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AUTHOR OF Old Testament History for Schools 
AND St Luke in Greek 

Cambridge : 

at the University Press 


^^* The. text of Westcott and Hort is 2ised in this edition 
by the kind pernnssio?i of Messrs Macmillan. 



IN this edition, which is intended to be of the same 
scope and character as Sir Arthur Hort's St Mark and 
my own work on St Luke, I have endeavoured to ensure 
brevity and clearness in exposition, although compression 
necessarily entails some sacrifice in the study of a book of 
such unique interest and importance as the Acts, which 
opens up so many avenues of thought and touches the life 
of the Graeco-Roman and Jewish worlds at so many points. 
I trust that the division of the Acts, which I have adopted 
from Dr Moffatt's ' Introduction to the Literature of the 
New Testament,' will commend itself to teachers who may 
use the book. Though this division is not so simple as 
others, it has the advantage of shewing how St Luke carried 
out his design upon a definite historical plan of telling the 
story of ' The Acts of the Holy Ghost working in and 
through the apostles in the progress of the Gospel from 
Jerusalem to Rome.' In the Introduction, however briefly, 
I have attempted to sketch the conditions of life and 
thought in the world at large in the infancy of the Christian 
church. A list of commentaries and books connected with 
the study of the Acts is given in the hope that it may be of 



some service to teachers, though I have not attempted 
to make it exhaustive. This edition is based in the main 
upon the commentaries of Dr Knowling, Mr R. B. Rackham, 
and Prof. F. Blass, and upon two smaller works, which no 
schoolmaster can neglect, by Mr T. E. Page and Dr Knapp ; 
amongst other books the works of Sir W. M. Ramsay and 
Dr A. Harnack have been most frequently consulted. 

I owe a great debt of gratitude to Canon R. St John 
Parry, who has revised the whole book in MS. and in 
proof, and to my colleague Mr H. C. Bowen and the reader 
of the University Press for a very careful scrutiny in a final 
revision of the proofs, by which many errors have been 
removed. The text printed is that of Westcott and Hort, 
which Messrs Macmillan have kindly allowed to be used. 
My thanks are also due to Sir W. M. Ramsay, and 
Mr W. J. Newton of Accrington, for their kindness in 
allowing some photographs to be reproduced. 

W. F. B. 


March 191 6. 


Bigg, C. The Church's Task under the Empire. Oxford University 
Press, ^s. net. 

Blass, F. Acta Apostolorum (Latin). Leipsic. 

Blas9, F. Grammar of New Testament (Tr.). Macmillan & Co. 
15J. net. 

Chase, F. H. The Credibihty of the Acts of the Apostles. Mac- 
millan & Co. 6s. 

Deissmann, a. St Paul (Tr.). Hodder & Stoughton. 10s. 6d. net. 

Deissmann, a. Bible Studies (Tr.). T. & T. Clark, gs. 

Glover, T. R. The Conflict of Religions in the Early Roman Empire. 
Methuen. -js. 6d. net. 

Gwatkin, H. M. Early Church History to a.d. 313. Vol. I. Mac- 
millan & Co. 17.9. net. 

Harxack, a. Luke the Physician (Tr.). Williams & Norgate. 
5J-. net. 

Harnack, a. The Acts of the Apostles (Tr.). Williams & Nor- 
gate. 5J". net. 

Harnack, A. Date of the Acts and the Synoptic Gospels (Tr.). 
Williams & Norgate. -^s. 

Hastings, J. S. Dictionary of the Bible. 5 vols. T. & T. Clark. 
2 8 J. per vol. 

Hobart, W. K. The Medical Language of St Luke. Longmans. 

Hort, F. J. a. Judaistic Christianity. Macmillan & Co. 6s. 

HORT, F. J. A. The Christian Ecclesia. Macmillan & Co. r.f. 

Knapp, C. Acts of the Apostles (Eng.). Murby. 2s. 

KxowLiXG, A. Acts of the Apostles: Expositor's Greek Testament. 
Vol. II. Hodder & Stoughton. 28s. 

Lake, Kirsopp. The Earlier Epistles of St Paul. Rivington, r6y- 



Lake, Kirsopi'. The vStewardship of Faith. Christophers Ltd. 

5^. net. 
MOFFATT, J. Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament. 

T. & T. Clark. \is. 
MouLTON, W. F. and Geden, A. S. A Concordance to the Greek 

Testament. T. & T. Clark. i(is. net. 
Page, T. E. Tlie Acts of the Apostles (Gk). Macmillan & Co. 

-2^. (id. 
Rackham, R. B. The Acts of the Apostles (Eng.) : Westminster 

Commentaries. Methuen. \os. 6d. 
RaiSISAY, Sir W. M. The Church in the Roman Empire. Hodder & 

Stoughton. 12S. 
Ramsay, Sir W. M. St Paul the Traveller and the Roman Citizen. 

Hodder & Stoughton. los. 6d. 
Ramsay, Sir W. M. Pauline and other Studies. Hodder & Stoughton. 

Ramsay, Sir W. M. Pictures of the Apostolic Church. Hodder & 

Stoughton. 6s. 
Ramsay, Sir W. M. Luke the Physician. Hodder & Stoughton. \2S. 
Ramsay, Sir W. M. Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia. Clarendon 

Press. £i. is. net. 
Redlich, H. B. St Paul and his Companions. Macmillan & Co. 

5J-. net. 
Rendall, F. The Acts of the Apostles. Macmillan & Co. 6s. net. 
Robertson, A. T. A Short Grammar of the New Testament. 

Hodder & Stoughton. 6s. net. 
Smith, J. Voyage and Shipwreck of St Paul. Longmans, -js. 6d. 
Smith, Sir William. Dictionary of the Bible. 3 vols. Murray. 

Svvete, H. B. The Holy Spirit in the New Testament. ALacmillan 

& Co. Sjt. 6d. net. 
Thayer, J. H. Grimm's Greek-English Lexicon of the New 

Testament. T. & T. Clark. ^6s. 
Zaun, T. Litroduction to the New Testament (Tr.). 3 vols. 

T. & T. Clark. 36^. net. 



Introduction ix 

Text i 

Notes 75 

Greek Index 266 

General Index 273 


Codex Bezae. Facsimile of Acts xv. 19, 20 between pp. 40-41 

Athens. The Areopagus facing p. 46 

„ 48 

Corinth. The Lechaeum Road 
Ephesus. The Theatre . 
Malta. St Paul's Bay . 
The Temple of Herod . 
Palestine in the titne of Christ 
St Paul's journeys . 

At end of the 


The Author of the Acts. 

No one can deny that the first or former treatise referred 
to in the opening words of the Acts is the Gospel attributed to 
S. Luke. The internal evidence is overwhelming and conclusive. 
Both the Gospel and the Acts are addressed or dedicated to the 
same person ; in style, in language, in syntactical usage, in the 
recurrence of short passages marking divisions of the book they 
are as closely allied together as they are distinct from the rest 
of the N.T. writings. But the correspondence is deeper still : in 
unity of purpose and in execution of design, in unconscious self- 
revelation, in the honest search after truth, in a wide and com- 
prehensive outlook of the universalism of the Gospel, there is 
such close resemblance that it is hard to resist the conclusion 
that the author had formed in his mind the conception of telling 
the story of the first beginnings of Christianity from the prepara- 
tion for the advent of the Messiah to the coming of the great 
apostle of the Gospel of that Messiah to Rome, the capital of the 
world. The ascension at once marked the dividing line and the 
connecting link between the two volumes of the work. In the 
Gospel the author tells of the universal redemption of mankind 
vouchsafed to all by the Saviour of the world, ' of all that Jesus 
began to do and to teach ' : in the Acts — truly called the Gospel 
of the Holy Spirit — he continues his task and goes on to tell of 
the Holy Ghost working in and through the Apostles in the 
spread of the Gospel message from Jerusalem to Rome. The 
Gospel, as is natural, contains no reference to its authorship, 
as the reader to whom it was addressed needed none, but in the 
Acts the occurrence of the first person plural in certain passages 


and sections gives a definite clue and conclusively proves that 
the author was a companion of S. Paul. 

In ch. xvi. ID the first person plural suddenly appears and 
continues \.o v. 17 where the first of the 'we' passages ceases. 
The author thus joined S. Paul at Troas and was left behind at 
Philippi. In ch. xx. 5 when S. Paul returned to Philippi it re- 
appears and the author once more joined him and proceeded 
with him to Jerusalem. In ch. xxi. 18 it disappears once more. 
During the two years that intervened before the voyage to Rome 
the author probably kept in close touch with S. Paul at Caesarea, 
and from xxvii. i we learn that he accompanied him to Rome 
and probably remained with him to the close of the Acts. To 
these passages may be added, if the reading in Codex Bezae (D) 
in ch. xi. 28 is accepted, the interesting fact that the author was 
at Antioch and heard the prophecy of Agabus at the time when 
Paul and Barnabas went up to Jerusalem with the offerings of 
the Antiochene church. The internal evidence of the Gospel 
and the Acts taken in conjunction with that of three references 
to vS. Luke in S. Paul's Epistles leads to the conclusion that he 
was the author, and this conclusion is supported by the external 
evidence of unbroken tradition. 

Writing to the Colossians during the first imprisonment 
S. Paul says ' Luke the beloved physician greeteth you and 
Demas' (iv. 14). In vv. lo-ii S. Paul couples the names of 
Aristarchus, Mark and Jesus Justus together, ' who are of the 
circumcision,' and it is an almost certain inference that in 
separating the names of Luke and Demas S. Paul imphes that 
they were Gentiles and with this his name Lucas (Lat. Lucanus) 
agrees : if this is so, S. Luke is the only author of Gentile origin 
in the N.T. In the Epistle to Philemon despatched from Rome 
at the same time as the letter to Colossae S. Luke is spoken of by 
S. Paul in conjunction with Mark, Demas and Aristarchus as 
his fellow-labourer (7/. 24). During the second imprisonment in 
the last extant letter of S. Paul, when the time for his departing 
was at hand and he was almost alone, he writes to Timothy, ' only 
Luke is with me' (2 Tim. iv. 11). Jerome, Ignatius and Origen 
identify 'the brother whose praise is in the Gospel' (2 Cor. viii 


18-19) ^^'i^^h S. Luke; but it is clear that if S. Luke was the 
author of the Acts he was not with S. Paul at the time that the 
letter was written, and the tradition arose naturally from a con- 
fused interpretation of ' in the Gospel,' which undoubtedly refers 
to the preaching of the Gospel. Outside the N.T. tradition 
records little of S. Luke. Epiphanius {Haer. Li. 11) mentions 
that he was one of the seventy, but his Gentile origin and his 
own statement in the preface of the Gospel make this impossible, 
though this tradition is still hinted at by the selection of the 
mission of the seventy for the Gospel on S. Luke's day (Oct. 18). 
The same reason makes it impossible for him to have been 
the unnamed companion of Cleopas in the walk to Emmaus 
(Lk. xxiv. 13). Eusebius {H. E. ill. 4) states definitely that 
he was a native of Antioch and this finds some support in the 
Acts, even if we reject the reading in xi. 28, in the interest he 
obviously takes in the city and in the details he records. He 
specially mentions that Nicolas was a proselyte of Antioch 
(vi. 5), that men of Cyprus and Cyrene first preached in the 
city, and that the disciples were first called Christians there 
(xi. 20-27), 3-i^d in ch. xiii. i he mentions the names of five leaders 
of the Antiochene church. An early sixth century tradition 
records that he was a painter, ''in Aiitiochia magna ortus 
professione inedictis et pictor^^ but of this there is no further 
evidence. Jerome in his preface to the Gospel of S. Matthew 
associates him with the provinces of Achaia and Boeotia, and in 
the former province he is said to have suffered martyrdom 
under Domitian. Another tradition places his death in Bithynia 
at the age of 74. 

Discarding tradition and uncertain references it remains to 
be considered what support the three statements of S. Paul 
find in the history recorded in the Acts and how far they lead 
to the certain conclusion that S. Luke was the author. A 
careful consideration of the names and characters of all the 
friends and companions of S. Paul mentioned in the N.T. and 
of what is known of their movements in conjunction with the 
' we ' passages in the Acts leads inevitably to a reductip ad Lucain 
(for full explanation vid. Rackham, p. xvi,). No other fellow- 


worker of S. Paul satisfies the conditions, whereas S. Paul's own 
statements about S. Luke and his movements not only find no 
disagreement with the Acts but also fall in very suitably with 
the view which will be taken about the time and place of the 
composition of both the Gospel and the Acts. S. Paul lays 
emphasis not only on S. Luke's profession as a physician but 
his energy, fidelity, cooperation and affection. 

Perhaps it would be too much to say that the Gospel and 
the Acts make it clear that the author was a physician, but no 
one could fail to notice that he is exceptionally familiar with 
medical language and very precise and accurate in medical 
details, e.g. in the account of the healing of the lame man at 
the beautiful gate of the Temple (iii. 7), and when we know 
from S. Paul that Luke was a physician we find many passages 
in the Gospel and the Acts that support the conclusion that he 
was the author (cf. also iv. 22, ix. 18, xiii. 11, xxviii. 6, 8). In 
the character of a good physician we should expect to find gentle- 
ness, sympathy with all, both men and women, modesty, self- 
effacement, care and precision, the gift of consolation and 
exhortation, faithful devotion to work, and a cheerful optimism 
coupled with a readiness to face difficulties and hard and 
unpleasant facts when necessary. All these characteristics 
can be discovered without difficulty in the unconscious revelation 
of himself by the author of the Gospel and the Acts (Rackham, 

Time and Place. 

The Acts closes upon a note of cheerfulness leaving S. Paul 
free to preach unmolested in Rome, the goal of all his hopes. 
The result of his trial, his release, his subsequent journeys, his 
arrest, second imprisonment, trial and death are still future. 
The natural inference to be drawn is that the Acts was written 
before any of these events occurred. If this was so the Gospels 
of S. Luke and of S. Mark were written still earlier. There is 
nothing impossible in this, and the period of six years extending 
from the last visit to Jerusalem to the near approach of the close 


of the first imprisonment is of sufficient duration to account for 
the collection of materials in Palestine as well as in Rome and 
for the composition both of the Gospel and the Acts during years 
in which he had leisure to write, while S. Paul's own testimony 
to S. Luke's fidehty (2 Tim. iv. 11) shews that of all his com- 
panions Luke was the least likely to desert him. The 'we' 
passages of the Acts, and especially the narrative of the voyage 
and shipwreck, are so full of life and vigour that it is only right 
to assume that they were the notes of a diarist put into a more 
literary form when the events were still fresh and recent. If this 
inference is correct the Acts was written in any case before 
A.D. 62. If it could be proved that the author of the Acts was 
in any way dependent on Josephus, a later date towards the close 
of the first century would have to be assigned. But similarity 
in usages of words by two historians who were both cultured 
Hellenists is a slender argument to rely upon, especially when 
both are describing similar events. In two passages at least 
(v. 36, xxi. 38) S. Luke is in direct disagreement with Josephus, 
which is an argument in favour of his independence. 

Some have felt that the Acts comes to an abrupt and 
unsatisfactory conclusion, but the rhythmic cadence of the 
last sentence points rather to the intention of the writer thus 
to conclude his work. S. Luke is primarily an historian and 
incidentally and of necessity a biographer : there is nothing 
to shew that he intended to write a life of S. Paul, but every 
evidence of his design to write a history of the spread of the 
Gospel from Jerusalem to the capital of the Roman Empire. 
This he accomplished and laid down his pen. At the same 
time it is very necessary to bear in mind that the Acts is far 
from being a complete history, and S. Luke leaves many events 
unrecorded. He records nothing of the foundation of Chris- 
tianity in many provinces of the Empire and in some of its most 
important centres, including Rome itself. He tells us nothing 
of the missionary labours of any of the twelve outside Palestine, 
and beyond the boundaries of Judaea he confines himself to the 
labours of S. Paul and his companions. Ramsay has argued 
that the Gospel and the Acts are the first and second volumes 


of a great work, and that the author contemplated a third volume 
which would have covered the evangelization of the western pro- 
vinces of the Roman Empire and included the story of S. Paul's 
subsequent journeys and his martyrdom and that of S. Peter. 
But so far as this argument rests upon the use of irpwros (Acts 
i. i) it is baseless, as rrpcoTos is used indiscriminately for Trporepos 
in the koivt] ^iclXcktos of Hellenistic Greek, our knowledge of 
which has been of late years so greatly enriched by the discovery 
of the papyri at Fayyum and Oxyrhynchus and elsewhere in 
Egypt, and of numerous Greek inscriptions in various pdrts of 
Egypt, Asia and other lands where Greek was spoken. These 
throw a flood of light upon the common use and meaning of 
words both in LXX. and N.T. {vi'de esp. Deissmann's Bzd/c' 
Studies^ Moulton and Milligan, The Vocabulary of the Greek 
Testament). If however any definite proof were forthcoming 
it is clear that the closing sentences of the Acts afford no evidence 
for the early date we have accepted. The evidence of Patristic 
literature is not conclusive but the canonicity of the Acts is 
established. Clement A.D. 75, Ignatius a.d. i i 5 and Polycarp (in 
his letter to the Philippians) a few years later use language 
which is reminiscent of the Acts though they do not actually 
refer to it. The list of books of N.T. known as the Muratorian 
Fragment, A.D. 175, contains the Acts in its usual place, and Ter- 
tuUian (a.d. 200) and Clement of Alexandria (a.d. 200) and, still 
earlier, Irenaeus (a.d. 175), refer to it by name either as wpd^eis 
or npa^ds dnna-ToXMv and quote from it frequently. While there 
is therefore no certain positive evidence of any particular date 
for the composition of the book, the negative evidence from the 
book itself points to its having been written not later than the 
close of S. Paul's first imprisonment, and the burden of proof 
rests upon those who assign it to various dates later in the first 
century or even in the second. If we accept year 62 as the 
terminus ad qiiem we naturally conclude that it was written at 
Rome by S. Luke during his sojourn in the city before the 
liberation of S. Paul, though it is possible that he may have 
been sent on a mission to Philippi and composed it during his 
stay in Macedonia. The only evidence to the contrary is the 


very vague statement of Jerome, which doubtless represented a 
tradition, that Luke wrote his Gospel ' in the regions of Achaia 
and Boeotia,' but even this is no direct evidence for the place 
of the composition of the Acts. 

Aim and Design of the Acts. 

S. Luke in the preface to the Gospel explicitly states the 
methods and principles which appealed to him as essential to 
the writing of the history of the life and teaching of Jesus Christ : 
(i) access to authorities of first rank, (2) careful and accurate 
investigation of every event, its source and origin, (3) the use 
of the materials thus sifted and tested in the composition of 
comprehensive narrative, (4) a definite purpose, the assurance 
of trustworthiness and certainty in all that is recorded. To 
these principles he adheres in the composition of the Acts. 
But in one respect S. Luke, who followed the methods of 
historiography current in antiquity, differed from modem 
historians in the important matter of a full sense of proportion. 
The historical writers of antiquity, notably Thucydides and 
Livy as typical instances, admitted speeches into their narrative, 
perhaps originally in consequence of the influence of rhetoric 
upon historical composition. While this custom added great 
life and vigour to the narrative, it inevitably destroyed the sense 
of proportion and necessitated the relegation of some events to 
a bald summary of the briefest description and to the omission 
of others. The Acts is no exception to the rule, and while 
it is not possible to believe that the speeches contain either 
the whole speech or the exact words of it in each case, and it is 
clear that they are coloured by the style and language of S. Luke, 
yet they closely correspond with what is known of the character- 
istics of the individual speakers and of the time and events to 
which they refer. S. Luke would have cordially subscribed to 
Thucydides' own description of the methods and principles he 
set before himself in his great task — like the Acts — ' a possession 
for all time' (Thuc. I. 22). 

In the eighth verse of the first chapter S. Luke records our 


Lord's words, 'But ye shall receive power, when the Holy 
Ghost is come upon you : and ye shall be my witnesses both in 
Jerusalem, and in all Judaea and Samaria, and unto the uttermost 
part of the earth.' It is his own supreme aim to trace the result 
of the energy and inspiration of the Holy Spirit working in the 
apostles and in the church in the spread of the Gospel from 
Jerusalem to Rome. His method is strictly historical and 
conceived on a plan of orderly development and covers the 
period a.d. 30-60. We divide his work into six sections, each 
of which closes with 'a rubric of progress' (vi. 7, ix. 31, xii. 24, 
xvi. 5, xix. 20, xxviii. 31). 

1. The church in Jerusalem, i. — vi. 7. 

2. The spread of the Gospel throughout Palestine — Galilee, 
Judaea and Samaria, vi. 8 — ix. 31. 

3. The church in Antioch : first extension of the Gospel to 
the Gentile world, ix. 32 — xii. 24. 

4. The churches of Galatia and Pisidia, conflict of Jewish 
and Gentile Christianity, xii. 25 — xvi. 5. 

5. Extension of the Gospel to Europe. The churches in 
the great cities, Ephesus, Miletus, Philippi, Thessalonica, 
Athens, Corinth, xvi. 6 — xix. 20. 

6. The culmination of the spread of the Gospel closing 
with the arrival of the great Gentile Apostle in Rome, 
xix. 21 — xxviii. 31. 

Brief introductions to each of these sections are given in the 
notes. In the main three stages in the growth of the church 
can be distinguished in the Acts, (i) The church of Jerusalem 
was founded upon the basis of the belief that the crucified Jesus, 
risen from the dead, was the Messiah of Jewish expectations, 
'both Lord and Christ' (ii. 36). There was no radical break 
with Judaism. (2) The Antiochene church occupies a position 
midway between Jewish and Gentile Christianity, opening the 
door to Gentile converts without demanding circumcision or 
submission to the whole of the ceremonial law. (3) In the 
Gentile churches, divorced from Judaism, Christ was the centre 
of the worship of the community, and the rites of Baptism and 

INTR on UCTION x vii 

the eucharist the appointed means of the inception and mainten- 
ance of a new spiritual life, insuring salvation here and hereafter. 
It has been pointed out that the Acts follows a similar plan 
of development to the Gospel. The Gospel begins with the 
preliminary narrative of the preparation for the coming of the 
Messiah, and proceeds to a climax, through the ministry of 
Galilee and Samaria to Jerusalem. The Acts opens with a 
similar narrative of preparation for the ministry of the Holy 
Spirit and proceeds from the first beginnings of the church at 
Jerusalem on a careful geographical plan to the final culmination 
at Rome. There is therefore in the Acts a striking unity alike of 
design and method, and S. Luke cannot be accused of pragmatism, 
of writing history from the point of view of the special pleader. 
To those who argue that it was his deliberate purpose on the one 
side to establish the 'political inoffensiveness' of the Christian 
faith and of its position as a licita religio associated at first in the 
eyes of Roman officials with Judaism, and on the other to gloze 
over and accommodate the vital differences between Judaistic 
and Gentile Christianity, it may be replied that S. Luke recorded 
facts, and writing with a sane and quiet grasp of historical 
perspective after the occurrence of the events he describes, he 
sees them in the less fierce light of retrospection when the storm 
of the Judaistic controversy was almost passed and the storm of 
the first persecution of the Christians 'for the name ' had not yet 
broken. Others would see in the Acts only a twofold division — 
acta Petri i. — xii. — acta Pauli xiii.— xxviii. — and draw attention 
to the correspondence between the actions of the two apostles 
(Rackham, xlviii.). This would have the effect of substituting 
biography for history and S. Luke is primarily an historian. 
Rather it is true to say that the historical basis of the Acts 
is fundamental and its biographical character of necessity 
incidental : it is, as it were, a fine silken fabric with a red ground- 
work shot with gold, and if the bright light shines more 
frequently upon the gold this is only natural. The history of a 
nation is the record of the lives and works of its greatest men, 
and if this is true of history in general it is much more so in the 
case of the history of religious or philosophical developments. 
B. A. b 


That S. Peter and S. Paul worked similar miracles is no argument 
for any deliberate purpose on the part of S. Luke to accommodate 
their lives and works : it is only reasonable that they should do 
so, as they both followed in so doing in the steps of their Master. 
Besides, such a division would entail difficulties, as S. Luke by 
no means confines his narrative to the two apostles in a work 
which records actions of no less than i lo people ; rather it is true 
that the words and deeds of the twin champions of Judaistic 
and Gentile Christianity would loom large in the story of the 
life of the infant churches in which they were the chief figures. 

Sources of the Acts. It is beyond the scope of this com- 
mentary to examine the different attempts that have been made 
to divide the Acts into various parts or to point out apparent 
evidence of the hands of editors or redactors. One fact seems 
almost fatal to all such efforts, as it is quite impossible on 
the score of language or style to deny the absolute unity of 
the book. It is established beyond dispute that the same 
phraseology which is found in the 'we' sections is found in 
the rest of the book, and this extends to medical words and 
phrases (Harnack, Date of the Acts and Synoptic Gospels^ 
Ch. I.), and therefore the whole work proceeded from the hand 
and mind of one author, and is not a compilation from various 
literary sources, loosely pieced together by an editor. Rut it 
is a comparatively easy task, accepting the unity of the work, 
to enquire what sources were at the disposal of S. Luke and 
what means he had for gathering his materials. It may safely 
be concluded that the 'we' passages are his own work, the 
records of his own diary, and that all other information about 
S. Paul's life and work he gleaned from the apostle himself 
who, like an old campaigner in the years of captivity, would go 
over KuO^ €v eKuarov (xxi. 19) the records of his past career. It 
is equally certain that S. Luke did not make use of the Epistles 
of S. Paul and he was probably not acquainted with them, as 
he was not in the company of S. Paul when the Epistles to 
the Thessalonians, Galatians, Corinthians and Romans were 
written. This accounts at once for the general agreement be- 
tween the Acts and the Epistles and for points of difficulty : 


but this must be reserved for separate treatment. For the rest 
of the Acts S. Luke had abundant material at his disposal and 
excellent opportunities for collecting it. He was in Palestine for 
two years before the voyage to Rome and possibly at Antioch 
much earlier (Acts xi. 28), as well as at Rome afterwards with 
S. Paul. He was brought into contact with Mark at Rome 
(Col. iv. 10), Philip the Evangelist at Caesarea (xxi. 8-12), 
Silas at Philippi (xvi. 19), James at Jerusalem (xxi. 18), and 
possibly with Barnabas at Antioch (xi. 28), Manaen at Antioch 
(xiii. 1) and S. Peter at Rome. He was therefore in touch with 
those who were familiar with the history of the mother church 
at Jerusalem and with the extension of the church in Palestine 
and at Antioch, from whom he gleaned most of the information 
he incorporated in the earlier chapters of the Acts. How far 
documentary evidence was at his disposal it is difficult to say, 
but it may safely be concluded that oral testimony formed 
the chief sources of his information. The graphic details of 
S. Peter's imprisonment and escape came from the lips of 
Mark, the narrative of the seven and of the work of Philip 
from Philip himself, and the intimate knowledge he shews of 
the Herodian family (Lk xiii. 31-33, xxiii. 6-12, 15 ; Acts iv. 27, 
xii., xiii. i, xxv. 13 — xxvi.) may be due to Manaen. No definite 
evidence of the existence of documents is as yet forthcoming, 
but S. Luke's own reference in his preface to the Gospel points 
to their existence at an earlier date than has hitherto been 
generally accepted, and not only were narratives drawn up of 
the life of Christ, but records may have been preserved of the 
utterances of prominent members of the church, and the speeches 
of SS. Peter and Stephen may have been preserved by the 
church at Jerusalem. From these abundant sources S. Luke 
selected what seemed to him of the greatest importance in 
carrying out his task of sketching the progress of the Gospel 
in the first thirty years of the history of the church, but in no 
sense can the Acs be regarded as a complete history. Such 
a task S. Luke never set before himself, which was entirely 
beyond the scope of a work of the length and character of 
the Acts. He was the companion of S. Paul, a man of genius 



with a master-mind for seizing upon great strategic points of 
vantage in the Roman Empire, whence by a process of sub- 
sequent radiation the Gospel might spread to its uttermost 
hmits. It is well to pause and think how S. Paul, under the 
guidance of the Holy Spirit, worked out the scheme of his 
gigantic task ; and it may be that S. Luke oftentimes discussed 
with him his own task, and that he owed to S. Paul to some 
extent the clear and definite plan of his own work, which enabled 
him to leave to the world the unique and priceless record of 
the life and progress of the church contained in the Acts. 

The Acts and the Epistles. 

The manifest independence of the Acts and the Epistles no 
less than their agreement in the main is strong evidence of the 
historicity of both. From the Epistles we learn but few ad- 
ditional details of the life of S. Paul. S. Luke omits all reference 
to the three years' sojourn in Arabia (Gal. i. 11-17), S. Peter's 
visit to Antioch (Gal. ii. 1 1-2 1), and the relations between S. Paul 
and the Corinthian church in the interval between his first and 
last visit to Corinth, while the great summary of his perils and 
sufferings in 2 Cor. xi. 23-27, shews how imperfect is our know- 
ledge of his life even when the Acts and all the Epistles are 
taken together. The apparent discrepancies between Acts ix. 
26-30 and Gal. i. 17-24, Acts xv. 1-23 and Gal. ii. i-io are dealt 
with in the notes. 

Many of the characteristics of S. Paul which stand out in 
such bold relief in the Epistles appear in the Acts. His intense 
love of his own nation and desire to keep in close communion 
with the Jerusalem church, his strict adherence to the law and 
customs of his race, coupled with a no less strong insistence 
on the absolute freedom of Gentile Christians and their equality 
of rights and privileges in the universal church, are exemplified 
again and again in the Acts in his attitude towards the Jewish 
synagogue and his constant rule 'to the Jew first and afterward 
to the Gentile,' in the observance of the great feasts and the 
Day of Atonement, in the vow that he took at Jerusalem, and in 
the loving care bestowed more than once upon the collection 


for the Jewish-Christian church. No less evident is the hatred 
and hostihty of the Jews in city after city, leading to violence 
and even danger to his life. His insistence upon equality with 
the twelve, and upon his credentials as an apostle, the evi- 
dences of the possession of supernatural powers, his great gift 
of accommodating himself to the needs and circumstances of his 
audience, as at Lystra and Athens, his dauntless courage and 
pertinacity no less than his deep and wide sympathy with all 
classes, the difficulties of maintaining at once his position as 
an orthodox Jew of the strictest type with his championship of 
the freedom of the Catholic church, his intuitive genius in seizing 
upon great points of vantage, his pride in his Roman citizenship, 
and his power of winning the regard of governor, jailer, and 
officer, all stand out in the narrative of S. Luke. On the doctrinal 
side we find a like correspondence. The belief in the Unity in 
Trinity and Trinity in Unity and the mystery of the Incarnation 
alike in the Acts as in the Epistles are implicitly accepted 
rather than explicitly stated— not so much heard, as it has been 
well said, as overheard. Every article of the Apostles' Creed 
with the one exception of the miraculous conception and the 
Virgin birth— so fully recorded in the Gospel— could be gathered 
from the Acts. The same is true of the Epistles. The Father- 
hood of God, the perfect Divinity and perfect humanity of the 
Son, the indwelling power of the Holy Spirit, the catholicity of 
the church, the communion or brotherhood of the saints, the 
remission of sins and the hfe everlasting, these cardinal doctrines 
of Christianity appear again and again in the Acts, and are 
developed by S. Paul in his Epistles. Above all the supreme 
truth of the resurrection and of the power of the risen life in 
the coming of the Holy Ghost overshadows all and explains at 
once the rise and growth of the Christian church and the secret 
of its power : at the same time, the Pauline doctrines of justi- 
fication by faith (xlii. 38, 39), and of salvation in Christ do not 
pass unnoticed in the Acts^ 

1 For the witness to the resurrection see esp. i. ^^y ii. 32, iii. 15, 
iv. 33, xvii. 18, xxiii. 6. 

For the gift of the Holy Spirit: (^7) the Pentecostal outpouring, i. 2, 


But in spite of this agreement no one can fail to see that 
the portrait of S. Paul drawn by S. Luke is only an adumbration 
when compared with 'the express image' of his own personality 
drawn by himself in the Epistles. The S. Paul of the Acts is a 
great man, the S. Paul of the Epistles is incomparably greater. 
In the Acts we miss somewhat of the glow of passion, the force 
of imagination, the quick lightning strokes of a master-mind, the 
amazing power of dialectical skill in the grasp of points and 
details, the parry and thrust of a keen intellect, the emotional 
nature now plunged into depths of depression coupled with 
great physical exhaustion, now exalted to heights of exultation, 
the fierce invective against the foes of the freedom of the 
Gentile Christians, the keen subtlety in argument and mar- 
vellous rapidity of quick decision, the detailed exposition of 
doctrine with an unequalled force and fervour, the intense de- 
votion to the Master, which pourtrays the man who said of 
himself, ' I can do nothing, I can do all things in Christ who 
strengtheneth me.' Just because S. Paul reveals himself so 
vividly and intensely in his letters it is so hard to find words 
to express all that he was and all that his life and work meant 
to his converts and companions and to the church throughout 
the ages. The S. Paul of the Acts can easily be known and 
appreciated, and his life, character and teaching described: the 
S. Paul of the Epistles can at best be understood, sed satis erit 

The Roman Empire. 

The Roman Empire was the product of the genius of an 

imperial race. It was of slow growth, and to this it owed very 

argely its stability. Slowly but surely Rome extended her 

power to the confines of Italy by war and conquests, and bound 

the various territories to herself by an iron-network of roads 

5, 8, i6, ii. I, i5fir., 33, 38. {b) In the early Palestinian church, iv. 8, 
31 ff., 36, V. 3 f., 9, 32, vi. 3-10, vii. 51, 55, viii. 15-20, 29, 39, ix. 17, 
31, X. 19, 44-47, xi. 27, XV. 28. {<•) The founding of the Gentile 
churches, xiii. 1 ff., 52, xv. 8, xvi. 6f., xix. r-6, xx. 23, 28, xxi. 4, 10 f. 
(Swete, The Holy Spirit in t/w Neiv Testament, pp. 63-109). 


and colonies, and the various communities by an equally- 
elaborate system of privileges, coupled with a policy of devo- 
lution in local affairs. When the Roman armies crossed the 
Straits of Messina Rome was committed to an imperial policy 
which ended in the extension of her power to all the countries 
on the Mediterranean littoral and to the establishment of the 
pax Roniana over the whole civilized world. Conquered lands 
became provinces, the territory of which was technically the 
property of Rome but leased to its former owners in return for 
the payment of taxes. The same principles of unity without 
uniformity were applied, but there were two fatal weaknesses 
so long as the government of tl\e Republic continued ; the pro- 
vincial governors were under practically no control, especially 
in finance, and neither an aristocracy nor a municipal cor- 
poration are able to rule a great empire. The concentration 
of power in the hands of one man was rendered inevitable by 
circumstances, and Julius Caesar founded the Empire properly 
so called, and Augustus organized it. The Principate was a 
curious fiction but w-ell adapted to the circumstances and the 
necessities of the time. It satisfied republican sentiment and 
secured unity and stability. The dynasty or joint rule of the 
prijiceps and the senate was in reality a military autocracy 
under constitutional republican disguises. The princeps was 
endowed with a niaius iinperimn which practically made him 
supreme : but the institutions of the republican regime were 
maintained intact. Gradually and inevitably the Empire became 
an absolute monarchy, but in the first century the Augustan 
system was preserved. The Romans alone of people of the 
ancient world possessed the true gifts of an imperial race, which 
found expression in a consistent policy based upon sound 
principles. They were these : (i) The centralization of all 
authority that was really vital to the life of the whole Empire 
in the capital, rendered easily accessible by a great system of 
roads and trade-routes. (2) The government of outlying pro- 
vinces if not in the interests of the governed, at least with 
an understanding of local feelings and conditions and a 
good system of devolution in local affairs, and a spirit of wise 


compromise and intelligent toleration especially in matters atTect- 
ing religion. (3) A legal system which demanded unqualified 
respect, secured confidence, and guaranteed law and order and 
the certain administration of justice, with an appeal under certain 
conditions to the supreme authority of the princeps. (4) A 
uniform military system which gave protection and ensured the 
suppression of rebellion and disorder, inspiring at once security 
and fear, and wisely employing auxiliary troops. At the same 
time we miss the silken cord of a lofty common ideal of liberty, 
stronger than bands of iron in welding together the component 
parts of an empire. The Greeks understood the ties of senti- 
ment but lacked practical capacity. The Romans were intensely 
practical and great organizers but paid little heed to sentiment. 
The British Empire, loosely yet so strongly bound together, has 
been built up upon the sound foundations of high ideals and 
practical ability. 

The establishment of the Principate improved considerably 
the administration of the provinces, as governors were no 
longer free from imperial control, but in order to satisfy the 
old republican sentiment of the Roman people, and especially of 
the aristocracy, the provinces were divided between \)i\^ priticeps 
and the senate. The more peaceful provinces, and incidentally 
the richer, were assigned to the senate and governed by con- 
sular or praetorian proconsuls, the outlying provinces which 
required the presence of the legions were directly under the 
control of the/'?'/;z^^/i'and governed by consular or praetorian 
legati^praefecti ox procuratores^ in accordance with the particular 
condition of each province. In addition, client kings {?'eguli) 
were permitted to govern their own kingdoms, so long as their 
foreign and military policy were controlled by the p^inceps^ and 
they served the interests of the Roman Empire as well as their 
own. This system in its strength and in its weakness is reflected 
in the Acts, and S. Luke shews a remarkable knowledge of 
details, while it is not too much to say that S. Paul formed the 
grand conception of utilizing the Roman imperial system for 
the extension of the Gospel. 

The Provinces mentioned in the Acts are classified as follows : 



(i) Governed by consular proconsuls. Asia. 

(2) Governed by praetorian proconsuls. Macedonia. 


Bithynia and Pontus. 


Crete and Cyrene. 

(i) Governed by consular legati Augusti pro praetore. 

praetorian legati Attgusti pro praetore. 

Pamphylia and Lycia. 
(2) Qo\Qxx\*t^\>y 2i procurator. Judaea, 

a praefectus. Egypt. 

Asia and Bithynia. These two provinces had been be- 
queathed to the Romans, the former by Attalus III, B.C. 133, 
the latter by Nicomedes, B.C. 74. Bithynia had been extended 
to include Pontus after the Mithradatic wars and also By- 
zantium. Asia, the blue ribbon of senatorial ambition, extended 
from the Proponiis to the borders of Lycia, and comprised 
Mysia, Lydia, Caria and a portion of Phrygia. In a large 
measure local self-government was permitted, and at Pergamum 
deputies met annually under the presidency of an Asiarch and 
conducted a festival in honour of the cult of Rome and Augustus 
— the deified emperor. The rich province contained 500 cities, 
amongst which were the seven cities of the seven churches, 
Ephesus, Sardis, Smyrna, Pergamum, Philadelphia, Laodicea 
and Thyatira. " Of these Ephesus, the seat of the proconsul, 
from which the great high road started to the east, was the 
most important, and in commerce had outstripped its old rival 
Miletus. Alexandria (Troas) was a Roman colony with a 
garrison and a settlement of veterans ; of the adjoining islands 
which were included in the province Rhodes enjoyed the 
privilege of a civitas libera et foederata. 

Pamphylia., Lycia and Galatia. On the death of Amyntas, 


kingof Galatia, in 25 B.C., the provinces of Pamphylia and Galatia 
were created and governed by praetorian legati. Pamphylia 
comprised the mountainous district south of Pisidia, extending 
to the coast, with an important port at Attaha. Perga was the 
chief inland town. In 43 A.D. the free confederate cities of 
Lycia, of which Myra and Patara are mentioned in the Acts, 
were added to Pamphylia. The newly constituted province of 
Galatia, included {a) Galatia proper, which was peopled by 
Celtic tribes — an offshoot of a far distant migration — the Tolis- 
tobogii, the Tectosages and the Trocmi, with cities at Ancyra, 
Pessinus and Tavium ; (/;) northern districts, part of Paphlagonia 
and Pontus, and {c) southern districts, a portion of Phrygia, with 
the city of Antioch, Pisidia and Lycaonia with the towns of 
Iconium, Lystra (a colony) and Derbe. The great eastern high- 
way passed through these cities and continued eastward along 
the northern slopes of the Taurus range through the Cilician 
gates to Tarsus, and finally to Antioch the capital of Syria. 

Cilicia. The country included the rugged mountain district 
Cilicia Trachis and the level coast plain Cilicia Pedias, in 
which was situated the great free city of Tarsus. Cilicia Pedias 
had been Roman territory from 103 B.C., and Cicero was once 
its governor : in this period it was annexed to the province of 
Syria, with which it is geographically connected, while Cilicia 
Trachis from A.D. 37 to A.D. 74 formed part of the dominions of 
the client king Antiochus of Commagene. 

Syria. The province of Syria was formed out of part of the 
dominions of the Seleucid kings, whose capital was at Antioch, 
with its port at Seleucia. It was the most important province 
in the east, and governed by a proconsular lega/us^ with four 
legions under his command. The territory varied in extent 
from time to time. The Euphrates was the eastern boundary, 
and the Romans had not only to protect the frontier against 
the Parthians but to keep in check the turbulent hill-tribes and 
bandits which have always infested the Lebanons. To it were 
attached the coast-line of Phoenicia, with the ports of Tyre, 
Sidon and Ptolemais, and at a later date the kingdom of 
Commagene. Damascus in the south was subject to the client- 


kings of Nabataea. The legatus of Syria exercised supervision 
over Judaea and the numerous surrounding districts. 

Crete, Cyrciie and Cyprus. Crete, after its conquest by 
Metellus, was united with Cyrenaica, and formed one province 
under a senatorial proconsul. Cyprus was transferred by 
Augustus in B.C. 22 to the senate ; the proconsul Sergius Paulus 
is mentioned in Acts xiii. 7. 

Egypt. This country was of immense importance to Rome 
as the chief source of the corn-supply, and was under the 
control of ?l praefectus of equestrian rank, who was immediately 
responsible to the princeps. The city of Alexandria was a 
great seat of learning, as well as a most important port. There 
was a large colony of Jews, remarkable for the liberality and 
depth of their learning, and at this time deeply influenced by 
the teaching of Philo. Apollos was a native of Alexandria, and 
fully trained in the Jewish school (xviii. 24). 

Macedonia and Achaia. These two European provinces 
were reconstituted by Augustus and assigned to the senate, as 
new imperial provinces were formed to the north. Macedonia 
was bounded by Moesia and Thrace on the N. and N.E,, and 
extended southwards to the Malian gulf, thus including Thessaly. 
The old fourfold division was at the same time allowed to con- 
tinue, and the towns had their own constitution and politarchs. 
Augustus founded new colonies to provide for his veteran soldiers, 
of which Philippi was one, but Thessalonica was the capital 
and seat of the proconsul. Achaia was a small province, and 
comprised Greece south of the Malian gulf, with its capital at 
the new colony of Corinth, founded by Julius Caesar. The 
Romans had a profound respect for all that was Hellenic, 
and privileges of freedom were granted not only to Athens, 
to which were attached Attica and many of the islands, but to 
other cities as well, including Sparta. Achaia had been taken 
from the senate by Tiberius in a.d. 15, but was restored by 
Claudius in A.D. 44. The proconsulship of Gallio may probably 
be assigned to a.d. 51 {vide note, p. xliv). 

Judaea. In Judaea alone Rome was confronted with an 
acute religious problem^ which made assimilation impossible 


and government extremely difficult. Success attended her in 
almost every quarter of the Empire, but in Judaea the whole 
history of her policy was a dismal failure. The Roman govern- 
ment respected the religious faith and practices of the Jews, 
and did much to conciliate Jewish feeling, but neither the 
government of the Herodian dynasty nor of the Jewish 
procurator were a success. Only in Judaea did Rome adopt 
a half-hearted policy; five cohorts were stationed at Caesarea 
and one in the tower of Antonia at Jerusalem. This feeble 
military policy, intended to conciliate, was utterly unable to 
cope with either the turbulent outbreaks of the Jewish nation- 
alists or the brigands who infested the country. The rigid 
divorce of the secular administration of justice from religious 
matters, together with a large permanent garrison, might 
possibly have secured the peace, but not even the terrible 
Jewish wars of A.D. 66-69 ^-^^ the destruction of Jerusalem 
repressed Jewish fanaticism. To the Jew his national freedom 
and the aspirations of his race were so closely bound up with 
his religion that an alien government practically proved im- 
possible. During the period A.D. 30-62 the throne of the 
Caesars was occupied by the gloomy Tiberius, the madman 
Caligula, who was intending" to set up his statue in Jerusalem 
at the time of his assassination, the pedant Claudius, who 
expelled the Jews from Rome but treated them well in their 
own country, and Nero, who had not yet abandoned himself to 
the horrors and excesses which marked the later years of his 

The Jews had suffered so severely under the government of 
the Herods that they petitioned Augustus to abolish the King- 
dom. In A.D. 6 the territory of Judaea proper, which had been 
under the rule of Archelaus since the death of Herod the Great, 
was placed under an imperial procurator, with the seat of 
government at Caesarea Stratonis. In military matters he was 
subject to the legatus of Syria. In Jerusalem the authority of 
the high priest and of the Sanhedrin was maintained, and 
they had supreme jurisdiction in all religious matters, but could 
not inflict capital punishment. But the, Jews were not pacified ; 








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to them the payment of the hated tax was a violation of their 
rehgious faith. The Sadducees, the aristocratic priestly party, 
were reconciled to the Roman government, but the nationalist 
party of the Pharisees and the Zealots never willingly sub- 
mitted. Outbreaks were frequent, and the repression of the 
Roman procurator ineffective. The rest of the domain of 
Herod the Great continued to be governed by his sons — 
Galilee and Peraea by Antipas, Trachonitis by Philip. In 
A.D. 2)7 Agrippa I, grandson of Herod the Great, who had been 
brought up at Rome, was placed over the tetrarchy of Tra- 
chonitis, with the title of king, and in A.D. 39, when Antipas was 
banished, Galilee and Peraea were added. On the accession 
of Claudius, A.D. 41, Judaea and Samaria and Abilene passed 
under his sway, and thus he ruled over the whole kingdom of 
Herod the Great. He was extremely friendly to the Jews, and 
not only respected their religious customs but offered sacrifices 
daily himself. His strong Jewish sympathies account for the 
execution of James (Acts xii.). He died in A.D. 44, and his son 
Agrippa U, who was only 17 at the time, although in A.D. 48 he 
had succeeded his uncle in the principality of Chalcis, did not 
inherit any of his father's possessions until A.D. 53, when he 
received the tetrarchies of Trachonitis and Abilene. Palestine 
once more, from 44 to 53, passed under the rule oi 2i procurator^ 
and from 53 onwards the authority of the procurator extended 
over Judaea, Galilee and Samaria, and Peraea. Agrippa re- 
mained faithful to Rome, and received further favours from 
Nero, and lived until A.D. 100. 

Religion, Philosophy and Morality. 

However briefly, an attempt must be made to pourtray the 
condition of religious life and thought, morality and philosophy 
in the civilized world. It would be a mistake to suppose that the 
old pagan religions of Greece and Rome had entirely lost their 
hold upon the masses of the people. The festivals and the old 
rites and ceremonies were maintained, though their religious 
significance perhaps was little felt or understood. The most 
distinctive new feature in Roman religion was the worship of 


the Emperor, which arose out of the old Roman belief in the 
geniNs of man. In the provinces the Emperors were wor- 
shipped even in their lifetime ; at Rome they were — though not 
all — deified by decree after death. Augustus made it a cardinal 
point of policy to seek to revive the religion of the past, but 
beyond the building of magnificent temples and the provision 
of fine festivals, it cannot be said that he succeeded. But 
amongst thinking men philosophy had long ago undermined 
the religious faith of ancient Greece, and Hellenism had 
conquered Rome and set the standard of thought and culture 
throughout the Roman world. Amongst educated men the old 
idolatry was dead. At the same time Rome admitted oriental 
mysticism and eastern religions within her borders. So long 
as religious cults were of a non-political character, and did not 
interfere with the preservation of Roman law and order, all 
were welcome in the Roman Pantheon, and Isis and Osiris, 
Tammuz and the Great Mother were admitted to the company 
of Mars and Jupiter Capitolinus. In their train came witch- 
craft and sorcery, necromancy, divination and astrology, and 
rites which consecrated vice. All this tended to strike at the 
very root of the old traditional morality and simplicity which 
had made Rome great. Religion and morality are indissolubly 
linked together. A decline in religion is inevitably followed 
by a corresponding decline in morality, which finally has 
a disastrous effect upon the physical condition of the people, 
and ends in their ruin. The Epistles of S. Paul, scattered 
hints in the Acts, no less than the pages of Tacitus, Juvenal, 
Suetonius, and many others, testify to the low standard of 
morals in the Graeco-Roman civilization of the first century. 
Thoughtful men found some escape in philosophy. The old 
philosophy of Plato and Aristotle aroused no longer more than 
an academic interest. Hellenic culture was shallow and skin- 
deep, and more a pose than a reality, but the doctrines of 
Zeno and Epicurus formed an honourable exception. Stoicism 
and Epicureanism, like every philosophical system of the time, 
covered the whole field of physics, ethics and metaphysics, but 
their practical teaching upon life had a profound effect upon 


the Roman mind. Epicurus taught that happiness and freedom 
from pain was the summum bonum of human attainment, Zeno, 
virtue or a Hfe in accordance with nature (r^ (jivo-ei ofioXoyov- 
H€V(os Crjv). Epicureanism soon deteriorated into the pursuit of 
pleasure, but Stoicism was exalted to the dignity of a creed, and 
many of its adherents met a martyr's death. The Stoic, like the 
Christian, knew that the tyrant's sword could not conquer his 

Stoicism had much in common with Christianity in the 
union of faith and practice, in high ideals of morality, in the 
lofty conception of the universal citizenship of the world, but 
it was cold and austere and individualistic, self-centred, and at 
the same time hopeless in its universal pantheism. 'The Stoic 
made solitude in the heart, and called it peace.' There was 
little place for family love and the warm sense of brotherhood 
and of the love of a personal God, who was Father of all. The 
Stoic ideal of self-sufficiency {avTcipKeia) stood poles apart from 
the Christian doctrine, 'our sufficiency (iKavoTijs) is of God,' 2 Cor. 
iii. 5. The Stoic saw in suicide the highest example of calm and 
confident moral courage ; in the eyes of the Christian, with his 
knowledge of the sanctity of human life and of immortality, it 
has ever been the lowest depth of moral cowardice. Arria, as 
she hands the dagger to Paetus, ' See Paetus it does not hurt,' 
excites the profoundest admiration but chills the blood ; the 
poor cripple Blandina, tossed by the maddened bulls in the 
arena, stirs the deepest feelings of love and courage. The 
blood of the Stoic martyr was dried up, but the blood of the 
Christian martyr was the seed of the church. 

In sharp contrast with the religion, morality and philosophy 
of Graeco- Roman civilization stood the faith and life of the 
Jews. They had a truer conception of God than any other 
race, and a higher sense of duty within the limits prescribed by 
their religion. Christianity and Judaism, it is true, proved to 
be irreconcilable, but it must be remembered that, ' amongst 
the Jews, there was probably less of professed atheism, in- 
difference, levity, than there has been in any other society, 
ancient or modern.' But while Christianity gradually won the 


love and affection of men, the Jews, with the exclusive pride of 
religious privilege of a people separated from the rest of the 
world, hated all other races, adversiis onines alios hostile 
odiuin^ Tac. Hist. iv. 5 ; and this hatred was cordially 
reciprocated. However, outside Palestine, the Jews of the 
Dispersion, numerous and wealthy then as now, had broken 
down to some extent the rigid barriers. They came in contact 
with Hellenism, and spoke and read the Greek language ; they 
learnt more of the life of the world, and with a wider and 
broader outlook became more liberal in their ideas, and the 
Alexandrian school studied the literature and philosophy of 
Greece. But the influence was not only on one side. The 
Jewish synagogues, scattered far and wide over the civilized 
world, became centres of religious life not only for Jews. 
In spite of racial hatred, the ethical monotheism of Judaism 
attracted many of Gentile race — Greeks and Romans as well as 
others. Some became full proselytes, others w^ere attached in 
varying degrees of compliance with Jewish faith and customs, 
whom we meet in the Acts as devout men or ' God-fearers ' 
{a-e^ofxevoi). It was amongst these ' Hellenist- Jews' and 
God-fearers that Christianity made such rapid strides, and 
they served as the mediators between the church and the 
world. In a world thus strangely ordered, in which prevailed 
the ancient pagan religion side by side with Stoicism, a shallow 
but widespread Hellenism with a common culture and a common 
language, a rigid Judaism, softened outside Palestine by the 
liberalism of Alexandria, the oriental mystery-religions, with 
their sacramental rites and other doctrines of a Redeemer- 
God, death and immortality — none of them wholly good or 
wholly evil, but all alike incapable of giving life and unity 
to a civilization in which morality was on the decline — the 
Gospel was born, with a new power and an univeral message of 
life and love to Greek and Roman, Jew and proselyte, barbarian, 
Scythian, bond and free. The vicarious sacrifice of the Son of 
God differentiated Christianity from all other religions; such 
a conception was to the Jews an offence and to the Greeks 
folly, but to those who accepted the faith a new life and a new 
power (i Cor. i. 23, 24). 

B. A. C 


In its attitude to social life the Christian faith admitted no 
distinction of persons, and taught that the love of the Father 
and the redemption of man through Jesus Christ were open to 
all, to poor and oppressed as well as to rich, to slaves as well as 
free, to sinners as well as to the righteous. It won its way, 
especially amongst women, whom it placed upon a spiritual 
equality with men. It gave dignity to toil and labour. It 
offered a new ideal of religion in attachment to the Person of 
Christ, with the sure and certain hope of immortality. It pro- 
claimed its truth and power by the transformation of life and 
character, by purity and love in an universal brotherhood of 
common service, and by the noble examples of its martyrs. At 
first not ' many noble ' were called, and Christianity pursued its 
way from city to city, and was regarded by the Roman govern- 
ment with good-natured toleration, and even accorded protection 
against the attacks of the Jews. Politically, it was at first 
harmless, but its growth brought it into conflict with the Roman 
authority. The first persecution under Nero may have been 
only an instance of the cruel caprice of a tyrant, and due 
possibly to the suggestion of the Jews, but as time passed it 
became clear that Christianity was not asking for a niche in the 
Roman Pantheon, but for its destruction. The Roman govern- 
ment looked with indifference upon neglect of the old gods 
and goddesses, but the refusal to worship the genius of the 
Emperor was treason to the state, and the Christians had to 
choose between Caesar and Christ. The issue was joined, 
and the long struggle began which ended in the proclamation 
of the Christian faith throughout the Empire by Constantine. 
The picture of the Roman power pourtrayed in the Acts before 
the storm broke, may well be compared with the picture of 
great Babylon, the mother of all abominations, in the Revela- 
tion (xvii.). Only 40 years had elapsed in the interval. What 
the Roman authorities themselves thought of Christianity is 
expressed by Tacitus in the well-known passage of The A?tnals 
(xv. 44) : 

' Hence to suppress the rumour (i.e. of having caused the 
conflagration in Rome), Nero falsely charged with the crime and 
punished with the most exquisite tortures, the persons commonly 


called Christians, who were hated for their enormities. Christus, 
the founder of that name, was put to death by the procurator 
Pontius Pilate during the principate of Tiberius ; but the 
pernicious superstition, suppressed for a time, broke out afresh, 
not only in Judaea, where the evil originated, but even in Rome, 
the common sink of all the evil of the world, where everything 
shameful and horrible flourishes. Accordingly, first those were 
seized who confessed that they were Christians ; afterwards, on 
their information, a vast multitude were convicted, not so much 
on the charge of setting fire to the city as of hatred of the 
human race.' 

The Church. 

The infant church {eKKXrja-ia) of Jerusalem was the society 
or congregation of the followers of Jesus Christ bound together 
in a common brotherhood with a common life, united 'in the 
apostles' teaching and in the fellowship, in the breaking of bread 
and the prayers.' Other Christian communities were founded 
in city after city, and even smaller communities in houses to 
which the title 'church' was given. . Orders arose and methods 
of government and organization were inaugurated gradually as 
necessity occasioned. S. Paul writing from Rome after many 
churches had been founded, enumerates the various orders of 
ministers, apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors and teachers, 
and in the First Epistle to the Corinthians (xii. 4-1 1) he gives 
a list of the spiritual gifts {x'^ipiajj.aTo) which were possessed 
by Christians in varying degrees. Spiritual gifts were not 
confined to officers of the church, and at the first there were 
no officers outside the apostolic body. The narrative of the 
Acts opens with the cooption of Matthias to fill the place of 
Judas in the twelve who exercised full and equal authority, though 
S. Peter in the Acts as in the Gospels is recognised as their 
chief (ii. 14, 37). The credentials of an apostle were that he 
should have been a witness to the resurrection, his privileges 
included the right of maintenance and the right to be accompanied 
by a wife : his special gift was the laying on of hands (viii. 18, 
xix. 6), his special duties prayer, preaching, the breaking of 
bread and the government of the church. The term however 

c 2 


is used in the N.T. of others than the twelve and is appHed to 
Barnabas and Timothy, and in the Clementine writings and in 
the Didache it is used of an accredited messenger. The gifts 
of prophecy, evangelizing, shepherding and teaching did not 
mark any definite orders in the church. S. Paul for instance 
possessed them all. The prophets were inspired interpreters 
of the will of God and find their counterpart in the prophets of 
the Old Testament who were inspired preachers in their own 
age, and these gifts were not confined to the prediction of the 
future. Agabus and the four virgin daughters of Philip are 
spoken of in the Acts as possessing the power of prophesying, 
which was regarded as the first and greatest of the spiritual gifts. 
From S. Paul's description in the First Epistle to the Corinthians 
we gather that it was open to any one, men and women alike, 
though he discouraged the latter, to prophesy or speak with 
a tongue as the spirit moved them. The evangelist was 
essentially a missionary of the good tidings, and the title is 
given to Philip (xxi. 8) and the story of the eunuch shews its 
application. The necessity of teaching soon became evident 
in the churches, and the teachers played the same part in the 
Christian communities as the Rabbis played in the synagogue. 

Instruction in the life and teaching of our Lord and in the 
meanings of baptism and of the eucharist was of the first 
importance (cf. Acts xix. 1-7 ; i Cor. xi.), and S. Paul in his 
last testament charges Timothy that it should be entrusted to 
the presbytery and carefully preserved, 2 Tim. ii. 12. 

In the government and discipline of the church outside the 
apostolic body only two orders can be traced in the N.T. In 
Acts xi. 30 the presbyters or elders of the church are a definite 
body of men entrusted with the supervision of the church at 
Jerusalem. The order was formed on the analogy of the elders 
of the Jewish synagogue who were responsible for the maintenance 
of services and of discipline and were chosen from men of ripe 
age and experience. They received their commission by the 
laying on of hands of the apostles. The bishop (eVicTKOTrof), as 
the name implies, was an overseer of the church : the title cannot 
be distinguished with certainty in the N.T. from that of presbyter, 
but it is safe to conjecture that he was the chairman of the 


presbytery, primus inter pares amongst his colleagues. The 
growth of the church necessitated the union of the churches 
in various cities and in outlying towns and districts, and the 
diocese with a supreme head or bishop was a natural outcome 
of circumstances, and in the sub-apostolic age had become 
established upon a regular system of organization. In the Acts 
there are traces of other ministers who performed various 
functions. Thus John Mark was attached to Barnabas and to 
S. Paul as minister {vTrr^perrjs). These functions are not clearly 
defined, but it is extremely likely, as vrrrjpeTrjs is the Greek for 
the Hebrew c/tazzan, the attendant at the synagogue, that they 
performed similar duties. Dr Wright makes out a strong case 
for the ministers being instructors of children ; oral instruction 
of children was of first importance in the church, and catechetical 
schools must have been established at an early date (Lk. i. 4). 
In the Acts the title 'deacon' does not occur. But in the 
Pastoral Epistles it is equally certain that the diaconate had 
been established, and the primary function of the deacon was 
to minister to the bishop or presbyter, i Tim. iii. 8-13. Women 
toe were appointed to a similar office, Rom. xvi. i. The seven 
in the church of Jerusalem were selected for the 'service of 
tables' and to attend to the care of the widows. Lastly the 
women played a great part in the life and ministry of the church, 
and S. Luke in the Acts as in the Gospel shews his sympathy 
with their work. Mary the mother of Jesus occupied a highly 
honoured position in the church and consecrated the service of 
women in the church. The widows were in a forlorn position, 
but in the church in return for their maintenance we find them 
given to prayer and good works. Dorcas has set the standard 
of charitable work amongst women for all time (Acts ix. 36). 
Lydia was a veritable mother of the church at Philippi. The 
four virgin daughters of Philip were prophetesses. If we do 
not find very exact terminology in the Acts there is no need for 
surprise, as organization grew with the church. Distinction is 
often drawn between the 'local' or 'institutional' ministry 
represented in the Acts by the elders or bishops and the seven 
and later by the deacons as well, and the charismatic or 


evangelistic ministry to which the apostles, prophets, teachers 
and evangelists belonged, but it is doubtful if this distinction 
can be rigidly insisted on. The Jewish Christian church 
naturally adopted Jewish uses, but it is evident that in the 
Gentile churches the sacramental aspect of the worship of 
Christ must have predominated with its sacred rites of baptism 
and the eucharist, and sacred rites naturally led to ministers 
being set apart for their administration (vid. Knapp, Acts^ 

pp. 35-41)- 


An exact and certain chronology of the events in the New 
Testament, and more particularly in the Acts, is with the present 
knowledge at our disposal impossible to determine : only 
approximate probability amounting to practical certainty in 
some cases is attainable. The basis on which the problem 
is to be solved is threefold, (i) References in the Acts and 
Epistles to events in secular history, though no date is given 
in any single case. (2) The testing of the dates of these 
events by the chronological data of secular historians — Tacitus, 
Suetonius and Josephus, to which should be added the Eusebian 
chronicle. These writers however do not provide absolutely 
certain conclusions, as they do not always agree and are none 
of them rigidly particular or consistent in chronology. The 
Annals of Tacitus was published in A.D. 115, and covers the 
history of Rome from the death of Augustus A.D. 14 to the 
death of Nero 68, but the books covering the years 37-47 have 
been lost. Suetonius, who makes no pretence to write history 
in chronological order, published the Lives of the Caesai's in 
A.D. 120. Josephus the Jewish historian was born in A.D. 37-38 
and spent his life in Palestine until 63-64 when he was ship- 
wrecked in the Adriatic on his way to Rome. In the Jewish 
war he took part in the heroic defence of Jotapata but after 
he was captured espoused the Roman cause. The Jewish 
War was completed before a.d. 79 and the Antiquities of 
the Jews in A.D. 93-94. Thus Josephus, although his writings 
are coloured by his Roman sympathies, had more personal 
knowledge of the events he describes than either Tacitus or 


Suetonius. The Eusebian Chronicle belongs to the fourth 
century. (3) In the second part of Acts S. Luke gives a 
number of details of definite notes of time to which may be 
added a few further details from the Epistles. 

If the dates of the secular events can be established from 
the writings of secular historians, and then brought into line 
with the notes of time mentioned by S. Luke and S. Paul a 
more or less certain chronological scheme can be constructed, 
but it must be remembered that it is conjectural and that no 
definite agreement has been attained. The system adopted 
is that of Mr C. H. Turner {^Hastings' Diet., Article ' New 
Testament Chronology '), and for the reasons given for arriving 
at the conclusions the article itself must be consulted. Lightfoot's 
essay in * Biblical Essays ' and Rackham's introduction should 
also be consulted. It will be convenient to give an analysis 
(i) of the secular events with the dates given by Mr Turner 
attached, (2) the chief notes of time and place in S. Paul's 
iourneys recorded by S. Luke, (3) a chronological table based 
upon the harmony of the results thus given. 


{a) The reign of Aretas of Damascus (2 Cor. xi. 32, cf. Acts 
ix. 25), not before A.D. 34, probably not before A.D. 37. 

{b) The reign and death of Herod Agrippa I (Acts xii. 1-23), 
died A.D. 44. 

{c) The famine under Claudius (Acts xi. 28-30, xii. 25), not 
before A.D. 46. 

{d) The proconsulship of Sergius Paulus in Cyprus (Acts xiii. 7), 
not in the years 51 or 52 A.D. 

{e) The expulsion of the Jews from Rome (Acts xviii. 2), per- 
haps in 49 or 50 A.D. 

(/) The proconsulship of Gallio in Achaia (Acts xviii. 12), pro- 
bably not before 49 or 50 A.D. 

{g) The reign of Herod Agrippa II, and marriage of Drusilla 
to Felix (Acts xxiv. 24, xxv. 13, xxvi. 30). The marriage 
did not take place before A.D. 54. 


{h) The procuratorships of Felix and Festus (Acts xxiii. 24, 
xxiv. 10-27). Felix appointed in 52, recalled in one of 
the years 57-59. 

(/) The days of unleavened bread (Acts xx. 6, 7), probably 57 ; 
thus excluding 57 as the date of Felix's recall. If S. Paul 
was executed in 64-65, the number of events in the 
interval require at least six years between the trial before 
Festus and his death. Therefore the conclusion is very 
probable that Felix was recalled in 58. This is the 
crucial date in the Acts, and if it could be fixed with 
absolute certainty, as the notes of time given by S. Luke 
can be directly connected with it, the difficulty of the 
chronology of S. Paul's life would be to a large extent 

II. Notes of Time. 

{a) A whole year at Antioch with Barnabas. Acts xi. 26. About 
the same time the visit of S. Paul and Barnabas with the 
alms of the Antiochene church and the death of James 
at the time of the Passover, Acts xii. 1-3. 

{b) A year and a half spent at Corinth (2nd journey). Acts 
xviii. II. 

{c) Three months preaching at Ephesus and two years sojourn 
(3rd journey). Acts xix. 8-10; three years, xx. 31. 

{d) Three months in Greece (Corinth) (3rd journey). Acts xx. 3. 

{e) Passover at Philippi (3rd journey). Acts xx. 6. Five days 
voyage to Troas, seven days' sojourn. Acts xx. 6. Full 
details of time (Assos to Miletus), m'. 14, 15. Day of 
Pentecost, xx. 6. 

{/) Seven days at Tyre (3rd journey). Acts xxi. 3 : one day at 
Ptolemais, xxi. 7 : many days at Caesarea, xxi. 10. 

{g) At Jerusalem : seven days for the completion of the vow, 
xxi. 27. 
Paul released the next day after his arrest, xxii. 30. 
Vision of S. Paul, night following his trial before the 
Sanhedrin, xxiii. 11. Conspiracy to seize S, Paul on the 
morrow, xxiii. 15. 


(//) Caesarea: journey to Caesarea, a night and a day, xxiii. 

31, 32. 
Arrival of Ananias after five days, xxiv. i. The whole 

time between S. Paul's going up to Jerusalem and his 

appearance before Felix, twelve days, xxiv. 11. 
Festus succeeds Felix after two years, during which S. Paul 

was kept bound at Caesarea, xxiv. 27. 
Festus proceeds to Jerusalem three days after his arrival 

at Caesarea (xxv. i), spent ten days there and returned 

to Caesarea, and S. Paul's trial took place on the next 

day, xxv. 6. 
[i) Voyage to Rome. The Fast (Great Day of Atonement) at 

Fair Havens, xxvii. 9. 
Fourteen days in Adria between Crete and Malta, xxvii. 

27, y> 

At Malta three days with Publius, xxviii. 7 ; three months 

on the island, v. i\. 
Three days at Syracuse, v. \i\ one day between Rhegium 

and Puteoli, seven days at Puteoli, w. 13, 14. 
(y) Rome. Three days* after arrival at Rome S. Paul addressed 

the Jews, v. 17. 
Two whole years at Rome, v. 30. 

To these notes should be added four notes of S. Paul. He 
mentions (i) an interval of three years between his conversion 
and his first visit to Jerusalem, which includes sojourn in 
Arabia and return to Damascus. His stay in Jerusalem only 
lasted fifteen days (Gal. i. 18). (2) A visit to Jerusalem with 
Barnabas and Titus 'by revelation' fourteen years later. N.B. It 
is impossible to decide with certainty whether the fourteen years 
include the three years previously mentioned, or should be 
added to them. (3) The vision 'above fourteen years ago,' 
2 Cor. xii. 2. (4) Aretas in possession of Damascus at the time 
of S. Paul's escape : 2 Cor. xi. 32. 

N.B. In the earlier chapters of the Acts definite notes of 
time are very rare, and with the exception of the reference to 
the death of Agrippa I, give no assistance to chronology. 



Secular History. 

Tiberius, Emperor, succeeded A.D. 14. 
Pontius Pilatus, Procurator^ appointed A.D. 26. 

yj. Accession of Caligula, Emperor. 

Marcellus, Procurator. 
39. Herod Agrippa I succeeds Herod Antipas deposed. 

41. Accession of Claudius, Emperor. 

Herod Agrippa I given the title of king. 
44. Death of Herod. 

Cuspius Fadus, Procurator. 

46. Famine in Judaea. 

Tiberius Alexander, Procurator. 

49. Expulsion of Jews from Rome. Herod Agrippa II suc- 
ceeds his uncle Herod in principality of Chalcis. 



The Church. 

A.D. 29 (30). The Crucifixion. 

Descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. 

Growth of the church. Hostility of the Sadducees. 

Friendship of the masses. 
Martyrdom of S. Stephen. Hostility of the Pharisees. 
Scattering of the church of Jerusalem. 
35 (32)- Conversion of Saul. Returns to Arabia. 
Philip in Samaria. 

S. Peter's visit to Samaria. Hellenists in Phoenicia and 
Cyprus. Foundation of church in Antioch. 
38 (34). First visit of S. Paul to Jerusalem. Retires to Tarsus 
(Gal. i. 18). 
Peter at Caesarea. Baptism of Cornelius. 
Barnabas sent to Antioch. Fetches S. Paul from Tarsus. 
One year's work at Antioch. Prophets from Jerusalem 
visit Antioch. 
44. Renewal of persecution by Herod to please the Jews. 
Execution of James. 
Imprisonment of Peter. James the Lord's brother head of 

the church. 
Peace after Herod's death. 
46 (45). Second visit of S. Paul (with Barnabas) with alms of 

the Antiochene church. 
47(46). First missionary journey. Itine7-ary: Antioch, Cyprus 
(Salamis, Paphos), Perga, Antioch (Pisidia), Iconium, 
Lystra, Derbe; returns Lystra, Iconium, Antioch, Perga, 
Attalia, Antioch. S. Paul's steps are dogged by Jewish 
Disputes about circumcision. Delegates sent to Jerusalem. 
49 (50)- Council at Jerusalem. 

Second missionary journey. Itinerary: Antioch (through 
Syria and Cilicia by land), Derbe, Lystra, Phrygia, 
Galatia, Mysia, Troas, Samothrace, Neapolis, Philippi, 
Amphipolis, ApoUonia, Thessalonica, Beroea, Athens. 


50. Gallic. Proconsul of Achaia {vid. note below). 

52. Antonius Felix, Procurator. 

53. Herod Agrippa II receives tetrarchies of Trachonitis and 


54. Nero, Emperor. Marriage of Felix and Drusilla. 
Outbreak of the Egyptians. 

Nero rules well for five years under influence of Burrus 
and Seneca. 

58. Porcius Festus, Procurator. 

64. Great fire at Rome. Tac. A?ift. XV. 45. 

Note. Four fragments of an inscription, evidently a letter of the 
Emperor Claudius to the city of Delphi, have been discovered. In this 
letter the Emperor refers to Gallio — 'Lucius Junius Gallio my friend 
and proconsul of Achaia. ' The only certain reference to a date in the 
inscription is the number 16, indicating the 26th time that Claudius 
had been acclaimed Imperator. This would allow of the letter being 
sent sometime between the end of 51 and August i, 52. Deissmann 
argues that Gallio thus had entered upon his proconsulship in the 
summer of 51, and that late in the same summer S. Paul left Corinth. 
(Deissmann, S. Paul, pp. 236-360.) 


TABLE {coiit) 

50(51). Corinth, i and 2 Thessalo7tians. 

52 (53)- From Cenchreae, by sea to Ephesus, and thence to 

Caesarea, Jerusalem (4th visit), Antioch. 
52(53). Third missionary journey. ///;/^rrt:ry : Antioch by land 

to Ephesus, where Paul spends three years. Intercourse 

with Corinth, i Cor. written. 

55 (56). Leaves Ephesus, Troas, Macedonia {Galatiaiis} and 

2 Cori7ithians written), Achaia (Corinth, Ro?na?7s written). 
Returns, Philippi, Troas, Assos, Mitylene, Chios, Samos, 
Miletus, Cos, Rhodes, Patara, Tyre, Ptolemais. 

56 (57). Caesarea. Fifth and last visit to Jerusalem. 

56-58 (57-59). S. Paul in custody at Caesarea. Hostility of the 
Jewish authorities. Compliance of the Roman P?'oairator. 

58 (59). Late summer. Voyage begun to Rome. Autumn, 

shipwreck. Winter at Malta. 

59 (60). Spring, arrival at Rome. 

59-62 (60-61). S. Paul in free custody at Rome. Close of the 
Acts. Epistles : Philippiatis., Ephesians., Cohssiajis^ 
Philemon ; S. Mark's Gospel written at Rome ; 5. Luke., 
and the Acts, probably before S. Paul's release. 

63-64 (62-65). Missionary journeys of S. Paul to the west and 
then to the east. Epistles, the Pastorals, i Timothy ajid 
Titus written during eastern journey ; 2 Timothy during 
second imprisonment shortly before S. Paul's death. 

64-65 (65). Martyrdom of S. Paul. 

Note. The dates in brackets are those adopted by Sir W. M. 


The Text. 

Although textual criticism is outside the scope of this com- 
mentary and no apparatus criticus is provided, it is impossible 
to avoid reference to textual variations, and some account of 
the problem connected with the text of the Acts must be given 
in consequence of its great importance. 

The A.V. of 1611 is based upon the Textus Receptus (T.R.) 
of the Greek Testament, 1550. This and other early editions 
of the Greek Testament were derived from a very few and 
late MSS. not of first-rate importance. Textual criticism has 
made very great strides, especially in the latter half of the 
nmeteenth century, and at the present day five uncial MSS. 
are regarded as of supreme authority. 

(i) N. Codex Sinaiticus. Fourth century. Discovered by 
Tischendorf in the convent of S. Katharine on Mt Sinai in 
1859. This codex contains the whole of the N.T. and is now 
at St Petersburg. 

(2) A. Codex Alexandrinus. Fifth century. Its original 
home was Alexandria. It was presented by Cyril Lucar, Patri- 
arch of Constantinople, who brought it from Alexandria, to 
Charles I in 1627, and is now in the British Museum. It 
contains the whole of the Old and New Testaments. 

(3) B. Codex Vaticanus. Fourth century. Its origin is 
unknown but it has been in the Vatican library since its 
establishment in 1455. ^t originally contained the whole of 
the Greek Bible : in the N.T. the conclusion of the Epistle to 
the Hebrews, the Pastoral Epistles, and the Apocalypse are now 

(4) C. Codex Ephraemi (rescriptus). Fifth century. This 
MS. is a palimpsest, the original writing has been partially 
erased and the works of Ephraem the Syrian written over it. 
It originally contained the whole Bible, and although much is 
in a very mutilated condition it contains portions of every book 
of the N.T. It is preserved in the National Library at Paris. 

(5) D. Codex Bezae. Sixth century. This MS. is bilingual, 
containing Latin and Greek versions arranged in paragraphs 


in parallel columns. It originally contained the whole N.T., 
but in its present form only the Gospels and the Acts (with 
considerable mutilations) and a fragment (in Latin only) of 
3 John survive. The conclusion of the Acts (xxii. 29 to the 
end) is lacking. It came into the possession of Theodore Beza 
from a monastery at Lyons, and was presented by him to the 
Cambridge University Library in 1581. It is remarkable for 
its numerous variations and interpolations which occur more 
particularly in the writings of vS. Luke, especially in the con- 
cluding portion of the Gospel and in the Acts. Its influence can 
be seen in A.V. It was not however regarded with great 
respect until recently, and its real value has not yet been 
definitely estimated. References will be found in the notes to 
various readings, many of which seem to be original, and 
Dr Blass has strongly advanced the theory that Codex Bezae 
represents an original text and the other great MSS. another 
text w^hich wjas also original. It has been called the Western 
text, but its close association with the Syriac as well as old 
Latin versions make this an unsatisfactory' title. 

The text of Westcott and Hort (WH) 1881, which is used 
in this volume, follows Codex B most closely. The R.V. 1881 
represents the correction of the A.V. (T.R.) required by due 
consideration given to all the mass of ancient authorities, in- 
cluding the five codices mentioned above. 



i. — vi. 7. 

1 TON MEN nPOTON AOTON liroirjaaixy^v Trept Introduction. 

, t>^/, xf»> 'T'' - ^ Epitome of 

TravT(DV, w vJeocpiAe, wv rjp^aTO lr)(Tov<; ttoulv t€ kul the Gospel. 

2 StSacTKctv <x;(pt rj^ yjfxepa^ ivT€i\dfJL€vo<g rots a7roo"ToAot? 

3 8ta TTvevfxaros aytov ov^ i^eXi^aro avcXyj/x^fiOr] • ot? Kai 
Trapia-Trjcrev iavrov ^wvra /xera to traO^Xv avrov iv 7roA.A.ot? 
T€KiJir]pLOL<;, Si r]ixep<Zv TCcrcrepaKOVTa oTrrai/o/xei/os airrot? The interval 

4 Kai Aeyoov ra vrept rrf<; pacrtAeta? TOf C7€ov. Kat (TvvaAL- 
^ofji.€vo<i TraprjyyeikGv avTots (xtto 'Iepoo"oX^;/xa)v /a"^ X^P^~ 
t,€(TO at, akXa Trcpt/xcVetv t^v eTrayyeXiav tov Trarpo^ '37V 

5 yjKovaaTe /xov on Iwctvrys //.cv i^aTTTLo-ev vSan, v/xet? Sc 
£1/ irvi.vp.aTi jSo-TTTia-Qiqaidde aytw ou /xera ttoAAo,? rai^ras 

6 7;/xepa5. Ot /xei/ ovi/ (ri^i/eX^oi'Tes ijpuyrwv avrov 
Aeyop'Tcs Kvpte, ct ev tcu ^pdi/o) to^jtcu aTtoKaOicndvi.i'i 

7 T^i' ^ao-iA.€tav tw lo-paiyX; ctTTCV 7rpo<» avToi;? Ov^ v/xa>v Parting words 

, V « / -t, \ i\ t V «/] , ^ of the Risen 

eo-Tiv yvoji/at ;(povovs 17 Kaipovs ovs o Trarr/p cptro ei/ Tfj Lord. 

8 i8ta l^ovaia, aXXa X-^fxif/eaOe Bvvafxiv i7reX66vTO<; tov 
ayiov TTvevfj-aTos i(f> v/xa?, Kat ecreaSe p.ov fxaprvpes cv t€ 

IcpovaaXrj/x Kai [ev] Trdcry rrj 'louSat'a Kat 2ayu,apia Kat 

9 £(os ccr^arof rrys yi^s. Kat ravra elrroiv ^XerrovTUiv avTO)v The ascension. 
i-rr-qpOr], Kat vecjyeXr) v-rreXa^cv avrov drro r^v 6<fi0aXp.(j}v 

10 avTwv. Kat (OS dT€Vi^ovTe<; rjaav ets tov ovpavov rropivo- 
fievov avrov, Kat iSov avSpts 8vo TrapicrrT^Kettrav avrots €V 
B. A. I 



Return to 

The gathering 
of the infant 

€(T6yj(T€(Ti XevKOi^, dl Koi etTrai/ "AvSpc? TaXiXaioi, tl 1 1 

€(TTyKaT€ ^XeTTOVTCS €t? TOV OVpaVOV, OVTOS o 'It^ctov? 6 

dvaKrjixKJiueX^ a</)' Vjxwv ets tov ovpavbv ovt<jj<; iXevtreraL 
6v rpoTcov iOiacaaOe avTOv iropivofxivov eis tov ovpavov. 
Tore vTTco'Tp €i//av €is lepovcraXrjfx aTro opovs tov KaXov- 12 
fxevov EXaiwvos, o icTTiv eyyvs lepovaaXrjfx cra^^aTOV 
e^ov 68oi^, Kat 6t€ elcrrjXOov, ct? to virep^ov dvcjSrj- 13 

o"aj' ov 7/crav Kara/xeVovres, o re IIcTpo? Kat Iwai/r^9 Kat 
'laKW^o? Kttt 'AvSpea9, ^tXtTTTros Kat ©w/xas, Bap^oXo- 
/xatos Kttt Ma^^atos, 'laKw/?os 'AX^atov Kat ^i/uiuyv 6 
^r]X(ji)Tr]<i Kat 'lovSa? 'laKOJjSov. ovtol Trai/rcs T^aav 14 
Trpoa-KapTepovvTi's ofxoOvfxaSov Ty Trpo(T€V)(rj (tvv yvi^at^ti/ 
Kttt Mapta/jt T^ [xrjTpi ^tov\ ^\y](Tov koX crvv toZ^ aSeX^ot? 

The speech KAI EN TAIS HMEPAI^ TaijVat? aVao-ras nerpo? 15 

of Peter. , , - '? \JL - * /* " \ » ' . V V ' 

€v /xecru) Twv ao€A<pcuv etTrev (^t^v t€ o^Aos oi^o/i-arwv ctti to 

The treachery avTO tos EKaTOV eiKOcn) Aj/8p€? a8cX<iot, tSct TrX-npoiOrivai 16 

and death of ^ v c\ / v ^ v , v / 

Judas. T^v ypacf>r]v rjv 7rpo€t7re to Trvevixa to ayiov 8ta aT6jxaTo<i 

Election of ^c^v»/c^«^ / 1« 

one to fill Aai;€t8 Trept lovSa tov yevofJievov oSrjyov TOt? crvXXa^ov- 

^is place. , ^ ^ ^ , t. , . - V vx 

o^ti/ LTja-ovv, OTL KaTT^ptcZ/xTy/xei/os ^v £v rjfxiv Kat eAa^^ci' tov i 7 

kXyjpov Trji; 8taKoi'tas TavTr;?. — Ovto? yacv ovi/ cKTijaaTO 18 

^(optov CK /xiaOov ty}<; aStKta?, Kat irpyjvr)^ ycvoyaevo9 

eXaKYjacv fiiaos, Kat i^e^vOrj irdvTa to. cnrXay^va avTOV. 

Kat yvwaTov lyiv^TO Trdcn Tots KaTotKOvcrtr lepovcraXrjfx, 19 

o)0"T€ KXrjdrjvaL to )(0)piOv tKctvo t>^ StaXcKTO) ai»Ta)v 

AKcXSa/za^, tovt' eaTtv Xwptoi/ At/x,aTos. — FcypaTTTat 20 

yap €v Bt^Xw ^aXjLttor 

reNHSHToa H enAyAic AyToy epHMOc 


Thn eniCKonHN AyToy AaBgtoo erepoc. 


21 Set ovv Tujv (rvv€\66vTO)v rjfxiv dvSpoiv iv TravTL )(povio a» 

22 elarjXOiv koi i^rjXOev icf) ijfxa^; 6 Kvpio^ *lr](Tov<;, ap|-a/xcvos 
ttTTO Tov ySttTTTicr/xaTO? 'Iwctvov €0)? rrj'^ ryyutepa? 77s aviXrjfx- 
<j>6y] dcf)' r]ix<2v, fxapTvpa tt/s dvaaTaa€u)<; avTOv aw rjplv 

2^yev€crOaL <Era tovtwv. koI tcrr-qcrav Sv'o, Iwcrr^cf) tov 
KaXovfxcvov Bap(ra/?^av, 6s irreKXyjOr} 'Iowtos, Kat 

24 Ma^^t'aj/. Kat Trpoacv^dfxevoL ciTrav ^v Kupte KapSto- ^'^^y^^/ °^ 

25 yi/wcTTa TrdvTOiv, avaSet^ov ov c^cAe^o), e/c rovToyv Ttov ovo 
eVa, Xa/3eii' tov tottov tt^s StaKovtas ravrr/s KaiaTrocrroXi^s, 
a<^' >)s Trape/Sr] 'lovSas iropivOrjvaL cts tov tottov tov tStov. 

26 Kai, eStOKav KA,r7poi»s avTots, Kat €7rco"€v o KXrjpos ctti Election of 

V , V ^ « ^ , Matthias. 

Ma^^iav, Kat (TvvKaT€ij/r]<:f)L(r6r] fx^Ta twv evocKa aTro- 


1 Kat ev Tw crvvTrXrjpova-Oai Trjv ■)]iX€pavTrj<;7r€VTr]Koa-Trjs The baptism 
T / 'e^jvv)/ \,/ », > -^ of the Holy 

2 T)o-av 7ravT€9 ofxov €7rt to avTO, Kat cyeveTO atpvo) ck tov Ghost at 

J ^■y <> I / "/D' ^>\' Pentecost. 

oupavov yjx^'^ (oanrep (pcpo/x^vrj^ ttvot;? piaias Kat eTrArjpoi- 

3 o^cv oAov TOV otKOv ov ^o^av KaOrJixevoL^ Kot uicfiOrjaav av- 
TOts 8ia/X€pt^o/x€vat yA.tuo'O-at wfret TTvpos, koL iKaOiaev 

4 €<^ eva eKacTov avTwv, Kat iTrXrjaOrjaav TravTes Trvcv/xaTos 

aytov, Kat rjp^avTO XaXelv €T€paL<s -yXwco'ats KaOihs to Speaking with 

'S'J ' J./3' /3 J - ■>-rj tongues. 

5 TTViVfxa eoLOov aTrocpueyy ecru ai avTOL^. Hcrav 

0€ cv lepovaaXrjjx KaTOLKOvvTe^ 'lovSatoi, av8pes €vA.a^cts 

6 aTTo TravTos evvous Ttov vzro tov ovpavov yevofX€vrj<; SI Trj<; 
<fiO)vrj<; TavTrjq crvvrjXOe to 7rXrjOo<; kol (TVV€)(yOy), otl tJkov- 

7 acv el<5 €KaaT0<; Trj tStct StaXeKTO) AaXouvTcuv avTwv i$L- 
aTavTO 8e Kat lOavixat^ov A.eyovT€s O^X^ ^^°^ TravTes 

8 ovTot €io"tv ot XaXovvTcs FaXtXatot; Kat TrtCs >;/x6ts aKOvo- 
/X€v €KaaTOj Trj IBlo. SiaXeKTw r;/jt(ov ev 17 iyevvTJOrjfjLcv ; 

9 Ilap^ot Kat Mi^Sot Kat 'EXa/xctTai, Kat 01 KaTotKOWTC? t-^v 
MccrOTTOTa/xtav, lovSatav t€ Kat KaTTTraSoKtav, IIovTOVKat 

10 TTjv Ao-tav, <l>pvyiav Te Kat IIa/x<^vXtav, AtyvTrTov Kat to. 
fJ-epr] Tjj'i AL/3vr}<s Trjs KaTO. K.vpy]vr]v, Koi ol eTTtSry/xovvTCS 

I — 2 



Speech of 

The gift of the 
Holy Ghost 
foretold by 

'Poj/xaiot, 'Iov8atotT€ KOLTrpoarjXvTOL, Kpi^rcs Kal" ApafS^s, 1 1 
(ZKOVO/xev XaXovvTiiiv avToiv rats 7y/xcrepats yX(o(rcrats to. 
fieyaXeta tov deov. i^icrravTO Be TraVrcs kol BtrjTropovvTo, 12 
aXXos Trpos aXA.oi' Aeyov'Tc? Tt ^cAei roCro cti^ai; erepoLi^ 
Se 8ia;^A,€va^oi/T€s eAcyov ort FAeuKovs fX€fX€(rritiiJL€VOL 
fXa-LV. Sra^cig Se 6 11 crpos (rvi' rots cvScKa 14 

in-qpev Trjv (ftaivrjv avTov kol airecfiOfy^aTO aurots AvBpi<; 
'louSatoi KOL ol KaTOLKOvvT€<; 'lepovcraXrjfJL Travrcs, tovto 
vfXLv yvoiCTTOv ecTTo) KOL IviJiTicracrdi TO. prjixaTo. fxov. ov 15 
yap (09 v/xei? vTToXafxfiaveTi ovtol fXiOvovariv, eamv yap 
(opa TptTT) T17? >Jp,eptts, aAAa toGto i(TTLV to dprjiiivov 8ta 16 

TOV 7rpOcfi7JTOV liOTjX. 

Kai eCTAI iv T.ats €(7;(aTat9 yjfxepais, Aeyct 6 ^€05, 17 

eK)(ea) aho toy nNeyMAToc Moy en) hacan cApKA, 
KAi npo(t)HTeYCOYCiN 01 Yio'i YMooN KAi Ai 0Yr<^T€pec 

Ka'i 01 NeANICKOI Y^OON opAceic OyONTAI, 

KAI 01 npecBfTepoi y^oon cNYnNioic eNYnNiAcGH- 


KAi' re eni toyc Aoy'Aoyc moy ka'i eni tac AoyAac 18 

EN TA?c HMepAic eKEiNAic eK)(eoc) Ano TOY nNey- 

KOL TrpO<f)Y}T€V(TOV(rLV. 

KaI AoaCOO TepATA eN TCO OYPANOj ai/tu 19 

KAI a-rjfjiila km THC fHC Karo), 

aTmA Ka'i hyp KAI ATMi'AA KAnNOY* 

KAI H ceAHNH eic aTma 

np^lN €A6elN HMe'pAN KypiOY THN MefAAHN KAI 



KYpiOY cooBHceTAi. 


22 Av8p€<s 'I(TparyX€tTai, aKOvcrarc tov*; Xoyovs tovtov<;. 'Iry- Jesus the 

(Towv Tov Na4topatov'j avopa aTroocoety/JUvov airo tov U€ov risen from 
,,^5/ >/ V /?,/ the dead. 

ets vjj.a<; ovvafxeo'L /cat repaat Kat (Tr)iX€LOi.<; ots €Troir)a€v 

23 8t avToO 6 ^cos ev ^cccro) v/xuiv^ Ka6o)<i avrol otSarc, tovtov 
T^ iopi(Tp.€vrj jSovXrj kol -rrpoyvioaeL tov Oeov €kSotov Slol 

24 x^Lpos dv6fxo)v 7rpo(T7nj^avT€<; avctA-are, oi^ 6 ^€os ave- 
(TTTja^v Xvcras to.? toStj/as tov Oavarov, KaOon ovk yjv 

25 Sui'ttTOi/ KpareicrOaL avrov vir avrov' Aavtio yap Acyct 

et9 avTOv 

„ , „ » - '^'°" °^ ^^® 

OTI €K AellOON MOY IcTIN i'nA MH CdiKe^QOd. ^J^ssi^Kpf 

David s hne 

26 AlA TOyTO HYC})pAN0H MOY H KApAlA KAI HfAAAlACATO foreshadowed 


eii A€ KAI H CAp2 MOY KATACKHNobcei iu eAniAi' 

27 OTI OYK eNKATAAeiVeic THN ^YX'^'^ '^^y ^'^ aAhn, 

OYAe Aooceic ton ocion coy iAe?N AiAct)9opAN. 


nAHpcoceic me eYct)pocYNHC meta toy npocoanoY 


29 Av8p€S aSeA^oi', i^ov ciTretv pera Trapprycrta? Trpos v/xa? 
TTcpt TOi) TraTpidpxov AavctS, ort Kai crcAcvrrycrcv Kai 
iraKJi-q kol to pvrjpa avTov ecTTtv iv rjplv o.XP'- '^V'* ^A<-cpa<; 

30 TavTr}<i • 7rpo(f>iJTr]<i ovv VTrap^tov, Kat ciSojs QTi opKCO OOMO- 
ceN AYTO) 6 ^cos EK KApnoY THC 6c4)YOc AYTOY kaBi'cai 

31 eni TON GpONON Ay'toy, TrpoiSwv eXdXrjcrev rrepl Trj<s dva- 
crTa'o-€0)S TOt) ;(pio-TOv on OYTG €NKAT€A6l(t)9H elc aAHN 

32 OYTG rj a-ap^ avrov elACN AlA(t)0opAN. tovtov tov 'Irjaovv J^'osfie^s°o\^lfe 

33 aviaTTjciv 6 0e6<Sj ov Travrcs ?7/>t€ts icpiv piaprvpes. ttJ resurrection. 
Se^ta ow TOV ^cov v^l/oiOeis rrjv re CTrayyeAiav tov Trj'evyw.a- 

To? Tov aytov Xa/Siov Trapa tov TraTpos 6^€;^€ev tovto 6 

34 vuets [Katl ySAeVeTe Kat aKovcTC. ov yap AavctS dviBri The exaltation 

' *- -■ ^ ^ ' of the Messiah 

64S Tovs ovpavovs, Acyci 8e avro's foretold. 


EineN Kypioc toj Kypico moy KaOoy gk AeliooN 

eooc AN Boa Toyc ex6poYC coy ynonoAioN toon 35 

noAooN coy. 
dcrffiaXws ovv yivwcrKCTO) ttccs olko*; IcrparjX on Kat Kvptov 36 
avTOv KOL -ypiaTOV e7rotr/0"€v 6 6e6<i, tovtov tov Itjctovv bv 
The effect of viiei<; ccTTavococraTe. ^AKOvaavTe<i 8c KaTevvyrjaav 37 

Peter's speech. ^ ^ , , , v v \ 

Ti)!/ Kapbiav, €L7rav re Trpos tov 11 crpov Kai tovs Aoittovs 

d7roo"To\ous Tt iroLTjoroifjiev, avSpe? dSeA^ot; IIcTpos Sc 38 

Exhortation to TTpos avTo^s McravoT/craTC, /<ai ^airTLcrO'qTui eKaaros v/a(ov 
repent and be,^,, ,^ ^,vj *»« 

baptized. cv TO) ovofxaTi irjaov JLpLaTOv eis a(peaLV twv afiapTLwv 

vfxwvy Kol X-qfxxf/caOe Tr]v Swpcav tov ay lov 7rv€Vfj,aT09' 

vfxlv yap ecTTiv 1] irrayyeXta Kat rots T€kvols v/Jiuyv Kat Tracn 39 

TO?c eic MAKpAN ocoyc AN npocKAAecHTAi Kypioc 

6 ^€0s TjiJLojv. CTcpots Tc Xoyots TrXcLoaLV BiefxapTvparo, 40 

Kttt, TrapcKaXct avrov? Xeyoov Sco^t^tc (XTro rrys ytvcas T779 - 

Three thousand o"Ko\tas TttvTr;?. Ot /x€i/ ovi/ airoSe^dfxivoi TOV \oyov avTov 41 

added to the jo //i ^ 'n '"''''/^.^ 

Church. e/jaTrTLa-u-qa-av, KaiTrpoa-eTeurjcravevTyrjixepa eKetvrj i//v;)(at 

wcret T/3ttT^tA,tai. i^crav Sc 7rpo(TKapT€povvT€<s Trj SLSaxfj 42 

TWV d7rOCTToA.(jl)V Kttt tVJ KOlVWVta, TT] KXdtrCt TOV apTov 

Kttt Tats 7r/3 OCT ev;(ats. 'EytVcro 8e Trdar} il/v)(rj <po(3os, 43 

TToAXo, Se TepaTa Kal arj/xiia 8ta T(3v d7roo"ToXa)V eytvcTO. 

First description 7rdvT€S Se Ot TTtO^TCWaVTCS CTTl TO avTO Ct^^OV aTTaVTa KOLVa, 44 

of the common ^^ , \\«/>»/ ^S^' 

life and worship Kttt Ttt KTTJfXaTa Kttt TttS f7ra/3^€tS €7rL7rpa<TKOV Kttt OL€fX€pL- 45 

of the Church. y,v« /I'w /■? /)'t' ^ 

40V avTa 7rao"tv KaooTL av Tts )(p€Lav ct;(€v • Kat? rjfxepav 4O 
TC Trpo<TKapTepovvT€<s ofxoOvfJiaSov iv TO) tepo), kXcovtc's 
T€ kot' otKOv apTov, jXiTeXdjx^avov Tpocfirj^ iv dyaXXidaeL 
/cat d(f>€X6T7]TL KapStas, aivovi'Te*; tov ^6ov Kat £;)(ovt€S 47 
Xdpf-v TTpos 0A.0V TOV A.adv. 6 Se Kvptos Trpoaeriuei tovs 
o-OD^o/x.€voi;s Ka^' rjixepav cttl to avro. i 

Healing of the IltTOOS Sc Kat 'IwdvT?? dveBacvOV €t9 TO icpov CTTt T-nv 

lame man at the ' ' ' 

Beautiful gate ^pav Trjs Trpoaev^^'i TYjv evcLTT^v, Kat Tts dvyp x<*^^t)? ^f< 2 


KotXtas ixY]Tp6<s avTov vTrdp)(tov c/SatTTa^cTO, ov ItlOovv 
Kad* rjjxipav -rrpos rrjv Ovpav tov lepov rrjv Xeyofjbevqv 
*Q,patav TOV aiTCLV iXerjixocrvvrjv jrapa twv clcnropevoiJievoiv 

3 €1? TO lepov, OS iSuiv IleTpoi^ /cat loiavrjv fxiWovTas eto"ie- 

4 vat et9 TO tepov rjpojTc iXe-q/xocrvvrjv Xafi^lv. drcvtcra? Se 
IIcTpos €19 avTov (Tvv Tw 'Iwttvr; 6t7r€v ^Xixj/ov €ts 77/xas. 

5 6 Sc €7ret^€v ariTots TrpoaSoKiJtiV tl Trap avT(ji)v Xa/3€iv. 

6 eLTTcv he Tlcrpo? Apyvpiov /cat ^pvcrtov ov)(^ VTrdp\ci fxoi, 
o Be c;)((t) toCto ctol StSco/xt • ev T(5 ovo/xart Ir^trov Xptcrroi) 

7 Tou Na^copatov irepLTraTei. koL Trtacras avTOv Tr]<; Sepias 
)(eLp6s rjyeipev avTov TTapa^prjjxa 8e ecrTepeioOy](rav at 

8 f^dcreLs avTov kol to. (Tcf>vSpd, kol e$aXX6/j,evo<s ecTTrj koI 
7r€pt€7raT€t, Kat elayjXOev crvv avTots ct? to tepov TrepnraTOJV 

9 Ktti dA.Ao/x€vos Kat aivwv tov ^edv. Kat etScv Tras 6 Aaos 
loauTOv TTepnraTovvTa koL alvovvTa tov Oeov, eireyivoidKOv 

Be avTov OTL ovto<s rjv 6 Trpos Trjv eXerjixocTvvYjv KaOT]fMevo<s 
cTTt TTJ 'Qpata UvXr] tov lepov, kol errXrjaOrjcrav 0dfx(3ov<; 
Ti Kat CKO-Tatrco)? €7rt toJ av^fSe^rjKOTt avT<2. Kpa- 

TOWTOs Be avTov tov IleTpov Kat tov 'Iwavryv (TweBpafxev 
Tras o Aaos Trpos avTov<i eirX ttj (ttoSL ttj KaXovfxevy ^0X0- 

12 /xojvTOS eKdaixf^oi. i8wv Be 6 flerpos drreKpLvaTo Trpos tov Speech of 
A.adv "AvSpes 'IcrpaiyA-ctTat, rt ^av/xa^eTeeTrtTovTcu, rjrjfxiv the people. 
Tt aTevt^cre cos tota Bwa^iei rj evae^eia TreTTOtrjKOcnv tov 

13 TreptTTttTctv avTov; 6 0e6c 'ASpAAM ka) 'Icaak ka'i 'IakcoB, 


TOy lr](TOvv, bv v/>tcts /xcv TrapcStoKarc Kat iqpvrjO'aa-Oe Kara, Jesus the 

14 Trpoo'coTTOf IIctA-aTOV, Kp[vavTO<i eKeivov diroXveiV' i;/x6ts from the dead. 
Be TOV dytov Kat StKatov rjpvrjaadOe, kol yTrjaaaOe dvBpa 

15 (jiovea ^a.pia-6rjvaL vfuv, tov Be dp)(r]yov ttJs ^^175 aTrcKTCi- 
vaT€, 6v 6 ^eos rjyetpev ck veKpcov, ov 77/xets fxapTvpes ia'/xev. 

16 Kttt T77 TTttTTCt TOV OVO/xaTOS ttVTOV TOVTOV 6v Oetope^Te KOL The lame man 

„^ , , vv >« \e/ e<>»j« healed in His 

otoaTc eaTepewaev to ovofxa avTov, Kat rj ttlcttl^ y Ot avTov name. 
eBwKev avTijj Tr]v oXoKXrjplav TavTrjv aTrevavTL ttuvtiov 



The suflFeniig of 
the Messiah — 
slain in ignor- 
ance — foretold 
by the prophets. 

Exhortation to 
repentance in 
view of the 
Messiah's return. 

Appeal to 
Moses and 
the prophets. 

The covenant 
with Abraham 
realized in the 
first advent of 
the Messiah. 

First persecu- 
tion : by the 

Arrest of 
Peter and John ; 

Trial before the 

v/JLU)V. KOL vvv, aS€X<f>OL, olSa OTL Kara ayvotav eTrpa^arc, 1 7 
(ocTTTCp Ktti 01 apxovT€<? Vfxuiv' 6 8c Oeb<; a TrpoKaT7]yy€i\ev 18 
8ta (TTOfxaros TrdvTOiv tujv Trpo(f)r]Twv iraOelv rov yjpLdTOV 
avToviTrXrjpoiaev ovTw<;. fxcravo'^ijar^ovv KaikTricrrpixpaTe 19 
Trpos TO l^a\ifj>Orjvai u/awv tols afxapTias, ottws av €.XO(x>criv 20 
Katpol ava{f/v$eo)<s aTro irpocruiTrov rov Kvptov kol air ocrT(.iX.r} 
Tov 7rpoK€)(€Lpi(TfJiivov vfuv •^pLO'Tou 'It](Tovv, ov Sct ovpavov 21 
lxkvhi^acr6aLa\pLXp6viiivaTroKara(TTa(J€.u3<;TravT03V div eXa- 
Xrjaiv 6 ^€os Sto. 0"T0/uaT09 T(2v ayLOiV air atcovos avTOV 
7rpo(fir)TOiv. Moivcrrj'i fxlv cTttci/ otl flpo^HTHN y\A\N 22 
ANACTHcei Kypioc 6 0edc eK toon aAgA^oon ymoon Jic 
eM6* AYTOY AKoycecGe kata hanta oca an AaAhch npoc 
YMAC. ecTAi Ae nACA yYX^^ ^^^ic an mh akoych toy -3 
npo^HTOY eKeiNOY eloAeepeYOHcejAi 6K toy Aaoy- • 

KOL 7rai/T€S 8e ol TTpo^rjTai airo ^afXOvrjX koL ruiv KaO^^rj^ 24 
ocTOi iXdXrjo'av kol Karrjyy€.LKav ras 7y/xepas ravra^i. v/xels 25 
icTTC. ol viol Twv 7rpocf>r]TO)v kol rrj<; 8ia6rjK7]<; 7}<5 6 deo<s 8te- 
Oero TTpos T0V9 Trarepa? v/xcov, Aeywi/ irpos 'A/3padfx Kai 
TpiAl THC fHC. vp-lv irpijiTOV dva(TTy]aa<i 6 6€6<i rov TratSa 26 
avTOv aTreaTeiXcv avrov evXoyovvra v/xas iv ro) airoarpe- 


Twv oe aVTwv Trpos tov Xaov eTrio'Trja'av avTots ol ap^iepcts 
KOL 6 (TTpaT'qyo'i rov Upov kol ol SaSSouKatot, SLairovov- 2 
fxevoi Sta TO SiSao^Kcti/ avrovs tov Xaoi/ kol KarayyiXXctv 
iv Tw *lr]arov ttjv avaaraa-LV ttjv €K veKpiov, kol irrcfiaXov 3 
avTOts Ttts p^etpas Kat WeuTO ets Trjp-qcnv €ts T^i/ avptov, yv 
yap kairipa rjBr]. iroXXol 8c t(3i/ ctKotio-avTWi/ toi/ Aoyoi^ 4 
eTrLa-Tevaav, kol iycvqOrj dpLOjxo<i Toiv dvSpiZv ws ;^tAta8c9 


EycVcTO 8k iirl rrjv avptov (Tvva)(6rjvai avrdv toiis 5 
ap^ovTtt? Kttt Tovs TTpta-fivTipov^ KoX TOv<; ypap,yu.aTct? cv 
lepovaaXrjjx (kui "Aj/j/a^ 6 dp^^t cpcus /cat Katd<)!>a9 Kat 6 


^Iwdvvrjq KOi 'AAe^avSpos koL ocrot rfo-av Ik yivov^ ^PX^" 

7 cpariKoi)), koX (r'njcravT€<i avTov<; iv tw fJ-^crco iirvvudvovTo 
'Ei/ TTota SwdfieL rj iv Trot'co ovofxart kiroirjaaTe. rovTo 

8 vfii'i's; t6t€. Wirpo'i irXyjcrO^i'i Trvevftaro? dyiov ctTrev Trpo? Speech of Peter. 

9 avTOvs *Ap;^oi/Tes tov Xaov koX Trpecr/SvTipoL, ci r;/x€ts 
(njfxcpov dvaKpivofxeOa ctti evepyecTLa dvdpoiTrov dcruevov^, 

10 iv TLVL OVTO<S O"€Cr(j0O"Tat, yVO)0"TO»/ CfTTO) TraCTLV VjJUV Kttl Testimony to 

TravTL TO) Aatp icrparqS. on ev rui ovofxan irjcrov Aptorov Messiah. 
TOV Na^wpatov, 6v {'/xei<j iaravpuiaaTe, ov 6 ^€os r/yetpcv iK 
v€Kp(i)v, iv TovTo) ovTos 7rapeaTr]Kev ivioTriov vp-uiv vytr/9. 
iiovTos eo-Ttj/ d AiGoc 6 eloyGeNHGe'ic y<^' vfjLojv toon 

12 OIKOAOMOONI, d r^NOMeNOC 610 KE^aAhN f^J^NIAC. /cat 
OVK eaTLV iv aAAo) ouSci/l 7^ amT-qpla, ovh\ yap ovo/xd 
icTLV ercpov virb rov ovpavbv to SeSo/xevov ev dv6 p(iiTroL<; 

13 €v c5 Set (TiiiOrjvai rjp.a.<;. @€UipovvT€<i 8e t'^i/ roti 11 erpou Confusion of 

*■ , V 5T ' V \ n ' " " n "^he Sanhedrin. 

7rapp7](XLav Kac Lwavov, Kat KaTaAapofxevoi otl avtfpu)7roL 

dypdfXfxaTOL elaiv kol tSt(OTat, iOavfxa^ov, iTreytviocTKOV 

14 T€ avTOvs oTt crvv T(2 Irycoi) ^<rai', toi^ T€ avupioTrov 
ySAcTTOVTCs o"w avTOts ecTcoTa tov Te^epaTrcv/Acvoj/ ovScv 

15 €t;^ov di/TCiTretv. KcAcwavTCs Sc avTous l^w tov awe- 
Bptov ttTTcA^etv (rvvi(3aWov Trpo? (xAAt^Aovs Aeyovres 

16 Tt TTOLyjawixev Tot? dv6pio7roL<s toijtol<;; oti fxkv yap 
yvoxTTOV <rr]fX€LOV ykyovtv 8t avTcuv irwcriv to2s KaroLKOva-tv 

17 lepovaaXrjfx cftavepov, kol ov Bwd/xeOa dpv^adav dAA Acquittal of 

./ v'v\-S /!->' >-i'' \ '/3 the apostles. 

tva /XTy £7rt TTActov OLave/xrjurj ets tov Aaov, aTrctArycrcup-eaa 

avTois fxrjK€TL AaActv eTrt toJ ovofxart tovto) fxrjSevl 

18 avSpioTTiDV. KOi KaAeVavTC? avrot's TraprjyyetXav Ka^- Warned to 

/x ^^/|/ /I c>^c>«>/ ^\'^>/. P'^T abandon their 

oAou fxr) <ptf€yy€a-f7aL jxrjOe oioao-KCtv ctti tw ovofxari \tov\ preaching. 

ip'Iryo'ov. 6 Se II erpos Kat Icocti/Ty? aTroKpt^cvre? envav 

Trpos avTOvs Et SiKaiov €<TTtv ei^coTrtov tov ^€oi) v/xcov 

20 d/covetv jxdWov rj tov Oeov KptVaTC, ov Swd/xeOa yap Refusal of 

. .^ c\ vo V . / V \ \ -^ « ?'^ the apostles. . 

■21 rjfxets a etoa/xev Kat rfKovcafxev jxr] AaAetv. ot oe Trpocr- 

aTreiXrjadfxevoL aTreAvcrai/ avToi;?, fX7]okv evptaKOVTe^ to 




Prayer of the 
apostles for 
boldness to 
preach the 

Second descrip- 
tion of the life 
of the Church. 

TTcos Ko\d(T(ji)VTaL avTov<s, 8ta tov Aaov, ort Travrc^ 
cSd^a^ov TOV 6e6v irrl tw ycyovoTc crojv yap rjv yrXeio- 22 
vuiv TiacepaKovTa 6 av6poiTro<> i(f> 6v yeyovei to crrifxcLOv 
TOVTo TT7S ia(TC(jos. 'A7roXv^evT€9 Se rjXOov irpo^ 23 

Tov<i Ihiov; Kol aTn/yyetAav ocra Trpo? avTovq oc apxicpei^; 
Koi ol Trp€.<j^vT€poi ciTTav. ot 8e (XKOwavTcs ojxoOvfxaSov 24 
•^paj/ (f)(i)vr]v 7rpo9 tov ^cov' Kai etTrai/ AeaTrora, (jf 6 
KAI TTANTA TA eN AyjOIC, 6 TOV TTarpos t^'/xojv Sia Tri'cil- 25 
/xaro? ayiov (TT6fxaT0<i AavciS 7raioo9 o-ou etTrwj/ 
"In A Ti' ecj^pYAlAN IGnh 



CYNH)(0HCAN yap ctt' aXyjOeias Iv ttj Tro'Aet TavTy iirl 27 
TOV ay tov TratSa (tov ^Irjcrovv, ON e)(piCAC, 'HpwS?/? tc 
KOL riovTio? HetAaTos avv eGngCIN kol AaOIC 'lapaT^A, 
TTOf^craL ocra rj X^^P ^^^ '^^'' V ftovXrj Trpocopicrev 28 
yeveaOat. Kal to, vvv, Kvptc, Ittioc im Ta? aTreiAa? 2g 
ttVTwv, Kal 805 TOts SovAots aov fX€Ta Trapprja-Las Tratrry? 
AaActv TOV \6yov aov, iv tw ttjv X^^P^ €KT€lv€lv o"e €15 30 
lacriv Ktti arj/xeia Kal TepaTa ytvcc^at 8ta to9 ovo/u,aTos 
Toi) ayiov 7rai8o9 crov ^\r]aov. Kal SerjOevTwv avTiov iaa- 31 
XevOr] 6 TOTTo? iv <h rjaav crvvr]yp.€VOi, /cat iirXyjcrOrjaav 
a7ravT€? tov ayiov TrvevfJLaTOs, Kac iXaXovv tov Xoyov 
TOV Oiov p,£Ta 7rappr](rLa<s. 

Tov Se TrXri6ov<i tcov Trto'Tevo'avTcuv rjv KapSia Kal 32 
j^u^t) /xta, Kai oiuSc ets ti to3v UTrap^ovTWv auToI lAeyev 
tStov €tvai, aAA' rjv avTols iravTa kolvo.. Kal Swafxet 33 
peydXr] aTreStSouv to fxapTvptov 01 airocTToXoL tov Kvptov 
^\7)aov TYJ^ dvaaTdae(x)<i, X^P^^ "^^ /xcyaAvy yv Ittl TravTas 


34 avTOvq. ovSk yap ivSeyj'; ns rjv iv avrots* ocroi yap 
KT'i]Top€<; ^(opiuiv yj OLKLwv VTTrjp'^ov, TTwXowTcs ecficpov 

35 ras rt/xas rtor TriTrpatTKO/xevwi/ Kal ItWovv irapa TOv<i 
TToSas T^v dirocTToXxjiv SteStScTO Se eKacrro) KaOoTt av 

36 Tt9 xpetav etY€v. 'I(uo-r/(^ 8e 6 cTriKXry^eis Ba/ovo'/^ag The gift of 

, V . , /. c, , ^ , -,,v Barnabas. 

ttTTo Twi/ aTrooToAoji/, o efTTij/ ixiuepfXTjvevojxevov 1 log 

37 IlapaKXT/crecjs, AevctViy?, KvTrptos tw yeVct, V7rap)(ovTO<; 
avT(3 aypov 7r(oA.7^o"a? rjveyKev to )^prjfj.a Kal eOrjKcv irapa 


1 'Av^p 8c Tt? 'Avavta? ovojxaTi crvv %aTr(f)€Lpr] rrj The sin of 

\j«/ « \» / j'\« Ananias and 

2 yi;i/atKt avTOv €7ro)Xr](xev KTTjfxa Kat ivo(T(f>LcraTO airo rrj^ Sapphira, and its 

<n'~/ ^/^ / \j/ / punishment. 

Tt/xr/?, (Tvv€Lo'vLr]<; Kat rr^s yvvacKos, Kai cveyKas fxepos Tt 

3 Trapa tovs 7ro8as T(ui/ ciTrooTO/Vwi/ eOrjKev. cTttcv Se 6 
rieTpos *Avai/ta, 81a. rt eTrXT/pwcrei' 6 "^aravas ttjv KapStav 
aov xpevaacrOai <J€ to irv€.vp.a to ayiov koX vocr<f>L<ja(TOaL 

4 ttTTO TTyS TLfJirj<S TOV ^OipiOV, OV\l /XcVoV (TOt tfX^VeV Kttt 

irpad\y iv Trj crrj l^ovaia VTTrjp-^cv; tl on Wov iv rfj 
KapSia aov to TTpayfxa tovto; ovk iipevaio av^pojTroi? 

5 aXAa T(o Oew. aKovayv 8e 6 'Avavtas T0v<i Xoyov? 
TovTOv^ TTCO^wv i$€if/v^ev Kal kyivero ff>6/3o<s /tcyas ctti 

6 TravTtt? TOi)? aKovovTa?. ctvao-TavTCS 8c ot vcooTcpot 

7 (Jui^coTTCtXav avTOV Kat c^cvcyKai^Tc; eOaif/av. Eyc- 
vcTO 8c ws (opoSv Tp i(j3i' Sid(TTr]iJi.a Kal rj yvvrj avrov fxr] 

8 ciSvittj TO yeyovos elayXOev. a-rr^KpiO-q 8e Trpo? avTrjv 
IIcTpos EtTTC ixoL, el ToaovTov TO ■^oipLov oLTriooaOe; 

9 77 8e ctTTCi/ Nat, Too-ovrou. 6 8k IIcTpos Trpo? avryv 
Tt OTt avvecfiOii^yjOr] vplv -mipacrai to Trvevfxa Kvplov; 
ISov ol TToScs T<jjv daipavTOiv TOV avSpa O'ov CTTt Trj Ovpa 

10 Kat k^OL(Tov(TLV ae. eireaev ^e Trapa^prj/xa Trpo? tov? 
TToSas avTOv Kttt c|ei//u^cv cto-cX^oi/TCS 8e ot veavicTKOL 
fvpov avT-^v v€Kpav, Kal c^cveyKavTC? eOaij/av Trpo? tov 

iiav8pa avTTJS' Kat cyeVcTO cf>6^o^ fteyas e<^' oAryv t-^v 
iKKXrjcTLav Kal cTrt TravTas tovs aKOvovTas TavTa. 


Miracles worked Aio, 0€ rwv YCLowv To3i/ aTTocTToXoiv eytVcTO crrjixela 12 

by the apostles. ^ , v,„ ^ \'5>t/ic'v 

/cat repara iroXXa iv T(J3 A.a<p' Kat ^crav ofJLOUvixaoov 

7ravT€? €1/ ttJ Sroa !§oA.OjU,covros • twi/ Sj AoiTrojv oiiSets 13 

eToXfxa KoXXacrdat avTOi<i' oAA, ifxeydXvvev avrovs o 

Further growth AttOS, IXaXXoV Sk TTpoaeTiOeVTO 7ri(rT€V0VT€<S T(3 Ki;piO)I4 

of the Church. ^ <- ^ ^ ^ >. r l -r 

TrXydrj dvSpiov re kol yvvaiKwv wore Kat €ts ra? 7rA.a- 15 
reias eKipepeiv tov<; dcr^cvcis Kat riOevaL iirl KXivapioiv 
Kol KpajSaTToiv, Iva. ip)(oix€vov Herpov Kav rj ctklo. 
eTTicrKtacret rivt avroiv. avv^p^ero 8e Kat to ttXyj9o<; 16 
T(5i/ Tripi^ TToXewv ^lepovaaXijfi, (f>€povTes daO€veL<; Kat 
6)^Xovix€vov<i VTTO TTVivixoLTwv aKaOdpTOiv, otTtve? lOepa- 
TTivovTO a7ravT€9. 

Renewed per- 'AvaCTTa? Sc 6 dp^tcpcus Kat 7raj/T€? Ot (TW avT<Z, 7] 17 

secution by .,, ^ - 'C 5^S^ ' ' \ ' /3 5"\ ' ^ o 

the Sadducees. ovfra atpcfTis To>i/ ^faooouKaiwi/, eTTAyjCTurjcrav L,rjAov Kat 18 

Arrest of the » /o x v ^ > v \ > /v v v/i 

apostles: ^irepakov ra? ^etpa? cTrt TOt»s aTTOcrroAoi'S Kat euevTo 

released by avTOv^ iv TrjprjCTU h7]fX0(TLa. AyycAos 8c Kfpiou 8ia 19 

an angel. vv>v/i/ ->i\'^»,^ ' »n 

vvKTOS rjvoL^€ ra? ovpa^ tt^s <pvAaKr]S egayaywr re auroDS 

etTTCv IIop€veo"^€ Kat crTa^evTC? A-aActrc cv to) tcpw tw 20 

Xaw irdvra to. pij/jiaTa Trjs ^loy^ Tavrry?. o-KOvcravTCs 2 1 

£ €i(T7]Atf0V VTTO TOl' OpUpOV €tS TO L€pOV KUL eOtOaCTKOV, 

^apaye^■o/x€^'OS Se 6 dp^^tepev? Kat ot o't'i' avTO) o"W€- 
KttA.€0"ai' TO o'vveSpiov Kat irdcrav rrjv ycpovatav Twv 
vlo)v 'lo-paT^A., Kat oiTreo-TCtXai/ cts to SeajxoiTijpLov d^OijvaL 
auTovs. ot 8c Trapayevo/xevoi vTrrjpiraL ov^ evpov avTOV^ 22 
6V T7y (jivXaKYJ, dva(TTp€if/avTe<i Se dir'qyyiiXav A.eyovTCS oTt 23 
To SiafXiorrjptov cvpo/xcv KCKXcto"/xeVoi/ cv Tracrr) dcr<f>a- 
Xeta Kai tovs cfivXaKa<i eaTwra^ iirl nZv Ovpoiv, dvoL$avT€<s 
8e co^o) ot'ScVa evpofxev. ws 8c rjKOvaav tov<; Aoyovs 24 

TouTovs o re arparrjyb^ tov lepov kol ol ap^tcpct?, 8ir;7ro- 

Rearrested povv TTcpt avTijJV TL av ycVotTO TOVTO. U a p ay evofxevo<5 25 

whilst preaching 5./ '/ \ »'^</ 't^ncv^ '■^ "n ^ 

in the temple. "^ '^''^ aTTrjyyetAev avTOi^ OTL ioov ot aj^opc? ou? €U€aU€ 

iv rrj <f>vXaKrj elalv iv to) tepa! eo"TcuTe? Kat OLoaarKOV- 

Tcs TOV Xaov. t6t€ direXOiiiv 6 aTpaTr)y6<s avv tol<s 26 


V7rr;perai? 7;yev avTovs, ov fiera fSia^, i<f>oftovvTO yap rbv 
37 Xaov, 1X7} \L0aar6<ji(TLV' ayayovT€5 Se avTov<; eo"T77crav ^^^^"'^ "^'^^ 

' ' ' before the 

iv T(3 (TweBptio. Koi iirrjptjjTrjaev avTov<; 6 ap^icpev? Sanhedrin. 

28 Xeyoiv IlapayyeXia TraprjyyetXafxev v/xtv jxr] BtSdcrKiLV 
€7ri TO) ovo/xart tovto), kol l8ov TreTrkrjpioKaTe rr]v 'lepov- 
aa\r]/x Trj^ StSa^i^? vfx<2v^ koL f^ovXccrOe CTrayayctv e<^' 

29 rjiJLa<i TO alfxa tov avOpoiirov tovtov. aTTOKptOciq Se Speech of 
nerpo? Kal ol aTrocTToXot etTrav nei^ap^eiv 8et 6'e(i} 

30 /xaXXoi' r^ dvOpui7roL<i. o ^eo? toji/ Trarepiov y/xoiv yyecpev 
^Irjaow, ov u/xet<j Ste^j^etptcracr^e KpeMACANXec em 

31 if'^OY* TOVTOV 6 ^€os dpxi^yov Koi (TiiiTrjpa v^l/wcnv Trj 
Se^ta avTov, [rov] Sovvat jxeToivoLav to) IcrparjX Kal 

32 a^€crtv a/xaprtcov /<at rjfMels IcTfxkv /xaprvpes tcoi/ 

pTjixaTiov TOVTCov, Kttt TO TTvev/xa TO ay 60V o eSco/cev 6 

:^^ ^eos rot? 7r€t^apYoi}o'iv avrw. ot Se aKOvo^avres 8 1€- Attitude of 

, V ,0 ' , \ , , , V , the Pharisees. 

34 TrptovTO Kttt kpovXovTo aveXeti/ avT0V9. Avatrra? Se Speech of 

, «»/ v/ GamaUel. 

Tts €v Tc3 crvveSptw ^apicratos ovo/xaTi VafxaXiyX, vofxo- 

8t8ao-/<aA.os TLfiLO<s Travrt tw Aacp, eVeAevcrev l^w jSpa^v . 

35 ToiJS dvOpoi7rov<s TTOtrjaai, inrev re Trpos avTOvs AvSpe? 
'lo-par/A-crrat, irpocri^^Te iavTols irrl rot? av^pcoTTOts 

36 Tovroi? Tt /xeA-Aerc TzpacraeLV. irpo yap tovtihv tojv 
rjpup^v dvio'TT) 0€v8as, Xeywv €ti/at rtva lavrov, o) -rrpocr- 
eKXtOrj dvBpoiv dpiOpji'^ cos TeTpaKoaioiv 6s dvypWrj, 
Kal TraVres ocrot iTreiOovTo avro) 8icA.f ^T^o^av xai iyevovTO 

37 €ts o^8eV. p,€Ta. TOL'TOv aveaTT] Iov8as 6 raXtAatos ev 
Tats T^/Acpats n7s aTToypa<^rj<; Kal d-n-ea-Trjae Xaou OTrtaoj 
avTov' KttKetvos aTrcuAeTO, Kat 7ravT€s oorot eTreWovTO 

38 avT<5 SucrKopTTiaOrjcrav. koI [to] vvv Aeyco vfuv, diro- 
aTr)Te ctTroTcov av^pooTrwv toJtojv Kat a^cTe avrovs* (oTt 
ear 17 €|^ dvOpujTroju rj (SovXr) avTrj rj to tpyov tovto, 

^g KaTaXvdrjcreTaf el Se ex ^€ov ecTTtV, ov SwryVeo-^c 

KaTttAvo-at auTOvs*) /xry ttotc Kat Oeofxdxot evpeOrj- 

40 re kireldByjaav Se ovtw, xat TrpoaKaXecrdfxevoi, tovs 



[V VI 

The apostles 
scourged and 

They disregard 
the command 
not to preach. 

aTrocTToA-oi;? Seipavre'? TrapijyyeiXav /xr) XaXetv stti t(j3 
oiofxaTL Tov Irjcrov kol aireXvcrav. Ot fX€v ovv 6770-41 
pevovTo ^atpovTC? airo TrpoarwTrov tov avvihpLOV ort 
KOLTrj^noOrja-av vTrep tov ovofxaTO^ dTifxaaOrjuaL ' Tracrav 42 
re rjfxepav Iv rw ccpo) koI Kar oXkov ovk kiravovTO 8t8a- 
CTKOVTCS Kttt cuayyeXt^o/jtcvot rov ^^picrrov Irycrow. 

Election of 5r7iSk^~'' ' \/3' 

the seven ^^ "^ '''^'■^ v/yHepais TttDTttl? TrAr^ C/vro rTOJK TUJI/ I 

/xaOrjTMV iy€V€TO yoyyutr/xos Twi' EXXryi/iorrwi' Trpos tov<; 

E/3paLOV<ioTL7rap€0€U)povvToiv T-fj SiaKOvca Ttj KaOrjjxepLvrj 

at ^poiL avTwv. TrpocKaXccra/xei/oi Se ot ScoSe/ca to ttXtJ- 2 

^09 rcov" [xaOyjTwv e'lTrav Ovk apecTTOi' iaTLv T^/xas KaraXct- 

if/avTas TOV Xoyov tov Oeov SiaKOvelv TpaTrit,ai<i' eTTio-KC- 3 

ij/aa6e 8e, d8cX<^ot, ai'Spaq e^ {»/x(ov fxapTvpov/xivovs Ittto. 

7r\yjp€L'S TTViVfXaTO'i KoX (TOcfiLaS, OVS KaTa(TTl](TOfM€V CTTt T^S 

^pctas TavTTys' T^p-cts 8e rij 7rpo(r€V)(yj kol Trj StaKovtct rov 4 
Xoyoi; 7rpo(TKapT€prj(TOfJi€V. Kat y]p€<Tev o Xoyo? evcoTTioi/ 5 
TravTOS TOV ttXt^^ovs, Kat i^eXe^avTO !§Te<^ttVOv, dvSpa 
TrXtjpyj 7rio"T€(09 Kat 7ri/ei;p.aTOS dytov, kol ^ikiTnrov kol 
Ilp6)^opov KOL NtKavopa Kal Ttp-wva Kat Hapfxevdv Koi 
NtKoXaov 7rpoo"7^Xi;Tov Ai Tio;^ea, ov<; ea-Trjaav ivioTnov 6 
Twv a.TTOO'ToXcov, Kat Trpoaev^dfJievoi eTrWrjKav avTOt? 
TOi^ ^cipas. 

Third account Kat 6 Xoyo? ToG O^OV r)V^aV€V, KOL €7rXr)0vv€TO 6 7 

of the growth > /) v « /) « ' 't \v j '? \ ' 

of the Church. apiUjxo^ Tiov fJLauTjTOiv ev LepovaaATjix aipoopa, ttoAvs 

T€ o^Xos Tlov tepewv virrjKOVov ttj Trto'TCt. 


AND TO DAMASCUS, vi. 8— ix. 31. 

:STE^AN02 AE HAHPHS x^P^'^f^^ '^^tt Sura/xcws 8 
IttoUl TcpaTa Kat a-r]fX€la fxeydXa iv tu) XaoJ. Av€(TTr](Tav 9 


8e TLves Twv £K TTJ^ (jvvaywyrjs t'^<; Xc-yo/xcvT^S At/JcprtVcov Hostility of 

vi^ / ^»A\<!:S' ^~»^T^^'^^^ Pharisees. 

Kai jVupryvaitov Kat AAcgai/opewv Kat roiv airo KiAiKias 

lOKttt Ao"tas (rvv^y]TovvT€<; tio Srcc^avo), Kat ovk lo-^vov 

1 1 avTLCTTrjvaL ry aocjita Koi t(3 Trvev/xaTt w iXdXei. t6t€ Stephen charged 

t fn \ "?' \' " »A ' »'.\ with speaking 

V7r€paAov aropas Acyovra? OTt AKrjKoajxev avTOv Aa- against the 

X «% « ' o\ ' A ' -R/r " V ^ /I ' temple and the 

Aovi/Tos pyj/JiaTa pAaacprffJLa cig Mwvcnyv Kai toi^ c/coi/* law of Moses. 

12 (TVV€KLVY]CraV T€ TOl/ AttOV Kttt TOVS 7rp€(r(3vTepOV<i Kat TOVS 

ypa/M/xaret?, Kat e7rt(rTavT€S avvrjpTracrav avrov Kat rjyayov 

13 €ts TO cruvcSptov', ecrrrjcrdv t€ fxdpTvpa<; i/zcuSet? Xeyovra? 

O avOpoiTTO^ ovTos ov 7rai;eTat XaAwv pyjfxaTa Kara rov 

14 TOTTov tot) dyiov [tovtovJ Kat tov vofxov, aKT^Koa/jtev yap 
avTOv XcyovTOS OTt Irycrovs 6 Na^copaios ovtos KaTaXwct 
Tov TOTTOV TOVTOv KOL dXXa^€t TO, eOrj a TrapeSoiKcv ■/yp-ti/ 

15 M.o}v(Trj<i. Kat (XTCvtVavTc? et? avrov ttcivtcs ot KaOe^ofxevoL 
iv T<2 crvvcSpiio ctSav to Trpoo'coTrov a^Tov ojo"et TrpoctoTroi' 

1 dyyeXou. Eittcv Se 6 dp^t€pcvs Et TavTa ovtws 

2 cYCt; 6 8e e<i)T7 Av8p€? dSeXd)Ot Kat TraTepcs, aKowaTc. Speech of 
c/-\ , , Stephen: 

Gedc THC AoIHC (U<f>^>7 TW TraTOt WUtwV 'ABpaau, OVTt appearance of 

^ ^^ ' '■ ^ po^ "^o Abraham 

€1/ rfj MeaoTTOTajxta irplv rj KaTOLKrjaac avrov iv Xappdv, i" Mesopotamia. 

3 ka'i eineN npoc ayton "EleAOe €k thc thc coy ka) thc 
cyrreNeiAC coy, kai Aeypo eic thn thn hn an coi Aei'la)* 

4 Tore i^eXOoiv iK yrj<^ XaASatwv KaTioKrjcrev iv Xappdv. 
KOLKeWev [xera to OLTroOaveLV tov TraTcpa avTOv jxeTWKLaev 

5 avToi'' €1? T-qv yrjv ravrrjv eh r]V v/xets vvv KaTOLKetTe, Kat 

oyK eAooKeN avrw KX-qpovofiiav iv avrrj oyAe Bhma noAoc, 

Kat iirriyyeikaTO AoyNAI AyTO) elc KATACYGCIN AYTHN KAI The promises 
' ' ^ ' I* .— to his seed. 

TCO CnepMATI AYTOy Mef AYTON, ovk oi/tos avTCU tcki/ov. 

6 iXdXrjcrev 8c outws 6 ^€09 OTt eCTAI TO CTl/pMA Ayroy 

nAPOIKON eN fH a'AAOTPIA, kai AoyAoOCOyCIN AyrO kai Thesojoum 
, 3, ' , „ ^ in Egypt. 


AoyAeycoyciN KpiNco erco, 6 Oeo^ elirev, ka) meta tayta 
eleAeycoNTAi ka'i AATpeycoyciN moi In tco totto) Toyrco. 




The covenant 
of circumcision. 

Joseph in 

The patriarchs 
buried in the 
promised land. 

The sufferings 
of the Hebrews 
in bondage. 


KOL eSioK€v avT<Z AiaGhKHN nepiTOMHC" KOL ovT(j}<i Ijiv- 8 
V-qcTiV TOV 'laaoLK Kal nepieTeMEN AyXON TH HMepA TH 
OfAOH, Koi ^IcraaK tov laKO)/?, kul laKwyS Tov<i ScuScKa 
TraTpLdpxa<s. Kai ol Trarpiapyai ZhA(jOCANT€C TON 9 

Ma)CH4) AneAoNTO eic AiVyhton • Kat hn 6 Oeoc Mex 
AYTOY; Koif. e^etXaro avrov ck Tracrcov twv OXixp^mv avrov, lo 

en AirYHTON kai oAon ton oikon ay'toy. hAGen Aeu 
AiMoc ecj) oAhn thn AifYnTON kol Xanaan Kai 0\C{J/l<s 
fxeydXrjj kol ov)^ rjvpLCTKov yopTd<Tp.aTa ot Trarepes r//x(5i/' 
fTTCtXev rov<i Trarepa? rjfxiov Trpwrov kol iv tw Sevrepio i^ 
efNoapicGH 'loacHct) to?c AAeA(|)0?c aytoy, '<ai ^ave- 
pov iy€V€TO Tw ^apao) to ycvo? 'Itocrry^. (XTrocrTCtAas 8e 14 
'IiDarjcfi fjieT€KaXe(TaTO 'laKw/? tov iraTepa avTov /cat Tracrav 
rrjv a-vyyeveiav €N "^y^dAC eBAOMHKONTA neNTe, KATgBh 15 
8e 'laKw^ [eic AirYHTON]. KAI GTeAeYTHceN ay'toc ka'i 
ol Trarepes -^fxuiv, Ka'i MeT6T€GHCAN eiC ^YX^M Kal iTedrj- 16 
nApA TOON YltJ^N 'EMMOap eN ZyX^M. Ka^ws 8e T/yyt^ci/ 6 17 
^01/os T17S eTrayyeXtas ^s lofxoXoyrjcrev 6 0€6<i t(5 'A/Spaa/x, 
HY^HCeN 6 Xaos KAI enAHGYNGH €V AtyuTrro), a;)^pt ov 18 

ANecTH BACiAeYC eVepoc en AiVyhton, oc oyk h'Agi 

eKAKOOCeN Tovs Trarepas tov ttoiuv tol (^pecfiTjeKOeTaavTwv 
CIS TO fxr) ZCiOOrONeicGAI. iv <S Katpo) iyevvrjOr] Mo)vcrr}<;, 30 

Kttt ^V ACTeiOC TO) ^€(0- OS dv€Tpd<f>r) MHNAC TpeiC iv TO) 

otKO) TOV TraTpos' iKTeO€VTO<; Se avTOV ANeiAATO avTOV 21 
H GYfATHp 4^ApAa3 Kai dveOpiij/aTo avTov Iayth eic YION. 
Kat iiraLSevOr) MoivoT^s irdarj cro<f>La AlyvirTioiVf yv §€ 33 


23 Svvaro? iv Aoyoi? kol cpyot? avTov. f2s Sc eTrXrjpovTO 
avTw Te(T(T€paK0VTa€T7]^ ^p6vo<;, av€/3r) irrl Tr]v KapSiav 
avToO iTTLO-Keif/aa-Oai TOyc aA6A(|)0YC AYTOy TOyc Yioyc 

24 IcpAHA. Kttl tSwv Ttva dStKov/xei/ov iqixvvaro kol iTToi-qcnv Slaying of the 

» \ A ' ' Egyptian. 

iKSUrja-iv T(p KaTttTrovov/xei/o) TTATaIaC TON AipTnTION. 

25 iv6fjiL^€v 8e avvLevai tov<; a8eX(f)0v<; on 6 ^€os 8ia ^^tpos 

26 avTo9 StSojo'tv cruyTrjplav avTo'i<;, ol o€ ov crvvrJKav. rrj re 
iiTLova-T] 7]fxepa <^<f}6r] avTOi<i jU.a^^o/xei'Ots Kat (TvvrjWa(r(r€v 
avTovs €t9 elpyv-qv eiTrwv Av8p€9, d8eX(^ot ecrrc* tva tl 

27 dStKCire dXA>;Aov9; 8c aAikoon TON.TTAhCi'on aTTworaTO 

> > c ^ , , - , , o , of Moses. 

28 ecj) HMooN ; MH ANeAeiN Me cy OeAeic on jponoN 
29ANe?Aec i\Qec ton AirynTiON ; e^yreN Ae Mcoycfic 

€N TO) A6r<J^ TOyTCp, Ka'i eftNeTO nApOIKOC eN TH Sojourn in 
AA' ■?'/ evcv/ \ / « Madian. 

3d MaAiam, oi) iy€vvr)(r€V viovs ovo. Kat 7r\r]pwO€VTOiv erwv 

T€(r(TepdKovTa a3(j)0H AyTO) eN TH epHMco Toy dpoyc 

31 StJ/a AffeAOC eN (J)A0n nypdc BATOy ■ 6 8k Mwvcrm t8a>l/ The burning 

f / *. /N bush. 

iOavfiacrev to opap.a • 7rpoa-ep^oix4vov 8e avTOv KaTavorjcraL 

32 cyeVcTo (^cuj/-^ Kvpiov 'Efoc) 6 Geoc TOON nATepooN coy, 

d 0edc 'ABpAAM KAI MCAAK KAI 'IaKOOB. €I/Tpo/X,OS 8e 

33 y€vd/x€vos Mcuvo-t^? ot'K eroA/xa KaTavorjaaL. eiTTeN Ae 
AYTO) d Kypioc AycoN Td ynoAHMA toon noAooN coy, 

340 r<^P Tonoc e4) CO ecTHKAc pn AfiA ecTiN. iAoon 
eiAoN THN KAKoociN Toy AAoy Moy Toy eN AirynToo, 
ka) toy CTeNAfMoy AyToy HKoycA, ka'i katcBhn 
eleAecGAi AyToyc kai NyN Aeypo AnocTei'Aco ce eic 

35 AipynTON. TovTOv Tov M.o)varjv, 6v ypvijaavTo ctTrovre? 
Ti'c ce KATecTHceN a'p^onta kai Aikacthn, TOVTOV 6 
6€0<s Koi ap)^ovTa kol XvTpu)Tr]v dTreVraXKcv aw X^^P^ 

36 dyyeAov tov 6(f)0evTO<s avTw iv Trj (3a.T(t). ovto<; i^rjyayev The deliverance 

,v , , 1 -,«A>/ vby Moses. 


iv 'EpvOpa @a\da-a-rj kol eN TH epHMOp Ith Tecce- 
B. A. 2 


The prophets pAKONTA. OVt6<; io-TLV 6 MoovCT^S 6 CtTTtt? TOtS vloLS 37 

that are to , —^ , c - j , c , j r. 

succeed xMoses. laparjX llpO(t)HTHN YMIN ANACTHCei GCOC GK TCON 

aAgAcJxjon YM^N (JdC eMe. ouro? ccrrti/ 6 y€v6fX€vo<s iv rrj 38 

iKK\rj(TLa iv rfj eprj[X(ji fxera tov ayyiXov rov XaXovvTO^ 

avTOi iv Tw op€L !§im kol twv rraTepiov 7]fxojv, 6s cSc^aro 

Aoyia ^wi'Ta Sowai v/xtv, w ov/c rfOeXrjaav virrjKOoi ye- 39 

vecrOai ol Trare/acs rj}x<2v ctAAa aTrwcravTO koI eCTpA(})HCAN 

The falling cj/ ratS KapSiats avTO>l/ eic AirYHTON, einONXeC 70)40 

away in the , , __ , c „ , , 

wilderness. AApoON TToiNCON HMIN 0GOYC 01 npOHOpeYCONTAI 


fHC AirYHTOY, OYK oiAamgn ti' e'reNexo ayto). Kat 41 

eMOC)(OTrOIHCAN kv Tats ijfxipaLS eKCtvatS Kttt ANHfAfON 
0YCIAN TW CtScuAu), Kttt €V(fipaLVOVT0 €V TOtS tpyOLS T<J)V 

)(^€Lpo)V avTwv. e(TTp€\l/€v Sk 6 Oeb<; Kat TrapeSwKci/ avrov? 42 
Xarpcvciv TH CTpATIA TOY OYpANOY, KaOws yeypairraL 
€V BtySAo) Twv Trpo^r)T<Zv 



ka'i angAaBgtg thn ckhnhn toy MoA6)( 43 



The tabernacle in *H CKTJVr] TOV. fxapTVpLOV r]V TOtS irarpaaiV rjfXWV iv TYJ ^4. 

the wilderness. ,/ n\o /> ««.'^ '^aa 

eprjfjuo, Katrws oiCTa^aro AaACjON Toj MoaYCH TTOIHCAI 

avTTjv KATA TON TYHON ON GCOpAKGI, -qv KOL €iO-7;yayoi/ 45 

StaSe^a/xcvot ot Trarcpcs ry/xwi/ yu,€Ta 'iTycov GN T17 kata- 

C)(GCGI Tujj/ €^i/(5i/ a)V c^a;cr€v 6 ^eos (XTro Trpocrujirov roiv 

irarepiov rj/xiiiv cods twv tjfJLepa^v AavetS* 6s evp^v )(apiv 46 

ivujTnov TOV Oeov Koi yryja-aTO GYpGIN CKHNOOMA TO) 

The building of GGCo'IaKCOB. ZoAOMOON Se OIKOAOMHCGN Ay'tO) oIkON. 47 
the temple by »\\'»«"/ > ' -^ /i^<r. 

Solomon. '^'^'^ ^^X *^ Vl}/L(rTO<S €V ^(etpOTrOtT^TOtS KaTOtKCt* Kat7WS o 48 

7rpo<firJTr]<i Xeyei 


49 '0 OypANOC MOI GpONOC, The presence 

\ c ^ e / - - of God cannot 

KAI H fH ynOTTOAlON TOON noAoQN AAOy be confined. 

noToN oiKON oiKoAoMHceje MOI, Aerei Kfpioc, 

50 OYX' H xei'p Moy enoi'nceN tayta hanta ; 

51 ZKAHpOTpAX'^''^0' '^"■'' ^^nepiTMHTOI KApAlAIC Kal jolc Persecution 

j't^jv" ' -e'> ' t and rejection by 

(jaCIN, V/XCt9 act TCO nNEYMATI TOj AflCf) ANTininieTe, WS the Israelites 
c / «^ \e« / ^ , /s3,(>/> throughout their 

52 01 Trarepes v/zcov Kat vyacts. riva tojv TrpocprjTiov ovk edtwcav history culmi- 

e/e~\j/ \ /v nate in the 

ot TTttTcpcs vjxojv; Kat ttTTCKTCtvav Tovs 7rpo/<aTayy€tAai/Tas rejection of the 

^'»>\/ «^ / ■p«e'« <> / \ Messiah : 


53 <f)ov€L<; iyevecrOe, otTti^es eAa^cre tov vo/jlov ets Starayas 

54 dyycAojv, Kat ouk €<^vXa^aTc. ' 'Akovovt€s 8c 
ravra SuTrptovTO rat? KapStat? avroJi/ Kat l(^pv)(pv Tov^i 

55 oSovTas ctt' avTov. V7rdp)(u>v Se TrX-qp-q^ Trvcv/xaros dytov 
drevtVa"; cts tw ovpavov ctSci/ 8d^av ^eov Kat 'It^ctovi/ 

56 ecrrojTa ck Se^tcoi/ tov ^eov, Kat etTrev 'iSov Ocwpu) tov^ 
ovpavov<s SnjvoLyfxevovs Kat tov vtov tot) avOpwirov ck 

57 8c^i(j3v eo-TcoTa rov Oeov. Kpd^avT€<; 8e (fxjjvrj /xeydAr; 
(rwccr;^ov to, cura aurcuv, Kat tup/xr/cav o/xoOv/xaSov iir 

58 avTOi', Kttt eK/3aAoi/T€S l^w t«s ttoAco)? iktOoBoXovv. The first 

ve/ »'/! vt/ j-^ martyr's death. 

Kttt ot fxapTvpes arreuevTo ra t/xaria avrtoi' Trapa rov? 

59 7ro8as v€avLOv KaXov/xevov ^avXov. kol iXtOofSoXovv 
Tov ^Te(f)avov linKa\.ovjx^vov kol Xeyovra Kvpte 'l7;o"o9, 

60 Se^at TO 7rv€vfxd /xov • ^ets Bk to. yovara cKpa^ev <f3wvrj 
fji€ya\r} Kvptc, firj (TTy}(Trj<i avTolq ravr-qv rrjv dfxapTiav • 

1 Kat Tovro ctTTwv iKOLfxrjOrj. ^SavAos 8e yv 

avv€vhoK(j}v rfj dvaipiara avrov. 

'EycVcTO 8e iv Udvrf rfj yjxipa 8t(uyp.os /zeyas cTrt Scattering of 
v>\/ vjjt ■./ / rcvvn c\ / 'he Church 

Tr]v €KKAr)(TLav rrjv ev lepoo-oAi;/xots- Travrcs [dej dteo-Tra- through Judaea 

vv ' '^'tC'' ^-s? / \N and Samaria. 

prjo-av Kara ras ;(ojpas rvy? Joi;Oatas Kat 2a/>tapias ttA^v 

2 Ttuv aTTOo'ToAcoi'. (Tvv€Koixi(Tav 8e TOV ^Tc^ai/ov ai/8pes 

3 €vAa/3€ts Kai iTrotrjcrav kottctov fxiyav Itt avT<3. ^avAos 
^ eAv/xaiVero t^i/ iKKXrjcTLav Kara tovs otKov? eio-Tro 




p€v6fX€i'0<;, (Tvpoiv T€ avSptt? Kttt yvj/atKttS irape^iSov ets 

Preaching of 
Philip in 
Samaria : 

Simon Magus. 

The mission of 
Peter and John : 

The request of 
Sin»5n Magus. 

Ot fxev ovv SiafTTrapevTCs SirjXdQv c^ayyeXt^d/xevot 4 
Tov \6yov. <l>tAi7r7ros Be KareXOijiv els rrjv ttoXlv tt^? 5 
2a/xapt'as eKrjpvcraev avToZf; tov \pL(TTov. TrpofTel^ov Se 6 
ot o)(XoL rots Xeyop-evoa vtto tov ^LXl-mrov o/xoOvpaBov 
ev Tcp OLKOveiv avrovs kol /SAeTrctv to. ar]p.ela a eTroiei' 
TToXXoX yap Twv exovT(x)v Trvev/xaTa aKaOapTa /3o(i5i/Ta 7 
ffiiovfj pieydXr) e^yjp^ovTo, ttoXXoI Se TrapaXeXvpievoL koX 
)((ji)Xot e6epa7rerj6r](Tav • iyeveTO Se ttoAX^ X^P^ ev TrjS 
TToXet eKeivrj. 'Av^p Be tls ovop-aTi ^ipaov 7rpov7rfjp\€V 9 

iv Ty TToXet pnxyevoiv koX e^icrravcov to e6vos Tyj<i %ap,apLa<5, 
Xeytov €tvat' TLva eavTov p.eya.v, o) Trpocret^ov Travres aTro 10 
p.LKpov ecus p-eyaXov Aeyoi/res Ovt6<s eaTiv i] Avi^a^ats tov 
Oeov 77 KaXovpievr] McyaA-iy. Trpocetp^ov Se aura) 8ta to i r 
iKavo) xpovio rats p-ayiats e^ecTTaKevai auTOi;?. ore Sci? 
eTTLaTevcrav tw <&tA.t7r7r(i) cuayycXi^o/xevw Trcpt tt^s jSao't- 
Xetas TOi; ^€ov /<ai toi) 6vop.aTo<i 'Ir^crov Xpto-Toi), e^airTi- 
t,ovTO aivBpes re Kat ywatKcs. 6 Se 2tp,wv Kat avros ctti- 13 
CTTcucrei', Kat j3aTm(T6eL<s rjv trpoaKapTepwv to) ^lAtTTTro), 
^cdjpwv re crrjpieZa koI Svva'/xcts pieydXa<; yivop-evas e^i- 
cTttTO. 'AKoro-ai/TCs Se ot ev 'lepoo-oAv/xots 14 

aTTOo^ToXot OTt SeScKTat ?7 2ap,apta tov Adyov tov ^€o{) 
aTTccTCiXav Trpos avrovs II erpov Kat Icoai/ryi/, otrivcs Kara- 15 
^dvTes 7rpoar]v$avTO irepl avTwv ottcus Xd^oiaiv Trvevjua 
ay tov ovBeTTio yap ^v ctt' ovSei/t avrwvcTrtTrcTrTWKd^j/xdrov 16 
0€ f^e^aTTTicr fxevoi VTrrjp-^ov £t5 to 6vop.a tov Kvptov 'Irjcrov. 
TOT€ e-jreTiOecrav tols ;^€tpas cV* avTov?, Kat eXdpi/Savov 17 
TTvevfJia ay tov. Idojv oe o ^t/xwv oTt ota tt^s cvrtaeo-ccos 18 
Tajv;)(€tptovT(ov aTrocTToAajv 8t8oTat to 7rvevp,a irpoayveyKev 
auTOt? )^pTJp.aTa Xcyoov Aotc Kap.ol ttjv e^ovatav TavTTjv 19 
iva o) eav ctti^co to,? ^etpas XapifBdvrj irvevp.a ay tov. He- 20 


Tpo9 Se etTTcv TTpos avToi/ To dpyvpiov aov avv crol ctr; 
€19 ttTTcuXctai/, OTL Tr]v Swpeav tov Ocov iv6ixL(ra<s Bia ^^prjfxd- 

2 1 T(i)v KTacrdaL. ovk ecrrtv crot /xcpts ovSc KXrjpo<i Iv tw 
Ao'yo) TovTO), H yap KApAiA aov oyK ecTiN eyOelA Inanti 

22 TOY Ocoy. p,€Tavor](Tov ovv ttTTO T17S KaKLa<i aov TaVTrj<3, 
Kat ocrjOrjTL tov Kvpiov el apa acfieOrjcreTat croL 7] lirLvoia 

23T179 KopSta? (TOV €19 yap XOAhN niKplAC /cat CyNAeCMON 

24AAIKIAC opco (r€ ovra, diroKpi6ci<i 8c 6 ^l/jhov cittcv 

AerjOrjTC vp,€t9 vTrep e/xov 7rpo9 roi' Kvptov ottcds pcySkv 

25 €7r€Aur] €7r €p,e wv eiprjKare. Ut /X€i/ ovi/ ota- 
p,apTvpap,€i'ot Kttt AaX77(TavT€9 toj/ A.oyov tov Kvptov 
viricTTpef^ov eh ^lepoixoXvfxa, noWas re Kcu/xa9 tcSi/ 
Sap-apctrojv evrjyyeXc^ovTO. 

26 Ayy€Xo9 8c Kvptov e/\.aA.7yo"cv 7rp69 ^tXtTTTroi/ Xc'yo)!/ 
AvdcTTYjOL Kttt TTopevov KttTa fxearjiii/Sptav e-rrl rrjv 6801/ t^i/ 

Kara/Saivovaav aTrb lepov<ra\r]/x eh Ta^av avrrj e(TTlv 

2'j epr]po<;. /cat aVacrTa9 eTropevBr], kol iSov dvrjp A i^toi// The baptism of 

j'N C'' t;'?'' o \' A>/]' ixf the Ethiopian 

evvov)(o^ ovva(TT'q% }S.avoaKr]<; paaLA.La-a'rj<; AiULOTTQiv, osrjv eunuch. 

CTTt Trdarjs t^9 ya^^? avTrj<;, [09] eXT^Xv^ct irpoaKwrjatav eh 

28 Tcpovo'aAr;//,, 7;v Sc VTrocrrpefjiOiv kol KaO'qfxevo'i ctti tov - , 
app,aT09 avTOv Kat aveyivwcTKev tov 7rpo(f>T]Tr}v 'HcatW. 

29 ctTTCv 8e TO 7rvcvp,a tw ^lXlttttw YJpoa-eXde kol koWtJOyjtl 

30 Tcp apfxaTL TOVTO). Trpoa-BpafjLwv 8c 6 $tA.t7r7ro9 rJKOvcrev 
avTov avay LVw(rKOVTO<s Ho-atW tov TrpotjiiJTrjv, /cat cIttcv 

31 Apa yc yiv(joo-K€t9 a avaytv(iJO-Kct9; 6 8c cTttcv 11(09 yap 
av Svvatfxrjv eav fitj tls oSrjyyjcreL /xe; irapeKdXecrev tc tov 

32 <I>tAt7r7roi/ avaf3avTa KaOiaai (rvv avTw. 7^ Sc Trepto^-^ t^9 
ypacfirj^ rjv dveytvaiO'Kev 'qv avrrj 

'Qc npoBATON eni c^aphn h'xOh, 



oy'tooc oyK ANOi'rei to ctoma Ay Toy. 

33 'En th TAneiNoocei h Kpi'cic AyToy hipBH* 



ttTTOKpt^ei? 8e 6 evvov)(o<i t<2 ^lXltttto) ttTrci/ Aeofxai 7,^ 
crov, TrepL tivo<s 6 Trpo<j>rjTr]<; Xeyct tovto; ircpt cavrov t] 
TTcpl kripov Ttvos; di/ot^as 8c 6 <l>tAt7r7ros to (TTOfxa 35 
avTOV Kttt dp^a/Acvo? aTro T77? ypacf>rj<s ravrrys cur/yycXt- 
craro avrw tw 'iTycroi)^. (09 8e eTTopcuoi/ro /cara t^v 56 
oOov, rjAUov £7rt ri voo)p, Kat cf>7](TLv o evvovxo'b loov 
vScop" Tt KcoXi^et fxe jiaTrTiaOrjvai; koI CKcAevCTCv 38 
(TTrjvaL TO apfxa, kol Kare^rjcrav a/xcf)OT€poi ei? to 
i'8(op o T€ <^tAi7r7ro9 kol 6 €vvov)(o<;, kol l^aTnta-^v 
avTov. 6t€ Se avi(ir)(Tav ck tov r6aT05, Trvev/xa 39 
Kvptov rjpTra(T€v tov ^tkiTnrov, kol ovk etSev avrov 
ovKeri 6 €vvov^o<;, iTropevero yap Trjv oSov avrov 
^aipuiv. ^lXlttttos Sc evpiOr] ets "A^wtov, Kat Step^o- 40 
/xci/o? tviqyy €kit,€To Taq TToAei? Trcttras eco? tov cX^etv 
avTOV €19 Kato-aptW. 

The conversion 'O Se 2a{SXo9, €Tt IvTTvioiV (XTTetXl^? Kttl cfiOVOV €tS TOV5 I 

of Saul on the ^ ^ , \/]v - > '^ . / 

Damascus road. fx.aurjTa'; TOV Kvpiov, irpoaeAuiov T(o ap^upn rjrrjcraTO 2 

Trap* avTov inLo-ToXas (U AafxaaKov irpo? Ta<; (rwaytoya?, 

OTTO)? idv TLvas €vpy Trjs oSov ovTa?, avBpa^ T€ Kat 

yvvatKa?, ScSe/xeVovs ctydyi; ct? IcpovaaXrj/x. 'Ei/ 3 

8e T(3 TTopeveaOaL eyeveTO avrov tyyi^etv t^ AajmaaKtJo, 

i^ecjiVT]^ re avrov TrepLtjarpaif/ev cf>w<; ck tov ovpavov, Kal 4 

7rco"(ji)v CTTt rrjv yrjv rjKovaev (fi(Dvr)v Xeyovaav avrw ^aovA. 

SaovX, Tt jxe 8tojKet9 ; ctTrev Se Tis et, Kvpte ; 6 84 5 

'Eyw ct/xi 'iTyaov? ov av 8t(OK£i9* dXAa avdcrrrjOi Kal 6 

elo-eXOi €19 TT^i^ TToAti/, Kat XaXrjOijaeTaL crot oti o^c 8€t 

TTOtciv. ot 8e av8p€9 01 o-vi/oS€voi/T€9 avTio lo'T'iJKeLaav 7 

iv€Oi, aKOvovT€9 /x€i/ t:79 <ji(t)vrjs fxrjSiva Se Oewpovvre^;. 

"nyipOrj Se 2avXo9 aTro T7J<; yys, dvnoyfxevoiv 8e ruiv 8 

6cl>daXfjiwv avrov ovSkv i^Xeirev xetpayuyyovvre^ 8c 


9 avTov elfnijyayov ct? Aa/xa(TKOV. Kat rjv ry/xepas rpcts 
/xt) (SXeTTOiv, KOI ovK €<j>ay€v ovSk cTrtci/. 

10 ^Hv 8c Tts ixaOriTr]^ iv Aa/xa(TK(3 ovouart Avai/ia9, Saul and 

' ' ' t Ananias. 

Kttt etTTCV Trpos avroi/ ei/ opa/xart 6 KVfjLOf; ^Kvavia. 6 Se 

1 1 €t7r€i/ 'I80V eytu, KvpLC. 6 SI Kvpio? 7rpo9 avrov 
Avdara TropevOrjTc evrt tt^v pv/xrjv Trjv Ka\ovfX€vrjv 

YivOclav Koi ^rjTr](Tov iv oIklo. lovSa %avXov ot'o/xart 

1 2 Tap(T€a, I80V yap 7rpocr€v;(€Tat, Kat elBev avhpa [ev 
opa/xari] 'Kvaviav ovofxaxL elcreXOovTa koL linBivTa 

13 avTiv [tol?] )(japa<i ottcos ava/SXeij/r). aTriKpiOrj 8e 'Avavi'a? 
Kvpte, TjKovcra a,7r6 iroXAoii/ Trcpi toi) dvopos tovtoi;, ocra 

14 KaKo. Tot? dyiots crov eTTOLrjcrev iv ^lepovoraXtj/x' kol wBe 
€^€t i^ovcrlav irapa rwv dp^tcpewv hrjcrai rrdvTa<; tovs 

15 iTnKa\ovfX€vov<s to ovopid crov. enrev 8k Trpo? avrov 6 
KvpLO's Uopevov, OTL (TK€vo'^ iKXoyrj<; icrriv p.OL ovtos 
Tov /Sao'TdaaL to 6vop.d p.ov ivutTrtov [toji'] iOvwv t€ Kat 

16 f^acriXiiiiV vidv re 'IcrpaiyA, eytu ydp VTTohu^oi avro) ocra 

1 7 Set avTov virep rov ovo/xaros p-ou iraOilv. 'ATrrjXOev 
8e 'Avai'ias Kat €t(n7X^€v cts ttjv oIkluv, Kat cTTt^cts ctt' 
avrov Tot? ;^etpas ctTrev SaovA. dBiX<f>i, 6 Kvpios (XTre- 
(TTaAKtv /x€, 'l7y(ro{)s 6 o<^6'€ts cot cV Try 68(3 17 rjp^ov, 

18 OTTOJS dva^Xiil/rjq kol TrXrjarOf]'; 7r^€i;/xaTOS ay tov. Kat 
cv^eojs dTreVecrav avrov dTro rwr 6(f>0aXp.(jjv ojs A.e7rt8€S, 

19 dveySXei/zcv re, Kat dvacrras ijSaTTTLaOr], Kat XafSoiv 
Tpo(f>r]v ivL(T)(y6r]. 

'Eyevcro 8c p,cra rwv iv Aap.aaK<jo p-aOrjTwv T^/xepa? 

20 rtvd?, Kat cv^ews cv rats o'vvaycuyats iKrjpvo'a'ev tov 

2 1 Irjcrovv on ovto<; iaTLV 6 vl6<s rov deov. i^iaravro h\ His work in 

/ «»/ vv\ r\ » V ' * < /I' Uamascus. 

Travrcs ot aKovovrcs Kat cAcyov U^X ^^'''o? co^rtv o Tropurj- 

o"a? cv lipovaaXrjpL rovs c7rtKaA.ov/xcvovs ro ovofxa rovro, 

Kat toSc CIS Tovro cA-ryXv^ct tva 8c8cp,eVovs avrovs dydyrj 

22 cTTi rovs dp^tcpcts ; SavAos S\ fxaXXov iveSvvafxovro 
Kol (rvv€)(yvv€V 'Iov8atovs rovs KarotKOvvras iv Aap-aaKw, 




The plot and 
his escape. 

His first visit to 
Jerusalem after 
his conversion. 

to Tarsus. 

The peace of 
the Church. 

avvl3i/3dt,(ov OTL ovTO'i iariv 6 ^pioros. *Os 8e 23 

i-n-XrjpovvTO -qfxepaL LKavai, crvveftovX^vaavTO 01 'louSatot 
ai/cXctv avrov ' iyvwcrdrj 8e t(5 2avA.a) 7; i-mlSovXr] avrwv. 24 
TrapeTTjpovvTO Se kol Ta<; irvXai; r^'/xepas re Kat vvkto? 
OTTWS avTOv di/eXwcriv Xa/Sovres Se ot piaOrjTai avrov 2^ 
VVKTOS 8ta ToS ret^ovs KaOrJKOv avrov xaXdaavrc's iv 
acfivpiSL. IIapay€v6/x€Vos Se cts 'IcpovcraA.'^/x 26 

irretpa^ev KoXXaardaL rol<; ixadrjrals ' kol Travreg £<^o- 
/Sovvro avrov, fiT] 7rtar€vovr€<i on iarlv fxaOrjrt]';. 
Bapva^as 8e CTriXa^ o/xevos avrov rjyayev Trpo? roi;? 27 
a7ro(TToA.ou?, Kat hirjyrjcraro avrol<s ttws ev t^ oSo) etSev 
TOi/ Kvpiov KOL OTt iXdXr](T€v avrw, Kal ttcu? ev AajaatrKw 
iTrapprjaLaaaro iv rio ovofxari ^^rjaov. koi rjv fxer 28 
ai)Tc3v eio-TTopcvo/xeros Kat iKTropevo/xevos ets 'lepov- 
(TaXrjfx, 7rappr]a-ia^ofX€vo<; iv to) ovofxari rov Kvpiov, 29 
cAaA-ct T€ Kat a-vvet,r)rei Trpos tovs EXA.T^vto'Tas * ot Se 
iirex^Lpovu dveXelv avrov. i7nyv6vr€<i Se ot aSeXc^ot 30 
KaTr;yayov avrov ets Kaio'aptav Kat e^^aTrearetXav avrov 
et9 Tapo^ov. 

'H /xev ovv iKKX-qcria KaO oXr;s t:7S 'louSai'as Kat 31 
FaA-tXata? Kat ^ap,apias €tx^^ elprjvrjv olKoSo/xovfjiivrf, 
Kal TTopevofxivr) raJ (fio/Sio rov Kvpiov Kat t^ TrapaKXyjaeL 
rov dyiov 7rvevixaro<s iTrXrjOvvero. 

The work of 
S. Peter. 

ix. 32 — xii. 24. 

EPENETO AE IIETPON 8t€pxo>£vov 8ta TraVrwv 32 
KareX^etv Kat Trpos tovs dytov9 rovs KarotKovvTas AvSSa. 
€vp€v Se cKet dvOpuiTTov nva ovofxarL Atvcav i$ erwv 33 
OKrd) KaraKct/Atvov ctti Kpa^drrov, 6s vyv TrapaXeXv/xcvos. 


34 Kttt etTTCV avTO) 6 IIcTpos Atvea, larai ere Irjaovs Healing of 

-^^ '''/jN -^ '> vj/i' Aeneas at 

XptcTTOS" avaaTTjUL Kat (jTpixxrov aeavTO)' Kat cwcws Lydda. 

35 dvia-rr}. kol ctSav avrov Travrcs 01 /caroiKowTcs AijSSa 
Kttt TO!/ SapoJj/a, otTtvcs €Tre(rTp€{f/av iirl tov Kvpiov. 

36 'Ev 'loTTTrr? Se tis r7v iiaOriTpia ovofxaTi TafSeLOd, rj The raising of 

,, ,„r /y Dorcas at Joppa. 

SLepfirjvevoixeiy Xeyerai AopKas* avrry >)i/ TrXrjpr}^ tpyoiv 

37 aya6*tL»v Kai eXirjfXoavvoii^ (dv IttoUl. eycvcTO Se Iv rais 
T^'yLtepats. €K€tVats da-Qevqaacrav avTr]v aTroOaveLV' \ov- 

38 cravTCS Sf €6r]Kav ev vTrepioo). eyyus Se ovar]<s AvSSas 
TrJ loTrTTT] ot fjLaOrjToi aKowavT€9 on IIcTpos ecrriv ev* 
avTT^ a,7rc(rT€iAav 8r'o avSpa<; Trpos avTOV 7rapaKaXovvTe<s 

39 Mt) 6Kvr)(Trj<i SieXOecv €009 Ty/xwv ai/acrra? Se II eVpo? 
arvvrjXOev avTo2<S' ov Trapayevo/xevov av7;yayov ct? to 
VTrcpoiov, Kttt TrapiaTTjcrav avro) iracrai at ')(rjpaL KXatovcrat 
Kat cTTtSei/ci'v/xcvat ^trooi/as Kat l/xaTca ocra €7rotct yucT 

40 avTwi' ovo-a r; AopKas. cK/?aA.{jbv Sc e^co Travras 6 
Ilerpo? Kat ^ct? to, ywara Trpoa-qv^aro, kol iTno-Tpeif/aq 
Trpos TO awfxa cTttcv Ta/SctOd, dvaa-TrfBi. tj 8e rjvoL^iv 
Toy's 6<f)6akfjLovs avTrj<;, kol iSovcra tov IleTpov aveKa- 

41 Oia-ev. Sov<; Sk avTrj X^^P^ dviaTrjaev avT-qv, (f>oivrjaa<; 
§€ Tov'i dytovs Kat Tag ^T/pas TrapecrTrjaev avrrjv t,o)(rav. 

42 yvwo'TOi/ 8e eyevcTo Ka^' oA.7y9 'Iottttt^S, Kat CTrto^Tevo-av 

43 TToAXot iwl TOV Kvptov. 'EyevcTO Sk 7]fxepa<i Uav^as 
/xctvat €v 'loTTTTry Trapa Ttvt St/xtovt /Svpaei. 


1 *Avrjp 8e Tis €V Katcrapia ovofxaTL Kopvr^Xtos, CKaTOv- The vision of 

x' / >T \ - ' 0^ Cornelius at 

2 Tapxr]'; ck cnreipr)'; tt}^ KaAov/xevT/s iTaAiKV^?, €va€pr]<i Caesarea. 

Kat cfi0^ovfxevo<; tov Oeov avv TravTt tw olkio avTov, 
TTOtwv €X€r)fJLoavva<; ttoXXols tw Aa<5 Kat Scop-cvo? tov 

3 ^€0v 8ta TravTO?, eibev iv opdfxaTL ^avcpoSs oxxct irept 
wpav ivaTrjv Trj<; rjfj.epa'; ayyeXov tov Oiov elaeXuovTa 

4 Trpos avTov koI elirovTa avTio Kopi/jf Ate. 6 8e aTcvtO'as 
avTO) Kttt €fX(f>o/3o^ y€v6fX€vo<i etTTCv Tt eo-Ttv, KVpL€ ; 




The visio 
of Peter. 

Arrival of the 
messengers of 

ctTTCi/ 8e avTiZ At Trpocrcu^at aov kol at iX^rjixoavvai 
(Tov avejSrjcrav ets ixvrjfJLoa-vvov e/Jiirpoa-Oev tov 6eov • kol 5 
vw Trefiij/ov avSpas et? Io7r7r>yv Kat fxeraircixxpai ^tfjioivd 
Tiva OS CTTtKaXctTat IltTpos' ovros ^cvi^crat Trapa Ttvt6 
^t/xa)Ft ^vpaeT, o) ecTTiv ot/cta irapa OdXaaaav. ws Se 7 
(XTryXOev 6 ayycXos 6 AaXdov a^Tw, cfntivrj<Ta<; Svo rcov 


avTw Koi i^rjyrjorafxevo'; aTrai'ra avTot? dTrecrretAcv avTous 8 
et9 T^v 'loTTTTr^v. T>7 8e iwavptov oSonropovvTiov g 

eKeivoiv Kat ttJ TroAct eyyt^di/Twi' dvi/Sr] IHt po<g cTrt to 
Sw/xa 7rpo(r€v^a(r6aL irepl wpav iKTrjv. iyiv^TO 8e 10 
TTpocTTretvos Kat rjOeXcv yeva-aaOaL' irapacTKeva^ovTOJV 
8k avTwv iyevero kir avTou €KaTa(TL<;, kol Bnapii tov i i 
ovpavov avewy/xeVov Kat KaTa^atvov (TKev6<; tl ws oOovrjv 
fxe.ydX'qv Teaaapa-LV ap^ats KaOUfxevov iiri Trj<; yi^s, iv <o 12 
viTYjp)(iv TTOLvra TO, TerpaTToSa Kat epTrera Trj<s yiys Kat 
7r€T€Lva TOV ovpavov. KOL eyevero (fxDvr] Trpos ttVTOj/i3 
Avacrras, IT erpe, ^Cicrov Kat cfidyc. 6 Se 11 tVpos cittcv 14 
MT^Sa/xws, Kvpte, OTL ov^eiroTC ecfiayov ttolv kolvov koI 
aKaOapTov. Kat <j>(x>vr] 7rdX.Lv Ik Sevrepov Trpos avTov 15 
'^A 6 Oeos iKaOdpiaev av fxrj kolvov. tovto Se iyevcTO 16 
iirl Tpts, Kat ev^vs dveXrjfx<fi6r] to (tk€vo<s etg tov 
ovpavov. 'Os 8e tv eai;T(3 SLrjiropcL 6 II cVpo? Tt 17 

av ecrj to opafxa o etoev, tOov ot avopcs ot aireaTaAfiivoL 


^Lfj.o}vo<; iTTecTTrjcrav cttI tov TrvXiova, Kat <f>wvy](TavT€<; 18 
IttvOovto €t "^ijxijiv 6 €7rtKaXov/x€vos IleTpos ivOdSe 
g€VL^€TaL. Tov Se 11 erpov SLevOv/xovfievov irepl tov 19 
opa/xaTOs eiTTCv to TTVivjxa l8oi> ai^Spcs 8vo ^rjTOvvTes 
ore ' aA-A-o, ai/ao"Tas KaTa/SrjUL Kat Tropcvov o"vv avTOis 20 
fx/rjhev 8iaKptvo/xei/os, oVt eyw airiaTaXKa avTov^. KaTa- 21 
^as 8€ Il€Tpo9 Trpos TOV'; ai^8pas ctTrei' 'l8oi» eyoj ciyott 
6v ^"j/TetTC* Tts rj atTta 8t' lyv Trapeo-TC ; ot 8c €t7raj/2 2 


K.opvrj\to<; €KaTOVTdp^r]<;j dvrjp Si/catos koI (f)of3oviX€vo<; 
Tov Oeov /xapTvpovytxevo? t€ utto 0A.0V Tov e6vov<? twv 
lovSatoiV, e^prjfxariaOrj vtto dyyiXov ayiov fxerairefji- 
^aaOat ere ets rov oTkov avrov kol aKovaai piy/xara 

23 Trapa crov. ctcr/caXeo'ap.evos ovj' aurov? i^eviacv. Trj 
Se irravpLOV avafrms e$rj\Oev arvv arrot?, /cat Tiv€S t<Zv 

24 dSeXcfiuiv TO)v oltto 'loTTTrr^S crvvrjXOav aurw. T17 Sc Peter and 

, / ' -^x/l ' ^ x^ ' « s^^ V ''\ Cornelius at 

eTravptov €i(Tr]Au€v et? rryv Katcraptav o oe KopvT/Ato? Caesarea. 

■jyv TrpocrSoKwv avTOvg crwKaXeo"a/x€i^o? tov? auyyevct? 

25 avTov Koi Tovs OLvayKaLOvs ^lAovs. 'Os Se iyevero tov 
ctcreA^etv rov IIcTpov, awai/Tvycras avrw 6 Kopvr^Xto? 

26 TTCO-ojv CTTt Tovs TToStts 7rpo<J€Kvvr](Tev. 6 8k IleTpos 
rjyeipcv avrov Xeywv AvdaTrjOi' kol eyw avros dvOpw- 

27 TTOs €t/xt. Kat a"wojaiXu)v avrw €to";^A^ev, Kat evplcTKeL 

28 o'vvcA.ryXv^oTas ttoA-Aov?, €^>y T€ Trpo? avrovs 'Y/xets 
iTTLaTacrOc w? dOefXLTov ioTTiv dvSpl ^lovBaio) Ko\Xd(rOaL 
7] 7rpocr€p)(€crOai dAAo<^vAa)* /<d/xot 6 ^€0S eSet^ev fjLTjSeva 

29 Koii/ov ?7 aKdOaprov Aeyeiv avOpoiTTOV • Sto kol dvavn- 
prjTOi'S rjXdov /xeraTTC/xc^^ct?. TrvvOdvofxai ovv tlvl Aoyo) 

^o /x€T€Tr€fx\f/aaOe p-e. kol 6 J^opvyXto^ e(f>r] ^Atto TerdpTr]^ 
rjp,€pas p-^XP^ TavT7]<i t^<; copa? ^/xt^v ttjv ivdrrjv irpocr- 
€v^o/x€vos €v rw OLKio /xov, Kat tSov dvrjp €(JTr] ivwTnov 

51 ^ov €v iaOrJTL Xap.Tr pa Kat cf>r]crL K.opvrjXte, a.arjKOVcrB'q 
(TOV rj irpocrev^r] Kat at kX^r]p.oavvai crov ip.vT](rOr]aav 

32 CVODTTtOV TOV OtOV' TTepif/OV OVV 619 ^loTTTTTJU Kat ^€Ta- 

KaA-ecat St/xwva 6s eTriKaActTat ITcTpos* ovtos ^cvL^erai 

33 ev oiKta 2i/x(ovos /3vpo"6tos irapd OdXaaaav. i^avrrj^ 
ovv €7r€pnf/a irpos are, av re KaAcus i7roLr](ja<i Tvapayevo- 
)U.€vo9. vvi/ ovv 7rdvT€S y]p.€L<g evcoTTtov TOV ^cov Trdpeap.€V 
aKOvcrai Travra to. Trpoo-TCTay/xeva o^oi vtto tov Kvpiov. 

34 dvot^as 8e Ilerpos to arop^a etTrev 'Ett' dX-qOeia^ The speech 

V o / ^ J ,, ^ , c of Peter. 

KaraXap^/davopiaL on OfK eCTIN npOCOOnoAHMTTTHC O 

35 9e0C, ciAA ev TravTt c^vct 6 (^oySov/xcvo? avTov Kat 




His Gospel to 
the Gentiles. 

The gift of the 
Holy Ghost to 
Cornelius and 
his household. 

Baptized in 
the name of 
Jesus Christ. 

ipya^ofievo^i SLKaLOCvvrjv Sc/crog avrw icTTLV. TON 36 
AofON AnecTeiAeN rot? vtots McpAHA eyArreAizoMeNOc 
eipHNHN 8ia ^Jrjcrov X.pL(TTOv • ovT6<i Icmv Travroiv Kvpios* 
v^€ts otSare to ycvo/xei/ov prj/uia KaO 0X17? Trj<g 'lovSaias, 37 
dp^afxevo'; oltto Trj<; FaAiAaias /xera to f^aTTTicrfxa 6 
iK7/pv^€V 'Ia>ai/r;9, 'It^covv toi-' (xtto Na^apc^, ws 6)(piceN 38 
avTOV GeOC TTNeyMATI dyio) Kat Swa/xct, 6s SirjXOev 
€V€py€T<j)v Kol toj/aevos Trai/Tas tovs KaraSvj/ao'rei'o/jiei/ovs 
V7ro Toi) 8ia/?oAou, oTt 6 ^eos >yv /x€t' a^rov* Kat ■/y^cts 39 
lxapTvpe<; Trai/rwv wv iTroirjcnv ev t€ rfj X'^P^ ''''^^ 
^ovSatoiv KOL lepovaaXrjfJi- bv Kat av^ikav KpeMACANTEC 
fcTTI lyAoy. TovTOV 6 6e6<i yyeipev Trj rpiTYj yfJiepa kol 40 
eSoiKiv avrbv ifxcfiavrj yevicrdai, ov Travrl tu) Aaw dAAa 41 
fxapTVCTL rots 7rpoK€)(eLpoTovr)ixevoL<i vno tov Oeov, i^fjdv, 
OiTLve<; avv€(jidyoiJ.€v kol crvvcTTLopLev avTw fxerd to 
dva(TTrjvaL avrbv £k veKpaiv kol TrapyjyyeiXiv t^/juv 42 
Kr]pv$aL TO) Aau) Kat StafiapTvpaa-O at on ovtos icTTLV 6 
ajptcT/vteVos VTvb rov Ocov KptTr/9 ^o>vto>v Kat veKpwv. 
TOVTO) TrdvTes ot Trpofjirjrai fxapTvpovaiv, a<f>€aLv djxaprLoiv 43 
Aa/3etv Std Tou ovo/xaros aiurou Trdi^ra rov Trto-Tevovra 
€ts avTov. Ert AaAoOj/ros toi) IleTpov to. prjfxara 44 

TavTtt €7re7r€0'€ to Trvevfxa to aytov cTrt Trai/Tas rov<; 
ttKovovTas Toi^ Aoyoi/. Kai k^icmqaav 01 £K TreptTO/aiys 45 
TTto'TOt ot avvrjKOav toJ Uerpa), oTt Kat cTrt to, e^vry 
iq Stuped ToG TTP'ev/xaTos toG dyiov cKKC^fTat* tjkovov 46 
ydp avTOJi^ AaAoi;i/T(uv yAojo'cats Kat /xcyaAvi^op'Ttov tov 
Oiov. t6t€ diTeKpiOr] IleTpo? . M>yTt rb uScop SwaTat 47 
KtoAGcrat Tts TOV /xr) ^aTrTLaOrjvaL tovtov<; otTti/es to 
TTVcii/xa TO aytov tXafBov ojs Kat T^/xets ; Trpo(reTa$€v Se 48 
avTovs ev' Ttp ovofxaTL lr]aov Ji-ptaTOv ^aTTTKrOyvat. 
TOTe rjpiOTiqaav avrbv CTTi/xctvat ly/xepas Ttms. 

"HKOvo'av 8e ot a7rdo"ToAot Kat ot aScAc^ot ot oi/tcs r 
KaTa Tryv 'lovSatav ort Kat Ta tOvrj iSe^apro rbv \6yov 


2TOV 6e0V. Ot€ Sk aVi/Sr] Tl€Tpo<; ets lepoucraAr;^, StCKpt- Peter's defence 
v y \ t , /^^/ f/ y '^\ A of his conduct 

3 vovTO Trpos avTOv ol €k TTcpiTO/xr;? Aeyovre? on eiarjAUGi/ at Jerusalem. 

Trpos aj/Spa? aKpo/SvaTiav e^ovras kol (Tvv€<f>ay€v avTot?. 

4 ap$dix€uo<i Se IleTpos i^CTidero avTots Ktt^e^s Aeywv 

5 Eyoj rjfxrjv iv ttoXcl loinrr] Trpocrev^o/z-cvos Kat €t6ov cv 
iKcrTd<T€L opa/xa, KarafSatvov crKcros rt ws o^ovTyi/ 
lx€ydXr]v riafTapaiv dp^ai<i KaOiefxevrjv eK tov ovpavov, 

6 KOL yjXOev o-\pi ifxov' ets i^v drevtcra? Karei'oovv koL 
€l6ov to, T€Tpa7ro8a rrjs yfj<i kol to. Orjpia Kol to. epTTCTO, 

7 Kttt TO. 7r€T€iva. TOV ovpovov' rjKova-a 8e Kat <fi(x}vrj<i 

8 Aeyovcrrys [xol Avacrra?, IleTpe, Ovarov kol <f>aye. clttov 
8e M7^, Kvpte, on koivov rj aKaOapTov ovSeiroTe 

9 elarjXdev eU to cTTOfxa fxov. aTTeKptOr] 8e e/< Sevrepov 
(fxDvr) €K TOV ovpavov 'A 6 ^eo? iKaOdptaev cru /x^ 

10 KOLVov. TOVTO Sc cyeVcTo €7rt rpts, Kat dveaTraaOr] 

1 1 TraXtv aTTavTa eis tov ovpavov. Kat tSov l^avTrj<i rpet? 
avSpes liri(TTri(Tav liri Trjv oiKtav Iv y "^/^cv, a7r€0"raA- 

1 2 fxevoL ttTTO Kato^apia? Trpos fte. etTrev 8e to Trviv/xd 
fjioi (rw€X6€LV avTots fxrjSkv StaKptVavTa. .^A^oi' Se crui/ 
e/xo( Kat ot €^ dSeA-^ot ovTOt, Kat elarjXOoixev ets tov 

r3 0tKov ToC avSpos. a7rr^yy€iA.€v Se vy/xtv ttojs elSev tov 
ayyeXov iv tw otKO) avTov cTTaO^vTa Kat 6i7rovTa 
'ATTOOTTeiAov €ts 'loTTTrryv Kat /xeTdirefjiif/at St/xwra tov 

1 4 €7rtKaA.ovyt>t€vov IIcTpov, OS Aa/\7^<T€t prjfxaTa Trpos o'c ev 

15 ots crtaBrjCTri av Kat Tras 6 otKos o'ov. ei/ 8e tw ap^acrOai 
jjLi AaXciv cTTCTTCo-ev TO TTvev/xa TO aytov ctt cxutoijs 

i6a)0"Trep Kat €<^ r;/xas cv dpyrj. ifxvrjcrdrjv 8c tov pr^paros 
tov Kvpiov cos eXcycv Iwavr^S /xev if^dTTTiarev I'SaTt 

I'j vfX€L^ 8e jSaTTTLaOyo'eaOc iv Trvev/xaTt ctyto). €t ovv 
r^v to"i7v Stupedv ISojkcv avTots 6 ^cos cJs Kat T/p-tv 
TnaT€v(ra(TLV irrl tov Kvpiov Irycovv XpwrTov, cya> 

i8tis I7P-T7V SvvaTos KtoXvo-at tov Ocov; aKOvaavTCs 
Be TavTtt r/OT^p^aaav Kat cSo^ao'av tov Oeov XcyovTes 




Extension of 
the Gospel to 
Cyprus and 

Mission of 
Barnabas to 

Return of Saul 
from Tarsus. 

Apa Kttt Tot? eOv€aLv 6 debs ttjv fXirdvoLav €is ^(nrjv 

Oi fxev ovv hiaairapii'Tes aTro riys $XL{j/e(i)<; rijs 19 
y€VOfX€vr]<; iirl Sre^avo) ^trjXOov €(09 <^oivtK7ys Kat 
KvTTpou Koi AvTLO)(€La<5, jJLrjSiVL AaXowTCs Tov Xoyov 
€1 iJLrj fJLovov 'lov8atoi9. ^Haav 8e rtvcs e^ avrwv avSpes 20 
KvTrptot Kttt K.vprjvaioL, otVtvcs cA.^oi'Tes ets Aj/Ttd;(€iav 
iXdXovv KOi Trpos rot's 'EXXT/vKTras, evayyeXi^o /jlcvol 
TOV Kvptov Irjaovv. kol rjv X^^P Kvptov /xer' auTwi^, 21 
TToXvs T€ api6ixo<i 6 TrLcrTev(Tas eTTccTTpei/zev ctti top' 
Kvpiov. 'Hkouo"^r7 Se 6 Xoyos €t9 to, wra T17S iKKXr)aLa<s 22 
T17S ovarj'i iv ^lepovcraXrjjx Trept ai;Ta>i/, Kat c^a7r£0"TetAav 
BapvaySav cwg 'Avrto^etas* 6s Trapaycro/xevos /cat tSoii' 23 
T^v X^P*-^ ''"T/'^ ''"o^ ^eoi) ^X^PV '^^^ TrapcKaXct Travras tt^ 
TTpo^ecrct TT7S KapSt'as Trpoa-fxeveLv [ci/] t(5 Kvpto), ort lyv 24 
aj'T^p aya^os ^at irXi^pr]'? -rrvev/xaTos dyiov koI TrtitrrecDS. 
Kat TTpoacreOr] o^^Xos tKavos ro) Kvptio. e^rjXdev 8e cts 25 
Tapo-ot' dvatprjryjcxai SavXor, Kai €vpu)v rjyayev cts 26 
AvTto;^etai/. eyeVero Se avrots /cat ei'iavrov oXov 
(Tvvaxdrjvat iv rrj iKKXrjCTLa. kol StSa^at o^Xov tKavov, 
XpfJP-oiTLaaL T€ TrptoTcos £v Arrto^^cta tovs /xa^iyras 

Prophecy of 

Second visit 
of Paul with 
Barnabas to 
with alms. 

Ev Tavrats Se rats r/^x-epats KaxT^X^ov otTro lepo- 27 
o"oXup.(oi/ Trpo^T^rat ets 'Avrid^ctav • avao^ras Se ets 28 
c^ avTcov ovofxarL AyafSo^ iaTj/xaivev Sta tov tti^cv- 
p.aT0s Xt/Jiov fxeydXrjv /xeXXetv ecreaOai i<fi oX-qv tt]v 
OLKOvjxivqv • r]TL<; eyej/ero €7rt KXavSiou. tcov Se jxaOr]- 29 
Twv Ka^obs evTropctTo Tts (jjpicrav eKao'Tos avTwv eis 
SiaKoviav 7r€/xi//at Tots KaTOtKovo"iv cv r^ lovSata dSeX- 
(^ots* o Kat iiroLrjaav a7roo"retXavTes Trpos tovs Trpccr- ^o 
/^vripovs Sta ;^etpos BapvdfSa kol SavXov. 


1 Kar' eKiii'OV 8c top Katpov e7rc^aA.€v Hpwor^S 6 Third persecu- 
oxXN - -' ^,s«\v tion, by Herod 
pacTLAiv; ra? x^'-P^'* '^o.k^O'O-'- Tti/as tu)v aTro tt/? eKKM}~ Agnppa. 

2 (ri'as. avciXcv 8c 'laKwySov Tov aSeXcfiOv Iwavov Martyrdom of 

/ >(>\ ^N</> /, /N>(j>/ James the son 

3 /xavaipr^. iScov oe on apecrrov ecrriv tois Ioi;oaiois of Zebedee. 

TrpoaeOeTO avWa^cxv koI Hcrpov, (rjaav 8c rjixipai twv 

4 d^vix(Dv,) ov /cat TTtcttras c^cto ets cfivXaKTjv, 7rapaSov<i Imprisonment 

/ Qv / « / » / °^ Peter. 

T€craapaLV rcrpaStots o'TpaTMoroSv <f)vXacrcr€LV avTOV, 

fSov\6ix€vo<; fxcTOL TO Tracr^a ai^ayayctv avrov tw Aaco. 

5 6 /xcv oi;v ricrpos kr-qpeiro Iv r-rj <f>vXaK'rj • 7rpoa€v)(rj 
Be. rfv kKTivd^ yivo/xevf] vtto Tij<; cKKXrycrtas Trpo? tov Oebv 

6 TTcpt avrov. "Ore 8c T^/xcXA-cr Trpoo-ayayctv avrov 6 
'UpwSrjs, rfj vvKTL €K€Lvrj -^v 6 XIcTpos KOLfJii^ixevoi; 
fxera^v Svo o-TpaTtoyrwv SeS^fiivo'S aXvaecrtv Svatv, 

7 <f>vXaK€S re irpo Tyj<i Ovpas irrjpovv T7]v <l>vXaKr]v. kol Miraculous 

y^ ^ f X ir ^ > ' ^ ji - "N , , - escape of Peter. 

tOov ayycAos Jvvptov c7rco"Tr/, kul (pw? cAap,i//ei/ €V rw 

OLKrjfiaTL' Trara^as 8c rrjv nXevpav rov Uerpov rj-yeipev 

avrov Xcywv Avacrra iv Ta;(ci' Kai i^irreaav avrov 

8 at aXvo"cts ck tcov ^(ctpwv. cittcv 8c 6 ayycXo? Trpos 
avTov Zwaai kol vTroSrjo-aL ra (ravSaXtd (Tov cttoi- 
rjcrev 8e ovtoj?. Kat Xcyct avrco Dcpt^aAoi) to l/jlcitlov 

9 o"ov Kat aKoXov^ct /xol' Kal i^eXBojv yKoXovOet, Kal ovk 
yBcL oTi dX-qOes eariv to ytvofxevov 8ta tov dyyiXov, 

10 iSoKet hk opa/xa /5Xe7rctv. Bl€X06vt€<5 8e Trpc^rrjv (fivXaKrjv 
Kal Sevripav yX6av ctti rrjv TrvXrjv rrjv (TiSrjpav rrjv 
<f)€pov(rav €19 T7]v ttoXlv, T7TIS avTOfxaTY] yvotyrf avTOt?, 
Kal €^eX6ovT€S TTpoyjXdov pv/xrjv ficav, Kal ivOeu)^ diriarr] 

1 1 6 ayycAos ctTr' avrov. Kal 6 Ilcrpos iv cavrto ycvoyitcvos 
ciTTCi/ Nw ot8a dXr)0<j^<s ort c^aTreVrctXcv 6 KvpLO<i tov 
ayycXov avrov Kal c^ctXaro /xc ck p^ctpos 'Hpa)8ov Kat 

1 2 irdar}^ Trj<s 7rpocr8oKtas rov Xaov rwv 'lov8attov. o-vvt8wv 
re ^X^cv cTTi T"^!/ oiKiav vqs Mapias ri^s /xrjrpos 'Iwavov 
rov cTTtKaXov/xcVov MapKOv, ov rjcrav LKavol crvvrjOpoicr- 

i^fX€V0L Kal TTpocrevxpfxevoL. KpovaavTO<s Sk avrov rrjv 


Ovpav Tov 7rvX<Zvo<; irpoarjXBc. TraiSiaKr] viraKOvaat oVo- 
fxari 'PoS^y, Kttt eTnyvovcra Tr]v cfmivrjv tov Herpov aTro 14 
T^S ^apas ovK yjvoL^ev tov 7rvXwj/a, elaSpaixova'a Sc 
aTrry'yyctXcv ecrravat tov IleTpov tt/oo tov ttvXcoi/o?. ot 15 
Se TTpos avT^v etTrav MatVr/. 77 8c 8tto"^v/oi^€TO ovtws 
l^eti/. ot Se lAcyov O ayyeXo? icTTiv avTov. 6 Se 16 
IleTpos iTrifxevev Kpoviov dvoL^avT€S 8c etSav avTov Kat 
i$eaTY)(rav. KaTaa-eicras 8e avTol<; Trj X^'-P'- o-tyav 17 
SLTjyyjaaTO avTOts ttcSs 6 Kvptos avTov i^yyayev ck tt^s 
(jivXaKrj';, cittcv tc ATrayyctAaTe laKw^u) Kat rots 
aSeX^ots TttVTa. Kat i$e\6ibv iirope'vOrj ets erepov 
TOTTOV. Vevoix€vr)<; Sk yix4pa<; ^v Totpaxo? ov/c oXtyos 18 
ev Tots o"TpaTtojTais, ti apa 6 IleVpos cyevcTO. 'UpwSrjs 19 
8c lintpf]Trj(Ta.'i avTov Kat /a^ €vpojv avaKpLva<; tovs ^v- 
XaKa9 cKcXcro-ct' dira)(6rjvai^ Kat KttTcX^wv aTro t^s 
'Iov8ata? cts Katcaptav 8tcTpt/?cv. '^Hv 8c 20 

Ovfxoixaxo^v Tvptot? Kat 5t8toi/tots' ofxoOvfjLa^bv Bk vra- 
prjcrav Trpos avrov, Kat TTCto'avTes BXao'TOV tov ctti tov 
KotTwvos TOV ^ao^tXcws tJtovi/to ilprjvrjv 8ta to Tp€<f>€(T6ai 
avTujv TTjv ^lopav diro Trj'i ^aa-iXtKrjs. TaKTrj Bk rjp.ip<x 21 
[6] 'Hpa)87^S cv8vo-a/ACVOS iaOrJTa jSacrLXiKrjv Ka^tVa? cttI 
tov /3T]fJLaTO<s iBrjfirjyopet irpbs avTovs* 6 Bk Br]/xo<s 22 

Death of Herod C7r€<^(i)vet @€Ov (fioiv^ Kat oi'K av^pwTTOV. 7rapa)(^prjfxa2^ 

at Caesarea. cv\»'> >\v x tt-' '/i'^ jvo. 

oc cTTttTa^cv avTov ayycAos Jvvptov avc/ ojv ovk cocukcv 

T-^V 8o^av TW ^€<3, Kat yCVO/XCVOS (rKO}\r]Ko/3p(xiTO^ €$€- 

{f/v$€V. 'O 8e Xoyos tov Kvpiov rjv^avev Kat 24 

CTrXry ^vvcTO. 


xii. 25 — xvi. 4. 

25 BAPNABA2 AE KAI 2AYA02 vTria-Tpexj/av Return of 

,jt xv -y/ NQ> / Barnabas 

€ts Lipova-aArjfx TrArypcocravTC? rrjv dta/covtav, avvirapo.- ^nd Saul. 

AaySovres ^loiavrjv rov iTTiKX-qOivTa MapKor. 

1 ^Hcrav §€ €V 'AvTiO^cia Kara ti)v ovaav iKKXyjaiav The Church 

, . ^ S S ' \ "' -D '/3 ^ K V . at Antioch. 

irpocprjTaL Kat otoacTKaAot o T€ iSapvapa^ kul 2tVfxH)iv o 

KaXovfJLivo'i Ntycp, Kat Aou/ctos o KvpT^i/ato?, MavaT^v re 

2 'HpwSov To{) TeTpadp)(Ov (TVvrpoK^O'i koI ^av\o<;. Aet- 
TOvpyovvTwi' 8c avTwv tw KvpCui KOL vr)aT€v6vTiuv eXTTfV 
TO TTViv/xa TO ajLOV A<f>opLa-aT€ 8t] fxoL Tov Bapva- 
l^av Koi 2avAov ets to tpyov o Trpo(TK€K\'qixai avTOv<i. 

3 TOT€ viyorrevcravTcs Kat Trpoa^v^ajxevoL kol eTrt^eVre? ra? 
^€tpa? aDTOts aTTeAvtrav. 

4 AvTOt /X€V OVV €K7r€p.<^^eVT€9 VTTO ToO CtytOD TTVCV- First missionary 

-A/1 ' NJ \ ' . -/]' ' / ^ journey of 

/xttTOS KarrjAuov ctg ieAcvKtav, €K€lu€v re a7r€7rAev(rav Barnabas and 

5 €ts Kirrrpov, Kat y^vofxevoL kv SaAa/xivt KaTT^'yycA-Aoi/ Cyprus and 

v./ -/3-' - ^^,, ^, Salamis. 

TOV Koyov TOV ueov ev rats o-vvaycoyats rcov loT;oata)v 

6 €L^ov 8c Kat 'Iwai'i^Tyv VTrrjpeTrjv. AtcA.^oi'Tc? 

8c oXryv T'^v vrjaov a;(pt Ila'c^ov evpov avSpa tlvol fxayov Paphos. 

7 {J/€vSo7rpo(f>r}Tr]v 'lovSatov a> ovofxa Baptr/crovs, os -^i^ o"vv First preaching 

-^»/) / ^ /tt'n »c>^ " » of the Gospel to 

TO) avavTraro) 2,cpyta) llavAw, avopi (rvv€T<u. OVT09 irpoa- a Roman official 

\/ -D 'o ^■C'^\ ij*' '-^ Sergius Paulus 

KaAccra/xcvog Uapvapav Kat iavAov eTreC,rjTfja€V aKovcrai the Proconsul. 

8 TOV Xoyov TOV Oeov- dvBicTTaTo he. aiirot? EA.v/xa<; 6 /xa'yos, Elymas the 

«/ \ /I / \v j/sv-^o sorcerer. 

ovTO)? yap iJi€U€pixrjv€V€TaL to ovofjia avTov, QqTiov bta- 

9 cTTpci/zat TOV av^vTraTOf aTro Trj<; TricTcoj?. SavAos Se, 
o Kat IIa{5Ao9, TrAr^o-^cts Tri/CD/xaTos ayiov aT cvi'cras ci? 

10 avTOv ctTTCv O 7rX.rjpr)<s ttuvtos 80A0V Kat 7roicrr]<s 
B. A. -i 


paOLOvpyias, vie Sta^oXov, €)(0p€ Trdarjs SiKatofTwrys, 
ov Travarj Siaa-Tpecfiuyv TAC oAoyc TOY Kypioy TAC 
eyQ£\AC; KOL vvv iBov X^'P Ki;ptov i-rrl ere, Koi ear] ii 
Tvcf)\6<i fir] j^XeTTOiv rov tjXiov o-^pi Kaipov. irapa- 

)(prjfxa 8e €7r€0"€i/ eir avTOv d)(Xvs kol (tkotoi;, kul 
Trepiayiov i^yrei )(^eipayoiyov<;. Tore tSwv 6 a.v$v7raTO<i 12 
TO yeyov6<s eTricTTevaev eK7r\r]TTO]ievo'i €7rt rrj SiSa^^J tov 


'Ava^OevT€^ Se cltto tt^s IIa<^ov ol irepX IlaOAov 13 
Perga. TjXdov €is Yiepy7]v Trj'i Yiap.<fivXia^- 'Iwai^ry? he oTroy^oi- 

Departure prjaa^ ttTT avT<ji)v VTrearpexf/ev el<s lepoaroXvixa. Avtol 8e 14 

Antioch of SieXOovTes ttTTO rrjs Ilepy7]<; irapeyevovTO el<i ^ AvTio^eiciv 

Pisidia. ^TT?'' ^'\/i' >^ ^ 1^ t t 

rrjv iiLCTLOLav, Kai eAt/oj/res €19 Tr]v crvvayuyyqv tj] r/fxepa 

roiv (Ta/3j3dT(jiiv eKaOiaav. fxera Be rrjv dvdyvwcnv tov 15 

vo/xov Kttt Twv 7rpocf)r]T(j)v uTreo'TetXav ol ap^tcrvvayiiiyoi 

Trp6<5 avTovs Xeyorre? ' Avhpe<; d8eX(f>oL, et rts ecrrtv iv 

vplv Ao'yo? 7rapaKA.7^or€0)9 Trpos toi/ Aaov, AcyeTC, dva- \6 

Paul preaching cTTtts he IlavXos Ktti Karacreicras rrJ X^^P'' ^'•'^^^ ''AvS^oes 
in the synagogue. , ^ ' j o ' ^/3' '' 

icrpa-qXeirai kul ot (popovfxevoL tov aeov, aKOVo^arc. 

Review of *0 ^€05 TOV Xaov TOVTOV lapay]X e^eXe^aro tov<s TraTtpas 1 7 

Israel's history ,„ \\\v«i > -^ /» 

from the Exodus rffioiv, Kttt TOV \aov vif/(j}(rev ev TT] TTapoLKLO. ev yr] 

to the time of . , / v > r. ' « , '^ >-7 / 

David. Xiyv-n-Tov, kul sasta BpAXiONOc ythAoy elHTAfeN 

AYTOyc €l AYTHC, Ktti, tos TeaaepaKOVTaeTrj xpovov ejpo- r8 
no(})6pHceN aytoyc e'N th epHMCo, KAGeAooN gGnh 19 
enxA eN fH Xanaan kat€kAhpon6mhc€n t'^v yrjv 
avTwv (US €T€0"t TeTpaKO(TLOL<5 KOL TTevTrjKovTa. KoX jxeTo. 20 
Tavra ehtuKev KpiTo-s ews ^a/xovrjX 7rpocf>r]Tov. KaKeWev 21 
'qT'qcra.vTo fSaaiXea, kol ehmKev aDTOt? 6 ^cos tov ^aovA 
vlov Kct's, dvhpa Ik <fivXr]<; ^evia/xeiv, err] TeaaepdKovTa- 
KOI fJLeTa(TTrjaa<; avTov r/yeipev tov AavelS aurots els 22 
fSacrtXea, a» kol eLTrev fxapTvprjcras EypON AaY^IA 
tov tov 'leo-O-at, [ANApA] KATA THN KApAlAN MOy, OS 
TTOLrjaei irdvTa to. BeXrj]iaTd fxov. tovtov 6 Oeos airo 23 


Tov cnripixarof; KaT iTrayyiXcav rjyay^v to) Icrpai^A. Jesus of David's 

^ ,T - 't 'T ' ^ ' lineage. 

24 aoirrjpa irjaovv, -jrpoK-qpv^avro^ Iwavov irpo TrpoaoiTrov 

Trj<; elaoSov avTOv pdiTTKTixa fiiTavoia'S iravrt t<S Xa^ 

25 ^lirparjX. oos Se €TrXijpov 'Iwavrys tov Spo/xov, cXcycv 
Tt efxe vTrovoetre ctvai; ovk €i/xi cyw aAA idov ep^^erat 
/x€t' e/X€ ov oiJK €t/xi a^i09 to t;7ro87y/xa raji/ ttoSooi' XOtrai. 

26''Aj/8pes dSeXcfiOi, viol ycVov? A/3paa/x Kat ot ev v/xtv 

cjiof^OVfJLCVOL TOV OcOV, Tjplv AOfOC T^S (T03T'qpLa<i TaVTrj'i 

27 elATTeCTAAH. ot yap KaTOLKOVVT€'^ iv l€pOV(raX.rjfX koI His death the 

.V , ^ « y , V ^ / V fulfilment of 

ot ap^ovT€9 avTwv TOiToi/ ayvo>^o"avT€s Kat ras cpoivas prophecy. 

Tcuv Trpof^rjTiZv to,? Kara Trav o'a/J^aroi/ avaytvwo'/co- 

28 /aevas KptvavTeq iTrXrjpinarav, koX fxrjSe/xtav atrtav OavaTov 
2g €vpovT€<i yTija-avTo IIctXaToi' avaLpeOrjvaL avTov to? Se 

ereXeo-av iravTa to. Trcpt aurov yeypafifjiiva, /ca^cAovres 
30 aTTo TOV ^vXov eOrjKav et? jxvqixiiov. 6 h\ 6eb<i yyeipev 

^l aVTOV €K VeKpWV 69 (JL)(f>07] CTTt l^/XepttS TrAeiOVS TOIS The witnesses of 
-3« , ^ , , ^ . , , , the resurrection. 

avvcLvapacriv avTcu aTro TTy? 1 aAiAaia^ ct^ lepovaaArjfj., 

32 otTtve? [vvv] ctot iJidpTvpe<; avTov Trpos tov Xaov. Kat 
r)fX€L<i vjxa<i evayyeXi^OfxeOa Tyv 7rpo9 tovs TraTcpas 

33 CTrayyeXtW y^vofxivrjv otl TavTrjv 6 ^€09 iKTmrXrjpiaK^v 
Tots TCKVots ly/xajv avao'TTy'tras 'It/o^ovi', cJ? Kat Iv T(3 
ij/aXfjL^ yiypaTTTat toJ S^VTepo) Yidc MOy €1 cy, efcl) 

34CHMepON rereNNHKA ce. OTt 8e dvia-Trja-ev avTOV Ik 
v€Kp<2v fxrjKeTL fxiXXovTa V7ro(rTpe<fieLV ct? AlACt)0opAN, 
ouTo>? elprjKev otl Aoocoo ym?n ta 6'cia AAye'iA ta 

35 TTICTA. StOTt Kttt iv €T€pio Xcyet Oy AobceiC TON OCION 

36 coy lAeiN AlA(|)0opAlM' AAyeiA fxkv yap iSia y€vea 
v7rrjp€Tr](ra<i ty] tov 6eov /SovXrj iKOCfXTJOyj kol Trpoa-cTeOr) 

37 npoc Toyc nATcpAC AyToy Kat cTSev hia^Oopdv, 6V 8e 6 

38 ^€OS rjy€Lp€V OVK elSev ^ia(f>Oopdv. TvotaTOV ovv ecTO) 
vfjuv, avopes aocXcfiOL, otl 8ta tovtov vfilv dfjiecrL^ dfJLap- 

39 Tttov KttTayyeAAeTat, Kat aTro TravTiDv tov ovk rjBvurjdrjTe 
ev vofjuo Moovcrews 8tKat,o)^i7vat iv tovto) ttcls 6 ttictcvwu 





Accession of 
many believers. 

Hostility of 
the Jews. 

Paul and 
Barnabas turn 
to the Gentiles. 

Driven from 

^LKaiovTai. fSX^Trere ovv fxr] liriXBri to elprj^ivov Iv tois 40 

"lAere, 01 kata4)ponhtai, kai Gaymacate kai A(t)A- 41 

oTi eproN eprAZOMAi eroa In ta?c HMe'pAic 

€pyov oy MH nicTeycHxe ean tic ckAih- 

fHTAl YM?N. 
'E^tovTO)!/ 8€ avTwv TrapeKoiXovv cts to /xcra^v Grd/^- 42 
jSaTov XaXrjOyjvai avrois tol prjfjiaTa ravra. \v6€Lcr7j<; 43 
8c Trj<^ (7vvay(Dyrj<; rjKoXovOrjaav ttoXXoI t(ov 'lovSatwv 
Kttt Twi/ ae/So/jieviov TrpoarjXvTiov tw IlavXa) Kat t<Z 
Bapi/u^a, otTires 7rpoo"A.aA.o{;i/T£S ai;rot5 CTret^ov avror? 
7rpO(rfJLev€iv Ty ^apiTi tov Oeov. Tw 8c ipx^- 44 

fievii) crafS^oLTO) cr^cSov Tracra 77 ttoAi? (rvvTj)(^Or) aKovaat 
TOV Xoyov TOV Oeov. lSovtc^ Se ot louSatoi tous o>(A.ous 45 
eTrXyaOrjaav tjjXov /cat avreXcyoi/ rotq vtto liavXov 
XaXovixevot<; /3Xaa-(firjiJiovvT€<;. Trapp-qaiacxaixivoi tc 6 46 
IlavA-os Kai 6 Ba/Dva^as ctTrav Yfxiv rjv dvayKOLOv 
Trp(ji)TOv XaX-qOrjvai tov Xoyov tov Oeov' cTretSr) 
d7ro)6€La6e avTov kol ovk a|tovs /cptVcre cavrov? Trjq 
alwviov t^^'fjs, ISov crTpe(f>6p.e0a eU to. eOvr]' ovtio yap ^y 
ivTCTaXTai rjijuv 6 Kvpio'i 

TeOeiKA ce eic (|)ooc e0NooN 

TOY eiNAi ce eic ca3THpi'AN eooc ec)(ATOY thc 

OLKOvovTa 8c TO. Wvq t-^aipov koX cSo^a^ov tov Xoyov tov 48 
^€ov, KOI iiTLcrTevaav ocrot ijtrav Tcray/utcVot eh ^(dyjv 
ai(itVLov' ducfiepeTO 8c 6 Xoyos tov Kvptov 8t' oXr)<i ti^s 49 
Yoopas. ot 8e 'lovSatot TrapojTpvvav Ta<; (rc^o/xci a? 50 
yvvatKa<; ras evcT\-q}xovcL<i Kat rovs 7rp(j()TOi;<; tt^? ttoA-Cws 
Kttt lirrjyiipav huaypiov ctti tov IlavXov Kat Bapvd/^av, 
KOL i^efSaXov avTOvs (xtto twv optoiv avTwv. ol Sk c/crt- 5 1 


i/a^d/JLCVOt Tov KoviopTov Twv 7ro8c3i/ £7r' avTOv<i rjXOov cts 
52 Ikovlov, ol T€ fJiaOrjTal iirXr^povvTO -^apa.^ koX 7rv€vp.aTO<i 

1 'EyeVcTO 8e iv Ikovlu) Kara to avrb ctcrcA^etv avrovs Iconium : 
€19 T17V avvayoiyrjv twv 'lovSattoi/ koI \a\rj(raL ovrcos 

(ucTTC Tricrret'O'at ^lovSaLOiv re /<at 'EA-Xt^vcov ttoAi.' ttXtjOos. 

2 ol 8c aTTet^T^cravTes 'lovSatot iTnjy^Lpav kol iKOLKoxrav 

3 Ttts il/v)(a<i Tcov e^i'a;!' Kara twv d8cX^c3i^. tKaj/6v /A€»/ 
ovv )(^p6i'OU hiirpixpav 7rappy]aLat,6/x€V0L eVt T(Ji) Kvptw toj 
fxaprvpovvTi toJ Aoya; Trj<s )(apLTO^ auTov, 8t8ovTi (r7)p.^Za 

4 Kttt Tcpara ytVctr^ai 8ta. tcov ;(€t/Da)V avroJr. la^iaOr} 
Sc TO TvXrjSo'i Trj<; ttoXcws, Kat ot /xcv ycrav crvv Tots 

5 lovSaioi? ot 86 o"vv TOts d7ro(TTdAois. to? 8€ cyeVcTo attack upon 

c V ^ ,/) . ^ 'T ? ' V - " the Apostles. 

opjxr] Toji' ^uvoiv T€ Kttt iovoatuiv crvv Tots ap^ot'crtv 

6 avTOJV v^picrai Kai XiOofSoXr/craL auTous, avvtSovTe'; 
KaT€<f)vyov €t<; to,? 7roA.€t9 tt^s Ai;Kaovt'as Avo"Tpav Kat 

7 AepfSrjv KOL TTjv Treptxiopov, KOLKei cmyyeAt^d^evot 

■ 8 7)aav. Kat Tts di-qp abvuaT0<i iv AvarpoLS rots Lystra : healing 

\ i I /] \\ y \f \ >*>* of the lame man. 

TTOcrtv eKaurjTO, ^coAos eK KOtAtas ixr]Tpo<; avTOv, os 

9 ovSiTTore TrepuTrarrjaev. ovto<; rjKovev tov IlavAov 

XaXovvTO<i' OS aTevtVas avTw Kat t8ajv OTt e\€L TriaTcv 

10 TOV (Tiiidrjvai wir^v fxeydXy cfia)vfj ^ AvdaT'qdi Ittl tovs 

1 1 TToSas crov 6p0o<s • Kat rjXaTO Kai TrcpteTraTci. ot T€ 
o;^Aot t8dvTes o liroiiqcrev IlavAos iirypav Tr]v (fiuivrjv 
avTUJV AvKaoviaTL Ae'yovTes Ot Oeol bp.OL0iBivT€<i dvOpio- 

i2 7rots KaTif^-qaav 7rp6<i rjp-aSf €KaXovv Te tov BapmySav Barnabas and 

A' ^ 5J- rr -\ '17 - ' j^ » ^ * « ' ' Paul hailed as 

Zlta, TOV oe ilavAov rjpjjirfv eTTiLorj avTOS vyv o rjyovfX€Vo<; Zeus and 

-^■v'■ " '^ '>A^ '^'' N/. Hermes. 

I3T01; Aoyou. o t€ tcpevs tov ^tos tov ovtos Trpo T7/s 

TrdAeojs Tavpovs Kat o-TC^/xara cTrt tovs TTvAoovas eveyKas 

i4a"vi^ TOts o;^Aots yOeX^v dvetv. aKOvaavTcs 8c ot aVd- 

o"ToAot Bapva/3as Kat IlavAos, Siapprj^avTis to. IfidTta 

1 5 eavTwv i^errySyjaav cts toi^ o^Aov, Kpdt,ovT€^ koI AeyovTcs Speech of Paul 
^ t ^ <s /« r, N««e /i'^>x to the multitude. 

Avopes, Tt TavTa TrotctTc; Kat rj/x€t<; o/xot07rac/ets €<TfXiv 




of all things to 

Vfjuv avOpoiTTOL, cvayycXt^o/xcvot v/xas ajro todtojv t(ov 
fiaTatoiv e7naTp€ffi€LV iirl Oeov t,wvTa OC enOIHCeN TON 
TA 6N AYTOIC OS cv Tttts 7rap(i))(r]ixevaL<; yeveals etacnv i6 
TTOLPTa TO, Wvq 7rop€ve(rOaL rai? oSots a^ToJv Katrotiy 
ovK ap-dprvpov avrbv d(j>7JKev dya6ovpy(j}v, ovpavoOev 
God the giver vpuv v€TOvs BlSov<s koL Ktttpovs Kap7ro(}>opov<i, lixTTL-rrXoiv 

Tpo(f>'^S KOL f.v(^poGvvrj<i TO,? KapSitt? v/xiov. Kai ravTa i8 
AeyovTc? /xoXts Kareiravcrav TOv<i 6;(Xovs rov ^7) ^vetv 
avTots. 'ETTi^X^av 8e ctTro 'Avrto^etas Kat Ikoviov 1.9 

'lovSatot, Kat TTCtcravTcs tovs o;(Xovs Kai Xt^a(ravT€9 tov 
ITavXov eavpov c^co T179 ttoXcws, vo/xt^orrcs avrov 
T^BvTjKevai. KVK\o)advT(iiv 8e rwr fxaOrjTwv avrov 20 
dva(TTd<; ilcryjXdev €ts T^v ttoXiv. Kat t>^ CTravptov 
k^rjXOiv crvv tw J^apvdjSa iU Aep(3r]v. evayycXKrafjcevot 21 
Tc TT/v TToXtv eKiLvrjv KOi fxaOr]Tev(TavTi<; iKavov; vttc- 
arpetj/av €t9 t-^v Avcrrpav Kat cis 'Ikoviov Kat [cis] 
AvTtd;^€tav, iin(TTr]pit,ovr€^ ras ij/vxd^ t<jjv fxaOrjTiov, 22 
TrapaKaXowTC? ifXfxev€LV ry Trifrret Kat on 8ta ttoXXwv 
OXLij/eoiv Set 7^/xas cto-cX^civ cts t^v /3ao-tXciW toi) ^cot). 
Yet/aoTOvrycravTcs Se avrots Kar' eKKXr)(TLav Trpccr^i^repovs 23 
Trpocrev^dfxevoL fxerd vr](TT€L<jJv TrapeBevTO avrov; rio Kvpcia 
6t9 ov 7r€7rL(rr€VK€L(Tav. Kttt SteX^ovrcs t^v ITto-tStap' 24 
-^X^ai/ ets rr/i/ Ila/xc^vXtav, Kat XaA>;o-ai^T€s iv Hepyy 25 
rov Xoyov Karef3y](rav cis 'AxTaXtai/, KaKelOiv air^TrX^v- 26 
Antioch (Syria), cav €ts 'AvTio'^etav, o^ev -^o-ttv TTapaScSo/xeVoi t^ ;;(apiTt 

TOV ^€or) CIS TO tpyov o i7rX-)]p(t)(rav. TlapaycvofievoL oe 27 
Kttt o'vi/ayayovTes t-^v iKKX-qrriav avrjyyiXXov oca 
iTTOLrja-ev 6 ^eos fjnr avrwv Kat oTt rjvoi^ev TOts c^vco-iv 
Ovpav ttiVtcws. Surpi(3ov 8k ^povov ovk oXLyov crvv 28 
TOts ixa6r]rdL<;. 

Paul stoned. 


The return 
journey : Lystra, > 

of Presbyters 



1 Kat TLves KaTeX06vT€<; drro Trj<; 'lovSatas iSloacKov Controversy 

\ 'c* \ I V '' 'T-< ^ ^ /3 ^ '^ "Zl at Antioch. 

Tovs aO€Aq>ovs on tiav fxr) Trcptr/xr; (777x6 to) €t7et 

2 TO) Ma)V(re(j05, ov Swacr^e (TO)0rjvaL. ycvo/xeVry? Sc 

(TTao-cws Kat ^y]T'r]cr€(D<i ovk 6X.Lyr]<; rw ITavXa) Kat toJ 

IBapvd/Sa Trpos auroi;? Ira^av ava(iaiveiv TiavXov Kat Paul and 

-D 'o' / vxx ,^ » - V V . Barnabas sent 

xSapvapav Kat Ttva? aAAovs e^ at.T(jov Trpo? Tovs airo- to Jerusalem. 

, V o , , w XV X ^ Third visit. 

crroAous Kat 7rp€apvT€pov<i €t5 iepovcraAr]/x irepL tov 

3 ^yjTtJfXaTO^ TOVTOV. Ot jU.6V our 7rpO-Jr€fX(f)0€VT€'S 

VTTO rfjs CKKXr^crtas Str/p^ovro tt^v tc ^otvtKrjv Kat Sa- 
fxapiav iKSLrjyovfxevoL rrjv i7n(TTpo<f>r]v twv iOvtoVj Kat 

4 IttoCovv ■)^apav /jLeydXrjv Tracrt rots aScX^ots. irapayevo- 
fxevoi Se €19 'IcpocroAu/xa TrapeSixOrjaav airo rrj^ 

CKKAT^CrtaS KUt TtGl' aTTOOToA-WV Kat TCOJ/ 7rp€(T/3vT€piiiV, 

5 ai/T^yyetAai/ re oaa 6 ^cos eTrotrjcrev p.€T avTwv. E^avc- 

(TT-naav Se tlv€<s ti2v drro Tr}<; atpeo-ctos twv ^apiaaioiv The Pharisees 

^ J ^ demand the 

TrCTTKrTCVKOTCS, XcvOJ/Tes OTt 3et 7reptT6/XV€lV aUTOVS circumcision of 

' ^ ^ ^ , Gentile converts. 

irapayyiWuv T€ TTypctv Toi' vofjiov Mwvcrews. 

6 Sui^/y^^^r^cra;' tc ot a7roo"ToXot Kat ot irpea^vTepoL The council. 

7 tSetv TTcpi TOV Ao'yov tovtov. IloX\'rj<; Se t,7}rrj(T(.oi<s 
yevofxevrj^ dvacrTas IleTpos etTrcv Trpos auTOus Avopes Speech of Peter. 
ctSeAcj^ot, v/x€ts iirca-Taa-Oe otl d(f> -qpupCjv apxatoiv iv 

vixlv i^ekiiaro 6 ^eos Sto, tov (TTOfxaTOs p-ov aKOvaai tol 

8 eOvY} TOV Xoyov tov euayyeXtov Kat Trto-Tevo^at, Kat o 
KapStoyi'tuo'TT^s Oeos ifxapTvprjaev avTots 8ov5 to 7rv€vp.a 

9 TO aytov Ktt^ws Kai rJ/Atv, Kat ov^ev SuKptvev p.€Ta^v 
iqp.^v T€ Kat avTwv, tt^ Tria'TCL Ka^apiVas tol? KapSta? 

ioavT(3v. vuv ovv Tt 7retpa^€Te tov ^€oV, eTrt^ctvat ^vyov 
CTTt Toi/ Tpaxr]\ov tcov p.aOr]T(j}v bv ovt€ ot TraTcpes "^/xaJv 

ri ovT€ yjp.el'i l(T)(yaap.ev /SacTTdaai; dWa 8ta. tt^s ^aptTos 
To9 Kvplov ^IrjcTov 7rto"Tevo/x€v aoyOrjvai KaO 6v Tporrov 

r2 KaK€tvoi. 'Eo"tyT70'cv Se ttSv to TrXrjOos, Kat r^KOvov Report of 

B/A) ^^T''\ »> / " '' «Z1^ Barnabas 

apvapa Kat llavAov c^T^yov/xcvcoi/ oca €7roLr)(r€V tfeos and Paul. 

i^a"rip.eLa kol TcpaTa iv TOts e^vcctv 8t' avTwv. Mcto, Sc 


TO (Tuyrjaai avTOvs OLTreKpiOr] IaKw/3os Xe'ywv Avopc? 
dSeXcfiOL, aKovaare /xov. ^vjjiewv i^rj-yijaaro Ka^cb? 14 
irpuiTOv 6 ^€OS e7r€0"K€i//aT0 Xa/3ilv €$ iOvwv Xaov Tw 
ovofxan avTov. koI tovtio avix<^oivovcrLV ol XoyoL tojv 15 
7rpo(f>r]Twv, KaOibs yeypaTrrat 


KAi anoikoAomh'cco thn ckhnhn Aaye'iA thn ne- 



oncoc AN eKZHTHcoociN 01 kataAoihoi toon ANGpco- 17 

n03N TON KYpiON, 
Ka'i nANTA TA e0NH ec})' ofc eniKfcKAHTAI TO ONOMA 

Aepei KVpioc noicoN tayta tnoocta An aioonoc. 18 
010 iyoi Kptvio fiTj 7rapevo;^Aetv rots (xtto twv iOvwv 19 
l7ri(rrpi<^ovcriv ctti tov Oeov, aAAo. cTricrTetAai uvtols rov 20 
(XTre^eaOaL tojv dXccryqpdTwv twv elBojXoiv koI ttjs 
TTopveta? Koi ttvlktov kol tov at/xaTOS* M.iDvayj'S yap €k 21 
y€V€(i3v (xp\ai(jiv Kara iroXiv rov'i Kr]pv(Ta ovraq avTOv 
€)(€i iv Tttis avvayojyats KaTo. Trai/ aa^/SaTOv avayivii)- 

The decree of (TKO/JieVO^. ToT€ eSo^e TOtS ttTTOO'ToAotS Kttt TO t<5 2 2 

TTpea^vrepoL'^ avv oXrj rfj iKKXrjo'La iKXe^a/xevovs dvSpas 
i^ ai;T(3v TrepupaL ets 'AvTLO^^aav aw rw UavXiii kol 
Bapra/3a, 'lovSav to;' KaAov^evoi^ Bapo'aySySav Kat 
St'Aai', avSpas T^yovfJievovs iv Tots aSeXcfiOL<i, ypai//avT€S 23 
8ta )^€Lp6<; avTwv Oi a7roo"ToAot /cat ot 7rp€crf3-VT€poL 
aScAc^ot T0t9 KaTO, t^v 'Ai/Ttop(€tai/ Kat ^vptai' kol 
KtAtKtav a8cA<^ots Tot? e^ e^i/wv ^aipcti'. 'ETretSr; 24 
T^Kovaajxev on Tti/es €^ rjfjLwv irapa^av v/xas Ao'yots 
ai/a(rK€ua^oi'T€9 to,? \pv)(^a<i vfioiv, ots ov SLiaTtLXd/JieOa, 
€Sou€V rjjxlv yivofxivoL'i OfioOv/JiaSdv eKAc^a/x-eVot? ai/8pas 25 
Trefxif/aL vrpos v/xas o^vv Tots aya7rr]T0i<; rj/xwv Bapvd/3a 

the council. 

A c o KiTAcni KiAT ipjaibxiy ^ »€n ul AC ^o )t<j en 
e"r<iuAe\joluhaTf^otsjpief i^v»"i 

AlUS »si ^ PAC lAT IJT 

j<ArrH07'^»>^ eii^e-iBsAn-QVAiJUAToc - .^>k>"V 
^, X<A» b cAiwtRe eA3 Ve iNj eAVT^ »<rrfi.i>vj c^csa i^-^.d ' 

Facsimile : Codex Bezae, Acts xv. ig, 20 
(shewing omission of /cat ttulktov and insertion of tlie golden rule) 


26 Koi UavXco, dvOpwTroLS TrapaScSco/coo-t Ta<i \pv)(a<g avTwv 
virep Tov ovofxaros tov Kvpiov rjfxoiv Irjarov Xptcrroi). 

27 dTTiCTTdXKaiJLev ovv 'lovSai/ Koi "^ikav, kol avTov^ 8ta 

28 koyov aTrayycAAovTas to, avra. eSo^cv yap to) Trt/ci;- 
p.aTt TO) aytw Kttt Ty/xti/ fxrjSkv ttAc'ov iTTLTtdia-Oai vfxZv 

29 /Soipos TrXrjv TOVTOiv Tojy CTravayKcs, aTre^ccr^at ttbcuXo^v- 
TO)v Kttt aifxaTos koI TrviKToiv kol TTopvctas * e^ wv 
8iaT'»ypoi;i'T€S ea^Toi'S eu Trpa^cre. "EippwaOc. 

30 Ot /xej/ ovf aTToAv^eVrcs KaTrjXOov et? 'AvTio;;(€iai/, Return to 

V X ->/3 . 'J V . X ' Antioch. 

Kttt crwayayovres to TrArjuos €7reda)Kav tt^v €7ri(rToA77v • 

ai^ayi/dvTcs 8e I'^dp-qcrav eVt T'^ TrapaKXrjacL. louSas 

T€ Kttt StAas, Kttl auTol 7rpocf>rJTai oVt€9, Sto. Adyov 

TToAAoi) TrapeKa'Aecrav toi)? dSeA^ov? Kat iireorTrjpL^av' 

33 TronjaavTe^ 8e ;i(pdi'ov aTrcAu^T^crai/ /xer' elpiqvy]^ dnb twv 

35 aSeAf^wv Trpd? rovs aTroo'Tei'Aai'Tas aurou?. IlavAos 
St Kttt Bapm^as hiirpi^ov Iv 'Avrto^cta SiSacr/covrc? 
Kttt €vayycAt^oyu,evoi /xera Kal erepwv ttoAAcov tov Aoyov 
Toi) Kvpiov. 

36 McTo. §€ Ttwxs yjfX€pa<; etTrev Trpd? 3apvd/3av IlavAos Second mis- 

.rT, /, sjN , t ' n ^ 'S \ J "^ ^ sionapy journey. 

Jl(7rto"Tpei//ai'Te9 Or) e7rto"K€i/'to/xct/a tous aoeA^ovs KttTa Paul and Silas 

/x« »i> /\ v\' «/ visit the Churches 

TToAiv iraaav €V ats Karr^yyctAa/xtv toi^ Aoyov tov KvpLOv, in Syria and 

«w "o 'ov^'O'x \/D^ '' Cilicia and 

37 TTCDS e)(Ovaiv. xJapvapas Oe epovAiTO crvvrrapaAapeiv kul s_ Galatia. 

38 tov 'lojavT^i/ TOV KaXovfxevov MapKOv IlaiSAo*; Se rj^lov, 
TOV dTTOCTTdvTa aTT avTwv OLTTO Ila/x^uAtas Kat /x^ o-uveA- 
OopTa avTots CIS to epyovj fjirf arvvTrapaXap-f^dveiv tovtov. 

39 eycVcTo 8e Trapo^vo^/xds ojo^Tt dTro^^wpicrOrjvaL avTOvs dir 
aX.X.r)\(j)v, TOV re BapvaySav irapaXa^ovTa tov Map/cov Barnabas and 

40 eK7rAe{)o"at ets KuTrpov. IIai}Aos 8e iTTiXe^afxevos ^lAav Cyprus. 
i$7J\6ev 7rapaSoOa.<i Trj ^dpiTi tov Kvpiov vtto tojv 

41 dSe\<f)(jiv, 8LT]p)(^eTO Sk t7]v ^vpiav koL [tyjv^ KiAi/cmv 
1 iTnaT-qpit^oiv Tas lKK\rj(Tia%. K.aT-^vTrjcTev 8e Kai €19 

^ipf^-qv Kttl €ts Ax;<JTpav. Kat iSoij fJia6r]Trj<5 tls yjv iKil 


ovofian Tt/xo^eo5, fto? yvvaiKO'S 'lofSat'a? TricrrTy? Trarpo? 
8c "EXA-T^i^os, OS ifxapTvpcLTO VTTo Tojv ev AvaTpoa Koi 2 
Ikovlw ahe\cfi(2v tovtov rj6iky](T^v 6 UavXos (tvv avrw 3 
i^eXOelv, Koi Xa/Soiv TrepuTeficv avrbv 8ta tovs 'lovSaiovs 
Tov<; ovTa<? iv rots tottois cKctVots, ^Sctcrav yap a7rai/T€s 
OTt EXXt/v 6 iraTTjp avrov vTrijp^^^v. 'Qs 8c SiCTTOpcvovro 4 
ras 7roXct9, TrapeSiSocrav avrot? cfivXdcraeLV ra Soyfiara 
TO. KeKpifxiva viro rOtv aTrocToXoiv kol TrpecrfSwepoiv tujv 
iv lepo(roXv/xot?. At fxev ovv iKKXrja-taL i(rT€p€OvvTO 5 

rrj TTtcrret Kal iTreptaaevov to) apiOfxQ KaO' yfxepav. 


xvi. 6 — xix. 20. 

Progress through AIHA0ON AE THN ^PYFIAN Kal TaXaTLKrjv6 

Phrygia, Galatia / \ a' e \ '■^ t / / xx-- v 

and Mysia to X^P^^y KO}Avu€VTe<s VTTO Tov aytov 7rvev/xaTo<s AaAycraL tov 

Xoyov iv TTJ 'A(ria, iXOovTC^ 8e Kara T-qv Mvcrtav cttci'- 7 

pa^ov CIS rrjv BlOwmv TropivOrjvai koI ovk claaev avTovs 

TO irvevfia 'Irjaov ' TrapcX^oj/rcs 8c Trjv Mvat'av Kare- 8 

(Srjaav cts Tpa)a8a. Kat opa/xa 8ia wktos tw IlavXa) 9 

The call to w<f>6r], dvrjp MaKc8oDV Tts "^v eo"Ta)s Kat TrapaKaXwv avTOP' 

Macedonia. , , a O^ ' t\t S' ' O '/I ' '^ ' 

Ktti Xcywv Atapas cts MaKcoovtav porjo-qaov rjfxiv. ws 10 

8e TO opafxa et8cv, €vOiw<; itptjTTJorafxev i^eXOelv cts Ma/cc- 

8oviav, o"w^t^a^ovTcs oTt TrpocTKCKXT^Tat >7^ds 6 ^cos 

evayyeXicraadaL avTOVs. 

'Ava;)(^erTcs ovv (Xtto Tpa)a8os (vOvSpOfxycrafxev cts 11 

Samothracia, ^apioOpaKrjv, TTj 8e eTTLOTjarj cts Ncav IloXtv, KaKCt^cv 12 

Neapolis, , ^ x / '<^ , v ' ' - '5J TV/T SJ ' 


TToXtS, KoXoJVta. '^Hp.CV 8c iv TaVTT] Ty TToXct 8ia- 

TpL(3ovT€<i 7/^cpas Ttvas. Try tc ijfxipa twv aafifidraiv 13 


i$TJ\Oo/x€V e^(jo Ty<s irvXrjq irapa TvoTafxov ov Ivofxit^oix^v 

7rpocrev)(r)v tlvai, Kal Ka^tcravres iXaXovfxei/ rats crvveX- 

14 6ovaai.<; yvvai^Lv. Kal tls yvvri dvo/xari AvSta, irop^vpo- Lydia, the purple 
' , ,v/./v ft seller, baptized. 

ttodXis iroXeuis ®vaT€Lpo)v (re/3ofX€vrj tov Oeov, rjKovev, tjs o 

Kvpto^ SiT^j^ot^ev Tr]v KapSiav 7rpocre)(€LV rots Xa\ovfX€voL<s 

i5V7ro UavXov. <us 8c i^a-n-TLcrOr] kol 6 ot/cos avTrj<i, 

TrapcKotAecrev A.€yov(7a Et KeKptKari /xe 7rt(rTr|v to) 

KVpLio elvat, €tcr€/\^ov'T€S ets toi' oIkou fxov /xevere* /cat 

16 TraoiBidaaTO infj.a';. 'EveVcro 8e Tropcvouevtov The maid with 

. . , V ''^ V ., V >, "^ "^^ the.spiritof 

r)pnjiv eis Ti^r Trpoaev^Tjv iraLOicrK'qv riva e)(ovaav irvevfxa divination. 

TTvOoiva VTravTrjaat rjixiv, 7jtl<; ipyacrtav 7ruXX.r]v 7rap^'i)(tv 

17x01? KvpioL^ avTrj<; ixavrevo/Jiivrj- avrrj KaraKoXovOovaa 

[toj] Y\.avX(ji Kttt rjplv CKpa^ej/ Xeyovcra Ovtol ol ai- 

OpoiTTOL SovXoi TOV Oeov TOV v\f/i(TTOv elaiv, otrtve? 

18 KaTayyeXXovatv vplv bhov (TcoTT^ptas. tovto Se IttoUl 
liri 7roXXa<; -^fxepas. StaTroi/ry^et? Se IlavAos Kat iTTLCTTpe- 
i//as Tu> TTvcv/xart ctTrcv IlapayyeXAcu crot €V ovofxaTL 
Irjo-ov XptaToi) e^eA^etv a,7r' avTTjS' kul i^rjXdev avTrj 

19 Ty wpa. 'l8ovT€s Sc ot KvpioL avTYJ^ OTL kSyjXdcv rj 

cA.7rls Tr)<s epyacTLa^ avTwv kiriXaBoii^voL tov TiavXov Kat Arrest of Paul 

' V V V ^"^ Silas. 

TOV %LXav ilXKvaav ets t-^j/ ayopav cttI tov9 ap)(0VTa<5, 

20 Kttt 7rpo(rayaydvT€S avTOVs rots aTpaTr)yol<s etTrav Oi;Tot 
0( avOpoiwoL eKTapdcraovcTLV rjp<j)v ttjv ttoXlv lovoatot 

21 VTrdp)(OVT€s, Koi KUTayyiXXova Lv €07] d ovk €^€0"Tt^' rjp2v 

22 7rapaSe)(€a-0at ovSe ttolclv 'Pw/xatots olo-iv. Kat cwe- 

TridTT] 6 6)(Xo<; KUT avTujv, Kal ot cTTpaTrjyol Treptpry^avTc? Scourging and 

J « r t , , /x ' oi"y \\^ SJ^ ' /i' imprisonment. 

23 avrojv ra t/xarta cKeAevov papotQeLv, TroAAas oe eTrtczevTes 

avTOts TrAr^yas e^aXov cts (f>vXaKtjv, TrapayyetAai'res to) 

24 8co"jU,o^i;AaKt dac{iaX(ji<; Trjpeiv avrovs" 09 irapayyeXiav 
TOLavTTjv Aa/3a)v l^aXev avrovs €15 rryv eo'corepav 
(fivXaKTjv Kal TOV<; TrdSas Tycr^aAiVaro avrcuv ets to 

25 ^vAov. Kara 8e to patrovvKTiov TIauAos Kat 2tAas 
7rpoa€v^6fX€VOL vfJLVovv TOV Oeov, eTrrjKpowvTO Oe avT(Zv 


The earthquake, ol S€(TfXLof a<f)V(x) SI aGta/xos eyeVcTo fji€ya<5 w(TT€ aaXev- 26 

OrjvaL TO. OijxeXLa rov SeafJuoTrjptov, yveio^Orjcrav Se 

[Trapa^p^/xaJ at Ovpat Tracrat, Kat TravTwv to. Secr/xa 

aveOrj. e$v7rvo<i Se yevo/xevo5 6 Sctr/xo^vA-a^ Kat iSoJV 27 

dvcwy/xeVas ras Ovpas Trj<^ <f>v\aK'fj<s a-Traadfxevos Tt]v 

jxdyaLpav rj/xeWev eavTov avaipctv, vojxit^oiv cKTrecjSevyevat 

Conversion of Toi'^ Seo'/xtov?. i(f>o}vr]aev Sc IIai}Ao<; fieyakr) cf3iovfj 28 
the jailor. (>v /c -, / fz ', , "^ 

Aeywi/ MT^oev Trpa^r]^ crcavro) KaKov, aTravrc? yap ecr/xcv 

ei/^aSe. atTT/tras Se (f>WTa ela-eTri^Srjaei', Koi evTpoixo<5 29 

ycvoyixeros 7rpo(r€7rc(rei' rtS IlauXa) Kat StAa, Kai Trpo- 30 

ayayojv avTovs e^co c^ry Ki;ptoi, Tt jU.€ Set Trotctv ti/a 

aco^co; ot 8e etTrai/ IltcrTCvcroi' €7rt tov Kvptov ^Irjorovv, 31 

Kat awuTjay av Kat 6 oTkos cou. Kat IXaXiqcrav avrcp 32 

Tov Xoyov Tov ^eoi) cri;j' Tracrt rots er tt^ oIklo. avTOv. 

Kat TrapaXafiiiv avTovfi iv kKcivrj rrj mpa Trj<i vvKTO<i ^^ 

k\ova(.v OLTTO Tcov TrAT^ywv, Kat i/SaTTTCcrOrj avros Kat ot 

at)To£i aTravTCS Trapa^prjixa, avayayoov re auroi;? ct? toi' 34 

otKOi/ TrapWrjKev rpdire^av, Kat ryyaXXiacraTO 7ravotK€t 

TTCTTtcTTevKajs T(p Ocw. ^H/xipas Se y(.vojxe.vrj<i aTricmikav 35 

ot arpaTrjyoi tov^ pa/3Sov)(ovs Xeyovrcs 'AttoXvo-ov Tovg 

Release of Paul Oiv0pio7rov<s iKeivovs. ttTTT^yyetXci^ §€ 6 8co"/xo<^T;Aa^ Tovs 36 

and Silas. \/ ^^tt'^\ "'a'\ ' ^ 

Aoyovs Trpos tov iLavAov, on ATrecTTaAKav ol (rTparrjyoL 

tVa aTroXvOrjre • vvv ovv i$eX66vTe<i TropeveaOe iv clprjvy. 

6 Se IlauAos e^T^ Trpos avrovs Actpai/res yj/xa.'^ Stj/xoctlo. 37 

uKaTaKpLTov^, avOpw7rov<i 'Pto/xatovs VTvap^ovra^, e/JaXai/ 

cts <j>vXaK7]v Kat vi}i' XaOpa T^p-as iK^aXXovcrtv; ov yap, 

dXXa eX06vT€<5 avrol r]fxd<; c^ayayercocrav. aTrrfyyuXav 38 

The power of ^e Tots o^rpaTr^yots ot pa^Sov^Oi to, prj/xara ravra* 

the citizenship 5 i n '/i (>v » / f? ct-, -^ / » \ 

of Rome. ecftoprfurjo-av oe aKovaavT€<i oTt r a)p.atot etcrtv, Kat 39 

eA^di/T€s TrapcKaAecrai/ avTOVS, Kat c^ayayorrcs r/pcoTcov 

aTTcX^CtV CtTTO T)7S TToA-CWS. €^€A.6^0l^T€5 §€ ttTTO T^S 4O 

cfivXaKyj^i elcryjXOov Trpos r^r AvStai/, Kat tSoi/res TrapcKa- 
Xco^av TOt^s dB€X<f>ov<; Kat i^rjXOav. 


1 AioScvcravTe? 8c rrjv 'A/x^tVoXiv kol ttjv 'AttoX- Thessalonica. 
\o}VLav yjXOov cis ®i(TcraXoviKrjv, ottov -qv (rvvayinyr] twv 

2 lovBauov. Kara 81 to €L(d66s tw HavXo) elarrjXOev 7rpo5 
avTovs Koi CTTi crd/3^aTa rpia SuXeiaro avrots aTro twu 

3 ypa<f>wv, Siavoiywv Koi Trapart^e/xeio? otl tov ^(pLcrTbv 
€oet iraOeZv kol dvaaTrjvai ck vcKpcov, Kat oti ovtos 
€(rTtv 6 )(pL(TTo<i, 6 I^ycrov? oV eyo) KarayyeXXo) vfjuv. 

4 Kttt Ttv€? e^ avTiZv i7reL(r6r]aav /cat TrpoarcKXrjpwOyjaav 
T(jo TIavXio KOL \tw] 2tA.a, tojv re ae/So/xevoiv 'KXXtjvidv 
7rXrjOo<5 TToXv yvvaiKijJv re T(i)v TrpoiTOiV ovk oXtyat. 

5 Zr^XwcravTC? Se ot 'lof Satot /cat TrpoaXa/Sofxevot twv Hostility of 

> / V (J. V V \ J X / the Jews. 

ayopaioiv avopa<; rtva? irovrjpov? Kai oxAOTTOirjcravTes 

i0opvf3ovv TTjv TToXtr, Kat eTTtcrravTC? r^ ot/cta 'lacrovo? 

6 i^rjTovv avTOv<? Trpoayayetr ct? tok StJ/jlov /jly] cvpoi/rc? Trial of Jason 

^v J \ V It ' ' '^ \ _i ^ » ^ ■^^ before the 

0€ avrovs €(rvpov lacrova Kat rtvas aoeA^ors eTri tovs PoHtarchs for 

»/ o'^ w^cv. / ' / befriending Paul. 

TTOAiTap^a?, po(i)VT€<; otl Ut Trjv OLKOVjxevrjv avacrraraj- 

7 cravTC? ovTOL koi lv6aZ(. Trdpeio'iv, 01)9 VTroSeScKTat 
'lacrcov /cat ovtol TraVrcs aTrevavTc tojv Soy/xaTiov 
Katcapos 7rpao"croDcri, (iacriXia €Tepov Aeyovre? etvat 

8 'Ir^troijv. erapa^av 8e tov o^Xov Kat tovs 7roAtTap;^as 
pa/covovras rai^ra, /cat Xa/3dvTۤ to tKavov irapa tov 

10 Iao"ovo? Kat twv XotTrtoj/ aTreXt'O'av auTous. Ot 
Se aS€X<fiol evOeoiS ^la wkto? i^eTrefXif/av tov t€ IlaiJXov 

Kat tov 2tXav ct? Bepotav, otTtvcs Trapay evofxeyoL ets Beroea. 

11 T^v crvvaycuy^v tojv 'lovSaiwv aTryea-av ovtol 8e ^crav 
evyeviaTcpoL twv fv ®€a'aaXovLKr}, oiTtvcs iSe^avTO tov 
Xoyov p,€Ta Trda-rjs 7rpouvfXLa<;, [roj KaO^ rjjxipav dvaKpi- 

1 2 vovTe? TOLS ypa(f>d<; ei €^ot Tairra ovTco?. TroXXot fxkv Many converts. 
ovv e^ auTwv i7rLcrT€vcrav, kol tojv 'EXXr^i^toajv yuvatKoov 

1 3 TOJV €va)(r)fJi6v(jt)V kol avSpwv ovk oXtyot. fis Sc eyvojcrav Pursued by 
ot aTTO Try? (yccro-aAovtKTy? lovoatot OTt Kat ev Try i5€poia Thessalonica. 
KaTrjyycXr] vtto TOV IlavXoii 6 Xoyo? tov acov, rjXOov 

j4KaK€t o'aXevovTf? Kat Tapao-crovTC? tov? o)(Xov<;. cv^eojs 


8e TOT€ Tov UavXov e^aTrecTciXav ot a8eX<;^ot TropcvetrOac 

ews eTTi TT/i/ OaX-aaraav virin-uvdv re o re StAas Kat 6 

Ti/xo6'€Os eKct. ol Se Ka6LcrTavovT€<s rov UavXov rjyayov 15 

£0)9 A^?7i/a>i/, /cat XajSovre^ ivToXrjv Trpos toj/ ^lAav kol 

TOV Tt/xo^eoi/ IVa ws Ta)(L(rTa eXOuiCTLv irpos avrbv 


Athens: 'Ev Sc Tttt? 'A^T^vats cKS€;(Ojw.ei/ou avToi»s tov IlavAov, 16 

Trapui^vvero to Trvevfxa avTov ev avTw 6€ii)povvTo<; KaTCtSoi- 

in the Syna- Xov ovcrai/ T^v TToXcj/. StcXeycTO /xc;^ ovi/ €V TT7 (Twayioyrj I'j 
gogue and the - 't ? ' v - O ' v , -' , -. V 

Agora : Tot? lovoatots Kttt TOts a€po}X(.voL<i Kat €V TYj ayopa Kara 

Traaav yfxepav rrpos tov<s 7rapaTvy)(dvovTa<;. rtves Sc Kat 18 

Twv 'ETTtKoupttuv Kttt Stwikooi/ (fnXocTocjiiDv avvifSaXXov 

avTio, Kat Ttves cXcyoi^ Tt av OiXoi 6 aircppioXoyo^ ovto^ 

Xiyeiv; ot 8e Hei'0)v SaipLOVLiov 80/cet KarayycAcv? ctvaf 

oTt TOV l>^o"oi}j/ Ktti TT/v dvdcTTacnv €vrjyyeXLt,€To. eTrtXa- 19 

Paul before the /So/xivoi 8e avTou cTTi TOV ' Apetov Ilayov rjyayov, AeyovTes 
Areopagus. ,^ « ,. vvrn<^ -\\ ' 

IXwafxeua yvwvat Tts vy Kaivq avTrj [)^J vtto o^ov AaAovfX€vrj 

SiSa^rj; ^€vt^ovTa yap Ttva €la(J3ep€L<; eh tols aKoas rjfKjjv 20 

/^ovXopicOa ovvyvcovat Ttva OeXet TavTa ctvat. ^AOrjvaloc 21 

SI 7ravT€9 Kat ot iTnSrjfxovvTes ^e'vot ets ovScv €T€pov rjv- 

Kaipovv 7) Xiyeiv tl ij aKoveLv tl KatvoTcpov. o"Ta^€t9 Sc 22 

Speech of Paul. IlavAo? iv /JL^aio 70V Apecov Ilayov €(f>'r] AvSpes * AOrj- 
vatot, KaTo. TTOLVTa (09 8cto't8atfiovto'T€pov9 v/xa9 Ocwpoj- 
8tcp^o/xcvo9 yap Kat dvaOeiopuiv Ta aefSda/xaTa v/xc5v evpov 23 

The Unknown Kat /?(D/xov €v w ItreyiypaTTTO AFNOSTO 0EO. o ovv 

ayvoovvTe9 cvccpetTC, tovto cyo) KaTayyeAAo) v/xtv. 24 
eeOC 6 nOIHCAC tov Koapov km Travra TA eN AyTO), 
OVT09 OypANOf KAI THC V7rdpx(i>v Kvpt09 OVK ei/ X^ipo- 
TroirjTOi<i vaot9 KaTotKct ovSe vtto >^€tpa>v avapwTrtvwv Oepa- 25 
TTCvcTttt 7rpoo"8co/x€vo9 Ttvo9, avro9 AlAoyc Trao^t ^(U'^v Kat 
TTNOHN Kat TO, Travra- i-rroLrjaev Te e^ ei09 Trav Wvo's dv- 26 
OpwiTUiv KttToiKCtv cttI 7TavT09 TTpoauiTTOV Trjs y^'S, opiaa^ 
7rpo(TT€Tayp,evov^ Katpovs Kal Td<s bpoOea-ias Trj<s KaToiKia^ 












27 aurwv, t,r]T€.lv tov dfov €t apa ye {pr)\a<f)r](reLav avTov kol 
€vpoL€v, Kai ye ov /xa^pav (Xtto evos kKaurov rj/xuiv VTrdp- 

28 ^j^ovra. ev a^rw yap t,o)fX€v Koi KivovfM^Oa koi ia/xiv, 009 
Kttt Tives Tcoi/ Ktt^' i;p,a9 TroirjTwv elprjKaaLV 

Tov yap Kat yevos ia/xiv. 

29 yevos ovv i^Trap^ovre? tot) ^eoi) ovk o^etXo^ev vop.Lt,iLV 
Xpv(T(o 7) dpyvp(jo rj XlOw, )(apdyp.aTL riy(yr]^ koi ivdv- 

30 /XTycrews avOpcoTrov, to Oetov etvai ofxoiov. tovs //.ev ovv 
;)(povovs TT/s dyi^oias vTreptSwi^ 6 ^eo5 to, vvi/ (XTrayyeXAet 

31 TOts di'^ptuTrots Trdvra? Trap'Ta^oi) /xeravoetv, KaOori 
eo-TT/o-ev 7]/JL€pav iv rj /zeAAet KpiNieiN THN OIKOYMeNHN 
CN AlKAIOCyNH €1/ av8pt o) wpiQ^v, TTLG-Tiv Trapac-^ijiv nacnv 

32 dvacTTrjcra? avrov eK veKpwv. aKOwavre? Se dvafrra- Rejection of 

ev>\/?» tcvvT ' ' r\ > '^'^ message. 

(Tiv V€Kpo)v Oi /xev e>^Aei;a4op' ol oe etTrav AKOvao/JnOa 

33 croi; Trept tovtok Kai TraAtr. ovTii)<; 6 IlaijAos i^rjXOev c/c 

34 /xccrov aiurdiv rtve? 8e avSpes KoAAry^eVre? avra) eTrtVrev- 

crav, €1^ ots Kai Atoi-'wios [6] 'ApeoTraycTry? Kai yvv^ Dionysius and 
ovojxari Zla/Aapi? Kat crepot (tdv airrots. 
r McTo. rarra y(o)pi(TO€l<; Ik twv 'A^t^voJi^ ^A^ei/ ei? Kd- Corinth. 

2 ptvOoV. KCU €Vp(DV TLVa 'louStttOV OVOIXaTL 'AKvAav, IIoi/Tl- Aquila and 

/^/ / , >./,v«, , V Prisciila. 

KOI' TO) yei^ei, 7rpo(TcfiaTu><; iXrjXvOoTa arro T7J<; IraAtas Kai 

IIptcrKtAAav yvvatKtt avrov 8ia to Siarera^evat K^XavSiov 

ywpii^ecrBai Travra? tov^ 'lovSatous a7ro tt^s 'Pw/xry?, Trpocr- 

3 rjXOev avTot?, Kai 8ta to op-dre^^i/ov cTvat efievcv Trap' 
avTOts Kat T^pyd^ovTo, rjaav yap (tktjvottoloI Trj Te-^vrj. 

4 SicAeyero 8c fv ttJ o'l^i'aywyT^ Kara ttSv crdf^f^aTOV, eTreiOiv 

5 T£ 'louSatov? Kat "EAAr^i^a?. 'f2s Se KaTrjXOov 

ttTTo Tws MaKcSovta? o re StAas Kai 6 Tiad^eo?, cwcivcro Arrival of Silas 

\^ ^ and Timothy. 

TUf Adyo) 6 IlauAog, SiafxapTvpofxevos Tot? 'lovSatot? civat 

6 TOV )(pLcrTov ^lr](TOvv. avTiTaaaofxivoyv he aurwv Kai Rejected by 
^Xacrcf>r}fJiovvTo}v iKTLva^dp.evo<; to. t/xaTia eiTrei/ Trpos 

auTovs To aiyLUX vp.u>v ctti T^/yv K€(f)aXr]v vfxwv Ka0ap6<; 

7 eyio* aTTO toC vvv els rd eOvrj Tropevaofxai. Kai /xera/Jas 




of Crispus. 

Vision of Paul. 

In the house of Ik€l6cV rjXOiV €t9 OLKiaV TtVOS OVOfXaTl TlTLOV 1ov(TTOV (T€- 
Titus Justus. n ' \/i/ ■?«»/•?> 

poixevov rov aeov, ov yj OLKta rjv crvvofMopovcra rrj avva- 

yMyfj. Kpto-TTo? 8c 6 ap^^to-vvaycoyos iTrtcmva-ev rw Kvpto) 8 

crw oA.o> TO) OLKct) avTov, Koi TToXkoi TOiv l^opivOioiv aKOVOV- 

T€<i iTTLCTTevOV KOL e^aTrTit,OVTO. ElTTCV Se 6 KVpt09 Iv VVKTL 9 

8t' opafxaros t<Z HavXio Mh ct)OBOY, dAXa AaXet Kal fxrj 

crL(ji}7njar)<;, AlOTI efcJC) eiMI MCTA COy f^ti orScis iirLOrja-eTai lo 

(rot TOi; Ka.K(2(TOLL ere, StoTt Aao? £0"Tt yaot ttoA-v? ei/ ttJ TroAet 

ravTy. 'EKa^icrev 8c cvtavTov Kat fjirjvas €$ SiSdcTKOiv ii 

Paul charged by CV a^TOtS TOV \6y0V TOV Oeov. VaWlOiVOS Se dvOv- 12 

the Jews before ,v „, / / t'o-^t/i 

Gallic who TTttTOV Ol'TO? TI^S A^tttttS KaTCTTCCTTT^O'aV Ot loTJOtttOt O^O^V- 

refuses to hear ^, - TT '\ ^ " , v , x v o- \' 

their case. /xaoov TOJ ilavAo) Ktti rjyayov avTOV CTrt to prjfxa, AeyovTCS 1 3 

OTL Ilapd TOV vofiov dvaTretOei ouros tov5 ai'^pojTroDs 

cre^eaOaL tov Oeov. iJi€XXovTO<s 8e rov IlavAov dvotyciv 14 

TO (TTOfia ctTTCv 6 raAXtwi/ Trpos tovs 'Iov8aiovs Et /xcv 

ryj/ doLKrjixd tl tj paStovpyrjixa TTOvrjpov, co 'lovSatoi, Kara 

Xoyov dv av€(T)^oixr]v vfjioiv el 8e tprjTrjfxaTd Icrriv ircpl Ac- 15 

you Kat ovofxarwv kol vo/jlov tov KaO v/xa?, oif/eaOe avTor 

KptT^S cyw TovToiv OV /SovXo/xaL ctvai. Kat dinjXacrev 16 

avTOv<; airb tov ^r)fjiaTO<;. liriXafidfxevoL 8c ttcivtc? ^uicrOe- 1 7 

rryi/ Toj/ ap^tavvaytoyov tTvmov e/x7rpoo"^cv tot) fty/xaTO^' 

Kat ov8ci' tovtwv TO) FaAAtoovt cp-cAcv. *0 8c na{;Aos 18 

CTt 7rpo(rjxeLva<; r/p-cpa? tKavas Tot9 d8€A^ot9 diroTa^d- 

fxevo<5 e^cVAct cts t^v Svptav, Kat o^w at^Tcu rEptcKiAAa 

Kat AKiJAa?, K€ipafJi€vo<i iv Kcr^peats Tiyv Ke<j)aXr)Vj eT)(^ev 

yap ev)(7]v. ■ KaTrjvTYjaav 8k ci9 E<^co"or, KaKCtvovs KaTC- 19 

AtTTCv auTov, avTos Sk cto'cA^iav cts t->/v avvayioyrjv 8tcAe- 

^aTO Tot? 'Iov8atots. cpcoToovTCOV 8k avTiov irrl rrXetova 20 

•^povov fxdvai ovK eTrevevcrev, aAAa ctTroTa^ap-cvos Kat 21 

ctTTtov IlaAtv avaKdfxipui Trpos "up-a^ tov ^coi) OeXovTO'i 

dvTj)(OYj dirb T175 'E^eVou, Kat KaTcA^wv cts KatO'apiai', 22 

Third missionary » ^\ \, / x>\' '0» 

journey: through avapas Kat ao-7rao"'os T->)i/ iKKAyjaiav, KaTepr] cis 

Galatia and >a' ^ ' ' v'>'>\zi'j'' 

Phrygia, AVTLO)(€Lav, Kttt TTOtrjOraS )(pOV0V TiVa €^rjAU€V, 0L€p)(O- 23 

Paul leaves 


(fourth visit). 




















pt^uiv Travras rovs /xa^r^ras. 

24 'lovSato? Be Ti<i 'A7roAX(jL)9 ouo/xaTt, 'AA.€^av8p€t>9 to) Apollos at 

, V . / . , v^ , 5J V * / Ephesus. 

yevet, avT)p Aoyio?, KarrjvTrjaev €t9 xL/^ctrov, oui/aros coi/ ei^ 

25 rais ypacfiOLs. ovros ■^v KaTr])(r]fji€vo<; rrjv oSov tov Kvptov^ 
Koi ^€(ji)v TO) 7rv€Vfj.aTi eXaXct koL eStoacrKev aKpt^ojs to. 
Trept roi) 'Irycroi), lTrL(TroLp.evo<; jxovov to jSaTTTLO-fxa Iwavov. 

26 ovT6<i re yjp^aTO TrapprjaLd^ecrOai iv rrj (rvvayuyyyj' aKov- 
(rai'TC? 8c avTOv ITpto-KtAXa Kat TrpotrcAa^oi/ro 
avTov KOi aKpi^i(TT€.pov avTio i^eOevTO rrjv ooov rov pcov. 

27 ^ovXofxevov 8e avrov SteX^eiv et? rrjv 'A^^atav irporpexpa- 
jxevoL Oi dSekcfiol €.ypa\f/oiv rots fxaBrjTOL'^ air 06 iqaa 6 at av- 
rov 69 7rapay€vofJi€vo<; o"vv€/?aAcTo ttoXv tois TrcTrio'Teu- 

28 Koo" IV Sto, TT]^ )(^a.pi.To<;- ct'Tovws yap rots 'lovoacots 
StaKarryXey^eTO Brjixocria eTrtSetKVi;? 81a. twv ypa(f>(jiv etj/at 

1 rov -^^piaTOv ^Irjaovv. 'Eyevcro Se ev to) tov AttoAAw 
eivat €v Koptv^o) IlavXov StcA-^oi/ra to, avwrcptKo. /xepry 

2 eA-^eiv cts 'E<^eo-ov Kat evpelv rivas /xa^-j^ras, etTrev re vrpos P^"^ reaches 
avroi;s Et irvevfxa ay tov eXa^ere TrtcrTCVcravTCS; ot Sc 

-Trpo? aiiTov 'AAA.' ov8' et TTvevfxa ayiov co"Ttv lyKowa/xev. 

3 ctTrev re Ets rt o{;v i(3a7rTLa6r}T€; ol Se eiTrav Et? to The baptism 

T ' /3 ' * S^TT -^^ 'T ' '/?' of John. 

4 Iwavov paTTTLO-fxa. etTrev oe ilamos Iwavrys epaTTTtcrev 

j^aTTTLCTfJLa fieTavotas, tw Aaw Aeycov ct5 tov ipxa/xevov fxer 

5 atiTov tva TTtorevo'cocrtv, toi^t €.<ttlv ets tov Iryo^ovv. (xkov- 
cavTes 8e i^aTTTiaOrjcrav eU to ovo/xa toi; Kvpiov ^\7]<tov' 

6 Kat eTTt^e'vTos avTo2<i tov IlavAoi; ^etpas t^A^c to Trvev/xa 
TO aytov eTT avTOVS, eAaAoiJV re yAtocraats Kat irrpocfiT]- 

7 T€uov. ^o^av Se ot TravTes avSpeg ojo"et SooScKa. Eto-cA- 

6u)i^ Se eis Trjv avvayojyqv iTrapprjatd^eTO eirl firjvas rpets Teaching in 

55 X / ^ '/3 ^ - /3 \ ' - /3 - ^^^ synagogue. 

oiaAeyo/xevos Kat ttcluwv Trept rrjs /5a(TtAetas rov trcoi;. 

9 cos oc Ttves ecTKA'jypwovTo Kat r^neiOovv KaKoAoyovvres T'^v 

6S0V evojTTtov TOV wXijOovs, OLTToaTa^ aTT avT(j}v d(f>wpicr€v 

^ a ' /]»«'' C'X' ' " N^In the school 

T0D9 jxau-qras, kolv rjfjiepav otaAeyo/xevos ev tt} (T)(OAf) ^f Tyrannus. 

B. A, 4 




Miracles of 

Sceva and his 
seven sons and 
the evil spirit. 

Many of those 
who practised 
magic burnt 
their books. 

Advance of 
the Gospel. 

Tvpavvov. TovTO Se cyeVero e-rrl €Trj Svo, (^(rre Travras lo 
Tovs KaTOLKovvTa<; rrjv Actav ciKoiJcrai tov Xoyov rov 
Kvpiov, 'lovSaiov; re koi 'EXA-Tyvas. Avi/a/Acts t€ ov ii 

ras TV)^ovaa<; 6 ^eo9 cttoUl Slo. twv )(eipiov HavAov, 
wcTTC Koi iiTL Tovs aaOevovvTa<; aTrocf>€pe(T6ai ctTro tov 12 
Xp(i>To<; avTov aovSapta y atfjUKLvOLa kol aTraWdar- 
creaOaL aV avrtuv ras v6(tov<;, to. re irv^vp-ara to. 
TTovrjpa e/cTTo/oeuco-^ai. 'ETre^^etprya-ai/ 8e Ttv€s Kat tcov 13 
Trepup^ofxei^iov lovSattoi/ i^opKiaTojv 6voixd^€iv ctti tovs 
e;!(oi'Ta9 ra Trvev/^ara to, Trovrjpa to opo/xa tov Kvpiov 
Irjcrov XiyovT€<i 'OpKi^w v/xas toi/ 'It^otovj/ oV IlavXo? 
Kr)px)(T(reL. rjaav Se Ttvo? Skcvci 'louSaiov ap;^i6pew9 eTTTO. 14 
viot TOVTO 7rotovi/T€9. aTTOKpiOkv 8e TO TTvevfJia TO irovrjpov 15 
€t7r€?' avTols Tov [iw,€v] 'It^o'ow ytvojOTKO) Kttt TOV HavXov 
iTTiaTafxat, v/xct? §€ TtVcs ecTe; Kai €<^aAo/x€vos 6 dvBpoi- 16 
7ro9 €7r' avTovs iv o) t^v to Trvevfxa to rrovqpov KaTaKvpuv- 
o"a9 afJicf)OT€piov Laxvf^^v kut avTiZv, wcTe yvfxvov<i kol 
T€Tpavp.aTiafJi€vov<; (.Kt^vyelv Ik tov oIkov iKCLvov. tovto i 7 
8e kyiv€To yi/ojo"TOv 7rao"tv lovoatots T€ Kai EA.Xryo'tv TOts 
/caToiKOvo'iv T'qv E<^co"ov, Kai eTrcTrcctv <^o/3os ctti vravTa? 
avTOV9, Kttt e/xcyaXvi'€To to ovofxa tov Kvptov ^Irjaov. 
TToWoL T€ Ttjjv TTCTTicrTevKOTcov rjp)^ovTO i^o/xo\oyoviJ.€voL x8 
Kttt avayyeA-A-ovTcs to.? Trpa^et? avTWK iKavoi Se tcSj/ to, 19 
TTipUpya Trpa^dvTuiv a~vv€V€yKavT€'S Ta? ^t)8Aov5 KttTe- 
Ktttov evtuTTiov Traj/Twv Kai (Tvv€\}/r)cf)L(rav Ta? tl/jlols av- 
TOJi' Kttt €vpoi/ dpyvpiov ^vptaSa? ttcVtc. Ovt(o? /caTO, 20 

KpOLTOS TOV KVpioV 6 Aoy09 r]V^aV€V Kttt tO-^V€V. 



xix. 21 — xxviii. 

2f 02 AE EnAHPf20H Tavra, WeTO 6 IlavXoS iv rw Projected tour 

/ C^\/nv VT»;r (>' ^'a ' '/] of S.Paul 

TTvevfxaTL buAUuiv TrjvMaKebovLav kul A^aiav TropeveauaL culminating 

,>T '\ 5v« -^/^^'^ 'Zj j-in Rome. 

€ts Upoa-oAvfxa, cittojv otl Mcra to ycvecrt^at /xe £K€t 

22 Set /xc KOL 'Fojfxrjv iBelv. a7roo-T€ Se eh T-qv MaKC- 
Soviav Svo Twv BiaKovovvTwv avTCo,T LfJioO eov Kai EpatrTov, 

23 avTos liricTxev ^(povov cts t^v 'Acrtav. Eyevero oe 
Kara tov Kaipov CKctvov Ta.payo<i ovk oXcyos Trepi T7J<; 

24 6S0V. AyjlXTITpLO^ yap Tt9 OVOuart, dpyupOKOTTOS, TTOIWV Demetrius and 

^ , the silver shrines 

vaov<; \apyvpov<i^ 'Apre'/xtSo? Trapct^cro rots rfx^trats ovk of the great 
j\/ ) / iv n ' ^^ ^^ goddess. 

25 okiyqv epyaatav, ov? (Twaupoiaa^ Kai tov? Trept ra 

TOiaOra epyara? etTrcv "AvSpc?, eTriaTaaOi on eK TavTr]<s 

26 T175 epyacrtas r; cvTropta r;/ Icjtiv, koI OeoipetTe Kai 
ttKOucTe OTi ov p,dvov 'E^ecrof dXA.a cr^^eSoi/ Tracny? tt^S 
*Acrta^ 6 IlavXos ovto? Trctcras ixereaTrjaev iKavov o;^Aov, 

27 Xcytoi' ort OVK cio-tv ^eot 01 8ia ;^€ip<juv ytvofxevoL. ov 
fjiovov 8e TovTO KirSwevet 7;/>ttv to /x,epos cis aTreXey/xov 
cA^eiv, dAAa Kai to t^s /xeydX-/^? ^cas ApTc/xiOo? 
Upov €19 ov^ci' XoytaOrjvaty fxeWetv Te Kai KaOaLpetaOaL 
TT75 p.eyaA.€tOT77T09 avrrjs, yv oX-q [r;] 'Ao-ta Kat [7;] oikov- 

28 /xeVry a-e/Serai. ctKovoravTCs Se Kai yevofxevot irXrjpeL^ 
dvixov €Kpat,ov XiyovT€<; MeydXr) t] "AprefML'S E<^eo-iwv. 

29 Ktti i7rXrja6r} y ttoAis t^? crvy;(vo-ea)S, o}pfxr)(Tav t€ 
ofxoOvjxa^bv €19 TO Biarpov crvvapira(ravT€<; Paiov Kat 

30 * ApL(rTap)(Ov MaKc8ova9, o-vv€K8r7/xov9 IlavA-ov. IlavAov 
Se ^ovXofiivov ilaeXOelv ei9 tov Srj/xov ovk ckjov avrov 

31 01 fxaOrjTat' Ttv€9 8c Kai twv 'Ao-iap^j^iov, oi/T€9 avT(3 
(fiiXoL, 7re/>n//avT€9 7rpo9 avTov irapeKoXovv fxr] Sovvai cav- 

32 TOl^ €19 TO OiaTpOV. oXXoL fXiV OVV aAXo Tl €Kpat,OV, 7jV 



ya|0 -q iKKXrjaia avvKexvfxevrj, Koi. ol ttXcioi;? ovk TyScicrav 

TtVos eVeKtt (Tvv€\r]\vO€L(rav. Ik Sc tov oy;\ov avvc/^tfta- 33 

(rav 'AXe^avSpoK TrpofSaXovrwv avrov tcov 'lovSatwv, 6 0€ 

'AA€^av8po? Karao-eiaaq ttjv X^^P^ rjdiXev airoXoyiicruai 

T(5 BtJ/xu). iirLyvovTes 8e otl 'lovSatos ecrrtv <fiO)vy] cyevero 34 

^t'a €K TravTcor wcret €7rt wpas 3t;o [Kpa^ovTwv] MeydXrj rj 

Intervention of ^'ApTt/xts 'E<^co-iW. KaraaTetXa^ 8e Toj/ o;(Aov o ypa/x- 35 
the town-clerk. , v.c^ 'tt^j' ' '' >/3' 

/xarcv? <p7](rLv Avopes E^eo-iot, rts yap eo-rtv avupiDiroiv 

OS ov ytvwcTKCt T'^v 'E^€0"ta)v TToXtv v€<jL)Kopov ovaav Trj<; 

jX€ydX7]<5 'ApT€/At8oS Kat TOV SlOTTCTOVS; dvavTLpr]T(i)v ovv ^6 

ovTOiv TOVTOiv Seov icTTiv v/xd<; KarccrTaX/xei^oa;? virapx^f-v 

Koi p^rj^kv TTpoTTtTcs 7rpd(T(T€LV. yyayere yap TOV<i avSpas 37 

TOVTOV? OUTC t£poo"i;Aous ofTe f3Xaacf)r)p,ovvTa<s Tiqv ueov 

Tjpwv. €t ovv Ar}p.7jTpL0<i Kttt Ol (jvv avTw TexylraL ^8 

^Xpyo'i-y Trpos TLva Xoyov, dyopaioi ayovrai koi dvOvTraroC 

€L(XLV, lyKaXeiTUicrav dXX7JXoi<s. ci 8e tl Trcpatrepw €7rt- 39 

^TyretTC, £1^ T^ €vv6p,io eKKXyjato- iTriXvOrjaeTai. kol yap 40 

Kiv8i;i^€VOjiiei/ lyKoXiiarOat ardaews Trept t^s (rrjpepov 

prjSivbs airiov VTrdpxovTos, Trepi ov ov Bwrjaop^eOa ultto- 

Sovvai Xoyov vrept Trjs <jvaTpo(f)7J<s ravxT/s. Kai ravra ^i 

€t7ro)V a7reXro"€V t-^v iKKXrjcTLav. 

Journey through McTtt 8c TO Trava-aaOaL TO!/ Oopv/Sov /xeraTre/xi^a/xeros i 

Macedonia. «tt'^\ ^ /i> ^ \' ' ' 

o IJavAos Tov<; p.aur]Ta^ Kat 7rapaKaA£0"as a(T7raa-ap.€vo<s 

i^rjXOev TTopcvidOai ets MaKe8ovtav. 8t€A^<jjv h\ to. p-^py) 2 

€Kfxva Ktti TrapaKaXeaas avrovs Xoyo) ttoXXo) rjXOiv €ts r-^i/ 

Three months 'EAXa8a, TTOLtjaa^; Ti pLTjva^ rpets y€vop,evr}s eTn^ovXrjs 3 

in Achaia. »/»«\/%>t(>/ '\\ »' /i >\-v' 

avT(i) VTTO Tcov louOatoji^ p.eAAovTi avayeauai cts t rjv 2tvp tav 

Return through lyiv^To yv(Dp.r]s TOV v7ro(rTpe(f>etv 8ta MaK€8oi'ias. avvet- 4 

Macedonia. ^v»^v' tt' jj '" /2\ \ 

TTCTO 0€ avTW ^iCOTTttTpos 11 vppov jDcpoiatos, Wco-o-aAovt- 

Ktwv Sc 'Aptorrap^os Kat Sckovi^Sos koi Tatos Aep/Jaios 

Kat Ti/xo^€os, 'Ao^tai/ot Se Ti'^j^ikos Kat Tp6(f>Lp.os' ovtol 8c 5 

7rpocrcA^oi/T€S ep^evov "^p-ds iv TpioaSc rjp.^Z'i 8e c^cTrXcwa- 6 

Passover at v\t/ />>o/ '^^t^n' ^ 

Philippi. 1^^^ /xcra ras 7;/x€pas tcdi/ aQvpiOiv aTro <PtAt7r7ro)v, Kat 






yXOo/jLev Trpos avrovg ei? rrjv TpwdSa a^pt 77/uepojv Trevrc, Luke rej 

7 ov SuTpLif/afxev rjjxipa^ kirTci. 'Ev^ 8e ri^ /xta t<2v Troas. 
cra^(S(xroiv (Tvvqyjxivinv rj/xoiv KXdaai dprov 6 Ila^Aos 8ic- 
AeycTO aurot?, /xe/Wwv e^tevat t^ €7ravpt0Vj TrapireLvev t€ 

8 Toi/ Xdyoj^ t^^XP'- l^^fJ'ovvKTiov, rjcrav 8e Xa/X7ra8es iKavai 

9 €)/ to) vrrepiooi ov rjjxev (Tvvqypiivov /ca^c^o/zcvo? Se Tis 
veavias oro/xart Evrv^o? ctti tt;? OvpiSo^i, KaTa(f>€p6iX€V0^ Eutychus. 
VTTvoj f^aOd oiaX^yojxivov tqv IIai;Xof ctti TrAetov, Karc- 
le^^^eis aTTo tov vttvov eirccrev aVo rov Tpia-riyov Kara) 

10 Kttl ryp^ry v€Kp6<i. Kara^as 8c oITavAos eTrcTrecrcv avro) Kai 
o-vfTrfptAa/^wv cvmv M^ Oopv/^etcrOc, rj yap i/zv^t) avrov 

1 1 ei' ai;TU) iartv. ava/Jas 8c ['<a-ij ^Aacra? tov dpTov kol 
y€ucra/x€i'09 e<^' tKavov re 6fJiLkrjcra<; a;^t avyrj<i outcds 

1 2 i^rjXOev. rjyayov Sk tov TratSa ^(Zvra, kol TrapeKXyjOrjaav 

13 ov /xcrptw?. 'H/xccs 8c TrpocA^ovre? ctti to ttAoioi/ 
aLvrj-^OrifXiv irrl rrjv A(T(rov, iKcWev /xcAAovtc? avaAa/x- Assos. 
ftdveiv rov IlavAov, ourcos yap 8taTCTayyu,cVos ^i' fxeXXwv 

14 auTO? TT€^€V£LV. 0)9 8c avvifBoXXev rj/juv cts T^v "Acto-oi/, 

1 5 dvaXaj3ovT€<? avTOv yXOo/xev els WiTvXrjvrjv, KdKeiOev dtro- Mitylene. 
TrAcvo-avTC? Trj iinov(Tr] KaTrjvTtja-aixev dvTiKpvs ^lov, rrj Chios. 
8k ercpa TrapcySaAo/xcv cis Sa/xov, t^ 8c i^ofxevrj rjXOofJ.€v Samos. 

1 6 €19 MtAr^TOv KeKpLK€L yap 6 navAo9 TrapaTrAcOo-at rrjv Miletus. 
"Ec^co-ov, 07ra)9 p.^ yivrjraL avTw ')(^pov or p l (Srjcr at ei/ t^ 
'Aorta, ecrirevScv yap el Svvarov elrj avVo) tt/v tjfjiepav Ty<s 
TrevrrjKoa-Trjs yevecxOai el<s 'lepocroXv/Jia. 

1 7 Atto 8c T^9 MiAt^TOV TZep-Xpas eU E<^CO-OV p.CTC- Paul's farewell 
, V O' ~,x/ «5>^ to the elders of 

1 8 /caAco-ttTO tot;9 irpecrpvTepovs T-qs eKKArjcria';. (09 de the church 

/ V , V T , - .,- .^ , / /I ofEphesus 

TTapcyevorTo 7rpo9 avTov enrev avrots ip,ct9 eincrTacrue at Miletus. 

(XTTO TTpdiTrjs rjjxepas d<^ ^9 eTre/Srjv els Tr]v Acriav 7r(09 

ig fxeO' vfxwv rov Trdvra '^povov lyevojxrjVy hovXevwv to) 

Kvptio fxerd Trda-rjs Ta7r€LVOcfipo(TVvr)s Kal SaKpviov koi 

ireipaafxuiv tujv (TVfx(SdvToiv fxoi ev raZs eTTL/SovXals rwv 

2o'Iov8at(ov (09 ovSev vTreaTeLXd/xrjv twv crv/xcfiepovTOiV 


Tov ixr] dvayyctXai v^iiv kcu 8t8a^at v//as ^rjixoata kol 

His mission and KaT otKows, 8tafJLapTvp6iX€Vo<; 'louSatoi? Te Kau'EiWricTLV 21 
his message. \ t a \ / \ ' 

Trjv €ts Oeov fxeravoiav kol ttlo'tlv ct? tov Kvpiov yfioiv 

Irjcrovv. kol vvv iSov ScSe/xcvos cyw tw Tn/ci^/iart 22 

7rop€ €ts lepovaaXrjfx^ Ta Iv avrrj (rvi^avTij(TOVTa 

i/xol jxr] €t8aj?, ttAi^v otl to Trvevjxa to aytov Kara ttoAii/ 23 

Sia/JiapTvpeTaL jxoi Xtyov on Secrfxa kol 0\L{f/€L<; pa 

pi€Vov(rLV aW ovSevo'S \6yov TrotovpLai ttjv xj/v^-qv 2^ 

Tiptav e/xavTo) ws TeXciwo-co toi^ 8pop,ov pov kol Trfv 

StaKovtav 7)v eXa^ov irapa tov Kvpiov ^Irjcrov, Siapiap- 

TvpaaOaL to ivayyeXiov Trjq ^apiT0<5 tov Oeov. kol vvv 2^ 

iSov eyo) ot8a OTt ovkItl oij/eaOc to Trpocroiirov piov vp.€L<s 

TTttfTes iv ots St,y]\9ov KrjpvcrcrMv tyjv ySao'iXciW • StoTi 26 

piapTvpop.aL vpuv iv Trj (rrjpicpov 7^/xepa oti Ka0ap6<s ct/At 

o-TTO Tov at/AaTO? TrdvTUiv, ov yap v7r€(TT€i\(ip,Y)v tov p.r] 27 

dvayyuXaL irdaav ttjv (3ov\r)v tov Oeov vplv. irpocri^iTi 28 

eavrots koX iravTi tCj TrotpLvno, iv w vp,d<s to irvevp^a to 

ayiov WtTO imaKOTrov^, 7rot/x,atVetv THN eKKAHCIAN TOY 

Geoy, HN nepienoiHCATO 8ta tov alp^aToq tov ISiov. 

cyoj otoa oti elcreXevcrovTaL /xcto, ttjv a<^t^tV pcov Xvkoi 29 

/3ap(2<; et? vpid<s p^r) (f)€L^6p€voL tov iroLpcviov, koI i^ vpLwv 30 

[tturojv] dvaaTTjCovTai dv8p€<; XaXovvTCS SteaTpa/x/xera 

TOV dTTOcnrav TOv<i /xa^r^Ta? OTriario eavTwv Slo ypi^yo- ^i 

peiTe, p.vrjpLovevovTe'; otl TpuTtav vvKTa kcu 77/xepav ovk 

iTrav(jdpy]v pieTa SaKpvoiv I'ovOcToyv iva iKaaTov. kol 32 

TO. vvv 7rapaTiOe.piai vpos t<2 Kvpii^ koX t(2 Xoyiii ttj's 

^apiTO? avTOv t(3 Si^i^a/xeVw oiKoSopLyaat kol 8owat ttjv 

His personal KAHpONOMIAN iv T()?C HpiACMeNOIC HACIN. dpyvpiov ^33 

integrity. / ,\ . ~ . 5v v , /j / , v , ' 

•^pvcTLOv r/ Lp.aTLO'p.ov ovoevo? eireuvpirja'a • avTOi yii'to- 34 

aK€T€ OTL Tat5 XP^^^'''* /^^^ '^^^ '^^'•^ O^Q-l pi€T ipLOV 

V7rr)piTr](rav at ^eipcs avTat. iravTa vireScL^a vpuv otl 35 
ovTW? KOTTiwvTa? Sci dvTLXapifidv€(T6aL TWV do'^CVOVI'TtOV, 



ctTTCv MttKapiov icTTLV fxaWov SiSovai rj Xa[x(Ba.v€LV. 

36 Kttt Taura ctTrojv ^€ts to, yovara avTov (tvv iraaLV avrots 

37 irpocT'qv^aTO. tKavos 8c KXav^/xo? cycvcro ttcivtiov, kuI 
i7rLir€(r6vT€<s iiri rov Tpd)(r]\ov tov HavXov KarecfjiXovv 

38 avTOv, oSwwfxcvoL }xdXi(rra irn tc5 Aoyo) w ilprjKei otl 
ovKert /xeXXovcrtv to irpoa-iairov avrov OiOipuv. TrpoiTrefJi,- 


1 'Os hi eyeVcTO dva^Orjvai rjfxa^ a.7ro<T7racr^cVTas o-tt' 
avTOji/, ivOvhpojx-qcravTi^ ykOofxev et? rr/v KcG, rrj 8e e^iys Cos. 

2 €ts T'^V' PoSov, KCtKet^CV 6ts Tldrapa • kol evpovT^s nXolov Rhodes. Patara. 

3 StttTTcpajv €19 ^OLVLKTjv £7ri/5avTes dvrj^Orjixcv. dvacfid- Thence in 

<>v V _ , V X / J V J / another ship 

vavT€5 0€ tt)v KvTrpov Kat /caraAiTroi/Te? avTrjv evwvvfxov to Tyre. 

£€V €19 Svpiav, Kttt KaTrjXOojjiev etg Tvpov, e/cctcrc 

4 yap TO TrAotov 7^1/ d7ro<^opTt^o/xevov tov yo/xov. avcv- 
poi/T€S 8c tovs iJLaOr}Td<; cTrc^ctVa/xev aiuToi) jy/xcpas eirrd, 

otTiv€S to) ITavXct) cAeyov 8ia TOV TrvcvynaTO? /xr/ ctti- Paul warned 

/3 ' '' 'T '\ " S- ' ' '^ ' ' - not to go to 

5 pacveiv €ts \.€poaoAv/xa. otc 0€ eycrcTO €^apTLcraL r)fxa<; Jerusalem. 

Td<» T/^xc'pa?, c^cA^ovTCS iTropevo/xeOa TrpoTrefjiTrovTOJV rjp.a.'i 
TrdvTtav (TVV yDi'tti^t Kai t^kvoi^ ecus e^w T179 ttoAco)?, Kat 

6 OivTi<i TO. yovara iirl tov alyiakov 7rpo(Tev^dp.€voL dirr}- Prayer upon 

/A > \ \ '\ * > ' n ' ^ N -^ the seashore. 

(nraaapeua aAAr}Aov<;, Kat eveprjfxev ets to ttAoiov, 

7 cK€ti'ot Se v7r€<TTp€{f/av ets to. t8ta. 'H/xets Se 
tov ttAovi' Stavvo-avTC? aTro Tvpov KaTrjvTrjaa/xev ets 
IlToAc/xatoa, Kat dcTTrao'a/xcvot tov? dSeA^ov? ifxetvafMev Ptolemais. 

8 -qfJiipav fxiav Trap' avTol^. Trj Sk cTravptov e^cA^ovTe? 

rjXOafxev €t9 Kato^aptav, Kat €io'€A^ovT€9 ct9 rov oTkov Caesarea. 
>f,\/ «j \ 'nv , ^ f y , , In the house 

^tAtTTTTOu TOV cvayyeAtaTOv OVT09 ck tov cTTTa e/xctva/xev of phiHp the 

' » '> ' SJN ■?_ /) ' ' /J ' evangelist. 

9 Trap avTcu. todtco 0€ y^o^av tfvyaTepe<; T€acrap€<; Trapuevot 

10 TrpocfirjrevovcraL. 'Etti/xcvovtcov 8e y/xepa'i TrAeiov? kot- 

rjXOev Tt9 ttTTO TT79 'louSata? 7rpo(f)y]rr]<; 6v6p.ari Aya^09, The prophecy 
V ,./iv V . « V V ^ y' - TT '\ ofAgabus. 

( I Kat eAuoiV 7rpo<s rjfxa'; Kat apa<; rrjv C,u)urjV tov ilavAov 

8t]<Ta<s eavTOv tov9 7ro8a9 Kat Ta9 x^^P^'^ ctTrev TctSc Aeyct 

TO Trv€VfJia TO ayiov Tov avSpa ov iarlv rj ^oivr) avrrj 


ovTws orjaovcnv iv lepovcraXr/^ ol 'lovSatot kol irapa- 

SoicrovcTLv els x^^P^'* iOvoiv. cos 8e TjKovaafxev ravra, 12 

TrapeKakovjxcv y/xets re kol ol ivTOinoi rov fx^rf dva^atvcLV 

avTov €19 IcpovaaXrjfx. Tore aTreKptOr] [6] IlavXos 13 

The readiness of Tt TTOlCtTC KXatOVT€9 Kttt (TVvO pVTTTOVTes fJLOV TYJV Kap^LaV ; 
Paul to suffer. , , , , , v , ^ ^ 

tyco yap ou jxovov Oeurjvai aAAa Kat airovaveiv €ts 

lepovaaXyjix €TOt//,cos c^co {'Trep toi) ovo/xaros rov Kvpiov 

'Irjcrov. jxr] Trci6op.ivov h\ avTOv yavxda-afxev eiTrwTe? 14 

Tov Kvpiov TO OeX-rj/xa yiviadio. 

Mera Se ras y/xepas Tavras kTn([xevoi dv€- 15 

Jerusalem. (iaivofxiv fls^lepodoXvpia- CTvvyXOov Se KOLTOiv /xaOrjTOiv i6 

diro Yiaiaapias crvv rj/xiv, ayovres Trap u) ^evio-^w/xei/ 

Mvaoro)i/t Ttvt Kt»7rpiw, ap^aiw /jiaOyjTrj. Tevofxivoiv Se 17 

yjjjLciyv el<s ^lepocroXvpa acr/Aevtos aTreSe^avro 77/xas ot 

aScXc^ot, ttJ Se kiriovcTrj elayci 6 UavXos arvv y/juv i8 

Report made to TTpo? TaKw/?ov, TTavTcs Tt TTapeyevovTO ot TTpea/SvTepoL. 
James and the v , , j \ >> ^^ /T t\ w r 

elders. Kttt aaTrao-afxevos avrovs c^r/yetro /cat; ei^ eKaarov 001/ 19 

i7roir](T€v 6 Oeos ev rots Wveinv Slo. Trjs StaKovias avTov. 

ot Se ttKovo'avTCS eSol^a^oi/ roi/ ^cov, etTrai/ re avTco 20 

©cojpcts, a8cX<^e, irocrai ixvptdSes elalv iv rot? louSatois 


virdpypvo-LV Karrj^yjOrjaav Sc Trept o-oi) ort dirocTTaaLav 21 

8tSao"Kcts ttTTo Ma)vo-€ws Tov? Kara to, eOyrj Travras 

'lovSatovs, Xeytov fxrj Treptrtyavctv avTovs to. reKva fxrjSk 

TOts Wicnv TrepiTraretv. Tt oui/ iartu; iravTOis aKov- 22 

o"ovTat oTt iXrjXvOas. tovto ovv Trotrjaov o croi Xeyo/xev • 23 

.S. Paul purifies eto-tv 'qplv avSpes Te(r(rap€<s €V)(r)v €';^ovt€S a<^ eavrcuv. 
himself with the / \ n\ t ^ n v j-- vij,/ 

four Nazirites TovTOvs TTapakapuiv ayvKTurjTL (Tvv avTOis Kat oairavrj- 24 
and defrays the , ■> » ^^ rr <. > v 1 \ ' ^ ' 

expenses of their f^ov CTT aurots tra h,vpf](jovrai rrjv KetpaArjv, /cat yj/w- 

offerings. / </•? ^ \«>(>\v 

covrat 7ravTC9 ort toi/ KaTy^xj^vrai Trcpt o-ov ovoev eartv, 

aXXa cTot^^ets Kat avTos (ftvXdcra-iov rov vofxov. Trepi 25 

8c TWP' 7r£7riaT€VKOT(DV idviov 7JfX€i<s aTreaTeiXafJiev Kpt- 


vavT€s ^vXaaoreaOaL avTov<; to re clSoyXoOvTov kol aTfxa 

26 Kttt TTVLKTOU Ktti TTopvctav. TOT€ 6 IlavXo^ TTapaka^wv 

Tov<; avSpas rrj i)^o/xevrj rj/xepa avv avrots dyvta^eis 

elarjCL eU to lepov, StayyeXXtoi/ rr/i/ iKirXrjpwaLV TOON 

HMepoON TOY ATNICMOy 60)9 ov Trpoarjvix^T) virkp iv6<s 

CKacTTOu avT(Zv rj irpoacfiopo. 

37 'Os Se efxeXXoi' at €7rra yj/xepat crvvTeXeLcrOaL, ol aTro Attack upon ■ 

-s , . / ,T o - /I / , V , ^ , ^ * , S. Paul in the 

Ttjs Acrta? lovoaioi aeaaaixcvot avTov ev tw tepw (rwe- temple, led by 

/ vv-v v''/D\ , i » y y '^ ^ the Jews from 

X^ov TravTa toi/ o-)(A.ov Kat eTrepaAav ctt avroi^ ra? x^tpa^, Asia. 

28 Kpat,ovTe<i Aj/8pcs 'I<TparyX€tTat, /3or]$eLTe' ovtos iaTiv 
6 av6'po>7ros 6 Kara tov Aaov Kat tov vojxov kol tov 


YiXXr]va<; elayyayev cis to tcpoi' Kat KCKoCvoiKev tov 

29 aytov TOTTOV tovtov. ^aav yap TrpoeojpaKOTe'!; Tpocfu/xov 
TOV E^eo"iov iv Tji 7roA.€t aw avTw, 6v ivofXL^ov otl cts 

30 TO lepov €l(Tr)yay€V 6 IlaGXos. eKtvyjOr] Te rj ttoAis oXtj 
Kat iyiveTo avvSpopr] tov Xaov, kol iirLXajSofXivoi tov 
UavXov cIXkov avTOv e^w tov tepov, Kat ci^^ews €kX€l<t- 

31 Orjaav at Ovpat. Ztjtovvtwv T6 avTOV OTTOKTctvai avi^-q 
<f>aaL<; tw ^tXtapp^o) T179 o-Tretpr;? OTt oXr; avi/^^vi/j/cTat 

32 ^IcpovaaXyix, 6s i$avTrj<; irapaXaftoiv aTpaTnoTaq kol Intervention 

, / /5> > > > / t (>x ,(> / N of the tribune 

€KaTOVTap;^as KaTeOpafxev ctt auTOVs, ot de tOovTes toj/ Claudius Lysias. 

^tXiapT^ov Kat Tovs o-TpaTHOTas iiravaavTo TV7rT0VT€<; tov 

33 TlavXov. T0T€ eyyto-a? 6 ;(tA.tap_^os iTveXd/SiTo avTov 
KOL iKeXev(T€ SeOrjvai dXvaecTL SvaL, kol iTrvvOdvcTO tl^ 

34 ctr; Kal Tt iaTLv TreTrotr/Kcus • aA.A.ot 8c aAXo ti cTre- 
fjioivovv iv TO) oxXio- fXT] Svva/xivov Se avTOv yvojvai to 
ao'c^aXes olo. tov OopvfSov iKcXevcra/ dy^crdai avTov ets 

35 Tr^v Trapeix/SoXyi'. ot€ Sc kykv^To kirX tovs ava/?a^/xov9, 
(Tvve/Srj (SaaTa^eaOaL avTov vtto twv o-TpaTiwTwv 8ta T'^v 

36 ^tav TOV o^Xov, -qKoXovOcL yap to irXrjOo'i tov Xaov 

37 Kpoit,ovT€<i Atpe avTov. . MeXX(Dv t€ eladye- 
(xOai €19 T-qv TrapefMJSoXrjv 6 IlavAos Aeyet tw ;(iAiap;^a) 



Paul permitted 
to address the 
people from the 

His defence to 
the people. 

His early life 
and zeal for 
the law. 

The vision on the 
Damascus road. 

Et €^eo"TtV /xot cIttuv tl Trpo? ae; 6 Sk e(f>r] 'Yi\X.r]VLcrTL 
ytvtocr/cct?; ovk dpa arv et 6 AtyvTTTto? 6 Trpo tovtiov rwv 38 
r)ix€p<j}v dva(XTaT(oaa<s kol c^ayaywi/ ei? rrjv €pr)fJiov tovs 
reTpaKLar)(i\Lov<; avSpa? t(2v <riKaptW; cTttci/ Sk 6 IlavXos 39 
'Eyw dvOpdiTTOS jxiv et^ai lovSato?, Tapcrevs T17? KtXiKtas, 

OVK dortjfJiOV TToXcW? TToXtT'/^S ' ScOflaL Sc (TOV, eTTtVpCl/zOV 

/xot AaX^(rat xrpos tov Aaov. CTrtrpci/^avTO? Se avrov 6 40 
IlavA-Os ecrTws CTrt tcov ava(ia6p.<Zv KaT€(T€La€ rfj X^'-P'- 
Tcu Aao), TToXXiys 8e (Tiyrj<s yevofJi€vr}<g 7rpO(T€(f>(t)vr)(r€v rrj 
'E^paiSt StaXeKTio Xcywi/ "AvSpcs aScX^ot Kat Trarepe?, i 
aKovcrare /xod 7779 Trpos v/xas vvvt aTroXoyias.— clkov- 2 
cravTc? 8c ort Tiy 'E/?pat8t StaXeKTO) TrpocrecjuoviL avrot^ 
fxdWov Trapia^ov rjcrvxiav. Kat cf)r](riv— Eyoo ct/xt 3 
tti/>)p 'louSato?, yeyfvvTy/xeVos cv* Tapcro) ttJs KtXiKta^, 
dvaTe6pa^fxivo<i hk ev rfj ttoXcl Tavry irapa tovs TroSa? 
TafxaXiTJX, TTCTratSev/xei^os Kara. aKpt^Sctav toC Trarpwov 
j/djtxov, ^7yAa)T'^9 V7rdp)(^u)v tov 6iOv KaOw^ Travrcs v/xets 
etrre crijixepov, 05 ravTrjv Ty]v bhov eStw^a a^pt Oavdrov, 4 
Scc/txcvo)!/ Kttt TrapaStSou? et? (fivXaKaq avopas re Kat 
yui/atKas, ws Kat 6 dp;>^t€p€V9 p-aprvpei /xot Kat Trar to 5 
Trp€a(3vT€pL0V' Trap" lov koi eTrto-ToXa? Se^dfxevos Trpos 
Tous dScXf^oi^s €ts Aa/xao-KOi/ iTropevo/xrjv a^cov Kat tovs 
€K6to-c oi'Ta? ScSe/xeVovs ei9 lepovaaX-rjix Iva rifxu)prjBi2(Tiv. 
^Yi-yiv^TO 8e /xot rropcvofxevio kol eyyt^ovrt t^ Aa/xao'KO) 6 
TTcpi /xearjix/Sptav iiaL(f>vr]q ck tov ovpavov Trcptao-rpdi/zat 
^(Ss tKavov TTCpi e/x€, eTread re ets to ISa^os Kat rjKovaa 7 
cf>o)v)]<; Xeyovay]'^ jxoi iSaovX SaovX, Tt /X6 StojKets; cyo) 8 
8c OLTreKptOrjv Tt's €t, Kvpte; ctircv tc Trpos e/x€ Eyw 
ci/xt It^o-oiJs 6 Na^copatos 6v o^v StojKcis. ot 8c avv c/xot 9 
ovTcs TO /xcv ^c3s iOedaavTo Tr]v Sc cfiwvrjv ovk rjKovcrav 
TOV XaXovi/Tos /xot. ctTTOv 8c Tt Trotr/o"o), Kvpu; 6 8k ro 
Kvptos ctTTci' Trpos /x€ Arao"Tas tropcvov cts Aa/xaaKov^ 
KOLKct o"ot XaXyjOijcreTaL TTcpl TrdvTOJV ojv TcVaKTat o^ot 


1 1 TTOirjcrai. w? Sc ovk IvifBX^Trov drro r-fjq 80^779 tov 

0(0x6? Ikuvov, ■^€Lpay(Dyovixevo<; viro tojv crvvovTinv fxoi 

i2'q\6ov €t? AafxaaKOv. 'Avavi'as Se tis dv-^p cvAa/3^9 Paul and 
\ \ / /■ t \ f '^ Ananias. 

Kara tov vojxov, fxaprvpovfxevo-i vtto Travrmv rmv kutol- 

13 KOvvTiov 'lovSaiwv, i\6oiv Trpos ifxe /cat c7ri(7Tas etirev 
jJLOL SaovA. dSeX^e, avafiX&pov Kayoi avrrj rrj (opa 

14 dve/JA.ei/'a ets avror. 6 Se enrev O ^cos tcuj/ Trarepuiv 
Tjfxoiv 7rpo€)(€LpL(raT6 (T€ yi/(5vat to BiXrjfxa avTov kol 
iSeiv TOV StKatov /<al aKoOo'at <jiO)vr]v Ik rov (TTOjxaTOf; 

15 avTov, oTt tcrri jjcdpTV^ avTW 7rpo<; TrdvTas dvOpcoirovi wv 
i6€0}paKa<; Kat yjKOvcraq. Kai vvv tl p-cAXetq; dvao'Tas 

/SaTTTLaaL kol d-TroXovaaL Td<s dfxapTLa<s crov iiTLKaXead- 

i7/x€vos TO ovofxa avTOv. 'Eyevcxo 8e jjlol VTroarTpeif/avTi 

€L<s IcpovaaXyjix koL Trpocrev^ofxevov fxov iv tw lepa) The vision in 
/ /) i y , v ,5> « » \ \ / / the temple at 

18 yCVCO-fat //.€ CV CKCTTao-et Kai idCtV aVTOV AeyOVTa /XOt Jerusalem. 

S-Trevo-oi/ Ktti t^fXOi iv Ta;(ct e^ IcpovcraXijfJi, SioTt oiu 

igTrapaSe^ovTat crov /xapTvptav irtpi ifxov. Kayoj cittov 

Kvpte, avTOt iiriCTTavTai otl eyw rjfxrjv (fivXaKL^oif kol 

Sepiov KaTo. Tots 0"vvayu)yas Tovs 7r60"T€7;ovTas evrt o"e* 

20 Kttt OT€ e^c^vfvcTO TO al/xa ^T€(f>dvov TOV ixdpTvp6<i crov, 
/cat a^TO? >7/A>7v e(^ecrTo)9 Kai cweuSoKOJV Kat (^vXdcraruiV 

21 Tct IjxdTta Tcov dvatpovvTUiv avTOV. Kat eiTrcv tt/oos 
/A€ rio/acvov, OTt €yw ets c^vvy jxaKpav i^aTrocrTeXoi 

22 O'c. Hkodov 8c avTOx) a;>^pt tovtoi; tou A-oyou Kat Rage and fury 
, ^ V J V J - X / A ■5' . V '^ ^ of the people, 
€7rrjpav Ti]v cpwvrjv avTOiV AeyovTCS Atpc aTro Tr^s yr/s 

23 TOV ToiovTov, ov yap KaOrJKev avTov Cfj^- Kpavya^ovTOJV 


24 XovTMV €is TOV ctcpa eKeXcvcTey 6 ^iXtap^^^O'? elordyecrOaL Intervention 
OLVTov eis TT/v 7rapeix/3oXr]v, ctTras fxdcTTt^iv avcTa^ec^at 

avTov tva CTriyvoi 8t r^v atTtav ovTcos Itt(.(Jhdvovv avrw. 

25 0)9 0€ 7rpo€T€Lvav avTov Tot9 t/xdctv ctTrev Trpos tov Paul, about to 

eO-T(OTa CKttTOVTap^OV 6 IlavXo? Et dvOpoiTTOV PcO/XatOV declares his 
, , , ^ , ^ ,5, . / r>v « Roman citizen- 

20 Kat aKaTaKpiTOv €^€(ttlv vfXLv fxaa'TLL,€LV ; UKOvaas oc o ship. 



Lysias brings 
Paul before the 
Sanhedrin (first 

Paul and the 
high priest 

Violent dissen- 
sion between 
the Pharisees 
and Sadducees. 

iKaTOVTap)(r}<; TrpoaeXOoiV tw ^tXtap^o) dirr/yyeLXev Xiyuiv 
Tt ytxeXXet? TTOLelv; o yap avOp(jJ7ro<s ovTO^ Po)/xaios 
icTTLV. TTpoaeXOMV Se 6 ^iXiap^o^ cTttcv avT(Z A eye 27 
jxoL, (TV l?wfxaLO<^ €l; 6 8c €cf>r] Nat'. aireKpiOri 8c 6 28 
)(ikiap^os Eyo) TToXXoC KecfiaXatov rrjv TToXiTiLav rav- 
rrjv iKTrjcrafxrjv. 6 8e navAos erf>Y] Eyo) Se koi. 
yeyevi'rjfiac. eu^eco? ovj/ aTrecTT-qaav dtr avrov ol fxeX- 29 
Xovres avTOV av€Tat,€iV • koL 6 >^tA.i'ap^os 8e e<f>ol37]0r] 
i7rLyvov<i on Pw/xatos ecrrtv Kat on avrov tjv S€8eKu)?. 

T^ 8e iiravpLov /3ouXo/x€vo? yi^wvai to aa<l>aXk<; to Tt 30 
Karr}yop(XTai viro tiZv lovSatiov eXvaev avrov, Kal eKeXev- 
(T€v (TvveXOeLv rov<^ ap^upei'i Kat irav to crvviSpioy, Kal 
Karayayojv tov IlavA-ov earrjaev ei5 avTOVS. aT^vtaas Se i 
IlavXos Tw crvveSpLio enrev "AvSpes aSeXcfiOL, cyw 7rd(rY) 
o-vj/ct8r;o-ei ayaOfj TreTToXiTevfXaL t<3 ^cw a^pt TavTT^s rrjs 
TJlJL€pa<s. 6 8e ap^Lep€v<s 'Avavtas eTrera^ev rot's TrapecrTw- 2 
o"iv auTW TVTTTetv ttVTov TO (Trofxa. ror€ 6 IlavXos Trpos 3 
avrov elnev Tvirretv cc fxiXXei 6 Oio^;, TOt^c KiKovLafieu^' 
Kat av KaOrj Kpivwv fxe Kara rbv vofxov, Kal Trapavofxwv K€- 
X€V€L<; /xervTrricrOaL; ot 8e Trapeo-TWTes ctTrav Tov ap)(L- ^ 
epea rov Oeov AotSopcts; ecfir] re 6 ITavXog Ovk ySeiv, 5 
dSeX^ot, OTt iarlv dp^Lepevs' yiypairrai yap on "ApvONTA 
TOY Aaoy coy oyk epeic kakooc. Vvov<i 8€ 6 l\avXo<;6 
on ro €v /x€po<; iarlv ^aSSovKaiotv ro Se irepov ^apiaraiisiv 
cKpa^ev iv rw (rvve^ptio "ArS/ocs dSeX(fiOL, iyw ^apiaalo^ 
el/XL, vlos ^apLcraiwv ' Trepl eX7rt8o? Kal dva(rrda€(D<i ve- 
Kpo)v Kpivofxai. rovro 8c avTov XaXovvro<i eyeVcTO arao-ts 7 
rdiv ^apiaaioiv kal !Sa88ot)Kata)v, Kat lcr)(^Lcr6y] ro irXijOos. 
2a88oDKatot yap Xeyovaiv fir] ctrat dvdcrraaLV fxrjre ay- 8 
ycXov p'tjre irvevp-a, ^apcaaloL 8e ofxoXoyovaiv rd dfx^o- 
repa. iyivero 8e Kpavyyj fxeydXrj, Kal dva(TrdvT€<; rivksg 
T<j)v ypafxfxar€.(jiv rov fxepovi rwv ^aptaaioiv 8te/>ta^oi/TO 
AcyovTcs Ov8cv KaKov ivpicTKOfxev iv t(5 dvBpwTna rovrio' 


10 €t 8e TTvevfxa i\dXr]a£v avT(^ i] ayyeXo?— . noA-Xi^g Sk 

yuofX€vr)<; crxttoretus (ftofSqOel? 6 ;(iA.t'ap^os /xyj btaaTraaOrj Paul rescued 

* TT '^\ < ' » ^ » ''\ V / o\ by Lysias. 

o IJavAos VTT avT(DV cKeAcvcrev to crrparcu/xa Karapav 

apTrdcraL avTOV Ik fiiaov avTujv, aycu-' el's ttjv Trapcfx/So- 

1 1 Xi^v. Trj Se ImovcrYi vvkti cTrtcrras avruJ 6 KvpLO<s His vision. 
ctTTCv @dp(T€L, ojs yap StcfJiapTvpoi ra irepl Ifxov ets Icpov- 

1 2 (xaXriix ovTco cre Set Kai €ts Tujfxrjv fxaprvprjaaL. Ve- 

V0fxivr]S 8c rjixipa<i 7roLr]cravT€S crvorTpocfiyjv ol 'lovSaiot The conspiracy 

i A ' t \ / ' />/ ^to murder him 

avwefxaTLcrav eavrovs Xcyovres /xryrc (fiayelv /xyjre ttciv 

13 €(jOS otj d7roKT€iV(iJO"iv Tov YiavXov. ^crav §€ 7rA.€t'ot;s 
Tccro'epaKovra ot ravriqr rrjv crvvmiJioaiav Trotrycra/xcvof 

14 OlTll'eS 7rpOO"€X^OVT€9 T0t9 dp)^L€p(.vcriv KoX Toi^ 7rp€(T/3vTe- 
poLS eiTrai/ ^AvaOipaTL dveOeixaTLcraiixev kavToi'S fxr]0€v6<5 

I S) yivaacrOai etos ov aTroKretVco/xev rot' UavXov. vvv ovv 
vfX€LS iiJi(f>avL<TaTe t<2 ^tA-iap^^w crvv to) o'vi^eSptw ottw? 
KaTaydyrj avrov ct? t'/xas cos //.eAXovras SiaytvojcTKeiv 
dKpi(ii(TT^pov TO. irepl avrov- r^/tcts Se Trpo tov lyyiaai 

16 avrov €TOLixoL iafxev rov dveXuv avrov. AKOwa? 8e 6 

vto? T^s dB€X(f>rj<s UavXov 7r]V iviSpav Trapaycvo/xevo? revealed to 

\,>>/lv ,N /3\^>' \ -TT'\ Paul by his 

Kttt €icreAf7wi/ ets T^v Trape/xpoAijv anr]yy€i.A€v no llavAcu. nephew. 

1 7 TrpocrKaXiadfXivos Sc 6 IlaOAos eva twv eKaroi/Tap^cui/ 
€^r^ Tov vcavtW roirrov aTraye Trpos toi/ ^iXiap^^ov, e;(et 

18 yap aTrayyetXat Tt avrw. 6 /xev ovv irapaXa^wv avrov 
rjyayiv irpos rov ^tA.tap^ov Kat (^-qariv O'; IlavAos 
TrpocTKaXecrdixsvos /xe rjpiorrja-€v rovrov rov v^aviav dya- 

ig yelv irpos o'e, €)^ovrd tl XaXijaai crot. cViAa^o/xcvo? 

8c T")^? ^ctpos avToO 6 ^tAtap^os Kat dva^o)pr](ra<s Kar loiav 

20 Ittvv 6 dv^ro Tt iariv o i)(^eL<i dirayyetXaL /jlol; etTrev 8c 
oTt Ol 'Iov8atoi o-vveOevro rov ipwrrjcrai a€ ottws avptov 
rov IlavA-oi/ Karaydyrjs cts to o"wc8ptoi/ ojs fxeXXwv Tt 

2 1 aKpifSicxrepov TrvvOdvea-OaL avrov • ctv ouv /u-t; ttci- 
aOy*; avrots, cvcSpcvovcrtv yap avrov i$ avrwv avSpes 
ttXciovs Teo"0"cpa/coi/Ta, otTtvcs dviOefxdrLa-av iavrovs /ai^tc 



Preparation of 
the escort. 

The letter of 
Lysias to Felix. 

Paul conveyed 
to Caesarea. 

by Felix. 

Second trial, 
before Felix. 

^ayctv fJi'^Te ttciv €co9 ov avikdiCTLV avTOV, Kai vvv ctcrtv 
€T0i[X0L TTpoaSe^^OfxevoL TTjv ttTTO aov eirayyekiav. 6 fjikv 22 

ovv y(i\Lap)(pf; aTreXvcre rbv v^aviaKov TrapayyciXa? 
IxrjSevl iKXaXrjcrai otl ravra ive<f}dvL<ra<; Tr/ao? ifxe. Kat 23 
7rpoaKa\€(Td{X€v6<s Tiva<5 Svo tojv eKarovrap-^uiv enrev 
'EiTOLfxaaare (Trparnx)Ta<i hiaKoaiovi ottws TropevOoiaLV 
e(jOS Katcrapms, Kat iTTTrets iftSo/xyKOvra Kai 8e^ioXa- 
jSovs SiaKOCTLovs, ttTTO rpLTr]<; wpa? riys vuktos, KTTJvr] 24 
re Trapaarrjaai iva eTriySt/Sacavres tov IlauAov 8ia- 
o'wcrojcrt Trpos $r^A.iKa tov rjyefxova^ ypaif/a<i eTricrroXrjv 25 
c;>(ovc7av roi' tvttoi/ tovtov KXavSios Kvcria^ tw 26 

KpaTLCTTiii rjyifxovi ^iJXlkl ^atpctv. Toi/ dvSpa tovtov 27 
crvXX.r]ix(f>0€VTa viro twv lovSaoov Kai /xcXAovTa dvaLp^i- 
(rOai VTT avTwv eTrnjTas aiJV tw (TTpaTevfiaTL €^€tXap,7yv, 
fxaOoiV OTL *Pw^atos cfrriv, /?odXo/x€vos re €7rtyvo>vat tt^v 28 
aiTtav 81' 171^ €i/cKaA.ovi' auTW [Karr/yayoi/ cis to (rvviSpLov 
aurwv]. oV evpov eyKaXov/xcvov Trepi t.rjTrjp.dTiov tov 29 
vo/xov avTwv, pLTjSkv Be a^tov Oavdrov rj SecrfXiSv e^ovra 
eyKXrjfxa. ixr]vvO€L(Tr]<5 8e /xot iTrt^ovXrjs €t? t6i/ avSpa 30 
eaeaOaL i^avTrj^ tir^pApa 7rp6<; ae, irapayy^iXas koX to2<s 
KarrjyopoL^ Xiynv irpos avTov ctti o-ov. Oi fxev ^i 

ovv aTpaTiioTaL Kara, to SiaTeTaypiivov avrots di^aXa- 
jSovTe^ TOV ITttvAov rjyayov 8ta vvktos eis Tr}v Avtl- 
7rarpt8a' Trj 8e liravpiov eaorai/rcs tovs iTTTrets ctTrep- 32 
\ecrOaL aw avTio VTrea'Tpcij/av cis t^v Trapefx^oXrjV' 
omv€S €to"eA.^ovT€s €t? T^v Kat(7apiav Kat dva8ovT€S 33 
TT^v e7rto"ToX7}i/ Tw rjyefxovL TrapiaTrjaav koI tov IlavAov 
avTio. dvayvovs Be Kat e7r€pu)Tr)aa<; €K Trota? inap^eia^ 34 

£0"Ttl/ Kttt 7rv6ofJ.€VOS OTL OLTTO KtXtKta? AtttKOfO'O/Xat 0"0U, 35 

€^77, orav Kttt ot KaTT^yopoL aov irapayivoiVTaL' KcXcwas 
€1/ T(3 TrpatTtopto) ToG 'Hpa)8oi; (fivXdacrecrOaL avTov, 

Mextt 8e ttcVtc r/^aepas KaTefirf 6 dpXLepevs 'AvavLWi i 
/x,€Ta Trpe(T^VT€p(DV TLV<jJV Kat p7]Topo<; TepTvXXov tlvos, 


2 orTii'€s iv€(f>dvLaav tw tjyefxovL Kara tov IlavAov. K\q- 

6evT0<s Se \avTOv} rjo^aro Kar-nyop^lv 6 TepTvXA.os Acyojv Speech of 
^ \ , , \ y '»vo/i/ Tertullus. 

IIoXXt^s ilprjvrj^ Tvy^avovres ota aov icai otopuioixaTiov 

3 yivofxivdiv TO) tOv€i rovrta 8ta T'fj's a"rj^ Trpovoias Travrr} re 
Kol -Trai/Ttt^ov diroSi^OfjieOa, KpaTtcrre (i>'qXL$, /xera Trd(rrj<; 

4 €V)(apL(7TLa<5. iva 8e /a^ ctti ttXciov o"e evKOTrruj, 7rapa/caA.(l3 

5 aKovaraL ere Tjfxwv avvT6/xui<i rfj arj cTrtciKta. evpovT€<5 yap 
TOJ/ avSpa TOVTov XoLfxov Koi KLVovvra (rracrets Tracrt rots 

louSatots rots Kara t7]v olKOVfxivrjv TrpuiTOCTTdTrjy t€ Tij'S 

6 Twv Na^copatojv aipecrcws, 69 Kai to Upov iTTCipacrev ^e- 

8 I3r)\u)(rai, ov kol e/cpaTi^(jap,cv, Trap' oi^ Svvrjar] avro? dva- 
Kptva^ TTcpt rravTixiv ro-vTOiv £7rtyvo3i/at a>v rj/ji€L<; Karrjyopov- 

9 /oiev avTov. crvveiriBevTO 8e Kat ot 'louSatot cfid(TKOvT€<s 

10 TttVTa ovTcosc^^etv. ^ KireKpiOrj tco IlayAos vcwavros avroJ 

TOV rjye.fXOVO'S XeyCtV Ek TToXXcoV €T(0V OVTa crc KpirrfV Paul's defence. 
T<3 c^v€t TovTw iTrLcrrdfxevo'i ev^t;yaw9 to. Trcpt ifxavTOv 

1 1 a,7roXoyov//ai, 8wap.€vou crou CTTcyi'wi/at, OTt ov TrXetovs 
€to"tv /xot rjfxepai SoiSeKa a^' r/s dve^rjv 7rpo<TKvv7]aiov €ts 

12 Icpovo^aAryp,, Kat ovTe ev tw Upw evpov fxe irpo^ riva 
StaAcyop-cvov 7; €TTL(rTa(rLV Trotovi/Ta o;(Aov ovTe ev Tats 

1 3 o-waywyats ovre Kara rrjv ttoXlv, ovSc irapacrTrjcraL hv- 

14 vavrai (Tonrept wv vvvl KaTrjyopovcriv /xov. ofioXoyw 8k 


AaTpcvo) Tc3 TraTpwo) ^ecu, 7rto"T€vajv Tracrt TOts KaTo, t6i/ 

1 5 vofxov KOL TOts ev Tots 7rpo(f)r]TaL<i yeypap-p-evois, cATrtSa 
€^((01' €ts t6v ^coj/, r)v KOL avTol ovTOL Trpoo'8€^oi/Tai, 

i6a.vao'Tacrtv ^eAActv eaeaOat StKaiwv t€ Kat dStKwv €v 


17 Trp6s TOj/ a€6v Kat TOV? avOpojTTOvs 8ta Trai/Tos. 8t* ctoji/ 
8c TrActOKOV €A€T7/xoo"vvas TTOLtjcrwv €ts t6 €6vO<5 fXOV 

18 Trapeyevopryv Kai 7rpo(Tcf>opa<s, iv ats evpov fxe TjyvKr/xivov 
iv Tw i€pa), ov p-CTo, o^Aov ov8€ p,€Ta 0opv/3ov, TLvks 8k 

19 ttTTO TTys 'Ao"tas 'Iov8atot, ovs eSet ctti o-ov Trapctvai Kat 


KaTYjyopelv et Tt €\ot€v Tr/aos efte,— r] avTol ovtol ctTra- 20 

TUicav TL evpov dStKTjfxa (Ttcivtos ftov ctti. tov avveoptov 

rj TTipl fxias TavTr)<i <l>oivrj^ rj<; CKCKpa^a iv avTOts caTws^i 

OTt IIcpi avao-racrews vcKpwv cyoj Kpivopai arjfjiepov €<j> 

vfxcjjv. *Av€^aXero Sk avTov<; 6 ^rj\L$, aKpi/SeaTcpov 22 

The case €tS(jbs TO. TTcpl T«s 6S0V, ctVa? Orav AucTtas 6 Yi/Vtapvo9 

deferred. ^ ^ ^ /i»e-^ <> >/ /^ 

Kara/Syj 8iayvwcrop,ai rot. Kaa u/xas ' oiara^a/xei'os T(3 23 

kKOJ ovTap^rf TrjpeiaOai avrov ^X'^iv re ai^cfrtv kol ix-q^iva 

KwXvcii^ Twv tStwv aiTov v7rr]p€Tetv avT<^. Mero. 24 

Felix and §€ yfxcpa'i TLvas Trapayevo/xei'os 6 ^tJXl^ avv ApovcTLkXr) 

7fj lSlo. yvvaiKl ova-rj 'lovSatia jaercTre/xi/zaTO tov IlavXor 

Kai rjKovaev avTOv Trept ti^s cis Xpio"Toi' It^ctouv Trtfrrecos. 

StaXcyo/xcj/ov Sc avTOV irepl SiKaioawiys Kal cyKparcta? 25 

Kttt Toi) KpLjxaTO'i rov fxe\XovTO<i €ix<po(3o<i yevofX€VO<s o 

<PrjkL$ aTrcKpiOr] To vvv €;^ov TTopcvou, Kaipov 8c fiera- 

Aa^oji' p.eraKa\i< ere • ap,a Kat eXTrt^wi/ on ^pT/para 26 

SodtjaeTaL [avraJ] {jtto toD IlavAov 8to Kai Tri^KVorepoi/ 

avroi/ p,CTa7r€p,7rop.evo? (op.tA.ct avTw. Aiertas 0€ 27 

After two years 7rXr]pu)0€L(Tr]<; eXa^ev 8ta8o;(oi/ 6 ^rjXi$ UopKiov ^rj(TTOv' 
Festus succeeds , - 'T S; ' ' ,T^ -^X ^ 

Felix. aeAwv re x.apira KaTaUea-uai rot? louoatoi? o <P7yAi^ 

KareA-tTTC toi' TlavA-ov Scbcpcioj/. 
Festus refuses ^7J(TTO<; ovv CTTt^as T^ £7rap^£ta p,€Ta Tpcts 7]fxepa<s 1 

the request that ,//->, >t /\ > v rr ' ' _t ' ' 

S. Paul should aviprj €t9 UpoaoXvfxa airo Kato-apia?, evc^ai/to-ai' t€ 2 

be brought to »««j « \c '^ "'t^' \« 

Jerusalem. avTO) ot ap;(t€pet? Kttt ot TTpojTot Twv lovoatwj/ Kara rov 

IlavXoi;, Kttt TrapeKaXovv avrov atrovp-cvot x^P'-*' '^^''" 3 

avTov oTTOos peTaTTcp-i/zTyTat avrov ci's 'lepoDcraXryp., eveopai/ 

7rotoi}i'T€9 dveXctv avrov Kara rrjv oSov. o fxev ovv 4 

^170-709 aireKpiOr] rrjpexaOai rov UavXov ets Kato-aptav, 

eavTov Se fxiXX^tv iv Ta^ct £K7ropcv€0-^at • Ot ol-v cv 5 

vp,tr, <fir](TLv, 8vvaTot avvKara(3dvT€S ct, Tt tartv ev t<3 

av8pt aroTTov KarrjyopetTcxiarav avrov. Ata- 6 

rpLif/as 8e ev avrols rjp.epa<i ov rrXiiovi okto) 17 8€Ka, 


Kara^as els Kaicraptav, rfj erravpiov Kadicras iirl tov 

7 ^rjfxaTos iKekevcrcv tov HavXov a)(Br)vat. Trapayevo- S. Paul before 

/ 5>v > « / J V c » \ >T \ / Festus appeals 

jjLcvov oe avTOv 7r€pL€(TTrj(rav avrov ot arro lepocroAviJiwv to Caesar 

00' 'tS;-" \\^ ^ O ' ■> ' (third trial). 

KaTapeprjKOTes lovoaLOt, TroAAa Kat papea atTcw/xara 

KaTa(f)ipovTe<; a. ovk i(T)(yov aTroSct^ai, tov IlavAov 

8 aTroXoyovjxivov on Ovre eis rov vofxov tco(/ lovSatcov 

9 ovT€ eh TO lepbv ovTe eh Katcrapa tl ^fxapTov. 6 
^^(TTos Se OeXojv rots 'louSatots X^P''^ KaTaOeaOai 
diroKptdeh tw HavA-o) cittcv ©cA-et? ets 'lepocroXvfxa 

10 dvaPas eKel irepl tovthjv Kpiurjvai kir e/xov; ecTrev Se 6 
TiavXos Eo"Tcbs €771 TOV jSrjiJiaTOS Katcrapos eljxi, ov fxe 
Set KpLveaOaL. 'lovSatovs ovSev yjSiKrjKa, ws Kat crv 

11 KctA-Xtov €7rtytV(oo-Ket9, et />tev oi>x/ aStKco Kat d^tov 
OavaTov TreVpa^^a ti, ot' TrapatTovfxaL to aTroOavelv el 
Se ovSev ecTTiv wv ovtol KaTrjyopovaLv fiov, ovSeh fxe 

1 2 Swarat avToh xaptcraa-Oai • KaiVapa TOTe 

6 ^rjaTos avvXaXrjaas /xera tov crufxISovXiov direKpiOiq 

Katcrapa eTTtKCKXi^crat, eiri Katcrapc, iropevcrrj. 

J 3 'H/xcpojv Sc 8tay€vop,€i/(uv rti/wv Ayptinraq o ySacrt- Agrippa II and 
X V V -D / ' . T^ / . / Bernice visit 

Acvs Kat iDepvtKr; KaTrjVTiqcrav €ts lvato"aptav acnra(Ta- Festus, 

i4p,€VOt TOV ^rjcTTov. (09 8e irXeLov; iqfxipas BieTptfiov 

eKel, 6 <I>75(rT05 tw /3acrtA,€t dveOeTo to, Kara tov IlavXot' 

Xeywv ^Avrjp tU eariv KaTaXeXipifxevos vtto ^yjXcKoq 

15 8eo-/xto9, vrept 01! yevo/xevov /jlov eh 'lepoo-oXv/xa kve(j>d- 
VLcav ot ap>(t€p€t? Kat 01 irpecr^vTepoi t(Zv 'lovSatwv, 

16 atrov/jtevot Kar aiirov KaraStKT/v Trpos ovs aTreKpLOrjv 
OTL OVK ea-TLV eOos 'Poo^atois )^apLt,eaOat Tiva dvOpcDirov 
Trptv ry o KaTYiyopovpLevos Kara Trpoaoirrov 'e)(^0L tovs 
KaTtjyopovs TOTTOv T€ ctTroA-oyta? Xd(3oL irepl tov eyKX-q- 

I'j jxaTos. avveXdovTiDV ovv ivOdSe ava/SoXrjv /xrjSefJLiav 
TTOLrja-a/xevos Trj e$rj<i KaOiaas iirl tov (BrjfJMTOS eKeXevcra 

18 a)(^9rjvaL tov avSpa* Trept ov (TTaOevTes ol Karrfyopot 

19 ovoe/XLav aiTiav ecf>epov ojv eyo) vrrevoovv Trovrjpuiv^ ^''^tv- 

B. A. 5 


fxara 8e nva irepl tt/s tSt'as SetcriSai/xoi/tas €t;(Ov Trpo? 
avTOV Kat irepL rtvbs 'Irycrov TeOvqKoro^, bv €(fiaaK€v 6 
IlavA-os ^T^v. dTropovfxevo<i Se iyw riqv Trepi tovtodi/ 20 
t,T]Tr](rLV eA-tyov et ^ovXolto irop^v^aOai ei? Iepo(7oA.Vjaa 
KaKCt KpLvecrOaL rrepl tovtwv. tov Se IIai;A.oi; €7rtKa-2i 
Xccrayutevov TrjprjOrjvai avrov €ts t-^v toi) "^c/Sao-TOv 
Scdyvdicnv, iKeXevaa TrjpelaOac avTov ew? ov dv air efjuf/o) 
avTov Trpos Kaitrapa, 'AyptTTTras 8e Trpos tov <I>';70'Tov 22 
Yif3ov\6ixr)v KOL avTO'? tov dvOpwirov aKovaai. Avptov, 
S. Paul before (f>r)(TLV, oLKOvarj avTov. Tfj ovv Irravpiov 23 

Agrippa and ,,^, ^,/ ^""D ' ^ W" 

Festus (fourth eA(7ovTOS TOV AyptTTTTa Kttt T>;s i5€pvLKr]<; fjiera TroAAr/s 

trial). , , ^ ^ \ n ' >\» ' / 

^avTatrtas Kat €to-eAc7ovT(oi/ ets to aKpoar-qpiov (tvv re 

^tXtap^ot? Ktti dvSpdatv Tot? Kar i$o)(r)v tt^s TroXecos 

Kttt KcXcwai/TO? Tou <I'r;o-TOV fJX^l ^ liavXo?. Kat 24 

<f37jcnv 6 ^ijcTTO^ 'AyptTTTTa ySacriAev Kat 7Tai/T€5 ot 

(Ti^VTTapovTes 77/xtv avSpeq, OeoipeTre tovtov TTcpt 01; aTTav 

TO Tr\7J6o<; Twv "lovSaiiov eviTV)(iv jxol ev tc IcpocroA.v- 

^ots Kat evOdSc, /3o(oi/tc9 ja^ Selv avrbv ^rjv fxrjK€TL. 

cyo) 8e KarekalSofxrjv fxrjSlv a^iov avrbv Oavdrov TTCTTpa- 25 

Ycvat, avToG 8c totjtov CTrtKaAco-a/xevov tov ^ijSacTTOV 

€Kpiva TT€p.7Tetv. 7T€pt ov d(T<j>aXi<5 TL ypdij/UL T(Z Kvpua 26 

ovK €)((i)' Slo TTporjyayov avrov icf) vfxujv Kat pcdXtaTa 

cttI croC, /3a(TL\ev 'AyptTTTTa, ottoo^ t^s dvaKpio-ews yevo- 

/ji6vrys o'X^ ''"'• ypd\p(Ji' dXoyov yap /xot Sok€L TT€/XTTOVTa 27 

heafXLov fxy] Kat tols KaT* auToi) atTtas a-qixdvai. AyptTT- 1 


o-cavTOV Xcyetv. totc 6 HavA-os CKTCiva? r-Jyv X^'^P" 
Paul's defence. aTTeXoyctTO Ilept TTavT(ov tuv iyKaXovfxai viro lov8atwv, 2 
/Saa-iXiv 'AyptTTTTa, rjyqfxai i/xavrbv /xaKaptov €TTt o-ov 
/xeXXo)V atj/xepov aTroXoyeladaL, fxaXtcTTa yv(acrTr]v ovrof ^^ 
(re TTttVTtov Tcov Kara 'Ioi;8atoi;s iOoiv re Kat ^T/Try/xaTwv • 
His early life. 8to Seo/xat fxaKpoBvpua^ aKOvarai fiov. Tr/v ^tv ouv 4 
^lojo-tv /xoD CK vcoTT^TO? T-^v citt' ctp^^S ycvo/xcvr^v €V T(3 


eOvet fxov tv re 'IcpocroA.i;yutois taaat 7rai/T€9 'louSatot, 

5 irpoyiVixxTKovris /u.e avwOev, iav 6iX(ji(Tt fxapTvpelv, otl 
Kara ttjv aLKpif^ecTTanqv alpecriv Trj<; ry/xerepa? OprjaK€Lag 

6 itpTjcra <l>aptcrato9. Kat vvv ctt eXTrtSt tt79 €19 tov9 
7raT€ptt9 rj/jioiv CTrayyeXta? y€vofJi€vy]<; vtto tov Oeov 

7 ecrrrjKa Kptv6fxevo<;, €19 171^ to SoiSeKoicfivXov -^/xojv iv 

eKT€V€ia vvKja kol yjfxipav Xarpevov eA.7rt^€t Kurav- The hope of 

V ■? ,x /o, , . « , V >T o / Israel and the 

TTjaaf TrepL 7)9 eA7rt0O9 eyKaAov/xai vtto lovoaiwr, resurrectic 


S /BacnXiV' ri amcrTov KptVextti Trap' u/xtv ct 6 ^€09 

9 vefcpov9 iy€Lp€L; Eyw /x.ev ow eSo^a IjxavTio 7rpo9 to 

ovo/Jia Irjaov tov Na^ojpat'ou Setv ttoXA-o. IvavTta irpa^ai • 

106 /cat eTTOirjaa iv l^pocroXvfxoLS, Kat 7roAAov9 Te tcoi/ His persecution 
« / ' V ' J \ - ' \ V V ^ , of the church. 

aytojv €y(jL) ev (pvAaKais KareKketcra Tr]v irapa riav ap- 

^(tepeajv i^ovcriav Aa^oji/, avaipovpiivuiv tc avTojv Karij- 

1 1 vcyKtt if/rjcfiov, kol Kara Trdcra^ Ta9 0'ui/aya)ya9 7roA.Aa/ct9 
TL/JLwpwv avTOV<s rjvdyKa^ov (3Xaa<:fi7]fX€iV, TrepLavroi'; t€ 
e/a/xa6^0/A€V09 avr6i<s iSiOiKov €009 Kat £t9 Ta9 e^oJ 7rdAei9. 

12 El/ 01,9 7rop€VO/xei'09 €t9 Tr/i/ Aa/xaaKOV /xct' e^ouo-ta? 

13 Kat e7rtTpo7n79 tt79 Ttov dp\i€pioiv rjixepa<i jxiar-q'^ Kara 

rrjv obov elSov, /SaatXev^ ovpavodcv VTrep rr]v Xajxirpo- His conversion. 
Tr/Ttt TOV rjXiov TrcpiXafXipav fJL€ ^(09 Kat Tovs crvv ifioi 

14 7ropeDop.ei/oi;9* Trai/Twv tc KaraTTicroi'TOiv rjjXiZv €19 t'^i/ 
yvyv rjKovaa cf)wv7]v Xiyovaav 7rpo9 /xe tt^ 'EySpatSi Sta- 
XeKTio SaoTjA. 2aoi»A., Tt /xe SiuiKei'?; aKXtjpov aoi 7rpo9 

i5K€i/Tpa AaKTt^etv. eyoj 8e ctTra T19 ei, Kvpie; 6 8k 

16 Kvpio<i €L7r€v Eyoj €t^t 'I'i7(ro{)9 ov ctv 8tajKet9' dXXd 
dvacrr-qOi Kat CTH0I eni TOyc noAAC COy €t9 TOVTO 
yap w<f>Or)v aoi, Trpo-^upiaaaOaL ae VTrrjpeTrjv Kal p-dp- 

17 Tvpa wv T€ £t8€9 />t€ iiiv Tt oc^iOrjcropLaL oroL, elAipoyMeNOC 
C6 €K TOV Aaov Kat eK TOON eSNOON, eic ofc ef(x> 

iSAnocreAAoo ce anoiIai o^BaAmoyc avrwv, tov e-m- 
aTpeif/ai ATTO CKOTOyc eiC 0(jOC Kat t^9 €^ovata9 rov 
2aTava evrt tov $€ov, tov XafSalv avTovs d<f>€(rLv d/xap- 





His arrest. 

The suffering 
of the Messiah 

TLWV KOLL kXtJPOV iv TOt? V^yiaG fxivOd TTtCTTCt rjl €19 e/x€. 

O^ev, f^acTiXev 'Ayptinra, ovk iyevofxrjv aTreiOr]^ rfj 19 
ovpavLo) OTTTaaia, aWa rot? iv Aa/xacrKW irpoiTov t€ koL 20 
The mission to lepoaoXvfxoL'?, iracrav re ttjv vtopai/ rrj<; 'lovSatag, koI 

the Gentiles. « v/i j / 

TOts euveaLV aTzr^yyeXXov fxeraioeiv kol eTrtcrrpe^eti/ 
CTTt Tov ^eov, a^ta tt^s /xeravota? cpya TrpdcrcrovTa'^. 
ev€Ka TovTdiv /X€ 'lovSatot avWa^ofxevot iv tw tcpw ^ i 
CTretpwrTo hia^eipiaacrOat. CTTiKOvpias o^i^ ti;;^wv t^9 22 
aiTO Tov 6eov o.y^pL T17? v^/xepas Taurry? ecrrrjKa jxapTvpo- 
/i,ei/o? p.LKp<2 re Kat fxeyaXw^ ovSkv iKT6<; Xiyiov wv re 01 
7rpo(jirJTaL iXaXrjaav fxeXXovrwv ytvecrBai koi Mwucn^?, 
€t TraOrjTos o p^ptoros, et Trptoros t^ tti/acrraaeoos 23 
vcKpiiiv cfiws /xeA-Act KaTayycAXeiv' ro) re XaoJ Kai roi? 
Wvea-LV. TaiSra Se avroC aTroXoyov/xei/ov 6 24 

^r}(TT0<5 fxeyaXr] rfj (fiwvfj cfirjaiv MatV?^, QaiiAe* ra 
TToXAa 0"€ ypafxpara ei? [xaviav iripiTpiiTei. 6 Se 25 
IlavXo? Ol; fxacvofxaL, (ftrjcnv, KpaTLcrre ^rjarc, aAXa 
aXrjdeias. kol crox^pocrwiys pyjjxaTa aTroffiOeyyofxaL. 
CTTiVraTat yap Trept tovtojv 6 ^acriXev?, irpos bv Trap- 26 
pr)aiat,oiii€vo<; XaXw' XavOaveiv yap avrov rovTdiv ov 
ireiOop-ai ovOiv, ov yap iartv Iv yuivia irewpay/xevov 
TOVTO. irLcrT€V€i<;, ^acTiXev 'AyptVTra, toi? 7rpo(j)r]Tai<s; 27 
otSa on 7rLaT€V€L<i. 6 8e 'Aypt7r7ra§ Trpos roi/ ITaiJAov 28 
'El/ oAiyo) ^e TTCt^et? Xptcrriavov TroirjaaL. 6 Se IlavAo? 29 
YiV^aip-rfv av toJ ^€a> Kat ev oAtyo) Kai ei/ /xeyaAu) ou 
fxovov ere aAAa Kat Travra? tods aKOVOi/ras ^ou arjfJiepov 
yeviaOaL tolovtov^ ottoIo'; Kat eyw elfXL TrapeKTOS rcov 
Scor/xwv TOVTiDV. ^Avearr] re 6 ySacrtAcvs Kat 30 

6 riy€.}X(siV Tj T€ BepvLKY] Kttt ol avvKa6rjfX€VOi avTOts, Kat 31 
dva)(^ui}py]crapTe<s iXaXovv Trpos aAAT^Aous Xeyovrcs otl 
OvSev OavoLTOv rj Seafioiv d^tov Trpdaaet 6 dv6piiiTro<i 
ovTos. 'AyptTTTras Se t<5 ^7\(Tr(a €(f>rj ATroXeXvcrOac 32 
c8vi/aro 6 av6pui7ro<i oi'Tos ct //.i^ iTreK^KXrjTO Kaicrapa. 

S. Paul and 


r 'Qs 8e iKpiOrj tov aTroTrXetv ry/txa? eU Tr]v IraXiav, The voyage 

r J , J , to Rome. 

TrapeStSouv toj^ re XlavA-ov Kat rtva? erepovq Oerr/xwra? Paul in the 

, , , -^ n •^ ' charge of Julius. 

2 CKarovrap;^ oi/o/xart lovAto)'q^ SepaaTT^s. ctti- 

PdvT€<; Se ttXolw ' ASpafxvvTr]V(^ fxeWovTi 7rA.ctv €t? tov5 

Kara rr/v 'Acrtav tottov? avrixBr]a(.v, ovtos (Tuv t/^ij/ 

^^Apto-TOLp^^ov MaKeSoi'09 0€cro-aA.oviK€a)s- tt7 re ercpa 

KaT7J)(Br]fJL€V 6ts 2t8o3ra, ^iXav^pojTrco? re o Iov/\ios ro) Sidon. 

IlavAa) ^p-qa-a.fxivo'; eTrerpci/'cv Trpos rors <f>L\ov<; iropev- 

4 ^ei^Tt e7rt/x€X€ta9 ri^x^t^- KO-Ket^ev dva;j^^€VT€9 v7re7rA.ev- 
cra/xev t^v KvTrpov Sto. to tov5 avefxov^ etvat cvarrtoi;?, 

5 TO T€ TreAayo? to /caTO, Tr)v KiAiKtav Kat Ua/xc^vAtav 
Sta7rAevo"ai'T€9 KaTr)X6a^€.v €t? Muppa to^s AvKtas. Myra. 

6 KctKet evpojv 6 €KarovTdp)(r]<; ttAoioi' 'AAe^avSpivov ttAcov Transferred to 

\> / »o'o ' '^ » >' '< «^n Alexandrian 

7 619 T-^v iTttAtav iv^pLpacrev ry/xas et? auTo. €V tKavat? corn-ship. 
Sc tjfxipatq l3paSv7rXoovvT€S koI p,o'Ai9 yevofjuvot Kara 

Trjv KvlSov, fJLT] TrpocrcwvTos ?;/Mas tov dvifiov, vTmrXev- Cnidus, 

8 aajxev rrjv K.p7fTr]v Kara "^aXjJLwvrjv, /xoAis t€ TrapaAeyo- Crete. 
fxevoL avrrjv TjXOofJLev et? tottov tlvo. KaAou/x€vov KaAovs Fair Havens. 

9 Aifxevas, w eyyvs "Jyv ttoAis Aacrea. 'iKavov 8e 
Ypovou Stayevo/xevou Kat ovtos rjbrj iTTLcrcfjaXovs tov 
ttAoos 8ta TO Kat t^i^ vqcTTC.iav rjhr] TrapeXrjXvOevai, 

10 Trapyv€L 6 IlavAoS Aeywv aVTOt? "AvSpeg, OewpW oTt The conference. 
/XtTCl V^pCCOS Kat TToXXrjs ^7]fXLa<i OV /XOVOV TOV (f>opTtov 

Kol TOV ttXolov dAAo. Kat Tojv {f/v\o)v rjixoiv /xeAAetv 

1 1 tcrearOai tov ttXovv. o Se eKaTOVTapx^'^ tw Kv^epvrjTri 
Kat TO) vavKXrjpio fxdXXov CTrct^cTO rj Tots vtto HavAov 

1 2 Acyo/xeVots. avev^eVou 8€ tov At/xevoq v7rdp)(0VT0<; Trpoq 

Trapa^'iav ol TrAetoi/e? eOevTO /SovXrjv dva-^OrjvaL 

iKelOeVj el ttws SrratVTO KaTavTv/VavTC? ets ^oti'tKa Attempt to reach 

'/->/ v\'/i Phoenix. 

7rapa;^ei/xdo-ai, A/./xeVa Tirys KprjTrjs /SXerrovTa Kara Xipa 

13 Kat KaTO. xojpov'. 'Y7ro7rv6VO"avTO? Sc votov Oo^avTe? 
Ti7<> TrpoOeaeoi^i KCKpaTryKcVat apavTe? ao"0"ov TrapeAe- 

i4yovTO T^v Kpr^Tiyv. /xct ov ttoAv Se ejSaXev kut avTrj<i 


The E.N.E. avefxos TvcftwviKos 6 KaXov/xevos EvpaKvXcov" avvapiracr- 15 
gale, Euraquilo. „, ^^ ^., vv^ /•» _f/3\- 

UeVTOS 0€ TOV TTAOLOV Kttt fXT] Ovvafx^vov avToqiuaAjjieLV 

Tto dvefiw cTTtSovTCS icfiepofJieOa. vqacov 8e rt viroSpa- 16 

Under the lee fx6vT€S KaXov/XCVOV KavSa l(T^(TafX€.V /xoXis TTcpiKparets 

of Cauda. //i ^ /, c\>' o/i' j'n 

yev£crc7at TTy"; aKacprj^, rjv apavres poT^t/etats expiovTO 17 

VTTO^OJWlJl/TeS TO TtAoIOV (jiofSoVfXeVOL T€ fJirj €L<i TTJV 

^vpTiv iKTreauiaLv, ^€s to aKevos, ovtws c^e- 
povTo. a<f>oSp<ji<s 8e '^'eifxat^ojxiviav i^fxijiv rfj £^179 iKJBoXrjv 18 
e7roio{!i/To, Kat tt^ rpLTrj auTo^eipes t^f (TKevrjv rov 19 
TrXoiov €pi\f/av. P-^t^ Se tjXlov p.r}T€ acnpoiv iirKfiaLvov- 20 

Fourteen days TWV €7rt TT/Vctora? 7)p.epa<;, ^Ct^OJvds Te OfK oXtyOi; iTTLKCL- 
drifting in the ^ ^ «,\,.> «/}./i 

gale. fjievov, AoLTTov Treptypelro eA.7rts Traca rov awL,€<T8aL 

T^pu.<;. IIoA.Xi^9 T£ ao-iTi'as V7rap)(OV(Tr]^ rare crra^ei? 2 1 

6 IlaCAos ev /^eVo) a{»r(i5i/ etTrei^ "ESct /xck, co avSpc^, 

irciOap'^'qcravTd'S fioi [xr] dvdyecrOai diro rrj^i KpryTT7? 

KipSrjcrai T€ Trjv v^pcv ravTrjv kol T7]v tprjpiiav. kol to. 22 

vvv Trapaiviii vpLuq evOvjxdv, 0.770(^0X7] yap {f/v^r/<i ovSep-la 

eVrat i^ VjxoiV TrXrjv TOV ttXoiov irapearrj yap jixot 23 

ravTYj TTj vvktI TOV 6eov ov et/xt, w Kat Xarpevio, ayye- 

Xo<s Xiytov Mt) cf)o(3ov, UavXe' KaiVapt ce Set irapa- 24 

(TTrjvaL, Kat iSot' KC^aptcrrai o"ot 6 ^cos Travras tovs 

TrXeovTa? p^erd aov. Sto ivOv/jLUTe, ai^Spcs* Trto-rei^to 25 

yap Tw 6e<2 otl outcos earat KaO^ ov rpoirov X€XdXr}TaL 

/xoi. €t? vrjaov 8e Tti^a 8et yp^ds CKTrco'ctv. fis ^° 

The ship wrecked Se T€0-0'apeo"Kat8eKaTr/ vi>^ iyevero Stacfiepopiiviiiv rjpiiZv 

in S. Paul's Bay ,^,.^, ^, « v, / .^ 

at Malta. €V Tli) AOpta, KttTtt p,€(rOV Trj<i VVKTOS VTTiVOOVV 01 VttVTat 

Tj-poadyeiv TLvd avrot? xtopav. Kat ^oXiaavTe<i €vpov 28 
opyuttts ctKoo^t, ^pa)(y 8e StacTTyo^avTCS Kat 
^o/VtVavTcs €vpov opyvtds SiKairevTe' <f>o/3ovfJi€voL tc 29 
^ry TTOf KaTO. Tpa^^ets tottoi;? CKTreVw/xei' ck Trpvp^vf]^ 
pij//avTC9 dyKT;pa'» reacrapas r}v)(ovTo rjfxipav yeveaOai. 
T(ov Se vavTcor ^t^towtwv (f>vy€Lv £K toi) 7rA.otOD Kat 30 
;(' T'^i' o-Kd(pr]V £t9 rr/v ddXacrcrav 7rpo(f)dareL 














31 (05 iK rrpiaprj'i ayKvpa<? /meWovTUiV eKTCtVetv, €i7r€v 6 
IlavAos T(5 €KaTOVTdp)(r] kol rots (TTpaTtcorais Eav /xi^ 
ovTot fieLVOiCTLV iv T(jO TrXoto), V/X€tS (TOiOrjvaL ov 8v- 

32 vaaOe. t6t€ aTreKOxf/av ol crTpaTLwrat to, a-^oivta 

33 TTy? (TKd(fi7}<; Koi €tacrav avT7]v iKTrecrecv. A^pt Se ov 
rj/x€pa rjjXiWcv ytveaOaL TrapcKaXei 6 IlavAo? aTrarras 
lx€Ta\a^€LV Tpocf)rj<; Aeywv TecrcrapecrKatSeKaTr/v arjfic- 
pov rjfxipav 7rpoo"8oK(ovT€9 acrcroi StareXetre, fxrjukv Trpocr- 

34 Xa/SofxevoL • 816 Trapa/caXo) v/xa? /xeTaXa^etv Tpocf>yj<;, 
TOVTO yap Trpos ti^5 v/xerepa? cr(i)Tr]pLa<5 v7rap)(€L' ovo€v6^ 

35 yap vfx<jjv 6p\^ diTO Trj<s K€(paX.'^<5 aTroXecTat. eiTras 
§€ raOra Kai Xa^iov dprov ev)(apL(TTTjcr€v rw 6'ea) ei^coTrtov 

36 TrdvTiov Koi KA-acra? rjp^aTO icrOUiv. gvOv/xol Se yevo- 

37 {X€VOL TrdvTcq kol avrol jrpocreXal^ovTo Tpocf>rjs. rjiji€6a 
8e ai Traaai \pv)(al iu to) itXolo) co? kf^hofx-qKOVTa €$. 

38 K0p€a6evT€<; 8e rpocfirjs Ikoxx^iI^ov to ttXolov iK(SaXX6- 
39 /X6V01 Toi/ crtrov €t? t>)v ^aAacrcrav. 'Ore Sc yj/jLcpa 

eyeVero, tt^i/ yiyv ovk eTrey lvwctkov, koXttov re rtva 
Karcvoow e^^ovra atyiaXo;/ ets oi' ifSovXevovro ei Swatvro 

40 CKorwcrat to ttA-oZov. /cat ras dy/cvpas TTcpieXdvres etwv 
€ts T^v ^aA.acro"av, a/za aKevre? tols ^cvKT/yptas twi' 
TrryoaXtcuv, Kat eTrapavre? tov apri/jnova rrj Trvcowry 

41 Karct^ov €15 toi/ atyiaXov. 7repi7r€0"0VT€5 Se ct5 tottoj/ 
^lOdXaacrov eTrcKetXav tt^v vavv, Kai r; /xei' Trpojpa 
ipciaacra Gfxeivev d(7aXcuT05, ■J/ Se Trpvfxva cAvcto vTro 

42 T^5 /3ta5. T(jov 8e o-TpaTttuTwv ^ovXy eyevero Iva Tov<i 
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43 6 Se iKaTOVTdp)(r]^ ^ovXop,€V05 8iao"c5o-at toi/ IlavAoi/ 
€K{oAvo-€V avTov'i TOV (iovXrjjxaTo<i, eKiXevcTcv re rov<s 
Ovvaixivovs KoXvfx^av dTropLif/avras 7rpwT0V5 ctti Tr]v 

44 y^v c^tci/ai, Kai tov5 Aot7rot)5 ovs /aev cttI <TavL<rLV ovs 


7rai/Ta5 StaaoidrjvaL €7rt t-^i/ yiyv. 


Paul at Malta. Kat Sia(TiD0€VT€<5 TOT€ iTriyvM/xev on MeXtTT^v?/ r/ i 

vfjco'; KaXetraL. ot re (Sap/^apot irap^i^av ov rrjv rvyov- 2 
crav (fjiXavOpoiTTiav rjfxiv, 6nf/avT€<; yap irvpav TrpoaeXd- 
fBovro TTaiTas y]ixa<i 8ta tov verov tov i<f>e(TT(jijTa koL 8ta 
TO if/v^o<i. (TV(TrpixpavTO<i 8e tov YiavXov cf>pvydi(iiv tl 3 
TrkrjOo'i KOL eTTt^eVro? eTri, ttjv Trvpdv, e^tSi^a (Itto tt^s 

Bitten by a Oepfxrjs i^cXOovcia Kadrjxpc Trj<i ^^ctpo? avroi). ojs 8e 4 

etSav ot ^dp^apoi Kpefxdfxevov to Brjpiov ck ttj^ )(^€Lpb<; 
avTOv, 7rpo9 dXXrfXoVi eXeyov Ilavroos (f)OV€vs icTTiv 
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etq TO rrvp tiraOev ovh\v KaKOV ol oe TrpoaeSoKWV avrbv 6 
fxeXXetv TTifXTrpaaBai tj KaraTrtTrretv a^fivw vcKpov. iirl 
TToXv 8e auTwi/ 7rpoo"OOKa)VT(ov Kat OcMpovvTiov p-rfSkv 
aroTTOv €19 avTOv yivofieuov, ixeTafiaXoix^vot eXeyov 
avTov cTvat 6(6v. Ei/ Se rots vrept tov' tottoi/ 7 

€K€tvov V7rrjp)(ev ^oopta T(3 TrpcoTo) tt^s vrjcrov ovofxaTL 
rEoTT/Xto), OS dvttSe^a/xei^os vy/xa? rjfX€pa<; rpets cfaXocfypovto^i 

The healing of i^evLcrev. lyiv(.TO 8e roi/ Trarepa roO IIoTrAiov Trvperots 8 

the father of \c> / ' -^/i vt\e 

Publius the chief xo-i ovcrei'Tcpto) o'i;ve;(o/xcvov KaTaKeKToat, Trpos 01/ o 

man of the island, tt'^v ■> \ n^ ^ <''' '/3^v -^ 

liavAo? eLCeAawv Kat TrpQoreu^a/xevos e7rit7€ts ras ^eipa? 
auTU) tao"aro auroi'. TOi;rov Se yevofxivov [Kat] ot A.ot7rot. 9 
ot £1^ t't} i^r^o-o) €;^oi^Tes do^^e FCtas Trpocrrjp^ovTO Kal iOepa- 


ctvayo/xei/ots IttW^vto to. Trpos xa? ^p€ia<;. 

The voyage McTot 8c Tpcis fxrjvas dv7]xOr]fX€v iv ttXolw TrapaKi^ei- 1 1 

continued. ,,«/ ' \ \ ,'■ S: "^ ' \ ' 

fxaKOTL €v TJ) vr)o-o) AAe^avopLVw, Trapaarj/xo) llioaKOv- 

Syfacuse. poi<i. Kol KaTayOivT^.'^ eh ^vpaKovaas cTre/xctVa/xei/ 12 

7^/x€pas rpet?, oOev TrepicXoi/res KaTTjvTija-afjiev ets 13 

Rhegium. 'Pr/ytov. Kat /xerot jxtav r]fxipav iTnyevo/xevov votov 

PuteoH. ScvTcpatot rjX$o/xiv eU IIoTtdXovs, ov €vp6vT€<s dSeXffiov^s 14 

7rap€KXr]6r]ix€v Trap avTol? eTrtjuctj/ai rjfx€pa<i CTrra- Kat 

Rome. ovToi<; cts T'^v 'Poo/u.'/^i' yXOafiev. KaK^ZOev ol dSeXtpol [5 


aKovcTavTe<i to. Trepl yfiiov rjXOav €is airavTrjatv rjixlv The brethren 

V > / / \ --> o'>t\>(>\f meet Paul at 

a\pi Airirtov <Popov Kai Tpioiv Tapepviov, ov9 idcov o Appii Forum 
TO iiavAo? ev)(apL(rT'i^a as tw ueio cAape uapaos. Ure Taverns. 

8c elayXOafJiev ctg 'Pojyaryi/, iTreTpdirr] ro) IlavXu) fjiiv€Lv 
Ka0* kavTov crvv xo) <fivXa<T(TovTi avTOV (TTparniirr]. 

17 'EyeVcTO Se uera ijaipa's rpels avvKaXiaacrOaL avrov Conference 

V V « 5 / / / CSV with the Jews. 
Tovs ovras rwv 'louSat'wv Trpwrovs * ctuvcA-^oi/toov oe 

avrojv lAeyei/ Trpos aiJTovs 'Eyco, avSpcs doeX^ot, 

oi^Sev kvavTiov iroLrjcras to) AaoJ r^ rots W^di rots 

TraTpiooLS Sea/xto? c^ 'Iepoo"oAv/xajv TrapeSoOrjv €ts ras 

i8;^ctpas roJi/ Pw/xatoji/, oirives dvaKpcvaj^re's /xe If^ovKovTO 

airoXvcraL Sta to fxrjSc/xLav atrtav Oavdrov VTrap^civ ei' 

19 e/xot- avTiA.cyovrwi' Se tc5v lovSattov TjvayKd(rOr]v kiri- 
KaXia-aaOaL Kaicrapa, oi'^^ cos roi) eOvovs fxov €)((dv tl 

20 KaTrjyopetv. 8ta Tavrrjv ovv tyjv alriav TrapcKaAecra 
v/xa? tSetv Ktti irpoaXaX-^craL, etveKiv yap ttJs cAttiSos 

21 Tov ^I(Tpar)X TTjv aXvatv Tavrrjv TrcptKCt/xat. ot Se Trpos 
avTOV ctTrav 'H^cts ovre ypa/x/xara Trepi croi) iSc^afXiOa 
ttTTo 7179 'Iov8ata9. oure Trapayevo/xevos rts twv aScA-^ajv 

22 aTrr^yyetXei^ r) iXaXyjaev tl irepl (rov Troi^rjpou. a^covfxev 
8k irapd cov aKOvcraL a cf^povels, Trept /xkv yap Trjs 
atpeVeoos ravriqs yvoxjTov rjfxlv iarlv on 7ravTa)(^ov 

23 avTiXeyeraL. Ta^afxevot 8e avrc^ y/xepav rjXOav His final charge 

V , \ ■> \ s. r ^ f T ■>>■ f/\ 5. and its rejection. 

Trpos avTov cts xTyj/ ^evtav TrAeioves, ots e^CTiC'eTO oia- 
/xapTvpd/xcvos T^v ^aatXiCav tov deov TreiOayv re avrovs 
Trept TOV Irjaov airo t€ tov vofxov M(oi>o"€a)s /cat twv 

24 7rpo(f>r]TO}V (XTTO Trptot ecus €0"7repas. Kat ot /xci/ iTreidovTO 

25 Tots Aeyo/xevots ot 8€ rjTTLaTovv, a(rv/x<^(ovot 8e ovtcs 

Trpos (xAXt^XoVS ttTTcA-VOVTO, CITTOVTOS TOV IlauAoV p^/Xtt 

€1/ OTt KaAws TO TTvevfJia TO ayiov iXdXrjacv 8ta. 'Ho"atov 

26 TOV Trpo(f>rjTov Trpos tovs TraTepas v/xcuv Xeywv 


TTopeY6HTi npoc ton Aaon toyton ka) einoN 
'Akoh AKOYcere kai oy mh cYNHre, 

KAi BAenoNTec BAeyere kai of mh lAHTe" 
enAXYNOH r^p H KApAiA TOY Aaoy toytoy, 27 




KA*i Tri KApAiA CYNoaciN ka'i enicTpeyoociN, 


yvoiO-TOV ovv vfXLV ecTTU) oTi TOIC e0N6CIN a-ma-TaXt] 28 

Two years 'Eve/X€ti/€i/ 8e SiGTLav o\r)v Iv ISlu) jxtaOwfxaTi, kol 30 

raptTvitV^ a7r€8€;>(eTO Travras tov<; da-iropevofxivovi irpoq avTOv, 

P^^^^- Ky)pvcrcriov rrjv /?acriAeiav tov Oeov kol StSaaKOiv ra 31 

TTcpl TOV Kvpiov ^IfiGOv X/jtcTTov /jtcTci TTttaT^s TTappYjcna^ 



PART I. i.— vi. 7. 
The Church at Jerusalem. 

This period extended over not more than three years after the 
resurrection, but S. Luke gives no definite clue to its duration, and 
is very vague in his notes of time. The following are the chief matters 
of interest : 

1. Introduction, i. 1-14 : [a] The dedication and connection with 
the Gospel. {b) The 40 days ; the promise of the Holy Spirit, 
(r) The last commission of the risen Lord to the apostles, the spread 
of the Gospel from Jerusalem to the ends of the earth ; (^ the ascen- 
sion and promise of the second coming. 

2. The Preparation: {a) Speech of S. Peter, i. 15-22, and election 
of Matthias, 23-26. {h) The premise fulfilled ; the baptism of the 
church at Pentecost, ii. 1-13. 

3. The Christology of S. Peter and the apostles; the witnesses of 
the resurrection : 

Speeches of S. Peter: {a) At Pentecost to the people, ii. 14-39- 
((5) After the healing of the lame man in the temple to the people, 
iii. 12-26. (f) After arrest before Annas and the chief priests; the 
miracle wrought in the name of Jesus the Messiah by the Holy Spirit 
through the apostles ; the rulers charged with responsibility for His 
death, iv. 9-11. {d) Before the Sanhedrin, v. 29-32. 

Christology : Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah of Jewish expecta- 
tion : {a) raised up by God : {b) baptized with the Holy Spirit : 
{c) the suffering servant crucified [d) and risen again, the Saviour 
of the world : {e) exalted to God's throne : (y) destined to come 

N. B. Every argument is supported by appeal to prophecy re- 
interpreted in the light of the facts of which the apostles were 

4. Growth and organization of the church : 

{a) At election of Matthias: 120 members, i. 15. {h) After 
Pentecost: 3000 members. The common life of the church: (i) The 


apostles' teaching. (■2) The fellowship. (3) The breaking of bread. 
(4) Prayer in the temple and at home, (c) After the miracle in the 
temple; 5000 members; community of goods becomes necessary; the 
gift of Barnabas; the sin of Ananias and Sapphira, iv. 32 — v. 11. 
Further miracles and increase of the church, {d) In consequence of 
further growth difficulties between the Hellenists and Hebrews arise ; 
appointment of the Seven; a great number of priests added to the 
church, vi. 1-7. 

5. Relations with the Jewish authorities : The first persecution 
due to the hostility of the Sadducees in consequence of the healing of 
the lame man was marked by the boldness of the apostles and the 
growing popularity of the church with the people, iii. 3-1 1. The 
Sadducees denied the resurrection from the dead, and the resurrection 
of the Nazarene laid the responsibility for His death upon them. Two 
formal attempts to suppress the preaching of the apostles met with no 
success, iv. r-22, v. 17, 18. The Pharisees so far were not hostile. 

Ch. I. Introduction. Last Instruction of the 
Risen Lord. 1-8. 

T. Tov |Ji€v TrpwTov X070V. 'The former treatise,' sc. the Gospel 
of S. Luke, not ' the first in a series.' irptoTos, as is common in the 
KOLVT) 8id\€KTos of Hcllenistic Greek, = irpdrepo^, a word not found in 
Luke. Cf. vii. 12, 13; i Cor. xv. 45-47; Heb. viii. 7. No argu- 
ment can therefore be founded on the use of irpuros to prove that 
S. Luke contemplated writing a third volume. Note that fxeu, as is 
frequent in the Lucan writings, has no 5^ following, w 0c6(f>i\€, 
Lk. i. 3, KpaTLare 0e60tXe, ' most excellent.' Luke may have become 
more intimate, and dropped the title which is applied in the Acts to 
the procurators, Felix and Festus, xxiii. 26, xxvi. 25. Blass regards 
Theophilus as a native of Antioch of position, Ramsay as a Roman 
citizen and resident in the capital. The name ' Theophilus ' may 
have been ado'pted at baptism ; it is certainly not a generic name for any 
Christian. tSv TJp|aT0...8i8a(rK€iv, for the relative attraction cf. iii. 21. 
S. Luke had set himself the task of writing a complete (TrduTCjv) narra- 
tive of the 'words' and ' works' of Jesus in the Gospel. In the Acts 
he sets forth the work of the Holy Spirit manifesting itself in the acts 
and teaching of the apostles and evangelists. -fjp^aro woLeTadai is 
regarded by some as a periphrasis for iirolrjcrev, but while this may be 
more or less true in some of the 28 cases in which the construction 
occurs in Luke, here ijp^aTo carries its full force. The work begun 

I 4] NOTES 77 

by Jesus was continued by the Holy Spirit revealing Himself in the 
apostles and their successors. 

2. OLXpi r\% ■i^|ie'pas = ctxpi ttjs rjfxepas tj, cf. Lk. i. 20. 8id irvciJ- 
(laros dyiov, tr. ■■ after that He had given instructions through the 
Holy Ghost to the apostles.' Codex Bezae adds 'to preach the 
Gospel.' Jesus in giving His commands to the apostles acted under 
the influence of the Holy Spirit with which He had been endowed at 
His baptism (cf. x. 38). lltXe'^aro, cf. the choice of the twelve, Lk. 
vi. 13. dveX'Ti|x<|)0T]. The form is Hellenistic, cf. Lk. ix. 51. 

3. irap€o-Ti]<r€v = presented Himself, cf. Lk. xxiv., Mt. xxviii. 16-20, 
Jn XX., xxi., I Cor. xv. 6, 7. 6v...T€KHT]piois. eu instrumental. Physi- 
cians distinguished arj/xeia, symptoms from observation, and rcKuripLa, the 
proofs based upon evidence ; cf. esp. the appearance to the apostles 
when Thomas was with them, Jn xx. 26-29. 81' r\[i€p(iiv Tecr(r€- 
paKovra. In cl. Gk 5id with the gen. means after, as inf. xxiv. 17, 
Gal. ii. I, but here clearly 'at intervals during 40 days,' cf. Lk v. 5, 
5t' o\t]s vvktos. For other periods of 40 days cf. Gen. vii. 4, 
Ex. xxiv. 18, Mt. iv. 2. From the Acts alone we gather that the 
ascension took place 40 days after Easter ; the parting at Bethany 
(Lk. xxiv. 51) may have been an incident in the 40 days, but it 
would be more in accordance with S. Luke's plan (Lk. i. i) to record, 
however briefly, the final consummation of the life and resurrection of 
Christ. 6irTav6(i£vos, a late Hellenistic word which occurs nowhere 
else in N.T. It denotes not a mere vision but a real objective appear- 
ance. The pres. part, implies that the appearances were intermittent, 
not continuous. The noun owTaaia occurs xxvi. 19, Lk. i. 22, xxiv. 23. 
TTJs PatriXeias tov 0€Ov. The meaning of this expression cannot be 
limited in any way. Sometimes it means the kingdom of the Messiah 
of Jewish expectation still cherished by the apostles ; at other times 
the church of Christ in the world or the spiritual kingdom in the indi- 
vidual heart ; at others the limitless timeless sovereignty of God in 
heaven. No stress can here be laid on any one meaning. The phrase 
occurs 32 times in the Gospel of S. Luke, and seven times in the Acts; 
cf. xxviii. 23, 31. 

4. <rvvaXit6fi€vos. A great number derive from ciXj = eating 
(salt) with them. A.V. and R.V. margin. Jesus did this (Lk. xxiv.' 41); 
but in cl. Gk the word always bears the meaning of ' gathering to- 
gether.' So the Vulgate, conveniens. Tr. ' and being in their company 
when they were assembled together.' 'Icpoo-oXvfJLwv, WH. drop the 
aspirate. Luke prefers the form 'l€pov<ra\i^fjL as a rule. Gospel 27^ 


Acts 40 times. tt]V ciraY-yeXfav, cf. Lk. xxiv. 49. 'The promise of the 
Father,' i.e. the gift of the Holy Spirit. iirayyeXia is nearly always 
used of divine promises. Cf. esp. Gal. passim, and ii. 39, vii. 17, xiii. 23. 
It is a promise given of grace, and not of compulsion, rjv TJKouo-arc, 
transition to direct speech, cf. Lk. v. 14, but not so abrupt. This is 
direct evidence in a Synoptic writer of the knowledge of the discourses 
preserved in the fourth Gospel, Jn xiv. 16, 26, xv. 26. 

5, 'IwcCvtis, cf. Lk. iii. 16. The Baptist's prophecy received its 
plenary fulfilment at Pentecost. For the baptism of John and of the 
Holy Spirit cf. xiii. 24, xix. 3, 4. ou [ierd iroXXds, litotes = a few. 
Tr. 'after these few days had passed.' Whitsunday follows ten days 
after Ascension Day. 

6 Oi \ ovv. The particles mark a fresh paragraph. The brief 
introduction is now followed by the narrative of the ascension. Kvpi€ : 
as a general rule in N.T. Kvpios, anarthrous, is used of God, the 
Father; 6 Kvpios of Christ; cf. ii. 34, vii. 59, xix. 5. €l introduces in 
N.T. a direct question, arising no doubt from its use in indirect 
questions; cf. vii. i, xix. 2, etc. Iv tw XP°^*P tovto), even now the 
disciples were still in the twilight of Jewish expectations of a material 
kingdom; cf. Lk. xix. 11, xxiv. 21. diroKaGio-Taveis, the present 
marks the immediate intention. The forms iarCo and laTavoj and their 
compounds are Hellenistic. Cf. viii. 9, 2 Cor. iii. i. 

7. )(^p6vovs TJ Kttipovs, the difference may be between spaces of time 
and critical periods; cf. Mk xiii. 32. ^0€TO...€|ovo-ia. Tr. 'hath set 
within his own personal authority.' e^ovaia denotes full and unfettered 
authority, Mt. xxi. 23. The phrase could also mean ' hath established 
by his own authority'; cf. i Th. v. 9. 

8. 8vva|J.iv. They had asked for power, Lk. xxii. 24. They were 
to receive a power quite different to their expectations — the power of 
the Holy Spirit. It was not for them to penetrate into the destinies of 
the future, but to do the work for which the power was to be given. 
(lov [idpTvpes, ' My witnesses,' i.e. in direct personal relationship with 
Me. The genitive is both subjective and objective. This word sums up 
the apostolic commission. The apostles had known Christ intimately 
in the flesh. They were the witnesses of Christ crucified and raised 
from the dead; cf. iv. 33, x. 39, xiii. 31; i Cor. i. 23, xv. i-ii. 
S. Luke begins with the preaching of the Gospel under the power 
of the Holy Spirit in Jerusalem, and concludes his work with the 
preaching in Rome. An early tradition records that the apostles 
remained 12 years in Jerusalem, and it was naturally most important 

I 12] NOTES 79 

that the Gospel should be first firmly established amongst those who 
had knowledge of the life and death of Christ. The book itself is 
divided by its author into six divisions (see Introd.). 

The Ascension ; and Return of the Apostles to 
Jerusalem. 9-12. 

9. €7ri]p0t], cf. Lk. xxiv. 51 diearT] air' avrQv and also v. 2 
dueXrjfxcpdr]. The ascension is not mentioned definitely in Mt. , Mk 
or Jn, but it is clearly implied in Jn vi. 62, xx. 17; Eph. iv. 10; 
Phil. iii. 20; I Tim. iii. 16; i Pet. iii. 22 ; Heb. i. 3, ii. 9; i Thess. iv. 
14-16. It marked the final consummation of the work of the Son of 
Man. He returned to His Father's side crowned with glory. The 
conditions of His association with His disciples were changed, but the 
companionship remained, Mt. xxviii. 20. v€<}>€\t], the symbol of divine 

10. CLTivilovTis -qo-av. The analytical imperfect is a favourite 
construction of S. Luke. dTevi^cj denotes a fixed strong gaze incompatible 
with weak eyesight; cf. iii. 4, vi. 15; Lk. iv. 20. Kal l8ov. Two 
simultaneous events are represented by two principal verbs joined by 
Kai: here Kai is pleonastic as the first clause is introduced by ws; for an 
exact parallel, cf. Lk. vii. 12. l8ov is a Hebraism. irapio-TT^Keio-av. 
S. Luke above all other N.T. writers records the appearance of angels; 
cf. inf. X. 30, xi. 13; Lk. ii. 9 (xxiv. 4). 

[I. 'lT]<rovs ; mark the use of the human name, ovrtos-.-ov 
Tpoirov, cf. xxvii. 25. iropcvoficvov, of the ascension, i Peter iii. 22. 

12. 'EXaiwvos, usually 6pos to KoKovfievov eXaiCjv (gen. pi.) (Lk. xix. 
29, xxi. 37), but 'EXatwv is the correct form for a place where olive trees 
grow ; cf. afMireXdou, Lat. olivetian. The expression shews clearly that 
Theophilus was not acquainted with Jerusalem. (raPPdTov...686v, a 
sabbath day's journey was 2000 cubits, about six furlongs, Ex. xvi. 29, 
Num. XXXV. 4, 5. The statement in Lk. xxiv. 50, e^r)yayev avrovs ^ws 
Trpbs B-qdavlav, is not irreconcilable with the statement here, though 
Bethany was 15 furlongs away from Jerusalem (Jn xi. 18), as ^'ws 
7rp6s does not imply that the ascension actually took place close to 
Bethany. If ^x"" is correct, the distance must be regarded as belonging 
to the mountain. Elsewhere S. Luke uses the more usual direxov, 
Lk. xxiv. 13, The mention of the distance is characteristic of S. Luke, 
and introduced for the sake of Gentile readers. 


The Gathering of the Infant Church. 13-14- 

13. TO vircpwov. 'The upper-room,' the article points to some 
well-known place, possibly identical with to avarjaiov, Lk. xxii. 12; 
Mk xiv. 15 S. Luke calls the room of the Last Supper KaraXv/jLa 
(xxii. 11). virepi^ov is only used by Luke and only in the Acts, it must 
have been large and capable of accommodating a large gathering, 
ix. 37-39, XX. 8. o T€ IleTpos. In the list only the first name has the 
article. Though Peter had denied his Master, he was still the leader ; 
he had been the first of the apostles to see Him after He was risen, 
Lk. xxiv. 34; I Cor. xv. 5. Andrew is not placed in this list with 
Peter, though he was his brother. James was the elder brother, and 
Mt. and Mk place him first. When the Acts was written James had 
long been dead, and John was still a prominent figure in the church. 
6 l-qXwTTjs, Matthew and Mark Kapaua2os. He was a member of 
the extreme sect of the Pharisees. *Iou8as 'laKwPov, identical with 
Thaddaeus (Mt. and Mk), probably 'son' and not 'brother' is to be 
supplied, Jn xiv. 22 ; d8e\(f)6s is never omitted. The list is probably 
inserted to shew that though one had betrayed his Master and another 
doubted Him the rest were firm, also to give the complete list of the 
apostolic band in view of the coming election ; all were witnesses 
of the resurrection. Cf. the other lists of the apostles, Mt. x. 2-4; 
Mk iii. 16-19; L^- ^^- H~i6. In all four lists there are three groups 
of four, and the same apostle stands at the head of each group. 

14. irpoo-KapxepovvTCs. Only in Luke and Paul in N.T. 'At- 
tending steadfastly to' (tt/sos), usually with dative, ii. 42, 46, vi. 4, x. 7. 
6fi.o8vp,a8ov, 10 times in Acts, Rom. xv. 6. Luke emphasizes the 
unanimity of the apostolic body. ttj Trpoo-ev^TJ included probably 
the daily prayer in the temple courts as well as in private gather- 
ings. <rvv "Y^vai|lv Kal Mapidfj.. Greek idiom mentions the im- 
portant name last, English idiom requires the reverse order, ' With 
Mary the mother. of Jesus and other women.' These may have 
included Joanna, Mary Magdalene and Susanna, Lk. viii. 2, xxiii. 55. 
This is the last mention of the mother of our Lord in N.T., and we 
leave her in prayer. We have here in a few verses an unconscious 
connection with the Gospel of prayer, of womanhood, and of angels, rots 
d8€X<j)ois, cf. Lk. viii. 19 ; Mt. xiii. 55 ; Mk vi. 3 ; Gal. i. 19 ; i Cor. ix. 5. 
The brethren of the Lord were either (i) the children of Joseph and 
Mary, or (2) the children of Joseph by a former marriage, or (3) the 
cousins of our Lord. During His lifetime His brethren shewed little. 

I i8] NOTES 8t 

or no sympathy with Jesus, but it is evident that they had been 
convinced of His Messiahship by the resurrection. Their names are 
given by Mark : James and Joses, Judas and Simon. James exercised 
the chief authority at Jerusalem (Acts xv.), and was probably the 
author of the epistle. The epistle of Jude is ascribed to Judas. 

Speech of Peter. Election of Matthias. 15-26. 

15. €v...TJ[jL€'pais. S. Luke, especially in the earlier chapters of the 
Acts, gives vague references to time. dSeXcjxov. Some MSS. have 
fjLadrjTQv, members of the same spiritual community. The general body 
of the disciples took part in the cooptation. ovo|idT(ov, R.V. ' persons,' 
may include men and women. The use is Hebraistic and Hellenistic, 
Rev. iii. 4. eiri to avTo, * together.' For the phrase cf. i. 44, 47, ii. i ; 
Lk. xvii. 35. In the papyri eiri to avro is used of the total or sum. 
For the number S. Luke probably had definite information. It must 
not be confounded with the 500 mentioned i Cor. xv. 6. 

i6. 'iSii expresses a divine necessity ; cf. Lk. xxiv. 26 ; i Cor. xv. 25 ; 
del of logical necessity, XPV of moral obligation, wpeireL of fitness ; 
cf. Heb. ii. i, 10, 17. r-qv -Ypa<{>i]V. The singular, ypa(prj, in N.T. 
always refers to a single passage of Scripture, Lk. iv. 21 ; Gal. iii. 22, 
*Iov8a. Judas is never called the traitor 6 irpodoTT)^, ' he who became 
a traitor' (Lk vi. 16). S. John 6 irapadidovs. oSti-yoii lays the scene 
in the garden vividly before the reader, Mt. xxvi. 47. 

17. OTt introduces the ground upon which the Scripture was to be 
cited. Tov kXtipov. Note the article ' his portion.' From kXtjpos, 
through the Latin clericus, are derived 'clerk,' 'clergy,' those who 
have definite tasks 'allotted' to them. Cf. v. 25, viii. 21, xxvi. 18. 
SiaKovias. A general term, here of the apostleship. 

18. ovTos p.€v oSv..., vv. 18, 19, are marked in the text and by 
R.V. as a parenthesis inserted by the author, but as z/. 18 is essential to 
Peter's argument it is at least equally possible to regard it as part of his 
speech. (jlktOov. Judas did not purchase the field, he cast the money 
at the feet of the chief priests, Mt. xxvi. 14-16, xxvii. 3-8, but as he 
had received the blood money he might have been regarded as the 
legal owner. T-qs dSiKias, a characterizing genitive, so frequently in 
Luke — cf. 6 oi/coi'6/ios T^s dSt/cias, Lk. xvi, 8. irp-qviis -.cXdKTjo-ev. Tr. 
* and falling headlong on his face he burst asunder.' Trprjvrjs is opposed 
to vTTTios. e\6.Kri<Tev implies noise, zi. frango, fragor. It seems clear 
that there were two accounts current of the death of Judas. Matthew 

B. A. 6 


states that he hanged himself, dTrrjy^aTo, xxvii. 5. The words here 
shew that he threw himself from a height. Eusebius tries to harmonize 
the two accounts by suggesting that the rope broke. 

19. w(rT€...Al'|xaTos, inserted by S. Luke for the information of 
Theophilus and his readers, rfj SiaXcKTto avTwv, ' their language,' 
not dialect. Mt. gives a different reason for the name of the field, 
0,7/36$ d'ifiaTos, so called because it was purchased with money which 
was the price of blood. 

■20. TiVT]Qr\T<a. The origioal passage, Ps. Ixix. 25, referred to the 
desolation of an encampment of a nomadic tribe who were enemies of 
the chosen people. This Psalm, with the exception of xxii., is more 
frequently quoted in N.T. than any other. ^iravXis, either the place in 
the apostolic body represented in the other quotation by eiTLCKoirr], 
or, parallel to xwp/oj', the place where Judas perished rendered deso- 
late by his death. eiricrKOTrtfv. Clearly his office, his position as 
overseer, Ps. cix. 8. S. Peter appeals to the Old Testament in accord- 
ance with the custom of the age, which necessitated proof from the Jewish 
Scriptures. The prophets and writers of the O.T. looked forward in 
the future to the coming of the Messiah, and though their prophecies 
must primarily be interpreted in the light of the circumstances of the 
times when they were uttered, yet they felt assured that in the future 
their ideals would be realized in God's own time and in His own way. 
The Rabbis therefore looked back to the writers and prophets of the 
past, and much of their interpretation, though convincing to their own 
age, strikes us as fanciful and unscientific. Jesus Himself and the 
apostles, including S. Paul, were all trained in Jewish schools and 
followed the usual custom. They shew how that the Messianic pro- 
phecies of the O.T. were fulfilled in the life and death and resurrection 
of Jesus Christ, e.g. Lk. xxiv. 44. Thus and thus only could Jews be 
convinced that Jesus was the Messiah (ii. 14-40), by shewing that the 
crucified and risen Messiah really corresponded to O.T. indications 
when rightly understood. At the same time it must be admitted that 
the apostles, and notably S. Paul, sometimes appealed to the O.T. in 
the Rabbinical way, e.g. Gal. iii. 16, iv. 21-31 ; 2 Cor. iii. i-ii, aind 
find proof in similarity much in the way in which modern preachers 
expound texts of Scripture. Thus in this speech S. Peter appeals to 
the Psalms. The lost office and the desolate habitation are typical of 
the betrayal and death of Judas. He had betrayed his Master and his 
office was forfeit, he had committed suicide and thus defiled his habita- 
tion and rendered it uninhabitable. 

I 25J NOTES .83 

21. €i<rT]\0€v Kttl c^TJXGev. A comprehensive Hebraic phrase, cover- 
ing the whole course of a man's life in his intercourse with others. €<!>* 
i](jbds belongs grammatically to elarjXdev^ cf. ix. 28; Jn x. 9. Note that 
S. Peter speaks of the ascended Lord as the Lord Jesus, thus stating 
His divinity and humanity. 

22. dp|d|i€vos. There is no need to restrict the reference to our 
Lord's own baptism, as John's baptism and preaching were the pre- 
paration for the ministry of Jesus, as is clearly shewn by S. Luke in 
the narrative of his Gospel and by the opening passage of Mk. 

23. 'i<nr\<To.v. They put forward, i.e. the body of 120, not the 
eleven. *I«<nj<j>. Joseph, like Judas, Simon, James, was a very 
common name, and it was necessary to distinguish one Joseph from 
another by adding the name of the father as here, son of Sabbas, cf. 
Simon Barjona, Mt. xvi. 17, or of the place of birth or abode, so Mary 
Magdalene, Lk. viii. 2. Sometimes an additional surname was given, 
which was frequently Greek or Latin, or denoted some personal trait in 
character : cf. iv. 36, Joseph Barnabas ; x. 5, Simon Peter ; xiii. 9, 
Saul also called Paul. Of Matthias, tradition says that he was one 
of the seventy, and suffered martyrdom in Ethiopia. 

24. Kap8ioYv«<rTa, cf. xv. 8. It is not certain whether the prayer 
is addressed to God or to the ascended Lord. Jesus knew the hearts 
of His disciples and of all men. Peter had learnt this by his own 
experience, Jn xxi. 17, and Jesus Himself had chosen the twelve, 
Lk. vi. 13. The eleven would not take upon themselves the actual 
election of a successor to Judas. dvd8€i|ov. The word only occurs 
once elsewhere, Lk. x. r (cf. Lk. i. 80), where it is used of our Lord's 
appointment of the seventy. It is not clear here whether ' appoint ' or 
* shew clearly ' is the correct rendering. The context rather points to 
the latter as the appeal was to the sacred lot. 

25. diroo-ToXt]?. Apostleship was not limited to the twelve, cf. 
I Cor. xv. 7-10, but two conditions were necessary. An apostle was a 
witness of the resurrection and he received a direct divine commission. 
irap£'PT] = went away, irapd implies transgression, tis tov tottov tov 
tSiov. Some consider this a euphemism for Gehenna, the place of 
punishment, and that Peter naturally used reserve in speaking of the 
fate of Judas, but rbirov is used in the same verse of the position of an 
apostle, and it is likely that S. Luke means that Judas had chosen 'his 
new position,' and had fallen away from the apostolic body to take it 
up by his own deliberate choice. Note that tov tdiov, by its position 
after the noun, further emphasizes that Judas had made his own choice. 



26. KXrjpovs avTois. The lots were probably given to the two 
candidates, who placed them in an urn. The urn was then shaken and 
the lot which fell out first indicated the divine choice. This was the 
custom of the Greeks. There is no evidence to shew what was the 
Jewish custom, ^rrecrev, however, seemS to point to the Greek custom, 
ai^Totsmay be tr. 'for them' or ' to them.' The latter is the best rendering. 
There is no other indication in the history of the church of any appeal 
to the lot. The whole proceeding may have well been an act of 
impulse on the part of the disciples and more particularly of Peter, 
The apostles probably had in their minds the prophecy that they would 
sit on the twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel, Mt. 
xix. 28, and thus desired to fill the vacancy. It is noticeable that this 
election took place before Pentecost. After the martyrdom of James no 
attempt was made to fill his place. <rv'YKaT€\J/T]<}>{cr0T], obviously identi- 
cal in meaning with avyKarapLdfxe'Ladai, with emphatic reference to the 
election having taken place by lot. Pebbles {\pT](poi) were used both 
for counting and for voting ; cf. xix. 19. 

Ch. II. The Baptism of the Church at Pentecost. 


Before Pentecost the manifestations of the Spirit as in the epiphanies 
and theophanies of the O.T. had been transitory and exceptional, 
and for the most part objective. The prophets had looked forward to 
the outpouring of the Spirit upon all flesh under the new covenant 
(Jer. xxxi. 31-34, Joel ii. 28-29). John the Baptist had proclaimed 
that the advent of the Messiah would be accompanied by the gift of 
the Holy Spirit. Jesus had taught His disciples that He must depart 
in order that the Paraclete might come unto them (Jn xiv.-xvi. ). At 
Pentecost the Holy Spirit came to dwell in the hearts of men 
and His presence was for all men in all times what the presence of 
Jesus had been in His lifetime on earth for those with whom He lived. 
The church was no longer locally confined and there were infinite 
possibilities of its expansion. Just as the baptism of Jesus marks 
the beginning of His ministry, so now the baptism of the church 
marks the beginning of the Christian ministry. As the baptism of 
Jesus was attended by the voice from heaven, so now the baptism 
of the apostles is marked by the tongues of fire and ecstatic utter- 
ance. The first outpouring of the Spirit was attended by unique 

II i] NOTES 85 

Speaking with Tongues. 

Five passages in N.T, deal with the gift of tongues, if we include 
Mk xvi, 19: Acts ii. 4-13, the disciples at Jerusalem ; Acts x. 44-47, 
Cornelius and his friends at Caesarea ; Acts xix. 6, the disciples of John 
at Ephesus ; i Cor. xii.-xiv. 1-33, the disciples at Corinth. 

The last is certainly the earliest written account of the phenomena 
of speaking with tongues, and from this it is clear that the gift was 
exceptional, and that the utterances were addressed to God (i Cor. xiv. i) 
in a spirit of religious ecstasy when the ordinary methods of speech were 
in abeyance. To the bystanders the utterances were quite unintelligible 
unless they were interpreted, and sometimes gave the impression of wild 
excitement and even madness or intoxication. S. Paul clearly regarded 
the speaking with tongues as capable of becoming a dangerous gift, and 
certainly inferior to prophecy. The prophet was a preacher, an inter- 
preter of the will of God to man, and edified the church. He who 
spoke with tongues at best only edified himself unless he could interpret 
the meaning of his ecstasy. In the O.T. the sons of the prophets were 
inspired with religious frenzy, I Sam. x. 5, and the phenomenon 
amongst eastern races of wild religious ecstasy is familiar to-day. 
There is a genuine difficulty, however, in this passage as, while vv. 4 
and 12 might by themselves agree with S. Paul's description and with 
the other manifestations of the gift recorded in the Acts, yet in the 
context \;vv. 5-1 1) it is clearly indicated that the ecstatic utterances 
were declarations of the wonderful works of God in foreign languages 
capable of being understood by the Jews from various countries resident 
in Jerusalem. One thing is clear, that there is no hint elsewhere of 
any such gift being possessed by the apostles in the N.T. It is hard 
to reconcile some statements in the passage : some of the men who 
heard the apostles and their fellows declare in foreign tongues the 
glories of God accuse them of drunkenness, and S. Peter in his speech 
makes no reference to the use of foreign languages, and himself uses 
Greek or Aramaic in addressing the people. No certain conclusion 
can be arrived at. Luke quite plainly states that foreign tongues 
were used, and such a phenomenon is unique in the history of the 
church. Apart from all these difficulties the essential fact of the 
gift of the Holy Spirit stands out clearly, though difficulties must 
remain in connection with the attendant circumstances — the wind, the 
tongues of fire, and the strange power of utterance. 

I. Iv T<p <rvvirXt]pova-0ai. The words clearly point to the progress 


of the day of Pentecost : it had begun on the previous evening ; it was 
now morning and the day was passing, but the feast would not be 
concluded before sunset. Others refer them to the completion of the 
interval between the Passover and Pentecost. So the Vulgate, cum 
complerentur dies Pentecostes. The use of h t(^ with the present infin. 
always points to what is in progress, with the aorist infin, to what has 
been completed, viii. 6; cf. Lk. iii. 21, ix. 51. Tr€VTT]Ko<rTTis. 'The 
day of Pentecost ' is not grammatically correct, as irepTTjKoarr) ds an 
adj. to which rj/j-epa must be supplied. It was so called because it fell 
on the fiftieth day after the Passover and was one of the three great 
festivals of the Jews, called also the feast of weeks (Ex. xxxiv. 22) from 
the numbering of the weeks (7x7). As the Passover marked the begin- 
ning of the corn harvest when the sheaf of the first-fruit was offered, so 
Pentecost marked its conclusion with the offering of two loaves, Lev. 
xxiii. 15-21. Whitsunday is 50 days after Easter, iravres. Not only 
the apostles but all the believers. 

2. •qxos...pia(as. Tr. 'the sound, as it were, of a violent gust of 
wind being borne along.' Note that the manifestation is supernatural, 
and natural language is used to describe it. Cf. the wind and the fire 
in the story of Elijah in Horeb, i K. xix. 11, 12, also Jn iii. 8. 
o\ov Tov oIkov, either the upper room where they were assembled or 
the temple court. The presence of the Jews of the Dispersion would 
rather point to the latter. The temple was constantly spoken of as 
the house. 

3. oi^Qr\<rav. The audible arjfxeiou is followed by a visible 
ffTjfxe'iov. Fire was symbolical of the power and presence of God, Ex. 
iii. 2 ; Mai. iii. 2. The tongue of flame descending upon the head of 
the chosen of the gods is also familiar in pagan stories, cf. Virgil, 
Ae/2. ii. 283. 8ia|j.€pi^6p.€vai, ' parting themselves amongst them.' 
lKd0Lo-€v. The singular further emphasizes the distribution. The 
subject is clearly yXQcraa, which conveys to each one of them the 
divine power to utter divine speech. XaXeiv. \a\eiu is the equiva- 
lent of cl. Xeyeiv in N.T. Irepais. erepos denotes difference in kind, 
cf. iv €T€poy\u}(xaois Kai ev x^'i-^^<^i-v er^pcop \a\r]aco, Is. xxviii. ir, quoted 
by S. Paul, i Cor. xiv. 21. 

4. d'iro<})9€*Y"y€(r0ai : v. 14, xxvi. 25; in LXX. used only of pro- 
phetic utterances, and so here. Apophthegms are the wise short sayings 
of philosophers. 

5. KaTOiKOvvres- Devout Jews living in Jerusalem, the usual mean- 
ing of KaroLKelv ; but the Jews who had come up from every quarter 

II 9] NOTES 87 

are not excluded. More attended at Pentecost than at the Passover 
because of the greater ease of travelling at that season of the year. 
av8p€s cvXaPeiS. ev\a^y]% = ev<se^y]'i. The underlying thought is the 
fear of God, cf. viii. •2. 

6. <j)<ovT]S TavTT]s, i-e. the sound as of the violent wind, or of the 
cries of the apostles in the various languages, cf. i Cor. xiv. 7-8. 
<rvvT]X9€ TO •irXifj0os...o-vv6X^0'n- 'The multitude gathered and was 
bewildered,' cf. ix. 22. 7r\rj$os is characteristic of Luke, and often 
denotes the whole religious community, as in inscriptions, cf. esp. xv. 30. 
SiaXcKTb), cf. i. 19. 

7. FaXiXaioi. There is no contempt implied in the insertion of 
the word, though a Galilaean could easily be distinguished by his 
dialect from a Jew of Jerusalem, JNIk xiv. 70. Numbers of Galilaean 
pilgrims were always present at the feast, and the adherents of Jesus 
were chiefly drawn from them. Some of the 120 as well as the apostles 
may well have been Galilaeans. 

The Jews of the Dispersion. 9-13. 

The list is intended to be comprehensive and to embrace the nations 
of the whole world amongst whom the Jews were scattered. All are 
agreed that the countries are grouped geographically, beginning with 
the furthest east. Page also finds an historical development, Baby- 
lonian, Syrian, Egyptian and Roman Jews. In Parthia, Elam, and 
Mesopotamia, outside the boundary of the Roman Empire, Jews settled 
after the fall of Samaria (b.c. 722) and of Jerusalem (B.C. 588), and 
in the eastern Levant under Seleucus Nicator (B.C. 512-280). The 
Egyptian settlement, which was large and flourishing, and produced 
the cultured thinkers of the Jewish race, was founded by Alexander and 
Ptolemy, and Jewish colonies spread westward to Gyrene. In Rome, 
Jews had settled after the victories of Pompey in the East B.C. 63. 
The Cretans are introduced almost as an afterthought, symbolizing 
the isles of the eastern Mediterranean, and the Arabians to cover 
the extreme south and south-east. 

There are, however, remarkable omissions — above all, there is no 
reference to Syria, unless for Judaea, which comes awkwardly in the 
enumeration, Syria should be read as Jerome does. Cyprus, Galatia 
and Cilicia, so closely associated with the first spread of the Gospel 
from Antioch, also find no place. The list is, therefore, not complete, 
but it is full enough for the purpose of shewing how the first news of 


the Gospel under the influence of the Holy Spirit was heard by Jews 
and Jewish proselytes from nearly every corner of the inhabited world. 

10. 01 €Tri8T]novvT€s 'Po)}i.aioi. If eTTibrjixeiv is to be contrasted 
with KaroLKeiv, the latter implies permanent settlement, the former 
temporary sojourning. It may mean Jews who were settled in Rome, 
or Roman Jews living in Jerusalem ; the latter is more likely, cf. Acts 
xvii. 2 1 . irpoo-qXvToi is not to be confined to the Roman Jews alone. 
Proselytes were not Jews by birth, but were attracted by the Jewish 
religion, and obeyed the Jewish law in certain particulars, but they were 
not circumcised. The Jewish nation did not admit of naturalization ; it 
always has remained exclusive in its peculiar nationality. ' Both Jews 
and proselytes' clearly refers to all nationalities mentioned, including 
Cretans and Arabians. 

11. TO, |X6YaX€ta, 'the mighty works'; only here in N.T. , but 
cf. Lk. i. 49. 

12. SiiTTropovvTO, 'they were in utter perplexity.' 5td intensifies 
the simple verb, and S. Luke is peculiarly fond of compounds with bid 
and dirb, cf. v. 24, x. 17; diairovoufxevoi, iv. 2; 5l€v6v/j.ov/x€vov, x. 19; 
dLaKaT7]\^yX^T0, xviii. 28; SLaypriyopeLv, Lk. ix. 32. The compounds 
d-rropia, einropia, diarropeiv, eviropelv, are favourite and peculiar words of 
Ivuke. Ti Gt'Xci. A classical colloquialism, cf. Lat. quid vidt. 

13. ^Tepoi. May or may not include some of those already 
mentioned. SiaxXcvd^ovTes. CI. jesting, mocking. FXeuKovs. 
7XeO/f OS = sweet wine, Lat. inustiim. It can hardly be 'new wine,' 
as the vintage did not begin till August, but immature wine still 
fermenting of the previous vintage, cf. LXX. Job xxxii. 19. The 
candour of S. Luke in recording the impression made upon the 
bystanders by the manifestation of the Spirit must not be over- 

Speech of S. Peter: Its Sequel. 14-42. 

The speech bears striking marks of Petrine authorship, though 
the actual phrasing may be Luke's. Its purpose is to explain the 
outpouring of the Spirit as the outcome of the resurrection of Jesus 
thus known and proved to be the Messiah. 

(a) 14-21. He addresses the whole multitude, rebuts the charge 
of drunkenness, and appeals to the plenary fulfilment of the prophecy 
of Joel as to the times of the Messiah. 

{h) 22-28. He addresses particularly the men of Israel, bears 
witness to Jesus of Nazareth, His life, crucifixion and resurrection, 

II 1 8] NOTES 89 

and appeals to David's prophecy of the triumph of the Holy One over 

(c) 29-56. He interprets the meaning of the resurrection as ex- 
plaining the gift of the Holy Spirit, giving further proof that Jesus is 
the Messiah and Lord. This is supported by a quotation from Ps. ex. 

{d) 37-40. He draws a practical conclusion. His hearers were 
bidden to repent and be baptized. 

14. SraGels. Characteristic of Luke, who frequently mentions 
the position of the speaker, v. 20, xi. i3,xvii. 22. eirTJpev Tt]v (fxovifv. 
This expression is only found in S. Luke's writings, xiv. 11, Lk. xi. 27. 
d'ir€<|)0€'"y^aTo, ' spake forth.' The word emphasizes the solemnity of 
the utterance. "AvSpcs 'lovSatoi. It is not clear whether the expres- 
sion, which is one of respect, includes all the Jews present from 
different countries or only natives of Judaea. The addition of 01 
KaToiKovures seems to point to the former. IvwTitracrBe, derived from 
€v...oh, only here in N.T. and in LXX. 

15. wpa TpiTi]. The Jews did not partake of food before 9 a.m. 
The day was divided into 12 equal portions which .varied according 
to the season of the year in duration : the charge was a preposterous 

17. €v Tais Icrxdrais ii|X€'pais. The prophecy of Joel which Peter 
quotes from LXX. began with fxera raOra for which S. Peter substitutes 
* in the last days ' (cf. Is. ii. 2), as he saw in the manifestation of 
Pentecost the fulfilment of the prophecy (ii. 28, 31) and the beginning 
of the period in which the return of Christ in glory was anticipated. 
This was contemplated as imminent in the early days of the church, 
cf. I, 2 Thess. The age of the Messiah, as the apostles taught, began 
with His first coming and was to end with His return in glory, cf. 
iii. 19. diro tov Trvevnaros. The prep, may denote that the Spirit of 
God is entire and indivisible and that it diffuses itself amongst men : 
or it may be partitive, eiri Tracrav. The universality of the gift of the 
Holy Spirit is emphasized. In Joel's prophecy the phrase is confined 
to the Israelite people : Peter here may have understood the reference 
to include only Jews of the Dispersion as well as in Judaea : ' we must 
not expect the universalism of S. Paul in the first public utterance of 
S. Peter.' S. Peter had not yet grasped, as his subsequent conduct 
shews, that the Gospel was open to the Gentiles without any condition 
of adopting the Jewish faith. 

18. Ktti yi. Only here and in xvii. 27. eirl rois 8ouXovs...Tds 
SovXas \i-ov. There was to be no limit of sex, age or condition. 


•Trpo<|>T]T€vo-ov(riv, i.e. shall have the gift of inspired teachers making 
known the will of God : this is the regular meaning of the word in N.T. , 
cf. xxi. 9. This statement is not found either in the Hebr. or LXX. 

19. Tcpara emphasizes the portentous or prodigious element as 
here in the signs in the heavens : repas is never found apart from arjtxelov, 
which marks the significance of the portents for those who have eyes to 
see. Neither (rT]|Jicia nor avo) or Korroi occurs in the LXX. version of 
Joel : the signs undoubtedly refer not to the manifestation of Pentecost, 
but to those which would precede the Lord's coming. al[xa Kal Trvp. 
Not marvellous portents — but bloodshed and fire — wars and rumours of 
wars with all their attendant horrors were to precede the second coming 
of the Messiah, Lk. xxi. 9-12. 

20. The imagery is taken from an eclipse, Amos viii. 9, etc. 
-qixcpav Kvpiov. This phrase in O.T. signified any visitation upon the 
people, especially a plague or pestilence or famine or invasion, but here 
as in the Epistles it is used of the second advent, i Thess. v. 2 ; Phil, 
i. 10. e7ri<})avT], ' clearly visible.' The Hebrew has 'terrible.' The 
translators of the 'LXX. have mistaken the Hebrew word. ein^dveLa 
was used of the coming of the Messiah, 2 Thess. ii. 8. 

21. TO ovofia. Hebrew prayers began with the invocation of the 
divine name ; here however S. Peter probably transfers the prayer 
from God to Christ (cf. i Cor. i. 2; Rom. x. 13) and thus asserts the 
divinity of Christ. o-ft)0T]<r€Tai, i.e. in the Messianic kingdom he 
will be exempt from pains and penalties. In the original prophecy 
deliverance from the enemy is meant. 

22. 'Io-paT]\€iTai. S.» Peter is conciliatory : the title of Israelites 
reminds the Jews present of their covenant relationship with God. tov 
Na^wpaiov. The title of Jesus on the Cross and by which our Lord 
was known: the whole efforts of S. Peter are concentrated on shewing 
that Jesus the despised Nazarene is now exalted at the right hand of 
God. For the title cf. iii. 6, iv. 10, vi. 14, xxii. 8, xxvi. 9; Lk. xviii. 
37; Jn xviii. 5. a'KoSi8iiy\Uvov = 5e5oKi/j.a(rfX€Pov, 'approved,' 'demon- 
strated. ' The whole phrase means ' a man demonstrated to have come from 
God by signs and wonders,' Jn v. 36; r Cor. iv. 9. diro is not merely 
the equivalent of viro, and if it does not imply the actual divine origin of 
Jesus it at least emphasizes the divine origin of His mission, Jn iii. 2. 
8vvdfi.€(ri. The plural of abstract nouns denotes concrete instances : 
cf. ira anger, trae quarrels. These three words here joined together, 
cf. 2 Cor. xii. 12, are commonly used of our Lord's miracles. 5vpd/x€is 
marks the divine source of power, repara. its marvellous display, (rrj/jLelQ, 

II 25] NOTES 91 

its inward significance, ols £irotT](r€V 81' avrov 6 Beos. The author was 
the Father, the Son the agent, Jn v. 19. 

23. wpio-p,€VT], 'fixed,' a favourite word of Luke, cf. x. 42, etc. 
PovXfj. The phrase 'counsel of God' is used only by Luke; cf. xiii. 
36, XX. 27; Lk. vii. 30. Trpo'YvaScrci. Only used once elsewhere, by 
S. Peter, i Pet. i. 2. Peter had once regarded the passion and resur- 
rection as impossible, Mt. xvi. 22 ; he now, at the very outset of the 
ministry of the apostles, boldly proclaimed that all had occurred through 
the foreknowledge of God, Lk. xxii. 22, xxiv. 26, 44. ^k8otov, 'sur- 
rendered,' i.e. by Judas not by God. 8ia x^tpos. S. Luke is very 
fond of phrases with xei'p and irpbawirov, they are probably Hebraistic 
expressions, v. 12, vii. 25. dvojjiwv, i.e. the Roman authorities, who 
were Gentiles without law. S. Peter is speaking here as a Jew to Jews, 
1 Cor. ix. 21. irpo<nrTJ|avT€S, sc. rw aravpc^. S. Peter had been an 
eyewitness, cf. v. 29-32, x. 39. dv€iXaT€. Hellen. for dvelXeTe, ' ye 
destroyed'; a favourite word of S. Luke; 19 times in Acts: used 
especially of a violent death, v. 33, vii. 28, ix. 23, 29, x. 39. The 
responsibility for the death of Jesus lay upon the Jews, though 
S. Peter's hearers were not the same crowd who had clamoured for 
Jesus' death. 

24. co8ivas Tov Gavdrov, ' pangs of death.' The phrase occurs in 
LXX., Ps. xviii. 5, cxvi. 3, where the Hebrew has 'cords' or 'snares.' 
Codex Bezae has g.8ov for davarov. Both Xi^cras and Kpareladat point 
rather to snares than to pangs, and possibly S. Luke uses the phrase 
from LXX., while S. Peter, speaking to Jews, used Aramaic. In any 
case Jesus by His conquest over death loosed its pangs as well as its 
chains or snares, and made it possible for others to follow. The birth- 
pangs of death is a fine oxymoron : the resurrection is conceived of as 
a birth out of death, but freed from pangs by our Lord Himself. 
KaGoTi, 'inasmuch as': only found in Luke, Lk. i. 7, xix. 9. 

25. Aav6l8 7dp Xc'vet. LXX., Ps. xvi. 8-ti. If the Davidic 
authorship of this Psalm is accepted, the primary reference is to 
David's sure trust in the face of his persecution by Saul. But the 
Psalm was regarded as Messianic and S. Peter interprets the quotation 
as referring to the Messiah (ets airov), for as David did see death 
he could not have spoken of himself, cf. xiii. 35. npoopa)|XT|v, 
i.e. I beheld the Lord (Jehovah) always before my face. The middle 
emphasizes the personal interest of the Psalmist. Ik 8€^i<5v (jlov, i.e. to 
help and defend me : the metaphor may be from the advocate standing 
on the client's right hand or from a champion defending another. 


o-aXeuOw. The metaphor is from the tossing of the waves of the sea, 
iv. 31 ; 2 Thess. ii. 2. 

26. 1] KapSia. The centre of all mental and moral activities : 
the ancient world in spite of Galen and Hippocrates had little con- 
ception of the brain being the seat of the intellect. -q-yaXXido-aTO — 
stronger than ^xo^'P^"""' exulted with joy,' Lk. x. 21. r\ ^Xwo-cra. 
For the Hebr. 'my glory,' i.e. my spirit, LXX. has yXCjaca.. r\ <rdp| 
Hov, i.e. my living body. KaTacrKT]v«(r€i, lit. shall dwell in a tent, 
emphasizing a temporary abode, cf. Mt. xiii. 32 ; Lk. ix. 58 : cir* 
eXirfSi, in confidence. 

27. ovK €VKaTaXei\|/€is = Thou shalt not leave my soul behind in the 
power of Hades, cf, 2 Cor. iv. 9. els ci8i]v. Hades is synonymous with 
diacpdopd in accordance with the synthetic parallelism of Hebrew poetry ; 
and both are synonyms for death. The Hebrew Sheol, A.S. Hell, 
denoted the dark abode where the dead dragged out a lifeless exist- 
ence. €ls. Blass denies the existence ai constrnctio praegnansxw N.T., 
and considers that in N.T. Greek eh is a simple variant for kv ; and et's 
tended to supplant iv ; but the majority of commentators disagree with 
him in making the rule absolute. Swo-cis. Thou wilt not give ; but 
5i5a;/zt is used here in the sense of the Hebrew word, to let, suffer = ^a>. 
Tov o<ri6v (Tov. Not only implies sanctity but the special favour of God : 
Hebr. Chasid. 

28. t'^'HS- The paths of life are strongly contrasted with the place 
of death. In N.T. fw?? means the life shared by man with God : in 
Attic Gk the life of man shared with beasts, while j8/os means the 
intelligent life. jiCTa toij irpocrwTrov. The Hebrew ' face of God ' 
denotes the presence of God: the expression is common in O.T. , 
Ps. iv. 6, xvii. 15. The application of the whole passage to Christ's 
triumph over the grave and death is perfectly clear. 

29. "AvSpes d8€Xcf>oi, affectionate but formal : in accordance with 
the Greek custom of public speaking. In a short time ddeXcpoi became 
the characteristic method of addressing bodies of Christians, e^ov, sc. 
ecrrt, not ecrrio. e^ov iaTL = e^eaTL, it is possible, it is permissible, 
2 Cor. xii. 4. ^(.ro. irappiio-ias^ ' openly,' 'confidently': boldness of 
speech marked the attitude of Jesus and the Apostles, Mk viii. 32. 
Trarpidpxov. Used more particularly of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; 
but here as a mark of honour and respect. David was the ancestor of 
the royal race. on Kal €T€X€VT'r]<r€v...TaiJTT)S. S. Peter appeals to 
obvious incontrovertible facts to shew that the meaning of David's 
words was not exhausted in reference to himself: so S. Paul, xiii. ^6. 

II 35] NOTES 93 

The tomb of David was within the walls of the city, Neh. iii. i6, and 
would be a well-known object to S. Peter's hearers. Josephvis records 
that it was rifled by Herod the Great. 

30. 'irpo<|>T]TT]s. Trpo^TjTTjs here carries both its meanings of one 
interpreting God's will and of one foretelling its fulfilment, virdpxwv 
occurs seven times in the Gospel and twenty-four times in the Acts: in 
Hellen. Gk it tended to lose its peculiar force of denoting an original state 
or possession and is equivalent to eljui in many cases. op>Ob> u^Loav. 
The whole sentence is Hebraistic in expression. Kap'Trov...oo-<j>iios, 'the 
fruit of his loins' (LXX. /cotAtas), cf. Ps. cxxxii. 11; 2 Sam. vii. 16. 
For the royal descent of Jesus, cf. Heb. vii. 14; Lk. ii. Ka0i<rai, act. : 
supply TLva. 

31. Trpoi8«v. The foresight of the prophets does not involve a 
knowledge of the actual date and circumstances of the fulfilment of 
prophecy, 1 Pet. i. 10-12, but a certainty inspired by divine intuition. 
David's prophecy of the triumph over death and the grave found its 
plenary fulfilment in the resurrection of Jesus. 

32. ov, prob. neut., 'of which,' sc. toD avacrTrjaai: or it may be 
masc, 'whose witnesses we are.' 

33. TTJ 8e|ia. The dative must be instrumental and not local: God 
raised up Jesus, exalted Him on high by His power and then set Him 
on His throne at His right hand. vvj/wGels. The ascension is the 
necessary completion of the resurrection, the necessary precursor of 
the descent of the Holy Spirit, njv iTrayyikiav tov •n"V€VfiaTOs = to 
eTrr}yy€\/j.€vov irveOfxa, cf. i. 4; Gal. iii, 14; and especially the teaching 
of our Lord, Jn xiv.-xvi. Xapwv, cf. i. 4. tovto. Either the actual 
gift of the Holy Spirit or its effects, which were manifest to those who 
were listening. 

34. Xe'-yet 8e avros. The iioth Ps. was clearly recognized as 
Messianic by all Jews. David could not have spoken of himself when 
he called David's son David's Lord ; but he spoke of the Messiah. 
Jesus Plimself had confuted the scribes with this very quotation, Lk. xx. 
41; cf. also I Cor. XV. 25; Heb. i. 13. Kd9ov for class. Kad-qa-o, frequent 
in the LXX. and in the kolvt}. €K 8€|lcov, as sharing power. These 
words are a confirmation of the ascension which followed upon the 
resurrection from the dead. 

35. ^»s...<ro\j. Christ will enter into His full dominion when His 
enemies lie beneath His feet. The imagery is from the custom of 
eastern monarchs being represented with their feet on the necks of 
their enemies. 


36. S. Peter closes his speech with the conclusion, solemnly and 
emphatically stated, which he had set himself to prove from Scripture, 
that Jesus of Nazareth, whom the Jews had been responsible for slaying, 
was the Messiah, see note, i. 20. Kvpiov. The reference is undoubtedly 
to the quotation in the preceding verse. The Lord (Jehovah) said unto 
my lord (a title of honour and respect by which David recognized one 
superior to himself) : only in the Messiah could that prophecy be 
fulfilled, Lk. XX. 44. to-Tavpwo-aTC. The sting in the second person, 
the last word of the speech, must not be lost sight of. Many of those 
present may have taken part a few weeks before in the cry ' crucify ' 
and shared in the responsibility. 

37. KaT6vvYT]crav, KaTav{)a(TO[xaL (Kara intensive) = ' to prick sorely' 
(Ps. cix. 16). It is not used in Attic Greek: but the simple vvaau) is 
used in the same sense in Homer. The last word, earavpihaaTe, had 
struck home. TC iroiiia-ajjxcv. Delib. subj. : what are we to do? The 
aorist denotes a single immediate act, cf. Lk. x. 25 : the lawyer asked 
tL iroLTjcras ^(lirjv aiujviov K\T)povofi7jo-oj; Jesus uses the present of continued 
action in His final injunction Kai <xv iroiei. 6/xows. 

38. M€TavoTJo-aT€. The ministry of the apostles began as the 
ministry of John the Baptist (Mt. iii. 2) and of Christ (Mk i. 15) v/ith 
the call to repentance and baptism unto remission of sins. /.LeravoQ 
implies not merely regret for sin but a deliberate change of mind, pair- 
Tnr0'i]Tft),..ev Tw 6v6|JLaTt 'lr\<rov Xpi<rTOv. Baptism was familiar as a 
symbol of cleansing from sin. But the baptism of the apostles differed 
from all preceding baptism, as it was attended (iiri) by the acknowledg- 
ment of the Messiahship of Jesus. Peter had set himself to convince 
his audience of this truth, and their acknowledgment of it was the 
condition of their baptism. There is not therefore any need to find 
any real discrepancy in the commission given to the apostles to 
baptize in the name of the Trinity so as to bring the newly baptized 
into covenant relationship, with the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. 
Mt. xxviii. 19; cf. viii. 16, x. 48, xix. 5. Ttjv Swpedv. A further dis- 
tinction from John's baptism. The new baptism based upon the con- 
fession of Jesus Christ is followed by the gift of the Holy Spirit, 
viii. 17, xix. 2-3. 

39. r\ iirayyiKla, the promise referred to in Joel; v. 18, supr. 
irdo-t Tots €ls fxaKpav, cf. Eph. ii. 17. This expression cannot be limited 
to the Jews of the Dispersion. The commission to the disciples (Mt. 
xxviii. 19) included all nations. The words quoted above, vv. 17-21, 
pointed to the universal character of the Gospel. The conception of 

II 42] NOTES 95 

the nations gathering to Jerusalem was familiar to all from the O.T. 
(Is. ii. 2, Zech. vi. 15), but at this stage S. Peter did not contemplate 
the admission of Gentiles apart from their admission at the same time 
to the Jewish religion as proselytes. The Gentile controversy did not 
arise until later. 

40. 8i€|JLapTvpaTo, not as R.V. and A.V. testified (e/xapTvprjaev), i.e. 
bore witness, but 'protested solemnly,' involving not only the assertion 
of the truth of Jesus Christ but the condemnation of false teaching. 
In Lk. xvi. 28 it means 'to declare on oath'; of, i Tim. v. 21, 
2 Tim. ii. 14, iv. r. <rKoXtds = ' crooked,' implies deviation from the 
straight path; cf. Phil. ii. 15, Deut. xxxii. 5. 

41. Oi |JL€v ovv, a favourite formula of Lk. ovv is resumptive, 'so 
then.' oi fxev points forward, and is answered by be in 43, and rjaav 
5e is simply a clause parallel with the clause introduced by fih odv. 
fxh olv occurs 25 times in the Acts and in four cases no 5e follows; 
cf. V. 41, xii. 5, etc. diro8€^d|X€voi, 'welcoming gladly,' Lk. viii. 40. 
TTJ iinepa Ik€ivt]. There is no reason to doubt the statement in the 
text : the baptism took place on the day of Pentecost, the birthday 
of the church. S. Augustine is said to have baptized 10,000 in the 
Swale on a Christmas Day, and cf. the eastern mission of S. Francis 

42. -qo-av 8€ carries on the sense of the preceding sentence, 
' and they were attending steadfastly.' rfj SiSaxfj. There are four 
marks characteristic of the daily life of the Christian community : 
(r) the teaching of the apostles whose special duty was the ministry 
of the word (vi. 2-4); (2) the fellowship; (3) the breaking of bread; 
(4) the prayers. If the text is correct, the first is closely connected 
with the second, and the third with the fourth, rfj koivcovlci.. The 
apostles and their converts were both united in 'the fellowship,' 
i.e. with Jesus Christ. The reference is considered by others to be to 
the community of goods. KOLvuivia is used in a concrete sense, 
Rom. XV. 26, 2 Cor. viii, 4, but also of the fellowship or unity of the 
church with its Master, Phil, ii. i. It is possible that both conceptions 
were present to S. Luke's mind. Blass proposes to read t^j Kkdaews, 
dependent on Kotvoivia, so the Vulgate comynunicatione fractiojiis panis. 
•ng KXdcrei tov dprov. Both words have the article, which hints that 
there is more meaning in the words than the common fellowship of 
a common meal. The words must be considered in the light of 
S. Paul's definite teaching, i Cor. x. 16, xi. 24. It is clear that from 
the earliest days Christians joined in common meals (d7d7rai) to which 


a religious significance was attached. It had been our Lord's custom to 
eat with His disciples, and it was a sacred bond of fellowship between 
them, Lk. xxiv. 30. The reference here must be to the acts of our Lord 
at the Last Supper, and it is probable that the infant community followed 
the same order, i.e. the common meal {ayd-Kri) preceded the Eucharist, 
the breaking of the bread and the drinking of the cup. This was the 
custom of the Corinthian church, rats irpoo-evxais, cf. iii. i. The 
community followed in all probability the Jewish customs of prayer at 
stated times in the temple and in the synagogues. 

The Common Life of the Church. 43-47. 

43. irao-T) \|/vx.xi here = person, as v. 41. Others would tr. 'heart' 
as being the seat of the feelings. The fear engendered was reverential 

44. 01 irio-Tevo-avTCS, inceptive aorist, ' those who had accepted the 
faith.' The aorist marks the embracing of the faith ; the present a state 
of mind. Other MSS. read eTrt to avrb rjaav Kal etxov, in that case iirl 
TO avTO refers to place and not to the total number. Iirl to auTo, closely 
with irdvTes, ' all together,' i.e. the whole community of believers, 
airavxa koivci. Absolute communism is not implied or expressed, but all 
contributed voluntarily to the common fund for the benefit of those who 
stood in need. Some consider that the sale of lands and property was 
in consequence of the belief in the nearness of the Pai-ousia, and that 
men reckoned their property of no account. It is far more probable 
that the disciples continued the common life which they had shared 
with Jesus, and followed in His steps. The poverty of the Jerusalem 
church meets us again and again in the Epistles and in the Acts, and 
the explanation lies not so much in the famine as in the condition of 
life in the Holy City, which had little or no trade, and could ill provide 
occupation for its large population, cf. xi. 29, xxiv. 17, Gal. ii. 10, 
2 Cor. viii. ix. The sense of brotherhood soon led the Christian 
church to organize the relief of the poorer brethren on a regular basis, 
cf. iv. 32-35, vi. I. 

45. TO, KTT]}i.aTa...Tas virdp^eis. The distinction (if any) is between 
realty and personalty. eiriirpao-Kov. The imperfects are important, 
and denote continued action. The whole community did not pool all 
their property at once, but contributions were made to meet needs as 
they arose, and these naturally grew with the growth of the church. 

Ill 2] NOTES 97 

KaOoTi dv...elx,€v. Ara^ort^ ' just as.' dtj/ with imperfect is iterative, 
cf. iv. 35, Mk vi. 56. 

46. ofJLoOvfiaSov, ' with one heart and mind.' The unity and 
energy of the church are constantly insisted on in the Acts, cf. iv. 34, 
V. 12, XV. -25. €V Tw Upw. The early Christians did not cease 
to be devout Jews, and the apostles and their followers were strict 
in their attendance at the temple services. Jesus was as yet to them 
only the Messiah of Jewish expectation, cf. iii. i, v. 42. kX«vt€s 
dprov, i.e. in the eucharist. The following expression, /xereX. rpocpijs, 
refers to the common meals partaken of. This supports the view that 
the breaking of bread was a separate Christian rite linked above in v. 42 
with the prayers. Kax' oIkov, ' at home,' as opposed to the temple, 
not 'from house to house,' but the reference need not be confined to 
one house. Kara, may be used distributively with the singular. dyaX- 
Xido-€i, 'exultant joy,' Lk. i. 44. d<j)€XoTi]Ti, from d-cpeWevs, 'not stony 
ground ' = singleness or simplicity; cf. d0e-\7js Kai irapp-qaias /xearos, 
Dem. 1489. 10. 

47. alvovvres. A life of devotion, of prayer and praise, liberality 
and simplicity, won for them the grace of God. S. Luke here closes in 
his usual way his summary of a stage in the life of the church and of 
his own account of it, cf. Lk. i. 80, ii. 52. tovs a-w^op,€vovs. Tr. 
' And together {e-rrl to avro) from day to day the Lord added to them 
those who were being saved.' For the present part. cf. 2 Cor. ii. 15. 

Ch. III. Healing of the Lame Man at the 
Beautiful Gate. i-ii. 

1. IltTpos Se Kal'Ia)dvT]s. The two apostles are mentioned again 
together, viii. 14; cf. Gal. ii. 9, Lk. v. 10, xxii. 8, Jn xx. 2-5. S. Luke 
does not say that this was the first miracle wrought by the apostles, 
but records it because it was the immediate cause of the first persecu- 
tion of the church. dve'Paivov, imperf. They did not enter the 
temple precincts (iepov) until v. 8. eirl Tiiv...€vdTT]v, i.e. so as to 
be there at the ninth hour, the hour of the offering of the evening 
sacrifice, about 3 p.m. For iwi cf. iv. 5, Lk. x. 35, and for the 
position of the adj. cf. ii. 20. The three hours of prayer were probably: 
(i) at the morning sacrihce; (2) the evening sacrifice; (3) sunset, 
but cf. Dan. vi. ro. 

2. Wdpxwv carries its full meaning, indicating that his present 
condition had been from his birth. ipaa-rd^eTO, imperf., implies either 

B. A. 7 


that he was being carried as usual or that he had not yet reached the 
place where he usually lay to receive alms. ttJv 'OpaCav. wpaTos^ 
KaXos, Rom. x. 15. No gate is known by this name. The choice lies 
between the gate of Nicanor (so called because Judas Maccabaeus had 
nailed Nicanor's hand to it) and the gate of Shushan, possibly adorned 
with lily-work or with a carved representation of Susa. Dr Wright 
thinks the eastern gate of the court of the house is meant, leading 
into the court of Israel, tov airelv. A favourite construction of 
S. Luke and S. Paul to express purpose, cf. ix. 15. The custom is 
still common in the precincts of continental cathedrals and oriental 
mosques, where no provision is made for the poor by law as in 
England. IXei^ixoo-vvqv, properly of pity, then of its concrete expres- 
sion, hence alms, which is a corruption of the Greek word, cf. ix. 36. 

3. Tipcora. ipurdo) is used in N.T. both of questions and petitions, 
but cf. riT-qaaro evpeiv, vii. 46, according to correct classical usage. 

4. B\€\|/ov. The request was probably made to test his sincerity. 

5. €ir€ix€v, sc. Tou vovv. The noun is often omitted both with 
eTrexef and irpoaix^'-^ i^"^ Hellen. Gk, i Tim. iv. 16. 

6. *Ap7tipiov. The disciples still obeyed the Lord's command, 
Mt. X. 9. ev Tw ov6(JtaTi, i.e. in the name and by its power, by the 
authority of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, Lk. x. 17. The apostles per- 
formed no miracles apart from the faith of the healed and the invocation 
of the Name, cf. xiv. 9. In O.T. the Name of God implies His power 
and all His attributes, so in N.T. the Name of Jesus denotes His power 
as the acknowledged Messiah, cf. v. 16 inf., v. 41, xv. 26, xvi. 18. The 
man had heard of or seen Jesus the Nazarene, the crucified, whom he 
now accepts as XpLcrros the Messiah, and thus displays his faith. 

7. irido-as, ' seizing him by the hand.' Trtctfo; stronger than 
Xa/JL^dvo}. The gen. is correct as denoting the part affected by the 
action of the verb. irapaxpTJ|xa, characteristic of S. Luke as evdvs is 
of S. Mark. All the words in this passage were in use in medical 
language, and S. Luke is very precise in his description. 

8. l|aXX6|jL€vos, sc. in joy and surprise. ?<rn] Kai ir€pi€irdT€i, 'he 
stood up and began to walk.' The graphic details point to S. Peter 
himself as being S. Luke's informant. 

9. alvovvTa. S. Luke notes the ascription of praise to God 
following upon miraculous cures, cf. Lk. xix. 37, xxiv. 53. 

ro. ktnyivoxTKov, 'they recognized him,' cf. iv. 13. 6dp.povs Kal 
*Ko-Td<r€(i)s, 'amazement and bewilderment.' dd/uL^os, cf. Lk. iv. 36; 
iK7TaaL%, cf. e^iaravTO ii. 7, elsewhere = a trance, x. 10, xi. 5. 

Ill 13] NOTES 99 

11. KpaTOvvTOS, 'clinging to them,' i.e. for support, eirl tt} (tto^. 
The portico of Solomon stood on the eaSf of the temple, and was the 
last survival of the work of Solomon, cf. v. 12, Jn x. 23. ^KdafiPoi, 
note plural adj. with collective noun Xaos, e/c intensifying prefix, cf. 
^K<po^os, Mk ix. 6. 

S. Peter's Speech. 12-26. 

In this speech S. Peter expounds in fuller detail than in the speech 
at Pentecost the Messiahship of Jesus with all that it meant for the 

{a) 12-16. The miracle had not been effected by the power of the 
apostles but by God to the glory of the Nazarene, the risen Mes.siah, 
whom they had slain. 

{/>) 17-18. They had acted in ignorance. They had not under- 
stood that the Messiah, the servant of God, was destined to suffer, but 
now they could understand the scriptures in the light of the fact that 
He whom the apostles knew to be the Messiah had been crucified. 

[f] 19-26. Therefore let them repent in preparation for the return 
of the Messiah, the greater prophet foretold by Moses. Theirs were the 
privileges of the sons of Abraham, but they could enjoy them only if 
they turned away from sin. 

The Jews expected the Messiah to come and to restore their race 
to power and prosperity. They seem to have had no conception 
(i) that He would suffer, (2) that He would not remain with them but 
return to God to come again. 

12. dir€KpivaTo, sc. to their looks of astonishment, cf. x. 46. 
Lk. xiii. 14. The middle voice is classical, in N.T. aireKpldrjv is more 
usual, in modei-n Greek the middle voice is dead, in Hellen. Greek it 
was dying. itrX tovto), masc. , ' at this man. ' cvcrepcia, i.e. reverence 
towards God and so personal holiness, tow irepiiraTciv, consecutive. 
The constructions expressing purpose or consequence are not strictly 
differentiated in N. T. , cf. x. 25, xx, 3, xxvii. i. 

13. 6 6cos...'IaK(6p. The words are specially chosen to shew 
that S. Peter identified the Messiahship of Jesus with the hopes of 
Israel and with the promise made to Abraham, Ex. iii. 6. e86|acr£v. 
The glorification of Jesus was particularly displayed in the miracle just 
wrought in His name. The resurrection and the session at the right 
hand of God are other indications of God glorifying His Son, vv. 15, 21. 
Tov iraiSa, R.V. rightly 'servant,' with reference to the prophecies 



of Isaiah, Is. xlii. i, Hi. 13, liii. 12; cf. Mt. xii. 18. The phrase ttoa.% 
deov is used of Israel, Lk.'*. 54, of David, i. 69. vibs deoO is used in 
N.T. for the Son of God. The apostles always call themselves dovXoL 
deov, iv. 29; cf. Phil. i. i. v(jl€is |i^v. There is no direct answering 5e. 
Note the strong antithesis throughout between v/xels and 6 deds. God 
had glorified Him, the Jews had slain Him. i^pvTJo-acrGe is redun- 
dant, but is inserted to point the contrast between what the Jews 
did in denying Jesus' Messiahship and what Pilate (e/cetfou) did. Kara 
•Trp6(ra)Trov. Favourite expression of S. Luke; cf. Lk. ii. 31. The 
expression is found in Polybius. Kendall considers that the phrase 
implies the point-blank refusal of the Jews to accept Pilate's decision ; 
cf. XXV. 16, Gal. ii. 11. KpivavTOS, 'when he had decided.' The 
decision was judicial, Lk, xxiii. 16. 

14. Tov d^iov Kttl SiKaiov. Jesus was essentially the Holy One 
and the Righteous, the consecrated servant of Jehovah, Israel had 
failed alike in holiness and in righteousness, and had failed to be a 
holy nation and to fulfil God's law: not so Jesus, cf. Lk. iv, 34, Jn 
vi, 69. In O.T. ayLos = eK\eKTbs deov, Is. xlii. i. SiKaiov, Is. liii, ii; 
Acts vii. 52, xxii. 14; Lk. i. 6 ; i Pet. iii. 18. avSpa <j>ovea. The 
addition of Evdpa strengthens (povea; the expression is in pointed 
contrast with the description of Jesus, Lk. xxiii. 14. xapiorOTJvai. 
Xapi^o/xaL is only found in the writings of S. Luke and S. Paul, and 
always denotes an act of grace, a free gift; Lk, vii. 21. 

15. TOV 8e dpxiTYOv rr\s t^^s- dpxvyos = \ea.dex, author, founder; 
cf. V. 31. In Heb. ii. 10, xii. 2 the reference is undoubtedly to 'Joshua,' 
the captain or leader, and this is its sense in O.T. (Num. xiv. 4), but 
it is also used of a founder of a family. The argument here is closely 
condensed. The real meaning is clear. The Jews had slain Him who 
was the source of life, and asked that one who destroyed life should be 

16. Toii dv6|xaTos, obj. gen., cf. note above, v. 6. TricFTL? and 
ouofxa are repeated twice for emphasis. The apostles had faith in the 
Name, sc. the power of the risen Lord, and He through their faith in 
Him had made the man whole, -q 81* avrov, masc, not neuter, i.e. 
through Christ, i Pet. i. 21. 6XoK\T)piav, only here in N.T., but cf. 
I Thess. v. 23, oXoreXeis, Kal 6\6k\t]pop. The reference is clearly to 
soundness of health and body. 

17. Kal vvv, d8€\(f>o£ marks the transition to a fresh argument 
in the speech drawn from what precedes. Kara d-yvoiav. The 
Jews did not know that the Messiah was to suffer, in spite of His 

Ill 23] NOTES loi 

sufferings being foreshadowed by the prophets. He had come and 
they had not recognized Him, but had killed Him. The pity and 
tenderness in S. Peter's words recall the words from the cross, 
Lk. xxiii. 34. The thought of the crucified Messiah was to the Jews a 
stumblingblock (t Cor. i. 23), but in all the writings of N.T. it is the 
central fact in God's plan of salvation. 

18. Tov xP'-o'Tov avTov, Ps. ii. 2; Lk. ii. 26. 

19. l'irt(rTp€'\|/aT€ = ' turn again,' not 'be converted,' the verb is 
active, xxviii. 27, Mk iv. 12. Repentance and conversion were their 
duty, and in spite of past sin would lead to pardon. €|aXwf)0T]vai, 
Ps. Ii. 9; Is. xliii. 25. 

20. oirws dv. 'That in that case there may come.' ' di' with 
oTTws indicates that the accomplishment of the purpose is dependent 
on certain conditions,' Lk. ii. 35. dva^v^cws, ' revival.' In LXX., 
Ex. viii. 15, it means respite, but here it is undoubtedly to be identified 
with 6.iroKaT(^o^^ and ciTro irpoauirov will then denote the source. 
The reference is to the spiritual refreshment which would attend the 
second coming of the Messiah. dTroo-TciXr], sc. at the Parousia. 
•7rpoK€x.«i'pi<r[X€vov, ' Him who hath been appointed for you as Messiah, 
even Jesus ' (Page), Acts xxii. 14. 

21. |i€V, no answering 5e, but dxpt xpovo}v serves the purpose of 
antithesis. Tr. 'Whom the heaven must receive' (Phil. iii. 20), sc. 
as His abode until His coming again. diroKaTao-Tao-ews. It was the 
Jewish belief that Elijah would return before the coming of the Messiah 
and restore all things moral and material, Mai. iv. 5 ; Mk ix. 12. This 
they interpreted of material prosperity. S. Peter corrected this idea. 
The times of restoration are identical with the seasons of revival which 
would attend the Messiah's return in glory to earth from heaven, wv, 
sc. TrdvTOJv. Twv d"YLwv...Trpo<|)'r]Tci)v, Lk. i. 70, a favourite periphrasis of 
S. Luke. dir' alwvos, only used in sing, by Luke in N.T., cf. xv. 18; 
Lk. i. 70. 

22. Mtovo-qs ykv elirev, Deut. xviii. 15. jU^i' = indeed. The pro- 
phecy originally referred to a prophet who should follow in Moses' steps, 
but it was given a Messianic significance. S. Peter here identifies the 
prophet with Christ, ws k^i justifies the statement in the last sentence, 
cf, vii. 37; Jn vi. 14. Sc. av^ar-qaev, 'as He upraised me.' 

23. ^(TTai. Not in the Hebrew original. The words which follow 
are concurrent, and there is no connecting link. €|oX€9p€v0T|o-€Tai, ' shall 
be utterly destroyed.' The actual words in Ueut. xviii. 19 are 'I will 
require it of him,' for which S. Peter substitutes i^oXeOpeiJcreTai (Lev. 


xvii. 4), a phrase implying excommunication from the chosen people or 
death. Here it refers to the total exclusion of those who reject the 
Messiah at the Parousia. 

■24. Kal...8€, ' Yea,..and.' diro Sa|jioui]X Kat tcov KaOe^i^S- Samuel 
was the founder of the schools of the prophets. The phrase is some- 
what loose, but the meaning is clear. All the long line of prophets 
from Samuel on\A'ards : with irdvTiS supply elirov from Mwucttjs elirev, 
cf. Heb. xi. 23. rds i^p-epas raiiTas. These days, i.e. the times of 
restoration which had already begun. No such prophecy was actually 
made by Samuel, but he had anointed David the ancestor of the Messiah, 

25. viol T«v '7rpo<j>T]T<II)v...8ia0i]KT]s. The phrase is HeVjraistic, 
cf. sons of the law, sons of the kingdom, Mt. viii. 12. Trpo(pT]Tu)i> and 
diadrjKTjs are taken together with vioi. They are sons because they 
enter into the inheritance alike of all that the prophets foretold and of 
the covenant with Abraham. hadrjK7)s implies a divine dispensation on 
God's part, Gen. xvii. 2, etc. kv rai o-irc'pp.aTt o-ov. Here S. Peter, 
like S. Paul, Gal. iii. 16, interprets <nr^pfjt.a of Christ in Whom the 
whole human race was bound up and in Whom the covenant fulfilled 
its purpose. Blass considers that ef is instrumental. 

26. vjJtiv TTpwTOV. The emphasis upon v/x€?s...vf.uv at the beginning 
of two sentences without any connecting particle marks the conclusion 
of the whole argument. The Gospel message was to the Jew first and 
afterwards to the Gentile. The problem of the means by which the 
latter was to be included had not yet arisen. S. Peter shared the 
general Jewish belief at the time that other nations could only 
participate in the blessings of the Messianic kingdom by accepting 
Judaism. direo-TciXev clearly refers to the incarnation and not to the 
resurrection, iv t« diro<rTp6<|). , iv t^j with pres. or aorist infin., is 
usually temporal, but here is used of the means. The verb is intran- 
sitive. In this exquisite peroration nearly every word recalls the chief 
points in the argument: TratSa, ?>. 13; dvaarrjcras {not of the resur- 
rection), V. %2\ dTroaTpi(f)eLv, t^. 19 ; while eOXoyovura emphasizes and 
echoes ev\oyr}6rj(roi'TaL. 

Ch. IV. First Persecution (bv the Sadducees). 1-4. 

I. avTwv. The pres. part, implies that the speech was interrupted, 
whereas avrdv makes it probable that John also spoke. eir^cTTTjo-av, 
'came upon them suddenly,' at the time of the closing of the temple 
by the guartl, cf. vi. 12, xii. 7 ; Lk. ii. 9, xxiv. 4. dpxi-^p^is, better 

IV 5] NOTES 103 

perh. ol iepeis. The chief priests would inckide all the members of the 
high-priestly families, and not only the ex-high-priests, v. 2+. 6 (rrpa- 
rqYos Tov Upov. The captain of the temple was in command of the 
Levitical guard or temple police, and he had under him subordinates 
also called aTparrjyoi. He was himself a priest, and ranked next 
in authority to the high-priest, Acts v. 24, Lk. xxii. 4. 01 HaSSov- 
Kaioi. The origin of the Sadducees is obscure. They were opposed, 
both in politics and doctrine, to the Pharisees, who took no part in 
this first persecution. Drawn from the aristocracy and priestly families, 
they commanded great influence in the Sanhedrin and acquiesced in the 
Roman suzerainty, (i) They rejected all the oral traditions and held 
strictly to the letter of the Pentateuch. (2) They denied the resurrection 
of the dead. (3) They did not believe in the existence of angels. Their 
apprehensions were aroused (r) by the fear of popular adhesion to the 
apostles which would endanger their political power ; (2) by the 
assertion that Jesus was proved to be the Messiah by His resurrection. 
They were the chief opponents of the apostles throughout the Acts, 
and there is no instance of the conversion of any Sadducee: cf. v. 17-40, 
xxii. 30, xxiii. ro, xxiv. 1-9; Lk. xx. 27-40; Jn xi. 47, xii. xo. 

2. 8iairovov|X€voi, ' being sore distressed, ' cf. xvi. 18. S. Luke uses 
compounds with did and diro frequently. Iv xto 'lT|(rov = in the person 
of Jesus. Tqv €K veKpwv. The resurrection from the dead must be 
distinguished in N.T. from the resurrection of the dead. The former 
is only applied to some, and implies that while some are raised others 
await the final resurrection, cf. i Thess. iv. 16 ; 1 Cor. xv. 23, 24. 

3. -^v "ydp Icrircpa, hence the trial could not take place until the 
following day, Jer. xxi. 12, Lk. xxii. 66. 

4. l-yevijOt], only here in Luke, who uses the classical middle, 
cf. I Thess. ii. 14. The number 5000 includes probably all the male 
converts and is striking evidence of the growth of the infant community. 
Hence the alarm of the Jewish authorities. 

Trial of Peter and John before the Sanhedrin. 


5., 'E"Y€'v€TO Be. Three constructions are used by S. Luke with 
ytyvofxaL. (i) eyivero is placed side by side with another verb. 
(2) The two verbs are coupled by Kai. (3) iyevero is followed as here 
by infin. None of the constructions are classical. Cf. ix. 32, 37, 
etc. (rvva\0Tivai,, i.e. the Sanhedrin met. It numbered 70, and was 


composed of (i) the chief priests who are here referred to as apxavres, 
cf. Lk. xxiii. 13. (2) The elders and scribes. The scribes were the 
religious lay order which had originated in the time of the exile, and 
as the exponents of the law and its tradition exercised very wide 
authority in all parts of the country. Their stronghold was the local 
synagogue in each town or village. The Sanhedrin had power to arrest 
and to punish, but they were not allowed to inflict capital punishment. 

6. "Avvas. Annas had been deposed and Caiaphas, his son-in-law, 
was actually high-priest, A.D. 25-37 ; cf. Jn xi. 49, xviii. 13; Lk. iii. 2. 
It is possible that the Jews did not recognize that the Romans, though 
they might depose from office, could take away the authority or stand- 
ing of one who had held the supreme office. Nothing is known of John 
and Alexander. Codex Bezae reads Jonathan, who was son of Annas and 
successor of Caiaphas. R.V. tr. 'was there,' supplying ■^v after Annas. 

7. £v T« |X€<ra). The court was a semicircle and the prisoners 
stood in the centre, cf. v. 27. 'Ev iroia, ' In virtue of what power or 
what authority (name).' iroTos is a strong form of question ^rt;/*, 
cf. Mk xii. 28; Lk. vi. 32. 

8. 7r\T](r0€ls Trvtviiaros d-yiov. -The phrase is peculiar to Luke. 
No other evangelist emphasizes the work of the Holy Spirit to the same 
extent. Cf. Lk. i. 15, 41, 67 ; Acts ii. 4, iv. 31, ix. 17. 

9. €l...dvaKpiv6|X€0a. Note pres. indie. ' If (as is the fact) we are 
being examined.' el is really equivalent to eTret. dvaKpivdfi. does not 
here bear the technical sense of preliminary enquiry, xii. 19 ; Lk. 
xxiii. 14. cirl evcp-yco-ia. There had been apparently no formal charge. 
S. Peter supplies it with fine irony, ' for a good deed.' €v *Tivt, 
dependent on avaKptvbfxeda, either masculine 'in whom,' i.e. by whose 
name or power, or neuter 'by what means.' o-€cr«(rTai = has been 
made sound and whole. The lame man had been healed alike in body 
and mind, cf. v. 12 and Lk. vii. 50. 

' 10. 8v...ov. The repetition is emphatic. The strong contrast 
between vfids and deos is once more insisted on, iii. 13, 14. kv tovtw" 
will be either neuter or masculine, according to the translation of tv tLvc 
to which it gives the answer, vviifs, ' in sound health.' 

II. ovTos...7«vias. Ps. cxviii. 22, The passage originally referred 
to the rejection of Israel by the builders of the empire of the world. 
But the Psalm was regarded as Messianic, and Jesus had used the same- 
quotation of Himself, Mt. xxi. 42. The leaders of Israel are the 
builders who had rejected the Messiah and cast aside the very stone as. 
useless which actually fitted the highest corner of the structure of God's- 

IV 17] NOTES 105 

people, without which the whole building could not hold together, 
of. I Pet. ii. 7. €|ou0€VTi0€is implies contemptuous rejection, a charac- 
teristic word both of Luke and Paul, Lk. xviii. 9 ; i Cor. vi. 4. The 
word used in LXX. and in S. Mark is a.-KeUKiiio.aa.v, which implies 
rejection after examination. Some consider that the Xi^os a.Kpo^'jiv 10.10% 
was the corner foundation-stone, as in Eph. ii. 20. 

12. 1] <r«nipia. The Messianic salvation, not limited to miracles 
of healing, ^repov ovo[xa. ctWos and erepos have their full force, 
'In no other is there salvation, for neither is there a second name,' 
cf. Jn iv. 22. 

13. irappT^o-iav, i.e. 'confidence alike of speech and of bearing.' 
This had characterised the teaching of Jesus (Mk viii. 32) and the 
disciples were as their Master. Of Paul's preaching (ix. 27, xix. 8, 
XX vi. 26 ; I Thess. ii. 2). S. John had probably spoken, as well as 
S. Peter. KaraXapdixevoi, regularly used in later Greek of grasping 
a fact. a-ypd|jL|JLaTot, ' un-educated,' sc. in Rabbinic lore, cf. Jn vii. 15. 
The word frequently occurs in the papyri of one who cannot sign his 
name, ' illiterate.' This may be its meaning here. Cf. ap-ovaos and 
aypoiKOi. iSiwrai, ' laymen ' not versed in Rabbinic teaching. Coupled 
with dypd/x/xaTos it emphasizes the lack of education and of legal 
training. In cl. Greek lSllottjs denotes a private citizen who takes no 
part in public life, and such a citizen is regarded asdxpeios, Thuc. ii. 48. 
Cf. 1 Cor. xiv. 16; 2 Cor. xi. 6. €ir€7ivfa)o-Kov, 'began to recognize,' 
i.e. that they had not been instructed in the law but by Jesus. S. John 
was already known to the High Priest, Jn xviii. 15. Cf. iii. 10. 
i^o-av, ' had been.' An imperfect in Or. obliqua can only represent an 
imperfect in Or. recta. 

14. eo-Tcbra, no longer a cripple. 

15. cruve'PaXXov, sc. \6yovs. 

16. iroiTJo-wfiev. The deliberative subj. has better authority than 
the future indie, but there is no distinction in meaning. The aorist* 
denotes a single act, cf. li. 37. oTt [i€v YoCp, answered by dWd in v. 17. 
YVoxTTov, ' indisputable.' A matter of fact as opposed to do^aarov 
a matter of opinion. 

17. €iri -irXeiov, clearly used here of space and not of time, as in 
XX. 9. 8iav6p.Ti9TJ, 'that it spread no further abroad,' sc. the report 
of the miracle or the teaching of the apostles. diaveix. may be a 
medical metaphor from the spreading of a cancer. dirciX'qa-wfi.eOa, tr. 
' Let us charge them with threats not to speak,' inf. v. 29. tirl tw 
dvd|JLaTi TovTcp, 'in this name,' i.e. resting their teaching on this name. 


This is better than taking eirl to mean 'about the name,' cf. xiv. 3. 
The Jews referred to Jesus as ' this fellow,' ' that man ' ; they avoided 
the mention of His name, v. 28. 

18. Ka06\o\)=:at all, only here in N.T. fjii] <j)0€-yy€cr0at, 'not to 
utter a word.' Baffled in argument, they took refuge in making the 
preaching of Jesus illegal. 

19. €Vft)iriov = ^f TrpoawTTo}, ivavTLov, etc., a frequent phrase in 
LXX. to mark the realization of the presence of God, Lk. i. 6, Gal. i. 
20. v|X(tfV OLKoveiv, cf. Plat. Apol. 29 D, Treiao/xaL fxaWof t(^ de^ yj vfuv. 
oLKoveiv here = to obey, cf. Lk. x. 16. No one was more ready to obey 
the just ordinances of men than S. Peter (i Pet. ii. 13), Ijut the Christian 
has no choice but to obey God when God's command contravenes 
man's, v. 29. 

21. irpocraTreiXTiordixevoi. 7r/)6s = further. dire'Xvjrav — sent them 
away, not 'acquitted.' |jlt]8cv. CI. Greek would require ovdev, as a 
fact not a supposition is stated, to ttcSs, i.e. pretext, not means. The 
addition of the article converts the whole phrase into a substantive in 
apposition with [x-qbev, cf. Lk. i. 62 ; i Thess. iv. i. The subjunctive is 
deliberative, dia tov \a6u, cf. Lk. xx. 6. 

22. €Tci)v...T€<ro-€pdKovTa. Elscwhcre S. Luke, perhaps with the 
care of a physician, notes years : cf. Aeneas, ix. 33 ; the cripple at 
Lystra, xiv. 8 ; Jairus' daughter, Lk. viii. 42. Note omission of ^ with 
irXeibvwv, xxiii. 13, 21, etc. Y€"ydv€t. The pluperfect without augment 
is common in N.T. 

23. Trpos Tovs l8£ovs, i.e. the members of the Christian com- 

Prayer of the Apostles. 24-31. 

24. ilirouV. The prayer was probably uttered by S. Peter, and the 
assembly caught up and repeated his words and did not merely answer 
'Amen. A^<rirota. The earliest known utterance of Christian praise 
and thanksgiving. AecrTrorrjs, which implies absolute power and 
sovereignty, is rarely used of God or Christ, and is contrasted with dovXos 
as here and in Lk. ii. 29. o iroiTJo-ds, cf. xiv. 15 ; Ex. xx. ir. 

25. 6...<rT6(iaTos. The text as it stands requires a second 8id 
with (TTofiaTos, and rod irarpos rjfxQu is awkwardly separated in any case, 
see R.V. A.V., following T.R., omits tov Trarpbs tj/hQi' and irpev/maTos 
ayiov. In iii. i8 God speaks through the mouth of men ; in i. 16 the 
Holy Spirit. The combination of the text, if sound, is unparalleled. 
The quotation is from Ps. ii. r, which was always held to be Messianic, 

IV 32] NOTES 107 

cf. xiii. 35 ; Heb. i. 5 f., v. 5. "Iva t£, vii. -26 ; Lk. xiii. 7 ; i Cor. 
X. 29. The phrase is Hellenistic and brachylogical, supply yeurjrai. 
€(}>pva|av. (f)pvd(T(T€Lv is used literally of the neighing of horses, and 
then of the haughtiness of men. ^6vt) in biblical Greek is used of the 
Gentile pagans, and \a6s in the Psalm is parallel with edvr}, but it is 
applied to the Jews, as is clear from v. 27. 6 Xaos is exclusively used 
of the Jewish people in the Acts. Pao-iXcis, Herod, and apxovrts, 
Pilate. Tov xpio-roO avrov, 'His anointed,' iii. 18. 

27. Iir' dXT]0eias = dX?7^ws. The Psalm is being interpreted in the 
prayer. •7rai8a = servant, as in v. 30, cf. iii. 13 ; Is. liii. 11. ov ^xpi(ras 
echoes and exemplifies tov xP''<^'''ov of the preceding verse. The refer- 
ence is to His baptism, x. 38. 'Hp<p8t]S, i.e. Antipas. S. Luke alone 
mentions the part played by Herod, Lk. xxiii. 8--12. He evidently had 
special knowledge of the Herodian family, cf. xiii. 1 ; Lk. iii. 19, 
viii. 3, ix. 7, xiii. 31. 

28. iroLTJo-ai, inf. of purpose. r\ \tCp orov koiI r[ ^ovXi] irpoco- 
pi<r€V, a zeugma, as only /Soi'X^ can rightly be constructed with 
IT poihpiaev : cf. ii. 23, iii. 18. 

29. TO. vvv...^'irt8€, only used in the writings of Luke, and then of 
divine regard, cf. Lk. i. 25. tov Xo-yov o-ov, i.e. Thy Gospel; frequently 
in Luke and Paul. There is a strong antithesis between irapp-rjaias and 

30. €V Tw. . .€KT€iv£iv, either ' while Thou stretchest forth Thy hand,' 
R.V., or better instrumental ' by.' -Yiveo-Oai, is best taken with ev ti2, 
and is not dependent on els. Tr. ' and by signs and wonders being 
wrought.' yiyvofxai. is the passive of ttoiQ. 

31. hir]QivT(av. The frequent reference to prayer is characteristic 
of Luke alike in the Gospel and in the Acts ; Acts i. 14, ii. 42, vi. 4, 
X. 2, xiii. 3, xiv. 23, xvi. 13, 25, xxviii. 8; Lk. iii. 21, v. 16, 
vi. 12, etc. eo-aXevO-r] 6 toitos, a .symbol of the divine presence, 
frequent in O.T., Ps. cxiv. 7; Is. vi. 4; cf. xvi. 26. lirX-qo-B-qcrav... 
eXdXovv. The aorist denotes the immediate answer to their prayer, the 
imperfect the continued result. ' They continued to speak ' in defiance 
of the Sanhedrin. 

Second Description of the Life of the Church. 


32. irio-Tcvo-avTcav. See note ii. 44. KapS^a Kal xj/vx."*]. Heart 
and soul combined cover the whole range of intelligence and emo- 
tion, Phil. i. 27. ov8^ ets, not even one, i.e. amongst so many. In 


ii. 44, 45, S. Luke describes in general terms the liberality of the 
Christian community : here he gives an account of the establishment 
of a common fund under apostolic direction, and illustrates it by the 
generosity of Barnabas, the selfish hypocrisy of Ananias and Sapphira, 
and the necessity of further organization met by the appointment of 
the seven. The passage here is not a mere doublet of ii. 44, 45. 

33. aTreSiSovv, 'delivered their witness' in fulfilment (ctTro) of the 
duty laid upon them, cf. i. 8, 22, ii. 32, iii. 15, iv. 10, 20. The form 
aire5l8ovv is Hellen., cf. iridovv, v. 35. xapts, i.e. the grace of God, 
manifested in the gift of God to the apostles as shewn in the following 
verse, cf. vi. 8 ; Lk. ii. 40. 

34. 00-01 7dp KTTJTopcs. No absolute communism is implied. 
TrwXoCcres and irLTrpa(JKo[x^voov are both imperfect : there is no definite 
statement that they sold all, but only what was necessary and of their 
own free will, e.g. Mark's mother retained her house, xii. 12. 

35. Trapd.. iroSas should be taken literally. It was a mark of 
trust and respect. Barnabas, who is expressly mentioned, may have 
been responsible for the suggestion. SicSkSeTo : probably impersonal : 
the form is Hellen., cf. Lk. xx. 9; i Cor. xi. 23: perhaps to 
dpyOpiou may be supplied, cf. Lk. xi. 22, xviii. 22. KaOori av, ii. 45 

36. Bapvdpas. The exact meaning of the name is obscure. Bap- 
vd^as should properly mean 'son of prophecy' {nabi), but Lk. trans- 
lates 'son of consolation.' TrapaKXTjffis is included by S. Paul as part of 
the function of prophecy, i Cor. xiv. 3. Harnack considers that the 
word means 'edifying exhortation,' but in all cases where the word 
occurs in N.T., comfort or consolation are suitable renderings (Know- 
ling). The apostles might well have called Joseph 'son of comfort ' 
in consequence of the accession to their ranks of a Levite of some wealth 
and position, cf. ix. 31, xiii. 15, xv. 31 ; 2 Cor. i. 3-7. Deissmann 
considers on the evidence of inscrr. that Bapvd^as is a corruption of 
Bapve^oOs, son of Nebo. Rackham translates wapdKXrjcns 'encourage- 
ment ' and Page strongly supports this. Acuetriis. Levites properly were 
not allowed to hold property, Deut. x. 9, but it is possible that after the 
captivity this strict regulation was not enforced. Kvirpios rio yivn, 'a 
man of Cyprus by birth.' Jews had settled in Cyprus since the time of 
Alexander the Great. Barnabas was a Hellenist Jew and was related 
to Mark and a close friend and companion of S. Paul, especially in 
the earlier years of his ministry. For the character of Barnabas, his 
goodness, simplicity and liberality, see xi. 23: cf. i Cor. ix. 6 ; Gal. ii. 

V 5] NOTES 109 

2, 9. He may well have learnt the same trade as S. Paul, as he 'was 
able to support himself by the work of his hands. 

37. TO xpT]|xa. 'The money,' very rare in the singular in this 

Ch. V. Ananias and Sapphira. i-ii. 

1. 'Avavias = Hananiah. Hebrew name of Shadrach, Dan. i. 6 
= to whom Jehovah has been gracious. The conduct of Ananias and 
Sapphira is placed in close juxtaposition with the action of Barnabas in 
silent but expressive contrast. 2a'ir<|>€ip'rj. From an Aramaic word 
meaning 'beautiful.' 'Sapphire' was probably derived through the 
Phoenicians from the same root, a pure is not always preserved in 
Hellenistic Gk, cf. (rvueidvirjs. Krr\\ia = x(^pi'Ov, an estate. 

2. lvoo-<})i(raTo : voacpi^o/xai properly ' to set apart for oneself,' 
and so, in a bad sense, 'to purloin.' In LXX. of the sin of Achan, 
Jos. vii. I, cf. Tit. ii. 10. The usage is classical, d'rro = fxepos ti, 
cf. ii. 17. 

3. 8td Ti = 'How comes it that.' Ananias and his wife clearly 
pretended that the part was the whole. 6 Earavds, cf. Lk. xxii. 3 ; 
Jn viii. 44. \|/€V(ra(r9ai. The simple infin. of result is equivalent to the 
infin. with uiare, cf. Z'. 21; Lk. i. 54. \pev5o/xaL = to cheat, to deceive 
by lying; here only in N.T. with ace, but frequently in LXX.: with 
the dative (not classical) it denotes 'to lie in the presence of,' and so 'to 
lie to.' TO -irvcvp-a to a"yiov. To deceive the apostles who were inspired 
with the Holy Spirit of truth (Jn xvi. 13) was equivalent to deceiving 
the Holy Spirit Himself. The divinity of the Holy Spirit is clearly 
implied in z^. 4. 

4. oi\^ [le'vov <rol ?p.€V€V. R.V. rightly keeps the assonance. 'While 
it remained (i.e. unsold) did it not remain thine own?' Kal irpa0€'v = T6 
dpyvpiov Tov TrpadevTos= ' the price of it when sold.' This passage con- 
clusively proves that the contributions to the common fund were purely 
voluntary. Iv t^q o-g l|ov(ria, 'in thine own right,' cf. i. 7. ri oti, 
sc. Ti iariv otl, 'Why is it that?' cf. Lk. ii. 49. ?0ov...tovto, 'thou 
hast conceived this deed in thine heart,' cf. LXX. Ex. i. 18, Lk. i. 66. 
ovK l\|/€vo'o>...9€u. The negative does not imply that Ananias had not 
lied to men, but is inserted to emphasize that he had lied to God. 
Ananias had sinned against the community and the Holy Spirit which 
•was the source of its life. 

5. (XKovcDV. The present participle shews that death was inslan- 
itaneoMS. i|€'vj/v^€v. CI. djro^i5;^€P' ^lov. Only here and in v. 10, and 


in xii. 23 of the death of Herod ; in O.T. of the death of Sisera, Jud. 
iv. 21. The word is used by Hippocrates and may be one of the 
medical terms used by S. Luke, iravras tovs (XKOiJovTa^. Probably 
only those who were present, as not even Sapphira was informed of her 
husband's death. 

6. ol ve(dT£poi — V. 10, ol veavlaKOL, 'the younger men.' No argu- 
ment for any definite orders in the community can be based on the use 
of this expression. o-vvt'o-TciXav : o-ucrrAXw. to wrap round; so of 
furling sails: probably here 'they wrapped him,' i.e. in their own 
cloaks, cf. Eur, Tro. 378 : in medical writers, to bandage. Others 
take it as equivalent to irepicrT^Wo}, to lay out and prepare for burial. 
l|€V€7KavT€s, eK(f)ip(j}, eKKo/uLi^eiv, Lat. effero^ were the technical words 
for burying. Only kings and prophets were buried within the walls of 
the city. The Cerameicus at Athens and the tombs on the Appian way 
were outside the city. The interval between death and burial in eastern 
and equatorial regions is much briefer than in northern climes. 

7. 'Ey€V€to 8^...€l<rT]X9€v. ci>s ujpcDj' TpicDj' StdcTTTj/za is clearly paren- 
thetical. For an exact parallel cf. Lk. ix. 28. For the construction 
cf. iv. 5 n. p.11 €l8uia. In N.T. ^i-i] supersedes ov with participles. 

8. dircKpiOTi, cf. iii. 12. TO<rovtTOv. Gen. of price: the purchase 
money M^as lying before him. The graphic touches mark the narrative 
of an eye-witness. dire'Soo-Oe, like <jvveihv[-r]% in v. 2, points to Sapphira 's 
full complicity in the act. She was given an opportunity to speak the 
truth and rejected it. 

9. TTEipdo-ai, 'to try,' i.e. to test whether the Holy Spirit would 
detect the deception. 01 iroScs. The periphrasis is Hebraistic, cf. Is. 
Hi. 7; Lk. i. 79. 

TO. The deaths of Ananias and Sapphira are clearly supernatural : 
nothing is said or implied of their fate after death, cf i Cor. v. 5. 

II. 6KKXT]<rCav. Here used for the first time. 'The congregation,' 
' the church.' eKKXrjaia^ which properly denotes a full asse^ibly of 
citizens, soon became the characteristic word for the whole Christian 
community and for the bodies of Christians in countries and cities. In 
O.T. it is used in LXX. for the congregation of Israel, Jud. xxi. 8. 

Miracles of the Apostles. 12-16. 

12-16. This short account of the condition and progress of the 
church is introduced to explain the action of the high-priest. The 
public display of enthusiasm for the apostles aroused the hostility of 
the Sadducees. 


13. Twv 8c XoiirtSv, 5e not adversative = and. Either (i) the rest of 
the believers in contrast to the apostles, i.e. they did not dare to 
associate themselves with the apostles as being on the same level: 
(2) non-believers (Blass), but this entails translating KoKKaaBan. 'to 
interfere,' whereas KoWdadai — literally 'to glue oneself to' — is always 
used in the middle or passive in N.T. by Paul and Luke of friendly 
intercourse or union, cf. ix. 26, x. 28; i Cor. vi. 17: (3) the rulers; 
scribes as distinct from the populace. 

14. Note imperfects ejueyaXvpev, TrpoaeridevTo, describing the con- 
tinuous progress. Contrast the single aorist dvaa-rds. 

15. (oa-rt Kttl, 'insomuch that even.' The result follows very 
awkwardly upon v. [4. It .has been suggested that the whole passage 
Kai r)(xav...yvvaLK(2v is misplaced. A.V. marks it as a parenthesis. 
V. 15 would most naturally depend upon ev t<^ Xaw, v. 12. rds 
irXareias, sc. bdovs. The broad open streets. KXivapiwv. S. Luke 
uses four words for beds — kXlpt), KXiudpiov, KXividiov and Kpa^arros (Lat. 
grabatus) : he is the only N.T. writer who uses Kkivdpiov and K\ivi8t.ov, 
cf. xix. II, 12; Lk. iv. 40, 41. eirio-Kidcrei, future with iva kcLv — 
expresses purpose. A common classical construction with oTrws : 
/faj' = at least, cf. similar incidents, xix. 12; Mt. vi. 56. 

16. 6x.\ov[ji€vovs, cf ivo-xXovjievoL, Lk. vi. 18. Both words are used 
by Luke only in the sense of ' being troubled ' and are medical terms. 
'Icpovo-aXTJfj,. els omitted by the best MSS. ; tr. ' the cities round about 
Jerusalem.' The first direct intimation of the spread of the church's 
influence beyond the city. 

Renewed Persecution : Arrest and Trial 
OF THE Apostles. 17-42. 

17. 'Avao-rds. Note the aorist: a graphic touch of Luke marking 
the vigour and hasty resolve of Annas. TrdvTcs, cf. iv. 6. i^ ov(ra = ot 
oVres made to agree with atpecns. al'pccris: (i) a choice; (2) a par- 
ticular line of thought or action ; (3) those who choose a particular 
line, i.e. sect, heresy. No disparagement is necessarily implied, but cf. 
xxiv. 5, 14, xxviii. 22: applied to the Pharisees, xxvi. 5; i Cor. xi. 19. 

18. ^TJXov. f^Xos can have two meanings: (i) jealousy, as here; 
(2) eagerness. Cf. xiii. 45; i Cor. xii. 31. €v...8T]no<ri«5i, 'in the 
public prison.' Summary arrest was justifiable as they had disobeyed 
the Sanhedrin, iv. 18. 

19. "AyycXos. cf. xii. 7, 23. 


20. iravra to, pi][AaTa. May mean all the facts or all the words, 
cf. Lk. ii. 51. TTjs t*^T|S TavTT]S, 'this life,' i.e. which the apostles 
preached and the Sadducees denied. 

21. v-iro Tov 6p0pov. This construction of virb with accus , denoting 
'towards,' is classical but occurs novA'here else in N.T. The first sacrifice 
took place very early in the temple courts and the apostles would find 
hearers present at an early hour, to <rvv€8piov..."Y€po'ucriav. yepovcria 
occurs only here in N.T., but is used in LXX. of the 'council of the 
elders,' Ex. iii. 16, iv. 29. There is no trace of two distinct bodies or 
of assessors attached to the Sanhedrin, and probably Kai is explanatory 
and the phrase is added by S. Luke to emphasize that a full and formal 
meeting of the Sanhedrin was held to deal with such an important case. 
dx0Tjvai avrovs. Inf. of purpose ; classical Gk prefers the active infin. 

22. 01 8€...virT]p€Tai, i.e. some of the Levitical police, vtttjp^tt]^ is 
used elsewhere in N.T. to translate 'Chazzan,' the officer of the syna- 
gogue, and to denote subordinate ministers in the infant church, Lk. 
i. 2 ; Acts xiii. 5. 

23. €iipo|JL€V : oratio recta in spite of on. 

24. 6 o-TpaTt]-y6s...a.px<'€p€is. The captain of the temple men- 
tioned first as responsible for the custody of prisoners. apxiep^iS, 
cf. iv. I. Ti av Yc'voiTO tovto : tr. ' were deeply perplexed as to what 
the result of this would be,' cf. ii. 12. S. Luke alone of N.T. writers 
uses av with the optative; or the optative at all in oblique questions, 
X. 17 ; Lk. i. 62. 

26. oi3 (AeToi pCas. The negative is emphatic; R.V. 'but without 
violence.' l<|)oPovvTO...\a6v may be parenthetical, and in that case 
iir\ \iQa.(jQQ}(ri.v will depend upon ov ixeTa /3tas, or, as R.V., 'they feared 
that they should be stoned by the people.' 

28. Ilapa'Y'ytXCa irapTi'y'YeCXap.ev : tr. ' we gave strict instructions.' 
The strengthening of the verb with the corresponding noun is charac- 
teristic of Hebrew, Greek and Latin, cf. vii. 34, xxiii. 14; Lk. xxii. 15 ; 
Heb. vi. 14. €irl tw 6v6|JLaTi tovtw. The Sanhedrin again refuse to use 
the actual name Jesus, iv. 17. cira-ya-yeiv. The apostles had no desire 
to bring vengeance upon the authorities who were responsible for our 
Lord's death, cf. Mt. xxvii. 25. 

29. Set, cf. iv. 19 n. 

30. TJ*Y€ip€v *lT]<roi»v. vS. Peter uses his Master's name at once in 
•answer to the contemptuous tov avdp^hirov tovtov, cf. iv. 17. The 

raisinty up of Jesus the Messiah here more probably refers to His birth 
and ministry than to His resurrection, cf. Lk. i. 69. Zu^upCa-aa-Qf. 

V 37] NOTES 113 

Kp€[JLci{ravT€s. The aorists denote one and the same action — the cruci- 
fixion. hiex'^ip'^^ y^ did to death': the word is used in this 
sense by Poly bins and Plutarch, but only here and in xxvi, 21 in N.T. 
Jesus was actually crucified by the Romans, but the responsibility lay 
upon the Sanhedrin. ' Hanging upon a tree ' marked the criminal as 
accursed, Deut. xxi. 22, 23; Gal, iii. 13. This was the treatment they 
had meted out to the Messiah. 

31. apxiryov, cf. iii. 15 note, rfj 8€|ia avTov. The dative is 
instrumental, [tov] Sovvai, cf. closely, Lk. xxiv. 47, 48. He fulfilled 
His promise and they their commission, cf. ii. 32. 

32. Twv pT||idTft)v TovTwv. The meaning must be determined by 
the context. Here 'facts' gives the better meaning, cf. v. 20. 

33. SieirpiovTo, ' were cut to the heart,' lit. sawn in twain, i.e. with 
anger and resentment, not with contrition {Kar^vv^y\(rav, ii. 37). 

34. <l>api<ratos. The first mention in the Acts of the Pharisees, the 
bitterest opponents of our Lord. They were strongly opposed to the 
Sadducees in politics and doctrine, cf. xxiii. 6. Keen nationalists, they 
did not regard popular risings with the same disfavour. They held 
fast to the oral traditions and believed in the resurrection from the 
dead. In the Acts many of them join the church and embitter the 
struggle concerning the circumcision of the Gentile converts, xi. 2, xv. 
1-5. rap.a\niX, an influential, liberal-minded member of the Sanhe- 
drin. He was the first of the seven who received the highest title of 
Rabban, the grandson of Hillel and teacher of S. Paul, xxii. 3. 

36. 0€v8as=^6e65ajpo9. Josephus {Atit. xx.v. i) relates that a certain 
Theudas arose about the year a.D. 45 and marched with his followers 
to the Jordan, declaring that the waters would miraculously divide. 
A force was sent against him by the procurator, Cuspius Fadus, and 
he was captured and beheaded. Either therefore S. Luke has made an 
error, which is very improbable, or he is referring to a Theudas who 
arose before the birth of our Lord, as he is mentioned before Judas. 
elvai Tiva lavrov, cf. viii. 9 ; i Cor. iii. 7 ; Gal. ii. 6. CI. Gk would 
require the nom., rts ai^ros = ' somebody,' i.e. of consequence, he 
probably claimed to be the Messiah. 

37. 'lovSas of Gamala in Lower Gaulonitis bordering on Galilee : 
more often called by Josephus the Gaulonite {Ant. xviii. i). He was the 
founder of the sect of the Zealots, who refused to submit to any king but God 
Himself. Throughout this period fanatical leaders arose and the Romans 
cruelly repressed them, cf. Lk. xiii. i. The Jews were constantly looking 
for a deliverer in accordance with prophecy ; their true deliverer, who 

B. A. 8 


led no army and no revolt, they crucified. tt]s d'Tro7pa<j>T)s. The great 
census (to be distinguished from the census, Lk. ii. 2) was taken by 
Sulpicius Quirinus in A.D. 6, when Judaea became a province under a 
procurator subject to the legatus of Syria. This involved the paying 
of a tax which was deeply resented by the patriotic Jews, who owned 
allegiance only to their God. 

38. cdv '^...€l...€(rTiv. The subj. expresses less probability and 
the indicative more certainty. But it cannot be argued that Gamaliel 
practically asserts his agreement with the second alternative. The real 
contrast is not between uncertainty and certainty in this particular cast 
but between the natural uncertain^ of all human schemes and the 
certainty of God's will. Gamaliel's judgment is marked by rare tolera- 
tion and calm prudence. KaTa\v0t]o-€Tai, tr. 'it will be destroyed.' 
ov 8vvi](r€<r0€. Codex Bezae adds ovre vixeh ovre ^affiXeTs ovre Tvpavvoi, 
cf. iii. 14. 

40. SefpavTCS, 'scourged,' cf. Lk. xx. rr. Sepw in cl. Gk means 
' to flay.' Strong words tended to weaken in meaning in Hellen. Gk, 
cf. (XKvWoj. Their punishment was due to their disobedience to the 
Sanhedrin's order, iv. 18. 

41. KaTT]|iw0T)<rav...dTt|xa(r0T]vai. Oxymoron. Cf. (piXoTLfxelaOaL 
TjcrvxO't^i-fi I Thess. iv. 11. 

42. €V t«...oIkov. Cf. ii. 46, 47. ouK €'n-avovTO../lT]<roCv. Tr. 
' they ceased not from teaching and preaching the good tidings of the 
Messiah, even Jesus.' 

Ch. VI. Election of the Seven. 1-7. 

I. T«v |ia0T]Tc3v. The characteristic word in the Gospels of the 
immediat:e followers of Christ; in the Epistles, brethren [ddeXcpoi) and 
saints (07101) are used, indicating the relationship of Christians to one 
another. The Acts falls midway between, where all these expressions 
are found. yoyyv(r[i.6s- An onomatopoetic word, not found in cl. Gk. 
'E\XT]vio-Ta)v, i.e. Greek-speaking Jews of the Diaspora acquainted 
with Greek habits and customs, opposed to 'EjSpaloL, Palestinian Jews 
who spoke Aramaic. "EWrjv is opposed in N.T. to 'lovdaios marking 
distinctness in race, Rom. i. 16. The noun is derived from 'EWTjvii'eii', 
to adopt the Greek language or customs, cf. 'lovSai^eii', Gal. ii. 14. 
ai X^pa-"" o-^Twv. The widow in the east was in a very piteous condition 
as she had no male protector, but their neglect was strongly condemned 
by the Jews. The church soon became alive to the necessity of the 
duty of provision for the widows, cf. ix. 39, 41 ; i Tim. v. 3; Jas i. 27. 

VI 6] NOTES 115 

S. Luke who has such compassion for women mentions the widow 
nine times in his Gospel, and thrice in the Acts. 

2. ot SwScKa. The apostles were always known as 'The twelve,' 
the title 'apostle' or 'disciple' was not as a rule added, cf. i Cor. xv. 5. 
TO ttXtJGos, i.e. 'the whole community,' as in the election of Matthias 
(i. 23-26), the whole body is consulted. Ovk dpeorTOV €<rTtv, a formal 
phrase; cf. ijpeaeu. 'It is not fitting,' Lat. non placet. KaraXcixj/avTas, 
Hellen. for KaTaXLirouTas. 8LaKov€iv. Used of the service of man to 
man as well as of the service of man to God : of the ministration of the 
women to our Lord's needs, Lk. viii. 3, x. 40. In the Acts and Epistles 
usually of spiritual ministrations. Tpa-ire'^ais. Either the tables of 
exchange where money was changed or the actual tables where the 
poor sat : the latter is to be preferred. 

3. €iri(rK£\{;a(r6€. Only here in the sense 'look ye into,' contrast 
vii. 23; Jas i. 27. Iitto. The number seven was a sacred number. 
It is possible that there was a sevenfold division in the church, and that 
each of the seven was attached to a particular section. They are not 
known in the church as the seven deacons but as 'the seven,' and 
have no definite connection with the later order of the diaconate, 
I Tim. iii. 8. o-o4>ias, 'ability'; aocpds properly denotes skilful, i Cor. 
vi. 5. ovs KaTa(rTTJ<ro|X€V, 'whom we may appoint.' The approval of 
the church will justify the action of the apostles. 

4. T-g irpo<r€v\TJ. The article with both words points to public 
prayer and preaching of the Gospel in the church. The apostles 
delegated less important duties, cf. r Cor. i. 17; I Tim. iv. 16, v. 17. 

5. ST€'4)avov. Of the seven nothing is known beyond their names 
except of 'Stephen the preacher and martyr of liberty,' and Philip the 
evangelist, viii. 5, xxi. 8. Though they all had Greek names they were 
not necessarily Hellenists. Possibly three were Hebrews and three 
Hellenists and one a proselyte. Nicolaus was evidently a full proselyte 
of the Gate, and this mention of the inclusion of a proselyte shews the 
wide tolerance of the infant church. This is the first mention of 
Antioch, which became the first centre of the Gentile church. The 
connection of Nicolaus with the Nicolaitans, Rev. ii. 6, cannot be 

6. iiTiQr\Kav avTois rds xeipas. The laying on of hands under the 
Jewish dispensation symbolized especial blessing or the appointment 
to a special commission, Gen. xlviii. 14-20; Num. xxvii. 18. It 
was employed by our Lord alike in blessing and in healing, Mk 
vi. 5. In apostolic times it is associated with prayer and marks the 



bestowal of authority and of spiritual gifts, Acts viii. 17, xiii. 3; i Tim. 
iv. 14; hence its usage in the English church in Confirmation and 

7. TToXvs T6 ox.X.os...vTrT]Kovov. Collectivc noun with plural verb. 
The imperfect indicates that a number of priests embraced the faith on 
various occasions about this time. Their adhesion is the result of the 
preaching in the temple : all priests did not hold the tenets of the 
Sadducees. This short summary marks an important break in the 
narrative of the Acts. 

PART II. vi. 8— ix. 31. 

The Spreading of the Gospel through Judaea, 
Samaria, Galilee and Damascus. 

(i) The martyrdom of Stephen was the result of the attack upon 
the Hellenist Christians instigated by the Pharisees on the grounds 
that Stephen had spoken against the temple and the law. Persecution 
resulted in the scattering of the church at Jerusalem, though the apostles 
remained unmolested. 

(2) The spread of the Gospel in Galilee, Judaea and Samaria. 

{a) The preaching of Philip in Samaria, viii. 4-13, {b) The apostles 
sent from Jerusalem confirm the work of Philip by the gift of the Holy 
Spirit and convict Simon Magus, 14-25, [c) Baptism of the Ethiopian 
eunuch, Philip, at Samaria, 26-40. 

(3) The mission of Saul to Damascus. His conversion, baptism 
and preaching at Damascus. His first visit to Jerusalem, and reception 
by the apostles and departure to Tarsus, ix. 1-30. The growth of the 
church and peace, ix. 31. 

Trial and Speech and Death of Stephen. 

vi. 8 — viii. i. 

9. TTJs o-uva-ywyfis. The synagogue was the chief centre of religious 
life in every town and village : its institution dates from the Captivity. 
It was at once a church, a school and a law court, outside priestly 
control and governed by a body of elders with a chazzan [virriph'qs) 
or attendant. The main part of the service consisted of reading from 
the Law and the Prophets followed by an exposition and prayer. 
AiPtprCvwv. There was a large number of synagogues in Jerusalem 
though the number 480 is exaggerated. The Libertini were almost 

VI 15] NOTES 117 

certainly Roman freedmen, descendants probably of the Jews taken to 
Rome B.C. 63. Various views are held of the number of synagogues 
mentioned, (i) That the synagogue of freedmen includes freedmen 
from the four towns and districts mentioned. (2) That two syna- 
gogues are referred to, consisting of the freedmen from Cyrene 
and Alexandria and of the Hellenist Jews from Asia and Cilicia. 
(3) Three synagogues : {a) the freedmen, [b) Jew's from Alexandria 
and Cyrene representing northern Africa, [c) Jews from Cilicia and 
Asia. (4) The five names represent five dififerent synagogues. Alex- 
andria was a great centre of Jewish life, culture and philosophy, cf. 
xviii. 24. For Cyrene cf. ii. 10, xi. 20. Amongst the members of 
the Cilician synagogue was probably Saul of Tarsus. o-vvtiiTovvTCS, 
'disputing,' cf. ix. 29; Mk viii. 11. Hellenist Jews were matched in 
argument with a Hellenist Christian. 

10. Kal ouK l'(rx.vov. Codex Bezae reads, 'who were not able to 
withstand the wisdom which was in him and the Holy Spirit by whom 
he spake, on account of being convicted by him with all boldness, not 
being able to look the truth in the face' {dvT0(p6a\fj.e?v rrj dXrjdeig.). 

11. ■u"Tr€PaXov. Lat. subornaverunt. pXd(r({>T]|jLa. Blasphemy 
denotes contemptuous profanation in word or deed against God or 
against men or even buildings, as here, connected with God's worship, 
Lk. V. 21; Mt. xxvi. 65. S. Stephen had probably taught, as Jesus 
had done, that the Mosaic law and the temple and its ritual were 
preparatory and that the Gospel had come to supersede them, cf. Jn ii. 
19, Mk xiv. 58. His accusers were false witnesses inasmuch as they 
perverted the words of Stephen as Jesus' accusers had done, Mt. 
xxvii. 63. 

12. o-uv€KtvTio-av. The opposition of the people and the Pharisees, 
hitherto friendly, is aroused by the attack upon the temple, cf. Lk. xxii. 2. 

14. 'It^ctovs 6 Na^wpaios ovtos. The words of the false witnesses, 
not of Stephen ; oiiros is contemptuous. KaraXvo-ei. Cf. Mk xiv. 58 ; 
INIt. xxvi. 61. The word is used by all three Synoptists of our Lord's 
prophecy of the destruction of the temple, rd 'i^r\. The whole social 
system of the Jews was based upon the Mosaic law and the traditions 
which had grown up. Cf. our Lord's teaching upon divorce, fasting, 
the sabbath, etc. 

15. w<r€i irpoo-wTTOv dyye'Xov. The courage, calm and conviction, 
coupled with the power and inspiration of the Holy Spirit as Stephen 
thus faced his judges, could not be more exquisitely described, cf. 
1 Cor. iii. 7. 


Chapter VII. 

The speech is an answer to the charges in vi. 13, 14 and is cast in 
the form of an historical retrospect (so familiar from the prophets of the 
O.T.) from the call of Abraham to the building of the temple. On 
the surface the argument is threefold though interwoven. 

(i) It is clear that Stephen had taught that God could be 
worshipped elsewhere than in the temple (cf. Jn iv. ■20-24). I^ 
proof of this he shews that the presence of God is not confined to the 
temple by reference (a) to His dealings with the patriarchs in foreign 
lands and in Egypt, [b] with Moses in the wilderness, {c) to the taber- 
nacle in the wilderness, (4) to the building of the temple itself under 

(2) As regards the law he shews that the promise was made to 
Abraham and the covenant of circumcision established before the law, 
cf. the argument of S. Paul in Gal. iii., iv. 

(3) The Israelites had rejected their deliverers — ^Joseph, Moses 
and the prophets. Beneath the surface, though the name of Jesus is 
not mentioned, there is a strong undercurrent of comparison leading up 
to the climax in jv. 51. Their fathers had rejected Joseph and Moses, 
they in their generation had rejected the Messiah of whom Moses 
spake. Though the speech is the longest recorded in the Acts and 
bears unmistakable signs of authenticity, yet it is abbreviated and 
comes to an abrupt conclusion. Stephen may have intended to pursue 
the argument through later stages of Israel's history when his hearers 
shew signs of impatience and he bursts out into the vehement but brief 
peroration iu which he turns the tables on his accusers. 

1. El, 'Are these things so?' Cf. i. 6. The question marks the 
formal opening of the proceedings. 

2. 'O Gcos TTJs 86|t]s. Cf. Ps. xxix. 3. The genitive characterizes 
(cf. Lk. xvi. 8) and the article emphasizes the preeminence of God's glory. 
The reference is not only to the Shechinah, Ex. xxiv. 16; Heb. ix. 5. 
b>(j>6T]. The appearances of God weie not confined in time or place to 
the tabernacle or the temple. ttJ MccroiroTafiia. Here the call of 
Abraham is represented as coming to him before he went to Haran, 
but in Gen. xii. i, after he reached it. In Gen. xv. 7 Abraham is 
said to have left Ur of the Chaldees in accordance with the guidance 
of God. In Genesis there are clearly two calls of Abraham, Stephen 
records only one. It is noticeable that he omits the words 'from thy 

VII lo] NOTES 119 

father's house,' Gen. xii. i, which is strictly accurate as Abraham's 
family accompanied him to Haran. Xappdv. Haran (Gen. xi. 31), 
identical with Charrae on the upper reaches of the Euphrates, the scene 
of the defeat and death of Crassus in battle with the Parthians, B.C. 53. 

3. TJv av. 0.V is indefinite, cf. Heb. xi. 8. 

4. fjL€Td TO diTo9av€iv Tov iraTcpa. The chronological discrepan- 
cies in Stephen's speech have no bearing upon the argument. In 
Gen. xi. 26 it is stated that Terah was 70 years old when Abraham 
was born, and in xii. 4 that Abraham was 75 years old when he left 
Haran. This would give 145 for the age of Terah at his death, but in 
Gen. xi. 32 we read that Terah lived to the age of 205. tis Tiv^ei^ 77, 
'in which,' cf. ii. 27. 

5. K\Tipovo}jLiav. This would not include the field, Gen. xxiii. 9, 
17, which Abraham bought, cf. inf. v. 16. iTnTyyeiXaTO. The promise 
was made in a heathen land. Gen. xvii. 8. The faithfulness of God to 
His promises throughout the speech is in strong contrast with the faith- 
lessness and obstinacy of the Israelites. 

6. IXdXti(r€v. Gen. XV. 13. irdpoiKov, 'sojourner,' implies absence 
of permanent abode, cf. Eph. ii. 19; i Pet. i. 17, where this life is 
regarded only as a sojourning in a strange land. ?tt] TcrpaKocria. 
In Ex. xii. 40 the number of years given is 430. Stephen's state- 
ment agrees with Gen. xv. 13. Some are of opinion that the period 
of 430-435 years covers the whole period of the residence of the 
patriarchs both in Canaan and in Egypt, cf. Gal. iii. 17. 

7. w dv SovXevo-ovcriv. Note 6.v with fut. indie, Hellen. hovKow 
trans., 5oi/XeiJw intrans. Xarpcuo-ouo-LV of religious service. The words 
are loosely adapted from Ex. iii. 12 and do not form part of the 
quotation from Gen. xv. 13. 

8. 8ia0TJKiiv. Gen. xvii. 10. The regular word used of the divine 
covenant of God with His people as distinct from crvvd-fiK-i) — an agree- 
ment between two contracting parties equal in station. Through the 
Lat. testamentum comes the English Old and New Testament. 
'IiradK. Gen. xxi. 2. * 

9. ^-qXwo-avTes, either absolute, 'through envy,' or with r^i/'Iajtrrj^ as 
its object. Joseph's sufferings and triumph are a type of those of Jesus. 
Gen. xxxvii. 11-28. 'r]v...jJ.€T auxov. Gen. xxxix. 21. 

10. Xo^P''V> a divine gift ; favour both with God and man. Gen. 
xxxix. 4; Lk. ii. 52. <ro<|>iav. Wisdom by which he interpreted the 
king's dream and provided for the emergencies of the famine. Ko.ri- 
q-TT]o-€v, note the change of subject, Gen. xii. 37-43. ■q-youiievov, 


Hellen., Heb. xiii. 17; the title is borne by the heads of Greek 
monasteries to-day. 

11. \o^T6.a-\LO.Ta. Properly used of the food for cattle, but xopTd^eiv 
is used in Hellen. Gk of the food of man, Mk viii. 4; Lk. vi. 21, and 
both man and beast may well be included here. 

12. irpwTOv. The first time. Opposed to iv ry oevrepcp, cf. i. i. 

13. iyvoipi(rQr\ = dv€yvci}picr6r], 'was recognized,' Gen. xlv. i. 

14. €V=: consisting in, Lk. xiv. 31. ipSop-i^KovTa Trevre. In Gen. 
xlvi. 27; Ex. i. 5, the Hebrew gives 70, LXX. 75. Stephen follows 
the tradition of LXX. The number is made up of 66 'who came with 
Jacob,' and Jacob and Joseph and his two sons and their children. 

16. €is 2vx.€{i.. Jacob was buried in the cave of Machpelah at 
Mamre, Gen. 1. 13. Nothing is said of the removal of the bodies of any 
other members of the patriarchal family except of Joseph who was buried 
at Shechem, Josh. xxiv. 32. Tradition associated the burial of the sons 
of Jacob with Shechem, and Jerome mentions that their tombs were 
shewn in his day. Stephen may well have followed some popular 
tradition, twv viuJv 'EfAjAwp. Not only are there discrepancies in the 
accounts of the burials but also of the purchasers of the burying-places. 
Abraham purchased the cave of Machpelah at Hebron from Ephron 
the Hittite for 400 shekels, Gen. xxiii. 16. Jacob, a field at Shechem 
'from the sons of Hamor, the father of Shechem,' for 100 pieces of 
silver, Gen. xxxiii. 19. W.H. prefer els Hvx^fJ-, 'to Shechem.' There 
is a reading tov ^vx^/^, 'son of Shechem.' 

17. Ka0«s, not 'when' but 'as' R.V. •^s, relative attraction. 
«[xo\6'YT]o-ev, 'covenanted with,' has better authority than Cofxoaev. 

18. T|i)^Tj<r€V. Ex. i. 7. PacriXcvs ^xcpos, i-e. a king of a different 
dynasty, Ex. i. 8. Joseph was contemporaneous with the 17th dynasty 
of the Hyksos or Shepherd kings who were favourable to the Hebrews. 
The Pharaoh of the oppression was probably Ramses II, the great 
builder, of the 19th dynasty. 

19. KaTao-o<j>ioran€VOS. Ex. i. 10, LXX., 'dealt subtilly, circum- 
vented ' : intransitive verbs compounded with Kara become transitive 
when /card implies 'to overcome by,' cf. Karawope'Lcrdai, v. 24, Kadviro- 
Kpiueadai (Dem.), KadL7nroTpo(p€?p (Thuc). tov Troieiv = wVre ttoluv. 
The genitive defines the method of the evil treatment. The subject of 
the infin. is probably tlie Pharaoh, els to |xt) ^wo-yoveto-Oai. To the 
end that they should not be kept alive: Lk. xvii. 33; Ex. i. 17. 

20. doTTtios Tw Gew. ry deifi ethic dative, 'fair in God's sight,' 
cf. Is. ii. 5, LXX. dcrdos properly 'belonging to the city,' and so in 



the sense of Lat. urbanus, 'clever,' but here =' pretty,' 'fair,' Vulgate 
elegans, cf. Heb. xi. 23. Josephus records several stories of the beauty 
of the infant Moses, Ant. 11. ix. av€Tpd<j)Ti, a word peculiar to 
S. Luke in N.T. In medical language it is opposed to laxvo-lvu), to 
make thin. 

21. eKT€0€VTOS...viov, cf. Ex. ii. 2-10. eKTidevaL = \.o expose, 
avaLpCb = \o take up, as in cl. Greek. 

22. tiraiStvOT], 'was trained.' This summary of the first period of 
Moses' life is not based upon the narrative of Exodus but upon tradition. 
ird<rT) (ro(|>ia. The Egyptians of Moses' days had made great advance 
in the sciences, and especially in astronomy and mathematics. r\v h\... 
^p-yois. His skill in argument (\670ts) earned for him the jealous 
hatred of the priestly caste, though he was not eloquent, Ex. iv. 10. 
He is said to have undertaken a successful expedition against the 
Ethiopians, Josephus, Ant. II. x. 

23. T€(r(r£paK0VTa€Ti]S. The division of Moses' life into three 
periods of 40 years is in accordance with tradition. dvePi] eirl r-qv 
KapSiav, I Cor. ii. 9. eTrto-K€\j/a<r0ai, here clearly of a kindly visit, 
vi. 3 ; cf. Jas i. 27. The verb is used of divine visitation, either in love, 
Lk. i. 68, or in vengeance, Jer. ix. 9, etc. 

24. i]p,vvaTO. aixvvei.v = \.o help. Mid. 'to defend oneself or a 
friend,' hence 'to repel.' Karairovovfjievw, 'the man who was being 
maltreated.' TraTa^as, 'smiting,' i.e. killing the Egyptian. 

25. Iv6jn.|€v. The remark is .Stephen's own. 8i8w<riv. Graphic 
narrative in oratio obliqtia for the optative, i.e. ' was giving.' So the 
Jews refused the deliverance and reconciliation offered by Jesus. 

26. o-vv-qWao-o-cv has better authority than avvTjXaaev. Tr. ' at- 
tempted to reconcile, '.Ex. ii. 13. I'va ti, iv. 25 n. 

27. 6 8e dSiKcov, ' he that was injuring his neighbour.' 

28. dveXeiv, here in its usual sense 'to kill,' Lat. tollere. 

25. Ma8id(i, either in the south of the Sinaitic peninsula or more 
east in the neighbourhood of Seir or Horeb. viovs 8vo, i.e. Gershom 
and Eliezer. Moses married Zipporah, the daughter of Jethro, Ex. 
ii. 21. 

30. 2ivd, probably identical with Horeb, but possibly with Jebel 
Musa in the apex of the Sinaitic peninsula, Ex. iii. i. d-y-yeXos, 
i.e. a messenger of Jehovah, but in v. ^\ 'the voice of Jehovah,' v. 33 
'Jehovah.' In Ex. iii. 2, 6, 14 similar differences are founds uvpos 
pdrou. Lit. ' of the fire of the bush,' sc. ' the burning bush' ; cf. Lk. 
XX. 37. 


31. KaravoTio-ai, 'to observe.' KaravoeTv implies understanding 
more than mere vision dSXeiro}), Lk. vi. 41 ; Heb. iii. i. 

32. ^VTpofjtos 8^ Y^^^H-^^^'^t cf. X. 4, xvi. 29; Lk. xxiv. 5. 

33. Avo-ov, cf. Josh. V. 15. The priests always ministered in the 
temple barefooted. The custom was not uncommon amongst the 
ancients, and was included in the rules laid down by Pythagoras. 
Arabs always put ofif their sandals before entering a mosque. Stephen 
hereby proves that the holy ground was not confined to the temple 
nor even to the holy land. 

34. ISwv elSov, Ex. iii. 7. For the idiom see v. 28 note, diro- 
oTTCiXft). The hortatory subj. with devpo and a0es is common in Hellen.Gk. 

35. T0VTOV...TOVTOV. Note the anaphora or repetition of tovtou 
followed by the triple i-epetition of ovtos to emphasize tlie position 
and personality of Moses, and the treatment he received from his 
countrymen. The whole passage clearly points to the rejection of 
Jesus the mediator of the new covenant. i]pvT]<ravTO. Cf. rjpvrjaaade, 
iii. 13; and for Xin-pwTTju cf. Heb. ix. 12; Lk. i. 68. tt) pdro), 
masc. in Attic and fern, in Hellen. Greek, Lk. xx. 37; Mk xii. 26. 

37. «S €|X€, cf. iii. 22 n. 

38. €v TTJ €KK\t]<ria, ' congregation.' The giving of the law is 
referred to, Ex. xix. (xeTcL xoii aYYcXov. But in Exodus Moses is said 
to have been with God. In Gal. iii. 19 Moses is the mediator {fxeaiTrjs) 
of the old covenant ordained through angels, and he is the type of the 
mediator of the new covenant, Heb. ii. 2, viii. 6, etc. Xo-yia, oracles, 
used with one exception (Ps. xix. 14) only of the short utterances of 
God, cf. Rom. iii. 2. The oracles are living because they are permanent 
and enduring, Heb. iv. 12. 

40. 6 "ydp Mwvo-fjs OVTOS. ovtos is contemptuous. The same 
anacoluthon — nofnivatizms pendens — occurs in Ex. xxxii. 23. A second 
time they rejected him, and that after he had proved himself their 

42. ?<rTp€\j/€v, either (i) turned them from the worship of one idol 
to another or (2) more probably 'turned away' from them. Xarpcveiv. 
There is no trace of any worship of the heavenly bodies in the Penta- 
teuch, though such occurred in later history, 2 Kings xvii. 16, xxi. 3 ; 
but it is forbidden in Deut. iv. 19, xvii. 3. ev BipXw twv 'irpo<}>T]T«v. 
The Old Testament includes three divisions : ( i) the laM' (Torah), i.e. the 
Pentateuch ; (2) the prophets (Nebiim) : [a) the former, i.e. the his- 
torical books, Joshua, Judges, i and 2 Samuel and i and 2 Kings; {b) the 
latter, i.e. Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the twelve, wrongly called, 

VII 46] NOTES 123 

minor prophets ; (3) 'the writings,' Heb. Kethubim, Gl<. Hagiographa, 
including the Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Daniel, i and 2 
Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Ruth, Song of Songs, Lamentations and 
Esther; cf. Lk. xxiv. 44, Mt] o-cfxiYia, Amos v. 25-27. fii) expects 
a negative answer. On this passage is based the assumption that during 
the long period of the wanderings the sacrifices were in abeyance. 
Sacrifices are, however, referred to, Ex. xxiv. 4; Num. vii. 9. 

43. Kal dveXdpcTC, 'Nay, ye actually took up,' i.e. to carry with 
you in your wanderings. In these words Jehovah answers His own 
question. MoX6x = Babylonian Malik (king). Amos meant to imply 
that the Babylonian worship of Moloch was actually practised in the 
wilderness. For Moloch, the R.V. in Amos v. 26 reads ' Siccuth your 
king. ' For the later worship of Moloch see 2 Kings xxiii. 10. Siccuth 
was the Babylonian sun-god. 'Po|x<|>a. The reading is disputed, Heb. 
Chiun, LXX. 'Pai0di', R.V. in this passage 'Pe0ai'. Chiun may be 
identified with Saturn. There were two Babylonian deities, male 
and female, Renpu and Ken, and some think that Chiun is confused 
with Ken and Renpu (Rompha) substituted. ' The star ' was the symbol 
of the worship of the god. Others consider that Chiun is not a god 
but the pedestal on which the image was carried, tows ttjitovs, so. the 
images. BaPvXcovos, Amos v. 27, LXX. Aa^ac/coO. The reference 
is to the destruction of Israel by the kings of Assyria. For Damascus 
Stephen substitutes Babylon. The first captivity of Judah took place 
B.C. 588, the second ten years later. 

44. 'H a-K-qv-q Tov [xaprvpiov. The tabernacle of the testimony, so 
called because in it was stored the ark of the covenant or testimony, 
Ex. XXV. 16. In Ex. xxvii. 21 it is called the tent of meeting, i.e. where 
Jehovah met the people. Here a new section of the speech begins, 
perhaps suggested by 'the tabernacle of Moloch,' and it is Stephen's 
design to shew that God's presence was not confined to the temple or 
to the holy mount. Kara tov tvitov, Ex. xxv. 40; Heb. viii. 5. 

45. 8ia86^d|i6VOi, ' received in succession,' cf. iK SmSox^s (cl. Gk). 
'Ir]orov, i.e. Joshua ; Heb. iv. 8. Iv ttj KaTa<rx€'(r€t twv eOvwv, lit. in 
the taking possession of the nations, i.e. ' when they entered upon the 
possession of the lands of the nations, ' i.e. of the Canaanites ; cf. v. 5 sup. 
^(os Twv i](JL€pc3v AaveiS. The sentence is somewhat loosely expressed, 
but the meaning is clear. The tabernacle was preserved as the sacred 
shrine of the Israelites, though in various localities, until the time of 
David, Ps. cxxxii. 5. 

46. fJTT]<raTo, 'entreated'; cf. 2 Sam. vii. 2. 


47. 2oXo[iuv. Even Solomon allowed that the house which he 
had built could not contain Jehovah whom even the heaven and heaven 
of heavens could not contain; 2 Chr. vi. 7-9; i Kings viii. 27. 

48. 6 v\|/L<rTos, a synonym for Jehovah, frequent in O.T. ; cf. 
Lk. i. 32, 35, 76. €V xeipoiroiiJTois. oiVois should be supplied from 
the preceding verse, cf. Mk xiv. 58. In x\cts xvii. 34 S. Paul uses the 
same argument when addressing the Athenians. KaGws 6 7rpo<}>TJTT]S, 
Is. Ixvi. I, 2. 

49. iroiov, here, as in cl. Greek, expresses a strong and somewhat 
contemptuous question; cf. iv. 7; Lk. vi. 32. 

51. 2KXT]poTpdxt]\oi. In strong and bitter language Stephen, 
perhaps on account of interruptions from his audience, sums up his 
argument and drives home his points against his antagonists. For the 
epithet ' stift'necked ' cf. Ex. xxxiii. 3, 5; Deut. ix. 6; ' uncircumcised 
in heart' (i.e. the seat of intelligence), Deut. x. 16 and Rom. ii. 25, 29, 
also Col. iii. ir, where S. Paul develops his argument of the true cir- 
cumcision of the heart. avTiiriirTCTe, Num. xxvii 14. The repetition, 
vfieis, v/xwv, vfxels is bold and emphatic; cf. iii. 26. 

52. Tiva Twv •irpo<j>T]T(5v, cf. Mt. v. 12; Lk. xiii. 34 ; Lk. xi. 49. 
Kal onreKTeivav. 'They actually slew.' tov SiKaiov. Righteousness 
was the chief claim of the Messiah to His Messiahship, cf. iii. 14; Is. 
liii. II. TrpoSoTtti. They had delivered the Messiah to Pilate and 
were responsible for His death. This is the final consequence of the 
age-long hardness of Israel's heart. 

53. o^Tivcs, 'inasmuch as ye.' ocrrts not only points to the person 
referred to but alludes to his conduct and its causes, viii. 15, etc. ; else- 
where simply = OS, xvii. 10. els 8taTa"yds d-yytXcov. Either eis — ep, 'by 
the ordinances of angels,' or els — ior, i.e. as ordinances of angels. The 
difficulty in both cases remains the same, as the law was given by God 
and not by angels, cf. v. 30 sup. There is no reference here to the 
inferiority of the law to the Gospel, as in Heb. ii. 2; Gal. iii. 19. 
o\Jk €<j)v\d|aTe. Stephen's last words cast back the charge against 
himself upon his accusers. He had not spoken against the law : they 
had not kept it. 

54. ^Ppv^ov, not elsewhere in N.T., but common in LXX., cf. 

Ps. XXXV. 16. 

56. ovpavovs 8iT]voi'Y(X€Vovs. S. Luke uses the singular and plural 
of ovpavos in successive verses : the plural is Hellenistic, likewise 
oiTjuoLyiii^uovs for dLaveipy/xeuovs. tcv vtdv tov dvOpwirov, not elsewhere 
outside the Gospels, where the title is only used of Himself by Christ, 

VIII i] NOTES i?5 

cf. Mt. xxvi. 64. lo-ToiTa, cf. ii. 34. In Lk. xxii. 69 Jesus is described 
as ' sitting.' In his vision he sees Jesus risen as if to help him and 
receive him to Himself. 

58. ^^w T-qs TToXfews. Tiius far the crowd complied with the law 
(Lev. xxiv. 14) but there was no formal sentence, and they had no 
right to put a man to death without the sanction of the Roman govern- 
ment, Jn xviii. 31. [xapTupcs. The witnesses who disencumbered 
themselves of their outer clothing threw the first stones, Deut. xvii. 7. 
2avXov. The first introduction of the name of the Gentile apostle 
cannot be accidental. He may himself have been S. Luke's informant, 
xxii. 20. 

59. €Xi0op6\ow. Tr. ' they continued stoning Stephen as he kept on 
calling upon the Lord Jesus, saying ' : the first prayer to Jesus recorded, 
cf. ix. 14, xxii. 16. €TriKa\ovji€Vov. Ki^piOJ^ Tt/ctoCj' must clearly be 
supplied as in R.V. 

60. HI] a-TTJ<rT)s, i-e. do not establish so that it cannot be forgiven, 
cf. the dying words of Jesus, Lk. xxiii. 34. Ikolp.t]8t], cf. xiii. 36 ; 
I Cor. XV. 18. Sleep is a synonym of death in classical as well as 
in biblical literature. 

VIII. I a. SavXos tiv <rvv€v8oK<«v. Rightly appended by R.V. to 
the concluding paragraph of the last chapter. S. Luke is very fond of 
using the analytical imperfect, cf. i. ro. <svvevhoK(h is a verb peculiar 
to Luke and Paul. ' Approve ' rather than ' consent ' gives the 
true meaning of the word. 

Ch. VIII. The Scattering of the Disciples in 
Judaea and Samaria, viii. i ^-3. 

I b. €v €K6iv-r) TTJ Tip-cpa, ' in that day.' The persecution of the church 
was the immediate sequel to the first martyrdom. When any religious 
movement is deeply rooted persecution is the surest means of fostering 
its growth. If, however, it has no real depth or hold persecution will 
succeed in stamping it out. Thus Lollardy failed but the Reformation 
succeeded. Religious toleration — the order of the present day— is not 
the outcome of better conditions of mind amongst men, but chiefly due 
to the realization that persecution has proved a failure. Travres [8^]. 
S. Luke is fond of such generalization. It is clear that this is not 
intended to be taken literally as Saul found men and women to imprison. 
Kara rds X"P^S, practically equivalent to Kibfxac, villages, cf. Lk. xxi. 21. 
irXtjv Twv diroo-ToXwv. The persecution was directed chiefly against 


the Hellenist Jews. The apostles were all orthodox Jews regular in 
their attendance at the temple, and favourites with the people, and 
held a strong position. There is an ancient tradition that the twelve 
were bidden by our Lord to remain for twelve years in Jerusalem. 

2. <rvv€K6|xi<rav. avyKOfxi^eLu, to gather together (of a harvest) and 
secondarily 'to help in burying,' cf. Soph. Ajax, 1048. cuXa^cis, 'de- 
vout,' used of Jews, Lk. ii. 25 and Acts ii. 5, xxii. 12. evXa^rjs denotes 
a reverent fear of the gods, closely associated by Plato with dlKaios. 
There is some evidence that Gentiles who had respect for the Jewish 
law and religion, but were not definitely proselytes, were called evXa^eU, 
evXa^ov/mevoi, ' God-fearers.' Therefore it is not certain whether they 
were devout Jews who rendered the last offices to Stephen, as Joseph 
of Arimathea did to our Lord, or Jewish Christians, or even devout 
Gentiles, kottctov, properly of beating the breast or head in lamentation. 
Orientals are naturally demonstrative in joy and sorrow. 

3. €\v|xaiv€To. A classical word used of personal outrage and of 
devastation by an army. It is only used in N.T. by S. Luke, and 
he may have been influenced by its use of the ravages of disease, 
cf. iropdelv, ix. 21, Gal. i-. 23, vj^piarris, I Tim. i. 13. Kara tous 
oIkous, either 'entering every house,' Kara being distributive, or ' if/ie 
houses,' i.e. of the Christians, o-vptov, 'dragging,' Jas ii. 6. 

Preaching of Philip in Samaria. 4-25. 

4. 01 H^v ovv. fxev odv introduces the general statement, the 
following verse <i>iXi7r7ros 5e gives the specific instance. eua'yytXiJofi.evoi 
used by S. Luke ro times in the Gospel and 15 times in the Acts. 
The characteristic word of preaching the good tidings of the Gospel, 
constructed either with \6yov or as here with ace. of person, 25, xiv. 21. 
^7}pv<T<jeiv which occurs in the next verse denotes the heralding, the 
proclamation of the Gospel. R.V. translates 'preaching' and 'pro- 
claiming,' but the distinction cannot be pressed. The preaching of 
the word is no longer confined to the twelve. 

5. 4>£\nr'7ros. The work of the seven at Jerusalem was apparently 
over. Philip called the evangelist, xxi, 8, is the chief preacher of the 
Gospel and probably was S. Luke's informant, tls tt]v iroXiv. If the 
article is retained the city is probably Samaria itself which bad been 
rebuilt by Herod the Great and called Se/Sao-r?? in honour of Augustus. 
If the article is omitted the city cannot be identified. ttJs Sajxapias. 
Here as always in the N.T. the district nc^t the city. The Samaritans 
were the descendants of the foreign peoples settled in the land by the 

VIII 12] NOTES 127 

Assyrian kings, 1 Kings xvii. 24. They had adopted the Jewish religion 
in part but were more abhorrent to the Jews than the Gentiles (Jn iv.). 
S. Luke gives details of our Lord's connection with the Samaritans, 
Lk. ix. 52, xvii. 11, x. 33, cf. Jn iv. 

6. irpo<r£ix.°*'> ^c. tov vovp. irpoaex^i-'' with dat. only used by Luke 
and Paul, cf. v. 35, xx. 28, Lk. xvii. 3; i Tim. i. 4, etc. ev tw, 
ii. I note. 

7. iroXXol ydp. TToWoi is a nonmiativiis pendens as dKadapra 
TTvev/jLaTa is clearly the subject of e^-qpxovro. Tr. ' In the case of many 
of those who had unclean spirits, they came out of them crying with a 
loud voice. ' Blass inserts a before ^oQivra and takes ttoWoI yap with 
edepairevdrjaav, cf. Mt. ix. 6; Mk ii. 10; Lk. v. 24. 7rapaXeXv|X€voi, 
palsied, paralyzed, with no power of muscular control. S. Luke alone 
uses the participle in accordance probably with medical usage, ix, 33 ; 
Lk. V. 18 : other writers in N.T. irapaXvTiKos, Mk ii. 10. 

9. SifJLwv. Many stories are connected with 'Simon Magus,' but 
nothing certain is known beyond what is recorded here. Justin Martyr, 
a native of Samaria, says that he went to Rome in the reign of 
Claudius and that the Senate erected a statue to him as a god. A 
statue of an old Sabine deity was found in 1574 in the Tiber with the 
inscription, Semoni Sanco deo Jidio saa-uin, which Justin may have seen 
and misread, Simonl Sancto dei filio sacrum. He was regarded as the 
father of heresy in the early Church. Another tradition says that he 
offered to fly and that the experiment ended in his death. ^a.yiv(av. The 
Magi, a priestly order, originated in the Persian empire. They claimed 
spiritual power and insight, cf. Mt. ii. i, but the majority were quacks 
as here and in xiii. 6. l|i(rTdv«v, for the form cf. i. 6 n. 

10. r\ Avva|€YdXT). The phrase is obscure: it was a 
common belief that certain powers of God were revealed in men, and 
the expression here probably means no more than that Simon claimed 
divine power. Other explanations are (i) that /meyoKri conceals a 
Samaritan word meaning 'the revealer,' (2) that dvva/uLis may be used 
for a77e\os. 

11. iKav(^ XP"'^*?' '^ considerable time.' The dative for the 
accus. is unusual, but cf. xiii. 20 and Lk. viii. 29. e|€o-TaK€'vai, tran- 
sitive, Hellen. form of i^effTTjK^vai, 'he had amazed them.' The perfect 
is always intrans. in cl. Gk. 

12. tva-yyeXi^ofJieva). The Samaritans were well prepared for the 
teaching of Philip and ready to receive the message of the Gospel of the 
Messiah, cf. Jn iv. 42. 


13. 8vva|X£is |X€"ydXas. He who claimed to be 7/ fxe-yaX-q dOva/iiis 
saw great miracles wrought by Philip, and he who had astonished 
others was astonished himself. Simon's faith was skin-deep and selfish, 
his reason was convinced by the evidence of his eyes but his heart was 
not touched. 

14. IleTpov Kal 'IcodvTiv, cf. iii. i n. The apostolic sanction of 
the Jerusalem church is thus given to the new work, so in Syria, 
xi. 22. 

15. KaTapdvTCS, literally true, as Jerusalem is 2500 feet above the 
level of the sea : but in ancient as in modern times people always spoke 
of 'going down from' and 'going up to' the capital, cf. xi. 2, 27. 
irvevjta a-yiov. The passage is very important as shewing (1) that 
baptism into the name of Jesus did not entail any outward gift of the 
Spirit, (2) that the apostles prayed for the gift to be given, (3) that 
they laid their hands upon the baptized, (4) that baptism, prayer and 
the laying on of hands, were followed by the outward manifestation 
of the gifts of the Holy Spirit. This took manifold forms and required 
the faith alike of the baptized and of the apostles, cf. i Cor. xii., 
Acts X. 44-48, xix. 6. The Church of England both in Holy Baptism 
and in Confirmation adheres closely in the rites themselves and in 
doctrine to the New Testament. 

17. Tore €Tr€Ti0€(rav. The laying on of hands usually followed 
closely upon baptism, xix. i — 7, and except in the case of the baptism 
of Paul by Ananias, ix. 17-19, it is only performed by the apostles 
themselves in the Acts. Baptism was delegated, x. 48 ; i Cor. i. 14. 

18. Bid TT]S I7ri0€<r€<os. Simon, who had been baptized by Philip, 
saw that Peter and John possessed greater powers which he wanted 
for his own ends. Herein lay his sin. The sin of simony does not 
consist in buying and selling sacred property, which is oftentimes 
necessary, but in its sale or purchase with an evil motive. 

20. To dpYvpiov. This is not a curse upon Simon but a prayer 
that as he is on the road to ruin his money may perish and thus he will 
have a chance to return, v. 22, cf. closely i Cor. iii. 15, v. 5. els 
dircoXciav, €is = eV, cf. vii. 4, Lk. xi. 7. 

21. Xo-yo), 'matter,' i.e. in the power of communicating the Holy 
Spirit: others take it of the Gospel, as in iv. 4. evOeia. The adj. 
evOvs is used frequently in the LXX. as in classical Greek of moral 
integrity, Ps. vii. 11, Ixxviii. 37. 

22. d dpa, 'if perhaps after all.' S. Peter does not doubt the 
ultimate possil)ility of Simon's forgiveness but he is certain of its 

VIII 27] NOTES 129 

impossibility so long as he remains in this frame of mind. cf. xvii. 27 ; 
Mk xi. 13. 

23. xo\'i]V...d8tKias, 665 = ^1' : Tri/cptas (fleb. xii. 15), d5iK-/as (Is. Iviii. 
6), gen. of definition. xoX??, used metaphorically : a poisonous plant of 
quick growth and intense bitterness: the*reference is not to the gall or 
bile in the body, Deut. xxix. 18. Bitterness has poisoned his heart and 
iniquity bound it with fetters. Others take ets = ws 'Thou art as the 
gall,' so R.V. margin 'Thou wilt become gall (or a gall root).' 

24. A€TJ0T^T€. Simon was actuated by fear of punishment only, if 
the traditions of his subsequent life are to be trusted. Codex Bezae 
adds 'who wept sore and ceased not.' 

25. Oi ykv ovv, i.e. Philip as vvell as the apostles. vire'crTpetfjov, 
note imperfect, 'returned on their way.' The villages, i.e. the 
inhabitants, as opposed to the city, cf. v. i sup. 

The Baptism of the Eunuch. 26-40. 

26. "A-yyeXos. S. Luke more than any other N.T. writer records 
the visitation of angels: i. 10, x. 7, .^o, xii. 7 ; Lk. i. 38, ii. 9, xxiv. 4. 
Kara (JL6(rT]|xPpiav, 'towards the south.' Lat. meridies -. others, less 
correctly, 'at noon-day.'- Iirl tt]v 686v, 'along the road.' FcC^av. Gaza 
was a strong fortress ten miles from the sea. It had been sacked by 
Alexander the Great after a most noble defence by Batis. In B.C. 96 
Alexander Jannaeus, a Maccabean prince, had destroyed it. Under 
the Roman rule, B.C. 56, a new city had been built on the shore 
called the maritime Gaza, leaving the old city deserted and in ruins. 
avTT| €<rTlv ?pT]|ios. Either the road or the town. At this time ancient 
Gaza could be so described. If the epithet refers to the route it= 'the 
desert road,' i.e. leading through the desert as distinct from another 

27. Al0io\|/ eOvovx^os. Ethiopia included all the country south of 
Egypt. Amongst the kingdoms was one whose capital was Meroe, 
under the rule of queens with the title of Candace (Plin. Nat. 
Hist. XI. 23). Eunuchs were frequently employed in ancient as in 
modern times in influential positions in eastern countries. Jeremiah 
refers to the Ethiopian eunuch Ebed-melech at the court of king 
Zedekiah, Jer. xxxviii. 7. S. Luke includes this incident to shew how 
the barriers against the universal Gospel were being broken down : first 
the Samaritans, and then an Ethiopian of Hamitic race were received 

B. A. • q 


and baptized. 8vvd<rTT]S, in apposition to avr]p Mdioxp, cf. Lk. i. 52. 
•ydtiis. A Persian word meaning ' treasure ' which had found its way 
into both Greek and Latin, cf. ya^o<pv\dKiov, 'the treasury,' Lk. xxi. i. 
irpoo-Kvvriorwv. Though precluded by law from full fellowship eunuchs 
became proselytes of the gat*, Is. Ivi. 3. 

28. eiri ToiJ dp|JLaTos. The chariot was a mark of high rank, 
cf. Gen. xli. 43. dv€"yivw(rK€v. He was reading aloud, and the quo- 
tation shews that he was acquainted with Greek and was reading from 
the LXX. version. 

29. KoX\ll01]Tt, V. 13. 

30. 'Apd yi. ' Dost thou really ? ' apa is strengthened by ye. 
yivtacTKiis d dva-yivcioTKCis ; Vulgate intellegis quae legis? for the 
paronomasia, which cannot be reproduced in English, cf. airopovfxevoi 
aXh! ovK e^airopovfievoi, 2 Cor. iv. 8 ; fj.7]8eu epya^ofiivovs dWa Trepiepya- 
^ofxevovs, 2 Thess. iii. ii. 

31. IIws ^dp dv SwaiixT^v. yap delicately hints — why do you ask 
such a question — how could I understand, unless indeed some one were 
to guide me ? 68T]"yT]<r€t, W.H. prefer the future to the subj. ; the MS. 
authority is evenly balanced : but it is doubtful whether there is any 
absolutely certain instance of idv with the future in the N.T. For the 
verb cf. Jn xvi. 13 (of the guidance of the Holy Spirit). irapcKaXco-tv, 
' he urged,' marks the humility and earnestness of the eunuch. 

32. T] Se ir€pLox'n TT]S 7pa<|)T]s, tr. 'the contents of the passage he 
was reading.' TrepLoxv^ properly 'the compass of anything,' so here the 
contents, as ypacp-q itself in the singular denotes a passage of Scripture. 
wepioxv is used in late Greek to denote the ' argument ' of a play or a 
section of a work. 'i2s irpoParov. Taken from the prophecy of the 
suffering servant, Ls. liii. 7, 8. The LXX. differs from the Hebrew. 

V. 33 is very difficult. The Hebrew verse may be paraphrased, ' He 
was destroyed by an oppressive judgment, and who among his own 
people believed that his death was an atonement for the sins of the 
people?' The LXX.: (i) 'When he humbled himself in death, his 
judgment was taken away (i.e. reversed by His Father, Phil. ii. 6, 7), 
and who shall be able to declare his generation (i.e. the new seed of 
life sown by his death, Ps. xxii. 30), for his life is taken away ' (i.e. he is 
exalted to another sphere); or (2), which brings the Greek more into 
line with the Hebrew, ' When hq humbled himself a fair trial was not 
allowed, and who shall declare the wickedness of the generation in 
which he lived which compassed his death ? ' aKperai. aipai implies 
violence, xxii. 22. 

VIII 4o] NOTES ' 131 

55. avoi|as...Td o-T6|ia, cf. x. 34, xviii. 14 and Lk. i. 64, always 
of the introduction of some grave and important utterance. €VT|"YY€Xi- 
(TttTO auTw Tov 'lT]flrouv. evayyeXi^o/xai is followed both by the accus. 
of the person addressed and by the accus. of the subject of the 
message, but when as here the two are combined the person addressed 
is in the dative: cf. v. 42, Lk. i. 19, viii. i. Philip interpreted the 
prophecy of the suffering servant as Messianic and fulfilled in the 
atoning sacrifice of Jesus, thus leading up to the baptism of the eunuch 
into the fellowship of Christ crucified. 

37. The Codex Bezae has: elTev de avr(3 6 ^iXtinros Et TTicrrei-eis 
i^ 6\t]S TTJs Kapdias aov ; diroKpidels de elirev IltffTfci^a) tov vibv tov 
deov elvaL tov ^Irjffouv : cf. A.V. and R.V. marg. This verse has 
been generally rejected because such a profession of faith was not 
likely to have been made at this stage by the eunuch : but baptism was 
usually accompanied by expression of faith, and Philip's question after 
his recent experience of Simon Magus is very pointed and the answer 
of the eunuch very simple. 

38. els TO v8wp. The words ore dpe^rjaau in v. 39 prove con- 
clusively that the baptism of the eunuch was by immersion, which was 
undoubtedly the custom of the early church. The references to baptism 
in S. Paul also point to immersion, Rom. vi. 4, Col. ii. 12. On the 
other hand, baptism by affusion was also practised ; cf. the rubric in 
the service of Holy Baptism. 

39. TTViv^ia Kvptov. Some supernatural agency is clearly implied. 
Cf. in O.T. I Kings xviii. 12, 2 Kings ii. 16. Codex A has 'the Holy 
Spirit fell upon the eunuch, and an angel of the Lord caught away 

40. €vp€0T] els "A^wTov, generally taken as an instance of con- 
structio praegnans, but els — ev in N.T. The language of the whole 
passage and of both the incidents related in this chapter recalls the 
the appearances of the prophets of the Old Testament to whom 
Philip shews striking resemblances. Azotus is only mentioned here 
in N.T. ; it is identical with Ashdod, one of the five chief Philistine 
towns, Josh. xi. 22, xiii. 3. It was besieged by Psammetichus for 
29 years, Herod, ii. 157, and was still a considerable town at this 
time. rds iroXeis irdcras. He may well have preached in Joppa 
and Lydda on his way to Caesarea. in the Acts is used of 
a missionary tour. els ICaicrapfav. Its full name was Kaicrdpeia 
le^acrrrj, so named by Herod the Great in honour of Augustus. It 
was also called Stratonis Turris, probably after one of the kings of 



Sidon who occupied this strip of coast in the Persian period. Herod 
had beautified the city, and built a palace for himself, xxiii. 35. 
It contained a temple to Rome and Augustus, a theatre and amphi- 
theatre and a fine harbour, and was the seat of the Roman procurator. 
According to Josephus, five cohorts and a squadron of cavalry were 
stationed at Caesarea, consisting chiefly of auxiliary troops, cf. Acts x. i. 
The population was chiefly heathen, though there was an admixture of 
Jews. The Jewish war began a.d. dd with a rising in Caesarea, and 
the whole Jewish population, 20,000 in number, were massacred in one 
day. It is here mentioned for the first time, probably because it became 
Philip's home; cf. xxi. 8. 

Ch. IX. The Conversion of Saul. 1-18. 

The second immediate result of Stephen's death was the ' appre- 
hension ' of Saul (Phil. iii. 12) on the Damascus road. It was 
momentous in its effects, as it brought upon the stage a man of high 
birth and education, a scholar and theologian, a man with a genius for 
statesmanship and a born leader of men. He was peculiarly qualified 
by birth, training, temperament and power to be the founder of Gentile 
Christianity, soon destined to come into conflict with the mother church 
at Jerusalem, which under the leadership of S. Peter and the Apostles 
clung to Jewish traditions of thought and practice. At the time of his 
conversion Saul was about 35 years of age, and S. Luke brings before 
us three pictures : Saul the Pharisee, Saul the Christian convert, and 
Paul the Gentile Apostle. 

He was born at Tarsus, and was proud of his native city, an tirhs 
libera, the capital of Cilicia, situated on the river Cydnus, and a great 
centre of eastern trade and of Hellenic thought and culture. But 
though born at Tarsus he was a Hebrew of Hebrew descent (Gal. 
i. ii., Phil, iii., 2 Cor. xi.) and a Pharisee sprung from a strict Phari- 
sean family. He was educated as ' a son of the law ' at Jerusalem 
under Gamaliel, and at this time he was possibly a member of the 
Sanhedrin; Acts xxvi. 10. Besides, he possessed the full Roman 
civitas by patrimony. His father may have been a freedman or have 
purchased his citizenship or have obtained it as a special privilege 
in return for some service. Saul the Jew also had the Roman name 
of Paulus, which had associations with the Aemilian gens, though we 
cannot tell what his nomen gentilicium was. Following the strict Jewish 

IX i] NOTES 133 

rule, he learnt a manual handicraft, and became efficient in the local 
trade of making tents and sailcloth out of the goats' hair [ciliciutn) from 
which the province took its name. 

In addition to acute intellectual power he possessed spiritual in- 
sight, and was dominated by an overmastering zeal for God. This in 
his early days was concentrated upon an all-absorbing desire to attain 
unto righteousness through the law. Hence in his zeal and loyalty he 
persecuted the infant church, but without satisfaction to himself. He 
could not attain righteousness by the law, and in the Epistles to the 
Romans and the Galatians he sets forth the failure of the law to satisfy 
the cravings of the human heart. As he journeyed along the road, 
150 miles from Jerusalem, to Damascus, reflecting upon himself and his 
mission, he was brought face to face with himself and his Lord at the 
exact psychological moment when he was prepared for the illumination 
which made all things plain. All his gains were as dust in the balance 
against the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus his Lord, Phil. 
iii. 8. The conversion of Saul is unique in history, and can only be 
understood by a knowledge of his past history and of his subsequent 
self-revelation in the Acts and the Epistles. 

1. 'O Be SauXos. 5e is resumptive, and picks up the narrative from 
viii. 3. evirvc'wv dirciXTis. The gen. is partitive, and defines as it were 
the atmosphere he breathed; cf. outos ■^5i7 /caxias -Kv^t, Ar. Eq. 437. 
Tw apx^epci, sc. Caiaphas, who held ofhce until a.d. 36. Pharisees 
and Sadducees are allied against the church. 

2. i^TTJ<raTO. The aor. marks the success of his appeal ; cf. iii. 3 n. 
lirio-ToXds, cf. xxii. 5, xxvi. 12. The power of the Sanhedrin extended 
over all Jewish communities, though its actual jurisdiction was limited 
to Judaea. Aaiiao-Kov- Perhaps the oldest city of the world. Moslem 
tradition makes it the scene of the murder of Abel (the spot is still 
pointed out to travellers to-day) and Abraham its king. It is 70 miles 
from the sea and six days' journey from Jerusalem, and situated in the 
plain at the foot of the anti-Lebanon, watered by the Abana and her 
seven streams, which give the city its beautiful verdure and enable trees 
and groves to flourish upon the edge of the burning desert stretching 
away towards the south and east. It formed the meeting-place of east 
and west, and the trade of north and south, east and west passed through 
its streets. In O.T. times it was the capital of Syria, and was captured 
by Tiglath-Pileser, B.C. 740, 2 Kings xvi. 9. Under the Seleucid dynasty 
its fame was eclipsed by Antioch, but to-day, whilst Antioch is a mere 
village, Damascus has recovered its position, and contains 150,000 


inhabitants. At this time it was governed by an ethnarch of the Arabian 
king Aretas (2 Cor. xi. 3-2) to whom it had in all probability been granted 
by Caligula on his accession in A.D. 37. There was a considerable 
Jewish population and several synagogues, and the new faith of Jesus the 
Messiah had already reached the city, and a body of Jews under the 
leadership of Ananias were noted for the strictness of their lives and for 
their adherence to the ' Way.' The report of the spread of the faith led 
Paul to seek further fields of conquest in his eager zeal to stamp out the 
new heresy, ttjs 68ov. The genitive denotes the class to which the 
adherent of the faith belonged. 656s with the article is used 
absolutely by S. Luke to denote the Christian faith, 'the way of 
life,' xix. 9, xxii. 4, xxiv. 14, 22; cf. 6 X670S, 'the Gospel.' The 
metaphor of the way was familiar from O.T.; cf. Ps. xviii. 21, cxix. i. 
Our Lord used it in the sermon on the Mount, Mt. vii. 13, 14, and of 
Himself, Jn xiv. 6. "yvvaiKas, cf. i. I4n., vi. i. 

3. cYY^t*'"'' '^"fl Aajjiao-Kw. He probably had come by the quickest 
route from Jerusalem, and would enter Damascus from the south. At 
the present day, on S. Paul's day, rightly associated with his conversion 
and not with his martyrdom, the Damascus Christians walk in pro- 
cession to the traditional site, 1 2 miles south of the city. Tr€piT]o-Tpa\I/€v, 
used also by S. Paul, xxii. 6 {Tr€pi\dfj.\}/av, xxvi. 13). The sudden 
flashing light 'above the brightness of the sun ' (xxvi. 13) at full noon 
(xxii. 6) indicates that no natural phenomenon was implied. S. Luke's 
account should be compared carefully with the two accounts given by 
S. Paul himself, ch. xxii. 4-16, xxvi. 9-18. The variations in details 
are considerable, but they are verbal and not vital, and can easily 
be accounted for. S. Luke is relating the conversion of Saul as an 
historian, S. Paul his own unique experience, establishing his claim 
to be an apostle. 

(i) As regards his companions (a) v. 7 states that they stood 
speechless, hearing the voice but beholding no man ; xxii. 9, ' They 
heard not the voice of him that spake with me,' i.e. they heard the 
sound, S. Paul alone heard the words, {b) v. 4 states that Paul fell to 
the ground ; xxvi. 14, that they all fell to the earth, they all saw the 
light {v. 3) but Paul alone saw the vision. This occurred at the first, 
and does not contradict v. 7, which refers to what happened after the 

(2) As regards S. Paul himself, the account of what passed in the 
vision is much fuller in S. Paul's own accounts ; cf. vv. 5, 6 with 
xxii. 7-10 and xxvi. 14-18. The part played by Ananias and the 

IX 1 1] NOTES 135 

account of his vision are more fully described by S. Luke, vv. ro-19. 
vv. 15, 16 are parallel with xxii. 14, 15 and with xxvi. r6-i8, which 
form part of the revelation to S. Paul himself. 

4. 2aovi\ 2aovX. The Hebrew form of the word is preserved in 
all three accounts, and the repetition implies emphasis ; cf. Gen. 
xxii. II, of Abraham, and in N.T. Lk. x. 41, xxii. 31. |Ji€. In these 
words Paul learnt the great lesson which formed the pivot of his new 
teaching, the union of Christ with His church ; Lk. x. 16, i Cor. xv. 9, 
Gal. i. 13. 

5. Kvpie, not merely a title of respect, as in xvi. 30,"xxv. 26. Saul 
recognized that he was in the presence of a divine visitant, whose 
authority he recognized; cf x. 4. *E'y<o...crti. The pronouns are in 
strong contrast. The Bezan text inserts here, probably from xxvi. 14, 
(JK\t)pov 5e aoi irpbs Kevrpa XaKTi^eLV " 6 5e rpe/j-oju re Kal dafx^wv eirl 
TCf. yeyovoTi avT(2 eTire Kvpie ri fxe ^e\ets TToirjcraL; /cat 6 Kvpios irpos avrov. 
The best Gk MSS. omit these words and insert dXXa before dvaaT-qdi; 
so R.V. To Saul Jesus appeared in glory. Whether or not Saul had 
seen Jesus before His death,, there is not a shadow of doubt that he 
knew and recognized the risen Lord. This revelation stands unique 
and apart from other revelations of the Lord ; cf 2 Cor. xii. 1-4, 
Acts xviii. 9, xxii. 17-21, xxiii. 11. Only four times was the vision of 
the glorified Lord vouchsafed to men — at the transfiguration to the 
three, to S. Stephen, S. Paul and S. John. 

7. i<miK€icrav, a variant for eiar-qKeLcrav, the imperfect of eaTT]Ka, 
I stand. ixTiSe'va. S. Paul saw Jesus Himself, i Cor. xv. 8. 

9. -qv...!!!! pXt'irwv, 'was without sight.' pL-^ for 01; with part. 
The affection of the eyes possibly referred to in Gal. iv. 15 can have no 
connection with the narrative here, as S. Luke refers to S. Paul's 
searching gaze elsewhere, xiii. 9, xiv. 9, etc. For three days he was 
in darkness, passing through a death to his old life as Christ lay 
in the tomb three days ; then for him came the birth to the new life 
in baptism. He must have been thinking of his own experience when 
he described baptism as a death and burial followed by resurrection to 
a new life, Rom. vi. 4, Col. ii. 12. 

10. 'AvavCas, a devout Jewish Christian; cf. xxii. 12. 6 Kvpios, 
sc. Jesus. 

11. 'Avdo-ra, Hellen, for dvdaTrjdL; cf. viii. 26. tt]v pv\i.r\v rr\v 
KaXov|i€VTiv Eu0€iav, 'the Straight Street,' still so called by the 
natives, runs from west to east through Damascus. Cf. pvpLTj 
Lk. xiv. 2 1. Tapo-€a, the first mention of S. Paul's birthplace. 


12. Kttl €t8€v...6pajj.aTi. ev opdfxaTi is omitted by R.V. and 
bracketed l^y W. H. It is not clear whether a second vision of S. Paul 
is here referred to; cf. xxii. lo. ottws dvapXetj/'g. Tr. 'that he may 
recover his sight.' 

13. TOLS 0.71015. The characteristic name of the Christians, used 
here quite naturally for the first time. Adopted from O.T., Ps. xvi. 3, 
XXX. 4, etc., and used frequently by S. Paul in addressing the churches, 

1 Cor. i. 2, etc. KaKa iroLelv is generally followed in classical Greek 
by another accusative. 

15. o-Kcuos €K\oYT]S = cr/ceuos €k\€kt6v, 'an instrument of my 
choice.' For (XKevos used metaphorically of man cf. Rom. ix. 22, 23, 

2 Tim. ii. 20-21. tou Pao-Td<rai, inf. of purpose, continuing the 
metaphor of a/ceuos, IGvoiv, placed first as this was the peculiar mission 
of the Gentile apostle; cf. Gal. i. 15. pao-iXctov, e.g. Agrippa, xxvi. 2, 
the Roman governors and finally the Emperor. 

16. lyta "ydp virohii^ot. ' I will shew him,' i.e. guide and instruct. 
The presence and guidance of Christ directed the life of S. Paul, cf. 
xiii. 2, xvi. 6, 9, 2 Cor. xii. 3. iraBetv is in strong contrast with 
eTToirjaev, v. 13. The former persecutor was himself to be persecuted ; 
cf. 2 Cor. xi. 23-28. 

17. eiriSels, not as the symbol here of the gift of the Holy Ghost, 
but of the mark of his recovery from blindness, as in the miracles of 
Jesus; Mk i. 41. d8£\({>e. Ananias addresses S. Paul as a Christian 

18. XeiriSes, a medical term. XewLs denotes a scaly substance 
thrown off from any part of the body, and so here of white films from 
the eyes; cf. Tobit xi. 12. The whole phrase, as ws indicates, does 
not describe the actual cure but the sudden recovery as it appeared to 
vS. Paul. ePairTttrGT). (i) His sins were cleansed, and God accepted 
him as righteous; (2) In baptism he professed his faith in the Lord 
Jesus ; (3) He was filled with the Holy Ghost, xxii. 16. 

Saul at Damascus. First Visit to Jerusalem. 


19. *E'Y€V€TO 8^. S. Paul states that after it had pleased God to 
reveal His Son in him ' immediately I conferred not with flesh and 
blood, neither went I up to Jerusalem... but I went away into Arabia, 
and again I returned to Damascus. Then after three years I went up 
to Jerusalem to visit Cephas,' Gal. i. 16-18. The omission of any 
reference by S. Luke to the three years' sojourn in Arabia is easily 

IX 26] NOTES 137 

accounted for, as he is relating the history of the Church, while S. Paul 
is describing to the Galatians his personal experience. But it is 
difficult to decide whether it should be placed at the close of the first 
half of V. 19 or between vv. 22, 23. In the latter case the order will 
be: (i) a brief period of preaching in Damascus ; (2) the sojourn in 
Arabia; (3) a second period of work in Damascus ; in favour of this is 
the mention of rjfiipas riuds, v. 19, and -rjfxepat iKavai in v. 23, which 
seem to imply two periods, but against it is the statement of S. Paul, 
Gal. i. 16. S. Paul followed the example of Moses, Elijah, John the 
Baptist and our Lord Himself in his lonely communion with God. 

20. 6 vios Tov 0€ov, only here in the Acts ; as the preaching was 
in the synagogues the phrase must have been used in the Messianic 
sense ; cf. Ps. ii. 7. The use of the expression seems to point to the 
preaching being subsequent to the sojourn in Arabia. 

21. 6 iropOi^o-as, 'who devastated.' iropdelv is used of the devas- 
tation of cities and lands by armies in cl. Gk., cf. Gal. i. 13, 23. 
eXTiXv0€i, ' had come.' The pluperfect points to his changed conduct. 

22. evcSvvaiiouTo, only used here by S. Luke and elsewhere only 
by S. Paul, and always of spiritual strength; Rom. iv. 20, Phil. iv. 13. 
<rvvi\vvvf.v from ai'vxvwoj, a late form of crut-xew. o-vvPtpd^wv, to 
bring together and so to deduce, prove. The word is not used in 
this sense outside the LXX. and in N.T. is confined to Luke and 
Paul; xvi. 10, xix. 33; i Cor. ii. 16. 

23. -qfjtepai iKavaC. iKavos in S. Luke's writings denotes as a rule 
not 'sufficient,' but 'considerable,' i.e. more than would be expected; 
cf. V. 42, xviii. 18; Lk. vii. 12, viii. 27. 

24. 7rap€TT)poi)vTo, 2 Cor. xi. 32. There the ethnarch of Aretas 
was responsible for the effort to arrest Paul, but he may well have acted 
at the instigation of the Jews in guarding the walls and the gates 
to prevent his escape. 

25. 01 |JLa0TiTal avTov, 'his disciples,' i.e. his converts. Sid tou 
Tc^x^ovs, ' through the wall.' 5id dvpidos, 2 Cor. xi. 33, probably a 
window in a house built into the wall; cf. Josh. ii. 15. <r<j)vpi8i. In 
2 Cor. xi. 33 S. Paul uses crapydvr]. Both were large provision- 
baskets, and much larger than the k6<Plvos, the small hand-basket of the 
Jews ; Mk vi. 43, viii. 8. 

26. k-jTiCpaXiv Ko\Xdo-0ai, cf. v. 13. S. Paul states that this visit 
was for the purpose of seeing Peter, and that he only abode in 
Jerusalem 15 days, and of the other apostles he saw none save James, 
the brother of the Lord; Gal. i. 18, 19. Barnabas may have been 


previously acquainted with S. Paul ; he here shews his kindly dis- 
position, iv. 36. 

27. avTov with rjyayev, i7n\a^6fj.€vos would require the gen. ; 
xvii. 19. Si-q-yiio'a'TO, sc. Barnabas. €irappTi(rid(raTo, only used by 
S. Luke and S. Paul, and always of declaring the truth of the Gospel 
boldly ; i Thess. ii. 2. 

28. Kttl "qv-.-'Icpovo-aXtjii. For the expression cf. i. 21 n. The 
visit was confined to Jerusalem, and Paul says that he was unknown 
to the churches in Judaea ; Gal. i. 22. 

29. irpos Tovs 'E\X'»ivi(rTds. Paul follows in the steps of Stephen 
(vi. 9) disputing in the synagogue of the Hellenists and hurriedly leaves 
the city to escape his fate. In ch. xxii. 17, 18, he says that he was 
warned in a vision in the temple to leave Jerusalem. 

30. els Tapcrov. S. Paul himself says that after leaving Jerusalem 
he went into the region of Cilicia and Syria; Gal. i. 21. No great 
emphasis need be laid on the order, as Syria and Cilicia formed a 
combined province. Both passages are general statements. S. Paul 
almost certainly left Caesarea by sea, and Tarsus became the centre of 
his work for the next eight or ten years, about which neither he nor 
S. Luke gives any information. 

31. r\ iKK\r]<ria. The singular has better authority. The church 
was not divided in Palestine. It had its centre in Jerusalem, and owed 
allegiance to the apostles. The verse marks a direct break in the 
narrative. oIko8o[jiovjj,€Vti may here be used literally — built up, i.e. 
increasing in size — but far more likely metaphorically, ' being edified,' 
by which development in spiritual instruction is implied, as constantly 
in S. Paul's epistles ; cf. Mt. xvi. 18, i Cor. xiv. 4. ttJ TrapaKXijo-ci... 
cf. iv. 36 n. The precise expression is only found here. It implies 
strengthening, support and comfort. S. John alone expounds our Lord's 
own interpretation of the Paraclete, xiv. -xvi. €ir\i]0vv€TO combines 
here both external and inward growth ; cf. vi. 7. 

PART III. ix. 32— xii. 24. 

This section is marked by the first extension of the Gospel to the 
Gentiles, and has a close connection with Part II, and leads up to the 
great work of S. Paul. 

I. (a) The work of Peter at Lydda, Joppa and Caesarea, the direct 
sequel to the work of Philip and his own visit with S. John ; ix. 32-43. 
(d) The visions of Cornelius and Peter, followed by the baptism of 

IX 35] NOTES 139 

Cornelius at Caesarea, raise the question of the admission of the 
Gentiles ; x. 1-48. 

Peter defends his action at Jerusalem ; xi. 1-18. 

2. The continuation of the work of the scattered Hellenist 
Christians in Phoenicia and Cyprus. 

Foundation of the church at Antioch. The Gospel presented to the 
Greeks (Gentiles). 

The supervision of the church at Jerusalem is shewn by the mission 
of Barnabas. 

The return of Saul to Antioch is followed by the visit of the prophets 
from Jerusalem. Prophecy of Agabus of the famine. Collection fjr the 
poor at Jerusalem despatched with Barnabas and Saul, xi. 19-30. 

3. The sudden attack of Herod upon the apostles. Martyrdom 
of James and escape of Peter, followed by the death of Herod, 
xii. i-'24. 

The Work of S. Peter. Healing of Aeneas at 
Lydda. 32-35. 

S. Peter the apostle of the circumcision (Gal. ii. 7) exercises a 
paternal supervision over the Jewish Christian communities connected 
with the Jerusalem church ; cf. viii. 25. 

The healing of Aeneas and the restoration of Tabitha prepare the 
way for the work of Peter at Joppa, where he learns the lesson of the 
attitude of Christianity towards Gentiles. 

32. 8i€px6|X€vov 8id irdvTtov, ' as he went through all parts.' 
di^pXOfiaL implies a missionary tour. AvSSa. The ancient Lod, 
I Chron. viii. 12. Situated in the plain of Sharon, about 10 miles from 
Joppa, on the road to Jerusalem. 

33. Alve'av. Not to be confounded with Alveias, Lat. Aeneas. 
He was probably already a convert. e| Iroiv okt«. As a medical man, 
S. Luke is often careful to mention the duration of sickness ; iii. 2, iv. 22, 
Lk. xiii. II. irapaXcXvucvos, ct. viii. 7 n. 

34. larai <r€ 'It]crovs ; cf. iv. 30, x. 38 and iii. 6 n., possibly 
an instance of paronomasia, (rrpwcrov o-eavrw, sc. ttjv kXivtiv. The 
aorists aTp(aaov...a.v€<jTT] mark the immediate completion of the cure. 

35. TrdvT€S implies a general conversion at Lydda. tov SapcUva. 
The maritime plain between Joppa and Carmel. ' The Level ' was an 
oak forest, but in biblical times celebrated for its beauty and fertility ; 
Is. xxxiii. 9, Cant. ii. i. oirives gives an additional fact, and they — ; 
vii. bi- 


The Raising of Dorcas at Joppa. 36-43. 

36. 'loTTiTT]. The port of Jerusalem from the days of Solomon, 
but with a poor and dangerous .harbour. Unlike Caesarea it was chiefly 
populated by Jews and was Jewish in feeling and tone. It was captured 
by Pompey B.C. 63 and restored to the Jews by Caesar B.C. 49. In the 
Jewish wars it was the first object of attack, A.D. 66. TaPtiBd denotes 
in Hebrew ' beauty.' The Greek equivalent was Aop/cds, so called from 
the bright eyes of the gazelle. She is the first of the sisters of charity, 
and her name has been given to the Dorcas societies which make clothes 
for the poor. 

37. tt<r0€VTJ(ra<rav, ' fell sick,' cf. ii. 44 n. 

38. Mt] oKVTJo-Tis. Oratio recta is substituted for the oratio obliqua. 

39. at x^TJpai, either the widows whom Dorcas had befriended or 
who had been associated with her in good works ; cf. vi. i n. eirt- 
8eiKvv|i£vai. The force of the middle may be ' displaying their garments,' 
i.e. those which Dorcas had made and given them, x^irwvas Kal ijiaTia. 
The x'-'^^^ (Lat. tunica, Hebr. cetoneth) was a long close-fitting under- 
garment worn by all classes of all ages and both sexes. The 'nx.ari.ov 
(Lat. toga, Heb. simlah) was a long cloak worn over the undergarment. 
o<ra, more than a='all that.' 

40. CKpaXwv. The narrative is similar to that of the raising of 
Jaeirus' daughter; Mk v. 40-41 ; Lk. viii. 54. Peter had been present 
on the three occasions when Jesus raised the dead. Before the miracle 
it is noticeable that like Elisha and Elijah he kneeled down and 
prayed ; i Kings xvii. 20 ; 2 Kings iv. 33-34. dvd<rTT]6i. The Bezan 
text adds 'in the name of Jesus Christ.' dv€Kd0i(r€v, intransitive; 
cf. Lk. vii. 15. 

43. pvpi^i, cl. ^vp<Todi\l/r]S. The trade of tanning involving con- 
tact with dead beasts was regarded with loathing by the Jews. That 
S. Peter lodged with a tanner is perhaps intended to pave the way for 
the incident which follows; cf. x. 6, 32. 

Ch. X. The Vision of Cornelius at Caesarea. 1-8. 

I. Kopv-qXios. Probably the descendant of one of the 10,000 slaves 
to whom L. Cornelius Sulla had granted freedom, all of whom took the 
name of Cornelius. €KaTovTdpxT|s. Each legion nominally consisted 
of 6000 men divided into ten cohorts, each commanded by a tribiDius 
niilittim, Gk x'^^apx^s (Acts xxi. 31, xxiii. 22). Each cohort was 
subdivided into six centuries, and each century was commanded Iiy a 

X 7] NOTES 141 

centurion, the highest non-commissioned officer in the Roman legion. 
Four centurions are mentioned in N,T., and all with approbation : 
(i) The centurion at Capernaum, Lk. vii. i-io. (2) At the crucifixion, 
Lk. xxiii. 47. (3) Cornelius. (4) Julius of the Augustan band, Acts xxvii. 
1-3. €K o-ir£tpT]S — 'iTaXiKTJs. (jireipa here as in xxi. 31 is probably 
used of a cohort, though elsewhere in the arrest of Jesus it is used of 
a small band of soldiers. There is no inherent improbability in an 
auxiliary cohort of Italians being stationed at Caesarea. An inscription 
of A.D. 69 shews that Italian cohorts were in the province of Syria, 
and probably one was stationed at Caesarea at this time, A.D. 40-44. 

2. evcrePtls Kal 4>oPov|X€vos tov Bcov. These words describe 'the 
outer ring of God-fearing adherents to the Jewish faith.' They are to 
be distinguished from full proselytes. They are elsewhere called oi cre- 
^6/xevoi {tov deov), xvii. 17, etc. They were admitted to the synagogue, 
but not to full communion with the Jews, and they devoted themselves 
to prayer, fasting and almsgiving: cf. Lk. vii. 5. t« Xaw. Here as 
always in S. Luke's writings 'the Jews': cf. iv. 25. 

3. <f>avEpus, an objective vision in answer to his prayer: there is 
no indication that he was in a trance, f. lo. wo-el Trepl wpav €vdTT]v, 
i.e. about 3 p.m. Cornelius clearly observed the Jewish custom of 
prayer, cf. ii. i n. 

4. ^|X(j>oPos, always with aorist part, of yiypofiai in S. Luke, cf. vii. 
32. TC «mv, Kvpi€ ; cf. ix. 5.^T]<rav, 'ascended,' i.e as the smoke 
of incense, the symbol of prayer, Ps. cxli. 2. els |ivii|i6orvvov, i.e. so 
that God may remember thee, cf. Mk xiv. 9. fxvTjfxoavpov is used of 
the handful of flour and oil and incense burnt upon the altar with the 
meat offering, the savour of which was held to commend the sacrifice 
to God, Lev. ii. 2, 9. So too the perpetual memory {dvafivrjcr is, Lk. 
xxii. 19) of the sacrifice of the death of Christ brings the communicants' 
prayers and sacrifices of themselves, their souls and bodies into the 
presence of God, and makes both acceptable and efficacious. 

5. StjKuvd Tiva. The addition of riua shews that Peter was entirely 
unknown to Cornelius, though it is possible that he was acquainted with 

6. irapd 0dXa<r<rav. On account of the supply of water and the 
exclusion of tanners from the town. 

7. oiK€Twv: the members of his household, a milder term than 
dovXos '■ Rom. xiv. 4. The addition of the epithet ei-a-e^rj to aTparnbrrjv 
in connection with v. 2 points to the influence of Cornelius over his men. 
•rrpocrKapT€p<yuvTa)v, cf. i. 14. 


The Vision of S. Peter at Joppa. 9-23. 

9. Tfi 8^ eiravpiov. Joppa was about 30 miles distant from Caesarea : 
the outward and return journey occupied four days, eirl to Scofia : at the 
hour of noon (Ps. Iv. 17) Peter went up to the housetop to pray. The 
flat roofs of oriental houses were used for prayer, meditation, rest and 
sleep: 2 Kings xxiii. 12; i Sam. ix. 25-6; 2 Sam. xi. 2. 

10. irpoo-Treivos, 'very hungry.' The hunger of S. Peter and the 
surroundings of the tannery seem to be connected wiih the imagery of 
the trance. 7€TJo-aor0ai, 'to eat,' cf. xx. 11. ^Ko-Ta<ris denotes some- 
times mere astonishment (iii. 10) but more usually the suspension of 
natural faculties: cf. xxii. 17; 2 Cor. xii. 2. The word is purposely 
used to distinguish the vision of Peter from the vision (opa/za) of 

11. 6Q6vr\v : both oObv-q and dpxo.1 (in the sense of 'corners') are 
peculiar to S. Luke. The words are found together in medical language, 
dpxars is anarthrous : the sheet was held by four corners, but a sheet so 
held might have any number of 'corners,' and the imagery cannot be 
pressed as referring to the ' four corners of the compass.' 

13. 0v(rov, 'kill.' dvo} is not confined in N.T. to the meaning 
of sacrifice: Lk. xv. 23; Jn x. 10. 

14. M'qSajJLws, i.e. 'nay, let it not be so,' a protest. The impulsive- 
ness of the apostle had not deserted him: cf. Mt. xvi. 22; Jn xiii. 8. 
S. Peter protests that he had, like Ezekiel, never eaten anything common 
or unclean: Ez. iv. 14. oi58€iroT€...Trdv, a strong negative, Hebraistic 
in form: cf. Lk. i. 37; Mt. xxiv. 22. koivov, cf. Mk vii. 1-20. The 
apostle who had all things ' common ' with his brethren had yet to 
learn that that 'community' was not confined to the peculiar few, 
but was to be shared with the many, .i.e. the Gentiles. A sharp barrier 
separated Jews and Gentiles, especially in the matter of clean and 
unclean meats, as Hindus to-day are separated from Christians and 
from one another according to their castes. No Jew could cat with a 
Gentile without the fear of incurring pollution : Lk. v. 30 ; Jn xviii. 28; 
Gal. ii. 12-14; I Cor. x. 25-29. This question was a fundamental 
difficulty in the infant Jewish-Christian Church, and this vision is de- 
signed to instruct the ' apostle of the circumcision ' how this difficulty 
was to be met. All creatures are God's creation. 

15. "A 6 deos. Peter had forgotten the direct teaching of Christ, 
Mk vii. 18, 19: where Mark significantly adds 'This he said making 

X 27] NOTES 143 

all meats clean' {Kadapi^iav). koCvov, 'make common': man cannot 
make unclean that which God has cleansed. 

16. eirl Tpis. S. Peter may have recalled his three denials and the 
thrice repeated question ' Lovest thou me?' : Jn xxi. 

17. 8iT]7r6p£i, tr. 'was sore perplexed,' cf. dLepcorrjaaPTes, dievdv/xov- 
fjL^vov : ii. 12 n. tC civ el't], potential, 'what it could be,' cf. v. 24 n. 
iruXwva, properly the passage leading from the street through the 
vestibule into the inner court, xii. 13. 

18. €l...|€vi^€Tat. Vivid or. obi. as printed in the text, but it 
might be or. rect., 'Does Simon who is called Peter lodge here?' 
cf. vii. I n. 

19. 8i€v0vp,o-une'vov, ' deeply pondering.' 

20. fiT]8^v 8iaKpiv6|i€vos. The root meaning of diaKpluoj is ' to make 
distinction,' cf. xi. 12, xv. 9. The middle is used in N.T. especially of 
division in mind either in relation to oneself and so ' doubting ' as here : 
cf. Mt. xxi. 21 ; Rom. xiv. 23 ; Jas i. 6; or in relation to others, and so 
* contending,' as in xi. 2. on, ' because ': others take it as depending 
on SiaKpLv6fievos = ^ that.' 

22. 8LKatos, cf. Lk. i. 6, ii. 25, xxiii. 50. ^Gvous. Gentiles were 
speaking, and therefore naturally used this word of the Jews which the 
Jews used of them. €x.pT}|xaTio-0T], ' was admonished by God.' xPVf^^' 
Ti^o/j.aL is regularly used of divdne intimations: cf. Lk. ii. 26; Heb. 
viii. 5, xi. 7. 

23. €|evi(r€v. The hospitality of S. Peter to Gentiles is the firstfruits 
of the lesson of his vision. 

S. Peter at Caesarea. 24-48. 

24. Tovs dvaYKaCovs, Lat. netessa7'i'us, denotes close intimacy. 

25. '12s St l"y€'v€TO Tov iicriXQtlv — u)(TT€ elaeXdeiv: cf. iii. 12 n. 
The Bezan text adds: 'And as Peter was drawing nigh unto Caesarea 
one of the servants running before him announced that he was come, 
and Cornelius sprang forth, to meet him.' irpoorcKvviio-ev. The verb 
expresses not only the worship of a divine being but the lowly obeisance 
of an inferior to a superior. Prostration was alien to the Roman mind 
and the act of Cornelius was unusual. Peter rejects his adoration. 
Jesus Himself accepted such worship: Lk. iv. 8, xxiv. 52 ; Mt. xiv. 33. 

27. o-uvofiiXoiv. The compound verb is only found here in N.T. 
and the simple verb three times in S. Luke's writings, and always in 
the sense of ' conversing ' — a meaning which the word bears in modern 


■28. d6e'fiiTov. The danger of pollution had led to the prohibition 
of intercourse between Jews and Gentiles, though it is nowhere forbidden 
in the Pentateuch: cf. Jn xviii. 28; Gal. ii. 12. The exclusiveness of 
the Jews greatly impressed the writers of the ancient world. Cf. 
adversus omnes alios hostile odium, separati epulis, discreti aibililnis, 
Tac. Hist. V. 5. KoXXa.<r0ai, much stronger than Trpocrepx^cdat : the 
closest intimacy is referred to: cf. v. 13 n. Kd|Jioi, i.e. in spite of all 
these prohibitions : tr. ' and yet.' The contrast is between v/xeTs and 
iju-oi, and between what they all knew and the revelation given to Peter 
himself: cf. i Pet. ii. 17. 

29. Tivt Xo^w, ' for what reason.' 

30. 'Airo T€TdpTT]S ii(i€pas, lit. from the fourth day up to this hour, 
i.e. four days ago, reckoning up to this hour: the vision of Cornelius 
corresponded in point of time with the arrival of Peter, i.e. about 3 p.m. 
The best MSS. omit vrjcrrevuv Kai before Ti]v ivdrrip. 

32. The Bezan text adds: 'who when he cometh shall speak unto 

33. e^avTTJs, sc. ci'pas, forthwith, from that hour. KaX«s €TroCT]<ras, 
a mode of expressing gratitude, ' it was kind of you to come,' Phil. iv. 14. 

S. Peter's Speech. 34-43. 

(a) 34-35. Peter himself acknowledges the truth that he is begin- 
ning really to grasp that God is the God of all men, and has no regard 
for men other than that they should satisfy two conditions: (i) faith 
and fear, (2) righteous conduct. 

(l)) 36-43. Upon the basis of this truth he' presents the Gospel 
of salvation in Jesus Christ in its special relation to the Gentiles. 
Jesus is not only the Messiah of Jewish expectation, but (i) the Lord 
of all men, (2) the Judge. 

The acceptance of these two truths will have its direct influence 
upon practical religion. All the righteous in every nation will equally 
be dependent upon God, and that dependence is based upon faith. 

34. *Eir* dXT]d££as indicates a new interpretation of Scripture, cf. 
IV. 27. S. Peter develops three new truths: (i) the acceptance of 
God-fearhig Gentiles, (2) the universal judgeship of Christ, (3) justifi- 
cation by faith. KaTaXa|, ' I am beginning to grasp,' used by 
Plato of the apprehension of truth: cf. iv. 13; Phil. iii. J4. irpocrco- 
TroXi^HTrTT^s, Jas ii. r; cf. vpoacvTrov Xafx^aveiv, Lk. xx. 21 ; Gal. ii. 6; 

X 38] NOTES 145 

Trpocro}To\r)fi\l/ia, Eph. vi. 9; Rom. ii. ir. The thought of God as no 
respecter of persons is found in O.T. Deut. x. 17; Lev. xix. 15. The 
expression is Hebraistic and in N.T. is always used in a bad sense, as 
trpbawirov bears its secondary meaning of ' a mask ' and refers to the 
external appearance of man. S. Peter means that God sees the real 
worth of man's character independently of his external position or his 
special privileges, and shews no favouritism. 

35. aXX' €v iravTi ^9v€t. S. Peter here implies that all God- 
fearing Gentile adherents of the synagogue would be fit persons to be 
received into the Christian church. No conditions of reception beyond 
faith and righteous conduct are laid down: cf. ii. -21; Rom. ii. 6-10. 
ScKTos, ' accepted and acceptable ' : acceptability with God is not 
conditioned by nationality but by the disposition of the heart. 

36. Tov Xo-yov, cf. Ps. cvii. 20. 6v is omitted on good authority. 
Xbyov means the Gospel message sent by God through Jesus Christ to 
the Jews. For X670S of a divine message cf. iv. 31, viii. 14, 25, xiii. 26. 
cipTJvTiv, sc. the peace of God and with God made manifest through 
Jesus Christ: cf. Eph. vi. 15. ovtos, very emphatic, not a meaningless 
parenthesis. Christ is not on a level with the messengers of God — 
prophets and apostles — but the supreme Lord of all. Blass would omit 
Kijpio^ and thus makes the sentence =' the divine message. for all,' 
regarding tov \6-yov as attracted into the case of 6V : cf Lk. xx. 17; 
I Cor. X. 16. 

37. T6...pT]|i,a, distinguished from Xoyov : either (i) the report 
(i.e. of Jesus) which was published, or (2) prjixa = ihe fact, i.e. 'what 
has come to pass': cf. v. 32 n.; Lk. ii. 15. Judaea here, as in i. 8, 
ix. 31, includes the whole of Palestine. dp|d[j.£vos. The ace. would 
be the easier reading in agreement with pT]fji,a ; the nom. is difficult. 
A similar anacoluthon occurs in Lk. xxiv. 47. Page considers that the 
participle is equivalent to an adverb: Blass that it is interpolated from 
Lk. xxiii. 5 and should be taken closely with Kad\..'lov5aias. Others 
regard the passage as confused, and that ap^afxevos really agrees with 
'Irjcovs as if S. Luke had meant to write ' beginning from Galilee how 
Jesus was anointed.' It must be remembered that the short con- 
densation of a long speech may really be responsible for such difficulties 
as this. 

38. 'It]o-ovv, either loosely in apposition with to prj/ma or it 
may be the object of '^xpf-c^^v placed outside the dependent clause in 
which avTbv is inserted pleonastically, and to emphasize that Jesus of 
Nazareth is the anointed Messiah. The anointing of Christ cannot be 

B. A. 10 


limited to the incarnation or to His baptism or even to the entrance 
on His ministry, though the context would naturally point to His 
baptism. KaTa8vva<rT€vo|i€vovs, Jas ii. 6. The reference is primarily 
to demoniacal possession. 

39. Kal -qfieis. The whole of the Christology of the Apostles is 
based upon the double witness (i) to the actual life, teaching and work 
of Jesus of Nazareth, (2) to His resurrection from the dead, ai>d all that 
it implied to the apostles and to the Christian church: cf. i. 8. 
Kp6|JLdo-avT€S, ii. 23, v. 30. 

40. e[x<j>avTJ "yeveo-Sai, ' to be made manifest,' i.e. that He was the 
same Person as the crucified Jesus : Rom. x. 20 ; i Cor. xv. 4. 

41. (rvv€<j>a70}i€v, Lk. xxiv. 41, 43; Jn xxi. 13. 

42. irapt]yy€t\€v. oSros makes it clear that God Himself is the 
subject of this sentence and of the preceding, tw Xa« : it is noticeable 
that S. Peter does not add koX rots ^dveatv : there is nothing in this 
speech to shew that as yet he apprehended the controversy which was 
to come concerning the admission of the Gentiles, outos : the repetition 
TovTov 40, ovTo$ 42, TovTij) 43 givcs cmphasis : cf. vii. 35. 6 t6pior|Aevos 
...KpiTijs, ii. 23, xvii. 31. The assertion of the power and position of 
Jesus as the final Judge of men shews what a change had come over 
S. Peter's mind: Rom. xiv. 9; i Pet. iv. 5 ; Jn v. 27. 

43. iravra tov irwrTcuovTa, Rom. x. r i, iii. 22. No great distinction 
can be drawn between eis avTov and avT(2. Faith and forgiveness alike 
are open to all. 

44. €Tr€''ir€(r€. The order was unusual. The Holy Spirit came 
upon a Gentile even before baptism, and baptism, the human ordinance 
ordained by Christ, followed. 

45. ol €K ircpiTOiiT^s irioTTol. 7rL(rTol = 7n.<XTeiKravTes, i.e. the Jews 
who had accepted faith in Christ: cf. Rom. iv. 12. In Gal. ii. 12 the 
phrase is used of the Judaizers, who held that Gentile Christian 
converts must accept the ordinances of Judaism. ooroi = all who. 

46. XaXovvTwv "yX(0(r<rais : clearly here used of ecstatic utterance, 
not of speaking in foreign tongues: cf. ii. 3 n. dircKpiG-r], cf. iii. 12 n. 

47. M-qri TO vScop. The water, the Spirit and the words of 
expression of faith (cf. ii. 38) are necessary to baptism. The Spirit 
had been given ' surely (/".tjti) no one can withhold the water.' For 
fxrjTi cf. Lk. vi. 39. 

48. irpo(r€Ta|€v : perhaps Philip performed the rite. For S. Paul's 
custom cf. I Cor. i. 17. 

XI 17] NOTES 147 

Ch. XI. S. Peter's Defence at Jerusalem 
OF HIS Conduct. 1-18. 

1. "HKovo-av. The Bezan text is much expanded. 'Peter then 
after a considerable time wished to go to Jerusalem ; and after he had 
summoned the brethren and strengthened them, making a long discourse, 
he passed through the country districts teaching them until he reached 
Jerusalem and announced to them the grace of God.' 

2. 8i€Kp£vovTO, 'contended': cf. v. 12, x. 20 n. The difficulties of 
the infant church increase with its growth — murmuring, covetousness, 
simony, party spirit and contention. The strict Jewish Christians, and 
especially those of the sect of the Pharisees, were shocked and alarmed 
at the admission of a Gentile into the church without full compliance 
with the law^ and the great controversy thus began. 

3. <rvve'4>a"y€v. To the Jew the world was divided into ' circum- 
cised' and 'uncircumcised,' and to eat with the latter meant pollution. 
For S. Peter's subsequent conduct cf. Gal. ii. 11-19. 

4. dp^d|Jievos. The careful and exact repetition of the whole 
narrative shews how important the case of Cornelius was in S. Luke's 
judgment. S. Peter does not deny the charge but simply narrates the 
events to the church and leaves them to see for themselves that it was 
under the sanction of the divine will that Cornelius had been baptized. 
It is clear that at this point S. Peter regarded the admission of Cornelius 
as an isolated case, and although the great principle of the equal 
admission of Gentile with Jewish Christians was really raised, the issues 
were not fully understood and the controversy turned on the minor 
details of the eating of meat. 

6. Karevoouv Kal elSov. Note the change of tenses ; ' I was ob- 
serving and saw.' Karavoa.v implies mental absorption. 

12. 01 S|. The number is only mentioned here. They had come 
to Jerusalem to support S. Peter. 

14. Iv oIs...<rov. A further addition to the narrative in ch. x. 

16. 'I«dvT|S, cf. i. 5 n. The gift of the Holy Spirit promised 
to the disciples had come to them at Pentecost {iv dpxv) '• it had un- 
mistakably come to Cornelius: if then Cornelius had received the real 
spiritual gift before baptism, what should hinder the bestowal of the 
rite of baptism? 

17. irwTTCvo-ao-iv, note the aorist. Tr. 'when we accepted the 
faith in the Lord Jesus Christ.' Both avrois and i]fjuv are in agreement 

10 — 2 


with the participle, iyu t£s, 'Who was I that I should—.' The 
English language will not admit as Greek does of the double question 
in one phrase, (i) I, who was I? {2) was I able to — ? The Bezan text 
adds — 'That he should not give the Holy Spirit to them that have 
believed on him.' 

18. e86|a(rav. The cessation of hostility was followed by accla- 
mation. Some very good MSS. read ebb^a^ov. "Apa, 'then,' Lk, xi. 
20, 48. S. Luke thus sums up the conclusion of the narrative before 
passing to a new subject, apa cannot stand first in a sentence in 
classical Greek, els twTJv either with ^Scokcp, Jn iv. 14 ; cf. Rom. v. 21 ; 
or with iJ.eTdvoi.av, repentance (leading) to life. 

Extension of t^e Gospel to Phoenicia, Cyprus 
AND Antioch. 19-26. 

19. Ot |i€V ovv. A general statement followed by rjcrav de rives, a 
particular incident. S. Luke clearly recalls viii. 4. This is the fourth 
consequence of the persecution of Stephen, cf. ix. r, 32. 8ifjX0ov. The 
progress of the Gospel had been from Jerusalem to Caesarea and the 
cities of the Philistian plain, and then northward along the coast 
probably by sea touching at Ptolemais, Tyre and Sidou on the Phoe- 
nician seaboard, culminating in Cyprus to the west, and Antioch to the 
north. 'AvTiox^€ias. Antioch which lay upon the banks of the Orontes, 
15 miles from the port of Seleucia, was the third city in the world. 
It had been founded by Seleucus Nicator, 300 B.C., and while mainly 
Syrian in population it was Greek in culture : the government was in 
the hands of the Romans. There was also a large and flourishing 
Jewish population. Antioch vied with Corinth in its evil reputation — 
and it is significant that two of the most cosmopolitan and wicked 
cities were seized upon almost at the outset as starting-points in the 
spread of the Gospel. The church at Antioch was destined to become 
the great Greek or Hellenistic church, occupying a place midway 
between the church at Jerusalem and the Gentile churches founded 
by S. Paul. 

20. 'E\X.i]vi<rTds. The text seems to mark a contrast between 
'IoL'5aioi;s and 'EWrjv Lards, whereas the regular contrast is between 
'EjSpatos and EWt/j/ktttJs and 'lovdaios and"E\\77J'. As ^lovdalios obviously 
includes EWrjvLarrjs it is only possible to get over the difficulty by 
translating /cat 'especially.' "EWrjvas however has good authority 
(XAD) and is adopted by R.V. though rejected by W.H. Thus the 

XI 26] NOTES 149 

Gospel was preached at Antioch both to Jews and Greeks, i.e. 

21. xtlp Kvpiov, iv, 28, 30, xiii. ir; Lk. i. 66. 

22. e^aire'cTTeiXav. Barnabas was sent on an official mission, just 
as Peter and John had gone through Samaria, of. viii. 14, ix. 30. The 
apostles had not as yet gone beyond the bounds of Judaea ; but they 
claimed a paternal authority over all Christians. 

^3- "''^v X^^^P'-^-'-^X^P'H- Note the assonance and alliteration. 
irapeKciXei, cf. iv. 36 n. rig irpoOecei tt)s KapSias, ' with purpose of 
heart,' i.e. of mind, xxvii. 13. 

24. avTJp. . .Tri<rT€«s. The goodness and spiritual power of Barnabas 
bear fruit in the increase of the church. 

25. €^T]\9ev. Barnabas evidently thought that S. Paul was most 
qualified to deal with the situation at Antioch, since he had presented 
him to the apostles at Jerusalem, ix. 27. The long interval was now 
over and S. Luke approaching the close of the history of the acts of 
Peter prepares the way for the beginning of the acts of Paul. 

26. Kttl tviavTov, Kal emphasizes eviavTov, ' actually,' this usage 
however is not found in N.T. ; some MSS. omit it. <rvvax.0Tivai. 
ayTous = Barnabas and Paul, with which avvaxd^vaL is somewhat awk- 
wardly constructed. Tr. 'They were united together (i.e. with other 
believers) in the assemblies of the church,' cf. xiii. 44. XP'HH-O'''"^*^"'''- 
XP'nfJ-o.Ti^eLv mean's 'to do business' and so 'to take a name from one's 
business' and so simply 'to be called,' Rom. vii. 3. For its meaning 
of giving a divine response, cf. Lk. ii. 26. Xpio-riavovs. If S. Luke 
was a native of Antioch, the detail is of greater interest as claiming 
for Antioch the origin, albeit originally in derision, of the name 
'Christian.' The Christians called themselves /ia^Tjrat, dyioL, d8e\(pol 
TTiaToi. The Jews called them Xa^wpaTot or rj aipecns avTrj. 'KpiarLavos 
is used contemptuously in i Pet. iv. 16 ; Actsxxvi. 28. The termination 
-lavos, though characteristically Latin, cf. Caesariani, Mariani, etc., is 
also Greek, and the title was probably invented as a nickname by the 
natives of Antioch and not by the Roman authorities. The name 
soon became common, cf. i/uos Christianos vulgus appellahat, Tac. 
Ajin. XV. 44. By the time of Ignatius the name was accepted by the 
Christians themselves as a title of honour. It is likely that the original 
form was XpT](TTiav6s and the Antiochenes confused x/'W'"^s, good, 
worthy, with Xptaros. Suetonius speaks of the followers of Chrestus: 
in any case the name was originally contemptuous. 


Prophecy of Agabus: Visit of Barnabas and 
Paul to Jerusalem. 27-30. 

27. '7rpo<|>T]Tai. Cf. xiii. i. Barnabas and Saul and Silas are all 
spoken of by this title. In i Cor. xii. 28 and elsewhere the prophets 
stand next to the apostles. The gift of prediction cannot be excluded 
but the prophet was primarily an inspired interpreter of the mind and 
will of God. 

28. "A-yaPos, cf. xxi. 10, 11. The Bezan text has a remarkable 
addition here which indicates the presence of S. Luke at Antioch. ' And 
there was great rejoicing [a-YoWlaaLs), and when we were gathered 
together {avveaTpafXfx^Pujv de i]/ui.CJv) one of them named Agabus spake. ' 
\i|iov, masc. in Lk. iv. 25, but in Doric usage and later Greek fem. 
as here and in Lk. xv. 14. There is ample evidence from Roman 
historians, Tacitus {Ann. xii. 43), Suetonius [Claudius XVIII.) and 
Dion Cassius that a widespread famine took place during the reign of 
Claudius. Although there is no evidence that it covered the whole 
extent of the Roman Empire which was coextensive with ' the civilized 
world' [y] olKovfihri, cf. xxiv. 5; Lk. iv. 5), Josephus mentions a 
famine in Judaea, A.D. 44. Iiri KXav8£ov, Roman emperor, 41-54 A.D. 

29. KttGtos cuTTopeiTo Tis, ' as each man was prospering,' cf. 1 Cor. 
xvi. 2. This is the first mention of the collections for the Church at 
Jerusalem which appear so prominently in the letters of S. Paul, cf. 
Acts xxiv. 17, and esp. 2 Cor. viii., ix. wpicav as if ol fxad-rjTai had 
preceded. 8iaKoviav, cf vi. 1 n. 

30. Tovs irpco-pvTe'povs. The expression occurs here for the first 
time, cf. xv. 2, 4, 6, xvi. 4. We should have expected that the 
apostles would have received the contributions (viii. 14), but it is 
possible that in consequence of the Herodian persecution they were 
not in the city. The elders were obviously appointed in the early 
Christian community on account of their analogous position in the 
Jewish synagogue: they were not merely officials with administrative 
power but soon acquired a position as officers of the church with 
spiritual duties; Jas v. 14; i Thess. v. 12-14; Acts xx. 17. It is 
doubtful whether any distinction in N.T. can be drawn between 
Trpec/Sivrepos and eiriaKoiro^. DavXov. It is now widely held that this 
visit is to be identified with the visit recorded in Gal. ii. i-io on 
the ground that it must have preceded the council (Acts xv. ), of 
which there is no mention in the Epistle, as then the question of the 

XII 3] NOTES 151 

circumcision was settled. S. Paul gives the following details of the visit, 
(i) It was 14 years after his first visit, or after his conversion. (2) Titus 
(who was a Greek) as well as Barnabas accompanied him. (3) He laid 
before the leaders of the church — James and Peter and John — the 
Gospel he preached to the Gentiles and they recognized the equality 
of the Gentile church, which Paul strongly defended against bitter foes. 
(4) They only requested one thing, ' that they should remember the 
poor.' Others adhere to the old view that the third visit, Acts xv. 4, 
synchronizes wnth the visit of Gal. ii. i-io. 

Ch. XII. Persecution of the Apostles by 
Herod. His Death. 1-24. 

1. 'Hpw8T]s. Herod Agrippa I was the grandson of Herod the 
Great. He had been brought up at Rome in close friendship with 
the young Caligula and at his accession was appointed king over the 
territories of Philip and Galilee and Peraea. At the death of Caligula 
Agrippa helped to secure the succession of Claudius, and Judaea and 
Samaria were added to his dominions, A. D. 41. He shewed a keen 
desire to foster Jewish laws and customs and keep in favour with the 
Jews, Josephus Ant. Xix. 7. 3. He bore the titles, ix^ya^ (pLXoKaiaap, ev- 
ae^rjs Kai (piXopw/jLaios. KaKwcrai Tivas. No general persecution ensued. 
Herod almost certainly from political motives {v. 3) suddenly attacked 
the leaders of the church, hitherto befriended by the people (viii. i), 
and any further persecution was cut short by his death. 

2. 'laKw^ov Tov aScXcJxJv 'Iwdvov. The only mention of James 
the son of Zebedee outside the Gospels, where he is thrice spoken of 
(Mk v. 37; Mt. xvii. i, xxvi. 37) as a member of the iniTiost circle 
of our Lord's disciples. He was the first of the apostles to suffer 
martyrdom (Mt. xx. 23). The brevity of S. Luke's account is due to 
the fact that the death of James, unlike the death of Stephen, had 
no special effect upon the cause of the Gospel. 

3. irpocre'SeTO <ruXXaP€iv. A Hebraism, Lk. xx. 12. i]<rav 8^ 
-i]|iepai TcSv d^v'iiwv. This parenthetical note accounts for (i) The 
apprehension of Peter with a view to his being put to death after the 
festival was over. (2) The desire of Herod to win favour with the Jews 
at a time when the city was thronged. The feast of unleavened bread 
lasted from the 14th to 21st of Nisan. The Passover lamb was eaten 
on the first day, Ex. xii. 14; Lk. xxii. i. 


4. TTidcras. CI. Gk Trtefw, cf. Lk. vi. 38. T€0"o-ap<riv TcrpaSiois. 
The night was divided into four watches, each quaternion was in 
charge of the prisoner during one watch. Two soldiers were in the 
cell with the prisoner and two kept watch outside. dvaYa-yeiv, i.e. 
before the tribunal. tJ» Xaw, i.e. in their presence and for their 

5. 6 (JL€V ovv IleTpos. The real antithesis is not to be found in 
TTpoaevxv 5e but in z'. 6, ore 8e. Tr. 'So then. ..and prayer. But when.' 

6. ttJ...Ik€ivt), i.e. the night before the day fixed for the trial after 
the feast of unleavened bread was over. dXvo-eo-iv 8v<riv. The Roman 
custom was followed of chaining him to two soldiers, cf. xxi. 33. 
<j)vi\aK€S T€, The other two soldiers of the quaternion. 

7. eirco-TT], a favourite word of S. Luke, implies a sudden appear- 
ance, Lk. ii. 9. o'lKTJjJtaTi. Used in cl. Gk of any kind of room. Here 
of the cell in the prison. Dem. and Thuc. use it in a similar .sense. 
iraTcllas. As in cl. Gk the aorist of tiittto} is thus supplied, rj-yeipev, 
'aroused him.' 

8. Zoio-ai, 'Put on thy girdle.' He had laid aside his upper 
garments and his sandals and had loosened his under-garments before 
he went to sleep. 

9. 8id Tov dyyiKov, The angel was God's instrument (5td), 
Heb. ii. 2. 

10. '7rpwTTjv...8€VT€pav, 'first and second ward.' Either parts of 
the castle of Antonia or the regular sentries on guard. e^eXOovTcs- 
The Bezan text graphically adds, 'They went down the seven steps.' 
The steps from the castle of Antonia, xxi. 35, 40, led not into the city 
but into the temple courts. 

11. ev €avT« ytv6\i.ivo'S, 'when he came to himself.' Opposed to 
iv iKCTTdaei (cf. x. 10), i.e. he was fully awake and realized {avvLddou, v. 12) 
what had actually happened, cf. Lk. xv. 17. 

12. Mapias. As there is no mention of Mark's father, Mary may 
have been a widow of means. Her house was possibly one of the first 
'house-churches,' Col. iv. 15. 'I(ocivov...MdpKOv. He is more usually 
known by his Roman praenomen, but the full title is given three times 
in the Acts, xii. 12, 25, xv. 37. He was the cousin of Barnabas and 
closely associated with S. Peter (i Pet. v. 13) under whose oversight he 
wrote his Gospel. Tradition has associated him with the young man 
who fled in the garden of Gethsemane, Mk xiv. 51. Pie accompanied 
Barnabas and Saul to Antioch, and on the first missionary journey, but 
deserted them in Pamphylia. He was afterwards reconciled and was 

XII 2o] NOTES 153 

with S. Paul in Rome during his imprisonment; Col. iv. 10; Philem. 
24; 2 Tim. iv. II. He is believed to have spent the last years of 
his life at Alexandria whence, according to tradition, his bones were 
finally brought to Venice. S. Luke probably learnt the details of 
S. Peter's escape from Mark himself. 

13. Kpovo-avTos, i.e. the gate of the passage leading from the street 
to the inner court; cf. x. 17; Mt. xxvi. 71. ti^v 6vpav tov irvXwvos. 
As doors opened outwards it was necessary to knock on the street door 
both on entering (/c/ooueif) and on leaving (KpoTuv), cf. Luke xiii. 25. 
Kpoveip and vwaKoveiv are both classical. TraiSi'cTKT], cf. Jn xviii. 17. 

15. MaivT). Used here only in an ordinary colloquial sense, cf. 
xxvi. 24. 8u0-)(vpt|€TO, ' she kept strongly affirming,' a strong word, cf. 
Lk. xxii. 59. 'O d-y^cXos to-riv avrov. They thought that S. Peter's 
guardian angel had assumed his form and voice. The belief in a 
guardian angel assigned to each person from birth was held by the 
Pharisees; cf. Mt. xviii. 10; Tobit iv. 21. The Roman conception of 
the 'genius ' of a man and the Greek idea of the daifMOjv yevedXios point 
to a similar belief. 

17. Karao-efo-as, cf. xiii. 16, xix. 33, xxi. 40, i.e. beckoning by a 
downward movement of the hand to keep silence. 'laKcSpw : clearly 
the 'Lord's brother,' as may be inferred from Acts xv. 13, where he 
presides at the council as the official head of the church at Jerusalem ; 
cf. also xxi. 18; Gal. i. 19, ii. 9 ; i Cor. xv. 7. He is to be dis- 
tinguished from the apostle the son of Alphaeus. €ls 'inpov tottov. 
Whether he left Jerusalem cannot be known. He may have visited 
Antioch, Gal. ii. 11, in the interval before his return to the council. 
Acts XV. 

18. Tcipaxos ovK 0X170S. Litotes, cf. xix. 11, 23. The 'con- 
sternation ' of the guards was natural as they were held responsible wdth 
their own lives for the lives of their prisoners, cf. xxvii. 42. ti apa. 
apa intensifies tI : ' what could have happened to Peter?' 

19. avaKpfvas. Of a judicial enquiry ; iv. 9, xxiv. 8; Lk. xxiii. 14. 
dirax^^vai, 'to be carried off to execution,' cf. Mt. xxvii. 31; Lk. 
xxiii. 26. KaTtXGwv. Herod usually resided at Jerusalem, but Caesarea 
was the centre of Roman influence. Josephus records that the festival 
at which Agrippa was stricken with a mortal disease was held in 
honour of the safe return of the emperor Claudius, probably from his 
abortive expedition to Britain: but it is equally probable that Agrippa 
went down to settle the dispute with the Tyrians. 

20. 0v|jiop,ax.<5v : a late Greek word used by Polybius in the sense 


of 'fighting desperately,' 'quarrelling fiercely.' The latter sense is 
applicable here as Agrippa would not have had any power to go to 
war with the Tyrians and Sidonians. The dispute was connected with 
commercial interests. Tvpiois Kai HiSwviois. Tyre and Sidon were 
the most important cities on the Phoenician coast and famous trading 
centres. As in the days of Solomon they depended for their food- 
supply partly on the corn of Palestine, i Kings v. 9-1 1. After the rise 
of the Macedonian empire and the foundation of Antioch and Seleucia 
Tyre had declined in importance, and to-day neither has any con- 
siderable trade or population. Agrippa had evidently cut off the corn- 
supply and this brought the Tyrians and Sidonians to sue for pardon. 
ir€i(ravT€S, probably with bribes, tov ktrX tov koitwvos, ' the chamber- 
lain, ' who was responsible for the king's bedchamber, and therefore for 
his safety. 

■21. TaKTTJ Z\ r\^ipf^. Josephus, who makes no mention of the 
Tyrian embassy, says that Herod was struck down on the second day 
of the festival which was held in the theatre. Herod in a shiningrobe 
of silver was a conspicuous figure upon the royal throne {^ij/na) and was 
hailed by the multitude as a god. Suddenly catching sight of an owl 
sitting on one of the ropes of the awning of the theatre, he was terrified 
at the omen, and seized with sudden severe pains which in five days 
caused his death, A/iL xix. 8. 2. irpos avrovs, i.e. the ambassadors. 

23. l'iraTa|€v...a'y"y€Xos Kvpfov. Note the contrast with v. 7. 
In the O. T. the sudden death of the impious is attributed to divine 
judgment and this phrase is used, 2 Kings xix. 35, of the destruction 
of the host of Sennacherib. ^8(ok£V ti]V 86^av. Josephus says that the 
king accepted the flattery of the multitude. (rK&)XT]K6ppwT0S. The 
tyrant Antiochus Epiphanes, 2 Mace ix. 5, 9, and Herod the Great, 
Joseph. AnL xvii. 6. 5, died of this same loathsome disease, which 
was regarded as a punishment for pride and arrogance and cruelty. 
l|€4'v|€V, not necessarily immediately. S. Luke's narrative is not so 
detailed as that of Josephus, though the latter omits any allusion to 
divine judgments. 

24. 'O Sc Xo-yos. The spread of the Gospel is in strong contrast 
with the death of the persecutor; for the rubric of progress cf. vi. 7 
ix. 31. 

NOTES 155 

PART IV. xii. 25— xvi. 5. 
The Growth of Gentile Christianity. 

{a) Extension of the Gospel to Cyprus, Pamphylia and South 

Galatia. xiii.-xiv. 
{b) The conflict between Gentile and Jewish Christianity ; the 

council at Jerusalem and return to Antioch. xv. 1-35. 
{c) Confirmation of the churches in Syria and Cilicia and South 

Galatia. xv. 36 — xvi. 5. 

(a) Itinerary of first missionary journey : (i) Barnabas and Saul with 
Mark leave Antioch in Syria, xiii. 1-3. (2) Cyprus; visit to Salamis 
and across the island to Paphos — preaching of the Gospel to the pro- 
consul by Paul; Elymas the sorcerer, xiii. 4-12. (3) Pamphylia; they 
pass through Perga ; Mark returns, xiii. 13-14 a. (4) Phrygia-Galatica ; 
Pisidian Antioch ; conflict with the Jews ; Paul's sermon, he turns to the 
Gentiles; Iconium; more persecution from the Jews. xiii. i^b — xiv. 7. 
(5) Lycaonia-Galatica; Lystra; healing of the lame man ; Paul and Bar- 
nabas worshipped as Zeus and Hermes ; hostility of the Jews ; stoning of 
Paul ; Derbe. xiv. 8-20. (6) Return journey : by the same route to 
Attalia and thence by sea to Antioch ; confirmation of the churches ; 
appointment of elders ; Paul and Barnabas report the progress of their 
work at Antioch. xiv. 21-28. 

(b) The dispute between the members of the Jerusalem church 
and the champions of Gentile Christianity leads to the council at 
Jerusalem ; the decree sent in writing to the churches at Antioch and in 
Syria and Cilicia. xv. 1-35. 

(c) The second missionary journey : Paul and Silas start from 
Antioch and visit the churches of Syria and Cilicia and South Galatia 
and deliver the decree ; Barnabas and Mark go to Cyprus, xv. 36 — 
xvi. 5. 

The following points should be observed : 

(a) Dates : The journey occupied about two years but the date 
cannot be fixed with certainty : A.D. 45-47 (Ramsay), 47-49 (Turner) ; 
the council probably took place in 49 (48) followed very shortly by the 
second journey. 

{b) Methods and plan : S. Paul has a definite plan and utilizes the 
Roman organization of the world for the spread of the Gospel, 
(i) Three provinces are visited, Cyprus, Pamphylia and Galatia (South). 


A short time was spent in Cyprus, which had ah-eady been visited 
(xi. 19), and the main work was done in S. Galatia. (2) S. Paul 
follows the great high roads and establishes churches at important 
centres. (3) He always works first in the Jewish synagogues and 
extends his work to the Gentiles. (4) He consolidates his work by 
revisiting bis converts, and in this case before the further extension of 
the Gospel he twice revisits the S. Galatian churches : for although the 
second occasion belongs to the second missionary journey, from the point 
of view of the extension of the Gospel it clearly should be associated 
with this section, as S. Luke shews by the ' rubric of progress' (xvi. 5). 
{c) Results : The establishment of independent churches amongst 
the Gentiles in closer touch with the church at Antioch than with the 
church at Jerusalem was assured as well as S. Paul's position as the 
apostle of the Gentiles. But the supervision of the mother church is 
not repudiated and the position of the Gentile churches is established 
at the council. The conflict between S- Paul and the Jews and Jewish 
Christians was sharp and acute, and if the epistle to the Galatians can 
be assigned to this period it she\\'S conclusively how great were his 
difficulties and how strongly he strove for the supremacy of the salvation 
through grace by faith over obedience to the law. 

The Church at Antioch. The First Missionary 
Journey, xii. 25 — xiii. 1-3. 

25. vir€<rTp€\|/av els 'l€povo-aXT)(i. Though the best MSS. have 
ets R.V. reads e^, which gives the natural meaning required. Rack- 
ham takes vTr^aTpe\pav eis'I. as referring back to xi. 30 and the aorist 
participles following the verb as referring to subsequent events. Tr. 
'Barnabas and Saul returned to Jerusalem and fulfilled their ministry 
and took with them John,' cf. xvi. 6, xxii. 24. It might be possible if 
ei.s = iv to take et's'I. with TrXrjpcoaavTes, i.e. they returned after fulfilling 
their mission in Jerusalem, taking with them John. This would avoid 
the difficulty of a pointless repetition, cf. xi. 30, and get over the 
difficulty of the absence of any connecting particle between the parti- 
ciples. In any case S. Luke leaves it to be inferred that they returned 
to Antioch. Ramsay considers that Paul and Barnabas did not simply 
deliver the money but took part in its distribution and did not leave Jeru- 
.salem till a.d. 47. S. Paul uses diaKouia of the collection, Rom. xv. 31, 
and elsewhere \6'yLa,x<^p'-^, Koiuiouia. tov eiriKXriOcvTa. Mark was well 
acquainted with Greek, and would be useful as a scribe, cf 2 Tim. iv. 1 1 . 

XIII 3] NOTES 157 

XIII. I. Karci ti)v ov<rav iKKXr^o-iav, in the church that was there; 
cf. xi. 22. The church had developed and become the centre from which 
Christianity spread amongst the Gentiles. •7rpo4)TJTai Kal SiSacrKaXoi, 

xi. 27 n. ; cf. i Cor. xii. 28 ; Eph. ii. 20. Not all teachers were prophets, 
but all prophets who edified the church were teachers. Some consider 
that Barnabas, Symeon and Lucius were ' prophets,' and Manaen and 
Saul teachers. Barnabas, the delegate of the church at Jerusalem, stands 
first, Saul, probably because he was the youngest, last. Nothing is 
known of Symeon and Lucius beyond the mention of their names here. 
<rvvTpo4)os— ' brought up with,' 'foster-brother.' Manaen was probably 
the confidential friend of Herod Antipas, and it is quite possible that' 
S. Luke's knowledge of the Herodian family has been derived from 
him, Lk. viii. 3. 

2. AtiTOvp-yovvTwv. XeiTovpyeiu in LXX. is used (i) of the services 
of priests and Levites, cf. Heb. viii. 2 ; (2) of the general service to God 
or man. In N.T. the word is used in its widest sense to denote any 
service, esp. of the relief of the poor, Rom. xv. 27 ; Phil. ii. 25. Here 
it certainly includes the ministration of public worship, e.g. preach- 
ing and teaching and prayer. vTi<rT€v6vT«v, prayer and fasting were 
closely associated together. In the Didache viii. fasting is enjoined on 
the baptiser and the candidate before baptism, and it was natural that 
prayer and fasting should precede as here the setting apart for a special 
mission ; cf. x. 30, xiv. 23. etircv to irv€V(ia, the Holy Spirit spoke 
through the mouth of one of the 'prophets.' 'A<j)opi(raT€ Sr\ p.01, Rom. 
i. I ; Gal. i. 15. 5?? emphasizes the imperative, /xoi is an ethic dative. 
o for els 0, cf. v. 39 ; i. 21. 

3. eTri0€VT6S...d7r6Xv(rav. The formal laying on of hands was by 
the prophets, teachers and the leaders of the church. In the English 
church in the rules for the ordination of priests, all in priest's orders 
who are present lay their hands on ihe bishop's hands in the case of 
each deacon admitted to the priesthood. There is no reason to suppose 
that the laying on of hands at Antioch conflicted with the special claims 
of S. Paul to his apostleship ; cf. ix. 15; Gal. i. i: though it is 
noticeable that S. Luke only calls Barnabas and Paul 'apostles' after 
this appointment and during the first mission (xiv. 4). The church gave 
its solemn recognition to the special call of the apostles. 


Cyprus. 4-12. 

4. ^\v ovv, answered by bieXdopres 5e in v. 6. KarfiXBov, went 
down, i.e. from Antioch to the port on the coast. ScXcvKiav: built by 
the first Seleucus, situated i6 miles from Antioch at the mouth of the 
Orontes. Kvirpov. Cypriotes had ministered to the early converts 
at Antioch, xi. 19, 20, and it was natural that Cyprus, especially 
as Barnabas was a Cypriote, should be the first objective of the 

5. €v SaXajxivt. Salamis was a port on the east coast of Cyprus 
(Famagousta) and contained a large Jewish colony. It was named 
after the more famous isle of Salamis, whence Teucer the son of 
Telamon was exiled to Cyprus, tv rais o-vva-yto-yais. It was S. Paul's 
habitual custom to preach first in the synagogues to the Jewish colony, 
ix. 20, xiv. I, xvii. 2, xviii. 4, 19, xix. 8; Rom. i. 16. vTrr]pirr\v, cf. 
Lk. iv. 20; used of the chazzan,, or minister of the synagogue. Mark 
would be serviceable in various ways and would set the two apostles 
free to preach, e.g. he may have performed the services of teaching the 
children and of baptizing. 

6. Ai€\6ovT£S Sc oXt]v Tt]V VT]<rov, i.e. making a missionary tour 
through the whole island. SteX^eZf is used in nine cases in this sense in 
the Acts. IId<j>o'u, i.e. New Paphos, the chief town of the island and the 
residence of the Roman governor. Old Paphos, IlaXaiTra^oj, contained 
a famous temple of Aphrodite. jAa-yov. Both S. Paul and S. Peter 
encountered 'magicians or wizards,' cf. viii. 9, xix. 13. The magicians 
were reverenced by Easterns, cf. Mt. ii. i, but the word was used 
amongst the Westerns only in a bad sense. Barjesus was a wizard, a 
false prophet and a Jew, known to the Greeks as Elymas, cf. viii. 9. 

7. OS rfv, i.e. in the train of Sergius Paulus the proconsul, one 
of his comites. The epithet (rvverb^ seems to shew that Sergius Paulus 
was not under his influence, but he utilized the presence of Barjesus 
probably to gain some further acquaintance with Jewish and Oriental 
religion. dvOuiraTw, ' proconsul,' i.e. the governor of a senatorial pi-o- 
vince. A Greek inscription discovered at Soloi is dated etrX IlatyXou... 
{6.v&)vKa.Tov^ confirming S. Luke's accuracy. Cyprus had formerly been 
an imperial province, but was restored to the senate by Augustus. 
•irpo(rKaX€(rd|X€vos. He regarded them as travelling teachers. This 
is the first occasion on which the Gospel was presented before a Roman 

8. *EXv(jias. The Bezan text has 'Eroijuas^ ready. 'EXi^as is 

XIII 12] NOTES 159 

probably a Greek corruption of either the Aramaic a/z>;/a = strong, or 
Arabic salim — wise, probably the latter, as the magians were ' wise 
men.' 8iao-Tp€x(/ai, 'to turn aside'; cf. Lk. ix. 41 ; Phil. ii. 15. The 
Bezan text adds, ' since he heard them gladly.' 

9. 6 Kal IlavXos. Henceforward the Jewish convert Saul dis- 
appears and Paul the Gentile apostle takes his place. The mention of 
the name Paul in the same passage as the Roman, Sergius Paulus, who 
probably belonged to the famous Aemilian house, is only a coincidence, 
and there is no ground for supposing that Paul took his Roman name 
now for the first time. Many Jews had a Jewish and a Gentile name, 
Acts i. 23, xii. 25, xiii. i, and S. Luke thus briefly indicates the outlook 
of the apostle destined to be the founder of churches which admitted 
converts independently of the Jewish faith. In his own epistles S. Paul 
always uses his Gentile name. 

10. pa8iovp"Yias. Hellenistic: 'villainy,' 'wickedness.' The 
pq.8Lovpy6s is the easy-going careless man who easily falls into wicked- 
ness and deceit, cf. xviii. 14. Note the contrast with TrXrjadeis wvevimaTos 
ayiov. vlk 8tap6Xou. He who called himself son of Jesus is denounced 
by S. Paul as the son of the slanderer, Mt. xiii. 38. iravTos, Trdo-t]S, 
irdcnis, repeated for emphasis. The frequent use of was is a character- 
istic of S. Luke's style, rds 68oiJS...Tds euOeias, 'the straight ways of 
the Lord ' (a frequent expression in O.T.), are contrasted with the 
crooked paths of men, Ez. xxxiii. 17. The mission of the Baptist was 
to make the crooked ways straight, Lk. i. 76, iii. 5, and cf. Isaiah xl. 

4, xiii. 16. In seeking to turn aside the proconsul from the straight- 
forward sincerity of the Gospel message Elymas was making the straight 
ways crooked. 

11. \i\p Kvpiov, cf. xi. 21. The hand of the Lord was strong 
to smite as well as to save. Elymas sinned against the light and 

5. Paul invokes divine chastisement upon him. axpt Kaipov, until a 
season, i.e. the time when God would restore his sight, cf. Lk. iv. 13. 
dx^vs Kal (TKOTOS. The two words — cloud and darkness — afford a 
technical medical description of total blindness. Ancient Greek medical 
writers use both words of diseases of the eye. 

12. kirla-Tiva-tv. Either (i) accepted the faith, or (2) was con- 
vinced, i.e. by the miracle and teaching of S. Paul. If Sergius Paulus 
had been baptized S. Luke would probably have stated the fact, cf. viii. 
38, X. 48, etc. The conversion of a Roman proconsul of one of the 
most famous aristocratic families in the annals of Rome, as the first- 
fruits of the mission of the Gentiles, would have been a striking fact in 


the spread of the Gospel. However the statement of S. Luke hardly 
warrants the assumption that the proconsul became a full convert. 
He was amazed at the teaching about the Lord (cf. Lk. iv. 32) and 
turned away from the false teaching of Elymas. 

Perga and Antioch of Pisidia : Speech of S. Paul. 


13. *Avax.0€VT€S. ayw and its compounds are characteristic of 
S. Luke : avdyoixai is here used in its technical classical sense of ' setting 
sail.' The ancients for purposes of expression conceived of the shore as 
the lowest point, and so they ' went up' into the country [avoL^alvoj) and 
set out [avd'yoixai) to sea. Kardyeadai and KareXdeTv are similarly used. 
01 ircpl IlavXov, tr. Paul and his companions. Henceforth S. Paul 
takes the lead and is mentioned first, except in xiv. 14, xv. 12, 25. 
Il€p7T]v, 25 miles from the mouth of the river Cestrus. The province 
is named in the genitive (partitive) in accordance with classical usage*. 
'I(oavT]s, cf. XV. 38. Various reasons have been given for the return of 
Mark. (i) He resented the supersession of his cousin Barnabas. 
(2) He shunned the perilous journey into the interior. (3) A desire to 
return to take care of his mother. (4) Mark was not in sympathy with 
the wider mission to the Gentiles. 

14. SieXBovTts. The route lay across the Pisidian highlands, and 
Ramsay strongly argues that in passing through the region S. Paul was 
'in perils of rivers and in perils of robbers, ' 2 Cor. xi. 26. Antioch is 
100 miles from Perga. * AvTi6\iiav . ' Pisidian Antioch,' so called to 
distinguish it from Syrian Antioch, though it was actually in Phrygia 
and on the border of Pisidia. It had been founded by Seleucus Nicator, 
and in B.C. 6 it was made a colonia by Augustus. Ramsay supposes 
that Paul was attacked by a malarial fever at Perga and hastened 
to the higher altitudes, and he finds support for this in Gal. iv. 13. 
It is now very widely held that the epistle to the Galatians was 
addressed to the converts of the cities in the south of the Roman 
province of Galatia which were visited by S. Paul in his first and second 

15. Tijv dva"Yva)o-iv...irpo(j)TjTa>v. Two lessons were read in the 
synagogues (i) from the Pentateuch, (2) from the prophets, which in- 
cluded the older historical books. 01 dpxuruvdYwyoi. Lk. xiii. 14. 
These officials were responsible for the procedure of the services and for 
the discipline of the synagogue. Any layman might be called upon to 

XIII 19] NOTES i6i 

read and expound the Scriptures in the synagogue : and the invitation 
was naturally extended to Paul and Barnabas. Cf. Lk. iv. i6. "AvSpes 
d8£\<}>oC. dvSpes is a polite prefix of courteous address in Greek. 
S. Paul's first recorded speech at Pisidian Antioch follows the line of the 
early addresses of S. Peter and the historical retrospect of S. Stephen. 
S. Luke may have owed the account of the speech either to S. Paul 
himself or one of his followers, and it is introduced here as a charac- 
teristic utterance of S. Paul. The message of the apostles was the 
simple presentation of the truth that Jesus was the Messiah of Jewish 
expectation and that He had been crucified and had risen from the dead. 
It was essential though to shew how the history and prophecy of the 
Old Testament pointed to Jesus and that the long preparatory stage 
culminated in His coming. 

i6. 01 <|>op., i.e. the Gentile portion of the audience, x. 2, xiii. 43, 
50, xvi. 14, etc. 

17. 'O 0€6s...'Io-pa"i]X. Jehovah was the universal God, but in a 
special sense the God of Israel. S. Paul, when he became a Christian, 
still clung to the theocratic privileges of his race. 2 Cor. xi. 22 ; Rom. 
ix. 6. vi|/o)(rev, 'exalted.' It is difficult to limit the application. It is 
taken to refer to (i) increase of numbers, cf. vii. 17, {2) the exaltation 
of the people under Joseph, (3) the miraculous events connected with 
the deliverance from Egypt. Cf Lk. i. 52; 2 Cor. xi. 7: in both 
passages v^f/Q is contrasted with raireLvGi. irapoiKtci, vii. 6 n. jierd 
Ppax^iovos. A Hebraistic expression common in O.T. Ps. cxxxvi. 12 
and cf. Lk. i. 51. 

18. eTpoiroc^opT^crev, 'suffered he their manners,' i.e. endured their 
conduct; v.l. erpocpocpoprja-ev, i.e. 'carried them as a nursing father.' 
Both readings give excellent sense and are true to the facts, irpowo- 
(pbpyjaev is probably the original expression both here and in LXX., 
Deut. i. 31. The perversity of Israel and the patient love of God are 
both evident in the narrative of the wanderings. 

19. KaOcXwv, either 'destroyed' or 'cast down' from their supre- 
macy. Cf Lk. i. 52 ; Deut. vii. r. <6s '^recrt, either ' within the space 
of about 450 years ' — dative of time within which, or ' for the space... ' 
— dat. for accus. of duration of time, cf viii. 11. The years were 
popularly supposed to have been made up of (i) 400 years in Egypt, 
(2) 40 years wandering, (3) 10 years conquest, cf. vii. 6. If /cat fxera 
Tavra precedes, as in T.R., then the 450 years will cover the period of 
the judges, which is computed by adding together the amount of years 
of the several judgeships ; this is at variance with the statement that 

B. A. 11 


Solomon iDCgan his temple 480 years after the exodus, i Kings vi. i. 
The whole subject of the O.T. chronology is involved in difficulties, 

21. KaKciOev, only here of time in N.T. 'irt] TcororcpciKOVTa, of. 
Jos. Ant. VI. 14. 9. The number is not given in O.T. 

12. (j.eTa(rTii<ras, i.e. from the position of king, i Sam. xv. 23. Cf. 
Lk. xvi. 4. Evpov Aa\)6l8, a combination of Ps. Ixxxix. 20 and 
I Sam. xiii. 14. For tov tou 'J.itra-a.i LXX. has tov 8ou\6u fiov ; for 6s 
TroiT](r6i cf. Is. xliv. 28 ; Ps. xl. 8. The quotation refers to David's 
work and appointment as king, and is not a general statement about 
David's character. 

23. Kar' €Tra"YY€Xiav, used of the promises of God with especial 
reference to the promise of the Messiah, Ps. cxxxii. 11 ; cf. esp. Gal. iii. 
29 ; 2 Tim. i. i. ■^Ya^cv, so best MSS. Cf. Zech, iii. 8 of the sending of 
the Messiah. 

24. ifpo irpocrcoTTO-u ttis €l(r68o\i, both Hebraistic and pleonastic, cf. 
Mai. iii. i ; Lk. ii. 31. The etaodos was the entrance of our Lord upon 
His public ministry. 

25. TOV 8p6[iov, 'when he was completing his course.' The word 
stamps the whole narrative as Pauline. For S. Paul's favourite meta- 
phor from the Greek games cf. xx. 24 ; 2 Tim. iv. 7 ; Gal. ii. 2. ovk 
A[u. iyu), ' I am not he,' i.e. the Messiah. S. Paul here gives in outline 
the primitive Gospel of the church, cf. Mt. iii. 11 ; Jn i, 20-27. 

26. d8eX<}>o£. Jews and God-fearing Gentiles are classed together 
as brethren. Note the emphasis upon the repeated address. r[\i.iv has 
better MS. authority than v/uuv: there is no need to draw any distinction 
between the Jews of Antioch and of Jerusalem. S. Paul and his hearers 
alike participated in the good news of the Gospel. His only object 
is to prove that Jesus is the Messiah. 

27. ot -Yap. yap does not introduce any contrast or state any 
reasons, but simply introduces the narrative of the fact of the death of 
Jesus and His resurrection. aYVOijoravres. R.V. and A.V. take 
dyvorjaavTes both with tovtov and Kai rds (poovds. They failed to 
recognize Him and the utterances of the prophets ; but it is possible 
that S. Paul meant : They failed to recognize Him and actually {Kai) 
fulfilled the words of the prophets — by condemning Flim. dyvoQ need 
not imply wilful ignorance, c(. iii. 17, xvii. 23 ; i Tim. i. 13. 

28. i]TT|<ravTO. The middle read by some MSS. gives a better 
sense, 'they asked for themselves.' 

29. €T€X€(rav...Ka6€X6vT€S. This is the fullest account given by 
S, Paul of the passion, and he alone outside the Gospels lays emphasis 

XIII 36] NOTES 163 

upon the burial, which is essential to the proof of the resurrection, 
I Cor. XV. 3-4, The Bezan text gives even fuller details but preserves 
the ambiguity of the subjects to eTi\€<xav...Kade\bvTes. The Jews of 
Antioch would not be familiar with the request of Joseph of Arimathea. 
S. Luke clearly had good authority for the speech, which is essentially 
Pauline, but he obviously compressed it within narrow limits. Cf. Lk. 
xxiii. 51 ; Jn xix. 38. tot) |vXov, of the cross. Cf. v. 30, x. 39 and 
Gal. iii. 13. 

31. €'irl...irX€iovs. eiri with ace. to denote duration of time is a 
favourite construction of S. Luke, xvi. 18, xviii. 20, etc. (idprvpcs, cf. 
i. 8, ii. 32, iii. 15, v. 32, x. 39, 41. 

32. Kal Tiiieis, cf. I Cor. xv. ri. cva-yy^^'-SopcQa', ' we bring you 
the good tidings of the promise made to our fathers.' cvayyeXi^ofiaL 
usually as here takes two accus. 

33. TOis TCKVOiS is contrasted with ro(>s Trarepas. T.R. reads aurwi' 
7]/uuv. It is best to take toTs tekvols with eKTreTrXrjpuKev and rj/j-Qv, i.e. 
r]fuv, with dvaa-Trjaas, and tr. ' That this promise God hath fulfilled for 
the children, having for us raised up Jesus.' r\\i.o)v : the gen. probably 
is a corruption of ijfxcv. dvaoTTTJo-as. The reference is clearly to the 
raising up of Jesus as the Messiah, not primarily to the raising from the 
dead, though this is not necessarily excluded. The two prophecies 
which S. Paul quotes refer to the sending of the Messiah and to the 
resurrection from the dead: cf. iii. 22, vii. 37. Yios |xo\»...<r€, Ps. ii. 7 
and Heb. i. 5. This Psalm was always regarded as Messianic. The 
first two Psalms according to Origen were frequently united by the 
Jews ; hence the Bezan text reads Trptiry for devrepit}. 

34. [iT]K€Ti [xcXXovTa. S. Paul does not imply that Jesus had seen 
corruption : but he desires to emphasize the fact of His death no less 
than of His resurrection: cf. Rom. vi. 9. rd oo-ia...Td Trio-rd, 'I will 
give you the holy blessings of David that are sure ' : cf. Is. Iv. 3. 

35. 8i6ti. S. Paul justifies his interpretation of the quotation from 
Isaiah as referring to Christ by another reference to the i6th Psalm. 
Tov oViov is clearly connected in the argument with to. oaia, and as 
David died and did see corruption, the sure and faithful promises and 
blessings must refer to God's Holy One who did not see corruption, 
and therefore to the Messiah, David's son, and not to David himself. 
A similar argument was used by Peter : cf. ii. 31. 

36. l8Ca "Y€V€a. The dative is best taken as a dative of time and 
not as governed by vtnjpeTricras. ' In his own generation, having served 
the counsel of God, David fell asleep (i.e. died), was buried and saw 

II — 2 


corruption.' The contrast is twofold: (i) David served the counsel 
of God only in his own generation; Jesus in all time. .(2) David died 
as others died ; Jesus Christ passed through death without corruption. 
Trpo<r€T€6T), i.e. either in the grave; as whole families, especially royal 
families, were buried in the same place ; or more probably, in Sheol, 
the abode of the dead. 

38. d<})€(ris dfiapriwv. S. Paul concludes his speeches as he con- 
cludes his letters with a practical exhortation. Remission of sins is the 
keynote of his teaching as of S. Peter's: cf. ii. 38, v. 31, x. 43. 

39. 8iKa(.b)6T]vai. The law had failed because no man had ever 
or could ever completely fulfil it, and therefore it could not be the 
means of ' bringing man into a right relationship ' (5t/fatuj) with God. 
This had been S. Paul's own experience; he sought satisfaction in 
obedience to the law but did not find it : but in the vision at Damascus 
he found Jesus Christ, and in Him a complete and perfect means of 
being brought into just relationship with God : cf. esp. Rom. viii, 3 ; 
Gal. ii. 16. 

41. "I8cT€. The quotation is from Hab. i. 5, but for ' despisers ' 
the Hebrew has ' ye amongst the nations. ' d<j>avt<r0T]T£, ' vanish away,' 
i.e. perish: added in LXX. to the Hebr. S. Paul transfers the judg- 
ment of the Babylonian invasion to the judgment which would fall upon 
the Jews by the election of the Gentiles into their place, ov \Lr\, with 
aor. subj. as in cl. Gk., expresses a strong negative. 

Accession of Believers followed by Persecution. 


42. 'E|i6vT(«)v 8e avTtov 'irap€Kd\ovv. avrQu is clearly Paul and 
Barnabas, and the subject to wapeKaXovv is not expressed, but obviously 
refers to those present in the synagogue. €is to |X6Ta|v o-dppaTov, ' on 
the next sabbath,' a late use of /xera^v. 

43. T<Sv <r€po|i€Vft)v irpocTTjXvTcov, i.e. 'the God-fearing adherents,' 
cf. x. 2. 

45. ^i^Xov, 'jealousy,' because they saw that salvation was offered 
to Gentiles apart from any acceptance of Judaism : cf. xvii. 5, xviii. 6, 
xxviii. 25. p\a<r<j)'qp,oi)vT€s, i.e. the name of Christ : cf. xviii. 6; 
I Cor. xii. 3. 

46. iqv dva'YKaiov, cf. i. 8, iii. 26, xiii. 5. airotQila-Qi, 'ye thrust it 
from you' ; middle. 

XIV 2] NOTES 165 

47. ovTw 7dp...T€0€iKa, Is. xlix. 6; Lk. ii. 52. org in the original 
passage refers to the Messiah. 

48. ocrot ii<rav TCTa-yiic'voi. The metaphor is military, and reTay- 
fxepoi is either passive, ' all those who have been marshalled on the side 
of life' (Rackham), or middle, 'who have ranged themselves.' The 
Jews had been the elect people of God but had chosen their own path. 
The Gentiles — those who believed — had equal 'election' with the Jews. 
Election by God of a nation or individual for some particular task does 
not include the necessary rejection of all others : cf. Rom. ix.-xii. The 
omnipotence and omniscience of God is a cardinal truth, but of no less 
validity is the truth that man is a free agent. 

49. '6\r\s nfjs x'^P°'S- Antioch as a military colony was naturally 
the centre of the surrounding region, xcipa, i.e. of ' Phrygia Galatica,' 
xvi. 6, xviii. 23. 

50. evo-xTJiiovas, of honourable estate, i.e. in high position : 
cf. xvii. 12. 

51. €KTiva^d|X€VOt. The Jews would recognize this as breaking off 
all intercourse. 

52. xapds, I Thess. i. 6; Rom. xiv. 17. 

Ch. xiv. Iconium. 1-7. 

1. ev 'Ikovio). Iconium lay about 85 miles S.E. of Antioch. 
Geographically it belonged to Lycaonia, but it was of Phrygian origin 
and was included in the region of Antioch. S. Luke may indicate this 
by designating Lystra and Derbe as cities of Lycaonia in pointed con- 
trast to Iconium. It had passed into the hands of the Romans on the 
death of Amyntas the Galatian king. Under Hadrian it became a 
Roman colonia. It was famous in the early church as the scene of 
* the acts of Paul and Thekla.' It is from this source that we have 
the description of S. Paul, ' a man of moderate height, scanty hair, 
bow-legged, with large eyes and meeting eyebrows, and a rather long 
nose, with a face full of grace and pity : now he looked like a man, 
and now he had the face of an angel.' This description is hardly 
borne out by the acclamation of the Lystraeans that he was Hermes, 
a god of singular beauty of face and form. Kara to avTO, ' after the 
same manner,' i.e. as at Antioch. 'EXXi^vwv, clearly to be distinguished 
from ^Qvr\ below — the God-fearing Greeks, who in common with Jews 
'accepted the faith.' 

2. 01 8€ aTrciStio-avTcs, 'those who refused to obey,' i.e. the call 


of Barnabas and Paul to accept the faith. ' Disobedience ' and ' dis- 
belief correspond to the presentation of the Gospel as demanding 
obedience and faith. The result is the same ; the aspect is different. 
Cf. xix. 9; Lk. i. 17; Jn iii, 56; Rom. x. 21, xi. 31. The effect of 
the Gospel was a sharp division ; it aroused either enthusiasm or hostility : 
cf. Lk. ii. 34. The Bezan text gives much fuller detail. The rulers 
of the synagogue persecuted the apostles and stirred up Gentile 
opposition. iKciKwo-av, 'exasperated the minds.' 4'^xn as opposed 
to 7rveDfia = the spiritual faculties, includes 'intellect,' 'will,' 'emotion,' 
and is rendered 'life,' ' soul,' 'heart,' 'mind,' according to the context. 
The Bezan text adds ' but the Lord gave peace.' twv eOvwv, i.e. the 
Gentiles outside the synagogue. 

3. iKavov [JL^v oSv \p6vov, ' a considerable time.' fxkv ovv is 
answered by ws 6e, v. 5. The Bezan text states that the attack 
mentioned in v. 5 was a second outburst. Trapptia-ia^ojxevoi IttI, cf. iv. 
17. iirl denotes the ground of this confidence, cf, iii. 10. ' Preaching 
boldly in confidence in the Lord who also bore testimony to the Gospel 
of His grace by working signs and wonders through their hands ' : 
cf. ii. 43, V. 12. 

4. e<rxio-0T] 8^, 'and the multitude was divided.' diroo-ToXois : used 
here for the first time of Paul and Barnabas and repeated in v. 14, 
but not elsewhere in the Acts. It is applied to others in addition to 
the twelve in N.T., i Thess. ii. 6; Rom. xvi. 7, but S. Paul claims 
for himself and Barnabas equality with the twelve, i Cor. viii. 1-9. 
He was not a ' messenger ' of any church, but held his commission from 
his risen Master. 

5. ws 8^ €Y€V6T0 6pp.i]. The opposition was now organized. The 
Jews and their rulers combined with the Gentiles against Paul and 
Barnabas. op^xT] does not denote the actual assault but the 'impulse,' 
the hostile intent, and the infinitives i'/3pi'crat... directly depend on the 
noun : cf. Jas iii. 4. <ruv tois apxou(riv avTwv, clearly the rulers of 
the synagogue as avrCov shews : the magistrates of the town took no 
part in the plot to stone the apostles. iuPpt<rat denotes personal vio- 
lence as well as insolence. There is no exact English equivalent, cf. 
Lk. xi. 45 ; xviii. 32, and for such treatment cf. r Thess. ii. 2 ; 2 Cor. 
xii. 10. Xi0oPoXTJ<rai. This was not accomplished as is clear from 
' once was I stoned' (2 Cor. xi. 25), which must refer to v. 19. 

6. <rvvt86vT€s, cf. xii. 12; i Cor. iv. 4. KaT€<J>vyov, 'fled for 
refuge': cf. Ileb. vi. 18. £lsTds...AvKaov£as, i.e. of Lycaonia-Galatica. 
Lystra was a Roman colony, about 18 miles S.E. from Iconium, and 

XIV 13] NOTES 167 

the home of Timothy, xvi. i. As there was no synagogue there S. Paul 
must have taught in the market-place. Both Lystra and Derbe as 
border towns were important commercial centres on the eastern high- 
road. Their sites have been identified by inscriptions. 

Lystra. 8-20. 

8. €V Avio-Tpois, in vv. 6 and 21 fern., here neut. plural: for a 
similar double usage cf. xvi. 1,2. The miracle bears striking resemblance 
to the healing of the man at the Beautiful gate : iii. i ft". The main 
points of difference are that the beggar asks for alms and nothing is 
said of his faith. Miracles served the double purpose of proofs of divine 
power and of instruction by acted parables: Lk. iv. 31-37. €Kd0T]TO, 
i.e. ' used to sit,' probably in the forum. The Bezan text adds ' he was 
in the fear of God.' 

9. T]K0V6v. The imperfect implies that he was an habitual hearer : 
his faith was not a momentary conviction, tov o-wGTJvai, ' to be made 
whole,' i.e. in body and mind : cf. iv. 9. The gen. expresses both the 
result and purpose : cf. vii. 19, xx. 3. 

10. *Avd(rTT]0i. Bezan text, ' I say to thee in the name of Jesus 
Christ, arise.' TjXaTO Kal TrepieiraTei. The tenses are important, 'he 
sprang up and walked about. ' 

11. AvKaovicTTi, 'in the Lycaonian language.' The apostles 
evidently did not understand the dialect {v. 14). The termination 
-lo-Tt regularly denotes the language used: cf. 'Fu/xaLaTi, 'EX\r)vi(XTi, 
"Et^paKTTL. 01 0€ol. The local legend of Baucis and Philemon who 
entertained Jupiter and Mercury (Ovid, Mei. viii. 6ti foil.) accounted 
both for the idea that Paul and Barnabas were gods come down to 
visit them and for their desire to call (imp. eK'dXow = were for calling) 
them Mercury and Jupiter. Barnabas was evidently the taller of the 
two and he took little part in public speaking; hence the people identi- 
fied him with Jupiter. For the bearing of this passage on the personal 
appearance of S. Paul vid. sup. z^. i ; 2 Cor. x. 10; Gal. iv. 14. 

13. TOV ovTos irpo tt]s TToXews. It is not clear whether these words 
are intended to denote the locality of the temple, by identifying the 
god with his temple, or whether in somewhat untechnical language 
they qualify Atos. One of the titular names of Zeus is Tievs TrpodaTtos. 
Tr. as R.V. 'whose temple was before the city,' or 'the priest of Zeus 
Before-the-city.' ravpovs Kal orT€(x|xaTa. Bulls were sacrificed both to 
Zeus and Hermes. The garlands were used in sacrifice to adorn the 


victims, and were also worn by the priests and attendants, tovs TrvXwvas- 
TTvXJov is properly the outer gate of a house (xii. 13), but the plural 
makes it likely that the outer gates of the temple precincts are referred 
to, or the actual doors of the temple before which the altar stood. 
Others consider that either the gates of the lodgings of the apostles or 
the gates of the city are referred to. 

14. 8iappi]|avTes rd i|xdTia., The tearing of the clothes was a sign 
of horror : cf. the action of the high priest, Mt. xxvi. 65. eleirtiS-qo-av. 
It is impossible to recover the actual facts of the scene from the 
narrative. The apostles may have returned to their lodgings and on 
hearing of the intention of the priest and the crowd rushed forth 
through the city to the temple. But the miracle may have taken place 
outside the city near the temple precincts, and the priest immediately 
brought the victims and garlands to the outer gates. In that case there 
would be no break in the narrative, and the events followed one another 
without any intermission. 

The speech of S. Paul illustrates his wonderful gift of being ' all 
things to all men,' and of adapting his words and arguments to his 
hearers. In writing to the Romans and addressing the Athenians 
(Rom. i. 18-32, ii. 14-16 ; Acts xvii. 22-30) he deals with the truths of 
natural religion fully and philosophically. Here to the simple-minded 
Lystraeans he states the facts : (i) God is One, the Almighty Creator ; 
(2) this had been hidden from the nations, but (3) the evidence of 
nature — the rain, the seasons, the fruits of the earth — were proofs of 
His power and love for man. 

15. ofjioioiradeis. Tr. 'mortals like yourselves,' Jas v. 17. The 
translation A.V., R.V., ' of like passions,' is not adequate, as the mean- 
ing of 'passions' in modern English is too restricted. The apostles 
assert that they are not divine but subject to all the natural feelings and 
sensations of man, just as their would-be worshippers, tootwv twv 
(jLaraitov, 'these vain things'; S. Paul points to the temples, the idols 
and the garlands. The Jews spoke contemptuously of the gods of the 
heathen: 2 Kings xvii. 15; Jer. ii. 5. eiri(rTpe<j)€uv, cf. i Thess. i. 9. 
060V twvTtt : for debs ^(ov, anarthrous, cf. 2 Cor. vi. 16; Rom. ix. 26, 
The ' living God ' is opposed to the ' vain gods ' who had no real exist- 
ence. For references in O.T. see Hos. iv. 15 ; Jer. iv. 2. os eiroiTjorev, 
cf. Gen. i. i ; Ps. cxlvi. 6. 

16. os...avT<Sv. S. Paul simply states the fact and does not answer 
the perplexing question why God in His wisdom allowed man to walk 
in his own ways in ignorance. 

XIV 22] NOTES 169 

17. d<f>T]K€v, 'did not allow himself to be without witness.' d^a- 
0ovp'ywv...«|i.irnrXu)V. The three participles illustrate the witness — God 
true to Himself in nature ; hihom illustrates dyadovpyCou and 4 jxtt lttXQjv 
the result of 5i5oi;s. veTOvs. The district was liable to drought : foi 
rain as God's gift see i Sam. xii. 17, S. Paul's words gaiu greater 
significance if it is remembered that uertos, eiriKapinos were amongst 
the many titles of Zei^s. l|X7rnrXwv : for the form cf. Lk. i. 53, vi. 25. 
Tpo<|)'T]S, used always of the food of man. €v(}>pocruvT]s, ' good cheer,' 
the joyous gladness that attends a festival, especially a festival of thanks- 
giving to God for His gifts to man : cf. Ps. iv. 7 ; Is. xxix. 19. 

18. Tov JIT] 0v€iv. /XT] is reduudant, and the gen. depends on 

19. 'EiTTJXGav. An interval must have taken place. The Bezan 
text bridges over the gap between vv. 18 and 19 by adding 'as they 
spent their time there and taught.' The virulence of the hatred of the 
Jews who came from Antioch and Iconium, and the fickleness of the 
mob (cf. xxviii. 6), are evidenced by S. Luke's brief narrative. The 
Jews, as the western text states, persuaded the people that there was 
no truth in the preaching of the apostles and stirred up {iTreaetaau) 
the people to stone Paul. For the event cf. 2 Cor. xi. 25; 2 Tim. 
iii. II. 

20. KVKXft)(rdvT«v...T(3v [laG-qTcSv. Nothing shews more the effect 
of Paul's preaching than the readiness of his converts to brave all dangers 
to aid him. 

Derbe and the Return Journey. 20-28. 

Aip^r\v, a small town 30 miles S.E. of Lystra, called, after the 
Emperor, Claudia Derbe : it was the home of Gaius, xx. 4. 

21. {nr€<rTp6t)/av. The shorter route would have been through the 
Cilician Gates to Tarsus and thence to Antioch. The need of confirming 
their converts in the faith and of organizing the churches is a sufficient 
reason to account for the return of the apostles by the same route. It 
is possible also that S. Paul purposely limited his present task and 
avoided entering another province (Cilicia) where he had already spent 
some years: xi. 25, xv. 41. 

22. Kttl OTi. They needed strength (i) in firm faith in Jesus 
Christ; (2) in realizing that persecution was bound to be the lot of the 
converts as well as of the apostles : cf. Jn xv. 20, xvi, 33. on intro- 
duces a quotation in or. recta: cf. xi. 3, xv. i. i]|Jids cannot here include 
S. Luke. 


23. X€ipoTovii(ravT€s, properly ' having elected by show of hands,' 
but in later Greek xeiporoi'^w meant little more than ' to appoint,' 
and in the Fathers it is used of ordination: cf. x. 41 ; 2 Cor. viii. iQ. 
The apostles are clearly the subject both of the participles and the 
principal verb, but as the narrative is compressed it is probable that 
in the first place the presbyters and elders were chosen by the whole 
body of believers in each church, and then presented to the apostles. 
KttT* £KKXT](riav, 'in each church,' Ka-ra distributive. y-^to. VTiorxeicov, 
cf. xiii. 3. iraptGevTO, 'they commended.' In cl. Gk. irapaTidrj/uLi, 
more usually TrapaKaTaTidrj/mL, is used of entrusting money to a banker : 
cf. XX. 32 ; Lk. xii. 48, xxiii. 46 ; i Tim. vi. 20 [irapadrjKT]). avTOus, 
not only the presbyters but the Christian community. 

25. ev IlepYXl- They had not preached here on their first visit; 
possibly the inhabitants migrated to the higher ground in the hot season 
and had now returned. 'ArraXiav, about 16 miles from Perga across 
the plain; the modern Adalia, until recently an important port. It 
had been built by Attalus II, king of Pergamus, B.C. 159-138. 

26. ir](rav irapaScSopievoi. The full force of the pluperfect must be 
insisted on as always : ' had been committed.' 

27. 6<ra, either 'how many' or 'how great' things. (1€t' aurtSv, 
XV. 4 ; Lk. i. 58, 72. This use of /terd is confined to S. Luke in N.T. ; 
it denotes 'in relation with.' Ovpav irio-TCws, i.e. the door of faith by 
which the believers entered into union with Christ. For S. Paul's use 
of the same metaphor cf. i Cor. xvi. 9 ; 2 Cor. ii. 12; Col. iv, 3. 

Ch. XV. Third Visit of S. Paul (with Barnabas) to 
Jerusalem. 1-5. 

T/ie Jiidaistic Controversy. 

The extension of the Gospel to the Gentiles brought about a crisis. 
The evolution of Christianity as a religion apart was the natural result 
of the spread of the Gospel amongst non-Jews : hitherto it had been 
mainly preached amongst Jews and proselytes and God-fearers in 
Jerusalem, Samaria and other parts of Palestine: Antioch saw a new 
and inevitable development. To the Gentile, Christianity was a new 
religion dissociated from Judaism, to the Jewish Christian it was the 
consummation of his own faith. The Jew looked backward, the 
Gentile forward. It was essential that the Christian faith, ready to 
embrace all sorts and conditions of men, should not be an appendage 

XV 2] NOTES 171 

of Judaism, the most exclusive of all religions. Judaism it is true was 
the birthplace of Christianity and it threatened to be its grave. The 
imposition of the Jewish law and traditions, however highly valued 
and treasured by the Jewish Christian, could only stifle Gentile 
Christianity. It was no longer a question of the admission of Hellenist 
Jews or Gentile proselytes but of Gentiles who knew nothing of the 
Jewish faith and law. The events that led up to the council, if we 
assume that S. Paul's visit with the alms (Acts xi. 30, xii. 25) cor- 
responds with the visit recorded in Gal. ii. i-io, are as follows : 

(i) The case of Cornelius led to opposition to S. Peter on his 
return to Jerusalem, and ' those of the circumcision ' strongly criticized 
his intercourse with a Gentile, but there is no mention here or else- 
where of the apostles ever having required a Gentile to be circumcised. 
The incident was isolated and exceptional, and the general controversy 
was not raised. 

{2) On S. Paul's second visit (Gal. ii, i-io) there was general 
agreement between himself and the pillars of the church, but he met 
with severe opposition (Gal. ii. 4-5). 

(3) Antioch became the centre of Gentile Christianity and 'certain 
men from Judaea ' brought matters to a crisis. S. Peter on his visit 
had eaten with Gentile Christians but had subsequently ' dissembled ' 
and was followed by Barnabas (Gal. ii. 11-21). 

N.B. Others hold that the second visit of S. Paul (Gal. ii. i-io) 
synchronizes with the third visit to Jerusalem, at the time of the 
council, and that the visit of S. Peter to Antioch followed it. 

1. Kai Tiv€s. The Bezan text adds 'of those of the sect of the 
Pharisees who had accepted the faith. ' The Pharisaic party took the 
extreme position that no Gentile could become a Christian without 
becoming a Jew : cf. Gal. ii, 4. eSiSacTKOV. The imperfect indicates 
their continuous and persistent efforts to force the new teaching upon 
the Antiochene Christians: cirt, cf. xiv. 22 n. Tr6piT|iT]0TJT€. Circum- 
cision was the sign of admission to the Jewish religion. This was the 
real crux of the problem. It is remarkable that no direct reference is 
made to circumcision in the decrees of the council : and we are left to 
assume that silence meant that the claim of the Gentile churches was 

2. 7€vofJL€'v'ris...6XiYr|S. ' After considerable discussion and contro- 
versy had arisen,' o-rao-ewj emphasizing the action of the parties in the 
dispute, cf. xxiii. 7, 10: '^-qr-qaews, their arguments. The Bezan text 
gives further details. ' Paul vehemently affirmed that they should so 


abide as they had believed, while the emissaries from Jerusalem de- 
manded that Paul and Barnabas should go to Jerusalem and refer the 
dispute to the apostles and elders.' ^ra^av, sc. ol adeKcpoi. dirocrToXovs 
Kal irpeo-pvTc'povs. The apostles and elders constituted the official 
body who had authority to settle matters of church law and order 
(xi. 30). 

3. 'Trpoir€(x.<j>0evT€S, 'escorted on their way': 'LdiX.m proseqitoi: The 
word is used in its usual classical sense : cf. xx. 38, xxi. 5. tt]v 
T6 4>oiviKT)v Kal 2a|iapiav: cf. viii,, xi. 19. €K8iTi"yov|jL€Voi,...€0vwv, 
'giving a full account of the conversion of the Gentiles': cf. xiii. 41. 
6irt<rTpo<j>T]v, cf. eTTLarp^cpeLv i Thess. i. 9. 

4. irap€8€x0T](rav. 'They were welcomed.' The apostles and 
elders acted as the representatives of the whole church. iiTroSexo/iat 
is more usual in this sense in cl. Gk. : other MSS. read dTr€8^x^V<^^^- 

5. *E|av€'o-TT|<rav. S. Paul's opponents who, accoi^ding to the 
Bezan text, had also come up to Jerusalem, pressed their case more 
strongly than had been done at Antioch. The text however in W. H. 
implies that the Pharisees at Jerusalem were a different body of ob- 
jectors. The Pharisees, who were strictly orthodox and conservative 
in their insistence upon rigid adherence to the law and customs and 
traditions, adopted the same attitude to our Lord: Lk v. 17-26. 
avTovs, i.e. the Gentile converts. 

The Council. 6-29. 

6. Tov Xd-yov TovTov, sc. the question in dispute : whether a 
Gentile Christian was to become a Jew. 

7. IleTpos. Peter held a middle position, and as leader of the 
apostles it was right that he should be heard first. d<(>' i]|i6pwv dp- 
yaitav. ' In days gone by.' The time referred to was either (i) the 
foundation of the Christian church, or (2) more probably the baptism 
of Cornelius some 12 years before. 

8. KapSio-yvwcrTTis, I'zWe i. 24 note. 

9. TT] irio-T€i KaOapio-as, rrj wiaret is placed first for emphasis. 
SS. Paul, Peter and John all concur in emphasizing the inward purifi- 
cation of the heart by the acceptance of faith in Jesus Christ. The 
contrast with the ceremonial purification of the Jewish religion is not 
stated but implied ; cf. x. 15. 

ro. tC TreipdgcTC, 'why do ye put God to the test?' sc. in 
questioning His admission of the (rentiles. €in0€tvai. The infin. is 

XV 14] NOTES 173 

explanatory of the way in which efforts were made to test the action 
of God: for tempting God, cf. Ex. xvii. 7; Deut. vi. 16; Ps. Ixxviii. 
18; it implies distrust of God until proof has been given. ^v-yov, cf. 
Gal. V. r. This passage makes it clear that circumcision had not yet 
been imposed upon Gentile Christians. The yoke of the law was 
heavy, the yoke of Christ light (Matt. xi. 30). A yoke is placed 
upon an ox, not only because it has to work, but to enable it to work. 
The yoke of Christ is an assurance that he who wears it is a servant of 
Christ, but its purpose is to make the task of the servant easier. The 
real meaning of yoke was often lost by confusion with the jugiim or 
yoke of Roman law, the symbol of slavery and defeat. S. Peter 
recognizes that the law was impossible as an absolute guide of life, 
as no one could keep it in its entirety. This is the eternal failure 
inherent in law as opposed to principle, cf. vii. 53; Gal. iii. 10-14. 

11. oXKoi. 8id...*lT]<rov. The words are best taken closely with 
a-ojdTJvai and are placed first in pointed contrast to the law. KaKcivoi, 
i.e. the Gentile Christians. With this brief utterance, so strikingly in 
accord with the doctrine of grace as expounded by S. Paul to the 
Romans and Galatians, S. Peter disappears from the narrative of the 

12. 'E<ri"yTi<r€v. The Bezan text has, 'And when the elders con- 
sented to what was said by Peter, the multitude kept silence.' S. Peter's 
speech had silenced the heated discussion, and gained a patient hearing 
for Paul and Barnabas. Barnabas here stands first as the elder : the 
position of the two apostles was naturally reversed in the mother 
church at Jerusalem. o<ra kiToir]<riv 6 Geos. Paul and Barnabas ap- 
pealed to the facts of the manifest will of God in bringing salvation 
to the Gentiles, cf. xiv. 27, xv. 4. S. Luke with his true sense of 
economy omits the utterances of Paul and Barnabas, as it is his real 
object to record the views of Peter and James. 

13. dir€Kpi0T]. The speech of James the Lord's brother, the 
president of the council, is divided into two parts, (i) the appeal to 
prophecy essential to convince a Jewish audience; (a) his opinion on 
the solution of the difficulty. James, called the *Just,' subsequently 
was put to death by Ananus the high priest (Jos. Ant. xx. 9. i). 

14. 2vp.€a>v, 'Symeon.' James uses the Hebrew name of 
Peter in its oldest form. S. Luke with strict accuracy gives his 
actual words. kiri(rKey\/aro, 'shewed His regard,' cf. Jas i. 27. The 
word implies 'to look with favour or consideration.' Xa^civ. The 
infin. defines the scope of the consideration shewn by God: — 'in 


taking.' k% IBvoiv Xaov. Aaov is anarthrous, 'a people from among 
the Gentiles,' the privileges of the people of God (6 Xaos) were to be 
extended to the Israel of God, Gal. vi. 16: cf. S. Paul's teaching on 
the promises made to the seed of Abraham : Gal. iii., iv. tw ovojiari : 
either (i) to be called by His name, or (2) for His name, i.e. for Him- 
self. TO ovQjxa. Tou deov is a common Hebraistic paraphrase for debs. 

15. Kal TOTJTO), sc. with the statement (neut.). 

16. Merd ravra. The passage is loosely quoted from LXX., Amos 
ix. II, 12.' The LXX. has iv iKcivrj rr/ Tifiepa, i.e. in the Messianic 
age. The royal house of David now reduced to a mere tent [crKrivr]) 
will be restored. The triple repetition of avd, dvaarpe^o}, dvoiKobo- 
lx'r](XO}, a.vop9u)cfw emphasizes the restoration. 

17. oircos av €K^T)TTJ(r(0(riv. The Hebrew text has 'that they may 
possess the remnant of Edom,' cf. 1 Kings xiv, 7. This would have 
little point here. The whole point in James' speech depends upon the 
adoption of the variant reading of the LXX. ottcos dv expressing pur- 
pose occurs only five times in N.T., and in three of these instances 
the citation is from LXX. k^' ovs. Upon whom my name hath been 
pronounced, i.e. God's people, Deut. xxviii. 10. 

18. X€"y€t...ala)Vos. The passage in Amos (LXX.) concludes Xe7et 
Ki/ptos 6 TTOiuju ravra iravra. The Bezan text follows the LXX. and adds 
'Known from the beginning unto God are all his works.' The reading 
in the text, 'saith God making these things known from the beginning,' 
combines the words of Amos with the comment of James. The house 
of David was restored in the coming of the Messiah, and the prophecy 
fulfilled in the extension of His kingdom to embrace the Gentiles in 
accordance with the divine purpose made known from the beginning. 
For d7r' aiOivos cf. Lk. i. 70. 

19. kya KpCvft), 'my judgment is.' Great weight naturally was 
attached to the opinion of the president of the presbyter^', but he does 
not pronounce the decision {v. 22) of the church. For the position of 
James cf. Gal. ii. 9. ^r\ irapcvoxXciv, not to trouble further, or un- 

20. eirio-TCtXai, explanatory of Kpivui, the word may well include a 
written injunction. toO dTre'xccrGai defines iiriaTelXai, cf. xxi. 25. t«v 
dXio-YT]p,dT&)v...atp,aTos. If the text is correct these four conditions 
indicate a compromise which would make social and religious inter- 
course possible between Jewish and Gentile Christians. * The pollutions 
of idols' clearly are identical with eiocoXodvra, 'things offered to idols,' 
cf. V. 29 and Lev. xvii. 1-9. The instructions given in i Cor. viii. do 

XV 2i] NOTES 175 

not agree strictly with this passage. It was a custom universal amongst 
the Greeks as well as the Jews to sacrifice a portion of the animal, give 
a second portion to the priest, and consume the rest at a family feast : 
when this was not done, the was sold. Hence it was difficult to 
know whether meat bought from the shops was a portion of a sacrifice 
or not. S. Paul clearly teaches that there is really no distinction but, 
if his eating such meats would cause serious offence to a weaker brother, 
he would rather never eat meat any more than cause offence, and to 
this extent he is in agreement with the decree. Tr\% iropveias. The 
great laxity of morality in the Greek, Roman and eastern worlds, where 
often immorality was actually associated with the worship of various 
heathen deities, accounts for the placing of the prohibition of fornication 
side by side with ritual laws. Christian teaching set a new and lofty 
standard of purity, cf. i Cor. vi. 15; i Thess. iv. 3. Kal ttviktov Kal 
Tov al'fJiaTOS- Animals strangled in such a way as not to let the blood 
flow would naturally be abhorred by the Jews: -kvlktov is really covered 
by TOV aifj-aTos. The sanctity of blood, as the actual life of man and 
beast, was not confined to Jews, but they held the blood peculiarly 
sacred and it could only be offered to God the giver of life ; Lev. 
xvii. 10. An entirely different interpretation can be placed on the 
decree which deprives it of its character as a compromise and a 
food-law here and in v. 29, xxi. 25. Kal ttviktov is omitted in the 
Bezan text and the golden rule is subjoined, Kal oaa ixtj deKovcrLv eavrois 
yivecrdac erepoLS ixrj iroLeZv. If this reading is correct, the council con- 
tented themselves with insisting upon the three cardinal moral laws of 
abstention from idolatry, fornication and murder. The absence of any 
reference to the decree in S. Paul's Epistles makes it very difficult to 
decide, but on the whole it is better to adhere to the old view that a 
compromise was effected, especially as the four prohibitions mentioned 
were binding upon 'strangers' according to the law of Leviticus (xvii., 
XX.), and their adoption by Gentile Christians would facilitate inter- 
course with orthodox Jewish Christians. In return for the concession 
in the matter of circumcision the Gentile Christians were to observe a 

21. M«vo-t]S. The Mosaic law, Lk. xvi. 29. The point of the 
concluding remark of S. James is not clear. If it refers to the Gentiles 
it seems to mean that the Gentile ' God-fearers ' had been accustomed 
to hear the law of Moses read and therefore would accept the con- 
ditions proposed by James, regulating their intercourse with Jews. 
But S. Paul was the champion of Gentiles who had no connection with 


Judaism at all, and therefore it seems better to regard the words from 
the Jewish point of view. In waiving the right of insistence upon 
circumcision and the acceptance of the whole law there was no real 
danger of the Mosaic law being despised or losing its hold, as the 
teaching of the synagogues would make it binding upon Jewish 
Christians. It is hard not to conclude that the decree marked the 
division of the Christian church into two sections, kept together in 
loose harmony by a compromise which would necessarily in the eyes 
of the Jews place the Gentiles in an inferior position. €k "ytvcwv cip- 
Xaitov, The custom would date back at least to the use of the 
synagogue amongst the Jewish communities of the Dispersion. 

-22. ?8o^6 . . . €KX€|a|Ji€vovs (v.l. e/cXe|a/i^j'ots) . . . "ypa^avTes- ^5o^e 
is used as is regular in decrees, the use of the accus. in the part, is 
accounted for by its close proximity to the infin. : the construction is 
quite classical, ypdxpavre'i arises from confusion of thought, and is in 
the nom. as if a personal and not an impersonal verb had been used. 
Tois d'nro(rT6Xois...eKK\T](ria. The appeal has been made to the apostles 
and elders and was answered by them with the unanimous concurrence 
of the whole church. €K\6|a(jt€vovs ire'inj/at. The part, is middle, 
expressing the unfettered choice of the church. Tr. ' to choose and 
send.' *Ioii8av...Bap(raPpdv Kal 2i\av. Nothing is known of Judas 
Barsabbas. He may have been a brother of Joseph Barsabbas (i. 23), 
and this would account for his name being placed first. St'Xas, a con- 
tracted form of StXoi;ai'6s (2 Cor. i. 19; i Thess. i. i ; 2 Thess. i. i). 
He was a Jewish Christian with a liberal mind and wide sympathies 
and S. Paul's companion on the second journey (xv. 40). From xvi. 37 
it is inferred that he was a Roman citizen. After S- Paul's death he is 
found at Rome, i Pet. v. 12. dvSpas ii7ovp,6vovs. Silas and Judas 
possessed two high qualifications, they were ijyovfievoL and 7rpo0^Tat 
{v. 32) and thus marked out. ijyov/xevovs must refer to their authority 
and leading position in the church at Jerusalem : Heb. xiii. 7, 17, 24. 
In modern Greece the heads of a monastery in the Orthodox church 
are called irpCbro- devrepo- ijyoiJiuLevos, etc. Others take it as referring to 
their position as teachers, cf. rjyovfxevos rod \6yov xiv. 12 : as 'prophets,' 
their words would carry the weight of the inspiration of God. 

23. Oi d'ir6(rToXot...d8e\<j>ol. In the text adopted these words 
can mean ' The apostles and the elder brethren,' R.V., or ' The apostles 
and elders, brethren to the brethren. ' If kuI ol adeXcpoi is correct, then the 
whole church may be included, as well as the apostles and elders. 
yjalpuv. This form of Greek greeting only occurs elsewhere in N.T. ii^ 

XV S3] NOTES 177 

Jas i. I and Acts xxiii. 26. It is noticeable that the letter was ad- 
dressed only to Gentile churches in Antioch, Syria and Ciiicia. This 
may possibly account for the absence of any reference to this decree 
in S. Paul's Epistles. 

24. dvacTKevd^ovTes, only here in N.T., not in LXX. In cl. Gk 
used of dismantling and destroying, and so here ' seeking to overthrow.' 
This and a number of other words in the decree do not occur in 
S. Luke's writings, which makes it clear that he is transcribing the 

25. Ycvoixe'vois 6}io0\)[j.a86v, i.e. having come to an unanimous con- 
clusion. Cf. i. 14. dYain]Tois. a-yaivi] is a word born in the Gospel, 
and dyaTrT/Tos became a favourite word amongst the apostles. It is 
frequent in S. Paul and S. James, S. Peter and S. John also use it. 

26. TrapaSeSwKoo-i, i.e. 'risked their lives.' Bezan text adds, 
'into every trial,' as clearly evidenced in the first journey. 

27. Kal avTovs, ' who intend themselves also by word of mouth to 
tell you the same things.' Silas and Barsabbas were the emissaries of 
conciliation deputed to make the position of the council clear. 

28. T« irvevfiari t(5 dyio) Kal T]fiiv. This became a regular formula 
in the decree of Christian councils. The unanimity of the decision 
of the church made it certain that they had been guided by the 
Holy Spirit. 

29. lavTovs. The 3rd pers. reflexive pron. is often used for the 
ist or 2nd; cf. V. 35. €v Trpd^€T€ 'ye shall fare well.' R.V. 'it shall 
be well with you.' irpdcrcreLu, intrans. only here in N.T. x'^'P^"'* 
ev Trpdcraeiv and eppuade are common formulas in Greek letters. The 
council does not assert that these four points were essential to 
salvation, but their observance in mutual intercourse would secure 
harmony between Gentile and Jewish Christians. If the Bezan text 
is correct, then the words mean that the observance of the moral law- 
will secure this happiness. 

Return to Antioch. 30-35. 

31. dva-yvovTCS, sc. publicly in a meeting of the church, irapa- 
KXi](r€C, best translated ' encouragement ' ; cf. iv. 36. Jew and Gentile 
Christians were to start afresh in a new harmony and accord. 

33. iroiTioravTCS Se xpovov, cf. xviii. 23, xx. 3, only in Acts in N.T., 
but classical, [ur €ip-qvT]s, i.e. with the parting blessing of peace from 
the assembled church ; cf. xvi. 36. S. Paul in his Epistles combines 
B. A. 12 


the Greek greeting xapis with the Hebrew eiprjvr]. rovs airoo-TCt- 
Xavras. To those who had sent them, i.e. the whole church at 
Jerusalem. Both churches acted with unanimity. Bezan text, ' but 
it seemed good unto Silas to abide there still and Judas went alone.' 
The verse retained in A.V. in part is omitted in R.V., it accounts for 
Silas' presence in v. 40. 

Second Missionary Journey. Syria and Cilicia. 
XV. 36 — xvi. 5. 

37,38. crvv'irapaXap€LV...nii <rvvirapa\a|ipdv€iv. The contradiction 
is sharply marked. toOtov at the end of the verse is almost con- 
temptuous. Tov airoo-TavTa, a stronger word than dTroxwpcD, xiii. 13; 
it implies disloyalty and desertion, ii^iov, he claimed as a right, cf. 
xxviii. 22. 

39. irapolucriJios, Heb. x. 24, Acts xvii. 16. In i Cor. xiii. 5 it is 
used as here of sharp provocation. The word is common in medical 
language. Barnabas is mentioned no more, but it is clear from i Cor. 
ix. 6 that the breach was healed. Mark subsequently was with S. Paul 
at Rome, Col. iv. 10, 2 Tim. iv. 11. Those who hold that the visit of 
Peter to Antioch in Gal. ii. 11-20 was subsequent to the council find 
additional reason for the sharp contention, but S. Luke gives no hint of 
it here. irapaXaPovra, avvTrapoKaix^dveLv could only be used of more 
than two companions. S. Luke's careful accuracy in the choice of 
words is noteworthy. 

41. Sojpiav Kai KiXiKiav. Here S. Paul had worked in his early 
labours in the long interval about which the Acts tells us nothing; 
Gal. i. 21. S. Luke only records that S. Paul was at Tarsus; ix. 30, 
xi. 25. 

Chapter XVI. 

I. €is Ac'pP-qv Ktti els Av<rTpav. The order of the words makes 
it clear that S. Paul had gone by the quickest route by Tarsus and the 
Cilician gates. Kal l8ov. The loss of Mark was soon repaired and 
Timothy, who was probably aLystraean, became a constant companion 
of S. Paul and of great service to him as a messenger to the churches 
he founded. Some suppose that he was a native of Derbe, cf. xx. 4, 
but €K€i here must refer to Lystra. The marriage of a Jewess with a 
Greek was forbidden strictly by the law, but such marriages in the 
Diaspora were frequent. His mother's name was Eunice, 2 Tim. i. 5, 

XVI 5] NOTES 179 

and it was to her that he owed his early training in the Jewish 
Scriptures. Both Eunice and Timothy had probably been converted on 
Paul's previous visit, 1 Tim. iii. lo-ii. 

3. irepteTciicv. This has been made a charge of inconsistency 
against S. Paul. But the purpose of the act explains it. Paul would have 
been severely hampered in his mission * to the Jew first and afterwards 
to the Gentile ' had his constant companion been unacceptable in the 
Jewish synagogues. In S. Paul's judgment both circumcision and un- 
circumcision were in themselves matters of indifference, i Cor. vii. 18, 
and in this concession to Jewish feelings we have a striking example of 
the principle he lays down in i Cor. ix. 19-23. In the case of Titus 
(Gal. ii. 3) a matter of principle was involved ; the circumcision of 
Timothy furthered the advance of the Gospel under one set of circum- 
stances, the circumcision of Titus would have hindered it under quite 
different circumstances. vTrrjpx^v. Blass considers that the imperfect 
denotes that Timothy's father was dead. An imperfect in or. 
obliqtia can only represent an imperfect in the oratio recta ; cf. iii. 10, 
^xxii. 2. 

4. TO, So-yfittTa Tci K€Kpi|i€'va. 'The decrees that had been passed.' 
S. Paul loyally delivered the decrees to the churches he had founded 
prior to the conference. There is no mention of such action on his 
part in the churches he subsequently founded. The churches of 
S. Galatia, Syria and Cilicia were daughter churches of Antioch. 
Ephesus, Corinth, Philippi were independent centres of the churches 
of Asia, Achaia and Macedonia, and had no connection with the 
Antiochene church, though S. Paul was always careful to keep them 
in touch with the mother church at Jerusalem in the matter of the 
collection ; cf. 2 Cor. viii., ix. 

5. Ai H€v ovv €KKXT]criai €<rT£p€ovvTo, cf. iii. 7, 16. crTepeovfiaL, 
properly a medical term, is used- here only in N.T. in a metaphorical 
sense. Outward and inward growth in the churches increased together. 
This notice of progress marks a turning-point. So far S. Paul 
had gone over the old ground, he now enters upon a fresh field of 

12 — 2 



Progress of Gentile Christianity. 

Extension of the Gospel to Macedonia, Achaia 

AND Asia. The Churches in the great Cities. 

xvi. 6 — xix. 20. 

[a) Second missionary journey continued. (The confirmation of 
the churches in Syria, Cilicia and Galatia, xv. 36 — xvi. 5, is followed 
by a new development.) 

(i) The foundation of the churches in Macedonia: 

[a) Leaving Asia on one side Paul and his companions, 

Silas and Timothy, come to Troas, cross the sea by 

Samothrace, and land at Neapolis. xvi. 6-1 1. 
{b) Philippi. Conversion of Lydia. Arrest of Paul and Silas 

on account of the maid with the spirit of divination. 

Conversion of the jailer. Release of the apostles. . 

Power of Roman citizenship, xvi. 12-40. 
(r) Thessalonica. Hostility of the Jews. Jason tried by the 

Politarchs for befriending Paul. xvii. 1-9, 
{d) Beroea. Many converts. Paul pursued by Jews from 

Thessalonica goes by sea to Athens, xvii. 10-15. 
(2) The churches of Achaia : 

{a) Athens. Paul before the Areopagus. Small success, xvii. 


[b) Corinth; 18 months. Aquila and Priscilla. Rejection by 

the Jews. Conversion of Crispus. Trial before Gallio. 
xviii. 1-17. 

[c) Return by sea. Visits to Ephesus, Caesarea and Jeru- 

salem ; return to Antioch. xviii. 18-22. 

{b) Third missionary journey. The church in the province of 
Asia : 

{a) Paul after visiting the churches in Galatia comes to Ephesus, 
'through the upper country.' Work of Apollos at Ephesus, 
xviii. 23-28. 
{b) Ephesus; three years. The disciples of John. Teaching in 
the synagogue and in the school of Tyrannus. The sons 
of Sceva and the evil spirit. Victory of the Gospel over 
magic, xix. 1-20. 

NOTES i8i 

The following points should be observed : 

a. (i) Date. The period extends from 49-52. 

(2) Method and results. Paul follows the same definite plan 

as in the first journey. The provinces of Macedonia 
and Achaia are evangelized, and he selects the chief cities 
as the centres of his work. He still preaches to the Jews 
first, but meets with continual opposition, and his main 
work is amongst the Gentiles. He makes more and more 
use of his companions. Silas and Timothy and Luke 
. who joined him at Troas are left in Macedonia. Silas and 
Timothy rejoin him at Corinth. At Corinth by the trial 
before Gallic the legitimacy of his work is established. 

(3) Epistles. I and 2 Thessalonians, written from Corinth, illus- 

trate S. Paul's method of keeping in touch with the churches 
he founded and the difficulties arising amongst his new 
converts (xvii. 4 n.). 

b. (i) Date. Period of three years, 53-56. 

(2) Method and results. Churches revisited, but the chief ob- 

jective was the founding of the church in Asia. Ephesus 
the capital, the centre of his work, but probably other 
churches were founded at this time by Paul or his 
companions at Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Laodicea, 
Philadelphia, Colossae and Hierapolis ; cf. Rev. i.-iii., 
Col. iv. 13, 16. Timothy, Erastus and Titus were with 
Paul at Ephesus. 

(3) Epistles. First Ep. to the Corinthians, written from Ephesus, 

xviii. 1 n., and possibly Ep. to Galatians. 
N.B. For the conditions in Asia the Epp. to the Ephesians, 
Colossians and Philemon should be consulted, which were written 
from Rome (see epilogue). 

Progress through Phrygia-Galatica, Mysia and 
Troas. 6-io. 

It is now widely held that the Epistle to the Galatians was ad- 
dressed to these churches of Phrygia-Galatica and Lycaonia-Galatica. 
The older view, strongly supported by tradition, is that S. Paul at this 
time traversed N. Galatia and visited the cities of Pessinus, Tavium 
and Ancyra, and subsequently addressed his Epistle to them. Neither 


S. Luke nor S. Paul gives any definite clue to the problem of the identity 
of the Galatians, Gal. iii. i. 

6. T-qv <l>p\)'Y£av Kal raXariKi^v xwpav. Ramsay maintains that both 
^pvy. and FaX. are adjectives and that the ' Phrygo-Galatian country ' 
is the S.W. portion of the Roman province of Galatia, so called as 
distinct from Lycaonia-Galatica and Phrygia-Asiana. The district here 
referred to is the country round Antioch (Pisidia) and Iconium ; cf. 
xviii. 23. Ka)\v0€VT€s. The aor. part, makes it clear that the pro- 
hibition occurred before or during the passage through Phrygia-Galatica. 
So R.V. €V TT] 'A<r£a, sc. in the Roman province of Asia (which in- 
cluded Caria, Lydia and Mysia). S. Paul was traversing the road to 
Ephesus when by a premonition he turned northwards, and when he 
came to a point where a direct route to the coast would have taken 
him through Mysia he thought of continuing northwards into Bithynia, 
but again warned by the Holy Spirit he travelled westwards to the 
coast and reached Troas. 

7. TO Trv€V(ia 'lT](rov. The expression occurs nowhere else in 
N.T., but cf. Phil. i. 19, Rom. viii. 9. The MSS. authority is 
very strong. irapeXOovTes. In any case to reach the coast at Troas 
they must have passed through Mysia. Ramsay tr. 'neglecting,' i.e. 
to preach in Mysia, but 'passing by' gives an adequate sense. TpwdSa, 
properly Alexandreia Troas, a Roman city on the coast opposite 
Tenedos, an important port of communication between Europe and 
Asia; cf. xx. 5, 2 Cor. ii. 13. 

9. opa|xa. The prohibitions of the Holy Spirit give place to a 
positive call. The evangelization of Macedonia and Achaia was the 
real objective of the second journey. The Bezan text has, 'And when 
he arose he related the vision to us, and we understood that the Lord 
had called us to preach the Gospel to those in Macedonia.' 

10. c^T]TT]cra|x£v. The use of* the first person plural, which con- 
tinues until the close oiv. 17, and is resumed again at xx. 5 (where it 
continues to the end of the Acts), is now universally admitted to prove 
that Luke himself joined Paul at Troas ; was left at Philippi ; rejoined 
Paul there and was with him until his imprisonment at Rome. 
Throughout the ' we ' passages we therefore have the personal evidence 
of an eyewitness who played a part in the events he describes. <rvvPi- 
PatovT€s, ix. 22 n. 

XVI 13] NOTES 183 

Events at Philippi. 11-40. 

11. €v9v8pofX"qo-a|i€v, only here and in xxi. i. The island of 
Samothrace was famous for its worship of the Dioscuri, the patrons of 
sailors, and lay about halfway between Troas and Neapolis. The voyage 
of 1 25 miles was accomplished in two days with a following wind. On the 
return voyage with an adverse wind it took five days, xx. 6. Ne'av 
HoKiv. Modern Kavalla ; the port of Philippi, which was about two 
miles distant. It lay opposite the island of Thasos. 

12. ^iXlttttovs, situated near Krenides, astride the Via Egnatia, 
between the mountains and a marshy lake. It had been founded 
by Philip, the father of x\lexander the Great, near the source 
of the river Gangites. Near Philippi in the plain Octavian and 
Antony defeated Brutus and Cassius, B.C. 42, and Augustus sub- 
sequently made it a Roman colony with the jus Italicum. In 
S. Paul's dealings with the Philippians we are brought constantly 
into touch with Roman political and social life. Philippi was the 
first scene of the preaching of the Gospel in Europe, but the sharp 
line of distinction between the shores of the Aegean is of mediaeval 
origin, and there was no such cleavage in thought and life in an- 
tiquity. TJTis...KoX<ovLa. irpttfTT] is best taken in a political and not 
in a geographical sense. 'First city of the district,' i.e. of Mace- 
donia, which had been divided in 168 B.C. by the Romans into four 
districts or tetrarchies. It is objected to this that Amphipolis and 
Thessalonica could claim priority in rank, but Philippi was a Roman 
colony and naturally a rival of Amphipolis. Blass reads tt/jwttjs, ' a city 
of the first district.' KoXwvia. A Roman 'colony' contained a Roman 
garrison, and its citizens were Romans with the rights of citizenship. 
The Roman and Greek methods of colonization, and even Phoenician, 
are all well illustrated in the growth of the British Empire. Thus the 
trading settlements of the East India Company were 'factories' on the 
Phoenician model, the settlements of the Pilgrim Fathers in America 
and other settlements in Australia and New Zealand and Africa 
were more like the Greek colonies, while the military stations at 
Gibraltar, Malta and Aden correspond to the Roman ' colonies,' and 
the administration of the Roman provinces finds its counterpart to some 
extent in the British administration in India. 

13. lvoiJit^o}Ji€v irpoo-eux'nv clvai : other MSS. of good authority 
have ivofMl^cTO -rrpoaevxT] elvai, 'where a meeting for prayer was 
wont to be held.' There was no synagogue at Philippi, and the small 


Jewish population would resort to the banks of the Gangites which 
would afford facilities for the ceremonial ablutions, cf. Ps. cxxxvii. i. 
Trpoaevxrj, 'a place of prayer,' does not necessarily imply that there was 
any building on the spot, cf. in qua te qttaero proscucha, Juv. ill. 
296. Ka0i(ravT€s. The preacher usually sat, cf. Lk. iv. 10. rats 
(TweXGoiJO-ais "yvvai^iv. Lightfoot, Phil. 55-56, draws attention to the 
important part played by women in the evangelization of Macedonia at 
Philippi, Thessalonica and Beroea. Women had a higher social position 
in Macedonia and exercised greater freedom than elsewhere. 

14. Av8ta, '!rop<j)vpoir(oXis. Lydia probably took her name from 
her country. She was a native of Thyatira in the N. of Lydia, where 
a guild of dyers, 01 ^a(pe2s, was established. She was a ' God-fearer' 
and thus ready to listen to Paul's preaching. The Trop(pvpa, Lat. 
murex, was properly a fish from which the purple dye was extracted. 
The name of the fish was transferred to the colour of the dye. tJkovcv. 
The course of instruction {iXaXov/xev) issued in her conversion. This is 
brought out by the imperfect ijKoveu and the aorist Sii^voi^ev. For 
dirjuoL^ei' cf. Lk. xxiv. 45. 

15. 6 oIkos, cf. the case of Cornelius, x. ; the jailei% in/, v. 33 ; 
Crispus, xviii. 8. |JLe'veT€. The first instance mentioned of the hospitality 
which was so marked a characteristic of the early church, cf. i Pet. 
iv. 9, Rom. xii. 13, 3 Jn 5. From the Philippians alone of all his 
converts S. Paul accepted gifts for his maintenance, Phil. iv. 15. irape- 
Piao-ttTO, cf. Lk. xxiv. 29. 

16. irvevixa irijOcova, tr. 'a spirit, a Python.' It is not clear 
whether irvdoyva is in apposition with Trvevfxa or iraidiaKrjv. The 
Python was slain by Apollo at Delphi and hence the priestess, who 
had oracular powers, was called 7? Tivdla : -jridwv is the equivalent of 
LXX. iyyaaTpifxvdos, 'one with a familiar spirit,' e.g. the witch of 
Endor, r Sam. xxviii. 7, where the Vulgate has PytJwnessa. This 
power was clearly ventriloquism. But the slave girl evidently had 
prophetic powers, and it is likely that the ■K{)Qb3ve% were regarded as 
being inspired by Apollo. ep7ao-iav, 'business,' 'gain.' tois Kvpiois 
avTTJs, sc. her joint owners, jJiavTevojievT] does not occur elsewhere in 
N.T. ; whenever it is used in LXX. it is always of the false prophets, 
cf. Deut. xviii. 10. 

17. KaTaKoXoti9ov<ra. The present part. (R.V.) implies that she 
did this on more than one occasion. Ovtoi 01 avOpwiroi. S. Paul like 
his Master was recognized by the evil spirits, cf. Lk. iv. 41. tov Gcov 
ToO v\|/LcrTov. The same title was used by the demoniacs, Mk v. 7, 

XVI 2 4] NOTES 185 

Lk. viii. 28 ; it is nowhere used in N.T. by Christians or Jews of God, 
though not uncommon in O.T. 

18. SiairovqOeis, cf. iv. 2 n. 

rg. OTt €|t]X06v 11 IXttIs. e^epxo/zat must be rendered 'departed ' 
in both vv. 18, 19. This is the first account of the hostility of Gentiles, 
and it arose really from mercenary motives as in the similar case at 
Ephesus (xix. ■23 foil.), though plausible reasons are alleged before the 
authorities. €t\Kv<rav, so. with violence. 

19, 20. IttI tovs apx,ovTas...TOts <rTpaTT]'Yois. It is not certain 
whether the magistrates {a.px^^'^^'^) ^.re to be identified with the 
praetors (aTpaTrjyoi). There may have been two hearings of the case, 
first before the local magistrates who happened to be in the market- 
place, and afterw ards a more formal hearing before the praetors. This 
dignified title was assumed by the duumviri, the regular magistrates who 
presided in Roman fuunicipia and coloniae, cf. Hor. Sat. I. 5. 34. The 
title duumviri is found in inscrr. at Philippi. Ovtoi 01 avOptuTroi. Both 
words are contemptuous — ' these fellows ' (Lk. vii. 39). 'lovSaioi.. 
The owners of the slave girl aroused popular feeling against Paul 
and Silas, as the Jews were everywhere detested by Greeks and 
Romans alike, cf. xviii. 17, xix. 34, and this the Jews repaid, cf. 
advcrsus ODiues hostile odium, Tac. Hist. v. 5. The Roman attitude 
towards all religions within the Empire was conciliatory. They never 
interfered with matters of faith, cf. xviii. 13; but if any religious society 
was (1) a secret club or (2) interfered with the majesty of Rome and 
Augustus, it was liable to prosecution. On the first occasion on which 
S. Paul was brought before a Roman magistrate he was charged as a 
Jew, and not as a Christian, with a breach of the peace. 

21. ?0Tj. Judaism and Christianity both traversed the social 
customs of the Roman world and thus aroused hostility. To seek to 
impose such customs on Romans was tantamount to treason against 
the Emperor. 'P«|iaiois ovo-iv is in strong contrast with 'lovbaioL 

22. ircpipTJIavTes avT«v. ' Rent their garments off" them.' avruiv, 
i.e. Paul and Silas. This was done by the lictors, pa^Sovxot. Ramsay 
wrongly considers that the praetors rent their own garments in horror. 
papSi^civ, sc. 'to beat with the rods.' S. Paul was thrice beaten in 
this way, 2 Cor. xi. 25, and he refers to the incident here, i Thess. 
ii. 2 ; cf. V. 37. 

24. lo-<0T€'pav. Ramsay reconstructs the situation. The jailer's 
house was situated above the prison, on the side of the citadel, and the 


inner wards were probably in the rock, and entirely dark, to 
|v\ov : the stocks ; Lat. nerviis. 

25. v|xvovv Tov 0€dv, with accus. only here and Heb. ii. 12; cf. 
LXX. Dan. iii. 24. Cf. TertuUian, nihil cms sentit in nefvo, quum 
animus in caelo est. eTrT]Kpo«VTo, were listening attentively. 

26. <r€io-p.os, cf. iv. 31 ; earthquakes are not uncommon in this 
district. T|v€«x^0i](rav. The doors were fastened Math bars which wfere 
dislodged by the earthquake. The prisoners, though their bonds were 
loosed, made no effort to escape, as ihey were panic-stricken. dv€0T], for 
cl. avdBr\ cf. xxvii. 40. 

27. T]'|X€\\ev lavTov avaipelv, ' was on the point of killing himself.' 
A jailer was responsible by Roman law with his own life for the lives 
of his prisoners, xii. 19. S. Paul clearly heard the jailer bewailing his 
misfortune and cried out to him in the darkness. 

28. Mt]8€v Trpalxjs. S. Luke uses -rrpdaau) more often than any 
other writer as equivalent to ttoiu). Suicide had become quite common 
in the Roman world, and by the Stoic creed was recognized as 
a honourable end to life. Near Philippi Brutus had committed 

29. ^vTpo}j,cs, vii. 32. He connected the earthquake with the 
power of his prisoners who had been unjustly condemned. 

30. Kvpioi, a term of respect; cf. ix. 5, Jn xx. 15. The request 
of the jailer shews that he was acquainted with the preaching of 
S. Paul. It is noticeable that the firstfruits of the Gospel in Europe 
were — a rich Jewess, a Greek slave girl, and a Roman official. 

3r. TOV Kvpiov. The apostles gently refuse the title KvpioL and 
point the jailer to the one Lord. Kal 6 oIkos o-ou. The conversion of 
households was a striking feature of S. Paul's labours and gave rise to 
the house-churches ; cf. Philemon. 

33. ^Xov<r€v...€paTrTio-0T]. The words are in strong juxtaposition. 
The jailer washed the wounds of the apostles, and he himself was 
cleansed from the wounds of sin. 

34. dva-ya'ywv, i.e. to his own house situated higher up above the 
prison. irapeOiiKev Tpctiretav. The expression is classical, cf. Horn. 
Od. XVII. 333. -q-yaWido-aTO. The verb does not occur in cl. Gk : 
it denotes exultant joy ; cf. Lk. i. 47, x. 21 and Acts ii. 26. TravouKeV, 
cf.\y)dd, Lk. xxiii. 18; cl. Gk iravoLK'qaia. Tr€7rio-T6UK«s. The 
joy of the Holy Spirit followed close upon his baptism, which was 
accompanied by a profession of faith. 

35. dir€VT€i\av ol o-TpaTT]-yol. Codex Bezae adds the reason — 

XVII i] NOTES 187 

they were frightened by the earthquake. To this may be added their 
recognition of the illegality of their hasty action in scourging Roman 
citizens. Others consider that the magistrates thought the earthquake 
indicated that they had offended a foreign god, and had therefore 
better dismiss his messengers. papSovx^ovs. The praetors affected 
the style of Roman praetors and consuls, and their lictors carried _/^jr^j. 

36. 'AirccTTaXKav^dTrecrrdX/caa-t, Hellen. Tr. ' have sent. ' 

37. A€ipavT€s, 'having beaten'; cf. v. 40 n. The magistrates 
had violated the Lex Valeria B.C. 509 and the Lex Porcia B.C. 248. 
They had added insult to injury, as they had condemned them aKaraKpi- 
Tovs, i.e. without hearing their case, and had scourged them in public, 
and lastly wanted to get rid of them privately. 'Ptopiaiovs virdp- 
X^ovTas recalls 'Pw/xat'ois ovaiv, cf. v. 21 ; VTrdpxovras bears its full 
meaning. S. Paul had had the rights of a Roman citizen from birth ; 
nothing is known how Silas obtained the civitas ; cf. xxii. 27. ov 
■yap, no indeed ; nofz profecio. yap is frequent in answers in this sense. 
avToi. ' Let them conduct us forth in person.' e^a-ya-yeTwcrav. The 
magistrates had desired to 'cast them out.' S. Paul demands at least 
the reparation of ' personal ' conduct from the city. 

39. irapeKaXecrav. 'They besought them,' cf. t'. 15. The Bezan 
text gives these words : 'We did not know as touching your affairs that 
ye were just men.' The tone of the magistrates, weak and fearful of 
a further riot in which the fickle populace might turn against them, was 
completely changed. S. Paul may have purposely taken up this strong 
position to rescue his converts from molestation. 

40. €^T]X0av. The change to the third person makes it clear 
that S. Luke remained. Silas and Timothy (probably) accompanied 
S. Paul. 

Ch. XVII. Thessalonica and Beroea. 1-15. 

I. Aio8ev(ravT€s. They followed the F/Vz ^^«a//a which extended 
from the Hellespont to Dyrrhachium, a distance of 500 miles. From 
Dyrrhachium it was a short sea passage to Brundusium, the terminus of 
the V/a Appia from Rome, tt^v 'A|x<j>tiroXiv, 32 miles from Philippi, 
Originally called 'Yivveb. 68oi ; it occupied an important position at the 
mouth of the Strymon. It was colonized by the Athenians B.C. 467, 
and was the scene of the death both of Cleon and Brasidas in 424 in 
the Peloponnesian war. After the battle of Pydna it was selected as 


the capital of the fiist of the four districts of Macedonia. 'AiroX- 
Xwv^av, on the Via Egnatia, 30 miles from Amphipolis and 37 from 
Thessalonica. The two places are very likely mentioned to indicate 
that they marked two stages in the journey to Thessalonica. 0€<r«ra- 
XovCktjv. Thessalonica was close to the site of Tlierma, built 315 B.C. 
by Cassander, and called after his wife, the step-sister of Alexander the 
Great. With a fine natural harbour it commanded also the rich plain 
of the Strymon. After 168 B.C. it became the chief city of Macedonia, 
and later a free city with its own assembly and magistrates (politarchs). 
The modern city of Salonika, which is now in the power of Greece, has 
a great political and commercial importance. A large proportion of the 
population are Greeks and Jews. o-uva-ywyTJ . Some MSS. insert 17, 
implying that in the other towns mentioned there was no synagogue. 

2. Kara... €10)005, cf. xiii. 5, 14 n. eirl o-dppaTa rpia, for three 
sabbaths or for three weeks. SicXelaro, properly ' he conversed.' The 
word is variously translated 'reasoned,' 'discussed,' 'disputed,' cf. 
XX. 7, 9; xxiv. 12. S. Paul employed the usual method of instruction 
by question and answer universally adopted by Greek philosophers. 
diro To3v •Ypa<})t3v, cf. ix. 22. S. Paul, like S. Peter (ii. 14 foil.), in 
preaching to Jews 'expounds' {^Lavoiytav) the Messianic prophecies of 
O.T. and 'quotes passages' {irapaTLdefxevos), reinterpreting their meaning 
in the light of their fulfilment. The stages in the argument are (i) That 
the Messiah must do and suffer certain things which hitherto had been 
misunderstood, (2) all was fulfilled in the life and death and resur- 
rection of Jesus, {3) therefore Jesus is the Messiah. 

3. Tov xP'-o'Tov ^8ti iraOeiv, iii. 18 n.; Lk. xxiv. 25, 26; i Thess. iv. 
14; cf. I Cor. i. 23. 6v . . . Kara^'yeWci), with the change of construction 
from the third to the first person, as frequent in S. Luke's writings, cf. 
i. 4, xxiii. 22; Lk. v. 14. 

4. irpo(r€KXT)pw0T|o-av. Rendall considers that the passive aorist 
has a middle force, 'threw in their lot with.' R.V. 'consorted.' twv 
a-i^o[i.iv<av . . . , 'of God-fearing Greeks a great multitude...' For the 
numVjer of converts amongst the heathen cf. f Thess. i. 9. YwaiKwv 
T€ T«v irpwTCDV. 'And of the wives of the chief men not a few,' 
cf. xvi. 13 n. From the Epistles to the Thess. it is clear that S. Paul 
spent more than three weeks at Thessalonica. He preached to them 
(i) the nearness of the Parousia, (2) the nature of the kingdom, and 
(3) gave definite instruction upon social purity and the need of suppres- 
sion of idleness and disorder. He hinuselt set a good example by 
working with his own hands. He was subjected to persecution which 

XVII 7] NOTES 189 

emanated from the Jews and after his departure was extended to his 
converts. S. Luke only gives a short account of the opening of his 
mission and of the scene which led to its close. 

5. ZTiXaj(ravT€S...T'r]v ttoXiv. Tr. 'But the Jews moved with 
jealousy gathered around them some low fellows amongst the loafers 
in the market-place and collecting a crowd threw the city into an uproar.' 
ayopaios and Trovrjpos are very difficult to render adequately, and too 
much stress is laid upon the moral significance in A.V. Political and 
moral terminology are closely connected ; 7ro;'77p6s = first, 'a man who 
works,' and as manual labour was despised, ot irovqpol (cf. KaKol) were 
the 'lower classes'; later it acquired a moral sense, 'bad,' so 'lewd,' 
A.V. = Germ. Leiite, people, has passed through the same stages. The 
upper classes called themselves ot koKo'l, oi yvupifioi., ol KoXoKayadoi. 
The agora was the centre of the life of every town, and the ancient 
Greeks loved idling and talking in the market-place, but dyopa2os has a 
contemptuous sense, and is applied in cl. Gk to those who did nothing 
else but idle. S. Paul had made some progress amongst the upper 
classes, and the Jews had no difficulty in stirring up a popular riot 
amongst the riff-raff of the populace. 'lacrovos. He may have been 
a Jew with the name of Joshua (Jesus) who had adopted the popular 
Greek name so common in Thessaly as the nearest Hellenic equi- 
valent. €18 Tov 8t]jjlov. 'Before the popular assembly'; 6 8rj/uLos is the 
technical title for the assembly of a free city. 

6. em Tovs TroXirapx^as, a striking instance of S. Luke's accuracy. 
Though the title does not occur in classical literature it is supported by 
various Macedonian inscriptions, notably by one on an arch in Thessa- 
lonica which contains the names Sosipater, Gaius, Secundus and four 
others, assigned to the reign of Vespasian. tt]v oiKov|x,£vr]v, clearly 
the Roman Empire. The charge was a gross exaggeration, but it is 
noteworthy that it was made on the political grounds of causing a 
disturbance and of disloyalty to the Emperor. 

7. ovs inroSeSeKTat, 'whom Jason has received'; viro does not 
convey any notion of secrecy, but of hospitality, ovtoi TrdvT€S, in- 
cluding not only Jason and the apostles, but Christians generally. twv 
8oY[j.dT«v, e.g. Lex Julia de viajesiate. It was treason to acknowledge 
any other king but Caesar. For reference to the preaching of the 
kingdom cf. i Thess. ii. 12, iv. 14, v. 2, 23. The charge was malevolent 
as the Jews themselves believed in the coming of the ' King Messiah,' 
but they knew that the officials could not disregard it. The same charge 
was brought against our Lord, Lk. xxiii. 2. 


8. €Tapa|av. The magistrates were alarmed ; they were satisfied 
that there was no real truth in the charge, and contented themselves 
with taking bail or security from Jason and let the apostles go. 
Probably the condition was attached that they should leave the city. 

9. \apdvT€s TO tKavov = Lat. satis accipere. S. Paul left the city 
under painful circumstances and his converts suffered persecution after- 
wards, I Thess. ii. 14. 

10. Be'poiav, 50 miles S.W. of Thessalonica, now Verria, a place 
of some commercial importance. 

11. €V"Yev4a-T€poi, of noble birth, Lk. xix. 12, i Cor. i. 26; 
here of noble character displayed in absence of strife and envy, to 
Ka0* ijixc'pav, day by day, implying that S. Paul stayed some time, dva- 
KpCvovTCS To-s 7pa<J)ds, 'examining the passages,' i.e. those quoted by 
S. Paul, cf. I Cor. x. 25, 27; Lk. xxiii. 14; Acts iv. 9, etc. el ^x^"--- 
ovT«s, 'whether these statements were so.' Bezan text adds, 'as Paul 
states them.' 

12. Twv 'EXXtjv£8wv. 'EXXtjjz/s is a fem. adj. and goes properly 
with '^vvoukQiv, but it must clearly be extended to a.vhpQiv. It has been 
pointed out that Sopater, son of Pyrrhus of Beroea (xx. 4), is the only 
Greek whose father's name is mentioned in accordance with the Greek 
custom, and this probably implies that he was of good family. In 
Macedonia the Gospel was accepted by the well-to-do classes. 

13. KaKci with o-aXevovT€s, ' there also ' as at Thessalonica ; for the 
figurative use of aaXevoj cf. 2 Thess. ii. 2. For similar conduct of the 
Jews at Antioch and Iconium and Lystra cf. xiv. 

14. 'i(as eirl, 'as far as to': other MSS. have tJs iwl which some 
have wrongly taken to imply that it was a trick to put the Jews off the 
track of S. Paul, so A.V. The pointed references to S. Paul in these 
verses shew that he was the chief object of attack. 

15. 01 8€ Ka0to-TdvovT€S. oi 8e = the Christian brethren of Beroea 
conducting him. The general view is that he sailed from Dium to the 
Piraeus. Codex Bezae adds: 'he passed by Thessaly: for he was for- 
bidden to preach the Gospel to them,' which may mean that he coasted 
along Thessaly : or that he went by land by way of the vale of Tempe 
and the pass of Thermopylae. In any case the brethren accompanied 
him as far as Athens. From i Thess. iii. i it is clear that Timothy 
joined Paul at Athens, whence he was despatched to Thessalonica. If 
Silas came to Athens he too must have been sent back as S. Paul was 
alone at Athens. Both rejoined him at Corinth (xviii. 5). 


Athens. 16-34. 

16. *Ev 8€ Tats 'A0TJvai.s- Paul had been trained in the reh'gious' 
capital of the world, and now entered its intellectual capital, and was to 
suffer in its political capital. Athens though decadent had cast her 
spell over Rome as she had over Macedon. Philosophy of every 
school flourished — Academic — Peripatetic — Sceptic — Stoic — Epicurean 
— and the gardens of the Lyceum, the Academy and of Epicurus, as 
well as the painted porch where Zeno had taught, were crowded with 
students ; most young Romans of position studied at Athens, the 
premier university of the ancient world, and Cicero addressed the de 
Officiis to his son when he was there. Corinth was the capital of the 
province of Achaia, Athens itself w^as an urbs libera. 7rap«|vv€T0, 
cf. XV. 39 note. KareiSooXov, ' full of idols ' ; ' wholly given to idol- 
atry' gives a wrong impression. The Athenians were proud of the 
altars, statues and dedicatory offerings which beautified their city, but 
there was little or no sincerity of worship. S. Paul wandered through 
the city seeing its sights (^ewpoOvros). Pausanias testifies to the exist- 
ence of altars to unknown gods along the Hamaxites road. For the 
form /caret'SwXoj' which occurs only here cf. Karddeudpos, ' full of trees.' 

17. SieXe'-ycTO. S. Paul approached the Jews and the God-fearers, 
but they were not probably numerous in Athens, and he conversed 
daily in the agora, in the way that Socrates had done 400 years before. 
He at once became an Athenian to the Athenians and fell in with the 
customs of the city. Page considers that the real antithesis to /xh ovv 
is iiri\a^6fj.evoi 8e and that the other clauses are parenthetical. ev rfj 
oiYopa. S.W. of the Acropolis, the centre of Athenian life: around it 
were grouped the main public buildings : temples, porches and porticoes, 
senate-house, law-courts and shops. The morning was devoted to 
trade and public business ; when business was over, for the rest of the 
day it was crowded with loungers and gossips, the resort of travel- 
ling philosophers and rhetoricians eager to get a hearing from the 
idle intellectual Athenians. Among such Paul, who had a 'new thing 
to tell them, would find a ready hearing. ' Market-place ' is al- 
together an inadequate rendering for the great central square of Athens 
with its exquisite marble buildings of pure white. 

18. Tivis 8^ Kal T«v 'EiriKovpitov. Epicurus, the founder of the 
philosophy named after him, flourished 342 — 270 B.C. His chief 
doctrines were (i) Physics: the world was composed of atoms and 


everything, including even the soul of man, was due to their fortuitous 
concourse; (2) Ethics: the chief aim of life was happiness — freedom 
from pain — calmness of mind (ctrapa^ta) ; (3) Religion: this calmness 
could be attained by freedom from fear of death and of the gods ; and 
Epicurus taught that the soul, like the body, was dissolved at death, 
and that the gods dwelt apart from the world, ' careless of mankind,' 
and had no connection with it. These doctrines are best expounded 
in the great poem of Lucretius de Rerum natiira. His own life of 
perfect happiness was the best exponent of his philosophy, as he 
suffered from a painful and incurable disease. His successors degraded 
his teaching by converting his philosophy into the profession of mere 
pleasure and sensuality. Dtcoikcov. The Stoic philosophy was radically 
opposed to Epicureanism. The founder was Zeno of Citium in Cyprus, 
who flourished 340 — 260 B.C. and taught in the orod TroiKi'Sr] or painted 
porch close to the agora. Physics: wup t^xvlkov was the first cause or 
primal element which, passing through air and water, formed the world. 
Ethics: everything was subordinate to dperr], 'virtue,' and to attain 
virtue it was necessary to live ofxoXoyovfxevoijs <pvaei {convetiienternatiirae), 
i.e. in accordance with the laws of the universe and reason. Every- 
thing else — pleasure, pain, wealth — was indifferent {d8Ld(popov), and 
towards all else the Stoic was dwadrjs. This was a noble school in a 
degenerate world and appealed to some of the noblest of the Romans. 
Cato, Seneca, Thrasea Paetus and many others suffered martyrdom for 
their faith. Religion : The Stoics held that God was immanent in all 
created things, and that the soul of man at death passed back again 
to the great divine Soul. They were Pantheists and destroyed all 
sense of belief in the life after death, and hence suicide became a 
noble end to life. But this Pantheistic belief also created the Stoic 
conception of the universal brotherhood of man, and thus paved the 
way for Christianity ; see further, Introduction. o-uvc'PaXXov, sc. 
\6yov, engaged in conversation with him, cf. iv. 15. Kai tiv€S ^Xcyov. 
Not necessarily the philosophers but probably some of the bystanders 
in the agora. Ti dv GeXoi-.-Xe-yeiv. tI deXeL and tL clv O^Xol are equi- 
valent to Latin ^jdJ {sibi) vult, cf. v. 20, ii. 12 ; 'what meaning {dv 
deXoi) can there be in what this babbler says {Xi-yeiv) ? ' for the potential 
opt. used only by S. Luke cf. x. 17. o-ircpixoXo-Yos outos. 'This seed- 
picker,' properly of a rook or crow picking up seeds: hence one who 
hangs about the shop and the market picking up scraps: and so a 
parasite or hanger-on. Dem. (269) calls Aeschines (nrepfjLoXdyos, irepi- 
TpL/x/jia dyopds, one who picks up scraps of news and retails them, and 

XVII 2i] NOTES 193 

talks fluently without understanding. It was evidently a colloquial and 
contemptuous expression current at Athens. Wj'vwv 8aijj.oviwv, ' of 
foreign divinities.' The same charge had been made against Socrates, 
Anaxagoras, and Protagoras. Plato, Apol. 24. It is possible that the 
use of the plural shews that the Athenians had carelessly imagined that 
Paul was preaching to them two Gods, Jesus and the Resurrection 
('Ai'da-racris). They had altars at Athens erected to deified qualities, 
e.g. Pity and Modesty, and the mistake is not inconceivable. 

19. e-TriXap6[i£voi, cf. ix. 27. Probably the Athenians brought 
Paul before the council of the Areopagus, and their attitude was 
certainly not friendly. There is no indication of any enthusiasm to 
follow a new teacher. cttI T6v"Ap€tov nd-yov. Two views are held, 
(i) That there was no formal hearing of St Paul's case and that the 
crowd escorted him to the rugged rocky knoll below the Propylaea of 
the Acropolis which is ascended by some stone steps cut in the rock 
and then listened to his discourse. It was here that the council of the 
Areopagus met in olden time. (2) That S. Paul was brought before 
the council and that 6"ApeiOS Wa-yo^ stands for 17 ^ovXi] r) i^ 'Apeiov Ildyov, 
the most ancient and venerable of Athenian courts, which still retained 
some of its old prestige and exercised supervision in matters of morals 
and religion. It met in the (TTod ^aaiXeios on the outskirts of the agora. 
The second view is probably correct. Avvd|i£6a -yvwyai. The question 
was courteously put. There was no formal trial but an informal ex- 

20. levi^ovra, 'strange' or 'unusual.' They regarded S. Paul as 
a teacher of some new foreign religion from the east. aKods. uKorj 
in N.T. has three meanings, 'report,' 'power of hearing,' 'ears,'cf. 
Lk vii. I. 

21. 01 liri8Ti[j.ovvT€S ^c'voL, 'but all the Athenians and the foreigners 
residing in the city found no time for anything else except saying or 
hearing something new.' e'iri8i]p.ovvT€S, cf. ii. 10 : tivKaipovv, i Cor. 
xvi. 12. S. Luke, with gentle sarcasm, depicts in a single sentence 
Athens in S. Paul's time. As a great centre of trade and learning 
it was crow^ded with foreign residents, rj Xe'Y€iv...Kaiv6T€pov. The 
restless craving for novelty was a national characteristic of the Athenians. 
Demosthenes bitterly contrasts the idle curiosity of the Athenians with 
the vigour of Philip of Macedon, Dem. FAil. i. 43, cf. also Theoph. 
Characters viii. Trept Xo707rouas. The comparative may indicate that 
they were always hankering after something newer than the novelty 
of yesterday, but the phrase may be a colloquialism as Dem. in the 

B. A. 13 


Philippics 156 uses e'i tl XeyeraL vewrepov as well as \iyeral tl Katvov for 
' is there any news ? ' 

■22. Iv [licta, cf. iv. 7. (a) S. Paul, recognizing the religious cha- 
racter of the Athenians, bases his discourse upon their worship of the Un- 
known God (22, 23). [d) He seeks to dispel their ignorance and to shew 
the folly and uselessness of idolatry by expounding the true nature of 
God, known and revealed in His relation to the universe and to man. 
He is the creator and the source of all life and order and cannot be 
confined in temples, nor represented by idols (24, 25). {c) Man is His 
offspring and partakes of His nature, but in ignorance has given way to 
idolatry (26 — 29). {d) The time of ignorance is passed and the time for 
repentance in the face of judgment has come. This has been revealed by 
'a man he hath ordained,' and assurance is given by His resurrection 
from the dead (30, 31). "AvSpes 'A0T]vatoi. S. Paul falls in naturally 
with the Athenian method of public address, when as an act of courtesy 
avdpes is always prefixed to diKaffTai, ^ovXevrai, etc. Kara iravra. 
The evidence of his eyes as he wandered round the city had forced the 
conviction upon him. ws 8€io-i8ai[Jiov€0-T€'pous, cf. xxv. 19. 8ei(ndaL- 
fiojv is a neutral word and denotes in a good sense ' reverent ' and in 
a bad sense 'superstitious.' deiaidaijuLovia as described by Theophrastus 
corresponds fairly closely to the English meaning of 'superstition,' but 
S. Paul does not wish to offend his hearers but to convey his im- 
pression (cf. V. 2^ evae^elre) that the Athenians were a religious people. 
The comparative in Greek and Latin is used to denote the slight 
excess of the quality defined by the positive : tr. ' somewhat religious.' 
Ramsay tr. ' more than others respectful of what is divine.' The 
religious and reverent spirit of the Athenians is attested by Thuc. 
II. 40 ; Soph. O. C. 260. 

23. 8i€px6|i€vos, 'as I was passing along (i.e. the streets) and 
closely observing the objects of your worship ' (i.e. the temples, altars, 
etc.). Kai PcDfxov, i.e. in addition to the other altars which had definite 
titles. ' A.yvu><rr(o 0€w, 'to an unknown god.' Pausanias I. i. 4 testifies 
to the existence of such altars, ^oo/uloIs dedv dvofia^ojj.eviov dyvdjaTiou, 
both at Athens and Olympia : so also Philostratus in TAe life of Apol- 
lonius of Tyana who visited Athens about the same time as S. Paul. 
It would be quite in keeping with Athenian religious sentiment to erect 
an altar with such an inscription in the case of some special favour 
which could not be attributed to any known god, or in the case of any 
peculiar disaster when they did not know what god to appease. S. Paul 
utilizes the existence of such an altar to testify to the groping after 

XVII 26] NOTES 195 

greater knowledge of the divine unseen power. o...tovto, 'that divine 
nature which ye reverence, not knowing what it is, I declare unto you.' 

24. 6 0€os 6 iroiifjo-as. S. Paul here speaks as a Jew. The Athenian 
had no conception of 'the God ' who was revealed in the whole universe 
{Kodixo's.) which He had created and over which He ruled with sovereign 
power, wherein law and order shew the beneficence of divine power. 
The Greek philosophers had observed the orderly system of the universe 
but they had not attributed its origin and maintenance to the one God. 
virapxcov carries its full meaning, ' being from the beginning Lord of 
heaven and earth.' ovpa.vo'i and 7^ further define Koafxos. kv yj^^^o- 
iroiTJTOis vaois. S. Paul may have had the words of S. Stephen in his 
mind, vii. 48; cf. i Kings viii. 27. The thought is also familiar in 
Greek and Latin literature. 

25. irpoo-Scofievos, 'needing anything besides,' i.e. to ensure perfec- 
tion. God was independent of the necessity of receiving offerings from 
men. Pythagoras taught that ' whoever honours God as though He was in 
need has failed to see that he thinks himself mightier than God. ' Even 
Lucretius expounded this truth, but from a diflferent standpoint, as he 
held that the gods did not interest themselves in the world and men : 
divom naUira... nihil indiga nostri, Lucr. ii. 650. avros StSovs. The 
participle is causal. So far from needing anything from men, God gives 
of His own freewill to all living creatures life iX'^rj) and the means of 
its continuance {ttvot}). Trd<ri includes clearly all living creatures. With 
this the Stoics would agree. 

26. kitoiyxa-fv l| Ivos, ' He created of one,' i.e. one man, cf. Gen. i. 
T.R. reads aLfxaros, ' of one blood ' ; so A.V. The Jews alone had any 
hold of the true meaning of the unity of creation which was fully revealed 
in Christ Jesus, cf. Col. iii. ir. KaroiKCiv, 'so that they might dwell '; 
the infin. of purpose. This was the object of the creative design. Iirl 
iravTOS 7rpo<r«irov ttis 7tjs, Gen. ii. 6, xi. 8; Lk. xxi. 34. 6pi(ras... 
avTwv, ' having determined appointed seasons and the bounds of their 
habitation.' The Athenians were familiar with the Stoic doctrine of 
irpovoia, but S. Paul owed his belief in the 'providence of God' to the 
faith of O.T. The Hebrews believed that they were chosen by God 
for His own special purpose, and that their land was chosen for them 
to fit them for that purpose. There was no idea of chance or of fate in 
the Jewish faith but only of the will of God. This truth S. Paul, like the 
Hebrew prophets, extends to other races and countries. Kaipovs, i.e. 
the periods of time allotted to each nation : elsewhere of the seasons of 
the year, xiv. 17. 



27. ^T)T€iv, infill, of purpose; dependent in thought upon v. ■26. 
€l dpa 76 \j/T]Xa<|>T](r6iav. The optative with et apa 76 (cl. Gk et ttws, 
Lat. si forte) expresses hope, 'if haply.' It was the real intention of 
God's providence in creation and in history. Others maintain that the 
phrase indicates a contingency which is not likely to happen. \|/t]Xa- 
<j)7]o-€iav, 'they might feel after,' cf. i Jn i. i. It was open to men to 
' feel ' the presence and power of God in the world around them, though 
they could not see Him with their eyes. But the word may have its 
classical meaning of 'groping after,' 'guessing at truth ': cf. Is. lix. 10; 
Plato, Fhaedo, 99 B. The inscription 'to an unknown God' rather 
points to the latter meaning. But if S. Paul was looking at the know- 
ledge of God from his own point of view, it must certainly refer to the 
assurance of the feeling of the heart: cf. Rom. i. 19, 20. Kat 76 has 
better authority than KaiToiye, 'and yet,' 'and that though.' ov [laKpdv 
. . . virdpx^ovTa : note the recurrence of virdpx^i-v , tjv. 24, 27, 29. The 
nearness of God is not mei"ely local but spiritual. The Stoics would 
approve, as their doctrine of Pantheism would seem to them to be in 
accord with S. Paul. ' God is near thee ; God is with thee ; God is 
within,' Seneca: cf. 2X%o Jupiter est qiiodcumque vides quodairnque 
moveris, Lucan, Phars. IX. 580. But S. Paul goes on to shew how 
Stoicism had grasped only half the truth in their identification of God 
with all nature. God is apart from nature, independent of the world 
and man, and the source of their life. 

28. €V aiTa)...e<r(i.6v. A translation in Syriac of four Greek lines, 
said to be taken from the lost Minos of Epimenides, has been discovered 
and retranslated by Mr A. B. Cook into Greek as follows: 

"^oi ixkv ereKTr^vavTo rdcpov, Travvireprare daifxov, 
KjOT^res del xpevaTai, /ca/ca drjpia, yacrr^pes dpyai' 
'AXXd, yap ov av ^dj'es, fwets 8e /cat laraaai aiel- 
'E?/ crol yap iu)/iiep Kai Kiveo/neaOa Kal el/jiev. 
It is clear that S. Paul is loosely quoting the fourth line of this poem 
here and the second line in Tit. i. 12. Jerome says on Tit. i. 12 that 
the quotation comes from a poem entitled Trepl xpWt^'^^i which might 
well have been the alternative title of the poem of Epimenides. 
Probably in the poem Minos is addressing Zeus, and he calls the 
Cretans liars because they claimed that Zeus was dead and that they 
had built his tomb, whereas he was alive. S. Paul uses the pagan 
poet's line to shew that all man's physical, intellectual and spiritual 
qualities depend upon God. Toii -ydp Kal -yevos eo-jxc'v. tou, the article, 
is used in poetry for the dem. pronoun. The words are quoted from 

XVII 3 1] NOTES 197 

the works of the Stoic Aratus (B.C. 270) of Soli in Cilicia, Phaenomena 5. 
As S. Paul refers to poets it is probable he had in his mind the similar 
words of Cleanthes (B.C. 300) Hynin to Zeus, 5 
eK aov yap yevos ecrfxeu. 
S. Paul quotes elsewhere from the classics : (pdeipovaiv i^d-q XPV<^'''^ 
ofxiXiai KUKal, i Cor. xv. 33. He uses the words of the Stoic poets to 
point to the doctrine of God's divine Fatherhood, a conception far beyond 
pagan philosophy. 

29. 76VOS. If we are the offspring of God and He is our Father, 
all idolatry is ipso facto condemned. God cannot be like the mere work 
of men's hands. ' Thou shalt not mould Him of silver and gold, a true 
likeness cannot be found of this material.' Seneca, Ep. Mor. xxxi. 11. 
Xapd'Y[iaTi...dv0pw'irov. xapd7/xaTt is in apposition with Xi^(^, etc., 
'a thing graven' or carved, x^pdrreti' is used of stamping a coin. 
Tc'x^viis, the manual skill. €v0u|x7i<r€U)s, the mental conception. Even 
the famous chryselephantine statue of Athena would come under 
S. Paul's condemnation. Greek poets and thinkers had ridiculed the 
hoUowness of idolatry but not its wickedness, and none had risen to the 
scorn of the prophets of the O.T. : cf. Is. xliv. 15. to 0€iov. Tr. ' the 
Godhead ' or * the divine nature.' 

30. Tovs |JL€V oiiv...d-yvoias. Why had God left man in ignorance 
if the message of Paul was true? To this question, here as at Lystra 
(xiv.), he cannot give a complete answer, but he leaves the solution in 
God's hands, being certain of one thing, that what had been in the 
past was in accordance with the divine plan, (i) The infancy of the 
race of man as of every child is a time of ignorance gradually passing 
into knowledge. This God permitted. Acts xiv. 16. (2) When there 
is no knowledge there can be no imputation of guilt, so God ' over- 
looked ' those times. The verb vwepopdu) is used in LXX., Ps. Iv. i, etc., 
of neglecting, despising, but that cannot be the meaning here. S. Paul 
thus emphasizes the difference between the condition of the past and 
the perfect revelation of the present. If the Athenians and others 
neglect so great a salvation they will not be in the same case as their 
ignorant forefathers. irdvTas iravraxov [jL€Tavo€iv. The Stoic, con- 
vinced of his own self-sufficiency, would have no sense of the need 
of repentance. To the Epicurean who denied any connection between 
God and man the call to repentance would seem absurd. Neither had 
any idea of the personal responsibility of man to God or of judgment 
to come. 

31. ^<rTT|(r€v r\\i.ipa.v. (iod created the world for a purpose, and 


that purpose is righteousness, and a day will come (which S. Paul 
then thought to be closely imminent) when as Judge He will arraign 
man before Him and try him by the standard of righteousness : Ps. ix. 8, 
xcvi. 13, etc. ev dvSpl w a>pi(r£v. (^, relative attraction, 'by a man 
whom he hath appointed.' ev, cf. Mt. ix. 34; i Cor. vi. 2. A whole 
flood of light is shed upon these words if we remember that the 
thought, so prominent in S. Paul's mind at this time, was the nearness 
of Christ's second coming to judge the world, i Thess. iv. 15. ttio-tiv 
irapatrx^wv ird(riv, 'giving assurance (or proof) to all.' ( i) Assurance of 
the power and office of Christ by His resurrection (Rom. i. 4), and that 
as Christ was raised all men would be raised (i Cor. xv. 12 foil.). 
(2) Assurance of salvation to all men through faith in Jesus Christ 
(Acts iv. 12). We can picture the interest of the Athenians as they 
listened to S. Paul's argument, which contained nothing distinctively 
Christian until he reached this last brief sentence, and even then the 
name of Jesus was not mentioned : and yet he had preached to them 
Jesus and the resurrection, and gradually led them on to this great 
climax, starting from what they understood and appreciated. 

32. dvdo-Taoriv V€Kp(ov. Tr. 'a resurrection of dead men.' S.Paul 
had only spoken of the resurrection of Jesus, but the idea in itself was 
ridiculed by Stoics and Epicureans alike, and they refused to listen 
any more : cf i Cor. i. 23. But the audience did not consist only of 
philosophers, and there were others who felt that if they could under- 
stand Paul's message they might find the solution of the enigmas of life 
and were willing to hear further. 

33. ovTcos, ' thus' : with this result S. Paul left the court. 

34. 0Lv8p£S koXXti0€'vt€S, cf. v. 1 3 ; note that avdpes is not strictly 
correct. Aiovvcrios, clearly a member of the council, and therefore 
a man of some position, as he must have held the office of Archon. 
Tradition calls him the first bishop of Athens. Ad|iapis, probably 
identical with ddfxoKLs — 'a. heifer. Athenian social law would not have 
allowed any woman of high position to be present. But the educated 
women like Aspasia, as far back as the time of Pericle?, had broken 
down the rules of the exclusion of women from public intercourse. 
S. Paul had tried to be an Athenian to the Athenians, and the result 
was very disheartening. He had tried it) approach the ' wisdom of the 
world ' upon its own ground ; he never tried again and wrote no letter 
to the Athenians. He went on to Corinth, where the people likewise 
prided themselves upon yvQxns and aotpla, but S. Paul preached to them 
' Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God ' : i Cor. i. 1 7 — iii. 19. 


Ch. XVIII. Corinth. T-17, 

1. els KopivOov. Corinth had been destroyed by Mummius in 
146 B.C. — an act of gross vandalism — but it had been restored by 
Julius Caesar, and at the time of S. Paul's visit it was the capital of 
Achaia and the seat of Roman government. Astride the isthmus 
with its two ports of Cenchreae and Lechaeum, Corinth looked 
east and west and was the great mart of exchange in direct com- 
munication with Rome and Ephesus and the east. All sorts and 
conditions of men were congregated in the city — Greeks, Orientals, 
Romans and Jews. Its life presented peculiar attractions and peculiar 
difficulties for the spread of the Gospel. Many difficulties — faction and 
strife, pride of knowledge and wisdom, danger of idolatry, social dis- 
order, vice and loose living — threatened the life of the infant Corinthian 
church, but in spite of much bodily weakness and soreness of heart 
S. Paul dealt fearlessly with them all in person and in his letters. 
The first Epistle to the Corinthians, written from Ephesus during the 
third journey, tells us more than any other book of the New Testament 
about the life of a Christian community, and the second, written from 
Macedonia, is the most intensely personal of all S. Paul's letters. 

2. 'AKvXav...Kal IIpio-KiXXav, cf. Rom. xvi. 3; r Cor. xvi. 19; 
2 Tim. iv. 19. Aquila was probably a Jewish freedman, a Pontian Jew 
who had migrated to Rome. It is impossible to determine whether 
he and his wife Priscilla (diminutive of Prisca) were already Christians, 
but as no mention is made of conversion and baptism it is reasonable 
to suppose that they were. S. Paul may very likely have been first 
attracted towards Aquila as being engaged in the same trade. As 
usually Priscilla's name is mentioned first, it has been conjectured that 
she was of higher social rank and of better education. They were 
with S. Paul subsequently both at Ephesus and Rome. irpocrc^dTws, 
'recently,' a rare word used metaphorically. TrpbacpaTos, lit. 'freshly- 
slaughtered.' 8id TO 8iaT€Taxe'vai...'Pw|XT]S. The edict is mentioned 
by Suetonius, Clatid. 25 -.Jtidaeos- impidsore Chresto assidue tiumUtuantes 
Roma expidit. Dio Cassius says that the edict was not carried out 
on account of the great number of the Jews: cf. xxviii. 15. Neither 
Tacitus nor Josephus refer to it. The probability is that disturbances 
between the Jews and the Christians ' about the Christ ' led to the 
injftrference of the Emperor ; and Suetonius, who is not a very sound 
historian, did not obtain exact information. Ramsay dates the edict 
A.D. 50, but it may well have been a year earlier. 


3. 8ia TO ofioTex^vov, peculiar to S. Luke in N.T. ; the Bezan text 
adds ofxdcpvXov, 'of the same race.' o-KT)voiroiol, tent-makers. S. Paul 
had followed probably his father's trade, and every Jew was compelled 
to learn a handicraft. Tents were often made of the material woven 
from cilicmm — the hair of the goats of Cilicia^ — and hence tent-making 
would be a local trade at Tarsus. For S. Paul following his trade 
cf. XX. 34 ; I Thess. ii. 9 ; 1 Thess. iii. 8. 

4. 8t€\c7€TO. The imperfects ^ixevev, rjpya^ouTo, dieXeyero, '^ireLdev 
denote a continuous effort in the synagogue which was not attended 
with much success. ^irciQcv, 'sought to persuade.' "E\XT]vas, i.e. the 
God-fearers attached to the synagogue. 

5. o T€ Il£\as Kttl 6 TijJioBeos. Both Silas and Timothy are 
associated with S. Paul in his letters to the Thessaloniahs written from 
Corinth: cf. also 2 Cor. i. 19. o-vv6ix€to t<3 Xo-yw, 'he was wholly 
absorbed in his preaching.' He knew nothing amongst them save Christ 
crucified and raised from the dead, i Cor. ii. 2. (fvv^x^f^^'- occurs six 
times in the Gospel and three times in the Acts ; it denotes ' being 
held fast by' and so 'entirely engrossed in' : cf. xxviii. 8; Lk. iv. 38, 
viii. 37. 

6. €KTiva|d|x.€vos, cf. xiii. 51; Mt. x. 14; Neh. v. 13. S. Paul's 
work passed through three stages at Corinth, (i) Work amongst the 
Jews in the synagogue, ending in violent opposition. (2) Amongst the 
Gentiles, i Cor. ii. 1-5. The vision {vv. 9-10) shews that he was 
almost in despair of success. {3) A long period of steady work after 
the crisis was passed {v. 11). To aljxa vfioiv, cf. Mt. xxvii. 25; 
Ez. xxxiii. 6. A Hebraistic expression denoting not so much a curse 
as a disclaimer of all responsibility. KaOapos, sc. atro rod aijxaTos, 

cf. XX. 26. 

7. |x€Tapds €K6i0£v, sc. from the synagogue. Titiov 'Iovo-tov. 
Some MSS. omit Ttrtou, others read Tirov. Justus elsewhere in the 
Acts is a second name, i. 23; cf. also Col. iv. 11. He was probably 
a Roman and a proselyte or God-fearer ; and thus S. Paul would 
be brought into contact with the more educated members of the 
community. Harnack notes the care with which S. Luke gives the 
names of the owners of the houses in which S. Paul and S. Peter stayed. 
<rvvo(j,opovo-a. S. Paul probably continued to lodge with Aquila and 
Priscilla, but the house of Justus became the centre of liis new work. 

8. KpCo-TTos, cf. I Cor. i. 14. S. Paul as a rule delegated baptism 
to others, ])ut at Corinth he had baptized Crispus and Stephanas and 
Gaius. It is proljable that, on the defection of Crispus, Sosthenes took 



his place as leader of the synagogue. eirio-TCvov. The mention of 
Crispus points to few Jewish converts ; the imperfect iiriaTevov to 
continuous success amongst the non-Jewish population. 

9. 81' opafxaTos. At crises in S. Paul's life when the outlook was 
darkest (cf. i Cor. ii. 3) the Lord Jesus appeared to hirn : cf. xxii. 17, 
xxvii. 23. Mt] 4>oPov, Is. xlii. 6; Lk. i. 13, etc.; Acts xxvii. 24. The 
pres. imper. has its full force, 'cease from fears and continue preaching.' 
dXXct Xd\€L...o-ia)Tnj(rT]S. The combination of the positive and negative 
command adds solemnity and force: cf. xiii. ir. 

TO. Tov KaKwcrai, cf. xii. i. tov with infin., cf. v. 31. Xaos €<rTt, 
i.e. people chosen by God but not from among the Jews, cf. ii. 47. Most 
of S. Paul's adherents were drawn from the Gentiles of the lower classes 
(i Cor. i. 26), but Erastus the public treasurer of the city was amongst 
them, Rom. xvi. 23. 

11. 'EKdOicrev, cf. Lk. xxiv. 49. Paul made Corinth the 'seat' of 
his labours, which clearly extended during these 18 months to Cenchreae 
and other places in Achaia : 2 Cor. i. i, xi. 10. 

12. FaXXicavos. In A.D. 44 Claudius had reversed the policy of 
Tiberius, who had united Achaia with Macedonia in A.D. 15, and 
restored Achaia to the senate, and at this time it was under the rule of 
a proconsul. Gallic was the brother of Seneca, and from Seneca's 
epistles we gather that he caught a fever in Achaia. An inscription 
recently discovered shews that he was proconsul probably in 51-52 A.D., 
and thus the attack upon S. Paul was made towards the end of his stay 
in Corinth, the Jews taking advantage of the advent of a new proconsul 
to prefer a formal charge. Statius and Seneca both speak of his gentle 
disposition, and he seems to have been negligent and indifferent in 
public affairs. His real name was Marcus Annaeus Novatus and Lucius 
Junius Gallio was an adopted name. 

13. Ilapd TOV v6|JL0v. The Jewish accusers really meant that Paul's 
teaching was subversive of the Jewish law, but they purposely used an 
ambiguous term, charging vS. Paul with teaching an illicita religio. 
Gallio however quickly detected their design and saw that there was no 
case of illegality in Paul's preaching and that it did not come within his 

14. El |iev i^v.-.TTovTipov. ' If it had been a case of some crime or 
vile misdemeanour,' i.e. against the state and the Roman government. 
Kara Xo-yov, 'as is reasonal)le.' dvco-xofiiiv, Ilellen. for i^veax^fJ^W '• 
with gen. as in cl. (ik. 

15. €l 8€...Ka0' vp.ds. ' But if there are questions about a word and 


names and your law, see to it for yourselves.' et with the indie, marks 
that there is no doubt about the facts stated. X670S and ovoixara 
clearly refer to the claim that 'Jesus is the Messiah.' 6\|/6<r6€, the fut. 
is equivalent to the imper. , a construction commoner in Latin than in 
Greek. Kpiri^S-.-ctvat. Thus S. Paul gained the support of the Roman 
government at Corinth to the extent that the preaching of Christianity 
should be free from Jewish molestation and imperial restraint, provided 
it did not conflict with the law of Rome. 

16. dinjXacrev. He ordered the lictors to clear the court. 

17. •7rdvT£S...^TV'irT0V. The MSS. differ, but the insertion of ol 
EWrjves has good authority. The populace seized the occasion to 
attack the Jews. Whether Sosthenes was subsequently converted 
cannot be inferred with certainty, as he may not be identical with 
S. Paul's companion, i Cor. i. i. o'u8cv...^)i.€X€v. The woi^ds have 
become almost a proverb, and Gallio the type of the ruler indifferent 
to religion, but there is nothing to support this in Luke's narrative. 
If Sosthenes was beaten by the Greeks Gallio evidently thought that 
the trivial charges against S. Paul merited such retaliation : if he was 
beaten by his own countrymen Gallio would not interfere with a question 
which only concerned the Jewish religion. 

Return to Jerusalem and Antioch : Beginning 
OF Third Missionary Journey. 18-23. 

18. i]|j.€pas iKavds, i.e. ' a considerable time,' cf. viii. 11. diroTa^d- 
(lEvos, always in N.T. of ' taking leave ' : a use confined to N.T. and to 
the middle voice, Lk. ix. 61, xiv. 33. K€ipd|JL€vos tv Kcvxptais. The 
grammar is somewhat loose, but the author clearly refers to S. Paul. 
Cenchreae was the eastern port of Corinth, cf. Rom. xvi. i. The 
vow was probably connected with the visit to Jerusalem and was a 
modified form of the Nazirite vow, cf. xxi. 24. The hair shorn at 
Cenchreae would then have been taken to the temple and offered 
together with the hair shorn at the completion of the vow. At a 
distance from Jerusalem a man making a vow seems to have ' cut ' his 
hair (Keipaadai) and not to have been absolutely shorn {^vpdadai), cf. 
I Cor. xi. 6. Others connect the vow with his deliverance from danger 
at Corinth. 

19. KaTT]VTT|<rav. The voyage across the Aegean with a favourable 
wind could be accomplished in two or three days. koikcCvovs, i.e. Aquila 
and Priscilla. 

XVIII 2 5] NOTES 203 

10. avTwv, i.e. the Jews. 

■21. airoTaldfievos. Bezan text adds, ' I must by all means keep 
the feast that cometh in Jerusalem' : so A.V., probably the Passover 
52-53 is referred to. 

22. KareXScov. Coming down (from the high seas) to Caesarea he 
went up to Jerusalem, dva^aiuoj and Kara^aivoj are used of the journey 
to and from the capital, viii. 15, xxiv. i. This was the fourth occasion on 
which S. Paul visited Jerusalem, tt^v €KK\iio-iav, i.e. at Jerusalem, the 
mother church of Christianity. This hurried journey is clearly connected 
with S. Paul's vow and his observance of the law of the Jews. 

23. Ti^v FaXariKiiv. He once more visited the churches of 
Lycaonia-Galatica and Phrygia-Galatica, passing through the Cilician 
gates, cf. xvi. 6. The real narrative of the new work of the third 
journey begins at Ephesus. 

The Work of Apollos at Ephesus. 24-28. 

24. 'AttoXXws. Apollos was a well-educated Alexandrian Jew. 
The Jews had from the time of the foundation of Alexandria, B.C. 332, 
a large settlement in the city ; it was here that the Hebrew scriptures 
were translated into Greek (the Septuagint), and Alexandria became 
the home of Jewish philosophy, of which Philo was the chief exponent. 
Apollos visited Corinth and his eloquence and learning made a great 
impression, and a certain section called themselves the party of Apollos, 
though there is no evidence whatever of any friction between him and 
S. Paul. Cf. I Cor. i. 12, iii. 5, iv. 6, xvi. 12; Titus iii. 13. Xo-yios... 
Swaros, ' an eloquent man and well versed in the scriptures.' In later 
Greek \6yios means ' eloquent,' in cl. Gk. it can mean either ' learned ' 
or 'eloquent,' cf. vii. 22. 

25. KaTT]x^T]|X€'vos...Kvpiov, ' instructcd in the way of the Lord.' 
Apollos had been instructed in the Christian faith. For Karrjxe'icrdaL of 
oral instruction cf. Lk. i. 4. For 68bv cf. ix. 2 n. Codex Bezae adds 'in 
his own country.' ^eW, ' being fervent,' lit. ' boiling.' tw 7rvevp.aTi, 'in 
his spirit,' not the Holy Spirit, cf. Rom. xii. 11. to PaTTTwrfJia 'Iwdvov, 
cf. xix. 1-7. Apollos had learnt ' the facts of the life and death of 
Jesus' and taught them accurately (d/cpt/Sws), but like John the Baptist 
himself he did not know all, and had not been baptized ' into the name 
of Jesus' nor received the power of the Holy Spirit, cf. Lk. iii. 16. It 
is clear that at Ephesus and perhaps elsewhere there were disciples of 
John the Baptist who accepted his teaching of the baptism of repentance 


in view of the advent of the Messiah ; they had learnt further the facts 
about Jesus and thus were in a half-developed stage in the Christian 

26. aKpiPeo-Tcpov, ' expounded to him more accurately.' We are 
not told that their work was crowned with the gift of the Holy Spirit as 
in xix. 6, but it is clear that he now fully learnt that Jesus w^as the 
Messiah, v. 28. 

27. irpoTp€\|/d|JL6Voi, 'encouraged him and wrote to the disciples' 
for letters of commendation, cf. xxviii. 21 ; 2 Cor. iii. 1. Codex Bezae 
adds that Apollos' desire to go to Corinth was due to the entreaty of 
some Corinthians staying in Ephesus. o-vvcpdXtTO. The use of 
(ru/^j8dXXo/Aai, 'contribute,' 'help,' is classical, but only here in N.T. 
with dative of the person. tois ireirio-TevKoo-iv, ' those who had 
accepted the faith.' Apollos strengthened the faith of those who had 
believed and was powerful in debate against those who did not, cf. 
I Cor. iii. 6. 8id tt]s \6.^VT0<i^ 'by grace,' with avve^dXero, i.e. 'by 
the grace of God,' or possibly, 'by his charm,' cf. Col. iv. 6. S. Paul 
attributes his own success to the grace of God, Rom. xii. 3, xv. 15; 
I Cor. XV. 10. 

28. cvTovtos, Lk. xxiii. 10. SiaKartiXeYXCTO. The two prepositions 
have their full force, 'he thoroughly refuted by argument.' S. Luke 
does not state that he converted them. 

Ch. xix. Ephesus : The Baptism of John. 1-7. 

I. rd dvwT€piKd p<epT]. The phrase is vague and general. The 
inland districts of Asia are clearly referred to. S. Paul probably reached 
Ephesus by the valley of the Cayster and not by the great eastern high- 
way. Ch. xix. carries on the narrative from xviii. 23. Codex Bezae 
says that it was Paul's own intention to go to Jerusalem, but ' the Spirit 
bade him return to Asia.' "E<j>€<rov. Ephesus was the most important 
city in Asia, from which the great roads radiated north and south and 
east. It was a centre of oriental superstition, Hellenic culture and 
Roman law and government, and a great mart of the nations trading 
east and west. There are four stages in S. Paul's work at Ephesus. 
(i) The incident of John's disciples on his arrival. {2) Three months 
teaching in the synagogue. (3) Two years work amongst the Gentiles 
with the school of Tyrannus as the centre. (4) The determination to 
go to Rome followed by the riot due to the silversmiths at the close of 
his ministry in the city. 

XIX 9] NOTES 205 

2. El...Tri<rT€V)<ravT€S. For the form of direct question cf. i. 6 n. 
The aorist part, is certainly temporal and not causal, 'when ye accepted 
the faith.' €l...?<mv. It is customary to supply boQev or kKxvvb- 
jxevov (so R.V.) on the assumption that these disciples must have heard 
of the Spirit, though they had not heard of the gift at Pentecost. But 
the words themselves clearly mean that these disciples had been baptized 
with the baptism of repentance, and at the time of their baptism had not 
even heard 'whether there is a Holy Spirit.' S. Paul, surprised at the 
answer, enquires under what formula they were baptized. 

3. Els TO 'Ictfdvov pdirTto-(ia, i.e. into the baptism of repentance. 
They were evidently not acquainted with the Messianic teaching of John 
that his baptism was preparatory for One who would come after him, 
who would baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire. This S. Paul 
expounds to them, explaining that in belief in Jesus these conditions 
were fulfilled, cf. i. 5, xi. 16. Great prominence is given to the mission 
and teaching of the Baptist in the four Gospels, especially by S. Luke 
and S. John: for other references in the Acts cf. i. 5, x. 37, xi. 16, 
xiii. 24. 

4. €15 Tov lpxo|i€vov, cf. Mt. iii. 11. The position of the phrase 
before 'iva is emphatic. iVa denotes at once the purport of what John 
said and his purpose in saying it. 

6. €'iri9evTos...X€tpas- The laying on of hands is closely con- 
nected with the ' Baptism in the name of Jesus,' and is the symbol of 
the gift of the Spirit, viii. 17. €\a\ovv...€'Trpo<}>TJT€vov, 'they began to 
speak with tongues and prophesy, ' cf. ii. 4. 

In the Synagogue and the School of Tyrannus. 


8. ireiGwv. The present part, has the force of ' trying to persuade.' 

9. co-kXtipvvovto, cf Rom. ix. 18. The force of the middle, 
'hardened their hearts.' TJirtiGow, refused alike to obey and to believe. 
The imperfects mark the continual efforts of S. Paul and the continuous 
rejection by the Jews. aTroo-Tcis, cf. xviii. 7 for similar conduct at 
Corinth. Ka6' TJp.€pav. Codex Bezae adds ' from the fifth to the tenth 
hour,' i.e. in the time after business houis had ceased. €v rfj o-xoXtj 
Tvpdvvov. In the school or lecture hall of Tyrannus. (TxoXt? properly 
==' leisure,' and as leisure was frequently employed in listening to 
philosophers it came to denote discussion, and lastly the building in 
which the discussion took place. Nothing is known of Tyrannus : he 


may have been a teacher of rhetoric or philosophy, after whom the 
building had been named. 

10. 'iTr\ Suo. There is no real discrepancy between this statement 
and the record of the ' three years ' stay in xx. 31. The events recorded, 
vv. 1-8 and 21-41, occupied the additional year. 'iravTas...*Acriav. 
Numbers would visit the capital of the province and S. Paul probably 
visited the provincial towns, and to this period may be assigned the 
foundation of the ' Seven churches' in Asia, Rev. i. 11. 

11. ov ToLs Tvxovtras, note the litotes, 'unusual,' 'special'; sc. 
extraordinary miracles such as exorcists could not work, liroict, ' con- 
tinued to work.' 

12. Koil lirl Tovs do-0€vovvTas, 'even to the sick,' because they 
could not be reached by the hands of the apostle. trovSapia tf <ri|ii- 
Kivdia. Graecized forms indicating the spread of the Latin language : 
sudaria were 'napkins,' Lk. xix. 20; semicinctia small aprons worn 
by artisans. Such would be worn by tentmakers. rds vocrovs, to, t€ 
irvevjiaTa. S. Luke here, as usual, carefully distinguishes between 
physical and mental diseases, cf. Lk. vi. 17, viii. 2, xiii. 32. 

13. Tcijv...€|opKi<rTo)v, ' Certain of the Jewish exorcists who went 
from place to place.' ' Exorcism ' was practised amongst the Jews, 
cf. Mt. xii. 27. They employed incantations and charms, and more 
especially the recitation of some particular name. 'OpKi^w. The 
two accus. are classical : I'/^as external, 'Jrjaovv internal, cf. Mk v. 7 ; 
I Thess. v. 27. 

14. 2K€vd, Doric genitive; probably a Latin name adapted to 
Greek. He was a member of one of the high-priestly families. Cod. 
Bez. , 'The sons of one Sceva, a priest,' note the omissions. 

15. ■Yivco<rK«...€Tri<rTa|xai, 'I recognize.. T know,' but probably 
here there is no real distinction in meaning. 

16. d|x<j)OTepa)V. Seven had been mentioned, but on this occasion 
only two were present : there is no need to alter to avrCoi'. There is 
evidence in late Gk of the use of d/x^orepoL for ' all,' and so some would 
render here. 

18. T<3v irciricrTevKOTwv, 'those who had accepted the faith' but 
who had not yet abandoned their old habits and now came ' openly 
confessing and acknowledging their practices.' e^ofxoXoyov/xeyoL clearly 
governs irpd^eis, cf. Mk i. 5. 

19. iKavol, i.e. a considerable number of magicians. The former 
verse refers to those who had come under their influence, rd inpUpya, 
'magic arts.' Perhaps a technical term. They recognized the futility 

XIX 2o] NOTES 207 

of all their ' spells ' in face of the power of the name of Jesus. The 
verb 7rept€/)7cii''0yuat = meddling in affairs best left alone, occurs 2 Th. 
iii. II. Socrates was accused of being a 'busybody,' Plato, Apol. 19 B. 
Tcls PipXous, i.e. the parchment which contained the charms or incanta- 
tions well known in antiquity as 'E0e(ria ypdixfxaTa. The burning of the 
ornaments, pictures, etc, , in the Piazza del Marco at Florence at the 
instance of Savonarola is somewhat parallel. dp-yvpiov, 50,000 
drachmae is a very large sum, equivalent to ;^2ooo. 

20. Kara Kpdros, adverbial, 'mightily,' only here in N.T. This 
rubric of progress marks another definite stage in the work. S. Paul's 
thoughts were now directed to Rome. 


Paul turns to Jerusalem and Rome. 
xix. 21 — xxviii. 

[a) Third missionary journey continued. N.B. — S. Paul's work of 
founding churches was finished at Ephesus. Henceforth he looks to 
his final objective, Rome, but keeps in touch with the churches by 
revisiting them and sending them letters. 

(i) Projected visits. Timothy and Erastus despatched to Mace- 
donia, xix. 21-22. 

(2) The riot at Ephesus in connection with the silversmiths 
precedes his departure, xix. 23-41. 

(3) Journey through Macedonia and Achaia (three months at 
Corinth) ; plot to kill Paul. xx. 1-3. 

(4) Return through Macedonia and voyage to Jerusalem with the 
delegates of the churches, xx. 4-xxi. 15. Route: Philippi, Troas 
(Eutychus), Assos, Mitylene, Miletus (farewell to the Ephesian church), 
Cos, Rhodes, Patara, Tyre (first warning not to go to Jerusalem), 
Caesarea (Philip and his four daughters; second warning; Agabus 
foretells Paul's arrest). 

Points to be noticed: (i) Date, 56-57 A. D. (2) Plan: {a) To 
present the offerings of the churches to the church at Jerusalem ; (b) To 
shew his attachment to the Jewish faith by keeping Pentecost at 

Epistles: 2 Corinthians, written from Macedonia, and the Epistle 
to the Romans, which deals most fully with the Jewish-Gentile con- 
troversy, probably from Corinth. 


[b) Paul at Jerusalem, xxi. i6 — xxvi. His attempt to vindicate his 
adherence to the Jewish religion and his championship of the universal 
Gospel lead to his final rejection by the Jews. 

(i) His reception by the church ; the vow of the Nazirites. xxi. 

(2) Attacked in the temple by the Jews ; intervention of Lysias ; 
Paul's address to the people and appeal to his privilege as a Roman, 
xxi. 27 — xxii. 29. 

(3) First trial of Paul, before the sanhedrin ; his defence of his 
life and mission, xxii. 30 — xxiii. 10. 

(4) The vision of Jesus; in consequence of the plot to kill him 
he is sent under escort to Caesarea. xxiii. 11-35. 

[c) Paul at Caesarea: two years a prisoner in Roman custody. 

(i) Second trial, before Felix ; the case deferred; discourse with 
Felix, xxiv. 

(2) Festus succeeds Felix; third trial, before Festus; Paul 
appeals to Caesar, xxv. 1-12. 

(3) The visit of Agrippa and Bernice followed by fourth trial, 
before Agrippa and Festus; Paul's final defence, xxv. 13 — xxvi. 

{d) The voyage to Rome. 

(i) Caesarea to Malta. Route: Sidon, Myra, Crete (Fair 
Havens), 14 days tempest; the shipwreck in S. Paul's Bay at Malta, 

(2) Paul and his companions at Malta; Publius the chief man of 
the island, xxviii. i-io. 

(3) Voyage continued to Rome. Route: Syracuse, Rhegium, 
Puteoli, Appii Forum, The Three Taverns, xxviii. 11-15. 

{e) Paul a prisoner at Rome ; his conference with the Jews ; his 
rejection and two years ministry in captivity, xxviii. 16-31. 

Points to be noticed. 

(i) Dates : [a), [b), ^6-^1 a.d. ; {c), {d), [e), 58-62. 

(2) S. Luke, by devoting so many chapters to the narrative of 
S. Paul's final rejection by the Jews, shews how much importance he 
attached to it. The claims of Gentile Christianity were vindicated and 
upheld, and the rejection of Paul led to the ultimate triumph of the 
universal Gospel. N.B. — The narrative of the voyage is at once a 
masterpiece of literary skill and the most priceless nautical document 
of the ancient world. 

Epistles : For the Epistles written from Rome see Epilogue. 

XIX 24] NOTES 209 

The Silversmiths of Ephesus. 21-41. 

11. SieXOwv. This projected tour is probaVjlv referred to in i Cor. 
xvi. 5. While he was at Ephesus S. Paul was in communica- 
tion with Corinth and wrote the first Epistle. The difficulties at 
Corinth caused him great anxiety, and the question of the number of 
visits he made to Corinth and of letters he wrote is one of the most 
difficult in N.T. The situation in 2 Cor. is best explained by the 
assumption that S. Paul in the interval between the writing of the two 
Epistles went by sea to Corinth and that the visit was very painful to 
him, 1 Cor. ii. i, xii. 14, xiii. i. 'l€po(r6Xv(xa. In order (i) to take the 
collections from the Macedonian, Achaean and other churches, xxiv. 17 ; 
I Cor. xvi. 3 ; (2) to bring the new churches into communion with the 
mother church. 'P«|xi]v. When Paul had won victories in the great 
outlying strategic centres he would conclude with a mission to the heart 
of the Empire, cf. xxiii. 11 ; Rom. i. 13. 

11. Ti|JLo'9€ov Kal "Epao-Tov. Timothy joined Paul in Macedonia 
and is associated with him in 2 Cor. i. i, cf. also i Cor. xvi. 10. It is 
not certain that Erastus is to be identified with the ' city treasurer ' of 
Corinth mentioned Rom. xvi. 23 ; 2 Tim. iv. 20. els tt]v 'A<riav, 
ei% = ev. The mention of Asia seems to imply work outside Ephesus, 
in provincial towns. 

24. dp-yupoKdiros. Demetrius may have been the master of the 
trade guild. The different trades were formed into guilds and plied 
their trades in separate quarters of the city. In Athens to this day 
an ancient street is entirely filled with cobblers' shops. Similar customs 
existed throughout the Middle Ages in England, to which the names of 
streets in our old cities still bear witness. vaovs- These were small 
models of the shrine of the great goddess with a figure of the goddess 
inside holding a cup in one hand and a tambourine in another. Many 
have been found in terra-cotta or marble, but none in silver. Her 
temple at Ephesus was one of the wonders of the world. The Ephesian 
Artemis, an Asiatic goddess, must not be confused with the huntress 
Artemis of the Greeks and the Diana of the Romans ; she was the great 
mother {fieydXri MtJttj/)), many-breasted, the symbol of life and fertility. 
Her worship was introduced at Rome under the name of Cybele and 
her festival was known as the Megalensia. rexvirais, ' artisans ' ; 
possibly a superior guild to the ipydrai who probably worked in marble 
or terra-cotta. 

B. A. 14 


25. 11 evTTopCa, ' wealth': only here in N.T. 

26. 'E<j)^<rov. Codex Bezae inserts evbs, but the genitive which is 
truly partitive can stand alone. 

27. tovto...t6 fxe'pos: either (i) trade, business, or (2) supply 
epyaaias, ' this branch of the business.' The success of S. Paul touched 
their pockets, hence their opposition. Cf. xvi. 19, a similar case at 
Philippi. dir6\€-Yp.6v, lit. rejection and so contempt, not fomid else- 
where in cl. Gk or LXX. Ttjs |J.€"ydXTis 0eas. S. Luke preserves the 
correct title of the goddess, an excellent instance of his precise historical 
knowledge: cf. rf? fieylaTrj Bed 'Ecpeaiq. 'Apre/^tSt, inscr. in Brit. Mus. 
jieXXciv T€ Kttl. re = and, K:at = even, emphasising Kadaipdadai. ttJs 
(xeyaX€t6TT]Tos, cf Lk. ix. 43. The gen. may be partitive, 'she should 
lose part of her magnificence,' or separative, ' be deposed from her 
magnificence.' The former in spite of R.V. is preferable. 

28. McycLXt] r\ "ApT€|j,is 'E<}>€cr£(ov. ixeycCKy] is usually taken as 
predicative, but the words may be a prayer, ' O mighty Artemis of the 

29. els TO Ocarpov. The theatre of Ephesus was 495 feet in 
diameter and capable of holding 24,500 people, and was in full view 
of the temple. Faiov Kal *Ap£<rTapxov. Aristarchus was a native of 
Thessalonica, xx. 4. He accompanied S. Paul on his last journey to 
Jerusalem and thence to Rome: Col. iv. 10; Philem. 24. The text if 
correct requires Gaius to be distinguished from Gains of Derbe {xx. 4), 
and from Gaius Rom. xvi. 23. 

30. els Tov 8tj|iov, i.e. the public assembly held in the theatre. 
Possibly S. Paul's statement that he fought with beasts at Ephesus may 
refer to the riot, i Cor. xv. 32. 

31. 'Ao-tapxwv, provincial ofiicers, not municipal. They held 
office for one year but retained their titles. Their religious duties were 
concerned with the worship of Rome and Augustus, and they held the 
public games ' I^olvov 'Actas.' Their friendship with S. Paul shews 
the tolerant attitude of the authorities. 

33. o-uvtPtPao-av, 'instructed,' i.e. as their advocate: cf. i Cor. 
ii. 16; but the sense seems to require 'pushed him forward together.' 
cvv^i^d^u) does not have this meaning elsewhere, cf. xvi. 10. Other 
MSS. read irpoe^i^aaav. The context seems to shew that Alexander, 
who may be identical with 'Alexander thie coppersmith' (cf. 2 Tim. 
iv. 14), was put forward by the Jews to dissociate them from any con- 
nection with S. Paul. 

34. liri-yvovTes. Tr. ' when they recognized,' i.e. by his voice, dress 

XIX 4o] NOTES 211 

and features: a nom. pendens. All Jews were enemies of idolatry and 
the crowd made no distinction. 

35. 6 "YpafifiaTevs. The most important official at Ephesus, who 
had charge of the treasury and the public records. He drafted the 
decrees proposed in the assembly and acted as the intermediary between 
the imperial and provincial authorities. tis vdp. 7dp implies that 
there is no cause for disturbance, as no one in Ephesus would doubt the 
supremacy of the great goddess. vecoKopov, lit. 'temple-sweeper'; in 
class. Gk 'a verger.' But the word had acquired a dignified meaning, 
'warden or guardian.' Ephesian coins bear the legend ' veojKopos ttjs 
'Apre/JLidos.' The title also was given to cities, and to Ephesus amongst 
them, in connection with the cult of Rome and Augustus, tov SioireTovs, 
sc. dyaXfiaTos. Tr. ' of the image that fell from heaven.' 'Jupiter,' 
R.V., gives an erroneous meaning. Similar conceptions existed con- 
cerning the image of the Tauric Artemis, StoTrcres dyaXfxa ovpapQv 
irearj/xa, Eur. IpA. T. 977. Cf. the Palladium at Troy and the image 
of Athena at Athens. Various traditions exist as to the material — 
cedar, gold, vine-wood. 

36. dvavTipTi'Tcav, ' as these facts are incontrovertible ' : not else- 
where in N.T. "TrpoireTes, ' rash, hasty,' cf. 2 Tim. iii. 4, explained by 
70/3. Their conduct had been hasty. 

37. ovT€ Upoo-vXovs oiiTC pXa<r<})T]|iovvTas, i.e. they had neither been 
guilty in act or word of disrespect to the goddess. lepoavXoi, lit. 
'robbers of temples.' 

38. d'Yopatot: either supply aiVoSoi, i.e. 'meetings of the law-courts 
are held,' or r^fxepaL, 'court-days.' Conventus foretises agicnticr, Vulgate. 
dvOviraroi elo-iv. Plural because the statement is general, pointing to 
the proper means for such cases to be tried. Asia was a senatorial 

39. €1 8€ Ti irepaiTepw. Tr. ' If you have any further design, it 
shall be settled at the regular meeting of the assembly.' The law-courts 
provided the proper means, but if any resolution connected with the 
welfare of the city arising out of the present difficulty were required 
it must be brought forward in the assembly. Regular lawful meetings 
were held under sanction of the Roman officials; the present meeting 
was irregular. Other MSS. read Trepi erepwv ; so R V. 

40. o-Td<r€c«)s irepl Tr\% cn]|X€pov, ' we run the risk of being charged 
with sedition concerning to-day.' ardaews is gen. of the charge. With 
Trjs crrjfxepov supply e/v/cXijcrtas or rj/xepas, cf. xx. 26. R.V. 'this day's 
riot.' a'lTtov, neuter noun, 'as there is no cause for it,' or masc. adj., 

14 — 2 


atrn iiullus obnoxius sit, Vulgate, ircpl ov, best taken as having no 
grammatical antecedent, but referring to the charge suggested by e^Ka- 
XeladaL, ' and with regard to this we shall not be able to give an account 
of this concourse.' T.R. omits ov; in that case alriov is the antecedent, 
* as there is no cause which will enable us...'; this gives an excellent 
sense, avarpocprj, 'meeting,' i.e. attended by tumult, not so strong a 
word as ardaLs. For S. Paul's grave trials at this time cf. 2 Cor. 
ii. i-ii. 

Ch. XX. Macedonia and Achaia. 1-6. 

1. d<r'ira(rdji.€Vos. Arrival and departure were both marked by the 
kiss of greeting, cf. xxi. 6, 7. 

2. TO, fiepT] lK€iva, sc. Macedonia, Philippi, Thessalonica, Beroea. 
It had been his intention to visit Greece first, then Macedonia, and to 
return to Greece, 2 Cor. ii. S. Luke does not refer to the twofold 
object of this, (i) To compose the difficulties at Corinth. (2) To 
organize the collection for the poor at Jerusalem ; but cf. xxiv. 17. In 
Macedonia Titus, who is never mentioned by S. Luke, joined S. Paul 
with good news from Corinth and was despatched with the Second 
Epistle. The Epistle to the Romans also was written at this time 
either from Macedonia or more probably from Corinth, rtiv 'EXXctSa, 
synonymous with Achaia. S. Paul certainly visited Corinth, and pro- 
bably other churches, as he never expected to visit them again. 

3. dvd^eo-Oai, probably from Cenchreae. c-ye'vcTO ■yvw|xt|s : for the 
gen, cf. oaoi ttjs avTTJs yvwfxrjs 7)crav, Thuc. I. 113. Tr. 'he formed the 
resolution.' tov vTrocrTp€<j)€iv : the gen. defines yvdbfMrjs, cf. xiv. 9. 

4. a-vvtlimo. Probably the delegates of the churches are here 
enumerated who accompanied Paul with the collection, (i) Macedonia: 
Sopater, Aristarchus and Secundus. (2) S. Galatia: Gaius and Timothy. 
(3) Asia : Tychicus and Trophimus. No mention is made of delegates 
from Achaia where Titus had organized the collection, 2 Cor. viii. 
Trophimus is mentioned again as being in Jerusalem (xxi. 29), and 
Aristarchus accompanied S. Paul to Rome: xxvii. 2; Col. iv. 10. 
S. Luke {ijfxels v. 6) joined S. Paul at Philippi and remained with him 
to the close of the Acts. From the text of W.H. it is clear that ovtol 
refers only to the Ephesians Tychicus and Trophimus who came {irpoa- 
eXdoures) to Troas. If TrpoeXOovTes is read then ovtoi refers to the 
whole party except S. Paul and S. Luke. Some MSS. insert axP' tv^ 
'Aaias after avT(f, which is contradicted in xxi. 29, xxvii. 2. Cod. Bez. 

XX ii] NOTES 213 

omits (xwdireTO and Blass inserts TrporjpxovTo before /J.exP'- "^V^ "Acrtas, 
which gets rid of the difficulty. The delegates preceded S. Paul and 
awaited him at Troas. Whatever reading is adopted the whole party 
was completed at Troas. Stoirarpos IIvppov. The name of the father 
may have been added to distinguish Sopater from another of a similar 
name, Rom. xvi. 21. Faios, to be distinguished from Gaius the Mace- 
donian, xix. 29. Another Gaius of Corinth is mentioned, i Cor. i. 14. 
Tv^iKos, like Trophimus, probably an Ephesian; for Tychicus cf. Eph. 
vi. 21 ; Col. iv. 7; 2 Tim. iv. 12 ; Tit. iii. 12 ; for Trophimus cf. xxi. 
29; 2 Tim. iv. 20. 

6. rds Tifxepas twv d^vp-wv, sc. the passover, cf. xii. 3. dxP''--- 
•ir€VT€, ' in five days. ' The journey lasted uiitil the fifth day : adverse 
winds or a halt at Neapolis may account for the greater length of time, 
cf. xvi. II. 

Troas to Miletus. 7-16. 

7. 'Ev 84 TTJ |iia T«v o-appdrtov, ' on the first day of the week.' 
The cardinal for the ordinal is in accordance with Hebrew usage: 
cf. Lk. xxiv. I. The first day of the week— the day of the resur- 
rection — was specially marked by almsgiving and the breaking of 
bread, i Cor. xvi. 2. KXd<rat dprov, cf. ii. 42, xxvii. 35. The break- 
ing of bread took place in the evening after the preaching was over, 

V. II. 

9. Iiri TTJs B-upiSos, sc. on the window-sill. The room was crowded 
and the lights and the number present make it probable that the lattice 
was open: cf. the death of Ahaziah, 2 Kings i. 2. KaTa<j>ep6|i€vos... 
KaT€V€x0€ls. The difference in the participles must be marked : 
' gradually being overcome by heavy slumber as Paul prolonged his 
discourse he was overpowered by sleep and fell. ' 'HpO'n vcKpos. The 
words which follow, ' his life is in him,' do not contradict this statement 
of his death. For similar actions of Elijah and Elisha cf. i Kings xvii. 
21, 22 ; 2 Kings iv. 34. 

TO. Kaxapds, i.e. by the outside staircase. 0opvp€i<r0€. The 
company were already beginning to bewail the dead according to 
oriental custom, Mk v. 38. 

II. "Yevcrdiievos, cf. x. 10. After the eucharist he partook of some 
food. 6|JLiXTJo-as, ' having conversed ' : only used by Luke amongst 
N.T. writers: cf. xxiv. 26; Lk. xxiv. 14, 15. owtws sums up the 
action of the preceding participles : a very favourite usage of Demosthenes 
in cl. Gk. 


12. Tf-ya-yov. The subject is general and not expressed. 

13. 'Hfieis, sc. without Paul. In an Armenian commentary on 
the Acts discovered by Dr Rendel Harris, based on the Western text, 
these words are rendered, ' But Luke and those who were with me 
went on board.' Only a microscopic change in the original is required 
to give the rendering, ' But I Luke,' etc. "Acrcrov, south of Troas, 
opposite Lesbos, with a harbour and a considerable coasting trade. 
The sea-route was longer. SiaTCTa-yixe'vos r\v, 'he had arranged,' 
a middle use. irc^euciv, 'to go by land,' a much shorter route; the 
distance was only 20 miles. 

14. <rvv€'PaX\ev. The imperfect has more authority than the 
aorist, but its meaning cannot be pressed. MtTvXrjvTjv, the capital 
of Lesbos with a fine harbour, 30 miles distant from Assos. The ship 
stopped every evening in accordance with the prevalent conditions of 
the weather : there is no necessity to suppose that Paul and his friends 
chartered the ship. 

15. KaTTivTt]o-a|X6v, i.e. the ship anchored in the narrow channel 
between Chios and the mainland. tt] Be Irepa. S. Luke's love of 
variety is evidenced by rf? eTrtouo-T?, tt/ erepa, ry exo/J-epr], all denoting 
'on the next day.' irapepdXofiev, ' we struck across to Samos,' Cod. Bez. 
'and having tarried at Trogyllium on the next day we struck across,' 
i.e. they landed at Trogyllium, a promontory on the mainland, before 
crossing to Samos. MiXt^tov. Miletus, once the capital of Ionia, was 
now eclipsed by Ephesus. At the present day it is several miles from 
the sea. 

16. irapairXevo-ai. When the party started from Troas a vessel was 
chosen which would not call at Ephesus. 

Paul's Farewell to the Ephesian Elders. 17-38. 

17. |ji€T€KaX€'craTO. The ship must have remained at Miletus at 
least for 3 or 4 days. 

18. clircv. This farewell address which S. Luke heard at the close 
of the third missionary journey is intensely Pauline in (i) subject, 
(2) style and language, (3) personal feeling, and can be illustrated 
almost in every phrase from the Epistles. In it (a) he reviews his 
ministry (18-21). {d) In spite of the trials that await him he will 
finish his course (22-25). ('') ^^^ maintains his perfect integrity and his 
fulfilment of his duty (26-27). i''^) ^^^ warns them of danger and 

XX 2 7] NOTES 215 

exhorts them to be faithful (28-31). (e) He commends them to God 
and closes with a solemn protest of his selflessness. lire'Piiv, ' set foot 
in Asia,' R.V. •7rws...€7€v6}j.'qv, cf. i Thess. i. 5. 

19. SovXevwv, characteristic of S. Paul: cf. Rom. i. r, xii. 11; 
Gal. i. jo; Phil. i. i ; Eph. vi. 7. TaTr€ivo<|>po<ruvT]s. The word is not 
classical nor in LXX. S. Paul lays stress on his ' humility ' : Eph. iv. 2 ; 
Phil. ii. 3; Col. ii. 18. raweivos is used in cl. Gk in a depreciatory 
sense, 'mean,' 'chicken-hearted,' cf. 2 Cor. x. i. Christianity exalted 
into virtues characteristics, such as 'lowliness,' which were despised by 
cultured paganism. SaKpvcov, cf. 2 Cor. ii. 4; Phil. iii. 18. ircipaor- 
(iwv, temptations, i.e. great trials and tests of his faith: i Thess. iii. 4; 
2 Cor. vi. 4-10. 

20. ov8lvtnr€orT€iXd|J.tiv...vp,iv. Either ' I shrank not from declaring 
unto you anything that was profitable ' : R.V. for viroa-TeWo}, cf. Gal. 
ii. 12. In this case rod fir] is the regular classical construction depending 
on vTre(jT€L\dfjL7]u. Or, ' I did not hold back anything that was profitable 
by not declaring it unto you.' tov fxr] is then explanatory = were fxr], 
cf. xiv. 18. 

22. 8€8€(i€VOS...T(3 irvcviiaTi, ' constrained in the spirit.' irvevnaTi, 
as in xviii. 25; i Cor. v. 3. Others render 'Spirit,' i.e. the Holy Spirit, 
but the Holy Spirit is expressly mentioned in the next verse. 

23. ir\r[v OTi, cf. Phil. i. 18. Karo iroXiv, 'from city to city.' 
Kara distributive. Secrjid Kal 9\i\|/€is, Phil. i. 17; 2 Cor. i. 8. 

24. Xo-yov, ' I reckon my life of no account.' ri^Lav is pleonastic, 
but added for emphasis. «s TcXettoo-o), some MSS. reXeLuxrat. If 
the infin. is correct this is the only passage in N.T. where ws is thus 
used in a final sense. 8pd(iov, cf. for the metaphor Gal. ii. 2 ; 2 Tim. 
iv. 7. 8iaKov£av, Rom. xi. 13. 

25. ovK€Ti, either 'no longer,' or 'no more,' i.e. never again. 
S. Paul returned to Ephesus after his first imprisonment, i Tim. i. 3. 
The Acts was probably written before his release, to irpoo-wirov, i Thess. 
ii. 17. 8iT]X6ov, probably there were members of other churches present 
as well as Ephesian Christians. tt]v (Sao-iXeiav, cf. viii. 12 n., xxviii. 31 ; 
Lk. viii. I ; i Thess. ii. 9; Eph. v. 5. 

26. (i,apTupo|xai, ' I protest ' ; only used by Luke and Paul : cf. 
xxvi. 22 ; r Thess. ii. 12 ; Eph. iv. 17. Iv rf o-T]|X€pov r]ii.ipq., Rom. xi. 8, 
cf. xix. 40 n. Ka6ap6s, xviii. 6. 

27. Trd<rav ti]v PouXi^v tov 0€ov, i.e. the whole purpose of God in 
the redemption of man: cf. ii. 23; Eph. i. 11. The Epistle to the 
Ephesians is an excellent commentary on this verse, where the whole 


divine purpose, culminating in the founding of the church — one Lord, 
one faith, one baptism — is fully set forth. 

28. Trpo<rex€T€ lavrois, cf. viii. 6 n. iroi(J,viw : for the metaphor 
of. Lk. xii. 32 ; Eph. iv. 11. lirio-KOTrovs, no definite office other than 
that of presbyter is meant. The word occurs in Phil. i. i ; i Tim. iii. 2 ; 
Tit. i. 7. In I Pet. ii. 25 tTricKoiros is associated with TroifjLrjv ; it empha- 
sizes the pastoral side of the work of the elders as 'overseers' of the 
church. There is little evidence in N.T. of the existence of more than 
two orders — presbyters and deacons, tiiv €KKXT)<riav...l8iov. Tr. 'the 
church of God which He purchased with His own blood ' : cf. Ps. 
Ixxiv. 2. (i) If deou is the correct reading there is a difficulty, as 
S. Paul then states that the purchase was made by God's own blood. 
idiov may however mean the blood of Jesus, which was in a peculiar 
sense the Father's own (Jn x. 30), who shared in the sacrifice of His 
Son, Rom. v. 8, viii. 32. W.H. suggest that viov has dropped out of 
the text after Idiov, but there is no MS. evidence for this. (2) Other 
MSS. read Kvpiov, which removes the difficulty, but against it must be 
urged that 'the church of God' is the phrase universally used by S. Paul 
in the Epistles, and that the ' church of the Lord ' occurs nowhere 
in N.T. 

29. XvKot. For the imagery cf. v. 28; Mt. vii. 15; Lk. x. 3; Jn 
x. 12. The reference is to false teachers: Eph. iv. 14; i Tim. i. 19, 
iv. I. 

30. e| vfJLwv auTwv, i.e. from amongst your own selves : cf. i Tim. 
i. 20 ; 2 Tim. i. 15, ii. 17, iii. 8-13. 8ie(rTpa|X)xeva, xiii. 8; Lk. ix. 41 ; 
Phil. ii. 15. 

31. 7pti70p6iT€. The pastoral metaphor is continued : cf. Lk. xii. 
37; I Pet. V. 8. rpicTiav, xix. ion. vvKTa Kal 'qp.cpav. For the 
ceaselessness of the apostle's labours cf. i Thess. ii. 9, iii. 10. vovOerwv, 
' admonishing' ; only here and seven times in S. Paul's Epistles: i Thess. 
V. 14; 1 Cor. iv. 14, etc. 

32. Tw Kvpio) . . . 8uva|Jievb>. The Lord and the word (i.e. the 
Gospel) of His grace are closely united together in their action, and 
dvvafjLevip need not l)e confined to Kvpiip, cf. i Thess. ii. 13. dec^ has better 
MS. authority than Kvpiu. olKo8op.T](rai : for the metaphor cf. Eph. 
ii. 2 1, iv. 12, 16, 29. K\T]povop,iav, sc. of the kingdom of heaven. 
Inheritance does not denote only future but present possession : cf. Eph. 
1. 18, V. 5. 

33. dpyvpCov: cf. the similar statement of Samuel, i Sam. xii. 3. 
S. Paul frequently insists on his disinterestedness: i Thess. ii. 9; 2 Thess. 

XXI 3] NOTES 217 

iii. 8; i Cor. ix. \2 ; 2 Cor. xi, 7. Silver, gold and raiment comprised 
the wealth of the east : cf. also i Sam. xii. 3 ; Jas v. 2, 3. 

34. v7rT]p€'TT]<rav. Paul had plied his trade at Corinth and Ephesus. 
He accepted no maintenance from any of his converts except the Philip- 
pians : cf. i Cor. iv. 12. al X'^P*^ avxai. He holds up his hands 
hardened by tent-making. 

35. irdvTa vTr€8€i|a, ' In all things I set you an example.' Travra, 
internal accus., i Cor. xi. i. KOiriwvTas. The reference is to hard 
physical labour. Cf. i Cor. iv. 12; Eph. iv. 28. dvTtXa|JLpav€<r0ai, ' to 
help.' The word is only used by S. Luke and S. Paul. Cf. Lk. i. 54; 
I Cor. xii. 28. Twv d<r06vovvT«v, * the weak,' i.e. the sick, the needy 
and the wavering. There is no limit to Christian service. As a rule, 
when moral or spiritual weakness is referred to, a defining dative is 
added, Rom. xiv. i. MaKdpiov...Xa|xpdv€iv. The only saying of our 
Lord not recorded in the Gospels which is referred to in N.T. On it 
is based the principle of Christian philanthropy. The discovery of the 
\byLa or 'sayings of Jesus' at Oxyrhynchus threw light upon the preser- 
vation of sayings of Christ outside the Gospel. This particular saying 
is quoted by Clement and Polycarp. 

37. ■KaT€<j)i\ovv. The imperfect is emphatic, and Kara intensive. 
Tender and repeated final greetings marked his departure, cf. Lk. vii. 
38, 45, XV. 20. 

Ch. XXI. From Miletus to Caesarea. 1-14. 

I. dirocnratrQevTas, 'we had torn ourselves away.' The parting 
was painful to all. ti]v K<3, forty miles S. of Miletus off the coast of 
Caria. It was an important commercial centre and famous as the 
birthplace of Hippocrates, and therefore of special interest to S. Luke. 
'P680V. The sunny island of Rhodes off the S. coast of Caria was famous 
for its roses, ships, and its university where Julius Caesar studied, and 
the Colossus, which had been shattered by an earthquake. In the 
Middle Ages it was romantically associated with the Knights Hos- 
pitallers of S. John of Jerusalem, ndrapa, on the coast of Lycia, where 
there was an oracle of Apollo. Cod. Bez. adds ' and Myra,' cf. xxvii. 5. 
At Patara or Myra they deserted the ship which was engaged on a slow- 
coasting voyage and took a direct course to Phoenicia. Jldrapa and 
Mvppa in the Acts are both neuter plural. 

3. dva4)dvavT€S, Doric form of the aor. active: lit. 'when we had 
made Cyprus visible,' and so 'had come in sight of.' The conception 


is classical, cf. Verg. Aen. Iii. 291. Tvpov, a free city of Syria, but no 
longer as famous as in the time of Alexander. It still has a population 
of 5,000 and some trade, but its famous mole and harbour have 
long disappeared. dTro<j>opTt56(Ji€vov...'Y6nov. Both words are technical 
and confined to cargo. The periphrastic imperfect = f^/u.eWei' dirocpopTi- 
^eadai. The unloading occupied seven days and then the party 
continued their voyage. 

4. dveupovTcs, 'finding,' i.e. by enquiry, cf. Lk. ii. 16. The 
Christian community was small {v. 5) and the population large. |jlt] 
eiriPaiveiv. S. Paul, like our Lord, knew what awaited him at Jerusa- 
lem, XX. 23 f. ; cf. Lk. ix. 51. The repeated warnings serve to heighten 
the heroism of his resolve. 

5. €|apT£(rai here =' completed.' e^-qpTia/xevos (2 Tim. iii. 17) 
= furnished completely, eirl tov a'lYtaXov, on the smooth sandy shore. 

6. aTnf](rirao-d|X€9a, ' we bade each other farewell.' els to, tSia, 'to 
their own homes,' cf. Jn xix. 27. 

7. SiavvtravTes, ' having completed the voyage from Tyre we 
landed at Ptolemais. ' Page takes awb Tvpov with KaT-qvTrjcraixev on the 
ground that diavvaavres could hardly be applied to the short journey (30 
miles) from Tyre. S. Luke in relating the last stage may well have had 
in his mind the completion of the whole voyage, cis IlTo\€|xat8a, so 
called after Ptolemy Soter, king of Egypt. The ancient Accho, the 
modern Acre. It was the best harbour on the coast and also com- 
manded the route from Syria to Egypt. Babylonians, Persians, Mace- 
donians, Crusaders, and Napoleon, all recognized its important position. 

8. €|€\06vT€S. The journey was continued by land. 4>iXtir'Trov, cf. 
vi. 3, 5 ; viii. 12, 40. The title 'evangelist' only occurs elsewhere in 
Eph. iv. 1 1 ; 2 Tim. iv. 5. The order in Eph. is apostles, prophets, evan- 
gelists, pastors and teachers. Pastors and teachers were both attached 
to localities, the apostles and prophets were non-local. The evangelists 
occupied a middle position, probably as pioneers of the Gospel. There 
is no connection in any case with the later use of the title — a writer of 
a Gospel. 

9. 'irpo<}>T|T€vo-u<rai, cf. ii. 17, xix. 6 ; Lk. ii. 36 ; i Cor. xi. 5, xiv. 
24. They would not be allowed to preach openly in the church and 
their ministrations would be confined to private houses and intercourse. 

10. "A-yaPos, already mentioned in xi. 28. S. Luke speaks of him 
in this way as this was the first time he had seen him. 

ir. apas ttJv t'^v'pv. For the symbolical action of prophets in 
O.T. cf. I Kings xxii. 11; Is. xx. 2; Jer. xiii. i; Ez. iv. and v.; cf. 

XXI 2o] NOTES 219 

also Jn xxi. 18. irapaSwo-ovo-iv, cf. the words of our Lord, Lk. 
xxiv. 7. 

12. Tov [IT] avaPatveiv. tov with the infin. denotes the scope of 
the entreaty. 

13. Ti 7rot£iT€ K\aiovT€s, a strong form of question marking 
remonstrance, cf. xiv. 15; Mk xi. 5. orvv0pv'7rTOVT€S...Ti)v KapSCav. 
avvdpijTrTeLv = to break in pieces and so to weaken. Kapdia is the seat of 
the intelligence rather than of the feelings. We should say ' under- 
mining my determination. ' ' Breaking my heart ' is misleading. ky<a 
is in an emphatic position, 'I for my part.' Cf. similar language of 
S. Peter, Mk ix. 31. 

14. Tov Kvpiov TO GeXriixa, cf. xviii. 21; Mt. vi, 10; Lk. xxii. 42; 
I Cor. iv. 19. 

At Jerusalem: The Vow of the Nazirites. 15-26. 

15. €irio-K€va<rap.€vot, ' having packed up our luggage.' The A.V. 
has ' took up our carriages' ; cf. Shakspeare — 'Time goes upright with 
his carriage,' Tempest, vi. 3. The phrase clearly includes not only their 
personal belongings but the alms and gifts they were bringing to 
Jerusalem. 'Having equipped horses,' Ramsay. The journey was 
64 miles. Cod. Bez. dTrora^d/^tej/oi. 

1 6. a^ovTCs. . . p.a0T|Tfj. The text is difficult but it most likely means 
'bringing us to the house of Mnason, an early disciple, with whom we 
should lodge.' With this agrees Cod. Bez., 'and coming to a certain 
village we stayed with Mnason.' The Caesarean Christians accompanied 
Paul and his friends as far as the village of Mnason. Thence they 
continued their journey alone. The return journey occupied two days. 

17. direSc'lavTO, peculiar to Luke, cf. xv. 4. 

18. irpos 'IcLKwpov, i.e. the head of the church. The apostles 
were in all probability absent from Jerusalem. The presence of all the 
elders points to a formal reception of Paul and his companions (Luke 
was evidently present) when probably they presented the alms. 

19. Ka8* %v '^Kao-Tov. It is best to take eKaarov with i^v and KaQ' 
l»' = one by one : an adverbial expression. Paul rendered his account as 
heretofore, cf. xiv. 27, xv. 12. 

20. (JLvpiaScs, ' thousands.' /uLvpids is used of a large indefinite 
number, Lk. xii. i. S. Paul almost certainly reached the city, which 
would be crowded at this time, before Pentecost. 5'n^*^'''*'-^ cf. Gal. i. 


14; Tit. ii. 14. These were Judaists and of the extreme party of the 
Pharisees to which Paul himself had belonged. 

21. KaTT])(^ii6T]crav, not casually 'informed,' but carefully 'in- 
structed.' diroo-rao-iav, 2 Thess. ii. 3. 8i8d(rK€is with double accus. (it] 
•jr€piT€(jiv€iv. S. Paul is charged with teaching Judaist Christians to 
desert the law. It is true that he taught that neither circumcision nor 
uncircumcision were matters of vital importance for a Christian, but he 
was strict in Jewish observances himself and did not seek to disturb the 
customs of pious Jews. He proves by his conduct the falseness of the 
charge, cf. esp. Rom. ii., iii. ; i Cor. vii. 16-18, ix. 19. 

22. irdvTO)S ciKovo-ovTai, ' they will certainly hear,' R.V. Other 
^^S., irdvTws 5eLTr\ridos (TvveXdetv aKOTLxrovraLyap. SoA.V. S.Paul's 
arrival was certain to arouse opposition amongst Jewish Christians and 
amongst the multitude. 

23. 6VX.11V ^xovT€s. These men were clearly Jewish Christians who 
had taken a temporary Nazirite vow, cf. carefully Num. vi. 1-21. The 
minimum time seems to have been 30 days. d<j)' lavrwv. If eirl is 
read it refers to the obligation of the vow as yet unfulfilled ; if airb, that 
the vow had been taken of their own accord, xviii. 18. 

24. irapaXaPwv. The term is quite friendly, ' associate them with 
yourself.' or^vLo-Qryri <tvv avrois, ' purify thyself with them.' The 
Nazirite took a vow of dyvia/xos, which involved ' separation ' from wine, 
from cutting the hair and from contact with dead bodies. It may have 
been possible for S. Paul, by some act of purification, to associate 
himself with the Nazirites without taking the whole vow, and his 
separation was limited to the time until the offerings had been paid. It 
is thought by some that he may have come to Jerusalem under a vow, as 
before, xviii. 18. I'va ^vptjo-ovTai, ' that they may shave their heads,' cf. 
xviii. 18 n. ; i Cor. xi. 6. 'iva in N.T. is found with the future in a final 
sense. This marked the completion of the vow at the time of the 
offerings. 'YvwtrovTai is fut. not dependent on 'iua, 'all shall know.' 
OTTOtxeis, 'walkest according to nile,' Rom. iv. 12; Gal. vi. 16; cf. for 
the same metaphor, irepLiraTe'tv, iropeveadaL. 

25. ircpl 8^ T»v...€6vwv. Added to make it clear that S. James 
adhered to the compact of the apostolic conference, which he regarded 
as a compromise with mutual concessions to Jewish and Gentile feelings. 
He expected S. Paul as a Jew in Jerusalem to act as a Jewish Christian 
and to shew full sympathy with Jewish customs and feelings. Kal 
irvtKTov is omitted by Codex Bezae, as in ch. xv. S. Paul's action here was 
thoroughly in accordance with the principle he laid down in 1 Cor. ix. 20. 

XXI ss] NOTES 22 1 

26. d'YVi(r8£ls...'n"poo-<j)opd. I'be passage is obscure, tr. 'Having 
purified himself with them he entered the temple announcing the comple- 
tion of the days of purification until the offering had been offered for each 
one of them.' From xxiv. 19 we learn that the Jews who had followed 
from Asia found him 'purified in the temple' ; this we are told in v. 27 
took place when 'the seven days' were nearly completed, i.e. at the 
close of the first week in Jerusalem. On the third day after his arrival 
he associated himself with the four Nazirites and was ' purified,' prob- 
ably without taking the full vow. If an iterative force is giv^ to etV7?et 
and dLayyeXXwi' S. Paul entered the temple on five successive days, 
defraying the expenses of the poor Nazirites in turn and thus enabling 
them to be discharged from their vows {v. 24). The emphasis on i^Trep 
evbs eKaarov supports this view. 

Attack upon Paul in the Temple. 27-40. 

28. "AvSpes *I<rpaTiX€iTai, cf. ii. 22. The address marks the 
appeal to national sentiment. Kara tov Xaov, sc Israel, cf. vi. 13. 
"E\\T]vas. S. Stephen was charged with preaching against the temple 
and S. Paul with actual pollution. There was no proof of the charge. 
Trophimus would have been permitted to enter the outer courts, but 
the punishment of death was liable to be inflicted on any non- 
Jew proceeding into the court of the Israelites. Notices to this effect 
were put up on the parapet separating the inner precincts of the temple, 
one of which is extant in Greek. 

30. €'Y€'v6TO, 'a tumultuous concourse of the people ensued.' ckXci- 
<r0T]crav, i.e. by the Levitical guard to prevent any further disturbance 
within the precincts and their pollution by the murder of S. Paul. 

31. dve'PT]. The tower of Antonia on the north of the temple area 
was approached by stairs at two points. Troops were always kept in 
readiness in Antonia to quell any popular outburst at festival seasons. 
XiXidpxto). The military tribune, Claudius Lysias : his command would 
include 760 infantry and 240 cavalry. o-irtipT]?, cf. x. i. 

32. € Plural : he took at least 200 men. 

33. eireXdpcTo, ' laid hold on,' obviously with hostile intent. He 
regarded Paul as the cause of the disturbance, cf. xii. 6. dXvcreo-i 
Zva-i, i.e. to two soldiers, one on each side, rts €it]...t£ Io-tiv ireirotT]- 
KoSs. S. Luke alone of the N.T. writers used the optative in indirect 
questions, cf. xvii. 1 1 ; xxv. 20. In ri eartv iretroL-qKw he follows, 
probably for variety, the construction usual in N.T. 


34. €ir£(J>iovow, 'kept on shouting,' cf. xii. 22; Lk, xxiii. 21. to 
do-<|>a\€S = TO dXr]6es, 'the true facts of the case,' cf. Xxii. 30, xxv. 26. 
Trape[JLPo\TJv, lit. an army or its camp; here either the castle of Antonia 
or the barracks of the guard, xxii. 24. 

35. o-vv€pT) pao-TcCteo-Gat, 'he had to be carried,' i.e. to escape the 
fury of the mob. 

^6. Alpc avTov, ' slay him.' S. Paul would have rejoiced to hear 
the same cry raised by the mob of Jerusalem who had secured the 
death of Jesus, cf. Lk. xxiii. 18. 

37. EL ^^co-Tiv. ei in direct question is Hellenistic. 'EWT]vio-Tt 
■yivtocTKCis, cl. Gk. eTTtcra/xat ; cf. Latin, Graece scire. 

38. oiJK apa (TV €l, 'thou art not then?' Though he is really 
questioning Paul, ovk dpa clearly shews that the tribune, hearing Paul 
speak Greek, was already convinced of his mistake. While Felix was 
governor, an Egyptian false prophet had gathered a large force on the 
Mt of Olives and declared that at his word the walls of the city would 
fall. The number of the followers here given as 4000 is different in 
Josephus, who gives 30,000 in one passage, and makes no mention of 
any association with the suarit, but the tribune, perhaps accustomed 
to deal with similar outbursts, may easily have confused the events. 
He first thought the Egyptian had returned and that the mob finding 
out his falsehood and fraud had in their usual way turned upon him. 
The assassins were so called because they were armed with a sua or 
short dagger : they were a body of extreme fanatics, and mingling with 
the crowd at festivals stabbed their political opponents. ■ 

39. *Iov8aios, Tapo-€vs, 'I am a Jew, of Tarsus.' S. Paul thus 
answers the chiliarch's question, and explains how he came to be in the 
court of the Israelites, ovk do-iip.ov, litotes. Tarsus had the proud title of 
fXTjTpbTToKis avTovofxos. S. Paul impressed the chiliarch with the truth of 
his position, and he gave him leave to address the people as he saw that 
it was his desire to pacify them. 

40. 'EPpatSt SiaXcKTw, 'in the Hebrew language,' i.e. in Aramaic, 
cf. i. 19, xxii. 2. 

Ch. xxii. His Defence to the People. 1-22. 

In his ' Apology ' before the people S. Paul briefly records his early 
life and zeal in persecuting the church, 3-5 ; his conversion and baptism, 
6-16; his commission confirmed by the vision in the temple, 17-21. 
The speech should be compared carefully with ix. 1-19 and xxvi. 9-18, 

XXII 12] NOTES 223 

see notes ch. ix. S. Paul emphasizes (i) his strict adherence to the 
religion of his fathers and shews his passionate devotion to his own race, 
vv. 3, 5, 12, 14, 19, 20; {1) the overpowering strength of his conviction 
of his commission to preach to the Gentiles as received from Jesus his 
risen Master. The 'conversion' of S. Paul was not from a life of sin 
to a life of righteousness, but from a misdirected religious zeal striving 
to find satisfaction in obedience to the law, to a Christ-directed zeal in 
which he found salvation for himself and satisfaction in bringing the 
message of salvation to all who would hear it irrespective of race or 

I. "AvSpes-.-iraTcpes. So S. Stephen had addressed a like assembly 
which numbered S. Paul amongst them, vii. 2. [lov, either 'from me,' 
or with r77s aivoKo'^ia%, ' my defence. ' 

3. 'lovSaios. S. Paul was proud of his birth-place, his education, 
his nationality and adherence to the law, of. xxvi. 4, 5; Gal. i. 13, 14; 
Phil. iii. 5, 6. avaTe0pa[ifi€vos...9€Ov. The punctuation in the text 
must be carefully observed, irapct totjs TroSas. The Rabbis sat on 
raised seats, the pupils on low benches or on the ground, cf. Lk. ii. 46, 
X. 39. His education at Jerusalem began at the age of 13. Kara 
aKpiPciav, ' in strict accordance with the law of our fathers.' Rigid 
adherence to minute detail was the most prominent feature of Rabbinical 
teaching, cf. xxvi. 5. tov Ocov. The zeal of Jews was directed to the 
law, xxi. 20 ; Paul's zeal to its Author, Rom. x. 2. 

4. OS gives the reason 'inasmuch as I....' Tai)TT]v ti^v 68ov... 
GavciTOv, cf. viii. 3, ix. 2. 

5. 6 dpxi.€peus. Not Ananias who was high priest, xxiii. 2, but 
probably Caiaphas, who gave Paul his commission to Damascus, and 
was still alive as is shewn by fxaprvpe?. to irpia-^vripiov , i.e. the 
sanhedrin. tous €K€to-e ovras. If emphasis is to be placed on eKeiae, 
Christian refugees and not residents are referred to : but eKetae may 

6. irepl fjLeo-T|[JLPpLav, an additional note not mentioned in ix. : but 
cf. xxvi. 12. Tr€piao-Tpa\|/ai, only here and ix. 3 in N.T. 

7. ?8a<j>os = the ground. Only here in N.T., common in LXX. 
and Apocrypha. 

8. 6 Na^wpatos. Added here, not in ix. 5 or xxvi. 15. 
to. T£ TTo\.T\(s-(a, ' what am I to do,' delib. subj. 

II. diro TT]s 86|t]s. Here the reason for the blindness is given ; 
another note of personal recollection. 

12. dvTip cvXaBi];, cf. ii. 5, viii. 2. The description is added here 


as suitable to impress a Jewish audience. Ananias, like S. Paul, was a 
devout Jew. 

13. lirioPTcis. A favourite word of S. Luke, esp. of the appearance 
of angels, cf. Lk. ii. 9, iv. 39, etc. dvdpX€\|/ov. d;/a/3Xe7r€iv = ' to 
look up' or 'to receive sight.' The latter clearly suits avd^Xexf/ov, 
cf. ix. 17, 18, and dve^Xexpa els avrou must be translated as R.V. 
(margin), 'I received my sight and looked upon him.' 

14. irpocxetpio-aTO, 'has chosen thee,' i.e. in accordance with His 
fore-ordained plan, cf. Gal. i. 15. tov S^Kaiov, cf. iii. 14. 

15. Trpos irdvTas dvOpwirovs. S. Paul does not use ^dpT] — as yet. 
aiv ItopaKas. To have seen Jesus and heard His voice constituted 
S. Paul's claim to his full and complete apostleship, cf. xxvi. e6; 
I Cor. ix. I. 

16. Tt [JieWcis ; ' Why dost thou hesitate? ' only here in this sense 
in N.T. pdiTTwrai. Lit. ' Get thyself baptized.' The middle voice 
emphasizes the active part taken by the adult convert in his own 
baptism. diroXovo-at, 'Get thy sins washed away.' The two words 
point to the outward and visible sign and the inward and spiritual grace 
in baptism, cf. ii. 38; i Cor. v. 11 ; Tit. iii. 5. 

eiriKaX€(rd|X€vos. The profession of faith in Jesus Christ accompanied 
baptism, Rom. x. 14. The 'words' in the baptismal service are as 
essential as the symbol of the water, Eph. v. 26. 

17. viroo-Tpe'ij/avTi. This refers in all probability to the first visit 
of S. Paul after his conversion (namely, three years later), ix. 29; 
Gal. i. 18. The loose connection of the genitive absolute with the 
dative vTrooTpexl/avTL and the accus. with yepeadai is characteristic of 
Hell. Gk, cf. XV. 22. Iv T(u Upw. While actually engaged in worship 
as a pious Jew in the temple itself he received his commission to the 
Gentiles, ev eK<rTd<r€t, cf. x. 10. For a similar incident, 2 Cor. xii. i. 

19. auTol ImcTTavTai. S. Paul reasons that as his former zeal as 
a persecutor was so well known the Jews would recognize that the 
change was due to divine revelation and not doubt his sincerity. Se'pwv. 
For this punishment in the synagogue cf. Mt. x. 17 ; Lk. xxi. 12. Paul 
himself was so treated five times, 2 Cor. xi. 24. 

20. TOV p,dpTvp6s <rov, properly ' thy witness.' S. Stephen had borne 
witness by his death. The word is here clearly in a transition stage. 

21. €ls 'iQvi]. At the mention of the Gentiles the fury of the people 
cut short his speech. At the mention of ' a resurrection ' the Athenians 
had refused to listen any longer. 

22. d\pi...\6yov, i.e. until he had uttered this word. Alpe, pres. 

XXII 29] NOTES 225 

imp. : the cry w as continuous, cf. xxi. 36. tov toiovtov, contemptuous. 
Ka0TJK€v=:7rpo(r^/:ei', cl. Gk. The imperfect implies that long ago 
S. Paul ought to have been put to death : ' It was not right.' 

Intervention of Claudius Lysias. 23-29. 

23. piTTTovvTcov. ' Tossiug their garments ' in sign of rage and 
excitem_ent. piTrreZi/ is frequentative. It cannot mean 'casting off' their 
garments to attack Paul, as he was in Roman custody. 

24. dv£Td^€o-0ai, cl. Gk i^erd^'ecrdai. Lysias did not understand 
Aramaic and ordered Paul to be examined by scourging in order to 
discover the cause for the outcry against him. Slaves and non-Romans 
could be so examined, but not before the trial had commenced. Roman 
administration, military as well as judicial, was often callous and cruel. 
Pilate, though convinced of the innocence of Jesus, scourged Him in 
the hope of pacifying the people. 

25. irpoeTeivav, 'when they had stretched him out bound with 
thongs,' i.e. to a pillar with his back exposed to the scourge, cf. the 
pictures of Christ at the pillar. A Roman citizen was immune from 
scourging and could not be punished without trial. S. Paul knew the 
rights and value of the civitas Romana^ cf. xvi. 37. 

26. Ti (leXXcis. Some MSS. insert 6pa before r'l. 

27. o"u expresses surprise. 

28. iroXXoii K€(|>aXaiov. 'for a great sum,' gen. of price. Some 
MSS. have, ' Dost thou so easily say that thou art a Roman citizen ? 
I know for how great a sum I obtained this citizenship. ' /ce^dXatov, 
properly ' capital ' as opposed to interest, n^v iroXiTeiav TavTT]v, ' this 
citizenship.' Lysias was probably a Greek who had taken the name 
Claudius on his purchase of citizenship, possibly from the Emperor 
Claudius. ' Freedom ' of the great London city companies can still 
be acquired by purchase. •^i.'^kvvr\y.ox, ' but I am a Roman from birth.' 
S. Paul's father may have obtained his citizenship (i) by purchase, 
(2) by manumission, (3) by reward of service. 

29. Kal...8€, cf. iii. 24. Kai on, 'and because he had bound him,' 
referring either to his arrest or to the scourging at the pillar, /cat on 
depends on icpolBrjdr] and Kal is really superfluous. Lysias was liable to 
punishment under the lex Julia de vi. 

B. A. 15 


Triai. before the Sanhedrin and its Sequel. 
xxii. 30 — xxiii. 11. 

30. TO Ti Kari^YopEiTai, explanatory of to d(X(pa\h. This usage of 
the article to denote quotation marks is especially characteristic of 
S. Luke, cf. iv. 21; Lk. i. 62, ix, 46. tL is nom. ^Xvcrev. According 
to Cod. Bez. this took place on the day before, immediately after Lysias 
discovered his mistake. Kara-ya-ytov, sc. from the tower of Antonia down 
to the temple area. The council met somewhere on the temple mount, 
but they could not have met in the temple itself, otherwise Lysias could 
not have been present. 

Chapter XXIII. 

1. dT€Vi<ras, 'fastening his eyes steadily,' cf. i. 10, iii. 12. He 
shews no weakness in vision or in courage. The narrative is very brief. 
Lysias' evidently opened the proceedings and then Paul was called 
upon to speak. o-vveiSijo-ci, ' conscience.' A particularly favourite 
word of S. Paul which he uses over twenty times in his epistles. 
'jr€TroX.iT€Vfjiai, ' I have always acted as a good citizen before God in all 
good conscience.' For iroKiTevo^iai cf. Phil. i. 27, and for the truth of 
the statement, xxii. 3, xxiv. 14, xxvi. 4; Phil. iii. 6. S. Paul substitutes 
iroKiTevoixai for TrepLwaru) or iropevo/xaL which represent Jewish thought, 
and this may have enraged his opponents. He was charged with speak- 
ing against the law and begins his defence by claiming that he was a 
loyal and strict Jew. TroXiTeuofiai in Dem. means to engage in a 
public political career and so it covered all the duties of men as 
members of a public body. S. Paul did not only have the TroXtref/xa 
of the Roman citizen, but he was a citizen of God's kingdom and he 
observed all His laws. 

2. 'AvavCas, son of Nebedaeus, held office 47-59 and was deposed 
by Felix. In a.d. 66 he met his death at the hands of an assassin. 
TviTTtiv. The reason for this sudden outburst is not clear. Some 
consider that S. Paul had begun to speak before he was questioned, 
others that his first words were pi'ovocative and that he did not address 
the sanhedrin with respect, of. iv. 8. 

3. Tvirniv en \i.ik\ii. Not a curse but a prophecy of death. The 
retort of S. Paul is in contrast with the answer of Jesus under similar 
circumstances, Jn xviii. 23. toix.« KCKOviajJicvc, 'thou whited wall,' 
a proverbial expression for a hypocrite, cf. Mt. xxiii. 27; Lk. xi. 44, 
and especially Ez. xiii. 10 f. Kal <n5. /cat expresses astonishment, 


av is emphatic. Kd6'[), late form of Kad-ijaai, cf. ii. 34. irapavop.cov. 
The emphasis is on the part.; tr. 'and thou breakest the law in com- 
manding me.' 

4. Tov 0€ov. The high priest was God's representative, Deut. 
xvii. .10. 

5. OvK fjSeiv. The words can only mean that S. Paul did not 
recognize the high priest. There was not much distinction in dress 
between the high priest and the chief priests, and S. Paul did not 
know him by sight. The sanhedrin was summoned by Lysias who 
was present and he may have presided and directed the proceedings, 
and in that case S. Paul's mistake is more easily understood. All the 
circumstances point to an informal meeting and not to a full session of 
the sanhedrin. ■yeYpaiTTai "ydp. The implication expressed by yap is 
'otherwise I should not have spoken thus, for...,' cf. Ex. xxii. 28. 

6. Fvoijs Sc. S. Paul has been accused of taking advantage of the 
presence of Pharisees and Sadducees to obscure the issue and throw the 
meeting into confusion. But the narrative is very brief, and from v. 9 
it seems that he had spoken once more of the visions (ch. xxii.) and of 
the resurrection, and the Pharisees had shewn by gesture or otherwise 
approval of his utterance. He was charged with preaching against the 
law which he strongly denies, cf. v. i, xxiv. 12-16. This he declares is 
not the real issue between himself and his opponents, but the claim that 
Jesus was the Messiah and that He had risen from the dead. In ch. xxiv. 
in the account he gives of his conduct before Felix he makes this clear, 
though he seems to admit that his declaration of the true issue was the 
cause of disturbance. 

e-yw ^apio-aids €i|xi. The Pharisees believed in angels and spirits 
and in a resurrection of the dead. S. Paul asserts his strict personal 
adherence to their creed. He differed from them in claiming that Jesus 
was the risen Messiah. Many Pharisees had accepted the faith. S. Paul 
essays to convince those present that in Jesus they could see the fulfil- 
ment of the hopes which they shared in common with him. All the 
anti-Christian forces which we have met with in the Acts were united 
against S. Paul. He made two claims: (i) That Jesus was the risen 
Messiah. This aroused hostility, especially from the Sadducees, cf. chh. 
iv.-v. (2) That the Gentiles had equal rights with the Jews in the 
Gospel. This was construed by the Pharisees into an attack upon the 
law and the temple and strongly opposed also by the Judaist Christians. 
Throughout his life from the time of his conversion S. Paul strove 
to maintain communion with Jews, Jewish Christians and Gentile 



Christians. The task was impossible in spite of his sincerity and 
consistency. No one can be a member of two distinct religious bodies 
without incurring the bitter hostility of the extremists, at any rate of one 
or other and probably of both, vios ^apio-aitov, i.e. he came of a 
Pharisee family of long tradition, Phil. iii. 5, 2 Tim. i. 3. irept IXiriSos 
Kal...V€Kpcov. Best taken as a hendiadys, 'hope of a resurrection of 
the dead': others — e\7r^s = the hope, i.e. of Messianic salvation, cf. 
xxiv. 15, xxvi. 6. 

8. TO, d|x({>6T€pa, i.e. the resurrection and the existence of angels 
and spirits of the departed. There is no difficulty in afxcporepa as angels 
and spirits together form one conception. 

9. Tc5v 7pa(xjjLaT€'a)v. The professional lawyers who belonged chiefly 
to the Pharisees. OuScv KaKov, cf. Lk. xxiii. 4. el Se as punctuated 
in the text must be taken as a protasis without an apodosis. ' But if 
a spirit or an angel did speak to him.. .. ' Some MSS. add fxr] ^eo/iaxw/x.ei'. 
In R.V. it is punctuated as a question, ' What if...,' so guid si spiritiis 
Vulgate. el in N.T. is frequently used in direct questions. The 
Pharisees had heard Paul speak of his visions. 

11. 6 Kvpios, Jesus. 0apo-€t. The word was constantly on the 
lips of Christ in His lifetime. To the sick and diseased, Mt. ix. 2: 
Mk x. 49: to the disciples on the sea, Mt. xiv. 27 : again to the 
disciples, Jn xvi. 33. For the visions of S. Paul cf. xviii. 9 n., xxvii. 
23. Rome the goal of his hopes was yet to be reached, xix. 21. 

Conspiracy to murder Paul. Lysias sends him 
TO Felix at Caesarea. 12-35. 

12. (rvo-Tpo<j)Tiv, a conspiracy, cf. xix. 40 n. dv€0£|xdTi(rav, i.e. they 
declared themselves liable to the direct punishment of God if they were 
false to their oath. The verb is found elsewhere only Mk xiv. 71. p.t]T6 
<}>a'Y€iv. ii.y] generally preceded by ?) ixy)v is the regular negative used in 
oaths in cl. Gk. iretv, Hellen. form of th.€iv. 

13. -qo-av, tr. 'Those who had formed this conspiracy were more 
than 40.' 7] omitted, as often, with wXeicov. 

14. ol^Tivcs. The relative in accordance with S. Luke's style 
introduces a new fact. Tr. 'and they.' 'AvaBejiaTt dv£Oe|iaT£(rap,ev. 
For the use of the noun with the corresponding verb to express 
emphasis cf. v. 28 n. dvadrj/xa always in a good sense, ' offering,' 
Lk. xxi. 5; avadefxa in a bad sense, 'an accursed thing,' Gal. i. 8; 
Rom. ix. 3. 


XXIII 23] NOTES 220 

15. l|x<J)avio-aT€...'Tr€pl auTov. 'Signify' is an inadequate rendering, 
as the sanhedrin could not dictate to Lysias, but only lay the case 
before him with a request, v. 20. Tr. ' Intimate your intention to the 
tribune that he may bring Paul down to you as though you proposed to 
examine his case more carefully.' For €fx.^avi^eiv of. xxiv. i, xxv. 2, 
15. «s expresses the pretext, cf. Lk. xvi. i, xxiii. 14. toO dveXeiv. 
Tov with infin. expresses purpose, cf. v. 20. 

16. 6 vios TT]S d8€X<j)T]s. Paul's nephew is otherwise unknown. It 
is suggested that irapayevofxevos should be taken with d/cot^cas, i.e. he 
came upon them when forming the conspiracy and thus heard of the 
plot, but the order in the Greek is against this. He had no difficulty 
in obtaining admittance as S. Paul was a Roman retained in libera 
custodia and allowed indulgence, cf. xxiv. ■23. 

17. Tt, as in cl. Gk, something important. 

18. 'O Seo-fJiios IlavXos, ' the prisoner Paul.' Here used for the first 
time. He speaks of himself in the epistles written from Rome as ' the 
prisoner of Jesus Christ,' Eph. iii. r. iv. i ; 2 Tim. i. 8. 

19. liriXapojiCVOs, tr. ' taking him by the hand.' For the construc- 
tion cf, Lk. viii. 54. 

20. <rvv€'0€VTO, cf. Lk. xxii. 5. tov IptoTTJcrai, a request not a 
demand, cf. iii. 3 n. ws [le'XXwv. If jneWcov, which has the best 
authority, is correct it must refer to the tribune, so R.V,, but the words 
are an obvious repetition of z^. 15. Cod. Sin. fxeWov agreeing with 
(Tvvedpiov : other MSS. /uLeWovres. 

21. 'irpo<r8€x6|X6voi. Trpo<x8exoiui.cLL is used in two senses: (i) receive 
favourably, (2) wish for or expect ; here the latter. ktrayyikCav, * the 
promise from you,' i.e. your consent. Elsewhere eirayyeXLa is used of 
the divine promise not made in answer to request, but spontaneously, 
cf. ii. 39; Gal. iii. 16, etc. 

22. 0Ti...€V€4>dvicras. Note the change to oratio recta, cf. i. 4; 
Lk. V. 14. 

23. TivasSvo. rtJ/as = <7z<^j-(S^aw, two particular centurions on whom 
he could rely, cf. Lk. vii. 19. 'EToi|xd<raT€. The aor. imperative is 
instantaneous. 'Get ready immediately.' orTpaTiajTas...8€|i.oXdpovs. 
The number of the escort, 470, is very large and can only be due to the 
possible dangers on the road, not to the necessity of escorting Paul. 
The three arms of the Roman army are here utilized: (i) arpanQrai, 
heavy-armed legionaries; (2) 'nnreh, cavalry, drawn as a rule from the 
provinces, e.g. Numidia; (3) Se^ioXd^OL, light-armed auxiliaries. The 
meaning of SefioXd/Sofs, v.l. 8e^Lo^d\ovs, is very obscure. They are 


distinguished from peltasts and archers in the only passage where the 
word occurs, but it is not stated how they were armed, diro Tpfriis 
upas. They were to be prepared to start at or after 9 p.m. 

•24. KTTjvT], properly of cattle and beasts of burden, but here of 
horses, cf. Lk. x. 34. The plural is used because S. Paul would be 
chained to a soldier who would ride by his side. Trapa<rTTJo-at, depen- 
dent on eX-w^v ; a change to indirect speech. Siaa-uo-oxri, ' bring him 
safe.' Cod. Bez. adds, ' For he was afraid lest the Jews should seize 
and slay him, and he himself afterwards be accused of havhig taken a 
bribe.' <l>'qXiKa. Antonius Felix, procurator 52-58 A.D., was the brother 
of Pallas the freedman of Claudius. His government was marked by. 
great cruelty, Tac. Hist. v. 9. tov ii-Yejidva. A general word in N.T., 
used both of the emperor himself and of the Jewish procurator; cf. Lk. 
xxi. 12. 

■25. 'i\owQ.v TOV Tvirov TOvTov, ' cast in this form.' S. Luke does 
not quote the letter /;/ exteiiso, but gives<!cis of its contents. He was 
present at Caesarea and may have heard the letter read in open court. 

26. KpariCT-TO), cf. i. i, xxiv. 3, a complimentary title. 

27. Tov dvSpa indicates respect. |xa6(ov on 'Pa)|jiaios. Lysias 
makes no mention of how he acquired the knowledge of Paul's citizen 
ship or of his own illegal action. 

28. PovXofjievos. Again Lysias suppresses the truth, as he was well 
aware of the charge against Paul. He wishes to present his own conduct 
in the most favourable light to the procurator. 

29. 5T|Tt]|jtdT0)v, cf. xviii. 15. Cod. Bez., 'questions of the law of 
Moses and of one Jesus.' 

30. |x.T]vv0€i<rT|s...^(r€o-0ai. A mixture of two constructions, fi-qvv- 
deiarjs eiTL^ovXijs eaofievqs and /xrjvvdevTos iirijSovXrjv ^aeadai. ^ir€p,\|/a, 
epistolary aorist. ' I am sending' is the English idiom. Trpos avrov. 
Some MSS. insert rd and conclude the letter with ^ppcvao, 'farewell.' 

31.. Ot \iiv oSv. The antithesis may be found in the following 
.sentence rfj de iiravpiov, or in xxiv. 1. 8id vvktos, 'by night.' For 
• the rare use of dtd cf. xvii. 10; Lk. v. 5. 'AvrnraTpiSa. Antipatris 
was founded by Flerod the Great and named by him after his father. 
It was 42 miles from Jerusalem, and as the road here debouched into 
the open plain it was no longer liable to be infested by bandits. 

33. o^TLvcs, 'and they,' i.e. the horsemen. 

34. iroias eirapx.€ias, 'of what province.' Troms = r^'os, cf. iv. 7. 
He wished to. ascertain further details not mentioned in the letter. 
iirapxeia is a general term including alike a large province or an 

XXIV 4] NOTES 231 

appendage to a large province, such as Judaea was to Syria. The 
procurator of Judaea was only subject to the superior jurisdiction of 
the legate of Syria if an insurrection required his interference. 

35. ALaKoiJ<ro|iai, ' I will hear thy case.' 5ta intensifies aKovui and 
implies a judicial hearing. KiKf.v<r(x.^ = Kal eKeXevaev. S. Luke uses the 
aor. participle to state a fact subsequent to or coincident with the action 
of the principal verb, cf. xvi. 6, xxiv. 22. TrpairtopCw, palace. The 
procurator resided in Herod's palace which was both a fortress and 
a residence. Some consider that the epistle to the Philippians was 
written from Caesarea chieHy on the ground that irpaiTobpLov (i. 13) must 
have the same meaning as here and in the Gospels, Mt. xxvii. 27, but 
the epistle was probably written from Rome, and TrpaiTu}pi.ou refers to the 
Praetorian guard. 

Ch. xxiv. Trial before Felix and its Sequel. 1-27. 

r . Merd Si irivre ■^[j.epas, variously estimated as to be reckoned from 
the departure from Jerusalem, the apprehension of S. Paul or the 
arrival at Caesarea. The last is to be preferred. pi^Topos. In late Gk 
' a professional pleader.' Lat. catisidicus. TertuUus is a diminutive of 
Tertius: he may have been a Jew, unless his identification of himself 
with his clients is merely a professional pose, cf. irv. 3, 5, 6. otrives €V€- 
<|)avio-av, ' who laid formal information before,' cf. xxiii. 15, xxv. 2, 15. 

2. IloXXtjs €lpT]VTis. TertuUus begins with the usual compliments — 
captatio benezwlentiae. Felix may have done something to suppress the 
banditti, cf. xxi. 38, but both Tacitus and Josephus accuse him of 
causing sedition by his cruelty and of employing the assassins for his 
own ends, Tac. Ann. xii. 54; Jos. Ant. XX. 8. 9. 8iop6a)|xdTa>v 71VO- 
|i€'vwv, 'many reforms introduced.' Some MSS. have KaTopduip-aTuv, 
' successes attained.' tw ?0v€i tovto). TertuUus speaks of the Jews as 
a nation {^dvos) in the Roman Empire not as the people of God (Xaos), 
cf. V. ID, x. 22. xxvi. 4. irpovoias, 'care,' cf. Rom. xiii. 14. 

3. irdvTT)...iravTax,ov should be taken with yipo/xevitiv. diroSexo- 
jj.€0a, ' we gladly welcome,' sc. raura, i.e. the peace and reforms. 

4. 6VK6TrTw = to hinder or delay; v.l. kotttoj, 'weary.' o-uvTOfAcos. 
Strictly Xeyouroov should be supplied, but Greek and English idiom 
alike admit of ' to give a brief hearing.' liruiKia, clemency, kindness; 
the spirit of a man who judges in accordance with equity rather than 
by the stringency of the law. The i-meLKiis is contrasted by Aristotle 
with the cLKpL^odiKaios, cf. 2 Cor. x. i. 


5, 6. 6vpovT6S-..os Kal...6v Kttl. There is no principal verb. The 
anacohithon is probably due to S. Luke's summarizing briefly the charges 
brought by TertuUus : (i) sedition; (2) leadership of the Nazarenes; 
(3) profanation of the temple. Xoi|jl6v, 'a plague,' pestilent fellow. 
Common in LXX. in this sense. Kara x-qv olKo-up.evT]v, i.e. the Roman 
Empire, cf. xxi. 28. roiv Na^wpaiwv : the contemptuous term applied 
to the Christians by the Jews, as XptcTiaj'ot was by the Greeks, xi. 26. 
alp^crccos, cf. v. lyn. PePi^Xcocrai. This charge could not be proved 
against S. Paul and was only a matter of suspicion in the case of 
Trophimus, xxi. 28. €KpaTT]o-a(Ji€V. KparQ with the accus. means to 
seize or to conquer. Cod. Bez. adds ' and would have judged him 
according to our law. But the tribune came, and with great violence 
took him away out of our hands, commanding his accusers to come 
unto thee'; so A.V. W.H. and R.V. omit. 

8. Trap' ov, i.e. from Paul: according to A.V. Trap' ov must refer to 
Lysias. dvaKpivas, by a judicial examination. 

9. <rvv€ir€'0evTo...<j)d<rKovT€S. 'Joined in the attack, asserting,' 
i.e. as accusers. 

10. *Ek iroWdJv €Twv. Even before he became />rocU7'a for, 52 A.D., 
Felix was associated M^ith Cumanus in the government of Judaea ; Tac. 
Ann. XII. 54. ^9v€t, i.e. the Jews; cf. v. 3, supra. €v0v|iws, 'gladly,' 
'cheerfully.' S. Paul also begins his speech with a compliment. diroXo- 
■yovfjiai. Common in the writings of S. Luke and S. Paul, not elsewhere 
in the N.T. ; cf. Lk. xii. 11, xxi. 14. 

11. 8vva(i£Vov. Such" a short time as twelve days made it possible 
for Felix to ascertain the exact facts and impossible for Paul to have 
raised a sedition. The days may be arranged thus, excluding the 
day of arrival: (1) The visit to James; (2) the association with the 
Nazirites ; (6) the arrest of Paul ; (7) the trial before the sanhedrin ; 
(8) the information of the plot ; (9) the arrival at Caesarea ; and 
reckoning five following days inclusively, the speech of Tertullus would 
be on the thirteenth day. There are various alternative methods of 
reckoning; perhaps the simplest is to add the seven days of xxi. 27 to 
the five days, xxi v. i. irpoo-KvvTio-wv. So far from coming to Jeru- 
salem to raise a sedition he had come for the purpose of worship (xx. 16) 
and to bring the alms. This would naturally weigh with the procurator, 
as the Romans respected the Jewish faith. 

12. €v Tw Upw. Paul meets two of the charges of Tertullus with 
a flat denial. lirCa-Taa-iv^iTriavaTaaiv, 'gathering of a crowd.' 

13. irapao-Ti^orai, to produce any proofs. Classical usage. 

XXIV i8] NOTES 233 

14 ojj.oXo'yco. He frankly admits the second charge, but proceeds 
to define the true position of Christianity in its relation to Judaism. 68dv, 
' the way,' a term accepted V)y the Christians. al^p€<riv, though used in 
a good sense in v. 17, xv. 5, a'Lpeais is rejected by S. Paul as implying 
separation and self-assertion ; cf. Gal. v. 20, i Cor. xi. 19. He main- 
tains by argument that Christianity is the TrXiypwcris of Judaism, 
xiii. 32. Tw iraTpwtp 0€(3 : cf. xxii. 3. 14. v6|iov...'irpo(})t]Tais. The 
law and the prophets (cf. xiii. 15) contained the Messianic hopes. 
Paul maintained that these hopes had been fulfilled and therefore he 
was still a stout adherent of the Jewish faith, 

15. 'iyjav. The hope of the resurrection was his present possession 
— it was still only an ' expectation ' of the Jews, avrot oStoi. He 
points to his accusers. The Pharisees could not deny this, dvd- 
(TTtto-Lv : cf. Dan. xii. 2. 

16. €V TovTO). 'Herein I also (i.e. no less than my present 
accusers) study to have a conscience.' Others take ev TovTip to mean 
' therefore ' or ' meanwhile,' i.e. awaiting, like them, the resurrection. 
onrpoo-Koirov. (i) Used actively, 'not giving offence,' Phil. i. 10; 

(2) passively, ''not being offended,' i Cor. x. 32. 'Without offence' 
gives an admirable sense, as combining both meanings. 8id iravTos, 
cf. ii. 25, x. 2, Lk. xxiv. 53. His whole life no less than his recent 
conduct at Jerusalem was a refutation of the charges. 

17. 81' Itwv. did here bears its classical meaning of 'after an 
interval of; cf. Gal. ii. t. For his last visit see xviii. 22. IXeTijio- 
(Tvvas — (JLOv, 'to bring alms to my nation.' Deissmann says ets = for. 
e\eiqixo(jvvq is not elsewhere used by S. Paul. He uses various terms 
for the 'collection': Koipoovia, \oyia, diaKovia, x^P'^i cf. esp. i Cor. xvi. 
1-4 ; 2 Cor. viii. , ix. ; Rom. xv. 26. This is the only reference made 
by S. Luke to the chief object of S. Paul's visit, 7rpo<r<}>opds. ' The 
offerings ' may refer (i) to offerings at Pentecost, (2) to some private 
offerings of the apostle possibly connected with a vow of his own, 

(3) to the offerings made on behalf of the four Nazirites, xxi. 26. 

18. ev ais has better MS. authority than iv oh. The reference must 
be to wpoacpopds, and ijyvicrfxevop points to the offerings for the Nazirites. 
S. Paul having denied the charges now states the true facts, ov [leTct 
o'xXov. Tertullus had laid special stress upon the charge of (XTacris, the 
only charge Felix would be likely to listen to ; S. Paul equally strongly 
refutes it. rives 81. If tlv^ is read alone it is the subject of evpou ; 
so A.V. But if 5e is original — and it has excellent authority— there 
is an anacoluthon. ' But certain Jews from Asia who ought to have 


been present and laid any charges they had against me before thee... .' 
Here he breaks off suddenly in his characteristic manner (cf. Gal. ii. 4, 5), 
and without stating what the Jews from Asia actually did, turns to those 
Jews who were present, ' or (since they have not come to accuse me) 
let these men themselves (who are present) state of what crime they 
found me guilty when I stood before the sanhedrin.' 

20. auTol ovToi. He turns to the Jews present in the absence of 
the Jews from Asia. 

21. Ti...i\ = Ti a\\o...ri. ' Except in the matter of this one utterance 
to which I gave voice.' S. Paul does not conceal the cause of the 
disturbance in the sanhedrin, xxiii. 6. eKeKpa|a, Hellen. aor. from 

22. 'AvePctXcTO, Lat. ''ainpliavit eos.'' A Roman judge would put 
off a case for further consideration with the formula, ' Amplhis.^ Two 
reasons are given for the adjournment of the case: (i) by S. Luke, 
that Felix was 'very well informed concerning the way,' and therefore 
had heard enough to see that S. Paul could not be condemned on 
religious grounds ; (2) by Felix, that he could not ' decide the case ' 
until Lysias came to Caesarea. His motive may have been genuine. 
Paul was a Roman prisoner and the tribune had referred the case to 
him, and he wished to hear his evidence. aKpiPeVrcpov, comp. for 
superl. ; cf. eXdeiv tolxlov, i Tim, iii. 14. Felix had been resident for 
some years in Judaea and had married a Jewish wife, ret Ka0' ufids- 
Ujuas includes both accuser and accused. ' I will decide the question at 
issue between you.' 

23. avccriv, 'indulgence'; cf. xxiii. 16, xxviii. 16. For S. Paul's 
use of the word cf. 2 Cor. vii. 5, viii. 13. tc5v ISCodv, i.e. Luke, 
Aristarchus, Trophimus. For the phrase cf. iv. 23. 

24. Apouo-iXXT). She was the youngest daughter of Herod Agrippa L 
Her sisters were Bernice and Mariamne, and her brother Agrippa H. 
She was first married to Azizus, king of Emesa, and beguiled to desert 
him by a magician sent by Felix, who was already married. Cod, Bez. 
makes it clear that it was to gratify her that Felix sent for Paul. Her 
brother shewed a similar interest ; cf. xxv. els Xpio-rov 'I-qo-ovv ; 
so W.H. and R.V. A.V. 'Christ.' The MS. authority is fairly 
divided, Felix would have almost certainly used ' Xpiaros ' only ; 
cf. xxvi. 28. 

25. t-yKparcCas. Paul does not at once answer Felix, but speaks 
of the moral virtues, in which Felix and his wife were very deficient, 
thus shewing the .same courage as John the Baptist before Herod 

XXV 5] NOTES 235 

Antipas. eyKpareia is the virtue of self-control opposed to aKpaaia 
(cLKpaTeia), i Cor. vii. 9 ; Gal. v. 23. To vvv <ixov. For the present, 
' as things are.' 

26. x.P^H^°''''°- The taking of bribes from a prisoner was forbidden 
by Roman law. Felix evidently knew that S. Paul had money at his 
command. S. Paul was independent of support from others, and 
though he sometimes worked with his own hands he must have had 
some means of his own. 

27. Aierias. The date of the recall of Felix is variously estimated. 
Turner gives 57-59; see Introduction. ^Xa^cv StdSoxov. Lit, 'had 
for his successor,' i.e. 'was succeeded by,' R.V. 4>tio-tov. Nothing 
is known of him except from N.T. and Josephus. He was a firm and 
just magistrate and repressed the bandits. KaraSeo-Oat, a metaphor from 
banking ; lit. ' to deposit. ' It was Felix's policy to gain popularity 
with the Jews, in view of the accusations which followed him to 
Rome. Tr. 'to place a favour to the Jews to his credit.' Cod. Bez. 
gives a different reason : ' But Paul he left in bond for the sake of 
Drusilla.' SeScficvov, ' bound,' i.e. imprisoned, but not in rigorous 

Ch. XXV. Paul and Festus. First Trial. 


1. rg €irapx€ia, i.e. 'having entered upon his office, 'i.e. as governor 
of the province, eirapxeia denotes both locality and jurisdiction, here 
preferably the latter ; cf. xxiii. 34. 

2. 6V64)avi<rav, cf. xxiii. 15, xxiv. i. 01 irpwroi. 'The principal 
Jews,' not necessarily confined to Trpea^vrepoi, v. i-;-, cf. Lk. xix. 47. 

3. oirws |xeTa7re[j.\J/T]Tai, i.e. to try the case himself, vv. 10, 15. 
The favour they asked was that Paul should be brought to Jerusalem, 
and they had already laid a plot to murder him on the way. 

4. J16V ovv. There is no direct antithesis. direKpiGT] TT|p€io-0ai, 
'answered that Paul was in custody in Caesarea.' €ls = ei'. lavrov, 
cl. Gk would require avrbs. Festus refuses their main request but 
expresses his readiness to hear their charges against Paul at Caesarea. 

5. <|>'i]<riv, note the change to oratio recta ; cf. i. 4. The insertion 
of 07;cri and ^07/ is rare in N.T. Oi...8vvaTol, 'those in authority.' 
Festus uses a general term. He may have been unfamiliar with the 
titles of the Jewish hierarchy ; for the expression cf. i Cor. i. 26. 


Others take ol 5waT0i = those who are able. Ti-.-aroirov, 'anything 
amiss,' i.e. any wickedness, A.V.; cf. Lk. xxiii. 41. But drowos has its 
classical meaning, ' unusual,' xxviii. 6. 

6. TT] liravpiov. The short stay at Jerusalem and the speedy 
return with Paul's accusers points to the promptitude of the new 
governor in the performance of his duties. 

7. 'jroXXd...alTio5[x.aTa, 'many grave charges.' atrtoj^ca = atrta/tia. 
They preferred the same three charges (xxiv. 5), as is clear from Paul's 

8. els Kai<rapa. The charge of sedition would come under the 
law — lex laesae majestatis — and would constitute treason against the 
emperor, cf. xvii. 7. 

9. Tois 'lovSaCois, emphatic position. Festus could not condemn 
Paul, but wanted to win favour with his new subjects and offers to 
agree to the original request of the Jews. Iir' l|xoii. The trial con- 
cerning the breaches of the Jewish law would take place before the 
sanhedrin, but Festus adds 'in my presence,' as a reassurance of the 
protection of the Roman government against injustice. Festus probably 
would not preside in the sanhedrin, but the verdict of death would be 
brought to him for ratification. 

10. e'irl...KaL<rapos, 'I am standing before Caesar's tribunal.' 
The procurator was the legal representative of the emperor ; technically 
therefore the expression is true. Caesar was a title of the emperor 
which belonged originally to the Julian gens. ov...Kpivt(r9ai. No 
Roman citizen could be tried except before a Roman tribunal. 'lov- 
Saiovs ov8^v. For the double accus. cf. Lk. x. 19. «s <ru kciXXiov, 
'as thou very well knowest.' For the comparative cf. xxiv. 22. 

11. €l...d8tK«...d7ro0av€iv, 'but if I am guilty and have done 
anything worthy of death, I do not appeal against a death sentence.' 
S. Paul claims that he was not guilty of any offence against the Jews, 
and that he cannot be handed over to them, but if there was any charge 
against him as a Roman citizen he claims the privilege to be tried 
in a Roman court. irapaiToO|jiai, Lat. deprecor. Lit. 'beg off'; 
cf. Lk. xiv. 18, 19. \o.^{.^o.v^(x\., cf. iii. 14, i.e. 'no one can give me 
up as a favour to the Jews.' Festus would be acting tiltra vires. The 
appeal of a Roman citizen to the emperor had to be allowed. tiriKa- On the expulsion of the kings in 509 the right of appeal to 
the people {provocatio ad popiihun) was granted by the lex Valeria. 
Under the empire right of appeal was transferred to the emperor. 
Paul had been in custody for two years, and saw no chance of a fair 

XXV i8] NOTES 237 

trial ; he distrusted Festus, and was convinced that in an appeal to 
Rome lay at once the chance of a hearing before a final tribunal and 
of achieving the great object of all his labours, which had been 
assured to him, xix. 21, xxiii, 11. 

12. fi€Td Tov (rv|xPovXCov, 'with his counsellors,' i.e. the officials 
who acted as assessors in the court of the procurator to assist him on 
legal points. He could only disallow the appeal if there was danger in 
delay. He knew there was no case against Paul, but he dkd not want 
to oflFend the Jews in his first official act by an acquittal, and therefore 
allowed the appeal, though he was at a loss how to frame the ^ elogium,'' 
V. 27. cirl Kaio-apa iropcvo-T). Behind these words lie two facts : 
(i) Festus knew Paul distrusted him ; (2) Paul little appreciated what 
an appeal to the emperor meant. 


13. 'A-ypiiriras. Herod Agrippa W was the son of Agrippa I, 
eh. xii. In a.d. 49 he was made king of Chalcis by the emperor 
Claudius; in a.d. 53 the tetrarchies of Trachonitis and Abilene were 
added to his dominions, and at a later date Galilee and Peraea. In the 
Jewish war in A.D. dd he sided with the Romans. He died at Rome 
A.D. 100. BepviKi]. Bernice was married to Plerod, king of Chalcis, 
and on his death lived in the household of her brother Agrippa. During 
the Jewish wars she first championed the Jewish cause, but when her 
palace was burned by the fanatic Jews she went over to the Romans. 
She had great beauty and both Vespasian and Titus fell victims to her 
charms. d(nra<rd|i€Voi, ' and greeted Festus.' For the aor. part, 
cf. xxiii. 35; other MSS. affwaaofx^voL, 'to greet.' Agrippa came 
'to pay his respects' to the new procurator. He had the courtesy title 
of king, but was not 'king of Judaea.' 

14. dveOero, 'referred'; cf. Gal. ii. 2. It was natural for Festus 
to consult Agrippa, as he was entrusted with the supervision of the 
temple and was expert in Jewish laws and customs, xxvi. 3, 7. 

15. KaTa8iKT]v=' condemnation.' 

16. irplv TJ...^x°''' *^P^' ^^ oblique narration. S. Luke alone uses 
the optative at all freely in N.T., Lk. iii. 15. 

18. t5v...'jrovTipwv. Tr. 'brought no accusation of the crimes which 
I expected.' 


19. Seio-iSaip-ovias, 'religion'; cf. xvii. 11. irepi Ttvos 'Iiltrov, 

about one Jesus.' No mention of this was made in the trial ; Festus 
probably knew nothing of the facts. ^<j>ao-K€v, ' asserted,' implying 
that the assertion had no foundation in fact. 

20. diropoviJtevos. Here dTropoOAtai takes a direct accus. : ' being 
perplexed as to how to proceed with my inquiry into the matter ' ; 
cf. V. 9. 61 PovXotTo after ^\eyov represents the direct question ei 
^o6\€c in oblique form. Lit. 'I said to him, did he wish?' 

21. avrov = eavTov. ds ti]V tov SePacrrov Sid-yvwo-iv, 'for the 
decision of the emperor,' i.e. Nero. ScjSaaros, Lat. Augustus, an official 
title of the emperors. The title was first conferred on Octavianus, and 
subsequently on his successors; cf. Lk. ii. i. The survival of the titles 
Augustus and Sebastos in the names of places so far removed from one 
another as Saragossa and Sevastopol is striking evidence of the extent 
of the power of Rome, dvaire'ijuj/ti), 'send him up,' i.e. to the capital, 
to a higher tribunal. 

22. 'EpovXcfx-qv. The force of the imperfect is not clear. It would 
naturally mean, 'I also had a desire to hear Paul.' i.e. Agrippa had 
heard of Paul at Jerusalem and had already formed the wish to enquire 
into his case. Others take ejSovXofxrjv as a polite form of request, as we 
should say, 'I was thinking that I should like to,' i.e. the wish had 
arisen as he listened to Festus. 

Second Trial before Festus, Agrippa and Bernice. 
XXV. 23 — XX vi. 32. 

23. TO aKpoaTTJpiov. The audience chamber — not a hall of 
judgment but simply the room in which the interview took place. 
XiXtdpxots. There were five cohorts stationed at Caesarea. tois Kar 
6|oxi)v, 'the most prominent men of the city,' including Gentiles as 
well as Jews. 

24. Ivirvyjev, 'made a petition to me.' Used in LXX. of those 
who made complaints before the authorities. In Rom. viii. 27, 34, 
xi. 2, it is used of supplication to God. 

25. KaTcXap6}iT]v, cf. iv, 13, x. 34. According to the Bezan text 
Festus makes a longer speech, but it contains no facts not mentioned 

26. T(u KvpCia, Lat. Domimis. Augustus and Tiberius wisely 

XXVI 6] NOTES 239 

refused this title as alien to the spirit of the relation between the emperor 
and the people. It was first accepted by Caligula and subsequently 
by his successors. dvaKpio-ews, 'examination.' The object was not 
to reopen the case but to obtain more definite infonnation, as in a case 
of appeal Festus was required to send an eloghim with the prisoner 
stating the case, and he hoped Agrippa would assist him. 
XXVI. I. 'AYpiinras. Agrippa presided at the enquiry. 

2. TJYri|, ' I think,' perf. w^ith force of present. For the compli- 
ment to the presiding judge cf. xxiv. 3. 

This speech is S. Paul's final 'apology ' in the Acts in defence of his 
life and faith and conduct, (i) Compliment to Agrippa, vv. 2, 3. 
(2) His life before his conversion, w. 4, 5. (3) The real charge against 
him — the hope of the resurrection, vv. 6-8. (4) Narrative of his con- 
version in proof of his conviction of the resurrection and of his mission 
to the Gentiles, vv. 9-18. (5) Brief review of its fulfilment leading to his 
arrest, vv. 19-21. (6) The passion of the Messiah and His resurrection, 
with its message of life and hope to Jew and Gentile alike, was the 
fulfilment of the predictions of the law and the prophets, vv. 22, 23. 

3. p,dXicrTa •yvw<rTT]v ovra <r€. /xaXiara either ' especially because 
thou art expert,' or 'because thou art especially expert.' There is how- 
ever no construction for the accus. which may be due to confusion, as if 
irpos ae had preceded, or it may be an accus. absolute. The insertion 
of eTriaTdfxevos has very little support. eOwv re Kai |titt] (Adrtov, i.e. the 
practices and theories of Judaism. 

4. |JL€v oviv introduces the narratio after the exordium. The de- 
scription of his life is abandoned at v. 6, and resumed again after a short 
and highly characteristic digression at v. 9. Ik veoT-qTos, from the time 
he came to Jerusalem, i.e. about the age of 13. ti^v oiTr' apx^S 
7€vop,e'vT]v, a further definition of tt^u ^Iwatv, tr. 'that I practised from 
the beginning.' No one with such a training as he had had would be 
likely to act contrary to Jewish feeling. 

5. dvw0€v, 'from the beginning,' i.e. of his public education at 
lerusalem. There had been no break in the consistency of his life: 
for avwdev cf. Lk. i. 2, 3. dKpLp€<rTdTT]v. The only instance of a 
superlative in -raros in N.T. S. Paul adhered to the traditions so 
strictly held by the Pharisees: cf. xxii. 3, xxiii. 6. 0piio-K€ias, 'religion' 
on its practical side (cf. Jas i. 26, 27), distinguished from oaLdrrjs, the 
inward spirit of religion. 

6. €ir' IXmSt, ' upon the ground of the hope of the promise,' i.e. of 
the advent of the Messiah's kingdom involving the resurrection, cf. xiii. 


23. All Jews, and above all Pharisees, looked forward to this. Paul 
maintained it was fulfilled. This is the real issue. 

7. els "nv, sc. promise, not hope, to 8a>8eKd(}>v\ov : the expression 
occurs only here, but for reference to the 12 tribes in the Dispersion 
cf. Jas i. I. The Jews looked forward to a national reunion of these 
scattered people under the Messiah, cf. Lk. xxii. 30. Xarpevov, of 
religious service, cf. Lk. ii. 37. vtto 'lovSaiwv, position emphatic. He 
was charged by Jews for his passionate devotion to the highest hope of 
every Israelite ! 

8. Trap' vfjLiv. He turns to the Jews present who claimed that 
Jesus was dead ' whom Paul declared to be alive,' xxv. 19. el, (i) 'that,' 
(2) 'if,' probably the latter. The indie, with ei assumes that the sup- 
position is true. There was nothing incredible in the resurrection of 
the dead in the eyes of the Pharisees, though the Sadducees denied the 
truth; why then should not Christ have been raised? In S. Paul's 
eyes the resurrection from the dead and the resurrection of Jesus were 
intimately bound up together, i Cor. xv. 12, 16. 

9. 'E-yw jjtev ovv resumes the narrative from v. 4. ^8o^a €|J.avT«, 
he had acted with sincere conviction in the time of his ignorance : 
cf. iii. 17. Na^wpaiov, xxii. 8. Before his conversion he spoke of 
Jesus thus, now he was himself one of the despised ' Nazarenes,' 
xxiv. 5. 

10. T«v d-yicav. The use of the word enhances the gravity of 
S. Paul's action. dvaipovfjicvcav. The case of Stephen alone is 
narrated, but there may have been others. Kari^vc-yKa \j/T]<j>ov, ' I gave 
my vote.' The phrase would naturally point to a judicial vote. It has 
been assumed that S. Paul was a member of the sanhedrin, but of this 
there is no real evidence, and his age and position at Jerusalem are 
against the assumption. Kar-qveyKa \l/ij<pop may however be a pictorial 
phrase implying that he gave his consent, cf. viii. i. 

11. -rivd^Ka^ov. The imp. is important, 'I strove to make them 
blaspheme.' The imperfect may be conative or iterative, but in neither 
case is there any proof that S. Paul was successful. p\a<r<|>Ti|X€tv = Xe'7eii' 
dvddefjia 'Ir^croOs, i Cor. xii. 3 : cf. maledicere Chrisio, Pliny, Ep. X. 27. 
Like Pliny he probably failed, els tcIs ^|w iroXtts, ' even unto foreign 
cities,' i.e. outside Judaea. Only Damascus is mentioned. 

12. 'Ev ois, tr. 'and on this errand.' liriTpoiTTJs, commission. 
e^ovtrias, the authority to execute it. 

13. ii(i€pas |i6<rT]s, the genitive expresses the time within which 
an event happens, virep tt)v Xa|xirp6TT]Ta emphasizes the supernatural 

XXVI i8] NOTES 241 

character of the light. ircpiXafivl/av, only here and in Lk. ii, 9, of 
a light from heaven. For the variation in the three accounts cf. ix. 3 n. 

14. rfi 'EPpatSk StaXcKTO), added because S. Paul was speaking in 
Greek. The form Zaoi''X in all three accounts makes it clear that the 
words were in Aramaic. irpos Ke'vrpa XaKTC^civ. This proverb 

undoubtedly is original here though introduced into the other narra- 
tives. It is common alike in Greek, Latin and Hebrew literature. Cf. 
Aesch. Ag. 1624 Trpos Kevrpa fxr] Xd/crtfe, also /V. V. 323, Ter. P/iormio, 
I. 2. 27. The ox kicks against the goad only to receive a severer 
wound. It was painful for Paul to try to persecute Jesus in His 
followers, as this only meant deeper wounds for himself, cf. i Tim. 
i. 13. 

16-19. It is clear that these verses contain the substance of what 
in the other accounts is communicated to S. Paul by Ananias as the result 
of his own vision. This is more closely in accord with Gal. i. 15. 
Probably S. Paul in giving an account of his conversion before a Gentile 
audience naturally omitted any reference to Ananias and his baptism. 
His one desire is to emphasize his divine commission to preach to the 

16. dvd,<rTT]0t Kttl <rrr\Qi. The emphatic repetition of the simple 
verb after the compound marks the solemnity of the occasion : cf. xiv. 
10; Eph. vi. 13; Ezek. ii. i. v-m\piTr\v Kai [lapTvpa, a minister and 
witness. v-rr-qpeTrjs is here used in a general sense and the two words 
together emphasize the nature of S. Paul's commission : cf. xxii. 15. <Sv... 
<roi. wv — TovTojv d, internal accusative both with elSes and dcpdrjao/xai. 
Tr. ' Of those things in which thou hast seen me and of those in which 
I shall be seen by thee.' wv eUes refers to the vision at Damascus 
wherein Paul saw the risen Lord : cf. xxii. 15 ; i Cor. ix. i, xv. 8 : wv 
6(pd7}aofxai to subsequent visions: xviii. 9, xxii. 18, xxiii. 11; 2 Cor. 
xii. 2. 

17. l|aipov(JLCVos, 'delivering thee from the people (i.e. the Jews) 
and from the Gentiles.' Elsewhere in the Acts (vii. 10, xii. ri, xxiii. 
27), e^aipdadaL = \.o deliver, and for the fact see v. 22: cf. also Jer. 
i. 8 ; I Chr. xvi. 35. Others tr. ' choosing thee from among.' Cf. 
ix. 15 where Paul is called <XKevo% eKXoyijs. The first rendering is to 
be preferred on the ground of usage in N.T. dirocTeXXw. S. Paul 
never failed to insist on his direct appointment by Christ Himself to 
the apostleship : Gal. i. i, r6; Rom. i. 5. 

18. dvoi|ai. The opening of the eyes of the blinded Jews and 
Gentiles is clearly figurative not miraculous; cf. ix. 8, 40; Is. xxxv. 5, 

B. A. 16 


xlii. 7. avoi^ai is the infin. of purpose, directly dependent on airo- 
(TTiWu). Tov eirio-Tp€xj/ai is explanatory of dvoT^uL ; tr. ' that they may 
turn.' eirLdTpixj/aL, intrans., as in ix. 35, but cf. Lk. i. 16, 17. ciTro 
o-KOTovs els <}>ft)s. S. Paul himself had passed from darkness into light, 
and it was his mission to dispel the darkness in the lives of others by 
the light of the Gospel: cf. i Thess. v. 5; Col. i. 12, 14. tov Sara va, 
cf. 2 Cor. iv. 4. TOV Xap€iv further explains tov eirLarpe^aL ; thus 
the three infinitives by a progressive dependence complete the whole 
description of S. Paul's task. irio-Tei tt] els tfJte, connected with tov 
Xa^etv and placed last for emphasis. 

ig. "O0€v, 'wherefore,' i.e. referring back to the whole vision. 
PaciXev 'A-ypiTTira. The insertion of the king's name marks the real 
beginning of the ^ de/nons^ratio' following upon the '■ nan-atio.'' S. Paul 
follows the natural and accepted method of developing his case. 

20. aWd Tois €V Aa|Aa<rKw...^0V€o-iv, cf. ix. 20, 27. This is a 
general statement of the course of S. Paul's missionary activities. The 
Acts contains no record of any extensive mission in Judaea, and in Gal. 
i. 22 S. Paul expressly states that he was not known to the churches in 
Judaea. He may have preached in different places on his way up to 
Jerusalem on subsequent visits. If Tracrai' is original without et's the 
accus. must denote ' the space over which.' Blass gets rid of all 
difficulty by reading et's Tracrav Tiju x<^po-f 'louSat'ots /cat tois '^dveaiv, which 
thus gives a complete though brief summary of S. Paul's work, ct^ia 
Tt]s fJL€Tavoias, 'worthy of their repentance,' i.e. works which shew 
that their repentance is genuine. The similar passage in Mt. iii. i has 

21. ^vcKa tovtwv, sc. because S. Paul preached to Jew and Gentile 
alike as being equal in the sight of God. 

22. liriKovpias . . . Geov, 'having obtained therefore the help that 
comes from God.' Without it he implies that he would have failed. 
?<rTT]Ka, sto salvus, Bengel. p.apTvp6(X€vos, ' testifying ' or ' protesting ' 
to small and great. The latter would include Festus and Agrippa : 
the words mayalso mean 'young and old,' cf. viii. 10. ov8€v...Ma)vo-i]S. 
S. Paul's mission was to testify to Jesus, the Messiah of Jewish expec- 
tation, in whom prophecy found its fulfilment. The more usual order 
is the more historical — Moses and the prophets : cf. xxviii. 23 ; Lk. xvi. 
29, 31 ; but Moses is placed last for emphasis. 

23. el iraSi^Tos. iradrjTbs, 'must suffer.' Christ was foreordained 
to suffer to reconcile man to God : Lk. xxiv. 26; 1 Cor. xv. 2, 3 ; Heb. 
vii. 15, cf. Is. lii.-liii. Others take TradrjTds, Vulg. passibilis^ subject 

XXVI 28] NOTES 243 

to sufferings, i.e. to death. TraOeiv tl is a regular euphemism for death 
in cl. Gk. ei = 6'Tt, ' that' ; this gives the better sense. If et = ' whether' 
it does not indicate any doubt in S. Paul's mind but only marks the 
question at issue between himself and the Jews, cl irpcoxos. TrpcDros is 
emphatic and must be taken closely with e^ avaaraaews. Tr. ' that 
(or whether) he first by a resurrection from the dead should proclaim 
light': cf. I Cor. xv. 20; Col. i. 18. Not only would the Messiah 
suffer death, but by the resurrection He would prove Himself to 
be the triumphant Messiah of Jewish expectation and thus fulfil all 
the prophecies of the O.T. concerning Him : xiii. 47 ; Is. xlix. 6. 
These prophecies were misunderstood by the Jews, and the suffiering 
Messiah was to them a great stumbling-block, i Cor. i. 18. ({>o)S... 
^0v€<riv, cf. Lk. ii. 32. The coupling of the Jews with the Gentiles 
on an equality was S. Paul's supreme offence in the eyes of his country- 

24. d'Tro\o'Yov[j,€vov. The present part, shews that Festus inter- 
rupted Paul in the course of his defence. Maivt). The enthusiasm 
of S. Paul and his extraordinary statement of the resurrection of the 
crucified Jesus, and that He was going to bring light to Gentiles, 
including Romans, seemed to Festus absurd. ' To be mad ' has always 
been used in this familiar sense and does not imply definite insanity. 
For a similar effect cf. xvii. 32 ; Jn x. 20. to. ttoXXci <r€ "ypdiifxaTa, 
' that deep learning of thine ' : note the position of (xe. Festus' remark 
applies to Paul's great knowledge of Hebrew lore : he had probably 
quoted at length from the Jewish scriptures to support his statements. 

25. Ov |xaivo(xai, ' I am not beside myself,' i.e. I am in full 
possession of my senses. dX'qOefas, 'words of truth and soberness.' 
<rw<|)po(rvvT]S, lit. 'sound sense,' opposed to jxavia, 2 Cor. v. 13. S. Paul 
proclaims that he is speaking of real facts. Truth here is not subjective 
(i.e. truthfulness) but objective. 6.'no^%i>{>(o\L<x\., used of solemn utterance, 
cf. ii. 4 and 14. 

26. eTria-Tarai. S. Paul was emboldened to speak freely before 
Agrippa as he was cognizant alike of the Jewish expectation and of 
the Christian claims. 

27. oI8a OTt Tri<rT6v€is. Agrippa, though brought up at Rome, by 
his knowledge of the scriptures could bear witness that Paul was only 
claiming that O.T. prophecies had been fulfilled in Christ. 

28. *Ev oXCyw p-f ir€i0€is Xpicmavov TroiTJ<rai. There are diffi- 
culties of reading, rendering and interpretation of feeling. 

(r) If ireideis is original, tr. 'with little effort thou art seeking to 

16 — 2 


persuade me so as to make me a Christian.' So R.V. 'thou wouldst 
fain make me a Christian.' The reading ■yeveadai for TrotT^cat should in 
any case be rejected. 

(2) If ireidri is read, tr. ' with little effort thou art persuading thyself 
that thou hast made me a Christian.' It is possible that the close 
proximity of fie caused the alteration of Treidrj to TreLdecs. The meaning 
of eu 6\Lyi{} seems to be determined by S. Paul's reply which can only 
mean ' whether with little or great effort.' Others translate ' within a 
short time,' and argue that S. Paul replies, using ev 6\iy^,in a different 
sense. Paul had appealed to the prophets and to Agrippa's knowledge 
of them. Agrippa interposes and his words, whatever reading or 
rendering is adopted, clearly mean that he understood that S. Paul 
hoped that by appealing to his belief in the prophets he had won him 
over to accept his own interpretation, i.e. to acknowledge Jesus as the 
Messiah of O.T. prophecy and become XpiaTiavos. 

The true interpretation of the feelings expressed in these words lies 
between the two extremes of earnestness and contempt. With gentle 
irony Agrippa hints that he wishes to bring the subject to a close. 

•29. Kai €v jfc€"ydXw, ' or with much effort.' For the use of /cat cf. 
Lat. uuus et alter. If h iroWi^ is read it would favour the rendering 
'in a short or long time.' ov [iovov. More commonly /jlt], cf. Gal. 
iv. 18. T(5v 8€o-|xd)v TOVTcov, deictic : he was chained to a soldier, cf. 
xxi. 33. 

31. irpao-o-ti. The present includes the past, 'this man's conduct 
does not deserve either death or imprisonment.' 

32. ISuvaro. &p is rightly omitted, as idi'iuaro diroXeXvadai is equi- 
valent to aireXvdy} av. So Latin ahsolvi poterat. €i |Xt| eircKeKXTjTo. The 
appeal had been made and allowed, and could not be revoked. It was 
a relief to Festus, for neither he nor Felix, though both were convinced 
of Paul's innocence, could bring himself to acquit him. His humane 
treatment at Caesarea and Rome was probably to some extent intended 
as a compensation. We do not know how Festus accomplished the 
difficult task of framing the elogmm of a prisoner whom he knew to 
be innocent. 



Ch. XXVII. The Voyage to Rome: From Caesarea 
TO Malta. 1-26. 

I. iKpiB-q Tov ciiroTrXeiv. tov with the infm. denotes the scope of a 
decision; no other instance with ^-/)tVa; occurs in X.T,, cf. iii. 12, xxi. 
12. diroirXeiv. S. Luke, though not a sailor, is accurate and precise 
in his use of nautical terms which give the exact position of the ship in 
the various stages of a voyage. He uses no less than fourteen verbs in 
the Gospel and the Acts : TrAew, Lk. viii. 23, Acts xxi. 3 ; dTroTrXew, 
Acts xiii. 4, xiv. 26, xx. 15; ^padvirXoui, Acts xxvii. 7; eKirXeoj, Acts 
XV. 39, xviii. r8 ; StaTrXew, Acts xxvii. 5 ; /cara TrXew, Lk. viii. 26 ; 
viroirXeu}, Acts xxvii. 4, 7 ; irapawXeo}, Acts xx. 16 ; evdvbpoixQ), Acts 
xvi. II, xxi. i; U7roT/3e%w, Acts xxvii. 16; 7ra/[)aXe70;uai, Acts xxvii. 8, 13; 
(pepofxai. Acts xxvii. 15; dia(p€po/xai, Acts xxvii. 27; biatrepCj, Acts xxi. 2. 
The richness of the Greek language and the poverty of English is 
here well exemplified. tlH-ciS, i.e. Luke and Aristarchus, who accom- 
panied Paul either as his slaves (Ramsay) or as independent passengers. 
IWpovs, indistinguishable here from aXXoi's. o-n-tip-qs 2€pa<rTi]S, 'the 
Augustan cohort.' Four views are held, (i) That they were a select 
legionary corps of the emperor, employed by him in foreign missions, 
especially in connection with the commissariat and the charge of 
prisoners sent to the capital. These were known at Rome ■3.% peregrini 
ox friiineiiiarii and their Q^x&i princeps peregrinorum, cf. xxviii. 16 n. 
(2) That the cohort took its name from Caesarea Sebaste or from Sebaste 
the Roman name of Samaria. But this' would require aireipi^s le^aa- 
T-qv(j}v. (3) That Julius belonged to the cohors Augusta, Augustiani, 
Suet. Nero, 25; Tac Ann. xiv. 15, a kind of imperial bodyguard 
formed A.D. 59. The date is against this explanation. (4) That this 
was a title of honour given to a Caesarean cohort for some special 
services. Complimentary titles, Augusta and Victrix, etc., were given 
to certain legions and cohorts for conspicuous valour. 

2. 'ASpa|jL\)VTt]vw, i.e. a ship which belonged to the port of 
Adramyttium in Mysia and was engaged in the coast trade of the 
Levant. The centurion probably expected to transfer his prisoners to 
some larger vessel bound for Rome from Adramyttium or some other 
Asian port, els tovs. . .tottovs. eis has good authority. Tr. ' to the ports 
on the Asian coast,' two of which, Myra and Cnidus, are mentioned. 
'Apio-Tcipxov, xix. 29, XX. 4. Aristarchus may have intended to go to 


his home at Thessalonica, but S. Paul's reference to him as his fellow- 
prisoner (Col. iv. 10) points to his having accompanied him to Rome. 

3. els SiScUva. Sidon is 69 miles from Caesarea. This would be 
accomplished with ease with a good westerly wind. <})i\av9pwirft)s... 
rvyjtlv, 'Julius, treating Paul with courteous indulgence, allowed him 
to go to his friends and receive their kind offices.' eTrt/Ae'Xeta is used 
by Luke alone : it may be a medical term, or possibly refers to the 
completion of his outfit for the voyage. 

4. ■uTTCTrXevo-ajiev, 'we sailed under the lee,' i.e. to the east of 
Cyprus ; leaving Cyprus on their left hand, to escape the strong north- 
westerly winds and secure the advantage of the strong westward current 
and the land-wind off the Cilician coast. A late Syriac version states 
that this took fifteen days. 

5. Mvppa TT]s AvKias. An important town two and a half miles 
from the coast, cf. xxi. i n. 

6. ttXoiov 'AXe^avSpivov. At this time of the year the Alexandrian 
corn-ships sailed N. and then W. to avoid the dangers of the open sea 
and of being driven on to the Syrtis. The Alexandrian fleet was under 
imperial control and consisted of very large corn-ships. The importance 
of the foreign corn-supply was fully realized by the Roman emperors, as 
it was essential to keep the populace of Rome supplied with cheap corn. 
The destruction of the agricultural interest in Italy and the dependence 
upon the foreign cheap corn-supply was one of the greatest dangers to the 
stability of the Roman empire. Lucian, in his dialogue T/ie Ship, gives 
a good account of the voyage of an Alexandrian corn-ship, The Isis, 
which was driven out of its course and took refuge in the Piraeus. From 
his description the vessel must have been of over 1000 tons. Seneca says 
that the large Alexandrian grain-ships were easily recognizable as they 
alone C2LX\-\e.d stippara, top-sails, when approaching harbour,^/. AJor. 77. 

7. PpaSvirXoovvres, on account of the westerly winds they worked 
to windward by tacking. Kai [JidXis...Kvi8ov, ' when with difficulty we 
had come over against Cnidus.' Cnidus was 130 miles from Myra, the 
most south-westerly point of Asia. |jlt] irpocr€a)VTos...Tov dve|xov, ' the 
wind not allowing us to proceed,' i.e. on the usual course across the 
Aegean to Cythera. They could no longer make use of the land breezes 
and the westward current and had to face the full force of the N.W. 
wind, hence they altered their course and ran S. so as to get under the 
lee of Crete, and rounded Salmone, the E. promontory. 

8. irapaXcYOficvoi, ' coasting along.' Lat. ora??i legere. The wind 
was still against them and they hugged the shore as they had done 

XXVII ii] NOTES 247 

along the coast to Cnidus. KaXovs Aijie'vas, a small open roadstead, 
or rather two roadsteads, two miles east of C. Matala facing east, still 
called Xijx^Cova'i KaXot;?. This would afford them shelter for a time. 
\V. of C. Matala the coast trends to the north, and they would be 
again exposed to the north-westerly wind. Aao-e'a. Neither Lasea 
nor Fair Havens are mentioned anywhere in ancient literature. Some 
ruins have been found about four miles east of Fair Havens. The name 
is still preserved. 

9. 'iKavou Se xpovou : the interval passed at Fair Havens, tov 
irXoos, either ' the voyage ' or ' sailing.' The dangerous season for 
sailing extended from Sept. 14 — Nov. 11, the time of the equinoctial 
gales : after that the sea was closed to vessels until March 5, or, according 
to some, till Feb. 9. Greeks and Romans and indeed all ancient 
peoples abandoned sea-borne commerce during the four winter months 
(xet/uwv). During the eight months between March and November 
iGreek, Bepos.) commerce reopened. Hesiod {Works and Days, 619) 
places the closing of the sea to navigation on Oct. 20. The long dark 
nights in the absence of a compass may have caused this, as well as the 
dangers from storms. The same custom applied to war. r-qv vTicrTcCav. 
This can only refer to the great day of atonement, the only fast strictly 
enjoined upon every Jew, Lev. xvi. 29. If 58 A. D. be the year, the 
loth of Tisri would be about Sept. 15, if 59 A.D. the 5th of October. 
In either case it would fall within the dangerous season for sailing. 
S. Paul even in the face of danger did not forget his strict adherence to 
the Jewish law. irap^^vei, ' gave his advice.' 

10. 0€wpa) oTi...fjL€'X\€iv ^o-€cr0ai. The two ordinary constructions 
of oratio obliqua — oti with fJLeWei, and the infinitives, fxeWeiv, ^aeadai — 
are here intermingled. Such confusions are not very rare in the best 
Attic authors, cf. bet (t^ ottcos Sei^eis. v'PpEcos Kal...^T|p,ias. v^pis denotes 
the violence of the storm resulting in the * injury ' to the ship, cf. deiaaaa 
6a\dacn]S v^piv, Anthol.wu. 291, ^7}/xias, the material 'loss' in the cargo 
[(poprlov) and, as it turned out, of the ship itself. 

11. 6 Se iKarovTapxTis. The centurion presided at the informal 
council by virtue of his superior office. .S. Paul was invited perhaps on 
account of his wide experience of the sea, 2 Cor. xii. 25. To-day the 
captain's decision is final and unfettered and he assumes the whole 
responsibility : but it was not so in antiquity. As a rule the uavKXrjpos, 
the ' ship-owner,' accompanied his own ship and shared the responsibility 
with the Kv^epvrjTris or ' sailing-master ' who managed the vessel. In 
the present case the vavKXtjpos was probably not the owner of the ship, 


as the Alexandrian fleet was owned by the imperial government. He 
was therefore the ship's captain or supercargo, whereas the Kv^epvrjrrjs 
was the 'pilot' who had expert knowledge of the conditions of wind 
and weather in the Levant. At the present day when a pilot is taken 
aboard he is entirely responsible for the navigation of the ship. There 
is, wisely, no dual control or divided responsibility. No political or 
commercial interests are allowed to interfere with the safety of the ship. 
In the Roman world it was entirely different, as here the last word 
rested with the Roman centurion, whose authority was greater than that 
of the captain and the pilot. Political motives influenced the centurion, 
commercial advantages the captain and the pilot in pursuing their voyage 
as far as possible. hrtiQiro, ' listened to,' 'was influenced by.' 

12. dv£\J0€Tov, ' ill-adapted ' ; cf. evderos, Lk. ix. 62, xiv. 35. 'Fair 
Havens ' is, however, protected by islands, and it would not have been 
impossible for the ship to have wintered there. S. Paul's advice even 
on nautical grounds was not without foundation, irapaxeip-ao-iav, the 
noun only occurs here in N.T. For the verb cf. i Cor. xvi. 6 ; Tit. iii. 
12. ^OevTo PovXijv, 'were in favour of putting to sea. ' et irws Svvaivro, 
'in the hope that they might reach Phoenix and winter there.' 4>oiviKa... 
pXeirovTa Karci Xi^a Kai Kara \u)pov. The southern coast of Crete is 
devoid of good harbours and the only harbour where a vessel could lie 
secure in all winds is Port Lutro, about 30 miles west of C Matala. 
But the bay of Lutro faces S.E. and N.E., whereas Luke expressly 
states Phoenix looked S.W. , /card \l^a (Xti/' Lat. Africtis, south-west 
wind, so called because Libya was S.W. of Greece) and N.W., /cara 
X^pov (xwpos, Lat. Cortis, north-west wind). ^Xeirovra /card XL^a 
would naturally mean 'facing S.W.' from the point of view of a 
person on the shore looking towards the sea, and the two encircling 
arms of the bay would face N.W. and S.W. respectively : if this is so 
Lutro cannot be the bay referred to, but Phineka, a small bay on the 
opposite side of the promontory, which satisfies the conditions. But it 
is possible that the phrase may mean 'looking down the N.W. and 
S.W. wind,' and therefore, from the point of view of the spectator on 
the shore, S.E. and N.E., but it must be admitted this gives an unusual 
sense to ^XeirovTa /card. Others consider S. Luke gleaned his know- 
ledge from the sailors, who regarded the position of the harbour from 
the point of view of the ship's course. Both these explanations suit 
Lutro, which according to all evidence aftbrds the safest anchorage on 
the S. coast of Crete. Translate therefore ' facing north-east and 

XXVII 14] 



13. 'YiroirvcviravTOS Sc votov, ' when a moderate southerly breeze 
sprang up.' This would favour their north-westerly course after they 
had rounded C. Matala. vtco in composition denotes ' moderately,' 
of. vTrofxeLdido}, Lat. siibridere. Note that the aorist is inceptive, 
'began to blow.' Ty\% irpoeeoreois, 'thinking that the accomplishment 
of their purpose was within their grasp,' i.e. of reaching Phoenix. For 
irpodeffis cf. xi. 23. apavres. atpw is used in cl. and Hellen. Gk 
intransitively of ' starting ' either by sea or land : sometimes transitively 
with the object mentioned. It literally means ' to lift ' and so ' to set 
sail ' or ' weigh anchor ' : so R.V. But as it is without an object here it 
is best translated ' having started.' dcro-ov. Before they could make 
full use of the southerly breeze they had to sail in a S.W. direction for 
six miles in order to round C. Matala, hence they kept 'close in shore' ; 
and if the wind had veered round a point to the west they would have 
been unable to negotiate the headland. The Vulgate, followed by 
others, takes aaaov to denote a town, Assos, but no such town existed 
in Crete. There is no distinction in meaning between aaaop (comp.) and 
the positive, a.-yx'- or ayx^^- 

14. (jl€t' ov ttoXv Se. Litotes, very common in the writings of Luke ; 
rare elsewhere in N.T.; cf i. 5. ^^aXev Kar' avrris, intransitive, 'there 

W., Favonius : Zecpvpos 







. i-'^'*' 





Eurus: Eu/joj: E. 
Subsorianus: 'Ainj\njriji. 





beat down (upon them) from the island.' A violent E.N.E. hurricane 
suddenly descended from Mt Ida, 7000 feet high, a very common 
experience on the S. coast of Crete, avrrj^ clearly refers to KprjTrju in the 
last sentence and not to vaus, especially as tXoIov has been used hitherto 
to denote the ship. For Kara, ' down from,' cf. Kara rod Kprjfivov, Lk. 
viii. 33. avcfJLOs tv<|>wvikos describes the character of the wind, 'a 
violent eddying hurricane,' hence 'typhoon.' EvipaKvXcov, ahybridform 
from edpos and aquilo, Gk dxi^Xwi', has much better MS. authority than 
Yi\]pQKK{)^iiiv. The Romans had no specific name for KaiKias, the E.N.E. 
wind, and it is highly probable that the name was given to the wind by 
Roman seamen and that S. Luke heard it so called by them : it does 
not occur elsewhere. The wind is still called gregalia by Levantines, 
which etymologically is the same word. If ivpoKKvboiv is possibly 
original it must have been a colloquial name for the same wind, ' the 
wide-washer.' An E.N.E. gale would in any case account for the 
danger to the ship and for its subsequent course. A diagram of the winds 
with their Greek and Roman names is given above from Smith. 

15. <rvvapTra<r6€VT0S 8^ tov xXocov, ' when the ship was caught by 
the wind.' There was no time to shorten sail, and it was quite im- 
possible to bear up against the wind. The ship swung round and 
scudded before the gale. dvTo<|>0aX|i€iv, 'to face.' It is true that 
ancient ships, like Chinese ships to-day, had eyes painted on the bows : 
but avTQ<pdaKiJ.e1v is not necessarily a nautical term. It is used by 
Polybius of facing an enemy: also metaphorically 'to defy.' liriSovres 
6({>ep6p.eda, ' we gave way and were driven.' e7ri56j'Tes here absolute ; 
some MSS. add tcJ; ttv^ovtl Kai (TvareiKavTes ra icrrta Kara to avp-^aivov 
before ((pepo/xeda. They gave up their northerly course and scudded 

16. VTro8pa|ioVT€S is expressive, ' we ran before the wind under the 
lee of a little island called Cauda ' : but above, when the ship was more 
under control, Luke used uTreTrXei^crayLtei'. KavSa. The island was also 
called KXaOSos, KXavSia, and in Latin Gaudos, now Govdo, It. Gozzo, 
23 m. S.E. of Phoenix. p.6\is...o-Kc{<})T|s, 'we were only with difficulty 
able to secure the boat.' The small boat which was usually towed 
behind had become waterlogged. Note the rst person : T^Aike and 
others assisted. Lk. is fond of laxveip for simple bvvaadai. 

17. po-qOeCais kyjftliiVTo, i.e. they attempted to ease the strain upon 
the ship's timber by frapping. Tr. ' they frapped the ship with 
supporting cables.' Hawsers {viro^wfiaTa) were passed under the hull 
of the vessel and secured transversely amidships. * Frapping ' has 

XXVII 2o] NOTES 251 

been practised in similar cases within modern times, cf. Hor. Od. i. 14.6. 
Others suppose that the cables were passed round the ship from stem 
to stern. eKirco-oxriv, passive of eK^dWoj, ' fearing lest they should be 
driven out of their course upon the Syrtis. ' The Syrtis major, which 
is here referred to, with its quicksands and sandbanks, and the Syrtis 
minor with its rocky shore, on the X. coast of Africa, were the greatest 
terror of ancient mariners. An E.N. E. gale would inevitably drive them 
thither unless they could alter their course and keep the ship's course W. 
by N. on the starboard tack. xo-^'^'^'^-V'^S to o-K€vos, ' they reduced 
sail,' 'lowered the gear.' The phrase must mean that they lowered the 
mainsails and the mainyard ; and, we may assume, set the storm sails. 
The ship had a second smaller mast in the bows, which carried the 
dpre/uwv, which was now probably set. In any case it was necessary to 
keep some sail on the vessel to avoid being driven S.W. and to steady 
the ship. She would then drift W. by N. and the rate of progress 
would be about one and a half miles per hour. Under these conditions 
(ovTOJs), close-hauled with storm sails set and undergirded, ' they were 
driven.' The captain had done everything to save the ship and set her 
upon a safe course. Some commentators seriously consider that 
Xo-^dcravTes to aKeiios means ' lowering the great weight into the water,' 
so as to retard the progress of the ship : even if such a translation were 
possible the real object of the captain was not to retard the course of the 
ship but to alter it. 

18. <r4)o8pws 8c x€i,|xato|X€v«v iiixwv. a(po8pQis only here in N.T. 
Attic a(p65pa. Tr. 'as we were grievously buffeted by the storm,' 
'making very heavy weather.' £kPo\i]v Ittolovvto, 'they began to 
jettison the cargo,' i.e. to relieve the strain upon the ship. The phrase 
is technical, Lat. jacturavi facere. In the list of expressions given 
by Julius Pollux, I. 99, the phrase is found as well as Kovcpi^eLv rrju vavv 
(to ttXo'lop), v. 38 infr. ; cf. also Jonah i. 5, LXX., Aesch. Agatn. 1008. 
The portion of the cargo on deck was first jettisoned. 

19. ?pi\j/av has better authority than epiypo.ix.ev, which some editors 
prefer. It probably crept into the text on account of the graphic 
addition of avrdx^i-pes.. In throwing 'the gear,' aKevrj, overboard 
passengers would be more of a hindrance than a help. aKevr} includes 
spars, yards, and all moveable gear upon the deck. Smith confines 
it to the heavy main-yard. The aorist epi.\pav shews that for the time 
they had done all that was necessary. 

20. H'r]T€...e'iri<()aiv6vT«v, 'when neither sun nor stars were visible 
for many days ' ; without a compass and the guidance of the stars they 


were helpless. x€i(i,(ovos...'q( * And as the heavy gale raged unabated, 
all hope of our lives being spared was now gradually being torn from 
us.' o-(6^eo-6ai, to remain alive, crit}9rjvaL, v. 31, 'to be saved.' 
Xoiirov^^S?;, lit. 'for the future.' irepiTjpciTo, imperf. : it was a 
gradual and continuous process. 

2 1 . IIoXXtjs. . .v'n"apx.ov(n]S. ' And after long abstinence from food. ' 
dcTLTia which is a medical term does not imply lack of provisions. 
The difficulty of preparing food, the damage to provisions, the apathy 
and despair of crew and passengers alike contributed in such circum- 
stances to disinclination to take food. At this juncture {totc), Paul 
stood up and encouraged them. He had advocated caution at the Fair 
Havens in view of danger ahead, now that the horrors of foundering 
in the open sea seemed imminent he appears cool, confident and assured 
of safety, and he speaks in the only tone that would cheer such an 
audience, the tone of an inspired messenger (Ramsay). Page recalls 
Hor. Od. III. 3. I, vir Justus et p7'opositi tenax, unmoved amidst the 
storms inquieii Adriae. "E8€i jjlc'v. ^xev is not answered by 5e but by koX. 
Tr. ' You ought to have listened to me and not to have set sail from 
Crete, and thus have saved this injury and loss.' In Latin and Greek 
oportuit and ^5et are in the past tense followed by the present infin. 
to express what ought or ought not to have been done. KepS-rjo-ai. 
CI. Kepddvat. R.V. carries on the construction of /at? from dudyeadai, 
'and have gotten this injury and loss,' but it is very doubtful whether 
Kepdaiuo} can mean to incur. Pliny has lucrifacere injuriam. ' To 
gain a loss' is to save yourself from it by escaping it. Greek idiom 
also permits of this, and our own idiom ' to save this injury ' is similar. 

23. Toii 6€ov...a77e\os, not 'the angel of God,' but 'from the God 
to whom I belong... an angel.' S. Paul is addressing heathen. For such 
appearances cf. i. 10, xii. 7 ; Lk. ii. 9, xxiv. 4. ov €l|i.i, Rom. viii. 9, 
XttTpcvto, cf. vii. 7. 

24. irapao-TTivai, cf. xxiii. 33; Rom. xiv. 10. KCxaptcrTai, 'God 
has granted thee by His grace the lives of all those that sail with 
thee,' i.e. in answer clearly to Paul's prayer. For xapifo/iat cf. iii. 14, 


26. Set i]|xas. The words are not part of the actual message, but 
the intimation of the shipwreck on an island must have been, or else 
S. Paul speaks prophetically. 

XXVII 29] NOTES 253 

The Ship wrecked. 27-44. 

27. Tco-o-apeo-KaiScKctTT] vv|, calculated from the time they left 
Fair Havens. The ship would drift 36 miles in 24 hours : the distance 
from Cauda (which they left on the second day) to Point Koura in 
Malta is 476 miles so that the distance corresponds almost exactly with 
the time, 8ia()>epo|xev(*>v, 'as we were tossed about in Hadria.' The 
ship kept a fairly straight course, as the gale blew from the east all 
the time, but it must have veered from time to time E.N.E. , E., E.S.E. 
This may account for the use of diacpepo/xac : others translate ' driven 
across,' and there is no absolute reason why dLacpepo/xai (cf. Stepxecr^ai, 
5ta7rXe?j') should not mean 'driven through or across.' ev tw 'A8pia, 
not the Adriatic Gulf but that part of the Mediterranean which lay 
between Italy, Sicily and Greece. The Greeks and Romans were not 
over-exact in the delimitation of seas or uniform in their nomenclature. 
The Augustan poets, and Strabo and Ptolemy the geographers, all use 
' Adria ' in the wider sense, and these writers cover the period when the 
shipwreck took place. Josephus on his way to Rome in 64 A.D. was 
wrecked Kara fxeaou tov ' Adpias. 'irpo(ra.yiiv...\(apav, intrans. : 'the 
sailors suspected that some land was approaching.' Sailors naturally 
speak of the approach of land. They probably heard the breakers on 
Point Koura, the southern headland of S. Paul's Bay. Some inferior 
MSS. read Trpocax'^"^v = Trpocr7}x^'iv, i.e. they surmised that land was near 
from the sound of the waves. All the circumstances fit in exactly with 
the configuration of S. Paul's Bay, the traditional scene of the shipwreck, 
and the experiences of those on board the ' Lively ' frigate were very 
similar, cf. Smith, p. 123. 

28. dp"yvids cI'koo-i. The 20 fathom line is in the centre of the 
bay, the bottom of the bay is sand and clay, which affords a secure hold 
for an anchor. ppa\v 8e 8ia<rTTJ<raVT€S = jSpaxi; dido-Trj/LLa iroLTjcrd/uieyoi. 
Luke alone uses didaTTj/jLa of time, cf. v. 7. Tr. 'after a short interval.' 

2Q. Kara Tpax.€is ro'irovs, 'on rocky ground.' The phrase 
probably means ' a rocky shore ' but it cannot exclude sunken reefs. 
€K irpviiviis. Anchors were generally lowered from the bow, but 
the object of the captain was to prevent the ship from grounding in 
the night and to keep her in a favourable position for beaching in the 
morning. It is evident that throughout the voyage the ship was very 
skilfully handled. An ancient picture of a ship has a hawser coiled 
round a capstan on board and then passing through the rudder port into 


the sea. Nelson made use of the same device of anchoring by the 
stern at the battle of Copenhagen. Athenaeus speaks of a ship carrying 
no less than eight anchors. Caesar {De B. C. i. 25) furnished his ships 
with four. 

30. '7rpo<}>d<r€t «s €K Trp«pT]s. The real object of some of the 
sailors was to escape. To lay out (e/cretVeti/) anchors from the bow 
would have been utterly futile under the circumstances. Trpotpdcrei ws, 
' on the pretext of,' the dative is used adverbially as in Thuc. V. 53, etc., 
cf. Lk. XX. 47. 

31. (r(o0T]vai ov Svvao-Oe. The sailors were needed to run the ship 
ashore. There is no contradiction to tj. 24. Human failure can 
frustrate divine promise. 

33. "Axpi 8e ov only occurs in the writings of Luke and Paul and 
Heb. iii. 13, and is generally rendered 'while,' but it properly means 
'up to the time when,' 'until.' Tr. 'And in the interval until day 
began to dawn Paul continued to urge all to partake of food.' jicra- 
Xapetv Tpo<}>T]s, cf. ii. 46. Trpo<r8oKwvT€S is here without an object. 
Tr. ' This is now the fourteenth day that ye continue watching with- 
out food and taking nothing to sustain you.' Rendall takes i]ix€pav 
as object of irpoadoKwvTes, ' ye have now been spending fourteen restless 
hungry nights waiting for the day.' S. Paul means that all regular 
meals had been abandoned. 

34. iTp6s...o-«TT]pias, 'for your safety.' This use of irp6s=^ou the 
side of is only found here in N.T., but cf. Thuc. II. 86, III. 59, etc., 
an Attic idiom, cf. Latin a parte. ovSevos ^dp 6pl|. For this proverbial 
phrase cf. Lk. xxi. 18 ; i Sam. xiv. 45 ; i Kings i. 52. 

35. XaPtov dpTov...£o-9i€tv, cf. Lk. xxii. 19, xxiv. 30. Codex Bezae 
adds /cat iiridLdovs tj/xlv (i.e. Luke and Aristarchus). Even with this 
addition the words cannot be taken to mean that S. Paul actually 
celebrated the eucharist, but the breaking of bread was fraught with 
a solemn significance for Christians at all times. 

36. '7rdvT€S...Tpo<j>Tis, 'they also themselves all partook of food. ' 
Tpo<j>T]S partitive gen. S. Paul displayed confidence and inspired it. 

37. T||jt€0a = ^Aiej', Mt. xxiii. 30, cf. Tjfx-qv x. 30. at irdo-ai \|/vxal, 
'in all.' The article precedes ttSs when the number is considered as 
a single whole. «s ipSop.iJKovTa ^|, ' about 76 souls.' This is hardly 
likely to be the correct reading as ws would not be added to such a 
specific number as 76, it is better to suppose that s represents 200 
(numerical sign) and w has been repeated by dittography from irXoicp, 
the scribe not understanding the meaning of the sign s. 276 is a large 

XXVII 4o] NOTES 255 

number, but Josephus says that the ship in which he was wrecked 
carried 600. 

38. Kop€cr96VT€S . . . Tpo<j>fjs, "^ and when they had satisfied their 
appetite with food.' €Kpa\Xd[J.€voi tov (titov, 'casting out the wheat 
into the sea,' obviously the cargo, not provisions. The vessel was 
further lightened in order to beach her with greater ease. 

39. ovK eirc-yivwo-Kov, ' they did not recognise the land.' Malta 
was out of the ordinary route of the Alexandrian ships, but even 
if the sailors had been acquainted with Valetta they would not have 
recognized S. Paul's Bay. Upon this fact and the mention of vipers 
and S. Luke's description of the native inhabitants, as well as the 
reference to Adria, some have argued that Melita Illyrica in the Adriatic 
gulf was the scene of S. Paul's shipwreck, but all the facts of the voyage 
and above all the subsequent events point to Melita Sicula. 'i\ovTO. 
al-yiaXov, ' Avith a (sandy) beach,' cf. xxi. 5. The traditional spot is 
no longer a sandy beach, as the sea in so many centuries has worn 
it away. €l Suvaivro, oblique narration. The sailors had said ' we 
will drive the ships on the shore if we can.' CKo-cSo-at, ' to beach the 
ship safely.' This could hardly be hoped for and the v.l. elcDcrat R.V. 
' to beach the ship ' is better. The time had come for life to be the 
first consideration. This was and is the rule of the sea. For e^uiffat 
cf. Thuc. II. 90. 

40. TTcpieXovTCS, ' they cast off the anchors and left them in the 
sea ' ; dyKvpa includes both cable and anchor. The anchors had pre- 
vented the ship from drifting in the darkness, the hawsers were now- 
cut or loosed, and hawsers and anchors left in the sea. a|xa...Tds 
5€vKTT]p£as TcUv irT|8aXi<«)v, ' and at the same time unlashing the 
bands of the steering paddles.' Ships until the Middle Ages were 
steered by two broad paddles one on each side of the stern. These 
had been hauled on board and lashed to prevent them fouling the 
cables ; as they cut the cables they unlashed the paddles at the same 
time (dfia), as they were at once required to steer the ship, cf. irrjddXia 
^evyXaLffi irapaKadiero, Eur. Ji/eL 1536. tov dpT€'|Ji«va, 'the foresail.' 
The pictures of ancient ships shew that som^etimes there were two 
masts and even three : as a rule the great mainsail alone was used, but 
in a storm this was lowered ; but a ship must carry some sail in a storm : 
the use of other sails is a matter of great obscurity, and it is even denied 
that ' top-sails ' (doXoiv) ever existed. At the present day artimone (It.) 
is the mizen, but the only sail that could be set to drive the ship ashore 
would be the foresail, cf. Juv. Xii. 69, velo prora suo, and the scholiasts 


comment artemone solo velijicaverunt. rfj TrveovcrT]. sc. avpq,. Karei- 
\ov, either intrans., 'they were making for the beach,' or supply Ti]v 
vavv, 'they headed her for the beach.' 

41. ir€pnr€<r6vTes 8e, 'but coming unexpectedly.' It was their 
intention to beach the ship, but it is clear from what followed that they 
ran aground before they reached the shore, els tottov 8i6d\a<r<rov. 
This would naturally mean a bank or a headland with sea on both sides, 
cf. Lat. hiinaris, applied by Horace to Corinth. Two views are 
possible : (i) that they struck on a submerged bank, and a bank known 
as S. Paul's Bank lies just outside the bay, but it is hard to see how it 
could be described as hidoXaccjov with nothing appearing above the 
water: (•2) on the northern side of S. Paul's Bay lies the island of 
Salmonetta separated by a narrow channel from the mainland which is 
not visible to a ship rounding Koura Point. dLddXaaaov could be equally 
well applied to a channel uniting two seas as to a neck of land separating 
them, and so Strabo describes the Bosporus. This corresponds with the 
traditional site of the wreck. In any case the ship struck on a sand or 
mudbank, and opinion is divided as to whether tottos dtddXaacTos refers 
to the bank itself or the channel in which it was situated. lircKeiXav 
Tt]v vavv, ' they ran aground.' In no other passage does pavv occur in 
N.T. Homer uses einK^Wo} for Attic iiroKeWo} and some would see 
here a reminiscence of vija eKeXcra/j-ev, Horn. Od. IX, 546. Homeric Greek 
largely influenced the Koivrj. Kal ij }ji€v...?fJi€iv€V, 'and the prow struck 
and remained immovable,' cf. illisaqtie prora pependit^ Verg. Aen. v. 206. 
do-aXevTOS, cf. Heb. xii. 28, for aaXevetu iv. 31 sup. eXv€TO. The 
imperfect is contrasted with the aorist efxeLvev, ' but the stern began to 
break up in consequence of the violence ' (of the waves) : a number of 
MSS. add tGiv kv/uloltoop which is retained by many editors: W.H., 
following XAB, omit it. The sense clearly requires it. 

42. tva...diroKTtivw<riv, explanatory of ^ovXt) — soldiers were held 
responsible for the lives of their prisoners, cf. xii. 19. Julius took the 
whole responsibility upon himself. |«] tis iKKoXujjLprjo-as, ' lest any 
should swim away and escape,' cf. cDo-r' iKKoXvjx^av pads, Eur. IfeL 
1609. L. and S. and Ramsay render 'swim away' — but in both cases 
eKKoXvfi^u} would give a better sense if translated, ' plunge into the sea 
from the ship,' which gives at once the correct meaning to KoXu/a^gip 
and the natural meaning to iK. 

43. 8ia<rajo-ai, 'to save Paul's life' : for S. Luke's use of compounds 
with 5ta cf. x. j 7 n. €KwXuo-£v avrovs tov PovXTJixaros, ' prevented 
them from carrying out their purpose.' The construction with accus. 


and gen. only occurs here in X.T. though it is classical, tovs 8vvap.evovs 
KoXv|xPav, I., and S. referring to this passage translate ' to plunge into 
the sea ' — and give no hint that KoXvfx^^v can mean 'to swim,' which the 
sense requires. S. Paul who had passed a night and a day in the deep 
(2 Cor. xi. 25), was probably amongst the number, diropixj/avras... 
e^ievai, ' leap overboard and get first to the land.' a.Tropl\pavTas intrans. 
irpuTOvs with e^Uvai. 

44. oiJs |X€v...oiJS Be, cf. Lk. xxiii. 35. This use of the relative for 
the demonstrative is very rare in classical Gk, but the reading in Dem. 
De Corona 248 iroXeis as fx-eu avaipCbv, eh &s 5e tovs (pvydSas Kardyoiv is 
well supported. Iirl <ravi<\oiov, note the use of eTri with dative 
and gen. with the same meaning : loose planks and any wooden articles 
that were left or pieces broken off by the force of the waves were used, 
eTTt Ti;'Wj'..,7rXoioi' is intentionally vague. 

Ch. XXVIII. Paul at Malta, i-io. 

1. itriyvia^Liv . The aor. is contrasted with the imperf., xxvii. 39. 
M€XtTT]VT]. The better reading is certainly McXitt;. MeXLTTjvT] is 
undoubtedly due to a scribe's error in copying. Everything points 
to Melita Sicula and not Melita Illyrica on the coast of Dalmatia. 
Malta had been first colonized by Phoenicians and subsequently an- 
nexed by Carthage. After the second Punic war it fell into the hands 
of Rome and formed part of the province of Sicily. Since 1800 it has 
been in the possession of Great Britain, and its fine harbour of Valetta 
and Gibraltar form the two naval bases of British power in the 
Mediterranean. It is barely twelve miles long and five wide and has 
a very dense population. 

2. ol T6 pdpPapoi...({>iXavdpci)'ir£av. Tr. ' and the natives shewed 
us more than ordinary kindness.' ' Barbarians' is a misleading trans- 
lation. The Phoenician language was spoken by the natives, who 
did not understand Greek or Latin. The Greeks called all non-Greek- 
speaking people ^dp^apoL, and S. Luke naturally uses the word here ; 
cf. Rom. i. 14. The word is onomatopoeic and denotes one who speaks 
in an unknown tongue; cf. i Cor. xiv. ir. ou tiiv TV\ova-av, cf. xix. 
II. 8ia Tov v€t6v tov €<j)€o-Tci)Ta, cf. 2 Tim. iv. 6. i(pea-T<J}$ is best 
translated ' present,' though some commentators take it to mean that 
the rain had suddenly come on. The cold and the rain combined both 
point to the continuance of the E.N.E. gale. The S.E. wind, or 
sirocco, only blows for a few days, and is warm and dry. 

B. A. 17 


3. (rvo-Tp€'\|/avTos Se ...ttXtJOos, 'but when Paul had gathered a 
considerable quantity {tl) of brushwood.' S. Paul as ever takes his 
share in any work, and brought as much as he could carry. Near 
S. Paul's Bay furze still grows, though there are few trees on the 
island and vipers are rare. But the changing circumstances of eighteen 
hundred years can easily account for the disappearance of both, diro 
Tt]S Ot'pjJLTjs. The viper, aroused from its winter torpor ' in con- 
sequence of the heat, came out and fastened on his hand'; cf. Mk 
xvi. 18. 

4. Kpe)Jid|J.evov. By its teeth, not by its coils ; see Ramsay, Ltike 
the Physician^ pp. 63, 65. IldvTCDS, ' Assuredly,' expresses strong 
affirmation; cf. xxi. 22; Lk. iv. 23. <J)0V€{is. The natives saw that 
S. Paul was a prisoner and assumed that the biter had been bit and 
that he was to render up his life for a life he had taken. 8ia- 
(rw0€VTa. The participle is concessive, ' although he had escaped 
safely from the sea.' r\ SCktj. The article is emphatic, Justitia. 
The personification of Justice as a goddess was common both to 
Greeks and Romans, ovk €ia<r€V, 'has not allowed.' In the eyes of 
the natives S. Paul was as good as dead already. 

6. iriiXTrpacrOai : ' but they expected that inflammation and swelling 
would set up, or that he would fall down dead suddenly.' Tri/LLirpaadaL 
is the regular medical w-ord for ' to be inflamed ' ; but inflammation 
is often accompanied by swellings, and irlixirpaadaL includes as well 
the meaning of irp-qdeiv ('to cause to swell'). These two ideas are 
combined in the word Trp-qarrip (prester), a name for a venomous snake. 
Page quotes Lucan, ix. 790. p-TiSev droTrov, 'nothing strange or re- 
markable,' XXV. 5. The word is confined to Luke and Paul in N.T. , 
and is elsewhere used of moral disorder. In this passage, as in all 
others dealing with disease in Luke's writings, nearly every word can 
be paralleled from Galen and Hippocrates. jiCTaPaXdjievoi, sc. tw 
■yviSifx-qv, often used absolutely, 'changing their minds.' Note the change 
of construction ; the gen. and nom. refer to the same subject. Beo'v : 
cf. the conduct of the Lycaonians, xiv. 11, 19. 

7. *Ev h\ Tois...V'n<rov, 'now in the neighbourhood were estates 
belonging to the chief man of the island.' x^oipia, Lat. praedinvi, 

fundus = \z.\\(S.&A property, tw irpwru). S. Luke is extraordinarily accu- 
rate in his use of official titles (cf. Asiarch, politarch). Two inscriptions, 
one Greek, A., K\. vib%, K., Y\.poi)^ii]Vi 'nnrevs 'Pwywatos, wpCoTos MtXi- 
Taiujv..., and another Latin, niunicipii Meh'teiisiuni primus o/uuium, 
confirm the view that Publius had an official position in the island under 


the praetor of Sicily. Small island communities, as in Tristan d'Acunha 
at the present day, appoint a 'headman,' who exercises a patriarchal 
jurisdiction. It is very likely that when the Romans annexed Malta 
they found this system established and allowed it to continue. IXoirXCo). 
The Greek form of Publius, or possibly Popilius (Ramsay) : both are 
derived from popidiis. i] Probably not the whole crew and 
passengers, but certainly Paul, Luke, Aristarchus and Julius. Luke 
evidently wishes to pay a tribute to the hospitality of Publius, which 
was so strikingly repaid by Paul. 

8. Trvp€Tois...KaTaK€i(r9ai. Every word bespeaks the physician; 
cf. Lk. iv. 38. Tr. ' was lying sick suffering from dysentery and inter- 
mittent attacks of fever.' The disease was common in the island. 
Hippocrates notes that dysentery was often accompanied by fever. 
The plural irvpeToi should be marked in translation : the dysentery was 
constant, the fever intermittent. A comparison of Lk. iv. 38 with 
Mt. viii. 14 is very instructive, irpoo-cu^dp.evos. Prayer and laying 
on of hands accompanied by anointing with oil (Jas v. 14) were the 
ordinary means of ' the gift of healing,' i Cor. xii. 9, 30. 

10. TToXXais Tijiais : cf. Ecclus. xxxviii. i, ' Honour a physician 
according to thy need of him with the honour due to him.' i](j.ds seems 
to imply that S. Luke took part as a doctor in the curing of the 
ailments of the people. The ' honours ' may have included the erection 
of a statue and parting presents in kind ; it is most unlikely that S. Paul 
and his companions would accept gifts of money. S. Luke records no 
further incident of the stay at Malta. 

The Voyage to Rome continued. ii-t6. 

ir. Mcxd 8e rpeis [iTJvas : i.e. early in February if the wreck took 
place, as is probable, in the middle of November. Pliny (A^a/. f/is^. 11. 
47) says that the advent of spring, Feb. 7, marked the renewal of navi- 
gation. 7rapao-i][i.b> Aioo-Kovpois. The ship probably belonged to the 
imperial transport fleet and had been driven by stress of weather into 
the harbour of Valetta for the winter. irapaa-qfjLU} (Lat. insigne) is 
almost certainly a noun in the dative of attendant circumstances, with 
^LocKovpois in apposition, ' with the sign Castor and Pollux.' Smith 
quotes an inscription found near Lutro, in support of this : Dionysiiis 
gtibeniator navis parasemo Isopharia. The figures of Castor and 
Pollux ornamented the prow of the ship, one on each side. The 
'great twin brethren' were the tutelary deities of sailors, and they 



were worshipped in ports and islands, e.g. Cyrene, Rhegiuni and 
Samothrace. The constellation of the Gemini (sons of Zeus and 
Leda) if it appeared above a ship was considered a sign of safety in 
a storm; called by Italians the Fire of S. Elmo; cf. Hor. Od. I. 
3, 2, III. 29, 64; Eur. Hel. 1664. Blass reads cSi/ rjv Trapaffrj/xov 

12. SvpaKovo-as- About 100 miles distant from Malta; the 
capital of Sicily and a great trading centre. 

13. ireptcXovTCS has more authority than irepieXdovres, which gives 
a much better meaning. irepLaipG) is trans, and, used elliptically, can 
only mean ' casting off. ' Ramsay prefers irepLekdovTe^, and translates 
'by tacking.' They worked up to Rhegium in spite of difficulties 
of wind. 'P-q^tov, now Reggio, at the southern extremity of Bruttii 
opposite Messina ; so called because the land broke off {p'/jyvv/xi) at 
this point where Italy was separated from Sicily. Kal...eTri"Y€VO|j,€VOU 
VOTOV, ' and when a south wind sprang up.' Only with a south wind 
could the ship pass through the straits of Messina. She made the 
passage to Puteoli (180 miles) in about twenty -six hours, with a 
good 'following wind,' sailing at the rate of seven knots an hour. 
Others consider that the force of eiri denotes ' coming after,' i.e. 
after the adverse wind which had hindered the passage to Rhegium. 
IIoTidXovs, Puteoli, so called from the wells {pzitei) in the neigh- 
bourhood, was the great harbour on the W. of Italy, as Ostia 
was not commodious on account of the silting up of the harbour by 
the Tiber. Seneca describes the arrival of the Alexandrian fleet at 
Puteoli {Ep. 77). That a Christian community existed at Puteoli is 
not surprising ; it was the last link in the great chain of ports — Corinth, 
Ephesus and Antioch — by which intercourse was easily and freely main- 
tained between the east and the centre of the Roman empire, which 
was a marvel of organization in its strategic and commercial network of 
roads and ports. Even the modern world pays its tribute still in the 
proverb, 'All roads lead to Rome.' 

14. TrapcKXTiBTjiJiev. If k-Kip-eivai is original this must mean 'we 
were exhorted to remain.' The decision in any case would rest with 
Julius. Blass reads iTripieLvauTes, ' we remained seven days with 
them and were comforted.' In any case the news of their arrival at 
Puteoli preceded them to Rome. Kal oijT(os...T]X6a|Jt€v. These words 
seem clearly to mark the end of the long journey. Kal ovtus is 
resumptive and looks back upon the long chain of events which thus 
ended in the attainment of Paul's ambition, xix. 21, xxiii. 11. There 


is no difficulty in reconciling v. 14 with the verses that follow if a new 
paragraph is begun. From S. Luke's and S. Paul's point of view the 
journey was over, and v. 15 describes the preparations of the Roman 
Christian community for his reception. S. Paul's companions must have 
made their way to Capua and thence by the Appian Way, constructed 
B.C. 312 to Rome, a distance of 140 miles ; cf. Hor. Sat. I. 5. 

15. 'Aiririou <l>dpov, apparently two bands of brethren came to 
meet Paul, amongst them were probably Aquila and Priscilla. Appii 
Forum is 43 miles from Rome, the northern terminus of a canal which 
crosses the Pomptine marshes parallel with the road. Tres Tabemae 
[i.e. shops, not taverns in the modern sense] was ten miles nearer Rome. 
^Xa^E Gdpcros. The presence of Christian friends gave Paul fresh 
courage. He was subject to deep depression, and the long voyage 
and his position as a prisoner may well have depressed him : cf. his 
feelings on the way from Ephesus to Troas, 2 Cor. i. 8, iv. 8. 

16. els ' Ptop-I^, he would enter by the Porta Capena. Though the 
best MSS. omit, there is good authority for the interesting addition, 
6 eKaTovTapxos rrapedojKe tous deafjiiovs T(p (TTpaToirebdpxv- The strato- 
pedarch has usually been considered to be the praefectiis praetorii, the 
most important military official in Rome, who was prefect of the 
Praetorian cohort, the permanent garrison of Rome. At this time 
Afranius Burrus was praefectus, though before and after his term of 
office there were two prefects. Mommsen, whom Ramsay supports, 
considers that the stratopedarch was \\\q. princeps pcregrinoru7n^ a trans- 
lation of (XTpaToiredapxr]^ which appears in an old Latin version, and 
therefore Julius' superior officer to whom he would deliver Paul, vid. 
sup. xxvii. I n. Prisoners however from abroad were certainly con- 
signed to the praefectus praetorii, Plin. Ep. X. 65, and cf. Phil. i. 13. 
Ka6* lavTov, i.e. in a lodging under the charge of a soldier to whom he 
was chained, Eph. vi. 20; 2 Tim. i. 16. The services of Paul on the 
voyage, the personal report of Julius, and the elogiimi of the case sent 
by Festus secured this privilege. Some MSS. add e|a) r^s napefx^oXrjs, 
outside the camp. 

Final Rejection of Paul's Message by the Jews. 


17. TOUS ovTaS-.-irptoTous, cf. xiii. 50, xxv. 2. irpiOTovs is almost 
certainly a substantive, 'the chief members of the Jewish communities,' 
others take it as an adj., ' those that were of the Jews first.' The Jews 


had been expelled from Rome by an edict of Claudius, but the effect had 
only been partial and transitory, cf. xviii. 2 n. There were seven 
synagogues in Rome, and the Jewish settlements were chiefly on the 
Janiculan hill, S. Paul here adhered to his rule 'to the Jew first' 
(Rom. i. 15, 16), and he desired to make his position to those of his 
own nation quite clear. The foundation of the Christian church at 
Rome is a matter of great obscurity, and it is remarkable that there 
is no reference to any of the Christians mentioned in the last chapter 
of the Romans ; probably there were a number of house-churches, 
and there seems to have been little if any intercourse between Jews and 
Christians. Tradition has always associated the foundation of the 
Christian church at Rome with S. Peter, and S. Paul was very careful 
not to trespass on another's sphere of labour. It was his principle 
' to* preach the Gospel not where Christ was named, lest he should build 
on another man's foundation,' and it was this that had hindered him 
from visiting Rome (Rom. xv. 20, 22). But before his arrest and trial 
and appeal to Caesar he had formed the plan of visiting Rome on his 
way to Spain, in carrying out a mission to the west (Rom. xv. 24). The 
position he held at Rome in the two years of his imprisonment as 
described by S. Luke is in accord with the attitude of deference he 
adopted to the Romans when he wrote to them. He laid no claim 
to any position of authority as the father of the church as he did at 
Ephesus, Corinth and elsewhere. Trap£866T]v, cf. xxi. 11. The Jewish 
menace was the indirect cause, though Paul's appeal to Caesar was his 
own act. TaJv 'Pcofxaiwv, sc. Felix and Festus. 

19. i]va"YKd<r0T|v. His action was purely defensive, he does not 
himself break the regulations laid down in i Cor. vi. in which he forbids 
Christians to go to law against one another before heathen tribunals. 
Tou ^Gvovs, not 'God's people,' Xa6s, as in v. 17, but 'his own nation,' 
cf. xxiv. 17, xxvi. 4. His loyalty to his race would not allow him 
to accuse them before a Roman tribunal. 

20. •7rap€Ka\€ora , 'I invited you to see and speak with me.' Others 
tr. ' did I call for you to see and speak with you. ' tt]S cXttiSos, cf. 
xxvi. 6, i.e. the hope of the Messiah. tt]v dXv(rtv...Tr6piKeifjiai, for 
the accus. cf. Heb. v. 2. 

21. 'H|JL€is. The Jews did not deny that they had ever heard of 
S. Paul's work, but they had no information of the cause of his being sent 
bound to Rome. There had been no time for any letter or messenger 
to come from Jerusalem except by the overland route and none had 
reached them. 


22. d|i.ov|X6v...<j)pov€is, 'but we think it right to hear from you 
a statement of your views,' i.e. not any special exposition of Christianity 
but his own view of his claim to be imprisoned ' for the hope of Israel,' 
a hope they as Jews shared. They profess either politic or genuine 
ignorance of the Christian faith. Whatever was the origin of the Christian 
church at Rome it seems not to have grown, as usually elsewhere, out 
of a Jewish-Christian community to which Gentiles adhered, on 
iravTaxov dvri.Xe'yeTai. This statement makes it clear that the charges 
of atheism, immorality and hideous practices at the love-feasts repre- 
sented as Thyestaean banquets which were soon to be brought against 
the Christians were already being spread abroad, also that the Jews 
dissociated themselves from the Christians and had little intercourse 
with them. 

23. €ls Ti]v |€viav probably = i'oioj/ /it(7^a;//.a, v. 30. It is hardly 
likely that the regulations would be so far relaxed as to admit of him 
going with his gaoler to an entertainment at a friend's house, though 
elsewhere, xxi. 16, ^ei't^w bears this meaning. S. Paul had means at 
his disposal, and poverty was not one of his trials. irXcioves in emphatic 
position, ' in greater numbers.' e^cr^GcTo, 'he expounded.' The middle 
adds the force of personal explanation. TreuGcov, the part, is not only 
conative, but indicates his persuasive power, cf. xiii. 43, xviii. 4, etc. 
It is not hard to imagine with what eloquent earnestness he would 
preach the Gospel of the kingdom of God and His Christ in the capital 
of the world, irepi tov *It^o-ov, i.e. (i) That the Christ suffered and 
rose from the dead. (2) That His Kingdom was the fulfilment of the 
' law and the prophets ' and that He was the hope of Israel. 

24. 01 |x^v €'n-€L0ovTo...T|TrCo-Tovv. The imperfects mark the gradual 
effect of S. Paul's words; the Jews evidently were not silent during the 
long exposition and argued with him as well as amongst themselves. 

25. clirovTos TOV IlavXou. In many cases in Greek the real prin- 
cipal verb of the English idiom is in the participle, ' As they departed 
Paul said one word.' KaXws to Trv€v|xa to d-yiov. They rejected God's 
messenger. He dismisses them with one last word not of persuasion 
but of judgment and even indignation (KaXcDs), not in his own name 
but in that of the Holy Spirit : for /caXws cf. Mt. xv. 7. irpos tovs 
7raT€pas v|jt«v. No longer ' our fathers.' S. Paul regards the separation 
as complete. 

26. IIop€v0T]Tt, Is. vi. 9. The quotation is here given in full from 
LXX. The fate of God's prophet Isaiah in his mission was acknowledged 
by Jesus when explaining His reason for teaching in parables (Mt. xiii. 1 3 ; 


Lk. viii. 10) to be His own. The prophecy is quoted by S. John to explain 
the rejection of Christ's own teaching (xii. 40), and here by S. Paul, 
'the last utterance in the historical books of N.T.,' to explain the 
rejection of his teaching about Christ. 'Akotj dKov<r€T€, cf. xxiii. 14 n. 
ov fjii] 0-VVTJT6, strong negation. 

27. cKa)Ji|jiv(rav. Kaixfidw — Karafivu} only used of ' closing the eyes,' 
cf. myopia. |it] ttotc I'Swo-iv. The saying is a hai'd one. It was the 
purpose of Christ to conceal truth as well as to reveal it. To have heard 
the message and from hardness of heart and lack of understanding, etc., 
to have rejected it meant more than the loss of opportunity. They are 
in a worse position than before, and that which might have been for 
their life became an occasion of falling. That which is true in fact 
is represented as the deliberate purpose of God, but the responsibility 
for the fulfilment of that purpose rests with those who reject His 
warnings. ld(ro|xai. The future tends to be used interchangeably 
with the subj. in Hell. Gk, though it adds more certainty. This is 
a return to Homeric usage, cf. Lk. xii. 58 ; Acts xxi. 24. 

28. TO O-WTIlpiOV TOV 0€OV, Ps. Ixvil. 2. aVTOl Kttl aKOViTOVTal. 

avTol is emphatic, Kal strengthens aKovcovTat^ ' they indeed will hear.' 
The certainty of acceptance by the Gentiles however does not imply 
the final rejection of the Jews, Rom. xi. ii. The best MSS. omit 
V. 29 Kol ravra avrov eiirovTos aTrrjKdou ol 'lofSatot, iro\\T]v ^xcj/res iv 
eavTois crv^rjTrjaiv. 

Two Years' quiet Ministry. 30-31. 

30. *Ev€(i.€ivev. Blass considers that the aorist implies that at the 
close of the two years S. Paul's condition was changed. Sicriav. Here 
in accordance with his usual custom S. Luke records briefly without 
details the duration and character of S. Paul's ministry, cf. xi. 26, 
xviii. II, xix. 8, 10, xxiv. 27. |j.i(r6(op.aTi, not necessarily a whole 
house but a private lodging. S. Paul's ability to pay need cause no 
difficulty ; we know for certain that he once again accepted assistance 
from the Philippians, Phil. iv. 11, 14, 18. 

31. Ki]pii<r<r<«)v...dKft)\i)Tws. An exquisite cadence and rhythm 
marks this closing sentence. The author of the Acts thus leaves S. Paul 
in Rome, boldly and without restraint preaching the Gospel of the 
kingdom of God, and the life, death and resurrection of the Lord Jesus 
Christ. Cf the closing words of the Ciospel. Both alike close with a 
note of joy and triumph. 



The further history of S. Paul can only be pieced together from 
.scattered notices in the two groups of Epistles connected with his 
first and second imprisonment. 

(i) To the two years mentioned in v. 30 belong the Epistles to 
the Colossians, Ephesians, Philemon and Philippians. From these we 
learn that besides Luke and Aristarchus, his fellow-voyagers, he was 
joined by Timothy (Phil. i. i), Tychicus, Epaphras, Jesus Justus, 
Mark and Onesimus (Col. iv. 7-ri), Demas (Col. iv. 14), and 
Epaphroditus, the emissary of the Philippians (Phil. ii. •25). The 
Epistles mark a great development in the church towards unity and 
union in Christ, and the note of controversy is scarcely heard, though 
S. Paul speaks bitterly of the hostility of the Jews (Phil. iii. 2, 3). His 
position as a prisoner prevented him from holding a supreme position 
in the Roman church, but his influence extended to ' Caesar's house- 
hold ' (Phil. iv. 22), and the Gospel was known in ' the whole praetorium ' 
(Phil. i. 13), which probably. means the praetorian guard. After two 
years his trial was concluded and he was apparently set free. 

(2) If the generally accepted theory be adopted that the Pastoral 
Epistles, on the assumption of their genuineness (i and 2 Tim. and Tit.), 
belong to a period subsequent to his first imprisonment, S. Paul left 
Rome and visited Greece, Crete, Ephesus, Troas and Macedonia (see 
Lightfoot, Biblical Essays, pp. 400-437, and cf. i Tim. i. 3, 20, 
iii. 14, 2 Tim. i. 15-18, ii. 9, iv. 6-21; Tit. i. 5, iii. 12-15). 
A crisis occurred and he was recalled to Rome, probably in conse- 
quence of the persecution of the Christians by Nero after the fire 
A. D. 64. He wrote his second letter to Timothy as he awaited his end : 
only ' Luke the beloved physician ' was with him. Tradition records 
that he was beheaded on the Ostian Way in A.D. 65, and the church of 
'S. Paul without the walls' marks the traditional spot. S. Peter, whose 
sojourn in Rome S. Paul does not mention, suffered martyrdom on the 
Vatican possibly two or three years later. The two great apostles, whose 
work as the joint leaders of and Gentile Christianity S. Luke 
records, were thus united in martyrdom in the Eternal City. In London 
to-day the cathedral of S. Paul and the abbey of S. Peter at Westminster 
are a tribute of the English church to their hallowed memorv. 



dyaWidaBaL 92, 186 
dyain]T6s I'j'j 
ci-yyeXos 152-3-4 
a7tot OL 136 
dyvi^eLv 220 
d-yvoelv 162 
dyvwcfTos Beds 1 94 
dyopd 1 9 1 
dyopalos 1S9, 211 
dypafi/naTos [05 
dd€\(poi 81, 92 
a5r]s 92 
ASpias 253 * 
di'v/xa rd 151 
alyiaXos 255 
at/ia 175 
aivelv 97 
aUpcLv 222, 249 
atpeo^ts III, 233 
aireiv 162 
airioj/xa 236 
ai'wj' 10 1 
d/co?7 193 
dKOveiv 106 
d\layr)fj.a 174 
d/uLvveiv 1 3 I 
dfjLcpoTepos 206 
di' III, 112, 119, 143 
dva^dWeadaL 234 
dva^X^ireiv 136, 224 
dvdyeLv -eadai 152, [60 
dpayLvdoaKCLV 130, 177 
dj^dYKaios 143 
dj'aSei/cz'i'/j'ai 83 
dvddefxa. 228 
dvadefxari^etv 228 
dj/atpetj^ 91, 12 1, 1S6 
dvaKpipcLv 104, 153, 190, 232 
dvaKpiais 239 
dvacTAcei'di'eii' 177 

di'dcrracrts 193, 198 

dvaridecrdaL 237 

dvacpalveLv 217 

dvdxj/v^LS 10 1 

at'etrts 234 

dverd^eadaL 225 

di'^i'Traros 158, 211 

dvLevaL r86 

dvLCTdvai. [63 

avrCKaix^dveaBai. 2 1 7 

dvTo<p6a\fxdu 250 

duoodeu 239 

d^ioOz/ 178 

aTraaTrd^eo'^at 2 1 8 

dweideiv 165, 205 

dTTO 220 

aTToypacprj 1 14 

dirobcLKvuvaL 90 

dTToSexecr^at 95, 231 

d7ro6t56i'at 108 

dTroKadLardvaL 78 

dTTOKaTaaTaats 101 

diroKpiveaOaL 99 

dwoXoyeladat 232 

dTToKoveadaL 224 
diro\v€Lv 106, 157 
dTTOTrXeZi' 24-; 
dTTopeiaOat 238 
dTTOcrroXT; 83 
dTTOtrroXot 166, 172 
dirocrTp^cpeLV 102 
diroTdcraeadaL 202 
dirocpdeyyeadaL 86, 243 
dTro(popri^€cr9aL 218 
dirp6<TKoiros 233 
dirwdeladaL 164 
apa 128, 129, 153 
dpd 76 130 
dpyvpoKoiros 209 
dpT^lxwv 255 



dpxecrdaL 76 
dpxv 142 
dpxvyos 100, 113 
dpxi-epevs 103 
dpx'-O'vvd'YCoyos 160 
datria 252 
dcrTTcti'ecr^at 237 
aacrov 249 
dcrreros 120 
da^aXrjS 222 
drej'ii'et;' 226 
droTTOS 236, 258 
aiVos 23S 
d0eX6r7?s 97 
dcpccTTdvaL ijS 
dxpi 254 

(SdWcLv 249 

ISaTTTi^eadac 224 

(Sdp^apoL 257 

^aaiXeia rod deov 79, 215 

iSaaiXeiis 120 

(SaaTai'eiv 97 

jSdros 6 7? 121, 122 

fti^Xos 122 

^Xdacprjfxa r i 7 

^\a(T(pT]/jL€2u 240 

pXeireiv 248 

^OT]d€ia 250 

^ovXecrdaL 238 

^vpaevs 140 

7aia 130 

7dp 130, 162, 187, 211 
yevvdadaL 225 
yeveadai. 142, 213 
yiveadaL 103, 107 
yivihaKeLV 130, 206 
7X60/105 88 

7Xwcrcrats \a\dv 85, 146 
7rw(rT6s 105 
yoyyva/xos 1 14 
ypa/xfjLaTevs -els 211, 228 
ypa<pr] 81, 130 
yp-tqyopetv 2 1 6 
ywvla 1 04 

baLfxoviov 193 
Set 8r 
deiaLdaL/xovia 237 

SetcrtSot^wi/ 194 
SeK^To? 145 
de^LoXdfioL 229 
Sepeti/ 114, 187, 224 
SecTTToTT/s 106 

5ei//90 122 

5^ 157 

S'^yltOS 210 
drjfJt-ocria r 1 1 
5td 77, 88, 230, 233 
diadex^crdai i 23 
SiadidovaL ro8 
dLad-qKT} 102, 119 
5ta/vareXe'7xe(T^at 204 
diaKOvelp 81 
5ta/fO(^eiJ' 231 
SiaKpiveLV 143, 147 
diaXeyecrdat 188 
§tdXe/CTOs 82 
dLajuapTvpea9ai. 95 
SLafMepi^eadaL 86 
QtauifxeadaL T05 
dLaTTopeluBaL 88, I43 
diatrpieadaL 113 
diaau^eiv 230, 256 
diaTdaaeaBaL 214 
diacpepecrOai 253 
dievdvfxeiadaL 143 
dLepxeadai 139, 158 
5ti9dXacr(ros 256 
duffTavaL 253 
diLcrxvpi^eaOaL 153 

StKOiOS 100 

Si/ftttoOi' 164 
AtKT; 258 
dioireres 211 
AioaKovpoi 259 
86yfji.a 189 
56^a 118 
dpofios 162 
Si^i'a^ts 90, 128 
Si^rauts T/ jxeydXr] 127 
dvvaroi oi 235 
5c65e/va oi 11:; 

eai* 114 
eavTOv 111, - 
'^^pats 222 
iyKparela 234 
e8a<pos 223 




eduos 136, 143, 233, 262 
el 143, 205, 228, 240, 242 
eidujXodvTov 174 

etpwv 145 
els 124, 233 
elaepx^o'Oo-i- 83 
eKarovTCLpxv^ 140 
€K^o\ri 251 
€k5otos 91 
eKKXrjaia 110, 216 
e/c/coXi'/x/Sai' 174 
eKTriTTTetu 251 
^KcrraaLS 98, 142 
CKcrih^eLV 255 
eKTLdevaL 121 
eKcpepetv iio 
iK-ipvx^i-v 109 
'EXaiciz/ 79 
iXevfxoauvr] 98, 233 
"EXXt^j/ 148 

'EXXT/l'tOTT^S I 14, 148 

e'XTTts 239, 262 

ifX(pavL'^eLV 228, 239 

eV 120, 244 

evKaToKeiTreLV 92 

ivKOTTTeLv 231 

ei'ru7xai'etP' 238 

ei' T(p with infill. 86, 102, 107 

evioinov 106 

evLOTL^eadaL 89 

i^aipelaOai 241 

e^apri^eLv 2 1 8 

evoked pe^eadaL loi 

e^oi' 92 

e^opKLCTTrjs 206 

e^ovdevtlv 105 

e^ovaia 78 

f^oxT? 238 

eTrayyeXia 78, 162, 229 

eirayyeXXeaOaL 119 

CTraipeiv 89 

(Trapxeia 230, 23,^ 

eTre'xeti/ 98 

eVt 96, 97, 144, 163, j66, 257 

eTTt TO ai^TO 81 

iiTLyiveadaL 260 

€7rLyivJ:aK€LV 210 

eTTLdrj/jielv 88, 193 

eTTiStSorai 250 

eTTLKaXdadaL 236 

eTTiKeXXeti/ 256 

eiTLCf KeiTTecr dai 115, 121 

€7n(XK€vd^€adai 219 

eiTiffKLa'^eLv 1 1 1 

€in(TK07rrj 82 

€iri(TKOiros 216 

eTTtaracTis 232 

eTriarpecpeiu 10 1, 242 

eiTLcpavrjs 90 

fTrrd ol 115 

epyaaia 184 

epijirav 98 

erepos 86, 105, 248 

eS irpaaaeLV 177 

evayyeXi^eadaL 126, 131, 163 

eu7ei'?7S 190 

evXa^Tjs 87, 126 

EupaK'i'XoJi' 250 

evaejSris 141 

'E0ecrta ypd/n/xara 207 

ecpLaTCLuaL 102, 152, 224 

e'xaj/ 79 

^evKTTjpia 255 
Zei^s 167 
(■77X0? Ill, [64 
^TjXovv 119 
("t^Xcut??? 80 
i-77/ita 247 
fu76i' 173 
fw?7 92 
i'ojoyoveip 120 

rjye/uLioi' 230 
vynfMai 239 
i]yov/j.€vos 119, 176 
ij/jLepa 7} Tov Kvpiov 90 
rj/j.epai 102 

Od/iL^os 98 
^ed T? /meydXrj 2 i o 
dearpov 210 
deXeiv 88, 192 
deo^petu 129 
OpriffKeia 239 
6veiv 142 
BvjJLOjxaxdv 153 
^ypis 2r3 

i'Stos 234 



idtwTTjs 105 
l5ov 7 9 

'lepoaoXvfxa 77 
iepoavXos 211 
'lepovaaXrjjJt. 77 
i/faj/ds 137 
IfiaTLov 140 
tVa 205, 320 
'loLiSatos 185 
'laparjXiTaL 90 
iaravaL 83 
t'trxi^etj/ 250 

KadrjKev 225 
KadbXov 106 
KadoTi 91, 108 
Ktidov 93 
Kadibs 120 
/cat 123, 124 
Kaivos 193 
Kaipos 195 
KafijuLveif 264 
Kapdia 92, 219 
Kapdioyvibarris 83 
Kara 97, 126, 170, 250 
KaTa^aiveLv 128 
KaraXa/ui^dueaOai 144 
KaraXveiv 11 4, 117 
KaTavoelv 122 
/cara^'i/crcreu' 94 
Karaaeleiv 153 
KaTa<TK7)vovv 92 
Karaaocpi^eadaL 1 20 
KaTaridecrdaL 235 
KaracpepeadaL 213 
KaTacpiXelv 217 
/caretSwXos 191 
KaTepx^(^do-i- i53» 158, 203 
/cttTTjxeij/ 203, 220 
KaroLKelv 86 
Kelpecrd ac 202 
KeKOvia/xevos 226 
Kepdaiveiv 252 
K€(pa.Xaiov 225 
/fXai" 97, 213 
/cXcuris ToO dprov 95 
KXrjpovo/JLLa 216 
KXiudpiou 1 1 1 
KOifJ.d(Tdai 125 
/coti'os 142 

KOLUcjvia 95 

KoXXdadai 144 

KoXvfi^av 257 

KoXcovia 183 

/coTreros 126 

KOTTiau 2 1 7 

Koa/iios 195 

Kpd^arrov 1 1 1 

Kparelv 99, 232 

KpaTLffTos 76 

KpivcLv 100 

Kpovetv 153 

Kv^epprjTTjs 247 

fcj^ptos 78, 94, 135, 186, 238 

XaKetv 81 

XaKTi^eiv 241 

XaXetv 86 

Xaos 174, 201 

Xarpei/etJ' 119 

Xetroi;p7eiJ' 157 

XeTTts 136 

Xi^epTLVoL 116 

X67ta 122 

Xoytos 203 

X670S 107, 128, 144, 145 

XoLfibs 252 

XotTTOJ' 252 

AvKaouLcrri i6'j 

Xv/xaipecrdai 126 

fiayeveiv 127 

ixdyos 158 

fxadrjTrjs 114 

fialvecrdai. 153, 243 

fiapTvpecrdaL 215 

fidprvs 78, 224 

fieyaXeLorrjs 210 

/xeXXeLU 224 

/xej/— 5e 95 

/iei' oSi/ 126, 148, 152, 166, 239 

/iepos 210 

fiecrrjiuL^pia 129 

yuerct 170 

/xera^aXXeadaL 258 

jxeTavoeiv 94 

fiera^v 164 

/i^ 106, iro, 123, 135 

fxr]5aiuu)s 142 

^t^rt 146 



fxicrdcofxa 264 
fjivrj/jioavuou 141 
fxvpids 219 

Nafwpatos 232 
paos 209 
vaiJKXrjpos 247 
j^aOs 256 
ve(p€\r] 79 
pecoKopos 2 1 J 
vrjareia 247 
vofxi^eiv 183 
voacpi^eadai 109 
vovderelv 216 

^ei'ia 263 
^evi^eiu 143, 193 
^I'Xoi' 163 
^vpeiadai 220 

o56s 134, 233 

odbvT} 142 

oiKer-^s 141 

oLKTiixa 152 

oiKodo/uLeladat 138 

ol/cos 86 

OLKovfievri i] 189, 232 

oXoKX-qpia 100 

ofxiXeiv 213 

dfJLodvjULadop 80, 97 

blxoLOwadrfi 168 

opofjia 8r, 90, 98 

oTTTduecrdaL 77 

oTTcos aj" loi, 174 

opa/ma 182, 20 1 

opKL'^eiv 206 

6p/i 77 166 

OS 257 

ocrris 124 

6'ri 169 

ovpavos 124 

oSros 117, i22y 145 

ouTcos 213 

oxXetJ' 1 1 1 

wadrjTds 242 
Trais 99, 107 
irapa^aiveiv 83 
Trapa^dXXeLU 2 r 4 
irapabex^crdai 172 

irapaLveiv 247 
irapaLTelaOaL 236 
irapaKaXeiv 187 
TrapoLKXrjcrLS 138, 177 
irapaXeyeadaL 246 
Trapdarj/uLa 259 
TrapaTidevai 170 
irapaxprjixa 98 
irapefx^oXr) 222 
irapepxeadai. 182 
irdpOLKOs 119 
irapo^va/uids 178 
irapprjaia 92, 105 
irappr]cnd'ge(jdaL 138, 166 
ttSs 89, 125 
irdax^i-P 136 
Trara^ai 152 
TraTpLapxv^ 92 
Tretv 228 

ireipd^eiv no, 172 
ireipaa/jios 2 1 5 
irevT-qKoaT-q 84, 86 
7r6/3i 160 
Treptaipetp 260 
irepiaaTpdiTTeLv 134 
irepiepya 206 
irepLXd/Ji\f/ap 240 
Treptox^ 130 
TrepiTe/uiveiv i 79 
nrjddXia 255 
TTta^etJ/ 98, 152 
irlixirpaadaL 258 
TTiaTeveiv 159 
TrXareia ill 
irXrjdos 87, I 15 
irXotov AXe^avdpLvov 246 
ttAoOs 247 
irviovaa i] 256 
irvev/jia ayiov 77, 128 
TTvevfjLa 'Irjaou 182 
ttulktSv 175 
TTOiOs 104, 230 
TToXiTapxv^ 189 
woXiTeia 225 
TToXireiyecr^at 226 
irovTjpos 189 
tropBeiv 137 
iropvela 175 
Trop<pvp5Tru}Xis 184 
irpaLTihpLOV 231 



irpda-creLU i-j-j, 186 
trpea^vTepoL 150, 172 
TrpTjvTjs 81 
irpodecTLS 249 
Trpos 254 
Trpoadyeiv 253 
irpo(xbex^<ydaL 229 
TTpoaboKav 254 
7rpo(T€i'xi7 80, 115, 183 
irpocrex^i-v 127 
irpoarjXvTos 88 
irpoaKapTepeiv 80 
TTpoaKXrjpovadaL 188 
irpoaKvvelv 143 
irpoacpopd 233 
TrpoaojTroXrj/xTTTTjs 144 
■jrpocrcoirov 92, 100 
irpoTtiueiv 225 
7rpo(f>r]T€V€iP 218 
Trpocp-qr-qs 93, 1 50, 1 57 
irpVfMVT] 253 
irpwTos 76, 2 58 

TTvdoJU 184 

TTvKihv 143, 153, 168 

TTvperos 259 

pa^dl^eiv 185 
pa^dovxos 187 
padiovpyia 159 
p^/ia 112, 113, 145 
prjTOjp 231 
'Pofxcpd 123 

crd^^ara 188 
aa^^drov 656s 79 
(raXei'eti/ 107, 190 
2aouX 24I 
^e/SacTTTj 245 
Ze/Sacrros 238 
(re/Seo-^ai' J41, 188 
ariixelov 77 
aiKapLOL 222 
ai/xiKLvdLov 206 
o-tros 255 
(XKd(pr) 250 
(T/ceOos 136, 251 
(TKT)vq 123 
(7KvvoiroL6s 200 
(XKCjXrjKo^pojTos 154 

crouSdptor 206 
aocpia 115 
aireipr} 141 
(TTrep/xa 102 
(TireppLoKoyos 192 
(TrdcTiS 211 
arepeovadaL 179 

crTpaTTjyoi 185 
arpaTTjyos tou iepou 103 
crTpaToireddpxv^ 261 
crrpecpeLv 122 
avfj-^ovKiov 237 
^v/xeibv 173 
crvvaywyrj 116, 158 
(rvvaXi^eadai "]"] 
avv^dWeiv 204 
crvuf3Lj3d^eiv 137, 210 
(Tvueidrjais 226 
avveadieLv 147 
(Tvvex^'^daL 200 
avvfrjTelu i i 7 
avvdpvwTeiv 219 
avpo/JLiXelu 143 
avvTrapaXafx^dvecv i 78 
<TVVTpo(pos 157 
CFVcfTeXXeLv 1 10 
o-^i'pts 137 
o-XoXt? 205 
crwi'etf 252 

TaTreivo(ppo(Tvvr) 215 

TeK/X7]pL0V "J "J 

Tepara 90 

Terpddiou 152 

TexvlT-qs 209 

rts 141 

TO (quotation marks) 226 

TOTTos 83 

roO with intin. 98, 99, 120, 136, 

143, 167, 201, 229 
TpoTTOcjiopelv 161 

v^pi^eiv 166 

i//3pis 247 

luos 102 

I'tos ^eoC 137 

mos ToO dpdpwTTOv 124 

vixvelv 1 86 

vTraKOveiv 116, 153 



virapx^Lv 93, 97, 179, 187, 195 
virepijoov 80 

VTT7]plTr\% 112, 158, 241 
VTTO 112, 249 

viro'^wvvivai 250 
viroirXeiv 246 
viroTTveiv 249 
viroaTeXXecrdai 215 
ijtJ/ia'Tos 124, 184 
v\f/ovv 161 

^daK€LV 238 
(pepeiv 250 
(po^ovfievoL oi 16 J 
(poprlov 247 
(ppvdaaeLv 107 
(fivKaKT] 152 

X(tip€LU 176 
Xdpayfia 197 
Xapiteadai 236, 252 . 
Xdpis 108, 119 
X6t> 91 ^ 
X^tpoTOPelv I "JO 

XiXtapxos 221 
Xi-T^" 140 
Xo\77 129 
Xopracrixa 120 
XP^/ia 109 

XpVfJ-ari^eiu 143, 149 
Xptetj/ 107 
XpKTTiavoi 149, 243 
Xwpct 125 
X^^plov 258 
Xwpos ^48 

\p€vd€<r6a(. 109 
\priKa(pq.v 196 
i/'uxT? 96, 166 

wSTi/es Tou davoLTov 91 

ojpa 89 

djpaios 98 

Copicrixevos 91 

cIjs 215 

djcet 141 

ujs eTT^ 190 


Abraham 1 1 8, 119 

Accusative case 236, 239 

Achaia -201 

Adramyttium 245 

Adria 253 

Aeneas 139 

Aethiopian Eunuch 129 

Agabus 150, 218 

Alexander of Ephesus 210 

Alexander, of priests' kindred 114 

Alexandria 117, 203, 246 

Amos 124 

Amphipolis 187 

Anacoluthon 122, 127, 145, 176, 

211, 232 
Ananias, sin of 109 
Ananias of Damascus 135 
Ananias, high priest 223, 226 
Anaphora 122 
Angels 79, III, 122, 129 
Annas 104 

Antioch (Pisidia) 160 
Antioch (Syria) 148, 156 
Antipatris 230 
Antonia, tower of 221 
Aorist, the 133, 147, 230 
ApoUonia 188 
ApoUos 203 

Apostles, the 78, 80, 125 
Appii Forum 261 
Aquila 199 
Arabia 137 
Areopagus 193 
Aretas 137 
Aristarchus 210, 245 
Ascension, the 79 
Asia 182 
Asiarch 210 
Assos 214 

Athens 191 

Atonement, day of 247 
Attalia 170 
Azotus 131 

Babylon 123 

Baptism 83, 94, 131, 205 

Bar-jesus 158 

Barnabas 108, 138, 149, 173 

Beautiful Gate 98 

Bernice 237 

Beroea 190 

Bezae, Codex 131, 135, 144, 148, 
150, 152, 158, 163, 171, 173, 
174, 178, 187, 203, 220, 238, 

Blastus 154 
Brethren of the Lord 80 

Caesarea 131 

Caiaphas 133 

Candace 129 

Cauda 250 

Cenchreae 202 

Christology of the apostles 75, 146 

Chronological difficulties 113, 119 

Church life and growth 75, 96, 

107, 116, 138, 148, 155, 

179, 180, 207 
relations with Judaism 76, 

102, 170, 208 
Cilicia 178 

Circumcision 171, 179, 220 
Claudius Caesar 150, 199 
Claudius Lysias 225 
Cnidus 246 

Collection for the church at Jeru- 
salem 150, 212, 233 
Community of goods 96, 108 



Comparative, the 234, 236 

Corinth 199, 212 

Cornehus 141 

Cos 217 

Council at Jerusalem 175, 179, 

Crispus 200 
Cyprus 158 

Damaris 198 

Damascus 133 

Dative case 93, 120, 127, 157, 

161, 163 
David 91, 123, 162, 163 
Demetrius 209 
Derbe 267 
Dionysius 198 
Dispersion, the 87, 240 
Dorcas 140 
Drusilla 234 

Eg7iatia via 187 
Egyptian prophet 222 
Elymas 158 
Ephesus 214, 215 
Epicureans 191 
Erastus 209 
Eutychus 213 

Fair Havens 247 

Fasting 157 

Felix 230 

Festus 235 

Future Indicative 130, 202 

Gains of Derbe 213 

of Macedonia 210 
Galatia 179, r8i, 203 
Galilaean 87 
Gallio 201 
Gamaliel 113 
Gaza 129 
Genitive case 81, 98, no, 133, 

210, 212 
Gentiles, mission to 94, 155, iz^d 

Heathen poets 196 

Hebraisms no, 135, 142, i^^i, 

Hellenists 138 

Herod, Antipas 107 

Agrippa 1 151, 154 

Agrippa II 237 
Holy Spirit 104, 109, 146, 147, 

i57> i77j 182, 205 

Iconium 165 

Imperfect tense 96, 107, 116, 

121, 125, 167, 200, 238 
Isaiah 130, 264 

Jacob 120 

James, brother of the Lord 81, 

153, 173' 219 
James the apostle 80, 151 
Jason 189 
Joel 89 
John the apostle 78, 97, 128 

the Baptist 203, 205 

Mark 152, 160 
Joppa 140 
Joseph 119, 120 
Joseph Barsabbas 83 
Josephus 113, 153, 154, 222 
Judas Barsabbas 176 
Judas Iscariot 82 
Judas of Galilee 113 
Judas (son of James) 80 
Julius 246 
Justus 200 

Lasea 247 

Latinisms 206 

Litotes 153, 206, 222, 249 

Lucius 157 

Luke 182, 212, 214, 259 

Lycaonia 166 

Lydda 139 

Lydia 184 

Lystra 167, 169 

Malta 255, 257 

Manaen 157 

Mary, mother of Jesus 80 

mother of Mark 152 
Matthias 83 
Medical language 105, no, ni, 

121, 136, 139, 159, 258, 259 
Messiah, age of 89, go, 93, ror, 




Middle voice T40, 224 

Midian 121 

Miletus 214 

Mitylene 214 

Mnason 219 

Moloch 123 

Moses loi, 121, 122, 175 

Nazarene 240 
Nazirite 202, 220 
Neapolis 183 
Nicolaus 115 

Olivet 79 

Optative mood 112, 143, 192,221, 

Oratio obliqua, recta 121, 140 
Oxymoron 1 1 4 

Paphos 158 
Paronomasia 130, 139 
Participles 263 
Patara 217 
Paul, conversion 132 

visits to Jerusalem 136, ifo, 
170, 202, 219 

journeys 155, 178, 180, 202 

speeches 160, 167, 191, 214, 
222, 226, 233, 239 

trials 226, 233, 235, 238 
Perga 160 
Peter 75, 80, 97, 139, 142, 143, 

152, 173 
speeches 81, 88, 99, 144, 147 
trials and imprisonments 103, 


Pharisees 113, 172, 227 

Philip 115, 126, 130, 131, 218 

Philippi 183 

Phoenix 248 

Phrygia-Galatica 182 

Prayer 107 

Priscilla 199 

Prophecy 82, T30, 264 

Ptolemais 218 

Publius 259 

Puteoli 260 

Rhegium 260 

Rhodes 217 

Roman citizenship 225 

Rome 209, 262 

Sadducees 76, 103, 227 

Salamis 158 

Salmone 246 

Samaria 126 

Samothrace 183 

Samuel 102 

Sanhedrin 104, 112, 133 

Sapphira 109 

Sceva 236 

Seleucia 158 

Sergius Paulus 158 

Sharon 139 

Shechem 120 

Sidon 154 

Silas 200 

Simon Magus 127 

the tanner 140 
Sinai 1 2 1 

Solomon's Porch 99 
Sopater 213 
Sosthenes 202 
Stephen 115 
Stoics 192 

Subjunctive mood 94, 105, 114, 122 
Syria 138, 179 

Tabitha 140 
Tarsus 132, 138, 179 
Tertullus 231 
Theophilus 76 
Thessalonica 188 
Theudas 113 
Three Taverns 261 
Thyatira 1 84 
Timotheus 200, 209 
Tongues, speaking with 85 
Troas 182 
Trogyllium 214 
Trophimus 213, 221 
Tychicus 213 
Tyrannus 205 
Tyre 154, 218 

Women, position of 80, 11 s, 140, 
184, 188 



According- to Josephus and the Middoth 

The Gate Tadi ? 





S O R E G 

: ■[pTTTii^&^z'^itn 


a') OF THE 

WOMEN jni 


L' -■ 

S O R E G 

O F 



R O 

A L 







1. The Holy of Holies 

2. The Holy Place 

3. The Porch 

4. The Altar 

5. Court of the Priests 

6. Court of Israel 

hhh. Gates of the Women's 
n. Gate leading to Herod's 
q. Gate leading to the Town 

I.J t ■ ■ ■ II ■ 



a. The Gate Nicanor or the Beautiful Gate 

b. The Gate of the House Molted 
C. The Gate of the Offering 

d. The Gate Nitsus 

e. The Gate of Kindling 

f. The Gate of the first born, g. The Water Gate 
Court m. The Women's Gate 

Palace pp. Gates leading to Northern Suburbs 

WW. The Huhlah Gates, low down in wall leading 

under porch to outer court. 

Greek Cubits 
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1 , ts , J . 1 

Hebrew Cubits 


^oj>y right 

200 300 400 

English Feet 



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o a 

p. :t j 

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Qambndgo Unioarsity Press 




TO— ^ 202 Main Library 








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