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tihvavy of Che theological ^cmimvy 


Mrs, Robert Lenox Kennedy- 
Church history fund 

BR 1607 ^5^1837 v. 7 
Foxe, John, 1516-1587. 
The acts and monuments 
John Foxe 






I^Ta'^ and Monuments 

of tftese latter anU ptullous "Danes 
^ toud)inct titatters of tftc (LI)uicI) 

1 rei 1 ire comprclie le i md ie cr 1 e i 

eHC 1 er ec it on "<c h )rr bletro lies 

1 I le be t nro 1 ht and ( nctised b 

K m she Prel ites> sj ec ilKe in tl 

KeUme ot Fnuland ii i ■scotliide 

fr m the jeare of o ir I orde i 

thousd ide unto tt e tynie 

noue present 

Oathere I an i collected accord ii^ to the 

y^ true 










rector of bagthorp, norfolk, 
;d chaplain to the right honourable the earl of scarbrok.h. 







rniNTEn by r. clay,,l, 








1555, The reign of Queen Mary continued. 

The History of Dr. Robert Ferrar, Bishop of St. David's, in Wales. 3 

The principal Articles exhibited by Hugh Rawlins and Thomas 
Lee against Master Ferrar a 

The answer of Robert, Bishop of St. David's, to the Articles . 9 

Exceptions General, laid and preferred against the pretensed 
Witnesses jg 

Certain Articles ministered by Fen-ar, against the surmised 
Information of Thomas Lee, etc 13 

Ferrar 's Answer, before Winchester and others ; other Articles.etc. 22 

Sundry Examinations of the Bishop, with Articles ministered* 
against liim ; his Sentence, etc 25 

The Copy of certain Letters of the Bishop of St. David's, written^ 
belike, to the Lord Chancellor, Dr. Goodrick . .... 26 

The History of one Rawlins White, burned at Cardiff ... 28 

The Words spoken by Queen Mary to certain of her Council- 
lors, touching the Restitution of the Abbey-Lands . . , 34 

A Letter from the Bishop of Wincliestcr to Bonner, of the cele- 
brating the Pope's Funeral : also Prayers to be used in the 
Masses ; and the Story of a Woman imprisoned for not 
praying for the Pope 37 

A Spectacle to behold, and a Warning of the Pope's blas- 
phemous Doctrine ; John Awcock, Martyr 38 

A TDeclaration of the Life, Examination, and Burning of 
George Marsh 3^ 

Communication between George Marsh and the Earl of Derby* 
with his Address to the Reader ! 45 

How Dr. Cotes, Bishop of Chester, came to Lancaster, and of 

his Doings there, in setting up Idolatry 47 

The Troubles and Examinations of George Marsli before 

Dr. Cotes 
VII. 6 



A.D. lAGE 

1555. A Letter of George Marsh to the Reader touching his Exarni- 

nation 54 

A Letter to the faithful Professors of Laugliton 55 

Another Letter to some dearly heloved Friends at Manchester. 60 

A Letter to Jenken Crampton and others 63 

Another, to certain faithful Brethren in the Congregation . . 64 

Another, to Robert Langley and others 66 

A Letter of George Marsh to a certain godly Friend; also a 
Letter of a godly Brother, one James Bradshaw, to George 

Marsh in Prison 67 

The Life and Story of William Flower, who, for striking a 
Priest, was apprehended ; first, having his Hand cut off, and, 

after, martyred, etc 68 

A Debate between Robert Smith, Prisoner in Newgate, and 

William Flower, concerning striking the Priest 70 

Articles objected by Bonner against William Flower ; with his 

Answers to them 71 

His last Appearance before Bonner ; with the Depositions pro- 
duced upon his Answers 74 

The Burning and Mar-tyrdom of John Cardmaker, and John 

Warne, Upholsterer 77 

Articles objected against Cardmaker; with his Answers . . 78 
Articles ministered against John Warne ; with his Answers . 80 
The Confession of his Faith, written the day before he was 

burned 82 

A Letter of John Cardmaker to a Friend of his 84 

Tlie Story of John Ardeley and John Simson, Martyrs ... 86 

A Letter of the King and Queen to Bonner ibid. 

Articles objected against John Simson and John Ardeley ; with 

their Answers 87 

The ridiculous Handling and Proceeding of Bishop Bonner and 
his Mates against John Tooley ; digged out of his Grave and 

burned for a Heretic 90 

A Letter from the Council to Bonner ; also the Writ or Man- 
date of Bonner to inquire into the Case of John Tooley . . 92 
The Depositions or Attestations, concerning the Words of John 
Tooley, at the time of his Death at Chai-ing Cross .... 94 

The Examination of Robert Bromley, etc 96 

The History and Martyrdom of the worthy Servant of Christ, 

Thomas Haukes, Gentleman 97 

A Letter of the Earl of Oxford to Bonner ; followed by a pri- 
vate Talk between Haukes and Bonner 9^ 

Talk between Harpsfield and Haukes 102 

Talk between Fecknam and Haukes 105 

The Public Examination of Thomas Haukes, at the Bishop's 

Consistory 113 

An Epistle to the Congregation, by Thomas Haukes . . .115 

A Letter of his to his Wife 116 

A Letter of his to Master Throgmorton 118 

The History of Thomas Wats, examined, tried, and burnt . ibid. 
A Letter sent by certain Justices in Essex to Bonner . . .119 
The First Appearance of Wats in the Consistory ; his Articles 

and Answers 120 

Concerning the Childbed of Queen Mary, as it was rumoured 

among the People 123 

The Pater-noster to God's Glory, etc. ; also the Te Deum, con- 
taining Prayers for Queen Mary 124 

A Proclamation of the King and Queen, for the Restraining of 
all Books and Writings tending against the Doctrine of the 

Pope and his Church 127 

Parts of the Primer after the Use of Salisbury, called " Our 
Lady's Matins" 129 



1555. The Lady's Psalter 132 

Notes : the Church of Rome examined 137 

The Story of Thomas Osmond, William Bamford, Thomas 
Osborne, and Others, Martyrs : a Letter to the Earl of Oxford 
to Bonner ; also the articles objected against Osmond, Bam- 
ford, and Chamberlain 139 

Their Answers to the Articles 141 

The History of the worthy Martyr and Servant of God, Master 

John Bradford 113 

The Communication between Bradford, the Lord Chancellor, 

and other Commissioners ]4L> 

The Last Examination of Bradford in St. Mary Overy's . . 159 
Private Conferences with such as the Prelates sent unto him, 
after the Time of his Condemnation ; by his own Hand . . 165 

Talk between Dr. Harpsfield and Bradford 168 

Talk of Dr. Heath, Archbishop of York, and Day, Bishop of 

Chichester, with Bradford 174 

Talk between Master Bradford and the Spanish Friars . . .179 

Talk between Bradford, Weston, and Others 182 

Disputation with Dr. Pendleton 184 

Certain Reasons against Transubstantiation, by Bradford . .186 

Another Talk between Bradford and Dr. Weston 189 

A Colloquy between Bradford and a Gentlewoman's Servant, 

sent to visit him in Prison 190 

John Leaf, burnt with Bradford 192 

The Behaviour of Master Bradford, and the Young Man that 

suffered with him in Smithfield ; with Verses to their Memory. 194 
A comfortable Letter of John Bradford to his Mother, a godly 
Matron dwelling at Manchester, and Others there . . , . 196 

A fruitful Letter to the City of London 198 

A Letter to the University and Town of Cambridge .... 201 
A liBtter to Lancashire and Cheshire, and specially to Man- 
chester 204 

To the Town of Maldon 208 

To my loving Brethren, B. G. etc., their Wives, and whole 

Families 210 

To his dearly beloved in Christ, a godly Couple, Erkinalde 

Rawlins and his Wife 212 

To Mistress A. Warcup 214 

Two Letters to Laurence Saunders, Prisoner in the Marshalsea. 215 

To Drs. Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer 217 

To the Right Honourable Lord Russel, now Earl of Bedford . 218 
To Master Warcup and his Wife, Mrs. Wilkinson, and others. 219 
To Sir James Hales, Knight, Prisoner in the Compter in 

Bread-street 222 

To his Friend in the Lord, Dr. Hill, Physician 225 

To Mistress M. H. a godly Gentlewoman ; also another to the 

same 227 

To his well-beloved in the Lord, W. P. ; also a Letter to a 
faithful Woman in her Heaviness and Trouble, etc. . . . 230 

To Lady Vane 234 

Another Letter to Lady Vane ; also to his dear Friends, Roy- 
den and Esing, etc 235 

To Mrs. Wilkinson 237 

A Letter to certain godly Persons, encouraging them, etc. . 238 
An Admonition to certain Professors of the Gospel, against 

the Romish Religion, etc 239 

To John Careless, Prisoner in the King's Bench 241 

To Master John Hall and his Wife, Prisoners in Newgate. . 2 12 
To Mistress Hall, etc. ; also a Letter to a Wonuui that desired 
to know his Mind, whether she, refraining from the Mass, 
might be present at Matins or Evensong 214 



1555. To the Worshipful Lady Vane 246 

To Master Richard Hopkins, Sheriff of Coventry, and Prisoner 

in the Fleet 249 

To Mistress Elizabeth Brown 250 

To a Friend of his, instructing him, etc 251 

To certain godly Men 252 

A Letter to Master George Eaton 254 

Another to Mistress Ann Warcup 255 

To a certain godly Gentlewoman, troubled by her Friends, etc. 256 
To one by whom he had received much Comfort and Relief in 

his Trouble and Imprisonment 257 

To a faithful Friend of his, and his Wife, touching Auricular 

Confession 258 

To a dear Friend N. and his Wife 260 

To Augustine Bernher ; also a Letter on the Old Man and the 

New 262 

A Letter to his Mother as a Farewell, when he thought he 

should have suffered shortly 264 

Another Letter to the same ; also a Letter sent with a Suppli- 
cation to the Queen, her Council, and the Parliament . . 266 

To certain Friends of his, N. S. and R. C 267 

Notes upon the same Epistle, and to the Matter of Election 

appertaining 268 

John Bradford to Father Traves 274 

To Sir Thomas Hall 276 

Eight Letters to Father Traves 277 

A Declaration made at Paul's Cross by Master Chedsey, at the 

Commandment of Bonner 286 

William Minge ; James Trevisham buried in the Fields, and 

summoned after his Death ibid. 

The History of Master John Bland, Preacher and Martyr; 

witli the Process of his Doings, written by Himself . . . 287 
The Behaviour of John Bland, of Adisham, on Dec. 3d, 1553 . 289 

Another Matter of Trouble wrought against him 290 

Examination of Master John Bland 292 

The Copy of a Popish Letter to the Bishop of Dovei*, by 

Thomas Goldwell, a Priest 297 

The Answer of Master Bland before the Commissary and others. 298 
A Confutation of Master Bland against false and manifest Ab- 
surdities granted by Mills, of Christ's Church in Canterbury 301 
Other Appearances of John Bland, with the Articles ministered 
unto him, followed by his Answers, and his Prayer before 

his Death 304 

The History of Nicholas Sheterden, John Prankish, and Hum- 
phry Middleton : also Sheterden's Examination .... 306 
Sheterden's Answering; also his Notes against the false 

Worship and Oblation of the Sacrament 308 

The last Examination and Condemnation of the four godly 
Martyrs, Bland, Prankish, Sheterden, and Middleton . .312 

A Letter of Nicholas Sheterden to his Mother 313 

Two Letters to his Brother Walter 314 

A Letter to his Mother, written the day before his death . .316 

A Letter written to his Wife 317 

Nicholas Hale and Christopher Wade, Martyrs; with their 

Articles and Answers 318 

The Examination and Martyrdom of Margery Policy, Widow 

and Martyr 319 

The Execution and Martyrdom of Christopher Wade . . . ibid. 
The Apprehension, Examination, Condemnation, and Burning 
of Dirick Carver and John Launder ; followed by their Con- 
fessions before Bisliop Bonner 321 

Articles objected against them 324 



1555. Thomas Iveson, or Everson, who suffered at Chichester; with 

his Answers to Bonner 327 

John Aleworth ; also James Abbes, a Martyr of blessed Memory. 328 
The Apprehension, Examination, and Condemnation of John 

Denley, John Newman, and Patrick Packingham . . . ibid. 
Edmund Tyrrel's Letter to one of the Queen's Commissioners*, 329 
Notes collected and gathered out of the Scriptures by John 

Denley, on the Sacrament of Christ's Body and Blood . . ibid. 
A Letter sent by Denley, Simson, Ardeley, and others, from 

Prison 330 

Articles objected against Denley, Newman, and Packingham, 

by Bishop Bonner ; with their Answers 331 

The Story of John Newman, Martyr ; with his Examination, 

Answers, Arguments, and Faith 335 

Richard Hook ; also the Examinations, Answers, and Con- 
demnation of Six Martyrs in Kent, namely, Coker, Hopper, 

Laurence, Colliar, R. VVright, and Stere 339 

The Persecution of Ten Martyrs, sent by certain of the Council 
to Bonner to be examined; with the Letter of the Com- 
missioners 341 

The History of Elizabeth Warne, Widow ; burnt at Stratford . 312 

George Tankerfield, a faithful Martyr ibid. 

Certain Notes of his after he came to suffer at St. Alban's . . 345 
The History and Examination of Robert Smitli ; followed by 

his several Examinations 347 

His last Examination and Condemnation 354 

His Letters in Metre 356 

A Letter to all which love God unfeignedly, etc 362 

A Letter to his Wife ; followed by three others to the same . 366 
A Letter to a Friend, and another to all ftiithful Servants of 

Christ 369 

The Martyrdom of Stephen Harwood and Thomas Fust ; also 

of William Hale, at Barnet 370 

George King, Thoinas Leyes, John Wade, and William 
Andrew, who sickened in Prison and were buried in the 

Fields ibid. 

A Letter to Bishop Bonner, from Sir Richard Southwell ; also 

the Martyrdom of Robert Samuel, Preacher 371 

A Letter of Exhortation of Robert Samuel, for patient suffer- 
ing for Christ's Cause 374 

A Letter to the Christian Congregation, from the same . . 378 
The Martyrdoms of William Allen and of Roger Coo , . .381 

Thomas Cob, Butcher, of Haverhill, Martyr 382 

The Martyrdom of George Catmer, Robert Streater, Anthony 

Burward, George Brodbridge, and Jane Tutty 383 

Thomas Hayward and John Goreway, Martyrs ibid. 

The Persecution and Trouble of Master Robert Glover, Gentle- 
man, and of John Gluver, his Brother 384 

A Letter of Master Robert Glover to his Wife, containing the 

Description of his Troubles, etc 387 

A Letter from the same to the Mayor of Coventry .... 395 
Cornelius Bungay, Fellow-Martyr with Robert Glover; with his 

Articles and Answers 399 

The Story how John and William Glover were excommuni- 
cated, and cast out after their Death, and buried in the 

Fields ibid. 

Bishop Bonner's Letter to the Parish of Wem 401 

The Martyrdom of William Wolsey and Robert Pygot . . . 402 

Another Account of them 405 

The Story of Nicholas Ridley and Master Hugh Latimer . . 406 

A Conference had betwixt them in Prison 410 

A Letter from Bishop Ridley to his Prison-fellows .... 424 



A Letter to his Cousin ; also Three Letters to Master Bradford. 425 
To the Brethren remaining in Captivity of the Flesh, and dis- 
persed abroad in sundry Prisons, etc 42S 

A Letter of Bishop Ridley to confirm the Brethren, etc. . . 430 
A Letter of his, to Master West, sometime his Chaplain . . . 43 1 
The Answer of Bishop Ridley to Master Grindal's Letter . . 434 

To Augustine Bernher 436 

The Life, Acts, and Doings of Master Latimer, the famous 

Preacher and Martyr, etc 437 

The Tenor and Effect of certain Sermons of his at Cambridge, 

A.D. 1529 .439 

The Epistle of Master Redman to Master Latimer, with Lati- 
mer's Answer 453 

A Citation to Master Latimer by the Chancellor of Sarum, at 

the Litercession of the Bishop of London 455 

The Epistle of Latimer to the Archbishop of Canterbury . . 456 
Articles devised by the Bishops for Latimer to subscribe unto. 458 
An Inhibition made to Latimer not to preach in the Diocese of 

London 459 

Words spoken to the People in giving them Holy Bread and 

Water 461 

Articles untruly, unjustly, falsely, and uncharitably imputed to 

Hugh Latimer 466 

A Letter of Master Latimer to Master Morice, concerning the 

Articles falsely laid against him 473 

A brief Digression touching the railing of Hubberdin against 

Latimer 477 

An Expostulatory Epistle of William Sherwood against Lati- 
mer; with Latimer's Answers 478 

A Letter of Latimer to Sir Edward Baynton, Knight . . . 484 

The Answer of Sir Edward Baynton 490 

Master Latimer's Answer 491 

A Writing of the Bishops against English Books ; namely, out 
of " The Book of Beggars," " The Primer," also against 
" An Exposition upon the Seventh Chapter of the First 
Epistle to the Corinthians ; " with a " Bill or Declaration," 

in English, to be published by the Preacher 499 

A Letter of Latimer to Henry the Eighth, for restoring the 

Reading of the Scriptures 506 

A fruitful Letter to a certain Gentleman 512 

A Letter to Mrs. Wilkinson, out of Bocardo 517 

The Order and Manner of the Examination of Ptidley and Lati- 
mer, tlie 30th of September, 1555 518 

Articles jointly and severally ministered to them by the Pope's 
Deputy ; also Ridley's Examination upon them .... 525 

Master Latimer before the Commissioners 529 

The Second Day's Session 534 

The last Appearance of Latimer before the Commissioners. . 540 
A Communication between Dr. Brooks and Dr. Ridley, in tlie 

House of Master Irish ; also his Degradation 542 

A Supplication of Ridley to Queen Mary in behalf of certain 

Poor Men's Leases 545 

The Behaviour of Dr. Ridley at his Supper, the Night before 
liis Suffering ; also the Behaviour of Master Latimer and 

Dr. Ridl-y at the Time of their Death 547 

A Treatise of Dr. Ridley, instead of his last Farewell to his faith- 
ful Friends in God ; with a sharp Admonition to the Papists. 552 
Another Farewell to the Prisoners in Christ's Gospel's Cause . 563 
A Treatise containing a Lamentation for the State of England. 569 
A Description of the Profession of the Christian Faith, agreed 
upon at Peternot or Petricow, in the Kingdom of Poland; 
May, A.D. 1555 584 



l.'j').'). The Death and End of Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winches- 
ter, the Enemy of God's Word 585 

The Pope's Supremacy impugned by Stephen Gardiner, in his 

Books and Sermons ; 595 

Certain Matters wlierein Stephen Gardiner varied from other 

Papists, touching the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper . . 597 
Matters wherein Bishop Gardiner varied from himself; with 

certain Things that he granted luito 600 

Twelve New-found Articles, from " The Examination of the 

Hunter " G02 

The Bvu-ning of John Webbe, George Roper, and Gregory Parke. G04 
The Death of William Wiseman, in Lollards' Tower ; and of 

James Gore, in Colchester Prison G05 

The Process and History of John Philpot, examined, con- 
demned, and martyred in Defence of the Gospel .... ibid. 

The First Examination of Master John Philpot 606 

The Second Examination 609 

The Manner of his Calling before the Bishop of London . .611 

The Fourth Examination 613 

The Fifth Examination 620 

The Sixth Examination 628 

The Seventh Examination 638 

Two Private Conferences with Bishop Bonner, etc 645 

Another Private Conference in the Coal-house 647 

The Eighth Examination of John Philpot 648 

The Ninth Examination . 649 

The Tenth Examination 654 

The Eleventh Examination 656 

The Twelfth Examination; with another Talk the same Day. 667 

The Thirteenth Examination ; with another Talk the same Day. 671 
The Examinations of Master Philpot in open Judgment, by 
Bishop Bonner, in the Consistory at Paul's, on the 13th and 

14th of December 677 

Bishop Bonner's Exhortation to John Philpot 679 

Philpot's Letter concerning the Handling of Master Green in 
Bishop Bonner's House ; also another Letter to Lady Vane, 

followed by Philpot's Supplication, etc 681 

The Condemnation of the worthy Martyr of God, John Philpot. 683 

A Prayer to be said at the Stake, etc 686 

A Letter of Master Philpot to the Christian Congregation . ibid. 

The Letter to John Careless in the King's Bench ; also another. 691 
Another Letter to certain godly Women, who forsook their 

Country for the Gospel 693 

An Exhortation to Philpot's own Sister 694 

A Letter to certain godly Brethren 696 

A Letter to Master Robert Harrington 699 

Extract of a Letter to the Lady Vane ; followed by four other 

Letters to the same Lady 700 

A Letter to a Friend, Prisoner in Newgate 706 

1556. A godly Letter of Reproof of a certain Gospeller, to Bonner . 712 
The Story of Seven Martyrs suffering together in London ; 

with their Articles and Answers 715 

The Story of all these Martyrs; and first, of Thomas Whittle. 718 

The Bill of Submission offered to him 719 

The Letter of Harpsfield to Bonner, declaring how Thomas 

Whittle rent his Subscription out of the Register .... 720 

A Letter of Robert Johnson the Registrar to Bonner . . . 721 

A Letter of Thomas Whittle to John Careless 723 

A Letter to John Went, and other Prisoners, in the Loll.irds' 

Tower 724 

To all true Professors in the City of London 725 

To John Careless in the King's Bench 728 



1556, A Letter to the Brethren Filles and Cutbert 729 

A Letter to a godly Woman 730 

The Story of Master Bartlet Green, Gentleman and Lawyer . 731 
His Writing in Master Bartram Calthorp's Book .... ibid. 

A Letter to Bonner by the Queen's Council 733 

A Letter of Banlet Green to John Philpot 734 

The last Examination and Condemnation of Master Green ; 

with his Confession 737 

A Letter of Bartlet Green to certain loving Friends and others, 

Masters of the Temple 743 

A Letter to Mistress Clark 744 

Another Writing of Bartlet Green 745 

Thomas Brown, Martyr 746 

John Tudson, Martyr 747 

John Went ; also Isabel Foster, Martyrs 748 

Joan Lashford, alias Joan Warne, Martyr 749 

Five other Maityrs in Canterbury, John Lomas, Agnes Snoth, 

Anne Albright, Joan Sole, and Joan Catmer 750 



The Burning of Master Bradford and John Leaf 194 

Prisoners in Bonds conferring together 356 

Master Latimer preaching before King Edward 463 

The Burning of Bishop Ridley and Father Latimer 550 

The Martyrdom of Master John Philpot 685 

Seven Godly Martyrs suffering at ONE Fire IN Smithfield . . . 715 










Cfje i^i.^toc5 Of ^t. ^ohttt ireccat, SBijS^op of ^t. 5^abiii'^ in Wnk^, 

OF THE TllUTH, MARCH 30tH, A.D. 1555. 




The clay after Laurence's deatli, Avhicli was the SOtli of tlie month 
of March, follcwed the worthy and constant martyrdom of the bishop 
of St. David's in Wales, called Robert Ferrar, who was the next 
bishop in this catalogue of christian martyrs, that suffered after master 
Hooper. This aforesaid Ferrar, by the favour and good will of the 
lord protector, was first called and promoted to that dignity. This 
man I may well call twice a martyr, not only for the cruel death of 
the fire, which he suffered most constantly in the days of queen 
Mary, unto the shedding of his blood, but also for divers other in- 
juries and molestations in king Edward's time, Avhich he no less 
firmly than unworthily sustained at the hands of his enemies, after the 
fall of the duke of Somerset. Of these his vexations and troubles, Fifty-six 
with the wrangling articles and informations laid against him, to the a^^Tnst 
number of fifty-six, and of the malice conceived against him by ccr- j^'f,"'"'" 
tain covetous canons of the church of Caermarthcn, and what were the Kiiward's 
proceedings of both parts, as well of the innocent, as of the crafty 
adversaries, and what were their names, in their articles against him, 
in order here followeth. 

(1) See Edition 1559, p. 423. Ed. 1.^03, p. lOSJ. Ed. 1. WO, p. 1721. Ed. 157R, p. 1470. Kd. ISS.I, 
p. 1544. Ed. 1597, p. 1403. Ed. 1C84, vol. iii. p. IC5.— Ed. 





1555. George Constantine ; David Walter his servant ; Thomas Young,- 
chanter of the cathedral church, who was afterward archbishop of 
York ; Rowland Meyrike doctor of law, who was afterward bishop of 
Bangor ; Thomas Lee, and Hugh Rawlins, etc. 

Through the procurement and instance of these his adversaries, 
joining and confederating together, one Hugh Rawlins priest, and 
Thomas Lee, brother-in-law to the said George Constantine, did 
exhibit to the king^s most honourable council certain articles and 
informations, conceived and devised by the persons before named, to 
the intent to blemish the bishop's credit, and utterly (as they thought 
and made their boast) to pull him from his bishopric, and to bring 
him in a praemunire. The copy of which articles we thought here 
good to express, and so after them to set his answers to the same. 

Articles and Informations to the King's Honourable Council, put 
up and exhibited by Hugh Rawlins and Thomas Lee, against the 
blessed man of God, Master Ferrar, Bishop of St. David's. 

Ahitse of the Authority to him committed. 
Imprimis, When the said bishop first came to his diocese, he appointed his 
chancellor by his letters of commission, omitting the king's majesty's style and 
authority, and grounded his said commission upon foreign usurped laws and 
autJiority ; by force of which authority his said chancellor did visit certain 
deaneries of his said diocese, and monished the chanter and chapter of the 
cathedral church of St. David's aforesaid, against a certain day and place, for 
like intent and purpose, contrary to the king's highness's laws and statutes, and 
in derogation of his highness's supremacy. 

II. Item, That the said chanter and chapter, perceiving the faults of the 
said commission, took the same from the registry into their custody, refusing to 
appear by virtue thereof, and, by secret and charitable ways and means, did 
admonish the said bishop of the unlawfulness and faults of the said commission, 
and of the danger that he had incurred for granting and executing the same ; 
opening also unto him the effect of the statute made in the twenty-eighth year 
of our late sovereign loi*d Henry the Eighth. Which monitions notwithstanding, 
the said bishop neglecting the same, and continuing in his malicious doing or 
inexcusable ignorance, about the 20th day of August, in the fourth year of the 
reign of our sovereign lord that now is, did confer unto one Jolni Evans the 
vicarage of Pen Brynn, instituting him by authority of the old foreign usurped 
law, making no mention of the king's highness's authority, in contempt and 
derogation of the same. 

III. Item, Whereas the chancellor and vicar-general to the said bishop, did, 
upon a lawful title, and by the king's highness's supreme authority, admit and 
institute one John Gough into the rectory of Haysguard with the appurtenances, 
and gave out in the king's name under his highness's seal ecclesiastical appointed 
for that office, with the " teste" of the said bishop, and subscription of the said 
chancellor, a mandate to induct accordingly ; by virtue whereof the said John 
Gough was inducted by the official there, into the real possession of the same 
rectory, witli the riglits and appurtenances to the same belonging ; whereupon 
the registrar of the said diocese, at the request of the foresaid chancellor, did 
signify the premises, with all the circumstances, before divers persons to the 
forenamed bishop : who, notwithstanding, did institute and cause tn be inducted 
one Harry Goddard unto the same parsonage, making no mention of the king's 
majesty's authority or supremacy ; in contempt and derogation of the same his 
highness's crown and dignity, and in extolling the foreign usurped authority, 
contrary to tlie form of the statute, etc. 

(1) See the Uarlcian MSS. Nniuhor 420, art. 17-27.-Kd. 

(2) Sou-in-law lu Constuiitiiic. 


IV. Item, The said bishop, immediately after the unlawful institution and naru 

induction of Goddard aforesaid, molested the said John Gough, lawfully insti- 

tuted and inducted as before, citing him from place to place, objecting no matter ■'■^- ^^■ 
unto him of long season, till at length he articled. Among which articles was ^•"^•'J-'»- 
contained, " Item, interrogatur quo titulo tenet rectorianfde Haysguard :" so 
taking upon him the cognition of the title of the whole fruits and patronage, in 
contempt of the king's liighncss's regal crown and dignity, and in derogation of 

the laws and statutes of this realm. 

V. Item, He hath commonly made his collations and institutions, as he did 
his first commission, in his own name and authority, without expressing the 
king's supremacy. 

VI. Item, He made under his seal one collation, two institutions, and three 
mandates to induct, in one vacation of one benefice, three several persons, 
without order of law, or revocation of any of them, giving to every one like 
authority, title, and right. Whereby, except good foresight, as well of justices 
of the peace as of the friends, had not been, there had ensued much inconveni- 
ence amongst the partakers of the intituled incumbents in that behalf. 

VII. Item, The said bishop, decreeing "caveats" to be made in benefices, 
thereby knowing the titles litigious, instituted and caused to be inducted without 
trial of any title or due order of law. 

VIII. Item, He directeth his mandates of induction unto private men, and 
not to the archdeacons nor their officials ; contrary to the law and custom used 
in that behalf: notwithstanding he hath been counselled to the contrary, of 
men that be learned. 

IX. Item, Having no manner of knowledge or practice in the law, he sitteth 
everyday in harvest, and other limes, upon causes, without assistance of learned 
in the law, having with him only an unlearned boy, which is no notary, to his 
scribe ; neither observing the law, nor yet reasonable order. And therefore 
doth no good, but trifleth the time, as may appear by his acts, if he have them 
to be showed. 

X. Item, He, and his officers by his knowledge, useth to dispense with marriages, 
to be solemnized without banns ; contrary to the laws and ordinances in that behalf. 

XI. Item, Whereas one Thomas Prichard, a chaplain of his, solemnized 
matrimony in a private house without banns, and that betwixt a priest, and a 
sister of her that was appointed to be married with the said priest that day 
(he also being a parson, and leaving his cure unserved that day, being Sunday; 
and notwithstanding that one of the king's council in the Marches of Wales 
informed the said bishop of the same misdemeanours, requiring due reformation 
thereof, he hath done nothing thei'ein but put the same chaplain in office, and 
made him his commissary-general since that time, bearing a special favour to 
the rest of the offenders. 

XII. Item, Whereas one Meredith ap Thomas, his household servant, was 
accused of one Sage Hughes, to have been father of her child ; the said bishop, 
without purgation of his servant, caused him to sue the parents of the said 
Sage of infamy, first in his principal consistory, and from thence before a com- 
missary of his, being his household chaplain, and at the last took the matter 
before himself, so railing against all his officers, because they proceeded not 
after his partial affection, and against the law, that honest men of Cacrmar- 
then, where he then sat upon the cause, judged him to be, or at the least to 
have been, distract of his wit, and by this partial handling, the cause remaineth 
unfinished, and the child without father. 

XIII. Item, Whereas one Jenkin Ph * * • accused William Chambers, a 
servant of the bishop's that found this William in adtdterous manner with his 
wife, by reason whereof the bishop expelled the wife out of his house, the said 
infamy not purged, the parties have been both again in the bishop's house and 
service since that time, to the evil example of others. 

XIV. Item, By his unlawful sequestration of the fruits of the benefices of 
Llangattwg, and Llanfihangel, by the indiscreet handling of the same, there 
were raised the number of four Inmdred people or more, which bickered sundry 
times together, to the great danger of the inhabitants thereabout, had it not ' 
been pacified by the discreet means of sir Roger Vaughan, knight. 

XV. Item, By his like uidawful collation of the prebend of Llan Bister to one 
Stephen Greene, a chaplain of his, by covenant and promise to maintain the 



Martj. suit, by whose crafty and indiscreet handling of the same, there was raised in 
■ the county of Radnor, the 19th day of August last past, about three or four 

hundred men, to like danger, but that the matter was stayed by John Brad- 
_ shaw. Rice ap Glin, and Stephen ap Rice, justices of the same county ; who, 

with great danger to themselves and theirs, pacified the matter, committing a 

hundred of the offenders to ward. 

XVI. Item, Such as he oweth displeasure unto, he citeth from place to place, 
and day to day, only for their vexation, laying no matter against them ; and 
being divers times required the copy of his proceedings against them, to the 
intent they might answer accordingly, and be at their lawful defence ; he denied 
to all such persons the copies of his proceedings. 

XVII. Item, He and his officers wink at the manifest and open crimes of 
his fautors and adherents, to the evil example of the whole diocese, and abuse 
the censures of excommunication and suspension, making it an instrument of 
revenging, against such as they do not favour. 

XVIII. Item, Having received payment of the king's majesty's subsidy, due 
in October, the fourth year of his grace's reign, of the aforesaid chanter of the 
cathedral church of St. David's, and Rowland Meyrike, two of the residen- 
tiaries thei-e, before Christmas last, he, unjustly, of a prepensed mind and 
purpose, afterward certified them for recusants ; to their undoing, if they had 
not been admonished of his cruel purpose, and provided lawful defence for the 

XIX. Item, The said bishop, celebrating matrimony in his own person, dis- 
pensed, contrary to the book of ordinance, with the parties married, for not 
receiving the holy communion ; the parties both being young and lusty persons, 
having no reasonable cause wherefore they should abstain. At which celebra- 
tion the bishop communicated not himself: and further, the communion was 
celebrated by a chaplain of his, with superstitious blowings, kneelings, and 
knockings, both of the chaplain that ministered, and of all the company, only 
one other priest communicating for the mannei*. 

Maintenance of Superstition contrary to the King's Ordinance and Injunctions. 

XX. Item, Whereas the official of the archdeacon of Caermarthen, in his 
visitation within Caermarthen, found, contrary imto the said ordinance, an altar 
set up in the body of the church, for celebration of the communion, and caused 
the said altar to be taken away, and a table to be set in the middle of tlie 
church ; the bishop, after the same, commanded the vicar of Caermarthen to 
set the table without the chancel again, for the ministration of the comnnmion. 

XXI. Item, He, being often in Caermarthen and other places, in the chancel, 
at the time of holy communion, not only tarried there himself, neither comnni- 
nicating nor ministering, bareheaded and uncoiffi'd, reverently kneeling ; but 
also permitteth the people there to continue, the chancel and choir full, kneeling 
and knocking their breasts : which manner is yet used in all the diocese, without 
any reformation or gainsay of him or any of his officers. 

XXII. Item, Whereas superstitious praying upon beads is not only ungodly, 
but reproved in the king's majesty's Injunctions ; the said bishop, meeting many 
with beads in their hands, never rebuked any of them. 

XXIII. Item, The said bishop, being in the pulpit, and seeing corpses 
there within the church, with a great number of lights upon them, never spake 
against any of them. 

XXIV. Item, Whereas the ordinance willeth, that no children be baptized 
but upcm the Simday or holy day (only cause of necessity excepted), he, having 
two children himself born without danger, caused one of them to be baptized 
on the work-day ; and, by his example, without any contradiction or motion of 
reformation, it is used, as it hath been customed, in all the diocese commonly, 
contrary unto the book of ordinance in that behalf. 


XXV. Item, From his first coming into the diocese, he hath had, and yet 
hath, iiis only study, labour, and practice, to si'vvey land, and to look for mines, 
etc. ; neglecting his own bounden duty to apply to his book and preaching. 

XXVI. Item, He keepeth no manner of hospitality, but hath his servants' 


table in one parlour \Yitli him, lest any stranger should approach his sonants, M„r,,. 
being at their meat. — — _ 

XXVII. Item, He is commonly talking, not of godliness, but of worldly A-t)- 
matters; as baking, brewing, enclosing, ploughing, mining, of mill-stones, dis- l-''^^^- 
charging of tenants, and such like, not only at his table, but also most com- 
monly at other places. 

^ XXVIII. Item, He hath warned divers tenants out of their lands, which 
they and their elders have enjoyed for their rents these hundred years and 
more, and occupied with tillage ; which, he saith, he will enclose ; and being 
sued to of poor men because of quietness, he answered, " The crows shall eat 
the corn, rather than ye shall have anj^ profit thereof." 

XXIX. Item, When the vicars choral of St. David's, for relief of their hos- 
pitality, had an island of his called the Bishop's Isle, for forty shillings rent ; 
he hatii let it to a chaplain of his for five pound by year. And whereas, at 
the suit of the said vicars, it was granted by tlie bisliop, in the whole chapter, 
that the vicars should have it for [certain] years at forty shillings rent, and ])ay 
twenty pounds entry ; he now, covetously, and against his promise openly made, 
denieth the same, except tlie vicars would give fifty pounds. 

XXX. Item, He caused the curate of St. David's to warn their tenants out 
of their said lands, in the pulpit, to the great offence of the people, which were 
wont to have God's word preached there ; and so they said to the curate at 
that time. 

XXXI. Item, To the ploughing of a pasture not above ten days' work, in 
Lent, anno 1549, he had thirty-two ploughs in one day ; and those ploughs the 
priest bade in the church, contrary to the statute of Gomortha* in that behalf 
provided, and to the evil example of gentlemen in that country, 

XXXII. Item, Whereas the king's majesty of godly remembrance, Henry 
the Eighth, appointed at Brecknock a schoolmaster, usher, reader of divinity, a 
minister, and certain scholars, and for the maintenance thereof appointed sixty 
pounds twelve shillings of the pensions and revenues of Brecknock ; the bishop, 
finding it so furnished, hath neither reader nor minister there, covetously con- 
verting their stipends to his own use. 

XXXIII. Item, The bishop was twice in one day presented in the great 
court, holden in the town of Caermarthen, for enclosing and covetous encroach- 
ing of the king's highway. 

XXXIV. Item, He covetously occupieth purchasing of lands, buying of 
cattle, merchandise, and other things ; being indebted a notable sum to tlie king's 
majesty, as may by his accounts in the couit of Tenths and First Fruits appear. 

XXXV. Item, Whereas one Lewis John Tliomas, putting from him his 
lawful wedded wife, upon Christmas Even last past, M'ithout banns had marriage 
solemnized with a concubine of his, in a church within three miles of the 
bishop's abode at that time ; the bishop, since knowing the premises, hath not 
only, of a covetous mind, entered familiarity with the said Lewis, and bought a 
piece of land of him, but also ever since hath (to have his lands good clu-ap) 
left both the parties and priest unpunished; using him so familiarly, that whereas 
a sumner cited the parties to appear among other criminals for the same fact, 
the bishop commanded the said sumner to let him alone ; and so they all remain 

XXXVI. Item, Whereas the whole chapter of St. David's (as it was thought) 
was in assured amity with the bishop, they all being his officers or chaplains, he 
procured them to be impleaded with a writ of "Quo warranto" in the King's 
Bench, keeping the writ with him secretly, at the least three months ; not 
delivering it, but only ten days before the day of their appearance, the parties 
being seven days' journey distant from London. 

XXXVII. Item, He is a wilful wrong doer, and troubler of men in their 
rights, entering upon their lawful possessions; stirring thereby much contention, 
and so notably known, to the offence of the country. 

Wilful Negligeuce. 

XXXVIII. Item, Whereas the bisliop aforesaid was appointed in August, 
anno 1547, and consecrated in September following, he never came into tlie 
diocese himself, nor sent or ajipointcd any officer there before the month of 

(1) "Gomortli.V '>r r.)i,.oillj, s.v rid Slaliiti s,— F.d. 


3iary. April, aiiuo 1548 ; to tlie great disorder of the king's majesty's subjects, lack 
~~r— of reformation, and ministration of justice. 
1 f.'f,-' XXXIX. Item, During his visitation, the said bishop did not endeavour him- 

1_ self to see reformation, but rode surveying of lands, appointing vain inclosures, 

and such other things ; which are no part of the office to him committed, nor 
yet convenient, namely at that time. 

XL. Item, The visitation finished, he neither appointed his officers to examine 
the clergy of the places of Scripture to them appointed to be studied in the same 
visitation, nor hath hitherto effectually gone about any godly reformation, 
according to the ordinances of this realm. 

XLI. Item, The bishop, since his coming to the diocese, never ministered 
the communion, saving only at two times, that he ordered certain deacons; but 
in every thing (but that he otherwhiles preacheth excepted) ordereth himself 
like no minister, nor man of his vocation. 

XLII. Item, He hath so alienated himself from study, that he preacheth 
indiscreetly, discrediting the office ; not only untruly reporting the Scriptures, 
but also, preaching the ten commandments, in one place in declaration of the 
eighth of them, for lack of stuff) the pith of his matter was matrimony of 

XLIII. Item, The 13th day of September last, he ordained certain deacons, 
and making his exhortation, he taught that a man was not bound to forgive, 
but him that asketh forgiveness ; and being admonished friendly by a letter 
better to declare the same, because that divers were offended with that doctrine, 
he hath hitherto deferred so to do, to the maintenance of malicious hearts in 
these parts. 

XLIV. Item, Since the first day of August, anno 1549, unto the feast of 
Candlemas last, he hath preached but two or three sermons, of which one was 
preached at Aber Gwili, upon St. Stephen's day last, to a great audience that 
understood no English, being but a mile from Caermarthen, an English town, 
and chief of his diocese, 

XLV. Item, Since his ordinary visitation, which was finished in July, anno 
1548, he hath neither preached, nor caused to be preached in the towns of 
Tenby, Pembroke, nor Haverford, being English towns, not much distant from 
the place of his most continuance. 

XL VI. Item, The churches appropriate to the bishop have no Paraphrases 
in English, and few of them Bibles. 

XLVII. Item, The churches of the diocese for the most part, and the 
clergy almost every one, lack Paraphrases, notwithstanding there have been, 
these two years, and yet be, a great number of them to be sold in the diocese. 


XLVIII. Item, To declare his folly in riding: he useth bridle with white 
studs and snaffle, white Scottish stirrups, white spurs, a Scottish pad with a 
little staff of three quarters long, which he hath not only used superstitiously 
these four or five years, but in communication oftentimes boasted, what countries 
he hath compassed and measured with the same staff. 

XLIX. Item, He hath made a vow, that he will never wear a cap; for he 
saith, it is comely, wearing of a hat, and so cometh in his long gown and hat, 
both into the cathedral church, and to the best town of his diocese, sitting in 
that sort in the king's great sessions, and in his consistory ; making himself a 
mock to the people. 

L. Item, He said that he would go to the parliament on foot: and to his 
friends that dissuaded him, alleging that it is not meet for a man in his place, 
he answered, " I care not for that, it is no sin." 

LI. Item, Having a son, he went before the midwife to the church, presenting 
the child to the priest, and giving his name Samuel, with a solemn interpretation 
of the name ; appointing also two godfathers and two godmothers, contrary to 
the ordinance : making his son a monster, and himself a laughing-stock 
throughout all the country. 

LIl. Item, He daily useth whistling of his child; and saith that he under- 
stood his whistle, when he was but three days old. And being advertised of 
his friends, that men laughed at his folly, he answered, "They whistle their 
horses and dogs, and I am contented; they might also be contented that I 


whistle my child:" and so whistleth him daily, all friendly admonition Afary. 

LIII. Item, In his ordinary visitation, among other his surveys he surveyed ^- ^^^ 
Milford Haven, where he espied a seal-fish tumbling. And he crept down the ^ ■"'■'">•'>• 
rocks to the water-side, and continued there whistling by the space of an 
hour, persuading the company that laughed fast at him, that by his whistling 
; made the fish to tarry there. 

LI V. Item, Speaking of scarcity of herrings, he laid the fault to the covctous- 
ness of fishers, who in time of plenty took so many, that they destroyed the 

LV. Item, Speaking of the alteration of the coin, he wished that what 
metal soever it were made of, the penny should be in weight worth a penny of 
the same metal. 

LVI. For a conclusion, the said bishop in all his doings since he came to his 
diocese, hath behaved himself most unmeet for a man of his vocation, being for 
a minister of justice, an abuser of the authority to him committed ; for a 
teacher of the truth, and reformer of superstition, a maintainer of superstition 
without any doctrine of reformation ; for a liberal and hospitable, an unsatiable 
covetous man; for a diligent overseer, wilful and negligent; for an example of 
godly wisdom, given wholly to folly ; for merciful, a cruel revenger : and fur- 
tlier, for a peacemaker, a sower of discord. And so, in all his behaviour, a 
discrediter and slanderer of his vocation, and a deceiver of all men that had 
hope that he should do any reformation. For he yet hath neither brought into 
his diocese, nor hath belonging unto him, any learned preacher. But such 
learned preachers as he fo\md in the diocese at his entry he so vexeth and dis- 
quieteth, that they cannot attend to apply their preaching, for the defence of 
their livings, against his quarrelous inventions and unjust certificates. 

After these wrangling articles and informations were given up, then wotton 
was the bishop called for to answer ; the hearing whereof was com- ^^^ ^^^- 
mitted unto Dr. Wotton and sir John Mason, knight, who likewise mission- 
received the bishop's answers to the foresaid articles, the copy and ^'^' 
effect of Avhich answers hereafter follow. 

The Answer of Robert, Bishop of St. David's, to the Articles 
ministered unto him. 

To the first article he saith, that after lawful monition in the king's majesty's ^1,^ Cf^t 
name and authority, from the said bishop (being then at London), given to the article, 
chanter and chapter of St. David's, for visitation at a certain day there to be 
entered; the said bishop himself, for such puqjose coming into the diocese, 
knowing also that the chanter, and one of the canons of that church, and, late 
before, commissaries in that diocese, had not only by their own evil example and 
winking at the faults of others, or neglecting to correct the same, left tliere, 
among priests and others, much detestable whoredom ; but had also spoiled the 
cathedral-church of crosses, chalices, and censers, with other plate, jewels, and 
ornaments of the church, to the value of five hundred marks or more, for their 
own private lucre (the church remaining even yet very vile and in great decay) ; 
and had also made further under their chapter-seal many blanks, to the number 
of twelve or more, sede vacante, without the king's license or knowledge : 
therefore he brought with him one Edmund Farlee, bachelor of law, by 
Dr. Tonge and Dr. Nevison to him commended, as a man suflScient in faithful 
truth and learning, to be his chancellor ; to whom he granted and sealed a com- 
mission for that purpose, giving credit to him in his faculty, concerning the draft 
and form thereof: but the king's majesty's style of suj)remacy was fully set forth in 
the same connnission. Whether there were any default of formal words in setting 
forth of the king's authority therein, he is not certain ; for he committed the 
doing thereof to his chancellor, who was connnended to him for a learned man. 
And the bishop saith, that he did never ground the commission upon any 
foreign usurped laws or authority ; neither did his said chancellor, by force of 
such authority, visit any deanery of the said diocese, nor give any monition to 
the chanter and chapter there, by force of tliat commission, for any like intent 


Mart/, or pui-pose ; but only offered, in the king's majesty's name and authority (to tlio 

said bishop committed), to enter visitation of the chanter and chapter of the 

j^' -*^- cathedral-clmrch, at another day to be executed by the bishop himself, for refor- 
^^^^' mation of the chapter- church and ministers there, according to the king's gra- 
cious ordinances and injunctions in that behalf. But the aforesaid chanter and 
canon of the church, before the sight of any commission, stubbornly answered 
the said chancellor, that they would not receive him, nor any other to visit them, 
except he were one of their chapter. And further, desiring to see his commission, 
he delivered the same into their hands, who would not deliver it him again. 
And so it may appear that he did nothing by force of that commission. 
Second To the llnd article he saith,that they opened not unto him the danger of any 

article. statute, to his knowledge and remembrance. Nevertheless he, not knowing 
any default in the said commission, and certainly minding with all diligence 
the faithful execution of his office of preaching, and visiting the whole diocese 
in his own person, by the king's majesty's authority, for the conservation of 
God's peace and the king's, in that dangerous time of rebellion, then beginning 
to arise in other places, did neglect and lay apart the stubborn behaviour and 
ungodly doings of the said chanter and canon, and agreed with them, omitting 
all contempts and reproaches toward him and his said chancellor, and all 
manner of contention by them done ; feai-ing else that, through their unquiet- 
ness, some tumult might have risen among the people there; and did also 
make the said chanter his chancellor, and canon his commissary, according to 
their ambitious desires, to appease their malice in that dangerous time. And 
further, he saith, that he made collation to sir John Evans of the vicarage of 
Pembrin (what day or time he remembereth not), not by any old foreign 
usurped authority, but by the king's authority only, making full mention of the 
king's style and authority in the same collation. 
Thirdand To the Ilird and IVth he saith, that whereas heliad granted to George Con- 
""^ '■ stantine the office of a registrar, who brought unto him a commission for the 
chancellorship, to be sealed and delivered to the foresaid chanter of St. David's, 
desiring the said bishop to seal it, he utterly refused so to do, because the said 
George had put therein a clause of admitting clerks into benefices : the whicli 
authority the said bishop would not in any wise grant, reserving the exami- 
nation and admission of clerks only to himself, for the avoiding of wicked 
bribery and partiality. Whereupon the said George, and the chanter, promised 
the said bishop by their faith and truth, before three or four honest witnesses, 
not to execute that clause of institution into benefices, but only to those clerks 
whom the bishop did first examine and admit, and send unto them to be insti- 
tuted and inducted; upon which promise the bishop sealed the said commis- 
sion. And after that time, the parsonage of Haysguard being void, and, by the 
reason of lapse, devolving to the bishop's gift for that time, he conferred it to 
one sir Henry Goddard, with a collation of institution by the kii ^'s authority, 
not extolling any foreign usui-ped authority. In tlie which collation or institu- 
tion is fully mentioned the renunciation of the bishop of Rome, and all foreign 
powers and authority, with the full style of his majesty's supremacy. And this 
collation of the church of Haysguard he gave, before lie understood or knew that 
his chancellor had given out the like ; and he surely thinketh his collation was 
the first. That notwithstanding the said George Constantine, and the said chanter, 
having a vowson determined by reason of lapse, admitted and instituted one John 
Gough, to the said parsonage of Haysguard, by virtue of their expired vowson, 
and sealed his institution with a wrong seal (because they had not the right 
seal of office to that purpose), contrary to their former earnest promise and the 
bishop's right, and without any manner of warning or foreknowledge thereof 
to him given ; which thing by them untruly done, the said George Constantine 
nevertheless came to the said bishop's house and there did write with his own 
hand the letters of induction for the said sir Henry Goddard priest, comprising 
in the same the whole sum of the institution or collation which the said bishop 
had made ; and tlie same George did seal the said letters of induction with liis 
own hand, finding no manner of fault therein, nor making any word or mention 
ofhis and tiie chanter's former wrong doings, but so departed for that time. 
And afterward he came again, and showed the bishop what they had done 
before, concerning the parsonage aforesaid. And further, the said defendant 
saith, that lie did not molest tlie said John Gough, but lawfully did call him in 


the king's majesty's name, not for any title of patronage, but to know wlictlicr M„nj. 

;he were parson of Haysguard, and how he was thereto admitted and instituted — 

and inducted, and by what authority he presumed to preach there without the A.IJ. 
king's majesty's license ; witli other like lawful demands: whereuntohe sturdily l-''>-'J-'J. 
refused to give answer; and saith, that the article contained in his accusation, ' 

saying thus : "Item interrogetur quo titulo tenet rectoriam de Haysguard," was 
not ministered unto the party in that sort, so far as he knoweth, but in these 
words or like, " Quomodo intravit in rectoriam," etc. 

To the Vth he saith, that albeit George Constantine the registrar, did wilfully Fifth 
withdraw his bounden service due to the king's highness and to the said de- ^rt'dc 
fendant in the king's name, refusing to attend either by himself, or his sutKcient 
deputy, for writing of records and other instruments, yet the said defendant 
made his collations and institutions in his own name, not by his own authority, 
nor by any others, save only the king's authority ; according as he hath 
declared in his answer to the first article; expressing in them the king's 
supremacy with the bishop's own name and seal of office, as he ought to do, 
according to the provision of the king's statute in such a case. 

To the Vlth he saith, that the vicarage of Pen Brynn being void, he, as right Sixth, 
patron thereof to his knowledge, conferred it to John Evans clerk, with letters 
of institution and induction ; and after, when the king's presentation came to 
him for one David Jenkin, clerk, he desired fourteen days' respite at that time, 
either to show ancient record for his right, and then the matter to stand to the 
determination of the law, or else if he showed not, both he and his clerk to give 
place to the king's clerk; which condition was, by sir Thomas Jones knight, 
Dr. Meyrike, and the said David Jenkin, received, and an institution with an 
induction was made conditionally, to be put into the hands of sir Thomas Jones 
knight, for safe custody of the king's clerk's behoof, after the fourteen days to 
be executed at the hands of the said defendant, if he foiled to show. Within 
which time the said defendant did show an old ancient record, declaring the 
full right of patronage on the said defendant's behalf; and so that institution 
and induction was never by the said defendant put in execution. Nevertheless, 
the said David Jenkin (contrary to his promise and oatli, giving thereupon his 
right hand to the said sir Thomas Jones knight) took advantage by the said 
writing, without knowledge of the said defendant. After which time the lord 
chancellor, by his letters written to the said defendant, advertised him to admit 
one John ap Powell clerk, presented by virtue of a vowson which the lord 
chancellor judged to be good ; and so to be admitted, notwithstanding his 
former presentation, whereby he would not abar the other man's right. And 
so this defendant made one collation, two institutions, and three mandates, 
doing no wrong thereby, to his knowledge. And further he saith, that there 
was no business nor unquietness about the possession of the said vicarage ; but 
this defendant, giving place, was content to lose his right for that time. 

To the Vllth he saith, that as he now remembereth, he never decreed any Seventh, 
caveats to be made in benefices, neither did institute or cause to be inducted 
any into benefices, being known to him litigious. 

To the Vlllth he saith, that because the archdeacons be absent from their Eighth, 
offices, and have not had faithful diligent officials, he hath directed his man- 
dates to them or their officials, or to other lawful persons in that behalf, so far 
as he knoweth. j^j,ni, 

The IXth and Xth articles he denieth as very imtruc. andtcntii. 

To the Xlth he saith, that whereas sir Thomas Jones knight, advertised him, Elevcntli. 
that Thomas Prichard had celebrated matrimony in a private house, betwixt a 
certain priest and a woman whose sister had refused the same, the said Prichard 
leaving his own cure unserved on that Sunday, this defendant did put the same 
Thomas Prichard to penance for so doing, marrying them without banns. And 
whereas he made the said Thomas Prichard, who is a bachelor of law, bis 
commissary; it was for the respect of learning in the law, thereby faithfully to 
execute his office according to justice. And the said defendant did never favoiu- 
nor bear with any man wittingly in his wrong doings. He confesseth that the 
matrimony was solemnized in a private church, and that the cure was that day 

To the Xllth he saith, that it is slanderous, and utterly untrue. And that one Twelfth, 
sir John Hughes, priest, made Sage Huglics (daughter to his sttpmother) a 


Mary, harlot at eleven years of age, and after married her openly to another man, being 

minister thereof himself. After which doing he took her away from her hus- 

^^P' band again, and kept her, alleging a former contract. And when the said John 
^^^^- Hughes was lawfully convicted before the said bishop, in open court at Caer- 
marthen, of that his abominable adultery, claiming the king's pardon thereof, 
yet the said Sage confessed, that he had to do with her the night before that 
day of appearance. Which latter crime he denied : nevertheless she proved 
with child, affirming, both before the birth and after, the child to be his ; the 
midwife and others being witnesses thereof. Yet notwithstanding, George 
Constantine, as a wicked bolsterer of the said priest in his naughty doings, 
with the help of the aforesaid chanter, first uttered that Meredith Thomas was 
father of the said child : which matter was ordered in the ecclesiastical court 
according to justice, without any partial affection of the said bishop, or of any 
other, to his knowledge. 
Tiiii- To the Xlllth he saith, it is utterly false so far as he knoweth. 

teenth. Jq (.}^g XlVth he saith, that by lawful sequestration in the king's majesty's 

^enth name, he committed the custody of the fruits of Llangattwg and Lanfihangel to 
two honest men, for the behoof of the king's first fruits and tenths, and of the 
next incumbent ; and further, he did not meddle nor minister any cause of un- 
quietness in that behalf 
Fifteenth. To the XVth he saith, that he made a collation, lawful (as he supposeth) of 
the prebend of Llan Bister, to Stephen Green his chaplain, without any cove- 
nant or colour ; and further he did not meddle in that behalf, 
feeth '^° '■'^^ XVIth he saith, all is untrue as far as he knoweth. 

Seven- To the XVIIth he saith, it is untrue for his own part ; and his officers, as far 

teenth. ^s he knoweth. 

Eigh- To the XVIIIth he saith, it is untrue as far as he knoweth, and that he did 

teenth. certify the recusants justly, as he thinketh, because they refused wilfully to pay 
the king's whole subsidy of their whole dividends, as it standeth in the king's 
book, pertaining to the canons resident. 
Nine- Xo the XlXth he saith, that after travel of fourteen miles, being not able fast- 

teenth. ^^^^ ^^ celebrate the communion, in a chapel within the house of sir Thomas 
Jones knight, one of the king's majesty's honourable council of the Marches of 
Wales, this defendant celebrated matrimony without receiving the conununion 
for the causes abovesaid, betwixt master GriflSth Rice, and the daughter of the 
said sir Thomas Jones, according to the king's ordinances. And Thomas 
Prichard priest, administered the holy communion there without any supersti- 
tion, to this defendant's knowledge ; and the married persons not disposed to 
receive the holy communion, he could not compel them against their con- 
sciences ; and saith, that he did not dispense with them, as it is contained in 
the article. 

To the slanderous and untrue title of Maintenance of Sniper stition, etc., he saith, 
that he did not maintain any superstition, contrary to the king's ordinances 
and injunctions ; but, abhorring in his heart all superstition, hath travailed 
and doth travail to abolish the same by true doctrine, and doing as much 
as he can, with the king's peace, among his people there. 

Twin- To the XXth he saith, that George Constantine, in the third year of the 

tieth. king's majesty's reign, not regarding the dangerous time of rebellion in other 
])laces, rashly caused to be pulled down, without any authority known to this 
defendant, the comnumion altar in Caermarthen church, by his own presump- 
tuous mind, appointing the use thereof in another place of the church, not 
without grudge of the people. Wherefore tlie bishop, fearing tumult, com- 
manded the vicar to set up the communion table (for the time) near to the 
place where it was before. ' 

Twenty- To the XX 1st he saith, that he hath been divers times ni the choir of Caer- 
'"^^'- marthen, and hath tan-ied there in the communion-time, not comnumicating 

himself; and that in every church where lie cometh on the holy-day to preach, 
or to pray, he kneeleth in the choir, bareheaded, as well at matins before the 
communion, as at even-song after, without any superstition : he thinketh it not 
necessary for the communion's sake to leave kneeling to Christ. Eut he hath 
diligently taught the people not to kneel nor knock to the visible show, or 
external show of the sacrament. And the choirs of Caermarthen and other 


places there, are not close at the sides, so that the people may come in and forth Mary. 
at their pleasure. Moreover, the king's ordinances do not authorize him to 

rebuke the people for knocking on their breasts, in token of repentance of their ''^" ^• 
sins ; nor for kneeling, in token of submission to God for mercy in Christ. \^-)b. 

To the XXIId he sailh, that in the time of rebellion in Devonshire and Twenty- 
Cornwall, thi-eatening to come into Wales, he, teaching the people the true form second 
of prayer according to (iod's holy word, and declaring the prayer upon beads ^''"'^''^• 
to be vain and superstitious, yet durst not, for fear of tumult, forcibly take from 
any man his beads, without authority. And touching the not reproving of 
such as he should meet, wearing beads, he remembereth not that he hath so 
done, unless it were in the rebellion time : at which time he durst not rebuke 
such offenders. 

To the XXIIId he saith, that he — being in the pulpit, his face towards the Twenty- 
people — did not see the lights, if any were set up about tlie corpses behind his ^'^"''• 
back till after that he came down from the puljjit. But he, with George Con- 
stantine and the aforesaid chanter, sitting in the church in Caermartheu to hear 
causes, and seeing the vicar with other priests, with song and lights bringing 
a corpse up to the church, called forthwith the vicar and priests, and rebuked 
them in open court, as cormorants and ravens, flying about the dead carcass 
for lucre's sake. 

To the XXlVth he saith, that he caused the one child, being born with Twenty- 
great peril of death to the mother, and itself lying for dead a certain space after, fo"^"*- 
to be christened on the working-day : the other child was christened on the 
working-day, because both father and mother, and all other people there, wei'e 
in peril of death by reason of the sudden sweat, which all men feared at that 
time. And touching the rest of the accusation, which is, that by that example 
it is used after the old accustomed fashion, he knovveth no such thing. 

To the title of Covetousness, he saith, his doings prove the contrary ; as his 
neighbours know. 

And the XXVth article he utterly denieth. Twenty- 

To the XXVIth he saith, that his hall at Aber Gwili being ruinous, he useth fif'l>- 
for his hall a great chamber adjoining, for himself and his servants and all 'Twenty- 
manner of strangers; and besides twenty persons in house daily. What other '""' 
hospitality he keepeth, honest neighbours can testify. 

To the XXVIIth he saith, that his talk is according to his hearers ; that is xweniy- 
to say, reverently and truly of faith, love, and honest life, according to the seventh. 
Scriptures, to like auditors ; and to other unreverend and rash turmoilers of 
Scriptures and holy doctrine, he doth talk of honest worldly things with godly 
intent ; and that he doth not most commonly talk of such things as are expressed 
in this article, but when he hath honest occasion so to do. 

The XXV^IlIth he saith is untrue, and that he hath warned no man out of Twcnty- 
their lands ; but, whereas he is destitute of necessary provision, and would have ^'gi'i''- 
part of his own domain from certain freeholds, having it only from year to year 
at pleasure, he cannot obtain it without brawling : wherefore he suffereth them 
to keep it even yet still, against right and reason. And touching the rest, that 
he had rather the crows should eat it, etc. he never spake any such word. 

To the XXI Xth he saith, that whereas his predecessor, bishop Barlow, did Twenty- 
let to farm the Isle of Ramsey to one William Brown, after whose hands this """''• 
defendant received it into his own possession, the vicars of St. David's being 
dispossessed of it long before ; he did let it over to Stephen Green for forty 
shillings the ground, as it was before, and three pounds more for seals, conies, 
and fowls there; and he knoweth of no right the vicars choral had therein, who 
did refuse, when this defendant did diligently, upon reasonable conditions, off'er 
the same unto them : and this defendant made no promise unto them, as is con- 
tained in the article. 

To the XXXth he saith. He knoweth not but that he advertised his bailiff to Thirtieth, 
warn the freeholders, and others having his domain to rent, during pleasure, to 
leave it at a lawful day to this defendant's necessary use ; and did not cause the 
curate to do as is contained in the article, to his remembrance. 

'J'o the XXXIst he saith, that he knoweth not what the priest hade in the Thirty- 
clun-eh, nor how many ploughs there came, imdesired of this defendant. But 
he knoweth certainly, that he desired no man's lal)our but for his money. 



A. D. 







ninth an 



To the XXXIId he saith, that he knoweth not any such appointment of 
schools and revenues there ; but he found there (after the departing of bishop 
Barlow) a schoolmaster, an usher being a priest, and twenty scholars, which he 
__ hath hitherto maintained better than he found it, to his knowledge. He did 
never convert any penny thereof to his own use, albeit he might lawfully have 
done the same. 

The XXXIIId he saith, is all untrue, so far as he knoweth. 

To the XXXIVth article he saith. He never purchased more than three 
parcels, whereof one was two shillings and eight pence by the year ; the second, 
three shillings and four pence; and the third, six-and-twenty shillino-s and 
eight pence, or thereabout, by year : the rest he denieth. " 

To the XXXVth he saith, that he never bought of Lewis John Thomas his 
land good cheap, but after forty years' purchase ; not knowing at that time any 
such thing as is contained in the Article against the said Lewis John. Neither 
bade he the sumner to let him alone; but, as soon as he heard any thing of it, 
commanded the sumner to cite him : and so he was cited in this defendant's 
house, occasioning him to break his bargain. To the which Lewis this defend- 
ant said these words : " If you would give me your land with a house full of 
gold, I cannot, nor will I suffer you to keep a leman." Then the said Lewis 
affirming the latter woman to be his wife, and the first unknown to this de- 
fendant, he caused the said Lewis to be called to the consistory for trial, where it 
hangeth yet; and also by lawful process excommunicated the first woman, for that 
she would not by any means appear in the court to claim or to confess marriage 
with the said Lewis ; and so she standeth this day at the point of " significavit." 

To the XXXVIth he saith, that whereas the chanter, and Rowland Meyrike, 
with other canons there, would not obey the king's godly injunctions, concern- 
mg the finding of a school for poor men's children, a lecture of divinity, sermons 
on the Sundays, repairing of their church and mansion-houses, decent order 
and mmistration there ; but stubbornly counted themselves (with the chanter) 
to be a body politic, without regard of the bishop and his lawful monitions, 
bemg hnnself named in their shire statutes, "decanus et quasi decanus ;" 
havmg also their dean's stall in the choir, with a prebend thereunto annexed, 
and the chief place in the chapter-house, with a key of their chapter-seal ; being 
also, by the king's majesty's commission appointed their ordhiary : yet would 
they not m any wise deHver unto him a book of their statutes, for the better 
knowledge of his and their duties, nor show unto him their records and monu- 
ments, for declaration of the king's right and his. For which cause this de- 
fendant, by writ of " Quo warranto," lawfully called them to answer; which 
yet heth asleep, to the loss of the king's majesty's right. The time of delivery 
of the said writ, he remembereth not. 

The XXXVIIth he saith is all false, as far as he knoweth. 

To the Title of Wilful Neglir/ence ; he saith, that he hath used to his power 
willing diligence. 

To the XXXVIIIth he saith, that he, being attendant, according to his 
bounden duty, to serve the king's highness during the time of the parliament, 
from the first unto the last day ; then, immediately after, repaired into his 
diocese; and he might not trust Rowland Meyrike the chanter, and George Con- 
stantino, to execute faithfully the jurisdiction ; because they had before (throuo-h 
their slanderous life, and not punishing misdoers) left the country in great cnormily 
of filthy whoredom. And saith further, that one cause why he appointed not an 
officer, etc., was for that he lacked his letters of authority of jurisdiction. 

The XXXIXth and XLth he saith are untrue. 

To the XLIst he saith, that how often he did minister the 

communion he 

doth not remember ; but in all other things, so far as he knoweth, he hath 
studied to order himself according to his vocation ; as far as he believeth he 
goeth like a minister. ' 

To the XLIId he saith, that he hath not alienated himself from study, 
neither preached indiscreetly, nor reported the Scriptures untruly to his know- 
ledge : but he hath been very much hindered both from study and preachin"- 
by the malicious, crafty, and covetous behaviour of the forcnamed persons! 
And that he did set forth the doctrine of honest marriage, as well of all other 
men as of priests, even as the Scripture then rehearsed did minister occasion. 


To the XLIIId lie saitli, tliat, reciting the words of Luke, " If thy brother Mary. 
have oftended against thee, blame him ; and if he repent, forgive him ; and if 

lie have offended against thee seven times in one day, and seven times in the ^- ^^■ 
day be converted unto thee, saying, I am sorry ; forgive him :" he said further ^^>-*^- 
these words in effect : " It appeareth by this place of Scripture, that wc are not Forty- 
bound (except he repent) to forgive him ; but we are bound to pray God to ^'''r'' 
forgive him, and to give him grace to repent, that he may forgive him. article. 

To the XLIVth he saith, that he hath preached right often at Caermarthen, Porty- 
as well as at other places ; and, he saith, that a great number at Aber Gwili do four">- 
understand English veiy well. 

To the XLVth he saith, that after he had preached first at Brecknock, porty- 
Caermarthen, Swansea, Laugharne, Tenby, Pembroke, Hereford, St. David's, f'f""- 
Cardigan, with other notable towns ; he hath, since that time, preached to a 
great many other poor churches, but not in Tenby nor Pembroke : but for 
Hereford, he standcth in doubt. And whereas he brought with him at the first 
a learned preacher, of godly life, the ungodly stubborn behaviour of the persons 
before named wearied him away. And whereas he had waged another learned 
man to come into his diocese to preach, George Constantine, by his discourage- 
ment, advertised him from this defendant. 

To the XLVIth he saith, that in all his churches appropriated, there are both Forty- 
Bible and Paraphrases, so far as he knoweth : and if the priests there would *''''''• 
not show him the lack thereof, yet should the officials declare it unto him, that 
it might be amended (by his will) without delay. 

To the XLVIIth he saith, that George Constantine covetously engrossed porty- 
into his hands a great number of Paraphrases ; and this defendant hath admo- seventh, 
nished the clergy to buy every one, for his discharge : and if the said George, 
being official of two archdeaconries, and other oiiicials in their office, would 
declare unto him what churches do lack Bibles or Paraphrases, he would cause 
it to be amended as much as in liim lieth. 

To the title of Folly, he saith, that his desire is in true simple manner of his 
words, deeds, and other honest behaviour, through God's grace to show 
godly wisdom. 

To the XLVIIIth he saith, that he thinketh no folly in the decent colour or Forty- 
fashion, with honest use of saddle, bridle, stirrups, staff, and other like necessary eighth, 
or convenient things ; and saith, that he used a saddle made after the Scottish 
fashion, with stirrups of iron unvarnished, and like spurs ; and black bridle 
without studs, the bit and snaffle white, as other men's be. 

To the XLIXth he saith, that when he goeth abroad in winter, he weareth a Forty- 
hat, to bear off rain and snow, and in summer to shadow him from the sun, ""'"*• 
without any vow of superstition or offence of the people. 

To the Lth he saith, that all is one to him, to ride or go, as cause requireth ; Fiftieth 
and whether he said as is contained in the article or not, he remembereth not. 
Howbeit he doth use to go afoot. 

To the List he saith, that, after lawful prayer, it pleased God to give him a Fifty- 
son begotten and born in honest marriage, whom he therefore caused to be **"'• 
named Samuel, presenting him to the minister to be received into Christ's 
church, as a poor member of Christ. By the holy sacrament of baptism was 
this done openly in the cathedral church, with earnest gravity, and without 
offending any man ; and also two wives, being before at variance, desired both 
to be godmothers, which were both received to make unity between them, not 
knowing any law to the contrary, nor any offence thereby conceived of the people. 

To the Llld he saith, that "he doth use with gravity all honest-loving enter- Fi^r^ 
tainment of his child, to encourage him hereafter willingly, at his father's ^'"^"" ' 
mouth, to receive wholesome doctrine of the tme fear and love of God ; and 
saith, that he hath whistled to his child, but said not, that the child understood 
it ; and that he answered to one that found fault with it, as is contained in the 

To the Lllld he saith, that he was never surveyor, but went to sec Milford ij'.ny- 
Havcn for honest purpose, and not to survey it ; and for that he, at the sight 
of a seal; whistled in his fist, such as meant folly might turn it to their purpose. 
And it is not true, that he stood whistling an hour to the seal, nor that any 
fault was found with it, nor any such answer made by him, to his knowledge. 


Mary. To the LIVth lie saith, that if he did say, " The destroying of the fry letteth 
plenty of fish," hethinketh the same not against reason ; but he remembereth not 

V-'iv ^^ ^3Lxe said, as is contained in the article. 

^' To the LVth he saith, that he remembereth not that ever he said as they 

Fifty- allege, 

fifth. To the slanderous, untrue, and ungodly conclusion, he saith, that George 

fi^ Constantine, with other his adversaries before named, and their adherents — 
not regarding the fear of God, and their bounden duty of loving obedience 
towards God and the king, and his true ministers — have too much slanderously, 
with false tongues, contumelious words, and spiteful deeds, laboured by all 
means to discredit and deface the king's gracious authority to him committed ; 
who, ever since he came to the diocese, hath endeavoured himself to show his 
faithful ministry by his true honest doings, and to use his authority according 
to his vocation, to God's glory and the king's honour. And that he hath been 
diligent in teaching of truth, reforming of superstition, free of hospitality, dili- 
gent in overseeing with godly wisdom, peace, and mercifulness ; as he trusteth 
in God, may be truly approved. And he is able justly to charge his adversaries 
with all the faults herein by them most unjustly and slanderously against him 
objected. And he doth marvel greatly, that George Constantine, with other 
his adherents, are not ashamed maliciously to object (for the intent to slander 
him) molesting of preachers found there. For truth it is that he hath molested 
none, but hath justly brought under Significavit one Morice, a preacher, 
living lewdly, for his stubborn behaviour and malicious contempts ; even yet 
continuing in his wilful contempt and in^egularity. And he hath, to his know- 
ledge, justly certified Hugh Rawlins, parson of Tenby, for his wilful recusancy 
of two other parsonages, shamefully deceiving the king's majesty by colour of 
commission, as appeareth by the same. And as for the railing contemptuous 
preaching of Rowland Meyrike, and the unlearned arrogant preaching of the 
chanter, he referreth to discreet hearers, which were offended thereat, as they 
showed this defendant. And this deponent brought into his diocese both learned 
preachers, and learned men in the law, to his very great charges, which men 
George Constantine, with his adherents, hath wearied away. 

After these answers thus exhibited by the virtuous and godly 
bishop against the quarrelling and frivolous articles of his foresaid 
adversaries, to wit, Hugh Rawlins and Thomas Lee : then came in 
for witness, upon the said articles and informations, George Constan- 
tine, and the chanter of St. David^s : against whom the bishop laid 
first exceptions, then also exhibited matter justificatory, the tenor and 
process whereof here followeth in order to be seen — first, concerning 
the exceptions, and after, the matter justificatory. 

Exceptions general, laid and proposed on the behalf of Robert, 
Bishop of St. David's, against all and singular the pretensed Wit- 
nesses, produced on the behalf of Hugh Rawlins clerk, and Thomas 
Lee, upon their untrue surmised Articles, by them exhibited unto 
and before the King''s most honourable Council, by the device 
and procurement of the Chanter, and George Constantine, with 
Rowland Meyrike clerk, against the said Bishop. 
First, the said bishop saith and allegeth, that by law there ought no faith or 
credence to be given unto the depositions and sayings of the said witnesses, or 
any part thereof, because they are infamous, false, perjured, and, in some part 
of their depositions, discording, partial, conducted, subornate, instructed, and, 
for favour of the informers and their bolsterers, have deposed of malice more 
than the articles whereupon they were productcd do c(mtain ; and beside, and 
without the compass of tlie same articles, and in divers other parts of their 
depositions, they depose nvum et eundem jneemedilatiun sermoncm, as by their 
said depositions doth appear, unto the which the said bishop referreth himself 
as much as it shall be expedient for him, and none otherwise : and further, for 
other causes particularly and specially, as is declared in the Book of E.xceptions. 




Exceptions against the unlawful Proceedings of Hugli Rawlins, Clerk, 
and Thomas Lee, Promoters of the foresaid untrue Articles, in ^;.^ 
executing their Commission for Proof of the same. 

Item, The said Thomas Lee, for himself and the otlier promoter, did, con- 
trary to justice, at the execution of their commission, examine certain of the 
witnesses himself, in the house of his brother-in law, George Constantine ; and 
the said Lee, and David Walter (the bishop's mortal enemy, and servant to the 
said George Constantine), did write these depositions upon tlie articles at their 
own pleasures ; and also, after the device of the said George Constantine, and 
the chanter, and Rowland Meyrike, the bishop's mortal enemies, and the very 
devisers and procurers of the informations, and bolsterers and bearers of the 
promoters in the suit thereof. These are the names of tlie witnesses so ex- 
amined, which are already known : David ap sir Richard, of Gettus, a perjured 
and an adulterous person, standing in the number for two witnesses, written in 
two places of the book. Item, ap Ruddz of Kennarton, Griffith ap Howel, 
Guyne of Kennarton, Lewis David clerk, David ap Harvey clerk, sir Gough, 
alias Morgan, etc. 

Item, One John Draper of Caermarthen, and an adherent of the foresaid 
adversaries and enemies to the said bishop, did also, contrary to the tenor of 
their commission, examine certain witnesses; and had to his clerk one William 
Davids, servant in livery unto the foresaid Griffith Donne, the bishop's utter ene- 
my : by which shameful partiality they have written more matter, more words, 
other terms and sentences, than some of the deponents have deposed or could 
depose, Humfrey Toy, the fifth deponent ; Rice Gough, the fourteenth 
deponent ; William ap Jenkins, the fiftieth deponent ; John Benguy, the sixty- 
eighth deponent ; Richard Parson, the thirty-ninth ; which are already known 
what manner of men the promoters are. 

Item, The said Hugh Rawlins was not ])resent at the bishop's sermon, 
whereof his information maketh mention, neither yet at their cutting-off the 
conuuission for the proof thereof: for the foresaid adversaries did devise the 
same, and gave it unto the said Rawlins to promote, choosing him for the same 
purpose ; knowing him to be a man willing (and setting his whole delight) to 
work mischief, both with word and deed, who abuseth his tongue most shame- 
fully, with most unfitting words, ever railing upon the said bishop to every man 
that will hear him, without either respect or reverence of the king's majesty's 
authority to the said bishop committed. And the said Rawlins hath four or 
five benefices, above the value of two hundred marks a year, and is resident 
upon none of them, but spendeth his living to the hinderance of other men, 
going about here and there, wandering to and fro, without either man or boy 
waiting on him ; more like a light person than a man of such livelihood, and 
of his vocation, being a preacher. And indeed he is taken for a lewd fellow, of 
all that know his behaviour, insomuch that when a certain man objected imto 
the adversaries, that it was ill done to put so lewd a fellow as Rawlins to pro- 
mote their cause, they answered and reported his honesty with these words : 
" We know Rawlins to be a very knave, and so meet for no purpose as he is 
to set forward such a matter;" of which report there is a sufficient witness. 
And it is thought that he hath done much ill with his spiteful tongue ; for he 
speaketh as boldly in this surmised matter to all the council, as though it were 
true, and much for the king's profit. 

Item, The other promoter, Thomas Lee, is a merchant, who hath sold his 
ware, and spent his money; and now, for want of other business, is become a 
promoter of the foresaid articles, having his costs and charges borne by the said 
principal adversaries, as it is alleged in the bishop's exceptions, which shall be 
proved, if commission might be awarded for the purpose. 

And thus much concerning the exceptions against his prctcnscd 
accusers : next followeth the matter justificatory exhibited by the 
said bishop, in defence of his own cause, as by the effect here ap- 







l)y the 

by the 

Act. ad- 
duci pos- 

Certain Articles ministered by Robert, Bishop of St. David''s, against 
a surmised Information exhibited by Thomas Lee, to tlie King's 
Majesty's most Honourable Council, against the said Bishop. 

Inprimis, viz. that there ought none advantage to be taken against the said 
bishop, of the contents of the said pretensed information, for the causes particu- 
larly following. And first, whereas it is objected against the said bishop, in the 
first, second, and fifth articles of the same information, that he (contrary to the 
king's highness's laws and statutes, and in the derogation of his liighness's 
supremacy) passed a certain commission, institutions, and collations to bene- 
fices, in his own name, making no mention of the king's highness's authority ; 
whereas of truth the said bishop, if he had passed out the commission, institu- 
tions, and collations in his own name, and without the king's majesty's style, as 
is surmised (as he did not), yet had he offended neither the laws nor statutes of 
this realm therein, as doth and may appear evidently in the same statutes and 
laws, to the which he referreth liimself. 

Item, AVhereas it is deduced in the third article of the said pretensed infor- 
mation, that the chancellor of the said bishop did admit and institute John 
Gough into the rectory of Haysguard, and gave a mandate for the induction of 
the said John, under the king's majesty's seal ecclesiastical, for the diocese of 
St. David's, with tlie test of the said bishop, and subscription of the said chan- 
cellor, which tiling so deduced, if it be true, yet the said bishop cannot be wor- 
thily blamed thereof. But the chanter (tlien his chancellor unworthy) showed 
himself therein very ignorant of the king's statutes of parliament, wherein it 
is expressly provided, that in such cases the ordinary ought to pass all such 
institutions and inductions in his own name, and under his own seal ; and not 
in the king's majesty's name, nor under his seal. And further, of very truth, 
the said cliancellor, in admitting and instituting the said clerk to the said bene- 
fice without the knowledge and consent of the said bishop, did exceed his com- 
mission, for as much as the said bishop, at the granting of his commission of 
his cliancellorship unto the said chanter, had restrained him expresslv from the 
admitting and instituting of any clerk to any benefice within the said diocese, 
except the same clerk were first examined, found v.'orthy, and admitted by the 
said bishop himself to the same benefice. 

Item, Whereas in the fourth article of tlie said information it is contained, 
that the said bishop, after the admitting and instituting of the said John Gough, 
as is aforesaid, objected articles against him, amongst the which it was contained 
in effect, " Item, interrogetur quo titulo tenet rectoriam de Haysguard ;" true 
it is that the said bishop, without molestation of the said Gough otherwise tlian 
law did permit, and without taking u])on him the cognition of the title of tlie 
said fruits and patronage of the said benefice, in contempt of the king's 
majesty's royal crown and dignity, and without any derogation of the king's 
majesty's laws and statutes of this realm, did interrogate the said John Gough, 
how he held the said benefice, being admitted and instituted to the same with- 
out his knowledge or consent, as he might lawfully do, and as it is meet every 
ordinary should know how pastors are admitted to any cure within their 

Item, Touching the contents of the sixth article of the said information, the 
said bishop allegeth that the vicarage of Pen Brynn, in the diocese of St. David's, 
being void, he, as patron thereof, to his knowledge, conferred it to John Evans, 
clerk, with letters of institution and induction ; and afterwards, when the king's 
presentation came to him for one David Jenkins, clerk, he desired fourteen days 
respite, at that day either to show ancient record for his right, and then the 
matter to stand to the determination of the law, or else, if he showed not, both 
he and hi.'', clerk to give place to the king's clerk : which condition was by sir 
Thomas Jones, knight, Dr. Meyrike, and the said David Jenkins, received ; and 
an institution with an induction was made conditionally, to be put into the hands 
of sir Thomas Jones, knight, for safe custody for the king's clerk's behoof, after 
the fourteen days to be executed at the hands of the said bishop, if he failed to 
show : within which time the bishop did show an old ancient record, declaring 
the full right of patronage on the said l)ishop's behalf; and so that institution 
and induction was never put in execution by the said bishop. 


Nevertheless tlio said David Jenkins (contrary to his promise and 
ving therenpon Iiis riglit luind to sir Thomas Jones, knight) took adva 

Oatl), Mary. 

givmg thereupon his right liand to sir Thomas Jones, knight) took advantage — 

by the said writing, without knowledge of the said bishop; after whicii tiine A.I), 
the lord chancellor, by his letters written to the said bishop, advertised him to \-)'>'k 
admit one John ap Howel, clerk, presented by virtue of a vowson, which the 
lord chancellor adjudged to be good, and so to be admitted, notwithstanding his 
former presentation, whereby he would not abar tlie other man's right. And 
so the said bishop made one collation, two institutions, and three mandates • 
doing no wrong thereby to his knowledge. And further, there was no busi- 
ness nor unquietness about the possession of the said vicarage ; but the said 
bisliop giving place, was content to lose his right for that time. 

Item, Whereas sir Thomas Jones advertised the said bishop, that Thomas 
Prichard, clerk, had celebrated matrimony in a private house, betwixt a certain 
priest and a woman whose sister had refused the same (as it is deduced in the 
eleventh article of the surmised articles laid in against the said bishop), the 
said Pricliard, leaving his own cure unserved that Sunday, he did ])ut the said 
Thomas Prichard to penance for such his misdoings, and the said Prichard did 
such penance as was enjoined him to do. And whereas the said bishop made 
the said Thomas Prichard (who is bachelor of law) his conmiissary, it was for 
the respect of his learning in the law, thereby faithfully to execute his office, 
according to justice, and none otherwise. 

Item, In the fourteenth article of the said surmised information, it is untruly 
declared, that through the unlawful sequestration of the fruits of the benefices of 
Llangattwg and Llanfihangel Cwm Du, and the undiscreet handling of the said 
bishop, there were raised a great number of people, to the great danger of the 
inhabitants thereabouts. Truth it is, that the said bishop, upon good and lawful 
considerations, and specially for that tlie king's majesty should be truly answered 
of his first-fruits and tenths of the said benefices, did lawfully (and as he was 
bound to do) sequester the said fruits in the king's majesty's name, and by his 
authority ; and committed the custody thereof for a time unto two honest men, 
to the effect aforesaid, and none otherwise ; without any occasion of tumult or 
gathering the people through his default or folly. 

Item, Whereas it is alleged in the nineteenth article of the information, that 
the bisiiop did celebrate matrimony in his own person, without receiving or 
ministering the communion to the persons married, it is true, for that the said 
bishop had travelled fourteen long Welsh miles, and hot able to celebrate the 
holy communion fasting ; and, for other reasonable and lawful causes him 
moving, did, in a chapel within the house of sir Thomas Jones, knight (one of 
the king's honom-able council of the marches of Wales), solemnize matrimony 
betwixt master Griffith Rice, and the daughter of the said sir Thomas Jones, 
without either receiving the holy communion himself, or ministering the same 
to the persons married ; being as then not disposed so to do it lawfully and 
godly, without any such superstitious knockings or blessings, or other uncomely 
gestures, as is deduced in that article. 

Item, Touching the contents of the residue of all the said articles contained 
in the said information, the said bishop, partly for the avoiding of tediousness, 
and partly for that some of them be untrue and mere false, some others general, 
obscure, frivolous, vain, and of none effect, but of malice and evil-will, contrary 
to truth conceived, leaveth them particularly unanswered unto. 

Item, The said bishop allegeth, that he hath not by all the time that he hath 
been bishop, used any superstitions or papistry, as it is untruly surmised against 
him ; but hath and doth, to the uttermost of liis power, wit, and cunning, set 
forth, maintain, teach, and preach, the true doctrine of the gospel, and such 
laudable doctrine as he ought to do by the king's laws, injunctions, and pro- 
ceedings ; and for such a teacher he hath been and is commonly known, named, 
reputed, taken, and accepted notoriously. 

And wliercas the said chanter and George perceived their depositions 
to be insufficient, they required, and liad, commission into tlie country 
to examine further witnesses, -which tliey executed very partially and 
unlawfully, as is alleged in the bishoj/s exceptions above-mentioned. 
And whereas to the said Rawlins and Lee were awarded two several 
c 2 


Mary, commissioiis, they, by favour of the officers, and for sparing of costs, 
^ J) conjoined both in one, and had three months to make return, as 
1555. appeareth by the copy of their commission, which hereunder may be 

During all this time of the examination of the witnesses, the said 
bishop was stayed at London, upon the allegation of the said adver- 
saries ; which was, that if the said bishop should depart into his 
diocese, he would let them of their proofs. 

And at the return of their commission it was signified unto the 
council what a great number of witnesses they had examined, viz. 
sixscore and seven ; which sounded very heinous in the counciFs ears. 

And about three weeks after, publication of their witnesses was 
granted ; and after that, it was a fortnight ere the bishop could get 
a copy Avritten of their depositions, because the book thereof is so 
huge and monstrous. 

Then the bishop desired time, first, to inquire of what condition 
the persons were, that had witnessed against him, and to make excep- 
tions and matters to justify direct contrary, and to have a commission 
for the proof thereof; which Avas then granted. And now it is 
objected, that the bishop was appointed so to travail with the expe- 
dition of his matter, that he should have sued out his commission, 
and have made return thereof at All-Hallowtide last past ; but there 
was no such decree put in Avriting. And it was not possible for the 
bishop to do it in so short a time, these causes considered which he 
could not avoid, as followeth. 

First, It was the latter end of July ere he came home to St. 
David's, where he began his visitation, which before Avas appointed. 

Secondly, He Avas by force of laAv constrained to ansAver at the bar 
daily, during all the time of the great sessions at Caermarthen, in 
defence of his just cause against the pretensed matter of praemunire, 
Avhich his adversaries of mere malice have procured against him. 

Thirdly, The said adversaries, to molest him further, did privily 
pack a quest of ignorant persons of no reputation, and indicted hini 
upon the words of RaAvlins' information, as appeareth by a copy of 
the indictment ; intending thereby to make the matter sound more 
heinous ; notwithstanding that the same cause dependeth before the 
king's high council undetermined. 

Fourthly, He was appointed by the commissioners, before his 
departure from London, to pay tAvo hundred pounds (Avhicli Avas 
arrearages) into the court of First Fruits and Tenths, at Bartho- 
lomcAv-day then next folloAving ; Avliich payment he made accordingly, 
notwithstanding that his adversaries Avrought means to have made him 

(I) A Copy nf tlie Commission awurdcd down into the Country, for the Examination of Witnesses. 
Edwaiclus Sextus, Dei gratia AngliEB Franciae et Hiberniie rex, fidei defensor, et, in terrS, 
ecclesiac AnRlicanse et Hibernicae supremum caput :— dilectis et fidelibus suis Georgio Harbert 
niiliti, ThomsB Jones mi lit i, et Johanni Wogan militi, ac dilectis sibi Uaviil Vaughan, et Owino 
ap Owen armipcris, salutcm. Sciatis quod nos, de fidelitatibus et providis circumspectionibus 
vestris pluriniuni Ihkntcs, assipnavimus vos, quatuor, tres, vel duos, vestrflm, ac tenotc prsesen- 
tium damns vnbis, quatuor, tribus, vel duobus, vestrflm, plenam potestatem et autoritatem capi- 
endi et recipiendi depositiones et examinationes quorumcunque testium ex parte Hugonis Rawlins 
clerici, et Thomje Leghe ; de, et super, quibusdam articulis per ipsos Hugonem et Thomam Leglie 
concilio nostro exhibitis et prjEsentibus inclusis : necnon hujusmodi depositiones et examinationes 
in scriptis redigendi : et nos de bujusmodi examinationibus et depositionibus (cum sic per vos, 
quatuor, tres, vel duos, vestrflm, captx fuerint) in crastino Ascensionis Domini proximo futura 
in cancellariam nostram (ubicunque tunc fuerit) sub sigillis vestris, quatuor, trium, vel duorum, 
vestrilm, clausis certificandi, reniittentes nobis tunc articulos praedictos un;\ cum boc brevi. 
Kt idco vobis mandamus, qu6d circa praemissa diligenter intendatis cum elTcctu.— Teste me ipso, 
apud Westm. a. die Martii, anno regni nostri sext". Marten. 


break liis day ; namely, one Edward Harbert, gentleman, wlio lialli Mnr,j. 
a parsonage of his to farm, kept back his rent to the very last dav, " ^ ^ 
because tliat money sliould not help to serve his turn ; and so, by I55-,. 
crafty cavillation, detaineth it still in his hand with a year's rent ami 
an half more : for the said Edward Harbert is an adherent of the said 
bishop's adversaries. 

Fifthly, The book of their depositions is so great, that it asketh a 
long time to peruse ; and also the greatest part of their witnesses 
were utterly unknown of the bishop and all his : and also dwelling in 
so many sundry places of the diocese among the mountains and else- 
where, scarcely within the circuit of two hundred miles. 

Item, Another great sessions was holden at Caennarthen in the 
month of October last, during which time he was attendant there, as 
is aforesaid. All which causes considered, being also in the time of 
his ordinary visitation, which he did execute himself, he could not 
make ready his exceptions in shorter time. 

The said bishop dispatched his man towards London the 23d day 
of October, wlio ever since hath been and is attendant in the same 
suit, for the obtaining the commission for proof of this matter against 
his adversaries.' 

And thus you have heard the first trouble of this blessed martyr 
of the Lord in king Edward's days, with the whole discourse thereof; 
which we thought the rather here to express, to give other good 
bishops warning to be more circumspect, whom they should trust and 
have about them. Briefly, in few words to conclude this process, 
bishop FeiTar, partly upon the importunate suit of his adversaries, 
partly upon the sinister and unfortunate fall of the good duke of 
Somerset, by whom he had been before promoted and maintained, 
having but small favour showed, was detained in prison till the death 
of king Edward, and the coming in of queen Mary and popish reli- 
gion, whereby a new trouble rose upon him, being now accused and 
examined for his faith and doctrine : the process of which his trouble 
here likewise followeth. 

After that the foresaid master Ferrar bishop of St. David's had 
been long detained in custody under sureties, in the reign of king 
Edward, not for any just cause for his part deserved, but by reason 
that he had been promoted by the duke of Somerset ; and now after 
his fall he found fewer friends to support him against such as hunted 
after his bishopric, at length, after the decease of king Edward, by 
the coming in of queen Mary the state of religion began to be clianged 
and altered ; whereby a new trouble rose upon him, being now accused The 
and examined, not for any matter of Prsemunirc, but for his faith and ""^'^^^ „, 
doctrine. Whereupon he was called before the bishop of AVinches- ijc-jrar m 
ter, with master Hooper, master Rogers, master Bradford, master of queen 
Saunders, and others aforesaid, the 4th of February. On the which "^• 
day he should also with them have been condemned ; but, because 
leisure or list did not so well then serve the bishop, his condemnation 
was deferred, and he sent to prison again, where he continued till the 
14th day of the said month of February. What his examinations and 
answers were, before the said bishop of Winchester, so much as remained 
and came to our hands I have here annexed in manner as followeth. 

(1) Two letters of bishop Fcrrar, introduced here in some editions, wUl be found at p. 20 —Kd. 




with the 

the pope. 

to have 
ed his 


The Answer of Robert Ferrar, Bishop of St. David's, before Win- 
chester and other Commissioners. 

At his first coming and kneeling before my lord chancellor, the hishop of 
Durham, and the bishop of Worcester, who sat at the table; and master 
Rochester, master Southwell, master Bourne, and others, standing at the table's 
end, the lord chancellor said unto him on this sort : 

Winchester : — " Now sir, have you heard how the world goeth here ?" 

Ferrar: — "If it like your honour, I know not." 

Winchester : — "What say you? Do you not know things abroad, notwith- 
standing you are a prisoner?" 

Ferrar: — "No, my lord, I know not." 

Winchester: — " Lo, what a froward fellow is this?" 

Ferrar: — " If it please your lordship, how should I know any thing abroad, 
being a prisoner?" 

Winchester: — " Have you not heard of the coming in of the lord cardinal?" 

Ferrar: — " I know not my lord cardinal; but I heard that a cardinal was 
come in : but I did not believe it, and I believe it not yet." 

Worcester: — "I pray your lordship tell him yourself, that he may know 
what is done." 

Winchester : — "The queen's majesty and the parliament have restored reli- 
gion into the same state it was in at the beginning of the reign of king Henry 
the Eighth. Ye are in the queen's debt ; and her majesty will be good unto 
you, if you will return to the catholic cluirch." 

Ferrar: — " In what state I am concerning my debts to the queen's majesty, 
in the court of exchequer, my lord treasurer knoweth : and the last time that I 
was before your honour, and the first time also, I showed you that I had made 
an oath never to consent or agree, that the bishop of Rome should have any 
power or jurisdiction within this realm: and fiirtlier, I need not rehearse to 
your lordship; you know it well enough." 

Bourne : — " You were once abjured for heresy in Oxford." 

Ferrar: — "That was I not." 

Bourne: — " You were." 

Ferrar: — " I was never; it is not true." 

Bourne : — " You went from St. David's to Scotland." 

Ferrar : — " That I did not." 

Bourne : — " You did." 

Ferrar : — "That did I never ; but I went from York into Scotland." 

Bourne: — " Ah ! so said I : you went with Barlow." 

Ferrar : — " That is true; but never from St. David's." 

Bourne : — " You carried books out of Oxford, to the archbishop of York, 
Edward Lee." 

Ferrar: — " That did I not." 

Bourne : — " You did." 

Ferrar: — " I did not; but I carried old books from St. Oswald's to the arch- 
bishop of York." 

Bourne: — " You supplanted your master." 

Ferrar: — "That did I never in my life." 

Bourne : — " By my faith you did." 

Ferrar : — " Forsooth I did not, never in my life ; but did shield and save my 
master from danger; and that I obtained of king Henry the Eighth, for my 
true service, I thank God there-for." 

" My lord," saith master Bourne to my lord chancellor, " he hath an ill name 
in Wales as ever had any." 

Ferrar: — " That is not so: whosoever saith so, they shall never be able to 
prove it." 

Bourne: — " He hath deceived the queen in divers sums of money." 

Ferrar: — "That is utterly untrue: I never deceived king or queen of one 
penny in my life; and you shall never be able to prove that you say." 

Winchester : — " Thou art a false knave." 

Then Ferrar stood up tmbidden (for all that while he kneeled), and said, 
" No, my lord, I am a true man; 'I thank God for it! I was born under king 
Henry the Seventh ; I served king Henry the Eighth, and king Edward the 


Sixtli ti-uly ; aiul have served the queen's majesty tliat now is, truly, witli my Mary. 

poor heart and word: more I could not do; and I was never false, nor sliaU 

be, by the grace of God." A. D. 

Winchester : — " How sayest thou? wilt thou be reformable ?" \bb^). 

Ferrar: — "My lord, if it like yoin- honour, 1 have made an oath to God, and to 
and to king Henry the Eighth, and also to king Edward, and in that to the '" '*•""'' 
(jueen's majesty, the which I can never break while I live, to die for it." tlie kinl' 

Durham : — " You had made another oath before." aRainst 

Ferrar: — " No, my lord; I never made another oath before." the pope. 

Durham : — " You made a vow." 

Ferrar: — " That did I not." 

Wincitester : — " You made a profession to live without a wife." 

Ferrar : — "No, my lord, if it like your honour; that did I never. I made chastity 
a profession to live chaste — not without a wife." "» not m 

Worcester : — " You were sworn to him that was master of your house." o'ut'^a "''" 

Ferrar: — "That was I never." wife. 

Winchester : — " Well, you are a froward knave : we will have no more to do 
with you, seeing that you will not come ; we will be short with you, and that 
you shall know within this seven-night." 

Ferrar : — " I am as it pleaseth your honour to call me ; but I cannot break winclirs- 
my oath which your lordship yourself made before me, and gave in example, ?^r's I'tr- 
the which confirmed my conscience. Then I can never break that oath whilst touched. 
I live, to die for it." 

Durham : — " Well ! he standeth upon his oath : call another." 

My lord chancellor then did ring a little bell, and master Ferrar said, " I 
pray God save the king and queen's majesties long to continue in honour to 
God's glory and their comforts, and the comfort of the whole realm; and I 
pi-ay God save all your honours ;" and so departed. 

After these examinations thus ended, bishop Ferrar so remained in 
prison uncondemned, till the 14th day (as is aforesaid) of February ; 
and then was sent down into Wales, there to receive sentence of con- 
demnation. Who then, upon the 26th of February, in the churcli 
of Caermarthen, being brought by Griffith Leyson, esquire, sheriff' of 
the county of Caermarthen, was there personally presented before 
Henry, bishop of St. David's, and Constantino the public notary : ivrmr 
which Henry there and then discharged the said sheriff", and received liim {;™^';;!'' 
into his own custody, further committing him to the keeping of Owen ^[^f^an,^^ 
Jones ; and thereupon declared unto the said master Ferrar the great bfruop'of 
mercy and clemency, that the king and queen's highness' pleasure ^(J^^' 
was to be offered unto him, Avhich he there did offer unto the said 
master Ferrar ; that is to say, that if he would submit himself to 
the laws of this realm, and conform himself to the unity of the uni- 
versal catholic church, he should be received and pardoned. After 
that, seeing the said master Ferrar to give no answer to the premises, 
the said bishop ministered unto him these articles following. 

Articles devised against Bishop Ferrar. 

First, Whether he believeth the marriage of priests lawful by tlie laws of God 
and holy church, or no ? 

Item, Whether he believeth, that in the blessed sacrament of the altar, after 
the words of consecration duly pronounced by the priest, the very body and 
blood of Christ is really and substantially contained, without the substance of 
bread and wine ? 

Unto the which articles the said bishop required the said mas- T|.e^an- 
ter Ferrar to answer upon his aUegiance. To which lie said, he bishop 
would answer when he saw a lawful commission; and would make no i"'-'"'""- 
further answer at that time. Whereupon the said bisliop, taking no 


Mary, advantage upon the same answer, committed liim to tlie said keeper, 

^ J) to be kept in prison until a new monition, and in the mean time to 

1555. deliberate with himself for his further answer to the premises. 





This day and place, Morgan the pretensed bishop of St. David's 
sitting as judge, ministered unto bishop Ferrar, there personally 
present before him, certain articles and interrogatories in writing: 
Avhich being openly read and ministered unto him, the said bishop 
Ferrar refused to answer, till he might see his lawful commission and 
authority. Whereupon the aforesaid pretensed bishop of St. David's 
did pronounce him as contumax, and for the punishment of this his 
contumacy to be counted joro coiifesso, and so did pronounce him in 
■writing: which being done, he committed the said bishop to the 
custody of Owen Jones, until Monday next, being the 4th of March, 
then to be brought again into the same place, between one and two. 


Item, The day and place appointed, the said bishop appearing 
again before the pretensed bishop, humbly submitting himself as 
ready to answer to the articles and positions abovementioncd, gently 
required the copy of the articles, and a competent term to be assigned 
unto him, to answer for himself: which being granted unto him, and 
the Thursday next being assigned unto him between one and three 
to answer precisely and fully ; so he was committed again to custody, 
as above. 


On Thursday, as was appointed, which was the 7th of March, the 
said bishop personally again appeared ; where he exhibited a certain 
bill in writing, containing in it his answer unto certain articles objected 
and ministered unto him before. Then after, Henry, the pretensed 
bishop of St. David*'s, offered him again the said articles as before ; 
the tenor whereof tendeth to this effect : 

Articles again ministered against Bishop Ferrar. 

First, That he willed him, being a priest, to abrenounce matrimony. 

Secondly, To grant the natural presence of Christ in the sacrament, under 
the forms of bread and wine. 

Thirdly, That the mass is a propitiatory sacrifice for the quick and the dead. 

Fourthly, That general councils lawfully congregated never did, nor can err. 

Fifthly, That men are not justified before God by faith only ; but that hope 
and charity are also necessarily required to jiistification. 

Sixthly, That the catholic church, which only hath authority to expound 
Scriptures, and to define controversies of religion, and to ordain things apper- 
taining to public discipline, is visible, and like unto a city set upon a mountain 
for all men to understand. 

will not 'fo these articles thus objected to him, he refused to subscribe, 

subscribe /v. • , , • i i • i i i 

to them, aiiu-ming tliat they were invented anil excogitated by man, and per- 


tain notliing to the catholic faith. After this, the bishop above- Mary. 

named delivered unto him the copy of the articles, assigning him ^.D. 

Monday next following, to answer and subscribe to the same, cither loo5. 
affirmatively or negatively. 


Upon the which Monday, being the 11th of March, he, appearing 
again before the bishop, and the aforesaid notary George Constantine, 
exhibited in a wTitten paper his mind and answer to the foresaid 
articles, which the bishop had twice now objected against him before, 
to the which articles and answers he did so subscribe— adding these 
words, as " tenens se de sequitate et justitia esse Episcopum Mene- 
vensem"— that the bishop assigned the next Wednesday, m the 
forenoon, to hear his final and definitive sentence. 


The which day and place the said bishop and true servant of God, 
ma-^ter Ferrar, personally there appearing, was demanded of Henry 
the pretensed bishop of St. David's, whether he would renounce and 
recant his heresies, schisms, and errors (as he called them), which 
hitherto he had maintained, and if he would subscribe to the catholic 
articles, otherwise than he had done before. 

After this the said godly bishop, master Ferrar, did exhibit aPerrar^^^^ 
certain schedule written in English, and remaining m the Acts ; f^m the 
appealincr withal by express word of mouth from the bishop, as from ^^-p/~ 
an incompetent judge, to Cardinal Pole, etc. All which notwith- nai 
standing, the said bishop, proceeding in his rage, pronounced the J-"-' 
definitive sentence against him, contained in writing, and there left nounccd. 
in the Acts • by the which sentence he pronounced him as a heretic 
excommunicate, and to be given up forthwith to the secular power ; 
namely, to the sheriff of the town of Caermarthen, master Leyson.' 

(1) The tenor of his sentence, as well of his condemnation as of his degradation, here followeth. 

The Sentence nf Condemnation against Bishop Ferrar. 
Tn nei nomine Amen. Nos Henricus. permissione divina Menevensis Episcopus, judicialiter 


"nnnmodolibet requisitis, Christi nomine mvocaio, ac ipsum soiuiu i^cum j..«, u^u.., 
. ■ >, hPnfP. mHa ner ac"a inactitata, deducta, confessata, et ex parte tua coram nobis m 
nostns habentes: 9"!^ per acta ina^ma.a, ^ comperimus te, turn per confessiones tuas 

eodem negot.o «?°f"'\=''^,"^f,^*':'f,f""'^ nobis judicialiter factas errores. ha;reses, et 
varias, tum per recog-ytiones tuas judic.ales co^^^ apostolic* ecclesia determina- 

falsas opiniones ^u^f"'?'^^' 'i" ^'J'"° ^' tenutsT credid sse, affirmasse. pr^edicasse. et dogma- 
tioni obviantes, <=o"trarias et repugnantes^^enuisse. c^^^^^^ licet cuicunque religioso etiam express^ 
tizasse infra d.cecesem nostram ^lf^^J!"'„^"'4^'-ongn^^^ post susceptum presbyteratfis ordinem, 
professo et presbjtero, P°^'^f/„«,P^*^S P"^"X"e "egUi^^^^ ftem : sacras religiones. 

ducere uxorem, ac cum eadem tanquam cum u^o[e leguii j j,^ ;„ eucharistia, 

abecclesiicatholicainstitutas, <^""^ ^""f '° ^^^^^^^Yn'-e^ Chri^^^^^^^ substantia panis et vini. 

sive altaris sacramento, uuk ™™.=°^P°^„%fVeSenti prTpitiatorium pro vivis atque defunctis. 
Item: quod Missanon est ^^cnficmr^ Nov Te tam^^^^^ ^^^^„ ^^„^3„. 

Et sacramentum altans "°"/.^f, '" f^^'^Yu.^V"'^^^^^^^^^ errores, hsreses. et falsas opiniones, 

Sivir acrthotTunte'saVstt'Sostdic.''ecc.e^ix. determinationi, obviantes, etc. 

■ P . ■ ^ Pi/!" a fp^i^ita: San:r/A''mr'''o:?a nos Henricus. pennissione 
In nomme Pa ns +, + ^^^''P'"/"* j.-S^ negotio heretics pravitatis, cogno-scentcs 
divina Menevensis Episcopus, P"J'f >? "^"^'^'°^ festam contum et obstinaciam per nos 

te Robertum Ferrar ^lericum propter tuammam^^^^^^ „,ultipliciter incidisse et comraisissc : 
nunciatum fu.sse et esse, in lUud ^^f^^^.^''^"Xi'"et damnosum sit, et adeo enorme, qu6d exinde 
quod cum non ^ol""? ^r^'n'^^- ^^^^„,^^'*,'"/g^t'"J^,tversa d1^ Menevensis commota est, et ob hoc 

non tantuni d.vina ^^Jf ?^ ."fX'ias.ico s^s reddUu : idcirco nos, autoritate Dei Patris Omni- 
indi«nus offi=.\°.««"^Ss LnctfTt no^ te ab omni hujusmodi oflicio sentcntialiter perpetuo 
po entis, et ^J^.''. ^^^ Sp'ntus Sanct^ e nost^ (/ealiter et actualiter secundum trad- 

l^"rercanonum a■:n^^f(Sada^^ 

damus, prout sequitur. In primis amoveinus a tc,. etc. 

place of 


jifary. Tlius tlus godly bisliop, being condemned and degraded, was com- 
^ £) mitted to the secular power, -who not long after was brought to the 
1555. place of execution in the town of Caermarthen, where he, in the 
3i,ijop market place in the south side of the market-cross, the 30th day of 
Feirar March, being Saturday next before Passion-Sunday, most constantly 
™the ^ sustained the torments and passion of the fire. 

Touching the which constancy of this blessed martyr, this is more- 

tion. Qygj. iq ijg added and noted, that one named Richard Jones, a 

knight's son, coming to master Ferrar a little before his death, seemed 

to lament the painfulness of the death he had to suffer : unto whom 

A memo- the bisliop auswcrcd again to this effect, saying, that if he saw him 

ampUof once to stir in the pains of his burning, he should then give no credit 

?n'th\s"'^^ to his doctrine. And as he said, so he right well performed the 

blessed same ; for so patiently he stood, that he never moved, but even as 

and mar- he stood (holding up his stumps), so still he continued, till one 

^^'- Richard Gravell with a staff dashed him upon the head, and so struck 

him down. 


As touching the letters of master Ferrar, we do not find many that 
he did write. And peradventure in queen Mary's time his imprison- 
ment was so strait, that at no time it was permitted him to write. 
Albeit in his other troubles, in king Edward's time, certain letters 
he wrote to the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, and to 
the earl of Warwick : wliich letters, although they might be well 
referred to the first edition of this story ; yet because in the said 
letters is contained briefly and in few lines, the whole discourse of 
his unjust vexation at that time wrought by his adversaries, I thought 
good not to pass them over, but to communicate them unto the 
reader, for the better understanding both of the innocency of that 
blessed bishop, and of the crafty iniquity of his conspired enemies ; 
as in the said letters here following to the indifferent reader may 
easily appear. 

The Copy of a certain Letter of the Bishop of St. David''s, written 
belike to the Lord Chancellor, Dr. Goodrick, Bishop of Ely. 

Most humbly showeth unto your honour, your poor orator Robert, bishop of 
St. 'David's, that -wlicreas one Thomas Lee (by the procurement of Thomas 
Young and RowLand Meyrike, being both canons of St. David's, and George 
Constantine, registrar to the said bisliop) hatli exhibited unto your lionour 
against liim certain articles, in the which are mentioned many trifling things, 
imworthy to be declared in your honoin-able audience, and also their pretensed 
weighty articles (as they have alleged there) are utterly untrue : for proof 
whereof the said Thomas Lee hath had commissions into the country : there- 
fore it may please your honour, of your favourable goodness, to grant unto your 
said orator a like commission for the examination of witnesses, in defence of his 
truth and honesty against the aforenamed Thomas Lee, George Constantine, 
Tliomas Young, Rowland Meyrike, and all other persons, with their unjust 
articles, attestations, and sayings, deposed agairist him. And in tender con- 
sideration that your said orator standeth bounden, and sureties with him, in the 
sum of a tliousand marks, to appear before the king's justice, in the sessions at 
Caermartlien, in July next coming, to answer to a forged matter of Pricmu- 
nire, by the procurement .ind counsel of his forcnanicd adversaries, maliciously 


surmised against him to his titter undoing : and furthermore lliat your orator, Manj. 

being in debt to the king's majesty, by reason of tlie malicious vexation of tiie " 

foresaid adversaries, caimot (if he remain here) satisfy tlie same : for whereas -^- ^-^• 
there be arrearages to a great sum (as well of the king's money as of his own ^^•'^•'^- 
rents), he can receive none thereof, his adversaries have made such ill report to Hishoi) 
his discredit, bearing the people in hand, that he shall come no more thither. Fi^Trar 
By reason of which bruit, neither his own tenants will pay their rents and gurlj'ti'- 
arrearages, nor the priests their arrearages due to the king's majesty, as well for in a 
anno secundo and tertio, as for quarto and quinto. In consideration of all which "'"usanil 
things, it may please your honourable goodness to license your said orator to appVa^r Tn 
depart into the diocese, for these afRiirs and others. And he shall be ready at a matttT 
all times, at your honourable commandment and pleasure, to repair again, and n^u^fiJe 
ever to pray to the Lord Jcsu for the perpetual conservation of your honour, 
to his glory. 

Besides this letter he wrote another likewise to the same lord (who 
■was, as seemcth, Dr. Goodrick, lord chancellor afore mentioned), 
wherein he declareth. the whole cause of his trouble, how it rose 
against him by his adversaries, as here followeth. 

Another Letter written by the Bishop of St. David's, to the Chan- 
cellor aforesaid. 

Right honourable, and my very special good lord, with humble service and 
liearty thanks to God, and to you for your godly favour towards me at all times, 
as right plainly appeareth by your fatherly letters, most lovingly admonishing 
me to incline unto that which is very necessary, as charitable concord and 
unity : this is furtherly to beseech your lordship, for the Lord's sake, not to be 
grieved, but benignly to hear and gravely to ponder that weighty matter, which, 
appearing to others but a light grief, to me is, in very deed, a right grievous 
offence to God, with no little hindrance of his holy word, and disturbance of the 
king's godly proceedings ; and may be a great occasion of much inobediencc 
and disorder of good life. Wherefore I am straitly bounden, for the true zeal 
that I ought to bear unto God's word of life, christian religion, the king's 
majesty's honour, and the godly quiet state of his people, not faintly to let fall 
the burden of diligent redress to be sought at his majesty's hands by the godlj' 
wisdom of his most honourable and upright council, but with hearty aftection to 
bear it up against those high-minded, arrogant, stubborn, ambitious, covetous 
canons, trusting in their biting tongues, with crafty prevention and utterl}' im- 
true surmises, to stop the light, that their ungodly misdoing in darkness shall 
either not be seen, or at the least may have a colourable appearance of right ; 
insomuch that I do not a little marvel at these qualities in master chanter the 
canon, and the dean of Worcester, whose ungentle and imtrue behavioiu* I have 
not only known, but expertly proved, and sensibly felt, in two of the first, to my 
great losses, whereof I make no complaint. 

But I wonder in my mind, and lament in my heart, the sti'ange alteration and Unkind 
wilful going backward of my old faithful brother George Constantine, the which i*^^''"^ "^ 
(knowing them all three to have been in times past either obstinate enemies to Consran- 
the true bearers of the cross of Christ, or at least privy lurkers, under pretence '""; 
of favour towards the gospel, to sting the poor followers thereof; seeking but i.^'eVrar. 
their own lucre and pleasure in all their doings) would so earnestly cleave unto 
them in their wrong deeds, as to betray me with his tongue, become untrue of 
his promise, and a bearer of filthy sin for lucre's sake, even yet stiffly persisting 
in the same, namely, in things manifestly known unto many, although he Avould 
deny it, and that I might not be credited. 

And as for their Praenmnire, both George and they, at my first coming, 
ungently detaining from master Farlee' his commission for the chancellorship, 
would have faced me down with Prasmunire, because it was written in my own 
name according to the statute : yet was I fain, for the zeal of unity, not to see 
their uncourteous deeds, departing with master Farlee for the avoiding of their 
malice and envy, and gave that oflUcc, for the amity of (Jeorge, unto master 

(1) Tlii6 Farlee was clianccllor to bishop Fcnar. 


Marij. cliantei-i his son-in-law, and to master Meyrike, the office of Cardij,^an. But, 

■ seeing afterward their covetous respect to their own glory and lucre, not regard- 

A. D. ing the reformation of sin, and specially of sliameless whoredom, I was com- 
1555. pelled to remove them, sore against their wills: and whereas I desired many 
Young — ^^^ sundry times charitable redress of their wrong doings in the vacation-time, 
and Mey- I obtained many fair words, and nothing in deed. 

^''^^ "^d h ^^^° desiring to have sight of the book of Statutes of the Church, for the 

Ferrar ^ knowledge of my duty and theirs, I could not obtain it. Desiring to have a 

from key of the chapter seal, as my lord of Bath had, they would not deliver it but 

The^' upon conditions ; yet was I content to be bridled, receiving it as pleased them 

wrongs to give it. And further, requiring the sight of necessary evidences, for the 

which declaration of divers things in traverse of my right, they would in no wise grant 

received i'- ^^^^ thereupon, considering their ungentleness, I moved the Quo warranto, 

hy them, knowing right well, that if they should show any substantial grant under the 

king's seal for their corporation, it must therein appear the bishop to be the 

head, and ever hath been under the king ; for other they never have, nor had, 

except they would return to Rome again ; as I trust they will not. And yet, 

perceiving afterward that they had no special grant to show, or else such as they 

would not show, I myself, for the respect of unity, wrote my letters to the king's 

attorney, by reason whei-eof the Quo warranto was stayed, and so yet re- 


But touching the certiiicate, the king's subsidy being due at Michaelmas last, 
and forborne till after Christmas, and lawfully demanded afore, they did utterly 
refuse to pay it both to my vice-chancellor and to myself, except I would take 
it of them in portions, not knowing where to ask the rest, and it is committed 
to me in the king's roll a whole sum in gross, to be received of the canons 
residentiary for their dividend : who, because they cannot agree in dividing, 
would have the king's majesty to tarry for his money, till they can agree to 
make division ; and I cannot demand it of any particular person, nor at any 
particular place. 

Wherefore I most humbly beseech your fatherly goodness, for the Lord's 
sake, to persist and continue my good lord and friend unto sucli time as ye find 
me either desiring to be defended in my wrong, or not willing to put the judg- 
ment of my right cause into your hands. And because that the residue of 
matters touching them and their ungentle, untrue, and ungodly doings is too 
long, and I have molested you too much with this my tedious letter, I shall now 
surcease ; humbly beseeching your good lordship to accept in good part this my 
boldness, proceeding of necessity, and to pardon it for the love of our Lord Jesus, 
who save and keep you in health, comfort, and honour long to endure, for the 
advancement of his glory. — Written at Abcr Gwili, tliis 9th of March. 
Your lordship's to command during life, 

Robert Ferrar. 

Cfje ^i^tocp of one !!tatolin)5 l©f)ite, 






Forsomuch as we have here ])asscd tlic history of master Ferrar, 
burned at the town of Caerniarthen in Wales, I thought to adjoin 
and accompany with the same tlic history also of one Rawlins White, 
a fisherman, who, both in the like cause, and in the same country of 
Wales, and also about the same month of March and year aforesaid, 
gave his life, like a valiant soldier of Jesus Christ, to martyrdom, and 
was burned at Cardiff; the process of whose story here followeth 
expressed more at large. 

(1) This chanter was doctor Young. 



This Rawlins was by his calling or occnpation a fisherman, living and con- m, 
tiniuii<j in the said trade bv the space of twenty years at the least, in the town -— 
of Cardiff; being (as a man of his vocation might be) one of a very good name, A. 
and well accounted amongst his neighbours. As touching his religion at the _2^ 

first, it cannot otherwise be known, but that he was a great partaker of tlie 
superstition and idolatry that then was used ; I mean in the reign of king 
Henry the Eighth. But after that God of his mercy had raised up the light of 
his gospel, through the blessed government of king Edward the Sixth, here in 
this realm of England, this Rawlins began partly to mislike that which before 
he had embraced, and to have some good opinion of that which before, by tlie 
iniquity of the time, had been concealed from him : and the rather to bring this 
good purpose and intent of his to pass, he began to be a diligent hearer, and a 
great searcher-out of the truth. 

But because the good man was altogether unlearned, and withal very simple, The de- 
he knew no ready way how he might satisfy his great desire. At length it ^^^P^^^^^ 
came in his mind to take a special remedy to supply his necessity, which was Rawlins 
this : he had a little boy which was his own son ; which child he set to school J.o;'^-'"-'^'; 
to learn to read English. Now after the little boy could read indiff"erently well, ^.^ .^ ' 
his father, every night after supper, summer and winter, would have the boy g^aw in- 
to read a piece of the holy Scripture, and now and then of some other good tt-nt in 
book ; in which kind of virtuous exercise the old man had such a delight and j^^*:^ ^^'S ^^ 
pleasure, that, as it seemed, he rather practised himself in the study of the school. 
Scripture, than in the trade or science which beforetime he had used: so that 
Rawlins, within few years, in the said time of king Edward, through the help Ra;;^'j''_^^ 
of his little son (a special minister appointed by God, no doubt, for that pur- of,,;,,,,,, 
pose) and throuo-h much conference besides, profited and went forward in such came to 
sort, that he was able not only to resolve himself touching his own former {"^'"J;,";;;- 
blindness and ignorance, but was also able to admonish and instruct others: gcApture 
and therefore, when occasion served, he would go from one place to another, 
visitincr such as he had best hope in. By which his doing, he became, in that 
country, both a notable and open professor of the truth, being at all times and 
in all sucli places, not without the company of his little boy, whom (as I have 
said) he used as an assistance to this his good purpose. And to this his great 
industry and endeavour in the holy Scripture, God did also add in him a sin- 
gular sift of memory; so that by the benefit thereof he would and could do The pift 
that, in vouching and rehearsing of the text, which men of riper and more pro- of memo- 
found knowledge, by their notes and other helps of memory, could very hard y Rawlins, 
accomplish ; insomuch that he, upon the alleging of Scripture, very often would 
cite the book, the leaf, yea and the very sentence : such was the wonderful 
workin"- of God in this simple and unlearned father. 

Now when he had thus continued in his profession the space of live years, 
king Edward died, upon whose decease queen Mary succeeded, and, with her, 
all kind of superstition and papistry crept in. Which thing being once per- 
ceived, Rawlins did not altogether use open instruction and admonition, as 
before he was wont; and therefore oftentimes, in some private place or other, 
he would call his trusty friends together, and with earnest prayer and great 
lamentation pass away the time, so that by his virtuous instructions being 
without any blemish of error, he converted a great number; which number no 
doubt, had greatly increased, had not the cruel storm ..f persecution been, liie 
extremity and force whereof, at the last, so pursued tins good father Raw uis 
that he looked every hour to go to prison : whereupon many of those which 
had received comfort by his instructions, did resort unto him, and by all means Ra«..ns^ 
nossible be-an to persuade him to shift for himself, and to dispose his goods by j„,„ift,„, 
some reasonable oVder to the use of his wife and children ; and by that means himself. 
he should escape that danger which was imminent oyer Ins head. 

But Rawlins nothing abashed for his own part through the "?'q"'ty « the Pronj,.^ 
time, and nothing at all moved with these their fleslily persuasion., tlanke ^„„^,_^,„ 
then mon hcarttlv for their goodwill, and told them plainly, that he had ,„„„ 
la" ei one :4odlLon touching the confessing and denial of Christ; adver- aea.h. 
tisin- them, that if he, upon their persuasions, should presume to deny his 
nuster Chri'st, Christ, in the last day, would deny and utterly condemn h.m: 
'< and therefore," qu^th he, " I will, by his favourable grace, confess and bear 
witness of him before men, that I may find him m everlasting hie. 


Mary. Notwithstanding which answer, his friends were very importunate with him. 

Howbeit father Rawlins continued still in his good purpose so long, till at the 

"■• ^- last he was taken by the officers of the town, as a man suspected of heresy; 
1555. upon which apprehension he was convented before the bishop of Llandaff that 

Rawlins then was, the said bishop lying then at his house beside Chepstow ; by whom, 
might after divers combats and conflicts with him and his chaplains, this good father 
an'd''^ Rawlins was committed to prison in Chepstow. But this his keeping, whether 
would it were by the bishop's means, because he would rid his hands of him, or 
""'• through the favour of his keeper, was not so severe and extreme, but that, if 

he had so listed, he might have escaped oftentimes. 

But that notwithstanding, he continued still, insomuch that at the last he, by the 
aforenamed bishop, was removed from Chepstow to the castle of Cardiff, where 
Rawlins he continued by the space of one whole year; during which time, this reporter 
ilris^on '" I'esorted to him very often, with money and other relief from this reporter's mo- 
ther (who was a great favourer of those that were in affliction in those days), 
and other of his friends ; which he received not without great thanks and praises 
A godly given to the name of God. And albeit that he was thus troubled and impri- 
stirreTup ''O"'^'^) ^^ ye have heard, to his own undoing in this world, and to the utter 
tort-lieve decay of his poor wife and children ; j'et was his heart so set to the instruction 
hira. and furtherance of others in the way of salvation, that he was never in quiet, 
but when he was persuading or exhorting such of his familiar friends, as com- 
Exhorta- monly came unto him : insomuch that on the Sundays and other times of 
K°" r^ leisure, when his friends came to visit him, he Avould pass away the time in 
toTis"'^ prayer and exhortations, admonishing them always to beware of false prophets, 
friends, which come in sheep's clothing. 

Now when he had continued in Cardiff-castle by the space of one whole year 
(as I have said), the time of his further trial was at hand. Whereupon the fore- 
named bishop of Llandafi'caused him to be brought again from the castle of Cardiff 
unto his own house beside Chepstow ; and whilst he continued there, the bishop 
]5yno assayed many ways how to reduce him to some conformity. But when all 
means means, either by their threatening words, or flattei'ing promises, were to no 
reduced pui^pose, the bishop willed him to advise, and be at a full point with himself, 
to return either to recant his opinions, or else to abide the rigour of the law : and there- 
to popery, upon gave him a day of detei-mination ; which day being come, the bishop with 
his chaplains went into his chapel, not without a great number of other by- 
dwellers, that came to behold the manner of their doings. 

When the bishop with his retinue were placed in order, poor Rawlins was 
brought before them. The bishop, after a great deliberation in addressing him- 
self, as it seemed, and silence forewarned to the rest that were there present, 
used a long kind of talk to him, declaring the cause of his sending-for, which 
was for that he was a man well known to hold heretical opinions, and that 
through his instruction many were led into blind error. In the end he exhorted 
Brought him to consider his own estate wherein he stood: "for," said the bishop, 
Us^lioVof " i^''i^^''i"s, you have oftentimes since your first trouble, both here in my house, 
Llandatr and elsewhere, been travailed withal touching your opinions ; and, that not- 
injudg- withstanding, ye seem altogether obstinate and wilful. Now hereupon we 
thought good to send for you, to see if there were any conformity in you : so 
that the matter is come to this point, that if you will show yourself repentant 
for that which you have done against God and the prince's law, we are ready 
to use favour towards you ; but, if by no means we can persuade with you 
touching your reformation, we are minded at this time to minister the law unto 
you — and therefore advise yourself, what you \n\\ do. 

When the bishop had made an end of his long tale, this good father Rawlins 
spake boldly to him, and said, " My lord, I thank God I am a christian man ; 
and I hold no opinions contrary to the word of God : and if I do, I desire to be 
reformed out of the word of God, as a christian man ought to be." Many more 
words were in like sort between the bishop and Rawlins, which this reporter doth 
not well remember. But in the end, when Rawlins would in no wise 
recant his o])inions, the bishop told him plainly, that he must proceed against 
him by the law, and condemn him as a heretic. 

" Proceed in your law a God's name," said Rawlins; "but for a heretic you 
shall never condenni me while the world staiuleth." " But," said the bishoj) to 
his company, "bcfoic we proceed any further with him, let us pray unto God 


that he •would send some spavk of grace upon liim,' [meaning Rawlins] and it Mary 

may so chance that God, through our prayer, will here turn and convert his — 

heart." When Rawlins heard the bishop say so, " Ah, my lord," quoth he, A. D. 
" now you deal well, and like a godly bishop ; and I thank you most heartily ^^^^- 
for your great charity and gentleness. Christ saith, " Where two or three be .j.,,p 
gathered together in my name, I will be in the midst of them:" and there be bishop 
more than two or three of you. Now, if it be so that your request be godiv P'''''>;'^',h 
and lawful, and that ye pray as ye should pray, without doubt God will hear andKawI 
you. And therefore, my lord, go to ; do you pray to your God, and I will pray linsto/ni. 
to my God. I know that my God will both hear my prayer, and perform my 

By and by the bishop with his company fell to prayer; and Rawlins, turning 
himself to a pew that stood somewhat near him, fell down upon his knees, 
covering his face with his hands. And when they had prayed a while, the 
bishop with his company arose from prayer ; and then also arose Rawlins, and 
came before the bishop. 

Then said the bishop, " Now Rawlins, how is it with thee? Wilt thou revoke Rawlins 
thy opinions, or no ? " " Surely," said Rawlins, " my lord, Rawlins you left ^'""''■'"cd 
me, and Rawlins you find me ; and, by God's grace, Rawlins I will continue. Jrine"^" 
Certainly if your petitions had been just and lawful, God would have heard 
them : but you honour a false Gcd,^ and pray not as ye should pray ; and there- 
fore hath not God granted your desire. But I am only one poor simple man ; 
as you see, and God hath heard my complaint, and I trust he will strengthen 
me in his own cause." 

The bishop, when he perceived that this hypocrisy of theirs took none effect, 
then with hot words he rejiroved him, and forthwith was ready to read the A mass 
sentence. Howbeit, upon some advice given to him by his chaplains that were "•''<' '"'"■ 
there present, he thought best, first, to have a mass, thinking tliat indeed, by so simw!?' 
doing, some wonderful work should be wrought in Rawlins ; and thereupon a Kawlins. 
priest began a mass. 

In the meantime poor Rawlins betook himself to prayer in a secret place 
there by, until such time as the priest came to the sacring, as they term it, 
which is a principal point of their idolatry. When Rawlins heard the sacring- 
bell ring (as the use was), he rose out of his place, and came to the choir-door, 
and, there standing a while, turned himself to the people, speaking these 
words: " Good people! if there be any brethren amongst you, or, at the least, niswonis 
if there be but one brother amongst you, the same one bear witness at the day *" "'>-■ 
of judgment, that I bow not to this idol " — meaning the host that the priest '"'"'' """ 
held over his head. 

The mass being ended, Rawlins eftsoons was called for again ; to whom the Rawlins 
bishop used many persuasions ; but the blessed man continued so steadfast in ^'l" "■'.'"" 
his former profession, that the bishop's talk was altogether in vain, and to no HiV ,,,,1- 
])urpose : whereupon the bishop caused the definitive sentence to be read. i<sMim of 
Which being ended, Rawlins was dismissed ; and from thence he was, by the J,'!",,;" 
bishop's commandment, carried again to Cardiff, there to be put into the prison Scnti-nce 
of the town, called Cockmarel ; a very dark, loathsome, and most vile prison, ['^^''^'j,''!"'' 
Rawlins in the meantime passed away the time in prayer, and chiefly in prison, 
singing of psalms : which kind of godly exercise he always used, both at 
Carditt-castle, and in all other places. 

Now, after he had tlms continued a prisoner in Cockmarel prison at Cardiff The nm- 
fas is aforesaid) a good space, about three weeks before the day wherein he ^'p^'^J,','',^ 
suffered, the head-officers of the town, that had the charge of his execution, hum him 
were determined to burn him, because they would be sooner rid of him ; having "itiiouta 
not indeed a writ of execution awarded, as by the law they should have. 
Whereupon one Henry Lewis, the recorder of the town that then was, seeing 
that they went about to burn him without any warrant by writ, came to them 
and told them, that if they did burn him before they had the vyrit, ♦' De 
ha-reticis comburendis," the wife of the said Rawlins would, upon just cause, 
by law, call their doings into question. Immediately upon this advertisement. The writ 
they sent to London for the writ above-named ; upon the receipt whereof they awarded. 

(I) The bishop of LlandafTprocecdeth with prayer in condemnation of Rawlins ; which commonly 
the poiiish persecutors are not wont to do. 
{!) I'opish bishops pray to a false god, and therefore arc not licard. 


Mary, made some speed to the execution of the said Rawlins. Now, when the day 
■ " was come wherein the good father should perform and accomplish the last act 

■r' of this his worthy conflict, he was the night before willed to prepare himself. 

^^' Now when he perceived his time was no less near than it was reported 
unto him, he sent forthwith to his wife, and willed her by the messenger, that 
Rawlins's in any wise she should make ready and send imto him his wedding-garment, 
wedding- meaning a shirt, which afterward he was burned in : which request, or rather 
garmen . commandment of his, his wife, with great sorrow and grief of heart, did per- 
form, and early in the morning did send it to hiin, which he received most 
gladly and joyfvdly. Now when the hour of his execution was come, this good 
and constant father Rawlins was brought out of prison, having on his body the 
long shirt, which (as you heard before) he called his wedding-garment, and an 
old russet coat which he was wont to wear. Besides this, he had upon his legs 
an old pair of leather-buskins, which he had used long afore. And thus being 
brought out of prison (as I have said), he was accompanied, or rather guarded. 
His going with a great company of bills and glaves ; which sight when he beheld, 
place^f " ^^^^ ' " q"o*^^^ ^^) " what meaneth all this? All this needed not. By God's 
execu- grace I will not start away : but I, with all my heart and mind, give unto God 
tion. most hearty thanks, that he hath made me worthy to abide all this, for his holy 

name's sake." 

Rawlins So he came to a place in his way, where his poor wife and children stood 

somewhat weeping and making great lamentation ; the sudden sight of whom so pierced 

the^slght ^^^^ heart that the very tears trickled down his face. But he soon after, as 

of his though he had misliked this infirmity of his flesh, began to be as it were 

wife and altogether angry with himself; insomuch that in sti-iking his breast with his 

but ' hand he used these words : " Ah flesh ! stayest thou me so ? wouldest thou fain 

wrostleth prevail ? Well, I tell thee, do what thou canst, thou shalt not, by God's grace, 

hfr'flesh. ^^'^^^ the victory." By this time this poor innocent came to the very altar of 

his sacrifice (I mean the place appointed for his death), and there found a stake 

ready set up, with some wood toward the making of the fire ; which when he 

beheld, he set forward himself very boldly ; but, in going toward the stake, he 

fell down upon his knees, and kissed the ground : and in rising again, the earth 

a little sticking on his nose, he said these words, " Earth unto earth, and dust 

The ago- imto dust: thou art my mother, and unto thee I shall return." Then went he 

fiVl"*f cheerfvdly and very joyfully, and set his back close unto the stake ; and when 

this ° he had stood there awhile, he cast his eye upon this reporter, and called him 

christian unto him, and said, " I feel a great fighting between the flesh and the spirit, 

warrior, ^j^^j |.|^g £jgg|^ woidd very fain have his swinge ; and therefore 1 pray you, when 

you see me any thing tempted, hold your finger up to me, and I trust I shall 

remember myself." 

Rawlins ^s he was thus standing with his back close unto the stake, a smith came 

fastened with a great chain of iron ; whom when he saw, he cast up his hand with a 

staktf ^'^^^^ voice, and gave God great thanks. Then the smith cast a chain about 

him ; and as he was making it fast on the other side, Rawlins said unto him 

" I pray you, good friend, knock in the chain fast; for it may be that the flesh 

would strive mightily ; but God of thy great mercy give me strength and 

patience to abide the extremity ! " 

His Now when the smith had made him sure to the stake, the officers began to 

cheerful- ]ay on more wood, with a little straw and reed : wherein the good old man was 

his death. "° '^^s occupied than the best ; for as far as he could reach his hands, he would 

pluck the straw and reed, and lay it about him in places most convenient for 

his speedy despatch : which thing he did with such a cheerful countenance and 

familiar gesture, that all men there present were in a manner astonished. 

Thus, when all things were ready, so that there lacked nothing but the 

putting-to of the fire, directly over against the stake, in the face of Rawlins, 

there was a standing erected, whereon stepped up a priest, addressing himself to 

speak to the people, which were many in number, because it was market-day. 

When Rawlins perceived him, and considered the cause of his coming, lie 

j^ popish readied a little straw unto him, and made two little stays, and set them under 

sermon his elbows. Then went the priest forward in his sermon, wherein he spake of 

at'lfi^s"'^ many things touching the authority of the church of Rome. In the meantime 

martyr- Rawlins gave such good car and attention, that he seemed nothing at all moved 

dom. or disquieted. At the last, the priest came to the sacrament of the altar, and 


there he began to inveigli against Rawhns's opinions : in which his invection he Mary. 
cited the common place of Scripture, and thereupon made a clerkly inter- 

pretation. }\' 

Now when Rawlins perceived that he went about not only to teach and ^•*'^''- 
preach the people false doctrine, but also to confirm it by Scripture, he sud- 
denly started up, and beckoned his hands to the people, saying twice, " Come 
hither, good people; and hear not a false prophet preaching:" and then said 
unto the preaclier, " Ah, thou naughty hypocrite ! dost thou presume to prove His 
thy false doctrine by Scripture ? Look in the text what foUoweth : did not Jj''.'^^.'|*° 
Christ say, ' Do this in remembrance of me!'" After which words the priest, prophet, 
being rather amazed than interrupted, forthwith held his peace. 

Then some that stood by cried out, " Put fire, set to fire ;" which being set 
to, the straw and reed, by and by, cast up both a great and sudden flame. In 
the which flame this good and blessed man bathed his hands so long, until 
such time as the sinews shrunk, and the fat dropped away ; saving that once 
he did, as it were, wipe his face with one of them. All this while, which was 
somewhat long, he cried with a loud voice, " O Lord, receive my soul ! O 
Lord, receive my spirit!" until he could not open his mouth. At the last the 
extremity of the fire was so vehement against his legs, that they were consumed 
almost before the rest of his body was burned, which made the wliole body fall 
over the chain into the fire sooner than it would have done. During which 
time of his burning, it cannot be said that he suflTered or felt any great pain. Constant 
considering that not without his perfect memory he abode botli quietly and patience 
patiently, even unto the departing of his life. Thus died this godly and old man "insat^is 
Rawlins, for the testimony of God's truth, being now rewarded, no doubt, with burning, 
the crown of everlasting life. 

It is recorded, furthermore, of the said good father Rawlins, by a sudden 
this reporter, that as he was going to his death, and standing at the o|-'"afu'"" 
stake, he seemed in a manner to be altered in nature. For as before marvel.. 
he was wont to go stooping, or rather crooked, through the infirmity Rawiins 
of age, having a sad countenance and a very feeljle complexion, and ^^^.°^^_ '"* 
withal very soft in speech and gesture, now he went and stretched up 
himself not only bolt upright, but also bore withal a most pleasant 
and comfortable countenance, not without great courage and audacity 
both in speech and behaviour. He had — of Avhich thing I should 
have spoken before — about his head a kerchief; the hairs of his head 
(somewhat appearing beneath his kerchief), and also of his beard, 
were more inclining to white than to grey, which gave such a show 
and countenance to his whole person, that he seemed to be altoge- 
ther angelical. 

It is also said by this reporter,* that a little before the fire flashed 
up to his body (as ye have heard), many of his friends came to him, 
and took him by the hand ; amongst whom the reporter of this story 
held him so long by the hand, till the flame of the fire rose and 
forced them to sunder. In the mean time the priest, of Avhom I 
spake afore, cried out and said, that it was not lawful for any man to 
take him by the hand, because he was a heretic, and condemned by 
the church. — The chief cause of his trouble, was his opinion touching 
the sacrament of the altar. He was, at the time of his death, of the 
age of threescore years, or thereabouts. 

(1) The reporter of tliis story was one master Dane. 




Before I pass over this month of March, I cannot but leave a little 
memorandum of the words or consultation of queen Mary, used to 
certain of the council the 28th day of the said month of March, 
touching the restoring again of the abbey lands ; who, aftei she had 
called unto her presence four of her privy council, the day and month 
aforesaid (the names of which councillors were these, namely, William, 
lord marquis of Winchester, high treasurer of England ; sir Robert 
Rochester, knight, the queen's comptroller; sir William Peter, 
knight, secretary; sir Francis Englefield, knight, master of the 
Mary. wards) ; the said queen Mary inferred these words, the principal 
effect and sum whereof here followeth : — 


names of 
the coun- 
called be- 

The " You are here of our council ; and we have willed you to be called unto us, 

■words of tQ o^Q intent you might hear of me my conscience, and the resolution of my 
Mary mind, concerning the lands and possessions as well of monasteries, as of other 
touching churches whatsoever, being now presently in my possession, 
fands. " First, I do consider, that the said lands were taken away from the churches 

-I-i,g aforesaid in the time of schism, and that by unlawful means, such as are contrary 

queen both to the law of God and of the church ; for the which cause my conscience 
maketh ^oih not suiFer me to detain them : and therefore I here expressly refuse either to 
science in claim or to retain the said lands for mine ; but with all my heart, freely and 
keeping willingly, without all paction or condition, here, and before God, I do surrender 
lands. ^^^ relinquish the said lands and possessions, or inheritances whatsoever, and 
Surren- do renounce the same with this mind and purpose, that order and disposition 
dereth thereof may be taken, as shall seem best liking to our most holy lord the pope, 
self the^"^" °^' ^^^^ ^"^ legate the lord cardinal, to the honour of God, and wealth of this our 
posses- realm. 

sion of " And albeit you may object to me again, that, considering the state of my 

kingdom, and the dignity thereof, my crown imperial cannot be honourably 
maintained and furnished without the possessions aforesaid : yet notwithstand- 
ing, I set more by the salvation of my soul, than by ten kingdoms ; and there- 
fore the said possessions I utterly refuse here to hold after that sort and title, 
and give most hearty thanks to Almighty God, which hath given me a husband 
likewise minded, with no less good affection in this behalf, tlian I am myself. 
Promises " Wherefore I charge and command, that my chancellor (with whom I have 
conferred my mind in this matter before), and you four, to-morrow together 

for resti 
I of 

abbey do resort to the most reverend lord legate, and do signify to him the premises 
lands. jj^ j^y name, and give your attendance upon him for the more full declaration 
of the state of my kingdom, and of the foresaid possessions accordingly, as you 
yourselves do understand the matter, and can inform him in the same." 

This intimation being given by the queen, first unto the coun- 
cillors, and then coming to the cardinal's hand, he, drawing out a 
copy thereof in Latin, sent the same to the pope ; which copy drawn 
in Latin, and coming afterward to my hand, I have thus translated 
into English, as you have heard. 
sad'(!'r? Furthermore, here by the way is to be understood, that in the 

from month before, which was February, and on the 19th day of the said 
i^"Roral month, the bishop of Ely and the lord Montacute, with seven score 
horse, were sent as ambassadors from the king and queen unto Rome ; 
for what cause, in story it is not expressed ; but, by conjecture, it 
may be avcII supposed to be for the same cause of abbey lands, as by 
the sequel thereof may probably appear. 


For it was not long after, but the pope did set fortli in print a bull of Mary. 
excommunication for all manner of sucli persons, without exception, ^ y 
as kept any of the church or abbey lands; by virtue of which bull, 1555'. 

the pope excommunicated as well all such as had any of the church or -Tj^,^ 

abbey lands, as also all such princes, bishops, and noblemen, justices p"''*^'* 
of peace and others in office, who had not, or did not forthwith, put restitu- 
the same bull in execution. Albeit this execution (God be thanked) Ibbey'^ 
yet, to this day, was never put in practice. Wherein again is to be '*"<'^- 
observed another catholic fetch, not unworthy, perchance, of mark- 
ing. For whereas this kind of Catholics, by rigour and force, may 
overmaster, they spare for no cost, but lay on load enough.' This 
well appeared, and still doth appear, in burning the poor patient 
Christians, whom because they see to be destitute of power and 
strength to resist them, and content with patience to receive whatso- 
ever is put unto them, there they play the lions, and make no end of 
burning and persecuting. But where they spy themselves to be 
overmatched, or fear to receive a foil in presuming too far, there they 
keep in, and can stay the execution of their laws and bulls, be they 
never so apostolical, till they spy their time convenient for their pur- 
pose, as in this case is evident for all the world to see. For notwith- 
standing that the pope's bull, coming down with full authority for 
restitution of abbey lands, did so thunder out most terrible excom- 
munication, not only against them which detained any such lands, but 
also against all others that did not see the pope's commandment to be 
executed ; yet neither Winchester, nor any of all the pope's clergy, 
would greatly stir in that matter, perceiving the nobility to be too 
strong for them to match withal ;^ and therefore were contented to 
let the case fall, or at least to stay for a time, while time might 
better serve them. 

Yea, and moreover, under a crafty pretence that the nobility and False dis- 
men of lands, at the first coming out of the bull, should not be exas- in the' " 
perated too much against them, they subtilely abused the pulpits, and ^Xoh-c 
dissembled with the people ; affirming that the said pope's lute bull, church, 
set forth in print, for restitution of abbey lands, was not meant for 
England, but for other foreign countries : whereas, in very deed, the 
meaning of that bull was only for England, and no country else, as Feck- _ 
both by this intimation of queen Mary here mentioned, and by many {Ja,','et"of 
other conjectures, and also by master Feckenham's ballet of " Caveat ' Caveat 
emptor," may appear ; whereby it is easy for all men to understand 
what the purpose of those men was to do, if time, which they ob- 
served, might have served their devotion. 

But to let this matter pass of the pope's bull, the time now servcth The death 
to entreat of pope Julius's death, forsomuch as lie made his end about juruTthe 
the latter end of this foresaid month of March." Concerning the Thw. 
deeds and acts of which pope, to make a full declaration, it were not 
so much tedious to the reader, as horrible to all good ears.^ Under 
this Julius flourished the archbishop of Ikncvcnto, a P'lorcntine, 
named John de la Casa, dean of the pope's chamber, and chief legate 
to the Venetians ; who, well declaring the fruit of that filthy see, so 

(1) Note the nature of the papists : where they can overcome, they are lions ; where they are over- 
matched, they play the foxes. 

(2) Here lacked no good will in the bishops, but time as yet did not serve them. 

(3) Head more of this in a book called A Warning to England. 



j^ary^ far forgat both honesty and nature, that he shamed not only to play 

^ Yy the filthiest immorality himself, and to boast openly of the same ; 

1555. but also took upon him most impudently in Italian metre,^ to all 

] men's ears, to set forth the praise and commendation of a certain 

Not^e^'^ere nameless iniquity, saying, that he himself never used other : and this 

hoiyc2i- book was printed at Venice by one Trajanus Nsevus. And yet the 

church pops could suffer this so great iniquity and shameless beastliness, 

this is. even under his nose in his own chamber ; who could not abide the 

true doctrine of Christ in christian books. 

Amongst other pranks and deeds of this foresaid pope, in his 
Jubilee, and in the synod of Trent, and in confirming of the idol of 
Loretto,^ this is also reported of him in his life, that he delighted 
greatly in pork-flesh and peacocks. Upon a time when he was ad- 
monished of his physician to abstain from all swine's flesh, for that it 
was noisome for his gout, and yet would not follow his counsel ; the 
physician afterward gave warning to his steward or orderer of his 
A porkish diet, that he should set no more pork-flesh before him. Whereupon 
Avhen the pope perceived the said pork-flesh to be lacking in his 
accustomed service : " Where," said he, " is my pork .?" And when 
his steward had answered, that his physician had forbidden any pork 
strous to be served ; then the pope, bursting out into a great rage, saith 
myTn the ^^^^^ words ; " Bring me," said he, " my pork-flesh, al dispetto di 
pope. Dio," that is to say in English, "in the despight of God." 

At another time, he, sitting at dinner, pointing to a peacock upon 

his table, which he had not touched, " Keep," said he, " this cold 

peacock for me against supper, and let me sup in the garden ; for 

I shall have guests." So when supper came, and, amongst other hot 

peacocks, he saw not his cold peacock brought to his table, the pope, 

after his wonted manner, most horribly blaspheming God, fell into an 

extreme rage, etc. ; whereupon one of his cardinals, sitting by, desired 

Popeju- ^™5 saying, " Let not your holiness, I pray you, be so moved with 

phemiui' ^ "^'^tter of so small weight."' Then this Julius the pope, answering 

God for a again, " What," said he, " if God was so angry for an apple, that he 

^o'vocem cast our first parents out of paradise for the same, why may not I, 

f,"r-';to being his vicar, be angry then for a peacock, since a peacock is a 

dignam!' greater matter than an apple." ^ Behold here, good reader, by this 

(1) Vide scriptum Pauli Vergerii contra hunc Archiepisc. [See Riveti " Jesuita Vapulans,' 
cap. iii. § 8 ; also Jewel's " Defence of the Apology," Fart IV. chap. iii. divis. 1. There is some 
doubt as to this book. See a note upon Sleidan, lib. .xxi. vol. iii. p. 154. Francorf. 178U.— Ed.] 

(2) The patronage, which pope Julius thought fit to exercise towards this renowned idol, was 
strongly reprobated by Vergerio, bishop of Capo d'Istria, in his tract, " De idolo Lauretano, quod 
Julium III. Rom. Episc. non puduit approbare : Vergerius Italia scripsit, Ludovicus ejus nepos 
yertit anno 1556." In a tablet, which in Vergerio's time was affixed to the wall at the entrance 
into the Holy Cottage, it is asserted that the apostles were accustomed to perform divine offices in 
it ; that St. Luke made an image of the Virgin, which remains there to this very day, (" quas ibi est 
usque hodie " are the words used); that angels removed the chapel, after having conveyed it 
through the air from the Holy Land, from spot to spot,— first on occasion of the robbers, with 
which the country was infested, and then, a second time, because of the excessive quarrellings 
(" maximas discordias") which were excited by the large receipts— to its present and final resting- 
place. The inhabitants were unable to account for its appearance amongst them, and were afraid 
that without any foundation the chapel would soon fall into ruins; but in the year 1290 (according 
to the tablet) the Virgin appeared herself in a dream to a holy brother, and acquainted him with 
all the circumstances connected with the building; upon which it was determined to send an 
embassy of sixteen respectable men into the Holy Land to visit the old site ; and they found and 
reported that the old foundations answered exactly to the building, which had arrived at Recanati, 
etc. eic. "All this and much more, hardly to be matched," says Vergerio, "by the tales of the 
Koran or the Talmud, was considered as deserving or needing a long refutation," which it has 
fully received from his lively pen: see "Vergerii Opera adversus Papatum ;" Tubinga;, 1563, 
ff. 309— 5U; or " Wolfii Lectioncs Memorabiles," vol. ii. p. GCG, edit. 1G71. The "Tractatus de TEde 
LauretanS" was printed at Venice, 1499. See Maittaire, Annales Typogr. vol. i. p. Gi)6. — Ed. 

(3) These anecdotes are included in "Wolfii Lectiones Memorabiles;" vol. ii p. C39. Edit. 
Francorf. 1671.— Ed. 



pope, the holiness of that blasphemous see : and yet thou shalt sec Afartj. 
here what affection was borne to this pope here in England, by the 
diriges, hearses, and funerals, commanded to be had and celebrated 
in all churches by the queen and her council, as may appear by the 
copy of their letters here following : 

A Letter from the Bishop of Winchester (being Lord Chancellor) 
unto Bonner, Bishop of London, touching the celebrating of tlic 
Pope's Funeral. 

After my hearty commendations to your good lordsliip : The king and 
queen's majesties having certain knowledge of the death of the popes liohncss, 
thought good there should be as well solemn obsequies said for him throughout 
the realm, as also these prayers (which I send you herein enclosed), used at 
mass times in all places at this time of vacation ; and therefore willed me to 
signify their pleasures unto you in this behalf, that thereupon yc might proceed 
to the full accomplishment thereof, by putting the same in due execution within 
your own diocese, and sending word to the rest of the bishops, to do the like 
in theirs. Thus doubting not but that your lordship will use such diligence in 
this matter at this time, as shall be necessary, I bid your lordship heartily well 
to fare. 

From my house at Esher, the 10th of April, 1555. 

Your assured friend and brother, 

Stephen ^Vinton, Chancellor. 

Prayers commanded to be used in the Funeral Masses for the Pope, 
" apostolica sede vacante."" 

Supplicite, Domine, humilitate deposcimus, uttuaimmensapietas sacrosanctae A collect 
Romanae ecclesiae concedat pontificem ilium, qui et pro in nos studio semper ''"' "^'^ 
tibi gratus, et tuo populo pro salubri regimine sit assidue ad gloriam tui nominis 
venerandus, per Dominum nostrum. 


Tuae nobis, Domine, pietatis abundantia indulgeat, ut gratum majestati tuas 
pontificem sanctse matris ecclesiae regimini praeesse gaudeamus, per Dominum 

Post Communionem. 

Preciosi corporis et sanguinis tui, Domine, sacramento refectos mirifica tuie Prayer for 
majestatis gratia de illius summi pontificis assumptione Isetificet, qui et plebem clmosnij,' 
tuam virtutibus instruat, et fidelium mentes spiritualium aromatum odore 
perfundat, per Dominum nostrum. 


Upon this commandment, on Wednesday in Easter week there 
were hearses set up, and diriges sung for the said Julius in divers 
places ; at which time it chanced a woman to come into St. INLagnus's 
church, at the bridge-foot in London, and there, seeing a hearse and 
other preparation, asked what it meant : and another that stood by 
said, that it was for the pope, and that she must pray for him. 
" Nay," quoth she, " that Avill I not, for he needeth not my prayers : 
and seeing he could forgive us all our sins, I am sure he is clean 
himself; therefore I need not to pray for him." She was heard 
speak these words of certain that stood by, who, by and by, carried 
her imto the cage at London- bridge, and bade her cool herself there. 






By many and sundry ways Almighty God hath admonished men 

of all nations in these our latter years, to embrace, and not violently 

to repugn against, the light of his gospel : as first, by preaching of 

his word ; secondly, by the blood of the martyrs ; and thirdly, by 

terrible examples showed from time to time upon his adversaries. 

A popish In the number of whom cometh here to be remembered the notable 

preaching working of God's hand upon a certain priest in Kent, named Night- 

to his ingal, parson of Crundal beside Canterbury ; who, upon Shrove- 

foliers. Sunday, which was about the third day of the said month of March, 

and year of our Lord aforesaid (rejoicing belike not a little at this 

alteration of religion), began to make a sermon to his parishioners, 

A terrible taking his tlicmc out of the words of St. John : " He that saith that 

Ifa^l'i he hath no sin, is a liar, and the truth is not in him," etc. And so 

upon the same very impertinently declared to them all such articles 

as were set forth by the pope's authority, and by the commandment 

Nightin- of the bishops of this realm ; saying, moreover, unto the people in 

fonoT' thiswise: "Now masters and neighbours, rejoice and be merry; 

cri^dai for ^jjg prodigal son is come home. For I know that the most part 

of you be as I am, for I know your hearts well enough. And I shall 

teli you what hath happened in this week past : I was before my lord 

cardinal Pole's grace, and he hath made me as free from sin, as I was 

at the font-stone : and on Thursday last being before him, he hath 

appointed me to notify (I thank him for it) the same unto you, 

and I will tell you what it is." — And so reading the pope's bull of 

pardon that was sent into England, he said, he thanked God that ever 

he had lived to see that day ; adding, moreover, that he believed, 

that by the virtue of that bull he was as clean from sin, as that night 

that he was born : — and immediately upon the same fell suddenly 

Christ' down out of the pulpit, and never stirred hand nor foot, and so lay 

gospel he. This was testified by Robert Austen of Cartham, who both 

punis e . j^g^j,^ ^^^ g^^ ^Yie same, and it is witnessed also by the whole country 

round about. 


In the beginning of April, and the second day of the said month, 
died in prison John Awcock, who after was buried in the fields ; as 
the manner of the papists was to deny their christian burial to such 
as died out of their popish antichristian church. 

Now, forasmuch as having passed the month of March, we are 
entered into the month of April, to set down in order, out of public 
records, what happened in the said month, here followetli to be 
noted: that the 1st day of April, a.d. 1555, a letter was sent to 
the sheriff of Kent to apprehend Thomas Wodgat and William 
Maynard, for preaching secretly, and to send them up to the council. 
The 7th day of the said month, another letter was sent to the said 
sherifl?" for the apprehension of one Harwich, who went about, with a 
boy with him, preaching from place to place. 

The 15th of April a letter was directed to sir Nicholas Hare, and 
sir Thomas Cornwallis, willing them to examine master Flower (alias 



Branch) wliat he meant, by wearing about his nock written, "Deum time, if"ry. 
idolum fuge ;" and whom else he knew to wear the like : praying A.I), 
them also to speak to lionner bishop of London, speedily to proceed ^^>'>'>. 
against him for his religion, according to the laws, and that the ju.s- 
tices of peace of Middlesex should likewise proceed against him for 
shedding of blood in the church, according to the statute ; so as if he 
continue his opinion, he might be executed at the furthest by the 
latter end of this week, and that his right hand be, the day before 
his execution, or the same day, stricken off. 

The 22d of April there was a like letter sent to the justices of 
peace of Middlesex, with a writ for the execution of the said Flower, 
commanding them to see his hand stricken off before his burning. 

The 29th of April, master Robert llornebey, servant then to the 
lady Elizabeth, was convented before the council for his religion ; 
and standing constantly to the truth, notwithstanding their threats 
and other persuasions, was therefore committed to the Marshalsea. 

511 ^declaration of tf)e Itife, examination, anD SSucning of 
<J5eocge Mai^^, 

THE 24th day of APRIL, 1555. 

The said George Marsh was born in the parish of Dean, in the 
county of Lancaster, and was well brought up in learning and honest 
trade of living by his parents ; who afterwards, about the 25th year 
of his age, took to wife an honest maiden of the country, with whom 
he continued, earning their living upon a farm, having children Marsh 
between them lawfully begotten : and then, God taking his wife out farmer. 
of this world, he being most desirous of godly studies (leaving his 
household and children in good order), went unto the university of 
Cambridge, where he studied, and much increased in learning and 
godly virtues, and Avas a minister of God's holy word and sacraments, Mademi- 
and for a while was curate to Laurence Saunders; as he himself""'"" 
reporteth. In which condition of life he continued for a space, 
earnestly setting forth God's true religion, to the defacing of Anti- 
christ's false doctrine, by his godly readings and sermons, as well 
there and in the parish of Dean, as elsewhere in Lancashire. 

Whereupon at length, by detection of certain adversaries, he was cotps 
apprehended, and kept in close prison by George Cotes, then bishop atZ",^ 
of Chester, in strait prison in Chester, within the precinct of the p,';;,'-,^-,,^ 
bishop's house, about the space of four months, being not permitted " 
to have relief and comfort of his friends ; but charge being given 
unto the porter, to mark who they were, that asked for him, and to 
signify their names unto the bishop ; as by the particular description 
of his story, testified and recorded with his own pen, more evidently 
may appear in the process hereunder following. 

The Handling, Entreating, and Examination of George Marsh, being 
sent first by the Earl of Derby to Dr. Cotes, Bishop of Chester. 

On the Monday before Palm Sunday, which was the 12th day of March, it 
was told me at mv mother's house, that Roger Wrinstone, with other of master 




Martj. Barton's servants, did make diligent search for me in Bolton ; and when they 
perceived that I was not thei-e, they gave strait charge to Roger Ward and 


P* Robert Marsh, to find and bring me to master Barton the day next following, 

Marsh ad 
by his 
to fly. 

in a per- 
to fly or t 

He con- 
with God. 

with others, to be brought before the honourable earl of Derby, to be examined 
in matters of religion, etc, 

I, knowing this, by relation of divers of my friends, was diversely affected ; 
my mother, and otlier my friends advertising me to fly, and to avoid the peril, 
which thing I had intended afore after a week then next ensuing, if this in the 
meanwhile had not chanced ; seeing that if I were taken, and would not recant 
in matters of religion (as they thought I would not, and as, God strengthening 
and assisting me with his holy Spirit, I never will) it would not only have put 
them to great sorrow, heaviness, and losses, with costs and charges, to their 
shame and rebuke in this world, but also mine own self, after troublous and 
painful imprisonment, unto shameful death. 

This considered, they advised me and counselled me to depart and fly the 
country, as I had intended to have done, if this had not happened : to whose 
counsel my weak flesh would gladly have consented, but my spirit did not fully 
agree ; thinking and saying thus to myself, that if I fled so away, it would be 
thought, reported, and said, that I did not only fly the country, and my nearest 
and dearest friends, but much rather from Christ's holy word, according as 
these years past I had with my heart, or at least with mine outward living, 
professed, and with my mouth and word taught, according to the small talent 
given me of the Lord. I, being thus with their advice and counsel, and the 
cogitations and counsels of mine own mind, drawn as it were divers ways, 
went from my mother's house, saying I would come again at evening. 

In the mean time I ceased not, by earnest prayer, to ask and seek counsel of 
God (who is the giver of all good gifts), and of other my friends, whose godly 
judgments and knowledge I much trusted unto. After this, I met with one of 
my said friends on Dean Moor, about sun going-down : and after we had con- 
sulted together of my business, not without hearty prayer, kneeling on our 
knees, we departed. I not fully determining what to do, but taking my leave 
with my friend, said, I doubted not but God (according as our prayer and trust 
was) would give me such wisdom and counsel as should be most to his honour 
and glory, the profit of my neighbours and brethren in the world, and obtaining 
of mine eternal salvation by Christ in heaven. 
His This done, I returned to my mother's house again, where had been divers of 

brethren master Barton's servants seeking after me ; who, when they could not find me, 
to seek straitly charged my brother and William Marsh to seek me that night, and to 
him. bring me to Smirhill the next day ; who, being so charged, were gone to seek 
me in Adderton, or elsewhere I know not. Thus, intending afoi-e to have been 
all night with my mother, but then considering that my tarrying there would dis- 
quiet her with her household, I departed from thence, and went beyond Dean 
Church, and there tarried all night with an old friend of mine, taking ill rest, 
and consulting much with myself of my trouble. 
The mar- ^0 ^^ ^Y ^^^^ awaking, one came to me from a faithful friend of mine with 
vellous letters, which I never read nor yet looked on, who said this : my friend's advice 
was, that I should in no wise fly ; but abide and boldly confess the faith of 
Jesus Christ. At whose words I was so confirmed and established in my con- 
science, that from thenceforth I consulted no more, whether was better, to 
fly or to tarry ; but was at a point with myself, that I would not fly, but go to 
master Barton, who did seek for me, and there present myself, and patiently 
bear such cross as it should please God to lay upon my shoulders. Whereupon 
my mind and conscience, afore being much unquieted and troubled, was now 
merry and in quiet estate. 

So betimes in the morning I arose, and after I had said the English Litany 
(as my custom was), with other prayers, kneeling on my knees by my friend's 
bed-side, I prepared myself to go toward Smirhill : and as I was going 
thitherward, I went into the houses of Harry Widdowes, of my mother-in-law, 
of Rafe Yeton, and of the wife of Thomas Richardson ; desiring them to pray 
Volunta- fof rnC) ^iid have me commended to all my friends, and to comfort my motiier, 
rily oiTer- and be good to my little children : for (as I supposed) they should not see my 
si'-Vto'his ^"^'^'^ '"^"y more before the last day ; and so took my leave of them, not without 
tears shed on both parties, and came to Smirhill about nine of the clock, and 

dence of 
God in 

of his 


presented myself afore master Barton ; who showed me a letter from tlie carl of jt/ary. 
Derby, wherein he was commanded to send me with others to Latham. 

Whereupon he charged my brother and William Marsh, to bring and deliver A.l). 
me the next day by ten of the clock, before the said earl or his council. I l-'>''>5. 
made earnest suit with other special friends which I had there at the same 
time, to master Barton, that he would take some one of them, or them all, 
bound by recognizance or otherwise, for mine appearing before the said earl or 
his said council, that my brother and William Marsh might be at home, because 
it was the chiefest time of seeding, and their ploughs could not go if they were 
not at home : but nothing could be obtained. 

So we went to my mother's, and there I dined and shifted part of my clothes , Marsh 
and so, praying, took my leave of my mother, the wife of Richard Marsh, and takethhi* 
both their households, they and I both weeping ; and so departed from them, h'is^mo- 
and went toward Latham, and were all night a mile and a half on this side ther. 
Latham. So the next day, which was Wednesday, we arose, prayed, and came 
to Latham betimes, and tarried there till four of the clock at afternoon. 

Then was I called by Roger Mekinson to come to my lord and his council, Isbroupht 
and so I was brought into the chamber of presence, where was present sir before tiie 
William Norris, sir Pierce Leigh, master Sherburn the parson of Grappenhall, uJrb^.. 
master More, witli others; where when I had tarried a httle while, my lord 
turned him toward me, and asked what was my name : I answered, " ^L1rsh." 
Then he asked, whether I was one of those that sowed evil seed and dis- 
sension amongst the people : which thing I denied, desiring to know mine 
accusers, and what could be laid against me. But that I could not know. 

Then, said he, he would with his council examine me themselves, and asked Examin- 
me whether I was a priest; I said, " No." Then he asked me what had been f,^,,,'"'^"'^"' 
my living. I answered I was a minister, served a cure, and taught a school. 
Then said my lord to his council, " This is a wonderful thing. Afore he said 
he was no priest, and now he confesseth himself to be one." I answered, " By 
the laws now used in this realm (as far as I do know) I am none." 

Then they asked me who gave me orders, or whether I had taken any at all. 
I answered I received orders of the bishops of London and Lincoln. 

Then said they one to another, " Those be of these new heretics ;" and asked 
me what acquaintance I had with them. I answered, I never saw tl>em but 
at the time when I received orders. 

They asked me how long I had been curate, and whether I had ministered 
with a good conscience. I answered, I had been curate but one year, and had S^m,, 
ministered with a good conscience, I thanked God ; and if the laws of thq moutli of 
realm would have sufl'ered me, I would have ministered still; and if the laws atthepar- 
any time hereafter would suffer me to minister after that sort, I would minister Gr"pptn- 
again. Whereat they murmured, and the parson of Grappenliall said, this last hail, 
communion was the most devihsh thing that ever was devised. 

Then they asked me what my belief was. I answered, I believed in God 
the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, according as the Scriptures of the 
Old and New Testaments do teach, and according as the four symbols or creeds, 
that is to wit, the creed commonly called " Apostolonun," the creed of Nice 
council, of Athanasius, and of Augustine and Ambrose do teach. And after a 
few words, the parson of Grappenhall said, " But what is thy belief in tlie 
sacrament of the altar?" I answered, 1 believed that whosoever, according to Marsh's 
Christ's institution, did receive the holy sacrament of Christ's body and blood, ^^'ef^ra- 
did eat and drink Christ's body and blood, with all the benefits of his death and ment. 
resurrection, to their eternal salvation ; for Christ (said I) is ever present with 
his sacrament. 

Then asked they me, whether the bread and wine, by the virtue of the words 
pronounced of the priest, were changed into the flesh and blood of Christ, and 
that the sacrament, whether it were received or reserved, was the very body of 
Christ: whereunto I made answer, I knew no further than I had showed J^^J^.^",^ 
already ; " for my knowledge is unperfect," said I : desiring them not to ask me the ques- 
such hard and unprofitable questions, whereby to bring my body into danger of J^^;;^*;)"^. 
death, and to suck my blood. Whereat they were not a little offended, saymg stamia- 
they were no blood-suckers, and intended nothing to me but to make me a good tlon. 
christian man. 

So, after many other questions, which I avoided as well as I could, remcm- 


Mary, bering the saying of Paul, " Foolish and unlearned questions avoid, knowing 

they do but engender strife;" my lord commanded me to come to the board, 

A- D. and gave me pen and ink in my hand, and commanded me to write mine 
^^55- answers to the questions of the sacrament above named ; and I wrote as I had 
Marsh answered before : whereat he, being much offended, commanded me to write a 
com- more direct answer, saying I should not choose but do it. 

to wit^B Then I took the pen and wrote, that further I knew not : whereat he, being 

his an- sore grieved, after many threatenings, said, I should be put to shameful death 
swers. jj]j^g ^ traitor, with such other like words ; and sometimes giving me fair words, 

if I would turn and be conformable as others were, how glad he would be. 
The earl In conclusion, after much ado, he commanded me to ward, in a cold, windy, 
ot Derby gtone house, where was little room ; where I lay two nights without any bed, 
mandeth saving a few great canvass tent-clothes ; and, that done, I had a pair of sheets, 
Marsh to but no woollen clothes ; and so continued till Palm Sunday, occupying myself 
prison. gg ^gjj ^g J (.Quj^ ju meditation, prayer, and study : for no man could be 
suffered to come to me but my keeper twice a day, when he brought me meat 
and drink. 

Another Examination of G-eorge Marsh before the Earl of Derby. 

On Palm Sunday, after dinner, I was sent for to my lord and his council 
(saving sir William Norris and sir Pierce Leigh were not then present in place), 
amongst whom was sir John Biron, and the vicar of Prescot. So they 
Marsh examined me yet once again of the sacrament. And after I had communed 
again ex- apart with the vicar of Prescot a good space concerning that matter, he returned 
abo'ut^the *■" ^Y ^^^^ ^"^ ^'^ council with me, saying : that answer which I had made 
sacra- before, and then did make (as it is above written) was sufficient for a beginner, 
™^"'- and as one which did not profess a perfect knowledge in that matter, until such 
^h'hirn- ^™^ ^^ ^ ^''■^ learned further. Wherewith the earl was very well pleased, 
self close, saying, he doubted not but by the means and help of the vicar of Prescot, I 
would be conformable in other things. So, after many fair words, he com- 
manded I should have a bed, with fire, and liberty to go amongst his servants, 
so that I would do no harm with my communication amongst them. 
Marsh And SO, after much other communication, I departed, much more troubled in 

troubled j^y spirit than afore, because I had not with more boldness confessed Christ, 
science " but in such sort as mine adversaries thereby thought they should prevail against 
for being me ; whereat I was much grieved : for hitherto 1 went about as much as in me 
boid)"'^'^ lay, to rid myself out of their hands, if by any means, without open denying 
touching of Christ and liis word, that could be done. 

the sacra- This considered, I cried more earnestly unto God by prayer, desiring him to 
Praveth strengthen me with his Holy Spirit, with boldness to confess him : and to deliver 
for more me from their enticing words, and that I were not spoiled through their philo- 
boldness. sophy and deceitful vanity after the traditions of men and ordinances of the 

world, and not after Christ. 
Again And SO, after a day or two, I was sent for to the vicar of Prescot, and the 

examined parson of Grappenhall ; where our most communication was concerning the 
bfshops' ^ mass : and he asked what offended me in the mass. I answered, the whole 
chaplains mass did offend me ; first, because it was in a strange language, whereby the 
about the people were not edified, contrary to St. Paul's doctrine, 1 Cor. xiv., and because 
legations of the manifold and intolerable abuses and errors contained therein, contrary to 
against it. Christ's priesthood and sacrifice. 

Tlien they asked me in what place thereof: and I named certain places; 
which places they went about with gentle and far-sought interpretations to 
mitigate, saying, those places were understood far otherwise than the words did 
purport, or than I did take them. 

I answered, I did understand them as they did purport, and as their own 

books do comment and gloss upon them. 

Sacrifl- They said, "sacrificium" or "oblatio" did not in the mass signify any 

cium thing else, than either a sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving, or else a memorial 

quid sit. of ^ sacrifice or oblation. So they caused a mass-book to be sent for, and 

showed me where, in some places of the mass, was written, "sacrificium laudis." 

Whereto I answered, that it followed not therefore that in all places it signified 

a sacrifice or oblation of praise or thanksgiving ; and although it did, yet was 

ms riiusEcuTiON axd examination. 43 

not a sacrifice of praise or thanksgiving to be offered for the sins of the people ; Mary. 

for that did Christ, by his own passion, once oti'er on the cross : whereas the 

words of the mass were, that the priest did offer an oblation and sacrifice for ^- ^^■ 
the sins and offences both of himself, and of the people ; for them that were _^ 

dead, and for the salvation of the living : and that the comniixion of the body sncriiice 
and blood of Christ, was health both of body and soul. The vicar answered, of ti>e 
that was to be understood of the commixion of Christ's body and blood with pounOid 
his church or people. So, after much exhortation unto me that I should be by the 
conformable to the true catholic church (which, as they meant, was the Romish pap's's. 
church), I departed, not consenting unto them. 

So within a day or twain came to me master More, bringing with him certain Thearti- 
articles, whereunto Dr. Crome had consented and subscribed in the presence of ^'^* "f, 
certain witnesses in the days of king Henry the Eighth, and willed me to read recanta- 
them over, and asked me whether I would consent and subscribe unto those tion 
articles: and after communication had of one or two of the said articles, I con- t^MlrsV 
fessed plainly I would in no wise consent and subscribe to those articles : for 
then I did against mine own conscience : and so he departed. 

So within a short space after, Avhich was on Shere-Thursday, the said parson Four 
and vicar sent for me again, saying, my lord would be at a short point with popish ar- 
me : for if I would not consent and subscribe unto four articles drawn out of Marsh to 
the articles aforesaid, I must go to prison straightways. subscribe 

The first was, whether the mass now used in the church of England was '°' 
according to Christ's institution, and, with faith, reverence, and devotion, to be ' ^^^' 
heard and seen ? 

The second, whether the Almighty, by the words pronounced by the priest, 2. Tran- 
did change the bread and wine, after the words of consecration, into the body jj"^?^^"" 
and blood of Christ, whether it were received or reserved 1 

Thirdly, whether the lay people ought to receive but under the form of bread 3. Reeeiv- 
only, and that the one kind was sufficient for them ? ^mA. °"* 

Fourthly, whether confession to the priest now used in England were godly 4. Gotl- 
and necessary ? , . ^''''°°- 

These four questions or articles they delivered me in writing, and bade me 
go to my chamber and subscribe my answers with mine own hand, and come 
again. So within one half hour I came to them again, and delivered them the 
questions with mine answers. The first I denied. The second I answered, as Marsh 
I did to my lord afore, and as is above written. To the third I answered, that ,he '^ti- 
the lay people, by Christ's institution, ought to receive under both kinds, and cles. 
that it sufRceth not them to receive under the one kind only. Fourthly, that 
though confession auricular were a commodious mean to insti-uct the rude 
people, yet it was not necessary nor commanded of God. 

They much exhorted me then to leave mine opinions, saying, I was much Marsh 
deceived, understanding the Scriptures amiss ; and much counselled me to ^^"J"^'^^, 
follow the catholic church of Christ, and to do as others did. I answered, my t,,oiic 
faith iii Christ conceived by his holy word I neither could nor would deny, church, 
alter, or change, for any living creature, whatsoever he were ; desiring them to 
speak to my lord, that during my life and imprisonment my poor friends might 
be suffered to relieve me with necessary things according to their powers. And 
so, after much exhortation of them, to do and believe as the catholic church did, 
we departed ; I from thenceforth continuing in the porter's ward, not coming 
forth of my chamber, saving at noon and night while I dined and supped. 

Upon one of the Easter holydays master Shcrburn and master More sent for Shcrburn 
me, persuading me much to leave mine opinions ; saying, all the bringers up ^^^^-^ 
and favourers of that religion had evil luck, and were either put to death or in ers. 
prison, and in danger of life. Again, the favourers of the religion now used 
had wondrous good luck and prosperity in all things : with many other worldly 
reasons of man's wisdom ; for as for the Scriptures, master Sherburn confessed 
himself ignorant. I answered, that I beUeved and leaned only to the Scrip- ^^^,^ 
tures, not judging things by prosperity or adversity: but they earnestly advised .^uth is 
me to refuse mine opinions, and not to let for any worldly shame. I answered, not to bo 
that that which I did, I did not for the avoiding of any worldly shame, saying, l^'^^^^^_ 
My soul and life were dearer to me than the avoiding of any worldly shame : perity or 
neither yet did I it for any vain praise of the world, but in the reverent fear adversity. 
of God. 



ther to 
stick t 


Then master More questioned with me of receiving tlie sacrament under the 
A D \'^ '^"^'^" ^ ^"^'^' ^'"'^^^'^ institution was plain, that all men should drink of 
1 555" ^^^ ^^^V- Then he told me of Luke xxiv. and Acts xx., where was but mention 
1. of breakmg of bread only : whereof he gathered, that they received the sacra- 
Christ's ment but under one kind. That I denied, saying, those places either did not 
ofTreaT f P^^"" °^ *^. celebration of the Lord's supper, or else under the name of breaking 
proveth bread was signified and meant the receiving of the sacrament, both of the body 
not the and blood of Christ, according to his institution. 

undero"ife ^''' ^('e"" ""'^^^ communication of that matter, master Sherburn said, it was 

kind. great pity that I, being a well-favoured young man, and one that might have 

good living and do good, would so foolishly cast myself away, sticking so hard 

Marsh to such foolish opinions. I answered as afore I had done to my lord and to his 

kindted^ council, that my life, mother, children, brethren, sisters, and friends, witli other 

altoge- ' delights of life, were as dear and sweet unto me as unto any other man, and 

ther to that I would be as loth to lose them as another would, if I might hold them 

stick to with good conscience, and without the ignominy of Christ ; and seeing I could 

not do that, my trust was, that God would strengthen me with his Holy Spirit 

to lose them all for his sake : for I take myself (said I) for a sheep appointed 

to be slain, patiently to suffer what cross soever it shall please my merciful 

Father to lay on me. And so, after I had desired them that if I were committed 

to prison my friends might be suffered to relieve me, they departed. 

Alphon- Master More, after this, brought unto me a book of one Alphonsus a Spanish 

broughf ^"^'■' °^ ^^^ heresies wherewith the church of Rome, which he called Christ's 

to Marsh, true church, had been troubled since Christ's time ; willing me to read and take 

counsel of that book : and appointed me a place, where this author did write 

against them that say, the lay-people ought to receive under both kinds. 

This author I perceived did vehemently write against Luther, Melancthon, 
Pellican, and other Germans of this our time, in all points defending the blas- 
phemous abuses and enormities of the Romish church, condemning as detestable 
heresies whatsoever was written, taught, or believed, contrary to the same ; 
using for his strongest and surest arguments, the consent, agreement, and 
determination of the Romish church. So, within a few days, master More 
Marsh's came to me again, asking me how I liked the book. I said the author of the 
j^udgment book did in all points, being a papist, allow the rites and abuses of the Romish 
church : and showed him further, that this author, without authority, and con- 
trary both to the Scriptures and old doctors, did condemn for heresy the lay 
people receiving of this sacrament under both kinds, whereas this author wit- 
nesseth his own self, that Christ's church, nine hundred years after Christ, used 
the contrary. 

So in conclusion he rebuked me, saying I was unlearned, and erred from the 
catholic faith ; stubborn, and stood altogether in mine own conceit. I answered, 
for my learning, I knowledge myself to know nothing but Jesus Christ, even 
him that was crucified, and that my faith was grounded upou God's holy word 
only, and such as, I doubted not, pleased God, and as I would stand in until 
the last day, God assisting me ; and that I did not say or dq. any thing either of 
stubbornness, self-wilfulness, vain-glory, or any other worldlv purpose, but with 
good conscience, and in the fear of God : and desired him to speak to my lord 
and his council, that I might find some gentleness and mercy at their hands. 
He made me but short answer. Then I said, I commit my cause unto God,' 
who hath numbered the hairs of my head, and appointed the days of my life ; 
saying, I am sure God, which is a righteous judge, would make inquisition for 
my blood, according as he hath promised. Then he took his book from me, 
and departed. 
Marsh I continued still in ward until Low Sunday, and after dinner my keeper 

LanTaste? Richard Scot, came to me into my chamber, and told me that two young men 
castle. were come to carry me to Lancaster; and so delivered me unto them, a great 
company, both of my lord's servants and others, accompanying and bringing 
me on the way, unto Richard Adderton's, and somewhat further; counselling 
and persuading like as is aforesaid. To whom I made plain answer, that in 
matters of faith I would give place to no eartlily creature. So they comforted 
me, and said that they were sorry for me, saying; If I knew mine own opinion 
to be good, I did well: and so they, departed, willing my bringers to entreat me 


My bi-ingers by the way showed mc they were willed and advised to bind sfaru 

me, and tliat they desired first to see me : and after they had looked on me 

sitting at dinner, they answered they would take charge of me being loose, for ^' ^• 
they said I seemed to be an honest man. \^)i^>'). 

The first night we were all night at Broughton, and the second day we came 
to Lancaster betimes at afternoon, and so they kept me all night with them of 
their gentleness, and on the morrow delivered me to the jailor, who brought 
me into the highest prison, where I do remain. 

After that, the said George came to Lancaster castle, and there Marsh to 
being brought ^vitl^ other prisoners unto tlie sessions, was made to hu hard. 
hold up his hands with tlie malefactors. The earl of Derby had this 
communication with him as here followeth : 

Communication between George Marsh and the Earl of Derby. 

I said unto my lord, I had not dwelled in the country these three or four 
years past, and came home but lately to visit my mother, children, and other 
my friends, and to have departed out of the country before Easter then next, 
and to have gone out of the realm. Wherefore I trusted, seeing nothing could 
be laid against me, wherein I had ofiended against the laws of this realm, his 
lordship would not with captious questions examine me, to bring my body into 
danger of death, to the great discomfort of my mother ; but suffer me to avoid 
peaceably, seeing I might have fled out of the country, and yet of mine own 
will came to his lordship. 

He said to his council, he had heard tell of me above at London ; and intended 
to make search for me, and take me either in Lancashire or above at London ; 
and asked me into what land I would have gone. 

I answered, I would have gone either into Almain, or else into Denmark. The earl 
He said to his council — in Denmark they used such heresy as they have done of Herby 
in England ; but as for Almain, he said, the emperor had destroyed them. thrfeulm 

So, after such like words I said unto him, my trust was, that his lordship, of Oen- 
being of the honourable council of the late king Edward, consenting and agree- "^''""'^ "^ 
ing to acts concerning faith toward God and religion, under great pain, would 
not so soon after consent to put poor men to shameful death, as he had threat- 
ened me, for embracing the same with so good a conscience. 

He answered, that he, with the lord Windsor and lord Dacres, with one l^rds 
more, whose name I have forgotten, did not consent to those acts; and that king'td- 
the nay of them four would be to be seen, as long as the parliament-house stood, ^yard's 
Then my lord did rehearse the evil luck of the dukes of Northumberland and ^'^^^.j^ot 
Suffolk, with others, because they favoured not the true religion ; and again the to the 
good hap and prosperity of the queen's highness, because she favoured the true •'>cts of 
religion : thereby gathering the one to be good, and of God, and the other to ^^ 'S'""- 
be wicked, and of the devil ; and said, that the duke of Northumberland con- 
fessed so plainly. 

George Marsh to the Reader. 

Forsomuch as not only when I was at Latham, but also since I departed 
thence, I hear that there be divers and sundry reports and opinions of the cause 
of mine imprisonment, as well at Latham as at Lancaster (as b}' credible persons 
I am informed), some saying it was only because I would not do open penance; 
and some, because I could not agree with my lord and his council concerning 
the sacrament of Christ's body and blood, and the manner of Christ's presence 
there ; some because I woidd not grant it sufficient, and according to Christ's 
institution, the lay-people to receive the said sacrament under the one kind 
aidy : I thought it good, dearly beloved in Christ, and my bouriden duty, to 
certify you by mine own hand-writing, of mine examination and handling at 
Latham, and to tell you the truth as near as I could, to quiet your mind in this 
behalf; and therefore I have here written with mine own hand the certainty of 
those things, as near as I could, here above expressed, not omitting any thing 
at all concerning religion, whereof they did examine me : howbcit I perceive in 
some things I keep not the same order in writing that thing which was asked 


Mary, by tbem, and answered by me afore and after, as it was in veiy deed in all 
points, saving this : telling tbe truth as near as I can, desiring you to accept in 
A. D. good worth this my good will, and to pray for me and all them that be in bonds, 
^^^^- that God will assist us with his Holy Spirit; and that we may with boldness 
confess his holy name ; and that Christ may be magnified in our bodies, that 
we may stand full and perfect in all the will of God; to whom be all honour 
and glory, world without end. Amen. 

And thus you have heard all the whole trouble which George 
Marsh sustained both at Latham, and also at Lancaster, testified 
and written with his own hand, whereto he addeth moreover, and 
saith : 

While I was (saith he) in ward at Latham, divers at sundry times came 

unto me. Some said unto me that all my fellows had recanted, and were gone 

home, whereas indeed that was not so ; for I saw divers of them divers times 

after. Others said, that it was reported amongst my lord's household, that I had 

consented and agreed in all things with my lord and his council. 

«r^n'^'^lt Furthermore, while I was at Lancaster, at this session, many came to me 

cTdsTto" ^^ t^lk ■^vi*^^^ ™6 '■ some of good will towards me, but without knowledge gave 

save him- me such like counsel as Peter gave Christ as he went up to Jerusalem, when he 

^^^^- took him aside and began to rebuke him, saying, ' Master, favour thyself; this 

thing shall not be unto thee.' But I answered with Christ's sharp answer unto 

Peter again; who turned about, and said unto Peter, 'Come after me, Satan;' 

and, perceiving that they were a hinderance unto me, and that they savoured 

Marsh "ot the things which are of God, but the things that are of men, I made them 

fou^ovveth plain answer; that I neither could, nor would, follow their counsel, but that by 

ans'^we/to ^od's grace I would both live and die with a pure conscience, and according 

Peter, as hitherto I had believed and professed. For we ought in no wise to flatter 

and bear with them, though they love us never so well, which go about to 

pluck us away from the obedience that we owe unto God and to his word ; but 

after Christ's example sharply to rebuke them for their counsel. 

Some others, yea even strangers also, came to me far unlike to these, who, 
after sober communication had, consented with me in all things, lamenting 
much my troublous estate, giving me comfortable words and some money too*^ 
and resorted to me oftentimes, for the space of two, three, or four days. There 
Priests came also many priests to me, by two, three, four, five, or six at once, whose 
always ™"uths it was a thing easy enough to stop ; for the priests (which is much to 
the great- be lamented) be not always the greatest clerks, and best learned in the law of 
est clerks. God. At their departing they either consented with me, or else had nothing to 
say against rne, saying, they could find no fault with my words. My com- 
munication with them was about the sacrament. There came also into the 
prison to me master Westby, master Ashton of Hill, master Ashton of Chat- 
terton, and many more, both gentlemen and others, to my great comfort ; unto 
whom I had good occasion to utter a great part of my conscience ; for God so 
stfe'ngth- strengthened me with his spirit of boldness, according to my humble request 
enedin and prayer before, (everlasting thanks be given him there-for!) that I was 
with°the "°*^"& afraid to speak to any that came to me, no not even to judges themselves, 
boldness before whom I was thrice arraigned at the bar, amongst the thieves, with irons 
of God's on my feet, and put up my hand as others did ; but yet with boldness I spake 
spirit. y„tQ them, so long as they would suffer me. 

They also sent for me the fourth time into their chamber, where, amongst 

other things, they laid it straitly to my charge, that I had reported, that I knew 

a whole mess of good gentlemen in Lancashire of mine opinion ; and straitly 

charged me, upon pain of allegiance to the queen's grace, to show who they 

Marsh re- ^®^'^' ^^^^ I denied that I had spoken any such thing (as it was, indeed, a 

proved for ^^^^e forged lie of some wicked wretches). After tliat, they threatened and 

liis loud rebuked me, for my preaching to the people out of the prison, as they called it, 

and^refd- ^"'^ ^"'' '"^ P^yiiig and reading so loud that tlic people in the streets might 

ing in pri- bear. The truth is, I and my prison-follow Warbarton, every day kneeling on 

barton"^^'' ^'"^ knees, did read morning and evening prayer, with the English Litany every 

his fellow- ^ay "^wicc, both before noon and after, with other prayers more, and also read 

prisoner, every day certain chapters of the Bible, ccmmonly towards night : and we read 


all these things with so high and loud a voice, tliat the people without in the Mary. 
streets might hear us, and would oftentimes, namely in the evenings, come and 
_:4 ,i„„..^ i« ^iiv oirrl-ito iiiirlov fVio winclnvvs. aiifl hpar US rpad : whprfiwitli otliprsi 



sit down in our sights under the windows, and hear us read ; wherewith others 

being offended, complained. 

All this while George Marsh was not yet brought before the bishop, 
whose name was Dr. Cotes, placed the same time in the bishopric of 
Chester. Of whose coming then into Lancaster, the said George 
Marsh reporteth himself as followeth : 

How the Bishop came to Lancaster, and of his Doings there, in 
setting up Idolatry. 

The bishop, being at Lancaster, there set up and confirmed all blasphemous The bi- 
idolatry ; as holy-water-casting, procession, gadding, mattins-mumbling, ^hnp.'s ^^ 
children-confirming,* mass-hearing, idols-upsetting, with such heathenish rites Lancat 
forhiddcn by God; but no gospel-preaching, which Christ, God's Son, so ter, and 
earnestly commanded. He was informed of me, and willed to send for me and ll^J^^^f"^ 
examine me ; which thing he refused to do, saying he woidd have nothmg to 
do with heretics so hastily : so hasty in judgment, and calling men heretics, are The bi- 
our bishops in their lordly dignities, afore they hear or see what is to be J^^^P,,^ 
amended or condemned; contrary to the express commandment of God's word, Marsh 
which saith, " Condemn no man, before thou hast tried out the truth of the \°J^;^J'J' 
matter; and when thou hast made inquisition, then reform righteously. Give befori'iie 
no sentence before thou hast heard the cause, but first let men tell out their heareth 
tale : and he that giveth sentence in a matter before he hear it, is a fool, and ^'™- 
worthy to be confounded." ^ i • -i 

And instead of his liberality towards me, poor prisoner, he sent for the jailor. The un- 
and rebuked him because he suffered one to fare so well ; willing to have me ^I'/Jll^'^l 
more strictly kept and dieted : but if his lordship were tabled but one week with of the bi- 
me I do think he would judge our fare but slender enough. shop. 

Also he and his chaplains and chancellor, did find fault with the school- Tlie 
master and others, for speaking to me, as to a most heinous heretic, and also '^^°°^- ^^ 
with the jailor for suffering them. Such is the mercy that those religious Lancaster 
fathers show to the friendless and comfortless in their adversities. If we may rebuked 
know the tree by the fruits (as Christ saith), no man can judge such lor any j^/^^™- 
other but for very enemies to Christ and his true religion. God lay it never to Marsh in 
their charges ; but forgive them, and turn their hard hearts, if it be his will ! P"son. 

But it is no new thing for the bishops to persecute the truth, and the prophets 
of the Lord for their constancy in preaching of the true faith ; for so did their Pop.shbi- 
Pharisaical forefathers, if ye mark well the histories of the holy Bible. 1 ashur- ,„,„,i^;3 
-- the head bishop of the temple, the ring-leader of false prophets, the chie^ to God's 

heretic-taker; that is as much as to say, the out-thruster ot true godliness. ^^^^ 
After that the dif^nity of priesthood was given unto hini, he abused it; for he of perse- 
taught not, neither reproved by the word, but feared the godly with cn.elty. outing bi- 
He not only struck, but also imprisoned, the holy prophet J eremy ; though he ^«j^^l^^/ 
withstood him not, but presently looked for the help of God, steadfastly preach- time. 

ing the truth of God. .i t j 

What mischief the ungracious bishop Jason wrought among the Jews, de- Bishop 
stroying all godliness, and setting up abominable idolatrous laws, ye may read Jason, 
in 2 Mac iv How the execrable and blind bishops, Annas and Caiaphas, Bishop 
which never "spake the truth of God themselves milcss it were against their _A.nias^.^_ 
wills unwittingly, to their utter destruction— how (I say) they pressed the phas. 
truth in Christ and his apostles, is so well known that I need not to rehearse it. 

And thus much hitherto concerning the prisonment of George 
Marsh, and his examinations before the carl of Derby and his deputies 
above named. Now proceeding further in the troublesome perse- 

an oirence to sorSe, in the manner in which it was administered—Lo. 
(2) Jcr. XX. 1. 



Mary, cutioti of this blcsscd man, let us likewise consider the latter part of 

^ J) his troubles and examinations which followed under the bishop of the 

1555! same diocese, which was Dr. Cotes ; the effect whereof, beino- drawn 

out of his own waiting, here briefly is to be seen, as followeth, 


Ye heard before, how George Marsh, being first imprisoned at 
Latham, and afterward translated unto Lancaster, was troubled by the 
earl. Again, within few days after, the said Marsh was removed 
from Lancaster ; and coming to Chester, was sent for by Dr. Cotes, 
then bishop, to appear before him in his hall, nobody being present 
but they twain ; and then he asked him certain questions concerning 
the sacrament : who made such answers as the bishop seemed there- 
with to be content, saving that he utterly denied transubstantiation, 
and allowed not the abuse of the mass, nor that the lay-people should 
receive under one kind only, contrary to Christ's institution ; in which 
points the bishop went about to persuade him : howbeit (God be 

Great la- thanked) all in vain. Much other talk he had with him, to move 
him to submit himself to the universal church of Rome ; and when 
he saw he could not prevail, he sent him to prison again. And after, 
being there, came to him divers times one Massie, a fatherly old man, 
one Wrench the schoolmaster, one Hensham the bishop's chaplain, 
and the archdeacon, with many more ; who, with all probability of 
words and philosophy, or worldly wisdom and deceitful vanity, after 
the tradition of men, and the beggarly ordinances and laws of the 
world, but not after Christ (as it were all singing one song), went 
about to persuade him to submit himself to the church of Rome, and 
to acknowledge the pope to be head thereof, and to interpret the 
Scriptures none otherwise than that church did ; with many such like 
arguments and persuasions of fleshly wisdom. 

The To whom the said George Marsh answered, that he did acknow- 

ledge and believe (though much evil be Avithal annexed) one holy 
catholic and apostolic church, without which there is no salvation, and 
that this church is but one ; because it ever hath, doth, and shall, 
confess and believe one only God, and him only worship ; and one 
only Messiah, and in him only trust for salvation : which church also 
is ruled and led by one Spirit, one word, and one faith ; and that this 

The na- church is Universal and catholic, because it ever hath been since the 

ditTonT" world's beginning, is, and shall endure to the world's end, and com- 
prehending within it all nations, kindreds, languages, degrees, states, 
and conditions of men ; and that tliis church is builded only upon 
the foundation of the prophets and apostles, Jesus Christ himself 
being the head corner-stone ; and not upon the Romish laws and 
decrees, the bishop of Rome being the supreme head. 

And whereas they said, the church did stand in ordinary succession 
of bishops, being ruled by general councils, holy fathers, and the laws 

church, of holy church, and so had continued by the space of fifteen hundred 
years and more ; he made answer, that the holy church, which is the 
body of Christ, and therefore most worthy to be called holy, was 
before any succession of bishops, general councils, or Romish decrees • 

and one. 

and notes 
of the 

of the 


neither yet was bound to any time or place, ordinary succession, ■"''"■!'• 
general councils, or traditions of fatliers, neither had any supremacy ~\~i)~ 
oyer empires and kingdoms : but that it was a little poor silly flock, 15.-)o! 
dispersed and scattered abroad, as sheep without a shepherd in the confuta- 
midst of wolves, or as a flock of orphans and fatherless children ; and {°^""''^"' 
that this church was led and ruled by the only laws, counsels, and '^'■"'"••'' 
word of Christ, he being the Supreme Head of this church, and [^'.^1^ ''''" 
assisting, succouring, and defending her from all assaults, errors, 
troubles, and persecutions, wherewith she is ever compassed about. 

He showed and proved unto them also, by the flood of Noah, the Examples 
destruction of Sodom, the Israelites departing out of Egypt ; by the fhe'u.i'e''' 
parables of the sower, of the king's son's marriage, of the great ^j^^Jf^ 
supper, and by other plain sentences of Scripture, that this church church" 
was of none estimation, and little in comparison of the church of number!" 
hypocrites and wicked worldlings. 

He was thrust at with all violence of craft and subtlety, but yet 
the Lord upheld him and delivered him. Everlasting tlianks be' to 
that merciful and faithful Lord, which sufFereth us not to be temjjted 
above our might, but in the midst of our troubles strengtheneth us 
with his most Holy Spirit of comfort and patience, giveth us a mouth 
and wisdom how and what to speak, where-against all his adversaries 
were not able to resist. 


Now, after that the said bishop had taken his pleasure in punishing 
this his prisoner, and often reviling liim, giving taunts and odious 
names of heretic, etc., he caused him to be brought forth into a 
chapel, in the cathedral church of Chester, called Our Lady Chaj^cl, 
before him the said bishop, at two o'clock in the afternoon, who was The 
there placed in a chair for that purpose, and Fulk Dutton, mayor of w'ithTis 
tlie said city, Dr. Wall, and other priests assisting him, placed not ["igues 
far from the said bishop, but somewhat lower ; George Wensloe, *■' 
chancellor, and one John Chetham, registrar, sat directly over against Marsh. 
the said bishop. 

Then they caused the said George Marsh to take an oath upon a Marsh 
book, to answer truly unto such articles as should be objected against ansTcr!'^ 
him. Upon which oath taken, the chancellor laid unto his cliarge, 
that he had preached and openly jjublished most herctically and blas- 
phemously within the parish of Uean, Eccles, Bolton, Bury, and 
many other parishes within the bishop's diocese, in the months of 
January, February, or some other time of the year last preceding, 
directly against the pope's authority and catholic church of Rome, 
the blessed mass, the sacrament of the altar, and many other articles. 
Unto all which in sum he answered, that he neither heretically nor Marsh 
blasphemously preached or spake against any of the said articles ; but himself. 
simply and truly, as occasion served, and (as it were thereunto forced 
in conscience) maintained the truth touching the same articles, "as," 
he said," all you now present did acknowledge the same in the time 
of the late king Edward the Sixth." 

Then they examined him severally of every article, and bade him 



Mary, answer directly, yea or nay, without circumstance ; for they were 

A.D. come to examine, and not to dispute at that present. 

1.555. Then he answered them unto every article very modestly, according 

:^^ to the doctrine by public authority received and taught in this realm at 

bishop's the death of the said king Edward : whose answers were every one 
morl^abie uotcd and Written by the registrar, to the uttermost that could make 

amine agaiust hun, which cannot at this present be gotten. After this, the 

than to company for that time brake up, and he was returned to his prison 

ispute. g^gj^jj^^ 


Within three weeks after this, or thereabouts, in the said chapel, 
and in like sort as before, the said bishop and others before named 
there being assembled, the said George Marsh was brought by his 
keeper and others with bills and divers weapons before them ; where, 
The Chan- first, the Said chancellor, by way of an oration, declared unto the 
oration, people present the said bishop's charge and burning charity, who, even 
like as a good shepherd doth see to his flock, that none of his sheep 
have the scab or other disease for infecting other clean sheep, but will 
save and cure the said scabbed sheep ; so his lordship had sent for 
the said George Marsh there present, as a scabbed sheep, and had 
weeded him out for corrupting others, and had done what he could 
in showing his charitable disposition toward the said Marsh, to reduce 
him from his naughty heresies ; but all that he could do would not 
help ; so that he was now determined, if the said Marsh would not 
relent and abjure, to pronounce and give sentence definitive against 
him. Wherefore he bade the said George Marsh to be now well 
advised what he would do, for it stood upon his life : and if he would 
not at that present forsake his heretical opinions, it would be (after the 
sentence given) too late, though he would never so gladly desire it- 
Inter- Thcu the Said chancellor first asked him, whether he were not one 

p°ft^'o"^^ of the bishop's diocese .? To the which he answered, that he knew 
Marsh. j,ot how large his diocese was, for his continuance was at Cambridge. 
But then they replied and asked, whether he had not lately been at 
Dean parish in Lancashire, and there abode ? And he answered, 
" Yea." Then the chancellor read all his former answers that he 
made in that place at his former examination ; and at every one he 
asked him, whether he would stick to the same, or no ? To the 
which he answered again, " Yea, yea."" 

" How say ye then to this ?'''' quoth the chancellor. — " In your last 

examination, amongst many other damnable and schismatical heresies 

you said, that the church and doctrine taught and set forth in king 

Note here Edward's time, was the true church, and the doctrine, the doctrine 

hwe^^of ^^ ^^^ ^-^^^ church ; and that the church of Rome is not the true 

Marsh! and catlioUc church." 

" 1 so said indeed." quoth Marsh, " and I believe it to be true." 
Here also others took occasion to ask him (for that he denied the 
bishop of Rome's authority in England) whether Linus, Anacletus,' 
and Clement, that were bishops of Rome, were not good men, and 


lie answered, " Yes, and divers others ; but," said lie, " they claimed Man,. 
no more authority in Enofland than the bishop of Canterbury doth at ~^~n~ 
Rome ; and I strive not," quoth he, " with the place, neither speak I \:,r,r), 

against the person of the bishop, but against his doctrine ; which in 

most points is repugnant to the doctrine of Christ." 

" Thou art an arrogant fellow indeed then," said the bishop. " In 
what article is the doctrine of the church of Rome lepugnant to the 
doctrine of Christ .?" To whom George Marsh answered and said, 
" my Lord, I pray you judge not so of me : I stand now upon 
the point of my life and death ; and a man in my case hath no cause 
to be arrogant, neither am I, God is my record. And as concerning wherein 
the disagreement of the doctrine, among many other things the 'j^urch of 
church of Rome erreth in the sacrament. For whereas Christ, in Ji"""' 
the institution thereof, did as well deliver the cup, as the bread, say- 
ing, ' Drink ye all of this ;' and Mark reporteth, that they did drink 
of it : in like manner St. Paul delivered it unto the Corinthians. 
And in the same sort also was it used in the primitive church by the 
space of many hundred years. Now the church of Rome doth take 
away one part of the sacrament from the laity. Wherefore, if I 
could be persuaded in my conscience by God's word that it were well 
done, I could gladly yield in this point." 

Then said the bishop, " Non disputandum est cum hseretico,"' that 
is, " There is no disputing with a heretic." And therefore when all 
his answers were read, he asked him whether he would stand to the 
same; " being as they were," said he, "full of heresy, or else for- 
sake them, and come unto the catholic church." 

To whom he made this full answer, and said, that he held no here- Marsh 
tical opinion, but utterly abhorred all kind of heresy, although they himleif (,f 
most untruly so did slander him. And he desired all the people '"-'™'*y- 
present to bear him witness (if hereafter any would slander him, and 
say that he held any grievous heresy), that in all articles of religion 
he held none other opinion than was by law most godly established 
and publicly taught in England at the death of king Edward the 
Sixth ; and in the same pure religion and doctrine he would, by Leach hid 
God's grace, stand, live, and die, — And here the chancellor spake J.",,',',"'"' 
to one Leach, which stood near unto Marsh, and bade him stand warsh. 
farther from him ; for his presence did him no good. 

This being done, the bishop took a writing out of his bosom and sentence 
began to read the sentence of condemnation : but when the bishop denui'i- 
had read almost half thereof, the chancellor called him, and said, ''"" ''''"^■ 
" Good my lord, stay, stay ; for if ye proceed any farther, it Avill be The 
too late to call it again :" and so the bishop stayed. Then his 
popish priests, and many other of the ignorant people, called upon \^ 
Marsh, with many earnest words, to recant ; and, amongst others, 
one Pulleyn a shoe-maker, said to him, " For shame, man, remember 
thyself, and recant." They bade him kneel down and pray, and they 
would pray for him : so they kneeled down, and he desired them to 
pray for him, and he would pray for them. 

The bishop then asked him again, whether he would not have the 
queen's mercy in time ; and he answered, he did gladly desire the 
same, and did love her grace as faithfully as any of them ; but yet he 

(1) So saith the Turk in his Alcoran, that no man nmst disimlc ofliis law. 
K 2 


his sen- 


Mary, diirst iiot clcnv his Saviour Christ, for losing his mercy everlasting, 
A J) and so win everlasting death. 

1555. Then the bishop put his spectacles again upon his nose, and read 

Gojj.j forward his sentence about five or six lines, and there again the chan- 

"re^^ cellor with a glavering and smiling countenance called to the bishop, 

before the and sajd, " Yet, good, my lord, once again stay ; for if that word be 

queens, gp^j^gj^^ g^lj jg pag^^ ng relenting will then serve." And the bishop, 

pulling off his spectacles, said, " I would stay; and if it would be !" 

Another " How sayest thou," quoth he, " wilt thou recant?" Many of the 

readi'ng pricsts and ignorant people bade him do so, and call to God for grace; 

tenw " and pulled him by the sleeve, and bade him recant and save his life. 

To whom he answered, " I would as fain live as you, if in so doing 

I should not deny my master Christ ; and so again he should deny 

me, before his Father in heaven." 

So the bishop read out his sentence unto the end, and strait 
after said unto him, " Now Avill I no more pray for thee, than I will 
^ for a doff." And Marsh answered, that notwithstanding he would 
saying of pray for his lordship : and after this the bishop delivered him unto 
wshop. the sheriffs of the city. Then his late keeper bade him, " Farewell, 
Marsh good Gcorgc," witli wcepiug tears, which caused the officers to carry 
to^the"^^ him to a prison at the North-gate, where he was very straitly kept 
to stmit ^"til the time he went to his death, during which time he had small 
keeping, comfort or relief of any worldly creature. 

Brotherly For being in the dungeon or dark prison, none that would him 
good°men good could spcak with him, or at least durst enterprize so to do for 
comfort- f'gg^j. Qf accusation : and some of the citizens who loved him in God, 
Marsh, for the gospel's sake (whereof there were but a few), although they 
were never acquainted with him, would sometimes in the evening, at 
a hole upon the wall of the city (that went into the said dark prison), 
call to him, and ask him how he did. He would answer them most 
cheerfully, that he did well ; and thanked God most highly, that he 
would vouchsafe of his mercy to appoint him to be a witness of his 
truth, and to suffer for the same, wherein he did most rejoice ; be- 
seeching him that he would give him grace not to faint under the 
cross, but patiently bear the same to his glory, and comfort of his 
church : with many other like godly sayings at sundry times, as one 
that most desired to be with Christ. Once or twice he had money 
cast him in at the same hole, about ten pence at one time, and two 
shillings at another time ; for which he gave God thanks, and used 
the same to his necessity. 

When the time and day appointed came' that he should suffer, 
Amryand the sheriffs of the city, whose names were Amry and Cooper, with 
shMiS' of their officers and a great number of poor simple barbers with rusty 
Chester. \y\\\^ ^nd polc-axcs, wcut to the North-gate, and there took out the 
said George Marsh, who came with them most humbly and meekly, 
with a lock upon his feet. And as he came upon the way towards 
the place of execution, some folks proffered him money, and looked 
that he should have gone with a little purse in his hand (as the man- 
Marsh led J^cr of felons was accustomed in that city in times past, at their 
martyr- §^^^"0 to cxccution), to the end to gather money to give unto a priest 
dom. to say trcntals or masses for them after their death, whereby they 

(1) April 21, 1555. 


might, as they thouglit, be saved : but Marsh said, he would not as »r,„y. 
then be troubled with meddling with money ; but willed some good . 
man to take the money, if the people were disposed to give any, and ifj.-,;,' 
to give it unto the prisoners or poor people. So he went all the way ^^^[^^ — 
unto his death with his book in his hand, looking upon the same ; rcfuseih 
and many of the people said, " This man goetli not unto his death monty.^" 
as a thief, or as one that deserveth to die." 

Now when he came to the place of execution without the city, Marsii rc- 
near unto Spittle- Boughton, one Vawdrey, being then deputy (lutenl'* 
chamberlain of Chester, showed Marsh a writing under a great seal, p"''°"- 
saying, that it was a pardon for him if he Avould recant. Whereat 
Marsh answered, that he would gladly accept the same (and said fur- 
ther that he loved the queen); but, forasnmch as it tended to pluclc 
him from God, he could not receive it upon that condition. 

After that, he began to speak to the people, showing the cause of Not suf- 
his death, and would have exhorted them to stick unto Christ, spe^ak "o 
Whereupon one of the sheriffs said, " George Marsh, Ave must have p,g '"-'°' 
no sermoning now." To whom he said, " Master, I cry you mercy:" 
and so kneeling down made his prayers, and then put off his clothes 
unto his shirt, and then was he chained to the post, having a number 
of faggots under him, and a thing made like a firkin, with pitch and The mat- 
tar in the same over his head ; and by reason the fire Avas unskilfully ViarsiTat 
made, and that the Avind did drive the same to and fro, lie suffered Chester, 
great extremity in his death, which notAvithstanding he abode very 

Wherein this in him is to be noted, that Avhen he had been a long Patience 
time tormented in the fire Avithout moving, having his flesh so broiled bu.Ued 
and puffed up, that they which stood before him underneath could '"="■•>''• 
sec the chain AvhereAvith he Avas fastened, and therefore supposed no 
less but he had been dead ; notAvithstanding suddenly he spread 
abroad his arms, saying, " Father of heaven, have mercy upon me !" 
and so yielded his spirit into the hands of the Lord. 

Upon this, many of the people said, that he Avas a martAT, and 
died marvellous patiently and godly : Avhich thing caused the bishop 
shortly after to make a sermon in the cathedral church, and therein 
affirmed, that the said Marsli Avas a heretic, burnt like a heretic, and 
AN^as a fire-brand in hell. 

In recompense of this his good and charitable sermon, Avithin short God's jiist 
time after, the just judgment of God appeared upon the said bishop, ha^nd*^'"^ 
recompensing him in such wise, that not long after he turned up his p^"see*ut- 
heels and died. Upon Avhat cause his death Avas gendered, I have jjjp^^ 
not here precisely to pronounce, because the rumour and voice of the 
people is not ahvays to be folloAved. NotAvithstanding, such a report 
went in all men's mouths, that he died of a disgraceful disease. 
Whereupon, Avhether he died so or no, I am not certain, neither 
dare lean too much upon public speech : albeit this is certain, that 
Avhen he Avas afterAvard searched, being dead, by some of his secret 
friends and certain aldermen for stopping the rumour of the people, 
this maidenly priest and bishop was found not to be free from certain 
appearance Avhich declared but small virginity in him, and that the 
rumour was not raised up altogether upon nought amongst the people. 
But of this I Avill stay, and proceed no further ; not because more 


Mary, cannot be said, but because I will not be so uncliaritable in defacing 
^ J) these men, as they are cruel in condemning God's servants to death.' 

This good man, George Marsh, wrote divers and sundry letters 
out of prison, besides his examinations, as before ye have heard : 
touching the which his examinations, this letter first he sendeth to 
his friends, the copy whereof here foUoweth. 

A Letter of George Marsh to the Reader, touching the Matter of 
his Examination, 

Here have you, dearly beloved friends in Christ, the chief and principal 
articles of christian doctrine briefly touched, which heretofore I have both 
believed, professed, and taught; and as yet do believe, profess, and teach ; and 
am surely purposed, by God's grace, to continue in the same until the last day. 
I do want both time and opportunity to write out at large the probations, causes, 
parts, effects, and contraries or errors of these articles, which whoso desireth 
to know, let them read over the common places of the godly learned men, Philip 
Melanctlion and Erasmus Sarcerus, whose judgment in these matters of religion, 
I do chiefly follow and lean unto. The Lord give us understanding in all 
things, and deliver us from this present evil world, according to his will and 
jileasure, and bring us again out of this hell of aflSiction, into which it hath 
pleased the merciful Lord to throw us down ; and deliver us out of the mouth 
of the lion, and from all evil doing, and keep us unto his everlasting and hea- 
venly kingdom. Amer . 

Though Satan be suffered as wheat to sift us for a time, yet faileth not our 

faith through Christ's aid, but that we are at all times able and ready to confirm 

the faith of our weak brethren, and always ready to give an answer to every 

man that asketh us a reason of the hope that is in us ; and that with meekness 

and reverence, having a good conscience ; that whereas they backbite us as 

evil doers, they may be ashamed, forasmuch as they have falsely accused our 

good conversation in Christ.2 I thought myself now of late years, for the cares 

of this life, well settled with my loving and faithful wife and children, and also 

well quieted in the peaceable possession of that pleasant Euphrates, I do confess 

it : but the Lord, who worketh all things for the best to them that love him, 

would not there leave me, but did take my dear and beloved wife from me ; 

whose death was a painful cross to my flesh. 

Marsh Also I thought myself now of late well placed under my most loving and 

curate to most gentle master Laurence Saunders, in the cure of Langton. But the Lord 

Saunderl °^ ^'^ great mercy would not suffer me long there to continue (although for the 

small time I was in his vineyard, I was not all an idle workman) : but he hath 

provided me, I perceive it, to taste of a far other cup ; for by violence hath he 

yet once again driven me out of that glorious Babylon, that I should not taste 

too much of her wanton pleasures, but with his most dearly beloved disciples to 

The glory j^^^g ^^^y inward rejoicing in the cross of his Son Jesus Christ; the glory of 

cliurch whose church, I see it well, standeth not in the harmonious sound of bells and 

standeth organs, uor yet in the glistering of mitres and copes, neither in the shining of 

outward &''*• images and lights (as the blind papists do judge it), but in continual labours 

shows. and daily afflictions for his name's sake. 

God, at this present here in England, hath his fan in his hand ; and after his 
great harvest, whereinto these years past he hath sent his labourers, is now 
sifting the corn from the chaff", and purging his floor, and ready to gather the 
wheat into his garner, and burn up the chatF with unquenchable fire. 

Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Scribes and of the Sadducees : 
I mean the erroneous doctrine of the papists, which with their glosses deprave 
the Scriptures ; for, as the apostle St. Peter doth teach us, there shall be false 

(1) The history is given more in detail in the First Edition, but from many indelicate and coarse 
expressions there used, one passage only is added : " Whereat one Brassy, being the coroner, and 
no heretic by the Romish profession, said with an oath, tliat surely the fact was so; for he, before 
that time, had taken the view of a mariner, who died upon the like disease, and, in every case, 
had such evident sores and tokens as the bishop had. More, particularly, might be said touching 
the last tragedy of this bishop, etc., but shamefacedness calleth back." See Kdition ir>tir>, p. 1122. 
— Kd. (2) 1 ret. ii). 


teachers amongst us, wliicli privily sliall bring in damnable sects : and saitli, ^fa^y. 

that many shall follow their damnable ways, by whom the way of truth shall be 

evil spoken of, and that through covetousness they shall with feigned words ^- '^• 
make merchandize of us. And Christ earnestly warneth us, to beware of i'alse '■^'*'^- 
prophets, which come to us in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening 
wolves. By their fruits 3'ou shall know them. 'J"he fruits of the prophets are 
their doctrine. In this place are all we Christians taught, that we should try the 
preachers, and others that come under colour to set forth true religion unto us, 
according to the saying of St. Paul, "Try all things, and choose that wluch is 
good." Also the evangelist St. John saith, " Believe not every spirit ; but 
prove the spirits, whetiicr they be of God or not : for many false j)rophets," 
saith he, " are gone out into the world." Therefore if thou wilt know the true 
prophets from the false, try their doctrine by the true touch-stone, which is the 
word of God : and as tlie godly Bereans did, search ye the Scriptures, whether 
those things which be preached unto you, be even so or not ; for else, by the 
outward conversation of them, ye may easily be deceived : " Desunt fortassis 

*This^ George Marsh was also curate of Langton in Leicestershire, 
of which master Saunders was the parson. He was learned, godly, 
and diligent in his office. He played not the hireling, as many 
hired parish priests did in those days, but, like the faithful servant 
of a full foithful Shepherd, kept his sheep from the poisonous infec- 
tion of the popish wolves, by sound and diligent teaching. And 
Avhen tyranny, with force, prevailed, then, by patient suffering, he 
vanquished their fury, and, by suffering death, as ye have heard, he 
confirmed his sheep and people in the truth taught.* 

A Letter Exhortatory of George Marsh, to the fiiithfid Professors of 

Grace be unto you, and peace be multiplied in the knowledge of Jesus 
Christ our Lord. Amen. 

I thought it my duty to write unto you, my beloved in the Lord at Langhton, 
to stir up your minds, and to call to your remembrance the words which have 
been told you before, and to exhort you (as that good man, and full of the 
Holy Ghost, Barnabas, did the Antiochians), that with purpose of heart ye con- 
tinually cleave unto the Lord j^ and that ye stand fast, and be not moved away 
from the hope of the gospel, whereof, God be thanked, ye have had plenteous 
preaching unto you by your late pastor master Saunders, and other faithful 
ministers of Jesus Christ, which now, when persecution ariseth because of the 
word,* do not fall away like shrinking children and forsake the trutii, being 
ashamed of the gospel whereof they have been preachers ; but are willing and 
ready, for your sakes, which are Christ's mystical body,< to forsake not only the 
chief and principal delights of this life (I do mean, their native countries, 
friends, livings, etc.) : but also to fulfil their ministry to the utmost, that is to 
wit, with their painful imprisonments and blood-sheddings, if need shall require, 
to confirm and seal Christ's gospel, whereof they have been ministers ; and, as 
St. Paul saith, they are ready not only to be cast into prison, but also to be 
killed for the name of the Lord Jesus. * 

Whether of these— being that good salt of the earth,* that is, tnie ministers J.'^'J^f^l^ 
of God's word, by whose doctrine, being received through faith, men are made from Vhc 
savoury unto God, and which themselves lose not their saltness, now when they corrupt 
be proved with the boisterous storms of adversity and persecution ;— or others, ^"^f,^^"''"'- 
being that unsavoury salt which hath lost his saltness ; that is to wit, those 5,^1,. 
ungodly ministers, which do fall from the word of God into the dreams and 
traditions of Antichrist : whether of these, I say, be more to be credited and 
believed, let all men judge. 

(!) See Edition 15G3, p. 1I22.-ED (2) Acts xi. (3) Luke viii. 

U) Horn. i. (S) Acts xxL (l>) Matt. v. 




Wherefore, my dearly beloved, receive the word of God with meekness, that 
is grafted in you, which is able to save your souls : and see that ye be not for- 
getful hearers, deceiving yourselves with sophistry, but doers of the word ;i 
whom Christ doth liken to a wise man, which buildeth his house on a rock ; 
that when the great rain descended, and the floods came and beat upon the 
house, it fell not, because it was grounded upon a rock :^ this is to wit, that 
when Satan, with all his legion of devils, with all their subtle suggestions, and 
the world with all the mighty princes thereof, ■* with their crafty counsels, do 
furiously rage against us, we faint not, but abide constant in the truth ; being 
grounded upon a most sure rock, which is Christ, and the doctrine of the 
gospel, against which the gates of hell (that is, the power of Satan) cannot 
True re- And be j'e followers of Christ and his apostles, and receive the word in much 
the^word affliction, as the godly Thessalonians did :' for the true followers of Christ and 
who they the apostles, be they which receive the word of God. They only receive the 
^^- word of God, which both believe it, and also frame their lives after it, and be 

ready to suffer all manner of adversity for the name of the Lord ; as Christ and 
all the apostles did, and as all that will live godly in Christ Jesu must do :^ for 
there is none other way into the kingdom of heaven, but through much tribu- 
lation.7 And if we suffer any thing for the kingdom of heaven's sake, and for 
ticm and " righteousness' sake, we have the prophets. Christ, the apostles, and martyrs, 
bearing of for an ensample to comfort us:' for they did all enter into the kingdom of 
necessary '^^aven at the strait gate and narrow way that leadeth unto life, which few do 
for ali find. And unless we will be content to deny our own selves, and take up the 
^^tr'^f' cross of Christ and follow him, we cannot be his disciples; for if we deny to 
with"^^'"" suffer with Christ and his saints, it is an evident argument, that we shall never 
Christ. reign with him; 

And again, if we can find in our hearts patiently to suffer persecutions and 
tribulations, it is a sure token of the righteous judgment of God, that we are 
counted worthy of the kingdom of God, for which we also sufter. " It is 
verily," saith the apostle,^ "a righteous thing with God to recompense tribu- 
lation to them that trouble us, and rest to us that be troubled :" for after this 
life, the godly, being delivered from their tribulations and pains, shall have a 
most quiet and joyful rest; whereas the wicked and ungodly, contrariwise, shall 
be tormented for evermore with intolerable and imspeakable pains, as Christ, 
by the parable of the rich glutton and wretched Lazarus, doth plainly declare 
and teach.'" These ought we to have before our eyes always ; that in the time 
of adversity and persecution (whereof all that will be the children of God shall 
be partakers, and wherewith it hath pleased God to put some of us in use 
already), we may stand steadfast in the Lord, and endm-e even unto the end, 
that we may be saved.'' For imless we, like good warriors of Jesus Christ, will 
endeavour ourselves to please him who hath chosen us to be soldiers, and fight 
the good fight of faith even unto the end, we shall not obtain that crown of 
righteousness, which the Lord that is a righteous judge, shall give to all them 
that love his coming.'^ 

Let us therefore receive with meekness the word that is grafFed in us, which 

is able to save our souls,'^ and ground ourselves on the sure rock Christ. For, 

as the apostle saith, " other foundation can no man lay, besides that which is 

laid already, which is Jesus Christ. If any man build on this foundation, gold, 

silver, precious stones, timber, hay, stubble, every man's work shall appear, for 

the day shall declare it, and it shall be showed in the fire. And the fire shall 

try every man's work wliat it is. If any man's work that he hath builded upon, 

abide, he shall receive a reward: if any man's work burn, he shall suft'er loss; 

but he shall be safe himself, nevertheless yet as it were through fire."'* 

Fire in ^Y ^''^^ ''^^'^ '^o''^' ^^^'^ apostle understand persecution and trouble ; for they 

Scripture, which do truly preach and profess the word of God, which is called the word of 

^''^V'th ^^^^ cross, shall be railed upon and abhorred, hated, thrust out of company, per- 

B.gni le , j^gj.^jjgjj ^j^^^ j.j.;^,jj jj^ ^jj^, fm-nj^ce of adversity, as gold and silver arc tried in the fire. 

By gold, silver, and precious stones, he understandeth them that in the midst 

of persecution abide steadfast in the word. By timber, hay, and stubble, are 

(1) James ii. 

(2) Matt. vii. 

(■•!) Psalm ii. 

(4) Matt. xvi. 

(5) 1 Thess. ii. 

(fi) 2 Tim. iii. 

(7) Acts .xiv. 

(S) Matt. V. vi 

. Mark 

(!)) 2 Thcss. i. 

(10) I.uke xvi. 

fll) Hcb. xii. 

(12) 1 Tim. 2. 

(13) James i. 

(i!) 1 Cor. 3. 


meant such, as in time of persecution do fall away from the truth. Ami when M,,r«. 

Christ doth purge his floor with the wind of adversity, these scatter away from ^- 

the face of the earth like light chaff, which shall be burned with muiuen'chable ^- ^^• 
fire. If they then which du believe, do in time of persecution stand steadfastly ^-J^^- 
in the truth, the builder (I do mean the preacher of the word) shall receive a The place 
reward, and the work shall be preserved and saved : but if so be that they go °f ''■''"l 
back and swerve when persecution ariseth, the builder shall sufl'cr loss, that is ^;^'"'"'"^' 
to say, shall lose his labour and cost ; but yet he shall be saved, if he, being 
tried in the fire of persecution, do abide fast in the faith.' 

Wherefore, my beloved, give diligent heed, that ye as living stones be builded 
upon this sure rock, and be made a spiritual house and a holy priesthood, to 
offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable unto God by Jesus Christ.^ For we are 
the true temple of God, and the Spirit of God dwelleth in us, if so be that we 
continue in the doctrine of the gospel.^ We are also a holy and royal priest- 
hood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices and oblations ; for the sacrifices of the New 
Testament are spiritual, and of three manners. The first is the sacrifice of Three 
praise and thanksgiving; which St. Paul doth call the fruits of those lips which «""«.'''' 
confess the name of God.* The second is mercy towards our neighboiu's, as of the 
the prophet Hosea saith, " I will have mercy and not sacrifice;"'^ read also New Tes- 
Matthew xxv. The third is, when we make our body a quick sacrifice," holy, ^^™'^"*' 
and acceptable unto God ; that is, when we mortify and kill our fleshly concu- 
piscences and carnal lusts, and so bring our flesh, through the help of the 
Spirit, under the obedience of God's holy law. This is a sacrifice to God most 
acceptable, which the apostle calleth " Our reasonable serving of God."' 
And let us be sure, that unless we do now at this present take better lieed to Exhorta- 
ourselves, and use thankfully the grace of God oflTered to us by the gospel tion to 
preached these years past, whereby we are induced and brought to the know- fhe^wnrd' 
ledge of the truth ; unless, I say, we keep Christ and his holy word dwelling of God, 
by faith in the house and temple of our hearts, the same thing that Christ ^"'' ""."" 
threateneth unto the Jews,* shall happen unto us ; that is to wit, the unclean 
spirit of ignorance, superstition, idolatry, and infidelity or unbelief, the mother 
and head of all vices, which, by the grace of God, was cast out of us, bringing 
with him seven other spirits worse than himself, shall, to our utter destruction, 
return again unto us ; and so shall we be in worse case than ever we were 
before. For if we, after we have escaped from the filthiness of the world, 
through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, be yet tangled 
therein again, and overcome, then is the latter end worse than the beginning ; 
and it had been better for us not to have known the way of righteousness, than 
after we have known it, to turn from the holy commandment given to us.' 
For it is then happened unto us according to the true proverb, " The dog is 
turned to his vomit again, and the sow that was washed, to wallowing in the 
mire."'" And thus to continue and persevere in infidelity, and to kick against 
the manifest and known truth, and so to die without repentance, and with a 
despair of the mercy of God in Jesus Christ, is to sin against the Holy Ghost, 
which shall not be forgiven, neither in this world, neither in the world to come." 
" For it is not possible," saith St. Paul, " that they which were once lighted, 
and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and have tasted of the good word of God, 
and of the power of the world to come ; if they fall away, should be renewed 
again by repentance ; forasmuch as they have, as concerning themselves, cruci- 
fied the Son of God again, making a mocking of liim."»''' St. Paul's meaning J^pounr 
in this place is, that they that believe truly and unfeignedly God's word, do ed. 
continue and abide steadfast in the known truth. 

If any therefore fall away from Christ and his word, it is a plain token that Faliins 
they were but dissembling hypocrites, for all their fair faces outwardly, and never ('"'" 
believed truly ; " as Judas, Simon Magus, Demas, Hymeneus, Philetus, and 
others were, which all fell away from the known verity, and made a mock of 
Christ : which St. Paul doth call here, to crucify Christ anew, because that they, 
turning to their old vomit again, did most blasphemously tread the benefits of J°""F''^ 
Christ's death and passion under their feet. They that are such, can in no wise j,^,eJ"' 
be renewed by repentance, for their repentance is fleshly, as the repentance of what it is. 

(1) 1 Cor. iii. Matt. v. Luke vi. 

Matt. iii. Psalm i. 

(2) I Pet. ii. 2 Cor. iii. 

{.■!) 1 Fet. ii. (4) Heb. xiii. 

(h) Hos. vi. 

(fi) Rom.xii. 7) Ephes. iii. 

(8) Matt. .xiv. (9) 2 Pet. ii. 

,10; Prov. .\.\vi. 

(11) Matt. xiii. (12) 

(13) Matt. x.wi. 










Sin unto 

The fruit- 
less fig- 

The good 

Most part 
of llie 
of God's 
word are 
but hypo- 

To him 
that hath 
shall be 


of God's 






Cain, Saiil, and Judas was ; which, being without godly comfort, breedeth 
■ desperation unto death. These are not of the number of the elect : and, as 
St. John doth say, " They went out from us, but tliey were not of us ; for if they 
had been of us, they would have remained with us unto the end."^ Also the 
apostle saith in another place. " If we sin willingly, after we have received the 
knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sin, but a fearful 
looking for judgment and violent fire, which shall devour the adversaries."^ 

They sin willingly,^ which of a set malice and purpose do withhold the truth 
in unrighteousness and lying, kicking against the manifest and open known 
truth, which although they do perfectly know that in all the world there is none 
other sacrifice for sin, but only that omni-sufficient sacrifice of Christ's death ; 
yet, notwithstanding, they will not commit themselves wholly unto it, but rather 
despise it, allowing other sacrifices for sin, invented by the imagination of 
man (as we see by daily experience), unto whom, if they abide still in their 
wickedness and sin, remaineth a most horrible and dreadful judgment. This 
is that sin unto death, for which St. John would not that a man should pray.^ 

Wherefore, my beloved in Christ, let us, on whom the ends of the world are 
come,* take diligent heed unto ourselves, that now, in these last and perilous 
times, in the which the devil is come down, and hath great wrath because he 
knoweth his time is but short, and whereof the prophets, Christ, and the apostles 
have so much spoken, « and given us so earnest forewarning, we withhold 
not the truth in unrighteousness,' believing, doing, or speaking any thing 
against our knowledge and conscience, or without faith. For if we so do, for 
whatsoever cause it be, it is a wilful and obstinate infidelity, and a sin unto 
death : and as our Saviour Christ saith, " If ye believe not, ye shall die in your 
own sins."s For unless we hold fast the word of life,^ both believing it, and 
also bringing forth fruit worthy of repentance, we shall, with the unprofitable 
fig-tree, which did but cumber the ground, be cut down,'" and our talent taken 
from us, and given unto another that shall put it to a better use : " and we, through 
our own unthankfulness put from the mercy of God, shall never be able to pay 
our debts ; that is to say, we shall altogether be lost and undone.'- For the 
earth that drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs 
meet for them that dress it, receiveth blessing of God ; but that ground that 
beareth thorns and briers, is reproved and is nigh unto cursing, whose end is to 
be burned. 1^ 

Nevertheless, dear friends, we trust to see better of you, and things which 
accompany salvation, and that ye, being the good ground, watered with the 
moistness of God's word, plenteously preached among you, will with a good 
heart hear the word of God and keep it, bringing forth fruit with patience.'* 
And be none of those forgetful and hj^jocritish hearers, which, although 
they hear the word, yet the devil cometh, '^ and catcheth away that which 
was sown in their heart ; either having no root in themselves, endure but a 
season, and as soon as tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, 
by and by they are offended ; or, with the cares of this world and deceitfulness 
of riches, choke the word, and so are unfruitful. Read the parable of the sower, 
and among other things, note and mark, that the most part of the hearers of 
God's word are but hypocrites, and hear the word without any fruit or profit, 
yea, only to their greater condemnation ; for only the fourth part of the seed 
doth bring forth fruit. Therefore let not us, that be ministers, or professors, 
and followers of God's word, be discouraged, though that very few do give 
credit, and follow the doctrine of the gospel, and be saved. 

Whosoever therefore hath ears to hear, let him hear : for whosoever hath, to 
him shall be given, and he shall have abundance ; but whosoever hath not, 
from him shall be taken away even that he hath : that is to say, they that have 
a desire of righteousness, and of the truth, shall be more and more illuminated 
of God : on the contrary part, they that do not covet after righteousness and 
truth, are more hardened and blinded, though they seem unto themselves most 
wise. For God doth here follow an example of a loving father, which when he 
seeth that fatherly love and correction doth not help towards his children, useth 
another way. He ceaseth to be beneficial unto them, and to minister unto 

(1) 1 Johnii. (2) Ileb. x. 

(6) Apoc. xxii. Matt. xxiv. 

(10) Matt. iii. (11) Luke xiii. 

(H) Luke viii. James i. 

(3) Rom. i. 

(4) 1 John V. 

(5) 1 Cor. 

(;) Rom. i. 

(S) John viii. 

(y) Phil, i 

(12) Matt, xviii. 

(l:i) Heb. vi. 

(15) Matt. xiii. 


them fatherly correction : he givetli them over unto themselves, suffering them M„ry. 
to live as they list themselves. - - 

But we trust to see better of you, my dearly beloved,' and that ye, like very A. I). 
Gaderenites, for fear to lose your worldly substance or other delights of this life, ^'>->'>- 
will not banish away Christ and his gospel from among you ; but that ye, with 
all diligence of mind, will receive the word of God, taught you by such ministers 
as now, when persecution ariseth because of the word, are not ashamed of the 
testimony of our Lord Jesus, but are content to suffer adversity with the gospel, preaSK 
and therein to suffer trouble as evil doers, even unto bonds.- And if yc refuse with less 
thus to do, your own blood will be upon your own hcads.^ And as ye have j"'/^"!','*^' 
had plenteous preaching of the gospel, more than others have had, — so ye shall (-rcaii-r 
be sure, if ye repent not and bring forth fruits worthy of repentance, to be sorer ^■'■"- 
plagued, and to receive greater vengeance at God's hand, than others ; and the foci's' "' 
kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and be given to another nation, which hand, 
will bring forth the fruits thereof. 

Wherefore, my dearly beloved in Christ, take good heed to yourselves, and 
ponder well in your minds, how fearful and horrible a thing it is to fall into the 
hands of the living God. And see that ye receive not the word of God in vain,* 
but continually labour in faith, and declare your faith by your good works, 
which are infallible witnesses of the true justifying faith, which is never idle, 
but worketh by charity. And see that ye continually give yourselves unto all 
manner of good works ; amongst the which the chiefest are, to be obedient to 
the magistrates (since they are the ordinance of God, Avhether they be good or 
evil) unless they command idolatry and ungodliness ; that is to say, things con- 
trary unto true religion : for, then ought we to say with Peter, " We ought 
more to obey God than man." But in any wise we must beware of tumult, in- 
surrection, rebellion, or resistance. 

The weapon of a Christian in this matter, ought to be the sword of the Spirit,* 
which is God's word and prayer, coupled with humility and due submission, 
and with readiness of heart, rather to die than to do any ungodliness. Christ 
also doth teach us, that all power is of God, yea even the power of the wicked, 
which God causeth oftentimes to reign for our sins and disobedience towards 
him and his word. Whosoever then doth resist any power, doth resist the ordi- 
nance of God, and so purchase to himself utter destruction and undoing.^ 

We mustalso, by all means, he promoters of unit)', peace, and concord. We 
must honour and reverence princes, and all that be in authority ; and pray for 
them, and be diligent to set forth their profit and commodity.' Secondly, We 
must obey our parents, or them that be in their rooms ; and be careful for our 
households, that they be provided for and fed, not only with bodily food, but 
much rather with spiritual food, which is the word of God.8 Thirdly, We must 
serve our neighbours by all means we can, remembering well the saying of 
Christ, '• Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye likewise Praying 
unto them ; for this is the Law and the Prophets." » Fourthly, We must dili- ^°J ^" "^s- 
gently exercise the necessary work of prayer for all estates ; knowing that God porbi-ar- 
therefore hath so much commanded it, and hath made so great promises unto it, ing our 
and doth so well accept it. After these works, we must learn to know the ^^^^^" 
cross, and what affection and mind we must bear towards om- adversaries and Patience 
enemies, whatsoever they be, to suffer all adversities and evils patiently, to pray j" *"''"^'''- 
for them that hurt, persecute, and trouble us : and by thus using ourselves, we su'y^an "' 
shall obtain a hope and certainty of our vocation, that we be the elect children trouble, 
of God.'" 

And thus 1 commend you," brethren, unto God and to the word of his grace, 
which is able to build further, and to give you an inheritance among all them 
which are sanctified ;>2 beseeching you to help master Saunders and me your late 
pastors, and all them that be in bonds for the gospel's sake," with your prayers 
to God for us, that we may be delivered from all them that believe not, and 
from unreasonable and froward men ; and that this our imprisonment and afflic- 
tion may be to the glory and profit of our christian brethren in the world ; and 

(l)Heb. vi. Matt vi. (2) Acts xiv. 2 Tim. i. 2 Tim. ii. (3) Acts xviii. 

(4) James ii. Gal. v. Tit. ii. (5) Horn. xiii. 

(fi) Acts V. Ephes. vi. John xix. Job xxxv. Rom. xiii. (7) 1 Pet. ii. 

(8) Ephes. vi. I Tim. v. (U) H[att. vii. (10) 2 Pet. ii. Acts xx. 

(II) This letter was written the year before, in the month of June. (12) Rom. xv. 

(13) Coloss. iv. 


Mary, that Christ may be magnified in our bodies, whether it be by death or by life. 

A.D. ' 


Sahite from me all the faithful brethren : and because I write not several 
letters to tliem, let them either read or hear these my letters. The grace of our 
Lord be with you all. Amen. 

The 28th of June ; by the unprofitable servant ot Jesus Christ, and now 
also his prisoner, 

George Marsh. 
Save youi-selves from this untoward generation.^ Pray, pray, pray : never 
more need. 

Another Letter of the said George Marsh, to certain of his dearly 
beloved Friends at Manchester in Lancashire. 

Grace be with you and peace from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus 
Christ. Amen. 

After salutations in Christ to you, with thanks for your friendly remembrances 
of me, desiring and wishing unto you, not only in my letters, but also in my 
daily prayers, such consolation in spirit, and taste of heavenly treasures, that ye 
may thereby continually work in faith, labour in love, persevere in hope, and be 
patient in all your tribulations and persecutions, even unto the end and glori- 
ous coming of Christ : these shall be earnestly to exhort and beseech you in 
Christ, as ye have received the Lord Jesus, even so to walk, rooted in him, and 
Advcr- not to be afraid of any terror of your adversaries, be they never so many and 
saries not mighty, and you on the other side never so few and weak : for the battle is the 
Idl'^G^od's" Lord's.^ And as, in times past, God was with Abraham, Moses, Isaac, David, 
help al- the Maccabees, and others, and fought for them, and dehvered all their enemies 
■^^ays into their hands, even so hath he promised to be with us also unto the world's 
witlUiis end, and so to assist, strengthen, and help us, that no man shall be able to with- 
servants. stand us. " For as I was with Moses, so will I be with thee," saith God, " and 
will never leave thee, nor forsake thee." " Be strong and bold ; neither fear 
nor dread: for the Lord thy God is with thee, whithersoever thou goest." 
" Now if God be on our side, who can be against us?"* 
Spiritual In this our spiritual warfare is no man overcome, unless he traitorously 
toward- leave and forsake his Captain, either cowardly cast away his weapons, or wil- 
"'^^^" lingly yield himself to his enemies, either fearfully turn his back and fly. Be 
strong therefore in the Lord, dear brethren, and in the power of his might, and 
put on all the armour of God, that ye may be able to stand stedfast against the 
crafty assaults of the devil. ^ 
A Christ- Now what weapons ye must fight withal, learn of St. Paul ; a champion both 
ian man's much exercised, and also most valiant and invincible. For we must think none 
perpetual other, but that the life of man is a perpetual warfare upon earth, as the examples 
warfare, of all godly men throughout all ages do declare. The valiant warrior St. Paul, 
being delivered from the hands of the ungodly, and that so many times, and also 
The ma- from SO many extreme perils and dangers of death, as he his own self doth wit- 
nifold de- ^ess, is fain to commit himself in the end to the rough waters of the sea, where 
of Paul be he was in great peril and jeopardy of his own life : yet was God always (to the 
examples great comfort of all that hear of it) most ready to comfort and succour him, and 
comfort, gloriously delivered him out of all his troubles, so that no man that invaded 
him, could do him any harm ; and in the end he was compelled to say, " I have 
finished my course ; the time of my departing is at hand ; I long to be loosed, 
and to be with Christ, which is best of all, most heartily desiring death." 6 
Persecu- These things be written for our learning and comfort, and be to us a sure obli- 
I'oweth gation, that if we submit ourselves to God and his holy word, no man shall be 
christian able to hurt us ; and that he will deliver us from all troubles, yea from death 
godliness, also, Until sucli time as we covet and desire to die. Let us therefore run with 
patience unto the battle that is set before us, a'7d look unto Jesus the Captain 
and Fim'sher of our faith ;'' and after his example, for the reward's sake that is 
set out unto us, patiently bear the cross and despise the shame. For all that will 
live godly in Christ Jesu, shall suffer persecution.** 

Phil. ii. 1 Pet. iii. M.itt. x. Luke xi. 
vi. 2 Cor. xi. xii. Acts .\xi. 

(7) llcb. xii. (8) 2 Tim. iii. 

(n Phil. i. (2) Acts ii 

(.■?) Col. 

(4) .losh. ii. Rom. viii. 

(5) Kpl 

(«) Acts xxviii. 2 Tim. i\ 

. Phil. 

. Uom. XV. 


Christ was no sooner baptized, and declared to the world to l)c the Son of Mary 
God,' but Satan was, by and by, ready to tempt him ; which thing ive must 

look for also : yea, the more we shall increase in faith and virtuous living, the A. D. 
more strongly will Satan assault us : whom we nuist learn, after the example of ITi ")."). 
Christ, to fight against, and overcome with the holy and sacred Scriptures, the ^.^^^ , ^ 
word of God (wliich is our heavenly armour), and sword of the Spirit.- And of ciii-ilt 
let the fasting of Christ, while he was tempted in the wilderness, be unto us an '^ '" "» 
example of sober living ; not for the space of forty days^* (as the papists do ^f sXt 
fondly fancy of their own brains), but as long as we are in the wilderness of this living, 
wretched life, assaulted of Satan, who, like a roaring lion, walketh about, and 
ceaseth not, seeking our utter destruction. * 

Neither can the servant of God at any time come and stand before God ; Wlicn the 
that is, lead a godly life, and walk innocently before God, but Satan cometh ""';"'"=' 
also among them ;* that is, he daily accuseth, findetli fault, vexetli, persecuteth, "tand be- 
and troubleth the godly : for it is the Tiature and property' of the devil always to ''"/>-• 
hurt and do mischief,'' imless he bo forbidden of God : for unless God doth ^""j,, 
permit him, he can do nothing at all, not so much as enter into a filthy hog : cmn.-tii 
but we are more of price than many hogs before God, if we cleave unto his Son '''''°- 
by faith. 

Let us therefore, knowing Satan's deceits and rancour, walk the more warily. The. 
and take unto us the shield of faith, wherewith we may be able to quench and shield of 
overcome all the fiery and deadly darts of the wicked.' Let us take to us the ,1 '. , 
helmet of salvation, and sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, and met of 
learn to use the same according to the example of our grand captain Christ, salvation. 
Let us fast and pray continually." For this frantic kind of devils goeth not out '^'"-' 
otherwise, as Christ doth teach us, but by faithful prayer and fasting, which is tj,,. spirit 
true abstinence and soberness of living, if we use the same according to the I'rayer 
doctrine of the gospel and word of God. Fasting is acceptable to God, if it ?"^ f^^t- 
be done without hypocrisy; that is to say, if we use it to this intent, that thereby ",'*''■ 
this mortal body and disobedient carcase may be tamed and brought under the what it is! 
subjection of the Spirit; and again, if we fast to this intent, that we may spare 
wherewith to help and succour our poor needy brethren. 

This fast do the true Christians use all the days of their life, although among Abuse of 
the common sort of people remaineth yet still that superstitious kind of fasting, fasting 
which God so earnestly reproveth by his prophet Isaiah." For as for true chas- c'hds-^ 
tening of the body, and abstaining from vice, with showing mercy towards our tians. 
needy neighbours, we will neither understand nor hear of it, but still think, with 
the Jews, that we do God a great pleasure when we fast ; and that we then fast, 
when we abstain from one thing, and fill our bellies with another. And verily 
in this point doth our superstition much exceed the superstition of the Jews ; 
for we never read that they ever took it for a fast, to abstain from flesh, and to 
eat either fish or white-meat, as they call it. 

To fasting and prayer must be joined alms, and mercy towards the poor and Mercy to 
needy : and that our alms may be acceptable unto God, three things are chiefly J'"-" P«"'"- 
required. First, that we give with a cheerful and joyful heart ; for the Lord three"" 
loveth a cheerful giver."> Secondly, that we give liberally, putting aside all nig- things rc- 
gardship, knowing that he that soweth little, shall reap little, and he that soweth l""''^''- 
plenteously, shall reap plenteously. Let every man therefore do according as 
he is able. The poorest caitiff in the world may give as great and acceptable 
an alms in the sight of God, as the richest man in the world can do. The 
poor widow that did offer but two mites, which make a farthing, did higlily 
please Christ ;" insomuch that he affirmed with an oath, that she, of her penury, 
had added more to the oflferings of God, than all the rich men, which of their 
superfluity had cast in very much. For if there be first a willing mind, as 
St! Paul saith, it is accepted according to that a man hath, and not according 
to that a man hath not.'^ Thirdly, we must give without hypocrisy and osten- Alms 
tatiori ; not seeking the praise of men, or our own glory or profit. And although ^;.\'^.;^,'^'. 
the Scriptures in some places make mention of a reward to our alms and other tio„. 
good works, yet ought we not to think that wc do merit or deserve any thing; 
but rather we ought to acknowledge, that God in iiis mere mercy rewardeth us 

1,1) Matt. iii. ■!. 

(2) Ephes. 

(5) J(il) i. 2. 

(G) Matt. 1 

CJ) Is:i Iviii. 

(10) 2 Cor. : 

(.1) M.itt. i. 

(1) 1 Pet. V. 

(7) Kplies. vi. 

(S) Matt, iv 

11) Mark xvii. 

(12; 2 Cor. vi 


Mary, in his owii gifts. For what hath lie that giveth ahns, that he hath not received? 
j^ Q He then that giveth up to a poor man any manner of thing, giveth not of his 
1555' °^"' ^"'' °^ those goods which he hath received of God. " What hast thou," 

'— saith the apostle, " that thou hast not received? If thou hast received it, why 

Works of rejoicest thou, as though thou hadst not received it ?"' 

not'^meHt '^his sentence ought to be had in remembrance of all men. For if we have 
with God, nothing, but that which we have received, what can we deserve, or what need 
toucliing yfQ to dispute and reason of our own merits ? It cometh of the free gift of God, 
tion, any ^^at we live, that we love God, that we walk in his fear : where is our deserving 
thing. then ? We must also in this our spiritual warfare arm ourselves with continual 
prayer"^' prayer, a very necessary, strong, and invincible weapon, and, after the example 
of Christ and all other godly men, cry heartily unto God in faith, in all our dis- 
tresses and anguishes. Let us go boldly to the seat of grace, where we shall be 
sure to receive mercy, and find grace to help in time of need -.^ for now is pride 
and persecution increased ; now is the time of destruction and wrathful dis- 
To be Wherefore, my dear brethren, be ye fervent in the law of God, and jeopard 

in tempt- ^^ y°^^ '^^^®.' ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^' ^° require, for the testament of the fathers, and so 
ation. shall ye receive great honour, and an everlasting name. Remember Abraham. 
Was not he found faithful in temptation, and it was reckoned unto him for 
righteousness? Joseph, in time of his trouble, kept the commandment, and 
was made a lord of Egypt.^ Phineas was so fervent for the honour of God, that 
he obtained the covenant of an everlasting priesthood. Joshua, for the ful- 
filling of the word of God, was made the captain of Israel.* Caleb bare record 
before the congregation, and received a heritage.^ David also, in his merciful 
kindness, obtained the throne of an everlasting kingdom.^ Elias being zealous 
and fervent in the law, was taken up into heaven. Ananias, Azarias, and 
Misael remained steadfast in the faith, and were delivered out of the fire.' In 
like manner Daniel, being unguilty, was saved from the mouth of the lions. 
He ex- And thus ye may consider throughout all ages, since the world began, that 

hortethto whosoever put their trust in God were not overcome,* Fear not ye then the 
courage, words of ungodly men ; for their glory is but dung and worms : to-day are they 
set up, and to-morrow they are gone ; for tliey are turned into earth, and their 
memorial cometh to nought. Wherefore let us take good hearts unto us, and 
quit ourselves like men in the law : for if we do the things that are commanded 
us in the law of the Lord our God, we shall obtain great honour therein. ^ 

Beloved in Christ, let us not faint because of affliction, wherewith God trieth 
all them that are sealed unto life everlasting; for the only way into the kingdom 
of God is through much tribulation. For the kingdom of heaven (as God 
teacheth by his prophet Esdras'") is like acitybuilded and set upon abroad field. 
Straight ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^1 g°^^ things ; but the entrance is narrow and sudden (full of sor- 
ts the way row and travail, perils and labours) : like as if there were a fire at the right 
elect"^ "st '^^"'^' ^"^ '''■ *^^®P w^ter at the left ; and as it were one straight path between 
walk in. them both, so small, that there could but one man go there. If this city now 
were given to an heir, and he never went through the perilous way, how could 
Death is he receive his inheritance? Wherefore, seeing we are in this narrow and straight 
a door to ^^y, which leadeth unto the most joyful and pleasant city of everlasting life, 
let us not stagger, neither turn back, being afraid of the dangerous and perilous 
way, but follow our captain Jesus Christ in the narrow and straight way ; and 
be afraid of nothing, no not even of death itself: for it is he that must lead us 
to our journey's end, and open us the door unto everlasting life. 
inen°Jeo-^ Consider also the course of this world, how many there be, which, for their 
pard so master's sake, or for a little promotion's sake, would adventure their lives in 
Kirth*lv°'^ worldly affairs, as, commonly, in wars ; and yet is their reward but light and 
things, transitory, and ours is unspeakable, great, and everlasting. They suffer pains 
l»ow to be made lords on earth for a short season : how much more ought we to 

™oje endure like pains, yea, peradventure, much less, to be made kings in heaven 
ought we, for evermore ! Consider also the wicked of this world, which, for a little 
iasti"" pleasure's sake, or to be avenged on their enemies, will fight with sword and 
things'] weapons, and put themselves in danger of imprisonment and hanging. So 

(I) 1 Cor. iv. (2) Malt. xxvi. Ileb. iv. 1 M,ic. iv. (,!) Gen. xxii. xli. Num. xxv. 

(4) Joshua i. (S) Num. xiv. (C) 1 Sam. xxiv. 2 Kings ii. 

(7) D.m. iii. vi. (a) I'sal. xxxviii. (U) Acts xiv. (10) 4 Esdras vii. 


much as virtue is better tlian vice, and God mightier than the devil, so mucli juary. 
ought we to excel them in this our spiritual battle. 

And seeing, brethren, it hath pleased God to set me, and that most worthy A.I). 
minister of Christ, John Bradford, your countryman, in the fore-front of this ^^^^- 
battle, where, for the time, is most danger, I beseech you all, in the bowels of 
Christ, to help us, and all other our fellow-soldiers standing in like perilous 
place, with your prayers to God for us, that we may quit ourselves like men in 
the Lord, and give some example of boldness and constancy mingled with 
patience in the fear of God ; that we and others our brethren, through our 
example, may be so encouraged and strengthened to follow us, that ye also 
may leave example to your weak brethren in the world to follow you. Amen. 

Consider what I say ; the Lord give us understanding in all things ! 
Brethren, the time is short. It remaineth that ye use this world as though ye 
used it not ; for the fashion of this world vanisheth away. See that ye love not 
the world, neither the things that are in the world, but set your affection on 
heavenly things, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God. Be meek and Doctrine 
long-suffering ; serve and edify one another with the gift that God hath given you. of u™^ 
Beware of strange doctrine ; lay aside the old conversation of greedy lusts, and 
walk in a new life.' Beware of all uncleanness, covetousness, foolish talking, 
false doctrine, and drunkenness : rejoice and be thankful towards God, and sub- 
mit yourselves one to another. Cease from sin ; spend no more time in vice ; 
be sober and apt to pray ; be patient in trouble ; love each other ; and let the 
glory of God and profit of your neighbour be the only mark ye shoot at in 
all your doings. Repent ye of the life that is past, and take better heed to your 
doings hereafter. And, above all things, cleave ye fast to him, who was delivered 
to death for our sins, and rose again for our justification : to whom, with the 
Father and the Holy Ghost, be all honour and rule for evermore. Amen. 

Salute from me in Christ all others which love us in the faith, and at your 
discretion make them partakers of these letters : and pray ye all for me and 
others in bonds for the gospel, that the same God, which, by his grace hath 
called us from wicked papistry unto true Christianity, and now of love proveth 
our patience by persecution, will, of his mercy and favour, in the end gloriously 
deliver us, either by death, or by life, to his glory. Amen. 

At Lancaster, the 30th of August, 1555 : by me an unprofitable servant of 
Christ, George Marsh. 

A Letter of George Marsh to Jenkin Crampton and others. 

To his well-beloved in Christ, Jenkin Crampton, James Leiver, Elice Fogge, 
Ralph Bradshaw, the wife of Richard Bradshaw, Elice Crampton, and 
to every one of them, be these delivered from Lancaster, George Marsh. 

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship 
of the Holy Ghost, be witli j'ou all. Amen.* 

After salutations in Christ, and hearty thanks for your friendly tokens, and 
your other remembrances towards me, beseeching God that ye may increase in 
faith, fear, and love, and all good gifts, and grow up into a perfect man in 
Christ : these be earnestly to exhort you, yea and to beseech you in the tender 
mercy of Christ, that with purpose of heart ye continually cleave unto the 
Lord, and that ye worship and serve him in spirit, in the gospel of his Son. 
For God will not be worshipped after the commandments and traditions of men, 
neither yet by any other means appointed, prescribed, and taught us, but by his 
holy word. And though all men, for the most part, defile themselves with the 
wicked traditions of men, and ordinances after the world, and not after Christ ; ^ 
yet do ye, after the ensample of Toby, Daniel and his three companions, Matta- 
tliias and his five sons, be at a point with yourselves, that ye will not be 
defiled with the unclean meats of the heathen ; * I do mean the filthiness of 
idolatry, and the very heathenish ceremonies of the papists : but as the true 
worshippers, serve ve God in spirit and verity,* according to his sacred Scrip- 
tures, which I would wish and will you above all things continually and reve- 
rently (as both St. Paul and Christ command you)," to search and read, with 
the wholesome monitions of the same ; to teach, exhort, comfort, and edify one 

;i)2Tim. ii. ICor. vii. 1 .John ii. Col. iii. (2) 1 Cor. xiii. 

(3) Kphes. iv. Actsxi. Rom. i. Col. ii. (4) Tob. i. Dan. i. 1 i. 

(5) John iv. iC) Jo''" V. 1 Tim. v. 



Manj. another, and your brethren and neighbours, now in the time of this our mlse- 
rable captivity, and great famishment of souls, for want of the food of God's 
V^lP' word.i And doubt not but that the merciful Lord (who hath promised to be 
^^^^' with us even unto the world's end, and that whensoever two or three be 
gathered together in his name he will be in the midst of them. 2) will assist you, 
and teach you the right meanings of the sacred Scriptures, will keep you from 
all en-ors, and lead you into all truth, as he hath faithfully promised. 

And though ye think yourselves unable to teach, yet, at the commandment 
of Christ, now in time of famine (the hungry people, being in the wilderness far 
from any towns, who if they be sent away fasting, are sure to faint and perish 
by the way), employ and bestow those five loaves and two fishes that ye have, 
upon that hungry multitude, although ye think it nothing among so many.* 
And he that increased the five loaves and two fishes to feed five thousand men, 
besides women and children, shall also augment his gifts in you, not only to the 
edifying and winning of others in Christ, but also to an exceeding great increase 
of your knowledge in God and his holy word. And fear not your adversaries, 
for either according to his accustomed manner God shall blind their eyes that 
they shall not spy you, either get you favour in their sight, or else graciously 
deliver you out of their hands by one means or other.* 

Obey with reverence all your superiors, imless they command idolatry or 
Lessons ungodliness. Make provision for your households ; chiefly that they be in- 
of Chris- structed and taught in the law of God. Love your wives even as your own 
tian man- ggjygg^ gjjjj ^g Christ loved the congregation. Love your children ; but rate 
them not, lest they be of a desperate mind : and bring them up in the nurture 
and information of the Lord, and teach them even as the godly parents of 
Toby the younger ^ and Susanna did teach their children, even from their 
infancy, to reverence God according to his law, and to abstain from sin ; pro- 
viding that in no wise they be brought up in idleness and wantonness, seeing 
that ye reckon yourselves to be the children of God, and look for the life which 
God shall give to them that never turn their belief from him.^ See that ye 
ever fear God, and keep his commandments: and though the plague of God 
chance unto you, yet remain ye steadfast in the faith and fear of God, and 
thank him, and serve him in such holiness and righteousness as are accept- 
able before him, all the days of your life. Comfort yourselves in all your adver- 
sities, and stay yourselves in him, who hath promised not to leave you as 
fatherless and motherless children without any comfort, but that he will come 
to you like a most gentle and merciful Lord. He will continually stand by 
you in all your troubles, assisting, helping, and succouring you at all times. 
" I will be with you," saith he, "unto the end of the world." And cleave you 
fast unto him which was incarnate, lived, wrought, taught, and died for your 
sins, yea, rose again from death, and ascended into heaven for your justification. 
Repent ye of the life that is past, and cease from sin, and from henceforward 
live as much time as remaineth in the flesh, not after the lusts of men, but 
after the will of God. To do good and distribute, forget not. Fast and pray 
busily ; and as every man hath received the gift, minister the same one to 
another as good ministers of the manifold graces of God, that God in all things 
may be glorified through Jesus Christ; to whom be praise and dominion for 
ever, and while the world standeth. Amen. 

Yours, George Marsh. 

Another Letter of George Marsh to certain faitliful Brethren in the 

The same grace and peace, dearly beloved in Christ, do I entirely desire and 
wish unto you, which the apostle St. Paul v/isheth to all them, unto whom he did 
write and send his epistles ; than which two things no better can be wished and 
Grace. desired of God. Grace is, throughout all the epistles of Paul, taken for the 
free mercy and favour of God, whereb)^ he saveth us freely without any deserv- 
ings or works of the law. In like manner peace is taken for the quietness and 
tranquillity of the conscience, being thoroughly persuaded that through the 
only Tnerits of Christ's death and blood-shedding, there is an atonement and 

;i) Matt, xxviii. (2) Matt, xviii. (o) Jolin xii. Matt. xiv. 

(4) I'liil. i. (.''.) Tub. ii. (G) Tob. iii. 

what it is. 


peace made between God and us, so that God will no more impute our sins Man 
unto us, nor yet condemn us. L 

Dcaily beloved, I will not be negligent to put you always in remembrance A. 1). 
of things, though that you know them yourselves, and he also established in the !•'>•'>'>. 
present truth; notwithstanding, I think it meet, as long as I am in this tabcr- „,. ^^^ 
nacle, to stir you up by putting you in remembrance. Wherefore I beseech hortith to 
you, brethren, and exhort you in the Lord Jesus, that ye increase more and ""^adfabi- 
more, even as ye have received how ye ought to walk and to please God. And ")"' '" 
as Barnabas, that good man, and fiill of the Holy Ghost, exhorted the An- eospel. 
tiochians, with purpose of heart cleave ye continually unto the Lord. And 
stand fast, and be not moved from the hope of the gospel, whereof (God be 
thanked) ye have had plenteous preaching unto you these years past, by ihe 
faithful ministers of Jesus Christ, Leiver, Pilkington, Bradford, Saunders, and Leiver, 
others like, which now, when persecution ariseth, because of the word, do not Pi'ting- 
fall away like shrinking children, and forsake the truth, but are prest and ready Hr"'df()r(J, 
for your sakcs, which are his mystical body, to forsake the chief and principal Saunders, 
delights of this life ; and some of them, in giving place to the outrageous tyranny Men ba- 
of the world, to forsake their livings, friends, native land, and other chief plea- niched for 
sures of this life, and to commit themselves to painful exile, that if it please !„ qSf 
God, Christ may come again out of Egypt. And others are ready to fulfil their Mary's 
ministry unto the uttermost : that is to wit, with their painful imprisonments '^^^'^■ 
and blood-shedding, if need shall so require, to confirm and seal Christ's gospel, 
whereof they have been ministers ; and, as St. Paul saith, not only to be cast 
into prison, but also to die, for the name of the Lord Jesus. 

Be ye not therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord Jesus, neither be 
ye ashamed of us which are his prisoners, but suffer ye adversity with the gospel, 
for which word we suffer as evil-doers, even unto bonds : but the word of God 
is not bound with us. Therefore we suffer all things for the elect's sake, that 
they also may obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesu with eternal glory. 
Wherefore stand ye fast in the faith, and be not moved from the hope of the 
gospel, and so shall ye make us, even with joy, to suffer for your sakes, and, as 
the apostle saith, " to fulfil that which is behind of the passion of Christ in our 
flesh, for his body's sake, which is the congregation." St. Paul doth not here The 
mean, that there wanteth any thing in the passion of Christ, which may be meaning 
supplied by man : for the passion of Christ, as touching his own person, is that paui'a 
most perfect and omni-sufficient sacrifice, whereby we are all made perfect, as words 
many as are sanctified in his blood ; but these his words ought to be understood OP'^"^'!- 
of the elect and chosen, in whom Christ is, and shall be persecuted, unto the 
world's end. The passion of Christ then, as touching his mystical body, wliich 
is the Church, shall not be perfected till they have all suffered, whom God liath 
appointed to suffer for his Son's sake. Wherefore stablish yourselves, and be of 
good comfort; and be not moved in these afflictions, knowing that we arc 
appointed thereunto. For, on our parts, nothing can be greater consolation 
and inward joy unto us in our adversity, than to hear of your faith and love, 
and that ye have a good remembrance of us always, praying for us as we do 
for you, as the apostle wi-iteth of the Thessalonians, saying, "Now are we alive, The con- 
if ye stand steadfast in the Lord." For good shepherds do always count the 'li'io'iofa 
welfare and prosperous estate of Christ's flock to be their own ; for, while it pastor, 
goeth well with the congregation, it goeth well with them also, in whatsoever 
affliction or adversity they be : but when they see the church in any peril or 
weakness, then be they weary of their own lives ; then can they have no rest 
nor joy. "Who is weak," saith St. Paul, "and I am not weak? who is 
offended, and I do not burn?" But this affection is not in them that seek their 
own lucre and glory. 

And, forasmuch as the life of man is a perpetual warfare upon earth, let us a ciiris- 
run with joy unto the battle that is set before us, and, like good warriors of |^^^" ., ij^^ 
Jesus Christ, please him who hath chosen us to be soldiers; and not, like is a war- 
shrinking children, faint and fall away from the truth now, in time of adversity fare upon 
and tribulation, wherewith all that will live godly in Christ Jesus must be tried, ^^^^^' 
even as gold and silver is proved in the fire, and whereof all the Scriptures have churcli is 
given us so much forewarning. For God is wont, for the most part, to warn ever fore- 
hia elect and chosen, what affliction and trouble shall happen imto them for his ^°fo"p 
Bake ; not to the intent to fray them thereby, but rather to prepare their minds afflicticn 
VOL. vir. F 


Manj. against the boisterous storms of persecution — as we have a notable example in 
— the apostle St. Paul, unto whom God sent Agabus, who prophesied unto him 
yL'rV of the imprisonment and bands that he should suffer at Jerusalem: in whom 
iojo^ we have also a good example of constancy and steadfastness, who, regarding 
nothing the tears of his familiar friends, nor yet the peril of his own life, did 
through fire and water go on still to set forth the glory of God ; and he, being 
delivered from the hands of his ungodly and blood-thirsty enemies, and that so 
many times, is in conclusion fain to commit himself to the rough waters of the 
sea, where he was a long season in great peril and jeopardy of his own life. 
But God was always (to the great comfort of all that shall hear of it) most 
ready to help and succour him. First, he did send him a most friendly and 
sweet company, I mean Aristarchus and Lucas,' so ruling the heart of the 
under-captain Julius, that he courteously entreated him, and gave him liberty 
to go to his friends, and to refresh himself; and he was beneficial unto him at 
all times. In like manner was God with Joseph, and delivered him from all 
his adversities, and gave him favour and wisdom in the sight of Pharaoh king 
of Egypt, insomuch that he made him governor over all Egypt, and over all 
his household. In like manner was he with Jeremy and Daniel, in their great 
troubles, and appointed men for them in their most troubles, to relieve, succour, 
Peter de- and help them ; to their singular comfort. Also when Peter was in Herod's 
out of** ■ l^'^'^on, sleeping between two soldiers, bound with two chains, and the keepers 
son ' before the door keeping the prison, the same night that Herod had intended to 
have brought him out unto the people the day following, and to have put iiim 
unto death to please tlie Jews withal, as a little before he had killed James the 
brother of John with the sword ; God sent his angel, and the chains fell off from 
Peter's hands, and the iron gate opened unto him by its own accord; and so 
was Peter wonderfully delivered by God. For it is the true living God that 
looseth all bands, and delivereth out of prison, and not that feigned God, St. 
Leonard. On that true God did St. Peter call ; unto him did he ascribe the 
glory of his deliverance, saying, " Now I know of a truth, that God hath sent 
his angel," etc. 

These things are written for our learning, that we, througli patience and 
comfort of the Scriptures, might have hope. The God of patience and comfort, 
grant that we be like-minded one towards another, after the ensample of Christ 
Jesus; that we, all agreeing together, may with one mouth glorify God, the 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

A poor prisoner for Christ, George Marsh. 

Anotlicr Ijetter of George Marsh to Robert Langley and others. 

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship 
of the Holy Ghost, be with you, good brother in Christ, Robert Langley, and 
with all them that love the Lord Jesus unfeignedly ; Amen. 

After hearty commendations to you, with thanks for that ye did visit me a 
prisoner in Christ, and unacquainted with you to your costs ; this shall be to 
let you know, that ye shall receive from me mine examination and handling at 
Latham, and the cause of mine imprisonment, according as I did promise you: 
and this ye shall receive by my brother, or some one of the Bradshaws of Bolton, 
within this sevennight; willing you to show the same to such faithful men 
about Manchester or elsewhere, as you do take to be favourers of true religion 
and Christ's holy word, and then to deliver it again. And whereas you did put 
me in comfort, that if I did want any thing necessary unto this life, you with 
some others would be bearers with me in this my costly and painful affliction ; 
I give you most hearty thanks, and rejoice greatly in the Lord, who stirs up 
the hearts of others to be careful for me in this my great necessity. I thank 
God, as yet I do want nothing, and intend to be as little chargeable to others 
(saving my mother) as I can. If I do want, I will be bold with you and others, 
to send for your relief and help in my necessity; desiring you in the mcanwliile 
to pray for me, and all otliors in the bonds of Christ, that God would perform 
the thing which he hath begun in us, that we may with boldness confess Jesus 
Christ, and fight the good fight of faith. Yours, 

George Marsh. 
(1) Acts xvii. 


A Letter of George Marsli to a certain godly Friend. ^'■"'v- 

Grace be with 3011, and peace be multiplied in the knowledge of God, and ^\" j^" 
Jesus the Lord. l^ii^tb. 

After hearty commendations and thanks to you, not only for your large token, 
but much more for your loving letters, full of consolation to me as touching my 
person to you luiknown ; these shall be to certify you, that I rejoice greatly in 
the Lord, when I do perceive how my sweet Saviour Christ doth stir up the 
minds, not only of my familiar friends in times past, but also of sundry and 
divers heretofore unto me unknown and unacquainted, to bear part with me in 
this my painful and costly imprisonment, sending me things not only necessary 
for this present life, but also comfortable letters ; encouraging and exhorting 
me to continue grounded and stablislied in the fLiith, and not to be moved away 
from the hope of the gospel, whereof, according to my small talent, 1 have been 
a minister : and daily I call and cry unto the Lord in whom is all my trust, 
and without whom I can do nothing, that he whicli hath begun a good work in 
me, would vouchsafe to go forth with it until the day of Jesus Christ; being 
surely certified in my conscience of this, that he will so do, forasmuch as lie 
hath given me, that not only I should believe on him, but also suffer for his 
sake. The Lord strengthen me with his Holy Spirit, that I may be one of the 
number of those blessed, which, enduring to the end, shall be saved ! 

And whereas you say, that my suffering of persecution with Christ is a thing 
to you most comfortable, I make answer, that in all mine adversity and neces- 
sity nothing on your behalf is greater consolation unto me, than to hear of the 
faith and love of others, and how they have good remembrance of us always, 
even as the apostle reporteth by the Thessalonians, saying, " Now are we alive, 
if ye stand steadfast in the Lord." For my trust in the Lord is, that this my 
business shall happen to the furtherance of the gospel, and that you will be 
none of those forgetfid and hypocritish hearers, whereof some being but way- way.siijp 
side hearers, the devil cometh and taketh away the word out of their hearts, luanrs of 
lest they should believe and be saved (but let prayer be made without ceasing *'"^ ""''''■ 
by the congregation unto God for them), and, no doubt, God will to 3our con- 
solation gloriously deliver, by one means or other, his oppressed. Only tarry 
ye the Lord's leisure ; be strong ; let your heart be of good comfort ; and 
wait ye still for the Lord. He tarrieth not that will come : look for him there- 
fore, and faint not, and he will never fail you. 

Yours, George Marsh. 

A Letter of a Godly Brother, one James Bradshaw, sent to George 
Marsh in Prison. 

Grace and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ be with 
you alway. Amen. 

We had a letter from you, which is a great comfort unto us, to see you take what 
the cross so thankfully. Troul)le and affliction do prove, try, instruct, con- K9"'l af- 
firm, and strengthen the faith, provoke and stir up prayer, drive and force us to 'yorkp"], 
amendment of life, to the fear of God, to meekness, to patience, to constancy, in tlie 
to gentleness, to soberness, temperancy, and to all manner of virtues ; and are e'""y- 
the occasion of exceeding much good, as well transitory as eternal, in this 
world as in the world to come. There is neither good nor bad, godly nor un- 
godly, but he hath one cross or other. And although some there be, that can 
shift for a while, and make provision for themselves for a time, by craft and 
subtlety and dissimulation, or by some falsehood in fellowship (as they call it) ; 
yet they bring themselves at length into the highest danger, confusion, and 
shame, both in this world, and in the world to come. And seeing that all the 
troubles and adversity in this world are a thousand times more light and easy, 
yea nothing in comparison of the eternal fire, which is prepared and already 
kindled for the unfaithful wicked enemies of God ; all faithful and godly per- 
sons ought to bear and suffer their transitory affliction and adversity the more 
patiently, willingly, and thankfully ; considering and remembering all the dearly Exam- 
beloved friends of God, which were wonderfully vexed and plagued of their ples "f 
enemies, Abraham of the Clialdees, Lot of tlie Sodomites, Isaac of Lshmncl, ^^X?m^ 
Jacob of Esau, Moses of his people, David of Saul, and of his own son. As for .-iniiciion. 




Mary. Job, he had not a drop of blood in his body. John Baptist, the holiest that 
ever was born of a woman, was, without any law, right, or reason, beheaded in 
prison, as though God had known nothing at all of him. 

We have many thousand fellow martyrs and companions of our misery and 

adversity, in respect of whose imprisonment, racking, chains, fire, wild beasts, 
and other means wherewith they were tormented, all that we sutler is but a blast 
of wind. Therefore now, whosoever is ashamed of the cross of Christ, and 
aggrieved therewith, the same is ashamed to hare Christ for his fellow and 
companion, and therefore shall the Lord Jesus Christ be ashamed of him again 
at the latter day. 

Thus I leave for this time, beseeching you to let me have your advice, 
because I do not outwardly speak that with my tongue-, that I do not think in 
my heart. Pray for me, as I for you. I beseech the Holy Ghost have you in 
his keeping alvvay. Amen. 

By your friend, James Bradshaw. 

A Prayer of George Marsh, Avhich he used daily to say. 

O Lord Jesus Christ, which art the only physician of wounded consciences, 
we miserable sinners, trusting in thy gracious goodness, do briefly open unto 
thee the evil tree of our heart, with all the roots, boughs, leaves and fruits, and 
with all the crooks, knots, and knoures,i all which thou knowest : for thou 
thoroughly perceivest as well the inward lusts, doubtings, and denying thy pro- 
vidence, as those gross outward sins which we commit inwardly and deadly. 
Wherefore we beseech thee, according to the little measure of our infirmity, 
although we be far unable and unapt to pray, that thou wovddest mercifully 
circumcise our stony hearts ; and for these old hearts create new within us, and 
replenish us with a new spirit, and water us, and moisten us with the juice 
of heavenly grace, and wells of spiritual waters, whereby the inward venom 
and noisome juice of the flesh may be dried up, and custom of the old man 
changed ; and our heart, always bringing forth thorns and briers to be burned 
with fire, from henceforth may bear spiritual fruits in righteousness and holi- 
ness, unto life everlasting : Amen. 

Beloved, among other exercises, I do daily on my knees use this confession 
of sins, willing and exhorting you to do the same, and daily to acknowledge 
unfeignedly to God your unbelief, unthankfulness, and disobedience against 
him. This shall ye do, if ye will diligently consider and look yourselves, first, 
in the pure glass of God's commandments, and there see your outward filthiness 
and uncleanness, and so learn to vanquish the same ; that is to wit, fall in 
hearty displeasure against sin, and thereby be provoked to long after Christ ; 
for we truly are sinners, but he is just, and the justifier of all them that believe 
on him. We are poor, but he is rich in mercy toward all them that call upon 
him. If we himger and thirst for righteousness, let us resort unto his table," 
for he is a most liberal feast-maker. He will set before us his own holy body, 
which is given to us to be our meat, and his precious blood, which was shed for 
us and for many, for the remission of sins, to be our drink. He biddeth, 
willeth, and calleth for guests, which hunger and thirst. " Come," saith he, 
" all ye that labour and are laden, and I will refresh you, cool and ease you, 
and you shall find rest unto your souls." ^ 

OTfje Uifc and ^tocp of ©iHiam 5Flotocr, 




Flower William Flower, otherwise named Branch — first, concerning his 

monkand trade of life and bringing up — he was born at Snailwell, in the 
pHe"t'of founty of Cambridge, where he Avcnt to school certain years, and 
Ely- then came to the abbey of Ely ; where, after he had remained a 

(1) This word appears to be synonymous witli "knot:" from "knorr," (Teutonic) meaning 
kiuir, kninirc, or knurl, a knot in timber. — Ed. 

(2) 1 Cor. X. Matt. xxvi. (3) Matt xxi. 


while, he was a professed monk according to the order and rule of Ji/ar,. 
the same house wherein he remained, using and bearing the habit of a " . ^ 
monk, and observing the rules and order of the same liouse, until he i^Vj.")' 
came to twenty-one years of age, or thereabout : and before he came p, ;,7~ 
to that age, and being a professed monk, he was made a priest also in tiirsup-"' 
the same house ; and there did celebrate and sing mass a good space oflbbeys. 
together. After that, by reason of a visitation, and certain injunc- ill'^"^. ' 
tions given in the same time by the authority of king Henry the Eighth, k'""- '» 
he forsook the same house, and casting from him the said monk's ma.?s 
habit and religion aforesaid, took upon him and used the habit of a '""'°'' 
secular priest, and returned to Snail well, where he was born; and 
there he did celebrate and sing mass, and taught children their primer 
and accidence about half a year together. 

Then he went from thence to Lidgate in Suffolk, and there served 
as a secular priest about a quarter of a year ; and from thence he 
then went to Stonyland, where he tarried and served as a secular priest 
also, until the coming out of the Six Articles ; and then he departed 
from thence, and went into Gloucestershire, where, after he had made 
his abode in the country awhile, at length in Tewkesbury, according 
to God's holy ordinance, he married a wife, with whom he ever after Flower 
faithfully and honestly continued ; and after his marriage, he tarried 1^1"^!^ 
in Tewkesbury about two years together, and then from thence he 
went unto Bursley, where he tarried three quarters of a year, and 
practised physic and chirurgery ; and from thence he removed to 
Northamptonshire, where, under a gentleman, he taught children 
their primers, and to write and read, a good space. And so, depart- 
ing from those parts, he came to London ; and there remained for a 
certain space. After that, being desirous to see his country, he re- 
turned to Snailwell where he was born : from thence to Brain tree 
in Essex, then to Coggeshall, where he taught children a space, and so 
came to Lambeth beside London, where he hired a house, and placed cometh 
his wife ; where he and his wife did ever since dwell together till this betii?'"' 
time : howbeit, for the most part, he was always abroad ; and very 
seldom at home, except once or twice in a month, to visit and see his 
wife ; where he, being at home upon Easter day about ten or eleven 
o'clock in the forenoon of the same day, came over the water from 
Lambeth into St. Margaret's church at Westminster ; where lie, pio^er 
finding and seeing a priest called John Cheltham ministering and l^'^^^,l^l 
giving the sacrament of the altar to the people, and therewith, being pncst »t 
greatly offended in his conscience with the priest for the same his \n\yvZ 
doing (for that he judged him not to be a catholic minister, neither """■^'"• 
his act to be catholic and laudable according to God's Avord), did 
strike and wound him upon the head, and also upon the arm and 
hand, with his woodknife ; the priest having the same time in his 
hand a chalice, with certain consecrated hosts therein, which were 
sprinkled with the blood of the said priest. In the which so doing uepent- 
as indeed he did not well nor evangelically, so afterward, being ex- f^^f^^ 
amined before bishop Bonner, did he no less confess his not well f^l'^^l^^^- 
doing in the same ; submitting therefore himself willingly to punish- sunt in 
ment, when it should come. Howbeit touching his belief in the ^''' *■=""'• 
sacrament, and the popish ministration, he neither would nor did 
submit himself. 


Marrj. Whereupon the foresaid William Flower, being first apprehended 
^ £) and laid in the Gatehouse at Westminster (where he had given two 
1555. groats the same day a little before to the prisoners, saying, he would 
Laid in shortly after come to them) with as many irons as he could bear ; 
the Gate- afterward was convented before Bonner his ordinary, April 19, 
westmin- A.D. 1555, whei'c the bishop, after he had sworn him upon a book 
Bro fht (^-ccording to his ordinary manner), ministered articles and interro- 
iiefore gatories to him. But before I speak of the articles, first we have 
Bonner, here to sct forth what communication passed betwixt him and Robert 
Smith (being then also there prisoner with him in Newgate) concern- 
ing his fact done at Westminster; the tenor and effect of which 
communication here followeth. 

A Communication or Debating between Robert Smith, Prisoner in 
Newgate, and William Flower, concerning his striking of the 
Priest at Westminster. 
Robert Smith : — " Friend, forasmuch as I do understand that you do profess 

the gospel, and also have so done a long season, I am hold to come unto you, 

and in the way of communication to demand and learn a truth at your own 

mouth, of certain things by you committed, to the astonishing not only of me, 

but of divers others, that also profess the verity." 

Flower : — " I praise God for his great goodness, in showing me the light of 

his holy word ; and I give you hearty thanks for your visitation, intending, by 

God's grace, to declare all the truth that ye shall demand lawfully of me, in all 


Smith : — " Then I desire you to show me the truth of your deed, committed 

on John Cheltam, priest in the church, as near as you can, that I may hear 

from your own mouth how it was." 
The zeal Flower : — " I came from my house at Lambeth over the water, and entering 
of Flower Jj-,^q gj._ Margaret's church (so called), and there, seeing the people falling down 
theLorcFs before a most shameful and detestable idol, being moved with extreme zeal for 
honour jny God, whom I saw before my face dishonoured, I drew forth my hanger, 
detaced. .^^^ j gtrake the priest which ministered the same unto them : whereupon I was 

innnediately apprehended. And this is most true, as the act is manifest." 
Sinith : — " Did ye not know the parson that yestrake, or were ye not zealous 

upon him for any evil will or hatred between you at any time?" 

Flower : — " No, verily; I never to my knowledge saw the parson before that 

present, neither owed him, or any man alive, evil will or malice ; for if he had 

not had it, another should, if I had any time come where the like occasion had 

been ministered, if God had permitted me to do it." 

Smith : — " Do ye think that thing to be well done, and after the rule of the 

Extraor- Flower : — " I do confess all flesh to be subject to the power of Almighty 
zeaiTare ^^^' whom he maketh his ministers, to do his will and pleasure ; as in example, 
no gene- Moses, Aaron, Phinehas, Joshua, Zimri, Jehu, Judith, Mattathias, with many 
"■^l '■"J.'-'^ others, not only changing degrees, but also planting zeals to his honour, against 
lowed." " ^1^ order and respect of flesh and blood. For, as saitli St. Paul, ' His works are 

past finding out :' by whose Spirit I have also given my flesh at this present 

unto such order as it shall please the good will of God to appoint in death, 

whicli, before the act committed I looked for." 

Smith : — " Think you it convenient for me, or any other, to do the like by 

your example ?" 
Fiower Flower : — " No, verily ; neither do I know, if it were to do again, whether I 

!"!*«."']"? could do it again, or no : for I was up very early at Paul's cliurch (so called) 
U) have" upon Christ's day in the morning, to have done it in my jealousy : but when I 
done the came in place, I was no more able to do it, than now to undo that is done ; and 
like. ypj. jjg^^ being comj)elled by the Spirit, not only to come over tlie watci-, and 

to enter the church, but being in mind fully content to die for the Lord, gave 

over my flesh willingly, without all fear, I praise God. Wherefore I cannot 

learn you to do the like : first, because I know not what is in you ; secondly, 


because the rules of the gospel coinmand us to suffer with patience all wronps Manj. 

and injuries. Yet, nevertheless if he make you worthy, tliat hatii inaile me '■— 

zealous, ye shall not be letted, judged, nor condemned: for he doth in iiis •'^- '^• 
people his unspeakable works in all ages, which no man can comjjrflu'iul. ^•'•^•''- 
I humbly beseech you to judge the best of the Spirit, and condemn not (iod's 
doings; for I cannot express with my mouth the great mercies that God hath 
showed on me in this thing, which I repent not." 

Smith : — " Are ye not assured to have death ministered unto you for the 
same act committed, and even with extremity?" 

Flower : — " I did, before the deed committed, adjudge my body to die for Flower 
the same: whereupon I carried about me in writing, mine opinion of God and PfipantU 
the holy Scriptures; tluit if it had pleased God to have given them leave to I'd'di^atli 
have killed my body in the church, they might in the said writing have seen befurciiio 
my hope, which (1 praise God) is laid up safe within my breast, notwithstanding J^^-Jt^^'"' 
any death that may be ministered unto my body in this world ; being ascer- 
tained of everlasting life through Jesus Christ our Lord, and being most heartily 
sorry for all mine offences connnitted in this flesh, and trusting shortly, through 
his mercy, to cease from the same." 

Sinitk . — " It is no need to examine or commune with you of the hope that 
ye have any further ; for I perceive (God be praised) ye are in good estate, 
and therefore I beseech God for his mercies spread his wings over you ; that 
as, for his love, you have been zealous, even to the loss of this life, so he may 
give you his Holy Spirit to conduct you out of this death into a better life, which 
I think will be shortly." 

F/oircr : — " I hunger for the same, dear friend, being fully ascertained that 
they can kill but the body, which I am assured shall receive life again ever- 
lasting, and see no more death ; entirely desiring you and all that fear the 
Lord, to pray with me to Almighty God, to perform the same in me shortly." 

And thus Robert Smith departed, leaving him in the dungeon, and 
■went again to liis ward. And this, gentle reader, is the truth, as 
near as the said Smith could report it. And thus much concerning 
the talk between him and Robert Smith in Newgate, concerning his 
fact in striking the priest. Now to return again to the matter of 
his examination, where we left : we showed before how this William 
Flower, after his striking the priest, first was laid in the Gatehouse ; 
then, being examined before Bonner, had articles ministered against 
him, the copy whereof here followeth. 

Articles objected and ministered by Bonner, against WilHam 
Branch, alias Flower, late of Lambeth in the County of Surrey. 

First, that thou, being of a lawful age and discretion, at the least of seventeen 
years of old, was professed a monk in the late abbey of EI3', wherein, after thy 
profession, thou remainedst until the age of twenty-one years, using, all the 
mean time, the habit and religion of the same house, and wast reputed and 
taken notoriously for such a person. 

Item, that after the premises, thou wast ordered and made priest, according 
to the laudable custom of the catholic church ; and afterward thou didst execute 
and minister as a priest ; and wast commonly reputed, named, and tiiken for a j^^ ^^^ 
priest. latter 

Item, that after the premises thou, ibrgetting God, thy conscience, honesty, 'j',i^>'^'* ^|'^^"„ 
and the laudable order of the catholic church, didst, contrary to thy ])rofession ||c',''.„V 
and vow, take as unto thy wife, one woman, connnonly called Alice Pidton, in from ila- 
the parish church of Tewkesbury, in the diocese of Gloucester, with whom thou ["j^-*,^"'" 
hadst mutual cohabitation as man and wife, and begattest of her two children, marriaijc 

Item, that thou, being a religious man and a priest, didst, contrary to the i""' J-l"- 
order of the ecclesiastical laws, tiike upon thee to practise in divers places within J,"^.,";,, 
the diocese of London, physic and chirurgery, when thou wast not admitted, i Tim. iv. 
expert, nor learned. 

Item, that upon Easter day last j)ast, that is to wit, the Hth day of this pre- 
sent month of April, within the parish church of St. Margaret's at Westminster, 



His faith 
in the 

within the county of Middlesex and diocese of London, thou didst maliciously 
outrageously, and violently pull out thy weapon ; that is to wit, thy woodknife 
or hanger. And whereas the priest and minister there, called Sir John Cheltham, 
was executing his cure and charge, especially in doing his service, and mini- 
stering the sacrament of the altar to communicants, then didst thou wickedly 
and abominahly smite with thy said weapon the said priest, first upon the liead 
very sore ; and afterwards, upon his hands or other parts of his body, drawing 
blood abundantly upon him : the said priest then holding the said sacrament in 
his hand, and, giving no occasion why thou shouldest so hm-t him ; the people 
being gi-ievously offended therewith, and the said church polluted thereby, so 
that the inhabitants were compelled to repair to another church to commvmi- 
cate, and to receive the said sacrament. 

Item, that by reason of the premises, thou wast and art, by the ecclesiastical 
laws of the church, amongst other penalties, excommunicate and accursed, ipso 
facto ; and not to be companied withal, neither in the church, nor otherwhere, 
but in special cases. 

Item, that thou, concerning the vei'ity of Christ's natural body and blood in 
the sacrament of the altar, hast been by the space of these twenty, nineteen, 
eighteen, seventeen, sixteen, fifteen, fourteen, thirteen, twelve, eleven, ten, nine, 
eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two, and one years, or any one of them, and 
yet art at this present, of this opinion ; that is to say, that in the said sacrament 
of the altar, after the words of consecration, there is not really, truly, and in 
very deed contained (under the forms of bread) the very true and natural body 
of our Saviour Jesus Christ. 

Item, that thou, for the hatred and disdain that thou hadst and didst bear 
against the said sacrament, and the virtue thereof, and against the said priest 
ministering the same (as before), didst smite, wound, and hurt him in manner 
and form as before is declared. 

Item, that thou, over and besides the pains due unto thee for the doing of the 
cruel fact, art also, by the order of the ecclesiastical laws of the church, and 
the laudable custom and ordinance of the same, to be reputed, taken, and 
adjudged (as thou art indeed) a very heretic, and to be punished by and with 
the pains due for heresy, by reason of thy said heresy and damnable opinion. 

Item, that all the premises be true and manifest, notorious and famous ; and 
that upon the same, and every part thereof, there was and is, within the said 
parish of St. Margaret's and other places thereabout, a public voice and fame. 

111 arte 
his will. 

more de- 
vout to 
Gort ill 
the state 
of matri- 
tlian be- 

The Answer of William Flower, made to the Articles aforesaid. 

To the first article he answereth and confesseth the same to be true in every 
part thereof; except that he saith and confesseth, that he never consented and 
agreed in his heart to be a monk. 

To the second article he answereth and confesseth the same to be true in 
every part thereof: howbeit, he saith, that he never did, nor yet doth, esteem 
the said order of priesthood, according to the said order of the catholic church ; 
because he was offended thei'ewith in his conscience. 

To the third article he answereth and confesseth, that he, intending to live in 
godly matrimony, and not forgetting God, did marry with the said Alice Pulton 
named in this article; wherein he believed that he did well, and according to 
God's laws. Further, confessing and believing, that all the time when he was 
professed monk, and made priest ; he did thereby utterly forget God : but when 
he did so marry the said Alice Pulton, and in continuing with her did beget 
three children, he did remember God, as he saith, and believeth that he did then 

To the fourth article he answereth, and believeth the same to be true in every 
part thereof. 

To the fifth article he answereth and confesseth, that his conscience being 
greatly offended with the said sir John Cheltham, priest, for ministering of the 
sacrament of the .altar to the people at the place and time specified in this 
article, he did smite and strike the same priest with his hanger or woodknife, 
as well upon his head, as upon other parts and places of his body which he re- 
membereth not, whereby the blood ran out, and was shed in the said church, as 
he believeth ; having, as he saith, none other cause or matter so to do, but only 


that his conscience was offended and grieved ; in that the same priest did so Mar«. 

give and minister the said sacrament to the people :' whicli people hehelicvcth ■ 

were greatly abashed and ofiended with his said fact and doing ; and were A. D. 
enforced and compelled to go ont of the church, and to rejiair to another to l-'>55- 
receive the said sacrament. And further, being then demanded and examined, 
whether he did then mind and intend to have killed the said priest, or not ; he 
said he would not answer thereunto. And being further examined, whctlur he 
did well or evil in striking the said priest ; he would make no answer thereunto, 
as he said. 

To the sixth he answereth and saith, that whether he be so excommunicate 
or accursed, as is contained in this article, he referreth himself herein to the 
ecclesiastical laws. 

To the seventh he answeretli and saith, that by the space of six and twenty 
years now past, he hath always been, and yet is, of this opinion touching the 
said sacrament of the altar, as followeth : videlicet, that in the sacrament of 
the altar, after the words of consecration, there is not really, truly, and in very 
deed, contained under the form of bread, the very true and natural body of our 
Saviour Jesus Christ. 

To the eighth he answereth, and believeth the same to be true in every part 

To the ninth he answereth, and herein he referreth himself to tlie said laws, 
custom, and ordinance specified in this article ; that is to saj', the canonical laws. 

To the last he answereth and believeth, that those things before by him con- 
fessed, be true, and those which he hath denied, be untrue ; and tliat the said 
common voice and fame hath and doth only labour and go upon those things 
by him before confessed. 

By me William Flower, alias Branch. 

After this examination done, the bishop began after the best sort Fiowcr 
of his fine divinity to instruct him, and to exliort him to return again to r«lnt. 
to the unity of his mother the catholic church, with such reasons as 
he is commonly wont to use to others, promising many fair things if 
he would so do, besides the remitting of what was past. To this 
William Flower, answering again, thanked him for his offer ; and Refuseth 
whereas it was in his power to kill or not to kill his body, he {,"gfai,h'^'' 
stood therewith contented, let him do therein what he thought ; ^^.^ ^°^- 
yet over his soul he had no such power, which being once separated 
from the body, is in the hands of no man, but only of God, either to 
save or spill. As concerning his opinion of the sacrament, he said he 
would never go from what he had spoken, do he with him what he 

Then the bishop assigned him again to appear in the same place at 
afternoon, betwixt three and four ; in the mean time, to advise him- 
self of his former answers, whether he would stand to the same his 
opinions or no : which if he so did, he would further proceed against 
him, etc. 

At afternoon the said William Flower appeared again before the Another 
said bishop, the hour and place appointed ; to whom the bishop, "I^croV 
sitting in his consistory, spake these words : " Branch, ye were ^gf^^r 
this forenoon here before me, and made answer to certain articles ; Bonner, 
and thereupon I respited you till now, to the intent you should con- 
sider and weigh with yourself your state ; and to remember while you 
have time, both your abominable act, and also that evil opinion 
which ye have conceived, touching the verity of Christ's tmc natural 
body in the sacrament of the altar : " to whom the said Branch 

(I ) Note that the said William Flower afterward, in his next appearance, corrected and rcfmncd 
thio answer. 

74 flower's last appearakcp: before bonnier. 

^far!/. answered again, and said as followetli : " That which I have said, I will 

A, D. stand to ; and therefore I require that the law may proceed against 

1555. me." Whereupon the bishop commanded his notary (Hayward by 

Flower name) to read to him again his articles, as before : which being read, 

to^hfs*^'^ the said William Flower, persisting in his godly sentence, answered 

doctrine, to all parts of the articles, as in the forenoon before ; save only that 

he requested the bishop, concerning the fifth article, he might alter 

something his answer therein, after this tenor and manner of words ; 

to wit, — 
Flower And moreover confesseth and saith — that whereas he strake the priest on 

his^ 30^111 Easter day hist past, in St. Mai-garet's church in Westminster, he liath since 
striking that time and yet doth mishke himself in that doing ; and doth now judge and 
the priest, believe that the same his act was evil and naught. Howbeit he saith and believeth 

that as for the matter and cause wherefore he so struck the said priest (which 
He re- was for ministering of the sacrament of the altar, which he taketh and judgeth 
forraeth abominable), he did not nor dotli mislike himself at all therein. Moreover, he 
swer'to desireth of the said bishop license to be granted him, to alter and take out some- 
the ninth what of the ninth article; and in place thereof, these words to be placed; to 
article. ^-^^.^ u jjerein he referreth himself to the laws, custom, and ordinance specified 

in this article," etc. 

At this request, Bonner granted to the altering of both the 
articles according as he desired, and so put in the acts. 

After this, the bishop turning again to his old manner of exhorting, 
went about with words (and words only) to persuade him to submit 
himself to the catholic church, and to the faith thereof. All which his 
persuasions notwithstanding, William still remained in the constancy 
of his sentence ; saying that he would not be removed from that he 
had spoken, to die there-for. Whereupon the bishop assigned him 
the next day (being the 20th day of April) to appear in the same day 
and place, between the hours of eight and nine before noon ; there 
and then to hear the sentence pronounced, in case he would not 
relent, etc. 

the last appearance of WILLIAM FLOWER BEFORE BISHOP 

In the which day, hour, and place,the said William Flower, as he was 
appointed, was brought by his keeper belonging to the warden of the 
Fleet, before Bonner, who, after his wonted manner of persuasion going 
about to reduce him to his catholic church and the unity thereof; that is, 
from Christ to Antichrist ; sometimes with fair promises alluring, some- 
times with menaces and terrors, fearing him, etc. ; to this William an- 
Fiower's swenng, said on this wise : " Do what ye will, I am at a point ; for the 
stancy. heaveus shall as soon fall, as I will forsake mine opinion,"" etc. AVhere- 
upon the bishop, after he had commanded these words to be registered, 
called for the depositions of certain witnesses, produced for the better 
information of this matter, the names of which witnesses were these : 
Witness William Jennings, John Bray, Robert Graunt, Richard Dod, William 
I'^fn^t*"' Pampion, Robert Smalwood the parish priest of St. Margaret's at 
flower. Westminster. The sum and effect of whose depositions here cnsueth. 

The Depositions or Attestations produced upon the Answers of 
William Flower. 

Robert Graunt of Westminster, examined upon the said answers of William 
Flower, saith and deposeth, that he did hear and sec the said Flower acknowledge 


and recognise the said answers, and subscribe to the same witli his own hand ; Mary. 

and also was present in tlie church of St. Margaret's in Westminster, when t!ie 

said WilHani Flower did smite and wound the priest, when (as he saith) he was A. D. 
ministering the sacrament ; and how this examinate among others pressed towards 15o5. 
him to take him, and was hurt thereby upon his chin; and after he was taken, 
this examinate holp to conduct him to the Gatehouse at Westminster. 

Richard Dod of Westminster, examined upon the said answers, saith and 
deposeth, that he did hear and see the said Flower acknowledge and recognise 
the said answers, and subscribe to the same with his own hand ; and also did 
see and was present, when the said Flower upon Faster day last past, drew his 
wood-knife, and strake the priest upon the head, hand, and arm ; who, being 
wounded therewith, and having a chalice with consecrated hosts therein, in his 
hand, sprinkled with the said priest's blood, was holpen and rescued by this 
examinate, and the said Flower carried to the Gatehouse at Westminster, and 
his wood-knife taken away by this examinate. 

William Pampion, one of the churchwardens of the said parish church of St. 
Margaret's in Westminster, examined upon the said answers of the said Flower, 
saith and deposeth, that the same answers be true, and in his sight were sub- 
scribed with the hand of the said Flower. And that upon Easter-day last i)ast, 
about eleven of the clock in the forenoon, in the parish church of St. Mar- 
garet's in Westminster, among a great number of the people ready to be 
houseled, the priest's back being turned toward the said Flower, he (the said 
Flower) suddenly drew forth his wood -knife, and strake sir John Chcltham the 
priest both upon his head, hand, and arm, whereby he was wounded, and bled 
abundantly ; and the chalice with consecrated hosts being in his hand, were 
sprinkled with his blood, and the people in great fear cried out lamentably, 
and thought they should presently have been killed. 

Robert Smalwood of Westminster, examined upon the said answers, saith 
and deposeth that he did hear and see the said Flower acknowledge and recog- 
nise the said answers, and subscribe the same with his own hand ; and saith 
further, touching the striking and wounding the priest in St. Margaret's church 
in Westminster upon Easter-day last, this examinate saith, he was not there 
when the fact was done, but, immediately after, he came to church, and found 
sir John hurt, and wounded in the head, hand, and arm, by.the said Flower, 
and tlie people in great heaviness by reason thereof. Also the people did 
report (as this examinate saith) that Flower did the deed as the priest had the 
chalice in his hand, ministering the sacrament to the people. 

William Jennings of Westminster, being examined upon the answers of the 
said William Flower, saith and deposeth, by virtue of his oath, that he did hear 
and see the said Flower acknowledge and recognise the said answers, and sub- 
scribe to the same with his own hand in the consistory place : and further 
deposeth, that he (upon Easter day last past) was present in the church of St. 
Margaret's in Westminster, where Flower strake the said sir John Cheltham, 
priest, first upon the head, and afterward upon his arm, two sore strokes, 
whereby the said priest is like to lose his hand. Also this jurate deposed, that 
the said sir John Cheltham had a chalice with certain consecrated hosts therem 
(in his hand), which were sprinkled with the blood of the said priest; and after 
the said Flower was apprehended by this examinate and others, they carried 
him immediately to the Gatehouse in Westminster. , . e. x/r 

John Bray, one of the churchwardens of the parish church of St. Margaret s 
in Westminster, sworn and examined upon the said answers, saith and deposeth 
that he did hear and seethe said Flower acknowledge and recognise the said 
answers, and also subscribe unto the same. And further deposeth ot Hower s 
striking the priest, in effect, as the rest of the examinates do, and that this said 
jurate was present there at the deed-doing. 

After the depositions of these foresaid witnesses bcinfj taken pub- 
lished, and denounced, the said bishop, speaking to Wilham b lower 
asked him if he knew any matter or cause why his sentence should 
not be read, and he to be pronounced as a heretic.' Whereunto the 
martyr of God answered again as followeth : " I have nothmg at all 

(1) The author alluacs here to Floucr's conscientious disavowal of transubstanuation.-En. 


^ary- to say, for I have already said unto you all tliat I have to say ; and 

A.D. th^t I l^^vs said, I Avill not go from ; and therefore do what you 

1555. will," etc. Which when he had spoken, the bishop proceeded to the 

Sentence scutcnce, Condemning and excommunicating him for a heretic, and 

demna- '^^^^^ prouounccd him also to be degraded ; and so committed him to 

tion and the secular power. Upon the 24th day of the aforesaid month of 

tion'pro- April, which was St. Mark's Even, he was brought to the place of 

agahfst'^ martyrdom, which was in St. Margaret's churchyard at Westminster, 

William where the fact was committed : and there, coming to the stake where 

he should be burned, first he maketh his prayer to Almighty God, 

with a confession of his christian faith, in manner as followeth : 

A Prayer and Confession of William Flower. 

O eternal God, most mighty and merciful Father, who hast sent down thy 
Son upon the earth, to save me and all mankind, who ascended up into heaven 
again, and left his blood upon the earth behind him, for the redemption of our 
sins, have mercy upon me, have mercy upon me, for thy dear Son our Saviour 
Jesus Christ's sake, in whom I confess only to be all salvation and justification, 
and that there is none other mean, nor way, nor holiness, in which or by which 
any man can be saved in this world. — This is my faith, which I beseech all 
men here to bear witness of. 

Then he said the Lord's prayer, and so made an end. 

Then master Cholmley came to him, Avilling him to recant his 
heresy, whereby he might do good to the people ; or else he would 
be damned. Flower answered as followeth : " Sir, I beseech you, 
for God's sake, be contented ; for that I have said, I have said : and 
I have been of this faith from the beginning ; and I trust to the 
living God he will give me his Holy Spirit, to continue to the end." 
Then he desired all the world to forgive him whom he had offended, 
as he forgave all the world. This done, first his right hand, being 
held up against the stake, was stricken oif, his left hand being stayed 
behind him. At the which striking off his hand, certain that were 
present beholders of the matter, and purposely observing the same, 
credibly informed us, that he in no part of his body did once shrink 
at the striking thereof, but once a little he stirred his shoulders. 

And thus fire was set unto him, who burning therein, cried with a 
loud voice, " O the Son of God, have mercy upon me ! O the Son of 
God, receive my soul ! " three times ; and so his speech being taken 
from him, he spake no more, lifting up, notwithstanding, his stump 
with his other arm, as long as he could. And thus endured this 
constant witness and faithful servant of God the extremity of the 
fire, being therein cruelly handled, by reason that to his burning 
little wood was brought ; so that for lack of faggots, there being not 
sufficient to burn him, they were fain to strike him down into the fire ; 
where he lying along (which was doleful to behold) upon the ground, 
his nether part was consumed in the fire, whilst his upper part Avas 
clean without the fire, his tongue in all men's sight still moving in 
his mouth. 

May. — the 3d of May a letter was sent to George Colt and 
Thomas Daniel, to make search for, and apprehend John Bernard 
and John Walsh, Avho used to repair to Sudbury, and carrying about 
with them the bones of Pygot that was burned, to show thorn to the 


people, persuading tlicni to be constant in Lis religion : and upon Atnrp. 
examination to comnut them to further ordering, according to the laws. ^a~i7~ 

This day Stephen Appcs was committed to the Little Ease in the 1555! 
Tower, there to remain two or three days, until further examination. 

The 12th day, master Thomas Ross, preacher, was by the coun- 
cils' letters delivered from the T(nvcr to the sheriff of Norfolk, to be 
conveyed and delivered to the bishop of Norwich ; and he, either to 
reduce him to recant, or else proceed against him according to the law. 

The 16th, a letter was sent to the lord treasiu-er, signifying what 
the lord L. had done for Ross ; and that order should be given, 
according to his lordship's request, for letters to the bishops : and for 
Appes, whom the lieutenant of the Tower reporteth to be mad, his 
lordship, perceiving the same to be true, should commit him to Beth- 
lem, there to remain until their further order. 

The 26th, a letter was sent to the lord treasurer, to confer with 
the bishop of London, and the justices of the peace of that county, 
wherein they were to be executed, that were already condemned for 
religion ; and, upon agreement of places, to give order for their exe- 
cution accordingly. 

The 28th, a letter was sent to the lord treasurer, to cause speedy 
preparation to be made of such money as was appointed for such 
persons as should carry the joyful tidings of cjuecn Mary's good 
delivery of child, to divers princes, so as they be not compelled to 
stay when time shall come. The ambassadors were, to the emperor, 
the lord admiral ; to the French king, the lord Fitzwaters ; to the 
king of Romans, sir Henry Sidney ; to the king of Portugal, Richard 
Shelley ; whose free passage through France master doctor Wotton 
was willed to procure by letters, the 24th of June. 

The 29th, was a letter directed to sir Francis Englefield, to make 
search for one John D., at London, and to apprehend him, and send 
him to the council ; and to make search for such papers and books as 
he thinketh may touch the same D., or one Benger. 

€f)e SBurnins and ^HartpcDom of ^oljn CarDmahcc anU 3(of)n 
IDarne, iapfjoli^teret, 


On the 30th day of May suffered together in Smithfield John 
Cardmaker, otherwise called Taylor, prebendary of the church of 
Wells ; and John Warne, upholsterer, of the parish of St. John in 
Walbrook : of whom it remaineth now particularly to entreat, begin- 
ning first with master Cardmaker, who, first, was an observant friar 
before the dissolution of the abbeys ; then, after, was a married 
minister ; and, in king Edward's time, appointed to be a reader in car.i- 
Paul's, where the papists were so much aggrieved with him for his "eadtrin 
doctrine's sake, that in his reading they cut and mangled his gown P''"''^- 
with their knives. This Cardmaker, being apprehended in the begin- card- 
ning of queen Mary's reign, with master 13arlow, bishop of Ikth, was ^("h'Tiar- 
brought to London, and laid in prison in the Fleet, king Edward's j^^^^^Pj. 
laws yet being in force. But after the jiarliament was ended, in which id .iiki 
the pope was again admitted as supreme head of the church, and the ole FUct. 
bishops had also gotten power and authority, ex officio, to exercise 


Mary, their tyranny, these two were both brought before Winchester, chan- 
A.D. cellor, and others appointed by commission (as before is mentioned), 
1555, to examine the faith of such as were then prisoners ; and, as unto 
others before, so now unto them, the chancellor offered the queen's 
mercy, if they would agi'ee, and be conformable, etc. 
Barlow To this they both made such an answer, as the chancellor with his 
maker " fcllow commissioners allowed them for catholic. Whether they of 
aw?to weakness so answered, or he of subtlety would so imderstand their 
Winches- answer, that he might have some forged example of a shrinking bro- 
cathoiics. ther to lay in the dish of the rest, which were to be examined, it may 
easily be perceived by this, that to all them which followed in exa- 
mination, he objected the example of Barlow and Cardmaker, com- 
mending their soberness, discretion, and learning. But Avhatsoever 
their answer was, yet, notwithstanding, Barlow was led again to the 
Barlow Fleet, from whence he afterward, being delivered, did by exile con- 

exiled for ' o ^ j 

the truth, stautly bear witness to the truth of Christ''s gospel. Cardmaker was 
conveyed to the Compter in Bread-street, the bishop of London pro- 
curing it to be published, that he should shortly be delivered, after 
that he had subscribed to transubstantiation and certain other articles. 
Confer- To the samc prison where Cardmaker was, Laurence Saunders was 
tween^^ brought (after the sentence of excommunication and condemnation 
Saunders was pronouuced against him) ; Avhere these two prisoners had such 

and Card- , . '■ . „ "=', ,' ,, ^ o ^ i • ^ 

maker, christian contcrence, that whatsoever the breath ot the bishops blus- 
tered, and the tickle ears of the people too lightly believed, in the 
end they both showed themselves constant confessors and worthy 
martyrs of Christ: as of Laurence Saunders it is already written. 
After whose departure Cardmaker remained there prisoner, to be 
baited of the papists, Avho would needs seem to have a certain hope 
that Cardmaker was become theirs. Continual and great conference 
divers of them had with him, with reasonings, persuadings, threaten- 
ings, and all to none effect. To the end that their doings might 
appear, he required them to put their reasons in writing, and promised 
by writing to answer them. 

Martin Dr. Martin, who bare also a part in those pageants, took upon him 

writeth .-i.i ^ • n ^ i •• i i ^ 

to be tlie ciiier doer by writing, whose long unsavoury letters and 
simple reasons for transubstantiation, and such papistical trash, this 
Cardmaker answered largely, learnedly, and substantially ; confuting 
the same, opening the falsehood of his arguments, and delivering the 
sentences of the fathers (which Martin abused for his purpose) to 
their true understanding ; which his answers I would had come into 
our hands. Thus constantly abode this man of God all the enemies' 
doings, as he did also the death which he suffered in Smithfield in 
London ; whereof ye shall hear more anon. But first we will survey 
the matter and manner of his articles objected against him by bishop 
Bonner, with his answers annexed to the same ; as consequently 
hereunder followeth. 

Articles objected by Bonner against John Taylor, alias Cardmaker ; 
with his Answers unto the same. 

iy2}. First, 1 Edmund, bishop of London, object against thee, sir John Tayloi, 
alias Cardmaker, tliat tlio\i wast and art of the city and diocese of London, and 
so of the jurisdiction of me, Edmund, bishop of London. 



Item, that thou, in times past, didst profess tlie rule of St. Francis, and didst Mary 

by vow promise to keep poverty, chastity, and obedience, according to the rule '- 

of St. Francis. A. D. 

Item, that thou, in times past, didst receive all the orders of the church then ^''"'^^• 
used ; to wit, " tam niajores quam minores." 

Item, that thou, after thy said entry into religion and profession and orders + 
aforesaid, didst take to wife a widow, and with her hast lived in wedlock, and *''"^''- 
didst get of her a woman child ; breaking thereby thy vow and order, and also marr'ud 
the ordinance of the church. 

Item, that thou liast believed and taught, and so dost believe, that in the 
sacrament of the altar under the visible signs there ; that is to say, under tiie 
forms of bread and wine, there is really and truly the true and very natural 
body and blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ. 

Item, that the belief of the catholic church is, that in having the body and The hc- 
blood of Christ really and truly contained in the sacrament of the altar, is to ^'^'^".^ "'^ 
have (by the omnipotent power of Almighty God) the body and blood of Christ cXoiir 
there invisibly and really present under the said sacrament ; and not to make cimrrh. 
thereby a new God, or a new Christ, or a new body of Christ. 

Item, that it may stand well together, and so is the faith of the catholic 
church ; that the body of Christ is visibly and truly ascended into heaven, and 
there is, in the visible form of his humanity ; and yet the same body in sub- 
stance is invisibly and truly contained in the said sacrament of the altar.' 

item, that Christ, at his last supper, taking bread into his hands, blessing it, 
breaking it, giving it to his apostles, and saying, "Take, cat, this is my body," 
did institute a sacrament there;- willing that his body really and truly should 
be contained in the said sacrament — no substance of bread and wine there 
remaining, but only the accidents thereof. 

Answers of Cardmaker to the Articles aforesaid. 

To the first article he answereth, and confesseth the same to be true in every 
part thereof. 

To the second article he answereth and confesseth, that he, being under age, 
did profess the said order and religion ; and afterward, by the authority of king 
Henry the Eighth, he was dispensed with for the same religion. 

To the third he answereth, and confesseth the same to be true in every part 

To the fourth he answereth and confesseth, tlie first part thereof to be true : 
and to the second part of the same article he answereth and saith, that in mar- 
riage he brake no vow, because he was set at liberty to marry, both by the laws 
of this realm, and also by the laws and ordinances of the church of the same. 

To the fifth he answereth and confesseth, that he hath believed and taught 
as it is contained in this article, but he doth not now so believe nor teach. 

To the sixth he answereth, that he doth not believe the same to be true in 
any part thereof. 

To the seventh he answereth, that he doth not believe the same to be tnie 
in any part thereof. 

To the eighth he answereth and doth believe, videlicet, that it is true ; that is Ti,e first 
to say, that Christ, taking bread at his last supper into his hands, blessing it, part of 
breaking it, giving it to his disciples, and saying, " Take, cat : this is my body," J.''^.'*;,"^'"' 
did institute a sacrament there. And to the other part of this article, videlicet true: ihp 
— wilhng that his body really and tndy should be contained in the said sacra- sei'uid is 
ment, no substance of bread and wine there remaining, but only the accidents " "" 
tliereof — he answereth, that he doth not believe the same to be true. 

By me, John Cardmaker. 

Master Cardmaker, calling to mind afterwards the readv cavillings 
of the papists, and thinking himself not to have fully, and according 
to his true meaning, answered the latter part of the last eighth article, 
did, the next day after the foresaid answers, exhibit unto the bishop 
in a schedule, this hereafter following. 

(1 ) To speak naturally of the natural body of Christ, these two cannot stand together at one time, 
unless we prant Christ to have two bodies 

(2) That Christ never willed, neither can the Scriptures bear it. 


Mary. Whereas in my answers to your articles I deny the presence of Christ in the 

sacrament, I mean not his sacramental presence, for that I confess ; but my 

-^- ^- denial is of his carnal presence in the same. But yet further, because this word 

^^^^- is oftentimes taken of the holy fathers, not only for the bread and wine, but also 

for the whole administration and receiving of the same, according to Christ's 

institution : so I say that Christ is present spiritually too, and in all them 

Sacra- which worthily receive the sacrament, so that my denial is still of tlie real 

mental carnal, and corporal presence in the sacrament, and not of the sacramental, 

nal pre- nor spiritual presence. — This have I thought good to add to my former answer, 

sence. because no man should misunderstand it. 

By me, John Cardmaker. 

Next to these articles of master Cardmaker, I thought best to 
infer the articles and answers likewise of John Warne, his martyr- 
fellow, in manner as followeth. 

Articles ministered against John Warne, Upholsterer, of the Parish 
of St. John in Walbrook, with his Answers to the same. 

First, that thou John Warne, being of the age of twenty-nine years, and of 
the parish of St. John of Walbrook in London, hast believed, and dost believe, 
firmly and steadfastly, that in the sacrament, commonly called the sacrament of 
the altar, there is not the very true and natural body of our Saviour Christ in 
substance, under the forms of bread and wine. 
Transub- Item, that thou hast believed, and dost believe, that after the words of con- 
stantia- secration spoken by the priest, there is not (as the church of England doth 
believe and teach) the body of Christ ; but that there doth only remain the sub- 
stance of material bread, as it is before the consecration, or speaking of the 
words of consecration ; and that the said bread is in no wise altered or changed. 
Thesacri- Item, that thou hast said and dost believe, that if the catholic church do 
tice of the believe and teach, that there is in the mass, now used in England, and in other 
places of Christendom, a sacrifice wherein there is a sacrament containing the 
body and blood of Christ really and truly ; then that belief and faith of the 
church is naught, and against God's truth and the Scripture. 
Heresy Item, that thou hast said, that whereas about a twelvemonth ago, and more, 

for laugh- ^ great rough water-spaniel of thine was shorn in the head, and had a crown 
spaniel like a priest's made in the same, thou didst laugh at it and like it, though thou 
shorn on didst it not thyself, nor knewest who did it. 
^ ^^ • Item, That thou, neither this Lent last past, nor at any time since the queen's 
majesty's reign, hast come into the church, or heard mass, or been confessed, 
or received the sacrament of the altar ; and hast said, that thou art not sorry 
that thou hast so done, but thou art glad ; because thou hast not therewith 
defiled thy conscience, which otherwise thou shouldst so have done. 

Upon all which articles John Warne being examined by the said Bonner in 
presence of divers witnesses, the 23d of May, a.d. 1555, did confess and 
believe the same, and subscribe hereunto his name with his own hand. 

By me, John Warne. 

Also it was objected against the said John Warne, by the bishop 
aforesaid, as followeth : 

Addition to Articles. 

Warne, Item, That thou, John Warne, wast in time past here, in the city of London, 

about the convented in the Guildhall for heresy against the sacrament of the altar, ac- 
Arme°As- Cording to the order of the laws of this realm of England in the time of king 
kew, cou- Henry the Eiglith, and when alderman Barnes was sherifl" and the Thursday 
b^'uTd' ^^^^^ ^^^^^ Anne Askew was burnt in Smithfield; and thereupon thou wast sent 
his par- a prisoner to Newgate, to whom Edmund bishop of London did repair with his 
don. chaplains, to instruct thee in the true faith of Christ, touching the said sacra- 

ment of the altar, and to bring thee from thy error, which was, that in the 


sacrament of the altar there is not tlie body of Christ, nor any corporal pro- » 
sence of Christ s body and blood, under the forms of bread and wine; but that 
in the said sacrament there is only material bread and wine, without any sub- A. I). 
stance of Christ's body and blood at all : and because thou wouldst not leave 1 ^>">^- 

and forsake thy said heresy therein, but persist and abide obstinately and wil- 

fully therein, thou wert, according to the said laws, condemned to death and to 
be burnt ; and thereui)on labour being made for thee to the king and others in 
the court, thou hadst a pardon of king Henry the Eighth, and so thereby didst 
save thy life. 

Nevertheless, in thy heart, conscience, and mind, thou didst both then, and 
also afore, believe no otherwise than at this present thou dost believe ; that is 
to say, that in the sacrament of the altar there is neither the very true body or 
blood of Christ, nor any other substance but the substance of material bread 
and wine; and to receive the said material bread and wine, and to break it, and 
to distribute it among the people, only is the true receiving of Christ's body, 
and no otherwise : so that thy faith and belief is, that in the said sacrament warne 
there is no substance of Christ's material body and blood : but all the thing that denieth 
is there, is material bread, and the receiving thereof as afore; and 111;^ the'""''"''' 
substance of the natural and true body of Christ, born of the Virgin Mary, is tion?'" 
only in heaven, and not in the sacrament of the altar. In which thine o])im'on 
thou hast ever hitherto since continued, and so dost continue at this present, 
thou confessing all this to be true, and in witness thereof subscribing thy name 
thereunto, as followcth. 

By me, John Warne. 

John Warne, being examined upon the foresaid articles by tlie Answer 
bishop before certain -witnesses, Avhosc names were Jolm I^oswell, lou.ear- 
John HeyAvood, Robert Ravens, the 23d of May, did answer to the ''''''■'• 
same, confessing and gi-anting the articles and contents thereof to be 
true, according as they were objected in every part ; subscribing also 
the same with his hand. Such strengtli and fortitude God's holy 
Spirit A\TOught in him, to stand stoutly and confidently to the defence 
of the sincere doctrine of his Son. Whereupon the bishop, exhorting 
him with many words to leave his heresies (as he called them), and 
to return to the bosom of his mother the holy church, commanded 
him to appear again the next day, being the 24tli of the same month : 
who, so doing and answering as he did before, was willed to come xiie sc- 
thither again at afternoon, and so he did: where and at wliat time, s^mf *''^' 
he was earnestly exhorted by the said bishop to recant his opinions, a^^inst 
To whom he answered, that he would not depart from his received 
profession, unless he were thereunto thorougldy persuaded by the 
lioly Scriptures. 

Upon this answer he was willed to come again the next day, Ti>e tiuni 
being the 2oth of the same month, at one o'clock in the afternoon. 
At which day and hour the bishop examined him again upon all his .(.ns'ia'^iit 
former articles before objected, to the which he most constantly did "he""' 
stick, with this further answer thereunto added : " I am i)ersuaded," iii''i"'p's 
quoth lie, that i am m the right opmion, and 1 see no cause to sions. 
repent; for all filtliiness and idolatry is in the church of Rome." 

The bishop then, seeing that notwithstanding all his fair promises, scntmcp 
and terrible threatenings (whereof he used store), he could not anv k'^v" 
thing prevail ; finished this examination with the definitive sentence hi'm.'" 
of condemnation pronounced against the said John Warne, and so 
charged the sheriffs of London with him, under whose custody he nfaker 
remained in the prison of Newgate, until the 30th day of the same l"'^^„^ 
month of May. Upon the which day, being the day ajipoiiitcd for i>r<»iptit 
their execution, John Cardmaker, with the said John Warne, were tion/*^ 

VOL. VII. c 


Manj. brought by the sheriffs to the place where they should suffer : who, 

1^ Y) being come to the stake, first the sheriffs called Cardmaker aside, 

1555. and talked with him secretly, so long, that in the mean time Warne 

had made his prayers, was chained to the stake, and had Avood and 

reed set about him, so that nothing wanted but the firing ; but still 

abode Cardmaker talking with the sheriffs. 

Tiiepeo- The people which before had heard that Cardmaker would recant, 

of'^card-" ou bcliolding this manner of doing, were in a marvellous dump and 

Kcaiuing. sadness, thinking indeed that Cardmaker should now recant at the 

burning of Warne. At length Cardmaker departed from the 

sheriffs, and came towards the stake, and, in his garments as he was, 

kneeled down and made a long prayer in silence to himself: yet the 

people confirmed themselves in their fantasy of his recanting, seeing 

him in his garments, praying secretly, and no semblance of any 


Card- His prayers being ended, he rose up, put off his clothes unto his 

"tTm^th shirt, went with bold courage to the stake, and kissed it sweetly : he 

?yto'the ^^^^^ Warne by the hand, and comforted him heartily ; and so gave 

fire. himself to be also bound to the stake most gladly. The people 

nrnker Seeing this so suddenly done, contrary to their fearful expectation, 

?nii as men delivered out of a great doubt, cried out for joy (with so 

join great a shout as hath not lightly been heard a greater), saying, " God 

Th'e'^peo- ^^ praiscd ; the Lord strengthen thee, Cardmaker ; the Lord Jesus 

at'^canu'' rcccivc thy spirit !" And this continued while the executioner put 

maker's firc to them, and they both passed through the fire to the blessed 

rest and peace among God's holy saints and martyrs, to enjoy the 

crown of triumph and victory prepared for the elect soldiers and 

warriors of Christ Jesus in his blessed kingdom. To whom be glory 

and majesty for ever. Amen.^ 

The Confession of the Faith of John Warne, citizen of London, 
Avhich he wrote the da3'' before he was burned, the 30th day of 
May, A.D. 1.555. 

" I believe in God the Father Almighty, and Maker of heaven and earth." 
A Father, because he is the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is the ever- 
lasting Word, whom before all worlds he hath begotten of himself, which Word 
was made flesh, and therein also manifested to be his Son ; in whom he hath 
adopted us to be his children, the inheritors of his kingdom — and therefore he 
is our Father : an Almighty God, because he hath of nothing created all tilings 
visible and invisible, both in heaven and in earth, even all creatures contained 
therein, and governeth them. 

" And in Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord." 

The eternal Word, perfect God with his Father, of equal power in all things, 
of the same substance, of like glory, by whom all things were made, and have 
life, and without whom nothing hveth : he was made also perfect man; and so, 
being very God and very man in one person, is the only Saviour, Redeemer, 
and Ransomer of them which were lost in Adam our forefather. He is the only 
mean of our deliverance, the hope of our health, the surety of our salvation. 

" Which was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary." 
According to the Father's most merciful promise, this eternal Son of God, 
forsaking the heavenly glory, humbled himself to take flesh of a virgin, accord- 
ing to the Scriptures, uniting the substance of the Godhead to the substance of 

(I) Accordinf: to Stvype, in tlie Memorials under Mary, Warne's wife was burnt at Stratford Bow 
on the 2lid of Auyust in tliis same year. — Kd. 



the maiiliood, which he took of tlie substance of tliat hk^ssed Virgin Mary in Mary. 

one person, to become therein the very Messiah, the anointed Kin<; and Priest, 

forever appointed to pacify the father's wrath, wliich was justly gone out A.I). 
against us all for our sin. l.j.'j.'j. 

" Suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried, and de- 
scended into hell." 

He was arraigned before Pontius Pilate the ruler of Jewry ; and so unjustly 
accused of many crimes, that the ruler judged him innocent, and sought means 
to deliver him; but, contrary to known justice, he did let go Barabbas whicli 
had deserved death, and delivered Christ to be crucified, who deserved no death : 
which doth declare unto us manifestly, that he suffered for our sins, and was 
buffeted for our offences, as the ])rophets do witness ; thereby to liavc it mani- 
fested to all men, that he is that Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the 
world. Tiierefore, suffering for our sins, he received and did bear our deserved 
condemnation, the pains of death, the taste of abjection, the very terror of hell ; 
yielding his spirit to his Father, his body to be biu-ied in earth. 

" The third day he rose again from death to life." 

To make full and perfect the whole work of our redemption and justification, 
the same crucified body which was laid in the grave, was raised up again the 
third day from death, by the power of his Father, and glory of his Godhead : he 
became the firstfruits of the resurrection, and got the victory of death, that all 
by him might be raised up from death. Through whom all true penitent sin- 
ners may now boldly come unto the Father, and have remission of their sins. 

" He ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father 

After that in his death and resurrection he had conquered sin, death, and the The 
devil, and had been conversant forty days in the earth, being seen of the a])o- '"••"'"ph- 
stles and more than five hundred brethren at once, in the same body in which torVovcr 
he wrought the work of our salvation, he ascended into heaven with eternal death, 
triumph, for the victory over death, sin, hell ; leaving the passage open, by 
which all true believers may and shall enter into his kingdom, where he now 
sitteth at his Father's right hand ; that is to say, in power and glory equal, in 
majesty co-eternal. 

" From thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead." 

He shall appear again in great glory to receive his elect unto himself, and to 
put his enemies under his feet ; changing all living men in a moment, and raising 
up all that be dead, that all may be brought to his judgment. In this shall he 
give each man according to his deeds. They which have followed him in rege- 
neration, which have their sins washed away in his blood, and are clothed with 
his righteousness, shall receive the everlasting kingdom, and reign with him for 
ever; and they which, after the race of the cornipt generation of Adam, liave 
followed flesh and blood, shall receive everlasting damnation with the devil and 
his angels. 

" I believe in the Holy Ghost." 

I do believe that the Holy Ghost is God, the third person in Trinity, in unity 
of the Godhead equal with the Father and the Son, given through Cin-ist to in- 
habit our spirits, by which we are made to feel and uiulerstand tiie great ])ower, 
virtue, and loving kindness of Christ our Lord. For he ilhniiinateth, quickcnetii, 
and certifieth our spirit, that by him we are sealed up unto the day of redemp- 
tion ; by whom we are regenerate and made new creatures, so that by him and 
through him we do receive all the abundant goodness promised us in Jesus 

"The holy catholic church." 

This is a holy number of Adam's posterity, elected, gathered, washed, and The 
purified by the blood of the Lamb from the beginning of the world ; and is dis- '■''"''^''• 
persed through the same by the tyranny of Gog and Magog ; tliat is to say, the 
Turk and his tyranny, and Antichrist otherwise named the bishop of Rome, and 
his angels, as this day also doth teach. 


Marv- " The communion of saints." 

^ D Which most holy congregation (being, as Paul teacheth, builded upon the 

1555 foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ being the head corner stone), 

'— though it be by the tyranny of Satan and his ministers persecuted, some by 

imprisonment, some by death, and some by other afflictions and painful tor- 
ments ; yet doth it remain in one perfect unity, both in faith and fellowship : 
which unity is knit in an unspeakable knot, as well of them which are departed 
from this mortal life, as of them which now be living, and hereafter shall be in 
the same, and so shall continue until they all do meet in the kingdom, where 
the head Jesus Christ, with all these his holy members (of which number 
through Christ I assuredly believe that I am one), shall be fully comDlete, knit, 
and united together for evermore. 

" The forgiveness of sins." 

Remis- I do beheve that my sins, and all their sins which do rightly believe the holy 

s'"" o"ly Scripture, are forgiven only through Jesus Christ, of whom only I do profess 

chd^f. ' that I have my whole and full salvation and redemption ; which, St. Paul saith, 

Cometh not through our works and deservings, but freely by grace, lest any 

should boast himself. Through the blood of his cross all things in heaven and 

earth are reconciled, and set at peace with the Father; without him no heavenly 

life is given, nor sin forgiven. 

" The resurrection of the body." 
Rcsur- 1 do believe, that by the same my Saviour Christ, I and all men shall rise 

again from death ; for he, as St. Paul saith, is risen again from the dead, and 
is become the firstfruits of them which sleep. For by a man came death, and 
by a man cometh the resurrection from death. This man is Christ, through the 
power of whose resurrection I believe that we all shall rise again in these our 
bodies; the elect clothed with immortality, to live with Christ for ever: the 
reprobate also shall rise immortal, to live with the devil and his angels in death 

'' And the life everlasting." 
Life and Through the same Jesus, and by none other, I am sure to have life ever- 
salvation Jesting. He only is the way and entrance into the kingdom of heaven : " For 
faith in SO God loved the world, that he did give his only Son Jesus Christ, to the end 
Christ. ti^a^t so many as do believe in him, might have everlasting life." The which I 
am sure to possess, so soon as I am dissolved, and departed out of this taber- 
nacle ; and in the last day shall both body and soul possess the same for ever, 
to the which God grant all men to come. 
Two Sa- I believe that the sacraments, that is to say, of baptism and of the Lord's 
craments Supper, are seals of God's most merciful promises towards mankind. In bap- 
New'res- 1'^"^' '"^^ ^7 ^^^^ outward creature of water I am washed from the filthiness which 
lament, hangeth on my flesh; so do I assuredly believe, that I am, by Christ's blood, 
washed clean from my sins, through which I have sure confidence of my certain 
salvation. In the partaking of the Lord's Supper, as I receive the substance of 
bread and wine (the nature of which is to strengthen the body), so do I, by 
faith, receive the redemption wrought in Christ's body broken on the cross, life 
by his death, resurrection by his resurrection ; and in sum, all that ever Christ 
in his body suffered for my salvation, to the strengthening of my faith in the 
same. And I believe, that God hath appointed the eating and drinking of the 
creatures of bread and wine in his holy supper, according to his word, to move 
and to stir up my mind to believe these articles above written. 

This is my faith ; this do I believe ; and I am content by God's grace to con- 
firm and seal the truth of the same with my blood. 

By me, John Warne, 

A Letter of Jolm Cardmakcr to a certain Friend of his. 

The peace of God be with you : — You shall right well pei-ceive that I am not 
gone back, as some men do report me, but am as ready to give my life, as any of 
my brethren that arc gone before me ; although by a policy I have a little pro- 

(1) Johniii 


longed it, and that for the best, as already it appearcth unto nie, and shall Mary 

shortly appear unto all. That day that I recant any point of doctrine, I sliall — - 

suffer twenty kinds of death, tlie Lord being mine assistance ; as 1 doubt not but A. 1). 
he will. Commend me to my friend, and tell liim no less. This the Lord 1555. 
strengthen you, me, and all his elect. My riches and poverty is as it was wont 
to be, and I have learned to rejoice in poverty as well as in riches, for tliat 
count I now to be very riches. Thus fore ye well in Christ. Salute all my 
brethren in my name. I have conferred with some of my adversaries, learned 
men, and I find that they be but sophists and shadows. 

A Note concerning Master Cardmaker, and one Beard, a Promoter. 

Master Cardmaker being condemned, and m Newgate, one Beard, a pro- 
moter, came to him two or three days before he was burned, and said thus 
imto liim : 

Beard : — " Sir, I am sent unto you by the council, to know whether ye will 
recant or no?" 

Cardmaker : — " From which council are ye come ? I think ye are not come 
nor yet sent from the queen's council, but rather from the commissioners, unto 
whom (as I suppose) ye belong. And whereas ye would know, whether I will 
recant or no, thus I pray you report of me to those who ye said sent you. I 
know you are a tailor by your occupation, and have endeavoured yourself to be 
a cunning workman, and thereby to get your living : so / have been a preacher 
these twenty years, and ever since that God, by his great mercy, hath opened 
mine eyes to see his eternal truth, I have, by his grace, endeavoured myself to 
call upon him, to give me the true understanding of his holy word ; and I thank 
him for his great mercy. I hope I have discharged my conscience in the 
setting forth of the same, to tliat little talent that I have i-eceived." 

Beard : — " Yea, sir ; but what say you to the blessed sacrament of the altar?" 

Cardmaker : — " I say (and mark it well), that Christ, the night before his 
bitter passion, ordained the holy and blessed communion, and hath given com- 
mandment, tliat his death should be preached before the receiving thereof; in 
remembrance of his body broken, and his precious blood shed, for the forgive- 
ness of our sins, to as many as faithfully believe and trust in him." 

And furthermore, to conclude the matter briefly with him, he asked of him. Judgment 
Whether the sacrament he spake of, had a beginning or no? Wliereunto when J?*"^'""^' 
he had granted and affirmed the same so to be, then master Cardmaker again ment. 
thus inferred thereupon : 

" If the sacrament," said he, " as you confess, have a beginning and an 
ending, then it cannot be God ; for God hath no beginning nor ending :" and so 
willing him well to note the same, he departed from him. 

The 5tli day of June, [there were letters sent to] master secretary 
Bourne, the master of the Rolls, sir Francis Englefield, sir Richard 
Read, and Dr. Hughes, authorizing them, or two or three of them at 
the least, to proceed to examination of Benger, Gary, D * * *, and 
Field, upon such further points as they shall gather out of their 
former confessions, touching their lewd and vain practices of calculat- 
ing or conjuring, presently sent unto them with the said letters. 

The 7th day of June there was another letter to sir John Tre- 
gonwell ; willing him to join in commission with the said lord North, 
and others above named, about the examination of the said ])artics 
and others, for conjuring and witchcraft. And the 29th of August, 
Gary and D * * * were set at liberty upon bonds for their good 
appearing until Ghristmas after. 

The 12th day of June a letter was sent to the lord treasurer, to 
cause writs to be made to the sheriff of Sussex, for the burning and 
executing of Derike a brewer, at Lewes, and other two, the one at 
Stennintr, the other at Ghicliester. 


Mary. The 23(1 of Juiie a letter was sent to Bonner, to examine a report 
A. D. given to the council of four parishes within the soke of Essex, that 
1555. should still use the English service ; and to punish the offenders, if 
any such be. 

€[)£ ^tocp Of 3lDl)n ?CcDeIen anD Sloljn ^im.b'on, HaactpciS, 


With master Cardmaher and John Warne, upon the same day, 
and in the same company, and for the same cause, were also con- 
demned John Ardeley and John Simson ; which was the 25th day of 
May. But before Ave come to the story of them, first here is to be 
noted the copy of the king and queen"'s letter, directed from the 
court the same clay, and sent by a post early in the morning to the 
bishop, in tenor and form as followeth. 

A Letter of the King and Queen to Bonner. 

To the right reverend father in God, our right trusty and well-beloved, the 
bishop of London. 
Right reverend father in God, right trusty and well-beloved, we greet you 
well. And whereas of late we addressed our letters to the justices of peace 
within every of the counties of this our realm, whereby, amongst other instruc- 
tions given them for the good order and quiet government of the country round 
about them, they are willed to have a special regard unto such disordered 
persons as (forgetting their duties towards God and us) do lean to any erroneous 
and heretical opinions, refusing to show themselves conformable to the catholic 
religion of Christ's church ; wherein if they cannot by good admonitions and 
fair means reform them, they are willed to deliver them to the ordinary, to be 
by him charitably travailed withal, and removed (if it may be) from their 
naughty opinions ; or else, if they continue obstinate, to be ordered according 
to the laws provided in that behalf : understanding now, to our no little marvel, 
that divers of the said disordered pei'sons, being by the justices of peace, for 
their contempt and obstinacy, brought to the ordinaries to be used as is afoi-e- 
said, are either refused to be received at their hands, or, if they be received, are 
neither so travailed with as christian charity requireth, nor yet proceeded withal 
according to the order of justice, but are suffered to continue in their errors, to 
the dishonour of Almighty God, and dangerous example of others ; like as we 
find this matter very strange, so we have thought convenient both to signify this 
our knowledge, and therewith also to admonish you to have in this behalf such 
regard henceforth to the office of a good pastor and bishop, as when any such 
^"a^ry" offenders shall be by the said officers or justices of peace brought unto you, 
stirreth you to use your good wisdom and discretion in procuring to remove them from 
Bonner to jj^^jj. errors, if it may be ; or else in proceeding against them (if they shall con- 
Docent tinue obstinate) according to the order of the laws ; so as through your good 
blood. furtherance, both God's glory may be better advanced, and the commonwealth 
more quietly governed. 

Given under our signet, at our honour of Hampton-court, the 21th of 
May, the first and second years of our reigns. 

This letter thus coming from the court to the bishop, made liim 
the more earnest and hasty to the condemnation, as well of others, 
a3 of these men, of whom now we have presently to entreat, of John 
and smi- ^"^sou, I mcau, and John Ardeley ; who being both of one countrv, 
son, hus- and of one town together, and of one trade, that is, being both 
in'the"" husbandmen in the town of Wigborough in Essex, and also almost 
town of Ijq^Ij qI" q^^ jjgp^ gj^^,g ^j^jjj. giiiisoi^ was of the age of thirty-fom-, the 
borough, other of thirty, were brought up both together by the undcr-shcrill 







of Essex, to Bonner bishop of London, upon the accusation (as in 
tliat time it was called) of heresy. 

As touching the order and manner of their examinations before the 
bishop ; as the articles ministered against them were much like, so 
their answers again unto the same were not much discrepant in man- 
ner and form ; as out of the bishop's own registers here Ajlloweth 

Articles objected against John Simson and John Ardclcy, of the 
Parish of Wigborough the Great, in Essex, Husbandmen, by 
Bonner bishop of London, at Fulham, May 22, A.D. 155;"). 

I. First, that thou John Simson [or John Ardeley] Imsbanclman, of the age 
of thirty-four years or thereabout, wast and art of tlie parish of Great Wig- 
Lorough, witliin tlie diocese of London ; and thou hast not believed, nor dost 
believe, that there is here in earth one catholic and universal whole church, 
which doth hold and believe all the faith and religion of Christ, and all the 
necessary articles and sacraments of the same. 

II. Item, That thou hast not believed, nor dost believe, that tliou art necessarily 
bounden, under the pain of damnation of thy soul, to give full faith and cre- 
dence unto the said catholic and universal church, and to the religion of the 
same, in all necessary points of the said faith and religion, without wavering or 
doubting in the said faith or religion, or in any part thereof. 

III. Item, That thou hast not believed, nor dost believe, that that faith and The 
religion, which both the church of Rome, Italy, Spain, England, France, Ire- fhurclics 
land, Scotland, and all other churches in Europe, being true members and parts ifah"""^' 
of the said catholic and universal church, do believe and teach, is botli agreeing Spain, 
with the said catholic and universal church, and the faith and religion of ^"''°''"^r 
Christ, and also is the very true faith and religion which all christian people countries 
ought to believe, obsei've, follow, and keep ; but, contrariwise, thou liast be- '" *•"- 
lieved, and dost believe, that that faith and religion, which the said church of ^°^'^' 
Rome, and all the other churches aforesaid have heretofore believed, and do 

now believe, is false, erroneous, and naught, and in no wise ought to be be- 
lieved, observed, kept, and followed of any christian man. 

IV. Item, That albeit it be true, that in the sacrament of the altar there is The sub- 
in substance the very body and blood of Christ under the forms of bread aiul stance of 
wine, and albeit that it be so believed, taught, and preached undoubtedly in tiie i,ndv^|,'n. 
said church of Rome, and all other the churches aforesaid, yet thou hast not so tier forms 
believed, nor dost so believe; but, contrariwise, thou hast and dost believe '''^'"'^.^'' 
firmly and stedfastly, that there is not in the said sacrament of the altar, under **" 

the said forms of bread and wine, the very substance of Christ's body and blood, 
but that there is only the substance of material and common bread and wine, 
with the forms thereof; and that the said material and common bread and wine 
are only the signs and tokens of Christ's body and blood, and by faith to be re- 
ceived, only for a remembrance of Christ's passion and death, without any such 
substance of Christ's body and blood at all. 

v. Item, That thou hast believed and taught, and thou hast openly spoken, Transub- 
and to thy power maintained and defended, and so dost believe, think, main- sta"tia- 
tain, and'defend, that the very triie receiving and eating of Christ's body and ^ien. 
blood, is only to take material and common bread, and to break it, and to dis- 
tribute it amongst the people ; remembering thereby the passion and death of 
Christ only. 

VI. Item, That thou hast likewise believed, taught, and spoken, that the The mass 
mass now used in this realm of England, and other the churches aforesaid, is j>j»>n>'n<'- 
abominable and naught, and full of idolatry, and is of the ordinance of the pope, 

and not of the institution of Christ, and hath no goodness in it, saving the 
" Gloria in excelsis," and the Epistle and the (Jospel ; and that therefore thou 
hast not, nor wilt not come to be ])rcsent at the mass, nor receive the sacrament 
of the altar, or any otiicr sacrament of the church, as they are now used in this 
realm of England, and other the churches aforesaid. 

VII. Item, That thou hast in times past believed precisely, and obstinately 
affirmed and said, and so dost now believe and think, that auricular confession 


Mauj. is not needful to be made unto the priest, but it is a thing superfluous and vain, 

■ and ought only to be made to God, and to none other person : and likewise 

-^•■^- thou hast condemned as superfluous, vain, and unprofitable, all the ceremonies 
1555. of the church, and the service of the same, and hast said, that no service in the 

church ought to be said but in the English tongue ; and if it be otherwise said, 

it is unlawful and naught. 

The Answers of John Simson, and also of John Ardcley, to the 
foresaid Articles. 

To the first, they believe, that here in earth there is one catholic and univer- 
sal holy church, which doth hold and believe as is contained in the first article ; 
and that this church is dispersed and scattered abroad throughout the whole 

To the second, they believe, that they be bound to give faith and credence 
unto it, as is contained in the second article. 

To the third, as concerning the faith and religion of the church of Rome, of 

Italy, Spain, France, Ireland, Scotland, and other churches in Europe, they say, 

they have nothing to do v/ith that faith and religion : h^it as concerning the 

faith and religion of England, that if the said Church of England be ruled and 

governed by the Word of Life, then the Church of England hath the faith and 

religion of the catholic church, and not otherwise ; and do say also, that if the 

Church of England were ruled by the Word of Life, it would not go about to 

condemn them and others of this heresy. 

Transub- To the fourth they answer, that in the sacrament, commonly called the sacra- 

stantia- ment of the altar, there is very bread and very wine, not altered or changed in 

iiied'*'' substance in any wise ; and that he that receiveth the said bread and wine, doth 

spiritually and by faitli only receive the body and blood of Christ ; but not the 

very natural body and blood of Christ in substance under the forms of bread 

and wine. 

To the fifth they say, they have answered, answering to the said fourth arti- 
cle, and yet nevertheless they say, that they have believed, and do believe, that 
in the sacrament of the altar there is not the very substance of Christ's body 
and blood, but only the substance of the natural bread and wine. 
The mass To the sixth they say, that they believe, that the mass is of the pope, and not 
detested, ^f Christ ; and therefore it is not good, nor having in it any goodness, saving 
the " Gloria in excelsis," the Epistle and Gospel, the Creed, and the Pater-noster ; 
and for this cause they say they have not, nor will not, come and hear mass. 

To the seventh, John Ardeley answereth and saith, that he believeth the 
contents of the same to be true ; but John Simson doth answer, that he is not 
as yet fully resolved with himself, what answer to make thereunto ; and further, 
that as touching the common and daily service said and used in the church, he 
saith, that he never said, that service in the church ought to be said but in the 
English tongue, nor yet he never said, that if it be otherwise said and used than 
in English, it is unlawful and naught. 

John Ardeley and John Simson. 

Another Thus these articles being to them objected, and their answers 

ancrJf made unto the same, as before, the bishop, according to the old trade 

andArTe- °^ ^^^ consistory court, respited them to the afternoon, bidding 

leybeiore tliem to make their appearance the said day and place, between the 

tehop- hours of two and three. At what time the said bishop, repeating 

again the said articles unto them, and beginning with John Ardeley, 

did urge and solicitate him, according to his manner of words, to 


Tiie To whom Jonn Ardeley again, constantly standing to his professed 

Arridef religion, gave answer in words as followeth : " My lord," quoth he, 

to rson- u neither" you, nor any other of your religion, is of the catholic 

church ; for you be of a false faith : and I doubt not but you shall 

be deceived at length, bear as good a face as ye can. Ye Avill shed 


the innocent blood, and you have killed many, and yet go about to Uary. 
kill more,"" etc. "TTi" 

And added further, saying, " If every hair of my head were a man, I 1555'. 

would suffer death in the opinion and faith that I am now in." These 

with many other words he spake. Then the bishop yet demanded if 
he would relinquish his erroneous opinions (as he callctl them), and 
be reduced again to the unity of the church. He answered as fol- 
loweth, " No ! God foreshield that I should so do, for then I should 
lose my soul." 

After this, the said bishop, asking John Ardeley (after his formal Ardeiey 
manner) if he knew any cause why he should not have sentence con- slmsml"" 
demnatory against him ; so read the condemnation, as he also did conderan- 
against John Sirason, standing likewise in the same cause and con- 
stancy with John Ardeley : which was done the 25th day of May. 
And so were they both committed to the secular power (that is, to 
the hands of the sheriffs), to be conveyed to the place where they 
should be executed. But before I come to their execution, here is 
not to be passed a thing not unworthy the looking upon, which hap- 
pened in the closing up the examination of these two innocent 
martyrs of God, which is this : 

At the time of the examination of this Simson and John Ardeley 
aforesaid, there was assembled such a great mvdtitude of people, that 
because the consistory was not able to hold them, they Avere fain to 
stand in the church, near about the said consistory, waiting to see 
the prisoners when they should depart. It happened in the mean 
time, that the bishop, being set in a heat with the stout and bold 
answers of the said two prisoners (especially of John Simson), burst 
out in his loud and angry voice, and said, " Have him aAvay ! have 
him away V 

Now the people in the church, hearing these words, and thinking 
(because the day was far spent) that the prisoners had their judgment, 
they, being desirous to see the prisoners had to Newgate, severed 
themselves, one running one way, another another way, Avhich caused 
such a noise in the church, that they in the consistory were all amazed, 
and marvelled what it should mean : wherefore the bishop also, being 
somewhat afraid of this sudden stir, asked what there was to do.' 
The standers-by answering said, that there was like to be some 
tumult ; for they Avere together by the ears. 

When the bishop heard this, by and by his heart was in his heels, ,^1;!,'^^^;^ 
and leaving his seat, he with the rest of the court betook them to ofitoiui 
their legs, hastening with all speed possible to recover the door that ""' 
went into the bishop's house : but the rest, being somewhat lighter 
of foot than my lord, did sooner recover the door, and thronging 
hastily to get in, kept the bishop still out, and cried, " Save my lord ! 
save my lord !" but meaning yet first to save themselves, if any 
danger should come ; whereby they gave the standers-by good matter 
to laugh at ; resembling in some ])art a spectacle not much unlike to 
the old stagers at Oxford, worse feared than hurt, when the church 
there was noised to be set on fire, whereof ye may read before. But 
of this matter enough. 

Now John Simson and John Ardeley, being delivered (as is afnrc 

(1) Note the sudden fear of Bonner. 





Mary, said) to tlic slicrifFs, Avere sliortly after sent down from London to 
Essex, where both they, in one day, which was about the 10th of 
June) were put to death, albeit in several places ; for John Simson 
suffered at Rochford : John Ardeley the same day Avas had to Ray- 
leigh, where he finished his martyrdom most quietly in the quarrel of 
Christ's gospel. 


For the better consideration of the rigorous cruelty of these 
catholic days, this is furthermore not unworthy of all men to be noted 
and known to all posterity, concerning the examinations of this 
Ardeley and his company, how that they, being brought before the 
commissioners, were by them greatly charged of stubbornness and 
vain-glory. Unto whom they answered in defence of their own sim- 
plicity, that they were content willingly to yield to the queen all their 
goods and lands, so that they might be suffered to live under her, in 
keeping their conscience free from all idolatry and papistical religion. 
Yet this would not be granted, although they had offered all to their 
heart-blood ; so greedy and so thirsty be these persecutors, of christian 
blood. The Lord give them repentance if it be his will, and keep 
from them the just reward of such cruel dealing ! Amen. 

CQe n'Diculou^ K^anDling and ^cocecDing of %\i\m SBonncr anD fjijS 
jjaate^ agam^'t 3Iol)n Cooley, 


About the same time of the burning of these two aforesaid, in the 
beginning of the said month of June, fell out a solemn process, and 
much ado was made about the pope's spiritualty against John Tooley, 
in a case of heresy. The story is this : There Avas about the time 
that the Spaniards began first to keep a stir in England, one John 
Tooley, a citizen and poulterer in London, Avho conspired Avith certain 
other of his society, to rob a Spaniard at St. James's : and although 
the deed were heinous and Avicked of itself, yet Avas it aggravated and 
made greater than it Avas by others, being committed against such a 
person, and against such a country, Avhich both the queen and her 
whole court did highly favour. The robbery being knoAvn, and 
brought into judgment, this Tooley Avas found guilty, and judged to 
be hanged, Avhereas notwithstanding in this realm there arc many 
more thefts committed, than thieves executed. 

The foresaid Tooley being led to the gallows (Avhich stood fast by 
Charing Cross) a little before he died, standing upon the cart, read 
a certain prayer in a printed book, and tAvo other prayers Avritton in 
tAvo several papers : Avho then, having the halter about his neck, 
desired the people there present to pray for him, and to bear him 
died7 Avitness that he died a true christian man, and that he trusted to be 
saved only by the merits of Christ's passion, and shedding of his 
precious blood ; and not by any masses or trcntals, images or saints, 
Avhich were (as he said) mere idolatry and superstition, and devised 
by the bishop of Rome : and as tlu^ same Tooley, and tAvo other his 






fellows which were there hanficcl with him, did steal and rob for Mar^. 
covetousness, so the bishop of Rome did sell his masses and trcntals, ~T~iT~ 
with siich other paltry, for covetousness; and there bcinfj in a great \i)C,ri 
anger (as appeared) against the bishop of Rome, spake with a luud 
voice tliese words following : " From the tyranny of the bishop of 
Rome, and all his detestable enormities ; from false doctrine and 
heresy, and from the contempt of thy word and commandment, good 
Lord deliver us !" 

And then adding further to the same, he spake unto the people, — 
"All you that be true christian men, say with me. Amen." And 
immediately thereupon three hundred persons and more, to the judg- 
ment and estimation of those that were there present, answered and 
said, " Amen," three times together at the least.' 

After this it happened, that when Tooley had read the bill the first 
time, it fell from him, and a certain young man (who was thought to 
be a prentice) stooped down and took up the bill, and climbed up 
by the cart, and delivered it unto Tooley again, which he again did 
read to the people. That done, he delivered unto one of the 
marshal's officers the book aforesaid, and willed him to deliver it unto 
one Haukes, saying, that it was his book. Furthermore, he deli- 
vered one of the prayers, wi-itten in a paper, to one Robert Bromley 
sergeant, who desired to have it of him. Upon the top of which 
bill was written a line, containing these words, " Beware of Anti- 
christ ;" and subscribed underneath, " Per me Thomam Harold, 
prisoner in the Marshalsea, enemy to Antichrist." For the bill afore- 
said, Robert Bromley was brought afterward " coram nobis ;" and was 
fain to ask pardon of the bishop, and to detest all the words of Tooley, 
and glad so to escape. 

Thus while Tooley had made his prayers, as is abovesaid, to be 
delivered from the pope's tyranny, by the same prayers he fell into 
great tyranny. For so soon as the bruit of this fact came unto the 
ears of the priests and mitred prelates, they were not a little mad 
thereat, thinking it not tolerable that so great a reproach should be a council 
done against the holy father. Calling therefore for a council togc- ifl^ll^i 
ther, as though it had been a matter of great importance, Toolcy's tooley. 
talk at his death was debated among themselves. 

At last, after much pro and contra, they all consented to those 
men's judgments, who thought it meet that the violating of the pope's 
holiness should be revenged with fire and faggot ._ And I do easily 
believe that cardinal Pole was no small doer in this sentence ; for as f'^rdinai 
Winchester and Bonner did always thirst after the blood of the ^"vluiocr 
living, so Pole's lightning was for the most part kindled against the iU^"'";;;^ 
dead ; and he reserved this charge only to himself, I know not for mean's 
what purpose, except peradventure, being loth to be so cruel as the 
other, he thought nevertheless by this means to discharge his duty ^^^^^ 
towards the pope. By the same cardinal's like lightning and fiery fist pha^-ius. 
the bones of Martin Bucerand Paulus Phagius, which had lain almost ^-'y^^^ 
two years in their graves, were taken up and burned at Cambridge, Tooi..y. 
as Tooley's carcase was here at London. And besides this, because forhcr 
he would show some token of his diligence in both universities, he ;;;■;.;'' 
caused Peter Martyr's wife, a woman of worthy memory, to be digged death. 

(I) Ex Ucgislio. 


Mary, out of thc chuTcli-yard, and to be buried on the dungliill. Of these 
^ £) two prodigious acts ye shall hear more hereafter. But now to our 
1555. purpose of Tooley, who, having ended his prayer, was hanged and put 
into his grave, out of which he was digged again, by the command- 
ment of the bishops ; and because he was so bold to derogate the 
authority of the bishop of Rome, at the time of his death, it pleased 
them to judge and condemn him as a heretic, upon the command- 
ment of the council's letter, as here appeareth. 

A Letter sent unto Bonner, Bishop of London, from the Council, 
concerning Tooley. 

After our very hearty commendations to your lordship, understanding that 
of late amongst others that have suffered ahout London for their offences, one 
lewd person that was condemned for felony died very obstinately, professing at 
the time of his death sundry lieretical and erroneous opinions; like as we think 
it not convenient that such a matter should be overpassed without some 
example to the world, so have we thought good to pray your lordsliip to cause 
further inquiry to be made thereof, and thereupon to proceed to the making 
out of such process as by the ecclesiastical laws is provided in that behalf. 
And so we bid your lordship heartily well to fare. 

From Hampton Court, the 28th of April, 1555. 

Your lordship's loving friends, 

Step. Winton, Chancellor. R. Rochester. 

F. Shrewsbury. William Peter. 

John Gage. Rich. Southwell. 

Thomas Cheney. 

Anon after, a citation was set up upon PauPs church door under 
the bishop of London's great seal ; the tenor Avhereof here cnsueth. 

The Writ or Mandate of Bonner, Bishop of London, set up at 
Charing Cross, on PauFs church door, and at St. Martin's in the 
Field, for the citing and further inquiring out of the case of John 

A citation Edmund, by the sufferance of God bishop of London, to all and singular 
Slit up by pax-sons, vicars, curates, and others, clerks and learned men, being within our 
Latin, diocese of London ; and specially unto Richard Clunie, our sworn suninor, 
com- greeting, salutation, and benediction. Forsomuch as it is come to our hearing 
his'kii"^ by common fame, and the declaration of sundry credible pei-sons, that one John 
and kins- Tooley, late citizen and poulterer of London, thc son of jierdition and iniquity, 
folks to coming to the profundity of malice in the selfsame time in the which he should 
iiim what go to hanging, according to the laws of the realm, for the great theft lately by 
tiiey him committed, at which time chiefly he should have cared for the wealth of 

foretiie"^ his soul, and to have died in the unity of the catholic church, did utter divers 
sentence and sundry damnable, blasphemous, and heretical opinions and errors, utterly 
given, or contrary and repugnant to the verity of the catholic faith and unity of the 
hold their same ; and did exhort, stir up, and encourage the people, there standing in 
peace for great multitude, to hold and defend the same errors and opinions : and morc- 
"""■ over, certain of the people there standing (as it did appear), infected with errors 
and heresies, as fautors and defenders of the said John, did confirm and give 
express consent to the foresaid words, propositions, and affirmations; which 
thing we do utter with sorrow and bitterness of heart : 

We therefore, the foresaid Edmund and bishop abovesaid, not being able, nor 
daring' to pass over in silence, nor wink at the foresaid heinous act, lest by 
our negligence and slackness the blood of them might be required at our hands 
at the most terrible day of judgment, desiring to be certified and informed 

(1) Note how Conner licre ]irctendeth cotiscifiuc, in proscculiiig this matter, wlicn only he was 
commanded unlo it by the couiirll's letters. 


whether the premises declared unto us, be of the truth, and lest that any scabbed Af,,rtj 

sheep, lurking amongst the simple flock of our Lord, do infect them 'with pes- — 

tiferous heresy: to you therefore we straitly charge and conmiand, that you A.I). 
cite, or cause to be cited, all and singular, having or knowing (he truth of tiic 1 ■"'•">■'"'■ 
premises, by setting up this citation upon the church door of St. Martin's in the 
Field, being within our diocese of London, and also upon the cathedral church 
door of St. Paul's in London; leaving there the copy hereof, or by other 
means or ways, the best you can, that this citation and monition may come to 
their knowledge. 

All which and singular, by the tenor of these presents, we cite and admonish 
that they appear, and every one of them do ap])car before us, our vicar general, 
or commissary, whatsoever he be in that behalf, in our cathedral church of St. 
Paul in London, in the consistory place, upon Thursday the 2d day of May 
now next ensuing, betwixt the hours of nine and ten of the clock in the fore- 
noon the same day, to bear witness of the truth in this behalf, and to depose 
and declare faithfully the truth that they know or have heard of the premises ; 
and moreover to do and receive what law and reason doth require. 

Further we conuuit unto you as before, and straitly enjoining you do com- Thewifc, 
mand, that ye will generally cite the wife of the said Tooley that is dead, and children,' 
his children, and his kindred by father and mother, his friends and his familiars !i"e|i^'f'' 
in especial, and all other and every of them (if there be any perhaps that desire Tonliy 
to defend and purge the remembrance of the person in the premises), that ye *^'''^''- 
admonish them after the manner and form aforesaid ; whom we likewise, by 
the tenor of these presents, do in such sort cite and monish that they appear 
all, and that every one of them do appear (under pain to be compelled to keep 
silence for ever hereafter in this behalf) before us, or our vicar-general in 
spiritual matters, or such our commissai-y, at the day, hour, and place aforesaid, 
to defend the good name and remembrance of him that is dead, and to say, 
allege, and propose, in due form of law a cause reasonable, if they have or can The oar- 
tell of any, why the said John Tooley that is dead ought not to be determined ""ase i.f 
and declared for such a heretic and excommunicate person, and his remembrance Jutllff 
condemned, in the detesting and condemning of so heinous a deed and crime, from 
and his body or carcase to lack church biu-ial, as a rotten member cut off from christian 
the church, and the same to be committed to the arm and power secular, and 
they compelled hereafter for ever to hold their peace. 

And furthermore, to do, receive, and to suffer as law and reason will, and as 
the quality of such matter, and the nature of themselves do constrain and 
require, and moreover that you cite and monish, after the manner aforesaid, all 
and every of the receivers, fautors, and creditors of the said John Tooley that is 
dead, especially if any of them do incline and give consent to those wicked and 
detestable affirmations, propositions, and rehearsals aforesaid, that on this side 
the said Thursday they return and submit themselves unto us, and to the lap 
of the mother holy church ; which thing if they do, we, trusting upon the 
mercy of Almighty God, do promise that we will receive them being penitent The 
for such their errors and faults, with thanks, benignity, mercy, aiul favour, j"^.[l")^, 
to the comfort and health of their own souls, and in that behalf save their liait to 
honesties to the uttermost of our power : otherwise, if they will not provide thus c<itch 
to come of their own accord, but to abide the ordinary process of the law, let *'^y " ''^ 
those men know, that we will punish luore severely this offence, according to trouble. 
the uttermost of the law, and as far as the law will bear it ; and what ye shall 
do in the premises, let him among you, which shall execute this our present 
mandate, certify us, or our vicar-general in spiritual matters, either by his own 
person, or by his letters patent, together with these authentically sealed. 

Dated at London under our seal, the last day of April, 1555, and of our 
translation the 10th. 

When tlic time of this citation -was expired, and tliis Tooley being Tooiey 
cited did not appear, next in order of law came tlie ,';iispension T^'lTatx- 
(whcrcas one suspension liad been enonuli for liim) ; and after that [,"J'i',"Jj; 
Cometh tlic excommunication, that is, that no man sliould eat and 
drink with him ; or if any met him by the way, he should not l)id 
him f^ood morrow ; and besides that, he should be excluded from the 

94 ruocEss against john tooley after his death. 

Mary, communlon of the church. *AncU why not, I pray you ? For the 
i^ j3 lightning of excommunication, that these popish bishops use, is of 
] 555. itself so subtle and sharp, that it doth not only strike men that be 
living, but doth also pierce through the graves and ghosts of men. 
that be dead.* Thesfe things being prepared in such manner, as in 
such cases full wisely they use to do, at length one stood out for the 
nonce, that made answer to certain articles, rehearsed in judgment 
openly, and that in the behalf of the dead man. But when the poor 
dead man could neither speak for himself, nor did (as they said) suf- 
ficiently answer them by the other — to avoid the name of a heretic — 
Witness ^xsi witucsscs Averc provided against him, whose names were Henry 
h?m. Clark esquire, Thomas May keeper of the Marshalsea, Philip Andrew 
under-marshal, William Holingworth fishmonger, William Gellard, 
William Walton chandler, Richard Longman merchant-tailor, Philip 
^ven'^to Britten, John Burton brewer, Thomas Smith sergeant. Then he was 
thesecu- for a hcretic condemned, and so committed to the secular power, 
ar power. j^j^j^g|y ^^ ^^iQ sheriffs of Loudou, who, with the like diligence, went 
about to execute their charge. Therefore receiving the man (being 
suspended, excommunicated, condemned as a heretic, and besides 
that, dead), they laid him on the fire to be burned, namely " ad per- 
petuam rei memoriam," for a continual remembrance thereof: this was 
done the fourth day of June. 

*The^ Depositions or Attestations, producted the 29th day of April, 
1555, before Harpsfield, archdeacon-general, concerning the Words 
of John Tooley, at the time of his Death at Charing Cross. 
Henry Clark, esquire, of the age of thirty-one years, or thereabouts, being 
sworn and examined, saith and deposeth by virtue of his oath : that, upon 
Sunday last past, being the 26th day of April, this deponent was present at 
Charing Cross, in the suburbs of London, and the county of Middlesex, at the 
execution of the said John Tooley and others. At which time the said Tooley, 
after that he had read a certain prayer in a printed book, and his other prayers, 
written in two several papers, then, having the halter about his neck, desired 
the people there present to pray for him, and to bear him witness that he died 
a true christian man ; and that he trusted to be saved, only by the merits of 
Christ's passion, and shedding of his precious blood ; and not by any masses 
or trentals, images or saints, which were (as he said) mere idolatry and super- 
stition, and devised by the bishop of Rome. And as he, the same Tooley, and 
two others, his fellows who were there hanged with him, did steal and rob for 
covetousness, so the bishop of Rome did sell his masses and trentals, with such 
other paltry, for covetousness. And there, being in a great rage and anger, as 
King appeared, spake, with a loud voice, these words following, namely : " From the 
Henry tyranny of the bishop of Rome, and all his detestable enormities ; from false 
Eiglith's doctrine and heresy, and from contempt of thy word and commandment, good 
Litany. Lord deliver us." And then, adding further to the same, he spake unto the 
people : " All you that be true christian men, say with me, ' Amen ;' " and im- 
mediately thereupon, three hundi-ed persons and more, to the judgment and 
estimation of this examinate being there present, answered and said " Amen " 
three times together at the least. And the same Tooley began to repeat, and 
to recite his former words against the pope : and, being stayed, as well by the 
examinate, as by his under-marshal and others, ceased from further rehearsal, 
and so suffered forthwith execution, without any manner of revocation of his 
aforesaid words. 

Thomas May, keeper of the Marshalsea, of the age of thirty years, being 
sworn and examined, saith and deposeth in effect as the first j urate, saving he 

(U See Edition ISfi^, page 1 H4.— Er. 

(2) For tliese dcpusitions of witnesses see E'lition 15C3, pp. 11 H, IMC— Ed. 

Din'osirroNs concernixg john toolkv. 95 

addeth, that the said Tooley had a paper written, wliich he read to the people, nj„ry 
and then tare in pieces, and so tlirew it away : which paper this exaniinate - — - 
gathered up and delivered to my lord chancellor. As for any particular person ^- '^• 
that said "Amen " to Tooley 's words, he knew none. 1555. 

Philip Andrew, under-marshal of the Marshalsea, of the age of fifty-four 
years, sworn and examined, saith and deposeth : that the like words in effect as 
the first jurate deposeth, were told him, standing by ; but he heard them not. 
But when he understood the matter, he went to the said Tooley, and rebuked 
liim in this sort, namely : "Thou whoreson, seditious traitor! thou wert worthy 
to be hanged seven years ago;" and inunediately commanded the cart (being 
under the gallows), to be driven away, and so he and his two fellows were 

William Ilollingworth, fishmonger, of the parish of St. Mary Magdalene in 
Old Fish-street, of the age of forty-eight years, sworn and examined, saith and 
deposeth in effect as the first jurate deposeth : saving he addeth, that the other 
two prisoners being with the said Tooley in the cart imder the gallows, did 
speak the like words which Tooley did (as in the first jurate's depositions), and 
that by Tooley s desire. 

William Gellard, fishmonger, of the parish of St. Nicholas Cole-Abbey, of 
the age of thirty-six years, sworn and examined, saith and deposeth in effect 
as the first jurate deposeth, saving he addeth, that the paper fell out of Tooley 's 
hand ; and one (whom the jurate knew not) gave it to him up again ; which 
tlie said Tooley did read the second time Avith a loud voice, and one prisoner 
with him ; and the people answered " Amen " again. And so he was hanged 
with his fellows, not revoking his words. 

William Walton, chandler, of the parish of St. Mary Magdalene, in Old Fish- 
street, of the age of forty-nine years, sworn and examined, saith and deposeth 
in effect as the first jurate deposeth : saving he addeth that he (the said Tooley) 
did bid one of his fellows, called White (being in the cart), to stand by, and 
pray with him. And after the words spoken of Tooley against the pope, this 
examinate said to him these words, namely, " Good fellow ! remember thyself, 
for thou art not in the unity of the true faith ; for thou oughtest to pray for the 
pope ;" unto which words Tooley replied and said, " I trust I am in the true 
faith." Then a pursuivant, an elderly man, being by this jurate, desired him 
to let the said Tooley alone, for he had not long to live : in the end the said 
Tooley and his followers said the Pater-noster and Creed in English, and so 
were hanged. 

Richard Longman, merchant tailor, of the parish of St. John's in Walbrook, 
of the age of seventy years, sworn and examined, saith and deposeth in effect 
as the first jurate deposeth : saving he addeth, that he that took up the bill, 
when it fell from Tooley, was in a blue coat; and in giving the bill to the said 
Tooley again, he desired him to read it again; and so he read it, and, without 
revoking the same, he was hanged. 

Philip Britten, dwelling with John Britten, porter of the Marshalsea, of the 
age of nineteen years, sworn and examined, saith and deposeth in effect as the 
first jurate deposeth : saving he addeth that Tooley said, " Those trental masses, 
images, and bulls of lead, it is not them that I bolieve in. And I desire you 
all, good christian people ! not to believe in such things; for they be naught, 
superstitious, and plain idolatry," etc. Also this examinate deposeth that he 
who took Tooley the paper, being fallen, was, as he thought, an apprentice, in a 
bright violet jacket, a black fustian doublet, a black cap, and white hose, with 
ruffed plates of the same cloth. And, after Tooley tare the paper, and threw it 
down, then this examinate took it up, and gave the same to Thomas May, the 
keeper of the Marshalsea. 

John Burton, brewer, of St. Giles without Cripplegate, of the city of London, 
of the age of forty-four years, being sworn and examined, saith and deposeth 
in virtue of his oath : that upon Friday last past, before this his examination, 
and about ten o'clock of the forenoon of the same day, one Robert Bromley, 
a yeoman sergeant, came to this examinate, then sitting in the Compter-gate in 
Bread-street, in company with one Humphery llord, porter of the said Compter, 
and one Smith a sergeant, and others whose names he remembercth not ; and 
then and there declared unto them certain words and communication, which 
the said John Tooley uttered aiul spake the same morning at the time of his 


Afary. execution : which were, amongst others, that he desired the people to bear 

witness that he died a true christian man ; and that then he prayed after this 

-^- ■^- sort, namely, " From tlie tyranny of the bishop of Rome and all his detestable 
^555. enormities, good Lord deliver us." And, after he had so prayed, he desired the 
people to say "Amen." And then, after the said Bromley had thus declared 
unto them, he showed forth to them a certain prayer, written in paper, which 
he said he received of the said Tooley, which prayer was there then read by the 
said Bi-omley or by the said porter (but by which he cannot certainly tell), and 
before the said paper, in the top of the paper was written, " Beware of Anti- 
christ ;" and under the same was written " Per me, Thomam Harolde, prisoner 
in the Marshalsea, and enemy to Antichrist," which words, as he remembereth, 
were read also at the same time ; but the contents of the said paper he doth not 
now remember. And then the said Bromley, at this examinate's request, did 
give unto him the said prayer, which he kept with him until Sunday then next 
following ; upon which Simday, after the sermon, master Chester the sheriif 's 
butler called Arnold, having understood before, this jurate to have the said 
prayer ; and desired this jurate that he might see it : and so this examinate deli- 
vered it to the said butler, which butler delivered it again to the sheriff's 
steward, who did openly read it then in the sheriff's kitchen. And that the 
said butler, hearing the said words read in the beginning and end of the said 
prayer, willed the steward to put them out with a pen and ink ; and thereupon 
this steward did so : which seeing, this examinate did cut it off in the presence, 
and before the said butler, the steward, and also the said Bromley, and the 
said sheriff's youngest son, and others whose names he remembereth not. And, 
after this was done, this ex.iminate received the said paper again, and put it into 
his purse, and kept it with him imtil yesterday ; at which time the said Bromley 
came to this examinate, and received of him the said prayer again, saying that 
he must have it to deliver it to the knight-marshal. 

Thomas Smith, sergeant, of the parish of St. Trinity in the city of London, of 
the age of forty years, being produced and examined, saith and deposeth, in 
effect, as John Burton doth say before in his depositions, agreeing with him 
therein, till he come to the place in the said depositions where it is said, that 
Bromley took John Burton the said prayer, and how he heard that Bromley 
had fetched his paper of John Burton again. Thus this jurate endeth his depo- 
sitions, saving he addeth in the midst of the same, that one Hord should say 
(being at the Compter gate with this examinate, when the paper was read, and 
the manner of Tooley 's death showed), this which followeth : " I cannot see but 
that this man (meaning the said Tooley) died well, and like a christian man ;' 
at which words this jurate rose, and went his way. 

The Examination of Robert Bromley, sergeant, before sir Roger 
Cholmley, knight, and Nicholas Harpsfield, archdeacon of Canter- 
bury, and chancellor to the bishop of London, the last of April, 1 .555. 

Robert Bromley, of London, grocer, and one of the sheriff's officers, of the 
age of twenty-eight years or thereabouts, being sworn and examined, saith 
and deposeth : that the '26th day of April last past, he, being in the Compter 
gate, did see many people run by, and, marvelling whereat they ran, lie went 
up into Cheapside ; and, seeing John Tooley in a cart going to execution, whom 
he hath known these sixteen years, followed him to Charing-cross ; and there, 
being at the place of execution, he heai-d the said Tooley say in cflect as in the 
first jurate's depositions, till that the said first examinate came to the place 
where he deposeth the people to answer "Amen;" of which number this ex- 
aminate confesseth himself to be one. And this jurate further saith, that when 
Tooley had read the bill the first time, it fell from him ; and a certain young 
man to the examinate unknown, who went in a sleeveless coat, and a pair of 
white hose, as he remembereth, stooped down, and took up the bill, and climbed 
up by the cart, and delivered it mito Tooley again ; which he again did read to 
the ])eople. And further this jurate, being examined whether he did not offer 
himself to receive the said book of prayers, he answered no, for the said Tooley 
delivered unto one of the marshal's officers the same book, and willed him to 
deliver it to one Hawkcs, saying that it was his book. Notwithstanding the 
said Tooley delivered unto this examinate one of the prayers written in paper, 


which he desired to have of him, and whicli he kept in his hand a wiiole day ; Ar„ry. 

and saith, tliat he received of liim no otlier papers nor books. Ilowbeit he 

saith, that there was a book or a paper delivered by Tooley (as he supposeth) A.IJ. 
unto one of the marshal's officers, to be delivered to Alexander, the keeper of l-'>-''>5- 
Newgate ; which book was delivered unto the said Alexander, and a copy 
desired thereof, which Alexander would not suffer, but delivered it unto sir 
Richard Read. And further, this examinate saith, tliat there was written one 
line above the said bill containing these words, " Beware of Antichrist," and 
subscribed underneath, " Per me Thoniam Harold, prisoner in the Marshalsea 
and enemy to Antichrist;" which bill, he saith, he did deliver unto Burton 
upon Saturday ; and tlie said Burton had delivered it again upon Monday to 
this examinate, and had cut oft" the said words both above and beneath. And 
further, being examined of the circumstances of Burton's depositions, affirmetli 
the same in effect; saving he added, that Arnold the sheriif"s butler required 
of him to see the bill which, this examinate said, he had delivered to Burton ; 
and at that time he had it not to show him. Also this jurate farther addeth, tliat 
ill the sheriff's kitchen, those words above and beneath the bill were blotted 
out, and delivered to Burton again, who, at the time, did not cat oft' the said 
fore and hinder part of the said paper. 

Upon tlie 3d day of the month of May, in the year of our Lord 1555, in the 
house of master Nicholas Harpsfield, vicar-general, etc., before him, in the pre- 
sence of me Harwood, notary, etc., the deposition of the foresaid examinate was 
acknowledged by the said Robert Bromley, by which acknowledging made, the 
said Bromley said and confesseth, that he is very penitent and sorry for his evil 
and lewd behaviour by him above declared. And saith, that he will not stand 
10 any error, uttered by the said Tooley ; but from the bottom of his heart he 
doth detest and abhor the same. 

By me, Robert Bromley.* 

^[je ^i^to:^ anb uaartprDom of ttje toortfjp ^ccbant of CfjrijfJt, 
€:f) l^aufee?", oScntlcman, 


Immediately after the story of doctor Taylor, mention before was 
made of six men brought and convented before bishop Bonner upon 
the 8th day of February ; the names of which martyrs were Stephen 
Knight, William Pygot, Thomas Tomkins, John Laurence, William 
Hunter. In which number was also Thomas Haukes, and condemned 
likewise with them the .9th day of the foresaid month of February. 
But because his execution did not so shortly follow with theirs, but 
was prolonged to this present 10th day of the month of June, where- 
with we are now in hand, it followcth therefore now consequently to 
enter tractation thereof; first, beginning briefly with his godly con- 
versation and institution of life, then showing of his troubles, also of 
his examinations and conflicts with the bishop and other adversaries, 
according as the order of his story doth require. 

As touching therefore his education and order of life, first he was His nre 
of the country of Essex, born of an honest stock, in calling and pro- veL7i"n 
fession a courtier, brought up daintily from his childhood, and like a 
gentleman. Besides that, he was of such comeliness and stature, so 
well endued with excellent qualities, that he might seem on every 
side a man (as it were) made for the purpose. But his gentle be- 
haviour toward others, and especially his fervent study and singular 
love unto true religion and godliness, did surmount all the rest. 
Wherein as God did singidarly adorn him, even so he, being such a 
valiant martyr of God, may seem to nobilitatc the whole company of 

vol,. VII, H 


Mary, otlicr lioly martyrs, and as a bright star to make tlie ciiurcii of God 
^ J) and his truth, of themselves bright and clear, more gloriously to shine 
15.55. by his example. 
:^^~^ For if the conquests of martyrs are the triumphs of Christ (as St. 
tory of' Ambrose doth notably and truly write), undoubtedly Christ in few 
TthTlk- men hath either conquered more notably, or triumphed more glori- 
chdlt"^ ously, than in this young man : he stood so wisely in his cause, so 

godly in his life, and so constantly in his death. 
Haukes But to the declaration of the matter : first this Haukes, following 
fenic" the guise of the court, as he grcAv in years, entered service with the 
elriVf'^ lord of Oxford, where he remained a good space, being there right 
Oxford, well esteemed and loved of all the household, so long as Edward the 
Sixth lived. But he dying, all things began to go backward, religion 
to decay, godliness not only to wax cold, but also to be in danger 
everywhere, and chiefly in the houses of great men. Haukes, mis- 
liking the state of things, and especially in such men s houses, rather 
than he would change the profession of true godliness which he had 
compeii- tasted, thought to change the place ; and so, forsaking the nobleman's 
felive house, departed thence to his own home, where more freely he might 
him. gjyg liimself to God, and use his own conscience. 

But Avhat paradise in this world shall a man find so secret for him- 
self, Avhither that old wicked serpent cannot creep, Avhereby he may 
have some matter to overthrow the quietness of the godly ? Now in 
Haukes's the mean season (as it happened) Haukes, keeping his house at home, 
thrle had born unto him a young son, whose baptism was deferred to the 
^^^''^ . third week, for that he would not suffer him to be baptized after the 
ened. papistical manner; which tlung the adversaries not able to suiter, 
Brought laying hands upon him, did bring him to the earl of Oxford, there to 
ear^*^ ' be reasoned with, as not sound in religion, in that he seemed to con- 
temn the sacraments of the church. 
Sent up The earl, either intending not to trouble himself in such matters, 
nef°" or else seeing himself not able to weigh with him in such cases of 
religion, sent him up to London with a messenger, and letters ; and 
so, willing to clear his own hands, put him in the hands of Bonner, 
bishop of London ; the contents of which his letter sent to Bonner, 
be these. 

A Letter of the Earl of Oxford to Bonner. 

Most reverend father in God, be it known unto you, that I have sent you 
one Thomas Haukes, dwelling in the county of Essex, who hath a child that 
hath remained unchristened more than three weeks ; who, being upon the same 
examined, hath denied to have it baptized as it is now used in the church ; 
whereupon I have sent him to your good lordship, to use as ye think best, by 
your good discretion. 

When the bishop had perused this letter, and afterward read it to 
master Haukes, he, hearing the same, thought with himself that he 
should not be very well used, seeing he was put to his discretion. 
Then Avrote the bishop a letter again to him that sent the prisoner, 
with many great thanks for his diligence in setting forth the queen's 
proceedings. Then began the bishop to enter communication Avith 
master Haukes, first asking, Avhat should move him to leave his child 
unchristened so long ^ To Avhom master Haukes ansAvered thus again 
as folloAvcth : 


Private Talk or Conference between Haukes and Bonner. ""'" 

Hauhes: — "Because we be bound to do nothing contrary to tlie word Itutb. 
of God." — — — '— 

Bonner : — " Why ! baptism is commanded by the word of God." 
Haukes: — " His institution therein I do not deny." 
Bonner : — " What deny ye then?" 

Haukes : — " I deny all things invented and devised by man." 
Bonner : — " Wliat things be those that be devised by man, that ye be so offend- 
ed withal?" 

Haukes : — " Your oil, cream, salt, spittle, candle, and conjuring of water, etc." Man's in- 
Bonner : — " AVill ye deny that, which all the whole world, and your father mention, 
hath been contented withal?" ^h*; fore- 

Haiikcs : — " What my father and all the whole world have done, I have 
nothing to do withal : but what God hath commanded me to do, to that stand I." 

Bonner : — " The catholic church liath taught it." .pi,,, j.^, 

Haukes: — " What is the catholic chmxh?" tiioiic 

Bonner : — " It is the faitliful congregation, wheresoever it be dispersed '^^''"'^'■■*"- 
tlnoughout the whole world." 

Haukes : — " Who is the head thereof?" 
Boi/ner : — " Christ is the head thereof" 

Haukes : — " Are we taught in Christ, or in the church now?" 
Bonner : — " Have ye not read in John viii. where he said, he would send his 
Comforter, which should teach 3'ou all tilings?" 

Haukes : — " I grant you it is so, that he would send his Comforter — but to 
what end? Forsooth to this end, that he should lead you into all truth and 
verity ; and that is not to teach a new doctrine." 

Bonner : — " Ah, sir? ye are a right scripture-man ; for ye will have nothing 
but the Scripture. There is a great number of your countrymen of your 
opinion. Do you know one Knight and Pygot?" 

Haukes: — " Knight I know, but Pygot I do not know." 
Bonner :■ — " I thought ye were acquainted with him : it seemeth so by your 
judgment. What preachers do ye know in Essex?" 
Haukes : — " I know none." 
Bonner : — " Do ye not know one Baget there?" 
Haukes : — " Yes forsooth, I know him." 
Bonner : — " What manner of man is he ?" 
Haukes : — " An honest man, so far as I know." 
Bonner: — " Do you know him if ye see him?" 
Haukes : — " Yea, that I do." 

Then said he to one of his servants, "Go call me Baget hither." And then 
he said to me, " Ye seem to be a very proud man, and a stubborn." — lie that 
brought me up stood all this while by. 

Haukes : — " What should move your lordship so to say?" 
Bonner : — " Because I see in a man that came with you, much humility and 

Haukes : — " It seemeth your lordship speaketh that to me, because I make Bonner 
no courtesy to you :" — and with that came Baget. Then tlie bishop said to be^eour-'" 
Baget: " How say ye, sir? know ye this man?" tesicd. 

Baget: — " Yea forsooth, my lord:" — witli that Baget and I shook hands. Ba^et 
Then said the bishop to Baget, " Sir, this man liath a child which hath lain brought 
three weeks unchristened (as I have letters to sliow) ; who refuseth to have it ^°M^i\f 
baptized, as it is now used in the church : — how say you thereto ?" Hauke». 

Baget: — " Forsooth, my lord, I say nothing thereto," [with low courtesy to 
the hard ground.] 

Bonner : — " Say you nothing thereto? I will make you tell me whctlier it 
be laudable, and to be frequented and used in the church or not." 

Baget : — " I beseech your lordship to pardon me : he is old enough ; let him 
answer for himself." 

Bonner : — " Ah, sir knave ! are yc at that point with me ?" " Go call me the Bonner 
porter," said he, to one of his men : "Thou shalt sit in the stocks, and have JlJ^e't'-j"' 
nothing but bread and water. 1 perceive I have kept you too well. Have I answer, 
made thus much of yoi:, and have I vou at this point?" 
'11 2 


Mary. Then came the bishop's man, and said, " The porter is gone to London : 

" tlien said the bishop to Baget, " Come with me ;" and he went away with him, 

\'--V ^""^ commanded me away, and bade one of his gentlemen to talk with me (who 

^'^^' was one of his own teaching), who desired, amongst other things, to know of 

Bonner me, with whom I was acquainted in Essex, and what men they were, that were 

taketh j^jy teachers. 

with him Haukes : — " When I see your commission I will make you answer." — And 

aside then immediately came the bishop again : but ere he came, his man and I had 

jurThim. '"^'^'^ ^alk. Then the bishop sat down under a vine in his orchard, and called 

Baget to him, whom he carried away, and brought again ; and called me also, 

and said to Baget : "How say ye now, sir, unto baptism? Say whether it be 

to be frequented and used in the church, as it is now, or no?" 

Baget Baget . — " Forsooth, my lord, I say it is good." 

taught Bonner : — " I befool your heart ; could ye not have said so before ? Ye have 

after^ wounded this man's conscience." Then the bishop turned to me and said, 
Bonner. " How say ye now, sir ? This man is turned and converted." 
Haukes Haukes : — " I build my faith neither upon this man, neither upon you, but 
his^nath '^"^y "P°" Christ Jesus ; who (as Paul saith) is the founder and author of all 
upon no men's faith." 

man. Bonner : — " I perceive ye are a stubborn fellow. I must be glad to work 

another way with you, to win you." 

Haukes: — " Whatsoever ye do, I am ready to suffer it: for I am in your 
hands to abide it." 
Ts for- Bonner : — " Well, ye are so ; come on your ways ; ye shall go in, and I will 

hiddt-n to vise you christianlike : you shall have meat and drink, such as I have in my 


house ; but in any wise talk not.' 


hisiiop's Haukes: — " I purpose to talk nothing but the word of God and truth." 
house. Bo7i7ier : — " I will have no heresy talked on in my house." 

Haukes : — " Why, is the truth become heresj^ ? God hath commanded that 
we should have none other talk in our houses, in our beds, at our meat, and by 
the way, but all truth." 

Bonner: — " If ye will have my favour, be ruled by my counsel." 
Haukes : — " Then I trust you will grant me my request." 
Bonner : — " What is that?" 

Haukes: — "That your doctors and servants give me none occasion : for if 
they do, I will surely utter my conscience." 
Hauises Then commanded he his men to take in Baget, and let not Haukes and him 
and Baget ^q\\^ together. And so thus we departed, and went to dinner ; and I dined at 
rated". t^^^ Steward's table. After dinner, his chaplains and his men began to talk with 
Talk be- me. But amongst all others, there was one Darbishire, principal of Broadgates 
Darb^ ^" Oxford, and the bishop's kinsman, who said to me, that I was too curious ; 
shire and "for ye will have," said he, "nothing but your little pretty God's book." 
Haukes. Haukes : — "And is it not sufficient for my salvation?" " Yes," said Dar- 
bishire, "it is sufficient for our salvation, but not for our instruction." 
Salva- Haukes: — " God send me the salvation, and you the instruction." 

tion. And as we thus reasoned, came the bishop, who said unto me, " I gave you 

tiom"*'^' a commandment, that you should not talk." 

Haukes : — " And I desired you, that your doctors and servants should give 
me none occasion." — Then went we into his orchard again, he and his doctors 
and I. 
Baptism Bonner: — "Would not ye be contented to have, that your child should be 
after king christened after the book that was set out by king Edward?" 
irn'ok'"''^ Haukes : — " Yes, with a good will : it is a thing that I desire." 

Bontier : — " I thought so : ye would have the same thing. The principal is 
in the name of the Father, the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, and, in neces- 
sity, it may serve." 

Haukes : — " Christ did use it without any such necessity : and yet we lack 
the chiefest point." 

Bonner : — " What is that ?" 

Haukes : — " Go teach all nations, baptizing them," etc. 
Bonner Bonner : — " Thou speakest that, because I am no preacher." 
no Haukes : — " I speak the text : I do not mean you." Then spake all the 

preacier. jQ^jj-Q^g ^j^j j^jg j,^p^ ^Yvat were with him: " He speaketh it of you, my lord" 
[with a great noise that they made]. 


Bonner : — " Will yc be content to tarry here, and your cl\ild shall be bap- uary. 
tized, and you shall not know of it, so that you will agree to it ?" 

Haukes : — " If I would so have done, I needed not to have come to you : for •^- 1^- 
I had the same counsel given before." 1555. 

Bonner : — " You seem to be a lusty young man ; you will not give your head 
for the washing ; you will stand in the defence of it for the honour of your 
country. Do ye think that the queen and I cannot command it to be done, 
in spite of your teeth ?'' 

Haukes: — " What the queen and you can do, I will not stand in it: but ye Haukes 
get my consent never the sooner." will not 

Bonner : — " Well, you are a stubborn young man : I perceive I must work jjavc ".is" 
another way with you." cluld 

Haukes: — " Ye are in the hands of God; and so am I." clmsten- 

Bonner : — " Whatsoever you think, I will not have you speak such words tiiepupish 
unto me." — And so we departed until evensong time; and ere evensong was wder 
begiui, my lord called for me to come to him into the chapel, and said ; " Haukes ! 
thou art a proper young man, and God hath done his part unto thee ; I would 
be glad to do thee good. Thou knowest that I am tliy pastor, and one that 
should answer for thee. If I would not teach thee well, I should answer for 
thy soul." 

Haukes: — "That I have said, I will stand to it, God willing: there is no way 
to remove it." 

Bonner : — " Nay, nay Haukes, thou shalt not be so wilful. Remember Christ 
bade two go into his vineyard : the one said he would, and went not ; the other 
said he would not, and went." 

Haukes : — " The last went." 

Bonner: — " Do thou likewise, and I will talk friendly with thee ; how sayest Bonner 
thou ? It is in the sixth of St. John, ' I am the bread of life ; and the bread entereth 
that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world : and the sarra- 
whosoever eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath everlasting life. My ment. 
flesh is very meat indeed, and my blood is very drink indeed. And he that 
eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him.' Do ye 
believe this?" 

Haukes : — " Yea, I must needs believe the Scriptures." 

Bonner : — " Why! then I trust that you be sound in the blessed sacrament." 

Haukes : — " I beseech your lordship to feel my conscience no further than in 
that, that I was accused in unto you." 

Bonner : — " Well, well! let us go unto evensong." — AVith that I turned my 
back to go out of the chapel. 

Bonner : — " Why, will you not tarry evensong 1" 

Haukes : — " No, forsooth." Haukes 

Bonner : — " And why ?" refuseth 

Haukes : — " For I will not." Bonner's 

Bonner : — " And why will ye not?" evensoug 

Haukes: — " For because 1 have no edifying thereby, for I understand no 

Bonner : — " Why ? you may pray by yourself. What books have ye ?" 

Haukes : — " I have the New Testament, the books of Solomon, and the 

Bon7ier : — " Why, I pray you, tany here, and pray you on your Psalter." 

Haukes : — " I will not pray in this place, nor in any such." 

Then said one of his chaplains, " Let him go, my lord ; and he shall be no 
partaker with us in our prayers." 

Haukes: — " I think myself best at ease when I am furthest from you." — 
And so the bishop went to evensong, and I came down and walked between the 
hall and the chapel in the court, and tarried there till evensong was done. And Haukes 
within an hour after that ctensong was done, the bishop sent for me into his Jj^^?' i""^ 
chamber where he lay himself; and when I came, there was lie, and three cf Bonner, 
his chaplains. 

Bonner : — " Ye know of the talk that was between you and me, as concern- 
ing the sacrament. You would not have your conscience sought any further, 
than in that ye were accused of." 

Haukes : — " I thought you would not be both mine accuser and judge." 


Marij. Bonner : — " Well, ye shall answer me to the sacrament of baptism, the sacra- 

ment of penance, and the sacrament of matrimony." 
, • ' Haukes : — " There are none of these, but I dare speak my conscience in 
^5^^- them." 
Haukes Bonner : — " The sacrament of the altar ye seem to be sound in." 
knoweth Haukes : — " In the sacrament of the altar? — why sir, I do not know it." 
ment'o?' Bonner : — " Well, we will make you to know it, and believe in it too, ere ever 
the altar, we have done with you." 

Haukes : — " No, that shall ye never do." 
Bonner : — " Yes, a faggot will make you do it." 

Haukes : — " No, no, a point for your faggot ! What God thinketh meet to 
be done, that shall ye do; and more ye shall not do." 
The mat- Bontier : — " Do ye not believe that there remaineth in the blessed saci-ament 
ter and of the altar, after the words of consecration be spoken, no more bread, but the 
offh^''^ very body and blood of Christ?"— and at that word he put off his cap. 
sacra- Haukes : — " I do believe as Christ hath taught me." 

merit. Bonner : — " Why ? did not Christ say, ' Take, eat, this is my body ?' " 

Haukes: — " Christ said so: but therefore it followeth not, that the sacra- 
ment of the altar is so as you teach ; neither did Christ ever teach it so to be." 
Bonner : — " Why ? the catholic church taught it so ; and they were of Christ's 

Haukes : — " How prove you it ? The apostles never taught it so. Read 
Actsii. and xx. Neither Peter nor Paul ever taught it, neither instituted it so." 
Bonner : — " Ah sir! ye will have no moi-e than the Scripture teacheth, but 
even as Christ hath left it bare." 

Haukes : — " He that teacheth me any otherwise, I will not believe him." 
Bonner : — " Why ? then ye must eat a lamb, if ye will have but Christ's 
institution only." 

Haukes : — " Nay, that is not so ; before that Christ did institute the sacra- 
ment, that ceremony ceased, and then began the sacrament." 

Bonner : — " Alas, you know not how it began, neither of the institution 

Hmikes : — " Then I would be glad to learn." 

Bonner : — " Marry, we will teach you : but you are so stubborn that 3'e will 
not learn." 
False con- Haukes : — " Except ye learn me by the word of God, I will never credit 
ccived you, nor beheve you :" — and thus we concluded. Then the bishop and his chap- 
opinion of lajj^s laughed and said: " Jesu, Jesu ! what a stubbornness and arrogantness is 
against this !" And this was in his chamber where he lay. Then said the bishop to 
the Pro- me, " Go ye down, and drink ; for it is fasting day : it is Midsummer Even, but 
testants. j ^hink ye love neither fasting nor praying."- 

Haukes : — " I will never deny fasting, neither praying ; so that it be done as 
it ought to be done, and without hypocrisy or vain glory." 

Bonner : — " I like you the better for that:" and so we left for that night. 
The next day the bishop went to London : for Fecknam was made dean 
that day, and I tai-ried still at Fulham. Then did the bishop's men desire me 
to come to mass, but I did utterly refuse it, answering them as I did their master. 
That night the bishop came home to Fulham again. 

Talk between Harpsfield and Thomas Haukes. 

Then upon the Monday morning, very early, the bishop did call for me. 
There was with him Harpsfield archdeacon of London, to whom the bishop 
said, "This is the man which 1 told you of, who would not have his child 
christened, nor will have any ceremonies." 

Harpsfield: — "Christ used ceremonies. Did he not take clay from the 
ground, and took spittle, and made the blind man to see?" 

Haukes : — " I wot well that ; but Christ did never use it in baptism. If ye 
will needs have it, put it to the use that Christ put it unto." 

(1) Touching the necessary points of doctrine and sacraments, only the word is to be followed. 

(2) Fasting and praying no man denieth. 

(3) But Christ never made any ordinance or custom of that ceremony. 

BEFORE BoxxEU, BISHOP OF i.oxnox. 103 

Ilarpxfiehl : — " Admit your child die unchristened : wliat a lieavy case sUuid ;»/o™ 

you in !" ^' 

Haitkes ;— " I admit that, if it do : what then ?" A.I). 

Ilarpsfield: — " Marry, then are ye damned, and your child both." l-'j.')5. 

JIaukes : — " Judge you no further than ye may by the Scriptures." The ataie 

Ilarpsfield : — ^" Do ye not know that your child is born in original sin?" of cUil- 
Haulces:—" Yes, tliat I do." ^"■^Jj 

Ilarpsfield: — " How is original sin washed away?" without 

Haukes : — " By tnie faith and belief of Christ Jesus." bainism. 

Harpsfield: — " How can your child, being an infant, believe?" 
Haukes : — " The deliverance of it from sin, standeth in the faith of his parents." 
Harpsfield : — " How prove you that ?" 
Haukes : — " By St. Paul, in 1 Cor. vii. : ' The unbelieving man is sanctified by Believing 

the believing woman ; and the unbelieving woman is sanctified by the believing parents 

man; or else were your children unclean." ti'e'^cMd 

Harpsfield : — " 1 will prove that they whom thou puttcst thy trust in, will be 

against thee in this opinion." 
Haukes .- — " Who be those ?" 

Harpsfield: — " Your great learned men in Oxford." 
Haukes : — " If they do it by the Scriptures, I will believe them." 
Bonner : — " Recant, recant. Do ye not know that Christ said, ' Except ye 

be baptized, ye cannot be saved ?' " 

Haukes : — " Doth Christianity stand in outward ceremonies, or no ?" Chris- 

Bonner : — " Partly it doth : what say you to that ?" tianity 

Haukes ;— " I say as St. Peter saith," ' Kot the washing of water purgeth the !i°ard"'' 

filthiness of the flesh, but a good conscience consenting unto God.' " cere- 

Harpsfield : — "Beware of pride, brother, beware of pride !" monies. 

Haukes : — " It is written, ' Pride serveth not for men, nor yet for the sons 

of men,' "' 

Bonner: — " Let us make an end here. — How say you to the mass, sirra?" Bonner 
Haukes: — " I say, it is detestable, abominable, and profitable for nothing." eoineihin 
Bonner : — " What ! nothing profitable in it ? What say you to the epistle and mass. "* 

gospel ?" Profitable 

Haukes ; — " It is good, if it be used as Christ left it to be used." ^'"■. . 

Bonner : — " Well, I am glad that ye somewhat recant : recant all, recant all." 

Haukes : — " I have recanted nothing ; nor will do " 

Bonner : — " How say you to ' Confiteor.' 

Haukes : — " I say it is abominable and detestable, yea, and a blasphemy ' Confi- 
against God and his' Son Christ, to call upon any, to trust to any, or to pray to ^'^"^' '" 
any, save only to Christ Jesus." a thinj; 

Bojiuer : — " To trust to any, we bid you not : but to call upon them, and to detest- 
pray to them, we bid you.- Do ye not know, when ye come into the court, ye yonng-'s 
cannot speak with the king and the queen, unless ye call to some of the privy- simili ' 
chamber that are next to the king and queen?" ""''; •<> 

Haukes: — " They that list, receive your docti-ine. You teach me that I pJayfngto 
should not believe nor trust in any, but to call on them : and St. Paul saith, saints. 
'How should I call upon him, on whom I believe not?' " 

Bonner .— " Will you have nobody to pray for you, when you be dead?" l^,^\l"f 

Haukes: — " No, surely; except you can prove it by the Scriptures." dead."" 

Then the bishop pouited luito Harpsfield, and said unto me, " Is it not well 
done to desire this man to pray for me ?" 

Haukes : — " Yes, surely ; so long as we live, prayer is available of the right- 
eous man : but this man's prayer, you being dead, profiteth nothing at all." 

Bonner : — " Will ye grant the prayer of the righteous man to prevail ?" 

Haukes : — " I grant it doth for the living, but not for the dead." 

Bonner : — " Not for the dead !" 

Haukes : — " No, forsooth ; for David saith, ' No man can deliver nis orother 
frojn death, nor make agreement unto God for him : for it cost more to redeem 
their souls, so that ye must let that alone for ever.'* Also Ezekiel saith, 
' Though Noah, Danicil, or Job dwelt among them, yet can they in their right- 
eousness exceed no fuj-ther than themselves.'* 

(1) Ecdus. xviii. {2) We o-jslit not to believe in saints. F.rso, we ouglit not to call upon tlicrr.. 
(3) I'salmxlix. .. (') Kzek. xiv. 




Then the bishop said to Harpsfield, " Sir, ye see this man hath no need of 
our Lady, neither of any of the blessed saints. Well ! I will trouble you no 
longer. I did call you, hoping that you should do some good, on him ; but it 
will not be." — And he said to me, " Sir, it is time to begin with you. We will 
rid you away, and then we shall have one heretic less."i 

Harpsfield: — " What books have you?" 

Haukes : — " The New Testament, Solomon's Books, and the Psalter." 

Harpsfield : — " Will you read any other books ?" 

Haukes : — " Yea, if you will give me such books as I will require." 

Harpsfield: — " What books will you require?" 

Haukes : — " Latimer's books, my lord of Canterbury's book, Bradford's ser- 
mons, Ridley's books." • 

Bonner : — " Away, away ! He will have no books but such as maintain his 
heresies :" — and so they departed, for Harpsfield was booted to ride unto Oxford; 
and I went to the porter's lodge again. 

The next daVs Talk. 

fur his 

The next day came thither an old bishop, ^ who had a pearl in his eye ; and 
he brought with him to my lord a dish of apples, and a bottle of wine. For he 
had lost his living, because he had a wife. Then the bishop called me again into 
the orchard, and said to the old bishop : " this young man hath a child, and 
will not have it christened." 

Haukes ;— " I deny not baptism." 

Bonner : — " Thou art a fool ; thou canst not tell what thou wouldest have ;" — 
and that he spake with much anger. 

Haukes : — " A bishop must be blameless or faultless, sober, discreet, no 
chider, nor given to anger." 

Bonner: — " Thou judgest me to be angry : no, by my faith, am I not:" — 
and stroke himself upon the breast. 

Then said the old bishop, " Alas, good young man ! you must be taught by 
the church, and by your ancients; and do as your forefathers have done 
before you." 

Bonner : — " No, no ! he will have nothing but the Scriptures, and God wot, 
he doth not understand them. He will have no ceremonies in the church, no 
not one. What say you to holy water?" 

Haukes : 
made them." 
Bonner : — 
Haukes : — 
Bonner : — 
Haukes : — 

say to it, as to the rest, and to all that be of his making that 

bread by 
the five 
and throe 

Why, the Scriptures do allow it." 
Where prove you that?" 

In the Book of Kings, where Elizeus threw salt into the water." » 
Ye say truth ; that it is written 2 Kings ii. ' The children of the 
prophets came to Ehzeus, saying. The dwelling of the city is pleasant, but the 
waters be corrupted.' This was the cause that Elizeus threw salt into the water,^ 
and it became sweet and good : and so when our waters be corrupted, if ye can 
by putting in of salt make them sweet, clear, and wholesome, we will the better 
believe your ceremonies." 

Bonner : — " How say you to holy bread?" 

Haukes : — " Even as I said to the other. What Scripture have you to 
defend it?" 

Bonner : — " Have ye not read where Christ fed five thousand men with five 
loaves and three fishes?" 

Haukes : — " Will ye make that holy bread ? There Christ dealt fish with his 
holy bread." 

Bonner : — " Look, I pray yon, how captious this man is?" 

Haukes : — " Christ did not this miracle, or other, because we should do the 
like miracle ; but because we should believe and credit his doctrine thereby." 

Bonner : — " Ye believe no doctrine, but that which is wrought by miracles." 

Haukes : — " No, forsooth ; for Christ saith, ' These tokens shall follow them 

(1) Bonner, when he cannot overcome by doctrine, poeth about to oppress by authority. 

(2) Tlie bishop's name was Bird, bishop sometime of Chester, and sutfragan before of Coventry, 
of whom read before. 

(3) See how Bonner proveth holy water by the Scripture. 

(4) Elizeus put salt in the water, not to wash away tin, but only to make the water sweet. 


tliat believe in me : they shall speak with new tongues, they shall cast out ji/„v 

devils, and if they drink any deadly poison, it shall not hurl tlieni.' "' -_ 

Bonner : — " With what new tongues do ye speak ?" A. D. 

Haiikes : — " Forsooth, whereas, before that I came to the knowledge of 1555. 
God's word, I was a foul blasphemer and filthy talker, since I came to the How con- 
knowledge thereof, I have lauded God, praised God, and given thanks unto verted 
God, even with the same tongue : and is not this a new tongue ?" r''"'d 

Bonner ;— " How do you cast out devils?" speak 

Ilaukes : — " Christ did cast theni out by his word ; and he hath left the ""*' 
same word, that whosoever doth credit and believe it, shall cast out devils." '""S""- 
Bonner : — " Did you ever drink any deadly poison?" 

Ha ides : — "Yea, forsooth, that I have; for I have drunken of the pestilent 
traditions and ceremonies of the bishop of Rome." 

Bonner : — " Now you show yourself to be a right heretic." 
Ilaukes: — " I pray you, what is heresy?" 

Bonner : — " All things that are contrary to God's word." Bonner 

Haukes : — " If I stand in any thing contrary thereto, then am I worthy to ^ •"■retic 

be so called." owndefi- 

Bonner : — "Thou art one; and thou shalt be burned, if thou stand and con- nition. 
tinue in this opinion. Ye think we are afraid to put one of you to death : yes, 
yes, there is a brotherhood of you, but I will break it, I warrant you." 

Haukes: — " Where prove you that Christ or his apostles did kill any man 
for his faith ?"- 

Bonner : — " Did not Paul excommunicate ?" 

Haukes : — " Yes, my lord ; but there is a great difference between excom- 
municating and burning." 

Bonner: — " Have ye not read of the man and the woman in the Acts of the 
Apostles, whom Peter destroyed?" 

Haukes : — " Yes, forsooth ; I have read of one Ananias, and Sapphira his 
wife, which were destroyed for lying against the Holy Ghost, which serveth 
nothing to your pui-pose." 

Bonner : — " Well, you will gi-ant one yet." 

Haukes : — " Well, if you will have us to grant you be of God, then show 
mercy; for that God requireth." 

Bo?iner : — " We will show such mercy unto you, as je showed unto us: for 
my benefice or bishopric was taken away from me, so that I had not one penny 
to live upon."'' 

Haukes: — " I pray ye, my lord, what do you give him now that was in the 
bishopric or benefice before that ye came again to it?" — Whereunto he answered 
me never a word ; for he turned his back unto me, and talked with other men, 
saying, that he was very sorry for me, but he trusted that I would turn with 
St. Paul, because I was so earnest : and so he departed, and went to dinner, 
and 1 to the porter's lodge again. After dinner I was called into the hall again, Haukes 
and the bishop desired tlie old bishop to take me into his chamber : " for I called for 
would he glad," said he, " if ye could convert him." So he took me into his ffikVuh 
chamber, and sat him down in a chair, and said to me, " I would to God I the old 
could do you some good. Ye are a young man, and I would not wish you to bishop, 
go too far, but learn of your elders to bear somewhat." 

Haukes :—" I will bear with nothing that is contrary to the word of God." 
And I looked that the old bishop should have made me an answer, and he was 
fast asleep. — Then I departed out of the chamber alone, and went to the porter's 
lodge again, and there saw I the old bishop last : I suppose he is not yet awake. 

Talk between Fecknam and Haukes. 

The next day came Fecknam unto me and said, " Are ye he, that will have 
no ceremonies ?" 

Haukes :■ — " What mean you by that?" 

Fecknam : — " Ye will not have your child christened but in English ; and 
you will have no ceremonies." 

Haukes: — " Whatsoever the Scripture commandcth to be done, I refuse not." 

Fecknam .— " Ceremonies are to be used by the Scriptures." 

(1) Mark xvi. (2) The papists do beside God's book, in biirninn men for Iheir faith. 

(a) This bishop here forgetteth his lesson, " Kcncdicite persequentibus vos." 


Mary. HauJces : — " Which be those ?" 

Fecknam : — " How say you by Paul's breeches ?" • 

A. D. Haukes : — " I have read no such thing." 
_^^^^- Fecknam : — " Have ye not read in the Acts of the Apostles how things went 
from Paul's body, and they received health thereby ?" 

Haukes : — " I have read in Acts xix. how there went partlets and napkins 
from Paul's body: is it that you mean?" 

Fecknam : — " Yea the same is it : what say you to those ceremonies?" * 
Haukes: — "I say nothing to the ceremonies; for the text saith, that God 
did so work by the hands of Paul, that there went partlets and napkins from 
him, etc. So that it seemed by the text, that it was God that wrought, and 
not the ceremonies." 

Fecknam : — " How say ye to the woman that came behind Christ, and 
touched the hem of his vestui'e P — Did not her disease depart from her by that 
ceremony ?" 
Fecknam Haukes : — " No, forsooth ; for Christ turned back, and said to Peter, ' Who 
taken is it that toucheth me?' And Peter said, ' Thou seest the people thrust thee, 
his* own ^"'i askest thou, Who touched me? Somebody hath touched me,' saith Christ; 
tale. 'for virtue hath gone out of me.' — I pray you, whether was it the virtue that 

healed this woman, or his vesture ?" 
Fecknam : — " Both." 

Haukes : — " Then is not Christ true ; for he said, ' Go thy way, thy faith 
hath made thee whole.' " 

-Bonner: — " Away, away to the sacrament; for these are but mere trifles to 
V that." 

Fecknam : — " How say ye, sirrah ? Christ took bread,* and brake it, and 
said, ' Take, eat ; this is my body.' " ^ 
Haukes : — " I grant Christ said so." 
Fecknam : — " And is it not so?" 

Haukes : — " No, forsooth ; I do not understand it so." 
Fecknam : — " Why, then is Christ a liar?" 
Haukes : — " I think ye will so prove him." 

Fecknam : — " Will I ? — why I have spoken the words that Christ spake." 
Haukes : — " Is every word to be understood as Christ spake it ? Christ said, 
I am a door, a vine ; I am a king, a way," etc." 
Fecknam : — " Christ spake these word in parables." 

Haukes : — " And why speaketh he this in parables, when he said, ' I am a 
door, a vine, a king, a way,' etc. more than this, when he said, 'This is my 
body?' — for after the same phrase of speech, as he saith, 'This is my body :' so 
saith he, ' I am a door, a vine, a king, a way;' he saith not, ' I am like a door, 
like a vine,' etc." 

Then Fecknam stood up, and said, " I had such a one before me this other 
day. Alas ! these places serve nothing for your purposes. But I perceive ye 
hang and build on them that be at Oxford." 
Haukes: — " What mean you by that?" 
Fecknam : — " I mean Latimer, Cranmer, and Ridley." 

Haukes : — " I know nothing else by them, but that they be both godly and 
Fecknam Fechiam : — " Wilt thou trust to such dolts ? One of them hatli written a 
faileth book, wherein he affirmeth a real presence in the sacrament." 
mat°em Haukes .•— " What he hath done, I know not; but what he doth, I know." 
railing. Fecknam: — " Ridley hath preached at Paul's Cross openly, that the devil 

believeth better than you : for he believeth that Christ is able of stones to make 
bread ; and ye will not believe Christ's body in the sacrament, and yet thou 
buildest thy faith upon them." 
Haukes Haukes: — " I build my faith upon no man, and that shall ye well know: 
his'faith ^°^ ^^ ""^^"^^ '"^"' ^"'' ''^^ many more as they be, should recant, and deny that 
upon no they have said or done, yet will I stand to it ; and by this shall ye know that I 
man. build my faith upon no man." 

(1) Fecknam's reason lieth in Paul's breeches! 

(2) Fecknam maketh every act spoken of in the New Testament to be a ceremony. 

(3) Mark v. Luke viii. (4) Fecknam driven in a strait, drivetli Haukes to tlie sacrament. 
(S) It is his sacramental body, or the sacrament of his body, but not his true body. 

((J) The words of Christ are to be understood, not as he spake, biit as he meant t!-.'cm. 


Bonner: — " If any of tliose recant, wliat will ye say to it?" j^j 

Haiikes: — " When they recant, I will make you an answer." 

Bonner : — " Then thou wilt say as thou dost now, for all that." A. D. 

Haukes:—" Yea, indeed, will 'l, and that, trust to it, by God's grace." 15.55. 

• Bonner: — "I dare say Cranmer would recant, so that he might have his 
living."* And so the bishop and Fecknam departed from me with great 
laughing, and I went again to the jjortcr's lodge. 

Talk between llaukcs and Chcdscy. 

The next day came Dr. Chedsey to the bishop ; •and- then was I called into 
the garden to the bishop* and him. The bishop declared unto him, that I had 
stood stubbornly in the defence against the christening of my child, and against 
the ceremonies of the church, and that I would not have it christened but in 

Then said Dr. Chedsey, "Then he denieth the order of the catholic church." 

Bonner : — " Yea, he thinketh that there is no church but in England and in 

Haukes: — " And ye think that there is no church, but the church of Rome." The 

Chedsey : — " What say ye to the church of Rome ! " church of 

Haukes : — "\ say it is a church of a sort of vicious cardinals, priests, 
monks, and friars, which I will never credit nor believe." 

Chedsey: — " How say ye to the bishop of Rome? " The 

Haukes : — " From him and all his detestable enormities, good Lord deliver us." J''''''°P °' 

Chedsey : — " Marry, so may we say, from king Henry the Eighth, and all 
his detestable enormities, good Lord deliver us." 

Haukes : — " Where were ye whiles that he lived, that ye would not say so?" 

Chedsey : — " I was not far." 

Haukes : — " W^here were ye in his son's days?" 

Chedsey : — " In prison." 

Hankes : — " It was not for your well-doing." 

Bonner : — " He will by no means come within my chapel, nor hear mass : 
for neither the mass, neither the sacrament of the altar, can he abide, neither 
will he have any service but in English." 

Chedsey : — " Christ never spake in English."^ 

Haukes : — " Neither spake he ever any Latin ; but always in such a tongue An in- 
as the people might be edified thereby. And Paul saith, ' That tongues profit ^'.^"" 
us nothing.' He maketh a similitude between the pipe and the harp, and ex- f gainst 
cept it be understood what the trumpet meaneth, who can prepare himself to Chedsey, 
the battle : so if I hear the tongue which I do not understand, what profit have 
I thereby ? no more than he hath by the trumpet, that knoweth not what it 

Chedsey : — " If he understand Paul's saying, he speaketh it under a prophec)'^, 
' If one prophecy to you in tongues,' etc." 

Haukes: — "Forsooth Paul speaketh plainly of tongues; for tongues serve 
not for them that believe." 

Chedsey: — " I tell you Paul speaketh altogether upon prophecy." 

Haukes : — " Paul maketh a distinction between prophesying and tongues, 
saying, ' That if any man speak with tongues, let it be by two or three at the 
most, and let another interpret it. But if there be no interpreter, let them keep 
silence in the congregation, and let himself pray unto God : and then let the 
prophets speak two or three, and that by course ; and let the other judge. 
And if any revelation be made to him that sitteth by, let the first hold his 
peace :' so that it seemeth that Paul maketh a distinction between tongues and 

Bonner : " The order was taken in the catholic church that the Latin Latin sor- 

tongue should serve through the whole world, because that they should pray ^''^^• 
all generally together in one tongue ; and that to avoid all contention and 
strifc, and to have one universal order through the whole world." 

Haukes : — " This did your councils of Rome conclude." 

Bonner :—" Understand ye what the general councils of Rome meant?" ^ounl^H 

Haukes : — " Indeed all your general councils of Rome be in Latin, and I of Rome, 
am an Englishman : therefore I have nothing to do with them." 

(1) Roniicr judgcth other men by his own sort. (2) Sec F.rlition l.'.ro.— Ij<. 

(3) Chedsey 's argument : Clirist never spake Ent;lish : ergo, we must not pray in Kn^lish. 


Mary. Chedseij : — " Ye are to blame, being an unlearned man, to reprove all the 
— — — — councils throughout all the whole world." 
fl'i;' Haiikes : — " I reprove them not, but Paul rebuketh them, saying, ' If anj 
^^"'' man preach any other doctrine than that which I have taught, do you hoh 
him accursed.' " 

Chedseij ;— " Hath any man preached any other doctrine unto you ?" 
Haukes :—" Yea, I have been taught another gospel since I came into this 

Chedsey : — " What gospel have ye been taught ? " 

Haukes: — " Praying to saints and to our Lady, and trust in the mass, holy 
bread, holy water, and in idols." 

Chedsey : — " He that teaches you so, teachcth not amiss." 
Haukes ; — " Cursed be he that teacheth me so ; for I will not trust him nor 
believe him!" 

Bonner : — " You speak of idols, and you know not what they mean." 
Idols. Haukes : — " God hath taught us what they be : for v, hatsoever is made, 

graven, or devised by man's hand, contrary to God's word, the same is an idol! 
What say you to that?" 

Chedsey : — " What be those that ye are so offended withal ? " 
The cross. Haukes : — "The cross of wood, silvei-, copper, or gold, etc." 
Bonner : — •" What say ye to that?" 
Haukes : — " I say it is an idol. What say you to it ? " 
Images. Boiiner .— " I say every idol is an image, but every image is not an idol." 
Haukes : — " I say, what difference is there between an idol and image ? " 
Bonner's Bonner : — " If it be a false god, and an image made of him, that is an idol : 

ofan'idd ^"^ ^^ ^" ^^^^^ ^® ^^'^^ "^ ^'^^ himself, it is no idol, but an image, because 
■ he is a true God." 

Haukes : — " Lay your image of your true God, and of your false god 
together, and ye shall see the difference. Have not your images feet and o-o 
not, eyes and see not, ears and hear not, hands and feel not, mouths and speak 
not ? — and even so have j'our idols." 

Chedsey : — " ' God forbid,' saith St. Paul, ' that I should rejoice in any thino^ 
else, but in the cross of Christ Jesus.' " ^ 

Haukes : — " Do ye understand Paul so ? Do ye understand Paul ?" — unto the 
which he answered me never a word. 

Bonner : — " Where can we have a godlier remembrance when we ride by 
the way, than to see the cross ? " 

Haukes .•— " If the cross were such a profit unto us, why did not Christ's 
disciples take it up, and set it on a pole, and carry it in procession, with ' Salve, 
festa dies?' " 

Chedsey : — " It was taken up." 
iTie^.s^e^"" Haukes .— " Who took it up ? Helene, as ye say ; for she sent a piece of it 
duced by ^0 a place of religion, where I was with the visitors when that house was sup- 
false pressed, and the piece of the holy cross (which the religious had in such esti- 
UieToly ination, and had robbed many a soul, committing idolatry to it) was called for ; 
cross. and when it was proved, and all come to all, it was but a piece of a lath, 
covered over with copper, double gilded as it had been clean gold !" 

Bonner : — " Fie, fie! I dare say thou slanderest it." 

Haukes : — " I know it to be true, and do not believe the contrary." — And 
thus did the bishop and the doctor depart in a great fume : and Chedsey said 
unto me, as he was about to depart, " It is pity that thou shouldest live, or any 
such as thou art." I answered, " In this case I desire not to live, but rather 
to die." 

Chedsey : — " Ye die boldly, because ye would glory in your death,^ as Joan 
Butcher* did." 

Haukes : — •" What Joan Butcher did, I have nothing to do withal : but I 
would my part might be to-morrow." — " God make you in a better mind," said 
they both ; and so they departed, and I went to the porter's lodge Avith my 

The next day Dr. Chedsey preached in the bishop's chapel, and did not bcoiu 
his sermon until all the service was done : and then came the porter for me, 

(1) other doctrine taught in the church of Home than ever Paul taught 

(2) Note liere how grossly Chedsey understiuideth the words of St. Paul. 

(.i) Note liere discreetly the spirit of Chedsey. (-1) See vol v. p. C99 .-Ed. 


and said, " My lord would have you come to the scnnon," — And so I went to ,i/„r„ 
the chapel-door, and stood without tlic door. 

the sacia- 

Boniter : — " Is not this fellow come?" A.D. 

Haukes : — " Yes, I am here." l-^S.'i. 

Bonner : — " Come in, man." 

Haukes .•— " No. that I will not." He called af,'ain, and I answered, " I will iiauki-g 
•ome no nearer ; " and so I stood at the door. Then said the bishop, " Go to *'" "'" 
your sermon." iZn.-"? 

Then Dr. Chedsey put the stole about his neck, and carried the holy water- oliapoi. 
sprinkle unto the bishop, who blessed him and gave him holy water, and so he 
went to his sermon. 

The text that he treated on was in Matthew xvi. " Whom do men say that Clicdseyg 
I the Son of man am .' Peter said. Some say that thou art Elias, some say that ""■''"O'' 
thou art John Baptist, some say thou art one of the prophets. But whom say """"*• 
ye that I am ? Then said Peter, Thou art Christ the Son of the ever-living 
God." Then left he the text there, and said, " Whose sins soever ye bind, are 
bound :" " which authority," said he, " is left to the heads of the church, as 
my lord here is one, and so unto all tlic rest that be underneath him. But the 
church hath been much kicked at sith the beginning : yet kick the heretics, 
spurn the heretics never so much, the church doth stand and flourish." — And 
then ho went straightway to the sacrament, and said his mind on it, exalting it Chedsey 
above the heaven (as the most of them do) ; and so retm-ned to his place 
again, saying, " Whose sins ye do remit, are remitted and forgiven :" and so 
he applied it to the bishops and the priests to forgive sins, and said, " All that 
be of the church will come and receive the same." And this he proved by St. 
John (chap, xi.), saying, that Christ came to raise Lazarus, who when he was 
risen, was bound in bands : " then said Christ to them that were in authority Scripture 
(who were his disciples), go ye and loose him ; loose him you." And this was '"''^''J^'y 
the effect of his sermon, applying all to them, that they have the same authority ' 
that Christ spake of to his apostles : and so ended his sermon, and they went 
to dinner. 

Anotlier Communication between Thomas Haukes and tlie Bishop. 

And, after dinner, I was called into the chapel, where were certain of the 
queen's servants, and other strangers whom I did not know. 

Bonner : — " Haukes ! how like you the sermon?" 

Haukes : — " As I like all the rest of his doctrine." 

Bonner : — " What ! are ye not edified thereby ? " 

Haukes: — " No, surely." 

Bonner : — " It was made only because of you." 

Haukes : — " Why ? then am I sorry that ye had no more heretics here, as ye 
call them : I am sorry that ye have bestowed so much labour on one, and so 
little regarded." 

Bonner: — "Well, I will leave you here, for I have business: I pray you 
talk with him, for if ye could do him good," said he, " I would be glad." 

This the bishop spake to the queen's men, who said, unto me, " Alas ! what 
mean you to trouble yourself about such matters against the queen's pro- 

Haukes : — " Those matters have I answered before them that be in authority : Ilaukex 
and unless I see you have a further connnission, I will answer you nothing at [,']','!,'i^^"' 
all." Then said the bishop's men (which were many), " My lord hath com- win, the 
mnnded you to talk with them." ?,l!fn " " 

Haukes : — " If my lord will talk with me himself, I will answer him." They """'"• 
cried, " Faggots ! burn him, hang him, to prison with him : it is pity that he 
liveth ! Lay irons upon him ! " and with a great noise they spake these words. 
Then in the midst of all their rage I departed from them, and went to the 
porter's lodge again. 

The next clay's Talk. 

The next day the bishop called me into his chamber, and said, " Ye have 
been with me a great while, and ye are never the better, but worse and worse : 
and therefore I will delay the time no longer, but send you to Newgate." 





in wrii- 




Talk be- 

A ques- 
tion ])Ut 
to Harps- 

put to 

about the 

Haukes: — " My lord, you can do me no better pleasure." 

Boimer : — " Why, would you so fain go to prison?" 

Haukes : — " Truly I did look for none other, when I came to your hands." 

Bonner : — " Come on your ways ; ye shall see what I have written." — Then 
did he show me certain articles, and these are the contents of them : 

" Whether the catholic church do teach and believe, that Christ's real pre- 
sence doth remain in the sacrament or no, after the words of consecration, 
according to the words of St. Paul, which are these : ' Is not the bread which 
we break the partaking of the body of Christ, and the cup which we bless, the 
partaking of the blood of Christ?' which if it were not so, Paul would never 
have said it.' 

Haukes : — " What your church doth, I cannot tell : but I am sure that the 
holy catholic church doth neither so take it, nor believe it." 

Bonner : — " Whether doth the catholic church teach and beheve the baptism 
that now is used in the church, or no ?" 

Haukes : — " I answered to it, as I did to the other question before." Then 
did the bishop with much flattery counsel me to be persuaded, and to keep me 
out of prison, which I utterly refused, and so we departed. And I supposed 
that the next day I should have gone to prison ; and so I had, save for the 
archdeacon of Canterbury, whose name is Harpsfield, whom the bishop had 
desired to talk with me, and [who] began to persuade me concerning the sacra- 
ment, and the ceremonies: and after much talk he said, "that the sacrament 
of the altar was the same body that was born of the Virgin Mary, which did 
hang upon the cross." 

Haukes : — " He was upon the cross both alive and dead : which of them was 
the sacrament?" The archdeacon answered, "alive." 

Haukes : — " How prove you that?" 

Harpsfield : — " You must beheve. Doth not St. John say, ' He is already 
condemned that believeth not?' " 

Haukes .— " St. John saith, ' He that believeth not in the Son of God is 
already condemned,' but he saith not, * He that believeth not in the sacrament 
is already condemned.' " 

Harpsfield :—"■ There is no talk with you; for ye are both without faith and 
learning ; and therefore I will talk no more with you in Scripture." 

Then two that stood by bade me [Haukes] enter further in talk with him ; 
and then said I unto him, " Why is the roodloft set betwixt the body of the 
church and the chancel ?" 

Harpsfield :—"■ I cannot tell; for ye have asked a question which you cannot 
assoil yourself." 

Haukes : — " Yes, that I can : for this saith one of your own doctors : ' that 
the body of the church doth represent the church militant, and the chancel the 
church triumphant : and so, because we cannot go from the church militant to 
the church triumphant, but that we must bear the cross of Christ; this is the 
cause of the roodloft being between the body of the church and the chancel." 

Harpsfield: — " This is well and clerkly concluded." 

Haukes: — " As all the rest of your doctrine is:" — and so, with many persua- 
sions on his part, we ended, and so departed : and I, to the porter's lodge again. 

his! op's 

Another day's Tcalk. 

The next day in the morning, which was the 1st day of July, the bishop did 
call me himself from the porter's lodge, commanding me to make me ready to 
go to prison, and to take such things with me, as I had of mine own. And I 
said, "I do neither intend to bribe, neither to steal, God willing." Then he 
did write my warrant to the keeper of the Gatehouse at Westminster, and deli- 
vered it to Plarpsfield, who, with his own man and one of the bishop's men, 
brought me to prison, and delivered the warrant and me both to the keeper : 
and this was contained in the warrant. 

" I will and command you, that you receive liim who cometh named in this 
warrant, and that he be kept as a safe prisoner, and that no man speak with 
him, and that ye deliver him to no man, except it be the council, or to a justice : 
for he is a sacramentary, and one that speaketh against baptism ; a seditious 
man, a perilous man to he abroad in these perilous days." 


And thus was I received, and tliey departed. And lliere I remained tliirteen ^^„ry. 

days, and then the bishoj) sent two of liis men unto me, saying, " My lord — — 

would be glad to know how ye do." I answered them, " I do, like a poor A. D. 
prisoner." They said, " My lord would know, whether ye be the same man 1"'»'>^- 
that ye were when ye departed." I said, " I am no changeling." Thev said, _! 
" My lord would be glad that ye should do well." I said, " If my lord will bUhop-* 
me any good, I pray you desire him to suffer my friends to come to me." So "H-nscut 
they said they would speak for me, but I heard no more of them. inVhe'""' 

This is the first examination of me Thomas Haukes, being examined by tiaie 
P^dmund Bonner, then bishop of London, and by his chaplains and doctors at '"'"*'-■• 
Fulham, four miles from London, where I lay, till I came to prison to West- 
minster : and after his two men had been with me, I heard no more of him till 
the 3d day of September. 

Here followeth the second time of mine Examination, tlie wliich was 

the 3d day of September : for the Bishop did send his men for 

me to come to his palace of London ; and so my keeper and his 

men brought me to his pahace the same day. 

The bishop of Winchester, then being chancellor, preached that day at 
Paul's Cross, and the bishop of London said to my keeper, " I think your man 
will not go to the sermon to-day." 

Haukes : — " Yes my lord, I pray you let me go : and that which is good I will 
receive, and the rest I will leave behind me;" and so I went. And when the 
sermon was done, I and my keeper came to the bishop's house, and there we 
remained till dinner was done : and after dinner the bishop called for me, and 
asked me, if I were the same man that I was before." 

Haukes : — " I am no changeling, nor none will be." 

Bonner: — " Ye shall find me no changeling neither," — And so he returned 
into his chamber, and there he did write the side of a sheet of paper, and all 
that while I stood in the great chamber, and as many with me as might well p^ smith 
stand in the chamber. And as I stood there, Dr. Smith came unto me, (who coml-th to 
once recanted, as it appeared in print) saying, that he would be glad to talk ''""'j';*- 
brotherly with me. I asked him what he was. Then said they that stood by, reranta- 
" He is Dr. Smith." Then said I, "Are you he that did recant?" And he tion. 
said, " it was no recantation, but a declaration." 

Haukes .- — " You were best to term it well, for your own honesty." 

Dr. Smith : — " Shall I term it as it pleaseth you ?" 

Haukes : — " To be short with you, 1 will know whether ye will recant any 
more or no, before that I talk with you, credit you, or believe you :" — and so 
I departed ft-om him to the other side of the chamber. Then said the bishop's 
men and his chaplains, that my lord commanded me to talk with him. Then 
they that stood by cried with a great noise, " ILang him, bum him ! it is pity 
that he liveth, that disobeyeth my lord's commandment." 

Then said one Miles Huggard, " Where prove you that infants were bap- Miles 
tized?" ""'=''''"''• 

Haukes : — " '' Go teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.' Sir, here is none excepted." 

Master Hugcjard :—" What.'shall we go to teach cliildren ?" 

Haukes : — " That word doth trouble you; it might be left out full well ; it 
is too much for you to teach. Is not your name Miles Huggard ?" 

Jluggard: — ^' So am I called." 

Haukes : — " Be you not a hosier, and dwell in Pudding-lane ?" 

Huggard: — " Yes, that I am, and there I do dwell." 

Haukes : — " It would seem so, for ye can better skill to eat a pudding, and Huggard 
make a hose, than in Scripture either to answer or oppose." With that he was JJ]^[.^ ^^ 
in great rage, and did chafe up and down. Then I desired that some man eat a pud- 
would take the pain to walk the gentleman, he did fret so for anger. Then j'^'^{|_,"'^*'^ 
one that stood by me (who was parson of Hornchurch and Romford in Essex) o^sc^rip." 
said, " Alas, what do you mean : a j'oung man to be so stubborn ? There seem- ture. 
eth too much pride in you." 

Haukes: — " Are not ye the parson of Hornchurch ?" 

Parson : — " Yes, that I am." 


Mary. Haulces : — " Did you not set such a priest in your benefice?" 
Parson : — " Yes, for a shift." 

^- ^- Haukes : — " Like will to like ; such master, such man ; for I know that priest 
^'^^'^' to be a very vile man, as any could be." 
Parson of ^ asked the parson, what kin he was to the weather-cock of Paul's? and he 
Horn- fell in a great laughter with the rest of his companions. He said, that I did 
comp^ed ^^^^- '^^^" ^^'^ another that stood by unto me; what book have you here? I 
to the answered, "The New Testament." "May I look in it?" said he. " Yea, that 
weather- yg may," said I. And so he looked in my book, and said it was corrupt. I 
Paul's. answered him, " If the things contained in it be true, then are ye all false pro- 
phets." He said that he would oppose me in the first word of the Testament, 
saying, " Here is a generation of Christ :" and Esay saith, " No man can tell 
his generation."' 

Haukes : — " What meaneth Esay by that?" 
" I would learn of you," said he. 

Haukes .- — " Ye would be angry, if the scholar should teach the master : but 
if ye will have me to teach you, I will tell you Esay's meaning." 

Then said he, " No man can tell the generation between the father and the 
son : but you (I dare say) did know it before." 

Haulces: — " Why then Esay denieth not the generation." 
Then said he, " Why is Christ called Christ?" 
Haulces : — " Because he is a Messias." 
Then said he, " Why is he called a Messias?" 
Haulces: — " Because he was so prophesied by the prophets." 
Frivolous Then said he, " Why is your book called a book?" 
tions Haukes : — "These words do breed more strife than godly edifying." 

" Beware," said he, " that ye do not decline from the church ; for if you do, 
you will prove yourself a heretic." 

Haukes : — " Even as ye do call us heretics, that do incline to Christ's church 
from yoiu- church ; so are ye all false prophets that do decline from Clu-ist's 
church to your own church. And by this shall all men know you to be false 
prophets,^ if ye say, ' This saith the church :' and will not say, ' This saith our 
Lord.' " — And so he went his way, as though he had a flea in his ear. 

Then came another and said unto me, he would talk with me ; for he per- 
ceived (as he said), that I was angry, and out of patience. 

Haukes : — " I will see your commission, or ever I talk with you, or with any 
man more." — For I wist not how to be rid of them, they came so thick about 
me ; for I said, that I came to talk with my lord, and not with any of them. 
The With that came the bishop, bringing a letter in his hand, the which he had 

writetii written in my name, and read it unto me after this manner. "I, Thomas 
Haukes's Haukes, do here confess and declare before my said ordinary Edmund, bishop 
of London, that the mass is abominable and detestable, and full of all supersti- 
tion ; and also as concerning the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ 
(commonly called'the sacrament of the altar) that Christ is in no part thereof, 
but only in heaven : this I have believed, and this 1 do believe," etc 

Haukes : — " Stop there, my lord : what I have believed, what have you to do 
withal? But what I do beheve, to that stand I, and will." — Then he took his 
pen, and said that he would scrape it out for my pleasure, and so he did to my 

Then he went further with his writing, and said, " I, Thomas Haukes, have 
talked with my said ordinary, and with certain good, godly, and learned men. 
Notwithstanding I stand still in mine opinion." 

Haukes : — " Shall I grant you to be good, godly, and learned men, and yet 
grant myself to stand in a contrary opinion ? No, I will not grant you to be 
good, godly, and learned men." 

Bonner : — " Ye will grant that ye have talked with us : the other I will put 
out for your pleasure." Then said all his doctors, " If your lordship be ruled 
by him, he will cause you to put out all together." And then he read more to 
me : " Here unto this bill have I set my hand ;" and then he oflered me the 
bill and his pen, and bade me set my hand to it. 

(!) Tsaiflh liii. 

(2) Difference between the true prophets and the false. The false prophets say, " Dicit Ecclesia;" 
" Thus saith the church." The true prophets say, " Dicit Don]inus;" '• Thus saith the Lord." 



Haukes : — " Ye get not my hand to any thing of your maKUig or devising." ,vary 

Bonner .•— " Wilt not thou set to thy hand ? It shall be to thy shame for the ~ 

denying of it." A. D. 

And then he called all his doctors, and said, he would have every man's hand _1 

to it that was in the chamber; and so he had all their hands to it and said, llaukes 
"He that will not set his hand to it, I would he were hanged;" and so said all «'il '.'"t 
his chaplains and doctors witli a great noise. hand'toit. 

Then the bishop thrust me on the breast with great anger; and said he Jiormer 
would be even with me, and with all such proud knaves in Essex. in a fume. 

Haukes: — " Ye sliall do no more than God shall give you leave." 

Bonner : — " This gear shall not be impunishcd — trust to it." 

Haukes : — " As for your cursings, railings, and blasphemings, I care not for 
them : for I know the moths and worms shall eat you, as they eat cloth 
or wool." 

Bonner : — " I will be even with you when time shall come." 

Haukes : — " You may in your malice destroy a man : but, when j'e have done, 
ye cannot do so much as make a finger; and ye be meetly even with some of 
us already." 

Bonner: — " If I do thee any wrong, take the law of me." 

Haukes : — " Solomon saith, * Go not to law with a judge; for he will judge 
according to his own honour.' " 

Bonner : — " Solomon saith, ' Give not a fool an answer.' " 

Haukes : — " What ! do you count me a fool?" 

Bonner : — " Yea, by my troth do I ; and so dost thou me too : but God for- 
give thee,' and so do I." 

Haukes : — " Thought is free, my lord." Then took Bonner the bill, and read 
it again ; and when he saw that he could not have my hand to it, then he 
would have had me to take it into my hand, and to give it to him again. 

Haukes : — "What needeth that ceremony? Neither shall it come into my 
hand, heart, or mind." Then he wrapt it up, and put it in his bosom, and in a 
great anger went his way, and called for his horse and went to horse-back ; for the 
same day he rode in visitation into Essex. And so went I to prison, from whence 
I came with my keeper. And this was the second time of my examination. 

Written by me Thomas Haukes, who desire all faithful men and brethren 
to pray unto God, to strengthen me in his ti-uth unto the end. — Pray, pray, 
pray, gentle brethren pray ! 

The Public Examination of Thomas Haukes, at the Bishop's 

After all these private conferences, persuasions, and long debatings, 
had with Thomas Haukes in the bishop's house, as hitherto hath 
been declared, the bishop, seeing no hope to win him to his wicked 
ways, was fully set to proceed openly against him after the ordinary 
course of his popish laAv, Whereupon Thomas Haukes, shortly after, 
was cited with the rest of his other fellows above specified, to wit, 
Thomas Tomkins, Stephen Knight, William Pygot, John Laurence, 
and William Hunter, to appear in the bishop's Consistory, the 8th The first 
day of February, this present year, viz. 1555. Upon which appear- 1^^^^''''' 
ance, was laid against him in like order as to the other, first the bill 
of his confession, wTitten with Bonner's hand, to the which bill yc 
heard before how this blessed servant of God denied to subscribe. 

After which bill of confession being read, and he constantly stand- 
ing to the said confession, the bishop then assigned him with the 
other five the next day following, which was the 9th of February, to 
appear before him again, to give a resolute answer what they would 
stick unto. Which day being come, and these foresaid six prisoners ^^^ 
being severally called before the bishop, at the coming of Thomas second. 

(1) And even now ye said, you would be even with liim. (2) Ex Registro. 



Mari/. Haukes, the bishop willed him to remember what was said to him 

A.D. yesterday, and now, while he had time and space, to advise with him- 

1555. self what he would answer, for he stood upon life and death. " Well," 

Answer of quoth mastcr Haukes again, "I will willingly receive whatsoever shall 

iiaukes. |jg p^|. ypon me." Then were certain other interrogatories or articles 

commenced against him by the said bishop (in like manner as to the 

other) to the number of four, with another bill also, which Bonner 

brought out of his bosom, containing private matters against the said 

Thomas Haukes, which the bishop called heresies and errors, but we 

may better call them christian verities. To the which matter being 

read, the said Haukes answered openly again, saying that it was true, 

and that he Avas glad it was so true as it was ; with more words to the 

like effect. And this was in the forenoon, the 9th day of February. 

In the afteraoon again the said Haukes appearing and hearing the 

foresaid bill of his confession, with the articles and interrogatories read 

unto him, Avith like constancy in answering again to the bishop, " My 

lord," said he, " as you, being my great friend, have caused these my 

sayings to be Avritten ; so do you cause them to be read : and yet I will 

never go' from them." And then, being exhorted by the bishop, with 

many fair words, to return again to the bosom of the mother church : 

His words " No, my lord," said he, "that will I not : for if I had a hundred 

j'udg- bodies, I would suffer them all to be torn in pieces, rather than I will 

ment.and abjure or rccaut." And so continuing still in the same song, notwith- 

vincibie standing that the doctors and lawyers were ever calling upon him to 

stancy. como again to the unity of the church, he ever kept them off with 

this answer, that he would never go from the belief he was in, so long 

Con- as he believed. Whereupon Bonner, at the last, read the sentence 

h^Rof- of death upon him ; and so was he condemned the same day with 

"«■■. the residue of his fellows, which was the 9th of February. Never- 

His death thelcss his cxecutiou was prolonged, and he remained in prison till 

deferred, ^j^^ JQili day of Juuc, Thcu was he committed to the hands and 

charge of the Lord Riche, who, being assisted with power sufficient 

of the worshipful of the shire, had the foresaid Thomas Haukes down 

He is into Essex, with six other fellow-prisoners Avhose stories hereafter 

t'oTfsex.i follow, there to suffer martyrdom, Haukes at Coggeshall, the others 

severally in other several places. 

Thomas Haukes by the way used much exhortation to his friends ; 
and whensoever opportunity served to talk Avith them, he Avoukl fami- 
liarly admonish them. 
Agreed A little bcforc his death, certain there were of his familiar acquaint- 
HaukeT ance and friends, who frequented his company more familiarly, who 
friends to sccmed Hot a little to be confirmed both by the example of his con- 
give them stancy, and by his talk ; yet notwithstanding, the same again, being 
tiiem'e,'" feared with the sharpness of the punishment Avhich he Avas going to, 
''"'• privily desired that in the midst of the flame he Avould shoAv them 
some token, if he could, whereby they might be the more certain, 
Avhcther the pain of such burning were so great that a man might not 
therein keep his mind quiet and patient. Which thing he promised 
them to do ; and so, secretly between them, it Avas agreed, that if the 
rage of the pain Avere tolerable and might be suffered, then he should 
lift up his hands above his head towards heaven, before he gave u]i 
the ghost. Not long after, when the hour Avas come, Tlioma§ 


Haukes was led away to the place appointed for the slaughter, by M^ry. 
the lord Riche and his assistants, who, bein<,' now come \into the . 
stake, there mildly and patiently addressed himself to the fire, liavin<r vyy^ 
a strait chain cast about his middle, with no small multitude i^fn^;;^ 
people on every side compassing him about : unto whom after he had stamihtg 
spoken many things, especially unto the lord Riche, reasoning with Ike. 
him of the innocent blood of the saints ; at length after his tcrvent ZllT'^ 
prayers first made and poured out unto God, tlie fire was set unto ^^^^^^^ 
him. In the which when he continued long, and when his speech 
was taken away by violence of the flame, his skin also drawn together, 
and his fingers consumed with the fire, so that now all men thought 
certainly he had been gone, suddenly, and contrary to all expectation, 
the blessed servant of God, being mindful of his promise afore made, 
reached up his hands burning on a light fire, which was marvellous to 
behold, over his head to the living God, and with great rejoicing, as ^ token 
it seemed, struck or clapped them three times together. At the sight eiven in 
whereof there followed such applause and outcry of the people, and thaVimrn- 
especially of them which understood the matter, that the like hath io1,nol'e"r- 
not commonly been heard, *and^ you would have thought heaven and ='''!'•■ ^ 
earth to have come together.* And so the blessed martyr of Christ, was' ''' " 
straightway sinking down into the fire, gave up his spirit, a.d. 1555, The"ella 
June 10. And thus have you plainly and expressly described unto f'.rdo"',;"Jf 
you the whole story, as well of the life, as of the death of Thomas Hauki^" 
Haukes, a most constant and faithful witness of Chrisfs holy gospel. %^^^''' 

An Epistle to the Congregation, by Thomas Haukes. 

Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus 
Christ, be alway witli you all (my dear brethren and sisters in the Lord 
Jesus Christ for ever); and his Holy Spirit conduct and lead you all, in all 
your doings, that you may always direct your deeds according to his holy 
word ; that when he shall appear to reward every man according to their 
works, ye may, as obedient children, be found watching, ready to enter into his 
everlasting kingdom, with yoiu- lamps burning ; and, when the bridegroom shall 
show himself, ye need not to be ashamed of this life which God hath lent you, 
which is but transitory, vain, and like imto a vapour that for a season appcareth 
and vanishcth away : so soon ])asseth away all our terrestrial honour, glory, and 
felicity. " For all flesh," saith the prophet, "is grass, and all his glory as the 
flower of the field, which for a season showeth her beauty, and as soon as the 
Jjord bloweth upon it, it withereth away, and departeth." For in this transitory Ti,e 
and dangerous wilderness, we are as pilgrims and strangers following the foot- maiiifulii 
steps of Moses, among many unspeakable dangers, beholding nothing with our ^^''l"■^.J^ 
outward man, but all vain vanities and vexation of mind ; subject to hunger, cold, true 
nakedness, bonds, sickness, loss, labours, banishment; in danger of that dreadful f ''[!'*'.' 
dragon, and his sinful seed, to be devoured, tempted and tormented, who ceasctli 

hath tu 

not behind every bush to lay a bait, when we w;dk awry to have his pleasure through 
upon us ; casting abroad his apples in all places, times, and seasons, to see if '" '[''" 
Adam will be allured and enticed to leave the living God and his most holy 
commandments, whereby he is assured of everlasting life ; promising the world 
at will, to all that will fall down in all ages, and for a mess of pottage sell and 
set at naught the everlasting kingdom of heaven. So frail is flesh and blood ; 
and, in especial, Israel is most ready to walk awry, when he is filled with all 
manner of riches, as saith the prophet. 

Therefore I am bold in bonds (as entirely desiring your everlasting health 
and felicity) to warn you, and most heartily desire you, to watch and pray ; for 

(I) Sec KUition ir.G3, page 11C2.-ED. 







in dignity 


nearer to 



help not 






hear the 

slander ii 



our estate is dangerous, and requireth continual prayer. For on the high moun- 
tains, doth not grow most plenty of grass, neither are the highest trees farthest 
from danger, but seldom sure, and always shaken of every wind that bloweth. 
Such a deceitful thing (saith our Saviour) is honour and riches, that without 
grace it choketh up the good seed sown on his creatures, and blindeth so their 
seeing, that they go groping at noonday in darkness : it maketh a man think 
himself somewhat, that is nothing at all. For though for our honour we esteem 
ourselves and stand in our own light, yet when we shall stand before the living 
God, there shall be no respect of persons : for " riches help not in the day of ven- 
geance; neither can we make the Lord partial, for money."i But as ye have 
ministered unto the saints, so shall ye receive the reward, which I am fully per- 
suaded and assured shall be plenteously poured upon you all, for the great good- 
ness showed unto the servants of the living God, And I most heartily beseech 
Almighty God to pour forth a plenteous reward upon you for the same, and that 
he will assist you with his Holy Spirit in all your doings, that ye may grow, as 
ye have begun, unto such a perfection as may be to God's honour, your own 
salvation, and the strengthening of the weak members of Christ. For though 
the world rage, and blaspheme the elect of God, ye know that it did so unto 
Christ, his apostles, and to all that were in the primitive church, and shall be, 
unto the world's end. 

Therefore beheve in the light while ye have it, lest it be taken away from 
you ; if you shall seem to neglect the great mercy of God that hath been opened 
unto you (and your hearts consented unto it), that it is the very and only truth 
pronounced by God's only Son Jesus Christ, by the good will of our heavenly 
Father : therefore I say, in the bowels of my Lord Jesus Christ, stick fast unto 
it ; let it never depart out of your hearts and conversation, that you with us 
and we with you at the great day, being one flock as we have one shepherd, 
may rise to the life immortal, through Jesus Christ our only Saviour. Amen. 
Yours in him that liveth for ever, Thomas Haukes. 

Here followetli another letter of Thomas Haukes, sent to his wife 
after his condemnation, being prisoner in Newgate ; the copy 
whereof is this : 

for in- 
to his 


her to be- 
ware of 
of God. 

The Copy of a Letter of Thomas Haukes to -his Wife. 

Grace be with you, and peace from God the Father, and from our Lord 
Jesus Christ, which gate himself for our sins, to deliver us from this present 
evil world, through the good will of God our Father, to whom be praise for 
ever and ever, Amen. 

My dear yoke-fellow in the Lord, forasmuch as the Lord hath not only called 
me to work in his vineyard, but hath also fulfilled his good work in me (1 trust 
to his glory, and to the comfort of all those that look for his coming), I thought 
it my duty, dear yoke-fellow, to write unto you some lessons out of God's book ; 
wherefore if you will direct yourself thereafter, doubt not of it but God, who 
refuseth none that will come to him with their whole heart, will assist you with 
his Holy Spirit, and direct you in all his ways, to his honour and glory, who 
grant it for his mercy sake. Amen. 

First, I exhort you to fear God ; to serve and honour his holy name ; to love 
him with all your heart, soul, and mind ; to believe faithfully all his promises ; 
to lay sure hold upon them, that in all your troubles, whatsoever they are, ye 
may run straight to the great mercy of God, and he will bring you forth of 
them. Keep you within his wings ; then shall ye be sure that neither devil, 
flesh, nor hell, shall be able to hurt you. 

But take heed; if you will not keep his holy precepts and laws, and to the 
uttermost of your power call for the help of God to walk in the same, but will 
leave them, and run to all abominations with the wicked world, and do as they 
do ; then be sure to have your part with the wicked world in the burning lake 
that never shall be quenched. Therefore beware of idolatry, which doth most 
of all stink before the face of Almighty God, and was of all good men most 
detested from the beginning of the world. For the which, what kingdoms, 
nations, and realms, God hath punished with most terrible plagues, with fire, 
(I) Prov. xi. 


brimstone, hunger, sword, and pestilence, etc., to the utter subversion of tliem, »f— . 
it is manifestly to be seen through tlie wliole Bible. Yea, his own peculiar 

people, whom be had done so much fur, when lliey fell from him and wi-nt A.D. 
and served other gods, contrary to his commandment, he utterly destroyed and 1 ■"'•'»•'>• 
rooted them out from off the earth : and as many as died in that damnable " 

state, not repenting their abominable evil, he threw them into the pit of lu'll. 
Again, how he hath preserved those that abhor superstition and idolatry, and 
that have only taken hold upon God with their whole heart, to serve him, and 
to love him, to fear him, etc. : — it is most manifestly to be seen even from the 
beginning, out of what great dangers he hath ever delivered them : yea, when 
all hope of deliverance was past as touching their expectation, even then, in the 
sight of all his enemies, would he work his godly will and purpose, to the utter 
amazing and destruction of all those that were his manifest enemies. 

Further, 1 exhort you, in the bowels of Christ, that you will exercise and be F.xiiort.T 
steadfast in prayer; for prayer is the only mean to pierce the heavens, to obtain ''"" '" 
at the hand of God whatsover we desire ; so that it be asked in faith. Oh what '"^■'''^■''• 
notable things do we read in Scriptures that have been obtained through fervent 
prayer ! We are commanded to call upon him for help, aid, and succour, in PrayinR 
necessities and troubles, and he hath promised to help us. Again, they that '° ^™'' 
will not call upon him with their whole heart, but upon other dead creatures, creatures! 
in whom there is no help (for there was none found worthy to oj)en tiie book, 
but only the Lamb Christ which was killed for our sins), I say, who that will 
refuse his help, must even by the terrible judgments of God come utterly to 
confusion: as it hath, and is daily manifest to be seen. And whatsoever you To con - 
desire of God in your prayer, ask it for Jesus Christ's sake, for whom and in whom """i' '" 
God hath promised to give us all things necessary. And though that which we and to' 
ask come not by and by at the first and second calling, yet continue still knock- pray only 
ing, and he will at the length open his treasures of mercy, so that ye shall be sure '" '*"-" - 
to obtain ; for he hath so promised, if we continue in faith, hoping surely in Christ. 
him. These former lessons, widi all such instructions as I have told you by 
mouth, I do wish that you would most earnestly learn ; and then I doubt not, 
but God who is the giver of all grace, will assist you in all your douigs, that ye 
may be found worthy of his kingdom, which is prepared through Christ. 

Further, whereas it hath pleased God to send us children : my desire is that Care for 
they may be brought up in the fear of God and in his laws. And this is to certify l>'s chii- 
you, that ye deliver in any wise my eldest son unto master Thi'ogmorton,' who, "^^"^ 
upon his good will, hath promised me to bring him up according to my desire ; 
and, I trust, as God hath put into his heart. See therefore that ye deliver him 
in any wise without delay : and as for the other, if ye shall seem to be bin-dened 
with him (which I think nature will not suffer), my desire is, that it be brought 
up in the fear of God to the uttermost of your endeavour, with some honest 
man that hath the fear of God before his eyes ; and let us give thanks unto 
God who hath given them us, beseeching him that they may be counted 
worthy to be of that flock that shall stand on the right hand of the majesty of 
God, when he shall judge the world. Amen. 

Yet once again I warn you, that ye continue in fervent prayer, as 1 said 
before ; then shall ye be sure, that God, even of his own mercy, according as 
he hath promised, will be a husband unto you, and provide better for you than 
ever I was able to do; yea, he will cause all men that fear him to pity you, to 
help you, to succour you in all your necessities, so that if any will do you wrong, 
he will be avenged on him. Moreover I wish you to keep company with those 
of whom ye may learn to come to a more perfect knowledge in God, and I ^/^^"l^ 
doubt not but God will provide that such will be glad to receive you, if you company, 
shall profess and go forward in his truth. 

Finally, and to make an end, I desire you that ye take heed with whom ye Exhorta- 
couple yourself. See that he be a man that feareth God, loveth his laws, and 'gte heert 
will walk in the same to the uttermost of his power: such a one as can be con- whom she- 
tent to love you, and to care for you. Take heed he be no brawler, no drunk- inarrkth, 
ard, no wicked person, not given to filthiness, no worldling, no dicer, nor card ' °"' '•'* 
fine, no filthy person, but choose you such a one as God may be glorified in both in the 
your lives. And again, on your part, love him, serve him, obey him in all, ^oru. 

(1) He meaneth master Clement Throgmorton, who desired to have the brining up of his 


and that 
she marry 


Afar)/, as long as God shall give you life in this world. Then shall ye both be sure to 

obtain that kingdom which God the Father bath prepared, and Jesus Clirist 

\- ^-*- obtained for you, that never shall have end, where I trust to abide your 
^^^5- coming, Amen. By your husband,. Thomas Haukes. 

Ye heard before, in the Letter of Thomas Haukes written to his 
wife, mention made concerning his eldest son to be sent to master 
Throgmorton. Now what he Avriteth himself to the said master 
Throgmorton touching the same matter, by this his letter to the 
said party hereunder ensuing, may appear. 

A Letter of Thomas Haukes to Master Clement Throgmorton. 

Grace, mercy and peace from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus 
Christ, be with you, and assist you in all your thoughts, words, and works, that 
he in all things, as most worthy, may be glorified, and that the blessing of 
Abraham may be poured plenteously on you and all your posterity. 

Whereas the love of God hath moved you to require my son to be brought 
up before your eyes, and the selfsame love hath also moved me in like case to 
leave him in your hands, as unto a father in mine absence, I shall require you 
in God's behalf according to your promise, that ye will see him brought up in 
the fear of the Lord, and instructed in the knowledge of his holy word, that he 
may thereby learn to leave the evil, and know the good, and always be pricked 
forward with fatherly instructions to follow my footsteps, that as Almighty God 
hath made me worthy, through his special gi-ace, to work his will in obedience, 
he may learn to follow me his Father in the like, to God's honour and praise : 
and this I require you in God's behalf to fidfil, or cause to be fulfilled, as ye, 
before the living God, will make answer for the same. I have left for the child 
certain books which shall be dehvered unto you, wherein his instraction and 
salvation lieth, if he learn and practise the same. And thus most humbly be- 
seeching you, once again, to be as good to him, as your promise was unto me, 
that is, to be a father, and a wall of defence unto him in all troubles, I leave 
bim in your hand through the Lord Jesus, and desire him to bless both him 
and you according to his good promise : and all that good which ye shall do 
imto him, I shall most heartily desire the everlasting God to recompense unto 
you in his kingdom, where I hope to meet both him and you among all God's 
elect. To which God be all praise, honour, and glory. Amen. 

Yours and all men's in Christ Jesus, 

Thomas Haukes. 

€:f)c tijstocp of s:^oma^ I©Qt^, 


watsdis- Thomas Wats of Billericay, within the county of Essex, of the 
Kood^te- diocese of London, was by his occupation a linen draper ; who, be- 
fore he is foj.g \iQ ^as apprehended, had sold and made away his cloth in his 
hended. sliop, and disposcd his things, being set in order, to his wife and 
children, and gave away much of his cloth unto the poor. For he 
looked always to be taken by God's adversaries and his, as shortly 
after came indeed to pass ; so that, upon the 26th day of April, he 
was apprehended and brought before the lord Richc, and other com- 
missioners at Chelmsford, and there, being accused for not coming to 
the church, was upon the same examined before the lord Riche, 
Henry Tyrrel, sir Anthony Brown, Edmund Tyi-rel, Thomas Mild- 
man, .John Wiseman, Roger Appleton, Richard Weston, justice 
Gaudy, etc.: the sum and principal effect of which examination, here- 
under followeth briefly expressed. 





Wlicn this Thomas Wats came before the lord Riche and other 
the justices, whose names are specified in the letter following (which 
they sent unto the Ijishop of London against him), at the sessions at 
Chelmsford, the lord Kiche said these words or the like in effect 
unto him. " Wats, ye be brought hither, as I understand, because tir- 
of disobedience to the king and the queen's laws. Ye will not come lonmirh. 
to the church, ye will not hear mass, etc., but have your conventicles to wai»! 
a sort of you in comers, contrary to the king's and queen's proceed- 
ings." Unto which his words Wats answered and said : "■' My lord, 
if I have offended a law, I am subject here to the law." Then 
Anthony Brown, justice, said unto him, " Wats, I pray thee tell me 
who hath been thy schoolmaster to teach thee this gear, or where 
didst thou first learn this religion ?" " Forsooth,"" quoth Wats, Anthony 
" even of you, sir : you taught it me, and none more than you. !',TpdiJJ 
For in king Edward's days in open sessions you spake against this '? '^'"^', 
religion now used ; no preacher more. You then said the mass was daVsrami 
abominable, and all their trumpery besides, wishing and earnestly ciuoMii 
exhorting that none should believe therein, and that our belief should ^"*^''|; 
be only in Christ : and you said then, whosoever should bring in any days, 
strange nation to rule here, it were treason, and not to be suffered." 

Then said Brown to my lord Riche, " He belies me my lord. 
What a knave is this ! he will soon belie me behind my back, when 
he doth it before my face :" — and my lord Riche said again, " I dare 
say he doth so." 

After these Avords, Wats took occasion to speak somewhat of king 
Philip and of his coming in ; but what it was, I could not justly 
learn. But thus much was heard, that after those words spoken, the 
bench among themselves stood up, and said one to another, " Trea- j„siire 
son !"" saving one good man called justice Gaudy, who a little before fJamiy, a 
was about to speak : but, when he heard them cry " treason,'" he held nlan. 
down his head as one grieved and troubled at their doings. 

In conclusion, the commissioners being weary of him, or else not 
willing to meddle further in such high matters, sent him up to the 
bishop of London, with their letter withal, importing the cause of his 
sending up, as the contents thereof hereunder follow to be seen. 

A Letter sent by certain .Justices in Essex to Bonner Bishop of 

After our most hearty commendations to your good lordship, these shall be 
to advertise you, that at our sessions of Oyer and Terminer holden at Chelms- 
ford the 26111 day of April last past, there came before us in open court one 
Thomas Wats of IBillericay within your diocese, by ordinary process ; and then 
and there being examined why he refused to come to his parish church, and 
there to receive the sacrament "of the altar, and hear divine service, according 
to the institution of holy church, he openly there answered generally, that 
like as the service of the church set out in the days of the late king Edward VI. 
was said by us now to be abominable, heretical, schismatical, and all naught: 
so he said, that all that is now used and done in that church, is abominable, ^^ ''','",'j"p' 
heretical, schismatical, and all naught, with divers other erroneous, and arrogant ",{!i,'ic,,s',!f 
words : and therefore we have thought good to send him to your lordship, to Jss<x •" 
be further examined bv vou of his particular opinions, as, to your pastoral office, ^^""""- 


Manj. shall seem convenient ; certifying you further, that in our opinion he is one of 

: — the most arrogant heretics that hath been heard speak, or ever came before you, 

A. D. j^j^^ j^Qj. jj^ggt (-0 jjg jjgpt i^gi-g in any gaol, as well for fear of corrupting others, 
^'^"^•^- as for divers and sundry other special causes hereafter to be more declared. 
Thus leaving to molest your good lordship, we commit you to the Holy Ghost. 
— Given at Chelmsford the 27th of April, Anno 1555. 

Your good Lordship's most assured, 
Tiie R- Riche. Thomas Mildmay. 

iiatnes of Henry Tyrrel. John Wiseman. 

Jllfgj]^^' Anthony Brown. Roger Appleton. 

Edmund Tyrrel. Richard Weston. 

Now when the bishop had received him, how he used him it is 
easy (by his common practices with others) to judge. What his 
private conferences were, I know not, but what Avas publicly done in 
the Consistory at PauFs (the common stage for these tragedies), you 
shall here see. 


First upon Thursday, being the 2d day of May, Thomas Wats 
was brought thither before the bishop of London ; and there, being 
examined upon his words had before the lord Riche and others (as 
is contained in their letters), he did earnestly affirm the same to be 
true. Whereupon the bishop objected, and examined him upon 
these articles following, to the which he answered, as under may 

Articles objected against Thomas Wats of Billericay in the County 
of Essex, within the Diocese of London, by Bonner Bishop there, 
as ensueth. 

I. First, that the said Thomas Wats was of Billericay, and so of the jurisdic- 
tion of the bishop of London. 
Sacra- IL Item, that he believed not in the sacraments of the holy and catholic 

thl"'^ °^ church, as the catholic church of Rome, and all other churches, members of the 
church of same, ever hitherto have believed, and is taught of all good and faithful people ; 
Home. nor hath allowed the sacraments, rites, usages, or ceremonies of the said church, 

but hath despised the same. 
The sub- IIL Item, that he believeth, and also hath taught others, that the substance 
the"s''^ "^ ^^ material bread and wine doth remain in the sacrament of the altar after the 
ment!"^" Consecration : and that the said material bread and wine are the signs and tokens 
of Christ's body hanged upon the cross, and of his blood there shed: and that 
in the said sacrament there is only a memory or remembrance of Christ's body 
and blood, and nothing else. 
The pre- IV. Item, that he believeth, and doth precisely affirm, that the very true 
sence in presence of Christ's body and blood in substance, is not in the sacrament of the 
menr'^'^" altar, but only in heaven, and no where else. 

The mass V. Item, that he believeth, affirmeth, and saith, that the mass now used in 
the church of Rome, here in England, and other places, is full of idolatry, 
abomination, and wickedness ; and that Christ did never institute it, nor ordain 
it, nor yet allow it as a good and laudable thing to be used in his church. 
Cnnfes- VI. Item, that he believeth and affirmeth, that auricular confession to be 

sioii to made unto the priest is not necessary, but superfluous : and that it is enough 
""''■ for a man to believe only, and to confess himself unto God, without any priest 

or minister at any time, though he may have the priest to confess him unto. 

Defence VII. Item, that he believeth that Luther, Wickliffi Dr. Barnes, and all 

of mar- others that have holden against the sacrament of the altar, and suffered death 

''^'^' by fire, or otherwise, for the maintenance of the said opinion, were good men 

and fiiithful servants and martyrs of Christ in so believing and dying. 



VIII. Item, that he hatli and doth beUevc, tliat to fast, pray, or to do alms- Mary. 
deeds, is a thing utterly unprofitable : lor if a man shall be saved, he shall be 

saved without doing of them ; and if he shall be damned, they shall not help \-P' 
him, or do him any good at all. l^>5f). 

IX. That the said Wats of late coming into open court at the sessions before Quc-en 
the lord Riche, sir Henry TjTrel knight, Anthony Brown esquire, and others, Marys 
and being then and there examined, did openly confess, that he had refused to rtnroVed. 
come to the church, and to hear there the divine service, and to receive the 
sacrament of the altar, according to the order of the church : because that like 

as the service of the cluirch, set out in the days of the late king Edward tlie 
sixth, was said and alleged to be abominable, heretical, schismatical, and all 
naught ; so he (the said Thomas Wats) then and there said openly before the 
said commissioners, that all that is now used and done in the church, is abomi- 
nable, heretical, schismatical, and altogether naught : and that he did also then 
utter before the said commissioners other erroneous and aiTogant words, to the 
hurt of his soul, and to the evil example of the people there present. 

X. 'Iteiu, that he the said Thomas, by reason of the premises, was and is to Wats 
be taken, had, reputed, and judged as a manifest and open heretic ; and for the f<^i""^"'' 
same, by the order of ecclesiastical laws, is to be declared accursed ; and being jaws for a 
obstinate and incorrigible, is to be delivered to the secular power, there to be heretic, 
punished as a heretic. 

XI. Item, that he, over and besides all these oiFenccs and trespasses afore- The 
said, had also added this ti-espass ; that is to wit, that he had believed and ^^"neV^ 
deliberately spoken that the church of Rome in her rites, ceremonies, sacra- syna- 
ments, constUutions, and traditions, is the synagogue of Satan ; and therefore S"*^"*-' °^ 
that he had consented and agreed in opinion and belief with one John Tooley, 

of late hanged at Charing-cross, who, at the time of his executing, desired the 
people to pray to be delivered from the tyranny of the bishop of Rome, with all 
his enormities ; as who should say, that his authority and doings were tyranny, 
and had all enormities and iniquities in them. 

XII. Item, that the premises and every part thereof be true, notorious, 
manifest, and openly spoken and talked of amongst the honest and credible 
persons in great multitude; and that of all and singular the same within 
Billericay aforesaid, and other' places thereabout, being of the diocese of Lon- 
don, there is a common voice and fame thereof. 

The Answer of the said Thomas Wats to the aforesaid Articles. 

To the 1st he said and confessed the same to be true in every part thereof. 

To the lid article he answered, that he believeth in all the sacraments 
according to Christ's institution, and the catholic church ; but not according to 
the bishop of Rome's church : and further said, that he doth not believe now, 
as he had done in times past — for in time past he believed as the church then 
believed, but now he doth not so believe ; for the church of Rome had deceived 
us — and therefore, he said, he did not believe as the church of Rome believeth, wats first 
but as Christ hath taught him. And further said, that he was so taught to won to 
believe by preaching of one master Alvey, and others whose names he remem- goLpi 
bered not ; which Alvey, he said, did preach the word of God truly and by Alvey. 

To the 1 1 Id he answered, that he hath and doth believe, that Christ's body 
is in heaven, and nowhere else ; and further, that he will never believe that 
Christ's body is in the sacrament. 

To the IVth he answered, confessing and firmly believing the same to be 

To the Vth, that he did believe that the mass is abominable, and that he 
will not go one jot from that his belief. 

To the Vlth, that he neither did, nor yet doth believe that the priest can 
absolve him of his sins : howbeit he denieth not but it is good to ask counsel at 
the priest's mouth. 

To the Vllth he said, that he knew not what the opinions of the said persons 
named in the said article were ; and in case the said persons did believe, that 
the body and blood of Christ were really, and in very deed, in the sacrament of 
the altar, then that they were not good men. But in case they did believe that 


Mary, the body and blood of Christ was not in the sacrament of the altar really and 

truly, then he believed that they were good christian men. 

A.D. To the Vlllth, that he had not spoken as is contained in this article; but 
^^55. said, that he hath and doth believe, that fasting, prayers, and alms-deeds, be 
works of a lively faith. 

To the IXth he confessed, that he did utter and speak, as in this article is 
contained ; and, further, desireth God that he might die in that faith and belief, 
wherein he now is. 

To the Xth be answered and said, that he will submit himself herein to the 
order of the law : and further said, that he trusteth that with God he shall be 
blessed, although with men he be accursed. 
The 'fo the Xlth he said, that he believed that the bishop of Rome is a mortal 

ilomean enemy to Christ and his church. And as for Tooley he said, he did never see 
enemy to nor know him ; but in case the said Tooley did wish and pray as is contained in 
Christ. j_jjg article, then he did likewise wish and consent with him therein. 

To the Xllth he answered, that all which before he confessed to be true, is 
also true ; and all that he hath denied to be true, he denieth again to be true, 
and believeth the same to be according to such things as he hath confessed. 

By me, Thomas Wats. 


These articles thus propounded and answered, the bishop com- 
manded him to appear again in the same place at three of the clock 
in the afternoon, upon the same day ; at which hour, being brought 
thither by his keeper, the bishop began with him in this Avise : 
" Wats ! you know what I said unto you to-day, and what I 
appointed unto you at this time. The time is now come : weigh and 
consider with yourself, that you are but a man, and albeit that ye 
will wilfully cast away your body, yet cast not so away your soul ; 
but while ye have time, return and confess the truth." Whereunto 
Thomas Wats answered and said, " I am weary to live in such 
idolatry as ye would have me to live in;" upon which answer the 
bishop caused his articles again to be read. He thereto answered as 
before, and further, subscribed the same with his own hand. 

The bishop, after many persuasions to cause him to recant, Avilled 
him to depart as then, and to come again on Saturday at eight of the 
clock in the morning ; where, the bishop being absent. Dr. Nicholas 
Harpsfield, as then being his deputy, did sit, and earnestly exhorted 
him to deny his opinions. To whom in the end he answered : 
Wats sub- " Well, ye have a law to condemn me, and I submit myself to the 
him to' law; but not to the laws of the church, as you call it : and further 
etc.'^^^' I '^^ affirm, and will stand to mine answers that I have made." 
He pri- Whereupon Dr. Harpsfield willed him to appear there again upon 
appe'areth Friday, being the 10th day of the same month of May. Upon 
foretiiT' "^^^^^^^^ ^^''^y ^^^ bishop privately sent the said Thomas Wats into his 
bishop, chamber, and there, with many fair promises tempted and tried him, 
whether he would revoke his errors, as he then termed them. But 
wats's Wats answered him in this sort : " I will not believe your church, 
to the neither the Romish church ; and therefore you do but labour in vain 
bishop, ^i^^^g ^^ travail with me." He Avas hereupon again dismissed for that 
time until Friday the 17th day of May, and then commanded to 
appear in the consistory ; Avhich commandment he obeyed, and hav- 
ing the accustomed former articles ministered unto him, made then 
such answers as before. 


Thus being tossed to and fro from day to day, and hour to hour, he Ji/ary. 
was at the last, the 18th day of the month of May, brought into the "aTdT 
consistory, -where first was made a brief recital of all the former pro- 1555. 
cess : and there the said Wats, being, by the bishop and others, 
willed to deny his profession, made this final answer : " God keep me Thcfmai 
from the doctrine that ye would have me to come unto, which ye ""31*!"^ "^ 
have now declared. And I beseech God that 1 may persevere in 
that that I have done ; for I will stand to mine answers." 

The bishop, perceiving his fivir flattering promises nothing to pre- Sentence 
vail, and having no great store of other reasons to persuade with, put demna- 
forth his last and strongest argument of condemnation ; which being ^'"^1^^^ 
ended, he was delivered to the sheriffs of London, and by them was wats. 
sent to Newgate, where he remained until the 9th day of June, or 
(as some record) to the 22d of May : at which time he Avas carried 
unto Chelmsford, and there was brought to Scot's house, keeping then 
an inn in Chelmsford, where, as they were eating meat with Haukes 
and the rest that came down to their burning, they prayed together 
both before and after their meat. 

Then Wats went and prayed privately to himself, and afterward The fare- 
came to his wife and his six children being there, and said these wats"to 
words in effect : " Wife, and my good children ! I must now depart ^is^^vife 
from you. Therefore henceforth know I you no more ; but, as the ^^^^^l^ • 
Lord hath given you unto me, so I give you again unto the Lord, t>'rdom at 
whom, I charge you, see you do obey, and fear him : and beware ye fo'Jd.'"'" 
turn not to this abominable papistry, against the which I shall, anon, June 10. 
by God's grace, give my blood. Let not the murdering of God's 
saints cause you to relent, but take occasion thereby to be the 
stronger in the Lord's quarrel, and I doubt not but he will be a mer- 
ciful Father unto you." All these and such like words spake he unto 
them, and they unto him ; of whom two, as it is said, offered to be 
burnt with him. In the end he bade them farewell, and Icissed them 
all, and was carried to the fire. 

At the stake, after he had kissed it, he spake to my Lord Riclie His words 
these or the like words : "My lord," saith he, " beware, beware ! for^I°/J''= 
you do against your own conscience herein ; and without you repent, itie''<^- 
the Lord will revenge it : for you are the cause of this my death." 


Long persuasion had been in England with great expectation, for 
the spa'ce of half a year or more, that the queen was conceived with 
child. This report was made by the queen's physicians, and others 
nigh about the court ; so that divers were punished for saying the 
contrary : and commandment was given, that in all churches, suppli- 
cation and prayer should be made for the queen's good delivery ; the 
certificate whereof ye may read before in the letter of the conned sent 
to Bonner, and also the same, moreover, may appear by jirovision 
made before in act of parliament for the child. 

*And' forasmuch as prayer is here mentioned for queen Mary, here 

( 1) These observations, and the specimens of early psalmody, arc reprinted from the Pirst Edi- 
tion of the Acts and Monuments, \>i'. 1139, 1141.— Eu. 




followeth to be seen tlie Pater-Noster then set forth in English 
metre, compiled, or rather corrupted, by one W. Forest ; which, 
when thou shalt see, good reader, I refer the matter to thy discretion 
to judge of the catholics, what men they are, and how contrary to 
themselves : who find fault with the Pater-Noster sung in metre in 
our churches, and yet they themselves have done the same before 
much more worthy of rebuke ; who, not only have intermixed their 
own senses with the words of the Lord, but, also, have so Avrasted and 
depraved the same, that the thing which the Lord hath set forth for 
public and general petition, they have turned to a private request. 

The Pater-Noster to God's Glory, with Prayer to Him for 
Queen Mary. 

Our Father which in heaven dost sit, 

We sanctify thy name ; 
Our prayer we pray thee to admit. 

Queen Mary save from blame. 
Thy kingdom be us here among, 

As in our hearts to reign ; 
Queen Mary prosper thou here long, 

Her honour none to stain. 
Thy will in earth be done and wrought, 

Right as it is above. 
Queen Mary both in deed and thought, 
May thee both dread and love ! 

But us deliver by thy might 

From every kind of ill ; 
Queen Mary keep both day and night. 
And prosper to thy will. 

Our daily bread give us this day, 

With all that we do need ; 
Our noble queen Mary we pray, 

Thou send always good speed. 
And now, O Lord ! our sins remit, 

Which we have thee transgressed ; 
As we do let our neighbour's flit 

Out of our inward breast. 
And let us not ])e overcome 

By foul temptation ; 
Our queen thou grant, of thy wisdom, 

To honour Thee alone. 

W. F. 

Te Deum, lauding God specially, with Prayer therein for our 
Queen Mary. 

O God ! thy name we magnify 

In thy sanctuary ; 
For that thou hast, of thy mercy, 

Sent us our queen Mary. 
To thee this all our English ground 

Doth render praise alway ; 
Whom merciful hath ever found, 

So help us still we pray. 
To thee all heavens incessantly. 

In orders as they be, 
Proclaim thy glory worthily 

With all felicity. 

First cherubim and seraphim, 

With ardent love entier,' 
Sing night and day, and doth not lins 

In their fervent manner. 
" Holy art thou, Father of might ! 

Holy art thou, O Son ! 
Holy art thou, O heavenly Sprite ! 

Three in one union. 

Thou art the Lord God of Sabaoth ; 

Of hosts, that is to say ; 
So passing high thy power goeth, 

AH things must thee obey. 

Both heaven and earth are filled full 

With glory of thy name : 
Our queen thou shield from all trouble 

And magnify her fame. 
The choir of the apostles thine 

Hath in thy praise delight : [shine, 
Grant our dear queen here long to 

And to enjoy her right. 
The number, passing laudable, 

Of prophets all, and sum, 
Let forth thy praise honourable 

And sovereign wisdom. 
Tlie goodly fellowship so sweet 

Of martyrs florishing. 
Lowly kneeling before thy feet. 

Thy praise doth always ring. 

(1) " Entier," (Fr.) complete.— Ed, 

(2) "Lin," linnan, or abliniiaii, (Sax.) 

leave ofT. — Ed. 



The holy church here militant 

Over the world so round, 
Sets forth thy praise of covenant, 

As thereunto most bound : 
Confessing thee, Father, to be, 

As, truth, thou art no less, 
Of a surmounting majesty. 

Passing for to express. 
Professing with all constancy 

Thy honourable Son ; 
Of thee to be begotten truly 

Ere aught were here begun. 
The Holy Ghost as to proceed 

From these high persons twain ; 
Who with his grace doth all men feed, 

That meekness do contain. 
O Trinity in unity ! 

Our queen do thou respect; 
Her only guide ever to be 

And in her right protect. 
O Christ ! thou art, we verify, 

Of glory, Lord and King, 
And Son ofthe Father on high, 

With him ever reigning. 
When thou didst please man to restore, 

With thee to reign ahvay, 
Thou didst not loth, either abhor, 

The virgin's womb that day. 
No more do now withdraw thy grace, 

We humbly thee require ; 
Our queen inhabit in like case 

With grace her to inspire. 

The sting of death by thee o'ercome, 

To true believers all 
Thou didst set open thy kingdom, 

The realm celestial. 
Now sittest thou on the right hand 

Of God the Father dear ; 
Preserve, O Lord ! merry England, 

And make it so to appear. 

Thou art believed, certainly, 

To come and be our judge; 
That day, O Lord ! sliow tliy mercy, 

And be our cliief refuge. 
Therefore we pray witli humble mood, 

Thy servants to sustain, [blood, 

Whom thou, with thy most precious 

lledeemcd hast from pain. 
Make us to be nimibered on high 

In glory with thy saints ; 
Which in thy joy doth glorify 

And therein never faints. 

Thy people save and bless also, 

Thy right inheritage : 
bur queen where she doth ride or go, 

Thou keep from all damage. 
And govern them that here be thiue : 

Extolling, by thy grace, 
Up to the heaven chrystalline, 

There to behold thy face. 
Here, day by day, as we are bound, 

Thy name we magnify : [crown'd, 
Our queen see thou with honour 

Who loveth thee specially. 
And in the world of worlds to come 

We shall thy pi-aise endure : 
Thither to come grant all and some, 

There ever to endure. 
Vouchsafe this day, from sin and crime, 

To govern us, we pray : [time, 

Our queen grant here to reign long 

And to observe thy way. 
Have mercy. Lord, on us sinners, 

Have mercy on us all : 
Our sins are many and divers 

Remit them great and small. 
Thy mercy. Lord, let on us light, 

As we do trust in thee ; [night, 

And save our queen both day and 

In high prosperity. 


In thee, O Lord, hath our whole trust 
Been steadfastly grounded ; 

Let never us, as thou art just. 
Be clearly confounded. 

W. Forest. 

Thus much as touching their devout prayer for queen Mary.* 

And now, forasmuch as in the beginning of this montli of June, 
about Whitsuntide, the time was thouglit to be nigli tliat this young 
master should come into the world, and that midwives, rockers, 
nurses, with the cradle and all, were prepared, and in a readiness ; 
suddenly, ujjou what cause or occasion it is uncertain, a certain vain 
rumour was blown in London of the prosperous deliverance of the 
queen, and the birth of the child ; insomuch that the bells were rung, 
bonfires and processions made, not only in the city of London, and 
in most other parts of the realm, but also in the town of Antwerp 
guns were shot off upon the river by the English ships, and the 





for qiui-ii 



sions niid 
ill Lon- 

at An- 

126 QUEEN Mary's expected child. 

Mary, mariners thereof rewarded with a hundred pistolets, or Italian crowns, 
^ £) hy the lady regent, who was the queen of Hungary, Such great 
1555! rejoicing and triumph was for the queen's delivery, and that there 
was a prince born. Yea, divers preachers, namely, one the parson of 
St. Anne within Aldersgate, after procession and Te Deum sung, 
took upon him to describe the proportion of the child, how fair, how 
beautiful, and great a prince it was, as the like had not been seen. 

In the midst of this great ado, there was a simple man (this I 
speak but upon information) dwelling within four miles of Berwick, 
that never had been before half way to London, who said concern- 
Queen ing the bonfires made for queen Mary's child, " Here is a joyful 
chud * triumph ; but at length all will not prove worth a mess of pottage : " 
cornel ""* ^s indeed it came to pass ; for in the end all proved clean contrary, 
and the joy and expectations of men were much deceived. For the 
people were certified, that the queen neither was as then delivered, 
nor after was in hope to have any child. 

At this time many talked diversely. Some said this rumour of the 
queen's conception was spread for a policy ; some others affirmed that 
AVhat be- she was deceived by a tympany, or some other like disease, to think 
queenMa. hcrsclf with child, and was not ; some thought she was with child, and 
ry's child that it did by some chance miscarry, or else that she was bewitched ; 
tan tell ! but what was the truth thereof the Lord knoweth, to whom nothing 
is secret. 

One thing of mine own hearing and seeing, I cannot pass over 
unwitnessed : There came to me, whom I did both hear and see, one 
Isabel Malt, a woman dwelling in Aldersgate-street in Horn-alley, 
not far from the house where this present book was printed, who, 
before witness made this declaration unto us : that she, being delivered 
of a man-child upon Whit Sunday in the morning, which was the 1 1th 
day of June, anno 1555, there came to her the lord North, and 
another lord to her unknown, dwelling then about Old Fish-street, 
demanding of her if she would part with her child, and would swear 
that she never knew nor had any such child ; which if she would, her 
son (they said) should be well provided for, she should take no care for 
it ; with many fair offers, if she would part with the child. After that, 
came other women also, of whom, one they said should have been the 
rocker ; but she in no wise would let go her son, who at the writing 
hereof being alive, and called Timothy Malt, was of the age of thirteen 
years and upward,' 

Thus much, I say, I heard of the woman herself. What credit is 

to be given to her relation, I deal not withal, but leave it to the 

liberty of the readers to believe it they that list : to them that list 

not, I have no further warrant to assure them. 

The Among many other great preparations made for the queen's deli- 

priiice's verance of child, there was a cradle very sumptuously and gorgeously 

cradle, trimmed, upon the which cradle for the child a])pointed, these verses 

were written, both in Latin and English, 
upon^lie Quam Maria» sobolem, Deus optime, summe, dedisti, 

cradle. Aiiglis incolumem reddc, tuere, rege. 

The child which thou to Mary, O Lord of might ! hast send, 
To England's joy, in health preserve, — keep, and defend ! 
(1) K.\ tcstiiiionio ctijutdani pucriiera.' Londincnsis. 


Curminis Invcrsio. ^^'"^" 

•Quain' jMariae soboleni, Dcus optiinc, summc, ncgasti, ir'rr* 

llanc ferat auspiciis Elisabetha tuis.* looo. 

About tliis time there came over into England a certain English 
book, giving warning to Englishmen of the Spaniards, and disclosing 
certain close practices for recovery of abbey-lands, which book was 
called "A Warning for England;" whereof ye shall understand 
more, God willing, when we come to the Spanish inipiisition : so that 
by the occasion of this book, upon the 13tli day of this month came 
out a certain proclamation, set forth in the name of the king and 
queen, repealing and disannulling all manner of books written or 
printed, whatsoever should touch any thing the impairing of the ])ope''s 
dignity ; whereby not only much godly edification was liindored, but 
also great peril gi-ew among the people. The copy of which procla- 
mation here foUoweth. 

A Proclamation set out by the King and Queen, for the restraining 
of all Books and Writings tending against the Doctrine of the 
Pope and his Church. 

Whereas by tlie statute made in the second year of king Henry the Fourfli 
concerning the repressing of heresies, there is ordained and provided a great 
punishment, not only for the authors, makers, and writers of books containing 
wicked doctrine, and erroneous and heretical ojjinions, contrary to the catholic 
faith and determination of the holy church, and likewise for their fautors and 
supporters ; but also for such as shall have or keep any such books or writings, 
and not make delivery of them to the ordinary of the diocese or his ministers, 
within a certain time limited in the said statute, which act or statute being by 
authority of parliament of late revived, 2 was also openly proclaimed, to the 
intent the subjects of the realm upon such proclamation should the rather 
eschew the danger and penalty of the said statute ; and as yet nevertheless, in 
most parts of the realm, the same is neglected, and little regarded : the king 
and queen our sovereign lord and lady,^ therefore, etc., straitly charge and com- 
mand : that no person or persons, of what estate, degree, or condition soever lie 
or they be, from henceforth presume to bring or convey, or cause to be brought 
or conveyed into this realm, any books, writings, or works hereafter metitioned; Ooo.l 
that is to say, any book or books, writings or works made or set forth, by, or in jj^j'j^jj''''' 
the name of Martin Luther, or any book or books, writings or works made or 
set fordi, by or in the name of (Ecolampadius, Zuinglius, John Calvin, Pome- 
rane, John Alasco, Bullinger, Bucer, Melancthon, Ikrnardine, Ochin, Erasmus, 
Sarcerius,* Peter Martyr, Hugh Latimer, Robert Barnes, otherwise called Friar 
Barnes, John Bale, otherwise called Friar Bale, Justus Jonas, John Hooper, 
Miles Coverdale, William Tyndale, Thomas Cranmer, late archbishop of Can- 
terbury, William 'J'urner, Theodore Basil, otherwise called Thomas Beacon, 
John Frith, Roy, and the book commonly called " Hall's Chronicle," or any of nan-j 
them in the Latin tongue, Dutch tongue, English tongue, Italian tongue, or French Chro- 
tongue, or any other like book, paper, writing or work, made, printed, or set ""^ '^• 
forth, by any other person or persons, containing false doctrine contrary and 
against the catholic faith, and the doctrine of the catholic church.* And also 
that no person or persons presume to write, print, utter, sell, read, or keep any, 
or cause to be written, printed, uttered, or kept, any of the said books, papers, 
v/orks, or writings, or any book or books, written or printed in the Latin or 
English tongue, concerning the common service and administration set forth in 

{ n See Edition 1563, page 11 U.-Ed. (2) Of this act or statute read before 

(3) " Astiterunt regcs terra et principes convcnerunt m urium advcrsus noiniiium et Christum 

'% Twfword should probably be Strigelius : See " Abel nedevivus," pase 2ao.-Ep. 

(5) What ado is here to keep down Christ in liis sepulchre! and yet will he rise in gp.te of all 
his enemies. ♦ 


Mary. English to be used in the churches of this realm in the time of king Edward 

A 1^ the Sixth, commonly called " The Communion Book, or Book of Common 

l='ce* Service and Ordering of Ministers, otherwise called. The Book set forth by 

authority of parliament, for Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacn 
ments," or to be used in the mother tongue within the Church of England; but 
shall, within the space of fifteen days next after the pubhcation of this procla- 
mation, bring or deliver, or cause the said books, writings, and works, and every 
of them remaining in their custodies and keeping, to be brought and delivered 
to the ordinaiy of the diocese, where such books, works, or writings be or remain, 
or to his chancellor or commissaries, without fraud, colour, or deceit, at the 
said ordinary's will and disposition to be burnt, or otherwise to be used or 
ordered by the said ordinaries, as-by the canons or spiritual laws it is in that 
case limited and appointed, upon pain that every offender contrary to this pro- 
clamation, shall incur the danger and penalties contained in the said statute, 
and as they will avoid their majesties' high indignation and displeasure, and 
further answer at their uttermost perils. 
The And their majesties, by this proclamation, give full power and authority to 

thi"^"^"^ all bishops and ordinaries, and all justices of the peace, mayors, sheriffs, baihffs 
world sot of cities and towns coi-porate, and other head officers within this realm and the 
against dominions thereof, and expressly command and will the same and every of 
them, that they and every of them, within their several limits and jurisdictions, 
shall in the default and negligence of the said subjects, after the said fifteen days 
expii-ed, inquire and search out the said books, writings, and works ; and for this 
purpose enter into the house or houses, closets, and secret places of every person, 
of whatsoever degree, being negligent in this behalf, and suspected to keep any 
such book, writing, or works, contrary to this proclamation : and that the said 
justices, mayors, sheriffs, bailiffs, and other head officers above specified, and 
every of them within their said limits and jurisdictions, finding any of the said 
subjects negligent and faulty in this behalf, shall commit every such offender to 
ward, there to remain without bail or mainprize, till the same offender or 
offenders have received such punishment as the said statute doth limit and 
appoint in this behalf. 

Given under our signs manual, at our honour of Hampton Court, the 
13th day of June, the first and second years of oiu- reigns. 
Imprinted by John Cawood, anno 1555. 

Articles to be inquired upon by the Wardens of every Company, 
toucliing Seditious Books, especially touching the Book called, 
"A Warning for England."^ 

Articles I. Whether they have seen any of the aforesaid books? 
* uired"' ^^' ^'^^I'^^^her they have heard of any of the said books ? 
upon. Ill- Where they were, and in what place they have seen them? 

IV. Whom they know to have lately come from beyond the sea; especially 
from Zurich, Strasburg, Frankfort, Wezel, Emden, andDelsburg? 

V. Whom they know, or vehemently suspect, to be common carriers of letters, 
or money, thither from hence ? 

VI. That they bring to my lord mayor all such seditious books as they have, 
or shall have found hereafter. 

In this proclamation thou hast heard, christian reader ! the pro- 
found and learned censure of the catholic church of England, what 
books they mislike and reject as heretical, schismatical, and per- 
nicious. Against the which catholic censure of these learned fathers, 
I have not at this time to infer : neither doth my leisure now serve 
to -write apologies in defence of these authors here condemned. Only 
so much leave it may please the reader to grant me to set before him 
here a pair of balances, wherein to weigh the books on the one side 
condemned, with the books on the other side allowed, to the end that 

(1) This hook called, " A Warning for England," look for hereafter, when we come (God willing) 
to the Spanish inquisition. 


wc, weighing the one witli the other, may discern the better between ufary. 
them, which part weigheth best with (jlocr.s holy truth and true "Z~7^ 
catholic clmrch, against manifest idolatry and paljKible abomination. 1555' 
And now therefore, as they have in this present ])roclamation given f7,.,7,\ 
their condemnation u})on these books above recited; so I desire thee ofuaiiro- 
to give thy censure upon their books, by them allowed, and upon the to'i.e"" 
matter in them contained, and mark well what good stuff it is. "mf "* 

I.M(ik« of 
tlic pa- 

And first to begin witli the Primer in English for children, after the 
use of Salisbury, imprinted with privilege according to letters-patent 
of the king and qucen"'s majesties in the reign of (jueen jVIary.' 
Let us repeat and survey some part of the said primer (for to express 
all, it were too long) beginning with the first lesson of our Lady, in 
these words : 

" Holy Mary, mother most pure of virgins all, 
Mother and daughter of the King Celestial, 
So comfort us in our desolation, 
That by thy prayer and special mediation, 
We enjoy the reward of thy heavenly reign," etc. 

Confer this with the Scriptures,^ good reader, and judge uprightly 
whether this doctrine be tolerable in the church or not. It foUoweth 
more in the second lesson. 

" Holy Mary, of all godly the godliest. 
Pray for us, of all holy the holiest ; 
That he our pi-ayers accept may in good wise. 
Which of thee was born, and reigneth above the skies," etc. 

In the Third Lesson. 

" Thy Son beseech, with humble intercession, 
To purge us clean of our transgression ; 
That so being redeemed we may the place ascend, 
Where thou dwellest with him world without end." 

The Versicle. 

" Pray for the people, entreat for the clergy, make intercession for the One mo- 
devout woman-kind ; let all feel thy help, that worthily solemnize thy me- '•'a'or. 
morial," etc. 

Another Versicle. 

" Holy Mother of God, make thy petition. 
That we may deserve Christ's promission," etc. 

And in the anthem after Bcnedictus, thus it foUowcth : — 

" We beseech thee of thy pity to have us in remembrance, and to make r'.iis.> 
means for us unto Christ, that we, being supported by thy help, may deserve to mcr'is. 
attain the kingdom of heaven." 

(1) This Primer set forth in queen Mary's time was printed by J. Waylniid. 

(2) " The Scriptures;" " There is one God, and one mediator between Ciod and men, tlie man 
Christ Jesus." 1 Tim. ii. 5.— Kd. 



Mary. Furthermore in the collect after it folloAveth : — 
A. D. " And grant, that through the gracious intercession of the Virgin thy Mother, 
1555. we may be delivered from this present heaviness, and have the fruition of eter- 
nal gladness." 

It followetli moreover in the said Primer thus, concerning the 
material cross. 
Idolatry " O God, which hast ascended thy most holy cross, and hast given Hght to 
material ^^^^ darkness of the world, vouchsafe by the virtue of thy cross to illumine, 
cross. visit, and comfort both our hearts and bodies," etc. 

Moreover, in the name of St. John Baptist thus it prayeth : — 

" O Lord, defend us alway through the continual succours of St. John Bap- 
tist.' For the more frail we be, the more need we have to be relieved with ne- 
cessary prayers," etc. 

In which words note, good reader, not only the absurdity of doc- 
trine, but also the stolidity of the reason. For whereas their doctrine 
pretendeth that St. John Baptist should pray for us, here we pray 
to God for St. John Baptist, that he will hear his prayer praying for 
us. It followeth furthermore in the name of Peter and Paul : — 

" Hear us mercifully ; and grant that through the merits of them both, we 
may obtain the glory everlasting,"^ etc. 

Of St. Andrew. 
" So let him, O Lord, be a continual petitioner for us to thee," etc. 

Of St. Lawrence thus : — 

" St. Lawrence the deacon did work a great work. For by the virtue of the 
holy cross, he gave sight to the blind," etc. 

And how can this be true, when the holy cross was not yet found 
in the time of St. Lawrence "? For Helen which first found the cross, 
as they say, came after St. Lawrence more than forty years. 

Of Thomas Bechet Archbishop of Canterbury. 

" By the blood of Thomas, which he for thee did spend, 
Make us, Christ, to climb, whither Thomas did ascend."^ 

Of St. Nicholas. 

False " O God, which hast glorified blessed Nicholas, thy holy bishop, with innu- 

meritg. merable miracles, grant we beseech thee, that by his merits and prayers we 
may be delivered from the fire of hell." 

Of Mary Magdalen. 

" Grant we beseech thee, through thy mercy, to let her purchase for us the 
bliss everlasting," etc. 

Another Prayer of our Lady. 

" The dolorous compassion of God's sweet Mother 

Bring us to the bliss of Almighty God the Father," etc. 

(1) " Let no man clory in any roan ; for all thinRs are yours," etc. 1 Cor. iii. 

(2) " What i.s Paul, what is ApoUos, but the servants of him on whom you believe ?" 1 Cor. iiU 
{S) What horrid bl.-isphemy, and derogation to Christ's blood! 




Another Prayer in the said Primer to our Lady. 

" Establish us in peace and tranquillity, ~\~Vi 

And change the name of sinful Eva: iVr = 

Loose thy prisoners from captivity '' 

^ Unto the blind give sight again 

The onice 

Deliver us from malignity, " * °[;;!;t 

lo the end we may some grace attain : °"r Lady. 

Show thyself to be a Rlother, 
So that he accept our petition. 

Deliver us from bondage of sin." 


" Holy Mother, succour the miserable, comfort the weak-spirited give 
courage to the desperate, pray for the people, make intercession for the clergy 
and be a mean for the devout woman-kind," etc. 

Another blasphemous Prayer. 
" O thou meek Mother, have mercy therefore Blasphc- 

On wretches, for whom thou haddest these paines all, "y- 

Seeing thy Son that vine-cluster pressed sore : 
And from the pestilence of death eternal. 
Keep us by voiding the fiend infernal. 
And join us with them which rewarded be 
With eternal life, seeing the Deity." 

Another Blasphemy in the said Primer. 
" Hail Queen, mother of mercy, our life, our sweetness, our hope. Unto thee idolatry 
do we cry and sigh, weeping and wailing. Come off, therefore, our patroness ; 
cast upon us thy pitiful eyes ; and after this our banishment, show to us the 
blessed fruit of thy womb. O Gate of glory ! be for us a reconciliation unto the 
Father and the Son. From the wretched their faults expel : wipe the spots of 
sins unclean," etc. 

Item, to our Lady. 
" The fruit of thy womb everlasting. 
We may behold through thy deserving," etc. 

" Grant we beseech thee, that by her merits and prayers^ we may attain to 
that unspeakable joy, where she, being assumpt, doth now rejoice with thee in 
heaven for ever." 

And thus much hitherto of this Catholic Primer, called our Lady's Like 
Matins : whereunto, if it Avere not tedious for the reader, we would j^ke"^"' 
also adjoin our Lady's Psalter, to the intent that all indifferent Psalter, 
readers, as they have seen Avhat books these catholic fathers have con- 
demned and do condemn for heretical ; so the same also may sec and 
judge, what books on the other side they approve as lawful and 
catholic. And forasmuch as it is not known peradventure to all men, 
what our Lady's Psalter is, or what it meaneth ; yea, and some per- 
adventure vill deny any such book of our Lady's Psalter to be writ- 
ten or approved,^ here therefore we will first ])roduce the name of the 
author, who was Bonaventure,^ a scraphical doctor, bishop also and 
cardinal, canonized moreover by pope Sixtus the Fourth, Anno 1482, 

(1) If Mary's m«rits might help us, then Christ died in vain. 

(2) It takes its place in the later editions of Bonaventure's works, and is recognised by Wadding 
in his " Scriptores ordinis Minorum;" IJomse, 1650.— Ed. 

(3) Bonaventure, who was the compiler of our Lady's Psalter, lived a. d. H70, »nd was 
canonized a.d. 1482. 

K 2 


Mary, for a saint in the calendar, who, in his book thus entitled in Latin, 
A.D. " Incipit Psalterium beatse Virginis, compilatum per Seraphicura 
1555. Doctorem Sanctum Bonaventuram Episcopum Albanensem, necnon 
sancta? Romanse Ecclesise Presbyterum Cardinalem, in honorem 
genetricis," etc. (fol. 84, in the second part of his whole works, 
which were imprinted at Strasburgh, Anno 1495), to show himself 
a devout servant to his Lady, hath taken every psalm of David's 
Psalter (which be peculiarly made and referred to Almighty God), 
and hath in divers of the said psalms and verses put out the name of 
the Lord, and hath placed in the name of our Lady. This being 
done through the whole psalms and every one of them, it is now called 
our Lady's Psalter, used to be sung and said in the praise and ser- 
vice of our Lady. A brief taste whereof, for example's sake (for, to 
show all, it were too long), we thought here to exhibit unto the 
reader in order, as folio we th : — 


" Here beginneth the Psalter of the blessed Virgin, made by the 
seraphical doctor St.Bonaventure, the bishop of Albano, and cardinal 
of the holy church of Rome." 

1. Blessed is the man which understandeth thy name, O Virgin Mary; thy 

grace shall comfort his soul. Thou shalt bring forth in him the most plentiful 

fruit of justice, being watered as it were with fountains of water. All women 

Our _ thou passest in the beauty of thy body ; all angels and archangels in the excel- 

beauty lency of thy holiness. Thy mercy and thy grace is magnified everywhere, 

etc. — Glory be to the Father, etc' 

Treason 2. Why do oiu' enemies fret and imagine vain things against us ? Let thy 

Christ's "gli*' li'ind defend us, O Mother of God, terribly confounding and destroying 

person them as a sword. Come unto her, all ye that labour and are troubled, and she 

and di?- Yf\\\ gjye rest unto your souls. Come unto her in your temptations, and her 

loving countenance shall stablish and comfort you. Bless her with all your 

heart ; for the earth is full of her n>ercy. Glory be to the Father, etc.^ 

Bias- 3_ Why are they so many, O Lady, that trouble me ? In thy fury thou 

i'doTatry.^ shalt persecute and destroy them. Loose the bonds of our impiety, and take 

away the burden of our sins. Have mercy upon me, O Lady, and heal my 

infirmity. Take away my sorrow and the anguish of my heart. Deliver me 

not into the hands of mine enemies, and in the day of my death comfort my 

soul. Bring me unto the haven of salvation, and restore my spirit unto my 

Maker and Creator. Glory be to the Father, etc.^ 

False 4_ When I called to thee, thou heardest me, O my Lady, and out of thy 

high throne thou didst vouchsafe to think upon me. From the roaring of 

them that prepare themselves to devour me, and out of the hands of such as 

seek after my life, thy grace shall deliver me : because thy mercy and thy pity, 

are great towards all them that call upon thy holy name. Blessed be thou, () 

(1) Beatus vir, qui intelligit [diligit] nomen tuum, Maria Virgo, gratia tua animam ejus con- 
fortabit. Tanquam aquarum fontibus irrigatum uberrimum in eo fructum justitiae propagabis, etc. 
Universas enim faeminas vincis pulchritudine carnis; superas angelos et arcliangelos excellentia 
sanctitatis. Misericordia tua et gratia ubique pr<Edicatur, etc. Gloria Patri. See the book called 
" Our Lady's Psalter." Bonaventure [Opera: Moguntiae, 1609, vol. vi. p. 478, Psalm i. The words 
in parentheses denote the variation between the early edition which Foxe cited, and that of a more 
recent date, with which the editor collated these passages. The reader need hardly be directed to 
the awful profaneness of this Psalter.— Ed.] 

(2) Quare fremuerunt inimici nostri, et adversum nos meditati sunt inania? Protegat nos dex- 
tera tua, mater Dei, ut acies terribiliter confundens ct destruens cos. Venite ad earn, qui laboratis 
et tribulati estis, et dabit refrigerium animabus vestris. Accedite ad earn in tentationibus vestris, 
et stabiliet vos serenitas vultus ejus. Benedicite illam in toto corde vestro, miscricordi.^ enim 
illius plena est terra, etc. Gloria Patri. [Psalm ii. Ibid. — Ed.] 

(3) Domina, quid multiplicati sunt qui tribulant me? In tempest.ite tua persequeris et dissi- 
pabis COS. Dissolve coUigationes impietatis nostra;; tolle fasciculos peccatorum nostrorum. 
Miserere mei, Domina, et sana infirmitatem meam; tolle dolorem et angusiiam cordis mei. Ne 
tr.idas me manibus inimicorum meorum, et in die mortis mea; conforta animam meam. Deduc 
me ad portum salutis, et spiritum mcum redde factori meo, etc. [Psnlm iii. Ibid. — Eu.] 


Lady for ever, and thy majesty for ever and ever. Glorify her all nations of m„„, 
the eartli, etc' - ^' 

5. Hear my words, O Lady, etc. Turn our mourning into f^ladness, and our ^- ^^• 
trouble into rejoicing. Let our enemies fall before our feet, and with tliy "^S.*) . 
power dash their heads in pieces.* 

6. O Lady, suffer me not to be rebuked in God's anger, nor to be chastened ncrojia- 
in his heavy displeasure, etc. From the gate and deep pit of licll, with thy •'"""fHif 
holy prayers deliver us. Let the everlasting gates be opened, that we may chrTst"' 
show forth thy marvellous works for ever. Because neither the dead, nor they 

that be in hell, shall praise thee, O Lady, but they which shall obtain by thy 
grace life everlasting.^ 

7. O my Lady, in tlice will I put my trust ; deliver me from mine enemies, VaIn 
O Lady. Stop tlie mouth of the lion, and bind the lips of the persecutors. *'"*'• 
Make no tarrying for thy name's sake, to show thy mercy upon me. Let tlie i^nv"c'a. 
brightness of thy countenance shine u])on us, that our conscience may be saved tion. 
before tlie most highest. If the enemy do persecute my soul, O Lady, help me 

that he destroy me not.* 

9. I will give thanks to thee, O Lady, with my whole heart.s rnd will show Manifest 
forth among the nations thy praise and glory, etc. They shall find grace 'dol^iry- 
through thee, the finder out of grace and salvation. The humble and penitent 
groan for pardon and forgiveness; heal thou the sores of their heart, &c.« 

10. In thee, O Lady, do I put my trust, etc. Seek her even from your Derosa- 
youth, and she shall glorify you, etc. Her mercy take from us the multitude [Ij"'."', 
of our sins, and give unto us plenteousness of merits, etc' pa^'sfon. 

12. Save me, O Mother of love, and fountain of mercy, etc. Thou thyself 
alone hast gone about the compass of the earth, to help them that call upon 

13. How long dost thou forget me, O Lady, and dost not deliver me in the 
day of my trouble? How long shall mine enemy triumpli over me? AVilh 
thy mighty power destroy him, etc We magnify thee the finder and the 
author of grace, by whom the world is repaired, etc.^ 

16. Presei-ve me, Lady, for in thee have I put my trust, etc. Blessed be jiilk- 
thy breasts,!" [from] which, with thy deifying milk, didst [thou] nourish the making 
Saviour, etc." ^°'^- 

18. I will love thee, O Lady of heaven and earth; I will call upon thy name Idolatry 
among the nations. Confess yourselves unto her, ye that are troubled in heart, °[,';'g^p. 
and she shall strengthen you against your enemies, etc. All ye cloisterers ers. 
honour her, for she is your helper and special advocate. Be thou our refresh- 
ing and rest, for thou art the marvellous foundation of all religion.'^ 

(1) Cum invocarem, exaudisti me, Domina, et ^ sublimi solio tuo mei dignata es recordari. A 
rugientibus prseparatis ad escam et de manibus quc-crentium me liberatiit gratia tua: quoniam 
benigna est misericordia et pietas tua in omnes qui invocant nomen sanctum tuum. Benedicta 
sis, Domina, in Eeternum, et majestas tua in seculum. Glorificate eam, omnes gentes, etc. [Psalm 
iv. Ibid.— Ed.] 

(2) Verba mea auribus pcrcipe, Domina, etc. Converte luctum nostrum in gaudium, ct trihu- 
lationem nostram in jubilationem. Corruant ante pedes nostros inimici nostri ; virtute tua eorrnn 
capita conterantur, etc. [Psalm v. Ibid. p. 479.— Ed.] 

(3) Domina, ne in furore Dei sinas corrlpi me, neque in ira ejus judicari, etc. De porta inferi, 
et de ventre abyssi, tuis Sanctis precibus libera nos. Aperiantur nobis januffi sempiterna;, ut enar- 
remus in aeternum mirabilia tua: quia non mortui, neque qui in inferno sunt, laudabunt te, 
Domina, sed qui tua gratia vitam aternam obtinebunt. [Psalm vi. Ibid.— Ed.] 

(4) Domina mea, in te speravi, de inimicismeis libera me, Domina. Conclude ora Leonis, ct labia 
persequentium constringe. Non moreris propter nomen tuum facere nobis misericordiam tuam. 
Splendor vultils tui fulgeat super nos, ut servetur conscientia nostra apud altissimum. Si perse- 
quitur [persequatur] inimicus animam meam, Domina, adjutorio tuo conforter, ne vibret gladium 
suum contra me. [Psalm vii. Ibid. — Ed.] 

(5) " Thou Shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart, with all thy strength and power," 
etc. Deut. vi. 

(6) Confitebor tibi, Domina, in toto corde meo, et narraboin populis laudcmet ploriam tuam, etc. 
Invenient gratiam [peccatores apud Dcum] per te invcntricem gratia; et salutis. Respirant 
ad indulgentiam humiles poenitentes ; sanacontritiones cordis corum.etc. [Psalm ix. Ibid.- Ed.] 

(7) In te, Domina, eonfido, etc. Exquirite illam a juventute vestrS, et glorific.abit vos, etc. 
Misericordia illius nostrorum auferat multitudinem pcccatorum, et foeeunditatem nobis conferat 
mcritorum, etc. [Psalm xi. Ibid. — Ed.] 

(8) Salvura me fac, mater pulchra; dilectionis, fons clemcntije, etc. Gyrum terra: sola circuis, 
ut subvenias invocantibus te, etc. [Psalm xii. Ibid.— En.] 

(9) Usque quo, Domina, oblivisceris me, et non liberas me in die tribulationis ? Usque quo 
exaltabitur inimicus meus super me? Potentia virtutis tua» contere ipsum, etc. Magnilicamus 
te gratis inventricem, per quam sjecula reparantur, etc. [Psalm xiii. Ibid. — Ed.] 

(10) '• Yea rather blessed be they which hear the word of God, and keep it." 

(11) Conserva me, Domina, quoniam sjieravi in tc, etc. Hem-dicta sunt ubcra tu.i, quibus lacte 
dcifico salvatorcm cnntristi, etc. [Psalm xvi. Il)id.— Kn.] 

(12) Diligam te, Domina cali ct tcrr.v; in gontibus nomen tuum invocabo. Confifemini illi, 


Hfnri/. 20. Hear us, O Lady, in the day of trouble, etc. Cast us not away in the 

time of our death, but succour our soul when it forsaketh the body. Send an 

' •/;• angel to meet it, that it may be defended from the enemies, etc. In torments 

^' and pain let it feel thy comfort, and grant to it a place among the elect of God.' 

25. To thee, O Lady, do I lift up my soul, etc. Let not the snares of death 
prevail against me, etc. Be thou my guide to the heavenly rest, and to the 
company of angels associate me.'^ 

26. Judge thou me, O Lady,^ for I am fallen from mine innocency : but 
because I put my trust in thee, therefore I shall not fall, etc.* 

27. O Lady, let the brightness of thy face be my light, and let the clearness 
of thy grace shine unto my mind, etc.* 

28. To thee, O Lady, etc. Have mercy upon me in the day of my trouble, 
and in the light of thy truth deliver me, etc.'' 

3L In thee, O Lady, do I put my trust; let me not be confounded for ever : 

in thy glory receive me. Thou art my strength and my refuge, my consolation 

and protection, etc. Deliver me from the snare that they have laid for me, 

because thou art my helper.' Into thy hands I commend my spirit, etc.^ 

Horrible 34. I will always praise our Lady, etc. In perils, in adversity, call upon 

blasphe- |jgj.^ g^j^j jj^ ^.jj^g ^f ^^^^ yp gj,^|j ^^^ succour. Let her conversation be an 

against example unto you, and follow the virtue of her humility. Because therefore, O 

the Lord ! Lady, thou wast humble and lowly, thou didst compel the Word increate to 

take flesh of thee.* 
o impi- 36. The wicked man said, etc. Let him depart from his evil purpose. 
ous bias- o Mother of God, turn the countenance of God towards us : compel him to be 
P eray • rnei'ciful unto sinners. Blessed be thy empery and dominion in heaven, and 
blessed be thy magnificence upon the earth. '" 

45. My heart is inditing a good matter, O Lady, etc. By thy holiness let 
my sins be purged ;'i by thy integrity let me obtain incorruption, etc.'^ 
These 47. Clap your hands, all ye people, etc. For she is the gate of life, the door 

words of salvation, the reconciler of our life ; the hope of the penitent, the comfort of 
blasphV '■^^ sorrowful, the blessed peace of hearts, and salvation. Have mercy upon 
mous me, O Lady ; have mercy upon me ; for thou art the light and hope of all that 
idolatry. p^,t ji^^jj. ^^^^^^^ j„ thee.'^ 

5L Have mercy upon me, O Lady, which art called the mother of mercy; 
and in the bowels of thy great compassion cleanse me from mine iniquities.'* 

tribulati corde, et roborabit vos contra inimicos vestros, etc. Religiosi omnes, honorate illam, quia 
ipsa est adjutrix vestra et specialis advocata. Esto refrigerium nostrum, gloriosa mater Christi, 
quia tu es totius religionis mirabile firmamentum. [Psalm xviii. Ibid, page 480. — Ed.] 

( 1 ) Exaudi [as] nos, Domina, in die tribulationis, etc. Ne projicias nos in tempore mortis nostra?, 
sed succurre animse, cum deseruerit corpus suum. Mitte angelum in occursum ejus, per quern 
ab hostibus defendatur, etc. Sentiat in poenis refrigerium tuum, et concede ei locum inter electos 
Dei. [Psalm XX. Ibid.— Ed.] 

(2) Ad te, Domina, levavi animam, etc. Non praevaleant adversum me laquei mortis, etc. 
Ductrix mea esto ad patriam, et me coetui angelorum dignevis aggregare. [Ps. xxv. Ibid.— Ed ] 

(3) All judgment is given to Christ alone, and before him the Virgin also herself shall be judged. 

(4) Judica me, Domina, quoiiiam ab innocentia meadigressus sum : sed quia speravi [sperabo], 
in te non infirmabor, etc. [Psalm xxvi. Ibid.— Ed.] 

(5) Domina, illuminatio mea sit splendor faciei tuee, et serenitas gratis tute refulgeat menti 
meae, etc. [Psalm xxvii. Ibid.— Ed.] 

(6) Ad te, Domina, clamabo, etc. Miserere mei in die angustijE mese, et in luce veritatis tuae 
libera me. [Psalm xxviii. Ibid. — En.] 

(7) If our Lady be all in all, then God, belike, sitteth idle in heaven ! 

(8) In te, Domina, speravi, non confundar in Eeternum, in gloria [gratia] tuS suscipe me. Tu es 
fortitudo mea et refugium meum, consolatio mea et protectio mea, etc. Educas me [de] laqueo 
quem absconderunt mihi, quoniam tues adjutrix mea. In manus tuas, Domina, commendo spiri- 
tum meum. [Psalm xxxi. Ibid. p. 481.— Ed.] 

(9) Benedicam Dominam in omni tempore, etc. In periculis, in rebus dubiis, invocate earn, et 
in necessitatibus invenietis auxilium, etc. Sumite exemplum conversationis ejus et aemulemini 
[aemulamini] studia [charitatis et] humilitatis ejus. Quia ergo, Domina, humillima fuisti, Verbum 
increatum ex te camera suscipere coegisti. [Psalm xxxiv. Ibid.- Ed.] 

(10) Dixit injustus, etc. A malo proposito discedat. Mater Dei, inclina' vultum Dei super 
nos : coge ilium peccatoribus misereri, etc. Benedictum sit Imperium tuum super ccelos, beue- 
dicta sit magnificentia tua super terram. [Psalm xxxvi. Ibid. — Ed.] 

(U) If Mary forgive sins, then is our faith in Christ in vain. 

(12) Eructavit cor meum verbum bonum, Domina, etc. Per tuam sanclitatem peccata mea 
purgentur: per tuam integritatem mihi incorruptibilitas condonetur, etc. [Psalm xlv. Ibid, 
p. 482.— Ed.] 

(13) Omnes gentes, plaudite manibus, etc. Quoniam ipsa est porta vitae, janua salutis, et vitae 
[viae] nostrae reconciliatrix [reconciliationis] ; spes poenitentium, solamen lugentium, pax beata 
cordium atque salus. Miserere mei, Domina, miserere mei, quia tu es lux et spes omnium confi- 
dentium in te, etc. [Psalm xlvii. Ibid.— Ed.] 

(14) Miserere mei, Domina, quae mater misericordia nuncuparis. Et secundum viscera misera- 
tionum [misericordiosum] tuarum munda me ab omnibus iniquitatibus meis, etc. [Psalm li. 
Ibid.— Ed.] 


54. O Lady, in tliy name save me, and from mine unrighteousness deliver Maru 
me, etc' ' 

70. Make haste, O Lady, to help me, etc. Have mercy on thy servants, A. 1). 
upon whom thy name is invocated, etc.- * 1555. 

71. In thee, Lady, have I put my trust : let me not be confounded for ever; m^ 
in thy mercy deliver me, etc' trust. 

7y. O Lady, the Gentiles are come into the inheritance of God, whom thou 
didst join unto Christ by thy merits, etc.* 

89. Thou that rulest'lsra'el, etc. The favour of life cometh from her, and all Gods ho- 
health floweth out of her heart, etc.* nour ne- 

91. Whoso dwelleth in the help of the mother of God, shall dwell in the p"';'"'''' 
shadow of her protection, etc. Cry unto her in your dangers, and the scourge trust! 
shall not come near your tabernacle. The fruit of grace shall be to him whoso 
trusteth in her, and the gate of paradise shall be open unto him.* 

95. Come let us rejoice to our Lady, etc. Receive our souls at our last end, 
and bring them into everlasting rest, etc.^ 

105. Praise our Lady, and call upon her name, etc. Everlasting salvation Abomina- 
is in thy hand, O Lady, etc' bie hias- 

110. The Lord said unto our Lady, Sit here, my mother, on my right hand,' P'*'-"''- 

114. In the passing of my soul out of this world, come and meet it, O Lady, 
and receive it, etc. Be to it a ladder to the kingdom of heaven, and a right 
way to the paradise of God, etc." 

119. The whole earth is full of thy mercies, and therefore I will search out BUsphe- 
the way of thy justifications, etc. I will covet for ever to praise thee, O Lady, "">'■ 
when thou shall teach me thy justifications, etc.'^ 

125. They that put tlieir tVust in thee, O mother of God, shall not be afraid Blnsphe- 
of the face of their enemy, etc'^ my. 

.127. Except our Lady shall build the house of our heart, the building thereof Biasphe- 
shall not continue." my. 

128. Blessed is every one that feareth our Lady, and blessed be all they 
•which know to do her will, etc.''' 

130. Out of the deep I have called unto thee, O Lady, O Lady hear my ucla- 

Voice, etc.'* trous in- 

132. O Lady, remember David, and all them that call upon thy name, etc'^ vocation. 
134. Behold and bless now our Lady, all ye that put your trust in her holy False 
name.'" '''"'*'• 

fl) Domina, in nomine tuo salvum me fac, et ab injustitiis meis libera me, etc. [Psalm lir. 
Ibid.— Ed.] 

(2) Domina, in adjutorium rheum intende, etc. Miserere servorum tuorum, super quos invoca- 
tum est nomen tuum, etc. [Psalm Ixx. Ibid. — Ed.] 

(3) In te, Domina, speravi, uon confundar in a;temum, in tua misericordia libera me, etc. 
[Psalm Ixxi. Ibid.— Ed.] 

(4) Domina, venerunt Rentes in haereditatem Dei, quas tu meritis tuis Christo confoederasti, etc. 
[Psalm Ixxix. Ibid. p. 484.— Ed.] 

(5) Qui regis Israel, etc. Odor vitae de ilia progreditur, et omnis salus de corde illius scaturisat. 
[Psalm Ixxx. Ibid.— Ed.] 

(6) Qui habitat in adjutorio niatris Dei, in protcctione ipsius commorabitur, etc. Clamate ad 
illam in periculis vestris, et llagellum non approbinquabit tahernaculo vcslro. Fructu.s gratiae 
inveniet qui speraverit in ilia. Porta paradisi reserabitur ei. [P.salm xci. Ibid. p. 4S5.— Ed.] 

(7) Venite exultemus Dominse nostrae, etc. Suscipe in fine animas nostras, et introduc nos in 
requiem seternam, etc. [Psalm xcv. Ibid. p. 486.— Ed.] 

(8) Confitemini Dominae nostrse, et invocate nomen ejus, etc. Salus sempiterna in manu tua, 
Domina, etc. [Psalm cv. Ibid.— Ed.] 

(9) The devil and the pope say so. and not God. 

(10) Dixit Dominus Domina nostra;; sede, mater mea, ^ dextris meis, etc. [Psalm ex. Ibid, 
p. 487.— Ed.] 

(11) In cxitu animffi meje ex hoc mundo occurre ei, Domina, et suscipe earn, etc. Esto illi scala 
ad regnum ccelorum, et iter rectum ad paradisum Dei. etc. [Psalm cxvi. cxviii. Ibid.— En.] 

(12) Miserationibus tuis plena est terra, ideo viam justificationum tuarum exquisivi, etc. Concu- 
piscara in aeternum laudare te, Domina, cum docueris me justificationes tuas, etc. [Psalm cxix. 7. 
Ibid. P.48S.— Ed.] 

(13) Quiconfidunt in te, mater Dei, non timebunt a facie inimici, etc. [Psalm cxxv. Ibid. p. 489. 

(14) NisiDominaaedificaverit domum cordis nostri, non permanebitaedificium ejus. [Psalm cxxvii. 
Ibid.— Ed.] ^ . . . , 

(15) Beati omnes qui timent Dominam nostram, et beati omnes qui sciunt facere voluntatem 
siiam, etc. [Psalm cxxviii. Ibid. — Ed.] ^ 

(IG) De profundis elamavi ad te, Domina; Domina, exaudi vocem^raeam : fiant aures tuae inten- 
dentes, etc. [Psalm cxxx. Ibid.— Ed.] 

(17) Memento, Domina, David, ct omnium invocantium nomen tuum, etc. [Psalm cxxxii.— Ed.] 

(18) Ecce nunc benedicile Dominam, omnes qui speratis in nomine sancto ejus, etc. [Psalm 
cxxxiv. Ibid. p. 490.— Ed.] 







There is no propitiation to be found 
and from the infernal enemy 






made i 

136. At the floods of Babylon, etc. 
without her, etc.^ 

140. Deliver me, O Lady, from all evil, 
defend me,- etc' 

145. Our eyes look up and trust in thee. Do thou send us meat and food 
convenient, etc. My tongue shall speak thy praise, and shall bless thee for 

148. Praise thou our Lady, O Jerusalem, and glorify her also, O thou Sion : 
for she buildeth up thy walls, and blesseth thy children. Her grace maketh 
thee fat, and giveth peace unto thy coasts, etc.^ 

I could recite also other things more of like blasphemy, following 
immediately after this Psalter of om- Lady, in the seraphical doctor 
aforesaid, as these :^ 

Behold, my Lady, my saviour ; I will be bold in thee, and will not fear, etc. 
Because thou art my strength, and art become my salvation, etc.'' 

Rejoice, O all mankind, because the Lord thy God hath given unto thee such 
a mediatrix, etc' 

I will confess to thee, O Lady, because thou hast hid these things from the 
wise, and hast revealed them to the little ones.^ 

O thou wicked and peevish generation, acknowledge our Lady thy saviour. Is 
not she the mother that hath possessed thee, and in faith hath begotten thee ? '" 

O thou blessed, in thy hands is laid up our salvation, etc." 

In thy name let every knee bend, in heaven and earth, and in hell.'^ 

Like as an infant cannot live without the nurse, so neither canst thou have 
salvation without our Lady." 

Whoso will be saved, before all things he must needs hold his belief of our 
Lady : which belief, unless every one shall hold perfect and sound, he shall 
perish, without doubt, for ever.'* 

Moreover, after these so horrible things and intolerable to" be 
heard, consequently in the next tractation followeth the Rosary or 
Garland of our Lady,^^ compiled by the said St. Bonaventure ; wherein 
these words are to be read as followeth : 

" O mediatrix between God and man, the Lord hath worthily magnified 
thee, that thou only shouldest conceive his Son. Wherefore, O good Mary our 
mediatrix, mother of grace, and mother of mercy," etc.'° 

And moreover, within few lines it followeth in these words : 

" Therefore, O our empress and Lady most bountiful, by the authority of a 

(1) Super flumina Babylonis, etc. Non invenietur propitiatio .sine ilia. [Psalm cxxxvii. Ibid. 

(2) God's office is appointed to our Lady. 

{?,) Eripe me, Domina, ab omni malo, et, ab hoste inferno defende me, etc. [Psalm cxl. Ibid. 

(4) Oculi nostri sperant in te, Domina. Mitte nobis cibum et escam delectantem. Laudationem 
tuam loquetur lingua mea, et benedicam te in seculum seculi. [Psalm cxlv. Ibid. — Eu.] 

(5) Lauda, Jerusalem, Dominam; glorifica illam etiam, O Sion. Ipsa enim construit niuros 
tuos, et filios tuos benedicit. Gratia sua te impinguat, pacemque donat terminis tuis. [Psalm 
cxlvii. Ibid. p. 491.— Ed.] 

(6) See from the works of Bonaventure, " Cantica ad Beatam Virginera," p. 491 [marked 470]. 

(7) Ecce Domina Salvatrix mea, fiducialiter agam in te, et iion timebo, quia fortitudo mea es 
tu, et facta es mihi in salutem, etc. [Isai. xii. — Ed.] 

(8) Exulta [et lauda], totum genus humanum, quia talem dedit tibi mediatrlcem Dominus Deus 
tuus. [Ibid, instar Ezekiaa;. — Ed.] 

(9) Confitcbor tibi, Domina, quia abscondisti hsec t sapientibus, et rcvelasti ea parvulis. [Cant. 
Hab. iii. Ibid. p. 480.— Ed.] 

(10) Generatio prava atque perversa, agnosce Dominam nostram Salvatriccm tuam. Nunquid 
ipsa est mater tua quae possedit te, et in fide generavit te ? 

(11) O benedicta, inmanibus tuis repositaest nostra salus. [Ibid.— Ed.] 

(12) In nomine tuo omne genu flectatur, ca-lestium, etc. [Cant, de Dan. iii. Ibid.— Ed.] 

(13) Quemadmodum infans sine nutrice non potest vivere; ita nee sine Do-.iina nostra posses 
liahere salutem. 

(14) OJuicunque vult salvus esse, ante omnia opus est ut tcncat de Maria firmam fidem. Quam 
nisi quisque integram inviolatamque servaverit, absque dubio in aternnm peribit. [Symbolum 
instar illius Athanasii. Ibid. p. 491.— Ed.] 

(15) The Rosary or Garland of our Lady was called ' Corona beatae Maria Virginis.' [Sec Bona- 
veiiture's works, as above, vol. vi. p. 4fij.— Ed.] (IC) Ibid. p. 406 — Kd. 


mother command, command (I say) thy well-beloved Son, that he will stir up Mary. 

our minds from the love of worldly things, to heavenly desires," etc' 

Item, " O the advocate of the miserable, the eyes of thy servants be directed A. D. 
to thee," etc' 1.''55. 

To these premises I might also adjoin the horrible and most ])las- 
phemous words of the said Bonaventurc in the said book, fol. 100, 
p. % col. 1 , which I beseech thee to read and note, " Qiik major 
bonitas quam quod Christus," etc. : " What greater goodness can be, 
than that Christ is content to be captive upon the altar ?" 

Whereupon he speakcth in the person of Jeremy, saying : 

" Behold, I am in your hands; do with me as you sec good;" etc. "Where Christ 
note," saith he, " that when any duke or prince is taken prisoner for his subjects, "''"'.'^ ^ 
he is not let go, before he pay some great sum of money for his ransom. Even and a'pri- 
so neither we ought to let Christ go out of our hands, being our prisoner and soner in 
captive, except he grant unto us remission of our sins and liis heavenly king- ","'" '"'i'^"'' * 
dom. The priest therefore lifteth up the body of Christ upon the altar, as 
though he said thus, Behold him whom the whole world is not able to compre- 
hend ; he is holden here our captive ; wherefore let us hold him fast, and not 
let him go before we obtain of him our requests," etc. 


Is not here good catholic stuff, christian reader, trow you .'' Confer, 
I beseech you, this doctrine with the doctrine of the apostles, who 
teach us that we are fully complete in Christ, and I will refer me to 
no better judge than to your OAvn conscience. And now therefore, 
if any man have been in doubt in times past of the doctrine and pro- 
ceedings of the chm-ch of Rome, whether it be rightly charged with 
blind errors, with blasphemy intolerable, and idolatry abominable, or ti.c 
not, here now may he be fidly certified and resolved. For where was "^^^^l' "^ 
ever idolatry or blasphemy to be found, if it be not here in this ^°'J,^^^„'J"^ 
Matins and Psalter of our Lady ? If idolatry be to make an idol to fest i'doia- 
be worshipped as God, which is no god, what do we here but make *'^^' 
an idol of our Lady (as we call her), to be worshipped with no less 
dignity, glory, authority, reverence, and service, than is the Lord 
God himself ? And as he is called our Lord, so she is called our Our Lady 
Lady. And if he be King, yet she is the queen of heaven. And ^^.m 
though he have the name of God, yet she beareth so the title of the ^''"' ^°'^- 
mother of God ; that as mothers have authority over their children, 
so she is willed to show herself to be his mother, to cause him to 
grant our petitions. Finally, if he be our patron, yet is she our 
patroness. The commandment saith, " Thou shalt worship the Lord trine of" 
thy God, and him only shalt thou serve." And what worship or Jl'^^^i^,, 
service can we give to God, more than wc do ascribe unto her .'' or church 
what benefit is to be asked at the hands of Christ our Saviour, which apainsf 
is not equally asked of her ? To save our souls, to give us peace, £0^-"'' 
to grant grace, to comfort the desperate, to loose our captivity, to JJ^^JJ^- 
releasc our sins, to deliver from the fiend, to bring to heaven, etc. ofCmi. 
To her we pray, we cry, we creep, we sigh, we groan, we knock and 2","i'n,',"' 
kneel, to her we trust ; and if we believe not also in our Lady, we be our Lady, 
heretics ipso facto. 

Furthermore, as Christ our only Lord and Saviour hath his church 
and congregation, which professeth his name, of whom we arc called 

(1) Sec Bonaventurc's works, as above, vol. vi. p. 465.— Ed. (2) Ibid.— En. 


Mary. Christians ; so neither is she likewise -without her chapels, her clois- 

^ J) ters, her chapters, fraternities, and brotherhoods, -which professing hex 

1555. name in like sort, are called our Lady's Brethren, or White Friars, 

besides an innumerable sort of other patrons of churches, of whom 

every one hath his peculiar church and religion by himself, yet all 

these together be included under the general devotion of our Lady, 

their supreme patroness and governess. 

Our Lady Now to procccd further to the other part of the commandment, 

chL'^rch^L which saith, " Him only shalt thou serve."" What service hath the 

chiisf ^°^^ ^^ ^^' ^^^ church, but our Lady also jointly with him hath the 

like ? Her mass, her matins, her even-song, her hours and compline, 

her rosaries, her anthems, her collects, her primer, her psalter ; her 

holy-days likewise, yea five to one. Finally, as the Lord hath his 

Ten prayer called the Lord's Prayer, so hath she her Ave Marias, yea ten 

io^ne^ Aves to ouc Pater-uostcr ; yea, and read further in the said Bona- 

110^16"" ventm-e, and ye shall see her also to have her Te Deum, her Bene- 

dictus, her Magnificat ; and also her Quicunque vult."^ 

If the Lord our God had not expressed unto us his own will by 
plain words, limiting unto us by express injunction what to believe,, 
what to follow, and how to worship and serve him, and how to receive 
from him our salvation ; but had left us to the imagination of our 
own inventions, every man to shift for himself after his own policy ; 
then, peradventure, this way taken by the pope's church, to make 
friends and mediators between God and us, for reconciliation, remis- 
sion, and salvation, might have some rhyme or reason ; but now God's 
word doth bind us, doth prescribe and limit us precisely, in every 
point touching salvation, what to believe, and what to do, showing us 
plainly that we cannot be saved, but by the blood of his Son only, 
neither can be justified but by faith only in the same Christ his Son : 
infideii- wherefore, not to believe that which he hath promised, is infidelity, 
tjs idoia- g^j^^ ^^ follow any other belief than he hath set us, is plain idolatry. 
The which two special errors most commonly do follow the doctrine 
of the Romish church, as not only in this Primer and Psalter of our 
Lady aforesaid, but also in all their proceedings, teachings, and 
preachings besides, may well appear. For whereas the Scripture 
doth perfectly promise and pronounce us to be justified through our 
faith in Christ, and willeth us to seek our salvation nowhere else, but 
The only in the merits of Jesus : the institution of the church of Rome 
Rome neither will receive that God hath freely given (wherein standeth infi- 
delity), neither yet will seek the same there where they should, 


with infi- _ . 

deiityand \)xit iu the merits and prayers of our Lady, of St. John Baptist, St. 
Peter and Paul, St. Andrew, St. Nicholas, St. Thomas of Canter- 
bury ; and by the worthiness of the material cross, and such other 
unlawful means, wherein standeth plain idolatry. And yet such 
books as these can be suffered among the catholics to be current, as 
good, wholesome, and lawful books ; whereas the other, which lead 
us the true way from infidelity and blind idolatry to true Christianity, 
in no wise can be sufFerable.* But of this to complain it is vain. 
Wherefore to pass from this proclamation, let us proceed (God will- 
ing) in the course of om* history. 

(1) See Boniiventure's works, as above, pp. -180, 481. — Kn. 

(2) The cliuroh of Rome neither taketh that wliich God doth give, neither doth eeek for that 
v,hicli they would have by lawful means. 




€[je .fjtorri of ^fjoma^ <D.b"monD, nDilliam 23amfocD, Cf)oma.^ 
<©.sbocne, anD otijersi, JEtartyr^. 

Mention was made before, in the story of Thomas Haukes, of 


IX pn- 

prisoners besides, which were sent down with liim to Essex, the same 
time as he went to execution ; of which six prisoners, three Avere sent 
to be burned, the other three to recant, and to do penance : of whom 
it followeth next in the story now to entreat. 'J'he names of whidi 
six were these, Thomas Osmond, fuller; William Bamford, alias 
Butler, weaver; Thomas Osborne, fuller; Nicholas Chamberlain, 
weaver ; Thomas Brodehill, weaver ; Richard AVeb, weaver ; being 
all of the town of Coggeshall. All which six Coggeshall men, next 
after the examination of Thomas Haukes, and Thomas Wats, were 
sent up to Bonner to be examined, by the carl of Oxford and sir 
Philip Paris kniglit, with a letter also with them sent, the copy 
whereof here followeth. 

A Letter sent from the Earl of Oxford to Bonner, Bishop 
of London. 

After our hearty commendations unto your good lordship, tliis shall be to 
advertise the same, that the constables of Coggeshall witliin your diocese, have 
brought before us this day six persons dwelling in the town of Coggeshall afore- 
said, whose names hereafter do follow, videlicet, Nicholas Chamberlain, weaver; 
John Wallet, fuller; Thomas Brodehill, weaver; Richard Web, weaver; Wil- 
liam Bamford, alias Butler, weaver ; and Thomas Osborne, fuller ; for that they, 
at the feast of Easter now last, have not obeyed to the order of the holy catholic 
church in receiving of the sacraments ; but obstinately refusing the same, gj^^ 
besides the holding of divers other opinions, contrary to the faith of the said so 
church. Wherefore we have thought it good to send the same persons unto ^'^"'^ ''>' 
your good lordship further to be ordered, as in such case shall appertain. Thus Oxford to 
we commit your good lordship to the keeping of Almighty God. — From Hed- Bonner, 
dingham the first of May, Anno 1555. 

Your lordship's assuredly, Oxford, 

Philip Paris. 

Thus the said prisoners being sent up the first day of May, were osmond 
brought before the said bishop the 17th of the said month, to be ^Jlfow*^ 
examined upon divers and sundry articles ministered and objected J'"'""'^.''' 
ao-ainst them ; whereunto they were compelled to answer, and to put bishop 
their hands to the same : the copy of which their articles and answers, ^''""^'■• 
being all one in form and effect (if the registrar say true), here 

The Copy of the Articles objected against Thomas Osmond, William 
Bamford, and Nicholas Chamberlain, of Coggeshall. 

1. First, that thou, Thomas Osmond, fuller, wast and art of the parish of 
Coggeshall, within the diocese of London, and thou hast not believed nor dost 
believe, that there is here in the earth one catholic and universal whole church, 
which doth hold and believe all the faith and religion of Christ, and all the 
necessary articles and sacraments of the same. 

2. Item, that thou liast not believed nor dost believe, that thou art necessarily Pnpe's 
bounden, under the pain of the damnation of thy soul, to give full faith and church 
credence unto the said catholic and universal church, and to the faith and reli- rX7the 
gion of the same in all necessary points of the said faitli and religion, without universal 
doubting or wavering in the said faith and rehgion, or in any part thereof. church. 


Marfj. 3. Item, that thou hast not believed that the ndth and religion, which both 

the church of Rome, Italy, Spain, England, France, Ireland, Scotland, and all 

^'}i' other churches in Europe, being true members and parts of the said catholic 

1555. and universal church, do believe and teach, is both agreeing with the faith and 

Her faith religion of Christ, and also is the very true faith and religion which all christian 

not to be people Ought to believe, observe, follow and keep ; but contrariwise, thou hast 

" "^^'^ • believed and dost believe, that that faith and religion, which the said church of 

Rome, and all the other churches aforesaid, have heretofore believed, and do 

believe, is false, erroneous, and naught, and in no wise ought to be believed, 

observed, kept, and followed of any christian person. 

4. Item, that albeit it be true, that in the sacrament of the altar there is in 
substance the very body and blood of our Saviour Christ under the forms of 
bread and wine ; and albeit that it be so believed, taught, and preached un- 
doubtedly in the said church of Rome, and all other churches aforesaid, yet thou 
hast not so beHeved, nor dost so believe ; but, contrariwise, thou hast believed, 
and dost believe firmly and steadfastly,i that there is not in the said sacrament of 
the altar, under the said forms of bread and wine, the very substance of Christ's 
body and blood, but that there is only the substance of material and common 
bread and wine, with the forms thereof; and that the said material and common 
bread and wine are only the signs and tokens of Christ's body and blood, and 
are by faith to be received only for a remembrance of Christ's passion and 
death, without any such substance of Christ's body and blood at all. 

5. Item,2 that thou hast believed and taught, and hast openly spoke and 
defended, and so dost believe, think, maintain, and defend, that the very true 
receiving and eating of Christ's body and blood, is only to take material and 
common bread, and to break it and distribute it among the people, remembering 
thereby the passion and death of Christ only. 

The mass 6. Item, that thou hast likewise believed, thought, and spoken, that the mass, 

Chri's't's "°^ "^'^'^ ^" *^^^ realm of England, and other the churches aforesaid, is 

institu- abominable and naught, and full of idolatry ; and is of the ordinance of the 

tion. pope, and not of the institution of Christ ; and hath no goodness in it, saving 

the Gloria in excelsis, the epistle, and gospel ; and therefore thou hast not, nor 

will not come and be present at mass, nor receive the sacrament of the altar, 

nor any other sacrament of the church, as they are now used in the realm of 

England, etc. 

Against 7. Item, that thou hast in times past believed, and yet dost now believe, that 

confes-^'^ auricular confession is not necessary to be made unto the priest, but is a thing 

sion and superfluous, void, and naught, only to be made to God and to none other person. 

church And likewise thou hast condemned as superfluous, vain, and improfitable, all 

the ceremonies of the church, and the service of the same, and hast said that 

no service in the church ought to be said but in the English tongue, and if it 

be otherwise, it is unlawful and naught. 

8. Item, that thou, being notoriously and openly suspected for a heretic, and 
a person culpable in the premises, wast of late called and convented before the 
earl of Oxford, and master Philip Paris, and there wast charged with the said 
heresies ; especially against the sacrament of the altar. And because thou didst 
maintain and stand to thy said heresies, and wouldst not come to the church and 
be confessed, and receive the said sacrament as other christian people did, but 
utterly didst refuse to do the same, thou wast, by the said earl of Oxford, and 
master Philip Paris, sent up by a constable unto me bishop of London, and wast 
by them denounced, detected, and put ud to me as a heretic and misbelieving 

9. Item, that thou hast known and believed, thou dost know and believe, or 
at least thou hast credibly heard reported, spoken, and said, that all and all 
manner of persons, which do teach, preach, or hold anything concerning the 
sacraments of the church, or any of the articles of the faith, otherwise than is 
found already discussed and determined by our mother the holy church; or do 
call into doubt or question that thing which is already decided or determined 
)iy the church ; or that willingly and wittingly do utter, openly or privily, any 
slanderous or blasphemous words concerning the said sacraments or any of 
them, or that do ])reach, teach or keej) any sect or kind of heresy against the 


wholesome doctrine of tlie church, and do wittingly, willingly, or obstinately Jir,,ry 

defend the sect or kind of heresy, are, by the canons of the wlio'lc and universal - 

catholic church, and also by tlie ecclesiastical laws of this church of England, ^- ^^^ 
by their so doing, accursed with that curse, which doth separate them from the A^^^l. 
entry iiito the church, from tlie receiving of the sacraments, and from the com- 
pany of faithful people, and arc (in continuing in this said sect and heresy) to 
be pronounced, declared, and taken for heretics, and to be delivered to tiie 
secular power ; and by the laws temporal of this realm of England, and the 
custoni of the same, to be by the said secular power put to death and burnt for 
this said sect and heresy. 

10. Item, that thou by reason of the premises wast and art to be pronounced, 
taken, had, reputed, and judged for a manifest and open, wilful and obstinate 
heretic, for a wicked and cursed person, and to be punished accordingly for the 
same, according to the said canon laws, usages and customs. 

The Answers which tlie said Thomas Osmond, William Bamford, 
and Nicliolas Chamberlain, severally made unto these Articles. 

To the first they answered and confessed the same to be true, except that 
they do believe that there is here in the earth one catholic and whole church, and 
that the same church doth hold and beUcve, as is contained in this article. 

To the second they answer, and believe the said article not to be true ; for they 
say that they have and do believe that they are necessarily bounden, under pain 
of damnation of their soul, to give full faith and credence unto the said catholic 
church, and to the faith and religion of the same, in all necessary points of the 
same faith and religion, without wavering or doubting in any part iiereof. 

To the third they answer, that the church of Rome, and other churches tiic 
mentioned in this article, be not true members and parts (as they be used in ciiur.h of 
faith and religion) of the catholic church of Christ, and that the foith and reli- "'i'," K--' 
gion used in the said churches are not agreeable with the church of Christ, but Ueved.'' 
are false and erroneous. 

To the fourth they answer and say, that howsoever the said churches of 
Rome and others of Christendom have and do believe touching the sacrament 
of the altar, yet they do believe that in the sacrament, under the forms of bread 
and wine, there is not the very substance of Christ's body and blood, but that 
there is only the substance of material bread and wine ; and that the same 
material bread and wine be only the signs and tokens of Christ's body and 
blood, and are to be received only for a remembrance of Christ's passion and 
death, without any substance of Christ's body and blood at all. 

To the fifth article they answer that the true i-eceiving and eating of Christ's The tme 
body, according to Christ's institution, is to take, distribute, and eat material p:it'!if-',"f 
bread, and thereby to remember the passion and death of Christ, and so receive )^ody! '' 
by faith (as they believe) Christ's body and blood ; and not otherwise. 

To the sixth they answer the same to be true in every part thereof, except 
that over and besides the Gloria in excelsis, the Epistle and Gospel, which they 
believe to be good, they believe the Paternoster and Creed, used in the mass, be 
also good. 

To the seventh they answer and confess, that auricular confession is not ne- 
cessary to be made to the priest ; nevertheless they think that it is necessary to c;"'fi-^ 
go to such a priest as is able to give good counsel : and that for counsel only, nec'es- 
and not otherwise. And as concerning the ceremonies of the church, they sary. 
answer the same to be vain and unprofitable. No service in the church ought ^"^'''V'm" 
to be said, but only in the English tongue. in the 

To 'the eighth, they answer and believe the same to be true in every part chunh. 
tliereof, except they do not believe that they be heretics, or suspected of heresy. 

To the ninth Osmond and Bamford answered, that they referred themselves 
to the said laws mentioned in that article ; but Chamberlain made no answer 
at all to this article. 

To the tenth, the said Osmond and Bamford answered and said, that by rea- 
son of their belief before by them confessed, they are not to be reputed, taken, 
or adjudged for wilful and obstinate heretics, nor to be punished there-for, as is 
declared in that article. The other answered nothing. 





These articles in the same form and manner of words are commonly 

objected to all others that follow after, with the same answers also 

thereunto annexed. In which articles thou mayest note, reader, the 

crafty and subtle handling of these lawyers and registrars, who so 

deceitfully frame their articles and positions, that unless a man do 

advisedly consider them, it is hard for a simple man to answer to 

them, but he shall be snared and entangled. So they paint their 

church with such a visage of universal, whole, holy, catholic — as who 

should say, he that denieth Rome, denieth the holy church of Christ 

here in earth. Likewise in examining them, and specially the simple 

crafiy ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ matter of the sacrament, to the material bread in the 

^[jdcapti- sacrament they put this word "only" very captiously and fraudu- 

ing of the lently, to take them at the worst advantage, making the people believe 

Fn pro- that they take the holy sacrament to be no better than only common 

thdr'^'"" bread : when they do not so, but make a difference between the same, 

articles, both in the use, honour, and name thereof. 

Again, when the examinates hold but only against the erroneous 
points of Romish religion, these bishops in their interrogatories give 
out the matter so generally, as though the said examinates in general 
spake against all the articles of faith taught in Rome, Spain, England, 
France, Scotland, etc. 

Moreover, concerning Latin service, in such crafty form of words 
they propound their article, that it might appear to the people, these 
men do deny any service to be lawful in any place, country, or lan- 
« guage, but only in English. 

And as these articles are craftily, captiously, and deceitfully in form 
of words devised by these bishops and their notaries : so the answers 
again to the same, be no less subtlely framed, and after the most 
odious manner put down in the name of the examinates ; which being 
read unto them, thus without further advice they were constrained, 
upon a sudden, to subscribe the same with their hands. Whereby, 
if any word escaped their hand, peradvcnture not considerately sub- 
scribed, there the papists take their advantage against them, to defame 
them, and to bring them into hatred with the people. 

These articles thus propounded and answered, they were until the 

afternoon dismissed ; at what time they did again appear, and there 

were examined and travailed with by fair and flattering speeches, as 

well of the bishop as of others his assistants, to recant and revoke 

their opinions, who notwithstanding remained constant and firm, and 

therefore, after the common usage of their ecclesiastical laws, Avere 

sent away again until the next day, being Saturday, and the 18th day 

Sentence of May. Then in the forenoon the bishop, using his accustomed 

cfsmomi, iwanner of proceeding, Avhich he had used before as well with them as 

etc. with others, did likewise dismiss them ; and at last, in the afternoon, 

condemned them as heretics, and so delivered them to the sheriffs, in 

whose custody they remained until they were delivered to the sheriff 

Their of Esscx, and by him were executed ; Chamberlain at Colchester, the 

dom'7"^ 14th of June ; Thomas Osmond at Manningtree, the 15th of June ; 

and William Bamford, alias Butler, at Harwich; the same 15th day 

in the month of June. 


€:f)e Wtmi^ of tfje toortfjn Ma:m onD ^ectant of ©oO, mmzt """' 
giofjn 23caDforD, a.d. 




As touching the first country and education of John Bradford, he 
was born at ^lancliester in Lancashire. His parents did brinf^ liim 
up in learning from his infancy, until he attained such knowledge in 
the Latin tongue, and skill in writing, that he was able to gain his 
own living in some honest condition. Then he became servant tosirjoim 
sir John Harrington, knight, who, in the great affairs of king Henry "n"'"*"'" 
the Eighth, and king Edward the Sixth, which he had in hand when The 
he was treasurer of the king's camps and buildings, at divers times, in lervioeof 
Boulogne, had such experience of Bradford's activity in writing, his ex- ^,^d',I['"''^ 
pertness in the art of auditors, as also of his faithful trustiness, that not him. 
only in those affairs, but in many other of his private business he trusted 
Bradford in such sort, that above all others he used his faithful service. 

Thus continued Bradford certain years in a right honest and good 
trade of life, after the course of this world, like to come forward (as 
they say), if his mind could have so liked, or had been given to the 
world as many other be. But the Lord, who had elected him unto 
a better function, and pre-ordained him to preach the gospel of Christ 
in that hour of grace which, in his secret counsel he had appointed, 
called this his chosen child to the understanding and partaking of the Bradford 
same gospel of life : in which call he was so truly taught, that forthwith J'^"'^'^ '" 
this effectual call was perceived by the fruits. For then Bradford did g°spe:. 
forsake his worldly affairs and forwardness in worldly wealth, and, 
after the just account given to his master of all his doings, he de- 
parted from him ; and with marvellous favour to further the kingdom oiveth 
of God by the ministry of his holy word, he gave himself wholly to J'^'^he"^ 
the study of the holy Scriptures, The which his purpose to accom- g^^fp'^^J^ 
plish the better, he departed from the Temple at London, where the 
temporal law is studied, and went to the university of Cambridge, to 
learn by God's law how to further the building of the Lord's temple. 
In Cambridge his diligence in study, his profiting in knowledge and 
godly conversation so pleased all men, that within one whole year 
after that he had been there, the university did give him the degree 
of a master of arts. 

Immediately after, the master and fellows of Pembroke Hall did Fen<,w of 
give him a fellowship in their college with them : yea that man of h^^',. 
God, Martin Bucer, so liked him, that he had him not only most dear "»"• 
unto him, but also oftentimes exhorted him to bestow his talent in 
preaching. Unto which Bradford answered always, that lie was 
unable to serve in that office through want of learning. To the 
which Bucer was wont to reply, saying, " If thou have not fine nuc.r^s 
manchet bread, yet give the poor people barley bread, or whatsoever '"'^"''''• 
else the Lord hath committed unto thee." And while Bradford was 
thus persuaded to enter into the ministry. Dr. Ridley, that worthy 
bishop of London, and glorious martyr of Christ, according to the 
order that then was in the church of England, called him to take the 


Mary, degree of a deacon, wliicli order, because it was not without some sucli 
^ Q abuse, as to the which Bradford would not consent, the bishop yet, 
1555! perceiving that Bradford was willing to enter into the ministry, was 
Bradford content to order him deacon without any abuse, even as he desired, 
madedea- Tlus being douc, hc obtained for him a license to preach, and did give 
Rwiey, him a prebend in his cathedral church of St. Paul's, 
herniary I^ tliis prcachiug officc by the space of three years, how faithfully 
wiufu ^' Bradford walked, how diligently he laboured, many parts of England 
cense to can tcstify. Sharply he opened and reproved sin, sweetly he preached 
preach. (^<|jj.jg|. crucificd, pithily he impugned heresies and errors, earnestly he 
persuaded to godly life. After the death of blessed young king Edward 
the Sixth, when queen Mary had gotten the crown, still continued 
Unjustly Bradford diligent in preaching, until he was unjustly deprived both 
of his7w- of his office and liberty by the queen and her council. To the doing 
prLTh^- whereof (because they had no just cause) they took occasion to do this 
ins- injury, for such an act as among Turks and infidels would have been 
with thankfulness rewarded, and with great favour accepted, as indeed 
Bourn's it did no less deserve. The fact was this : the ISth of August, in 
Paul's" ^^ the first year of the reign of queen Mary, master Bourn, then bishop 
Cross. of Bath, made a seditious sermon at PauFs Cross in London, as partly 
is declared before, to set popery abroad, in such sort that it moved 
the people to no small indignation, being almost ready to pull him 
out of the pulpit. Neither could the reverence of the place, nor the 
presence of bishop Bonner, who then was his master, nor yet the 
commandment of the mayor of London, whom the people ought to 
have obeyed, stay their rage ; but the more they spake, the more the 
people were incensed. At length Bourn, seeing the people in such 
a mood, and himself in such peril (whereof he was sufficiently warned 
by the hurling of a drawn dagger at him, as he stood in the pulpit), 
Bradford and that he was put from ending his sermon, fearing lest (against his 
the ragl will) he should there end his wretched life, desii-ed Bradford, who 
plopfe, stood in the pulpit behind him, to come forth, and to stand in his 
""d ' place and speak to the people. Good Bradford, at his request, was 
the papis- Content, and there spake to the people of godly and quiet obedience : 
pre^acher. whom as soou as the people saw to begin to speak unto theni, so 
glad they were to hear him, that they cried with a great shout, — 
Regard of " Bradford, Bradford ; God save thy life, Bradford !" — well declaring 
pie for"' not only what affection they bare unto him, but also what regard 
Bradford, ^jiey gavc uuto his words. For after that he had entered a little to 
preach unto them, and to exhort them to quiet and patience, eftsoons 
all the raging ceased, and in the end quietly departed each man to 
his house. Yet in the mean season (for it was a long time before 
that so great a multitude could all depart) Bourn thought (and truly) 
himself not yet full sure of his life till he were safely housed, not- 
withstanding that the mayor and sheriffs of London were there at 
Bradford hand to help them. Wherefore he desired Bradford not to depart 
Boim'i^s"' from him till he were in safety : which Bradford, according to his 
siiiety- promise, performed. For while the mayor and sheriffs did lead 
Bourn to the schoolmaster's house, which is next to the pulpit, 
Bradford went at his back, shadowing him from the people with liis 
gown, and so to set him safe. 

Let the reader now consider the peril of Bourn, the charity of 


Bradford, and the licadincss of tlic multitude, and also the grud.sring jsary. 
minds of certain, which yet still there remained behind ; grieved nrit "jTyT 
a little in their minds, to see that so good a man should save the life 15^,5 

of such a popish priest, so impudently and openly railing against 

king Edward ; among whom one gentleman said these words : " Ah 
Bradford, Bradford, thou savest him that will help to burn thee. I 
give thee his life. If it were not for thee, I would (I assure thee) 
run him through with my sword."" Thus Bourne for that time, 
through Bradford's means, escaped bodily death : but God liath his 
judgment to be showed in the time appointed. 

The same Sunday in the afternoon, Bradford preached at the l^ow, 
church in Cheapside, and reproved the people sharply for their }!i'ei''rThe 
seditious misdemeanour. After this he did abide still in London, «""'"'i- 
with an innocent conscience, to try what should become of his just 
doing. Within three days after, he was sent for to the Tower ciiarRed 
of London, where the queen then was, to appear there before the ^i-ll^JX^ 
council. There was he charged with this act of saving of Bourne, savinKiiie 
which act they there called seditious, and also objected against him cmmn"-' 
for preaching, and so by them he was committed first to tlie Tower, «J;^^J^> "'« 
then unto other prisons, out of which neither his innocency, godli- 
ness, nor charitable dealing could purchase to him liberty of body, 
till by death (which he suffered for Christ's cause) he obtained the 
heavenly liberty, of which neither pope nor papist shall ever de- 
prive him. 

From the Tower he came to the King's Bench in Southwai-lc : BrmUwa 
and after his condemnation, he was sent to the Compter in the Poultry ^^-,1^1% 
in London : in which two places, for the time he did remain pri- ^j^"'^'' 
soner, he preached twice a day continually, unless sickness hindered compter. 
him : where also the sacrament was often ministered, and through his prcach- 
means (the keepers so well did bear with him) such resort of good ml'ni^"'^ 
folks was daily to his lecture, and to the ministration of the sacra- stereth 
ment, that commonly his chamber was well nigh filled therewith, ment, in 
Preaching, reading, and praying was all his whole life. He did not '"■'*°"- 
eat above one meal a day ; which was but very little when he took 
it ; and his continual study Avas upon his knees. In the midst of 
dinner he used often to muse Avith himself, having his hat over his 
eyes, from whence came commonly plenty of tears dropping on his 
trencher. Very gentle he was to man and child, and in so good Bradford 
credit with his keeper, that at his desire in an evening (being prisoner [^"Iloii- 
in the King's Bench in Sotithwark), he had license upon his ])romisc <ion wiiii- 
to return again that night, to go into London without any keeper to keeper, 
visit one that was sick, lying by the Still-yard. Neither did he fail f^j'„,^^j, 
his promise, but returned to his prison again, rather preventing his ttiatniti.t 
hour, than breaking his fidelity : so constant was he in word and son!" 
in deed. 

(){' personage he was somewhat tall and slender, spare of body, of The i.oiy 
a flxint sanguine colour, with an auburn beard. He slept not com- Bradford, 
monly above four hours in the night ; and in his bed, till sleep came, 
his book went not out of his hand. His chief recreation was in no 
gaming or other pastime, but only in honest company, and comely 
talk, wherein he would spend a little time after dinner at the board ; 
and so to prayer and his book again. He counted that hour not well 


146 TirK STORY or joiin Bradford, martyr. 

Mnry. spciit, wlicrcin lie did not some good, either with his pen, study, or 
^ £) in exhorting of others, etc. He was no niggard of his purse, but 
1555'. would liberally participate that he had, to his fellow-prisoners. And 
Bradford commouly once a week he visited the thieves, pick-purses, and such 
visiteth others that were with him in prison, where he lay on the other side, 
tiiieves, unto whoui he would give godly exhortation, to learn the amendment 
pur'^es, of their lives by their troubles ; and, after that so done, distribute 
'"-■• among them some portion of money to their comfort. 
Meeting By the Way, this I thought not to conceal. While he was in the 
f"encT King's Bench, and master Saunders in the Marshalsea, both pri- 
sauTiders ^ouers, ou the backside of those two prisons they met many times, 
and and confeiTcd together when they would : so mercifully did the Lord 
Bradfoni' work for them, even in the midst of their troubles : and the said 
tfescape Bradford was so trusted with his keeper, and had such liberty in the 
ou' of backside, that there was no day, but that he might have easily escaped 
^"^°"" away, if he would ; but that the Lord had another work to do for 
him. In the summer-time, while he was in the said King's Bench, 
he had liberty of his keeper to ride into Oxfordshire, to a merchant's 
house of his acquaintance, and horse and all things prepared for him 
for that journey, and the party in readiness that should ride with 
him : but God prevented him by sickness that he went not at all. 
Would One of his old friends and acquaintance came unto him while he 

mu of ^'^s prisoner, and asked him, if he sued to get him out, what then 
England. Jie would do, or whither he would go ? Unto whom he made answer, 
as not caring whether he went out or no : but if he did, he said he 
would marry, and abide still in England secretly, teaching the people 
as the time would suffer him, and occupy himself that way. He was 
had in so great reverence and admiration with all good men, that a 
multitude, which never knew him but by fame, greatly lamented his 
death : yea, and a number also of the papists themselves wished 
heartily his life. There were few days in which he was thought not 
Brad- to spcud somc tcars before he Avent to bed, neither was there ever 
tears! auy prisoucr with him but by his company he greatly profited ; as all 
they will yet witness, and have confessed of him no less, to the glory 
of God, Avhose society he frequented ; as among many, one special 
thing I thought to note, which is this : 
Fernr Bishop Fcrrar, being in the King's Bench prisoner, as before you 

irthe"^*^ have heard, was travailed withal of the papists in the end of Lent, to 
truth by receive the sacrament at Easter in one kind, who, after much per- 
suading yielded to them, and promised so to do. Then (so it hap- 
pened by God's providence) the Easter-even, the day before he should 
have done it, was Bradford brought to the King's Bench, prisoner ; 
where the Lord making him his instrument, Bradford only was the 
mean that the said bishop Ferrar revoked his promise and word, and 
Avould never after yield to be spotted Avith that papistical pitch ; so 
effectually the Lord Avrought by this worthy servant of his. Such an 
instrument was he in God's church, that few or none there were that 
knew him, but esteemed him as a precious jewel and God's true mes- 
Bradford Tlic night before Bradford was had to Newgate, which was the Satur- 
of hTs"'"'^ day night, he Avas sore troubled divers times in his sleep by dreams, 
burning. I^qw tlic cluiin f(ju his burning Avas brought to the Compter-gatc, and 


how the next day, being Sunday, lie should he had to Newgate, and J/<i>y. 
on the Monday after burned in SniithfieUl ; as indeed it came to "TTr" 
pass accordingly, which liereaRer shall be showed. Now he, being i^^^\ 

vexed so oftentimes in this sort with these dreams, about tln-ee of the - 

clock in the morning he waked him that lay with him, and told him 
his unquiet sleep, and what he was troubled withal. Then, after a 
little talk, master Bradford rose out of the bed, and gave himself to 
his old exercise of reading and prayer, as always he had used before; 
and at dinner, according to his accustomed nianner, he did eat his 
meat, and was very merry, nobody being with him from morning to 
night, but he that lay with him, with whom he had many times on 
that day communication of death, of the kingdom of heaven, and of 
the ripeness of sin in that time. 

In the afternoon they two walking together in the keeper's chamber, Bradford 
suddenly the keeper's wife came up, as one half amazed, and seeming 'df il'ir"'^'' 
much troubled, being almost windless, said, " O master Bradford, I ^^"""s 
come to bring you heavy news." " What is that .''" said he. 
" Marry," quoth she, " to-morrow you must be burned ; and your 
chain is now a buying, and soon you must go to Newgate." With 
that master Bradford put off his cap, and lifting up his eyes to 
heaven, said, " I thank God for it ; I have looked for the same a 
long time, and therefore it cometh not now to me suddenly, but as a 
thing waited for every day and hour ; the Lord make me worthy 
thereof! " And so, thanking her for her gentleness, he departed up 
into his chamber, and called his friend with him, who when he came 
thither, he went secretly himself alone a long time, and prayed : 
which done, he came again to him that was in his chamber, and took 
liim divers writings and papers, and showed him his mind in those 
things what he would have done, and after they had spent the after- 
noon till night in many and sundry such things, at last came to him 
half a dozen of his friends more, with whom all the evening he spent 
the time in prayer, and other good exercise, so wonderfully, that it 
was marvellous to hear and see his doings. 

A little before he went out of the Compter, he made a notable He 
prayer of his flirewell, with such plenty of tears, and abundant spirit hSs ''' ' 
of prayer, that it ravished the minds of the hearers. Also when he f^^iMffhis 
shifted himself with a clean shirt that was made for his burning (by ^Y^',^^«" 
one master Walter Marlar's wife, who was a good nurse unto him, and compter. 
his very good friend), he made such a prayer of the wedding-garment, 
that some of those that were present were in such great admiration, 
that their eyes were as throughly occupied in looking on him, as their 
cars gave place to hear his prayer. At his departing out of the 
chamber, he made likewise a i)raycr, and gave money to every servant 
and officer of the house, with exhortation to them to fear and serve 
God, continually labouring to eschew all manner of evil. That done, [j"'^;"^.^™" 
he turned him to the wall and prayed vehemently, that his words xhcpVi- 
raight not be spoken in vain, but that the Lord would work the same t°keu,cir 
in them effectually, for his Christ's sake. Then being beneath in the };:^,;V>'[i. 
court, all the prisoners cried out to him, and bade him farewell, as tears. 
the rest of the house had done before, with weeping tears. 

The time they carried him to Newgate, was about eleven or twelve 
o'clock in the night, when it was thought none would be stirring 
L 2 



^""J- abroad : and yet, contrary to their expectation in tliat belialf, was 
A. D. there in Cheapside and other places (between the Compter and New- 
1555. gate), a great multitude of people that came to see him, which most 
The peo- gently bade him farewell, praying for him with most lamentable and 
cheL"- Pi*-^^'^' ^^^^^ '■> ^^^ ^16 again as gently bade them farewell, praying most 
side bid heartily for them and their welfare. Now, whether it were a com- 
faretei^K maudment from the queen and her council, or from Bonner and his 
adherents, or whether it were merely devised of the lord mayor, 
aldermen, and sheriffs of London, or no, I cannot tell ; but a great 
A noise of noise there was overnight about the city by divers, that Bradford 
lorrt^" should be burnt the next day in Smithfield, by four of the clock in 
burning. ^^^ momiug, boforc it should be greatly known to any. In which 
rumour, many heads had divers minds ; some thinking the fear of 
the people to be the cause thereof: others thought nay, that it Avas 
rather because the papists judged his death would convert many to 
the truth, and give a great overthrow to their kingdom. So some 
thought one thing, and some another, that no just conjecture of the 
cause could be known that ever I heard yet. But this was certain, 
the people prevented the device suspected ; for the next day, at the 
A mum- said hour of four a clock in the morning, there was in Smithfield such 
Smith- a multitude of men and women, that many being in admiration 
^''''^- thereof, thought it was not possible that they could have warning of 
his death, being so great a number in so short a time, unless it were 
by the singular providence of Almighty God. 
eotni°'^ . ^^^\ t^iis took not effect as the people thought ; for that morning 
thither, it was nine a clock of the day, before master Bradford was brought 
into Smithfield ; who, in going through Newgate thitherward, spied 
a friend of his whom he loved, standing on the one side of the way to 
the keeper's housewards, unto whom he reached his hand over the 
Tvfth'hts P!^*^P^^' ''^"^^ plucked him to him, and delivered to him from his head 
night-cap his velvet night-cap, and also his handkerchief, with other things be- 
away. gi^|gg_ ^^j j^fi-gj. ^ j-^^]g gg^^g|. ^^|], ^jj_j^ j^jj^^ j^^^^l ^^^-^ ^^ ^-^^^^^ parting 

from other, immediately came to him a brother-in-law of his, called 

Roger Beswick, who, as soon as he had taken the said Bradford by 

Z°aklui ^^^^ l^^""^' one of the sheriffs of London, called Woodrofe, came with 

thrheld liis staff, and brake the said Roger's head, that the blood ran about 

of^Brad- jjig shoulders ; which sight Bradford beholding with grief, bade his 

fn-'iaw'" ^^"otlier farewell, willing him to commend him to his mother and the 

rest of his friends, and to get him to some surgeon betimes : so they, 

departing, had little or no talk at all together. Then was he led forth 

to Smithfield with a great company of weaponed men, to conduct him 

thither, as the like was not seen at any man's burning : for in every 

corner of Smithfield there were some, "besides those that stood about 

the stake. Bradford then, being come to the place, fell flat to the 

ground, secretly making his prayers to Almighty God. Then rising 

again, and putting off his clothes unto his shirt, he went to the stake, 

and there stiffered with a young man of twenty years of age, joyfully 

and constantly, whose name was John Leaf : touching the order and 

"woyeurs, manucr of whose burning, more shall be said (God willing) hereafter. 

mont'ir'" I" the mean time we will now show forth the sundry examinations, 

haiMi. c*^"fl'cts, and conferences between him and other his adversaries, 

prison, during the time of his imprisonment, which was in all two years 



lacking one month and a half; which examinations here follow to Mnry. 

be declared. 

It was before a little above declared, that John Bradford, within 1555'. 

three days after the sermon of master Hourn, was by the council 

committed to the Tower, Avhcre he remained from the month of 
August, A.D. 1553, to the 22d day of January, a.d. looo ; upon 
which day he was called out to examination before Stephen Win- 
chester and other of the commissioners. The effect of which exami- 
nation and communication which passed between him and them, 
proceeded in manner as foUoweth. 



HIM, THE 22d day OF JANUARY, ANNO 1555. 

After the lord chancellor, and the residue of the queen's council in 
commission with him, had ended their talk with master Fcrrar, late 
bishop of St. David's, the under-marshal of the King's Bench was 
commanded to bring in John Bradford ; who, being come into the 
presence of the council sitting at a table, kneeled down on his knee ; 
but immediately, by the lord chancellor, was bidden to stand up : 
and so he did. 

When he was risen, the lord chancellor earnestly looked upon him, winchrs- 
to have, belike, over-faced him : but he gave no place ; that is, he facc'd.'"' 
ceased not in like manner to look on the lord chancellor still con- 
tinually, save that once he cast up his eyes to heaven-ward, sighed for 
God's grace, and so over-faced him. 

Then the lord chancellor, as it were amazed, and something ins 
troubled, spake thus to him in effect : that of long time he had been Bradford. 
imprisoned justly for his seditious behaviour at Paul's Cross, the 13th 
of August, in the year 1553, for his false preaching and arrogancy, 
taking upon him to preach without authority. " But now," quoth 
he, " the time of mercy is come : and therefore the queen's highness, 
minding to offer unto you mercy, hath by us sent for you, to declare 
and give the same, if so be you will with us return : and if you will do 
as we have done, you shall find as we have found, I warrant you." 
This was the sum of his words, and in manner the same w^ords which 
he spake. To these words John Bradford spake (after reverent obei- 
sance made) in this manner : — 

" My lord and lords all ; I confess that I have been long imprisoned, and j?'"''^- 
(with humble reverence be it spoken) unjustly, for that I did nothing seditiously, g'^"r! ""'" 
falsely, or arrogantly, in word or fact, by preaching or otherwise, but rather 
sought truth, peace," and all godly quietness, as an obedient and faithful subject 
both in going about to save the now bishop of Bath, tlien master Bourn, the 
preacher at the Cross, and in preaching for quietness accordingly." 

At these words, or rather before he had fully finished, the said 
lord chancellor something snuffed, and speaking with an admira- 
tion, said: — 

L. Chan. ;— " There was a loud lie : for," quoth he, " the fact was seditious ; 
as you my lord of London can bear witness." 

Bonner : — " You say true, my lord ; I saw him with mine own eyes, when he 
took upon him to rule and lead the people malapertly ; thereby declaring that 

lie w 

as the author of the sedition." 









wrath I 



mercy is 
than life 
to Brad- 

ready to 
his doc- 
trine with 
his life. 

Asketh a 
before he 

Bradford: — " My lords, notwithstanding my lord bishop's seeing and saying, 

yet the truth I have told, as one day my Lord God Almighty shall reveal to all 

the world, when we shall all come and appear before him. In the mean season, 

. because I cannot be believed of you, I must and am ready to suffer, as now 

your sayings be, whatsoever God shall license you to do unto me." 

L. Chan. : — " I know thou hast a glorious tongue, and goodly shows thou 
makest : but all is lies thou speakest. And again, I have not forgotten how 
stubborn thou wast when thou wast before us in the Tower,' whereupon thou 
wast committed to prison concerning religion : I have not forgotten thy be- 
haviour and talk, where-through worthily thou hast been kept in prison, as one 
that would have done more hurt than I will speak of." 

Brad. .— " My lord, as I said I say again, that I stand as before you, so 
before God ; and one day we shall all stand before him : the truth then will be 
the truth, though now ye will not so take it. Yea, my lord, I dare say, that 
my lord of Bath, master Boimie, will witness with me,^ that I sought his safe- 
guard with the peril of mine own life ; I thank God there-for." 

Bonner : — " That is not true : for I myself did see thee take upon thee too 

Brad. : — " No, I took nothing upon me undesired, and that of master Bourne 
himself, as, if he were here present, I dare say he would affirm. For he desired 
me both to help him to pacify the people, and also not to leave him till he was 
in safety. And as for my behaviour in the Tower, and talk before your 
honours, if I did or said any thing that did not beseem me, if your lordships 
would tell me wherein it was, I should and would shortly make you answer." 

L. Chan. : — " Well, to leave this matter: how sayest thou now ? Wilt thou 
return again, and do as we have done, and thou shalt receive the queen's mercy 
and pardon." 

Brad. : — " My lord, I desire mercy with God's mercy ; but mercy with 
God's wrath, God keep me from! although (I thank God there-for) my con- 
science doth not accuse me, that I did speak any thing wherefore I should need 
to receive the queen's mercy or pardon. For all that ever I did or spake, was 
both agreeable to God's laws, and the laws of the realm at that present, and did 
make much to quietness." 

L. Chan. : — " Well, if thou make this babbling rolling in thy eloquent tongue, 
and yet being altogether ignorant and vain-glorious, and wilt not receive mercy 
offered to thee, know for truth that the queen is minded to make a purgation" of 
all such as thou art."* 

Brad. : — " The Lord, before whom I stand as well as before you, knoweth 
what vain-glory I have sought, and seek in this behalf: his mercy I desire, and 
also would be glad of the queen's favour, to live as a subject without clog of 
conscience. But otherwise, the Lord's mercy is better to me than life. And I 
know to whom I have committed my life, even into his hands which will keep 
it, so that no man may take it away before it be his pleasure. There are twelve 
hours in the day, and as long as they last, so long shall no man have power 
thereon : therefore his good will be done. Life, in his displeasure, is worse 
than death ; and death, with his true favour, is true life." 

L. Chan. : — " I know well enough, that we shall have glorious talk enough 
of thee : be sure therefore that as thou hast deceived the people with false and 
devilish doctrine, so shalt thou receive." 

Brad. : — " I have not deceived the people, nor taught any other doctrine 
than, by God's grace, I am, and hope shall be, ready to confirm with my life. 
And as for the devilishness and Mseness in the doctrine, I would be sorry you 
could so prove it." 

Durham ;— " Why, tell me, what say you by the ministration of the com- 
rnunion, as now you know it is?" 

Braf/. .•— " My lord, here I must desire of your lordship and of all your 
honours a question, before I dare make you an answer to any interrogatory or 
question, wherewith you now begin. I have been six times sworn that I shall 
in no case consent to the practising of any jurisdiction, or any authority on the 
bishop of Rome's behalf within this realm of England. Now, before God, I 

ri) This talk of Bradford first in the Tower, came not to our hands. 

(2) " Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour." Commandment the TXth. Thus 
Bradford was desired of master Bourne to help him, and yet is now shent for his labour. 
(.)) That is the worst you and your pope can do, and the best argument you have. 


humbly pray your honours to tell me, whether you ask me this question by his sr„ru. 
authority, or no? If yon do, I dare not, nor may answer you any thing in liis 

authority, which you shall demand of me, except I would be forsworn, which A.I). 
God forbid." J^^^\ 

Sec. Bourne: — "Hast thou been sworn six times? AVhat office hast thou 

Brad. : — " Forsooth I was thrice sworn in Cambridge, when I was admitted Bradford 
master of arts ; when I was admitted fellow of Pembroke hall ; and when I was ''^ ''""^» 
there, the visitors came thither, and sware the imiversity. Again, I was sworn a*ain'st 
when I entered into the ministry; when I had a prebend given me; and when "«= i>'>v<-'- 
I was sworn to serve the king, a little before his death." 

L. Chan. .■— " Tush, Herod's oaths a man should make no conscience at." Herod's 
Brad. : — " But my lord, these were no Herod's oaths, no unlawful oaths, but <"*""• 
oaths according to God's word, as you yourself have well affirmed in your book, 
'De vera obedientia.' " 

" My lords," quoth another of the council that stood by the table (master Roches- 
Rochester, I ween), " I never knew wherefore this man was in prison before 'crspeak- 
now : but I see well that it had not been good that this man had been abroad. ' 
What the cause was that he was put in prison, I know not ; but I now well 
know that not without a cause he was, and is to be, kept in prison." 

Bourne : — " Yea, it was reported this parliament time by the earl of Derby, The earl 
that he hath done more hurt by letters, and exhorting those that have come to ",'|,^'',["-^ t 
him, in rehgion,' than ever he did when he was abroad by preaching. In his al'.iiiist' 
letters he curseth all that teach any false doctrine (for so he calleth that which Uradfurd. 
is not according to that he taught), and most heartily exhorteth them to whom 
he writeth to continue still in that they have received by him, and such like as 
he is." All which words divers of the council affirmed. Whereunto the said 
master Bourne added, saying, " How say you, sir? have you not thus seditiously 
written and exhorted the people?" 

Brad. : — " I have not written, nor spoken any thing seditiously, neither Bradford 
(I thank God there-for) have I admitted any seditious cogitation, nor I trust faUeiy 
ever shall do." ^{^:^,. 

Bourne : — " Yea, but thou hast written letters." tion. 

L. Chan. : — " Why speakest thou not? Hast thou not written as he saith?" 
Brad. : — " That I have written, I have written." 

Southwell: — "Lord God, what an arrogant and stubborn boy is this, that Southwell 
thus stoutly and dallyingly behaveth himself before the queen's council !" — Rpeaketh. 
Whereat one looked upon another with disdainful countenances. 

Brad. : — " My lords and masters, the Lord God which is, and will be judge 
to us all, knoweth, that as I am certain I stand now before his Majesty; so, with 
reverence in his sight, I stand before you, and unto you accordingly in words 
and gesture I desire to behave myself. If you otherwise take it, I doubt not 
but God in his time will reveal it. In the mean season I shall suffer with all 
due obedience your sayings and doings too, I hope." 

L.Ckan. : — "These be gay glorious words of reverence; but, as in all other 
things, so herein also, thou doest nothing but lie." 2 

Brad. : — " Well, I would God, the author of truth, and abhorrer of lies, would 
pull my tongue out of my head before you all, and show a terrible judgment on 
me here present, if I have purposed or do puqjose to lie before you, whatsoever 
you shall ask me." 

L.Chan.: — "Why then dost thou not answer? Hast thou written such winrlies- 
letters as here we objected against thee?" tcratbay. 

Brad.: — "As I said, my lord, that I have written, I have written. I stand 
now before you, who either can lay my letters to my charge or no: if you lay 
any thing to my charge that I have written, if I deny it, I am then a liar." 

L.Chan. :—" We shall never have done with thee', I perceive now : be short, 
be short. Wilt thou have mercy?" 

Brad. : — " I pray God give me his mercy ; and if therewith you will extend 
yours, I will not refuse it: but, otherwise, I will none." 

Here now was much ado, one speaking this, and another tliat, of 

(I^ Tliis letter was written to his mother, brethren, and sisters, and followcth hercaltcr. 
yi) All are lies that please not Wiiichestor. 


Mary. 'Lis aiTogancy, in refusing the queen's pardon, which she so lovingly 
^ £) did offer unto him : whereto Bradford answered thus : 

• Brad. : — " My lords, if I may live as a quiet subject without clog of con- 
science, I shall heartily thank you for your pardon; if otherwise I behave my- 
self, then I am in danger of the law. In the mean season I ask no more but 
the benefit of a subject, till I be convinced of transgression. If I cannot have 
this, as hitherto I have not had, God's good will be done." 

King Ed- Upon these words my lord chancellor began a long process of the 
time.^ false doctrine wherewith the people were deceived in the days of 

king Edward, and so turned the end of his talk to Bradford, saying : 

" How sayest thou .'*"" 

Bradford Brad. : — " My lord, the doctrine taught in king Edward's days was God's 

fn^de^-'^''^ pure religion : the which as I then believed, so do I now more believe it 

fence, etc. than ever I did, and therein I am more confiimed, and ready to declare it by 

God's grace even as he will, to the world, than I was when I first came into 


Durham : — " What religion mean you in king Edward's days ? What year 
of his reign ?" 

Brad. : — " Forsooth even the same yeai-, my lord, that the king died, and I 
was a preacher." Here wrote secretary Bourne I wot not what. 

The rea- Now after a little pausing, my lord chancellor beginneth again to 
Winches- declare, that the doctrine taught in king Edward's days was heresy ; 
provethat usiug for probation and demonstration thereof, no Scripture nor rea- 
son, but this : that it ended with treason and rebellion, " so that," 

ter to dis 

quoth he, " the very end were enough to improve that doctrine to 
be naught." 

Brad. : — "Ah, my lord ! that you could enter in God's sanctuary, and mark 
the end of this present doctrine that you now so magnify." 

L. Chan. : — '* What meanest thou by that ? I ween we shall have a snatch 
of rebellion even now." 

Brad.: — "My lord, I mean no such end as you would gather: I mean an 
end which no man seeth, but such as enter into God's sanctuary. If a man 
look on present things, he will soon deceive himself." 

The Here now did my lord chancellor offer again mercy ; and Bradford 

?nercy^ answcrcd, as before: mercy with God's mercy should be welcome, 

fered'to*^^ but otherwise he would none. Whereupon the lord chancellor did 

Bradford, ring a little bell, belike to call in some body : for there were present 

none in manner, but only those before named, and the bishop of 

Worcester. Now when one was come in ; " it is best,"" quoth 

master secretary Bourne, " that you give the keeper a charge of 

this fellow." So was the under-marshal called in. 

Bradford L. Chan.: — "Ye shall take this man to you, and keep him close without 
rettirned conference with any man, but by your knowledge; and sufler him not to 

write any letters," etc., " for he is of another manner of charge unto you now, 

than he was before." 

And so they departed, Bradford looking as cheerfully as any man 
could do, declaring thereby even a desire to give his life for confirma- 
tion of that he had taught and written. 




A. 1). 


ANNO 1555. 

After the excommunication of John Rogers, John Bradfonl was 
called in, and standing before the lord chancellor and other bishops 
set with him, the said lord chancellor spake thus in effect : 

Whereas before the 22d of January, the said Bradford was called before them 
(the said lord chancellor, etc.) and they ofi'ered unto him the queen's pardon, 
although he had contemned the same, and further said, that he would stiffly and 
stoutly maintain and defend the erroneous doctrine taught in the days of king Ed- 
ward the Sixth, yet, in consideration that the queen's highness was wonderfully 
merciful, they thought good eftsoons to offer the same mercy again, before it were ff^y "r'otr 
too late: "therefore advise you well," said he, "there is yet space and grace ami Card- 
before we so proceed that you be committed to the secular power, as we must jnalctT 
do and will do, if you will not follow the example of master Barlow, and master ntiaiuNt 
Cardmaker ;" whom he there commended, adding oratoriously amplifications to Bradford, 
move the said Bradford to yield to the religion presently set forth. 

After the lord chancellor's long talk, Bradford began on this sort 
to speak : 

Brad. : — " My lord, and my lords all ! as now I stand in your sight before 
you, so I humbly beseech your honours to consider, that you sit in the seat of 
the Lord, who, as David doth witness, is in the congregation of judges, and 
sitteth in the midst of them judging ; and as you would your place to be now 
of us taken as God's place, so demonstrate yourselves to follow him in your 
sitting; that is, seek no guiltless blood, nor hunt by questions to bring into the 
snare, them which are out of the same. At this present I stand before you 
guilty or guiltless ; if guilty, then proceed and give sentence accordingly: if 
guiltless, then give me the benefit of a subject, which hitherto I could not 
have." ' 

Here the lord chancellor replied, and said, that the said Bradford 
began with a true sentence, " Deus stetit in synagoga," etc. " But," 
quoth he, " this and all thy gesture declare but hypocrisy and vain- 
glory." And further he made much ado to purge himself, that he 
sought not guiltless blood ; and so began a long process how that 
Bradford's fact at PauFs Cross, was presumptuous, arrogant, and 
declared a taking upon him to lead the people, which could not but 
turn to much disquietness, " in that thou," speaking to Bradford, 
•' wast so refract and stout in religion at that present. For the which, 
as thou wast then committed to prison, so hitherto thou hast been 
kept in prison, where thou hast written letters to no little hurt to the 
queen's people, as by report of the earl of Derby, in the parliament j|]',Vnf'' 
house was credibly declared."" And to this he added, " that the said 'j','^"^;;"/' "^ 
Bradford did stubbornly behave himself the last time he was before lai.i '* 
them : and therefore not for any other thing now I demand of thee," K^^rd. 
quoth he, " but of and for thy doctrine and religion." 

Brad. : — " My lord, whereas you accuse me of hypocrisy and vain-glory, I 
must and will leave it to the Lord's declaration, which one day will open yours 
and my truth and hearty meanings; in the mean season, I will content myself Bradford 
with the testimony of mine own conscience, which if it yield to hypocrisy, could !'V|''^L'^|.'j''Jj 
not but have God to be my foe also ; and so both God and man were against me. p ;*„(?[ 
And as for my fact at Paid's Cross, and behaviour before you at the Tower, I Cross. 

(1) "Si ilium objnrces.vitcc qui auxilium tulit; qviid facics illi (jui dcdt-rit damnum aut malum ?" 


Marij. doubt not but God will reveal it to my comfort. For if ever I did thing, which 
— God used to public benefit, I think that my deed was one ; and yet, for it, I 
V"'^.' have been and am kept of long time in prison. And as for letters and religion, 
155o^ I answer, as I did the last time I was before you.'" 
His words L. Chan.: — "There didst thou say stubbornly and malapertly, that thou 
""^'^^" wouldest manly maintain the erroneous doctrine in king Edward's days." 
Bradford J^rad. : — " My lord, I said the last time I was before you, that I had six 
more con- times taken an oath, that I should never consent to the practising of anyjuris- 
firmed in diction on the bishop of Rome's behalf; and therefore durst I not answer to any 
tr'fne after '^'^'ng '^hat should be demanded so, lest I should be forsworn, which God forbid, 
his im- Howbeit saving mine oath, I said that I was more confirmed in the doctrine set 
ment"" ^orth publicly in the days of king Edward, than ever I was before I was put in 
than be- prison : and so I thought I should be, and think yet still I shall be found more 
fore. ready to give my life as God will, for the confirmation of the same." 

Win- L. Chan. : — " I remember well that thou madest much ado about needless 

'^'^^k*^th i^^'*^6^> ^s though the oath against the bishop of Rome were so great a matter, 
but small ^o others have done before thee, but yet not in such sort as thou hast done : for 
matter of thou pretendest a conscience in it, which is nothing else but mere hypocrisy." 
an oa . Brad. : — " My conscience is known to the Lord : and whether I deal herein 
hypocritically or no, he knoweth. As I said therefore then, my lord, so I say 
again now, that for fear lest I should be perjured, I dare not make answer to 
any thing you shall demand of me, if my answering should consent to the con- 
firming or practising of any jurisdiction for the bishop of Rome here in 

L. Chan. : — " Why didst thou begin to tell that we are ' Dii, ' and sit in 

God's place, and now wilt thou not make us an answer ?" 

Bradford Brad. : — " My lord, I said, you would have your place taken of us now as 

stm to his ^od's place ; and therefore 1 brought forth that piece of Scripture, that ye might 

oath. the more be admonished to follow God and his ways at this present, who seeth us 

all, and well perceiveth whether of conscience I pretend this matter of the oath 

or no." 

L. Chan. : — "No, all men may well see thine hypocrisy : for if for thine oath's 
sake thou didst not answer, then wouldest thou not have spoken as thou didst, 
and have answered me at the first : but now men well perceive, that this is but 
a starting-hole to hide thyself in, because thou darest not answer, and so wouldest 
escape ; blinding the simple people's eyes, as though of conscience you did all 
you do." 

Brad. : — "That which I spake at the first, was not a replication or an answer 

to that you spake to me : and therefore I needed not to lay for me mine oath. 

For I thought you would have more weighed what I did speak, than you did : 

but, when I perceived you did not consider it, but came to ask matter, whereto 

by answering I should consent to the practising of jurisdiction on the bishop of 

Rome's behalf here in England, and so be forsworn ; then of conscience and 

simplicity I spake as I do yet again speak, that I dare not for conscience' sake, 

answer you. And therefore I seek no starting- holes, nor go about to blind the 

people, as God knoweth. For if you of your honours shall tell me, that you 

Why he do not ask me anything whereby mine answering should consent to the prac- 

et'h notto '-'^'fi? ^^ ^^6 bishop of Rome's jurisdiction, ask me wherein you will, and you 

Win- shall hear that I will answer you as flatly as ever any did that came before you. 

ciiester. f am not afraid of death, I thank God : for I look, and have looked for nothing 

iiuerro- ^Ise at your hands of long time ; but I am afraid, when death comcth, I should 

gatories. have matter to trouble my conscience, by the guiltiness of perjury, and therefore 

do I answer as I do." 

L. Chan. : — "These be gay glorious words, full of hypocrisy and vain-glory, 

and yet dost thou not know that I sit here as bishop of Winchester in mine own 

diocese, and therefore may do this which I do, and more too ?" 

Bradford Brad.: — " My lord, give me leave to ask you this question, that my con- 

an^'wer" science may be out of doubt in this matter. Tell me here " coram. Deo," before 

under God, all this audience being witness, that you demand of me nothing whereby 

protesta- mine answering should consent to and confirm the practice of jurisdiction for 

""'• the bishop of Rome here in England, and your honour shall hear me give you 

as flat and as plain answers briefly, to whatsoever you shall demand me, as 

ever any did." 


Here the lord chancellor was wonderfully ofTcndcd, and spal<c Unry. 
much how the bishop of Romc''s authority needed no confirmation of ~T~,)~ 
Bradford's answerinti;-, nor of any such as he was ; and turned his talk i.-,55' 

to the people, how that Bradford followed crafty covetous merchants, ■ 

Avho because they would lend no money to their neighbours wlion 
they were in need, would say that they had sworn oft, that they would 
never lend any more money, because their debtors had so oft deceived 
them. " Even so thou," quoth he to Bradford, " dost at this present, 
to cast a mist in the people's eyes, to blear them with a heresy (which 
is greater, and more hurtful to the commonwealth than the other is), 
pretend thine oath, whereby the people might make a conscience 
where they should not. Why speakest thou not ?" 

Brad. : — " My lord, as I said, I say again : I dare not answer you for fear of Diner- 
perjury, from which God defend me ; or else I could tell you that there is a •""" "'' 
difference between oaths. Some he according to faith and charity, as the oath "* *' 
against the bishop of Rome : some be against faith and charity ; as this, to deny 
by oath, my help to my brother in his need." 

Here my lord chancellor again was much offended, still saving 
that Bradford durst not answer, and further made much ado to 
prove, that the oath against the bishop of Rome was against charity. 
But Bradford answered, that howsoever his honour took him, yet he 
was assured of his meaning, that no fear but the fear of perjury made 
him unwilling to answer. 

" For, as for death, my lord," quoth Bradford, " as I know there are twelve 
hours in the day, so with the Lord my time is appointed. And when it shall be 
his good time, then I shall depart hence : but in the mean season I am safe 
enough, though all the people had sworn my death. Into his hands have I 
committed it, and do — his good will be done! And saving mine oath, I will 
answer you in this behalf, that the oath against the bishop of Home was not, 
nor is, against charity." 

L. Chan. : — " How prove you that V 

Brad. : — " Forsooth I prove it thus : 


Fe- Nothing is against charity, which is with God's word, and not against it. 
sti- The oath against the bishop of Rome's authority in England is with God's 

word, and is not against it. 
no. Ergo, The oath against the bishop of Rome's authority in England, is not 
against charity." 

L. Chan. : — " Is it not against God's word, that a man should take a king to 
be supreme head of the church in his realm ?" 

Brad. : — " No, saving still mine oath, it is not against God's word, but with 
it, being taken in such sense as it may well be taken : that is, attributing to the 
king's power, the sovereignty in all his dominion." 

L. Chan. : — " I pray you where find you that ?" 

J^rad. : — " I find it in many places, but specially in Romans xiii., where St. Bishops, 
Paul writeth, ' Every soul to be subject to the superior power :' l)Ut what iir"pli>--ts. 
power? 'QuDB gladium gestat,' 'The power verily which beareth the sword;' "oeg^'Jub- 
which is not the spiritual, but the temporal power : as Chrysostome full well jcct to 
noteth upon the same place, which your honour knoweth better than I. He If,!^!,';""' 
(Chrysostome I mean) there plainly showeth that bishops, prophets, and apo- str-iics. 
sties, are obedient to the temporal magistrates." 

Here vet more the lord chancellor was stirred, and said, how that 
Bradford went about to deny all obedience to the ([ueon fur his oath : 
"and sn," quoth he, " this man would make God's word a warrant of 


Mary, disobcdieiice : for he will answer the queen on this sort, that when 

~X/D~ ^^^^ saith, ' Now swear to the bishop of Rome, or obey his authority,' 

1555. ' No,"' will he say, ' for I should be forsworn ;' and so he makes the 

queen no queen. ^ 

Refusing Brad. : — " No, I go not about to deny all obedience to the queen's highness, 
of the l)ut denying obedience in this part, if she should demand it. For I was sworn 
obedi- *" '^^"g Edward, not simply (that is, not only concerning his own person), but 
ence.etc, also concerning his successors, and therefore in denying to do the queen's 
is node- request herein, I deny not her authority, nor become disobedient." 
obedfence ^- Chati. : — •" Yes, that thou doest;" and so he began to tell a long tale, 
to the how, if a man should make an oath to pay to me a hundred pounds by such a 
^l"*^^"- day, and the man to whom it was due would forget the debt, the debtor shovdd 
say, " No, you cannot do it : for I am forsworn then." 

Here Bradford desired my lord chancellor not to trifle it, saying, 
that he wondered his honour would make solemn oaths made to God, 
trifles in that sort ; and make so great a matter concerning vows (as 
they call it) made to the bishop for marriage of priests. At these 
words the lord chancellor was much offended, and said, he did not 
trifle : " but," quoth he, " thou goest about to deny obedience to the 
queen, who now requireth obedience to the bishop of Rome." 


Brad. : — " No, my lord ; I do not deny obedience to the queen, if you would 
discern between genus and species. Because I may not obey in this, ergo, I may 
f,i^'!!I!',?„ not obey in the other, is no good reason. As if a man let or sell a piece of his 

ad genus . . . J ,.' . ,° ,. ■,^ ■,..■, • ■ ^ -, ■, 

negative inheritance, yet, this notwithstanding, all his inheritance is not let or sold : and 
noil vaiet. gg jn this case, all obedience I deny not, because I deny obedience in this 

L. Chan. : — " I will none of these similitudes." 

Brad. .■ — " I would not use them, if that you went not about to persuade the 
people, that I mean that which I never meant : for I myself not only mean 
obedience, but will give ensample of all most humble obedience to the queen's 
highness, so long as she requireth not obedience against God." 

L. Chan. .- — " No, no, all men may see your meaning well enough. There is 
no man, though he be sworn to the king, that doth therefore break his oath, if 
he afterwards be sworn to the French king and to the emperor." 

Brad. : — " It is true, my lord, but the cases be not like. For here is an ex- 
ception: ' Thou shalt not swear to the bishop of Rome at any time.' If, in 
like manner, we were sworn ; ' Thou shalt not serve the emperor,' etc. you see 
there were some alteration and more doubt. But I beseech your honour 
remember what you yourself have written, answering the objections here against 
in your book, De vera Obedientia : ' Let God's word, and the reason thereof, 
bear the bell away.' "^ 

wineiies- Here the lord chancellor was thoroughly moved, and said still, how 
temieth that Bradford hath written seditious letters, and perverted the people 
Bradford' thereby, and did stoutly stand, as though he Avould defend the erro- 
for fear, ncous doctrinc in king Edward''s time, against all men ; " and now," 
answer"" quoth hc, " lie saith he dare not answer " 

Brad. : — "I have written no seditious letters ; I have not perverted the people : 
but that which I have written and spoken, that will I never deny, by God's 
grace. And whereas your lordship saith, that I dare not answer you : that all 
Bradford men may know that I am not afraid, saving mine oath, ask me what you will, 
ready to ^jj^j j ^jj] pj^^jnly make you answer, by God's grace, although I now see my 
reason of life lieth thereon. But, O Lord ! into thy hands I commit it, come what come 
his faith, will; only sanctify thy name in me, as in an instrument of thy grace: Amen. 

(1) See thepreposterous judgment of Winchester, to care so little for an oath to God, and so much 
for his vow to the pope. 

(2) " Vincat modo divini vcrbi Veritas." 


Now ask what you will, and you shall see I am not afraid, by God's grace, Uarg. 
flatly to answer." 

L. Chan.: — " Well then, how say you to the blessed sacrament? Do you not A. D. 
believe there Christ to be present concerning his natural body 1" \^bT). 

Brad. : — " My lord, 1 do not believe that Ciu-ist is corporally present at and ciirist 
in the due administration of the sacrament. By this word ' corporally ' I mean prfscnt 
that Christ is there present corporally unto faith." iiM^u.'*./ 

L. Chan. : — " Unto faith? we must have many more words to make it plain." cramcnt 

Brad. : — " You shall so : but first give me leave to speak two words." '° '^*''''- 

L. Chan. : — " Speak on." 

Brad. : — " I have been now a year and almost three quarters in prison, and Note well 
in all this time you never questioned me hereabout, when I might have spoken 'he pope's 
my conscience frankly without peril ; but now have you a law to hang up and brinp 
put to death, if a man answer freely, and not to your appetite : and so now you men to 
come to demand this question. Ah, my lord ! Christ used not this way to '^*'"'" 
bring men to faith : no more did the prophets or apostles. Remember what 
Bernard writeth to Eugene the pope :' " I read that the apostles stood to be 
judged; but I read not, that they sat to judge. This shall be, that was," etc. 

Here the lord chancellor was appalled, as it seemed, and said most 
gently that he used not this means. " It was not my doing," quoth winches- 
he, •■' although some there be that think this to be the best way : i'ur |,'i',^,ne,i 
I, for my part, have been challenged for being too gentle oftentimes." w'tiiout a 
AV'hich thing the bishoj) of London confirmed, and so did almost all ii'e saiVii. 
the audience, that he had been ever too mild and too gentle. At 
which words Bradford spake thus : — 

Brad. : — " My lord, I pray you stretch out your gentleness, that I may feel 
it ; for hitherto I never felt it." 

As soon as ever he had spoken thus, the lord chancellor (belike 
thinking that Bradford would have had mercy and pardon) said, that 
Avith all his heart, not only he, but the queen's highness, would stretch 
out mercy, if with them he would return. 

Brad. : — " Return, my lord ! God save me from that going back : I mean it Bradford 
not so, but I mean, that I was three quarters of a year in the Tower ; you for- """^^ 
bade me paper, pen, and ink ; and never in all that time, nor since, did 1 feel any of a year 
gentleness from you. I have rather hitherto found, as I looked for, extremity, kept froni 
And, I thank God, that I perceive now ye have kept me in prison thus long, not jJJ'^' ''"'* 
for any matter ye had, but for matter ye would have ; God's good will be done." 

Here now were divers telling my lord it was dinner-time. And so 
he rose up, leaving Bradford speaking, and saying that in the after- 
noon they would speak more with him. And so was he had into the '^''•'1^,^'J^y 
vestry, and was there all that day till dark night, and so was conveyed tin u\^u. 
again to prison. 

In the mean time, about four of the clock the same afternoon, a nussey 
gentleman called master Thomas Husscy of Lincolnshire, who was "JJJ'"' '° 
once an officer in the duke of Norfolk's house, did come into the 
vestry to inquire for one Stoning : and when it was answered him by 
the under-marshaFs officers of the king's bench, that there was none 
such, he entered into the house, and took acquaintance of .John linid- 
ford, saying, that he would commune and sjjcak with him the next 
morning, for old acquaintance. 

The next morning, about seven of the clock, this gentleman came Thecoun- 
into the chamber wherein John Bradford did lie, and, being with ilL'scy. 

(I) " Apostolos lego stctisse judicandos, scdissc judicantes noii k'^^o. Hoc erit, illud fuit," etc. 


Mary, him, he began a long oration, how that of love and old acquaintance 




jI Setoii. 

he came unto him, to speak that which he would further utter. 

" You did," said the gentleman, " so wonderfully behave yourself before the 
lord chancellor, and other bishops yesterday, that even the veriest enemies you 
have, did see that they have no matter against you : and therefore I advise you 
[speaking as though it came of his own good will, without making any other 
man privy, or any other procuring him, as he said] this day — for anon you 
shall be called before them again — to desire a time, and men to confer withal : 
so shall all men think a wonderful wisdom, gravity, and godliness in you : and 
by this means you shall escape present danger, which else is nearer than you 
be aware of. 

To this John Bradford answered : 

Brad. : — " T neither can nor will make any such request : for then shall I give 
to require "^c^sioi^ ^o the people, and to all others, to think that I doubt of the doctrine 
respite, which I confess ; the which thing I do not, for thereof I am most assured, and 
therefore I will give no such ofTeHce." 

seton As they were thus talking, the chamber-door was unlocked, and 

to him! Dr. Seton came in, who, when he saw master Hussey, " What, sir," 
quoth he, " are you come before me .''" " O Lord !" said Bradford 
Hussey in his heart to God, " goeth the matter thus ? This man told me, 
l^uh"aiie. no man knew of his coming : Lord ! give me gi-ace to remember thy 
lesson, ' Cavete ab hominibus illis,*' ' Beware of those men,"* etc, ' Cast 
not your pearls before dogs :' for I see these men be come to hunt 
for matter, that the one may bear witness with the other." 
Counsel Dr. Sctou, after some by-talk of Bradford's age, of his country, 
and such like, began a gay and long sermon of my lord of Canterbury, 
master Latimer, and master Ridley, and how they at Oxford were not 
able to answer any thing at all ; and that therefore my lord of Canter- 
bury desired to confer with the bishop of Durham and others : all 
which talk tended to this end, that John Bradford should make the 
like suit, being in nothing to Ibe compared in learning to my lord of 
Canterbury. To this John Bradford briefly answered as he did 
before to master Hussey. With this answer neither the doctor nor 
gentleman being contented, after many persuasions, master doctor 
said thus : 

Flatter- Z)r. Seton. .- — " I have heard much good talk of you, and even yesternight a 
mendT" gentleman made report of you at the lord chancellor's table, that ye were able 
lion of to persuade as much as any that he knew. And I (though I never heapd you 
preach, and to my knowledge did never see you before yesterday) yet methought 
your modesty was such, your behaviour and talk so without malice and impa- 
tience, that I would be sorry you should do worse than myself And I tell you 
further, I do perceive my lord chancellor hath a fantasy towards you : where- 
fore be not so obstinate, but desire respite and some learned man to confer 
withal," etc. 

But John Bradford kept still one answer : " I cannot, nor I will 
as^r" not so offend the people. I doubt not, but I am most certain of the 
con'fer''"' doctriuc I havc taught." 

upon his Here master doctor Seton waxed hot, and called Bradford arrogant, 
oc rme. p^^.^^^^ vain-glorious, and " spake like a prelate." 

But Bradford answered, " Beware of judging, lest you condemn 
yourself." But still master doctor Seton urged him, showing him 
how merciful my lord chancellor was, and how charitably they enter- 
tained him. 


refuse th 


" I never saw any justice, much less love ; I speak for my part," quoth Maty. 

Bradford, "in my lord ciiancellor. Long have I been unjustly imprisoned, and — 

handled in the same uncharitably: and now my lord hath no just matter A. D. 
against me." 15^5. 

This talk served not tlie doctor's purpose : Avlicreforc he went Littieju.- 
from matter to matter, from this point to that point. Bradford still lovc.'ap! 
gave him the hearing, and answered not ; for he perceived that they P^aj"^"* 
both did come but to fish for some things which might make a show i>ishop of 
that my lord chancellor had justly kept him in prison. tT""'''"' 

When all their talk took no such effect as they would or looked 
for, master Hussey asked Bradford : 

HiiKseii : — " Will ye not admit conference, if my lord chancellor should offer 
it publicly?" 

"Brad.: — "Conference! if it had been offered before the law had been Bradford 
made, or if it were offered so tliat I might he at liberty to confer, and as sure '"'^'""seih 
as he with whom I should confer, then it were something : but else I see not to coifft""* 
what other purpose conference should be offered, but to defer that which will rencc but 
come at the length, and the lingering may give more offence than do good. dfuo„7"' 
Howbeit, if my lord shall make such an offer of his own motion, I will not refuse 
to confer with whomsoever he shall appoint." 

INIaster doctor, hearing this, called Bradford arrogant, proud, and seion 
whatsoever pleased him. Then Bradford, perceiving by them that ^'^nst 
he should shortly be called for, besought them both to give him **'"■ 
leave to talk with God, and to beg wisdom and grace of him ; "for," 
([uoth he, " otherwise I am helpless :" and so they with much ado 
departed. Then Bradford went to God, and made his prayers, which 
the Lord of his goodness did graciously accept in his need ; praised 
therefore be his holy name ! Shortly after they were gone, Bradford 
was led to the aforesaid church, and there tarried, uncalled for, till 
eleven of the clock, that is, till master Saunders was excommunicated. 


After the excommunication of Lawrence Saunders, John Bradford 
was called in, and, being brought in before the lord chancellor and 
other the bishops there sitting, the lord chancellor began to speak 
thus in effect : that if Bradford, being now eftsoons come before winrhes- 
theni, Avould answer with modesty and humility, and conform himself'",;'/''"' 
to the catholic church with them ; he yet might find mercy, because Bradford, 
they would be loth to use extremity. — Therefore he concluded with 
an exhortation, that Bradford would recant his doctrine. 

After the lord chancellor had ended his long oration, Bradford 
began to speak thus : 

" As yesterday I besought your honours to set in your sight the majesty and Brad- 
presence of God to follow him, which seekethnotto subvert the simple by subtle ^°^'^'^ 
questions : so I humbly beseech every one of you to do this day ; for that you *"*"'^''- 
know well enough, that guiltless blood will cry for vengeance. And this I pray 
not your lordships to do, as one that takcth upon me to condemn you utterly 
herein ; hut that ye might be more admonished to do that, which none doth so 
much as he should do. — For our nature is so much corrupt, that we are very 
oblivious and forgetful of God. Again, as yesterday I pretended mine oath 
and oaths against the bishop of Rome, that 1 should never consent to the prac- 
tising of any jurisdiction for him, or on his behalf in the realm of England ; so 
do I again at this day, lest 1 should be perjured. And, last of all, as yesterday 


Mary, the answers I made were by protestation and saving mine oath, so I would your 
^— honours should know that mine answers shall be this day: and this I do, that 
A. D. -vvrhen death (which I look for at your hands) shall come, I may not be troubled 
^•^^^^ with the guiltiness of perjury." 

Winches- At these words the lord chancellor was Avroth, and said, that they 
piieth had given him respite to deliberate till this day, whether he would 
withaiie. recant his errors of the blessed sacrament, "which yesterday," quoth 
lie, " before us you uttered."" 

Brad. : — " My lord, you gave me no time of any such deliberation, neither 
did I speak any thing of the sacrament, which you did disallow. For when I 
had declared a presence of Christ to be there to faith, you went from that matter 
to purge yourself, that you were not cruel, and so went to dinner." 

L. Chan. : — What ! I perceive we must begin all again with thee. Did I 
against ^ "°'' yesterday tell thee plainly, that thou madest a conscience where none should 
thebishop be? Did I not make it plain, that the oath against the bishop of Rome was an 
of Rome, unlawful oath ?" 

Brad. : — " No indeed, my lord : you said so, but you proved it not yet, nor 
ever can do." 

L. Chan, : — " O Lord God ! what a fellow art thou ! Thou wouldest go about 
to bring into the people's heads, that we — all the lords of the parliament house, 
^^.^ the knights and burgesses, and all the whole realm — be perjured. O what a 

ter's si- heresy is this ! Here good people, you may see what a senseless heretic this 
militude fellow is. If I should make an oath I would never help my brother, nor lend 
lOTin't ^""1 money in his need; were this a good answer to tell my neighbour, desiring 
like. my help, that I had made an oath to the contrary? or that I could not do it?" 
His simi- Brad. : — " O my lord, discern betwixt oaths that be against charity and faith, 


of Kome. 

htude re- ^j^^ oaths that be according to faith and charity, as this is against the bishop 

Here the lord chancellor made much ado, and a long time was 
spent about oaths, which were good and which were evil ; he captiously 
asking often of Bradford a direct ansAver concerning oaths : which 
Bradford would not give simply, but with a distinction ; whereat the 
chancellor was much offended. But Bradford still kept him at the 
bay, that the oath against the bishop of Rome, was a lawful oath, 
using thereto the lord chancellor's own book, " De vera Obedientia," 
for confirmation, 
^od^s At the length they came to this issue, Who should be judge of the 

judges lawfulness of the oath .'' and Bradford said the word of God, according 
oaths!' to Christ's word, John xii., " My word shall judge ;" and according 
to the testimony of Isaiah and Micah, that God's word, coming out 
of Jerusalem, shall give sentence among the Gentiles. " By this 
IgTii'ns't^ word," quoth Bradford, "my lord, I will prove the oath against the 
premacy ^^'^hop of Romc's authority, to be a good, a godly, and a lawful oath." 
"fti'e So that the lord chancellor left his hold, and, as the other day he 

no. pretended a denial of the queen's authority and obedience to her 

Zl'ielv- '''g^^i^ess, so did he now. But Bradford, as the day before, proved, 
etii his that obedience in this point to the queen's highness, if she should 
demand an oath to the bishop of Rome, being denied, was not a 
general denial of her authority, and of obedience to her ; " no more," 
quoth he, " tlian the sale, gift, or lease of a piece of a man's inheri- 
tance, proveth it a sale, gift, or lease of the whole inheritance." 

And thus much ado was made about this matter : the lord chan- 
cellor talking much, and using many examples of debt, of going out 
of town to-morrow by oatli, and yet tarrying till Friday, and such 

they be 


like ; which trifling talk Bradford did touch, saying, that it was a irary. 
wonder his honour weighed conscience no more in this, and would bu ^ ,) 
so earnest in vows of priests' marriages made to bishops, and be 1.555" 
careless for solemn oaths made to God and to princes. Sumnia, this ^\^~j;;;r 
was the end. The lord chancellor said, the queen might dispense 'i-r ••'""i 
with it, and did so to all the whole realm. But Bradford said, tliat vo«n'' 
the queen's highness could do no more but remit her right: as for man^imi 
the oath made to God, she could never remit, forasmuch as it was '*^ap'nK 
made unto God. At which words the lord chancellor chafed won- lemn 
derfully, and said, that in plain sense I slandered the realm of perjury ; niauc 10 
" and therefore," quoth he to the people, " you may see how this ^y'lnches- 
fellow taketh upon him to have more knowledge and conscience than ter in a 
all the wise men of England ; and yet he hath no conscience at all." chaf"^ 

Brad. : — " Well, my lord, let all the standers-by see who hath conscience. Bradford 
I have been a year and a half in prison : now, before all this people, declare impri- 
wherefore I was imprisoned, or what cause you had to punish me. You said without a 
the other day in your own house, my lord of London witnessing with you, that cause. 
I took upon me to speak to the people undesired. There he sitteth by you, 
I mean my lord of Bath, which desired me himself, for the passion of Christ, 
I would speak to the people : upon whose words I, coming into the pulpit, had Bradford 


like to have been slain with a dagger (which was hurled at him, I think), for it 
touched my sleeve. He then prayed me I would not leave him ; and I pro- puip'jt, 
mised him, as long as I lived, I would take hurt before him that day; and so with a 
went out of the pulpit and entreated with the people, and at length brought ^^^f^"^; 
him myself into a house. Besides this, in the afternoon I preached at Bow- afrainst 
church, and there, going up into the pulpit, one willed me not to reprove the Bourne, 
people ; for, quoth he, you shall never come down alive, if you do it. And yet, ^J^^J°J^^ 
notwithstanding, I did in that sermon reprove their fact, and called it sedition {fjs'Jffe f^,r 
at the least twenty times. For all which my doing, I have received this recom- Bourne, 
pense, prison for a year and a half and more, and death now, which you go 
about. Let all men be judge where conscience is." 

In speaking of these words, there was endeavour to have letted it : 
but Bradford still spake on, and gave no place till he had made an 
end, speak what they would. And then the lord chancellor said, 
that for all that fair tale, his fact at the Cross was naught. 

Brad. : — " No, my fact was good, as you yourself did bear witness with me. winches- 
For when I was at the first before you in the Tower, you yourself did say, that ter proved 
my fact was good; 'but,' quoth you, 'thy mind was evil.' ' Well,' quoth I, j',°"^'„^„"' 
' then my lord, in that you allow the fact, and condemn the mind. Forasnmch words, 
as otherwise, I cannot declare my mind to man but by saying and doing, God 
one day, I trust, will open it to my comfort, what my mind was, and yours is." 

Here the lord chancellor was offended, and said, that he never winches- 
said so. " I," quoth he, " had not so little wit I trow, as not to dis- \"f^t>'^ 
cem betwixt meaning and doing :" and so brought forth, little to the "^^-^^ 
purpose, many examples to prove that men construe things by the 
meaning of men, and not by their doings. But when this would 
not serve, then cometh he to another matter, and said, that Bradford 
Avas put in prison at the first because he would not yield, nor be con- 
formable to the queens religion. 

Brad. : " Why, my lord ? your honour knoweth that you would not reason 

with me in religion ; but said, a time should afterwards be foimd out, when I 
should be talked withal. But if it were as your lordship saith, that I was put 
in prison for religion, in that my religion was then authorised by public laws of 


Mary, the realm, could conscience punish me, or cast me in prison there-for ? Wliore- 
fore let all men be judges, in whom conscience wanteth." 



Here came forth master Chamberlain of Woodstock, and spakf 


against was with mastci Harrington. 

Bradford. ° 

L. Chan. : — " True, and did deceive his master of seven-score pounds : and 
because of this, he went to be a gospeller and a preacher, good people ; and yet 
you see how he pretendeth conscience." 

Brad. : — " My lord, I set my foot by his, whosoever he be, that can come forth 
and justly vouch to my face, that ever I deceived my master. And as you are 
chief justicer by office in England, I desire justice upon them that so slander 
me, because they cannot prove it." 

Winches- Here my lord chancellor and master Chamberlain were smitten 
^iv«f'" blank, and said they heard it. " But," quoth my lord chancellor, 
ho!" ^'* " ^^ ^^® another manner of matter than this against you : for you 
Bonner are a heretic."" " Yea,"" quoth the bishop of London, " he did write 
other u'n- l^ttcrs to mastcr Pendleton, which knoweth his hand as well his own : 
truth. your honour did see the letters."" 

Brad.: — " That is not true; I never did write to Pendleton since I came to 
prison, and therefore I am not justly spoken of." 
Bojiner : — " Yea, but you indited it.' 
Brad. : — " I did not, nor know what you mean, and this I offer to prove." 

A clerk; Here came in another, I trow they call him master Allen, one of 
to bT'" tlie clerks of the council, putting the lord chancellor in remembrance 
Allen. of letters written into Lancashire. 

L. Chan. : — " You say true : for we have his hand to show," 
Brad. : — " I deny that you have my hand to show of letters sent into Lan- 
cashire, otherwise than before you all I will stand to, and prove them to be 
good and lawful." 

Here was all answered, and then the lord chancellor began a new 

L. Chan.: — "Sir," quoth he, "in my house the other day, you did most 
contemptuously contemn the queen's mercy ; and further said, that you would 
maintain the erroneous doctrine in king Edward's days against all men ; and 
this you did most stoutly." 
Winches- Brad. : — " Well, I am glad that all men see now you have had no matter to 
^^^ imprison me afore that day justly. Now say I, that I did not contemptuously 

toTplain contemn the queen's mercy, but would have had it (though if justice miglit 
foil. take place, I need it not), so that I might have had it with God's meixy, that is, 

His cap- witliout doing or saying any thing against God and liis truth. And as for 
tious maintenance of doctrine, because I cannot tell how you will stretch this word 
answered, maintenance, I will repeat again that which I spake. I said I was more con- 
firmed in the religion set forth in king Edward's days, than ever I was : and il" 
God so would, I trusted I should declare it by giving my life for the confirma- 
tion and testification thereof. So I said then, and so I say now. As for other- 
wise to maintain it, than pertaineth to a private person by confession, I thought 
not, nor think not." 
Another L. Chan. : — " Well, yesterday thou didst maintain false heresy concerning 
iirliim ' ^^^^ blessed sacrament ; and therefore we gave thee respite till this day to 

Brad. : — " My lord, as I said at the first, I spake nothing of the sacrament, 
but that which you allowed ; and therefore you reproved it not, nor gave me 
any time to deliberate." 



L. Chan. : — " Why ! didst thou not deny Christ's presence in the sacrament?" 

Brad. : — " No, I never denied nor taught, but that to faith, whole Christ, 
body and blood, was as present as bread and wine to the due receiver." A. I). 

L. Chan. : — " Yea, but dost thou not believe that Christ's body naturally and \^>-'>^>. 
really is there, under the forms of bread and wine ?" " 

Brad. : — " My lord, I believe Christ is present there to the faith of the due 
receiver : as for transubstantiation, I plainly and flatly tell you, I believe it not." 

Here was Bradford called diabolus, a slanderer :* " for wc ask no 
question," quoth my lord chancellor, " of transubstantiation, but of 
Christ's presence." 

Brad.: — " I deny not his presence to the faith of the receiver; but deny 
that he is included in the bread, or that the bread is transubstantiate." 
Worcester : — " If»he be not included, how is he then present?" 
Brad. : — " Forsooth, though my faith can tell how, yet my tongue caimot 
express it ; nor you, otherwise than by faith, hear it, or understand it." 

Here was much ado, now one doctor standing up and speaking 
thus, and others speaking that, and the lord chancellor, talkinir much 
of Luther, Zuinglius, Q^colampadius : but still Bradford kept him at 
this point, that Christ is present to faith ; and that there is no tran- Christ's 
substantiation nor including of Christ in the bread : but all this sent t^' 
would not serve them. Therefore another bishop asked this ques- !;,""'• 
tion : whether the wicked man received Christ s very body or no .'' stanti.i- 
And Bradford answered plainly, " No." Whereat the lord chan- Ii'ied.'*''"' 
cellor made a long oration, how that it could not be that Christ was 
present, except that the evil man received it. But Bradford put The wick- 
away all his oration in few words, that grace Avas at that present not!'^'^'^"'^ 
offered to his lordship, although he received it not : " So that," Receiving 
quoth he, " the receiving maketh not the presence, as your lordship ™oVthe 
would infer : but God's grace, truth, and power, is the cause of the l\''^^^'"^ 
presence, which grace the wicked that lack faith cannot receive." ij<«iy. but 
And here Bradford prayed my lord, not to divorce that which God ''^^'^^' 
had coupled together. " He hath coupled all these together : ' Take, 
eat, this is my body."" He saith not, ' Sec, peep, this is my body ;' 
but, ' Take, eat.' So that it appeareth this is a promise depending 
upon condition, if we take and eat." 

Here the lord chancellor and other bishops made a great ado, tti 
that Bradford had found out a toy that no man else ever did, of the 
condition ; and the lord chancellor made many words to the people a^t^m- 
thereabout. But Bradford said thus, " My lord, are not these ment and 
words, ' Take, eat,' a commanchnent ? And are not these words, iSni"' 
' This is my body,' a promise ? If you will challenge the promise, teaeiieti.. 
and do not the commandment, may you not deceive yourself?" 
Here the lord chancellor denied Christ to have commanded the sacra- 
ment, and the use of it. 

Brad. : — " Why my lord, I pray you tell the people what mood ' accipitc, man- 
ducate,' is; is it not plain to children, that Christ, in so saying, conunandeth ?" 

At these words the lord chancellor made a great toying and trifling 
at the imperative mood, and fell to parsing or examining, as he should 

(1) " Blessed are you wlien they shall revile you, and :*jak all that is naught .ijiainfl you, for 
my name's sake."— Matt. v. 

M 2 



hath iKilh 


Mnr!,. teacli a child ; and so concluded that it was no commandment, but 
A. D. such a phrase as this, " I pray you give me drink, which," quoth he, 
1555. "is no commandment, I trow."" But Bradford prayed him to leave 
toying and trifling, and said thus : 

Brad. : — " My lord, if it be not a commandment of Christ to take and eat 
the sacrament, why dare any take upon them to command and make that of 
necessity, which God leaveth free ? as you do in making it a necessary com- 
mandment, once a year, for all that be of discretion, to receive the sacrament." 

Here the lord chancellor called him again diabolus' or calumniator, 
and began out of these words, " Let a man prove himself, and so eat 
of the bread [" yea bread," quoth Bradford] and drink of the cup,"" 
to prove that it was no commandment to receive the sacrament : " for 
then," quoth he, "if it were a commandment, it should bind all men, 
in all places, and at all times." 

Distinc- Brad. : — " Omy lord, discern between commandments : some be general, as 
tion be- the Ten Commandments, that they bind always, in all places, and all persons ; 
eoiif-" some be not so general, as this of the supper, the sacrament of baptism, of the 
niand- thrice appearing before the Lord yearly at Jerusalem, of Abraham offering of 
Isaac," etc. 

Here my lord chancellor denied the cup to be commanded of 
Christ : " for then," quoth he, " we should have eleven command- 

Brad. : — " Indeed I think you think as you speak : for else would you not 
take the cup from the people, in that Christ saith, ' Drink ye all of it.' But 
how say you, my lords ? Christ saith to you bishops especially, ' Ite predicate 
evangelium.' ' Go and preach the gospel.' ' Feed Christ's flock,' etc. Is this 
a commandment, or no ?" 


a chafe, 

Here was my lord chancellor in a chafe, and said as pleased him. 
Another, the bishop of Durham I ween, asked Bradford, when Christ 
question! ^cgan to be present in the sacrament — whether before the receiver 

received it, or no ? 

As the Bradford answered, that the question was curious, and not neces- 

Testa-"^^ sary ; and further said, that as the cup was the New Testament, so 

bread is" ^^^^ bread was Christ''s body to him that received it duly, but yet so, 

the body, that the bread is bread. "'For," quoth he, "in all the Scripture ye 

shall not find this proposition, ' Non est panis,' ' There is no bread."*" 

And so he brought forth Chrysostome, ' Si in corpore essemus f^ in 

summa, much ado was hereabouts ; they calling Bradford heretic, 

and he, desiring them to proceed on in God''s name, looked for that 

which God appointed for them to do. 

L. Chan. : — " This fellow is now in another heresy of fatal necessity, as 
though all things were so tied together that of mere necessity all must come 
to pass." 

But Bradford prayed him to take things as they be spoken, and 
not wrest them into a contrary sense. 

To God "Your lordship," quoth Bradford, "doth discern betwixt God and man. 
nothing IS Things are not, by fortune, to God at any time, though to man they seem so 
tune. sometimes. I speak but as the apostles said, ' Lord,' quoth they, ' see how Herod 

(I) Diabolusis as much as to say in Greek, a slanderer, or a caviller. (2) llom. Ixxxiii Matt, xxsiv. 


and Pontius Pilate, with the prelates, are gathered together against thy Christ, Mary. 
to do that which thy hand and counsel hath before ordained for them to di 

A. 1). 
Here began the lord chancellor to read the excommunication. And ^^''^- 


in the excommunication, when he came to the name of John Brad- The 
ford, laicus (layman), '' Why," quoth he, " art thou no priest ?" th"Tu'rIe. 

Brad. .• — " No, nor ever was, either priest, either beneficed, either married, 
cither any preacher, afore public authority had established religion, or preacher 
after public authority had altered religion ; and yet I am thus handled at your 
hands ; but God I doubt not will give his blessing where you curse." 

And SO he fell down on his knees, and heartily thanked God that 
he counted him worthy to suiFer for his name's sake. And so, pray- 
ing God to give him repentance, and a good mind, after the excom- 
munication was read, he was delivered to the sheriff of London, and Bradford 
so had to the Clink, and afterwards to the Compter in the Poultry, in fo',')'"'^^'* 
the same city of London ; this being then purposed of his murderers, sheriir, 
that he should be delivered from thence to the earl of Derby, to be to the 
conveyed into Lancashire, and there to be burned in the town of ^*"°p'"'" 
Manchester, where he was bom : but their purpose concerning the 
place was afterward altered, for they burned him in London. 

After the condemnation of master Bradford, which was the last day 
of January, master Bradford, being sent into prison, did there remain 
until the 1st day of July, during all which time, divers other con- 
ferences and conflicts he sustained with sundry adversaries, which re- 
paired unto him in the prison : of whom first bishop Bonner, coming 
to the Compter to degrade Dr. Taylor the 4th day of February, 
entered talk with the said master Bradford, the effect whereof here 


Upon the 4th of February, that is the same day master Rogers 
was burned, Bonner bishop of London came to the Compter in the 
Poultry, to degrade Dr. Taylor, about one of the clock at afternoon. 
But before he spake to master Taylor, he called for John Bradford 
which was prisoner there, whom when he saw, he put off his cap, and 
gave him his hand, saying : 

Bonner: — "Because I perceive that ye are desirous to confer with some 
learned men, therefore I have brought master archdeacon Hari)sfield to you. 
And I tell you, you do like a wise man. But I pray you go roundly to work, 
for the time is but short." 

Brad. ;— " My lord, as roundly as I can I will go to work with you : I never Bradford 
desired to confer with any man, nor yet do. Howbeit if ye will have one to ^'^ll^^^^,^ 
talk with me, I am ready." with 

Bonner : — " What," quoth the bishop in a fume to the keeper, " did you not none, yet 
tell me that this man desired conference ?" \l^^^' '" 

Keeper : — " No, my lord, I told you that he would not refuse to confer with 
any ; but I did not say that it is his desire." 

Bonner .— " Well, master Bradford, you are well beloved, I pray you con- 
sider yourself, and refuse not charity when it is offered." 

Brad. : — " Indeed, my lord, this is small charity, to condemn a man as you 
have condemned me, which never brake your laws. In Turkey a man may have 


Mary, chavity ; but in England I could not yet find it. I was condemned for my 

• faith, so soon as I uttered it at your requests, before I had committed any thing 

A. D. against the laws. And as for conference, I am not afraid to talk with whom ye 
will. But to say that I desire to confer, that do I not." 

Bonner : — " Well, well." And so he called for master Taylor, and Bradford 
went his way. 



On another day of February, one master Willerton, chaplain of 

the bishop of London, did come to confer with Bradford ; but when 

he perceived that Bradford desired not his coming, and therefore 

wished rather his departing than abiding, " Well, master Bradford," 

quoth he ; " yet I pray you let us confer a little : perchance you may 

do me good, if I can do you none." Upon which words Bradford was 

content, and so they began to talk. Willerton spake much of the 

doctors, the fathers, of the bread in John vi., etc., labouring to prove 

transubstantiation, and that wicked men do receive Christ. 

Willerton But Bradford, on the contrary part, improved his authorities, so 

hl"*^""' that they came to this issue, that Willerton should draw out of the 

Bradfo^id" Scriptures and doctors his reasons, and Bradford would peruse them ; 

to prove ' and if he could not answer them, then he would give place. Like- 

stantia- wisc also should Bradford draw out his reasons out of the Scriptures 

''""■ and doctors, to which Willerton should answer if he could : and so 

for that day they departed. 

The next day following in the morning, Willerton sent half a sheet 

of paper written on both sides, containing no reasons how he gathered 

his doctrine, but only bare sentences ; Panis quem ego dabo, etc. 

The bread which I will give is my flesh : and the places in Matt, xxvi., 

Mark xiv., Luke xxii., and Cor. x. and xi., with some sentences of 

the doctors, all which made as much against him as with him. 

Willerton In the aftcmoon he came himself, and there they had a long talk 

asain to to little effect. At the length Willerton began to talk of the church, 

Bradford, saying, that " Bradford swerved from the church." 

Brad. : — " No, that I do not, but ye do. For the church is Christ's spouse, 
and Christ's obedient spouse, which your church is not, which robbeth the people 
of the Lord's cup, and of service in the English tongue." 

Willerton : — " Why? It is not profitable to have the service in English; for 
it is written, ' Labia sacerdotis custodiunt legem ;' ' The lips of the priest should 
keep the law, and out of his mouth man must look for knowledge.' " 

Brad.: — "Should not the people, then, have the Scriptures? Wherefore 
serveth this saying of Christ, ' Search the Scriptures.' " 

Will. : — " This was not spoken to the people, but to the scribes and learned 

Brad.: — " Then the people must not have the Scriptures?" 
Argu- ?f«7/. ;— " No, for it is written, * Erunt docti a Deo;' 'They shall be all 

"oo- taught of God.'" 
jiirniiist Brad. : — " And must we learn all at the priests?" 

not have Jf'Ul, ; — « Yea." 

tuK^!"'' i?ra</. .•— " Then I sec you would bring the people to hang up Christ, and let 
Barabbas go; as the priests did then persuade the people." 

At which words master Willerton was so offended, that he had no 
1 list to talk any more. In the end Bradford gave him the reasons 


which he had gathered against transubstantiation, and pravcd him to Mary. 
frame his into the fonn of reasons, " and then,"" quoth Bradford, ~7~T7~ 
" I will answer them." ' jrjr,^' 

" Well, I will do so," said Willerton, " but first I will answer — ^^^ 
yours." The which thing until this day he hath not done. 

On the 12th of February, there came one of the earl of Dcrl)y*s Thctari 
servants to Bradford, saying, " INIy lord hath sent me to you : he t^^a.* 
willeth you to tender yourself, and he will be a good lord to vou." 

Brad. : — " I thank his lordship for liis good will towards me : but in this 
case I cannot tender myself more than God's honour." 

Servant : — " Ah, master Bradford ! consider your mother, sisters, friends, 
kinsfolk, and country; what a great discomfort will it be unto them to see you 
die as a heretic !" 

Brad. : — " I have learned to forsake father, mother, brother, sister, friend, 
and all that ever I have, yea, even mine own self; for else I cannot be Christ's 

Serv. : — " If my lord should obtain for you that ye might depart the realm, 
would you not be content to be at the queen's appointment, where she would 
appoint you beyond the sea." 

Brad. : — " No, I had rather be burned in England, than be burned beyond 
the seas. For I know that if she should send me to Paris, Louvain, or some 
such place, forthwith they woidd bum me." 


Upon the 14th of February, Percival Creswcll, an old acquaintance 
of Bradford's, came to him, bringing with him a kinsman of master 
Fecknam's, who after many words, said, 

Creswell : — " I pray you let me make labour for you." 

Bradford : — " You may do what ye will." 

Cres. : — " But tell me what suit I should make for you." Creswell 

Brad. : — " Forsooth that ye will do, do it not at my request, for I desire ln'^,Ki*i!*e 
nothing at your hands. If the queen will give me life, I will thank her. If suit loV 
she will banish me, I will thank her. If she will burn me, I will thank her. l*'^'""'"''!- 
If she will condemn me to perpetual prisonment, I will thank her." 

Hereupon Creswcll went away, and about eleven of the clock he and Mon's 
the other man came again, and brought a book of More's making, IJ"ou,,i,t. 
desiring Bradford to read it over. Bradford taking the book, said : 

Brad. : — " Good Percival, I am settled for being moved in this article." 

Cres. ;— " Oh! if ever ye loved me, do one thing for me." 

Brad. ;— " What is it ?" 

Cres. : — " Desire and name what learned man or men yc will have to come 
imto you : my lord of York, my lord of Lincoln, my lord of Bath, and others 
will gladly come unto you." 

Brad. : — " No, never will I desire them, or any other, to come to confer with 
me ; for I am as certain of my doctrine as I am of any thing. But for your 
pleasure, and also that all men may know I am not ashamed to have my faith 
sifted and tried, bring whom ye will, and I will talk with them." 


So they went their way. About three of the clock in the after- ^ 

noon, master doctor Harding, who was the bishop of Lincoln's chujv J',',"i','r'''i. 
lain, came to Bradford, and after a great and solemn protestation, fore- 
showing how that he had prayed to God, before he camo, to turn his 
talk to Bradford's good, he began to tell of the good opinion he had 



^"''y- of Bradford ; and spent tlie time in such tattling, so that their talk 
A.D. ^^^ to little purpose, save that Bradford prayed him to consider 
1555. from whence he was fallen, and not to follow the world, nor to love 
it ; for the love of God is not where the world is. But Harding 
counted Bradford in a damnable estate, as one being out of the 
church ; and therefore Avilled him to take heed of his soul, and not 
to die in such an opinion. 

" What, master Harding!" quoth Bradford, " I have heard you, with these 
ears, maintain this that I stand in," 

_ Harding : — " I grant that I have taught that the doctrine of transubstan- 
tiatiou was a subtle doctrine ; but otherwise I never taught it." 

agains"^ A^^^ ^° ^^^' inveighing against marriages of priests, and namely 
Peter against Peter Martyr, Martin Bucer, Luther, and such, which for 
breaking their vows were justly given up into heresies (as he said). 
Bradford seeing him altogether given up to popery, after admonish- 
ment thereof, bade him farewell. 

and Lu- 

of all 
men, but 
the way 
to felicity 


On the 25th of February, Percival Creswell came with master 
Harpsfield, archdeacon of London, and a servant waiting upon him. 
After formal salutations, he made a long oration, of which this is a 
short sum ; that all men, even the infidels, Turks, Jews, anabaptists, 
and libertines, desire felicity as well as the Christians, and how that 
every one thinketh they shall attain to it by their religion. To which 
all men. Bradford answered briefly, that he spake not far amiss. 

Harpsfield : — " But the way thither, is not all alike : for the infidels by 
Jupiter and Juno, the Turk by his Alcoran, the Jew by his Talmud, do believe 
to come to heaven. For so may I speak of such as believe the immortality 
of the soul." 

Brad. : — " You speak truly." 

Harps. : — " Well, then here is the matter ; to know the way to this heaven." 
The true Brad. : — " We may not invent any manner of ways. There is but one way, 
feUcity. ^^^ *^'^* ^^ "^^^^^ Christ, as he himself doth witness : ' I am the way.' " 

Harps. : — " It is true that you say, and false also. I suppose that you mean 
by Christ, believing in Christ." 

Brad. : — " I have learned to discern betwixt faith and Christ. Albeit I 
confess, that whoso believeth in Christ, the same shall be saved." 

Harps. : — " No, not all that believe in Christ ; for some shall say, * Lord, 
Lord, have we not cast out devils T etc. But Christ will answer in the day of 
judgment to these, ' Depart from me, I know you not.' " 

Brad. : — " You must make difference betwixt believing, and saying, I be- 
lieve :i as for example, if one should say and swear he loveth you, for all his 
saying, ye will not believe him when you see he goeth about to utter and do all 
the evil against you that he can." 

Harps. : — •' Well, this is not much material. There is but one way, Christ.* 
How come we to know him ? Where shall we seek to find him ?" 

Brad. : — " Forsooth, we must seek him by his word, and in his word, and 
after his word." 

Harps. . — " Very good : but tell me now how first we came into the company 
of them that could tell us this, but by baptism?" 
Baptism Brad. : — " Baptism is the sacrament, by the which outwardly we are engrafted 
an out- jjjjjj Christ : I say outwardly, because I dare not exclude from Christ all that die 

ward seal 

(I) Note the difference between believing, and saying, I believe. 

\'l) The way to come to Christ, is by the word: for by the word coraeth faith, hy faith we come * 


without baptism. I will not tie God, where he is not bound. Some infants die, Mary. 
wliose parents desire baptism for them, and cannot have it." • .. 

Jfarps. .— " To those we may think perchance that God will show mercy." /!•/;• 

j]rad. :— " Yea, the children whose parents do contemn baptism will not I '^'^'^- 
condemn, because the child shall not bear the father's offence." The 

Jlarps. ;— " Well, we agree, that by baptism then wc are brought, and, as a ^'^^r^ch ii 
man would say, begotten to Christ : for Christ is our Father, and the church ther"'"" 
his spouse is our mother. As all men naturally have Adam for their father, 
and Eve for their mother; so all spiritual men have Christ for their Father, and 
the church for their mother : and as Eve was taken out of Adam's side, so was 
the church taken out of Christ's side ; whercout flowed blood, for the satisfaction 
and purgation of our sins." 

Brad. : — " All this is truly spoken." 

I/arvs ■ — " Now then, tell me whether this church of Christ hath not been Descent 

1 \„ of the 

always f ^^ church. 

Brad. : — " Yea, since the creation of man, and shall be for ever.' 
Harps. : — " Very good. But yet tell me whether this church is a visible 
church, or no?" 

Brad. .—" It is no otherwise visible, than Christ was here on earth ; that is, The ^^ ^^ 
by no exterior pomp or show that setteth her forth commonly ; and therefore to l^^\l^ ° 
see her we must put on such eyes, as good men put on to see and know Christ visihle, 
when he walked here on earth : for as Eve was of the same substance that ^^^^l^^" 
Adam was of, so was the church of the same substance that Christ was of, ^a^. 
* Flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bones;' as Paul saith, Ephes. v. Look, 
therefore, how Christ was visibly known to be Christ when he was on earth, that 
is, by considering him after the word of God, so is the church known." 

//«r/w. .- — " I do not come to reason at this present, and therefore I will go Multi- 
on forward. Is not this church a multitude ?" \ht\"rL 

Brad. ; — " Yes, that it is. Howbeit, ' Latet anguis in hcrba,' as the proverb ^^.^ ,„ 
is; for in your question is a subtlety. What visible multiHide was there in knowtho 
El'ias's time, or when Moses was on the mount, Aaron and all Israel worship- church, 
ping the calf?" 

Harps. : — " Ye divert from the matter." 

Brad. .— " No, nothing at all. For I do prevent you, knowing well where Harps 
about you go. And therefore fewer words might well serve, if that you so ^f^', PJ^J, 
would." , ,. , . h>'*P"^- 

Harps. :—" Well, I perceive you have knowledge, and by a little perceive pose. 
I the more. Tell me yet more, whether this multitude have not the ministry 
or preaching of God's w'ord?" 

Brad. .— " Sir, ye go about the bush. If ye understand preaching for con- 
fessing of the gospel, I will go with you : for else, if you will, you may know 
that persecution often letteth preaching." ' 

ffarjjs. .— " Well, I mean it so. Tell me yet more : hath it not the sacra- 
ments administered?" , . . . r i. 

Brad. .•— -" It hath the sacraments, howbeit the administration of them is 
often letted.2 But I will put you from your purpose, because I see where about 
you go. If heretics have baptism, and do baptize, as they did in St. Cyprian s 
time, you know this baptism is baptism, and not to be reiterate." 

This, Bradford did speak, that the standcrs-by might see, that 
though the papists' church have baptism which we have received of 
them, yet therefore it is not the true church, neither need wc to be 
baptized again. 

Harps. .—"You go far from the matter, and I perceive you have more errors 
than one." , .„ . 

Brad. :—" So you say ; but that is not enough tdl you prove them. 
Harps. .— " Well, this church is a multitude.' Hath it not the preachmg ol 
(1) Preaching of the gospel goeth ever with the church, unless it be interrupted sometimes by 

^'m Administration of sacraments is one note, but not the '^''f «V°/ 'i'«,,\;"';^^"'^'Vema?n^'' X 
such a note, but that it may often be letted by persecution and yet the 'f"^,^"'^^ ',•"''/'"•„ .[^^ 
pope's church hath baptism and sacraments admm.stered: ergo, the pope s church is the true 
church The ar<niment failrth " A causa non suniciente, vel non causa, ut causa. _ 

'',37 a popish dfr.rction of .he church to be a mul.lrude, having preaching of the gospel, mm.- 
stration of the sacraments, power of jurisdiction, and succession of bishops. 




Mary, the gospel, and the ministration of the sacraments ? And, yet more, hath it not 
the power of jurisdiction?" 

Brad. .- — " What jm-isdiction is exercised in persecution and affliction ?" 
Harps. : — " I mean by jurisdiction, admonishing one another, and so forth." 
Brad. : — " Well, go to ; what then ?" 
Harps. : — " It hath also succession of bishops." * 

And here Harpsfield made mucli ado to prove that this Avas an 
essential point. 

Brad. : — " You say as you would have it ; for if this part fail you, all the 
church that you go about to set up, will fall down. You shall not find in all 
the Scripture this your essential part of succession of bishops. In Christ's 
church antichrist will sit. And Peter telleth us, as it went in the old church, 
afore Christ's coming, so will it be in the new church since Christ's coming : 
that is, as there were false prophets, and such as bear rule were adversaries to 
tlie true prophets, so shall there be (saith he) false teachers, even of such as are 
bishops, and bear rule amongst the people." 

Harps.: — "You go always out of the matter: but 1 will prove further the 
succession of bishops." 
Brad.: — " Do so." 
Apostles Harps. : — " Tell me, were not the apostles bishops ?" 

bishops, Brad. : — " No, except you will make a new definition of a bishop : that is, 
be sundry give liim no certain place." 

offices. Harps. : — " Indeed, the apostles' office was not the bishops' office, for it 

was universal; but yet Christ instituted bishops in his clmrch, as Paul saith, 
' he hath given pastors, prophets,' etc., so that I trow it be proved by the Scrip- 
tures the succession of bishops to be an essential point." 

Brad. : — " The ministry of God's word and ministers be an essential point. 
But to translate this to the bishops and their succession, is a plain subtlety : 
and therefore that it may be plain, I will ask you a question. Tell me, whether 
that the Scripture knew any difference between bishops and ministers, which 
ye called priests?" « 
Harps. : — " No." 

Brad. .- — " Well, then, go on forwards, and let us see what ye shall get now 

by the succession of bishops : that is, of ministers, which cannot be understood 

of such bishops as minister not, but lord it." 

The as- Harps. : — " I perceive that you are far out of the way. By your doctrine 

descen" of ^^^ ^^^ never show in your church, a multitude which ministereth God's word 

succes- and his sacraments, which hath jurisdiction and succession of bishojis, which 

sioii of hath from time to time believed as you believe, beginning now, and so going 

pilests. upwards, as I will do of our doctrine ; and therefore are ye out of the church, 

and so cannot be saved. Perchance you will bring me downwards a show to 

blear people's eyes ; but to go upwards, that you can never do, and this is the 

true trial." 

Brad. : — " Ye must and will, I am assured, give me leave to follow the 
Scriptures, and examples of good men." 
Harjjs. : — *' Yea." 

Brad. : — " Well, then, Stephen was accused and condemned, as I am, that 
he had taught new and false doctrine, before the fathers of the church then, as 
they were taken. Stephen for his purgation improveth' their accusation. But 
how ? doth he it by going upwards? No, but by coming downwards, beginning 
at Abraham, and continuing still till Esaias's time, and the people's captivitj'. 
From whence he maketh a great leap until the time he was in, which was 
(I think) upon four hundred years, and called them by their right names, 
hell-hounds, rather than heaven-hounds. On this sort will I prove my faith, 
and that can you never do yours." 

(1) Succession of bishops is no essential part of the church, but rather "accidens commune :" 
■which being interrupted, yet the church may stand as it did both before Christ's coming, and after 
at the coming of antichrist. 

(2) The ministry of God's word and ministers, be an essential point of the true church ; but not 
the local succession of ministers in one certain place. 

(3) " Improveth," i. e. refutes. See Tyndale's works, Edit. Russel, Vol. i. p, 503; Nare's Glos- 
sary.— Eo. 


Harps.: — " Yea sir, if we did know that you had the Holy Ghost, then Mary. 

could we believe vou." • 


Here Bradford would have answered, that Steplicn's enemies would 1555. 
not believe he had the Holy Ghost, and therefore they did as they 
did : but, as he was in speaking, master Har))sfield rose up ; and the 
keeper and others that stood by began to talk gently, praying Brad- 
ford to take heed to what master archdeacon spake, Avho still said, 
that Bradford was out of the church.' 

Brad. : — " Sir, I am most certain tliat I am in Christ's church, and I can 
show a demonstration of my religion from time to time continually. — God our nrad- 
I'atiier, for the name and blood of his Christ, be merciful unto us, and unto all '""f'l's 
his people, and deliver them from false teachers and blind guides, through P'"'"-^- 
whom, alas, I fear me, much hurt will come to this realm of England. God 
our Father bless us, and keep us in his truth and poor church for ever. Amen ! " 

Then the archdeacon departed, saying, that he would come again 
the next morning. 


Upon the 16th of February in the morning, the archdeacon, and 
the other two with him, came again, and, after a few by-words 
spoken, they sat down. 

Master archdeacon Harpsfield began a very long oration, first Harps- 
repeating what they had said, and how far they had gone overnight ; ^^^^^ 
and therewith did begin to prove upwards succession of bishops here provciii 
in England for eight hundred years : in France at Lyons for twelve church hy 
hundred years : in Spain at Seville for eight hundred years : in Italy sloTof 
at Milan for twelve hundred years, labouring by this to prove his ''^su^^^ 
clmrch. He used also succession of bishops in the East church for the 
more confirmation of his words, and so concluded with an exhortation 
and an interrogation : the exhortation, that Bradford would obey this 
church ; the interrogation, whether Bradford could show any such 
succession for the demonstration of his church (for so he called it) 
which followed. Unto this his long oration, Bradford made this 
short answer : 

Brad.: — " My memory is evil, so that I cannot answer particularly your Brad- 
oration. Therefore I will generally do it, thinking because your oration is g"^,"',^^,^ 
rather to persuade than to prove, that a small answer will serve. If Christ or ^^^,^\^.,^^^ 
his apostles, being here on earth, had been required by the prelates of the church dcscii.tof 
then, to have made a demonstration of that church by succession of such high '"!^"'^;'[" 
priests as had approved the doctrine which he taught, 1 think that Christ would "oVthu' 
have done as I do : that is, have alleged that which upholdeth the church, even true 
the verity, the word of God taught and believed, not by the high priests, which {',',',',",'jIV 
of long time had persecuted it, but by the prophets and other good simple men truth of 
which perchance were counted for heretics of the church : which church was Godjs 
not tied to succession, but to the word of God. And this to think St. Peter ,",aketh 
giveth me occasion, when he saith, that as it went in the church before Christ's true mi- 
coming, so shall it go in the church after his coming : but then the pillars of the "'"'"s. 
church were persecutors of the church ; therefore the like we must look for now." 

Harps. : — " I can gather and prove succession in Jerusalem of the high 
priests from Aaron's time." 

(I) The papists cliallcnpc to tlicni the true church, even as the mother of the dead child dial- 
Iciiged the living child from the true molhur 1 Kings iii. 



The Jews 
the law, 
as the 
do the 
son be- 
the old 
and our 

Free to 
or not to 
years af- 
ter Christ. 

Christ not 
really in 
the sacra- 
body pre- 
sent to 
the faith 
of the re- 


Brad.: — I grant, but not such succession as allowed the truth."' 

Harps. : — " Why! did they not allow Moses's law?" 

Brad. .- — " Yes, and keep it, as touching the books thereof; as you do the 
Bible, and holy Scriptures. But the true interpretation and meaning of it they 
did cormpt, as you have done and do ; and therefore the persecution which they 
stirred up against the prophets and Christ, was not for the law, but for the inter- 
pretation of it : for they taught as you do now, that we must fetch the interpre- 
tation of the Scriptures at your hands. But to make an end, death I look daily 
for, yea hourly, and I think my time be but very short. Therefore I had 
need to spend as much time with God as I can, whilst I have it, for his help 
and comfort ; and therefore I pray you bear with me, that I do not now parti- 
cularly, and in more words, answer your long talk. If I saw death not so near 
me as it is, I would then weigh every piece of your oration, if you would give 
me the sum of it, and I would answer accordingly ; but because I dare not, nor 
I will not, leave oiF looking and preparing for that which is at hand, I shall 
desire you to hold me excused, because I do as I do ; and heartily thank you 
for your gentle good will. I shall heartily pray God our Father to give you 
the same light and life I do wish to myself." 

And so Bradford began to rise up. But then began master arch- 
deacon to tell him that he was in very perilous case ; and that he was 
sorry to see him so settled. " As for death, whether it be nigh or 
far off, I know not, neither forceth it, so that you did die well." ^ 

Brad.:—" I doubt not in this case but that I shall die well : for as I hope 
and am certain my death shall please the Lord, so I trust I shall die cheerfully, 
to the comfort of his children." 

Harps. : — " But what if you be deceived?" 

Brad. .- — " What if you should say the sun did not shine now ?" — and the 
sun did shine through the window where they sat. 

Harps. : — " Well, I am sorry to see you so secure and careless." 

Brad.: — " Indeed I am more carnally secure and careless than I should be: 
God make me more vigilant. But in this case I cannot be so secure, for I am 
most assured I am in the truth." 

Harps. :—" That are ye not; for you are out of the catholic church." 

Brad. : — " No, though you have excommunicated me out of your church, yet 
am I in the catholic church of Christ, and am, and by God's grace shall be, a 
child, and an obedient child, of it for ever : I hope Christ will have no less care 
for me, than he had for the blind man excommunicated of the synagogue. And 
further, I am sure that the necessary articles of the faith, I mean the twelve 
articles of the Creed, I confess and believe with that which you call the holy 
church, so that even your church hath taken something too much upon her to 
excomiuunicate me for that, which, by the testimony of my lord of Durham in 
the book of the sacrament lately put forth, was free many a hundred years after 
Christ, for us to believe or not believe." 

Harps. : — " What is that?" 

Brad. : — "Transubstantiation." 

Harps. :■ — " Why : ye are not condemned therefore only." 

Brad. : — " For that, and because I deny that wicked men do i-eceive Christ's 

Harps. :—" You agree not with us in the presence, nor in any thing else." 

Brad. : — " How you believe you know : for my part I confess a presence of 
whole Christ, God and man, to the faith of the receiver." 

Harps. : — ■" Nay, you must believe a real presence in the sacrament." 

Brad. : — " In the sacrament? Nay, I will not shut him in, nor tie him to 
it otherwise than faith seeth and perceiveth. If I should include Christ really 
present in the sacrament, or tie him to it otherwise than to the faith of the 
receiver, then the wicked men should receive him, which I do not, nor will by 
God's grace believe." 

Harps. : — " More pity ; but a man may easily perceive, you make no pre- 
sence at all, and therefore you agree not therein with us." 

(1) The true succession of priests, and the succession of true priests, are two things. 

(2) Bold conlidcnpc and hope of God's word and promise, seem strange among them which are 
not exercised In mortific.ition. 


Brad. : — " I confess a presence, and a true presence but to the faith of the Mary. 

What," quoth one that stood by, " of Christ's very body which died for us ?" ^- ^^• 

Brad. : — " Yea, even of whole Christ God and man, to feed the faith of him ^^^^- 
that receiveth it." 

Harps.: — '* Why? This is nothing else but to exclude the omnipotency of 
God,' and all kind of miracle in the sacrament." 

Brad.: — " I do not exclude his omnipotency, but you do it rather; for I 
believe that Christ can accomplish his promise, the substance of bread and 
wine being there, as well as the accidents, which you believe not. When we 
come to the sacrament, we come not to feed our bodies, and therefore we have 
but a little piece of bread ; but we come to feed our souls with Christ by faith, 
which the wicked do want, and therefore they receive nothing but panem 
domini, as Judas did, and not panem dominum, as the other apostles did." 

Harps. : — " The wicked do receive the very body of Christ, but not the grace 
of his body." 

Brad. : — " They receive not the body,'^ for Christ's body is no dead carcase : 
he that receiveth it, receiveth the Spirit, which is not without grace, I trow." 

Harps. : — " Well, you have many eiTors. You count the mass for abomina- 
tion, and yat St. Ambrose said mass;" and so he read, out of a book written, a 
sentence of St. Ambrose to prove it. 

Brad. : — " Why sir? the mass as it is now, was nothing so in St. Ambrose's 
time.3 Was not the most part of the canon made since by Gregory and 
Scholasticus ?" 

Harps. : — " Indeed a great piece of it was made (as ye say) by Gregory : 
but Scholasticus was before St. Ambrose's time." 

Brad. : — " I ween not : howbeit I will not contend. St. Gregory saith, that 
the apostles said mass without the canon, only with the Lord's Prayer." 

Harps. : — " You say true : for the canon is not the greatest part of the mass, 
the greatest part is the sacrifice, elevation, transubstantiation, and adoration." 

Brad. : — " I can away with none of those." 

Harps. : — " No, I think the same: but yet ' hoc facite,' telleth plainly the 
sacrifice of the church." 

Brad. : — " You confound sacrifices, not discerning betwixt the sacrifice of the sacrifice 
church, and for the church. The sacrifice of the church is no propitiatory "[^^^^ 
sacrifice, but a gratulatory sacrifice ; and as for ' hoc facite,' is not referred to sacrifice 
any sacrificing, but to the whole action of taking, eating," etc. for the 

Harps. .— " You speak not learnedly now : for Christ made his supper only =^"^«^"- 
to the twelve apostles, not admitting his mother or anv of the seventy disciples 
to it. Now the apostles do signify the priests."* 

Brad. : — " I think that you speak as you would men should understand it : 
for else you would not keep the cup away from the laity. We have great cause 
to thank you, that you will give us of your bread : for I perceive you order the 
matter so as though Christ had not commanded it to his whole church." 

Then Harpsfield would have proved elevation by a place of Basil.* 

JSrad. .— " I have read the place, which seemeth to make nothing for eleva- 
tion : but be it as it is, this is no time for me to scan the doubtful places of 
the doctors with you. I have been in prison long without books and all neces- 
saries for study, and now death draweth nigh, and I, by your leave, must now 
leave off, to prepare for him." 

Harps. .— " If I could do you good, I would be right glad, either in soul or 
body. For you are in a perilous case both ways." 

Brad. .— " Sir, I thank you for your good will. My case is as it is. I thank 
God it was never so well with me; for death to me sliall be life." 

(1) None denieth omnipotency more than the papists, who say that Christ's body cannot be In 
the sacrament unless the substance of bread be away. . , , . , , „. 

(') Argument: Whoso receive the body of Christ do receive the fruit and grace of life: no 
wicked men do receive the fruit and grace of life. Ergo: No wicked men receive the body of 

(3) Mass in St. Ambrose's time. That is false, for Scholasticus was not before Ambrose's time. 

(4) Note tliis doctrine, good reader. 

(5) Elevation was not brought in indeed bL^fure the time of popi.^ Hononus. 



Creswell: — " It were best for you to desire master archdeacon that he would 
make suit for you, that you might have a time to confer." 
Harps. : — " I will do the best I can : for I pity his case." 
Brad. : — " Sir, I will not desire any body to sue for time for me. I am not 
wavering, neither would I that any body should think I were so. But if you 
have the charity and love you pretend towards me, and thereto do think th?it 
I am in an eiTor, I think the same should move you to do as you would be 
done to. As ye think of me, so do I of you, that you are far out of the way ; 
and I do not only think it, but also am thereof most assured." 

And in this and such like gentle talk they departed. 


The 23d of the same month, the archbishop of York and the 
bishop of Chichester came to the Compter to speak with Bradford. 
When he was come before them, they both, and especially the bishop 
of York, used him very gently : they would have him to sit down, 
and because he would not, they also would not sit. So they all 
stood, and whether he would or not, they would needs he should put 
on, not only his night-cap, but his upper cap also, saying unto him, 
that obedience was better than sacrifice. 

Now thus standing together, my lord of York began to tell Brad- 
ford how that they were not sent to him, but of love and charity 
they came to him : and he, for that acquaintance also which he had 
Avith Bradford, more than the bishop of Chichester had. Then after 
commending Bradford's godly life, he concluded with this question, 
how he was certain of salvation, and of his religion ? After thanks 
for their good will, Bradford answered, " By the word of God — even 
by the Scriptiu-es — I am certain of salvation and religion." 

York : — " Very well said : but how do ye know the word of God and the 
Scriptures, but by the church ?" 

Brad. : — " Indeed, my lord, the church was and is a mean to bring a man 
more speedily to know the Scriptures and the word of God, as was the woman 
of Samaria a mean, that the Samaritans knew Christ: but as when they had 
heard him speak, they said, ' Now we know that he is Christ, not because of thy 
words, but because we ourselves have heard him;' so after we come to the hear- 
ing and reading of the Scriptures showed unto us, and discerned by the church, 
we do believe them, and know them as Christ's sheep — not because the church 
saith, they are the Scriptures, but because they be so; being thereof assured by 
the same Spirit which wrote and spake them." 

York : — " You know, in the apostles' time, at the first, the word was not 
Although Brad. : — " True, if you mean it for some books of the New Testament : but 
aposUes' ^^^^ ^°^ ^^^^ ^^^ Testament Peter telleth us, ' Firmiorem sermonem propheticum 
timecer- habemus,' ' We have a more sure word of prophecy :' not that it is simply so, 
tain books but in respect of the apostles, who, being alive and compassed with infirmity, 
NcwTes- attributed to the word written more firmity, as wherewith no fault could be 
tament found; whereas for the infirmity of their persons men perchance might liave 
writte'i'i"' f"pn<^ some fault at their preaching : albeit in very deed no less obedience and 
yet the' faith ought to have been given to the one, than to the other ; for all proceedeth 
apostles forth of one Spirit of truth." 

^\"d fir- York : — " That place of Peter is not so to be understood of the word written." 

mlorem Brad. : — " Yea sir, that it is, and of none other." 

nenTpro- f^^ichester : — " Yea, indeed master Bradford doth tell you truly in that 
phetl- point." 

cum." York: — " Well, you know that IrenaDus and others do magnify much, and 

allege the church against the heretics, and not the Scrii)ture." 



Brad. : — "True, for they had to do with such heretics as did deny the Scrip- 
tures, and yet did magnify the apostles; so that they wore enforced to use the 
authority of those churches wherein the apostles had taught, and which had \P/ 
still retained the same doctrine." \5:)r>. 

Chick. : — " You speak the very truth ; for the heretics did refuse all Scrip- The au- 
tures, except it were a piece of Luke's gospel." ttiority of 

Brad. : — " Then the alleging of the church cannot be principally used against cimrch 
me, which am so far from denying of the Scriptures, that I appeal unto them aiicK'td 
utterly, as to the only judge." ^«^;';?|^ 

York: — " A pretty matter, that you will take upon you to judge the church : To judge 
I pray you where hath your church been hitherto ? for the church of Christ is *''« 
catholic and visible hitherto." '^''"''''''• 

Brad. : — " My lord, I do not judge the church, when I discern it from that The 
congregation, and those which be not the church ; and I never denied the '^•"""■h 's 
church to be catholic and visible, although at sometimes it is more visible than and'yill- 
at some." ble, &c. 

Chich. : — " I pray you tell me where the church which allowed your doc- 
trine, was, these four hundred ye.irs?" 

Brad. : — I will tell you, my lord, or rather you shall tell yourself, if you will 
tell me this one thing : where the church was in Elias's time, when Elias said, 
that he was left alone?" 

Chich. : — " That is no answer." 

Brad. : — " I am sorry that you say so : but this will I tell your lordship, The true 
that if you had the same eyes wherewith a man might have espied the church «^'.>vchis 
then, you would not say it were no answer. The fault why the church is not VnA ever 
seen of you, is not because the church is not visible, but because your eyes are hath 
not clear enough to see it." ^ew^r' *"" 

Chich. : — " You are much deceived in making this collation betwixt the manhiith 
church then and now." "»' *'>V^ 

Yorf{ : — " Very well spoken, my lord ; for Christ said, ' Edificabo ecclesiam,' " ^^^ "' 
' I will build my church ;' and not ' I do, or have built it ;' but, ' I will build it.' " 

Brad. : — " My lords, Peter teacheth me to make this collation, saying, as in The 
the people there were false prophets, which were most in estimation afore ^ishops 
Christ's coming, so shall there he false teachers amongst the people after Christ's anlncon- 
coming ; and very many shall follow them. And as for your future tense, I venience. 
hope your grace will not thereby conclude Christ's church not to have been 
before, but rather that there is no building in the church but by Christ's work 
only : for Paul and Apollos be but waterers." 

Chich. : — " In good faith I am sorry to see you so light in judging the 

York : — " He taketh upon him, as they all do, to judge the church. A man 
shall never come to certainty that doth as they do." 

Brad. : — " My lords, I speak simply what I think, and desire reason to answer Bradford 
my objections. Your affections and sorrows cannot be my rules. If that you fondemn- 
consider tlie order and case of my condemnation, I cannot think but that it outlust' 
should something move your honours. You know it well enough (for you heard cause, but 
it), no matter was laid against me, but what was gathered upon mine own con- ^j^J^cdf^ 
fession. Because I did deny transubstantiation, and the wicked to receive his judj;- 
Christ's body in the sacrament, therefore I was condemned and excommuni- ""ent 
cated, but not of the church, although the pillars of the church (as they be hh""'"' 
taken) did it." 

Chich. : — " No; I heard say the cause of your imprisonment was, for that 
you exhorted the people to take the sword in the one hand, and the mattock 
in the other." 

Brad. : — " My lord, I never meant any such thing, nor spake any thing in False sur- 
that sort." ""'"'■ 

York : — " Yea, and you behaved yourself before the council so stoutly at the 
first, that you would defend the religion then ; and therefore worthily were you 

Brad. : — " Your grace did hear me answer my lord chancellor to that point. 
But put case I had been so stout as they and your grace make it : were not the 
laws of tlie realm on my side then? Wherefore unjustly was I prisoned : only 
that which my lord chancellor propounded, was my confession of Christ's 


Mary, truth against transubstantiation, and of that which the wicked do receive, as 

. y^ I said." 

, ,",k' York : — " You deny the presence." 

^^^^' Brad. : — " I do not, to the faith of the worthy receivers." 
The pre- York : — " Why ! what is that to say other than that Christ Heth not on the 

sencepf altar?" 

bodTto Brad. : — " My lord, I beheve no such presence." 

the faith Chick. : — " It seemeth that you have not read Chrysostome, for he proveth it." 
worthy Brad. : — " Hitherto I have been kept well enough without books : howbeit 

receiver, this I do remember of Chrysostome, that he saith, that Christ lieth upon the 

H>-per- altar, as the seraphim with their tongs touch our lips with the coals of the altar 

boiical jjj heaven, which is a hyperbolical locution, of which you know Chrysostome is 

phrase of /> n >> 

Chrysos- lUl'- 

tome. York: — " It is evident that you are too far gone : but let us come then to the 

Bradford church, out of the which ye are excommunicate." 

munica- Brad. : — " I am not excommunicate out of Christ's church, my lord, although 

ted with they which seem to be in the church, and of the church, have excommunicated 

biind"""^ me, as the poor blind man was (John ix.) ; I am sure Christ receiveth me." 
man. York : — " You do deceive yourself." 

Here, after much talk of excommunication, at length Bradford 

" Assuredly as I think you did well to depart from the Romish church, so I 
think ye have done wickedly to couple yourselves to it again ; for you can never 
prove it, which you call the mother church, to be Christ's church." 

Chick. : — " Ah, master Bradford ! you were but a child when this matter 
began. I was a young man, and then coming from the university, I went 
with the world : but, I tell you, it was always against my conscience." 
The pope Brad. : — " I was but a child then, howbeit, as I told you, I think you have 
proved to done evil : for ye are come, and have brought others, to that wicked man which 
Christ by sitteth in the temple of God, that is, in the church ; for it cannot be understood 
Scripture, of Mahomet, or any out of the church, but of such as bear rule in the church." 
York : — " See how you build your faith upon such places of Scripture as are 
most obscure, to deceive yourself, as though ye were in the church, where you 
are not." 
Transub- Brad. : — " Well, my lord, though I might by fruits judge of you and others, 
stantia- ygt ^[\\ J jjot utterly exclude you out of the church. And if I were in your case, 
I would not condemn him utterly that is of my faith in the sacrament ; know- 
ing as you know, that at the least eight hundred years after Christ, as my lord 
of Durham writeth, it was free to believe or not to believe transubstantiation." 

York : — " This is a toy that you have found out of your own brain ; as though 
a man not believing as the church doth (that is, transubstantiation), were of the 

Chick. : — " He is a heretic, and so none of the church, that doth hold any 
doctrine against the definition of the church ; as a man to hold against tran- 
substantiation.' Cyprian was no heretic, though he believed re-baptizing of 
them which were baptized of heretics, because he held it before the church had 
defined it ; whereas if he had holden it after, then had he been a heretic." 

Brad. : — " Oh, my lord ! will ye cJondemn to the devil any man that believeth 
truly the twelve articles of the faith (wherein I take the unity of Christ's church 
to consist), although in some points he believe not the definition of that which 
ye call the church ? I doubt not but that he which holdeth firmly the articles 
of our belief, though in other things he dissent from your definitions, yet he 
shall be saved." . 

" Yea," said both the bishops (York and Chichester), "tnis is your divinity." 

Brad.: — " No, it is Paul's; who saith, that if they hold the foundation, 

Christ, though they build upon him straw and stubble, yet they shall be saved." 

York: — " Lord God! how you delight to lean to so hard and dark places of 

the Scriptures." 

Chick. : — " I will show you how that Luther did excommunicate Zuinglius 
for this matter :" and so he read a place of Luther making for his piupose. 

(1) Note how these l)ishops themselves do grant that the time was, when transubstantiation was 
not detiiicd by tlie church : Tonstal saitli, tliat it was more llian ciglit liuiidrcd years alter Clirisl. 


Brad. : — " My lord ; what Luther writeth, as you much pass not, no more do Mary. 
I in this case. My faith is not builded on Lutlier, Zuinglius, or G"2colanipadius, 

in this point : and indeed to tell you truly, I never read any of their works in •^- la- 
this matter. As for them, I do think assuredly that they were, and are, God's ^'>^^- 
children, and saints with him." lJradior<i 

York: — " Well, you are out of the communion of the church." tiangetli 

Brad.: — " I am not; for it consisteth and is in faith." Luther 

York : — " Lo, how you make your church invisible ; for you would have the cic. ami 
communion of it to consist in faith." >^' '"^ •"" 

Brad.: — " For to have communion with the church needeth no visibleness of ',i,'e„'/ 
it ; for communion consisteth, as I said, in faith, and not in exterior ceremonies, Rooanun. 
as appeareth both by Paul, who would have one faith, and by Irenaeus to Victor, lommu- 
for the observation of Easter ; saying that disagreeing of fasting should not "^g" "' 
break the agreeing of faith." church. 

Chick. : — " The same place hath often even wounded my conscience, because 
we dissevered ourselves from the see of Rome." 

Brad.: — " Well, God forgive you; for you have done evil to bring England 
thither again." 

Here my lord of York took a book of paper of common places, 
and read a piece of St. Augustine 'Contra epistolam Fundamenti,'' how 
tliat there were many things that did hold St. Augustine in the bosom 
of the church : consent of people and nations ; authority confirmed 
with miracles, nourished with hope, increased with charity, established 
with antiquity : " besides this, there holdeth me in the church," said 
Augustine, " the succession of priests from Peter's seat until this 
present bishop. Last of all, the very name of catholic doth hold me," 
etc. " Lo," quoth he, " how say you to this of St. Augustine ? Paint 
me out your church thus." 

Brad. : — " My lord, these words of St. Augustine make as much for me as 
for you : although I might answer, that all this, if they had been so firm as you 
make them, might have been alleged against Christ and his apostles : for there 
was the law and the ceremonies consented on by the whole people, confirmed 
vfith miracles, antiquity, and continual succession of bishops from Aaron's 
time until that present." 

Chick. : — " In good faith, master Bradford, you make too much of the state 
of the church before Christ's coming." 

Brad. : — " Therein I do but as Peter teacheth, 2 Pet. ii., and Paul very 
often. You would gladly have your church here very glorious, and as a most 
pleasant lady. But as Christ saith, ' Beatus est quicunque non fuerit offensus 
per me ; ' so may his church say, ' Blessed are they that are not offended at 
me.' " 

York : — " Yea, you think that none is of the church, but such as suffer 

Brad. : — " What I think, God knoweth ; I pray your grace judge me by my The 
words and speaking, and mark what Paul saith, ' Omnes qui,' etc., ' All that ^J,'",'',^,',',, 
will live godly in Christ Jesus must suffer persecution.' Sometimes Christ's [y""'t'' " 
church hath rest here ; but commonly it is not so, and specially towards the end Rlorious 
her form will be more unseemly." worhil^iiiit 

York : — " But what say you to St. Augustine ? where is your church that poor ami 
hath the consent of people and nations ? " j^^J^,^' 

Brad. : — " Even all people and nations that be God's people have consented Consent 
with me, and I with them, in the doctrine of faith." of the 

York ;— " Lo, you go about to shift off all things." Rod'y- 

Brad.:—" No, my lord ; I mean simply, and so speak, God knoweth." 

York: — " St. Augustine doth here talk of succession, even from Peter's seat." Succcs- 

Brad.: — " Yea, that seat then was nothing so much corrupt as it is now." iv,".r.""" 

York : — " Well, you always judge the church." 

Brad. ;— " No, my lord ; Christ's sheep discern Christ's voice, but they judge 
it not; so they discern the church, but judge her not." 

York ;— " Yes, that they do." 



Mary. Brad. : — " No, and it like your grace ; and yet tuU well may one not only 

doubt, but judge also of the Romish church ; for she obeyeth not Christ's voice, 

A. D. as Christ's true church doth." 
1555. York .— " Wherein ? " 
The voice Brad. : — " In Latin service, and robbing the laity of Christ's cup in the 
of Christ, sacrament; and in many other things, in which it committeth most horrible 

Chick. : — " Why, Latin service was in England when the pope was gone." 
Brad. : — " True ; the time was in England when the pope was away, but not 
all popery— as in king Henry's days." 
Latin ser- York : — " Latin service was appointed to be sung and had in the choir, where 
vice de- only were clerici, that is, such as understood Latin ; the people sitting in the 
fended, jjgdy of the church, praying their own private prayers ; and this may well be 
yet seen by making of the chancel and choir so as the people could not come in, 
or hear them." 
Against Brad. : — " Yea, but both in Chrysostome's time, and also in the Latin churcli 
Latin in St.Jerome's time, ' all the church,' saitli he, ' reboat, Amen ;' that is, answereth 
service, ^gain mightily, ' Amen : ' whereby we may see that the prayers were made so, 

that both the people heard them and understood them." 
Thepeo- Chick.: — " Ye are to blame, to say that the church robbeth the people of the 
plerobbed >^ 

Brad. : — " Well, my lord, term it as it please you ; all men know that the 
laity hath none of it." 

Chick. : — " Indeed I would wish the church would define again, that they 
might have it, for my part." 

Brad.: — " If God make it free, who can define to make it bond ?" 
York: — " Well, master Bradford, we leese our labour; for ye seek to put 
away all things which are told you to your good : your church no man can 

Brad.: — " Yes, that ye may well." 
York: — " I pray you whereby?" 
The Brad. : — " Forsooth Chrysostome saitli, ' tantummodo per Scripturas ; ' 

church is ' alonely by the Scriptures:' and this speaketh he very oftentimes, as ye well 
^°°7 know." ^ ^ ^ J ' J 

the Scrip- York : — " Indeed that is of Chrysostome in Opere imperfecto,' which may be 
tures. doubted of. The thing whereby the church may be known best, is succession 
of bishops." 

Brad. : — " No, my lord, Lyra full well writeth upon Matthew, that * The 
church consisteth not in men, by reason either of secular or temporal power ; 
but in men indued with true knowledge, and confession of faith, and of verity.'* 
And in Hilary's time, you know he writeth to Auxentius, that the church did 
rather ' delitescere in cavernis,' than ' eminere in primariis sedibus : ' that is, 
was hidden rather in caves and holes, than did glister and shine in thrones of 

Then came one of their servants and told them, that my lord of 

Durham tarried for them at master York's house ; and this was after 

that they had tarried three hours with Bradford. And after that 

their man was come, they put up their written books of common 

places, and said that they lamented his case : they willed him to read 

oyer a book which did Dr. Crome good. And so, wishing him good 

in words, they went their way, and poor Bradford to his prison. 

The com- After this communication with the bishops ended, within two days 

b"fanL'ir° following came into the Compter two Spanish friars to talk with mas- 

B'^'dVrd ^^^ Bradford, sent (as they said) by the carl of Derby ; of whom the 

one was the king"'s confessor, the other was Alphonsus, who had before 

(1) " Chrys. in opere imperfecto;" Horn. 49, torn. vi. p. 946. Paris, 1S3G. The papal censors 
have, with Be'ilarniine's approbation, foully erased these words, under pretence of their beint; an 
Arian interpolation. Gibbing's Preface (p. 31) to Ueiirint of the Roman Index Exiiurs. (Duiiliii, 

(2) " Ecclesia non consistit in hominibus rationo potestatis secularis .tut eoclesiastic.x, sed in 
hominibus in quibus est notitia vera, et confessio iidui ct vtritutis." 



wliirli their 


A. I). 




written a popisli book against heresies, tlie effect of 
reasoning here likewise followeth. 


On tlie 25th day of February, about eight of the clock in the 
morning, two Spanish friars came to the Compter where Bradford was 
prisoner ; to whom l^radford was called. Then the one friar, which 
was the king's confessor, asked in Latin (for all their talk was in 
Latin) of Bradford, whether he had not seen or heard of one Alphon- 
sus, that had written against heresies ? ' 

Brad. : — " I do not know him." 

Confessor : — " Well, this man [pointing to Alplionsus"] is he. We are come 
to you of love and charity, by the means of tlie earl of Derby, because you 
desired to confer with us." 

Brad. : — " I never desired your coming, nor to confer with you, or any other : 
but, seeing you are come of charity, as you say, I cannot but thank you ; and 
as touching conference, though I desire it not, yet I will not refuse to talk with 
you, if you will." 

Jlp/i. : — " It were requisite that you did pray unto God, that ye might follow 
the direction of God's Spirit, that he would inspire you, so that ye be not addict 
to your own self-will or wit." 

Whereupon Bradford made a prayer, and besouglit God to direct 
all their wills, words, and works, as the wills, words, and works of liis 
children for ever. 

Alph. : — " Yea, you must pray with your heart. For if you speak but with 
tongue only, God will not give you his grace." 

Brad. .• — " Sir, do not judge, lest ye be judged. You have heard my words : 
now charity would have you leave the judgment of the heart to God." 

Alph. : — " You must be as it were a neuter, and not wedded to yourself, but as 
one standing in doubt. Pray and be ready to receive what God sliall inspire ; 
for in vain laboureth our tongue to speak else." 

Brad.: — " Sir, my sentence, if you mean it for religion, must not be in a No man 
doubting or uncertain, as I thank God I am certain in that for which I am con- ?^?'" '*' 
demned : I have no cause to doubt of it, but rather to be most certain of it ; and doubt of 
therefore I pray God to confirm me more in it; for it is his truth. And because ''!'' "''■" 
it is so certain and true that it may abide the light, I dare be bold to have it looked *^"'"" 
on, and confer it with you, or any man ; in respect whereof I am both glad of 
your coming, and thank you for it." 

Alph. : — " What is the matter whereof you were condemned ? We know not." 

Brad.: — " Sir, I have been in prison almost two years: I never transgressed Why 
any of their laws where-for I might justly be prisoned ; and now am I con- BradfnrU 
demned, only because I frankly confessed (whereof I repent not) my faith con- demiu'd. 
cerning the sacrament, when I was demanded in these two points : one, that 
there is no transubstantiation, the other, that the wicked do not receive Christ's 

Alph. : — " Let us look a little on the first. Do you not believe that Christ is 
present really and corporally in the form of bread?" 

Brad. : — " No, I do believe that Christ is present to the faith of the worthy Christ 
receiver, as there is present bread and wine to the senses and outward man : as ^^°^'^ '"■'" 

(1) " Alphonsi a Castro Zamorensis advcrsus omnes luxrcsis lihri xiv. : nunc postremo. ah. auct. 
recognitum et auctum : " Antverpiae, 1568. This was rather a popular work, and was first pub- 
lished at Paris in 1534; an edition which has been valued as containinjj (lib. i. cap. 1) a passaRC 
(imitted in many subsequent editions, relative to the ignorance of someof the Roman pontifls. See 
Walch. Biblioth. Theol. iii. 748: Voght " Catalogus Historico criticus Librorum variorum;" p. Z.ll. 
Francorf. 1793; also Jewell's Reply to Harding's Answer; art. 4, div. 1!). De Cistro attended 
Philip IL as confessor, when his majesty came into England; and he was afterwards employed in 
preaching against the taking away of men's lives for religion ! See vol. vi. p. 704, of this edition ; 
also Burnet, vol. ii. part 1, a.d. 15.^5 ; " Antonio Biblioth. Ilispana Nova," vol. i. p. 1(! ; also Hume's 
History of England, vol. iv. edit. 1792.— Ei>. 

(2) This Alphonsus had written a hook before, in Latin, against heresies. 

X 2 


Mary, for any such presence of including and placing Christ, I believe not, nor dare 

. _^ believe." 
■^* ^- Alph. : — " I am sure you believe Christ's natural body is circumscriptible." 

And here he made much ado of the two natures of Christ, how 
that the one is everywhere, and the other is in his proper pLace ; 
demanding such questions as no wise man would have spent any time 
A Span- about. At length, because the friar had forgotten to conclude, Brad- 
ment!^"' fo^d P^t him in mind of it, and thus then at length he concluded : 
How that because Christ's body was circumscriptible, concerning the 
human nature in heaven, therefore it was so in the bread. 

Brad. : — " How hangeth this together ? Even as if you should say, because 
you are here, ergo, it must needs follow that you are at Rome. For thus you 
reason, — Because Christ's body is in heaven, ergo, it is in the sacrament under 
the form of bread : which no wise man will grant." 

Jllph. ; — " Why ! will you believe nothing but that which is expressly spoken 
in the Scriptures?" 

Brad. : — " Yes, sir, I will believe whatsoever you shall by demonstration out 
of the Scriptures declare unto me." 
Christ is " He is obstinate," quoth Alphonsus to his fellow : and then turning to Brad- 
u'^'Vrgo'|° foi^d' ^aif^' " ^« "ot God able to do it?" 

hedothi't. Brad. : — " Yes, but here the question is of God's will, and not of his power." 
Alph. : — " Why ! doth he not say plainly, ' This is my body?' " 
Brad. : — " Yes, and I deny not but that it is so, to the faith of the worthy 

Jlph. .— " To the faith !— how is that?" 

Brad. : — " Forsooth, sir, as I have no tongue to express it ; so I know ye 
have no ears to hear and understand it. For faith is more than man can utter." 
Alph. : — " But I can tell all that I believe." 

Brad. : — " You beheve not much then; for if you believe the joys of heaven, 
and believe no more thereof than you can tell, you will not yet desire to come 
thither. For as the mind is more capable and receivable than the mouth, so it 
conceiveth more than tongue can express." 
Hoc est Alph. : — " Christ saith, it is his body." 
corpus Brad. : — " And so say I, after a certain manner." 

Alph. : — " After a certain manner? that is, after another manner than it is in 

Brad. : — " St. Augustine' telleth it more plainly, that it is Christ's body after 
the same manner as circumcision was the covenant of God, and the sacrament 
of faith is faith ; or, to make it more plain, as baptism and the water of baptism 
is regeneration." 

Alph:: — " Very well said: baptism and the water thereof is a sacrament of 
God's grace and Spirit in the water cleansing the baptized." . 

Brad. .- — *' No, sir, away with your enclosing : but this I grant, that after the 
same sort Christ's body is in the bread, on which sort the grace and Spirit of 
God is in the water." 

Alph. ;— " In water is God's grace, by signification." 
Brad. : — " So is the body in the bread in the sacrament." 
A jiopish Alph. : — " You are much deceived, in that you make no difference between 
distiiic- the sacraments that be standei's, and the sacraments that are transitory and 
traiuus' passers-by. As for example, the sacrament of Orders, which you deny, though 
' St. Augustine affirm it ; it is a standard, although the ceremony be past. But in 
baptism, so soon as the body is washed, the water ceaseth to be a sacrament." 

Brad.: — " Very good; and so it is in the supper of the Lord: no longer than 
it is in use, is it Christ's sacrament." 

Th> friar Here was this friar in a wonderful rage, and spake so high (as often 

ir.aciiaie. |^^ j^^j ^^^^ bcfore) that the whole house rang again, chafing with 

. om and c/io. He hath a great name of learning, but surely he hath 

(1) Augustinus Epislola ad liunifacium. 


little patience ; for if Bradford had been any thing hot, one house Mary. 
could not have held them. At the length he comelh to this, ^ ^^ 
that Bradford could not find in the Scripture baptism and the Lord's I055. 
supper to bear any similitude to each other. And here he triumphed 
before the conquest, saying, that these men would receive nothmg 
but Scripture, and yet were able to prove nothing by the Scripture. 

Brad. .— " Be patient, and you shall see that by the Scripture I will find 
baptism and the Lord's supper coupled together." ' ^^ 

jlpli, .._<' No, that canst thou never do. Let me see a text of it. 

/^/arf. ;_« Paul sailh ; that as we are baptized into one body, so were we 
« potati in uno spiiitu,' i.e. ' we have drunk of one spirit," meaning the cup in 
the Lord's supper." 

Alph,: — " Paul hath no such words." 

Brad. : — "Yes, that he hath." 

Confessor: — " I trow, he hath not." ^^ 

Brad. :—" Give me a Testament, and I will show you.' 

So a priest that sat by them gave him his Testament, and he The fri.-ir 
showed them the -plain text. Then they looked one upon another. \-^'u,w,. 
In fine the friar found this simple shift, that Paul spake not of the «-;j-'-- 

Brad. ••— " Well, the text is plain enough, and there are of the fathers which 
do so understand the place : for Chrysostomc doth expound it so." 

Alphonsus, who had the Testament in his hand, desirous to sup- 
press this foil, turned the leaves of the book from leaf to leaf, till he 
came to the place (1 Cor. xi.) ; and there he read how that he was 
guilty who made no diflTerence of the Lord's body. 

Brad .— " Yea, but therewith he saith, ' He that eateth of the bread;' 2 call- 
ing it bread still : and that after consecration (as ye call it) as in Cor. x. he 
safth, 'The bread which we break,' etc.3 . . . ^ 

jlph •_" Oh how ignorant are ye, which know not that things, after their Conver- 
conversion, do retain the same names which they had before, as Moses' rod.' ^'/^'^^tio^. 

Here Alphonsus, calling for a Bible, after he had found the place u.rLg 
began to triumph : but Bradford cooled him quickly, saying : \f,;J1^^ 

Brad..— "Sir, there is mention made of the conversion, as well as that the '^l^^"''- 
same appeared to the sense : but here ye cannot find it so. Find me one word 
how the bread is converted, and I will then say, ye bring some matter that 
maketh for you." 

At these words the friar was troubled, and ut length he said, how 
that Bradford hanged on his own sense. 

Brad — " No, that do I not; for I will bring you forth the fathers of the 
church eight hundred years after Christ, to confirm this which I speak. 

Jlp/i ;._« No, you have the church against you. ^^ 

Brad. .— " I have not Christ's church against me. 

Alph. .— " Yes, that you have. What is the church ?^ 

Brad. .—" Christ's wife, the chair and seat ol verity. 

Brad.'^'' Yel^tharshe'is to them that will put on the spectacles of God's 

"%'/: '.!!.' Thi'"iun-ch hath defined the contrary, and that I will prove by 
all the good fathers from Christ's ascension, even for eignt hundred years at the 
least continually." 

(n 1 Cor xii (2) 1 Cor- xi- ,('> ' ^"'^ "• 

(1) The church is visible hut to tlR-ni that have spiritual eyes. 


l^tary . Brad, : — " What will you so prove .' Transubstantiation ?" 
. T. Alph.: — '< Yea, that the bread is turned into Christ's body." 

\ l.J Brad. .- — " You speak more than you can do." 
^•'^■^- Alfh. .— " That do I not." 

Brad. : — "Then will I give place." 
Alph.:—^' Will you believe?" 

Brad.: — '< Belief is God's gift; therefore cannot I promise. But I tell you 
that J will give place ; and I hope I shall believe his truth always, so good is 
he to me in Christ my Saviour." 

pisL'hnlH -.J^^"-^^ """ "'"^ iv/Lii.^i a. j^ioai, iciuit witll AJimuuiU, IIIHI 116 maClC 110 

that tli^ 

act of be- 
lieving is 


The friat 
to abid 

Here the friar found a great fault with Bradford, that he made .. 
difference betwixt " habitus" and " actus ;" as though " actus/' which 
he called credulity, had been in our power. But this he let pass, 
and came again, asking Bradford, if he could prove it as he said' 
whether he would give place .? " Yea, that I will." Then called 
he for paper, pen, and ink, to write ; and then said I, " What and 
if that I prove, by the testimony of the fathers, that continually, for 
eight hundred years after Christ at the least, they did believe' that 
the substance of bread doth remain in the sacrament— what will ve 
do .?" ^ 

Alph. : — " I will give place." ' 

Brad. .— " Then write you here, that you will give place if I so prove ; and 
I will write that I will give place if you so prove : because ve are the ancient, 
ye shall have the pre-eminency." 

Here the friar fumed marvellously, and said, " I came not to learn 
„,, at thee : are not here witnesses ? [meaning the two priests] be not 
fed! they sufficient r But the man was so chafed, that if Bradford had 
not passed over this matter of writing, the friar would have fallen to 
plain scolding. At the length the king's confessor asked Bradford 
what the second question was ? 

Brad. .—" That wicked men receive not Christ's body in the sacrament, as 
bt. Augustine speaketh of Judas, that he received * panem Domini,' but not 
' uanem Dominiim ' " 

Tlie friar 
proved a 

panem Dominum.' 
Jlph. : — " St. Augustine saith not so. 
Brad. .— " Yes, that doth he." 

liar : 

^arunt ^^ ^'^^^ ^^°^^ ^"^ talked no more of that matter. Thus went they 

heat.'"'' away, without bidding Bradford farewell— After they were o-one, 

one of the priests came, and willed Bradford not to be so obstinate. ' 

Brad. .— " Sir, be not you so wavering ; in all the Scripture cannot you find 
me, ' non est panis.' " 

Priest : — " Yes, that I can in five places. 
Brad. : — " Then I will eat your book." 

A priest 
put to a 

So the book was opened, but no place found ; and he went his 

foil. way smiling, " God help us.' 


It followed after this, upon the 21st of March, that by means of 
one of the carl of Derby's men, there came to the Compter to dinner 
one master Collier, once warden of Manchester, and the said servant 
of the earl of Derby, of whom master Bradford learned that Dr. Wes- 
ton, dean of Westminster, would be with him in the afternoon about 



two of the clock. At dinner time — when the said warden did dis- .Vnry. 
commend king Edward, and went about to set forth tlic authority of ^.1). 
the pope, which Bradford witlistood, defending the king's faith, tliat l!y5r>. 
it was catholic, and that the authority of the bishop of Rome's supre- 
macy was usurped, bringing forth the testimony of Gregory, which 
affirmeth the name of supreme head to be a title of the forerunner to xiicname 
antichrist — a woman prisoner was brougiit in ; whereupon the said lua<r^'he 
Bradford took occasion to rise from the table, and so went to his ["'"""' 
prison-chamber to beg of God grace and help therein, continuing 
there still until he was called down to speak with master Weston, 
who Avas then come in. 

Master Bradford then being called down, so soon as he was ^^'•^*'°" 
entered into the hall, master Weston very gently tooJi him by the Bradford. 
hand, and asked how he did; with such other talk. At length he 
willed avoidance of the chamber : so they all went out, save master 
Weston himself, master Collier, the carl of Derby's servant, the 
subdean of Westminster, the keeper, master Claydon, and the parson 
of the church where the Compter is. 

Now then he began with master Bradford, to tell how that he conte 
was often minded to have come unto him, being thereto desired of [wcoV* 
the earl of Derby : "and," quoth he, "after that I perceived by this """"■ 
man, that you could be contented rather to speak with me, than any 
others, I could not but come to do you good, if I can ; for hurt 
you be sure I will not :" 

" Sir," quoth master Bradford, " wlien I perceived by the report of my lord's 
servant, that you did bear me good will : move (as he said) than any other of 
your sort, I told him then, that therefore 1 could be better content and more 
willing to talk with you, if you should come unto me. This did 1 say," quoth 
Bradford : " otherwise I desired not your coming." 

" Well," quoth Weston; " now I am come to talk with you: but before we 
shall enter into any talk, certain principles we must agree upon, which shall 
be this day's work. First," quoth he, " I shall desire you to put away all vain 
glory,* and not hold any thing for the praise of the world." 

Brad. : — " Sir, St. Augustine maketh that indeed a piece of the definition 
of a heretic ; which if I cannot put away clean (for I think there will be a 
spice of it remain in us, as long as this flesh livcth), yet I promise you, by the 
grace of God, that I purpose not to yield to it. God I hope will never suffer 
it to bear rule in them that strive there against, and desire all the dregs of it 
utterly to be driven out of us." , 

West. : — " I am glad to hear you say so, although indeed I think you do not SinRula- 
so much esteem it as others do. / Secondly, I would desire you that you will "'.^• 
put away singularity in your judgment and opinions." 

Brad. . — " Sir, God forbid that I should stick to any singularity or private 
"judgment in God's religion. Hitlierto I have not desired it, neither do, rior 
"mind at any time to hold any other doctrine than is public and catholic; un- 
derstanding catholic as good men do, according to God's word." 

West. .—" Very well ; this is a good day's work. I hope to do you good ; Wcsion 
and therefore now, thirdly, I shall pray you to write me 'capita' of those ^^"^{0,^ 
things whereupon you stand in the sacrament, and to .=;cnd them to me betwixt to write 
this and Wednesday next: until which time, yea, until I come to you again, l>i« faith 
Be assiued that you are without all peril of death. Of my fidelity, I warrant 
you; therefore away with all dubitations," etc. 

Brad. .- — " Sir, 1 will write to you the grounds I lean to in this matter. As 
for death, if it come, welcome be it : this which you require of me, shall be no 
great let to me therein." 

(1) Wcstdii's lessons nrc siuli ns lir did never follow liimxelf. 


^^<i^y- West. : — " You know that St. Augustine was a Manichean, yet was he con- 
j^ £) verted at the length ; so have I good hope of you." 

1555' -B?*a<^. .- — " Sir, because I will not flatter you, I would you should flatly 
'- know, that I am even settled in the religion, wherefore 1 am condemned." 

West. : — " Yea, but if it be not the truth, and you see evident matter to the 
contrary, will you not then give place?" 

Brad. .- — " God forbid, but that I should always give place to the truth." 

West. : — " I would have you to pray so." 

Brad. : — " So I do, and that he will more and more confirm me in it ; as I 
tliank God he hath done and doth." 

West. : — " Yea, but pray with a condition, if you be in it." 

Brad. .- — " No, sir, I cannot pray so, because I am settled and assured of his 

" Well/' quoth Weston, "as the learned bishop answered St. Augustine's 
mother, that though he was obstinate, yet the tears of such a mother could not 
but win her son : so," quoth he, " I hope your prayers [for then Bradford's 
eyes did show that he had wept in prayer] cannot but be heard of God, though 
not as you would, yet as best shall please God. Do ye not," quoth he, " re- 
member the history thereof? " 

" Yea sir," quoth Bradford, " I think it be of St. Ambrose." 

West. : — " No, that it is not." 

And here Weston would have laid a wager, and began to triumph, 
saying to Bradford, " As you are overseen herein, so are you in other 

Brad. : — " Well, sir, I will not contend with you for the name. This (I re- 
member) St. Augustine writeth in his Confessions." 

Bradford After this talk Weston began to tell master Bradford, how the 

fwiy^ people were by him procured to withstand the queen. Whereunto 

witT^'^ d- J^^^df'^J'^i answering again, bade him hang him up as a traitor and 

tioii. a thief, if ever he encouraged any to rebellion : which thing his 

keeper, and others that were there of the priests, affirmed on his 

behalf: so, much talk there was to little purpose at that time. 

Dr. Weston declared moreover how he had saved men going in the 

cart to be hanged, and such like. The end was this, that Bradford 

should send unto him " capita doctrines " of the Supper, and after 

Wednesday he would come unto him again. And thus departed he, 

after that he had drunk to him in beer and wine. I omit here talk 

of Oxford, of books of German writers, of the fear of death, and such 

other talk, which is to no purpose. 


In the meantime, when master Bradford had written his reasons 
and arguments, and had sent them to Dr. Weston, in short space 
after (about the 28th of March), there came to the Compter 
Dr. Pendleton, and with him the foresaid master Collier, sometime 
warden of Manchester, and Stephen Bcch. After salutations master 
Pendleton began to speak to Bradford, that he was sorry for his 
trouble. " And further," quoth Pendleton, " after that I did know 
you could be content to talk with me, I made the more speed, being 
as ready to do thee good, and pleasure thee what I can, as ye would 


Bradford : — " Sir, the manner how I was content to speak witli you, was on Man/. 

this sort : master Bech was often in hand with me whom he should brinj,' unto '■ — 

me, and named you amongst otliers ; and I said, that I liad rather speak witli ••^•1^- 
you, than with any of all the others. Now the cause why 1 so would, I will ^^•'"'■'"'- 
briefly tell you. I remember that once you were (as far as a man might judge) ivii.iiL-t.m 
of the religion tliat I am of at this present, and I remember that you have set onctoftiio 
forth the same earnestly. Gladly therefore would I learn of you what thing it '*,t",'"„^i'j,' 
was that moved your conscience to alter, and gladly would 1 see what thing it Bradford! 
is that you have seen since, which you saw not before." 

Pendleton : — " Master Bradford, I do not know wherefore you are con- 

Brad. : — " Transubstantiation is the cause wherefore I am condemned, and 
because I deny that wicked men do receive Christ's body : wherein I would 
desire you to show me wliat reasons, which before you knew not, did move 
your conscience now to alter. For once (as I said) you were as I am in 

Here master Pendleton, half amazed, began to excuse himself, if 
it would have been, as though lie had not denied fully transubstan- 
tiation indeed, " although I said," quoth lie, " that the word was not 
in Scripture ;" and so he made an endless tale of the thing that 
moved him to alter: "but," said he, " I will gather to you the places 
which moved me, and send you them." And here he desired Brad- 
ford, that he might have a copy of that which he had sent to master 
Weston ; the which Bradford did promise him. 

Some reasoning also they had,^ whether evil men did receive evu mtu 
Christ''s body, Bradford denying, and Pendleton affirming. Brad- "ceivc 
ford said that they received not the spirit : ergo, not the body ; for Christ's 
it is no dead carcase. Hereto Bradford brought also St. Augustine,- hc must 
how Judas received " panem Domini," and not " panem Dominum ;" {^"JlJ.t.j 
and how that he must be in Christ's body, which must receive the t'O'iy "'•it 
body of Christ. But Pendleton went about to put it away with "elve u. 
" idem," and not " ad idem," and how that " in corpore Christi" was 
to be understood of all that be in the visible church with God's elect. 
Bradford denied this to be St. Augustine's meaning ; and said, also, 
that the allegation of " idem," and not " ad idem," could not make 
for that purpose. They talked more of transubstantiation, Pendleton 
bringing forth Cyprian ; " panis natura mutatur," etc. And Brad- Apiac-nr 
ford said, that in that place " natura" did not signify substance. As luJlV-' 
the nature of an herb is not the substance of it, so the bread by'oei"'. 
changed in nature is not to be taken for changed in substance ; for *'""• 
now it is ordained, not for the food of the body simply, but rather 
for the soul. Here also Bradford alleged the sentence of Gclasius. 
Pendleton said, that he was a pope. " Yea," said liradford, " but 
his faith is my iaith in the sacrament, if yc would receive it." 

They reasoned also whether accidentia were " res," or no. If they ivndio- 
be properly " res," said Bradford, then are they substances ; and [™a"th'a" 
if they be substances they are earthly, and then are there earthly ^''l^^^ 
substances in the sacrament, as Irenseus saith, which must needs be 
bread. But Pendleton said that the colour was the earthly thing ; 
and called it " an accidental substance." 

I omit the talk they had of my lord of Canterbury, of Peter Mar- 
tyr's book, of Pendleton's letter laid to Bradford's charge when he 

(ll Pendictoii, belike, would study out the reasons that moved him to alter; for he had none 
ready lo show. (2) In Joh. Kvang tract. 5!», f. 1. — Ed. 


186 Bradford's reasons against transubstantiation. 

Mary, was Condemned, with other talk more of the church ; whether " die 
. pv ecclesise" was spoken of the universal church, or of a particular 
ISfjS. (which Pendleton at the length granted to be spoken of a particular 

church) : also of vain glory, which he willed Bradford to beware of; 

and such like talk. A little before his departing Bradford said thus, 
Bradford " Mastcr doctor, as I said to master Weston the last day, so say I 
heai^'no unto you again, that I am the same man in religion against transub- 
reason stautiatiou Still, which I was when I came into prison ; for hitherto 

of tlie pa- '-. . 'i-p Vj« T • ^ ^ 

pists to I have seen nothmg m any pomt to iniirm me. At which words 

op^nbn '^ Pendleton was something moved, and said that it was no catholic 

tonsub- doctrine. "Yes," quoth Bradford, "and that Avill I prove even by the 

stantia- testimony of the catholic fathers until the Council of Lateran, or 

thereabouts." Thus Pendleton went his way, saying, that he would 

come oftener to Bradford. — God our Father be with us all, and give 

us the spirit of his truth for ever. Amen. 

The same day in the afternoon, about five of the clock, came 
master Weston to Bradford ; and after gentle salutations, he desired 
the company every man to depart ; and so they two sat down. And 
after that he had thanked Bradford for his writing unto him, he 
pulled out of his bosom the same writing which Bradford had sent 
him. The writing is this that followeth. 

Certain Reasons against Transubstantiation, gathered by John 
Bradford, and given to Dr. Weston and others. 

^j^*"?"^' That wliicli is former (saith Tertullian) is true ; that which is later is false, 
tion But the doctrine of transubstantiation is a late doctrine : for it was not defined 

brought generally afore the Council of Lateran, about 1215 years after Christ's coming, 
"'■ under pope Innocent the third of that name. For before that time it was free 

for all men to believe it, or not believe it, as the bishop of Durham' doth witness 
in his book of the Presence of Christ in his Supper lately put forth : ergo, the 
doctrine of transubstantiation is false. 
Tiie rea- 2. That the words of Christ's Supper be figurative, the circumstances of the 
^irovinc Scripture, the analogy or proportion of the sacraments, and the sentences of all 
the words the holy fathers, which were and did write for the space of 1000 years after 
of the Christ's ascension, do teach. Whereupon it followeth, that there is no transub- 
Lord's i i- i- 
Supper to stantiation. 

be (igura- 3. That the Lord gave to his disciples bread, and called it his body, the very 

^^^^- Scriptures do witness. For he gave that, and called it his body, which he took 

in his hands, whereon he gave thanks ; which also he brake, and gave to his 

disciples, that is to say, bread ; as the fathers Irenreus, Tertullian, Origen, 

Cyprian, Epiphanius, Augustine, and all the residue which are of antiquity, do 

affirm. But inasmuch as the substance of bread and wine is another thing 

than the substance of the body and blood of Christ, it plainly appcareth that 

there is no transubstantiation. 

The wine 4. The bread is no more transubstantiate than the wine : but that the wine 

tr-ui°sub ^^ "'°^ transubstantiate, St. Matthew and St. Mark do teach us : for they wit- 

st'autiate: ii^ss, that Christ said that he would drink no more of the fruit of the vine, 

ergo, nei- which was not blood, but wine : and therefore it followeth, that there is no tran- 

brcaci'^'' substantiation. Chrysostome upon Matthew, and St. Cyprian, do affirm this 


5. As the bread in the Lord's Supper is Christ's natural body, so is it his 
mystical body : for the same Spirit that spake of it, " This is my body," did say 
also, " For we many arc one bread, one body," etc. But now it is not the 
mystical body by transubstantiation, and therefore it is not his natural body by 

(1) De Vcritate Corp. et Sang. Christi, in Eudiaristia ; Auct. C. Toiistallo; 4to. Lutct, ir>5i. 
lib. i. p. 46 : according to Fealtey's Supplement to " A Case for the Spectacles, or a Defence of 
' Via Tiita,'" by Sir II. Lyiule. 'l.ond. l(i3S, page 39.— Lu. 


6. The words spoken over the cup in St. Luke and St. Paul, are not so Mary. 

mighty and effectual as to transubstantiate it: for then it, or that which is in 

it, should he transubstantiate into the New Testament. Therefore the words A. D. 
spoken over the bread, are not so mighty as to make transubstantiation. I!i5[). 

7. All that doctrine which agreeth with those churches which be apostolic 
mother churches, or original churches, is to be counted for truth, in that it 
lioldeth that which these churches received of the apostles, the apostles of The doc- 
Christ, Christ of God. But it is manifest, that the doctrine taught at this pre- '!■''"-■ "^ 
sent of the church of Rome, concerning transubstantiation, doth not agree churcli of 
with the apostolic and mother churches in Greece, of Corinth, of Philippi, Hume 
Colosse, Thessalonica, Ephesus, which never taught transubstantiation ; yea it j^*'^'','], 
agreeth not with the doctrine of the church of Home taught in time past. For theGretk, 
Gelasius the pope, setting forth the doctrine which that see did then hold, doth "o"' ^j'"' 
manifestly confute the error of transubstantiation, and rcproveth them of sacri- Roman 
lege, which divide the mystery, and keep from the laity the cup. Therefore churcli. 
the doctrine of transubstantiation agreeth not with the truth. 

This was the writing wliich Weston pulled out of his bosom : and 
yet, before he began to read it, he showed Bradford that he asked of 
his conversation at Cambridge since his last being with him ; " and," 
quoth he, " master Bradford, because you are a man not given to the 
glory of the world, I will speak it before your face : your life I have 
learned was such there always, as all men, even the greatest enemies 
you have, cannot but praise it ; and therefore I love you much better 
than ever I did : but now I will read over your arguments, and so we 
will confer them. Such they are, that a man may well perceive you 
stand on conscience, and therefore I am the more ready and glad to pity 
you." So he began to read the first ; to the which he said, that though 
the word transubstantiation began but lately, yet the thing always 
•was, and hath been since Christ's institution. 

Brad. : — " I do not contend, or hang upon the word only, but upon the i/iiiit/, 
which is as new £is the word." 

Then went Weston to the second, and there brought out St. Au- Tiie 
gustine, how that if an evil man, going to the devil, did make his ausuV' 
will, his son and heir would not say his father did lie in it, or speak ^"^'^'/^j'^ 
tropically : much more Christ, going to God, did never lie, or use by wcs- 
any figurative speech in his last will and testament. " Do you not 
remember this place of St. Augustine," said he .'' 

J^rad. : — " Yes, sir, but I remember not that St. Augustine hath those words 
' tropice ' or ' figurative,' as you rehearse them : for any man may speak a 
thing figuratively, and lie not: and so Christ did in his hist supper." 

After this Weston went to the third, and brought forth Cyprian, 
how that the nature of bread is turned into flesh. " Here," saith 
he, " my lord of Canterbury expoundeth ' nature ' for ' quality,' by 
Gelasius. The which interpretation serveth for the answer of your 
third argument, that Christ called bread his body: that is, the 
quality, form, and appearance of bread. And further the Scripture 
is wont to call things by the same names which they had before, 
as Simon the leper;' he was not so presently, but because he had 
been so." 

Brad. ; — " Cyprian wrote before Gelasius : therefore Cyprian must not 
expound Gelasius, but Gelasius Cyprian : and so they both teach, that bread 
remaineth still. As for things having still the names they had, it is no answer, 

(I) SimoM.thouijh he were tall, d the leper, yet lie wn. hceii lo he no leper ; but hrrad is •,.•*.. stll' 
to he ; and therelcre hath its name not of that it vat, but of that it is. 


Mary, except you could show that this now were not bread, as easily as a man might 

have known and seen then Simon to have been healed and clear from his 

A-u. leprosy." 

After this, Weston went to the fourth, of the cup, the which lie 

did not fully read, but digressed into a long talk of Cyprian's epistle 

" De Aquai-iis:'"* also of St. Augustine; expounding the breaking 

of bread by Christ to his two disciples going to Emmaus, to be the 

sacrament, with such other talk to no certain purpose : and therefore 

Bradford prayed him, that inasmuch as he had written the reasons 

that stablished his faith against transubstantiation, so he would likewise 

Weston do to him, that is, answer him by writing, and show him more rea- 

to'^wrke ^^^^ ^^ writing to confirm transubstantiation ; which Dr. AVeston 

his rea- promised to do, and said that he would send or bring it to master 

Bradford again within three days. 

Thus, when he had over-read the arguments, and here and there 
spoken little to the purpose for the avoiding of them, and ]3radford 
had prayed him to give him in writing his answers, then he began 
Grimoaid to tell Bradford how and what he had done for Grimoakl, and how 
subscnb- ^-^^^ Bradford needed not to fear any reproach or slander he should 
suffer : meaning belike to have Bradford secretly to come to them, 
as Grimoaid did ; for he subscribed. 

Rradford Brad.: — " Master Dean, I would not gladly that you should conceive of 
])iain ami j^^g ^jj^t I pass of shame of men simply in this matter: I rather would liave 
confes- you to think of me, as the very truth is, that hitherto as I have not heard or 
sionofthe seen any thing to infirm my faith against transubstantiation, so I am no less 
"""'• settled in it, than I was at my first coming hither. I love to be plain with 

you, and to tell you at the first, as you shall find at the last." 

West. : — " In good faith, master Bradford, I love you the be'tter for your 

plainness; and do not think otherwise of me, but that you shall find me plain 

in all my talk with you." 

Here Weston began to ask Bradford of his imprisonment and 
condemnation : and so Bradford told him altogether, how he had 
been handled ; whereat Weston seemed to wonder : yea in ])lain 
words he said, that Bradford had been handled otherwise than he 
had given cause; and so showed Bradford how that my lord of 
Bath reported that he had deserved a benefit at the queen's hand, 
and at all the covmcils". In this kind of talk they spent an hour 
almost, and so, as one weary, Bradford rose up, and Weston called 
to the keeper, and before him he bade Bradford be of good comfort, 
and said that he was out of all peril of death. " Sir," quoth the 
keeper, " but it is in every man''s mouth, that he shall die to-mor- 
Ti\e vain row." Whcrcat Weston seemed half amazed, and said, he would go 
Weston." say evensong before the queen, and speak to her in his behalf But 
it is to be thought that the queen had almost supped at that present ; 
for it was past six of the clock. 

Before the keeper, Bradford told Weston again that still he was 
one man, and even as he was at the first ; and till he should sec 
matter to teach his conscience the contrary, he said he must needs so 
continue. The keeper desired Bradford to hearken to master doc- 
tor's counsel, and prayed master doctor to be good unto him : and 
so after they had drunk together, master doctor with most gentle 
words took his leave for three days. 

(1) Epist. fi."., p. HS. Edit. Oxon. See Piipin, tliird century. — Ed. 






Now when he was gone, the keeper told Bradford, tliat master 
doctor spake openly, how that he saw no cause why they should burn 
him : which sentence, for the ambiguity of the meaning, made him 
somewhat sorry, lest he had behaved himself in any thing, wherein 
he had gathered any conformableness to them in their doctrine, 
" which, God knoweth," saith Bradford, " I never as yet did."" God 
our Father bless us, as his children, and keep us from all evil for 
ever. Amen. 


On the 5th day of April came master doctor Weston to the 
Compter, about two of the clock in the afternoon, who excused him- 
self for being so long absent ; jjurtly by sickness, partly for that 
Dr. Pendleton told him that he would come unto him ; " and partly 
for that," quoth he, " I withstood certain monks, which would have 
come again into Westminster ;" telling him, moreover, how that ^■''i- 
the pope was dead. And also declared unto him, how he had spoken oie" "^ ' 
to the queen in his behalf, and how that death was not near to him. rominl' 
Last of all Weston excused himself for not answcrincr his arguments '"f^^'^s' 

,..,,, . o r> rainstcr. 

agamst transubstantiation ; because my commg to-day," quoth 
he, "was more by fortune, than of purpose." 

Brad. : — " I would gladly, master doctor, if it please you, see your answers 
to my arguments." 

Weston: — " Why? you have remembered something that I spake to you, 
when I was last with you." 

Brad. : — " No, sir, I never called them in manner to mind, since that time, 
as well because I hoped you would have written them ; as also for that they 
seemed not to be so material." 

Weston : — " In good faith 1 cannot see any other or better way for you, than 
for to submit yourself to the judgment of the church." 

Brad. ; — " Marry so will I sir, if so be by the church you understand Christ's 

Weston : — " Lo, you take upon you to judge the church." 

Brad. : — " No, sir, that I do not ; in taking upon me to discern, I do not 
judge the church." 

Weston: — "Yes, that you do; and make it invisible." 

Brad.: — " I do neither." 

Weston : — " Why, who can see your church?" 

Brad. : — " Those, sir, that have spiritual eyes, wherewith they might have 
discerned Christ's visible conversation here upon earth." 

Weston : — " Nay, Christ's church hath three tokens, that all men may look 
well upon; namely, unity, antiquity, and consent." 

Brad.: — "These three may be as well in evil as in good; as well in sin as 
in virtue ; as well in the devil's church, as in (iod's churcli — as for an example; 
idolatry amongst the Israelites had all those three. Chrysostome telleth plainly, 
as you well know, that the church is well known, 'tantummodo per Scripturas,' 
' alonely by the Scriptures.' " 

Weston : — " In good faith, you make your church invisible, when you will 
have it known alonely by the Scriptures." 

Brad.: — " No, sir, the Scriptures do plainly set forth to us the church, that 
all men may well enough thereby know her, if they list to look." 

Weston: — "The church is like a tower or town upon a hill, that all men may 

Brad. : — " True, sir, all men that be not blind. Visible enough is the 
church, but men's blindness is great. Impute not therefore to the church, that 
which is to be imputed to men's blindness." 

Weston: — " Where was your church forty years ago, or where is it now, 
except in a corner of Germany ?" 


Miiri/. Brad. : — " Forsooth, sir, the church of God is dispersed, and not tied to this 

or tliat place, but to the word of God ; so that where it is, there is God's church, 

A.D. if it be truly taught." 

^•^55. West: — " Lo, is not this to make the church invisible? Point me out a 

realm a hundred years past, which maintained your doctrine." 
The Brad. : — " Sir, if you will, or would well mark the state of the church before 

nuTuU '^ Christ's coming, with it now (as St. Paul and Peter willeth us), I think you 
ways to would not look for such shows of the church to be made, as to point it by 
'^d '^°t"i realms. You know that in Elias's time, both in Israel and elsewhere, God's 
realms ^ church was not pointable ; and therefore cried he out, that he was left alone." 
and coun- West. : — " No, marry ; did not God say that there were seven thousand which 
"'^^' had not bowed their knees to Baal? Lo then seven thousand. Show me seven 

thousand a hundred years ago of your religion." 
God Brad. : — " Sir, these seven thousand were not known to men : for then Elias 

saved the would not have said, that he had been before left alone. And it is plain enough, 
Elias's '" ^^y that which the text hath, namely that God saith, ' reliqui mihi,' ' I have re- 
time, al- served to me seven thousand.' Mark that it saith, God hath reserved to him- 
Eli'as^'' ^^^^' *^° ^^^^ °^^^ knowledge ; as I doubt not but a hundred years ago, God had 
himself his seven thousand in his proper places, though men knew not thereof." 
did not West. : — " Well, master Bradford, I will not make your case worse than for 

and 'so is transubstantiation : although I know that we agree not in other matters. And 
it known. I pray you make you it yourself not worse. If I can do you good, I will : hurt 

you I will not. I am no prince, and therefore I cannot promise you life, except 

you will submit yourself to the definition of the church." 

Brad. : — " Sir, so that you will define me your church, that under it you 

bring not in a false church, you shall not see but that we shall soon he at a 


West. : — " In good faith, master Bradford, I see no good will be done; and 

therefore I will wish you as much good as I can, and hereafter I will perchance 

come or send to you again." 

And so he sent for master Weal, and departed. — Now after his 
departing, came the keeper, master Claydon, and Stephen Bech ; and 
they were very hot Avith Bradford, and spake with him in such sort 
that he should not look but to have them utter enemies unto him, 
notwithstanding the friendship they both had hitherto pretended. 
God be with us, and what matter is it who be against us ? 

Among divers which came to master Bradford in prison, some to 
dispute and confer, some to give counsel, some to take comfort, and 
some to visit him, there was a certain gentlewoman's * servant, which 
gentlewoman had been cruelly afflicted, and miserably handled by her 
father and mother and all her kindred, in her father's house, for not 
coming to the mass, and like at length to have been pursued to 
death, had not the Lord delivered her out of her father's house, 
being put from all that ever she had. This gentlewoman's servant, 
therefore, being sent to master Bradford with commendations, had 
this talk with him, which I thought here not to over-slip. 


This servant or messenger of the foresaid gentlewoman, coming to 
master Bradford, and taking him by the hand, said, " God be thanked 
for you : how do you do ?" 

Master Bradford answered, " Well ; I thank God. For as men in sailing, 
which be near to the shore or haven where they would be, would be nearer ; 
even so the nearer I am to God, the nearer I would be." 

(1) This gentlewoman is yet ri'.ivc, to v.liom IJrailford wrote a letter which herenflcr folhiwetli. 


Servant : — " Sir, I have never seen you so strong and healtlisoino of body, nary. 
as me thinketh you be now, God be tlianked for it." ' 1, 

" Why," quoth Bradford, " I have given over all care and studj', and only A. I). 
do I covet to be talking with him, wliom I have always studied to be withal." IS'ifj. 

Serv. : — " Well, God hath done much for you since the time that I fust 
knew you, and hath wrought wondrously in you to his glory." 

Brad. : — " Truth it is; for he hath dealt fiivourably with me, in that he 
hath not punished me according to my sins, but hath sufTered me to live, that 
I might seek repentance." 

Serv. : — " Truly, we hear say, there is a rod made so grievous, out of the 
which I think no man shall pluck his head." 

Brad. : — " Well, let all that be of Christ's flock, arm themselves to suffer : 
for I think verily, God will not have one of his to escape untouched, if he love 
him ; let them seek what means or waj-s they can." 

Serv.: — " Well, sir, there goeth a talk of a friar' that should preach before 
the king, and should tell him, that he should be guilty of the innocent blood 
that hath been shed of late." 

" Verily," quoth Bradford, " 1 had a book^ within these two days of his writ- 
ing, and therein he saith, that it is not meet nor convenient that the heretics 
should live ; and therefore I do marvel how that talk should rise : for I have 
heard of it also, and I have also talked with this friar (he is named friar Fonso)^ 
and with divers other ; and I praise God they have confirmed me: for the v 
have nothing to say but that which is most vain." 

Serv. : — " Sir, father Cardmaker hath him commended unto you." 

Brad. : — " How doth he? how doth he .'" 

Serv. : — " Well, God be thanked." 

Brad. : — " I am very glad thereof: for indeed my lord chancellor did cast 
him in my teeth; but, as David saith, ' God hath disappointed him.'" 

Serv. : — " Forsooth (God's name be praised) he is very strong." 

Brad. : — " And, I trust, so are we. What else ? our quarrel is most just : 
therefore let us not be afraid." 

Serv. : — " My mistress hath her recommended unto you." 

Brad. : — *' How doth she ?" 

Serv. : — " Well, God be praised, but she hath been sorer afflicted with her 
own father and mother, than ever you were with your imprisonment, and yet 
God hath preserved her, I trust, to his glory." 

Brad. : — " I pray you tell her, I read this day a goodly history, written by Basil A story 
the Great, of a virtuous woman which was a widow, and was named Juletta.* furwil-"'* 
She had great lands and many children, and nigh her dwelled a cormorant, man anri 
which, for her virtuousness and godly living, had great indignation at her ; and m-y'yf '" 
of very malice he took away her lands, so that she was constrained to go to the ,nitivi' 
law with him. And, in conclusion, the matter came to tlie trial before the flmrcii 
judge, who demanded of this tyrant wliy he wrongfully withli 
from this woman ? He made answer and said, he might so do : 
' this woman is disobedient to the king's proceedings; for she will in no wise 
worship his gods, nor offer sacrifice imto them.' Tlien the judge, hearing that, 
said luito her, ' Woman, if this be true, thou art not only like to lose thy land, 
but also thy hfe, unless that thou worsliip our gods, and do sacrifice unto tliem.' 
This godly woman, hearing that, stept forth to the judge, and said, ' Is there 
no remedy but either to worship your false gods, or else to lose my lands and 
life ? Then farewell suit, farewell lands, farewell children, farewell friends ; 
yea, and farewell life too : and, in respect of the true honour of the ever living 
God, farewell all.' And with that saying did the judge commit her to jjrison, and 
afterward she suffered most cruel death. And being brought to the place of execu- 
tion, she e.\horted all women to be strong and constant: ' for,' saith she, 'ye 
were redeemed with as dear a price as men. For although ye were made of 
the rib of the man, yet be you all of his flesh : so that also, in the case and 

(1) By this friar he meaneth Alphonsus mentioned licfore. 

(2) " A hook," etc. " De justa ha-reticorum pcrnitione, lihri treg ;" fol. S.ihnantir.T, 1547; 
LiiRduni, 1550; Aiitverpia-, ISCa. Tlie object of this work, in the lanRuage of Aiilonio, is " ut 
tonfirmaret justas esse omnes illas haenas, quibus in jure civili atquc; canoni'o hx-relici ailrli- 
cuntur."— Ed. 

3) Alphonsus, otherwise called, in the vulfjar speech, friar Fons. 

(4) See TiUemont's "Menioires ^ I'Hist. licclesiastiqiie." Tom. v. Part I. pp. •>7\, ■111, Kdit. 
12mo. 1707.— Ell. 


Mart/, trial of your faith towards God, ye ought to be as strong.' And thus died she 
constantly, not fearing death. I pray you tell your mistress of this history." 

A.D. Serv. : — " That shall I, sir, by God's grace: for she told me that she was 
1555. yfiii^ you and master Saunders, and received your gentle counsel." 

Brad. .- — " We never gave her other counsel but the truth ; and in witness 
notMn.^''^ thereof, we have and will seal it with our bloods. For I thought this night 
afraid of that I had been sent for, because at eleven of the clock there was such rapping 
'I'^atli. at the door." 

Then answered a maid, and said, " Why then I perceive you were afraid." 
Brad.: — " Ye shall hear how fearful I was; for I considered that I had not 
slept, and I thought to take a nap before I "Avent : and after I was asleep, these 
men came into the next chambei-, and sang, as it was told me ; and yet, for all 
my fearfulness, I heard them not : therefore belike I was not afraid, that slept 
so fast." 

Serv. : — " Do you lack any thing towards your necessity ?" 
Brad. : — " Nothing but your prayers ; and I trust I have them, and you 

Serv. : — " I saw a priest come to you to-day in the morning." 
Brad.: — "Yea, he brought me a letter from a friar, and I am writing an 

Serv. : — " Then we let you ; therefore the living God be with you." 

Brad. : — " And with you also, and bless you." 

" Amen," said we ; and gave him thanks and departed. 

Thus still in prison continued Bradford, until the month of July, 

in such labours and sufferings as he before always had sustained in 

Bradford prison. But "wheu the time of his determined death was come, he 

had from ^^^ suddenly conveyed out of the Compter where he was prisoner, 

ti^New"^ in the night season, to Newgate, as afore is declared ; and from 

gate by thcuce lie was carried the next morning to Smithfield, where he, 

"'°*'' constantly abiding in the same truth of God which before he had 

confessed, earnestly exhorting the people to repent, and to return to 

Christ, and sweetly comforting the godly young springal of nineteen 

or twenty years old, which was burned with him, cheerfully he ended 

his painful life, to live Avitli Christ. 

3[ol)n Ecaf, tjucnt toitfj SBcaOforD. 

.TohnLeaf With Jolui Bradford was burnt one John Leaf, an apprentice to 

dermaii*^ Humfrcy Gawdy, tallow-chandler, of the parish of Christ-Church in 

of the London, of the age of nineteen years and above, born at Kirby- 

Tommit- Moorside, in the county of York : who, upon the Friday next before 

Palm Sunday, was committed to the Compter in Bread-street, by an 

alderman of London, who had rule and charge of that ward, or part 

of the city, where the said Leaf did dwell. After, he, coming to 

examination before Bonner, gave a firm and christian testimony of 

his doctrine and profession, answering to such articles as were 

objected to him by the said bishop. 

First, as touching his belief and faith in the said sacrament of the 
altar, he answered, that after the Avords of consecration, spoken by 
John Leaf ^hc pricst ovcr the bread and wine, there was not the very true and 
befoTe""^'' ^''^^'^^''^l body and blood of Christ in substance ; and further did hold 
Bonner and bclicve, that the said sacrament of the altar, as it is now called, 
ulghh nsed, and believed in this realm of ]l]nglan(l, is idolatrous and abomi- 
the^acri- ^^^^^'^ '■> ^^^^ ^Iso Said further, that he believed, that after the words 
tr.LMit. of consecration spoken by the pricst ovcr the material bread and 
wine, there is not the selfsame substance of Chrisfs body and blood 

ted to 


there contained ; but bread and wine, as it was before : and furtlicr »fary. 
said, that he believed, that when the priest delivereth the said mate- . . 
rial bread and wine to the communicants, he delivereth but only ma- i;jr^r/ 

terial bread and wine ;^ and the communicants do receive the same in 

remembrance of Christ's death and passion, and spiritually, in faith, 
they receive Christ's body and blood, but not under the forms of 
bread and wine : and also affirmed, that he believed auricular con- Auri.niar 
fession not to be necessary to be made unto a priest ; for it is no glol,.'^^''" 
point of soul-health — neither that the priest hath any authority given 
liim by the Scripture to absolve and remit any sin.^ 

Upon these his answers, and testimony of his faith, he, at that 
time being dismissed, was bid the Monday next, being the 10th of 
June, to appear again in the said place, there and then to hear the 
sentence of his condemnation ; who so did : at what time the fore- 
said bishop, propounding the said articles again to him, as before, 
essaying by all manner of ways to revoke him to his own trade, that 
is, from truth to error, notwithstanding all his persuasions, threats, 
and promises, found him the same man still, so planted upon the 
sure rock of truth, that no words nor deeds of men could remove him. 

Then the bishop, after many words to and fro, at last asked him, Lear, 
if he had been master Rogers's scholar ? To whom the ft)resaid ^l^^^ts'^ 
John Leaf answered again, granting him so to be, and that he the scholar, 
same John did believe in the doctrine of the said Rogers, and in tiic 
doctrine of bishop Hooper, Cardmaker, and others of their opinion, 
who of late were burned for the testimony of Christ, and that he 
would die in that doctrine that they died for : and after other repli- 
cations again of the bishop, moving him to return to the unity of the 
church, he, with a great courage of spirit, answered again in these 
words : " My lord," quoth he, " you call mine opinion heresy : it is 
the true light of the word of God." And again, repeating the same, 
he professed that he would never forsake his staid and well grounded 
opinion, while the breath should be in his body. Whereupon the 
bishop, being too weak either to refute his sentence or to remove 
his constancy, proceeded consecjuently to read the popish sentence sentence 
of cruel condemnation : whereby this godly and constant young man, l^^T' 
being committed to the secular power of the sheriffs there present, 
was then adjudged, and not long after suffered the same day with 
master Bradford, confirming with his death, that which he had spoken 
and professed in his life. 

It is reported of the said John Leaf, by one that was in the 
Compter the same time, and saw the thing, that after his examinations 
before the bishop, when two bills were sent unto him in the Compter 
in Bread-street, the one containing a recantation, the other his con- 
fessions, to know to which of them he would put his hand, first 
hearing the bill of recantation read unto him (because he could not j„,,^j^^f 
read nor write himself), that he refused. And when the other was sciutii ' 
read unto him, which he well liked of, instead of a pen he took a pin. {."J^ 'o"."^ 
and so pricking his hand, sprinkled the blood upon the said bill, ^^^"^^^ 
willing the reader thereof to show the bishop, that he had scaled the i.iuou. 
same bill with his blood already. 

(1) Only as touching the substance, but not as conccrninRthc effect thereof 

(2) He meanelh after the popish manner of remitting', etc. 

voT.. vir. o 





First, when they came to the stake in Smithfield to be burned, 
master Bradford, lying prostrate on the one side of the stake, and the 
young man John Leaf on the other side, they lay flat on their faces, 
praying to themselves the space of a minute of an hour. Then one 
of the sheriffs said to master Bradford, " Arise, and make an end ; 
for the press of the people is great." 

At that word they both stood up upon their feet, and then master 
Bradford took a faggot in his hand, and kissed it, and so likeAvise the 
stake. And when he had so done, he desired of the sheriffs that his 
servant might have his raiment ; " for," said he, " I have nothing 
else to give him : and besides that, he is a poor man." And the 
sheriff said he should have it. And so forthwith master Bradford 
did put off his raiment, and went to the stake : and, holding up his 
The hands, and casting his countenance up to heaven, he said thus, " O 
Bradford England, England, repent thee of thy sins, repent thee of thy sins, 
to Eng- Beware of idolatry, beware of false antichrists; take heed they do not 
deceive you." And as he was speaking these words, the sheriff bade 
tie his hands, if he would not be quiet. " O master sheriff," said 
master Bradford, " I am quiet : God forgive you this, master sheriff." 
And one of the officers which made the fire, hearing master Bradford 
so speaking to the sheriff, said, " If you have no better learning than 
that, you are but a fool, and were best hold your peace." To the 
which words master Bradford gave no answer ; but asked all the 
world forgiveness, and forgave all the world, and prayed the people 
to pray for him ; and turned his head unto the young man that 
suffered with him, and said, " Be of good comfort, brother ; for we 
shall have a merry supper with the Lord this night :" and so spake 
Jn^^^'-' no more words tliat any man did hear, but, embracing the reeds, said 
Bradford tJ^ug • " Strait is the way, and narrow is the gate, that leadeth to 
eternal salvation, and few there be that find it." 

And thus they both ended their mortal lives, most like two lambs, 
without any alteration of their countenance, being void of all fear, 
hoping to obtain the price of the game that they had long run at ; 
to the which I beseech Almighty God happpily to conduct us, 
through the merits of Jesus Christ our Lord and Saviour. Amen. 

Touching master Woodrofe the sheriff, mention is made a little 
before how churlishly here he answered master Bradford at the stake, 
not suffering him to speak, but commanding his hands to be tied, etc. 
The like extremity or worse, he used also before to master Rogers, 
whereof ye have heard before, 
Diffe- The said Woodrofe sheriff, above mentioned, was joined in office 

». ^-^^^ another, called sir William Chester, for the year 1555. Be- 
tween these two sheriffs such difference there was of judgment and 
religion, that the one (that is, master Woodrofe) was wont commonly 
to laugh, the other to shed tears, at the death of Christ's people. 

at h 

rence be 
two she 




And whereas the otlicr was wont to restrain, and to beat the people, 
wliich were desirous to take them by the hands that sliould be . ,) 
burned: the other sheriff, contrariwise again, with much sorrow and \r,r)r>'. 

mildness behaved himself, which I wish here to be spoken and known 

to the commendation of him, although I do not greatly know the 

Furthermore, here by the way to note the severe punishment of 
God's hand against the said Woodrofe, as against all such cruel per- 
secutors, so it happened, that within half a year after the burning of 
this blessed martyr, the said sheriff was so stricken on the right side, 
with such a palsy or stroke of God's hand (whatsoever it was), that 
for the space of eight years after, till his dying day, he was not able 
to turn himself in his bed, but as two men with a sheet were fain to 
stir him ; and withal such an insatiable devouring came upon him, 
that it was monstrous to see. And thus continued he the space of 
eight years together.' 

In Mortem Johannis Bradfordi constantissimi Martyris, per 
Joan Frieum. 
Discipulo nulli supra licet esse magistruni ; 

Quique Deo servit, tristia multa fcret. 
Corripit omnipotens natum quern diligit oniiien ; 

Ad ccelum stricta est difficilisque via. 
Has, Bradforde, tuo duni condis pectore voces, 

No.i homimim rigidas terribilesque minas, 
Sed nee blanditias, non vim, nee vincula curas, 

Tradis et accensaj membra cremenda pyrae.^ 

Lines in Memory of John Bradford, Martyr. 

•Laments we may both day and night But he, for all that they could say, 

For this our brother dear ; Woidd not his God displease ; 

Bradford, a man, both just and right, But trusted, at the judgment day, 

There were but few his peer. His joy would then increase. 
For God's true servant he was known And wliere they punished him there- 
in every city and town ; Full well he did it take : [fore, 
His word amongst them he hath sown He thought no pains could be so sore 

Till it was trodden down. To sutler for Christ's sake. 

There was no man could him appeach Alas ! the people did lament, 

Neither in word nor deed ; When that they did iiear tell 

But that he lived as he did teach, That he in Smithfield should be burnt, 

In fear of God and dread. No more with us to dwell. 

Since that the time he did profess His preaching was both true and good, 

God's holy word most true, His countenance meek and mild ; 

No riches, substance more or less, Alas ! the shedding of his blood 

Could turn his heart anew. Pleas'd neither man nor child : 

From God's tnie word he would not Save only they, which had the law 

Though it was to his pain ; [slide, At that time in their hand ; 

But in the truth he did abide. Which still desire more in to draw, 

All men might know it plain. And catch them in their band. 

The wicked men, they did him take, O wicked men of little grace i 

And promise him much store, Was ever the like seen— 

To cause him this his God forsake. So many men, in such a space, 

And preach the truth no more. To death consumed clean ? 

(1) In the First Edition this calamity is thus recorded ; " In Hne, this aforesaid master Woodrofe, 
after tlie burning of master Bradford, returning home to U\* house, strait upon the same was taken 
lame both arm and leg, so that this day he cannot stir out of his house, nor yet scarce move himself 
but as he is helped. The Lord, if it be his pleasure, be his helper I" See Edition 1563, p. 1215.— Ed. 

(2) See the Harleian MSS. No. 410. Art. ^7.— Eu. 

(3) See Edition, 15()3, page 1210.— Eu. 



.Uarff. How many of you papists all And when he came unto the place 

Would not with speed return Whereas then he should die, 

'^:P_- From your doctrine papistical, Full meek the fire he did embrace, 
*'^'^'^- If that you knew to burn ! And said : " Welcome to me." 

And where you would not give him A servant true of God, I say, 

His mind forth for to break; [leave With him that time did burn ; 

All men of God will him believe, Because in God's word he did stay, 

Though little he did speak. Not willing to return. 

In going to the burning fire, But quietly were both content 

He talked all tJie way : Tlieir death to take truly ; 

The people then he did desire Which made the people's hearts to 
For him that they would pray. Their deathful pangs to see.* [rent 

€!)e atetter^ of Ma^ttt 2BcaDfocD. 

This godly Bradford and heavenly martyr, during the time of his 
imprisonment, wrote sundry comfortable treatises, and many godly 
letters ; of which, some he wrote to the city of London, Cambridge, 
Walden, Lancashire, and Cheshire, and divers to his other private 
friends. By the which foresaid letters, to the intent it may appear 
how godly this man occupied his time being prisoner, what special 
zeal he bare to the state of Christ's church, what care he had to per- 
form his office, how earnestly he admonished all men, how tenderly 
he comforted the heavy-hearted, how faithfully he confirmed those 
whom he had taught, I thought here good to place the same : and 
although to exhibit here all the letters that he wrote (being in number 
so many, that they are able to fill a book) it cannot well be com- 
i^oTk of"^ passed, yet, nevertheless, we mind to excerpt the principal of them ; 
ufe Mar-^ I'eferring the reader for the residue to the book of " Letters of the 
tyrs. ^"^ Martyrs,""^ Avhere they may be found. 

Brad- And first, forasmuch as ye heard in the story before, how the earl 

[erfcom-' ^^ Derby complained in the parliament house, of certain letters 
FnTarMa"/ ^^"tten of John Bradford out of prison, to Lancashire, and also how he 
mei.t. was charged both of the bishop of Winchester, and of master Allen 
with the same letters ; to the intent the reader more perfectly may un- 
derstand what letters they were, being written indeed to his mother, 
brethren, and sisters, out of the Tower, before his condemnation, we 
will begin first with the same letters ; the copy, with the contents 
whereof, is this, as followeth. 

A comfortable Letter of Master Bradford to his Mother, a godly 

Matron, dwelling in Manchester, and to his Brethren and Sisters, 

and other of his Friends there. 

Our dear and sweet Saviour Jesus Christ— whose prisoner at this present 
(praised be his name there-for) I am— preserve and keep you, my good 
mother, with my brothers and sisters, my father, John Treves, Thomas Sorro- 
cold, Laurence and James Bradshaw, with their wives and families, etc. now 
and for ever. Amen. ' 

I am at this present in prison (sure enough for starting), to confirm that I 
have preached unto you : as I am ready, I thank God, with my life and blood 
to seal the same, if God vouchsafe me worthy of that honour. Tor, o-ood 
mother and brethren, it is a most special benefit of God, to sutler for his name's 
.sake and gospel, as now I do : I heartily thank God for it, and am sure that 
with him I shall be partaker of his glory ; as Paul saith, " If wc suffer with him, 
we shall reign with him."^ Therefore be not faint-hearted, but rather rejoice,' 
at the least for my sake, which now am in the right and high way to lieaven : 
(2) V-v^ ''""'^ ^^"^ printed in London by Jolin Day in 15GJ, and reprinted there in 1837.— £d. 


for by many afflictions we must enter into the kingdom of heaven.' Now will Maru. 
God make known his children. When the wind doth not blow, then cannot 

man know the wheat from the chalf; but when the blast cometh, then llicth •'^- ^^• 
away the chafl', but the wheat remaineth, and is so far from being hurt, that by ^ •"'"'■"' • 
the wind it is more cleansed from the chaff, and known to be wheat. Gold, 
when it is cast into the fire, is the more precious : so are God's children by the 
cross of affliction. Always God beginneth his judgment at his house. Christ pi",'),i.','!," 
and the apostles were in most misery in the laud of Jewry, but yet the whole liisjudf; 
land smarted for it after: so now God's children are first chastised in this "'l;'"^" '"' 
world, that they should not be damned with the world ; for surely, great plagues ilous"." 
of God hang over this realm. 

Ye all know there was never more knowledge of God, and less godly living, com- 
and ti-ue serving of God. It was counted a foolish thing to serve God truly, l''*'"' "^ 
and earnest prayer was not past upon. Preaching was but a j)astime. The and wick- 
communion was counted too common. Fasting to subdue the flesh, was far out ed life 
of use. Alms was almost nothing. Malice, covetousness, and uncleanness, a">o»B 
were common every where, with swearing, drunkenness, and idleness. God \°r^^ 
therefore now is come, as you have heard me preach, and because he will not 
damn us witli the world, he beginneth to punish us — as me for my carnal living. 
For, as for my preaching, I am most certain it is and was God's truth, and I 
trust to give my life for it, by God's grace : but because I lived not the gospel 
truly, but outwardly, therefore doth he thus punish me ; nay rather in punisliing 
blesseth me. And indeed I thank him more of this prison, than of any par- "^'7 ^'"^ 
lour, yea, than of any pleasure that ever 1 had : for in it I find God my most iniuishcili 
sweet good God always. The flesh is punished, first to admonish us now hear- '''*■'" 
tily to live as we profess ; secondly to certify the wicked of their just damna- woJld. 
tion, if they repent not. 

Perchance you are weakened in that which I have preached, because God God 
doth not defend it, as you think, but sufFereth the popish doctrine to come "*'^"' '" 
again and prevail : but you nmst know, good mother, that God by this doth fi^hu"'"^ 
prove and try his children and peo])le, whether they will unfeignedly and ciiiidrcn. 
simply hang on him and his word. So did he with the Israelites, bringing them 
into a desert, after their coming out of Egypt, where (I mean the wilderness) 
was want of all things, in comparison of that which they had in Egypt. Christ, 
when he came into this world, brought no worldly wealth nor quietness with 
him, but rather war: "The world," saith he, "shall rejoice, but ye shall 
mourn and weep ; but your weeping shall be turned into joy." And therefore 
" happy are they that mourn and weep, for they shall be comforted."^ They 
are marked then with God's mark in their foreheads, and not with the beast's 
mark — I mean the pope's shaven crown, who now, with his shavelings, rejoice :* 
but wo imto them, for they shall be cast down ; they shall weep and mourn. 
The rich glutton had here his joy, and Lazarus sorrow ; but afterwards the 
time was changed. The end of carnal joy is sorrow. Now let the whore- 
monger joy with the drunkard, swearer, covetous, malicious, and blind buzzard 
sir John: for the mass will not bite them, neither make them to blush, as Tl'e """s 
preaching would. Now may they do what they will, — come devils to the no''si'n'^^"' 
church, and go devils home — for no man must find fault: and they are glad of norsham- 
this. Now they have their heart's desire, as the Sodomites had when Lot was ^".' "^""' 
gone. But what followed! Forsooth when they cried, "Peace; all shall be aspreari'i- 
well !" then came God's vengeance, fire and brimstone from heaven, and burnt ingdoth. 
up everj' mother's child : even so, dear mother, will it do to our papists. 

Wherefore fear God ; stick to his word though all the world swerve from it. 
Die you must once ; and when, or how, can you not tell. Die therefore with 
Christ ; suffer for serving him truly and after his word : for sure may we be, 
that of all deaths it is most to be desired to die for God's sake. This is the Tlic best 
most safe kind of dying : we cannot doubt but that we shall go to lieaven, if ''[^."['.' "^ 
we die for his name's sake. And that you shall die for his name's sake, God's js to dii-"' 
word will waiTant you, if you stick to that which God by me jiath taught you. for (;<>ds 
You shall see that I speak as I think ; for, by God's grace, I will drink before *"'"■'■ 
you of this cuj), if I be put to it. 

(1) Acts xiv. (2) John xix. 

(;5) Of this place tlie earl of Derby scciiielh to take hold, coniiilainiog that he curscth them that 
teach any false doctrine, etc. 



3fanj. I doubt not but God will give me his grace, and strengthen me thereunto : 

pray that he would, and that I refuse it not. 1 am at a point, even when my 

■A-' ^- Lord God will, to come to him. Death nor life, prison nor pleasure (I trust in 
^^5^- God), shall be able to separate me from ray Lord God and his gospel. In 
peace, when no persecution was, then were you content and glad to hear me ; 
then did you believe me : and will ye not do so now, seeing I speak that which 
I trust by God's grace, if need be, to verify with my life ? Good mother, I write 
before God to you, as I have preached before him. 

It is God's truth I have taught : it is that same infallible word whereof he 

The mass said, " Heaven and earth shall pass, but my word shall not pass." The mass, 

"^^fth ^iid such baggage as the false worshippers of God, and enemies of Christ's 

cliurch. cross (the papists I say) have brought in again, to poison the church of God 

withal, displeaseth God highly, and is abominable in his sight. Happy may be 

he which of conscience suffereth loss of life or goods in disallowing it J Come 

not at it. If God be God, follow him : if the mass be God, let them that will, 

see it, hear, or be present at it, and go to the devil with it. What is there as 

Compari- God ordained ? His Supper was ordained to be received of us in the memorial 

twee^r'the °^ ^^^^ death, for the confirmation of our faith, that his body was broken for us, 

Lord's and his blood shed for pardon of our sins : but in the mass there is no receiving, 

^"PP^"^ but the priest keepeth all to himself alone. Christ saith, "Take, eat:" No, 

mass. saith the priest, " Gape, peep." There is a sacrificing, yea killing of Christ 

again as much as they may. There is idolatry in worshipping the outward 

sign of bread and wine. There is all in Latin : you cannot tell what he saith. 

To conclude, there is nothing as God ordained. Wherefore, my good mother, 

come not at it. 

Doubts <'Oh," will some say, "it will hinder you, if you refuse to come to mass, and 

jections ^° ^0 as othcr do." But God will further you (be you assured), as you shall one 

^•ered. day find ; who hath promised to them that suffer hinderance or loss of any 

thing in this world, his great blessing here, and, in the world to come, life 


You shall be counted a heretic : but not of others than of heretics, whose 
praise is a dispraise. 

You are not able to reason against the priests, but God will that all they 
shall not be able to withstand you. Nobody will do so but you only. Indeed 
no matter, for few enter into the narrow gate which bringeth to salvation. 
Howbeit, you shall have with you (I doubt not) father Traves, and other my 
brothers and sisters to go with you therein : but, if they will not, I your son in 
God, I trust, shall not leave you an inch, but go before you. Pray that I may, 
and give thanks for me. Rejoice in my suffering, for it is for yoUr sakes to 
confirm the truth I have taught. Howsoever you do, beware this letter come 
not abroad,^ but into father Traves' hands : for, if it should be known that I 
have pen and ink in the prison, then would it be worse with me. Therefore to 
yourselves keep this letter, commending me to God and his mercy in Christ 
Jesus, who make me worthy for his name's sake, to give my life for his gospel 
and church' sake. — Out of the Tower of London, the 6th day of October, 15.58. 
My name I write not for causes, you know it well enough : like the letter 
never the worse. Commend me to all our good brethren and sisters in the 
Lord. Howsoever you do, be obedient to the higher powers, that is, in no 
point either in hand or tongue rebel ; but rather, if they command that which 
with good conscience you cannot obey, lay your head on the block, and sufier 
whatsoever they shall do or say. By patience possess your souls. 

After the time that master Bradford was condemned, and sent to 
the Compter, it was purposed of his adversaries (as ye heard before) 
that he should be had to Manchester, where he was born, and tliere 
be burned. Whereupon he writeth to the city of London, thinking 
to take liis last " vale"" of them in this letter. 

A Fruitful Letter to the City of London. 
To all that profess the gospel and true doctrine of our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ in tiie city of London, John Bradford, a most unworthy servant of 

(I) Matt. xi.\. (2) For all this caveat, yet this letter came to the carl of Derby's knowledge. 


the Lord, now not only in prison, but also excomnninicated and condemned to Mary. 
be burned for tlio same true doctrine, wishelh mercy, grace, and peace, with in- 

crease of all godly knowledge and piety from God the Father of mercy, througli ^- ^^• 
the merits of our alone and omni-suliicient Redeemer Jesus Christ, by tlie ^^^^^- 
operation of the Holy Spirit for ever. Amen. 

My dearly beloved brethren in our Saviour Christ ! although the time I have 
to live is very little (for hourly I look when I should be had hence, to be con- 
veyed into Lancashire, there to be burned, and to render my life, by the provi- 
dence of God, where I first received it by the same providence), and although 
the charge is great to keep me from all things whereby I might signify any 
thing to the world of my state : yet having, as now I have, pen and ink, 
through God's working, maugre the head of Satan and his soldiers, I thought 
good to write a short confession of my faith, and thereto join a little exhorta- 
tion unto you all, to live according to your profession. 

First, for my faith. I do confess and pray all the whole congregation of 
Christ to bear witness with me of the same, that 1 believe constantly, through 
the gift and goodness of God (for faith is God's only gift), all the twelve arti- 
cles of the symbol or Creed, commonly attributed to the collection of the 
apostles. This my faith I would gladly particularly declare and expound to 
the confirmation and comfort of the simple; but, alas ! by starts and stealth 1 
write in manner that I write, and therefore I shall desire you all to take this 
brevity in good part. And this faith I hold, not because of the Creed itself, 
but because of the word of God, the which teachetli and confinneth every 
article accordingly. This word of God, written by the prophets and apostles, left 
and contained in the canonical books of the whole Bible, 1 do believe to contain 
plentifully all things necessary to salvation, so that nothing (as necessary to Anti- 
salvation) ought to be added thereto; and therefore the church of Christ, nor ^"^'"'"'^ 
none of his congregation ought to be burdened with any other doctrine, than to be 
what, hereout, hath its foundation and groimd. In testimony of this faith, Clirist's 
I render and give my life, being condemned as well for not acknowledging the gen\!^rai 
antichrist of Rome to be Christ's vicar-general and supreme head of his catholic Transuh- 
and universal church here or elsewhere upon earth ; as for denying the horrible stantia- 
and idolatrous doctrine of transubstantiation, and Christ's real, corporal, and Jj."",."^','"''" 
carnal presence in his supper, under the forms and accidents of bread and wine, idolatry. 

To believe Christ our Saviour to be the head of his church, and kings in 
their realms to be the supreme powers, to whom every soul oweth obedience, j^ ^ 
and to believe that in the supper of Christ (which the sacrament of the altar, as ovcr- 
the papists call it, and use it, doth utterly overthrow) is a true and very presence throweth 
of whole Christ, God and man, to the faith of the receiver, but not to the gyppcr. ^ 
stander-by and looker-upon, as it is a true and very presence of bread and Christ 
wine to the senses of men : to believe this, I say, will not serve, and therefore wholly 
as a heretic I am condemned, and shall be burned ; whereof I ask God fhe^a'ith" 
heartily mercy that I do no more rejoice than I do, having so great cause, as to of the re- 
be an instrument wherein it may please my dear Lord God and Saviour to ceiver. 

For albeit my manifold sins, even since I came into prison, have deserved at God pun- 
the hands of God, not only this temporal, but also eternal fire in hell, much more ^^^^ll ^}'^ 
then my former sinful life, which the Lord pardon for his Christ's sake, as I know one (iiinil. 
he of his mercy hath done, and never will lay mine iniquities to my charge, to but men 
condemnation, so great is his goodness (praised therefore be his lioly name) : fhem'^for'^ 
although, I say, my manifold and grievous late sins have deserved most justly another, 
all the tyranny that man or devil can do imto me ; and therefore I confess thac 
the Lord is just, and that his judgments be true and deserved on my behalf: 
yet the bishops and prelates do not persecute them in me, but Christ himself, Braiifcrd 
his word, his truth, and religion. And therefore I have great cause, yea, most j',""|^,„'|,"" 
great cause, to rejoice that ever I was born, and hitherto kept of tlie Lord ; not more 
"that by my death, which is deserved for my sins, it plca.scth the heavenly J,'^PJ";„ 
Father to glorify his name, to testify his truth, to confirm his verity, to repugn ^;, ^,„„> ,^ 
his adversaries. O good God and merciful Father, forgive my great unthank- quarrel, 
fulness, especially herein ! 

And you, my dearly beloved, for the Lord Jesus Christ's sake, I humbly and 
heartily, in his bowels and blood, do now (for my last " vale " and farewell in this 
present life), beseech you, and every of you. tliat you will consider this work of 





gospel a 
new doc' 
trine to 
the old 




with a 
good con- 

Mary, the Lord accordingly. First, by me be admonished to beware of hypocrisy 
and carnal security : profess not the gospel with tongue and lips only, but in 
heart and verity : frame and fashion your lives accordingly : beware God's 
^^^5. name bo not evil spoken of, and the gospel less regarded by your conversation. 
lesson God forgive nie that I have not so heartily professed it as I should have done, 
against but ^^ve sought much myself therein. The gospel is a new doctrine to the old 
man ; it is new wine ; and therefore cannot be put in old bottles, without more 
great hurt than good to the bottles. If we will talk with the Lord, we must 
put off our shoes and carnal affections : if we will hear the voice of the Lord, 
we must wash our garments and be holy : if we will be Christ's disciples, we 
must deny ourselves, take up our cross, and follow Christ. We cannot serve two 
masters. If we seek Clirist's kingdom, we must seek also for the righteousness 
5i!.rll'.'?„1, thereof. To this petition, " Let thy kingdom come," we must join, " Thy will 
be done," done " on earth as it is in heaven." If we will not be doers of 
the word, but hearers of it only, we sore deceive ourselves : if we hear the 
gospel, and love it not, we declai-e ourselves to be but fools, and builders upon 
the sand. The Lord's Spirit hateth feigning ; deceitfulness the Lord abhorreth ; 
if we come to him, we must beware that we come not Avith a double heart ; 
for then may chance that God will answer us according to the block which is in 
our heart, and so we shall deceive ourselves and others. 
Faith To faith see that we couple a good conscience, lest we make a shipwreck. 

cou"'f d"^ To the Lord we must come with fear and reverence. If we will be gospellers, 
ever we must be Christ's ; if we be Christ's, we must crucify our flesh with the lusts 

and concupiscences thereof; if we will be under grace, sin must not bear rule 
in us. We may not come to tlie Lord, and draw nigh to him with our lips, and 
leave our hearts elsewhere, lest the Lord's wrath wax hot, and he take from us 
the good remaining. In no case can the kingdom of Christ approach to them 
He ex- that repent not. Thei efore, my dearly beloved, let us repent, and be heartily 
hortethto sorry that we have so carnally, so hypocritically, so covetously, so vain- 
ance. gloriously, professed the gospel. For all these I confess myself, to the glory of 
God, that he may cover mine offences in the day of judgment. Let the anger 
and plagues of God (most justly fallen upon us) be applied to every one of our 
deserts; that, from the bottom of our hearts, every of us may say, " It is I, 
Our sins Lord, that have sinned against thee : it is my hypocrisy, my vain-glory, my 
covetousness, uncleanness, carnality, security, idleness, unthankfulness, self- 
love, and such like, which have deserved the taking-away of our good king ; of 
thy word and true religion ; of thy good ministers by exile, imprisonment, and 
death ; it is my wickedness that causeth success and increase of authority and 
peace to thine enemies. O be merciful, be merciful unto us ! Turn to us 
again, O Lord of hosts, and turn us unto thee : correct us, but not in thy fury, 
lest we be consumed in thine anger : chastise us not in thy wrathful displeasure : 
reprove us not, but iij the midst of thine anger remember thy mercy ! For if 
thou mark what is done amiss, who shall be able to abide it? but with thee is 
mercifulness, that thou mightest be worshipped. O then be merciful unto us, 
that we might truly worship thee ! Help us, for the glory of thy name : be 
merciful \mto our sins, for they are great. O heal us and help us, for thine 
honour. Let not the wicked people say, ' Where is their God?' etc." 
He ex- On this sort, my right dearly beloved, let us heartily bewail our sins ; repent 

horteth to ^g ^f quj. fonncr evil life ; heartily and earnestly purpose to amend our lives in 
how to ^11 things; continually watch in prayer; diligently and reverently attend, hear, 
pray with and read the holy Scriptures ; labour after our vocation to amend our brethren. 
arK;e"' ^^'^ "'^ reprove the works of darkness : let us fly from all idolatry : let us abhor 
the antichristian and Romish rotten service ; detest the popish mass ; abrenounce 
their Romish god ; pi-epare ourselves to the cross ; be obedient to all that are in 
authority in all things that be not against God and his word, — for then, answer 
with the apostles, " It is more meet to obey God than man." Howbeit, never 
for any thing resist, or rise against the magistrates. Avenge not yourselves, 
strates in^hut commit your cause to the Lord, to whom vengeance pertaineth ; and he, in 
all that is his time, will reward it. If you feel in yourselves a hope and trust in God, that 
against ^"^ ^'^^ ucver tempt you above that he will make you able to bear, be assured 
God's the Lord will be true to you, and you shall be able to bear all brunts : but, if 
Patience ^^^^ ^^''^"'' ^'"^ hope, fly, and get you hence, rather than, by your tarrying, God's 
name should be dishonoured. 


ence to 



In sum, cast your care on the Lord, knowing for most certain, that lie is Mary. 
careful for you. With him all the hairs of your head are numhcred, so that 

not one of them shall perisli without his good pleasure and will ; much more ■^- ^^• 
then, nothing shall happen to your bodies, which shall not be profitable, how- ^•^•i''- 
soever for a time it seem otherw^ise to your senses. Hang on the providence of \vc ,>ii!;iit 
God, not only when you have means to lielp you, but also when you have no '" <iti'i;ml 
means, — yea when all means be against you. Give him this honour, which of ";',"'|' ,r.,- 
all other things he most chiefly requireth at your hands ; namely, believe tliat you \ i.i. nee 
arc his children through Christ, that he is your Father and God through him, that =''"^>''- 
he loveth you, pardoneth you all your offences, that he is with you in trouble, 
and will be with you for (!ver. When you fall, he will put under his hand ; 
you shall not lie still. Before you call upon him, he heareth you ; out of evil 
he will finally bring you, and deliver you to his eternal joy. Doubt not, my ah our 
dearly beloved hereof, doubt not, I say, this will God your Father do for you — hope i« 
not in respect of yourselves, but in respect of Christ your captain, your ])astor, ?.'^'' '" 
j'our keeper, out of whose hands none shall be able to catch you — in him be ati(iifnriii!i 
quiet, and often consider your dignity : namely, how that ye be God's children, ^^'^'^. '» '»-■ 
the saints of God, citizens of heaven, temples of the Holy Ghost, the thrones of """'■■''■ 
God, members of Christ, and lords over all. 

Therefore be ashamed to think, speak, or do any thing that shovild be un- To bear 
seemly for God's children, God's saints, Christ's members, etc. Marvel not, ''"' '^''""• 
though the devil and the world hate you — though ye be persecuted here — for 
the servant is not above his master. Covet not earthly riches ; fear not the Mortifica- 
power of man ; love not this world, nor things that be in this world ; but long i'""- 
for the Lord Jesus's coming, at which time your bodies shall be made like 
unto his glorious body ; when he appeareth you shall be like unto him ; when 
your life shall thus be revealed, then shall ye appear with him in glory. 

In the mean season live in hope thereof Let the life you lead, be in the 
faith of the Son of God ; " For the just doth live by faith :" which faith flieth 
from all evil, and followeth the word of God as a lantern to her feet, and a 
light to her steps. Her eyes be above, where Christ is; she beholdeth not the '^}''^ ^h"* 
things present, but rather things to come ; she glorieth in affliction ; she know- faUhof'""' 
eth that the afflictions of this life are not like to be compared to the glory which Christ. 
God will reveal to us, and in us. Of this glory God grant us here a lively The pro- 
taste ; then shall we run after the scent it scndeth forth! It will make "s ffjf,f ""^ 
valiant men, to take to us the kingdom of God ; whither the Lord of mercy 
bring us in his good time through Christ our Lord — to whom with the Father 
and the Holy Ghost, three persons and one God, be all honour and glory, 
world without end. Amen. 

My dearly beloved, I would gladly have given here my body to have been 
burned for the confirmation of the true doctrine I have taught here unto you : 
but that, my country must have. Therefore I pray you take in good part this 
signification of my good will towards every of you. Impute the want herein 
to time and trouble. Pardon me mine offensive and negligent behaviour when 
I was amongst you. With me repent, and labour to amend. Continue in the 
truth which I have truly taught unto you by preaching in all places where I 
have come; God's name therefore be praised. Confess Christ when you be 
called, whatsoever cometh thereof; and the God of peace be with us all. 
Amen.— This 11th of February, 1555. 

Your brother in bonds for the Lord's sake, 

John Bradford. 

A Letter to the University and Town of Cambridge. 

To all that love the Lord Jesus and his true doctrine, being in the university 
and town of Cambridge, John Bradford, a most unworthy servant of tiu^ Lord, 
now not only prisoned, but also condenuied for the same true doctrine, wisheth 
grace, peace, and mercy, with increase of all godliness from God the Father of 
all mercy, tlirough the bloody passion of our alonely Saviour Jesus Christ, by 
the lively working of the Holy Spirit for ever. Amen. 

Although I look hourly when I should be had to the stake, my right dearly 
beloved in the Lord, and although the charge over me is great and strait, yet, 
having by the providence of God secretly pen and ink, I could not but 


Manj. something signify unto you my solicitude which I have for you and every of you 

in the Lord, tliough not as I would, yet as I may. You have often and openly 

A. D. j^eard the truth (specially in this matter wherein I am condemned) disputed 

^^^'^- and preached, that it is needless to do any more, hut only to put you in 

remembrance of the same : but hitherto have you not heard it confirmed, and 

as it were sealed up, as now you do and shall hear by me; that is, by my death 

and burning. For albeit I have deserved (through my uncleanness, hypocrisy, 

avarice, vain-glory, idleness, unthankfulness, and carnality, whereof I accuse 

myself, to my confusion before the world, that before God through Christ I 

might, as my assured hope is I shall, find mercy) eternal death, and hell fire, 

The mar- 'i^ucb more than this affliction and fire prepared for me ; yet, my dearly be- 

tyrs per- loved, it is not these, or any of these things, wherefore the prelates do persecute 

^f'th''^'^ me, but God's verity and truth ; yea, even Christ himself is the only cause and 

prelates thing wherefore I am now condemned, and shall be burned as a heretic, 

not for because I will not grant the antichrist of Rome to be Christ's vicar-general 

biuonly^' ^"^ supreme head of his church here, and everywhere upon earth, by God's 

for Christ, ordinance; and because I will not grant such corporal, real, and carnal pre- 

The cause sence of Christ's body and blood in the sacrament, as doth transubstantiate the 

demna"" substance of bread and wine, and is received of the wicked, yea of dogs and 

tion mice. Also I am excommunicated, and counted as a dead member of Christ's 

declared, church, as a rotten branch, and therefore shall be cast into the fire. 

A great Therefore ye ought heartily to rejoice with me, and to give thanks for me, 

mercy of that God the eternal Father hath vouchsafed our mother to bring up any child 

turn' the '"^ whom it would please him to magnify his holy name as he doth, and I hope 

death of for his mercy and truth's sake, will do in me, and by me. Oh, what such 

■'^tl^'d*^' ''^'^^^fi* upon earth can it be, as that I, which deserved death by reason of my 

served, to sins, should be delivered to a demonstration, a testification, and confirmation 

serve for a of God's verity and ti-uth ? Thou, my mother the university, hast not only 

a°ion of" ^^^ ^^ tmth of God's word plainly manifested unto thee by reading, disputing, 

his own and preaching publicly and' privately ; but now, to make thee altogether 

glory. excuseless, and as it were almost to sin against the Holy Ghost, if thou put-to 

thy helping hand with the Romish rout to suppress the verity, and set out the 

contrary, thou hast my life and blood as a seal to confirm thee, if thou wilt be 

confirmed; or else to confound thee, and bear witness against thee, if thou 

wilt take part with the prelates and clergy, which now fill up the measure of 

their fathers which slew the prophets and apostles, that all the righteous blood 

from Abel to Bradford, shed upon the earth, may be required at their hands. 

Cantabri- Of this, therefore, I thought good before my death, as time and liberty 

be^ie^mo- ^*^u'^ suffer me (for love and duty I bear unto thee), to admonish thee, good 

niti. mother, and my sister the town, that you would call to mind from whence you 

are fallen, and study to do the first works. You know (if you will) these 

matters of the Romish supremacy,^ and the antichristian transubstantiation, 

whereby Christ's supper is overthrown, his priesthood evacuate, his sacrifice 

frustrate, the ministry of his word unplaced, repentance repelled, faith fainted, 

godliness extinguished, the mass maintained, idolatry supported, and all 

impiety cherished : you know I say (if you will) that these opinions are not 

only beside God's word, but even directly against it; and therefore to take part 

with them, is to take part against God, against whom you cannot prevail. 

Therefore, for the tender mercy of Christ, in his bowels and blood I beseech 
you, to take Christ's collyrium and eye-salve to anoint your eyes, that you may 
see what you do and have done in admitting (as 1 hear you have admitted, 
yea alas, authorised, and by consent confirmed) the Romish rotten rags, which 
once you utterly expelled. O be not " canis reversus ad vomitum."^ Be not 
" sus lota reversa ad volutabrum cceni."^ Beware lest tliat Satan enter in with 
seven other spirits, and then foslrema shall be worse than the first. It had 
been better ye had never known the truth, than after knowledge to run from 
it. Ah ! wo to this world and the things therein, which have now so wrought 
with you. O that ever this dirt of the devil should daub up the eye of the 
realm ! for thou, O mothci-, art as the eye of the realm. If thou be light, and give 
shine, all the body shall fare the better; but if thou the light be darkness, alas, 

(1) Read before the letter of CambridRe to king Henry VIII. 

(2) The dog returned to his own vomit. 

(3) " The sow that was washed, returned to her wallowing in the mire." 2 Pet. ii. 


how great will tlie darkness be ! What is man whose breath is in his nostrils, Marp 
that thou should thus be afraid of him ? 

O what is honour and life here? Bubbles. What is glory in this world, but ^- '^• 
shame? Why art thou afraid to carry Christ's cross? Wilt thou come into *5^'''- 
his kingdom, and not drink of his cup ? Dost thou not know Rome to be xhelJi^ 
Babylon? Dost thou not know that as the old Babylon had the children of of this 
Judah in captivity, so hath this Rome the tnie Judah; that is, the confessors ""/''' '"» 
of Chi-ist? Dost thou not know that as destruction happened unto it, so shall thing. 
it do unto this? And trowest thou that God will not deliver his pcopl? now, Habylon 
when the time is come, as he did then ? Hath not God commanded his people iiath Ju- 
to come out from her, and wilt thou give ensample to the whole realm to nm cautivjiy 
unto her? Hast thou forgotten the wo that Christ threateneth to offence- 
givers ? Wilt thou not remember that it were better that a millstone were 
hanged about thy neck, and thou thrown into the sea, than thou shouldest 
offend the little ones? 

And alas, how hast thou offended? yea, and liow dost thou still offend ? Tiie 
Wilt thou consider things according to the outward show ? Was not the syna- sfa'iidoth 
gogue more seemly and like to be the true church, than the simple flock of not in tiie 
Christ's disciples? Hath not the whore of Babylon more costly array, and rich ""'^af'' 
apparel e.xternally to set forth herself, than the homely housewife of Christ? * 
Where is the beauty of the king's daughter the church of Christ — without or 
within ? Doth not David say, within ? O remember that as they are happy 
which are not offended at Christ, so are they happy which are not offended at 
his poor church. Can the pope and his prelates mean honestly, which make 
so much of the wife, and so little of the husband ? The church they magnify, 
but Christ they contemn. If this church were an honest woman (that is, 
Christ's wife), except they would make much of her husband, Christ and his 
word, she would not be made much of them. 

When Christ and his apostles were upon earth, who was more like to be the custom, 
true church? they or the prelates, bishops, and synagogue ? If a man should ""ity. an- 
have followed custom, unity, antiquity, or the more part, should not Christ and co'JiTentor 
his company have been cast out of the doors ? Therefore bade Christ, " Search nmiti- 
the Scriptures." And, good mother, shall the servant be above his master? *'"•*■ ■""''^ 
Shall we look for other entertainment at the hands of the world, than Clirist ^ivabi's'^" 
and his dear disciples found ? Who were taken in Noah's time for the church ? 
poor Noah and his family, or others ? Who was taken for God's church in 
Sodom? Lot, or others? And doth not Christ say, " As it was then, so shall it 
go now towards the coming of the Son of Man?" What meaneth Christ when 
he saith, " Iniquity shall have the upper hand?" Doth not he tell that "cha- 
rity shall wax cold?" And who seeth not a wonderful great lack of charitj' in 
those, which would now be taken for Christ's church ? All that fear God in this 
realm truly, can tell more of this than I can write. 

Therefore, dear mother, receive some admonition of one of thy poor cliil- 
dren, now going to be burned for the testimony of Jesus. Come again to 
God's truth ; come out of Babylon ; confess Christ and his true doctrine ; repent 
that which is past ; make amends by declaring thy repentance by the fruits. 
Remember the readings and preachings of God's prophet, the true preacher 
Martin Bucer. Call to mind the threatenings of God, now something seen by 
thy children Leaver and others. Let the exile of Leaver, Pilkington, Grindal, 
Haddon, Horn, Scory, Ponet, etc. something awake thee. Let the imprison- 
ment of thy dear sons, Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer move thee. Consider the 
martyrdom of thy chickens, Rogers, Saunders, Taylor. And now cast not away 
the poor admonition of me, going to be burned also, and to receive the like 
crown of glory with my fellows. Take to heart God's calling by us. Be not 
as Pharaoh was: for then will it hapi)en unto thee as it did unto him. What 
is that? hardness of heart. And what then? Destruction eternally, both of 
body and soul. Ah, therefore, good mother ! awake, awake; repent, repent; 
buskle thyself, and make haste to turn to the Lord : for else it shall be more 
easy for Sodom and Gomorrah in theday of judgment than for thee. () harden 
not your hearts. O stop not your ears to-day in hearing God's voice, though it 
be by me, a most unworthy messenger. O fear the Lord ; for his anger is begun 
to kindle. Even now " the axe is laid to the root of the tree." 

Vou know I prophesied truly to you before the Sweat came, what would 



Mary. Come, if you repented not your carnal gospelling. And now I tell you before 

I depart hence, that the ears of men will tingle to hear the vengeance of God 

f\-/^- that will fall upon you all, both town and university, if you repent not ; if you 

^^^' leave not your idolatry ; if you turn not speedily to the Lord ; if you still be 

Bradford ashamed of Christ's truth, which you know. 

prophe- O Feme repent ! O Thompson repent ! O you doctors, bachelors, and 

f^re the masters repent ! O mayor, aldermen, and town-dwellers repent, repent, repent, 
sweat- that you may escape the near vengeance of the Lord ! Rend your hearts, and 
what ^ome apace, calling on the Lord. Let us all say, " peccavimus," we have all 
would sinned, we have done wickedly, we have not hearkened to thy voice, O Lord ! 
follow, Deal not with us after our deserts, but be merciful to our iniquities, for they are 
He' teach- ^^^^'^^ O pardon US our offences ! In thine anger remember thy mercy. Turn 
eth Cam- US unto thee, O Lord God of hosts, for the glory of thy name's sake. Spare 
brulge to xis, and be merciful unto us. Let not the wicked people say, " Where is now 
their God 1" O for thine own sake, for thy name's sake, deal mercifully with 
us. Turn thyself unto us, and us unto thee, and we shall praise thy name for 
God's If in this sort, my dearly beloved, in heart and mouth we come unto our 

'"omlsed ^^*'^^'^» ^^^ prostrate ourselves before the throne of his grace, then surely, 
u°c^am- surely we shall find mercy. Then shall the Lord look merrily upon us, for his 
bridcfeifit mercy's sake in Christ: then shall we hear him speak peace unto his people; 
repent. f^,^ he is gracious and merciful, of great pity and compassion : he cannot be 
chiding for ever : his anger cannot last long to the penitent. Though we weep 
in the morning, yet at night we shall have our sorrow to cease ; for he is 
exorable, and hath no pleasure in the death of a sinner : he rather would our 
conversion and turning. 
Cam- O turn ye now and convert yet once again, I humbly beseech you, and then 

threat'en, *^^ kingdom of heaven shall draw nigh. The eye hath not seen, the ear hath 
ed, if it ' not heard, nor the heart of man is able to conceive the joys prepared for us if we 
repent repent, amend our lives, and heartily turn to the Lord. But if ye repent not, 
"* ■ but be as you were, and go on forwards with the wicked, following the fashion 

of the world, the Lord will lead you on with wicked doers : you shall perish in 
your wickedness ; your blood will be upon your own heads ; your parts shall be 
with hypocrites, where shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth ; ye shall be cast 
from the face of the Lord for ever and ever : eternal shame, sorrow, woe, and 
misery, shall be both in body and soul to you, world without end. Oh, there- 
fore, right dear to me in the Lord! tiu-n you, turn you; repent you, repent 
you ; amend, amend your lives ; depart from evil ; do good ; follow peace and 
pursue it. Come out from Babylon ; cast off the works of darkness ; put on 
Christ; confess his truth; be not ashamed of his gospel; prepare yourselves to 
the cross; drink of God's cup before it come to the dregs; and then shall I, with 
you and for you, rejoice in the day of judgment, which is at hand ; and there- 
fore prepare yourselves thereto, I heartily beseech you. And thus I take my 
"vale in a^ternum," with you in this present life, mine own dear hearts in the 
Lord. The Lord of mercy be with us all, and give us a joyful and sure meeting 
in his kingdom: Amen, Amen. — Out of prison the 11th of February, 
Anno 1555. Your own in the Lord for ever, 

John Bradford. 

A Letter to Lancashire and Cheshire, and specially to Manchester. 

To all those that profess the name and true religion of our Saviour Christ in 

Lancashire and Cheshire, and specially abiding in Manchester and thereabout 

John Bradford, a most unworthy servant of the Lord, now not only in bonds, 
but also condemned for the same true religion, wisheth mercy and grace, peace 
and increase of all godliness, from God the Father of all pity, through the 
deserts of our Lord Jesus Christ, by tlie working of the most mighty and lively 
Spirit the Comforter, for ever. Amen. 

I heard it reported credibly, my dearly beloved in the Lord, that my hea- 
venly Father hath thought it good to provide, that as I have preached his true 
doctrine and gospel amongst you by word, so I shall testify and confirm the 
same by deed : that is, I sliall with you leave my life, which by his providence 
I first received there (for in Manchester Avas I hmw), for a seal to the doctrine 


I have taught with you, and amongst you : so tliat if from henceforth you Mary. 

waver in the same, you have none excuse at all. I know the enemies of 

Christ, which exercise this cruelty upon me (I speak in respect of mine offence, A. D. 
which is none to themwards), think, hy killing of me amongst you, to affray l-'">55. 
you and others, lest they should attempt to teach Christ truly, or believe his 
doctrine liereafter. But I doubt not but my heavenly Father will, by my 
death, more confirm you in his truth for ever. And therefore I greatly rejoice 
to see Satan and his soldiers supplanted in their own sapience, which is plain 
foolishness amongst the wise indeed ; that is, amongst such as have heard God's 
word, and do follow it : for they only are counted wise of the wisdom of God 
our Saviour. 

Indeed if I should simply consider my life with that which it ought to have He con- 
been, and as God in his law rcquireth, then could I not but cry as I do,' (J''"^"',''. 
"Righteous art thou, O Lord, and all thy judgments are true." For I have before" 
much grieved thee, and transgressed thy holy precepts, not only before my pro- G°<'- 
fessing the gospel, but since also : yea, even since my coming into prison 1 do not The pa- 
excuse, but accuse myself before God and all his church, that I have grievously demn^mit 
offended my Lord God ; I have not loved his gospel as I should have done ; J Hradford, 
have sought myself, and, not simply and only his glory and my brethren's com- c^rist 
modity ; I have been too unthankful, secure, carnal, hypocritical, vain-glorious, 
etc. : all which my evils, the Lord of mercy pardon me for his Christ's sake, as 
I hope, and certainly believe, he hath done for his great mercy in Christ our 

l}ut when I consider the cause of my condemnation, I cannot but lament, 
that I do no more rejoice than I do : for it is God's verity and truth ; so that 
the condemnation is not a condemnation of Bradford simply, but rather a con- 
demnation of Christ and of his truth. Bradford is nothing else but an instru- 
ment, in whom Christ and his doctrine are condennied. And therefore, my 
dearly beloved, rejoice ; rejoice and give thanks with me and for me, that ever 
God did vouchsafe so great a benefit to our country, as to choose the most 
unworthy (I mean myself) to be one, in whom it would please him to suffer 
any kind of affliction : much more this violent kind of death, which I perceive 
is prepared for me with you, for his sake. All glory and praise be given unto 
God our Father, for his great and exceeding mercy towards me, through Jesus 
Christ our Lord : Amen. 

But perchance you will say unto me, " What is the cause for the which you are 
condemned? We hear say, that ye deny all presence of Christ in his holy 
Supper, and so make it a bare sign and common bread, and nothing else." 
My dearly beloved, what is said of me, and what will be, I cannot tell. It is 
told me that Pendleton* is gone down to preach with you, not as he once 
recanted (for you all know how he hath preached contrary to that he was wont to 
preach afore I came amongst you), but to recant that which he hath recanted. 
How he will speak of me, and report before I come, when I am come, and 
Avhen I am burned, I much pass not : for he that is so uncertain, and will 
speak so often against himself, I cannot think he will speak well of me, except 
it make for his purpose and profit : but of this enough. 

Indeed the chief thing which I am condemned for, as a heretic, is because I Thecause 

deny in the sacrament of the altar (which is not Christ's Supper, but a plain ^''>' ^ 
•^ . „ . , . 1 , ^ . , -ix X I 1x1 1 Bradford 

pervertmg of it, being used as the papists now use it) to be a real, natural, and ^as con- 
corporal presence of Christ's body and blood, under the forms and accidents of demned. 
bread and wine ; that is, because I deny transubstantialion, which is the TranMib- 
darling of the devil, and daughter and heir to antichrist's religion, whereby the stantia- 
mass is maintained, Christ's Supper perverted, his sacrifice and cross imper- devil's^ 
fected, his priesthood destroyed, the ministry taken away, repentance repelled, darling, 
and all true godliness abandoned. In the Supper of our Lord, or sacrament J)"j|^,,,,^.r 
of Christ's body and blood, I confess and believe tliat there is a true and very of anti- 
presence of the' whole Christ, God and man, to the faith of the receiver (but <:l>"s»- 
not of the stander-by and looker-on), as there is a very true presence of bread 
and wine to the senses of him that is partaker thereof. This faith, this doc- 
trine, which consenteth with the word of God, and with the true testimony of 
Christ's church (which the popish church doth persecute), will I not forsake, 

(!) "Justus es Domine, et omnia judicia lua vera." 

(2) Dr. M. rendlctoii recanted first in king Kdw.ird's time, and now again in queen Slaiy's time. 



and therefore I am condemned as a heretic, and shall be bm-ned. But, my 

dearly beloved, this truth (which I have taught, and you have received, I 

A- D. believed, and do believe, and therein give my life) I hope in God shall never 

^■^55. be burned, bound, nor overcome : but shall triumph, have victory, and be at 

liberty, maugre the head of all God's adversaries. For there is no counsel 

against the Lord, nor can any device of man be able to defeat the verity in any 

other than such as be children of unbelief, which have no love to the truth, 

and therefore are given up to believe lies : from which plague the Lord of 

mercy deliver you and all the realm, my dear hearts in the Lord, I humbly 

beseech his mercy : Amen. 

Brad- And to the end you might be delivered from this plague— right dear to me 

farewell i" ^'^^ Lord — I shall, for my farewell with you for ever in this present life, 

to the heartily desire you all, in the bowels and blood of our most merciful Saviour 

county of Jesus Christ, to attend unto these things which I now shall shortly write unto 

shh^' you out of the holy Scriptures of the Lord. 

God's You know a heavy plague (or rather plagues) of God is fallen upon \'.s, in 

manifold taking away our good king and true religion, God's true prophets and ministers, 
fipon"*^* etc. ; and setting over us, such as seek not the Lord after knowledge : whose en- 
England deavours God prospereth wonderfully to the trial of many, that his people may 
in queen jjoth better know themselves, and be known. Now the cause hereof is our 
day's^. ^ iniquities and grievous sins. We did not know the time of our visitation : we 
Thecause were unthankful unto God : we contemned the gospel, and carnally abused it, 
of God's to serve our hypocrisy, our vain-glory, our viciousness, avarice, idleness, secu- 
ouTinT- "" ""'ty* etc. Long did the Lord linger and tarry to have showed mercy upon us, 
quities, but We Were ever the longer the worse. Therefore most justly hath God dealt 
knowing ^^^^^^ "^' ^"^ dealeth with us : yea, yet we may see that his justice is tempered 
the time with much mercy, whereto let us attribute that we are not utterly consumed : 
of God's for if the Lord should deal with us after our deserts, alas ! how could we abide 
tion.^' it? In his anger therefore, seeing he doth remember his mercy undeserved 
(yea undesired on our behalf), let us take occasion the more speedily to go out 
to meet him, not with force of arms (for we are not so able to withstand him, 
much less to prevail against him), but to beseech him to be merciful unto us, 
and, according to his wonted mercy, to deal with us. 
Rising Let us arise with David, and say, " Ne intres in judicium cum servo tuo," 

David ^^^' '•^' " ^"t^'' "o*- into judgment with thy servant, O Lord; for in thy sight 
Suin" ^° ^e^h living shall be justified." Let us send ambassadors with the centurion, 
■witiAhe and say, " Lord, we are not worthy to come ourselves unto thee ; speak the 
centu- word, and we shall have peace." Let us penitently, with the publican, look 
_ "^ . down on the earth, knock our hard hearts to burst them, and cry out, " O God, 
ing with be merciful unto us wretched sinners." Let us, with the lost son, return and 
the pub- say, " O Father, we liave sinned against heaven and earth, and before thee, 
we are unworthy to be called thy children." Let us, I say, do on this sort; 
ing'wuii t^'^* iS) heartily repent us of our former evil life, and unthankful gospelling 
the lost past, convert and turn to God with our whole hearts, hoping in his great mercy 
*""• through Christ, and heartily calling upon his holy name ; and then, undoubtedly, 

we shall find and feel otherwise than yet we feel, both inwardly and outwardly. 
Inwardly we shall feel peace of conscience between God and us, which peace 
passeth all understanding ; and outwardly we shall feel much mitigation of 
these miseries, if not an utter taking of them away. 
Brad- Therefore, my dearly beloved in the Lord, I, your poorest brother now 

ford's last departing to the Lord, for my Vale in ceterinim for this present life, pray you, 
beseech you, and even from the very bottom of my heart, for all the mercies of 
God in Christ showed unto you, most earnestly beg and crave of you out of 
prison (as often out of your pulpits I have done), that you will repent you, 
leave your wicked and evil life, be sorry for your offences, and turn to the 
Lord ; whose arms are wide open to receive and embrace you, whose stretched- 
out hand to strike to death stayetb, that he may show mercy upon you. For 
he is the Lord of mercy, and God of all comfort ; he will not the death of a 
sinner, but rather that ye should rettu-n, convert, and amend. He hath no 
"atooA-i P^^''isure in the destruction of men ; his long suffering draweth to repentance 
wrath at before the time of vengeance and the day of wrath, which is at hand, doth 
hand. come. 

Now is the axe laid to the root of the tree, utterly to destroy the impenitent. 


Now is the fire gone out before the face of the Lord, and who is able to quench Uary. 
it? Oh! therefore repent you, repent you. It is enough to liave lived as we 

have done : it is enough to have played the wanton gospellers, the proud A. 1). 
protestants, hypocritical and false Christians ; as alas, we have done. Now the 1555. 
Lord speaketh to us in mercy and grace : oh ! turn before he speaketh in \vantmi~ 
wrath. Yet is there mercy with the Lord, and plenteous redemption : yet he Rospil- 
hath not forgotten to show mercy to them that call upon him. Oh ! then call '"*• 
upon him while he may be found ; for he is rich in mercy, and plentiful to all p'oiest- 
them that call upon him. So that he that calleth on the name of the Lord, ants: 
shall be saved. If your sins be as red as scarlet, the Lord saith, he will make chrts- 
them as white as snow. He hath sworn, and never will repent him thereof, tians. 
that he will never remember our iniquities : but as he is good, faithful, and 
true, so will he be our God, and we shall be his people ; his law will he write 
in our hearts, and ingraft in our minds, and never will he have in mind our 

Therefore, my dear hearts in the Lord, turn you, turn you to the Lord your 
Father, to tlie Lord your Saviour, to the Lord your Comforter. Oh ! why do 
you stop your ears, and harden your hearts to-day, when you hear his voice by 
me your poorest brother ? Oh ! forget not how that the Lord hath showed Bradford 
himself true, and me his true preacher, by bringing to pass these plagues, which jirophe- 
at my mouth you oft heard before they came to pass; specially when I treated [{^^^^^ 
of Noah's flood, and when I preached of the 22d chapter of St. Matthew's plagues 
Gospel, on St. Stephen's day, the last time that I was with you. And now, by l><--fore- 
me the Lord sendeth you word, dear countrymen, that if you will go on for- 
ward in your impenitency, carnality, hypocrisy, idolatry, covetousness, swearing, 
gluttony, drunkenness, whoredom, etc. (wherewith, alas! alas ! our country Destruc- 
floweth :) if (I say) you will not turn and leave off, seeing me now burned {5"rcat- 
amongst you, to assure you on all sides how God seeketh you, and is sorry to ened to 
do you hurt, to plague you, to destroy you, to take vengeance upon you ; oh ! '*]'■■"' '''^' 
your blood will be upon your own heads : you have been warned, and warned not!" 
again, by me in preaching, by me in burning. 

As I said therefore, I say again, my dear hearts and dearlings in the Lord, Precepts 
turn you, turn you, repent you; cease from doing evil, study to do well, away of life, 
with idolatry, flee the Romish god and service, leave ofl" from swearing, cut off 
carnality, abandon avarice, drive awiiy drunkenness; fly from fornication and 
flattery, murder, and malice ; destroy deceitfulness, and cast away all the works 
of darkness. Put on pity and godliness ; serve God after his word, and not 
after custom ; use your tongues to glorify God by prayer, thanksgiving, and 
confession of his truth, etc. Be spiritual, and by the Spirit mortify carnal affec- 
tions ; be sober, holy, true, loving, gentle, merciful, and then shall the Lord's Good 
wrath cease, not for this our doing's sake, but for his mercy's sake. Go to therefore, <:o^"se\ 
good countrymen, take this counsel of the Lord, by me now sent unto you, as ^'^^°' 
the Lord's counsel, and not as mine, that in the day of judgment I may rejoice j,,^^. 
with you, and for you ; the which thing I heartily desire, and not to be a wit- ford's 
ness against you. My blood will cry for vengeance, as against the papists, ^Jy^^'j'" 
God's enemies (whom I beseech God, if it be his will, heartily to forgive, yea, aRainsi 
even them which put me to death and are the causers thereof; for they know <lie rc- 
not what they do), so will my blood cry for vengeance against you, my dearly [."'"oVn- 
beloved in the Lord, if ye repent not, amend not, and turn not unto the Lord. scl. 

Turn unto the Lord yet once more, I heartily beseech thee thou Manchester, 
thou Ash ton-under-Line, thou Bolton, Bury.Wigan, Liverpool, Mottram, Stock- 
port,Winsley, Eccles, Preston, Middleton, Radcliff, and thou city of Westchester, 
where I have truly taught and preached the word of God. Turn, I say unto 
you all, and to all the inhabitants thereabouts, unto the Lord our God, and he 
will turn unto you; he will say unto his angel, It is enough, put up the sword. 
The which thing that he will do, I humbly beseech his goodness, for the jjre- 
cious blood's sake of his dear Son, our Saviour Jesus Christ. Ah good brethren! 
take in good part these my last words unto every one of you. Pardon me 
mine ofiences and negligences in behaviour amongst you. The Lord of mercy 
pardon us all our offences, for our Saviour Jesus Christ's sake : Amen. 

Out of prison ready to come to you, the 11th of February, Anno 1555. 





eth with 
his blood 
for his 

again his 
own life. 

ed in his 

ed for 
in.!,' the 

never can 
be kept 
under by 
the adver- 

To the Town of Walden. 

To the faithful, and such as profess the true doctrine of our Saviour Jesus 
Christ, dwelling at Walden and thereabouts, John Bradford, a most unworthy- 
servant of the Lord, now in bands and condemned for the same true doctrine, 
wisheth crace, mercy, and peace, with the increase of all godliness in know- 
ledge and living, from God the Father of all comfort, through the deserts of 
our alone and full Redeemer Jesus Christ, by the mighty working of the most 
Holy Spirit the Comforter, for ever : Amen. 

When I remember how that by the providence and grace of God I have 
been a man, by whom it hath pleased him through my ministry to call you to 
repentance and amendment of life, something effectually, as it seemed, and to 
sow amongst you his true doctrine and religion, lest that by my affliction, and 
storms now arisen to try the faithful, and to conform them like to the image of 
the Son of God, into whose company we are called, you might be faint-hearted ; 
I could not but, out of prison secretly (for my keepers may not know that I 
have pen and ink) write unto you a signification of the desire I have, that you 
should not only be more confirmed in the doctrine I have taught amongst you, 
which (I take on my death, as I shall answer at the day of doom) I am per- 
suaded to be God's assured, infallible, and plain truth ; but also should, after 
your vocation, avow the same by confession, profession, and living. I have not 
taught you, my dearly beloved in the Lord, fables, tales, or untruths ; but I 
have taught you the verity, as now by my blood, gladly (praised be God there- 
for) I do seal the same. 

Lideed, to confess the truth unto you, and to all the church of Christ, I do 
not think of myself, but that I have most justly deserved, not only this kind, 
but also all kinds of death, and that eternally, for mine hypocrisy, vain-glory, 
uncleanness, self-love, covetousness, idleness, unthankfulness, and carnal pro- 
fessing of God's holy gospel, living therein not so purely, lovingly, and pain- 
fully as I should have done. The Lord of mercy, for the blood's sake of Christ, 
pardon me, as I hope, yea, I certainly believe he hath done, for his holy name's 
sake through Christ. But, my deai-ly beloved, you and all the whole world 
may see, and easily perceive, that the prelates persecute in me another thing 
tlian mine iniquities, even Christ himself, Christ's verity and truth, because 1 
cannot, dare not, nor will not, confess transubstantiation, and how that wicked 
men, yea mice and dogs, eating the sacrament, which they term of the altar 
(thereby overthrowing Christ's holy supper utterly), do eat Christ's natural and 
real body born of the Virgin Mary. 

To believe and confess as God's word teacheth, the primitive church beUeved, 
and all the catholic and good holy fathers taught five hundred years at the least 
after Christ, that in the Supper of the Lord (which the mass overthroweth, as it 
doth Christ's priesthood, sacrifice, death, and passion, the ministry of his word, 
true faith, repentance, and all godliness), whole Christ, God and man, is pre- 
sent by grace to the faith of the receivers, but not of the standers-by and 
lookers-on, as bread and wine is to their senses, will not serve : and therefore I 
am condemned and shall be burned out of hand as a heretic. Wherefore I 
heartily thank my Lord God, that will and doth vouch me worthy to be an 
instrument, in whom he himself doth suffer. For you see my affliction and 
death is not simply, because I have deserved no less, but much more at his 
hands and justice : but rather because I confess his verity and truth, and am 
not afraid through his gift that to do, that you also might be confirmed in his 
truth. Therefore, my dearly beloved, I heartily do pray you, and so many as 
unfeignedly love me in God, to give, with me and for me, most hearty thanks 
to our heavenly Father, through our sweet Saviour Jesus Christ ; for this his 
exceeding great mercy towards me and you also, that your faith waver not 
from the docti'ine I have taught, and ye have received. For what can you 
desire more, to assure your consciences of the verity taught by your preachers, 
than their own lives ? 

Go to, therefore, my dear hearts in the Lord, waver not in Christ's religion 
truly taught you, and set forth in king Edward's days. Never shall the enemies 
be able to burn it, and prison it, and keep it in bonds. Us they may prison ; 
they may hind and burn as they do, and will do, so long as shall please the Lord : 
but our cause, religion, and doctrine which we confess, they shall never be able 


to vanquish and put away. Their idolatry and popisli rehgion shall never be M„rp. 

built in the consciences of men that love God's truth. As for those that love not -- 

God's truth, that have no pleasure to walk in the ways of the Lord, over those, A. D. 
I say, the devil shall prevail : for God will give them strong illusion to believe ^^•'J^- 
lies. Therefore, dear brethren and sisters in the Lord, I humbly beseech you He tx- 
and pray you in the bowels and blood of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, I'orteth 
now going to the death for the testimony of Jesus, as oftentimes I have done {ov"}iod', 
before this present out of your pulpit, that you would live the Lord's truth ; truth.'and 
love (I say) to live it, and frame your lives thereafter. Alas! you know the ["^Jj^^ 
cause of all these plagues fallen upon us, and of the success which God's advcr- after 
saries have daily, is for our not loving God's word. 

You know how that we were but gospellers in lips, and not in life. We God's 
were carnal, concupiscentious, idle, unthankful, unclean, covetous, arrogant, fbusell 
dissemblers, crafty, stibtle, malicious, false, backbiters, etc. ; and even glutted 
with God's word ; yea, we loathed it, as did the Israelites the manna in the God's 
wilderness ; and therefore as to them the Lord's wrath waxed hot, so doth it f^l'^L 
unto tis. So that there is no remedy, but that (for it is better late to turn, than 
never to turn) we confess our faults even from the bottom of our hearts, and He ex- 
with hearty repentance (which God work in us all for his mercy's sake) we run ''of';^"' 
unto the Lord our God, who is exorable, merciful, and sorry for the evil poured ance'aiid 
out upon us, and cry out unto him with Daniel, saying, " We have sinned, we prayer, 
have sinned grievously, O Lord God ! against thy Majesty. We have heaped ^"( 
iniquity upon iniquity, the measure of our transgressions floweth over, so that our sins 
justly are thy vengeance and wrath fallen up'-n us. For we are very miserable, ^'^•^1'^ "'* 
we have contemned thy long suffering, we have not hearkened to thy voice. God. ""' 
When thou hast called us bj' preachers, we hardened our hearts : and therefore 
now deserve that thou send thy curse hereupon to harden oiu- hearts also, that 
we should henceforth have eyes and see not, ears and hear not, hearts and 
understand not, lest we should convert and be saved. Oh be merciful luito us! 
spare us, good Lord, and all thy people, whom thou hast dearly bought. Let 
not thine enemies triumph altogether, and always against thee ; for then will 
they be puft up. Look down and behold the pitiful complaint of the poor ; let 
the sorrowful sighing of the simple come in thy sight, and be not angry with 
us for ever. Turn us, O Lord God of hosts, unto thee, and turn thee unto us, 
that thou mayest be justified in thy sweet sentences, and overcome when thou 
art judged, as now thou art of our adversaries. For they say. Where is their 
God ? Can God deliver them now ? Can their gospel serve them ? Lord how 
long ? for the glory of thy name, and for thy honour's sake, in the bowels and 
blood of Jesus Christ, we humbly beseech thee, come and help us, for we are 
very miserable." 

On this sort I say, dearly beloved ! let us publicly and privately bewail our 
sins ; but so that hereto we join ceasing from wilfulness and sin of purpose : 
for else the Lord heareth not our prayers, as David saith. And in St. John it 
is written, The impenitent sinners God heareth not. Now, impenitent are The 
they which pur])ose not to amend their lives: as for example, not only such as prayers of 
follow still their pleasures, uncleanness, carnality ; but those also which, for no"t'h"ard"! 
fear or favour of men, do against their consciences consent to the Romish rags, Romish 
and resort to the rotten religion, communicating in service and ceremonies with [o^pn're. 
the papists; thereby declaring themselves to love more the world than God; ligion. 
to fear man more than Christ ; to dread more the loss of temporal things than 
eternal ; in whom it is evident that the love of God abideth not. For he that 
loveth the world, hath npt God's word abiding in him, saith St. John : there- 
fore, my dear hearts, and dear again in the Lord, remember what you have 
professed, Christ's religion and name, and the renouncing of the devil, sin, 
and the world. 

Remember that before ye learned A. B. C, your lesson was Christ's cross. The A. B. 
Forget not that Christ will have no disciples, but such as will promise to aeny ^- "f tl"-- 
themselves, and take up their cross (mark, take it up), and follow him, and not ,ian',%e- 
the multitude, custom, etc. Consider, for God's sake, that if we gather not pinncth 
with Christ, we scatter abroad. What should it profit a man to win the whole *\'^^^,.^ 
world, and lose his own soul ? We must not forget that this life is a wilder- cross, 
ness, and not a paradise; here is not our home: we arc now in warfare; we 
must needs fight, or else be taken prisoners. Of all things we have in this 
vor,. VII. P 

and con- 


Mary, life, \ve sliall carry nothing with us. If Christ be our Captain, we must follow 

him as soldiers : if we keep company with him in affliction, we shall be sure 

■A- D. of i^is society in glory : if we forsake not him, he will never forsake us : if we 

^555. confess him, he will confess us ; but, if we deny him, he will deny us : if we 

They ne- be ashamed of him, he will be ashamed of us. Wherefore, as he forsook his 

ver lose Father, and heaven, and all things to come to us; so let us forsake all things, 

low '^"'' •'ind come to him, being sure and most certain that we shall not lose thereby. 

Christ. Your children shall find, and feel it double, yea treble, whatsoever you lose for 

the Lord's sake ; and you shall find and feel peace of conscience, and friendship 

with God, which is more worth than all the goods of the world. 

He ex- My dearly beloved, therefore for the Lord's sake, consider these things which 

horteth lo I now write unto you of love, for my vale, and last farewell for ever, in this 

mentln present life. Turn to the Lord ; repent you of your evil and unthankful life ; 

relij,'ion declare repentance by the fruits ; take time while ye have it ; come to the Lord 

_-j ■— vvhile he calleth you ; run into his lap, while his arms be open to embrace you; 

seek him while he may be found; call upon him while time is convenient; 

forsake and flee from all evil, both in religion, and in the rest of your life and 

conversation. Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good 

works, and praise God in the day of his visitation. " O ! come again, come 

again you strange children, and 1 will receive you, saith the Lord. Convert 

and turn to me, and I will turn unto you. Why, will ye needs perish ? As 

sure as I live (sweareth the Lord) 1 will not your death ; turn therefore unto 

me. Can a woman forget the child of her womb? If she should, yet I will 

not forget you, saith the Lord your God. I am he, I am he which put away 

your sins for mine own sake." 

The Lord O then, dear friends, turn I say unto your dearest Father. Cast not these 

watcheth g^yggt j^d loving words to the ground, and at your tail; for the Lord watcheth 

liis word on his word to perform it : which is in two sorts ; to them that lay it up in 

double- their hearts, and believe it, will he pay all, and eternal joy and comfort. But 

tr'^^V a *■" them that cast it at their backs, and will forget i*:, to them (I say) will he 

must be a po^i" o^^ indignation and eternal shame. Wherefore I heartily yet once more 

witness in beseech and pray you and every of you, not to contemn this poor and simple 

dav''etc exhortation, which now out of prison I make unto you, or rather the Lord by 

me. Loth would I be to be a witness against you in the last day; as of truth 1 

must be, if ye repent not; if ye love not God's gospel ; yea, if ye love it not. 

Therefore (to conclude) repent ; love God's gospel ; live in it all your con- 
versation ; so shall God's name be praised, his plagues be mitigated, his people 
comforted, and his enemies ashamed. Grant all this, thou gracious Lord God, 
to every one of us, for thy dear Son's sake, our Saviour Jesus Christ : to whom 
with thee and the Holy Ghost be eternal glory for ever and ever : Amen. 
The 12th of February, anno 1555. 

By the bondman of our Lord, and your poor afflicted brother, 

John Bradford. 

To my loving Brethren, B. C. etc., tlieir Wives, and whole Families. 
John Bradford.^ 

I beseech the ever-living God to grant you all, my good brethren and sisters, 
the comfort of the Holy Spirit, and the continual sense of his mercy in Christ 
our Lord, now and for ever : Amen. 

The world, my brethren, seemeth to have the upper hand; iniquity over- 

floweth ; the truth and verity seemeth to be suppressed ; and they which take 

part therewith, are unjustly entreated ; as they which love the truth, lament to 

God's an- ^ee and hear as they do. The cause of all this, is God's anger and mercy : 

per and his anger, because we have grievously sinned against him ; his mercy, because 

botfuoee- '^^ ^^'"'^ puiiisheth us, and as a father nurtureth us. We have been unthankful 

tlierupon for his word; we have contemned his kindness; we have been negligent in 

^i'" prayer ; we have been too carnal, covetous, licentious, etc. ; we have not 

hastened to heaven-ward, but rather to hell-ward. We were fallen almost into 

an open contempt of God, and all his good ordinances ; so that of his justice 

he could no longer forbear, but make us feel his anger, as now he hath done, 

in taking his word and true service from us, and permitting Satan to serve us 

(I) This other letter of master Bradford was written to certain friends of his, whom, for danger 
of that time, he would not name. 


with antichristian religion ; and that in such sort, that if we will not yiehl to j^j 
it, and seem to allow it in deed and outward fact, our bodies are like to be laid "'" 

in prison, and our goods given we cannot tell to whom. A.D. 

This should we look upon as a sign of God's anger procured by our sins; l.'i.'iS. 

which, my good brethren, every of us should now call to our memory often- TTj 

times, so particularly as we can, that we might heartily lament them, repent tioM"to're. 
them, hate them, ask earnestly mercy for them, and submit ourselves to bear pcntance 
in this life any kind of punishment which God will lay upon us for them, amtnd- 
This should we do in consideration of God's anger in this time. Now his mcnt. 
mercy in this time of wrath is seen, and should be seen in us, my dearly <^oii'» 
beloved, in this : that God doth vouchsafe to punisli us in this present life. If ^"s^'Jl^" 
he should not have punished us, do not you think that we should have con- weDl^ '^ 
tinned in the evils we were in? Yes, verily, we would have been worse, and i'""'"'"-"'! 
have gone forwards in hardening our hearts by impenitence, and negligence of '*''*^' 
God and true godliness. And then, if death had come, sliould not we have 
perished both soul and body in eternal fire in perdition ? Alas, what misery 
should we have fallen into, if God should have suflered us to have gone on 
forward in our evils ? No gi-eater sign of damnation there is, than to lie in 
evil and sin un})unished of God, as now the papists, my dearly beloved, are cast 
into Jezebel's bed of security;' which, of all plagues, is the most gi-ievous that Jezebel's 
can be. They are bastards and not sons,^ they are not under God's rod of curity."**^ 

A great mercy it is therefore, that God doth punish us : for if he loved us 
not, he would not punish us. Now doth he chastise us, that we should not 
be damned with the world. ^ Now doth he nurture us, because he favoureth us. 
Now may we think ourselves God's house and children, because he beginneth his \Vhy 
chastising at us :* now calleth he us to remember our sins past. Wherefore ? ^'J'' '■* 
That we might repent, and ask mercy. And why ? That he might forgive us, afflicted 
pardon us, justify us, and make us his children ; and so begin to make us here i" tl>is 
like unto Christ, that we might be like unto him elsewOiere, even in heaven, ^■•"■''^• 
where already we are set by faith with Christ ; and at his coming in very deed, 
we shall then most joyfully enjoy, w^hen our sinful and vile bodies shall be made 
like to Christ's glorious body, according to the power whereby he is able to 
make all things subject to himself.^ 

Therefore, my brethren, let us in respect hereof not lament, hut laud God ; 
not be sorry, but be merry ; not weep, but rejoice and be glad, that God doth 
vouchsafe to offer us his cross ;^ thereby to come to him to endless joys and 
comforts. For if we suffer, we shall reign ; ' if we confess him before men, 
he will confess us before his Father in heaven ; if we be not ashamed of his 
gospel now, he will not be ashamed of us in the last day, but will be glorified 
in us,* crowning us with crowns of glory and endless felicity : for blessed are 
they that sufl'er persecution for righteousness' sake ; for theirs is the kingdom of 
heaven.^ •' Be glad," saith Peter, " for the Spirit of God resteth upon you."'" 
After that you are a little afflicted, God will comfort, strengthen, and confirm 
you." And therefore, my good brethren, be not discouraged for cross, for He ex- 
prison, or loss of goods ; for confession of Christ's gospel and truth which ye •""•'tt'i 
have believed, and lively was taught amongst you in the days of our late good ,akc",„m 
king, and most holy prince, king Edward. This is most certain, if you lose any furt imlio 
thing for Christ's sake, and for contemning the antichristian service set up ""''^■ 
again amongst us : as you, for your parts, even in prison shall find God's great 
and rich mercy, far passing all worldly wealth ; so shall your wives and chil- 
dren, in this present life, find and feel God's providence, more plentifully than 
tongue can tell : '^ for he will show merciful kindness on thousands of them that 
love him. The good man's seed shall not go a begging his bread." You arc 
good men, so many as suffer for Christ's sake. 

I trust you all, my dearly beloved, will consider this gear with yourselves, f.od's 
and in the cross see God's mercy, which is more sweet, and to be set by, than "l"^'^]^ 
life itself, much more than any muck or jjclf of this worid. This mercy of oit'cross. 
God should make you merry and cheerful : for the afflictions of this life are not 
to be compared to the joys of the life prepared for you." You know the way to 

(I) Rev. iii. (2) Hel). xii. (3) 1 Cor. xl. (4) 1 Pet. iv. (5) Phil. iii. 

(f.) Rom. viii. (7) 2 Tim. i. (8) Matt. y. ('J) Matt. v. (10) I Pet. iv. 

(U)IlVt. V. (12) Malt. xix. (13) I'saliu xxx\ iii. (1 1) Rom. viil. 

!• 2 


Mary, heavcn is not the wide way of the world, which windeth to the devil, but it is a 

strait way, which few walk in ; ' for few live godly in Christ Jesus ; ^ few regard 

-'^- ^- the life to come ; ^ few remember the day of judgment ; few remember how 

1555. Christ will deny them before his Father,'' that do deny him here ; few consider 

A strait that Christ will be ashamed of them in the last day, which are ashamed of his 

■way- truth and true service ; few cast their accounts, what will be laid to their charge 

in the day of vengeance ; few regard the condemnation of their own consciences, 

in doing that which inwardly they disallow ; few love God better than their 


A little But, I trust, you are of this few, my dearly beloved ; I trust you be of that 

flock. ]jttle flock,^ which shall inherit the kingdom of heaven ; I trust you are the 

mourners and lamenters which shall be comforted with comfort, which never 

shall be taken from you, if now you repent your former evils ; if now you strive 

against the evils that ai-e in you ; if now you continue to call upon God ; if now 

you defile not your bodies with any idolatrous service used in the antichrlstian 

churches ;6 if you molest not the good Spirit of God, which is given you as a gage 

of eternal redemption, a counsellor and master to lead you into all truth ;^ 

wliich good Spirit I beseech the Father of mercy to give to us all, for his dear 

Son's sake Jesus Christ our Lord ; to whom I commend you all, and to the 

word of his grace,' which is able to help you all, and save you all that believe 

it, follow it, and sei-ve God thereafter. 

And of this I would ye were all certain, that all the hairs of your heads are 
numbered; so that not one of them shall perish,^ neither shall any man or devil 
be able to attempt any thing, much less to do any thing to you, or any of you, 
before your heavenly Father,'" which loveth you most tenderly, shall give them 
leave; and when he hath given them leave, they shall go no further" than he 
will, nor keep you in trouble any longer than he will.'^ Therefore cast on him 
all your care, for he is careful for you.'^ Only study to please him, and to keep 
your consciences clean and your bodies pure from the idolatrous service, which 
now everywhere is \ised, and God will marvellously and mercifully defend and 
comfort you ; which thing he do for his holy name's sake, in Christ our Lord. 

To his dearly-beloved in Christ, unto a godly couple, Erkinalde 
Rawlins and his Wife. 

God, our dear and most merciful Father through Christ, be with you, my 
good brother and sister, as with his children for ever ; and in all things so guide 
you with his Holy Spirit, the leader of his people, as may be to his glory, and 
your own everlasting joy and comfort in him : Amen. Because I have often- 
times received from either of you comfort corporally (for the which I beseech the 
Lord, as to make me thankful, so to recompense you both now and eternally), 
I cannot but go about (Lord help hereto for thy mercy's sake !) to write some- 
thing for your comfort spiritually. 
Days of My dearly beloved ! look not upon these days, and the afflictions of the same 
affliction jjg^g yf[^]^ ug^ simply as they seem unto you ; that is, as dismal days, and days 
godly are of God's vengeance ; but rather as lucky days, and days of God's fatherly kind- 
joyful: to ness towards you, and such as you be ; that Is, towards such as repent their sins 
pent^n"-^ and evil life past, and earnestly purpose to amend, walking not after the will of 
.sinners the World, and most part of men, for the preservation of their pelf, which (will 
(M^f they, nill they) they shall leave sooner or later; and to whom or how it shall 
(lays. be used, they know not. Indeed, to such as walk in their wickedness, and 
wind on with the world, this time is a time of wrath and vengeance; and their 
beginning of sorrow is but now, because they contemn the physic of their Fa- 
Cleansing ther, which by this purging time and cleansing days would work their weal, 
^y^,- which they will not : and because they will not have God's blessing, which both 
physic ways he hath offered unto them by prosperity and adversity, therefore it shall 
no^t to be be kept far enough from them. As when the sick man will no kind of physic 
at the hands of the physician, he is left alone, and so the malady increaseth, 
and dcstroyeth him at the length. To such men, indeed, these days are and 

(1) Matt. vii. (2) 2 Tim. iii. (.1) 2 Cor. v. {}) Matt. xvi. (5) Luke xii. 

(fi) Rom. xiv. (7) Kplies. iv. (8) Acts xx. (y) Matt. x. (10) Matt. viii. 

(ini'salmcv. (12) I'salm xx.\i (13) 1 IVt. v. 



should be doleful days, and days of woe aiul weeping, because their damnation ji/„r«. 
draweth nigh. ~ 

But unto such as be penitent, and arc desirous to live after the Lord's will ^P/ 
(among whom I do not only count you, but, as far as a man may judge, I km.w ^^>^^>- 
ye arej, unto such, I say, this time' is and should be comfortal)le. For first, (:.»i> 
now your Father chastiseth you and me for our sins ; for the which if he would ^■'■•■"■''-<^^- 
have destroyed us, then would he have letten us alone, ami left us to ourselves, UrnVvi'v 
in nothing to take to heart his fatherly visitation, which here it pleaseth them t'l "iih 
to work presently, because elsewhere he will not remember our transgressions, '^"""'''"• 
as Paul writeth : he chastiseth us in this world, lest with the world we should 
perish. Therefore, my dear hearts, call to mind )our sins to lament them, and pj"' P'l"- 
to ask mercy for them in his sight, and withal undoubtedly believe to obtain u, ^'e Vl!" ' 
l)ardon and assured forgiveness of the same, for twice the Lord punisheth not oiicthiiia. 
for one thing. 

So that I say, first we have cause to rejoice for these days, because our Father 
suffereth us not to lie in Jezebel's bed, sleeping in our own sins and security, 
but as mindful of us, doth coiTect us as his children. Whereby we may be 
certain, that we be no bastards, but children ; for lie chastiseth every child whom 
he receiveth. So that they which are not partakers of his chastising, or that Diovr- 
contemn it, declare themselves to be bastards, and not children, as I know you ^"'^'^ '""- 
are, which, as ye are chastised, so do ye take it to heart accordingly. And baTurds 
therefore be glad, my dear hearts and folks, knowing certainly, even by these and cliii- 
visitations of the Lord, that ye are his dear elect children, whose faults your ^'^°' 
Father doth visit with the rod of correction, but his mercy will he never take 
away from us. Amen. 

Secondly, ye have cause to rejoice for these days, because they are days of 
trial, wherein not only ye yourselves, but also the world, shall know that ye be 
none of his, but the Lord's dearlings. Before these days came. Lord God ! 
how many thought of themselves, they had been in God's bosom ; and so were 
taken, and would be taken of the world ! But now we see whose they are : for 
to whom we obey, his servants we are. If v.-e obey tlie world (which God for- Trouble 
bid, and hitherto ye have not done it), then are we the world's ; but if we obey ^^\'^^\ 
God, then are we God's : which thing (I mean, that ye are God's) these days ooii's.and 
have declared both to you, to me, and to all others that know you, better than "''o be 
ever we knew it. Therefore ye have no cause to sorrow, but rather to sing, in ""'' 
seeing yourselves to be God's babes, and in seeing that all God's children do so 
count you. 

What though the world repine thereat? What though he kick? What A true 
though he seek to trouble and molest you ? My dear hearts, he doth but his '^°^"y"J^^^ 
kind : he cannot love the Lord, which liveth not in the Lord : he cannot brook is dcclar-' 
the child, that hateth the father: he cannot mind the servant, that careth not !^^/l>' 
for the master. If ye were of the world, the world would love you; ye should 
dwell quietly; there would be no grief, no molestation. If the devil dwelt in The devil 
you (which the Lord forbid), he would not stir up his knights to besiege your JeVeu/" 
house, to snatch your goods, or suffer his fiends to enter into your hogs. But into liis 
because Christ dwelleth in you (as he doth by faith), therefore stirreth he up "*" '^"K'- 
his first-begotten son, the World, to seek how to disquiet you, to rob you, to ^'^,^,h'"''' 
spoil you, to destroy you : and perchance yom- dear Father — to try and to make powt-r to 
known unto you, and to the world, that ye are destinate to another dwelling Satan 
than here on earth, to another city than man's eyes have seen at any time — timiVover 
hath given or will give power to Satan, and to the world, to take from you the hisser- 
things which he hath lent you ; and, by taking them away, to try your fidelity, J',^';'^'^"'' 
obedience, and love towards hinr (for ye may not love them above him), as by end c.od 
giving that ye have, and keeping it, he hath declared his love towards you. I'^'l'Ss " 

Satan perchance telleth God (as he did of .lob), that ye love (Jod for your '*' '"• 
goods' sake. What now then, if tlic Lord, to try you with Job, shall give him 
power on your goods and body accordingly— should ye be dismayed ? should ye 
despair? should ye be faint-hearted? Should ye not rather rejoice, as did the 
apostles, that they were counted worthy to suffer any thing for the Lord's sake ? 
O forget not the end that happened to Job : for as it happened to him, so shall 
it happen unto you. For God is the same (iod, and cannot long forget to show 
mercy to them that look and long for it ; as I know ye do, and I pray you so 
to do still. For the Lord loveth you, and never can nor will forget to show 


and pour o\it his mercy upon you. '• After a little while that he hath afflicted 
and tried you," saith Peter, " he will visit, comfort, and confirm you." As to 

-^^ ^- Jacob wrcstUng with the angel, at the length morning came, and the sun arose : 

1555. go^ dear hearts, doubtless it will happen unto you. Howbeit, do ye as Job and 

Jacob Jacob did ; that is, order and dispose your things that God hath lent you, as ye 

must may, and whiles ye have time. Who knoweth whether God hath given you 

lowres'Jfe V^^^^^' tli"s long, even to that end ? 

Go to therefore ; dispose your goods, prepare yourselves to trial, that either 
ye may stand to it like God's champions, or else, if you feel such infirmity in 
yourselves that ye be not able, give place to violence, and go where you may 
with free and safe conscience serve the Lord. Think not this counsel to come 
by chance, or fortune, but to come from the Lord. Other oracles we may not 
look for now. As God told Joseph in a dream by an angel, that he should fly ;' 
so if you feel such infirmity in yourselves, as should turn to God's dishonour 
and your own destruction withal, know that at this present I am as God's 
angel, to admonish you to take lime whiles ye have it, and to see that in no case 
God's name by you might be dishonoured. Joseph might have objected the 
omission of his vocation, as perchance ye will do : hut, dear hearts, let voca- 
tions and all things else give place to God's name, and the sanctifying thereof. 
Tliis I speak, not as though I would not have you rather to tarry, and to 
stand to it : but I speak it in respect of your infirmity, which if you feel to be 
so great in you, that you are not certain of this hope, that God will never tempt 
you above your ability ; fly and get you hence, and know that thereby God will 
liave you tried to yourselves and to others. For by it you shall know how to 
take this world, and that your home here is no home, but that ye look for 
another ; and so give occasion to others less to love this world, and perchance 
to some to doubt of their religion : wherein though they be earnest, yet would 
they not lose so much as ye do for your religion, which ye do confirm to me 
and others, by your giving place to violence. 
Tribula- Last of all, ye have cause to rejoice over these our days, because they be the 
tion doth dj^yg Qf conformation, in the which, and by which, God our heavenly Father 
conform •', , ... /-.!•>• ■, t ,■,■■, i • , 

us to the maketh us like unto Christ s image here, that we may be like unto him else- 
iinaf,'e of where. For if that we suff'er with him, then we shall reign also with him : if 
"^'° we be buried with him, then we shall rise with him again : if that we company 
with him in all troubles and afflictions, then we shall rejoice with liiin in glory ; 
if we now sow with him in tears, we shall reap with him in gladness : if we con- 
fess him before men, he will confess us before his Father in heaven : if we take 
his part, he will take ours : if we lose aught for his name's sake, he will give 
us all things for his truth's sake. So that we ought to rejoice and be glad ; for 
it is not given to every one to suffer loss of country, life, goods, house, etc., for 
the Lord's sake. What can God the Father do more unto us, than to call us 
into the camp with his Son ? what may Christ our Saviour do more for us, than 
to make us his warriors ? what can the Holy Ghost do to us above this, to mark 
us with the cognizance of the Lord of hosts ? 
The This cognizance of the Lord standeth not in forked caps, tippets, shaven 

coL'iii- frowns, or such other baggage and antichristian pelf; but in sufi'ering for the 
zance Lord's sake. " The world shall hate you," saith Christ. Lo, there is the cog- 
standeth nizance and badge of God's children : the world shall hate you. Rejoice there- 
I'orVed f""^^" ™y dearly beloved, rejoice, that God doth thus vouchsafe to begin to 
caps, etc., conform you, and to make you like to Christ. By the trial of these days ye 
fe'r'in" fo'" ^^^ occasioned more to repent, more to pray, more to contemn this world, more 
the Lord's ^0 desire life everlasting ; more to be holy (for holy is the end wherefore God 
sake. doth afflict us), and so to come to God's company : which thing because we 
cannot do, as long as this body is as it is, therefore by the door of death we 
must enter with Christ into eternal life, and immortality of soul and body ; 
which God of his mercy send shortly, for our Saviour Jesus Christ's sake : 

To Mistress A. Warcup. 

'I'ho everlasting peace of Christ be more and more lively felt in our hearts, by 
the operation of the Holy Ghost, now and for ever : Amcii. 

(1) This Erkiiiald and his wile, following this counsel, fled both beyond sea. 


Although I know it to be more than needless to write any thing unto you, Marg. 

good sister, being, as I doubt not but you be, diligently exercised in reading of 

the Scriptures, in meditating of the same, and in liearty prayer to God for the ,,^* 
help of his Holy Spirit, to have the sense and feeling, especially of the comforts ^•>->-'^- 
you read in God's sweet book : yet, having such opportunity, and knowing not 
whether hereafter I shall ever have the like (as this bringer can declare), 1 
thought good in few words to take my farewell in writing ; because otherwise 
I cannot. And now methinks I have done it; for what else can I, or should nrari- 
I say unto you, my dearly beloved in the Lord, but farewell ? Farewell, p^'^'^.. 
dear sister, farewell ; howbeit in the Lord (our Lord), I say, farewell. In him (^ ^,^5 
shall you fare well, and so much the better, by how much in yourself you fare Warcup. 
evil, and shall fare evil. 

When I speak of yourself, I mean also this world, this life, and all things 
properly pertaining to this life. In them as you look not for your welfare, so be 
not dismayed, when accordingly you shall not feel it. To the Lord our God, to 
the Lamb our Christ, which hath borne our sins on his back, and is our Medi- 
ator for ever, do I send you. In him look for welfare, and that without all 
wavering, because of his own goodness and tinith, which our evils and untruth . . 
cannot take away : not that therefore I would have you to flatter yourself in wiioTly'^ 
any evil or unbelief; but that I would comfort you, that they should not dismay "jjrs. with 

you. Yours is our Christ whol" ' ' . . 

Is not this welfare, trow you ; 

before you find it otherwise, say the liar Satan what he list. 

Therefore, good sister, farewell ; and be merry in the Lord ; be merry, I say, How to 
for you have good cause. If your welfare, joy, and salvation, hanged upon ^^^J^^' '° 
any other thing than only God's mercy and truth, then might you well be sad, when he 
heavy, and stand in a doubt : but in that it hangeth only upon these two, tell moveth 
Satan he lieth, when he would have you to stand in a mammering, by causing ^'J^J,"^ ^^^ 
you to cast your eyes (which only, in this case, should be set on Christ your God's fa- 
sweet Saviour) on yourself. In some part, indeed, look on yourself, on your ^"J"^-^^ 
faith, on your love, obedience, etc., to wake you up from security, to stir you up ,00^ upon 
to diligence, in doing the things appertaining to your vocation : but when you Christ; 
would be at peace with God, and have true consolation in your conscience, alto- J,'°,'s'p"Pe" 
gether look upon the goodness of God in Christ. Think on this commandment in case of 
which precedeth all others ; that you must have no other gods but the Lord J^'^'^'"[^^- 
Jehovah, which is your Lord and Ciod : the which he could not be, if that he look'only 
did not pardon your sins in very deed. Remember that Christ commandeth upon the 
you to call him Father for the same intent. And hereto call to mind all the l"f°^^^l'^ 
benefits of God, hitherto showed upon you ; and so shall you feel in very deed, Christ, 
that which I wish unto you now, and pray you to wish imto me. Farewell, or 
wellfare in the Lord Jesus, with whom he grant us shortly to meet as his chil- 
dren, for his name and mercy's sake, to our eternal welfare : Amen. 

To mine own dear Brother, Master Lawrence Saunders, Prisoner in 
the Marslialsea. 

My good brother, I beseech our good and gracious Father always to continue 
his gracious favour and love towards us, and by us, as by instruments of his 
grace, to work his glory and the confusion of his adversaries. "Out of the 
mouth of infants and babes he will show forth his praise, to destroy the enemy, 

1 have perused your letters to mvself, and have read them to others ; for 
answer whereof, if I should write what doctor Taylor and master Pl.ilpot do 
think, then must I say, that they think, the salt sent unto us by your fne.ul,' is 
unseasonable : and indeed I think they both will declare it heartily, if they should 
come before men. As for me, if you would know what think, my good and 
most dear brother Lawrence, because I am so sinful and so conspurcate (the 
Lord knoweth I lie not) with many grievous sins which I hope are washed 
away sanguine Chrhti nostri, 1 neither can nor would be consulted withal, but 

tn " Ex ore infantium ct lacteniium fundet laudcm ad destruendum inimicum." etc. 

2 TlJ^s friend moved then> to subserilie to the papists' articles, y>Mx this condition : so as 
they\vere not aUrst God's word, beinK indeed ck«. contrary to it: and yet .hurt y after, he 
val a U ) cutrered death for refusing the same. (3) " Conspurcate. denied.- !■.». 


Manj. as a cipher in Agriine.' Howbeit, to tell you how and what I mind, take this 
for a sum : I pray God in no case I may seek myself; and indeed (I thank God 

^- ,• therefore) I purpose it not. 

1555. rpjj^j which remaineth, I commit to my Lord God; and I trust in him, 
that he will do according to this:^ "Cast thy care on the Lord,"^ etc. : " Cast 
all your care upon him,"^ etc. " Reveal unto the Lord thy way, and trust,"* 
etc. " Who that tmsteth in the Lord, mercy shall compass him about." ^ I 
did not nor do I know, but by your letters, quod eras we shall come coram 
nobis. Mine own heart, still stick to dahitur vobis : i.e. " It shall be given 
you,"^ etc. " For the Lord is faithful. He will in temptation make a way 
that ye may be able to bear it."^ "The Lord knoweth how to rid out of 
temptation the godly," » etc. O would God I were godly! "The Lord 
knoweth how to deliver out of temptation such as trust in him,"^" etc. I 
cannot think that they will offer any kind of indifferent or mean conditions : 
for if we will not adorare bestiam, we never shall be delivered, but against 
their will, think I. God, our Father and gracious Lord, make perfect the 
good he hath begun in us ! 

" He will do it, my brother, my dear brother, whom I have in my inward 
bowels to live and die with. O if I were with you! "" Pray for me, my own 
heart-root in the Lord. p^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ j^l^^ Bradford. 

Another Letter to Master Lawrence Saunders. 

God's sweet peace in Christ be with you, my good brother in the Lord Jesus, 
and with all your con-captives. Amen. 

I was letted this morning from musing on that which I was purposed to have 
thought on by reason of you, against whom I saw myself guilty of negligence, 
even in this point that I would not write, — I should say, that I had not written 
unto you as yet : therefore out of hand in manner I prepared mj'self to purge 
myself hereof; not that I will go about to excuse my fault (for that were more 
to load me), but by asking both God and you pardon, to get it no more laid to 
my charge. Now when I was thus purposing, and partly doing, cometh there 
one with a letter from you : for the which as I have cause to thank God and 
you (howbeit not so that you should think I give not the whole to God), so I 
see myself more blameworthy, for this long holding my peace. Howbeit, 
Bradford good brother, in this I have given a demonstration to you, to behold my negli- 
accuseth gence in all other things, and especially in praying for you, and for the church 
negli- of God, which for my sins and hypocrisy (hypocrisy indeed even in this writing; 
gence.etc. God deliver me from it ! ) have deserved to be punished. Just is God, for we 
have deserved all kind of plagues at his hands : but yet merciful is he that will 
on this wise chastise us with this world, " That we should not be condemned 
with the world." '2 He might otherwise have punished us; I mean, he might 
have for other causes cast us in prison, me especially, than for his gospel and 
word's sake. Praised therefore be his name, which voucheth us worthy this 
honour. Ah ! good God, forgive us our sins, and work by this thy fatherly cor- 
rection on us, on me especially, effectually to love thee and thy Christ ; and with 
joyfulness unto the end to carry thy cross through thick and thin. Always set 

(1) "A cipher in Agrime." The first edition of Foxe, p. 1195, has " a siphar in augrim," being 
derived or corrupted from "algorism." The word is found in connexion in some French verses, 
quoted in Carpentier's Supplement to Ducange's Glossary (vol. i. col. 957): 

" Or ai tant fait par moi meisme 
Que ChifTres sui en angorisme ;" 
and Ducange, under the word " Algarismus. arithmetica," thus quotes from Bernard ' De Breyden- 
hach's Itin.' (Hicrosol. p. 190), " Item numeros, cypas et figuras Algarisnii invenit :" (torn. i. col. 
aoi. Paris. 1733). The letter n in the word 'angorisme' above, should probably be u, the con- 
version of I into u being common in the French language. — Ed. 

(2) " (iuod reliquum est Domino Deo mto committo, et spero in ilium, quod ipse faciet juxta 
hoc:" " Jacta in Dominum curam," etc. : " Omnis cura vestra conjecta sit in ilium, "etc. " Revela 
Domino viam tuam, et spera," etc. " Sperantem in Domino niisericordia circumdabit." 

(3) Psalm Iv. (l) 1 Pet. v. (5) Psalm xxxvii. 

(C) " Fidelis enim est Dominus, dabit in tentatione eventum quo possumus sufferrc :" " Novit 
Dominus pios 6 tentatione eripere," etc.: O utinam pins ego essem: "Novit Dominus indie 
tribulationis sperantes in sc," etc. 

(7) Matt. X. (8) 1 Cor. x (9) 2 Pet. ii. (10) Nahum i. 

(11) Faciet mi fratcr, charissime frater, quem in iutimis visceribus habeo ad convivendum ct 
commoriendum. O si tecum essem. 

(12) " Nc cum mundo condcninenuu." 


before our eyes, not this gallows on earth, if we will stick to thee, but the M„ry, 
gallows in hell, if we deny thee, and swerve from that we have professed. 

Ah ! good brother, if I could always have God, his injijesty, mercy, lieavcn, A. I). 
hell, etc., before mine eyes, then should I " obdurarc," as Paul writcth of l.")')5. 
Moses,' " He endured," saith he, " as he that saw him which is invisible." 
Pray for me, as I know you do, and give thanks also : for, " In the Lord I trust, 
I shall not waver." " If I walk by the valley of the shadow of death, I will not 
fear, for thou art with me, O Lord."* I think we shall be shortly called forth ; 
for now " legem habent, et secundum legem," etc., otherwise will they not 
reason with us ; and I think their sheet-anchor will be, to have us to subscribe ; 
the which thing if we do, though with this condiiion, " so far as the thing sub- 
scribed to, repugneth not against God's word," yet this will be offensive. There- 
fore let us vadere plane, and so sane ; I mean, let us all confess that we are no 
changelings, but re-ipsa are the same we were in religion, and therefore cannot 
subscribe except we will dissemble both with God, ourselves, and the world. 

These things I write to you, dear brother in the Lord.^ Now I will read 
your epistle. Ah ! brother, that I had the practical understanding with you 
in that Vine which you describe ; pray the Lord that I may think so indeed.* 
God make me thankful for you. All our fellow-prisoners salute you, and give 
thanks to God for you.*" The same do you for us, and pray that, etc. 
Your brother in the Lord Jesus, to live and die with you, 

J. Bradford. 

To my clear Fathers, Dr. Cranmcr, Dr. Ridley, and Dr. Latimer. 

Jesus Emmanuel ! — iMy dear fathers in the Lord, 1 beseech God our sweet 
Father through Christ, to make perfect the good he hath begvm in us all. Amen. 

I had thought that every of your staves iiad stood next the door ; but now it 
is otherwise perceived. Our dear brother Rogers hath broken the ice valiantly, 
as this day, I think, or to-morrow at the uttermost, hearty Hooper, sincere 
Saunders, and trusty Taylor, end their course, and receive their crown. The 
next am I, who hourly look for the porter to open me the gates after them, to 
enter into the desired rest. God forgive me mine unthankfulness for this 
exceeding great mercy, that, amongst so many thousands, it pleaseth his mercy 
to choose me to be one, in whom he will suffer. For although it be most true, 
that I "justly suffer "'^ (for I have been a great hypocrite, and a grievous sinner : 
the Lord pardon me !) yet, he hath done it, he hath done it indeed ; yet, " What 
evil hath he done?"'' Christ, whom the prelates persecute, his verity which 
they hate in me, hath done no evil, nor deserveth death. Therefore ought I 
most heartily to rejoice of this dignation and tender kindness of the Lord's 
towards me, which useth remedy for my sin as a testimonial of his testament, 
to his glory, to my everlasting comfort, to the edifying of his church, and to the 
overthrowing of antichrist and his kingdom. Oh ! what am I, Lord, that thou 
shouldest thus magnify me so vile a man and miser, as always I have been ? Is 
this thy wont, to send for such a wretch and a hypocrite, as I have been, in a 
fiery chariot, as thou didst for Elias?' Oh ! dear fathers, be thankful for me, 
and pray for me, that I still might be found worthy, in whom the Lord would 
sanctify his holy name. And for your part, make you ready : for we arc but 
your gentlemen-ushers : " The marriage of the Lamb is prepared, come unto 
ithe marriage."' I now go to leave my flesh there, where I received it. I 
shall be conveyed thither, as Ignatius was at Rome, to the leopards ; '" by 
whose evil I hope to be made better. God grant, if it be his will that I ask, 
it may make them better by me Amen. 

(1) " Obduravit," inquit, " pcrindc quasi vidisset eum qui est invisibilis." Heb. \i. 

(2) " In Domino spero, non mutabor. Siambulavero pcrvallem umbrte mortis, non timebo.quia 
tu Domine niecum es," etc. Psalm xxii. 

(3) Haec tibi scribo, frater mi charissime in Domino. Jam lepnmtuam Epistolam. I John ii. 13. 

(4) Practicam tecum scientiam invite ilia anam pingis; roga Dominum ut ita vcr6 sentiam. 

(5) Salutant te omncs concaptivi et gratias Domino pro te a^unf. Idem tu facias pro nobis, et 
ores ut, etc. (C) Juste patior. 

(7) " Hie autem quid mali fecit?" This is a singular mercy of God, to have death, which is a 
due punishment for sin, turned into a demonstration and testification of the Lord'n truth. 

(8) 2 Kings ii. i'J;Nuptia; agni parata; sunt, venite ad nuptias. 

(10) He meaneth that he should be conveyed by the queen's guard unto Lancashire to bo burnt, 
as the adversaries had once determined ; like as Ignatius vras, by a company of soldiers, conveyed 
to Itome, and cast to the leopards. 


^fary. For my farewell therefore, I write and send this unto you, trusting shortly to 

: — see you where we shall never be separated. In the mean season I will not cease, 

■^•^- as I have done, to commend you to our Father of heaven, and that you would 
^555- so do by me, I most heartily" pray every one of you : you know now I have 
most need. " Faithful is God, which will not suffer us to be tempted above 
our strength."' He never did it hitherto, nor now, and I am assured, he will 
never: Amen. " He is on my right hand, therefore I shall not fall. Where- 
fore my heart shall rejoice, for he shall not leave my soul in hell, neither shall 
suffer me, his holy One, by his grace in Christ, to see corruption."2 

Out of prison in haste, looking every moment for the tormentor, the 8th of 
February, 1555. John Bradford. 

To the Right Honourable Lord Russell, now Earl of Bedford; 
being then in trouble for the verity of God's Gospel. 

The everlasting and most gracious God and Father of our Saviour Jesu 
Christ, bless your good lordship with all manner of heavenly blessings in the 
same Christ our only comfort and hope : Amen. 

Praised be God our P'ather, which hath vouched you worthy, as of faith in 
his Christ, so of his cross for the same. Magnified be his holy name, who as 
he hath delivered you from one cross, so he hath made you willing (I trust), 
and ready to bear another, when he shall see his time to lay it upon you : for 
these are the most singular gifts of God, given as to few, so to none else but to 
Tiie ex- those few which are most dear in his sight. Faith is reckoned, and worthily, 
celiency among the greatest gifts of God, yea, it is the greatest itself that we may enjoy ; 
and'wl'4t ^°'" ^y '*'' ^^ ^^^ ^^ justified and made God's children, so are we temples and pos- 
it work- sessors of the Holy Spirit ; yea of Christ also,^ and of the Father himself.'' By 
«'''• faith, we drive the devil away -.^ we overcome the world,*" and are already 

citizens of heaven, and fellows with God's dear saints. But who is able to 
reckon the riches that this faith bringeth with her unto the soul she sitteth 
upon ? No man nor angel. And therefore (as I said), of all God's gifts, she 
Faith may be set in the top, and have the upmost seat. The which thing if men 
Cometh by considered (in that she cometh alonely from God's own mercy seat, by the hear- 
t'he word, i"g> "ot of mass or matins, diriges, or such dross ; but the word of God in such 
and not a tongue as we can and do understand), as they would be diligent and take 
iif^'mass S^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ doing or seeing any thing which might cast her down (for 
then they fall also) : so would they with no less care read and hear God's holy 
word, joining thereto most earnest and often prayer, as well for the more and 
better understanding, as for the loving, living, and confessing of the same, 
maugre the head of the devil, the world, our flesh, reason, goods, posses- 
sions, carnal friends, wife, childreuj and very life here ; if they should pull us 
back to hearken to their voice and counsel, for more quiet, sure, and longer use 
of them. 

Now, notwithstanding this excellency of faith, in that we read the apostle 
to match therewith,' yea (as it were) to prefer, suffering persecution for 
Christ's sake, I trow no man will be so fond as to think otherwise, but that 
I, and all God's children, have cause to glorify and praise God, which hath 
The effi- vouched you worthy so great a blessing. For though tne reason or wisdom of 
the^cross ^^^ world tliinketh of the cross according to their reach, and according to their 
and what present sense, and therefore flieth from it as from a most great ignominy and 
itworketh shame : yet God's scholars have learned otherwise to think of the cross, that 
cliildren. is, the frame-house in the which God frameth his children, like to his son 
Christ; the furnace that fineth God's gold; the highway to heaven; the suit 
and livery that God's servants are served withal ; the earnest and beginning of 
all consolation and glory : for they (I mean God's scholars, as your lordship is, 
I trust) do enter into God's sanctuary, lest their feet slip.s They look not as 
beasts do, on tilings present only, but on things to come, and so have they as pre- 
sent to faith the judgment and glorious coming of Christ Jesus, like as tlie wicked 
have now their worldly wealth, wherein they wallow and will wallow, till they 

n) " Fiddis Dcus, qui nunquam sinet nos tentari supra id quod possumus." 
(i) " A dfxtris est niihi, non movebor. Propter hoc tetabitur cor nieum, quia iion derelinquct 
aiiiinam meam in inferno, nee dabit me, sanctum suum per gratiam in Christo, videre corruplio- 
liem. E carcere raptim, ixpectans omni niomento carnificem." Psa. xvi. 

(3) Fphcs. iv. (D John xiv. (S) 1 Pet. v. (G) IJolin v. (7) Phil i. (S) Pi,-.. Ixxiii. 


liiniblc lieadlong into hell, where are torments too terrible and endless. Now Mary. 
they follow the fiend (as the bear doth the train of honey, and the sow the 

swillings), till they be brought into the slaughter-house ; and then they know •'^- ^^• 
that their prosperity hath brought them to perdition.' Then cry they. Wo, wo, ^^^^- 
we went the wrong way: we eounted these men (I mean such as you be, that The emi 
suffer for God's sake loss of goods, friends, and life, whom they shall see "f i'^"- 
endued with rich robes of righteousness, crowns of most pure precious gold, and *''*-"'y- 
palms of conquest in the goodly glorious palace of the Lamb, wliere is eternal 
joy, felicity, etc.) We counted (will they then say) these men but fools and 
mad-men, we took their conditions to be but curiosity. But then will it be too 
late : then the time will be turned ; laughing shall be turned into weeping, and 
weeping into rejoicing. Read Wisd. ii. iii. iv. v. 

Therefore (as before I have said) great cause have 1 to thank God, which 
hath vouched you worthy of his most bountiful blessing : much more then have 
you cause, my good lord, so to be; I mean thankful. For look upon your voca- Few no- 
tion, I pray you : tell me how many noblemen, earls' sons, lords, knights, and ca'j']"^",^ 
men of estimation, hath God in this realm of England dealt thus withal? I chr'ists 
dare say you think not that you have deserved this. Only God's mercy in kin-dom. 
his Christ hath wrought this on you, as he did in Jeremiah's time on Ebed- 
melech, in Achab's time on Abdias, in Christ's time on Joseph of Arimathea, in 
the apostles' time on Sergius Paulus and the queen Candace's chamberlain. 
Only now be thankful and continue ; continue, continue, my good lord, con- 
tinue to confess Christ. Be not ashamed of him before men : for then will not 
he be ashamed of you. Now will he try you. Stick fast unto him, and he 
will stick fast by you ; he will be with you in trouble, and deliver you. But 
then must you cry unto him, for so it proceedeth : " He cried unto me, and 
I heard him ; I was with him in trouble,"- etc. 

Remember Lot's wife, which looked back : remember Francis Spira : re- God's re- 
member that none is crowned, but he that striveth lawfully : remember that all "ranccrs. 
you have, is at Christ's commandment : remember he lost more for you, than 
you can lose for him : remember you lose not that which is lost for his sake; 
for you shall find much more here and elsewhere : remember you shall die, and 
when, where, and how, ye cannot tell : remember the death of sinners is most 
terrible : remember the death of God's saints is most precious in his sight : 
remember the multitude goeth the wide way which windeth to wo : remember 
that the strait-gate, which leadeth to glory, hath but few travellers : remember 
Christ biddeth you to strive to enter in thereat: remember he that trusteth in 
the Lord, shall receive strength to stand against all the assaults of his enemies. 
Be certain all the hairs of your head are numbered : be certain your good Father 
hath appointed bounds, over the which the devil dares not look. Commit 
yourself to him ; he is, hath been, and w^ill be your keeper. Cast your care on 
him, and he will care for you. Let Christ be your scope, and mark to prick ^^^^'^^^^^ 
at ; let him be your pattern to work by ; let him be your ensample to follow : i,avc i.oili 
give him as your heart so your hands; as your mind so your tongue; as your heart and 
faith so your feet ; and let his word be your candle, to go before you in all '"' • 
matters of religion. Blessed is he that walketh not to these popish prayers 
nor standeth at them, nor sitteth at them -.^ glorify God both in soul and body.* 
He that gathereth not with Christ, scattereth abroad. Use prayer : look for 
God's help, which is at hand to them that ask and hope thereafter assuredly. 
In which prayers I heartily desire your lordship to remember us, who as wc 
are going with you right gladly (God therefore be praised), so we look to go 
Ijcfore you, hoping that you will follow, if God so will, according to your daily 
prayer, "Thy will be done on earth," etc. The good Spirit of God always 
guide your lordship unto the end : Amen. 

Your lordship's own for ever, 

John Bradford. 

To Master Warcup and his Wife, Mrs. Wilkinson, and otlicrs of 

his godly Friends, with their Families. ^ pith^ 

The same peace our Saviour Christ left with his people, which is not without T^^uJ^ 
war with the world, Almighty God work plentifully in your hearts now and for tcr, eic 
ever. Amen. 

(1) Wisd. V. (2) Pia. xci. I J) IVv i. W I Cor. vi. 


Mary. The time, I perceive, is come wherein the Lord's ground will be known : I 
A p) iTiean, it will now shortly appear who have received God's gospel into their 
15*55' ''^^^'•^ indeed, to the takhig of good root therein ; for such will not for a little 

L heat or sun-burning wither, but stiffly will stand and grow on, maugre the 

malice of all burning showers and tempests. And forasmuch as — my beloved 
in the Lord— I am persuaded of you, that ye be indeed the children of God, 
God's good ground, which groweth and will grow on (by God's grace), brino-ing 
forth fruit to God's glory after your vocations, as occasions shall be offered 
(burn the sun never so hot), therefore I cannot but so signify unto you, and 
heartily pray you and every one of you accordingly, to go on forwards after 
your master Christ, not sticking at the foul way and stormy weather, which you 
are to come into, and are like so to do : of this being most certain, that the end 
of your journey shall be pleasant and joyful, in such a perpetual rest and bliss- 
fulness as cannot but swallow up the showers that ye now feel and are soused 
in, if ye often set it before your eyes, after Paul's counsel in the latter end of 
the fourth, and beginning of the fifth, chapter of the second Epistle to the 
Corinthians. Read it, I pray you, and remember it often as a restorative to 
refresh you, lest ye faint in the way. 
Foul way And besides this set before you also, that though the weather be foul, and 
weather storms grow apace, yet go not ye alone, but other your brothers and sisters 
to the tread the same path, as St. Peter telleth us : and therefore company should 
of hfa°™ ^^^^^ y°" '" ^^ *^^ ^^^^ courageous and cheerful. But if you had no company 
yen. , at all to go presently with you, I pray you tell me, if, even from the beginning, 
the best of God's friends have found any fairer weather and way to the place 
whither ye are going (I mean heaven), than ye now find and are like to do ; 
except ye will, with the worldlings, which have their portion in this life, tarry 
still by the way till the storms be overpast; and then either night will so 
approach that ye cannot travel, or the doors will be sparred before ye come, and 
so ye then lodge without in wonderful and evil lodgings. Read Apocalypse xxii. 
Begin at Abel, and come from him to Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph 
the patriarchs, Moses, David, Daniel, and all the saints of the Old Testament; 
and tell me whether ever any of them found any fairer way than ye now find 
^i'/pT'n ■\^ *^^ ^^^ Testament will not serve, I pray you come to the New, and begin 
God's with Mary and Joseph, and come from them to Zachary and Elizabeth, Jo1m 
saints Baptist, and every one of the apostles and evangelists ; and search whether thev 
through'" •Z?"'?'^ ^"y •'^''^^ ^^y ^"^° the city we travel towards, than by manV 
affliction tribulations. 

Besides these, if ye should call to remembrance the primitive church,' Lord 
God ! ye should see many to have given cheerfully their bodies to most griev- 
ous torments, rather than they would be stopped in their journey ; that there is 
no day in the year, but (I dare say) a thousand was the fewest that with great 
joy lost their homes here, but in the city they went unto, have found other 
manner of homes than man's mind is able to conceive. But, if none of all these 
were if ye had no company now to go with you, as you have me your poor 
brother and bondman of the Lord, with many others, I trust in God, if you had 
none other of the fathers, patriarchs, kings, prophets, apostles, evangelists, 
martyrs, and other holy saints and children of God, that in their journey to 
Christ heaven-ward, found as ye now find, and are like to find if ye go on forward as 
ri'nTlcad' \ t™st ye Will; yet ye have your master and your captain Jesus Christ, the 
erofall dear darling and only-begotten and beloved Son of God, in whom was all the 
children ^ '^^^^(^ pleasure, joy, and delectation ; ye have him to go before you, no fairer 
afflicted.' "^^y* but much fouler, into this our city of Jerusalem. I need not, I trust, to 
rehearse what manner of way he found. Begin at his birth, and till ye come 
at his burial, ye shall find that every foot and stride of his journey was no better 
but much worse than yours is now. ' 

We must Wherefore, my dearly beloved in the Lord, be not so dainty, as to look for 
dainty.'to "^^* f ^"'^'^ ^^^"^^' ^"^^ ^ear Father, which the fathers, patriarchs, prophets, 
look for apostles, evangelists, martyrs, saints, and his own Son Jesus Christ, did not find 
wiaVher [^'"'7^° ^^ '^''^^^ ''ad fair way (I trow) and fiiir weather also : now, because we 
than '•'^.'^ loitered by the way, and not made the speed we should have done, our 

Christ. lovmg Lord and sweet Father hath overcast the weather, and stirred up the 
storms and tempests, that we might with more haste run out our race before 

(1) Head the story of the primitive Church .ibovc described. [Vol. i.— F.d.] 


night come, and tlic doors be sparred. The devil standeth now at every inn- ,ya 
door in his city and country of this world, crying luito us to tarry and lodge in 

this or that place till the storms be overpast ; not that he would not have us wet ^- ^^^ 
to the skin, but that the time might overpass us to our utter destruction. There- 1555. 
fore beware of iiis enticements. Cast not your eyes on tilings that be present, The 
how this man doth, and how that man doth ; but cast your eyes on the gleve ' 'levir* 
ye run at, or else ye will lose the game. Ye know that he which runneth at n?e'nu not 
the gleve, doth not look on others that stand by, and go this way or that way; to be 
but altogether he looketh on the gleve, and on them that run witb him, that 'f"sK-l. 
those which be behind overtake him not, and that he may overtake them wliich 
be before. Even so should we do ; leave off looking on those which will not 
run the race to heaven's bliss by the path of persecution with us ; and cast our 
eyes on the end of our race, and on them that go before us, that we may over- 
take them, and on them which come after us, that we may provoke them to 
come the faster after. 

He that shooteth, will not cast his eyes in his shooting on them that stand To look 
by, or ride by the ways (I trow), but rather at the mark he shooteth at : for '° 'he 
else he were like to win the wrong way. Even so, my dearly beloved, let your ™"'' 
eyes be set on the mark ye shoot at, even Christ Jesus ;^ who, for the joy set 
before him, did joyfully carry his cross, contemning the shame ; and therefore 
lie now sitteth on the right hand of the throne of God.* Let us follow him ;♦ 
for this did he, that we should not be faint-hearted. For we may be most 
assured, that if we suffer with him, we shall undoubtedly reign with him : but, 
if we deny him, surely he will deny us •,^ for he that is ashamed of me, saith 
Christ, and of my gospel, in this faithless generation, I will be ashamed of him 
before the angels of God in heaven.^ Oh ! how heavy a sentence is this to all What 
such as know the mass to be an abominable idol, full of idolatry, blasphemy, and !*'"'S<'^ '' 
sacrilege against God and his Christ (as undoubtedly it is) ; and yet, for fear of to the 
men, for loss of life or goods, yea for advantage and gain, some will honest it I'lasphe- 
with their presence, dissembling both with God and man, as their own heart JJ|^,* 
and conscience doth accuse them. Better it were that such had never known 
the truth, than thus wittingly, and for fear or favour of man, whose breath is in 
his nostrils,' to dissemble it ; or rather (as indeed it is) to deny it. The end of 
such is like to be worse than their beginning.* Such had need to take heed of 
the two terrible places to the Hebrews in the Gth and 10th chapters, lest, by so 
doing, they fall therein. Let them beware they play not willy-beguile with 
themselves, as some do, I fear me, which go to mass, and, because they worship 
not, nor kneel, nor knock, as others do, but sit still in their pews, therefore 
they think they rather do good to others than hurt. 

But, alas ! if these men would look into their own consciences, there should Disscm- 
they see they are very dissemblers, and in seeking to deceive others (for by this ''''.'.''^ ^"^' 
means the magistrates think them of tlieir sort), they deceive themselves. 
They think at the elevation time, all men's eyes are set upon them, to mark 
how they do. They think others, hearing of such men going to mass, do see, 
or inquire of their behaviour there. Oh! if there were in those men that are 
so present at the mass, either love to God, or to their brethren, then woidd 
they, for the one or both, openly take God's part, and admonish the people of 
their idolatry. They fear man more than him which hath power to cast both 
soul and body into hell-fire f they halt on both knees :'" they serve two masters. 
God have mercy upon such, and open their eyes with his eye-salve," that they 
may see that they which take no part with God are against God, and that they 
which gather not with Christ, do scatter abroad. O that they would read what 
St. John saith will be done to the fearful.'* The counsel given to the church of 
Laodicea, is good counsel for such.'^ 

But to return to you again, dearly beloved : be not ye ashamed of God's 
gospel: it is the power of God to salv.ntion to all those that do believe it.'* Be 
therefore partakers of the afflictions,'* as God shall make you able ; knowing 
for certain, that he will never tempt you further than he will make you able to 
beari'e and think it no small grace of God" to sufl'er persecution for God's 

(1) " Gleve," a mark.— Ed. (2) Ph'I. iii. 

(3) Heb. xii. (4) Rom. viii (5) 2 Tim. ii. (i>) Matt. xii. (7) Is. ii. 

(8)2Pet.ii. (9) Matt. x. (10) I Kings xviii. 21. (I I) Kev. iii. (l2)Rev.xxI. 

(13) Ucv. Iii. (14) Uom. i. (15) 2 Tim. i. (IC) 1 Cor. x. (17) Phil. i. 



Mary, truth ; for the Spirit of God resteth upon you,' and ye are liappy," as one day 

' ye shall see : read 2 Thess. i. and Heb. xii. As the fire hurteth not gold, hut 

A. p. niaketh it finer, so shall ye be more pure by suffering with Christ.^ The flail 
^•^'^^- and wind hurteth not the wheat, but cleanseth it from the chaff. And ye, 
Persecu- dearly beloved, are God's wheat : fear not therefore the flail : fear not the 
tion com- fanning wind, fear not the millstone, fear not the oven : for all these make you 
fhe'flai" more meet for the Lord's own tooth. Soap, though it be black, soileth not the 
^Yhich ' cloth, but rather at the length maketh it more clean : so doth the black cross 
^'Th'' ^^'^'P ^^^ *° more whiteness, if God strike with his battledore. Because ye are 
cleanseth God's sheep, prepare yourselves to the slaughter,* always knowing that in the 
the sight of the Lord our death shall be pi-ecious. The souls under the altar look 

for us to fill up their number : happy are we if God have so appointed us. 
Howsoever it be, dearly beloved, cast yourselves wholly upon the Lord,^ with 
whom all the hairs of your heads are numbered, so that not one of them shall 
perish.^ Will we, nill we, we must drink God's cup, if he have appointed it 
for us. Drink it willingly then ; and at the first, when it is full, lest perad- 
venture if we linger, we shall drink at length of the dregs with the wicked,' 
if at the beginning we drink not with his children : for with them his judgment 
beginneth,* and when he hath wrought his will on Mount Sion, then will he 
visit the nations round about. 

Submit yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of the Lord.^ No man 

shall touch you without his knowledge : when they touch you therefore, know 

it is to your weal. God thereby will work to make you like imto Christ here, 

that ye may be also like unto him elsewhere. i" Acknowledge your unthank- 

fulness and sin, and bless God that correcteth you in the world, because you 

shall not be damned with the world. ^' Otherwise might he correct us, than in 

making us to sutler for righteousness' sake : but this he doth, because we are 

not of the world. Call upon his name through Christ for his help, as he com- 

Happy is mandeth us. Believe that he is merciful to you, heareth you, and helpeth 

you : " I am with him in trouble, and will deliver him," saith he.'^ Know 

idcli, that God hath appointed bounds, i^ over which the devil and all the world shall 

not pass. If all things seem to be against us, yet say with Job, " If he 

kill me, I will hope in him." Read the 91st Psalm, and pray for me, your 

needs be poor brother and fellow-sufferer for God's gospel sake ; his name therefore be 

F^'f' '% praised. And of his mercy he make me and you worthy to suffer with good 

upon tiie conscience for his name's sake. Die once we must, and when we know not: 

Lurd. happy are they to whom God giveth to pay nature's debt, I mean to die for 

his sake. 

Here is not our home : therefore let us accordingly consider things, always 
having before our eyes the heavenly Jerusalem,'* the way thither to be by per- 
secutions ; the dear friends of God, how they have gone it after the example of 
our Saviour Jesus Christ, whose footsteps let us follow even to the very gallows, 
if God so will, not doubting but that as he, within three days, rose again im- 
mortal, even so we shall do in our time ; that is, when the trump shall blow, 
and the angel shall shout, and the Son of Man shall appear in the clouds with 
innumerable saints and angels, in majesty and great glory : then shall the dead 
arise, and we shall be caught up into the clouds to meet the Lord, and so be 
always with him. Comfort yourselves with these words, and pray for me for 
God's sake. 

E carcere 19 Nov. 1553. J. Bradford. 

To Sir James Hales, Knight, then Prisoner in the Compter in 

The God of mercy, and Father of all comfort, plentifully pour out upon you 
and in you his mercy, and with his consolations comfort and strengthen you to 
the end, for his and our Christ's sake. 

Although, right worshipful sir, many causes might move me to be content 
with crying for you to your God and my God, that he would give you grace to 
])ersevere well, as he hatli right notably begun, to the great glory of his name, 

(l) Rom. viii. (5) 1 Pet. v. 

(U) 1 Pet. V. (10) Rom. viii. 

(11) Heb. xii.; Rev. xxi. xxii. 


once it 

(1)1 Put. vi. 

(2) Mat. V. 


1 Pet. i. 

(fi) M;iit. X. 

(7) Ps;.hn Ixxv 


I Pet. iv. 

(U) 1 Cor. xi. 

(12) Psalm 1. 

(13) ; 

I'lialm xxii. 


and comfort of all such as fear him ; as lack of learning, of familiarity, yea, Mary. 
acquaintance (for I think I am unknown to you, both by face and nan>e), and - 
other such like things ; yet I cannot content myself, but presume something to ^;_.^;- 
scribble unto you, not that I think my scribbling can do you any good, but tiiat ''^•^"'- 
I might declare my avfJi-Kaedav and compassion, love and affection, I bear 
towards your mastership, which is contented, yea desirous with us poor misers, 
to confess Christ's gospel in these perilous times and days of trial. O Lord How Cod 
God ! how good art thou, which dost thus glean out grapes— I mean children ^|«^'»nj^"> 
for thyself, and brethren for Christ I Look, good master Hales, on your voca- people, 
tion : not many judges, not many knights, not many landed men, not many 
rich men, and wealthy to live as you are, hath Ciod chosen to suffer for his 
sake, as he hath now done you. Certainly I dare say you think not so of Tlie 
yourself, as though God were bound to prefer you, or had need of you ; but *°j''|','.^. 
rather attribute this, as all good things, unto his free mercy in Christ. Again, pie of 
I dare say that you, being a wise man, do judge of things wisely, that is, con- worWly 
cerning this your cross, you judge of it not after the world and people, which is afeevil' 
inagnus erroris magister ; nor after the judgment of reason and worldly judges of 
wisdom, which is foolishness to faith ; nor after the present sense, to which ^Ji;';^'^^,^ 
♦' it seemeth not to be joyous, but grievous,"' as Paul writeth : but after the 
word of God, which teacheth your cross to be, in respect of yourself, between Praise of 
God and you; God's chastising, and your Father's correction, nurture, school, «'''■•"">*• 
trial, path-way to heaven, glory, and felicity, and the furnace to consume the 
dross, and mortify the relics of old Adam which yet remain ; yea even the 
frame-house to fashion you like to the dearest saints of God here, yea to Christ 
the Son of God, that elsewhere you might be like unto him. 

Now, concerning your cross in respect of the world, between the world and The cross 
you, God's word teacheth it to be a testimonial of God's truth, of his providence, ^^^^^^ 
of his power, of his justice, of his wisdom, of his anger against sin, of his good- ncsscs to 
ness, of his judgment, of your faith and religion, so that by it you are to the God 
world a witness of God, one of his testes, that he is true, he ruleth all things, he .^„j ;„ 
is just, wise, and at length will judge the world, and cast the wicked into perdi- what 
tion ; but the godly he will take and receiTe into his eternal habitation. I """g"- 
know you judge of things after faith's fetch, and the effects or ends of things, 
and so you see "an eternal weight of glory, "^ which this cross shall bnng 
unto you, " while ye look not on things which are seen, but on the things 
which are not seen.'"' Let the worldlings weigh things and look upon the 
affairs of men with their worldly and corporal eyes, as did many in subscription Subscril.- 
of the king's last will; and therefore they did that, for the which they be- i;;«^;",,,,. 
shrewed themselves : but let us look on things with other manner of eyes, as, wnrii's 
God be praised, you did, in not doing that which you were desired, and driven >^ '"• 
at to have done. You then beheld things not as a man, but as a man of God ; 
and so you do now in religion, at the least hitherto you have done : and that 
you mit'ht do so still, I humbly beseech and pray you, say with David, " Mine 
eves fail for thy word-saving ; when wilt thou comfort me ?"* Though you be 
as "uter in fumo," that "is, like "a bottle in the smoke:" (for I hear you want 
health) vet " ne obliviscaris justificationes Dei." " Do not forget the statutes 
of the Lord-" but cry out, " How many are the days of thy servant? when 
-ilt thou execute judgment on them that persecute me ?" ' And be certain 

The Lord will surely come, and not stay; though he tarry, wait tor liim ;» 
)r he is but a while in his anger, but in his favour is life : weeping may abide 


at evening, but joy cometh in the morning.' I'oiiow mereiwe ^^.^y »^^"""»^'. 
" Hide thyself for a very little while, until his indignation pass over, winch 
is not "indignatio" indeed, but to our sense; and therefore in Esay xxv.i. 
God saith of his church and people, that as he kecpeth night and day, so 
" There is no anger in me,"^ saith he. 

(1) " Non videtur gaudii, sed molestiae.". Hcb. xii. 

(2) " jEternum pondus gloria." 1 Cor. iv. ,.!,i„„„„ '• 

3 " Dum non spectas ea qus videntur, sed ea qus non v.den ur 

4 " Deficerunt oculi mei in eloquium tuum : quando consolabcris me t Psalm cxix. 

)V, •• Onnt «nnt dies servi tui? quando facies de pcrscqueiil.bus mc Judicium? .. 

fi' " Ouod iCinus venien" veniet, et non tardabit. Si moram fecerit. expecta ilium." Ilabak. u. 
(7) .. Ad mom^num7„ i^^sua. et'vita in voluntatc ejus: ad vesperam demorab.tur flelu.. et 

"^^'^tSnlrere ad mo'iucum'ad momentum, donee per.ranseat indignatio ejus.- ha. xxvi. 
(9) " Non est indignatio mihi " Isa. xxvii. 


Mary. The mother sometimes beateth her child, but yet her heart melteth upon it, 

even in the very beating : and therefore she casteth the rod into the fire, and 

A. D. colleth' the child, givethit an apple, and dandleth it most motherly. And, to 
1555. say the truth, the love of mothers to their children, is but a trace to train us 
to behold the love of God towards us : and therefore saith he, " Can a 
Ui°ouV°^^ mother forget the child of her womb?"^ As who should say, no: but if she 
cor°rec- should SO do, yet will not I forget thee, saith the Lord of hosts. Ah comfort- 
tions. able saying! I will not forget thee, saith the Lord. Indeed the children of 
God think oftentimes that God hath forgotten them, and therefore they cry, 
" Hide not thy face from me,"^ etc. " Leave me not, O Lord,"* etc. Whereas 
in very truth it is not so, but to their present sense : and therefore David said, 
" I said in my agony, I was clean cast away from thy face."* But was it so? 
Nay verily. Read his Psalms, and you shall see. So writeth he also in other 
places very often, especially in the person of Christ : as when he saith, " My 
God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"'' He saith not, " Why dost thou 
forsake me?"' or, "Why wilt thou forsake me?"8 But, "Why hast thou for- 
saken me."9 Where indeed God had not left him, but that it was so to his 
sense ; and that, this psalm telleth us full well : which psalm I pray you now 
and then read, it is the 22d, and thereto join the 31st, and the 116th, with 
divers others. The same we read in the prophet Isaiah, chap, xl., where he 
reproveth Israel for saying, " God had forgotten them ;"'<' " Knowest thou not," 
saith he ; " Hast thou not heard,"*^ etc. " They that trust in the Lord shall 
renew their strength. "'^ And in his 54th chapter, "Fear not, etc. : for a little 
while I have forsaken thee, but with great compassion will I gather thee. For 
a moment in mine anger I hid my face from thee, for a little season : but in 
everlasting mercy have I had compassion on thee, saith the Lord thy Redeemer. 
For this is unto me as the waters of Noah : for as I have sworn that the waters 
of Noah should no more go over the earth, so have I sworn that I would not 
be angry with thee nor rebuke thee. For the mountains shall remove, and 
hills shall fall down ; but my mercy shall not depart from thee, neither shall the 
covenant of my peace fall away, saith the Lord that hath compassion on thee."'* 
But the Scriptures are full of such sweet places to them that will " bear the 
wrath of the Lord, and wait for his health and help."''' As of all temptations 
this is the greatest, that God hath forgotten, or will not help us through the pikes, 
as they say : so of all services of God, this liketh him the best, to hope assuredly 
on him, and for his help always, which is " a helper in tribulations," and doth 
more gloriously show his power by such as be weak, and feel themselves so.'^ For 
"the weaker we are, the more strong we are in him."'^ Thus the eyes of the 
Lord be on them that tremble and fear.'' " He will accomplish their desire, he is 
with them in their trouble, he will deliver them."'* Before they cry, he heareth 
them ;'9 as all the Scriptures teach us. To the reading whereof, and hearty 
prayer, I heartily commend you, beseeching Almighty God, that of his eternal 
mercy he would make perfect the good he hatli begun in you, and strengthen 
you to the end ; that you might have no less hope, but much more of his help 
to your comfort now against your enemies, than already he hath given you 
against N., for not subscribing to the king's will. 

Be certain, be certain, good master Hales ! that all the hairs of your head, 
your dear Father hath numbered, so that one of them shall not perish : your 
name is written in the book of life. Therefore upon God cast all yoiu- care, 

(1) 'Colleth,' that is, 'embraces.'- Ed. 

(2) Isaiah xlix. (3) " Ne abscoiuias faciem tuam a me," etc. Psalm xxv. 

(4) " Ne derelinquas me Domine," etc. Psalm xxvii. and cxix. 

(5) " Ego dixi in excessu meo, projectus sum i facie tua," Psalm xxx. 
(fi) " Deus mens, Deus meus, ut quid dereliquisti me?" Psalm xxi. 

(7) " Ut quid dereliiKjuis?" Psalm xxii. (8) " Derelinques?" (9) " Ut quid dereliqui.sti '" 
(10) "Nunquidiiescis?" (11) " An non audivisti?" etc. 

(12) " Qui sperant in Domino mutabunt fortitudinem." 

(13) " Noli timere," etc. "Ad punctum enim, in modico dereliq\ii te, at in miserationibus magnis 
congrcgabo te. In momento indignationis abscondi faciem meam parumper <\ te, at in misoricordia 
sempiterna misertus sum tui, dicit Redemptor tuns Dominus. Nam istud erit mihi sicut aqu,-B 
N(ic. Ut enim juravi ne porro aquae Noe pertransirent terram, sic juravi ut non irascar tibi et non 
in-repem te. Montesenim commovebuntur et colics contremiscent ; misericordia autem mea non 
rectMlct X te, et fa?dus pacis mea; non movebitur, dicit miserator tuus Dominus." 

(14) "Portare iram Dnmini, etexpectaie salutem et atixilium ejus." Micah vii. 

(15) " Adjiitoriii tribulationibus." 

(iC) "(liio inllrmiores sunius, co sumiis in illo rubustiores." (17) " Sic oculi Domini," etc. 

(la) " Voluntatcni corum faciei." Psalm cxlv. (ID) " Antcquam damavcriut, cxaudit cos." 


which will comfort you witli liis eternal consolations, and make you able to go j/a„_ 

through the fire (if need be), which is nothing to be conipiu-ed to tlie fire 

wherein our enemies shall fall and lie for ever, from the which the Lord deliver A. 1). 
us, though it be through temporal fire ; which must be construed according to l-'j-'i5. 
the end and profit that cometh after it : so shall it then not much fear us to 
suffer it for our master Christ's cause, the which the Lord grant us for his mercy's 
sake : Amen. 

From the King's Bench, 

Your humble John Bradford. 

To my very Friend in the Lord, Dr. Hill, Physician. 

The God of mercy and Father of all comfort, at this present and for ever, 
ingraft in your heart the sense of liis mercy in Christ, and the continuance of 
his consolation, which cannot but enable you to carry with joy whatsoever cross 
he shall lay upon you : Amen. 

Hitherto I could have no such liberty as to write unto you, as I think you 
know : but now, in that through God's providence I have no such restraint, I 
cannot but sometliing write, as well to purge me of the suspicion of unthank- 
fulness towards you, as also to signify my carefulness for you in these perilous 
days ; lest you should wax cold in God's cause (which God forbid), or suffer 
the light of the Lord, once kindled in youi heart, to be quenched, and so be- 
come as you were before, after the example of the world, and of many otlicrs, 
which would have been accounted otherwise in our days, and yet still beguile 
themselves, still would be so accounted : although by their outward life they 
declare the contrary, in that they think it enough to keep the heart pure, not- 
withstanding that the outward man doth curry favour. 

In which doings, as they deny God to be jealous, and therefore requiring the 
whole man, as well body as soul, being both create as to inunortality and society 
with him, so redeemed by the blood of Jesus Christ, and now sanctified by the 
holy Spirit to be the temple of God, and member of his Son : as (I say) by their 
parting stake to give God the heart, and the world the body, they deny God to Parting 
he jealous (for else they would give him both, as the wife would do to her hus- stakes he- 
band whether he be jealous or no, if she be honest), so they play the dissem- andThe° 
biers with the church of God by their fact, offending the godly whom either world, 
they provoke to fall with them, or make more careless and conscienceless if ,^'i^,g^'"j",^ 
they be fallen, and occasioning the wicked and obstinate to triumph against the 
God, and the more vehemently to prosecute their malice against such as will church, 
not defile themselves in body or soul with the Romish rags now received 
amongst us. Because of this, — I mean, lest you my dear master and brother 
in the Lord, should do as many of our gospellers do for fear of man, whose Gospel 
breath is in his nostrils, and hath power but of the body, not fearing the Lord, spiiu-is. 
which hath power both of soul and body, and that, not only temporally, but also 
eternally : 1 could not but write something unto you, as well because duty 
deserveth it (for many benefits I have received of God by your hands, for the 
which He reward you, for I cannot), as also because charity and love compelleth 
me ; not that I think you have any need (for as I may rather learn of you, so 
I doubt not but you have hitherto kept yourself upright from halting), but that }^f- "'"• 
I might both quiet my conscience, calling upon me hereabout, and signify unto ^J^^^.' 
you by something, my carefulness for your soul, as painfully and often you physician, 
have done for my body. 

Therefore I pray you call to mind, that there be but two masters, two kinds Two mas- 
of people, two ways, and two mansion-places. The masters be Christ and «^^^«-^ J»» 
Satan, the people be servitors to either of these, the ways be strait and wide, the subjects, 
mansions be heaven and hell. Again, consider that this world is the place of Two 
trial of God's people, and the devil's servants: for as the one will follow his T^oiiin?. 
master whatsoever cometh of it, so will the other. For a time it is hard to dis- doms. 
cern who pertaineth to God, and who to the devil : as in the calm and peace, 
who is a good shipman and warrior, and who is not. But as when the storm 
ariseth, the expert mariner is known, and as in war the good soldier is seen, so 
in affliction and the cross, easily God's children are known from Satan's ser- 
vants. For then, as the good servant will follow his master, so will the godly 
follow their captain, come what will come : whereas the wicked and hypocrites 


Mary. wiU bid adieu, and desire less of Christ's acquaintance. For which cause the 

cross is called a probation and trial, because it trieth who will go with God, and 

^- -D- who will forsake him. And now in England we see how small a company 

1555. Christ hath in comparison of Satan's soldiers. Let no man deceive himself: 

Affliction for he that gatherethnot with Christ, scattereth abroad. No man can serve two 

trieth who masters ; the Lord abhorreth double hearts ; the lukewarm (that is, such as are 

God.'and ^ot'i hot and cold) he spitteth out of his mouth. None that halt on both knees 

who go doth God take for his servants. The way of Christ is the strait way; and so 

with the s(-j.^j(.^ (^Ij^j ag a few find it, and few walk in it, so no man can halt in it, but 

must needs go upright : for as the straitness will suffer no reeling to this side or 

that side, so, if any man halt, he is like to fall off the bridge into the pit of eternal 


A wise Strive therefore, good master doctor, now you have found it, to enter into it : 

man will ^^^ if you should be called or pulled back, look not on this side or that side, or 

sicier thJ behind you, as Lot's wife did, but straight forwards on the end which is set 

^"''- before you (though it be to come) as even now present : like as you do and 

will your patients to do in purgations, and other your ministrations, to consider 

the effect that will ensue, where-through the bitterness and loathsomeness of 

the purgation is so overcome, and the painfulness in abiding the working of 

that is ministered, is so eased, that it maketh the patient willingly and joyfully 

to receive that [which] is to be received, although it be never so unpleasant : 

so (I say) set before you the end of this strait way; and then, doubtless, as 

St. Paul saith, " It shall bring with it an eternal weight of glory, whilst we 

look not on the thing which is seen, for that is temporal, but on the thing which 

is not seen, which is eternal."' So doth the husbandman, in ploughing and 

tilling, set before him the harvest-time ; so doth the fisher consider the draught 

of his net, rather than the casting-in ; so doth the merchant the return of his 

merchandize ; and so should we in these stormy days set before us not the loss 

of our goods, liberty, and very life — but the reaping time, the coming of our 

Saviour Christ to judgment; the fire that shall burn the wicked and disobedient 

to God's gospel ; the blast of the trump ; the exceeding glory prepared for 

us in heaven eternally, such as the eye hath not seen, the ear hath not heard, 

Theglori- nor the heart of man can conceive. The more we lose here, the greater joy shall 

com'^en ^^^ '^^^^ there : the more we suffer, the greater triumph. For corruptible 

of such 'as dross, we shall find incorruptible treasures; for gold, glory; for silver, solace 

sufiVr for without end ; for riches, robes royal ; for earthly houses, eternal palaces; mirth 

"ri . ^itijQyt measure, pleasure without pain, felicity endless ; suinma, we shall have 

God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. 

O happy place ! O that this day would come. Then shall the end of the 
wicked be lamentable ; then shall they receive the just reward of God's venge- 
ance; then shall they cry, "Woe, woe," that ever they did as they have done. 
Read Wisd. ii. iii. iv. v. : read Matt. xxxv. : read 1 Cor. xv. 2 Cor. v. : and by 
The way faith (which God increase in us) consider the thing there set forth. And for your 
is b/tH-" comfort, read Heb. xi., to see what faith hath done, always considering the way 
buiations. to heaven to be by many tribulations, and that all they which will live godly in 
Christ Jesus, must suffer persecution. You know this is our alphabet : " He 
that will be my disciple," saith Christ, "must deny himself, and take up his cross, 
and follow me." — Not this bishop, not that doctor; not this emperor, nor that 
king, but me, saith Christ : " For he that loveth fiither, mother, wife, children, 
or very life, better than me, is not worthy of me." Remember that the same 
Lord saith, " He that will save his life shall lose it." ^ Comfort yourself with 
this, that as the devils had no power over the porkets, or over Job's goods 
without God's leave ; so shall they have none over you. Remember also, that 
all the hairs of your head are numbered with God. The devil may make one 
believe he will drown him, as the sea in his surges threateneth to the land : 
but as the Lord hath appointed bounds for the one, over the which he cannot 
pass, so hath He done for the other. 

On God therefore cast your care ; love him, serve him after his word, fear 
him, trust in him, hope at his hand for all help, and always pray, looking for 
the cross ; and whensoever it cometh, be assured, the Lord, as he is faithful, 
so he will never tempt you further than he will make you able to bear, but in 
the midst of the temptation will make such an evasion, as shall be most to his 

(1) ".aitcrnur pondus gloria; parict." (i) JLilt. viii. 


glory and your eternal comfort. God, for his mercy in Christ, with his holy Afan/. 
Spirit endue you, comfort you, under the wings of his mercy shadow you, and • — 
as his dear child guide you for evermore. To whose merciful tuition, as I do ^.I). 
with my hearty prayer commit you ; so I douht not but you pray for me, and ^'■'•'•'- 
so I beseech you to do still. My brother P. telleth me, you would have the 
last part of St. Jerome's works, to liave the use thereof for a fortnight. I can- 
not for these three days well forbear it, but yet on Thursday next I will send 
it you, if God let me not ; and use me, and that I have, as your own. The Lord 
for his mercy in Christ direct our ways to his glory. 

Out of prison, by yours to command, 

John Bradford. 

To Mistress M. H., a godly Gentlewoman, comforting her in that 
common Heaviness and godly Sorrow, which the feeling and sense 
of Sin workcth in God's Children. 

I humbly and heartily pray the everlasting God and Father of mercy, to 
bless and keep your heart and mind in the knowledge and love of his truth, 
and of his Christ, through the inspiration and working of his holy Spirit : 

Although I have no doubt, but that you prosper and go forward daily in the 
■way of go'dliness, more and more drawing towards perfection, and have no need 
of any thing that I can write ; yet, because my desire is that you might be more 
fervent, and persevere to the end, I could not but write something imto you, 
beseeching you both often and diligently to call unto your mind, as a mean to 
stir you hereunto, yea, as a thing which God most straitly requireth you to 
believe, that you are beloved of God, and that he is your dear fatlier, in, 
through, and for, Christ and his death's sake. This love and tender kindness God's be- 
of God towards us in Christ is abundantly herein declared, in that he hath, to U^"'i|^J° ^.^ 
the godly work of creation of this world, made us after his image ; redeemed us J^ 
being lost; called us into his church; sealed us with his ^ mark and sign 
manual of baptism ; kept and conserved us all the days of our life ; fed, nou- 
rished, defended, and most fatherly chastised us ; and now hath kindled in our 
hearts the sparkles of his fear, faith, love, and knowledge of his Christ and 
tmth : and therefore we lament, because we lament no more our untliankful- 
ness, our frailness, our diffidence and wavering in things wherein we should be 
most certain. 

All these things we should use as means to confirm our faith of this, that Thecliief- 
God is our God and father, and to assure us that he loveth us as our ^■|J|'|fj: 
father in Christ : to this end, I say, we should use the things before touched, goj {3 ^„ 
especially in that, of all things, God requireth this faith and fatherly persuasion think well 
of his fatherly goodness, as his chiefest service. For before he ask any thing f.[,}',^^,,y 
of us, hesaith, " I am the Lord thy God:" giving himself, and then all he hath, f^ondness 
to us, to be our own. And this he doth in respect of himself, of his own in Christ, 
mercy and truth, and not in respect of us, for then were grace no grace. In 
consideration whereof, when he saith, " Thou shall have none other gods but 
me," " Thou shalt love me with all thy heart," &c., though of duty we are bound 
to accomplish all that he requireth, and are culpable and guilty if we do not 
the same, yet he requireth not these things further of us, than to make us more 
in love, and more certain of this his covenant, that he is our Lord and God. 
In certainty whereof, as he hath given this whole world to serve to our need 
and commodity ; so hath he given his Son Christ Jesus, and (in Christ) himself 
to be a pledge and gage, whereof the Holy Ghost doth now and then give us 
some taste and sweet smell, to our eternal joy. , . , ,. 

Therefore (as I said) because God is our Father m Christ, and requireth of Where 
you straitly to believe it, give yourself to obedience ; although ye do it not with {:^f,'j|;fy^j 
such feeling as you desire. First must faith go before, and then feeling will obedience 
follow. If our imperfection, frailty, and many evils, should be occasions is requir- 
whereby Satan would have us to doubt ; as mucli as we can, let us abhor that ^ • 
suggestion, as of all others most pernicious : for so indeed it is. For when we 
stand in a doubt, whether God be our Father, we cannot be thankful to God ; '^^«"|;t|!i^"' 
we cannot heartily pray or think any thing we do acceptable to God; we can- '/.^..^'.'.'r '■„ 
not love our neighbours, and give over ourselves to care for them, and do for ciirist. 


Mary, them as we should do, and tlierefore Satan is most suhtle hereabout, knowine 

~— — — full well that if we doubt of God's eternal mercies towards us through Christ, we 

1555' ^^"""* I?'^^^*^ ^°^' «'" <^o ^"y 'h'"g ^s ^^e should do to man. Continually cast- 

L eth he into our memories our imperfection, frailty, falls, and offences, that w- 

should doubt of God's mercy and favour towards us. 
To stay Therefore, my good sister, we must not be sluggish herein, but a,s Satar; 

God" ro ^'^^"'V^^'^ ^° loosen our faith, so must we labour to fasten it by thinkingon the 
mise^n™' promises and covenant of God in Christ's blood ; namely, that God is our God 
Christ's with all that ever he hath : which covenant dependeth and hangeth upon 
blood. God's own goodness, mercy, and truth only ; and not on our obedience or wor- 
Obedi- thiness on any point; for then should we never be certain. Indeed God 
Kimh not {■'ry^'reth of us obedience and worthiness, but not that thereby we mio-lit be 
to us to ins children, and he our father: but because he is our father and we Ins chil- 
chiWren' '^'"e" through his own goodness in Christ, therefore requireth he faith' and 
but to be Obedience. Now if we want this obedience and worthiness which he requiretl 
God^s should we doubt whether he be our father? Nay, that were to make -oi 
Kiveth " obedience and worthiness the cause, and so to put Christ out of place, for who '^e'v 
obedi- sake God is our fatlier : but rather because he is our father, and we feel our- 
selves to want such things as he requireth, we should be stirred up to a shame- 
facedness and blushing, because we are not as we should be : and thereupon 
should we take occasion to go to our father in prayer on this manner : 

" ^^^I Father, thou, of thine own mercy in Jesus Christ, hast chosen me to be 

en ce. 

How a 

should J\y cliild, and therefore thou wouldest I should be brought into thy church and 
fv'hi'A faithful company of thy children; wherein thou hast kept me hitherto- thv 
feeHngof "t""? ^^'^'^^^'f, ^e praised. Now I see myself to want faith, hope, love, etc 
God's which thy children have and thou requirest of me, where-through the devil 

favour and mercy. Therefore I come to thee as to my merciful Father 
through thy dear Son Jesus Christ, and pray thee to help me, good Lord • help 
me and give me faith, hope, love, etc., and grant that thy holy Spirit mav be 
with me lor ever, and more and more to assure me that thou art my Father • 
thiU this merciful covenant that thou madest with me in respect of thy erace 
in Christ and for Christ, and not in respect of any my worthiness, is always true 

Hope be 



,.,. n u ' } f ■^; y°" "'!"'' P^'^y ^"<^ "^^ yo"^ cogitations, when Satan 

would have you to doubt of salvation. He doth all he can to prevail herein 
i^o you al you can to prevail herein against him. Though you feel not as you 
would, yet doubt not but hope beyond all hope, as Abraham did: for faith 
Koeth Va ^ '^'^\§°f^ before feeling. As certain as God is almighty ; as certain 

t:?ore ^^ ^."/js merciful; as certain as God is true; as certain as Jesus Christ was 
feeling, crucified, is risen, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father; as certain as 
this IS God s commandment: " I am the Lord thy God," etc., so certain oucrht 
you to be that God is your Father. As you are bound to h^ve no other gSSs 
but him so are ye no less bound to believe that God is your God. What profit 
should It be to you to believe this to be true, " I am the Lord thy God/' to 
others. If you should not believe that this is true to yourself? The devi^ be- 

the dev.i. this-whelher God be your God through Christ— that same cometh undoubtedly 
01 the devil. Wlierefore did he make you, but because he loved you ? Misrht 
not he have made you blind, deaf, lame, frantic, etc. ? might not L have mfde 
you a Jew a lurk, a papist, etc. ? And why hath he not done so? Verily 
because he loved you. And why did lie love you ? What was there in you to 
move him to love you? Surely nothing moved him to love you, and theSe 
to make you, and so hitherto to keep you, but his own goodness' in Christ 
Now then, in tliat his goodness in cfirist still remaineth as much as it was!^ 
h ,f ff' f 7" •''' ^'''''^ ''' ^'""''"' '""^ '^ '^""""^ ^^ Icssened-how should it be 

^ste, £ "r ^""1 ^"^'"^"^ ^^''' ^'^''''' '^'^'' b*^"^- this, my good 
SIS ei, for God is no changeling. " Them whom he loveth, he loveth to the end " 

vo., 'no Cn'^r "'■^' •^' l"!T''^' '''"'"^ "P«!V''in^ «"<! think without all wavering that 
of ■ 1 ^ ' '"'"'' ^^y"' >'"" "'"^ "" """^'" "^" •''^'^^'^»' tJ'at you are the dau-^hter 
of Cod, the temple of the Holy Ghost, etc. If liereof yL be assured as you 

(1) Eeelcs. ii 


ought to be, then shall your conscience be quieted, then shall you lament more Mary. 
and more that you want many things which God loveth ; then shall you labour 
"to be holy in soul and body; then shall you go about that God's glory may V'^P/ 
shine in you, in all your words and works ; then shall you not be afraid what man ^'^'^'^- 
can do unto you ; then shall you have wisdom to answer your adversaries, as siiall Faith and 
serve to their shame, and your comfort ; then shall you be certain that no man assured 
can touch one hair of your head further than shall please your good Father, to ccKlVfa- 
your everlasting joy ; then shall you be most certain, that God as your good vour, is 
Father will be more careful for your children, and make better provision for j!,'f,/of "I'l 
them, if all you have were gone, than you can ; then shall you (being assured, weil- 
I say, of God's favour towards you) give over yourself wholly to help and care doing. 
for others that be in need ; then shall you contemn this life, and desire to be at 
home with your good and sweet Father ; then shall you labour to mortify all 
things that would spot either soul or body. All these things spring out of this 
certain persuasion and faith, that God is our Father, and we are his children 
by Christ Jesus. All things should help our faith herein; but Satan goeth 
about in all things to hinder us. 

Therefore let us use earnest and hearty prayer ; let us often remember this Conside- 
covenant — " I am the Lord thy God ;" let us look upon Christ and his precious "'''J" °^ 
blood shed for the obsignation and confirmation of his covenant; let us remem- promises 
her all the free promises of the gospel ; let us set before us God's benefits and bene- 
generally in making this world, in ruling it, in governing it, in calling and ''''*• 
keeping his church, etc. Let us set before us God's benefits particidarly — 
how he hath made his creatures after his image, how he made us of perfect 
limbs, form, beauty, memory, etc. ; how he hath made us Christians, and given 
us a right judgment in his religion ; how he hath, ever since we were born, 
blessed, kept, nourished, and defended us •, how he hath often beaten, chastised, 
and fatherly corrected us ; how he hath spared us, and doth now spare us, 
giving us time, space, place, grace. This if you do, and use earnest prayer, 
and so flee from all things which might wound your conscience, giving yourself 
to diligence in your vocation, you shall find at the length (which God grant to 
me with you) a sure certainty of salvation, without all such doubt as may 
trouble the peace of conscience, to your eternal joy and comfort. Amen, 

Yours to use in Christ, J. Bradford. 

Another Letter full of godly Comfort, written to the same Person. 

The good Spirit of God which guideth his children, be with you, my good 
sister in the Lord for ever. Amen. 

Although, as I to you, so you unto me in prison are unknown, yet to him 
whom we desire to please, we are not only in persons, but also in hearts known 
and thoroughly seen : and therefore as for his sake you would, by that you 
sent, of me be perceived how that in God you bear to me a good will ; so that 
I to you might be seen in God to bear you the like, I send to you these few 
words in writing, wishing that in all your doings and speech, yea even in your 
very thoughts, you would labour to feel that they are all present and open 
before the sight of God, be they good or bad. This cogitation often had in 
mind, and prayer made to God for the working of his Spirit, thereby, as a 
mean, you shall at the length feel more comfort and commodity, than any man 
can know, but such as be exercised therein. Howbeit this is to be added, 
that in thinking yourself, and all that you have and do, to be in the sight of Considc- 
God ; this (I say) is to be added, that you think his sight is the sight not only "tion of 
of a Lord, but rather of a Father, which tendereth more your infirmities, than ,ender 
you can tender the infirmities of any your children. Yea, when in yourself affection 
you see a motherly affection to your little one tliat is weak, let the same be ^,,"^",',1^ 
unto you a trace to train you to see the unspeakable kind affection of God your son. 
Father towards you. 

And therefore upon the consideration of your infirmities and natural evils. No time 
which continually cleave unto us, take occasion to go to God as your Father no'"_^ 
through Christ : and before his merciful heart lay open your infirmities and be'^prc- " 
evils, with desire of pardon and help after his good will and pleasure : but in scribed to 
fits time, and not wlicn ijou will ; and by what means he will, not by that way '""*• 


^""J- y°" would ; in the mean season liang on hope of his fatherly goodness, and 
\ D ^1/ ^°^^ ^^^^^ ^^^''^^ ^^ ashamed. For if a woman that is natural, cannot 
1.555' ""'''^'y ^°^S(^^ t'^e child of her womb, be sure God, which is a Father super- 

_: 1. natural, cannot, nor will not forget you. Yea if a woman could be so forgetful, 

yet God himself saith, he will not be so.i 

This opinion, yea rather certain persuasion, of God your Father throuo-li 
Christ, see that you cherish ; and by all means, as well by diligent considera- 
tion of his benefits, as of his loving corrections, whether they be inward or 
dceTfhe °"*^^^'"'^' ^^^ t^ia^ yo'i nourish ; knowing for certain, that as the devil goeth 
devil to ^"^out nothmg so much as to bring you in a doubt whether ye be God's child 
bring a or no: so whatsoever shall move you to admit that dubitation, be assured the 
St" ^^"^^ to come from the devil. If you feel in yourself not only the want of 
whether good things, but also plenty of evil, do not therefore doubt whether you be 
God's ^^^'^ ^^^^^ ^" Christ, or no. For if for your goodness or illness' sake, which 
child or y°ii feel or feel not, ye should believe or doubt, then should you make Christ' 
no. Jesus, for whose sake only God is your Father, either nothing, or else but half 

Christ.' But rather take occasion of your wants in good, and of your plenty in 
evil, to go to God as to your Father, and to pray to him, that inasmuch as he 
commandeth you to believe that he is your God and Father ; so he would give 
you his good Spirit, that you might feel the same, and live as his child, to his 
glory : and cease not upon such prayers to look for comfort in God's good time, 
still hoping the best, and rejecting all dubitation, and so all evil works, words, 
and cogitations, as the Lord shall enable you by his good Spirit and gracej 
which I beseech him to give unto you, my good sister, for ever. And further 
I pray you, that as he hath made you to be a helper unto your husband, so you 
would endeavour yourself therein to show the same as well in soul as body ; 
and beg grace of God, that your endeavours may be effectual to both your 
comforts in Christ. Amen. 

John Bradford. 

To my well-beloved in the Lord, W. P. 

Grace and peace from God the Father, through our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Dear brother, God most justly hath cast me down into a dungeon, but much 
better than I deserve ; wherein I see no man but my keeper, nor can see any 
except they come to me. Something in the earth mv lodging is, which is an 
example and memorial of my earthly affections (which God I trust will mortify) 
and of my sepulchre, whereunto I trust my Lord God will bring me in peace 
in his good time. In the mean season he give me patience, lively hope, and 
his good Spirit. I pray you pray for me ; for the prayer of the godly, if it be 
fervent, worketh much with God. I thank God my common disease ^ doth less 
trouble me than when I was abroad, which doth teach me the merciful provi- 
dence of God towards me. Use true and hearty prayer, and you shall perceive 
God at length will declare himself to see, where now many think he sleepeth. 
Out of the Tower, by the Lord's prisoner, 

John Bradford. 

A Letter which he wrote to a faithful Woman in her Heaviness and 
Trouble : most comfortable for all those to read that are afflicted 
and broken-hearted for their Sins. 

God our good Father, for his mercy's sake in Christ, with his eternal conso- 
lation so comfort you, as I desire to be comforted of him in my most need : 
yea, he will comfort you, my dear sister ; only cast your can; upon him, and 
he never can nor will forsake you ; for his calling and gifts be such, that he 
can never repent him of them.* Whom he loveth, he loveth to the end: none 
of his chosen can perish ; of which number I know you are, my dearly beloved 

(1) Isaiah xlix. 
in'riii^t ""^'^' '° measure God's favour neither by our goodness nor illness, but only l>y our faith 

V}) Tliis disease was a rheum, with a feebleness of stomach, wherewith he was much troubled 
Willie l>c wao at liberty. (i, Koin. xi. 


sister : God increase the faith tliereof daily more and more in you ! he give Mary. 

unto you to hang wholly on him and on his providence and protection ! For 

whoso dwelleth under that secret thing, and help of the Lord,' he shall be ^- ^• 
cock-sure for evermore. He that dwelleth, I say ; for if we be flitters and not ^■'^^^*- 
dwellers, as was Lot a flitter from Segor,^ where God promised him protection, 
if he had dwelled there still : we shall remove to our loss, as he did into the 

Dwell therefore, that is, trust, and that finally unto the end, in the Lord, my 
dear sister, and you shall be as Mount Sion. As mountains compass Jerusalem, 
so doth the Lord all his people. How then can he forget you, which are as the 
apple of his eye, for his dear Son's sake? Ah! dear heart, that 1 were now 
but one iialf hour with you, to be a Simon to help carry your cross with you. 
God send you some good Simon to be with you, and help you. 

You complain in your letters of the blindness of your mind, and the troubles 
you feel. My dearly beloved, God make you thankful for that which God 
hath given unto you ; he open yom- eyes to see what and how great benefits 
you have received, that you may be less covetous, or rather impatient ; for so 
(I fear me; it should be called, and more thankful. Have you not received at 
his hands sight to see your blindness, and thereto a desirous and seeking heart 
to see where he lieth in the mid-day, as his dear spouse speaketh of herself in 
the Canticles? Oh, Joyce! my good Joyce! what a gift is this ! Many have 
some sight, but none this sobbing and sigliing : none this seeking which you 
have, I know, but such as he hath married unto him in his mercies. You are 
not content to kiss his feet with the Magdalen, but you would be kissed even 
with the kiss of his mouth.' You would see his face with Moses, forgetting God can- 
how he biddeth us seek his face,* yea, and that for ever,^ which signifieth no "<" ^^ 
such siglit, as you desire to be in this present life, which would see God now covered"' 
face to face ; whereas he cannot be seen, but covered under something ; j'ea, under 
sometimes in that which is (as you would say) clean contrary to God ; as to ft ™^," 
see his mercy in his anger. In bringing us to hell, faith seeth him to bring us Ho'^fiaith 
to heaven : in darkness it beholdeth brightness : in hiding his face from us, it seeth ' 
beholdeth his merry countenance. How did Job see God, but as (you would ^°'^- 
say) under Satan's cloak? for who cast the fire from heaven upon his goods? flVsh" 
who overthrew his house, and stirred up men to take away his cattle, but seetii 
Satan ? and yet Job pierced through all these, and saw God's work, saying, '^'^"" 
" The Lord hath given, the Lord hath taken away," etc. 

In reading of the Psalms, how often do you see that David in the shadow of 
death saw God's sweet love? And so, my dearly beloved, I see that you, in 
your darkness and dimness, by faith do see charity and brightness : by faith, 
I say, because faith is of things absent, of things hoped for, of things which I 
appeal to your conscience, whether you desire not. And can you desire any 
thing which you know not? And is there of heavenly things any other true 
knowledge than by faith? 

Therefore, my dear heart, be thankful ; for (before God I write it) you have The state 
great cause. Ah ! my Joyce, how happy is the state wherein you are ! Verily °[.^"'''^ 
you are even in the blessed state of God's children, for they mourn ; and do not described, 
you so ? And that not for v/orldly weal, but for spiritual riches, faith, hope, 
charity, etc. Do you not hunger and thirst for righteousness? And I pray 
you, saith not Christ, who cannot lie, that happy are such ? How should God 
wipe away the tears from your eyes in heaven, if now on earth ye shed no 
tears ?* how could heaven be a place of rest, if on earth you'd find it? how could 
ye desire to be at home, if in your journey you found no grief? how could ye 
so often call upon God, and talk with him, as I know you do, if your enemy 
should sleep all day long ? how should you elsewhere be made like unto Christ, 
I mean in joy, if in sorrow you sobbed not with him ? If you will have joy xhe way 
and felicity, you must first needs feel sorrow and misery : if you will go to I" heaven 
heaven, you must sail by hell : if you will embrace Christ in his robes, you Ij^en."^""^'' 
must not think scorn of him in his rags : if you will sit at Christ's table in his 
kingdom, you must first abide with him in his temptations : if you will drink 
of his cup of glory, forsake not his cup of ignominy. 

Can the head corner-stone be rejected, and the other more base stones in 

(1) Gid's providence and protection. Tsal. xxxi. 90. (2) Ocn. xix. (3) Caniicles i. 

(41 Psalm x.xvii (5) Psalm cv. (C) Matt. v. 


Mary. God's building be in tbis world set by 1 You are one of his lively stones — be 

content therefore to be hewn and snagged at, that you might be made more 

^' ^' meet to be joined to your fellows which suffer with you Satan's snatches, the 

^^^^- world's wounds, contempt of conscience, and fretts of the flesh, where-through 

Threats they are enforced to cry. Oh wretches that we are ! who shall deliver us ?' you 

of the are of God's corn, fear not therefore the flail, the fan, millstone, nor oven. You 

^^^^' are one of Christ's lambs, look therefore to be fleeced, haled at, and even slain. 

God's If you were a market-sheep, you should go in more fat and grassy pasture ; 

sheep if you were for the fair, you should be stall-fed, and want no weal : but, be- 

on"t*he'^^ cause you are for God's own occupying, therefore you must pasture on the bare 

bare com- common, abiding the storms and tempests that will fall. Happy, and twice 

'"°"' . happy are you, my dear sister, that God now haileth you whither you would 

devil's not, that you might come whither you would.- Suffer a little, and be still. 

cattle are Let Satan rage against you ; let the world cry out ; let your conscience accuse 

^'* *'^" you ; let the law load you and press you down ; yet shall they not prevail, for 

Christ is Emmanuel, that is, God with us. " If God be with us, who can be 

against us?"-' The Lord is with you; your Father cannot forget you; your 

spouse loveth you. If the waves and surges arise, cry with Peter, " Lord, 

I perish;"* and he will put out his hand and help you. Cast out your anchor 

of hope, and it will not cease, for all the stormy surges, till it take hold on the 

rock of God's truth and mercy. 

Phil. i. Think not that he which hath given you so many things corporally ; as in- 

Desire of ductions of spiritual and heavenly mercies (and that, without your deserts or 

comfort desire), can deny you any spiritual comfort, desiring it. For if he give to 

though it desire, he will give you to have and enjoy the thing desired. The desire to have, 

he lack- ^^^^ ^}jg going about to ask, ought to certify your conscience, that they be his 

great gift earnest of the thing which, you asking, he will give you; yea, before you ask, 

of God. and whilst you are about to ask, he will grant the same, as Isaiah saith, to his 

glory, and your eternal consolation. He that spared not his own Son for you, 

will not nor cannot think any thing too good for you, my heartily beloved. 

Exercise If he had not chosen you (as most certainly he hath), he would not have so 

of tempta- called you ; he would never have justified you ; he would never have so glorified 

great you with his gracious gifts, ^ which I know, praised be his name therefore ; he 

token of would never have so exercised your faith with temptations, as he hath done and 

election. ^^^^ . j^^ j ^^^^ j^^ j^^^ ^^^j. pj^^^ggj-, y^^, jf j^g j^^j-j, chosen you (as doubtless, 

dear heart, he hath done in Christ, for in you I have seen his earnest, and before 
me and to me you could not deny it, I know both where, and when), if, I say, he 
have chosen you, then neither can you, nor shall you ever perish. For if you 
fail, he putteth under his hand ; you shall not lie still ; so careful is Christ your 
keeper over you. Never was mother so mindful over her child, as he is over 
you. And hath not he always been so ? 

Speak woman, when did he finally forget you ? And will he, now trow you, 

in your utmost need do otherwise, you calling upon him, and desiring to please 

him ? Ah, my Joyce ! think you God to be mutable ? is he a changeling ? doth 

not he love to the end them whom he loveth ? are not his gifts and calling such, 

that he cannot repent him of them?'' For else, were he no God. If you 

should perish, then wanted he power ; for I am certain his will towards you 

Every is not to be doubted of. Hath not the Spirit, which is the Spirit of truth, told 

ru"fof to y°^ ^^ • ^^^ ^''' y°'^ "^"^^ hearken with Eve to the lying spirit, which would 

he heark- have you not to despair (no, he goeth more craftily to work ; howbeit to that 

end, if you should give ear unto it; which God forbid), but to doubt, and stand 

in a mammering ; and so should you never truly love God, but serve him of a 

servile fear, lest he should cast you off for your unworthiness and unthankfu