii. 

v2) Chaps ii. iii. iv. 

(3) Gal. ii. 


lie, ' upon the foundations of the apostles and the prophets, Christ heiug the Hi-iiry 
corner-stone ; upon whom every edifice being builded, groweth up to an holy ym. 
temple in our Lord,' &c.i Here he saith that they be builded not upon the . „ 
foundation of Peter only, but upon the foundation of the apostles : so that all , /,, ,' 

they be in the foundation set upon Christ the very rock, whereupon standeth " 

the whole church. 

In the Apocalypse also,^ the new city, and the heavenly Jesusalem of 
Almiglity God, is described by the Holy Ghost, not with one foundation only 
of Peter, but with twelve foundations, after the number of the apostles. 

St. Cyprian ' giveth record likewise to the same, that the apostles had equal Every 
power and dignity given to them by Christ ; and because all should preach one '"l'j°P- 
thing, therefore the beginning thereof first came by one, who was Peter, who part 
confessed for them all, that Christ was the Son of the living God. Saying wholly to 
further, that in the church there is one ofiice of all the bishops, whereof every ""^''' ' 
man hath a part allowed wholly unto him. Now, if the bishop of Rome may 
meddle over all, where he will, then every man hath not wholly his part, for 
the bishop of Rome may also meddle in his part jointly with him ; so that now 
he hath it not wholly : which is against Cyprian. 

St. Augustine* likewise, expounding the gospel of John, in the fiftieth 
Treatise, speaketh there of the keys of Peter, which he saith were given of 
Christ to Petei", not for himself alone, but for the whole church. 

Cyril, expounding the last chapter of John, and there speaking of the words ' Pasce 
of Christ spoken unto Peter, ' Feed my sheep,' &c. thus understandeth the °^*^s , 
same : That because Peter had thrice denied Christ, whereby he thought him- niakes 
self he had lost his apostleship, Christ, to comfort him again, and to restore nothing 
him to his office that he had lost, asked him thrice whether he loved him ; and ^^^^l 
so restored him again to his ofl[ice, which else he durst not have presumed universal 
unto; saying unto him, 'Feed my sheep,' &c. ; with which exposition the P^^'"!'^" 
ancient holy expositors of that place do likewise agree. So that by these words 
of feeding Christ's sheep, the bishop of Rome can take no advantage to main- 
tain his univei'sal pastoralty over all christian dominions. 

Again, whereas the bishop of Rome saith that Peter, by these words of 
Christ spoken to him, hath a pre-eminency above the others, St. Paul' proveth 
the contrary, where he, speaking to the bishops assembled at Miletus, saith to ,roi/uai- 
them, 'Take heed to yourselves, and to all your flock, in which the Holy Ghost I't'"- 
hath put you to govern,' &c. 

And Peter himself likewise ^ saith, ' Ye that be priests, feed the flock of God 
among you,' &c. 

So that by these scriptm'es conferred together, it may appear, that neither Scrip- 
Matthew xvi., nor John xxi., do prove that Peter had power, authority, or ^^l"^*^^^ 
dignity given him of Christ over all the others, that they should be under him. fuUy al- 
And yet, notwithstanding his primacy, in that he, first of all the apostles, con- 'esed for 
fessed Christ to be the Son of the living God (with which confession all the suprema-^ 
other apostles did consent, and also preached the same), standeth still ; which cy. 
confession fii'st by Peter made, aU others that will be saved must follow also, 
and be taught to confess the same. And thus the bishop of Rome's power 
over all, which he would prove by those places wrongfully alleged for his pur- 
pose, utterly quaileth, and is not proved. And thus much for the Scriptures 
aud doctors. 

Now, further proceeding in this matter, the said Tonstal cometh 
to councils, and examples of the primitive church, as foUoweth : 

Faustinus, legate to the bishop of Rome, in the sixth coimcil of Carthage, Exam- 
lUeged that the bishop of Rome ought to have the ordering of all great matters, pl^so/the 
n all places, by his supreme authority, bringing no scripture for him (for at c™ch"'' 
;hat time no scripture was thought to make for it) ; but alleged for him, and against 
'that untruly, that the first council of Nice made for his purpose. After this, supr''e''^a-^ 
khen the book was brought forth, and no such article found in it, but the con- cy. 
trary, yet the council at that time sent to Constantinople, Alexandria, and An- 

1 1 ) Ephes. ii. (2'i Cliap. xxi. (3) Lib. de Simplic. Prjelal. 

U) Au^'. in Johan. Tiactat. 50. (5 .Arlo xx. (6) 1 Pet. 5. 

I <■. 9. 


Henry tioch, where the patriarclial sees were, to have the tme copy of the council of 
nil. Nice, which was sent unto them. And another copy also was sent from Rome, 
A T^ whither also they sent for the same purpose. 

jroV After that the copy was brought to them, and no such article found in it, 

-!_ but in the fifth chapter thereof the contrary, that all causes ecclesiastical should 

His su- either be determined within the diocese, or else, if any were aggrieved, then to 
reproved •ipp^'^'^ to the council provincial, and there the matter to take full end, so that 
by the for no such causes men should go out of their provinces ; the whole council of 
council of Carthage wrote to Celestine, at that time being bishop of Rome, that since the 
™. ' council of Nice had no such article in it, as was untruly alleged by Faustinus, 
council but the contrary, they desired him to abstain hereafter to make any more such 
falsified demand; denouncing unto him, that they would not suffer any cause, great or 
tinus'the small, to be brought by appeal out of their country ; and thereupon made a 
pope's le- law, that no man should appeal out of the country of Africa, upon pain to be 
gate. denounced accursed. Wlierewith the bishop of Rome ever after held him 

content, and made no more business with them, seeing he had nought to say 

for himself to the contrary. And at this council St. Augustine was present, 

and subscribed his hand. Read more hereof before. 
The sixth It was determined also, in the sixth article of the said council of Nice, that 
rhe"cou'n- '^^ ^^^^ Orient the bishop of Antioch should be chief; in Egypt the bishop of 
cil. The Alexandria ; about Rome the bishop of Rome ; and likewise in other countries 
four chief j]^g metropolitans should have their pre-eminence: so that the bishop of Rome 
equal in never had meddling in those countries. And in the next article following, the 
power. bishop of Jenisalem (which city before had been destroyed, and almost desolate) 

was restored to his old prerogative, to be the chief in Palestine and in the 

country of Jewry. 
Pope By this ye see how the patriarch of Rome, during all this time of the primi- 

Agatho tjyg church, had no such primacy pre-eminent above other patriarchs, much 
to tlfe'^ ^ less over kings and emperors, as may appear by Agatho, bishop of Rome, long 
emperor, after that, in whose time was the sixth council general ; which Agatho, after 

his election, sent to the emperor, then being at Constantinojde, to have his 

election allowed, before he would be consecrated, after the old custom at the 

time used. 
Pope Vi- In like sort, another bishop of Rome, called Vitalianus, did the same, as it is 
talianus written in the decrees; distinct. G3. Cap. 'Agatho.' The like did St. Ambrose 
to the^* and St. Gregory before them, as it is written in the chapter ' Cum longe,' in the 
emperor same Distinction. During all this time the bishops of Rome followed well the 

doctrine of St. Peter and St. Paul, left unto then:, to be subjects, and to obey 

their princes. 

Bishop Thus, after that bishop Tonstal, playing the earnest Lutheran, 
^ght Lu-^ both by Scriptures and ancient doctors, also by examples sufficient 
tiieran. ^^f ^]^g primitive church, hath proved and declared, how the bishops 
of Rome ought to submit themselves to the higher powers whom 
God hath appointed every creature in this world to obey ; now let 
us likewise see how the said bishop Tonstal dcscribeth unto us the 
bishop of Rome''s disobedience intolerable, his pride incomparable, 
and his malignant malice most execrable. 

The diso- And first, speaking of the disobedience of Adam and Eve, then of the pride 
bedience, of Nebuchadnezzar, and of Lucifer, at length he compareth the bishops of : 
malice of Ri^nie to them all; who first, for disobedience, refuse to obey God's connnand- 
the pope ment, and contrary to his word, will be above their governors, in refusing to 
^If"'"- obey them. 

Secondly, Besides this rebellious disobedience in these bishops of Rome, not 
sufTerable, their pride moreover so far exceedeth all measm-e, that they will have 
their princes, to whom they owe subjection, prostrate upon the ground, to adore 
them by godly honour upon the earth ; and to kiss their feet, as if they were 
God, whei'eas they be but wretched men ; and yet they look tliat their princes 
should do it unto them, and also that all other christian men, owing them no ' 
subjection, should do the same. 


And who be these, I pray 3'oii, that men may know them? Surely (saith Hevrr) 

he) the bishops of Rome lie those whom I do mean, who, following the pride Vlll- 

of Lucifer their father, make themselves fellows to God, and do exalt their j^ jy 

seat above the stars of God, and do ascend above the clouds, and will be like 1534' 
to Almighty God. By stars of God be meant the angels of heaven ; for as 

stars do show unto us in part the light of heaven, so do angels, sent unto men, Jxaited"^ 
show the heavenly light of the grace of God to those to whom they be sent, above the 
And the clouds signified in the Old Testament the prophets, and in the New '^'""'^^ 
do signify the apostles and preachers of the word of God ; for as the clouds do stars of 
conceive and gather in the sky moisture, which they after pour down upon the heaveii. 
ground, to make it thereby more fruitful, so the prophets in the Old Testament, 
and the apostles and preachers in the New, do pour into our ears the moisture 
of their heavenly doctrine of the word of God, to make therewith, by grace, 
our souls, being sear and dry, to bring forth fruit of tlie Spirit. Thus do all 
ancient expositors, and amongst them St. Augustine, interpret to be meant in 
Scripture stars and clouds, in the exposition of Psalm cxlvii. 

But St. John the evangelist wi'iteth in the 1 9th chapter of the Apocalypse, 
and in the 22d also, that when he would have fallen down at the angel's foot, 
that did show him those visions there written, to have adored him with godly 
worship, the angel said unto him : ' See thou do not so, for I am the servant 
of God, as thou art: give adoration and godly worship to God, and not to me.' 
Here it appeareth that the bishops of Rome, suffering all men prostrate before 
tliem to kiss their feet (yea the same princes, to v/hom they owe subjection), 
do climb up above the stars and angels too, offering their feet to be kissed, with Exalted 
slioes and all. For so I saw myself, being present four and thirty years ago, above an- 
when Julius, then bishop of Rome, stood on his feet, and one of his chamber- ^^ ^' 
lains held up his skirt, because it stood not (as he thought) with his dignity 
that he should do it himself, that his shoe might appear, whilst a nobleman of 
great age did prostrate himself upon the ground, and kissed his shoe ; which 
lie stately suffered to be done, as of duty. Where methinks 1 saw Cornelius the 
centurion, captain of the Italian band, spoken of in Acts x., submitting himself 
to Peter, and much honouring him ; but I saw not Peter there to take liim up, 
and to bid him rise, saying, 1 am a man as thou art, as St. Peter did say to 
Cornelius : so that the bishops of Rome, admitting such adoration due unto 
God, do climb above the heavenly clouds ; that is to say, above the apostles above the 
sent into the world by Christ, to water the earthly and carnal hearts of men, apostles, 
by their heavenly doctrine of the word of God. 

Thus Bishop Tonstal, having described the passing pride of the 
pope, surmounting like Lucifer above bishops, apostles, angels, and 
stars of heaven, proceeding then further to the latter end of his ser- 
mon, Cometh to speak of his rage and malice most furious and pesti- 
lent, in that he, being justly put from his kingdom here to wreak his \^^^l^^y 
spiteful malice, stirreth up war arainst us, and bloweth the horn of against 

..... ^ " . England. 

mischief in giving our land for a spoil and prey to all, whosoever, at xhe tiea- 
his setting on, will come and invade us. But let us hear his own =*"" 9^ 
words preaching to the king and all Englishmen, touching both the Pole. 
pope''s malice, and the treason of cardinal Pole. 

' Now,' saith he, ' because he can no longer in this realm wrongfully use his 
usurped power in all things, as he was wont to do, and suck out of this realm, 
by avarice insatiable, innumerable smns of money yearly, to the great exhaust- 
ing of the same ; he therefore, moved and replete with furious ire and pestilent 
malice, goeth about to stir all christian nations that will give ears to his devilish 
enchantments, to move war against this realm of England, giving it in prey to 
all those that by his instigation will invade it.' 

And here, expounding these aforesaid words, " To give in prey," 
he declareth what great mischief they contain, and v.illeth every true 
Englishman well to mark the same. 


Henry ' First, to make this realm,' saith he, ' a prey to all adventurers, all spoilers, 

nil. all snaphaunses,' all forlorn hopes, all cormorants, all raveners of the world, 

" . pj that will invade this realm, is to say. Thou possessioner of any lands of this 

1 J„/ realm, of what degree soever thou be, from the highest to the lowest, shalt be 

1- slain and destroyed, and thy lands taken from thee by those that will have all 

The pope for themselves ; and thou mayest be sure to be slain, for they will not suffer 

Enelaiid thee, nor any of thy progeny, to live to make any claim afterwards, or to be 

away for revenged ; for that were their unsurety. Thy wife shall be abused before thy 

a prey. face ; thy daughter likewise deflowered before thee ; thy children slain before 

thine eyes ; thy house spoiled ; thy cattle driver away, and sold before thy 

visage ; thy plate, thy money, by force taken from thee ; all thy goods, wherein 

thou hast any delight, or hast gathered for thy children, ravened, broken, and 

distributed in thy presence, that every ravener may have his share. Thou 

merchant art sure to be slain, for thou hast either money or ware, or both, 

which they search for. Thou bishop or priest, whatsoever thou be, shalt never 

escape, because thou wouldst not take the bishop of Rome's part, and rebel 

against God and thy prince, as he doth. If thou shalt flee and escape for a 

season, whatsoever thou be, thou shalt see and hear of so much misery and 

abomination, that thou shalt judge them happy that be dead before ; for sure 

it is thou shalt not finally escape : for, to take the whole realm in prey, is to 

kill the whole people, and to take the place for themselves, as they will do if 

they can. 

Cardinal ' And the bishop of Rome now of late, to set forth his pestilent malice the 

Pole tna- KiQy-e, hath allured to his purpose a subject of this realm, Reginald Pole, coming 

England, of a noble blood, and thereby the more errant traitor, to go about from prince 

to prince, and from country to country, to stir them to war against this realm, 

and to destroy the same, being his native country ; whose pestilent purpose, the 

princes that he breaketh it unto have in much abomination, both for that the 

bishop of Rome (who, being a bishop, should procure peace) is a stiiTer of war, 

and because this most errant and unkind traitor is his minister to so devilish a 

purpose, to destroy the country that he was born in ; which any heathen man 

would abhor to do.' 

And so continuing in liis discourse against cardinal Pole and the 
bishop of Rome, for stirring the people to war and mischief, he 
further saith, and saitli truly, thus : 

The ' For these many yeai-s past, little war hath been in these parts of Christen- 

pope's dom, but the bishop of Rome either hath been a stirrer of it, or a nourisher of 

memory it, and seldom any compounder of it, unless it were for his ambition or profit. 

abolish- Wherefore since, as St. Paul saith, that God is not the God of dissension, but 

of peace,^ who commandeth, by his word, peace alway to be kept, we are sure 

that all those that go about to iDreak peace between realms, and to bring them 

to war, are the children of the devil, what holy names soever they may pretend 

to cloak their pestilent malice withal ; which cloaking imder hypocrisy is double 

devilishness, and of Christ most detested, because under his blessed name they 

do play the devil's part.' 

And in the latter end of his sermon, concluding witli Ezelciel 
xxxix., where the prophet spcaketh against Gog and Magog going 
about to destroy the people of God, and propliesieth against theni, 
that the people of God shall vanquish and overthrow them on the 
mountains of Israel, that none of them shall escape, but their carcases 
shall there be devoured of kites and crows, and birds of the air ; so 
likewise saith he of these our enemies, wishing, that if they shall 
persist in their pestilent malice to make invasion into this realm, tlien 
Thepope their great captain Gog (the bishop of Rome he meaneth) may come 
to'cog^'^ with tliem, to drink with them of the same cup which he maliciously 
goeth about to prepare for us, that the people of God might after live 
quietly in peace. 

(1) ' Snaphaunse,' a fire-lock.— Ed. (2) 1 Cor. xiv. 



AVe have heard hitherto the oaths, censures, and judmients of ii<^r,rij 

certain particular bishops, of York, of Winchester, of London, of L 

Durham, and also of Edmund Bonner, archdeacon then of Leicester, A. D. 
against the pope's unlawful usurpation. Now, for the more fortifica- ^^^'^- 
tion of the matter, and satisfying of the reader, it shall not be much 
out of purpose, besides the consent and approbation of these afore- 
said, to infer also the public and general agreement of tiie whole 
clergy of England, as in a total sum together, confirmed and ratified 
in their own public book, made and set forth by them about the same 
time, called then ' The Bishops'* Book ;"* in which book, although 
many things were very slender and imperfect, yet, as touching this 
cause of the bishop of Rome"'s regality, we will hear (God willing) 
what their whole opinion and provincial determination did conclude, 
according as by their own words in the same book is to be seen word 
for word, as followeth, subscribed also with their own names ; the 
catalogue of whom, under their own confession, shall appear. 

Testimonies out of ' The Bishops' Book,' against the Pope's Supre- 

We think it convenient, that all bishops and pi-eachers shall instruct and 
teach the people committed unto their spiritual charge, that whereas certain 
men do imagine and affirm, that Christ should give unto the bishop of Rome 
power and authority, not only to be head and governor of all priests and bishops 
in Christ's church, but also to have and occupy the whole monarchy of the 
world in his hands, and that he may thereby lawfully depose kings and pi'inces 
from their realms, dominions, and seigniories, and so transfer and give the same 
to such persons as him liketh, that is utterly false and untrue ; for Cln-ist never 
gave unto St. Peter, or unto any of the apostles or their successors, any such 
authority. And the apostles, St. Peter and St. Paul, do teach and command, 
that all christian people, as well priests and bishops, as others, should be obe- 
dient and subject unto the princes and potentates of the world, although they 
were infidels. 

And as for the bishop of Rome, it was many hundred years after Christ, 
befbre he could acquire or get any primacy or governance above any other 
bishops, out of his province in Italy ; since which time he hath ever usurped 
more and more. And though some part of his power was given to him by the 
consent of the emperors, kings, and princes, and by the consent also of the 
clergy in general councils assembled ; yet surely he attained the most part 
thereof by marvellous subtlety and craft, and especially by colluding with great iiow the 
kings and princes, sometimes training them into his devotion by pretence and ''i^hop of 
colour of holiness and sanctimony, and sometimes constraining them by force rose^by 
and tyrannj'. Whereby the said bishops of Rome aspired and rose at length ambition. 
unto such greatness in strength and authority, that they presumed and took 
upon them to be heads, and to put laws by their own authority, not only unto 
all other bishops within Clu'istendom, but also unto the emperors, kings, and 
other the princes and lords of the world; and that, under the pretence of the 
authority committed unto them by the gospel.^ Wherein the said bishops of 
Rome do not only abuse and pervert the true sense and meaning of Christ's 
word, but they do also clean contrary to the use and custom of the primitive 
church ; and so do manifestly violate, as well the holy canons made in the 
church immediately after the time of the apostles, as also the decrees and con- 
stitutions made in that behalf by the holy fathers of the catholic church, 
assembled in the first general councils.* And finally, they do transgress their 

(1) Concilium tertiuin Carthaginense, cap. 26. First, the general council of Nice decreed, that 
the patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch should have like power over the countries about those 
cities, as tlie bishops of Rome had over the countries about Kniue. In the council of Milevitane, 
it was decreed, that if a clerk of Africa would appe;il out of Africa unto any bishop beyond the 
sea, he should be taken as a person excommunicated. 

(2) In the general council of Constantinople (the first), it was likewise decreed, .that every cause 
between any persons should be determined within the provinces where the matters did lie ; and 






own profession, made in their creation. For all the bishops of Rome always, 
when they be consecrated and made bishops of that see, do make a solemn 
profession and vow, that they shall inviolably observe and keep all the ordi- 
nances made in the eight first general councils ; among which it is specially 
provided and enacted, that all causes shall be finished and determined within 
the province where the same began, and that by the bishops of the same pro- 
vince ; and that no bishop shall exercise any jurisdiction out of his own diocese 
or province ; and divers such other canons were then made and confirmed by 
the said councils, to repress and take away out of the church all such primacy 
and jurisdiction over kings and bishops, as the bishops of Rome pretend now to 
have over the same.' And we find that divers good fathers, bishops of Rome, 
did greatly reprove, yea and abhor (as a thing clean contrary to the gospel, and 
the decrees of the church) that any bishop at Rome or elsewhere, should pre- 
sume, usurp, or take upon him, the title and name of the universal bishop, or 
of the head of all priests, or of the highest priest, or any such like title. For 
confirmation whereof, it is out of all doubt, that there is no mention made, 
either in Scripture, or in the writings of any authentical doctor or author of the 
church, being within the time of the apostles, that Christ did ever make or 
institute any distinction or difference to be in the pre-eminence of power, order, 
or jurisdiction, between the apostles themselves, or between the bishops them- 
selves, but that they were all equal in power, order, authority, and jurisdiction. 
And in that there is now, and since the time of the apostles, any such diversity or 
difference among the bishops, it was devised by the ancient fathers of the primi- 
tive church for the conservation of good order and the unity of the cathohc 
church ; and that, either by the consent and authorit}', or else at least by the per- 
mission and sufferance, of the princes and civil powers for the time ruling, &c. 

And shortly after folloAvetli this : 

And for the better confirmation of this part, we think it also convenient, that 
all bishops and preachers shall instruct and teach the people committed unto their 
spiritual charge, that Christ did by express words prohibit, that none of his 
apostles, nor any of their successors should, under the pretence of the authority 
given unto them by Christ, take upon them the authority of the sword ; that is 
to say, the authority of kings, or of any civil power in this world, yea, or any 
authority to make laws or ordinances in causes appertaining unto civil powers. 
Truth it is, the priests and bishops may execute all such temporal pow cr and 
jurisdiction as is committed unto them by the ordinance and authority of kings, 
or other civil powers, and by the consent of the people (as officers and minis- 
ters under the said kings and powers), so long as it shall please the said kings 
and people to permit and suffer them so to use and execute the same. Not- 
withstanding, if any bishop, of what estate or dignity soever he be (be he bishop 
of Rome, or of any other city, province, or diocese), do presume to take upon 
him authority or jurisdiction in causes or matters which appertain imto kings, 
and the civil powers and their courts, and will maintain or think that he may 
so do by the authority of Christ and his gospel, although the kings and princes 
would not permit and suffer him so to do ; no doubt, that bislioj) is not worthy 
to be called a bishop, but rather a tyrant, and a usurper of other men's rights, 
contrary to the laws of God; and is worthy to be reputed none otherwise than 
he that goeth about to subvert the kingdom of Christ. For the kingdom of 
rant aud Q\^^.\^i j^ his church is a spiritual, and not a carnal kingdom of the world ; that 
usurper. .^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ kingdom that Christ, by himself, or by his apostles and dis- 
ciples, sought here in this world, was to bring all nations from the carnal 
kingdom of the prince of darkness unto the light of his spiritual kingdom ; and 
so himself to reign in the hearts of tlie people, by grace, faith, liope, and 
charity. And therefore, since Christ did never seek nor exercise any worldly 
kingdom or dominion in this world, but rather, refusing and flying froni the 
■same, did leave the said worldly governance of kingdoms, realms, and nations, 
lo be governed by prmces and potentates (in like manner as he did find them), 

that no hishop should exercise any power out of his own diocese or province. And this was also 
the mind of holy St. Cyprian, and of other holy men of Africa. To concluae, therefore, the pope 
hath no such primacy given him, either by the words of Scripture, or hy any general council, or by 
common consent of the holy catholij chuich. 

(1) Georgius, lib. 4. Kpistolaruni Indictione xiii. Epist. 3. 

The bi- 
shop of 
judged to 
be a ty- 


and commanded also his apostles and disciples to do the sembhible, as it was said 
betbi-e ; whatsoever priest, or bishop will arrogate or presume to take upon him 
any such authority, and will pretend the authority of the gospel for his defence 
therein, he doth nothing else but (in a manner as you would say) crowneth 
Christ again with a crown of thorn, and traduceth and bringeth him forth again 
with his mantle of purple upon his back, to be mocked and scorned of the 
world, as the Jews did to their own damnation. 

This doctrine was subscribed and allowed by the witness and tes- 
timony of these bishops and other learned men, whose names here- 
midcr follow, as appearcth in the bishops"' book before named. 

Testimonies of Bishops and Doctors of England against the Pope. 

Thomas Cantuariensis. Edmundus Bonner, Archidiacon. Lei- 

Edovardus Eboracensis. cester. 

Johannes Londinensis. Gulielmus Skippe, Archidiacon. Dor- 

Cuthbertus Duiielmensis. set. 

Stephanus Wintoniensis. Nicolaus Heth, Archidiacon. Stafford. 

Robertus Carliolensis. Cuthbertus Marshal, Archidiac. Not- 

Johannes Exoniensis. tingham. 

Johannes Lincolniensis. Richardus CuiTcn, Archidiacon. Oxon. 

Johannes Barthonieasis. Gulielmus Cliile. 

Rolandus Coventr. et Lichfield. Galfridus Dounes. 

Thomas Eliensis. Robertus Oking. 

Nicolaus Sarum. Radulphus Bradford. 

Johannes Bangor. Richardus Smith. 

Edovardus Herefordieiisis. Simon Matliew. 

Hugo Wigorniensis. Johannes Prin. 

Johannes Roffensis. Gulielmus Buckmaster. 

Ricliardus Cicestrensis. Gulielmus May. 

Guliehnus Norwicensis. Nicolaus Wotton. 

Gulielmus Menevensis. Ricliardus Cox. 

Robertus Assavensis. Johannes Edmunds. 

Robertus Landavensis. Thomas Robertson. 

Richardus Wohnan, Archidiacon. Sad- Johannes Baker. 

bur. Thomas Barret. 
Gulielmus Knight, Archidiacon. Rich- Joliannes Hase. 

mond. Johannes Tyson. 
Johannes B^I, Archidiacon. Glocester. 

These were doctors of divhiity, and of both laws. 

•Tudge now thyself, loving reader, ' per confessata et allegata ;"* that The bi- 
is, by these things heretofore confessed, alleged, allowed, proved, and EnKilnd 
confirmed; by pen set forth, bywords defended, and by oath sub- JT"*^'^ 
scribed by these bishops and doctors, if either Martin Luther him- Lutu'er- 
self, or any Lutheran else, could or did ever say more against the 
proud usiu'pation of the bishop of Rome, than these men have done. 
If they dissembled otherwise than they meant, who could ever dis- 
semble so deeply, speaking so pithily ? If they meant as they spake, 
who could ever turn head to tail so suddenly and so shortly as these 
men did ? But because these things we write for edification of 
others, rather than for commendation of them, let us mark therefore 
their reasons, and let the persons go. 

And ol though the said proofs and arguments, heretofore alleged, 
might suffice to the full discussion of this matter against the pojje's 
usurped primacy ; yet because many do yet remain, who will not be 
satisfied, to refel therefore and confute this popish article of the popc^s 



Henry vaiii and proud primacy with as mucli matter and furniture of reasons 

'— and allegations as the writings and testimonies of these bishops and 

A.D. others do minister unto us ; we mind (the Lord willing) to annex to 
these former confirmations of the bishops aforesaid, another supple- 
T*?^ ment also of a certain epistle sent by bishop Tonstal, and by John 
Tonstai Stokeslcy, bishop of London, to cardinal Pole, for a more ample con- 
stokes- futation of the usurped power. Concerning the argument of that 
pJie'° epistle, here is first to be understood, that about this time, or not 
much after, cardinal Pole, brother to the lord Montague, was attainted 
of high treason, and fled away unto Rome, where, within a short time 
after, he Avas made cardinal of St. Mary Cosmeden ; of Avhom more 
is to be spoken hereafter, the Lord so permitting, wlien Ave come to 
the time of queen Mary. In the mean time, he remaining at Rome, 
there AA^as directed unto him a certain epistle exhortatory by Stokesley, 
bishop of London, and Tonstal, bishop of Durham, persuading him 
to relinquish and abandon the supremacy of the pope, and to conform 
himself to the religion of his king. The copy of Avhich his epistle, 
for the reasons and arguments therein contained about the same 
matter, Ave thought here not unAvorthy to be put in, or unprofitable 
to be read. The tenor thereof here folloAveth. 

The true Copy of a certain Letter WTitten by Cuthbert Tonstal, 
Bishop of Durham, and John Stokesley, Bishop of London, to 
Cardinal Pole, proving the Bishop of Rome to have no special 
superiority above other Bishops.' 

For the good Avill that Ave have borne unto you in times past, as long as you 
continued the king's true subject, we cannot a little lament and mourn, that 
you, neither regarding the inestmiable kindness of the king's highness here- 
tofore showed unto you in your bringing up, nor the honour of the house that 
you be come of, nor the Avealth of the country tliat you Avere born in, should 
so decline from yoiu' duty to your prince, that you should be seduced by fair 
words and vain promises of the bishop of Rome, to wind Avith liim, going about, 
by all means to him possible, to pull down and put under foot your natural 
prince and master,- to the destmction of the country that hath brought you up, 
and for a vain glory of a red hat, to make yourself an instrument to set forth 
his malice, Avho hath stiiTed, by all means that he could, all such christian 
princes as Avould give ears unto him, to depose the king's highness from his 
kingdom, and to offer it as a prey for them that should execute his malice ; and 
to stir, if he covdd, his subjects against him, in stirring and noimshing rebel- 
lions in his realm, Avhere the office and duty of all good christian men, and 
namely of us that be priests, should be to bring all commotion to tranquillity, 
all trouble to quietness, all discord to concord ; and in doing contrary, we do 
show ourselves to be but the ministers of Satan, and not of Christ, Avho ordained 
all us that be priests to use, in all places, the legation of peace, and not of dis- 
cord. But since that cannot be undone that is done, secondly it is to make 
amends, and to follow the doing of the prodigal son spoken of in the gospel, » 
Avho returned home to his father, and Avas Avell accepted ; as no doubt you might 
be, if you would say as he said, in acknoAvledging your folly, and do as he did, 
in returning home again from your Avandering abroad in service of him, Avho 
little careth what cometh of you, so tliat his purpose by you be served. 

And if you be moved by your conscience, that you cannot take the king your 
master as supreme head of the church of England, because the bishop of Rome 
hath heretofore many years usurped that name universally over all the church, 

(1) This letter was testified by Cuthbert Tonstal, to Matthew, archbishop of Canterbury, and 
otiiers, to be liis own, about fourteen days before his death. 

(2) Read his traitorous oration to the emperor, in his book entitled, ' De Ecclesia; Concordia,' 
moving him to seek the destruction of king Henry, and the whole realm of England. 

(3) Luke XV. 


under pretence of the gospel of St. Matthew, saying, ' Thou art Peter, and nenry 
upon this rock I will build my church :' surely that text many of the most holy I'lll- 
and ancient expositors wholly do take to be meant of the faith, then first con- » .7" 
fessed by the mouth of Peter ; upon which faith, confessing Christ to be the ^ -.5.1" 

Son of God, the church is builded, Christ being the very lowest foundation — '- '— 

stone, whereupon both the apostles themselves, and also the whole faith of The place 
the church of Christ, by them preached through the world, is founded and xviii^^'Tu 
builded; and other foundation none can be, but that only, as St. Paul saith, esPetms' 
' No other foundation can any man lay besides that which is laid, which is <^-''Poi""l- 
Christ Jesus.' ^ 

And where you think that the gospel of Luke proveth the same authority of The place 
the bishop of Rome, saying, ' Peter, I have prayed for thee, that thy faith "^J;"''^ 
should not fail ; and thou being once converted, confirm thy brethren :' surely pounded. 
that speaketh only of the fall of Peter, known to Christ by his godly prescience, 
whereof he gave an inkling, that after the time of his fall he should not despair, 
but return again, and confirm his brethren, as he, being ever most fervent of 
them, was wont to do. The place doth plainly open itself that it cannot be 
otherwise taken, but this to be the very meaning of it, and not to be spoken 
but to Peter: for else his successors must first fail in the faith, and then con- 
vert, and so confirm their brethren. And whereas you think that this place of The place 
the gospel of John, ' Feed my sheep,' was spoken only to Peter, and that those o'^o'i" 
words make him shepherd over all, and above all, St. Peter- himself testifieth pounded. 
the contrary in his canonical epistle, where he saith to all priests, ' Feed the 
flock of Christ which is among you;' which he bade them do by the authority 
that Christ had put them in, as followeth : ' And when the chief shepherd shall 
appear, ye shall receive the incorruptible crown of eternal glory.' 

The same likewise St. Paul, in the Acts,^ testifieth, saying, ' Give heed to 
yourselves, and to the whole flock, wherein the Holy Ghost hath set you to 
govern the church of God ; where, in the original text, the word signifying 
' regere,' to govern, ' Ttotjxaiveiv,' is the same that was spoken to Peter, ' pasce,' 
feed, for it signifieth both in the Scripture. And that by these words he was 
not constituted a shepherd over all, it is very plain by the fact of St. Peter, who 
durst not enterprise much conversation among the Gentiles, but eschewed it as 
a thing unlawful, and much rather prohibited than commanded by God's law, 
imtil he was admonished by the revelation of the sheet full of divers viands, 
mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles : whereas, if Christ, by these words, ' Feed 
my sheep,' had given such a universal governance to Peter, then Peter, being 
more fervent than others of the apostles to execute Christ's commandment, 
would of his own courage have gone, without any such new admonition, to 
Cornelius : * except pei-adventure you would say, that Peter did not understand 
the said words of Christ, for lack of the light which the later men have obtained 
to perceive, and thereby understand the words of Christ to Peter, better than 
Peter himself did. And strange also it were to condemn Peter as a high 
traitor to his Master after his ascension ; as he indeed were worthy, if his 
Master had signified unto him that the bishops of Rome, by his dying there, 
should be heads of all the church ; and he, knowing the same by these words, 
' Feed my sheep,' yet, notwithstanding his Master's high legacy and command- 
ment, would flee as he did from Rome,'^ until his Master, encountering him by 
the way, with terrible words caused him to return. 

And because this history, peradventure, cannot weigh against an obstinate . 
mind to the contrary ; what shall we say to the words of St. Ambrose, declaring primary 
and affirming that as great and as anjple primacy was given to Paul, as to given to 
Peter? Upon these words of Paul, ' He that wrought by Peter,' &c., thus he fj^peter 
writeth :" 'He nameth Peter only, and compareth him to himself, because he 
received a primacy to build a church ; and that he, in Hke sort, was chosen 
himself to have a primacy in building the churches of the Gentiles.' And 
shortly after it followeth : ' Of those [that is to say of the apostles] that were 
the chiefest, his gift,' he saith, ' was allowed, which he had received of God ; so 
that he was found worthy to have the primacy in preaching to the Gentiles, as 

(1) 1 Cor. iii. (2) 1 Pet. v. (3) Chap. xx. (4) Acts xii. 

(5) Of this llying-away of Peter from Konie read before. 

(6) ' Petrum solum nominal et sibi comparat, quia primatum ipse acceperat ad funrtandam 
F.cclesiam; se quoque jari modo electum ut primatum habeat in fundandis ecclesiis gen- 
tium,' &c. 



VI 11. 



Peter had in preaching to the Jews. And as he assigned to Peter, fcr l;is 
companions, those who were of the chief'est men amongst the apostles, even so 
also did he take to himself Barnabas, who was joined nnto him by God's judg- 
ment ; and yet did he challenge to himself alone the prerogative or primacy 
which God had given him, as to Peter alone it was granted among the other 
Equality apostles. So that the apostles of the circumcision gave their hands to th.e 
of degrte ^pQ^tigg of tjjg Gentiles, to declare their concord in fellowship, that either of 
the apo- them should know that they had received the perfection of the Spirit in the 
sties, preaching of the gospel, and so should not need either the other in any matter.' 
And shortly after, saith St. Ambrose, ' ^\'ho durst resist I'eter the chief apostle ?' 
But another such a one, who, by the confidence of his election, might know 
himself to be no less, and so niiglit reprove boldly that thing which he incon- 
siderately had done.' 

This equality of dignity which St. Ambrose affirmeth by Scripture to be 
equally given to Peter and Paul, St. Cyprian and St. Jerome do extend to all 
the apostles ; Cyprian saying thus :' ' All the rest of the apostles were the same 
that Peter was, being endued with Hke equality of honour and power.' And 
St. Jerome thus:- 'All the apostles received the keys of the kingdom of 
heaven, and upon them, as indifferently and equally, is the strength of the 
church grounded and established.' The same St. Jerome also, as well in his 
Commentaries upon the Epistle to Titus, as in his Epistle to Euagrius, showeth 
that these primacies, long after Christ's ascension, were made by the device of 
men ; whereas before, by the common agreement and consent of the clergy, every 
of the churches were governed, yea, the patriarchal churches. 

The words of St. Jerome^ be these : ' Let the bishops imderstand, that they 
be greater than other priests, rather by custom, than by virtue and verity of the 
Lord's ordinance.' And in his said epistle to Euagrius he hath the like sen- 
tence, and addeth thereunto,* ' Wheresoever a bishop be, either at Rome, or at 
Eugubium, or at Constantinople, he is of all one worthiness, and of all one 
priesthood.' And that one was elected who should be preferred before others, 
it was devised for the redress of schisms, lest any one, challenging too much to 
himself, should rend the church of Christ. These words only of St. Jerome be 
sufficient to prove that Christ, by none of these three texts (which be all that 
you and others do allege for your opinion), gave to Peter any such superiority 
as the bishop of Rome by them usurpeth ; and that neither Peter, nor any others 
of the chief apostles, did vindicate such primacy or superiority, but xitterly 
refused it, and therefore gave pre-eminence above themselves to one, that 
though he be sometimes called an apostle, yet he was none of the twelve, as 
Eusebius, in the beginning of his second book, called ' Historia Ecclesiastica,' 
doth testify, alleging for him the great and ancient clerk Clemens Alexandrinus, 
Jamesthe saying thus,^ 'Peter, James, and John, after Christ's ascension into heaven, 
tl^^bM^*^^ although they were by him preferred almost before all others, yet they challenged 
oniie not that glory to themselves, but decreed that James, who was called Justus, 
apostles, should be chief bishop of the apostles.' By these words, it is clear that James was 
Seeing the bishop of the apostles, not because, as some men do gloss, lie was elected 

ence be- 
liow it is 

mate of bishop in Jerusalem, above the rest of the apostles. 

VT ^^"" ^^^^ *^"^ thing is especially to be noted, and also marvelled at, that the 

apainst bishops of Rome do challenge this primacy only by Peter, and yet St. Paul, 

reason who was his equal, or rather superior by Scripture, in his apostleship amongst 

Komans ^'^*^ Gentiles, whereof Rome was the principal, sufiered at Rome where Peter 

should did, and is commonly, in all the Roman church, joined with Peter in all appel- 

challenge jations and titles of pre-eminence, and both be called ' principes Apostolorum,' 

iiiacy""y ' the chief of the apostles.' Upon both is equally founded the church of Rome. 

Peter. The accounting of the bishops of Rome many years agreeth thereunto. For 

(1) ' Hoc erant utique et cTteri Apostoli, quod fuit Petrus, pari consortlo prsediti, et honoris et 
potestatis.'— Cy])rian. De Simplicitnte C'lericorum. 

(2) ' Cuncti Apostoli tlaves regni calorum acceperunt et ex aequo super eos Ecclesia? fortitude 
fundatur.' — Contra Jovinianum. 

(■A) ■ Sciant ergo Episcopi se magis ex consuetudine, quam dispensationis Dominicae veritate, 
presbytcris esse niajores ' Cap. 1. super Titum. 

(4) ' Ubicumque fuerit, I'piscopus, sive Romae, sive Eugubii, sive Constantinopoli,' &c. 

(5) ' Petrus, Jacobus, ac Johannes, post assuniptioneni Salvatoiis, quamvis ab ipso fucraiit 
on.nibus penc piaiati, tsnien non sibi viiidicaruut gloriani, sed Jacoluw, qui dlcebatur Justus, 

Apostolorum Episcopum statuunt.' 



Eusebius • saith, tliat Clement was the third bishop after St. Paul and Peter, Umry 
reckoning them both as bishops of Rome, and yet therein preferring St. Paul ; VIH- 
with hke words, saying of Alexander bishop of Rome, that "'■ Alexander ' obtained . ^^ 
the governance of the people by succession, the fifth bishop after Peter and ^^n,' 

Paul.' IrenjEUs also saith, as Eusebius reciteth, that-' after the clmrch was once 'JL-L. 

founded and budded, the holy apostles charged Linus with the bishopric; 
whereby appeareth, that they both jointly constituted him bishop of Rome, and 
received only their apostleship enjoined to them by Christ. And therefore, if 
the bishops of Rome challenge any pre-eminence of authority by Peter, they 
should as well, or rather challenge the same by Paul, because they both founded 
it, and both there preached, and both there suffered, resigning first that bishop- 
ric to Linus, and all at once. 

And if perad venture you will lean to the former preaching there by Peter, The fir t 
which by Scripture cannot be proved, yet then at least St. Paul and his succes- |°","o'?'a 
sors in Ephesus should have like primacy, because he founded first that church, church 
though St. John, after that, did build it, as witnesseth Eusebius, saying* The makeih 
church which is at Ephesus, was founded by Paul, but it was built by St. John, macy! 
And so Peter should have no other primacy in Rome, but as Paul had in Ephesus, 
that is to say, to be counted as the first preacher and converter of the people 
there to the faith of Christ. And as well might all the bishops of Ephesus 
challenge primacy of all nations, both Gentiles and Jews, by St. Paul, the 
apostle of the Gentiles, their founder, as the bishop of Rome, by St. Peter, the 
apostle only of the circumcision, in case he were the first founder, challenging 
primacy over all. But undoubtedly, this primacy over all, that the bishops of 
Rome of late do challenge, was not allowed, nor yet known or heard of amongst 
the ancient fathers, though they had their church of Rome in high estimation, 
as well for the notable virtuous deeds that the clergy did there show and 
exercise abundantly to their neighbours (as witnesseth the said Eusebius,* 
alleging there the epistle that Dionysius Alexandrinus v.rote to Soter, bishop of 
Rome, testif}dng the same), as for that the city of Rome was the most ample 
and chief city of the world, witnessing St. Cyprian, saying,^ ' Certainly, because 
that Rome ought, for the greatness thereof, to excel Carthage, there Novatus 
committed the greater and more grievous offences.' 

This St. Cyprian also, when he had ordained and appointed certain decrees 
and statutes unto the bishop of Rome, did not submit them to his refoi-mation 
or judgment, but only signified his own sentence to like him also ; and yet 
adding thereunto, that if any bishops (meaning as well of Rome as others) 
who were of the contrary opinions to him, would otherwise think or do, he 
would not then that his sentence should be to them prejudicial, neither would 
he thereby compel them to any thing, but would that they should follow their 
own minds and customs ; partly, for that every one of the bishops hath liberty 
of his own will, and partly, for that every governor shall make an account to 
God of his own deed, as it appeareth plainly in his epistle to Stephen and 
Julian. And in the third epistle to Cornelius, towards the end, speaking of the 
appeal that one Felicissimus, a Novatian, after his condemnation in Africa, 
made to Rome, he impugneth such appeals, saying,^ ' Forasmuch as every Appeal to 
pastor hath his own flock committed unto him, which every one ought to rule i^T-"? 
and govern, and must give account to the Lord of his administration, it is decreed den. 
by us all, and we think it both meet and just, that every man's cause and plea 
should there be heard, where the crime is committed.' This holy and excel- 
lent clerk and martyr, St. Cyprian, would never have either impugned their 
appeal to Rome from their own primacies, or so earnestly have maintained his 
determinations in the covmcils of Africa, contrary to the opinion of the bishops 
of Rome and to their customs, without any submission by word or writing, if 
the primacy over all, which the bishops of Rome do challenge and usm-p, had 

(1) ' Clemens tertius post Pauhim et Petrum pontificatuni tenebat.' Lib. lii. c 21. 

(2) ' (iuinta successione post Peirum atque Paulum plebis gubernacula sortitus est.' 

(3) ' Fundata et aDclificata Ecciesia, beati apostoli Lino ollicium episcopatus injungunt.' Lib. v. c. fi. 

(4) ' EcclesiaqiuE est apud Epliesum a Paulo qiiidem fundata est, a Joanne vere sedilicata.' Euseh. 
lib. iii. cap. 23. [Rather Irena;us, as quoted l)y Eusebius ; this quotation is not quite accurate in 
tlie latter clause. — Ed.] (5) Lib. iv. c. 24. 

(fi) ' Plane, quoniam pro magnitudine sua debcat Carthaginem Roma praecedere, illic majora et 
graviora commisit.' Cypr. Lib. ii. ad. Cornelium. 

(7) ' Quia singulis pastoribus portio gregis est ascripta, quam regat nnusquisque et gubernet. 
rationem sui actus, Domino redditurus,' &:c. Cypr. lib. iii. Epist. ad Cornelium. 


jlenry beeii grounded upon the plain Scriptures, as you with some othei's do think : 
' ^"^- and it is to be suj)posed also, that he would in all his epistles have called them 
A I) ' Patres,' or * Dominos,' fathers or lords, as superiors ; and not always ' Fratres' 
1534" ^^^ 'Collegas,' brothers and fellows in office, as but only his equals. 

'. — 1- This thing yet more plainly doth appear by the acts of the councils of Africa 

in St. Augustine's time :' by which it is evident, that though the faith of Christ 
was by the Romans first brought into Africa (as St. Augustine doth confess), yet 
it was not read, nor known, that the bishops of Rome used or challenged any 
sovereignty in Africa unto this time. And yet then he did not challenge it by 
the right of God's word, but by the pretence of a certain canon supposed to be 
in the council of Nice ; which article could never be found, though it were then 
very diligently sought for through all the principal churches of the east and 
south ; but only was alleged by Julius, bishop of Rome, out of his own library. 

And you may be well assured, that if the Scriptiux-s had made for it, neither 
the bishop of Rome woidd have left that certain proof by Scriptures, and 
trusted only to the testimony of an article of that council, being in doubt and 
unlikely to be found; nor yet St. Augustine, with his holy and learned company, 
would have resisted this demand, if it had been either gromided upon Scrip- 
tures, or determined in that or other councils, or yet had stood with equity, good 
order, or reason.^ Howbeit the largeness and magnificence of the buildings of that 
city, and the ancient excellency and superiority of the same in temporal domi- 
nions, * was the only cause that in the councils (where the patriarchal sees were 
set in order) the bishop of Rome was allotted to the first place, and not by any 
such constitution made by Christ; as appeareth well by this, that Constanti- 
nople, being, at the same time of this ordering of the patriarchal sees, most 
amply enlarged by the emperors, being before a small town, and of no renown, 
and by them most magnificently builded and advanced with all worldly titles, 
prerogatives, and privileges temporal, like unto Rome, and therefore called 
'Nova Roma,' 'New Rome,' was therefore advanced also to the second see 
and place : — Antioch in the East (where St. Peter first took the chair before he 
came to Rome, and where christian men had first their name given them) ; 
yea, and Jerusalem (which was the first mother city of oiu' faith, and where 
Christ himself first founded the faith), and also Alexandria, being rejected to the 
third, fourth, and fiftli places ; because at that time they were not in so high 
estimation in the world, though in the faith of Christ all they were ancients, 
and some of them mothers to Rome. 

Truth it is, that the bisliops of the Orient, for debates in matters of the fiiith 
amongst themselves, made suits to the bishop of Rome ; but that was not for 
the superiority of jurisdiction over them, but because they were greatly divided, 
and those countries, as well bishops as others, much infected with the heresies 
of the Arians, whereof the west was in a manner clear : and among them of the 
orient, none were counted indifierent to decide those matters, but were all 
suspected of affection for one cause or other. Wherefore they desired the opi- 
nions of the bishops of the west, as indifierent, and not entangled with aft'ections 
of any of those parts, neither coiTupted with any of the Arians, as appeareth by 
the epistles of St. Basil, written in all their names for the said purpose; in 
which also it is especially to be noted, that their suit was not made to the bishop 
of Rome singularly, or by name, but (as the titles do show) to the whole con- 
gregation of the bishops of Italy and France, or of the whole west, and some- 
times preferring the French and Italian bishops, saying, ' Gallis et Italis,' and 
The old never naming the Romans. And for a clear proof that the ancient fathers 
neve" knew not this primacy of one above all, we need no other testimony but their 
knew the determination in tlie council of Nice, that Alexandria, and Antioch, and uni- 
of'tiir^ versally all otlier primates, should have the whole governance of their confine 
churciiof countries, like as the bishop of Rome had of those that inhabited within his 
Home. suburbs. And this determination proveth, also, that your three Scriptures 
meant nothing less than this ])rimacy over all : for God forbid that we should 
suspect that council as ignorant of those plain Scriptures, to which, since that 
tinie, all Christendom hatii leaned, as the anchor of our faith. And if you like 
to read the ancient ecclesiastical histories, there you may see, that Athanasius, 
and other patriarchs, did execute that primacy, as in making, consecrating, and 

(1) Auk Ap 10 (2) Vide duas Epis'olas ad Bonifarium pap. tomo concilioram, fol. 307, 308. 

(3) Uist. IG. Visilii. 


ordering of churches, bishops and clerks, in their countries east and south, as Hmry 

the bishops of Rome in that time did, in the west and north. ^-^^^ 

And if you would yet any thing object against any of these witnesses, then, • |^ 

to eschew contention, and for a final conclusion, let the bishop of Rome stand ^ .■„ " 
to his own confession made many years past by his predecessor Agatho, to the 

emperors, Constantine, Heraclius, and Tiberius, in his epistle written to them In the 

in his name, and in the name of all the synod which he thought to be under the pj^,g°'^ 

see apostolic ; wherein, soon after the beginning of the epistle, he comprehendeth Agatho, 

them all under the name of the bishops dwelling in the north and west parts of 'i'^ see 

their empire : so that there, in his own epistle, he confesseth all his subjects and haen™^ 

obedienciaries to be only of the north and west. And so it appeareth evidently, rule over 

by his own confession, that neither bv God's law, nor by man's law, he had to "^'-' '^^^'^,, 
1 • 1 ,-1 1 T 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 • \ 11 and south 

do witli any person oi the east or south ; and this his high sovereignty over all, churches. 

challenged (as you and others say) by Scripture, is brought, as by his own con- 
fession dotii appear, into a little and straight angle. And this Agatho was not a 
man unlearned, as appeareth by the acts of the sixth synod of Constantinople, in 
the fourth act, wherein is written at large and expressed the said epistle and con- 
fession. And the primacy of Peter, which ancient doctors speak of, which was peter's 
only in preaching and teaching the faith of Christ, which he, first among all the primacy 
apostles, and first of all mortal men, did express with his mouth, did afterwards sycces" 
so adhere to his own person, that it was never delivered either to any successor, sors. 
or to any other apostle, but chiefly to himself; for all others, afterwards pro- 
fessing the same, spake it according unto him who had professed it before. 
Moreover, all the apostles (as St. John saith^) be foundations in the heavenly 
Jerusalem, and not Peter only. Also Cyprian aflirmeth (as is afore said) that 
all the apostles were of equal dignity and power ; which all ancient authors 
likewise do affirm. For Christ gave the apostles like power in the gospel, saying ; 
Go, and teach all nations, baptizing them,^ &c. And St. Paul (as is said before) 
knew no other primacy given to Peter to preach in any place but among the Jews, 
as he himself had amongst the Gentiles, as he writeth to the Galatians ; where- 
upon St. Ambrose writing (as is afore said), aflirmeth the same. And that the 
mother of all churches is Jerusalem (as is afore said), and not Rome, the Scrip- 
ture is plain, in the prophet Isaiah f ' Out of Sion shall the law proceed, and the 
woi'd of the Lord out of Jerusalem :' upon which place St. Jerome saith,* ' Out of 
the church, being first founded in Jerusalem, sprang all other churches of the 
whole world;' and also in the gospel which Christ, before his ascension, com- 
manded his apostles to ' preach throughout all the world, beginning first at Jeru- 
salem ;' so that the bishop of Rome's universal power, by him claimed over all, 
cannot by any scripture be justified ; as, if you have read the ancient fathers' ex- 
positions of the said scriptures (as we suppose you have, since your letters sent 
hither concerning this matter), and would give more credence to their humble and 
plain speaking, than to the later contentious and ambitious writers of that high, 
and above-the-ideas-of-Plato's subtlety (which passeth, as you write, the lawyer's A prince 
learning and capacity), we doubt not but that you perceive and think the same. ro<^y l^*; 

And where you think that the king cannot be taken as supreme head of the of ^jg 
church, because he cannot exercise the chief office of the church in preaching church, 
and ministering of the sacraments ; it is not requisite, in every body natural, y"f „„[ 
that the head should exercise either all manner of offices of the body, or the preach 
chief office of the same. For albeit the head is the highest and chief member "?'' ""- 
of the natural body, yet the distribution of life to all the members of the body, sacra- 
as well to the head as to other members, cometh from the heart, and it is the ments. 
minister of life to the whole body, as the chief act of the body. 

Neither yet hath this similitude its full place in a mystical body, that a king 
should have the chief office of administration in the same : and yet notwith- 
standing, the Scripture speaking of king Saul, saith, ' I made thee head amongst 
the tribes of Israel.'^ And if a king amongst the Jews were the head of the 
tribes of Israel in the time of the law, much more is a christian king head of 
the tribes of spiritual Israel, that is, of such as by true faith see Christ, who is 
the end of the law. The office deputed to the bishops in the mystical body, is 
to be as eyes to the whole body, as Almighty God saith to the prophet Ezekiel; 
' I have made thee an overseer over the house of Israel.'* And what bishop 

(1) Apoc. xxi. (2) Matt. xxi. (3) Isaiah ii. 

(4) ' In Hierusalerp primujn fundata ecclesia totius orhis ecdesias seminavit.' 

(5) 1 Kings XV. (G) Ezek. iii. 


Her'ry soevcr refusctli to use the office of an eye in the mystical body, to show unto 
^^■^•f- the body the right way of believing and living, which appertaineth to the spiri- 
A p) tual eye to do, shall show himself to be a blind eye ; and if he shall take any 

, _■„ ," other office in hand than appertaineth to the right eye, he shall make a con- 
fusion in the body, taking upon him another office than is given him of God. 

A bishop Wherefore, if the eye will not take uj)on him the office of the whole head, it may 
InThe^^*^ be answered, it cannot so do, for it lacketh brain. And examples show like- 
head, but wise that it is not necessary always that the head should have the faculty or 
not the chief oltice of administration, as you may see in a navy by sea; where the 
t'hem^^s- admiral, who is a captain over all, doth not meddle with steering or governing 
tical of every ship, but every particular master must direct the ship to pass the sea 

tody. j,j breaking the waves by his steering and governance, which the admiral, the 
The office ^i^ad of all, doth not himself, nor yet hath the faculty to do, but connnandeth 
of ahead, the masters of the ship to do it. And hkewise many a captain of great armies, 
who is not able, nor ever could peradventure shoot, or break a spear by his own 
strength, yet, by his wisdom and commandment only, achieveth the wars, and 
attaineth the victory. 
What is And whereas you think that unity standeth not only in the agreeing in one 
"""^- faith and doctrine of the church, but also in agi-ceing in one head; if you mean 
tlie very and only head over all the church, our Saviour Christ, wliom the 
Father hath set over all the church, which is his body, wherein all good christian 
men do agree, therein you say truth. But, if you mean for any one mortal man 
to be the head over all the church, and that head to be the bishop of Rome, we 
do not agree with you. For you do there err in the tiiie understanding of tlie 
Scripture ; or else you must say that the said council of Nice, and others most 
ancient did en-, which divided the administration of churches, the orient from 
the Occident, and the south from the north, as is before expressed. And that 
Christ, the universal head, is present in every church, the gospel showeth ; 
' Where two or three be gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst 
of them;'' and in another place, 'Behold, I am with you until the end of tlie 
world:'* by which it may appear that Christ, the universal head, is everywhere 
with his mystical bcdy the church ; who, by his Spirit, worketh in all places 
(how far soever they be distant) the unity and concord of the same. And as 
for any otlier imiversal head to be over all, than Christ himself, Scripture proveth 
not, as it is showed before. 

And yet for a further proof, to take away the scruples that peradventure do, 
to your appearance, rise of certain words in some ancient authors, and especially 
Answerto in St. Cyprian's epistles, as that the vuiity of tlie church stood in the unity with 
(jprian. the bishop of Rome, though they never call him supi-eme head; if you will 
weigh and confer all their sayings together, you shall perceive that they neither 
spake nor meant otherwise ; but when the bishop of Rome was once lawfully 
elected and enthroned, if then any other would, by faction, might, force, or 
otherwise (the other living and doing his office), enterprise to put him down, 
and usurp the same bisliopric, or exercise the other's office himself (as Novatian 
did attempt in the time of Cornelius), then the said fathers reckoned catho- 
lics that did communicate with him that was so lawfully elected : and the cus- 
tom was, for one primacy to have to do with another by congratulatory letters, 
soon after the certainty of their election was known, to keep the unity of the 
cluirch ; and all they that did take part with, or maintain the usurper, to be 
schismatics, because that usurper was a schismatic f ' Because it was not law- 
The ful for two bishops to be at once together in one chmch, neither the former 

cliurch bishop, being lawful, to be deposed without his fault were proved.' And this 
hat^^nT is not a prerogative of the church of Rome, more than of any other catliedral, 
more pre- special, patriaixhal, or nietropolitical church, as appeareth in the third cjiistle 
rofjaiive ^^f ^j^g j^^.^,. bopj^ ^^^^l j^, t^e ei":htli of the second, and in the fourth book of St. 
than any „. ,.,. , " ■, ^ i^i i i. ^i 

other. Cyprian to Cornelnis; whose words and reasons, although peradventure tliey 

111 what might seem to include the unity of the church in the unity of the bishop of 
tlie unity Kome, becaiise they were all written to him in his own case, may as well be 
church written unto any other bishop lawfully chosen, who percase should be likewise 
staudeth. disturbed, as the bishops of Rome then were, by any factions of ambitious 

(1) Matt, xviii. (2) Matt, xxviii. 

(3) ' Quia non sit fas in eadem ccclesia, duos simu! episcopos essp nee priorcm Icgitimum 
episcopum sine sua culpa deponi.' 


And whereas you think the name of supreme head under Christ, given and Uenry 
attributed to the king's majesty, maketh an innovation in the church, and per- ^■^^^- 
turbation of the order of the same ; it cannot be any innovation or trouble to ^ ^ 
the church to use the room that God hath called him to, which good christian 1534' 

princes did use in the beginning, when faith was most pure, as St. Augustine,' '— 

Ad Gloriam et Elusium, saith ; ' One there is, who saith, that a bishop ought 
not to liave been put to his purgation before the judgment seat of the deputy, 
as though he himself procured it, and not rather the emperor himself caused 
this inquiry to be made ; to whose jurisdiction (for which he nuist answer to 
God) that cause did specially pertain.' Chrysostome writeth of that imperial 
authority thus :^ ' He is offended that hath no peer at all upon the earth, for he The im- 
is the highest potentate, and the head of all men upon earth.' And TertuUian ^[j'^o^ity 
saith,' ' We honour and reverence the emperor in such wise as is lawful to us, is next 
and expedient to him ; that is to say, as a man next and second to God, from ""'I'"'' 
whom he hath received all the power he hath, and also inferior to God alone, 
whose pleasure it is so to have it : for thus he is greater than all men, whilst he 
is inferior but to God alone. 

And the said TertuUian, in his book apologetical, speaking of emperors, 
saith,* ' They know who hath given to them their government ; they know 
that God is he alone, under whose only power they be ; and take themselves as 
second to God, after whom they be chief above all others.' Theophylact also, 
on this place in Romans, ' Let every soul be subject to the higher powers, '^ saith, 
' The apostle there teacheth every man,^ that whether he be a priest, or a monk, 
or an apostle, he should subject himself to princes:' that is, although thou be 
an apostle, an evangelist, a prophet, or whatsoever thou art, be subject. For, 
saith he, this subjection overthrows not godliness:' and the apostle saith not 
only, ' Let him obey,' but saith, ' Let him be subject.' 

And if the apostles be subject to princes, much more all bishops and patri- 
archs, yea the bishops of Rome and all others. 

It is written also in the Chronicles,^ David said to Solomon, Behold the 
priests and Levites divided in companies, to do all manner of service that per- 
taineth to the house of God. Also David did appoint chiefly to thank the 
Lord, Asaph and his brethren,^ &c. And Jehoshaphat the king did constitute 
Levites and priests, and the ancient fanrilies of Israel, for the judgment and 
cause of the Lord towards all the inhabitants of the earth ; and he charged 
them saying, ' Thus shall ye do in the fear of the Lord, faithfully and in a per- 
fect heart.''" Furthermore Hezekiah appointed the priests and the Levites in 
their order, to wait by course, every man according to his office. And it 
foUoweth, ' Hezekiah gave commandment to the people dwelling in Jerusalem, 
that they should give their portions unto their priests and the Levites, that they 
might attend on the law of the Lord.''' Where it followeth also, that by the 
precept of Hezekiah the king, and of Azarias the bishop of the house of the 
Lord, all things were done, to whom pertained all the dispensation of the house 
of the Lord. And in the end it is said, Hezekiah did these things in all Jewry ; 
he wrought that wliich was good, right, and true, before his Lord God, in all 
the furniture of the ministry of the house of the Lord, according to the law and 
ceremonies, desirous to seek his Lord God with all his heart, as he did, and 
1 prospered therein. Josias also did ordain priests in their offices, and com- 
i manded many things.'^ 

j By all which it may appear, that christian kings be sovereigns over the 
j priests, as over all other their subjects, and may command the priests to do 
] their offices, as well as they do others ; and ought by their supreme office to 
j see that all men of all degrees do the duties, whereunto they be called either 

I (1) 'Ait enlm quidam, non debuit episcopus pro consuJarl judicio purgari,' &c. August. Epist. 

I I 162. 

I (2) ' Lsesus est qui non habet parera ullura super terrain : summitas et caput est omnium ho- 

; minum super terram.' 

j (3) ' Colimus ergo et imperatorem sic, quomodo et nobis licet, et ipsi expedit, ut hominem a 

1 Deo secundum.' Tertul. ad Scapulum, &c.' 

I (4) • Sciant quis illis dederit imperium.' Tertul. in Apologet. [cap. 30.— Ed. J 
I (51 ' Omnisaninia potestatibus sublimioribus subdita sit.' 
I (6) ' Sive sacerdos ille sit, sive raonachus, sive apostolus, ut se prlncipibus subdat.' 

(7) ' Non enim subvertit pietatem hsc subjectio.' 

(8) 1 Chron. xxviii. (9) 2 Cbron. xvi. (10) lb. xix. (11) Jb. xxxi. (12) lb. \y^\i\. 



Henry by God or by the king ; and those kmg's that so do, chiefly do execute well 
VIII. their office. So that the king's highness, taking upon him, as supreme head 
A T) of the church of England, to see that as well spiritual men as temporal do their 

1 ,'„/ duties, doth neither make innovation in the church, nor yet trouble the order 
thereof; but doth, as the chief and best of the kings of Israel did, and as all 

General good christian kings ought to do. Which office good christian emperors 
'^°ii"rt'if ^Jways took upon them, in calling the universal councils of all countries in one 
the ^ place and at one time to assemble together, to the intent that all heresies trou- 
emperors. bling the church might there be extirped; calling and commanding as well the 
bishop of Rome, as other patriarchs and all primates, as well of the east as of 
the west, of the south as of the north, to come to the said councils. As 
Martian the emperor did, in calling the great council of Chalcedon, one of the 
four chief and first general councils, commanding Leo, then bishop of Rome, 
to come unto the same. And albeit Leo neither liked the time, which he 
would for a season should have been deferred ; nor yet the place, for he would 
have had it in Italy, whereas the emperor, by his own commandment, had 
called it to Chalcis in Asia, yet he answered the emperor, that he would gladly 
obey his commandment, and sent thither his agents to appear there for him, 
as doth appear in the epistles of Leo to Martian then emperor, forty-first, forty- 
seventh, forty-eighth, and in the forty-ninth epistle to Pulcheria the empress. 
And Leo likewise desireth Theodosius the emperor to command a council of 
bishops to be called in Italy, for taking away such contentions and troubles as 
at that time troubled the quietness of the churches. And in many more epistles 
of the same Leo it doth manifestly appear, that the emperors always assembled 
general councils by their commandments : and in the sixth general council it 
appeareth very plainly, that at that time the bishops of Rome made no claim, 
nor used any title, to call themselves heads universal overall the catholic church, 
as it doth appear in the superscription or salutation of the aforesaid synodical 
preamble, which is this, word for word : ' To the most godly lords and most 
noble victors and conquerors, the well-beloved children of God and our Lord 
Jesus Christ, Constantine the great emperor, and Heraclius and Tiberius, 
Caesars : bishop Agatho, the servant of the servants of God, with all the con- 
vocations subject to the council of the see apostolic, sendeth greeting.' And 
he expresseth what coimtries he reckoned and comprehended in that super- 
scription or salutation ; for it foUoweth, that those were under his assembly 
which were in the north and east parts ; so that at that time the bishop of 
Rome made no such pretence to be over and above all, as he now doth by 
usurpation, vindicating to himself the spiritual kingdom of Christ by which 
he reigneth in the hearts of all faithful people, and then changeth it to a tem- 
poral kingdom over and above all kings, to depose them for his pleasure, 
preaching thereby the flesh for the spirit, and an earthly kingdom for a 
heavenly, to his own damnation, if he repent not : whereas he ought to obey 
his prince by the doctrine of St. Peter in his first epistle,' saying, ' Be ye sub- 
ject to every ordinance of man, for the Lord's sake ; whether it be to the king 
as to the chief, or unto governors, as sent of him to the punishment of the evil 
doers, and to the praise of the good.' Again, St. Paul; 'Let every soul be 
subject to the higher powers :'- with other things before alleged. So that this 
his pretensed usurpation to be above all kings is directly against the Scriptures 
given to the church by the apostles, whose doctrine whosoever overturneth, 
can be neither the head, nor yet the least member, of the church. 

Wherefore, albeit ye have hitherto stuck to the said wrongfully usurped 
power, moved thereto, as ye write, by your conscience, yet, since now ye see 
further, if ye list to regard the mere truth and such ancient authors as have 
been written to you of in times past, we would exhort you, for the weal of your 
soul, to surrender into the bishop of Rome's hands your red hat, by which he 
seduced you, trusting so to make you, being come of a noble blood, an instru- 
ment to advance his vain glory ; whereof by the said hat he made you partici- 
pant, to allure you thereby the more to his purpose. 

In which doing ye shall return to the truth from which ye have erred, do 
your duty to your sovereign lord from whom ye have declined, and please thereby 
Almighty God, whose laws ye have transgressed : and in not so doing, ye shall 
remain in error, ofiendiug both Almighty God and your natural sovereign lord, 

(1) 1 Pet. ii. (2) Rom. xiii. 


whom chiefly ye ought to seek to please : which thing, for the good mind that Henry 
we heretofore have borne you, wo pray Ahnighty God of his infinite mercy that ^IH- 
you do not. Amen. . t-« 

When all other the king's subjects, and the learned of the realm ^535. 
had taken and accepted the oath of the king's supremacy, only Fisher, 
the bishop of Rochester, and sir Thomas More refused (as is afore 
said) to be sworn ; who therefore, falling into the danger of the law, 
were committed to the Tower, and executed for the same, a.d. 1535. 
This John Fisher aforesaid had written before against CEcolampadius, 
whose book is yet extant, and afterwards against Luther. 

Also, amongst other his acts, he had been a great enemy and perse- john 
cutor of John Frith, the godly and learned martyr of Jesus Christ, t/s^^opof 
whom he and sir Thomas More caused to be burned a year and a half Roches- 
before: and, shortly after, the said Fisher, to his confusion, was charged enemy to 
with Elizabeth Barton (called the holy maid of Kent), and found gospel'* 
guilty by act of parliament, as is above recorded. For his learning 
and other virtues of life this bishop was well reputed and reported of 
by many, and also much lamented by some. But whatsoever his 
learning was, pity it was that he, being endued with that knowledge, 
should be so far drowned in such superstition ; more pity that he was 
so obstinate in his ignorance ; but most pity of all, that he so abused 
the learning he had, to such cruelty as he did. But this commonly 
we see come to pass, as the Lord saith, that " whoso striketh with 
the sword shall perish with the sword," and they that stain their hands Blood 
Avith blood, seldom do bring their bodies dry to the grave ; as com- ^vTth"^'^'' 
monly appeareth by the end of bloody tyrants, and especially such as '^^°°^- 
be persecutors of Christ's poor members ; in the number of whom Fisher 
were this bishop and sir Thomas More, by whom good John Frith, ppfse'^u-^ 
Tewkesbury, Thomas Hitten, Bayfield, with divers other good saints t"''^- 
of God, were brought to their death. It was said that the pope, to 
recompense bishop Fisher for his faithful service, had elected him 
cardinal, and sent him a cardinal's hat as far as Calais ; but the head 
that it should stand upon, was as high as London bridge ere ever the 
pope's hat could come to him. Thus bishop Fisher and sir Thomas 
More, who a little before had put John Frith to death for heresy 
against the pope, were themselves executed and beheaded for treason ^^ 
against the king, the one the 22d of June, tlie other the 6th of July, headed. 
A.D. 1536. 

Of sir Thomas More something hath been touched before, who was 
also accounted a man both witty and learned : but whatsoever he was 
besides, a bitter persecutor he was of good men, and a wretched 
enemy against the truth of the gospel, as by his books left behind 
him may appear; Avherein most slanderously and contumeliously he Lying 
writeth against Luther, Zuinglius, Tyndale, Frith, Barnes, Bayfield, mmb! °^ 
Bainham, Tewkesbury ; falsely belying their articles and doctrine, as 
(God granting me life) I have sufficient matter to prove against him. 

Briefly, as he was a sore persecutor of them that stood in defence 

[of the gospel, so again, on the other side, such a blind devotion he 

I bare to the pope-holy see of Rome, and so wilfully stood in the pope's 

quarrel against his own prince, that he would not give over till he 

had brought the scaffold of the Tower-hill with the axe and all, upon 

his own neck. 

H 2 


jiennj Eclwai'd Hall in his Chronicle ' writinjr of the death and manners 

_ of this sir Thomas More, seems to stand in doubt whether to call 

A- D. him a foolish wise man, or a wise foolish man : for, as by nature he 
was endued with a great wit, so the same again was so mingled 
(saith he) with taunting and mocking, that it seemed to them that 
best knew him, that he thought nothing to be well spoken, except he 
had ministered some mock in the communication ; insomuch that, at 
liis coming to the Tower, one of the officers demanding his upper 
garment for his fee, meaning his gown, he answered that he should 
have it, and took him his cap, saying it was the uppermost gar- 
More a ment that he had. Likewise, even going to his death, at the Tower 


unto his gate, a poor woman called unto him, and besought him to declare 
death. ^|^^j^ |^g ^^^ Certain evidences of hers in the time that he was in office 
(which, after he was apprehended, she could not come by), and that he 
would entreat that she might have them again, or else she was undone. 
He answered ; " Good woman, have patience a little while, for the 
king is so good unto me, that even within this half hour he will dis- 
charge me of all businesses, and help thee himself." Also, when he 
went up the stair of the scaffold, he desired one of the sheriff's offi- 
cers to give him his hand to help him up, and said, " When I come 
down again, let me shift for myself as well as I can." Also the hang- 
man kneeled down to him, asking him forgiveness of his death, as the 
manner is ; to whom he answered, " I forgive thee ; but I promise thee 
that thou shalt never have honesty^ of the striking off my head, my 
neck is so short. Also, even when he should lay down his neck on 
the block, he, having a great grey beard, stroked out his beard, and 
said to the hangman, " I pray you let me lay my beard over the 
block, lest you should cut it ;" thus with a mock he ended his life. 

There is no doubt but that the pope's holiness hath hallowed and 
dignified these two persons long since for catholic martyrs : neither is 
it to be doubted, but after a hundred years expired, they shall be also 
shrined and porthosed, dying as they did in the quan'el of the church 
of Rome, that is, in taking the bishop of Rome's part, against their 
own ordinary and natural prince. Whereunto (because the matter 
asketh a long discourse, and a peculiar tractation) I have not in this 
place much to contend with Cope, my friend. This briefly for a 
' Memorandum ' may suffice ; that if the causes of true martyrdom 
ought to be pondered, and not to be numbered, and if the end of 
martyrs is to be weighed by judgment, and not by affection ; then 
the cause and quarrel of these men standing as it doth, and being 
tried by God's word, perhaps in the pope's kingdom they may go for 
martyrs, in whose cause they died ; but certes in Christ's kingdom 
their cause will not stand, howsoever they stand themselves. 
F-xmew, The like also is to be said of the three monks of the Charter-house, 
more!^ Exmcw, Midd]emore,and Neudigate, who the same year, in the month 
Neudi- of Jlnxic, werc likewise attached and arraiofncd at Westminster, for 

pate, ... . . . 

executed Speaking certain traitorous words against the king's crown and dig- 
nity ; for which they were hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn : 
whom also, because Cope, my good friend, doth repute and accept in 
the number of holy catholic martyrs, here would be asked of him a 

(1) See page 817, edit. 4to. London, 1809.— Ed. 

(2) ' Honesty,' or honour. — Ed. 

lor trea- 


question : What martyrs be they, who, standing before the judge, tfenry 

deny their own words and sayings, and plead not guilty, so as these 

Carthusians did? Whereby it appeareth, that they would neither A.D. 
have stood nor have died in tliat cause, as they did, if they might ^^'^^' 
otherwise have escaped by denying. W^herefore, if my friend Cope 
had been so well advised in setting out his martyrs as God might 
have made him, he would first have seen the true records, and been 
sure of the ground of such matters, whereupon he so confidently pro- 
nounceth, and so censoriously controlleth others. 

In the same cause and quarrel of treason also, the same year, a 
little before these aforesaid, in the month of May, were executed with 
the like punishment John Houghton, prior of the charter-house in 
London ; Robert Laurence, prior of the charter-house of Bel vail ; 
Austin Webster, prior of the charter-house of Exham.' 

Besides and with these priors suffered likewise at the same time, Nine Car- 
two other priests, one called Reginald, brother of Sion, the other d^"in^pri- 
named John Haile, vicar of Thistleworth. Divers other Charter- f^' ^^- 
house monks also of London were then put in prison, to the number the king's 
of nine or ten, and in the same prison died ; for whom we will, the ^^p''^™^' 
Lord willing, reserve another place, hereafter to treat of them more at 

In the mean time, forasmuch as the aforesaid Cope, in his doughty cope's 
dialogues,^ speaking of these nine worthies, doth commend them so "we's ™'"^" 
highly, and especially the three priors above recited, here by the way 
I would desire Master Cope simply and directly to answer me to a 
thing or two that I would put to him ; and first of this John 
Houghton, that angelical prior of the Charterhouse, his old com- 
panion and acquaintance, of whom thus he writeth ; " Atqui cum 
Johannem ilium Houghtonum cogito, non tarn hominem quam an- 
gelum in humana forma intueri mihi videor, cujus eminentes virtutes, 
divinas dotes, et heroicam animi magnitudinem, nemo unquam po- 
terit satis pro dignitate explicare,'''^ &c. By these his own words it 
must needs be confessed, that the author of these dialogues, whoso- 
ever he was, had well seen and considered the form and personable 
stature, proportion and shape, of his excellent body, with such admi- 
ration of his personage, that, as he saitli, as oft as he calleth the said 
John Houghton to mind, it seemeth to him even as though he saw 
an angel in the shape and form of a man : whose eminent virtues, 
moreover, whose divine gifts and heroical celsitude of mind, no man, 
saith he, may sufficiently express, &c. And how old was this Master 
Cope then, would I know, when he saw and discerned all this ? for, 
as I understand. Master Cope, being yet at this present scarce come 
to the age of forty years, he could not then be above nine years old 
(the other suffering a.d. 1535) ; at which age, in my mind. Master 
Cope had small discretion to judge either of any such angelical pro- 
portion of this man's personage, or of his divine qualities and heroical 
celsitude of his mind ; and yet he remembereth him in his dialogues : pXgucs 
which thing, among many other probabilities, maketh me vehemently ^,"'fPjo^|f'* 
to suspect that these dialogues, printed in Antwerp, a.d. 1566, Avcrc iiisown. 

(1) Ex Actis in Termino Paschs. an. 27 reg. Hen. VIII. 

(2) These dialogues were written by Harpsfield, under the name of Alanus Copus ; 4to. Antver- 
piae, 1566; see Wood's Athene Oxon. vol. i. p. 491. Blois. — En. 

(3) Copus in Dialog. 9. p. 995. 


iinnry brouglit ovcr by Master Cope there to be printed, but were penned 
''^'^' and framed by another Pseudo-Copus, whatsoever, or in what fleet 



A. D. soever he was, unless my marks do greatly fail me. But as the case 
1536. is of no great weight, so I let it pass, returning to other matters of 
more importance. 

Shortly after the overthrow of the pope, consequently began by 
little and little to follow the ruin of abbeys and religious houses in 
England, in a right order and method by God''s divine providence. 
For neither could the fall of monasteries have followed after, unless 
lat suppression of the pope had gone before ; neither could any 
kie reformation of the church have been attempted, unless the sub- 
version of those superstitious houses had been joined withal. 
Suppres- Whereupon, the same year, in the month of October, the king, 
abbeys having then Thomas Cromwell of his council, sent Dr. Lee to visit 
ginneui ^^^^ abbcys, priorics, and nunneries in all England, and to set at 
in Eng- liberty all such religious persons as desired to be free, and all others 
that were under the age of four and twenty years ; providing withal, 
that such monks, canons, and friars as were dismissed, should have 
given them by the abbot or prior, instead of their habit, a secular 
priesfs gown, and forty shillings of money, and likewise the nuns to 
have such apparel as secular women did then commonly use, and be 
suffered to go where they would ; at which time also, from the said 
abbeys and monasteries were taken their chief jewels and relics. 

A.D.1S36. When the king had thus established his supremacy, and all things 

were well quieted within the realm, he, like a wise prince, and having 

wise counsel about him, forecasting with himself what foreign dangers 

might fall unto him by other countries about, which were all as yet 

in subjection to the bishop of Rome, save only a few German princes, 

and misdoubting the malice of the pope, to provide therefore betimes 

for perils that might ensue, thought good to keep in, by all means 

possible, with other princes. 

A solemn And first, to entertain the favour of the French king, who had 

sio'irin been sick a little before, and now was lately recovered to health, in 

ibr"oy"' signification of public joy and friendship, the king commanded a 

of the solemn and famous procession to be ordahied through the city of 

King's London, with the waits, and children of the grammar schools, with 

health, ^j^g jjjasters and ushers in their array : then followed the orders of the 

friars and canons, and the priors with their pomp of copes, crosses, 

candlesticks, and vergers before them. After these followed the next 

pageant of clerks and priests of London, all in copes likewise. Then 

the monks of Westminster and other abbeys, with their glorious 

gardeviance of crosses, candlesticks, and vergers before them, in like 

sort. Last of all, came the choir of Paul's, with their residentiaries ; 

the bishop of London and the abbots following after in their ponti- 

ficalibus. After these coui'ses of the clergy went the companies of 

the city, with the lord mayor and aldermen in their best apparel, 

after their degrees. And lest it might be thought this procession of 

the church of London to make but a small or beggarly show, the 

furniture of the gay copes there worn, was counted to the number of 

seven hundred and fourteen. Moreover, to fill up the joy of this 

procession, and for the more high service to Almighty God, besides 

sIr RALPH Sadler's oration to thk Scottish king. 103 

the singing choirs, and chanting of the jDriests, there lacked no min- ^e»»'y 

strels withal, to pipe at the processions. Briefly, here lacked nothing L 

else but only the ordnance to shoot off also. But because that is A.D. 
used in the processions at Rome, therefore, for difference'' sake, the i^'""- 

same is reserved only for the pope''s own processions, and for none ^ p'p'"? 
other, m the month of October. sion. 

This grand procession was appointed for a triumph or a thanks- 
giving for the late recovery of the French king''s health, as is afore said. 

Over and besides this, the king, to nourish and retain amity with 
kings and princes (lest the pope, being exiled now out of England, 
should incite them to war against him), directed sundry ambassadors 
and messengers with letters and instructions. To the emperor was 
sent sir Thomas Wyat, to the French king sir Francis Bryan, and Ambassa- 
Dr. Edward Foxe, who was also sent to the princes of Germany ; to su^^ry 
the Scottish king was sent sir Ralph Sadler, gentleman of the king's ^ings. 

In Scotland at the same time were cast abroad divers railing ballets 
and slanderous rhymes against the king of England, for casting off 
the lady dowager, and for abolishing the pope ; for which cause the 
aforesaid sir Ralph Sadler, being sent into Scotland with lessons and sir Ralph 
instructions how to address himself accordingly, after he had obtained ambassa- 
access unto the king, and audience to be heard, first declareth the scotti'sh^^ 
afFectuous and hearty commendations from the king's majesty, his *^i"e- 
grace's uncle, and withal delivered his letters of credence : which 
done, after a few words of courtly entertainment, as occasion served 
him to speak, the said sir Ralph Sadler, obtaining audience, thus 
began in the king his master's behalf to declare, as followeth. 

The Oration of Sir Ralph Sadler, Ambassador to the Scottish King. 

Whereas there is nothing, after the glory of Ahnighty God, in this world so 
much to be tendered by kings, princes, or any honest persons, or so highly to 
be regarded and defended, as their honour, estimation, good fame, and name, 
which whosoever neglecteth is to be esteemed unnatural : and unless a man 
labour to avoid and extinguish the false reports, slanders, and defamations 
made of him by malicious persons, he may well be suspected in conscience to 
condemn himself: the king your uncle, considering the same, and hearing of 
sundry ballets, criminations, and infamous libels made and untruly forged and 
devised in Scotland against his grace, by your grace's subjects, not only upon 
trust to find with your grace such natural affection, friendship, and amity, as 
the nearness of blood between uncle and nephew, necessitude of reverence, 
proximity both of kin and dominions together doth require; but also upon 
assurance that your grace and wisdom will consider how these slanders and 
defamations, although they were but against a private person, whatsoever he 
were, most commonly redound and are imputed to the whole degree and 
estate ; as the defamation of kings toucheth kings, and so of other degrees and 
dignities : doth send at this time to your grace, his nephew (others he might 
have sent more worthy; but me at this time, for lack of a better, hath he sent), 
to desire, pray, and require your grace, accoi-ding as the nearness of blood, 
connexion of estate, and other things before expressed, of right and justice do 
require : beseeching your grace gently to weigh and balance, and well to 
ponder, the malice of these the said slanderers, and to call in again all the said 
defamatory ballets, libels, and other writings, punishing the authors and setters 
forth thereof according to their demerits. And furthermore, to cause open 
proclamations to be made through your realm, that none of the inhabitants 
there, shall, in any manner of wise, so misuse himself hereafter, upon such great 
pain and punishment as to yom- grace and your council shall be thought con- 
venient for the transgression thereof: so that others, by their correction, cand 





Evil ex- 
ample a 
thinj? ill ; 

The se- 

macy of 


by the fearful example of the penalty, may beware how to commit tlie like 
offence in time coming. 

The example of such slanders is very pernicious to all kings ; for, by such 
slanders of other princes, the slanderers take boldness so to deal afterwards 
Avith their own king, as they have done with others, and the next step from 
such slanderous words is to attempt deeds, and so to fall to sedition : of the 
importance and danger whereof no man is ignorant. 

Wherefore your grace, at the contemplation of your dear uncle, in tendering 
his proceedings, shall do well to follow therein the loving steps of his good 
brother and ally the French king, who hath already at Rouen, and sundry 
places else, caused certain slanderous preachers to be sore punished ; and fur- 
ther directed commissions through his realm for repressing the same. As also 
other princes shall be ready (his majesty trusteth) to do the like in their 
dominions, if like occasion shall be given to require the same of them. In 
which, in so doing, your grace may be assured, in this your gentle dealing in 
that part, to win your uncle's most sincere and kind heart, to the increase of 
your amity and alliance, which as to you shall be most honourable, so shall it 
be no less profitable unto him. 

And thus to conclude with the first part of my narration, concerning the 
slanderous and defamatory libels, lest I should seem with prolixity of matter 
more than needs to abuse your grace's silence, I will now descend to the other 
point of that which I have to utter unto your grace, as touching the pope's 
nuncio, or messenger; of whose late arrival the king's majesty yoiu imcle hav- 
ing partly intelligence, but not certainly knowing the special cause of his com- 
ing from Rome, and yet fearing, by the common bruit and talkof your subjects, 
what his en-and should be (that is, to practise some annoyance, by his pretended 
censures against the king's majesty your uncle) : he therefore, prenionishing 
your grace before, as fearing the worst, most justly maketh his complaint 
thereof unto your grace his nephew, requiring you, that forasmuch as the 
aforesaid bruits and reports are slanderous to his majesty, and seeing that 
neither the emperor, nor the French king, nor any other princes, have con- 
sented thereto, or understood thereof, the king's majesty, therefore, your uncle, 
willing to stop those bruits and talks, desireth and most heartily prayeth your 
grace, at his instant request, to vouchsafe to consider and weigh, 

First, The supremacy of princes, by the holy Scripture granted unto him 
and other princes in earth, under Christ, upon their churches. 

Secondly, To weigh what the gospel and God's word calleth a church. 

Also what superstitions, idolatiies, and blind abuses have crept into all 
realms, to the high displeasure of Almighty God, by reason thereof. 

Fourthly, What is to be understood by the tioie censure or excommunication 
of the church, and how no such can be in the power of the bishop of Rome, or 
of any other man, against his majesty, or any other prince ; having so just 
ground to avoid from the root, and to abolish that execrable authorit}', which 
the bishop of Rome hath usurjied, and doth usurp, upon all princes, to their 
great detriment and damage. 

As touching the consideration of which four points, although the king's 
majesty your uncle doubteth not yom- grace to be furnished and provided with 
sufficient knowledge, rightly to discern and judge upon the same ; yet, if it 
shall so please yo\ir grace further to know your uncle's mind touching the said 
points, I assure your highness, in the behalf of your aforesaid uncle his 
majesty, that he will not stick to send unto you such learned, wise, and discreet 
men, as shall amply inform you thereof, and of such other things as your grace, 
having once a smack thereof, shall think most worthy for a prince to know. 

His request therefore to your highness is, that you will consider of what 
moment and importance it shall be unto your grace (having the Scots your 
subjects so evil instructed in the premises), for you to assent and agree to any 
such censure, and so, by such example, to give such an upper-hand over your- 
self and other princes, to that usurper of Rome, as is very hke hereafter to 
happen in other places of Christendom, wheresoever the true declaration of the 
trutli and word of God shall have free course, to scom-ge them, unless they will 
adore, worship, and kiss the feet of that corrupt holiness, which desireth 
nothing else but pride, and the universal thrall of Christendom under Rome's 


But because the censures of that nuncio be not yet opened, but lie secret and Henry 
imcertain under muttering, I shall cease further to proceed therein, till further Vlll. 
occasion shall minister to me more certain matter to say and to judge. In the ~T TT" 
mean time, forasmuch as it is most certainly come to the intelligence of the 'L ' ' 
king's majesty, that the abbot of Arbroath should be chosen of late and elected ' '" 

to be a cardinal in this your realm of Scotland, his majesty thei-efore, for the The abbot 
good love and hearty good will he beareth unto your grace, as the uncle is ^ ^[r 
bound unto the nephew, knowing that you as yet perceive not so well the chosen 
hypocrisy and deceitful guile and malice of the Romans and their pi'actices, as cardinal 
be himself doth, by his long experience ; could not but, hearing thereof, adver- 5*^,,^ 
tise your grace, that his advice is, you should not suffer any of your subjects to 
take upon him that red hat of pride, whereby he shall incontinently, the same 
being received (unless he be of a conti-ary nature to any man that ever was yet 
of that sort), not only be in manner discharged of his obedience, and become 
the bishop of Rome's true liege man ; but also shall presume of his cardinalship 
to be your fellow, and to have the rule as well as you. Then should the bishop 
of Rome creep into your own very bosom, know all your secrets, and at last, 
unless you will be yoked and serve their pleasure in all points, your grace is 
like to smart for it. The thing perchance, in the beginning, shall seem to 
your grace very honourable and pleasant : but wisdom would, to beware of the 
tail, which is very black and bitter. 

His majesty's father, and grandfather to your grace, had a cardinal, whereof Inconve- 
lie was weary, and never admitted others after his decease, knowing the Tj!^?'^'^ 
importable pride of them. In like manner also his highness, by the experience eth by 
of one, hath utterly determined to avoid all the sort : so well his grace hath cardinals. 
known and experienced their mischief, yoke, and thraldom, that thereby is laid 
upon princes. By reason whereof, as his highness is the more able by his own 
experience to inform your grace, so of good will and mere propensity of heart, 
caused partly by nature and kin, partly by conjunction and vicinity of dominions 
adjoining so near together, he is no less ready to forwarn your grac" before, 
wishing that God will so work in your princely heart and noble stomach, that 
his majesty's monition and friendly warning, as it proceedeth from a sincere 
affection and tender care of his part unto his nephew, so it may prevail and 
take place in your mind, that your grace, wisely weighing with yourself, what 
supreme right princes have, and ought to liave, upon their churches and lands 
where they govern, and what little cause the bishop of Rome hath thereto, to 
proceed by unjust censures against them : your grace may therein not only 
stand to the just defence of your dear uncle, but also may endeavour to follow 
his steps therein, and to take his counsel, which, he doubteth not, but shall 
redound, not only to your grace's honoiu", to the benefit, weal, and profit of 
your realm and subjects; but, especially, to the glory of Almighty God, and 
advancement of his true religion. 

And thus have I expounded unto your grace the sum of my errand and 
message from the king's majesty your uncle, who, as he would be glad to be 
advertised, by answer, of your grace's purpose, mind, and intention in this 
behalf, so, for my part, according to my charge and duty, I shall be pressed and 
ready, with all diligence, to give mine attendance upon your pleasure for the 
same accordingly. 

The king, considering the present state of his marriage, which was 
not yet well digested nor accepted in the courts of other princes, and 
also having intelligence of the straight amity intended by the mar- 
riages between the emperor and the French king, and also of the 
pope's inclination to pleasure the emperor ; and further understand- 
ing of the order and meaning of the French king's council, not 
greatly favouring his purposes, sent therefore into France, for his 
ambassador, Edward Foxe, doctor of divinity, his chaplain and coun- 
sellor, with instructions and admonitions how to frame and attemper 
himself in those the king's affairs. The contents of which his 
instructions came to this ctFect : 



vin. 'ji^g gj^^j^ ^^^ EtFect of King Henry the Eighth's Message to the 

A. D. Frencli King, by his Ambassador, Dr. Edward Foxe, in defence 
1536. of his proceedings. 

That the said Edward Foxe, first declaring to the French king the most effec- 

tuous commendations made on tlie king's behalf, with declaration of the king's 

most entire and hearty good will to understand of his prosperity, and the good 

success of his affairs, which his majesty no less desired than his own ; and 

also, after the king's letters being delivered to him and to other personages of 

his council, then, after his access made unto the king, he should utter and 

insinuate unto the king his master's mind and intent in these three special 

points following. 

Three The first was, to declare the justness of the king's cause concerning the 

causes to jj^^g marriage with queen Anne, and divorcement of the king from his brother's 

claredin wife. 

the king's The second, to signify and express the injuries done by the pope, as after- 
defence, wards shall be declared. 

The third was, to win and allure to the king's devotion the chancellor of 

And as touching the declaration of the justness of the king's cause, first he, 
taking with him certain books printed, containing the determinations of univer- 
sities in that behalf, with reasons and authorities confirming the same, should 
distribute the said books to the bishop of St. Line and to other bishops, to 
Monsieur de Langez, and other of the king's council more ; and to prove, after 
the best fashion, to obtain their approbations of the same books, and with dex- 
terity to essay whether he could induce them of the university of Paris, and 
other learned men, to send forth this book with their authorities and approba- 
tions. That done, then he, being acquainted with all those points and articles 
of the king's cause, in communicating and conference (as the case required), 
should not only make answer to such things as should be objected, but abo 
furnish and maintain the justness of that opinion, with his learning, in such 
sort as he could best invent and excogitate. 
The As touching the second part, which contained the injuries done by the pope 

pope's in- against the king, the said ambassador in that behalf, being a man no less 
tiie king, acquainted, than also well beaten and ripe in the manifold nlisbeha^'iours of the 
pope from the beginning of the cause, sliould declare and express to the French 
The pope kjng^ how injuriously the said pope had demeaned himself towards the king's 
slant in highness ; first, in sending a commission decretal, and then commanding it to 
his deeds, bg burned : as also in promising, by schedule of his own hand, not to call the 
trary to cause out of England ; and moreover, approving first the justness of the 
himself, king's cause, yet, notwithstanding, afterwards going from the same, and doing 

Touching all which injuries received at the pope's hand, though the king had 
great cause justly to complain, yet other injuries there were besides these, 
Calleth wherewith the king most especially was moved. The one was for calling and 
andciteth citing the king's highness to appear at Rome. Tlie other was for rejecting 
to Rome, the person of the king's trusty subject and chaplain. Master Kerne, his ambas- 
sador, from making such allegations as to the king in that case ajipertained ; 
besides sundry other no small griefs atid inconveniences, which here might be 
showed and alleged : but in these two special injuries the king thought himself 
most chiefly touched and aggrieved. In opening and ripping up of these inju- 
ries, and first, in the said injurious calling of the king to Rome, instructions 
were given to the said ambassador to explicate the open violation therein of the 
The pope most ancient and general councils, the council of Nice, the council of Africa, 
violateth and the council of Milevitane ; in which councils the contrary was, for quietness 
comrcils. of the world, provided and ordered : declaring withal, how agreeable the same is 
to all laws, reason, and equity, that princes should not be compelled to repair 
to Rome at the pope's calling, nor be bound, in a matter of such weight and 
moment, to send out of their realms and dominions, the writings, instruments, 
and monuments containing the secrets of their affairs, or to make and trust a 
proctor, being in so far distant parts, in a matter of such importance, to abide 
and fulfil tliat, which the said proctor should agree unto there. The matter 


and cause whereof did not so much concern the state of any one prince alone, Henry 
as it touched the dignity of all other christian kings so nearly, that unless they fill. 
would suffer themselves to he yoked with the pope's authority, it was time a r\~ 
(inasmuch as the pope now made this enterprise on them) to search and know leog' 

the bottom and ground both of his and of their authority ; and if any thing by — '— 

negligence or misuse had been lost, to recover the same, rather than to suiFer 
it to decay any more. As touching all which griefs, hurts, inconveniences, 
prejudice, and evil example which might thereof ensue, the king's highness 
doubted not but that his good brother, the French king, would assist and concur 
with his highness for maintenance and defence of the same 

For declaration of the second notable grief and injury done by the pope to The 
the king's highness, thus furthermore he was willed to insinuate to the French p^^"? "^ 
king, what injury, or rather contumely, the king's highness received at the 
pope's hand, in not suffering the king's subject and ambassador to allege such 
matter in defence of his prince, as by law, reason, and equity, was to be heard 
and admitted, forasmuch as the said ambassador. Dr. Kerne, the king's chap- The 
lain, being at Rome at such time as citations were there published against the '^'"s's 
king's highness, and vinderstanding his grace by them to be called before one dor could 
Capasuccha, dean of the Rota, was there ready to make answer to the queen's "of be 
agents' complaint, and had, by the advice of other great learned men, conceived R^^e^ 
a certain matter containing causes reasonable and lawful, why the king's high- 
ness should not be bound to appear there either by himself, or by his proctor : 
which matter also he did exhibit on the king's behalf, as a true subject by law 
of nature is bound to maintain and allege in defence of his prince that is 
absent, and ought, by equity, to preserve him from condemnation. And yet 
this notwithstanding, the said Capasuccha, not regarding nor considering the 
matter alleged, demanded whether the said doctor had any proxy from the 
king or no, for such purpose, and upon default and lack of the said proxy 
(which was not necessary in this case), proceeded in the principal cause ; by 
reason whereof the said Dr. Kerne appealed to the pope, alleging injury to be 
done not only to the king's highness, but also to himself, for that such matter 
as he did aUege, was not considered nor regarded, but process made : to which 
appellation, notwithstanding, the said Capasuccha gave an ambiguous and a 
doubtful answer ; which was, that as much as Dr. Kerne was, by the law, a 
lawful person, so much he would give place, ' et deferre appellationi ; ' and 
otherwise not. 

Thus, upon declaration of this doubtful answer, passed certain days, the said 
Capasuccha promising always to open his said answer and sentence more 
plainly, and to give a determinate resolution ; which he nevertheless did not, 
albeit he was divers times urged thereunto ; but so passed the time, and sud- 
denly returned to process. Whereupon the said Dr. Kerne appealed eftsoons 
again, and put up a supplication to the pope, for admission of the said appeal ; 
by reason whereof the matter was i-easoned in the signature ; in which signa- 
ture by no law it could be showed why the said Dr. Kerne should not be 
admitted to allege in defence of the king's highness ; but only that they there 
among themselves being the greater number, who were of the empei-or's domi- 
nions, and fee'd of him (among whom was also the said Capasuccha), gave their 
voices as the pope said, — that Dr. Kerne should not be heard, ' Sine mandate 
regite majestatis.' Whereunto when Dr. Kerne replied, saying. Whatsoever 
they decreed or said, there was no law to maintain and bear it : it was said 
again by cardinal Anconitate, That the pope might judge after his conscience. 
And, upon this resolution, they determined there to proceed in the principal The pope 
cause, unless the king would send a proxy ; intending by this injury and wrong, J^°"'^.v 
to enforce his highness to the exhibition oi^a proxy there, to his highness's high king to 
prejudice, to the pernicious example of the like to be done to other princes, and appear by 
also to the derogation of the liberties and prerogatives of his gracious realm : Ro^e/*' 
unto the observation whereof his highness is bound by his oath, and also by the 
same oath is bound to recover and restore such liberties and privileges as by 
any of his predecessors have been lost, diminished, or decayed in time past. 

These, with other like injuries and -vvrongs of the pope done to 
'the king, the aforesaid ambassador, Master Foxe, according as he 
had in charge and commission, did declare, open, and show unto the 

108 THE king's AXSVVER TO THE FKEN( H KlXr,, 

Henry Freiicli kiiig, to the intent to solicit the said king to do, by his 

mediation, for the remedy and redressing of those aforesaid injuries 

A. D and wrongful dealings of the pope in this behalf. 

T)ie third Furthermore, for the third pui-pose, touching the chancellor of France, foras- 
part or niuch as he was one of the chief personages whom the French king most trusted 
of tWs^^ in his great affairs (by whose advice all matters of learning were then conduced 
message, and trained), the king thought it not unprofitable, by all ways and means, to 
win and allure his friendship and amity also unto his devotion ; either that by 
his means and dexterity the king's purposes might be advanced the better, or 
at least for a ' ne noceat;' that is, to mitigate and diminish such favour as he, 
by the admiral or otherwise, was moved to show to the imperials. For this 
cause the king, committing in charge to his ambassador aforesaid, willed and 
instructed him how and what to do, and after what manner to attemperate him- 
self to all occasions and times of opportunity; as first, to deliver to him from 
the king his letters of credence, and withal to declare and extend the king's 
most affectuous commendations, with the hearty good will and sincere affection 
which his highness bare to the said cardinal, chancellor of France ; with no les-i 
desire, also, most gladly to do that thing which might be to his commodity and 
benefit, according as the manifold pleasures, gratuities, and kindness done on 
his part for the lung's highness, did worthily deserve. Then, after such words 
of mollification, to enter into further communication with him in such sort as 
might best serve his honour. 
The vain- And forasmuch as the cardinal was then noted to be much moved with the 
glory and affections of vain-glory and covetousness, therefore, amongst other communi- 
the"ar-° cation, it was devised to infer mention of the papality, noting what ways and 
dinal. means might be used to attain unto that dignity : wherein, if the king's higii- 
The ness could stand him in any stead, as he thought the person of the said chan- 

^f* rinces' cellor most meet for the same, so he would not fail to move and to procure it, 
courts to to the best furtherance of his advancement. And finally, to declare how desirous 
be noted, ^g l^^ing's highness was, to retain, and make sure unto him, the amity and 
friendship of the said chancellor, and that his highness, devising by what means 
and ways he might do the same (albeit his grace knew well, that the faith and 
sincerity of the said chancellor towards his master was such as no gift, pension, 
or other offer could advance or increase that good will, which, for his master's 
sake, he would employ in the king's highness's affairs), thought, that for de- 
claration of his hearty good will towards the said chancellor, it were convenient 
to offer unto him some yearly remembrance, &c. 

This was the sum and effect of the message which the king sent 

unto the French king, and to others of his council, by his ambassador, 

Master Edward Foxe, which was especially to signify and make 

manifest to the said French king, the unjust dealings and prejudicial 

proceedings of the pope, in calling up the king of England to appear 

at Rome by proxy, which was derogatory to the king's dignity and 

Gardiner, crown, and also prejudicial both to general councils of the primitive 

ITdoTto ^"^^^' ^^^ to the ancient laws and statutes of this realm (as is before 

the declared), and no less hurtful for example to all other princes and kings 

French ,-1 • e 

king, who ukewise, &C. 

against ^his mcssagc so done, shortly after was sent to the said French 
the king's king, Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, with the king's answer 
and message aijain on this manner : 


The Answer and Message of King Henry the Eighth to the French 
King, by his Ambassador Stephen Gardiner. 

That forasmuch as the saying of the French king to the ambassadors was 
this ; that notwithstanding all the king's realm should agree and condescend 
ever so much to the right and title, wliich the succession procreated by this his 


lawful niatnmony, hath, in this his realm ; yet, when outward parties shall con- mnry 
ceive any other or contrary opinion thereof, great trouhle and vexation might ''^^l- 
ensue. Whereunto the king made answer again, declaring that he could not ^ ^^ 
but greatly marvel, that the king his brother, being so wise a prince, and thereto -j^^'og' 

so well expert and learned in chronicles and histories, not only of his own realm, — '. — 

but also of all others, or any of his council, being men of such experience as 
they were taken to be, would think that the opinion and consent of other out- 
ward realms were so highly to be considered and regarded of any prince or 
king, in establishing or in executing of things which might be lawfully done, 
and which touched the preservation of the rights, pre-eminences, dignity, and 
state of his realm, and did also notably confer unto the singular benefit and 
tranquillity of the same, so as the words both of the said king his brother, and 
of the great master, did pretend : who, furthermore, were not ignorant them- 
selves, that many things have been, by his noble progenitors, kings of France, Kings in 
attempted and done, as well in cases of matrimony, as otherwise, which, in some ^j''^j,"f^" 
part, in the opinion of the popes of Rome then being, and, in some part, in the realms 
opinion of divers other outward princes, states, seigniories, and common people, are not 
have been thought not perfectly good, nor yet much acceptable unto them ; and (o\"^'e 
yet, that notwithstanding, his said progenitors, knowing themselves the pro- a^ree- 
secuting of those causes to be beneficial to them and to the realm, have not '""^j^'.^^jj 
therefore desisted from their said purposes, but, diligently employing their own realms, 
strength and powers with the succours of their friends, have finally achieved 
their said enterprises without requiring, or greatly regarding, the opinion or 
agreement thereunto of outward princes. 

Again, whereas the chancellor of France made this overture to the said The over- 
bishop of Winchester, Whether the king would be contented to have indifferent J,\'^'pi"!|„_ 
judges to be appointed by the authority of the pope, to determine his cause, celior of 
with a commission decretal from the same, declaring, 'Quid juris,' &c. The ^^''\'^'^*^' 
king, by his ambassador thereunto answering, declared, ' That the pope, having j^i,,g^ ^^^ 
done unto him such notable and evident injuries as he had done, it was his take in- 
office and duty now to labom- himself to end this matter, and to study how to f^Jjgpg'Jjy 
make due satisfaction to God, and his justice, which he hath, ' tam indignis the'iiope's 
modis,' offended and violated, and to deliver himself out of the danger, and the autho- 
perpetual infamy of the world, which he hath incurred by reason of these his '^' ^' 
most ungodly doings ; and not to look that the king should make any request 
or suit unto him there-for, or recompense for the same, &c. 

Furthermore, whereas the pope, at the request of the French king, had in 
open consistory prorogued execution of his censures and excommunication 
against the king unto the first day of November, and word thereof was sent to 
the king by his ambassadors, from the great master of France, that the king 
might have the said prorogation made authentically in writing, if he would ; 
the king, answering thereunto, thought it not unprofitable, that his ambassadors 
resident in France should receive into their hands the possession of the said 
new prorogation, conceived and written in authentic form and manner, according 
to the order of the laws. 

After this again came other letters to the king from France, namely, The king 
from the great master of France, tending to this end ; that if the king by''t"he''' 
Avould do nothing for the pope (meaning, by the revocation of such ll^^'^^l 
acts of parliament as were made in the realm of England, to the relent to 
pope's prejudice), it were no reason, neither should it be possible, for '^p"^"^' 
the French king to induce the pope to any gratuity or pleasure for the 
king in his affairs. Whereunto the king answering again, sendcth 
word to the French king to this effect : 

The King's Answer to the French King's Request. 

That he trusted and hoped well of the perfect friendship of the French king, 
his good brother, that he will never suffer any such persuasion to enter into his 
breast, whatsoever the great master, or any other shall say to the contrary 
thereof; nor that he will require any thing more of him to do for the pope, 

110 THE king's answer TO THE FRENCH KING. 

JTenry chancellor, or others, than his council hath already devised to be done in this 
Vlir. behalf; especially, considering tlie words of the said French king's promise 
. „ made before, as well to the duke of Norfolk, as to the other ambassadors, pro- 
1 "i^R mising his friendship to the king simply, without requiring him to revocate, or 

'_ infringe, any such act or constitution made by the realm and parliament to the 

The pope contrary : persuading, moreover, and laying before the eyes as well of the pope, 
mn'for^ as of the French king, how much it should redound to the pope's dishonour 
justice, and infamy, and to the slander also of his cause, if he should be seen so to pact 
but his and covenant with the king upon such conditions, for the administration of that 
and com- thing which he, in his own conscience, hath reputed and adjudged to be most 
modity. rightful, and agreeable to justice and equity ; and ought of his office and duty 
to do in this matter ' simpliciter et gratis,' and without all worldly respects, either 
for the advancement of his private lucre and commodity, or for the preservation 
of his pretensed power and authority. For surely it is not to be doubted but 
that the pope, being minded and determined to give sentence for the invalidity 
and nullity of the king's first pretensed matrimony, hath conceived and esta- 
blished in his own conscience a firm and certain opinion and persuasion, that 
he ought of justice and equity so to do. 

Then to see the pope to have this opinion indeed, and yet refuse to do this for 

the king, unless he shall be content for his benefit and pleasiu-e, * cedere juri 

The pope suo,' and to do some things prejudicial unto his subjects contrary to his honour : 

selleth it is easy to be foreseen, what the world and posterity shall judge ' De tam turpi 

Doetlf nundinatione justitias, et illius tam foeda et sordida lucri et honoris ambitione.' 

against And as for the king's part, if he shall not attain justice now at the mediation ot 

h^s con- j^ig good brother, knowing the pope to be of this disposition and determination 

in his heart, to satisfy all his desires, being moved thereunto by justice, and that 

the let thereof is no default of justice in the cause, but only for that the king 

woidd not condescend to his request ; it is to the king matter sufficient enough 

for discharge of his conscience to God and to the world, although he never did 

execute indeed his said determination. For since his corrupt affection is the 

only impediment thereof, what need either the king to require him any further 

to do in the cause, or else his subjects to doubt any further in the justness of 

the same ? 

For- Albeit if respects to benefits and merits done towards the pope and see of 

lipoid l^ome should be regarded in the attaining of justice in a cause of so high con- 

benefac- sequence as this is, reason would, that if it would please the pope to consider 

tors and i]^q former kindness of the king showed unto him in time past (whereof he is 

very loth to enter the rehearsal, 'Ne videatur velle exprobrare quae de aliis fecerit 

bene'), he should not now require of him any new benefit or gratuity to be 

showed unto him ; but rather study to recompense him /or the old graces. 

The bene- merits, pleasures, and benefits before received. For surely he thinketh that the 

fits of the pope cannot forget, how that for the conservation of his person, his estate and 

hinf "^°" dignity, the king hath not heretofore spared for any respect, in using the office 

when he of a most perfect and steadfast friend, to relinquish the long continued good will 

was taken established between him and the emperor, and to declare openly to all the 

duke^of world, that for the pope's sake, and in default of his deliverance, he would 

Bourbon, become enemy to the said emperor, and to make against him actual war. 

Besides this, the king hath not failed him with right large and ample subven- 
tions of money, for the better supporting of his charges against the enterprises 
of the said emperor, combining and knitting himself with the French king, to 
procure the advancement of the said French king's army into Italy, to the charges 
whereof the king did bear little less than the one half; besides notable losses 
sustained as well in his customs, subsidies, and other duties, as also to the no 
little hinderance and damage of his subjects and merchants, occasioned by dis- 
continuance of the traffic and intercourse heretofore used with the emperor's 
All is lost subjects. In doing of all which things, the king hath not been thus respective, 
that is as tiie pope now showeth himself towards him, but, like a perfect friend, hath 
churl. ^ been always contented frankly, liberally, and openly, to expone all his study, 
labour, travail, treasure, puissance, realm, and divers subjects, for the pope's 
aid, and maintenance of the state and dignity of the church and see of Rome. 
Which things although he doth not here rehearse 'animo exprobrandi,' yet he 
doubteth not but the same, weighed in the balance of any indifferent man's 
judgment, shall be thought to be of that weight and value, as that he hath justly 


deserved to have some mutual correspondency of kindness to be showed unto Henry 
him at the pope's hands; especially in the ministration of justice, and in so ^"^^I- 
reasonable and just cause as this is ; and not thus to have his most rightful ^ j^ 
petition rejected and denied, because he will not follow his desire and appetite \^^q 

in revoking of such acts, as be here made and passed for the weal and commo- 1_ 

dity of his realm and subjects. 

Thus ye have heard how instantly the king had laboured, by the 
means of the French king, to the pope being then in France, for right 
and justice to be done for the dissolution and nullity of his first pre- 
tensed matrimony with his brother's wife : which when it could not 
be attained at the pope's hands, unless the king would recompense 
and requite the same, by revoking of such statutes as were made and 
enacted here in the high court of parliament, for the surety of suc- 
cession and establishment of the realm ; what the king thereunto 
answered again, ye heard, declaring that to be a far unequal recom- 
pense and satisfaction for a thing which ought of right and justice to be 
ministered unto him, that a king therefore should revoke and undo 
the acts and statutes passed by a whole realm, contrary to his own 
honour and weal of his subjects, &c. 

Here is moreover to be understood, how that the pope, with all his The 
papists, and the French king also, and peradventure Stephen Gar- packLg 
diner too, the king's own ambassador, had ever a special eye to °^^\^^^ 
disprove and disappoint the king's succession by queen Anne, whom 
they knew all to be a great enemy unto the pope ; thinking thereby 
that if that succession were diminished, the pope's kingdom might 
soon be restored again in England. But yet, for all their unjust and 
crafty packing, they were, through God's providence, frustrated of their 
desired purpose : for, although they so brought to pass the next year 
following, to annul the order of that succession bya contrary parliament, 
yet neither did they so annihilate it, but that both king Edward 
followed, yea, and also the same succession afterwards, by the said papists 
king, and other parliaments was restored again ; and yet, God be of"thefr^'^ 
praised, hath hitherto reigned, and doth yet flourish in the realm of purpose. 

Now, as we have declared the king's doings in the realm of Scot- 
land and of France, proceeding further in the king's proceedings 
with other princes, let us see how the king defended himself and his 
cause before the emperor, sending his ambassador unto him, using 
these words before his majesty, as here followeth. 

The Oration of the King's Ambassador before the Emperor, in 
Defence of his Cause. 

Sir: the king my master, taking and reputing you as his perfect friend, con- 
federate, and ally, and not doubting but you, remembering the mutual kindness 
between you in times past, will show yourself in all occurrents to be of such 
mind and disposition, as justice, truth, and equity do require, hath willed me, 
by his letters, to open and to declare unto you, what he hath done, and in what 
wise he hath proceeded, concerning such man-iage as by many 3'ears was sup- 
posed to have been between your aunt and his grace : in which matter there Oivisions 
being two principal points specially to be regarded and considered, that is to jng ;„ two 
say, the justice of the cause, and the order of the process therein, his highness parts. 
hath so used him in both, as no man may right wisely complain of the same. 

For as touching the justness of the cause, that is to say, of that marriage 






iiess of 
the king's 


with the 

Both the 
and mat- 
ter make 
with the 
kin If. 

The se- 
cond part 
of his 

between him and your said aunt, to be nought, and of no moment, or effect, 
but against tlie law of God, nature, and man, and indispensable by the pope, 
and in no wise available ; his highness hath done therein as nuich as beconieth 
him for discharge of his conscience, and hath found so certain, so evident, so 
manifest, so open and approved truth, as whereunto his majesty ought of good 
congruence to give place, and which by all others ought to be allowed and 
received, not as a matter doubtful, disputable, or depending in question and 
ambiguity ; but as a plain, determined, and discussed verity of the true under- 
standing of God's word and law, which all cln-istian men must follow and 
obey, and before all other worldly respects prefer and e.xecute. In attaining 
the knowledge whereof, if his highness had used only his own particular 
judgment and sentence, or the mind only and opinion of his own natural 
subjects (although the same might in his conscience have sufficed), he would 
not much have repugned, if some others had made difficulty to assent to him 
in the same, till further discussion had been made thereupon. But now, foras- 
much as besides his own certain understanding, and the agreement of his whole 
clergy to the same in both pi-ovinces of this realm, his majesty hath also for him 
the determination of the most famous universities of Christendom, and most 
indifferent to pronounce and give judgment in this case : and among them, tlie 
university of Bologna (all fear of the pope set apart), concluding against his 
power, and also Padua (the Venetians' threats not regarded) giving their 
sentence for the truth and evident words of God's law; there should no man, 
as seemeth to him, gainsay or withstand, either in word or deed, the truth thus 
opened ; but, for his honour and duty, to the observation of God's law, willingly 
embrace and receive the same. According whereunto his grace perceiveth also, 
as well in his realm, as elsewhere, a notable consent and agreement amongst 
all divines, and such as have studied for knowledge of God's law, without con- 
tradiction of any niunber, unless it be such as, applying their mind to the 
maintenance of worldly affections, do, either in defence of such laws as they 
have studied, or for satisfaction of their private appetite, forbear to agree unto 
the same ; the number of whom is so small, as, in the discerning of truth, it 
ought not to be regarded in a case so plainly described and determined by God's 
word as this is. 

And if percase your majesty here, not regarding the number but the matter, 
shall seem to consider, in this case, not so much who speaketh, as what is 
spoken ; to answer thereunto, I say. Sir ! the king, my master, is of the same 
mind, for his own satisfaction, and taketh himself to be in the right, not because 
so many say it, but because he being learned, knoweth the matter to be right. 
Nevertheless reason would, and enforceth also, that strangers to the cause, and 
not parties therein, should be induced to believe that to be truth which such a 
number of clerks do so constantly affirm ; especially not being otherwise learned 
to be judges of their sayings, as your majesty is not. And if you were, then 
could your highness show such reasons, authorities, and grounds as cannot be 
taken away ; and be so firm and stable, as they ought not of christian men in 
any part to be impugned, like as hath been partly heretofore showed by his 
simdry ambassadors to your imperial majesty, and should eftsoons be done, were 
it not too great an injury to that which is already passed in the realm, to dispute 
the same again in any other country : which, being contrarious to the laws and 
ordinances of his realm, he trusteth your prudency will not require, but take 
that which is past for a thing done, and justly done ; and as for God's part, to 
leave his conscience to himself, ' qui Domino suo stat aut cadit ;' and for the 
world, (to pass over as a friend that which nothing toucheth you, and not to 
marvel though the said king my master, regarding the wealth of his soul prin- 
cipally, with the commodity of his person and so great benefit and quiet of his 
realm), have percase done that which he, for his private fantasy, would had 
not chanced ; like as his highness also would wish it had not happened, that 
such cause had been given unto him to compel him so to do. 

But these tilings in their outward visage be but worldly, and inwardly touch 
and concern the soul. ' Quid autem prodest homini si universum mundum 
lucretur, animae vero suae detrimentum patiatiu- ? Primum quaerite regnum 
Dei,' &c. And yet neither is his highness ignorant what respect is to be had 
unto the world ; and how much he hath laboured and travailed therein, he hath 
sufficiently declared and showed to the world in his acts and proceedings. For 


if he had utterly contemned the order and process of the world, or the friend- jienry 
ship and amity of your majesty, he needed not to have sent so often and sundry VtU. 
embassades to the pope, and to you both, nor continued and spent his lime in ^ j^ 
delays, as he hath done liitherto, but might, many years past, have done what jJ^q' 

he hath done now, if it had so liked him, and with as little difficulty then as L 

now, if without such respect he would have followed his pleasure in that behalf. How tlie 
But now I doubt not your majesty doth well remember how often the king, my fied^^vUh 
master, hath sent unto your highness, and that your majesty hath heard also the king. 
what suits he hath made to the pope, and how the said pope hath handled him 
again only in delay and dalliance ; with open commission given to his legates to 
determine and give sentence for him by a commission decretal, and secretly 
to give them instructions, to suspend and put over the same. By which means, 
and otlicrs semblable, he perceived plainly himself to be brought into such a 
labyrinth, as going forward that way he were like to come to no end, and was 
therefore compelled to step right forth at once to the maze's end, there to quiet 
and repose himself at last. 

And is it not time to have an end in seven years, or else to seek for it 
another way? The pope hath showed himself both unwilling to have an 
end, and also so ready and prone to do him injury, as well in citing him to Rome, 
as also sending forth certain briefs to his grace slanderous, and for the injustice 
and iniquity of them, to himself dishonourable ; as he gave his highness good 
and just cause to suspect, whether any end to be made at his hand (if any 
he would make) might be in his conscience received and followed. For the 
pope doing injury in some point, why should he be thought a convenient judge, 
not using himself indifferently in this matter (as many more particularities may 
be showed and declared), considering there is a general council,' willing all 
matters to be determined where they first began, and that the wliole body of 
our realm hath, for the wealth of the same, by a law established the determina- 
tion of such causes ? by reason whereof the bishop of Canterbury, as metropoli- 
tan of our realm, hath given sentence in due judgment for the king's party. It 
is not to be asked, nor questioned, whether that matter hath been determined 
after the common fashion, but whether it hath in it common justice, trutli, and 
equity of God's law. For observation of the common ordei', his grace hath 
done what lay in him, and enforced by necessity, hath found the true oi'der 
maintainable by God's word and general councils, which he hath in substance 
followed witli effect, and hath done as becometli him, tendering either God's 
law, or his person, or the wealth of his realm, like as he doubteth not but your 
majesty (as a wise prince), remembei-ing his cause from the beginning hitherto, 
will of yourself consider and think, that among mortal men nothing should be 
immortal, and suits must once have an end, ' Si possis recte, si non quocunque 
modo.' And if he cannot as he would, then must his highness do as he may ; and 
he that hath a journey to be perfected, must, if he cannot go one way, essay 
another. Whatsoever hath been herein done, necessity hath enforced him (that 
is to say, God's law) in the matter, and such manner of dealing of the pope, 
as he hath showed unto him in the same, doing sundry injuries without effect of 
justice, wherein he promised the same. But as for the king's matter to the pope, 
he shall treat with him apart. As touching your majesty, he taketh you for his 
friend, and as to a friend he openeth these matters unto you, trusting to find 
your majesty no less friendly hereafter unto him, than he hath done here- 

By these matters thus passed and discoursed to and fro, between 
the king and these foreign princes above rehearsed, many things are 
to be understood of the reader, whoso is disposed to behokl and con- 
sider the state and proceeding of public affairs, as well to the church ,^^^ 
appertaining, as to the commonwealth. First, how the king cleareth kjng'a 
himself both justly and reasonably for his divorce made with the lady and°his' 
Katharine, the emperor's aunt. Secondly, how he proveth and de- ^fth"*^^ 
fendeth his marriage with queen Anne to be just and lawful, both by °^^^^ 
the authority of God"'s word, and the comprobation of the best and most lawful. 

(1) This general council was the first council of Constantinople. 
VOL. V. I 


Henry fluTious Iccarned men and universities, and also by the assent of the 
' "whole realm. 

A.D. Furthermore, for the establishing of the kin2r''s succession to the 
imperial crown of this realm, for the suppression of the pope, and 

Tiiepope uniting the title of supremacy unto the king's crown, what order 
pre.'sed. was therein taken, and what penalty was set upon the same, may 

appear by the act of parliament set forth a.d. 1534,' in these words 

following : 

Benjing ' If any person or persons, after the first of February next, do maliciously 
^ji^"',^ imagine, invent, practise, or attempt to deprive the king of the dignity, title, or 
preiiiaey name of his royal estate, &c., that then every such person and persons so 
made offending in any of the premises, their aiders, counsellors, consenters, and 
reason, ajjeftoj-g^ being thereof lawfully convicted, according to the laws and customs 
of this realm, shall be reputed, accepted, and adjudged traitors ; and that every 
such offence in any the premises committed or done after the said first day of 
February, shall be reputed, accepted, and adjudged high treason ; and the 
offenders therein, their aiders, consenters, counsellors, and abettors, being law- 
fully convicted of any such offence, shall have and suffer such pains of death 
and other penalties, as are limited and accustomed in cases of high-treason.' 

Upon this and such other acts concluded in those parliaments, 
what stomach the pope took, what stir he kept, and what practices he 
wrought with cardinal Pole, to stir up other nations to war against 
us ; what difficulty also there was with the emperor, with the French 
king, and with the king of Scots, about the matter ; and what labour 
was used on the king's part, to reconcile the princes for his own in- 
demnity, to keep him from their wars and invasions, and especially to 
obtain the pope's approbation, and to avoid his censures of excom- 
munication ; and finally, Avhat despiteful injuries and open wrongs 
the pope wrought against him, upon which pope the king had bestowed 
so much money and great treasures before, all this, likewise, by the 
premises may appear 

Wherefore, to end now with these, and to go forward in our 
story, as the order and computation of years do give, we have now 
consequently to enter into the story of the good martyr of God, 
William Tyndale, being this present year falsely betrayed and put 
to death ; which William Tyndale, as he was a special organ of the 
Lord appointed, and as God's mattock to shake the inward roots and 
foundation of the pope's proud prelacy, so the great prince of dark- 
ness, with his impious imps, having a special malice against him, left 
no way unsought how craftily to entrap him, and hilsely to betray 
him, and maliciously to spill his life, as by the process of his story 
here following may appear. 

2r&e Eife anD ^torp of tl)e true ^etbant anD lElautpc of aSoD, 
JDilliam ^TpnDale/ 




A.D. 1536. William Tyndale, the faithful minister and constant martyr of 
Christ, was born about the borders of Wales, and brought up from 

(1) Stat. 2G Hen. VIII. (2) See the Latin edition : Basle, 1599, p. 138.— Ed. 

(.I) Mr. Offer, in his recently puhlished Life of AVilliam Tyndale, represent.s liim as the baron, 
when, in truth, he was only a descendant of the baron. The editor subjoins an extract from an 



a child in the university of Oxford, Avhere he, by long continuance, JJemy 

grew up, and increased as well in the knowledge of tongues, and L. 

other liberal arts, as especially in the knowledge of the Scriptures, A. D. 
whereunto his mind was singularly addicted ; insomuch that he, ^^'^^- 
lying then m Magdalen hall, read privily to certain students and 1^^^^^^^ 
fellows of Magdalen college, some parcel of divinity; instructing God's 
them in the knowledge and truth of the Scriptures. His manners Magda" 
also and conversation being correspondent to the same, Avere such, j^" ''°f,y 
that all they that knew him, reputed and esteemed him to be a man Tyn'daie. 
of most virtuous disposition, and of life unspotted. 

Thus he, in the university of Oxford, increasing more and more 
in learning, and proceeding in degrees of the schools, spying his 
time, removed from thence to the university of Cambridge, where, 
after he had likewise made his abode a certain space, being now 
further ripened in the knowledge of God"'s word, leaving that 
university also, he resorted to one Master Welch, a knight of Glou- 
cestershire, and was there schoolmaster to his children, and in good 
favour with his master. This gentleman, as he kept a good ordinary 
commonly at his table, there resorted to him many times sundry 
abbots, deans, archdeacons, with divers other doctors, and great bene- 
ficed men ; who there, together with Master Tyndale sitting at the 
same table, did use many times to enter communication, and talk of 
learned men, as of Luther and of Erasmus ; also of divers other con- 
troversies and questions upon the Scripture. 

Then Master Tyndale, as he was learned and well practised in He dis- 
God''s matters, so he spared not to show unto them simply and wuh'tue 
plainly his judgment in matters, as he thought ; and when they at doctors. 
any time did vary from Tyndale in opinions and judgment, he would 
show them in the book, and lay plainly before them the open and 
manifest places of the Scriptures, to confute their errors, and con- 
firm his sayings. And thus continued they for a certain season, 
reasoning and contending together divers and sundry times, till at 
length they waxed weary, and bare a secret grudge in their hearts 
against him. 

Not long after this, it happened that certain of these great doctors 
had invited Master Welch and his wife to a banquet ; where they 
had talk at will and pleasure, uttering their blindness and igno- 
rance without any resistance or gainsaying. Then Master Welch instmct- 
and his wife, coming home, and calling for Master Tyndale, began Lr weTch 
to reason with him about those matters whereof the priests had talked ^fe'ln 
before at their banquet. Master Tyndale, answering by the Scrip the truth. 
tures, maintained the truth, and reproved their false opinions. Then 
said the lady Welch, a stout and a wise woman (as Tyndale re- 
ported), " Well," said she, " there was such a doctor who may dis- 
pend a hundred pounds, and another two hundred pounds, and 
another three hundred pounds : and what ! were it reason, think you, 

unpublished MS. of a descendant of Thomas, the brother of William Tyndale. " Hugh Tyndale, 
a descendant of Robert, Baron de Tyndale, of Longly Castle, in Northumberland, settled in Glou- 
cestershire during the wars of York and Lancaster, where he passed for some time under the 
name of Hutchens, having been concerned in the quarrel between the contending families. He 
married Alicia, daughter and sole heiress of — Hunt, of Hunt Court, in Nibley, near Dursley, 
Esquire. His son John Tyndale was the father of William Tyndale of Magdalen hall, O.xford, who 
was born at Hunt Court about the year 1477, and is justly styled The worthy Apostle of the English 
Reformation." — Ed. 

1 O 


Henry that we slioiild bclicve you before them ?" Master Tyndale gave 

L. her no answer at that time, and also after that (because he saw it 

A.D. woukl not avail), he talked but-/iittle in those matters. At that time 
^^^^- lie was about the translation of a book called ' Enchiridion Militis 
Christiani,''^ which, being translated, he delivered to his master and 
lady ; Avho, after they had read and well perused the same, the 
doctorly prelates were no more so often called to the house, neither 
had they the cheer and countenance Avhen they came, as before they 
had : which thing they marking, and well perceiving, and supposing 
no less but it came by the means of Master Tyndale, refrained them- 
selves, and at last utterly withdrew, and came no more there. 
The As this grew on, the priests of the country, clustering together, 

storm*' began to grudge and storm against Tyndale, railing against him in 
apainst alehouscs aud other places ; of Avhom Tyndale himself, in his prologue 
before the first book of Moses, thus testifieth in his own words, and 
reporteth that he suffered much in that country by a sort of unlearned 
Rudeness pricsts, being full rude and ignorant (saith he) God knoweth : " who 
clumry h^ve Seen no more Latin, than that only Avhich they read in their 
priests, portucscs and missals (which yet many of them can scarcely read), 
except it be ' Albertus, De Secretis Mulierum,' in which yet, though 
they be never so sorrily learned, they pore day and night, and make 
notes therein, and all to teach the midwivcs, as they say ; and also 
another called ' LindAvood,"" a book of constitutions to gather tithes, 
mortuaries, offerings, customs, and other pillage, which they call not 
theirs, but God's part, the duty of holy church, to discharge their 
consciences withal. For they are bound that they shall not diminish, 
but increase all things unto the uttermost of their powers, which per- 
tain to holy church."" Thus these blind and rude piicsts, flocking 
together to the alehouse (for that Avas their preaching place), raged 
and railed against him, affirming that his sayings were heresy ; adding 
moreover unto his sayings, of their OAvn heads, more than ever he 
Tyndale spakc, and SO accused him secretly to the chancellor, and others of 
by them, the bishop's officers. 

Called It folloAved uot loug after this, that there Avas a sitting of the 

i''^s'h<r ■ ''^ bishop's chancellor appointed, and Avarning Avas given to the priests 

chancel- to appear, amongst Avhom Master Tyndale Avas also Avarned to be 

'°'^' there. And Avhether he had any misdoubt by their thrcatcnings, or 

knoAvledge given him that they Avould lay some things to his charge, 

it is uncertain ; but certain this is (as he himself declared), that he 

doubted their privy accusations ; so that he by the way, in going 

thitherAvards, cried in his mind heartily to God, to give him strength 

fast to stand in the truth of his Avord. 

Then Avhen the time came for his appearance before the chancellor, 

he threatened him grievously, reviling and rating at him as though 

he had been a dog, and laid to his charge many things Avhereof no 

Tyndale accuscr yct could be brought forth (as commonly their manner is, 

kn"ow h\l "ot to bring forth the accuser), notAvithstanding that the priests of 

accusers. \\^q couutry the same time Avere there present. And thus Master 

Tyndale, after those examinations, escaping out of their hands, 

departed home, and returned to his master again. 

There dwelt not far off a certain doctor, that had been an old 

(1) Enchiridion, a bork of Erasmus. 


cliancellor before to a bishop, wlio had been of old familiar acqiiain- Henry 
tance with Master Tvndale, and also favoured him well : unto whom L 

Master Tyndale went and opened his mind upon divers questions of A.D 
the Scripture : for to him he durst be bold to disclose his heart. 1536. 
Unto whom the doctor said, " Do you not know that the pope is one good 
very Antichrist, whom the Scripture speaketh of .^ But beware what doctor 
you say ; for if you shall be perceived to be of that opinion, it will f"a","°'*' 
cost you your life :"" and said moreover, " I have been an officer of naughty. 
his ; but I have given it up, and defy him and all his works." 

It was not long after, but Master Tyndale happened to be in the Biaspiie- 
company of a certain divine, recounted for a learned man, and, in Shid^^ 
communing and disputing with him, he drave him to that issue, that (ioc'T- 
the said great doctor burst out into these blasphemous words, and 
said, " We were better to be without God's laws than the pope's." 
Master Tyndale, hearing this, full of godly zeal, and not bearing that 
blasphemous saying, replied again, and said, " I defy the pope, and The 
all his laws ;" and further added, that if God spared him life, ere \°l^'^ 
many years he would cause a boy that driveth the plough, to know preferred 
more of the Scripture than he did. After this, the grudge of the coA't 
priests increasing still more and more against Tyndale, they never '^"'' 
ceased barking and rating at him, and laid many things sorely to 
his charge, saying that he was a heretic in sophistry, a heretic in 
logic, a heretic in divinity ; and said moreover to him, that he bare 
himself bold of the gentlemen there in that country ; but notwith- 
standing, shortly he should be otherwise talked withal. To whom 
Master Tyndale, answering again, thus said, that he was contented 
they should bring him into any country in all England, giving him 
ten pounds a year to live with, and binding him to no more but to 
teach children, and to preach. 

To be short, Master Tyndale, being so molested and vexed in the Tyndaie 
country by the priests, was constrained to leave that country, and to rnfm"*^^** 
seek anotlier place ; and so coming to Master Welch, he desired ^^^^^ 
him, of his good Avill, that he might depart from him, saying on this and 
wise to him : " Sir, I perceive that I shall not be suffered to tarry London. ° 
long here in this country, neither shall you be able, though you would, 
to keep me out of the hands of the spiritualty ; and also Avhat dis- 
pleasure might grow thereby to you by keeping me, God knoweth ; for 
the which I should be right sorry." So that in fine, Master Tyndale, 
with the good will of his master, departed, and eftsoons came up to 
London, and there preached awhile, according as he had done in the 
country before, and especially about the town of Bristol, and also in 
the said town, in the common place called St. Austin's Green. 

At length, bethinking himself of Cuthbert Tonstal, then bishop of 
London, and especially for the great commendation of Erasmus, who, 
in his annotations, so extolleth him for his learning, Tyndale thus 
cast with himself, that if he might attain unto his service, he were a 
happy man. And so coming to Sir Henry Guilford, the king's 
comptroller, and bringing with him an oration of Isocrates, which he 
had then translated out of Greek into English, he desired him to 
speak to the said bishop of London for him ; Avhich he also did ; and 
Avilled him moreover to write an epistle to the bishop, and to go himself 
with him. This he did likewise, and delivered his e])istle to a servant 






sueth to 



to be his 



of his, named William Hebilthwait, a man of his old acquaintance. 
But God, who secretly disposeth the course of things, saw that was 
not the best for Tyndale''s purpose, nor for the profit of his church, 
and therefore gave him to find little favour in the bishop's sight ; the 
answer of whom was this : That his house was full ; he had more 
than he could well find : and advised him to seek in London abroad, 
where, he said, he could lack no service, &c. And so remained he in 
London the space almost of a year, beholding and marking with 

rcfuseui. liimsclf the course of the world, and especially the demeanour of the 
preachers, how they boasted themselves, and set up their authority 
and kingdom ; beholding also the pomp of the prelates, with other 
things more, which greatly misliked him ; insomuch that he under- 
stood, not only that there was no room in the bishop"'s house for him 
to translate the New Testament, but also that there was no place 
to do it in all England. And therefore, finding no place for his pur- 
pose within the realm, and having, by God's providence, some aid 
and provision ministered unto him by Humphrey Mummuth, above 
recited (as you may see before), and certain other good men, he 
took his leave of the realm, and departed into Germany, where the 
good man, being inflamed with a tender care and zeal of his country, 
refused no travail nor diligence, how, by all means possible, to reduce 
his brethren and countrymen of England to the same taste and 
understanding of God's holy word and verity, which the Lord had 
endued him withal. Whereupon, considering in his mind, and 
partly also conferring with John Frith, Tyndale thought with himself 
no way more to conduce thereunto, than if the Scripture were turned 

Scripture jnto tlic vulgar spcecli, that the poor people might also read and see 
the simple plain word of God. For first, wisely casting in his mind, 
he perceived by experience, how that it was not possible to establish 
the lay people in any truth, except the Scriptures were so plainly laid 
before their eyes in their mother tongue, that they might see the 
process, order, and meaning of the text ; for else, whatsoever truth 
sliould be taught them, these enemies of the truth would quench it 
again, either with apparent reasons of sophistry, and traditions of 
their own making, founded without all ground of Scripture ; or else 
juggling with the text, expounding it in such a sense as it were im- 
possible to gather of the text, if the right process, order, and mean- 
ing thereof were seen. 

Again, right well he perceived and considered this only, or most 
chiefly, to be the cause of all mischief in the church, that the Scrip- 
tures of God were hidden from the people's eyes ; for so long the 
abominable doings and idolatries maintained by the pharisaical clergy 
could not be espied ; and therefore all their labour was with might 
and main to keep it down, so that either it should not be read at all, 
or if it were, they would darken the right sense with the mist of their 
sophistry, and so entangle those who rebuked or despised their 
abominations, with arguments of philosophy, and with worldly simili- 
tudes, and apparent reasons of natural wisdom ; and, with wresting 
the Scripture unto their own purpose, contrary unto the process, 
order, and meaning of the text, would so delude them in descanting 
upon it with allegories, and amaze them, expounding it in many senses 
laid before the unlearned lay jicople, that though thou felt in thy 

into Ger- 

to trans- 
late the 

into the 

Hiding of 
the cause 
of niis- 


heart, and wert sure tliat all were false that they said, yet couldst thou Henry 
not solve their subtle riddles. 

For these and such other considerations this good man Avas moved A.D. 
(and no doubt stuTcd up of God) to translate the Scripture into his ^^^^- 
mother tongue, for the public utility and profit of the simple vulgar jes^t^*^^ 
people of his country; first setting in hand with the New Testament, mentand 
which he first translated about a. d. 1527. After that, he took in books of 
hand to translate the Old Testament, finishing the five books ofjfans- 
Moses, with sundry most learned and godly prologues prefixed before '^L^,'^™, , 
every one, most worthy to be read and read again by all good Chris- dale's pro- 
tians, as the like also he did upon the New Testament. He wrote °°^^^' 
also divers other works under sundry titles, amongst which is that 
most worthy monument of his, entitled, " The Obedience of a Chris- 
tian Man," Avherein, with singular dexterity, he instructeth all men 
in the office and duty of christian obedience, with divers other 
treatises, as "The Wicked Mammon," " The Practice of Prelates;" 
with expositions upon certain parts of the Scripture, and other books 
also, answering to Sir Thomas More and other adversaries of the 
truth, no less delectable, than also most fruitful to be read ; which 
partly before being unknoAvn unto many, partly also being almost 
abolished and worn out by time, the printer hereof, good reader, for 
conserving and restoring such singular treasures, hath collected and 
set forth in print the same in one general volume, all and whole toge- 
ther, as also the works of John Frith, Barnes, and others, as are to 
be seen, most special and profitable for thy reading. 

These books of William Tyndale being compiled, published, and 
sent over info England, it cannot be spoken what a door of light 
they opened to the eyes of the whole English nation, which before 
were many years shut up in darkness. 

At his first departing out of the realm he took his joinney into Xyndaie 
the further parts of Germany, as into Saxony, where he had conference saxon'y,"* 
with Luther and other learned men in those quarters ; where after gJifjo"'"' 
he had continued a certain season, he came down from thence into Antwerp. 
the Netherlands, and had his most abiding in the town of Antwerp, 
*there,' being not idle, but labouring in setting forth a plain declaration 
and understanding of the Scriptures,* until the time of his appre- 
hension ; whereof more shall be said (God willing) hereafter. 

Amongst his other books which he compiled, one work he made 
ilso for the declaration of the sacrament (as it was then called) of the 
altar; which he kept by him, considering how the people were not 
as yet fully persuaded in other matters tending to superstitious cere- 
monies and gross idolatry. Wherefore he thought as yet time was 
not come to put forth that work, but rather that it should hinder the 
people from other instructions, supposing that it would seem to them 
odious to hear any such thing spoken or set forth at that time, 
sounding against their great goddess Diana, that is, against their 
mass, being had everywhere in great estimation, as was the goddess 
Diana amongst the Ephesians, whom they thought to come from 
heaven. Wherefore Master Tyndale, being a man both prudent in 
his doings, and no less zealous in the setting forth of God's holy 
truth after such sort as it might take most eflfect with the people, did 

(1) See Edition 1563, p. 516.— Ed, 


jjenry forbcar the putting forth of tliat work, not doubting but, by God''s 
^ merciful grace, a time sliould come to have that abomination openly 


\-^- declared, as it is at this present day : the Lord Almighty be always 
^•^'^^- praised therefore. Amen ! 

These godly books of Tyndale, and especially the New Testament 

of his translation, after that they began to come into mcn"'s hands, 

and to spread abroad, as they wrought gi-eat and singular profit to the 

godly, so the ungodly (envying and disdaining that the people should 

be any thing wiser than they, and again, fearing lest, by the shining 

Darkness bcams of truth, thcir false hypocrisy and works of darkness should be 

lil'ht. discerned), began to stir with no small ado ; like as at the birth of 

Christ, Herod was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. But 

Satan an especially Satan, the prince of darkness, maligning the happy course 

au'^^od" and success of the gospel, set to his might also, how to impeach and 

purposes, lii^fier the blessed travails of that man ; as by this, and also by 

especially -rii-miiii 

to the sundry other ways may appear. 1* or at what tune 1 yndale had 
translated the fifth book of Moses colled Deuteronomy, minding to 
print the same at Hamburgh, he sailed thitherward ; where by the 
Tyndale Way, upou the coast of Holland, he suffered shipwreck, by which he 
b°oo'ks'and ^°^^ ^^ ^^^^ books. Writings, and copies, and so was compelled to begin 
copies by all again anew, to his hinderance, and doubling of his labours. Thus, 
wri'ck. having lost by that ship, both money, his copies, and his time, he 
ahdperof Came in another ship to Hamburgh, where, at his appointment, 
Tyndale. Master Covcrdalc tarried for him, and helped him in the translating 
of the whole five books of Moses, from Easter till December, in the 
house of a Avorshipful widow, Mistress Margaret Van Eramerson, 
A.D. 1529 ; a great sweating sickness being at the same time in the 
town. So, having dispatched his business at Hamburgh, he re- 
turned afterwards to Antwerp again. 

Thus, as Satan is, and ever hath been, an enemy to all godly en- 
deavours, and chiefly to the promoting and furtherance of God's 
Avord, as by this and many other experiments may be seen, so his 
ministers and members, following the like quality of their master, be 
not altogether idle for thcir parts ; as also by the pope^s chaplains 
and God''s enemies, and by their cruel handling of the said Master 
Tyndale at the same time, both here in England and in Flanders, 
may well appear. 

When God's will was, that the New Testament in the common 

tongue should come abroad, Tyndale, the translator thereof, added 

to the latter end a certain epistle, wherein he desired thein that were 

learned to amend, if ought were found amiss. AVhcrefore if there 

had been any such default deserving correction, it had been the part 

of courtesy and gentleness, for men of knowledge and judgment to 

have showed their learning therein, and to have redi-essed what Avas 

The prac- to be amended. But the spiritual fathers then of the clergy, being 

pophh ^^^ willing to have that book to prosper, cried out upon it, bearing 

prelates jngu iu hand that there were a thousand heresies in it, and that it 

the Scrip- was uot to be corrected, but utterly to be suppressed. Some said it 

from the ^^'^^ uot possible to translate the Scriptures into English ; some, that 

people, jt ^vas not lawful for the lay people to have it in thcir mother-tongue; 

some, that it would make them all heretics. And to the intent to 

induce the temporal rulers also unto their purpose, they made more 


matter, and said that it would make the people to rebel and rise Hmry 
against the king. All this Tyndale himself, in his own prologue 

before the first book of Moses, declareth ; and addeth further, A. D. 
showing what great pains were taken in examining that translation. 

and comparing it with their own imaginations and terms, that with 
less labour, he supposeth, they might have translated themselves a 
great part of the Bible : showing moreover, that they scanned and 
examined every tittle and point in the said translation, in such sort, 
and so narrowly, that there was not one % therein, but if it lacked a 
prick over its head, they did note it, and numbered it unto the 
ignorant people for a heresy. So great were then the froward de- 
vices of the English clergy (who should have been the guides of light 
unto the people), to drive the people from the text and knowledge 
of the Scripture, which neither they would translate themselves, nor why'tL 
yet abide it to be translated of others ; to the intent (as Tyndale p°^p^'« 
saith) that the world being kept still in darkness, they might sit in cannot 
the consciences of the people through vain superstition and false scripture 
doctrine, to satisfy their lusts, their ambition, and insatiable covetous- common 
ness, and to exalt their own honour above king and emperor, yea tonsjue. 
and above God himself.^ 

The bishops and prelates of the realm, thus (as ye have heard) 
incensed and inflamed in their minds, although having no cause, 
against the Old and New Testament of the Lord newly translated 
by Tyndale, and conspiring together with all their heads and coun- 
sels, how to repeal the same, never rested before they had brought 
the king at last to their consent ; by reason whereof, a proclamation 
in all haste was devised and set forth under public authority, but no 
just reason showed, that the Testament of Tyndale^s translation, with 
other works besides, both of his, and of other writers, were inhibited 
and abandoned, as ye heard before:^ which was about a. d. 1527. 
And yet not contented herewith, they proceeded further, how to 
entangle him in their nets, and to bereave him of his life ; which 
how they brought to pass, now it remaineth to be declared. 

In the registers of London it appeareth manifest, how that the Privy . 
bishops and sir Thomas More having any poor man under ' coram,' cy"of"t'he 
to be examined before them, namely, such as had been at Antwerp, ^ga^inst 
most studiously would search and examine all things belonging to Tyndaie. 
Tyndale, where and with Avliom he hosted, whereabouts stood the 
house, what was his stature, in what apparel he went, what resort he 
had, &c. : all which things when they had diligently learned (as may 
appear by the examination of Simon Smith and others), then began 
they to work their feats, as you shall hear by the relation of his own 

William Tyndale, being in the town of Antwerp, had b^en lodged 
about one whole year in the house of Thomas Pointz an English- 
man, who kept there a house of English merchants ; about which 
time came thither one out of England, whose name was Henry 
• Philips, his father being customer of Poole, a comely fellow, like as 
he had been a gentleman, having a servant with him : but wherefore 

(1) ' Haec ille.' 

(2) The popish prelates procured not only the condemnation of Tyndale 's books, but also burned 
both them and the Testament, callinjj it 'Doctrinam peregrinam,' strange doctrine. 


Henry \\Q Came, Or for what purpose he was sent thither, no man could 
'— tell. 

■A-. D. Master Tyndale divers times was desired forth to dinner and 
^^^^' supper amongst merchants ; by means whereof this Henry Philips 
His became acquainted with him, so that within short space Master 
ship to Tyndale had a great confidence in him, and brought him to his 
hi^'b^' lodging, to the house of Thomas Pointz ; and had him also once or 
trayer. twicc with him to dinner and supper, and further entered such 
friendship with him, that through his procurement he lay in the 
same house of the said Pointz ; to whom he showed moreover his 
books, and other secrets of his study, so little did Tyndale then mis- 
trust this traitor. 

But Pointz, having no great confidence in the fellow, asked Master 
Tyndale how he came acquainted with this Philips. Master Tyndale 
answered, that he Avas an honest man, handsomely learned, and very 
confomiable. Then Pointz, perceiving that he bare such favour to 
him, said no more, thinking that he Avas brought acquainted with 
him by some friend of his. The said Philips, being in the town 
three or four days, upon a time desired Pointz to walk with him 
forth of the town to show him the commodities thereof, and in 
walking together without the town, had communication of divers 
things, and some of the king's affairs ; by which talk Pointz as yet 
suspected nothing, but after, by the sequel of the matter, he per- 
ceived more what he intended. In the mean time this he well per- 
ceived, that he bare no great favour either to the setting forth of any 
good thing, or to the proceedings of the king of England. But 
The pa- after, when the time was past, Pointz perceived this to be his mind, 
spare no to fccl if he could pcrccivc by him, whether he might break with him 
fumuheir ^^ ^^ matter, for lucre of money, to help him to his purpose , for 
malicious he perceived before that he was monied, and would that Pointz 
prises, should think no less : but by whom it was unknown. For he had 
weii'mo ^^^sii'^d Pointz before, to help him to divers things ; and such things 
Hied by as he named, he required might be of the best, " for,"" said he, " I 
lish bi-^' have money enough ;" but of this talk came nothing but that men 
shops. should think he had some things to do ; for nothing else followed 
of his talk. So it was to be suspected, that Philips was in doubt to 
move this matter for his purpose, to any of the rulers or officers of 
the town of Antwerp, for doubt it should come to the knowledge of 
some Englishmen, and by the means thereof Master Tyndale should 
have had warning. 

So Philips went from Antwerp to the court of Brussels, which is 
from thence twenty-four English miles, the king having there no 
ambassador ; for at that time the king of England and the emperor 
were at a controversy for the question betwixt the king and the lady 
Katharine, who was aunt to the emperor ; and the discord grew so 
much, that it was doubted lest there should have been war between 
the emperor and the king ; so that Philips, as a traitor both against 
God and the king, was there the better retained, as also other 
traitors more besides him ; who, after he had betrayed Master Tyndale 
into their hands, showed himself likewise against the king''s own per- 
son, and there set forth things against the king. To make short, the said 
Philips did so much there, that he procured to bring from thence 


with him to Antwerp, that procuror-general, who is the emperor's Hen'^y 
attorney, with certain other officers, as after followeth ; Avhich was 

not done with small charges and expenses, from whomsoever it came. A- D. 
Within a while after, Pointz sitting at his door, PhiKps's man ^'^^^' . 
came unto him, and asked whether Master Tyndale were there, and 
said, his master would come to him ; and so departed : but whether 
his Master Philips were in the town or not, it was not known ; but 
at that time Pointz heard no more, either of the master or of the 
man. Within three or four days after, Pointz went forth to the 
town of Barrois, being eighteen English miles from Antwerp, where 
he had business to do for the space of a month or six weeks ; and in 
the time of his absence Henry Philips came again to Antwerp, to Philips a 
the house of Pointz, and coming in, spake with his wife, asking her ^^^ "he 
for Master Tyndale, and whether he would dine there Avith him ; If^^^^^ 
saying, " What good meat shall we have ?" She answered, " Such dale, 
as the market will give." Then went he forth again (as it is thought) 
to provide, and set the officers whom he brought with him from 
Brussels, in the street, and about the door. Then about noon he 
came again, and went to Master Tyndale, and desired him to lend 
him forty shillings ; " for," said he, " I lost my purse this morning, 
coming over at the passage between this and Mechlin." So Master Thesim- 
Tyndale took him forty shillings, which was easy to be had of him, xyndaief 
if he had it ; for in the wily subtleties of this world he was simple 
and inexpert. 

Then said Philips, " Master Tyndale ! you shall be my guest here ^°^^,g 
this day." " No," said Master Tyndale, " I go forth this day to was be- 
dinner, and you shall go with me, and be my guest, where you shall *'*^^ ' 
be welcome." So when it was dinner-time, Master Tyndale went 
forth with Philips, and at the going forth of Pointz's house, was a 
long naiTOw entry, so that two could not go in a front. Master 
Tyndale would have put Philips before him, but Philips would in no 
wise, but put Master Tyndale before, for that he pretended to show 
! great humanity. So Master Tyndale, being a man of no great stature, 
j went before, and Philips, a tall comely person, followed behind him ; 
! who had set officers on either side of the door upon two seats, who, 
I being there, might see who came in the entry ; and coming through 
the same entry, Philips pointed with his finger over Master Tyndale's 
head down to him, that the officers who sat at the door might see that 
it was he whom they should take, as the officers that took Master 
Tyndale afterwards told Pointz, and said to Pointz, when they had 
laid him in prison, that they pitied to see his simplicity when they 
took him. Then they took him, and brought him to the emperor's 
attorney, or procuror-general, where he dined. Then came the 
procuror-general to the house of Pointz, and sent away all that was 
there of Master Tyndale's, as well his books as other things ; and Had to 
from thence Tyndale was had to the castle of Filford, eighteen ofFUford. 
English miles from Antwerp, and there he remained until he was put 
to death. 

Then incontinent, by the help of English merchants, were letters 
sent, in favour of Tyndale, to the court of Brussels. Also, not long 
after, letters were directed out of England to the council at Brussels, 
and sent to the merchant-adventurers, to Antwei-ji, commanding them 


Hevry to scc that -witli spcccl tlicy should be delivered. Then such of the 
^^^^' chief of the merchants as were there at that time, being called together, 

A. D. required the said Pointz to take in hand the delivery of those letters, 
1536. ^yith letters also from them, in favour of Master Tyndalc, to the lord 
Letters of BaiTois and others ; which lord of Barrois (as it was told Pointz 
EngianT by the way) at that time was departed from Brussels, as the chief 
c?omwe) conductor of the eldest daughter of the king of Denmark, to be 
=""1 married to the palsgrave, whose mother was sister to the emperor, 
in the slic being chief princess of Denmark. Pointz, after he heard of his 
Tj'ndaie! departure, did ride after the next way, and overtook him at Achon, 
where he delivered to him his letters ; which when he had received 
- and read, he made no direct answer, but somewhat objecting, said, 

There were of their countrymen that were burned in England not 
long before (as indeed there were Anabaptists burned in Smithfield) ; 
and so Pointz said to him, " Howbeit," said he, " whatsoever the 
crime was, if his lordship or any other nobleman had written, re- 
quiring to have had them, he thought they should not have been 
denied." " Well," said he, " I have no leisure to write, for the 
princess is ready to ride." Then said Pointz, " If it shall please your 
lordship, I will attend upon you unto the next baiting-place ;" which 
was at Maestricht. " If you so do," said the lord, " I will advise 
myself by the way what to write." So Pointz followed him fi'om 
Achon to Maestricht, which are fifteen English miles asunder; and 
Letters there he received letters of him, one to the council there, another to 
lord of the company of the merchant-adventurers, and another also to the 
i5arrois. ^^^^^ Cromwell in England. 

Pointz So Pointz rode from thence to Brussels, and then and there dc- 

letters livcrcd to the council the letters out of England, with the lord of 

Brussels Barrois''s letters also, and received eftsoons answer into England of 

to Eng- w^Q same by letters which he brought to Antwerp to the English 

merchants, who required him to go with them into England. And 

he, very desirous to have Master Tyndale out of prison, let not to 

take pains, with loss of time in his own business and occupying, and 

diligently followed with the said letters, which he there delivered to 

the council, and was commanded by them to tarry until he had other 

letters, with which he was not dispatched thence in a month after. 

At length, the letters being delivered him, he returned again, and 

delivered them to the emperor's council at Brussels, and there tarried 

for answer of the same. 

When the said Pointz had tarried three or four days, it was told 

him by one that belonged to the Ohanccry, that Master Tyndale 

should have been delivered to him according to the tenor of the 

The suit letters : but Philips, being there, followed the suit against Master 

of Philips ^.^ -I . ^ . 

afiainst Tyudalc, and hearing that he should be delivered to Pointz, and 
uyndaie. (]Q^|3^jI^g ]g^^ jjg ghould be put from his purpose, he knew no other 
remedy but to accuse Pointz, saying, that he was a dweller in the 
town of Antwerp, and there had been a succourer of Tyndale, and 
was one of the same opinion ; and that all this was only his own 
labour and suit, to have Master Tyndale at liberty, and no man''s else, 
^.".'"l^ A Thus, upon his information and accusation, Pointz was attached by 

attached ' t , i i i- i i i • 

by Phi- .the procm'or-general,the emperor s attorney, and delivered to the keeping 
^^^' -of two Serjeants at arms; and the same evening was sent to him one 


of the chancery, with the procuror-general, who ministered unto him JJenr^ 
an oath, that he sliould truly make answer to all such tilings as should 

be inquired of him, thinking they would have had no other examina- A.D. 
tions of him but of his message. The next day likewise they came ^^•^^• 

atjain, and had him in examination, and so five or six days one after f°^"tf 
another, upon not so few as a hundred articles, as well oi the kmgs ned. 
affairs, as of the message concerning Tyndale, of his aiders, and of 
his religion ; out of which examinations, the procuror-general drew 
twenty-three or twenty-four articles, and declared the same against 
the said Pointz, the copy whereof he delivered to him to make answer y 
thereunto, and permitted him to have an advocate and proctor, that 
is, a doctor and proctor in the law ; and order was taken, that eight 
days after he should deliver unto them his answer, and from eight 
days to eight days, to proceed till the process were ended. Also 
that he should send no messenger to Antwerp where his house was, 
being twenty-four English miles from Brussels, where he was prisoner, 
nor to any other place, but by the post of the town of Brussels ; nor 
to send any letters, nor any to be delivered to him, but written in 
Dutch ; and the procuror-general, who was party against him, to read 
them, to peruse and examine them thoroughly (contrary to all right 
and equity), before they were sent or delivered : neither might any be 
suffered to speak or talk with Pointz in any other tongue or language, 
except only in the Dutch tongue ; so that his keepers, who were 
Dutchmen, might understand what the contents of the letters or talk 
should be : saving that at one certain time the provincial of the White 
Friars came to dinner where Pointz was prisoner, and brought with 
him a young novice, being an Englishman, whom the provincial, after 
dinner, of his own accord, did bid to talk with the said Pointz ; and 
so with him he was licensed to talk. The purpose and great policy 
therein was easy to be perceived. Between Pointz and the novice Talk be- 
was much pretty talk, as of sir Thomas More, and of the bishop of ^^o\n\.z 
Rochester, and of their puttinsr to death ; whose death he seemed ^"''.''» 

' 1 ^ novice 

greatly to lament, especially dying in such a quarrel, worthy (as he 
said) to be accounted for martyrs ; with other noble doctrine, and 
deep learning in divinity, meet to feed swine withal : such blindness 
then in those days reigned amongst them. 

* The^ eighth day, the commissioners that were appointed came 
to the house where Pointz was kept, to have had his answer in 
writing : he, making no great haste in proceeding, answereth them with 
a dilatory manner, saying, he was there a prisoner, and might not go 
abroad, so that, although he had appointed and named who were to 
be a council with him, they came not to him, nor could he go to 
them ; nor could any come to give counsel in this matter, but such 
as were licensed and named by them. Then they gave him a day, 
to make answer against the next eighth day. And Pointz drew out 
his own mind, answering to the whole declaration generally ; which, 
at the next coming, he delivered them : but that answer they would 
not take, saying, he must answer to every article particularly ; and 
so they took order, that he should make it ready against the next 
coming. Thus he trifled them off, from Allhallow-tide until Christ- 

(1) The historj-, being more fully given in the first edition, is here substituted for a short pas- 
sage in recent editions. — Ed. 


Henry mas-eveii, with dilatory matters, from one eighth day to another eighth 

^ '— day. And upon Christmas even, in the morning, they came to him 

•A^-D. to have had an answer, which was not made, nor had any counsel 

come to him in all that time : howbeit, they would delay the time 

no longer, but said they, " Bring in your answer this day, or else ye 
shall be put from it ;"" so he perceived, that if it were not brought in 
that night, he should have been condemned without answer. So then, 
with much ado, he got the advocate to help him in ordering of his 
answer ; but it was long ere he came, so that it was past eight o'clock 
of Christmas-even before his answers were delivered to the procuror- 
general. And then afterwards, as the time served, at the days 
appointed, it went forth with replication duplic, with other answers 
each to other, in writing Avhat they could, in answering to the eirpe- 
ror's ordinances. And at such times as the commissioners came to 
Pointz, that traitor Philips accompanied them to the door, in fol- 
lowing the process against him, as he also did against Master Tyndale, 
as they who had Pointz in keeping showed him. 

The process being ended, as the order is there, either party deli- 
vered up to the commissioners a bag, with his process in writing, and 
took an inventory of every parcel of writing that was within the bag. 
So it rested in their hands ; but, upon sentence, Pointz required, in 
the time of process, that he might put in surety, and so to be at liberty. 
This they granted him at the first time, but, afterwards, they denied 
to take surety for his body. Then he sent a post from the town of 
Brussels to Antwerp to the English merchants, thinking they would 
not let him have stuck for lack of theii- help, in putting in sureties 
for him, considering the cause, with the circumstance, especially since 
+ they brought him into this trouble themselves ; although it does not 
appear that they made him any promise for his charges and pains 
f taken, as Pointz reported of them they really did. 

But, to pass over this, and to make the matter short : if the afore- 
said merchants, such as were of the town of Antwerp, had, at the 
time, been surety for him, then the matter had been altered from a 
criminal to a civil case ; but when Pointz had delivered to them his 
answer, they demanded of him, for his charges, money, or sureties. 
The charges were much, to reckon for the tAvo officers"' meat, and 
drink, and Avages, beside his own charges ; so that it was about five 
shillings every day. For all the while he was prisoner, he was not 
in a common prison, but in the keeping of two officers in one of their 
houses. So they demanded sureties to be brought within eight days 
for the charges, but then they denied him to take surety for his body, 
to make answer at liberty. Pointz, considering that Uiey altered in 
their purposes, as well in other things as in that ; and perceiving, by 
other things (as also it was told in secret), that it would have cost 
him his life if he had tarried, yet Pointz granted them to put in 
sureties, requiring of them to have a messenger to send ; not because 
he reckoned to have any, but to make a delay, otherwise they would 
have sent him to a stronger prison. But Pointz delayed them, 
thinking, if he could, to make escape ; yet he did make a good face, 
as though he reckoned to have been in no danger ; which if he had 
not done, it was very unlikely he should have escaped with his life 
out of their hands. And at the eighth day the commissioners camQ 

_-jr s 


again to Pointz, and there received both their bags with the process, Jfenry 
one from the procuror-general, and one from Pointz, delivering either 

of them an inventory of such pieces of writing as were delivered in A. D. 
the bags, and demanded sureties of Pointz, according to the order ^^"^^^ , 
they took when they were last with him. Pointz alleged that he had 
divers times required those who had him in keeping to get him a 
messenger, as he also had done, but made no great haste to have 
any; for he reckoned it should be a sufficient delay, whereby he 
might have another day. And with much alleging the impossibility 
of his being able to get a messenger to send forth, at the last, they 
put him apart, and agreed to give him a day eight days after, and 
called him in again, and commanded the officer to get him a mes- 
senger, as they did. And so Pointz sent him with letters to the 
English merchants, who at that time were at Barrois. Howbeit, he 
reckoned to get away before the return again of the messenger, for 
he perceived his tarrying there should have been his death. And 
therefore, to put in a venture to get away, that so he might save him- 
self (for, if he had been taken, it would have been but death, for he 
had been prisoner there in their hands at that time about twelve or 
thirteen weeks), he tarried not the coming again of the messenger, 
but, in a night, by some means he conveyed himself off, and so, by 
God's help, at the opening of the town gate in the morning, he got 
away. And when it was perceived that he was gone, there was horse 
sent out after him, but, because he well knew the country, he escaped 
and came into England. But what more trouble followeth to Pointz 
after the same, it serveth not for this place to rehearse. Master 
Tyndale, still remaining in prison, was proffered an advocate and a 
procuror ; for in any crime there, it shall be permitted to counsel to 
make answer in the law ; but he refused to have any, saying, he would 
make answer for himself, and did : but, it is to be thought, his 
answer will not be put forth. Notwithstanding, he had so preached to 
them there who had him in charge, and such as was there conversant 
with him in the castle, that they reported of him, that if he were 
not a good christian man, they knew not whom they might take to 
be one.* 

At last, after much reasoning, when no reason would serve, although J^^ con- 
he deserved no death, he was condemned by virtue of the emperor's tion and 
decree, made in the assembly at Augsburgh (as is before signified), dom'of 
and, upon the same, brought forth to the place of execution, was Tyndaie, 
I there tied to the stake, and then strangled first by the hangman, and ^' ■'"^' 
afterwards with fire consumed in the morning, at the town of Filford, ^j^ ***^ 
A.D. 1536 ; crying thus at the stake with a fervent zeal, and a loud prayeii'--^ "7 
voice, " Lord ! open the king of England's eyes.*" ■ — "^ 

Such was the power of his doctrine, and the sincerity of his life, ^°7on^u"f" 
that during the time of his imprisonment (which endured a year and Tyndaie, 
a half), it is said, he converted his keeper, the keeper's daughter, and that were 
I others of his household. Also the rest that were with Tyndaie con- ^l^^ 
I versant in the castle, reported of him that if he were not a good 
christian man, they could not tell whom to trust. 

The procurator-general, the emperor's attorney, being there, left this 
testimony of him, that he was " Homo doctus, plus, et bonus," that 
is, " a learned, a good, and a godly man." 


Henry Tlic Same moriiing in wliicli lie Avas had to the fire, he delivered a 
letter to the keeper of the castle, which the keeper himself brought 

A. D. to the house of the aforesaid Pointz in Antwerp, shortly after ; which 
^^^^- letter, with his examinations and other his disputations, I would, 
might have come to our hands ; all which I understand did remain, and 
yet perhaps do, in the hands of the keeper''s daughter. For so it is 
of him reported, that as he was in the castle prisoner, there was much 
writing, and gi-eat disputation to and fro, between him and them of 
the university of Louvain (which Avas not past nine or ten miles from 
the place where he was prisoner), in such sort, that they all had 
enough to do, and more than they could well Avield, to answer the 
authorities and testimonies of the Scripture, whereupon he most 
pithily grounded his doctrine. 
God's * That' traitor, Avorse than Judas to man's judgment (only not 

iTpon'"^'^ comparing this to the case of Christ, and that the Scripture hath 
PhUips. already judged Judas), was otherwise in the act — doing not so good ; 
for Judas, after he had betrayed his Master and Friend, Avas sorry, 
acknoAvledged and confessed his fact openly, declared his Master to 
be the very Truth, and despising the money that he had received for 
doing the act, brought it again and cast it before them. This traitor 
■Philips, contrariwise, not lamenting, but rejoicing in Avhat he had 
done, not declaring the honest goodness and truth of his friend, but 
applying, in all that he could devise, to declare hun to be fidse and 
seditious, and not despising the money that he had received, not 
bringing it again, but procuring and receiA'ing more, AvhereAvith to 
follow the suit against that innocent blood to the death ; Avhich case 
of things endured about one Avhole year and a half, in Avhich he lost 
no time, but all that time folloAved Pointz Avith most diligent attend- 
ance to and fro, and from Louvain to Brussels, and to Filford, Avith 
process to have sentence against him. And having there no other 
thing to do, he applied himself to nothing else ; Avhich Avas not done 
Avith small expenses and charges, from Avhomsoever it came. And, 
as I have heard say there in that country, Master Tyndale found 
them in the university of Louvain with enough to do. 

And yet, in all that while, if they had not taken to help them an 
ordinance of the emperor's making (which ordinance was made by the 
advice and counsel of the pope's soldiers, for the upholding of his' 
kingdom, and also joined Avith his OAvn laAvs), they kncAV not else 
how to have brought him to his death by their disputing with him in 
the Scriptures; for he Avas permitted to dispute, in answering to them, 
by writing. And that traitor Philips Avas not satisfied Avith that, 
but he kncAv that he should have money enough, as himself before 
had said to Pointz. But, as Avhen Judas did run aAvay Avith the bag 
Avhen he went to betray Christ, Avith Avhich he Avent his way, the 
other apostles thought he had gone to have bought things necessary 
, (although he Avent to appoint Avith the Jews for the taking of his- 

master, Christ), so, in like manner, this traitor Philips, the same 
morning that he brought his treachery to purpose, Avith bringing Master 
Tyndale into the hands of God's enemies, took money of him under 
a colour of borroAving, and put it into his bag, and then incontinent 
went his Avays therewith, and came Avith his company of soldiers, who 

(1) For the passage distinpuislied \\\<\\ asterisks, see Edition 15C3, pages 519, 520. — Ea. 


laid liands upon him as before, and led him away. And about one Henry 
Avhole year and a half after, he was put to death at Filford, with fire ;* ^'^^' 
and, albeit this Philips rejoiced awhile after he had done it, yet the A. D. 
saying so goeth, that he not long time after enjoyed the price of_i£^^ 
innocent blood, but was consumed at last with lice. pod's 

The worthy virtues and doings of this blessed martyr, who, for his {rpon™*^" 
painful travails and singular zeal to his country, may be called, in ^''"'i'^- 
these our days, an apostle of England, it were long to recite. Among 
many others, this, because it secmeth to me worthy of remembrance, 
I thought not in silence to overpass, which hath unto me been credibly 
testified by certain grave merchants, and some of them also such as 
were present the same time at the fact, and men yet alive ; the story 
whereof is this : There was at Antwerp on a time, amongst a com- 
pany of merchants as they were at supper, a certain juggler, who, 
through his diabolical enchantments of art magical, would fetch all 
kinds of viands and wine from any place they would, and set them 
upon the table incontinent before them, with many other such like 
things. The fame of this juggler being much talked of, it chanced 
that as Master Tyndale heard of it, he desired certain of the mer- 
chants, that he might also be present at supper, to see him play his 
parts. To be brief, the supper was appointed, and the merchants, 
with Tyndale, were there present. Then the juggler, being required 
to play his feats, and to show his cunning, after his wonted boldness 
began to utter all that he could do, but all was in vain. At last, 
Avith his labour, sweating, and toiling, when he saw that nothing 
would go forward, but that all his enchantments were void, he was The 
compelled openly to confess, that there was some man present at ^"J^" °^ 
supper, who disturbed and letted all his doings. So that a man, even saints 
in the martyrs of these our days, cannot lack the miracles of true thrdevii. 
faith, if miracles were now to be desired. 

As concerning the works and books of Tyndale, which extend to a Tyndaie's 
great number, thou wast told before, loving reader ! how the printer x^J^ca 
I hereof^ mindeth, by the Lord''s leave, to collect them all in one f^""- '« ^^ 
: volume together, and put them out in print. Wherefore it shall not L one"" 
I greatly at this time be needful to make any several rehearsal of them. ■^'°^"™'-'- 
; And as touching his translation of the New Testament, because his 
; enemies did so much carp at it, pretending it to be so full of heresies ; 
to answer therefore to their slanderous tongues and lying lips, thou 
shalt hear and understand what faithful dealing and sincere conscience 
he used in the same, by the testimony and allegation of his own 
words, written in his epistle to John Frith, as followeth, " I call God Thefaith 
to record against the day we shall appear before our Lord Jesus, to jnl of' 
give our reckoning of our doings, that I never altered one syllable of 'l^^^^^t 
God's word against my conscience, nor would do this day, if all that i^ting "'^ 
is in earth, whether it be honour, pleasure, or riches, might be given tan^nt!^ 
me," &c. 

_ And as ye have heard Tyndaie's own words, thus protesting for 
himself, now let us hear likewise the faithful testimony of John Frith, 
for Tyndale his dear companion and brother, thus declaring in his 
answer to Master More, as followeth : 

(I) ' The printer hereof,' John Daye.— Ed 
VOL. V. K 


Henry Tlic Testimony of John Frith, in his Book of the Sacrament, con- 
!_ ceming William Tyndale. 

A. D. 

1536 And Tyndale I trust liveth, well content with such a poor apostle's life as God 

gave his Son Christ, and his faithful ministers in this world, who is not sure of 

so many mites, as ye be yearly of pounds, although I am sm-e that for his learn- 
ing and judgment in Scripture, he were more worthy to be promoted than all 
the bishops in England. I received a letter from him, which was written since 
The Christmas, wherein, among other matters, he writeth this : ' I call God to record 

^ords of against the day we shall appear before our Lord Jesus, to give a reckoning of 
to^Johif our doings, that I never altered one syllable of God's word against my con- 
Frith, science, nor would do this day, if all that is in earth, whether it be honour, 
pleasure, or riches, might be given me. Moreover, I take God to witness to my 
conscience, that I desire of God to myself in this world, no more than that, 
without which I cannot keep his laws,' &c. Judge, christian reader, whether 
these words be not spoken of a faithful, clear, innocent heart. And as for his 
behaviour, it is such that I am sure no man can reprove him of any sin, howbeit 
no man is innocent before God, who beholdeth the heart. 

Thus much out of Frith. And thus, being about to conclude and 
finish with the life and story of William Tyndale, it shall be requisite 
now that the reader do hear something likewise of his supplications 
made to the king and nobles of the realm, as they are yet extant in 
his works to be seen, and worthy in all ages to be marked, the tenor 
■whereof tendeth to this effect as followeth. 

Tyndale's Supplication to the King, Nobles, and Subjects of 

His first I beseech the king's most noble grace, well to consider all the ways by which 
petition, the cardinal, and our holy bishops, have led him since he was first king ; and to 
see whereunto all the pride, pomp, and vain boast of the cardinal is come, and 
how God hath resisted him and our prelates in all their wiles. We, having nothing 
to do at all, have meddled yet with all matters, and have spent for our prelates' 
causes more than all Christendom, even unto the utter beggaring of ourselves ; 
and have gotten nothing but rebuke and hate among all nations, and a mock 
and a scorn of them whom we have most holpen. For the Frenchmen (as the 
saying is) of late days made a play, or a disguising, at Paris, in which the em- 
peror danced with the pope and the French king, and wearied them ; the king 
of England sitting on a high bench, and looking on. And when it was asked 
The king why he danced not, it was answered, that he sat there but to pay the minstrels 
of Eng- their wages : as one who should say, we paid for all men's dancing. We 
for'alF^^ monied the emperor openly, and gave the French king double and treble 
secretly ; and to the pope also. Yea, and though Ferdinand had money sent 
openly to blind the world withal, yet the saying is, through all Dutch-land, that 
we sent money to the king of Poland, &c. 
Tyndale's Furthermore, I beseech his grace also to have mercy on his own soul, and 
second not to suffer Christ and his holy "Testament to he persecuted under his name 
pe 1 ion. ^^^ longer, that the sword of the wrath of God may be put up again, which, 

for that cause, no doubt, is most chiefly drawn. 

His third. Thirdly, my petition is to his grace, to have compassion on his poor subjects, 

that the realm utterly perish not with the wicked counsel of our pestilent 

prelates. For if his grace, who is but a man, should die, the lords and commons 

not knowing who hath most right to enjoy the crown, the realm could not but 

stand in great danger. 

His My fourth suit and exhortation is to all the lords temporal of the realm, that 

fourth. they come and fall before the king's grace, and humbly desire his majesty to 

suffer it to be tried, who of right ought to succeed : and if he or she fail, who 

next, and who third. And let it be proclaimed openly ; and let all the lords 

temporal be sworn thereto, and all the knights, and squires, and gentlemen, and 

(1) Ex lib. Tynd., ' Praxi praelatorum.' 



the commons above eighteen years old, that there be no strife for the succession. Henry 
If they try it by the sword, I promise them, I see no other liiselihood, but it will ''^^^• 

cost the realm of England, &c.* ^ j) 

Further, of all the subjects of England this I crave — that they repent; for j^'^g' 
the cause of evil rulers is the sin of the subjects, as testifieth the Scripture. 

And the cause of false preachers is, that the people have no love unto the truth, ^"^^^^[1* 
saith Paul, in 1 Thess. ii. We be all sinners a hundred times greater than all "^ 
that we suffer. Let us, therefore, each forgive others, remembering the greater 
sinners the more welcome, if we repent ; according to the similitude of the 
riotous son.' For Christ died for sinners, and is their Saviour, and his blood is 
their treasure, to pay for their sins. He is that fatted calf which is slain to 
make them good cheer withal, if they will repent and come to their Father 
again ; and his merits are the goodly raiment to cover the naked deformities oi 
their sins. 

Finally, if the persecution of the king's grace, and. other temporal persons, 
conspiring with the spiritualty, be of ignorance, I doubt not but that their eyes y 
shall be opened shortly, and they shall see and repent, and God shall show them 
mercy. But if it be of a set malice against the truth, and of a grounded hate 
against the law of God, by the reason of a full consent they have to sin, and to walk 
in their old ways of ignorance, whereunto, being now past all repentance, they 
have utterly yielded themselves, to follow with full lust, without bridle or snaffle 
(which is the sin against the Holy Ghost), then ye shall see, even shortly, that 
God shall turn the point of the sword wherewith they now shed Christ's blood, 
homeward, to shed their own again, after all the examples of the Bible. 

These things thus discoursed, pertaining to the story and doings 
of Tyndale, finally it remaineth to infer certain of his private letters 
and epistles, whereof, among divers others which have not come to 
our hands, two special he wrote to John Frith, one properly, under 
his own name, another under the name of Jacob ; but, in very deed, it 
was written and delivered to John Frith, being prisoner then in the 
Tower, as ye shall further understand by the sequel hereafter. The 
copy and tenor of the epistles here followeth. 

A Letter sent from William Tyndale unto Master Frith, being in the 


The grace and peace of God our Father, and of Jesus Christ our Lord, be 
with you. Amen. Dearly beloved brother John ! I have heard say, how the 
hypocrites, now that they have overcome that great business which letted them, 
or at the least way have brought it to a stay, they return to their old nature^ 
again. The will of God be fulfilled, and that which he hath ordained to be, 
ere the world was made, that come, and his glory reign over all ! 

Dearly beloved ! however the matter be, commit yourself wholly and only 
unto your most loving Father, and most kind Lord. Fear not men that threat, 
nor trust men that speak fair ; but trust him that is true of promise, and able 
to_ make his word good. Your cause is Christ's gospel, a light that must be fed 
with the blood of faith. The lamp must be dressed and snuffed daily, and that 
j oil poured in every evening and morning, that the light go not out. Though 
', we be sinners, yet is the cause right. If when we be buffeted for well doing, 
we suffer patiently and endure, that is acceptable to God f for to that end we 
are called. For Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that we 
should follow his steps, who did no sin. Hereby have we perceived love, that 
he had laid down his life for us ; therefore we ought also to lay down our lives 
for the brethren.* Rejoice and be glad, for great is your reward in heaven.^ 
For we suffer with him, that we may also be glorified with him ; who shall 
change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body ; 
according to the working whereby he is able even to subject all things untohim.s 
Dearly beloved ! be of good courage, and comfort your soul with the hope of 
this high reward, and bear the image of Christ in your mortal body, that it may, 

(1) I pray God this be not a prophecy against England. (2) Luke xv. (3) 1 Pet. ii. 

(4) 1 John ix. (5) Matt v. (6) Rom. viii. Phil. iii. 

K % 







of spirit. 
of by the 
ence to 

rance to 
the end. 


at his coming, be made like to his, immortal ; and follow the example of all 
your other dear brethren, who choose to suffer in hope of a better resurrection. 
Keep your conscience pure and undefiled, and say against that, nothing. Stick 
at necessary things, and remember the blasphemies of the enemies of Christ, 
saying, they find none but that will abjure, rather than suffer the extremity. 
Moreover, the death of them that come again after they have once denied, 
though it be accepted with God, and all that believe, yet it is not glorious : for 
the hypocrites say ' He must needs die ; denying helpeth not. But, might it 
have holpen, they would have denied five hundred times ; but seeing it would 
not help them, therefore, of pure pride and mere malice together, they spake 
with their mouths, what their conscience knoweth false.' If you give yoiurself, 
cast yourself, yield yourself, commit yourself, wholly and only to your loving 
Father; then shall his power be in you, and make you strong; and that so 
strong, that you shall feel no pain, which should be to another present death : 
and his Spirit shall speak in you, and teach you what to answer, according to 
his promise. He shall set out his truth by you wonderfully, and work for 
you above all that your heart can imagine :' yea and you are not yet dead, 
though the hopocrites all, with all that they can make, have sworn your death. 
' Una salus victis nullam sperare salutem ;' to look for no man's help, bringeth 
the help of God to them that seem to be overcome in the eyes of the hypo- 
crites : yea, it shall make God to carry you through thick and thin for his truth's 
sake, in spite of all the enemies of his truth. There falleth not a hair, till his 
hour be come ; and when his hour is come, necessity carrieth us hence, though 
we be not willing. But if we be willing, then have we a reward and thank. 

Fear not the threatening therefore, neither be overcome of sweet words, 
with which twain the hypocrites shall assail you ; neither let the persuasions of 
worldly wisdom bear rule in your heart ; no, though they be your friends that 
counsel you. Let Bilney be a warning to you, let not their visor beguile your 
eyes. Let not your body faint. He that endureth to the end shall be saved.' 
If the pain be above your strength, remember, whatsoever ye shall ask in my 
name, 1 will give it you.' And pray to your Father in that name, and he shall 
ease your pain, or shorten it. The Lord of peace, of hope, and of faith, be 
with you, Amen. William Tyndale. 

for the 

Two have suffered in Antwerp, ' In die sanctae crucis,' unto the great glory of 
the gospel; four at Risele in Flanders, and at Lucca hath there one at the least 
suffered ; and all the same day. At Rouen in France they persecute, and at 
Paris are five doctors taken for the gospel. See, you are not alone ; be cheer- 
ful, and remember that among the hard hearted in England, there is a number 
reserved by grace ; for whose sakes, if need be, you must be ready to suffer. 
Sir, if you may write, how short soever it be, forget it not, that we may know 
how it goeth with you, for our heart's ease. The Lord be yet again with you 
with all his plenteousness, and fill you that you flow over. Amen. 

If, when you have read this, you may send it to Adrian, do, I pray you, that 
he may know how that our heart is with you. 

George Joy at Candlemas, being at Barrois, printed two leaves of Genesis in 
a great fonn, and sent one copy to the king, and another to the new queen, 
with a letter to N., to deliver them ; and to purchase license, that he might so go 
through all the Bible. Out of this is spnmg the noise of the new Bible ; and 
out of that is the great seeking for English books at all printers and book- 
binders in Antwerp, and for an English priest, that should print. 

This chanced the ninth day of May. 

Sir, your wife is well content with the will of God, and would not, for her 
sake, have the glory of God hindered. 

William Tyndale. 

Another notable and worthy Letter of Master William Tyndale, 
sent to the said John Frith, under the name of Jacob. 

The grace of our Saviour Jesus, his patience, meekness, humbleness, circum- 
spection, and wisdom, be wath your heart, Amen. 

(1) To look for no man's help, bringeth God's help. 

(2) Matt. xxii. 

TYNDALe's letters to JOHN FRITH. 133 

■ Dearly beloved brother Jacob, mine heart's desh-e in our Saviour Jesus, is, Hfnry 
that you arm yourself with patience, and be cold, sober, wise, and circumspect, ^"■^^^- 
and that you keep you alow by the ground, avoiding high questions, that pass A.D. 
the common capacity. But expound the law truly, and open the veil of Moses 153(3 

to condemn all flesh ; and prove all men sinners, and all deeds under the law, 

before mercy have taken away the condemnation thereof, to be sin and dam- ^v^lfy^t 
nable ; and then, as a faithful minister, set abroach the mercy of our Lord faith, are 
Jesus, and let the wounded consciences drink of the water of him. And then **'"• 
shall your preaching be with power, and not as the doctrine of the hypocrites ; 
and the Spirit of God shall work with you, and all consciences shall bear re- 
cord unto you, and feel that it is so. And all doctrine that casteth a mist on The law 
those two, to shadow and hide them (I mean the law of God, and mercy of "f^od, 
Christ), that resist you with all your power. Sacraments without signification ,„ercy of 
refuse. If they put significations to them, receive them, if you see it may help, Christ, 
though it be not necessary.' 

Of the presence of Christ's body in the sacrament, meddle as little as you 
can, that there appear no division among us. Barnes will be hot against you. 
The Saxons be sore on the affirmative : whether constant or obstinate, I com- 
mit it to God. Philip Melancthon is said to be with the French king. There 
be in Antwerp that say, they saw him come into Paris with a hundred and 
fifty horses, and that they spake with him. If the Frenchmen receive the word 
of God, he will plant the affirmative in them.^ George Joy would have put 
forth a treatise of the matter, but I have stopped him as yet : what he will do 
if he get money, I wot not. I believe he would make many reasons little 
serving to the purpose. My mind is that nothing be put forth till we hear how 
you shall have sped. I would have the right use preached, and the presence 
to be an indifferent thing, till the matter might be reasoned in peace, at leisure, 
of both parties. If you be required, show the phrases of the Scripture, and 
let them talk what they will : for as to believe that God is everywhere, hurteth 
no man that worshippeth him nowhere but within in the heart, in spirit and 
j verity ; even so, to believe that the body of Christ is every wliere (though it 
I cannot be proved), hurteth no man that worshippeth him nowhere save in 
j the faith of his gospel.' You perceive my mind : howbeit if God show you 

otherwise, it is free for you to do as he moveth you. 
} I guessed long ago, that God would send a dazing into the head of the Ubiquity 

■ spiritualty, to catch themselves in their own subtlety, and I trust it is come to <^annot be 
I pass. And now methinketh I smell a counsel to be taken, little for their 

\ profits in time to come. But you must understand, that it is not of a pure 
! heart, and for love of the truth, but to avenge themselves, and to eat the 
I whore's flesh, and to suck the marrow of her bones.* Wherefore cleave fast 
I to the rock of the help of God, and commit the end of all things to him : and worldly 
! if God shall call you, that you may then use the wisdom of the worldly, as far vvisdom, 
i as you perceive the glory of God may come thereof, refuse it not; and ever ?" far as 
I among thrust in, that the Scripture may be in the mother tongue, and learn- serve 
I ing set up in the universities. But if aught be required contrary to the glory God's 
j of God, and his Christ, then stand fast, and commit yourself to God, and be not mav^be 

overcome of men's persuasions; which haply shall say, We see no other way to used. 
! bring in the truth. 

1 Brother Jacob, beloved in my heart ! there liveth not in whom I have so 

j good hope and trust, and in whom my heart rejoiceth, and my soul comforteth 

] herself, as in you; not the thousandth part so much for your learning, and what 

other gifts else you have, as because you will creep alow by the ground, and Lowly 

walk in those things that the conscience may feel, and not in the imaginations ^valkings. 

of the brain ; in fear, and not in boldness; in open necessarj' things, and not 

to pronounce or define of hid secrets, or things that neither help nor hinder, 

i whether it be so or no ; in unity, and not in seditious opinions : insomuch that 

[ if you be sure you know, yet in things that may abide leisure, you will defer, 

■ or say (till others agree with you), ' Methinks the text recjuireth this sense 01 
understanding.' Yea, and if you be sure that your part be good, and another 

(1) Master Tyndale here beareth with time. 

(2) By the allirmative, he meaneth the opinion wliich M. Luther and the Saxons do hold of the 

(3) Master Tyndale ap;ain beareth with time. 

(■1) ' Eating the whore's liesh,' is to spoil the popt's chutcli only for the prey and spoil thertof. 


Hevrij hold the contrary, yet if it be a thing tliat maketh no matter, you will laugh 
^^^^- and let it pass, and refer the thing to other men, and stick you stitHy and stub- 
» jj bornly in earnest and necessary things. And I trust you be persuaded even so 
1 'I'^fi* °^ "^^ • ^^'" ^ ^^^^ ^°^ *° record against the day we shall appear before our 

'— Lord Jesus, to give a reckoning of our doings, that I never altered one syllable 

Upright of God's word against my conscience, nor would this day, if all that is in the 
iiuhe "^ earth, whether it be pleasure, honour, or riches, might be given me. More- 
transla- over, I take God to record to my conscience, that I desire of God, to myself in 
T°"d^i ^^^^ world, no more than that, without which I cannot keep his laws. 

Finally, if there were in me any gift that could help at hand, and aid you if 
need required, I promise you I would not be far oft", and commit the end to 
God. My soul is not faint, though my body be weary. But God hath made 
me evil favoured in this world, and without grace in the sight of men, speech- 
less and rude, dull and slow witted : your part shall be to supply what lacketh 
heart in me ; remembering that as lowliness of heart shall make you high with God, 
maketh even SO meekness of words shall make you sink into the hearts of men. Nature 
hi™^with giveth age authority, but meekness is the glory of youth, and giveth them 
God. honour. Abundance of love maketh me exceed in babbling. 

Sir, as concerning purgatory and many other things, if you be demanded, you 
may say, if you err, the spiritualty hath so led you, and that they have taught 
you to believe as yovi do. For they preached you all such things out of God's 
word, and alleged a thousand texts, by reason of which texts you believed as 
they taught you; but now you find them liars, and that the texts mean no 
such things, and therefore you can believe them no longer ; but are as you were 
before they taught you, and believe no such thing : howbeit you are ready to 
believe, if they have any other way to prove it : for without proof you cannot 
believe them, when you have found them with so many lies, &c. If you per- 
ceive wherein we may help, either in being still, or doing somewhat, let us have 
word, and I will do mine uttermost. 

My lord of London hath a servant called John Tisen, with a red beard, and a 
black-reddish head, and who was once my scholar : he was seen in Antwerp, 
but came not among the Englishmen. Whether he is gone an ambassador 
secret, I wot not. 

The mighty God of Jacob be with you, to supplant his enemies, and give you 
the favour of Joseph : and the wisdom and the spirit of Stephen be with your 
heart, and with your mouth, and teach your lips what they shall say, and how 
to answer to all things. He is our God, if we despair in ourselves, and trust in 
him : and his is the glory. Amen. 

I hope our redemption is nigh. William Tyndale. 

I'liis letter was written a.d. 1533, in the month of January : which 
letter, although it do pretend the name of Jacob, yet understand, good 
reader, that it was written in very deed to John Frith, as is above 
told thee. For the more proof and evidence hereof, read Frith"'s 
book of the sacrament, and there thou shalt find a certain place of 
this epistle repeated word for word, beginning thus ; " I call God to 
record, against the day we shall appear before our Lord Jesus to give 
a reckoning of our doing, that I never altered one syllable of God's 
word against my conscience," &c. ; which epistle John Frith himself 
witncsseth that he received from Tyndale, as in his testimony above 


The same year in which William Tyndale was burned, which was 
A.D. 1536, in the beginning of the year, first died lady Katharine, 
princess dowager, in the month of January. 

After whom, the same year also, in the month of May next 




folloAving, followeth the death also of queen Anne, who liad now been He„ry 
mamed to the king the space of three years. In certain records tlius 
we find, that the king, being in his jousts at Greenwich, suddenly 
with a few persons departed to Westminster, and, the next day after, 
queen Anne, bis wife, was had to the Tower, with the lord llochford 
her brother, and certain others, and, the nineteenth day after, was 
beheaded. The words of this worthy and christian lady at her 
death were these : 

The Words of Queen Anne at her Death. 

Good christian people ! I am come hither to die, for according to the law, 
and by the law, I am judged to death; and therefore I will speak nothing 
against it. I come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak any thing of that 
whereof I am accused and condemned to die ; but I pray God save the king, and 
send him long to reign over you, for a gentler, or a more merciful prince was 
there never ; and to me he was ever a good, a gentle, and a sovereign lord. 
And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. 
And thus I take my leave of the world, and of you all, and I heartily desire 
you all to pray for me. O Lord have mercy on me ! To God I commend 
my soul. 

And so she kneeled down, saying, " To Christ I commend my Queen 
soul :" " Jesu, receive my soul." Repeating the same divers times, beheaded, 
till at length the stroke was given, and her head was stricken off. 

And this was the end of that godly lady and queen. Godly I call commen- 
hcr, for sundry respects, whatsoever the cause was, or quarrel objected ^er'""^ °^ 
against her. First, her last words spoken at her death declared no 
less her sincere faith and trust in Christ, than did her quiet modesty 
utter forth the goodness of the cause and matter, whatsoever it was. 
Besides that to such as wisely can judge upon cases occurrent, this 
also may seem to give a great clearing unto her, that the king, the 
third day after, was married in his whites unto another. Certain this 
was, that for the rare and singular gifts of her mind, so well instructed, 
and given toward God, with such a fervent desire unto the truth and 
setting forth of sincere religion, joined with like gentleness, modesty, 
and pity toward all men, there have not many such queens before her 
borne the crown of England. Principally this one commendation she 
left behind ber, that during her life, the religion of Christ most 
happily flourished, and had a right prosperous course. 

Many things might be written more of the manifold virtues, and Her miid 
the quiet moderation of her mild nature, how lowly she would bear, "akUigad- 
not only to be admonished, but also of her own accord would require mo'^t'on. 
her chaplains plainly and freely to tell whatsoever they saw in her 
amiss. Also, how bountiful she was to the poor, passing not only the 
common example of other queens, but also the revenues almost of her 
estate ; insomuch that the alms which she gave in three quarters of a Her ^eat 
year, in distribution, is summed to the number of fourteen or fifteen ^'°''' 
thousand pounds ; besides the great piece of money which her grace 
intended to impart into four sundry quarters of the realm, as for a stock 
there to be employed to the behcjof of poor artificers and occupiers. 
Again, what a zealous defender she was of Christ's gospel all the world 
doth know, and her acts do and will declare to the world's end. 
Amongst which other her acts this is one, that she placed Master 
Hugh Latimer in the bishopric of Worcester, and also preferred 


Hfnnj Dr. Shaxton to liis bishopric, being then accounted a good man, 

Furtliermore, what a true faith she bare unto the Lord, this one 

A. D. example may stand for many : for that when king Henry was with her 
^^^^- at AVoodstock, and there, being afraid of an old blind prophecy, for 
which neither he nor other kings before him durst hunt in the said 
park of Woodstock, nor enter into the town of Oxford, at last, through 
the christian and faithful counsel of that queen, he was so armed against 
all infidelity, that both he hunted in the aforesaid park, and also 
entered into the town of Oxford, and had no harm. But because, 
touching the memorable virtues of this worthy queen, partly we have 
said something before, partly because more also is promised to be 
declared of her virtuous life (the Lord so permitting) by others who 
then were about her, I will cease in this matter further to proceed. 
Pariia- T\\\s I canuot but marvcl, why the parliament holden this year, that 

merits not . , •ii pii-z-i-i t i 

always IS, thc twcuty-cighth year of the kmg (which parliament three years 
before had established and confirmed this marriage as most lawflil), 
should now so suddenly, and contrary to their own doings, repeal and 
disable the said marriage again as unlawful, being so lawfully before 
contracted.' But more I marvel, why the said parliament, after the 
illegitimation of the marriage enacted, not contented with that, should 
further proceed, and charge her with such carnal desires of her body 
as to misuse herself Avith her own natural brother, the lord Rochford. 
and others ; being so contrary to all nature, that no natui-al man will 
believe it. 

But in this act of parliament did lie, no doubt, some great mystery, 
which here I will not stand to discuss, but only that it may be sus- 
pected some secret practising of the papists here not to be lacking, 
considering what a mighty stop she Avas to their purposes and 
proceedings, and on the contrary side, what a strong bulwark she was 
for the maintenance of Christ's gospel, and sincere religion, which they 
then in no case could abide. By reason whereof it may be easily 
considered, that this christian and devout Deborah could lack no 
enemies amongst such a number of Philistines, both within the realm, 
and without. 

Again, neither is it unlike, but that Stephen Winchester, being 

then abroad in embassy, was not altogether asleep ; the suspicion 

whereof may be the more conjectural, for that Edmund Bonner, 

archdeacon of Leicester, and then ambassador in France, succeeding 

after Stephen Winchester, did manifestly detect him of plain papistry, 

as in the sequel of their stories, when we come to the time, more 

amply (the Lord granting) shall be expressed. 

Lawful- And as touching tiie king's mind and assent, although at that time, 

queen through Crafty settcrs-on, he seemed to be sore bent both against that 

succel^ queen, and to the disheriting of his own daughter ; yet unto that 

sion. former will of the king so set against her then, I will oppose again 

the last will of the king, wherein, expressly and by name, he did 

accept, and by plain ratification did allow, the succession of his 

marriage to stand good and lawful. 

Furthermore, to all other sinister judgments and opinions, what- 
soever can be conceived of man against that virtuous queen, I object 
and oppose again (as instead of answer) the evident demonstration of 

(1) Stat. an. 28 Hen. 8. cap. 7. 


God's favour, in maintaining, preserving, and advancing the offspring Henry 
of her body, the lady Elizabeth, now queen, whom the Lord hath 

so marvellously conserved from so manifold dangers, so royally hath A. D. 
exalted, so happily hath blessed with such virtuous patience, and with l^'^^- 

such a quiet reign hitherto, that neither the reign of her brother ^^^^^^"^ 
Edward, nor of her sister Mary, to hers is to be compared ; whether agains't 
we consider the number of the years of their reigns, or the peaceable- !J"ck'. 
ness of their state. In whose royal and flourishing regiment we have '^'"''■s- 
to behold, not so much the natural disposition of her mother"'s quali- 
ties, as the secret judgment of God in preserving and magnifying the 
fruit and offspring of that godly queen. 

And finally, as for the blasphemous mouth both of cardinal Pole, The pro- 
and of Paulus Jovius, that popish cardinal, who, measuring belike of'^oe"/^ 
other women by his courtezans of Rome, so impudently abuseth his many for- 

, . •■,.,, -I'll 1 • sake kiiii» 

pen in lymg and raihng against this noble queen, to answer again Henry ibr 
in defence of her cause to that Italian, I object and oppose the consent of quee'"' 
and judgment of so many noble protestants and princes of Germany, ''^""^• 
who, being in league before with king Henry, and minding no less 
but to have made him the head of their confederation, afterwards, 
hearing of the death of this queen, utterly brake from him, and refused 
him only for the same cause. 

But all this seemeth (as is said) to be the drift of the wily papists, The wiiy 
who, seeing the pope to be repulsed out of England, by the means orthe'^*^'' 
chiefly of this queen, and fearing always the succession of this mamage v^v^''^^- 
in time to come, thought by sinister practice to prevent that peril 
before, whispering in the king''s ears what possibly they could, to 
make that matrimony unlawful ; and all for the disheriting of that 

Again, Stephen Gardiner (who was a secret worker against that 
marriage, and a perpetual enemy against lady Elizabeth), being then 
abroad with the French king, and the great master of France, ceased 
not, in his letters, still to put the king in fear, that the foreign princes 
and powers of the world, with the pope, would never be reconciled to 
the king, neither should he be ever in any perfect security, unless he 
undid again such acts before passed, for the ratification of that suc- 
cession : which thing when they had now brought to pass after their 
own desire (that both now the queen was beheaded, and Elizabeth ^°<J'? 

\ 1. ' provi- 

the king's daughter disherited), they thought all things to be sure foi dence 
ever. But yet God''s providence still went beyond them, and deceived appolut- 
them ; for incontinently after the suffering of queen Anne, the king, ^"\'gjg 
within three days after, married lady Jane Seymour, of whom came The king 
king Edward, as great an enemy to God's enemy the pope, as ever Sdyjane 
his father was, and greater too. 

In the mean time, as these troublous tumults were in doing in The seat 
England, Paul III., bishop of Rome, for his part was not behind, to ",east^ 
help forward for his own advantage ; who, seeing his usurped kingdom gii^'"'"" 
and seat to be darkened in the countries of Germany, and also in 
England, thought it high time to bestir him ; and therefore, to provide 
some remedy against further dangers, appointed a general council at 
Mantua in Italy, requiring all kings and princes either personally to 

(1) Paulus Jovius can find no immorality in all Rome, but must come and pick matter, where 
none it, in Encland. 

138 THE king"'s protestation against the pope. 

Hennj be thcrc, or else to send their ambassadors under fair pretences, as 
1- to suppress heresies, and to restore the church, and to war against the 

A.D. Turk, &c. This bull was subscribed with the hands of twenty-six 
cardinals, and set up in divers great cities, that it might be known and 
published to the whole world ; unto which bull first the protestants 
of Germany do answer, declaring sufficient causes why they refused 
to resort to that council, being indicted at Mantua, in the pope"'s own 
country.^ Whose declaration, with their causes grave and effectual, 
being set forth in print, and in the English tongue, although they 
were worthy here to be inserted, yet for brevity, and more speed in 
our story, I will pretermit the same, and only take the oration or 
ansM^er of our king here ; wherein he likewise rendereth reasons and 
causes most reasonable, why he refuseth to come or to send, at the 
pope's call, to this council indicted at Mantua : Avhose oration or pro- 
testation, because it containeth matter of some weight and great 
experience, I thought good here to express as followeth : 

A Protestation in the Name of the King, and the whole Council and 
Clergy of England, why they refuse to come to the Pope's Council, 
at his call. 

Seeing that the bishop of Rome calleth learned men from all parts, conducting 

them by great rewards, making as many of them cardinals as he thinketli most 

meet, and most ready to defend frauds and untruths ; we could not but with 

much anxiety cast with ourselves, what so great a preparance of wits should 

The mean. As chance was, we guessed even as it followed. We have been so long 

pope's acquainted with Romanish subtleties and popish deceits, that we well and easily 

espied, j'^i'^g^*^ '■he bishop of Rome to intend an assembly of his adherents, and men 

sworn to think all his lusts to be laws : we were not deceived. Paul, the bishop 

of Rome, hath called a council, to which he knew well either few or none of the 

christian princes could come. Both the time that he indicted it, and also the 

place where he appointed it to be, might assure him of this. But whither wander 

not these popish bulls? whither go they not astray? What king is not cited and 

summoned by a proud minister and servant of kings, to come to bolster up 

errors, frauds, deceits, and untruths, and to set forth this feigned general council? 

For who will not think that Paul, the bishop of Rome, goeth sooner about to 

make men believe that he pretendeth a general council, than that he desireth 

one indeed? No! who can less desire it, than they that do despair of their 

cause, except they be judges, and give sentence themselves against their ad- 

versaries? We, who very sore against our will at any time leave off the pro- 

not bound curemcnt of the realm and common weal, need neither to come ourselves, nor 

to come yet to send our procurators thither ; no, nor yet to make our excuse for either of 

pope's both. For who can accuse us, that we come not at his call, who hath no 

call. authority to call us? 

y^,, ^^ But for a season let us (as a sort of blindlings do) grant that he may call us, 
they tliat and that he hath authority so to do, yet, we pray you, may not all men see, 
liave what availeth it to come to this council, where ye shall have no place, except ye 
I'nThe ^^ known botli willing to oppress truth, and also ready to confirm and stablish 
pope's errors ? Do not all men perceive, as well as we, with what integrity, fidelity, 
council, ^jjj religion, these men go about to discuss matters in controversy, that take 
not^ndlf^ them in hand in so troublesome a time as this is ? Is it not plain what fruit the 
ferent. common weal of Christendom may look for there, whereas Mantua is chosen 
the place to keep this council at ? Is there any prince not being of Italy, yea, 
Noreason Jg there of Italy any prince, or otlier dissenting from the pope, that dareth come 
pope t^ ^^^^ assembly, and to this place? If there come none that dare speak for 
should trodden tnith, none that will venture his life, is it marvel if (the bishop of Rome 
Ms ow being judge, no man repining, no man gainsaying) the defenders of the papacy 
cause. obtain that popish authority, now quailing and almost fallen, be set up again ? 

(1) Ex Johan. Sleid., lib. x. 

THE king's protestation AGAINST THE POPE. 139 

Is this the way to help things afflicted? to redress troubled religion? to lift ffenry 
up oppressed truth ? Shall men this way know, whether the Roman bishops ^-^^^^ 

(who, in very deed, are, if ye look upon either their doctrine or life, far under ^ ^ 
other bishops) ought to be made like their fellows, that is, to be pastors in their 15;3q, 
own diocese, and so to use no further power ; or else, whether they may make 

laws, not only unto other bishops, but also to khigs and emperors? O bold- ^Ifp'^Jj 
ness ! meet to be beaten down with force, and not to be convinced with argu- Rome, in 
ments ! Can either Paul that now lordeth, or any of his, earnestly go about l(-'ariiing 
(if they alone, or at least without any adversary, be thus in a corner assembled f^^ under 
together) to heal the sicknesses, to take away the errors, to pluck down the other bi- 
abuses that now are crept into the church, and there be bolstered up by such ^'^"P^- 
councils as now is like to be at Mantua ? 

It is very like that these, who prowl for nothing but profit, will right gladly Paul the 
pull down all such things as their forefathers made, only for the increase of P°P® 
money. Whereas their forefathers, when their honour, power, and primacy, for profit, 
were called into question, woiUd either in despite of God's law maintain their 
dignity, or, to say better, their intolerable pride, is it like that these will not 
tread in their steps, and make naughty new canons, whereby they may defend 
old evil decrees ? Howbeit, what need we to care either what they have done, 
or what they intend to do hereafter, forasmuch as England hath taken her England 
leave of popish crafts for ever, never to be deluded with them hereafter? taketh 
Roman bishops have nothing to do with English people. The one doth not of the''^° 
traffic with the other ; at least, though they will have to do with us, yet we will pope for 
none of their merchandise, none of their stulf. We will receive them of our ^^'^''• 
council no more. We have sought our hurt, and bought our loss a great while ^'^f'l**^''; 
too long. Surely their decrees, either touching things set up or put down, merchan- 
shall have none other place with us than all bishops' decrees have; that is, if dise. 
we like them, we admit them ; if we do not, we refuse them. But lest, perad- 
venture, men shall think us to follow our senses too much, and that we, moved 
by small or no just causes, forsake the authority, censures, decrees, and popish 
councils, we thought it best here to show our mind to the whole world. 

Wherefore we protest, before God and all men, that we embrace, profess, 
and will ever so do, the right and holy doctrine of Christ. All the articles of 
his faith, no jot omitted, be all so dear unto us, that we would much sooner 
stand in jeopardy of our realm, than to see any point of Christ's religion in 
jeopardy with us. We protest that we never went from the unity of this faith, Goethnot 
neither that we will depart an inch from it. No, we will much sooner lose our '"™m tiie 
lives, than any article of our behef shall decay in England. We, who in all ^^^[^^ "j. 
this cause seek nothing but the glory of God, the profit and quietness of the though 
world, protest that we can suffer deceivers no longer. We never refused to l.' ^oet'i 
come to a general council ; no, we promise all our labour, study, and fidelity, pope. 
to the setting up of trodden truth, and troubled religion, in their place again, xhe faith 
and to do all that shall lie in us, to finish such controversies as have a great of E"g- 
while too long vexed Christendom. Only we will all christian men to be ad- tholi'c.'^*' 
monished, that we can suffer no longer that they be esteemed willing to take 
away errors, who indeed, by all the ways their wits will serve them, go about 
this alone, that no man, under pain of death, may speak against any error or 

We would have a council ; we desire it, yea, and crave nothing so oft of what a 
God, as that we may have one. But yet we will that it be such as christian truege- 
men ought to have ; that is, frank and free, where every man without fear may council 
say his mind. We desire that it be a holy council, where every man may go ought to 
about to set up godliness, and not apply all their study to the oppressing of ^^' 
truth. We will it be general, that is to say, kept at such time, and in such 
place, that every man who seeketh the glory of God may be present, and there 
frankly utter his mind : for then it shall seem general, either when no man The con- 
that dissenteth from the bishop of Rome is compelled to be from it ; or when ditions. 
they that be present are not letted by any just terror, to say boldly what they 
truly think : for who would not gladly come to such a council, except it be the 
pope, his cardinals, and popish bishops ? On the other side, who is so foolish, 
where the chief point that is to be handled in this council is the pope's own 
cause, power, and primacy, to grant that the pope should reign, should be 
judge, should be president of this council ? If he, who indeed can never think 





The pope 
jud^e his 
Hath no 
power to 

How the 
pope can 
watch his 

An ene- 
my to 

the truth. 

A trou- 
bler of 

He marks 
he shoot- 

His craft 
in steal- 
ing a 

himself able to defend his cause before any other judge, be evermore made his 
own judge, and so controversies not decided, but errors set up, what can be 
devised in the commonwealth of Christendom more hurtful to the truth, than 
general councils? 

And here to touch somewhat their impudent arrogancy : By what law, power, 
or honest title take they upon them to call kings, to summon princes to appear, 
where their bulls command them ? In time past all councils were appointed by 
the authority, consent and commandment of the emperor, kings, and princes : 
why now taketh the bishop of Rome this upon him? Some will say, ' It is more 
likely that bishops will more tender the cause of religion, gladlier have errors 
taken away, than emperors, kings, or princes.' The world hath good expe- 
rience of them, and every man seeth how faithfully they have handled religious 
matters. Is there any man that doth not see how virtuously Paul now goeth 
about by this occasion to set up his tyranny again ? Is it not like that he that 
chooseth such a time as this is, to keep a council, much intendeth the redress 
of things that now are amiss ? that he seeketh the restoring of religion, who 
now calleth to a council, the emperor and the French king, two princes of great 
power, so bent to wars, that neither they, nor any other christian prince can, 
in a manner, do any thing but look for the end of this long war ? Go to, go to, 
bishop of Rome ! Occasion long wished for offereth herself unto you : take 
her! she openeth a window for your frauds to creep in at. Call your 
cardinals, your own creatures, show them that this is a jolly time to deceive 
princes in. 

O fools ! O wicked men ! May we not justly so call you ? Are ye not fools, 
who, being long suspected, not only by princes, but by all christian people, in 
a manner, that in no case you could be brought to a general council, plainly 
show the whole world, that by these your conciliables, your hutter-mutter in 
corners, you take away all hope of a lawful, catholic, and general council? 
Are you not wicked, who so hate truth, that except she be utterly banished, ye 
will never cease to vex her?' The living God is alive, neither can Truth, his 
darling, he being alive, be called to so great shame, contumely, and injury ; or, 
if it may be called to all these, yet can it come to none of them. Who is he 
that grievously lamenteth not men to be of such shameful boldness, to show 
apertly that they be enemies unto Christ himself? on the other side, who will 
not be glad to see such men as foolish as they be wicked ? The world is not 
now in a light suspicion, as it hath been hitherto, that you will no reformation 
of errors ; but every man seeth before his eyes your deceits, your wicked minds, 
your immortal hatred that ye bear against the truth. Every sman eeth how 
many miserable tragedies your pretence of a unity and concord hath brought 
into Christendom. They see your fair face of peace hath served sedition, and 
troubled almost all christian realms. They see ye never oppugn religion more 
than when ye will seem most to defend it. They be sony to see that great 
wits a long season have spent their whole strength in defence of deceits : 
Reason, to put his whole power to the pi'omoting of pride and imgodliness ; 
Virtue to serve Vice ; Holiness to be slave to Hypocrisy ; Prudence to 
Subtlety; Justice to Tyranny. They be glad that Scripture now fighteth for 
itself, and not against itself. They be glad that God is not compelled to be 
against God ; Christ against Chi-ist. They be glad that subtlety hath done no 
more hurt to religion in time past, than now constancy doth good to truth. 
They see the marks that ye have shot at, in all your councils jiast, to be lucre, 
money, gains. They see you sought your profit, yea, though it were joined 
with the slaughter of truth. They see, ye would ever that sooner injury should 
be done to the gospel, than that your authority, that is to say, aiTOgant impu- 
dcncy, should in any point be diminished. 

And, we pray you, what may Paid the bishop of Rome seem now to go about, 
who, seeing all princes occu])ied in great afiairs, would steal (as he calleth it) a 
general council ? what other thing, than hereby to have some excuse to refuse 
a general council hereafter, when time and place much better for the handling 
of matters of religion shall be given unto the princes of Christendom? He will 
think he may then do as princes now do. He will think it lawful not to come 
then, because princes now come not. We pray God that we ever brawl not 
one with another for religion : and whereas dissension is amongst us, we yet for 
(1) Truth may be pressed; it cannot be oppressed. 

THE king's protestation AGAINST THE POPE. 141 

our parts do say, that we, as much as men may, defend the better part, and be Henry 
in the right way. We pray God that the world may enjoy peace and tran- ''^''- 
quillity, and that then we may have both time and place to settle religion : for ^ j) 
except princes first agree, and so (war laid aside) seek peace, he loseth his 1536. 

labour that seeketh a general council. If the bishop of Rome may keep his 

council while they thus be togethei-, will not there be made many pretty de- 
crees? If they, who would come if they had leisure, he absent, and we, who 
though we safely might come, will not lose any part of our right ; trow you, in 
all our absence, that the bishop of Rome will not handle his profit and primacy 
well ? 

Paid ! how can any of ours not refuse to come to Mantua, through so many Time and 
perils, a city so far set from England, so nigh your friends, kinsmen, and ad- ^^^'!?., 
herents ? Is he not unworthy of life, who, when he may tarry at home, will picke'/ 
pass through so many jeopardies of life? Can he who cometh to Cremona, a of the 
city not far from Mantua, be safe if he be taken not to be the bishop of Rome's ^^^' 
friend, that is (as the common sort of deceived people do interpret) a heretic? heretic is 
And if there come to Mantua such a number as would furnish a general among 
council, may not Mantua seem too little to receive so many guests ? Put these "^"^ . 
two together: all the way from England to Mantua is fuU of just perils, and 
yet if ye escape all those, the very place where the council is kept is more to be 
suspected than all the way. Do ye not know all civil laws to compel no man 
to come to any place, where he shall be in jeopardy of his life all the way? 
We have no safe-conduct to pass and return by the dominions of other princes. 
And if we had a safe-conduct, yet should not we be charged with rashness, that 
where just teri'or might have dissuaded us from such a journey, we committed 
ourselves to such perils? Surely he, who, the time being as it is, things stand- 
ing as they do, will go from England to Mantua,' may be careless, if he lack 
wit : sure of his arrival, or return from thence, he cannot be ; for who doth not 
know how oft the bishops of Rome have played false parts with them that in False- 
such matters have trusted to their safe-conducts ? How oft have they caused, ^°°^ °^ 

. , popes 
by their perfidy, such men to be slain, as they have promised by their faith no new 

before, that they should both come safe, and go safe ? These be no news, that thing. 

popes are false, that popes keep no promise either with God or man ; that 

popes, contrary to their oaths, do defile their cruel hands with honest men's 

blood. But we tarry too long in things that as well touch all men as us. 

We will, these now laid apart, turn our oration unto such things, as privately 

touch both us, king Henry VIII., and all Englishmen. Is it unknown to any 

man, what mind Paul the bishop of Rome beareth to us king Henry VIII., to 

us his nobility, to us his grace's bishops, and to us all his grace's subjects, for 

the pulling down of his usurped power and proud primacy ? for expelling of 

his usurped jurisdiction, and for delivering of our realm from his grievous 

bondage and poUage ? Who seeth not him even inflamed with hatred against His 

us, and the flames to be much greater than he can now keep them in ? He is hatred 

an open enemy, he dissembleth no longer, provoking all men, by all the means E^ngiand. 

that he can, to endamage us and our country. These three years he hath been 

occupied in no one thing so much, as how he might stir up the commons of 

England, now corrupting some with money, some with dignities. We let pass 

what letters he hath written to christian princes : with how great fervent study 

he hath exhorted them to set upon us. The good vicar of Christ, by his doing, tringeih 

showeth how he imderstandeth the words of Christ. He thinketh he playeth not peace, 

Christ's part well, when he may sav, as Christ did,'^ ' I come not to make peace ''"' ^l"? 
11 1 111 1 1 y~.i • 1 T 1 • sword to 

in earth, but to send swords about; and not such swords as Christ would his the earth: 

to be armed withal, but such as cruel man-quellers abuse in the slaughter of otherwise 

their neighbours We marvel little though they vex other princes oft, seeing Christ 

they recompense our favour showed to them with contumelies, our benefits did. 

with injuries. 

We will not rehearse here how many our benefits bestowed upon Roman Benefits 

bishops be lost. God be with such ingrate carles, unworthy to be numbered cast away 

amongst men : certes such, that a man may well doubt whether God or man p^"" *^^ 

hath better cause to hate them. But that we have learned to owe good will 

even to them that immortally hate us, what could we wish them so evil, but 

(1) The way to Mantua is long and dangerous. 

(2) ' Non veni pacem mittere in terram, sed gladium.' 



Henry they have deserved much worse ? We wish them this hurt alone, that God send 

vin. them a better mind. God be thanked, we have made all their seditious in- 

~T~r\~ tents sooner to show their great malice towards us, than to do us much hurt; 

1 r,o(' yea, they have well taught us, evermore to take good heed to our enemies. 

' Undoubtedly it were good going to Mantua, and to leave their whelps amongst 

the lambs of our flock. When we be weary of our wealth, we will even do 

then, as they would have us now do. No, no ! as long as we shall see his 

heart so good towards us, we trust upon his warning we shall well provide to 

withstand his cruel malice. No, let him now spend his deceits, when they can 

hurt none but such as would deceive, and are deceived. 

The They have, by sundry ways, made us privy, how much we be bound to 

popes them. It went nigh their hearts, to see the judgment of Julius, of Clement 

fcar^dln' VII., of Paul III., nothing to be regarded with us. They be afraid, if we should 

England, sustain no hurt because we justly rejected their primacy, that other princes 

would begin to do likewise, and to shake off their shoulders the heavy burdens 

that they so long have borne against Scriptures, all right and reason. They be 

sorry to see the way stopped, that now their tyranny, avarice, and pride, can 

have no passage unto England, which was wont to walk, to triumph, to toss, 

to trouble all men. They can scarce suffer privileges, that is to say, license to 

spoil our citizens, given them by our forefathers, and brought in by errorful 

custom, to be taken fi'om them. They think it unlawful that we require things 

lawfid of them that will be under no laws. They think we do them wrong, 

Histrum- because we will not suffer them to do us wrong any longer. They see their mer- 

''atched chandise to be banished, to be forbidden. They see that we will buy no longer 

out of chalk for cheese. They see they have lost a fair fleece, vengeably sorry that 

England, they can dispatch no more pardons, dispensations, totquots, with the rest of 

their baggage and trumpery. England is no more a babe. There is no man 

Gold here, but now he knoweth that they do foolishly, who give gold for lead, more 

venfor weight of that, than they receive of this. They pass not, though Peter and 

Paul's faces be graven in the lead, to make fools fain. No, we be sorry that 

they should abuse holy saints' visages, to the beguiling of the world. 

Surely, except God take away our right wits, not only his authority shall be 

driven out for evei*,' but his name also shortly shall be forgotten in England. 

We will from henceforth ask counsel from him and his, when we lust to be 

deceived, when we covet to be in error: when we desire to offend God, truth, 

The and honesty. If a man may guess the whole work by the foundation, where 

fou'nda- deceits begin the work, can any other than deceits be builded upon this foun- 

tion is all dation ? What can you look for in this Mantuan council, other than the oppres- 

H*^ d'th ^^°" °^ truth and true religion ? If there be any thing well done, think, as 

a fe^v every man doth, bishops of Rome to be accustomed to do a few things well, 

things that many evils may the better be taken at their hands. They, when they lust, 

many' ^' *^^" ji^ld some part of their right. They are content that some of their decrees, 

evils may some of their errors and abuses, be reprehended : but they are never more to 

'''^ be feared, than when they show themselves most gentle ; for if they grant a 

proceed. f*^w, they ask many, if they leave a little, they will be sure of a great deal. 

Scarce a man may know how to handle himself, that he take no hurt at their 

hands, yea, when they bless him ; who seldom do good, but for an intent to do 

He ought evil. Certainly, come whoso will to these shops of deceits, to these fairs of 

to be frauds, we will lose no part of our right in coming at his call, who ought to be 

and^not called, and not to call. We will neither come at Mantua, nor send thither for 

to caU. this matter, &c. 

The pope And SO tlic king, proceeding in the said his protestation, declareth 
prorogues morcover, how the pope, after he had summoned his council first to 
council ^^ '^^P*' ^^ Mantua, the 23d day of May, a.d. 1537, shortly after 
directed out another bull, to prorogate the same council to the month 
of November ; pretending, for his excuse, that the duke of Mantua 
would not suffer him to keep any council there, unless he maintained 
a number of warriors for defence of the town. And therefore, in his 
latter bull, he prorogueth this assembly, commanding patriarchs, 

(1) God giant ! 

THE king's protestation AGAINST THE POPE. 143 

archbishops, bishops, abbots, and others of the spiritualty, by nenry 

virtue of obedience, and under pain of cursing, to be present ; but L 

showeth no place at all where he would be, nor whither they should ^■^■ 
come. And in very deed no great matter though no place were — !^Ii-l_ 
named ; for as good a council nowhere to be called, as where it 
could not be ; and as well no place served him that intended no 
council, as all places. And to say truth, much better no place to be 
named, than to name such as he purposed not to come to ; for so 
should he break no promise, who maketh none. And so, going for- 
ward in his oration, toward the latter end the king thus inferreth by 
his words of protestation, saying : 

Now, we will the pope and his adherents to understand that which we have Princes, 
oft said, and now say, and ever will say : ' He nor his hath no authority nor ^^^g^j^g 
jurisdiction in England.' We give him no more than he hath : that is never a pope pri- 
deal. That which he hath usurped against God's law, and extorted by violence, macy, so 
we, by good right, take from him again. But he and his will say, we gave jt fj^j^ ^ 
them a primacy. We hear them well: we give it you indeed. If you have him 
authority upon us as long as our consent giveth it you (and you evermore will "■K'-'"- 
make your plea upon our consent), then let it have even an end where it 
began : we consent no longer, your authority must needs be gone. If we, being 
deceived by false pretence of evil-alleged Scriptures, gave to you that ye ought 
to have refiised, why may we not, our error now perceived, your deceit espied, 
take it again ? We princes wrote ourselves to be inferiors to popes. As long 
as we thought so, we obeyed them as our superiors. Now we write not as we 
did, and therefore they have no great cause to marvel, if we hereafter do not as 
we did ; both the laws civil, and also the laws of God, be on our side. For a 
free man born doth not lose his liberty, no nor hurt the plea of his liberty, 
though he write himself a bondman. 

Again, If they lean to custom, we send them to St. Cyprian, who saith, that Custom, 
custom, if truth be not joined with it, is nothing but ' eiToris vetustas,' that is, 
'an old error.' Christ said, ' Ego sum via, Veritas, etvita:' 'I am the way, 
the truth, and life :' he never said, ' Ego sum consuetudo,' ' I am the custom.' 
Wherefore, seeing custom serveth you on the one side, and Scripture us on the 
other, are ye able to match us? In how many places doth Christ admonish you 
to seek no primacy, to prefer yoiurselves before nobody ; no, to be obedient unto 
all creatures! Your old title, 'servus servonim,' evil agreeth with your new The 
forged dignity. But we will not tarry in matters so plain : we only desire God, P."Pf ^ 
that Csesar and other christian princes, would agree upon some holy council, his dis- 
where ti-uth may be tried, and religion set up, which hath been hurt by nothing nity agree 
so sore, as by general — not general — councils : errors and abuses grow too fast. ^^^j°^^' 
' Erudimini qui judicatis terram ;' ' Get you learning, you that judge the earth,' 
and excogitate some remedy for these so many diseases of the sick church. 
They that be wisest, do despair of a general council : wherefore we think it now Let every 
best, that every prince call a council provincial, and every prince do redress his P""ce re- 
own realm. We make all men privy to what we think best to be done for the jeaim, 
redress of religion. If they like it, we doubt not but they will follow it, or some and tarry 
other better. Our trust is, that all princes will so handle themselves in this ""^^"[is 
behalf, that princes may enjoy their own, and priests of Rome content them- 
selves with what they ought to have. Princes, as we trust, will no longer 
nourish wolves' whelps ; they will subscribe no more to popish pride, to the 
papacy, &c. 

Favour our doings, O christian princes ! Your honour and ancient majesty 
is restored. Remember there is nothing pertaining so much to a prince's honour 
as to set forth truth, and to help religion. Take you heed that their deceit 
work not more mischief than your virtue can do good, and everlasting war we 
would all princes had with this papacy. As for their decrees, so hearken to 
them, that if in this Mantuan assembly things be well done, ye take them ; but 
not as authorized by them, but that truth, and things that maintain religion, are 
to be taken at all men's hands. And even as we will admit things well made, 
so, if there be any thing determined in prejudice of truth, for the maintenance 




Henry of their evil grounded primacy, or that may hurt the authority of kings, we 
^^^i protest unto the whole world that we neither allow it, nor will at any tune 
allow it. 

Ye have, christian readers ! our mind concerning the general council. We 
think you all see, that Paul, and his cardinals, bishops, abbots, monks, friars, 
with the rest of the rabblement, do nothing less intend, than the knowledge and 
search of truth. Ye see this is no time meet, Mantua no place meet, for a 
general council. And though they were both meet, yet except some other call 
this council, you see that we need neither to come, nor to send. You have 
heard how every prince in his own realm may quiet things amiss. If there be 
any of you that can show us a better way, we promise, with all hearty desire, 
to do that which shall be thought best for the settling of rehgion, and that we 
will leave our own advices, if any man show us better ; which mind of ours we 
most heartily pray God that gave it us, not only to increase in us, but also to 
send it unto all christian princes, all christian prelates, and all christian people. 

A little before the death of queen Anne, there was a parliament 
at Westminster, wherein were given to the king, by consent of the 
abbots, all such houses of religion as were under three hundred marks ; 
Avhich was a shrewd prognosticate of the ruin of greater houses, which 
indeed followed shortly after, as was and might easily be perceived 
before by many, who then said, that the low bushes and brambles 
were cut down before, but great oaks would follow after. 

Although the proceeding of these things did not well like the 
minds of the pope's friends in England, yet, notwithstanding, they 
began again to take some breath of comfort, when they saw the afore- 
said queen Anne dispatched. Nevertheless they were frustrated of 
their purpose (as is afore showed) and that double wise. For first, 
after they had their wills of queen Anne, the Lord raised up another 
queen, not greatly for their purpose, with her son king Edward ; and 
also for that the lord Cromwell, the same time, began to grow in 
authority, who, like a mighty pillar set up in the church of Christ, 
was enough, alone, to confound and overthrow all the malignant devices 
of the adversaries, so long as God gave him in life here to continue ; 
whose story hereafter followeth more at large. 

Shortly after this aforesaid marriage of the king with this queen 
Jane Seymour above mentioned, in the month of June, during the 
continuation of the parliament, by the consent of the clergy holding 
then a solemn convocation in the church of St. Paul, a book was set 
forth containing certain articles of religion necessary to be taught to 
the people ; wherein they treated specially but of three sacraments, 
baptism, penance, and the Lord's Supper ; where also divers other 
things were published concerning the alteration of certain points of 
religion, as that certain holidays were forbidden, and many abbeys 
began to be suppressed. For this cause the rude multitude of Lin- 
colnshire, fearing the utter subversion of their old religion, Avherein 
they had been so long nursled, did rise up in a great commotion, to 
the number wxll near of twenty thousand, having for their captain a 
monk, called doctor Makerel, calling himself then captain Coblcr ; 
but these rebels, being repressed by the king's power, and desiring 
pardon, soon brake up their assembly. For they, hearing of the 
royal army of the king coming against them, with his own person 
there present, and fearing what would follow of this, first the noblemen 
and gentlemen, who before favoured them, began to withdraw them- 
selves, so that they were destitute of captains ; and at last they, in 


Jane mar- 
ried to 
the king. 

in autho- 

tion of re- 
ligion a 
little be- 

tion in 

A monk 
stirrer of 
the com- 


writing, made certain petitions to the king, protesting that they never ^j^rj^ 

intended hurt towards his royal person. These petitions the king _ 

received, and made this answer again to them as followeth. A. D. 

^ 1537. 

The King's Answer to the Rebels in Lincolnshire. 

First, we begin to make answer to the fourth and sixth articles, because upon 
them dependeth much of the rest. Concerning choosing of councillors, I never 
have read, heard, or known, that princes, councillors, and prelates, should be 
appointed by rude and ignorant common people, nor that they were persons 
meet, or of ability, to discern and choose meet and sufficient councillors for a 
prince. How presumptuous then are ye, the rude commons of one shire, and 
that one the most base of the whole realm, and of the least experience, to find 
fault with your prince, for the electing of his councillors and prelates, and to 
take upon you, contrary to God's law and man's laws, to rule your princes, 
whom you are bound, by all law, to obey and serve with both your lives, lands, 
and goods, and for no worldly cause to withstand. 

As for the suppression of religious houses and monasteries, we will that ye Suppres- 
and all our subjects should well know, that this is granted us by all the nobles re'ii"ri'iu 
spiritual and temporal of this realm, and by all the commons in the same, by iiouses. 
act of parliament ; and not set forth by any councillor or councillors upon their 
mere will and fantasy, as you full falsely would persuade our realm to believe. 

And where ye allege that the service of God is much diminished, the truth 
thereof is contrary ; for there be no houses suppressed where God was well 
served, but where most vice, mischief, and abomination of living was used ; and 
that doth well appear by their own confessions, subscribed with their own 
hands, in the time of their visitations, and yet we suffered a great many of 
them (more than we needed by the act) to stand ; wherein if they amend not 
their living,^ we fear we have more to answer for, than for the suppression of all 
the rest. And as for the hospitality for the relief of the poor, we wonder ye be 
not ashamed to affirm that they have been a great relief of poor people, when 
a great many, or the most part, have not past four or five religious persons in 
them, and divers but one, which spent the substance of the goods of their 
houses in nourishing of vice, and abominable living. Now what unkindness 
and unnaturality may we impute to you, and all our subjects that be of that 
mind, which had lever such an unthrift sort of vicious persons should enjoy 
such possessions, profits, and emoluments, as grow of the said houses, to the 
maintenance of their unthrifty life, than we, your natural prince, sovereign 
lord, and king, who do and have spent more of our own in your defences, than 
six times they be worth? 

As touching the Act of Uses, we marvel what madness is in your brain, or The act 
upon what ground ye would take authority upon you, to cause us to break those °^ "^^^• 
laws and statutes, which, by all the noble knights and gentlemen of this realm 
(whom the same chiefly toucheth), have been granted and assented to, seeing 
I in no manner of things it toucheth you, the base commons of our realm. 
I Also, the grounds of all those uses were false, and never admitted by law, 
I but usurped upon the prince, contrary to all equity and justice, as it hath been 
openly both disputed and declared by all the well learned men in the realm of 
England, in Westminster-hall : whereby ye may well perceive how mad and 
unreasonable your demands be, both in that, and in the rest ; and how unmeet 
it is for us, and dishonourable, to grant or assent unto, and less meet and decent 
for you, in such a rebellious sort, to demand the same of your prince. 

As touching the Fifteenth which you demand of us to be released, think ye The act of 
that we be so faint-hearted, that perforce ye of one shire (were ye a great many ti^tecuUi. 
more) could compel us, with your insurrections, and such rebellious demeanour, 
to remit the same ? or think you that any man will or may take you to be true 
subjects, that first make and show a loving grant, and then perforce would 
compel your sovereign lord and king to release the same, the time of payment 
whereof is not yet come? Yea, and seeing the same will not countervail the tenth 

(1) In these visitations of religious houses, horrible it is to read, what wickedness and abomi- 
nation were there found and registered by the visitors. 

VOL. V. L 






The act of 



penny of the charges which we have, and daily do sustain, for your tuition and 
safeguard, make you sure that by your occasions of these ingratitudes, un- 
naturahiess, and unkindness to us now administered, ye give us cause (who 
have always been as much dedicated to yom* wealth, as ever was king) not so 
much to set our study for the setting forward of the same, seeing how unkindly 
and untruly ye deal now with us, without any cause or occasion : and doubt ye 
not, though you have no grace nor naturalness in you to consider your duty of 
allegiance to your king and sovereign lord, the rest of our realm, we doubt not, 
hath ; and we and they shall so look on this cause, that we trust it shall be to 
your confusion, if, according to your former letters, you submit not yourselves. 

As touching the first fruits, we let you to wit, it is a thing granted us by act 
of parliament also, for the supportation of part of the great and excessive 
charges, which we support and bear for the maintenance of your wealths and 
other our subjects : and we have known also that ye our commons have much 
complained also in times past, that the most part of our goods, lands, and posses- 
sions of the realm, were in the spiritual men's hands; and yet, bearing us in 
hand that ye be as loving subjects to us as may be, ye cannot find in your hearts 
that your prince and sovereign lord should have any part thereof (and yet it is 
nothing prejudicial unto you our commons), but do rebel and unlawfully rise 
against your prince, contrary to the duty of allegiance and God's command- 
ment. Sirs ! remember your follies and traitorous demeanours, and shame not 
your native country of England, nor offend any more so grievously )'our doubted 
king and natural prince, who always hath showed himself most loving unto you; 
and remember your duty of allegiance, and that ye are bound to obey us your 
king, both by God's commandment and the law of nature. 

Wherefore we charge you eftsoons, upon the aforesaid bonds and pains, that 
you withdraw yourselves to your own houses every man, and no more to 
assemble contrary to our laws and your allegiances, and to cause the provokers 
of you to this mischief, to be delivered to our lieutenant's hands or ours, and 
you yourselves to submit you to such condign punishment as we and our 
nobles shall think you worthy of: for doubt you not else, that we and our 
nobles neither can nor will suffer this injury at your hands unrevenged, if ye 
give not to us place of sovereignty, and show yourselves as bounden and obedi- 
ent subjects, and no more intermeddle yourselves from henceforth with the 
weighty affairs of the realm, the direction whereof only appertaineth to us your 
king, and such noblemen and councillors as we list to elect and choose to have 
the ordering of the same. 

And thus we pray unto Almighty God, to give you grace to do your duties, 
to use yourselves towards us like true and faithful subjects, so as we may have 
cause to order you thereafter ; and rather obediently to consent amongst you 
to deliver into the hands of our lieutenant a hundred persons, to be ordered 
according to their demerits, at our will and pleasure, than, by your obstinacy 
and wilfulness, to put yourselves, your wives, children, lands, goods and 
chattels, besides the indignation of God, in the utter adventure of total destruc- 
tion, and utter ruin, by force and violence of the sword. j 

tion of 
shire as- 

Popish in- 
tion in 

After the Lincolnsliirc men had received this the king''s answer 
aforesaid, made to their petitions, each mistrusting the other, who should 
be noted to be the gi-eatest meddler, even very suddenly they began 
to shrink, and out of hand they were all divided, and every man at 
home in his own house in peace : but the captains of these rebels 
escaped not all clear, but were afterwards apprehended, and had as 
they deserved.* 

After this, immediately, within six days upon the same, followed a 
new insurrection in Yorkshire for the same causes, through the insti- 
gation and lying tales of seditious persons, especially monks and 
priests ; making them believe, that their silver chalices, crosses, 
jewels, and othfer ornaments, should be taken out of their churches ; 
and that no man should be man-icd, or eat any good meat in his house, 

(1) Ex Ed. Hal. 


but should give tribute there-for to the king : but their especial malice Jie'^ry 

was against Cromwell and certain other counsellors. !_ 

The number of these rebels was nearly forty thousand, having ^^- 1^- 
for their badges the five wounds, with the sign of the sacrament, and '^ 

Jesus ' written in the midst. piigdm- 

This their devilish rebellion they termed by the name of a ' Holy age. 
Pilgrimage ;"' but they served a wrong and a naughty saint. They 
had also in the field their streamers and banners, whereupon was 
painted Christ hanging upon the cross on the one side, and a chalice, 
with a painted cake in it, on the other side, with other such ensigns of 
like hypocrisy and feigned sanctity, pretending thereby to fight for 
the faith and the right of holy church. 

As soon as the king was certified of this new seditious insurrection, The 
he sent with all speed against them, the duke of Norfolk, the duke po"vM 
of Suffolk, the marquis of Exeter, the earl of Shrewsbury, and others, t,fg'"e^g,s 
with a great army, forthwith to encounter with the rebels. in the 

These noble captains and councillors, thus well furnished with habili- 
ment of Avar, approaching towards the rebels, and understanding both 
their number, and how they were full bent to battle, first with policy 
went about to essay and practise how to appease all without blood- 
shedding; but the northern men, stoutly and sturdily standing to their Blind 
wicked cause and wretched enterprise, would in no case relent from ne"s of 
their attempts : which when the nobles perceived, and saw no other way ^^^^^^^ 
to pacify their furious minds, utterly set on mischief, they determined p''°p/,^ 
upon a battle. The place was appointed, the day assigned, and the where 
hour set ; but see the wondrous work of God's gracious providence ! no'^cause* 
The night before the day of battle came (as testifieth Edward Hall), 
fell a small rain, nothing to speak of, but yet, as it were by a great 
miracle of God, the water which was but a very small ford, and that 
men in a manner, the day before, might have gone dry-shod over, a great 
suddenly rose of such a height, deepness, and breadth, that the like goci, for 
no man that there did inhabit, could tell they ever saw before ; so of'h^s"^^ 
that that day, even when the hour of battle should come, it was gospel. 
impossible for the one army to come at the other. 

After this, that the appointment made between both of the armies 
(being thus disappointed as it is tobe thought, onlyby God, who extended 
his great mercy, and had compassion on the great number of innocent 
persons that in that deadly slaughter had like to have been murdered), 
could take no place ; then, by the great wisdom and policy of the said 
captains, a communication was had, and a pardon of the king"'s ma- 
jesty obtained for all the captains and chief doers of this insurrection ; 
and they were promised that for such things as they found them 
aggrieved withal, they should gently be heard, and theii' reasonable 
petitions granted ; and that theb articles should be presented to the 
king, that by his highnesses authority, and the wisdom of his council, 
all things should be brought to good order and conclusion : and with 
this order every man quietly departed, and those who before were 
bent as hot as fire to fight, being letted thereof by God, went now 
peaceably to their houses, and were as cold as water. 
' A Domino factum est istud.' 

In the time of this ruffle in Yorkshire, and the king Iving the 

T 9 


iiniry saiTic timc at Windsor, there was a butcher dwelling within five miles 
'''"_ of the said town of Windsor, who caused a priest to preach that all 

A. p. they that took part with the Yorkshiremen, whom he called God's 

^•'"'"Zi, people, did fight in God's quarrel ; for wliich both he and the priest 

were apprehended and executed. 

Popish Divers other priests also, with others about the same time, com- 

lobdHng niitting, in like sort, treason against the king, suffered the like exe- 

a^'ainst^ cutiou. Sucli a business had the king then to rid the realm from the 

servitude of the Romish yokes. 

' Tante molis erat, Romanam evertere sedem ! ' 

But God's hand did still work withal, in upholding his gospel and 
trodden truth against all seditious stirs, commotions, rebellions, and 
Avhatsoever was to the contrary ; as both by the stories before passed, 
and by such also as hereafter follow, may notoriously appear. 

The next year after this, Avhich was a.d. J 537, after the great 

execution had been done upon certain rebellious priests, and a few 

other laymen, with certain noble persons also and gentlemen, amongst 

whom were the lord Darcy, the lord Hussy, Sir Robert Constable, 

sir Thomas Percy, sir Francis Bygot, sir Stcjihen Hamilton, sir .Tohn 

Buhner and his wife, William Lomeley, Nicholas Tempest, with the 

abbots of Jervaiix and of Rivaulx, &c. 

Prince In the month of October, the same year following, Avas born prince 

bOTr"' Edward ; shortly after whose birth, queen Jane, his mother, the second 

Death of (]f^y after, died in childbed, and left the king again a widower, who 

Jane. SO continued the space of two years together. Upon the death of 

this queen Jane, and upon the birth of prince Edward her son, these 

two verses were made which follow : 

' Phoenix Jana jacet nato Phcenicc, dolendum 
Secula Phoenices nulla tulisse duas.'i 

Here, by the way, is to be understood, that during all this season, 
since the timc that the king of England had rejected the pope out of 
the realm, both the emperor, the French king, and the king of Scots, 
with other foreign potentates (who were yet in subjection under the 
pope), bare him no great good ftivour inwardly, whatsoever outwardly 
they pretended. Neither Avere here lacking privy sctters-on, nor secret 

Jdnetir working among themselves how to compass ungracious mischiefs, if 

'""'.,, God, by contrary occasions, had not stopped their intended devices. 

England Por first tlic popc had sent cardmal role to the l^rench kmg, to stir 

naU'oie. him to War against the realm of England. 

Secondly, whereas the French king, by treaty of perpetual peace, 
was bound yeariy to pay to the king of England, at the first days of 
May and November, about ninety-five thousand crowns of the sun, 
and odd money, and over that ten thousand croAvns at the said two 
terms, for recompense of salt-due, as the treaties thereof did purport, 
that pension remained now unpaid four years and more. 

Furthermore, the emperor and the French king, both, retained 
Grancetor, a traitorous rebel against the king, and condemned by act 
of parliament, with certain other traitors more, and yet would not 
deliver him unto the king at his earnest suit and request. 

(1) These verses were thought to be made by Maste Armigyl Wade, 


The French king also, digressing from his promise and treaty, made H'i'iry 

alliance with Clement, the bishop of Rome, in marrying the dauphin '— 

to his niece, called Katharine de Medicis. ^- ^^• 

The said French king moreover, contrary to his contract made, — t—L. 
married his daughter to the king of Scots : all which events Avere pre- 
judicial ; and put the king, no doubt, in some fear and perplexity 
(though otherwise a stout and valiant prince), to see the pope, the 
emperor, the French king, and the king of Scots, so bent against 

And yet, all this notwithstanding, the Lord still defended the just- 
ness of his cause against them all. For although the French king 
was so set on by the pope, and so linked in marriage with the Scots, 
and lacked nothing now but only occasion to invade the realm of 
England, yet notwithstanding he, hearing now of the birth of prince 
Edward, the king''s son by queen Jane, and understanding also, by 
the death of the said queen Jane, that the king was a widower, and 
perceiving, moreover, talk to be that the king would join in marriage 
with the Germans, began to wax more calm and cold, and to give 
much more gentle words, and to demean himself more cour- 
teously, labouring to marry the queen of Navarre, his sister, to the 

The ambassadors resident then in France for the king, were Stephen 
Gardiner, with Dr. Thirleby, &c. ; which Stephen Gardiner, Avhat he 
wrought secretly for the pope"'s devotion, I have not expressly to 
charge him. Whether he so did, or what he did, the Lord knoweth 
all ! But this is certain, that when Dr. Bonner, archdeacon then of 
Leicester, was sent into France by the king (through the means of 
the lord Cromwell), to succeed Stephen Gardiner in embassy, which Dr.Bo''n-' 
was about a.d. 1538, he found such dealing in the said bishop of j^f^'.^'' 
Winchester as was not greatly to be trusted ; besides the unkind ambassa- 
parts of the said bishop against the aforesaid Bonner, coming then France. 
from the king and lord Cromwell, as were not to be liked. 

Long it is to recite from the beginning, and few men perad venture 
would believe, the brawling matters, the privy complaints, the con- 
tentious quarrels and bitter dissensions, between these two ; and 
especially what despiteful contumelies Dr. Bonner received at the 
hands of Winchester. For understand, good reader ! that this Dr. 
Bonner all this while remained yet, as he seemed, a good man, and inthebc- 
was a great furtherer of the king''s proceedings, and a favourer of Lu- favou"rei'' 
ther"'s doctrine, and was advanced only by the lord Cromwell, whose tnltiTand 
promotions are here to rehearse : first, he was archdeacon of Leiccs- » Lutuer- 
ter, parson of Blaydon, of Dereham, Chiswick, and Cheryburton ; ^"' 
then he was made bishop of Hereford, and, at last, preferred to be 
bishop of London : the chief of which preferments and dignities were Lord 
conferred unto him only by the means and favour of the lord Crom- [j™ "oy" 
Avell, who was then his chief and only patron and setter-up ; as the ^^"^^1^"^ 
said Bonner himself, in all his letters, doth manifestly protest and ner. 
declare ; the copies of which his letters I could here produce and Jom"fg ^ 
exhibit, but for prolonging my story with superfluous matter. Yet JJ^' ^'J^^* 
that the world and all posterity may see how the coming up of Dr. gospel. 
Bonner Avas only by the gospel (howsoever he was afterwards unkind 
unto the gospel), this one letter of his, which I will here infer, written 


JTemy to the lorcl Cioinwell out of France, may stand for a perpetual testi- 
^^^^' monv, tlie tenor whereof here ensueth. 
A. D. 
^•^'^^- A Letter of Dr. Bonner, the King"'s Ambassador resident in France, 

sent to the Lord Cromwell, declaring the order of his promotions 

and coming up.' 

Bonner My very singular especial good lord, as one most bounden, I most luimtly 
confcs- commend me unto yom- honourable good lordship. And whereas in times past 
self much ^^ ^^''^^ liked the same, without any my deserts or meiits, even only of your 
bound to singular exceeding goodness, to bestow a great deal of love, benevolence, and 
the lord good affection upon me so poor a man, and of so small qualities, expressing 
•B-eu"" indeed sundry ways the good eifects thereof to my great preferment, I was very 
much bound thereby unto your honourable good lordship, and thought it always 
my duty (as indeed it was), both to bear my true heart again unto your lord- 
ship, and also, remembering such kindness, to do unto the same all such service 
and pleasure as might then lie in my small power to do. 
Preferred But where, of your infinite and inestimable goodness it hath further liked 
to the you of late, first to advance me unto the office of legation from such a prince 

bishopric sovereign lord is, unto the emperor and French king ; and next after, to 

01 Here- .' i i • • i i i i i- \\ 

lord. procure and obtain mine advancement to so honourable a promotion as the 

bishopric of Hereford, I must here acknowledge the exceeding greatness of your 

lordship's benefit, with naine own imbecility to recompense it, and say, as Virgil 


' Grates persolvere dignas non opis est nostrae.' 

Surely, my good lord, I neither am, neither shall be able to requite this your 
lordship's most special kindness and bountiful goodness at any time, unless I 
Accept;- should use that civil remedy called in law ' acceptilation,' which great debtors 
lation. especially are accustomed to procure at the hands of their ci-editors ; whereby 
yet nevertheless your goodness, the only doer thereof, should rather be increased, 
than my duty towards the same thereby diminished. And ' cessio bonornm ' 
(the only extreme refuge and help of poor debtors, devised also in civiP) might 
somewhat help herein, saying that it is not possible that I should come ' ad tam 
pinguem fortunam' (whereupon that remedy is gromided), whereby I may 
recompense and requite this debt worthily. 

So that in conclusion there resteth this; that unless your lordship's self do 
loose me, as you have bound me, I shall (and that full gladly) remain continu- 
ally your most bounded beadsman. And sir, I most humbly beseech your good 
lordship, in the honour of God, seeing this thing is begun and advanced only 
by your goodness and means, you will, to the intent the act may be wholly 
your own, stretch out your goodness, not suffering the rest to be perfected 
otherwise than by your own hands ; wherein, as I must and shall acknowledge 
myself to be exceedingly beholden unto your good lordship, so shall I the same 
more esteem and set by, during my life, having so attained it by your only 
goodness : and verily, if your good lordsliip be not better to me herein than I 
can (unless it be of yom* own goodness) desire you, 1 know not how I shall be 
The pro- able to overcome the great charges annexed to this promotion. For though 
motion of j^y promotions afore were right, honest, and good, yea, and such as one of far 
Bonuer. y^^^^^^. q^xalities than I was, or am of, ought therewith to have been contented ; 
yet, considering that of divers of them, that is to wit, Leicester, Blaydon, Dere- 
ham, Chiswick, and Cheryburton, the first fruits, tenths, and charges borne, I 
have not received clearly one penny, I am now never a whit the more able to 
bear the great charges of this. 

I shall therefore herein, and in all things else pertaining hereunto, seeing 
your lordship is so great a patron, and will needs bind me for ever to be your 
own (as indeed I will), refer altogether unto your goodness, beseeching you to 
take the order and disposition of all into your hands. I cannot tell whether 
the late bishop standeth bounden for the first fruits, tenths, or other duties 
•which by statute may be demanded of his successor ; but I fear it greatly, and 

(1) Out of Bonner's own hand-writing. 

(.2) Here seemeth to lack some word, but that I would not alter any thing in his own copy. 


'beseech your lordship that I may be ho]2)en therein. My charges now here mjiry 
e;nforce nie the more to speak and trouble j'our good lordship, which at the be- ^iH- 
ginning are not a few, and yet not ended. Of my fidelity to your good, I . ,^ 
have, of five Inuulred crowns, remaining forty, bestowed upon horses, mules, , ._'„„" 

mulcts, raiment, and other necessaries, standing debtor to Master Thirleb)' 1_ 

nevertheless, and also to Master Dr. Heynes, for one hundred marks, or fast 
upon, to them both. And besides this, such is my chance now at the begin- 
ning, divers of my servants have fallen sick, being in great peril and danger, 
putting me to no little charges. 

Over and besides these displeasures coming unto me by not having their 
service, and others to keep them, and also wanting mine other servaints in 
England, which, though I have sent for them, yet neither they, neither my 
horses or stuff are come, I must and do take patience, trusting it will mend. 

Upon the closing up of this letter, and depeach of this bearei', God willing, I 
will pack up my gear, and to-morrow betimes follow the French king, who 
yesterday departed from Shambour, and maketh haste toward Paris. And thus 
our blessed Lord long and well preserve your good lordship in health. 
At Blois, the 2d of September, in the evening. 

Scribbled by the weary hand of him that is bounden to be, and is 
indeed, your lordship's beadsman, and at commandment, 

Edmund Eonnek. 

Divers otlier letters of Dr. Bonner, beside this, remain in writing, or. ison- 
unto the Hkc effect and purport, which here also I might add for a "i^[s"vi.iie 
further demonstration hereof; but this one, instead of many, may j''?"^'''^'! 
suffice. Now to our purpose again, which is to declare how this be a good 
Dr. Bonner, in the time of his first springing up, showed himself a Tgood'"'* 
good man, and a fast friend to the gospel of Christ and to the king"'s gospeller. 
proceedings ; and contrariwise, how Stephen Gardiner did halt then 
both with God and with the king : also Avhat unkindness and con- 
tumelies the said Bonner received at Gardiner^s hands ; what rancour Rancour 
and heart-burning was between them ; and what complaints the one ^"rnin'!''^'" 
moved against the other, remain, consequently, by their writings and between 
records, to be opened. For the more evident demonstration Avhereof, ter'anu"'' 
they that have the letters of the said Dr. Bonner, written from ^°""^'^- 
France to the king and the lord Cromwell, may right well perceive. 
And first, to note what a gospeller he was : in his letter from Rouen Bonner 
he, speaking of his trusty companion, and bearer of his letters (who fitmsd/"! 
was belike Dr. Heynes), giveth this report both of him and of him- gospeller. 
self; saying, " If this bearer had been so much desirous to please 
the emperor, and follow his religion, as he was studious to serve truly 
your grace, and to advance the truth, he had not wanted," &c. And Reckon- 
again : " And besides that, he hath not wanted the evil report of thera"' 
naughty fellows, naming him a Lutheran, wherein, for company, I 
was joined, such was their goodness," &c. Again, in another letter 
written to the lord Cromwell, these words he hath, speaking of his 
companion Dr. Heynes. " Especially for that the said Dr. Heynes, Bonner 
by his upright dealing herein, and professing the truth, neither got Heynes 
thanks nor reward, but was blazed abroad by honest folks to be a ""'^'' ^""^ 
Lutheran. The less he pleaseth in Spain, the better argument it is, rans. 
that his intent was to serve none but the king's highness and the 
truth," &c. 

And furthermore, in another minute, writing to the lord Connvcll 
of Stephen Winchester, and of his churlishness toward him, thus he 
saith : " And there found I, in Master Dr. Thirleby, much kindness, 





A. D. 




ter also 
tbe lord 

and in tlic bisliop of Winchester as little," &c. And in the same 
letter it followeth : " And if I had received any entertainment of 
the bishop of Winchester, I would likewise have sent you word. I 
thank God I need not, for I had nothing of him," &c. 

Also in another letter, the said Bonner, crating to the lord Crom- 
well concerning one Barnaby and himself, what cold welcome they 
both had at the hands of Winchester, used these words following : 
" And, my good lord, I beseech you to continue your good favour 
to this honest poor man Barnaby, who is body and soul assuredly 
your own, and as well beloved of the bishop of Winchester as I am : 
and of my troth I suppose and believe verily, one of the chief grudges 
the bishop hath against him, is because your lordship, of your cha- 
ritable goodness, doth love and favour him. 

ter in- 
not how 
the king 


t)f Win- 



hisliop of 

Another Letter of Dr. Bonner to the Lord Cromwell, complaining 
of Winchester, and also declaring how he was promoted by the 
said Lord Cromwell, to the Bishopric of Hereford. 

My very singular especial good lord, according to my most bounden duty, 
I recommend me right humbly unto your good lordship, advertising the same, 
that the 29th of tlie last month, about four of the clock at afternoon, there 
arrived here Barnaby with your lordship's letters, dated at Eutrecht the 24th of 
the same : and thinking that at his said arrival, the bishop of Winchester, 
Master Thirleby, and I, had been all lodged together, whereas in very deed we 
had several lodgings, he went straight to the bishop of Winchester's lodging 
(Master Thirleby and I being then walking in the fields), and the bishop incon- 
tinently inquired of him, not how the king's grace did, as was his duty, but (as 
Barnaby told me) inquired of him where he left the king's grace at his coming 
away : whether he had brought any letters for him : whether Master Brian and 
Master Wallop were in the court at his departing : and, finally, what news were 
in England. To the which questions, when Barnaby had made answer, saying 
that he left the king's grace at Berlin, and that Master Brian and Master 
Wallop were in the court at his departing ; and withal, that he had no letters 
from them, nor any other to him ; and finally, for the news that the king's 
highness had given me the bishopric of Hereford : the bishop (as Barnaby 
reporteth, and I doubt not but he saith truly) cast down his head, making a 
plaice-mouth with his lip, and afterwards lifting up his eyes and hands (as 
cursing the day and hour it chanced), seemed so evil contented therewith, that 
he would neither bid Barnaby drink, or tarry supper, nor yet further commune 
with him, but turning from him, called one Master Medow, and showed him 
of the same tidings, taking it (as it appeared) very heavily ; semblablj' as lie 
doeth every thing that is or may be for my preferment. And when Barnaby 
perceived that I was not there, and that also this comfortable countenance and 
good cheer were made unto him, he went thence and searched for me, who then 
was walking with Master Thirleby, as is before ; and was by chance communing 
with him of the bishop of Winchester, giving him advertisement that he should 
not be abused by the said bishop, who, I said, made him, not for any hearty 
love, I thought, he bare unto him, but either in despite of me, to whom he 
thought it should be greatly displeasant ; either else under colour thereof, and 
by familiarity, for to grope him, and to serve his own crafty purposes by him. 

And soon after the departure of Master Thirleby from me, who then went to 
the bishop to supper, I returned towards my lodging, and by the way met with 
Barnaby, whose salutation was after that sort, that it caused me to wonder at it, 
especially I having no expectation or hope of such thing as he rehearsed unto 
me. And surely, my good lord, I would not believe him in the thing he told, 
till I perceived the same by the superscription of your lordship's letter, which 
lie afterwards delivered unto me : declaring withal (to my great comfort) the 
prosperous estate of the king's highness, and of your good lordship. Which 
known, I besought Almighty God to grant the long continuance thereof, and 
also, as was my duty, ditt give most humble thanks to the king's highness, and 

winchester''s disdain at hoxner's succeedixg iini. lo8 

to your said good lordship. And liereiipon, keeping your lordslii])'s letters still Henry 
in my hands unbroken, I went incontinently to the lodging of Master Thirleby ^^^"- 
which was in my way, to communicate these my news and great good fortune ^ j)_ 
with him;' and not finding him there, I read over your lordship's letters, send- ^538^ 

ing the same afterwards to Master Thirleby ; and perceiving, by Barnaby, that — 

he had other letters for me, which he told me he must deliver unto me secretly, 
I went to mine own lodging with him, and there receiving them accordingly, 
did read them over, both that, your lordship's second letter sent to me, and also 
the other sent to Master Wyat, &c. 

Your lordship's most bounden beadsman. 

And always at commandment, 

Edmund Bonnek. 

When the king, by the advice of the lord Cromwell, and others of 
his council, had appointed Dr. Edmund Bonner to return from the 
€mperor, and to be resident in France, in the place of Winchester 
and of Dr. Thirleby, he sent his letters to the said bishop of Win- 
•chester, and to Master Thirleby, showing his pleasure unto them in 
that behalf, with this clause in the same letters contained in express 
words as followeth. 

And whereas the said Master Bonner wanteth furniture of stuff and plate meet 
for that office, our pleasure is that you. Master Thirleby, shall deliver unto him 
by indenture, all the plate you have of ours in your custody, and that you, my 
lord of Winchester, shall furnish him with all such other stuif, as shall be neces- 
sary for him ; wherein as you shall do unto us pleasm'e, so we shall be content 
at your return, to satisfy you for the same, &c.^ 

The bishop of Winchester receiving these letters from the king, 
and being loth to come into England (whatsoever the matter was), 
also hearing that Dr. Bonner should succeed him, his disdainful nature 
did stomach him exceedingly. But because there was no other remedy 
but that the king^s commandment must be done, first he sendeth the 
king's letter, with his also, to the emperor"'s court, unto Master Bonner, 
and to Dr. Heyncs, willing them in all haste to repair to Lyons within 
two days. Beside these letters of Winchester, Dr. Thirleby adjoined 
his letters also, with like quickness, to the said Dr. Heynes and to 
Bonner, the contents whereof here follow. 

A Letter of Doctor Thirleby to Heynes and Bonner. 

With my hearty commendations, and the desire of your company, and now 
so much rather that I shall thereby have a great benefit, viz. the deliverance 
from trouble to ease, from a strange country to mine own, from the waiting upon 
hini" tliat forceth as little for me, as I am acquainted with him, to the service 
of him whose prosperity and love I account as my life ;* these shall be to pray 
you to make no less speed hither, than you would make to a good feast when 
that you be hungry. Master Bonner shall know many things, but when you 
come I shall tell you more, so that you haste you. Come, I pray yon ; I would 
fain be at home. I saw not my master these four months. When as you, 
Mastet Bonner, shall come to Lyons, it shall be good to go to Bonvise ; he is a 
good money-maker : in faith I can write no more, but bid you come heartily, 
'hastily,' I would have written, and the sooner the better welcome to Lyons, 
where this was given the last of July. 

By him that hath loved you well. 

And now will love you better. 

If you haste you hither, 

Thomas Thirleby. 

(1) See how Bonner rejoiceth at his great good fortune; as though he had not enough before, 
having lour livings, and being meetly well sped for one man. 

(2) 'I'lie king's jileasure was not regarded by the bishop of Winchester. 

(3; He ineanetli here the French king. (4) The king of England, he meaneth. 

L54 Du. Conner's declaration 

iii-'iry At the receipt of these letters, Dr. Bonner and Dr. Heynes did 
put themselves in a readiness to repair incontinent unto Lyons, think- 

A. D. ing there to have found Winchester and Thirleby, according to the 
^•'^'^^' purport of their letters. But Winchester and Thirleby, not abiding 
their coming, made haste away from Lyons to La Barella , where 
Bonner, riding in post after Winchester, overtook him. With whom 
■what entertainment and talk he had, and what accusations he laid to 
his charge, and what brawling words passed between them, and wliat 
great misliking Bonner had of him for special causes here in tliis 
brabling matter or brawling dialogue, under following, may appear ; 
which, for thy recreation, and the further understanding of Win- 
chester's qualities, I wish thee, loving reader ! to peruse and consider. 
But first, here is to be noted, that the king and the lord Cromwell, 
at what time they had appointed Dr. Edmund Bonner to be resident 
ambassador in France, requu'ed in their letters, that he should 
advertise them by writing, what he did mislike in the doings and 
behaviour of certain persons Avhom they did then note unto him. 
Whereupon the said Dr. Bonner sendeth this declaration of Stephen 
Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, as followeth : 

A Declaration sent by Dr. Bonner to the Lord Cromwell, describing 
to him the evil behaviour of Stephen of Winchester, with special 
Causes therein contained, wherefore and why he misliked him.' 

Com- First, I mislike in the bishop of Winchester, that when any man is sent in 

plaints of ^\^Q king's affairs, and by his highness' commandment, the bishop, unless he be 
afjaii'ist the only and chief inventor of the matter and setter-forth of the person, he will 
Winches- not only use many cavillations, but also use great strangeness in countenance 
y'^'- and cheer to the person that is sent : over and besides, as small comfort and 

piorious counsel as may be in the matter ; rather dissuading and discouraging the person 
pride earnestly to set forward his message, than emboldening and comforting him, 
Chester' ^s is his duty, with help and counsel to adventure and do his best therein. The 
experience whereof I have had myself with him, as well at Rouen, the first time 
What ex- I was sent to Rome, commanded by the king's highness to come by him, and 
periciice ^j, Marseilles, the time of the intimation of the king's protestation, provocation, 
liat;h"Jf it. and appeal ; as also lately, going to Nice, touching the general council, and the 
authority of the bishop of Rome ; and finally, now last of all, at my return from 
Spain, where neither my diligence in coming to him, and using him in the 
beginning with all the reverence I could, neither the king's letters written unto 
him in rnv favour, nor yet other thing could mollify his hard heart and cankered 
malicious' stomach, but that he would spitefully speak, and unkindly do ; as 
indeed he did, to his great shame and my dishonesty, as followeth. 
Malicious When riding in post I came to La Barella, a post on this side Lyons, the 
stomach 7th day of August, he being in bed there, I tarried till he, rising up and making 
ch ^aer' l"iTiself ready, came at last out to me, standing and tari7ing for him in a second 
chamber ; and at his coming thither, he said, ' What, Master Bonner ! good mor- 
row! Ah sir, ye be welcome;' and herewithal he put out his hand, and I, kissing 
mine, took him by it, and incontinently after he said, ' Come on, let us go and 
walk awhile into the fields ;' and withal drew towards the door, preparing him 
to walk. To whom I said, I would wait upon him. His going to the fields (as 
appeared afterwards), was not so much to walk, as to have a place where he 
might speak loud, and triumph alone against me, calling in his v.'ords again, if he 
spake any amiss ; or utterly deny them, if that made for his purpose. And by 
chance, rather than by good wisdom, afore I went forth, I asked for Master 
Thirleby, and desired I might see him and speak with him. The bishop that 
perceiving, and, withal, that I stuck upon it, he commanded one of his servants 
to call Master 'fhirleby ; but yet, afore his coming, the bishop could not be idle, 
(1) Out of the copy of Bonner's own letters, by his own hand writing, which I have to show. 


but said this to me : 'Master Bonner! your servant was yesterday with me, and JTenry 
as I told him, I will tell yon: In good faith you can have nothing of me.' ^ n^- 
•Nothing, my lord !' quoth I, merrily speaking, 'many, God forbid! that is a a t^ 
heavy word, and much micomfor table to him that wanteth all things, and trustcth 1^30 

much upon your goodness that hath a great deal.' ' In faith,' quoth he, ' ye '— 

shall have nothing of me : marry, ye shall have of Master Thirleby, his Cialoj,nie 
carriage, mules, his bed, and divers other things, that he may spare ; and which Bonner 
he hath kept for you.' 'Well, my lord !' quoth I, ' if I shall have nothing of and Win- 
you, I must make as good shift as I can for myself otherwise, and provide il '^ "^^ '^'' 
it where I may get it.' 

And here the bishop, because I would not give him thanks for that thing Winchcs- 
which was not worthy thanks, and that also I would not show myself greatly If'iiiin'r'''' 
contented and pleased, though I received nothing at his hands, he began some- for Bon- 
what to kindle, and asked what I wanted. I told him again, that I wanted all 'J^''' ^"'^ 
things saving money and good will to serve the king's highness. 'Tell me one will give 
thing,' quoth he, 'that you want.' 'One thing,' quoth I, 'marry, amongst "o thanks 
many things that I want, I want napery.' ' That shall ye not need,' quoth he, cji^^t";. 
' here in this country :' and here he began to tell a long tale, that none used 
that, but Master Wallop and he, in the beginning : which is not true generally. 
And from tliis he began to go, descending by his negatives : 'My mulets,' said Winches- 
he, 'ye cannot have, for if ye shoidd, I must needs provide others for them *^"^^ 
again : my mulet-cloths ye cannot have, because mine aims are on them, not tives. 
meetforyouto bear: my raiment (I being bishop), thatisnotmeet foryou.' And 
so proceeding forth in the rest, nothing had he for me, and nothing should I have. 

And here came Master Thirleby, who welcomed me very gently, and after xhirlebv 
an honest sort: to whom the bishop rehearseth again his negatives, and present, 
maketh a long discourse, bringing in conclusion, for all that he could do, that J^^ P.'' 
nothing I should have of him: and this rehearsed he still on end I am sure of Win- 
above a dozen times, and that with, a pilot's voice ; so that all his company, Chester, 
standing more than three or foiu- pair of butt lengths of!', heard him. 

When I saw that he would make no end, but ever rehearsed one thing still, 
I said to him, ' My lord ! I beseech you, seeing I shall have nothing of you, but 
of master doctor here, let me give him thanks that deserveth it, and trouble you 
therein no more : but leaving commvmication therein, let me desire and pray 
you, that we may commune of the king's matters ; and that I may have therein 
knowledge, as well of the state thereof, as also of your counsel in that behalf.' 

The bishop was so hot and warm in his own matters, that he would not hear, Winches- 
but needs woidd return again, and show why that I could have nothing of him. ^^'^ "^'"'^ 
'My lord!' quoth I, 'here is still on end one tale, which methinketh, ti'vetohis 
seeing that 1 understand it, ye need not so oft repeat it, especially seeing that it own, than 
Cometh always to this conclusion, that I shall have nothing of you.' ' Ye lie,' ^lu^s 
quoth he, ' I said not so.' ' I report me,' quoth I, * to Master Thirleby here affairs. 
present, whom I shall desire to bear record of your sad and discreet honest 'Ye lie* 
behaviour with me.' ' I say you lie,' quoth he. ' My lord !' quoth I, ' I thank '^^^\ 
you.' 'I do not say,' quoth he, 'that ye shall have nothing of me; but I say ter. 
you can have nothing of me. And though the one here comprehendeth the 
other, yet there is a great diversity between these two manners of speaking : — His old 
I can spare nothing unto you, and therefore ye shall have nothing ; and though *"tj'",f ^" 
I can spare you, yet you shall have nothing ; — for in the one is an honesty i'l 
tlie speaker, which would, if he coidd, do pleasure ; and in the other there 
lacketh that honesty.' 

' My lord !' quoth I, ' to examine whether I shall have nothing, because ye can 
spare nothing; or shall have nothing, though ye have plenty, because ye will I 
shall have nothing, it shall not much help me in my journey. Wherefore, 
seeing ye bide upon this, that T shall have nothing, I will thank you for nothing, 
and provide otherwise for myself.' ' Dirt in your teeth !'' quoth he, ' and provide t 
as ye will.' 'Bishop-like spoken, by my faith,' quoth I, ' and well it becometh 
you to speak thus to me.' ' Yea marry ! doth it become me,' quoth he : and 
repeating the words again, said with a sharp accent, ' Have nothing of me ? 
Dirt in your teeth !' ' Well, my lord !' quotli I, ' this needeth not, saving that 
ye have a full stomach, and your wit abroad, willingly hereby to ease your 
stomach against me.'- 'Yes marry,' quoth he, 'it needeth for me, though it 

(1) Bishop-like spoken. 

(2) Mark the mellifluous and honey-mouthed words of Winchester to Bonner. 






The sto- 
mach of 

All the 
of Win- 
cli ester's 

for no- 
looks of 

ncedclli not for you ; for I intend,' quoth he, ' I would ye should know it, to 
justify myself to the king in all things.' ' If ye do so,' quoth I, ' ye shall do the 
" better.' 'Nay,' quoth he, 'I do it, and will do it.' ' Well,' quoth I, 'ye are 
the more to be commended, if ye so can do.' ' Yes,' quoth he, ' I can do it.' 

' Now, by my troth,' quoth I, ' seeing the king's highness hath written so 
tenderly for me unto you, as appeareth by his highness's letters that his grace 
hath done, me thinketh, ye having so great plenty of all things, and I so great 
need thereof, coming post, as I do, ye go about as evil to justify yourself to the 
king, as any one that I have seen. And I wiss, my lord,' quoth I, ' I would 
have reckoned, that coming as I do come, I should have been both better wel- 
come, and better entreated of you, than now I am, even and it had been 
for no other respect, than because I am an Englishman.' 

'I shall tell you,' quoth he, 'for the king's sake, ye may look to have: but 
for your own sake, ye get nothing.' 'Well,' quoth I, 'then having nothing, I 
will give no thanks at all ; and having any thing, I shall give thanks to the 
king, and none to you.' ' 1 tell you,' quoth he, 'ye get nothing :' 'and I tell 
you again,' quoth I, ' that I will thank you for nothing.' And here the flesh 
of liis cheek began to swell and tremble, ^ and he looked upon me as he would 
have run me through ; and I came and stood even by him, and said, ' Trow you, 
my lord!' quoth I, 'that I fear your great looks? Nay, faith! do I not. Ye 
had need to get another stomach to whet upon than mine, and a better whet- 
stone than any ye have ; for, I assure you, you shall not whet me to j'our pur- 
pose : and if ye knew how little I do set by this unloving and indiscreet 
behaviour of yours, ye would not use it upon me. And I shall tell you,' quoth 
I, ' if I were not bridled, and had not other respects both to the king's highness, 
my sovereign lord, and also unto others that may command me, I would have 
told you, ere this time, my mind after another sort.' 'Tell me?' quoth he, 
' dirt in j'our teeth !' ' Well, my lord! ' quoth I, 'ye would, I perceive by you, 
and by your words, provoke me to speak as indiscreetly and bedlamly, as ye do :* 
but surely ye shall not, howsoever ye shall speak. But this will I tell you, I 
shall show how I am handled of you.' ' MaiTy, spare not,' quoth he. ' Well, 
my lord ! ' quoth I, 'you have here full well played the part of a bishop, and it is 
great joy of you, that with this your furious anger and choler, ye can make all 
the company here about you to be ashamed of you, as I am sure they are. And 
for my part, if ye yourself be not ashamed, or, coming to yourself (for now your 
anger is such that you hear not yourself), be not displeased, I shall be ashamed, 
and pity this your doing without wisdom ; and the oftener you use this manner, 
the more shall it be to your dishonesty.' 

' Lo !' quoth he, 'how fondly he speaketh, as who saith, I were all in the 
blame. Will you not hear,' quoth he, ' this wise man ?' ' My Lord !' quoth I, 
' I would you could hear with indifferent ears, and see with indifferent eyes, 
yourself. Ye have made a brabling here for nothing, and would that I should 
give you thanks for that thing which Master Thirleby hath done for me.' ' I 
look for no thanks of you,' quoth he ; and said withal, looking spitefully, that 
he knew me well enough ; and that he was not deceived in me. ' Well !' quoth 
I, ' and methinks I know you well enough too ; wherefore, as ye say you are 
not deceived in me, so I trust I will not be deceived by you. But I pray you, 
sir,' quotli I, ' because ye say ye know me well enough, and that ye be not 
deceived in me. How do you know me ? for honest and true, or otherwise ? If 
you do, say it, and I shall make answer.' 

I could not drive him to answer hereunto ; so that I suppose, either of his 
own naughty nature he hath made me an image after his own fantasy, or else 
believed the report of such in conditions, as he is himself, who, in malice, I 
suppose, and disdain, may be compared to the devil in hell, not giving place to 
him in pride at all. In communication he repeated oft the provision of the 
thousaud crowns. I told him they went in my diets, and that it would be a 
good while afore they were come out. And further I said, that seeing they 
had been ' simpliciter' given to me, I would never thank him for them, but the 
king's highness ; and I said, that if they were twenty thousand, he should 
break so many sleeps, afore he should have any part thereof, entreating me as 
he did. 'Well," quoth he, 'you have them.' 'That is truth,' quoth I, 'and 
nothing thankful to you.' ' Why then,' quoth he, 'seeing you have here divers 

(1) The like trembling and leaping of his veins and flesh for anger, did Bonner also note in this 
Winchester's disputing with him in Germany. Vide Bucer. De Coelibatu. 

(2) Stephen Gardiner, ' bedlam-like.' 


things of Master Tliirlcby's, and all otlier things are " pai'abilia pccunin," which Hmry 
you have, ye may make tliere])y good provision for yourself.' ' That is truth,' Viu. 
quoth I ; ' and that can I and will do, though ye tell me not, seeing I have ~T~tZ~ 
nothing of you, and afore this had provided at Lyons for all things necessary, , '.' 

if ye without necessity had not made that great haste to depart thence, en- L 

forcing me thereby to follow you. And yet,' quoth I, ' one thing may I tell Winches- 
you : ye are very desirous I should be provided well for, as appeareth in that letifuon- 
you have taken away at Lyons one horse that Francis had provided for me, and ner to his 
also your servant Mace, having a horse to sell, and knowing my need, by your ^'"f'^- 
consent hath sold his horse to a stranger, rather than he would sell him to me. 
So that nothing suffering me to have of you, and taking away that provision 
which I make, and go about to make, you well declare how heartily you desire 
I should be provided for.' ' In faith,' quoth he, ' choose you, ye may provide 
and you will ; and seeing your journey hither from Lyons is vain, you may 
thither return again, and make there provision for yourself.' ' I thought,' 
quoth he, ' departing from Lyons, to have made easy journeys, and to have churlisli 
followed the court till you had come, and now come you, squirting in 2)ost, and dejiiins "f 
trouble all.' ' I came forth in post,' quoth 1, ' by the commandment of the ttr"^ ^^" 
king my master, and had liberty to return at pleasure by his grace's letters ; 
and seeing that I had no horses for the journey, methought better to ride in 
post than go afoot.' ' Well,' quoth he, ' I will not depart hence this twelve- 
month, except ye be otherwise provided.' ' Provided?' quoth I, ' I must tarry that'^Bon- 
till 1 may be provided for horses, if ye speak of that jJrovision : and seeing that ner 
this riding in post grieveth you, it causeth me to think you are loth to depart, ^''o"''' 
and angry that I shall succeed you. I have here already two gowns and a him. 
velvet jacket, so that you shall not be letted an hour by me.' 

' I tell you,' quoth he, ' ye shall otherwise provide, or else I will not depart. 
For I tell you,' quoth he, ' though you care not for the king's honour, but 
wretchedly do live with ten shillings a-day, as ye did in yonder parts, you and 
your companion, I must and will consider the king's honour.' ' And I tell 
you again,' quoth I, ' I will and do consider the king's honour as much as ye 
at any time will do, and as sorry will be, that it should be touched by any 
negligence or default in me : yea, and I say more to you,' quoth I, 'though ye 
may spend far above me, I shall not stick, if any thing be to be spent for the 
king's honour, to spend as liberally as you, so long as either I liave it, or can 
get it to spend. And whosoever informed you of the wretchedness and spending 
scarcely of my companion and me in the parts where we have been, made a 
false lie, and ye show your wisdom full well in so lightly believing and re- 
hearsing such a tale.' ' I cannot tell,' quoth he, ' but this was openly rehearsed 
by Master Brian's servants at my table.' ' Yea, was V quoth L ' Yea, marry, 
was it,' quoth he. ' Now, by my troth,' quoth I, ' then was the fare that was 
bestowed upon them very well cast away : for, of my fidelity, that week that 
Master Brian and his servants were with us at Villa Franca, it cost my com- 
panion and me five and twenty pounds in the charges of the house ! ' ' This, 
they say,' quoth he. ' Yea,' quoth I, ' and therein they lie.' 

And here I showed him, that being well settled at Nice, and having made Reproved 
there good and honest provision, to our no little charges. Master Wyat would td'isface 
not rest till he had gotten us to Villa Franca, where, even upon the first words "iVifder. 
of Master Heynes, he was right well content to take of us twenty shillings by 
the day ; which was not during ten days : whereas, at his coming to us to Nice, 
himself and all his servants, and then tarrying with us two days, we took not 
one penny of him. And moreover, at the departing of Master Wyat from Villa 
Franca, in post, into England, we found ourselves, our servants, all Master 
Wyat's servants, to the number of sixteen, all his acquaintance, who, dinner 
and supper, continually came to us ; sometime twelve, sometimes ten, and, 
when they were least, six or eight ; and for this we had not one penny of 
Master Wyat. And yet at our coming from Barcelona, where we tarried about 
eight days, we gave to Master Wyat twenty-eight livres, and to his servants 
five livres, besides forty shiUings that privately I gave to some, being of gentle 
fashion, out of mine own purse : so that I told him, it was neither Master 
Wyat, nor Mason, that found us and our servants, but toe paid for the finding 
of them : and here it chanced to us to have all the charge, and other men to 
have all the thanks. 



The bishop wlien he heard this was amazed, and stood still, finally saying, 
* By my troth,' quoth he, ' I tell you as it was told me, and master doctor here 
can tell whetlicr it was so or no. Yea, and I will tell you more,' quoth he, 
' they said that Master Heynes would have been more liberal a great deal, if 
you had not been.' ' Now, by my tioth,' quoth I, ' I shall therein make Master 
Heynes himself judge thereof, who can best tell what communication hath 
been between him and me therein.' 

Thinking that this communication had driven the other matters out of the 
bishop's wild head, I held my peace ; and by and by was he in hand again with 
them, as hot as ever he was. ' My lord!' quoth I, ' I desired ere while your 
lordship to make an end of this communication, wherein the longer ye talk, the 
more ye make me believe that you would (where ye have spoken imdiscveetly, 
yea, and unkindly, not regarding the king's letters), with multitude of words, 
and great countenance, I should think ye had not done amiss. But surely you 
lose your labour, for ye shall never make me think that ye are desirous to do 
me pleasure, neither for mine own sake, nor for the king's : for if your words 
be well weighed, 1 have as much of you indeed for mine own sake, as I have 
for the king's sake ; that is, nothing at all.' 

Here both of us were talking together ; but I held on still, and ever enforced 
him to this : ' My lord !' quoth I, ' this is the only thing that I shall desire of 
you ; that whereas the king's grace hath here, in the French Court, divers affairs 
(as I take it), ye would therein instruct me in the state thereof, and give me 
your best counsel and advice : and this I protest unto you, that if ye this will 
do, I will attentively hear you ; and if ye will not, I shall with pain hear you 
in your other things, but I will make no answer at all.' 

For all this the bishop ended not; but in conclusion, when he saw that he 
could by no means induce me to answer, he returned homewards, and I brought 
him imto his lodging and chamber. 

It being dinner time, and all things provided, and standing afore him, and 

he turning his back from me into a window — I, at his turning towards me again, 

put off my bonnet, and said, 'God be with you, my lord !' He gave no answer 

to me at all, nor countenance, but suffered me to go. Whereupon, returning 

to my lodging, which was in Master Thirleby's chamber, I caused my dinner 

to be provided ; and when it was almost ready, the bishop's steward, called 

Myrrel, came for me (whether sent from the bishop or not, I cannot tell), and 

I told him my dinner was provided for, and withal, that my lord his master had 

given me such a breakfast, that I needed no dinner nor supper ; and so the 

steward, drinking with me, returned again, and I went to dinner at Master 

Thirleby's lodging, and after dinner I went to the bishop's lodging, who, at 

Winches- my coming, veiy gently put off his bonnet, and so we walked together quietly 

ter's good j^ while ; and shortly after, the bishop began after this manner : ' Master Bonner ! 

rometh to-day we comnumed of provision for you, and because ye shall lay no blame 

unon him upon me, I will tell you what I will do for you : I will provide and make ready 

at last. ^^^ y^^^ mules, mulcts, horses, servants, money ; yea, and all things that shall be 


' My Lord !' quoth I, 'here is a large offer, and a great kindness come upon 
you ; I marvel,' quoth I, ' that I could hear nothing of this to-day in the morn- 
ing.' 'I tell you,' quoth he, 'this will I do ; for know you, that I will consider 
the king's honour and pleasure, and doubt not but the king will pay me again.' 
' My lord!' quoth I, 'I have sent my servant already to Lyons, to make pro- 
vision for me, and I have sent others abroad here in the town and country, to 
do the same : ye shall never need to trouble yourself herewith.' * I will,' quoth 
he, 'you shall not say, another day, that ye could not be provided for.' 'My 
lord!' quoth I, 'let me have instructions in the king's matters, and as for other 
things I shall not ask of you, because this day ye made me so plain answer.' 
Winches- After much communication I departed from him lovingly, telling him that I 
ter's offer ^Quld be at Ferrara that night, where he intended to be lodged. And so the 
buin"'^"'^ bishop, bidding me farewell, took soon after his horse, riding to Ferrara to bed ; 
refused, and by the way I overtook him, and passing by, doing my duty to him and his 
they part. (.Q,,^pauy^ J came to Ferrara, lodging at the post-house, and even as the bishop 
eame into the town, stood at the post-house door ; to whom the bishop said, 
'We shall see you soon, Master Bonner!' 'Yea, my lord!' quoth I, thinking 
that thereby he had desired me to supper, and at supper-time I went to his 





ter's wild 

He re- 
garde til 
iKit the 



his leave 
oi' Win- 


loilgiiip-, liavinri; others to eat my supper at home, and s;\aA he appeared to be jicnnj 
that I was come, making merry communicatiou all supper while, but nothing VIil. 
at all yet speaking to me, or giving any thing to me, saving, at the coming of ~~a~j)~ 
the fruit, he gave me a peai-,' I trow, because I should remember mine own ^500" 

country. After supper, he walked, taking Master Thirleby with him, and I '. — — 

walked with an Italian, being ambassador for the count Mirandula ; and after 
a good space we returned, and bade the bishop good night. 

I did not after that night dine or sup with the bishop, till he came to 
Bourges in Berry, where, upon the depeach of Francis, and closing up of our 
lettei-s sent to the king's highness, the supper was so provided, and set upon the 
board ; and the bishop in washing, standing so between me and the door that 
I could not get out ; and there would he needs that I should wash with him 
and sup. And I suppose, all the way from Barella to Blois, he talked not above 
four times with me, and at every time, saving at Moulines (where he by mouth 
told me somewhat of the king's affairs here in France), and at Varron (when 'Winches- 
he, answering to my requests in writing, delivered me his book of his own hand ^f'^,, 
for mine instructions, the copy whereof is now sent herewithal), there was quick struc- 
communication between us. His talking by the way was with Master Thirleby, t'^''^ 
who, I think, knoweth a great deal of his doing, and will, if he be the man I ^^ g^j. 
take him for, tell it plainly to your lordship. I myself was out of credence ner. 
with the bishop, not being appliable to his manners and desires. 

And surely, as Master Thirleby told me at his first coming to Lyons, and Winches- 
then speaking with the bishop, the bishop seemed to be so well content to re- *"'' ^ 
tm"n, and so glad of his coming to succeed him, that his flesh in his face began trembleth 
all to tremble, and j'et would the bishop make men believe, that he would at tlie 
gladly come home : which thing, believe it who will, I will never believe ; for xllirleby. 
ever he was looking for letters out of England, from Master Wallop and Master Loth to 
Brian, whom he taketh for his great friends. And Master Wyat himself ^'^[^'■'"- 

o _ ^ *' into 

reckoned, that the bishop should have come into Spain, or eise my lord of England. 
Durham ; so that the bishop of Winchester ever coveted to protract the time, 
desiring yet withal to have some shadow to excuse and hide himself; as tarry- 
ing at Barella, he made excuse by my not coming to Lyons : and coming to 
Varennes, and there, hearing by the ambassadors of the Venetians a flying 
tale of the going of the French king towards Bayonne, to meet the emperor, 
by and by he said, ' Lo ! where is Master Diligence now ? If he were now Bonner 
here (as then I was that night), we would to the Court and present him, and called 
take our leave.' But when 1 in the moi-ning was up afore him, and ready to Diligence, 
horse, he was nothing hasty. No ; coming to Moulines afore him, and there 
tarrying for him, the French king lying at Schavenna, three small leagues oft", 
he made not half the speed and haste that he pretended, 

I mislike in the bishop of Winchester, that he cannot be content that any, Tlie 
joined in commission with him, should keep house, but to be at his table, second 
Wherein either he searcheth thei'eby a vain glory and pride to himself, with pjaiiit : 
some dishonour to the king, as who saith, tliere was among all the king's am- Winches- 
bassadors but one able to maintain a table, and that were he ; or else he doth '^^j^j^j 
the same for an evil intent and purpose, to bring them thereby into his danger, be alone, 
that they shall say and do as liketh him alone ; which, I suppose verily, hath 
been his intent 

I mislike in the said bishop, that whereas he, for his own pomp and glory. The third: 
hath a great number of servants in their velvets and silks, with their chains the pomp 
about their necks, and keepcth a costly table with excessive fare, and exceeding of \\*in-^ 
expenses many other ways, he doth say, and is not ashamed to report, that he cluster. 
is so commanded to do by the king's grace ; and that is his answer commonly, 
when his friends tell him of his great charges ; and so, under colour of the 
king's commandment and honour, he hideth his pride, which is here disdained. 

1 mislike in the said bishop, that he, having jirivate hatred against a man, ^],p 
will rather satisfy his own stomach and affection, hindering and neglecting the fourth : 
king's affairs, than, relenting in any part of his sturdy and stubborn will, give S'ven 

c •^• 11 i 1 '^ 1 / ^ , , . , 1 . , •' , 1 , ■ more to 

lamiliar and liearty coimsei (whereby the kmg s highness matters and busmess i,is own 
may be advanced and set forth) to him that he taketh for his adversary. aiioctions 

1 mislike in the said bishop that he ever continually, here in this court of the ki^^g's 
France, made incomparably more of the emperor's, king of Portugal's, Vene- ailairs. 

(I) Bonner secmcth by this pear, to te a Worcestershire man. 






The fifth : 
ter, sus- 
pected to 
be im- 
sixth : 
like a 
true gos- 
eth of 
of untrue 

Things in 
the afore- 
said de- 
to be 

to pa- 

up, only 
by the 

tians', and duke of Fen-ara's ambassadors, than of any Frenchmen in the court, 
which, with his pride, caused them to disdain him, and to tliink that he favoured 
not the French king, hut was imperial. 

I misUke in the bishop tliat there is so great famiharity and acquaintance, 
yea, and such mutual confidence, between the said bishop and M., as naughty 
a fellow, and as very a papist, as any that I know, where he dare express it. 
The bishop, in his letters to Master Wyat, ever sendeth special commendations 
to Mason, and yet refuseth to send any to Master Heynes and me, being with 
Master Wyat, as we perceived by the said letters. And Mason maketh such 
foundation of the bishop, that he thinketh there is none such ; and he told me 
at Villa Franca, that the bishop, upon a time, when he had fallen out with 
Germain, so trusted him, that weeping and sobbing he came unto him, desir- 
ing and praying him that he would speak with Germain, and reconcile him, so 
that no words were spoken of it : and what the matter was, he would not tell 
me ; that young fellow Germain knoweth all. And Preston, who is servant to 
the bishop of Winchester, showed me one niglit in my chamber at Blois, after 
supper, that Germain is ever busy in showing the king's letters to strangers, 
and that he himself hath given him warning thereof This thing Preston told 
me the night before that the bishop departed hence, and when I would have 
had more of him therein, he, considering how the bishop and I stood, kept him 
more close, and would say no further. 

In this declaration of Dr. Edmund Bonner, above-prefixed, sent to 
the lord Cromwell, divers things we have to note : First, as touching 
Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester ; here we have a plain de- 
monstration of his vile nature and pestilent pride, joined with malice 
and disdain intolerable : whereof worthily complaineth Dr. Bonner 
aforesaid, showing six special causes, why and wherefore he misliketh 
that person, according as he was willed before, by the king's com- 
mandment so to do. 

Secondly, In the said Stephen Winchester, this we have also to 
note and understand, that as he here declareth a secret inclination 
from the truth (which he defended before in his book ' De Obedi- 
entia*") to papistry, joining part and side with such as were known 
papists ; so he seemeth likewise to bear a like secret grudge against 
the lord Cromwell, and all such whomsoever he favoured. 

Thirdly, As concerning the before-named Dr. Ednumd Bonner, 
the author of this declaration, here is to be seen and noted, that he, 
all this while, appeared a good man, and a diligent friend to the 
truth ; and that he was favoured of the lord Cromwell for the same. 

Fourthly, That the said Dr. Bonner was not only favoured of the 
lord Cromwell, but also by him was advanced first to the office of 
legation, then to the bishopric of Hereford, and lastly to the bishopric 
of London ; whom the said Dr. Bonner, in his letters, agniseth, and 
confesseth to be his only patron, and singular Mecsenas. 

Which being so, we have in this said Dr. Bonner greatly to 
marvel, what should be the cause that he, seeing all his setting-up, 
making, and preferring, came only by the Gospel, and by them of 
the Gospel's side, he, being then so hated of Stephen Gardiner, and 
such as he was ; being also at that time such a farthercr and defender 
of the Gospel (as appeareth both by his preface before Gardiner's book 
' De Obedientia,' and by his writings to the lord Cromwell ; also by 
helping forward the printed bibles at Paris), could ever be a man so 
unorateful and unkind afterwards, to join part with the said Stephen 
Gardiner against the Gospel (without which Gospel he had never 
come to be bishop either of Hereford, or yet of London), and now to 


abuse the same bishopric of London, to persecute that so vehemently wenry 
■which before so openly he defended ? Wherein the same may well ' - 

be said to him in this case, that he himself was reported once to say ^^^g- 
to the French king in the cause of Grancetor ; to wit, that he had ~^ — 
done therein against *God,^ against* his honour, against justice, wordTre- 
against honesty, against friendship, against his own promise and his ^^^^^^^ 
oath so often made, against his own doctrine and judgment which iiim. 
then he professed, against all truth, against the treaties and leagues 
between him and his setters-up, and against all together ; and, to 
conclude, against the salvation of his own soul, *which'^ would God he 
would have mercy upon, although he had showed want of mercy 
unto others !* 

But to refer this to the book of His accounts, who shall judge one Printing 
day all things uprightly, let us proceed further in the continuation of Te'su-''^ 
1 this Dr. Bonner's legation ; who, being now ambassador in the court ^^",'jj'JJ 
' of France, as ye have heard, had given him in commission from the and the' 
[ king to treat with the French king for sundry points, as for the print- Paris.'' 
I ing of the New Testament in English, and the Bible at Paris ; also 
I for slanderous preachers, and malicious speakers against the king ; for 
I goods of merchants taken and spoiled ; for the king's pension to be 
i paid ; for the matters of the duke of Suffolk ; for certain prisoners in 
' France. Item, for Grancetor the traitor, and certain other rebels to 
\ be sent into England, &c. Touching all these affairs, the said Dr. Diligence 
I Bonner did employ his diligence and travail to the good satis- "„ leg".^"^ 
faction and contentment of the king's mind, and discharge of his ''°"- 
duty in such sort as no defliult could be found in him ; save only 
that the P'rench king, one time, took displeasure with him, for that 
the said Bonner, being now made bishop of Hereford, and bearing 
himself somewhat more seriously and boldly before the king, in the 
cause of Grancetor the traitor (wherein he was willed, by the adver- 
tisement of the king's pleasure, to wade more deeply and instantly), 
used these words to the French king (as the French king himself did His words 
afterwards report them), saying, that he had done, in deliverance French 
of that aforesaid Grancetor, being an Englishman, against God, against ^'"s- 
his honour, against justice, against reason, against honesty, against 
friendship, against all law, against the treaties and leagues between 
him and his brother the king of England; yea, and against all 
together, &c. These words of bishop Bonner, although he denieth 
to have spoken them in that form and quality, yet howsoever they 
were spoken, did stir up the stomach of the French king to conceive Bonner 
high displeasure against him, insomuch that he, answering the lord ^J^'J^'"J° 
ambassador again, bade him write these three things unto his master : the king. 

First, Among other things, that his ambassador was a great fool. 

Secondarily, That he caused to be done better justice there in his realm in 
one hour, than they did in England in a whole year. 

Thirdly, That if it were not for the love of his master, he should have a 
hundred strokes with a halbert, &c. 

And furthermore, the said French king beside this, sending a 
special messenger with his letters to the king of England, willed him 
to revoke and call this ambassador home, and to send him another. 
The cause why the French king took these words of bishop Bonner 

(1 and 2) See Edition 1570, in loc— Ed. 
VOL. v. M 

the cause 
of Christ. 


Henry SO to stomacli (as the lord chancellor said), was this : For that the 

L kings of France, standing chiefly, and in manner only, upon their 

A.D. honour, can suffer that in no case to be touched. Otherwise, in 

^^'^^' those words (if they had been well taken) was not so much blame, 

Bishops perchance, as boldness, being spoken somewhat vehemently in his 

princes' mastcr's behalf. But this one thing seemeth to me much blame- 

than hf worthy, both in this bishop, and many others, that they, in earthly 

matters, and to please terrene kings, will put forth themselves to such 

a boldness and forwardness ; and in Christ's cause, the King of all 

kings, Avhose cause they should only attend upon and tender, they 

are so remiss, cold, and cowardly. 

To these letters of the French king, the king of England sent 
answer again by other letters, in which he revoked and called home 
again bishop Bonner, giving unto him, about the same time, the 
bishopric of London ; and sent in supply of his place sir John Wallop, 
a great friend to Stephen Gardiner : which was in February, about 
the beginning of the year of our Lord L540. Here now followeth 
the oath of Bonner to the king, when he was made bishop of London. 

The oath of Dr. Edmund Bonner, when he was made bishop of 
London, against the pope of Rome. 

Ye shall never consent nor agree that the bishop of Rome shall practise, 
exercise, or have any manner of authority, jm-isdiction, or power within this 
realm, or any other the king's dominion ; but that you shall resist the same at 
all times, to the uttermost of your power : and that from henceforth ye shall 
accept, repute, and take the king's majesty to be the only supreme head in 
earth of the church of England ; and that to your cunning, wit, and uttei-most 
of your power, without guile, fraud, or other undue mean, ye shall observe, 
keep, maintain, and defend, the whole effects and contents of all and singular 
acts and statutes made, and to be made, within this realm, in derogation, extir- 
pation, and extinguishment of the bishop of Rome, and his authority ; and all 
other acts and statutes made, and to be made, in reformation and corroboration 
of the king's power of supreme head in the earth of the church of England. 
And this ye shall do against all manner of persons, of what estate, dignity, 
degree, or condition they be ; and in no wise do, or attempt, or to your power 
suffer to be done or attempted, directly or indirectly, any thing or things, 
privily or apertly, to the let, hinderance, damage, or derogation thereof, or of 
any part thereof, by any manner of means, or for any manner of pretence. And 
in case any oath be made, or hath been made, by you to any person or persons 
in maintenance or favour of the bishop of Rome, or his authority, jurisdiction, 
or power, ye repute the same as vain and annihilated. So help you God, &c. 
In fidem prsemissorum ego Edmundus Bonner, electus et confirmatus 
Londinensis episcopus, huic praesenti chartas subscripsi. 


It will be judged, that I have lingered, peradventure, too much 
in these outward affairs of princes and ambassadors : wherefore, leaving 
these bye-matters pertaining to the civil state awhile, I mind (the 
Lord willing) to put my story in order again, of such occurrenis as 
belong unto the church, first showing such injunctions and articles as 
were devised and set forth by the king, for the behoof of his subjects. 
Wherein, first, is to be understood, that the king, when he had taken 
the title of supremacy from the bishop of Rome, and had translated 
the same to himself, and was now a full prince in his own realm, 
although he well perceived by the wisdom and advice of the lord 
Cromwell and other of his council, that the corrupt state of the church 


had need of reformation in many things ; yet because he saw liow Jf:^"ry 

stubborn and untoward the hearts of many papists were, to be brought ''— 

from their old persuasions and customs, and what business he had ^.' ^• 
with them only about the matter of the pope''s title, he durst not by — ^— L 
and by reform all at once (which notwithstanding had been to be J^j ^/s"^ 
wished), but leading them fair and softly, as he might, proceeded by ™'^".^'^^ 
little and little, to bring gi'catcr purposes to perfection (which he witii tile 
no doubt would have done, if the lord Cromwell had lived) ; and ofThJ"^^^ 
therefore first he began with a little book of articles (partly above People, 
touched), bearing this title : " Articles devised by the king''s highness, 
to stable Christian quietness and unity among the people,'"' &c. 

The Contents of a Book of Articles devised by the King. 

In the contents of this book, first he set forth tlie articles of our christian of three 
creed, which are necessarily and expressly to be believed by all men. Then, sacra- 
with the king's preface going before, followeth the declaration of three sacra- ™™'^- 
ments ; to wit, of baptism, of penance, and of the sacrament of the altar ; in the 
tractation whereof, he altereth nothing from the old trade received heretofore 
from the church of Rome. 

Further then, proceeding to the order and cause of our justification, he of justi- 
declareth, that the only mercy and grace of the Father, promised freely unto us fication. 
for his Son's sake Jesus Christ, and the merits of his passion and blood, be the 
only sufficient and worthy causes of our justification ; yet good works, with 
inward contrition, hope, and charity, and all other spiritual graces and motions, 
be necessarily reqiured, and must needs concur also in remission of our sins ; 
that is, our justification : and afterwai'ds, we, being justified, must also have 
good works of charity, and obedience towards God, in the observing and fulfilling 
outwardly of his laws and commandments, &c. 

As touching images, he willeth all bishops and preachers to teach the people Of 
in such sort as they may know how they may use them safely in churches, and ""ages. 
not abuse them to idolatr}', as thus : that they be representers of virtue and good 
example, and also, by occasion, may be stirrers of men's minds, and make them 
to remember themselves, and to lament their sins ; and so far he permitteth 
them to stand in churches. But otherwise, for avoiding of idolatry, he chargeth 
all bishops and preachers diligently to instruct the people, that they commit no 
idolatry unto them, in censing of them, in kneeling and offering to them, with 
other like worshippings, which ought not to be done, but only to God. 

And likewise for honouring of saints, the bishops and preachers be commanded Of 

to inform the people, how saints, hence departed, ought to be reverenced and !'°"°"''" 

honoured, and how not : that is, that they are to be praised and honoured as the saints. 

elect servants of Christ, or rather Christ to be praised in them for their excellent 

virtues planted in them, and for their good example left us, teaching us to live 

in virtue and in goodness, and not to fear to die for Christ, as they did. And 

also as advancers of our prayers in that they may ; but yet no confidence, nor 

any such honour to be given unto them, which is only due to God ; and so forth : 

charging the said spiritual persons to teach their flock, that all grace, and 

remission of sins, and salvation, can no otherwise be obtained but of God only, 

by the mediation of our Saviour Christ, who only is a sufficient mediator for ,f„ "^f'Vr 

. iiT T ..rt. "^ 111, 1* iitiou hut 

our sms ; that all grace and remission of sm must proceed only by the media- by Christ. 

tion of Christ and no other. 

From that he cometh further to speak of rites and ceremonies in Christ's of rites 

church ; as in having vestments used in God's service, sprinkling of holy water, ^'"^ f^|^' 

igiving of holy bread, bearing of candles on Candlemas-day, taking of ashes, 

jbearing of palms, creeping to the cross, setting up the sepulchre, hallowing of 

jthe font, with other like customs, rites, and ceremonies ; all which old rites and 

jcustoms the aforesaid book doth not by and by repeal, but so far admitteth them 

for good and laudable, as they put men in remembrance of spiritual things : 

ibut so that the people withal must be instructed, how the said ceremonies con- 

;taiii in them no such power to remit sin, but that to be referred unto God only, 

iby whom only our sins be forgiven us. 

M 2 


1C4 THE KIXg's injunctions, EESTRICTING liOLY-DAYS, 

Ilevry And SO, concluding with purgatory, he maketh an end of those articles, thus 

VIII. saying thereof, that because the book of Maccabees alloweth praying for souls 

~ . „ departed, he therefore disproveth not that so laudable a custom, so long con- 

" ■ ■ tinned in the church. But because there is no certain place named, nor kind 

'*' ' of pains expressed in Scripture, he therefore thinketh necessary such abuses 

Of purga- clearly to be put away, which under the name of purgatory have been advanced ; 

^^' as to make men believe, that by the bishop of Rome's pardons, or by masses 

said at ' Scala Cceli,' or otherwhere, in any place, or before any image, souls 

might clearly be delivered out of purgatory, and from the pains thereof, to be 

sent straight to heaven ; and such other like abuses, &c. 

And these were the contents of that book of articles, devised and 
passed, by the king's authority, a little before the stir of Lincolnshire 
and Yorkshire ; wherein, although there were many and great imper- 
fections and untruths not to be permitted in any true reformed 
church, yet notwithstanding, the king and his council, to bear with 
Milk for the weaklings which were newly weaned from their mother''s milk of 
welk- Rome, thought it might serve somewhat for the time, instead of a 
lings- little beginning till better come. 

injunc- And so Consequently, not long after these articles thus set forward, 

IbroRlr ^6^tain other injunctions were also given out about the same year 

ing cer- 1536, whcrcby a number of holy-days were abrogated ; and especially 

da'ys. ° such as fell in the harvest-time, the keeping of which redounded 

greatly to the hinderance of gathering in their corn, hay, fruit, and 

other such-like necessary commodities ; the copy and tenor of which 

injunctions I have also hereunto annexed, as under followeth : 

The King's Injunctions, restricting the Number of Holy-days. 

Forasmuch as the number of holy-days is so excessively grown, and yet daily 
more and more, by men's devotion, yea, rather superstition, was like further to 
increase, that the same was, and should be, not only prejudicial to the common 
weal, by reason that it is occasion as well of much sloth and idleness, the very 
nurse of thieves, vagabonds, and of divers other unthriftiness and inconveniences, 
as of decay of good mysteries and arts profitable and necessary for the common- 
wealth, and loss of man's food (many times being clean destroyed through the 
superstitious obser\'ance of the said holy-days, in not taking the opportunity of 
good and serene weather offered upon the same in time of harvest), but also 
pernicious to the souls of many men, who, being enticed by the licentious vacar 
tion and liberty of those holy-days, do upon the same commonly use and practise 
more excess, riot, and superfluitj', than upon any other days. And since the 
Sabbath-day was used and ordained but for man's use, and therefore ought to 
give place to the necessity and behoof of the same, whensoever that shall occur, 
much rather than any other holy-day instituted by man : it is therefore by the 
king's highness's authority, as supreme head in earth of the church of England, 
with the common assent and consent of the prelates and clergy of this his realm, 
in convocation lawfully assembled and congregated, amongst other things, 
decreed, ordained, and established : 
Feasts of First, that the feast of dedication of churches shall, in all places throughout 
deriica- ty,jg j-galm, be celebrated and kept on the first Sunday of the month of October, 
all on for ever, and upon none other day. 

one day. Item, that the feast of the patron of every church within this realm, called 
Church commonly the Church Holy-day, shall not from henceforth be kept and observed 
Jorbid'-^^* as a holy-day, as heretofore hath been used ; but that it shall be lawful to all and 
den. singidar persons resident or dwelling within this realm, to go to their work, 

occupation, or mystery ; and the same truly to exercise and occupy upon the 
said feast, as upon any other work-day, except the said feast of Church Holy- 
day be such as must be else universally observed and kept as a holy-day by this 
ordinance following. 

Also, that all those feasts or holy-days which shall happen to fall or occur 


either in the harvest-time, which is to be counted from the 1st day of July iienry 
unto the 29th day of September, or else in the term time at Westminster, shall ^^^'■ 

not be kept or observed from henceforth as holy-days; but that it may be lawful ^ j)_ 
for every man to go to his work or occupation upon the same, as upon any other 1538. 

work-day, except always the feasts of the Apostles, of the Blessed Virgin, —^ 

and of St. George, and also such feasts as wherein the king's highness's judges days^in 
at Westminster do not use to sit in judgment ; all which shall be kept holy and the iiar- 
solemnly of every man, as in time past hath been accustomed. Provided putdo""," 
always, that it may be lawful unto all priests and clerks, as well secular as regu- 
lar, in the aforesaid holy-days now abrogated, to sing or say their accustomed 
service for those holy-days, in their churches ; so as they do not the same 
solemnly, nor do ring to the same, after the manner used in high holy-days, nor 
do command or indict the same to be kept or observed as holy-days. 

Finally, that the feasts of the Nativity of our Lord, of Easter-day, of the Four 
Nativity of St. John the Baptist, and of St. Michael the Archangel, shall be ^a^s'"^' 
from henceforth counted, accepted, and taken for the four general offering-days. 

And for further declaration of the premises, be it known that Easter term Easter 
beginneth always the 18th day after Easter-day, reckoning Easter-day for one, '^"°- 
and endeth the Monday next following the Ascension-day. 

Trinity term beginneth always the Wednesday next after the Octaves of Trinity 
Trinity Sunday, and endeth the 11th or 12th day of July. '"°^- 

Michaelmas term beginneth the 9th or 10th day of October, and endeth the Michael- 
28th or 29th day of November. J^^^^^ 

Hilary term beginneth the 23d or 24th day of January, and endeth the 12th Hilary 
or 13th day of February. term. 

In Easter term, upon the Ascension-day ; in Trinity term, upon the Nativity 
of St. John Baptist ; in Michaelmas term, upon Allhallows-day ; in Hilary 
term, upon Candlemas-day, the king's judges at Westminster do not use to sit 
in judgment, nor upon any Sunday. 

After these articles and injunctions thus given out by the king and 
his council, then followed moreover, as time served, other injunctions 
besides, concerning images, relics, and blind miracles, and for abro- 
gating of pilgrimages, devised by superstition, and maintained for 
lucre"'s sake ; also for the ' Paternoster,'' Creed, and God's command- 
ments, and the Bible to be had in English, with divers other points 
more, necessary for religion ; the words of which injunctions here also 

Other Injunctions, given by the authority of the King's Highness, 
to the Clergy of this his Realm, designed for the Reformation of 
the Church. 

In the name of God, Amen. In the year of our Lord God 1536, and of the 
most noble reign of our sovereign lord Henry the Eighth, king of England and 
of France, defender of the faith, lord of Ireland, and, in earth, supreme 
head of the church of England, the twenty-eighth year, &c. I Thomas Crom- 
well, knight, lord Cromwell, keeper of the privy seal of our said sovereign lord 
the king, and vicegerent to the same, for and concerning all his jurisdiction 
ecclesiastical within this realm, to the glory of Almighty God, to the king's 
highness's honour, the public weal of this realm, and increase of virtue in the 
same, have appointed and assigned these injunctions ensuing to be kept and 
observed of the dean, parsons, vicars, curates, and stipendiaries, resident or 
having cure of souls, or any other spiritual administration within this deanery, 
under the pains hereafter limited and appointed. 

The first is, that the dean, parsons, vicars, and others having cure of soul Confirma 
lany where within this deanery, shall faithfully keep and observe, and, as far as in {J",""^^^! 
Ithem may lie, shall cause to be kept and observed of all others, all and singular premacy. 
laws and statutes of this realm, made for the abolishing and extirpation of the 
pishop of Rome's pretensed and usurped power and jurisdiction within this 

166 THK king's injunctions 

Henry realm, and for the establishment and confirmation of the king's authoritj' and 
VIII. jurisdiction within the same, as of the supreme head of the church of England ; 
A T\ and shall, to the uttermost of their wit, knowledge, and learning, purely, sin- 

I coo' cerely, and without any colour or dissimulation, declare, manifest, and open, by 
the space of one quarter of a year now next ensuing, once every Sunday, and 

Against afterwards at leastwise twice every quarter of a year, in their sermons and other 
primacy." collations, that the bishop of Rome's usurped power and jurisdiction, having no 
establishment nor ground by the law of God, was for most just causes taken 
away and abolished, and that therefore they owe unto him no manner of obedi- 
ence or subjection ; and that the king's power is within his dominion the highest 
potentate and power under God, to whom all men within the same dominion, 
by God's commandment, owe most loyalty and obedience afore and above all 
other potentates in earth. 

Item, whereas certain articles were lately devised and put forth by the king's 
highness's authority, and condescended upon by the prelates and clergy of this 
his realm in convocation (whereof part were necessary to be holden and believed 
for our salvation, and the other part do concern and touch certain laudable 
ceremonies, rites, and usages of the church, meet and convenient to be kept 
and used for a decent and politic order in the same), the said dean, parsons, 
vicars, and other curates, shall so open and declare, in their sermons and other 
collations, the said articles unto them that be under their cure, that they may 
plainly know and discern, which of them be necessary to be believed and 
observed for their salvation ; and which be not necessary, but only do concern 
the decent and politic order of the said church, according to such command- 
ment and admonition as have been given unto them heretofore by the authority 
of the king's highness in that behalf. 
The Moreover, that they shall declare unto all such as be under their cure, the 

king s ar- jij-tigipg hkewise devised, put forth, and authorized of late, for and concerning 
be read the abrogation of certain superstitious holy-days, according to the effect and 
to the pm-port of the same articles ; and persuade their parishioners to keep and observe 
peop e. ^1^^ same inviolably, as things wholesome, provided, decreed, and established by 
the common consent and public authority for the weal, commodity, and profit, 
of all this realm. 
imasrrs Besides this, to the intent that all superstition and hypocrisy crept into drvers 
aiiohsli- j^gu'g hearts, may vanish away, they shall not set forth or extol any images, 
relics, or miracles, for any superstition or lucre, nor allure the people by any 
entreatments to the pilgrimages of any saints, otherwise than is permitted in 
the articles lately put forth by the authority of the king's majesty, and con- 
descended upon by the prelates and clergy of tliis his realm in convocation, as 
though it were proper and peculiar to that saint to give this commodity or that; 
seeing all goodness, health, and grace ought to be both looked and asked for 
only of God, as of the very author of the same, and of none other ; for without 
him it cannot be given : but they shall exhort as well their parishioners, as other 
pilgrims, that they do rather apply themselves to the keeping of God's com- 
I'i'prima- mandments, and the fulfilling of his works of charity ; persuading them that 
rV : '"'■" they shall please God more by the true exercising of their bodily labom-, travail, 
or occupation, and providing for their families, than if they went about to the 
said pilgrimages ; and it shall profit more their soul's health, if they do bestow 
that on the poor and needy, which they would have bestowed upon the said 
images or relics. 
Prayers Also, in the same their sermons and other collations, the parsons, vicars, and 
in the other curates aforesaid, shall diligently admonish the fathers and mothers, 
t'ongu"' masters and governors of youth being within their cure, to teach or cause to be 
taught their children and servants, even from their infancy, the ' Paternoster,' 
the Articles of our Faith, and the Ten Commandments in their mother-tongue, 
and the same, so taught, sliall cause the said youth oft to repeat and under- 
stand. And to the intent this may be the more easily done, the said curates, in 
their sermons, shall deliberately and plainly recite of the said Paternoster, 
Articles, or Commandments, one clause or article one day, and another another 
day, till the whole be taught and learned by little and little; and shall deliver 
the same in writing, or show where printed books containing the same be to be 
sold, to them that can read, or will desire the same ; and thereto that the said 
lathers and mothers, masters and governors, do bestow their children and 


vants, even from their childhood, either to learning, or to some honest exercise, Henry 

occupation, or husbandry, exhorting, counselling, and by all the ways and means ^111- 

they may, as well in their said sermons and collations, as otherwise, the said a_ j)^ 

fathers, mothers, masters, and other governors, being under their cure and 1538. 
charge, diligently to provide and foresee that the said youth be in no manner- 

wise kept or brought up in idleness ; lest at any time afterwards they be driven, i,r°^,ging 
for lack of some mystery or occupation to live by, to fall to begging, stealing, up of 
or some other unthriftiness, forasmuch as we may daily see, through sloth and yuth m 
idleness, divers valiant men fall, some to begging, some to theft and murder, ^^ occu- 
who, afterwards brought to calamity and misery, impute a great part thereof to pation, 
their friends and governors, wlio suft'ered them to be brought up so idly in their 
youth ; whereas, if they had been brought up and educated in some good lite- 
rature, occupation, or mystery, they should (being rulers of their own family) 
have profited as well themselves, as divers other persons, to the great commo- 
dit}^ and ornament of the commonwealth. 

Also, that the said parsons, vicars, and other curates, shall diligently provide, Placing 

that the sacraments and sacramentals be duly and reverently ministered in "f so*"! 
1 • • 1 A I •/■ • • 1 1 ■ 1 • c 1 vicars 

then- parishes. And 11 at any tune it happen them, either in any 01 the cases and cu- 

expressed in the statutes of this realm, or of special license given by the king's rates, 
majestj', to be absent from their benefices, they shall leave their cure, not to a 
rude and unlearned person, but to an honest, well-learned, and expert curate, 
that may teach the rude and unlearned of their cure wholesome doctrine, and 
reduce them to the right way, that they do not err : and always let them see 
that neither they, nor their vicars, do seek more their own profit, promotion, or 
advantage, than the profit of the souls that they have under their cure, or the 
glory of God. 

Item, That every parson or proprietary of any parish church within this Every 
realm shall, on this side the feast of St. Peter ad Vincula, next coming, provide parish to 
a book of the whole Bible, both in Latin, and also in English, and lay the same BiWe'in^ 
in the choir, for every man that will, to look and read thereon ; and shall dis- English. 
courage no man from the reading of any part of the Bible, either in Latin or 
English ; but rather comfort, exhort, and admonish every man to read the 
same, as the very word of God, and the spiritual food of man's soul, whereby 
they may the better know their duties to God, to their sovereign lord the king, 
and their neighbour : ever gently and charitably exhorting them, that (using a 
sober and a modest behaviour in the reading and inquisition of the true sense of 
the same) they do in no wise stiffly or eagerly contend or strive one with 
another about the same, but refer the declaration of those places that be in con- 
troversy, to the judgment of them that be better learned. 

Also the said dean, parsons, vicars, curates, and other priests shall in no Priests 
wise, at any unlawful time, nor for any other cause than for their honest neces- ""t to 
sity, haunt or resort to any taverns or ale-houses ; and after their dinner and ^jg. 
supper they shall not give themselves to drinking or riot, spending their time houses. 
i idly, by day or by night, at tables or cards playing, or any other unlawful game ; 
but at such times as tliey shall have such leisure, they shall read or hear some- 
what of holy Scripture, or shall occupy themselves with some honest exercise ; 
and that they always do those things that appertain to good congruence and 
honesty, with profit of the commonweal, having always in mind, that they 
ought to excel all others in purity of life, and should be example to all others 
to live well and christianly. 

Furthermore, because the goods of the church are called the goods of the Parsons 
poor, and in these days nothing is less seen than the poor to be sustained with JJent"^tT 
the same, all parsons, vicars, prebendaries, and other beneficed men within this pay the 
deanery, not being resident upon their benefices, who may dispend yearly fortieth 
twenty pounds or above, either within this deanery or elsewhere, shall distribute f^gjr ** 
hereafter yearly amongst their poor parishioners or other inhabitants there, in parishes. 
j the presence of the churchwardens or some other honest men of the parish, the 
fortieth part of the fruits and revenues of their said benefices, lest they be 
worthily noted of ingratitude, who, reserving so many parts to themselves, 
cannot vouchsafe to impart the fortieth portion thereof amongst the poor people 
of that parish, that is so fruitfid and profitable unto them. 

And to the intent that learned men may hereafter spring the more, for the 
executing of the said premises, every parson, vicar, clerk, or beneficed man 

168 THE king's injunctions 


jrpnnj within this deanery, having yearly to spend in benefices or other promotions of 

vni. the church, a hundred pounds, shall give competent exhibition to one scholar, 

. 1^ and for as many hundred pounds more as he may dispend, to so many scholars 

i ■ ■ more shall he give like exhibition in the university of Oxford or Cambridge, or 

' some grammar-school ; who, after they have profited in good learning, may be 

Every partners of their patron's cure and charge, as well in pi"eaching, as otherwise 

beneficed jj^ jj^g execution of their ofiices, or may, when need shall be, otherwise profit 

worth a the commonwealth with their counsel and wisdom. 

hundred Also that all parsons, vicars, and clerks, having churches, chapels, or man- 
find'a " '° sions within this deanery, shall bestow yearly hereafter upon the same mansions 
si^olar at or chancels of their churches being in decay, the fifth part of those their bene- 
the um- flcgg^ tjii ti^gy shall be fully repaired ; and the same so repaired they shall 
Beneficed ^l^^Y^ keep and maintain in good estate, 
men to All which and singular injunctions shall be inviolably observed of the said 



under pain of suspension, and sequestration of the fruits of their benefices, until 
sions. they have done their duties according to these injunctions. 

After these injunctions and articles before expressed (which were 
given about a.d. 1536 and 1537), it was not above the space of a 
year but other injunctions also were published, to the further instruc- 
tion of the people in the proceedings of religion, whereby both the 
parsons of churches, and the parishes together, were enjoined to 
provide in every church to be a Bible in English : also for every 
parishioner to be taught by the minister, to understand and to say 
the Lord"'s Prayer and Creed in their own vulgar tongue, with otlier 
necessary and most fruitful injunctions, the tenor whereof followeth. 

Further Injunctions of the King, exhibited a.d. 1538. 

In the name of God, Amen. By the authority and commission of the most 
excellent prince Henry, by the grace of God, king of England and of France, 
defender of the faith, lord of Ireland, and, in earth, supreme head under 
Christ of the church of England; I, Thomas lord Cromwell, lord privy seal, 
vicegerent to the king's said highness for all his jurisdiction ecclesiastical within 
this realm, do, for the advancement of the true honour of Almighty God, the 
increase of virtue, and the discharge of the king's majesty, give and exhibit unto 
you N., these injunctions following, to be kept, observed, and fulfilled, under 
the pain hereafter declared. 

First, That ye shall truly observe and keep all and singular the king's high- 
ness's injunctions given unto you heretofore in my name by his grace's autho- 
rity, not only upon tiie pains therein expressed, but also in your default now, 
after this second monition, continued, upon further punishment to be straightly 
extended towards you by the king's highness's arbitrement, or that of his vice- 
gerent aforesaid. 
For the Item, That ye shall provide, on this side the feast of N. next coming, one 

ve's'et'" ^""'^ ''^ ^^^^ whole Bible of the largest volume in English, and the same set up 
up in in some convenient place within the said church, that ye have cure of, where 
churches, your parishioners may most commodiously resort to the same, and read it; the 
charges of which book shall be rateably borne between you, the parson and 
parishioners aforesaid, that is to say, the one half by you, and the other half 
by them. 

Item, That ye shall discourage no man privily or apertly from the reading 
or hearing of the said Bible, but shall expressly provoke, stir, and exhort every 
person to read the same, as that which is the very lively word of God, that 
every christian person is bound to embrace, believe, and follow, if he look to 
be saved ; admonishing them, nevertheless, to avoid all contention and alterca- 
tion therein, and to use an honest sobriety in the inquisition of the true sense 
. of the same, and to refer the explication of the obscure places, to men of higher 
judgment in Scripture. 


Item, That ye shall, every Sunday and holy-day through the year, openly Henry 
and plainly recite to your parishioners, twice or thrice together, or oftener if ^111. 
need require, one article or sentence of the Paternoster or Creed in English, to ^ j)_ 
the intent they may learn the same by heart ; and so, from day to day, to give 1533] 

them one like lesson or sentence of the same, till they have learned the whole 

Paternoster and Creed in English by rote : and as they be taught every sen- J^^^.g 
tence of the same by rote, ye shall expound and declare the understanding of Prayer 
the same unto them, exhorting all parents and householders to teach their chil- *» be 
dren and servants the same, as they are bound in conscience to do : and, that Euglfbb!" 
done, ye shall declare unto them the Ten Commandments, one by one, every 
Sunday and lioly-day, till they be likewise perfect in the same. 

Item, That ye shall, in confessions every Lent, examine every person that 
Cometh to confession to you, whether they can recite the Articles of our Faith, 
and the Paternoster in English, and hear them say the same particularly : 
wherein if they be not perfect, ye shall declare to them, that every christian 
person ought to know the same before they should receive the blessed sacra- 
ment of the altar, and admonish them to learn the same more perfectly by the 
next year following : or else, like as they ought not to presume to come to God's 
board without perfect knowledge of the same (and if they do, it is to the great 
peril of their souls), so ye shall declare unto them, that ye look for other in- 
junctions from the king's highness by that time, to stay and repel all such from 
God's board, as shall be found ignorant in the premises : wherefore do ye thus 
admonish them, to the intent they should both eschew the peril of their souls, 
and also the worldly rebuke that they might incur hereafter by the same. 

Item, That ye shall make, or cause to be made, in the said church, and every Sermons 
other cure ye have, one sermon every quarter of a year at least, wherein ye Quarterly 
shall purely and sincerely declare the very gospel of Christ, and in the same made, 
exhort your hearers to the works of charity, mercy, and faith, specially pre- 
scribed and commanded in Scripture ; and not to repose their trust or affiance 
in other works devised by men's fantasies besides Scripture : as in wandering 
to pilgrimages, offering of money, candles, or tapers to feigned relics or images, 
or kissing or licking the same, saying over a number of beads not vmderstood 
nor minded on, or such like superstition : for the doing whereof ye not only 
have no promise of reward in Scripture, but, contrariwise, great threats and 
maledictions of God, as things tending to idolatry and superstition, which, of 
all otlier offences, God Almighty doth most detest and abhor, for that the same 
diminisheth most his honour and gloiy. 

Item, That such feigned images as ye know, in any of your cures, to be so images 
abused with pilgrimages or offerings of any thing made thereunto, ye shall, for pulled 
avoiding of that most detestable offence of idolatry, forthwith take down without ''°^^"- 
delay ; and shall suffer from henceforth no candles, tapers, or images of wax, 
to be set before any images or picture, but only the light that commonly goeth 
about the cross of the church by the rood-loft, the light before the sacrament 
of the altar, and the light about the sepulchre ; which, for the adorning of the 
church and divine service, ye shall suffer to remain still : admonishing your 
parishioners, that images serve for none other purpose but as the books of un- 
learned men that ken no letters, whereby they might be admonished of the 
lives and conversation of them that the said images do represent; which 
images if they abuse for any other intent than for such remembrances, they 
comniit idolatry in the same, to the great danger of their souls. And therefore 
the king's highness, graciously tendering the weal of his subjects' souls, hath 
travailed in part already, and more will hereafter travail, for the abolishing of 
such images as might be occasion of so gi-eat offence to God, and so great 
danger to the souls of his loving subjects. 

Item, That in all such benefices or cures as ye have, whereupon you be not Good 
yourself resident, ye shall appoint such curates in your stead as both can by ""J^g***^" 
ability, and will also, promptly execute these injunctions, and do their duty placed, 
otherwise, that ye are bound to do in every behalf accordingly ; and profit 
their cure no less with good example of living, than with declaration of the 
word of God : or else their lack and defaults shall be imputed unto you, who 
shall straightly answer for the same, if they do otherwise. 

Item, That you shall admit no man to preach within any of your benefices 
or cures, but such as shall appear unto you to be sufficiently licensed thereunto 



Hnini by the king's higlincss, or his grace's authority, or by the bishop of the diocese; 
fl^- and siicli as shall be so licensed, ye shall gladly receive, to declare the word of 

God without any resistance or contradiction. 

Item, If ye have heretofore declared to your parishioners any thing to the 

extolling and setting forth of pilgrimages to feigned relics or images, or any 



Pil^'rim- ^\xq\\ superstition, you shall now openly, afore the same, recant and reprove the 
fmaees"' same ; showing them, as the truth is, that ye did the same upon no ground of 
abandon- Scripture, but as being led and seduced by a common error and abuse, crept 
^^ into the church through the sufferance and avarice of such as felt profit by the 


The word Item, If ye do or shall know any within your parish, or elsewhere, that is a 

of God letter of the word of God to be read in English, or sincerely preached, or of 

preadied the execution of these injunctions, or a fautor of the bishop of Rome's pretensed 

without power, now by the laws of this realm justly rejected and extirped; ye shall 

Tterru detect the same to the king's highness, or his honoui-able council, or to his vice- 

tion. gerent aforesaid, or to the justice of peace next adjoining. 

Resister Item, That you and eveiy parson, vicar, or curate, within this diocese, shall, 

book for for every church, keep one book of register, wherein ye shall write the day and 

Vis's ^^ }'ear of every wedding, christening, and burying, made within your parish for 

your time ; and so for eveiy man succeeding you likewise ; and also therein 

set every person's name that shall be so wedded, christened or buried : and for 

the safe keeping of the same book, the parish shall be bound to provide, of their 

common charges, one sure coffer, with two locks and keys, whereof the one to 

remain with you, and the other with the wardens of every such parish wherein 

the said book shall be laid up ; which book ye shall every Sunday take fortli, 

and in the presence of the said wardens or one of them, write and record in 

the same, all the weddings, christenings and buryings, made the whole week 

before : and that done, to lay up the said book in the said coffer as before; and 

for every time the same shall be omitted, the party that shall be in the fault 

thereof, shall forfeit to the said church tlu-ee shillings and four pence, to be 

employed on the reparation of the same church. 

Item, That ye shall, once every quarter of a year, read these and the other 
former injunctions given unto you by authority of the king's highness, openly 
and deliberately, before all your parishioners ; to the intent that both you may 
be the better admonished of your duty, and your said parishioners the more 
incited to ensue the same for their part. 

Item, Forasmuch as by a law established, every man is bound to pay his 
tithes, no man shall, by colour of duty omitted by their curates, detain their 
tithes, and so redouble one wrong with another, and be his own judge ; but shall 
tndy pay the same, as hath been accustomed, to their parsons and curates, 
without any restraint or diminution ; and such lack and default as they can 
justly find in their parsons and curates, to call for reformation thereof at their 
ordinaries' and other superiors' hands, who, upon complaint and due proof 
thereof, shall reform the same accorchngly. 

Item, That no parson shall from henceforth alter or change the order and 
manner of any fasting day that is commanded and indicted by the church, or 
of divine prayer, or of service, otherwise than is specified in the said injunc- 
tions, until such time as the same shall be so ordered and ti-ansposed by the 
king's highness's authority; the evens of such saints, whose holy-days be 
abrogated, only excepted, which shall be declared henceforth to be no fasting 
days, except also the commemoration of Thomas Becket, sometime archbishop 
of Canterbury, which shall be clean omitted, and instead thereof the ferial ser- 
vice used. 

Item, That the knolling of the Aves after service and certain other times, 
which hath been brought in and begun by the pretence of the bishop of Rome's 
pardon, henceforth be left and omitted, lest the people do hereafter trust to 
have pardon for the saying of their aves between the said knolling, as they have 
done in times past. 

Item, Whereas, in times past, men have used, in divers places in their proces- 
sions, to sing ' Ora pro nobis,' to so many saints, that they had no time to sing^ 
rejected, ^j^^ ^^^^^ suffrages following, as ' Parce nobis Domine,' and ' Libera nos Domine,' 
it must be taught and preached, that better it were to omit ' Ora pro nobis,' 
and to sing the other suffrages, being most necessary and effectual, .\11 which 

Tithes to 
be paid. 

day abio- 

of Aves 

of saints 


and singular injunctions I minister unto you and to your parishioners, by the Henry 
king's highness's authority, to be committed in this part, which I charge and yni- 
command you, by the same autliority, to observe and keep, upon pain of ~T I~ 
deprivation, sequestration of your fruits, or such other coercion as, to the king ic'oo' 
or his vicegerent for the time being, shall be seen convenient. '_ 

By these articles and injunctions thus coming forth one after The king 
another, for the necessary instruction of the people, it may appear serving^ 
how well the king then deserved the title of his supreme government, of';".^"*'' 
given to him over the church of England ; by which title and autho- preme go- 
rity he did more good for the redressing and advancing of Christ''s than the 
church and religion here in England in these three years, than the p°^^' 
pope, the great vicar of Christ, with all his bishops and prelates, had 
done the space of three hundred years before. Such a vigilant care 
was then in the king and in his council, how by all ways and means 
to redress religion, to reform errors, to correct coiTupt customs, to 
help ignorance, and to reduce the misleading of Chrisfs flock, 
drowned in blind popery, superstition, customs and idolatry, to some 
better form of more perfect reformation : whereunto he provided not 
only these articles, precepts, and injunctions above specified, to 
inform the rude people, but also procm'ed the bishops to hel]) for- 
ward, in the same cause of decayed doctrine, with their diligent 
preaching and teaching of the people ; according as ye heard before, 
how that in the year 1534, during the whole time of parliament, 
there was appointed every Sunday a bishop to preach at Paul's cross, 
against the supremacy of the bishop of Rome. 

Amongst these bishops, John Longland, bishop of Lincoln, the 
king's confessor, and a great persecutor of the poor flock of Christ 
(as is before sufliiciently recorded), made a sermon before the king, 
upon Good Friday, this present year 1538, at Greenwich, seriously 
and effectuously preaching, on the king's behalf, against the usurped 
supremacy of the bishop of Rome ; the contents of whose sermon 
wholly to express, were here too long and tedious. So much as may 
suflftce for our purpose I thought should remain to posterity, beginning 
at his theme, which then he took in hand to treat upon, written in 
Hebrews xiii., as followeth. 

The Sermon of John Longland, Bishop of Lincoln, on Good Friday, 
before the King at Greenwich, a.d. 1538. The theme from 
Hebrews xiii. 

Tlie words of the apostle are these, ' Habemus altare de quo edere non habent 
potestatem qui tabernaculo deserviunt. Quorum enim animalium infertur 
sanguis pro peccato in sancta per pontificem, horum corpora cremantur extra 
castra. Propter quod, et Jesus extra portam passus est. Exeamus igitur ad 
eum extra castra, improperium ejus portantes !' 

These are the words of the apostle; many things contained in few words; 
and the English thereof is this : We have an altar ; we have an altar (saith the 
apostle), an altar, and a sacrifice upon this altar. And they that serve at the 
tabernacle may not eat of this altar, may not eat of this sacrifice that is offered 
upon this altar. For the apostle here, 'per metonymiam,' doth put the altar 
for that which is the sacrifice upon the altar. The blood of those beasts that 
were slain for the sacrifice, was brought into the holy, secret, high place of the 
temple where the ark was, between the high altar (as we will say) and the 
veil by the bishop, and there offered up for the sin of the people. The bodies 
of the beasts that were burned without the pavilions or tents, for which, * propter 

172 BISHOP longland's sermon against the pope, 

Ifenry quod,' for whicli ; what? for the fulfilling of which mystery. Also to verify 

. ^m. and fulfil the figure, and that the thing figured might be correspondent to the 

A. D. ^"'^s, Jesus suffered without the gate, to sanctify the people by his blood. 

1538. ^^^ "^ E^ ^^^ therefore, and suffer with Christ, bearing his opprobries and 

rebukes. These be the words of the apostle now taken. 

I will, by the help of our Lord God, declare these words in order, even as 
they do stand. Here is an altar ; here is a sacrifice ; here is a bishop who did 
offer this sacrifice; here is a tabernacle; a serving of the tabernacle ; the blood 
of the sacrifice which was offered by the bishop for the sins of the people, in the 
most holy place of the temple ; and the bodies of the beasts (whose blood was 
offered) were burned without the tents. And this was done the tenth day of 
the seventh month. Ye hear now the words of the apostle, wherein appeai-eth 
the manifest figure of the passion of our Saviour Jesus Christ, which we this 
day do honour. 

In these words the apostle toucheth the figure of the law, and bringeth it to 
a spiritual imderstanding ; for it was commanded in the law, in the book of 
Numbers,' the tenth da}' of the seventh month, in the feast that was called the 
feast of the propitiation of mercy, of remission, or the feast of purgation, when 
the people were purged ; at which time they should take a calf and a kid, and 
slay them ; whose blood the only bishop should bring 'in sancta sanctoriun,' 
into the most holy, solemn, and secret place of the temple, wherein the bishop 
never came, imless he brought with him blood to offer in sacrifice. ^ ' Almost 
all things after the law, or in the law, were cleansed in blood, and by blood ; 
and without the effusion of blood was no remission,' saith the apostle: and in 
that place of the temple called ' sancta sanctorum,' the bishop prayed and offered 
for the people. The flesh and corpse of the sacrifice was burned without the 
tents, without their pavilions ; and it was not lawful to any that did serve the 
tabernacle, to eat of the flesh of that saci-ifice. 

Here is a manifest figure (as I said) of the passion of our Saviour Christ. 

The altar that was consecrated and hallowed in this solemnity of the blood of 

the eternal testament, was that holj- cross that Christ suffered on ; which as on 

this day he did consecrate, hallow, dignifj', and dedicate; and did adorn and deck 

the same with the members of bis most precious body, more gloriously than if 

it had been embroidered and inserted with precious stones. For as gold, which 

is the most precious metal, is made more precious when it is set with precious 

stones, and is dignified therewith, whether it be altar, image, crown, ring or 

ouch ; so was the altar, the holy cross, beautified, dignified, adorned, and made 

precious, with the members of that most precious stone Christ, which is, as Peter 

The stone saitli,'' 'the lively stone which men did reprove, which God did elect for tlif 

Christ. approved stone, for a corner stone,' for the chief stone in the building of liis 

chm-ch, for the stone that joineth the walls of the church together, for the stone 

whereupon the faith of Christ and his church is builded : a precious stone, a 

stone of price, a stone of high value, far passing in the estimation of a good 

christian man all other precious stones in the world. This precious stone 

Christ, with the members of his most precious body, did deck, adorn, and make 

precious this altar of the cross, when his body was by the Jews, with violence, 

extremely strained upon the same, that all his hones (as testifieth the prophet) 

might be numbered.* Upon this altar was the great sacrifice of the world 

Christ the offered, Christ himself He was the sacrifice, and he was the priest. ' He 

sacrifice offered up himself to God his Father, for the sin of man,' saith the apostle.^ 

world. ^I^ offered himself a pure, clean, immaculate host to God, to redeem the world, 

to sanctify sinners, to justify man. 

This Christ, the bishop of good things to come (as the apostle witnesseth), 
entered once into the place called ' sancta sanctorum,' not only of the temple ; 
but ' in sancta sanctorum,' into that holy place of places, into heaven. He 
entered with sacrificed blood, like a bishop. ' Not with the blood of goats or 
calves, not with the blood of rams or bulls, but with his own precious blood.'* 
For if the blood of goats and bulls, and the ashes of the burned calf sprinkled 

(1) Numb. xix. 

(2) ' Quia omnia fere in sanguine secundum legem mundabantur, et sine sanguinis effusione nou 
sit remissio.' Heb. xi. 

(3) ' Lapis vivus, ab hominibus reprobatus, a Deo electus, probatus angularis et prcciosus. 
1 Pet. ii. (4) Psalm xxii. 

(5) ' Obtulit semetipsum immaculatum Deo, ut sanetificaret inquinatos. (C) Heb. ix. 


abroad, were sufficient to the making clean of tlie flesh, how much more tlien is liennj 
the blood of Christ, who by the Holy Ghost did offer up himself to God, a most m^- 
pure, most clean, and immaculate sacrifice, able to purge, cleanse, and make ~~A~n~ 
fair our consciences from the works of death, and to live in the living God? Tj-^n* 

This is our great bishop, as the apostle saith.' 'We have a great bishop, which '— 

did penetrate the heavens, whose name is Jesus the Son of God.' This is our 
great bishop, our high bishop, our universal bishop. This is the head bishop 
of all bishops, and of all the world, named of God (as the apostle saitha) to be our 
great bisliop, properly called ' Summus Pontifex,' the highest bishop of bishops. 
For this is he only that is ' Summus, maximus, et universalis Pontifex.' 

The bishop of Rome therefore ought herein to be abashed, ashamed, and to xhe 
abhor his own pride. For in this he outrageously doth offend God, and bias- pride of 
phemeth him, in that he presumeth to take this high name from our bishop, i,]as?°^^' 
Christ ; in that he taketh away, as much as lieth in him, the glory of God, the phemeth 
majesty appertaining unto Christ ; in that he taketh upon him these names ^"'^■ 
appropriate only to Christ, the highest bishop, the greatest bishop, the universal 
bishop,^ the bishop of aU the world. I much marvel how he dare be so bold to 
usurp and take these great names upon him. Greater blasphemy cannot be, jj^ 
than to take fi-om God that which naturally belongeth unto him ; than to take greater 
from God his glory and honour : than to vindicate and take upon him such high ^\^^' 
names, as beseemeth no Christian man to usurp. God said by his prophet, ' 1 than in 
will not give my glory away to any other,''' to any creature. He doth reserve the pope, 
the glory, that laud and honour that belongeth only unto him, unto himself ; no 
man may attempt so far, no man may take so much upon him. 

Peter ! Peter! thou wast once bishop of Rome, and the first bishop of Rome ; 
Didst thou ever take this name upon thee, Summus, Maximus, Universalis ? Peter 
No, no, no. And why ? For the Holy Ghost was in thee. Thou woiddest take P^V^"^ 
no more upon thee, than God gave thee. Thou wast not desirous of worldly upon 
fame and glory. All that thou soughtest for, was for the glory of God ; as all him at 
that will read thy sermons, thy epistles, and thy life, shall soon perceive. Look ! the'pope 
a great number of bishops that next followed Peter in the same see ; what were doth, 
they ? Holy martyrs, holy livers, who never attempted thus far. Let the bishop of 
Rome therefore acknowledge his great fault, his high folly, his unlawfvd usurpa- 
tion, his unpriestly presumption, and humble himself to Christ and God, his great 
bishop. Would God he would reform himself! would God he would keep him- 
self within that compass of his authority, and encroach no more upon other 
men's jm-isdictions, but diligently keep and overlook his own diocese, and be 
content with that ! would God he would look upon his predecessor St. Gregory 
in his register,^ who was a bishop of Rome, a holy man. Let him learn there 
how he did rebuke John, at that time the bishop of Constantinople, for taking 
on him so highly, in such names : universal bishop, highest bishop, greatest 
bishop ; and how he proved it to be against the law of God. He saith there, in 
one place, to this proud bishop John, ' What answer shalt thou make in that 
strait examination at that last judgment, to Christ the head of the universal holy 
church, that goest about to have subject unto thee all the members of Christ, by 
taking on thee the name of universal bishop ?' In another place again in the 
same book he saith imto him, * Who art thou, that dost presume to usurp anew 
name upon thee of universal bishop, contrary to the statutes of the gospel and 

God forbid that ever this blasphemy should come in the hearts of 
christian people ! in which the honour of all priesthood is taken away, when 
a man shall rashly and arrogantly take that name upon him. Let this bishop 
of Rome therefore humble himself unto our great universal bishop, Christ ; 
humble himself under the mighty hand of God ; and know what the apostle 
doth writes of the honour and power of this Christ ovu- great high bishop. He 
is (he saith) ' Pontifex misericors, fidelis, potens, magnus, humilis, penetrans 
ccelum, compatiens infirmitatibus nostris, offerens dona et saerificia pro peccatis 
nostris, condolens iis qui ignorant et errant : Qui potest salvum facere a morte, 
offerens preces et supplicationes cum clamore valido et lachrymis, et exauditus est 

(1) ' Habemus pontilicem magnum qui penetravit coelos, Jesum FiliumDei.'Levit.xvi. Heb. iv. 

(2) Heb. V. (3) ' Summus pontifex, maximus pontifex, universalis pontifex.' 

(4) ' Non dabo gloriam meam alteri.' Isai. xlii. 

(5) Gregorius in Registro, lib. iv. indictione xxx. Epist. xxxviii. 

(6) Heb. ii. iii. iv. v. vii. viii. ix. 






The titles 
liuted to 
Christ, in 





office of a 
bishop is 
to pray. 

pro reverentia sua : Pontifex appellatus a Deo : Pontifcx sanctus, innocens, 
impoUutiis, segregatus a peccatoribus, excelsior coelis : Non habens necessitatem 
(quemadmodum alii) prius pro suis delictis hostias ofFerre, deinde pro populo : 
Pontifex sedens in dextris Dei interpellans pro nobis, emundans conscientias 
nostras ab operibus mortuis, intrans sancta sanctorum, per proprium sanguinem. 
Hie est Pontifex confessionis nostras. 

Let all earthly bishops learn of this heavenly bishop Christ, some of these 
properties are appropriate and belong only to God, and not to man. In some 
we oitght to follow him, in some we cannot, nor ought to do. This our high 
and great Bishop is ' misericors,'saiththe apostle, merciful. A merciful bishop, 
ready to forgive, ready to remit those that have offended him. He is not cruel 
nor vengeable, but full of pity, full of mercy. And in this we ought to follow him. 

He is ' Pontifex potens,' a mighty Bishop, mighty and full of power. We be 
but weak and feeble bishops, not able to do any thing but by his permission and 
help. He is able to make sick, to make whole ; to make rich, to make poor ; 
to set up, to put down. ' Potens,' a mighty bishop, mighty and able to remit 
sin,' to forgive, to save both body and soul from damnation. ' Potens,' a mighty 
bishop, and full of power. No power in this world but of him : * Omnis potestas 
a Domino Deo est ;' all power is of him. And, as he himself witnesseth, 'All 
power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. '^ ' Potens salvare a morte ;' he can 
save the body, and save the soul : he can deliver the one and deliver the other from 
everlasting death. Who can forgive sin but he ? ^ 'Estpotens;' he is a mighty 
bishop ! Of him and by him emperors, kings, magistrates, and potestates, 
bishops, priests, with all others that have power, have their power and authority. 
Who is able to turn the wind, to make the wind blow or cease, but he ? Who is 
able to say and prove, I will now have it rain, now clear ; the sun to shine, the 
water to flow, to ebb, wth such other, but only he ? This is our mighty Bishop, 
'Pontifex potens,' mighty: yea, ' omnipotens,' almighty. He can do all; 
nothing is to him impossible. ' Ipse dixit, et facta sunt omnia.' Mandavit, et 
creata sunt universa: potens ergo est.^ He is a mighty Bishop. We are not so. 

' Fidelis Pontifex.' He is a faithful Bishop : faithful. He is a faithful 
bishop to God, referring all lauds, all honour and glory, to his Father. In all 
things that he did, miracles or other, he took never the more upon himself. He 
was also a faithful bishop to the world ; for he did all that belonged to the office 
of a good bishop. The very office of a bishop ^ is, prsedicare, orare, et sacrifi- 
care, sive ofierre : to preach, to pray, to do sacrifice, or to offer. He 
preached to his people ; he taught the world most wholesome doctrine, whereby 
he called the people to God ; he converted sinners ; he called them to penance. 
He made them weep and lament their sins; they followed his person, they 
followed his word, they followed his ensample. They came out of all coasts to 
see him, to hear him, to learn of him. They forsook meat and drink, house and 
home ; and followed him wheresoever he went, as well in wilderness as else- 
where : insomuch that after they had followed him three days, he, being moved 
with pity, lest they shoidd perish for lack of food, being in the wilderness far 
from succour, he fed them twice miraculously. Once in the desert with five 
loaves and two fishes he fed five thousand men, besides women and children, 
and there were left twelve great baskets, twelve maunds full of bi'okelets and 
offiils at that meal.^ At another time he fed in the wilderness to the number 
of four thousand men, besides women and children, with seven loaves, and a 
few little fishes, and there were left of fragments, seven maunds full. 7 

The second office of a bishop he fulfilled also, for he prayed. He was most 
devout in prayer, so to teach all bishops and preachers not to presume on their 
wit or learning, neither on their capacity, memory, fair tongue or utterance ; 
but that the preacher do studiously apply his book, with all dihgence, to study 
how to speak, what to speak, before whom he shall speak, and to shape his 
sermon after the audience. The preacher ought also, besides his study and 
preaching, to pray : for by devout prayer he shall attain, percase, as much or 
more, as by study or learning, for without prayer the words will little prevail. 
Look in Christ's life, and thou shalt find that in every thing he went about, he 

(1) Horn. xiv. (2) ' Data est niihi omnis potestas in coelo et in terra.' Matt, x.xviii. 

(3) ' Quis potest dimittere pcccatum nisi solus Deus?' Mark ii. (4) Psa. xxxii. 

(5) 'The oilice of a bishop :' If he had placed here, ' administrare sacramenta,' for ' sacrificare,' 
his partition so might have stood. (6) Matt. xiv. (7) Matt xv. 


prayed, to show the valiancy, the virtue, and strength of prayer : to show our Henry 
necessities, our weakness and feebleness of nature. He prayed for his people ^^^^- 
(as Luke witnesseth)> the space of one whole night. And what a marvellous ^ j^ 
devout prayer made he for his people in the mount, the night afore his passion, 1538. 

when the chalice of death was represented unto him ; when he sweat water 

and blood ; when he cried thrice, Let this chalice,^ let this passion and blood, 
let the virtue thereof, pass from me unto all mankind. Let every man have 
the virtue and merit thereof; let it work in all folks ; let every faithful man 
and woman be partaker thereof; let it not be lost, but work to the world's end. 
This was a marvellous, devout, merciful prayer. 

And again, suffering and hanging on the cross, he offered up for his people The cry 
his prayers and supplications with a huge cry, with a piteous voice, with a lament- o*^ Chnst 
able and deadly shriek, and with weeping tears,* to God his Father ; he, hanging cross, 
on the cross, even when the spirit should depart the body, not then forgetting 
his people, at the hour when all the people forget both the world and themselves, r^-^^^ 
Which cry was so huge and great, so marvellous, and of that effect, that the heavens 
heavens trembled thereat, the angels mourned for pity, the sun lost his light, trembled, 
the vail in the temple rived in two, the earth quaked, the stones rent asunder niourned, 
and brake in gobbets, the graves opened, the dead bodies rose to life, and ap- the sun 
peared in the city. The centurion, and those that kept Christ, to see the J^ght'the 
execution done, cried, * Vere, filius Dei erat iste!' 'This was the undoubted vail ' 
Son of God.' His prayer and weeping tears were so pleasant unto the Father "ved, 
that he was heard ; ' Exauditus est pro reverentia sua.' He was heard, and why? quaked, 
For it was so entire, so devout, so reverently done, in such a manner and stones 
fashion, with such a zeal grounded upon such a charity, suffering for our guilt, ^.^IJ^gg 
and not for his own. And for that he did the very office of a bishop, so entirely opened, 
to pray, and so reverently to offer up himself in sacrifice for his people, he was *'"^ ^^^^ 
heard; he was heard; his prayer was heard of God. And that is the third 
property of a good bishop, to offer sacrifice for his people. Every bishop, eveiy ^^^ ^^ ^ 
bishop, for his diocesans and for the whole universal church. In these three bishop. 
we ought, as much as we may, to follow Christ. 

Thus this Christ was and is ' Pontifex fidelis,' a faithful Bishop: faithful: 
faithful in his word, true in his pi'omise, deceiving no man, but profiting all. 
In all that he did or spake, he sought nothing his own glory, but the glory of 
God ; teaching thereby all bishops of the world, in aU that they go about, to 
do it unto the praise and glory of God. And herein we ought also to follow him. 

' Magnus Pontifex.' He is the great Bishop, the high bishop, the supreme Magnus, 
bishop, the universal bishop over all the world. No great bishop but he. None 
high, none supreme nor universal bishop, but he. 

And herein the bishop of Rome outrageously usurpeth upon God, as he doth The pope 
upon the world, to take the honour and names (only to God appropriate) to hiasphe- 
I himself, and doth grievously blaspheme and offend God therein. Greater qq^_ 
blasphemy cannot be, than to ascribe to God that which no ways belongeth what is 
junto him, or to take from God that which is unto him appropriate. It is meet blasphe- 
therefore he do betimes, and in season, leave his unjust encroachments both ™^' 
against his Lord God, and also against the world, lest he do provoke God to 
poui' out all his vials of wrath upon him : the vfees, I mean the maledictions 
and vengeance that John speaketh of in the Apocalypse.* I would advise him 
to cease the injuries which he hath done, and daily doth, against thee, Christ, 
our great, high, universal Bishop, lest thou excommunicate and strike him ; lest 
thou show thy wrath and judgment against him, and utterly extinct his pride. The 
and ambitious pretensed authority. For thou wilt be known, thou wilt be stroke 
known to be God. And thou art and wilt be our great universal and supreme s[ow°bu/ 
Bishop, whatsoever the bishop of Rome shall attempt to the contrary ; and thou sure. 
wilt punish his worldly arrogancy, and strike when thou seest thy time. And The 
ithough it be long ere thou strike, yet let him beware, for strike thou wilt, if thou \°^^'^^ 
ibe utterly provoked; and when thou dost strike, thy stroke is great, thy stroke stretch- 
is dreadful and sore. It vanquisheth the body, it slayeth the soul, it danmeth J;''! "« 
jboth. Beware, therefore, thou bishop of Rome ! and be content with thine own than his 
'diocese, with thine own charge, as other bishops are with theirs : for further diocese, 
than thine own diocese thy jurisdiction doth not stretch. 

(\) Lute vi. (2) ' Transeat a me calix iste.' Matt. xxvi. 

(3) 'Preces ct supplicationes cum clamore valido et lachjtmis.' Heb. v. (4) Apoc. ix. 






tions to 
be asked 
of the 
pope in 
the last 

The pope 
all things 
a money 




will have 
a fall. 




full of 

A marvellous blindnes.s in thee therefore, to take upon thee to answer for all 
the woi-ld, and art not able to answer our great bishop Christ for thyself at tiie 
dreadful day of judgment, when he shall ask but these few questions of thee ? 
Quomodo intrasti ? Quomodo rexisti ? Quomodo vixisti ? Quomodo pavisti ? 
Quae et qualia exempla dedisti? Quid ad meam gloriam fecisti? et hujusmodi. 
How didst thou enter into the bishopric? by me, or by the world i unlawfully 
or lawfully? by simony or freely? by labour, by paction, or called of God? 
IIow didst thou rule thy cure, thy diocese? Didst thou pray for thy people? 
Didst thou preach me to thy diocesans? Didst thou give them ghostly and 
bodily food? Didst thou minister spiritual and ghostly salves' (the sacraments 
I mean), to heal the sores of their souls ? How didst thou live ? Didst thou 
cast away the care, the glory and pomp of the world? Didst thou follow me 
in humility, in charity, in compassion, in poverty, in cleanness, and in chaste 
living .' 

How didst thou govern thy diocesans ? Didst thou not make of all things 
that thou didst meddle with a money matter, in selling that which was not in thee 
to sell nor give, which thou calledst thy pardons, thy commissions, thy brieves, 
thy delegacies, reservations, exemptions, appellations, bulls, and dispensations? 
Didst not thou, under these pretences, and other like doings, deceive the world? 
What answer shalt thou make to this at that day, to our and thy great bishop 
Christ, when he shall visit thee and all thy diocese, me and ail my diocese ; yea, 
when he shall visit all the world? What answer shall you then make? 1 think 
verily thou shalt then have enough to do, yea, and more than thou canst wind 
thyself out of, to make answer for thyself, for thine own diocese, and for thine 
own diocesans, though thou usurp not upon other men's, as thou dost. The 
apostle writeth of Christ humbly, and calleth him ' Magnum Pontiticem,' the 
great bishop. And he of Rome is not with this word contented, but will have 
a higher word for himself, in the superlative degree, ' Maximum Pontificem,' 
the greatest bishop. Oh ! where is the humbleness and meekness that should 
be in him ? Alas, he that taketh on him to teach all the world, how can he for 
shame suffer such blasphemous words to pass in his name, to his great shame 
and rebuke ; to the great danger of his soul, and to the perilous ensample vmto 
others ! Oh, fie upon pride ! It is a common proverb, ' Pride will have a fall.' 
Our bishop Christ was 'humilis;' meek, lowly, and humble in heart. He 
rode not upon any palfrey or courageous horse, but upon an ass ; and that but 
once. He never was borne pompously abroad in a chair, upon men's shoulders. 
He never proffered his foot to any body to kiss. We read that he washed the 
feet of his disciples and wiped them."^ We read that Mary Magdalen proffered 
to have kissed his feet, but he did prohibit her, saying, ' Noli me tangere ;' 
' Touch me not.' He would not suffer the woman then to touch him. He never 
had guai-d to defend him. He never followed the pomp of the world. He dis- 
dained not to go upon the ground with his bare feet.^ What shall I say ? He 
gave ensamples enough to the bishop of Rome, to me, and all bishops, to be 
meek and humble : he to know himself, and we ourselves, as, if he and we 
diligently look in Scripture, we shall find. And herein, in meekness, we are 
bound to follow him. 

' Compatiens infirmitatibus.' This bishop Christ had compassion of our in- 
firmities, of our frailties. It is impossible for a man to know the afflictions of 
a miserable person, that never suffered himself affliction ; that never had ex- 
perience of pains ; that never felt what pain meant. But this bishop, Christ, 
had experience of our nature, how weak, how feeble the nature of man is ; how 
weak of himself to do any good work without the help of God, how feeble to 
resist temptations. He suffered and felt the infirmities and pains of this natural 
body. He hath, therefore, compassion upon man, when he doth see him fall. 
He sorroweth his ruin, teaching bishops in especial, afore all others, to have 
compassion and pity upon the sinner, to help him spiritually, to comfort him 
ghostly, to help him to arise from sin, to allm-e him to penance, to draw him to 
virtue, to make him know God, to fear his justice, to love his laws ; and thus 
to seek, all the ways that he and we can, to save the sinner's soul, for whom he 
shall make answer to God for his own diocesans ; soul for soul, blood for blood, 
pain for pain, hell for hell, damnation for damnation. For which soul, our great 

(1) Nay, rather, ghostly doctrine you should say. 

(2) Johnxiii. 

(3) Matt XX. 


bishop, Christ (as the apostle dotli witness), > did offer gifts and sacrifice himself, n.'vry 
having compassion of them that by ignorance and by error did sin and offend yiH- 
God. Even when he was in his greatest agony upon the cross, he cried to his . r) 
Father, ' Forgive them. Father, forgive them; they know not what they do:' 2 ir«o' 

they are ignorant people ; they know not what is what, or what danger they — '. L 

run into by thus entreating me. They know not their offences ; ' forgive them, 
Father, forgive them.' In this compassion we ought also to follow our great 
bishop, Christ. 

It followeth in the former letter, ' Est Pontifex appellatus a Deo.' ' He is a Pontifex 
bishop, and so named of God:' he is the very bishop. He offered up the very appella- 
sacrifice, the sacrifice of his own most blessed body and blood, whereby the sin 
of the world was put away. Every bishop of the world is not named a bishop 
by God : for some come into that office, not by the Holy Ghost, nor elect of 
God (as John saith) ; not entering ' in ovile oviimi per ostium, sed ascendens 
aliunde.'-* Some there are, that enter into the fold of the sheep of God not by All 
tlie door. Some there be that enter in, having charge and cure of soul, not by jj'siiops 
God, but by worldly means, by worldly labour, by importune suits and inter- called of 
cessions of friends, or by their own unlawful labour, by simony, and such other God. 
ways. Such are not named bishops by God. Such enter not by the door, not 
by him that saith,* ' I am the door, I am the way, I am the life, I am the truth;' 
I am 'pastor bonus,' the very true and good bishop, that entered by God. And 
all that enter otherwise than by God, Christ calleth them ' fures, et latrones;' 
thieves, spoilers, raveners, devourers, and deceivers of the sheep. ^ Their living 
I shall declare the same ; for such as so wilfully do enter, do study their own 
i profits and commodities. Such receive the fruits, and do nothing for them ; 
; such suffer their sheep to perish for lack of bodily and ghostly food and 
sustenance, for lack of preaching, for lack of giving good counsel, for lack of 
; good living, for lack of good ensample. And such, for the most part, live 
[ naughtily, carnally, fleshly, viciously, pompously, worldly, and not bishoply 
; nor priestly. For they came not in by God, nor by grace. Christ saith,^ 
I ' Qui intrat per me salvabitur, et ingredietur, et egredietur, et pascua in- 
veniet.' 'He that entereth by me shall be saved.' ' Et ingredietur, et egre- 
dietiir;' ' And he shall go in, and he shall go out.' What is that to say, ' He 
I shall go in, and he shall go out V I think, he meaneth by going in, that he 
shall have grace to enter studiously into the holy Scripture, daily and nightly 
to meditate, to study, and to profit in the laws of God. ' Et egredietur:' and 
he shall explain and truly interpret and publish it unto the people. ' Et pascua 
inveniet :' and he shall find there plenty of spiritual food for himself and for 
his people, to edify their souls, to instruct and call them to the knowledge of 
God, to feed them plentifully, that they shall not lack necessaries to their souls. 
iLet us therefore so live, that Ave may be called ' Pontifices appellati a Deo.' 
j This our great bishop, Christ, is also ' Pontifex sanctus, innocens, impollutus, 
jsegregatus a peccatoribus, excelsior coelis, sedens a dextris Dei, emundans con- 
|scientias nostras a peccatis, intrans sancta sanctorum per proprium sanguinem.'' 
iHe is ' sanctus,' a holy bishop, and willeth us to be holy in our conversation, Sanctus. 
'applying ourselves luito godliness, to the service of God, to live like bishops, 
like priests, pure, clean, chaste, devout, studious; faithfully labouring in his 
word ; praying, doing sacrifice, and ever to be godly and virtuously occupied. 

He is ' Innocens :' an innocent. He never sinned, he never offended in word, Innocens. 
thought, or deed. ' Innocens :' annoying no creature, profiting all folks, meekly 
suffering adversities, opprobries, rages, rebukes, and reproaches, without grudge 
ar contradiction. ' Innocens et simplex ; simplex, sineplica:' ' an innocent, with- Simplex, 
lut plait or wrinkle,' without error or doubleness, without hypocrisy or dissimu- 
ation, without flattering or glosing, without fraud or deceit ; not serving the body, 
or the world, but God. In this we ought also to follow our heavenly Bishop. 

' Impollutus:' He was \mdefiled. He lived clean without spot or blot, impolhi- 
^vithout wems or stain. No ' immunditia ' in him, no uncleanness nor filthiness ; tus- 
but all pure and clean, all chaste and immaculate, all bright and shining in grace 
ind godliness ; insomuch that he was ' segregatus a peccatoribus ;' clean segre- fur^pec- 
ate from all kind of uncleanness, from all manner of sins, and from sinners, cat is. 

(1) Heb. V. (2) Luke xxiii. (,3) .Tohn x. 

(4) ' Ego sum ostium; ego sum via, Veritas, et vita.' (5) John x. 

(6)Johnxiv. (7) Heb. vii. (8) ' Wem,' a blemish in cloth.— Ed, 

VOL, V. X 

178 BISHOP longland's skkmon against the pope. 

Henry Segregate from them, not from tlieir company ; for, as Matthew writeth, pub- 

yill- licans and sinners came and ate and drank with him and his disciples in tlie 

"~7~rr~ house of Levi ; and he also came as a physician, to heal the sinner. And yet 

, ■ , ' he was segregate from them, as touching their ill livings, not being participant 

' with them in sin ; ' but came only to heal them, and to rid them from sin and 

sores of the soul. He entered the heavens, not with the blood of kid or goat, but 

with his own proper blood. For which, and for his holiness and perfectness, 

F.xcel- ' Excelsior coelis factus est;' he is extolled iind exalted above all angels and 

"°'^" beatitudes; above all the heavens, sitting on the right hand of the Father; 

whom all the heavenly creatures do worship, honoiu-, and do reverence unto ; 

where he prayeth for his people, and is Mediator in his manhood to his Father 

for us. 

This our bishop purgeth our conscience, as witnesseth the apostle ; he 
cleanseth our souls ; he maketh us inwardly beauteous and fair. The bishop 
of Rome lacketh many of these notable virtues. He hath few or none of these 
properties, few or none of these qualities. He is (as we all are sinners) a 
Magnus, sinner: to whom this word ' magnus,' great, is not convenient, nor can be in 
him any ways verified ; for he cannot forgive sin as our Bishop doth, nor justify 
as he doth, neither enter 'in sancta sanctorum,' with his own blood, as he did. 
How can he then be called a great bishop, who is (as we be all sinners) a 
sinner, a breaker of the laws of God, and wlio daily doth, or may, fall and sin ? 
And for that cause, the law commanded that every bishop and priest should 
first offer hosts and sacrifice for his own sins, and afterwards for the sins of the 
people. How can he therefore be called a great bishop or priest ? 

()ur Bishop, we speak of, is the very great bishop. No dole, no fraud, no 
guile, was ever found in his mouth. And when the prince of the world, the 
devil, came to him, he could find no point of sin in him. Wherefore Gabriel 
the archangel, showing his nativity unto Mary his mother, said, ' He shall 
be great, and shall be called the Son of God.'^ And again it is written of him, 
' A great prophet is risen among us.'^ Sin maketh a man small and little ; 
little in reputation before God and man. Virtue maketh man great, and of 
No sinner high reputation. Show me one place in Scripture, where you have read that 
called ^ sinner was called great : I ti"ow it shall not be found. Will vou hear who 
the Scrip- were called great in Scripture ? It is written of Isaac, ' He profited greatly in 
ture. virtue, and was made great;'* great in rejoutation of the world. Moses was 
called 'magnus,'* great for his virtue: Abraham and John Baptist likewise. 
Now Jesus our bishop is called ' Magnus Episcopus,' ' Magnus Sacerdos;'* 
and after him never bishop is called ' magnus,' in all Scripture, neither in the 
reputation of man ; unless it be in comparison one of another, (and so saints 
and holy livers are called great in respect of sinners, or other mean livers). 
But where Christ our bishop cometh, there he, not in comparison of othei-s, but 
' simpliciter,' by his own magnitude and greatness, and of himself, ever was 
and is great, of whom it is written, ' A summo ccelo egressio ejus ; et accursus 
ejus usque ad summum ejus ;' ' and as the apostle also prove th in many places, 
by express words. But now there is no bishop or priest in this world that may 
worthily of himself be called great, or who ought to take this name ' Magnus ' 
upon him. 

This he is therefore of whom it is written, ' The great Bishop above all 
others.' * And as he is called, and in very deed is, ' the Herdsman of herds- 
men,' ' the Bishop of bishops,' ' the Prophet of prophets,' ' the Holy of hohest,' 
' the Lord of lords,' ' the King of kings ;'^ even so is he called, and verily is 
' Episcopus magnus.' Therefoi'C the prophet did add, ' Magnus Sacerdos ex 
iratribus suis:' the great Bishop or Priest; great of himself; great in virtue 
and power; great of himself, and great in comparison afore all others. And 
therefore the apostle said, ' We have a great Bishop which did penetrate the 
heavens, Jesus the Son of God.' '" 

(1) ' Quantum ad participationem cum eis in peceato.' Matt. ix. 

(2) ' Hie erit magnus, et Filius Altissimi vocabitur.' Luke i. 

(3) ' Propheta magnus surrexit inter nos.' Luke vii. 

(4) ' Quod proliciebat valde, et factus est magnus valde.' Gen. xxvi. 

(5) Exod. xi. (6) Luke i. (7) Psalm xviii. 

(8) ' Magnus Sacerdos ex fratribus suis.' Levit. .\xi. 

(9) ' Pastor pastorum,' ' Pontifex pontificum,' 'Propheta prophetaium,' ' Sanctus sanctorum, 
' Dominus dominantium,' ' Ilex regum ;' ' ita et Magnus magnorum est.' 

(101 ' Habemus Pontificem magnum, qui penetravit coelos, Jesum Filium Dei.' 


Here may ye now see, how the bishop of Rome doth wrongfully encroach iienry 
upon our gi'eat Bishop, Jesus Clirist, to take from him not only this name f'Ul- 
' Magnus;' and is not with that name yet contented, but addeth more, viz. ^ j^ 
' Maximus,' ' Summus,' ' Sanctissimus,' ' Beatissimus,' ' Universalis,' and such 1530' 

other; the greatest, the highest, the holiest, the blessedest and universal, in '— 

the superlative degree ; and yet there is no great bishop but Christ only, no 
supreme bishop but he only ; none holy, none blessed, none universal bishop 
but only he. The bishop of Rome, and all other bishops, are but underlings 
and imworthy suffragans, unto this bishop, Christ. 

This our Christ (as witnesseth the apostle) is ' Pontifex nostrge confessionis ;' The pope 
the bishop whom we do confess to be our great bishop, our high bishop, our ^ncroach- 
supreme bishop, our holy, blessed, and universal bishop ; which names are Christ, 
reserved only unto Christ, and to no eartlily bishop : not to the bishop of Rome, 
not to the bishop of Jerusalem, not to the bishop of Antioch, or of Constan- 
tinople, nor to any other bishop. No earthly bishop may presume to take upon 
him these high and holy names, only to God appropriate. 

God! of thy goodness thou mayest, and I trust wilt, once make this vain- 
glorious bishop of Rome first to know and acknowledf^e thy Son Christ to be 
the only supreme and universal bishop of the world : secondarily, to know 
himself, his weakness, his frailty, and his presumption ; to know his office and 
bounden duty unto thee ; to know his own diocese, and to usurp no further : 
thirdly, to have a low, humble, meek heart and stomach, to fear tliee, God, and 
tliy judgments ; to acknowledge his own faults and usurpations; and to redress 
the same. 

Now to return unto our matter, it followeth in the letter first taken ; ' De 
quo edere non habent potestatem qui tabernaculo deserviunt,' &c. 

And thus much out of John LonglancVs sermon against the pope. 

You heard before, by the king's injunctions above expressed, and 
directed out a.d. 1538, how all such images and pictures as were 
abused with pilgrimage or offerings of any idolatry, were abolished ; 
by virtue of which injunctions, divers idols, and especially the most 
notable stocks of idolatry, were taken down the same year, 1538, as 
the images of Walsingham, Ipswich, Worcester, the Lady of Wils- 
dou, Thomas Becket, with many more ; having engines to make their images 
eyes to open and roll about, and other parts of their body to stir, g"i'|,ia'!es 
and many other false jugglings, as the blood of Hayles,' and such like, destroy- 
wherewith the simple people a long time had been deceived : all 
which were espied out, and destroyed. 

Among divers other of these foul idols, there went also, in the The 
same reckoning, a certain old idolatrous image in Wales, named idoiof 
Darvell Gathei-en ; which, in the month of May, in the year above Q^t"g,'gn 
mentioned, was brought up to London, and burned in Smithfield ; 
with which idol also was burned at the same time, and hanged for 
treason, friar Forrest, of whom some mention was partly touched 
before, in the story of cardinal Wolsey. 


* Forasmuch' as the number of years doth lead us thereunto, we 
will somewhat touch and speak of friar FoiTcst ; although he be 
unworthy of a place, and not to be numbered, in this catalogue.* 

This Forrest was an observant friar, and had secretly, in con- 
fessions, declared to many of the king's subjects, that the king was 

. (1) Hayles in Gloucestershire, where they pretended to show some of our Saviour's blood. — Ed. 
(2) See Grafton's Chronicle, vol. ii. p. 4(52, Edition 1809.— Ed. (3) See Edition 1563, p. 571.— Ed. 



jirnrn not suprcmc head ; and being thereof accused and apprehended, he 

; ///. 

burned in 


was examined how he could say that the king was not supreme head 
A.D. of tlie church, wlien he himself had sworn to the contrary? He 
^ ^'^^- answered, " that he took his oath with his outward man, but his 
inward man never consented thereunto." And being further accused 
of divers damnable articles, and thereupon convicted, he gladly sub- 
mitted himself to abide the punishment of the church. Upon this 
his submission having more liberty tlian before he had, to talk with 
whom he Avould, he became as far from his submission as ever he was ; 
and when his abjuration was sent him to read, he utterly refused it, 
and obstinately persevered in his errors : wherefore he was justly 
Forrest Condemned, and afterwards hanged in Smitlifield in chains, upon a 
gallows quick, by the middle and arm-holes, and fire was made under 
him, and so was he consiuned and burned to deatli. 

In the place of execution, there was a scaffold prepared for the 
king's most honourable council, and the nobles of the realm, to sit 
upon, to grant him pardon, if he had any spark of repentance in him. 
There was also a pulpit prepared, where the right reverend father, 
Hugh Latimer, bishop of Worcester, declared his enors, and mani- 
festly confuted them by the Scriptures, with many godly exhortations 
to move him to repentance : but he was so froward, that he neither 
would hear, nor speak. A little before, the aforesaid image, called 
' Darvell Gatheren,'' coming out of Wales, was brought to the gallows, 
and there also with the aforesaid friar, as is said, was set on fire ; which 
the Welchmen much worshipped, and had a prophecy amongst them, 
A Welch that this image should set a whole forrest on fire: which prophecy 
ofDMven took effect ; for he set this friar Forrest on fire, and consumed him 
Gathe- ^q nothing. The friar, when he saw the fire come, and that present 
death was at hand, caught hold upon the ladder, and would not 
let it go, but so impatiently took his death, as never any man that 
put his trust in God, at any time so ungodly or unquietly ended 
his life. *Upon^ the gallows were set, in great letters, these verses 
following : 

'David Darvell Gatheren,' 
(As saith the Welshmen), 

' Fetched outlaws out of hell;' 
Now is he come with spear and shield. 
In harness to burn in Smithfield, 
For in Wales he may not dwell. 

And Forrest the friar, 
That obstinate liar. 

That wilfully shall be dead, 
In his contumacy 
The gospel did deny. 

And the king to be supreme hcad.^ * 

The ruin lu the mouths of Octobcr and November the same year, shortly 
solution ^^ter the overthrow of these images and pilgrimages, followed also the 
of abbeys ruin of tlic abbcys and religious houses, which, by the special motion 
nasteries. of the Lord Cromwcll (or, rather and principally, by the singular 
blessing of Almighty God), Avere suppressed, being given a little 

(1) See Edition 1563, pp. 571, 572.— Ed. 

(2) These verses form part of The Fantasy of Idolatry, which may be found on a subsequent 
page in this volume. — Ed- 


before by act of parliament into the king's hand ; whereupon nut only iienry 

the houses were rased, but their possessions also disparkled among 

the nobility, in such sort as all friars, monks, canons, nuns, and other A. D. 
sects of religion were then so rooted out of this realm from the very ^^^^- 
foundation, that there seemeth, by God"'s grace, no possibility here- 
after left, for the generation of those strange weeds to grow here any 
more, according to the true verdict of our Lord and Saviour Christ 
in his gospel, saying, ' Every plantation, being not planted of my 
Father, shall be plucked up by the roots,' &c.' 

C^e K^iptocji of tlje Voort^j? iEtactpc of oSoti, 3Ial)n Hflmbert, ot{)ectoi^'e 
nameD Bicfjol^on, 


Immediately upon the ruin and destruction of the monasteries, the 
same year, and in the month of November, followed the trouble and 
condemnation of John Lambert, the faithful servant of Jesus Christ, 
and martyr of blessed memory. This Lambert, being born and 
brought up in Norfolk, was first converted by Bilney, and studied in 
the university of Cambridge ; where, after he had sufficiently profited 
both in Latin and Greek, and had translated out of both tongues 
sundry things into the English tongue, being forced at last by violence 
of the time, he departed from thence to the parts beyond the seas, to 
Tyndale and Frith, and there remained the space of a year and more, 
being preacher and chaplain to the English House at Antwerp, till 
he was disturbed by sir Thomas More, and by the accusation of one 
Barlow, was carried from Antwerp to London ; where he was brought Lambert, 
to examination first at Lambeth, then at the bishop's house at Otford, {o^th^e'^"^ 
before Warham, the archbishop of Canterbury, and other adversaries ; j^"„^sg*!jt 
having five and forty articles ministered against him, whereunto he Antwerp, 
rendered answer again by writing : which answers, forasmuch as they by''one 
contain great learning, and may give some light to the better under- a„^j'"^^' 
standing of the common causes of religion now in controversy, I brought 
thought here to exemplify the same, as they came right happily to dou " ' 
our hands. The copy both of the articles, and also of his answers, 
here in order followeth. 

Articles, to the number of five-and-forty, laid to Lambert. 

Imprimis, Whether thou wast suspected or iufamed of heresy 1 Heresy 

II. Whether ever thou hadst any of Luther's books, and namely, since they 
were condemned ? and how long thou didst keep them, and whether thou hast 
spent any study on them 1 

III. Whether thou wast constituted jiriest, and in what diocese, and of what 

^'"^''P- . . Priests' 

IV. Whether it be lawful for a priest to marry a wife, and whether a priest ,,,3^. 
in some case be bound by the law of God to marry a wife ? riages. 

V. Whether thou believest that whatsoever is done of man, whether it be Neces- 
good or ill, Cometh of necessity ? ^' ^" 

(1) Matt. XV. 







ment of 
the altar. 

ment of 

ment of 

ment of 

ation and 

ten veri- 


to saints. 


ping to 
for souls 
ing with- 

to preach. 


pope's ex- 
Saying of 

in the 

VI. Whether the sacrament of the altar be a sacrament necessary unto salva- 
tion? and wliether after the consecration of the bread and wine done by the 
priest, as by tlie minister of God, there is the very body and blood of Christ, in 
likeness of bread and wine 1 

VII. Item, What opinion thou boldest touching the sacrament of baptism? 
whether thou dost believe that it is a sacrament of the church, and a necessary 
sacrament unto salvation, and that a priest may baptize ; and that the order of 
baptizing ordained by the church, is necessary and wholesome ? 

VIII. Item, Whether thou believest that matrimony be a sacrament of the 
church necessary to be observed in the church, and that the order appointed by 
the church for the solemnizing thereof, is allowable and to be holden ? 

IX. Item, Whether thou dost believe orders to be a sacrament of the church, 
and that saying of mass, ordained by the church, is to be observed of priests ? 
whether it be deadly sin or not, if it be omitted or contemned ; and whether the 
order of priesthood were invented by man's imagination, or ordained by God I 

X. Item, Whether penance be a sacrament of the church, and necessary 
unto salvation ; and whether auricidar confession is to be made unto the priest, 
or is necessary unto salvation ? and whether thou believest that a Christian is 
bound, besides contrition of heart, having the free use of an apt or free priest, 
under necessity of salvation, to be confessed unto a priest, and not unto any 
layman, be he ever so good and devout; and whether thou believest that a 
priest, in cases permitted to him, may absolve a sinner (being conti'ite and con- 
fessed) from his sins, and enjoin him wholesome penance ? 

XI. Item, Whether thou dost believe and hold, that the sacrament of con- 
firmation and extreme unction be sacraments of the church, and whether they 
do profit the souls of them that receive them : and whether thou believest the 
aforesaid seven sacraments to give grace unto them that do duly receive them ? 

XII. Whether all things necessary unto salvation are put in holy Scripture, 
and whether things only there put be sufficient ? and whether some things upon 
necessity of salvation are to be believed and observed, which are not expressed 
in Scripture? 

XIII. Whether thou believest that purgatory is, and whether that souls 
departed be therein tormented and purged ? 

XIV. Whether holy martyrs, apostles, and confessors departed from this 
Avorld, ought to be honoured and called upon, and prayed unto ? 

XV. Whether the saints in heaven, as mediators, pray for us? 

XVI. Whether thou believest that oblations and pilgrimages maybe devoutly 
and meritoriously done to the sepulchres and relics of saints? 

XVII. Whether the fast in Lent, and others appointed by the canon law, 
and received in common usage of christian people (unless necessity otherwise 
requireth), are to be observed? 

XVIII. Whether it be laudable and profitable, that worshipful images be set 
in churches for the remembrance of Christ and his saints ? 

XIX. Whether thou believest that prayers of men living, do profit souis 
departed, and being in purgatory ? 

XX. Whether men may merit and deserve, both by their fastings and also 
by their other deeds of devotion? 

XXI. Whether thou dost believe that men, prohibited of bishops to preach, 
as suspected of heresy, ought to cease from preaching and teaching, until they 
have purged themselves of suspicion before a higher judge? 

XXII. Whether thou believest that it is lawful for all priests freely to preach 
tlie word of God, or no ? 

XXIII. Whetlier thou believest that it is lawful for laymen of both kinds, 
that is to wit, both men and women, to sacrifice and preach the word of God ? 

XXIV. Whether excommunication, denounced by the pope against all here- 
tics, doth oblige and bind them l>efore God? 

XXV. Whether every priest is bound to say dailj' his matins and even-song, 
accordiivg as it is ordained by the church ; or whether he may leave them unsaid 
without offence or deadly sin ? 

XXVI. Whether thou believest that the heads or rulers, by necessity of 
salvation, are bound to give unto the people holy Scripture in their mother- 
language ? 

XXVII. Whether is it lawful for the rulers, for some cause, upon their 



reasonable advisement, to ordain tliat the Scripture should not be delivered Henry 
unto the people in the vulgar language ? ^^^^ 

XXVIII. Whether thou believest that consecrations, hallowings, and bless- ^y). 
ings used in the church, are to be praised? 1.5.38. 

"XXIX. Whether thou believest that the pope may make laws and statutes, ^^^^^^.^ 
to bind all christian men to the observance of the same, under pain of deadly of laws, 
sin, so that such laws and statutes be not contrary to the law of God ? 

XXX. Whether thou believest that the pope and other prelates, and their Excom- 
deputies in spiritual things, have power to excommunicate priests and lay- 
people, that are inobedient and sturdy, from entering into the church, and so 
suspend or let them from administration of the sacraments of the same ? 

XXXI. Whether faith only, without good works, may suffice unto a man Justifica- 
fallen into sin after his baptism, for his salvation and justifying 1 ''""■ 

XXXII. Whether a priest, marrying a wife, and that without the dispensa- 
tion of the pope, and begetting also children of her without slander-giving, do 
sin deadly 1 

XXXIII. Item, whether a Latin priest, after he hath taken the order of Differ- 
priesthood, being sore troubled and stirred with pricking of lust and lechery, ^^een a 
and therefore marrying a wife for remedy of the same, do sin deadly ? Latin and 

XXXIV. Item, whether thou dost ever pray for John Wickliff', John Huss, * GKe)ii 
or Jerome of Prague, condemned of heresy in the Council of Constance, or for p^'^ j^„ 
any of them, since they died ? or whether thou hast done openly or secretly for wick- 
any deeds of charity for them, affirming them to be in bliss, and saved ? liff. Huss, 

XXXV. Item, whether thou hast accounted them, or any of them, to be ^"„,g ^j- 
saints, and worshipped them as saints ? Prague. 

XXXVI. Item, whether thou dost believe, hold, and affirm, that every General 
general council, and the Council of Constance also, doth represent the universal ^^o"""'*' 
congregation or church 1 

XXXVII. Item, whether thou dost believe the same things which the Council Council 
of Constance, representing the universal church, hath approved and doth "j*^^""' 
approve, for the maintenance of faith, and soul's health, and that the same is to 

be approved and holden of all Christians ? 

XXXVIII. Whether the condemnations of John WicklifF, John Huss, and 
Jerome of Prague, done upon their persons, books, and documents, by the whole 
general council of Constance, were duly and rightly done, and so, for such, by 
every catholic person they are to be holden ? 

XXXIX. Whether thou believest that John WicklifF of England, John Huss Whether 
of Bohemia, and Jerome of Prague, were heretics, and for heretics are to be ^ickhff, 
named, and that their books and doctrines have been, and now be, perverse ; jerome 
for which books, and pertinacy of their persons, they are condemned by the were he- 
holy council of Constance for heretics 1 ^^ ^'^'^' 

XL. Item, whether thou believest or affirmest, that it is not lawful in any oaths. 
case to swear? 

XLI. Whether thou believest that it is lawful, at the commandment of a 
judge, to make an oath to say the tnith, or any other oath in case convenient, 
and that also for purgation of infamy ? 

XLII. Item, whether a christian person, despising the receipt of the sacra- Thenum- 
ments of confirmation, extreme unction, or solemnizing of matrimony, doth sin '"^'' ^^ 
deadly ? _ ments. 

XLI 1 1. Item, whether thou believest that St, Peter, as Christ's vicar, hath Power of 
power upon earth to bind and loose ? Peter. 

XLIV. Item, whether the pope, ordinarily chosen for a time, his proper name the poiie. 
being expressed, be the successor of St. Peter? 

XLV, Item, whether thou hast ever promised, at any time, by an oath, or 
made any confederacy or league with any person or persons, that you would 
always hold and defend certain conclusions or articles, seeming to you and your 
accomplices, right and c^isonant unto the faith ; and that you certify us touching 
the order and tenor of the said opinions and conclusions, and of the names and 
surnames of them that were your adherents, and promised to be adherent unto 
you in this behalf? 







speech of 
people di- 
verse and 

Praise of 
the world 
jiot to be 

No man 
bound to 


)irofit of 


of the pa- 

The Answers of John Lambert to the Forty-five Articles. 

Unto your first demand, wherein you do ask whether I was suspected of or 
infanied of heresy, I answer, that I am not certain what all persons at all 
seasons have deemed or suspected of me ; peradventure some better, some 
worse ; like as the opinion of the people was never one, but thought diversely 
of all the famous prophets, and of the apostles, yea, and of Christ himself: as 
appeareth in St. John,' how, when he came into Jerusalem in the feast called 
' Scenopegia,' anon there arose upon him a great noise, some saying that he 
was a very good man ; others said nay, and called him a seducer, because he 
led the people from the right ways of Moses's law into error. Seeing therefore 
that all men could not say well by Christ, who is the author of verity and truth, 
yea the very truth itself, and likewise of his best servants ; what should I treed to 
regard if at soirie time some person, for a like cause, should suspect of me 
amiss, and evil report of irre? seeing moreover, it is said iir the gospel,* ' Woe 
be to you, when all men speak well of you ; for so did their fathers to the false 
prophets.' If therefore at any season such infairry was put upon me, I am glad 
that I have so little regarded the same, that now I have forgotten it. And 
though I did remember any such, yet were I more thair twice a fool to show 
you thereof; for it is written in your own law, ' No man is bound to bewray 
himself.'^ But this I insure you : I was never so charged with suspiciorr or 
infamy of this crinre, that I was therefore at any time convented aird reproved 
before any judge before that I was troubled for these causes, for which I was at 
the first put into your hands : and of them, seeing you could not prove me 
faulty, I wonder why you would never yet pronounce me quit and innocent, ac- 
cording as I have even lowly desired of you, and required full instantly the same. 
But letting those things pass, you have inragined new matters to charge me 
with, whereirr I think certainly, that you could no more have proved me cul- 
pable, than you did in the first ; that is to wit, no whit culpable in either, had 
it not been that by loirg iirrprisonment you forced me to tell what I thought in 
them, which I have and will freely do ; and that, indifferently considered, I 
suppose shall not deserve any sore punishment, unless you will beard the truth, 
whereunto I hope it shall not disagree. 

To your second demand, where you do inquire whether I had ever any of 
Luther's books, and namely, since they were condemned, and how loirg I kept 
them, and whether ever I have spent any study in them ; I say that indeed I 
have had of them, and that both before they were condemned and also since ; 
but I neither will nor can tell you how long I kept them. But truth it is, that 
I have studied upon them, and I thank God that ever I so did ; for by them 
hath God showed unto me, aird also to a huge multitude of others, such light 
as the dcceivable darkness of them (I beseech God amend it) that nairre them- 
selves, but amiss, to be the holy church, canrrot abide. And that appeareth 
evidently, for they dare not staird to any trial. He coveteth above all things, 
as all his adversaries do well know, that all his writings, and the writings of all 
his adversaries, might be translated into all languages, to the intent that all 
people might see and know what is said of every part ; whereby metr should the 
better judge what the truth is. And in this methinketh he requireth nothing 
but equity ; for the law would have no man condeirmed, nor justified, until his 
caitse were heard aird known. 

But the contrary part, 1 mean our over-rich prelacy, who ar-e so drowned in 
voluptuous living that they cannot attend to study God's Scripture, nor preach 
the same, which should be the principal part of their office, abhor this fashion 
(albeit it is right indifferent and full of equity) no less than they do abhor 
death.* And no marvel, for doirbtless, if it so could be obtained that the 
writings of all parties might be operrly seen and conferred, we shotild soon see 
their sleightly dealing, and facing doctrine, with all other cloked abusion, lightly 
overthrown, as appeareth well in Almain : for there, be the books of every 
party seen openly, and translated into the vulgar language, that all people may 
see and read upon them ; arrd so, upon the sight of the books, they lightly 

(1) John vii. 

(2) ' Va- vobis, cum laudaverint vos omnes homines,' &c. Luke vi. 
(.')) ' Nemo tenetur proderc seii)sum.' 

(1) Popish doctrine will abide no trial. 


follow the true light of God's word, refusing the horror of darkness and false Uenry 

doctrine, whereby, before, they luive been seduced from the right teaching and viU- 
way showed in the Bible. And this is done, not by a hundred, nor by a thou- . ,-. 

sand; but generally by whole cities and countries, both high and low; few or iroo' 
none excepted. 

But our prelates, seeing this, and that their deaUng should, if this light were Trial and 
set up, soon be detected and discovered, have sent out commandments, that it of\ooks 
any person should adventure to keep any such books, they shall, for so doing, free in 
be excommunicated from God, and all his saints, and cursed as black as pitch, Germany. 
whether the books be in Latin, English, French, Dutch, or any other tongue ; ^^•]"^' 
as indeed men, seeing the fruit contained in them, have set them forth in all books be 
languages. But this ought not christian men to think any novelty ; for so did restrained 
their forefathers, the prelates in Christ's time and afterwai'ds, to the apostles ; prelates, 
yea, and if it were well tried, I think it should be soon found out, that they The time 
have so dealt ever since unto this day. For when Christ went about preaching, of popes 
the Scribes and Pharisees, who were bishops then and prelates, gave a general phj^-' '^ 
commandment, ' that whosoever confessed him to be Christ should be accursed, sees cora- 
and put out of the synagogue,' that we call the church ; and so they were. pared. 

Look in the Acts of the Apostles, and you shall find how they were in like 
manner served ; yea, look in the Old Testament, and you shall find (as I re- Tlie pa- 
member) how they procured of one that was a temporal ruler at that season, jg^'j^.^ „„ 
to have the pi'ophecy of Jeremy (for he of all others is most vehement against reason of 
the dissimulation of priests) to be burned. Why then should we eschew them, t^'-"''^ ^'^' 
or their works (unless we knew a better cause why), whom our prelates reject ^^ . 
and cast away, seeing they render no reasonable cause of their enterprise ? but, proud 
presuming of their power, without any due authority that I can find, granted proceed- 
unto them so to do, will, because they so command, so have all done? according u^n win, 
to the tyrannical saying, as I trow, of Sardanapalus, ' Sic volo, sic jubeo ; stat without 
pro ratione voluntas,' That is to say, ' So will I, so do I command; and let my ^'ireason. 
will for reason stand.' 

But I would to God that such knew what spirit they have in them ; for if TheSpirit 
they had indeed the spirit which they claim and pretend to have, I mean the and'the'' 
Spirit of Christ, I dare say it should soon alter them from such haughty Ian- spirit of 
guage and doting, and cause them to turn a new leaf; for that Spirit is full of *'.'" P^j. 
softness and lenity, lowliness and humility, patience and temperancy ; void of unlike.' 
all wilfulness and tyranny : yea, it should cause them not to prevent, but easily 
to follow, the counsel and doctrine of Christ's apostles and holy saints, that be 
their interpreters. As St. Paul, who, writing vmto the Thessalonians,' would 
have them all to prove all things, and to retain or hold that only which is good; 
refraining fi-om all that hath semblance of evil. And St. John would have Chris- 
christian people to try the spirit of them that should speak ; whether they were *'^"*^ '''^ 
of God or no.^ Also, writing in another Epistle unto a noble woman, and spirits. 
unto her children, he saith, ' If any person shall come unto you, bringing with 
them the doctrine that is not of Christ, receive him not into your house, nor 
make him any cheer.'' So that in this he would have women to know the 
doctrine of Christ, and to love that, refusing to give credence unto foreign 
teaching ; not favouring the same. 

In the First Epistle also to the Corinthians,* St. Paul, writing in general to all 
the inhabitants of that city, saith, ' Brethren, be ye not children in wit and 
understanding ; but as concerning maliciousness, be you children. In wit I 
would have you perfect.' And why? Verily for no other cause, but that we 
should (as he writeth unto the Hebrews) have discretion to judge the good from 
ill, and the ill from the good, and so to be like men differing from beasts, 
according unto the saying of the prophet, ' See that ye be not like unto a horse 
or a mule, which lack understanding.'* And we should pray with him in 
another Psalm, ' O Lord ! teach me the way that I should walk in, for I lift up 
my soul unto thee.'^ 

St. Chrysostome,^ according unto this, in a certain book of his Commentaries 
upon Matthew (the book is called ' Opus Imperfectum'), writeth after this 

(1)1 Thess. V. (2) 1 John iv. (3) 2 John i. 

(4) 1 Cor. xiv. (5) Psalm xxxii. (6) Psalm cxiiii. 

(7) Chrysosf. in Opere Imperfecto. [These Commentaries accompany the Editions of St. Chry- 
sustome, but are not considered his. The passage quoted is in Honi. 44, vol. vi. p. 928. Kdit. 
Paris. 1836.— Eb.J 


Henry fashion, as near as my remembrance doth serve, and certain I am that I shall 
^lil- not mis-report him, and in that I will be tried whensoever it shall please you 
. Tj to bring the book. ' The priests that were Pharisees in the time,' saith he, ' of 
J coo' Christ, made an ordinance, that whosoever should acknowledge Jesus to be 

11. Christ, should be accursed and excommunicated. If then the Pharisees or 

priests that now do occupy their rooms should make a like oi-dinance, because 
they would not have Christ's doctrine to be pi-ofessed for hindering of their 
lucre, shoidd we therefore give in all points credence unto them, and leave off 
to seek after the knowledge of Christ's doctrine? Nay truly. Why,' quoth he, 
' shall we not be excused herein by ignorance, seeing we be forefended by the 
Authority rulers to have knowledge?' He answereth, ' No verily; for if,' saith he, ' when 
wiu"not* ^'^'^^ desirest to buy cloth, thou wilt not be content to see one merchant's ware, 
discharge but go from the first to the second, from the second to the third, and so further, 
our igno- jq kjjow where is the best cloth, and best cheap, thou, using such careful dili- 
gence for a temporal profit, art well worthy great reproach, who wilt be more 
remiss and negligent for thy soul's health. Seek therefore about from one 
doctor or teacher unto another, that thou mayest know who doth most duly and 
truly teach Christ, and him follow; according to the saying of the apostle, 
Prove all, and hold the good ;i and as it is said in the gospel, that thou mayest 
know^ ' who be true or lawful changers or coiners, and who be not' 

He also addeth another similitude or parable. ^ ' When thou goest,' quoth 
he, 'a journey, not knowing perfectly the way, thou wilt, lest thou shouldst 
fail of the right way, inquire of one man, and after of another ; and if thou 
shouldst chance to go somewhat wide, yet thou wilt not so leave off thy journey 
undone, but make inquisition again to come where thou wouldst rest. So like- 
wise,' saith he, ' ought we to seek about intentively for the wealth of our soul, 
who are the right key-bearers, and who not ;* ' meaning there by the kej'- 
bearers, Christ's apostles, and the bearers of his testimony or message. Which 
saying, although it were written of no authentical author (howbeit it is written 
even of him whom I showed you in the said work), but uttered of one that were 
in little estimation, every indifferent person having wit and reason would answer 
I doubt not, that it is full tioie. 

The same author also, in an epistle which you shall find in a work called 
' Psegmata Chrysostomi,' showeth, as I remember, how certain men deemed ill 
of him, because he did study Origen's works, who before was condemned for a 
Lawful to heretic : but he maketh an apology to the same, showing, that christian men 
read and ought not to be reprehended for so doing; in which apology he bringeth for 
books. his defence the saying of Paul above rehearsed, ' Prove all things,' &c. Like- 
wise did St. Jerome, I wot not well in what place of his works, but you shall 
find it in a Treatise called ' Unio Dissidentium,' where he treateth ' De man- 
datis hominum.' When it was objected against him that he retained by him 
the works of Eusebius and of Origen, studying upon them, he bringeth for him, 
that it was so lawful, the said place of the apostle, making therewith an assent, 
worthy to be greatly noted. 

The same is also reported in the Book called ' Ecclesiastica Historia,' or else 
' Historia Tripartita,' I wot not now precisely whether. So that these and 
other authorities of the Scripture, and semblable ensamples of holy interpreters 
shall prove, that I and others may safely (no good law inhibiting, unless consti- 
tutions Pharisaical) read and search the works not only of Luther, but also of 
all others, be they ever so ill or good ; namely, seeing I am a priest : whom 
the bishop of Norwich ought not to have admitted into orders, unless he had 
seen me to have had judgment to discern good from ill ; neither ought any of 
you to give orders to any such, in whom ye do not find like ability to judge the 
light from darkness, and the truth from falsehood : and therefore, if for this 
you woxdd punish me, I cannot see but you shall condemn yoiu-selves, judging 
rather of sensual pleasure than of equity, which, in men of your order, were a 
great shame, and much uncomely. 

Unto your third demand, wherein you do ask whether I was constituted a 
priest, and in what diocese, and by what bishop ; I say that I was made a priest 
in Norwich, and by th.e bishop's suffragan of the same diocese. 

(1) 1 Thess i. (2) 'Qui sunt probatf nnnimnlarij, et quinon.' Matt. xxv. 

(3) Chrys. Ibid. (4) ' Qui sunt probi clavigeri, et qui non.' 

TO THE bishops' ARTICLES. 187 

Unto the fourth, wherein you do demand wliether it be lawful for a priest to Henrv 

marry a wife, and whether a priest in some case be bound by the law of God ^111- 

to marry a wife ; I say that it is lawful, yea and necessary, for all men that ^ j) 

have not given to them of God the gift of chastity, to marry a wife ; and that 1533, 
show both Christ and St. Paul. In Matthew xix. Christ, speaking unto tlie 

Pharisees that came to tempt him, in the conclusion, saith in this wise, * Who- ^p7ie^^g 
soever shall forsake his wife, except it be for fornication, and marrieth another, whether ' 
committeth adultery; and whosoever marrieth her so forsaken, committeth lawful, 
adultery.' ^ 

With that say his disciples, ' If thus the case stand betwixt a man and his 
wife, it shall be hurtful, and not expedient to contract matrimony.' He made 
answer, * Every man cannot away with that saying, but they unto whom it is 
given of God;'^ meaning, that every man could not abide single or unmarried, 
but such unto whom was given of God a special grace so to continue. And if, 
with your better advice, I might herein be somewhat bold, I would suppose 
that where he doth say, ' Non omnes sunt capaces hujus dicti ' (Every man 
cannot away with that saying), this word 'non omnes ' ought to be here taken 
as it is in many other places of Scripture ; ^ as where, in the Psalm, it is said, 
' Non justificabitur in conspectu tuo omnis vivens,' it is meant that no person 
living shall be justified before God. And in the Epistle to the Galatians,* and to 
the Romans,' where it is said, ' Ex operibus non legis justificabitur omnis caro ;' 
(By the works of the law no flesh shall be justified in his sight), it is meant 
thereby nulla caro: so that, 'non omnis,' after the rule of equipollence, should 
be taken for as much as ' nuUus,' and then the sense should be thus, ' NuUi sunt chastity 
capaces hujus dicti nisi hi quibus datum sit.' No man can be ' capax' of this i» aj^iit 
saying, or can so pass his life without marriage, except those who have it qqJ ° 
given them, by a singular grace of God, to live chaste. 

Then he proceeded further, saying, ' There be eunuchs that so were born 
from the mother's womb ; and there be some eunuchs that have been so made 
by men ; and there be eunuchs that have so made themselves, for love of the 
kingdom of heaven.''' In conclusion he saith, ' Who, that receiveth this say- 
ing,' (thinketh that it should be inexpedient for him to marry, and that he may Single- 
live chaste through the gift given him of God); 'let him take it and so live.' "''*'* ""' 
So he leaveth singleness of life to all men's election, without any compelling peUed. 
them thereto. 

Hereunto assenteth St. Paul : when that by many reasons he had persuaded 
the Corinthians to single life, finally he concludeth thus, ' This,' quoth he, 
' say I unto you, willing that which should be for your profit, but not to bring 
you in bondage.' And a little before, ' I would,' quoth he, ' that all men were 
even as myself am. But every one hath a several gift of God, one onewise, 
another otherwise :' showing thereby, that unto some it is given of God to live 
continently, and to others to engender and procreate children, and therefore his 
will cannot come to effect. Which thing you may easily perceive in this, that 
after he had showed forth his good wish and desire, saying, ' I would that all men 
were even as I am,'' he puttetha conjunction adversative, that declareth an ob- 
stacle or stop, saying, ' But every man hath his proper gift of God.' ^ Upon this he 
proceedeth further, whereby you may apertly see, that he Avould have all men, 
none except, to marry, wanting the gift of continency. 'This,' quoth he, 'I 
say to the immarried and widows ; expedient it were for them to remain as I 
do : but if they cannot live continent, let them contract marriage ; for better is 
it to many than to burn.' This proveth well, that all priests, wanting con- nec^ssTry 
tinency of heart, had need to marry to avoid burning lust, unless they be for all 
inobedient to the mind of Christ that spake in Paul, in observing the traditions "'''" lack 
of men. In the beginning of the same chapter also he saith, ' It is good that a nency. 
man should not deal with a woman : notwithstanding, for avoiding fornication,' Quisque 
quoth he, ' let every man have his wife, and every woman have her husband.' qu«Eqiie, 
He saith here, ' qmsque et quseque, ' every man and every woman; and not (jam "' 
quidam nee quaedam, some man or some woman. He excepteth neither priest quajilam. 

(1) Matt. xix. (2) Ibid. (3) ' Non omnes,' must be taken universally in Scripture. 

(4) Gal. ii. (5) Rom. ix. (6) Eunuchs three ways to be taken in Scripture. Matt. xix. 

(7) ' Velim omnes homines,' &c. 1 Cor. vii. 

(8) ' Sell unusquisque proprium donum habet,' &c 


Henry nor nun, but every one, l)otl> man nnd woman, is bound, for avoiding of burning 
y^ii- and fornication, to man-y, not having the gift given of chastity. 
A j^ The same also confirmeth your own law, where it is \STitten thus, ' If any 

, roo* man do hold that a priest, being married, in that respect that he is married, 

'— ought not to minister in his function, be he accursed.'^ And, ' If any man 

Marriage shall find fault with matrimony, and detest a faithful and devout woman lying 
by the* wiih her husband, and think her culpable, as one that could not therefore 
pope's enter into the kingdom of God, be he accursed.'' And everywhere else such- 
law, jji^g gj.g ^Q |jg seen. 

Marriage Moreover, in ' Historia Tripartita ' it is written, that a noble martyr of Christ 

permitted called Paphmitius, in the Nicene Council, when all other bishops were puqiosed 

t(f(f (,,j^,n- to have enacted there, that priests should live unmarried, this holy man resisted 

cil of them so mightily both with reasons, and also with authority of Scripture, that 

^^''^' then their purpose altered, and their first device could not pass. And one 

authority I remember was this, which he borrowed of Paul in the Second Epistle 

to Timothy ; ' Your devise,' quoth he, ' may have a semblance of holiness, but 

indeed, it shall be the destruction and undoing of the same.' 

Moreover, in one of the principal histories of France, called ' Les Illustrations 
de Galles,' whosoever please may there read it as it standeth, within six leaves 
afore the end of the same; how the author with deep sorrow lamenteth the 
ordinance that first decreed priests to live unmarried, showing, and that amply, 
the miseries tliat have ensued in France thereby, imputing it unto Calixtus the 
pope, of whom he maketh a doleful mention in metre, whereof the first I yet 
remember, and it is thus: 'O sancte Calixte ! totus mundus odit te;' Src. 
' Oholy Calixtus ! all the world hateth thee;' which foUoweth in writing, to all 
that lust to behold therein. But what need I to make longer treatise hereof, for- 
asmuch as you do daily both hear and see, what foul abomination ariseth in every 
Men will corner, of this piteous law, made by men that would presume to be wiser than 
be wiser Q^^ . thinking (as we ever do) that either he would not, or else for lack of wis- 
dom he could not, show us a sufficient law or way, to dii-ect our life and con- 
versation to come to the joy and resting-place by him promised, and so by us 
longed and looked for; whereby both we be far unreasonable in so deeming of 
him after our unwise wit, and he much dishonoured. The which I beseech 
him to help. Amen. 

Free will Unto the fifth, where ye do ask, whether I believe that whatsoever is done 
todeserve of man, whether it be good or ill, cometh of necessity; that is (as you con- 
pain '^ strue) to wit, whether man hath free will, so that he may deserve joy or pain : 
I say (as I said at the beginning), that unto the first part of your riddle, I nei- 
ther can nor will give any definitive answer, forasmuch as it surmounteth my 
capacity ; trusting that God shall send hereafter others that shall be of better 
learning and wit than I, to indite it. As concerning the second part, where 
you do intei-])ret ; that is to say, whether man hath free will or no, so that he 
may deserve joy or pain : as for om- deserving specially of joy, I think it very 
slender or none, even when we do the very commandments and law of God. 
And that I am taught by our Saviour in St. Luke, where he saith thus, ' Whicli 
of )'ou,' quotli he, ' having a servant that hath eared yoiu" land, or fed yoiu' beasts, 
will say unto him, when he cometh home out of the field, Cto thy way quickly, 
aiul sit down to thy meat; and rather will not say unto him. Make ready my 
supper ; serving thereat till I have made an end thereof, and afterwards take 
thyself meat and drink? Think you that he is bound to thank his servant 
which thus shall do his commandment? 1 trow,' saith he, 'nay." 'Even so 
you,' saith he, ' when you have done all things to you commanded, say yet you 
be unprofitable servants, and have done that which you were bound to do.' 
Merits In which words you may clearly see, that he woidd not have us greatly 

""* '" 1^ esteem our merits, when we have done what is commanded by God, but rather, 
■ reckon ourselves to be but servants unprofitable to God, forasmuch as he hath 
no need of our well-doing for his own advancement, but only that he loveth to 
see us do well for our own behoof: and moreover, that when we have done his 

(1 ) 'Si quis disrernit preshyteruni conjugatum, tanquam occasione nuptiarum, quod offerre non 
debeat, aiiatlicnia sit.' fiistinot. 2'.). 

(2) ' Si quis vituiierat nuptias, et dormicntem cum viro sue fidelem ac religiosam detestatur 
aut culpabilem astinial, vilut qua' reginini Dei iiitroire non possit, anathema sit.' Dist. 31. 


bidding, we ought not so to magnify, either ourself, or our own free will, hut Henry 
laud him with a meek heart, through whose benefit we have done (if at any '^^^• 
time we do it) his liking and pleasure ; not regarding our merit, but his grace ~T~|T~ 
and benefit, whereby only is done all that in any wise is to him acceptable. And ". _■„„■ 
thus, if we ought not to attend our merits in doing the commandment of God, 


much less should we look for merit for observing of our own inventions or tra- Observ- 
ditions of men, unto which there is no benefit in all Scripture (which Paul q^^^^ 
calloth the word of truth and of faith) promised. works, no 

But here may be objected against me, that the reward is promised in many 5?^"^- 
places to them that do observe the precepts of God. That I affirm to be very rin\c\\ less 
sooth. Notwithstanding such reward shall never be attained of us, except men's 
by the grace and benefit of Him who worketh all things in all creatures. And 
tins affirmeth well St. Augustine, with St. Ambrose, Fulgentius, and others, as you 
may see everywhere in their works, and especially in the treatise called ' Unio 
Dissidentiiun,' wherein Jerome treateth ' De Gratia et Mei'itis.' And of St. Augus- 
tine I remember two or three right notable sentences, concerning the same. One 
is in the ninth book of his Confessions, in this form ;' ' Woe be to the life of men. Reward, 
be they ever so holy, if Thou shalt examine them, setting thy mercy aside. '^"^ \"^ 
Because thou dost not exactly examine the faults of men, therefore we have a \q works, 
vehement hope and trust to find some place of mercj'^ with thee. And whoso- 
ever recounteth unto thee his mei-its, what other thing doth he recount but thy 
benefits? O would to God all men would see and know themselves, and that 
he who glorieth, would glory in the Lord.' Again, in the first book,^ he saith 
tluis unto God : ' Doth any man give what he oweth not unto thee, that tliou 
shouldest be in his debt? and hath any man aught that is not thine? Thou 
renderest debt, and yet owest to no man. Thou forgivest debts, and yet losest 
nothing.' And therefore his usual prayer was this:^ ' Lord give that thou com- 
mandest, and command what thou wilt.' 

Also in the book called ' Manuale Augustini,' or ' De Contemplations Christi.'* 
he saith in this wise, ' All my hope is in the Lord's death. His death is my 
merit, my refuge, my health, and my resurrection. My merit is the mercy of 
the Lord. I am not without merit, so long as the Lord of mercy shall continue ; 
and if the mercies of the Lord be great and rich, then am I also great and rich 
in merits.' 

And to conclude, they be Christ's own merits and good works (as saith St. Good 
Ambrose well nigh everywhere) that he worketh in us, which he doth reward ^^"^''they 
and crown ; and not ours, if one should look narrowly upon the thing, and be God's, 
speak properly. Howbeit, they yet nevertheless are ours by him, forasmuch as ^^^ ^i"* 
his merciful bounty imputeth his goods to be ours ; so that in this, I wot not 
how others do mean, who lust to sell their merits unto their neighbours, who 
haply have scarcely enough for themselves: but I do wholly deem and believe, 
according as the Scriptures, with these holy doctors and such other, do teach, 
wishing that men ever, for good doing, should not so much (as the common -p^ ^^^^ 
people do) regard their merit or reward, for that is not the thing that engen- vilely is 
dereth the love of God in us, but rather maketh men to honour God in a ser- f°r^ierit 
vile fashion, and for the love of themselves, in doing works for love of reward. Reward " 
or for dread of pain, more than because it so pleaseth God, and liketh him : followeth 
Avhereas, if we regarded first, yea and altogether, that it is our duty to do well ^"J'rks ; 
(which is the keeping of his commandments), and that so we should content good 
his pleasure, reward should undoubtedly ensue good deeds, although we minded JJ'°f*o„e 
no whit the same, as heat followeth evermore the fire unseparate therefrom, for 
And thus, we should serve God with hearty love as children, and not for meed reward. 
or dread, as unloving thralls and servants. 

Concerning free-will, I mean altogether as doth St. Augustine, that of our- 

(1) ' Vae etiam laudabili vltae hominum, si remota tnisericordia discutias earn. Quia vere non 
exquiris delicta vehementer, fiducialiter speranius aliquem locum apud te invenire indulgentiBc. 
Quisquis autem tibi enumerat vera merita sua, quid tibi enumerat nisi munera tua? O si cog- 
noscerent se omnes, et qui gloriatur in Domino gloriaretur.' August. Confess, lib. ix. 

(2) ' Nunquid inops es et gaudes lucris? Nunquid avarus et usuras exigis ? Supcrerogatur tibi 
ut deheas ? et quis habet quicquam non tuum ? Reddis debita nulli debens, donas debita nihil 
perdens.' Confess, v. lib. i. 

(3) ' Domine, da quod jubes, et jube quod vis.' 

(4) ' Tota soes mea est in morte Domini. Mors ejus meritum meum, refugium meum, salus vitae, 
et resurrectio mea. Meritum meum, miseratio Domini. Non sum meriti inops quamdiu ille mise- 
xationum Dorainus non defuerit. Et si misericordia; Domini multae, multus ego sum in meritis.' 



Henry selves We have no liberty nor ability to do the will of God, but are subject unto 
f^Ill- sin and thralls of the same, ' shut up and sold under siti,' ' as witness both 
. y^ Isaiah and also Paul : but, by the grace of God, we are rid and set at liberty, 



according to the portion that every man hath taken of the same, some more, 

some less. 

The Whereas, in your sixth demand , you do inquire whether the sacrament of 

sacra- t]jg ^Itar be a sacrament necessary unto salvation, and whether after the conse- 

thetody cration of the bread and wine done by the priest, as by the minister of God, 

and blood there is the very body and blood of Christ in likeness of bread and wine,' 

?' ' j*^ I neither can nor will answer one word otherwise than I have told since I was 

delivered into your hands. Neither would I have answered one whit thereunto, 

knowing so much at the first as now I do, till you had brought forth some that 

would iiave accused me to have trespassed in the same ; which I am certain 

you cannot do, bringing any that is honest and credible. 

to the 

As concerning the other six sacraments, I make you that same answer that I 
have done to the sacrament of the altar, and no other; that is, I will say nothing 
until some men appear to accuse me in the same, unless I know a more reason- 
able cause than I have yet heard, why I so ought to do. But as touching the 
form and fashion, I shall answer willingly so far forth as my rudeness will 
serve. I hold well that such as be duly elected ministers in the church, ought 
to baptize, except necessity require otherwise ; and that the form used in the 
Baptism church is, in mine opinion, not uncommendable. Nevertheless it should edify 
the*** '" much more, if it were uttered in the vulgar language, and cause people, in the 
vulgar baptism of children, more efFectuously to thank God for liis institution, and the 
tongue, ijigh benefit thereby represented. 

to the 

freely to 
be minis- 
tered and 

the ninth 

all one in 
old time. 
The order 
and state 
of priests. 
of minis- 
ters, with 
the assent 
of the 

In like condition do I also deem of ministration in all the others, that it 
should be expedient to have them ministered openly in the vulgar language, 
for the edifying of the people. As concerning the form used in matrimony, I 
like it right well, and think it commendable, saving in all countries lightly 
Judas hath set in his foot over far, and taketh in hand to sell his master, accom- 
panied with Simon Magus, saying, ' What will you give me, if I deliver unto 
you Christ V This is the saying of all them that require, without any lawful 
authority, in some places twelvepence, in some sixpence, in some more, in some 
less, but in every place lightly some money, when a couple should be married : 
and this they call ' The Church's Right.' Moreover, that they will not suffer 
marriage to be solemnized at all times of the year, I tliink it standeth not with 
Christ's rule, but rather is against the same, and that they will not suffer the 
bans upon all holy days to be proclaimed, unless a dispensation for money be 
purchased thcre-for. All this God forbiddeth. Finally, like as no money ought 
to be given for this, no more should any be taken for any other. But the con- 
trary is seen, which is great pity ; yea, even at the receiving of the sacrament 
of the altar, priests everywhere use to claim somewhat, and in some parts of 
the west country, no less than twopence, of every poll. 

As touching priesthood in the primitive church, when virtue bare (as ancient 
doctors do deem, and Scriptin-e, in mine opinion, recordeth the same) most 
room, there were no more officers in the church of God, than bishops and 
deacons ; that is to say, ministers : as witnesseth, besides Scripture fully aperdy, 
Jerome, in his Commentaries upon the Epistles of Paul, where he saith, that 
those whom we call priests, were all one and none other but bishops ; and the 
bishops none other but priests ; men ancient both in age and learning, so near 
as they could be chosen. Neither were they instituted and chosen, as they be 
now-a-days, with small regard by a bishop or his officer, only opposing them 
if they can construe a collect ; but they were chosen not only by the bishop, 
but also with the consent of the people among whom they should have their 
living, as showeth St. Cj-prian ; and the people (as he saith) ought to have 
power to choose priests that be men of good learning, of good and honest 
report. But, alack for pity! such elections are now banished, and new fashions 
brought in ; which if we should confer with the form of the election showed of 
Christ by his apostle Paid, we should find no small diversity, but all turned 
(J) ' Conclusi sub peccato, et vanundati sub eodera.' Rom. vii. II. 

TO THE bishops' ARTICLES. 191 

upside down. To conclude, I say, the order or state of priests and deacons Henry 
was ordained by God ; but subdeacons and conjurers, otherwise called ' Exor- yiH- 
cistae ' and ' Accolitae,' which we call ' Benet ' and ' Collet,' were instituted by ^ j-j 
the invention of men. And this you may find in the law, Dist. 21, and in 1533 

other places where it is written, ' Subdeaconship, in the time of the apostles, '— 

was no holy order.' > 

As touching ear-confession, I say that the common fashion now used, was Answer 
never ordained by Christ's law, that is, written in the Bible ; neither can you t°n\'}f ap- 
prove by any authority of the same, that we ought to confess all our oifences tide, 
particularly, with the circumstances of all and of every such, to any man. 
Again, for the maintenance of this which I have said, you shall know that 
Chrysostome standeth stiffly with me, in his Commentaries upon the Epistle to 
the Hebrews; in a homily also that he maketh upon the Psalm ' Miserere ;' and 
moreover in a sermon that he maketh, 'De Pcenitentia,' besides many other 
treatises, wherein he continueth ever one, testifying in semblable wise. 

In like maimer doth one of your principal doctors,' writing upon your Canon Auricular 
law, named Panormitane, testify that it is made by the law of man, and not of confes- 
God, in cap. ' Omnis utriusque sexus.' In the book also called ' Historia ordained 
Tripartita,' you shall find how it was first instituted (as I remember), and after- by God. 
v/ards undone again, because of a huge villany committed with a woman by a 
minister of the church, through confession. 

Also it is mentioned in the end of the first Distinction 'De Pcenitentia,' how The 
the Greek church, whom I think you do not note to be heretics, will not yet ^jJ^^^J^,, 
hitherto allow it. There are also many reasons brought forth, both to prove allowed 
that confession made to a priest should not be necessaiy, and also that confes- "» con- 
sion made unto God should suffice, concluding in this wise, ' Quibus authorita- a^yr/cular. 
tibus,' &c. I could bring forth others that be yet living, men of surmounting 
and excellent literature, who exactly, by many and mighty both authorities and 
reasons, do show and confirm this my saying to be just : but I keep silence, 
and will not name them, lest I should bring them into hatred. Notwithstanding, 
I never said, nor will say, but that men feeling themselves aggrieved in con- 
science with some great temptation, had need to go unto such whom they know 
and trust to be of steadfast credence, and to have good skill in the law of 
God, opening their grief unto them, to the intent they may know, through 
counsel, some ease and remedy thereof. 

But in this I mean not that they ought to go unto their curate, or to any other Asking 
priest, whose credence they deem not all trusty, or their counsel not sage, but [""J^^**' 
to any other whatsoever he be, whom they know most sufficient in properties church is 
above-showed, when their curate doth lack them. And this thing is most good, but 
behoveable, when men, needing counsel, be so void of knowledge in Christ's Jo"°y"*'* 
law, that they cannot find therein remedy themselves. For the doctrine of person. 
Christ, if it were well known, containeth remedies for all infirmities and mala- 
dies of the mind, so that men, by spiritual knowledge, might ease themselves. 

To the other part of your question, where you do ask whether a priest, in The se- 
cases imto him limited, may loose a sinner confessed and contrite for his sin, ''"",'lj'*'^ 
enjoining him wholesome penance; I say that only Christ looseth a sinner question 
who is contrite, by his word and promise, and the priest doth nothing but show whether a 
and declare the word : neither doth declaration or ministry of the priest any fj^sp^j, ^ 
whit avail for to loose any person, unless he that should be loosed give credence sinner? 
unto the word ministered and showed by the priest, which word or promise of 
Christ is called ' the word of reconciliation or atonement making betwixt God 
and man.' And this testified St. Paul, in the Corinthians, where he saith in 
this wise, ' God hath reconciled us unto him through Jesus Christ.^ See how Christ 
it is God that looseth us from sin, who is to make reconciliation or atonement g"j|'y°°^" 
betwixt us and him, and that through Christ, whom he caused to die for the from sin. 
same pm-pose. 'And he,' quoth St. Paul, 'hath ordained us ministers of the xhe 
said atonement.' See how Christ's apostles called not themselves ' the authors apostles 
of binding and loosing,' but 'ministers;' ' For he,' that is to wit God, 'reconciled authorsof 
the world unto him, forgiving their sins ' (where you may know what recon- loosing. 

(1) ' Subdiaconatus tempore apostolorum non fuit sacer.' 

(2) Panormitanus Abbas in cap. ' Omnis utriusque sexus.' (3) 2 Cor. v. 


Henry ciling is) ; ' and hath comniittcd,' saitli Paul, ' unto us, to be messengers of the 
yiil- same word, or tidings of atonement or reconciling.' 

A T\ Also, that the power whereby men are loosed from sin is not the priest's 

1 53«' power, you may know by the vulgar saying, which is right true ; yea, and with 

!_ leisure, I doubt not but that 1 can show the same in the Decrees, which is thus, 

' Only God forgiveth and pardoneth us of our sins.' ' And this was preached at 

Paul's Cross the Sunday next after the Epiphany last, the bishop of London sitting 

by ; the preacher speaking after this form, treating of this text, ' Behold the Lamb 

of God, which taketh away the sins of the world.' * * In that,' said the preacher, 

' testimony is given of Christ to be a lamb, it is showed that he was an innocent 

man. But in that it is said, that he ' taketh away the sins of the world,' is 

showed that he was God;' alleging there, for the confirmation of this part of 

his purpose, the vidgar saying above said by me, 'Solus Dens remittit peccata.' 

And the same proposition, or another equal with the same, usetli St. Chrysostome, 

in a homily that is made upon this text of St. Matthew, ' His name shall be 

called Jesus, for he shall save his people from their sins.' ^ Also St. Chrysostome, 

in Opus Imperfectum, upon this text, ' Woe be unto you, scribes and Pharisees ! 

because ye shut up the kingdom of heaven before men,' &c.'' As near as my 

The keys remembrance doth serve me, or else in some other place, but in the same book 

"f^inding (^^s I suppose), he affirmeth that the keys of heaven are the word and doctrine 

ing an- of God. This witnessetli moreover St. Gregory, I trow, in his book called 

swer to » Pastoralia, '* or else it is an epistle that he writeth to the bishop of Constantinople, 

of God ^^ these words : ' The key of loosing is the word of the corrector, who, rebuking, 

doth disclose the fault, which many times he knoweth not, that committeth the 

same.' 6 

How mi- St. Ambrose, agreeing to the same, saith, ' The word of God forgiveth sin.'' 

iiisters -g^j. g]jj^i] ^g iherv sav that God's ministers do not bind and loose 1 I say. No, 

nind and c i ■ i i n i n i • i • i-i •" . 

loose. not as the authors or so domg ; but they do loose and bmd m like manner as it 

is said of Paul in the Acts of the Apostles, wh.ere our Saviour spake unto him 

in this manner : 'I shall,' said our Saviour, ' deliver thee from the people and 

nations unto whom I send thee, that thou shouldest open their eyes, that they 

may be converted from darkness to light.'* Here Paul is said to open the eyes 

of men's hearts, albeit to speak properly, it is God that so doth ; and therefore 

David prayeth imto him, ' Open mine eyes, O Lord.'^ And in like manner it 

is spoken of John Baptist, that he should go before Christ ' in the spirit and 

power of Elias, and turn the hearts of the fathers to their children, and the 

unbelievers to the wisdom of the i-ighteous:''" albeit, to turn men's hearts, 

and to work in them, belongeth to God; but souse we to speak 'metonymice.'^'' 

As, if your lordsliip had defined to me to be excommmiicated, and thereupon 

should send a commandment to the parson of Knoll, to declare the same, the 

people would say, that the parson of Knoll, proclaiming your commandment, 

had accursed me ; but yet doth he not properly curse me, but you rather, when 

he, in pronouncing the same, doth your act and commandment, rather than 

his own. 

Power in Touching cases limited to priests and ministers, for loosing from sin, or binding 

binding jj^ ^^^^ same, I do know no such things showed in Scripture, which is the perfect 

ing, not way of our life : neither can any man, 1 suppose, show by authority thereof, 

limited, that one should have more or less limited him than another. And if you can 

'^"^' or will thereby teach it me, I shall thank you for your doing, and pray God to 

requite you. 

Enjoin- Concerning enjoining of penance, I know of none that men need to admit, 

ingofpe- nor you to put or enjoin the same, except it be renovation of living in casting 

nance. ^part old vice, and taking them unto new virtue, which every true penitent 

intcndeth, or ought to intend, verily by the grace and assistance of our Saviour 

Christ, to show and perform. 

(1) ' Solus Deus remittit peccata:' this saying is taken out of Peter Lombard, and cited in the 

(2) ' Kcce Afrnus Dei qui follit peccata mundi.' (3) ' Vocabitur nomen ejus Jesus,' &c. Mat. i. 

(4) ' Vas vobis scribae et Pharissi, qui clauditis regnum coelorum,' &c. Matt, xxiii. 

(5) Greg, in Pastoral. 

(5) 'Clavis apertionis est sermo correctoris, qui increpando culpam detegit, quam spepe nescit 
qui perpetravit.' 

((i) ' Verbum Dei dimittit peccata.' (8) Acts xxvi. (9) ' Revelaoculos meos.' Ps. cxix. (10) Luke i. 

(II) Metonymia is a figure, when the name that properly belongeth to one, is improperly trans- 
ferred to another thing. 


Unto the eleventh article I say, that grace is given unto ihem that duly receive jjenry 
the sacraments of Christ and liis chiu'ch ; but wliether by them or no, that I Vlll- 
cannot define ; for God sendetli his grace where he pleaseth, either with them, ^ -q. 
or without them, and wlien he pleaseth ; so that it is at his arbitrement, how i53jj_ 

and when. Moreover, many a lewd person receiveth tlie sacraments, who is 

destitute of grace, to his confusion. So that I cannot affirm that the sacraments ments, 
give grace ; yet, in due receipt of the sacraments, I suppose and think, that God whether 
giveth unto them grace that so take them, as he doth unto all good, even g^ace 0^^ 
without tliem also. no. 

Whereas in your twelfth article you do ask, whether all things necessary unto 
salvation are put in holy Scriptin-e, and whether things only there put be suffi- 
cient, and whether some things, upon necessity of salvation, are to be believed 
and observed, which are not expressed in Scripture : this is the question, as 
great learned men have showed me, whom I do count my friends, since the 
time I appeared at your lordship's assignment before Master doctor Lesse, and 
Master Melling, with others, in your chapel of Lambeth, when these questions 
were first propounded : this, I say, is the question, which, as they told me, is the 
head and whole content of all others objected against me. Yea, this is both the ,p ,, . 
helm and stern of all together, and that which they contended right sorely to be pre- 
impugn : but love of the truth (wherewith in this point I reckoned me well ferred 
fenced) would not suffer me to apply and yield to their will, thinking* ' that the friend- 
truth ought to be prefen-ed before all friendship and amity ;' and also,^ ' If thy ship, 
right hand oiFend, it ought to be cut off, and cast away,' 

But touching an answer unto this question, I suppose verily, that if I liad St. 
Cyril's works by me, I should not need to show any other answer in this, than 
he hath showed beforetime, writing upon this saying of St. John,' ' There are 
many things more which Jesus did.' Notwithstanding, forasmuch as every man 
at all seasons cannot have what he woidd, and therefore must make other shift, 
such as lie may, I say, that I suppose the first part of your question to be very 
true, and therefore to be affirmed, that is to wit, that all things needful f<*i' t^,'i"n„s Ne- 
man's salvation be mentioned and showed in holy Scripture, and that the things cessaiy to 
only there put be sufficient for the regiment of spiritual living, and man's soul's salvation 
health. And in this shall you find both the ancient doctors standing with me ; f," stTip*^- 
and moreover, the suffrage of holy writ, whose authority is of most sovereign ture. 
and infallible steadfastness. 

Look what St. Jerome saith upon this verse,* ' The Lord shall rehearse it, 
when he writeth up the people.' St. Ambrose also, in a treatise, 'De Paradiso,' 
doth show likewise, where he bringeth this text of Paul, written in 2 Cor. xi., 
' I am afraid lest it may, by some means, be brought to pass, that as the 
serpent deceived Eve through wiliness, so your minds may be coniipted from 
the simple verity that is in Christ.' And also in his Commentaries upon the 
Epistle to the Colossians, upon this text, ' In Christ Jesus is all treasure of wis- 
dom;' and in divers other places of the same work, 

St. Chrysostome also, in his Commentaries upon Paul, declaring this saying,^ The 
' The whole Scripture given by inspiration of God,' &c. And in his book called jj[^^[ J,®J"j. 
'Opus imperfectum,' I wot not precisely upon what text, but there you shall swerve 
find, that he would have a true preacher of God's law not swerving therefrom, ^™™ *''* 
neither on the right hand, neitner on the left, but keeping thereafter, according woni of 
to the teaching of Solomon : for he that should thereunto add or withdraw, God. 
sliould enterprise, as saith St. Chrysostome, to be wiser than God. These, or 
else such like words, doth he say. I will be deemed by the book brought fortli, 
because my remembrance cannot retain perfectly all such things. 

St. Cyprian maintaineth well the same in an epistle that he writeth, ' Ad 
Cecilium Fratrem,' which I would to God were in English, that all men might 
learn the devout goodness in it contained. In the same he teacheth clearly, 
how we ought to hear Christ only, and his learning, not regarding or attending 
to the traditions of men; like as he doth also in many other places. And this 
agreeth well with Scripture, which is called the word of salvation ; the admi- 

(1) ' Quod sanctum est veritatem praefene amicitise. 

(2) ' Si dextra manus scandalizet, deberet prsescindi et abjici.' 
;3) ' Sunt et alia raulta quae fecit Jesus.' John xxi. 

(4) ' Dominus narrabit in scripturis populorum.' Psalm Ixxxvii. 

(5) ' Omnis scriptura divinitus inspirata,' etc. 2 Tim. iii. 

VOL. V. O 


iicitry nistration of righteousness ; the word of truth, yea and the truth itself; the rod 

rill, of direction ; our sjiiritual food ; the sjjiritual sword that we ought to fight witl) 

,^ against all tenij)tations and assaults of our ghostly enemies; the seed of (iod , 

1 '■\^ ^^^^ kingdom of heaven, and the keys of the same; the power of God ; the light 

^' ' of the world, which whoso followeth shall not be overcome with darkness ; the 

Names of law of (lod ; his wisdom and testament. Of which words, and such like, every 
Scripture, ^j^g ^,jjj gj^,g matter of substantial argument, that we, following the same 
cien/tor doctiine only, shall have sufficient safe-conduct to come unto the inheritance 
all our promised, albeit none other ways or means were annexed with the same. And 
direction certain 1 am, that in this blessed doctrine of Christ is taught hov/ we ought to 
any addi- d" truth and mercy, which is all that we need to do. as testifieth the Psalm, in 
tion. these words,' ' All the ways of the Lord are mercy and truth.' And again, the 
prophet, willing us to do as he did, saith m this manner,^ ' I have cleaved to thy 
testimonies, O Lord ; confound me not.' \\\ like manner the said whole Psalm 
warneth us ; yea, all the Scripture biddeth us stick fast to the steady and true word 
of (lod, saying, that ^ ' he is true, and all his ways are truth ; but all men are vain 
and liars.' For that is the sure foundation which cannot fail them that ground 
thereupon, as reporteth Chi'ist : ' Every one,' saith he, ' that heareth my words, 
and doth them, is like to a wise man that buildeth upon a sm-e foundation.' 
And there ought to be none other foundation to christian men, but only the 
undoubted tnith of Jesus to build our faith upon, and direct our living there- 
after, as showcth St. Paul, saying,* ' Other foundation can no man lay, than 
that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ.' And likewise in the Epistle unto the 
Ephesians, where he saith, ^ ' Now ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but 
citizens with the saints, and of the household of God.' And in the same Epistle, 
St. Paul, dilating of Christ's beneficence,^ showeth how that he ordained in the 
church divers officers, to the edifying of christian people, that he calleth Christ's 
body, imtil all we may come unto the unity of faith ; which cometh by follow- 
ing of one doctrine, which is Christ's, whereby we may grow to be perfect 
men ; and that we should not be here like to children, carried about with every 
wind of doctrine, by deceit and wiliness of men that study to deceive us. 
1 in (111- In like form doth he warn us, in the Epistle to the Hebrews,^ that we should 

stuiuy jjot^ {jg carried about as the wind, with divers and strange doctrines, but con- 
ableness tinue in that which ever continueth like and all one, agreeable for all men in 
of men's all parts, and that at all times ; not being changeable, as men's constitutions be, 
tions"" whereof look what one doth counsel or ordain to be of effect, another annuls 
the same, according as men's minds do always alter, and are full unsteady. 
The Neither do such pertain unto all men; for the Greeks, with others (whom 

pope's neither the pope, nor any of his people will yet deny to be of Christ's church), 
nevn"^ will in no condition admit such, neither for men to live after them, nor to 
wholly believe them as pertaining to their faith. But they allow well the doctrine that 
fi'^'^.^'lY^''" persevereth ever one, and is immutable, as showeth St. Paid, saying, ' Jesus 
ii,cn. Christ yesterday and to day is all one, and so ever shall be.'* He is white 
bread, without any sour leaven of pharisaical traditions ; verity without guile ; 
light without any darkness ; the very straight way that hath neither hook nor 
crook. From this ought we not to turn, neither upon one hand nor the other, 
unless we will go from him that is our felicity and anchor of safety. 

But what should I more entreat of this, except I would recite all Scripture, 
which in every part is full of admonitions, exhorting and warning us to cleave 
fast unto this way, which is the doctrine of the gospel, which God, I beseech 
him, grant us all both to know and love, taking heed that in no wise we be 
seduced therefrom by laws and doctrines of men. Look also into Colossians ii., 
and into the Epistles to Timothy and Titus. So that I conclude that in holy 
The eh" f S^"P*"''c is contained sufficiently enough of doctrine for the regiment and sal- 
article vation of our souls ; and because learned men do call this the head article laid 
objected against me, I would that all men should well note it, and record my saying 
John*^ therein hereafter, whatsoever shall betide of me ; for the truth is so indeed, 
Lambert, that hereupon hangeth the sum of all. Therefore I shall recite it once again. 

(1) ' Univers.'B via? Domini misericordia ct Veritas,' etc. Psalm xxv. 

(2) ' Adhaesi testimoniis tuis, Domine ; noli me confundere.' 

(3) ' Verax, et vi;c' ejus Veritas : omnis autcm homo vanitas et mendax.' Psalm cxviii. 

(4) ' Fundamentrra aliiid nemo,' etc. 1 Cor. iii. 

(.■5) ' Jam non estis hospitcs et advenae, sed concives sanctorum, et domestici Dei,' etc. Eph. ii. 
ifi) Kph. iv. (7) Heb. xiii. (S) Ibid. 

TO THE lilSHOPs' AllTlCLKS. 195 

T say, that in holy Scripture the doctrine there only contained, is sufficient for iienrii 
the salvation of christian men's souls : God give us grace that we may know it, yiH- 
to build our faith steadfastly upon the same, in working thereafter ! ^ 1^ 

As touching the latter part of your question, I say that there are many things j^'^g" 

both to be observed, and to be beheved, that are not expressed in Scripture ; !-l- 

as the civil laws of princes and commonalties, ordained for civil regiment of the 
bod)', and all others, so that they be not hurtful to faith or charity, but helpful 
to the same : I reckon that we ought to keep them, not only for fear of 
punishment, but also for conscience' sake, although such ordinances be not fg„ y^.,.;. 
expressly and particularly in Scripture expressed ; for they are generally therein ties. 
contained and spoken of. 

Moreover, if you mean by this word 'expressed,' that which in Scripture is 
clearly showed out, and appeareth evidently to every reader or hearer that hath 
but a mean imderstanding, so do I affirm that there are some things which a 
man ought to believe, although they be not by him expressly understood : as I 
have ever believed that the Virgin Mary was, and is, a perpetual virgin, and 
that the same might be gathered by the Scripture. But if, by this word ' ex- 
pressed,' you mean comprehended or contained (as methinks the mind of him 
that wrote the demand should be), so that he meaneth by this question thus : 
whether any thing ought to be observed and believed, which is not contained 
in Scripture, and that, upon necessity of salvation; then I say, that there is 
nothing either to be observed, or to be believed upon necessity of salvation, 
which is not contained in Scripture, and mentioned in the same either gene- 
rally or specially. Yet do I not deny but other things are to be believed, as I 
believed that Dr. Warham was archbishop of Canterbury, ere ever I saw your 
lordship, and I believe that I knew verily who was my father and mother, 
albeit I had no intelligence when they begot me, and such like : and yet in 
such points, although a man have not a steady belief, he may be saved. 

To the thirteenth article, where you do ask, whether I believe that purgatory A purga- 
is, and whether that souls departed be therein tonnented and purged ? I say |°^y "' 
that there is a purgatory in this world, and that doth the Scripture, and also world. 
do the holy doctors, call the fire of tribulation, through which all Christians The pur- 
shall pass, as testifieth St. Paul to Timothy,i whose testimony is full notable gatory of 
and true, albeit that few do know it, and fewer, peradventure, will beheve tians^. 
it. Mark you the words, good people ! and know, that they be his, and not 
mine. They be thus, * All that will live godly in Jesus Christ, shall suffer per- 
secution.' In this purgatory do I now reckon myself to stand ; God send me 
well to persevere unto his honour ! Of this speaketh also St. Peter in these 
words, which pertain to the instruction of all christian people:^ ' Ye,' quoth 
he, ' are preserved through the power of God, by faith, unto salvation, which is 
prepared to be revealed in the last time ; wherein ye now rejoice, though for 
a season (if need require) ye are sundry ways afflicted and tormented ; that the 
trial of your faith, being much more precious than gold that perisheth, though 
it be tried with fire, might be found unto laud, glory, and honour, at the 
appearing of Jesu Christ,' &c. Other purgatory know I none, that you can 
prove by Scripture, unless it be by one place of the same, which, well examined, 
I trow, shall make but little against me, for the maintenance of any other than 
I have showed. 

But whatsoever be brought against me, I trust that holy doctors shall, by 
their inteqjretation, sustain the part which I do take upon me, making answer 
for me sufficient ; so that you shall say, it is no new thing which I have or 
shall speak. Yet, that you should see even now somewhat written of ancient 
doctors concerning the same, I shall show you what I liave read in St. Augus- 
tine ; first, in a sermon that he maketh ' De Ebrietate,' in this wise saying,^ No tiiird 
' Brethren ! let no man deceive himself, for there be two places, and the third Ai,g|,s'. 
is not known. He that with Christ hath not deserved to reign, ^ shall without tine. 

(1) 2 Tim. ii. 

(2) ' Virtute Dei custodiniini per fidem ad sahitcm, quaa in hoc parata est ut patefiat in tempore 
supremo, in quo exultatis nunc, ad breve tempus aifiicti in variis experimentjs si opus sit, quo 
exploratio fidei vestra multo pretiosior auro quod peril, et tamen per ignem probatur, reperiatur 
m ^loriam et honorem.' 1 Pet. iii. 

(3) ' Nemo se decipiat, fratres ; duo enim loca sunt, et tertius non est visus. Qui cum Christo 
regnare non meruit, cum diabolo absque ulla dubitatione peribit.' 

(!) What our deserving is, lie declareth before, in the fifth article. 

o 2 






No pur- 

Tlio third 
j).ut of 
sins for- 
them that 
be burieti 
ill a grey 

doubt perish with the devil.' In another also that he maketh, * De Vanitate 
Ijujus Seculi,' it is said thus : ' ' Know you, that when the soul is departed from 
tlie body, it is incontinent, for its good deeds, put in paradise, or else thrown 
headlong into the dungeon of hell for its sins. Choose ye now which ye list, 
and pui-pose, while ye be here in this life, either to joy perpetually with the 
saints, or else to be tormented without end among wicked sinners.' Thus saith 
holy Augustine. 

'i'o make an end, I hope surely, that by the aid of our Saviour, I shall come 
to heaven, and reign with Christ, ere that I shall feel any purgatory beside 
that I have, and shall sustain, in this life. And he that believeth not stead- 
fastly any other to be, shall yet be saved as well (and God wotteth whether 
better or no, but I think no whit less) as such as teach the people, or suffer them 
to be taught, that in going from this station to that, from one altar to another, 
they shall cause souls to be delivered : yea, and as well as such as say, that a 
man, being buried in a grey friar's frock, shall so have remission of the third 
part of his sins (as is granted in a bull unto the said reUgion), and such like. 
For St. Augustine shall make with me in his book called * Enchiridion,' after 
he hath confuted the opinion of some that in the church of Christ, living in 
mischief, ungraciously, taking thereof no repentance, did yet falsely deem that 
they should be saved through the cleansing of purgatory, where he concludeth 
thus: 'Such a thing after this life to be,' saith he, 'is not incredible; but 
whether it be so or no, a doubt may be thereof moved, or a question demanded.' 
The same words doth he again recite in a book called ' Queestiones ad Dulcium,' 
or ' Dulcitium,' I wot not whether it is called, and there he treateth of the same 
more copiously ; and would I might see the place once again. 

To this agreeth St. Paul, writing thus to the Corinthians,- ' For we must all 
appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every man may receive the 
things which are done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it 
be good or evil.' And again, where he writeth unto the Hebrews, I trow it be 
said in this wise : ^ ' Remember them that are in bonds, even as though you were 
bound with them ; be mindful of them which are in affliction, as if ye were also 
afflicted in the body.' 

to saints. 



have no 




To the fourteenth article, where you ask whether holy martyrs, apostles, and 
confessors, departed from this world, ought to be honoured, called upon, and 
prayed unto? I answer, as touching the honouring of them, with the very 
words of St. Augustine, in his book ' De vera Religione,'* in his last leaf, where 
he saith thus : ' Non sit nobis religio cultus hominum mortuorum : quia si pie 
vixerunt, non sic habentur, ut tales qucerant honores, sed ilium a nobis coli 
volunt, quo illuminante laetantur meriti sui nos esse consortes ;* honorandi sunt 
ergo propter imitationem non adorandi propter religionem. Si autem male 
vixerunt, ubicunque sunt, non sunt colendi.' Again, a little after the same, he 
saith, ' Nam id ipsum actum est temporali dispensatione ad salutem nostram, 
ut naturam humanam ipsa Dei virtus, et Dei sapientia incommutabilis, et con- 
substantialis Patri et coaeternus suscipere dignaretur, per quam nos doceret, id 
esse homini colendum, quod ab omni creatura intellectuali et rationali colendum 
est : hoc est, ipsos optimos angelos, et excellentissima Dei ministeria velle cre- 
damus, ut unum cum ipsis colamus Deum, cujus contemplatione beati sunt; 
neque enim et nos videndo angelum beati sumus, sed videndo veritatem, qua 
ipsos etiam diligimus angelos et his congratulamur. 

' Nee invidemus quod ea paratiores, vel nuUis molestiis interpedientibus per- 
fruuntur, sed magis eos diligimus, quoniam et nos tale aliquid sperare a com- 
muni Domino jussi sumus. Quarc honoramus eos charitate, non servittite ; nee 
eis templa construimus. Nolunt enim se sic honorari a nobis, quia nos ipsi cum 
boni sunuis, templa summi Dei esse noverunt. Ilecte itaque scribitur, hominem 

(1) ' Scitote vos, quod cum anima a corpore avellitur, statim in Paradise pro meritis bonis collo- 
catur, aut certe pro peccatis, in inferni tartara pracipitatur. Filigite modo quod vultis, aut perpe- 
tualiter gaudere cum Sanctis, aut sine fine cruciari cum inipiis.' Fol. 1005. 

(2) ' Omnes nos manifestari oportet coram tribunali Christi, ut reportet quisque ea quae fiun 
per corpus, juxta id quod fecit, sive bonum, sive malum.' 2 Cor. v. 

(.3) ' Memores .sitis vinctorum, tanquara una cum illis vincti : eorum qui affliguntur veluti ipsi 
quoque versantes in corpore.' Heb. xiii. 

(4) Cap. Iv. fol. 107, vol. i. Edit. Benedict.— Ed. 

(3) ' Id est, ejusdem meriti cujus ipsi sunt participcs.' 




TO THK bishops"' ARTICLES. 19' 

ab angelo prohibitum ne se adorai'et, sed uniim Deum, sub quo ille osset et 

Thus saith St. Augustine, handling the same matter a little after more at 

The contents of this unto you I expound, that know no Latin ; for I covet 
that all persons should know both my thought in this and idl manner of doing, Men dc-^ 
to the intent that of all persons I would have true report and testimony, what- |!" l^ fig*" 
soever shall betide me. St. Augustine, in these words, would have that we woisiiip- 
should worship no men departed, be they ever so good and holy (for they seek l*^''- 
no such honour), but would have us to worship God alone; no, nor yet any 
angel, nor honour the same, but only in imitation of them, following their 
good acts in our living, as they followed our most mei'ciful God while tliey were 
alive ; not building chui'ches in the name or honour of them, for they would 
have no such honour done unto them : it is to them no pleasure, but contrari- 
wise. No, the angels will not that we should build any churches in reverence 
of them ; but would that with them we should honour the original Maker and 
Performer of all. They refuse all honour, saving that which is called ' honor 
charitatis,' whicli is nothing else but to be loved. Tims saith St. Augustine. 
Which love we shall testify in following their good acts, by helping the poor or The best 
helpless with alms and mercy, and dealing truly in word and deed, according worsiiii)- 
to our state and calling, both towards God and man ; which is no light matter saint<i, is 
to them that do consider the thing well. But whosoever shall truly and duly j" loiiow- 
follow that trade, shall feel it, I dare say, as the biu-den of Christ's cross was !,'oo(lacts 
unto him, right weighty and grievous when he bare it to Calvary ; saving that 
we need not fear, for he hath promised to be with us in tribulation, to rid us 
from the same. For the prophet David saith,' ' When a just person beginneth 
to fall, he shall not be borne flat down to be broken, for the Lord shall j)iit his 
hand under him to rear him up again.' And in the Gospel he biddeth,^ ' Come 
you unto me all that do travail and are sore charged, and I shall comfort or 
refresh you. Take my yoke upon you, learning of me that am soft and meek- 
minded, and you shall find ease thereby in your souls, for my yoke is easy, and 
my burthen light.' See you here how he is ever ready to support them that 
for truth shall sustain the chargeable and sore vexations put upon them by 
the world, which cannot endure the truth to prevail, and the untruth to be 

As touching invocation, that is, to wit, calling upon them, we have in Scrip- Invoca- 
ture, how we should call upon Almighty God in all necessities or tribulations. *'°"" 
As in the Psalms everywhere ; as in this, ' Call upon me in time of your tribu- God only 
lation, and I shall deliver you.'' Mark how he saith here, ' Call upon me,' *'J,''j'^^" 
appointing neither St. Thomas, nor Master John Shorn. Also in another place, to call 
' The Lord is nigh unto them that call upon him, that call upon him truly;'' truly up 
and with that he showeth who calleth truly upon him, saying thus : ' lie shall "" 
do the will or desire of them that reverence him, and shall hear graciously their 
prayer, and make them safe ; for the Lord loveth all that love him, and all 
sinners shall be destroyed.' And thus used the holy prophets, patriarchs, apo- 
stles, and other good faithful people in old time, in all tribulation and anguish, 
to resort unto the head fountain, which is of grace infinite, as is showed in 
other places in this wise : ' In my trouble I called upon the Lord,' saith David, 
' and he heard me graciously. '^ ' When I was troubled, I cried unto the Lord, 
and he mercifully heard me.'^ Also, * I lift mine eyes unto the mountains. 
But from whence shall help come unto me? Mine help,' quoth he, 'shall 
come from the Lord, that made both heaven and earth.' ' I read the first of 
these verses in form of interrogation, following St. Augustine, who, as I remem- 
ber, interpreteth it in this wise. If I recite not authorities in all places in the 
most perfect form, I would pray you somewhat to pardon me, for you know that 
I lack books, and have not them lying by me. Notwithstanding, I am certain, 
I shall not decline much from him. The hills toward which David did lift up 
his eyes, were saints and holy men, by whom when he could not have his mind 
satisfied, he turned another way, saying, ' From whence shall hi-lp come unto 
me ?' Anon, remembering himself better, he sued unto God himself, of whom 

(1) ' Cum ceciderit Justus non collidetur, quia Doininus supponit manum suam.' I'salin xxxv. 

(2) • Venite ad me, onines qui laboratis et onerati estis, et ef;o reliciam vos.' Mat. xi. 

<3) P.salra 1. (4) Psalm cxlv. (5) Psalm iv. (G) Psalm xviii. (7J Psalm cxxvii. 


Urnnj incontinent he obtained the accomplishment of liis wish, and so witnessed tlic 
' '^^- same for onr instruction, saying, ' Mine help is of the Lord,' or cometh from 
A D *^'*^ Lord, ' which made heaven and earth.' This interpretation, as near as I 
io3s' remember, is after the mind of St. Augustine; and I suppose verily, that it is 
not contrary unto the mind of God, nor disagreeing with the sequel of Scripture. 

God the j\igo, in this wise it is reported in the New Testament, by authority deduced 
hel"; and out of the 01d,l where it is written, ' Every one that calleth upon the name of 
not the the Lord, shall be saved.'* And mark how cum energia,^ it is said, ' upon the 
'''""'^" name of the Lord;' without any sending us either to St. Clu-istopher (though 
he be painted ever so stout), or to St. Patrick's piu-gatory in Ireland, or to 
St. James in Galicia, in the year of grace, or yet to any other saint or place ; 
but he woidd have us that we should call upon Almighty God, and upon his 
name, for the love that he beareth to Christ, who is alway our advocate before 
our Father, to purchase mercy for our sins; ' and not for our sins only,' quoth 
St. John (who is tlie writer of this saying and testimony), * but also for the sins 
of all the world.'* St. Augustine upon the same, noteth that St. John, in that 
Christ is place, saith, ' We have an advocate,' and that Christ is advocate for him, like 
advocate j^j, ]-,g jg f^^. j^jj Qtliers, to purchase mercy for him, like as he doth for all others 
saintsand that shall be saved; and that St. John will not be known for our advocate, but 
apostles, that Christ should be taken for advocate of all. St. Bede (as I remember) 
as or ub jjpQj^ (.j^g same, maketh as much for this purpose as doth St. Augustine, or well 
more ; so that by course of Scripture we are taught to resort for all aid and 
relief (as I have said) unto the head-spring and fountain of all comfort and 
mercy, as St. Paul calleth him, ' the Father of mercies and of all comfort, who 
is ready to comfort us in all tribulation : ' ' which,' as the Psalm reportetli, 
* healeth all our infirmities, and taketh mercy upon aU our iniquities.' ' For he 
is sweet,' as is said in another place, 'and gentle, and many mercies are laid up 
for all those that call upon him.' Yet he showeth us nowhere, I trow, of benefits 
that we shall purchase by praying unto saints departed ; and if any person can 
or will vouchsafe to teach me that, by some authority of Scripture, I would 
think myself highly beholden to him, whatsoever he were, either great or small, 
young or old : but I ween it cannot be. I have made ti'uly long search, yet 
could [ never find any such substantial teaching ; liowbeit, I ofler myself ever 
to learn, and know that my rude wit, foolish youth, inexpert experience, and 
feeble discretion, had need of good instruction as much as any otlier. Hov>'beit 
I see (thanked be God) that sometimes he showeth some sparkle of liglit and 
wisdom to children, hiding the same from others that are reputed of higher 
prudence ; so that the world thereby many times is brought into admiration, 
seeing such facts done by God before their face, and laugh thereat sometimes 
with indignation, as the Pharisees did at the blind man whom Christ had restored 
to sight, where they said to him, 'Thou, caitiff! wast born blind for thy sins, 
and wilt thou teach us, that arc a great multitude of high officers of the temple, 
and doctors to teach the law?''' As who would say. It becometh thee full ill. 
Yet we ought not to mai'vel greatly at such doing, forasmuch as St. Paul, in his 
First Epistle to the Corinthians,* showeth of the like practice done in his time, 
and that he writeth for the instruction of all ages after ensuing ; so that it per- 
taineth (like as all the holy Scripture doth) as well to our time, as it did to that it 
was first written in. ' The doctrine of Ciirist's cross,' that is, to wit, of the New 
Testament, 'is to them that perish, folly,' saith he; 'but to us that obtain 
thereby salvation,' meaning thereby to such as believe, ' it is the might or power 
of God ; for it is written,' saith he, ' by the prophet Isaiah, that God aforetime 
said, he would destroy the wisdom of the wise, and the understanding or learning 
of the learned would he throw away and despise.'' 

This prophecy alleged, Paul thought to be authority sufficient to dissuade the 
Corinthians from the foolish affiance, vain-glory or opinion, that they had in 
«,, men, wliom they peradventure over-highly esteemed for their offices or solenm 

wisdom titles. So that he proceedeth forth in the same: ' Where are ye now,' quoth 
of this lip^ ' t]je worldly w'ise, the scril)cs,' that is to say, doctors, and sucli other like 
,.„„_ officers : ' Hath not God showed the wisdom of the world to be foolish and un- 

founded, savoury? For after that by the wisdom of God,' which is showed in Scripture, 

(I) Joel ii. (2) Mark xiii. 

(:i) That is, v, ith a .s)ii'cial ctlicacv for us to mark more attentively. 

(4) 1 John ii). rsi John ).\.' ((i) 1 for. i. (?) Ibid. 

TO THK bishops' ARTICLES. 199 

I suppose, ' tlie world hath not studied to know God, by wisdom it hath pleased Hcnrt/ 
God now to save them that believe through the foolishness of preaching.' He viii. 
calleththe word of God 'foolish preaching,' not because it was foolish, for afore „ 

he called it godly wisdom, but he spake after the opinion of them that set little , ^oq 
or nought thereby, esteeming it as .'Esop's cock did the precious stone, and as '^'^ ' 
swine do pearls. 

After long process in the same matter, he concludeth thus : ' Brethren,' saith 
he, ' you see your calling, how that not many wise men after the flesh are called 
to the belief of the gospel, nor many mighty men, nor many of noble parentage ; 
but those that be fools after the estimation of the world, hath God chosen to 
confound the wise,' &c. 

Therefore I say, as I said afore, that, thanks be to God, albeit I am, as 
I showed before, void of such great prudency as others be well endued with, yet 
I see partly how their great reasons be not very substantial, whereby they con- 
tend by the treaty of reason, when authority faileth them, to show that we ought 
to pray to saints departed, to be mediators for us to Christ. And amongst 
others, this is one that they lean much upon, bringing it forth so usually, that 
common people well nigh altogether harp upon the same ; some favouring it, 
others, contrariwise, esteeming it of no value. 

The reason is this : If, when one should desire to come to the speech of our Objection 
sovereign, to obtain some boon of him, need it were, first to purchase the favour f** i""^^ 
of his chamberlains, or some other like officers, to bring him to the kin"-'s pre- tim"of' 
sence, for else he may watch long in vain, until he be full cold ere that he shall saints 
speak with his grace, and much less is he like to obtain his petition. In like 'f^'''" .""' 
wise it fareth (as they say) betwixt God and us ; of whom, if we would purchase 
any benefit, we must first break it unto the saints departed, making them our 
friends to go betwixt God and us, as mediators and intercessors. But such (with Answer 
their leave I would speak it) I think are deceived, in that they resemble (iod '? .'J^'''. 
and the king together. For though the king be a full gracious prince (as I hear 
by common report he is), yet is he not in graciousness to be conferred with No com- 
God ; and though he were as gracious as might be, yet hath he not the know- P'''"=;"" 
ledge that is in God, for God knew of all things before the beginning of the God 
woi-ld, and is everywhere, to see not only om- outward dealing, but also all ^"'' ="i 
seci-et thoughts of all men's hearts ; so that he needeth no mediators to inform ktii'''''^ 
him of our desires, as the king doth need. And he is so full of infinite mercy, 
that I may as lightly, or as soon, obtain of him that which is for my behoof, as 
I should win by praying holy saints to be intercessors to him for me. 

Therefore, passing such apparent reasons, I take nie to the ensample of anti- 
quity, I mean of the patriarchs, prophets, and the apostles, and the authority o 
Scripture, which teach that we need not to fear, but may boldly resort unto 
Christ liimself, and his holy Father, forasmuch as he bids us in tliese words and 
others like, so to do; saying, ' Come unto me all ye that travail, are vexed, and 
sore charged; and I will refresh and ease you.'" Mark how he biddeth us to The 
resort unto himself, and that without fear. P'or he and his Father, who are all ""j'^' '" 
one, giveth abundantly of all goodness unto all men, and upbraideth nobody imtoulih 
for his unworthiness. But if we intend to obtain of Him, we must, all doubt- prayer, 
fulness (as I said before) put apart, with a sure confidence of his mercy, ask of 
him what we would have ; so that I leave unto others what they list to do, 
praying Jesus, tliat we all may lust for that which is most pleasing to him. 

But I think, concerning myself, that according to Christ's own commandment God in 
I may, without any doubt casting, resort in all incumbrances, to seek ease ™'S'"' 
thereof, even unto himself and to his blessed Father. Therefore he biddeth ^and^^' 
us, when we should pray, to say after this fashion, ' Our Father which art in know- 
heaven,' &c. For there is no creature, nor creatures, that ever were or be, that |j^,p|;,n_ 
have more, or so much, eitlier of might, whereby cometh ability to give help ; paraiile. 
or of Uiercy and tenderness, which slioidd make them willing in proportion 
agreeable with ability ; or of knowledge, that should teach to minister botli the 
other, as is our Lord God, who not only is almighty, all-merciful, and all-wise, 
but also infinite in all these glorious properties ; so that undoubtedly he can, will, 
and best knoweth how, to relieve and succour us in all necessity and anguish. 
To whom be honour without end for ever. Amen. 

One thing yet I will show you in this case, of which I was once advertised 

(1) Matt. ;d. 






The say- 
ing of a 

know no 
parti ■ 
on earth. 

they pray 
for us. 

One me- 
and what 
a media- 
tor is. 

a;_'es and 

All things 
work to 
tlie best 
to the 

by a great learned man, who (as I suppose) is now living. I will not name 
him, lest I should perhaps cause any displeasure to be conceived against him 
through my relation. The thing was this : ' I will,' quoth he, ' pray unto saints; 
but that shall be when I think, that God either cannot or will not give me my 
petition. But that (as I showed in the Convocation-house) shall never be, 1 
hope. And therefore it is to me needless to seek any further about, standing 
in such trust and belief as, I hope, I have found upon God's sure promise.' 

To the fifteenth article, where you do demand whether the saints in heaven, 
as mediators, pray for us, I say, that I believe saints in heaven do pray for us ; 
for I suppose they know that all men generally living upon earth, be wrajjped 
in manifold miseries, like as they also were, their souls being imprisoned within 
their bodies, being mortal. Albeit I think they know not what particular miseries 
men upon earth be entangled and clogged with, as showeth Augustine, or else 
some other (as I think rather) under his name, in a certain work, saying in 
this wise : ' Ibi sunt spiritus defunctorum, ubi non vident qusecunque aguntur 
aut eveniunt in ista vita hominum. Quomodo ergo vident tumulos suos, aut 
corpora sua, utrum abjecta jaceant an sepulta? Quomodo intersunt miserije 
vivorum ? cum vel sua ipsi mala patiantur si talia merita contraxerunt, vel in 
pace requiescant, ubi mala nulla nee patiendo nee compatiendo sustineant, 
liberati ab omnibus malis quae patiendo et compatiendo cum hie viverent, sus- 
tinebant.' The sum whereof is, that souls departed neither feel, nor know of 
any particular miseries sustained by men living in this world, whereby they 
should need to take either patience, or else compassion after their decease. 
Yet, forasmuch as they know in general, that all men living are clad with 
frailty, and that their charity is not minished after they be hence departed, but 
increased ; therefore I believe verily, that they do pray for us as petitioners ; 
but not as mediators, so far forth as I can see. For Scripture iiseth to speak 
but of one Mediator, which I think signifieth a maker of peace or atonement 
betwixt God the Father, and man. Record I take of Paul, who, in the E])istle 
to Timothy, saith,' ' There is one God, and one mediator or peacemaker betwixt 
God and man, tlie man called Christ Jesus, which gave himself for the redemp- 
tion of all.' 

Thus, I say, I believe saints in heaven do pray for us as petitioners, but not 
as mediators. Yea, all the saints, I ween, do pray, and long that the day of 
judgment may soon come, according to the saying of St. Paul,^ ' The fervent 
desire of the creature waiteth when the sons of God sliall be revealed.' And 
again,^ ' Every creature groaneth with us, and travaileth in pain together unto 
this present ;' which shall be for the accomplishment of glory, both to them aad 
all others elect of God to be his children, and co-inheritors with Christ. 

In the sixteenth article, where you demand, whether 1 believe that oblations 
and pilgrimages may be devoutly and meritoriously done to the sepulchres and 
relics of saints, I say, that wliat they may be, I cannot perfectly tell ; for God 
can so work, that unto those whom he hath chosen to be inheritors with him, 
all things shall turn to a good conclusion, as saith St. Paul to the Romans,'' in 
this wise: 'Unto those that love God, all things shall well succeed, and work 
together for their furtherance in goodness :' of whom it is written in the Psalm,* 
' Blessed is that nation that hath the Lord for their God, the people whom he 
hath chosen to be his inheritors:' yea, their evil deeds shall not hurt them, but 
come well to pass for the increase of virtue.* For as it is said in the Gospel, 
* To whom less is forgiven, he loveth less.'' And again, it hurted not Onesinms, 
that he ran away from his master Philemon, but God wrought, that by occasion 
thereof he met with Paul, who converted him to the faith of the gospel, who 
before was without belief. Therefore, whether they m.ay be done meritoriously 
or no, I will not define ; God wotteth. But this I say, that God did never 
institute any such thing in the New Tesfciment, which is the verity and rule of 
all christian people to follow and believe : yea, that only is of perfect surety, 

(1) ' Unus est Deus, unus est et mediator Dei et hominum, homo Cliristus Jesus, qui dcdit 
semetipsuni redemptionem pro omnibus.' Erasmus translateth it, ' conciliator Dei et hominum.' 
1 Tim. ii. 

(2) ' Solicita creaturne expectatio revelatioiiem filiorum Dei expectat.' Rom. viii. 

(3) 'Omnis creatura congemiscit, et nobiscum parturit usque ad hoc tempus.' 

(4) Rom. viii (^i) I'salm xxxiii. ((i) Kzck. xxxiii. 
(7) ' Cui minus remittitur, minus diliijil.' linke vii. 

TO THE bishops' ARTICLES. 201 

and none other, but as it is agreeable to, and hath ground of the same. And Uennj 

like as we have no certain docti-ine instituted by Christ, or his disciples, teaching ^^'^- 

us thus to do ; no more is there any merit appointed by him therefore, as I ^ rj 

showed before, where I told my mind of our merits. 1538* 
Moreover, where ye put ' pie,' which I call ' devoutly,' very true devotion 

(that is called in Latin, ' pietas') is that which hath annexed therewith divine Pi^, pie- 
promises for this present life, and for that which is to come, as witnesseth Paul,> ^'^^^J''^" 
which is nothing else but the observation of Christ's law, that, in the Psalm, for 
the pureness thereof, is called* ' Silver fined often and many times through the 
fire.' It hath no chaff in it, as have men's traditions; but is pure and clean 
wheat, as showeth Jeremy, writing in this wise,* ' What is the chaflf to the 
wheat? Thei-efore behold, I will come against the prophets,' saith the Lord 
' that steal my word every one from his neighbour, and deceive my people in _, 
their lies and in their errors.' And this devotion is that which St. James calleth votion or 
the pui-e religion of Christ, saying, ' Pure and immaculate religion before God l>}Jre reli- 
the Father is, to visit fatherless children and widows in their vexation ;'* ft°"'" 
whereby he meaneth all needy people that are succom-less and helpless, with our p„jg j.g]j. 
counsel and other alms, according to our ability, whensoever we see them in gion. 
need and distress. 

The other part of this religion showed by St. James, is. That a man should 
keep himself clean from the world ; and that do they who be not so affectionate 
unto any thing therein, but that they have the things of the world, or occupy 
the same by true dealing, so that they can find in their heart to depart from 
them, when God shall please, or charity so requireth. 

Thus doing, we shall follow the exhortation of blessed Paul, who, writing to 
the Corinthians,^ saith thus, ' Brethren, the time is short : this remaineth, that 
they which have wives, should be as they had them not ; and those that weep, 
should be as they wept not ; and those that buy, as if they were without pos- 
session ; and they that occupy this world, as though they occupied it not : for 
the fashion of this world passeth away.' And this meaneth none other thing, but 
that we should neither love nor dread any worldly thing passing measure, or 
inordinately, but God above all things, and all other things in him or for him ; 
and he that thus doth, fulfilleth the commandment of Christ spoken to the rich 
man in the Gospel, where he saith, ' Go and sell all that ever thou hast, and 
come follow me.'" For he hath sold away all that ever he had, that surely What it is 
intendeth for the love of Christ, to help the poor with all that he may. ' The *" sell 
will is accepted for the deed,'^ as is commonly said. And this saying both fZYhe 
of James, and also of the Evangelist, I think verily belongeth to all christian gospel. 
men that they should perform it, none except, neither lay man nor woman (as 
we use to say), but to them, as well as to any whom we call religious. 

As concerning the relics and tombs of saints, I have said to your lordship Relics 
before, what I do think of the milk of our lady, the blood which they say is at ''J?'?.^?'"''* 
Hayles, Norwich, and other places, with such others, whereof I trust you do 
know what ought to be done. And I beseech God you may do therein as your 
office doth require, so showing example to other prelates to follow your lordship 
in good doing, as is comely for a primate to do ; remembering always, as Paul 
saith, ' the time is short,' and therefore it were good to set to hand in time. 

Finally, holy Moses, when he died, would be so buried that no man should Moses' 
know which was his grave, as it is witnessed in the book of Deuteronomy ; and ^nolvn " 
that (as the expositors testify) was, because the Jews, who were prone to new 
fangled worshipping, should not fall into idolatry, worshipping him as God, 
for the great and manifold miracles that were wrought by him while he was alive. 

To conclude, I say, it is no point of my belief, to think that oblations and Pilgrim- 
pilgrimages at saints' graves and relics, are meritorious works, nor yet that ^s^- 
there is any devotion in so doing. That is godly which is instituted by Scrip- 
ture. If you think contrary, I would desire to know, for mine instruction, 
what part of Scripture should make therefore against me. 

In the seventeenth article, where you do ask, whether the fast in Lent, 

(1) 1 Tim. iv. (2) ' Argentum igne examinatum, purgatum septuplxim.' Psalm xi. 

(3) ' Quid paleis ad triticura '! Propter hoc ego ad prophetas, dieit Dominus, qui furantur verba 
meaunusquisque a proximo suo, et seducunt populum meum in mendaciis suis, et in erroribus 
suis.' Jer. xxiii. (1) James i. (T)) 1 Cor. vii. 

((i) Matt. xii. (7) ' Voluntas reputatur pro facto.' 


Henry mul otlicrs appointed by the common law, and received in common usage of 
fill christian people (unless necessity otherwise vequircth) are to be observed, I 
say that, in mine opinion, they are to be observed, and fasting discreetly done 
, ,'io' is commendable, for so shall a man avoid sloth, and be the more ready to serve 
15.38^ God, and also his neighbours, and thereby tame the rebellion of carnal con- 
The say- cupiscence, according to the saying of the pnet,^ ' Without wine and good fare, 

ing of Je- j^jgj. -^viixeth cold.' And as St. Jerome,^ ' The body inflamed with wine, bursteth 
rorae. . ' , , 

out nito lust. 
Fast bro- Yet shall not the breaking of these fasts make a man to do deadly sin, except 
ken is of jj^ jjjg niind be some other malicious ati'cction therewith annexed, as rashness 
Itself iiQ ^j. jjjjj^^j^ despite, or such like; forasnnich as no positive law of man, made 
No law without foundation of Scripture, may bind any person, so that in breaking of 
without such, he shall therefore sin deadly. And of this sort made by man, are the fast 
bind^'th"^^ of Lent and other days ordained in your laws without authority of Scripture, 
any. which willeth us to fast perpetually, eating and drinking but when need re- 

How to quireth (not for any voluptuousness, as many, that recount themselves great 
ast tru y. ^-^^^.g^g^ j f^^j. |^^^,g done) ; yea, and that sparely, foreseeing always that our 
stomachs be never cloyed with drunkenness or surfeiting (as is commanded by 
our Saviour in Luke) ; but contrariwise, after the fashion rather of a certain 

!)rince that is mentioned, I trow, in Valerius Maximus, that never rose from 
lis meal's meat with a full stomach, but rather somewhat empty, or hiuigry ; 
which, as the story testifieth, caused him to live so wonderfully a long season, 
that a man could scarcely think it possible for one's life to be so prolonged, had 
not such a notable author reported it. 
Rather to And, to tell the truth, I suppose the prelates should better have persuaded 
be per- j.|^g, people to pure fasting by instant preaching of the word of God, and fatherly 
than^en- exhortations, than by ordaining of so sore a mvdtitude of laws and constitutions; 
forced. for the nature of man is well described by Horace, saying,^ ' Look, what is 
forbid, that we most desire, and always covet the things that be denied us.' 
And in another proverb,* ' The rope, by overmuch straining, bursteth asunder.' 
According to this said a good old father in Cambridge. I remember his sayir.g 
well yet : he was an old doctor of divinity. When a legate came into England 
Church at a time, and he, with certain bishops, had ordained, that the dedication of all 
holy days d^iij-ches through England (as 1 remember) should be kept holy and solemnized 
nize™ in upon one day, and priests should have their gowns made close before, with 
England, such other like ordinances, he resisted, not condescending to have them put in 
^°^7"^. execution, when his diocesan required him ; declaring how this nudtitiule of 
fore. laws pleased him not ; for we had enough and abundantly before. Adding 

Multi- this reason, ' Adam, being in paradise, had but one law to observe, and yet he 
tude of |j,..^]^e it . 'What other thing then shall this multitude do,' quoth he, ' but nud- 
prorttable. tiply transgression I for when a faggot is bound over strait, the bond must break." 
(iod therefore, I beseech him, send us of the sweet dew of his heavenly doc- 
trine, to moisten and supple the earthly ground of our hearts, that we may grow 
like fashioned imto him ; putting apart our old Adam, with all his dissimulation 
and painted show, that is much caused by human laws and constitutions ; and 
do upon us Christ, that is the very truth, and the way directing men to the 
same. Amen. 

Against Unto the eighteenth article, where you ask, whether it be laudable and pro- 
images, fitiible that worshipful images be set in churches for the remembrance of Christ 
Images and his saints, I say, that I know of no images that ought to be worshijijied, 
not to be specially made by the hand of men : for the Psalm saith,^ 'Confusion or shame 
worship- ^^ iipoji them that worship and make obeisance unto carved images, and that 
o-lory in their pictures.' Moreover St. Augustine, in his book ' Ue Vera 
Religionc,' saith thus : 'Let us not have devotion in worshipping the works of 
men.' Or else thus : ' Let us not he bound to worship the works of men ; for 
the workmen are more excellent than the things which they make, whom not- 
withstanding we ought not to worship.'* Lactantius also maketh strongly with 
the same : I caiuiot without book recite his saying, for he teacheth largely of 

(n 'Sine Cercre et Baccho friget Venus.' (2) ' Venter mero Kstuans spumat in libidinem." 

(3) 'Nitimur in vetituin semper, cupimusque negata.' 

(4) ' Funis plus squo tensus runipitur.' (5) Psalm xcvii. 

(fi) The Latin is thus, ' Nor sit nobis relii,'io humanorum ojierum cultus, mcliores enim suntipsi 
artifices qui lalia fabricantur; quos tanicn toltre nou debenms.' 

TO THE UlSIIors' AllTICi.ES. 203 

tlie same matter. Origen alsio, writing against Celsus, I trow, will likewise Henry 
testify ; where, as I remember, he concludeth, saying, that he would have no ^^^^- 
goldsmiths nor gravers in a commonalty ; for they do but little profit or none ~7^ vy 
tliereto. And St. Gregory that was chief, either inventor that images should be i coo' 
set in cluu-ches, or else maintainer thereof, would not, as I have read (I trow, — L1._I_ 
it is in an epistle which he writeth to Servus), have them worshipped. 

And as concerning the exciting of men's memory, I would suppose that if 
Christ's doctrine were so showed and opened, that people might clearly under- 
stand it (and that is the principal office of prelates and curates to do, by diligent 
teaching thereof), I think verily we should have little need of any other images 
than that which should, by wholesome doctrine, be showed unto us by word of 
mouth and writing :* ' Nothing is so effectual, to exercise the remembrance of 
disciples, as the lively voice of good teachers ;' as it is testified both by common 
report, and also by the sentence of learned men. 

So that I suppose, if this lively doctrine of God had aforetime been: apertly Tlie 
and diligently opened unto the people, as curates ought to have done, we should ^j^'^g j„ 
have vsuch profit thereby, that we should not need to contend for setting up, or remem- 
taking down, of other dumb stocks, and lifeless stones, carved or made by men ; l)ra"<:e, 
and if prelates would begin to set up Christ's word (which, alas for pity ! is not i',°,a.res. 
looked upon, but rather trodden down and despised ; so that many are not 
ashamed to say, ' I will have no more learning in Christ's law than my prede- 
cessors, for they that magnify it must be sore punished, and taken for heretics,' 
with such other grievous words) : if this doctrine were yet set up in churches 
(I say), and truly opened, that all men might have their judgment thereby re- 
formed and made clear, I think we should not greatly need the profit that 
Cometh by images made of men, to excite our i-emembrance to live christianly. 

For that word which came from the breast of Christ himself, and was written The 
of otliers that wrote and spake by the suggestion of his Spirit, the Holy Ghost, ^"^^!|"'j,"^ 
showeth full perfectly his blessed will, which is the true and certain image of i,'is ivnid 
his mind and device. If this, therefore, were diligently inculcated, 1 think we "'"i '"s 
should be transformed anew, according to the mind of Paul, who, writing to ^^""^ ^■ 
the Colossians,^ saith thus : ' See that you lie not one to another, after that now 
you have put off" the old man with his works, and have put upon you the new 
man, which is transformed and renovated after the knowledge and image of 
Him that made us.' Yea, thus should we all be 'docti a Deo,' ' taught of (lod,' 
as is said in John ;3 and all should know God, both small and great, according 
to the promise recited in the Hebrews :* yea, thus should we be restored to 
goodness, that we should have the image of God carved in our hearts full ex- 
jjvessly. For every man is transformed into the fashion of virtuous things, that As a man 
he is accustonied to read and hear. And, therefore, it were a great grace, if go'^'!^'^',!!' 
■we might have the word of God diligently and often spoken and sung unto us fasiiion- 
in such wise that the people might understand it. Yea, then it should come to «"■ 
jiass, that craftsmen should sing spiritual psalms sitting at their works, and the 
husbandman at his plough, as wisheth St. Jerome. 

Yea, this holy image of Christ, I mean his blessed doctrine, doth appoint us The hest. 
also to consider the works made by the hand of God, such as no man can make '(^"^'j'^'jg 
like, whereby, as saith St. Paul, writing to the Romans,* ' The invisible power uu word, 
and divinity of God is known and seen by the creation of the world,' of such as 
will consider his works that are therein by him made. Look in the Psalms,^ 
'Praise ye the Lord from heaven.' 'The heavens declare the glory of God,' 
with others.' And these two images, God's works and his doctrine, have, ere God's 
any images made by men were set up in churches, well and sufficiently in- ""J 
structed the primitive church : and should yet instruct us well, if they were word, he 
well considered, so that we should not need so sorely to contend for setting up !''"'j^'it 
of others made by men. Whereby 1 have perceived much harm to arise, and q^j^ 
no great profit; nor the Scripture makcth not for them but rather contraiy ; as 
concerning which matter, I would your lordship would please to read the E2)istle 
of Banich once again, writing of the same matter. 

Unto the nineieenth article where you ask, whether I believe that prayers of 

(1) ' Quoniam nihil tani efficax ad commonefacieiidum discipulos, quam viva vox.' 

(2) Col, iii. (.■!) John vi. (4) Heh. viii. (5) Rom. i. 

((>) ' Laudate Domiimm de crelis, ca-li eiiarrrnt,' ic Psalm cxlix. (7) I'.sal. .\ix. •%<:. 


Henry men living, do profit souls departed and being in purgatory, I made answer in 
VIII. the thirteenth article. 


1538. Unto the twentieth, where you do ask, whether men merit and deserve both 

by their fasting, and also by other deeds of devotion, I have showed what. I do 

think thereof, in the fifth demand. 

Truth In the one and twentieth, where you do ask, whether I do believe that men, 

taken for jjroliibited by bishops to preach, as suspected of heresy, ought to cease from 
ami^*^' preaching and teaching until they have purged themselves of suspicion, before 
heresy for a higher judge ? I say that men may be wrongfully suspected of heresy, cither 
'"'"'■ because they never thought to believe such errors as meUj by false suspicion, do 
deem them to favour ; or else, when men, as well of high estate as of low, by sinis- 
ter judgment may think that to be error, which is the very tnith. And of this 
■\viiether speaketh Isaiah,' 'Wo be to them,' quoth he, ' that call the light darkness, and 
men pro- ^jjg darkness light; the truth falsehood, and the falsehood truth.' As the bishops 
ou"ht to 3,nd the priests, with their orator Tertullus, called Paul, saying thus, before a 
cease judge called Felix, unto whose court they brought him to be condemned to 
preach- death: 'We have,' quoth they, 'gotten here a pestilent fellow, a sower of 
ing. sedition or discord among all the Jews of the world, and a bringer-up of the 

sect of the Nazarenes ; which was also minded to have polluted our temple,' Src.'-' 
This is to call, by pei'verse judgment, truth falsehood. And thus did their pre- 
decessors speak of the prophets, yea, and of Christ himself, calling him a seducer 
and preacher of heresy: which is written for our instruction. And men being 
thus suspected (as I would none were), ought in no wise, therefore, to cease 
either from preaching, or teaching. 

Ensample of this we have in the Acts of the Apostles,* where is showed that 
when Peter and John had done a miracle upon a man that had been lame from 
his nativity (whom by the power of Christ they healed, and caused to go where 
he pleased), the people, hearing of this, came running about Peter and John. 
Peter, seeing this, did exhort the people in a sermon, that they should not 
think him and his fellow St. John, to have done this wonderful thing by their 
own power or holiness, but by the virtue of Chi-ist, whom they and their head- 
rulers had slain. 

While they were thus speaking with the people, there came upon tlieni the 
priests and officers of the temple, accompanied with the Sadducees, being sore 
displeased that they should enterprise to teach the people, and preach that men 
should arise from death by the name of Christ, whom they had caused to be 
crucified ; and therewith they laid hands upon them, and put them in ward 
until next day. The next day they sent for the apostles before them, demand- 
ing by what power, and in whose name they did this miracle? Peter made 
answer, 'If you,' quoth he, 'that are head-rulers over the people, lust by ex- 
amination to know by what means we did it, we would you should all know, 
that we did it through the name of Christ Jesus of Nazareth, whom you did 
cnicify : but God did cause him to arise again. In the virtue of his name doth 
this man, that afore was lame, now stand afore you here both wliole and sound. 
For Christ is that head corner-stone, whom you cast away, which should have 
builded the people's faith upon him, neither is there any salvation without him.'* 
These great men, seeing that Peter spake so freely, and that he, with his 
fellow John, were simple men, without any pompous apparel, or great guard of 
servants, being like idiots and men unlearned, wondered thereat. At last they 
did command them to depart out of their council-house, while thej should coni- 
IViteraiid name more largely of the matter. Afterwards they called the apostles before 
the apo- ti,(.ij^ again, conunanding them that they should no more preach, nor teach in 
hii)iu'(i"to lilt- "ame of Jesus. But the iipostles answered, saying, ' I beseech you, judge 
jireaeh. better. Ought we to obey you more than Ciod, or no? for certainly we nuist 
needs testify of those things which we have both heard and seen.'* Then the 
head priests, threatening them sore, did give them strait charge not to break 
their precept ; and so did let them go, not knowing any cause why they might 
punish them ; for they feared lest the people would have taken part with the 
apostles, for the people gave glory unto God for the miracle showed by them. 

(I) Isa V. (2) Acts x.\iv. (3) Acts iv. v. vi. (4) Acts iv. (5) Ibid. 


Notwithstanding all these great threats, Peter wrought miracles still amongst Henry 

the people, doing them to know that glory therefore ought to be given to Jesus, by f''^^- 

whose power and name they were done ; wherewith the hearts of the people melted ^ j^ 

for joy, so that they followed after the apostles whithersoever lightly they went, j^gg' 

The primate of the priests, hearing of this, and all that were about him. 

replete with indignation, laid hands upon the apostles, putting them in the com- ^^'^^'^^j^''*" 
mon prison. But the angel of God, in the night, opened the prison-doors, and pg^p^,,^. 
brought them out, saying, ' Go you into the temple, and stand there preaching iivcred 
unto the people all the words of life;' that is to say, Christ's doctrine : and so out of 
they did early in the morning. Then came forth the chief priest, and they P"=*on. 
whom he used to have about him, and called a council, in which were all the 
priests of Israel, or ancients of Israel. So they sent unto the prison-house to 
have the apostles brought forth before them. When their serva'nts came to the 
prison-house, and found the apostles gone thence, they returned to their 
masters, saying, ' We found the prison fast shut round about in every part, and 
the keepers watching at the doors without, full diligently. But when we had 
opened the prison, we could find nobody within.' 

Then, as the high priests and officers of the temple heard this, they were in, 
a great perplexity, doubting what would thereof come. Then came one unto 
them and showed them, saying, ' Behold the men that ye put in prison are 
standing in the temple, preaching unto the people.' Then went they thither, 
and brought the apostles with them without any violence ; hut they were afraid 
lest the people would have beaten them down with stones. 

Then they caused the apostles to be brought into their council-house, the 
high priest beginning his proposition against the apostles in this form : ' Have 
we not straitly commanded you,' said he, ' that you should not preach in the 
name of Christ ? and see, you have filled all Jerusalem with your doctrine. 
Will you bring this man's blood upon us, that we should unrighteously have 
caused him to suffer death?' Then answered Peter and the other apostles, 
saying, ' We ought to obey God more than any man. The God of our fathers God to be 
hath raised Jesu from death, whom you did slay, hanging on a tree. Him not- ^^J^'^ 
withstanding hath God raised, and by his power advanced to be our King and than 
Saviour: by whom shall be given to all Israel, that wiU take repentance, men- 
forgiveness of sin.' 1 

These great rulers hearing this, their hearts were therewith cloven asunder, 
and they consulted together to slay the apostles. But one good man among 
their multitude advised them otherwise, whose advice they did approve. Then ^^^g^, 
they called the apostles again before them, causing them to be scourged, and of Gama- 
charged them no more to preach in the name of Jesus ; and so did let them depart, liel. 

Then went they away out of the council, rejoicing that God had made them wor- 
thy to suffer such rebukes for his name's sake. But yet they never ceased to teach 
and preach of Jesus Christ every day in the temple, and in all houses that they ^^^^^ 
came into. This is written in the fourth, fifth, and sixth of the Acts of the prohibi- 
Apostles, and for our instruction, doubt you net : for such practice is showed in tion, not 
all ages. So that hereby you may see, when men be wrongfidly suspected or God's'' 
infamed of heresy, and so prohibited by bishops to preach the word of God, word, 
that they ought for no man's commandment to leave or stop, though they do Popish 
never purge themselves before them ; for such will admit no just purgation PJ^lfJ^'*';,, 
many times, but judge in their own causes, and that as they lust, which methinketh thefr own 
not at all comely. Therefore, in the old law, the priests and other judges do causes, 
sit together, hearing of matters that were in controversy. 

Yet this I think reasonable, that a man justly and not causelessly suspected, 
and namely if he be so found faulty of heresy, ought to cease from preaching, 
after he is inhibited, until he have made his purgation before some judge. But, swiftncfs 
in my rude opinion, it were necessary and convenient that our heads should not of suspi- 
be over ready of suspicion, and so inhibiting men approved from preaching, proved, 
especially in this session, when the people do suspect them to do it more for 
love of themselves, and maintaining of their private lucre or honour, than to do 
it for love of God, or maintenance of his honour. 

In the two and twentieth article, where you demand whether I believe that 
it is lawful for all priests freely to preach the word of God or no, and that in all 

(i) Actsv. 


Henry places, at all seasons, and to all persons to whom they shall please, although 

VIII. they be not sent : I say, that priests are called in Scriptine by two distinct 

' . T-v words, that is to wit, ' presbyteri,'and ' sacerdotes.' The first is to saj', ancient 

, .'no men, seniors, or elders, and by that word or vocable are the secular judges, or 

!_ such like head officers, sometimes also signified ; as we I'cad in Daniel, that 

Priests, they were so called who defamed and wrongfully accused Susanna : that this 

tTiev"^'^ is seldom, and nothing so customable as for those to be called 'presbytei-i,' who 

ought to are set to be prelates in the church, to guide the same by the word of God and 

preach ]jjg blessed doctrine, that is the rod of direction, and the foundation of Christ's 

faith. And priests thus called 'presbyteri,' in the primitive church (what time 

there were but few traditions and ordinances to let us from the strait trade or 

Ejiiscopi institution made by Christ and his apostles), were the very same and none other 

byte^i ail but bisliops ; as I showed you in the first part of mine answer, by the authority 

one. of St. Jerome. 

Priests Paul, also, recordeth the same right evidently in the First to Titus ; in this 

liamei'In ^""" = ' I ^^ft thee Titus,' quoth blessed Paul, ' behind me in Crete, that thou 

Scrip- shouldest set in due order such things as lack, or be not else perfectly framed ; 

ture. a^j^^ jjj^j. tjjQy shouldest set priests in every town, like as I did appoint thee, if 

Descrip- anj' be without reproach or blameless, the husband of one wife, having faithful 

tion of a children, not given to riot, or that be not unruly. For so ought a bishop to be.' 

priest. ^^- These are not my words, but St. Paul's in the Epistle to Titus. Where 

you may see that a priest called ' presbyter,' should be the same that we call a 

bishop, whom he requireth, a little after, to be able, by wholesome doctrine of 

God's Scripture, to exhort the good to follow the same doctrine ; and if any 

How shall speak against it, to reprove them thereby. And mark ye how he would 

gainsay- ]iave a bishop (otherwise called an ancient man or a priest) to make exhortation 

truth are by holy Scripture, and thereby to reprove them that shall speak against the truth, 

to be re- and not to condemn them by might or authority only, or else by traditions of 

prove . T^-^Q^ made in general councils. And as many as are in this wise priests, who 

are commonly called ' presbyteri' (otherwise bishops), such as in the church 

are set to take cure of soids, and to be spiritual pastors, ought to preach freely 

the word of God in all places and times convenient, and to whomsoever it 

shall please them, if they suppose and see that their preaching should edify and 


What And whereas you add this particle, ' though they were not sent;' I say, that 

b"'sent '^ all such are chosen to be preachers, and therefore sent. For of this speaketh 

St. Gi-egoryin his Pastorals, in thiswise:' ' Whosoever taketh priesthood upon 

him, taketh also upon him the office of preaching.' Yea, your law reportethin 

like manner. Distinction 43, where it is thus said, ' A priest ought to be honest, 

that he may show honesty both in words and conditions.' Wherefore it is said 

in the Canticles, 'The cheeks of the spouse,' that is, to wit, of preachers, 'are to 

be compared to a turtle dove.' Where is moreover added, he must also have 

the gift of teaching, because (as saith St. Jerome) innocent conversation, 

without speech or preaching, how much it is available by example-giving, so 

much dotli it hurt again by silence-keeping : for wolves must be driven away by 

barking of dogs, and by the shepherd's staff, which (as the Gloss showeth) 

signifieth preaching, and sharp words of the priest. And this I understand of 

such as should be priests elect both by God and men, in God's church; whose 

office is to preach. 

Multi- And though many of them who now do minister in the church, and are 

""^'^ ♦.. elected by bishops, otherwise than after the manner of Christ's institution, and 
scTveth , „ •' „ , i^ . . . , , . , , 1 . 1 1 i ii 

inrautho- the form of the j)rnnitive church, neitlier do nor can prcacli ; yet ought not the 

■^■'y- multitude of such to belaid for an authority against me or others, that are com- 

pelled to show tlie trutli and right ordinances of the apostles, that were used 
aforetime in the primitive church : God bring it in again ! Neither ought we, for 
the negligence of l)ishops, who have chosen such an ignorant multitude, whereby 
the principal duty of priests is grown out of knowledge, when we do show 
you thereof, to be so enforced by a book-oath, and therefore noted as heretics, 
imprisoned and burned. 

Other be called priests in the New Testament, by this word ' sacerdotes,' 
that is to say, I think, sacrificers. And thus as Christ was called ' Rex et 
Sacerdos,' king and priest, so be all christian men in the New Testament (as is 

(i; ' Pra^dica'.ionis quippe oiri.iuni liuscipit. quisQuif ad sacerdotium accedit.' 

TO THE bishops'' ARTICLES. 207 

testified Apoc. i.) by Christ made kings and priests. The words in the iiemy 
Apocalypse be thus: 'To Jesu Christ, which liath h)ved us, and washed us Vili- 
from our sins through his blood, and made us kings and priests unto God, even • .. 
his Father, unto him be glory and rule for ever and ever. Amen.' Thus saith , -'„„' 

St. John, speaking of all christian people. In like manner it is said, by St. '- — '— 

Peter, where he writeth luito all christian men, ' You,' quoth he, ' be a chosen 
generation, a regal priesthood, an holy people.'' St. Bede, expounding the 
same (as my remembrance doth serve), shall testify plainly with me. And St. 
Augustine, I wot well, in divers places recordeth that all christian men be so 
called, 'regale sacerdotium;' and likewise doth Faber, in his Commentaries 
upon the same place. Whosoever looketh upon the treatise called ' Unio Dis- 
sidentium,' shall find a multitude of ancient fathers' sayings, declaring 
the same. 

But this may yet seem a strange thing and a new, that all persons should be llow all 
called priests, and that, in Scripture, which cannot lie. Truth it is indeed, it '"!" ^^'^ 
may seem strange to divers, as it did to me and many others, when we read it 
first ; because we never read nor heard of the same before, and so did Christ's 
doctrine (and his apostles') seem new to his audience, when he himself 
preached. Albeit he yet proved his doings and sayings by authority of the law 
and prophets, as is showed in Romans i., where Paul reporteth, ' that he was 
chosen apart, to be a minister of the gospel that was promised before by the 
prophets.' And our Saviour testifieth the same in St. John,^ saying to the 
Jews, ' Think you not,' quoth he, ' that I shall accuse you before my Father. 
There is one to accuse you, which is Moses, in whom ye do trust. But if you 
believed Moses, you should certainly believe me, for he writeth of me,' &c. 
Likewise a little above, he biddeth them search the Scriptures, for they make 
report of him. 

But although these sayings do seem new, for lack that we have not had old 
familiarity with Scripture, and usage in reading the same (God amend and 
help it, when it shall please him !), yet truly so standeth it written as I have 
said, and so it is interpreted by the doctors above named, and so was it preached 
of a certain doctor also of divinity in London, the second day of Advent last The say- 
past, in this sentence. I wot not whether these were the self words or no : j,"^."' '' 
' The church,' quoth the doctor, ' is nothing else but the congregation of faithful preacliins 
people : and you all,' quoth he to the people, ' are of the church, as well as I, at Paul'?, 
or any others, if you be of God. And likewise we and all men are priests, but 
yet are not all alike ordained ministers,' said he, 'to consecrate the body of 
Christ in the church.' Thus said the preacher; whom, when I see opportunity, 
I dare be bold to name. And these, I say, ought not all to preach openly in 
general conventions or assemblies, neither can they, but they rather should 
come to learn : yet privately are they bound, for instruction of their servants, ^^^^V . 
children, kinsfolk, and such like, to speak what should be for the destruction nister of 
of vice, and for the increase or upholding of virtue, whensoever time and place ?"'"' ip- 
so behoveth ; as showeth St. Paul, saying in this wise : ' You that are fathers, i*n hKs'own 
provoke not your childi-en to wrath or anger ; but bring them up in the doctrine hoiuse. 
and discipline of the Lord.' ^ 

In the three and twentieth article, where you do ask, whether I believe that 
it is lawful for lay people of both kinds (that is to wit, both men and women) 
to sacrifice and preach the word of God : I say, that it is meet for none, in 
mine opinion, to preach openly the word of God, except they be chosen and No man 
elected to the same, cither by God, or solemnly by men, or else by both ; and '" I'^'ich 
therefore St. Paul calleth himself, in all his epistles, an apostle of God, that is exc'"i')^lic 
to wit, a messenger of God. And to the Galatians he writeth thus,* ' Paul an bechosen. 
apostle; not sent of men, nor by man, but by Jesus Christ.' Also to the 
Romans,^ ' How shall men preach tndy,' quoth he, ' except they be sent?' in timenf 

Notwithstanding, I say this, both by supportation of God's law, and also of J^^^gj.;, 
laws written in the Decrees, that in time of great necessity lay people may lay peo- ' 
preach ; and that of both kinds, both men and women ; as you may see in the P'e- "li"-" 
Epistle to the Corinthians,^ where he saith that ' it is a shame for a woman to mii'^j^i'^ay 
speak in a multitude or congregation.' Yet in another place he saith that preach.' 

(I) 1 Pet.ii. (21 John v. 'Sy F.phes. vi. 

(4) Gal. i. 15) Rom. v. (G) 1 Cor. xiv. 






that pro- 

' every woman praying or prophesying, having nothing upon lier head, doth 
dishonour her head.' ' 

To this accordeth the prophecy of Joel,^ recited in the Acts,' where, in the 
person of God, it is said thus, ' 1 shall pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh, and 
both your sons and your daughters shall prophesy.' Thus did Anna the pro- 
phetess, daughter of Phanuel, give praise unto Christ in the temple, and spake 
of him to all men of Jerusalem, that looked after the redemption of Israel.* 

This also doth the Virgin Mary yet speak unto us in the Scripture, by the 
song which she made, that is daily recited in the church, called ' Magnificat.' 
Yea Stephen also, being no priest, but a deacon, made a wonderful good ser- 
mon. ^ This also willeth your Decrees, Dist. 9. ' De Consecratione,' where it is 
thus said : ' A woman, although she is learned and holy, may not presume to 
teach men in the congregation, nor baptize, except necessity requireth. So 
that, where need is, I shall add this, but not without the mind of him that 
wrote the law, like as a woman may baptize, so may she teach the word of 
God, or preach, as is declared more plainly, Cap. 16. Quest. 1, et in Glossa. 1 1. 
Cap. ' Adjicimus.' Dist. 18, And I beseech God, that, for lack of true and well 
learned oflicers, such necessity do not now come upon us, that such shall need 
to take upon them to preach. 

There is a learned man, who in a dialogue^ that he maketh betwixt a rude 
abbot and a gentlewoman having skill in learning, jesteth, but with pretty 
earnest (as his manner is), and giveth a watch-word touching somewhat my pur- 
pose. It is in the end of the dialogue. The gentlewoman answering the 
abbot, for that he had partly checked her because she was quick in utterance of 
learning, ' Sir,' quoth she, 'if you continue therein so dull as you have done, 
and daily do, the world perceiving it (as they begin fast to gi-ow quick in sight), 
it is to be feared lest they will set you beside the saddle, and put us in your 
Sacrifice As concerning sacrifice-doing (so do I understand by the word which you do 
inottering use, 'libare,' not knowing else what it should mean), I say that it is lawful for 
all men and women to do sacrifice, of what sort soever they be : but I mean not 
by sacrifice-doing, to say mass as priests used to do, thereimto appointed ; but 
like as christian people be 'sacerdotcs,' that is to say, sacrificers, as is showed 
before, so ought they to offer, and do offer, siiiritual sacrifices, as writeth St. 
Paul to the Romans, saying, ' I beseech you, brethren, for the love of God's 
mercy, that you will give your body a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to 
God, being a reasonable worshipping.' ' In that he saith our body should be a 
sacrifice, he would have it slain : for that was the manner, that all beasts that 
were wont to be sacrificed, should be first slain. But he joineth therewith, 
'living;' saying, 'Give your body to be a living sacrifice.' So that he would 
we should continue to live in this body to God's pleasure, but fleeing the evil 
lusts and appetites thereof, and so shall our worshipping be reasonable, if we 
do not give unto our reason overmuch of the bridle whereby it may run at riot, 
in following fleshly concupiscence, and wicked vanity or arrogancy : as when 
men will take in hand to devise, by their own wit, a more godly way of living 
than is instituted by Christ (who is the wisdom of his heavenly Father), saying 
that his is not sufficient enough for us to follow; of whom it is said by the 
prophet Isaiah in these words: 'This people approach near unto me, and 
honour me with their lips, but their heart is far from me ; but they do worship 
me in vain, teaching doctrines that are laws or precepts of men.'* 

Then Paul proceedeth, showing of this christian sacrifice, saying, ' And apply 
not yourselves unto the fashion of this world, but be you transformed, by reno- 
vation of your nund ; that you may know what is the will of God, what is good, 
acceptable, and rightful before him.'^ See how he would have us do this sacri- 
fice, and mortify our lusts, in refusing the corrupt fashion and behaviour of the 
world, altering our minds by a new way, by knowing the will of God, and fol- 
lowing after the same. 

Another manner of sacrifice which he requireth, is, that we should alway 
offer unto God the sacrifice of praise, that is to wit, the fruits of our lips, that 
Hosea calleth ' vitulos labiorum,''" giving laud unto his name; and that we 


true and 

of praise 

{l)lCor, xi. (2) Joel ii. (3) Acts ii. (4) Luke ii. (5) Acts vii. 

(fi) He meaneth the dialogue of Erasmus, entitled, ' Abbas et Erudita.' 

(7) Rom. xii. (8) Isa. xxix. (9) Rom. xii. (10) Hosea xi v. 


TO THE bishops' ARTICLES. 20.9 

should not forget to do good, and to be beneficial to our neighbours : ' For in 
such sacrifice,' saith he, ' God hath dehght.'' 

Thus I say that by plain suffrage of your law in the Decrees, and also of 
Scripture, lay persons, in necessity and in time of need, may lawfully preach or 
show the word of God, and also do sacrifice : but I think, except great need 
require, they ought not so to do. 

Thus have you herein my mind, which if it be not firm and substantial, I 
will yet reform it when any better is showed ; as I will also do in all otlier 
things ; for I am not in this yet fully certified. Albeit methinketh the decrees 
do pass evidently with me. 

In the twenty-foin-th article, where you do ask, whether excommunication, 
denounced by the pope against all heretics, do oblige and bind them before 
God : T say, that it bindeth them before God, if it be lawfully denounced, 
that is, if they be in very deed, as they be named ; and if he denounceth them 
so to be, not out of his own proper head or aifection only, but with the consent t'"p re- 
of others gathered with him in Christ's name, for the behoof of Christ's church : c"nserit 
for so used St. Paul, when he did excommunicate the man of Corinth, who had of others. 
full horribly defiled his mother-in-law, as appeareth in 1 Cor. v. 

And the same form declareth the gospel,^ in these words : ' If thy brother 
hath trespassed against thee, go and reprove him betwixt thee and him alone. 
If he will hear thee, thou hast so won thy brother. If he will not heai- thee, 
take one or two with thee, that in the report of two or three, every thing may 
be assured. If he will not hear them, show it unto the congregation. If he 
will not follow the mind of the congregation, let him be unto thee as a paynim, 
or a notable sinner. For verily I say unto you, whatsoever you shall bind ujjon 
earth, shall be bound in heaven.' So that such excommunication ought to be 
done (as methinketh) by the congregation assembled together with their pastor, 
whose advice they ought principally to esteem and follow, if it be virtuous and 

And thus is it convenient to be done : for the pope is made of flesh, as well The pope 
as other men ; and therefore he may sometimes judge awry, cursing the blessed, ^^^" '^"' 
and blessing the cursed. And likewise may other prelates, judging the chris- 
tian to be heretics, and heretics christian : of whom it is also written in the pro- 
phecy of Ezekiel,^ ' They slew the souls of them that should not die, and gave 
life to the souls that should not live ; ' as did the Pharisees when they did cast 
Christ out of the vineyard, which signifieth the church ; * and as our Saviour 
prophesied, 5 saying unto his disciples, ' There shall be,' quoth he, ' some that 
shall excommunicate you : yea, and the time shall come, that whosoever shall 
slay you, shall think to do honour to God And this shall they do unto you, 
because they do neither know my Father nor me.' These words be written in 
the gospel of John ; whereby you see, that for lack of knowledge of God, wliich 
is taught and seen by the light of Scripture, Christ prophesied how lewd men 
should lewdly excommunicate the good, yea and slay his true servants, think- 
ing, through such facts, to please God, and to do him good service. 

Wherefore send, O Lord ! I beseech thee, the knowledge of thee to be dilated 
ujjon earth (which Hosea^ bewaileth sore, seeing it absent), whereby men's 
judgments may be rectified ; and so do accordingly to the leading of the same ! 

In the twenty-fifth article, where you do ask, whether every pi'iest is bound 
to say daily his matins and even-song, according as it is ordained by the 
church, or whether he may leave them unsaid, without offence or deadly sin . 
I say that prayer in Scripture is nuich commended, and many great and im- The vir- 
measurable benefits ai-e showed to ensue thereupon, that men should the more ''"""f 
lustily give themselves thereto. With prayer doth St. Paul bid us to fight in 
divers places, continuing in the same .against our ghostly enemies. A figure of 
this is read in Exodus,' when the Israelites fought in battle against a nation of 
infidels : I trow their captain was called Amalek. Moses stood upon a moun- 
tain to behold what slioidd be the conclusion, and, lifting up his hands, ])rayed 
that it might well succeed with the Israelites : but in long holding tlieni up, at 

(11 Heb. xiii. (2) Matt, xviii. 

(3) ' Mortificabant animas quae rioii moriuntur, ct vivificabant aiiimas ' qua? iion vivunt. 
Ezek. xiii. (4) Matt. xxi. (5) John xix. (0) Hos. iv. (7j Kxod. xvii. 





A. D. 


ledge to 
be joined 

' Moses ' 
not to be 
' A.iron.' 

The zeal 
of Saul 


last his fervour began to grow cold and faint, and his hands sagged downwards. 
And ever as his hands grew heavy (which signifieth that his affection in prajing 
abated and waxed cold), the infidels prevailed; but as he kept them heaved 
upward (whei-eby was meant intentive prayer of a devout mind), he purchased 
victory to the Israelites. Aaron and Hur, who indited the law to the people, 
and were thereof the interpreters, stood with Moses ; who always, as they did 
see his arms to faint, did uphold them, so that finally the victory came unto 

By ' Moses ' is signified, as show great clerks, devotion ; ' by Aaron and Hur, ' 
the knowledge of God's doctrine : which two things (devotion, I mean, and 
knowledge) all men had need to have present with them : for devotion doth 
elevate the mind to God, but knowledge doth sustain or uphold the same, that 
it may with courage continue, not falling down; but so alway doth it incense and 
kindle it, that it mounteth up into the presence of our heavenly Fatlier ; where 
they savour together far more sweetly than any fumigation either of juniper, 
incense, or whatsoever else, be they ever so pleasant, do savour in any man's 

Therefore St. Paul, seeing how necessary the knot of these two, devotion and 
knowledge of God's will, was (which is showed in Scripture, as teacheth St. 
Cyprian in these words : ' The will of God,' saith he, ' is that which Christ hath 
taught and wrought ') : Paul, I say, seeing this, wished to be excommunicated 
and separated from God, to have the Jews come to the knowledge of Christ's 
church, which is the only right way to salvation ; for whom he prayed right 
studiously, as appeareth a little aftei-,' saying, ' I bear them record, that they 
have a zeal and devotion to God, but not according to the knowledge of Christ's 
doctrine,' &c. Where you may clearly see how the Jews (as St. Paul, who is 
no liar, recordeth here) had a zeal and devotion to God, but they lacked know- 
ledge therewith. ' Moses ' was amongst them, but ' Aaron ' was away ; whose 
absence pained Paul so sore, that he, ravished with exceeding charity, wished 
no small hami unto himself, upon condition that the multitude of them might be 
holpen, and have better judgment, even to be separated from God. It must 
needs be then greatly hurtful, albeit men have devotion, to be without the 
knowledge of God and his law, signified by ' Aaron.' 

St. Paul also, before that he came to knowledge, had such like devotion him- 
self, as he reporteth in these words :'^ ' All the Jews,' quoth he, ' have known 
my living, that I have led since I entered into man's age ' (which time, as 1 
remember, is accounted from the sixteenth or eighteenth year of a man's life ; 
in Latin he calleth it * adolescentia '), 'which, from the beginning thereof, was,' 
saith he, ' at J erusalem, among mine own nation, that did know me afore also 
from the beginning, if they would say the truth, and that I lived after the most 
strait order or sect of our religion, being a Pharisee.' ' And I,' quoth Paul a 
little after, ' thought to do many things in fighting against the name of Jesus 
Christ, yea and did also, being at Jerusalem ; and I thrust many saints or holy 
men into prison, having power given me thereto of the high pi-icsts ; and, when 
they should be put to death, I gave sentence : and I,' quoth he, ' was commonly 
in all .synagogues, punishing them, and compelling them to blaspheme' (as men 
are fain now-a-days, when the bishops make them to abjure and to deny the 
truth of the gospel) ; ' yea moreover did I,' quoth Paul, ' rage against them, 
pursuing after them into strange lands.' 

See what zeal Paul had to God before he was instructed in the doctrine of 
Christ. He thought to have 2>leased God highly in persecuting his servants, of 
whom one was St. Stephen. He was then sore blinded, through ignorance, 
and wanted the assistance of ' Aaron :' but anon, as Christ who is the true 
Aaron, liad appeared unto him, asking him, and saying, in a lamentable form, 
' O Saul ! Saul ! why dost thou persecute me,'' in troubling and striking my 
servants, the members of mine own body ? of whom it is said, ' He that smiteth 
you, shall smite the tender ball of mine eye :'* his heart fell, I dare say, as low 
as his body, that is, even down to the earth, repenting himself full sore, being 
ready to amend and follow after a new way ; as appeareth by his answer, where 
he saith, ' O Lord! what wilt thou have me to do?' As though one woidd 
say, ' Now I see all that I thought to have done before of good intention, and 
good purpose or devotion, hath deceived me. I find it otherwise. That which 

(I) Rom. X. 

(2) Acts xxvi. 

(3) Acts ii. 

(4) Zccli. ii. 



I esteemed good, in very deed is and was naught. ' Teach me therefore, good Henry 
Lord !' quotli he, ' a better way, and amend my judgment, that mine own will ^'^^i- 
or intention forsaken, I may now follow thine to please thee, and to do thy ^ j-j 
will.' And so, as he came to Ananias, by the assignment of Christ, the thick i^'jjg' 

filthiness of his old wayward judgment fell away, as appeareth by the dross or '— 

rubbish that came from his eyes, even like scales, as the Scripture maketh rela- 
tion, and he put upon him a new judgment, which is directed after the straight 
rule of the gospel : whereby you may see that men's devotion may oft beguile Devoti.m 
and seduce them, except knowledge do assist the same, to sustain and direct it; ai'i^"'^" 
which, knit together, shall much strengthen men in all trouble and tempta- thing, 
tions.' So that it is much expedient for all men, as nigh as they may, to have 
prayer annexed with knowledge : and that showeth full notably Erasmus, in 
the second passage of Enchiridion, where he testifieth but of easy liking that 
he hath, in saying of matins, ye<x rather contrariwise he showeth disliking ; and Sayinc 
so he doth also in his exposition of the first Psalm, ' Beatus vir,' whei-e the text ™''^""'^- 
maketh agreeably for the same. It is written in this wise : ' Blessed is the man 
that hath not gone after the counsel of the wicked, and hath not stood in the 
way of sinners, nor sat in the chair of pestilence ; but hath his will in the law 
of God, and shall muse or be occupied in it both day and night.' 

See hovvf the prophet (who, I doubt not but he knew as perfectly that will 
and pleasure of God, as ever did any pope or general council, or v/hatsoever 
they were besides, that ordained long service to be said of priests) testifieth 
them to be blessed, that study and are exercised in the law of God both day 
and night ; that is, to wit, always. A great promise put of God to such blessed tritfLo^j. 
exercise, which we may call right devotion, or true godliness. For Paul, de- liness or 
fining godliness, saith thus : ' Godliness is profitable unto all things ; for that P'^ty. 
hath annexed thereto promises of this life present, and of the life to come.'' 

But no such promise is made of God, I am certain, to them that say daily No pro- 
matins ; neither are we certain by the word of God, that we shall therefore be q^j'^^"' 
blessed of him, no more than we are certain, that for saying over the fifteen sayin;,' of 
' Goes,' every day once through a whole year, we shall apertly see our Lady to matins. 
aid us before our death, as it is testified in the scripture of the Primer, but not by 
scripture of the Bible ; or that we shall have a like benefit for saying of her q^j. 
Psalter upon the ten beads that come from the crossed friars, or upon the five Lady's 
beads hallowed at the Charter-house, or for fasting ' the Lady's fast,' as men P^'''*'^''^- 
call it ; or for fasting on the Wednesday, as is showed by a book that is allowed l^'I-s 
to be printed and read of all men that lust ; for it is neither the New Testament fast. 
nor the Old. 

They are condemned, 5'ou wot well (and I perhaps shall have a little less 
favour because I tell the truth freely, for such things are called offensive). But 
would God, that all persons, so thinking, would remember what answer Christ 
made unto his disciples, when they came to him, and warned him to beware, 
saying, ' You know that the Pharisees are oflTended, hearing such words spoken. '2 
I will leave out Christ's answer, lest I should be thought over free and plain in 
tarrying or uttering of abusions, and speak no further. 

A like demand, with answer thereunto annexed, shall yon find in Luke,' 
where Christ would not refrain to speak any deal more easily. Therefore I 
])eseech them that deem me (God wotteth whether righteously or no) slander- 
ously, to revise the said places, and then counsel me to do what shall be most 
expedient to follow, if their charity will so require. Yet would I that all 
people should know that I do not reprove that saying of the fifteen ' Goes,' which 
(so far forth as my remembrance doth serve) is a very good prayer, or such like 
prayers; nor would I that any person should think me to disallow any secret Fasting 
fiistings ; for such, not only present with you, but even from hence absent, have ™p",dpj 
I commended in earnest speaking, and so intend to do, by the assistance of 
God's grace. Nevertheless such vain promises I do abhor, as be with them 
annexed, with the upholders of the same : for such do cause vain confidence in 
the people, withdrawing and seducing them from the right belief of the gospel 
(which christian men ought only to build their faith upon), unto new inven- 
tions of vanity. St. Paul calleth such, 'old women's tales,' where he writetli 
unto Timothy, bidding him to beware of them, and to throw them away. 

(1) ' Pietas ad omnia ulilis est, ut qua; propiissiones liabcat prsesentis vita; et fu'.ujcE.' I Tim. iv. 

(2) Matt. XV. (3) Luke xi. 

V O 


Hertrtj The prophct David, likewise, doth accord thereunto, saying, ' Blessed,' quoth 
VIII. he, ' is the man that hath in the name of God his affiance or hope ; and hath 
. Pj not looked back to vanities and false dotages or madness.'^ And this I say 
1 ^"^fi ^tf''^'"' ^^^^^ the matins-saying hath no more promise of God made to the sayers, 

. !_ than liath the other above named ; for they were instituted by the fantasy or 

mind of men, and not by the rule of Scripture. Neither do I think that the 
priests who will truly follow the rule of God written in the Bible, ought so to be 
charged or encumbered with saying of them, that they thereby should be hin- 
dered from the study of that, which to know, belongeth principally both to their 
own soul's salvation, and also to the discharge of their duty, and which God 
most highly of priests doth require (I mean the study of his gospel), whereby 
they themselves should be spiritually nourished, and thereafter should feed 
Christ's flock, the congregation of his people, according to the saying of our 
Saviour: ' I am the door,' quoth he; 'whosoever shall come in by me, shall 
both come in and go out, and find good pasture or feeding :'' that is to say, 
whosoever shall enter to be a pastor or minister in Christ's church or congi-e- 
gation by Chnst, shall both enter into contemplation of God's glory, declared 
abundantly in Scripture, and after go forth and show the same abroad to others, 
for their wealth and edifying. 

To this accordeth what is written in Luke, where our Saviour speaketh to all 
his church signified in the person of St. Peter. ' Peter!' quoth he, ' I have 
prayed that thy faith should not fail ; and thou, being converted, go then about 
to confirm thy brethren.'^ So that he would have Peter established first in the 
faith of his sure doctrine, and then to go forth as he did, to teach others to be 
grounded in the same likewise. And thus ought all priests to be called ' pres- 
byteri,' who will be ministers in the church ; for so biddeth St. Peter, saying 
thus: ' I beseech the priests,' quoth he, ' that are among you, I myself being 
a priest and a witness-bearer of Christ's afflictions, and also a partaker of the 
glory which shall be I'evealed ; see that you with all diligence do feed the flock 
of Christ, taking care of the same, not as enforced thereto, but willingly , not 
desiring filthy lucre, but with a loving mind ; neither as men exercising domi- 
nion over the children or inheritors of God, but so that you be patterns or 
ensample-givers to the flock.'* See how he requireth of priests, that they 
should spend all their diligence to feed Christ's flock, and to show good ensample 
of living, making no mention of long matins-saying, which then was not men- 
tioned nor spoken of. 
Igno- According to this, it is wiitten in your Decrees after this form : ' Ignorance, 

ranee saith the law,' mark it well I beseech you all, ' is the mother of all errors ; which 
error. ought to be eschewed especially of priests, who, among the people of God, have 
taken upon them the ofiice of preaching. Priests are commanded to read the 
holy Scriptures, as saith Paul the apostle to Timothy : ' Give heed to reading, 
exhortation, and teaching ; and continue always in the same.' * Let priests there- 
fore know holy Scripture, and let all their labour be in preaching and teaching, 
and let them edify all men both in knowledge of faith, and in discipline of good 
Priests works.' These be the words of the law in the Decrees, Dist. .38 ; wherefore 
to Rive you see how the law lamenteth ignorance in all persons ; for it is the original 
selves °^ ^^^ errors. God send us therefore the knowledge of his true gospel ! It 
rather to- biddeth that ignorance should be utterly eschewed, and ])rincipally by priests, 
study whose labour and diligence should all be bestowed in reading of Scripture, and 
sayinp of preaching the same ; bringing in for the same purpose the saying of the apostle, 
matins, which willeth it in like manner. 

What Moreover, it requireth that priests should give all their study to edify others 

pritsits i,^ faith and virtuous living ; whereof I do gather both by the saying of 
stifriy. the prophet, that willeth us to be studious in the law of God day and night, and 
by the saying of the apostle, who woidd have Timothy to be occupied ever in 
reading and teaching, and by the report of your own law, which likewise saith, 
that a priest ought to bestow all his labour in reading and preaching : so that a 
priest, set thus truly to study, that he may establish himself in the faith of 
Christ's doctrine, intending afterwards to help others with true preaching of the 
same, or doing other like deeds of charity assigned in the law of God, shall not 

(1) ' Beatus vir cujus est nomen Domini spes ejus, et non respexit in vanitates et insanias 
falsas.' Ps. xl. 

(2) John X. (3) Luke xxii. (4) 1 Pet. v. (5> 2 Tim. iv. 

TO TIIF, bishops' AUTICLES. 213 

offend deadly, if, so spending his time, he omitteth to say matins, which is an nenry 
ordinance of men. nil. 

Nevertheless, concerning the huge multitude of such as be now made priests a r\ 
hy negligent admission of bishops, and their own presumption, that labour to be 1530 
made priests before they be any clerks, and, ere ever they know what is the very - 
office of a priest, do not fear to take upon them, if they may attain thereto, to Negh- 
be curates, they reck not of how many, so they may get a good lump of money, bishopsin 
never minding, after that, the Rtudy of Scripture, after they are come to making 
' Dominus vobiscum :' for such I do think long matins to be needful, to restrain I"'"^^'^- 
them from other enormities that they should else run into ; of which you may 
be weary to see the experience thereof daily arising. Yea, and if such would 
be content to admit it, I would every one matin were as long to them as five, 
except they could bestow their time better. 

In the six and twentieth article, where you do ask, whether I believe that the Scripture 
heads or i-iders, by necessity of salvation, are bound to give unto the people "" f*^^ 
holy Scriptui-e in their mother language : I say that I think they are bound to tougiie. 
see tliat the people may truly know holy Scripture, and I do not know how that 
may be done so well, as by giving it to them truly translated in the mother 
tongue, that they may have it by them at all times, to pass the time godly, 
whensoever they have leisure thereto, like as they have in France under the 
French king's privilege, and also the privilege of the emperor; and so do I know 
that they have had it these fifty-four years in Finance at least, and it was trans- 
lated at the request of a king called, I trow, Louis, as appeareth by the privi- 
lege put in the beginning of the book.' 

In like manner have they it in Flanders, printed with the privilege of the 
emperor : in Almain also, and Italy, and I suppose through tdl the nations of 
Christendom. Likewise hath it been in England, as you may find it in the 
English story called ' Polychronicon.'^ There it is showed, how when the Saxons 
did inhabit the land, the king at that time, who was a Saxon, did himself trans- 
late the Psalter into the language that then was generally used. Yea I have 
seen a book at Crowland Abbey, which is kept there for a relic ; the book is 
called St. Guthlake's Psalter; and I ween verily it is a copy of the same that the 
king did translate, for it is neither English, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, nor Dutch, 
but somewhat sovmding to oiu- English ; and, as I have perceived since the time 
I was last there, being at Antwerp, the Saxon tongue doth sound likewise after 
ours, and it is to ours partly agreeable. In the same story of Polychronicon is Bede 
also showed, how that St, Bede did translate the Gospel of John into English, ["^^"f". 
and the author of the same book promised that he would translate into English gospel of 
all the Bible ; yea and perhaps he did so, bvit (I wot not how it cometh to pass) St. Jolin 
all such things be kept away ; they may not come to light : for there are some E,'°]igij 
walking privily in darkness, that will not have their doings known. It is no 
lie that is spoken in the Gospel of Joim, 'All that do naughtily, hate the light, 
and will not have their doings known. '^ And therefore they keep down the ^^^^^^ 
light strongly; for that o])ened and generally known, all wrongful conveyance Scriphno 
should anon be disclosed and re])roved, yea and all men should see anon,'"*''"' 
whether those that hold against unrighteousness, being there-for sometimes fo come 
horribly infamed and slandered, named heretics and schismatics, were indeed to light. 
as they be called, or no. 

Yea moreover, I did once see a book of the New Testament, which was not Divers 
unwritten by my estimation this hundred years, and in my mind right well '^''Js\\.j. 
translated after the example of that which is read in the church in Latin. But nunts 
he that showed it me said, he durst not be known to have it by him, for many °-^^ y^^ '° 
had been punished aforetime for keeping of such, and were convicted therefore 
of heresy. 

Moreover I was at Paul's cross, when the New Testament, imprinted of late Krrors 
beyond the sea, was first forefended ; and truly my heart lamented greatly to '''"'"^^ 
hear a great man preaching against it, who showed forth certain things that he „o„e 
noted for hideous errors to be in it, that I, yea and not only I, but likewise did were. 

(1) The French Bible was translated into the French tongue, with the king's privilege, about 
fifty years before Lambert's time. 

(2) The Psalter translated by the king of England into the Saxon tongue. Read before. 

(3) ' Omnis qui male agit, odit lucem.' John iii. 







the Scrip 
may be 
ed from 

many others, tliiiik verily to be none. But (alack forjiity !) malice cannot say 
well. God help us all, and augend it. 

So that to conclude. I think verily it were profitable and expedient, that the 
holy Scriptures were delivered, by authority of the head-rulers, unto the people, 
hruly translated in the vulgar tongue, in like manner as it is in all other countries. 
And whereas you add, whether they be bound by necessity of salvation to 
deliver it to the people : I will not so narrowly touch that point now ; but I 
say, that they are bound by right and equity to cause it to be delivered unto the 
jjeople in the vulgar tongue, for their edifying, and the consolation which the 
people, by God's grace, should gather thereof; which now it is like they want, 
and are destitute of. 

why it 

in 1,'s and 
a!id some 

of hivi! 

goeth to 
road the 

In the twenty-seventh article, "where you do demand, whether it be lawful for 
the rulers, for some cause, upon their reasonable advisement, to ordain that the 
Scripture should not be delivered unto the people in the vulgar language : all 
men may here see, that whosoever devised these tpiestions, thought not contrary 
(whatsoever they will yet say) but that it is good for the people to have the 
Scriptiu-e in the vulgar tongue, and that they thought that I, so sayhig, coidd 
not be well reproved ; and therefore are laid out all these additions, as it were 
to snare and trap me in : Whether the heads be boimd, and that bj' necessity of 
salvation, to deliver it to the people : and whether, for opportunity of time, thej"^ 
may ordain to restrain it for some cause, and by some reasonable advisement of 
them taken : ' But without cause you spread the net before the eyes of the 
birds or fowls. '^ I show you plainly, that notwithstanding all these things, in 
mine opinion it was not well done to inhibit it, and worse, that the bishops have 
not since amended it, if so be they could, that the people might have it to use 
and occupy virtuously. 

And here I will add one reason : The Scriptiu-e is the spiritual food and 
sustenance of man's soul. This is showed to be true in many places of Scrip- 
ture ; like as other corporal meat is the food of the body. Then if he be an 
unkind father, that keepeth bodily meat away the space of a week or a month 
from his children ; it should seem that our bishops be no gentle pastors or 
fathers, that keep away the food of men's souls from them (specially when others 
do ofi'er the same) both months, years, and ages : neither do I see any o])por- 
tunity of time, or reasonable advisement, that should cause it to be withdrawn 
and taken away ; but the contrary rather, for it is reason, convenient and need- 
ful for men, to eat their meat ever when they are right hungry ; and blessed 
are they that hunger and thirst after the word of God, which teacheth to know 
him and to do liis pleasure at all times ; for that we do crave every day in our 
Pater Noster, saying, ' Give us Lord our heavenly bread. '^ 

In the twenty-eighth article, where \o\\ do ask, whether I believe that con- 
secrations, hallowings, and blessings used in the church are to be praised? I 
say that I know not of all, and therefore 1 will not dispraise them ; neither can 
I therefore overmuch speak of them all, seeing I know them not : such as are 
the hallowing of bells, the hallowing of pilgrims when they should go to Rome, 
the hallowing of beads, and such like. But those which I am advised of, and 
do remember, be in mine opinion good ; such as is this : when the priest hath 
consecrated holy bread, he saith, ' Lord, bless this creature of bread, as thou 
didst bless the five loaves in the desert, that all persons tasting thereof may 
receive health,' &c. : which I would every man might say in English, when he 
sliould go to meat, I like it so well. 

Also this is a right good one, that is said over him that shall read the gospel : 
' The Lord be in your heart, and in your mind and mouth, to pronounce and 
show forth his blessed gospel;' whicli is also spoken over a preacher taking 
benediction when he shall go into a pulpit. All such good things I like very 
well, and think them commendable, wishing therefore that all people might know 
what they mean, that they with rejoicing of heart might pray joyfully with us, 
and delight in all goodness; which shoidd be, if they were uttered in English, 
according to the mind of St. Paul,^ where he wisheth, ' rather to speak five words 
in the church heartily with understanding, whereby others might have instmc- 
tion, tlian ten thousand words in a tongue unknown :' 5'ea, to say truth, (and 

(1) ' Sed frustra jacitur rete ante oculcs pennatoruia.' I'rov. i. 

(2 Matt. V. (3; 1 Cor. ix. 


truth it is indeed that I sliall say), a good thing, the further and the more iienni 
largely or apertly it is known, the furtner the virtue thereof spreadeth, and VHI- 
rooteth in men's hearts and remembrance. God send therefore the blind to see, ■ .. 
and the ignorant to have knowledge of all good things ! , ' „' 

Thus I conclude, that consecrations, hallowings, and blessings used in the ! — L 

church (so far forth as I remember and know) be commendable. Of others I 
can give no sentence, wishing, even as I trust men shall once see it come to 
pass, that all good things may be sung and spoken in our vulgar tongue. 

In the twenty-ninth article, where you do ask, whether I believe that the Laws of 
pope may make laws and statutes to bind all christian men to the observance of ^'^^tfj^jj' 
the same, under the pain of deadly sin, so that such laws and statutes be not they bind 
contrary to the law of God : I say, that if that be true which is written in the n^*^"- 
Decrees, that is to wit, that laws be never confirmed, until they be approved by The ^ 
common manners of them that shall use them, then cannot the pope's laws bind P"P®=^> 
all chi'istian men ; for the Greeks and the Bohemians will (as you do know full received 
well) never admit them, but do refuse them utterly, so that I do not find that of all. 
his laws may bind all christian men. 

Finally, I cannot see that he hath authority to make laws, binding men to No power 
the observance of them under pain of deadly sin, more than hath the king, or j" ™^'^^ 
the emperor-. And, to say sooth, I say (as I have said before), I think verily binding 
that the church was more full of virtue before the decrees or decretals were umier 
made (which is not very long ago, but in the time of Constantine, if that be ^^^'"^ 
true which is reported in the Decrees,)' than it hath been since. God repair it, 
and restore it again to the ancient purity and perfection !' 

In the thirtieth article, where you do ask, whether I believe that the pope Power of 
and other prelates, and their deputies in spiritual things, have power to excom- t^^^ P*;!'^ 
municate priests and lay people, that are inobedient and sturdy, from entering nm;,,. 
into the church, and to suspend or let them from ministration of the sacraments cate. 
of the same : I think that the pope and other prelates have power to excom- 
municate both priests and laymen, such as be rebellious against the ordinance 
of God, and disobedient to his law : for such are sundered from God, before the 
prelates do give sentence, by reason of their sin and contumacy, according as 
it is said in Isaiah by Almighty God : ' Your sins,' quoth he, ' do make division 
betwixt you and me.'^ And the prelates, by right judgment, should pronounce 
of sinners as they do find them, and that is to pronounce such to be exconnnu- 
nicated of God, and unworthy to minister any sacraments, or to be conversant 
with christian folk that will not amend. For thus biddeth Paul,^ ' If any amongst 
you, called a brother, shall be a whoremonger, a covetous person, or a worship- 
per of images or idols, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner, see that 
with such you eat no meat.' Such ought to be put out of the church, and not 
be suffered to come within it. 

I am not certain that prelates have any such power : and though they had, I A doubt 
doubt whether charity would permit them to show it forth and execute it with- pfe^^j'^J^ 
out singular discretion. For in churches ought the v/ord of God to be declared iiave any 
and preached, through which the sturdy, coming thither and hearing it, might >*"<^'> 
soon be smitten with compunction and repentance, and thereupon come to 
amendment. This confirmeth well a law made in the council of Carthage, 
which is this : ' A bishop ought to prohibit no person to come into the churcli, 
and to hear the word of God, whether he be Gentile, or Jew, or heretic, until 
the mass time of them that are called Catechumeni.'* 

Moreover, where you speak of prelates' deputies, I think such be but little Bishops' 
behovable to Christ's flock. It were necessary and right, that as the prelates noj"""^ 
themselves will have the revenues, tithes, and oblations of their benefices, they behov- 
themselves should labour and teach diligently the Word of God therefore, and ^'^''^• 
not to shift the labour from one unto another till all be left (pity it is!) undone. 
Such doth St. John call 'fures et lati-ones,' 'thieves and murderers,' although 
they make ever so goodly a worldly shov/ outward, and bear a stout ])ort. 

This I say, that the pope and other prelates have power to excommunicate 

(1) Dist. Ij. eap. 'C'auoncs generalium.' (2) Isaiah lix. (3) I Cor. v. 

(4) ' re Conse.' Dittiuct. 1. 



Jlcri nj 





to (lis- 


liis cure, 







make not 

a man 


but a 






rebels against God's ordinances, and to suspend them fi-om receiving or minister- 
ing the sacrament : but I am not sure, that they have power to forcfend them 
from out of churches, especially when God's word is there preached, unless the 
sinners be so sore desperate that they scorn the same. And I would that every 
prelate, receiving his living of benefices, should himself work in the same, 
especially in true preaching of Christ's doctrine, without winding his own neck 
out of the yoke, and chai'ging therewith others, called deputies or vicars, curates, 
and such like. For God would have every man to get his living by the sweat 
of his own face ; that is to say, by his labour, according to his estate and call- 
ing. And like as every workman is worthy his meat, so conti-ariwise, they that 
labour not, unles they be let by impotency, are worthy to have no meat, and 
much less to take of those, to whom they do no service, fifty or forty pounds a 
year, for waiting after none other thing than the moon shining in the water. 
The canon law maketh clearly with the same. Look in the Decrees,' and you 
shall find plainly as I say. 

In the thirty-first article, where you ask, whether faith only, without good 
Avorks, may suffice unto a man fallen into sin after his baj)tism, for his salvation 
and justifying ? I say, that it is the usage of Scripture to say, faith only doth 
justify, and work salvation, before a man do any other good Avorks ; and that 
is showed by many authorities, both of Scripture and also of many holy fathers, 
in a treatise called, 'Unio Dissidentium,' which I would to Christ, as it is in 
French, and other languages, we had it tndy translated into English. And 
truly I do think in this matter (like as is showed by many authorities of holy 
fathers), that a man fallen into sin after baptism, shall be saved through faith, 
and have forgiveness by Christ's passion, although he doth no more good deeds 
thereafter : as when a man, having short life, lacketh leism-e to e.xercise other 
deeds of mercy. Notwithstanding, true faith is of such virtue and nature, that 
when opportiniity cometh, it cannot but work plenteously deeds of charity, 
which are a testimony and witness-bearer of man's true faith. This declareth 
St. Augustine upon John ; I trow it is where he expoundeth this text :■> ' If ye 
love me, keep my commandments:' where, within a little after, he speaketh in 
this wise :^ ' Good works make not a just or a righteous man; but a mtin once 
justified, doeth good works.' 

In the thirty-second article, where you ask, whether a priest marrying a wife, 

and that without the dispensation of the l)ope, begetting also children of her 

without slander-giving, do sin deadly: I say, that he doth not so much ottend 

as those who in Wales (as I have heard say), and also in many parts beyond 

the sea, or rather in all places, do give openly, for money, dispensations to 

priests to take concubines : neither doth he oftend so much as the purchasers of 

such dispensations ; for they, on every hand, do clearly commit fornication and 

adultery, utterly forbidden by God's law ; and the priest, of whom speaketh your 

demand, ofiendeth but man's law, if he do that. For in the Decrees it is written ; 

„ . ^ I ween it be in a gloss, and certainly I wot not whether it be in the text or no, 

pun7shed I can lightly turn to it having a book : the sentence is thus :* ' A priest doing 

for sin. fornication, ought to be punished more than one who hath married a wife.' 

Finally, I think such a priest as before is named in your demand, sinneth not 


In the thirty-third article, where you ask, whether a Latin priest, after he 
hath taken the order of priesthood, being sore and oft troul)lcd and stirred with 
prickings of lust or lechery, and therefore nuxrrying a wife for a remedy of the 
same, do sin deadly : I say, that a Latin priest, and a Greek priest, are all one 
before God, if they follow both one rule of Christ, left to us in holy Scripture; 
neither doth Christ put any such difference, but the one hath by that rule the 
same liberty as another, and no more nor less ; for there is the same God in 
Greece, that is here, and hath left one way for us to live after, both here and 
there. And, therefore, I cannot see by his law, but that a Latin priest may 

of priests, 
as well 
Latin as 

(1) Cap. 21. quiESt. 2. cap 'Praicip.' 

(2) ' Si dilif,'itis me, pra;cepta mea scrvate.' Aug. in Johan. 

(3) 'Opera bona non faciunt justum, sed juFtificatus facit bonaopcra.' 
14) ' I'resbyter fornicans est plus puuiendus quara uxorem ducens.' 

TO Tllli mSIIOl's' ARTICLES. 217 

mai'iy, as well as they do. And if the Greeks should not follow Christ's law Hemy 
in believing the same, and living thereafter, you would call them heretics. But yili- 
that will not the pope have done. Wherefore, seeing they do let priests marry, . ,^ 
affirming it may so be done by the law of God, and yet are not reputed ' ^ ' 
heretics, why should other men, that say the same, be called hei'etics, or be ' 

therefore burned? Therefore, following the law of God, I make the same 
answer of a Latin pi'iest, that I made before of all priests : that a priest, not 
having the gift of chastity, is bound to marry, for avoiding fornication. 

In the thirty-fourth article, where you ask, whether I ever prayed for John The 
WicklifF, John Huss, and for Jerome of Prague, condemned of heresy in the ^,\^^p]^eg 
council of Constance, or for any one of them, since they died, and whether I suftei- 
have openly or secretly done any deeds of charity for them, affirming them to priests to 
be in bliss and saved : I say, that I never prayed for any of them, so far forth '"''^'^''^^ 
as I can remember : and though I had, it followeth not, that in so doing I 
should be a heretic. For you wot well, that there is a mighty great country, 
called Bohemia, which yet doth follow (as men say) that same doctrine, which 
John Huss and Jerome of Prague taught their ancestors, whom (as I trow) 
neither the pope nor you do account heretics and infidels. 

In the thirty-fifth article, where you ask, whether I have recounted and said 
them or any of them to be saints, and worshipped them as saints : I say that 
in such secret and hid tilings which I do not perfectly know, I follow the 
counsel of St. Paul, who biddeth that we should not judge over soon, but abide 
(unless the things which we shoidd pass upon, be the more evident) until the 
coming of the Lord, who shall illumine, and show forth clearly, things that 
now lie hid in darkness. Therefore hitherto have I neither judged with them, 
nor against them, but have resigned such sentence to the knowledge and de- 
termination of God, whose judgment I wot is infallible. 

And whereas you say, they were condemned of heresy in tlie council of Con- 
stance : if so the council did right, God shall allow it, I doubt not ; and that 
shall suffice to have commendation of him : so that it is not need to ask of me 
whether the acts of the same are commendable or no ; neither can I give any 
dii'ect answer thereto ; for I do not verily know them. And though I did, yet 
am not I verily persuaded that I, because the council hath condemned them, 
must therefore believe them to be damned. I'or a council, as I ween, may Councils 
sometimes slip beside the right truth . but what that council did in condemning "'''^ 
them, I cannot precisely say; God wotteth. Yea, and that one singular person slipawry. 
may judge more rightly, than a great multitude assembled in a council, ap- 
peareth by God's law, and by the law of man. Experience hereof may you 
see by the council that is spoken of in the gospel, where is showed, that after 
our Saviour had restored Lazarus to life, the bishops and Pharisees then were 
gathered together in a council, saying, ' What shall we do ? Truth it is that this 
man Jesus doth many miracles, and if we suffer him thus, all the world will 
believe him ; whereupon the Romans will come, and put us out of Jerusalem, 
our dwelling place, and destroy our nation.* At which time Caiaphas did ai-ise, 
showing forth his sentence, which the whole council did admit 

In like wise is showed in the Acts,^ where, in a council of the bishops and 
priests assembled to know what punishment should be done unto Christ's 
apostles, because they preached in the name of Christ, contrary to the precept 
of them (for they befoi'e had commanded the apostles no more to speak in 
Christ's name), there, among a shrewd multitude of them gathered together, 
did arise a certain man, called Gamaliel (a pitiful thing verily to see but one 
good man in such a great convocation or council of priests, that should be the 
lights of virtue to all the people) ; which Gamaliel was a doctor of the law, 
and had in good reputation among the people : much like he was, as seemed anuur.*^^' 
to me, to Dr. Colet, sometime dean of Paul's in London, while he lived. I may Coict 
come no nearer, to name some other of our time, lest I should be thought [""'R^^'-''' 
offensive. This Gamaliel did bid the apostles go aside for a while out of the TiVccouti- 
council, or convocation-house ; and so he spake unto the other priests or bishops sd oi (ia- 
in the council thus: ' You men of Israel,' quoth he, ' take heed to yourselves "I'jg'ph!,? 
what ye shall do unto these men the apostles : for afore this time liath risen ristes. 

(1) Jhon xl. ^2) Acts V. 


Henry oiiG Called Thcudas, and afterwards another named Judas of Galilee, which 
i''ltl- have turned the peojile after them, and in conclusion they perished, and all 
~ . |-j they that followed after tlicm vanished away. And now,' ouoth he, ' I say 
-, -'.,,,' unto you, refrain from hurting these men the apostles, and let them alone, or 
— ' ' ' " suffer them. For if this enterprise and work that they have made he of men, 
undouhtedly it shall perish, and be foredone : but if,' quoth he, ' it be of God, 
you cannot foredo it. And this I tell you,' said Gamaliel, ' lest you should be 
found to strive and fight against God.' 
Councils Unto this sentence of Gamaliel, did all the others of the convocation or par- 
go not al- hament agi'ee ; and so they called in the apostles of Christ before them, causing 
rigiit. them to be scourged, and charging them, no more afterwards to preach of 
Christ's name ; and so did let them depart. This was undoubtedly done in the 
time of our Saviour and of his apostles, and caused to be written for our comfort 
and learning ; for the Holy Ghost knew before, that like practice shoidd come 
in the latter time of the world, which we are in. Whereby you may clearly 
Councils see, that coiuicils do not always discern with Christ, but sometimes they may 
may and j|q against him. And therefore said David,* ' I did not,' quoth David, ' sit with 
the assembly or council of vain doers, or liars, and I v.ill not go in amongst 
them that work iniquity : for I have hated the convocation of them that are 
malicious or nialigners, and amongst the wicked will not I sit : but I will wash 
my hands among innocents,' &c. Also in another psalm he writeth thus f 
'The Lord,' quoth he, ' doth destroy or annihilate the counsels of the Gentiles; 
he reproveth the counsels of the people and of riders. But the coimsel or device 
of the Ijord endureth ever, and the purpose of his mind abideth unto the world 
of worlds.' For that piu'pose doth St. Peter, in the Acts of the Apostles, allege 
this verse out of the psalm. ^ ' Why did the Gentiles rage, and the people ima- 
niair ""'^ S'"^ ^''"" things,' &c. Like unto this is it written, in Isaiah i. Also you may 
sometime see in the councils of the Pharisees above showed, that one singular person 
may see j^^^y sometimes perceive a thing more than a generality or a multitude : for 
a whole Gamaliel only did see better what was behoveable, than could all the others 
council, there congregated. 

Agreeable imto this w'e find in the Decrees,* where it is written that the 
council of Nice, willing to correct or amend the life of men of the church, or- 
dained laws, called canons or rules. And as they treated upon such ordinances, 
some thought it expedient to bring in a law that bishops, priests, deacons, and 
subdeacons, should not lie with their wives whom they had married before they 
The story were consecrated into the order. With that arose Paphnutius, a confessor of 
of Paijh- (;'}^i-ist, and gainsayed it, testifying that marriage was an honourable thing ; saying 
Chastity 'dso, that it is chastity for a man to lie with his own proper wife. And so he 
standeth persuaded the council, that they should constitute no such law ; affirming, that 
singk^ it was a sore matter that they were minded to do, which should be either to the 
ness of priests, or else to their wives, an occasion of fornication : And this was Paph- 
life, but luitius's reason. The words of the canon proceed thus. ' This declared Paph- 
ofmatri- nutius, he never being married, nor having experience of marriage ; and the 
mony. council commended his sentence, making no statute in this matter, but put it 
to every man's freewill and liberty, without any enforcement or necessity.' 
One man, These words stand, as 1 have recited them unto you, written in the Decrees, 
having' albeit they are somewhat otherwise rehearsed in ' llistoria Tripartita,' as I have 
wUlI'liim, showed before in the fourth article. Upon this, that Paphnutius did thus resist 
more to and prevail against all the other council, dotli the Ciloss note in the same law, 
Heved ^^^'''^ "'^'^ singular person may gainsay or speak against a universal generality, 
than a having a reasonable cause on his side. Suffi-age also of the same liave we in 
whole abbot Panormitane, where he saith thus: 'I would,' quoth he, 'rather believe 
without o"c lay person, bringing for him authority of Scripture, than a universal council, 
it. that ordaineth or deiineth a thing without Scripture.' 

Finally, I say, that I never accounted them either saints or devils, hut re- 
signed the judgment thereof to God ; neither have I in earnest reported them 
the one, or the other; neither have done unto them particular worship, so far 
forth as I can remember. 

(1) ' Non sedi cum concilio vanitatis. et cum inique agentibus non introibo: odivi ecclesiam 
malignautium, et cum impiis non sedtbo; sed kivabo inter innocentes nianus mcas,' &c. Ps. xxvi. 

(2) ' Dominus dissipat concilia gentium, reprobat concilia populorum, et concilia principum : 
concilium autem Domini in ceternum manet,' &-c. 

(3) ' Uuare frcnuicruiit t:cntes, S;c.' I'iiahn ii. (!) Dist. SI. cap. ' Niccna." 

TO THK bishops' ARTICLES. 219 

In the thirty-sixth article, where you do ask, whether 1 believe, liokl, and iimry 
affirm that eveiy general council, and the council of Constance also, do repre- ''//A 
sent the universal congregation or church : I say, that what such councils do . 
represent I cannot certainly tell, and therefore believe neither yea nor nay; ,roo' 
neither can I therefore make any affirmation, pro or contra, with this demand , '^'^ ' 
or against it : and no marvel ; for I know of no Scripture to certify me of the Whether 
same, nor yet any sufficient reason. And methinketh this (under correction I ^ener i 
speak), that councils might represent (albeit I know not whether they do or no) council 
the universal church, not being yet the same ; as I wot well tiiey neither are ^epre- 
nor were. For the church 1 do take to be all those that God hath chosen or the 
predestinated to be inheritors of eternal bliss and salvation, whether they be church. 
temporal or spiritual, king or subject, bishop or deacon, father or child, Grecian ^g'''' '^ 
or Roman. And this church ' spreadeth through the universal world, where churcli. 
any do call for help truly upon the name of Christ ; and there do they ever most 
grow and assemble commonly, where his blessed word is purely and openly 
preached and declared : for that is the relief of man's soid, whereunto all men, 
loving their soul's health, lust to i-esort and seek (as all things do naturally seek 
after that which should nourish and prolong their life) ; for in it is showed that 
righteousness, which whosoever doth thirst after, and is anhungered for, shall 
come into the kingdom of heaven. Of this the proverb in the gospel (although 
it be applied to the judgment of God when he shall appear in the general doom) 
may well be verified, ' Wheresoever is a dead carrion, thither will soon be 
assembled eagles.'^ That is to wit, whei-esoever is declared, by the course of 
Scripture, the benefits and commodities granted to us by Christ's death, thither 
will men seek and fly, to know how they may enjoy and attain them ; which I 
beseech hhn to grant us. Amen. 

In the thirty-seventh article, where you do ask, whether I believe that the Tlic au- 
same thing which the council of Constance, representing the universal chm-ch, the"!mu- 
hath approved, and doth approve, for the maintenance of faith and soul's ciloiCoii- 
health, is to be approved and holden of all chi-istian people ; and that which -'^i''^';- 
the same council hath condemned and doth condemn to be contrary to faith 
and good manners, ought of the same christian people to be believed and 
affirmed for a thing condemned : I say that whatsoever the same council or 
any other hath approved, being approbation or allowance worthy, is of all 
christian people to be likewise approved, holden, and allowed. And again, 
whatsoever the same or any other hath condemned, being reproof and con- 
demnation worthy, because it is hurtful to faith or good living, I say that the 
same ought of all christian people to be condemned and reproved. But this 
surmounteth my knowledge, to discern in what wise their judgment passed ; 
whether with right or unright ; because I did never look upon their acts, neither 
do I greatly covet to do : wherefore I refer the determination to them that 
have better advised their doings, and thereby have some more skill in them 
than I. 

In the thirty-eighth you demand, whether the condemnations of Jolm 
Wickliftj John Huss, and Jerome of Pi-ague, done upon their persons, books, 
and documents, by the holy general council of Constance, were duly and right- 
fully done, and so for such, of every catholic person, wliether they are to be 
holden and surely to be alfirmed : I answer, that it passeth my knowledge, and 
I cannot tell ; thinking surely, that though I am ignorant of the same, so that 
I cannot discuss the thing determinately, yet my Christendom shall be therefore 
nevertheless ; and that 1 and all christian men, may well suspend our sentence, 
being thereof ignorant, affirming neither the one nor the other, neither yea 
nor nay. 

In the thirty-ninth you ask, whether I believe, hold, and affirm, that Jolm 
Wicklifl" of England, John Huss of Bohemia, and Jerome of Prague, were 
heretics, and for heretics to be named, and their books and doctrines to have 
been, and now be perverse ; for which books, and pertinacity of their persons, 
they are condemned by the holy council of Constance for heretics : I say that 

(I) He mcaneth here tlie church invisible. (?) Luke vii. 







I know not detcrmmately whether they be heretics or no, nor whether thoir 
books be erroneous or no, nor whether they ouj^ht to be culled heretics or no. 

In the fortieth article, where you ask whether I believe and affimi, that it is 
not lawful in any case to swear : I say, that I neither so do believe, nor affinn, 
nor ever did. 

Oaths nre 
much use 
of oaths 
iu court 
must be 
spare and 
wary in 

oatlis he, 
tliere is 
some per- 

Use of the 
ill causes 

Fruit of 
the gospel 
in Ger- 
many ; 
few con- 
come to 

them of 


Jury and 
ing, well 
out of 

In the forty-first, where you ask, whether I believe that it is lawful, at the 
commandment of a judge, to make an oath to say the truth, or any other oath 
ill a case convenient, and that also for purgation of infamy : I answer, that I 
never said the contrary, but that I think and have thought it lawful to give an 
oath before a judge, to say the truth, if the judge so require, and that by request 
lawful and convenient. As when a thing is in controversy betwixt two persons, 
and thereupon they sue unto a judge for sentence; when the judge can none 
otherwise bolt out the truth, he may require an oath. As when the two women 
who contended before Solomon to avoid the crime of murder, which the one 
had committed in oppressing her child to death, and woidd have put the same 
upon the other, if Solomon could not by his wisdom otherwise have investigated 
the truth, he might, I suppose, to come by the more certain information of the 
thing, have caused one of them, or both, seeing it expedient for him, to swear ; 
wherein the women had been bound to obey him ; but judges had need to be 
spare in requiring of oaths : for in customable, or oft juries, creepeth in always, 
betwixt times, some perjury, as showeth Chrysostome in words semblable to 
these : and things precious, through oft haunt or occupying, lose their estimation ; 
and so reverent oaths, unadvisedly required for every trifle, usually do cause 
men to regard little for making of them, yea, and I fear, to break them. 

Therefore in Almain, the}- have made of late (as I have heard say b\- credible 
persons, who have come from thence) many notable ordinances for the com- 
monwealth within a while, and amongst others this is one : If a man be set for 
to enter plea against another in any town, the peers thei'eof before whom all 
actions are used to be debated, hearing such a jjlea entered, shall call the parties 
privately together, before they come into an open court. And the matter 
examined, they shall exhort them to let the plea cease without further process, 
showing them the great damage both godly and worldly, coming of waging the 
law, and the great ease and commodity that is in agreement and concord : 
which exhortation they use to show with so great gravity and fatherly love 
(such wonders are wrought where the gospel hath free passage), that very few 
will commence plea. And though any plea be commenced, through such sage 
admonition it falleth lightly to sequestration and arbitrement of neighbours, 
who do set the suitors at unity, ere the matter do come to discussion iu open 

Notwithstanding, if some be so waywardly minded (as in a nudtitude all are 
not one man's children, and therefore unlike of intent) that they will needs 
proceed and follow the law, they shall be heard to speak their matters in open 
court, and taught how the matter is most like to succeed, and counselled with 
new exhortation to stop their process. If they will not be persuaded, and then 
the judges, seeing the matter so ambigtious that they cannot give perfect sen- 
tence, therein, except by virttte of an oath made by one of the parties, they be 
first better certified ; then will they show the same before the suitors, declaring 
what a charffcful thiuG: it is to give a solemn oath for love of winning some 
worldlv profit : and how, imless such as shall nuike it be the better aware to 
eschew the same, they shall, beside an evil example giving to a multitude, 
work themselves, haply, shame, or dishonest)-. 

Upon this, they shall give respite until a certain day appointed; so that in 
the meanwhile the siutors may take deliberation tliereof, what is best to be done. 
If after this they will not thus rest, at the day appointed shall they come forth 
into a common ])lace, and the great bell of the city be caused to be rung, whereby 
the people shall be warned, what they are about to do : and the people assembled, 
the judges shall, in full chargeable and lamentable wise, charge the parties, 
under virtue of their oath, to make true relation of what shall be demanded. 
So that by reason of soberly and fatherly exhortations made by the judges or 
peers of the town, and persuasion of neighbours, and for avoiding of God's dis- 
pleasure and shame of men, there is little suit in courts ; and if at any time any 

TO THE bishops' ARTICLES. 221 

be made, they be lightly stopped; so that jury and swearing be well excluded, H(^ry 

and need not much to be required. via. 

This I have showed, because it piticth me to hear and see the contrary used . ,, 

in some of oiw nation, and such also as name themselves spiritual men, and imo 

should be head ministers of the church ; who, incontinent as any man cometh __J^ll_ 

V before them, anon they call for a book, and do move him to swear, without any Rash ic- 

longer respite; yea, and they will charge him by virtue of the contents in the spj^iJuai 

evangely, to make true relation of all that they shall demand him, he not men. 

knowing what they will demand, neither whether it be lawful to show them 

the truth of their demands, or no : for such things there be that are not lawful 

to be showed. As if I were accused of fornication, and none could be found in ^ "la" is 

me; or if they should require me to swear to bewray any other tliat I have "",iJ"^l'.'" 

known to offend in that vice, I suppose it were expedient to hold me still, and anotinr 

not to follow their will: for it should be contrary to charity, if I should so I!''*!'** 

assent to bewray them that I need not, and to whom, perhaps, though I have 

known them to offend, yet, trusting to their amendment, I have promised 

before to keep their fault secret without any disclosing of the same. Yea, 

moreover, if such judges sometimes, not knowing by any due proof that such as 

have to do before them are culpable, will enforce them, by an oath, to detect 

themselves, in opening before them their hearts ; in this so doing, I cannot see 

that men need to condescend to their requests. For it is in the law (but I wot 

not certainly the place) thus : ' No man is bound to bewray himself ' Also in No man 

another place of the law it is written, ' Cogitationis pcenam nemo patiatur,' ' No J^ bewnw 

man should suffer punishment of men for his tliought.' To this agree th the himself. 

common proverb, that is thus : ^ ' Thoughts be free, and need to pay no Thoughts 

toll.' So that, to conclude, I think it lawful, at the commandment of a '^'^ J"''^' 
• 1 1 11 1 • 11 -f • 1 • 1 ■'"'' need. 

judge, to make an oath to say the truth, especially it a judge requireth an to pay no 

oath duly, and in lawful wise ; or to make an oath in any other case convenient ; 'o'^- 

and that also for purgation of infamy, when any infamy is lawfully laid against 

a man. 

In the forty-second, where you ask, whether a christian person, despising the 
receipt of the sacraments of confirmation, extreme unction, or solemnizing of 
matrimony, doth sin deadly : I say the like of the receipt of them, as I have 
said before of the self-same things, and none otherwise. 

In the forty-third, where you ask, whether I believe that St. Peter was Christ's Vicar of 
vicar, having power on earth to bind and loose : I say, ' that I do not perceive Christ. 
clearly what you mean by this term vicar;' for Christ never called Peter, nor 
any other so, in Scripture. If you mean thereby that, after the departing 
hence of Christ, when he was risen from death in his immortal body, and so 
hied into heaven, where he remaineth sitting upon the right hand of his Father, 
that he so being away from hence, St. Peter occupied his room : then, I say, it 
is not untrue that Peter, in a manner (which I shall show hereunder) was his 
vicar : and like as Peter was his vicar, even so were Paul and the other apostles, Peter no 
and the one no less than the others, if it be true that St. Cyprian' doth write, ^|J,','^^ 
which is also consenting to Scripture. He saith thus : that Christ spake unto ciuist, 
Peter, saying; ' I say,' quoth our Saviour, ' that thou art Peter, and upon this "'an I'aul 
rock of stone shall I build my congregation, and the gates of hell shall not others. 
overcome it. To thee will I give the keys of heaven, and what things thou 
shalt bind upon earth, the same shall be bound also in heaven : and whatsoever 
thou shalt loose upon earth, shall be loosed also in heaven.' * And to him, 
after his resun-ection, doth Christ say, ' Feed my sheep.' 

And albeit that he gave equal power unto all his apostles after his resurrec- 
tion, and saith, ^ ' Like as my Father sent me, do I also send you. Take you 
the Holy Ghost. If you shall retain to any man his sins, they shall be retained. 
If you shall remit to any man his sins, to him they shall be remitted.' Never- Unity, 
theless, because he would declare unity, he ordained, by his authority, the 
original of the same unity beginning of one. The other apostles were the same 
that Peter was, endued with equal partaking both of honour, and authority or 
power; but the beginning cometh of one, that the congregation should be 

(1) ' Nemo tenetur prodere semetipsum.' (2) ' Cngitntiones liberae sunt a vettigalibus.' 

(3) 'Cyprian. De Simplicitatc Prselatorum.' (-1) JIatt. xvi (.'>) John xx. 


irninj showed to be one. Those are the words of St. Cyprian, in a treatise that is 
^'111- called, ' Ue Simplicitate Praslatorum ;' wherein you may see that Christ made 
A j)_ all the apostles of equal honour and like authority. Notwithstanding, because 
1538. ^^ woidd testify the unity of his church or congregation, he spake, as it were, 

only unto Peter, when he said, 'Feed my sheep;' and, 'I shall give thee, 

Peter, the keys of heaven.' But in so saying, though the words seem spoken 
Peter to Peter only, yet they were spoken luito him, in that he sustained the general 
bearetli person of all the church, being, as it were, a common speaker for tlie same, 
son of the So that in speaking to him, Christ spake unto all other the apostles, imto whom 
wlu.ia also he gave all the same authority that he gave unto Peter; as you may see 
churcii. JjqjIj jjj these words of Cyprian, and also the same is clearly showed out of St. 
Augustine in divers places ; but nowhere more plainly in a few words, than in 
a treatise called ' De Agone Christiano.' 

To this accordeth well that which was written by Paul.' ' Of those apostles,' 
quoth Paul, ' which seemed to be of authority, I was not taught (what they were 
in time past it skilleth me nothing ; God regardeth not the exterior appear- 
ance of man) ; nevertheless, they which appeared to be of price, shov>-ed me no 
learning, nor gave me any counsel. But contrar)'^, when they had seen that 
the gospel of uncircumcision was committed unto me, like as the evangely of 
circumcision was unto Peter (for He that was mighty in Peter concerning the 
apostleship toward the Jews, was mighty also in me toward the Gentiles) : there- 
fore, when James, Peter, and John, which appeared to be as pillars, knew the 
grace given me, they gave unto me and Barnabas their right hands, in sign of 
fellowship to be their partners, so that we should exercise the ofhce of apostles 
among the Gentiles, as they did among the Jews.' Wherein you may clearly 
see, that Paul took no instruction of those who seemed to be in high authority. 
Apostles and that Peter, James, and John, who were noted principals, took Paul and 
matesand Barnabas to be their mates and fellows ; which they would not have done, as I 
together, suppose, if they had known that God had granted unto them a prerogative sin- 
gular, to excel Paul, and to be his sovereign. But, according to the prerogative 
of God granted, they might have safely showed it, and enjoyed the same ; like 
as they did rejoice in other benefits granted to them of God, to be ministers in 
his church for the edifying of the same; and as St. John calleth himself the 
disciple loved of his master Jesus, and testifieth, how that unto him, Christ, 
hanging upon the cross, did commit his blessed mother. 

Moreover, if these three apostles, James, Peter, and John, shoidd by humility 
have left out to make mention of their prerogative, when they took Paul and 
Objection Bamabas into their fellowship, yet it is to be thought that Paul, who never 
discuss- useth any inordinate arrogancy, writing the words above said for tlie magnifying 
^^- of his own privilege and authority given him of God, would not have suppressed 

and passed over tlieir primacy unspoken of, with whom he maketh here com- 
parison : for then it might be thought he were envious, to pick away authority 
from others to himself unlawfid ; which cannot so be. Moreover he saith a 
little after the words before rehearsed, that he reproved St. Peter even before 
his face. Whereupon St. Jerome, expounding the same epistle, saith (as I 
r^ual to rt'iiicmber), that Paul would not have been bold so to do, except he had 
Ptter. known himself equal to Peter, 

Apostles In the words also of Paul above written this might be noted, as serving to 
equal my purpose, that Peter had no pre-eminence or primacy above tlie others, for 
fofe'cther. j^^gg jg named before him ; which Paul would not have done, I think, know- 
ing Peter to be James's superior. Therefore he, making no such variety in 
James order, put James before, saying, 'And James, Peter, and John, that appeared 
named the principals,' quoth he, 'gave unto me, and to Barnabas, their right hands in 
Prt° n -"^ig" of fellowship.' Yet, notwithstanding. Paid loved good order, 1 suppose, as 
Cnnten- ^^'eH as any that now are, who contend so sore for superior rooms and pre-cmi- 
tion about nency, claiming to be the apostles' successors. I would it were so much for the 
lioHty commonwealth of christian people, as it is suspected that they do it for vain 
glory and worldly lucre. According to this you shall find in Acts xi., where is 
showed that after Peter, by instinct of the Holy Ghost, had gone unto one of 
the Gentiles, called Cornclius,2 a petty captain, having the governance of a 
hundred men, teaching him the ways and doctrine of Christ, and baptizing hira 

(1) ' Ab his qui videbantur aliquid esse; quales aliquando fuerunt, nihil mea refcrt,' &c. 
Gal. ii. (2) Acts xi. 

TO THE bishops'' AiniCLES. 223 

and others with him assembled, being, like as he before was, Pagans ; tlir Hemry 

apostles, and other christian brethren that were in Jewry, hearing thereof, when f^^li- 
Peter came to Jerusalem, those who held upon circumcision made none 


obeisance unto him (albeit I think verily he had more holiness than ever had 
any pope), as the emperor is fain to do to the pope at his coronation, falling 
down to kiss the pope's feet, or to hold the pope's stirrup while he mounteth Empe- 
upon his horse's back ; according to the form of law written, I am not certain, '"^f '""""^ 
whether in the Decrees, or else the Decretals, or in both rather (for such ordi- the pope 
nances are inviolable, and worthy to be principally recorded) : but they reasoned tlian the 
sore, and disputed both against St. Peter, and also his doings, saying, ' You have fi'^*''*^* 
gone amongst them that you ought not have had to do with, nor to have Peter. 
meddled among them that are men unclean, because they are uncircumcised ; '^''^t'- 
yea, and what is more, you have eaten and drunk with them.' Peter, mildly between 
and coldly, made answer again, rehearsing all the manner of his doing in order, ''eter and 
showing that he was so instructed to do, by mighty and clear revelations of ''^® vov^- 
God, and not by his own fantasy and pleasure. Which answer being heard, 
the others that before had made sore objections against him (who were both of 
the apostles, and other christian brethren), were content, holding their peace 
without any more complaining, and gave glory therefore to God, saying, ' Then 
God hath granted also unto the Gentiles to take repentance, and so to come to 
eternal life.' Wherein you may see, that the other apostles were as bold with 
Peter, as before is showed of Paul, to dispute against him : neither were they 
therefore by Peter reproved of inobedience. He did not allege any pre-emi- 
nency or authority to rebuke them for their complaining : as one would say, 
' Why should you that are my sheep control me, that am the head of the 
church and your pastor, or Christ's general vicar, having both jurisdiction 
temporal and spiritual?' with such other like : but he showed them it was the 
will of God that he had done, going to the Gentiles to tell them of eternal life, 
which God pleased to give to them, as well as to the Jews ; in token whereof 
the Holy Ghost did sensibly come among them, and so were they baptized. 

Thus may you see, that if Peter were the vicar of Christ, even so likewise Peter 
were Paul and all the other apostles. And I do not think contrary but that ^'''''/ "'" 
Peter, and all other of the apostles, were Christ's vicars, if you mean by tliis j„o"u ' "" 
word 'vicar,' a deputy, or such like, for to pi'each his evangely (which is an tlian 
office of all others most sovereign), to minister sacraments, and to do other such ^"":!", 
divine service in God's church. And thus were they worthy to be called (as 
the Scripture nameth them) Christ's true apostles, bishops, priests, legates, or 
any such like ; which authority was given them by Christ after his resurrection, 
when he said unto them these words, ' Peace be amongst you. Like as my 
Father hath sent me, so do I send you. Take you the Holy Ghost : whose sins 
soever you shall forgive, are forgiven them : and whose sins you shall retain, 
they are retained. i And the same authority did they receive, when Christ spake 
unto all the church, after the mind of St. Augustine and others, in Peter, say- 
ing, ' Peter, feed my sheep.'' 

In the forty-fourth article, where you ask, whether I believe, that the pope 
ordinately chosen for a time (his proper name being expressed) be the successor 
of Peter : I say, that it seemeth to me a thing of no great value, whether a 
man believe so or no; I cannot see that it should be numbered amongst the 
articles of our faith : notwithstanding I will show iny rude thought in it, which 
is this. 

The pope may succeed in St. Peter's stead or office, and do the same, duly How the 
and diligently feeding Christ's flock, and showing virtuous example of living jl" a^s'i"^-^ 
to the same : and, so doing, he may and ought to be thought and named a true cessnr of 
successor of St. Peter. And thus is your lordship St. Peter's successor, per- P^ter. 
forming the conditions aforesaid, with other like properties requisite to your 
order and duty ; yea, and as many others as do truly their duty, and duly the so may 
office of a bishop : and otherwise may not the pope be called the successor of every 
Peter, because he is entered into St. Peter's office, not regarding to do what is |°s°,op 
requisite for the same, nor following the trace of virtue ; but the contrary. And 
then he is wrongfully named, if at any time such be, which is not impossible. 

(I) Luke xxiv. (2) John xxi 


lirnrij For vvhat should men call those Peter's Buccessors, that play the pageants, 

>^^^^- and follow with the conditions of Caiaphas, Simon Magus, or Judas? Such 

~T~~jr verily, if any be, cannot rightly claim to be Peter's successors, no rrtore tlian 

, -■„«■ the night ma}' claim to be successor of the day ; for Peter was never so minded, 

■ nor taught them so. Yea, they ought rather to be called Peter's adversaries. 

The pope for SO much as they do not his will which is showed by his own acts and 

may^e writing; but work against the same. Of such may be said,i 'They are not all 

Peter's saints' children that occupy the rooms of saints, but they are their children that 

adversary exercise their works.' Yea, of such may be said, that which is written of St. 

successor. Jerome : ' All bishops,' quoth he, ' are not bishops. Mark you well Peter, but 

mark also Judas: behold Stephen, but behold Nicholas. Ecclesiastical dignity 

maketh not a christian man. Cornelius the centurion, being yet a Pagan, was 

made clean through the benefit of the Holy Ghost : contrariwise, Daniel, being 

a child, condemneth pi'iests, or ancient men.' ' It is no easy thing,' saith he, 

' to stand in the room of Peter and Paul, and to keep the seat of them now 

reigning with Christ : for unsavoury salt is nought worth else, but to be thrown 

out of the doors, and trodden down of hogs.' This saith St. Jerome. Whcre- 

unto agreeth well St. Augustine : ' Every one,' quoth he, ' that saith imto you. 

Pax vobis, ought not to be beard, or to be believed as a dove. Crows be fed of 

dead carrion, and so is not a dove, but she liveth by the fruits of the earth : her 

living is pure, innocent, and hurtless. Whereby you may see, that ill bishops 

Let lis are no bishops, and that they that follow not saints in virtuous living, are not 

how the° *^^ successors of saints, but unsavoury salt ; that is, neither of the church, nor 

hird shall come into heaven, to reign there Avith Peter and Paul, but be thrown out 

speaketh, •^y[[}i gyeat contempt : for God knoweth a dove from a ci'ow, and an innocent liver 

he feed- from a devourer of carrion ; but such as declare and show good deeds, as the 

eth- saints did, be their children and successors, and shall with them reign in heaven. 

How the So that, to conclude, I say, that the pope, ordinately chosen, is the successor 

pope IS of §(._ Peter, following St. Peter's godly living. And else, except he study to 

of Peter, do diligently, that he may be so called worthily, it shall be but a vain name: 

and how for rather may he else be reputed an image of a pope, or of a bishop, according 

as such be called of the prophet;^ ' O idol shepherds !' 


Lambert In the five and fortieth article, where you ask, whether ever I have promised 
required at any time by my oath, or made any confederacy or league with any person 
his'Tel-*^ or persons, that I would alway hold and defend certain conclusions or articles 
lows. seeming to me and to my complices right and consonant unto the faith ; and will 
that I should certify you of the course and form of the said opinions and con- 
clusions by row, and of the names and surnames of them that were to me ad- 
herent, and promised to be adherent in this behalf: I say, that I do not 
remember that ever I made pact or confederacy with any person or ^'ersons, 
nor made any promise by oath, that I would always hold and defend an\- con- 
clusions or articles, seeming to me and others right and consonant to tlie 
faitli, unless it bath chanced me to say in this form : ' That I would never, with 
the aid of God, forsake, nor decline from, the truth, neither for fear, nor yet 
for love of man or men.' 

Thus I have, perhaps, said in some time, or some place, because I have 
indeed so intended, and do intend, God's grace assisting me. But I cannot yet 
tell you, whether I have so said or no, or to what persons, or at what time, 
All the either in what place ; neither do I reckon me to have any complices, but such 
opinions as do love me, and I them, for God, and in God : and those do I reckon all 
Lambert them that are or will be truly christian, in calling upon Christ's name. And 
engrossed concerning opinions or conclusions, I can tell you of none others than I have 
proposi- showed ; the sum whereof I reckon and think utterly to be concluded in two 
lions. propositions, which both are written in the New Testament. 

The first is in the Acts of Apostles, in this wise:^ 'Christ is the head 
corner-stone of our faith, whereupon it should be set and grounded, neither is 
salvation in any other : for there is none other name under heaven given 
amongst men, wherein we may be saved.' This is one of the propositions, 

(1) ' Non sanctorum filii sunt, qui tencnt loca sanctorum, sed qui exercent opera eorum.' 

(2) ' O pastor et idolum !' Zech. xi. 

(3) ' Christus est caput anguli, nee est in alio quoquam salus. Non enim aliud nomen sub ccclo 
datum est inter liomines, in quo oporteat nos salvos fieri.' 


wherein is engrossed or comprehended my saying, which St. Paul doth tlius n^nTy 
otherwise exphcate ; ' Christ is made of God our wisdom, our righteousness, ^m^- 
our pureness, our satisfaction, and our redemption.' And in another place : ^ ^ 
' There is none other foundation that any man may put, except that which is ^^3^* 
already put, that is Christ Jesus.'' '— 

The other proposition is written by the prophet Isaiah, and recited by our 
Saviour, in the evangely of Matthew, in these words : ' Men do worship me in 
vain, teaching doctrines and precepts, or laws human.'^ Of this writeth Paul 
very largely in divers places, and everywhere well nigh : amongst others, in the 
second chapter of Colossians, where he warneth the Colossians to take heed 
that no man do spoil them, or to steal them away by philosophy or vain deception, 
according to the constitutions of men, and ordinances of this world. 

Thus I do certify you of all the opinions and conclusions which I intend or 
have intended to sustain, being contained in the two propositions above written. 
Others hold I none, but such as are mentioned in the Creed, both that which 
is sung at mass, and also in the other Creed that all people say every day. 

Finally, in that you require to know of the names and surnames, in order of 
them particularly, that be to me adherents, or that have promised me to be 
adherent in this part : I say, that I know of none particular that I remember, 
without I should note unto you a great multitude, which you may know and 
hear of, I suppose, through all regions and realms of Christendom, that do think in Thenum- 
like wise as I have showed. I ween the multitude mounteth nigh unto the one g^gp" ners 
half of Christendom ; and more should do likewise, by a great sort within a well nigh 
while, I doubt not, but that our ghostly enemy laboureth amain to have the know- p^^'/igj^j^. 
ledge of the truth suppressed, and letteth that it cannot come abroad to be seen. ^^m. 
I say therefore again, I know of no particular adherents, nor of any that have john 
so promised me to be in these matters : and though I did, I would not (except Lambert 
I knew that charity so required, which I do not find yet hitherto) detect, or f^ ^Jftect 
bewray any one of them, for any man's pleasure : for I am bound to obey God any. 
above men : who be with us, and grant the tmth to be known ! Amen. 

These answers of John Lambert to the five and forty articles above 
expressed, were directed and delivered to Dr. Warham, archbishop of 
Canterbury, as it appeareth, about a.d. 1532, at which time the said 
Lambert was in custody in the archbishop's house at Otford, being 
there destitute of all help and furniture of loooks, as by his own words 
is to be gathered. But, so the providence of God Avrought for Lam- The 
bert, that within short space after, a.d. 1533, the said archbishop a^^,',^ "^ 
Warham died ; whereby it seemeth that Lambert, for that time, was ^'fi>«P 

Ti 11TA/-1 •! Warham. 

delivered. In the mean while Dr. Cranmer was sent over m embas- cranmer 
sage, with the earl of Wiltshire, Dr. Stokesley, Dr. Kern, Dr. Benet, ^™'to'the 
and other learned men, to the bishop of Rome lying then at Bologna, bishop of 
to dispute the matter of the king's marriage openly, first in the court 
of Rome, then in the court of the emperor ; where, after sundry 
promises, and appointments made, yet, Avhen the time came, no man 
there appeared to dispute with them, in these two propositions : first, Proposi- 
that no man, 'jure Divino,' could or ought to marry his brother's craniner. 
wife : secondly, that the bishop of Rome by no means ought to 
dispense to the contrary. But of this more copiously we will treat 
(the Lord's grace permitting), in the sequel of our story, coming to 
Dr. Cranmer's life. 

After the death of William Warham, succeeded in that see the cranmer 
said Dr. Cranmer. Lambert, in the mean season, being delivered, arch- 
partly by the death of this archbishop, partly by the coming in of c;i,',\"J'r °* 
queen Anne, returned unto London, and there exercised himself ^ury. 
about the stocks, in teaching children both in the Greek and Latin 

(1) 1 Cor. i. (2) Isai. xxix. 

VOL. V. Q 


Henry toiiguc. Aiicl forasiuucli as priests, in those days, could not be per- 
mitted to have wives, he left his priesthood, and applied himself to 

A. D. that function of teaching, intending shortly after also to be free of 
^^•^^- the Grocers, and to be married. But God, who disposeth all men's 
])urposes after the secret pleasure of his own will, did both intercept 
his marriage, and also his freedom, and married him to his Son Christ 
Jesus (as now consequently followeth to be declared),* bringing' him 
into the freedom of his spiritual kingdom, to reign with him. 

And thus much, briefly, touching the first education and bringing 
up of John Lambert ; hereafter it followeth more at large to discourse 
and declare the whole process and order of his doings and disputa- 
tions, with the order and manner of his death and condemnation. 
This death and punishment of his happened in this year ; being so 
much the more lamentable, in that it was first occasioned, and after- 
Avards brought to pass, by no others than by such, whom, for the 
common society of the profession of the gospel, it had been more meet 
to have been authors of his safeguard, rather than the causers of his 
destruction. But this is the accustomed craft and malice of that 
ancient serpent, which intermeddleth himself in all congregations, 
envying all men's felicity and welfare, rejoicing in nothing but in the 
death, and blood of innocents ; seeking occasions of sedition, not 
only amongst the wicked, but the good also ; stirring brethren often- 
times to contention amongst themselves ; and that so craftily, that 
his policies can never be perceived until the mischief be done. I would 
to God that as this is a common complaint to all countries, so this our 
region of England, amongst others, were free from it, and not more 
infected herewith than the rest. Where now, in a manner, shall a 
man find more slaughter of the commons, subversion of the nobles, 
burning of good men, and most cruel contentions, which are never, in 
a manner, ended but with bloodshed : that mischievous disturber of 
human concord and quietness doth so incessantly rage ! 

But as I am here forced to speak against my will, so would to God 
that, even with my own contumely and hatred, I might engTave more 
meekness in the hearts of our men ; which, notwithstanding, I doubt 
not but will shortly come to pass, by the most prosperous success 
of learning, which daily flourisheth more and more in England : and 
as it is to be hoped, foreign examples, and greater experience of things, 
will bring a more civility to this, which is already obtained by 
learning. But, because we will not pass our bounds too far, we will 
return again to the matter as touching John Lambert, intending to 
make declaration of his cause even from the first beginning, so far 
forth as we could attain unto the knowledge thereof. 

So soon as the dark clouds of ignorance were driven away, and that 
the brightness of the gospel began to shine in England, there was at 
the same time, although not of the number of those who sustained the 
first assaults of the adversaries, the afore-named John Lambert ; who, 
partly for the cruelty of the time, and partly for the desire of 
learning, which he was always inclined imto, departed into foreign 
lands, being but a young man, where he understood that learning did 
most flourish. From thence, after a few years, he returned again, 
hoping that the time had been amended, for that, by the means of 

(1) See Edition 1563 p. 528 ; also Edition 1559, p. 146 .—Ed. 


queen Anne and Cromwell, and the abolishing of the pope, all things Henry 
seemed more prosperous and quiet in England ; and began to set his ^^^^- 

mind to the setting forth of the gospel.* A. D. 

Thus then, after that John Lambert now had continued in this ^ 538. 
vocation of teaching, with great commendation, and no less commodity 
to the youth, it happened this present year (1538), he was present at 
a sermon in St. Peter's church at London. He that preached, was Taylor 
named Dr. Taylor, a man in those days not far disagreeing from the luIIX!'^ 
gospel, and who afterwards, in the time of king Edward, was made 
bishop of Lincoln, and, at last, in the time of queen Maiy, was 
deprived from the same ; and so ended his life ' among the confessors 
of Jesus Christ. 

When the sermon was done, Lambert, having gotten opportunity, Lambert 
went gently unto the preacher to talk with him, and uttered divers confer- 
arguments wherein he desired to be satisfied. All the whole matter ^"t,^ j^g 
or controversy was concerning the sacrament of the body and blood of p^'^^J^''^''- 
Christ. Taylor, excusing himself at that present for other business, occasion 
willed him to write his mind, and to come again at more leisure, trouwes. 
Lambert was contented, and so departed ; who, within a while after, 
when he had written his mind, came again unto him. The sum of 
his arguments were ten, which he comprehended in writing, proving 
the truth of the cause, partly by the Scriptures, and partly by good 
reason and by the doctors : which arguments, although they came not His argu- 
all unto our hands, yet such men as were present at those affairs, 
reported them to be of great force and authority ; and of a few, Avhich 
were borne away in memory, the first reason was this, gathered upon 
Christ's words, where it is said in the gospel, " This cup is the New 

'And if,' saith he, 'these words do not change either the cup, or the wine, Effect of 
corporally into the New Testament, by like reason it is not agreeable that the the words 
words spoken of the bread, should turn the bread corporally into the body of elation 

Another reason was this : that it is not agreeable to a natural body to be in two One body 
places or more at one time : wherefore it must follow of necessity, that either fl^ n\any 
Christ had not a natural body, or else, truly, according to the common nature of places at 
a body, it cannot be present in two places at once, and much less in many, that J'"':'^',,"'''" 
is to say, in heaven and in earth ; on the right hand of his Father, and in the 

Moreover, a natural body cannot be without its form and shape, conditions 
and accidents ; like as the accidents and conditions also cannot be without their 
subject or substance. Then, forasmuch as in the sacrament there is no quality, 
quantity, or condition of the body of Christ, and finally no appearance at all 
of flesh ; who doth not plainly perceive, that there is no transubstantiated forms 
body of his in the sacrament? And, to reason by the contrary : All the proper cannot be 
conditions, signs, and accidents, whatsoever they be, pertaining to bread, we do ("g's^b- 
see to be present in the sacrament, which cannot be there without the subject ; ject. 
therefore we must of necessity confess the bread to be there. 

He added also many other allegations out of the doctors. But to 
be short, this Taylor the preacher, whom I spake of before, willing 
and desiring, as is supposed, of a good mind to satisfy Lambert in 
this matter, amongst others whom he took to counsel, he also con- 
ferred -with Dr. Barnes ; which Barnes, although he did otherwise Bames. 

(1) He died in 1554. [' Si non inter martyres, at confessiores,' &c. See Edition 1553, p. 147. 



iTmry favour thc gospcl, and was an earnest preacher, notwitlistanding seemed 
not greatly to favour this cause ; fearing, peradventurc, that it would 

A. p. {jyeej among the people some let or hinderance to the preaching of 
1_L thc gospel (which was now in a good forwardness), if such sacramen- 

taries should be suifered. He persuaded Taylor, by and by, to put 
up the matter to Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury. And 
hereby we may see it truly verified, which William Tyndale before, 
writing to John Frith, did note in Dr. Barnes, saying, " That 
Dr. Barnes will be hot against you," &c. 

Upon these originals Lambert's quarrel first began, and was brought 
unto this point, that, through the sinister doings of many, it began of 
a private talk to be a public and common matter : for he was sent for 
by the archbishop, and brought into the open court, and forced to 
defend his cause openly. For the archbishop had not yet favoured 
the doctrine of the sacrament, whereof afterwards he was an earnest 
professor. In that disputation, it is said that Lambert did appeal 
from the bishops to the king's majesty. But howsoever the matter 
was, the rumour of that disputation was, by and by, spread throughout 
the whole court. 

I told you before, how that king Henry for two years past, 

showing the part of a hard husband, had beheaded queen Anne his 

wife ; which deed did not only greatly displease the German princes 

(who for that only cause had broken off the league Avith him, 

A.D. 1536), but also many other good men in England. Moreover, 

how that, Avithin a while after, abbeys began to be subverted, and all 

their goods to be confiscated and given abroad: for which causes, 

but especially for the late abolishing of the bishop of Rome, the 

commons had conceived a very evil opinion of him, insomuch that 

the seditious sort rebelled against him. 

Gardiner At that time Stephen Gardiner, then bishop of Winchester, was 

winche°- in authority amongst the king's councillors, who, as he was of a cruel 

^"' nature, so was he no less of a subtle and crafty wit, ever gaping for 

some occasion how to let and hinder thc gospel : albeit a long time 

he was not so greatly esteemed with the king, that he could much 

prevail to achieve his conceived purpose. But, at length, upon this 

matter advising himself, he thought he had apt occasion and oppor- 

The per- tuuity to accomplisli his desire : neither did he foreslack the occasion 

counsel ministcred, but went straight unto the king, privily admonishing him, 

y^^^ and with fair flattering words giving him most pernicious counsel. 

Winches- declaring how great hatred and suspicion was raised upon him in 

'"■ almost all places; first, for abolishing the bishop of Rome's authority; 

then for subversion of the monasteries ; and also for that the divorce 

of queen Katherinc was yet fresh in men's minds : and now the time 

served, if he would take it, easily to remedy all these matters, and 

pacify the minds of them that were displeased and offended with him, 

if only in this matter of John Lambert he would manifest unto the 

people how stoutly he would resist heretics ; and by this new rumour 

he Avould bring to pass, not only to extinguish all other former 

rumours, and as it were with one nail to cbive out another, but also 

should discharge himself of all suspicion, in that he now began to be 

reported to be a favourer of ncAv sects and opinions. 

The king, giving ear more willingly than prudently or godlily to 


this siren, immediately received the wicked counsel of the bishop, and ti'^nru 

by and by sent out a general commission, commanding all the nobles _ 

and bishops of this realm to come with all speed to London, to assist A. D. 
the king against heretics and heresies, which commission the king ^^^^' 
himself would sit in judgment upon. 

These preparations made, a day was set for Lambert, where a great The no- 
assembly of the nobles was gathered from all parts of the realm, not bisL^s 
without much wonder and expectation in this so strange a case. All ^jg^"" 
tlie seats and places were full of men round about the scaffold. 

By and by the godly servant of Christ, John Lambert, was brought Lambert 
from the prison with a guard of armed men (even as a lamb to fight ^"(^reuie 
with many lions), and placed right over against where the king"'s king. 
royal seat was, so that now they tarried but for the king's coming to 
that place. 

At last the king himself did come as judge of that great con- 
troversy, with a great guard, clothed all in white, as covering, by that 
colour and dissembling, severity of all bloody judgment. On his 
right hand sat the bishops, and behind them the famous lawyers, 
clothed all in purple, according to the "manner. On the left hand 
sat the peers of the realm, justices, and other nobles in their order ; 
behind whom sat the gentlemen of the king's privy chamber. And The 
this was the m