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Full text of "Cyclopedia of missions ; containing a comprehensive view of missionary operations throughout the world ; with geographical descriptions, and accounts of the social, moral, and religious condition of the people"

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C^lOOt O'l 




iK>uoHT wrni 

THE GIFT OF 

^Vr l,MAM O RAY, 

Of I^ton, Mann. 






\n 



'^ /srf, JW 




lULi^ 



,■'* 

>' 



Q 



1855, 







CYCLOPEDIA OF MISSIOIS: 



OOSTAININO A 



COMPREHENSIVE VIEW OF MISSIONARY OPERATIOKS 



THEOUGHOUT THE WORLD; 



WITH GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTIONS, AND ACCOUNTS OF THE 80 
ClAL, MORAI^ ANT) RELIGIOTJS CONDITION OF THK PEOPLK 



BT 



REV. HARVEY NEWCOMB 



REVISED EDITIOy. — FOt'RTH THOUSAND. 



' NEW YORK : 
CHAKLES SCRIBNER, 146 KAfiSAU STKEET 

1866.. 



^ ' ( HAHVAIIO CellEGE UBMIiy 






Entered accordiDg to Act of Congress, lb the year 1854, by 

CHARLES SCRIBNER, 

In the Clerk's OflSce of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District 

of New Tork. 



Tawi, RcBaiLL h. Co., Piimu 

No. 2S BeeknuB-xtnet 



TURNEY & BROTHER, ^ ^ 

24 Boekman itreeL <.\ ^ ' 



PREFACE. 



Ijc prr^senliog to the Christian pnWic the "CvcLOPEnrA of MiesioNB," it becomes 

, ftr»t of all, to ackjiowledgi? the good Provident of God, which has enabled me 

I aocooiplieb a work ofsach difficulty and ma^itnUc, in so short a time. Ttic en 

llarprtse was entered npon with mnch niisgiviiiff ; but every obstacle ha« been rcmorcd 

IMt <>f tbe way, as ihc work has proceeded. Tlic preparation of the niaiiuhcript was 

leoauDenoed on tlic 12tb of Jannary laj^t. On the 10th of Jane, we commcuccd the 

of stereotyping:, having about half the manaseript in hand. The work of 

jliA« pro;^*&>ed as rapidly as it could conveniently be done j and wo huvy not 

\ drlaTCu ft singk' day for waut of copy, though the manuscripts have often bt*en 

rw! I>y mail Hie very day they were wanted. The whole will be completed a lit- 

fono the first of Novtiuher, luakiut^ more than four mouths occupied in printing. 

["lift be wked how such a work cordd be tlioroughly prepared, in. so short a time, we 

by dirinon of lahar . Tlitre hare becu more tlmn twenty different persona 

. ujK>n it. It lia.<i been a work of immense labor ; but the labor lias been so 

V4l th&t cAcli one las tmd ample time to do hifl part thoronp^hly. At the same 

a grneral unity of plan and design lios been secured, an outline of every article 

_ itcn furnished by Ibe Editor. And here I would acknowledge my great obli- 

LMtkiai to lho«e gentlcojen who have kindly consented, at my reciucftt, to aid mc in 

Ipii Inportiuit andiTtnking ; o^-, without such aid, It would linve required years to ac- 

VMB it. Their naiiies appear at ilie close of their several articles, and will afford 

Bt gnarauty of thoroiighntjss and accuracy. The articles whirh appear with- 

•bI a luuM hare Ijcen itrepared, either in whole or in part, by the Editor. Tlie por- 

tloM rdatinfi; lo the uii<«ion() of the American Baptitit iTnion Lave been furni.shed hy 

' aathor of the valuable aud intcreatiug " Ilislory of American Baptist Missions f 

[aid tliove of the Methodists in this country aud England, by a respected clergyman 

"*'*•"' dcaominaltou. who£c name was mculioued lo me by the Secretary of the Sleth- 

'^OD»Tj Society, as the most suitable person to undertake it. Tlie missions 

i'rcsbyli^an Board, have been chiefly taken (by permis«ion,) from Rev. J. C. 

'« " Manual of Mi««ions," The article on the church of Rome and its missions 

I prepdirrd by a Roman Catholic layman. 

We bBveoimrd to ranke the cuLire work truly catholic in its character and Rpirll, 

:' ' I' of promiucncu to which it is properly entitled by 

without respect lo the denomination of ChriMinns 

,111,' can present a brighter or more cheering view of the 

Ml dcnoniinationtt of evangelical rroteetnuts, than their 

'und, nheri) ihey ore found adopting the same genera] 

.1 nirittt, and rtciliving the seal of the same Holy Si)irit 

liul. rtlille I hold myself rctituiiKihlo for the generol chtiroclcr of 

not be uudtratood as adopiingevery opinion ciprcssed, or of vouch- 

li^g fur erery ftlatonvot made by my re«pected contributors. 



rAti&J unit 
|«|»rrait«>D9 oa u.. 
itM, prpseii'i 

ri tJ. 



IV 



PBEFACB. 



TIic gentlemen whohuvc furnished these contributions have been indaced to end 
take the work, from the interest wbleh they have felt in the cause of missions, and 
their belief of the importance of this enterprise to thut cause. They have fulfilled 
tbctir en^np^einent8 futthfiilly, and with gretit prouiptncss ; and I have the Batisfactioo 
of believing; that the work is mnch more valaable t!mu it would have been, if I had 
dono the whole myself. They will accept this public expresaion of my tlianks, 08 well 
ns of my high appreciation of their labors. I would also, in this place, return my sin- 
cere thanks to the officers of the several MissioDory Societies, for the kind encourage- 
ment which they liave given me, in the prosecaliou of tliiti work, and especially to tlie 
American Board, who have granted me the free use of their extensive and valuable 
library, and also encourng;ed the enterprise by subscribing for 100 copies of the work. 
I retnrn thanks, also, to those nnmerons friends of the cause, who have given me kiud 
words of cncau moment, and subscribed for copies of the work. 

In the preparntion of the matter and in the suixTvisiou of the press, no pains have 
been spjired lo secure accuracy ; and yet it would be slranjfo, if, in so large a work, 
consisting, to so ^rcat an extent, of statements of facta and nnn>bers, no mibtnkes 
should occur. Yet, if an error should be occasionally discovered, we think it sliouM 
not, in the mind of a reasonable man, impair confidence in the general accuracy of the 
whole. ~ 

This volume brin^ down the history and results of missionary operatious to tl 
present time. It contains a large amonnt of valnahle information that is general^ 
inacc(?.ssihle, and only lo Im* found in a few missionary libraries, spread out in serlfl 
of volumes, extending through a period of half a century. 

It is here presented in a convenient form for rending, consultation, and refercnc 
It is, however, not only a book to be eouiulted for reference, but a book to be readi 
many of the sketches and narrat-ivcs being of thrilling interest. No future revisic 
or nltrrntiou is contemplated in this volume, beyond the correction of errors. It 
always be ns valuable a rword of the past, as it is now. But if anything further sha 
be called for, to bring up the history of nii^sious and the progress of Christianity, 
any future time, other volumes may be added, either periodically or occasionally, 
cording to the demand. 

It will readily he perceived that the copyright of this work has cost me no incfl 
siderable outlay of means, in addition to my own time and labor ; as such contribulio 
06 appear in i\m book could not be expected without compensation. It will rcquirej 
sale of ten tliousand copies to remunerate rao. It has, hkewise, been a very cxpena 
work to my publisher ; and the price of the book has been put so low, in order to i 
cure a general circulation, that his profits will be very small, and it will require a lar 
sale to repay what he has already advanced. But, knowing the value of the boo 
and having couGdence in the disposition of the Christian public to patronize a gc 
object, we have ventured upon the undertaking, with the confident expectation thd 
we should be Rustained by a remunerative sale. '_ 

Eorjilnnatums, ^c. — The sketches of missionary operatiODS are chiefly given under 
gtograpkiad /taids. For example, full accounts of the missions of the several societies 
in India are giveu under the head of Hindostax. Other geographical articles rclal 
lo Christian lands, as £urope, Unifed Statfs, &c., showing the ruligioui? condition &u 
resources of the Christian world. There are several orticlci, however, which dcrii 
tlieir title from tlie people, as Armmians, J\'(sl(/ruins, &c. There are likcv^ise a nun 
ber of articles relating to the work of affiliated societies, which have an indirect bca 
ing upon missionary operations. All the missions to the ancient people of God, 
comprised under the bead of Jews. The notices of missionary etatiotis are desigue 
chlctly as a guide lo fiudiug them on the maps. But, when any interPBtiug inforn 
tiou resj)c<.'ling the places occupied ns missionary stations, not contained in the a4 
counts of the misfiion, has come to hand, it ha.s becu inserted under the head of t~ 
slatiou. From the very nature of the case, however, these notices are incomplete, 
new stations are being occupied continnnlly ; and concerning many old ones, it hi 
been impossible to Uud uuy information tliat would be of any value even in finding the 
on the maps. There arc also many articles on miscellaneous topics, conocctcd with i 



PREFACE. 



AstsTj flprmtions, Ihc condition of the heathen, &c, which cootaia valaable informa- 

tinB. Tho MtsioDary Societies are treated under their several titles, giving on account 

of their origin, the namber of their misaions, missionaries, conrcrts, amoont of receipts, 

Ac Thiu, a ^eater amount of valuable inforuation, in regard to the movements of 

tbagf. is oomprc«fied within the.se pages than won ever before comprised lu a siugiu 

fdOM, or any one series of volumes. And the matter here given to the public is not 

'. -■ -— r<Tiiipilation, bnt almost the whole of it has been written anew expressly for 

K. As the materials have *>ccn collected from a very wide range, and to a 

' from original sources, I have not thought it necessary always to give 

except ivhero the reference might be of advant^tge, iu a more full cxa- 

Luia',") ui ttie subject. 

jU'pi — ThH various maps, which aocompauy the work, will be found to cover newly 

li ' iuied by foreign missions. They will generally be placed near the 

d' lonnr)' oiM-rntions iu the couulries which they describe. Kut, some- 

tir rilied will be fouud on a map placed at a distance from the mutter 

». For instance, Pome of the f^tatioiis of the Baptlat Mission in As- 

wu will U: fuuud on the niiip of Beugul. The folluwiug is a li^t of the mnps. aiTuug(!<~ ' 

tfrmticp to location: On Apkica, 7, via.: Africa Suu.th of the JCquutor, Sllu{^'^ 

'-1, W<e9t€rn Africa, JUberiti; Cupi Pahna^fShtrhro ^ MciuiiYvruba ; Ou Ixnu, 

. f^ifiithrm IndtA and Cryl&n, WfsUm India, Jitngal, and JKurthrrn Indi(i ; 

i ■'•■.. 4-f. 1 ; C^'fitf, 1 jFttAfAttW, 1 ; Sandwich IsUituh, 1 ; Other Pacify 

I Zealand and Van Dieman's Land, 1 ; AitsiraOa, 1 ; West jKnrKS, 4," 

( ond AtUigna, Jamaica, St. Thomas and St. Croix aiid Surinam; 7n- 

,'. 1 ; Labrador avd Greenland, 1 ; Wksters Asia, 6, viz. : Armenia, 

ittity, Ntstarians^ Ccmsiautinopft and vidnitu, Syria, Thusolonica ; male* 

••.i. "Hicso maps are some of them original, having f)een drawn by mia- 

who have lieen on the ground. Others have been compiled with much lalxir, 

f contain nil the £tntioua ; but where any arc Inckiug, they can oasily 

m a description, and with the aid of the scale of miles. 

' Pronunciation of Proper JVamts. — T have been requested to givo 
■^ and pronmiciation of the foreign names, which occur iu Mission- 
»r .■:u\ ut first I drjdgned to do so ; but 1 soon fonnd that it was uttcr- 

Jj The diversity of spelling is so great that it would be impossible to 

nSkjM uy rult; ; and us the missionaries, iu spidling, use the Roman letters to exprcsfi J 
M Marly u poa^ible the Bound of a foreign tongue, it would be presumptuous in rae^ 
10 attaint, by auy other combination of the same letters, to express more perfectly 
mudiKhat I bare never heard. What leads to the diversity of spelling is, the at- 
kSfiCi 4if different fiersouH to oxpres<i, by diiferent combinations of the Roman charac- 
tai% minds that have no corresponding utterances in our language. The moot that I 
Ml d»r il to give a few simple mle.":, and endeavor to be consistent with myself iit 
^ttiag the mme words alike in different parts of the book ; iu which last particular, 
kawivu, I am not conSdcnt that, in every instance, I have succeeded. The fnllowing 
9Mcai have Ittvn adopted by missiouuries iu different parts of the world : 

l OnmwL — ^The following avstem of speUing and pronouncing Cliiacse names is that 
Htjftei by WUliamf. iu his •* Middle Kingdom." 

Pmeen cf the Letters. 

11. ouMow ; 



L « M ia far ,- 

X imkn Anerioaii ; 

X tmia awn; 

ttfMlafiUy.- 

1 1 aa la pm ; 

& I fl« (tt tnac^nv ; 



1 t.Jii'i>rt»tu«»5 »" »• 

Akougb tba fiflbowt ii slight. 



ia »rn«. The 
»lcnacr Uuui at, 



12. «u, u in coUoquial phnue mj/'em. 

13. u as in yard ; e. g. hia, kiang, prose, A^a, 

lA. tail a mode liy joiniug Nos. 5 and 11. 

15. » us in Sttrra (.Sftanish.) 

16. IU OS in pew, purtj Jcngthericd to a diph- 

thong. 

17. iiu is uiade by addiug a ibort « to thf 
preceding. 

IB. ui 01 in £ouifMfta. 



n 



PREPACa 



The oooeooants are gflDerall; soondod fu tbej are ta the Ea^lbh alphabet. 

II, Uawahak. — The miseiooaries at the Saodwich I^laudsi iu rcduc'iui; the laDjcnoge to Vr 
iog, have ottoptcd a portion of the Bomao alphabet, giving the vowels the followiug sounda; 

a as in father ; i as in taadiinc, or as long « ; 'M 

aB in tkev, or aft long a in pale ; o as in no ; « as oo in too, I 

The fiillaccent w usuully on the last vowel bnt one, and a Becondary accent two nyll^ 
ore tlie full. In the diiJitlionKal corabinationa.fw, /u, tto. and au, each letter rctainK its ori, 
'~nal Bound, bnt when spoken in quick eucceagion, combine to'^tlier in adiphthoim:. ConMoaa 
are not doubled, and never end a word or syllable — limekam'f Uuiory of Ou Siiiulwidt Utm^ 

III. AjLXMXiAjr AHD TvBsisKU— 1. Soundj of Towk 
a as in far, v as iu huU 
e as a in ft^. oo as in motm, 
I OS in matJiint. ai us i in iui/. 
Bs in riof«. ni as the French eu in jievL. 

u as in unit. 
NoTR. — ^^oinc of the above ar« bat approximations to thorovrcl sounds designed to be 4 
prcBsed. E and o, for ejcample, are not quite so broad and open as the corresponding Eagti 
loanda. At is strictly a diphthong, the elements of which are indeed Uiesamcasour ^ng t, t 
not BO closely anitcd in pronanciatioa. V in Armenian names is best represented as abov 
but iu Turkish words it corrcspunds more exa^jtlv with the French u oa in une. Tho bob 
rcprceented by u is more eiacuy that of the French < iu U, me, &G. ^ 

2. Sowtds (f Conwnttnts, ■ 

g always bard, as in good, cA ae In chain, m 

s OS in sun. sA as in pleasure, 

Gh and kii are guttural sounds, having no corresponding sounds or characters in Eit^ 

or Frencli. Tlie former resembles Uie mo«lern (iret^k y, and the latter ;j, but both are deepi 

C to bo uaod only in couucctlon witb k, except iu words tliat have become anglicized wi 

c io them. 

/, sh, and in Keoeral the coosononts not mentioDcd aboT«, to be soonded as in Gogllt 
The combination tfi docs not occur ; when, tliorefore, the letters occur together, they are to 
regarded as belonging to different f^Uables, and each to have its own proper sound ; e. g. Fcft 
pronounced Fti-lii. 

3. Accent. — The accent, which is slight, is uniformly on the lost svUablo in Armeai 
proper namee, and nearly so in Turkish. All the other syllables should ue uttered fully, ai 
with tqnal stress of voice. 

4. Atxgiidzcd Proper Namet. — Names wliich have 1)ccn long familiar to Knglish ai 
American reud>-rs, ami have thus become anulicized, not to be cbuiged Kudi arc Conston 
nople, Bmyrua, Sciu, Mitylone, Nicomedia, Puiladclphia, &.c. In Coct, being for the inos^i 
^reck names, they do not strictly fall within the rules above given. J^MI 

Moni/Uy Concert. — One object which I have hod in view, in tho prepara-hon 
this work, lias been to provide the means of adding int-crest and value to the Month 
I Concert. The practice of appointinj? committees to report at this meeting on the v 
f rtons portions of the Missionary l-Mnld, is extending in the chnrcheji ; and where it 
well carried ont, it adds greatly to the interest of the meeting, and by ei)g;ngin^ tl 
leading minds in the chttreh in the per^onal examination of the Qeld, it tends groai 
[to extend and deepen the misAionory spirit. But, whenever this is attempted, tho 
engageil in it are met with the insurmountable difficidly of not having access to ti 
materials for giving a complete view of scarcely a single mission in the world. Tfc 
book will obviate this difficulty, not only by giving a complete, thoagh brief hiistorlc 
sketch of almost every existing mission in the world ; bnt it will generally point o> 
where further information can bo obtained. It also provides the means of examinil 
tho localities ou the maps. And from these maps, rough ones may be constnicled f 
tiao in the lecture room, (in addition to Bidwell's large maps J with very little labor, ai 
DO other expense than a few sheets of cartridge paper, some India ink, and a little ce 
mine. And besides what is strictly missionary, the work contains a great amount 
information reB\>octiQg the refiources of Chri»;tendom and the religious movcmeuta 
the age, which may be made the basis of effective remark. j 

With these cxpUinatioDS of the anther's views, this work, which has co«t hinn 

great an amount of thought, labor, and anxiety, is commended to the kind conRidei 

tion of the Christian ]mblie, ui the bumble yet coolideat hope that it may be uscfu' 

Bbookltk, Kov. 1, 1H54. 



CYCLOPEDIA or MISSIONS. 



A8HK0KUTA : The capitiU town of the 
Twil»*. in yS'fvl Afrit-ii, and the principul 
Wuin of the Charch Missionnjy S*K:iely iu 
Ihlc-nntJT. It U situated 100 miles ialaad 
VstUi pf Bailagry in tLe Bijjht of Benin, and 
■bTotcs 30.1.100 iuhftbitonta, (3ot> Yoruha. 

;•?: A tr1b« of Indians In 

aiiiong whom the American 

:i native mimionary. 

A r A rich, rnnnTituinotu dts- 

': I'twn to the aucicalB 

»^ ' 1 on the northwest by 

V ' I'i-d>!(.*a, on tho 

t i.i-(. and on the 

*. 1. Itscxtcntis 

^ . ;;iphical miles. 

T ;rum tlie nhores 

ila into lofty prra^ 

I •.'Kic heads are croirn- 

: snows. Failure lands 

iiiU) of tret*, ihtmgh well 

uwlTua before the eye in 

i;;h a great part of the 

-u! poKtoni) of which 

Thvy arc richly 

1- Thccountry ia 

lujiji iU innuth, the 

Ilore, ill Uilitudf 

'■!■ fr,iiii \liy>t.siiiia, 

ni Icing- 

■ ^sith thU 

ia*^ 37 N. ; and 

iho Xorth, ia Am- 

! by its Bpiml 

3r.*K..attho 

■pi;\te9 the 

;Ue cnpi- 

1 iiniwr- 

"iJI}t lUlO 
ii>- 

I (Or 

■ 1 be 
'. ■dvaiaio*. TLc year divided itaelf 



tL 

M all 
AkU wiifi II 

ana r. 
, flpm iii I... . 
I viraec li«wl-«* 

KWt&a, ia hi.tiuide 
au 



I wiry larwrif i>' 



into two seasons — the one of storms and inui^^ 
dalions, und the other of drought and hiirniii_ 
beat, Rvery trw? and (!Vfi7 bush in Abyasioii 
not only retiuos its verdure, but bears btoaeoau 
rind fruit at all tteofioas of the year. This re- 
gion is rieh in iron and gold, the latttr being 
found in Uio aanda on tfin stores and in thc^ 
l»cd of the Btrenma The entrance to Aby 
sinia for Europeans is the town of Maasowalk^ 
built on an island in the Red ^ea. The plan! 
of greatest note, at present, is yf/Zorw. whicj&l 
contains about 6000 nennle. Till AbyBsiuuil 
was oTerron by tlie UalloA, Amhura woa thv] 
rcdidoneo of the eoveruign, who now makQ 
Oondarhi«eapital. 

Iiihahitanh. — 1'lie popniation ia ntfmatodi 
at 4,000.000 to 5,(100,000. The color of thQJ 
Abyssininns rarity from black to tr&Dapa^j 
ent copper cnlnr. Thiy are well made ani] 
aclire, ami dUlin(fuisliM from the negro hf^ 
the rejpilarily of thtir ftatorw. They arc 
not ilelicieut in tliH capacities of the un- 
dfTstAmlinp or the alft-ctions of Uic heart 
In tho gonthwcstom part of the country they 
are better inform&l and more civiHwvl than tlie 
|H'(tple of TipTc, who are rude and uncultivated, 
posionatv iiii<] vioK'nt. Tht» AbyBainians, in 
iheir h\)i\i mouTiliiin-honie, hare been able to 
maintain thoir liberty and independence, norer 
having bcrn subdned by the Turks ; but tho 
(Julian have recently made inroadn upon their 
t«'rrit«>ry. The country ia coverwl with cities 
ood villagfs, ond iwlalod habitations arc here 
and there %<-a clinging to the sides of the mono- 
tains. The housoa are mostly composed of 
mud, ctraw, and ni.>)hcii. Caves arc also aomfr 
timed iiKCd for htnnnn hatiilatiooa. The dwell* 
ing« of Ihi" mnpcrtor families conai«t of a nnro- 
ber of rooms, arranged around on open conrt. 
The clothing of the poorer clatvefl is very sinh 
pie, coiisb^ting of akiofl or pieces of cotton. 
Their ftujil ia principally milk and bread, btiU 
ter, honey, ba-f, mutton, and liiwlfl. 

In Abyssinia the women ore charged with the 
moat oppre»vc and irkj»>me labon, both in the 
house and ia the field. Tbpy oaltivale the 
|p^>und, gather the hardest, grind tho com. and 



8 



ABTSSmiA. 



procaro ptor'aUms and intlcr for the fomtlicfi, 
and that often with their iufnuta in their arms. 
Hat the education of the children !» Wttcr ut- 
tendHl lo tban in most easti^rn coantrics, aud 
thcjr are distinguished for filial afli-ctiou ami 
obt!diencc, and reepoct for the aptid. The 
cominori people g:eDeraIIy marry, the boos at 
18, and the daogbtciB at 14. Wheu arrivwl at 
DD atlvRDccd age most of them become monks 
or nunft. Ifijick, thejr deliver over their pro- 
perty lo their children, wbo support them till 
their deeitl). with much Bliol piety. About 
hair the yoang people enter into seniee at 15 
or 16, mostly for the remainder of their livra. 
The ser^'anU are kindly treated. The t^ris- 
tiAos do not sell their slaves ; but sometimes 
give them away, 

TMnffwigf: — Tlie ancient language of Ethio- 
pia, callcMl the Gkeez, was, down to the 11th 
centaiy. spoken throughout Kthiopta ; and all 
the ancient records arc in this language ; but 
it luu gcnpfiJly falk-n into disnsp, and tlie pre- 
sent spoken language is the AmAaric, 

Government, — The old AbyminiaD, or Ethio- 
pic empire, is now broken into fni^ents.each 
oooittiluting a petty kingdom, the gorernments 
of whieh are, so far as nur information ex- 
tends, arbitrary and despotic. 

Rtligiun. — The fragments of the old empire 
still profess Ohristianity, though botli Mohain- 
nicdaoB and Pagans have brokeu in and oettk^I 
among thuci. Among thesci the Gallas sro 
the most n'jnarkable. About the year 1600 
they iwured into t}je country in mnltitudes, and 
Beizeti many of it^ fairest portions ; and they 
have kept up a pei-petual and hani£sing wor- 
fart! ; but many or their tribes have l>een made 
tributary lo the modern kingdom of Shoo, and 
not a fen* of them have been raluccd to slavery. 

Tlie best writers consider the conversion 
of the Ab^iuian» lo Christianity to have 
taken place aboot the year 330, whpn Atha- 
naaUis was BiJinp of Alnxandria. Moropius, 
a gentleman of lyre, a Greek aud a Ciins- 
tian, being cast away on the rtniks of Aby*- 
ninia, woji slain by the barbarous natives. 
Two young men, Frunientins and Edcsiu^ Iiis 
companion?, ou whom he had bestowed a libe- 
ra! education, bring carried to the king, he, on 
account of their diligence and industry, gave 
them their liberty. They afterwords rose into 
favor with the court, and were appointixl to 
important onicc«, that of Kramenliiw being the 
chiu-g(? of the young prince's education. And 
besides instructing him In the learning of the 
timc3. he inspired him with a lov*^ and venera- 
tion for tlifl Christian nligion. After thr kinpr'a 
dciitb, Pnimrtntiii.-f, thinking ithUdaly to take 
advantage of the position in which Providence 
hod placed him. to i>r'_'!uiL>itt> \\w faith uniong 
Ihfl Ah}>^ -'ion iLH Bi>>ltop 

of AM ' ' ' ''hop of Atev 

andr -•tii- > Exent nainber 

at . .I.vr clergy, and 

b cr Mutc lla'ir cunveraioni 



the AbysinioDB haTc received their Patri 
from Alexandria, and their creed haa al 
been the same aa that of the Coptii. (See Ci 

The first discovery of the existence of 
churcli appears to have been made by mi 
adventurers sent oat by John II.. king of Pi 
tngal. The king was bo much interested in 
account which they gave of these Christii 
that he fient out Pedro Cavilbam, to 
the state of the people, who entered Ab; 
in 1490. After this, several cmboasiGS ^ 
between the two coarta, and at length a sort 
mlliaoco woa entered into bctweeo the 
connlries, which excited the jealousy of „ 
Mohammedan neighbors, and brought U] 
Abysginta a minous and destructive wnr, 
ba ^ba, the ambassador sent by Abyssima, 
1527, having pnbliahed his creo), was, at 
instance of Bermndas, thrown into prison 
heresy. The emperor of Abyesinia, flodii 
himself engaged in a war, in cooseqoCDoe 
his alliauce with Portugal, sent BennndaBi- 
Portngnese then in Abyasinia, to Rome 
Lisbtm for succore. But l>efore Bcrmi 
started on his erabossy, the Abumi or Pal 
arch of Abyssinia, was ordered to 
him bishop, and nominate him his sni 
Bermudas first went to Rome, and wiw 
sccratcd Patriarch of Ethiopia by the Po; 
and recommended to the king of Portugal 
solicit succors for Ethiopia. In the me«o ti 
tlie cmncror died, and his son Clnudios f " 
someutivanlngt'S over the Muhammedana 
anj? Porttigncse arrived, but was 
driven to the monntains. Bermndas, 
return, succeeded in joining the young 
with a few Portuguese; and in an encutm' 
the Mohammedan chief lost his life, nnd CI; 
dins was pnt in quiet poB&CEsion of his throi 
The Portuguese now demanded that the 
pcror should embrace the Catholic faith, 
give np one-third of his kingdom to the 
tugncsc. And this demand was accompani 
with a threat of excommnnication, and ' 
hwa of tlie service of the Portngnese. 
pcror repliftl to Bermudus, declaring 
as Patriarch, had no authority in the 
and that the. Pope himself was a heretic 
also onlered Bermudas to be seized and 
in prison, and sent immediately to AIcxoui 
for an Abuna for the Abyssinian church. 

Soon after thu, Ignatius T/«yola sent a Pi 
triarch, two bishops, and ten Jcsnits to con 
Abyssinia to Rome. Claudius was by 
means pleased with tliis new arrival. Orii 
the bishop, w>on after his arrival, hanghtilydi 
manded his submusfion to Rome, wbich dcina 
was promptly rewsled. Yet, Oviedo pf^Tsevwe^^rfj 
growing more insolent in his demsmU TUHi 
matter was submitted to a Conncil. in whi 
the emperor tutered into a pnbUc debate wi ^ 
the Jesuit, and afterwards wrote an an^'er '^^^ 
(V tract published by the bishop. Bt'iug foil^e^ 
in this wav, Ovnedo rcsorlw] to the terrors a£, 
excommunication, and meanwhile acot a 




ABYSSINIA- 



mA to (jOtt Cfir some Partugueu tahlum to atd 
M Ik cmec/mon of t/u Ahyaininns. Bui tliis 
viie klqg wfts khid alW bIuId in battle, Ui 
MMSnf hb domioiuDS from Oh? invimiou of 
IbMfl famaah m king of Adcl. Ovipilo htill 
BBadUmtB with the Bncccsora or Claudiui^, 
Mvitk nn hcthrr mccoH; iu the mhUl vi 
yIM^ br » ■« rfi-nlli'>t liT tliu Pope, and sent 
iftjMii It usHuring tlic 

r^tki:. "f r>oooreoo 

ful PortnpneM* kaltiitT^ hv ouiild at any time 
faAnr ilw emptr* or Ab^itua to the obcdicnc^j 
tf Ae PootificatA," ami tntitnutiui; that it n'os 
ftlifiaa«booiu^ng with (he fine«t gold. 

Hi DoivitlMitftMin^ the faitorc of these at- 
taflttlbe JcnEte sent another missloQ to 
AbjHok hi 158B, one of whom was Peter 
Pq^vfaoArriTcd in Ethiopia in 1603. Fiod- 
llf & Bw4;d, ft weak prince, on tlie tlirone, 
Hm Jmiti ncoccded m inrratlaling them- 
attm jalii In &vor, indacing Mm not odIv to 
Ollntt the Booniah futh, but to nrdcT alt hb 
■IJKli to follow his cxomnle. in ihit^ the 
twfam wu «tron$(ly opptma b^ the Patriarch, 
1ifeao^»{aw. viceroy M (be Tigre, and a dio- 
jwitytf the wvpl<_-. Tet, id spite of all en- 
tmit,aaA, oner i>etng wanted of the niin he 
vwniqrHig opoa hi.* eoutitr^', he pcmlstod iu 
•MiK to ihe policy Kt on foot \tv the Jcsa- 
te tW renlt was, a rivil wcir, which ra^Hl 
vilk fnmi li^enoe for u uamlier of years ; the 
l^ov, (attamt time being victorious, and 
naiv^ Bomisfa ptoQ of bnmin^ heretics, 
■■M bte tknainiocta in blood, his subjects 
^Uta fn all quarteni, and in one instance, 
*lilnrl nraaiitn cotaiog againat him from the 
^HMW At Icoglh, ho wu so far bmoirhl 
t> !■ iMtw a as tii proclaim mn act of lolem- 
^ : aad on hia ilealh, his son re-established 
Wrefi^ioQ trf hit libllun, aotl dnivo from hit* 
' '' ■lkflaefmcrabktJ'«8uit«, whofor nii>rc 
yHn had been sowing db^curd, and 
_ _^ Bp a weak prince to massncrt' hi.'? p'»- 
it^uU tnra to call iu thc' uid of Mnljam- 
%4hs to butcher hit own Chriiiliun mil>j<_-i-t4 '. 
Ja th« b(i{ioQing of th^ It^th century, n 
frnn^ J«aB»t, Brwtiik'nl, attempted n miwiou 
^ Ahjmtela. ocoompaiiicd by a phyaiciaa 
'^ *. PiMOCi ; but the fnrmcr died on the 
Tto latter riRited Ab)-wintii, and after- 
fttittdtt*] a ho^ik (-nnt:uni[i« valuable 
iaa resi " 'i countrr 

tibw. nt XJ. 

faarC n-.-,'.iiftric^ to 

b<- thr emperor ; 

__ sum oa LL- .-.;■.. :..onlu got wind 

^ii 1hr7 raiaed a n-bcllion, dethroned the 
■iV*rar. oad placnl a youthful prince on the 
Mmhw wbi cofidemnvil the roimiDiuiriis to be 
MvaL A r qyfaK u wu uOcred them, if they 
«^ ab^ th» Galth of Rome They recoiled 
v4bimir at Um eni^gCfU'on, and the pun'uih- 
««■ oooamulad to exile, fhit llie nionks 
Iha execatioaof the originul stmteiir*-, 
tti«Bparor yicUod. This crcot, though 



by no means to be palliated, shows how intcOM 
was the hatred excited by the intngufca of the 1 
Jreaita, agflinst Rome; and how the ijor^ecut- 
ing spirit, which they iutrodnoed, recoiled upoo 
tht.'ir own heads. 

Thus it oppcnw that the Abyiahiians hnra 
preserved their undent faith, both against thlH 
MWunl of Mohammed and the more jusidiousf 
and dangcToufi arts of the Ji-suits. Y'-t, whe-] 
ther Ihciv remains any vitality or spiritual lifo 
among iliini, may be questioned. The Edin- 
burgh EDeyelojMHlia says : •• The religion of 
Ab^inia coosiata of a motley collection of 
trudilion.f. tenets, and ceremonies, derived from 
the Jewwh and Christian ehurch(^. In their 
form of worfihip, J oduism seems to predominrtta. '. 
The rites of Hoeca are strictly observed. Both 
aexGS are circmncised ; meat^ prohibited by the 
Jews are ftbetoined from ; brothers morry the 
wivia of Uieir deceased brothers; women ob- 
serve the legal purifications ; Saturday and- 
Sanday arc held sacred as sabbaths ; and por- 
SODH under Jewish diitqualiflcatiomi are pro- 
hibited from entering the church. They hare 
fcalivalu and taints innumerable. Oiic day is 
coudi'cmted to Balaum's ass ; another to Pon* 
tiua Pilate and \m wife, becanao he woalicd his 
hands before nronouucing scntencG on Chri/it, 
and because she warned him to have nothing 
to do with that just person. The Epiphony is 
celebrated with j>eculiiir fistivity, and tluT hiire 
four scimona of lent, in which many aoatain 
even fn:im fi-'^h. They so abound iri lep<*ntU and 
mimcles, iJiat the Jusuits were obliged to deny 
thai miracle:) ore a stiflicient proof of the trutu 
of a religion. Imagrs they abhor, but have 
their churches hung round with pietiiri'S, to 
which they jHiy the nighotil vencrutioii. Their 
canon of 'Scripture is the same as ours. Upon 
the wbole, it may \tc said that the religion of 
the AbysMJnians is a inoii.'^trou.s heap of super- 
atitions, giving ri?c to deputes and ixta- cut ions, 
without prwhicing any salutary ffl<.'i:t upon the 
'Ji.'.rtiiut.'nld nud conduct of ltd professora." 

Bis«hnn Oobat, however, siys that, " Al- 
Uiongh the ('hristian religion in Abj'Asitila hot 
entirely dogenemted into soperatition, yet there 
is Btill sufficient of it to attach ua to the Chri»- 
tiaru of tliat count rj', and to enga.y:e tw to con- 
nider them as brethren." He thinks their m 
ligion exerts some good eflbcts upon tliem : yd 
he sn)T, "Tlicy have no idea or the ^'^Uulary 
doctpioea of L'hri-flianity ; such as jusrlfirr.tiiin 
by fuith ; the work of grace ; and tht sanctify- 
ing inHucnces of the ilolv Spirit;" and that 
" their morals are exoeodinffly corrupt. But, 
in the mulit of the chaos of corruntiDu, there 
arc some tnices of goodness, whicli, like pro* 
cious ston&t, have remained dispersed among 
the moral ruins of Abywinin," 

Mohammfiia}\:~T\}e Mohummednns appear . 
to have hitcly multiplied in Abyrstinia. Theyl 
live on friendly terms with the i" 
They am engogrd principally in : 
haTB the exclusive trufGc in iavc*, tm oW-'i 



tUnft never cugagiug in it Thrvorc ignorant 
of thfir own (TW'd, and pay little attculioii lo 
Uiv riU-g vt W.nmUm ; and id mora!;*, tbey aro, 
in every rutffK'ct, iuferior ii> tho CUrwliauit. 

FataMttf or Jeirs.~T\iC Faitaiuu live entirely 
aapuntc from tlie CbruiUaDs, and arc mucli 
more igmirftnt. Tiicy are diiefly fouuil in the 
ncighburhurid of (tondar and Shclca. and to 
liie nwrthwi-st of the I^c Tsana. Tbey bavi- 
tlic 8aiUD fupei'^titioDs, a little modilica after 
the Jl-wisIi faabton. 

TJu Ciimaountey are ft people few in number, 
iiibabitinjf the oioaotains aboot Gondar, prin- 
r.ipally t-iujajcotl in ai^ricullure. Bi?hop GoUat 
rcffiirds tuciu as Deists. Tlicy, buwcvor, have 
pm-»t», and usecnible in private housee, where 
Uiey 'uL^'t^ <* repiLst, which Uicy call " Corbon,'' 
I'ummunion or Eiiuharijtt. 

TItc Zitliifilet are a migratory people, who 
aro Buid to Ix-lifvc in the existence of cue God, 
but tu huve nu other religion. 

HlfiSION. 

ChurJi }fiasiofjary Sociity. — The attention 
of ibifl Socifty has Ix-en, lor many years, di 
retted to this interesting country. In 1615, 
the Society^ nnsaioaorius ut Malta. learned that 
a native of Abvi»inia bod been engaged for 
gome vcanj at Oniro in translating the Scrip- 
turi*^ iiitu Amliurie, tlie priucliMiT vermicular 
AbvKiiinian lanjjriiage. This Amharic verslou 
of Inc entire Uiblc was purchased for the Brit- 
ish und Furri^ Bible Society in 1B20, hv 
llov. W. .lowctl. In 1826, Kov. Huniuel Go- 
bat and Rev. Christian Kuglcr, were sent to 
Ifigj'pt, with the view of entering od a mia^ion 
to Ali^itsiuiu ; und after various hindrances, 
they arrived at Massowali on the 2Sth of De- 
cember. 1829, whfre tliev were reeeivc<l in a 
friendly manner. 'I'Uey carried with them por- 
tions of tlie Amharic Scriptures, which had 
been printed br the British and Foreign Bible 
Society, and whirh the people gludly received. 
They obtained permisaiou to flx tbtir residenc-e 
at Adowah ; wliilc Mr. Gobat proceeded fur- 
ther intt) the interior, aiid reuiuined twuie time 
ut Oondwr, the capital, di»=tributiug the Scrip- 
tiirry luid convcniing with the people. But 
WOT breaking; out, und the whole countrj^ be- 
ing thrown into diiiturbance, he was detained 
at that place till OetiilK^r, It^.lO, when he joine<l 
Mr. Kuglcr ut Adowah, in thej)roviiic« of Ti- 
gr*. On the 29ll> of Dcccrabcr, Mr. Kuglcr was 
called to hid rc^l ; and hi^ peaceful death made 
ft strong impre^ion upon the nativus, who »iid 
they hnd never Rten a man die in gucb full confi- 
deoec of the .Saviour. Soon after tliia, the cluef 
Sebegdis. whn Imd shown himself very friendly 
to the mLtsion, and who refused to go oat to 
battle on t)i*.< ^iibt>ath, wan attacked and slain. 
After his death, each of the ehiofa contended 
for the rari£t<.TV. and the country was kept in 
u state of eivjf war. Mr. Gobat soon after left 
llio couutrj'. and arriv^Hl at Cairo. In 1833, 
be vieit«?d KngUwd, where hu publialicd Iuk 




Journal, containing a full account of big i«- 
pidcncc in Abyiiftioia; and several other ta'» 
ri'Miaries were preparing to return with him 
to tliat country. On the 20th of Ditoember, 
1834, Messrs. Uobat and Iseoberg arrived at 
Masowoh, in Abyacbia, where they were re- 
ceived by the governor, with much civility. In 
183C, Mr. GoWt was visited with a urotracted 
illDCBa, which obliged bim to witlmraw from 
hid labors. Rev. tf. n. Knox died at Cairo on 
hui way to Abyssinia ; and the ml'^ion was re- 
infurced by the arrival of Kev. C. H. Blnm- 
bonlt. Opposition began to nmnir^st itself, 
on tlie part of the cccIcHiastica, on learning that 
the missionaries rejected some of the rites of 
their church, and H-t up worship of their own 
but the governor refuiicd to listen to their 
plaints. 

In 1837, RcT. L. Krapf toined the missioi^i, 
at Adowali ; and in March of the following^' 
year, a Frenchman and an Italian priest ai^' 
rived at the same place, their olp^ect being to 
revive the Roman Catholic Mi&sion lu Anyi- 
sinio. The people baviiig had enough of Ro* 
mnui^ni, were aroused by Iht^ir ap)>eurance; 
and this contributed to raise tho clamor against 
the Protestant mission, so that the govcnior 
could no longer resist it, and they were obliged 
to leave the eonntry ; which they did with sor^ 
rowful hoart«, reaching Cairo on the 24th of 
June. But llie Papist.'* penetrated to Gondar. 
and were active in endeavoring to rc-estabLifdi 
their minion. Messrs. Iseoberg and Krapf, 
littving received an invitation from the king 
of ^boa to visit his country, determined to at- 
tempt an entrance into Abysinia by the war 
of Zeila, south of tlio straits of Babol Mandel. 
Sboa lies to the southward of Amhoro, the 
province where the mission was located. They 
left Sncx on this enterprise January 27, 1B39| 
and after encountering many difQcuftico, reach- 
ed Bhoa on tho 31st of May. and met with a 
favorable reception from tl»e king. Tbey re* 
maincd there, continually occupied in discus- 
sion und preaching, till Kovenibcr fith, whon 
Air. Ljcuberg returned to England. Mr. Krapf 
continued in Shoa, laboring among the Abya- 
sinian Christians, having seeureil the eonfldcnco 
of the king of Shoa to a verv n-'markabic div 
gree, so that the king assured him of his pro- 
tection as lung 03 he should live, Mr. Krapf 
had made an (expedition, with the King of 
.Shoa, among the Gatla tribes, by whom the 
slave trade was carried on to a considerulilo 
extent ; but it was considered a favorable 
time to labor for its abolition. The Commits 
li,*e were so impressed with the pri^vidi-ntial 
openings, not merely as regarded Abvssiuia it- 
self, but also the hcatbcn Galla trfbes, that 
they resolved to form the Abj-asinian into a 
new mission, to be culled the E(ut A/ncan 
Mission, and Messrs, Mtillheisen and Mfdlcr 
were aent out to reinforce it. As this mission 
will, hereafter, extend beyond the bounds of 
Abyaainia, it will be treated under the heatl of 



AFRICA. 



n 



iMattn-L' rfi oDf; /'«nO(/- 

Wtk^i •'■act I/; A/ncem 

A7A1: A fftutioR of the Loodon 

]fiateofer> ,T...-i..., '- -^..-'^ ^ - 

AFBICA; 'rt 
, fitf mbShuI*- i" --■ ... ^ t ■■' 

l%lnn^ of ^' li ia it-i t)tu>c. 

I •ifllm,'' »«j?' ""■ !. .fir.t rtof. (;uiyi»t,"U 
rt Hftilmr in iU fnnn nf all the cnnti- 
•Mlt. lu mtt». nmHv mnml, or eilip.^-oti1nl, 
■ MOi.ulti»l' ' ir. It [>ri)j(.'rl,s ittto 

nou n<> p^riir^Tiln. nor iiriy-i 

bti Ifttii lU bi>i". ^ «f thcj 

It i«nns to clow- '>-;t fvm'| 

I from wilhuqt. 'I 
!<f cu»<li ttt mil) I 
, fcr ft 9«rfiu3c of 8,7-",''*tti -.,...... .m,;-^., 

Africa hu 0DI7 one mile uf coust for 
tmSim t^aurfacG.'* 

AJHcft li ficmratptl from Kunipe ou thi> 
iMlfc bj the Alctliterruiuui 8m, uiul from 
Am «■ tbe oul. by tlic littunns uf tfiiCK, the 
InlSflktitol tbf' TntlifiTi Ocotin. On tlic si>utb 
if Ifar 6««k<' 'il nil the west, the 

Athattt. T!" il lino diviiK« it into 

Im parte afto h. ft cjctcnds 

Imii Cff h Sicily, in Int. 



1 the Kiii.'i 

1ftt<«t uuUtori- 

I »l " ' s^tiiure miles. 

, An.3t rua vurv malcriiillv fn'm tliat of 

Cratx£>t. u nlwjvi!. ll w larf^t'f tliaii 

liartj[*i' or Aiutralift, but t^niiultir than 

t ajid A inrrira. 

. ^ _ of IhMovery.-'^'^ ' .,....:...... 1 ,. 

tMiBJlU^ to m 'nay fti > 

pttt CDBtilMit We ll 

ma^im fUKvmtnK Uiu r- 

frtiru till' Arii^i=, ^^ ■ ■ _ 

[ aU? ftcrisj tiir L-rt-ul 

■ of lh<' lYuititU'rit, 

I ^ - <i:>gA) and 

hi on the 

Oa Uu* Ittiur luaii, Urv u-A ntily i-x- 

And la «■ exicnt far hcvoml miv t^uppti^^ 
^ '■ ■ ,v . " ' ■ 'iLcd colo- 

and at 
, : .......... 

iMttaftOf Li.. : 

[ ewemaravint" 
^r of Aiwna 
Flo Che WmtIA ' 
trmfleWii 

luiowtdii^' --'I lKt.K^:vu Ihv. 

■od Came: I' tliC intiiiniT<«| 

tawi of Um po-'plc Win>t)i. !'ii-i; ;. 



Ian*1 Fr^Mieb settlements in AfWai hc^n « 
trvoy of the coast, nod portiooa of 

Jn li~>?, a Rocioly wm formed in T^>n<loo 
for proinuling the t^xnlonttiuii uf luiitT AfriciL 
'■• ' r \iA iiii«ij)ii,'t^, iiniirirtjuit n'l<V'' c 

■'I the freoLTrtphy of Afrirjil. 

',,-." Vor^- 1 1 ' . ■■ and 'l,.M.i„..>M.i. 

In 1m31, tl .? merged in ihc 

Rnva! r:.M 

I>ur y years, more tins been 

dnn<'t'i n|i.«] witb thogcogTuphy 

uf Africa titiiii liuiiujf the whnlr> n(^ thi? 1700 
yptirM ninco Ftoh-niy. M nngn Park com- 
[iifliicc« tho pru of utiwasiug tmdeavore to 
rxplorc thfi Interior. He proceedcti In 1795 
from lli'^ rivor OamMa on the w-cst coast to 
lie JoIil»a, or Niiiji^r, (meed tills river as fur as 
.■Tillri,('5rr>lorwl the intervening countries, de(«>»_j 
mined tlic southern cnnllnfts of the Sihjir 
and returned in 1797. In 1805, ho embarke 
00 a second jotinu^y, with the inU-ntiou of 
lowinfT thiA river tn iut month. He 
Timbuktu, and reached Boqbcc, where ho vol 
killinj by the native*. 

Hornemuim, in 1799, peripfratod from Cairo 
to Mumik, ond trniii^uiitteil from that placu 
valtmVilc infonnatioii h-apeetiiig Iho eonntrioSj 
to the south, egpocially Bornu ; but no intckl 
ligeiieo vfos reeeived from htm. nnd it is sup- 
pOiWHl timt he Koon after jierislied. 

^' ]^2'2, Dcnham, Clapiierton, and Oiidney 

1 the Great Desert, and rt-arhcd the 

Lokc Tsad, Feb. 4, 1823. 'nc but- 

mnding eoiintry wm exploreil as fur as Si 

i.;itji in the we^t, nnil Mandara in the soutlh 

t,»udncy died in Bonin. Clapperton c.r 

tlie KawTira, from the ooaBt of Goiopa, 

arrived at Sakala, at which place hH also died. 

nia !?*TV!i:it, Richard lAniliT, returned to Kng- 

land ufti-T having- ejcplored a part of the q3^^ 

joining reeioriA. Major Lain^ moceeded 

r^-iirhiiig Fiiubiihtu from TrtpoH, hut w 

iiiird^Teil (in hifl return, in Uio ib-«frt. In 

. -^27 and 1 f?28, (,'uillic M?t out from the Rin 

Vtmraon the western coast, reiM-hedTimlmlctii, 

md returned from that place through tlio 

Great IXi-ert to Monwco. 

The termination of the Joliba, Kawam. or 
Xiger, remained in obscurity till 1H30, when 
it vroa ascertained by Lander and his brother, 
who Bureieeded in tracing the river from Yaonrlj 
down to ita mouth. 'J'he gn^at Niger ex 
dition, cooinrtlng of three large steam vcaaelaj 
was despatched by tht.' Brituib tJovcrnment i| 
1R45, nnder Captain Trotter ; but it proved 1 
: liture, and ranked in a melanitholy loss 
lit. Mr. Dviuoan, one of the survivtin* of th 
vixylition, made Mune additions to our 
_ .-ir'tii'" il knowledge, between the Kawami 

! y hU journey to Adiif»M>dioh, in 
. in a second journey, in atlrmpt- 
iiv^ to nuch Timbaktu. he met with an on* 
(imfly death 

A much greater Dumber of trarclcrs have 



IS 



AFRICA. 



explored the r^no of the Nile, niuoog the I 
niitsi (]Uliiigaislt(Hl of whom urc, Bruoc, Brown, 
nurcUbaidl, Cuilliuud, Htip)H_-Ll. Rus£cg(!r. 
Ik'kc, auil tiiu Eg^-pliiui t'XjjiditiouA up Uie 
Nib. 

Thoui^h lIiR Diikli Hittlnmi'iit lu HouUi 
Arrii'u nas fouoilctl n£ viLrlyas IC&O, tiul mucli 
iurvriiinlion tt'iictruiug tJii^ interior of llmt 
portion of tbc coniiDLmt was guioetl till tbo 
t'od of the iSth o-iiliirv, whwi u ecrira <tf iour- 
noyw wan i:-<>iiimi'ncud liy ir>purritmjm, luitf ful- 
lowitl op by Viiillfliit, Barrow, Trotlor, Somer- 
villc, Lichtenat'-'in, Unicheli. Campbell, Thom- 
Boo, Sriiitli, Ali'-XJituVr. und Iliirri.*. 

W'ithiii the laflt Bve or six years, a nimibt-r 
of ini]Hjrtrtnt tlliscoveriuii have been cittdc iu 
variooK vmcta of Jiitiur Africa, and the pnik'nt 
timw bids fiiir lo outstrip all prt'viuiia periods 
III iil'tiiijf llii^ vril Ihrtt. hiLs hitnerto Lmv(fUi[>t.-d 
Ccutrul Africa in imiienytrublo niy:^tiry. Ktiv. 
Messrs. Krupf &nd Urbiniuiri. misbioiitvries of 
tlic Church MisaoDtiry Soricty ill East Africa, 
have i;X])lort*il (he iiiturlnr, from that dirtclion, 
with untiring jwrsevwiuice, since 1847. (Kflt: 
Afrtca, Xjiiiteni.) At scrcral huudrul TniU$ 
from the coiu<t, Utuv have dit>covcrcd hi|i;li 
niouut-aiim, c'<ix*ured with ft^jtc'timl hduw. whidi 
is thu aiorc' int«>r(»;liDg fruiii the pchtiliun bciug 
80 near the c([uatur. 

Id f^outh Afrir^, aWi, raisaioDoricB have 
hvtm pimiwr:^ of (i:eog;r»]>hi('aI disajvery. (Sec 
Afriat, Siixtthcni,) 

A caravan of native Iradcrs recently made 
a journey across the whole contlDCut, from tlit- 
ootwt of Zaiizibur U* Ben;;uela, iu which they 
cruesed Nj-ubau, the ^rcut lake of South Africa. 

To the iiortli <if liie equator, tlie niUtlon to 
Lake Tsad, originated by Mr. James Richard 
Eon. promise to oxce<?<l iu iniporljiiice all pro- 
viuus expwlitions to Cenlnd Africa. He left 
Kn<rland in 1H49. for the purpose of coiicliiditij^ 
rommercial trea(i('i) with the chicfi»of N'orllicrii 
Africa, as fur as Lake TtMtd, by which Icgiti- 
maU) (rode might be extended, and the glavc 
trade abolished. Drs. Barth and Ovcrwcg ac- 
cumiMiiittNl ^Ir. Richardson, for the parpu»e of 
making Buicntifle obsen-ations. The pariv 
started from IVipoIi, March 23, 1850. after 
having minutely Burveyi'd the mountainoiut 
it^ion \ai the south of thai place. The Urat 
TOmr, they piiccesffully crossed Xhn whole of 
Sahara, in a very circuitous westerly direction, 
and iliua esploreil a ;rreat portiOQ of Northern 
Africu, which had never before been visited by 
any Kvm>[H'nn. Their route from Ghat to 
£auo, Icwiing tltom through the powerful 
kingdom of Air, or Ashen, was highlv inter- 
esting. The Becond year, tliey cjtj)]orpd a 
large (Mtrtion nf .Sudan, in dill^rcat directions. 
Mcssni. Barth and Overwog reached Kuka, the 
capital of Borna, but UicbonUon died ou the 
Way, in March, 18^1. Dr. Barth peoetrat«d 
350 milt's t<t the Routh, ha far an Yola, the 
cApital of the kingdom of Adbiniura; and 
Ovcrw(¥ navigated' Lake Tsad in a boat, 



which had been oonveyed in pieces acroes 1 
Sahara, nn tlui books ofcumek. In riepti'nilM 
IB.jl. lliey set out together on a joumt-y 
Burj^u, a mountaioous country lying to 
uurtlica^t of Lake Tsw). about midwny 
twiten it and Eg}'pt. 'I*hey went in conijM 
with a ftlieikli of Bomu, with a large arm* 
but the purty were ultuckcd and put to fltgfi 
and Barlh and Overweg Raved their Hveii by | 
quick relrcial. Heturniug to Knka, th^y 
out Ui the Kouthwurd, accuiiipauiod by ubi 
10,000 hoise flud the some number of foot i 
diers. They u-plorcd tho country bcyo 
ManiUra, the fortheHt point of Deulium's ju 
ney, and found it to be ooe of great fertill^ 
The thin! year, Dr. Barth made a journey 1 
Mofcna, the Lupital of the kingdom of Baghq 
nil, to the southeast of Laie Tsad; wb' 
Overwcg traveled in a southwi^tcrly directio 
and iTuehi-d wiUtln 150 miUa of Yacuba, tb 
great town of the Felhilahs. But on his i 
turn to Kuka, he was seized with a fever, of 
which he died after a short illnoM. Dr. Barth 
was about to start for Timbuktu ; and a rein- 
forcement, coiiaieting of ilr. Vugel and two 
sappurb and roinens was sent to hia asBitilaDC« 
on the 20th of February, 1852. llie intct-t ia- 
fornialiiiu obtained by ibcbe expixUtiona in 
sununed up in a valtiublu article iu the new 
edition of the Encyclopedia Uritannica, now in 
course of piiblii.ation, of which free use haa 
beon uiade in the preparation of this article. 

Tifivfirnjjliy. — Tlie phyfiical configuration of 
Africa inav be considered! under two hearla : 
the great I^luin of Nortliern Africa ; and the 
great Table Lauds, with their mountain raogu8_ 
and groups, of CeulruJ ami SouthfTO Afric 
The griiut INain e<iniprl^s the Suhuru, 
Lake Tsfui region, and the valley of the Lowflj 
Nile. The Sahara ia by no means a pla' 
lliDughout, but fnr Uiu greater nurt it ria 
inU> tal>!c-lund.s iiitei-fperscd with mountu 
groups of G,000 feet elevation, nud prolmbh 
more ; uud Uiu term j^am can only be applieU 
(n it in a general wuv, to distinguish it from 
the more olevate«l region to the Koulh. Tho 
Sahara has often been pictured as an imuieiis^ 
and monotonous expanse of sand. But * 
thing could be more erroneous, as the greutc 
variety exists in tlie physical configuratiou i 
its surface, sm well as to its geological featnr 
'i'hc w<.*tcrii half is surrouuded by a broad ■ 
of phiiiui ttud depruasioiis, the cenlrui ps 
being formi^ by exten^ivo lable-laiidd 
nuinntainoua regions, comprising the kingdo 
of Air or Afiben, lately explored by Meesr 
BichunlwiD, Barth, and Overwcg. 'ITie ruuto 
of Dr. Burth, in hi» journey to AgaiUs, tlie 
capital of that kingdom, was girded by nifnin- 
uuti ranges oud growps, risiug to 3,000 and 
■1,000 feet ; and Mount Dogem,the culniiualing 
point in that region, id even between 4.000 
and 5,000 feet high. Tho castt'rn portion of 
Sahara appears for the greater part to Ito a 
coDdidurali]) eluvated tablD-laad, comprising 



AFRICA. 



13 



ntmlfKxw roantrv of Itorgn. The nor- 
S*»lt' "' ■ ' Tins tboemlCTn boun- 

rof ■ 



MHrklu 111 



lubU'-Uti'l 

Oamn:' of Uocid Udpc, nnd 

felfmitiL- :.tt.'<}8 which ritie uik- 

idbovt ftM>ii*ef fniiii (.111* i,-i>tt«t, itn almost qiud- 
%n«p(nl talil<vlaod bna recently bwn nfuMr- 
MiaCd to HinKi to the north for at least 1 .000 
Mp»|i<kl«ml miltN. Tht' Miutliem portion \a 
mimA \ II of the Orunjrc river, fol- 

Itavd I, '-t of Kalihari, which is 

fptb •»^i-.-. " bfttin of the river 

mliii^ lad I I li, with niiLn^ uther 

tfm^ trn» - 1 nhieh pre^'uts a 

ted lev- : Lake Xirami being 

t0tt V- ■ I'.ruhably ia in con- 

MCtiao '< ' /arnl>^i. Fiullicr 

■orCh tb- ■> the Ihh} ofwater- 

nrlfaiti aiUk Uiv b<L:^uu^ uf Cuogo rivt.r and 
U4* >ky«««». In llitfl ri^ion Arc dujiposotl lu 
Wtfor> ' liii of the Mixin, ruu- 

oiif. tr 'rod, puBt ttnd y/vM, 

Wt biTn^ M oip^j ni>ri Imm north to «oulb, 
tori mniiig pvallel to the oastem const. 
ftni^ the KNitbeni cf^iTiUnniil.ion of the A by;;- 
MiateliW-lawL It ik :t rHUL-Lrknbtc fiuture 
ttitli»mnn( i-I.vali-il n.:iU^ ri-n* on the OUtiT 
•rtfe rtf «hiri I -n l>etwetm it 

«.*ri- -..-1 One of them, 

>'f the utjrlhcm odgv 
.n.l lo ihe heijrht of 
:)f the AlloR incmi)- 
,1 <'i1her of llib-o two 
P»Wtsy. 'I'rostcm re^fion 

If AMca Dingi-}!, an<l it.^; 

|Mm * lit nach lui altitude 

■fiWfc— .k-... » ' ■'■■*!-'»Ily a land of 

i»f%. raihillg, "I 11 scartily of 

^rr^ V«ii* iif til! ._ ; iveti^ and lukcs, 

»•' 'fllw Urgur ones, pres»>iii only 

#T ,r>cs diiriD;!^ certain periods of 

'^ymf. »«m Lakr T«>ad is said nt times to 
to anirij dr\'. With the rains, ilnyili ajf 
tfntkml aIl'</Tcr the oocmtry, even in the 
nrt. M tltt' rvv'vnt oHvrvatiooa mode by the 
MfitfMuii nv'l 'dion testily. 'Hiat 

iMillr rdatt- ' **n tttc bordoni of 

fl»Hie4o«|o( .;.r. .,<, Mii; :iUth of Sep. \Hhi), 
nJB bod bmo i(«u in the »<jnt.h, uud black 
^Mh ciivcrintf the 7^'i^'- >" tl»' i><'->v.'>i.; - mid 
ll as bcMT amrwui in 

tte twmmnau'nt " i ;i.; !"' 

OutQ)* (* lie saw II ffhitv iiltevl of 

Aba ad- it thf* f>ntiTh, hetwocd the 

Imb of ' liniitcs lifter, ii 

VNraf V Ilu^ »M(1 npn'iiil 

J Ul- I i'l;i.-t. of their 

^ 1 11^7, The 
ill i|> ar?jM»t ^>an w.ci- puwurfa], ca- 



pable of carryinj^ away sbccp and cattle, and 
iipi-nnLing tror^ 

Africa 13 cluefly drained into thuAtlunlic 
•'"Can and its brauub the M edit I'll 1. 

:iie rivtT svatem of che Indian i' 

■ '■' 'iiroiijiidL-nibh!. TIr! XiU) h \„ .- -1 ..t 

al rivers, and afTurdod llie only nmaiia of 

I \.i]ee t*) tljii eiulit-wt eivilixed people on 
eiinli ; but tlio orii^in or nourcn of the rivt-r it- 
i^'lf renutjaq un i:iji^niu lo this day. The area 
drained by ihiti nvur ia at luut 2,000.000 
Knelish squaro mileft. 

Ibc river Senegal has a length of 1,100 
mile», and has its sourc&i in the same elevated 
Iruei of land as tho«e of the KawuriL Tho 
Oaiubia and Itjo Grande, south of tho Sene- 
gal, are also couiideruble rivers. The Kjip 
wara,or Niger, is, next to the Nile, the largest 
of the African rivum. Ita snurci,?!;, lila* dial of 
the Nile, arc sliU unknnwn. It upjuMi-r; lo he 
the JChmar, whirh is paid to rti^e in a high gnjup 
of mountuinn cost of Sit-rra Leone. As " ~ 
as Timbttkta it is called Jt>libu, and tt^ l-uu 
i* pretty wdl known ; but from that plueu to 
tho Vaouri, it is as yet unexpluretL Theuco 
down to thu niOntli, it wa<i first traced by Laivj 
dor. It is there culled Kawarn, iu t^euorol^' 
thouf^h it has several namcA in the iliffercnt 
lan;7uaguM of Ihe tribes which iuliitbit its 
8horeH. Tlie Tphmldu is ilJ4 principal trtb;^ 
tary. eitcndinft far intt> the heart uf Inner! 
Afrieo. It wa-5 recently explored by Dr. Jtortb 
iu its oppcr course, where it flows through tho 
kins^ilttm of Adanutn!!. The leuxth of the 
Kauara is about 3,0OU miles, and it draiM| 
uboat 1 ,500,000 sqnorc niihjs. 

South of the etpiator. the wist cooiit received 
many large rivers which arc yet nneJLplorcd. 
.Such an> the Zaire or Con>^o, the Coaoza, and 
tilt; Nonrst', or Cunene- The Swukop hxs ro- 
ccnlly been ejr])lonxl by Mr. Oultoo. The 
Orango river 19 abuut 1,000 niiU-s in length. 
Its head streams are the K i, (Juriep or Vool, 
and tho New Uariep, ennsi^ting of the Cal> 
lion and Cradnck. The Orange river draini 
3.'>0,000 Knglifih square miles. 

Itoundinc; the southcrnextrcmity of Africa, 
and pmcfvuinj^ up xia eai^li^rn coast, the Lim- 
jiopo is tlie fini river rejiulring notice. Its 
lieotl streams and middle course are known, but 
whether it empties into the sea at Delugiw Boy, 
('t at Iiihambane, is a matter of doubt. The 
Zanibr-zi ls tho lart^t.igL rivt*r of the eastern 
cua.tt.4. Iu simrc(» are not known but it u 
probiiblc tbal its head-streanu ore tlic Sc»>| 
liekeaud L'hobe, recently didooverod by Messrs. 
LiviiijrstOD ood Oswell. 

Africa potticaMa wveral considcrntilu lakes, 
of which lake Tsad is prolwibly the lary;iiil and 
mo4t intcrci^tlng. It t^ontailt!i abi>ut 100 
island-* of hirfie size, scattered over (he Ukc. 
Thoy arc wooded and inhabited by the Iliddu- 
mo, a Pofi^an tribe, who have rematiteil inde* 
penitent of tlic Mohamuiedaii natioiu livin^r 
around tlic lake. Dr. Ovltwu^ was rocvived 



14 



AFRICA. 



hf tben with frrent Icindness, on his landing 
upon their islands. LukeT»a(l has no conucc- 
liuu Willi the Kftwara or Ibe Nile, but fornix 
an inlaud recx'ptAcIo receiving the wattTs of 
some of thu most disUiit n^i^cuu of Iiiucr 
Africn. 

Lake Fittri forms a distinct hydpopraphical 
mtcm between it and tho Nile, with which 
it hiu no coniU'i'tion. I^akc Taana or Dein- 
bea is tho cliicf Itkkc within the boain of the 
Nile, go hr OS known. It is situated on the 
table-land of Abyssinia, at an elevation of 
6,110 feet Other Ukca on the Aby^^inian 
table-laiubi aro Ziiwai, Haik, and Ashangi. 

In loner Africa, a number of considerable 
lakes are rcport^l to oxirI, bat only two an- 
known with any dpgrei> of certainty, smith of 
the eijualor, ilw Nyassa and Njrami. Nyoasa, 
the gTuat lake ur sea in 10- Boulh latitude, is 
as yel only a[>[>roxiniat4>1y laid down no tlie 
iDajM, accurdinp^ to native in fur mat ion, and 
wb*:thci' it be the fecdiT of a largo river, or 
roori'ly a recipu-nt lake, is uoknown. Another 
lako in that rejrlon ha.1 recently been reported 
by the natives tn Dr. Krapf, as beinjf sitiiatrd 
west of Alonibiiji, hoyoiid Kilimanjaro, and in 
the country of Uuiaraezi. (For a description 
of Ngarai, sea Svuth J/rim.) These are frish 
vater lakes ; bcfildin which there are numerous 
small salt and natron lakes in various parts of 
Africa. 

Ciimate, — " Tho gtmeral climate of Africa," 
says Malt? Bran, *' is that of the torrid zone ; 
more than throe-fi)urth.4 of the continent bein^ 
situated between tJic tropi(rs. The great masi< 
of howled air, incumbent in these hot regions, 
hna riuidy acfiSB t« its northeni ond soutlicni 
fiarbi. fiilunted in the zoneK rallwl temperate, an 
that the nortioos of them adjoining the tropica 
arc cqnally torrid with the ri'giona aetually 
inter-trupical. Notliiog really moderates the 
beat and dry nng of tbe African climate, except 
the anniml niiita, tbe sea brecxoi, and tho c]e\-a- 
tion of the surface. These iliree circumstancet: 
are snmetim(« united in a greater degree under 
the (spiutor than in the tt^mperate zdup!^ It L>< 
not Impossible that in the centre of Africa, 
there may be loftv table landf^, like those of 
Quito, or vallej-s hke the valley of Cashmere, 
where, as in tho^u? two happy renions, ciiiriuf 
boltki nn eternal rtngn." Rocent discoveries in 
the interior of Africa favor tills liypotli(sis, 
Rkv. Dr. ICrupf, in his recent missionary tours 
in iiiirth-eastern Africa, has disoovcrwl ranges 
of mouniains covered with iXTi*tual snow. 

The greatest boat is not I'onnd under the 
TOuator, but to the north of it, in consetjuence 
of tho northern portion being of greater ex- 
tent than the southern, and of less elevation. 
Tho highest tcnincrftturc l« found throughont 
tl»c tfahura. partieularly in its eastern portions. 
toward llie luil t^-sl. In upper Kgypt ond Nu- 
bia, t-gc9 may be baktxi in the hot saniL*. and 
the saying of the iVralis is, " In Nubia the^toii 
is like fire, and the wind like a flame." Tbe 



regions along the Atlantic and MeditcrraDO 
coasla arc rendered more tompcmte by the ! 
fluenri^ of tliesisi. To the wiuth of the Gr 
Desert, where the eouuti-y becomes more i 
vatcil, the t<tmj>crfltur<.i decToascff. The int 
sity of radiation, and \U influenee npon 
lempemlure. are very great in Northern Aftica. 
While in the dnv time, i\vi aoil of the Sahara 
rapidly abaorbs tne solar ray«, during the night 
it cools also so rapidly thato^'u ice is formed. 
Afrira is not much under the influence of n-ifn- 
lar winds ^iccepl the monsoons of the Indiuu 
oc«an. From hnrricones, Africa is nearly (-\- 
empt, except it.*! southern extremity, to wiiith 
at times the Mauritius hurricanes esLtead. 
Northern Africa is exposed to the hot winds 
and storms from the HaUara, which are culled 
in Egypt Khanwin ; in the Mediterran-.'ui. 
J^irocco ; and in the western regions, Ilnrinit- 
tiin. Extreme beat and dryiiew are tin ■ 
acteristici4 of tliese winds, which, raiKin;j i; 
sand, filling the air with dust, and protllgiuosly 
favoring the powers of evaporation, are often 
fatal to the vegetable and animal creation ia 
llio n'gions viniteil by them. 

The Peo/ilc—Fmin tho shores of the Modl- 
terraocoii to about latitude 20- north, the jH>p- 
ulalitni of Africa consists largely of lrib'« 
not originally native to the soil, Vmt Aratis 
and Turkfl, planted bv conquest, witli a cuiisi- 
derable number of Jcw.s, the childreu of the 
diepention ; and tbe rewutly iDlroduced French. 
The UerlKTs of the Atlas region, the Timricks 
and ']*ibbu»< of tlie Sahara, and the Copts of 
Kgypt may be viewed as dcsccndunUi of tho 
primitive stock, while those to whom the 
general imnie oX Moon is applied arc perhai« 
of mixed descent, native and foiTign. Fnm 
tho latitude stated, to Capo Colony, trlbta 
commnnly classed together under the title of 
the Ethiopic or negro family are found, though 
tnnny dejnirt very widciv from the phyaingifo- 
my of the negro, wliicfi is most apimn iit in 
the Datives of the gold coast In the Capo 
Colony, ond on its borders, the llottentoia 
form a dintinct variety, closely resembling the 
Mongolian races of A^io. (bee Ho(lrntvt» ) 

T^ Copts, (proo. CkooU or ChU.) arc re- 
garded as the descendants of tho ancient 
Kgypt ians. IVy do not now comjtose more 
than ono-sixth of the population of Kgypt, not 
exceeding in niimltcr KiO.OOO, of which 1(I,IKH) 
reside at Cairo. In {tome jtortit of l7p[H-'r 
Egyjit there are villogi-s exclusively iuhaljileJ 
by Copts. Their complexion Usomewlml linrk- 
cr tlian that of thf! ^Vrubf, their fonheads Uat, 
hail soft and woolly, uos^' ehort but not Hat, 
mouth wide, lips thick, eyes large, high cheek 
bones. They are not an unmixtil race, their 
ancestors, in the earlier ngos of Cliri.«tianily, 
having intermarried with the Greeks, Nubians, 
and Abyssinians. (See Cop/s.) 

Tho countries above Kgn>t are inhabited by 
two trilifs of people resembling ea<^li other in 
their ph,TOical characters, but of distinct laoj 



AFRICA. 



16 



Rtfc *oA itrigio ; tbo KAstern Nabian?, end 
5a£kaB «f the Nile, th« fatter called Berber^ 

7W Maotnr of thi^ Xabians is limited on tlic 
vetf bjr tlial of Ihv TitibiL", who arc ^read 
■Wife M'.U'n: r the Sulmra, as far 

■ TvToa And ! Tlioir color is not 

■ifein. 90Tn6 t<- III- iiuiie block, and olhcni 
■Mcr^olorcd. Thrr an; a paslorul people, 
■n Ut» 11' ' -'■ v^iT'.;-,-B. a portion of iTliich 

•All u io the kingdom of 

]Itfi)co\~ tay/i ifr. Lntham, " iu the French 
■PTO w of Algtrin. in TTinis. Tripoli, and 
rana, n Htrber, \ .^ also of the 

t#<^»*i I'vr.imiic8. ': svholc country' 

' .-.ucuQ. between Tn- 

The extinct lan- 

i.^ics wiLi Mrrln'r ; and, 

f Sahara ia Ut-rhfr. 'I'ht"- 

BifCL Arabic Ls the 

iamfyt L-oiist, fniiQ tho 

OnaoCtit* Nile in the f^traitjj of Uibraltor, 
cJ from the ilmls of Gibraltar to thc^ mouth 
• tvviL 'ITip Ikrlwr nation ts odd of 
<;r™tT< *™^ '^''"™ **"' limes of ilie ear- 
iut lalory. Inri bwn Bpnsid oircr the game ex- 
tat «f mutrr im at nrcK'iit 

IWIf 1 !. OH of the em- 

iftlfr&i . J all along tht: 

nAuiaii-jii coa-.i. I iHv :ir'' a mlxwl racu, 
Uioa tbe anciLiit Maurilaninn stock. 
tMir name. ATtrr tlie eomjni^l of 
hy the Arnhv-. thpy bpi'Timo mixed with 
■ ORkfttSOiS. I!ii\ iit J- i-nniinercd Spain, in 
~ ' '■ ' d with the niitirra 

li Tlioy wero after* 
ii. They art- a 
ildoDce to the 
'tual and not 
: 'V are ernvl, 
)' ligion is 
L settled 
i^iiiultHristA. 
' tribes ; and 
- ., ihey carry on 

'•p-irated from each 

"?, Africa was 

■nrilt a Iaslin<r 

I r<is\, and 

iblr pnr- 

1 Central 

■HJi-il all 

'II. 'IV 

' t 8«CCCS- 

:y\>U anri 

;i, m far 

biw« --f — - oarftc of 

< • lit; iiegi-iTft, Of the airvcnth 

iL-m, the 

. 'luun po6- 

iik AlfiOfci Ml! wtuui I'hilip IT. drove 



bn, till 
i4r^T 



ti^r?::: 






tfacm (torn Spain, thnosanda of families 
refuge on the opposite shores of Africa. The 
ore now utunerous iu all tbe northeru ton 
They live in great dwrodation, ejxecpt in 
giera, where tie Frencn have given iheni fn 
<iom and indepondenct 

Kver since the con'tncat of Kpypt by SnltaD 
Sclim, Turks have seltM in the north of ■ 
Africa, and na they were the rulers of Ihffi 
eounlry. the Tarkish became the lanjruo'^e ofj 
the government ; but they oan Iiardly b« i 
sidcrcd as permaneut settlers. 

For a description of the AbyRsiniani, !io#1 
Ahy&tima. The Ethiopian race comprcbendi^l 
by far the greater nnmW of African naliona j 
extending over tho whole of the middle ami ^ 
LSouth of Africa, except its snnlhrTnniost pro- 
itfction towards the Cape of CJooil Uojje. A 
line ilniwn from tlie mouth of the Hewgaj in 
the west to Cape Jenlaffur in the cast, rormtlj 
itjt Dorthero limits ; but this race arc not att'j 
uegroea. The latter ore only one of itd uuineiv* 
ona of^oots. The principal negro nations nnj"' 
the 3fttTu/jTigop.t, who are immerous oiul power- 
ful, and partially civilized, in Senegambia, and 
farther inland, aromid the bead WJiters of th«.' 
Kawara, where they have established a great' 
many kingdoms and smaller Borcrcigntioa. ' 
They arc black, with a mijctoro of yellow, and''' 
their hair \i completely woolly. The Wi^ofs at 
Vota/s, whose Inuguage is totally diirorerit frfmi 
lho«e of their neighbora, are the hoinlvmn'Bl 
and blackcsrt. of all negrow, allhuugh tin v live ' 
at a greater distance from the ef)uator' than ' 
most of the other black tribes, their principal 
dwelling-placw being between Uic Henegal and 
tbct Gambia, along the coast of the Atlantic. 

Tbo Foulah* or FeUiUaha occupy tlie centred 
partii of Sudan. Their color is black, with « 
striking eoppiT hne. They are one of tho 
raoi?t remarkablo nations in Africa, very ii^- 
du!«trion^, live in commodiouii and clean habits- • 
(ion^, and arc mostly Mohammedans. Of tbs 
principal nations of Guinea, among whom lh» 
negro typo is particularly distinct. (wi>e<:iuHy 
around tJie Highl of Benin, are llic Fel^ol^ 
near Caramauca. very black yet hantbome, 
and the A^hnnti. who surpass all their neigh* 
Ifors in civilization. In South Guinea wo 
meet with thrTO principal nations, the Con* 
g(>, the Abunda, and the Bcnguela negntoiu 
The next great branch of the Ethiopic rooo 
compreheni£! the Galla, who occupy an im- 
mense tract in Kastcrn Africa from AbyMinim. 
01) far as the inland Portuj^ucscpossreaioua m 
Mfjzambir|ue, to the south of the eijuator An 
interesting tribe of them, the .Somali, have 
latel;? been bwnirht to tho knowledge of Ko- 
ropeans, a widely scattficd nation, who leail a 
pastoral life on the uplands, and also neaar to- 
the coast of the Indian Ocean from L'apii der^ i 
daSur southward to a coiiKiderablo diHtauce..! 
They seem to be of a mild and peaceful di»- 
piwition, while the other Oalla tribes ore a. I 
warlike rare. The Kaffrcs, Hottentots, anAl 



316 



AFRICA. 



Biishinun, occiipv the otq&Ut portion of Soatb* 
wrnAfrico. (Si*e Kaffratkod Hottentols.) The 
tsltiiid >if AfiuliuriiiteiLr U inhabited b^ a r&cc of 
llAlay origin, exliibitlng trac<s of Negro and 
Arabic mixture. 

Thi; b>Ul population of Africa is VBgoely 
CHtlmiitctI, according to the most recent *nj- 
scarrhos, ut 100,000.000. 

Lanffwiges. — The Arabic is the language of 
the North, and the MundiHgo ia iwcd from 
.ihc Senegal to tlio Niger. Bat the laucruages 
or dialiKits of the ut'groca are as multifarious 
u the naliuos. According to SccIzi'd, the 
lan^agcfl of Africa mtuit amonnt to 100 or 
inO ; but »omc trace them to a common origin. 
Rev. Jwhn Lfighton Wilson, late miasionar}- 
of the AnicriruTi Bounl at tlie Gaboon, in an 
article in the Bibliotlicca Sacra for Novcmbtr, 
IB47, saj-a: "Too littlo is vet known of the 
oumcroiu and divf^slfiod diuJccta of Africa, to 
detcrmiuu with CLTtaiuty the precise number of 
familiua which they forni. 

"In the iiurthern half of the continent, or 
that portion of it inlmbitcd by the black 
mocs, the number of lanffuac-te 'u very gnjttt, 
the different familiw of which show very little, 
if any, iiffiiiity for each oUicr ; while in tlio 
Mutiicrn divbtion, one Kfeut family provivila 
over nearly the whole of it, eren to the Cope 
Of Good Hope" 

GovmimtJit. — Most forma of gDVcrnmcnt 
mar be found in Africa. Despotism, however, 
in Its worst and mo^t offeiLtive shape. Is by fur 
tlw mtttt jirevalent ; and, with few exceptions, 
■lavery and anarchy ri-ign triumphant throngh- 
out Africa. 

Iwlufitnj, in Africa, ia at the lowest ebb. 
Tbo Africans have, of themsclvcH, generally 
made litUc progress in the arts. All the more 
laborious occupatioua arc imposed on the fe- 
males In some parts, the wives of kings and 
petty princes till the land for the intpport of 
their Icirdik Tlie Maodingoes, however, have 
made considemhtc ailvanecs in civiliTation, and 
the Ovas of Ntodagnscitr are an industrious 
people. 

Commerce. — An ejcteiBive iutcrconrse has 
been carried on, from the remotest antiqaitjr, 
between x'cry distant parts of the conticeut, tn 
conactpiencu uf the natural odnpIjiUon of tlie 
pro<lucts of one part to supjjly the wants of 
another. Tlius Northern Africa supplies Cen- 
tral Africa with dntcii and salt, and receives, In 
return, gold dust, ivory, gnn», palm-oil, feath- 
ers and slaves. Kgj'pt and (lie towns in the 
Burbary States have always been the great 
Beats of tnule, which is carried on wholly by 
cftravom, numbering from 500 to 2000 camels. 

^ave Trnde. — Slaves have been the staple 
article of export from the African coast ; and 
in some years OS many OS 110,000 or 120,000 
have bv<eti curried across the Atlantic. In or- 
der to supply slaves for the morket, a whole- 
sale syjitiim of brlgauda^ and robbery has 
Jbcea orgaui2cd in many extensive districts, the 




people being hnntod down like game 
petty princes, and by the Mohammud&i 
offeet to believe that they are entitled to 
ture and sell tlie " idolators," to serru as ~ 
uf burden in anoUier hemisplic^*. 

The sufferings and misery which result firom 
thU traffic, the mcrciU;^ waste of human life, 
and the " horrors of the middle passage," no 
tongue can tell, no imagiuatioa can paint ; yet 
these are but tlie lc«.*r evils of this horrid 
trade. Its di^($tt wound bos been inflicted 
npon the moral nnd social condition of the 
coantry. It has underminwl all the deep f<7ur>- 
dationg of society, dissolved the bonds of frii-iui- 
ly allianotj between adjoining villages, dc±<troy- 
(ki the peace of families, and cxtingnished the 
last rcmaiuing spark of parental aSt-ction. 
Kvcn Uic motlier will sell her own child for a 
few strings of beads or a gallon of rum. It is 
gratifying, however, to know that ihe ^tl tU 
of the British government, together with iL-j 
influence of the American colony at i" 
have neiiriy extinguished the inhuman 
upon a large extent of the wostcm and 
eastern coa.'^tg, where it has heretofore been 
ried on to the greatest extent 

TIio traflic has aUo received a conadcrable 
check on the eastern coast, in conseqncncenf a 
treaty for ita auppreaaion between the Bntisli 
Goverumeol and the Imanm of Muscat 

lieiigion. — Christianity is professed in Abj-a- 
siuia, and in Egypt by tlie Oopts, but its doo. 
triues and precepts ore little understood 
obeyed. Mohanimedanii^m previiitft iu all 
uorlhern countries ; but the native mind 
orally is surrendered to Bnpcrstilinns of i 
nite number and character. The labors 
Christian mia^ionariM have, however, expect 
in South Africa, done much lewards tumii 
the benighted A friciuij from Idols to the liv! 
(jod. (Sets Writeni aiul Southern Africa.) 

'ITic stKud cotulition of Africa is, of course, 
extremely depressed. The lowest fonn of ix'Iyg- 
amv is diffused all over Africa ; and altrnnigii 
forfjjdden in Abysilnia, llic marriage tic is there 
so slight OS hardly to have any sensible inllu- 
enee ; and morals are in a state of almost total 
dissolution. Cannibolii?m furmerly iini\-aik-d 
to a frightful extent throughout Africa ; and 
though checked by the motive of i)roviding 
slaves for market, is still found to exist in .siinie 
parb*. Among some considerable nntious, the 
exposure of children, and the slaughter of 
those that arc deformed or maimed, is not onlj 
tolerated but enforced. In some parts hnman 
blood is mixed with the mortar used iu the 
construction of temples. McCxUiocfi's Geogra- 
phy ; MaUe Bnin; MiQueen's Gmgraphtcal 
i'urofy; Corulor'i DicUoiuirt/ of Gfo^phy t 
and apariaUy Ute Encydopcdta EriUinmca. 

MIBSIOKB. 

Africa, notwithstanding \\a terrible cllmat 
bad government and petty wars, fonns one 
the most tnterceting jnlssioniry fields in ' 




AFBICA, EASTERX. 



17 






;..i.,.i.:( , 



..,,,.1, .1.. 



piv 

to 

i -..to 

t it 

r \u Diis- 

1 1 'ccssfiil, 

i!Li ti;i[jl..iyt'«], limn 
'• nl ihft Londfin Mi&- 

.S'K-Htr. Ill r^.iiih Afrirfl. ttiiil the 
UiasioWjr Societj in ^^Vest Africa. 



The wjiy is openlnp up for the cxteiwion of 
C'hrUtian iiu-sionrs irifo the intorinr ; and so 
much pn-rmnitory work Iios alrosuly bi"«n ao> 
oimplL-hed, in reuucim? the Inngnagea to writ- 
ing and tnuLihitin^ tlic StTipttin*, tluit we 
may I«M)k for rapiJ chancf^, ami cotituit^ntly i 
hope that the day is not uistaDt wbcD n large ' 
[•ortion of the coutinunt will l>o Ckristiaiiiztn. 
The rc-BuIta of (he nii«3oimry work in Africa 
will be seen hy the followiDg 



TABULAR VIKW. 



■BT ATMU. 

t ttafctt«?r A<rl<rtr 

ik. v.y.v.','.',. 

sCMfcnu..^ „. 

irvol tiipeoBtti 1 

M* »»rL 

MilVMt JUHe* 

vnKM.1 Afioc*. 

I. ...i. 

vySMtotf. ,., 

kafJlBrtfaai'^ T 

I Tt whuUwUm Cbvreli | 

MUl MHtfOM. , 

ifC , 

h«l«l»t7«»M3r 

oa.. .....•,,. 

«#. *.., 

fttklHtMth Ablm 

■w UuamL—Uiaim Vim. Bne.. 
J«Mu.^Ownli IHM.tee 

tMU AlUc* 



30 



31 



4T 



«3 



719 |127 



139 



sa 



us fiia 



M 



lt>& 



100 



63 3 



9 aft 



a 



22 



US 



i» 



1ft 



112 89 



M 11,6S7 



41 



44 or 37,'Ml 



IBIS 

4»1 

fine 



SB 



U,3»« 



U70 



162 



00 



S3 



ilW 



11.467 



Bsoa : 

787T 



170 



20,090 



•M ai,UT 



Uvia^ to the inanDer in whic-h some of the 
■*"*""*] Mkkfii their rrtiinw, it wa^ not rK>%i- 
lak* the Ibrugoing l«ble jjcrfoct id all 
, at tcrrcnl Uciai iro Dot rcportnl at 
I BMoy of iLan. But few of the suoie- 
DJ Mccuunt of tlie female iiK^nibcrB 
ions I sail bai (ov give any di<4tinet 
I wlictJirr their UlKTcre are clergy- 
- lK;t. l^t on •cvemt poinLx of chii^f 
' tfaejr ar? c<tm|>lcc'\ liz. : tlir> wliolo 
■ ot I&b<:>rc7m. caTnii)iinicAnl5, aod xrhol- 



lonaUa ^ 

tbff* ore Ivs t 

; whole C0»liM9l<i 

CVJaOO to taicfc hbc 
Mlfiatfttmect 



itcBW will 

B<^rh, 1> 



li Kiiro- 



rera, oa 

ivill f^ivu 

■ '-<< 00 ap- 

ul' that tlark, 

MAiiJ wo have 



L tKomrutHi-^ ai4 d»x;f iag view of the 
2 



^eruti of iiilasioruiry labor in this nortiou of 
the. vimn'ard of the Lonl, wliiitb fully Hiistaintf'j 
what wc hare said of the HU5ccptibility of i 
the African character to religloas imprcasimi A 
for we have but littlu less than eighty convcrtvl 
to each miffiionary laborer on the eontincnli 
and iylandd of Africa. 'I^c mitnons arc ^n-^ 
erally represented as in a prosperous coiHlitiou, 
except thiit in some jwrtions of Hoatli Africa, 
they have 8iilTere«l from the KaflVc war, and iiij 
ifadagoscar, the converts still Buflfer iierHcai-l 
ion. IThsc statistics con becorrectoa at aur 
:rure Ume on rcfcrrinK to the Januair ana 
I't-bniary nnmbcrfl of the London JAiaaionory 
KcffiHter for the current year. 

AFRICA, Eabtess. East Africa, accordin 
to McCulloch.comjwnafa llie region to the uori 
of tlic Zanibcd river, round by the sea constif 
to the confines of Abyssinia. The Kncyclo- 
pedia Britamiica makes it extend from Natal 
to the Bed Sea, (which would take in a por- 



18 



AFRICA, EASTERN. 



lion of tlic limitB wc Iuvtc allotted to Southern 
Africa,) compri^itng .SufoJa, Mozanibiqnu, Zan- 
xibar. and tbe Suuiali country. Bui little is 
kiiovrn of that rt'jtrion Iwyotid the coast. The 
Sofiiln cdimtry, L'xUmdiii^ from Ddogoa Bay 
to tbe Zombcn hvcr, is flat, BQQdy. and manby, 
gradually ascending towards l\w hiUTior. The 
soil is very fertile aiid pnHliiceti ducily rk'C. 
lu the int<!rinr ^olil aud uUicr metals and pro- 
cioos stones arc lound. 

Uo«unl>iuue vxteudd from tito ^mliL-Ki to 
Oape Dcl);o(iu, and is cimilar in itu iialnrul fca- 
tnros to tne Sofalu coast. Tho country is in- 
habitod by tlie larpo oJid poisT^rful tribe of the 
MacuHiL lite priucijuil nvcr it tlic ZamlM^xj. 

Xuii7.itmr or Han-oliili coast extends from 
Cape Dcl^oila to the river Jub, near tlic eqoa- 
tor. The coa.-=t ia gcntTally low, and baa out 
few htyg: or Uarbon*. Ila northern portion is 
rondcrod dnn^jcroas by a line of corat rccfa. 
The rtgion pojwssw a great nimil>or of rivers, 
bot none of the firet matrnitude. The climate 
is similar to that of other tropical coasts of 
Africa, hot and uiihi'fllthy. In Aomo portioDB, 
however, the elevulfd pruimd. which ia more 
temperate and healthful, approaches near to 
tlio roast. 

The island of Zanzibar is tho residence of 
tbe Imaum of Slnscnt. (whose dominion ex- 
tends a eousidenible distance nlouff the coast,) 
and is the feat of an cxteiwivis comnieree. 
Mombas, on a small i^jland close to the main 
shore, posseasea the finest harbor on the eoust. 

The Somali comprises the eastern horn of 
AfVica, fVom llw wmalnr northward to the Ba^ 
of Tudjnrra, near the Kod Sea, Tho coast in 
genoTftlly bold and roeky ; and tho citcusivo 
region it eneloees.prc»cnt£a isUghtly osccnriing 
plain, traversed by larjje and fertile vulleyii. 
Along Iht; Arabian t^nlf, the coa.«t is very 
abnint, and girded witti a raiigeof monntnins, 
the hiij:hc9t of which, Jebel Ahl, nmclifs an 
eJevutioti of 6,500 feet. The Somali country 
is famous for ita aromatic productions. The 
inhabiuints belong to the Oalla triln'. — Ert- 
cifcii*poilHi HrH4J7tmcn ; HurriiCs Jlighltimls of 
Etkwpm i The Sile ami it* Trtbuiimes ; Me- 
Cvilwi'i Geography ; Aftican Repository, Jan. 
1850. 

uisnox. 

Chitrrh Mi%$ionarif Society. — The Aby»- 
siniau MlAtion, which was commenwd in 18*29. 
was, in 1&-11, changed into the Eaul African 
Jfuston, embracing a much wider range than 
was originullv contemplated by it. (See Abijt- 
muff.) Mr. krapf writes from Ankoliar, in 
1841, that the people of Hhou mauiTesied a 
great desire for the word of God, and that 
th^ besieged his house from morning till even- 
ing, to procure copies of tho Scriptures, lie 
had translated the four Qospds into the Oullu 
loDgiuige. 

During the year 1&42, tho Mission was intct^ 
rupted by rorioua causes ; but a treaty of | 



friendship and coromcreo wu concluded 
twcen the Briti^ Goverumeut and tbe Kia 
of Hhoa, whicli provides protection forBritUJ 
sulyects in tlie territorii^ of rihna. 
Krapf nndertook a difficult and dung 
journey to the capital of Abyssinia, in or 
to ai4UTtiiin vrliat cnooDragement the a 
Abona would give to missianary njit^raiiorri i 
Abyssanio. lie afterwords proceeded to Al» 
andria to meet Measrs. Isenbvrg and M»] 
sen, who were on tlieir way to join lum. 

About this time there arose a fierce dis^ 
between tho more enlightened party mid* 
monks, in the Sboa province, respecting ftOQ 
frivolons points of sjKicidtitiou ; and the mool 
prevailed with the king, by Ihrtsitcning excoa 
m.nnication, which gave the more ignorant an 
bigoted Uiirty the ascendancy, ilr. Krapf I 
fore leaving expressed a fear that tlieir icflij 
once might provo nnfavorable to the miasio 
And, on his return, with the brethren, he foan 
that (he hiug ha^l prohibited their rctorn, aa 
all efforts to induce the chiefs of the count] 
Iring between the sea and Abyssinia to 
them pass were nnaToiling. 

Messrs. Isenberg auA Muhlicsen proceed 
to Abyssinia by the way of Maseowuh, to i 
tain uic di?p<^9ition of the new Abus 
see whether there might not bo an op 
tho renewal of the mission at tho Ca 
But in this they were disit)i pointed, 
found the enemies of the mist^iuii in the asc 
daney ; the Abuna gave them no encoura, 
lueut; and the chierOnbea ordered them 
quit Abyssinia. They had no altoniutirc ba 
to return to Cairo. But during their stay f 
Abyssinia, they were able to dispose of bkh 
than two thousand copies of the Scriptures. 
l>r. Krapf, meantime, visited Aden, in order 1 
concert a plan for reaching the Galla tribes! 
Eastern Africa, from the Indian Ocean ; aa 
from that plncc he wrote a letter to the con 
uiiltec, asking their approvol of the ph 
which he afterwards received : bat while wa 
ing for it he went bi M;L<«4()wah, and leuroil 
the ditlicullii^ encountcro<l by hiri n^ociates,! 
remninefl on the frontier of Tigre, and 
ployed himself in the distribution of the 8c 
lures. 

After receiving tJio approval of the 
mittce, Dr. and Mrs. Krapf sailed for Zourib 
but were driven back and exposed to 
danger ; and after a very trying voyage 
arrived at Zanzibar, .Tun. 7, ISI-l. There 
was kindly reccivt^d by the Imanm of Muse 
to whom they were introduced by the Britia 
tj'onauL The Imaum wrote o letter to 
govemora on the coast, after this manner] 
" This note is given in favor of i>r. Krapf, tho 
Qermnu, a goml mun. who desires tx> cuiiveTt 
tho world to God. Behove ye well toward 
him, and render him services every where." 
After remaininK- there abtnit two mouths, \ 
proceeded on his way, touching at sevc 
plaoea, and arrived ut Mombos, a small island 



AFRICA, EASTERN. 



i! 'Jj. [ii-..iM, '^f fnPTunrti'rivcr. ii'ii'iit 4" p/inlh 
V-r:ftJi. T.''A--\i \f- .---I'-.U'l "^ 11." -;iG of the 
timn-L Af!' f i 1- .ii: v.il Tlii:-' Mr.--, Kriijtf 

-rh-.n.'f r • "■ ■■ "■ ■■■■■ : ■* ■ r my '.-..-r 



\ :licUineboTcavcinciit,Dr. Kropf 

itrutni hiia»'If «iih en^rgr and zeni to toe 
^vrit of hU mU*ion, Lnvini; his first atleutiou 
to dii tttiJ ' ' ;.'t» spoken iu Uiose 

MBntPux' il:(; 'ii >-h:i<:ii uudWukiiiuba tribes 
nflBcout^cnt, declaring to thorn tlii- Messed 
fOfid, ud soTTi'ring the ground with nrfer- 
aatofiitinvopiTuLiunsL He found thcnatives 
otnttetv devradol ioJulging to b fearful ex- 
tnl b kabiu of inlOTcicotion, aud fn^iaeutlj 
rifag (heir f^ildrvi) to obtain the mimu of 
MaJ^enOB. tit! also ajjpliul himaclf to the 
»oA of tr»T)*l»ti<>r! ■ HM'I thriv yuani after the 
oMbGiii'-- ' . ' liud translaicd 

Oounii ' Liis. IVtiT, and 

1 J^oin 101 I uio .'-■tHiiLtK'KN; uriguugc; iiud 
lakr udXotra iato hoth Sooahtkw abd Wou- 
ioL. He had abo compiUnl a dictionary of 
llPIV VOnU of Ibu ijfXmliekv, Wunicn tind 
ITibBlitttiti^TiA.' .--. Tn l!-tn,R('r..r. Rchl^ 
WivuMpoi II. Dr. Krapf 

WndbMlh': . iiodnt tacks uf 

tiV.Thkhfrr ri.-d bi* coiwtitutiou. 

Ot hftd, ho*, iietl his ini^Ixuar}' 

tfen. a vfaii' 'lid much vulu.il>lo 

M rm t km t: i!io interior tril>ei, 

kkvii|f to jpTja-j J 1 '.'viiTV when? ; 

■rivfaPTTiT hr C' liiia^'lf umlrr- 

MM^ tfac ostire* n.iuii r> |»-ut whut Ihev 
htfl U( oflwn, anil ihua ^nnul the me^siigo 

ih &0 ■rrirftl of Mr. Rcbhnuui, immediate 
■nmasnt* «< r>- riiiid'' for commend no; » 
■Wm mmimjp ' ^ ind Xovr Rubhai 

%li«UelHj V < ; which Li i>iiiiutod 

tmgi finr miles £<> iht- w<^ uf the exlremit^v 
rflftr bay. «4 a ron'i'i'Tn!*!* **!tivftliot), com- 
iMifiaif an ex'' ''j<lr, with 

■ri^4,cb«r7 :t to the 

IIBlllW t ' : i'ns- 

ifcHBl of U '.'a. 

BA llT. K-i.r -..-.^u.. ..-,-„■ ->,mc 

'^ek> with tli id ht'furi; tlicv liiid 

I'feOy m!f7T«rrd. •'■' ■»' '' u*?aknes6, 

Irth* fuv mi T'he mis- 

te vm be > 'I dralh 

V Bfr rault to mi', i euu ,' > regard 

kikfcoov wWrtcr." T. /i is place 

mm ■■lal>Hoo* IWd Uuniiiue, uud tlioufrh 
^BonAaing mamf dlffk^lH^ Tot tnot with 
i tmooKtn^TMaii ~ .i pi!iici>> 

t fippautiMi, thi' ' j>l)' &uuk 

Be, iniIilliT«Tti i->ii, mid 

U SqiLl^ ring 13 



monlhe, they had cstjibltsbol a smidl school nnd 
erwied a Kmall Pultago Gir worship, whivh 
■.Tould hold fiO or SO persons, but only "" ' I 
l»'en indaced to attend. These it' 
:nij«iionari«i contiuutMl toimik'' ■• ■ 
ill the interior, and In om; of 
('I tlio north, tliey ctiaie in si^.l .; i 

country, so lonjf tho obiect of dcsiro on the ' 
purl of Dr. Krapf. Tiioir jounieys to the * 
west opened a new eoautry, ol wlilcfi thophyi*- 
ical cuoractcf and tho di.sr>acilion of tho id- 
huMtADts present facilities for miasiooarv labor 
of tho uinet cncouniging kind. The Wakam- 
bss, with whom llie uiiitiioniirics are in dally 
iatercoarsc, carry on a traffic witli tire maia 
body of their tribe, from 400 to 600 miles dis- 
tant in the interior. Three jn-onps of moau- 
tuins, 4,000 to 5,000 feet biffh, enclose the 
Faila country, whose inliabitaulg art! lytiinaled , 
at 170,000 8»ial3 ; and Dr. Krupf Uiiiiks there 
iLre DO iusurmoontable obstacles in tho way of 
cstabltthing a mission amon^ tbeni. In 1848« 
Mr. llebbraan explorctl the country beyond 
Foita, called Joggo, tmrelling on fuot amidst 
a thorny juDfile, infested by wild heost^ for.: 
wvon days. lint having fUM.'Ouded the second, ' 
range of mouniainii, Itu felt u.q if walking in 
tho "Jura moimtaimt, 'm the Oanton of BMc, 
po cool waa the air. so iK'nntiful the scenery. 

It will be recolleclcd, that in 184:i, tlitf raie- 
i^ioDarics were forcibly driven from Abyppinia, 
through the influcDCo of <he emissarira of 
Home. Since that time the Ji^ts Ihcnii^lvcs 
have been obliged to leave tlie couotrj'. la 
June, 1849, Mr. Lie«lcr writes that the yoniig 
king of Shoa, Heshaheh Onennl. lioil written to 
the Qmjen of Greut Britain, desiring a renew- 
ul of the frieodk intercourse that hwl e.xistcd 
between tbc Briti.<>h Government mid Ww toF 
ther, and to Dr. K nipf, re<pieifting hLs return.! ] 
The yoanff king, only 14 y-'ars of oue, had r(y 
nuHuce<l the hett-rtKlox nMlioru»of lii* father, 
find delivered handrctlrt of persons whom (he 
Iato king hut! thrown int/t prison, hot-ouse they 
would not embrace bu vicwa. He had abo', 
taken the Metropolitan, Amba Sal&me, {b 
Xhytislnis^) as his sniritnat guide. Amb&, 
Salamc himMelt, had at^o writt^i to >(r. Liodcf 
for two good trachcni, an he wa.s ouxioos to 
0[k:q a sctiool of n !>upcrior character, in Gon- 
dar. And the kiufr of Abvsaiuia and tho 
AbuDA ha<l both written to Uinhop Gobat^J 
proposing ttiat be should undertake tlic super- J 
intendance of tho Abysainian Convent at JorJ 
ruwlem ; in conseqnence nf which the Coia-^ 
mittee di!lennine>l lo e»UtbH::ih a mift<iou at Jo . 
ruBolem. to provide, amon^ other objecte, for 
the iu.'itruction of Abyssinian pilgrinw. 

Dr. Krapf and his aflswiciatee, in their reports 
for 1849, speak diacouragiogly of their pros- 
pectus at Uie new station of Uabbai-£r;i/iia, 
owing to the depths of ignorance and supe^•,^ 
htiiion to which the people were rodocedL 
Their minds are eofllaved by sorcery; and 
many crui*! costoms, such as putting to death 



20 



AFRICA, SOUTHERN. 



all deformed children, prevail among them ; 
yet the missiouaries had been encouraged by 
the awakening of a poor cripple. This year 
tlio mission received a reinforcement ; but 
one of the newly arrived missionaries was cut 
off by inflammatory fever soon after their ar- 
rival. 

They had continued to prosecute the ex- 
ploring tours, showing wonderful openings for 
the entrance of the Gospel into the interior. 
lu the mean time, Dr. Krapf prosecuted the 
atudy of the languages, and the translation of 
the Scriptures, with zeal and success. lie has 
come to the conclusion that, from the Oalla 
boundary down to the Cape of Good Hope, 
there is one family of languages, which he calls 
the Snaheli stock ; which stock, he thinks, 
from specimens lie has received of West Afri- 
can languages, commences on the southern 
bank of the Gaboon River. 

The report of the mision for 1850 is en- 
couraging. The poor cripple noticed the pre- 
vious year had been baptized and died in hoj>e ; 
and two others had made an ojKrn profession 
of their belief in Christianity, one of whom 
was the father of a family, in independent cir- 
cuuistanccs, and the other a learned Moham- 
medan, the Cadi of Im village, who gave up 
his office, and the gains attaciied to it, for the 
Gospel's sake, and placed himself under the 
instruction of the missionaries. 

The missionary tours have been continueil j 
and Dr. Krapf gives the following view of the 
great results to which his discoveries may lead : 

" When once the time has fully come that 
the Hamitic race shall be made acquainted 
with the Gospel, and be received into the far 
mily of God's children on earth, the high 
roMa of Africa will take every observer by 
surprise. It will then be manifested that the 
facilities of communicatiou on the African 
continent, are not inferior to those of Europe, 
Asia and America. God's Providence has 
certainly paved the way for the speedy ao- 
comptisumcnt of his sublime designs. The 
Niger will carry the messengers of peace to 
the various states of Nigritia, while the 
Tshadda, together with the Congo, will convey 
them to the western centre of Africa, toward 
the northern tribes of TJniamesi. The diffijr- 
cnt branches of the Nile will lead the mission- 
aries toward the same centre from the north 
and north-east, while the Jub and the Dana 
will bring them in from East Africa ; and the 
Kilimani will uslicr them in from the south. 
The sources of these great rivers are not so dis- 
tant from each other as our present geograph- 
ical knowledge would lead us to believe. Shall 
we propose, therefore, and undertake the form- 
ation of a mission chain, linking together the 
eastern and western coasts of Africa? Or, 
shall we follow up the water-courses of the 
continent, by establishing missions at the 
Gources and estuaries of those great rivers ? 
The Tshadda, the Congo, the Nile and the Kili- 



mani rivers, take their rise cither from tla 
great lake in Uniamesi, or very near it. Au_ 
if the communication with Central Africa sha_ 
l>e found so simple and so easy, why should w~ 

Question the sp«jdy spread of Christianity an-« 
Ihristiau ciWlization in Africa?" 
In these tours, the missionaries obtained 
much valuable geographical information ; anc 
among other objects of interest, they saw e 
range of mountains, the tops of which were 
covered with perpetual snow. After the com- 

{)letion of these tours, Dr. Krapf visited Eng- 
and, in order to print his translations, and to 
confer with the Society upon future plans for 
the East African Mission. He also visited 
Germany, where he selected three pious me- 
chanics to accompany him to Africa, and one 
of the students at Basle, who was ordained by 
the Bishop of London. Dr. Krapf having 
fully explained to the Committee his views 
upon the East African Mission, he returned at 
the beginning of 1851, with the view of es- 
tablishing new stations, retaining Itabbai as 
a starting point on the coast He returned 
accordingly, with his new associates ; and, after 
their arrival at Rabbai, he began preparations 
for going with Mr. Ffefferle to tfsambara, to 
redeem a pledge given to King Kmeri, of es- 
tablishing a mission among his people. But 
Mr. Pfeftcrlc soon after died of nervous fever, 
the fever of the country, and Dr. K. prosecuted 
the journey alone, with some native servants, 
who deserted him in the hour of danger. He 
was attacked by robbers on the way, and 
obliged to give up the object, and to return to 
the coast- But while attempting to reach the 
river Dana, he was again attacked, and came 
near losing his life. And, after a fatiguing 
journey, suffering from hunger and thirst, and 
amid many perils, he at length reached the sta- 
tion. But, with indomitable resolution, he 
still pnrsuca his object of establishing a chain 
of missions across the continent ; but thinks 
they cannot at once penetrate fiir into the in- 
terior, but that they must first occupy a nearer 
post. 

Dr. Krapf afterwards visited Usambara, and 
King Kmeri received him well, and desired 
that the mission might bo established on a 
mountain thirty or forty miles from the 
estuary of the river Pangani ; and offered 
to order a considerable number of his sub- 
jects to build houses and cultivate the laud 
for him ; and also to afford them protection 
and give them an opportunity to carry on their 
labors. A wide door for usefulness here pre- 
sented itself, but at the latest dates, he bad not 
entered upon the work. 

AFRICA, SooTHBBN : The region south of 
Capo Negro, on the west, and of the river 
Zambezi, on the coat, embracing, within its 
limits, the English colony of the Cape of Good 
Hope. 

Topogra^y. — ^The country consists of three 
successive plateaus, increasing in elevation ac- 



AFRICA. SOrniERN. 



21 



paxtA • ' 
Arid pU 

YIm thiM chaiu nf 



,C-r-i?ui C.:ml,.A Suiuloy, GrfOt FljJtfQt»\ ■■'fhfv 

''('rm: SfTg-, (Maiuilain.; uml 
iMijnnt ur Ei^haut river, Botli an* navijf!*- 
ttli' for criiivll cml't obont Iwcalj mUca. Ou 
th.^ gnnth con.4 rtre tin? jy/fw-V or ifnxu/ river» 
lit" OeiMi/tc, Camlfxa, Sumifiy tiiu] fireat Fii.^. 
Tbo Broud rivt'r i« navigable for small cnxti. 
abuiiL 30 mUes. CoDi^iderlng Uto extent uf the 
coii.'it, Kf**^J luirboH are fuw. SalUunlia Buy» 
Cupy 'I'tnvu. h ihr. hc.^t, 

?V(* fr/wf LiAe.^xUi Ibe l^tof Jimc. If^^g, 
Ili'v. Duviil I.iv-ifi^toii. R»i-iii-ln\r of Mr. 
MafTtttjor Kiilr-bL-ri},', inar>? limn "iiK) iniK-- X, 
E. by N. from Kiuuuwu, iirotTodLiI on » i<iiir 
of Uiscovcry to Uikc Ng^uiiii, yoo milos N. \V. 
rruiu Kolobenp. ISul by llic L'irt'uitnus imtte 
whidi lie imr^uil, hi.' Imvclt-d about CliO 
milei After proci'j.Hlliig ubout llttQ itiilijs 
tbnnu^h thi; desert of Kaliburi, tbe |Kirty 
K(nii-k on tt inatpiifii'<rnt river. Iho Zoiijra. ajid 
rolliiwiiifi; it to it^ nourco, it provwl to W' Ihu 
lirait Ldkc. Hie bankaof thid rivt-rare bi:;ij- 
liful, ojvonil with gijfuutic tats, *jnn: of tlir ::i 
bfsiring fruit. Two of the Uoabob vurl'jly 
mMKun.'d 71) (d "G feet in cireDnifin'n*'*^. Tlio 
higher tbcy uscondod rhc broador the river bo 
caim.'. It has a |wriodJcAl rise of walt'r. sap. 
postd to be ocoLsioned by tho mdlin^ of the 
mavr on the mountains. Its waters ore ck-ar 
aad soft, and it is said to bu cimnccU'd wUli 
oilitT liirge rivers, niuninf from Ihv iinrUi. 
Another jarty visitctl IhU lake in IH.*>2. iiiij, 
' ■ ' its length to bo sixly-five. and its 
:idth 12 mih?8. It Is ul an 'levu- 
L ,. .. .. Jj fi.'ot above thest^a. Mr. L.ivi!ij»- 
Ffton f'^nid a trihp nf native on (he banks t-f 
the '/aw^h, t-alltil IJakobaor Buyi-iyc, in whom 
he was dec|ily interested. They are a totally 
distinct race from the Bechiiuiuw. their com- 
pk'xiOD being darker, and thoy tfitoakiufr u dif- 
ferent language. Ife ailminNl tiicir fnink, 
manly hwirlniir. Thoy liiftene*! to the f.Uit->. 
nienlj which be made rcspeotiii^ tlie Oiviui; 
Word, and Bconn^l to iindur^taad th*'fii. 
Th^y Were found dwellinjj around the lake, 
and on the bunks of all the rivrrs to tht' north, 
wliich scouanl U) oix-u a highway capaltli* of 
li i 1 ' iiuickly truvor-'-i'd by lurMa, Tliti'* i.s thy 
ijeninf^ iu every direclioti. for the en- 
■ of the pospel into that dark region. 

Ju 1H51, M&wra. Llringitton and OrwcU 
nffoin started for the north, bnt in a more east- 
erly <lirection, when they reneht^l th*- latitinle 
>>f 17-^ 2^' S., and discovered tho f'hnlM?! and 
Sfshcke, deep nod con-stnnliy flowin* river?, 
^iifipojtc*! to \k the fwih-r-* of the Zauibf'zi, 
Til.; 'AiUir-A w:w asccrtaineil to be ttbJorbi*<l in 
sands jiad ga|t pans. The coantry through 
wbiih the former rivers flow, u level and v';iy 
fertile, 

r'ftpt A''nrdon explored the region north* 
lit of KotobfiifT, Irudutf the Limixipo river 
< • a uonHiiliTablu dlstanec. In I8.'»l, Sir. (iai 
I «9 Hi *>uUi liitf Gf&U. i>i>-jrM, (Th^tfUfj j tuD explored a pari of Bouth Africa from 



wtJIaif to tlieirdif^''^''*' Tm-.n tbt- .^-^ itn.T ^j-n. 

«rmtcd from t^<ii < 

aaautikiitK. The I 

Xtf«jV KhaqfiOr Lanft /'ou ,- ami beiweim it 

lod tlir e*r\ r^ an irr.'inilar bf!f "f fcrlile Ith'V 
»tI1 wj' 
nip* ^ 

w-.-*: Ir'-'iii iL' 

|r. - i cliuiale. 

TV- iMti hi.i-x Afottntnin, 

fG / ■ It l-! more lofty and 

•^ ' ■ -"-i-^liii^, in many 

i'jt5«, and wnniy 
1 Mi-O rnt;'L Be- 
ts ' the same 
mn-A <1 iii6i>mo 
ti "liiein, I'f n:dceJ 
i fCrrrriv. inlen-fpi-rei'«l 
s of Ittiid. 
iho N'eu^ 
with the 
!iie l)i>rb- 
..ii..d jjcttk be- 
i ; and coveretl 
'1 tiiisi and the 
1. plain, nearly 
I lUI) in width, 
I'bbi ia not a samly 
it, bnt ft sort of tablo- 
I witli on argiIlae>i?ouit giotl. 
!rin. ufMin a Bnlislralnm of 
! " • : the level 
imlet^. in 
-■r I nij'i. 'Tii^ it like 
^■tioQ^ Mr. M.ilTat 

. vr..r.,linrf in pome 

lie of the 
_ , :"i>tiM into I 

ikc All: '• 24th degrw of east 

lnif^t»j I .<-- the ennte of Gilboa 

cpAQ «L it ir iiiru Uml ruin-i to any ex- 
iesA <v epauitiVr fill in thi>ie r^oni Ki- 
tjtam 4r)«ff(' ^ for years ti^kpether. 

T^ ifcvoauD^ : preeariooj^ and somi? 

Af tfccB fam dri«.<j up nito^ether. 

F^wm Ibo wnt coaitt the eountry asei'ndn. 



pUleaii 

The Itof!: 

!ihmr,ntr% u> 

iJenl of Tike »cn 

m tine boaniUr) 



TW rbUd 



the interior, by 
bv moiiuUin 



tty-riiory, iherv 

r-™et in heipht 

north is 

iuhahiteil 
it riTmle* frtim 
n fertility ami 

ns formit 



■ 



WAlfiflb B&y, on tbe wost coast ns Tar u lat. 
17° 58' S. ami *il ^ E. long., uccuratdj dtiter- 
mining the whole region. 

In lb52, a j^tarofy was mudo by Mr. Plant, 
from Natal tu Dela^tfa Bay, in which he dia- 
covt'red that Ht. I.ucin May leads into no ex- 
tensive inlet, hitherto anknown. 

Chmatc.—Tlv^ climate b in general tempos 
ttiv und healthy, but um^temly, disugreoiule, 
ami not well i*i:it<Hl to uj^ieullure. In the 
8oath-wet^crn dislricts, the rains in the cold 
fleasi'ii are jirofiise, but oF rare occurrttice in 
till* sujnuer. In the moro uortbcriy district.^, 
eomrtimcft no rnin falls for years ; which, how- 
ever, Mr. Moflat attribulra to tho uaiwrsal 
destructioa of the forcat-i. Generally, tiirouj,'h- 
out tho colony, Iho rain, whai it doea coiiie, 
pours down in lorreiit-^, LKTotiitininft gn'ut dani- 
Bpe. Somctituca the southeast wind is o sixv 
CiOB of Simooni, excessively hot, and looJcd 
with an Impnlpuhlesaud. Tlw mean (cmpcror 
tare of the Cain: h about 67 1-2^ Fohr., tlie 
coldest Ijoing 57- and the hottest 79=". Yet 
Mr. Moffat thinks the climate of the colony 
perhaps the healthiest to be found in any 
[Kirt of the \vorhi. With refea-nce to the cli- 
mate of the whole of Southern Africa, Mr. 
Mof^t say.«, " It varies from that in which 
thandpr-etorinR and toniodoee sb&Ve the mimn- 
toin?. aiwl the scorching raya of an almost ver- 
tical hun prodnw the mirage, to that which is 
salubrious an<l mild, uithiu the boundaries of 
tlip tx)lony alonjr Kaffrt.'-Iand to the fruitfnl 
niid welJ-wati're<I plain? of llie Zulu wuntry, 
in the vicinity of Port Natal ; while the mon* 
mountttinotts and elevated regions are vfoited 
by keen frtist* and heavv fuIU of suow." 

Ntittve Pupitljtion. — \\*hfn the Capo was 
first discovered by Bartholomew Diaz, and 
when it was taken potsgcssion of by the lluteh 
in 1CC2, the whole of what is now dcaignoted 
as the colony was bhabitcd by the Hottontots 
proiior. 

The A'a^z-LV proper live beyond thoQiih river. 
00 the wiiitoru boundary of the colony. They 
form ouc trilie of the great Ilechuanit family. 
Their national character is bold and warlike. 
Their countn,' i^; bounded by the ocean on the 
south, and a raoire of m'.mntain.i on tbc north, 
and hcyood them lie tho AmojKwh und Zufu 
tri'ios, bfilongiiiy; tn the same family, \orth 
of Kaffre-luud, betwwn the Wjntorbergimmn- 
tains and the higher branches of the Yellow 
river, lies the country iiihabit«l by the Jiasv- 
tos, a tribe of Bechuaima. Beyond the Ba-sn- 
l08 to tlie north of Oningc river, lie tho othor 
Bechuaua tribes, whose uombera and extent 
are ^iit uukuowu. 

T)io c<mntry from the limits of the desert to 
the west coast k cidled Great Natnaqmiiand, 
and contains a thin popnlation of the Hntten- 
Ui nice. To the north of the Namafjoaa, lie the 
Jktmaru tribes, of whom ctimparalively little 
is known, fvoept that they appro.\iniate. In 
physical apijearanee and color, to tbc negroes 



on tho west t^oast Tlirac tribes inhabit 
country cvtcnding fVom the tropic of Capri- 
corn to the Capo of Good Hope, and from the 
Atlantic to the s-hfiro of the Indian Mcean. 

Tlie tribvs which have been mentioned arc 
tbose which have been the objects of mission- 
ary hilx>r. (See Cxvr. Vnixisv, KArrKK-s, Hot- 
tentots.) — McCtillorJi's GeogTiimtj ; Moffat* 
Labors atid S(cnes in Southern A/rica, Chav. ' 
Kntychp&Ua lintanmca. 



Mtmtvian Mission. — MisBionary op>.Taiioa 
were ftret commoneod in Sooth A6'ic«, by th 
United Brethren. In 1737, Oeorpc Hchmid 
arrlveiJ at Cape Town, a free passasre barinfl 
been granted hira by the Dutch Viast lodml 
Company. Uis object was to make known 
the pn?pr-l to the Hottentots; and he sooo 
commenced his labors at Bavtan't Kliv^f, aftfr- 
wards called Gaintlendal, (Vole of Grace,) 
Tlmugh oblitfod to preach tbronp-h an iotet^ 
preter, his aolf-^lenying eflbrta were followed by 
considerable kuccjcks, Tbelluttentols repurdeft 
him with sontimenta of unfeigmed love and 
admiratiorr; and in the course of a few years 
a number of them received htH mownire as tho 
truth of (lod. Finding bim=eir, buwt-vcr, 
much cmbarra-ssed in his operations by tlic iu- 
twferenee of the colonial govcniment, he re- 
paired to Kttrope in 17U to obtain a removal 
of hi3 crifi^'ancrg. But he not only failed to 
secure this important o>ycct ; the Dutch East 
India Company even nrliiscd to siinrlion his 
retnrn to tlie scene of his labors ; and for fifty 
years the hanest which he had begun to gath- 
er, was left without a reaper. 

At leuGrth, Iiow(;vcr, in July, 1792, Morsveld, 
Schwina and Kubnel were permitted to search 
for the few ?heep, who had btvn left so lone 
without a shepherd at Geiiadendal. They fouod 
a jKirt of the wall of the old ini83ion-hou.'50 
standing; and in the garden uttaehed to it 
were some of the fmit-troea which Sebniidt 
had planted. An aged female whom he faod 
baptize!, and who stili retained a remem- 
brance of her Ixdovptl teacher, rejoiced ejtceod- 
inply when she was told that the new mbv^ion- 
arics were hia brethren. The HotlentotB, — 
eomeof whom recollected their old pudtor, while 
many had heard of his hriff bnt beneficent ca- 
reer. — rallied around Ins .-iiccejiiors ; and Iteforo 
the end bf 1793, s^ven persooB were bapti?!cd. 
Great opposition, however was encountered, 
fi-om the Dnleh fanners, or iiaers, as tbcy aro 
called,, who. thinkinj^ the iimlruction of tho 
Hottcntota likely to prove imarious to their 
temporal interests, manifesttsl their hoptility 
by poisoiiinj,' the mimis of tho nativLy, and by 
threatening \'ioIcnet' ofraiact tho missi-iiiaric*. 
They also preferreil chaises a«:aiiist (hem, ti>_ 
the colonial government, thereby securing 
ders'*T'or embnrrassinj; their proceedings. BjT 
these meanrt tin? mission was" for a hiri;r lime 
kei)t in a state of coii'^tant alarm. In oi 



AFBICA. SOUTHERN. 



fatfteacc, B "■"""•■.ii,; K...Vortiie colonists roee 
!■ MTom, ' >-t of alleged griov- 

UKxs, ft£ii> ' 1)0 attenipt to CTB-D- 

Mfin-tbi' ' ; ineotucqiiencoof u'hti.'h. 

WDUBsix -, at one time, (Iriveu from 

thai pi*«t. 

>fr SrTi^Tinn. while traveliM- to Cape 
■ 'ii,wn5 rcfiiso^IeUberloug- 
'y tho c'-l'tnist*. and was" 
: night, utlond"?"! by a piii- 
' -ii u dL-^rt cotinln" inff^t- 

..^> .i.tvts. Throagh all Uifsc 
, till! imtive couverts stocl by 

-_- . .- . ui Ihc (^Ttiflteit estn-mitifs. 

Bat iu J'l'o, tlie rMJony woa taken posses 

ma of by the ^^iti^ll (J'lvcrnmcnt, and the 

B^wirjQ ut IiavtaD'»-K1rM>r, wof< takeu under 

|rr>tc»-*l'in hy tliv new government. Aflor tb'iM, 

iIm'v -re (jriicliuss and peace, tt con- 

wJ' I r of new people came to theni, 

--'■''■- I God was oinied and blessed 

• r-ion of souls. A Chorch was 

;{• the eloHP of tlie war. twenty 

\'':tc bnptizod. Still tbcir enc- 

; liet. In Ff'bruarr, 17110. st)mc 

I iiif farra'-'T«ui«eiublod a hinidrod 

!i till' (li -ijjn (it mnnleriti*; the 

1^; tlieir sctUement ; 

red by the (^overn- 

i Artorwards tb<? l,n>ow 

lie niksiftnuritw and their 

1 iii-ra provUioiw, which or- 

1?. But tJie Lord turne<l 

' tl.'- worst of their porac- 

n"\\'., !_■. >I ih(. utility of their 
i,".'!! load uf corn to tlie 
^ price than it would have 

now hrgan to be visited by pcr- 
t* at Oape Town, who Iwrenon- 
wnsAr tt^tiuiony to itg pood cffi'cbi ; and 
aanag mh<TTs. .Ntr. Borrow, who gives the fol- 
\BWTag Bccijual of what he Haw : " Early on 
Hwrby tn'Tninjt. I wan awakened hy some of 
tV nri.-*t v.... .-s I had cv*T bt-ard, find hxikini; 
rir. ,i,w :i i;-i/apof Ilcttcnlot woTneo neatly 
AvanJ iu ail ico, sitting on the j:;Tound. and 
dkMtiiMf tUdr mcmlnff faymn. The mtssion- 
!!(■ wrr- ■■■■>.»•" I--' r ■'; plahi in their 
4t». mc' imeiit, but in- 

tdC^rait I .■..>m, zealous in 

Amt €»': " from bTjf'try. ErCiy 

tUag pfirt :r chnracteriHiic noAtnon 

tmA «iiiiiJiciiv. 'I'h'Ar church wn^a neat plain 
1«9dln<r »f»'l tbdr mill the bret in the colony. 
Tf. > '^ ' i^eti abnndance of vejfe- 

v thing liiid been dune by 
U« widi Is, UwarBOciety rrijuiring 

i^wy onf ; ' ipd some trade. Tliev have 

f|i«iird( ' ■ d Hottentots, ao^ their 

mahfTw Tfa^in?. Tliuse live in 

W* ■'■- "- -" ■■ ■- '■ ■■' 

^. 

Wt,- 

dbW; «ud &I1 arr^ngsf^ in usdoJ trmk^ • 



occnpatton*. On Snnday they all repilarlyl 
uttendcl public worahin. and it U a-tnni-hingi 
how neat and clean they npiniir at i-liurch.j 
Tbcir dep<»rtment was truly devout. Thu di»-j 
course of the ini*tionary wh-ti short, pal holiOii 
Qud fidl of f^oad sense. The women tuin;; in aJ 
plainlire and nfTcctiog style, and their voiccflj 
wore ewect and barraouious." 

In 1798, a roiuforcemeut amred froni 
rope, and the old church was convertcil intai 
dwellings, and a new one built, cipiiblf? of 
holding 1,500 persons, the scttlcmfDt haviuffJ 
increawd to 1,230. Eighty-foor wcpo baplizoal 
during thb ytair. ] 

In the Humnier of IfiOO, an qHdeniic ft.'VL'f ] 
raged for some months, carrying oflf sometimes I 
eight or t«tt a day. To meet the occasion an ar> j 
rangemput waa made by which ench nnf>^iona' j 
ry and hia wife visited a certain disrtrict every] 
week, making a circuit of fonr or five miles, at] 
great peril to their own Uvea, lliey found the I 
poor people lying in the greatest mi»Ty, apotil 
nothing but u hlioep^kin sq)reail on Ihfi bare 
ground, without medical aid, nml often with- 
out r(X)d ; the convalwccnt tormeiile*! with 
hanger, and the poor, nake<l children crviug 
for food. ^ATicn they qjoke to tbi-m, in tlioee 
uircqnLstances, of the love of Jesiw, they were 
cheend by eeeing them listen with eagerness, 
Msiming to forget all their sufferings, oud ro- 
signing themselves to the will of tin? Xawi], es- 
prc-SHbig tlieir confident hope that he would 
receive ihem to himself, and liXtoUing hiE good- 
ness, in i^ciiding Ihem leachiT? to instruct them 
in the knowlt-dge of tlmir Rt'dfvnier. 

Hy this time, (It'Ol,} the rame of BaviunV 
Kloof had .'-•pread far and wid", and the natives 
came in oompanies, pome of them thndi-stanco 
of a six weeks' jounicy. One poor woman 
eame, who ^nid pheuniU'isloi^l BananVKIoof 
^> he nn a-^ylum for poor sinners like heradf 
who bad become tired of the service of Satou, 
iiml were doarons of finding rest for their 
)souls. Peace l>eing concluded between the . 
Ku"lL<!h and Dutch, the colony was rcsfored to ^^1 
the latter, and the new governor proved friend- ^^| 
ly to the mission, and one of the raijwionariCB ^m 
was ftpp<jinteii chaplain to Ihe colony. At the 
migg:fstion of Gen. Jaa';frn, the Govcmor, the 
name of the place was changed to GuailatthaJ^ 
or Gtnadetulai, which means Graccvaic. 

Tn January, M^Oft. the colony was again oon 
quercd bv the KritiHli ; but the government 
continueif friendly to the miwrion. In 1807, a 
new M'ttlument was formed at Groenckloof, or 
Orcen-glcn, in the high rood between Cape 
Town and Saldanha Hay, and Bieasrs. Schmitt 
and Kohrhannner removed there with their 
wi^* in 1808. They soon gathered a settle- 
ment nnmnd Ihein, and their labon were 
bt«-«.«;«-d by the Holy .Spirit, und muny were 
!'•"■ i *it the Lord, giving evidencr of rcpeut- 
.1 faith. Tbc folldwing rcmai'ks of one 
■ converts is a specimen of the fecli 
1). expressed, giWng eridence of 



4 



[■•clings ^J 

or tb^H 



S4 



Ai'KlCA, SOUTHERN. 



l^'UuiiWQeas oF the work of grocts in the hoart : 
" I mxm to be snrroundud hv my sins, like » 
maa atiuiding in the mi(Ut of^ Ibe firi.', uikI am 
reaUy to be coiisiuncj hy llic unguUli of my 
S[>ir)l; but ill this ?<Uuati(in, I htiL'tch out my 
arms towiu-d heaven, and exclaim, L(ird Jwiw, 
BulTer some drops of thy lienveiily ^-riice to 
quench Ihu tlomu wlilcU threatciu to destroy 

UK." 

Tlio miaaioD still coDtinued to enjoy the pro- 
tection of government and the bieesuit; urGo<l, 
ftud Uw coiiverU mode (^m1 j>rogT(:!»i in their 
kuowlalgeof diviue truth. The heaihcn from 
A dtatanuc vcrc led in a remarkable manner, 
OA by some unseen inQuena* on their niiuds, to 
lluck U) the miiisiiiu .icttleuieu(& One woman 
said tlmt her father one dar called liis fkmily 
around him and said, " \ly dear children, 
thoupb you are iiutleutoU and despised hy 
mvu, yd Imliuve well | fur I believe llial (iud 
will, ul Komt! future time, tt(;nd uit U-aehers fitim 
a liifllaut country. I may not live to see that 
day. but you ivill hereafter know that I have 
Uild you tlie truth. Ah noon oh you bear that 
Huch perKous hare arrived, hat>tcn to tlicm,aud 
obey Iheir ioslractiuuit.'' Souu after the old 
mon'ii deutli, the te&ehetd arri\ed, and tus soon 
iu the iluughter heard of it, she went to them. 
vna iitidrucUHl iu the way of solvation, nud 
&fter Pomc time, was received into the church. 

Jn l.-slfj, itev. C. tJ. Latrobe, l:?c'cret;iry of 
the United Brethren's Societv, viftited Uic mia- 
sioo, aeconipuuted by four male and two female 
mlaalonario!. Thia visit was productive of 
inueh good : and while there, he nmdo au ex- 
pedition into the interior, aceompauied by 
three of iho miiwiauariuu, aud the surveyor of 
the i^iivcrninent, and »e)ectt.il a .site fur u new 
atatiou. onUie hanks of U'ttte lievier, near the 
frontiers uf Koffi-nria, which was afterwanls 
ctillal M./M. 

In Deeember of Lhu year, the inhabitants 
of Oeuodcndal were suddenly involved in dis- 
troi^ b^ the descent of a, torrent fn>m the 
mouutaniH, which overwhelmtHi the f^vater 
part of their prcinlscfi with dcatruetive viuicne*', 
and occai!ione<] c;reat dnma^^'o. Hut when the 
miftBionnrics spoke to the poor ilottentots of 
the daiuuge dune to their (cronndc;, thoy replied, 
that they had caiL-4e to thuiik tlte Txinl for liia 
mercy, that notwitbfitauding' their great de- 
merit, they had been chastised with tio much 
lenity. 

In 1817, the Governor of the colony. Lord 
Somerset, vntitcd the mi&tion ul Geiuulendal, 
and After expressing the highest gratification 
at what Uo saw, prceeutod them with tlu-ce 
hundred ilollani for the uk of the ^u-Ikk)!. 

On the 7th of April. 1818, Rev. II. Schmitt, 
and his wife, with throe single men aud the 
widow of Kohrbammcr, commenced the mtfr- 
sion alShiloIi,or \VittoRevier,or"V\*hiteriver. 
^ou^derable numbcn of uativee l>cgan to at- 
tend on their r»rertchinp, when they were in- 
volved in the greatciit colanutics byaprcda- 



iary excursion of the Kaffrcs, which rtwiluxl in 
the l<j<id of their cattle, and tlte murder of nin^ of 
tlieir Hottentot^ and compelled the mi^ionv 
riea to leave the station. On Uie 18th *if May, 
Mr. Hoffioan visittid Wittu Itevier, aud fouuil 
the miBsion preuiL^ce burnt, and everythiug 
destroyed. But, in October, peace having 
boun concluded between the Eoffrea and tbe 
colonial govemrocnt, the mission wafi restmuxl, 
and ranid and interesting imjirovcmcutA wero 
dTecteu at the new settlement. Rev. B. P. 
Hallbcck mya, in 1821 ; " On the spot where, 
two venrs ago, we knelt in tiie frcah track uf 
nn elephant, aud offered up our first pniyiT for 
the pnwperity of Uiia c»tabliHlinicnt, 1 now 
fonna a beautiful orange tree, adorned at odov 
with ripe fruit and fragrant bloissoms; and short- 
ly after my arrival, I was invited to ten. undcT 
ibe hupj yellow Ire*, Ui the ahade of which, but 
lately, ihcrc were no ussernlilieH but lh(>se of 
wild buQiiloes, elephant^ aud other dreaded 
inhabitants of the d<»ert." 

The Tombookii^s were u wild race, on ilia'' 
bonleru of the KiLfTns); and the mij«iiottarifa I 
frequently complain of their intractableneai^ 
iudiflerence, suiwrstition and iusuU*rdination; 
yet, from the first, they appear to hove 
ivgnrdetl the niis^ionuries with I'alet'ni and vuo- 
erutiou, gijiug to tlieni for ud vice and for ifao 
sctth>ment of their diiheultii^; and down to 
the poriui of the breaking np of the Etation^ 
dining' the lute Kiiflre vmr, llu-v have been 
griuluiilly Impruviiig, and aasimllattng mora, 
and more to the ImbiU and usagoii of Kurof;o- ' 
aus. The goe^pel appears nUo to have taken 
effect upon the hearth of many of them. 

In July. 1822, the settlements at Uenadcudal 
and (iroen<:kliMif again snffered severely by 
Hood, involving them uln]i"wt incomplel*; ruin. 
Tbo building were damaged to tlie amount of 
th<)us.inds of dotlun>, and tlitt hut^ of the Hot- 
tentot**, together with their gnmmlsvcrj'miieli 
injured. They also last a great many cattle. 
At the same time the ^ettUmcDt at £non was 
iiulteriug 6evL'i-ely from faniiuc. 

Iu ly2rt, the miadiouary writes : "A. new 
dwelling'houriciii buildiug under the in5|)ection 
of a Ilottcntot mosoa of Genadendul, and I 
am surprised at tlio neatiKBB and ftccnraey with 
which the work is doui>. 'l*his Hottentot hu 
not his equal, OS a nia.>^^n, either among the 
^UVicans or Euro[M'ans, in the neighborhood. 
He is an exoelleut cliuracter and a pattern of 
sobriety, industry, aud Christian temper :" thos ' 
showing the effect of missions in clev»lingthe 
general character of the heatlien, and qimlify- 
ing thorn for the arts of ctvilizt^d life. 

Jn the year 1 82^, the Brethren were solicited 
by govt-niment to undertake tlie relimoas in- 
struction of n number of lepers, for wnum the 
Hospital Hancl'cn-Aarde \\a*\ been erected, in ' 
a ruioautic situation, ai the foot of a moontain ^ 
aUled the " Tower of Baljei," near the sea. 
llev. J. P. lictner, in obctJionce to thia ro- 
' quest, removed there with his wife, ia l)ec«m- 





Mnikiit; kuu 



mad becBine scriuuH 
UkBWOvd. Hii- >•>'>' 
tkit pRaeat Ui: 

tr the im*inni 



tlie poor paticnU wore 

Some of them, who 

:>• Um cliurcli, ul tlu* 

\oA w(5 know tlial Jesus 

■ aiul Will IK help ; for wc 

(1 our leachtrd 

I heir tiine in 

'• llivir fiiliilce 

I'.e hcnrcri of 

I coiitiQaod to 

'al wiis salMxy 



tf||il^Vi<r < ni'iphlKtrinp 

II III ultruil public 

^Vaolli^a'. . iniis.nnd la acTcrnl 

laairihirtg inmiigf i)Ui3 liiktii place. " In 

of t2i» wwk, ODT chort^lKij liuve t>c«-ii 

▼iUi atlcDtiTe hcnrcf?, our gcboola wiili 

lovwib <ii chJIdmi, uik] both rhurcbcg and 

^«d)fiul.t lia.^1- l-vTi liili-thviih tin- hullowwl pre- 

!' Otnl, will! Iitid wrought 

[• u-i in (iiu UyarLs of nmuy. 

I hoik ^ UMi^iiu^. U'oitJerriil indeed haa 

llviA tke rvmal u( rt'li^ion uroiind as, bv 

I vUdi Cfc* loDB uf fiocu'Ly hiti boen cliongeii, 

■i (bo luwcn, wliu in rtukt yean oppracd 

itbvork. - t n-thn-n and' fdlow bboi^ 

I MhftCfcr ii^inti: in oursorroirs, and 

L ^IsiMif 111. niiu jiru^ lUg fur our giicresfl." 

I MiawakoDiOg ainou;? tilt' rarmtrre contin- 

mI Hmttgfaoiit '>!'■ ^■■■•- '-'■** :Mid 1834. ami 

fttflDotrrto at. hotl Htcadra'^t 

istkDuUt. U: ijiaillolcma 

^■lu wlu) VftH duu^ifowly lit, who Knu|)e<l 

Ul ksod ncd with g^reut fervency ejclaii^d. 

•T' ■ iTvK acnl you to this laminn 

^i-- inflauirf of Mviut; my st>v,\ from 

■a^iiN^t . tiiJ^ I wrtiitinl uy tell you htfore 1 

«.* t^iolurmoil him Umt HhiMviuiuwikkiiioi) 

^m om^tssutioii hi* luid with hor in l»'i9, 

I W^ vuftl of wiiicli *Jir n;iijcmbt'red. Her 

■ilBid ftUu biid boi'u uwukciieil, Hud hod *»■ 

Miftail fiuaily pru)-cr. 

Hwo hM eouiiftiKHl to be, down to the prc- 

Hl (iiiHf. Ik vkndy iii>niL*4-< of uumWrs dI the 

f^wal l^ttlini'. iil.\ ibo untivtM Bometimi-^ 

[ snrfliif 1 numbiTa. There liiu. 

Iib^bant - -uprDvommt in industry. 

t^piatoirvr iik.-i:iitiiiicut pmplo^-D)entJl, hou:- - 

[•IBMd tiw ttrta of ci>ilin'4l life. And g< 

|«iS|', ofcry vt'-.tr 'K'm>tior 

jlfatyBciAl pn>' I in tht^l 

'm of jwjvi;,--, iiiia -^•iii.-iMi.i-,-. In InrL ' 
. Tlue Oonvvrltf buvo for the n\ 
.« o^-.1r«cf>of (frowth In irrao-, » i 
-meat ; tiioQfrh ulmoft i-v> 

_ _ --••ill UL'C(?r_-«iri' !i ■ Liil ..f!' -.irii 

I tor diBonlri : ,d 

r-r iiii- [Tf.^r ,H>| 

luarkLti luid ' 
■ -lony ouTifiil-j 



Teotwh, "Yonr miaiicajMte hnvc been the 
groitt^t ln-ncfartora of the Ilottciitols ; nnd 
you hiive conferred iho |;rt'ut«ttl beniilitacm I he 
Colony." 

iirc&t cu^cmoss but oflcn been mnnifcstcd 
to hear iJio wonL In 1849, Rev. Mr. Fninko, 
on \'iflit.iajf (lie oiit-elalious of (•'"■dverwscbt, 
snini! distflnc*' fi-om Urfwnclcloof. n-'morlw : 
■' Every time wc visit Umt fipot, our hairts are 
gladdened. Kvtry wonl «piH.'ni-8 to be. i« it 
were, devourtMl by lb"6«e biui^rerinp sonl.«. iininy 
of whom fumfc from u distance, some from 
twelve to sixteen mill's, ITiey art' onstuntly 
inakin;^ Inquiries whether they will not soon 
ngnin bo vipitwl, and prent joy is manirvfltml 
by this urrivul of the mI*<iouftry iiniouf; thini." 
And often at the sotticments the enmch nro 
too giTot to be accoinni<»diitt'd in the ehiirehen, 
und many !*Uu>iI otilftido. lint al houw of the 
f^uitioii-s iho ^.:■tth■'meIlta have grown so Lir^ 
that many of the people have to p) to an m- 
eonvcniiiit disJuntt! to find employment, whtch 
fnK]nentiy tukia Ih'-ai for weeks from L'hiiutiiui 
privilc^s. 

The missions ponmiUy hare Urpie famu 
connected with each station ; am! in swyvral in- 
stances tile ifovuniment hoA appnopnatcd three 
tboosaud acres of land to a Btation. Ife^^idcs 
this, they hii\'e Toriona kimls of mecbnoioal 
cmploymeols in op«>ratit>o. ThftW arranstv 
nient*!, while Ihfy iinni^h cmploj-ment for tlie 
nutivi^, and lit-Iruetion in agrieultnrt*. and tho 
uieehanie utlrt, and atTi^rd a pai'tial (<npport to 
the missions, occupy too much of the time and 
ftlleution of tbe luiuioDarics in secular pur- 
suita 

In 1B39, at the request of the colonial sfOT- 
ernuK'nt, a mission was commenced amoii^ the 
Fu>iitT%, who ln-inK deliverod from a elato of 
Ix'iiduLrc among the Kaffrcs, found refuge to 
the number of many tliousands within thi! col* 
ony. Tliis new HtAtion was caHet) Clarhoti^ 
anil tlie nuniU-r of I'injfoes re^itling there was 
l.dUd. They hud liirjre herds of oxen, with 
Aoelu of flheep und goata, and had scttletJ cTcry 

Clacc in the vicinity whore the soil was ciipa- 
U; of cultivation. 'The Kinizoea received tba 
mi*ionories with op**n arm^, and Iht-ir atten- 
liou to the won! waa truly oilifying. Such 
was their e.ijk'oni''** to hear, and tfte concoiirw! 
of ivHiph*, that they were obligt'd to hold tbe 
in till? ojK'n air ; and verj" soon the most 
truci-sof thf work of the Ilol^v Spirit 
! I -s were visible. In April, IS-IO, 
ti) (ill more marked. At one of 

'■ iul^^, the Fingoia poured in from idl 

-. and jrrcttt emotion was manifwt 
■i■■■^^\ "in.-h was ahown in vttriuiiB 
' for thenwelrcfl and ollicrs 
1 iii^ porcntu and relutioiu); 

and til tiie aliernoon, there were tbw dry eyos 
in tho cou^reicaliou. The blcajins; of Owl nn» 
coulitiued to follow tho labors of nia wrvodlfi 
at tbi* Mtttion. The Flngoe* are the relics of 
acvcnU iulaud tribc«i who have been oxpclM, 



AFRICA. SOUTHERN. 



olmoflt anuihilnted by Uiotr more power- 
All ndgfabcns. They U»ok refiigt* vrith tlio 
Kaffl^ who tre&tod thcni as scrffi ; nnd when 
the colonial troops overran a large p«;irlH>u of 
Kaffi-oriii. they put themselves tmtlcr tlie pro- 
lcct(«;ii of the British g-ovcrntnent 

The effect of tlic cmunciputiuo of the slaveys, 
or ajiprc^iiticefi as they were then ealleJ, waa 
(greatly to increai* Iho mimbor of thoao who 
Uocki-d to the miiftioa atatlona, and especially, 
of tlu! dulflren in iwbool. The mi^ionaries at 
Geniidondal. speaking of the genuine eOl'Cte of 
tiie »iliiiis.sii»n uf the gwtpcl iiito the heart, as 
inanifct-lfd hj tlio converts, Bay, "And among 
none moro so tlian the lately enrrancbised 
aluvce, whow growth in graee and koowlctlgo 
Ja most eacouragiiig." In one iustADce, a man 
canifia dtstiuiccof two or tliroe hundred niile^, 
to obtain a miasiomtry for a fsettleinent of 
emaacinated slarca, and oflered a salnr? of 
$600, out was obliged to return witliont 
one. 

In the Diary of the station at Gcnadcudal 
for Iti-ll, it is stated that " The emaucipatcd 
sluvee aet'ui aniiualod by an uucominun uegire 
after spiritnal blossingrt. 'Hierc is a firo in 
their hetutii which bus not been kindled by 
man, but by the Spirit of ttoil. Frwdom ap- 
pears by the di\'iDe bkwsing, to Iiav« an-ak- 
eucd in their minda the feeling that tbej arc 
beings who bt'Ioog not to time only, but to 
eternity. 'The chaiim,' said one of them. 
'were on my limbs from infancy. I could nut 
coioK to the hou.'W of Gi>l, but was obliged to 
livo like a brute. Now, Ood baa bn»kon my 
chains, and I am here ; but my heart k qnite 
blank ; 1 am nld.aud run understand b\it httle. 
My God I let but some drops of heavenly dew 
fall u|K>ii nn' barren soul !' " 

The Kalfrc wars bare ttfibctcd the missions 
of the Uulteil Brethren leas than those of some 
other BOeieties ; yet several of their mia<iuns 
wei'e dintarbc*!, and jtomr of them temporarily 
abandoD«Ml in couficqueDce. CumputiK'ti were 
drafli'd inttt the CJ*>loiiial sirniy from the difftr- 
ent statinnii, which took them aw.iy from the 
mearut of grace. However, they were led 
thereby to prize them niorohirjlilv. They kept 
np meetings* at their camps, whi<!li were atleniV 
eu by the Dutch fanners, to their edification ; 
and uie British officers bore honorable testi- 
mony to the good conduct of the Christian 
Hottentots. Y*'t some ^ the young men nv 
tuniiHl M-ltli habitft of dissipation, which led to 
their prompt discipline, ana waa tlio means of 
bitroducingthe l«mnerance reflirmation among 
thy c^tuverts. Various measures were n-ported 
to, from time to lime, to prevent the u.w uf in- 
toxicating liquors. Tho farmere wero en- 
treated not to furniFh them to tJiP Hottentots ; 
but this fiiilirig, Blahop Hallbeck addrewwil an 
earnest letter to tlie congn-gation at Groenr- 
kloof un the subject, and a geuiTal re*>lntion 
nros pa^ed that no bmuilv, and but a Itntite^l 
quautity of wine flhould be bruttght into the 



settlement ; and on a petttion f^om Ocm 
dni, itv3 civil commisuoner refastid to Hceoso 
the sale uf lit|uors at that place. 

Schools have b«en HuataiiiO»l from the begtn- 
ing at all the stations, with increasing interest ; 
and csi}eciulty tlie infant i«chcK}I is tipokeu of 
tt<^m timu to time, n& producing a very happy 
effect, not only upon tne chUdreo, but tlie pa- 
rents. 

In 1637, an institntion was opened at Geoa- 
dendal, for training Hottentot assistants, with 
eleven boarding i)upiU ; and the foundation 
rtouc was laid, on the first of Norember, for a 
two-f tory building, 74 feet by '23. The fir?t cs- 
amiualiou proved highly satitifactory. and tho«f 
preseut were not a little afitt-nished t« bear 
pevcral of the pupils explain cvetylhing with 
fluency in Rngiiab, when called on tocolre va- 
rious problems with the use of the glol«». At 
the latest datiw, the whole numin-r of pupils 
admitted was '26, of whotiill had n*ccivi '! hj- 
pointnionts as afisifitantu j two of wlumi !.■■•- 
ever, bad been cost off for improper CDitJucU 
There wctc, in IS.'il, ten pujjils in the iustito* 
tion, five uf whom were Kaflrca. 

ARor the niiwion at ("Seimdendiil had been 
in operation a sufficient time to attract the nt- 
t«itiou of the iHiblic, the fi-etjuent visits of the 
Kiii^liidi at tliHstalitm snpirested the idea of 
collecting a libmry of religious books for their 
use, which was cflfectc*! and proved a means of 
much good to strangers, who, from time to 
lime, became temporary re«ide:it3 of Ibe mis- 
sion settlement. 

The brethren early introduced the practice 
of <:poaking individually to all the pmplc, as 
the concerns of the fouI. which they lirand veiy 
pM^tablc. Mr. Ijchman, descri)>ing such a 
conversation, in 18-11, says. "Many of those 
with whom we convciBcd declared that tbey 
had boon kd to us by a secret iropuL-sc ; and 
that though at first they could not comprehend 
much, they now began to iiiidervtam! anil . i: 1] 
the word, and could not bo Kufficieutly il mk 
ful for the graeo of God." Their pi- 
prwisinmi, on ihi.-so occaKionR, were oft* i 
wlifying. An oflicer of the cfanrcli. on i. ,...- 
ering from a severe iltnej«i, acknoi^|dgcd his 
bock.'ilidings, and said, " I wna lik^^ dying, 
Iinlf-williered tree ; but my Saviour in ineti y 
remembered me and visitetl mo witli fiieknc«<?. 
An tlio gardener Raws off the whole crown of 
a withered tree, leaving only the stamp to pr(V 
dnce new and healthy branchee, eo has my 
Saviour done for me." A Fiugo captain Mijd, 
" My Saviour has not only purchasteil me witb 
his blood, but in the days of my ignorance and 
misery, he showed bini^'lf an Almighty II* 
deemer in me, and fiuliducd my dtvjteriiifly 
wicked heart. Now 1 wnccrclv beiiove he will 
keep me so that the powers o( d&rkne^: Hhall 
not be able to separate me from him." An- 
other, on being astteil where true fvinrtifiention 
was to be found, replied, " On Golgotha, ttk 
the foot of the cross. When I am not thr^" 



I 



AFIUCA, SOUTHEEN. 



ar 



■ ■liril, I bftVQ no pover to n»isi sin." Oitc 
M Mtetf ttkcO wbcrcln tne«tnc»i for licuTcn 
WBBJitw, replied, "It is tiU grucv ulouc cm 
'icji I build. Ue forgrins uiy sin-s, for ibi.' 
uf hU pn'ciuti9 lilood, 1 cumc to him 
u ft U-Kgor ."' Ooc wlio had Iks.*» n aliiv<;, 
uiL'-lriiw Ufiod tf) roprnve her, anJ tdit.' 
at her ; but hai'iug tbrou^fb <JuJ's 
couviiKvtl of Bin, sb<^ liiul gouo 

hw parildn. " t), I am liamiv," 

toother^ " for I love m>' Suviuur. tie is 
■y tiiMiir*.'." 

Tbe i;vtiiiii)cncae of the n'ork is also iad>- 
fgtlnl Ytv (J. Iiiii.iiv >;l<.titli3 of the coiiverls, no- 
bOM of -iriu the joamuU of tlie 

Aitaiocuki . .ir. AW mentiim, (ki Rpc- 

Iwij i -, ID extreme 

A!«i ■ ] oco. Chai^ 

I i.'l lUicL'U, (iieu m Febru- 
becu bftptia-d the year 
;r.itwl by a missionary, she 
Lord with ull mv hcu.rt ! 
■J -.,...■. ..t.urt, I ck-ave lo thee, aad 
^_ cooc und dwell with me. This is 
_, %MitffaUioa. In io}- und puin. my sout d(v 
peawli on thn* ivith tiumblu confideucc, thou 
ruck of D/ anlvalionl" lo two huiirs after- 
■snls,ab«; viu vrilh tbt! Lord. 

&rr. Mr. Fribch, writing from £lim, hi 
ldA3. MTB, ** Of lilt*.', wc haro bceu mach cdi- 
ftnl \n LbcLappy di-jmrlure of eevtiral int-m- 
l<n ' .- (litck. We were particnlurly 
llr- "i: huppy fruzDC of u j'otinif ;»irl, 

•lr«Tu y^-^rs ui ogf, who cxprOsscd thc uappi- 
■■ A« M^^ojed in thc prospect of soon goia^ 
l» W BATioar, and cotr^ated all who were 
fnamt t? rvmuin fuithriil lo Jtsos. that sb<> 
■kfat nvrl th>ru iu et'Tiiity. Her ^n^url- 
ItlW. »bo sot-in fnUf>wcd her, after a short ill- 
»K mid, *- 1 suffer ;gTeat poia, b>it what is it, 
MDpio^ wiiU the turmeub which my Saviour 
•aAtn»t IiiT me ou the eross T" 
L Id 1B4"». i^itnc: ucw rc-jfulatioiiR wrre intro- 
Akand, uoooL' which were thi- aiiiiiuil cuutribu- 
Am f4f a Adoll ram by every ubte-budied in- 
kinUfit, towftrd the eicpenscs of tlic place ; 
Ike drmaXioa of a Mhwioiiur}' AM!>oci:itiou ; 
hr^macmna^ a botti^r uttcudunce uf tbe child- 

t9ntitAl»\: Hi..l r.i till ::. .r,' r fTi-.-ttUll bull- 

.jmL i>f Kpii Kiryeal- 

> -tJi^jag l»d ji.'' ,<uts<>me 

•/ fcfatf tSiitiottA. ill ln43, the Kiit^'ii«j at 

Qsktoo, mfter an wldrc^a from th<>ir ml'^ion- 

vy, oin* rurw!ir<l with the atmost cheerfai- 

•«, Om amalUnt iftr-rin;; being li. 61-/. sterling. 

1.. -t 7(. (id. At Shiloh. th^- llrst 

Mitlnn wild miKlc io 18-M. whcu 

^ am uui nroMi'd to Iht.* boxes, with cixio- 

..lesi bMmti^ vith joy. Showing tiiul. 

^ t\.., fl.n.t ^ff.^.*. ..i ti... ■',.<Yn^ i»a Ueue- 

:iake soeriflets;, 

^^ bciicfllii. 

was dcstrovi'<l 

I ! ul sct-nt- ; uul 

I I'V'd. tiumc of tbc people, 



however, joinal the reb«l<t, but mostly by con- 
strftinL Maov of thc houses were burnt down, 
nnd the ehurch was changed into a c^wtle. lu 
April, 1B50, Mv-wra. Iloniitz aud Gv-'in vlaJte 
Shiloli, find found uU the huts uf the KafTrcsl 
nnd FiDgdfW burnt ; tiomc housed of the llolti-t 
lots were st;iuding, but ocrupiwl liy thy Kngllah^ 
nnd Fingoe.^. The dwell iug-hou.-w of iln! mi&- 
ainnaries, with ils bbn.'kyned walls, bore wit- 
m*.- of iJad events. Tbc Mamre mid (Hnhtn 
staiioiiB luLVc alrto been bruken up by Uie war. 
The fulluwiog table prcscnU tho state of 
the misaioD before these sod c^'etila. 



fitATIQlO. 



G«ua'I«im1>L • - 

GrocBtiUW, - • 

Y21m, - . . - 

Euan, • - • • 

.Shilob, - - - 

I'UrkiDB, ■ • 

R^Uticn IidmD<I, - 

TuUl, - 



2S10 



1H2 



im 



flftSA 



The whole number of male European labor- 
ers at these sLutiuns is 20. — Chouier.'3 HiHory qf 
Missions i London Muiioiuiry Resiaier. 

Liiiuion MissiOitan Socidy. — The IjOndon 
Mitbionory Society, three years after its first 
fornintion, in 1795, sent out to Southern 
.Africa, fuur laborers, two of whom, Dr. Vou- 
dorkemp and Mr. Edmonih', were appointed to 
that part nf the colony bordering on Kaffra- 
ria ; and the other two, lo tlje country north 
of the colony, inhabited by difforLui tribes 
of Buif/imen or Boajfstnnns. Dr. Vaaderkemp 
was a 9on of a minister of the fCeformed 
Dutch Church at Rotterdam. He was born 
in 17-17, educated at tho Uuiveraity of Ley- 
den, and for &ome time practiced as a physi- 
cian. In I79L, the loss of Im wife luul child 
at sea was tbe menn.H of liis nwukt>iiiug and 
cunvcraion ; after which, he devoted hlutielf to 
ih','. w-'lf-thinyiiig InlrtJW of a nn&^innary. Mr. 
MulliLt sayri of him: "Ho came from a uni- 
vcraity, to ftnnp to teach the alplmlict to tho 
poor native Hotleutot and Konre ; trma tha 
society of nobles to associate with InMngs of 
the lowest grade in the Hcale of bunianitv ; 
t'rrjm ^lately mansions, to the Qlthy hovel of the 
greasy African ; from tbe arniv. to iniitmct 
t he fierce ^avugts the lactics of a oeavouU* wai^ 
fan-, under Ibc banatr of thc Prince of Peace j 
lV"iu tho &indy of phv.'^ic, to become the euidn 
txi till! Iialin in If ileaJ and tbe phvvioiuii there ; 
und, finally, from a life of earthly honor aud 
easo, to l>e exi>'«od lo^Trls of w;iter3. of rob* 
bcrs, of Ida own eounu-yuien, of tbo healhcQr 
in the city, in tbc wlldcnKsa." 



28 



AFRICA, SOUTHERN. 



In 1759, Dr. Tnnderkemp, in company 
with Mr. Edraonda, procfwlmi thmuKh many 
ilitn!;en«, to tiitr htnd uf the wild ana varllkc 
KnrfWs* ; tmd after un Utile jmrlcy nnd delay, 
the chief puvc bis consent thut tbey should ro- 
mftin iu his domiiiions. T\iey wilectcd a sjwt 
tor a house, felk-d trws, and cut down long 
graS8 for a tlialching, and then kuwJed down 
oil the grais, thanking the lAitd Jesus th:it he 
hiul provide)! them n natinj^-plaee, and l^roy- 
m\* " that from undrr lUiy rm_»r, tho weilof tlie 
gospel might fljirctui iiurlliwank ihroutrh all 
Africa." But, the next year. Mr. Edmonds 
went away, and Dr. Vanderkemp wud left 
aloDC. lie laUircd (in alone for ^me time, 
bnt umng tu untoward eircunistanccfl, left 
KafTrelauJ fur UroolT lEoioct; but not nnti] 
he hntl sovra souie gowl seed ; for thirty 
years aftcrwaril<, an aged woman was adiuU- 
ted to the church who rectMved Ibeguspel from 
bis lim. 

AncT this, the Doctor and Mr. Rend at- 
tempted to cMabli&h amission among tbcUut- 
tentoti near Algun itay ; hut aftrr much opptwi- 
lion from the rulniiints, and sundry attack? from 
IhcpluDdtiriijnr llottcotoL'J.thcv were obliged to 
tiike refuge with about UtHI llottentots, whom 
they had collected in Fort Frederick. After the 
c<«$ioii of the fxiUmy lo the Dutch, a siKit was 
grante<i Uilui on Kooboix where tJiey com- 
menced the alation cnliod Bethelsdorp : which, 
liowcver, from its sterility and want of water, 
was inifliitable for a mission farm. Five yean* 
aft4?r iti lomineneement, they wrote to the di- 
rectors tliat they hiul been without bread for a 
long time, and did not expect to procure any 
for three or four montlu*. norliad they any vep- 
etublca. Yet notwithMandinc all these discour- 
aging circunwtancea, there were many indica- 
tiouK of the i'iviiie blessing im their labors. 
The progrwa itf their scholars was astoDishiag. 
and above all, their fiicility in acqniriDg reli- 
gious* kuowleilge, considering the apatliy, ala- 
pidity, and aversion to e(P:>rt, which charaet^-r- 
U9C tlic natives. Dr. VnndtTkemp closed his 
useful lalwrs, Dec. 15, IKll, after breathing 
out the t'hristiun aaaurance, " AJl is well." 

!JfthitI.-«lorp, uodt:r many difliniltit^ anddis*- 
advuntages, grew and umltipUed. In 1822 it 
was in n most flonrisbing condition, having 
largti sehoohi and otlier institutions, and a 
printing press. New chnrche* wen: nUo 
planted at Pacaltsdorp, llieopolis, and other 
])lucu«, through the instromcutality of lUiv. J. 
Campbell. 

A mii^-jion was conimcncefl at Kat river, 
among the Koffrcsj, in 1H16, by Mr. Ji>*epb 
Williams. Short as Dr. Vaoderkemp's labors 
were among the Kaffrca, ho left a savor of 
tlw go8j>el tichind him, which still rumaiiie'l. 
The commencement of the mission wnw moat 
atutijicioui. Temporary houses were raised, 
ground was cleared fiJii^cuUivation, a water- 
course and a dam were comtructcd, and ilic 
Kaflh» a:v:emblcd for itstinictiOD. A. little 




more than I wo years after, Mr. Williams 
removed by deatli. Hli lonely widow, h 
ever, found -tympatby tn the hearls of the 
tivca, who bad juBt bcgnn to appreciate t 
teachcR. She iuslmctwl her half-civilised 
tendunl.>! to jirepare the wood and make the 
coffin, and with a weeping band, followed Ihc 
ilosirc of her eyes to the silent dnst. No 
cessor was appointed, at that time, and 
mission to the Kuilres was suspended. 

At tlio same time; that Dr. Vandoric< 
proecedetl to tlie land of the KaiTrt^s, Ml 
Kirehercr, Kramer and Kdward-i, took up t 
course for Znk river, iK-tween -400 aiul 
railis north from Cape Town. Mr, Kircl 
had been dr-^igtuited to KaflVcIund. But 
Huahmen, on making a treaty with Sir. Fi 
er, one of the colonisL^s, who was a good nti 
beheld him solemnly appealing to God to wit- 
ness the transaction, and obser%*ed that he was 
in Uie habit of asNonibling his (amily ftir , : 
ship morning and evening, and were thi;-- 
in(]nirc aiwut Gwl, and sulieit n Ciii m 
teaeher. Mr. Fischer toctk some of lhe!r j t ■■ ■ 
cipal men to the Cape, to pee what couid 
done for Uiem. And I'rovidence so onierod 
that they arrived jutjt before the niiHiionarii 
who received it as a call from Ood to labor 
that quarter. They received great kiudni 
and attention fnmi the government, and am 
ance IVom the farmers, who accompitni 
them to the sjjot, and loaded ihcm with tl ' 
requisite to eommence the station. 

Ziik river became the finger-ptwt to the Xi 
maquasi, Coninmw, (Jriquo-H, and Hechu 
for it wofl by means of that miwii'ii IK 
these trilMS ami their condition became Imo 
to the Cbn'-stian world. The farmers eon 
ued friendly, and rauny Jlotti^ntoU and Hi 
tanis tkx'keil to the stiUion ; hot the B' 
men, for whom the mission was designed, coald 
never appreciate its object, llie miiwionnry's 
life was more than once threatened by liirtn ; 
but hii* labore were bleaaed to the conv-n-i. n 
of a number of Hottentots and Bastard.-, wli-i 
afterwards l>ecumc pillars in the tJriqiia ^fis- 
sion. Mr. Kircherer baring left, the nji--'Mn, 
with no small regret, was obmnloned in l^oi;. 

In 1814, another mtiotiou was commenced 
among the Bushineu at Colesberg, scutli of 
the Great river, by Messrs. Smith and Cor- 
ner. The settlement was commencv'il with 
about 500 Buflhmon. For some time, how- 
ever, thcv were jealous of the uussionur---. 
fearing that they were employed to dvil-.L-r 
Ihem into the hands of the farmers. Iwtv.ifa 
whom and (hemselvep, there ha<l bwn a long 
and a mortal enmity. Bnt it w.isnot Ioijl' In- 
fore the light and power of Ihe gospel r»ii(iutl 
their heartis, and many of them iH'Iievnl. A 
clinreh arose, and with it tlic m-nul icsoits 
of (Jhriationity apiK-ared, nmong which wcro 
extensive gardens, cultivatwl by the hantly thai 
used only to handle the bow and FjKrar, ti^s thej 
roamed wildly over the countiy. 



iCJ^ 



AFmCA, 80UTHBBN. 



S9 



ini>sion wu oonnnooced among tlic 
I* ah. , Bat in conscqncDce 

4f 9KIDK' < ^viX'ti thti funnera and Urn 

Biohniim. Uic uiiat-i<jDaric3 were ordured by 
immrmcnt tu rttire wilhin the- colony ; and 
•» Umw 9tuti<>n&, in the ini(Ut of much pro- 
aiw, vrrrr hrokcn np. Some of the Doab- 
mea had aconircd n fiOfA knoviledpc of the 
(riDd|iln or Cbru>tiiinity. aud appeared to 
iwn* it ioto Uiair beoJia ; nod ihcj' TTcrt' 
maiam b csadcavuriDg' 1o convey it to their 
€emMirjavn. Aud the cxiKiriiueut proveil tliat 
tha eonvcnion of this wdd, natnwtjjblc rurt' 

KMd iroiMKaihlc. Thf last effort of the sit- 
I to oUkbUsh ft mimion among this people 
fettMD|itM h) thi* Ticinity of the Ciik'duii 
'; brrt the misf^iun WTiM afterwards trans- 
fcmd bj I>r. J'liilip to tin- Paris Society. 

In the moiilh of Januarii-, 1806, the Orange 
• Oaricp river was f T(^'><-d by the miiuioiiu- 
^ ... ... t .1 .. 'Mi^ioiiary Society, for the 

•mr- 'ho gfWjK-I to the inhahil- 

..:.-l ilosuliiie rtjfionsof Great 

1 Of this roaion, Mr. Moffiit 

an iidiftbited comiii-)'. it U scarcely 

pa»i\tls to e:'iic.'ivo of diii' nniie deslitute and 

xaU'Ti'ilr-." i»n Ids wuy tlitre. he met a per- 

l-cnt years in that coont-i^', and 

"•or ii, his rejily was, " Hir,^'t»u 

' and and ffioncs, a thinly 

I ali^i^B Eofiering fur wont 

^oordiinff raya of a clond- 

I u< ' : u > h of which, he myi ha bod 

tmfiB draionstratiiin. The inhii'nlujits aro 

fisltaitnte. disttoj^'uiHhed by all tjie singular 

ifancterittio of that natinn, which includes 






lit.-. 



HHll'Ilt.T 




*r ACricfcOcf .- 



Corannus, NaintiqiiaK and HluJi- 
I Umv; joaruey of ^ri-at hard- 
:i ctifleriDif for warn ofadctiuate 



'. .Lited at a place wliieh they 

, till Christian Albrecht 

1 iiialaiulond retamcdwitb 

■ ' II tliey went forTi. : ' 

I they named Jliij 



and uekomed them to the 

tlicy were Bcnt by the Kn- 

; -ogh bo hated ilielhitch, 

'i. Iv'Huse he had heuni 

•••r btttck man. This 

i"_'rtttion, by the op- 

■ ::d rUen upon 

.it the beuil of 

].' iii.j V. Mur of the whole 

' il''* it was thu inti!nliuu 

; :/vo tj.' another place, 

<l th'*m mit to leave 

Thiy did, however, 

iMttt iUO miles wi«t 

u4:UlAfihood. Here they rc- 



gomcd their labora, among a mixed popalation 
of Naniaqmis and Baetards from the Colony, 
whom they foand it difficult to monairc. For 
a season their prosrcets were cheering, and 
their labors bleat ; tlioagh thoy lab'tn-'d in ft 
debilitating rlimatc, in want of thf- < -t 

of life, spreading their senntv fore r I 

of a wagoQ chiit for a tatile. \\iiii" iit.refj 
their cougicgatioD was increswed, bv that de««'j 
perado, Ajfriearier, who with part of iiit* ijeople 
drew near and attemled occasionally the io-l 
stnictions of the miHsionorics, who vittited hi» 
place iu return. Kat B<)me jealoa^v and per- 
ha[« alarm were excited in the miruU of tho 
pei'>ple of tlie station, which iudaccd him Uki 
retire to his former place. Bat Abraham At * 
brecht's health failing, he took an afiectionatc 
leave, on the 14th of May, ItJilO, acoimpnnicd 
by hi^ brother, Icaiiog the nii;#Jou iu chargo 
of Mr. Tromp. After n tedious journey, he 
expiRfl at the honso of Mr. Dotmas, at Iluuing 
Berg, on the 30tli of July. Hia last vorw] 
were, " I go to Jesus ; 1 am a member of hta 
bodv." After this, ChrifttiftD Albredit pro- 
ceeded to tho colony, married a lady of En\y^ 
rior education, and returned to his field of la* 
bor. But in consequence of the inip'rudeuco 
of Bonie of the people at Warm Bath, in join- 
ing ou expedition ogaiust Afric-aner, he be- 
came eura^fcd and vowed vengeance on 
ml-uiou. i-'or a whole montli, tho miesioD 
wore kept in the ^reatent terror, and ut h?i^gt}i|| 
vrete obliged to toe, and r^urn to tho colony. 
Africaner and his men soon arrived, and oiler 
obtaining wliat b(K)ty they ctmld fmd. wi firo 
to the |)n.^miM'^, and left them in niiua. In 
Boc^ liiiit they act ont to rctnrn again tad 
the scence of their labors and triaU. After 
a most distressing jtmniey, they arrived aL 
Hilver Fountain, tho residence of Cornelius 
Kok ; where, iive days after, Mrs. Albrocbfc 
breathed her lost. The Namoqua mission wa 
reamned at Folia, south of the river, whe 
they were joinwl by about flOO of the Wara 
?' ■' I'rople. Mr. Clu-btian Albrecld, having^ 
11 lu go to the Cape for medical adviiis/ 
ily cMMred, leiiviug behind him a bright 
ay of £c'ul, love, and (iflf-deniul. But 
. - Ii;a\-iug the coujilry he had the Qiiepeuk- 
abic joy of making peace with AfricAiier. ami 
heeuig the etondanl of the Prince of l*eaco 
raised in the rerv tillage of the mnu 
who om.*© *• breathed mil IhreateniDgs and 
Hluughter," ogftiust not only his fellow iieatbea 
but against the saints of thi'M<wt High. Ker. 
J. Compbel). on his first vL-^it to Africa, while 
puwing through Numiufiialand, hud written a 
eoneilialury letter to Africaner. t« which the 
chief returned a favumble reply through Mr. 
Albrecht.who sent Mr. Kbiier to occupy astur 
tion at Africaner's Kraal. Mr. Kbner's la* 
borj were blessed, and in a short lime, Africa- 
ner and his two brothers, David and Jacobua, 
I with a tiumher of others, were Uiritiwil. Vet 
I he does not appear lo hn^-o been altogether tho 



so 



AFRICA, SOUTnERN. 



man for the place ; tor hy Bome mmns ho got 
the ill-will Mt tho nutiviKt, aDil on the arrival 
of Mr. MolTttt, iu Jau., 181d. Ik; was in grcflt 
diuiecr of Iming bis lifc^ and be soon after 
left Uie nifse'inn. 

Soon after Mr. Moffat's Brriral, CUristion 
Africaner niiidc his appturoiicc. and iuciuiral 
if he v/a» the misBionarv appoiutod by the di- 
reclors iti Loudon ; nnd hein^ an^wenHl in tin* 
affimmtiWiSL-emod pItiuM-Hl. and siiid ob Mr. M. 
was youup. he hoped he wimld live lung with 
bim oad liis people. Me then orderetl a nniu- 
ber of women to come, who won mode their 
appearauoe, bearing handle? vif native mats, 
aod hitig sticks like fishing n>d:t. AfVicouer, 
ptiiuliri^ to a spot of promid, Miid, "There 
you niiwt build a honee fcir the missioimry." 
A circle was formed and tlte women Oxed ihc 
poles, tiftl them down iu the hemispheric form, 
covered them with tIiL'muti«. and in nbout lialf- 
uii hour the house vtA doDe, all ready for hor 
bitatinn. 

Soon after Mr. Mofliit corocicnccd his scrvi- 
COs, which were attendeil every raomiiif; and 
ercning, ho was cheered witii tokens of tJic 
Divine prcsicnee ; nnd in none were those u^ 
kens mure marked than in the chief, Africa- 
ner, of wlinso wondiTful cliango and devotiil 
piety, Mr. M. has given a thrilling account. 
But. HM the memoir of tlii;^ C^ribtlun chief is 
a common hook among u.^, thf; -sketch will not 
be repeat**! hero. 

Alttr ftoDie time, Mr. MoQkt visitoii the 
Cftpt', for the double pnrpofii; of proonring 
supplies, and of inlroduring Africaner to the 
govemmi?nt ; and while thfTc, lie wua appuint- 
od bv the rfociety to the lieehuuna mi^non. 

The mtg!iion which was commenced and af- 
terwards broken npon the Zuk river, afler m\- 
paling UiT a few years, tinallv settled down at 
Griijua Town in 1801, with Messrs. Anderson 
and Kramer, and a mix(^ miiTfitadc of di^ 
tinct tribeii. having different longuoges, cua- 
tomft, Ac. Mr Anderson says, vihen ho wont 
among the Gricjuas, they were without the 
smallest marks of civilization ; excepting one 
woman, Uiev hml not one thftiid of Kuropeau 
clatUing. The uiLv»ionarii'.V lives wert^ in dan- 
ger, the natives afterward.^) having confe^^acd 
thot they had frc<(ncnllyme<Iitatcd killing them 
but were overawed by what they hnd learned 
of an Almighty power. They were iu tlie hab- 
I it of plundering one another, and Bccmed to 

^^K BP4> no wrong in this or any of tiieir action?. 
^^H Violent deaths were common. Their atonal 
^^H manner of living was dit^gostiitg, and devoid 
^^H of oil shame. Unt after a seriee of hardatiips, 
^^H requiring mnch faith and patience, the in^tmc- 
^^H tions of the rai^onnrics were att<.-ndo<I with 
^^V a blearing which produced a great chonge. 
W The people bccuine honest in their dt-alings, 

I abhorring tho.<e acts of phm<Icr which hud b(s 

I come so cumuiou among them. They entirely 

I abiUiih>Eutl llieir former manner of life, and de- 

I eency and modesty prevailed in their families. 



The Griquas at first fthowed great averaon 
the labor of cultivating the ground. Dat a& 
ter some time, they were prevailed upon to 
try the experiment ; and this was followed 
a great and >-isible improvcracnt in them as ^ 
body. As early aa 1809, the cougrcgatioQ 
cun^i^ted of eight hundred pcreoua, who re- 
sided at or ncjir the (-tation. In 1810, they 
we-Tc tlircfltenbd with on attack fromamarauo- 
iug {tarty of KaOres. Mr. Jants, the mi^ 
sionary, with the people, set apart a day of 
fiksting and pra}*cr, and at the nnimc time sent 
a pacific mcasage with a present to the Koflrca, 
who immediately retired. The miwion cod- 
tinned to tlourUh, till Iu 1814, Mr. Andcrsoa 
received an order from the colonied govcnt;^^ 
mont to Rcnd down twenty Griquas lor tll^H 
Cape regiment. This demand greatly cxaspei^B 
uted the natives, and produced Buch an e^icito- 
meut tlmt Mr. Anderson was obliged to Icare 
them ; while the refusal of the natives to coir 
ply with the order, led to the introduction 
a restrictive system by which the missiouai 
were prevented from crossing the nortlw 
boundaries of the colony. Mr. AndiTSon wa_ 
succeeded by Messrs. Moffht and Uelm, the 
former of whom, in his book, bears honorable 
testimony to his zeal, [lerftcverance and sticocss 
as well as to the warmth with which hia mcso- 
ory was cherished by the natives. One obje 
of Mr. Moffat's appointment was to make 
vigorou.1 stand against interfereace on the i 
of the mis?ioiinrie8with tlie government or 
people. Tlie former chief of the GriquiisJ* 
Adam Kok, bad abandoned Grinua Town, and 
the acknowlcfl^cd chief, Bcrend, hwd at the di% 
tauce of lifty miles, and paid very little attcntiof 
to their interests. The consequence was, th^ 
were without anv regular government. The 
hint was given litem to appoint one of their 
own number to take the government of tl>c 
village. The idea was cagcny embraced. The 
choice foil unanimously on Andric'S WatCR^H 
boer, a man who had been eilncatcd at thestoSH 
lion, and employed aa an assistant teacher Iir^ 
the sxltix)!, but who posscsBcd neither name nor 
riches. The mifsionarica took no pirt iu tlu 
nifltter ; but the choice afforded them entln 
satisfaction. ThU woa a new era in the mifl 
sioD, aa it relieved the missionaries from coa 
stant attention to the secolar affairs of 
people. 'Wntcrbocr, however, feeling his in- 
sufficiency, spent several evenings every week 
in conversing with them on the subject of V ~ 
duties and responsibilities, llis ndmiuiHtr 
tion was not unattended with difficulty an 
troulde ; but by the blessing of God, he stt<i 
ccedcd in cEtabli?hing the principles of ord< 
und peace. He always continued, however, 1 
preach. lie obtuinctl afterwards a liberal i 
uryond supplies from the colonial government, 
und was ublcnt length, to present theGriquag^ 
in a most. favorable aspect The mission i *" 
ceived a new impulse in 1831, since which tin 
it has continued to increase, and to extend its 



mesa- 

[ind 
difc^ 




AFRICA, SOUTUEBM. 



91 



hxrinff hwTi blowctl {n no 
rof\0aiu7 3pgnv, Mr. Ueliuorn. having be#n 
l^iptiiatn] to Li'katloDg, u {ftiitiun uf ]k>chiia- 
'~-m cnanecteO witii iIil- Uriutm Ml-viua, IdO 
' ikHr mMTihpTfl were tTftfiSHTi'cd to Uia care, 
I a '*b was fonntxl. and ul tho ro- 

..■-■f, loo of the lia:*uto3 returned 
ui'i eoimected UuoniKlrcs with tho 
I mUiloa 

Slaffit stairs th^t the misioaaries ex- 

flnimoMl grvut didlculties, and were freqaenily 

b fauoUuuit peril uf tbcir livett, in consequence 

IflTMdlDg toe office uf agent of the colonial 

[ Hf uiuu aai. lit: miv.-. "More than tt^'cu^ 

ivo' uAjK-'riou : uboriglue^ beyond 

I ifa> Wiiudi of 1 , liiks couviucecf the 

iiiUr ttu4 Uu tHij •jQii.t^j are incompatible." 

I Ike m»>n » (hnt it ]>liu'i« them iu a mispi- 

^«^ iifttivca. Bat it i^ 

& 11 ucqoointod with 

^ ..• ■ . .],ajg(.t^^ 

fr- i"00g in- 

lu»i.<' ■•"-■1 M...- M.*. !«.-.-, 1.- ji,-M,.ii<i llieirlTB^ 
fti; 1l»nnd;ng aud n^viingefut di^iiobiliuu. 

A tnuuoQ wufl L-omnnjOL'cd by Mr. Harail- 
tMi. uaootf th<j i*i.<liu;tiia<j, at IJthnlioo; 
thuo^rli "ilTi liiit till: n-Iuetaiit conaont. of SIo- 
thi> : Tbt's*-' [t-joplc have no notion 

rfk i uo r<jli;,'i-ius ideas of any kind, 

•olhkt ihvy can only t>n apppiuched, at lir»t, 
tlroo^ R>c4iTn> "tf scIf-iuli-Tcal, which, bow- 
i to, must ultimately react 
i^ry':* object. In conse-j 
^■?#*v i>i i\ ii-.-ii'\r<-n& ikfi'iit uf a maraudinfTi 
taafickm oj^iu-st thu Uukuenas, Mothibi,, 
M a nk^ority oC hi.<i pcxiplo removed to thel 
yg*»w rtvrr, in Junr. Itil7. Iu 182U, Mr. 
1 i/riv..! Ill c. III! i.Liiv with Hr. CampW! : I 
, 1- ■ 'cartie ptTraanontly 

si I . where he now re- 1 

'Toiaci i thmugh perils and , 

' a1m««i which are dtwcribed . 

* ■ ilii^Tajiljic pijwur. First, they [ 
L) uf su--<iiiciou t<> tbo uatiecs, | 
llitni lo lenvc, iintl throati'ned | 
Jon. Then tlm eonnlrj* was vis- 
:; 1 terrible drought, which 
; 'V CYtry thiuff. A rain- 
-.Hi -»' .-... . ■vfin rbiirLrwl 't npon the 
i4ifiHaafi(4 ; b'^U ul:- 1 l..%inu' deceived aurl 

kKvdtk'i-^ :'^ '' I'ligL-d to dee forbid 

DCl AJLi iiou wiidcommuuci.'d, 

il % fiM^ for water ; but do 

M^MT Iu -d operationt, than 

W •kuti ' ' 'WD into a scene of 

Ai*iUi»i 4i^> ill ih> i.t and eonfusioii. and no- 
krat won and rumorB of want, and a(- 
l llron bftaditU.iKonied to bo the order of 
S<rveral tlmos the mboioo wa§ »ca^ 
.__. .. I , -.1. ~<"r"r nnhrard of confu- 
. i<ip4 and di6uaLent,| 
"■^Mfiarative (piict,! 
;iau were indi-[ 
f^^nS ^ „'■- Andjtbort- 

rtfte t^irturnoi'Mr.iiamiltuu&uma Tisitl 



to the Cape; ihcy were favored with Uic man- 
ifi-st ontpoiu-ing of the .Spirit from on high. 
The Kimple gospi^l now meln-d the hesirtii of 
men who had ?c<irneil to weep. The tnissionrv- 
riua were taken by »nqiri!«e. .So long^ accus- 
tomed to indifference, the i^ccno nwrwhcbned 
their uiinik. Their chnpel becunio a liocKtr%\ 
an<l the sympathy spread from heart to heart," 
so that ovt'n infunli^ wept, An emaneiputej 
slave, named Aaron J ust^pltf, who hiul vtrnw. to 
the station for the education of hia children, waa 
awakeotid, ailt! giving evidence of a suving 
chaiig:e, waa n>ceiveO into the chiireli, Tho 
serrioes on this occaiiion gave u new imnuLte 
to the work, and sotm the sounds predowniant 
throughout the village were thuee of siniring 
and prayer. Tho«e that were awakened liHd 
prayer-meetings from honse to hooee ; and 
when there were none able t*> engage in prayer 
they would sing till a lale hour, flefore the 
dawn of morning they would asBcmble again 
at aomc hoitw:; for wort'liip, before going to la*- 
bor. Aaron and two other men now came 
forward and offered to build a Kihool-house,* | 
that might serve ua a place of wur8hi|i,ul Uieir 
own cj^n»^. And as all gave their aesistaucOt i] 
tbe bnUdiug was boou complet&l. Many in- 
[wrtonl. improvemeola were nko mnde in tho 
outwanl atfairB of the misrioo, in which Ibero 
was no lack of native aMistancc, white the Un- 
gnajre and Initiations were attended to. On 
the lirsft Sahbalh in July, lH29.six of tjte con- 
verts, after a carefnl exaniluatiou had shown a 
good knowledge of divJue truth aud a (tiinph 
faith rc'tying alone on the merits of Chrir't, 
were bapiized and received info tlie chiireh. 
And I'rovideuee had so orderod. that a largO 
niinibiT were present from rhili[iolis, Cami>- 
bell, (rriijtia 'J'own, and Hi>ochau|i. who were 
profitably imprtatrcd by the Rolemnily. There 
were present, also, inrties from the interior, 
who had come there to^ode. The place was 
crowded to excess. IiWfce evening, they sat 
down at the table of the Lord, .and enjoyod 
cheering and encouraging 8eaM>n. The con- 
verts clothed themselves m decent raiment ; 
and aoon aftiT a Eewing school was Btarted. to 
teach tlie women and girls to nuke their own 
gnrmenta. The same gospel which had taught 
them that they were Bpi"^^'7 miserable^ i 
blind and oakcu, discovered to them also that'' 
thev iteeded outward reform, und Ihojt prepared 
their niimls to adopt tho^e modce of comfort, 
cleanliness and ooaveoience. which they had 
been oocoBtomod to view only na the |ieceliar- 
ities of a strange people. And tbe same im- 
provement was nuinift^t in the other depart- 
ments of household ccimomj-. 

Prospects contiuucil cheering". Tbe dfairu fat 
instnictiou was great, aud TJie e:nK'rienue of 
the iuquirvM aud converts was such as to give 
gfxtd evidence of grace- "T seek .lr-;a<i," ono 
would say, and another, " I am feeling after 
Qod. I have been wandering among be4wtj* of 
prey ; ibc day has dawned, and I soc my dao- 



r.'' Another, '• I lutvo hcon eUvping; in a 
Ron's ilun ; or bi-oti blown lo aiiil froiikt* a eal- 
abaah tt|Kii) the writer, and might have sunk." 
A woiDfin, who was ah(«nt to die, called hiT 
husbam) und frieiidti, und uil(]n^»9e<i tlicm : " I 
Bin t'titnir to die. Weep not because J am 
going to IcAvo you, but weep for your siuii.and 
ircep for your bouIs. "With me nil is well, for 
do ii'jt Ani)po>«: llial I diu tike a beaat^ or that 
I dwil slwp fun'vor in llic gi-uvr. No, Jwufi 
him d[(^1 fur my itins ; he hass:^ he will save 
uvi ; I am gitiag to be with bim." 

Tbi' [KOpIe now ninAv rapid proprtws in civ- 
ilt/jitioii ; and at the country hml l^oen blotscd 
^-i(li jileuUrtil rain^, they begun to adopt Eu- 
r*i]H.'an mmlui of cultivation, and to increase 
llio variety of their apricaltural productions. 
And the *q)irilunl alfairs of the atution kept pace 
with extfrnal improvement. Projrrftia was 
made in reading, and knowledge incrcaged : 
and curly in the rear 1830, the umndatiuns of 
a church were hud. 

Mr. Mofliit, bavins' completed the translation 
of the jr*tefjK'i of Lake, rcixiirtxl lo the Cu[ie to 
get it printed, and returnc<l nilb the tn;aL3iire. 
together with a hmn l>ook in the native lan- 
Ruam.', a printing prc^;:^. ty[)e, paiicr and ink, 
having k'iirneil tn print tmring nia nhKenoe; 
tdso bringing with him Mr. and ^li>. Ed- 
wards. OS a roiuroreoment. Nothing could ex- 
ceed lh[! fiurpriw of the natives, when ibey 
saw A white sheet, after disuppcuring for a 
ttomcot, emerge i«pangled with letters. The 
ntlf^on coiitinueti to profiler aflt^r (his, Mr. 
MoflUt mmlii frwjucnt oxcnniittns into the 
intt'rior to \Tsit other trib<ii, where, in the 
midst of great peril and strange advcntnn'H, he 
Wfts miTclfully preserved, ami [HTniilled to 
scatter wmc aeeib) of divine Inith.aiid prepare 
the way for other labors. He aflcrwartw made 
a vibit to England, where ho sjumt Ecveral 
yiMrg in the trutuihi^|u and printing of the 
Scriptures and othc^^oka for the mission 
among the Hechuonai. 

In the latter part of 18-13, he rotumetl to 
hi» Jiild of labor, wbi-r*' he arrived on the 13tb 
of DcccmbiT, accoini>airnxt by Itev. M'.'S^r?. 
A&htou and Ingli?, U3 a reinforcement. Jle 
met a warm n'lTptiou. " Many were the hmrty 
welcuniis,"«i\-? he, " we rectuved, nil upix-ariug 
etnuloiu to testily their joy. Old and young, 
even the little children would fHioke hantb with 
IB. Some gave vent to their joy with an air 
of heathen wililncx'*, and some in silent flooiU 
of t«in' ; while others v:h»3i-v hearts bnd siek- 
CDcd with deferred bnpo, would ask again and 
n^in, " Do our eyes indeed behold you ?" Thiii* 
we found iinri«elves again among a peitplr who 
loved ua and who hud bingwl for our return. 
It haf nfHjTdeil as hallowed delight, and often 
called forth frcni our hearts the liveliest feelings 
of prntilude to tnHl. in witnt^-s the progrcea of 
theknowlolgp of divine things, and of the pow- 
er of the gvifiix'!. among tlie [>cople connected 
with this place, a» well as at oar oat-«taUoDS." 



The mie^ons of the Soeictr, embracing mfr 

ny stations not namcil in the fore^ing sketch, 
thoogh subject to occasional intermptioM 
from the pn-datoryexciirtions of hostile tribci*. 
from the former wars with the Kaffrcs, and 
from hostile boeris, enjoyed, in geueriU, contin- 
ued proftijerity, till the breakhig out of the 
Kaffre war, in 1&46, when the etatluns in ICof 
frelnud were aliandtMu-d. 

The presence of the Holy Spirit ha:- * 

manifested at most of the stations to a l 
or less extent, vvenr year; aiid,u« the ti^^.i ... 
s«u:ons of refreshing, additions hare been 
mode to vBriou.i cliurchcs, in diflbmil vi-ar^ 
var^'ing from a few individuahi to ten, ' 
and even as high aa ninety at one time. I i 
the Calcdon Institution was favored with a re- 
markable awakening. Its beginnings were at 
tirst small, and wiihout noise ; it continued, till 
men, women, and children, become anxions 
about thi'tr wOvation. At one public meiitt^ 
ing, after service, Mr. Helma asked all to re- 
main who fett aiLxious about their sonl54. and 
only fourteen retired oat of three or fonr huu- 
drcit A great moral refurmation ti»ok place ; 
122 were addo^l to the church, and t!ic mem- 
bers appeared to walk worthy of their profcs- 
Kion, their character being marked by humility, 
their views simple and scriptural, with inncli 
spirituality of mind, and disposition to conrerso 
about the things of God. The next year rc- 
|>orta the work as still continuing, and as hav- 
ing produi-e<l great changes in many fumilics. 
many having been brought in, who were 
co^sidc•rt^i as hanlcneH iK-yond hopo- In 1643, 
Mr. liehua wrote : " AYe nave still the spirit 
of prayer, sinners are awakened, and the nev 
converts are growing in grace," 

In 1847, a revival connneoced at Gottiep, 
an out-station of the Grifpm Mis^on, among 
the young people, as the result of which, ninety 
were added lo the church, of whom the mis- 
sionaries say, the following year, "(jeuvi-ally, 
the new converts give ua great fatisfactlon." 
Inl@&l, there was a gracious work at lj>ug 
Kloof, which continued, with very little intfir- 
raiiffiion, tfl the following year, and Gfty of tiia 
converts had been rcceivwl into the church. 

The effecta of the gopjicl arc visible, also, in 
outwanl thing*, nt all the stations. The ro- 
port of the Caledon lustituliun for 1849, says. 
'■ the people are gradually and steadily ad- 
vancing, not only in knowledge^ but in civili- 
zation, which is ehieflv seen in their adoption 
of better rlntbing. tlio increase of domestic 
comforts, and the stiperior qnolity of their 
food. And. as long ago as lti41, Vr. Philip, 
while on a tour among the mssioos, writes 
from f 7aleilon : " Hit!! station presents a moet 
gratifying spectaclo to thoee who saw it in 
former times. In 1M23, the people were in 
rags. Few of them had any covering on, ex- 
cept the filthy sheep-skin karoK. T^eir hata 
were of the niogl wn-lched description. TUey 
were gircn to dmnkeoness, ana its kindred 



J 



AFRICA. SOUTHERN. 



the grnnnd on vhich iher itrkIciI j 
In 16'jr), aui) tjic two loHoM-Jiit; i 
ir coiKlition iras,if pOfiHiliV, Hlitl uiiprc 
, and the loads were in ilio poa^e^iiou' 
Iw Ddgliburiiig boon. The {M-'ople arc' 
draMM ill HritUti nianiirucltin-s, utut niiiko 
4 trrr rrT^rctablt; ujuK.-araiiCQ in tin? hoiL* of 
Bo<- :'iii.*n who formirrly went naked. 

toA a most tli^gttstirif^ uppeurunci*, 

tn (kct.uU> ulwUicil IiiriU'ml of a few wretch- 
al hota, nacmbling jii^-firyetf, we Imve now a 
HBag and n^lor villagn ; auti the vallpy on 
fliiiA it stands, which till lately wiu uDCUlti- 
'u now laiO out in trtLrdcns. While re- 
was low mnirfip the wwple, wo coiilrl 
them to Irailil decent nouses ; but lust 
jcar Use wuils of forty housts were raised." 

Ajnuag the Fingoca, who arc constant in 
ftor attvadance on the menna of f^t^c, a 
Btfkol and pleaatng change ib exhibited in 
ibor outward appearance. In 18i3, Mr. Pass- 
MW wTiJle ; " 1 he rod clay, uaed for anointing 
thnr bodksy bus been tnii>ers(?ded by the clean»- 
ng WBitcre of the Hpring', und the kartisA and 
UaakK hBT* given plaoo to garments of Kt^ 
nptan aanufifccture. Moov have mude greur 
gMgwaa in scrcral bmncnes of knowlet!<,'C. 
we dorirt tx iratructiou is very grtat In 
fte ffBUBcr, many of them come ^om their 
tuft, ud remain in school till hulf-poei nine 
fSetocfc Id the ctciiIu^, befurtt they go home 
ImAtriment, and they parchase wito avidity 
4i db booka that arc publii^lied." 

Hr.SoknnoD, oo arririug at Griquatown, in 
Itarmber. 1843. writes : " I found the grt>at 
^^Driiyof them no lung'T living m their mat 
tat^ ooTcrtd with their tilthr l{an>^»,8iibiriUt- 
fe<ai rooba and ganie, but dwL'Uiug In Kuropc- 
MteMAt nany of them of Etoue or bricK ; 
^m/dy dotbed in Kurc-pean utiirc ; cnltlvat^ 
h| tH t&e groand capable of cultivation ; pos- 
Mw tUttMS and berd^ ; and enjuying miiny of 
ftiWalbrtR of life. 1 found many of tlicm* in- 
'ttfaaitaMiid naspectablc, in every sense of 
tvwn, who would reflect credit on any 
^^^■■tdtj.** lie savs, nL«a, Unit the influence 
tf tb uka^Jon vas ool coii^ncd to that parti- 
ote ifM, Imt bad eAtendcd to somo distance 
ll ill dircetiootf ; and that there were several 
StMrtf where chnrches had been gathered, 
"■"-irf ihiaBi containing 100 to !iOO raembcrB, 
beoometb Christiana, 
icka of thi-t kind might bo given to 
toihfisikttf exti-ol ; but wo bare room for 
lid OOK K" '•I' »i i>Jor« on thta point, which 






iiogc is poroeired by the 

-.; acknowledged : A Fiu- 

li Haakey, where the bo- 

■^^^ d'lwo to re?t at the 

' . and looking 

< ll the gardens 

I <Hn- <>i ilii:i deacons how 

1 in mrb a place. The 

^ i«ok at bim, and i<oe if be 

«o( bMltby mid will ctotbed. Ho tben 
3 



i.ji'i iii'i" v* 



called Q fine child, and told the man to look ni 
it, and flee if it was not well fed. The fclrungor ■[ 
a.-^ent<.'d, but steeiuwl pi-rplexed. 'Vim deacon .: 
then told him if be wt)ulJ attend service the ■ 
nt.'xt day, he would see that it was so with 
them ail. The Kingo row lu depart, and lift- 
ing up his eyet* nnd right band to licaveo, ex- 
claimed, " It M aiways so where that Ood is vor- 
shipoed .'" 

^he following incident, which occurred in 
16-18, at Loug Kloof, ^hows the inttuencc of 
the schools upon chiKlren, even of a t^snder 
age, and their reflex influence upon tjie parcnta. 
A man utterly repjardlesa of divine things was 
induced by a relative to send two childrt-n to 
tlie school, a boy of i:ight and a girl of six 
veais. After a 'few wcek-i ho come for the 
Doy, as ho wanted him to herd calves. The 
Ikiv objected to going, " because,** 8aid lie, 
" there Is nothing good taught at the place 
where father lives.'' " But," said the father. 
" what can such a thing as yon leani here 7" 
■' Father," said the boy." I have learned houio- 
thiug." " KeiK*at it, then," said the father. 
The Imy replied, " ' It is a faithful s-aying, and 
worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus 
came iulo the world to save (tinners ?' Does 
father know who Jcaus Christ is ? He is tlie ' 
Sou of 0ml. Docs father know who ape sin- 
ners? All ar« rinnerft." Thitf convtTsatioa 
so aflb:tcd the father that ho returned home 
without the boy, and in a few weeks came 
bock, an alfereJ man, having, as be stud, " met 
with the precious word of God." 

Polygamy baa been found to be a great hin- 
drance to the progrcEB of the gospel The 
fiooplc seemed to have no idea of the sinfulnow 
of the practice. But tlic mis^ionarica gave no 
countenance to it. and required the convert* 
to give up all but one wife, ami to prefer the 
first one. Sechele, the chief at Kitlobcug, was 
the chief raiiHloctor q^his di>!trict, and had 
been reckb'Hi of human life. But, from the 
commencement of the mission, he attended 
school and all other services. 'Tiie IruUi look : 
hold of his hearty and he professed it boldly I 
among bis people. But the ^cot sacriflcc he 
had to make was the renunciation of polygamy. 
His sarplQ.1 wives were the most amiable 
women, and tie best scholars of any in tlui 
town. Soon, the chief eent two of tbom Ut 
their parents, wttJi the message that the word 
of God hntl come between him and their 
daughters. Tlie others were properly disposed ' 
of. Kach of them carried away all that be- 
longed to her, and the chief mppUed each of 
them with new clothing. As mon m it waA 
known that he had renounced his wives, a gen- 
eral consternation seized boUi old and young. 
The town was as quiet as if it had been Sun- 
day. Not a single woman wai seen g^olng to 
her garden. Councils were held during the 
night, in order to iotimiilute him. But lie 
remained tirm, and after being tried iu various 
ways for two months, he was oaptiwd. 



AFRICA, SOUTHERN. 



Many voiy intcrcBtiog caaes arc mDotiooM, 
to show the eflecl of the irospcl, in prodncio^ 
ft i^nrit of liberality. At all tlie ftolioos the^ 
have gGiujroUjr ehomi a di$f»opitioii to contn- 
tmtc according^ to their ability. A poor 
woman, a cripple, hired henelf oat to earn 
aomethioff to givo to tbe miasioDary caisc. 
Wbeo ttlie Uow for the miauonary meeting 
oune, Biie ftsked her mistress for firu shillitiga, 
who, in rq)ly, told her that sober and iadu3- 
triooB people ou{;ht not to pvc anything, but 
r&liier drunkards, who wjuiuidered their rooncy. 
8ho reciUed, " Mistrcai, nich perwiis can do as 
tbcy cnooee, but \otftd that we mwf ^tvc" 

At Uie concliudoii of a Sabbath ecrrice at 
Port EUixabetht tbe rotauouary called on a 
man to oficr praver. He commenced by al- 
ladiDK to the condKion of hinuelf aod couutry- 
men before Ibey heard the goepel, when tb^ 
indal^ in vice, and when they were ready to 
mardcr each otbi'r ; bol when he came to 
epcak of God's goodntw in haring sent the 
gospel to them, aod in baring made tbem par- 
takers of iU blowings, his Toico faltered, and 



Raid, " Uow can wc ever love tlicc as wc ought 
to do, for thy love to ns? " He coidd ro no 
ftarthur, but mt down, and continued Mobbing 
aQ the time of the IskI hymn. This man, who 
waa a poor Fingo, obtaiued his living by work- 
ing on the beach, np to hta watfft in wuler, 
landing goods ; and be brought the miadonary 
ct^ht ahilliugs for iho jubilee fund, and a sove- 
reign as hia anuual suUscripliDii. In 1 1:143, 
there was extreme scarcity from want of rain 
in all the rillagi^, yet. that, war, Iho chiirehcs 
in South Africa, out of tlwir deep poverty, 
contribatcd £1,600 for tbe support and exten- 
sion of tbe goffiel. 
Till? sMKicty nave tnrned their attention to 



ice: I 



the society in Ealfreland were ndned ; tBi 
mioionarieg and their people were cam]x'.l!cd 
to 9c?ek relngo in the colony ; their property 
fell into the hands of the enemy ; and iht* sev- 
eral ectUcmcuts, with their housee r>T!.) .1m....V. 
were totally destroyed. All tlio )_ ' 
stitutions and villages within the i _ i- 
picd by our brethren suffered In variona de- 
grees, DQt the floiirishing Eettlemnit of Kai 
River moit ■everely." The rqiorte of the n ' 
sionaries generally speuk of the bad effiscU 
the war, lu engendering dissipation and lice; 
but they liear testimony to the good conduct 
generally of the choreh-memljers, who were 
called into active servico in the army. 

In the report of the eocicty for 1852, the 
dircctora say : *• The war hie couiinued through- 
out the year to spread doolatiou and death. 
Alarm and distren htTe been aniTersaUr prer- 
alcnt throughont the eutem districts, and many 
valnt^lc lives have been sacrificed. Aporikw 
of tbe Hottentots, who, on all former occa- 
Bions, proved loyal and able defcodera of the 
colony, have bcvu. unhuppilv, induced to unite 



bia heart seemed too full fur utterance. Ilei pvith the hostile KafOres. ^at it is to be to- 



grettcd that the condact of the colonists his 
been caleulutcd to produce, in the minds of tbe 
colored people, distrust, estrangement, and en- 
mity. At the commencement of the coutest, 
tl>e governor, in his prochuna'tion, iooxntA tUt 
Kajfres atul i/iar alites to czterminfi/ion, and the 
Briti.ih HtHtlcra joined heartily in the dodgn. 
KxtcrminatioD was the watchword in the fidd, 
and tlic motto inscribed on their baunera, — 
producing, in the miuds of the uatirc p^^pul^- 
tiou, the impression that it was a war oT ra ^-^^ 
Bat the only alutions of the society at n iiirL 
disaflbctiou to tbe govemmeDt has been man- 
iftstod, are those of Kat ICiver and 'rhe(^M>* 
lis ; imd, from Ita thirty-6ve xtationB, ftx>m four 



the raiding up of a native agency. Id 1844, louly have the miasionnries been obliged tore- 
Mr. MuBiit writea : '* TliC state of our mlisinon tire." 



is very promising, with r^^ord to the native 
agcntri employed in teaching and addrcaiing 
the people. Six men are connected with Ku- 
mman, and thew!, from what I know of them, 
are, tlirnnph the divir»e bh'ssing, calcuJatdl to 
do much good. It i« trnly delightful to olt- 
serve the fervent zeal of these godly men. In 
my opinion, this is the only mcanfl by which 
the inlerior of the coimtry con have a stated 
roini.'rtry." And, again, in 1846 : " At all our 
Buttons the simple, not evangelic labors of oar 
aativo aasistaatB are reociTiog the divine blc«s- 
ine." 

In the report of the eocit^ty for 1847, the 
directors say, " During the greiiter jwirt of last 
year, this field of the society's labors has been 
tbe theatre of war, and scenes have daily oc- 
enrrcd over which tlie frienda of humanity and 
religion mnst bitterly mourn. Thousands of 
tawlees KuCfres invaded the colnriy, destroying 
the villHgee, stealing tho eatTle, and slaugbtor- 
ing the InhabitantR. During tho piwras of 
these events, the foor misBlonary statmns of 



In tho report for 1053, they say : " This 
deadly couEict haa at length terminated, and. 
as might have been foreseen, by the triumph 
of tho British arms. I'hc priooipul Kam« 
chiefe have been driven, with their people, out 
of their conntry, and their lands allotted to 
British settlera and colonists, and on the widely 
extended frontier there will l>e military posts, 
from which the troops and settlers arc to guard 
the colony against the retom of the exiled 
natives." But they justly complain of a treaty 
which has been concluded between the British 
government and the Dutch boers, by which 
territory nonh of the Void rivet las 
ceded to the latter, as the Free Dutch . 
without any provision for the protection 
freedom of the Brittflh mi^ionarics, some 
whom have been laboring among the abo 
ginta for more than twenty years, or fur 
numerous and pro'^jierous Omistian char 
which they have gathered. In this treaty, \ 
boers engage not to imbjcct the nativfr^ 
slavery, but no geearity was taken, and the 



AFfilOA, flODTHEBy. 



U 



'^■TnSe that U will be 
■■ of the society's mis- 
iiii' ituiivts anioi^ vhom tlwy 
ilaikipcd, have mSbred gricroua outnfc 
I vron flron Ihe Datoli Gmi^nuotB. Dnriog 
iaooth nf An^UBt, 1052, tbty DtUkckcd the 
\n \ribw,maong whom Mossn. Livin^toa, 
*" «Bfl BdwwoB [kbort>d; the men were 
. aai tbe wonicD an<l tliiUlron CAptarud ; 
*%* pnpcrij taken oh spoil, and their rtlla^ 
tetiujiuiL Tbci house of Mr. LiviofTBton yras 
^nkm open. \n» propertj stolon, uotl lilg Ixwlu 
torn to piecoi ml nattered to ihr^ vinds. 
Aad, in Uie moath of October, them thr^> 
BaiiunancH, niter a mock trial, were scnlCDced 
lo be bakbcd from the counlTy. Anil, no 
lp|Jfe»tion by the ilirfctors to llic botue rov- 
Dent tor redrcas, they wem coolly informed 
tbe trraty with the Dntcb emigrants had 
rtHifimit'iT In- il.c povommeDt, Ihcarby 
iun of future liberty 
I : irit*, or of frwdom fiir 

1U.-V. Mr. Hclraore writes, 
l'tti> boons ttro sobjo^ting 
triljia to tbeir iron yoke. M»- 
b i haliuyw l ; the ratsyionurics of Matobe 
«ad M eha tea are drivco out of the country ; 
CalahaBp il ^tstrqycd. Kuruman aiid T>ckut- 
Jm^ are tbe aeif stations nf our society thut 

Ccate ia the Berfatuuia country. AJae 1 for 
tvihci bertmil t», frtill eoshroaded in tbo 
\hA floQd of heathenism." 

U ■ay wrt be out of plare here to remark 
ibaL. ftfTvviiinir to llic statcmL-nta of I>r. Philip, 
Mr. MoCit, and iithcr?, the missions in Sontli 
Aftiea hav<> met with irreater hinilrauccs from 
|h» w|f|n«Kion of (be eolouKts and the iiiter- 
llcjauL of titp coloniiLl ^vernraent., than from 
tf^rtbar •mLrcea.aad thut Uie opprcnivc poHor 
■Bard by tbo roIoTiinl tri-i%'«'nin)ent towards 
ttr nativai, iuw lux-ri im.- "i iIil' cbii-f obstacles 
in iW way uf tbitir flucaaK. 

Haeh cumplaint it made of tbo eantetru, or 
tnf^lkopik by wbidi the mianon settlements 
mn ham isnated, aod, in loiiie Instancce, tnic- 
aOflDpbi ban: beoa made to ouuDturoct 
(■iiwaoe, by iutrudtieinc the T)lc<lf{e of 
»lirtfn*mrr_ AT Dvaiildorp, tbe Total 
7mDil>ered 420 
1 a great moral 

Hffr, aa ID an partii of tbo world where mis- 
tfoaa Iatc baca sncccBsfot, the emifsariea of 
pBfwrr faave eomc in to take pooKflioD of the 



In 1«46. n- 
la all tb« I 
lMnraamt/«) - 
^wy nvT' 
l^aMleoal'i ':. 
'^IV BsUvft eoDv 
itclilciaa-^fDrVm,- 
», a Irntiw ' 



=ayB there were 

' .some of these 

■ '" -If"! ability, 

-:ina that 

■ ■■rU 

-■ of their 
I liyhearled 

Ml* II inart.*, Hllil of 
liii'Mi to tiu^ir wuiitH, 



an kmpliol Uilii. iruly rt-martuible ; und 
f^ AMrhbidmif tbr drpurtUl have shown tbnt 



tl)L<> faith was abW to itstain thi^m in tliat hoar 
which briiigx Douj,'ht tint terror and wuiling to 
the beathon. 

Tbo latest iatclligenee from these mtimoos 
is cnooora^g. The report of tbe soricty Ihr 
1853 Btstea that, "Althon^b the Htalioai 
tfaroQ^hout tbo colony have enf]er->tl. in ruii8e> 
qacnce of the Kaltro war, some dimintitlon in 
tJieir temporal resources, and the men who en- 
tered the military lertea have been ('tpo?<d to 
the iR6uuocc of the camp and the baltli'-Gt'ld ; 
vet thcao evils havo been far less than might 
bare been dreaded. Even at tbb Eat R]tct 
settlement, Rer. James Rood hits collected 
the Bcnttcred members of the cburvli, und re- 
commenced Iho schools; and at evfrv other 
station, witb tbo solitary exception of Tlioopo- 
lilt, the bdievers have walked togrtluT in the 
fear of the Ixird. and in the cnmfort of the 
Holy Ghost, and have been multiplietl " But 
bCTond tb« btrands of tlie ertlony, it has been 
otbenrisc Yet it il gratilViug to learn that 
tbe membon of tbe onirohes, at the stailions 
which have been bndcea op, bare gcncrnUy 
sfMight refbge at other mission i>ett]eniciit.<. and 
that their ooodnct, io these trying^ cireum- 
jstaDceo, has been snch as to honor their pro- 
fi»iion. 

"While tbe Burrrmodinp country hoa been 
3iibjec'U-d lu the lawli-^ nllacks of the emi- 
(frwit t)oerg, the station at Kuruman Hm U*n 
uninoleKted. iMr Moffat writen, in November, 
1852, that be ia fzoms on with the work nf 
tratuilatioD, and that the state of the work is 
more encotimging tlian in former times ; the 
people ore more sHtlcd in their habitat, und 
better informed ; the grounfis at and near the 
station are bcooming more generally calttvateil 
Mr. Ashton writee, Janmiry, ISfiS, that they 
had Just admittiol two young women to Uie 
church vhi} icere bajttized tn infancy, tfaoa 
bringing in the fruitfiof thcseoond generation. 
At the station at Lod^ KJonf, within the 
colony, and at on out-statioo not f;ir dLntant, 
an interesting work of grac? coniniencrtl in 
18.')2, about flw time the men returned from 
the war. To the mismonary it was an over- 
powering time. Many who hod grown old iu 
sin, OS well as tbe youth of both ssxis, were 
crowding around to speak with him of the coo' 
cemsflf tbetr souls. In the report for 1^53, 
the work is noticed as stUl cootinuiog. Sor- 
euty-thrre had been received inlf) tlie rbaroh, 
OS (he fniitfi of the revival, and tbe church wus 
opparcntly in a healthy state. 

Tin: Rev, Dr. Livingston has returned from 
Ilia third journey into the interior of the 
conntry, having pcnotrated 300 or 4(K) miles 
northward beyond the limits of his former 
travds. He (onnd a coantry abounding with 
riven, some of much greatrr mngnituile than 
he had hitiiertn seen in Africa, and an iuteratt- 
ing |>opul&tion, far more numerons tfaiui the 
native tribes ftirUicr south. Though speakiuff 
dlOcrcnt languga, they generally uudtiTSUKA 



AFRICA, SOUTHERN. 



tho Sicbuana, in which Dr. L. prcncUeJ to 
lliem ihe gospd. They reccivco liim with 
kiitdiiuw, aim] m* puriKWPS, wUh the saoctiun 
Vfhich he lios rirwived from the iliix«to», to 
tctttrn and i-siabiiiih a niUsion auioDg Uicm. 

In iJrtJp', Kc'V. J. J. Freeman, Uonie Sccrc- 
tttiT of Ibe Ijrtridnn Missioniiry Society, pwd a 
Tiwt lo Botith Afrioo, for the purpose ofdevia- 
tng mcaiu for renderiog tim niisaiuna more elfi- 
civot ; to inqairc into tho bott mcauis of ccoti* 
ouiisng the »(X-iety'.4 fuuib ; and to aid in car- 
ryiog into effect any new arrangements Ilv 
Ttsited ali iBc stations, and giivo a highly ctt- 
couro^inc account of tbeir coudiliou ; but hc 
agrece with Mr. MoflUt and Ih. Vhilip, in liis 
news of the oppi-crp-inon I'JCCTciswl towards tho 
nativL^ by i\w. I>ut<'Ii Lolts and other oolonu^K 
as well as by the impolitic inoasurca of the 
colonial govvmmt'nt ; — bv means of which, tho 
coDjjic of ini»!ion!4 is greatly embarmsded. And 
he einrpsses tlie f«ir Uiat the native tribes, 
thuugli yet numcrons, may he destined to ex- 
tiuctiuD. Slavery among the Dutch omigrants 
Btill cxi^tj. Mr. Freeman gircs au account 
of a party of them visiting a iieaeoablo ^ttlu- 
tnenl of natiTi«, and demunuing the orphan 
children ; and. on being refnsed, Ihey tooK the 
children of the pts>pK" by force, ami on rcaisi- 
anco iK'inir matJe, shot down the men, and car- 
ried off their children. 

The following table will eihiiiit the prcacnt 
cooditioQ of the eevcral misuon stations : 



hari 

OlBdna bwtUutktn 

PMkllMlDrp 

HkDk«T & KniU FontcLu 

rtirt EtbAbetli 

Ulteniufte 

Otftfaftu's Town 

OnufBciut 

OlM^ra^ ,.b 

Bo m w w * 

lUt Itivcf* (b^nrv tliA war [n ISSO) 

Cmlr^rk 

LoDir KIouT or Arootiuir 

n>rt QMitTbrt 

OjuiUilnvp , 

IMtirlvlorp , 

Ktnn WUIlam'i Ttowo 

KnmppV «.>!*• (ISM) 

Iftltuii" (IWO) 

Grii]ua T-itm , 

lAkAil<'<tiir .*•••• 

MUl'.'poll* .,„ 

Euruit»n 

Minuw* (1850) 

llAbOlM* (lft»^ , 

lUIolfonK* ........ .,,,,», 

MatBbe* ....^ 

SUtlou 2S 



toi 

I2T 
390 



U 



SS'4,«0ba95 3,4&3, 1,757 



140 
140 
004 
40 
333 
130 

AC 



200 
120 
126 
440 

140 
(0 

150 
ft* 



leo 
loo 



70 



"Hie stmtJoiiE marked * have Uku broken up 



by the Kaffre war and the DiiUdi boerv- Nd 
with.4taDdii^ tiic cxcitcmcct and the nnwitled 
state of thing?, cunsecjueut upon a state of 
war, tliis table presi'Dts the churches in a 
healthy state. Tlie yearly additions h&ve, ia 
some cases, bocn large ; while the aTera^^e if 
cloTon to a miAsionary, which ifi, wo tcoTf 
greater than the average jrcorlj additioiis to 
oar country charcbcs. The aggregate of 
church inomlwrs shows the uuuiber of converta 
to b« ciiuul to 134 to each niiffiionury. This, 
taken in connection with all the incidi?nla] 
good Bctomplished, shon-s a large return for 
the labor bestowed.— J/y/Ta/* Southern Africa ; 
Dr. Fhtiip's HrsetirthfS in Suu(h A/nca ; Jlo- 
ports I'/ the Lfyjuifm Missionanj Soc/ettj; Lm' 
dun MiKsiniiani Register j Fretman's Tour in 
South Africa. 

fVtfieyan Mnvionary Socittu, — ^Tlic first nut- 
sionary sent to South Africa by thR Wisleynn 
Miseiouary Korioty waa Jiilin .licAVnni/ of Cole- 
raino, Ircfand. Some pious suldtcr? in an Ku* 
glisb regiment, at tho Cape of Good Uopc, in 
1812, nMpiwtcd the Kngluh Wealeyun Oonfir- 
cnce, to iwnd them a man to preach the gonieL 
Mr. McKenny offered himself for this Rernco. 
Uq his arrival at Cape Town, in August, 
1814, ho applied to tho Goremor, Lord S&ratr- 
net, for perniissinn to preach, but tliis waa ro- 
filled -f and aft<*r acvond efforts ftt usi'fuiacaa, id 
some other way, he was ordered to Ceylon tbo 
next year, to join the band of mianonarles 
which ha-l gone out with Dr. Coke, 

Barmibas SitaM^. a nuiiio which will ever be 
remembered in connection with South Africaj 
ofTered hiniw^If for the niiasion field in 1815. 
On his way (o the C'ajM! of Good Hope, he and 
his devoted wife buried thoir only little one in 
th(; '■ deep, dwp sea." On their arrival, they 
applied to the <Iovenior for the usual license 
to exorcise his ministry at Cape Town. " Hia 
excellency replied, that conr^idcriug the high 
and responsible olfiec which he sustained, to- 
gether with the adequato supply of clere^ 
men for both the Dutch ukd English popua^ 
lion, and tlmt several of tlie slaviSiolders wc*e 
oppostxi to the imtnietion of the colored 
classes, he could nut grant the sanction remiired. 
These restrictions ou religioa>i Ul>erty had been 
ini]X»>e(l by tlie Dutch government in 1804. 
Hut Mr. 8haw In^lieving that the command 
of the " King of kings," could not be counter- 
manded by any earthly authority, procccdetl to 
open his commission as God'a amoassador. on 
the following Sabbath day to a congregation 
composed of soldiers. Hia heart, however, 
wu set on iirc-achiug Christ to the perishing 
heatfien, and he oorntNtly looked for an oppor- 
tunity to do 80. Jufit at this Juncture, 
Rev. H. iScActi/oi, missionary of tho Londoa 
Missionary Society, ajxived in Cape Town, 
with ^me Namaq\tas. Mr. Shaw »ought as 
int4.Tview with them, and was cnconraged by 
Mr. Schemlcn to atteaipt a mission among the 



AFRICA, SOUTHERN. 



ST 



bcfond Uifi Orange river. Bat iho 
dtin BiuTonDdmg him wen* nmny :< 
rfmt. no luul nut j-vt the Mitictioii of ii 
eooniutlvti fur mch uu andertakiog; tlicii tlie 
I woiiM V>o irrcot, unJ l)c*itic:s, hia wife's 
I TTw very fevble. But ia ibis enit-TU-fUfy 
pid ttud devoti^d woman urped litr 
I uiidortaJLC tht* unlnnis ciilorpriAr. 
her jHTSonal iiroporty to nustaiii 
the VDDimittL-e lu L<jud(iii nof bo 
lu hour tliG ir.ijK.'liso, Tliis dt.'cidvd 
-A wajjnn and nxvn, with other nca-s- 
wcro immcdiaUdy purchoM'^l, arjil Ifur- 
Sbaw uud ht» wife, without knowiug: 
«(«» th«.'y nhould tind n n-.-'tiug ptiK'i*. or to 
atwoi tbf>V tdioiild ^io, hvi off oil their joiirnuT 
Ikrongil tJie Africmi wtldt--rno)^^. They S(>dii 
itw hmiiid-i of civiUzalion ; und with 
i- timpd »itundii)^ llO"' in 
,' d Oil ihi'if wc-.iry journey. 
Toa III r llio 27lh diiv, they mft 

■ mrty • ' '. iicvoniijaDii'd liy ;i fhiof, 

no CB6&UIJ- 'I >^--w Uktr. Mr. Shaw cutcrcd 
krto comrcnatinn with them, luid to hi? Hur- 

CK ud delight the chief iuformed him that 
viay botfd of the " Great Wwd," he was on 
Ut vi^ (6 Cape ToMm to seek a (lu-Lstiiu) 

^ wU^marf.to tcAcb hiui and his people the 
WW id Mhmtjon. They had already traveled 
SV laSei, Bsd tlK-re wore yet nearly 300 more 
Mm tbcT muld roArh Cfape Town. It was 
aMahi thai Ihey cdnld obtain do rolvi<mnnr' 
%KK ; aod iKul a peculiar prorident-e arrani,'cd 
iMf nntii^. Uod either purty sturle*! Imt 
Uf aa kocr earlier ou their juurn->y, they 
■ad Wvr mlased etirh other, they comiu^ 
ftw Little NtimnqiMiiii^d, and Mr. nimw tw> 
tac tuwmrd lip'al Nuiimi|ualmi<L Tliu doltKht 
■ Ite poor hentheu diief iii»y he inm^lned, 
•hn, after lislcninir to hin iilicetionate ^tutts 
■aria Mr. Shaw infHrmL^l him that he waa a 
^Atk^ary of the Ori-^4 lookiiit; for a pf«)ple 
t^wbuo be inigbt pn'ach doiu Chrtt^t; and 
vtvM K« nfreo^I to tro biirU with him to Kin 
W' ■' -' uluud. " iind rejoiced as 

<*r ifreiil s|Kiil.'' Thoy pur- 

mtA UM.ir w -ly itir<mgh deep I'urtstfl, mid nrrcK*! 
fanoft m^vd and precipitous mouiiluimt, 
|nv wUeh eT?n 14 oxen e^iald hardly draw 
■towigoa.) and whfn within two or three 
4l(JV* 'f/QTVy nf thi-ir dt'stiiintion, the chief 
iBrrW on to iuform hiR jH-opIe of hu ftucccM. 
Ob Ike laM day of the jouj-ney, between *J0 
mA 90 NanwiuBA, miiunteil (>n ycnio)^ oxen, 
mm» hBTTyiikg on lu mr^'i and welcome the 
■fa^tatarffa. Thiy uppmn'-h'-il ut full pillop. 

I A^ cTBii ffporkliii;; with il<-ti(;lit, nrtd kitivin^ 
aIUm liient BOt olf n^iaiu at the ti^p of their 

I l^svd to aonnancft their npiiroach, when the 
ThfllvUnni turoed out In rinrt tlifin. Next 
4Kf^ enQoril wafi lield, wht<-h wit-^ <>{'> no<l with 

f," jtr,, .1^ 1k! termination of the 

me, tliL i many of his potiph: 

«q« oioBd. Atlut which i/r. Schemlm. on 



iK'hiLlf of Mr. Shaw, praponn(li>d n series of 
I iS, relating to the csi of ft 

I. t^) all of whieh mt-t-i y att- 

Bwera were l'Ivcd. Thia devott^ litruiun mis- 
sionnry, havinc: »?en them safely al tltt-ir desti- 
nation, left thf-m for his own field of labor, dis- 
tant four weckii' journey. 

Mr. and Mrs. Shaw" fmnwl thontwlvw Hur- 
rnuudwl by heathrn, fur from fric-nds. and 
Acurcely yet able to speak the ianguajre, ki lui 
to make theinselves auderst'.KKl. Tlicy took up 
their abiKle Id a hnl, with neither chimney, 
dixir, or window, and without furniture, jtlcep 
m^ on a mat laid up*/n the l»ar« gromnl. Th 
day waff devoted to manual labor — building If^ 
lioiiKe and tilling the ground,— and the eveninu 
to communicating religious instruction, Wiii 
in one month of his arrival, he was rejoiced 1 
Pec Honie fruit of his labor. Soon a chni« 
was eriicted, a sthool commencoft, a clai 
ftTTmi'd, and n dei'p religious fwling extendtsf 
itwif unionir (he iH-nplc. In the moiitii of 
Juno, Mr. Khaw admitted 17 adults into the 
Cluristian church by the ordiufUKx' of baptism ; 
in July the Lordw yupnerwueadminialeitd for 
the first time, and in J>ecember, the lir^t Lovo 
Feast wa.-i held. The convertrt deliverftl their 
sentinienLs with great freedom and fiini])lieUy, 
of which the following ai*e specimens : " Peter 
lAnka row and said, ' I was formerly an enemy 
\o mtaeionaricfl, and when some wisWl t<» havo 
one, I oppo^ it ; bni now I am thankful for 
.the word. 1 love it. It huf taught me that I 
am a great Binner. When I foil thw I wuii- 
<len*d atwut eating bitter bushes hoping there- 
by to make atonement for my sins ; but 1 never 
found peaee till I lieard Jeau** tame to jyive 
the loi:t I um tlmnkful for what the book 
saj's. ' Come, let ua reitson toffcther, thnogh 
your B\m be as scarlet,' Ji:c. «! bave bwn liko 
a poor little silly lamb, which is only jubI be- 
ginning to go. Wlien the ewe goes from it 
a fihort distance, it turns aside, firet to one 
bush and tlieo to another. The ewe has hcp 
eye upon it, and goes back again to it. and 
does all Bhe can to induce it to follow her and 
will not foreakc it So tho Ixird has *lone tor 
me.' The chief followed. Hin remarks weTC 
very brief : 'All the siiw I have committed,' 
said he, • from my childhood to the present 
time, seemed to be placed In-fore my ruiiid.' 
Vcrji wHfn nlter^Tard ne found mercy, and told 
Mr. Shaw, that ' though he had been exlri-mt?- 
Iv sorrowful od account of the weight of hb 
Bins, the burden had been removed by Iho' 
grace of God, and his mind wna now filled 
with pesoe and joy.' Old Ttr^t n)«e up and 
sail), ' When I first naw my Kins I felt pain iu 
my hetirt ; and by night, when all tbe |»(K<p]e 
were sleeping in their huts. I could not rlo=e 
my eyit*. I got up and went out. I wimilerwl 
1'> and frfi. I lay down on my hands and 
kneo to pray. When 1 found one who toht 
me what I should do to be aoved, 1 wa^^ 5o de- 
lighted thai I knew not how to go away. ' " 



38 



AFmCA, SOCTHEBN. 



Id tiiQ depths of the African wildernfsi thai 
same Divine Spirit, whicli had moved bis peo- 
ple ill Kiitrlam! to luidcrtikke the mifsioD, was 
eiili^hU'iiitiiT tlie tlaildieria of thitt |>eopIe, and 
Iradinj: thotu to the enjoymi'Dt of a personal 
BaJvulion through the labors of their solitary 
mfewionary. Harly in 1618, Rev. E. Edvxmls 
u-rived al Lilt/ Fvuntahi, (the name of the sta- 
tion.) to assiAt Mr. I:^haw. Hie coming nas 
most opportune, and greatly delighted Ihopctv 
pie. In gratitude for his arrival, the natives 
chwred Ibem wilh"si:ing3 in the night." In 
thfir state of ignorance Iheyliiul ofleu dnncLil 
at midnight to the soand of the kommd-ptst, 
AuJ now, DcncuUi the some bright moon, in tlic 
calm BtithiesB of the uight, the mission party 
are st^u-tlcd from their clumbers by the sound 
of dialant musli". They rise and listto, and 
OS it contt« nmror. thcr dlsirovcr it to bo a 
happy hand of the rcucenied heathen going 
frotn but to hut, and the song that rose on the 
midnight air was"n ncwwrng" — a hymn of 
praUe. iu their own langaiige, to their nedecm- 
er. one verse of which according to their coa- 
tom WAS often repeated : 

'■FkHh lovei tbc S^Tiour aitil bvhoUa 
Ilit mOrriitgf, AfAth *a>i pain ■ 
And tbla ihitll m'«m- b« old sor ooU, 
TUl w« with bun ihtU nlgB." 

I tliey went onward Uiey caned on tlio liead 
of each (amily to engage m prayer, and thus 
left in their track the cloudof inc'cnRcriRinRnp 
from the domestic altar, occcptabic l)cforc God. 

Tlie cfpinniittw had went oat with Mr. Kd- 
wartls tt/org* and some iron, with other nii-ans 
of improvement. They aet to work, and made 
ploughj-'hare-s and other implement^ of indus- 
try, and Boon agricultoro began to show Or 
hoppy efll'ctd around them. ^ othing snrprir^d 
tlieni more than tl^ heated iron, and thoKparkB 
from tlio anvil, jt was to them the day of 
wonder ; and as the Greeks bemoaned tlio lot 
of their ancestors, who had not lived to ewx: 
Alt^ander on the thrnoc of Darius, so tho Na- 
maifiujs set-med to lament the lot of tht'ir futli- 
ers who had died before a forge was t<ct up 
ill their camp. A schix>l-hottto was Imilt.aiid 
with the aiswUiuee of Mr. Edwordg, education 
began nwta rapidly to diffuse its blessings. 

As UD Uluiitration of the diQietdtics attend- 
ing the introduction of letters among a Imrbn- 
roiia people, Mr. Shaw, when in Kngland, 
obout ISil, stated in the hearing of the wri- 
ter, that for weeks he hiul trit.'d in vain to 
make the Namatjnos understand that the large 
letters he liad traced on cards and hung u)i 
bcfuro them, each st^Kxi for a separate sound, 
and that their combination gave a word nr 
idea. They looked astonished and burst into 
a loud laugh. Ht* wag growing disheartened ; 
but recollecting they had a nan>e for each bul- 
lonk, he again hung up hw letters on a tn'e, 
wliile the Xaintu^tnu sat in a circle on the 
ground, and pointing to tho first letter said, 
''There is bullock A," and to the sccondt 



» There is bullock B," and no on. Thdr i _ 
brightened ; tb^ had caught tho idea, aoif] 
had no more trouble. 

A gmfd chapel and a misalon hotwe 
fTCctcd. Meanwhile tlie work of God deep- 
ened in the hearts of the people. An awake 
ing commenced. Even the children held mc 
iugs for prayer by themselves. Clad in 
karoisei) of sheepBkJn, ihey boweii befcrre 
I^rd, and sung Joyful huoannaa to the 
of David. 

The news of this good work spread 
tribe to tribe, and nvxm the cry was f 
di.-itanl pluei's, "Come over and help oa.*^ 
of the I.ily Fountain people went on ft ^ 
a tribe of Mtilattocs, about si.xty miles off, i 
ryinK with tbeni two little girls who had T 
tauf-ht to read and sing ; and so eager ' 
thase poor heallirn to Knrn something of ' 
way of life, that they kept the two little 
reading, praying, singing and answering qii 
tions incessaDlly, Bcarcfly aIh>wiDg them 
riat day or iilgliU A detfire woa thus avi 
cne<] in the brrnsts of many to be '* tanght 
woy of (jod more perfectly." One of the i 
of tlie tribe soon arnv<.'d at the station, 
told the misBiouarics that the peo]>le living 
mar him. who had nevt*r heanl a sermon nr 
fH'H'u a niis^)onar\', were longing for the g08pet. 
Mr. Shnw visited the tritio, (in JiushnttH^and) 
and preached thiTc d few days. 

In I'V'bnmry, 1819. a Hottentot from a difr 
tant trilH-, iirrive<l at the ntation, and address- 
ing the minpionaries smid, " My errand in com- 
ing here (s to rcrjiicift. that you will come and 
teach us, at our place, the good tidings of the 
goitpo-1. I tun now an old man, and l^vc tnitg 
thought of the world. I now desire to forget 
tho world and seek gnmelhing for my sotiL. 
Wfi have many pi-ople — BftPtHTtti, (O^qnaa,) 
Ilottcntotii. and Bushmen, all of themeamea^ 
1y d«)iring the go?pe1. I could not shsep. baft 
rose- rnrly in the nuirning, and went to one of 
my frieiidfi. whose house wa«i a i-onpidenible 
di»«tance from mine, to Fpcak with him. 
fi.'imd him in the very pame state of mindi 
mysK-lf. longing to hi'ar tho gospel and grea 
trout>h*d. I stood amused, and said t his ma 
)m from 0(h1 ; if it bu not from him 1 knfl 
not from whcnre it has come. I will go 
the Kfmmies mountain and bear for mj 
lie said, if you (tho mi<«ionary,] will go ini 
mc, or come U> ns, wc will send n wagon and 
oxen f4tr yi»n. If I connot procure men (though 
I am now old) I will come mj-sclf ; and be as- 
sured I will never leave yon. J will give alt 
my rattle over to the othpr people, and live 
free from worldly care ; but you must con 
soon.'' 

Couhl it be poanblc that a mind 
drawn by the 8pint of flod, (or those auxk 
cues In the tribca he represented,) would 
left to grope its way in dnrkncaB ? No, at ( 
very time these words were being uttered i 
Africa, tbc Committee in London were mt 



AFRICA. SOUTHERN. 



39 



nogviiMiite to nioforce the mission ;, nal containa a record of daogera aod toils 

'■" ":.' /2ffp. /, ,'hrcAAfZ/, with iiL« cxci!!- Uutl elTurts, wblch has few parallels pvmi id 

■ oa their wny. Thiy nrrivt-J it uiL-wioimrT history. Btsidea the boroiug sua 



bt COS!) kw» tbey proceeded to 

Opm tl I :iishtQanuuKl, atn place 

c. ^>i, about two daya' journey 

Ir . lo the cast- Th« old Hot- 

tpiu^ ' I'ln nith joy ; >|rrotiQd was 

■ekctoi 100 rorrncd, when? the word 

«f life ^ ^i and eagerly received by 

The j-iuu- -jiiiivee of Khatnia Berg (or 
nonnlaiui coiitinu«x] to improve both in tcin- 
ftnX KOu spirituiU niattert ; mid were as a 

SmA on a hill. Their light slioiic in wor- 
ag Ood iu thi-ir fuiuilies. Mr. Shaw 
loi conccniinir ihcin :— " (Jft have 1 htard 
Ibm ea^atfed in family prayer. l>orore the 
•n bad ^luetl iho to|jd of tho mouulaiiu, dot 
Mm lietr tveiiing dorotioiis Df.-glt'cU.'d. As 
X kare stood bv the tni£«Jou house, with the 
fVtaiu of night driwu aroand tu, I could 
btar tiiCB amgiog tbcir licaatifuj cveuiug 
hjiaa: 

, Who TOiutAtUir DO iM iitth shiao j 

wmli ocitbK fun nur aKnn Appau.'* 



Thi-y arrivt-d at uiL-yioDarr history. 
and iwo weeks alter, aud wind, they were coiistanlly cxi»o«sl to 



ftenroiu.- 



•*ioir knees thoy felt the pro- 
I tiph, and tlic fiilfilmetit of 
.. huhitaliun urtbti jast eholl 
The Imppy vbftngo mu thus 
SHralcd by ooo of th*:ir old nieu : " Myu- 
Ikb. before wc rcccircd tho goi^pel wo were 
Ike aa e^ before the chicken is batched ; wc 
Weavmunded with darkness, and could see 
•flCUa^ ; bill wheu the gospel came it broke 
Ike iIrII, and now wc kcu the light at da^ ! " 
UifioQ olflo led to temporal cotufort. AVhen 
Ikamimmn oommenoed in 1810, tho habits of 
■• fup U were filthy in the oxtrenie. ao that 
fti •flrrr;-' ''"■v t rongrc^aUon of them was 
■M^ t miauonary ^^ick. Dut no 

mmtr lii^ ..:,, ...'jirc the ruspel than they 
ItmktA and i^thed thcmicTTea. luttcad of 
BiHag Ua raola, or by the chase, and creeping 



wild beastd and to savage men ; often lu dait- 
ger of dyijif by huugor and thirat. or lu^o^ 
their way in tlw wilderness, or being daslie<l to 
nieces ovw the precipices round which they 
hud to cUinb. Hut God preserved them ; 
and after foartecu wccku' abseneo, thoy ro- 
tanw.-d in Rufcty. Ho nuido his report to the 
comoiittee in London, and applied to tlH>. col- 
onial governor, Sir K. Dimhn, who kindly |«r- 
niittcd and encouraged him to open raishions 
among the chicb he bad visited, many of whom 
had reqoeated to have Chri^^tiou teachers scut 
to tliem. 

In 1821, tlio miasioa was enlarged by tho 
arrival of throe more musionflriea. Mr. Ardi- 
beli and the Hottentot aftdHtant mhainnary, 
Jacob Links, being sent to the Great Nama- 
quaa, Mears. Kay titui Broattbettl wcro &aii to 
commence! a miHiinn in the Bechuana country, 
and Mt, Jloilgton to rcAioiu at the ('ape, where 
pcrmliuion had at length been obtoiui^^l to 
communicate religious instruction to the fdave 
population. The AJbatiy and KaArarin mis- 
sion bail liecn commenc4*d the year before by 
Wm. Shaw, (brother of Bamatms,) and two 
miuionorleri were alao appointed to Madit^aii- 
Lur. The next year the devoted Wiidam 
TknlfoH was eent to aaust Mr. William 
Shaw. Being again reinforce<l in TB23, Mr. 
W. Slmw op4'ued a miK^ion among the Kafirca 
under the protection of the Kaffre monarcli, 
Pato, and Mr. ThrtlfaU and Mr. Wh,tuwih 
proceeded to open a minion sUtl farther east. 
ID Deiagoa Bay. While Mr. Edwarda left 
Khamiea Berg to estnblL^h a station among 
the Corannait, on the banks of the Orange 
rirer, at a place called Mooti. This and the 
Atation at Maqnaoc (about three ditgrctw eiutt 
of the jnnt::tion i»f the Oradock, and one day's 
joiiniey north of (*range river.) were much 
interfered with by incunfioiu of savage triljes 
in their vicinity. Mount Cok*, on the Bnf&lo 
river, was establiabcd the following yi«r. Tho 



IRu • nooky hut, or a hole in the earth tu slwp, rubisionuries were engaged tii (heir great work, 
ftqr bmll honeet and cuUivatLO the ml vand 



llMJiiid tfce reward of their labor ; bo that of 
ttmf a fp«t io South Africa it may now be 
■41 -There hf m:ikotb the hungry to dwell. 
till tlwy tnny pr>'p»re a city fv habitation, 
tad aow IUUIa and pUnt vinryariL% which may 

Stbc frait« of incrcu^." Geo. Thompson 
and at«o S'lr Jama E. Alexander nave 
la their nviH.'ctiTe volumes of Travel. 
fd «n noonl a most plnaaing teetimuov con- 
arvlag thin miMiou aod oth^ cfltabliflbed by 
ilr. Shiiw un<l lii-^ a^ociates ia South Africa. 
! . I'.rtook a journey to 

4^ ! the f>mngf rumr io 

>! to avail him- 



leurtiing the UuignagCit. building school-booaee 
and places of worehip. and preaching tlic word 
of hfc with consiaerahle Kucce^a wlieii an 
event transpired which fdk-d them with the 
diTopest :<orrow. Tltey were called to resign 
port of their nnmber to become the first raw- 
tyrs of the Metliodwt mi-«ai>uB to South 
Africa. Among the tirsl fniiU of IlartuibuM 
yhuw'a ministry lit Khamies Herg, iu iHKJ.waa 
the family of the Lttiks. Thia cunvertcil lioilon- 
tot familv alone fumifihed thrw native tearhiTft 
of such decided piety and suitable knowlwlgti 
of the truth an to tie rcry iiaefiil in the niii&ion. 
One of these was Jatob LtjJa, who was at first 



employcti as interpreter. But his iirogresin in 
_ t Ih.- prwenl'-'d j knowledge and piety wiis each that be soon Imv 
Uii, liiflXi-ji^ :|>n ftU ot^e gospel ilia Jour- 'gan to prendi oimAolf, and accompanied Mr. 



AFEICA, SOUrnERN. 



Shaw in his I'arious visita to neighboring 
trihcft. He was V(!ry useful ; iu 1618, the con- 
fcrcucc* acct'^U'd him ub au af^tunt miaioii- 
Br,v, ADt) ^laot-d hbi name upnn the minato. 
Besides hu own lnn;;iiage, (the Xamaqnft.) bo 
could nrcuch in tlif Outfli, and hu nlijo leurned 
Kngliiin, Ihiit lie might Imve access to its reli- 
gions litoratiire. As an instance of bis shrcwd- 
nc» : One day lie and Mr. SImw uiKounlpred 
a Datch lK>cr, who stoutly dcniwi tliut the Bi- 
ble or the pijflpcl was ever iDtendc<i for Hot- 
tentots. Linlcs looked him in the face and 
replit^d, " Master, yoa told uio tliat our uaiiK-s 
did not t^tand in too Book. AS'ill ynu now t4']l 
mc whether the name of Dutchman or Knf;IiHh- 
man 13 to be found in it T" No answer was 
givi'jt, and Jacob continued, " Master, yoa call 
ns heatliPiLfL That is onr name. Now I fiiul 
thut the Bonk vaya that Jvga& came as a light 
to lighten the heathen, so wo rood our name iu 
the Book 1 " The DatchmaD was silenced. 

On another occasion, Mr. Shaw po^ii, "At 
the limn of oorcoiui^ into Namaqnaland,mnst 
of the di>itaiit (Ihilrh) faruieru not only diHap- 
provcd of the hwithen being instructed, hot 
some of theni cndcavofLKi to turn it nil into 
ridicule. ( >nv of tlipm declared to mo that he 
believed the Naniaquaa were only a spccicti of 
viid dos, nud lind no fouiv. I therefore called 
Jacob Links, who woa with me at the time, 
and nflV-red to prove that .lacob, though a di^, 
could both read and write better than the far- 
mer. I believe the faruicr could do neither ; 
and findiuj^ himself in an awkward situation, 
he called for his horwr'and rodo hastily away." 
In gratitude for his recognition txn an assistant 
mie&ionKiy by thecommittc%^ iu London, Jacob 
, links wrote tfaem the following vei^ iutci'estiuer 
letter, which gives additional particulars of hi.-^ 
personal history. This letter was written in 
Dntrh, in a very pood hand. Only three years 
previous to its date the writer of it wo!* an iif- 
norant Hottentot ; let tlic reader bear this in 
mind, and then answer the question to hid own 
conscience, whether or no the (f<>s|K'l of Christ 
Is adeqaato to elevate and save tbc most de- 
graded of mankind ? The following is a Uto- 
raltrufilatioD; 

"Atbioa, Lnrx-ra Fostrise, 
Nov. 19. 1819. 
**Unknovm bvt Reverend GetUlemen :—Vhe 
galutiitiouH wbieh you seiat, I r(K\-ivcd from 
our U^luval t^iicherfl, and wish ynu and the Ro- 
cicty much peace and prosperity in the name 
of U»e Lord. 1 have long bceo dwirouj* of 
writing yoa concerning my former and present 
state, but on uecount of weakuesa in the Dutch 
language, I have been hindered- I hope, how- 
erer, your goodness will excuse and wink at 
my fault Befonj I hoard the gospel 1 was in 
gross darkn£»i, ignorant of myself as a sinner, 
and knew not that I had an immorta] i^oul ; 
nor hail I any knowledge of him whf> is called 
Jcsua. 1 was so stupid thut when a llottcntut 



came by qs who prayed to the Lord, I thought 
bo was Baking his teacher* for alt th(«c thingi&i 
of which he spuke in his prayer, t^omftimc 
after this anotbor Namaqna came upon oar 
place, lie spoke much of fin and aim of Je- 
sus. By meuiuD of his converHition I was very 
sorrowful and mueh affected, and knew not 
what to do. My mother having some leaves 
of an old Dutch imlm l>oi»k. I thought if I ata 
thorn I might then find comfort. 1 ate xh« 
leaves up but my sorrow was not Icsaeucd. I 
then got apon the roof of an old house to pray, 
thinking if I were Ai^A the Lord would bear 
me In-ttcr ; but 1 fomid no deliwrance. I then, 
ate all sort^ of hitter btL<lu^,fnr I thought tha 
Lord might possibly have mercy on me. Bat 
my heaviness did not then go away. I then 
bcani that I mu^t give my cau^^ over tn Jesnia, 
and tried to do so, by which 1 found much 
lighter. There was then d» one iu this couu* 
try to tell as of Jcsub, and I desired to go to 
me Great river, (the Onuige river, near 200 
milcH ofT,) to Icarn from the word. I was now 
peraecuted both by black and white. The 
[Dutch] fanners said if we were taught by mis- 
xionarics we should be sebsed ba slaves. Some 
Haid 1 had lottt my senses ; and my molhor be-, 
licving tliis to be the case, wept over rae. Af- 
ter this a mi^jionary on his journey to PeUa, 
remained aorue wefks with our chief; but U 
I WAS tending cattle in the IJushraau-laDd, I 
heard notliing. Then our chief and four other 

rirsoiu went to seek oin; who could ti^eh lis. 
was at this full of joy ; and when tJioy to- 
tiUTied, and 1 saw the teacher (Mr. yiiaw) 
whom the Ixml had scut us, it was tht; linppi- 
t«t day for lue thut I ever knew. Through IJifi 
word thftt the Lord gave the missionary to 
speak 1 learnt that my ui*art was Ixid, and that 
nothing but the precious blmKl of CIitIhI could 
clcniLSC mc from mv sin.<t. X also found Jesus 
to be the way of lire and the sinner's friend ; 
and I now feel the most tender pity for all 
those who are ignorant of God. 1 often feel 
sweetness for my soul whiLft I s{)eak about the 
goffljcl, and my own experience in the Lord. 
Bcioro our English teacher came we were all 
sitting in the shadow of death. The fanners 
around us told ua that if wc i>raj'ed tbey would 
flog us, and some of them even threatencrd to 
shoot us dead if wo attempted to pray. They 
.said wo were not men but baboons, and tliat 
God was btosphemi'd by the prayers of Nam* 
quas, and would putiish us for d:Lring to call 
upini him. Now.howevcT, we thank ihe Lord 
chut he hoa taught us by hia servants, and that 
he bnlh also given His son to die fnr uj, AVe 
hear likewiii«, that many people: in England re- 
member us in their praj*ers ; and wc hope they 



*ThUwuUio Uta Mr. Albreebt, ntMlnn&rTal PotU. 
Tlio Iluttmtol above aMotkuod hud nrvlc* amoar tb» 
pMjila wh(tt« be lUiMaavd to go. Jacob UnJu Itaonf hlin 
pnf . hut hod ae fain of Gait m & Bsiag to b« tbiu ftd- 

ilraiMd. 



1 
i 



J 



AFRICA, SOUTHERN. 



41 



rfll ooi fonct 0%. Tiic society ot all praying 
t ore by mo sainted. 

An tniwurtliy Kumoqua, 

JAOOB UNKS," 



■"■£' 



loamwil of the moTcy of Irod con- 
.-raw Ln {rrac'c LmU knowlLHigo, and 
to eXLTCuc hia aliilitiei 
cli ' ' hU own [K'onlf and to 

'tribe? ■ m. About tliU time a 

Aar|iAclii'- liscralion for tlie perish- 

b.r kat}. Ii ■ OiMiu-i- river, Liul ta- 

iuta'm. And 
! tlif ilangctr. 

Jwrol* Lanka tiud all i" l^luro- 

]Ksa miMifmnrj coiil , . ibat lie 

IvQsid late ont' of hii CliJ-I^Li.iii talhroii with 
|KtM. «aJ c< nnj livo aiuniiL' lb'* 0[T:it Nama^ 

r'. '■'■ ' \ity nf life Just at 
I'lc llcv. W. Thrcl- 
i,n% I I'ljutain. Mr. ThrdfiUI 
< t of auiiublc spirit and muii- 
'V :!itd of ffTcat proniieK? iw a 
Ilo loft a homo in Eiifr- 
.oiioiB of wealth and 5'> 
reacnted their charms in vain 
■tta the stilled purpose of Kis 
II Christ to the oeatheu. He 
. Africa in 1822. But \m de- 
■A wod for Maila^ciwrar, oudhe 
■.'.e<l tn ppooeir<l tliLTcfrom Af- 
, " ' rtf fiiilKirkini;, (in 
-1 00 vrhifh he for- 
Suvioty.) he nobly 
_' thiit' if the low 
'.i'.f difficulty which 
Miiinencc u ini'<'*ion 
ild furnish another 
■-TV !,. ;:-o wiUi him. he would hiia*Of 
',1-it 'ri- ■I'.Tv- There never went fiirth 
n [ uary tlian W. Tlirclfall. 

ti.-'.. : :ind iK'htilding what had 

LAxk; .ilriijily \<y the lalrarj of the mia- 
. be waa w> di.'Ii^,'ljtfd thai he wept for 
'Aftffr WninnL^ in Albunu for a ttinu, he 
trt IkLiumi Baif. lie made great 

■-'•■■■■' rv'--- 1 '■■: bat in 

iffi his 

fci'.i „ . ' _,L^ Town. 

.■ .1. . id blU on board were pros- 

r 'ivea of tho crow died, in- 

.. 'I :^nd mntdf), and the holm 

■ <] n-leo, for no one had 

i -ih" dridt'd in r|i«tres-!. 

!if w.!-* run itito Tuhle 

MrThr^f.iII 

■ My request 

i''ver prni»er- 

"' devoted to 

-^•1 was pTo- 

. and no com- 

jiid the tOM'fi. 

le ii> the -vliip. In thi^ 

Hev. J, H'httwrtJi, We*. 

uy\ Uttui kI the Cape, voluiit«t!n.'d 



to (fo OD board the inflicted ve&wl and attend 
to the suffcrcis. and auder cmrws titipttla'Jon 
that he was not to retuni Mil the qaarantine 
was taken oQ". Providijff hiinself with m»;di- 
clnpA, &c., he wont on b«<ftrd,aud Ood nut only 
pniM^rved hini but aUo niiulc him tlie instromcot 
of raiding up all the rft:t ; and on the 25th of 
Mav, Mr. Thrclfall, with tho captain and crew 
lamVd, ifrai^ini; <iod fur their d*'Iiverjuici». 
Mr. Threlfall then prorcoded to Lily Fountain 
to join Mr. Shaw, and concert niea.«iires witli 
him for extouilin;; the ciitiae of Christ araon^ 
tho heathen. Mr. Shaw was delighted with 
him. His piety ami zool and love fur sonia 
was ever apDnront After regaining liishetUUi 
in some pood measuro, ho projectttl a mUiion to 
the O peat Namaqans on the north-west ; and 
Boding " a true yoko-fellow" in Jiwjob Linln, 
every thing wa.s soon arranged, and he, with Ja- 
cob [jinks and Jonas Jneer, a native exhurtcr, 
left Lily FfMintain on their perilous journey 
in June, 1825. Mr. Bhaw heard from the party 
up to Aug. Cth. They were at that date sufl^r- 
ing much from tho disturbeil state of tiw conn- 
tritsi tbnmgh whieh they were parsing, and oIm 
from deScieney of foo<f ; but still trusting in 
God. No Rirthor information arrivbig, and 
several montlis pa»ing over, fears bepin to 
be cntertaineil for their safety, which were 
.40on afterwanl^ coiiflrmcd. It upijears (hat n 
cruel ruffian, well known to thodtffen-nt triUa 
ii\ NamaipnUand a? a blowl-thirsly Puvnge. 
who lived by plundia* wnd murder.'had with 
some others like minded, placed himielf m Mr. 
ThroIfalVs path, nnd "ffered tu become guide to 
the party. One night while Uiey'were iwleep, 
ho and his confederatca rose and unirdcrufl 
theui. JonnH Jager wae shot while asleqt. 
They then turned on Jacob Tiinki and shot 
him. his last breath being Bpcnt in warning 
and exhorting his murderers and commending 
bii soul to his Redeemer. Mr. ThreUall at- 
tempted to lly, but a shot gtrack him and he 
full, and the cruel a'voasin came up \\m\ pierced 
him near the heart with his ass&gay, luid killed 
him. 

The only motive for thts dreadful act was 
to obtain tho few trilling artirhvi wliii^h they 
hod taken with them to provide foiid. Both 
Jacob ond Jonna left wires and families to bo- 
moan their lo^, and nil of them were under 
thirty j*earH of age ; cut down thna mysteriously 
in their bloom, nt a time when the Cliureb woe 
ox[tecti»g gnott results &om their holy and 
zoalnas pflS^rtfu 

Information having reached tbe chief Afri^ 
camr, he pursuc-ii and at length arrested the 
party, and then sent iuformntiim to the Britt^ 
authorities nt the Cap*;. Tho murdertr was 
sent to the colony to be executed. On his way 
he was leil thrwigh LUy Fountmn, and the 
whole village? tunied out to seo him ; but 
mark the cnange Christianity bad wrought. 
Tho frieuthi of tho murdered men crowded 
round him, not to apbroid or torment, bat to 



42 



AFRICA, SOUTHERN. 



exhort him to thiuk of his awful coDdition, 
and earaestly rotwiil before ho left the world ; 
and witli all c^xeinplifioLtioa of llio inoet ex- 
ulted Chrl-fttan cluirity, Martlut, iho Btstcr of 
Jacob Links, said to tho unhuppy wretch — 
" Althou^b you bavu munk-red my brother, 
uuvrrtltele*, I uui sorry for you. because you 
aru iuditTt-reiit to the sulvation of yuur eouI." 

The duttih of Mr. Throlfu,!! nroduocd a deep 
senaotioD in Kuglaad. as well as iu Africa; 
and the Obristiaii bard, Montgomery, celebrat- 
*od hui untimely eud in one of his moot boaiitifd 
awl {mthctic producliona Tberv was no ro- 
aervc in the ofTeriiig which Mr. Tbrclfall laid 
upou the misAouar^ altar ; hiu life, his 
iJoodt his properQr, bis all, were joyfully cou- 
Bocrated in such a service. Antl, althoDj^h, 
nmtie livini; know where ho sleeps^ — hisdevoleil 
life bos uoi been in viiin, eitiicr to tlu; pi^terity 
of Ham, or to tho liviug Church of G^l. He- 
deemed Africa will yet place his name in the 
calendar of her saints and martyrs; and 
when ** tho ('hicf Shepherd shall appear," 
Threlfall shall '* be with him in glory." 

It id but ju:$t to odd, that the wu»h he pcnucd 
in hi» lueiuoraDdum book, on board Ihe plague 
ahip, was honored, after his di'uth, by his ox- 
ocUent father, so that, incladin^ his 'own do- 
nations untl \m eHects, the noble sum of nearly 
$8,000 wa^ pn-Mc'uted, In hin behalf, to the 
miasioDory caasc 

AJlimat*^d by fmch an example, his brethren 
followed tip his elTort. Gra^ Namaqualtuui 
WHS tjuterud ; and, in the country where he fell, 
tho society iu whoee serrice he sacnficed his 
life, has noir two statioos, two miesiouaries, 
flix local prcaohcrs, and twentv-one l4>uithers. 
viUi nearly 400 church members, and more 
than 1800 Great Xamaquas under religious in- 
stmctiou. 

Barnabiis Sliaw came home to Kn^lanJ, to 
recruit Lis lii^.-illh in 1837 ; but he shortly after 
returned lo Alrica, to resume bis labors, and 
afler 45 years of ministerial toil and snfibriuR, 
this " Apostlo of Wcslerau Miasious in Souui 
A friofl," IS still at liis piw't, (Uligeutly einpIoyiHl ; 
while his SOD. on the ^pot where he finit drew 
tlie bnsLtli of life, became tho suece^or of his 
venerable fatlier, in the care of the Khanues 
Berg Church, till forced from his position by 
failure of health in 1848. 

'Vy. Shaw, the brother of liamabas, mean- 
while, was ongaf^ed with bis associates iu ex- 
tending the Oospel on the east coast, and in 
the interior, amouj^ the Bechnanas, as far up 
aa PhmUx^'g in lal. 28. 

The Albany mii^^ion was orij^iually eom- 
neuced with Uic ^-Ltiera who went out from 
England, in tho hope tlmt it would connect it- 
ielf with the fluHentuts, and ultimaltly provide 
the meaus for cxtcading^it^lf amoo)!; the Kaffre 
tribes. These hopes have been realized; 
and the brethrtm occupying them hayc sue- 
OdiNrely given way to the mrw mifisiouaries 
aoot oat from Kngtand, and hare |danted 



tbemwlTOB among the savages of Ki 
From tJicir labors have re^inlti^I ID atati< 
besides those of Wesleyville and Coke's M uunt 
in the Albany and Kaffraria Dmtnd. In tht 
Port Naiai and Amazuia DistTid Hit-tc arc five 
stations ; and in the Cape of Good H'/m Dj*- 
trid there are nine, all ol which with full infor- 
mation will be found in the tabular view at 
the end of this article. 

The peculiar difficulties wluch our nuadon- 
aries hare to encounter in their tabors among 
these people, aj-iw from thoir feudal custom!^ 
their waoticringlifc, {being herdsmen,) and the 
restless and warlike spirit of the Kuffrcs on the 
cast coast. But, uutwitluttauding ili< 'T 
culties the Gospel ha^ been planted ; 
and churclkcs gathered; etlneation iu..t iiw 
press hare been iulrodueed ; hundreds havt 
bct-'n truly converted to God ; the e-Hvuin^rn 
of tho umvclaimed, In some measure, - 
down ; and a large nnniber arc iiowl» t 
'I'hrone, who have died rejoicing in the faith 
which the miasionxuics first carried to them 30 
years ago. An histttutifnfvr training natitt 
teachtrs is in operation In KuiTniriu.and aboft 
orifUmg prtsi, from which, bciddes nible^ 
uynin Il4M>ks, &c^ there is regulariy iisucd a 
periodical in the Kaflre language. There is also 
another press at Grahams Town, and another 

amon^ the Bccktuauu. The lauguagiN • ''"■ 

ed by the missiouuries aro Uw Etm 
Duukt the Kaffrt, Ibe /Jniso, the &a:. . l_. 
&re6o, and the ^rcAuuua. 

The leading authorities for this article an 
the "Annual Reportf," and " itf tnwnory N{h 
tica" of the Weslcyan Kliasionarv Society i 
the " Amiwd Mtnuies " of the Weslcyan ('on- 
ferencc ; " Tho iValeyan Methodist Magazine :" 
" Sfune'a Memorials of South Africa," and 
" Mqffiats South Africa."— lUw Wiuji^ Bcf- 

LRU. 

It is especially grntifving to see, in t' ■■ -^^ '"" 
denying labors of all denominations 
siouary ground, and the blessed rcsn 
follow, the substantial unity of Pr 
Ctirislians. The AjtOKtlccxprGaKd hi- > 
dt^ire, tliat the primitive dlEciples. to wIimu ha 
wrote, might all Rpeak the same thing, aod lift ; 
joined Ui^ther tn one mind ami one spirit ; 
and this ut fulfilled in the foreign mis^ooaiy 
field. By whatever divensc names they arQ 
called, wnethcr Moravian, Wesleyan, Kpiac<K 
pal, Preebytermn, or Baptist, they speak tha 
same laogua^^ of Canaan, and their converli^ 
whetJicr " Farthiaiis, Medi:«, the dweileni is 
Meso|)otamia," or Ilotteutots. Kaffirs, Ilindooa, 
Chinese, or New Zealaod'irs, all hear i'l tjn-ir 
own ttinguc, and speuk alike the l;i 
of ptmilenfc and faith. And, in the fi ; 
Kkelch, we find the Gcrmon Presbrtrriau 
taking by the hand the English Wcsleyan, and 
going a (our muulhb' journey into the wilder- 
ucas, lo iutrodtioe hint into the Geld ; uiid soon 
we hear tho " song in tKc nighi," rising up from 



J 



4^ 



AFBIGA, SOUTHERN. 



-uni'tnTag par 
.Qj ■il|q«-'*'M. 



9 O 00090C' O 

s O' ocborss o 

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■ Xm JO JOqiQQ.Hii 



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r-< *4 -ti cC O <fti. ® 
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eO I-H 1-4 M .-I I-H fH 1-1 d 






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■«? m -^wffijcocflefl pfl 



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/ 



AFRICA. SOCTHRRK. 



45 



Saemty/ar Pmpagatingtfu Ooipd rn Foreign 

fvts.—ti«^ •(ttT the Colony of the Cape of 

Oooil Hope camo iato the pofisesioD of the 

Britillb GoTcnunent, in liK)6, a coluoial cbai> 

luft mi ftppoiatc) ; but for u cuusiilerablu 

*^ but Utile intorcet waa fdt \u the reli- 

^emdition of the pi>putati'>n, aii<J no cflbrt 

oade for the cnnversion of the hcatlicn. 

: 3» 18S», UM Sooae^ Knt out Ruv. W. AVright 

tit One Town, wncre he was sacccvdcfl iti 

11^ Rev, Dr. K. J, Uurrow. In 1840, u 

(MeauJ ckTgjmau wag added to ttie Society's 

jbL Id IWT. there were found in all only 13 

lokrnwen and one cateuhUt, miul^tcring to 

fvtt^ coaUored con^rn^tlons, throughuat a 

f Igt i lofy whieli. ex elusive of tho recent adili- 

tiMM *i Oriluh Kaflhtna, the Sovercipity, 

' Mi Natat« was aa large a& Great Britain itself. 

j b tkat jnar. the Dioceso of Cape Town was 

ImftiteiBd. incladin?. to(rctbcr witli ail the 

tlkitildl baaoKi' tj Afriai, ttie laland 

I tf 8t lUhoa : • Gray having been 

IPmcntwt Ob r I. t VI,, .-, Oar, iH-il, arrived 

. Owe Tmm Feb. 28. 1848. Tbe chunpi 

UpBMrd been dKxted in the short space *i( 

t7Mnv«t tho timu of the Hnciely'ti Jubi* 

^i 1^1. ■ thorn," tJ»o SociL'ty aay in their 

L, ** bow tbe pr«Gcnc« of a single man, full 

fasl lor tb« Q^lory of G%l and the e.\ti;n»iuii 

•f CVifO Kin^vm.c-ao. wiih G<id'!> bletsauff, 

Saf«v HBf uml "itprgr wherever he goes." At 

tbit ■■ "y ■ J , of Coiin Town had made 

tmi \. bail IxKn performed un 

b< . ■') ; or, ocaisiouaily on h()ri>o- 

W- he croawd Uw Orange Kivor, 

|Vr»>M <■ i^^^isot Blocm Fontcin and Vrodc 

t^ wiicnao be ibsModod to Vvtvr Muritz- 

I bin. Od hSe way back, he parsed throut^^hont 

jSamria, aoBittuiieB into spoUi before unvi^- 

Ifkri hytvmTblen, or at lea.«t unknown to ^c**- 

iBBfaitii. ffar the purpose of bearing tho Gwpd 

PvO'iriaivage tribeti. 

' u-Tvy have btvn muUipIiixl nearly 

two Arfli(k'ui-i)i*s. Mi'rriii>an and 

liitfiis of 



hk^ 



J I forty 
1 . i-iijTiijrcd 



_| mi* ai-iiM' iiiii-<i>:-^ w > 1''. in I ^ , 

I abi^oaary labor UirutiL,'hou( the li>ui;-ni'>;> 

lifitK ^'' •■ rbun-ht* w-?' -'■''■■ ■■•■" 

t h m ' ' and ttic ' 

|fb;tn.. T til. l»-h : I 

rw (It) Uii:ir 
f thu church 
i h ■ A t'oli^viul*^ lti?liluiiuu \tttB been 
ilklii^ at WimhIIudiI-). nt'itr Cu}*e Town, 
M a Bctivr und ftln-icut ojK-ration. A 
I ktai tN**n orifaniTi'd in the Mohammc- 
1b and u^ Town ; and utlier 

, nn a > to) niH^uilude, are 

ifalcd \'f \i.^- iv.iilr'i*. iuii| /iihw. — Sft- 
1, ai ttt ITitnl JiiJ'Jcr, t,i lti51, 

ftaidb Mmionf. — Suroe time alH>ut the y^r 

|ttl, ihe Glatff^iw Miaiounry Soicty sent 

tSer. W. B. TbomfttOQ oa missionary, aud 



Mr. Jului Benoie as catedust. to accompany ft 
colony of jieoplc from Ghuwow, who went <»ut 
with tho intention of settling on tlic border 
uf KiilTraria. the Society boj/i'ng a door would 
be oi«.*[ied for missionary operations umoii(r tho 
nativeri ; bat the ressel which contained thera 
Knffi-Tod shipwreck, and the greater part of the 
company were lost Tbe miasiouaries. however, 
were sared; and the Government appointed 
Mr. Thompson as a mLiwioiiarj- to the Kaflres, 
in con^unelioD with liev. John Brownkt*. the 
catetliu-t, to be sapporled by the wKiety. The 
Mii!riic'U is located on the river Chumie" at tho 
rtaidenco of the chief (iaiku. Sm>n ufter the 
misBiou WM ixtablifhcd. Sicana, the chief of a 
Kraal near Kal River Mission, died. In tha 
morning of the day of his decease, it boiug 
SnbbatJb. he went to the place of worship, ana 
t*jld the people that God bail afllieted him 
with sickness, and that he should dio that day, 
resigning his soul and body into His hantte ; 
and advii-inp them to remove to the Tfochcr, 
as the situation of all without Cliridl was 
wrctolied. He died at the time signiflod, and 
all his ncople removed to the station at Chu- 
mie in June. It jdeasod the Lord Ut pour out 
his spirit in this wildomcse. and in June, 1823, 
five fCftfTns were bupticod, and thcr« wero aa 
many mure candidatoa. 

December 16, 1823, Rev. Mr. Bos aud his 
wife arrived as a reinforcement. At this time, 
the schools, both male and female, were weU 
attended, and the progress of the rhihlreu en- 
couraging. A priuMn< press waa iaoperotios. 
From the chieftt of diOercul tribes tbe mtasioO' 
ariia had received warm invitations to becomo 
their in.'it rue tors. 

In 18."10, n new and coinmodiou:^ church hod 
been built, which would bohl 400 jicrsitm, and 
not Itss than 300 atteiidanlji every Sabbath. 
Morning pra)-er was daily att^mled by about 
150 )H.'njunif, who were ajscmblod in the cve%- 
ing anil (luebtioned on what they had heard in 
llio morning. The wttlement was in a flour- 
i;4hing state. The Kafli^-a had built a gn^at 
number of houi«w for them*?lve8. and had well- 
ciillivaU'd gartleiw. A new station hnd been 
funned iit Iii)vc<lale. 12 mihs from Chumie, to 
which Mt's^r^ i^«8 and Beunie luul been as- 
-iieii And the GoHpel of John liad bwn 
I LiL-^latcd into the Kafln^ language. In 1833, 
attothcr station had been added, named Btii- 
/our. aud it was statctl that other aocieties 
were supplied with (Mn'tions of Scripture from 
their prt^w. 

The Ubuiffow MlMionary Societv was origi- 
nally formed of a union of memlios of uo 
KstablLfhed Clmrch of Scotland, aitd Dissent- 
er*. On Uie 9lh of January. IB38, tlii>: nnioa 
wan amicably di?solve<l, the raombers of tho 
F^slublwlu^l Church retaining the old name, 
aud the IfitMenters Lukiuir the name of the 
Ulasy:ow African Miiwionurv Scjcielv. nud re 
twining the statiottJ of Chotoie, Iggibigho, 
Gkuthorn, and Kirkwood ,- while the old So 



46 



AFRICA, SODTEERN. 



ciety took Lovcdido, Bnnuhill, Pirrie, and 
Kwclcha. 
On tho 28th of Febniary, 1643. the mission- 



Lovedolo hare been conTcrtetl into a garriK^ 
The eemiimry is occupied by 200 soldiurs, iriA 
couimut^riaC atirl inilitiiry sturcti. The ynJh 



ery brethnm nt Lovwlale formed thprnstrlTi-sj of oiir hoiwra arc loop-holed, oud oar girdoa 



into a session, for Uie purpose of coDdacting 
the ecclesiastical afliitrs oi the ^tstion. At 
their first meting, it was rewjlvod to olwervc 
the first Monday of tho month as a day of 
pnijtr for the exti^naion of the Redeemer's 
KitiKdom, and at the tnorning and eriminp 
Bcrricc of Omt day to direct tho attention of 
tho natives to the subject. On the I8th of the 
flaaic month, Jiicob, one of the yonng' men of 
thfcir aaninary, profcsaiug to aeo himself as a 
lost and ondooe nnnor, and to put confidence 
nlone in Christ, woe rocciTcd as a candidate 
for baptism. 

At liovcdale, public worship is kept up both 
on the Sabbath and week days. Fonr moctr 
tngs are held on tho Sabbath. On week days 
there is a meeting at sunrise, and in the evening 
the peojjie nre calle<l top^ther urid exaininwl 
on the ^flsage read in the maminu'. 

At Pirru tiie chnrrh wns enlarged, Mr. 
Kos, tlie Tnissionan', building the wulb. his 
son joins the wood-work of llio mof dnririff 
bts Tacfltion, native asistants did tlie plaster- 
ing- and built the seats. Mrs. "Roes f^\&xcd tho 
windows, and tho native wotnen laid the fl^mr, 
which was of elay. and whitowtL<^ed the whole 
within and withont, coloring the inside with 
yellow ochre, which the school girla bronght 
two miles. When nil Immls set to work with 
eqnni alacrity nnuii the Milrittial building, how 
eoon will iLi wall? ro nnl 

The fitalion at kwefelta wa:^ ntraiidoned, on 
account of tlie oppresaive conduct of a na^vc 
diiof. 

Arier the divUion which took place in the 
Ohiirch of fcJcotland in 1843, the Glasgow Mip- 
sionary Society became merged in the foreign 
nlission Bchemc of the Free Church of Scot- 
land ; unil it» rnisHiormrif'S all b^inj? in South 
AfVica, were placed under tho care of the latter 
body. Tljc vuto of dissolution and tranider 
Wtt9 pawed on the 29th of October, 1B14. At 
tho time of the transfer, there was a raLssion 
seminarv, valued at 20l>0?. to 3000/., free from 
debt, with twelve or fourteen native youlha in 
pn.'paratinn for the miuiptry ; and mme of the 
pnpilfl trained in the A^mioary were ei^oged in 
communicating Chriatian knowledge to their 
countrymen. 

The' mission continued to prosper till the 
breaking out of the Kaffre war, in 184fi, when 
the tniasionarios and their people were obliged 
to fleo, some diking refuge at tho Kat Rivw 
srtlleniont, and some in other places. Mr. 
Gowati returned to Scotland, nod Mr. and 
Mrs. (Jnrrie reimired to Cape Town, to labfir 
among the coloniatft. Mr- Gowan thu3 do- 
Hcribcs the dcsolatimi left behind : " Uurn.shill 
sttition h deslroyod. »nd nevcral others have 
been burncti. iromo of the mie^ionari«6 nar- 
rowly fscnped with their lives. Tho hooscB at 



converted into cattle kraals." 

In l&4d. the misRiunorics were again at thv 
poets ; and at Lovedale. wherv they bad bon 
for some time, every thing was fi^l of hope. 
At the other etntions, things presented a aid 
appearanco. Tlie loss occasioned by f* 
was about 1.258/., of which the gov. 
rojiaid about 189/. The personal losd lw ux 
niuwionaries wanorerfiOO/. In 1B49, theiOBii- 
narv at I^n'cdale was rcojx'ued. with tena 
nutn'c and ten European pupil? ; and theOoT* 
emor of the Culnuy had granted 100/. per 
annum towards tho cxiiense of the aemtaiuy, 
and 1 2/. a vcar to each native tcft^er, oftg 
leaving the inFtitotion. 

In 16.S0, Rev. Mr. Maefarlinc mokes tiie| 
lowing comparison of the prcficot with 
nasi: "When our niis^onaries began t„ 
Iftboni, the Kufii% language bad not been 
duccd to letters. The Scriptures, Cat 
svhooi books, and other publications are 
trauiflated. Native husbandry waa condn 
with wooden instmmenta instead of iron, i 
was unworthy of the name. Now, whc*t j 
barley arc grown in loxurianoe, and oxen 
trained for the plough. Polygamy was al 
universal, and the women were treated as I _ 
beasU. Now, Christian fcnml«i refujB to 
marry in such circnmstancee. lltey dres* in a 
becoming manner, and some of them eai ! 
bread l^ the use of the needle. 7'hc:i 
was little or no Sabbath K-yond the iv-: ;i 
premiiKa. Now, the Sabbath ia gencm'';. r^- 
iipccted over the district. There ore prnlvihly 
a thousand native ClirUtians in the di iri i, 
and theflc arc. in many cascs^ educated, and able 
to instruct others, I'he worship of GoU may 
be heard fnmi many a Kaflfire huL The nauvs 
mind has b«en fuund equal to any ordinary do> 
grev of culture. Doth eoqs and dnughtcra of j^ 
the missionaries are cmplo}'ed In tite 
All ia full of hope." 



SaUiMt. 



BvBiihUl. 
Ptnta 



Totftl. 



I 



KM 
2TB 



«6S 



1U0 
ISM 

4Mft 



TTOJ 
MM 

&:76 



23,»3i 



In 1852, Mr. Roa» and his aasistattt 

eomiK'Hei], for the fifth time, to leavt* tho ) 
tion at Pirrie, on account of the war. The i 
of the brethnm ivere laboring under 
difficulties, yet with cncouragmg siueco 
lliere were then 21 candidates for baptism i 
Irfivcilale. The foregoing table will show 
state of the misBioD, at the several stations, ] 



AFRICA. SOUTHERN. 



47 



ISiit iMforc the war ; the retarus eincc the 
VMUBplioa fif Ihr miistou, bciagr very tncom- 

C l mgov African Mnaarurr^ Socittij.- — 'fhi- 
Uy w niUlvv bHlsUiibi, in the cmntiii't fir 
iMfftnfc^ will bofriniiirtff to be colled in r^mi- 
actiaa at ChniDii-. in 1843. At Ig^ibi^ha, 
ii IMl. fc man «h1 two iromcn, nfXcr beirii;; 
.^aiv tte doflCfft obwrration fdr four }x'un, 
«trtbaptu»l, u the first froits of mtsiooary 
Ubw ftl iIk' stutium ; and soon aftrr, aDolbcr. 
vW ««s A ckixiidKte lor buptism, dit-d. saying, 
mof faalHt words, " I lore 1o no to Jcsns ; i 
«ril ii^5«elf npon him. G<m1 luu tuugbt mc to 
kfar in Kim wtiu died far inc , I di^in^ to 
wdl witli bun for CTcr. 1 un going bome." 
TWtex v.lui^iian nuurift^ was cdebntod 
Aii jvmr ; Uio bcatbeu faucr of tlio yoong 
VMMft. After mocb pemiisiDa, with prayer on 
fc Bftrt Hf tlic TouuiE man, rulinqaisung the 
Wm praemt o^ cuttle, wbich was regarded 
»fthalJhna*b clmjii. i*hu opcmtioBB at Glen- 
%Bm Wv« been suMpoodwI. 
Om adtoob BTo fitipported. at thef« stations, 
A Ike intanoiuiricji lUm'ratc in tbe viUagcs 
.tenodl mtis|; tbc^ ij^'iu-liing^ places; and 
Ikg^ mj^ VfA A few of tbcir caodidiles for 
Wpii— ooDT from these schools. As u jl* 
IvOatiaa isf the cntolty of h^thcnisin, they 
■&■•(• ifcst « ^I, who was aflUcted vritb cpilcp- 
•elt^wa? left to fiUl into the fire, bnrniu^ 
Imrif wyrmiv, ami wa^ tlien rarried out and 
kAiit^ Gc-JiL whojp, ofUT reiuoitiiiig iti tliis 
AtfliMi A day or two in great distress, !)he 
fliincilMl off ood deronred by the wolves. | 
~ lUi Buitiun omtinued to proisper, till tbe 
taiiUu not of tlie Ksffirc war, ia 1846,wlien 
ti lUlk'na nl CJjnini^' nnd [prgibigba were 
Im Aod laid in niin«. the uii-4<ioDarit3t (Aking 
li4bg»At i>.- iv' • itiv.r scUKmenL On the 
tSlA «f J !iiti wx'iuty tran^^rvTTvd its 

■MiiiaArv ^ M to Uic care of tbe Uuitod 

hakirti-viaii Charcfa. 

1W Kaf^ VAT has been mo«t disastrous to 
fti HMt i ftttf of this society. It bad laid 
■Mto th* int>*q'>n F^ut1on5, scattered tbe miA- 
'^. ftuspcnde<l entirely the- 
iind dum; an amount of 
' lAogntTatwI. And 
v> abandon the ticld. 
iw the wmdition of 
the war. Whether 

PWOVi:. . lln: ili-ofilors uf tbe 

iro no mearu of kncnvlni^'. 'IV-sc 
been gutherod from the Loudon 
Hsffbter. 



lis DO I 



1— 


1 

i 


l^rtukU. 


3 

9 


e 


F^ 




■1 
1 


e 'i 


> 1 1 


u 


so 


«iU. 


. 


« I « 


n 


eo 



F.,,,-A P.jw.., 1f,»,wr«.— The " .*4)frric 
' ' ih Purrs'' which was 

I"! :__. ... iL-i first miEi^ionnrics to 

.Sowih Atrica, to lubor among their rvragra 
conutrymt-n, toRether with Uie Hottentots of 
Wa^oumaker Valley, nrarTaltwgh. Biitthe 
larniiTS gcu-Tally Ix-ing unfavorable to the in- 
struction of their slavca, and the colonbrts beiag 
mkHiiiatcly yupplic^l with retlgiooj* tcadiPrs, 
tbcy. upon the adviu-e of I>r. Philip, dctcrmlnrtl 
on the ta^blishment of a mi»i<.<n iM-yimd the 
hound* of tbt; Colony. Mcdsrs. I>?iuuc k Hol- 
land. tlK-reforo, leaving Mr. Itis-Trix with the 
deHeenilanl;^ of \h'} Frtnch Refiij;tts, «!l for- 
ward ou tlie 9th of .lanoary, 183b. and wwe 
«»on after joined bylJr. F'hi'lip; and after vis* 
iling the vnrioaa stations of the I^mlon Mis- 
sionary Society, they determine<J to oatabliali 
themwlves in connLctiun with Lattakw, amoug 
tlio BecbiiunaF, where they arrive*!, July 24, 
1830, after n toi|«)mc jonrney of nearly ten 
wp*'kR, fri»m liftbelsdorp. Tliey imnicdmlely 
set about tbe Htiidy of the SichaaoA laii|;uHg« 
with em-h ardor, that they soflered in health, 
aod were obliiffd to relax tor sonjp time, for 
which puq>n«', tlipy visitwl Griqua Town. 

On the finit of September. 18.(1, Mr. Bis- 
tWdx writes from Wagonmaker Valley, that he 
was about to baptize ten slavwt, thft fir«t fniJtB of 
his ministry ; and that the Gospel hod wrought 
an advantageous change in the matmors of 
many. On the 22nd of January, 1832, Mr. 
Pellissier joined Ibc mueion at Luttakoo. and 
in punuianco of an arrongerai'nt. prr'\iiiii3iy 
mode. Tinted tbe Chief ot" the Babarootzrs 
for the pur^iose of establishing a new station ; 
but the design was fmstrated by Uie jenlnujiy 
of tlie chiefs ; and in this journey he hud « 
narrow eiicape from two Uons, by wbicli ho 
WAS pursued. 

On the 21st of March. 1833. another rein- 
forcement arrivtxl. consisting of one mtsmonafT, 
and one male and one fe^ilc Assistant. Oa 
tbe nth of February, 1832, the throe mission- 
aries ?et forward to renew tho attempt to ra- 
tablLiha niLseiion among the Uaharootaew. For 
tlirce weeks theypiuvcd thwmgh vast soli tmlrtt, 
whirh tJie want of water pre\'entetl bring cul- 
tivated; after which, they traveM mooydavs 
through an inhabited eouulrj'.lill they rwiehi'd 
Mosika, th^ reaideoce of Mokatlo. the chief of 
tbe BuharootccB. The town consisted of a 
great number of hnt«, scattered at the fool of 
two high hills, forming a ehain of mountains, in- 
tereected with valleys. The chief received them 
with anparcnt cormalily, and on the Sabbath, 
orderca all work to cease, and the missionaries 
oddreRsed a eongr^fation of not less than 
eight hmidrcd penons. Bnt, in conse<(uenco 
of the jealoufiy of HoselckatBi, king of the 
Znluf, to whom Mokatla was tributary, they 
were obligoj to leave theconntrj- ; and,' bv the 
advice of I>r. Philip, tbny reTi«.iro<I to Mvtito, 
seven or eight miles from* Old Lattakoo, Ma- 
hmii, the chief; having desired that missioniniei 



48 



AFBICA, SOUTHERN. 



atumld settle there. Moselekaisi, hariiig mmle 
-war aiMii ib^ Uiihanxitfcs, aud driven them 
0»itof tlicir coiiutrv, moiiy of thuu wltc ImnteO 
out in Uiu desert, Ly the iQissionaric^ and in- 
duced to settle at ibu nt'W station. Motito hag 
a gMxl ioipply of wutur, aud tlie land Ls good 
for cultivation. 
At Wttgoumakcr Vulley, in 1 833, Uiitc was 

auite nn awnkttiiiiig uinuiig the (teonle, and 
icre were uboui Ibrty who gave evidence of 
pii'ty. 'X1ie mission at Motlto vius at tbis litne, 
the advouu-ti guard, being uigbty-Ove leagues 
north of the colony, and no other settlement 
being >-o far in the interior. But the preepoct 
•eerncd diseourofring. 'I1ic misfiinn veas tstab- 
Itehed for tho special bent-fit. of a trilje of Be- 
ebuunos, culk'J Butlapls, ri':iJding ut 01<l I^t^ 
Ukoo. But, none of them bad a& yt-t come 
to reside at the etation ; and when the mi&- 
viouurii^. uft'.-r q fatiguing ride of two bour?, 
inhaling the sund wliieli Ibc wind raided around 
them, arrived at the miserable dirty vilitige 
of the chief, they were met with the great- 
est indiUereoct, exe«pt when the chief wished 
to a^k a fuvor, when the men would l>e sei'n 
rotiriag tu tbo roek« from all uuurtcru. for 
prayer! Yet, the geltlemcnt at Molito wa& 

Ctly improved nt the ead of the firit j-ear. 
teW iK'vplo eullectcd there were attentive 
to the Ciiupel ; schnols were ealabliiihc<d, and 
the chief neut his son and daughter. 

In IblVA, the station called Caicdon, a settle- 
muut 14^ ttie juncliuu iif tiie C'aledon and Or- 
ange rivers, was ecded to the rsocieiy by the 
XjOodou Miisiouary Society, and taken posses- 
eiou of by Mr. G. P. Fellisicr. But, finding 
that tho Bftijcsiunus, who hud Wen cultecteu 
there, had abaudcini.-d the spot, he turned his 
attention to the Biwhuanas wandering noiir 
Fhilip-jlis ; and a chief with 1,20U foiluwcr?: 
wa» iudueul to joiu him. Ja a short time, 
tlie apiJirarance rtf the sLilion waa entirely 
changwi. The people had laid out a greu't 
uumU-r of gardens ; and the inhnbitants at 
the station umguntud to about 1,8U0, nioet of 
them ButhipLs. 

Ou the 2c>th of June, 1833, a station waa 
commenced at Moriju, 54 Icncuca east of Cal- 
odon. near the rc^idetiec of afosliesh, the ehief 
of tho Bechuana Ba.%outofl ; and the chief 
(|uit hja mountiiin, aud settled with bia people 
at the station. Tlie plan of a new town was 
Bpecdily traced, and alt handit, old and young, 
were soou busied in collecting aud nrt'imring 
bamboorf, laths, reeds uiul rushes, 'JVy set to 
the work with vigor, and pursued it with alac- 
rity, until u new town aroie before their eye.-i. 
Tlw site uf the missiioii, wliich was teeured 
by n^uhir purehasp, was coiuudered to be the 
beat in the whole country. 

Ill 1834, a house of worship waa built at 
Motitn, aud the •' sound of the choreh-going 
bell," was first hwird in the valley of Moiito; 
five adults were baptized, uad the inhabiUwit* 
|<rcatly improved in tlioir coudition. J^Lohuru, 



having ofTentled Moselekatsi, whoBC po? 
dreaded, tiew from old Lattikix>, taking 
of hi.i people with him, »o that the Go 
reaching them by this mi.^ion was give 
Tlie inhabiUnifi of Caledon had incr 
2,500 ; and some of the people gave evid 
of being truly awakenea. llie prompt tu 
unexpected aasemblogc of so many \>^n 
there was comidcred as an event uneqaaled i 
the misBioua in that etrantry. On accooat 
the departure of Mahura from Molito, uj 
Mr. BoUaud not being required thcTP, hf eofl 
menced a new station in lifZH, at r>< 
18 leagues from Caledou, within th. 
claimed bv Moshcsh. The missionarti-i uL Mi 
rija hod Just began to preach tn the tiatil 
hiiignage. 

Iq I83n, a great change was visible 1 
Wagonmaker'fl Valley, and the bonti)''- ■" " 
colonijta to the iui^truction and b;; 
slavee was giving way. 'i'ho departu! , . .;i. 
hnra from tJld iflttikoo. hud proved advaati 
geons to Motito. iu opening the v>ay for man 
natives to settle there witbont fear. Th 
name of deletion was changed to Bethnlfai 
and tlie .staliou waa conadcred to be in^ a p 
raarkably prosperous coodition, with evitlpot 
of the s|>ecial presence of tlic ll"l ^ 
The first general conference of the 1 
rics, which they have continued to huKi iinm 
allv since, was held on the 5th of July, 1831 
at llccrsheba. 

Id 1837, a religious awakening occuftf 
among the Bassontos at Becmhobo, and tbo V 
bors of the last six months were bleieed t 
many eouls. A new station wils formed nmo^ 
(ho same |K>ople al TTtalxt BosiioK, by Btf 
Mr. Gotijelin, and another at MdMim^ 
among the Ligfiouas, by Rev. Mr. Danmft 
who wiis verj- cordmlly received by the pcopk 
the *omen presenting their rhildrcn to tua 
and Baying, " Come I tn-e your father !** 

In iV.Sf , the station at Motito hod incTMM 
ID population to 1,000 ; but bud beun tWIb 
witn sore trial by the pemrti and protracte 
illnere of Mrs. liemne, in view of which 111 
Lemue had prcscntctl to his mind the alteru 
tive of sarrihein? bid wife or the misston. ] 
he remained, herwos pcrsundeil fOic eoald M 
survive another seaaoti. If he h ft. ho feira 
tlmt the people, intimidatrd by Mahura wotjl 
be scattered abroad. At Bethulia 2S persn« 
were baptized. The odminislnilion of the w 
diiiauce was a scene of deep interest "Th 
audience, which had kept a profound silettoi 
because they fclt the presence of the Lord, I 
length intcrrnpted it to give free eourae t 
teat^. which the bccdc bcfon? them caJOt^ 
forth." After the baplwm of tho candldstcj 
tlH?y pnscnted their yonng children, to cfflMi 
crate tlu^n to tho Lora.in the saroH onlinana 
In the afternoon, the Church, with thia nt' 
addition, malting 48 in all, i»at down to the Xi 
bte of the Lord, llic converts generally wci 
faithM and stcad&Et, maintaining fa 



] 



AFRICA. SOUTHERN. 



49 



_ Kfm, and oifaff Kligioas dntica. Fiftj^vc 
wcv priiiwuiil oonTerts wen candidates for 
^^TTtion. mad tiiere wts ahont the nunc nmn- 
r liiqiiinn. Civilizattou alM> keeps pna- 
tbc gnspH. All who embrace the goflpel 
>!attl.«B mach m pufi>iblo, the manntTs of the 
onJisai. At Morija. Mo1u|ki. ddcst son of 
SMMhubwAodH " wu^ received as a 

nadnlitefor t>:^. ten others. Great 

]ivi|m> had bt-<. Li iiiii'j" iu the ob^'r^'aiicso 
i< IM SabbaLh, tliroughoDt the whole tribe, 
ud (Iw people were aoxions to loaru to read. 
ThA italioa waa also advanciug nipidty in 
taponal tkloga. The new irtatioD at Thaha 
Boiioa l« CD OD isolated hill of a peotago- 
m1 fam, about 400 feet hii;h. on the pammit 
r whadi w the iowiia of Mo«hcsh and Uia 
' MolUvchano, from which Tl villages are 
llie BaisBEoiian ii greatly cncoaragfd 
1% flff a^jftoarofico or thinra- Moshfflh«on a 
•■^1^ ^ chief inviting him to join him in 
J cxpe<lit)Oii, scat this rv-ply : •* Ho 
Inoraaotcr that there is a house of yirajer 
tbftba Bcaiou. I team there to make 
to oooaist in wi^om, aud not iu the 
: of catiie^ M; children at Morija are 
1 abead of me ; it is time that I should ^t 
At Boenheba, the fullowiiif^ 
, after a rigid examination, 42 were ad- 
I to Che cbtirch by bapti^^m. In this ex- 
Mr. lU)Ihi.n<I avaiti>il hiiattcirof the 
1 of aomc uf the elrier membere, who, 
I tktir knunletl^e of the persons brought 
Imuty Uuxigs by their qnestioiia which fae 
' 1 Mt Itave thought of. 
la ldil« B«T. Mr. Caaolis writes trom Tha- 
, on tbeeii^U) year aflor the estab- 
k af the miirion, that in his view, there 
Have periods in the missionary work : 
r Iha tet, the nalires manilest indiifer- 
I apAtinr, arising from i^iorauceoPtlic 
xt of the minionary. To remove this 
I ift this instauco, required fire years. 
1 era was diEtingiii5hed by a remark- 
ed the Holy Spirit, which en- 1 



I ricbed the chnrch with many enlightcnod mem- 
bore. The third period was that of thoughl- 
fiil. argumentutiTe opposition ', and ihia spirit 
hatl already begun to manift^tt itself; the losa 
of those who onitc with the church giving se- 
rious offence to those that arc wetldcd to their 
sin*. Thia was very strong among the villages 
around, and had manilt*t«i itwJf decidedly at 
other stations, espceiaJIy among tlie polyga- 
mists, who cannot bi-ar the ihoiight of giv- 
ing up their wives. The agad chief, Moka- 
chaiie wa^i baptized at this station, saying, "I 
have doQcao mncherll toMoahreh, by niy per- 
nicious counsels and Hatteriea, thjtt, as long as 
1 live, I shall not ccaK my endeavors to tvaw 
him to God by my words aud ray prayers," Per^ 
Recution hadmanifeated itself at some of the 
stalioiia. A yirang conwrt on the Hart river, 
wan subject to the bittej- oppo^tion mid railing 
of his father aud wife, and his Ufo was re- 
peatedly threatened bv the people ; but his re- 
ply was, " you may kill the both*, but you have 
no power to kill the f>oul." TJiia your a very 
sacceeeful attempt wa.s made at H.>vcral sta- 
tions 10 secure coutribulious fur the support of 
the gospel, the peopk, in their poverty exhib- 
iting great liberality. 

In Angost, lH41.*a new station wb.h formed 
among the Coranuaa at Friedau, 183 miles 
east of'Motito, by Uev. J. A. Pfrimmer. 

At Morija, iu 1843, an awakening spread 
far around the station iu more than 100 vil 
lagee. The membcTS of the church continned 
to make progress in grace. They wens simpte, 
afloctioaate, uuitctl and zcaloua. Iliere were 
al^t thirty, who were regarded as having 
truly rt'ceivpil the gospel during the year. In 
1851, Mr. Freeman, tlic ml*iiouary. stxyv, " By 
dividing 280 villages into 2» districts, 12,000 
Houls are j)lacc<l under the instruction of the 
word of Ood by meaus of native teachers." 

I'be latest intelligence gives the results of 
missionary labor, at the several stations of this 
society, as seen io Uic following table ; 



STATIOXa. 



r'a ValJcy, now Wellington, 



I BiT^aiou, 



13 



1830 

1633 

184G 

I83r» 

1843 

1833 

1827 

l&i3 

183 

1B33 



14 



6000 
2600 



4000 



300 
400 

600 



250 

100 
100 



12,600 1.840 I4&3; 810 



26 



15 



106 



41 



31? 



60 



AF&ICA, SOUTBSRN. 



they occupied thcnuetvcs in learniti^ ihe 8 
chuaiw la&ffUAjB:e, ttud in prepariDg » ma 
sjicUiug-bouk ia tlie Sitibelu the lan^tia^ 



Tlic Kafih; war occasioned so mncb dottrtic- 
|io» awd confoflion among Uic misKious, tUat for 
^veriU years no rcpurLt were rocrivod. Prcvi- _ 

Ottft Uj llii* time the mL-wUnia wiw generaUj iu a j sjxtkeu by ibe trilw; to which tl 
nrosperoiis htale ; cviUciirea c»f the prcseuce of TUu brt'llirttn destined to tlw 
w Holy Spirit upiKurwl at all the statiuiw.1 were dL'laiued at the Cape, in cniL-<-<iutDi.e • 
aodaddttintis worv'Tturly ntadcto tJt(t<Jmrt:Kui. | ii war between the KoffrcB and the Coloajr' 



TTie charch members j,'uv\* grutifyiug uviduDce 
of pit-tj uuiIiIhL tt:t[i|>L:ititiu, oud in xauay io- 
atttlict:^, |jcrsc4;tttiuu. Muuy, even of nou-pro- 
fesBon, were abuulonioK polygumy, uiul otiivr 
heathen ooitoiua. Civilixiition wan gt-tx-rolly 
odvanciDg, the scbiwla )>rcwp«jroii& niany Leurn- 
iog to read, outl Uio work of translatioD and 
pniiliiig llio scriptures wna going forwarij. 
UuJiV also biul died iu thu triuiupbt of fuilh. 
In 1*846, a ucw Mtatiou was (:8labliahed at 
Carmel, betweeu Uetliulia and I3«cnbob«« for 
tlie traiutu^ of natire schoolmostcn. An 
awakcding Itad taken plaoe among the youth, 
and eixl^^n uf them wore candidates fur bap- 
tifiui. At BethesiU, in lb5l, the brothrwi say, 
" Ni'vor was our si/iritual horizon moro encour- 
aging than at {jroMint Some jouug |iersou8 
have been awnkuned.' At ThabaltoNUuu the 
gtattou had been greatly diKturbcd by puliti- 
eal commotioufi, and by tho cotidact uf the 

^ three soud of Moabtsli, who had rvuotutced 

i their ]inrf»<^OD of thu g(icc[^>cl. 

On ttomu of tlin jmiiitH untbraccd in this t»> 
ble. tbe rvtumg arc imikcrfcct ; but enough ap- 
neon to sliow thut the labors of thin teocieiy 
Auve been quite sacces^ful ; und from the vx- 
Muizmtiou we havu given tlie Kubject, wu think 
4^ number mlmillcu u^ cummuuieuutB may be 
ie|Nurd(-d tu giviug credible evidence of pie^. 
It 1105 l>ecn the practice of the miauonariev to 
keep them standing a long timo w c«odid»t«a, 
after profetaaug conversion, before admitting 
them to the church. 

Ataeruan Heard. — In 1834, the Board re- 
solved on a mission among the Zulus ; the 
design being to eatabliiih uuu miNfiou among 
the maritime triU-, uniler Dingaan, near Fort 
}fatal, and one iu the intcnor, among the 
tribe of which Muselekutsi was chief. To the 
former were tlcttiguated Rev. Alcssra. Aldiu 
Qrout and George Champion, mtsjronarMStOnd 
Newton Adams, M. D., phxjsiaan, with their 
wives ; and to the latter, Rev. lUcaars. Daniel 
Lindlay, Alexaud(»- K Wileoo, AL !>., and 
Henry I. Venablc-, mtmonana, with their 
viret). They sailed December 3, 1834, in the 
Burlington, and arrived at Capo Town on the 
5tli of l\brmiry,1835. Tbo brethren devUoied 
for thu interior commenced their journey of 
1000 mi lew, on the 19Ui of March, in IhrtK; 
Urge wagan», drawo by Iwelvc yoke of oxen, 
accompanied by Ucv. Mr. Wright, a mi»- 
BOnary of the London Society, residing at 
Griqua Town, which place they reached May 
16, 4fi dayi after leavmg Coih; Town. Here 
tbcy were detained five mouths to recruit their 
Wttle. They were kindly and hospitably cn- 
tertaiued by the Engltah outtiouanes; and 



their route lay through Kafiraria. luu 
wliile, they were euiplujed in mi»ioaanr latM 
at Uu> Cape ; and the church under the cat 
of Rev. Dr. Philip presented U«m with £4 
to defray their expenses. In Joly they tail* 
fur Algoa Bay, uuar Itethelsdorn ; and loavioi 
their wivett at Bethelsdoq) and Port Elizabetl 
with the miasionaiieg at Iheee places, th«| 
sailed from A Igoa Bay, Deoember 7, and readw 
Port Natal on the 20th. About 30 whit 
men then resided at Port NatAl. as hnnta 
and traders, bj whom they were kindly rcceti 
od, and furnished with cattle for their wagoi 
A fortnight brought them to the residence i 
Dinguou, aboat 160 mileB from Port Nata 
The cliief oooseoted that tbey shoold oome to hi 
country, but propoaed that th^ ahoidd Gn 
slop at Natal, tul be should see the cAi 
of a echtx>l which they might open at k 
place ; to which they consented. }i1t. CI 
pion was left at Natal to make arraogeaeal 
and the other two returood to Algoa Bay A 
their families and effects. On their azrivi 
Mk. Grout wuij found to be ill bcryood hope i 
rocovery. bhe died of coiummption. oa th 
24th of February fullowing, full of faith, aa 
r«joiciug that she had l>oeu counted i 
to leave her country and homo on snoh 
rand- 
January 22, 1836, Meava. Uodlay aadTll 
nal^e proceeded from Griqua Town to iM 
ModMdciuUM, and reached liis place aboot til 
middle of May. I'he chief gave his co«M 
to their commencing a mittion among hi 
people ; but Uieir impressions of his chanira 
were uuluvorable, and the cxttml of his tn 
tor^ and number of biti itfople fell abortl 
their expectations. The munion was oev 
menoed at Mosika on the 16th of Jane, 1831 
But having entered their houites before lib 
mud floors were salhcicully dritn), all of thM 
but Dr. AVilson were attacked with ferer, afl 
Mrs. Wilson died, after being sick ci^ht du 
The Borvivors were afflicted with dtftreotfl 
rheunuktism for three or four months. Ai 
they hod scarcely recovered, when the Dntf 
fanners, ha\-in^ been plundered of their cati 
by MoficiekuLs], invaded his country, dostroyi 
foorlccn villages, slaughtered great numbo 
of hii( people, and carried oflT 6000 b«-ad 
cattle. Tlu^y threatened to renew tbo atta<j 
and advised tlie mUsionarieit to leave the ceM 
try, which they did, taking their course cm 
land.tti juiu the hrelhren at Port Natul, whe 
they arrived July 27. 18.H7, after a jminicy 
t4iu weeks, in which they traveled not u 
than 1300 miles, over the worst roods 
seen in Afrim. 



iio, am 



roods thy Ij 



AFRICA, SOCTHEHN. 



01 



34«8WLn»-.mi ni'.^i'l^-TnpionnmJDr.AHamji 

«rfwd w at Port Xdta], on 

•e3lntr>i ; ' 'icraun {Tflvc th(?m a 

•ardbil rec»T3(ion, with |«^nni.*sioii to form a 

mioa »t nl9 capital. Mr. Champion van 

Miard in the intt-rior station at Ginani. 

A*M mi'lw^y Vtwvn Xatal niiH the chief's 

'^ (o Uialazi, 6 milert from 

Oroat in dirMo hui la- 

B5n vrifci^t-a ifip TITO. The king (;cnt wvpn 

l^ltnid few hoys to be tftogbt bv the mi.<)- 

' dmrtoL At tho end of eight or nine months, 

III. Chunpinn had ten boys and iKenl^r To* 

mim ttniKT instractioD, with a congregutlon 

•■ <be Bftbhfttfa of About 200. But the dcs- 

rie powtr of Dinfraan, who hold hb Hobjcrts 
tkji-^i slavttTT. Mtia II {teriooA obstacle in the 
' «»f. I»T. Adtiin'* liii-l iihont fifty children in 
liiKboo(,besidfH a morninj? cla't? of athilt*:. 
An AililHilh ^hnnt for ndulla containo<I 250, 
, md ll*t r ' indor tho cjirp of Mre. 
Aitma, 'i.' I She also instructed 30 or 

[•Mftnika tTir-- n wrk in scwlnif. T1ic3ah- 
I Wl La B| .u Ra tion wiv" a*Hrat 600, n«»finb!pd 
ifttleih^Qf « ■■"■■' •'^*' Fourbnj-s were 
[Mxn ap boor'i i The prrat lind 

• aeC op at i_ t two or three elo- 

iilar^ books pnntixl for tli« schools. Mr. 
Am eonuneneod a Matlon at the fllovo 
I Ihfp, IS ailcs iK>rtli-w[<st of Natal, und Me!fT<i. 
I TiHUe and Wilfon, at KJancfczon, 30 m\\v9 
yt ftoo Port Natal. Mr. GroQt. with 
rfcianfadoQ nf ihr- cnmmitO'c, retnmed tn 



[ihfUtod RUf 
kniM«>4 ti 



'iwn mother- 



ial^i, procrN?.lcd tnwani 

^»^ ."■- — ; .-;'.honj;h LMnpaon did not 

tMa Jari«fi(rt]on OT»*r the territory, they 
kq^t ll irudnnt tft |>nfn his cntwent ; and 
fcpOii perpncr, they sent their rovertiflr, Mr. 
whh a mnnDcr of altrnfmnbt, to con* 
Jwt Ijrfin^', flotoe of Dinjraan'H eat- 
b»»o narriM o(f by a party of MantalK 
" %M hftcr^ I>itiirftftTi rerinired Ilatirf 
Ihe cttllle retuni'd before he woold 
itli them^ and b*' »■ jiiirsuod 

nf marandnr, an*! Im* nil- 

it bloodfthrd, and i'_^ .m"! -^.Ai them 
IXanaBla capital, nilli nboul 00 nf h'& 
( ^m9t Ikrt? aaT<> "''"•■'" •^"'i'" arrival, were 
fly kU- ■'< death. At 

y tloML, a pari} were sent to 

the boere at Iht-ir ■.'uompmint ; by 
*inwi(fvrr, althoTiph niirprised in the 
wwe repuI^Lil. The fanners now 
r ftww^. and with the newly arrived 
mad whlt«« and Kottentotii at Port 
%rvA tn flttnclt the trencheroiM 

(wfari-" -■ ' '"Tcdtn retire; 

Mr Tt NhIhI to 

* difc ~cO«r- ■ . ftfliled, with 

BallM, for IVi on the 3<Kh 

lly this ■. .- -,,liteou« Pro\n- 

I k*d made ft 'nigairaiul of MoKlekatsi. 



Four 1'"'-^ '" "ns attacked and pltmdered, 
afler tli up of the iiiirsioii. 

The /:.. ■. ictorimw in a pitched bat- 

tle with the people rcsiiline «t Natal, mid on 
the 23d of April, they invotlcd that place, and 
Mr. Lindley left nn iKxird a ves*el, ttn<l after 
visitinif Dolagoa Bay, joiuftl his family and 
associates at P'tH Klixabctb, on the 22d of 
June. The war contihuing-, Mr. ViMiable r^ 
moved with hl-i wife to (.'ape Town, aijil do- 
Toted bim-celf to evangelical labors among'st a 
dwititate cla^w of it< inhabitants. They after- 
wards rftnrDod to the United ytates, ami Mr. 
and Atrs Champion 9oon followctl. The for- 
mer, at their ovra retiuest, received an htmoro- 
bio discharge from the service of the Uonrd. 
The latter waited, with the hope of being ablo 
to return ; but his wife'n health had receti-cd 
fnch n shock from the hartlfhips she hod cu- 
dare<I in Africa as to g-iro little prodpoct of 
that cherished hope ever bein^ realized. After 
lalHtrintr st;veral yenni in the ministry in this 
country ho was attacked with a pulmonary 
complaint ; and having' visited Santa Cniz. in 
tbB W«'t Indies, with tlie hojw of Wm^ hctw- 
Hted, he enteroJ into his rest, at the ajie of 31. 
nis life wnA one of rare con.<ecratiiMi to the 
canjic of Chri.*!t. Posaeasinjf an ample fortune, 
and the esteem of a most n-spectable circle of 
friends, he left alt and enteriw on the miwinn- 
ory work : and his fondest desire to the lost, 
vrttR, to rcj-Time his missionarv labors, and Bpeijd 
his life amonff the degTn<fcd Znlna in South 
.■Africa. His wife, after a few years of snlTer- 
ing, followed him to the prave, Iravinjr a son 
nn orphan. Mr. t^hampiotj. hIVt pr'>vidtng' 
forhi.5 family, left the residue ofhiBceTnte to the 
Board. Dr.Wilson returnrd to this cnuntrj-. und 
afterwards joinwi the "Wtst African Miswion. 

Tlie (Colonial tiovemmont resolved lo take' 
military pospcamon of Port Nolal, ntid the 
born* pained a decidi-d \idory over Dinffaan, 
and tribk his capital, and drove him fVoin his 
dominion?. Um[>andi. the brother of Pin- 
caan. to save bis life, as was supposed, from 
the jealous craclty of hi9 brother, wiilulrew 
from the Znlii territory. "Bvonp joimni bv a 
mnjiiriiv of his people, ho was ileclared kiDK, 
lefL'uictl Din^aan in a bloody battle, and com* 
(►elle-i him to fiw. 'ITie Dutch aftCTwnrds 
rbni^ed I'linifaan to a preat distance. 

Mr. IJndlry and Dr. Adams with Mrf. 
Adam.", retamcd to Port Natal on the 12th 
of June, 1839. Mrs. Lindley wtw detained till 
antoran, by the illrtc?.^ nf one of their children. 
Meanwhile, the Knpr»h withdrew their mill- 
tarv fitreo. and left tlie boers and the natives 
to fhemselvra. Mr, Lindley imme^liateIy com- 
meiiced hia lahora for the intellectual and 
spiritual jiood of the emiprants. 

Mr. (Iroiit rctnni«Hl to Port Natal, from the 
Mnite^l States, with Mrs.fJroat.Jum-rtO. li^O. 
Bv this time, a conRTCpafion of 500 had been 
collected bv Dr. Adams at Umlazi. with a 
Bible class, and « iJabbath school of 200 chU> 



52 



AFRICA, SOUTHERN. 



dreii. Hr. Groi^t accompanied a Dutch delc- 
gfttioD to the rn=i<lencc of Cmpaudi, und ub- 
tnincd liis pemiiwioii for the settlemeiit of a 
misjiimnrv in the Zulo coantrr. Passing by 
Ginaiu. where Mcs!»rs. Grout am Champion for- 
merly rtsidttl, thev fouad the buildiuga burot, 
ami the place eolituir. A fitation was aftcr- 
iruriU foriniHl in tho /uiu country, at ajilacc 
called Inkanytzi, which means a >f(ir. Tnirtj- 
aevou villnges ncn.- 50 iit^nr this place that 
their inh»t)itAnt>s could be collected for woreliip 
on till' iSabliaUi. The attendance on preaching 
at lukanyczi vros alKMit 250, and nt Utnlazi 
about MOO at Iwc) different places. Each titu- 
tioii hud a bchool of about fifty papUa. Mr. 
Adaui8 had a «K'hool for girk once a week, and 
a ^ra,>Tr meeting for adnll females, both clasKS 
being instructed in needlework. One of tiie 
women gave eviih-uce of having been born 
apain. The oiL^ion, np to this date (1841) 
had printed &;'>,3Bi) pagU4, more than half of it 
portions of the word of God. 

Mr, Ldndley. at his own roqoest, received a 
di^miLibion fnim the w^r^icc of the Hoard, in 
order to accept tlie appointment of minister 
of the Beforroed Dutch church, with liberty 
to rcsuinc hlii connection, sliould unexpected 
changes render it expeilient. 

Al h'ligih, the interest and confideDce of the 
people In the mission awakened the jealoufiy 
of Umpandi; and some of the pcoplo being 
aoniAcd b^ those who wished to obtain his &vor, 
of forsaking him and attaching themaelrcs to 
Mr. Grout, Hcntenw of deuth was jjasacd Hpon 
them, txifore they knew unytliingor the mutter. 
At ilaybreak, on the morning of July 251h, 
1&42, it wiut aniujunced »t Mr. Grout's window 
that un army was nmm the place. Not know- 
ing whether it was for him, or the irtople, or for 
both, he commended himself and his family to 
God. before leaving hia room. Ax\ attack was 
mode on the six places nearegt the mission 
home, upon those who had been most fricDdly 
lo the mission, with onlers to put to deato 
every man, woman, and child, in three of them. 
Mr. Grout immcdiatt-ly left the station, and ar- 
rived at Umlazi with hie family early in Au- 
gust ; aiKl about a mouth afterwards, he com- 
mcDced a new station on tho IJmgcni river, six 
miles north-east of Port Natal, where be imme- 
diately collected a congregation of 600 to lODO 
attentive hearers. Meiinwhile, the English, 
after some conflict wiih the boers, again took 
poeacasioa of Fort Natal. 

Since the overthrow of Dingaan, the Zulun, 
weary of hifii intolerable cruelty, and the 
scarcely less bloody proceeilinga of hiti succes- 
Bor. had hern escaping from their country and 
taking reFii^jo near Natal, until, including the 
country nbitut 100 miles back, Ihcy amounted 
probably to 24.000. 

1 n view «..f the repeated disasters which the 
miNiion had HXiwrienccd. and the discouraging 
a«peel of things, as well aa of tlte fact tliat 
the Weskyan Metbodista were extending ttvcir 



miwione nearly to Port Natal, the 
C'ommittc<c decided that it was inext 
to coDtinnc tho mission ; and on the SlstJ 
August, 1843, a letter was eeut, instracti 
the brethrea io brlug it to a close. Pr«¥* 
to thi», tho native settlements about Cl 
and Umgcni had received great ocoeerio 
emigrantfi from the Zulu country. The Co 
nial GoTemment, in creating a new colony al 
Port Natal, bad ollicially announced t'-' •■■' 
laws should be allowed, recognizing n 
tinctiou on account of color ; that no . 
should be made upon any peoj'Ie with' 
colony, by persona not acting under th'.- i 
tion of the Colonial Govcrumont ; and ibot 
jslavcry ghould not bo tolerated in any fnna;_ 
A conmuBBioaBr bad alao arrived, who decla^i 
himself in &Tor of jiving llio natives land y 
which they might form dbtinct ^cttlemeuQ 
of having one or more missionaries in 
ditftricl ; and of employing all the lufiueno 
of the Government to induce tlie people to 
conform to the instructions of tho missiooariQ 
Dr. A<lams hail abio visited Umjuindi, and! 
request had been received from him thi " 
colooi&l agent and a missionary mipht be \ 
to reside near him. About the middle of '. 
vembcr, Mr. Grout had about 10,000 
around him, withiu the exteut of an ord 
New-Kiigland parlsli, and a congregation 
500 lo loao on tho Sabbath, to whom 
prfULchcd in the ojion air, under n scot 
African wiu. 

It was in tliesc circumstances that the bwUi^ 
ron receivtxi tho decision of the Committee. 
They at once began making arrungemunlj for 
carrying it into cfFect. Ileoring of a vessel to 
«iil from Cape Town for the United Stat 
Mr. Grout immediately proceeded to H, 
place. On hia arrival there, a strong deabi 
wo.' mimifcfltcd by the mini.«rtprg of tho G<W 
and others, that the mi.-^iou should not 
given up. A public meeting waa 
After hearing Mr, Grout's statement, 1 
were made by Dr. Pbiliti, the American 
8ul,uiid others, and a collection of about $80 
wan rai.**ed to defrav Mr. Grout's cxTx-nses, ( 
he could conmmnualo with the i*rudent 
Committee, Dr. I'hillp T\Totc to the 1 
tee, declaring that, rather than have it ^ 
u^, ho woulii visit America to beg for the i 
sion. A joint letter waa also written, to 
same effect, by all the ministers at Cape To« 
Tlio Committee, therefore, could not hct' 
to authorise the miisionaries to resume 
labors at Natal. 

Before leaving Cape Town, Mr. Gront 
wived the most encouraging assurances ft 
the Governor of the Colouy, together with 
appointment of government miaaiouaiy- 
a salary of £150 a year, with tho same \ 
Dr. Adams ; aud Mr, Lindlcy waa ap 
preacher to the bners. 

Within the limitfl of the new Colon 
were supposed to be 100,000 Znlun, 



AFRICA, SOUTHERN. 



sa 



rimiiM-'diatclT Bronnd tiic two stations 

[ hy Mr. Grout and Dr. Ailumg. 

LAd&ms W1L5 oMained as amiaiitorof tlic 

I %t Cupc Town, OD the lOlh of Dwero- 

riSW, ib*' HTvins iH-iiip ittTfurnicd hy 

Lplulip und Ailamson ami Messrs. Faiire 

JBrown, cicriryroen of that place. 

Ob rvlaniiiig tu Port Xiilal, haTiniDr, !>y 

tfK nmod, k>?t the rt<;lil uP rf^omiu^ lil-^ 

lat roi^T^ui, Mr. Gront torned tm atteo- 

I B site on lliR Umrote rivw, about forty 

iDOrth of Port Natal, which be n^gank-d 

[■UBt eligible post-, well watered aad well 

', with good imible and [mslnn* frroniuK 

date of Octolier U\ Dr. Aduiiw wrote 

, J httd abont 100 under instructioa in 

lifeif fftiooU ; and Ibat thetv bad ucrc-r bet'ti 
Attn birfure, when the people, youui; and old, 
mtttiUsX eo much interest in lL>ar»iu^. 

Or the IBUi of April, 1846, Rov. Janu» C. 

S^fUt vfao had been for ub'jut Gve yc&t? 

MtM u nwtar nvrr a united and attached 

I pM^ iu T *\hiK^.. Hiilul fur this mt«- 

[^^ wit). md arrived Anffust 1.^, 

the miu'iu-- i.'i .l^'i':ary rill.>wiiig. Mr. 

^Mim. Lewis Gro-r riii : fr-im the 

I SUtM. Mr. AUiii (Jixut. r'di^'nfd bli^ 

nMDiDtBMRt from the GoTernment, (which 

Fnipidiaa wai kindlr accepted,) and r(%umcd 

[U»«Miiection with ik' Buurd, iu April. 1^5. 

Dt. Adam had previously declined the ap- 

faiatiDMit. 

Is l&M, fire conimL%ioner» were appointoil 
ly (he Colonial troverameot, fur lueating the 
aaaimi, and odjoillug tbetr relutlfins to the 
VBipwit farmeni, and aroi'mg ihein were 
Mmk. Ajiams and IJudley; It being' tbc 
viA uf the lieoteiunt-GovcrDor to cOocl the 
afr aod pemuuKut Kttlument of all cIosks ; 
WMcarMhtt cooutry lyin^ between tho allot- 
««9fii aatgDed to thu nulirfs, t» as to impost} 
smCniist upuu their migratory habits; tn 
^mih*f thfia I'J indu^ttry by cstabtiBhing 
avkcU ; and nUo to mak*-' pnn'i^iou for the 
w9 nDages that would i(prin^ up, and fr>r tho 
iMoaal maoasomeol and dL-feocc of tbe whole 
4Rtnri. 

U ^-pdeaber, 1846, &£r. Bryant wrote from 
Caiksu that, witlilu a few monthe prcvioiui, 
tin* ^d \x*iji unusual serioosncas among the 
■Uiw. aod IhaL B r<>w ga\% good cvidcntx! of 
pKT. The i't>o\'i!rt', of their own accord, had 
ataktiiAiffl a pmv'-: uiL<clin^ among thcin- 
•jna , •iiil. ill Ii'ivinUT, Mr. Grout wmtt^ 
fr —J !'-;■...'■, ihat the re-jwet and attcotiou 
iV.j listened to preaching, wu 
i aod ho woA not without a 
'ing marricfl couple hiul l>oen 
I Thnv w(TC marriM in a 
'uin8»>lnN tn aHaudon 
■■■ after Cliinnicncing 
Tiimily pniycr. 
ira of the Colonial 

....w.u% of land were made 

' ompriang about 25(10 Bfiuarc 



>,(>00. Tlio 
missionaries of the W*. ly npreed 

to leave their American Ij;.; t'bo ujidis- 

tnrbod poaseasioa of the coast between the 
Umtogelu and Umziukulu rivcra, a diatriucc 
of 161) miles. 

In 1847, fire stations had been cotnmcurcd, 
and permanent buildings erected at two of 
tliem. Dr. Adams bad rpmoveil twelve milca 
Eoutb-weat, to be uearer tho centre of hii* dis- 
trict, and the name I'mlozi bad be^n traa'^fcr- 
red to his new ubode, tho }ilaee he h'ft Ij^-ing 
called Umlazi River. H'va were admitted to 
the rbnreb at Unilozl. this ycir, oa the rcwilt 
of what .sccnied clearly to be a graeiouj? vutita. 
tion of tbe Holy Spirit There had also bwn 
wmc seriousness nt Umvoti, and a native 
helper hwl tlicre I)een adniitt^I to the chureh. 
Two or three boya, abo, were regarded as 
hopefol converts. 

Speaking of on c\*eninp schocil, which hc 
hod, of uxtecn regular attendanti:, Mr. Grout 
says : ** Tliey do uot eoufiiu! tJieir .-tludy of 
bookH to the particular honr appropriutrM to 
their instruction, but seize also upon other 
oj)p(irtunitif-s. Not unfrequcutly hove I ic-en 
them readiiur or studying at intttrruU of labor, 
or reading the ycripturca together, by the light 
of a wood fire iu the evening. I have seen the 
same young men and boyt*, t-ight or teu in oom- 
ber, aioging their morning and evening hymn 
of praise U> (Jod in their own tongue ; and I 
learn that one of their number i.^ m the habit 
of leading the pcpt in prayer at these times." 

Mr. and Mrs. Ireland arrived at Port Natal 
on tlie l.^tli of FL'bniary, \HiH, nr.ri were ftil- 
lowed Bo<m after by l<cv. Aiuhcw Abmham, 
Rev. Ilyman A. "SVilder, and Ucv. •lo?opb 
Tvler, with tht-ir wives. At this period, free 
schools had been estahlislied at t-acli of the 
statiouii. A few of the pupils could rvnd all 
tbe books which the miiuion had printed. 
Among the pupils wero ecveral pious young 
men, who, it was hoped, would become future 
helpers in the missimiary work. At Umtn2i» 
roost of the congi-c^atioD had committed to 
memory the Cntccham, the Commandments, 
and many [ladHiges of Scripture. The num- 
bers that aseembleil at the differ*'nt stations 
for public worship varicul from r>0 to ItJOl*. 
who lintenod witli great apjMirent int<;rest. and 
behaved with decoram during all the ijvrvicta. 
This di&position to assemble and lisUMi to 
preaching is an interesting fimturo of tlie mis- 
sion, and one that promii^es moch fur its suc- 
COB. Kvidcnces of the special presence of the 
Holy Spirit were manifested at all tbe dfffir* 
cot stations, this year, and twenty-four were 
received into the Bcvcral clmrcbeB. Some on- 
]>oiaitton had been manifesttHl, but it was »<liorV 
lived At the dose of 1848, which eccnw to 
be a later date, 15 memben< Itud been added 
to the church at Uudazi and 16 at Umvoti.^ 
PruTcr-meetings had been switaincfl at nil 
rtalioDii, and the native convcrta b>ok "^"^ 



64 



AFEICA, SOUTHERN. 



ihein witii & go^ iicgrce of readiness uid pro* 
wiol)'. And '». Grout and Mrs. Adiuns 
beld weeklr prayer-meoUu^ niUi the females. 
Tlui moaUdy concert was giutnincd at TJmvoti 
aod Unalazi, and was the most spirited mootinja; 
of oil. All tlic male mtinibors took pari in tl 
with dellg'lit and to edifioiliun. Atiout fifteen 
dolloi-g Imd been coutributc-d at UniToti, to 
Aapport a native miasionvy among thcMr des- 
titute countiTmeD, and about seventot^n duUurs 
at Umlozi. 

li«:ember 23. 1850. Mr. Bryant was called 
to lus rest. He was an excellent missionary*, 
and the close of liis course woa eniinecitly in 
keeping with Im life. Rev. tiautjb Ludwif^ 
Doune, a native of (icrmaDj, who went to 
South Africa in 183(>, in connection with the 
Berlin Miaidionflry Society, wag, at Ida n?qQCst, 
and (he Klruu^r recommpnilBtion of the breth- 
ren of the mL-vHion, appointed b^' the Board ; 
and in the year 1651, the misaion was rein- 
forced by Rev. Seth B. Stouc and Rev. Wil- 
liam iMellen. with tli(<ir wives. At tlio close 
of 1850, there were churches at nine of the 
eleven statinnfl, nnntaining 123 members, ^tfi 
of whom were received during the year. Re- 

eprouebiD^ was maintained at 23 places). 
free RcbooU, taught h^ {lious natives, 
contained 81> ]>upib3. lliu prmtiug press was 
in operation, and 377,100 po^os had been 
printed. The average population connected 
with each Elation was about 3000. 





The distance between the extreme fTttt1iwm4 
ia about om- buntlred and ij^y miles. Tla»4 
neurest EnijIiMi misHionary station U 150 wi^ai^ 
from the moat Boutborly station, at Umti 
lami. 

Dr. Adams died oa the 16ih of Septcml) 
1851, in the midst of his usefulaeea. Bis i 
woH pcfloe. 

Evidences of an luripient civOizatlos 
making their appearance at the older i 
At Univoti, for instjinca.', nearly eighty ;_ 
men, women, and children, come deccuUy i 
to the Sabbath worship, and some persons i 
iLiU^illy cliul wliilc at wurk diirinj^ the week. 
Three familica live in civili7A.il-Io(iki.i - li..iii^-^_ 
aud 80ino ^>vcn or ei^ht mitivc- 
aimilar habitations. ThMC arv 
iron pots for cookinj^, in place of i 
curtheu ; and arc m^ing tipadtjs, axe^, euu , . 
other kindred instmrnents of husbandr}- oud ( 
arts. One native ha.s ptocored a cart and ox 
and thiid take:^ produce to the market, Hon 
hold furniture ta imturally fuuud in the * 
prOT'cd houfcs, and clothing to.corrcbf^ad, t 
sumo have procared ivriting matoriaU, 
learned how to use them. 

The following table will show tbestale^ 
the mii«ion at uie clo.tc of the year 1851, i 
the statistics of the following year, which j 
not so full, will not nuUeriuUy vary Uie 
Biilt: 




ZULU MISSION. 



Native Afsistants ..•-.. 
Out.«tat;on8 ..----. 
Sabbath Preaching Pkces for Mii^ionaries • 
Week-day Preaching Places . - - . 
Avt'rat;e Sabbath Ctmgregutioa at the Stations 

Schools ■- 

MoIp Pupils .....-, 
Female Pupik - . - - - - 

Total 

Christian Marriajree . . - . , 

Chilli rcii Baptized 

Churches 

Members received daring the year - 
Kui^pcnded -..---. 
Kxcnmmunicated ..--.. 

Died 

Male Members 'm good standing 
Femuln ilo. do, .... 

Whole number of Church Members • 
CanditUtcB for admiaMOD - 

' Ur. Dabaa m»km It » nil* to go tnna kxul to knal ilt%, lUHlat u)<I fn^^lof to uw !>•<>(•«. 



AFRICA» SOUTHBRS. 



55 



Mkt churches h&To bera organized in th» 

Mil. <l» lvg«0t of which hiifi fifty-five 

■tell tad the mnalltft foar. Tho gospel 

PJinvba] OD tbr Sabbntli, and nt othtT timi'H, 

■lorfcnf th« tw-ilvr- «fiitiniw, and with ninre 

•■I ont-etationa, cither 

fheww'k. Snblmth 

b tL-''.i iir ; lul weekly mcetingB 

l[|riijTr wir! -imciion. Ki^fateen 

tMwwr r>i> iwu Niui fhochumhrs daring 

Tctr 1HS2. The rt'ihort of the nUssiou 

ftUo i>f twriity-flvu other caacs regarded 

m - liO|«>rul." " Snrb ia the be^imiDg of 

^kgk The vrrrk movca on u yet dowly. 

SB ifcB B^t is sprt^dini^ — knowludgo is in- 

tw riitg . Tbo foUow gT<juud ia being lirokeu 

' the «oed is fftUiD^', some by the vay< 

un OQ stony ground, ^mo amon^ 

tkiFM, ftfid KKM) OD good gTOUDd, OS in othcr 

wo of th« world. The uirat is not yet ; 

M h win sorely come. Tho Dumber of per- 

fm coBsUlatiiig the 8ftbbath congregationi} 

fit/km teoa thittj or Tarty q]^ to two hnndnTd.*^ 

In tb» rt|Mrt of his tttation for 1852, Mr. 

Ubfertvavks: 

"Wah MTeral of my church m*?inbor3, I 
tDattmi^ M I cvor have bwn, wpll plfrn^tfl. 
With aol, I ne ao cwwc to find Bcrioui Omit ; 
jid my o b arrr ii tiop and expericDce, daring the 
nil jfw j.?d to weakt'n my conB- 

aeon m ; ~ pruft^sinTuof thUpfople. 

TIrydn ^ ii cviilcncn as I cooM witth 

of a Hgn I of heart. And this tiacs- 

liiai«al«j lit i^D?, bos now become 

fafaiM : Ii allowanoo ouf;ht to be 

for li-.j. <i. iH'U in the Christian diarac- 
thnw? wh.t liuvc barely, and but lately. 
" frum the dopths of a traly degrading 

tttnoA Jtfintrmory Society^— Jn the rammer 
rf 1W9, Ihia w>ciot"y wnt to South Africa 
Ibv gr«lnat(fi r>f tht'ir Mission Scminiity, ut 
WtKU. They Boik'd iti comjuiuy with Dr. 
Kud toe miseioctariw of tho Paris 
ticQia after Ibeir arrival, two of 
LttckhoC and Zohn, eotered 
file Krrirc of two local awociations at 
and Talbogh ; but afUrwanb 
asMcinli'itia trnnsf-TTv*! their chapels and 
buildinfT^ to ihi- Rli-uish .^uriity. The 
two proct'dcnj with Or. I'liilip farther 
too thi! interior, and pnrchaseil tl») |iroperly 
rf ft bjpf, wnir tMnTiTilIiiuii, wliii^S fli^v nomod 
W^fftrthai. ' !' rit>,fH)0 

iovof htod, I'!, i 'I n mis- 

VM eofooy. WUni^vLT )ir^:iiiist.'d to siilwnit to 
Ito Rfvlationa rccrii*ed a pteco of luiirj, mid 
ill ia tbu crrdion i-r "'oi^ h^'U-w*. ffr 

n<it«l'^ t** ''h^'' -htia theft and 

— ■■ .*..!. in.- .jtuiily. and yi-'-' 
iiamiries. Tim? Fpc-^-i 
./ Alrit-fln WiipptTtl.i.. 
Ii ;iuUfnl furdeus. lookR 
: Ml iiiy. The new wtlleri 
iattmcuid in all surU of trades ; and the 



Aldf«t colonists already enjoy coMldnraWe pro*-! 
perilv. Mr. ZtUm eeloblishwl a similar colony 
in 1«44. in tho ne4ghburh<Kid of Kokfonlein, 
where he bonsht t>ft4 aorfa for tho sura of] 
Sil^OO, on tin; following jdun: Ea-^h family 
receives a piece of luml lorn house and garden, 
for whidi bo pays a rent of 912. Ilie n-nt 
pays the interest on the inonr'y wliich Mr. 
55onn borrowed for the parpow, in Cape Town, ■ 
and the flnrp1e<! is appliod to (lie liquidtiliun of 
tho princi[>a] ; and wncn the nr<'fH>rty iM.-wmea 
free, those fnmiliea will own tiioir plrict*. 

The Pntch boers call these colonio " hrnti' 
tuia," and arc very hofdilc to Ihcni, Ucoujw 
thciy iuttTferc with their designs of oppriwsing i 
the natives. Artisats, some of whom im- rtenl 
oot by the aoeietv, (wttle in thwe colonies, nnd 
instract tho nativea in the vorioas hniidiorafl 
occiipatlonji. The Institute of Wiippt-rthal 
maintains itself anJ nHinircs no a.<^aiiit(uico 
from home. A rtrict disciplino is kept up, 
and every one extTty himselt to t-nm n living. 
(lud to kivie off tha former hubits nf filth iind 
theft. But some of the l»i?rman colonl'itf*, who 
have settled nuionp them, have set them u bud 
example, and the society have determined to 
pend no more such colonints in fiitnre. 

In 1 830, three more mimionariiH were fiwit 
from Barmen, and 2 new stations were founded. 
Upeof them. calliM Kbenezur, at themonlhof 
Elcphnot River, was also an Institute. The 
other was at Worcest^. Tlie station at Khe- 
ntoer, being dependent for its fertility upon 
the ovtTflow of the river, often suBIth tieverely 
from (bought, aa the river Bometimtn does n(« 
overflow for six or »e\'en vears. There ar»l 
:)00 or 400 inhabitantit at lliis station, most of j 
whom are baptized. On aceonnt of its drought, 
this station would have been given up, but fiir 
the fact that it fiimishes an important. (>tar1ing 
point for the iutorconrw with the tcrritnricarf 
S':tma([ua and Dumura. Tlie society have alao 
stntionil at Saron, near Tulbi^;h and ut Kom- 
maggtw, in the north-west corner of Uie col- 
ony. 

At all the stationn, buildings for the schoohi, 
and chnreht^ and dwelling-houses for the mi»- 
ai'^arie^. have btvn crrctc"! : and everywhere 
a formal liiing in community has bfi'n org:\n- 
iBcd ; that in, in every mtasionary community ' 
there are chosen, from among Ihcbuptiail na- 
tives, ciders orpresbvtera who form the church 
RCffilon to the rainionary, and who maintain 
dLscipHoe over the commnnlty. CIctUb aad^ 
church officers are chosen, native aa^inlants or* J 
e<li]c:ited, who ejpecially give their aid in tbv 
«cho(il«. Miwiioiiiiry OiwociatioiB are ciitahli^h- 
ed ; and the people, though nearly all very 
jwor, contribute aco^inling to their ubtlily to I 
.!,„........,-* ,if their mini«ten». The pm^chiniy 

' lins nowhere enoounlcrod '■y-.t*-mi^ 
,, ..! iifrom thenalivfs ll]'-T.,><'lvi;i ; utid 
the povcrmneut has shown it 
port, very favorable to tlw? '■; 
miasjoniu-ieh Bat the bocra arv hitut i'oci of 



the miffiioDorics, became th^ rescae the do> 
groes trom thoir crnd oppreBsors. 

Until the jtar lf*40, ibe iniBaiouariea of the 
society iu Africa bod not odTaticcd farther 
to the north than Ebc'uczcr. Nuir to the 
bouiKJarr of Komuiuk'^'ux. Mr. Scfimelah oii 
eeteeui^ Gerinao missioDury, wus stHtiooixl, in 
connection with the fjondnn Miwionory S(^ 
eif'ty. At au eai-lier period he had beeu in 
NutnaqualaDd, on thu otUiT ^ideof the Orange 
River, and ho v-un now wc-ni out vilh a^i: 
The London Missionary Sociefy declined (o 
Blind him any oasiisUuts, because they hod g'ivcu 
up the weslcrn coa^ls of South Africa, to be 
occapio<) by the Uhonit>h Sociotv ; tlius 
Hchmitlen turned to tliis society, and pr&vod 
for fellow-laboren. The first brother sent fiini 
was KIeiai>(-hmidt, wlio went out to him in 
the year 1840 ; unJ in the following year, five 
othera went 

In the year 1642. three of the farethrco re- 
inured into (Irenl Nammiu aland, and as far as 
tlic (fopic of Capricorn, wlicre the l)0UDdftric8 
of Xc^oiand or Oamara close, opposite to the 
territory of the Yellow Xauiofiuus. The next 
year they were rollowe*) l»y Iwn other missiona- 
ries into Little Niunanualund; aitd when, iu 
1B48, the old tiehntelen died. Kouunoggos cod- 
linue<l lo bo occupied by one of the society's 
iniriHionurics. They haTC to the sou^ of the 
Orange Uivcr, in Littio Naaa^jua, tbrtc sta- 
tioiip, Koiuuiaggaa, Kokfontciu, and Pella. 
with several ont^tntiong. In tbeao are plau:d 
tbee miaBioDories, with eeverol native assist- 
anta. 'Hieyeurr}- on their labors among some 
two thoujiund Nama>.|iia9, who arc scattered 
over monv hundred mileti of these deserts, 
and, betiitfes their Nanmqua tongue, for the 
most part uufleiidaiid oIko the Dutch. About 
three hundred had been baptized in lti50. 
and the desu^ to obtain baptism vrasuoircrsal. 
The people are poor aoUiUlJiy ; but Utile gruiu 
is grown ; and for cattle littJe gras can be 
foood. The whole country is now Kngluli ter- 
ritory ; and thus it ia sure to happoi that the 
rapacious boere will lake from theswpoor people 
their lost wcUs and their ft-nile htripsi of land. 

Of the three brethren who proceeded into 
Ureal Xamuonalutid, two advanced to where 
the Zwokop IIowB into Whulc-buy, and forms 
the northern boundary of Namaquatanil. The 
third remained in the heart of tlie country, 
and built himself a house and a church near a 
beautiful fountain, and culled the place Bclha* 
ny. From Uiis centre he commenced his labors 
aU round, in a wide circle, whleb is lai^er than 
all Irehiad. But very few people reside in 
tbcsc- diiitricta. only some three thoudimd ; who, 
in order lo find food for their small cattle, travel 
inoeasantly from one pasturage to another, keep 
«ikag OS possible by their teivchers in Bethany, 
but must always soon pull down their huts, m 
order to set them up again, for a short time, in 
more citable localities. The miBsiunary. too, 
travcLj the greater jmrt gf the year, and' visits 



I all the separate parties in the deeert, i 
with each u few weeks or mouUiB, toacbea i 
adminbilers the sacrameuta, and then retur 
u^uin to the centi-e at Bethany. AVith each ^ 
troop is a native asistant. whu carries on the ai 
work of iostruclion in tlie absence of the niis- — 
BJooury. About 1000 were baptized in 1^' > 
whom, probably, the half fiurtake of the 1 
Supper. Tlie uiisiiionarie^ usually employ u.i lu- —- 
terj)reter, as the pronuueiation of tlie Kamv— 
f|im dialect is tow diflienlU IJul they harass 
already succeeded in fixing the languuge by — 
writing, and, Lcsidui a eutechiifm, they hat 
translated the Gospel of Luke into that longufl 
and by the assistance of the British and Fa 
eigu Bible fec-eiety have had it printed at i " 
Cape, and di&lributed among the people, 
largo circuit of the desert of (jreat Nam 
land is divided into two jiarls ; and a 
mis^onaty has beeu sent. 

The two misaionaries who proceeded in 
year l^-i'Z. to the northern bomidarics of Xom 
qualaud, met with a very friendly reeeplia 
fi-otti Joiikcr, the Namaqna chief of thai 
triet, who had dwelt before in Little Xi 
qaaland. and had there Iteen baptized. Tl 
were the uieaix'^ of 8iip])rr^ing the de^latb 
warDiTO whieh had hilliei-to been waged I 
twceu the Xamaquas and the Dainarus, and i 
establiidiiiig peuco. Upon IhiH they tiiongfa 
that ihe do<jr was o|ieneil to them to visit 
populous trilies thut live to the oorlh, towo 
the Niger ; but disputes in their own neigh 
borbof»l prevented all extension of miBBiouai; 
nndertakiiigs : luul, on uc-eoutit of ttu-in. th 
locality was abundoued tn the IVesleyans, who 
chiimed prior occu]mnej'. Bui Jouker witli 
his people have relapsed into the ubi'iniiiuLions 
of neatheuism; and they have U'couie the 
worst robbers and iiiurdercrs, so that the mis- 
sionaries in that district have no more dauger- 
ons foe than that Jouker, who formerly t4Vt at 
their feet. Directly after the miw^ioimritsi 
abandoned .Tonkcr's locality, two brethren 
were sent out to Uieir aid in 1845. ThtT now 
divided themselves ; two went forward into 
Dunuiralanii, and oneeiitiiblishrd alWhalc-baj 
Ihe station uC Scheppuiau^orf, of the highest 
importance for intercourse by sea ; and one, 
somewhat farther to the south, and towurds 
tJie interior, founded the flourishing Helioboth, 
at M)me hot springs whieh are pretty numerous 
in that dLstriel, and the country round alwut 
is rather fertile. The Xamaqua tribe, whieh 
hiu* settled tbero to ihe number of 1800 souls, 
is not conuK'lled, by the want of food for their 
cattle, to aieperse at every instant ; but n-Bidc 
m coiL^lantly that the chief and several of his 
priucipui retainers have brgun to build for 
thcniFclvca Htonc hnn.ses near the beautiful 
church and &chool, a thing hitherto unheard of 
in Xanuujunland. The congregation nunilHirs 
fom- hundred baptized fxTsons, and about one 
liiirdre<l paHicipant.<; of the Loi*d'8 Supper; 
and though it has existed only for a short time, 



J 



AFRICA, SOUTHEBN. 



5T 



fciiaaeitf the moett prospcrotu of tbo fnisni>o- 
1^ canmnidoa. The two elders, Uic four 
rfwn Uil dB&cootsBeB, discbaixe their olEccti 
iau (armplarr miinncr; pnblic worsbip is 
VRjn^plarl^ atU^xI*''] ; a strict t]i*<cipliuo b 
MUaMered. Amiil^t th^ tuiriMlU! o( war. 
9tmftn$Uig aroand, Rrhohoth Uas btlberto 
baufvom^ ofi a o«:>mniuntty oF pcACc. A 
■iadonw^ (Kaijciattoti has also been formed. 

ftetwo mwtiuiiurir-ji win. ri«nlved to pcao- 
tnte nortbwonLi iutu ItamAriilatid, anil to 
«Ahd \aieiy two uthur hrtilhrcD buve gone, 
km hail to sLnifrele with Toy great difiictil- 
tiMODnnj^ Ili(? rn^c anil wrap? lu^rro trilit^. 
mtlmt an iatcrpretcr oni] witltont aii>' a5U)iril- 
•■», they had to mofftcr a bingtiagc to which 
h^ w» perfect strangers, aiit) wblcb, from 
fll lMfPf !frr*«it«< of the people, soands unin- 
"st decree, and appears to 
It in iiitieotioiia. It woaU 

mat mo I'amuni langriaf^ is allied to 
Hat of tliQ Kafftcs. The missionariea hare, 
: unvpeaksble pains and labor, reached 
IpMnt, that thfj can both pnw-'b in the 
tfX, and tlicy have printotl mm^ little 
la it. At fintt thty kept together at 
■aestatfoD ; bat tlioy htxvf now (hr«* wpanit^; 
nttonu and will prnbablj extend them to a 
aWrorclp il- Fnin na the traveLn nudertaken 
luti|lar' V beyond Whale-buy to- 

««fa Li'. . . bare opened natlifi into 

Ikeintokir. In Oainaralnnd. thon;;u the ini»- 
nitfau caoDoC yet f^peak of the fmiLi of l)ie]r 
Wwn,th^ can eix.tdE of mooy lovely bods 
miUmamf. 

TUt nEivirm bos planted nn ol^boot, fur 

■la tWi interior of the ermntrv. On the 

Birthm l»anndary of the Cape oniony, not for 

' fiva the mi'MIe, lie the KarrcKi monntaiat, on 

I faaeilmintv . r w>iif h liven tribe uf Boatanb, 

J aa tkv ot! ' Kaffrw. that have been 

[«ipvatPd 1 kindred tribes, and have 

riwlfri'd ly and down for many yeafg. Among 

^bMtttritKs a miasioa hru liE^en commenced; 

5, amfvtnr lb*- Ba-tanlv (600), of whom 

Hia?*f br*Ti bj»|iii7xd; in 1847. araoufr 

^-^ ' ; whom alrea^lr 100 are 

tationa nre rolled Aman- 

* -n. Thej- would all 

^-ing prosperity, if 

IB* ?M-Mi- i> .., ,iii! not p(-uctnite to 

ife: :'.\ t/i drive out the tribes, 

aad ' __i_ir flue pasture lands for 

Ir mission waa tn a progprrom 

WftiiljrtO. V>f its ittrventi.vn stntionK, ten arv 
»itMa tbe Umit/i fif the ciilnny, four umon^' 
aa*. an<l tlin-e ftmoiii" Ibe nen-roa. 
nlorf, the ranst nrirlherlv of the 
ftuti . ...r WbuIijJi^b Tn , 

en . ' wo liiimlri'd inii. 

; front - ' '' Ortlieolli« r 

t»<i Ilrrtii. SI I H* ifl Rituatetl 

^hr ■' ' - - ' " .. . . ,, . :* . ;v Uarmen. and 
'CtatioD b oti« day cast of the 



Mime ptaop. Tbo following table, thoagh im- 
jjerfeet, will give a preUy e<»rn.H)t idea of tho 
eonditioD of the diflercnt stations : 



SxATioas. 



Slellenbosh 
Sarepta - - - 
Worcester - - 
Tulbagh - - - 
Maroa - - - 
Ebenezcr - • 
Wopperthal - 
Ammidelboom - 
ScLiotfonteJa - 
Komoia^^HLS 
Richtenfeia - 
Steinkopf - - 
Peihi ... - 
Bethany . - 
Beerriheba - - 
Ik'huboUi . - 
Kam - - . 
SchcppmanMlorf 
New Harmt'D 
Oljuubioguc 



1830 2400 



1843 
1832 
1830 
1846 
1834 
1830 
18-15 
1847 
1829 
1843 
18^1 
184i> 
1814 
184*2 
1845 
1B42 
1646 
1848 
1849 



400 
2000 
1000 
500 
300 
400 
800 
800 
400 
400 
600 
400 
300 
(iOO 
9<Ht 
400 
300 
500 
200 



13000 4,340| 1.647 



ftr/fu M'ssionnry Strjrf//. — This society 
commencwl operutions in i?outb Afrlrji in 
1833. One of tlie stntiorw first occupied by 
lis mloionaries wwi Beaufort. Some of thera 
went ttinon^f tlio Coruntiaa and Kaffrcs. Since 
1H3H, tliey have had Blations at Cape Town 
and Zoar. Its Htatiotw in 1847 were. Zoar, 
Bethel, Itembia, Emmaug, Bethany, and Prlcl. 
The number of ita mtfeionaries is 14 ; of bap- 
liBOil porwMis. 907 ; of schoiarB, 418. 

SWipffrtiin Proiatant Mistionary Society. — - 
This floeicty have receullv commenced a mis- 
sion near Port Natal, where tbey have sent 
four missionaries ; bnt we have no parliculara 
concerning their opcratioiuj. 

Tlie following tabic prescuta a j[eneral mua- 
mary of niiwionary ijperationfl m Southwn 
Afncn. The United Brothrea aad the Wea- 
leyaus do not dialingnish, in their reports, be- 
tween ordained miasiooariea and osBistonta. Iti 
several other rcapects, tbo returns are wanlin^^, 
htuviiip the tabic incomplete; but, in the niotit 
important partienlam, they are fto nearly full 
J vo u fair imprL-?«ion of tho work. Tlie 
■lies (if tho Society for Propagatiun iho 
».i-.-'l"i lit Kori'i^i Parts are chioHy emplo^'oO. 
in ministering to the eclabli^lii'd (burcne' 
the colony, uid the results of their laboi 
not reported. | 



AFRICA* fl'ESTERN. 



Socnrm. 



liorHvians, 

LouiJon Miasioixftry Soc., 
Scotch Mij«ioiw, 
French ProUst Missions 
Amerirao Board, 
WejlPTAit 8ociely, 
Oosi>el Pronagnlion Soc, 
Bhculflh Miss. SocictT, 
Norwegian Miss. Society, 
Berlin Hiss. Society, 

Total, 



20 



UUKliia&rtn. AatUtuiU. 



154 



137 225 154 10 672 



6 10 



907 



1882 

4:^01 

109 

3183 

1&6 

4970 

1C47 



14,250 



S483 

310 

18H 

7479 



41B 



1733 



28 



n,87B 



g»8fr , 

a.79^^ 



41 ; 

13, 




AFmCA."VrESTEKX :• That part of the 
continent or Africa, which lies ulon^ tbo At- 
lantic oi^aii, frum tht* Soalhurn borders of the 
Oreat Dcw-rt of Saliurn. In liilitiidt-lCJ or 11^ 
north, to Cane^e^o, nuar tlio river Noorse. 
or the t-oullioni boundun* nf Bcngnda. in 
about the i^tiino latitiido south. It varies in 
width, from 200 to 3.^>0 mills, uiid bears aboat 
the same jroogranhioal rolul inn to the cinitinent 
of Africa, that tW Atlantic States Jo to North 
AnicTJra. Tim A'onp Mottntahis form the 
eastern boundary of the northern halfof Wiwt 
Africa, and the Sutth iki Cryxttd mountains 
UiG eofltcrn bomidary of tbo Southern half. 
lliG former talie their rise about 200 miles 
cost of the Gulf of Benin, and ran in a north- 
westerly direction^ keepin;; nearly parallel t<.i 
tlie Bca-cC'ast, and not more than 3oO miles dis- 
tant, until they reach the latitude of Sierra. 
Iicouc. where they make an immense sweep 
into the interior, inclinin;* to tho north-east. 
nntil they luse theiaaelvtsi in the sands of the 
r>esert 7llfl or BOO niilfw from the scarCOBflt, and 
more than 1500 miles from their starting point. 
The latter rine nearer to the sea-coast, and for 
the first hundred miles are in sijfht of it ; after 
which, they bear off in a sonthcrly direction. 
for 200 mues, and then resumn a parallel line 
to the sca-coaat, till their termination, in the 
latitnde of Benguela, 1 000 or 1200 miles fru^n 
the place of bejjinning. 

Tne three prand divisions of 'Weetem Africa, 
are Srnefjambia, Upper or Northern Guinea, 
and Southern Guinea or Sonlhera Etliiopia. 
Tlie lir^t of these extends from the youtheru 



• Fur ttiM prtiM-fpal nnrtfoB of tbQlBtmdaotnnr pArt of thli 
■l^tie^l, anibruclBff tAa imitntpbj of Um coantt^ ftmt Um 
duruUr roi] tlie cnndtUtoiirf tb« pwnile, Uio «QlhoT it 
tbdpbtoi] to k wurk on WrtUnt .^frioA, In nrvpArttUno far 
th« vtwt, br Hf T. JoliK I^htoQ WUaM), u« »*aa«crlpl 
Of wnlotk TW kiodlf lAAoed Cor the pariiaiw bjr tbn wrilv : 
Um clt«|il«n on tUv»e nubjecU luiTliig bMO eo|d4K], irilb 
k^THQ Mj^\l atirUtfmi'nt, hut In mviv parte, n«arlf TVrbft- 
llm Tlin pirAimpli oa moni amdtitan !■ oondaBM from 
« tuial«il pnmplilet bj lb« wum writM. 



bopdora of Sahara to Cape Verga, 10<3 m 
latitude, reaching inward 700 miles. 
second ext«id« from Cape Verga to the Ci 
croon mountains, in the Gulf of Benin, a 
tance, on the coast, of more than 1 f^OO mi. 
but not more than 250 milus wide The thi 
extends from the Cameroon mountains. In 
north hititude, to l^nf^ela. 

'Hie iihy?ical aspect of the country preaeni 
some ot the richest and most exuberant nat- 
nral R-enery in the world. In the vicinity of 
Sierra Jjeone, Cape Mount, and Cape McsBO- 
rado, the eye rf^Xa upon l>o]d beaalands 
hij^h promoiitoricfl, enveloped in the ri(Ai 
tropical verdure. In the region of Cape Fi 
nrns, there are extended plains, somewhat oa- 
dnlatod. and beautified with almoet every vari- 
ety of the pidm and palrocttc. On the V 
coast, the country riiica to high table land, 
the richest aspect, and of immense 
The Gold Coast presents hills nnd dales 
►almost every conceivable form and 
And, in the neighborhtK>d of Fernando 
the I'ameroons, mountain scenery pi 
K;lf of exceeding beauty and surpaaing 
uiGceuco. 

The western coasts of Africa arc watered 
foar i?reat and noble Hvera; the Senegal 
Gambia in acnegambia,the Niger in Northi 
Guinea, and the Congo in ^?outhern Gui 
bt^idea which, are 8e\'eral »mnll rivers 
streams, which mn into the Gulf of Guinea^. 

Hie discharge of the rivers and small 
is frenaently obstructed by the hear 
from tne o|>en ocean, and form them: 
hack waters or lagoons, in conscqueoe* 
the exposed condition oi the fieorCoost, 
lagooni are separated from the oi 
narrow sand bank, thrown np by 
swell. Tbey ore sometimts 200 or 300 
long, but generally only a few feel deup. 
seldom more thanai|uartcrorhnIf a milewf 
They fu^Dt:^ll great facilities of ialercourde 




'^ -- *" 



AFRICA, WEST£KN*. 



59 



,.. m,.r:rl.n,. trfbes. but are too 

iiilf. T\w coast of 

._ , I ' _' in gcKMl l/aiTS ftuil 

lorcmni 

1>r j'-st/Tit of territoiT bitloDgioR to the 

rra Xjoodc, in aboat SiKlli 

tlic eutfwt of Uninra, vi?-, t'«;*c 
"VUuIm, Dtx Cove, Annamaitoe, 
Tbe towD of Bonny is sil- 
iiilboftbc riwr Ni^ir, mitl luw- 
i:irt for tlie sliivf tnnic. TIil' 
asiou uiii) Hi. Ueti-im Iwloujf 
J' ilii' Nr^il, ir.i ariJ Cupi! l>c 
>'. The Piir- 
>t'mt'Qt*f btrlow 
tW Ni^vr, ou tilt! ouosU of Ooagu, LoaogUo 
lid IVit^eU. 

Ctnt.!//.— The h<at ia m-Moiu oppraasivc od 
Ai w«<-i>(i»t. AltiTuute luuU uau Bco-broezc? 
Uf-w frr».h tivcTy day. The mercory eeldum 
fin V' 90 . 3ai\ 'osaahj magGS between 74 ami 
W-. In: - '» nir Is Heldom oppn'twivc- 
Ihriu^ ' "It winiU, tlic iiiorniuf;^ 

■n cocil. 'J Mows very strongly. 

Ob Uit; t i>itt the liiat is op- 

rBin?. I It; cojist of UuiMi-u. 

Lbe iaterior. Ixirond the rooi-h of Uie lund 
•■1 jEft bnetcs, t}lt^ diinute do doabt would 
U mrttsivB. 

JMHtonCt.— The inhabitaiiU of Western 
Alrin wr ilivtdnl into tbrve great fjunillcs, 
<4rTTap>itiJ:iii; wiUi tlic tbroo ^t^i\\\ ^cograpb- 
U (brwiitoM- AltboajUrb tbu^ families boluug 
IliM rw.yL't there are marked aud eesenlial 
W •■■— I-.'---- rJipin. 

' 1 1^ are iLroti Icftding Cuni- 

ir ..... Julof^. ManilioG'oca, and 

IWtJui. Uym.i:iy ii i-d -iibted whflluTfitlier 
vf tf -.. -.i:. jmn' ii.'trrofs. Tint Fonlwlip an- 
t\ rai-O- llicy aiT? Mobamme- 
inliubitatiin of Nortliern and 
^. "Sivmially Piij^uii, 

*> - iohabilvd by tbi: Kipn- 

• i-'iril fnnu their .^mppotMsi di')- 
jreat m'gri> families living iu 
I" Niger. Tbey are bore tnib- 
. or stiven f:njiili"-?c 
'■•"» i- iiiliabiti.*d hy the Nilotic 
I. Iheir eup|x>twd dt'^ceul 
' 'la of tbo Nile. They are 
■ of Uie ttoutli half of Uie 
■ r in many rwpecte from 
Ibu isiiAUuuU of Uppor Guinea. Thi^arcnot 
»faba|t«nd cnrnrrtir at thi> Nicritian race, 
ar' ihfir f"ature« 

lUiil ' riz(-d by more 

i ani I uiiraclcr. 

Gvufruma^ no i-^ti-ndoil poHti- 

Iflvjnnir -'■ 11 Arriea,r\ -■■:•' 'v-' 

Ckoftl' -tnd Didit-i 

\-\ >■>( iiitin- 1 

I K&a tbr '«'i:> i-e.l 

[Aj • ^LTi^ral ;i ■■ ; _ ■ ■ . ■ '■\\--t \ 

I «Bul indvpeodoul cwuiuiuiiliM, nryujg in | 



pf>pa3alitin from 10(10 to 20,(100. T)u' form 
of fToverument, nominally, i» monarchy, tint 
in niility, it is more* potxiu'chal than mun- 
orchical. 

Sociaf Condition. — ^Though (rreatly debnaed 
bv their hmthenism, yet the inhabitants of 
VVc:ftcrii Africa iire nut to be ranV^nl among 
the lawrat of tho bnman race, Tbnv hare 
fixed habitations ; tbry cultivate the soil, ha^'C 
herds uf dumoatie animals ; and show as mnch 
furt-jiif^ht ly ni'wt otlu-r pcviple in providing for 
their future want4. They bavis made consid- 
fTnlfle proficieuey in nioat of the mcehanic 
artj4, aud evince a decidod toato and at|mcity 
for conimcrcitU porsuitti. TItcy luive im writ- 
teu literature, (cxcepting^ the Mobuiumc«Iaus 
among them ; ) but tliry have ahiiiKlaueu of 
uuvrritten lore, iu the form of fables, alle^o- 
riea, traditions, and proverbial sayings, in 
which ore di^yjiljiyed no small share of rJose 
olM^erratioo, lirely iniagiuatloo, and ciztraordi- 
uarv Khrewdnca of oharactcr. 

ilonU CorulttiQTt. — ftelfohnoM, tlie control- 
ling principle of tbo heathen heart, haa full 
sway here. The principlea of iusticc, the 
rights of individuals, tbo ndis vf deoobcy, tho 
voice of humanity, the ties of kindred and 
friendithip, are trampled under foot Thefl, 
faJiifhotxl, fraud, deceit, duplicity, iujaslicet 
ond op])rQ9dou, arc favorite agcntj^ and coo- 
BtAut cMnponiooa. Intemperance, Ucentiou»> 
ue«9, glutUny and debauchery furnish the 
uUiuent ui>un which it feeds. It is almost 
impossible, suya Mr. Wilson, to say what rice 
is proem tneut among thdac degraded natiree. 
Fakehood U universal. No man «»eaks the 
trnth. who can 6ud a motive for teUing altou 
Theft, fraud, and intcaiperance, aro considered 
m j>raia'worlhy actB. Chastity is an idea for 
which they have do wonl in their language, 
and of which they can scarcely form a concup* 
tion. Kuvy, joafoutiy, and revenge, entfaroue 
thcnwelvisj in every hearty and wield their 
triple 3ceptre with uncontroile*! power. Hcncc^ 
theru can bo no confidence between man and , 
man, no sympathy of iutereate,— in &cl, no 
Fuch thing ju sjciety. Ab might bo expected, 
In Kiieh a titatt>, llieir inti^Ucctiial factiltint arc 
obtu*! and circnmscribed. almost beyond con- 
ception. Ileyund a few local aflBoeiation!i>, tbo 
ideua of the most intelligcut native on tho 
cout of Africa are not one particle above tho 
Hpecnlatlons of a child in thiu couotrv of two 
or thri-c years of age. And over such minds, 
superstition reigoB with nbsoluto sway. Al- 
though tlm African is by natnre prw?niiuentJy 
gtjeiaJ, yef. puiy^omif, vsildicrufl, and the Waw 
trtute, together witn the goncrol influence of 
heathL'tii^m, n:ndcr him an entire tftraiigcr to 
^,K-;,i !,..,.:„._ I.-,..,. L.t....^ |,it.vails 

i^uniahment 



cieiy I- 
bat Ui ^^ 
nfluctiou. 



Thtr African wouaa (fc 



60 



AFRICA, WESTERN. 



husband above all others, oni] 9triff«, jealous- 
i(s, and enJIma bickeringr^, prOTail among tlio 
wumcii of hU household. Tiic belief in wiirh- 
cmft eunders aU the tiM of nature, brinfrs 
fatal !iu5picion upon the nearest ivlntivca, nu<j 
fills the minds uf all with a fearful sense of 
insecority. Their pereoDs, bonson, and alm«rt 
every article of property, most be piarded by 
fftiihc%, and a man must bo carcfnl wlint path 
be walks, whoso huiise be euters, on what gti>ol 
he a\&, an<l what he touches. The cere- 
mony of " taking off the ftUsh " must be pcis 
formed before a paKlele of food or drluk u 
tasted. The hair of the bead, and the Tinring;8 
of the nails, are conreale*! with atndica euro ; 
and yet, nutwithi^taniliug these and a thougaml 
other expedients, yet more Billy and stupid, 
these people enjoy no eewc of sccnrity, but 
arc wretched and miserable among- themselves, 
and know not where to torn for relief. 

RtUgiom Bdief, atki Superstitious Ct:stnm.i 
and ^vdttions. — It has been found very diffi- 
cult to ascertain or describe the relifrious vicwH 
of the Puso tribes of Afriea, owin^ partly 
to tlieir iDOBGnitenem, and paKIy to their habits 
of concealment in relation lo what mi^ht ex- 
pose thorn to ridicule. The belief m One 
Groat SnprciDo Bein», the Creator and Up- 
holder of all things. Mr. Wilson thinks is uni- 
TCiBal. This conviction stands out la every 
man's creed ; so moeh so, that any theorr of 
Athf ism Wunid strike them as ahimrd and In- 
dofeosiblc. Their coneeptiona of the churaolor 
and ottribntea of God, however, arc extreraclv 
low. They think of his power owr the natural 
world a* LTOot nud irrft>isliblp ; but they have 
no just id'^os of his moral parity ; but ascribe 
to him motives and feelings utterly at variance 
with his true character. The tribes along the 
coodt have a uome for Jehovah, and most of 
them, two or more, sipnificant of his character 
ta Creator, Prtscrver, and Ilcncfactnr. Ilie 
general impression, however, is, that lie exer- 
cisKs ven' little apency in the coTcmmont of 
the worltl, feeling too little interest in the 
ofliiira of men. or being too far ofT, to concern 
liimself with what Is transpiring upon earth. 
On some great occnsions, his name is invoked, 
and iu the Grebo cimntry he is called upon 
thm times, in a load voice, to witncs? any very 
solemn transaction, as the establishment of 
peace after war, the ratification of some great 
treaty, or other menanrcs of national import- 
ance. The same thing is done by an indivi- 
dual when he is about to drink the " red wood 
ordeol." Whether the practice of calling upon 
God ihrre times, about which they arc verj" 
particular, hua any reftTcnce to the Trinity is 
matter (»f conjecture; but it U not impiTpbable 
that it may htivo. Ik^u handcil down by tradi- 
tion, or bniTowed from fMirwlianity. 

The belief in a fnture state of existence is 
also^enorul ; but they have no very definite or 
ooDftistent views as to what that state is. 
Some believe iu transmigration, and hence 



animals in certain localiliK<, as the moiike 
about FisbtowQ, are reganteil as soiTred, ' 
cause they arc suppled to br animated by I 
spirits of their dcceiiaed fi-iends. The soni . 
one man is sujipoeed to have been revived in 
another, eepecmlly when there is any marked 
resemblonoe between the two. Thi< M|M>ngwc 
people suppone there is a place whtre the >pi. 
iit?« of tbt: di-od will l>c ultimately collcf^ttd ; 
and Uie Grelnis tyinneel wilh it the idim <il an 
ordeal that must be ptLssi^l tiirough in f-'-.ui: 
to that place, which may, perhaps, have U-in 
deri^ from the Popish doctrine of Pnrgratory, 
taught by the Portugnefw mission ariet;, who 
visited this coast in the l(>th and 17th 
ries. But al pn»-.nt, the spirits of the i 
ape supposed to mingle frwly wilh the livr.' : 
hence tlieir dreams aud sudden iniprL>-i > 
upon their minds are reesrded as vi^iiati n^ 
from the dead : and any nintsor udnioniiii n>; 
received from such fioorcc6wilM)eniorcii-;!'liiy 
fuUawfd Uian tht; dictates of n^awin aud ■ t.?n- 
mon sense. Sometimes the living are r ^iri- 
maDde<l by the dead for their rcniiK^ncsa in 
duty, and not uufrcc[ncntly the slnTti* aud 
precincts of the largest towns arc swept and 
thoroughly cleansed, in obedience to some such 
hint from the dead. 

The idea of a fuiju^ state of rewards and 
punishments is not clearly developed ; bat a 
seporatc burying place is kept for atrocioos 
cnrainalfl, and there is a repugnattce felt to 
minjiling with the notoriously wicked and 
cruel. 

FettKhism and Devil-wrship ore the chunic- 
toristic ari'l leading forms oi rfligion of tlii'^ 
Pagan tribes of oil Africa. The two tliiiiL-^ 
arc entirely distiuet in them'-elvcs ; but i!iiy 
nin together at so many points, niul have betrn 
so much confounded b^ those who have written 
on thft Rubjrat, that it is by no means an t^asy 
t';sk to set them iu their separate aud true 
light. A FttMih, strictly speaking, is little 
less than a chanu, amulet, or talisman, worn 
about the body, or sttspeiulwi from some part 
of the dwelling, and is intended either to 
guard the owner from some appr»*h'.!iidcd evil, 
or to secure for him some covete<l gmnl. On 
some ports of the coaRt it is called a ,eT»pTt, 
(grcegrcc,) at other places, a juja. (jewj-.w.) 
and others still, u/dt-ili, oil implying tue s.itji<' 
thing. It may be a piece of wood, in tiie 
form of an ornament, the horn of a gonl or 
sheep, a piece of metal or ivorv, or any thing 
else that has been consecrated by one of the 
priests. There arc several classes of thcs? fis- 
li«he8, for which they luive separulp names: 
those worn about their persons : such as are 
suspended over the doors, and in diScrcnt parts 
of their dwellings, corresponding somewhnt to 
the pmata of the ancient Romani; such as 
mav be found along their highwayi, tonrolcrt 
their forms and fruit trees fnim deprrdation; 
such as are Ubcd in war ; and fiunlly, such as 
belong to the town and ore kept in u house at 



AFRICA, WESTERN. 



^ 



Sb otnnce of tbe Tillage, or at ibe rcsidonce 

of Mf rfticC 

Vm Utishm are mpposcd to poneaa ectra- 

ffdiut;^ »ml Tark'O powers. They iireserve 

ttBlDMil licAlth uf one vho uses Uiom, and 

lunJaot unly fnim visible cTils, but from tlit* 

wnC mchltialiou^ vT witcbcTaA, so mnch 

intAA bv tlie ^ill]pte-l^indt'cl Africitii. llie 

UAimlKj'^iipjxi^etl til 1)0 able lo jirott-ol lUtcIf 

ipiut riulcucc ; whkh ]>owerllie^por^titiDUf 

|lfle in ailhud to test- Iflbc^-tiFO foil^imt 

iRDlnitiuicc it oah prures tliat this partit^^u- 

■ooelias DO cfficacf. nml it is thruwn nway for 

^WbraTif ; bat vwry uuo \» coiwiilorcd tOt'C- 

■ lie*; has proved the contrary. 

- wf ten fail, thesucceesoftheoDC 

cii cijLraiiisl ihe fuilnrc of the uiuc, and 

Hkc-ccKsful one ta tbe more vuloed. Hiey talk 

r* Mabtai, try to stir tjicm np to action in 

^reiicics, ponr nun npon them, and act 

*u u«; ■'-".---.! '!icy posjiSKfed lifi' and intel- 

Qpioe : ) ' <.'r &eiit>.> can thi-ir fetLJiei) 

famoflid' if n!;.'i(.'j'< worj^hip. Aa 

4fCMnI': I iu( inuiiiniutc 

<fc j i ati , w .- It nevertheless, 

Wnluiig a silent uiyAtt-nous Uiflui'Uce, either 

ArlMr|jrtjlection and prt*eri»lion, or to the 

h^Bj of tlieir fellitw men. They regard this 

• n Citablisbod fact ; and think it a& easy to 

m tb coutttictioQ bct^vccn the fetitih and the 

MiH,tt between pi)i50u taken into the btom* 

lA nd d«atb that foUowi;. 

Tb practice of wearing and nsin^' felisbea 

h virerm}. They may be s«n along every 

pik, al the gate of every villago_, over llie 

Ajl-t i.r f»tTy boose, and aronnd the neck of 

The yonng. «pecniliy those who 

: some intercourse with tlie eiviliaxl 

mfHRbuw .tome ekeplU-i^ni on the pubjeet ; 

hjtbtdltk-r people, especially when they be- 

ftac CQDlpmpWiTr, and feel the iufirmitiCEf of 

tgt. rliiwr irt them with erealcr tenjicity. The 

r. have lo-s fecHi)}; of sccnrity 

] none of ihvM charms ; itnd 

— » u i.T n-iT upon them in nny very Irj'ing 

triuifiroo* emergency. Indeed, when Ityinj; 

bmi imuii-!- ■■• •invT. they will tear ofT their 

Iftha ail til away, to relieve tbem- 

iimof iL iL luncc. 

Friiilui are exli-iiaively employed to protect 
|nnr^, aotl to piml«b'oDt:uders. They are 
■■at (ut Ui fnilt trees, set apon the bordenf of 
ajifin. or tied around the neck of a goat ; by 
~ il ia nippofwl that lre8pa;>K>ra will w 
i And «o, when any great natioiml 
ml, a feti»:h \s made, to 
But thu li moi-ti fre- 
ijiiDi-. Win II ili.-y are tiHj feeble to take 
of tbe law into their own hands. 
nf <.-t.cKr« .0 I'.timalely connected 
tlieL- 

Xhm/-«^: (hiiii; in AVet-tim 

l]ui; . ■ !■!.: .i .'. V I'Muus 

i- . [■■<:i-'i i" Mi' ■-.[■ii-ila 

doudt aud uauaily tknominattd " i>tv$l- 



unnArp." Some of them arc regarded or pood 
spiritd, and their aid and protection souffht, 
othrre are considered ua evil uptrily, and tJiPtr 
displeasure deprecated. I3tit it is doubtful 
whether they have any idea of evil spirits die- 
-tinet ft-om those whien are supTKwed to have 
pro«(eeded from wickt.^! men, 'ITie presence ot 
some spirits hi coiirti^l ; houses are built for 
their acroninioihLtioUt and occa.Mionul ofibriugs 
nf fiHHl, drink, clothing, and furniture are taken 
to ihci^c houses for their use. They place largo 3 
qunutitiea of cloth, bends, kmvee, pipes, tobno- 
eo, and oruamentB in the coffin, and large or- 
ticlca of fnmitun* around the grave outHide, 
fur the u^ of the dead. 

Tliere arc also other spirits, whnw presence 
is much dreaded. They tire Bupposed to eauM j 
sickness, drought, wars, pes>tileuee, and other 
forms of national evil; and, in some places^ 
they mnko oOcrinea to the devil to a|)pea«) hU 
wrath, and induce hira to withdraw the Bconrgo, 
On tbe Uuld coiut, tliorc arc btaled occasiona 
when the people tuni out at night to driTt* the 
devil away from town with etuba and torchee. 
At a given Bignul, the whole ccrmmucity start 
up, commence a most hideoue howling, beat 
about in every nook and corner of their nouBCS, 
then msli into tbe streets like frantic maniacs, 
beat the air with their clubs, brandish their 
torches, and 5cretun at tlie top of their voiceti. 
Sooo, some one minonnccs tLut the di'vil is 
Ipoving the town by some particnlar gate, 
when they all rush in that dirvction, and pnr- 
sue .him for mik« from the town. 

Siqipofiefl demoniacal poaseadons are very 
common, and tbe feats performed by those 
who are believed to Itf. under the in6ucnce of 
these agents, arc not unlike those deseribed in 
the New Testament Frantic gesture*, con- 
vnliiion?, fooming at the month, feate of super* 
natural strength, furious raviugK, bulily lariv 
rations, gnashing of tbe teeth, and other things 
of a i^inular nature, eharacterixe all tluiw cns«B 
whteli they regard as being under the inHuence 
of evil spirits. But some of these, Mr. Wilwtn 
sap he found out hud been wcasioned by the 
udinini.stratiini of |Miwerful narcotics, und oth- 
er* wej-e the natural results of o highly excited 
state of tbe nerves. But there were othrar ex- 
hibitions of foeliDg and actions, which could 
scarcely be aauribed to either of thfeei caosoc 
However, we cannot tell what eHecIs may bo 
jirodneed by fretjuent and violent strain ujton 
tiie nervous system. 

In the beginning, it is not entry to distjn- 
guifih these pogsessions from an ordinary attack 
of diseutH; ; and when it is determined to bo 
a |H»Bcn>ioo, it is no cocy matter to oscertaia 
what kind of a spirit it ifi. On the Pongo coast; 
there arc four or five cJassm of tltette epirits ; 
and wlien a man is known to be poesesKd, he 
pasees through the bonds of the nru^^U of these 
diflbreot order:^ till miuw one j ' to 

be a case with which he is ati|< I It 

able to ctirc. A temporary '■ ' ■■^l 



dancing commesiws, a Toriety of mreaoonioB 
ore porformcd.raedicitios arv ailmintster^.and 
ttfuT a furtuJL'lit gpent iu this irav, nifrlit and 
dfty, the rrii-DiLsorilie iDvalid furntafaiof^ abiiti- 
dwoe of rurn ami food for the pcrfonucni. he 
!■ prunoauccd cored. A hoiwe » then tmilt 
near hisoirn residcnue, for tlir ancomnuidation 
of tlui onicoBt det-il, who is honcffortli to bo- 
ootrnt hifl tiiUrlar frod ; and so loDg^ as he treats 
him witli proper n«pect, and uiHya the injow- 
tiona impoacu dd hnn when he was bwloJ, he 
will do wcU. But if the diuaw rediniH, il is 
crvidence «f nttrlccl of da^ towardB his patrnn 
^irii, and the i^eremanioa most bo rqiratod. 

The ^iriis who are objects «f worship in 
the ooii&tj7, ore supposed to inhabit certain 
great rocks, trees, momitiiiiis, rivera, ca\-enw, 
aud groTts ; and these places are alwap ra- 
ered. They arc poescd in silence, and not willi- 
ont dropping soniQ kind ofotknng, if nothinic' 
more than a leaf of a tren, or a hIicU pickc-d 
on OB the beacfa. To these pinces ihcy carry 
owriiigs of food, drink, cloth, or furniture ; but 
they niiiat be presented by the priest, who 
pretends to hold iutnrcDurse with these ^rita. 
Whin the prv.'sts would make an impn^on 
np4in thi! people, one of thi'ir own ntinibcr is 
concealed in wime recess of the prove, or cor- 
ner of the rock, and answers are friven to the 
qnestioDS proposed, but always in an unnatural 
tone. 'J'here a do danger of the ex|iOKun' of 
tlie trick, tor do oae has conrairc to n-iituro 
n«ar the spot, lest a le^'on of anirrk' spirits 
shoald rush out and tear him in pieces. One 
of these oracles near the month of the CaToli 
river baa acquired great celebrity ; and it is 
vifiitiKl by pilgrims from the distance of nrark 
200 miles ; and as ofierinf^s arc always bronght. 
it is a sonrni of considerable revenue to the 
king^ of Cavali. It has been visited by several 
white men, and found to bi> n<ithififr Init acav- 
vrn, io which i« an rcho, tliat the priests tntiT* 
pret to nuan wliatcviT thr-y pk'ft.<w. and the 
people arc simple ciionph to rnxlit the word 
of men, of whose dishonesty thuy have daily 
proofs. 

These patron f^irita are supposed aUo to in- 
habit certaiu aniaaak, and hence such become 
sacred. At FishtowD. on the CJrnin coost, 
cerUiiu monkeys found in the wood about the 
gmvo-yard arc sacred, becauw it is ihonjfhl 
they are animated by the spirits of their de- 
parted friends. At Discove, on tht> Oold 
coast, the crocodile ia (>acrcd. At Papo and 
"Whidab, on the slave coast, a certain kind 
of snake is sacred. At Calabor and Bonny 
the Aark is aocrcd, and hiunan victims are 
occasionally oflbred to it. At llic tialKion.the 
natives will not eat the parrot. bocniLoc it talks, 
and, as they suy, is too much like man ; but in 
reality, perhaps, because they bavo some snspi- 
oiou that these birds have the spirits of their 
forefathers. A certain tiger, at Ci^ 8t. 
Catherine, is also sacred. 

Thcac animok have the sagacity to find oat 



nIM 

' riverV 
epored 
nc will 

r, int|| 

[to« 

worV|| 



that ihcy axe not liatdo to be nmlndt^d, i 
therefore appear to be very presuming. * 
monkeys alxmt Ftiihtown are quite tame ; the 
utlifrator at Pixcove will come at call, nud fol- 
low a man with a white fowl in \m hiuid. to 
the distance of half a mile from hi.<« den ; tb« 
snake at Papo has become so much di.>m««tic» 
ted that it may be hun<Ucd with impunity, i 
so fnr trained that it will bite or ri'frain " 
biting, according to the |Jeiuoire of its kc 
'Ihe shark at Benin will come up to tho riverV 
edge t'viTy day, to see if o victim is prepared 
for him ; and the tiger of St Catherine will 
traverse the Btreets rtf the village at ni(irlii, on^^, 
will burrow soinewbcre dorine the day, in T'~~ 
immediate neighborhood, witbout any 
rent apprehension of being disturbed. 

Till' spirits of the dead are suppoMHi 1 
an active part in the affairs of tho 
hence, whtn in prat distress, they go into tbu 
woods am) call upon them for help, id tiie i ^ 
pitcone strains. They sometimes send m 
ges to their friends m auolhi? world, bj i 
uiat is aboat to die. Mr. Wilmn sava ns| 
known mothers who have ^huuned their 
sons, lest tbc^ should use fome unfair me 
to get them *mi of this wurM, witli thv hope 
that thev would do them morti service io an* 
other. 'I'hey frequently invoke the spirits of 
their ron*fatInTH, when about to discuss any 
important matter ; and the blading men in the 
J'ljupo country rub their forthends with chalk. 
that has bc<-o kept in the skull of some great 
chief, for the poriKiw of imbibing hia 
and coura^. 

The practice of sacrificinji baman beli _ 
the marics of the dead, which is more com 
in Ashantee and Dahomey tlian any where t 
prow8 oat of this belief m a future existe 
The victims offered at the death of any mem| 
of tho royal family, or of any prvat persond 
Olid which arc rcpeatt'd at (itatrd periods a" 
wanlt, ore intRnflod to be wjrunts orcscor 
piich iMThons in another world. Tluy have n» 
right conceptions of a purely spiritual state i 
existence, and hence they reason from the vi 
ble to tho invisible. A Ithough Llity have 1 
distinct impreaiion of the reaurreetioo, tber 
?nppot!o that their deceased friends have tM^ 
the bodily wants which they bad in thiswoB* 
and that they would be gratifietl by the i 
kind of attentions that would be ac 




VC DV 

teflli 




A deranged man is regarded 9s one who 1 _ 
Joet his timl, and the same is said of thfc iin| 
cility of age. In slwp, tbi-y suppcse it a _ 
uucommou for the soul to waiidir out of the 
body, and sometimts to come in contlirt with 
other wandering s^iirits. If a man wakM up 
in the morning with jiaius in liis bunea or- 
muscles, he ^u^pects at once that his spirit ^ 
been wandering about in the night, and ! 
received a severe tiagellatiuD from some ut 
■pirit 

IKtrcACTH^.— Nearly allied to the fotcgwii 



AFRICA, WSTEBM 



68 



k>^^MHIMlto1 belief ID irilchtTnlt, wbk-h is, 
fnioKfm. '' ' urwthiU twU uti AtVicu, 

Hii uoe '-■■ ■ viU to be roottxl out of 

tb» Afrfcut i&UmI. Ill it4 Icfldiiitf and eauu- 
tuJ fattiHPBa, h doTJi iu>t difliT muiurially from 
tei fiDin of it wtiidi urevailu in other pnrUt 
tftfal ««rUl. (Siv HUthcrojt) A in-won 
«4» fffofimvva thu art, is impfMMvd W ucrvittc 
taCknif las tium ontulttoUul power, not ouly 
n« Um minda mkI bixucs of bis fellow nteo, 
IsLvfcr wiM MihDak and ^e elcmcntit of tiiv- 
tMtn. 2{« am tnuudbrm huuelf into a ti^er 
mi fcwp th« ooounttirity in * state of RfritiL- 
Wm for mootlu or yi%n ; ho t«u Iiitd himaelf 
hiB B ^ffphmnt, and dtstroy their tuma utd 
Ml tm«. Ho cut turn nnotljiT Dino into an 
dakftot, to Umt liu muy bu uliut by fatu own 
lliir or brothtr. Tbc wind and thu light- 
t bii ftnot*. iiDd they iiDTer fkll ap«i 
iHit nuf hare b«tn direotad by his 
It uinot knowa how this xdjb- 
I pomr is acf^nirod. By hoqil' it Im Eiip- 
lila. faBMKttrad bleating aci.<rt&iu kind 
'' {• Iba woodH, aiid t^ otbers to be con- 
t cril ifurtta. No very logical proob 
ipad tu show that a miui bas exercistKl 
I MftaortUuary pownK It is known thai 
^ had a p((|ui; at om* of bin fellow inou. 
ltd hffaoiR thifi man hapitencd to die theaume 
i^lkal an vlepUaut ytw kill^tl, li<-- in HiiK[>i'ct^ 
liafluiTJa^ turned him into thai ctqilmut, 
■lMarraafc«d crcry thing thut hv »himld be 
||M Id ifaath. A thandm' storm jhii«.-h umt a 
^Ikpt, a houai is tttmck Hith lightning, and 
■■mt la kUlcd. The whole comnKiuity is 
ifOBa iato tW most dirufnl ti^iiAlion. Tltc 
^Biiy i* nuH*dr ** Who bruu»rht the ligUtDing 
Ma i|)dii that man V the lueanintf of which 
kiUkdat Ihan " Who had a gruihre wauwt 
Iter The fritnidv oml fnuiily of ue «(>c«a»- 
rilave Ike nplit u> Min^h- out tbr jNTMn and 
Mp^ Via i*t drink Uiu " redwood draught." 
naiia.mn' uiid iiil'jIllMu U>1 i'( Kuill >>r Iii- 

IWi rill Su Iililll r.m III Ml;!!'' .-:i I >rii .1 .1 fi;.; 1'.^ 

i^ vMioai avkiiowlts^l^iiij.' hi- guilL 'ihu> 
ifl & decuctioa mut^ic from tJio ioner 
klbiVQ Jiirmt {Tv*\ vulk-^l by tho tiro- 
, aH by the Ashuntitw. adum. llir 
i ID a mortar, nud thL*a thrown 
put of watvr until the etri'UgUi u 
' . wbva it ia dmiru off for use Its 
I H IQia tha water uf a tnn \-at, and 
l^batt aatnngont and uorcotic, aud when 
t Im httiga naoDtitioii, U acts oa on emotic. 
', babna bo takes tho draught, maku^ 
I oC all the vWl dcuifi hu boa commit- 
llnaBBii life. Ml' 1 then invokei Uod to 
i*sbIvoO(1 dnuifrht" kill him if he ia 
rof Ika ernuc with which he U dtargod. 
" ha ■» innoaQnl tu Itit it pan off without 
H« ia rcqiurcd to drink nion'. or \tm 
to rifinimfttanui'tL If he vuiuita 
l^flaaty, b« u dn-litrad inuoMSk Itut if oihtT- 
.hm'» Hui inorp otroimly Mupeet^'d, lut (ul- 
ami pHTtlkUu IB adminwlcrcdi kikI if death 



(bllowv, it seals hla frailt. The fn^t«8t indig- 
nitit-s on; then heaped npon hw body, some- 
tiuioi Bven before life i? fjtUnct, Wnmtti oud 
children are ^unimonixl, and required to l>oat, 
kii'k, and spit upon it; and evt-n ihe frir<nd8 
and ptiatives of the vietioi have to join in lhtt« 
outrages, or elw? they an? BUifpfcteti of jiartioj- 
putiu^ in Ilia crime. And beside? thiB, the IW 
mily are lMU*ily fined, and it U a lung tiiii* 
Ix-Utro Uu! Htain upon their charac1<T id wijted 
out. 

Oil the other hand, if the accused comes off 
clear it is the occa&ion of great exitttatiun. 
Ho is wuhod, dccki:-d out in hia bM, and po- 
nulta tho strcet<t with no little priile and rom- 

fila<*ent7. He receives prewots from all his 
ricniK and tlie party who accused him wrong- 
fully are mnlcteu in a larRe wim. lint a man 
who hia drank thi<i portion nnce. us nut entire- 
ly azempt from it in the future. 

Tho use of Uio " reilwood dreoght" is not cd- 
tirelj- cnnlined to the ca» of penout BUftpeeled 
of Viitehcraft It ts xatd as a pnnifihiutttit fftr 
■onie other Crimea ; and when it b> the deter- 
mination of those who administer it to kill ilie 
imui, it can be foron] u|(on him in snrh qiiao- 
litiiM w to insure the result. Th'w mmle of 
punifiluiwat appoars to hovo been erloptei] for 
the porpose of exonerating the udnitni»lra> 
ton of jostice from the ranpon-oitiitity of pnt- 
ting mcD to death in cans of (}<j)ibiful ji^uilt. 
Thoy 8»y it waa tho "rpdwoo*!" that killed 
hiui ; and it is the general imtiro^iou tbut tho 
"redwiHMl " hoa in itself the diBerimiDfttiou to 
detect guilt; and Uiua tlie pimple px<>n<-nita 
themsttirts from the tedious process of niitrcb- 
lug out uvideuce. Thi^ iwrer assign any rea- 
aon for the ueeof this onleal, except that Uieir 
fathers did it, and bocaose of the many marvel- 
outt stories th^ can tell of tlie wooderfal feata 
of tliie mysterious agency. 

A dilliacnt article is usu^l in I^ower (ininen 
for thiB ordail. It is u Kmoll fihrub with a red 
I 'Hit, from which the decoction L« made, called 
b^ the Mpungwe noople ntiri/o. This is a 
dinrotic and nnrootic ; and If it opemtt^ fnx-ly 
sa ihe former, and docs not aOect the brain to 
produce delirium, the man is eonsidcnMl iuui>- 
cc!ut ; but if il pro<luce9 vertigo, ho in guilty. 
Hmoll Flicks arc laid on tho groond, a few fecft 
apart, and after having taken the draught, l» 
is required to stop over thorn. If he docs this 
without dillicnJty, lio is innoi^nt; but. if he 
faneiei they are great logo, and r^sea bis feet 
high to gei orer Ukcm, ho it, of coune, goihy.i 
The quantity in tbu case is not more thao bm 
A pint ; but in the other it ts half a galkm or 
a gallon. 

The natives oo the Groin Coast have anotber, 
called the " hot oil ordeal," which is tutiftl to 
delMt petty tholbi, and ia esin where women 
are Boqwoted of infidelity to tbulr hubflnds. 
Tho mspectod pmoEt la required to ^tungc tho 
hand into a pot of boiling oil. If it ut with< 
drawn without pain, 1m u inoucimt. If bo 



kiii>w!wl;!c of IctttTA, liiey liovo u great deal of 
whut nxay bv calleJ uiiWTittcn littTnturi', in tlw 
form of l'.'v;vii>ls, tradit-iotih, fjibles. utiil pro- 
Terbial unyiii;.';!. Tin;ir tahlvR uru liighly dra- 
mulii', uniiuuly being niodt; tu act Qiitl t^Tcdk 
vitb lift' snd naturaliiesft. Tboy have several 
trftdilion?, whicb would st>cm to buvo boL'o 
derived from iho Biblis. Tlit'y b(.'Iipvc in Uiu 
coinmou urigin of Uie humaD race, and have a 
CUrioiu legcad to aecount for Ibc difference 
bctwocn tht.' white iit)d black mnn, fur irhkh 
aee AahanUe aud Gold Coa/d. Th(!y have tradi- 
iioufl also of ft ddupc aad of the advent of the 
Saviour, but coupled wilb much Uiut a extro- 
ra^iil and jjtoss. 

AtDoDjr all the tribes of both Upptr and 
I^wt-r (Juincn, thi^n; an- many utimistakeable 
traces of Jtuiaum. Tlie existence of twelve 
families iu most of Lho largo commonitics on 
the coast ; the extreme core taken to Iccep 
them dlatiuct ; the rig'id ititerdictiuD of mar- 
xiaeea between memixTB of t!iu smnu family ; 
aou ruriuus other cn^itomit, shntv that they 
have viewit akin lolhu^eof Ibo Ij^rae[itc& On 
the (4old C'diwI. they divide tiiin! Into weeks, 
have their lucky and unlucky da vs. and ob^K'n'e 
the uew inooiu with iu4 much interest ns the 
LfDU-'Iitiw. Cireiimcision la jirueliced among 
all the triljcs in Wistcrn Alrica, with the ex- 
ception of Ihoeo on tbc Grain Coa.st ; and the 
DCglcct of it exp(«s':si a muu to much ridicule. 
The practice uf sprJokliujif the blood of onl- 
maU, AS they invariably do, on Uie door-poatg 
of their bouiii-s, aud about Oic pIao<^ where their 
feti^hei are kept, would seem to indicate n 
Jei^isb origin. In the house of the chief- 
priest, there is uifuatly an altar unth hto horns, 
and triiuinals tly to it and lay hold of these 
horoB, as Iho Jews did of old. and uo one can 
remove theui but the cliief-priwl hinisclf. They 
have their stittwl ablutiooi ami ibuir purifiea- 
tiona ; they shave tliiir head;; and wear Iho 
poorest kiod^f clothes as markd of mourning. 
At the fonenilB, the women ore the chief 
Skournrrs, and the lime of mouroiug correis- 
ponds with that of the Jews. 

Funerals. — Afrieaii funerals are attended 
with frreat potup and difiplay. The corpse is 
washtxi. painttd, and dcekiM out in the grand- 
est style. It is then laid on boards; cr in a 
rude coffin, tu a conspicuous place, during the 
funeral oirtmonii'S, which occupy the preuier 
part uf the day ; the charact^'r depndinK up- 
on the Htandiug of the man. At an curly hour. 
the friendii and townsmen of the deceased as- 
aemble in a circle, in front of the house. A 
bollock tifd by the fore feet i^ bronpht to be 
flliuightere<1 in honor of the dead. Every visitor 
is expected to bring some kind of present, to be 
laid in or beMidelbe coffin. The nialewlatlvre 
oud otlicrH. to the rmmlK-r jioraotimcs of furly or 
fifty, gel within the circle, and koep up a rapid 



discharge of muskets for honra. WhoJi (he c«i«- 
monies have been ei>ntinut!d long enough, u 
they sQppi'ee, to gratify the dead mnn. two 
bearers tAke the coffin oo their bends to carry 
it to (he burying jp-onnd. But nomeUmes ibc 
dead n'futted to go, and the bearers are whirled 
round, first one way and then another, and 
finally run back into the town. .SMiue one 
theu comes and Boothea aud coaxes the dead 
oiau to cotiaeut to bo earried to the gnva 
vard. The bearers etart off again in a ir ' ' 
but before they get out of town, they ore 
lently forced against some man's bouse, wh 
is nn accusation that the owner hut) bceu i 
sorr to hilt dcatji ; and he ia forthwith i 
ana subjected to the rod-wood ordeal. 
some delay, tlie corpse is depi>^te4l at thet 
place of burial, and the bearer; run and plu 
tbcmselves into the water. Tho femu' 
tivCH asBCmblc morning and evening toj 
for the dead, for oue month ; after wbia 
woah thcmselTGs, pat aside all the boda 
mouruing, and resume their wonted d 
The wives of tho dead man aro then div 
among the brothers of the deceased ; bat I 
they enter npou thtii new arran>;cmcDt they i 
permitted to go and visit their rcspecti| 
rami lies. 

masioNSi 

Many of tho cfforU hithorto made to intro 
duce the gospel into West A fi-ica, it is well 
known, have been singularly di^istrnns. The 
Umleti BrrVtrcn directed their attention to 1 
Gold Coast as early as 173(> ; but after i 
chI attempts to cstabliiih thenuctvcd at ' 
tiumborg, extending tlirough apt'riod of i 
forty years, and after eleven of their numb 
hml fallen by tho diseases incident to the 
male, they relini|uiahed the undertAkii^ 
impracticable and hopeless. In 179r» tTi 
missionaries were scat to Sierra i^eonc by I 
Kugli^h Bapiift Missionary Society ; but, o« ' 
to tlie iudi-4cretiou of one aod the ill-health l 
the other, tlic enterprise was ubandooed. 
ihe following year three aocieties, the Scottii 
Missionary xSocietH, the London MtKvimnry 
ciety, and the Glasgow Missionary Socutji 
made a joint cflijrt to estttbltsh a mission uat ^, 
the Foulalis ; but this plan ir&a defettted by ' 
tlic combined agency of disease and diescnsion ; 
aud the only one of six luborers who promts 
to accomplish any thin", ivaa emelly mur' 
Two years later (nyf) tho trla^ow 
ary Society attempted to introduce tho | 
anion;; the Timnehs, and sent out two i 
nriea for tliiw purpose ; but Ihey were ^ievoiuly 
di»inpointod in the eharueter of their agents. 
And even Uiose societies which have been able 
to maintain their position till tbc present time, 
have su^ed frt-queutly and wverely frc»uj tho 
loffi of valued mi.«ionariei>. The hupe may be 
iiidulgfd, however, that a Ix^lter aeuuaintano 
with the diseases of West Afrlea will oaoRC> 
diminution in the number of deatlirt. The 



AFRICA, WESTHRy. 



65 



I'PiK'ficial. It 

J. i-t.llmt a rftsi- 

rvp" --nd maiintaios of the io- 

•wiil iii\tivi'Iy hvii frimi donprr. 

t TriateTrr may lie thf obstudi-s, the gosiwl 

Pwi tt^ »Ti*-n.t( to ftil [tarts of Africa, in obo- 

i^r- -iviour's Inst mmmaml ; and we 

OftT .wrselvea with the hope that 

'IUbi'^tiii >u3ll soon stretch out htrr haod^ 

r«rnKn Musiokart Soctett.— This society 

at nigdooaries to the Sumo criantry in 1804 ; 

Wt 000 of them left th? sonriiT. and the othfr, 

Mr. Rmno*, irmoioM as rharlain at Sierra 

Lmie. In 1 BOG, Mt-sn^. llrcU-". hur ami Prafw, 

•tiJi Mr R»fm(T. wi*nt to the Susoo coantry, 

Md Oft with a friendly reception from several 

!■; md a trader named Curtis gave Wr. 

r * house and garden, in a pleaeant lo 

, on condition that he wonid tnacb his 

ddMrnt. Mcssnt. Bn-tpcher and Pnuw built 

tlnne si another tovn called Fanfcimania, 

Mttt-np the country. Soon after, Mr. Pnusso 

^ T^l*i ilation was reinforced in 1809, by 

■vl of Messrs. Barnttt and Wcnzcl ; 

rianwtt soon aft^T died of fever. 

nog that the slave trade had Pierted 

k.u inflnencc upon tha adults that there 

I BO hope of doiDf! them an? good, they did 

M sHcttpt <o prrarh, but ooofincd their f^orta 

toftpcJi'^' erroneoMly limitinp the 

mmr oi : Komc of the ebildreD 

Wn aB*icif.«l ir"Tn slavery, and others tiwy 

llWfcii In 1810. Mr. Bretacher hi«l tliirty 

fan m a adtool-house, which be had hriitl ; 

ad Ma Renoer had a school of twcnty- 

! tifH prb, all n>.^tly dressed in frocks and 

■^atadu with their n\vn handi*. But they 

(Am much struileued. At one ttme, 

[ttif eoald oot oven buy a ba;<ket of rice, and 

^^ had Dot provisions for a fortnight. Bui 

, a chief ahotit -lO milea distant, who 

[keen «dncated in Eut^Iand, l^in^ aprtlicd 

1 to thresh two tons of rice for tnem, 

kttriac them fo nay when they could, agsnring 

ftoM vnl be looked more to the cood object 

(hf kad In view than to tha monev. But 

tkrvnet vith much oppositioo from the slavo 

Iniks*, who feared the efiect of Chriwlinuizinjr 

_1l»aBCivt«. 'H- '3 tlu'ir iuhuinau traffic, which 

Is iii^ ioEucnce on tbe peo- 

thr- 'king gain of the sonb as 

f roen. 

iier visited England, and 
aiag ■Mil, li;,-: irifu and seven other per- 
I ahipwreck^l with the b^m of $13,000 
of "rton ^ A WW stAlion was now com- 
■Mcfd on (he Rto Jkmhid, calleil Gainbier, 
md atui had Una recently estoljlished on the 

At Cm»f4lhf> * ehnreh had been ereetcd, and 
m tb<» "lb i"'f Atjffa*!. 1^15. 50 children wore 
But by th».-arrivalof a slaver.euTy 
tkrown into confusion, the miasEoD 
5 



premi-ten, !icbool*house, and cbnrcb at Baabia 
were burnt, and the ml°3ionariQa compcltod to 
leave, i<avin<r nothiug but a flingle trunk and a 
Ivd, Mni. Meisner being taken into the fleld, i 
^m a sick bed, in n blanket. Other indigo 
nities were hi^oped upon ihc miasioiinriiM, and 
tliey were threatened with death. They, how- 
ever, e-waped to Canoffce. 

On the 13th of February. 1815, Rev. J. 0. 
8p«.TTbacker and wife, and four other persons 
arrived as a reinforcemont; but Mr. S. wa.«i 
removed by dtmth wwn after bin arrivftl, and 
several other missionaries fell victims to the 
yellow fever. 

In January. IBlfi, Rev. Eilwanl Bickenttcth, 
secretary of the society, visited the mission ; 
and in view of the n'pented firoft. and violent 
opposition of the people, he directed the stjition 
at Basliia to bt^ abandoned. He ako brought 
about a ebangi} of policy in the mii^iun ; re- 
minding the missionaries that their great 
boBincsBTas to preach the }r'i5[)el. and itidiicing 
them to make the attempt. Bui in confuv 
quencc of the continued hiiatility of the dcalera 
in human flwh, the stations among the Susoos 
and the Bultoras were both broken up, and the 
mis^inmiriea and most of their pupils retired 
within the colony. 

After the abolition of the slave trade, a 
great number of negroes with hundreds of 
children, were reacuc<l from slave shiptt, and 
f^cttled in different parts of the country, and 
fed and clothed at the expen.sc of the govern- 
Hient. To provide for these children, the 
Church Missionary Society obtained a graut 
of land at Ijoicester Mountain, and eroded the 
necoiwary buildings fnr what was called the 
" Christian li\stiluUon." This was afterwards 
changed into a port of college, where a su- 
{>crior education might be given to the most 
promiBing youths, to qualify them to labor aa 
miasiDoarics, or fo fill importaut stations in 
the Colony. Some years afterwards, the e»* 
tabUahment was removed to Regent's Town, 
and sttbflequentlv to Fourah Bay. The mispion- 
oriea also estab^i-^hed school.^ for the childroji 
of the reeaptnrei] slaves, in their different vil- 
lages, in wnich they were coortenancod and 
assisted by the government. The preaching 
of tbc gospel was also commenced among the 
adults, and in many instances crowned with 
great Buocees. 

When those people were brought togotto 
at Regent's Town, in 1813, they were in amort 
deplorable condition. In 1816, about 1100 
congregated at that place, from almost everv 
trilw in that part of the continent. A church 
bod been erected, and much improvement made 
in their condition. lo Jnni", of that year, Mr. 
Johnson was appointed to the care of R<'giTit'» 
Town ; but the aspect of things appearC"! di&- 
c'ouraging. Xotivcs of 22 different nntiomi 
were collected together, mostly taken from the 
holds of 3lavi>Bhi|)s. They were in a state of 
continual hostility, with oo means of comfflti- 



«6 



AFRXCA. WC8TSUN. 



fttcaliiig wtUi each other, bttt n little broken 
Eniifruth. When clothing; wns jfiTyu tlioiii, tl»j 
woulil 8cU it, or tbrow it away. None of tbem 
lived iu ib« murriiMi state, but tlwy hcrfliHl 
togetlKT like bnitcs. From Um to twenty ot 
tbcm wfTO. crowdMi together in a single unt 
Huny of them wur« ghastly as ekolefeons, and 
tax or eight of thcra gometimes dial in a day. 
Oiily six chiltlam were born in a yeiu-. Super- 
fitiUuD tymnuiwd over their miad», i«»l Iht-re 
wofi little dtsiru for Jm-irucliou. Hardly tuiy 
htud wiut cuUiviited by thom. iriomt would live 
by tbemsulTes iu tho wiXKis, and othcfB sub- 
sisted by tliioving and ijlundLT. Many of them 
would prefer any kind of refuse meat to the 
nttons they recciired from Guvprnment. 

60 many ncgroo continued to arriro from 
tUre vesieto, Uiat Mr. Jobuson had to ifisue 
ntioiu twice a week for a tiiouBaod pi:rsou». 
fle was greatly tried with tholr indinv-rtince, 
■when he atteiiipled to jiivach Ohriit to them, 
and WU3 often on the point of giving np in dis- 
conragemcDt. Hut he rtoon b^an to see that 
his hibors were not iu vain. The people were 
beginning to improve in appeareoce and nuui- 
DCns. Thi'ir natural indolence begun to givu 
place to habits of laduatr}'. Those who bad 
lived in the woods came and asked for lotjj iti 
tl>e town, whiL-h was now regularly laid out iu 
filre<!ta, and built upon with avidity. The 
church, which origiually contained 500. was 
five timed cnlargi^, in the courac of a fow 
years. 

In the coarse of a year from tho Oommenoe- 
meot of Mr. Johnson's lubiirK an ostoniithing 
prtfgreas was made. One evening, when he wus 
praying, and was much cast down, a yoang 
man followed him and said, " Mw^sa, me want 
to speak about my heurL For aomc lime my 
heart bad too much. Wheu I lie down, or get 
Op, or eat or drink, me tliiuks about sins com- 
mitted in my own countn*, and since mo came 
to Regent'it Town ; and mo dont know what 
to do," Uc was pointed to the '■ Lamb of God. 
which taketh away the Bin of the world." 
The next week, several more came on the some 
errand. Ami from this time, the work of 
grace made progress. Youug persona were 
Men rcturing to the woods for prayi^r, uiid little 
groups aBsemblcd by moonlight to chaut the 
praises of the Bcdeemcr. both <Md and young 
appeared anxious to bo instructed in tho way 
of salvation, rojygamy, greeiprecs, and the 
worship of the devD, were uuiverwiily aban- 
doned. In April, IBIB, whea Mr. Johnson 
sailed for Euglaod, the Dumber of communi- 
cants was 263. All the people were decently 
clothed, and most of the females Imd learned to 
make their own apparel. About 400 couple:^ 
were married. Their heathen cusToms were 
kid aside ; and for a yi^ar bcforo Mr. J. left, 
not an oath Imd N-eii heard, nor a Holilary eiLie 
of dmnkeimoss witnewed by him. The schools 
OODlaiiied upwards of 500 schelars. and an 
equal number r^ularly attended church eve(7 



day, at morning and evening prayers; while 

the average attendance ut puldic worship «n 
the SabUth was from 1200 to 1300. 

At this time, the town contikinod 19 
made plain and level, with good roa«l 
the town. A large stone church rose in tLt: 
midst of the habitations; a government hooAf, 
pontonagc, hospital, school-bouses^ storcvhousM, 
u bridge of several arches, some uatiro h nil as. 
and other dwellings, all of stone, were finishul 
or in process of erection. UardeuH, ftnecd, 
were attached to every dwelling. All i)u- Liuil 
in the immediate neighborhood was niv 
tivation, producing a profufiou of vc-^ 
and fruits, and about 75 of the nativte 
learned various trades. 

The parting of the natives with Mr. Jobn 
was TciT affecting. Ilundrcds, of both ml. 
followed him five miles to Freetown, and 
his embarkatJon, said, ** Moaso, snimosc no '. 
tcr live here, we go with yon all tliu way, ) 
no feet more move ! " 

After his departure, a mortal sickness bn 
oat in the settlemont, which carried off 
of the pt.'Ople, aa well m st^eral of the devota 
friends and agents of tlte society. Mr. ~ 
helm look charge of the station, dnriug 
Johusou's absence. Ou the 31st of J ana 
1B20, Mr. Johnson arrived at Freetown, on. ] 
returu. The uewA of his arrival soon rea 
Brent's Town, eud a number of the 
cune down that night, and many more Stt 
mundng, and be says he never in his IHb T 
hands with so many persons in one day. 
Joy of tho people was beyond all boun& 
IHT2, liis wife rcturaed to Knglaod, in a [ech 
state of heollb ; and in 1823, he embarked lor 
Euglaod to meet her ; but on the way, W4 
eeiwd with a violent fever, of which he di| 

The society, at this time, hud Ktolious ; 
BiUkiirtt, Charlotte, Glouastvr, Kent, 
ffateriao, Wiiherforu, and Ynrk^ villages. oV I 
captured Africans ; in several of wbmh, thj 
efforts were crovmed with sacoes mmilor \ 
thut at Kegeut'a Town, particularly at Oil 
ccster, under Rev. Mr. During, wherB the wo 
of grace and the general improvement 
quite as rt-juarkoble. 

II1C mmmiitee of tho society attribute 
distiuguiiihcd succcBBof theae two mia^o 
under God, to their tender, afliK'tionatc 1 , 
They say that tho pareutal spirit is that whi 
is alone likely to InQuence a people in the < 
euraslnucua of the libernted Africans. 
magvstcrud spirit, which, in Its mildest act 
muit Etill tend to coercion and restraint, ' 
rc-ix:l uud slmt up the miods of men who bo 
known little of Euroiicaii^, but oh tyrants ; 
opprcasora.*' HJr Charles McCarthy, who ' 
ited them in 1821, fitat^:^ that &imc of " 
had '• ull llic apjjcurauL'o and rcgnlaritv of 
neatest Tillage m England, with a church^J 
school, and a commodious residcDco for 
missionaries and teachers, though in 1817 
had not been more than tbonght of." 



APBIGA, WESTERN. 



er^ 



HttHur Uiiii givcii a sketch of the earl; lu»> 
» <if l£i* nrittJoo, iu8t«u] or folioivin^ it in 
ihinnp Ujt' (ni«!cwduig thirty yeaint, we 
■bttD ^vt- a lopiral uotii» of Us }<eni;'ral pro- 
fra», with ttit: most promioeot point£ of inter- 
Mi, 4ovo to the present time. 

Bmoratt, for want of Labonrt. — For a num- 
ber oT ytmi% tlw WttUm experienced sad re- 
w uKJ la the l<MB of vaoT w its maet yalacd 
minrifmiirim By a mortal sicVaes prvvuling 
ia Siomi LcoDc,unU by disasU-n at wu, lu the 
Jififft tpBoe of ftrvdi or t'i;;ht month*', iu the 
afrif^ and atUDiner of m2:'{, t)u; iiioi-iftty lost 
■• kes tins (hartwn of it» friends oiid fctUow 
libqnn^ denn of whom were missioDaries 
m4 llMur viTca, aod amoDg them, Her. Mr. 
J«ha*oo, who died M sea, aa befun) stated, and 
Btv. Mf. Irorinjf aod Mrs. Duriuc^. who jms-- 
i^Ml, « wm sappofeii. by ahipwivck, the nsscl 
is «4ikh thqrauHd for Knglaad ocvcr having 
hecD iMvd o£ llie follnwing year, the mis- 
^n «tu rvioJbroed by the addition of aoren 
«pv l^vrr^ii ; but before the cIqmc of the next 
jar, an equal niimUv waa removed by death, 
•ad titfoe oUm!in rctamctl home. The fuUow- 
ia^ f9ar, mx rctnroi.-d home, and tlirce wen* 
ivawnd liy d«lb. And for several years, the 
l«B at bealth and the death of miai^ionaries 
wm OHK «ltoc(nff%7iDg. Xd some instAnccs, 
Ctim aDrtalitT eooid be traced to excesmvc 
Uhv, tnna after arriving in the country. I'ho 
weicCy Mipotnted a medical committee, who 
«iIi«qI mto an examination of the sutijcct. 
Md RMrted a precautionary plan, which was 
■Ji0in. wteh good elTiiwt, in jtucccoiHng years. 
YWt ahft admpted the rale of alluwing all their 
■iwiooaria to rirluni to KD<^[uDd once in n\x 
VMrtV hi onScr to recover from thi' debilitating 
'§Ktr of lh« climate. 
Ja II— urn lice of Uiie loa of laborer^ the 
fell* of ue nbniHi were throim into great 
JMtiHiioa. Regeat's Town wan. for two or 
I ymn after the death gf Mr. John«on, 
Me of a ni'i'Ii'nl rlervyniiin, and the at- 
ncv npou public womtiip on the Subbath 
W iUbn off tJ> ubfMit 260 ; and the Ohri:9tian 
iMiaKiofD. for want of instructors, was auite 
fcwTtiif In \H2f\. Mr. Bella ^tcr a deplora- 
, Ml arnffiDt nf tli<' ntate of thjugs at tfak ata- 
1^ and finiiliu' rcvcnra wore cxpcricnood at 
[iritar pUen, miMt of thu <<tations baring beea 
Imia the an of nutivi.' xs^i^^tanls, who had 
IAm yti aoqjoirod Ute iibility and e\ji<'ricnoe 
HMvy tor annmin'.; itiicb n^^[l^I}tJibllitir•l. 
'Rirr^ «a« u irtriiLTiJ fulling (»(f of ultenduocc 
H Mf interest in Di- 
if the. rriiiimunlcanta 
— u i«jw^ Aiiiulijut, tlu lugh tiufleriug some 
A^Ji ea of iiitiiraL The society made gceai 
to aqiftty tb« deficiency' of laboren ; 
>■ a fJiw, ihara wai no lock of colf-devo- 
'■ '■ " Lry eamliduti!*!, 

"breneh. But 
ir«w III irfiuitiiit- iivi-1 11,1' ;ip|talling. At 
^flk, boawwr, thii fright^il mortality in a 



meoearc closed ; and, as soon as the etatiooa 
were supplied with ni Lesion ories, tb^ be^n to | 
revive, and to advance with a stmdy progrovj 
which liiii* duitinued, with slight intumiptiotii, 
to the present time. 

i,'irf7« of ContuttioH icith Gotvrttmnit. — As 
in South Africa, so here, the couoection of the 
misnoos witli the Government, has proved a 
kHous evil. Although the Oorernmeot were 
inflocQCcd by the liindist intentioiu;. yet tbo 
counecliun proved a constant source of i^mbar- 
ratiameul. Ita relations to the Chnreh Misiion- 
ary .Society were two-fold : fir?t. in regard to 
the ministry ; and iseeond, in the moaagcmcni 
of education. In 1 H'Jil or I H24, an arrange- 
ment was made between the Society and Uie 
Ht'crctary of Stole for the Colonial Depart- 
mcnt, by which they were to take upon thcm- 
solvce tho pi-eparation awi support of nil the 
English clergymen of the colony, Euhjcct to 
the approval of the Secretary ; while the Gov- 
ornmcnt Eihould provide for the edncatioo of 
the iuhabitiuilt), m the country pan^hes, and 
erect houses of worship, and provide houf^cs 
and gardens for the residence of the dorgy- 
nicn :md teacbcni. 

Jn 1827, the Governor of the Colony ititKh 
daoed some new r^nlatloos, coDsiderahly of- 
fccting tho Socioty's proccediogB, as wdl oe ita 
relation to the government. The villag*3 of 
liberated Africans were formed into three divi- 
sions : The Rivxs Dibtrict, con^rinng. £» 
uy, Weiiington^ Allen Imcn, Haslm^ Water- 
Im and Calm<ml. all lying to the 8onth^■!ttst of 
Freetown ; tho CitirriLA,!- or Moiiktaix Dis- 
trict, on the eastern border of the colony, on 
tlte Bunce river, and the Timuck couutry ; tlio 
WusTgnx or Ska Dwtrht. coinpriping York, 
Ketit, and the Haimna.'i. Thia regulation waa 
approved by the Society. Another rcgoJatioa* 
which wan also approved, reliorod thcmissioD- 
oriea of the civil superintendence of the ed- 
tlcments ; this nRic« having been fougd bur- 
densome and ombamLssing to the mission. 

In AiigiiHt, 182<i, Gov. Campbell, thinking 
that he could place the education of the liVio- 
rated African children on a more ecX)nomical 
footing, and to give them early habitd of in- 
dustry, directed tliat the boys sbonid not be 
kept In achoijl beyond the age of ten or twelve 
years; after which, they afaonld be distributed 
among the liberated adults, to bo actively em- j 
ployed. The raiswioanrie« w(!ro released from" 
the charge of tlie schooU, except occasional 
injfpection, and natives were appointed to con- 
duct them. 

This arrangement greatly diminished the at- 
tcndaoce on the schools ; aod the missioiuu-ica 
afterwards finding that they cotild esort no 
boncAciol influence upon the schools, broke off 
all connection with them, and cstabliahed 
schools of their own. 

'riie m"t¥ionarira at Freetown gr(»tly de- 
plored the obstacles to the due performance of 
I their spiritual duties, which luul arisen out of 



68 



their connection with the GoTPmincot ; and 
cuutfostcd tb<?ir I'ircumstancfs unfavorably 
with those of the Wftjlpynna, who were not 
hampered wilh any such eonnection. 

The GovoriinitMit not huving riilQllcd thoir 
part (»f the arrangoniunt rrepL-cting the sup- 
port of religion, bv which they ajrrecd to fur- 
nish bouMV of ituulic worship and dwelliuj^ 
for the cler)r>% ifie society applied, iu 1846, for 
a termination of the Arrangement, which was 
affrvcil to ; and tht- (.Vmuiittc^; believed the 
(£aoge would facilttato the operatiuua of the 
Soeioty. 

Surra Leone, as a Surwr^ of Missionarie$ 
far the Jntertor. — The raissioimries regard tlie 
collection of persotw from so miuiy difl'ereut 
tribc!^ in tlu^ iiilerior, at .Sierra Ix<oue, as a pro- 
ridimtial Arrati};i-mi>nt for the supply of lanor- 
ors for the cvanjfolizatiou of Afriea ; and, with 
this in view, they have direettd their oflbrta 
both to tlie education of native helpcrB, and 
to the ucquiiiiliun of the lanfraages of the dif- 
ferent triU^ rnjmsenlcd In the colony. 

The work of reducing iht^e ianguageH lo 
writing was commenced as early aa ltl2y, and 
ha.-f Ufii ntfu.ilily prosecuUnl ever nnce. The 
souioty'e report for 1853 sava that sume pro- 
arevWi been made in this department during 
tm year. A Timueh Englisk DiHionari/ had 
Wn prepared by Mr. .Schleuker ; and the 
]{pistk' to the liomans hod been translated 
into that langungtt by Mr. Sehujid. Kev. 8. 
W. Koellu had completed biii grammar of tlie 
Vei and IJurnu laugitugta. lie has also pre- 
pared specimenn. coni4i.>!iiing of 'ZbO words and 
short BcmteQccs. tramilated into 200 difibrrait 
jMignagee or iliakxts. showing tlmt no fewer 
than 200 difiuruot oatioos, H^Kaking ISO differ 
ent laagnages, beBidtu numerous dialects of 
the Nime, have their reprcveotatives in Sierra 
Leoue. Tht*e tribes or nations lie along 4,000 
milea of coast, beginning from bej*on<l the 
Beaeg&l, in the north, to the Portuguese gettle- 
BWDUTsooth of the line, 'lliey extend in the 
interior through the whole cours*^ of the Niger, 
from itd »)urcuf iti i\n.' mountaing Itehlnd Sierra 
Loone to it>« estiinries, comprising Ttmbuctoo, 
the empcHnm of Afrir-an comiDerce, and the 
Tttst provinces itubdued by the Mohanimedun 
FoiUahs, besides uunierou? »mall tribe*. And 
even southcri) Africa has aim iln representa- 
tives. There an? thow! in Sierra Leooe who 
can tell of their native towit» iu that part of 
tbcsoathern continent which has been hitherto 
a pa'feet biuuk ou the mape, which require a 
day or mure to (mvu from one end to the other. 
Tbey also tcit of broad and deep rivcr^ of na- 
tions of tall and strongly-built warrjiirs, of sav- 
ago caDnibala, and of iM>accable and gcnertms 
nomadic hunters. " Their breastji heave with 
emotion when a friendly inquiry is mode re- 
specting their fatherlan'd, aurl appeal in fervid 
Ungnage and moving elotiueutv m ihoee who 
possess the beat gift of God to a fallejj worUL" 

The Africans generally entertain a strong 




AFBICA, WESTERN. 



ft^^ion for their native land ; aod wB 
Christianized they manifest an earnest defire 
that their own countrymen shonld jnrtakc oT 
the same benefits. T£e evangelirjition aodfl^ 
ucatioD of tliese liberated Africans will, tbo^ 
fore, fiintish the agency required to carry the 
goiipel to the interior. Anu it bas boen ascer- 
tained that the ^o$pet _ message is readily re- 
ceived from their upa by th^r coimtiyinea. 
In ft numlier of tours to the interior, under- 
taken by the missionaries, they hove dihcoverri 
a dcjuro, for the gospel, and a willinffiieitf 
to listen to it, from their friends, who hanP 
learned it in the colony. It appearF, also, thai 
the fact of thoHe friends having been litieratcdi 

Ctiided for and educated, by the I-Inglisht 
i created a favorable impreaaion upon the 
native tribes and prepared them to receive tJiA 
missionaries with open arms. In view of this 
.state of thingit, much progress has been made 
in ruluciog the different langnogcs of the in* 
terior to writing, and prepariog the way fbr 
future mi^ioQurv operations. 

Kdwation. — l^choola have been maJntaioed 
at all the stations, IVom the cumntencement. 
And the high school, already noticed, has 
been suHloineil with various dugrvca of cS- 
cicncy, until tlie ^iresent lime, A few vcotb 
ago, estcnsive buildings were erected, and it 
now holds tlic relation of a college to the oth- 
er educational institutions of the colony, llp- 
ligioua instruction is made prominent in all the 
otudits uiid exercises. The repurt of the Prin 
cipal, Kev. B. Jones, for the year Ih'v 
seats on iutcrcsting view of the lul ^ . 
character of tlie stndics prosecuted by Ui< -tu 
deuts, and the increasing imp«.>rtanee of th« 
iostitutiou. During iSa yew two of the 
students were sent to the Toruba mision, and 
tlirec appointed to labor in the colony. 
number remaining at the close of the 
was 17. 

In lt$43, a grammar school was 
as an interm«liatc step between the'vilb 
schools and the Christian Institution. In ' 
school it was intended to give a sound rtdigia 
and general education to boys and youths 1 ' 
have received some previous training in 
lower schools ; and those who give pr 
of suitable dispositions and qual id cations, wj 
be odmitteii into the Christian lostitatid 
The n.tj>-.rl of tlus sciiool for 1852, 
highly satisfactory. The number of pop 
was 73. I 

A liigh school for females bas also boa i 
tablished, wbieh in 1852 wad in a floarii" 
condition, containing 26 pupils, of whom 
were bi>iirdeni, and in their report for 
year, the directors of the societv say _ 
their vilhige schools present a pecnliarly bo 
fu* character. 

Native Af^tncu. — It has been a leading i 
jcct witb the tfwiety, from the first, to 
up a luiti^-e agency. As early as 1820, 1 
young men, while pursuing their stodioi, - 



AFRICA, WESTERS. 



69 



I cd Ibetr c->iintrm*"n e\-cnnwB Ktti SandnTe. to 
boKh tb> ' I : in 1822. buth of them 

char. ■'fi3. ami wore doing well. 

tlit truiig porUxl ollmlpil to, when Ihc 
w»s doirt-ived of 5u many of it* mi-i- 
Iiy (^-.vrh, many of lie stufions and 
ChrijJt/in Ijixtitiltum, were Iffl wholly 
chore)! of iiallvrs. In 1K2T, llit? t_!oni- 
iltcc trira tbc expcrinicnt of tducutiiifr two 
in vontha ia KuglonJ, under the care of 
elrrpyman. 

B»:t HI 1 ^29, the misdoDiLrieti uxprcsB tlicir 

' tho nniiirrriusdifffliipcintniciils 

1 met with in their p-xpoetatiouii 

up t-fficieiit nulivu asib^unta ; oiid 

_ tinie. K correspundvnci* wiis opt'in-d with 

EiriKopftl church in ihe United ^^UlUs, 

witi Use U«sii:ii of pr(*cnrini; pcrsoua of color 

■^ ft [<> I ^38. the CommUtw 

VRvect a 1 ^ .;.-|tcct ofthi* snV»je<^t. 

YWi^ oy that the imiiro ftssistniitfl. procet-^lina 
WUtfUily from lhi> laslitution ut Foumh Buy. 
Bcmuie iu rffH-icncv. In 1844, they say ihv 
BtBi yixt of n->uehitiff tlie point ut wllicli tliey 
Bn« aU mloD^ Bimc<I in tnU mutter mi8 never 
Wurci •n rncouru^iup. Some of ihcm wt-rc 
fbsBil •.lOAiifiiNl to go forth to difiout stationi; 
ia ibe iottrior, with the entire coufiJcur^? of 
Ife* mMUOturicA. One of thorn nannHi Samtuf 
Orwrtfar, ww torn from bis country and kin- 
A«d ia mHt life, and coaiicrncfj to the hold r>f 
» Fortaincse slaver ; rescued by a Briluih croi- 
iw; gnamrr;.'.! Intu ?>i(Tr« Uf)iie, where he 
iwwml ' ■Miuing, first in n villafre 

Kfcfv! I I:i1hc FourahBaylnsti- 

W Uiefnctory and ct:>n- 

•P ; lojtosstes* <|uu!ilieii- 

tioKB iut ;!-- utiiii-trv. Ii< ■.v:i'- -i-tu to Kuffliiiut, 
i^e he onmplotf^I hi-^ .iliu-iri-.n At th^ Soci- 
■j lortlltttion in 1 .is aft<T- 

U mdaineA by tit »\ivi, and 

•TJt try tht' Society in ^-^n m. i/^nt wilh lilc 

la of hia beint; employed as u riiuwiotiji- 

to the V .■-■.I." r-.rintry, of which he was a 

titin-. ' , > other iiatjvu Africans, 

VrsTv. S i . ^^1 ..Ijtthcwa, were ordained by 

Bb>hup of Londol^ and smt out by the 

fa tV report for Ifl.'ia, the Coinmittoc ray, 

ikit inii'^ of the stations formerly under t^e 

on rtf naroppnn niiK<i'>nari<i<. have now been 

^kcnl ia chari?!^ nf imtiv(:s, with nrf^iucional 

noniprao wpcrn ! The whole of the 

XcNBEun dutri i. for the lost year, 

■ -*- ''^ - -I ,. of one Knropean 

li ; lip its chiinictt-r for 

i!ie mcarBi of njaooJ 

■n\\ IxMHK- in 1852,' 

'i-d and nrofiched in 

•- and that bis Bc^ 

-tirir and profil«hIii 

I .'.TO tliere was 

, I ion, he hfulrcv 

I lo bis luUvu loutfuuff^-, and thus render- 



ed Ooepcl tratli clear aud plain to their nndcr- 
standingA. 

Tratislations. — It is an intcreHlinfr fact that 
the work of tr»u»lation of the Seriplijrr> into 
the Riilloni lan[pinfl;e, was couimeiweil pre- 
vious to the year 1&18. by a native. Mr. Georjre 
C'aulki-r, a duvf at the Plantain lslaad>. In 
1h20, he luul *:oni|ileli*d the ImhjIc nf Ucncaia, 
aud woii; proccetiiiit' nith the IValms and New] 
Testament, ile hud al:so truoslat».-d tht Pr.iycrl 
Book. Ho be)ouir» to one of the principaij 
families in Bbcrbro, aud was educated in Enff' 
land. 

In Ifl37, arrangomoats were mode for carry- 
ing ou the work of translntioo with vigor, and 
iKirliotia of .Scripture and el'inciiliiry works 
Itarc been tranxlatiH). by difilu-ent mJKMionurit.'^ 
into the TttfitKii, IIotuMi, yomha. antl Swta ' 
lanpnagea, aiul in Komc of them the Liturgy.] 
Tlmai--* Ihe way nrejnirinjrfur liio moreffliciunt' 
prosecution of the missionary Wurk in the lU- 
tcrior. 

Ciutrader and Abiiittf of the N^iva. — 
Iti'v. Mr. During sayft, "nix years' experience 
baa taught me that Africans can It-arn any 
thing. I have seen them rise from the chains 
of tCo slave dealer, to become tndostrioug men 
and women, faithful sabjectii, pioim Chri^liand* 
affectionate huiibanda aud wivtv, temler fathers ■ 
and mothers, and peaccablt- neighbor!*." Hut 
cautions arc given against elevating them loo 
suddenly, us in this way they nsa tm high in 
thi'ir tttimation of themnelv(», tlmt they provo 
Uiu'1^8 in tliu end. 

CtiiUfoT Iiuttruction. — The calln for iiwtntc- 
tion from every ijuarter. art; beyond the means 
of the soeit'ly to supply ; aud pctitionfl comei 
in from the inhabitants of the villoget. and 
from distant triVx*, pleiuling earnwtly for mid- 
sioiiaricH. One of luc newly arrival missiouap 
rioa relates that, on his way from Freolown to 
tiloaocfiter, thcnv were manv childrvn ou tho 
rnad, who, whiMi llicy saw Iiim as he pu*j«l, 
said ouc to another, " New white man — nt-.w 
Mission ! " and all c:ccla)mcd, " Tqakk Guu ! " 

Missionary Tours. — The mifisionarics have 
Iwen, for a nambtjr of yearif, in th*.^ ^iractioc of 
making tuunt among the neighboring tribce, 
and into the interiur, bir the pur]K»e of ex* 
ploring the country, and afwxTtaining whortt 
openings exist for niiiuinuary labor. In ntoat 
CBMB, ibcy find tlic people ready to listen wilh 
ea^ernem to the pretu'hing of the lltMpcl, and 
the cbiefm de^irouK (tf receiving mispionnrics, 
Their jonmalti, however, furuifh many (wiirifid 
proofs of the BuBerings fntailed on the intoriur 
of Africa, by the f",>reigii ^bve trade. Tho 
petty warfare, wUii;Ii is larricdon between the 
(hiL-fe, with all its attendant cruellies, may 
almost always Ik.* traced to that cauiie. 

At the e'Ueo of 1H48, ('aplaiu Forbes, of 
lh[! KnglUli chip " Bonetta," informed the 
miisiouarii* that, near Cajjc Mount, be Imd 
met with individuabj of an AlVieuu tribe, 
which pofiMBSod a writtoa Iftngaof^o. And ihal 



70 



JBBOiA. WKRBK. 




ktMbrawktvUli himmmtfl tbur books. 
■riftiBaainoaMUrMdtfaeai. Thitcrcsled 
• flfdjr litanit at diem Uooe, m it kad 
ktm ftMgwBj tmaUA and beUeFod that, 
MM^ on haodnil aad fiflv lamagis of 
Afrin, M( MS had bam nM faj UieDAdni 
l> a wTJtim lamayr la the hope tbat tUi 
Jaimiij ■urtt be iBifnnreJ to the ftirtlieraace 
ortbeU«^pc£ Mr. lUdkwaaiaiflMdiateljMnt 
br^ the local committee at Skrrm i«ODe^ to 
-mit the tribe, and ioTeM^ate the drconi- 
ilaaeai raqiecthig the hngnage. He made 
the toor in »t«oat foor ioooUm, at tbo ccst of 
■aeh audcrisg from priTatiuu &im1 ill&cek. lie 
dfaeOTCfed tlmt the art of vriting was of re> 
enc inroitiucu and coafiued to the nogle tribe 
of y«tr on the coaaL The writing is syllabic, 
ahoat two hundred character! rwreeeuting all 
the ^Ikldet izt the laaipia^ Mr. K. foood 
the iufcotor, who lived abuui Lwt-ulj miles in 
the interior. He wai a mui ahoul iuriy jream 
of ^c. of gniii iutclUgence and much religioas 
feeling, liu had Ivarned the Boman alphabet, 
from an American mi«maiy, when a culd. He 
ataled that, after be wtt grown op, and about 
iixleca vean iweviooii to Mr. K.'i rtiut, he ro- 
aaived the firrt immahe to cxprcm hii langnagc 
in writinr bxira a dream. Ue told the dtoun to 
a few of nia coupamuns, who assisted him to 
invent the characten, aud to procure, through 
the Urvt of ihe chief of his iribe, the means 
pf atablishing Kchoob!, and teaching the peo- 
ple. But war soon broke out, the town was 
Mtroved bv fire, the tribe doprcaaed and di»- 
poraei£ and iJict had hod no schootB since. 
Yet, in the chief town, all tbc ^rown up peo- 
ple were able to read, and in all tbii towui, 
thoTf were some who could read. They hwl a 
considt'ralile uutulKTof IkwIu, on ^iirioafi aab- 
Jsetii : but tbc rdi^ifm found in thum was 
mainly MoluunuH-diui. In cowioquence uf this 
npon, it was determined, ni soon as the way 
AoDld be opened, to establish a miflsiou among 
tfao Vei triiie. 

General Improoanent. — 'l*be gvner&l improTC- 
ment uf ibe natives, and of the country m a 
oouM*riucnce, lias, from the lieginuiiig, steadily 
kept jiaec with the prtftpvrily uf thu mL«ion. 

Ill 1H21, Mr. Juhiii^>u writes thai tbc gen- 
Uorricii of Fixttown were eo fully convinced 
of tlu! giMMl cfTfcta prudncE^d by tlic preaching 
of the goepcl, that they publicty coulciscd that, 
above all other iustitnttuns, tht mtsaion bnd 
proved th« moat bwndicial to Africa, and 
at^knowhttlged that ihi; (;;as]H>.] wiu4 Uh; only 
efficient means uf ciriliziug tbc heathen. The 
aome year, the cxperiini-ni was tried of calling 
tht' uativett from the (Jhrinliun villogo to bcttc 
on jnrioi at the colotiiat M^ioiia; and ilie re- 
sult wiu BO satitiCaetory, that iho practice was 
conlinuttl : and ibe ehief-juBtiw olwrvcd timt, 
ten years before, when the pitpiilatioa wusonly 
4AKH), Uicn; were forty canes on the calendar 
(br Iriul. while nL that time, with a popolation 
of 10,000. iheru were only tilx, and uul a single 



case from snj Tillage that was m4 
Bi^eriateadeuoe of a nimisaaffflr a 

nmster. 

n< Wgrk ^ G tmt . - Fi cw tikc thw i 
the tmth bena to be faiilj ■admatoaill 
iheae peopls^ue iRiric of dniaa ^aee SB fti 
hearts has been aocioed hj tha msBBboaariei, b 
, their rcfiorlL bva jvar to jeac Mr. 
{ writes from Kent, in ld26 1 " Siace the Ufia- 
lODg 0C last aionth, there has arisca amoqg d|| 
inhabitants of this cettiexneat Dot oaJji 
ingaiUT the bread of life, bat alan, a 1 
wed inquiry alter the war of aalis 
instead of being anaojed, as 
settling daily paUveis^ aad i 
school childteD at fught, I an now 
with diflenmt pcwer-aKetimp ia tT 
and by the scoooHzhildren smgiiy 
and before day-break in the taoraia^^ 
lo bat a specimen of the notkcA, which freqiwltf- 
ly occttT in tbo ionmals of the nuarionuie^ 
erincing the specml jmaeaoe of the Holy Sju^* ' 
in awcdcening, conrmcing, and coDvcniug 
people, so recently tamed from the moit < 
basing beathexusm. 

ChartuUr <if Ctmwrfs.— The fruits of divij 
grace are manifest in the character of the i 
verts. Tbc committee, speaking of 
coDulE g)vi!u uf them by Mr. Johneoo, I 
this grucitnu influence ia mamftst ia^ 
acknuwKvI^'uicut uf the hand of I'n^viil 
in bringing thein from their own ccuiiLry; 
the mnnnrr in which convictions uf aiu ue 
awakened or dec-pcncd: in the conflicts of the 
Christiatt luinil ; in tbeir sense of ibe divine 
forbcanuico and mcrey : in a watehful jenlo 
over the Mtatc uf their hearts ; in tlicir failb i 
patience under afflictiune ; ami in their cull 
ration uf duuiestic hiuipin»». 

Anil, in regard to tncir feelings and < 
toward c&ch other, Mr«. Jestr writes. **! 
dwell in love, aud live a life of prayer _ 
praise, to llim who loved them, ana gave hu 
self for them. The hearts of many of the 
soem to be full of the lore of ChriiNt the vhd 
day ; and when merry, they sing Ps 
Such rocal rao^c ruauunda from atl ports i 
the town. A dispute ia seldom known amoi] 
them. Their beucvolence wu CBpccially m 
ilestcd, on the arrival of new cargoes of iib 
atcd African.s taken from the slavt; 
Formerly, their chief intcreel was, to 
whether any of their reluti\-c8 were ama 
them. Hut after the love of liod entered Ih 
hearts, titer wuuUl rush to the landing, and 
seizing the "poor, famished creatures, bear ilicui 
ofl'on their shouhiere to their own dwcllii 
aud take care of them as tenderly as il (Iilv 
bod been their own ueivr rebiiona, lliey uliiO 
attended praycr-mectiogs, took part in the 
excrciiies, anil generally maintaincil T 
worship. Mr. Norman writes from K< 
Town, m 1821 : '■ A (tpirit of pniyer ie |' .; i 
out on the poople in a remarkaljle niiuiiia ; 
BO that we tuid, aa we pass throujrh the sirtt;i 




.Mg 



AFRICA, WESTERN. 



n 



a retoralng ftvm crrninp t^honl, that almost 

fmr li.HUB IB l>ccome a boost* of prayer" 

lohnsun (Jitm. (lie samcji'ur, " Fumily 

- f. observwl by nil the cwmmnDlcaiits, 

(by MiBC who have uot yet been lidmittcd 

"^ 1 LofilV Xnblc, ia their rwpectivL* hoaicR." 

Bly THUS, or more, aftw this, Bev. J. 

tair. iti «i«'*kini; of thr i^hamrter of some 

' << hatl cmignitMl to Jaraai- 

! ^, jiuy» : " Thev can read 

»'.,-•, '•<,., iiuik-3 and femufos. They 

runt' hiHint n duy, aod are most twnsripu* 

; in tht- <Ii«f horge <if their datiea. In order 

[fed tiiuL- lij L-ulUvate thoir own rroundB, 

crmiratiri'vi their labor at 6 A. M. ; ftod 

ifC nrly kR they ^ to work, Ihvy DCTer leave 

■■c without first collectively ainping^ a hj-mn. 

1 oAring^ up a pniyer fur proteclioii and 

'%nrt> dt'fins;^ the day ; and they never re- 

iiiDSr, wiLhoat doing the same" 

;h Is girictly observod by the 

1119, and to a grtsit extojit, by 

iierally, who have come under 

■iction ; thoagh at eome places, 

cuniplaiul or a relapM, id this 

!;,<,,l that, in 1845 two cap- 

ta 1 at aviltogeof aboatfiOO 

hi. ..'1 missionary or catechist 

MiM, in ordnr t^i nurehase poultry ; bnt the 

|aq4B woold not bcU on tlic Lurtl's <lAy. 1*he 

lank of Abbei>katji ^ a loof! duitaneo to 

—■In I, and travel iu liu^e pArticf) for protoo- 

flonwatait kidnappers. An interval <if sevcn- 

iMQ oyi dftpera between one nmrki-t day and 

m/lhct: M that if they 1o^ the dav.'tber 

avtwiit ff>r onrithcr. Ami yet, uotwitlistHnd- 

^tiw» .liir. -,.!.; , .1... fituvert* dererminoii 

»r ith, thon.Gfb they ran 

Uh .J :_ I in Email companies 

or. 'Ijcir market day. 

I of the misfriooarieB abound in 

asuuuta 'if ibd expreflBion of pious fcding, on 
A> pan of the natiTCB. coucbM in simple lan- 
na^ yeL c n rfc ap onding with the experience 
m tHK GIffiftiaaB in all attcR ; also, m a va- 
^blf flf p«nonal narrative uf thrilling interest, 
■dfaf pnacefal atiil hapjiy di?athfl ; which, how- 
wer '- " - ■' '• t" - ua to give in detail. 

Oft- I ■ at Kent, who hod 

hs3« »., ., .( »,...!n!d and country in 

Mdbond, and suffered threat hanhhipi on 
%mri the ttare fhips, deolun''l that his com- 
fMittin for tf)o man who kidtiappcil him wad 
m r^:;t \TiA hut desire for his salvation bo 
9tr . \Ka thinking of it, be crnld not 

4n 

C-K'^. ■ — Charch dim-iplino is 

alriellv I , ill th«; uutivc chtirrhi'H of 

ft»i^iri' IjKtiie. Any pidpiihlc in- 

«Oi»a»trii -ncil member of the church 

haotia-*! wij'. ' -md, if not corrected, 

lb» {vno* i* t [ii the liRt of uiem- 

)icr« Tl,l, .. U ..M.ii miulc the 

»■ nt 

to h I ' t ! I rt* 



14 a '* Jwekfilidors' claw." who nre under instnio- 
tioQ and probation, prcviuun to their re-udmis- 
sion. 

Ranaining SuperMitionx. — With a people ao 
recently raie^ from the lowest depths of sapcr- 
Rtitinn, it is not snrpriding to find theui souks 
times retnrning to their former habitj^ or r*- 
taininj?. in their i^uoranco, pome of their uld 
ideas. Amoni^ the I htnga earliest BSBOciata^, 
with the An-ican mind, U^ a disposition to 1 
in charms, or ip-etgrea,ns th^ call them. One ' 
miffilonory saya he believes aii the iiihahitanlA 
of the colony would press to the Iwipli.smal 
font, if they might be allowed to rt^g.inl it 
merely as the &&tf o/* u// rrmgnati and com- 
municonl^ have been found wearing their grca-i 
grees at the communion table. Yet. iIua is notj 
to \k wondered at, when we consider that tbsi 
Himc thing is encouraged, in a different fora* ' 
by the greater portion of nominal Olirietiani, 
and evcu by some Protcatants. 

Dtnrt for Oie Word of Goti, — Mr. Killing, 
says, **Ab boou as the naU\-eH can pfit lcUgcij| 
together to form sjlJablce, and syllables to form 
words, they ore utixioua to get n Bibio ; and, 
If attending our jplacee of wor)>hip, a Prayor 
Book alio. Nor is it from iiktc curiosity thotl 
they desire it. Many, I am sure, u^e them i^l 
private as wetl as in church ; and when osaen^l 
bletl around their family altar, and by the ui$t\ 
of tlic sick, and on their visits t4> their heol^oQ'j 
countrymen." During the eight vcars oodiiwl 
May, ]t«38, 2860 copies of the Smptons had 
been issned, and most of them paid for. In 
1846, Mr. Bcale writes : * He^-vu yeara ago, » 
large stock of Hnriptures was always on hand ; 
but latterly, aa fast as tiiey have arrivrtl. tbflf 
have been parchosed by eager applicoota. Thiij 
latit two shipmeots were huled by the poofil* 
with peculiar jov. They eouipletely iMtmt my 
house, and within a fortnight after each arrw 
val. nearly the whole of the smaller Biblsi^ ^ 
1500 in number, wtjru exhausted." 

MiKionary Spinl. — ^The native Obrisfciang] 
manifest an earnest desire to impart the word.! 
of life to their destitate eonntJTmea; and iaj 
order to cultivate this qdrit, the miMOonariafla 1 
Hi an early period, organized miKsionary i 
ciationa \\i the stolioiis, and took up n^galar 
coutributioas. ThD=v wxititiea hold auiuro^- 
mrj mntinga, mi which addrcean nro nuidv 1 , 
the natiTca, as well as by the inittiooaril&| 
Collections, reniectftble in amount, have bco^ , 
rc{)orlcd from men wuuBariGs every year. !■ } 
1851, the amount collected at one glation was 
£123 Cis. 8d. Thi9 amount was kivkd by 13i 
rotnmunlcants and fifty candidates, including 
£;«) 5*. lid, from 150 children in school. 

Ttmjteh {or Ttmmanet) jtfwwn.— In the an- 
tnmn of LB40, an expedition was scut into the 
Timneb country, ami it was ascertained thai a 
favorable opening existed for preaching Un] 
Gospel ; .■Mid Her. 0. F. Scblcnker and ] 
N". Denton and W. C Thomj»son were set 
apart for the work, and eiitensd upon thoir 



n 



AFRICA, WESTERN. 



Itbom The locution fixed apou for the mistioD 
vu Port Lokkoh. {vfud* ste.) The miitsiuunries 
devoU*d tbemiM>lv(?» til tron!ilutii)u.s,K(;Hc>i>tH.ttn(l 
pruiotiing die (ioHpel ; but at the lalciit dales 
nuUiiitg of Emecial iutcrcst bod occurred. Tfac 
peoplo nrc MohommcdaDS ; ami " that purui- 
cinus Hystoin," Bays Mr. Si-liutUI, '-appcare to 
prft^oiit a mneit ronniUuhlc barriiT against tht- 
rccoptiori of Chri*!tian truth." The station is 
now under the char^ of a native teacbur, and 
Mr. Scluuid vt^il^ it oiil*o a ({uart^T, io^Kcts 
the iK'hool. and pruu-h<»: to tliu uuLivus. 

Y&i'vha Mmsioii.— Wc have already alluded 
to the mrlv history and ordtoatiun of Rev. 
Hamiiel Cmn-Uier. a imtive African. Ou thf; 
3d of December. Ifi43, Mr. Crowther preached 
in English, his firt^t germun in Africa, in the 
Mii^iuu church. Freetown, which excited prcat 
iutunst On tin; Utb of January fuUowiu^', he 
mtobliitbed a serrico at the Hume pluix; in Vo- 
nba, bis nativv laoguiuro. Tbt* uuvdty of thu 
oocasion broaght together a lorgu number of 
people, YonibnK, Ibos, Calnbas, ic The ser- 
Ticc was continued, Mr. T. King ofliciatiug 
afl^jr Mr. CVowthcr left 

For a coiu^idcmblo time previous, tlicre hud 
been a muvL-mcnt aniuuf^ the Hberated Afri- 
cans of the Voruba tribe, towards their native 
land. For the ]>urpose of makiHg orniufrt-- 
loents to enable tiiem to carry the Grospcl with 
tbtin, Mr- Towuseiid visiliid iJieir aionU-y, 
arriving in Jaooar^. J843, at Abbeokuta, 
where be met the chief, Bodoke, who apjicared 
friendly, ejiprcssed a deairc for the return of 
his people, and for mi.s;dionariija to accompany 
them ; and wrote a iclter to the Governor of 
Sierra Leoni*, expressing his tlianks to the 
Britiiih Gnvernmcnt for what it hud done i'ur 
hu people, and his detormiuation to supjirciis 
the slave-trade in his coanti^. Mr. Townsond 
found many tiberated Afi-icous from Sierra 
licoue, at Abbeokuta; and ho describes some 
very aflecUng scenes, on their meeting their 
friauls and relativt*. The comitry he found 
to be solnbriotu find fruitful. (Sec yoruha.) 

On hearing Mr. Thompson's report, the de- 
Bire of the Yonibas to n-turn to tlieir comitry 
wut greatly incTcisod; and huodredi) immo- 
diatcty began j)n?j)aralion8 for leaving the col- 
ony. On the 4th of November following, the 
inhabitants of Hastings addressed a letter to 
Mr. Craf, their mi.%iouaryr expreaeing their 
ileuirc to return to their country, and present- 
ing, through him, to the .Society, a request for 
a mi&tionary. This WiW reyinn(krd to, by the 
apiKiinlmcnt of Andrew Wilheloi, a native 
teacher of established character, to accompany 
them. A farewell meeting was held, and 
addrcasu and parting advice given to the emi- 
gruts by Mr. Graf and several of the nativt*. 

The Committee decided oa occupying Ab- 
bcoknta as a misaionary sttttion ; and Mr. 
Townaeiid went to England to receive ordina- 
tion, in order to occouipany Mr. Crowther, 
who had been nppointed to the new mission. 




He relumed to the colony in December, 1 
and on the iKlh of that month, Rfiv. Mi 
Thumiwon, Golmer, and Crowther. with 
wivcii and four Dative tcachcM, raile^l in 
American Teasel that h^iftencd to l>e at F 
tuwn, carrying with them a fraiuc bouse, coi 
structed for Mr. Towuscud in England. They 
were favortil with u proqieroua voyag»\ atul 
arrived safely at Bodagry ou the ITtli of .Jaii- 
nary, 1845. There they bcjird that i5iM.U'k«', 
the chief of Abbeokuta, was dead, ujid wtav 
advised not to proceed till after the fuueral 
ocremonics were over. Soon nftcr* the Yoi 
bas were attacked by the king of DalMn 
and a serious war broke out. tlie i 
of the slave-trade. Ueing thus pre 
going inimc<liutcly into ihe inleri<>i. ■ 
menccd miaeionur)- lalvorh at Badajrry, amoi 
a niixwi |>opuliilion. The (iosjiel wuh jireacb 
utidor the shade of a tree. Mr. 'J'ownscni 
frame liouse was put up. and a native hi 
erected. Tlic 8<?r\*ice was condncled in 
Yoruba language, ilie gn-uter jiurt of the Li 
urgy having been trani^lated by Mr, Crowtlur. 
After a detcntiuu uf eighteen months at 
Badugry, Rev. Messrs, Towusend, and CrO' 
ther feucceedod in ixaching Abbeokuta, Icai 
ing Mr. OolmiT at Hmlogry ; which was to 
maiutnined as a brnneh of the mission, to ~ 
o]tcn the coiiununication with tlic coast. 
soiin a^ their arrival in the vicinity was ao- 
uonnccil, tJie crier wuh commitwiciiicd to gi*o 
public notice that the hcavii«t ]iuii'ohmeiiL 
would be visitttl ou any one who .should dan? 
to insult or steal from ttie tit rangers whu were 
coming. The whole of the Lord's day prtrvi- 
ouA to their arrival wiis Bjicut by the cUiufe \~ 
wniiigling with e:icb other fur tm* right of : 
ceiving llie misgionarics, in their respectiv 
districts. On their arrival at the ferry of 
river Ogiin, they were uiel by a parly of Sic 
Leone jKopit; ; and on the ojMiosite bank, ai 
other large party, dressed out in their Kugltr 
clothes, WLTc ready to welcome them. 

After vi:iiting all the chiefs which it 
lliem four djiys to ncconiplifih, on a^isombly 
the chiefs was coiiveneil, to hear rmm th 
their intentions, on coming into thoir count 
The meeting was coudneted with great 
rum. .Mr. Crowther addresseil Iheni, giving ) 
hintory of the proceedings, and explaining Ih 
objects uf the mission, v He tbeti read a Ic 
from the Governor of the Colony to th 
'ITicir answer was liigldy satietactory, 
prcHung thoir gratitnde, and promi.sing the 
cooperation in eaiTving out the object*; of 
mission. They immediately set about 
erection of buildings; but in the mean tin 
commenced 84Tvice partly under the slieltur ( 
a narrow piazza, and partly in the open ai^ 
and were listened to attentively by all, Thticll 
also learned tlmt Audri'W WllheUu, the uativ 
teacher who hod preceded thcin, had 
faithfidly laboring to prepare thiur way. 
Under date of August 21, Air. Crov 



ATRICA, WESTERN. 



TO 



iGMt thai hh mother, IVom whom lie had been 
(yrnwiT sbniit tw<*ntT-five years berore, vauie 
fith hu bnUher. in <|tiL'sl of bioi. Their nicut- 
(afvm moot oficctui^^ ; and »iie roudily received 
th* Vtttk (nun thi> li|fi of b«r sod, aud become 

Lbu year ItUH, liev. J. 

M ulUr. with lUcir wivca, 

liutiu tht' coaive gf three 

- . i.irii.Hl uff by tho fever, 

T Mr». Tovitscad, 

1 i<'tTirii with her lo 

biflwui. At limla^Ty. there wiu Tcry little 

'tt vnotum^'iiig'. The buuo frieodly 

cotiUmit^l nt Abbeokuta. Kcv. Mr. 

ecuuiderpd ihu Turubott u sui)erior cla« 

■lid tbeir itiioda wero prepared 

ll iMrire th«! iruUi. Tbcy were oot m dull 

flri oornipt u tb<»c on the coiut. Already, 

fltUEHing^of tiud bud otlendi-d \he labors ur 

tir nanODATiua. Oit the Gth of Fob., lt>4U. 

JalMiw« Hlliiiff for Ktiropc, Mr. Towiiscud, 

dlcrnuHTii^ satisfactory evidence of their 

tiw munniou, baplizeu three wumen, vol 

«C vfautt WM Mr. Cruvrtbcr's mothu-, aod two 

■a. On the oei-niiioo, a largo nmnbcr oft- 

iHMad iu the clmrch. Tho three womea wnv 

■Mtj ilns>t->l iti white, llie eaudidstes ra- 

M t n4 Chrinttftn nuuK« at tbeir bu[)ti>4m. Af- 

lv%b*H!rTii.-f>, Mr. Orowthrr preA^-hcd an im- 

Mvivarnniiii, wbicli wiu ti.«t>.'ijed to with the 

MMtattaition. 'I'lie number of coudidiLlef 

JtWfftiiii. at thiti time, \rAA about 100. 

^« n..i..»ry, Mr. Marsli. tw un tmla^ce 
c^ ■ [idiiffL' itf suiKTHtiiiuD, vritoa, 

.4(r! . ,_, '. that Ibi'rv exiitd, omoog the 
INfo^ M ll«da^, a custom, bearing; resem- 
ktec«lottOiaaMicTovv. The people are mostly 
■1^ Tom to flomo iduU, which cannot be 
rii^tnl hy thenuMdvot or olbfrv, with im- 
pT) ' -^ those vowa, they are ofiea ahut 

t^ ' H- in their idol temples There 

W-' iiu', abuut five huutlrw) youu^ 

Ml- H. ehnt up in tlii^se temples. 

[Wkb ui'^t- •.uiit« out, lliey arc ie;panktias 
a»4. Ami u-oy wo who toaehes tbeir hewb 
■ ln«^ on their feet, must my a largo nun 
[ if BMry. ur if unable, ffluit be sold or pat to 
In t p.^-iiiL' frirni one part of the town 
l^iORtbtT eoofg'round 

ihi < : lOD were put 

fMtelh. niiKti M.b* AuTikUv strewed with 
an Nxf-M : eo trul^Ere luc " dork ploees 
I !■; of the JmliitniiMrwiif crnelty." 
ifler the oiiibli-ibuu'nt of ilm 
' \i. so ffTcat wud the bloxv- 
r.ot there were five hiio- 

' on the n»ans of 

fXaas, ei^ty > '^, >ind D-.arly two 

T.'il/ !■ nli'^iuu of Jeaiu 

! [iverMLiton iu 

-., and in the 

I J eagerly to 

, ujovc»1 witn it, 

e|«B^ug uui «ud iuqoiriug what 



iheyshcralddo. Th<Bc who nunc to oppose, vrore 
convini-ed. Tho word, also, ejierciscd ii RvntTul 
and jiervoding ioHuence over thy p«.s-»ple ut 
large ; and there waa a waning of the ]Miu*rj of 
idoe and of the ancient miperhtiiimiii. Yet, the 
converta were subject lo peraeeution fruui liiow 
who adhered to thts old e4istoni.H. Tbt* priesl*? of 
the national superstition, beiui; nearly dc^^-rtcdi 
set up a persecution In four or tire or the (uwd- 
fthifM of which the I)i:4trict of AblK-oltutu id 
compoacd, patting tltit (H>iiTerlj« in hUf^Lv 
cruelly beating thcmi, threatening thtm with 
death, and fining them to a heavy amonnl ; but 
at length, on the argent m|ueet of the niis- 
sionaries, (he principal ehiu& interfered, and fwt 
a stop to the^:- eniel procit^ingK Th'' alt^'tiipt 
to reuew persecution wo* again ma<lo, in ibbO, 
The cjinsc was believed to be the close blockade 
of Lugos by Itie BrilJEib tHjutulroii, by nieniia 
of which uo filavea could be ahiiiiivil ; which bo 
enraged tho head slave trading eliief ut Abbco- ' 
kulu, thai he HOu>^bt to aunoy. dt'lcat, aud 
drive away, il" [Xswiblc, thu fricmi-* of the mifr* 
3ioii, even threatening death to those who vea> 
tured lo go to church. But the British t'ou* 
sal, Capt^ tSoecroft soon urriiitl nt AbU<>i^kuta, 
and efleclnally stirred up the chiefit to proLeet 
tho coQverta. 

The priests are ioTetcnte ogviiBt ChnsUaa- 
ity. BU<] do what they can tu oppotte it ; but 
they atul the chiefs yeeinL-d to Ik- held under a 
rcmurkaljlo astniint They h;ive a way of 
cOQi^ulling Ibi'ir gudn, Uirmigh on urnele, winch 
is their great superstition. Thirt oracle baa 
again and ogun been consulted by them, in 

Xd to tlw misionaries, but hiut nevt^r been 
od to utter a word ogainttt theui ; but 
from first to last, it has said that the welfare of 
the country was in the hands uf the white 
people, uud that the}- must be periikilteil to 
teiu^b what they ph^aae. Their oracles are ia 
thc Itands of the hinithen pricMtti. who. by a 
certain process, arrive at a conclusion aa totlio 
will of the L'od. But, tliuugh they are o|>en 
and avowed jferM-cutorM of Ohriittianity, they 
ore unable to uiako their oracles utter a word 
against it. 

Toward the end of the year lti50, it became 
evident tb»t the various parties iutcnsted in 
the slave trade were preparing for a de*pi*riito 
and combined attempt to crush the rldug 
Christianity of Abbeoknta, and expel the mis* 
siunorics from the land. At lenK^tli, uu iuvor 
aion was attempted by the king of iKihomey. 
On thofaastUe army appearing U>fure Bsuliigry, 
some of the boy^ at the miufiionary liourding 
school were taken away to placed of ustlaty ; 
but Kev. Mr. Uollmcr remained at hfe post. 
On Sunday evening, March 2, the enetny ajv* 
proached Abbooknta. Many of the Chriiiiitaii 
converts went from public worship and from 
their »|)ecial pruyer meetings, to man the wolb, 
for the whole male population was FiuoDioued 
to the defence. Many of the timid itihjibitunU 
£k!d, but the nuasiouaiiea remained at their 



74 



AFRICA, WESTERN. 



C, with s Btctlfoat cfia&lcQco in Qod. 
es of well truinc^l w&rriant, male and fi)- 
malt>, urmrd with muskt^ts, bore dawn npon the 
town. defeadoU only with a mud wall. Thi^y 
fonglit with deeperatJoii, but wen- compluH; 
mated. wHh great lote ; while the loaa of the 
ToralMS was email The mlarionorics loerted 
tbenrMolvM (o eavc the lives of the prisonera, 
and tbey were at Iciifith exehangea fur the 
iumi)3 uf dofeocu atfuinst fiiturt; uttocks- 1'bc 
imiDeduite montl c&ct upon the inhabttanti^ of 
Abbeokntu was moftt striking. The victory 
WW by them tmatiLmoaaly attributed to the 
«K)duQ» of the Christian's 0<m1. All penecu- 
tioo ocummI. The principal chic& »cut their 
childrcu to the acboohi. And it was hoped 
that great advantage woold uecmo to the 
CiinM of Cliriitt^ from this deep and bloixly 
pkrt ftffaiust the very exiBteDce of the iiiiasiun 
at Abbuokuta. It u) thiui tliiit the l/)nl iniLkojs 
the wrath at man to pratso him. 

An attack waa made on Badagry, and near- 
ly the whole town reduceil to osheit ; but tlic 
prrmistw of th(! niifssion eacaiwd. At this 
stai>(*, tlic Britinb fmis*'re inleriered, and drove 
away Koeoko, the usurper of Lagos, who made 
the uttai:!k, and Ibe inimt decisive uienstin-s 
were mki'n to put dowu the filave traifir. 
Tn»atia< wen; nioile with Abbeokuta and 
Lngcts. in which protection was socnred both 
U> the miwionaries and to lawfnl tfjuinierce. 
In the. cimrM- of tlie iH'nsccutlons which have 
been iilludeil to. many instanoea are mcntioDed 
of constancy in tbo converts, which would hare 
dt>ria honor to the early Christian martyrs. 

The mission 13 extendijijf its uijeralidnit on 
vnfrj side, and making exploring e3f])ediliune 
inli) the inl^Tior, and bringing to tight con- 
fttantly new fk-IdR of labor, to whieh the way 
is already pre[»afed, by all these tribes being 
represented among the liberated Afrieaos in 



the Colony ; so that they are likely to 
Jo«q^, \Wl ond recovered n^in, to save 

nle, not from temporal, but from 

PresfiU State nf tht Jtfanwu.— The 
of the society, for 1852, reprcwntH the work 
going forward at tlic diOcn^nt ^tatious, wiili a 
steady progres*. The Yoruba cooatry 
continued to bo the scene of " wars and 
of wara;" but from tlie tlirentened 
Abbuokuta bad been happily preserved. Tbo 
mijsionary work has been racoeffifolly pros- 
ecuted, and scveraJ new fitatione commenced. 
But, in connoquence of the war, and other oir- 
ciimstuniTM, Hiul:m:ry Viiii^ re<hiced to a small 
and unimportant place ; and the mtfeiwi kn 
been removed tw i-o^as about 36 miles cast of 
Badagry. Li4?ob in a larjre ancl populous town, 
having water camunmieation far into I*"' '"- 
terior, SB welt as lor hundrctli of luik-- 
the eofld It has hitherto U^eu a ^jvai 
mart ; but the British government hare 
pied the place, and driven out the trnfRc. 

Several deaths occurred among the ml 
aricH in 1B52; bat a cooaideruble reinfi 
ment wosRut out. and Rer. O.K. V idol, D, 
having been conaccroted BUhon of Si 
Leone, arrived at Fn-etown Bee. 27. 1852. ai 
preaduHl his finit onlinnlion wnnon on tlic 
admission of Me^ni. Maser, Kefer, and Gent 
to deacon's order?. 

The ruDort for 1653, represeota the pastoral 
work withia the colony ns in a Biti»fttcta(7 
state of progress, and the educational stAUiso- 
mcnts as in a hopeful condition. Not much 
progress was making at the Timneh mission ; 
but the year hoe been one of peace to the 
Yoruha miseion. A good beginning had been 
maile at IjU^w. 

The following table will ahow the state of 
these missions in 1853 : 





Knfflitfi Ihptiit Misirionarif Society. — Allu- 
sion has alfpucty bwn made to on nnraccessftil 
effort of the Buptial, Missionary Swiety to 
introduce the Goapel into .Sierra Ijcooc in 
I79.i. From the failure of that enterpri* to 
1840, thint society apfrcars to have attempietl 
flothing *hr West Africa. At length, how- 



ever, it was rejiolved that meosTires should be 
taken, having in view the exploration and oc- 
cupancy of an entirely nfw field. The Bev. 
Johu Clarke and Dr. I'riucc, who had both 
renidi'd fi »r 8omc years in Janiaicn , were invited 
to go forth a** pioneerH.ood lay tlip fonndiition 
of the couleiuplateil uii^jiou. They arrived 1 



AFRICA, \^'£STERK. 



rs 



UM4of F<»n)Bodo Po, JauQHfT 1,1641 ; 

■ L' Snbbulli jmhlio worship 

c, where Ihi'y (JrsI luitdiu. 

k-'.'.' r tn.iAMio i O.J They sabecqucnlly vii' 

mi ib» ii4famil cout, to isoertaiD ib*: fpwi- 

i/ji*- ..r ....-VM'— '"■"- "V - :--tnrv o|wrttlion«i. 

irurly III homt- 

'^iiiil..r nf ttd- 

liit ■■ Ktation- 

'^ I iiiij a part 

I liitid. I'ht! ajjvtiry uf colored 

-lamaica is t<> bo employed ex- 

.^ missioD ; and a aambcr bare 

1 ihPir white brethren. 

1 ' this «iteq>rwc were quitt' 

Ir he dose of 1845. At thnt 

tlBK utriT rt.iu Mj^' liad boon coinmcnood upou 

%t rmm Und : makinir the vbole number of 

■■ISUh fuor, aaO tbu oot-statioiis 6ve. There 

Wt aba flw liiinion&ries, three nifili- Kiiro- 

|aai uKtelaLiit mi«ionari«i, and uiuc molt! 

Ariy tn the vcftr 184G. bowcrer, all the 
ttWoMHrf 00 I-Vmaoilo Po were (•nJtred by 
ftt 8{«iwh atithnrititv to dr^Urt from their 
npn^rUtr work, tweire mouths bcingr allowed 
wn tn d'up'.ist' of the mltsion pnii»erty. 

TUi ymr was al^D ddc of pecnliur triul, in 
Ikt m&orml of two of the inuBionaricis Menm'. 
nnafaim and Sturpon, by dpath. 'ITie 
BpmM eooml rej^niin^ tbeir lul>ors as a 

C benefit to the people. coiiSHilcil to k-t 
frmuD. providtfl thfy wmild (rive up 
frwUtur tiii;I r.w^' Ui toarh the Bihlt> in their 
iefconli [iropofdtion thcT dedined, 

mA cni' , interval allowc<^ them for 

wmmtl ill tlieii ik-tuU laborK. Two Catholic 
VriHy wm left at L'lareuoc, but thi^- bare 
Sbn TtRnroeil to Simin. Seven pesrsnm were 
hiftivd, darinff the yeftr. Meaowhlle, tbe 
fmidnce uf Ood was opcniM other doon$ 
■t BlnibU and Oamcroons. Tlie fanner nf 
ftot b linllhy, and snrmnndeil by 140 vil- 
I^K Tbr rvport for 1H51 »tnt<>4 that cbetT- 
hf lilbnuatiDn of ntcccas bod been received 
fcai Ur. JoknaoD at OMBorooM. Tbe attend- 
M^ w praachhag was gfood, tlwK were sovcral 
iBBiftnn.ml II or 16 ^?e nridcnee of piety. 
Ha fear Iho mbBton waa affftin afflicted with 
Av losa by drath of two or it« mu5ion&na>, 
Jfan. Mrrrirk snd N*ewb<*Kin ; tnit vn** addi- 
flbtol Kowinnary wtvt i^T r>4it, ami Mr. SalctT, 
wk wae <jti a vioit to Kit^'tuud, nniirncil to his 
"'ivT tabor. Iq 1«52. liny. J. Wheeler re- 
IniBcvnot bcin)( iiblu to ettduro tbo 



sroull caparitT and Eloesi fbr the office. The 
work of translation luw been pnwenteil, and 
acvorsl Ihoasand pages of the worel of God 
pritit^Hl. Yei, the wurk hits met with oppoai* 
tiun. and morr than ofiee. nt the <_'am<)rooiis, tbe 
livej! of the people altcndinR Christian wor- 
flhip hiive Xns'U t]ircat<-ned. 

The latest cuuiplftc rvtunu from tbis nus- 
sion are for tbe year 1849, ai foUowi : 



In tbe ' "^3, the oommittue 

If tliu'. iio nHliiclion uf mia- 

itt{ of (ind i'Ti<h'ntly 

■r J ■ irK of Ihi? remnant. 

thi- tiirw ftUtiuiw there huw bei-n 

ntid l*ie !al»"r^ *>f tV** nepTit teoclt- 

■ •«» many. 

ity bOfo 

lU.'d. I'j lu^tiv f bt ipciv, « no hnvf fibowQno 



lNiniitn<1i> pit, CIttr-l 

Wicii. kc ', J 

QunonMiM 

Buol>l«, ^MtOcf. a*.... 

TuUb 



i^ 



u 






ta T 



4H 



"VVdilktan Misbioxary Hoctcty. — I. Sitrmi 
Leotu. — The Wesleyan Miiwtouary Societfi 
eomnieu(*ed a mi.«iun at Sierra Tjcone in (be 
year 179f*— (not iu IBll. w stated in " The 
Mmiotiary Guuk-ffonk," p. 2T). Ouring tba 
eleven years procedinp. tliat yocicly ha*\ a-1 
labli.dicd miisioDS in ^ova ticotia, Newfound- 
land, mill the Wivt Inrlira; ajid thf Buooen 
which Ood had vouchHufed to thow eflbrto 
encoura^'e<l the WealeyoD Conference to at- 
tempt to open a field of mifrions on the west 
cooft of Amca. Sierra tcone was chosen as 
tbo plaoewberc to begin these effbrts; and 
thi^ was thi' first mtauun of any kind to tbU 
part of Africa. 

In 1795. tbe Teocroble Dr. Coke, the fattier 
of W(»|p)'an BiiaaHm, united hlnuulf witli n 
whemu then on ftjot, by pentlcmen of diflereot 
di-nnniinatioue, for the civilization of the F<m- 
Uiii$, in \N'eBl AfKco. Thia eAjiedition, which 
originalfsl in motives so purely benevolent^ 
proved on entire failure, not merely from tbe 
want of adaptation in tbe agents employeil, 
but from a mistake akin to that of the Mora- 
viaus, when liiey tbooght they eon Id first civ- 
ilisc and tben evai^jvlize the K^uimnax. 
From Kimilar causes, Ibis expedition failed. 
ITie persona enf^a^ and sent fiirth by Doctor 
Coke on this mismoo, were a band of nieclinn- 
icu, with a surpeon at their head ; and tliey 
were directed tu teach tbo FonlaJu the arts of 
civilized life. On arriving in tbe colony, tbw 
became dJBConteDtcd. oud were aoon dij^iersmT. 
dofDC died, and others retomcd home, without 
ever having reached the scene of Ibeir intended 
luiwrs in the interior. The enterprise " came 
to nanght," for \t» fnudamcntAl principle was 
ticit Dial ordained by the great head of the 
Chnrch, for *>stabIlAhing Christian missions 
nmutiv lieutben nation.^. 'Vhta was the only 
mi^ako of the kind,whieh, in their long expe- 
rience, the Weslcyans ever fcU Into, Oiid may 



re 



AFRICA, WESTERN. 



' 



be tuEcnsetl in xicvr of the immatarc views en- 
tertained of the miKaonan* o.iibTpriw iiPiirly 
ecvcnty jcar? n^eo.* The "^Veslcyun CoiiTcr- 
CUCf felt Uit.' rebuke, aiiil i-rumi'tlyrvi-tifif"! tU' 
mUlJikc, w) far iw il viaa rouneclfd with Iheni. 
for, m the ancual niiimloa of the Conference 
held in Aof^t of that vcat, (1796J wo find 
Uw folhiwiti}; ontrjT "Dr. Cofco laid before 
the Conference iin ucconut of the failnn' of the 
colony intended to be established in the Fou- 
lah country in Afrit:a ; and, after prayer and 
mature cfiiLsideration. Uie ConftTciicc anoni- 
jnoufJy jiidjri'd, that a trial should be made id 
thut jiart of Afrir-a, on the proper mixsronnru 
piau. The two brethren abovc-mcntione<I, 
VcAsra. A. Monlwh and W. Patten, havicp 
voluutarily on'ori'd theTn.-i4']ve8 for UiiB import- 
tarit work, the Confert-nco solemnly nnpoiiite<l 
thom for it, and earaesUy recommended them 
und thoir great undertaking to the public and 
private prayers of the MetAodist Society." 

Little information c:ui now be obtuined as 
to the extent or results of the pntcri>riso thus 
set on foot by the Conference. No report was 
published for many years aflerwarda ; nod the 
only ponrccfl from wlience to glenii our scanty 
knijwledpo of this m^SBion. are the "Annual 
Minuttv," and the "Anntnian Magazine." 
We cannot, therefore, tell how mqny agt^nts 
wtre Bont out, or what amonot of sncccffl they 
continued to have. But, that a commence^ 
meut was made, and considerable good accuin- 
plisbet), and tJnit, loo, very bood, ia evident 
Ih)m the foUoMripg notiw, being part of a 
Narrative of Methodust Missions, tirel drawn 
up by a Christian of another denomination 
for the Edinburgh " Mtsiicmary Magazine" 
and thence copied into the •' Arminiun Mnga- 
zmi," for Febniury, 1797 : — ''There are also 
in Sierra Leone, upuu the coast of Africa, 400 
porsonH in connexion with the Mtlhodist Soci- 
ety, of whom 2'i3 aro blncfas and miilattoes." 
The next reference to this mission turns np in 
1804, when tlie preacher, Mr. Brown, appculed 
Gonicstlj to Dr. Coke for ministerial help. 



■ In mpknaliOD of tlio kbove ve rin<] « noUi is tb« MU- 
abmaty Ma^/tuint, pufcliAhrJ Ui E>lu)tiun ia AoaUBt, I'M, 
wtilcli nyn • — '' W« on<l«r»Uu)il tlut tlie miMUD lo the 
TboUh eauntrr which i» mM to iixrt ftUtetl, wm not pra- 
pirlr « UvUiwdlkt inUtion : m Lhfl lunOiM UmI wvnt out 
wiLli Mr. UftCjtuljky, wllli the (Ipdga to MttV od Ibc hnr 
dpT" «f thot wuiitrj-, mm not *Pot by tbit Mf TLtxlint Con 
fertmw. TTiev wpr* mvchanlc^, who bad brrn iDi-fDlixr* 
of UiB Motbo>ii»t ?oti«llc« ill Kitglxad, ■omc of vliom liad 
oSiciiilc?-! Ub li>cal prvKrht'tv, knri who Itdil t««u nc-m- 
iD'-n-lt-'l tiy I>r. Coke lo Ur. lucaulnv. Uut it K«nu lliejr 
liKd vilhitr nut rigbUj- uuilorstood m« tneiutvouiati ihmj 
liftil ent«rv'il into, or bu) Dot ful^ ooBBted Ibe eaiL Ve, 
lli^n^fDrv, htwrtt Uib iviu-, l»t atnr nf our rndcrm, bj^ftt- 
Uekiiiff Um coramoo lileft lo lbs alini*e MtlhoHM Mittiim, 
■bould bo l«il weoiicluilp tUst Uicm ncnoDii uuit bav« 
l«fn miialt>iuri»ii, wnt owl I'jf that bo<ir of peoplp, for the 
ftxprtMi f'li'i'HW wT pnacliiog t" llm ficnlhrn : wli^rrw, 
titL7 «Kn< urlihern Mint, not «ni tlu-lr miv^imi n ininir 
diltfly tw |.».«ph, u to form t OirinliBn rulony, and op*-u 
a frleailh- luUrvmirMt wilb tj.c tuUiM of Iho Pnulnb 
country " Tl»t« eijiUaitllua will alw, Knre' (o comet b 
■nutaki] ill Ur. Uuiiur'* ai^rk. •■ J/tm^ni« 0^ JTwioMry 
Xilbn-f in H'crftvT. ..l^nrti," <U.iuli,ii, isfto, p. »1,) whew 
bs WFfna tn make Dr. Oikcftii'l th*' VnoTtnon rtnixindblc 
tat \iw whole Dodcnakinjr. UUmt wrilnv bnUw Vr- M. 
h*n> f&Uco lulu tb» wnie luLatnkc. 



Mr. B. waa assifiled by Mr Gordon, 
thnnph only local prcachei^, they falthf .,, 
cared for the little thick that hud Itccn (ratu- 
wed. They hail nlso »hr assistance of a colored 

Jircacher, a dL-vdtcd yonng man. In 1&(Im (W 
ind a comrounicatiou from" this native prenchj 
MinfTu Jard/in.to Dr. Achini Clarke, giving 
account of liis labors as u mtsionary am<r 
the Moroons, frtun IHOfi up to lH08. and 
inp llml. in(;iuding the MBroon< thot had ' 
cr.invertiMi, the number of church mi'mU^rs 
and around Sierra FiPone amounted lo 100. He 
earnestly requests iti bis letter a punply of 
lijTnn-books and same: wearinfr Eppart-l for the 
prcAchers. Dr. Coljo tried in suFiain the la'"''' 
sion nntil ho could find a tuitatilc man toj 
and take the pcneral superintend once of 
and, in 1811, hpHcnt out Rev. Gcoreo Wan 
for thid purjtose, who, on his arrival in Kifl 
Ijeone, waa received with open anna by the 
officers and mcmliers of the chnrch which hod 
been ^thcreil there. Mr. Warren's reportJ 
Dr. Coke pivcs the foUovinfr as the etatisT 
of tho nii»;ii>n, as he found it : — "The socaa 
at our arrival, amounted to 110 ; a great 
portion of these profess to enpoy a sen«M 
the diviru' favor ; and the society in geo^ 
as far a« I can learn, conduct thcmflelvos ■ 
considerable prunricty. I found among; tlicm, 
at my coming, three local prcnchcrs, two of 
whom meet claflscs, and six clasa-l^udcr* bv 
gidcs. Since thin, nne brother, who bad boai 
in tho country for his health, hna return 
Seven have been admitted on trial, while r 
oral more appear to bo under serious imp 
rions.* Sierm Leone had then about 4,0 
luhahitantii. only about cue in forty ticing 
ropL-au. The rest were Nova-SciAtanx, Marr 
Timneks, JiuUoms, Krocmen, and rccapb 
slaves. The places of worship were 
Methodi.4t chapels, one Episcopal, aad 
Hnptist church. 

To do unjtliing like juglice to our skc 
this miwion'. it is neceasary that we be alio 

to state briefly what was tbo condition of; 

ety then at Sierra Leone. Even at the pn*coi 
day.oftcr the Goppel (like tliedisinfectiup fluid 
acting on this moss of moral corruption) has 
removeil bo large a proportion of the elementi 
of death, the population of Sierra Ijcone is 
nninue, having no parallel in any other part 
of the world. But what van the stale of that 
anomalous popnlation. as a field for Christian 
misi-lonfl, mo«; than flfty years ago ? All the 
elementi! of the worst forms of heathenism were 
here united to the moRt da?rading vices of 
civilization. And.in the mitkt of these ahom- 




place theu was. At that time the colony nna but 
ten wpiare mik« in C-xtenl. It was originoUj 
settled with the avowed object of the mo 



AFRICA, W^TERN. 



77 



of tbo natives. Hut nt the doso r ly 
with tliy t'nitwl States, the negroes fo\ 



Ao faaii nnrveil midiT Utu ItrilLsh Ho^, t^tlicr 
en land op in the aiKvj, were localeil id Nova 
ticofia. or th? Br.hama Islc&. Bfiiig diasatis- 



Ibrmetl of the nature of thiit splicrc whcrr the 



Weslejim missionarios hiiv« Wn toiling for 
half u century. It has btt;ti the prare of onr 
misaiouarira. and frpqucotlyiU a timo too when 
they had just hfcomc qoalifiwl for ORefQlness 
ttmong^ this poIy(;l»)i pcuple. From 18U to 
1850, there were stnt Iroio Eujrlund. as nearly 
as can bo ascertained, by flic \yci3leynn Mi^ 
sioimry Society, atwut i2H misoinnaric^, in.^hid- 
inff their wirrt ; and of thpse then; were no 
fewer than 54 who died, while many others re- 
turned home on account of the failure uf their 
health. Nurwaathis merely :irter a icnjfth- 
cned coarse of labor. In consequence of the 
anbcatthiDCHS of the cliioatc, the Committee*^ 
after a abort trial of seven years, restricted iho 
period of service first to thrct, and tlien to two 
yeaM ; and it wai* only in a few instances that 
thU period was exceeded. Many dhtl witlun 
the arst year, some in a few months), a fi*v 
weeks, or even a few daj-s. after their landing. 
Infltancci were not wantini? of ha^^bandt^ and 
wivra lyin^ ill in different rooms of the saioeJ 
houiH! at the Ninie lime, and dyinp witliin a 
-e of tlie climate and thclflliort time of cacli other. The frw]uent sifik- 
colonist?. tlic mortality nesi and death of so many of the mii^siouaries, 
and the early return of others to England, conld ] 
not fail to uflirct materially the priy^ess of the 
mineioDs. Htationj irere sometimes left with 
only one mi^aionary, or without auy mi^on* 
ary at nil. 

The events and circunmtancefl which we haro 
placed before the render will, in a great mea^ 
are, explain why the 400 momhcrs connected 
nich the mission hi 1797 Bhould have dwindled 
to no in 1^11, when Mr. Warren arrived to 
take charge of tho mtr-;ion. He t-ntcrcd on his 
work with fireat zeal, and extensive priwiK^ta 
of u^efulnc^ hul felt a victim to the climate 
the year alWr he landml there. Williuni Davis 
then offered hinaclf for ihc vacant post, and 
Sumact Brown was sent ont to aasi^ him, in 
the vani.Hw opcnins^ of ui^fulnt^s which pro- 
wanted themsclvc!*. The work wim tpriwl frura 
Fret* Town to Wellinsrton, llastin^p*, Walerloo, 
Murraytown, &c.. on the east, and In York and 
Plantains liland on the South- And notwilh- 
etundiuf? the occasional checks to which the 
uji>i^i<iii has Ihm II subject, among the (rreattat 
uf which, may be reckoned each frwuh car^i of 
slavcfi, yet this mi.«toD has been crowned with 
continued priif<jH.'rity. And some of the modt 
remarkable iii.-^tuncpA nf pr)wernil awakouinf^ 
and ri'vivaU with which the Wesleynn miaRioii^ 
have bw'u tilesnt havt> 'aken placi" in Sierm TjO 
one. Here ibnujiands of the afflicted children 
of Ham, drawn up from the reekiup holds of 
Iho slave vessels, nave l»wn muile tlie joyful 
mrtakere of a richer liberty than Uritinh iihi- 
tautliropy could confer upon them. And it 
is the ttwlimony of jrentlcmen who resided 
there for yearr*. that the ndipous eiperiencc ol 
" the convcTtfl to Clirislianity in lluit countrt 
is generally clear and satisfuctory, and will 



'0, nombera of them made 
1, where they w«* found, 
;L.:i,;n the mo6t dcplorablo state, 
■ t I ivt'ry mift'ry, and familiar with 
I'ablic attention was called to 
t, chiefly by the efforts of the 
. ;-.iuuvilIe Sharpe, unl, in I7H7, 
iiicau Company" was formed. The 
> THir,',:.-..4 Und froffl the negro 
•one, on which to locate 
1 ion society ; and, a few 
aJW, 4oo blacks and about GO whites 
rkM f'tr J^ivrra Leone. The whit^-s are 
■ iiiefly women of the nifx^t 
Such were the matcri- 
1* f'l Ui'.* Ii[-^l i',!;;;li«h colony in AVtstcrn 
itae». A cnmpaiiy of American refuse 
ibTctuid London pro^^titutt^ sent out by Itrit- 
lA pUlanthrupy to cnliL'hteu and civilute Af- 
rica! Th*' -—I' '-'.ly be Hntiei|mt<?<l. From 
4eoottl-i - .. . 

lUooi hu' 

Vftteffiil. In a low months, nearly one half 
of ttm had cither died or escajied from the 
Mbay. niid, in little more than a year, the 
tMe«eit! dis|ier3nl, and the town burnt to 
flfcn hr oo African chief. 

fa Uit; yau lI'Jl, another asaocintion was 
tnad, by wb »*j eltorts a few of the dispenii'd 
tima4» wivi' apiiin collected, ami about 1*200 
»■» oejrnKs wirrc * 'I from Nova 

Sioti*. About thrv' , Sierra Lenno 

■■daiferoyed by & i ,v -,.j.tdron; and, in 

IM^ Alpnointed and dismayed by tlie t^nint 
tflft*Mlocusta,aiid the various di^iuHter;^ which 
Vnrtfluk llic coh-ny, the company IniimfiTivd 
llfrvMc f^tabliiihmont to the British gov- 
IMOrt. Prom this perio'l may be dntei] the 
■■H' ptMperily of Sierra Ix-one. IjUW and 
•fcr aoua n-ij^ic"! throughout the cj>Iony, and 
■Nffioon was nuulc for its defena*. The Hrlt- 
m tmvn hod, just the year before, doclare*! 
Atlbre tr«ck- to be piracy, ami tt now diH--recd 

fe " - ' ' ■■ rescued from slave 

^ -.should bobniuj^ht 

tau ...^. L.. It a.sylum. Such art' 

fa narr' ilic population of Hierru 

liMe bu. 'VI), numbering 41,730 in 

Ac vMr l9lT. ami which priMitiri in that 
ihre tbf r'prr--:''nt-TtivosoralHmt 2oi) dilP'n>nt 
m(i- h with its own laupaoge, 

■niiiablo wickrtHucHS, and, 
-' -'iitSi no idea of order, 
i.i.'r.dity. 

■if man- 

liern h^ 

iufi >:.i<i\ UI fiuch a 

has l>een acliitMe<] intL^t 

to the hand of (iod. 

, u> tbope cvtbtideratiuiu we add the dead- 



n 



AFRICA, WESTKMJ. 



bctr m comparisoo vtiih ihat of tbe profenora 
of religion in more hiffhly favorwl lauik." 

Schwi.* have also twsin i»t«blisheil for the 
Iroiuing of Uie rising jenemtiun, In whioh 
over S,liOO cbilJron an? receiving on evani^eh- 
<tai LitiK^tiun ; uml (ui IuMtitutioti for tJiu traio- 
ing of u lutivo niiiii:ilry ih in siurccs^Ciil opnra- 
tion. 

Nor bftve the labon of the misaiouarica ao<] 
Uicir zcalom uaouiates, the native pr»u.'lK'n<, 
beon restricted to the heatlicu within tJic col- 
oay. Thtfy Ijuvo brtmght the won! of life to 
thoujiaiiils of idolfttnrfi beyoui) tlielimileof the 
colony ; j^o that tliu 1C<k$bos and the lieathen 
round Mtirraytowii liavi« turuod to God from 
" dumb idola." At tliu I'ltjec of tlit' year lt(52, 
one of those remarkable movi'inenUt tonk 

Eloce at Sierra Leum% which occ3ifiionalt,v start- 
» tbo church uud thy warld, evincing n 
Special omninotcnt ajjeucy ovtar the luiuds of 
mttij mid inctioatiiij^ to us how vast are thoao 
resources of iuflnencc which God has in reserve 
uad by which ho may yet accelerate the con- 
version of the world to the lailh of Christ. 
The nature of thii* movement may be beat seen 
from the commnnicatiotis of tlie miieiotmries at 
Sierra Leouc, under date of JJeamlwr 24. 
1852. Rev. Mcajre. Fletcher and tJilbort 
write, "Tho Committee will be phid to bear 
that the idolntnrs of Sierra Jjoono are cu8tiu^ 
their idoU ' to the moles and the baU.' The 
kiiig:doni of Satun is fidlini^ as li(^htiiiuj? to Uio 
ground. A few weeks since, Mr. (Jeorge, our 
schouiuiasior at Murraylown, came to the mi^ 
flion house, ftud retitiested llmt one or two 
ntiaionorics Tuuld come ininicdialely lo that 
pUoe^ OB Uie idolutors were givini> up their 
idols. As it was past fire on Sunday evening 
when he came, we [HwljKfned it Hotil the next 
day. On the following moruin); Mr. Heay 
and mywlf rose at four o'clock, and started off 
to the villajre. We arrived just iw it wan get- 
ting light, and proceeded at once to the con- 
stublo's bou.se. We were rather surprised to 
find hig piazza full of idipU and other snpersti- 
tiouti HtulT which had hcoii brought to him the 
day previous. He very kindly Uiok Ud to tlie 
houfMSfifthe idolatord. We' talked to them 
iiboiit their souls, and exhorted them to look 
U* Chrut oji their Saviour, lledecmer and Uod. 
One man who voluntarily gave up hi? idol to ua. 
said he had l>een an idolater twenlv-five years, 
but now lie intendeil to goto the Cliapel.* On 
Sunday I went to Murravlowu nod preached 
to tboscpeople who had lately given up their 
idols, llie Chapel, which ha'd been lately te- 
built, wjw cntwded ; and oil paid great atten- 
tion, while I cufurceti the word?, * Little child- 
run, keep yoorwtvea fnim idob?.' On the same 
day I bnptizCTl •>» males and females, 25 of 
whom were adults ; and I received 5 as mem- 
bers on tria! ; Imt some of these wwe back- 
eUders. As I looked uiHin these iieonle oa they 
kncit down to be baptized, my foeliogs ovcr- 
cftinv OK," 



At Free Towti snch a narober of idols 
were friven up na no one snspected the place to 
have eontnined. The people took the niaMcr 
into their own hands, and seimirtl i I 

taneously movt'd b;^ on iuviiuble i 
coming such enthusia-stic Iconoclu.iL-'. lhul iur. 
K letch e%tell.s u.s all other work was EU^wnded. 
Ill erow(B, but not tumuUuonsly, they paraded 
through the streets, carrying the beathcn dei- 
ties in procession, to deliver them op to the 
magistrates and miaaionarif^ Mr. Fletcher 
turned his apartments into a museum for the 
e.xhibition of tho!u> unsightly aboraioatioiifi, 
and thousands of people came to look at them. 
The fame of this movement has spread br 
uioiig the eoBj<t, producing deep impvtMkm 
among the various tribes, and leading the ro- 
lenting heathen in many itistauccu to say with 
Kphraim — " Wliat have I to do any more with 
idols?" The work is cxtcnwvc anil gprcading, 
and is another of thoec illustrations which fl«> 
quently occnr to show how powerful and cO> 
cicnt are tlic resources of ILm in wboee hand 
are the hearts of all men, and l)efore whos; Al- 
mighty Spirit every ohetae.le mo-st give way. 
The proximity of Sierra Ijoonc to laberia. in- 
vents thi» great work with an additional inter- 
est, OS both of these colonies bonr a relation to 
the evangelization of Africa, the value of which 
uj incalculable. Kventa Uko these give a ]'■*«- 
erful imTH-tus to a mission; and it is so in tlji>: 
ca-ie. The |»rospocts tn Sierra Leone, were 
never so bright as now. The schools are 
well attended, and the chapels cannot bold all 
who desire the word of Ood. 'Ilie Native 
Training Institution is also doing well. At 
a late public examination of the students, 
held in the presence of the Colonial Sop- 
rctary and other official [arsons and ren- 
denta in the colony, the students were cxaia- 
inetl as to their knowledge of Theology. Ijitin, 
(fn>ek, Mathematics, English Grammar and 
Geography, and acquitted themselves most sat- 
isfactorily! One of their number has been just 
recommeaded by the dihtrict meetinff as a can- 
didate for the holy ministry. 

Tliofic who remember Has struggles and dit 
ficaiticfl which marked tbo early history of this 
mission, can best appreciate its present cucuuj^ 
aging condition, and seo with delight their 
hopes not only realized, but even far exceeded. 

In IHII there was bat one missionary, three 
local preachers, 110 members, and about 100 
children in the schools, with two small chapclp. 
Now thero are thirty-one chaptils, (some of 
which are very large,) seven nitesionarle*!. 1 07 
local ffreaohers. over 6000 chnrch meniUrr?, 
3608 scholars, and more than 11,000 persons 
in the pastoral care of the niissionaries. "Ac- 
cording tu this lime," it may well l>c said, 
'* what hath Uod wrought ? " For mrae defi- 
nite information on the present state of the 
mi»iion, soi the Tabuiar T tew near the end of 
this article. 

U. Tht Gambia DirtricL — ^This miasiun ' 



AFRICA, WESTEBN. 



% 



D«od by the Wolejran Socictv in the 

1821. It UcB fttribrr north llian any 

r iin tbo wr«( coast of Africa ; and ihv. field 

dy ia ibc hamls of the Wcalejan Society. 

fcpurtian irf Wcwtern Africa which ia drain- 

rthe riven Hi'tu>};al iLud (liuiibia. i^ named 

I'hc triiM's inhai'itiu^^thia district 

Dtrr ore cbiclly tba Jaioofa, which Uc 

mirth ; the SSaivhnffXs, who inhabit 

I ; and ibe t'ouiwu, vho are chiefly 

[ Ueop in the country, to the c&«t 

Jftloob and Miuidiagocs ore mostly 
but tbcy arc very diSTercot 
rihoM miA iitbcr in llieir uninions and disposi- 
b«Mi One prtrtioD of tiicni» called Jforo- 
ur "rdigioiu people," arc exccssivoly 
and pat implicit confidence in 
I," (charmi4,) which titey hang 
n in RToat nambcn mad variety, 
practice witchcraft, of alt sorts. 
I hw been carried to the nest 
! 4 AMca by its prieits in the capacity of 
tEbaohmlGrs, uriog the Arabic langva^; 
■d, tboafHi RTonly ignorant thcmsclvEs, tbcy 
!■«■ acquired a powerftil hold orcr the native 
niul 

IV Poulahs, irho are a wandering people, 
■tBwtJy raffans, and are [greatly opprc^ed 
hf the Maiuliogocs, who abuA'. and plundtTr 
ttis wUhoot any ceremony. The French, the 
JWtifvaK. and the Eo^lisb, have settlements 
* the OBMl b these porta, as the riTcra Seoo- 
plaarl Goailna are exceedingly advaDtaffcooB 
Jir tmkv Tlie Gambia, cspeciallv. whnne 
Mam, in the Tcnda country is said to be 
iriy a fiiw fiays' joomey from the renowned 
J^fW* caa be narigated by veseeU of large 
badoi far nearly 400 luilex, and with small 
■aft fer nearly 700 miles. .^hipH fntm Karofx? 
apply ike whole couDtry on both sides of \\& 
luiEa on which lie mnncroaB towns and vil- 
llgDib lbs entitrea of trade to the country for 
ImiIiiiiIi uf tnilcB inland. 

Ylw wMxm schools, which were csiabltshed 
by ibt miflnnnury Dart, about tho year 1820, 
in the i*bmd of St. I<ouia.& French settlement 
M Ihc mouth of Uic eteDegol, were not kept 
^ Mhiier wore otbcn Unit were estjihlisbed 
h tkr Maud of Ourec, near Ca[)o Verd ; and 
tta Unt ilaudintr niissioru tiiat we mn-t with 
intkaeat tlic (iomliio. Xut for fmm ituKviii- 

7r, which lit twelve miles broad, is the it^lund 
bt Uafy. in lat 30 dega. 30 niin. north, and 

Imv* Ifi ^^"- 10 "^">' ^"*^ ^''*'*^ *^^ ^^ soatb- 
I rinrv. It it four miles \au^ by one broad. 
^Bofrtiah hare bad a Bcttlcmpnt hero ainoe 
. Thd principal town ia BaOturM, on tbe 
iiUe, tbcing the [oain brantth of the river. 
|Jb MMaiiu a nonibcr of excellent hnnsea, 
I which may be noted Uu: p^verument 
. tfao hospital tbe Wodeyan clmpej, with 
llfeB dweUhwB of th« inorohant», ^c The 
n ta lb4£ waa Z^\ of uboiu only 
w\Mc ptinona; the rvst were Mandiu- 
JaSooft. ntid liburattid slaves, ticvcral 



' mimonariefi bare died bere; and ''■■ w.i./wj^1 
which were opened here by the 
Friends, in the vear \'6'i'A, m also 1 1 
they i^lubliAhcu, at the same tinu', on the 
neifliborin^ coaat. at Birkow, Mahmndi, and 
Handoni, hai'c mnk nndcr the nnhealthinctti 
of the climate'. Tlic immediuto finindreatt of ^ 
these ftchiwds was the cekbratctl Hnnnah KiU ' 
liam. that fipiritMl liuly who, for U*n years to- 
f^tber, itinerated the weat coast of Africa, 
conimeuit'd ecboola in many places, and in 
cueli uf them devoted her particubur atii-ntion 
to the lantruu^^^ &nd dialectti. of which .she 

E rioted a number of valuable speeinu-us. •'^be 
od hem^ir hrnu^'^bt up and edueatul two Afn< 
can youths in England, and it waA nith tbe 
asHiMancc of these abc opened the schools at 
Birkow. Bat she fell a victim to the country 
fever in the year 18.32. The Weslevan mission ^ 
hoe stood lietter, inostnacb as it still continues ; j 
though one Chrwtian mi'saeugcr olW another J 
haa sunk iuto the grave, and aUnoet ycarlf.! 
fN)me such mcjnrnfnl tidings reach us from Uian 
station. Tbei WoBleyan mlaaion oommeDQed| 
its labors in 1B21, at a place called Manda 
net, in the territory of the kinjt of Combo, oiki 
the south bank of the river, about eight milM 
from St. Marys. ITiis locality, howerer, 
proved to bv ineligible, and the health uf tho 
missiunarioB, Iforgon and Riler, hunng failed, 
the mission wu removed to liatluirsf. whiire, 
Be also in Mdvillc Town and Soldier Towu on 
the island, and in Berwick Town on the couti- 
nent, tht^ have nt-w obapt-U whieh are very 
rcg-nlarty I'ntqucnted by native converts and the 
livalli«-'n. 

Tbe Rev. Rtcharti ManiuiH and \m wife were 
sent out, in L823. to strengthen and extend Iha 
roifvion at St. Marys. Mr. Morgan and Mr. 
QawkiuA were then laboring there ; bat is « 
abort time wc find Mr. Mnrshall laboring alone. 
He toiled on. however, uBiiisted in tbe school 
department by his devoted cttmpanion. But 
in Au^t, 1830, ho was laid low, and in five 
liar's the uiuliguant fever carried him o£ As 
doou as an opportunity oBered, the dtsolutc 
widow, with her little infant, eml«irked for 
Kiiglaml, taking with her an AfrJeun girl, 
Sally, to tAtce core of them during tbe voyaffc. 
But inrat bodily weakaeas and extreme mcnlAl 
unfferinc i«vni proslra1<<d her, and witbiu 46 
bnure »>f the t<lii|) reaebing Uie port of Bristol, 
Mrs. Marfiludl, unable to iirticced to her friends 
in the north uf England, uied among strungcf*, 
though on her native shore, leaviog her baby In 
the hands of his African muse, hotn strangfTs in 
a strnnffe land. One cold morning in the month 
of October of that j-car, Hcvcral yuung men. cuii- 
didates for tbe m'uwiouary ministry of I^tethnd- 
ism.were pawing through the strecla of I^^ndon, 
on their way to meet the secrrtarics uiid rom- 
mittee, to be examiued in reference tu tbtip 
uuulificattoiLt, and the fiebU of lalxir to which 
tbcy should l>c sent Just a» tbey wrived at j 
the Ok] Mission House in lIatton-(janlen,lh<*f j 



80 



APRICA, WESTERN. 



met a nqiro ^rl, carmnp id Iict arms a poor, 
sickly-looking white child. They spoke to htT. 
and while hrr suhlc uriiia wen.' fokied afli)clion- 
atoly rotiiid her Httlo charge, and the Icara 
flowed down her face, she lold them of her 
country, aiid of the missionary aud his dear 
wife, whom she hud 80 much loved ; how they 
hail (oile<l and snffi'red for Africa, and how 
they were dejid, and no one to carry oa the 
work; ami here eho stood hefure the commit- 
tee, tliat had sent out the man of God and his 
wife, heurintr back Iho mlssioDan's orphan 
boy, and pltnidinff that poor ATnca be not 
given up. The devoted crc-atnrc^ appeal, nt- 
tered with an energy uud a pathos truly aflvct- 
ing, pTodueed an immediDte and poworful in>- 
prossion upon the mifsionar}' cnudiihites; and 
one of their number, WJIIiam Afotster, imnic- 
diatcly oSlTe<I hiiQi>elf to fill tJie varattvl post. 
In a lew weeks he was on his way ; and when 
he arrived opposite Bathurst, and it became 
knoim that tlicn.' was a. missionary and his 
wife un hoanj, the Cliristiun natlvtss gathered 
to the beach, phingin^^ iuto the water to meet 
the boat, out of which they liftcjd them and 
carried them a£horc. They stt thom down 
and then w-pt aloud for icy, kissing tlieir 
hands n^in and again, and. or titev beden-od 
them with their tears, exclaiming;, " ^auk God, 
tank (jud, Mr. Mnn^hall die, but God send oti 
nnder miin.iterl " 'I'hi-y nroceeiled to Ibe mis- 
sion hontie ; but the wild flowera had grown 
upon the uniisc^l strm diirinj^ the few preced- 
ing months. Mr. Moi.iter entered upon his 
work in faith, and his labors were s/)on owned 
of Oofi ; and others having been sent to hie 
assiMaiire, he extended the mission to Macar- 
tht^'» hJutvi. a most important iioititiou for a 
mtssioa This move brought tncm into cou- 
nejciou with tlie Ft>u/ii}i tril»e, the vcrj' people 
that were the objects of Dr. Coke's benevolent 
but unsuccessful enterprise in 1796. Macar- 
thy's I^nnii h situated in the Gambia river, 
aboDt 2riO mik^ from its mouth. It U nearly 
seven miles lonp and one broad, having' the 
Gambia on both sides. From the central 
situation of thli islond its trade, in poM, ivor}", 
hid(i*, ami bwswiix^its being the report of 
the flhippinfr, and llie fiu-ilitie^ which hs noble 
river ailV'rdi for communication with the e<Mwt 
and the inferior — no better p^fiition can bo 
found in all Africa for a missionary station. 
Here, thorefore, the Wi'sleyan commitleo estab- 
lished a jitmri^ eenlr*? of ojicrutiou, including, 
as port of their ]»ian, an iuRtitntion for cduca^ 
ting the eons of the neighborinj; kinffs and 
chii^rs. The conmuttee were encotinijred to 
engage in this i!nteri)ri.<w by tlie noble niunifi- 
«mce of a siuc-lc individual — Dr. Lnuinc, of 
Houthauiptoo — and whose benerolent zeal is 
the more to be appreciated, inasmuch va he was 
not eonncctt^l with the Weslcvan denomina- 
tion of Chrl-siiam. From 18.S3 to 18-18, Dr. 
Lindno and his family expended njwn the Fa»- 
Ink Mimon over 8f9i000. A tract of 600 



acres of land having been given by the V. -.»• 
eraraent, the wandering' ana perwcnt« - 
lafts were invited lo settle niK-n it.. - 
houses were builtr and the l^v. Mr, Mrp 
formerly the Society's muwiouary in I 
was sejit oat to Mucarthy's ialand lo t::i 
the Scriptures into the langTiage of tJi- 
dingoes and Foaloha. fieveral able ; 
misaionaricB were raised up, upon wli< i 
work bos since chiefly devolved, and Ibc ■ 
there, with thfi (jrennine spirit of a mir- 
church, arc laboring and prayinp tliol :! ._ 
tions conti^ious to them may uUo Ik- fuv t*-! 
with the light of eaviny truth. The r<.. nl 
of mortality in this mifsion is truly pttinfnh 
During Uifc past 32 years, out of '2A jvrFon* 
sent out, IB havQ left the field dipablod. nr.-l !:.* 
have fallen into the arms of di-ath ! Anil \. t 
men aro found who, with their li*- 
hand, rash forward and offer th^ 
these jKists OS often as they arc left uji. : 
the ravages of disease an<l death. The ' 
term of service was that of Rev. "\V. Fui, 
was enabled to stand his ground for ten _ 
And ne-xt to him was Itev. II. Badger,"wh 
ofter spending twelve years in the South AC 
can missions, went to the Gambia in 1848,ai 
rtmuined there until the death of his noble 
wifo la.*t year obliged him also to retire. The 
late Mrs. Badger was one of the most dv^ •.•u d 
femule mis*ionariej! that ever was sent t>iit )y 
any Christian society. Twenty year? of l^r 
life she devoted to the instruction and hhah- 
tion of tiie African race, in the We#^ In-li'^ 
at Sierra Leone, and at the Gambia. The 
languages employed at the Gnmbin i"-' ' ■ tIh* 
Kiiglisb, are the Jalwf, the Mand^ 
Fovloh. For information as to ti , ' ' 
state of this mission, the reader is referred to 
the table ne^ir the end of this urtidc. 

HI. The Cape Cvast District— '\\"\ih tie ex- 
ception of the German Mission at Akropon^ 
anil Ussa, the only misdonson the Gold < 
m-e those of the Wodeyan Society. Thi 
runs from the month of the river Adiri ■ ':- 
Volta, to C'ui* Appolina, a distance of jil^'ut 
2-iO milos^ The leading power in lhi.i d!^'t kt 
of ^Vfrica is the Ashaiittie nation, the capit: ', "f 
which is C<^max(ie or Knwati. The c-m ' < f 
Guinea, of which the Gold Coast is u . . 
lirst became known to Europeans in th-' v 
trt'uth century. At that period the spirit of 
discovery, which during the middle ages, had 
been cunliiK'd to the Arabs, manifested ittvlf 
in Kurope in amost remarkable manner. Th*! 
Portuguese, who led the way, prosecntcd tlicJr 
researches with enlhnaiastic nrdor, and iil-'iig 
the wcatcm coast of Africa, and from variuua 
points penetrated into the interior. The Eng- 
lish lirst commenood iTading with Guinea iq 
the latter end of the reign of Edward VT.; 
but the merchants who engaged in such com- 
merce were eapost-d to coDsidemblr rl-k, 'ji 
ooDseqncucc of the pretonaious of Iho Portu- 
guese, who having built the fort of Sf. George 



AFOiCA, WKSTERN. 



81 



' Mtn'j, m'}eorr»n?d to enforce their claim to 

!'> trade wilb tlic Gold 

otiier parla of Western 

rji'j iJul'.li (l'/nrive(l the Fortit|;piftie 

fort* and settlemeots, on tht' GoM 

U *''''' '' "1 ti][ii lo serve the Kiigli^Ii 

i^KT. 1 til lli(j irar U'tween thi: 

liuui i^i.^.Liiit .alijGT. At lLscoiielu.iiou 

tW BogUih compftDT were )*-rt id p>?3s>:»sioii ol 

Uklf oiw fort, tbut of Cipc Ojuat Oai^tlc. But 

(kcT KMD cjct'.'udrHl th-!m»el\'C!i on the coast 

•fiUL At thU Lime the Far^ee^ governci] 

tib* «Mn oaimtJ7 round Capo Coast — having 

tib poirerfnl and wnrliko AshnnJees on the 

at ih^m. The eruption of the Ajihun- 

[loto the Fantoo country lirst brou^jlit 

into collision with the British, in the 

1M>7. Tho Ajibantoos dtsohited the 

jr — and their ^rw»t military power may 

beinacini>il from the fact of tlio immeaseand 

Aciplitmi anni<» tlicy brought tuto the Scld. 

h 9 ktiUid tbAt, In some of the wars in which 

tbf (lonrcTfli] people cnj^o^], often 30,0<J0 men, 

tad m two inglooces, as many m 100,000, tutve 

la» Irit dead on the field of battle, la the 

^KvS 1807 they took the Dutch fort at Cor- 

auiU&f, tJH-T then fiercely attacked the Bri- 

tirib (irt of A nnaomboe, when u uef^ciation 

cmmI mad Chtbbu, the author of thf war, ha«l 

bi la jfiteo up to them. A ^cond and a tliird 

■miciO followed, until the Fantees were com- 

,v,r...i .,,.,1 .•„,. Urititth fwmd that,_to 

■-. tiiey nitut conuili- 

, , J uTOn*. An enibadBj 

I wu aont to OooniaAsie, a treaty con- 

' dMoi tad a reslrlcDt appointed to represent 

Brittfh iatcrtsls at titu capital Symptouuf of 

•SvpbetiitK fuUowod by lujother treaty, having 

novTwl, the Home Government roeolvfxl to 

' ftr faonber mcasonB, and appointed Sir 

C«v(f9 McCarthy tJvvernor of Cape Coast" 

lit adiipuA :» warlike wiliry. Hortiilities were 

anacucctl between the British oitd the Aa> 

iuikn. iu whi(^ at first tho British veresao- 

tmhk but ID the fiUal bottle near AaBomaoow, 

Sir OhaHoi was defeated and sloiOf and hia 

on eat to pic>oee. Aa an illustration of the 

^M *ati tcnifii>r of tlic savage Ashautccs, it 

WM \m flKnlioned that they cut the heads of 

& Chorlw and Bcverol of hia officers from 

Adr ba£«i» and bavug seized tlin >-tecretary 

tt tk* OencnJ, Hr. Willianu. they conQnod 

Mni in a room where the heaila were kept 

l^qrabo Vata i i "i '' :irlt-)' body and look 

Hit lb heart, itivided i(, it waa 

_jt7*''- *■ ' *"iiemlis in order that 

llh^ tufi 7 imagined, imbibe bis 

tifwf. 1. ^. ^ .. liividg been dried, was di- 

tofcvtbcr witli hU buius, among the 

Ifl^alw of the army, who kept their respective 

iMm aliout their pofionij oa obarma to io* 

ifirc ihem w-i'h finniffir. 

JUmvt ' this period, in Sep- 

Ikafaor, . lil a ilix'Liive battle 

ifuvf^t. m ><lu'.ij LIiu British were victo- 
6 



rioos. ATDong the trophies was a hmnan 
head, cnvulopudf in a silk handkerchief, and a 
paper covered with Arabic characters; and 
over the whole T^aa tlirown a tiger «kiii, the 
emblem of royalty. On the supposition that 
Ihi^ was the head of the unfortuuatc Uuueral 
Mclj'arthy, it was aflorwariU sent to Kiigland 
bj Colouel Punlon ; but it woa really the 
haul of the old king Osai Tutu Quanuna, (a 
sovereign remarkable for his prowess) which toe 
new king carried about ivitu hitu us a charm. 
It id said that on the morning of the battle, he 
offered it a libation of mm, and invoked it to 
cause all the heads of the whites to come and 
lie near it ; and during the day, when intelli- 
gence waa brought to him of the death of any 
of his principal officers, he immediately, iu the 
heat of the battle, offered human sacrifices to 
thoir sbudcti. 

But the blow struck by the British was so 
decLsivo that the Aghantcc monarch had to 
submit t'> the terms imposed on him, which 
wcre^ tluit he should lodge 4000 ooneos of gold 
in the castle at Ca]w Coajit, to he appronriatud 
in purchaaiug arms and ammnnition tor tno Bri< 
liih allii^, in cuae the ^Vshontoea ahonM agaio 
cummeucc hoetilitiea ; and that two of the 
royal family of Aahfintee ehould be sent to 
Capo Cuudt OA hostages. To these terms he 
was obliged to conform, and in April, 1831, 
hii sou Uuatitimissaii, and his nephew AiiMk, 
an-ived at the Cucitle. These priooGs were 
kindly trealttd ; they rceeived a good education, 
under the direction of the African Oofflmiltee, 
by whom the British Government now coo- 
ductd the affiiirs of the Gold Coast; and 
through the faithful ministry of Rev. J. Duo- 
well, the first We&levan m'w^iouary to the 
Grold Coflst, Uicy bot^ became convinced of 
the truth and excellence of the ChrtattoQ relig- 
ion, the public pruft:%ion of which tbcy assumed 
during their sub<}e(|ueut visit to Englandr— 
Quautamiflsah receiving in baptuni the name 
of WilUam, and An«jih, that of John. They 
returned ti> Africa with the Niger Krpcditioa, 
and were accompanied to CoomaasTe bjr the 
Rev. T. B. Freeman, Wraleyan missionary at 
Capo Coast Castle. The favorable imprcsaioD 
pnMucod on the mind of the .Vohantoc monarch, 
uy these two princes, as well as by a few na- 
tive ChrUtiani who hud returned to Ooomasaie 
IVom Sierra Leone, to which they had booi 
carried us rescued slaves, by the British cniia* 
era, were tho* the meuiw employed by I'rovi- 
dence for openiiii; A-^huntti'. to the labors of 
tho Wcalcyan Mis^jionory P.xiiety. 

Here wo leave the narrative for the preecut, 
in order to glance at the work whicli liad pre- 
viously been begun in tite regiooa on the south 
of tlic iVuhautee kingdom nearer the sea. 
Between Ooomoauo and the South AUantio 
Ocean there are several kingdoms, as Asio, 
Acjunpiro, Akim, Foutee, Ac, over which the 
monarchs of Ashnntce formerly claimed supremo 
sovereignty. And it is hamiliating to refioci 



62 



AFRICA, WESTERN. 



that t hangh three Prul*»tant powrrs of Karope 
— the Ittinis, the Diilrh. oil') ifie EnylUh — hnvi? 
(nicccasively had intcrcourMi with Ibesc ami 
other parts of tiuinea for thrco tx'titiiriwt, yet 
antU u coinparativtfly laic pcrioJ, Imt few aAr 
tempts have hcfti miulo !<> commimicutc to the 
nttivc poimlntioD thu light mid bltssiugn of 
Chriitiflnity. lu the yew 1751, a clcrgynun 
of thi7 Church of Kng'Iuid vent out anuer the 
Society for the Proparation of the Gospel in 
Forcitfii PorU), to the dold Const, to sec vbat 
coold DO done in establishing a iniasion there. 
During' the four yeara of his sta^ ho officiated 
aa chaplain of the trooi^s and residents ut L'npc 
Coast CafitK>, bat was much diftoonragoil in hu 
Attempts to establish the faith of tlie Gospel 
among tho natirts. Hia health h&ving: failed 
heretni-ned to Euglnud in 1755, and pu^>lishc(l 
an account of his efforts. Bofnro- leaving, he 
hod sent home three native bors from Cape 
Oimst, who were placed by tuc ei>ciety to 
wtucb he belou^.'eu, in u scliuol in IsHngtOD, 
mtdcr the care of Mr. Hickman, with whom 
they ttJO reported as having mudi^ ronpidiTahle 
prolicieHcy in usefnl leorniDg, and in the knowl- 
edge of the Clirifitian religion. One of these 
youthit, of the name of Quaque, woi anerward 
sent to the Univeraiiy of Oxford, and baring 
onmpletc<] hia wlncation there, he rcotnvwl or- 
dination, and rctnrucd. to exerciae the ('hrutiiUi 
miiti'^tr)' in hiit native coontry. Ue was chap- 
lain ftt'Capc Coast Castle for more than fifty 
years ; but docs not a]i)K7ar to have boen in- 
atrumcutjil in turning any of his conntrymen 
to L'hriBtionily. Sot will this excitu surprise. 
when it 1h known that on h'\3 death-bed he 
gave evidence that he had at Icastt as much 
confidence In Ihe intlnence of the Fettsh, as in 
tho power of Christianity. The caw of this 
individual fnrniflbcs matter for grave consido 
ation on the part of those who are anxioos to 
promote the enlightenment and salvation of 
Africa. Jt yiehls no support to the tlioory of 
Christianizing htathen lomU, primarily or 
chiefly, by brmgiug natives to England or the 
Unit*;d Stiiteii, for edacatiou» with a view to 
their being employed u» the principal instruo- 
tors of tbcir countrymen ; and shows that if 
OD their rettu-u, they arc left to their own re- 
Murces, it is more likely that they will sink 
down again to the level of their former Btale, 
than that they will prove the rvgentralora of 
their conntry. InKtmctcd nntivcfl may main- 
tain their eoiisistencv, and act a useful part, 
where they are placc<i under the eye and (Erec- 
tion of the nibaionarieB ; but if they be thrown 
back into heathen Bocicty without sneh "Run- 
pwt» it ought not to excite surprise, should 
the result prove that tho time fxnd care cm- 
|rtoyod npon their culloxQ hove boon expended 
111 vain, Some ICngiigh chaplains, who wore 
sejil to the Gold Coast after tho doceoso of 
Qnuqiie, aucoefBirolv died soon oftcr their arri- 
val at Cape Coast Cuttle. 
About twcnty-foar ycara since, a mission 



mppart: 
atb. ni 



was commenced by the Bnsle Missionary SxiVfy 
ut DanL-di Akro, and in the adjoining > 
of Afluapim; but thi.H truly philanthr..'; 
dertakiug tbes not appear to hare mv.i \\'.\h 
the desired success. The missionaries encoun- 
tered opposition in qnarters where Ibey ooght 
to have found encouragement and Aip 
fiereral of them were removed by dcatf 
the last gorvivor, Mr. Riis, returned to 
in 1840. 

Such was the state of the GoM Co«t ahom 
the time that the prondcnce of God dirM-lc 
the attention of tho Wcsleyan W 
ciely to rt. It was in tho autumn 
the committee of this sttckiy were iiiduotd, 1 
a peculiar train of inviting circunislanctts' 
Rend a miaaionary on n visit of objiorvation 1 
tho Gold Coast A few native youths, who 
hod leiiniod to read the English Itl. 
the Bible, in the excellent govern i 
at Capo Coast Castle, became so iu^^ m -.. 
the contents of the aacred volume, tliat th 
agreed to meet at regular time« for 
nose of reoiiing it together, and of 
Inquiring into the namre and claims ' 
Christian religion. ITie formation of thb J 

teresting society took place in Oclot)cr, 183 

and, in the year \B33, "Williom Di Gii\ft, ontf 
of these native yuuthi, and who hiin.Mjlf hod 
begun to read the Scriptures jtrivalelv in '* 
Piiirit of prayer and inquiry, received at 1 
Ctnc, whei-o he waa then residing, a reqn 
from hia young fricnila at Cape Coast '" 
that he wonld engage some suitable y 
who might be proceeding to Kngtand, to [_ 
chase for their use n number of copies of 
New Testament Shortly after, the late 
ccUent Captain Potter, master of a mcr 
vcescl from the port of Bristol, arrived at Dh 
Cove ; to wlmm Do Graft apjilied as one like'" 
to execute with promptness and cnr« the ooi 
mission for th(i ptirchusc of the ficriptaif 
The captain was surprised at receiving r" 
an application from a native young man, 
b(?eame so greatly intercstwl by the iuToi 
which his questions elicited, that he ' 
ask whether tho instmctions of a 
would not be highly appreciated by 1 
Inquirers after the tnio religion? 
replied in the alfirmative, but Appear 

ful whether *> high a privilege was at 

Captain Potter next proceewd to Cape Oft 
whtTO he fiaw the other mcmbew of (lie me 
ing or goeioty, and, having consulted Pr 
Maclean, he returned to England, resolved 
exert himself, in order that, on his next 
age, he might, together with copies of 
scriptures, take out a Chrifitiaa miasion 
who should " preach the word " to those who 
were already nnitetl in set-king tlie way 
eternal Ralvurnm. and proclaim the gospel ' 
Christ to other ptirlinna of the heathenish r 
tive [Kipnlation of the Gob! Const. Immedi- 
ately after his arrival at Bristol. Oapt. Potter 
communicated to the Wcslcj'an Missionary 



AFRICA. WESTERN. 



lews as to the pro- 

__,--—-—. Iiy exertion in that 

leS, id^frencroQsty ofTercd to iakv. 

Iftiuuary witli Kim ou iho next voyafco, 

, m;Lku jK;nsunal observation aod in- 

i ill*' (ip«j( ; aii'i, should hu coDclude 

•QPii-pci van iini aocli as to warrunt 

I r(>nlinaano<^ for the ]>urpoeeof oommencing 

t oiiieioii. I'Hptdiij PottcJr cngag^ that id 

tlat m^ 1)0 wiuM brLiighiin rack toBoglund 

^^mt ftuj I'xpeiiMr to the miasioQiury society. 

^^ liiUu (iJIIt met with acceptance on tiie 

ftllc mii«ioaary commitI<«, and the Rov. 

T^lt DndwcU vaa selected for UioiDtcrcstiDg' 

rrrla.'- 

i '-•ioiiary mihurkcd with 
>I.Oet. 17th. 1^(31 The 
wu":y 1.1 journal sunitiontly indi- 

atiUrt 1 1' lich be cottTcil upon I;i5 

iHl'i-' - ' He landed at Cape 

[■"fc! ibout January 1, 1B35, 

imi _. _, -jte to Paflitlent Alftdean 

Unuo^ bim of his uxival. and stating the 
difflelseootruipiHted by the Wtaleyan MiMion- 
It CaauDittJX:^ in j^iMnlin:; him to that part of 
^^Ua Th'' rn^idt'nt irave him a kind rcfep- 
vijun^ men who formed 
[•■ ;' ihn Holy hfpriptnrcs. 

i'tit-w ' It r ■ ' ' ■ _ ' '»f 

T}i»?_v M i".- 

-'■' I' ''iMii:!- ii''-fi i\:-. iu:ii-;rvul 



fi' 



oty cod -i 
(Wpw^t a" 



'• oa ihu fir.^t Habltalh afttT hi- 

""* '^r tlu' coDgroj/ation to 

first licrmon, composed 

.il>ii\c imntiuned soci- 

iimrkti, ** The 

I : joy beamed 

i.tuiiv, uad wi(l&, "Ibcir gra- 

it bounds, and thvy si^, ' wc 

•if tli« mianioQariaa coming to 



cLiati «.'( p«r«on.^ bowpver, the fetisfi 
^^•odily tc>'ik the alarm, and luied tbeir in- 
to prevent ihc people from a" - '■■■■-■ 
Ka wiirahip. and many of thviir r^i 
rl.-- . .iuil,,7.-.l ri.)i(;ule and threats 1 . .;.. 
their fricndi and neigh- 
tbe (miliji nf the gg-ipcl. 
'■■ op|KKiitiou, the people 
; of Mr. I), lit Capi! Coaj^t 

Jtotuaboc, and other pliu.f!!) whieh 

|K^ And under the Divine blcsfiing, 
' ■ -inai of Chriatianity produced 
•tfoct on many niindfi, and 
' ' ' : r TORttMl in the 
ctl .11 stcftdily in- 

M .> '•■rroapoadcnce 

I tiine. Krir much BatUfactiOD 

•n in the ciue of a 
>i>T household godfl 
ill the prcacuce of 
kill' 

I Q most prombinfi; 
1 which pnblic 



• Will licLd in ' 



tuH'u proved 



too small, and a subseription waft eonimeticvd 
amon£ the ualivea for the er»?ctioQ of a £>uita- 
blc ^aco of worship. Mr. D-mwell had w- 
cnred great respect amonif all elai^-^ts of 
society, and was recciviujr applieatioiis from 
distant phias to afTord tiit^'ui also ihe hpiicfil 
of liis lanor*". But in the miiLnt nf the antici- 
pations which this hcipeful htatc of things io- 
s|)ircd, he was atiackea by fever, omler which 
be rank iu a few days ; and left the nucietics 
which he bod bcea' instrumental in fomiitig 
" as sheep without a shepherd," I le died J unc 
14, 1833. Upon his eying bed no word of 
discouragement or rofjret escaped his lipR. 
on account of his haviog so early ftaeritieed 
bij lifti in the miasioiiary enterprise ; but a 
qucnehleee zeal for the eauae of htH Ptvine 
Sfa^tcr sustained him to the lost, and all the 
aolicitode he manlP.'stcd was for the infant 
church furtned by his inatnimeutuUty. 

This afflictive dispeusatioa prodaced the 
deepest feeling omong all who took any Inter- 
est in the missioD. On tbo following momtng 
a nali\*e wroto, " Sad news in the town ; the 
ahepherd is taken away 1 The poor miasionary 
is dead I" Great mimiH^ra of the native people 
and the resident English geutlemcn atteDoed 
his funeral, nt which his Kscellcncy, the Pnsri- 
dent officiated. On the day after the fmicTol, 
the cliorch mot to take into coiisidcnition the 
painful eireninstaneiB of their bereavwl state. 
The iirtltsH manner in which u recnrd of this 
meeting was made in the ramutc>-bot:ik of the 
.Society, will host explain the conclusion that 
was adopted : " 1 met the class oa tmrpoge to 
know whether they wtmld continue lu ute pro- 
fcasioivs the^' hail recently entered into, or re- 
turn to their fbnncr ways, in con»xinencc of 
the death of their missionary? Tiiey eaid, 
Ifterj vrottid remam in the nett pro/wtf^n : /or 
thiiHgh the mmumary teas dmd, God /iwa.** 
Anotiier ai>peal witi forwiirded \o Ixtndon, 
which vras repiie<l to by the Committee in tire 
i-fwiuiment of Mr. Wriglcy and his wife to 
vacajit ptalion. They arrivol in Sept, 
L-'Ad. and were followed ntirt year by Mr. and 
Mrs. Harrop ; but in a short time Mrs. Wrir- 
ley sunk nnder tho hand of deotb, and botn 
Ju-, and Mrs. Hnrrop, within a few weeks of 
their arrival on the coasts were aitack'-yl by 
fi-^'er and in a few days after were both laid in 
the grave™ Mr. Wri'gley was but jurt recover- 
ing from an attack of the fever when he WBfl 
^wa^ved of Sir. and Mrs. Harmp. Bnt 
tboorh left atone he tolled on at the erection 
of uie largo new chapel, and preached the 
ff09pel till November, when he also was tukco 
ni and died. The arrival of Rev. Thomas B. 
Freeman aud his wife early in January, 1838. 
once more revived the drooping spirits of the 
native church. Mr. Freeman had zealously 
entered upon the dntiea of his misaion wh'Mthc 
was attacked with the MMsooing fever ; and 
while watching with solicjtmle at hi,-! Btek bed,^ 
, Mrs, Freeman was seized with a violent io " 



84 



AFRICA, WESTERN. 



matory complaint, which terminatod her rala- 
ablo life in a few hours. Mr. Freeman grada- 
ally recovered his health ; and from that period 
to the present, except during his occasionid vis- 



ita to England, has been engaged in the ex& 
cation of plans which hare contriboted great 
ly, under the Divine blcsmng, to the ei£urg&> 
ment of the miaaion on the Gold Coast 



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>-i««'«iae 



AFRICA, WESTERN. 



sd 



Mr. FVceman i» a colored man, and Uioagb 
' not boRi in Africa, ycl of African ponaitogc. 
He fcss rcTfivc! tlio beuvSts of a tliuroufih wi- 
^cz ■ •{ to iiis Krciit uutunil ubil- 

it>. iJ Ky a WAiI for C'kri»t and 

far Alij^ii. uUiLii liutjiiii]^ c4n cjiicnch, renders 
luB ftn Act-nt of prt.'etiiiui-Dt ability. Qn bis 
■ffivml i^.'' ■' ct in 183-S, hu found tliat> 
Dfjtiri'Ii^! lnTi'aveuit.'iiU which rk-uth 

toail nary ranks, the caiuc 

M iicrcusing prosperity, 

ty -.. . i--j local preachers and 

ila tewiorv, &^ tiiut there wcrv uvcr 4;>U 
dnrdi niL-iiiltjrJ icalU-Ted over the district 
t^ttTK V..< ! .<-:ii and their dovotcdafiBist- 

uiU tuwi . Thore wc-ro a]A) a few 

KkaU. with live ur six places of worship, one 
ur«fci[^ coaid hold from G to 700 pemons, und 
m rdl fiUul wlUi attenUvc hfurtre. The 
twrtapti »l Capo Coast waa Cfnifdctcd soon 
AcrUr. Freemau's recovery. This is proba- 
kAtbeUrgt^ placu uf worship out uf .Sitrru 
Uook, uo Uie vst coast of Africa ; niid ou 
Ik d»y of dodic4ti<^iQ it was orowiUnl to its 
emM oLpoeity by n deeply inttTtsitod cori- 
rnfittoo of Africa's sons and dauKhtcra. The 
(ra«d hiid Uxn iotroiiaced in ADniimalioe by 
iteUmrntol Mr. Oiinwell, and tlic claiinA of 
iVatiaoity »'-re finit introduced to the inhab- 
eutti of \Vinnebah, on thcuast of Cu|)C CimU 
Tirtm, )ty ■\VilIiam l>e Graft, who liiul now U^ 
'xal preaclicr and a useful u^'cn) of 
ly. Mr. Frwman bad also the joy 
K*iug ihc gospel CHtalilL^hcd and oxteiidoi'l 
a .Unk, ADd at Doinoua^i, Dix Cove, and scr- 
oll oUht places. But it is in comiccUoa with 
Id fisU tu Ashantcc (pronounced A»>Uui(j,) 
fttf 3iti. Krtuniui'tt name )iad cone ao pro- 
■Mittj before the public of btc years. 
Tbr itTT.tnry ovcT which the king of Ashun- 
'idiu^f the dependt-iicies of that 
much, if at all| iufL-rior in ox- 
i and Wales united. TTie pop- 
i.atni by Mr. Ik'echam at over 
4JISQJMHI ■, ntiUo tbo capital city, Coomasale, 
' Kunfoi,) 18 said to c^mtain at least 
- -rti. 'ITicy are a powerful rare of 
i^htful degree rccklcs of hanmn 
- .... of their manners and customs 
to be cxccc*led on earth for blootl- 
and brutality. Their monarchy id 
pQWtrfal — tlity Imvi n large army, of over 
men, wt-tt •linrijiiincd, and also great 
hich tbey dclif^Ut to exhibit in tmly 

' i"-(iplf< cinim a remote on- 

want of written records 

II be known of Ibeir early 

lin.tof Kong, on the north 

■■' '" '■ '' M-^f'd u suc- 

to! Moliam- 

^■1 i _. _ _ I z- through 

'^ in courve. l>itring, or 

t !' centnry, tJiat jHirtion of 

fm Nc^xu rauo which could not brwrk 



the Mohamniedau rule, took rt:fugo to tho 
south of this cfrcnt raouDloiu ratiiie, and have 
there maintained their independence lo the 
present duv- Among all tho ut-irro kintr<ir>ms, 
Ashantee holds the forfiu"x-<t pfacc; aud the 
fsinvcj-sion rtf nioh a )MN>ple to the faith of 
Chri.it, should it take pluce, would he " life 
from the dead " to ttie naltoos uruund thrm. 
And hcm.'c the BuriHw^itig- iiiler'.'-t which ut- 
tuchea to any ojH'niiijff for thtr IJo-ipel, however 
small, among thi-^ reniarkublc peoph^ (Sco 
Jshantee and (lie GolJ i'otnt.) 

Mr. Froeman felt the imporlaneeof attempt 
in^ to iutfoduce Christianity into A^hunte^* 
sod at IciigUi an opportunity odvicd , and 
leaviDg tbe mifwinn at Cape Coafit umlrr Ihc 
care of William De Craft, he madt* puiiaratinu 
for tlio arduoud undertaking. As an evidence 
of their de-irt! to spread the (tttspel umonu 
their couiitrjiuen, it may bci-e lie in«;Titi"»uefl[ 
that the nati^'e Chrbtians at Cape Cu:ist not 
only were wiliiug to n;lin(|uUh the bim-fiLs of 
their miasiouary's care tor sevvfiil nioullw, (bat 
be might i»iTfi»rm this nervice. but tla-y alsOJ 
contribute*! of their own little means' SliOtt 
toward tbo cxftensee of his joornoy. Reler- 
ring those who dcaire more information on thia 
interesting subject than the Umitx of tbbi arti- 
cle will allow, to the published Joumiili of Mr. 
Frccmnn, we will merely state a few fiicts ia 
wnelusion. He left Cape Ot>asl uri the 20th 
of Jajiuary. 1839, occoiujMinied by a fi-w nl-j 
lendauta, and, after being detained at variouffl 
towns along hiiii route by the Huper^tiliuus foanij 
of the Aslmnt<!e king, who could not comprM 
bend why a mii<dlonarv should want to see 
him and vi?il his capital, no stranger ever 
having gone tbea*. except to trade or coooludo 
a treaty, or for suime t»ecular object ; and yet, 
nnder the idea that Mr. Freeman mtis a pow- 
erful feti.ihman, whoite wrath it would Ix' im- 
politic to provoke, tho king at length gavo 
confient tJiat he might apprftach the capitaj. 
Mr. Freeman afterward learned, that previoua 
to leave being granted for \\\? approacli.u sn> 
rifiec of two human victim!* had been madej 
with a \-iew to avert any evil that might; 
without -inch precaution, result from his \isit 
Great preparations were miule for his reccf^ 
lion. At length, on tlie 1st of April, lie 
entered Coomnasie, and was received in tho 
tipaeious market place, by the king and his 
officers and army, with oiber*, to the amoost 
of over 40,000 persons. And there he Rtnod, 
the first hcTald of tho (iuwpel that bad ever 
entered the dark and blood-ataimsl capital of 
Ajihanteo to offer to it.-* monarcfi and it." iH-opJo 
the religion of purity iLnri ]K-aee. 

Tho king, thoogh kind, would not commit 
himdelf as to ihe establishment of Fch(fols luid 
a mission station in hi.-( capital, but re(iiu«tGd 
time to think of it, and wuthed )[r. Fr^K.'n>au 
to return soon again and be should give him 
an answer. After a delay of fifteen days, la 
consequence of a "custom" for a dcaw 



86 



AFRICA, WESTEHK. 



relative, tn Trbr«0 sbodo 4) hwnan beings were 
sacriliiitl in two dajR. nhilc Mr. F. vus tfaei«, 
1m> iTiu allowed to dq>axt; hnriuK striTcs to 
GOirununieaU' lo the mODtticli and nis couqkI- 
lorn, 03 far aa tht'v were digpoeed to give bim 
audiciK^, ttD Hill 'an eitpasition af tbe Uospel 
U he poa^lj could. Ue erideotlv mude » 
good impreadoQ at Ooomoasie, ntnJ thou;?li the 
door wag not opened, yet, by his being kindly 
received in liis arowed diiaracter aa a nuasioD- 
ary. it^ bolu hod been drawn, and be hoped a 
futiuv Tisit would result in a free ncasB for 
the Got-iwl. The publication of Mr. F.'a joiir- 
ml groatK' increased the inlcresl alrcmly cxist- 
ID^ on behalf of Anhautw, and u l^-cial fund 
ot 825.U(K> wo-s Koon raised to open a mission 
in that king^dom. Aceompanied by the two 
Af'htinli'c priMC(«, who htul jiist returned from 
Kiipliiml, iho yonn^ffHt of wlioiii is heir l<i ihf 
tl»i'i>iic, Mr. Freeman sot nut on a second viMt 
to Cooniaasie in November, lb41. lie wtw 
kindly roeeivod. and pueceedi.'d in oblainins; 
prouod for a miasion-house mid perniLssiou ti» 
ertabliah a school, and have tbetiottpel preach- 
od In tbe streets and market« of 0(>omii.<¥ie 
wilbodt any restraint And though little boii 
IS yet Ikwu aecompUshed in the way of ^ath- 
erinp a cbnrch, j-ut the fart that ten or twelve 
hundred persons Btatodly attend OhrisUaa wor> 
ship in the capitul of Ashancoo is cause of 
grtf&t encotirii^'ineoV and we look forwanl 
with hojw thnt thi.s citadel of the Powen* of 
Darltiiftyj will yel bo sarreudcrod to the Cap- 
tain of our 8ulvAtt')0. 

In addition to introducing the gospel into 
Ashanteo, Mr. Freeman was enable] the next 
year to visit Sotleke, the powerful chief of 
Abbeoknta, and obtained permieBion to jircaeh 
the gospel and open a school in the capilul. 
WbioB Mr. F. conaiderB to be larjjer tiijin even 
Ooonuumc; so tbat there are now rbristian 
minions in Ashautec. Badiurry, and Abbeo- 
knla, besideii Cape Coast Town, Dii Cove, 
Anuamaboe, Domonaal, Akra and other im- 
portant jilaei-ii. Tlie queen of Jabin also, has 
lately aj^ied to Mr. Freeman, \*ery caniestly 
roqui^ng bim to establiah a miaaioa in ber 
dominion.^. 

Baduf^ and Abbcoknta have been deseri- 
bod by travelers, partinilarly by Xam/er, aa the 
seat of Ibe most sani;;innnr}' rapentitioos, and 
the scene of tbe wont atrocities aod cmelticji 
of tbt! »lavo-tradf ; and yet even here Imro the 
returnt^d and christianized cmiffmnUj fr»)ra 
Sinra Ijcone been kindly received by tbe 
• savage munarcli. and tbe foundation of a Cbrifi- 
tian rlnirth bi-^tn laiil. But for further infor- 
mation wf must rtifer the reader to the foregi> 
bjr tJiblcs. Au institution for training- a 
UAtivo niiniatry is in operation at British Akra, 
under tlic care of Mr. Wharton. AH the re- 
ports for l^^3 from this district speak of the 
coutiimeil profiperitv of the work in highly 
gralifyiiig terms. A recent letter of the gen- 
eral Huperiniendeut says : " Never has the work 



of God in this district been knowTi to assume 
so cheering an arpect. Tlie infloencc of Chrifr 
tianity b rapidly extending itaelf into the 
terior. All the ont stations, exce|)l pcrb 
Kumaa, are in a healthy, vi^^oroiig, and It 
ishing condition — the pastoral v'mtg to 
stations in the interior delicht ns v ' 
are means of (rnice lo ourselves." 
goes on til exemplify thii latter tui.iu. :il 
the dftails of a recent journey takt-u for tie 
dooblt? purpose of opt'ning a new naiive chapel 
at Abuu'ii, whidi baa btren built by the chief 
(if that town, at his own expense, and prcecat 
to the mi°»ion, and of lavioi; the founoatioo \ 
a chapel nt Dunquak, wiiere the Gospel u 
tending its power ajnon;j the people. — Wol 
tju Mfs-sjotmry Notiass. Annvnt Reports, on J I 
Anmuji MiiiMtts ami lUngazmc,- Fox's ffittt/r 
MmiQus on the (fcrf Coiia of Afhoi ,- JWbi* 
Mi.isionnrij Mrmf'riaistf WttUrn Africa ; Blu 
hardi'i MnttuaJ nf Missionary Hutory and 
oj-ni/»Ay ; and Bccrhtwi's Amtmtcc aivl tA« ' 
Ctvw/.— Rev. W. BctlKR. 

Amkiucas B.mtist Misgios.iRT Usiojr-- 
Tliii miosion \s restricted to that part of 
coaal of Africa known as Liberia, and to 
rCaam tribe of ita iubabitauts, a people oc 

f»yingastrtpof the coast, ninety mdcs in lenj 
ying betwet^n Junk river and the rivrr Scsl< 
extending nearly seventy miles in the interia 
They are suppt)Si'd to be abont one hund 
and twenty-five thousand in number. 

The first miaBionariea wui by the Board 
Africa were Rev. Uitt Can-y an<l Rev. CoD 
Teage.two colored men, who were onl " 
Richmond, Va^ in January.l821,an<l80 
wunl.« galled for Liberia as emigrants 1 
American CohmiCTtion Society. This i 
had then no colony upon the coast, and ] 
Cun'v and Toago weat to Freetown, in tbtj' 
Knglwh colony of Sierra I/xme. Id February. 
18!ri,thcy removed to Monrovia, a scftlc 
planted by colonists from America, and 
menced Ihfir labota as missionaries. Duriji 
the following year a church was formed 
BIX pfnM>n^ were added to it by baptism, i 
in 1824 nine more were baptized, and n liou 
of worship wa-s erected. ()f this cburc 
Carey liet-ame the pastor, his associate 
meanwhile rcturnctl to Sierra Leooobl 
wiLs a man of nnnsual intvlligence and I 

of cbaructpr, and his career was one of 1 

nficfulness to the people of his race, with whom 
he was brought in contact on the shores} of 
A Wen. ~ 

Earlv in 1825 Rev. Calrin Holton was 
|iotntccl to this mi.«ion by the Board, and i 
for the Americau colonics which bad 
planted on the coast. He had, however, sc 
ly arrrived, whtn he fell u victim U) the 
which in thiit climate M-ldom fails to attocH 
Europtyiiia from other lalitudtw. MconwhiU^ 
the miwion was su-^rtained by Mr. Carey with 
the aid of two or three pious assistants' whom 
ho fonnd among the enngrauts. De provitli ' 




ovi^le^^ 



AFRICA, WKSTEBN. 



87 



I of the nsourcet hy vhich it vu kept 
Ibr am oUoiTftacu of tbu Boanl was ut 
BC, 11VV ADittU, luiil guvu dmclioD aD(j 

" ■ , ' .-. The»o em- 
Monrovia, ubvi 
■ ir^l, e^pcciflllj' 
!■ .n'f».'d and 

|«U' ;..vr. 1820, he 

1 mkJ 'l"nv. atid tnb- 

»{>' , I , Asliinun to 

tk* I'nitKii Mati^, ho wm ikpiioinlt-d for the 

'mbcritn tn *hr po.-t tif p-ovcHJor. the duties of 

wt ■ : lit tlie time of hU 

4».i ':ij4 bail l>ceD mule 

ij ui lilt: L-olniiv by iiomo na- 

' LiTcyhod called out the troojitj, 

iiw viLi mamntr urrantr'.-nu'Utrf for its dt'fwiBC 

vWn Ibe sMJcidviitnl i.'jL{i)<>sion of u lar^t' mutufi 

.j^ — -,.,1. . ,,.1.1 ...]y |„|( jnQ ^.qJ i^ hia lift.', 

:> alb the t-hiirch of which 

....ii!ii:-d a hundred meml>ors. 

d to the chargL' nf Mr. Teago, 

utn] friim Hifrru I>m>iio, uud of 

ii{. t>[ic of itri uiciuUts lately (inluiuL'd 

The a^cauics which Lad bceu es- 

\(r. CoriT, long survived his 

Tilled lo bltas the race for which 

'*■ . Iiurch at Monrovia soon 

• d member?, and the in- 

a- I were e^xtcuded to tlie 

to- f whom nearly a hundrctl 

■e. ^.1 ..;Lii luL' several ehurchcu of the 

b 1830, R«v. BeDJamin Skinner was ap- 
■Dtal ft niLoiionary to xVfrica, and arrived at 
ihnniPriA irith his uniily in December. Soon 
Aj their nrrival they vrere all prmstruti.'d 

*ift *V frTtT uf the coast, aud iu the conrae 

\,' six montha they all fell vic- 

.igvs, Mr. Skiunt-r himself dy- 

,, poffia^c to the United States. 

>.stroQS lasuGs of tho atleinptii of 

[ tlciy inissiouiiries in A frica, 

I '•■fore any re in for ct men I 

'-■'.^^. LO lu: u..-.-iMn. DuriDg the iutcn'al 

toniacl was prtacheil, and public worship 

■Ithi ..f-KiiiiMi-.. ..f reli;f ion wore maiutuiucd 

If j re uppointwi from among 

m 'l\r most c/»nspicnous 

•^i. ■ , il . I itlready namcl, 

ftr . ..vi.-..ij. Uvv. John Lewis, 

ikv. iiuury 'ita^ri-' a^n of Collin Teage. 

ItfelW ^moiLTof 1^31. Dr. Kzi.-kie) Skinner, 

' 'Ilc mi'^ti'itiary, w>:il tu raside iu Li* 

h.ul bi>t-n a ]>1iy.i'.-itw, ood ali4 a 

I I" - iii.i now emifpntcd 

' r philuntliropy to- 

' - -U hia 8011 had 

nan was sub- 

i i-jcertod boUi 

■ in favor of 

i^ixta it wag iu- 

. W. G. Crocker and Rev. W. 
Kjtot *4i'4\U Lbumfielvea to tiie Bo&rd, nud 



toed hib^life. 



were appointed mianonancB to Africa. Their 
proposal was a noble sacrifice, which the man- 
agera, though they did not feel at liberty to 
solicit it, yet were unwilling to dtK:liue. Thtn? 
wire pexM)iis of education and of high r(UaHl(- 
catioiis for llie service to which thev devoted 
themselves. IV-v sailtsd from Philad* ijilii^ 
on the lUh of Jufv, 1B35, and arnve<l -afUrT a 
brief passage, at ^lonrovia, and immediately 
repaired to Mtllaburg, a town in th<] vicinity, 
in order lo go through with the procesa of 
acclimation. They were soon all attacked with 
the fever of the coast, which fcrminatwl tho 
life of Mr* Mylue, tlie only lady of the com- 
pany. Mr. Myln« and Mr. Crocker, though 
with reduceil Kirength, were soon able to enter 
upon their labors as missionaries, and fur this 
(jurpose tlif'V selected, witli the advice of Dr. 
tjkinnor, Kifina m the place of their rcjndcnec. 
This was a aetth>menl of the CoKiniaiti«>n .So- 
cieties of Pennsylvania and New York, at tho 
mouth of tho Mwrklin rivei-, opposite Baaai^ 
Cove, the principal trading place of the Uasm 
tribe, a numerous pei.>ple whoi»e language was 
widely spoken along the <wut and in I he ii>- 
terior They began to acquire the language, 
with the aid of a youug Ci.JonL'it who eo^d 
speak both Baasa and £ogIiah. Iliey made 
Inemsclves acquaiutotl with the poople'of the 
country byge^'cral excursions into the interior, 
and at the same time preached and cstahliKlied 
ttchouU among tho emigrant colonists; both at 
Bossa Gove and Edina. At the former place 
n house of worehip was erected by funds which 
they collected, and during the year 1336 Bix- 
tecD persons were bapii7x>d and added to the 
church of which Mr. Mylno'wos temporarily 
the pastor. 

During the same period, also, Mr. Ooeke* 
was able bo far to master the language as to 
prepare a spelling-book and small vocabulary 
uf words and phrases ; to which was also ap- 
pended a brief outline of the factji of divine 
revelation. These were printed in December, 
laStJ, and contnbatcd very perceptibly to tho 

firogrcm of the schools and to the general intel- 
igcncei of the tribe. It was not till June, 1B37, 
that the miHsiou buildings at E<lina were ready 
to be occupied, and at this time the mis^ionfr- 
rics, who bod eofferod repeatedly iVom attacks 
of disease, established themseiTOB there and 
commenced their work more immediately 
among the native ixipnlation. They bad also 
fre<incntly visited a district up the river, whoso 
chief manifested so great interest in their 
labors, that in October. 1837. Mr. Crocker 
took up his residence at Madcbli. the princi- 
pal village of the detrict. The chief's nome 
was Santc Will, and be claimed to be an im- 

}K>rtant patron of the missiou, and wag the 
irfet (o entrust his soiu to the care of the mis* 
mionaricM. The number of children now scut 
to the Bi-hool at Edina vaa quite as large oa 
could bo provided for, and many of them wra* 
MM of the principal chieb among the Bosas ; 



Hie son of king Kobcr being the most promi' 
nent, both for iutolligcnoe and for eicalcnce 
of ciiwTictcr. 

The misaiou at Ediiia wiu now fully eetnb- 
Ushud, bot itn horoic couductore, though ihfrv 
appear to liave tftkcn a most hnpi^lul view of 
tficip condition and prospecUi, yet ftxind thcni- 
aelrt^ in thi-' luidst of i^norauo' und Rltipidity, 
of Je|fradingr snpcrstili^ms and Itnitiil wronps, 
(turh Bs ronld scarcely have bwn found In any 
oUicr portion of the world. The coluuist5 in 
the ncigbborinfr scttk-tucntB ofU'ii presented 
an t-xainplc and excrled an influence most un- 
friendly to the Interesis of the niiseion ; while 
the natives of the coAAt wcro ro debased by 
barbarian paflsioiu,and so brutalized byaoper- 
gtttiouii, as hardly to be capable of onnipre- 
hcndiog spiritual trulli. In addition to Ui'm, 
they wen; near the marta in which the horrid 
traffic in slaves was constantly carried on. in 
many instances by the very persons to whom 
they were eng^aged in preurhinj: the (fOspel. 
They, however, were not difihtartcned. and 
eveii prepared to extend the inlinene*; of the 
mitisirin to other tribes, both on the coast and 
in Oie interior. 

In Jiinuary. 1838, tliw mission w»s 8tr«ij?th- 
ened by the arrival of Rev. Ivory Clarke and 
his wife, who, HO soon aa they had rvcuvcpo] 
from the acclimaling fcvcr-^which with them 
Was unusvially mild— entennj upon the Htudy 
of the lanpua^'e and the performance of sueli 
lalwre aa their inexiicrienco would admit. The 
pro«poct6 of the miKiion were brightened by 
thU arccffiiou, but only for a brief season ; fnr 
Mr. Mylne, who bod suffered from re[H'atcd 
fevers, in the following May was obligei] to 
return to tJie United States, and with a consti- 
tution hopelessly shatteretl, to withdraw from 
the service of the Itoard. The station at Edina 
wos now committed to the care of Mr. Clarke, 
aasigted by two of the emt^fmiit colonists; 
while Mr. Crocker still dwelt at Mndebli. en- 
gofivd in preaching, teaching iu the schools, 
and tran^Iutinp the Scripturw; in tho latter 
of which he wu« aiwiMttrd by the voijiik print* 
already mentioned, the son of kinjj Kobt-r, the 
prcat chief of the Uassas. In Soptcuiljcr, \>*30, 
the mission welcon]e<] to Edina, Miss Hizpoli 
Warren, a lady who had l>een appointed by 
the Uoard a missionary teacher, rlarly in tlie 
following gammer die was married to Rev. AV. 
O. Crocker, and went to reside with him at 
the village of Madcbli, where tthe vtua 8O011 
attacked by the lieree fever of the climate and 
died iu eight davs. on the 2Blh of Angost, 
1840. Mr. Crocker was first attacked, but 
recovering from the imme<iiate violence of tho 
diseaae, he waa able, after the death of his 
wife, to cficape to Cape Palmas, and thiw to 
prolong his life by a change of climate. Thus 
enfbcbled by diaeaso and dcprecsod by sorrow, 
he returned to Mudebli in October, and ng«in 
entered upon the labors of ihe miision, Eurly 
in 1840, Messrs. Alfred A. Constontiuc and 



leof 



Joseph Fielding ofitrcd theiMGtra to 
Board as missionaries either to the iree< 
cooiit or to the interior of Africa. An ijn_ 
siou at tbut time prevailed that the climate 
the inti-rior might be found less injurious t« 
Kuro|}ean constitutioiw tluui tiuitnf tin- . ,! 
and the Brilii^h government was prepm : 
esi)edition to ascend the Kiger for the piu] 
of introducing among the tnbes of tho coon' 
the arts and Uie commerce of Europe. In 
cordancc with this impression, and the ho| 
ivhich were iiippired by the Niger expedJtii 
the new missionaries were spcciully di-signal 
by the marui^TS to the coiintrv lying 
that river, llicy aooordingly saifcd witli 
wives in September, 1840, and reached Edi 
on tho 3f\ of December; and hero they de' 
miuLHl to pass the period of their aeclimati< 
and also to await the results of the ex^wdi 
that was about to ascend the >> igcr. 

The Afrirnn fever wwn seized them with 
accnsionied violence, and within six weeks 
their arrival, both Mr. and Mrs. FielULi 
came its vicUni.^. Mr. and Mrs. O01 
though they survived the fever, were 
nnablu to ungnge in tbo labors of the mi 
They reniaineil at Kdina, hoping lo 1 
their health by nuiking excursions along" 
coast, and iu which they were also abw 
ext^-nd their ucquuinlaucc with the characi 
of its pc-ople. Mianwhile, the Briti.sh ex 
lion made its disastrons passage au tlie NV 
laic in tho summer of 1841. 'Ae friRfat 
destruction of human life which attendivj 
nod the rc^luced and disabled condition 
which it returned to the const pnt an end 
the liojH^ with which it hnd bci*n undertak 
of fiuding a more sahihrioiis climate iu 
interior. The design of establishing a bi 
of the iniHsion there wos entirely abandon 
Mr. Coustuntine, no longer able to endure the 
climate of Africa, returned with his wife la 
Ammcn in June, 1842, and soon a(U* di 
solved his connection with the Board. 

In July of the preceding year, Mr. Croci 
iu coiifliHpicMce of declining health, hwl 
turned to the United Htatts'. lie had left 
mission with the utmost reluctance, at what 
him was the period of itt greatest interest 
promise. Much goixl hud Ikx'u accomplished 
schools had been established, and were largeJ 
altondwl ; prejndiccs and suivrstitions ni 
been overcome ; and more than all, the power 
the go^cl had been dis]iIayod in the couwrsii 
of several of the natives and a large nnmber 
the emigrants. The churches connected wi th tfai 
mission were multipljeil and enlarged, and tl 
uiembers hu«l begun to appreciate their olili-' 
gallons to sjiread the gospi-l nmong those who 
knew it not, A net? stjitiou was also istab- 
lish(Hl at Hexley, a little town vu ti^ie Mecklio, 
six ntih« from Edina; and a printing ]in.<aa 
had been received, and a printer ouir was 
wantixl in order to jmt to prras Beverol por- 
tioDs of the New Tcatnment, and other roloum 



AFRICA, WiSTERN. 



89 



iHiIcb thfi ailatfoamriea hmA pr^jored iu tlic 
BftOTK longu&OT. Mr. Crocker, in haetcniiig 
M far felt obltp^l to do io onlvr to save 
lOKiit of Ilis oorr-fhleil contitiCutioii, wiut 
to abandon all tbcM; iiitcrrats and 
if^^' ■ - wSk'h he hud long waiclied 

«i' -t <«rt\ AflCT his de|Hirturc, 

Ibl flQilh- «''iHrgc of the miauion devolved upon 
Sl kmI Mn. Chirke, who had under their 
SaOiaa Ihree or foar maiBtantd eiuj^oyed 
^lAvMtechenor preftchcTB. 'llicprcaBwas 
MlaofmUon in Hqitcmber. 1842. under the 

SbEodence of & printer obtained rrom tlic 
•ail BCTtirkl books were prlott.'d for the 
, and *ho for circolatioa uooog Uie few 
tbeodd read. Two schools were muiutaio- 
Amt ftt EAintk and one at Bcxicy, oantain- 
Of, top^tiior, about 90 pupila, of whom 55 
vca. Companies were olao assembled 
c ffUtioM on the Sabbath, and often 
^' ninpi dariupr the wook, for in- 
doctrincs of the Bible and of 
-J. Au out-stutiou WM estab- 
i"8 tijwu, a larjre vilU;je 30 or 
inlcrior, at which the chief 
lid n «chool-hoa'^.<, and to mn- 
, if Mr. Clarke would provide 
M. TWk:1hk>1 was begun byayoungnatin?, 
•* )aA (nr «RTeral j-eors been uudcr the iu- 
iai»iiouarics. 

a rraching- the Unitixl States, 
t*c*^:fw.'<l uJl iiopo of ever rt-turoing' to the 
ttMn,lk) sbatttTL-d did hi^ con:!titutian ap- 

£IOhaTP tK-comr. He howovorwon betook 
it In clii< ^^outh, and uftrr a residence of 
■ml nonths in a more friendly climate, he 
huA fainadf ■» fnr rc8(on.'<i (bat he acaiu 

Ktrd himM'lf to tho BoanI and a^ked lo 
1 WHc tn hi>f ptncG in the mi«ion which 
bM Wrni sn wcl). lIis proposd wun gladly 
<BfiiBtei and b*- siiilcU fruiu Bcj^ton. January 






. *vuttf«-)hy with ifra. CrockiT, he 

Klh la little timn before to 
IT ume. of Xewburj-port. 
bc' 'Ml Uk' 2-Uh of February. 

MnB(l\ ■ lienllJi; but i>u the m^- 

•■417 a^U:< iM- .1. . :.al, while enf^i;c'd in the 

•rrioai of iht! pulpit ut Munrovia. he was 

iMAv mixed with u viulcfit henuorrliaj^'c of 

fatfttmaclk. and died after an illne}^ of two 

^ff%. lirt Udl of ihb rare mlfisionary, in a 

l^ua unczpocted, fvcmoil to blight the 

|napn-t« nf th<? rainioD and almost to exlio- 

pae -■ of ilti frientk Scarcely had 

tb 'f h'lfi return been Ppreatl ulunjr 

lh«r :' i' ..f his death carriol 

:Lud ulnnxst ever)* 

ttttuaa;. in- *^.i-^ ii ii(i--.iJtjuar)' of truly ap<)«- 

tftaop. ukI his name dc^^Tvoi to be on- 

H ....,...., tI..-- !'..r...T.,^( of the heroic men 

liurch have braved 

__.i _. _ ,: -.imficwl life itself 

I ' odit of iho benighted cbihlnm 



tJ A' 



<;ivelu!r, thus oarly widowed on the 



desolate ^ore of a distant oODtineiit, attached 
herself to the fuuiily of Mr. aud Mrs. Clarke,;^ 
Ht ]*>dina, and immediately ».'t slKiut pi'e|)ar> J 
iii(? for the Inb<irs c>f the mission, on which she 
waA 8IXJII uble (o enter. In January, 1845, the ' 
nrincipal station was removed from tMina lo 
Bexley, u locality deemed more fuvoruble io 
health and nearer to the Bussa peuple : but a 
sulHirdiimto elation wan still miiiiitaiut-d at 
Edina and new (mt-iiiLutio[i<i wero eouimenced 
at Zuzo and at Little Bu^sa, the laller nnder 
the charge of the young Chief Kong KoKt, 
or as he now chose to ntylc lumM'lf I>rwls 
Kong Crocker, in honor of ilislameuted teach- 
er. At these ceveral stations the uwtstants, 
under the guidance of the missionary and of- 
ten aesoeiaii'd with him. preached the Gospel 
to the people. The ludiett of the iniiVilun worn 
engaged in schooht, a'hile Mr. Clurkc employed 
himself OS mnch as possible in translating the 
Scripture*!, and preparioi; books for im>tru<"ling 
the nntivcH in U;.c-ful and religions knowledge. 
lie compiled u dietiouury of the Hnssu hui- 
guage, and translated the go-^poU and some of 
the epistJcs of the New Testament, which by 
the close of 1H4C were ready for tho pressj 
but which appear never to have been pub- 
lished. 

Tlio health of Mxa. Crocker was rapidly 
declining, and after one or two unavailing voy* 
ages along the coast she wa'i obIige<1 to aban- 
don the mission and return to tiiis country. 
Mr. aud Mre. Clarke' who hod generally been 
blessed with better health than their a^>ciates, 
now b^an to experience the injurious effects 
of that }>cstileQtial climate. Mr. Clnrko had 
often rejuvsented tho condllion of the mis*ion. 
and apiK'uIcd iu tlio miet earne*t manner for 
its relief, but none had offered themselves for 
the perilous service, and the fiolitary mt^wioiK 
ary, fearing that if he went away, all would bo 
lo<;t, determined to remain at his post uutil his 
ability to labor was entirely exhansted. He 
carried forward the work of translating tho 
Scriptures and preparing hooka; he iocreased 
tho number of the schools, and perfected their 
ur^^aniiULtion, and in all the rilUgc^ of the 
trirte he preached the goejK-'l luid urgo«l the 
[►eople to repent and be converted. Tlusc la- 
bors were attended with moet bencQclal resnlts. 
The morals and manners of the people were 
greatly improvwl— all the interests of civtlizo- 
liun were promoted, and many of the natives 
in the villagon where the missionary had 
preached, embraced the Gospel and were bap- 
lilted in accordance with its reqniremcntB. 
Hut the life of tlie missionary was rapidly 
wearing away ; yet, though repeatedly nrged 
by the Kxeciitive Committee to retarn to the 
Uuilcd States, be lingered at bis post in tho 
hofw thai sonie one would at length come to 
lake his place. The hope was corwtuutly defcT" 
red, and without its bfcing realized he wiis pros- 
traled by disease, aiul compellwl to leave the 
mis»on,*in April, 1848. He died aiTer a bv 



AFRICA, WESTERN, 



davB, at MO, oa )ii8 passogo to America^ on the 
26lli of tbe same niODth. 

Thiw ttrmiiitttcJ WKithcr period of efibrt 
and trial, of hope aotl of disftppointmcnt for 
tlio ]:t{LftBa people — aworlliy succoaion of noble- 
hearted men bad laid down tbcir lives in the 
eervicu of tb© mhaioD till now nono were left 
to carry forward the plana which bod iK-en 
formed and the labora which hod butn bogun. 
Mra. Crockw and Mrs. Clarke of ncceasity re- 
mained in tiie United Statcfl, and the intcrcsta of 
the mL=Bion were committed wholly to tliecare 
of native oBsiHtanls. Tbe station at Bcjtler 
wjiB ])laeed under the charge of Kev, Jacob 
Vonhrunn, assistul by two tx^achtTs. while that 
at Little Bona was suptTJuloudiTd by Lewis 
Kong Crocker. Tbo echooU at both were main- 
toinml, awl were well attended, Fiililic wornhip 
WM also held on the Subbnth, and each year 
witnessed some acctssion3 to the native church. 
Tho asastants proved theniaelvcs to be men of 
fidelity and diBtTCtion, but the ml-wion, as was 
to bo anticipated, was shorn of ita energy by 
the borcarementfi it had sustainwi. 

After many unsuccessful iiltcmpts by the 
Bvord to revive tho mi-«ifiii, Rev. Messrs. J. 
S. CJiiodiniiii aud IT. B. Slierraer, were ap- 
pointed for this purpuse, and sailftil with their 
mmilits and ^trs. Crocker, from Norfolk. Va., 
Novcijiber 27, 1852. They nm-hwl Bcxlcy 
on the 15lh of the follomng: January, in e.v 
cclleot health, und weru welcomed by tho na^ 
live assistants and the Christian disciples with 
enthusiastic delight They f.nind that the pro- 
perty of the minion hail been carefally pre- 
scrvetl by tho asristants ; that the schools and 
tho public worship, on tbe Subhatb, were still 
well siwtaiiied, ami that the jtersons who had 
rpprettiMital tlu^ Bunrd, during on interval of 
moro than four years, had commanded tbe con- 
fidence and respect of their countrymen. Mrs. 
Crocker immcdiatoly pnt in requisition her 
previdu!) attainments in the tungunfce nnd 
knowhulge of the people, in rc-orgnaizing the 
misfiioD, and the other members entered upon 
8uch laUirs on their circuiQBtauce8 wonid per- 
mit 

Bat the period of prnsnerity was again dcs- 
tmed to be short, ami us Vefere, so now again, 
the little missionary band wa^ goon to be in- 
vadn) by death, and to be Iwreftof moretbnn 
half its mouibors within a year of their arrival 
in tbe coootrr. Mre. Shermer dial at Be.x!ey 
in SeptemUT, 1B53. nnd Mrs. Crocker al Mon- 
rovia, in No\'ember of tho siune y*«r. Mr. 
fihejmei- was no reduced by repeated uttackR 
of dLseasQ that he wu fOOD obliged to rctom 
to the United States. Mr.suid Mrs. Ooodmon 
nre m-w the only missionaries remaining to oc- 
cupy tbo statiomi, and prosecute the labors of 
the miajino. aud the Jieiilth even of those has 
be;ftiu to yield bL-neath the noxioas climate 
thia perpetually reigns alon^- thai pestilential 
OVtBl. — Stc ProftMCtr ihMnnuU'i History of Am. 
Baptist Missioni.^-Viu)i\ "W. GAiacELL. 



TABCLAB TIBW. 



STAXIONS. 



.i>d 



kt 



ilicn, 



Arovrlmui. 



Dwiej'...."7T 

LtUlfl Bam / 

Tolbl.... 



16U 



'1 



£ 5 



<! IT n n 



■A I ZilTl 31 I Ul 



AMSRirAS ]*KKSnrrEKIA!f MlSSIOSB.-'niCT 

sioDs of the Board uf Mlssioni* uf tho On 
Asaombly of the Frc-sbyterian Church in 
United States, (0. H.) in Africa are fonnd 
LiBKRJA, — at Monrovia, Sinop, Kentucky, a 
Setlni Kroo; and near the Kquntor, on 
island of Coristo. These are tM'o distinct i 
eionory fieldK, distant from each other md 
than a thousand miles. Vjkch bos its. own f" 
tares of interest, and both arc highly imj 
tant spheres of Christian benevoleucc. 

The mission to Liberia was commenced 
1932, bnt huii been repeatedly 5UFp«-'Ddc<I, j 
account of the death or the return to 
country of the missiouariea. The Hev. Me 
John 'B. Piimey and Jo^fph Barr were 
hretluren Grft aiii>i:'iuted to tria field. M.r. Barr 
was called F.uducidy to his re^t by au attack 
of clmlera in Riehraond, Va., while ou hiawH" 
to embark for Africa. His rcmi>val was a i 
rlous loss, as be was a man cmaliQcd by na 
and grace for eminent usefulness. 

ftfr. Finney pruceedcd alone on his missia 
and arrived 'at Monrovia, in February, 1B3 
After a few mnntks fipent in making tliei 
site inquiries and arrangements, he retuiJ 
a visit to this country to conft-r with the^__, 
mittee concerning the plans of tho raiand 
nnd to enlist recruits f"r ita wrvree. Previa 
to liiH return, two brethren had been acccpti^ 
03 missionnrii^a for tliis field ; and in N'on 
bcT the missionnry company, consisting of ' 
Rer. MesTs. Pinuoy, Laird and ('loud, wi^ 
Mrs. Laird, and Sir. Jnmes Temple, a cole 
young man, who waa n candidate for the i 
istrr. embarked at Xorfolk fnr Liberia. 
aurfMre. Laird nnd Mr. Cloud were called 1 
their rest within a few months after their ; 
val nt Monrovia, leaving a memorial 
piety singularly pure and derotcd. Mr. Ten 
pic rctiirued to the United Btatca, und if 
Finney was again left alone in the missia 
For a timo he discharged the dutii-s of Gd 
crnor of the colony with great beoeGt to aU i 
interests; but withdrawing from this po«ti 
soon na it was practicable fnr him to red, 
ita duties, he n-sumed his niisiaionary labo 
Having l)een joined in SeptenitKT. 1P34. 
Mr. J. F. C. Fintey, Mr. Pinney had a hoq 
bnilt for the use of the mis^ii'n on a sii 
farm, at MilUburghr a few miles fmni Mo 



AFRICA, W£ST£SN. 



91 



|V(k One or ivo colored asisUuits were ca- 

Kid w teachers for ifiliooh among tlio 
*a : aoil Mr. K. Trtlcr, a culoii'd niun imd 
I^Siaaitd (4«iu')K>r, ffiui eiui>l<>y(-<l utii-<nt: tli<« 
"■ , ft native ^ribe. ai a etaiii'h s-.-Iim in] t.y 
Xk. riuoc^ oD the St. Johm, eightcco milcd 
bhn tlhr tOi. 
"TV b"alth fif Meaars. PiTiney and Finloy 
thcT were coTDpcIIwl to rc- 
in'lS35. Mr. Tytlorcon- 
'■;! for two or tlirw years 
i-iusas. but nn very encoor- 
i ' rHow(x] Ilia la- 
virtual ly sua- 

bf^itation man Tclt about rt^ 

ik "f missioos in Africa. The 

I Me lives, and the failure of 

1 iretlireii, proved t-xtrciuely 

1,0 maoy pctvou^. Yet otht^ 

"ir connctioDS that the Chureh 

iou this mi^iiiuDar)' Geld. 

and all thinjfs invited the 

■• III! V rvitnt^ of Chr'yL with the 

of the deli'tcrioQs climote. To 

- • '■ ■ ' 'I "h "Tht that a more 

'. tmn thii<w jin> 

.; ,; .w.: 'L.iiwiJerrtl cxik'- 

ii-a to rctnrn after a few 

L country, on a visit (or the 

Jib. brethren of approved qualj- 

m1 oflfertni Ihomselvca epecially for 

It appcaraJ Uierffore to be' the 

Board to make uiuther eflort to 

"lission. 

in 1839. the Rev. Oreo K. 

K> 1 i'ni >Ir. .loiiiilhan V. Alward, with 

kTimiiy. i\f: piin- ir '>! thf mi&.Mon. inado 

lc[pi'>nug V "he coast for nearly a 

axid during which tbey 

^'' :.. - I . : jiju liinou^ the KfOO 

i.alf-wuy tw't we'll t'ttjw I'ulmoa 
Au iiiterfNliuK account of 
- -ven in the annaal report of the 
0. 'Hiey are dt^icriwrd U8 the 
*¥i iij ' 'i rut).Tpriwnj{ of the |ia- 
6l»ftn ; coast, having farms in a 
.>nd alwn^'s uppoecd 
dLstinctive name la 
f\<-\ t'i;it many of 
1 ar "I. I ,.:■ 1 of trad- 

i , HI to u.-iiL various 
prti iX b tli»;y comioonly re- 

tn til ::. . . afliT a few years 

fcnt in th.« -« 
TL' r u,ii 1 verfiooa forbade Mr. 

ipt u> rc^rainc hbi mi^iooary la- 
otIuT V.'tTt)"'en enjoyed good 
' ir exploration. 
■I and Mr. Al- 
.%u i.ii'l ih'ju ihcy pro«xslnd. 
toF^fT: ' < their chosen work, with 
ttuj bo(' ' I ** ' if not a Ion;; life. 

n«k hopm ft 1 to be di!iii]JiK>iDled. 

lEr. A>irt.rd w,*.- , , lu his re^t in the fol- 



I lowing April, and Mr. GanBeld i» May of the 
nest year. They wore both men of devotcil 
piety, and weru qualifieil to l>e eniiui'iilly use- 
ful in the missionary work. Their beruavi'd 
] companions rt'turiicd to their ^^ientl^ in this 
cuuntry ; and for a mouth the statiMti w.^s cii- 
der Ihu dmrgu of a colnred fern, 
who had accompanied Mcx^rv. ( . <i Jj 
Alword. The Rev. Robert W. Sawyer uud hMi 
wife, who hud arrived at Monrovia in Deceit' 
bt-r. 18-11, then eucceeded the bretlinm wh"in 
thev had hoped to join at Scttra Kroo ; but 
in becianber, 18i3, Mr. Sawyer was caltcil 
Join Iheui in the Saviour's preencf. ITo wfl___ 
a Ulan worthy to b«! their assi.icinte, both In 
the church on eurtb and in hf^iven. Pn.'iit.'«8 
to his death, schoohi hod been cslablishetl, and 
al one time thirty boys and six girls wep 
bourded ami lodged on the mission premisuB»1 
enjoying the bei^ts of ChrtAtion iustmction 
and example. 

In thy year 18-12, three colored miniaters be- 
came connected with ihu miipion. One of 
thcfic, the Ib^.v. James Eden, hod been for sou 
years at Monrovia, where he was pastor oft 
Frt-sbytman chnrch. Tbitf station he contin- ' 
ned to occupy uutil hi» peacful death, at ua 
advanced ag-e, in 184C. The Rev, Thonioa 
Wilson and the Rev. James M. Prit'st reached] 
Mourovia ia 18-12. Mr. AVibion'tt »tatiou was 
at .Sinou, where, however, he wo* uot permits 
ted long to lakfor, having been called to his ro- 
wan) in 1846. He was a iiurn of energy, and 
his talents and piety gave pronmc of no ordl* 
nary usefulness. Mr. Priest was at first sto* . 
tiomjd at .Settra Kroo, but removed to the st4wl 
tioo at Sinou in 18-t6, where he ha.s l>een inurh 
encouraged in his work. Mr. AVuithln^'toa 
Mel'ODOugh, a colore<l teacher, was twut out 
ahto in 18-12, and he hoei continued to be con- 
nectcfj with a station among the Krooa until 
the present time. 

At Settra Kroo the education of n&live 
youth coutiuuod to engage tlie attention of 
Mrs. Sawyer, who with great devobMuca had 
remained at her poat, ^though abc was tfaa 
only white woman in Rixty miles of the sta- 
tiop. She WU3 aauatod by Mr. McDunouglu. . 
and by Cecilia Van Tyne, an cxrellont eoloreo. I 
teacher, until the return of the lattor for health 
in 1814. In the same year the Rev. JanKS 
M. Connelly joined the mission, with whom 
Mr?. Saw^'er wojh muted in marriupe in the fol- 
lowing Deivmber. Thevcoutiuucd at Settra 
Kroo, engaged in faithful cfforta fur the con- 
vcrsioa of the people, but meeting with no 
marked encouragement, nntil tbey were comr 
pelled to return to this coantry b^ the failure 
of health in IttTiO. Since that time the sta- 
tion among the Kxood has been under the caro 
of Mr. MeUonnugh ; a small school has bceo^ 
maiutatnod. but uo brighter days have bccn^ 
wilncetied. 

In Jannury. 1847, tlie Rev. Flarrwon W. 
Ellis, a wlured muu, fonucrly a slave, who 



92 



AFRIOA, \rESTERN 



with Ilia ftunilv Bad boon redeemed from bond- 
a^ by Chrialiau frionds in ibc South, was 
aeot as u iin^ioriary to Moiiruvtu. As hetKis- 
flcaacd conatdcrablc tuleut and euor^, tuiil nud 
acquired more than onUnary learning' fur a 
person so nQbrorably eitutiUiu, it was reawaa- 
blc to cxi)ect that bis cflbrta to iln good would 
proTo enctiurog'ine to those who had taken 
gnch a kind and liberal interest in hi<; welfare. 
He was for some time ministor of tbe church 
in Monro^'ia, and |^ve some atUMitiori t^) u 
school ; bnt be is Dot now connected with 
cither. To the wont of rracc — more grace — 
may l>e aHcril>ed bis uut luUUIing the cxpectA- 
tiona of his fricmU ; bot wc would lioi)0 tliat 
he may yet become a oscful laborer in tlie 
Tineyard of the Lord. At Kentucky, a set- 
tlement iL fr.'w mildi from Monrovia.Mr. H. 
W. l-Irskine, a <X)Iored teacher and n licentiate 
preacher, has been stationed since 1849, niid 
has met with much encoaragement in his work. 
About twenty mem1>era are connected with the 
church at this station. Mr. B. V. B. James, 
another colored teacher, who bad been for 
6ome years under tbe patrona^ of a society 
of ladies in New YorK for itromotiuj;; edu- 
cation in AfHca, became connected, at tbe 
instauce of his former patrons, with the mU- 
siOQ of the Boiird at Monrovin in 1849. Ho 
has continued to be fiiithruDy ivtuI Huccessfnlly 
eniploywl in a liir^c school at that ])lace. 

The l{cv, Dttvid A. Wilson and his wife 
arrived at Monrovia in Jnlv, 1850. Mr. Wil- 
son joined this mission wiiij ii tjijecial view to 
tlio work of Chruitinn whication, and he hns 
had the charj^ of the Alexander Uigh School, 
on academy estabh'shed by the BoanI in 1849. 
Tlic nunibiT of «eholans has nerer been large, 
bat their progresw in gtudy has evinced capa- 
city to make respectable acquircmentif. Tnw 
institution, it is hof>cd, mil tmiu tip ninny 
youiij; men for the Church and the Htatc. U 
may form the germ of a coIIcko in futnre vears. 
Boaidcs teaching in this academy, Mr. ^f ilson 
preacbnt to the church, at nrcseut without a 
pastor. Hia work is one of vital importance 
to Liberia. 

Th« repeated bereavements of the mission 
on the Libi-ria coast had led to the iii(|uiry 
whether a more healthy location cotUd not be 
ditscovcred cbn-whcrc ; and the comparative 
exemption from fever enjoyed by the miasion- 
ariea of the American Bourd on tbe tralKiou 
river, fnrneil the iiltcntion of many to the to- 
giou n<^ir Ihe E(|imtor. Accordiajrly. in 1849, 
llie Itev. Meaare. James L. Mnckey and Mcorp? 
W. Simj«on and their wives went out to furm 
a new mission in this part of tLp African field. 
Th^ were greatly aidwl in their iuciuiriea by 
the couuwU of tlie brethren connected with 
tJie Amerienn Board, and particularly of the 
Bov. J. Lcighton Wilson, a respoele*! minister 
of our body, who hiid bwn lon^ a niuis-iociary — 
first at Cape i'almas and afterwards at the 
0«boou — iwd who is now one of iho tseavta- 



ries of the Board. After making full exa 
nation of various ptacca, they were Iwl to 
the inland of t.'orisco iw their station. T 
a .small island, four milts long from north ' 
south, and about the some in bn>adth at thq 
south end, but at Ihe north not exceeding a 
mile — having a circumference of about fiflcea 
miles, and an irrc^gnlur surface, divenifieil ^ilh 
narrow vallevs and steep hilk of no great 
height It "is filty-Gve mik-a north of the 
a]uator, and from fi'rtwn to twenty miles from 
the mainland. Its population is about 4,000. 
and its sitantion, midway in the aearliue of ths 
Bay of Corisco, afford.^ u ready &cce» to peo- 
ple of the same language, too Bcnga, wlw 
live on the shores of the buy and on tbe 
aea-coast. In thus part of Afri«'a tlieiv ait no 
roadit, and journeys can he mtwi fonveuJenlly 
made in boati ahuig the coa.st or on the rivii 
H(i that the ftttuation of the miE»i(inariPS out 
island is rather an advantage than a hindra 
to their intercourse with tlio natives. 
ehief inducement, however, for ubout*iug 
risco as the eitc of the mission, was the bo 
that it wotdd provo a healthy place. It i 
tains few local causes of discaae, while i(^ 
removed from tlie mataria of the cout on 1 
mainland, and enjoys the atmosphere of 
sea. 

Thus far the inisaionarics have eJ1_ ^^ 
remarkable health for fureipners in Afriq 
Mrs. Mackey was cariv called to her rest by,3 
disease not connected with her new abulc. 
Mr. and Mra. Simpeon.in the mj-sterious nrov- 
idcnco of 0'.Ki, were lost at wsi with all on 
boanl the dhip except a native saJlur, their 
vessel having been struck by a typhoon. This 
sad event occurred in April, 1851, cauiiia); 
great sorrow to the frieutk of this in- , 
sion. The other missionaries — Mr. ^i 
and Miss Sweeny, who embarked for Ci-i i ■ ■ ^ 
August, IBbl, and wus married to Mr. .M.ik. ^' 
in 1852, and the l<ev. tjcorge Mcljutvu, Jr., 
who juinetl the mission in the some year — hovb 
all cnjoved poc-il health. The Rev. Mtsra. 
Edwin T. Williama and William ClomenK and 
their wives sailed for Corisco in August, 18.^3. 

Small schools for boys and girls have bww 
opcnefl, religious worship has tjoen condm^unl 
on the Lord'a-day, and Mr. Mackey hu^ > 
a hap|iv influence over the natives by K i 
cal skifl. Already many of their suih-i 
practices have been abandoned, the > 

is in Pttme degree honored, and the ih;i 

of the mission is visihlo in the improved con- 
duct of the l>eople. The principal cmplojTnenl 
of the mijwionaries, however, has been ibi) 
aequisition of the native language. Home 
interesting tours have Wen madu ou the maiD- 
land, one extending nearly ouc hundred and 
lifty miles into the interior, which bdfre tended 
to eonGi-m the hoiie that thlfl miarion will aiford 
a dtvir of entrance to a viry large ijopuinlion. 
ltd toeatinti ou an island inny remiiul the reader 
of the celebrated i.Hland of lona. on the bordere 



AFRICA, WESTERN 



98 



, at Scotland — th« bomo of a Frcsbytcriao and 

jWaMBU? clergy in Uic sixth century. May 

Cbcsdo become 10 Africa wlmt loaa vas tu 



Grcttt Britain, Ireland, and many ports of the 
coDtineDt of Europe t — Lomi^$ Manual of 
Missions. 



TABlUkB VIEW. 



NAVEB OP STA- 
TIONH. 



WoUT 






Anrrk'ut 



BclioUr*. 



Boudlag. 



Dty. 



KtBaCXJCATOS 



HIiMM 

SMtnKmo 
Ctoriaco..... 
Total 



UUSI 
lUO 
lUT 

lUI 

lUO 



la 



|11« I 13 



U I 148 



e iiT» 



ikM Boau>^~-Od Ibe Snbbath OTcning 
tin mafting of xho Itoanl in 1B33, 
Ijiigfatoa WUfiOD, tbcir first nuaton- 
ittn Africa, received his loBtmctioDS, 
of a nnmeroos aadience, in the 
ibyterion oborch in Fhiludclphia; 
the 24tb uf November folloulDg. be 
mH B&lUmorc, in cflm[Huiy with Mr. 
R. Wjncoop, to explore his future 
labor. After exmniniiiK the coaet from 
Ouie Moiint Ut i^Apo i'ulmaa, a distance 
iniKi. ibey fixed ou Cape PalmoA as Uie 
d> of tbe mtaioD. and returned to thiit coun- 
^tttrrrixtg si New York, April 13, 18.^- 
Ii fc ic B — cement of this miwioo, the com- 
iUMe kutmeted Ihcir miasionoriua to huvo u 
fViwT Tf^nM to thi! prcservutiuo of hi*alth 
Mtiile, and to extend ttM'ir nppratione grudu- 

a,m their knowli ' ii<-(ice, ability, 

IIm btaasioK ^^ ^ '• t-'uable iheui 

t»A> lo. '"' L (-1 liiis luidBioa waa, to 

pB|M« t)> :i QXteodT* STitcm of Op- 

■WM aiu^r.ip ui.. t"-'PQ'^^ natioDS of Wet^ 
ttvJUHctt. 

Mr.aDd Xrs. WiUuu, with a colored female, 
«iWicd fnna New Ytrrk. Not. 4, 1B34, and 
at Cape Paluias the followiu^^ month, 
il^ wrrc reccivctl liy ilie native pt)pu- 
■BM with jin-ful tut'lunmiiotii. The frame 
hmK, vbirfc Ar. AViUon li»d (':arricd out with 
fa4* bk former rWiU lie fuand i:nr<.-te(l on 
At^it W faod selected, and furnisbed. They 
ie« abMcied. durioe their acclimatiou. to 
fcole fnfltrinjr mim frvcr, Mnt. W. Imv- 
iww attacks, and Mr. W. tbrec. the 
whif^h bruujfhl him lu thu UurUers uf 
ivR. After tlicir rocovery. thoy eiuoyod 
hr-a.ltii ^•-liwU were commencou, and 
rmr. Mr. W. hud prepared a 
book in the nalivo Laoffoa^ 
On ti». j.iiii Or 1 VceniW, \*i'M'>, Itev. David 
a„.j ti>- u'l'.-, Hrkd Mr J»im<'*. a (vilorvd 
,aMl I " "t. 

(11 ■ i lit) 

Mill I m-y fX- 

.f ili'ftth.'lhol 
na.| ip-^oiiii xti'.iii^if^ Lo Africa. Mr. 



bad 



LIHutc I 



and Mre. Wiboo vcre prosecuting their labors, 
with j^ood health, comfort, and success. During 
the year, Mr. \V. made three tours of cxplon^ 
tion tu tbe interior, pcrforminf; bin joumcpi 
mostly on foot Their boarding^ Rchoot num- 
bered 50, one-fourth of whom were femalw. 
One boy ^ve endenoe of piety, and othen 
were inquiring. In April, there were fi>ur or 
live candidaU^ for admission to tbe church. In 
1h37, Mr. Wilson Huccet-dcd, by hia jndiclous 
Interpoeition aud influence, in sujtpressing a 
lumuitQoos rise of the native population u^^nst 
lli<> colonists, before ii resulted in bloodshed. 
Ami aboot tbift time, he commonciHl prenchinff 
to n native congregation of about COO. Unl 
Ibis mission, hi common with others, anfltwod 
from the crms, which occafiioned a radoctioa 
of the appropriatioua to tbo mbsioos. Two 
of the day scboots, and one>tlurd of the board- 
ing flchouknt in the seminary, were diamisBed. 
The cficct of this was dtaastronH upon the mis- 
sion, tbe natives not being able to appreciate 
tbe catMC. 

Dr. A. K. Wibou having left tbe nuMOD fa 
South Africa, on account of the war between 
Dingaan and the Dnleb hocn*. urrivei] with 
his wife at Oupe rftlraiis,0rt. 4, 1830. Their 
attacks (if fcvur. in the prwoss of aer 11 mating, 
were slight, ond the mission generally enjoyed 
go<Kl bfalth. Two native youths were otlmit^ 
ted to the church during the year, and olheiB 
were in an »ni|uiriug utate of mind. Karly in 
Sei>l4'ml>rT, liyii). l»r. aud Mr*. AV'ilson com- 
nirnced a new Hlation at Fightown. ton or 
twelve miles from Fuir Hope, Ibe orifiinjJ and 
principal statiun. There were, aL«o. thnr out- 
glatiniw, otmI nix prraching places connected 
with tbo mtDsiou. The elmrcb numt>prod 23, 
12 of whom were natives. KdigiouH knowt 
od^ wu increasing, and many bod dii>cardi^ 
their greffrrna. Yet, there wud great ni>athy 
on the subject of religion. On the 13tli of 
(>tol)fr. IKll, r>r. A. K. Wiboo died of on 
ciiidemie ilysentery, oicetblg de^ with much 
cliwrfulncai and joy. Stofmcn Willhuii.a. alw, 
a rialivc African, employed oa an inti'ri>n^Ier, 
diui of the tfamo diwase, and in n fiiinilar state 



H 



AFRtCA, WESTERN, 



of mimL Mrs. Wilsob removed to Fair Kopo. 
am! took charge of the female tlojiartmrnt of 
tlw Ptminury. On the 3d of Kolirunrj', 18-12, 
Rev. McasrH." Walker aud UrUwold, with Mrs. 
Wiilker, joinod the mL^ion at Cape Palmas. 
Up to this time, the amount ofprintinjf in the 
nativo laosfiiiure, at this nii8non, vqa 2,252,132 
page*. Mrs. Walker died of fever, May 2. 
1»42, lier chief cooccrn being lest her death 
ahoald deter others from cotninp to the Geld. 

Uiit thiK mis6K>D e.'sperienced no small em- 
barrassment, from being .situated within the 
bcnmlM of the colony. The native teachers 
and jiupils, thouph from di-itinct tril>e8, and 
owinjj uu lenity to the colony, were required 
to do military duty: and it 'became obvioos 
that the leading object of the colony, and that 
of tht: mif^ion, in respect to the natives of 
AfHca> were far from being tbo same. There 
wo* also too nmch renaon to believe that the 
colonists, aa a body, rcgardc-d the missionaries 
uid tlieir enterpriso with iealousy and ill-will. 
And. afl it never entered into the plan of the 
West African mrs*inn tliat its nriin-ipol oper- 
atinns Bhould lon^ he at Oaj* rnlmaii. it was 
determined to seek a location rlsrwhcrc; and, 
ttccfnlingly, Messrs. Wils')n and Urisvrold, on 
the 17th' of May, commenced a voyajre east- 
Wrthl with this object in view; and, after 
louchins- at a number of poinlii. fixed on a 
location at Iho mouth of tne Oaboon Rivi^T, 
which eecmod deddedly more favorable than 
•ny other they had gcen. Thonp^h so near the 
eqtuitor. the climate at the tlaboon is more 
ittlnbriouB than at Cape Patmos. 

The chiefs received them In a friendly mun- 
uer, and tln^ selected a site about eijrht niiivs 
from the month of the river, and 20 north of 
the aiuator. As poon as the nfcesyiry arrange- 
ments could be made, the mission vas removed 
to this place, the stations at Fi.sht(twn and 
Bocktown being transferred to the Epis-copal 
Missionary SiKiety. At the new station, the 
first school was openwl in July, 18-12, with 15 
pupils; and in the conrw? of a year, three 
achoola were cRtal>li8hcfl, with 50 pupils, und 
public worship was held at the stntmn, and at 
thre*; otiicr towns, within the distnncc of three 
miles, where the people aiMcmblod in good 
iinmbers. They appeared friendly, and one 
head man renounced hi."* greefrrees in ])r(snnce 
of the people of his town, and had them sunk 
in the river. Thev rested from labor on the 
Sabbath, and Hucfi ww their regard for the 
coniniondinpnt that they refusfid to furnish 
wotMl for a Rritifih war steamer on that dav. 

On the 23d of Anjrurt, 1843, Mr. (JriBWoId 
and MrjL M. H. Wilson were united in mar- 
riage. On the Igt of Januarv, 1844. Rev. 
Mejwr«. t;«mphcll and Biahnefl wiileti from 
Bwloii ft^r (hi? iiiis?ion, and arrived at Cape 
Falmiw on the 9th of March, where they were 
both taken with the arclimating fevVr, of 
which Mr. Campbell died. Near the close of 
1&43, Mr. Griswold commenced a now station 



at Oahnnga, Prince Qlaas's town, whe 
boarding-school for girb waa opened Krilh ■ 
pupils. The people were anxious for Bcha' 
and at King Ibika's town, bod built a scb 
hoose and nsidence for the teacher, 
people had mado considerable odvaoocs'^ 
civilization. 

July 21, 1843, the membera of the ehu 
who had removoJ from Oape Palmas, with a 1 
others, mot and organized thcmA'.K-ce int 
church, odopted articles of faiths and dec 
Mr. Wilson their pastor. On the 30lh, B.\ 
Wisner, a native of Cape Palmas, was adn 
ted to tJie church, and the Iiord".«i Rupper 
ministered for the fir?t time. The chor 
conaisted of fifteen memlwre, of whom w^ 
were native Africans. July \4, 1844, 
Oriswold rested from his Inbof : And 
CJriswold, whose health wa= 'mm 

climate, returned to the Un 

In July, 1845, Prince tjloaas town 
bombardwJ by a French brig-of-war. and tL 
poescflmon of bv armed mt>n, the natives haY 
fled to ''the bnflh." The miasionaries 
exposed to great danger, both from can 
balls and mnpket ahot. which wen- gcutt 
profusely on their premisea, and with l 
design. After 1hi«, the French ndmif 
nearly three months at tho Gaboon, ' 
having any intorcoumc with the mt-cslon ; 
io Februtti?, 1846, the commander en 
hie regret that the mission premises had 
endangered ; and in tho following snmil 
Commodore Upa<i, of the frigate I'nitnl 3t 
arrived off the mouth of the river, and da 
bis Btay, Mr. and Mr?. Wilson ree<iri.-d mn? 
kindnen from him ; and he kh a li-lter to the 
French admiral, which was deliven-*] to him 
in Septemher, and nfler that, they rcreivcl the 
most civil treatment from the French offic 
and the local authorities. The Roman 
sionariefl bronglit there by their shiiB of 
did not appear to ho doing nmch. 

Tho Committee have wlopled a rule, !nj 
Itttion to this mission, similar to the one adoj 
by the Church Missionary i^ocicty. allowio 
jjeriodical return of the mli^sionaries to tl 
native land, to recruit tlieir health ; and inl 
cordance with this mie, Mr. and Mrs. Wik 
visited this country in 1847. Their visit 
highly nspful ; and in June of the folio 
year, they returned to their field of labor, ' 
the frrcatcst possible cheerfnln«8, accompa 
bv Rev. Messrs. Preston and Wheeler, tnd 1 
Prratoii, aa a reinforcement April 23, IE 
Mrs. Walker departed ihh» life, two montbli 
aft<T the birth oi an infant- She never rcgrtft 
ted hann^ gone to Africa. EaHy in the 
morning of the day of her death, Mre. Walker 
sent for the head men in the town.>i, and tbnj 
came, and wept like children ; and nearly ever) 
man, woman, and child came, ftvling that thej 
were losing one of their best friends. Shi: 
was followed, the lost nf Junuar^% 1849. bjj 
Mtb. Uriswold, who was sudilenly called homei 



J 



l^bvlii ■'■■K. uiitl miU)irc?tiug vntirf 

■}itui... ',vill. Koliruury tij, ISSO, 

-nj iiitii pcuoeful rest, slw 

I ni ber vwil to tho United 

<»Ub« UmkikIi io a consomptioD, Uiat &I10 

■iflU Untffc hrr cotirse b the beloved field of 

.... ,., .i„.r. 

^ U)c miarioo was reinforced 
to MX omrml '.<[ Iter. Mr. Bat aud Dr. Ford. 
In fermcr about six montlu before tlio laller. 
"" * *' ■ I'reston, who hod arrived iu 

iiinciicod a new atntion ninon;; 

i jQt 26 mile-<^ above Huraka, in 



AFRICA, WESTERN. 



«5 



■-"''• -'I'lconfrlingl.v of her .Savior, hillv nnd apparentl^v EiilubrtonB ; and tlic way 
I ^rr,.-i!..._ _.„.;__ ja ofK'ii fdf miwii-'Diiry fflorta iiinoiitT nuindruiu 
friendly triUca ; but taborera ar- ^•<' i^ _■ (,, 
enter in iitid n'ap thfj harvest. '1 t" 

the mU'^ion huve I»w-n, to n great 
paratory ; and it^ direct nistullti arc not m 
dcaily MCD, as they will probably Im a ttiw 
years hence. 

1'he report of the mlauoD for 1853, rcpro* 
seola the hedth of the miflBlouarin t« haw 
bcea gvirerally good throagfaout the yuor. 

Aiid. though a spirit of oppoflilion had W 

to mauiri.'st it^cll iitDunir ihctfv who do not 

the restrainta of L'hriAtianity, yet. the tmlSI 

Mt-ssrs. WjUou uiid Hu-liiiell j is making prosrew. Thi; interconn40 of thai 

__,! w_ \i-..ii..._ ;_ ui|(«iuaoncs witii the peoj)Ie and witli IhefjoM 

iTiiment hod l>ccn utoet friendly throu^liout thel 
year. But, owin^ to tJie diminished force of 3 
the miseion, they have been able to occnj>y but 
two stations. 



^I 



luwe, and Mr. W'alU'T in 

.Ji ; and in ihcuc dialects. 

, .f.hcd in ninety villajBres, in 

BHanbers were received to tht- 

t year. Bat poIygamVt In it^ 

iiid to be a grettt hindrance 

'■ lie evil was grc^Uy tiggrn- 

luctioQ of American rum. 

ii most perniciouK inflnvnce 



I 



irier and hU wife arrived as a 

■■ '" •■ f^ 1 ""'! ; nnd carlv in the 

'^jilkt-r and I'reflton 

_ _ ib»jr. The tJonpel 

itfbt Jv4in. in M['on(fwc, tmostated by Mr. 

" " 'd i-i N'ew York, in 18.^2. 

. '>vbilc on a visit to 

. Mr. WiL«wn, being 

i Lo this coontry, wiw de- 

10 \m; undtT the. infliienrE 

unfitting htm for a longer 

'ori. Ue aooordtnely ao 

lit of a dccretarrfhip in 

I'ly'd Board of Slissioov. 

. thrir oumiid report for 

!•• testimony to lii*it eici-!- 

tUtt ■■ ci . ry. and evjircfe thrirdcep 

4M Ibr tho tuM of hiM valuable services. 

arfr lo 18fil. tbi> brethren at Haraka saf- 
^m ffnoD an nnnstiat firerult-nco of fevi*r. 
fcilNffttf, whu had r\-rriitly itrrivt-il, waAca]l<<d 
mr^iy tiMMUi^ of ii on the tith of July. He 
^i Ia iJi^ ftiil faith and eonxolatiou of the 
Goipri mm) Mr«. Porter fuHowt-d him on Ih* 



Nomber of fftatioos, .... 3 

Miraionarics, . - _ . . 4 

Physician, -----. 1 
Female helpers, • - - - .3 

Native hfl[»r8, - - - - . 4 

Church membent, - - - - 22 

Scholars in the schools, • - - - TO 

UjfrrKD pREsmrrSRUi* SmoDOP l?r<ii'ia^[cp. 
— Wht« the converted n«frrocs of Jamaica 
obtuinetl their freoiiom, their thouglitB wero at 
once directed to their heathen friends in Africa. 
Many add, " We must carry the gospel lo 
Africa." TIio miffiioiiaric* conslilating tho 
Jumaiea Presbytery, repmtHiting theSaitli.'nh 
MisFiooary Bocloty, tne Uuit^^l Sens^ioa 
rhitrfh, and the f?cotch Free Church, entered 
fully intti the filings of tho coImrmI (jcoplo 
around llicm, oiu) n-solvf'd lo cnilxxlv tl»r-m in 
action. Old Calabar was pelecte»f us their 
field of labor, the King and chief? having aeul 
a formal re(|nt^t that u miHeion might be com- 
menced among them. Tho Recession Svnod 
having also sanctioned Uie movement, lluv. 
Mr. Woddcll was dcnignatcd to take charge of 
the ent<Tpris4?. He accordingly proceeded to 
Seotlund, and wilh sotiu followed by five others. 
One of ihv.^Q Was nn Engli-ihinan, who had 
htthtJ the JBmt! month, Bfth of them paid livcti eighti-^n years in Juraaiea. a [irinter by 



ili, wni» pr' 
bb snpi-' 

try f." 

Kad^'-. 



_lheT€Udo.>' - 

ty, hi 

anl daiir>T h' 



:>Mt ){rcatrr tlwiv tlinn in 
>vhich uwakeri but little 



IW iabuTS of this misBion ar« directed to 
t OMBiMlilUo, met) pnibablv the ri'pre- 
tfvM of miymlian fnwi the interior : 

}Mpantr^n9. T" * id Pangwefl. Tho 



'■'wing jipiiicil Uiv mv*- . Ira/lt' ; anuthtT wil* hw wife, a eolonxl woman ; 

lurly death wimld nnother was a negro lad, about sixteen years 

,n ■ fill- i-ilil Tliejof age; the remaining two were iioth jiersons 

1 [it [ of color. A men-hant of Liverpool granted 

>n tho frro use of a fine Hchooner, the Warree, to 

the miseion as long as she f*hould be wonted ; 

and he also mbecribed XlOO to keep her in a 

(<ailing condition. 

The mlwiim sailed from Liverpool, January 

f}, IMfi ; otid arrived at Fernando Po. Aj)nl 

3. TIicv proceotkd with »s little delay aa 

prBelica\)le to Old Calabar, and werecor<lialIy 

tly mode Iheir np-I reccivtHl by the natives. On the filh of May 

Uiutbii-n ixplorw! lit 1 they oix-m"*! a w;h<>ol in Bukt; Town, alkiul 



lArtabCV in tbc interior, and fouod to bo{fllty miJes from the mouth of Old Calabar 



AFRICA, WJ^TERN. 



Bivcr, in a house of King Eyamba. Every 
thujff sccmfJ to be priipitiutu. 

Tuis mia^lou has boeu {irog(.>cuted with ooii- 
aiderablo swco'ss. In 1 853, it had throe sttttious. 
lioek Town, Uukc Tovrii, mid Old Town. Its 
jirofipccto Lire bccomioji; mure uml more favor- 
aule. A few hare applied fur baptism, but, at 
thf tatt.'st duty's, uuiit: biut buun adniiltt'd to ttw 
ordinaui^. The uumbcr of ttcholai'M in the 
schoohi was about 200. ITicrc wtre connected 
with this mission, in 1852, ten Europciiuagfuts, 
iiicbiding fcnmles, four of the iiuinbur being 
orduinod missiotmriis. From the bc^'imiing 
iho mifinonarica hare publicly preached tlic 
word on the Sabbath, aiKl already eeverol atro- 
cious ciutums have fallen before jta influeuce, 
amoiif^ which is the oko of the poisoned nut. 
aa a test of witchcraft The miesionaric-d buvi: 
made several exploring tours inlrj tlie interior; 
and they suy that these a'gioua prest-nt a wide 
(k'ld fur ini*ionar)' labor ; thai they art easy 
of accc-8e, by water oouinjuuication ou the 
rivers ; and that the conntry Ixreamea more 
elevuled, and the atmosphtTL' purer and more 
brueiiig, Id proportion to the distauce from the 
coa^t. 
Btations, ...... 3 

ICifisionortcs, ...... 4 

Knropean male aeaiatuntd, • • - 1 

Dou female, • • - - 5 
African afi&iflianta, 6 

AuciucAN EriscopAL Mi&eaotf. — The For- 
ei^ Missionary Society of the Protestant 
Ejiiscuiml Church in the United Statea, oa 
early as the year iB'*2, enterluiiied the design 
of establishing a raL'^3ion in Wralcrn Africa, 
and con-sidcruble snras were collected for the 
pur|M)»e. lliii tlie d(«ign "was fnutratt^ 
cliic'Uy Ibroufch the dttDcuUy of obtaining suit- 
able imn, till IH31, when it was determined to 
establish a Kchool at Cnjio ralniaa, ajid Mr. 
Jamt'd M. Thompaoii, secretary to the colonial 
agent, with his wife, were appointed teacheni; 
and the Maryland Colonization 8wiety made 
u grant of land, as a site for Oiu lalsnion, 
about two niilfs from the town of IfurrHT, on 
Ibo ruuiri govrrnmcnl road litniing lo the Cu- 
ralla river. The i>iluatiou m pU'iisaut and sa- 
lubrious, uud well adapted to a manual labor 
school. The work of preparatiuu was inuuL^ 
diately commenccf], the land wiu cleared, and 
Buitiiblo buildings crecli-d. 

In March, 1^36, Mr. end Mrs. Thonipaou 
commcnc^l a school in a small building, near 
Ihcir residence in the town of Harper, with '10 
to 30 scholars. In the siunmcr of this year, 
Mr. John I'uino and Rev. L. B. Minor, of the 
Theological Seminary at Alexundriu. To., 
were apix>iutcd to this mkfion. llev. Thomas 
S. Savage, .M. D., who had llie aJvantnge of 
Bcveral years' practice aa a physician, preceded 
then), in order to liecomo accUmatod anil pre- 
pare lor Uieir reception licforo their arrival. 
McgfiTS. Minn uid Faync, after spending sumo 



time in pre^nUng the caose to the chorciufl 
and collecting funds, arrived at Cape Polniiui 
on the 4th of July, 1837. They fooud thai 
Mr. lliompeoD hod made a gOMi conimcnc* 
meut., having three acres of land under gootl 
cnltivation, witli a small thatched faonaeootbi 
prc-uiises, but Btill residing at Uarper. 

The Cape ilwif was at this lime raofrtlyoo- 
cupic<l with houses belonging to the Agency, 
and older colonists. Commencing with the 
main hind was a native town, of alxiut 1,500 
inhabitants. The huu»eA or hafa were con- 
Htnictcd of narrow strips of btmrd?, four or 
five feet in height, three or four inches wiA^ 
and Italfon inch tMck, placed perpendicularly 
in the groond, arranges! in the form of a cir- 
cle. On this 18 placed the roof, inadi> of palm 
louvea, runuiug high up to a point, like a raga> 
loaf. 1'his town had its grtc-gree place, where 
some sort of religious cen.*nioiUe« were iicr- 
formcd, said to be addressed to the l)uvil. 

March 4, 1^37, I>r. Savage, with the missioo 
fiunily, K'movod from the (Jape, and took poa- 
session of the mi«aioa home al l&onni Vaognan, 
an the xtation was named, after the foreign 
secretary of the society. ITie misgioimxy ope- 
ratiotis were formally opened on £ai«lcr day, 
which was kept aa a day of fasting, bamilifr 
lion and prayer. Mr. and Mrs. Payne, and 
Mr. Minor, who arrived July 4, paasod aafcff 
through the auelimatlng ferer. I 

Dr. cavoge made sovcraJ tonn amon^ the 
native triVxa, and found them Mmdly, and da- 
8irou.< of instnictJoD. It was suppoaed that, 
within 50 miles, tlicra were 70,000 acccwiblo 
to missionary efibrt ; all of whom belonged to 
one utock, und K]>okc diolecta of the same Ian- 
gunge, (Urebo.) 

The care of the newly arrived mi.<«ionariee^ 
during their accliuiation, together wiUi the re- 
spouijibilitiea and labors of the muwion, so af- 
fected the health of Dr. Savuge, as to make It 
necessary for him to return to the United 
State*, which he did in Jnuo, 1838. Bat 
he cxproased the firm belief that, und<7 di&^ 
ferent circunuttancee, his health would have 
continued good. He did not regard the cU- 
niatc OS fatal to the white man's health. 
" With a moderate riiorc of prudence," he saysy 
" we can live here, and enjoy good health." 

In 1Q3S, Mr. R S. Byron, of Boston, waf 
eent out as a teacher. I>r- Savage having been 
united in marriage with Mrs-Metcalf, of Fred- 
cticksburg, Vo., returned with hitt wife and 
Mr. George A. Perkins and wife, mifleiouary 
tcachcrn to Cape Folmas, where they arrived 
on the IPlh of January, 1<?39. Mrs. Suvo^ 
was removed by death on the iGlh of A]»rJI 
following. 

'l*hc mission was embarTUKiod by the jealous- 
ies between the nnlivea and the eoIonbitB : 
the missionaries being iJeulltie*! with the lat- 
ter, fitund it difficult to g^n uoccks to the ua^ 
tivcti. Thii> Ictl them to tlie conclaainn that, 
b the Section of mijsion stations, they shuuld 



AFRICA, WESTERN. 



w 



theoiielvei from the colonice, aod 
ilTGS Dcatrikl between tiie natives 

o nnsacooBful attcmpta b&d been mode 
b esubluh A sUUon at Qarrtiway, a nalive 
Iftvo about 30 aul« to the windward ot Ok\». 
Vahaaa. It was oppoaod by tbo Bashmco, on 
tk (roo&d Umt tho cflbct of it would be to 
^tfca trade in rum. At the Iccwurd, the; 
■reaedfid in establishing two oat-stations, with 
bachtn in each. 

Mr. llioiiipGon, the cdIotmI teacher, who 
qwawnceJ U>e mifBiOD, died of a protractitl 
■4 fainfti] ilhicsB, which be bore witliuut a 
Bunor, and drptirt(><] in the exercise of a firm 
k^ and triumphiiiit faith in the Redeemer, 
ir. Hittor r«taruf?d to the United Stjitert for 
kb bealtb. On the 23d of Janaary, 1840. ho 
MKiahed in raarriuge to Mim Mary Stewart, 
il fiailimoro, and on the 15tb of Fohninry. 
IhtT aulfid for Africa, accompanied by Rev. 
Jonia Smith, vhu wm sral out by the Board 
b Unr among the colonista. 

Thb jear, toe miaaion commenced the forma- 

Km of a mtiTB town, near the principal sto- 

conpoaed of such native families as 

4; to abandon their su)>crHtitiou3Bnd 

>9»MPjuA praetiecA, and oomc under the tnBu- 

9M of Ciuiatiamtj and civilization. In this 

than edacated at tlic mifnion afterwards 

; and it H4>on Itegian Ui assume an ap- 

« of civilization. 

U bJO. tlirce years from it^ eommenco- 

■at ihcrc were in connectioD with the mis- 

•«, oine minioDarics and teachers, three 

''•xtiitK 70 nalive children in scbools, a 

' 17 member^ and a population of 

l?.noo, whom they were reaching 

-H-tiorK. Rev. Dr. Savage was 

hurch at thiii station, by whom 

^*i ATTicca wero held on the Sabbath. A 

BbIbj kJiooI was held in the chaiM-l for the 

*^T*i. and another for the children and 

•i» SMsmbcx* of the mision ; and religious 

vripti fn>rr regularly held at the out^tatiotu 

id oatire towns. 

For aomc time previous to March, 1840. an 
MjRal ieriooeneaB hod been objien'rd at the 
jriKfpal atatioo, which roDtinuo<l to incrcflw;< 
■d to April, niiMftfn appeared to give evi- 
teo* of a faving change. Many were iaquir- 
% the way of life; and at the Rlation at 
CbraSa, oawoutc-d attention to the word wa<i 
Mitflrtad* ftod thoo was one case of deep 

I0 •^'» -.Tf station was commenced by 
At? - at Talion, r,n the cocBt, about 

■ '■ ^r<l, and bej'oml Uw bounds 
wA the fieaplu exprened a 

d«r-i 's-.I>iti. The matioQ at 

ly wan ! anit tlte toacher 

to li<'- lite capital of tlie 

■^Ote cbmf had two bodb tn the 

committee, in Uolr r«port for ldl2, 
7 



complain of the restrictions pat npon tho mis- 
sion, bv the colonial government, aod of their 
conipnlsory laws, retiuiring mllltarv- duly of 
the jronth in the schools, as threaWing the 
mission with seriouii difflcnltica. 

The year 1841 was a time of unosnal sick- 
ncBs, both among missionaries, coloniirtx, and 
oativce, though le<« fatal than at some other 
times. During this stckncfs, Mr. Hmith, at 
Gavallo, was roused early one momiog by on 
nnnsoal noiso^ and on looking out, saw men, 
women, and cliildn>n, running towards the 
woods, shouting and makinfi; various noises, 
and when they seemed to reach the end of their 
race, the rcjKirt of two guns wad beard. On 
inquiry, he was infurmed that the native doc^ 
tors had directed tho people to beat their 
houses with sticks, and chase away the sick- 
ness to tho buiih I 

In 1842, death again invaded the missionary 
circle. Miss Coggeshall, who had recently ar- 
rived, was strickou down, after a short illneaB. 
Rev. Pr. Havage had been uuitini wi(h Mias 
M. V. Chapin ; who, after entering on Iwr 
dutica, and advancing tbc female depaitmcat 
of the high school at Cape Pnlmos to a h'^h 
degree of proaix;rity. was suddenly calk'd to 
her rest, chocrmlly yielding up her snirit to 
the Saviour whom sJie served. The fiJlowing 
year, Rev. Mr. Minor, whoso health had for 
some time been declining, wiw removed b^ 
death, uttering, with his last ba'atli, jtray^ri 
for tlie miarion, and exhortations to his breth- 
ren to " go forward." Mrs. Minor returned « 
this coaotry. Bcv. Dr. Savage vi^fited this 
country for his health, and relju-nod with a re- 
inforccmeut, consi^tinK of Rev. K. W, lleuing 
and wife and two fcm^o toadbcra. The rcportfl 
of the missionaries tb« year were decidedly 
favorable, the divine bli-ssing having fullowed 
t-beir labors. 

The report for 1846, in a review of tJio mia> 
H:on the 10th year from its commencement, 
says, " the result of past efforts is beginning to 
show ititelf in tlic growing up of a gtntcration 
of yonnt; persons oaocated in the nnrliire and 
admonition of the Lord, who aro already >Cl»- 
deriog assistance in tlio mission, and n>m 
among whom wo may expect, at no distant 
day, to Bulcct cuodidates for the minist t." 
There were then 24 iteraons, including nsuyo 
oKsUtants, engaged in the mifluoo. BcUin'4a 
services were regularly held in Bvc diflbr^ii 
places, and other points were freqtiently vidted. 
The boardini* sclmoht contained about IBO 
children. More than that number attended 
the Sunday schooK and about ir)O0 wero rego- 
lar hearers of tho goapd. J'hc number of OOBK 
municaula was about fifty. 

Binee that time, the mt^ion bus been stcftd- 
ily progrcsaing. without many marked inoi- 
dents reqoiring notice. In ImO, the miesioa 
WHS again bemved by the death of Rev. R. J. 
P. Menengcr, of tbe acclimating fever, soon 
after bis arrival, and also of Mrs. C. L. Patch. 



98 



AFRICA, WESTERN. 



l*hc hetUUi ur every oilior menibor nf Ibe mis- 
ftina t^tilTerotl eeveruly, ami tbo ocuitir misBion- 
ary.Kev.ThoDaosS. S«,v(ij^t:, M. l).,wa8 8oroni- 
jly prmtMted m to be obUfrtnl ti> resiirn, and 
^tctani to the United Statee. The committee 
tills year reeolved to fhvc tlie Diiii«iiuiiari(« leave 
to rv'tiim to the llniUv) States every fonrtli 
year. The year following, Itcv. ilr. HcoinK 
bDil wife rclorocd U> tliin countrj. uu nccontit 
of the luffi of bta ai^hl, iind Mr. ami Mrs. Ap 
plebjr rwifrneil their apptaniatents, in come- 
ifueaoc of her iU health. 

To show how mach labor can be performcil 
hy ooe man, ctcd in the climate of Africa, the 
oumroittee state that, during; thu vear 1647, 
fiber. Hr. Payne preueheU every Sab bath mom- 
jng to aboQt 20U natives ; coadaeted the miit- 
non Sanday school every Sabbath afternoon ; 
preuehwi four times a week in the imtire towns 
in the vicinity; lectured every ThnrwlaytniMi- 
iu^ to the {mpils and mimion fauiily : c-omluct- 
doily cvming scrvicn for the schod*< ; do- 
^Tote<l two hours eaeh day to the tranalatioa of 
the ^criptoroB ; mode three riaita to each of 
tli<! more remote stations ; and officiated in the 
colony forty-five times. 

In 1B48, the mision was strcngtbcned by 
tlio addition of two ordained missionaries, Rev. 
Mnsrs. Jacob Kambo and 0. 0. Hoflhian, and 
a lady of high qnalificalions as aasisUat ; and 
ID ltf49, Mr. and Mrs. Heuiog rctnrDcil to 
Africa, accompanied by Rev. E. W. Stokofl. a 
colored plergymnn. and Miss Williford of 
OeoiT^a, I>r. Perkins, the miwonary physi- 
cian, was obliged, on accoinil of itl-hi'allb, to 
rclinqonh his connection with the miPBion. 

In the par IgSl, Rev. John Payne, senior 
raiaGioiuuT, was elected by the General Con- 
vmtion, Miffiionary Bixhop at Ca[)e Piitm&s 
and parts adjacent ; and tlie ve^ftry of Trinity 
Church, New York, appropriuted 85,000 to- 
wards the endowment of the Episcopate. On 
the 11th of Joly following, ho was conBeerated 
in 9L Paol's chnrch, Alexandria, Va. 

In IftS'i, the mission was reinfurcwl by Rev. 
G. W. Home and three raale and tliree female 
aasijilnnt*; nod it wu« determined to occupy 
Mo[)mviaand Hasfoi Cove, ns Ktationi^ within 
the colony. Biahop Pavne rpiumed to Africa 
July 7, 1852 ; and active mcatmrcH were com- 
fflcnccd 1^ him for vigorous and enlarged oikt- 
ations. lie held his fir^ confirmatjon in the 
new chnrch at Bt Mark's, in the colony, on 
Chrislram day, in presence of a largo congre- 
gation. Twenty-five [tenons were confirmt^. 

In March, lHr>2, a small newspaper, calhsl 
" Tlie Cnvalla Messenger." was commenced at 
the mi.-«ion, printed in Grebo and EngUsh by 
two^younu- nntive <.'hri.ftians. 

From Iti^hop Payne's report, dated Cajje 
Pttlma.«, Jnne r>, 1 8r.3. we gather the following 
Bammory of the results of the mission : Since 
ita commenecinent in 183€, there have been 
Bonnertcrt with the miwion 31 white miasioo' 
■riOB, mala and female. Pour principal sta- 



llions have been estabtiabed, at Fu^ovn, Red 
I touvK Cape Paimas, and Cavalla. At all thw 
points native boarding schools have been -main 
taioed. Day schools have also been taught, li 
which many heathoa children have learaed 14 
read. Bonday schools, also, have been a» 
tained. The gospel has been preached tt 
nearly the whole Grebo tribe, Dambcring aboal 
20,000, and a congregation of colonists hu 
been supplied with state^l »ervices. Morelhtfl 
100 have lK!eii rfceive<l into the churclu Some 
of theac have died in the bill), others han 
apostattUKl, and about HO still remain meraben 
of the chnrch. A high school has been «»• 
tablished at Mount Vanghao, for training eol- 
miist teachers and minionaries. 8ix yuntfas 
have \ieea sostnincd at an annual ex^veuse of 
875. A femaic colcmift day school is in opa>> 
ation at Monnt Vanghan, with 40 to 46 aauA- 
are. Tim <ireb() nalivc dialect has liceo 
reduced to wnting, and many portirmB of 
Hcriptiiro and other books printed in it, A 
printing pr«»s is in operation. A wido4pnad 
conviction of the tniTn of Christianity has been 
prodncetl in the native mind, and an expecla- 
tioa raised that it must supersede the reiigloa 
of the country. Two churches were in procos 
of erection, and the means had been raised fcr 
a third> and an orphan asylam is being erected 
at llie point of the Cape. Tlicro were in tbo 
miflsion two colonist and throe trntive csodi' 
ilatM for orders. 

jAStiTjit Tnnr. 



st&noNS. 






t>'inhu>«a 

ftockUnm 

0[>H Pxlniu. . . . 
Uotmt Vauj[Iuui . 
OkT&Uft .... 
Tibuo .... 
CrMaBlU 
rtlane 

M onroTift . , 






t 



3000 
IflOO 



liOD 



SO 



twi I II im <i » |io,poo|iin \ aiaia i m 



Mbtoodibt Epibodpax. Chfrch iir tn 
UsTTHD Statbs — Mission in Ltbtna. — The 
Church of Christ has a profound interest in 
the great experiment now being tried on Uw 
Wc»t Oai;t of Africa; and the Metbodlffc 
Kpiscopal Church, feeling that God had 
thrown u pttrlion of the responsibility apoo 
her, waA t*arly on the ground ; and hus alruct^ 
expended much treasure and devoted nuufy 
consecrated live!t, to Africa's evaoirclisatioD, 
in IJbt'Tia. The mortal remains oi her aaoa 
and daughtera ore lying in African grave- 
yards, and she stands plndged by every sacred 
engagement to carry on this work. This field 
was her earliest foraigo mi»on. Among the 



AFRICA, WESTERN. 



00 



who left the ITnilMi Sui«e, at the 
ment of the Libprinn Colony, were 
«fnrml wmbiTS nf tht* Mpthwliflt K. Chnrrh. 
■nJ villi *i'T\Ptn [«Tpr»l Irx'ui pnsii^Iicra. Ou 
Hi^TT itn-ii^iil io I«iberia they at onw iwl up 

■ •m rWlffimu lervicca with which <hey hod 

■ -a flu&iHv in this country. Tliey built 
ftw if wondiip ftod held their cbn and oth- 
V MHttBipk Bat th«7 derired rafular inioi»- 
tartet fedp, tad lbs cwreh in thin country b(v 
flua* loeiwiBfflrteterartAl in their twH^, until 
tt kflOKth, frfi IWS, Uie ^«r. MeUifle B. Cox 
W apfiointcd and wnc forth as the first 
■laiiiiwij uf tin Mnthodii^i B. Church to Af- 
rim H« arrifvl there 9th March. 1B33, aod 
Aemrk ia tteble health, catered at once upon 
Itkt fWtitv rf his raisioo. Uo gathered to- 
Mher all th^ nrmbfTR and offioen of tho 
winh thra in MonroTia. and organued a 
tasMh of the Mpthoriift K. Chnrch, andcr the 
idllKiriiy of the (ieBcral Oonfpn'acf* in Amer- 
k» IV ^^wl■l■i8rioBatMonn>via hanor 
hmt bnkkea ap by the nckncn and death 
«f Mt of Hs agcaU, the n/mainder of the 
'myjnnmk* wrre ocderud to Hifrra Leooc, and 
Mr. C'>x mrchamd their prcoiiacs, and wa^ 
dM« fiffaiwird with the laoana of at onra enter- 
hf neo bii hihom Hia Iotb for the heathen 
Ma M hte to derijie tneaos for preaching; the 

~ la Ur refriiip} beyond the colony. The 
wt action which b? propoMd as oretohed 
UuvtC was, *- lA. ) To Ohtabltth a mianoo at 
Baam ; (2) Another at Sego^ on the 
J^pr; <3) To establtflfa ft good school at 
fcwwia,on the model of th« Xaine WeelcT- 
>ft JlwiiMij ; and <4k Another minion cither 
Imatattrior, or at Cap: Mount He held a 
0tlfmiiiiimg onmnKmeing March 29, the first 
fidWbty Wtf held on that continent ; <jr- 
Mbsd 8nn(kv !irh>HiN ; communicate)! with 
wMtorinnar. lonif*; ami was pro- 

•vdlDX *itl' I ; ^ of lucfulneas, when 

tettp f i »a epd tbclinit ulUch of tht^ African 
Imr o« CKe 11th of April. lU ruUi>nl, how- 
fl*«. Wot ai^n took cold and wm again re- 
paid, ami OD thi^ 21st of Julv, thix dcvotal 
■faMaaary olept in Jesoa. Tnis result, hov- 
9m^ had net eonie upun him imniectAdty. 
lb had ooalHBlated it ai probable before he 
UttteUrilalStalea. Bal when his own eaae 
•r M «•» enifhad affafiiai tbo aalvation of 
Jlftka. b6 c>:>n&rri-d u 't a monWQt with Soih 
Ml 1i%>1 III- WM wtllinx to BKrifiee all, if 
Vr i>? fTeat cau5r in which Ite eo- 

n- iliercliv be iirocnoU.'d— joyfully 

« I .■ 'hriirt uould w magnified lu hu 

*■■ -r.' < .- by life nr death. On hia way 
mtAX *wtvf" l«vii,. '-lited Htatea, he 

IWM Uiddletown > and on takinrf 



■r 



M /«mk r * Wrrte." fepU«A Mr. Oox, 
a taotia^n r^u. aTnair Atrku as 
D» r Tbcaa wopAi, ■» worthy a mis- 



sionary of the Oroee, have become a motto for 
many who have followed him, oven to an early 
^mve in Africa, fie had lieen appointed to 
snporintend the mission, and Hn*. Heasre. 
rfpauldinicr and Wright, with Miss Farriuiftoo, 
were commissioned m V\•^ aaristants. Bnt thoy 
were delnyod and did not nrrive in Liberia 
until the Ist of Jan., 1834, nearly six looiilUs 
after tlic death of Mr. Cox. l/e had left a 
reqoCBt that Bro. i^pauldinp, on hw arriral, 
ahonid preach lii3 Aim-ral sermon from the featt, 
"Behold, 1 die; blt ood niAU. ak wrrn voc." 
Hii) iracoeoiors entered into \m labors but 
were eooo attacked Xtj the African fever, and 
onl^ five weeks after her arrival in LiboSa the 
estimable Mrs. Wright was laid bcaide Mel- 
villo Cox, and on tlio 29th of the next month 
bcr husband woe carried to tho same luimblc 
reatinff place. Shortly after. Mr. and Mra. 
Spaaldiiif were obli^l, liy pro»trati<JH of 
health, to Bail for the u nited Stotea, and Miaa 
Farrin^ton was thtia left olone^ resolved, to 
use her own wordd, to " oftr her wnl upon the 
altar of God, for the sidvation of that long- 
benighted coutiucttU" In lbU4 tbo iCev. Jc^ 
Soys was sent out, accompanied by Rot. Fran- 
ois Barns and Unice Sliaqi, (both colored,) Mr. 
B. being a local preacher aiid Unioea teachoTii 
They found on their arrival, 13 prcaciun^l 
6 teachers in the schools, and a memberdUp 
of 191. ThiH year mimiona were cetabllsbed 
at Nev! Ocorgta^ Edinaj and at Grand Sasta, 
Considerablo prosperity attended their labon, 
and at tiie dose of the year thoy reported an 
MtecCBiOD to their numbcn uf IGO, of whcim 
20 were native Africans; but three of the 
preachcra had been removed bv death, and 18 
of the colonists had been crodly maaiacred at 
Fort CroMon. by king Joe Karris. Arniiwe- 
mente were also made for establi^ing a miasioa 
in the Condo country, and another at Bu^hrod 
Inland. Dr. Goheen, as missionary phyaici&n. 
arrived with two teachers in 1837 ; and at the 
elo^ of tliat year the statistics of the miaioa 
were reported as follows: 15 missionaries, ooe 
physician, 7 school teacliern, 221 scholars, and 
6 Sabbath Khools with 300 scholars, the chnrch 
Biembeni hein^ 41H. Tho work of God was 
extended by the egtabUshmcnt ot fimr new 
statjoiu, at Jacks Town, Sinoe, Junk, and 
Boporo. In lB3ti a printing office aud a period- 
ical {Africo^$ Lvminartf) were C6tablL<d)od, and 
an auademy under the ehai^ of Mr. Itarton, 
of Allegany GoUoge, was orgonutod. Amanaal 
labor school was established at White Plains, 
for tho purpose of giving mstmction in the 
varions agncnltaral and mechanical bruncbes. 
The steady light whiili »l)onc forth to the dark 
regiona around them, in connection with the 
fr'w missions which they had already «stab> 
hnbf^d anioti^' the heuthen tribes, led 10 many 
^arucijt invitations from chiofs and people to 
givo them also the bcocAta of the gospel. 
Dnntaiioftt would fbeqaently arrive fVom Bush 
tribes as iha Dey. the Goolak. the Feasah. lbs 



100 



AFRICA, WESTERN. 



Bofisa. tlie Queah, unci tlio Urcbo people, ask- 
ing for missionaries and BCbools. Mr. Sep? 
viaitod niaiiy of tjiclr tribes, as far as 15U miles 
into ttic interior, and established as many mis- 
aioiu and schools lu i)i« means at bis dij«p(ii8al 
^rould allow. CutHi Palmos also was ajided 
to tbt; (ttutions in toe nildsion, aiid a strong Id- 
tor«it f^tablifihed Ibeiv. 

At thi; close o!' 18<.'> there were 17 mjarion- 
ari(B, ubout 20 cliapels, 837 church momlK'n', 
ami Ift day scliooU with 3t;3 pupil.-*, 12 .^alv 
bath fichtN^!* and 488 BL-holare. In Dewmb^^r 
of (hid yv.\r the Rur. Messrs. Benham, Wil- 
lia»i.% and Hoyt. arrival, to riuiiforro the 
mlsoion. A ft*w days afterwards, iiitellifrcnct- 
iviia nieeircd at .Nlnnrnvia Ihal Capt. Bel!, nf 
iJie UiiileJ Hlates 9l<xt[f-of-war Yorhown, hnd 
captnn-d a Klnvc-filiip, tlie Pons of I'Jiiladi-lphia, 
with 73i» .slaves on board. She had been only 
tlii-w dft}*s nut from Cabendn, where she hnd 
ghippet) yi3 shiVL-s. and dtirini^ those tlire*' 
days 8uch was the Irarbarity [irarticed mul the 
ditieast^M en^rendered that 20 died : and daring 
tlic fourtecu days the captors were getting l»er 
to Moiiroviii, IHO more diod. < Jovenior Rob- 
ert**, Jiid^o BeiiL'diet, and Dr. LuRcubccI, with 
some of the mi.ssioiiari*s, went on board the 
slaver, and there witnessed a seene of horror 
whitji laii^nia(»e is inadeciiiate to ili-serihe. The 
siitR'rinf? and dying ert^iituri'S u-yre landtnl, and 
distributed among the colonists ; and one hun- 
dred of the cliildren were taken in charge by 
Ibe miij&iou, til Iw brought up and I'duratt'd at 
Iho cj([ii'n.se of the MlR^i<»nary Society. 

JJt/i'iov Payne Cirtimatcs that the jurisdiction 
of the Liherimi Tli'iiidilic will eventually px- 
tend it,-<cif 600 miles along the coast, and 200 
into Uie interior. "Here, then," to use his 
own wonU, ••» terri1i>ry conlnining, besides 
Ameri>-Qti eiili)iii.<«, 120,000 nqunrc miles, and 
not fur (rum 5.0tM1,(K)0 of aborigines, is the 
sphere to which Providenc*! directs American 
philairthropy aiid>Cbristianily." Forty yearv 
«inc(% in his celebrated speech on tlie Hlave- 
Trude. before the Uritifih Parliament, Mr. Pitt 
moilc tbo following remarks ; *' W'e may live," 
said ht', "to behold Ihi; nnlivts ijf Africa en- 
gaged in (be euhn oeeupatioii£ of industry, in 
tlie pursuit (if jopt and legitimate commerce. 
"We may belmld the iM-ains of seienee and pbi- 
loi^iphv breaking in upon that land, which at 
some iiappy period in still hiter tlmcA, may 
biHA.' with lull lu.stre, and, joiuing their iuQa- 
enee to tluit of pure religion, may illuminuti- 
and iitvigomtc the most ilistunt extremities uf 
that Immense continent." That happy [K-riod 
htis dawned u|Km Africa ; for these glowing 
anticijtatiimti are now l)eing n'aliawir in the 
Repiililic of Liiwria. Thu Ifoard of Mitwionp 
of the Melhodi?t K. Church have evinced a 
lauiiiibht au-viely to meet their p«xrt of the 
great rcs:i>f.ut.iliHity growing out of such a 
stale of tilings it* this. But Ihe impractica- 
bility and inutility uf depending in any niea-| 
snre apon (be lab^irs of white missionaries fori 




[»f all i 

tenl^l 



its accomplishment, has letl thctn to 
the duties of the miwinn entirely to col 
ministers. So that, at present, the only wl 
agejit of the Board in the Itepuhlic is 
Jinme, the principal of the Monrovia 
emy. This decision has been made on 
folfnwing gnmnds : They believe th&t> 
Whites may not exj^ect aifficieot health 
enable them to porform guffieient labor, withi 
fn^nent interruptions ofloiigeontlnimncOjC' 
if they e?cape with their lives; while, on 
contrary, coloretl men do generally, after t 
acclimation, eniny as good hcAlth as in A: 
ica. (2) Theeoloredmiasionarica, by aprevi 
n-sidencc in the i.*onntrv, have to some extent 
bcfonie aecjuainted with native habits, preja- 
dices, and langtiage. {3^ The membctvhqp 
of the Mclhodik Mission m Liberia has now 
become so large, nnd of such a character, that 
we may eonCdently look to it &a the source 
fi-uin which to ol>tain our future supply of 
laborers, in proportion aa the neccKniy lor 
their labor becomes apparent, and the gei 
of Chrifttianity tend'i tu render the pietr 
talent* of every one in tlie church avail 
And, Snally, Because the results of this 
experiment in Liberia have cxbibittd to 
world the conipetencv of colored men to 
govern themselvctt, and to take ehargo of tkll 
mattew of inipirtaiiee. "With the roquiMi " 
amount of piety, they arc as capable of attem 
ing to religious, as to secular, concerns — to tho' 
nffiiinj of the Church as well as to matters 
of State. Up lo 11^50. the Mi^.^ionary Society 
of the Methodist R Church had scat to Libe- 
ria twenty-fi\-c white agents : Melville B. Ci 
in 1832, who died in six months after his " 
val ; in 1833, Messrs. Wright and Spai 
and their wive^, and MIfs Farriugton. Mr 
Mns. ^Vright both died within three mom 
of their arrival, and the others, after a few 
months, were obligwi to return to America, 
broken down by frequent attacks of Africaa 
fever. In 1835, John Seys and his wife were 
sunt out, and they also had to reluni. leariog 
four of their children in the grave-yard o? 
Monrrtvia. In 1836. J. B. Barton was 
and after a brief residence, he returned to 
United Stat(« to recruit his health, 
went back to Liberia, whern he soon afl 
The fMinie year Stjuire Chn«; went out, 
foroil to return, and though he went 
again, he had again to leave, aud died 
the eflbcts of the African climate, shortly al 
hii second return from that coast-. Dr. Ool 
the missionary physician, went out, with 
Javne, tlw printer, io 1837, but both 
obliged to amie bock. The next year, 
Wilkins and Mis Beers were sent ; the latl 
left ; the former still lives and labors, the 
vot*'r| matron of the mission schmil for nati 
girls at Milbburg, tJie onli/ ont, of alt the wi 
raiHsionaries sent out by thi.< Board, now Ih'ii 
in Africa- J. Barton and W. blocker 
out in 1839 ; the latter died in seven 




sent a 



AFRICA. WESTERN. 



101 



lh» famxT lived two yean, and then fell al llie Bishop also gWes an accouot of the 

ta the fever. Mr. Piayrcc joined the meeting of the CoDforence, and of the viilue of 

io !m42, aud then returned; aud in | oar African missions. He says, ''At Ifiijjth 

the time of moeUog the ('miferenco arrivwl, 
anii we entered ou businesL The Cipuforfuce 
hail it-* prcsjtdcnt and sMvretarv. and priR-ewiwi 
tu business with ii^ mneb form and ni-t-uraey flii 
we arc accustomed to do at liotno. On Hnlihuth 
nur rulifijions exerci&oa were held nndi.T the 
^udf! Iff two large t^iniarind treeii, at th** I'on- 
olosiou of vhicb 1 onlaintH) ei^^dit to the olTtcQ 
of elder. After having f.-urvcycd the wbolo 
cTound, I am well suIisftiHl withtho ehoreb in 
Lilieria. While there I witnessed s*imo of the 
clearest, brightest and stronp^ft cvidrncw of 
religion I ever hceame iiei|tnilnU'd wi(h in my 
life. The Afriean mu'^iion is one of L'n'ftt pro* 
uiLsi) to tbe chiiroli of God ; it is not only *U» 
tiui\l to hlft*p LiUoria, litit to j»our Ihf blewing? 
of lii^ht and tyxlvatjon all ovt-r tlie r«mf inrni of 
Africa ; aud God designs to awak^'n and 
Chrldtiauize its miilioos throngh the agency of 
her own sona." 

The Bishop ennmorutw the leiulinj^' dilhcnl- 
tiea with which this raLssion has had t^i eontomL 
The first Is the want of missionaries who can 
spaik the language of tbo natives, and the i^onso- 
qacnt neceasiiy of still employing interpret4'rfl — 
then thcro is too coetom of Jmkinf^ (or inultiDg' 
pre6ent«.) which tbe natives tenacioi].''v endea- 
vor to keep up; then there ia the diftinilty of 
puiygamy which keeps hundreds fromdrelding i 
km: (io<i; then their vkmo\13 domeslic Drpniiitijtion^i 
which mjikcs the wives the mtTu slaves t-f tlieir 
lazy htubandri ; then their superstittoti.':. th"?ir 
irreL-grcttJ and witches ; and then there is tlie 
vic-e and dhbawemcut which tbo nutives eon- 
atjinilj contract in their intcrcoarpe M-ith llie 
tibiiKiand traders ou the coast. Holding offices 
under guveruuent, and enj^aging in trade, by 
tlic preachers, used formerly to exist — hut of 
late it ia dUcon tinned.— -/Ijihu/iJ Rqyrrti.uml 
MsKtoiiary Advocate ; Natuvwi Magazine ; Ij/jn- 
don iVatdiman ; Car's Life ; Hoyt's Lind of 
Hope, — Rev. W. Bctleb. 



'^ l>]im, Hoyt, and Williami?. 

-rived; hut Mr. Williams 
;!. J tu-.iin. iiiuT hisnrriviil ; and the rc-st, 
ebl«I by dis«ia3e, returned at different 
Mr. LJasUou and his wife next went 
hot Mrv. 13. and their child died, and he 
Now during all tliia time, but four 
[^IIm coloanl prcaencrB bara died, though 
r iMBibcn have boeD to tbe whites as ten to 
air. Xor have they been under the neecsUy 
af leaving Liberia U) recruit their healUi. 

The ihacnki Conforfuce of lHif'2, arraugcd 
to md Ba^op Scott to vi»it the mission and 
nii]t< in the aonual ('oafcrencc there in 1853. 
He wmt, and ?peut mure than two months 
h aud gave the whole work u tiiurtmgb in- 
, aod made anofa arnuigcmentii 08 it is 
win tend to the greater eilicieDey of 
iDoaifta. ITcTe, in mbstajicc, Is a dt^^rip- 
[ cf hi^ first Sunday and first sermon m 
, with other leiuling points iabisrepiirt : 
bbiuh morning ntm<s and at * tbe sound of 
' ttl ehiiRb>goiiig bell ' I refHiired to the place 
if womUp, and there, to a well-clad, wcU-bt> 
fciw). iul^^ltigcnl a«embly, preachod my first 
•nawj in A Irica, from the text, * For the pro- 
mm ■ wiCa yoUr' ift. I said il was an intcUi- 

rai wt ypc g. I will describe it. There &at 
Ptreiid^nt of f Jberia, and hi-i wife, each 
Mof a Bibl« and Hymn Book, (and this 
•^tv,. ...^um w'xih. all pnsent ;) juat beyond Bat 
Prcaidfnt: in tbe next pew wok the 
ini.^IiHtking figure of Chief-Jagticc 
I oc&r him the Speaker of the 
'."eacutativcs. Aud there we had 
to 6rvi interview, in God's name, with our 
nkrvil brethren in Africa. I visited uU the 
MfltOTOU, except Marahall, in which churches 
V! atahlj*iheil. fbcitic arc luminous spotA, ray- 
fa^ cat litrht idoH'/ thcdarkcoastof thatcooti- 
iKtL ] ajjf.i viiit<.^l Bexley. Louisiana, Lexing- 
bA. Puddiniflon, a'ld Mount Tubman ; all in- 
litatini: plu'v-*, mul concerning which I have 
aHAvnlciwiog rriiiiuiaocDCca. In niv interview 
till toeKingof Capo Palmas, the king treats 
•imr u ilw father of all America, and said : — 
'Manca been hers twenty j-earaandyet (al- 
Hhy to tLc colonbtA and tho natives.) we arc 
tim pt-oplei We want one Rchnol for botli. 
1 want briaff oar people (Ktid be, (niiting the 
Ktion to the word.) half round ; bv and by, 
Injig ( ht-m wholA nmiul : not do this all at 
Ti iiincut of the Republic of 

la, ' :iied on the model of our 

' and IS wiiiiMj in tbe hands uf colored 
Beau tu be exooedingly well admiais- 
1 tierer saw #0 nrdrrly a pct^e. I saw 
inC'Uioatett nolmuiit while in the conn- 
1 beurd not one profiine word. The 
I b kept with bingnlur ^trlclDoaSf and 
•■ are crowdol with attentive and 
rly worahi|K3ifc" 



TABLLAU VIEW, 
MKMDEBS. 



HTAnONS. 



%i 



t ^ 



lIiunnlA 

I^v«-OiMwrn Ctrflult. 

irMwrOilWHI CVrcolt, 
UUUbantbMHlWLiM I 

FUiui f 

Heddlngtoa %nA Rob- \ 

wUtQI* / 

U&rntu 11 Circuit 

llamA ftntl E'tlaaOrcMit 
^iatn\ anil K^wiUrilln ) 

OrruiL / 

OipA fnlniiM 

Tola] 



IIM 



lift 



10 1 



Iff 00 

it&oo 

ltd w 

UftT flC 



at,M£ ai 




Monrovia 

Ijower CalJwt'Il Circuit 

UppiT Cahlwull Circuit. . . 

MilisburRh and ^VTiitv Ploiua 

Hctldinirtou and Robertsvillo 

Uor^all Circuil 

Baaaa and Kdiua Oircitit 

Sinnu and U(!fuUvillc Circuit 

(!u|iti Polinus 

Cape Mount 

Laaedwroogh and Felcr Uarru's 



BovTHKRN BAPTiBt CoxTKKTioif.— TTtc South- 
ern Baptist Conreotioii havo a flourishlni^ inis- 
flloD in Liberia ; and tbtrj arc cominoncing one 
also io thuYoniba country. The boord say, in 
their roport for 1853, that their minJOD in IJ- 
bcria is oxcrcisini;^ on immwliat^ly salutary 
infloepce; audtbHt the ftioilitii-s for benofiuinl- 
ly affecting the heathen arc abanduut. Tho 
minionaries are all culorpd men, and though 
uonc of them havo hod the odvanto^ of thor- 
ough mental trnicing, yet they iiro m advimcv 
of the people among whom they labor, in piety, 
talcota, and kuowlwige. Tho reporta of the 
difl^rcui stations indicate a healthy gttatc of 
the churched, and in pevcra] of tho churches 
revtvaU have bcKin experienced the past year. 
In the year 1852, the Board Bent Rev. Mr. 
Bowen on an exploriuij' tour to the Yontba 
cooutry ; and his n-^iort was »> favorable tlint 
they immediately resolved on sending out a 
mioBioQary fori-c to occupv throo slatioos in 
that field, and Kev. MessrH. J. S. DeoDord, John 
H- Lacy, and \\\ H. Clarke were Eubsoqnently 
appoiatod ; and the intention was to send out 
tni'cc more. Messrs. Lacy, l)ennard, and 
Bowt'U reachfii Lapos Aug. 28, 1853. It wiis 
dtitumiinetl that they ghoold locate, and for 
the pcesent, rcmun togt:thcr at AJayc Mr. 
Dounord, having gone to the coast on bosioesa, 
■writes, Jan. 10, 1834, conveying the Rorrowful 
ncwa of the deuth of hia wife. Mr. Liwy Iibk 
returned to thia country on account of the in- 
flamed condition of hift cyee. At tho latest 
advices, Mr. Dcnnord was at Lagos, and Mr. 
Boweu at Ijuye. At the meeting of the Board 
in April, Mr. Clark was expoctod to sul In 
May, and the Board were corresponding with 
othtT brethren, with reference to tliis miation. 
{See Yoru/xt nnd Map.) 

The n'|H>rt for 1 8f>4 givea u cboeriag view 
of the statti of the miasion at libcrta. The 



chnrches have been vtsited with revivals . 
pait year, and some of thorn hava r«3CcT 
larg« Bfowm'om. 



TABU1.\R TDGW. 



ffrA'no>u 



iJMsax. 

C^jtt Palsuu 

SiDOU 

IkaM Qira 

n«d«}-...., 

EdUtt. »,„.•... 

Jank 

MtwTOTUk , . 

K«w Giwn^a >. 

N>w VlTfflnlK 

C.MwfU 

MBUhunt i 

lioulsiuift J 

UhaikL.. '...'.... '.'..'.'... > 
IgbolM } 

fHattoM U 



13 11 



i! 



IMf 



i 

34 



sot lit 



« No rvtaroi. 



t latmaplAto. 



AMKBIfAN MliWIOXABT AaSOCIATtOS. — '. 

miwiou of this Bocioty in "West Africa, is caU( 
the Motdi Mission, uud is sitiiuled iu the S 
hro coonlry. ThiB name is gtuer:illy giron 
a 3tH;tii.'n of tvuntry lyiny south and ^julh-c 
from thf colony ol Hiirrm Lt'oue. belwoi'u 
arul tM)^ N. latitude, and from the 13th doj^ 
of longitude west from Grci'nwich, ecstw; 
into the interior. It embriicctt not only the 
Sherhro connlry proper, but the MpcTt country, 
tilt' Biiilont», .lung, Boom.Tironeh, Boom, ^ 
and Looboo CMtiutri>», and sometiuivj oven 
p>>rtion of the Mendi country. In general thai 



m 

ba^ 



AFRICA^ WERTBR 



of it tihWb liw iip»r tho Ctiait is low, i^ith 

rirt-re nmiiin^' into each other, by 

it is rcallv tliddtyl iu(o wvcrul Uilands. 

_ tlte Jotm rivtr pmae 30 or 40 milee 

the 'ocean, we rmw^h tho high laiida at 

or (bill .wing \h(i liiK» of the Hoom for a 

■adi gnrutor di<tiiDCo, ttio hif^liIiLDila ara rL>&<^h- 

iA m run enter tha Boompc oonntrv. At the 

oitiTv towu 'HaBaim, or the mi^'lon elation 

)li>T^ppfta, thrrc » a roiifiiih ruble fall of 

•■bar, m th<*rc is obo at Wela. on the Jong. 

At l&oe plvcs indiati com, beans, melons and 

mmj other kiu*Ls of vpi^-tables tliat are com- 

■M to tiMs giinlcDS of the United Stutos are 

m^ «ttllirat«d. Of some of them three or 

Iv ntoemn crom are prodaccd in the nunc 

wmm. Small Tillages, or AfHcan tomu, are 

fvy CheqtKDt all oJun; the namerous rii*ers. 

tkinMiatioa of these towns raric!) from fiO 

ttlo lOOO, or more, inbabitanta. There are 

imteanm at rftcs nf towm dfstroTCd in the 

■nuium wary iIistf^;a^*^l by the blave trade, 

4a* ome of Wu>t«m Africa. 

TV {rncml condition of the people nf thnt 
pai it AMea, before tlio rstabltihuieut of thu 
iWm, wu iha.t of hmtlicn. Many of the 
diiHk bowncr, arc Mobammcdaiu .ifime of 
lAoB on read tbc Arabic readily, and poi»- 
■Bpvls of tie Koran. The government of 
tkreooalV^ ij generally in the hamli of these 
aoL The loHt Ifcw yearj hufl d(iVi'loi»cil the 
oltaMeof idolatry much more wide spread 
ftn Ihe miwonarics had prcTiaoBlr an^ idet^ 
of. Manf ol thdr idoln, of the most hideoug 
4Bd rrrnlQi!^ fbrm, have been voluntarily giren 
qi to iho mnonarice. 

TW hiitnr of tliis mtsBion properly com- 
iMcn with Uie «eizare of the schooner Aniitt- 
liit by lieQt. Gedney, V. S. >i\, near the east 
«4 of Lcpng iHlantl, in 1839. tie found on 
i<vtl tiio rtasd about forty Africaiut and two 
Eiaaianis, oue of wltom declared liiuiself the 
MB«r of the negroes and clouncJ the Ucu- 
t—at% protcrtioa. 

After aa examination before a jndgo of the 
Cited StalCB District Cunrt. for Connccticat, 
% AfKcanc were i^mmitted to the jail nt 
Kn naveo. fur trial on a char;:^ of mnrder 
" .^.^'^, *..,j. VTbco it was ascertained thnt 
. : ly from AAica, and had bevn 
at Harona, to be carried to 
iidlaved, and that they had risen 
_ :>. era, and rocovfrcd their libcr- 

tr. n^li iiilcftxt waa excitcfl in their behalf. 
Alrw fri^-n*!? of freedom met at New York 
I comniittcc to recelTP dtma- 
iinMJ, and act as eircnm«i(anm> 
it Legal coniL^l were employe'I. 

interpreters were obtained, and 
-•!i — r :it New Haven an- 
! -truction for Iheee 

>:l-:in«. 

the HoUeitA- 

:<d to act r» 

• eoraacl, and the oiuae was finally arfmed 



by him and ITon. Roger S. Dnhlwiu before thel 
Sopn'rne Court of tbt* Unit4vl fitaleB, nl the 
city of Washington, February and March, iS41. 
The following letter addrca>ed to a member 
of the Coniuiitteu, givea the result : 

" WAsmxoTojf. 9th Mordi, 1941. 

** Tho captives are free 1 

" TTic part of the decree of tho District Coort, 
which pinceti there at the diflpoeat of the Pre- 
.^ident of the United States, to be sent to Af- 
rica, JH reversed. They are to be discharged , 
from the costody of tfic Marahal— ^«. 

" The rest of the decision of the courts beloiri 
is fifiirmed. 

'* * Not unto OS — not nnto xa' Ac 

" Bnt thanhft— thanks ! in the name of hnman- j 
ity and of jostiee, to tou. J. Q. AniMS." 

Aa these African.*i hml been instructed in 
tho elements of knnwIMge, as particular cord 
had been taken to cnlicrhten thi;ni on tlw mh^-n 
jeel of Ulirtstionity, and as tliey all expressed^ 
■A Btrong desire that 8omc of their r<-ligi<mt'<i| 
ti«eherA nhonid aceompuny them to tlieir no^ 
tive land, the Committee deemed it a dnty lo 
make their retnm. after such a providential 
train of eircnmjrtances, the oceaaion of plant- 
ing a niwion In the heart of Africa. As 
the ftmdi) had been contributed by persons of 
various denominations, most of whom were of 
anti-Blaverr principles, it was thought propar 
to make the mission anti-«laTery and anti-aoy 
tarian in its character. Accordingly the fot 
lowing rcftolntinn was adopted : 

"Raolvfvl, That it would be contrary to tho 
feelings and principles of a large majority of 
tho donors to the Amistad fund, aiid of the 
frinmt* of the tiberato! Africaai, to connoct 
their return with any miagiooory society thai 
solicits or receives donations from 8)aTe> 
holdere." 

A naf^age was secured for them in a vmel 
bonnn for Sierra I^eone, and a fiireweU public 
meeting held in the Broodwar Tnbemack^ 
New York, Nov. 27, 1841; by tho UniOB^] 
Miffiionary Hcciety ; when the ingtmctione of , 
the Committee were ((t-livi-pp*! by 8. S. Joc^ - 
lyn to the misdonorics under appointment, 
vix., Rev. James Steele, Rev, Wdliam Kay- 
mond and Mrs. RarmoDd; and porting coun- 
sels were given to tiie MendiaDS, aomo of whom 
took part in tha oxercisG*. 

They arrived at Sierra Leone, January IS, 
1842, alter a pMiftjfC of fiftv days. All their 
stores, tools and impWmenta of agrienlturo 
were admitted Uw of doty, and creii without 
examinatioD. Oovcrnor PergusoD profftrad 
every neoeatary oBistanoa Soon alwr arriv- 
ing, Mcfflrs. Steele and Raymond became sat^ 
i.'ified of the im]>ractieahility f( th'^ir rcaeJdng 
the Mondi country, and. ojuvrtaining that part 
of the AmistadA belonged to the Sberbro 
country, and that all were willing to go there,. 
Mr. Steele, accompanied by Cinque and scr- 



I 



csrat othm, visited Shcrbro. Kiug Ueniy 
TuoktT, to whoo» ihi-y vrcnU lived at Kaw- 
Meiitli, (a tnnii of tliu SUerbro) uud souQud 
>rilting to rumvo tb« people luUy liU tfrritory. 
Thu coaditioDB wuro, howovor, too hunl tj btr 
ftccupuni, ojid Mr. RajTuond, wi(h Uio Afri- 
cans, 8peiit the noxt niiuy a'usoii ut York, 
Sicrni Leone. Mr. Huelu wm comiMiUwl I*} 
ill hiultli to iTtum t^ the United States. 

In November, 16-42, a loc^itioQ W9S lelcctcd 
for ttie miaaion about a mile below tbe village 
of Knw-Mvadi, and l(iO sqaore rods of laud 
were obtoiDwl, Imlf a mile on tlio river, ext«ud- 
log a mile back, Tor wbich was paid on aaniml 
rent of «100. 

Ou the arrivttl of tho miwtionary and the 
Alriituu at Kaw-Mioidi, the King ordered a 
swivel to bo loaded and firccl. aa a t<jkcn of 
joy. The women and pirls bepaii to tinif and 
dance. A mnltitudc of men, women uud chil- 
dren tiocked around to sec the wiutc woman, 
barinx never eocn one before. In the morn- 
ing, nuiny people were drawn together by thoir 
ftiugiug and praying at (lunilT dt^votious. Ou 
Lonl'8 day. Mr. liaymond held religious servi- 
ces, antl preaclied his flrst Bermon heru fnini 
John iii. 16 : " For God so loved the world," 
ice. The king attended, and seemed macb 
imprwwtl 

"ITio iufluenco of the mi-H^ion on the ftlavo- 
Imdc, on the king, and nn tbe people, quiekly 
became apparent. A nourishing school was 
soon in o}M>ratioD, and Mr. lUymoud fch 
grtatly eucoiiragod. Hid language was, "Tins 
niifMioti M evidently plantt^I by CiikI hinutelf. 
1 am more and moro satisfied of it It will 
pnwper." 

On the Brat Lord^ day in Januarr, 1845, he 
orpuiiiec] u church with Svo memuerB. llis 
OVAf and labors were great ; but he was i>or- 
initlcd to 8CC fmits abounding amidiit the difb- 
caltits with which the mission was Mtrrounded. 

A terrible war commenced in tho Sherbro 
country in 1845. Ma-iiy towns were burned, 
Hundrt^Ls fled from the scenes of war to the 
mission, as a place of refuge. The persona and 
property of ail counectt'd wilh it were rt«pixl- 
ed. Itu character iid a place of fn^edom, peace, 
temperance, and Christianity, wa^ kown mr and 
wide. RcT. Tlenry Badger at that time wrote, 
*^ Did yon ever hear of a mission being establish- 
ed in the midst of wur t Ilore is one, and it hua 
advanced during the war more than iirevioiwly. 
A school has lH.'fn formed, ami is uoing well. 
The Mission Estubli^hnicnt. at first regarded 
with much Fu^pieion, is now l<whc<l upon with 
great ir^pcct. It i.s a f^auctuary. And while 
other towns and ptuces are cousvmied by fke, 
and their inhabitaots destroyed by sword, or 
carried into sbvery, this Qoarislies and im- 
proves." 

After the death of Mr. Raymond, in Nov. 
IftiO, the miaaion, with ibt scIkhiI of over ^ixty 
children, was for eight montlui under the care 
of Thomas Banyan, a nulive AlcndioD, who 




had preTioQsly acted aa an interpreter 
teacher. Two mifisiouariEs sailed from Ni 
York for the mliaion, April 8, I84S. Ode 
them, J^tr. Carter, died eight days after 
an'ivid at the missifm ; the other, Geo. Th: 
lion, labored there alone for two years, 
ing much of the time from gicknras. 1) _ 
this liiDc, there was much deep religion* in' 
est mmiifrtstotl by thnsc. about the mJasion, and 
many were received uito llie mifi^iou church: 
the flret one woa 7ivmf. one of the girls taken 
in the Amistad. The nest reinforcenient coi 
sisteil of Mr. and Mrs. Brooke and JMir-Gx 
another one of the girls taken in the ?ehf*nn' 
who ha*l liecn at Rchool in Ohio. Mr?. Brooks 
died before reaching the nitron. They woe 
runuwiil to A frica in Dec. 1850, by a com 
of cigLl ; and Dec. 25, ie.'j2, another coiui 
of seven newly appointci.1 ui»sionarics 
from New York for that niiisaion. Siiu 
time, only one mistjiunar)' has joined the 

TAlll'UAB TIZW. 



le^^l 



STAITOVS. 



K««rUpn<ll.... 
Uood Uojw .... 
lto-Xkpp»a.... 

TbUl 




OfMt femal« »t*l4tuit not loe«t«1. 

Besides the etalions which api)ear in 
foregoing table, the missnonaricH are undo 
in.>ttniction to open a station, cither at Mo 
Bwavi. in the Looboo conntry. or at Wela. ii 
the Timnch wjuntry.— ^IIev. Ggoriik WinrrM' 

Baslk >tissioH.\By Socnm-. — llie Bad 
Missioniiry Society turned its attention to tl 
Gold Coast in 1H26; and four of itt opnti 
arrived at Christiomborg, near A km, in IS'if 
Three of them soon die<i ; and the fonrth foun^ 
himself under the neccspity of taking the plac 
of the I)anii<h chaplain, who had also dcrenn ' 
only to fullow him. hfweviT, in 1831. In 183 
three other laborei-s rcncho*! Christiansborg ; ' 
one of tliGin, a pliysicinn, soon fell a victim 
to the climate ; and niwther did not long wir- 
vivc- In IH35, Uiis, who alone remaiutJ. went 
to Akmpong. which is n considerable jduec in 
(he Aqunpim mountain'^, uorth-ea.<rt. from Akro. 
He wuj kindly received by the king and his 
people-, and he commcDcea his Inbors among 
them. Two fellow-lalwrers came to hi.<i aid in 
\WA<i, bat both soon derca.'cd. At length, after 
many disappointment.^, u new plan wus adopt- 
ed. Riifl (accuinpauicd by Widmann, aod a 



AFRICA, WBSTEHK. 



105 



rnl niitii wim had been educated in Swit- 
a ;cd IwcutT-four Oliristi&n nc- 

gpKN i; mica to Akropong, where tlicy 

vrnni in Jp*43. A clia|)ol was erected at tbut 
pkceia 1B44. This missiuu bos been protte- 
oitcd to the fvcsent time ; and at the auuircr- 
Hf rf the Sociutj. held Jnly e, lb63, its 



aflkirs were in a pro?wrou8 and hoppftU condi- 
tion. 'Vhv imnilMT ol laborfr^-utu ir>, and thu 
oongTi'gaiioiis bad iDcrta.srd. The f*tiition at 
ChriHtiansborg bad iH.'cn piirticnlarly favored. 
It hoft MlalioiLs al Akro|iOug:. and at Uam, 
(Danish Akra.) 



TABCLAB TIKW OP MISSIONS IS VESTEBK ATRIGA. 



sociEnss. 



5* 



Qmh XMvMfT 9o«ietjr 

MM iMtlrt >UMiaa 

abV«»l»rmsafimim 
KMoMTT AiehilT 

IMiMBBMrA 

fci^iifcir 

IMgriffiu tt«nl 

jhiivilftMAL 

•«4n Ikipthl Caof«Dtfam 

iMia* ItMbodbt KpUcopal Orareh 
AhUhb Bkftiit Uaioa 

toUb 



IIB 

ton 



5021 

TO 



80 13t^ 4 4!! 



aatt 17 



U ia.lM64:! tM 13.877 



It trill be locn. by the fore^ing Rtatomcnts, 

tttt I fwni bc-^inoinsr has been made in Ibe 

nMifrdiution of Western Afrini. Many vul- 

klit lifts bavt- been Btterifit'ed, in Uie attempt 

to phot ti)C ffn9\)(^\ un these inhnepitablc sliun^. 

Art ttrcy have unt been sacrificM in vain. If 

Bm Au 13,000 souk, or a muieiy of tlitnn, 

Im bci« Hired throi^h the instrumeutalitv 

i thnr mttnou* it would be worth the sacri- 

&» nr rrery miwiMury who hw landed tliere. 

^ the nsolte of thcflc nclf-aacrilicinf:;- lal>ora 

*tiA hr beTond what appenrii in these stalis- 

W tables. A large ninoudt of preparatory 

writ haa beuu aceumpli^hci] ; nutirc bolpera 

km been rai^cil np ; communiention:) bare 

hn ifned intu tnc interior, and the way 

|Bfa«d for establish in f;r miflBiooa amou£f a 

pBiC nnmber of tarue tribes, inhabiting the 

■n okratod and hcahhy portions of tbe con- 

teiiriK> are in a more hopeful condition 

Ir afauoaary labors than those on the cooM,. 

Aid, ri|MTi«oce has removed, in a ureat de- 

fr«,\ the donffcn of acclimation on the coast. 

A hoft tmtnMT of the native laiunages have 

fcMS mastered, and a anmbor of them reduced 

tbvritintr- A good beginning baa also been 

>idD ia 'the departments of translation and 

pristixtp^. 

Br*. Dr. Krapf. of the mission of the Church 

■— -n tjurtem Africa, has made 

'(Wn a dwply iiitercBling 

U^ ...j...^ of a. South African cou- 

BlHton line, from tbc iUboon to the 

polat of their miarion in the ndgbbor- 

ZaozL'bar. North of the c<|uator, this 



wontd he difficult, on accomit of th* variety 
of lauguaREC am) the hn^tilily of the difR^reiit 
tribeii. But it un a remarkable feature of all 
the diuh'cU south of tlic e<|untor, Hpokcn by 
the black man as tluttnirui^lH-d from the 
ll<itteiilot.<i iinil KatTro^, tluit tbt^s*:- dialects all 
have It cotuninn language for their boDia. The 
peo]ilo, likewise, ore essentially one people in 
manners and customs. It bos been discovered, 
tjuil, by an iulercoiinw of a few weeks, the na- 
tS\e» of the eastern cooat, anil of the tlaboon, 
converse with each other. This great family 
of languages eeems alrio to be rvmorkablo for 
the excellunce of its Mrnclure. The place of 
mcf^ing on Ibid continental mission line vonld 
be some one of the central nu^tmtains. doppoiod 
to divide the great basins from which flow the 
waters of the Nile, and of the Zaire, and of 
the phorlt-r riven* running into the Indian 
ocean. Thi'so. mountains may be 800 or 1000 
miles from either coARt ; and it is a cheering 
fact that thrcv or four hundred miles of tho 
eosti^rn portion havealrea<ly been travcrTcd by 
Dr. Krapf and liia assoeiatciA. The miinonarT 
aspects of the two opponite sido4 of tho conti- 
uent have some strong points of recmiibliuice. 
On the east, a healthfoJ uplaud was found much 
nearer the coast than was exnectctl ; and moun- 
tains are iwen from more ttan one of the Ga- 
boon stntlons. The shores of the Gaboon are 
healthful, couipan.d with mostrivtrHOf Afrioa, 
but will probably uot comi>aro willi tho eleva^ 
ted tabic lands of the interior ; and no more 
will the coast from the cast. A thick junglo 
covers the plains and TaQeys on both stdcs, 



crenting the Deocantr of travdinfr on foot 
But the opening of the riront Ut uaTl^tiou, 
nifty, in a mnasnre, obviate this. And the 
tficrcofling tti«irc for nuHiinnarita amonj^ the 
inturiar tribes, ihows that Providence is optm- 
ing wide the doors fur Lbe eutraoco of the 
gospel on c^Try tide. 

AnilEDNrOGUR: Tbc city of Ahmed- 
iin^Riur 19 Kitiiat«d on the tablt; land of the 
tihauts. in Uindooatuu, iu a plain 12 or 15 
miles in extent each vray, and is about 17& 
miles north-east fVom Bombay. It contains 
about 50,000 sonb. and the popolation is in- 
crea.4ing aince^il has become a military stntion. 
It Tos once the seat of the Mimsnlman power 
in this part of India, and appears, from its 
palaeet, mosqoca, a^^nedncts, and nnmerous 
rains, to have been a place uf much sj)le-ndor. 
It is fonr or five miles in circuit, and entirely 
sarruunded by a high wall of stone and clay. 
It was occupied lut a nm-iuu Ktation by the 
American Hoard in 1831. 

AUrRlRI: A station of the Chupch Mis- 
sionary Society Jn Xew Zealand. 

-AINTAB : A lar^* ffurrison town on the 
nortbern frontier of yyria, in the pasbalic of 
Aleppo, It is 65 miles north of Aleppo, 50 
miles east nf Sc4indcr<)on, and 30 miles west 
of IJir. It hoK a population of 3.'),000 to 
40,000.r Jt 13 one of the mf«t iiitercstinfr 
ttAtiniia of the American Board among the 
Aj*m<?ninn*t. 

AITUTAKJ ! One of the Hervey islamk, 
and a station of the London Mitadonary So- 
ciety. 

AK-UIHSAR : An oat-«tattoD of tlie 
Aniericnn Board amonjET the Armenians ; it is 
the uitcient Tfnjatna, Ine seal of one of the 
A|K>CAl\7jlic clmrcbea; pojmlatlou 7000. 

AKI^A : A fltation of tbo Wosleyua Mis- 
sionary Society in A(Vica,on tlie Qold ooist, 
a ehi>rt distance to tbo east of Cape Const 
Castle. 

AKROFUL : An ont-jrtation nf the Wc»- 
leroan irt W<?8t Africa. (See Atinamnboe.) 

AKROPOXO: A stnUon of the Boale Mis- 
sionary Society, on Ca]»e Coast, Africa. 

AK.TAB : The name of a diittrict and a 
ctly in Arrncan, one of tlie provinces of British 
Qurmnli. The city contains from 16,000 to 
20.000 iahabitant«. Since 1840 the city has 
been a station of the American Baptist ilitf- 
gion in Arracao. 

AJjBANT : A district and town in Bierra 
T>?one, West Africa, occupied by the Weslcyan 
and <'hurch Meeioaarv Societies. 

AMJKKVILLE, in Upper Canada : A star 
tiori of the Wealpyan Miss, l^ciety among the 
Indians; commeneed in '817; has now two 
missionaries, wvoral out* atjou*. 80 memberR. 
an industrial (M'hool with 54 piipilB, and over 
700 lUleiidont* on public worehir). 

ALKPPO : A town of Syria, the capital 
of a piisUaltc iutuated io the vast plain which 



eztendB from tho OrontCB U> the Euphrates 
It is built on eight hiiis or eminenoea, and ii 
thrco and a half inilns in cinTamforcncOi soi^ 
ronnded hy an ancient strong atone wnU I 
feet high. It 18 a station of tho 
Jews' Hocicty, and somo FrotestontB 
foond among the Annouion and Greek ] 
lalion. 

ALLAHABAD: A large city at the , 
tiou of tJie UoDgCM and the Jumna. in Nortl 
India, o station of the rrcpbvterian Board.1 

ALLEN TOWN : Station of the Chn 
Missionary Bot^iety among the liberated . 
cans in tho river district of Sierra 
W. Africa, soijlhH?ast of Freetown. 

AMALONGUA: Station of the 
can Bonrd uniong tlic Zulus, near Port Na 
in Honth Africa. 

AMAPUBA : The ancient capital of \ 
Barman Kmpin>. gituulin] on the Irrnwadd 
seven iuiU« b<:Iow Ava, the prrtK-nt cap 
The governTiicnt was removwl in 182-1. 

AMBALA : A station of tV Pn-sbyte 
Board in Northern India, nearly equi-dijit 
from Lodioiitt, ^abaninpur, and Sabatten. 

AMBOYNA: One of the Molocca 
Spice islands, in lat. 3° 41' south, itnd Ina 
128<^ 10' east It bclougB to the Dutch. 
contains a population of 29.660. The Nd 
lamU Missionary .Society have a flooriiihii] 
mission on this island. (Sec huiton Ar 
pdugo.) 

A31ERI0A : (See United Statn, 
Nova iSeotta, Neto Brunstticic, Lab 
Greenlarul. Imhntts, Mcxiw, and South A% 

AMKUiCAN BUARIJ OF (^01 
SIGNERS FOR FOREIGN MIS.-^IONS 
Of all the foreign mi5siooary l^tfirds 
S4>cieticti now prveuiiuent among tbc 
volent ruBtitutions of tbe United St 
tlir A. B. C. F. M. was first in the dat» 
of its organization. Tet it miut not be 
supposed that the Kpirit of benovolence — or 
even what may \x\ regardwl iw more spedfl> 
cally the mL-isioiinry spirit — had preWo 
csi^lcLcc in tho American churchoa^j 
must it be Euppose*] that all the infin 
the ehurcIiM, wtiich led them to enter on \ 
foreign mifs-ionarv work, was; exerted by 
one, or any fow in'ltvjdual:^. The miasio~ 
spirit is but the Clirl^tian spirit looking \ 
the nnevangetized ; and from the first 
raeut of New Kngland Uierc had b<vn mn 
of this Kpirit in tho charcfaoe. Earne»<t, 
by no means nnsucccesful, efforts Ibr the c-von- 
gelitation of the native Indian tribe-t, bod been 
made by the Mayhews, KUut, Sanft-ot. Brain* 
ard, Whoelork, KirklnDil, and many fti-'* 
extending thr<^iigh a pcrriml of more tli i 
years, fnim 161310 1808, before Mills w i: ... 
Juilson or Newull. o^'red thcnuelvee as mt»> 
^iollllril's to Uic heathen. 

About tlio commencement of the ureaouk 
century it began to be ofovions that tbo «a» 
aianaiy fteUng was raing and extending in 




AUSmOAS BOARD. 



IW 



ft» Tl^Utt Sbrtta, and wonld b« Hkelv hmhi to 
' 4ctf new chaiiD«ls of effort ; 'atid " do 
■.c fpai}*T of the movdu^nt ; *' God 
^kh auasc. In 17l»9, the 
nary Society was funut'd 
111 lirUl the cuiutittilioD wa? modi- 
liC object of the Hr^cinty vas define*) 
■ Lfiwpel omoog the {wople 
. ud rptnote parta of our 
!■■ '■r-ng of the country, 
■ %iitn» of tho earth. 
... .:t« and the ability 
KhiDt," Under this con- 
iiad the meuiis been far- 
' Akd u, mi§r^ bitre sent niifvioDariea to any 
l^tt» " distant rogioiiB of the o&rtb ; " and 
|of lh« MrtDOoi^)n*ucbed at tho anniiaJ 
[ of the (mciety, as also sermons before 
i'liea in t!ie ejirlier yean 
I especially one hy Dr. 
»furc tiir; «jt!Deral Aaacmbly of the 
I Church iu 1306, \irgQ tao claims 
' kaadMu. and the fTreotoeas and exn-l- 
'■ nt a universal miaai<Miary work, with 
• and eflrnartufm which have soldonit 
f fnr, been Burparaed Dr. Parish, the 

. biFlVtr? tlim sociehr in 1807, alludea 

li'lwKicictieK in MasaacnuaetU for propa> 
Ifar p»jni]," to " Rimilar f>ocietiea in all 
(<H New Kn^lond," and to " miasioU' 
in the middle Btates," as then 
*Du Coonecticut Evangelical Maf^a- 
in 1900; the HaeachoBette 
Mo^pajsine, i^onimonccd in IBOB ,* 
etta Uaptist Mir^iooai; &[ajPfa- 
aced the same year ; tho General 
I MiBKHHuy Magazine or Ucligioos 
Etfrann- commenced in 1805 : dtmtsed 
n'hes much inlelliffcnce in ro- 
■T opcnitioas in foreign lands. 
1, wlu!ti i^jplitHl to by Dr. 
; in emlowHuf aThcoloni- 
*:\ lit Aiwii'vcr, fouml himitHf cm- 
Ijv a pn^vi(Hu deUTminutiou aa to 
r *i( lua meMkB. ** My great objed:," ho 
■U. ' i6 tbt foreign missionary cnteniriae ; " 
«i W g«w SI 0,000 to the Tbrakifrical 9chool 
I tnMB ttmriocfd that Uie eOcirt to establish 
^vai one with this enterprise, (or " we must 
' tn ttiniKtm if we would have men to go 
iJMiiiniiiii " Tho name year, IBDTi, Rob- 
I ^TMafTTi rmnitted for himself and otfaem 
$3,357 to aid the Baptist 
at Stnunporo. Dr. Corey, of that 
•rknowledcwd the receipt of Sf^.OOO 
fcr'. ■', ■ , liilfiniJand IrioT. 

difatioDs of a mia- 
tCiirii HI inr rtiunJiW of thl> Uniteil 

BlUl it ia tr«0, that as vct^ "American 
I had osfm ornnbined in any great 
! ct pJau for ipreading the knowfedge 
niH. i>r advaDOOg hid kiDgdiUn; luul 
m thdr rinm, a iiingic mi»- 
o tama^ of heavenly meruy. 
|t»ay |«^ijiie of the widely Gxtcnded pogiui 



world" abroad. The diflhrent cfibrts which 
-* had l)een mado for the benefit of some of the 
native triU's of the American fortst" had bcett 
•' scattert-nl and tranaient," and '• wiUioat any 
geni'ral union, nr any oxponsiTe and aystomatio 
plan of o pent li oils." 

Jii 1801), Samuel J. Mills became a membor 
of WiUinms Cotlego. Whilo a child htt hod , 
heard hid mother say, " I bare oonaecratod thift 4 
child to the service of God oi a m^'donary,'* 
and from the time of his conversion, in i8U2, 
ho liad ardently dudrod to eturagti in the mis* 
flionary work. In college, whilu bburiu^' faitii- 
ftiUv to promote true piety amnne the etuilenta, 
he kept thia work consl^iutly lit mind. lo 
1807 he invited Gordon Hull and Jamej Bich- 
ardft to a walk, aiul lod tlicm to a retired tipot 
in a meadow, where Uicy fipent all duy in fuat- 
ing and p;aycr. and in couver^ng on the daty 
of mi^DiiH to tht' heathen. He was surprised 
and gratilied to leani that the nibject was not 
new to these brethren, bat that their hearts 
were already iwt upon engaging in «ach a 
work. Septombor 7, 1808, a society was pri- 
vately formod at Willioma College, by these 
and a few other piona BtndeuU*, tlie'tpbject 
of which, the constitution says, " shall be to 
effi-ct, in the persona of ita members, « mission 
or missions to the heathen." llie 5tJi artiule 
provided that '^no person fihaU be admitted 
who ia ondcr an engagement of any kind 
which shall be incompatible with going on a 
mission to the heatJicn ; " and tliu 6th urticla 
wof), " I'loch member ahaU kct'p absolutdy free 
from Dvery eogagement which, otter \m prnrer- 
f\il attention, and after consultation with the 
brothnTn. shall be deemed incompatible with 
the objoutj!! of this Euciety, and itijoJl hold him- 
self in readiness to go on a miosion when sod 
where duty may calL" 

Designing now so to operate on the pobUo 
mind as to lend to the ondertaking of a foreign 
mJfiguHiary work, and proceeding with great 
modesty, and great practical wiidom, they re- 
pabliaued aod drciUated some imprHsivo mis- 
sionary sermons, and opeae<l a comttpf^dencc 
with some of the eminently wi!« ami good men 
among <hoiclcrgT of the country, saoi as Rer. 
MfSi-^rs. Griffin, U^'nrecster, MorsCi and Dana. 
With the same end in view, and to iiiftnence 
young men, one of tho number tranefi'rrod his 
rdalion to Middlcbun>' College in Vermont 
Mills visited Yolo College, and some eflurtu 
were made at other institutions. 

In tho auluum of 1H09 Kicfaarda became ft 
member of the Theological Seminary at Aiido- 
ver, nnd "labored witJi diligvuce and oiicccn 
in [>ramoting a spirit of mif&ions among the 
studonta." Mills followed him to Andovcr in 
the spring of IblO.and Hall soon joined them. 
At least one olbor yoong man wm there also, 
whose thoughts bod been indepcodbntly direcU 
ed to tho same great »ibject — Samuel Nott» 
Jr. " There seemed now to be," says one who 
WW there. " a morcment of the Spint, toniing 



108 



AVEBICAN BOARD. 



the attention and the hearts of the students in 
the seminary to the condition of the perii^htng 
hfioAhva." Ht'Tcnal had already cume. or soon 
came to the resolution of B|w.'iidiriff tlnMr lives 
in iiajzan lamia, among whom wert; Ailrjiiirnm 
JacLton, Jr., unU SaiiHicl Xewell. The faculty 
of the seminary were cousuUo^i and approved 
the deaipn, and on the 25th of .Time, 1810, 
according to previous arranpement. Rev. Dr. 
Spring of Nuwburyport, and Ucv. Samuel 
WorciMtcr of Salem, met with the professors 
and a few others, fur further ouusnltation. It 
w&fl thought the time for action had come, and 
the yonnR men wen? adviw-d to prewnt their 
Cuac to the Gonerul Association of Mns^ohu- 
Mits, vhich wai abont to meet at Gradrord. 
The next day Rev. Messrs. Spring: and Wor- 
cester ro«ic togethtT in a chaitw to Brailfonl, 
and dnrini: that ride, between those two men, 
''the first idea of the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Forcig^u Mirsions was suf^ted ; 
and tliL' form, the uumher of uiember^, aud the 
name, were proptwcd." On 'I'hurstiay, Jane 
3Siht Messrs. Judson, Nott, Newell, and Hall, 
came bcforo tho Aitsociation and presented a 
written paper in which they stated " that their 
niitids had Ihth hmj^ impniKwd with the duty 
and importancQ of personally attempting a 
mission to the heathen ; " and thc^ eolicttcd 
the opinion nod advice of the Aioociatlon as to 
their thity. and as to the sourco to which they 
mig'ht look for support in their contoniplated 
work. 'Hie subject was referred to a commit 
toe. who reported the ncjct dnv. recommending 
" that ticre be tnstitiitt'd by this Assooialion a 
Board of Coram i«ioiier8 for Foreign Mi*i»ioni», 
for the pur]KK>« of devising ways and means. 
and adoplin|7 and prosccating mcostuts for 
promoting the spread of the gospel in heathen 
lands." The report was adopltd, and the fol- 
lowing fjersoos wore chosen to constiliite, in 
the firat instance, that Board : His exctlleney 
John Trottdwell. Esq., Rev. Timotliy Dwipht, 
D. r>., Ocn. Jcdwliah UuntiDg"li>n. aud Uev. 
Calvin Chapin, of Counccticut ; Kov. ,f osi^ili 
Lyman, P. D., Rev. 3arauel Sprinjj, D. I>.. 
William Barllett, Es<i., Rev. Samuel Worces- 
ter, at;d Dea. Samuel H. Walley, of Massa- 
chnsclts. 

The commLsaionere had their first meeting 
at Fnrminijlon, Counccticut, on the 5th of the 
fnllowini^ hppteinlwr. five only In'inp pn.'aonl. 
A constitution was adopted, and officers were 
choacn. The Pnidential Committee apjiointcd 
consisted of Wiiliain Itartlett, P>|.. and Rev. 
Hesftrs. Bpriuir and Worcester. Mr. Worces- 
ter was chos>^n Corrcspoudinp: Secretary, and un 
addrcaa t<^ the Christian public was prepared, 
accompanied by a form of sabscriplitm. 

A IWKi^nin^ was thus made ; but though 
the oWccts of the Board were re-^ardwl with 
fovor ny some liberal individuals, it was doubt- 
ftil wheUier means could be very soou Boeurtti 
in this country to send out and support a dis- 
tant mission. Yd fonryoong men n'crc ready 



and waiting to be sent The eyes of the Pn* 
dential Committee were turned to the Londoo 
Mi>iuiouary Society, which was already in mi» 
oeeHful ope^ration, and in Jan., 18U , Mr. JmboD 
was »*nt Ui Kughiad to confer with the Uirefr- 
torn of that socit'ty on various poinl.s. and to 
ascertain whether any satisfactory amiugemcnt 
could be made for prosecuting the work ot 
mi»4ioiis in concert ; so that Aniericaii mis* 
^iouaries might for a timo receive their sop* 
port in part iVoni the London society without 
committing themselves wholly to its dire«;t]OiL 
No such arrangement, however, wu.=i made. 

In June, 1812, an art uf inci>ri)nniti"n for 
the Board was obtained from the Ij^g; 
of Ma.ssachosetts. The second annual i; 
was held at Worcester, Aass.. Sept. !>* 
seven members being prcsiMit Donuti' 
the amount cf Sl,-iOi> liad l>een rcfiv.^i. 
Messrs. Judson, Nott, Hall and Newell were 
appointed as missionaries to labor under the 
direction of this Board ; and it \fcia- n«>>lved, 
aa soon as practicable, to ratablij^h a miffilOD 
in the East, attention being tamed specially to 
the Burman Empire, and another in the W^est, 
among thu Indians of this omtinent. Late in 
Januar}', 1H12, Mivars. Newell and Hall, who 
had been attending to medical studies in Phil- 
adelphia, returned hastily with the intelligonco 
that a retsel was to sail from that port la 
about two wcchs for Calcutta. Bn<l woiil<l nc- 
eomnimlato the miR-ionaries. The Pnuhiitial 
Committee immediately met. It was short 
notice, and only about 1.2UU dollars wrr^ at 
llk'ir disposal ; yet, on the 27th of Jan. thfy 
rcsolvitl to send out tlie four iriissiniiiritit 
Then another, Mr. Lather Rice, d.- a 

the mission, and they " dared not i j . > 

(guest" MeusurtM were at once taken U) se* 
cure, if potssibic, the rcv^nisite fuutK nod in 
abont three weeks, more than 86,000 was cc]r 
lectod. The mi^onnries were ordainM ou 
thL> Gtb of Feb.. in the Tabernacle at Sal«iii, 
and after some delay sailed, Messrs. Jndna 
and Newell, with their wives, in the Caravan, 
from 8alem, Feb. lU, and Mcsirs. Xott. Hall, 
and RitT, with the wjfc of Mr. Noll, in (he 
Harmony from PhihuJelphia, abont the saino 
time— ^c Tmei/'s HUtory of tht A. H. (\ K 
M. ; L,/f of Dr. Worcester, Vol. II, Chap. '2 ; 
MemoirofDr.Judaotijpage 39 and on; awl Rs* 
ports of the Board. 

From this small beginning the Board has 
gone on until now its annual rocciptfi an- abimt 
$300,000,nnd it has under its carc.in difD^nrnt 
parts of the world, near 400 mLtiionary U- 
ItorerK, male ami female, sent from this croiin- 
try, and more than 200 native hci*-'- i'h 
amiuul mei'tings, which are held in -rj 

from being attended by seven m'.iL 
lisll.dr by ntue as in lS12,inthe parlor oft| 
private dwelling, have come to be oecnsio 
of fully m d*.-ep and extonsivQ interest 
any aimunlly recurring religiontf occasion ^ 
the United Htatcs. They oomonaco mQiU^ 



Alf^IGAN BOARD. 



109 



^Hid^r afternoon and close in the fcveiiooD 
4be oext Friday. They are alwnys open to 



Ifataablic, awl can he held onlv in towns of 
•■■■ikrmbU.' [rDpulation, thai Imfiriiigs may he 
Itanhhed for tLe many hundreds who cnaie 
ItylhT trma every action of the rciunlry. 
Tm Iw gw K houses of worship are not «uffiL'ieui- 
if hrpe to ftocommmlato all who vish to 
Ihu. and tuQ&lk on Wi.*djio6day and Thur^ 
day pmjitiirii sLmnltaiifoim inwiting^, for jMip- 
■lar fediln^sct. ore held in two and soinRtimcs in 
titrer diflcrciit bonscfi. Thi« is the case also 
flftThMralay afteniooD, when the Lord's Supper 
hwaubratwl. 

Orgaaixntion, Mode of Operation, he. — The 
lAon cf Uic Bounl are cli<»f'u annnallr, )>y 
laloC ami are, at present, a rn^idc-iit, Vice- 
IVniifeiiL, Uctnrdiiip Seorctari*, Treasurer, two 
A«Gion^ four Corresponding Secretaries, and 
•IMwtial C'OmiuitUH: of eiirht This com- 
wiOm, whrwe mcmbona n^cuivu no coin[>eo5a- 
ttn far their serrioea, meeta at the misfionary 
kan It ItrdtFt once er^ week, on Tuesday 
•AvDOOO, lor the transaction of business. 
Urn m now about 200 corporntc meinlicn 
if Ifae Board residing in at Ico^tt 21 dilTireut 
SWcsof tilt- Union. Tlitweulonc, by the chup- 
3v. M Totioff memhcni, rorming the hody cor- 
mkU : hot ue payment of (fiO, if the person 
UaderiTliUia, or 9100, if a layman, consti- 
tttiaay one an honorary inoniber, who may 
Aw uby ID tho dr liberations of the fuiiiiial 
Hriiaf^ About 9.000 pcr^ma hare, sint^ 
Ifebipnniaff. been tbiia constitaterl honorary 
ftEBMS. Ibere i^ til^o a rsmall number of 
ccnepoodiiig mrmbcrK, rc^itjing inoslly in 
bfiiea IumI^ and chosen, as are the corporate 
aoibin, by ballot 

TkU board ia nc'tlber an ecolcsiofitieal nor 
• teimiitiatioDal body, and \» not gii|i;M)rt<'«l 
1| Aaoainaliotn as such, but by iintividual 
urirtana The Commissionen were at fin^t 
mq{irtnl \tj the General A5«>ciat!on of Mas:*- 
t(aiBltt>, n^trb iu Oon^ri'gutional, with puw- 
irL. .^-l.it.i tli.irown form of nrfraiiizatioii and 
til :ind n*j^ilatinn!<. Uy ite* rhar- 

I* um the i>?giitl(iture of Moki^iv- 

ti .' the Board eb-'-ts its i)wn mem- 

b<7 nitatiou as lo n(nnbi>r^, or neii* 

dvbxcur ri'>ti|,fiOu<' doiiominfiiioQ; but nut lev 
%m 0!iMhir«l nf th? members must nt all tirat^ 
Wrapet' ), and nut l(») llian nne- 

ttsifWf- 'ynieu, 



very next meeting of the Board, (Hcpt^ 1812) 
thirtcf u new meoibcre wire clectca, from seven 
diJTcrcnt states, of whom eiyhi. 4 from New 
York, 2 from New Jera^y. and 2 from Penn- 
sylvania, were Prcsbytorians. In 1831, of 02 
iH>riHirate menilwrs, 31 were rrenbytcrians, 
24 ConyreputionulisU, 6 Kefurmed Dutch, and j 
one Aasociotc llefonned ; and of the 70 «i^ 
duinod misftionoriiv, 39 were I'resbyleriana. 29 
Congreeationuliuts, and 2 llelVirmcd Dutch. 
Until iJie division of the Oeuerfcl Awembly 
in 1837, most of the effiiria of I'nsbyteriaii 
ehorcbcs in the United States for fori-ign uiis- 
Moiu w«Tti made through this Board ; and 0)is 
is still true of whiit are called New School 
l*re«bytcrian ehurcbra. and alun of the licfurm- 
i;d Dutch and the Aiisocintc H^-rormcd churchea, 
Miasionaricit fnjm llieK'difli'r^-nt denominations 
have nlway« been Bcut out wilhuut dit*tinrlion, 
and generally without even eonsidt-riiig llictr 
ecclesiastical relations in designating them to 
their fields of labor. 

The mLS!4io[is thns formed, arc not controlled 
by ecdetiostical bodkst; though they may 
theouelres be conudercd as in some sense, 
such hollies. They ore organir^ed and goycmcd 
as communities, the votes of a luujority of the 
mt^sionorici! and male assistant missionaries 
deciding all ou(«tior», In their regular nK-4>t- 
ings. Thus the miasionii provide for the organi- 
zation, governmuut anil curu of ehurcbcs. M-hich 
tboy IVirro, and uiuy uiitur into orguiii/atiutis 
among themselves, for fraternal or ewlcTiiasti- 
cal purposes, as aasociatioiiH or prmbyterii^, 
according to circumstances and rhc view? and 
preference of the wiiyiirily. So far as any use 
of the funds of the Biuird h iuvulvi:»i, the ac- 
tion of tlic misFion In, of cqjirse, subject to the 
revision of the Prudential Conimiltoe. 

Uy its charier tbo iSoard.iij limited to tho 
work iA' " projKigatirig the GoBpd in heathen 
land^, by supporting missionaries and tlKTusing 
a knowkdgi? of the Holy SLTipturiiS." lt« 
ini.'*sit>nK an! ronductcfl with reference to the 
ultimate com|il{'le eviLnge]|»ition of the nations 
or communilifs t() which tliey are .-wut. They 
arc not regarded iw |X'rmanent iuhtituiions, but 
ore csLubIu4lied to pluni the iiutitutioiLs of the 
OosjK'l, and to pwspare the pei)plfc thonui*lrcs 
to sijpiHii-t these instituliona ;— lo gather 
rhurcbcs which are ex[)ccted to be ultimately 
self-supporting chureheji, auslaining their own 
In 1 Hl2. tlie iSec- 1 religious teacher?, ond octing for the still fur- 
d to the thiT pn>|(ap\tion of tlie trnth. A h'ading ob- 



> r 'ily i>f the 1": 'Church, I ject thi-reforc, hort ever lti'en,aa fanl as fHXwble, 

— . :|--.Ji'.£,. y ■■'■ '-.—■•-•■■■ L„ ,,i-,ii,ii,on Pimi-' to educate? and train a juous native ministry, 

In Ift todrs, t" li and theirs there! whrj may be (iltt-*! to art as pastors of the uur 

Mi{fct basueh c- , - li iw should (inunoleltive chu'rclies. and as evangelists in gathering 

fc |ilM object of mb^iiins amon^iHt the uws ' rhiircluriit. For thi^ {HirpoMi not. imly have 

~~ " ' itttinu^ " Tti- Aadenibly. however. sehtMils of u lower onier Iil^cu o».tab!lsli*sJ, but 

ilWy*lilC<''' ' >v iindrr their cure! seminaries, in which native yotmg men of piety 

[iaOkb^>- Hight " the buiiincRcil nnd ))rontiM> niight Ito Iborongldy edocated, 

mir ' pntbttbly bo lM*t and al-io biMtrdiiig-j'rhool.s for girlpi. frum which 

»»*»ik • I 'urd," and »•» decli- 1 educated oativt- preachrn* and tvjichers might 

lUif any M-j-u^tc nwtitutiun. At tb« I obtain suitubk partners for life. 



110 



AXBRIOAN BOARD. 



With the euD€ cod in view, io misc op Chri» 
tian charchca and commuDitiut, whtcb cliall be 
iudopcndcnt of bU foreigu aid aod fonng^a id- 
Htmctioii, much tabor has been expRnded to re- 
duce utmrilton langaa^ea to a written fonn, 
to prepare faithfiil tniulatioiu of the Scrip- 
tures, and to g^ire a Cbriatian ltt«nitarc to 
tfaoee for wliooe evangelization the mtseions 
bavc been established. By the nitaatonaribtof 
this Board fifteen difierent lonf^of^ have 
been reduced to writiui;, and the Scripttires 
have been tranmlat^d wiiolly or in port into 
more tlian tivcnty lanf^oogea. Still it is ever 
incnlcfttcd iipou the mMiomriGa that Ihcv arc 
to regard themselves assent, emphulicallv, fi 
pteadi Ike Gwpd, and thus, fdth I)ivinc assbiu 
anoe, to turn men indiridnally, and at once, 
" from darkness to light ; and from the power 
of 8atan onto God ;" and tliat, in all ordinary 
Cft«y, erciT other work isU) bosnbordinute to 
thin in the laltorB of the mttttOQR. In ^<^latton to 
other sDcietics the Board acts strictly upon the 
priociplo of non-intcrfcrcnce ; in a^eemcot 
with oihers considering •' certaiu great centres 
of human «ocioty and marts of commcroei as 
oommou ground " to some extont, bat in all 
other coses avoiding fields of labor wbifh are 
ftlreadj occupied by others. 

iZenud — Statittia, ^c. — ^Tlic opejationsof tbo 
Board have been crowned witn many tokens 
»r Diviiifi faror. This is not the place to give 
paj-ticular accouutfl of revi>-al:<, with which the 
mianons have been favored ; these aceounts 
will be found in the notices of the several mis- 
sioos ; bnt simple reference mav here be made 
to revivals at Ceylun in 1819, 1821, 1824, and 
"25, 1830 and '31, luid 1835 ; to the great re- 
vival at the Sandwich Isl&n^ls, in 1638, '.19 niid 
'40» as dio fruits of which more than twenty 
thoBHUid persons, giving bopeful evidence of 
piety, were received into the churchffl ; to revi- 
vals among the Kcstorians in 1646. 1841^.18^0, 
and 1S51 ; to repeated rcvivah among the 
Choctuws and other tribes of Indians on this 
coDtiocnt ; oud to the reformation aoioug the 
Armenians, obviously, a work of Divine 
grace, and a work of deep interest and great 
promise, though dijfcring from many of the re- 
rivals already referred to, which has been in 
progresii for the lagt ten or twulve yuan. In 
alli^im the begiiming, more Uian Itrrty thous- 
and hojKjful converts have been gathered into 
churches connected with the different missions. 
None but thoee who ore though t to give evi- 
dence of tme piety are rcceivoti to the churches 
and mnch care is excrciartl by the miiwiouarics 
in receiving members. 

The receipts and expenditures of the Board. 
for each year since its organization, anri f[>r 
each period of four years, are presented in tiic 
foUowic^ table. 

It is a fact of great significance, that all 
missionary societies and boards, oflCT a certain 
period in their history, begin to receive hack 
tLeir cxpcnditorea firom tbo misaionB wbidi 



they havo planted. Tbc sum tlios toobi 
tbis Board in 18IV3 was 912,905, which ft 
than one tweo^-flflb part of their 
receipts. And tiiis proportion is ranch g 
in tiie ease of tlie larg« London societie^^ 
baTQ been much longer in operatioiL 



1811, 

1810, 
181.1, 
tS14. 
IBU, 

181S, 
IKIT, 
1918. 
ISIU, 

iWrt, 

1S2I, 

1923, 

IKU. 
l»2fL 
1826, 
1637, 

1S2S, 
IBS), 
ISSit, 
1S3t, 

1M2, 
IKLl, 
IBW. 
1S» 

ISStt. 
1M7, 
IMS. 
lUU, 

lUO, 
1MI, 
IMlt. 

iim, 

1944, 
IMtl, 

1646, 
1MB, 
IB&D, 
1»&1. 

1S&2, 

lS5^ 



10. 



Hewlpta. 



mm bi 

iit,«ii so 
u,sai IS 

D,403 8U 



13,£01 (U 

»,»48 fil 

M,T27 « 

37,609 OS 



39, MQ U 
4«,S&4 W 

aO.O«7 IT 
6a,7ftS H 



PntCNUeC i 
Yoftia. 



47, 4» M 

M,71(l li 
m.fllrt 2& 

8«,Mi n 



ioa.oi» M 

t(M,UtB SO 

si.ms m 

lOO.BM 09 



1S0,6?4 12 

146.647 77 

IS'AMa 10 

lfl3.340 16 



I7S.9S 1ft 

2b2,07« M 
-23S,IT0 M 
3U.1«> K 



241,601 m 
33&.1SB SO 

ai8,aM M 

^44,3M 11 



£(9,a»1 ST 

:!U.11'J M 

*ca.cr,3 u 

il 1.403 7fi 



■.•01.7M 27 
I'M.Sfi'J » 

'J74.W:2 -a 



»I,7S2 7« 
314,122 BS 



»9W 



•W,Ta3 



1M,«H 



902,181 



S6t,167 



393,801 



ft«a,Mt 



»0B,UO 



t,0S&,631 



Wl,083 



lltUTM, 



to.ooo 

B,«ll 

7.07S 

6. or 



l»,S3l 
:d),466 
S0,3fa 
40,S37 



«.S(»,]90 



67.021 
iti.Ttl 
Q0,47i 

a.tua 



14,107 

11,440 

S«,0I3 

108.430 



10",*70 
W,M3 

84,7M 
M,3U 



1f0,«S< 
IW.tOt 
I6«,770 
lA3,aN 



«IO,407 

230,fl«S 
227,401 



240. Mil 
2AI IIT 



»4.:i7i 

2IH,817 
2»7,a>6 
SS4,783 



2a2,sao 

SSI,41B 

Ksi.aao 

»T.7aT 

siQ,<m 



i.ot 



It will be soon, that with only one en 
ia each period of four years there has In 
ftdvance upon the receipts of tlie pfl 
period. But though there has been, ir 
whole, constant [irogrcss, the recolpts 
tiftcD foJlcD below the expenditures, and 
have been seasons of great pcroniary l 
ra^meut in the operations of the socieq 
1837 emharressments of this kind oc 
the sod dfeets of which were deeply and 
felL For Mme yeus prcrions to 183 



AMERICAN BOARD. 



Ill 



. mus prortded had been nfflcieDt ; the Fro- 
iiVii*i r«jnimittec fcU cocourat^cd tn enter 
ig«i3 m-nr iiTid enliu^«(] ttpureuoos, aud the 
nil I? for men, while the churches 

fttfi; wotilil be DO (JifBcalty io rcf^ard 

ta mciuv. In the mcaii time l&borcrs, id ai>- 
iwer lo lie call, ofTTtHl their serrloes in 
katBBOQ nnrabcrs, and within four yean. 
ban 1833 to 1836 incliuive. no leas than 185 
lew laborers, mole aiid roiiialc, were sent 
alwMdL EJiponsea were thus greatly lucrcns- 
dtuiltbc fL'ccipts dif) not increase in pro- 
ptrtion. At the nitiiual uieetiiii; id 1H3G it 
VM ttODoonrcd that Gi mijt^ioaary laborers 
VM UieD wuIm- appointment, whn wore ex- 
pMiof Htm to be sent abroad ; but there was 
lUaoce of abont 830.000 ngainst the treo- 
■IT at the ctfBe of thi- Qnuncial }Tnr, (Jaly 
Sy and that l>alaDce xras iiuTeu^iiic'. The 
VMM of the meeting, howcrcr. and the voice 
rfthe charcbes, still wai " let ilic ml<«tanarJcs 
Wft»l;^ and the means seemed tikelv to \k' 

r-i.,1 r-v.m October, 183C, to Fubrunry, 
•i^ fp-iittly incn«eH, and id the 
Br > laborer^ male aud female, had 

MMeed lor tbeir respectiTe fidds. Bot now 
Jtae»aine a financiaj crisis in the affiiirs of 
ftecgontry. Vei-aniary difflcnltics bef;au lo 
p>9 n\vm thf bu.<4!ncs coBimnoity with vrry 
|r ' tlie rec«ptfl of the Hoard 

«w !»_■<). and the debt mpidJy in- 

iuv committee felt obliged to slop. 
under appointment were detained, 
miBsiooariai were appointed only on 
4kt they would not oe Mint out,* and 
b» at no expense to the Board, ontil the 
■iMof tlM trsaany ifaoold warrant it. Thus 
^Bjumtid. many tvncd frrmi reifardintr the 
kttken world and looked for other field* of 
llbur. nod nrrcr since have there been so many 
'^-^• 'Itemsclves for the foreiRn kt- 

Tw vrm not all. Difliailties etill 

hafamfijf, Ute cotnmittf-e felt r-allod apnn, in 
Jul. to rnrtail the approfkriatioa^ which hail 

?B nade in the miasiona for the year 1K3H. 
ItfJIOO; and the miasionB wen iuformiHl 
tte ninfttl Recrceity. and required tn eon- 
kHl auat opemtions. With fiO nton? Ia))or(>r» 
1> h rafipartod. the pecuniary roeanrt of the 
■ksiatt ««re tints redaoed 645,000 below 
Htl Im4 been allowed in 1836. Theeflbot 
Vv doeply painful. Every mi«iionarv was 
ibsmwoiHi. and every bnmch of misionary 
iqp«Btioi» crippled. Sohooh were broken Dp 
ff jpcatly rrducYMl, and in Oc^lon alone 5,000 
■ jMt fl were dinnuBod from under Christian 
aOMtloa ** lo the wildenKKB of heathenism : " 
As iMnlitics for preaching were abndMd ; the 
ifmntiom of [imiimu wer« greatly diromished ; 
■lifv Cmdicra and other bnlprr« were de- 
IliNd of enploymsat : ualivo Chriatinna wen> 
■ilawliMn J. and the opjiOHing heathen tri- 



itffll U 



the InBoence of this rvrore wm not 
^■ply rviL The mhalMis, the Chri^itain public 



at home, and the Prudentiul Oomin it tee all learn- 
ed some important icmonfi ; and n new impnlno 
was given lo misNonory eff(jTt, porticalarly in 
the rural diiitrivtti of tlie cimnln", wliero the iu- 
telli^cuce of the disastrous infiueui,* of such 
rednccd appropriations was rec*>ived. The 
fiunciul embarrasBmcntji were felt 6rst and 
moat severely in tlio dtiea and larger towns ; 
those in ttueh conimunitios who would haTQ 
given lilM-rally, found themselvea deprived of 
the meaoa of (riving; the conntrr cliurclioa 
were thus cnlltd upon to come with more lib- 
erality to the )«ipport of the raiieioniiry work, 
and in these churches the amount cuntributed, 
and doubtless nlao the uomber of contribntors, 
greatly inrreasod. 

Baca poiofh] cansoqaenoca of Rnancinl diffi- 
culty have never since occurred, aud it is 
buliuvod will nevHr again occur in the history 
of thin f»ociety. 'Ilie treawiir was not fnlly 
relieved until 1842. lodceil, in 1841 tlic debt 
hiul iiicreuso<l to $57,000 ; and for five years 
again, from 1847 to 1851, there wo* a constant 
tialanco against the treasnry. In 1848 this 
balance was §59,890. Hut "while all proptT 
economy has bees uwd, and the appropriations 
to the missions have been limited to the lowest 
sufe am'>mit, the operations have been steadily 
carrietl forward, and contrihutioa? have been 
so increaeed as again to relieve the Bounl. 

Until 1838 the Board had no permanent 
building for the accommodation of its basiness 
at BufttoD, which has ever been the centre of 
its np«_'ration3; and much inconvenience and 
loR.< had Itct-ii oxperiern'od from frequent remo- 
vals. This year an eligihle file wa.*i ptirfha-u-d 
in Pemljerton Square, and a subetantiul build- 
ing iTeeted ; the whole expense l»eing met 
from permanent fund:*, which could not be u-sod 
to stvtiain the mission.'! or to pay the debts. 
In addition to this building, the Board now 
ha? invested fund*, of which the interest only 
mny l>e osiA, amounting to 8D6.000. 

Thominflions now under the care of the Board 
are the following, of each of which a particular 
notice will be fonnd in \U appropriate place : 

The mission to the Zulas, and the Oaboon 
mission, in Africa; the mission to Greece, 
and the niwion to the Jew.-*, in Kuropr ; the 
mtsmon to the Armenians, the Syrian mi^ision, 
the Assyrian mission, and the mission to the 
Nestorians, in Western A^ia ; the Bombay, 
Ahraednuggur, Hatara, Rolapur, Madras, Ar* 
cot, Madura, and Oylon mission^in Southern 
Asia ; the Canton, Amoy, and Fuh-chati mis- 
sions, in China; mifstons to the (?hoi'(nws, 
the Uherokees. the Dakotas, tlie Ojihwas, the 
Bcnccas. the Tiwcurora*!. and the AWnaq»iisv 
among the Xorth American Indian? ; and tho i 
Microncsian mission in the NorlhPucific Ocean. 
The large uiid .xuccesaful Sandwich Wands inis- 
!iiou hiw just |)ft9w<1 from under the care of Uie 
Board IL4 an organised mission, it being mcrg-, 
ed in the OhrLstJan community of the islands^ 
which have been virtually christianbEed ; bat 



112 



AMERICAN BAPTIST UNION. 



neoeenaij aid is still furiusheU for the support 
of rcItg'Knut »ud edncationftt iQetitulioas. 

The following table presents the more im- 
portant statistics of the missions at diflen^ut 



periods, separated hv iDlerralB ol ten . 
coramencinp with 1823, v\cvvn years ftft«* 
first mti^ioiiarics were £cnt out. 



IMS.... 
188S.... 

iMa.... 



i I 



il I 



8« 



:: -3 t 



10 



? - 



Pt 



1.M0 

30,TOT 
Sfi,TU 



442.0fi6.lM 

MS,132,4TS 



£5 



S[SM 1 00 
487 UM» 



S,OM 
MiOM , 



AMEKICAX HAPTIST MISSIONARY 
UNION: Tliia U the name at present adujit- 
ed by ITh! Forci^rn Mi!«>ioiiary Afwociation of the 
rcffular or ('ulviiiistic J{ai)ti.<4tA of the ooii-eluTcy 
holdiog States, and with few ciccptione, it is 
entirely JcfMjndent on them for its mointeiiaiice 
nnd dircctioD. Kxistina:, at first, wJtli a di0ci*eiit 
flrganizalion, aod under the name of tlio Bap- 
tist 'l"TiL'nnial CnuvcDlion. it waa foundwl at 
Philadi-'Iphiii, in May, 1814, ni^ar the dat*' at 
which the Baptists of tho United Statw cntcre<I 
upon the work of propagatJDE the Gospel 
among the beulhtiu. It owes lU orig'in to u 
ficrios of evouta which have always been deemed 
extraordinary and providential, and are, on 
that account, worthy of a brief narration. 

In tJie eariioat conipany of mirfsionarica sent 
to tho cast, by the Ajucrican Board of Com- 
rniasioniTs for Forei^ Missions, were Her. 
Adonirum Jinhton and Rev. LutJier Kicc, who 
in separate ship, sailed from the United States 
in 1812. Purtng^ the pattsoge to Calcutta, Mr. 
aud Mrs. Judson fouud reason to change their 
sentiments resptcl iug the mo<lc and tlio subjects 
of ('hrinliiiii tmpti'nn. On their arrival in In- 
dia tbey repairc"! to Seratoporo.andon making 
known their viewe, were baptised by immersion 
by Rev. Mr. Ward, un? of the miBsionarioa of 
the Engh'ah Baptist niis.'^ion, who were Ktalioned 
there. A few wcck.s later Rev. Mr. Rice 
avowed a similar change in his sentiments, and 
was abo haptiyx-d at Seranipore. It was thia 
micxpcctod aimoauconent lliat these American 
Mi.'«ionarics, who had already arrived in the 
Kost. hod bfrcfinie Bapti.5t.i and had thrown 
themselves on the Biiptifit chnrches of the 
UtiitiNj States for the menns of prosecuting the 
selMciiying and heroic mission they had un- 
dertaken, that fir«l eidi!*ted tlic geiiend (lym- 
paOiv of that denomination in thw country, 
and led to the formation of their earliest foreign 
missionary orgnnixation. 

Immediately on the receipt of letters from 
Mcssr?. Jndson and Ui(;e, containing this an- 
nountvmfint. a society Was formed in ItiKton, 
which wnB 8tylc<l» " The Baptist Society for 



Kit. L B. Wom 

Propagating the Gospel in India nnd 
Foreign Parte." The new Society, which i 
designed to be the parent of numcrons aa 
iaries, immediately pledgcil to Mr. Jtulson 
adequate support in the prosecution of his l 
siou, whenever the Commissi oners of the Am 
can Board should dtscontinnc tJicir patronage^ 
and at the same time, thinking that soeh an 
arrangement might be more acceptable to him 
as well ns more advantageous in ils resnlti*. tlii-v 
jirojinsed that he should become connected wiin 
the English Bapti.st Mission at Scromporc. 
This propOHol was very wisclv und fortunately 
declined by the manugeri of that miwott. who 
urged upon their American brethren the forma- 
tion of a general missionary society, in the 
United States. At this juncture, curly in the 
year 1814, Mr. Riee arrived in America from 
Calcutta, haling returned for the special poi^ 
[Mwe of cnltsliog the Baptist churchi* of Ibo 
country In the enterprise of forming ini.s>)on3 
among the heathen. He was immediately ap» 
pointix] traveling agent of the society aUxtidy 
formed, nnd was directed to visit tho churchei 
in the middle and s'.mthcru states, and at the 
same tinie, an mldress tn the membcni of tho 
denomination was prepared by tlie soeie^i 
managers, setting forth the obbgatioos which 
God in his providence hod imposed on them, 
in consequence of the scocnsion of Mt-wrs. 
Jud^on and Rice from the missions which they 
had been sent to establish. Through the nirency 
of these causes, numerous local societits for 
missions were soon formed m nearly all the older 
states, most of them auxibary to the society 
originally o«tabll=ihed at Boston. The appeal 
which had been made was not disregarded, and 
as a consequence of the awakened w^nse of ob- 
ligation, a general meeting of ministers and 
lajTncn, dele^iiiles from .-otiietiea nnd religious 
biKlics in differenl parts of the Uoiou. ;iHiicm- 
bled at Philadelphia, in May, IBU. At tliia 
meeting was formed, •' The General ]Mtt«)ouary 
Convention of the Baptist Denomination ia 
the United States of .Viuerico, for Foreij" 
Missions.'* The Couatitution provided that \ 




I borne musicmc uF the Uaptut d&- 
a, and also, for a still loagcr period, 
.-cncDt of the Colimibian College, an 

I of learning cistablUticd at Woshing- 

i tJM Duthct ofOoIambia. These lattur 
% bowevw, were always regarded as bc- 
tj, Bod were at length tntialy laid aside, 
b Convention Icfi to its own proper work 
'Di&tg and directing foreign uii.%)ionF. 
»Theonial Coni-euiion, thus collecting its 
I from all parta of the country, eon- 
lb the gliglil exceptions alrcO'ly stated, 
1 in its organizatioD ti tl the year 1 B4ft, 
Don with fiii&ilur osociations in 
DinatioDS, its coonrils became dis- 
i 9bA ita tnaniry cIIlbarraJ^6od bpr the 
dm] frndt gcnemled by the dir^ciwsioti of 
■dtution uf slarcry. At thifl lime the 
ba in mo»l of the slaveboldinK Stutcfi, 
Ibg iTJwnTiiifi'-l with the principTots arow- 
1U managers, united in a Beparate or^'ani- 
'•lO name of the ^houthorn lla[^ 
ti." In Xovember, 1S13, at a 
il Bi«£tLng of the Triennial Convention, an 
ehsDgv wap eflectcd in ita composition 
Brrt '■ I ! in ailopl**!]. whieh ueclnrecl 

If tie to" diffuse the knowl- 

■r f ■ f Jesua Christ, by means of 

!k^. t the world." According 

■t- -ri. '.!•'• i-rinciple of repre- 

h<- i- - -: i-idi.-, and the 08- 

Ian -- jMMii i'[ ! III! members who 

bdt rnch by Uil' payment of une hundred 
IL Its name had hkcwlsebcenchangodto 
AiMrieaii Baptist Mis^ooary Union." 
Wteff* *rr Jin nnal, and ita aflairB orecom- 
: raanageni comnotied of 7G 
' least ouothlro most not 
ilcri "I I'tC (j ospcl, and who appoint 
; crwn number ao executive commit- 



amount of its annual rcrcnaes, it ranks eecoQ 
only to the American Board (rf* Oomnussiuners' 
among the foreign miflaionary orgaoizatioos 
of the United .Stnti!& Its misstooariea Uave 
been sent forth for tlie simple pnrpoee of 
preaching the CJospel. They nave been in all 
ciLsea inatracted to make this their great object 
and to regard the introduction of science and 
art. the education of the yonng and even tho 
translation of the Scriptures u:! subsidiary to 
it. The number of those who have been a(> 
pointed and dent from this country, and who 
arc now in the employment of the managers of 
the Union, is slxty-eix miasionaries and sixty- 
four female assistants, exclusive of two hnndrod 
and twenty preachers, teachers and other a* 
»i.stanta who u:ive been appointed from among 
the native coavorta in the several countriea 
where tLc missions have been established. 
These mi^ouaries arc now engaged in preach- 
ing the Gospel in the languages of upwartU of 
twenty ditfercnt divisiona of the human race 
1*hcy have estabtlshrd twenty-one organized 
mifBiona, embracing 84 stations and five hun- 
dred and tliirty-oiDe out-statious, and in tho 
churches, 192 in number, which they have 
planted in the diflerctit parts of the world, arc 
embraced about 15,211) persona who have j^en 
converted by their labori?. Their schools aro 
88, and contain 1,992 pupils. 

Of tho^e missions tho most intercfiting and 
successful ore those among the Ilurmaaa and 
Kareiut in the kinplom of Burmub and the 
Dcighboriag provinces, and those in several of 
the Btatcs of Oerm^iuy. The Karens present a 
singular example of a people for tlio most part 
wiUiottt any form of iilolalry, but posseHBed of 
singular moral semibilily nod unnBoally dis- 
posed to receive tlu! doctrines of thu Guspel of 
Jca-os Christ. Oppressed and despised by their 



n . 



114 



AMERICAN BAPTIST UNION. 



Hamborg. in 1833, br Rev. Dr. Soon, wlio tbroufffa uearly all the states of Gemmy u 

at tbuL time wm nwidiDg io Gcrmauy us a iiito Deamark and Ilolland. 

Biadcut. Sincetbwn, by thi-'prreormngliibors The following tabic preeenta a c«mpr^ 

of this earliest convert, a mu&ion han Wr-n ck- airr view of the ntissiona of the UnioD, ai 

tabltahed which, witfaont a gtople miaiionary their reraltfl; 

■eot front Uio United States, now csteuds' 

VrSStOm OP THE rVION, 1US-U. 



iaaBioN& 



II 

11 



i 



Maulinsia Burman. 

ilBalnuIa Kftr«n 

TkTOj 

AmiUo, , 

BmuwUl 

RuigoiM^ 

PrmWk. ■.■....... J..!.. ...... 

^**yKr**D 'r 

TouniiiM ■,., 

sum 

iiooKkeas 

Mngpo- 

A«BUB 

"MMfOO, 

TholtaunbcrlnJiiib. 11.. 

Jalmu: Bun. l.. 

nrEncora: 

FtNMlll* .••.•.....>.........., 

OwnMa.. 

iinvk 

Wlwla B luatNT lo Bnropi.. 8. , 

Tjanxn Ifnawm: 

CWtnra 

uiawuiM. .................. 

CtHtrokw 

Wfaol* niiBil>«r In Anwioi. 8. . 

" TWab n.. 



133 



16 397 



04 



13 



199 



45 



ta 



zao 



192 



ITO 

se9 

1,040 

60 
.1,000 
I.MS 



1,627 



614 



714 



4,«M 



SI 

100 
1,260 T 



TO 



1,371 



i,e» 



1&,211I 



e6& 



ts 



u 



nr 



74 



1,306 



78 



m 



n v« 



• iDcUnUng tbMlogkal uid nonnaL 



The Dfiicers of the Aiuoricaa Baptist Mis- 
aonarj Union chosen at the annual meeting 
in Uay, 1(^64^ are as follows, viz. : 

Hon. George N. Brif?t{s, L.L IX, President ; 
Rer. IJ.irtholumcw T. Welsh. D.D., licv. Silas 
Bailejr, 0.1)^ Vico-PrcsidenUt- 

RcT. Wm. n. Shailer, DJJ. Hecording Soc- 
petary. 

The Itoord of Manogcra Sa composed of 75 
neaibcrs, who are aonually elected, and of 
whom at least oniythird are not miniaters of 
the Gospel. Of tLls Board, the elSccra in 1854 
were aa follows : 

Hon. Ira Hania, Cbairmain. 
■■ Rev. Scwall S. Guttling, Recording Secre- 
tary. 
ExKcuTiTs Officebs : 

Rev. Solomon Peck, D. D., Correspondldg 
Secretary for tho Foreign Depoitmeiit 

Rev. Edward Bright, D.D., Oorrcspooding 
Secretary for tho Home Department. 

lUchttrd E. Eddy, Trcasorer. 



The robjoined table will present a coaspld 
view of the Gnancial growtti and preetni t 
soorces of the " Missionary Union" : 

Gmtribations to tM American .St^fMl 
Mmionary Union, 



1815 


$13,476 10 


1880 


21,623 00 


1816 


not recorded. 


1831 


If. .266 00 


1817 


11,986 87 


1832 


lfi/.f.fi ftfl 


1S18 


10.240 78 


1833 


V 


1819 


8,076 51 


1834 


'-■ 


1820 


12.296 21 


1835 


'■ , 


1821 


7,758 16 


1836 


4 


1822 


3,615 27 


1837 


4 


1823 


4,944 29 


1838 


:r 


1824 


9.127 63 


1839 


r, i 


1825 


5,186 20 


1840 


Tj 


1826 


9,499 .'iO 


1841 


r,' . 


1827 


9 246 35 


184S 


.''!' 


1828 


10.639 00 


18t3 


4.. . ... 


1829 


9,156 €0 


184-4 


62,0<i;^ 



cieties which had existed 
' jpam (1) Tliorc wmThb Forbioh 
EucjkL SixTurrT. 'ITiu history of ihwwx'i- 
li foUuws : Sliortly afltT the Frcneli 
Dan nf July. 183U, several Christian 
! ' r^ rtjlo to )(entk'!UDD hi Nl-ts'- 

ui linrf t'orincrly rfwiiitil in 
III jii:r-Mii III L-ommcrctAJ btuiuesH, nut] 
■d viaittni tiiat coontry as travelers, — 
||«t the new conslitation to which thai 
|Sdft bad fhnBD eatisienoe, granted to 
Hto ft Iat^ amoant of rcligioos liberty, 

■ opened the dour fur evungclicnt cffurl. 
■nmnieation of thts cliecrinK intclli- 
ri' ' d by an earnest entreaty 
I, f: ians of this land— a loud 
nd U^u l»ic<t by reccivinp into ita bo- 
waads fif the excellent but persecuted 
vA*. at lb« Kevocation of the Kiliet 
Is, and for whofie liberties La Fayette 
MRmb of other brave Freachmea had 
aad blc<l 

loipeal vu not made in vnin. Tlio b*um 
^ wu raiw<l and M'nt. and tlu: sug^rOK- 

■ Mide that a Home M.i»iioDary Socie- 
MDcthiDir c(iuivali'-nt, ahoald be formed, 
r (brward the irork in Pnmco- This 
he Iiinnalloti nf The Evnnt^ftiaii Society 
itf in the year lh33. Iti 1H3-1, at the 

of Ui*t Sofidy, a unmll oAKKiation 

■led in New York, culled Tfie French 

^. Thirt a-wxiatloa two year? Inter 

^piiiie of The Evangetiml AMmtntion. 

path of May. 1834, at the Kt\n*vt of 

■nittiv, tbeKev. Mr. Uaird, (now thr 

n-;- I ..,rr.-.il to r»o tn FniO'-T in the 

lU fu-mily, for three yean;, 

.<}m'\ fur the purpose of 

irr. done by the Araorican 

■ I ■ II iH ir FroKgtiittt brfcUifea id 



Rer. Dr. Bafrd rettirncJ to Gnro^, ud 
family made Fajis and Geneva their home for ' 
foiir yearB more, wliilst he on the one band 
traveled extensively on the Continent in profr 
ceution of the work, and on the other, rfr 
turned twice to this comitry for the same object 
At the l'ihI of ten years the socii.'ly had mis- 
iionaries in France, Beldam, Swctlen, Canada, 
Uayti, and 8ooth America, beaidcH having 
aided the work in Oermanr, Poland, Rofwio, 
and Italy. The recoipta oi the Society were 
«10,127 in lUO, 813.725 in 1841. $15,733 in 
1S42, »9,303 in 1?-13, «I2,392 in 1844. «16.- 
037 io 1H45, 919,930 in 1846, $14,670 inlB47, 
819,214 in 1848, ood 23,805 in 1B49 : making 
in all, the sum of €1S4,345, received during a 
period of ten years; all of which &am was ex- 
jiended in tJievoriona branches of the Society's 
operations. The receipts of The Fremh Atso- 
aiilion, and The Kvangehftil Awiciation^ which 
precL-dod Tfie Ftyreign Evan^diail Soeiettk 
were 819.759. Besides all this, there posBM 
through the hands of I>r. Uurdon Back, a 
member of the Board, for the Orundi' 1 j^rtie 
MisEiion in Canada fVom first to loat, nearly if 
not onitc, 820,000, not inelndiu^ some 86,000 
whir.n were granted to that mission bytheFoi^ 
eigii Kvangeiical Society, and which luso posed 
throngh I>r. Bnck's bauds. 

(2) In the year 1843, The Amkrioak 
Protestant Socnrrr wan formed. It owed 
its existence to the fact that the immrm- 
tinn of Roman Catholics from Kurope ood 
iH'f-fimo very great, and wa.s increasing everr 
year with a fearNl rapidity. It wa? felt that thw 
foreign ami nn-Prot^ant element was bccom* 
in^ very large, and demanded special and appnv 
pnate efforts Indeed, a similar movement ia 
flome respects, hod been mode eomo years earlier, 
when an "Americao Btformatioa Society'* 



116 



AUERICAN ASD FOREIGN CHRISTIAN TJNION- 



Oormua flud fitlier forcigD Somaniftls In tbc 
Oi>UDlrj. The tiotiely interested itself prciitly 
in the winttr i»f 1818- '49 in bi'lmlf vV the 
Portngutse e.\ili* fiimi Madeira, who were id 
IViniikd, aud totik measures to bring them 
to thid coautry. 'J'lie receipts of iho Societv 
were about $4,000 in 1844,8C.7-1'2 in IB^IO, 
,$9.0U ill lH.lt>,*il».365 ill 1817.524,672 in 
i 184« und S2h,3(;3 iu 1 849 ; raabinj; a total of 
S92.1tiU, all nf which was laid out in prosecut- 
ing the gtwKi work in our own country. 

{'.i) III the yeur 1843 alwi, au assoeiution was 
furoifd, in Nuw-York, I'alled 1'fi€ Phito-ItiUian 
Socirtt/, wliii-ii iifitift arils look the name uf 
The Cfirtstian Alliiiiicf. This saciety, us well 
oa the Amerit'aii TrotestanL Society, embraced 

8Dod men of mnny if not oil the evnuKclical 
enomiuations. It is known that ita object 
was to aid in eau»inf^ the trutii to enter into 
Itoiy — a difficult nork before the year IWH, 
ts re^nU all parts of lliat country, and still 
a difficult worli cxcevtini^: in the kingdom 
of tjardinia aluoc. An Ihi:* Boeiety did not 
publisli it*i pniCM>dinjt». wo ore not able to eay 
anything of ibeu I'urthcr thuti that it em- 
pli^yed an active agent, a Protestant Italiun, 
for years on the cunfines of Ilaly, who lost uo 
Opportiiuity for MMiding tmct6 and the tiacred 
Seripturos into thai country. Nor are we 
able to etate the nmonut of iXs receiptfi. 

It was by llic union of tbus« three societies 
in tlie mouth of Slay, Ib49, that The Ameri- 
can and Foreign Christian Union WM formed. 
The new Bwird of directors as well aa llie olfi- 
ccrs, wfre ehiiwn from among the boards aud 
ofSccrs of Uie throe socictiea. 'ITic dcw socictj- 
undertook Llie work uid aoEiuned the rc»]>oiu<i- 
bilitiee of the tJhrec soeieties, and entered at 
once upon itti apprunriate lubore. 

It will be seen, therefore, that the field of 
this Bocietv's u|K'rntii>ns indudt^ our own 
country ami forci^tn lands. As to it« objects, 
and ihe nuKle by which it aims to acconiplidh 
them, llie following arlicle (No. II.) of it* con- 1 
stitution ia full and explicit : "The object of 
this t«jciety . shall be by missions, colportage, 
the prc-ss, und other appropriate agencies, to 
ditfuae and promote the principles o( reUgioiis 
liberty, and a pure and evangelical Chrle- 
lianily. both at home uiid abroad, wherever a 
corrupted Ciirisiiatiity ovists." 

The society cooteinpla^* imparting, so far 
as it mny U* able, a pure ChrlMiauity to those 
who now only know a corrupt form, whether 
in \hh. land or in foreign conntriea. It may 
well ihx m its field a grcvi lad important ouo. 
The present Pope says that there arc two hon- 
drpd niiltion<< uf Roman Catholics in the world. 
ITic prfsont Km{K>roruf Kuji^ia says that there 
are tifty millimis of folluwcrti of the Greek 
Churf'h in bis vm»t empire. Thwe two (sti- 
luiiiej* make two hundred and fifty millions, 
an<] eqiial the fdurth pari of the human race. 
And although hLs holincM may make quite too 
liigb an estimate of tbc number of Aw " cbild- 



ren," yet if we include all the membt^--- ■■'' •'' 
Oriental Churches, (in the TurklHti 
Independent Greece, tho Ionian Isli-. 
Austrian Kmpire) we fthati certaiiffy tiud tbo> 
the Ohtirch of Rome and the ^ix Orientai 
Churches embrace not much leas tbau oo< 
qaartcr of the inhabitants of the globe. And 
huw imp(trtant that these two buDdred sad 
fifty millions should liavc the true goi^dl 
They embrace powerful nations — FnuM<b 
I Austria. Itui«in. to .<iuy nothing of the Italiuk 
the Spanitfh, and the Portuguese race*. 

The si'cifty had made a noble beginning 
In the year ending in May, 18r>4, {thc^f 
\U. existence.) it employed between 130J 
140 mis»iunaries of all classes, at home] 
abroad, (more than half of whom wurc i 
miuibtcrsj belonging to seTCQ different) 
and speaking aa many languages. Of 
00 labored among the Romanists in the 1 
iStatca. Besides this, tlie Society aided' 
work directly and indirectly in many w^ 
bolh at borne and abroad. In the twoT 
years of its existence, 1650 and 'ol, it 
cd nearly ?16,000 for the removal to 111 
uf some uOO or GOO Portngucsc exiles, to \ 
we have alrcmiy referred. It publish 
monthly Magazine of 48 pages, TV An 

and Foreten Christtan Union, which 

large circulation, and two monthly sheets, UMi 
in English and the other in German. It I 
Lssued quite a number of exceUent book 
tnict.4 relatiug to Romanism, and is con 
publishing more. Itj^ recetiila were $.51,229 
IbM). 84^,707 in 1851, S.'jd.GM in Iftii, 
$G7,597 in 1&53 and $75,751 in lb*- > 
iug in May, 1854. ]klakiag a total < 
931 iu five^-ears, all of which, save a biujn'i- m 
S2,70G, wiLs ex^iendc^ in the pro»ecaliou of tkt 
work at home and abroad. 

This important society, still in its infancy, 
bos indeed a great wort on its hand- Be- 
sides all its other objects, it haa the 
" Religious Liberty," the" Protection ■ 
ican citizens when abroad in their rijjt-ur 
conscience and public worahln," the " I> i' ..^x> 
of the public sctiools,'* and tbc proper " T«ft- 
ure of church property" to loot aitcr. TlB 

Sx-ttl meetings which it held in the city of 
_ cw-York, in behalf of some of Ihode objcd^ 
iu January, 1B53 and 1654, (the Madiai, aoS 
religious rights of Americans when abroo^ 
exerted n happy influence, and are un • • ■■...^< 
of what it may, with God's bleesing, b > 
to acliiev(! in the future. — Oppicek or 
AMERIC^VN INDIAN MTBSIO 
OlATIOX.— This AsBociation Is . 
with the Cnptist churches in the Sout 1 1 
was organized in Cincinnati, on the 2i.>' ... > . 
tober, 1842, and the Kx(H.'ntive Board 1 
L4iuisville. At its first annua) meetin 
fallowing, six mksionariea wcrenndo^ 
ment, four of whom were in tlie field 

amount of receipts was S3,000. llie in 

gives 15 mlsionaries und ofisistanta; 75 



AJffiaiOAN MIS8I0NABY ASSOCIATION. 



lit 



t; reoeipti 88^90. ^rbo third. scroDUxtn 
kb<wn, two vmall ^biSoU, and about forty 

" il among' the 

.(■sbiiwi^, Miu- 

ni ^ix sLitioiLS and 

■^iooaries aoil as- 

, i-ib liautisuis iluring 

• in scUuuIa ; &nd OTur 

. ( Sk hutiana.) 

irnTfAN" ms^JIOXART ASSOCI- 

formtxlnt Albany, 
hy a (xinvL'ntion uf 
<ti iio uerc iib^tiiti.>.fi(nl nitfa 

\.Utr% . :o be thu pitsilinn of qx- 

mijanoiuizy buwiits. relfttive to sInTcry, 
idnlutry, p«)ly^uny, okit*}, &<:., kc. 
the tkcIuruJ objcc-is jmju^Oii lo tio ut- 
tiM OonvcDtiou, wiTfi iho fi>lIowiug ; 
.„,,..,.,,^,.Qt3 for lilt; prnimgfttioa 
-latlaiiity, au<j I'ur ^'^tIll_'^- 
ifl VI relics in IiceiUu'u luiids, 

u(biT Jiko lurtm or iiii- 
iiled by teruw of odini^- 
Iiuury procc£i ; to niiilc'criui- 
iji iu au cffi»rt to i^ixv the (So*- 
tiiu-.: Vtiio were lU-slituU; uf it, with<mt 
' ufitin iLoao poiuta on which tho bmt 
■t i^i;;Llcacu friends uf Christ stilJ diA 
1 \o w^yure a mure diroot rwiKiiwibility 
I tMftrfc>?*mi!nt of the society, ny giving 
|«TAii^i \'t\A\ Eiu[iporters a votu ia tlic coo- 
" tU ttperationi. 
la (br wMccfl iifiai-d by tlic CoDvciitioD, il 
(Hid Un4 tbo crbtU then apparent in the 
M BiHtoa^, afforiloi a fuvurablo oppor- 
'lor the review of unistiiu: luit^fs mid 
' ti misuoaary t-lF.irt ; of cornpurin^ 
tke Xew Ti'rtUiflL'iit fitanJiird ; of 
if1wt«Ter might be fcmnd wrung' or 
and Mpplyitip titeir place ui such 
m]|;ht be fuuod to accord with prt- 
taabUu^ and cxiitnples." I'ht! Comti* 
•f (faa AffMviatiou jirovidcs that " any 
of CTttO^Ucal icntiments who profc:!»» 
ia tha JjopA Jesiu Christ, whu ui nut a 
, or lo tlie jirai'tinj uf utluT ininio 
mmI vtw? conlriUul<:» tu it^ funds niay 
a Buanbcr of ihc society." It£ affairs 
BtAMcnl bj an Kxcoutivo Coiumittoc of 
'»v, xit'jeci to the revision of the annnal 
a^ Ubnrchrnor local missionary b(»dies, 
to th*.' priiii'iplcB of thf iMH'ii:ty. may 
aod tfaitiiiii iitivirtnarioR ni thi>ir own. 
tba atfCDcy of this boilr. " Thr. m- 
«alleeCjn]r muiU« in iipixiiulin;: uHir^-r^^, 

trnv'--.-' ! ill whi-tiii;; li<rt(U 

iOilociii mi>^i>'Dury work, 

for p.i- -- ... tit iIi("t'oiiiil<.-nan<:e 

by rcfiwiog tu reoui^'u Uie kii«twn fniita 

litod lubi.r. or l"> wdf.iiui! to its i*m- 

^t thiiw 

tt after tb< .VsMOciatiou, 

Uon iiiutomifif iMteitf, the Commtttet 



IH48, 


I7.U93 74 


1M9. 


2l,yH2 96 


1850, 


2.'i,l5ft 5C 


1851. 


34.ri3:» 47 


1*^52, 


30.233 54 


1853, 


42.496 20 


TotAl, 


184.537 14 



for the Wat Irulum Misston, and the Ifesttm 
Evangeliral Miasioiutrij Asiormtfn wrro mu'gcd 
iu it, and ibcir missions wcru triioafcrrfd lo its 
I'jkrc Th*aM.* rai-SHions were iu tlic island of 
Jamaiai ; among the Ojihtca ur CVnp/fu-au Iji- 
diuns of Minntsola; hikI in H'c»(fn( Ajnm, . 
lliL' soeioty has naw. in addition ^> thoe, a] 
miesiuD in the Smultpidi LUaiuit ; tn Sutm : 
among the fiigitivoiH in Cana>Ui; uuiong the 
ChiiteM! and uihi-T forfiffnerB iu Ciilifurnia ; and 
a Dumber of home niissionnriiy in thf di^titnte 
partri of the United .Statt-x ; it has al&o recently 
uudertjila-n aViNnitMi to the Copt» in Kgypt 

MiNriiiuurics and ahc^it^taiit mi-ssiuDnrica, male 
atid fumide. in Africa 13; Jamaica 2t ; 8iam 
G ; Sandwich IdlumL) 2 ; Cuinula 2 ; Ciilifurula 
2 ; amung the Ojibwa ludiaus 19 ; fur thv Cupts 

2: Total, 90 

Native teachers and aMistanU, - - 9 

Chnrchis in the Fnrt'ijfn t'u-Id. - - - 14 
\umbi_T of Church mi'rabers. - - 1160 

Thf fid!owiii(: luhic dh'rn'.* the reccjptdof the 
society, for each ycur ahiw \\a furnmtion : 

First year ending ScpU 1. 1 847, «1 3.033 67 

Second " " 

Thini " - 

Fourth " " 

Fifth " " 

aiith " " 

tfeveuth, " 



It will Uma bo seen that the aggrciB:fllo of 
the society's receipt*! for the first jjeren yeareof 
its existence, has been 8184,r)3" 14, and its 
average increase about 24 per cent, jkt anunm. 

Ttic home missionaries of the AsMciation 
are siicctally instmctc<l to discourage intcmpo- 
raocc and smvery, and hibor for their n'muval. 
The cfanrchcs to which they minister, as well 
in the slare atatea as cittewherc, rcjc:ard ^lavc- 
belding aa a disciplinable odboee. and exclude 
those who pmctiec it from their communion. 
Twelve ehnrchps have bwn fonnod on,lbe§e 
principles in Kentucky and Norlh Carolina, 
and ore reported to be iuaprosjJcnjtwcotnUtian. 
The nuiohcr of home miasionnritti aided by 
the AssiHiiation. the first year of its existence, 
was four; in tho sevenlb year, tiinet}'. ITic 
miraher of churehin under tlieir care wu3 one 
hundred and eight The whole number of 
cborch members u< not known, a portion of tlie 
miasionarits having mnde their reports to on 
attviUarr wx-iety.— Kkv. (Jeo. ^Viiipplk, 

AMIIKRST: a town in the province of 
Manlmain. in BritLdi Bnrmah. it wa? founded 
in lS2fi by lyinl Amherst, iit whieh timo it be- 
came a Ktation of tlio American Haptist Mis- 
sion in fStirmab. It is th(> bnrial-plocc of M rs. 
Ann II. Juitsou. 

AMtiV: A city of China. situated on on 
islanil of the Hamc name, on Lhu cooat north- 
ward from Canton ; being one of the five porta 
open to tho furetga tnule. 



118 



AKEITEUM— AEUENIAIIS. 



ANKITEUM : An Island of New Hcbridts, 
irliere is a sUlioa of tbo LoodoD MiEsioDory 
jjociely. 

ANiVAMABOE: On the Gold Coast, 

r.^dt Africa. lat, 5^ 10' N . loop. 1° B' W. A 
, ation of tlw Wcs]e}^^^ Missioiiory Society, 
bovDinunenl iu 183.^ : hiu* now 1 missionur. 3 
(ilmpQla, 6 local nrcacherB, 15 teachort), ^237 
ficliulars, 254 mcmbcrB, and 000 att^ndauts on 
public wor^bip. 

ANTIliU A : One of tlic West India Isles, 
Ut nc' S' X, long. Gl ^ 52^ ^Y. A district of 
thn Wf^cvon MisAioutu^ Society, commenced 
in ITHG ; Liis now 17 missionaries, 8 stationa, 
44 din]}cl3. 42 toed prcAckcrs, &08 tcacbcra, 
VIM*) iiuiufjcrK, 5,rr23 echotan, aud 33,650 
atU'niJunU on public vrorfthip. 

AOTl'lA ; (Bcccham-l»alc) in New Zra- 
lanil. A station uf tbo MV-dleynn Mi»*iitnun 
BociL'ty. Commenced in 1623. ITas now om; 
miisioimr}", 10 diiiiiclti, 26 locul preachers, 315 
ui'uilrtiTK, 590 ^cboluis, and COO attcudaulB on 
public worsbip. 

APIA : A station of the London Mission- 
ary Society on ttie Inland of Upoln, one uf tbo 
Samoan ^oup. 

AUABIAN COAST: An out*tation of 
tbo Wtaltyan Missionary Society, in Soutb 
Amcrieu. (Sue Dememro.) 

xVKABKlU : A station of tbe American 
Board among tbo Armeuions, in the Katiteru 
part of Asia Minor, not far from the ICuphra- 
toe. Popalation GOOOin iht town, ami 1.^,0(10 
iuelading the immediately ^urroandiug dis- 
trict. 

AUCOT : A ci^ of Eastern Uindooetao, 
Bi^vuuty miled S. VS . of Madras It is tbe 
cenlro of a very ywpuloua district, and was 
occiipifHl by the American Board ia 1662. 

ARMENLINS: Armenia, in the most 
fluiinshing period of it^ bi^tory, wa£ divided 
iutu Hdwu pmviuces, the oeutra) one of which 
wua Arardil, tJic Hccood cradle of tbo bunion 
race. (On. S : 4, Jcr. 51 : 27, ami in Heb., 
2 Kin^ 19 : 37, Is. 37 : 38.) Ita aiumtiiio is 
at the eastern extremity of Asia Minor, lying 
at short dLittancej* from the Mediterranean wi 
tbo soQtli-wcst, the Black sea on the norlh- 
wcdt, the Caspian sea on the north-east, and 
at a much greater di»lAucu from the Persian 
UuJrou the south-east, lu we^iern boundary 
is not fiir from six hundred miles east of Coa- 
etantinople. It extends about 430 milea in 
lon^ntude, and about 300 in latitude ; having 
on the north the ancient Albania. Iberia, and 
Culchifi : on thu west, Fontus and Oappadocia ; 
on the tkiiitli, MctK>potainia and Assyria; and 
on the etL^t, Media Atropatane, or the mndern 
Aditrlmijan. It ia an derated re^on, abound- 
ing iu hifiy mountains, and baring a cHmatc 
of considerable severity. Sei'eraf lar^e and 
celebrated rivers go out from it; the Euplira- 
^jk» and Tipis towarili the Peraian Oulf ; tiic 
rJorokb (Akampsis) to the Black sea; the 
Afaa (AruxesJ aod tbe Koor (Cynu) to tbo 



Caspian Sea. Some portions of tbe eonntry, 
porticnlarly the province of Ararail (AmrttJ 
which in tbe Bible gives name to the whole 
of Armenia, are of ^eat fertility. 

History. — The Armenian race is claimed ta 
l>e^ and [irobubly is, of tiiu highest aniiqaity. 
The father of it, aecordinc to their own tradi- 
ttoD. was Halg, a son of Togarmah, the mid of 
Gomer, who was one of the aons of Jajihet. 
Hence to this dav.in their own langua>;c. thej 
caU (iirm^rlves liaik ; their country, also, tbcy 
designate by the aamc aarae. or by tlie deriva- 
tive Hoiasuan. Th*" seventh of tbe dynasty 
of Iluig was the famous hero .Vnun, from whon 
tlie names Armenia and Armenian originated, 
by which the country aixl [K-opIe have been 
known among f(>rui;.'U(!rs for many Bg(% Tbal 
dii^tinf^ui.slied monarch, after freeing his own 
territory from in^'odcrs, azainst whom tiic At- 
menians socm to have WT to maintain a C4a> 
stont reinistancc, extended his arms Into Cappa* 
docia, and gave laws aud his name succe8gifo> 
It to the regions called, FirKt, BtMwnd, ani 
Third Armenia ; which, united iistW tbe fco- 
eral name of Armenia Minor. extended from tha 
Kupbratcs lo Ciueinrea,and from tht-< mountjuia 
(if Poutus to tboije of Cilicut. Armouia Mloor 
passed early into the hands of tbo Roniaos, 
hut deserves even at this day. on acconut of 
the numV'r of its Armenian iubabilanU. to 
retain its ancient name. 

'J'he priiieljial foroifirn relations of AmKiui^ 
during the <Mirly part uf it? bwtory, were duubt- 
U«swiLli the Dciirhbonng kingdoms of AiiStTia, 
Media, and Babyjon. The miuuic detaiU giv- 
en by Armeuiau historians of this traditiunanr 
period, nre, of course, entitled to little conti' 
donee, although the occasiooal intfrmingliitg 
of tliis portion of their bustory with that ol 
Scripture, gives as ci-Ttain Ktuud-points of io- 
terest and certainty from which to riew it 
In 328 A. C, Atexuuder, whose empire aU>orl> 
cd so many oriental monarohicfi, extended hia 
conqnesta over Armenia, and extin^isliod lbs 
dynasty of Uaig, which is said, with a km 
grafts upon it of foreign stocks, to have held 
linring eighteen cenlurit>s uniDterrapted po» 
scsn'ou of tbe throne. After the death of Alex' 
andar, Armenia was ruled by g^ovcrnoTm 
sometimes of (Ircek and sometimes of natjn 
origin, who diTived tbc>ir authority from 3« 
leucia and Macodonia, and at times laid ctain 
to entire indejiondeDce. It was next .^iibdue^l 
hy the i>ower that oTerturned the empire oJ 
the Seleuoidat in tbe East and formed on im< 
passable barrier to the ambition of Bomo 
A. 0. 149, Andite tbr Great, (Arxnrtf. caIM 
alio Mitliridatea I.) grandson of tlie founde 
of the Parthian hmplre. placed his brotba 
Vagburalmg I Vidm-saces) opon the lUroue ol 
Armeuiu. Tbits coiitmeucod this bi*Hocli Oi 
the Arancidw, nodcr xvhtnv roif^n of 577 yvnn 
the Aruit-niaiis ■- ' ' . 
duritii.' any r»tl 
ran (Tigrauesj in.' iijui'ni -ij lut^ oviia.-4tF^ ytiu 



AKMENIAN8. 



119 



M ftUy of MibrtAd. (MiUiridatm] the gnat 



kias of r 

vilh Bou.. , >' 
wm km li'i 
Vrv ftBtttDon 



bis wan iritb 9vlla and 

'pcame inTolvod m a virar 

'i-*-y crtded bv impcrrir- 

'lulitioiH of Jf 1 

- . Il-'iut; led to the v\u. 
rniing of hU ctmntry hv Anthony, in his }*ar- 
ftko nn. M A. C. Tlie part north of the 
Aw WW p-VQn tn bit wo, who was hkoi gx- 
fcM, aad the remainder became permiineirtly 
trfhrtaiy In AujnMtitf. With tliis division the 
nirtuH^ family, nfu-r the leadiDg membors 
M tiitA in cai>livi^, ww ols» divided. The 
lerthrtn branch, alternately npbcid and do- 
6nii»d by tbr Uoinans and Persians, was at 
taflh fopplnotAd by GL-or^an princes, who 
filn jMoM to a bnjtbcr of the icing of Per- 
il, nd flnally after a boparation of 65 years 
tie vholo roantry w:ia miiiiited nnder the 
M^bmi bnuich. ThU braticli hod itt cnpital 
It Ui<bqnu, (Ni^ilits.) From u re mote oiili- 
nkrtke norlI»-mwt part «f Mesnpijtamia was 
■aoH^ by a race rcHeniMing the Armenians 
hpmtn, maoner*, and langnogo ; and at the 
mtmrnatrnwai of the Christian em, oonttitn- 
M, HQordlo^ to Armenian report, under the 
■m of Menpotunia of tSw AnncoiniSt an 
«l«PBl'p«rt of their kinfrilom, and was the 
nidenee of the eourt for 2'28 years. Abgar, 
■K of (heir aovcreigiu, tlicy Eay, transdEerrei) 
tko tmX of govemmccit to Oorfa, and was there 
oncrtid I" Oir'itiauity. Uavinf beliercd 
ll Ovist ' r(|K>r1,he corresponded 

«HhluB.i :) hint litMjKirtraitmiracu- 

Wjr iBpTTMitMl ufMin a handkerchief, and wan 
&■ ioMmeted und baptized, tofrethor wiUi 
■ww of hi« ppoplc, by Thatideuft, whom (he 
ibBlle TbtinuM, in utKyIi''na: to the command 
;f rhriA«Bcnt on this miaaion, and who extenil- 
< hii labort. with soccen, to other places. 
'•ll tfaa oBoecMOTB of Abjifar apastAtizrd from 
' dAkt wid fflartyreil, boddoa many common 
' irMlu»,«ereral of tbe apo«tk» and diseiplcs 
"o I/nr^ and nearly exti^rmiDatcd ChriA- 
Wty Ihiai the country. The third in snc- 
-■"Tft from Abjrtir havinir itbtaineil from 
' '}4naa, A-D. 75. the ilominlon of tlie whole 



an end and the country was rodaccd to the 
condition of a dependent province. 

1'hi.i brief sketch allows do dctaili of the 
.-..\ r -icul conHict* of the Armenia— — .'---t 
(ui^iwi [lersecutore of Persu; 

1..:- iiiK.-- hands of the khabfs of M .:-; .J. 

A. 1). 637 ; tho miserin which they suRcred 
from the rival elainu of tbe ct'nirta of l>a&ia»- 
oiu and Oonvtantinople ; their varying fortnaot 
to the inTasioQ of the ^eljookian Turks, from 
whieb they Bofiered terrible man<am% A. D. 
UH'J ; of the }ietty indcfiendent kingdom in 
Oilicia with its chan^io^ Fclations to Mog;hul, 
t'rusftder, Turkish, etc., nei^rhbora, to itH gi,-er- 
ibrow by the sultans of K^JP' ^nd its annexa- 
tion to that dominiou, A. b. 1^75; of UiO 
awful dcTafitation« inllicted by tlm waves of 
invasion that rolled over them under the gni- 
dance, mcccHBively in the 13lh and I4th eeo- 
tnri««, of Ching^iz Kban and Timurlnne ; and 
the Qnikl connucHt effected by the I'urkinans 
and Oamanli Tnrkg. the latter of whom elilt 
rule over a lar^ piirt of Armenia ; Uuaua 
sin(« the bepinnii^j of the preaeut centnry, 
having obtained u lurge portion of it from 
Turkey and Persia, between whom it was Ibr 
a long time ahnred. Few coiintries havo a his- 
torv more painflil than Armenia. 

jHif Annrnmn Church. — TCeccitiu;; Chrt»* 
tinnity in the beginuing of the fourth ccntnry, 
the ArroeoinDBrcoeiTod it in tbe form which 
had then become common iu the Ku^t. Ita 
BubseuQcut devclopratot waa naturally in tho 
mmo lino of direction aa in other national 
elmrrhos fitarting from iuihfitantiully tlic fuuoo 
point of departure. AVhile soon fteparated, on 
tbt3 doctrine rehiting to the person of ChrifC, 
from the lloman and Greek charches, it baa 
never ccaiipd to l)e much influenced by them. 
Previous to tho invention of the Aruienian 
chnrocter by tho Earned monk Mcsnrb, A, D. 
406, writing; was done amon^ thum in tbo 
Syriac and (Jrcck characters, and the state of 
letters wa« very low. This iovenlion intro- 
duced a now era. tho first and mmt important 
literary c'tB'rt beinij tbe translation of the Bible 
into Armenian, A. D. 411, by Mwrob and 
i^MHiia proper, by ccdinc to the Itomans ' Isaac the Catholieos. Ilie version was made 
-"^'— '• — tn Mwjjotjiniia, removed his [ from the St'ptaofriut, and of course has all the 

faults of the latter with some serious ones of 
its own. It 13 »liU in use, and has been a boos 
of immoaie value Ut the nation. H is held in 
eonsiderablQ eetimuCion by Diblical scholars. 
It is the oldest Armenian book extant, tbe 
nest iK'iDg tbo history of the nation by Muscb 
Chorenoniis, which was written about liolf a 
century later. Tbe Armenians wero nnaOl-cted 
by tbe Arian and Ncstorian heresies, but in 
tbe vear 491 a Rjniml nf their biahopa rejected 
tbe decisions of tbe council of Chaloraon, while. 
most incomristently, it also anatbematiaed 
Kutyi^oe. AJtboegfa strennonahr omtendinK 
' the formula of one natoru in Christ, and 
-reby eat olT aa heretical and schbuoatical 
»ir u:«i i :■ \r .i'l'Li. .ivii;f-ii ..il.ji i.i u^ thc Grcck and Romish Churches, modern 



ofAmrat. In A.n.302 

' king and bis cfHirt. were 

■, jr^i onti tiic nution rt-ctdvecl ('hri«tianity. 

"\' ladifcrnneBt of this RToat work was Gnv 

r rr Um lUumtnotor, slnc^* tbe lni:hot:l snint in 

' Jlmoniaii calendar. Witliuut n'eeiving 

M iiiiTitw nf his iinmrrnu-* and wonderful mi- 

ffci i lu have been a nv 

aiir. iiTinion to Chris- 

i. IT iditp-wM- the Armenian 

1. ^UM-w of II; -ly <^f Persia. 

Ui'!^ iailii'LLtt l» 

aiittl A 1 



120 



ABMKNUya 



mtsfiioDoricii we moenilj dispnsed to regard 
the Armenians as aifforinp more m terniinolotry 
than 10 ii]m from the orthodox faitli on thai 
point They ogrw with tlm Orvt-ks iiihI olh*;r 
oriental Churcht-s in n'j<Ttinjr the "filio-tiutj" 
from \hv Nicime rrecd and niaintuming the 
proi'tstfion <if the 1I<j1j Spirit from the Father 
onJv. With wiuie difference in forms and 
modes of worship, Iht! rt'litrioas njiiniuiis of tlie 
Armenianft an; mostly like thoM; of the Greeks. 
The sign of the crowi is lued on all occasiona; 
bat made by the Greeka with three tin^tov, br 
the ArmcDiiins with two, by the Jncobit^^ witii 
one — the (jTcek usage pointing to the Trinity, 
tlic Armenian to the two natures niudu one lu 
the person of Christ, and the Jac<>liite to the 
Divine unity. They profess to hold to the 
Bcveo sacrameoU of the J^iLtiii church ; hut in 
(act extreme unction cxtHlA amonx tfacui only 
in name, the prayen so designated odng inter- 
mingled nitu tnoae of oonfinoalion, whii'h 
latter rite is performi-d by the priest at the 
time of hnptism. Infants arc baptized, as 
commonly in the On.'ck and other oriental 
churches, by a partial iraniersiou iu the fount 
and Uiree timet! poaring wat«r on Uie head. 
Converted Jews, etc^ thoneh adults, are bap- 
id in the same manuer, for the reason that, 
ordinp to the tradition of their eburcii, 
be Saviour was thuM 1i:iptized in Jordan. 
hey readily admit to llicir communion Ko- 
^manitftA and ProtestantH baptized by fpriiik- 
lin^S diCForinff in this from the Greeks, who, 
clanuiug orthodoxy to their church aloue and 
denying salvation to all othere, receive none, 
however prcvionaly baptized, without rebai)- 
tiziuj^ tlitim. They bclievo firmly in IransuL 
stantiatioD, and adore the hoBt in the mass, 
which 8tui)eQdou8 pervcnion of the eacrament 
is followi*(l hy tlietiaiue cviIh that are witocared 
from it ia the Romish Church. Tlie peopio 
parlnke, however, iu both kiudd, the water 
or broken bread (uuleavenedj being dipped 
in undiluted wine, (the Greeks nsc leavened 
bread and wine mixed with water,) and laid 
carefully on the toogue. It must be rect-iveii 
fatting. They rejet'l the Latin purgutury, but 
believing that the aouk of the dejmrled luay 
be bcriefitod by the aid of the Church, (which, 
of course, must be paid for,) they pray for the 
dead. Saint-worship is carried to au extraor- 
dinary length, the aildrcssoa to sjiinta Iwiug 
ofl*5i grossly idolatrous, and the mi-diation of 
Christ lost sight of in the litargical eervicea 
of the Chnrcb as it ii in the niiinls of the peo- 
ple. The cross and pictures iif llie tiaitiUi are 
ako objects of worship afi possessing inhcn^nl 
ffficAcy. The Supremo Being is likewise ro- 
prcfiuuttsl under the form of an aged, venerable 
mu, with whom, and the Bon under the form 
of a young man, and thtf IJoly Sjiirit pyinhol- 
isscd aa a dove, the Virgin Mary is aws<'H;ialed 
ID the same picture. The perpetual virginity 
of the latter Is held a.« a point of preeminent 
importance. CoDfession to the priesthood, iu 



order to absolution, is deemed essential to b 

vation. Penances arc impoeed ; but abflolaij 

is without money, aad indulgences arc am 

given. Baptism confers regeneration a 

cleansing from sin, origiaal aod urtual ; spii 

aol life ia maintained by penancis and sao 

ment« ; and the priest holds in Ms band i 

[Miasport to heaven. The merit of good won 

iH acknowlitlgeil. particularly of asct'ticiai 

Monuehism, celibacy, fasting, etc., arc viewi 

as in other Eastern and Western cburcbe 

the number of fast-day?, when no animal fix 

of any kind can bo oaten, is ICi in the yoi 

On the fourteen great fca^t-days the olrtiervani 

of the day is more slrict than that of the Sa 

bath, which last is as in Boman Catliol 

couutrius. Minor feasts arc even more niune 

uun tluitt the day.^ in the year. The chon 

a'rvices are performed in the ancient tougu 

not now untteratood by the common pcopl 

and iu a manner allogether iwrfnuctory an 

painru) to au cidightened miud. llicre SI 

mnt different grades of clergy, each roceiria 

n distinct ordiuation by the laying on of hand 

Four of theeo ore below the order of da 

con, and 'are caiJed portera, readers, exorclM 

and candle-lighters. After thi>se come tt 

aub-deocous, uie doncona, the prit«ts, then tl 

bLshopa, and last of all, the catholjcoa. Th 

(iithuliuos is ordained by a council of bishop 

He iA the spiritual bead of the church, wh 

ulone onlains bishops, aad cod fnrniah iJie me 

ran or sacred oil used by bishops in ordainioi 

the inferior eleru-y, and in the various ccreoM 

u ies of the churuK. The priests are obliged to b 

nuirried men, and can never rise higher thai 

ihfl prit^lhnud, except in case of tlic death o(| 

wiTe. when, not boiug allowed to marry a secoHk 

time, they may cuter among the vartahtds, M 

order of celibate prics^ls, who ore att«ched t 

tbc churches as preachers, (the married prieBl 

do not u>uall¥ preach,) or live together m mt] 

uusterits, aud mtui among whom the biahopi 

etc., on whom the luw uf celibacy is impoced 

arc taken. Tlio ecclctjia^ticiiJ polity is modi 

lied somewhat aca^rding to the political gov 

enimcDts under which, iu the countries of ibei 

iliK|K'rHion, the ArmeDians Ii^*e. Originally 

tlierc Mas but one head to the church, whos 

residence was at the scat of the imjM>rial u 

kingly govcrnmeut. Subsequently, in the dis 

traoted condition of civil aGairs, rival cathoU 

coses rose up. At prcseut lliree are acknowl 

edgeil — one at jVgbijwoar, iu the Lake Van 

one at Sis, with a f;mnll body of followers ij 

the ancient (Jilicia and neighboring territaiy 

and oue at Kchmiadziu, acknowledged b\ 

tlic Armenians in Kurfipe, A^im Minor, uu 

Armenia proper. There are two i>atriarchi 

oue at Constunlinople and the other at Jena 

salem ; the latter, however, being of little ao 

count compared with the former This ulfice it 

not an ecelcsiastical. but a civil om\, as an m'cIo 

siastic the patriarch being only a bishop, hay 

ing properly no spiritual authority above i " 



ARKKNUNS. 



131 



^faa^oUia' bishop. He nceives his nppoiot' 
nmt trotu tlic Hullan, on a nomination of Ibe 
trimaUx >>f tli<" niitiun. His powers are dpfinwl 
By aa im[K-riiil Jinnan, and he runk**, civilly, 
inlh Hvf irrL-at pashas of the empire. The 
Ah'^ ■ 'iirbah.* of Jcnwaleiji, the jnris- 

i|)t ^ I i^ vtTv Itmitt-'il. ilnli-a hack to 

A. it. i...t. ^..J uwi-B iL; cxieli.'ncc to the Sul- 
lia or E^jpi. Mnhainmed II., <.'n the capture 
«f ^.tn.^lilllr^l..p^■ in I t.'».1. finding a patriarch 
»lt' '11 over the whole 

(fT.- \ continncd hini at 

Hjttifanul of the (jret'k^ tbut ho mi^Iit govern 
^^PiB Uiriiu;<h him; and transferrin!: toe Ar- 
naiou hixbop of Ilrfisa to the eapitnl, hi^ inntle 
ba. in nice m:uintT, pulriarch of the Anne- 
tkm, Ai this ufBeiT U Duule responsible for 
(i»(Qo<I conduct of his pooplu, bo id clothed 
»i!^ - ' y - - '^ratires as are necessary to cna- 
\\- ttttin bisauUiority. Inipt)rliint 

bi ■■■■-. M...V recently (we urffWe on Turk^fj) 

I'M itujHiw^l, bat hw powers arc still p-ent. 

ll«n*/ifon; iherc has been eo Jittle check that 

Ui^vty Uuji been almost absolate in reapeet 

\» tbe iulliciiun of punishment. A prison 

csvtAvilbin his own pretMnctii, over which lie 

ha bd entire control. A note from biin to 

AiPoriit (Tarki.'-h goTcrnmenl) has been, in 

aalitam, safficicnt to secure llie biuiiBbmcnt 

^Miy penoo. ecclisiastic or layninn, to a db- 

InApvl of the empire. If, owing to the runk 

VUfaenre of the individual, difheidty liiter- 

JomH m prtKiirini; (he order, u bribe vrns ready 

■Airoerfclty Kttled the (Question. The patri- 

■^vMowtion being required to mvh applica- 

tin, H hw boen eib^y to pmetin- ibe heaviest 

M«n>>rts fay dffeatinji^ attempts to procure 

wflAeial pawpori^ needed to go from place to 

fhep,«r liccuaei for occupring- hotucs or shonn. 

• fynw niU ng trades, uuirryinjr, burying tlie 

etc. ; aad aa oar Li^ry will ahow, 

' lu oppnw thoB p(»Hso(l, has bei.'n 

ih Itrrible severity, to prevent thciii- 

< 1 i>r a purer faith and practice nmonc 

: ■. 'I'lu? despotic pcjwer of the patri- 

[ractically, however, much modilied 

■ •■ "f the priniatCii of the conimu- 

iiidly bankers, and all of tbcm 

■alth. The patriarch is really 

the priroafte, and can do little 

L I 'pro\'aI. A permanent central- 

r, like that of Rome, is hindered 

- of riral purticH in this bwly, 

'■ I'tg and cnntrolllni: tbc 

I i«, in (rencral, merely the 

:y, wiiirh. for tbo time being, 

ive<l from tV* relations to Lhoeo 

. .u-* 1 (if Uio Turkish (irovcramcnt, or 

•ns liberal use of money, happciu to 

,,.. it^rcndant. A« circnmstnncta ehanpe 

coil j^rtins fluctuatii, nuniturefl iu proceas, or 

h nroiipcct are liable to be interfenHl with 

ad fmstratetl : and it will be wtu boir pcrae- 

Inui oflf n been aTcrtciI, and qniet 9cem«d 

and their natirc coadjatora id 



the proaMiatioD of their erangcHcal labore. by 
jealousica and party feuds aiuon^ the Aptritiml 
and ttmporal leaders of the Arnu-nian cora- 
innnity. The pntriarcb enjoys the title of arch- 
bishop, and huti the appoiulmcnl of bishops to 
their sees, but, as before stated, tloes not or- 
dain to the office. One of the darkest fcutnrus 
of the »taU^ of the church is the universality 
of Bimony in practice, althouj^h rondeninwl in 
its standanls, and dcaoauccd !n wonLs ; but it 
a notorious that the patriarch has to exjiend 
Imnife (nuns in oblaium^ and roluining hid 
office, to reimburse wbicli, and for bis own 
cmobinicnt, be seils to the bishops tlieir sois, 
who again nnlain to the priesthiXM for money. 
The mom! character of the priests (beinfr mar- 
rie<l men) is superior to llmt of the vartabcds 
and hiplier clergy, lliat of the latter beinp 
peocrally coufi's^edly bad. Their aequaintannc 
with the seriptui-es is very limited ; many 
aniouif them are unable to reud tlieni iu tho 
aneiviit tongue. The state of eduratlon in 
general is binientnbly low. A gross Mipt-rsti- 
tioD ban taken the jjloce of true religrion, and 
the lijErbt of truth and holiness, recently n> 
kindleil. beginning to Ahine with more than its 
pristine splendor among that people, hod well 
nigh gone out in utter darkness. The anuals 
of the Armenian church for the last few ccti- 
luries are a record of corruption, intrigue, and 
crime, that cannot bo contemplated wilbout 
tlio (U!P|KNt sorrow and disigust. There h little, 
intloed, in i\s hb<t<iry, from the beginning, lo 
cheer the heart, but'the ua'djrinking tirmucss 
with which it has iu snccessive ages ndbercd 
to the professitMi of il^ faith and the Chrisliau 
name, under the dregful oppression of pa^^an 
and Mohammedan conquerors and the strong- 
est worldly inducements to ap<jetatize : and it 
hua also resisted wily efforts, rciwatwUy ])iit 
forth, a,nd iu some instaTices with sanguine 
e.\peetatio[i of success, to subject it to the iron 
rule of Rome. 

LunsTHtge and Literature. — Many of the 
Armeniuiiii claim, for their nation, that it has 
jirtwrved the language of Noah, unaffected by 
tbc confusion of tongacs at Rabcl, and therefore^ 
that it has the original speech of tmr first parents ' 
io Paradise; without conceding this modctft 
claim wo arc probably safe in allowing their 
Unguagc a very early origin. Ita n-liitiona 
with other lai\guagr-6 are fewer tlinn thoew 
which obtain in tbc case of moat otheri ; vet 
it clearly Ixdongs lo the Inilo-flcrmanie famdy. 
It is enriehejl very eonsiilcrably from the San- 
scrit ; and it has no affinity with tbc Semitic 
tongaes. As found in its carlicHt e:^i'<(inp, as 
well as later fonus, it aboaniis in gutturals, and 
a harvh to tbc ear of the foreigner ; but it baa 
strength, flexibility, and compoHt, and U capo* 
ble of cjtprea>ing thought by evolving from it- 
self, without drawing from abroad, new terms 
for the purpo^. The coD%'er8ion of the nation 
to Christianity, led naturally to the introduo* 
tioD of certain words from tho Greek, and Im- 



122 



AEMEKLANS. 



preased a new character upon it in leTeral re- 

8poct». It has also received acces^ons from 
other iQDCTDagcs, and an now Hpokcn, iltiTers 
very coiisiJerablj' fmm the ancient tougac pro- 
aem'il in bookn. The Ararat, or nutcro dia- 
Ject, fipoken io Anncuio, (ciceptiug- the pa^o- 
lic of ErzrOm,] and to the east of it, ha^ de- 
parted less from the nocient than the Coiuttan- 
tJnopoIitan or wcst<?ni dioloct. The latter ha.s 
bccumi- moulded in its idioms oiid construction 
b^ the Turkish, tmd is ti^ally KjKtkcn with uii 
inCnsion of Turkiiib ivordsu As now ciiUivatnl, 
it is boromioff pnnfiod from these, and receiv- 
iDg, a& needed, addeil wealth from the aucieoit 
or ori)fii)aI Armenian. There has been little 
publishr;d in thift dialect as yet, by adhorentiJ 
to the Armenian (^^iirch, but the puMicfition5i 
ofooiiveut»atVieunnaDdVenio« and Romish 
and I'roteslaitt misHionarioH have nnhfrvd in n 
new era for thi^ form of the Armenian tongue, 
and the new intellectual life called into action 
b; misuionani' labors, and tlic contact of the 
occidentuJ civiliiation with that of the Orient, 
has hojrun the creation of a valuuble lileniturts 
in iL The modern iliiilects ditFer from the an- 
cient loaj^afie, chiefly iu the disoao of certain 
word-, the introihiction of certain words and 
pbra^e.^ not known to ihonncieiit, and nchangi? 
in tframmalicid forms, collocations of word** and 
idiomatic cxna'ssions. The litcrutnre of the 
ancient ctinsisl*! mainly of hi-storical, e»:clesiaa- 
tical, liturgical, duclrinai, and polemicid writ- 
ings of the ftiMiillod Christian Fathers ; and of 
thcxe aome arc woll worthy the stndy of the 
iearoed. 

Amount of Population and tehere found. — ^The 
number of the Armeuians is variously esli- 
muled at fVom 2 1-2 to 6 or 7 millions. It u 
impossible to ascertain it with any decree of 
accorucy. They huvc become widely dupcfscd 
from tht'ir original seat, everywhere, like the 
Jewa, iire*LTvin>f Iheir distinct nationality and 
churiu'U-ristic&!. I\[altitud<3 of them wero car- 
ried uwuy oai»ti\'es, by Horaceus and lirccks; 
Toghrnl and 'J'imarlunr! carrietl thousands to 
oukniiwn countriea ; the Egj'ptiaiis removed 
eo.Oim to Ejrypt ; and it is "known that the 
Persians have always carried tlieir captivca 
intoecrriUnie. Multitudes, moreover, liavo, at 
various jteriod*, bc-wi induced by oppression at 
home, voluntarily to t«eok on attvlum in distant 
conntrica, to aiy nothing of otlier multitudes 
tliat eommerce has enticed away. Wc are not 
Rurprised, therefore, at finding thorn, not only 
in almost every part of Turkey and Persia, but 
abo io India, as well OS in llmsia, Poland, and 
many othiT parts of Europe. 

Cliaractrr.—A. sad depravation of mfrals pro 
v;uU uinong all the p<ipulations of the East; 
but in nsjHTt to moral traits the Armenians 
compare &vorably with other races. Phy.-ii- 
callr, they arc athletic and vigorous : the Ar- 
menian portera of Hmyrna and (joustanlinople, 
ore men of great Btreoglh. In the mountains 
of OilicJa and in some othw localities, we still 



find traces of the martial spirit, for which < 
the nation was dLttinguished ; hut in gen 
ages of tmbjection have diupctpd them to quiet 
submission, and abandoning hope of political 
restoratioa as a nation, to t^eck compensatioa 
in the diligent cultivation of the arts of pea^ 
The Anneniaiu are caltinitors of the soiUlfl 
tizuna, and merchants ; in lulortry, enterpr^p 
shrewdncBB, and perseverance they take pre- 
cedence of other populations in tfie East, and 
make theiawlvcs imtiRpeiuable to the Turks 
who rale over Uicm. They build palaces fbr 
the Sultan and his miuistcis, make fiis powder 
and cast his cannon, collect and disbune his 
revenue, and in fine, make themselves every 
where indispensable to the government, and in 
the business transactions of society. They 
have supplanted the Jews in their special pre- 
rogative of dealers in money. TTie Armenian 
bankers of CoiLttantinnplc. firom ttuHr wealth 
and relation, a.> creditors, to paahas and minis- 
ters of stat^e, have much consideration and in- 
Bucnee, while in demeanor servile to those 
from whom their wcidth is gained, and ofteu 
made to Fufler under the pressure of d(S|)otic 
power. The employment most congenial to 
the Armenian, and in which ho reaps the most 
sure and richest harvest of success, is that o( 
traffic. Thrrni^'h the agencv of the merrlranti 
of Uiis class the products of the far Kast and 
the West are exchanged across the conatria 
of Western and Ccnlml Asia, and by meoaia 
of the constant intercourse thus kept up, a bood 
of sympathy is maintained betwec-n the raosi 
distant portions of the race. Sedate and «.tAid, 
the Armenian is a striking contrast to the vj 
vaeious and talkative Greek ; hut in solid qoal 
ities of mind and heart is, to say the leaKt, no4 
his inferior. 'NVith less of imagination Hai 
emotion, the bent of his mind is more to tbi 

{iructical aud the ruU. lie tuirns lAiiguuges witt 
ess facility than many othens, but in malbc 
matics, in the phvsictd sciences, and in intd 
lectunl and moral science, be shows an aptitnda 
and makes proficiency eqoai to* that of i 
European race. 

The Armenians show a high degree of i _ 
^lous sentiment, manifesting itself not meri^ 
in a zealous and bigoted devotion to a rcligioi 
of forms, but iu un imfircssibillty under ibf 
prtsentatiou of the groat tniths relating U 
man's spiritoal condition and prospects, fa 
this respect they differ greatly from roees liki: 
the Greek. Persian, and others ; and furnish i 
ground of hope, which the remarkable pro^jca 
of an cvaiigelical reformation among them b 
daily strengthening, that they will receive, and 
sprrad throoghotil the vast regions over whicl 
they ore scattered, the blessings of a pure and 
saving Christianity. 

Prtparation for a trork of EvanfttlizoStcnf— 
It was a favorable circamstanee that the ee 
rors and corruptions intrc*duced into the AmM 
nian Church had never been reduced to syt 
tcmalic form and ait forth by ant" 



I 



2 



iJUOHIAliB. 



123 



Spod or Coojkeil, m ww done io the Cooacil 

I'nmt for the Bomkfa Ofaarefa. Ko SrooA- 

ial deauua had ever rejected the word of God 

m the oltionLte anthont^ to bind the odd- 

iciracr; umI, bovevor praciicaity the tr»- 

ikliom at XMO and anthoritT of the Cliarcb 

voe exahed above the Bible, the seutunent 

hH bffn iovTOogbt into the Anaeaiaii miud, 

I90 iccfAy lo be cmdtoated, that the Scrip- 

Itn*. 'not idclodtflic the Apocryphal books, 

*l sometimes read in the churches, 

b'^ ^D coi»dcnd cannicat) ore the 

BBV* uf ia*& reMJTt, againet wbuse decisions 

«atliiii(t: can be made to itaod. Tbe writioga 

«f tiinr own fittben contaio aboodant testi- 

ma$ to tbe trae Protestant doctrine on this 

fobt Tbe BU>le was tockeil ap Crom the 

a«B o( tbe people in the ancient laoguaffe. 

bit the educated amoofir them could read it, 

«8l tberu waB do occlcsia0tjca] mie to forbid 

lfc» raidiog 00 the part of any. Tbe New 

IWaiMot was ereo med m a CDiiuiion text- 

hok ia oaaunencinff the study of the Uiainiece 

is tbo idwob. Tw honor of haring made 

Ibi GnFl attempt io modern days fur the reform 

Mita of the Armenian church, li due io 

4pe«t hy tbe name of Uebojy OghlQ, about 

X U. I7D0. He lived in tite ijoarter of Con- 

fluliaoplo called Paamatia. Ue appears to 

hn btrn acqoaiiiled with the character of 

Ixtltff, of wbon be roeaka in term* of decided 

mmhilkio. io a book vfaieh be wrote on the 

•Mt of the Oborcb, and io which he casti- 

Mb both dcrfTT aod people uith an luupar- 

4fbHid. But while oe makei cututaot re- 

Mnec to the Bible, U^tinp evtry priiicipk> 

Md eeremoay by that Lieh gtandard, and 

■mnlj reTir»,'Te« mperslitiou and Ticc, he ex- 

Willi U" i-reciatiun of the only wea- 

P«l tin' riiw error, the doelnno of 

li rt iton"n !>> liiiiii alone through grace. 

Jubook waa norer printed, but copies of it 

^■idrealated from hand to hand, and at the 

NlJMhg of thti pnveiit u'fiH-ttiatiun in the 

UVek 1017 were brought out fn^m tlw o1>- 

mi^ 111 which (bOT bad Ixvu k«-[it, and used 

■ith oovaidorablci cflect How much ioflucnoe 

Ab lieok may hove hiul in preparing the way 

iv tbe rvformation now in prugreni, caouot Ix 

knoKi. 

lu (tic yvar 1813, tbe Briiuib and Rnvian 
ildib ■DcieticH. b(.*c4>mtng intoroted ia tbe 
illMiaui. iind(.Tt(H>k lo ajd Ibem with a sup- 
ple tf tl. ■ ( ■ ■ . ,.,f ^ijici, ^.gre 
•wy fiT' r I of the Armc- 
■bo Bil..4 i.i-. .,;-,..i, ... i,,.- Jih ccntnry.) 
*■! (oamcucMl bv Ibc Ult"r society at St. 
JMt-TnInirvL nil. I l.v Ihe (oriu*T at Calcuttii. 
h iNliiiou. (uf Ti.oOO copies) 
•^ luKer edition (of 2,000 
oti'i.-, '',■■ !■■■■ ■ ■]■'.] u\.t yttars afterwards. 
IV ill 1 - . T 1 ., 9i)0D published an 
f' !" the ancirnt Armo^ 
fti-i Ueir. Tlie report of 
iritiiUi tt'CiLi^ lut ldi4,Mya, " The print- 




ing of the ArawDian Testament has awakened 
great atlentios among' the Annecianst parti- 
cularly in Roesia ; and a femmt desire bos 
been manifested on their pari to pcoKis that 
inTalnable treasure." Tbe Emperor Alexan- 
der being at that time a warm promoter of the 
objects of the Bible Society throogboat his 
doaioioiM^arcbbiabopa and bishops ..,>.■.. ^.^^^ 
and geoenb, and Dcwtyall tbenc) 

eropiro were among tbe patrons and .;.^.j. ua 

of the institution. Amone the rc«t was 
Kprem (Kphr&im) the Cathoiicoe of the Ar- 
nenian Church, having his residence in Rus- 
sian Armenia, who was elected one of th^ vico- 
preaidents of the society, and Atnmt.'-ly favored 
Its cfiorta in behalf of hid own co-re litriooiMs. 
Tbe BritJafa Society also pnt into circulation 
among the Armenians of Turkey large num- 
bers ^ New Testaments previous to lfi2^ ; and < 
in that year we find it publishing at Coi»taaJ 
Unople an edition of 5000 cofMes of the XciT^ 
Testament, and of 3,000 copies of the fiwr 

'■ alone. These were widdy distribated 

Tarioos agencies. The toacben of 
some of tbe prinits and deacons and all 
of tbe higher clergy, baring made the anciei ' 
langmige tbesr q>ecial stndy, were prepared 1 
be benefited by these ; and in the sequel '* 
reformation began , among the teacbetsL J 
tbe dtscorery then made that thai langan 
•ras not understood by the mass of the peop 
led to the isning by the Ramian Society of ' 
the New Testament traoflatcd into the Armc- 
Do-Turkish. in 1822, and in the following year 
by the British BtM-ielv iu the vulgar Anoeumn 
tongue. A |XirLion of the Armenians of Tar- 
key (perhaps one-third, chiefly in the momJ 
southern parts of Asia Minor,) have lost eM 
tirely the am of their vernacular tongue, aoAl 
enp&k only Turkt»li ; and it was for them ttp*-| 
etally that the first nsmcl translation wis i»«| 
tended, being in tbe Turki5h lanpinge wriitett] 
with the Armenian character. These 1 
lioHH M-vre v(Ty defective, yet were 
They liavc since been supplanted by new 1 
neatly improved tronsUdioos node andpafa:- 
lisbcd under the sospicea of the British andll 
American Bible Societtes by missionaries of I 
the Amerirart Board. Up to this period, ti»1 
Armenian ecdosiastics made no oppusttiou, as J 
lar as is known, to the circulation of the BiblaJ 
among their people, and aomoof them favored] 
it : but when Menn. Lewis and Baker, ageattj 
of the Bible Society in 1B23, sought the an 
prolwition of the Patriarch at ConatantinjmM . 
to the printing of a version of the New "iW 
tunient in tlie modem Armenian, which the 
common people could nndcrslond, that digni- 
tary refused tiis sanction in the nuwt pusiUv^l 
terms. He even threatened that ir Mich a 
work were attempted, he would prohibit iho 
pcnisal of it, ana ituoi^h such ns ehould ba 
iduad in tbe poseessionof it; and the cJorg7| 
^m-raliy. so mr as tbej were consulted, onafr-l 
luously rc{rrobatcd the plan of such a iranalft* 1 



lU 



AnUEN'IANS 



tiem. TTloraTcliifm) drc&ds the Hgbt or God's 
word, and most change its nat«re oefore it can 
tolcralo ftiiy movenw'iit tj)wnr<l8 truly aijiritiial 
Tcfonn. 

Mufliox or TBB Akcricax Bdaro. — Karly 
in 1821, Mr. Porsons, of the mission to Syria 
otii] tlie Holv T-^iml, on lii^ Grst visit to Jentsa- 
lem, foond there mime Aniicnian pilprim?, with 
Bfhom he hod an intercstinja; conversation on 
lelij^ona Bubjects. Deeply interested in their 
lUHH^ranee, he ventnred to dtif^a«t the lliouj^ht 
of having a inl<«inii from the Aint-rieiui 
churches seut to Armenia itself. The sug; 
lion was favdniMy received. Mr. Fisk & 
after wTote from l?m\Ttitt to Boston. recnS 
itf^ndiDg^ \\ih mcaoore. Before any thiiif; hul 
hcen hoard from tbom on the subject, it had 
^^ito bcim thought of in Botiton, and ^h»o- 
fnJCDt (;\-tint« decided tho adoption of the plan. 
One of thcMC events wna the cimversion, at 
Bcirftt, of three Anneoian eeclostasticj;, as the 
firet fruitj} of the labors of tho brethren there. 
Coatldcring the small numlwr of Anneuians 
in Syria, and that the brethren of (hut miwiun 
were Udl s<'nt to them, that the first conver- 
sions should be Iruro among Uicni is & siuEpilor 
fttCt. Two of the convert*, Dion^-aiua Cara- 
bet and Hagop (Yaeob or Jacob Agha) wore 
bishops ; the otiier. Krikor. (Gregory AVorta- 
bet) was a dii*tin)^ii)!iht'd preacher (vartobed). 
llicse peTSOiw, by tlieir corrwijondence with 
CoiwUntinople and other parts of Turkey, did 
iDuch towards preparing the minds of their 
OCrtiutrymeu for the iuteresling' spiritual work 
which afterwards commenced amoajf them. 
Another circnmstancc was also inlluential. 
Mr. King", — now Rov. !)r. King, of Athi-n-s — 
on leaving Syria in 1825, addressed a farewell 
letter to the Boman Catholics, stating the 
rcnaonB why he could not be a Papist. Thin 
tetter was trauMlattH] Into Armenian bylti^ihop 
DionyHinB, and a copy in manustTipt wiw wiit 
to some Armenians of distinction m Constan- 
tinople. An cxtmordinaiy eflect was pro- 
dnccd on Ihoao who i-oatj it, A utceting, it is 
said, woa eaUod in the patriarch.^1 ehureh, at 
which Ihi! letter was read, and the reforenecs 
to Scripture examined, and, as if by common 
consent, it was agreoil to do Komelhing for the 
improTcraent of their church. Out of thiR 
grew imim--diatcly the fnmoas school of Pesh- 
timaljiaii. This individual was, in many re- 
spect*, an extrnonlinai-y man. He was a critr 
icfti and aeeurate scholar in the aneiont Arme- 
nian tan^e ; deopiv versed in all the lore of his 
own nation ; familiar with the theology of the 
Eaxlem and Romish chnrehes. — 1ho doing? of 
their eouncilff. and the general history of the 
Church ; — and, withal, a diligent s«tudent of 
the Bible. I)isgn9tcd witli the snperstitions 
ftTouml him and tJie character of the clergy, 
he wiw easily led, by the writings of certain 
French infidels, for a time to reganl all reli- 
^on as n delu-iion and a lie j but afterward* 
was brought back tu Iho ground that the 



Bible k the Ime word of God, and the only 
standard of faith. It is a remarkable circnm- 
stariee that sm'h a man should liuvc l>een 
j)liieetl at the head of a school i^Tublislted 
within the preeincts of the Patriarehale, and 
hod commiltwi to him the Imining of the catt- 
didates for the priesthotHi, the completion of 
the regular coorw of atiidv in this institution 
being rc^nired as a cowltlion to ordination. 
Cautiouif although he wixs. in spiiiking of the 
errora of the Chiireh, — and even timid and 
sometimes time-wrving iu the presimce of the 
bigoted, — in a Rilent. on ostentatious monncT, 
he gradunlly led his pupils into new pallia of 
intjuin.', nod, alinost before they were aware of 
it themselvi», they came to lieHeve that the 
church may err, end actually di-es err, in many 
of her teafhings. Afterwards, when the Ooe^ 
iiel began to toke i-ffect, and he wiw some of 
nis former pupils boldly advocating the do<v 
trines of evaujjelieal rt-ligion, he bccamo 
alarmed, and tried to kee^i them hack ; but, 
subse(|ucnt]y convince*! that they were right, 
and, in fact, only carrying into practice what 
they had leanit'd r^f himself, he ever after 
strongly, though still privately, eucournj^ 
them in their endeavors for the mirituiU re- 
genemtion of their countrymen, \ever, CiU 
The day of his death, in the' year 1838, did he 
so far overcome his native timidity, ns openly 
to avow himself :m evangelical man ; but it is 
impossible to calculate the amount of influence 
exerti'tl b^ him, in preparing the minds of men 
to expeneucc the power of the gospel, as 
taught by foreign lubt^rers when ttiey came 
into that field of evangelization. All the 6ret 
converts nndtT the labors of the nil*ionnrifa 
of the Board in Constantinople, and many of 
tho later ones, were from among the alumni of 
PeshtimaJjean's school. 

nie eatabli.'jhraent of a mission among the 
Armenians of Turkey was resolved upm by 
the Prudential Committee of tho Board in t)ui 
year 1829. As a preporatorr step, He%-. EH 
Smith and Rev. fl. G. 0. Dvngtu were sent t« 
explore the field. The tour was commeoeed 
in the spring of 1830. and occupied somewfatt 
more than a year ; and n mass uf newinformo- 
tion was obtained, both in regard to the Ar- 
menians and the Nestorlans, which has since 
been of essential service in prosecuting mission- 
ary operations in tluU part of the world liarly 
in the year 1831. the Rev. H'. f^oor/W/, then at 
MaltA, was inetrueted to proceed to Constan- 
tinople with his family. They arrived on the 
9th of June of the same year ; and shortly 
artiT, he called upon the Armenian patriarch, 
and Rouglit his cooperation in e«tabli«hing 
schools on an improveil jdun among the people. 
The patriarch received him with true oriental 
politeness, ond promised to furnish some schoot- 
masters, or priests, to learn the now systt-ui of 
instruction, so as to ttc oblc to open schools; 
but the promise was ail ho did in the matter 

On the 5tb of June. 1832, Rev. H. G. ' 



2 



ARMEMAN8. 



ISd 



|tmik up his pcnnanent rwidencG at 
' loplc. viUi bia faniilT, having horn 
lo Ial«T amttfi^ ui« Arnieiiiaa**. 
^G. Scluiofilcr joiDCi! the t'oti>«(antmi> 
1 tbc lust of Julj of tbe same year, 
beiug c<>i)fuu.<U chiufljt' to (.be tfcwg. 
inbcr of Arnieiiiaii vi<<iiora at tlie 
r.wUialIy ineri'ajiod ; and early iu the 
S. ilciluuuio:!! Suliakyau,a pupil in the 
f Ptsbtimsljiuu, became a Ui-*ply into- 
quiriT. ttiiil an eamei^t istndeot of the 
in which ht; fouDil Rympalhy and 
I hi.* U'lovcd precTptor. The lollow- 
'^ lie found a friend to whom he coin- 
hid views, aud who, alter r^io 
cmhrooed tticra. 3lr. Sahakyuu 
a most efficient iu.itrumetit in 
I truth, as he huK continued to he 
pwwcnt lime ; and never, from tliat i 
^as the mi.>uioD been withont the most 
riilence of thu uptM'ial pnsi'oce 
'pirit among the Artiieiiian }hxh 
St)i of Jair, 1833, Mr. ^^ahol^an 
Dttm, in u VL-ry st>Ic'mn inunner, 
[lurlveti to the iiudnictiou and 
%jf liic missionarit-s. Om? of thi-m 
oyi^il Oh a translator of the rabtidon, 
Iht^r IU lifflchcr of a sdnwl for Armo- 
Thr'y wnrf soon bronchi into tlie 
*[ t ' itKl led tn tnuil. with 

i nee. io Jt«tu Christ 
/ fUtd all'-utli* lint .Saviour. 
n«9)tioti unw bcKuii to rooiiirest itself, 
cal intcrfiT'-'iiw, both Armenian 
bi' !-'-h<K)l was broken up. An 
eWr of f;reat n^fjeclabililj' and 
[and litrungly atlaelie<l to the iloe- 
riUM of HIh cliuffh, hud his mind 
^op into a state of great akirro, io 
to the courw of tlieiH* two younR 
be ee<Tet iii^innutiuus of a I(4iman 
hey were rcprcwented as being the 
s of rerlain foreignern, employed to 
people, and lea*i them into tuinifcr- 
. TIu; jeweler prevailed up<jn Pe*h- 
jT to snniruon the delirwiuenlj^ bt-fore 
pr<' ' .tiiine them as to the allc-fr<^l 
I wo:^ pnr^nt. and be^tin 
.ilb^real lilernnes* and bo- 
bar^iutf tjiom with violalinu; their 
ill.' i-1iiiri-1i. and didlionorin;!: 
-: to vindieate 
'!! look the buai- 
ijt ii| ihvir liEitiiU, anil poured 
nihhi-tl ji'wvler aiieh a fluitd of 
ftory as well an S'Tiptiirc. to nhow 
Lchiirdi 'ti wMim.nnd in many thiuga 
Leieii llieyouiiff men them.selves 
'n>fy aftiTwani^ h.ul auoppor- 
IHi^^r tlifniH* lv)_<H, i'eHlitimal- 
Uh'ir rpli-rcucfw In the 
fthcir own memories faited; 
t the jewi-U'r wa* not only 

, „__. lh'.*T were in the riKhl. 

Ua.tv'} K..auue hiofaidf ati open and 



powcrfnl oilvoefltc of Iho oVttngHic&l doctrines 
The eircuDiatiLncc of the closing of iho M-h<>ol 
became a snbject of some notoriety, and somo 
miniLi were by this means put upon a Dew tniio 
of thought. Mr. Barkis YarjabotI, teacher 
of grammar in tbc school of PeahtimaljiaD. 
became a coDVcrt ut tlii3 ttoie, and was oflcr* 
wardB highly ueefol to the uussion as a trans- 
lator. 

In the oiitnmn nf 183.?, the misBionarica 
were incited to nitneas the ordination of fifloen 
ArmcniaD pricst^i at the ratriarcbal cbnreh in 
Congtautinople. None had bo^n ordained for 
many voerH, io conso<|ue[^ of the new rttfc 
which reqnired that only such aa had received 
a reiiular education at the school of P^httmal- 
jian ihould bo eligible for ordlimtion. Neurly 
all the i^iindidates on the present occaaion were 
cfinipamtivoly well edueatetl men ; and one of 
them hatl a high reputation for learniof^. He 
hud a iteculiiuly serious aud devout appear> 
anee, and when, pome day;* nflerwarda, the 
mifisionaricft calletl ujion hini in out: of the 
cloi.<ters of the patriarchate, he scorned deeply 
impressed by the remarks made to him on the 
solemn respuoaibilitics reestlnj; upon the olBce- 
l>parerR of the church of Clirist, and feclin^rly 
bv.'ggwl an intcresrt io their prayers. This was 
Der Kevork, a omo whoec tnil)so(|uont inSueDce 
in promoting the reforomtioa was highly iin- 
fwrtant 

Uj> to this ptTiod, the miaBionary presB hud 
remained in Malta. :uid had bt-eu rfiicfly em- 
ploved in printing in (I'rcck and Italian. Oa 
the* 23d of DecembiT, 1^33, tht: lit-v. Panic] 
Temple, ood Mr. Homiui HalIo<:k, inU-ii i :— .■ 
printer, arrival in HmjTna with tlic ; i. 
accomjMnied by bijihop Diony.Jius, 0.-1 Au-.u^ 
niau translator. But a combiuulioti ot Arniq 
nian and ll'Mnuh innuenci-s induced the I'lL^lm 
[lercmptorily to order Mr. Trmpb-s dt'pnrturc 
from bmymu with only ton duvrf' iv»tirx\ Tbo 
I'osha, however, who had acted hastily and 
under a misapprehension of the factt; in the 
case, revoked his order, on hearing llie ejtpla- 
natious of the American conb-ul ; but it was 
thought bf*it tliut the bif^hop shoiibl return to 
ReiriiU whore he had formerly rtsidwl ; the 
Armenians being incen^ atfaiiut bim ou 
account of his luiviog marrica and bccomo a 
Protwtant. 

The indications of the special pn>«nce of tbo 
Tluly Spirit l)ccame more numerous and deci- 
sive- The miK:tin(r« at Mr. GwHlell's residence 
had heen frrmhially increasiofr in Aoleinnily and 
intenst. On llie fir^t Monday of Jon. 1*^34, 
the mnttlhly ctiiiCiTl was observed, for tbo fiist 
time. Id the Turkish language. Intelligence 
was enmmunicalf^i from the niiwionK. and 
every heart foemed deeply ioterwtod. and 
many eyes were enfliiscd with tears. Tbo 
native bn^thp'n there received a new impnlso 
to go on with their latxin fur the salvation 
of their own countrymen. Ilie number stea- 
dily iocreflsed of uose who f^aeDted the 



126 



AILM£:^MANS. 



f 



bouses i>f the mi£i»ionar!«, asd tbc main topica 
of iriquirr vorc deeply praeticfti and spiritaal. 
relating^ directly to the salvation of tV wml. 
In the course of the year, two or three pri(?8tfl 
in ConsLttiitiuople wcro awakened, and tbo- 
rotu^ly eoDTiRccd of tbc tnitii of the crui- 
edioU ETstcm. Tbc Bible waa nmch soogbt 
for ond read ; many vjcs were opeoed to see 
the foliy of their own STijwrslitlous ; and a 
few. It IS l»eHe>'wl, were; aiitlod to tlie number 
of sincere believers in Jcsilh lyrist. The two 
yonriL' men whose inUjrcBtiog history has been 
uritjoy given, and who bceame native iuai«t> 
aol^ were active iikapreadinf^ the (rutji. and 
exerted DO sniaU onionnt of iiu^tmmentaUty in 
briogiDg about the n-salts that folloived. 

Kvery effort, made to induce the Armenian 
ecelo^itt-stJeal nuthoritiea to take the lend in 
enlar^iilLT aiKl iniproviug their schools having 
proved a failure, the misaiou at leni^th deter- 
miuod to establish, independently, a high 
Bdiool in Pcra. tlie object.'? bein^ to fducnte 
promi^iiiir 1»0\'S and TOutig^ uien In iiaeful 
brniicho?, to etimulato tlio Armenians to eflbrl'* 
Ui this dejmrtnient, and to furnish a model 
school for tliera to imitate. The school waa 
opened, Octolier 27, 1S3-1, nuder the sapiTin- 
tendenfo of Mr. Pu«pati, a native of Seio, 
who had b(H?n educated hi America, and who, 
by hu religious eharacter, as well as his intel- 
lectaal tr-aining, proved hiniseir to be well 
fitted lor this post. 

Rev. John B. Adgcr joined the Smyrna 
station in the month of Oetohor, 1834. Two 
new Htations were ocenpievl, one at Br&sa and 
the other at Trebizond. IU-t. B. Schneider 
arrived at Brtifla with his family on the 15th 
of July, 1834. TIjo Greek bit-hop forbade his 
poopie furnii)hing the miHi^innary with a house, 
although one hu<l previously been pledged to 
him by a prominent member of the Greek 
community. Bnt the independence of the 
owner en.ibKHl Mr. Schneider to secure a resi- 
dence in tipitc of the bishop. And, after some 
opposilion. he was enabled to oiH.'^n a Bchool 
of (0 children, bis Inlwrs at first being divided 
between the Arraeniona and Greek,'*. Rev. T. 
P. Johnson first vL<ited Treliizoad in NoTOm- 
ber, 1834. Throiigh priestly interfereace, he 
was foiled in three siieeesinve attempts to pro- 
cttru a ItMi^ and at la«t he only ecciirc^ a 
contract for one, ou condition tbat he ^^hould 
obtain a flrmon or imperial order, from Con- 
eULDtinopIc, which he succeeded in doing, 
through the kind interposition of Commodore 
Porter, the United btatea Minister at the 
Forte ; and he removed Uicrc with his family 
in the tipring of 1835. Tlw breaking out 
of the plague, however, i)rovcntcd him from 
having much intcrconrse with the people for 
some montlis. At the capital, the Dumber 
of those who declared themselves Prot^-slanta 
rapidlv increased. Not only in the city pn>per, 
bnt throughout the suburbs and the villages 
on the BoBphoms, wherever Armcnianft were 



found, there was an increaslnfr diEpOfKHon 
talk on religions subjects. The miBsionaries 
avoided oontrover^y abont fornw and ceroiK^ 
nie» ; and instead of attacking directly l~ * 
supcnititions of the chorch, determined 
" kn(9w nothing but Christ and him cmcifle 
Cases of true conversion M-ere every now i 
then occurring, among whom was Der Kero 
before alluded ta He had charge of a scfa 
of aboot 400 boys, supported by the Ar 
nituu (h<!infelvo9, und m no way connected 
with the missioDarics. Ho soon introduced 
the ciwtom of reading the Scriptarea daily, 
and explainhig them to the whole school ; and 
he also formed a class of twenty of his most 
promicing scholars, for the critical study of tlM;_ 
New Testament under his immediate directid 

One room in Mr. Ooodell'a house was aJv 
open for Anneniuns to come togctiier 
prayer ; and in some Instancoi family prajj 
was established by the new converts. anJ 
jtrayLT-meeting was maintained by a few pop 
UI the high Bchool, which Lad now iiicn^iu« 
to thirty pupils, and had oIm grown grtatly in 
favor with the jXKtple. The English, French, 
Italian, Anneuian, Turkish, Greek, ajid IIo- 
brew languages were taught, as well as the 
mathematics, geography, Ac, and lectures wero 
given, illustrated by expcrimeuti? on various 
branches of the natural sciences. - Mr. Fa^ti 
having left for Pari?, Sir. Ilobannes Sahakyaa 
was nppointtid to the Buperintendency of the 
school, ttf*ij(ted by several other teachers. Vts- 
itors of all classes were numE-roiu*. and the lec- 
taros were attended by many dceply-intcreatod 
spectators. Kxtcrnallv, frieiidJv relations were 
still preserved with the ecclesiastical nut hori- 
tios of the Armenian church ; bnt thoy already 
began to manifest their uneasinc.'^!! ai the cip- 
culation of the Bible, and the popularity i 
snceesa of the school cFtabliahcd by the i 
sion. MftlteoB, the newly appointed bighnp (__ 
Briisa, was one of tho carlittit friends of the 
mission, having imbibed many enlightened 
views of the truth. Even after his removal to 
Brftsa, he expressed, by letter, the m(wt friendly 
sentiments ; and when Mr. Schneider called 
upon him, noon after his arrival, he avowed, 
in very decided terms, his approbation of the 
school recently established uy the mission in 
BrftsB. Not many months elapsed, however, 
hefare this school wa.i entirely broken np, 
through the influence of this same in-elato, 
who also endeavored, in other ways, to circum- 
scribe the operations of the mispumarica. Ufr 
afterwords made himsolf notorioiL« as Mat 
Patriarch, the perseci-tor op the Pro 
AKTH IN TtRKET. Thii foot shows how !ittf5^ 
dependence could be plao.ed upon professions 
of fricndahip made by tho high ecelfsiastlcs, 
who, though often convinced of the truth, yet 
having no fixc<l princink's. are ready to do any 
thing to please the rich and influential among 
theii- [trople. 

The BrOsa station was strengthened by \ 



bjld 



AfilCENIAItS. 



1ST 



■rinl of tfao Bev. P. 0. Powers nnd irife, in 
hkmuj, 1635, who took up their abode in 
At AnBCCuui quarter of tlie town. 

TV pruiwratioa of bootu and tracts in 
Anmo-Turkiah and the modom Anncninn 
hipi^o. bccamo more aod iuoro an object 
tf tftaotion. and Mr. Hullock, the iub«ionary 
priiter. visitwl the Unitftl 8tat^ to superintend 
wnaauGiiCtare, at Xcw York, of punches for 
Blkiiif^ Armcniau type for the press Iti Smyrna; 
«d Uie liberal sum of 35000 vm? apnropriatctl 
to (fau ob}i!Ct« and for the purchase or mntoriatfl 
for » foundry and printinp offico, by the Fm- 
dittial Committoc. Mr. BorkU, one of the 
|io« ArtncaiaiH io OoDSt&ntinople, and an 
■innt •cfaolar in his own lnni;iiai!i; and liti<r- 
ttMLnmoTod to Smyrna, to t>e eiii|iloy(^ ikt 
ttnuior. in connection with the press, undcT 
%c ]■ nee of Mr. Adgcr. 

K.L .ti. two weekly meeting were 

«iUi»lKii io 1'on<<tantinople, one ot which 
Hi ooodnctod by Mr. Cloodell, and the other 
^ Kc UebftofBer, io the Tarkiflh languor, 
nidlalbrdad oourtADt evidence of the ^rr> 
fftsof the work. Tlie boosfB of the inifleion- 
vis vcro fK-quLTiled by ecclesiastics, as weU 
• h|ttm, »>Bae foar of the former, ehicSy 
ftwwxmff the parochial clergy, nppearini^ to 
WAunv inqaircn afUT thn truth. Oiw of 
ttMi tftadtM to the Patriarclial C7harch. pro- 
|»tl'>f Iil:!t own ac<»r<l, that tlic raimionariis 
A . .1 new and revised edition of the 

B>-. I an New Tcitament, ao that all 

tkitic^ilu uit)^ht have looeia to the Word of 
(Win Aff int'^MipblilanKiiaKe. Hn uOi^red to 
ni lastrcci, (about $23) himsolf.to- 

«• i:t, and to procure more Tram 

sMnv. floim! of the most intlacntinl vartJitieds 
li lU pMriorchate wen:- dis-poAnl t/j fncoiirairt', 
aMhvtfaoo hiniliT rtlatuitif'iinl offtrru. 
It w now not au nticotiiinon tiling, to hear of 
,ui aoolhcr of the bialiom and vartabeds, 
whai wera caDea evangelical wr^ 
joent foots, however, have shown. 
Nprd to most uf them, that public npininti. 
i^tbt tbn) Bomcwlmt clamorniw for rcfurm. 
QM Uan iienKinal conviction and iutcnst in 
thiabjtct, lod to this new Btyic oi ruldre-H. 
uf Urn ooni'CTtJS who was rather prouii- 
I a nfonw^r, was poblicly ocouiod of in- 
bj» priest; and on the following Sab- 
■0 of^thfi Tortabo^ of the Church de- 
hlin before tJra people, aa a heretic and 
Udil, wboBO ewe was Boon to be tried by 
of eccleriaiticB and laymen. The 
B WW oftenrordii held, and although the 
d ilocUred plainly that he bad no cj^nG- 
wbatevcr io the mcfliation of the satntfi, 
L ho received the Uuspcl aa his onlv and 
iBblgaidft ; — ^yet be WM fully acquitted. 
As tttott diiypBt antl pereeverin^ dIbrtA 
Wtavli ' I'li adherents of the Romish 

Ottmh, t •? Armenians af^ninst the 

«( mrvct mt'fln'f hod iweii iwed 
to oUffaloo that portion of the Ar- 



menian race, who acknowledge the snpn-mwry 
of the PoiK-. Thpv mav lunoont. pi-rlinps, to 1 
15,IKW or 2u.nOO. having a i*fttriur<-li of their 
own. In Joly, I83<i,thift funrtiiMtnry camo out 
with a public denunciation of all tlM^lHtoka ciiv 
eulntvd by iho roiRsiouarics, inclodin^ the N'cw 
Ttstaraent, and he exprcwiy prohibite<l his 
people from ptircbn.«ing or procuring from 
them copies of an edition of the Anneuiao 
BeriptuTRs which had been printed ot their own 
pnsrt in Vonici^- 

TndicAlions now began more and tnore to; 
manifest thcni«rlvrs», that the Won! of God wmI 
operating like ailent leaven, o*poeiBllr iu tho 
selioola where it waa daily read ty a test book ; 
and inniiy rntcrwtiog incidents are mentioned 
in the jourtial-t of tin; inisrtionnricj*, to illuatrato 
the inlint-ncc that was operating nnon the 
niindrf of the people ; which Mr. Gooticlt cho- 
racterized oa a gimpU and attire tpeltltng up a/ 
the heart and life io tfu aoU dinttioti {tf Gwb 
Word and Spint." 

The gospel bad now been proclaimed to mnl- 
titndos of people by conversation in private 
circles, both in the 1*iirku>h and Armenian 
langnogcti. and ii fomnd cTnotJitory wrvic(> had 
been held in Tnrkuih, by Mr. tlodlcll. fMronme 
time- The first regular sennon in the Arme- 
nian tfrtiKtie, waH prea(;hed bv Mr. Dwight. on 
the 9th of Hejitcral)cr, 1836,*to a small select 
companv in his own boaac. The montlilv con- 
cert of praytT incrcn«ed in interest. FcmalB 
education, which had been almo*tt entirely neg- 
lected, wos beginning to attract attention. 
At t^onstantinople parents were beginning to 
provide instmctmn for their danghters, and 
one of the evangelical brethren had a clii« of 
Armenian girls who were learning tn react la 
rfniyrna, a flcliof)! of 40 Armeniiin girl-i was) 
e6tabliiilu->d by the mL<i«on, in the summer of 
Id'M'j, with the cCTifCRs approbation of n. nnm- 
l»er of influential men m the community. 
Owing to one or two jeairHij? ppirite, however, 
a m<.H!ling of the community wtw mtm called, 
and it wow agreed to take tho new entcrpriso 
into tlieir own hands ; and it was eht-crfully 
relinquished to ihcm by the mi«siounrics. 

In nrri:<a, there were mutiy who prnrt-ased to 
be friendly to tho mi*'Ionai-its ; but in gi-neml, 
the silence and inscnsihility of di-nth reigned 
among them. Bishop Mattoo;; showed more 
<>pcnly a hostile disposition. The station at 
Trebizond was reinforcwl in Angnst, IH3B, by 
the arrival of the Rev. W. C. Jackson ond 
wife. 

The principal bankers in the country, at 
that time belonged to tho Armenian cnmmu- 
uity. According to tin system then prevuit- 
ing. the Pashas ond governors uf the empiro 
derivod their rapport, not by o salary from tho 
government, but by toxcs, levied' by Ihera- 
selvea, im the pr(Mlure of tJie liTritory over 
wliich they had jiiriwiietion. and by citortiitn. ■ 
Kvery Pasha ha«l his banker, whii furnbJied'^ 
hiro with money on intcreat, when out of ofHco,^ 



or wbno newly appointed to ofBcc, recGivinif 
bis pay by porticipoting in tlic spoils filched 
aftcrwiirdi fniin tlic poor ftpoplft This ar- 
rnngumrnl gave ;frcnt jwiiver tti these capilul- 
iuls; aiui nearly all the impurUinliifipoijitoiciits 
of the pm-crnmcnt were in their bamk. With- 
in their own coinmuuity their wiird waa law. 
Falriarchs, us we linve nhi>wn, wt-re elcct- 
(tl uiiil ilnjKiwil by them ; and thniuj^'h 
thvtu, biwhojis and vartubetJs recvivvMl their 
appoi[itiiii'nt3 to diix^st* unil churclMs. A 
few of tliL- riehrat ond most |>owcrful of 
Ihcso incii decided nearly every qnc^tion of any 
ioipnrtaDcc [>crtainiDLr to thu- eivil or eccleai- 
D8t4cal oJTuir^ of tliu A-mieuian uutioi]. Ah a 
chus, thpy were ifrnorant and ki^coted, and, 
then-fnrf', quite ready to believe any iiiirtrepre- 
SQUtiLlioDji of Protestant ism wbieh their own 
religious guides f<bonld give thcni. In thin 
Htalti of thingv. any olfico-tjeiu-er iu the church, 
high or low, might be detcrrod from actlnar, in 
his official capaeity, according to the i^^licy 
dictuti'd by huit own mind. 8onie rlvul tn the 
buiy urdens even much lower than himself in 
rikvk, might, lliruugh hU wipmor intluenoe 
with one or more of iheae bankers, jtrocmv the 
romuval from office of the obno.xious indiviil- 
ual. In the year 18;i7, it was resoivod in Uie 
counsels of ifie Armenian community, that is, 
by a fow bunkers, as a firet step, to break up 
the High 3chooI. In prepiualinn fnr tbi«, a 
liuua collegia* had h«cu fuuuilecl iumie mout]).-) 
befurv, at .Seiitary ; und the public ;iclio*)l, sii- 
ncriutendiK] by l)er Kirvurk, in tbe quarter nf 
Jlosa Keuy, had b(,*n committed Ut the gene- 
ral rapen'ision nf one of the great bankcra re- 
ading there, a trutv nobliMtpirit^vl man, tliat it 
migbl bi? remodeleJ nccording to liisown wishts, 
80 a» to make it a first-rate school. As learn- 
ing was now becoming popular, these were 
nccQssury slt;[M in order to rei'oncilctbe people 
to Ihu shutting up of the Armenian iJigh 
School. In January, 1837, the parents of the 
Bcholais of the misiionary school were Bum- 
mouod beforo the Vicar, and peremptorily or- 
doTv*i to wlt!nlraw Ibeir sons fnim tlie 8ehiH)l. 
Sorrow was depicted on rverj' face., as tlie 
pnpiU came back to get their books, and say 
their fantwells. 

The plan of tlie ojip<j8ing party in this case, 
was, after breaking np the school, to procure 
n-om the INirkitih ^Teminent. the bonuhment 
of Mr. Snbakyan, ita principal, and several oth- 
ers who were considered meet inflncntial 
nmong the evangelical hrelhnfu. Great was 
their a^tooLshment when they heanl that, no 
Booner was this hatcti individual relea.t%d, by 
their act, from hb connection with the missiou, 
than he was eiiganied by iJie banker of Ha.'« 
Keuy, to tako the superJutcti donee of the great 
national acboul, whirh had been placed by 
them in hia hands I Kvcry effort w«fi made by 
the auti-ev angelical party to pcrwiade him to 
cliange hii< purpose : but ho remained firm, and 
ducUu^xl that if they did not aHow bim to 



manage the school in hia own way, he 
leave the Armenian community 'alt<igvti 
They were obliged to yield, and soon a i 
of 600, insteiul of 40, as before, was in wfr 
cesaful operation, under the superintendence of 
Mr. Ilohaonee Bahakyan ; having Xhv Kevorb. 
the piouH priotit^ for one of his priucipal 
teachers 1 

The HasB Keuy school was formally adopted 
us the school of the nation, aijd Mr. .Sahakyan 
received a regular appointment fVoni the A^^)^ 
nian Synod as its principal. lie had thcrfr 
fore, more lil>crty of action, ond could gin 
religious instruction officially. Ue de^'oted u 
hour a day to this special purpose, in a select 
claat of sixty of the most advanced papiLs be- 
Bidc»i more general instruction, and the daily 
good influencD exerted by himself and Der 
Kevork. 

There was a liberal course of study adopted, 
and the school was arranged, thronghoatf af- 
ttT the model of the mi.'wion sehool. Lectures 
were ^'iveti in the natural seiencen. the whde 
of the phil^^ophicrnl apparatus of the misioQ 
having be<*n purchased and paid for, by 1' 
^irect<»rs. 

This institution became dcMrvedly pop 
there wan now much more boldness, on the ]_ 
of the enlightem^l Armeniaiut,iu spreading 1 
truth ; and tbo light of truth and piety s 
to be kindle*! in evcrj* part of the city. 

Inquiry was extending, also, at the ioi 
stations, and tbe e])irit uf oppositioa was 1 
wise awakened. 

In Si'ptemlter, 1837, a convention of 
.^ionaricfl was held in Sm\Tna, the chief obji 
of which was, to ascertain, by prayerful ift- 
ipiiry, the mi.«t(ikes» and deficiencies of the past^ 
bntiii ill rnpurd to pergonal qualilicuti()n.t for 
tbo Avork, and the means and mea^rt« adopted 
for bringinjf the claims of tbe gospel in "^" 
tat't with the hearts of tbe peoj^c. ~" 
afflictive dispensations in the mission had ; 
duccd a mellowed tone of Christian focb 
wbieh greatly prei>ared the minds of the L_ 
n?n for a profitable disenaeion of these sttbje 
The Ltird was felt to be indewl present, and] 
w believed that each one returned to the i 
of missionary life, with a more prayerful 
conftding s])irit, and a more fixed ijur]>06e i 
lieart, to make the salvation of the soul 
immediate and all-absorbing ohjeet of lah 
and the preaching of •' Jwras Christ, and 
cnicifled," the grand nieans. 

Mr. Adgrr was enabled to commence an i 
povitory st^r^ice in Smyrna, in the Amiec 
language, at which some live or six were osaa 
prt-sent. Hia translator. Mr. Sarkis, fn 
Constantinople, bad increasing iuttarcon 
with tbe p<,-ople ; and Armi-niim uiotbejs I 
to be eltxjueut in tbeir lameiitationa over 
negloctt-d education of their daughters. 
to the first of January, 1838, there wok 
printfxl. nt tho Smyrna preffi, about two and a 
half uiilUou pag«a in the Armenian laDgnage^ 



i(BiaMUM& 



lao 



> irAti. MiMoD of tiie Now TostAtneul, in 
'.m, wag completed on the last 
iH37. 

tluit 5i-omxo of Turkey, wns 

;(r to outer the family of Mr. 

t\ wlfo aad chitti bncamo 

; -livi' dispfustttioD called 

of nympatby 

:.er friends of 

I Bjv.--;' 1 111 wiruMjH Wfiysi, it was 

IjsJjftRAj I rli mOftt sorrowful event. 

71; •-■'-',(.. u^^.a^. ui iu aouool vigitatioos 

iuU, and oibor parU of tiio Torkii^ 

^i provnl a far moro seriona obsta- 

<uuuar>- lubor, ttum can well be 

ia America. Tbe ecason of the 

fa^ irw a BeaMt>a uf ntm-iutercourM\ to a 

"wy p«it pstprit Schools muat be closed ; 

lied ; mid Llii> ^viit^ and 

! a (fruat inLUiuirc intcr^ 

'j;!*^'!, I I.I- i-i>.^- li.kiiponcd, a^ain and a^in, 

j6iU Utr. sUti-.'iis. Sunictinwa, wbon the mis- 

I kiul Diadti u Hucct^fal aod prombinff 

\0t»tnao ncv pUo of osefuiiicie, tbie 

1 f(F,M...r.i. »rr,.,!,i conw dowH upon them 

I an ' -i-od .^uddonly arrest tbc 

OUajciie. , - lU' all their hopes. And 

hma a ootuitry luj Turkey, when a school is 

Ami^tr public wor^ip suspended for suveral 

BOdb, more ground uiay be lost thnu can be 

pati la a whole year. Bat fur U ^cars 

aiioce qoarautined have been estabbsbct). 
tanUao^le bo^ not l>evu vUited with tlic 
fline. ihMWin^ that it did not originate tJierc 
A* Ac doclrinea of the gospel gained a hold 
tt ft* hcart« of the people, anpcfRtitioru rave 
*igr; asd, a# error became eradicated from 
fti nbd. the external symbols of that error 
«n Mtajally rvmovoil from tuc and from 
^^ The progma of correct religiou opin- 
m was trrinecd. especially, by tJiu grodniU dis- 
■fosaaoc uf pictorcH From tbo Armenian 
Vi|^ In ODC itiataace,Dcar the bcffinnjii^ 
tfllsyrar 1839, tlw vartabcd and kiuliijg 
■• b ih/- ' '"' i^'O of Orta Keoy, on the 

Ba^ uuL ^ ihu* to the ehorcb, and 

OMiIh hLiiji.K.->i c-vrry picture, except tlio 
dt^ fBcca, which were ao iituated that thc^ 
«H act be apuroochod for worahipy Thia la 
tvffll^ in which tho miasiooaneB rcsidoil, 
vlea thry fin( began to get access to the Ar- 
Mi^iaa The patriarch .Slcnun remarked to 
>■» of the uativc brethren, that many of the 
*taiilaooa In their church were out nrcscjilKHl 
ty Ihr |ro«p<*l. aud that probably tuey would 
W exact 'j:o yean kwgcr. 
I TV n>frirm'nii'^ was daily gaining Klrcngth. 
^ i \:iiiiniaii8 were activo and 

_'htod in the Liimmnnion 
Tii^lit and found fre- 
i^-^ioiM COD venation 
■^ho. as yet, had 
Mr. Sohak. 
. iih the Hijrh 

I^OMi al liu^ Kcay, and hia opportunities 




for osffiilncas were many sod groat. Tin r ^} i-h 
was the oppositiou of the leading .'. 
to Mr. Saliskyao, that it^ distingni^it , 'i 
determined to abnodon it altogether ; and, 
before tbe close of the year 1838, most of the 
teachers were diBrabtscd, and the school toducod 
to iU former fooling. Many of the people 
were ittrongly in far<»' of its conttoniince. and 
parlicutdrly the leading men of the village 
where it was located ; and they sent a delega- 
tion to tlio patriarch, to implore his aid, to 
prevent the approaching dlatster. All they 
obtained from nim waa fair promisca, lliat wore 
never fulfilled. 

Mr. dabak>-an, being thrown out of ona- 
ploymcnt. was very fSfhiiilr taken up by the 
misaion. The neoesFity nod fur some time 
been felt* of having a man to superintend the 
distribution of books, which were rapidly in- 
creasing in nambcr. To this post Mr. 8a)iak- 
yau was appointed, with the confidL-nt expec- 
tation that it wonid prove a station of great 
uwrfulntisA 

The kingdom of Ulirt^ now began to make 
evident inroads on the kin^om of Satan, In 
tbo interior of the country. Two Armenian 
prieata, in Nicomedia, who had never seen a 
missionary, had been converted to tbe tmth. 
One of them afterwards camo to Constantino- 
ple, and viitited the miaaionariiss. Ue appeared 
to be a man of a most devont and humble 
spirit, who hod inword crperioncc of the grace 
of God. The doctrine of wlvation, by grace 
alone, wofi quite familiar and very prccloos to 
him ; and he readily discriminated between a 
iving and a dead fuiUi. In 1H32, Mr. QoodcU 
left with an old priest at Kicomedia, as ho 
waa passing, a erij^y of thu Armcno-Turkisll 
New Testament, and fptve to some Armenian 
boys several tracts in the same laDgoagei 
One of these traut^— a Imnslntaon of om 
DairjTQan's Dangliler — fell into the hondaof 
another priest, whom Mr. Goodell dia not see. 
T\ic perusal of it wufi the means of bis awaken- 
ing and conversion ; aud, through his infln- 
ence, another priest was bronght to the know- 
lodge of the trnlh, and their united prayers 
ana cfibrU were now directed to the enlighten- 
ment and conversion of their flock. TTio spirit 
of inquiry began to spread among the peopla. 

In ihe spring of 1B3$, Mr.'Dwight visited 
the phu*e and found 16 men, who ufifieorcd to 
be truly enlightened and converted. He was 
received by Uiem with tbe greatest cordiality, 
and they seemed to hang un his lips like men 
hiinKering for the bread tif life. 

The two pricMtA, I>er Vertanesa, and Der 
Harutun, removed, of their own accord, to 
Oonistantinople ; and were sabseqaenllyplnood 
together, as the only pricetsin a village cfauroh 
on the Bosphonif;. ' Oerc they coold act with 
a good degree of independence, and many ap- 
portoiiities of doing good were prcacnted. 
iJuring (lie summer of 1833. the Fatriaroh 
Stepon, being an old acqaaintoncc, spent sdt^ 






eml weeki with tbem ; and thty Imd &r>e cod- 
Tersations together on religious subjects, the 
Patriarch generally aaecntiug to tbcir views. 

It^jth at Krusa and Trcbizoiid crury pocsible 
obstacle was thrown in the way of the progresd 
of the troth ; and yet the Word of God coald 
Dot be boand. Id tK»th places there were io- 
crt'ttjiiiX friendliness on the part of the iwople. 
more estcnded intercourse, and the special 
prcfictice of the Holy Spirit. Amung iLoec 
wliof^.' minds seemc-d to tie i>|MH!iaIIy fiixined to 
relitfiuus impri^oua ut Trebizoad, vrere the 
rartabcd him-self, or acting bishop, and obo a 
prleal of tho Church. At Bruso, the two 
letchcn, Mr. Scrope, and Mr, Hohuinc^, 
■bemed to be p-owmg in in^co and in the 
IcDuwtedge of Cbrist. An influential and dts- 
tinguishn) man became a serious inquirer for 
the way of ftalvation, and oppusitiou thus far, 
woa overrated for good. In Octobtr, 1838, Mr. 
Schneider bcgftn a regular preuchisg serrioe 
at biH own house, every Sabbath, in tbeTurldsb 
laoxuage, for the benefit of butli Armenians 
ud Greeks. The Jif\. K. Ri^gs juined 
tbs Htatitm at Sinyruti, with his family, on tho 
2d of November, 1838. 

lly a scriia of intrignee, commenced near the 
bcginniog of the year 1839, the leading bankers 
were gradually dispossessed of murh of ilirir 
formtT power ; and three or four men from the 
artisan cluseeu, stood before tbe nation as its 
gnidcii and dictators, and cffpeclally us drfeitderB 
of itfi ancient fnilli, and lbewaIoiiaeAtir|Mitors 
of heresy. One of thew was the Hultan's cliief 
orchiloct, and another was his second. An- 
otJier was superintendent of the g<)VcrniuL'nt 
powder work?. Tlie first two were enipktywl 
at the time, in erecting the most splendid nf 
all the imperial palaces ; and Ihitf brought 
them into doecr contact with llio Sultan than 
was cnjoytnl by any of the bankers ; and be 
was E>o nuicb delighted with their work, tluithe 
swHR-d ready to irrftnl them uuy request they 
might make. Tlic ciimlnion of Protestantism 
&om the land was an object that lay near their 
hearts ; and they now rotfiolrod to make use of 
the strong arm of tho Sultan to eSi^ct it. Ac- 
cusations were j>re8entcd against the evangeli- 
cal brethren, and the most false ond scandalous 
representations were made, as to the character 
and teodcncicsi'of rrotustautiam, culculatc\l 
not only to prejudice the mind^ of the 'l\jrkiflli 
cabinet, but to excite the feelings of the jiopn- 
Isioe. The Saltan was easily pcnnaded, and 
the arehitectfi and powder-maKer were fully 
authorized to call upon the civil power, to aid 
them in 03:1irpating this dangeroos heresy. 

But the Patriarch Stcpan, was altogether 
too mild a man fur their purpose ; and it was 
reported and believed that hiasTmpathitawere 
with tlio evuiigdical party. "Tlicv procured 
from Ihc interior of Uio country, JTiigoprtfl. 
man who hud once bcon Vicar of the Patri- 
BfChaU- of Oom^tantinople, and who was noto- 
liOBS for hia bigotry and stcmnees of charac- 



ter, to tic aflsociated with Stepan, as 
Patriarch. He soon hud the whole 
virtually put into his hands, and Stepaii 
to a mere cypher. On the I9th of Febrtiuy, 
Mr. Bahokyan was arret^ted, and thrown iale 
tbe Patriarch's prison, without even the fom 
of an examination, and without being infrumEd 
of ttie charges allege<1 against him. He wu 
a mild, amiable, inofil>nsive man ; of nnblcn- 
ishcd cliarai'ter, and against whom, lu; a mbject 
and a citlrAtn, not tnc slightest impototioii 
could be broughL And yet, while the saaedo 
colled ChriatJon Patriarchate would uss all 
pomble means to protect felona of eTerrdfr* 
acriptioD, who belonged to the Armenian con- 
monity, even to the murderer himt^elf, from iha 
regular action of the Turkish law, it cod]4 
rudely seize an innocent man, and deliver Vua 
over to the civil outhorilics, to be nnnhdicdfor 
daring to think and act for himself, in matten 
pcrtomiog only to hia own soul and Uud I 

The Armenian Patriarchal power at Cofr 
etontinoplc has alwo^s been n pcreecotiiif 
power, but more CHpecmlly wiiliin the lactoK 
nuiidred and Gfty years, during which. moA 
blood even hn& been shed by it, in the endt-avor 
to prevent prni!clyti8ni from that Church to tbe 
Church of Rome. In Jt^ present ia.«;tanocv 
therefore, the eeclcsiasti^ authorities of Uie 
Church were only acting out the tme spirit of 
the ct>lablis)iment. Mr. Boghoii KiuLa was 
also arrested and put into tlie ftame prtfton 
with Mr. Sahnkyan. Four days aHemardi, 
the,-H! two individuals were pnl under charge 
of a Turkiith police oRiccr, who was annoil 
with pistols and sword, and, wilhnnt the Ica^t 
show of trial or cxprcssw] accasation. they 
were scut into banishment by an imprnal fir* 
man, to a mononlery near iaisery» (the a&- 
eient Ofcsorcaof ('uppudocia,) ubout 40l)mik9 
east of Constantinople. The Patriarch Stcpao 
took leav*? of them with tcara He did not 

EurticijjaU- iu the act of his compeers, and 
new well its deep injustice. The police oJB- 
cer, a Turk, stopped at his mother's house In 
Kcfitary, anil sent back wonl that Mr. Fitnka 
was too feeble to bear the fatigues of tJic ioor- 
ney ; but ihemostjxjfilire orders were relAed 
to carry him to kaiacry, cither alive or dead* 
At Xicomediu, ho wu."; refrcahixl with no in- 
terview with the evangelical brethren : and 
having recmted hi^^ health, be went on Ida 
way. Bat the Turkish olllcer who coodnctal 
him, finding they had friends there, treated Mr* 
Suhakyan with tlie gn-utest cruelty, for the 
purpose of extorting money, till he wa$ com- 
pellcd to give on order for SlOO to secora 
relief. On their urrivul at Kaiserj*, the Anuis 
nians, on being informed that they had been 
banished merely beraupc thcj* received the 
Bible as the only infultiblc pnide, replied that 
the Patriarch might aA well banish Cheoi aU, 
for they were all of tbe same opinion. 

Tbe greatest efforts were now mode at the 
capital to frighten the brethren into sabnuB* 



ARUEKUNa 



181 



Am. Very few dariij to visit the mission- titudes of pereous of direrae chnractors, were 
mIMi aad tliosc odIt nader cover of the durk- nclive, from dironK) motives, in kt^eping alive 
On \lic 3J ofMurclj, & PatriarcLa! boll ihu spirit of fanatieigin. Thu native brethren 



%m iened by lIni!opr)8. ndjnnrt Patriarch, 
ftvMiSdinir the fading nl' all lnuik!* prtnird or 
rimiucM hy the niL«intiari»<; uml all who 
h*d roch book.5 in their possession were re- 
qmM U> d'-tivLT itn'ta, witliout df-liiy, to their 
btoliop nr ccnr'-s.;'ir, Tlie hrethrfii. IhoiiHrh 
■BtUod by Knch vinlcnt procecdiiifpt, sUll u* 
*" flnfeed great eonstiincT ; and accmcd ready to 
flAr jorfally tJie spoiling of their goods, and, 
tftted be. irapri.*wiim('nt, banialiment, and the 
tethindo, for 1h*_'ir Master's Bake. 

On thr l4th of March, Dcr Kcvork. the 
pWi- -ir;.-) ,>f Hn.'5? Keiiy, was arrested and 
ttt rl-oii. Eijrtt doya. after, the 

f' in was deposed from office, and 

ft-: lire to hia convent at Arma.Mh. 

». jiii; ttJKl on the followiuK day, 

Ik iiubUuI, Ourropoti, vas iostalhrd in his 
rf«t Purini; the same weok, the Greek 
FMriorch issued a boll, excommnnieatinfir oil 
vioilvmld bay, sdi. or rciid the books of the 
tMknns or Calvinial^, a^ the inissionariR^ 
^W taXM ; and an imperial lirman vras also 
^\^.:...t — ,T..;,. . ..[I the patriarchs to look 
K' mil ):unrd them ag;ainet 

fc^, 1 iiifidelitv. It was now 

|ntecnd>?tir iliai, the Siillan TfiimRelf was an 
fisiswlrd partT in thv-^c transsirtious. After 
bfej in fo'bou for more than a month, I)er 
RfTirJt vx': banished into the interior ; and 
*«^ '^-ho had presided over dioceses 

•» more toaclier.aud several other 

nl into exile about th« game 
waA nn examination of any 
ciT. *»iw: ni,., vrere niado the rictims of this 
ftid fetotictMm, had nf-n-r in any way been 



'be evonirclieal men, but were 
pate in their pnuiihment by o 

I*utriarch Ittsed a new ball, 
in the furmer. threateoini? ter- 
. in the name of the Knther. 
iJhoHt. ajaiiBt all who fihouhl 
, any inl^'reonrse with the mis- 
udini? their hooks ; and also 
,jm who neglected to inform, when made 
witli offenders- Within two or 
' ' ' who hnii been for 
)i the missionaries, 
tni hn-> -'10 patron of Mr. 

Btj^ } . <) and imprisoned 

■ tbehob^..- ..;h<- peTFOQ : this is a 

■(Ifcedof iierwcntioD not tinfh'fitientJy resorted 
tlJK r.nififrv. Tlie banker wa.s released 
•nfintment, on paying a 
■".<•- colh^e at Scftlar}", to 
btf Utki UivcUtof ho bad done by his 

:J 

HH had now gwell- 
.lt\(\ a strong effort 



were at their wits' end, and even the miBsiooft- 
rii^ conid not see how God was goinf; to 
deliver his people. Provideaco Huved the 

Croblem, however, with the greatest imagina- 
le case. The persecuting powers were sud- 
denly thrown into the deepest coostornation, 
by a demand from the Siiltun to all the Patri- 
archs, that each should fQrnit<li him with scv^ 
ml thoiuyind men, to rccrnit his broken army^^ 
and enable him to prosecute his war with MOfl 
hammed Ali of Egj-piv Tliough an anprec«-l 
dciit«>d demaocl, it must be promptly obercdvl 
Public attention was now entirely absorDon 
in this snbject, and thu doomed Prot^Htantvi 
were for the moment forgotten. The annjri 
WHS rallied, ond marched to the 6eld. It wagj 
estimated to consist of 80^00 men ; and oftl 
the plains of Nesdb, near Aleppo, it encouik'.l 
lerou on Kgyptian force of aimut the sanM ' 
nnmbcr. Tne battle was fought on the '24ih 
of June, 1839. and the Turkish troops wcio 
uticrly derc:ttod, and etcattered in all direotiooflL 
Tidings of thia disu-stcr, however, never n-aehed i 
the cars of the Sultan Mahmud. He died io 
his own palace, ou the Bospboms, on the liret 
day of July. His sou, Ahdid Mcjid, was 
girded with* tl»6 imperial sword, on tLe llth ; 
and a. few days alvcr, the news reached tiie 
rjipilal that tlie Capudan Pasha had treacher- 
ously surremlered «p the whole I'urkigh fle«t 
to Mohammed Ali. Thus, both the army and 
na\-y were gone, and a mere hoy of seventeen 
wag upon tiic throne, in the niacc of the groat 
Mahmi'id ; and the entire dissolution of the 
empire seemed inevitable. Nothing but the 
intorvcution of the great powers of Europe 
prevented thw catastrophe. 

By this rapid sncceseion of remarkable 
events, God rebuked the persccators of his 
people, and effectually removed Anm them the 
power of carrying into effbct their unholy do- 
dign?. Judgment succeeded judgment. A fire 
hri>ke out in Pera, which coitsumud betweea 
throe and four thousand honsca, dentroying an 
immeaac amount of property and several live*. 
Immediately after, a meeting of the Annenian 
Synod was called, and, after much violent 
debating, it was resolved that a part of tJie 
exiles should be recalled. Mr. Sahakyan, be- 
ing considered n " ring-leader."' was to be left 
in peq)etnal banishment. AH the others rfr 
turned to their homes before winter net in. 
Some of them were restored to their former 
etations. 'llie converted brelliren. generally, 
soon took courage- They eautioibily iT^nmed 
their intereourec with the miasionarii^, and 
groiloally became bolder than ever in tlit-ir 
effiirtfl to spread the knowledge of the trull). 
In the moan time, at the suggestion of others, 



Mr. .Sabakyan wrote two or throe letters, suc- 
iii.K- tr. n[M. i,p thi> expulsion of the I e{4»lvcly, to the Patriarch, petitioning fur hia 
thcmsclvia from th« country. Mul-| own release. They were couched in terms of 



132 



ARKEKIANS. 



great respt*cl, btii a* thr-y rout(iino<l t\» confcs- 
■ton of error, and no promise uf rtittirr t^ubmi^- 
■ioo, his rttpitwl WM (li'iiiitl. The hinliop of 
B^oiserjr also wroto to Ihi* I'Rlriurcli in Lis 
bdialf, fayiiig that ho hud wntrtiod Mr. S. 
Tery clowiy. und !iad " fuond uo fault iu him ; " 
but iWta applictition uUo fiitlcd. Hnt. Iliroufh 
the inU-rrontiou of an KtigtEsh f^jtlemaUjVno 
was ouD ot' tbe phpiciunfi of tho palace, ihd 
ratriiirch, by rftjttext of the Sottau. after tuaoy 
Julays, Mid sorely uruiu^t his Mill, ^ent an onltr 
for the n?lcagc of Mr. H. on the lOth of Vvh- 
ruory, 1840. 

Stepa woru takon to rauko Ihis pcrscailion 
gtMLorul ; and siniilar nifa'iiin.'s of o|iprf^ioQ 
and criKflty irere nsortcd lo at UrOsa, Trebi- 
Bond, and other plan^A. 

Bat, while tUe^w violent metfiures iiD[M}eed 
Ml outwnrd clicck upOD tho vork, it vas evl- 
dent that the truth was epreading ; cvi-n the 
mtfwurt's takeu to check the rcrorinatidD, be- 
ing in many iu^tanets tho mcam of awakcDing 
hi<)uirr ; and at thf vcrj* time when the slorm 
was ragiiiff at the cikpi(al, und at ditfen'ol 
points oil the etn-coast of the empire, the nii»- 
•ion was punhina; it.s advanced posta into the 
Teiy heart of the euemy'jt country. In April, 
Ur. Jackson, from 'I'rebizond, vi)>ited Erzruin. 
■hnoiit in tbe centre of ancient AnncDia, in 
order to make arrungenients fur cummcncing: 
Operations in that town. While he Trad there, 
a k'lte-r was jmblirly read in the church from 
the rntriarch, warnini; tbe people aeain^t in- 
tereoun«e with the Americans, aud agaJrwt 
patrunizing^ their echools and reading their 
books; ami orderinj; tbcrn to seize sneh books, 
wherever th<*v ronld Xn- fonnd, and lo commit 
them to the Aauiea. Thia did not prevent Mr. 
Jackson from procurine a dwelliujr house, 
which he accomplished tnrough the kind aa- 
flistancc of the Itritbh consul, and on the Uih 
of r^cptcmlKT. 183'J, he removed there wikh 
his family, lu Kebrnury of the same year, 
the station at Constantinople was strengthened 
by the arrival of the Rev. (\ llamlin and wif«, 
be br^in;; dftiii;naled to open a scmiDury for 
Armenian bovd. 

The first Monday in January, of the year 
18'I0. wiu» obser\t'd ae a dav of special fastinif. 
faumiliatioD and pra^rer, ttirou^^liout all the 
mi^inn stations of the litmrd iu Turkey. Tht 
events of the preceding year, and the c'sisting 
state of things in the country, rendered it a 
BCtu^on of deep interest. It became more aod 
more evident that the pcrseontiug power had 
rect'lveil a check from which it woiud not im- 
^^ mediately recover. The eflnrl^ of the iiersecn- 
^^K ton to dcfltroy the truth h&d only made it 
^^^^ anrc extensively known : while the injustice. 
^^^ Tiolenre and cruelty of the clergy had bronght 
I &ejn into rontenip't. 

I At tbe rommen cement of theycur 1&40, in- 

I terciior*!-' was a-iumod with most of thoae 

■ whom til* pen*ecution hud temporarily rtipell- 

I ed ^m tlie miieiouarict4, and there was evi- 



dently no diminution of intert?st in religia 
iw^uiiy. One jslriking providence aflrr 
other occurrptl. calculated to lead Iho hea 
of the faithrul to repose in God. and to 
'■ nothing terrified by their adverearit*." 
seTeral instanceti. i^ignal judgmi^mtA followfl 
the pereecntor, ho that even the cnrmifs tfae4_ 
selreB were coufitraincd to acknowledge that 
God himflelf was uttering his reproving roict 
The sudden manner in which the late 8u!taa 
was cnt off, and his forcea by land and sea de- 
stroyed, at the very time when he was i " " 
by hu authority to'vex the church, haa ai 
been notiee*!, Tlio chief instrument in i 
lug him to u<!0 bis mighty puwer for (uich'i 
pnrporte. was, by the fiultan « death, deprive 
of Ilia inHjit-nce ; and shortly after, his w3j 
was removed by death, and he hinutclf broogli 
ih)wn to the grave's mouth. Another powa 
ful man, who had actively oppowd and \t&t 
cuted tlw evaogolicai brethren, within a she 
space of time liwt two daughters by sndt' 
wath ; n third daughter became deranged, i 
also a daughter-in-law ; his wife was defonpt 
by BickiKw, and aUo made marly blind, i 
he hiuLwlf became a miserable invalid. J 
soou after the young Suitan came upon thf^ 
throne, a charter of rights wa.s grantetl to the 
people, without their a.-iUiug for It, providio 
for some fundamentul changes in the int<i~ 
odministrat iuu of the government. In 
presence of all the forcicu amboasadoi^ I 
sovereign solemnly pledged himself lo gnud, I 
fur as in him lav, the hberly, property, an 
houor of every individual subject, withuut f 
fej-eiice to his religious creed. No one waa ' 
be condemned, in any cose, without as Imv 
tial trial, and no one woe to suffer the ] 
of death, without the fionction of the 
himself. Under this charter changes the 
nionien(oH,H, particularly for the Christioii n 
Ji:wi:'h population, bavc nlready taken p" 
in Turkey ; and eTerythiop now indicates, 1 
according to the honest intention and pollq 
of tlie prettTit goTemment, I here is nllimat4!r 
to be u complete carryiniBf out of its provision 
in every part of the empire. 

Under tlie old t^j-stem. bankers were nc 
to furnitth capital to tlie pachas, until tfa 
should procure their suppliee from the 
pressed peojile. An impf>rtant part of 
now sytttem, however, waj?, that thenn;forwap 
tbe mling pashas and governors throq 
tbe country, should each receive a fixed j 
from the government ; and in no ease i 
with the Collection of taxes. Accordinglj 
near the beginning of the year 1B40, all 
bunkers of ihe government received ord 
to settle u[i their accounts, ns they were 
be uo longer needed iu the capacity in wbld 
tluy had heretofore served tne state. "T 
threw many of them into great dij^lniw, i 
some it completely mined. One wn? driven, 
his dceptration. to the crime of soicide. Th 
did tied put another obstacle out of the wayJ 



AUUKNIANS. 



133 



■hid IriUriYto bid cpriooaly obitructeil tbo 

tn tbp nnine "f 18-lD the Greek ratriftTcli, 
fti ! hiinifc wilb tbe AniifniAn Pn- 

tn- Titiug the ik*<>i>Ip of GoU, was 

-•1 from office, by order of the 

rK i.iit'ut ; and it was not loag be- 

\':'- .\ : iif.njtui rulriurch followed bim into 

Mifni*"!!!- It<- li'.<;jiDic- so (xliiHw, on account 

hi ■ ' .: iiiv'. vii(!i-ni sjiiiit, as well as his 
-olili^'-.l s..;, -i;i;u tosuvuhim- 
li.,„ ■• : ^ <irjH.-- (1 ; ,i!i'I St'.'rmn, who hud 
tiHD^jecl«il f-ir hi- luil'lii'— :iTid his furlM-ar- 
■tt lownrda i'roti'riantT-. MiLsnrlfctttl Ni the 
PtCrivthat*', fiwt by vote of the priiidpal 
htbhfn. &Dd a.rterwanls far accUunutiuu, in 
iD immcttso pi>pular oastnablv. 

OnUie 24th of May, 1840, Mr. Sahokyaa 
fltvMd turn hb bocishmfiit, aud \i\» pn^ontT 
iMdod creatJy to stroogOieu the uativc broth- 
NB. Itc loon commenced a scries of active 
UW» fur the ^wd of \m coantrymm. rri'-sl 
TvUbob ftto, tint b^'in;; ablo coiiscicintioiii'ly 
IsjRbnn all Ibi* >iiiticy> rc(|iiircd of bim &» 
ffMi .mi.'il':- ,, ,1 iin'iitcdtutiotidy witlidrcvr ; 
»Q 1 ■ \m wboK' lime in labor- 

fa; ■ ^ "I' lilt- truth among his 

6ntr7vcn. lio thmulianiUiricd. vohmtitrily, 
ftriUntiito in whidi ho was honored and !;up- 
inrlfd, Ibr ouc iu trbicli ho was exposed to 
MMaat ni«picit)n, ix-pronch aud pi-rwculion, 
•4 ftt Qif) Eftine lime, with verj' uncertuia 
■eui i/f miWtAtcnrc. Prifitt Kevork seemed 
to W "fall -:■■ ;.iid of the Holy (Jhost," 
pnvddo^ ' than before hiu bonish- 

•fllttliai. >iii-i>: 1- I. iiL " one uume given under 
iMfW among men whereby we must bo 
tna^f sod irady (o suffer iii^atn, if need be, 
fcr liii MoT«d liord and Mttstf-r. The dofi- 
triDii rinwt of tlio eenvorted Armenians 
■nnd, IB gcnffsl, womlerfully elear : which 
wii Uir morr snrprisin;*, considering the im- 
■en» nblnsh nf Mip«"mtilion and crmr that 
offinally eTn-tiniUn^l Ibcir minds. The ttan- 
4».'^ ■'• the rcfonnntion in Europe- 

la^' .CO alone, williout the dewli of 

lieu* -/.Ai Ti-ually the ^nr.\\. ceutrul Inith, 
iMifflifi-th fMleil bv Tbijr swakened and intpiir- 
bf Ourni, and maili: ihc ground of luitiAfuctury 

«e nomtfer of inrpircr« Bt«Mlily increow.'d. 
HdiMkol Drurly all whucolli'd npon the nnR- 
WBirici, came fur Ihe avowe«I purpose of roli- 
tfNlwtiTcrealion. TIic .*tory had been very 
fcfotrinit!«?y rin-nlalMl, «-qi» riolly during the 
pn^- • the Amencoiis were a nation 

rf 1 int even th'^ f^'rm "f ri'ligiou : 

iBd ILj.1 !' L,M--;nM:j-;i- '■. ■■to Con- 

rot lUI tie \--\ ■ III. II lid only 

^ilvniktl at lii^i \u l>fiifY<.- ; .>' i<i>>:''.<rO ns the 
Mra tmiily tn dmw peopK: int'> tlifir ?aaivs ; 

•d '" r- 'I ■ ♦ •' ■ (heir VTiitors 

Ai-t . to know ex- 

irtJj ...^ .-.c matter; and 

VMmt vc Iwru auy ehnrchea in America,! 



and vbothor any namber of pt>nn1o evor na&cm- 
blc for worebip on the Sttbt>ath: 

Before the end of the war 1H.|0, a room in 
the busineai quarter of the city, for receiriii 
visitorw, and for conference on religions vx^ 
jeets, wag procured and kept ojicn on t-sro 
stated days of each week, and jrradually be- 
cunic a place of much resort for rcHgioas 
intiniry. 

Abuut the same time, the book dcposltoiy 
wa** removed to the heart of the city ; and in 
the most ]mblic manner the prortuctai of ilie 
pn'ss, so latclv anulhcmatizcd by the Pair!- 
nrch, were dady twdd by an npent. wlii» wu« 
himself an Armenian. More tfian tlinv hiiu- 
dred dollars' worth of books, in the different 
languages, wore told at Coostiuitinoplc during 
the year 1840. 

A weekly meeting in the Armonion tan- 
gnage, commenced by Mr. Dwiorlil in th* 
autumn of 1839. with ouly three uidivlrluaK 
and that privately, for fear of the jK-rgccntora^ 
pmduidly iucn'uped, and tH'fore the etiil of 
iS40, it was held twice a week, publicly, and 
more than 25 di^^rcDt individuals had at> 
tended. 

November 24, 1840, a boarding-school for 
Armeulan boya and vexing men wns opened at 
R^bek, on the BoBplioroft, nuder the tiupiTin- 
tendeiice of Mr. Hamlin, with three pnpIlK, 
and within about a week, apnlicationn hud 
bei^n mnde for 15 boarding pciiolar*, thnagh 
their means, at first, w<rnld allow them to re* 
ccive only 12. An effort wm soon made to 
crash tho infant peminary, thon^ it ]>roved 
entirely futile, and wua m itself not a little 
Iitdlcn'ma. A deputation from the village 
of Pobek it'jcif, consisting of the Armenian 
priest, two Oreek prie«itE, one of the village 
ruleni, and several of the inhabitants, colled 
upon the Armenian Patriarch, and expressed 
tujiim their deep regret that such a dangep* 
^ iiiuu as Mr. Hamlin should bo allowed to 
reside in their quarter. Tbey accused liim of 
eating meat, eggs, butter, milk, ic, Iwth in 
Lent and also on Wednesilay?* nnd Kriilays, 
the days of their weekly fast I He also taiig^tt 
\ih scliolors that it i^ no mon* wicked to cat 
butter than oil ; or meat than bread ; or eggs 
than olives I Another urievous offenw was, 
that neither Mr. H. nor Ihis ^cholarn mmle tho 
sicii of the croai ; nor wortthijwd the Virgin 
Mary, or the soint« ! Of ciwirw, they wid. be 
mnflt be a ctmfirmed infidel, aud Im can tcuch 
nothing better in bis Khool than the works 
of Voltaire! The Pntrtnrrh wiw twi well 
informed, and (oo well diftpusei), to bn movpd 
by such an application; and the petitioners 
had leavo to withdraw. 

I>nrinp the mimlh of June, 1S40, Mr. Hnin- 
Itn and Mr. T>w(ght vlpitcd Nicome<ll;i. The 
brethren there were sorely threatened, during 
tho reign of violcneo at tho eopitui, but no 
aerioiu jjcrsecutioa wo« actually attemplod. 
They had had little *pirit«al aid or comfort 



134 



ARUENIAKS. 



from abroad. Thev hid been thrown npon 
tkeir BiHe^ for ri*lVi<^°f> teaching, and upon 
the Holy Spirit for their MpoiiiKlrr of rcli- 
gioQ<( truth, am) cpon God as their only 
protector ; &ii<l the^ had grown rapidly iii 
Kuowk'd^i} and in^cc The mtsBionaricB sat 
with tlit-TD, I'll the Sulitmth, eonTcreing of the 
Ihinjrs of God, for ten hoars, ocd so intcnao vas 
thfir interest that they would have sal for Icn 
hour* more. 

^VhiIl■ they were there, a Btrangcr from a 
ncitfhborinjr town, a nicrchant, Iwing in Nico- 
mcdiA on basiuc^, hud thp curiosity to call 
npon them, ile said thnt the report of them 
hud rcoehed hia pluw Ihrongh tlie PntriarchV 
lettor of warning, and that he, id common witJi 
many of his brethren, was verr anxious to know 
what this now wiiy was. I^hey exphiined to 
him tlieir vine's and (ravo hiiu a copy uf the 
New 'IVatameiit in the modern Armenian, and 
ftko several tracts, and he took his leave, cx- 
pKSHing hi» hiffh ^mlifu-atitm with the inter- 
view. In this way waa the knowledfjo of the 
gnepel first cstrrie*! to Ailahnzor, the repidenre 
of tiiM individual. II is situated abont 27 
miles directly eai>t of Nicomedia. 

The reaction after iho peTfleeulidn, wm not 
confined to (he (rapitnl. In lirftai and Tn'hi* 
■ond the demand for books increased, and there 
were some who (rave evidenee of beinp truly 
CDitvertiMl ; and even at the new atatiun at 
Breriim there were Hipns of proini-te. 

The Ker. H. J. A'un I^-nnen waa connerird 
with the Smyrna statinn durmg April, 1840. 
The labors (if the missionarie? here were ehietiy 
tlmiugh the press, and during the year 1840 
more Ulan six million8 of pa^eR were printed 
in the Armenian and Armcuo-TurkiBh lan- 

Saoffe? alone. The moi^t important work in 
le latter woa the Pentateueh, translated under 
Mr Go'jdi'H'K i-upervittioti. Its publication wuh 
haili-d with joy by nniltitudea. The Armeniaas 
of Smyrna also ctitabliiihed a jircsii, and p^ 
Uahed a nowBpnper. ^ 

The year 1841 opene<l with many indico* 
tions that a thorou^rh reforniaUon was going 
forward in the Armenian community. A very 
marked diffl'renee waa observed in the pcueral 
style of preachinjT in the Armenian churches 
it tho capital. There vob a ^rowin^ dctiire 
to atady tlie Bcriptnreg, and a ditipusitinn to 
compare every doctrine and practice with the 
written word ; and thit* could not, with safety, 
he di.sr^ard<ii. It wa:* not an uncommon 
thiii(» to n(*-ari>r?ermonson repentance, on tlie 
Sabh&th. nij the Jiulj^cnt day, Ac, alto^^ther 
biufe<l npon tlie Bible : nnd, in some instances, 
the preachers hniTowed hu-jjely from the publi- 
catioiLs of the niiasionnries lor their niulerials ; 
and they had re]t(?ate<l upplicalioim to furnish 
matter directly If.r swrmous, for one of the 
most respectable vartalKNla in CouBtantiuopIe, 
Another of the vurtahcds weut so for even 08 
to rnmliat the prevailing error ofRulHtituting 
Mary and the saints as mediators for Christ, 



declaring that the name of Christ is the i 
one given under heaven, itmong men, whe 
we can be Favtvi. ■ 
Ait the reformation advanced, instances i 

Sungent conviction of ino, and a string ; 
eep apprehension of spiritual things b«8 
more common than had before been noticed. 
Some persona of infamous character became 
the subjcetii of an entire change, so that many 
of tiiofif. who were without, were constrain 
to epeak of the change as moet wondcrfl 
The converted brethren aitso, with scarcely i 
exception, appeared to bo growing in grai 
and in the knowledge of Jesas Christ., and 1 
an nctivL- zi^at for the salvation of others. 
Priest Veitaness was fall of activity 
hope. Almost every day h« brought 
ofsorno new and intirtwling case of inquiry 1 
some part of the city. Ilia whole time* 
occupied in poing from house to house. 
the spring ftf lt>41, a re|K)rt came to ~ 
tinopio thai a number of Armenians in Nico* 
media wore about going over to the J«t;uiij»; 
and the Patriarch commissioned tliis >ame 
priest Vrrtaness to eo there with all sjk 
and endeavor to bring them back to t] 
mother church. Thus iv>rtilied by a roinmll_ 
ftion from the highest power, he had perfi-iMJy 
free access to every family in the Armcniau 
community in that town. He was quite m 
iHMdful in the object of liis mission, and wfav 
he heartily and faithfully obeyed the Palriar ' 
and etideavon^d to pi'n;uadi; men not to so" 
themj>elvi« to fall into the clutches of Ron 
he also labored still more zealously to br 
them to a sense of their situ; against God. t 
to a hearty recepliun of ChriHt aJone, as 
piavioor of their ponK His visit was a gi 
comfort to the brethren in Nicomedia, u' 
a» an advantage to the cause at large. 

I n Adabazar ruy-utar meetings for prayvr 1 
reading the fcjcriptores, werLMield every T 
bath, and I'mm 2r> to fiO were iiimally ]>rt;sen 
One of the pritsts seemed to have bt-como oh 
dient to the faith. A handbill Inw-t, cuulaifl 
ing sinijtly The ten coniniandmcnt^, in 
modem tongue, without note or comment,! 
the means of opening many eyes to see 
folly and sin of |)iclure worship. One 
prtiviou.'^ly there could not prol>ubly have 1 
found a single soul, among the 4.000 Ar 
iiian inliAbitauts of Adabazar, who was no 
groping in tlic deepest spiritual darkness. No 
two scores or more were convince*! of the i 
rors of their Chorch, and ready to take 
Biblo as their only religious guide, and sere 
appeared to be truly converted men. and wc 
willing even to loy down their lives for (" 
All thi[< took place Iwfore any miag^ona 
vi}*ited them. In the autumn of 184f 
Schneider, in compliuiiee with their oft-rewa 
ed invitations for a mieisinnary to visit tii«a 
went to Adabiixar. and retumwl from 
visit with the larist cheering inipre>«ions, tki 
what had been done was truly the work 



AEMKNlAh'S. 



18IS 



QoA'* 8pMt. A ^irit of iaqniij vu fouDcI 
to ■- '-'If throDj^h many of the 

ati. 

In L>uu*tiiDimt.'[iie a mo«t sinfular stale nf 

ttngl cxutotL 'file Patriarch was personally 

— " -'f-'to^wi towBriLi the livanpelirnl p4irly, 

liy DO meaiia a dcriilt^I rrlvim, uk) 

• ..■i.(..I l.v rhe bunkera. liis Vicar, 

; rsTich ha bocflmc, though 

i. probably not mnch of a 

II miviuiufi;, \im InutH^itn'itig and 

' ''iinuiup. A strong portion of the 

'•' in fttvnr of n coango of Po- 

a mo8t rfwly uieaua of accom- 

objf-'ct, they pjirt'ai] the story 

Lt •Stt'jNto, the occupant of the 

■■■ant. and wud ifluyintf Into 

-ii.nmrits. Ajau evideoce 

i.i.ud triumphftnlly to ttie Scm- 

\, conaistiiift ttUuirelhor of Ar- 

:\Qf} yet their pareiita were not 

■ kifp them nt home. It was oecee- 

'lie]>oor i'atriurch to Uo BUDiething. 

.>r feumnKHied before him a ]iriv»t 

lymcn, who had children thertv aad 

lold them t<i remove thuir boys ; but 

licm iiht to epf-iik about it in public 

iif |>r«-Ht olK-'ye<1. but after a few days, brou^t 

Ui wy back. The Vienr again ordered him 

ti idDOTe hli child, lie aen'm ohc}'ed, but 

fMnTttan>CTl biin as I)efure. i'biijWUK rf|H'ut- 

dbwor fiv(? times. At length thti schtHii 

»■ Tiihintaj ily suspendwl for a lew vrwks ; 

tt4 tbea went dd more prosperously than 

A flfrre fjnarr^I soon broke out between 
ft- ■ tnulosmen, in rttfereuce 

cL 1 niUmanagenient of the 

pwwiiMfy alluifb C'l their ndlege at Scfttary, 
vUcli Uf)t the whole coinmuuity in a Rtate 
<(iotcnM i'Jicitfment atui ofrilatlon for many 
VMithij and, in the mean time, the mintion- 
nuand the native brethren were left to pros- 
tMf their luUirs ^umllIe^ti■d. The reul tuuse 
rflLii fiiiiliin- is to \n} tracoil to the domiiieer- 
W lue of the bankers, to whose 

ir-- i.l.', the inerrti.«iu)yr intelligence 

4f Ue tradesiiMni was Icoehiui; them uo longer 
flrietJy to submit. The latter (facci*eded in 
ptttntK the uppoinintenl, by the jKXiple. of 
■ ftMDnlttpn of cfmuMillont, conRiating of 24 
pnoo», to whom eierr question of importance, 
f8rt*iabp to tJie buttiueas matters of the Ar- 
•bum I'oiimtunity. wu« to be referred. After 
t Ivie^ intiTTal of repose, a list of eharge»:, 
VUck liad tM-en made out by the united c0brt£ 
ifnasoTlho bankers, and i^umc of the clergy, 
n«t*''Kntj.] by the Patriarch to the Porti, 
•r- 1 men ; one of which was, that 

Ur- rhe pl:m of placing; themselves 

•iKl r'flfctinu of Rutuio, 

u, the Turks! The 
'hrowii into prison. 
I of it. ihey ruslifd 
bluiH' 1 •i-e. 10 iho DUinbcr of from 



4 Ui 6.000. ud called uyton the Grand Ybdr 
cither to release their rcpreeeututivca, or im- 
prison them all. ThtsodiccrreplM Uiat thoir 
nwn bankerbnnd Patriorc-h were their aecuBrra. 
'i'he peojile exclaimed, '• ^Vc do not ackuowl- 
cdge the authority of our bunki^D or dtirgy ; 
we ore subjects of the Sultan." It aoon Uy 
came evident that the trtie policy of the gov- 
ernment W8« to yield, and the prisoners wcro 
acconlinffly releoaed. The people then do* 
mandeil the iniroediatc removal of the Patri- 
arch. Upon thid the bt^hojM and vartabeds 
were all summoned to the Porto, and the 
tradesmen were calletl upon to select from 
amoog them the one they would prefer aa Pa^ ^ 
triarch. The reply wtia, "We will have doo» i 
of these men; they are idl alike bud men ; 
men who live bv extorting mouey from the 
poor Tteople. Wo want none of them. We 
will lake time to consider the matter." I'he 
QHst>mbly was then dirimisse>il, and the c-lergr 
vent away in dif^frucH'. As they po-sseil lhri*ii)(n 
the crowd, remarks like the following were 
heard from the llpn of the people : " There go 
our opprc88ora !" "Whoever goes with tlicm 
KOee to dcEtruction V *' Let no man step bis 
foot ofain in the Armenian Church, uu the 
peril of his salvation, so long as these men are 
there 1" ''Behold the di-eeivers and n>bbera 
of the jioople!" For some days afIi:rwurdH, 
the wickedneai of the clergy was a Ruloei't of 
universul remark. Muny 5aid, ** We tiiou^ht 
that 8tepan, (uir present Patriarch, was one 
of the best of them ; and we called him a dove, 
but he has proved to be a raven. Ho has be- 
trayed his people into the hundi of the Mo> 
hammedunsl if he is the IksI, what must the 
otliers tM!?" 

This struggle continued for several moulhi^ 
each jjarty alternately triumphing, and eath 
niinbing, until at lut^t a [fcremplory ordor was 
i&4ued by the Sultan, that the bulligerent* 
should f'irtbwilh make peace, am) that a cer- 
tain uiimber of men bhuulj bo regularly clKiben, 
to be aswxial<--d willi the I'alriarch iu adminia- 
tehug the uSairs of the community. Hatiee- 
ouently it was arranged that two ccuumilttios 
snoold be appoiated, one for ecclesiastical, and 
the other tor secular mattcni, and the I'atri* 
ureh be the clialrmau of each ; and tliiij order 
of things ^till prevails. 

The Patriarch, Stepon, was soon removed 
from oQice, and an the people and buiikas 
could not agree upon any of the prominent 
candidates, tner selected an obscure old bi^^hop, 
by the name of AadiladzadlU', who hiul ulwa^ 
been aa eccentric character, aod was now in 
hu dotage. This aUo was so overruled as to 
work mightily for the spread of the truth in 
the land. Such was tlie peculiar inldity and 
eupriciouiiiiosd of this man, that n'>body wi^cd 
to go to the Patriarchate for any purjHx^e, cx- 
repl through dire necessity. Everybmly secot- 
t d to feel that the Ic^ they hod to do with their 
Patriarch the better. And when any thing 



1$6 



ARMENIANS. 



■ 



was (uitl iiliont the need of adopting tijtoroiiB 
moasam to check the spread of Protcsluntisai, 
the replr nsoaUy was, " What docs that coo- 
cern as 7 Let vvvrj man do ns he likes." 

The Vicar of the now rfllriorch waa one of 
those ejtikHj for rrYJtestanlib-m, in the year 
18:19. llo was foniuTly a.ting bishop otTro- 
bizoix], uik) llien-. beuuoc prtliy thoroughly 
enIii,'hli'nod as to the errors of his Charcb. 
Uuj cjcaltatioD t" the office of PatriurrhV Vi- 
car. wuA IL3 uD('\[iect(o<l to him ob it wiu to the 
miwionQrin; nnd to tlic cvongc-l ical brethren 
f^LTolly : anJ that also woa of God. Otily 
a ^hort'time prci-ioiiji he bod applitxl to llie 
mission for fniploymcnt hi ibe rMXik-makiiig 
ck'ii;vrlim*nl. 

The brethren wen? still exempt from peree- 
nition, thouph they did not rest from pi-ayer 
and Ub«/r. Tlicy wa!ke>J " in the fear of the 
lior<l and in tlioVonifdrt of the Holy Ghost," 
and - were multiplied.'' It was a i)eriod of 
quiet and steady inereose to the church. There 
was (tinoDg the native brelhren, a very delight- 
ful increusi; of itpiriiiiality of mind, oud an 
ejttraordinary spirit of prayer. Thcr often as- 
sembled in small circles to ask for God's bleesa- 
\n^ on the means of gruce ; and oflcD, after 
sennon on the Sabbath, wonld Bcrerol of tltcm 
remain, in order to have a season cf social 
prayer. If thev found any individual in the 
congregation giving indiealions of ppecial f4<- 
rionsscsw, they did Dot fail to stop, oud con- 
Tcno and pray with him. 

The year 1842 was distinguinhrd fur the 
special presence of the Holy Spirit. The 
whole city of Constantinople was filled with 
ramors of " the new doctrines," and they form- 
ed the topics of discussion in almost nil uascro- 
blies of Armeniann. The mindfl of gome were 
wonderfully wrouf^ht upon. The tjuniphth.'jw 
and pny became sober and praycrfur; the 
worldly bwame ^irttnally minded ; the prond 
beenme meek and lowly ; opposcrs and pcTBC- 
cutnr.H were diwrmed, anil a few were tratiw- 
formcd into decided friends and helitera 
Priofttj and vartabedit, and even monks, were 
obedient to the fDith; of which the misRioa- 
orieB give in detail HOme most interesting in- 
sUdccs. 

The roal of the Armenian Christian breth- 
ren, in endeavoring: to ealifrhten nnd reclaim 
their own countrymen, whether far or near, 
was one of their moat striking characteristio). 
In the summer of 1842, several of them met 
in a retired sjiot among the hills that tiurround 
the capital, and after unitiug^ in praver for the 
gnidance and bk'ssinfj of the Holy tSpirit, they 
resolved to &cnd forth one of their number, at 
tboir own expeiuv, on a missionary tour among 
tho Armenians in the interior of Asia Minor. 
The individual H-lected for this scnice was 
priest Vertancss, who readily accejited the 
call, aud soon proceeded on his way. It was a 
tour attended with many good nsult& 

Nor did Ihcy forget the claims of uther races 



around them, who were living in i^o 

the Gospel. "With the Jews especially, thfj- 

hod almost daily conversation in reference t^ 
the one only Saviour, Je«us Christ ; and ihi* 
was the mon^ remarkable, since theni could 
scarcely be found among the other cloasa oT 
people in Turkey, any other feeling than thst 
of contempt for the outcast cbildivn of Abn- 
ham. 

There was also a Tery marked incr«ftso oE 
interest and religions inquiry among females. 
Hitherto the importriut element of female influ- 
ence had Invn in n great measure wanting in Iba 
reformation. The can** of this waa two-fold ; 
first, the estremc ignorance and consequent 
bigotry of the female portion of the ptipalution* 
th^e never having been the l«v«t provision for 
their education ; and, secondly, the diOleuliy of 
access to them, and of their availing themselves, 
even when disposed, of the privileged of the 
gospel, owing to the peculiar cnst«m8t>f';<'ii<*^ 
in the Ensl respecting th0 8(?el»«ion ol" 
The priests, from their official charade t . i ■ 
fcfisors. liovc free access to the females uf iho 
community. The pious priests were not back- 
ward in availing thcmseU'cs of this pnvilegti 
and chiefly thronch their instrumentality, io 
the years 1B42 and l^AH, several of the Anne> 
nian females became deeply interested in relig- 
ious concerns, and some fcw pare evidence of 
being truly eonvcrtwi. From that time thej 
l^Cffan to form a jtart of the regular vi^itore, 
and some few became n^gular attenduutit at On 
preaching service in the Seminary. About 
the same time Mr. Dwighl opened a week-day 
preaching service in .^jmcoia, eicluaively for 
females. 

The distrilintion of the pubKcattoDs of Ac 
jireas became an important branch of labor, 
and nuite snfReient to occupy the best part (J 
one man's time. Mr. Homes was designated 
to this porticolor work, and be soon found that 
in connection with his other labors, be was 
fully and most luw-fully employed. There wm 
a constantly inrreoHing liemand for books, BO 
that by the spring of 1H4H, it was impowiblt 
to procure a supply from the press and ofoddy 
in Smyrna, with the limited funds they bad, to 
meet seasonably all the ordera tliat'eune in. 
Eight or ten book.scllers at the eajdlal mat 
kept constantly supplied, and tho products of 
the ijress were also sent to almi«t every part o( 
the interior, even into RuHila, Georgia, and 
Tersia. An Armenian archbishop near Odcoes, 
on receiving some of these, cjijjressed the great- 
est jov ; and remarked that they ought to be 
gratcml towards those who were engaged in 
preparing such cscellenl books for their coub- 
trymen. More than 4O,U00 volumei; and tmcii 
were issued from the .Smyrna depot to the dif 
ferent stations, during the veor 1842. Hn 
translation of the whole Old TestuHot intt 
the Anneoo-Turklsh language, to which Mr 
Goodell had devoted his undivided attention onj 
streogth for many years, was happily comp 



ARMENIANS. 



137 



ntiw* 1th of Xavnobor, 1841, ind waa pab- 
■t ^jmjrmft. in tbt? itpring or 1B42 ; aod 
the mA of tlie fiilluwiiijt winter, the re- 
at the New Tc«tUniciit \a the same Uo- 
WM also fiuisho\l br Mr. <joo(lcll, and 
tmufaitiua publubi'ci Aad ^T it^ side any 
pheaii an editioo of the Nuw Togtumcnt in 
Mdrrn Anaonian, publUhcd ahout tlio 
time in Smmuk, urcriacJ bv Mr. Adgvr. 
'Stan uf loe latter vork w&« defrayed 
British and Forci^ Biblu tSi>cU'tT, 
liiat of tlie fijrinifr camt^ from the Anicri> 

Society, 
of Ike must striking: traits of the ro- 
Ami«-tuatis ift, thuir ffvertuo) iiud 
m1 uf God. Some liave bt'cu 
[J uil uighl to reud and tctmly the 
when it wai; Grst furaisl^ to thfitu in 
■IriUgible huieuiige; and the prevailing 
laira of all aeemefT to be, to andur»taod what 
leacha through his >Vflnl, and to cunform 
'Wkf and pnuticu whully to his teacb- 
Jl diatini^mabed Arini?nian having pnb- 
& book against rrotc«ituiituim, under the 
aad at the expeosu of the Jesuits, tho 
of the Palriarcii couduinued the proa.*- 
admitted that there vt-r*: u-rore in their 
ttei^ and «ud tlut thU Ixjok would call lortli 
ann from the miwonarics, which nould cx- 
iw^HOe HTon to the |joopte. 

Th» •nniuary still sorviTed all the shocia it 
Mrivid b«m the jcalotuy and hatred of iU 
MaiflL For several months the moKt vigriroiu 
tfalft nve made by bankent. priivM, vorto- 
MiiadbMbops. GRMcially those who wen* 
Mdufforio^ to uphold the Scbtar>- Colicire, to 
■■fcOw twlitution; when In: ' 'iry 

MoKvas olowd iii Kpile <>f ni j l^ 

A| ub Bunoa dcmiuarv ilill li< lu Limi u-^ur- 

tla Rot. a. W. WckkI, who arrived at Cod- 
^ntiaoptv vith his wife, in the summer of 
l^lTCt BMurlaUv] with Mr. Hamlin in the 
■naillkai of the onninftry. the number of 
*Mn faallig 2S. all of 'whom b<>anUil tn 
it lieeid*^ the incalcniably 
hnunair nf enrh nn inslitutinii on 
i" [1 in Turkey, it 

it.- :i\e*i »8. an ob- 

. of »iUa/ii. 11 i(» \i-iT(.i--. ilniwirtg Ibfm 
vitilhi the mond of the ^'tf|H.'l. and iliorU'. t>^>o, 
tftanof a ciaa thul couU uol lie induced to 
fq fer Initncttoo to the nri ^'ttt^ hrHue of a 

"*0 of IhsMC wha wnv numbortHi witli tlic 








l)i'- iii|fril;i!t of IM'J, 

■u bi'injf 

, Htrald. 

ibli'neaB. 

.it Ian of 
' hi- Anni nian 
■» artb bishop) 

I r"i'-.i^rii I -"i"p"il f'hTirch. 

ir atlfulit'ii I ' til' I " 1'- ' i\nd 
<ttra^rraph» aiiuOcU lo ivf Uiem, 



i^m 



neither of tb<*iii bciag aoqoaiatod vith tho 
Knpligh lanipjatre. 

The work prognnstd also at tho inl 
stations. But •lucetav, as nsnnl. avnknneil 
oppositioD ; and an enlightened prii:!t, nl. Krs- ] 
r&m, who hod begun to preach the tnitli lo bia 
people, was eo^nded from oflict. and basti- 
nadoed by the bishop with his own hands, 
Thcsuflvrer, after counting *J.'> blows, t^woouod 
away, and in thin; condition vm bound with a 
chain, and thrown into prison. whL>ro be ro^ 
mained till the next morning. After being 
releatted, he told Uie bishop, in the pn*enee of 
witnn^ci), tlut he i^hould continue to read and 
t^-och the gospel. This some biahop was imce a 
fieriotis iu(|uirtr, and evcu mflbred peT^srnlioB ( 
for rrotwtantino. He waa one of thr cjciloa 
in 1639 ; but, gincc his restoration to power, 
he has been a hitler and violent persceulor. 

The Provideiiee of (itnl wondprfnlly fovorcd 
the brethren in Adnbuzor. In the hpring of 
IK4'J. the Tartiiljoil gave them formal permis- 
sion to meet pvcry Bubbath dav in n private 
bou-so, for pra}"cr and reading tLe b'l'riptnrw ; 
and there wore lUiually from '25 to hti pri-sciit* 
Kucmit-.i tbey ntill lm*l, however, who were I 
Klwa3-8 walehfid for opp<>rt unities of thwarting 
an*l distrt^fcing them. A vi^it from the bishop 
of the dioccw, — tho cx-patrioreb Sti-jMUi. — in 
the s[jring of 1813, socmod to ofTor such ao 
opportunity. It was represented to him that 
a new sect lia<l (Sprung up among them, which 
liiul embraa^i very strange and hereti«il no- 
(ioii<t,and was sprending its poison in all direc- 
tion!), lie Umik down the names of the lead- 
ing men of this Bo-ealled iJ«M;t, whom he after- 
wards summoned before him, and a^Ued th«m 
to give an at-eoiint of Ibeui'^-lvert. They ro- 
plie*l tbot tiM'y had not separated themselvca 
iWmi the Armenian Church, but that they ro- 
ceive^l the Scripturea us the only rule of faith 
and praelice ; that thi-y tried to keep holy the 
Habbuth day ; lliat they endeavored to nfraln 
from lying, ^wearing, and blasphemy, and in 
all thinj^g to fallow strictly the rulea of Christ. 
The bisuop. after questioning them i<ti]| far* 
ther, for liis own satisfaction, decided that 
there wa5 uo fault in them at rdl in IhU mat- 
ter, and, cipr<ssing the wisli that all the Ar- 
menian.'! would do the ^ame, dismisBud them. 

At N ieomedia, the work received a new im- 
polse in 18-12, wlien the attGndonec on « 
weekly prayer-meeting waa saddcolv increased j 
from six or eight to 10 or 50. ilany miadB 
were in an inquiring state. Opposition was 
maile. but the lii^bop gave a decu^ion similar 
to that he had given at Adubnzar, and (mb> 
liely charged his people to abstain from med- 
dling with tlwBC men. The awakening infln- 
encra of the Uoly Spirit wore abin felt in 
r!mvTnn to some extent, as in almost every 
part of the Anaeniao field. 

In 1H4H, a young Armenioii, who hod, in aa 
unguarded moment, embraced MoluLmmedau- 
ism, and afterwards rctumed to his former 



188 



ARBCENIANS. 



profcfiftioQ, was publicli^ bcbeodod in ibo streets 
of Constjuitinople, in upptx^ilJon to the rcmoih 
fltrances of Sir Stratfunt Cftnrnnjr. the Hntii^h 
sninutCTr ; in consequence of which, that pcu- 
UeniuJi. in behalf of oisgOTcrDUient-. and backed 
by the French. Prussian, mid Ilu.'wiuii imihaf**iv 
doR.dcimuidcii from iJje Sultana wrilten plitl^'C 
llmt no |)ernon who had cnibrnccd Ibc Muhniu- 
nieiluu religion, nnd aftc-nvfmls rctDrncd to 
i1lirri!tia.nity, choiild. on tliat account, be pot to 
death. Tb'o Torks vielded, through ucecHsity. 
after holding out (or Kcveral wetthft. and tlie 
pledge required wsii ^i^'i^tit sif^ned by the Sultan 
nimaelf, tne conceded latcrprctation of which 
ia, that heooeforth, ^o rxnaox suuui.d ue rKH- 
ucuTKii rOB ms rslioiovs orusiohH jh Tvk- 
KSY. tSo plainly waa tbe fing«r of God mani- 
feel in this vrhofe transaction, that His Excel- 
lency, Sir Ftratford Canning, afterwards dis- 
tinctlT acknowled^red that God atone had 
done It, and added, that to hiiu it seemed lit- 
tie }vs9 than a niirncle. Xo nfference was 
made, in these procittdinga. to the ]_)enwcutc<l 
poopic of God in iTnrkcy ; yet, in thu indirect 
way. the fonndation was laid for their full eu- 
joyinrnt of rdipiimtf liljerty. 

Ihiriiifir the winter of 1843--4, the stations 
In Turkey were favored witli a visit from the 
Et!V. Kufita Anden^vn. D.U., Secretary of (lie 
AintTicuu iliiani of CouiMiisyiniifrs for Foreign 
Missions, and the Rev. Joel llawes, D.D., a 
cortwrale memlH.'r of the Board. An oppcrr- 
tniiiiy WU3 thu« niTnrdcd for full coruniltations 
on varioiw siibjtHiti*, liaviug a jiractical bearinc 
on the mi.'wionary work, the rcsidta of which 
clearly attostc-d the expediency of the meiLsure. 
An im[M>rtant change followed in reference to 
one department of labor, 'llie mii^iion to the 
Greeks in Turkey waa nl>andono<l. Mr. Uipp*. 
of Smyrna, and Mr. I^add, of Briisa, hilberto 
laboriiV exclosivelj in thia department, now 
gnre them&clrcs np to the work amooff the 
A rniei 1100-1, Mr. Benjamin, of Athens, joined 
tlie station at Trchizond, with a view to the 
BOiuc Udd. Mr. Calhoun removed from SmjTua 
to Syria, and Mr. Temple, much to the rcgrt-t 
nfall who km^w him, returui-d lu America, as. 
at the ujL,'c uf ftfty-ftmr, it would not have Ih-'cii 
wise for him to attempt the acquisition of a 
new nnd diHicult lan^ruage. 

From IH13 to 1>I6, Uiere was no long 
I>oriod of exemption frnm persecution, though, 
throughout the whole tidd, the spirit of inquiry 
and discuBfiion wonderfully ypreud, and belicv- 
era were* multiplied. On the whole, there wiw 
a very decided increase in the aizo of the cou- 
grit^;itlons on the Snbhath, though, both at 
Trebiiioud and Erzriim, it became neeesiiarv, 
during a portion of the time, to euapeud pub- 
lic worship, on account of the htistiliLy of the 
hierarchy. There was, IndtHjd, Hueli a hunger- 
ing for tbe Word, as has prf>bab]v been rarely 
witnesscii in thia world. Family worship — 
oonni&ting of nwling the Scrlptwcs and 
prayer in the rul^or tongue, was cstabliahed 



in many hooseholds ; and often did the i 
come from femidcs, living in different qu 
of the city, that mcctingH might U; opened! 
their neighborhood expressly for the wo 

To meet the wantet >.>f the times, and ia oti 
dieiice to what peenicd plainly to be o _ 
drntial intimation, a female eeminaiy 
uptnetlat I'cra in the autnmn of 1645. 
wan kfpt in the honsc of Mr. GoodeU,^ 
whoso family the pupils boarded, and MiM T 
veil, who had arrived from Ameriea for 
purpowi the preeedirip Hjiring, took charge <| 
the cdueatioiiul department. The aou 
opened with eight scholars, which were 
many as conld tfarai Lc sostained by tbe fiu 
though znany parents were sadly duNipptrfii 
when they were told no more coulo be 
ceivc-d. 

In the aatumn of 1844. the Patriarch, 
di'iiulzadi'ir. re:i-lgTie«i his offiw. and Matl 
fomu'rly bi-'^lmp of Briisa, but then of Smy 
was a^ipointed in his jdaoo. The former,] 
fore his re&lgiiation. became more and r 
opi-nly inlolOTant towards ProtestaDtism. 
his onlerH, priest Vertanns wbs again subjc 
to persecution, being divested of nis office i 
into pri«>n, and ufterwardi! ruddy banis'' 
Tbe new Patriarch waa a vacillating 
well couvincodof the errors uf hiB Church, i 
sometimes upnearing to favor r<*forin. Init 
tremoly afraid of olleodin^ the portv that w^ 
strongcat for the time being. F^^'htiinaljiij 
rtpn-iic-nti.Hl him ns a man of enlightcnod i " 
hut without principle, and alwaj? gorcroedl 
what he considered the prevailing opiuiousi 
wishes of those whom he dcsirol to 
" In short," said the teacher, " he is just 
an empty cistern. If yon put yonr ht^ to 1 
mouth and say boo, the cistern says 600; if 3 
nay Itah, the cistern answers tnih." Matte 
a man of more than common ubility an 
shrewdness^ nnd withal exceedingly plausible 
in his manner, and deep in his schemes. 

Soon after he came mto iiowcr, many ofl 
evangelical brethren called npon him ; 
in ulxidit-ncc to custom, and others by 1 
invitation. To all he munifested a friend 
STiirit ; and professed to bo in favor of cdnQ 
tiOii and even of reform, and opptwed to [ 
cutiou. He was, however, exceedingly 
ious that both the missioDaries, and the " Bit 
meu" iu the Armenian community 
" keep still," and avoid all " agitation." 

Tbe position of the Patriarch was a na 
diOicttlt one. The eucmics of the tmtik 
clamorous for some decisive measures whij 
should effectually check the alarming temleufl 
to Pnthtitantism. 'J'hi-y would neithtT allti 
their Patriarch to let the matter rest, nor I 
make any compromise- Already had the 
port gone abroad that MotteoK lumhielf yiaa\ 
ProtiMtaut. And in sober truth he knew < 
doubtless acknowledged to his own soiU. 1 
the Piotcstautd were riglit and his own Ofaa 
wrong. But he knew well, that the 



^^ 



ABMENlANa 



139 



VMildi ind KnflacDce !o the Armc^nian 
iwty TTM on the other side. He wna 
; ood now that be hwl utUintx! tu 
pi«l iu bis uatioo, he was rcsolvcil 
it. lie fouuil the evangelical Itrclh- 
IcB di^XMOd to yield in nmltcra of 
oooBcienco, than luso^^ii indifli'reiuisni 
klm to expect. As the only incjiini or 
]ag himteAt, he Qrmly resolved to wicritlcc 
ProCeatantfL From that momont. all his 
■■ver^ persoDAl and ofBcial. were i.nipliiy(--i) 
■ tbff w)r( t0 enulirato Prutiitnlaiiti'^iii from 
ibr hind. And, iu the persecnliun that fuU 
lurc^l ]l--v. Mr. Dwipht (Christianity revii^i 
m' ■ni,'2\3,)9t&U^ thnt the Rt. 

V« ^ -i-atbgnto, mLssiouary BUhop of 

the .\j:^iruuu Epiacopal Chnrch to the Otto- 
Km 



sn 



HmyiK. nppenreu bcfon! the public as a 
•Umpt iui(l coiinsellnrwitb the Patriarch ; 



Mr. r>. ffnbstjiutiatc!) by extracts from 
pMUhud documents, hearing the bishop's sig- 
flrttitk It is but just, huncver, to :4latt' t)mt 
lit cbsrch tu whiirh Bishop ti. belonged, hoe 
^mvtlfirly repudiati^^l his favorite policy, io 
Ai«DDtbct of Kastcrn ui>»ions. (H« Grten- 

AkBdtt every shopkeeper and artisan in 
Itetiji dopCDds for the chief profits of hi^ bu- 
4tmk upon the ptUronoge of some -nrcalthy 
■d4 iaflB«]tial iDuividnob ; and youoe men es- 
MckDr. barf rery little prL«pect of adraao> 
w ' rM, without the fusislance of 

»>i I'l. The Patriarch, by u skitl- 

Aii tewi'i-iuTt;. threw a large mimbcr of the wl- 
lavM to the go^pet, into the greatet^t diAtresn. 
BilKKtiy dircctt*d all the faithful ainon;^bia 
4Vb ftN^ who Ktood iu the relatioo of patrons, 
0ankr roatomers to any of the evangelical 
lHikm.uleiitly to withdraw their puLrona^ 
T^ c»»5ri (TU iipo was, tliat niiuiy who sopposed 
Ifc-^ ',ur way of obtaininj? a compe- 

IB.: ;..ijnd tiiemsclvej' sntldeuly witb- 

fll tm} Uisaas. Some of thejUJ hud frieud:ii 
^pwroag on them for dully food ; when all at 
Mat, \t aitpc'ftre*] that they bad not the ability 
IB {nrioe for ihtir own wuntjt. And they 
ma fcattd, aLso, that all appeals and remon- 
Ikwm 9tn nselets. anlesd accompanied by a 
yli^lt to withdraw from the preaching of the 
•Hunarifli and ceaK to open their moutlm in 
Iff evofiprcUoal ricwp. Awithcr, and still 
thrvnt^.'iaog' mcasore of opposition was, 

*U Uw prioitH were orderetl to hand over 

tottn Patriarch the nanus of those who did 

aPtttmf U' rt'txtemtm and receive absolution, 

^>tnniunioQ in their rcapec- 

wbo-« conecieoccs were 

1 (and they were K|>eeially 

meatam',) were not able to 

- ■ ' -uiiacof the sapcrsti- 

1. Now, cxcoromu- 

. 'li-»r.}>edicuce. the 

i ^>ral jtoint of 

, Ifcw. : _ . lumnity organ- 

M tikis WM. be very serioiu. There yra» 



a delay, however, in following up Ihia jmrt of 
the plonr perhaps in order to see what would 
bo the result of the other. The experiment 
was to be made tbrougbout the country, ob 
well as in the metro]»oIi!*, aud ordera similar to 
the above were sent to the biehops in theint^ 
rior, wherever Proteatant* were fonml. 

In the miniD time, some few of the ccclusiaft- 
tica themsclvts were showing strong incline 
tioQB towards the crvangelicol side of the ooeO" 
tion. Two or three vartabetls, as well dti\ 
8oiue of the pricsta. had frono flo far on to peivl 
severe. fri>m Subt>ath to Sabbath, in attending j 
the public preaching of the missionaries 
Othcffl wore known to be friendly. Something 
most be done at onro to eheek tbia tendency 
to Proicstantiam among the spiritual guidca 
of the people. Bcdros, vnrtabcd, was the first 
8cleeled to be made an example of. It was 
known through the whole city thnt he had em- 
braced crangelicai views, and the Patriarch, 
08 a test of his opinions, had already (Mrdcred 
Uim to jjerfurm masei on a certain occasion, 
which Itedroe bad declined on conscientious 
gronudit. The I'atriarch now instructed him 
t(9proceed forthwith to a town on the Ku.<«laii 
frontier, ostensibly to tak^hargeof a dioecita 
The real object, however, was, plainly to get 
him into a {Kwltion, from whence he might 
cosily be conveyed as a prisoner to the mmiafr 
t«ry of Kchmiudzin. The rartabed very [n^ 
litely declined the honor of thia appointment, 
and the Patriarch was not then prepared Ut 
resort to force. After some liluc delay, it 
was arranged that Bedros shonltf f>ro<»cd to 
the monastery at Jemsalcro. The Patriarch 
drew up a paiier for him to Rign, in whioli he 
was refjuired to promise that he would perform 
all the rites of the (.'hurcb, and. in all re- 
spects, be obedient to his superiors. This ho 
resolutely persisted in refnain?, on the ground 
that there were many things in the ccrcmo* 
nies of bis Church, which ho could not ooar 
seieutiooaly perform. Uc never got nearer 
Jerusalem titan Iklrfit; from whence he pro- 
ccodcd to Alc|>po and AintjOi. For several 
years he labored iu these towns and their 
vicinity, with great zeal and fidelitv for the 
spiritual good of his coiiQtrynieoi, though in 
trie midst, of many pereecutions^ trials and 
dangers. lie distribatcd laivo onmbeis of 
eraoigelical books, and nrcactied the gospel 
Bacocasfally to many people. Ho was suddenly 
cut off by the cholera iu the autumn of 1S49 ; 
but his end was |>eacc. 

But Priwt Vertanesfl was fairlv in the Pa- 
triarch's bauds, being alreadv a prisoner at the 
monastery of Armash. whither he hail been 
sent by the prccwlitig Patriarch. And this 
priest hail been adding sin to sin, by prcucliing 
t# the uiunks. miMt zealously stid luilhrally, 
Balvotiuu through the blood of Christ alone, 
w ithoiit the deecls of the law. Several of them 
wore awakened and convinced, and some, it 
was hoped, really believed; and word was 



140 



AUMEXIAN& 



brooteht to ConsUQtisopI« that If the Protcs- 
tatil prirst wkb not remoTt^d. all tlic inmatot 
of tho moitastf-ry woult] s<}oq become corrupt- 
ed. An imperial flnnan was forthwith pro- 
carwl (Kebrmirv. 1845.) by MattcxM Patriarch. 
for ihe forlher (anii^limniit of priest VertaDcse 
to Kaidcry (Oesarea.) where Mr. ^>ahakTnD 
hftd been conftned six years before, fur u like 
nAbnoe. While ua bis way tu tbal place, m 
ehnrgo of u Turkinh olliccr, he cverTwhere 
preached the Gospel, for which he wag *' in 
Douds ;" nor conid he, in tlio place of his se- 
cond banishment, cease to make known " Christ 
«Dd him crncified," to all nnt» whom hf- hud 
acc6)W. Id Jnlj of ilie same }'ear. the Hultoii, 
OD the occasion of a ^eat (oa&t, gave orders to 
tuTO all tho exiles in the coontn' set at libci^ 
ly; and Ycrtant«s returned to Comtaotinople 
on the 4tb of AQKnAt. Letters uftern-anlt 
come to the F&triarcli from Kai^ry, sayin^^ 
tliat Vcrtanese had scdaUKl many, and that if 
bo bad romatoed there much ton^, oU woald 
liavi* ^one after him. 

Uefor*^ Ibii*, a highly respectable inhiibitnnt 
of Tn^biicoiid, TateoH by iiutMi\ who Imd been 
m mcmbtir of the AxmentaD municipal coiintil, 
brcame niach intmsted in the study of the 
Ilible. Ik'iiig a man of fiimie pro[i«'rty, be 
woiit on a tour to Corwtontinople, Smyrna, 
Brfisa. Nioomf^io^ and Aikbaxar, .solely for 
the purpose of Iwcomiun acquainted with the 
miwiuuarieH and native brelbren in those 

Slaees, an<l Ktiirniiiii: more of the work of liod's 
|rtrit, 03 well as nf the truths of his Wonl. 
He relumca to Trcbizond, very much strenfftb- 
ODcd in his faith, and quickened in bis zeal for 
the truth. Just before his arrival, tbc moHt 
slringvot mctuuires had hwu adopted to com- 
pel the ovani;elical brethren to aubmit to the 
■C^arch, in obedience to a very ur|»ent dcnnn- 
ciatory letter from tho Patriarcii MtUteos. 
Nearly one-half of the rcputeil ProtcstontA bad 
been mduced to recant, and Ibo perswutinfr 
party, fearini;^. with ROotl reason, tliat the ii>- 
DiHDCO of sQch a man might turn the iicule. 
Rsolved to put him oat ol' the way, with all 
pooBible dcspnich. Accord iiijfly, jujt lu) the 
Btcamcr wtu Icavinfr fur Constant inoiile, bo was 
decoyed on hoard bv gtrata^iu. and mimciiiato- 
ly thniflt down into the hold, and tlirre eonfmed. 
by onbT of tho Turkish poaha, who acted at 
the ia^ti^r;ition of tho Armenian \'artabcd. 
Arrived at lyon<itaiitinopIe, ho was condactcd 
first to the Pairiarcliate, and from thonc<> to 
the Armenian hospital, to be confined in the 
tnad-bou»e, in a nttintr postuni, and fastened 
with two cbaina, one from bis neck to the wall, 
and the otlKT from bin feet to Uw lloor, Ou 
tho Sabbath, tlio eighth day of bta imprison- 
ment, while the Armenian congregation were 
engofrcd iu sinking in the c\m])d in Pera,1ic 
entered the nxjm— a frc« man 1 Much sumili- 
CStiOD bad been mad(- for him, aotJ his snoden 
nppearince among tbcm. without their know- 
Sog how be bad been liberated, siroogly ru- 



mlbdcd them of the case of PoMr. Tbey !_ 
ti-d in Kpecial thanksgiving to God for' 
deliverance, and tok courage. Hii case had 
been made known to Sir Stratford ('< 
and there 18 no reason to duubl tha; 
monstrances caused the Patriarch to luw^-n uu 
grasp upon tliis innocent victim of his oiq«c»> 
won. ~ 

The Patriarch labored with the mustj 
wearied diligence to overthrow tbtf Hcntid 
at Bcbek ; bat hia opposition only ino 
ltd prouperity. 

Aoolimr method iuiopte<I by the Pab 
and his party, wa^ to eii^agv I be Prote 
ID public dl!4cujQ>iuiis ; but in this a}»o, 
were signally defeated, the Protcstanta 
festly baviog tbc best of the argnmcnt, till 
a lael resort, they were treated wlih hx> 
beating and nbnse. 

About thi.<4 time, a ccnsorhbtp of the 
woB ostabli-slu^d, which threaten*-.! i . l.o 
rioDs obstacle in the way of tb 
of evangpUcal books; but the j 
law Iwing to shut out inflammatory puhtifl 
works, the character of the missiouarits ' "* 
the Turkish officers afforded a sufficient ] 
tion to the books circalaied by them. 

Among tlie evangelical brethren, a 
ranee society woe fonned, which was tlit 
one of tbc kind tiiat crcr e^i^t^id in Tati , 
This movement was rendered the more intor* 

csting from its being entirely self-pr ' -t 

It. has been since carried out lo tb^ 
that the jiriiiciple of total abstineno: .. ^ .., 
njMt uuiver^ adoption by the Protestant^ 
wbcrcTcr found. 

The tnisfiionanr circle was inrotlcd by the 
baud of iluitb. Mrs. Van Lenuep died, Scpl. 
27, lBt4, less than a year from tbc '' 
her embarkation from Amerieo- Mr.;ji 
Van Leuncp had been removed from fc-myrua. 
to ('onstoutinoplc during the preceding spruA 
for tho expresB piirpoi)e of taking charge w 
Llio fennkle st^minary itu-u in prosfjcct, and her 
early removal vtts on tlii^ account an uncoot 
nionly grievous affiltction to the minisii'n. 

The pciaccutiou which had bD.*V' r, ..nt un-w 
at Coostantinople, extended its li 
parta of the empiro, and was pr< 
the same bitter spirit Instances of cmoilar 
and sofforing, abocKing to humanity, occtvretIL 
the details of which we arc obliged to omit. 
It raged with the greatest violouco and fmy 
at TrebtEond, where the evangelical party wen 
haraased, toroed out of their housi-s. impn>c>Qed 
and banished, or " compelled to blaspheme," 
till Ecorccly one of them was left, and even the 
house of the miffliouary, Mr. lili&«,wai» utlack- 
wi und pelted with &touui till all tbe windows 
were broke u In. 

But in miMt cases, thcyt^ violeiitamoiUiurcs 
only tended to conBnn tbe indivlduaU iu tlieir 
new view*i, as they more clearly dcvi'lypt'd thv 
true spirit of the ruling aiitboritii;. iu the 
Ohanu ; and. in some instaucca, the pcrB:cU' 



A&KENlANa 



Ul 



tttaBiv<a were convinced imd A- 

X TOi^n? man of superior miud ftod attaiu- 
•>•; to ihe Papal Armcuian 
.ho faftd, for some time, given 
, SttUalactory eTidence of piety, was 
I Id his rest in the ^ttriag of I&44. lie 
greatly troubU-u by his priest, vho 
_' cflbrt to ppclflim uim, evou to tie 
moment of his life, Mutfurdich, Tor 
I Ilia uuuie, nttflvery decidc<l, on J a few 
• for-' iiU <1< :iili III' iii.i>1t' iL r>jrniiil rutitin' 
. ; and peuco* 
■t. Uifl body 
llivi I'TiiiiUi-ii tMiriiii lu thi- CTATeyard, or 
p (he a^iul TclikMi'U.- ii-rc-mc>Dlcs, but at a 
r IkAr of a very Uurk auil stormy night, it 
■ «»nrirt5 nut by c(»niiDDn Btrui't Wirtere, uu- 
■ '" ri uf a Turkish pfilicfi officer, 

) ' r the ground, in the mld^t of 

i loot a railc from the city. They 

; attcnijjtcil to frighten him 

imrch by thrcutcniiig to bury 
i. iiud faithfully did tbt-y uXtciitc 

iii'Ii. :i<i he told them at the 
li im DO real hurm, for they 

El . ■ out. 

.^ ^v uut madij to reclaim a fansbaod 

>'■ tuning Cbrintiun burial to the 

:'■ T-, although i^he bad remained 

' liurch t'l the very last. They 

• ., however, and aller tlio greot- 

-1 [ bt'ing obligtil to keep the 

nnw'Tjtcd time, thi'y were iit It-ngth 

" to carry it out, amid the jw-ra and 

of the cruwd, and bun' it at a di«tauoe 

dty, in the corner of a MuBBufaima'B 

am. 

fittato, tbi« ErongHical Amirnmnfl had 
IHUlDtd ni. riil.rr- of the eccieslartticiMrivU 
vwuii.t i( Ihey wfre born. Thcv 

fc»«J in . .'TVf^ of conformity wita 

ttr ' i4 the Church, ac-eurding lo 

til iifhl they hod. aud their reudi- 

b- < rouch and suffering for 

LL ahA>nted themaclvis cn- 

lipMj ■! . " , i.;es in thoir eburch- 

i^miiif lit where there wu 

»t«'"-' , , m} i'l'ijntry, waa Tir- 

tUu it 11 I p ■iiist.-ivnw?^ con- 

411, . iic-..i-,i iiully presont to 

bi- li they iimdc it a point to 

(^' r jnirl* iif tht? Bcrvice. 1 

ii.»e wh" were nnly tnlel- ' 
f iIk* truth, wore lut regu- 
iu rwinee of the fornw of 

tf) 11^ owtom roffnircd ; 

ab. ■ . I . '[..d, itiiit p[<ni<MH to 

lltr lli.ir. .1 -ITiAt .ilV.T>ity 

W ' ;;i I'll' I'mclur of 

4A I !■ ( ;ul n.'Vl-T l»Ptn 

h ' ;iiiv 111 ilint rigor 

• l1 rul'** and obswr- 

Ite:-^ ri** thi- (,-hurch of 



According to iha fniidamcutal hiws of tb« 
Turkish empire, crcry individual of itn Ohria* 
tian subjects muft be enrolled in some ono of 
the existing coDimnnitio, having a Patriurdi 
(tt hib head. To aecedo from one bo(]y, in oi^ 
der to join another, had repeatedly Ucn for- 
bidden by the Sultan, and wa* always alU^ndcd 
with danger ; althoagh Papal diplomai^ aad 
Papal gold had often atoned for the owoeei 
where the seconion waa to the Papal faith. 
To detach onoj«clf from ono conimuiiily with* 
oat coming into conncctinn with anotljcr, 
was cqtiivaK-nt to a renuncintioo of every civil 
right and i)riT)lege, and n«c«asArily cxpoMd 
tbo indtviduul to all the evil ooneeqitences of 
complete outlawry. To make this fully undcrv 
(icood, it will be ncccMarjr to Qat«r •osowlwl 
into detail. » 

In the city of Gonstontinople, as well u in 
other large towns in Turkey, each trade is iu> 
corporator), and ita affiiira are rrgntutcd by a 
committee, eongifiting of a Fmall number of the 
ini^itt wcaltliy and powerful individuals in Um 
busiueem; aud no person n permitted to open 
a shop, witlioot a license from this commlttM. 
I*V(-f}U('ntly, a mngle individual, who may be 
callod the presiding ofQccr. has, in practice, if 
not in form, the whole matter of grunting $ad 
witlil>t>]ding ticeiiM.fl, in hi.t own hands. A 
TnrUbth ofHcer pretiidcs over all tlic tradesi 
whoec official sanction is necessary to gin 
force aud effect to tbc doings of the trade 
committees. Every joarneymau. oud appren- 
tice even, must be furnished with fi i>ermtt, to 
sliow to the Turkifili police officers, whenever 
he is cliallengod in the 9trceli>, aud if he falls 
to produce one, he in liable to be thrown into 
prison, OS a disorderly man and a vagraaU 
On taking oat these licenses, each individual 
i» rw}uired to give two or more surciics for 
g<>t>il conduct, and the Patriarch is held oi 
gcncraJ surety for the whole community. If 
the cvungelical Armenians had declared that 
th'jy nu longer acknowledged the autljority of 
the I'atriarch, it would bare been tantamount 
lo civil n^bellion, and they would have been 
dealt with oh oQllaws. In spiritnal matters, 
(hose who were decided among them, rarx'fuliy 
abstained— as Ibey were taught by the mis- 
MJonuries. and hud learned from the Word of 
tJod to do — from all participation in wipereti- 
tion and idolatry'. They attended regularly 
u|M)n the ministry bf tbu miseiunarios and si^ ' 
down at the table of the Lord with thorn, ■■ ' 
guist^ ; beeau50 they conid neither profitably 
iior couiteientiouiJly unite in this service at the 
Armenian Church. They retained connection, 
however, with their own peojde.and generally 
cboriabed live hotic amounting in some easel 
to a Htmng expectation that, by degrees, the ' 
great bi'idy uf the Amieniaos wwild comtt 
uver to the evangvlicul faith, and thus a wriOUfl ' 
rapture be avoitktl. The l^utriarch Uftltoosi 
cOectually cut off tlib liopr^. 

la the beginning of the year 1846, he »• 



142 



ARHKNIAKS. 



eolvcri to ent«r upon tntire coercive inoasares. 
The first eoljject selected for the new eiperi- 
int'nt, w(u Priest Tcrtancss, whose zealous and 

?pr!<fvtTing Inborn for the spread of pure 
Jhristiaaity, wcru doubly odious on accouut 
of his bfiuV a morober of Ihe prir<ithood, and 
Vho hud alroivdy been twire banishod for his 
religion. Ono of the Patriarch's besdlre wa^ 
•cut to his lodginpn, liij^ther with the chief 
manicipftl officer of the Arnifriiiana in t)iat 
quarter, io order to arrest him. The owner of 
Uio hoQBC, who was friendly to hiB lodg-cr, 
tiiungh not himself a Proteslunt, did not Etru- 
plo tu tell a fidw'hood. doclarinf.' that Vcrta- 
tK^ waa absent, and thus «nt the officfint 
away. The priest made his »capG the game 
night to another part of the city, whrre he re- 
aained for several weeks, concealed in tht.' 
bou»e of a friend. 

On Sunday, Jan. 25, after the osaal raominf: 
scrrices in (-he patriarchal church were finished. 
the houiie wosdorkeawl by e.xlin^ui5binp the 
(audles, and the preat veil waa drawn in front 
of the n)ain altar, and a bull of ojccision and 
anathema wm «olemnIr road tiifaiusl Priest 
Vertanes, incladinj; all the followers of the 
" modmn scciariM." He wiw Myled by the 
Patriarch " a contemptible wretch." who, 
" following his carnal lusts," had forsuken the 
Chan^b and wua going about ns a " vaga- 
bond," " babbling oat errors," and being an 
" (»cciu)ion of etiimbling: to many." He was 
said to be " a trait<pr. and nmrdercr of C'brist, 
a child of the devil, and on oflyprinp of Anti- 
christ, worse than an infidel or » bcathcD,'" for 
teaehint; "the inipleliej- and tvductionfl of 
modern sectarioji, (^Protestants)." "Where- 
fore," sttVfi the Patriarch, " wo expel him and 
forbid btm as a devil, and a child of the devil. 
to enter intd the company of l>elieven«. We 
cut him off from the priesthood, aa un nmpn- 
tated member of the sjiiritual bfxly of Christ, 
and Dfl a branch cnt off from the vine, which 
is pwd fnr nothing but lobe cast into the fire. 
By thi* otlmunitory bull, 1 ihert-rorti command 
and waru mv beloved in every city, for and 
near, not to look uwn his face — rcpardinff it 
SA Ihe ftu'c of Bflial ; xwt Io n-ciMve him into 
yoor holy dwellings ; for he ia a house-destroy- 
ing and ravening wolf; not to receive hia pal- 
ut Ation, but OS a soul-dciil roving and deadly 
pouoo ; and tn beMare. with* all your houae- 
flOlds, of the seOucing and impitHU! followers 
of the false doctrine of the modern 8eetarie«> 
(Protestants) ; and to pray for them to the 
Grxl who remcmbereth not iniquity, if per- 
cJiance they may repent and luni from their 
vicked paliig, and eerurc^ the tmlvatinn of their 
Boola, through the grace of our I^ord and 
Sftviour Jesufl Christ, who is blessed for ever. 
Amen." 

This bull of Cicision and anathema was fol- 
lowed by a violent donniicial(«-ydi8eonrBe from 
tbe Patriarch, against nil tlie Pnitefttants in 
general, and the priest in particnlor, wliich 




called forth many lend " omcni " from Hno I 
flamed people. 

On (DC fullowiog day the ^rcatet iu^t. 
prevailed among tlie priests, in every pari ( 
the city and suburbs. All moved like Ibo i' 
fcrent parti* of a machine, as if by one imp 
and it was not difficult to trace the direetia 
from which that impulse had come. Th« i 
lute Patriarch wan determined not to 
merely to the impression made upon the [ 
by the anathema, and his accompanyins 
nunciatioLS ou the preceding day. lie, 
fore, issued orders to his clergy to see that 
temporal penalties thrcftleura in that in 
mrnt were immediately inflicted to the 
letter. The priesta went forth simnlta 
to their work,^ — most of them apparently wrti 
gLKid-will, but Fome reluctantly, Iheir symp* 
thica being with Iho innocent victims of op- 
pression, rather than with the oppressor. The 
Armt'niaiT heads of all the trade coqwratio 
in the city were commanded to withdraw T 
eounlenanec from all Protestanta who wo 
not recant. Ilie keepers of klians and 
owners of houses were ordered to eject 
Io<lgt!r8 and tenanta who would not 
with this condition. Famili** were 
visited by the priests, wherever any one lived 
who was suspected of heresy, and it was cih 
ioinwl upon them to expel the offending tnem- 
ber. or separate from it, even though it were 
a fiOQ or daughter, brother or eiater, husboiid 
or wife. The Protestant brethren were sttib> 
moned to repair immt>diately to the Patriarch- 
ate in order publiclv to recant and becomo 
reconciled to the Church. To give force to 
Ui>* whole, the threat was iseued that aQ wbo 
refused to aid in carrjing out theae meosireB 
against the " ncw-sectarice," ahoold tfaemsdva 
lie anathematized. 

A wild aijirit of fanaticism now reigned. 
I$cforc it, all flcnjw of right, all regord to truth 
and justice, all " bowels of mercies " vaniihed 
away. Even the etrong and tender auction 
sabsisfing between husbands and wives, bro- 
tbeni and 8i$teni, pareiita and children, was, 
in some inytanccs, exchanged for the cruel and 
relentless hate of the persecutor. The vejy 
constancy of the people of God pr»)vokeil stw 
more the wrath or their enemies. Their rcadi- 
nem to sufler joyfully the apoiling of their 
goods woa consi<Kred as a proof that loise 
temporal rewards had been offered them ny 
the misiionaries ; and their unwaverinr '■ ' ■ 
ity to Christ waa interpreted into obsi i 
Some on the side of the Church, who at lirsi 
were signally wanting in iseal, in furthering 
the Palriardi's violent measuna, were £timn- 
laled into active jjorsecutors, by what apipcared 
to them, in their religious indiderentism, ai 
mert! stubbomoeas on uie part of the Protfsi- 
onta. 

Tlie leading men in the diflerent trade cor- 
porations, fiJwiwed more rt«oluteu«» than any 
other clttwi, in attempting to force the cnfr 



ARIOMANa 



143 



rn.-il ).r..-fl,ri n t.< a CQinpliaDce witli the 
- : aoti thfy could arge 
■ tiia.u almost any other of 
lly tjaiure. \Vhatt?vcr molbod of coor- 
mtm rcs^trtcd Ui, nrbcthcr liy priests or 
it WM evt'rywherc publicly dt;<:lnnil to 
the «Jti>njb» comuiaufj ol the Putriarcb 

Uaring the wmIc after the finit' aoathcma 

Rttd, allhoqgh many were forcibly driven 

tiieir I1OUSG8 and sbope, and prevtfQtud 

iloio;! buuincn to supp)rt tht_>in.-H:lvra and 

umI Bome were cipcllod from tht* 

,JOor, aui uthemi&c aJHiotcd, T(:t not 

ta ruoant On the fullowing 

pasioos of iLU ignorant and sa- 

fMQtfaw) pooptc were titilJ more iufjamcd by 

• Me«ad ftnuilic'iua. wluch, like the tir^t^ was 

Wmd in all tbu churches, nnd accompanied by 

dwmtMl violent di-iiunciatii)UH Troin the Fatri- 

mri '<>|Li. anil tbc- vurtabtHls. In thia 

Wi- iLircd that not only the "cnrscd 

auncuuiiv. > ciinncsi," " falsely cnllwl priest." 

•IB uatlmaalizoU by the ''holy Cliurch," 

bit likrwiae " uU that were of his senti- 

bkhU." They were together pronounced to 

W ' Kcurscd. and cxccminionicatei], and ana- 

tWftalised, by God, ami by all blti snints. 

toA bj 06," that is, Muttcos ralriarch. 

^WkorfoK," lie wys. "whoever has n sou 

ttal ii mch au one, or u brolber, or a iiartner, 

jh ViHiHSB^ and givt^ him bread, or astti»t« 

MM Ok uiokui^ uiunoy, or Iiaa Intercourse finth 

Uaaabici^, nr doce boiuuces with him, k-t 

•*^ pEnosft know that they are DOurtKliing a 

■cnoaau wrpcnt in their hou^c^, which will 

MC h^ lujnni tbetu with it^ dttadly poison, 

•dlhrj-'ii '■■^" 'heir soaU finch )>er8ons 

I^W- Such nersuQS ore eno- 

■ia of 1 ; I nth uf Cliriiilianity, and 

iMbujuJi ot liiu Ik*!}' orthodox Church uf tin: 

tAiaRsiaiw, and a disgrace to the whole 

■tioD. Whcrcfurv, ihi-tr houees and ahnps 

ttn «R accnrwd ; and whoever goee to vi^it 

ttan, wf fhull leorn, and poblifih Ibcm to the 

iWr Churr^i, by terrible unntbemnF." 

lV iptht of exiup4>ratiun know no bound.i. 
ftsaflcr another, the brethren weresnminoned 
Wfat the I'atrionb, *ir the JocmI ecclesiastical 
inUuritiei uf Uicir particular quarter of the 
ak^anl rv({uircd to bign a [>aper of recanta> 
lw.<Mi penalty of being " Wrnbly nnatlienio- 
tef which involrcd their being dcj^rivwl of 
rf botincss and treated ofi outlawit. The Unit 
|aCKT promt*^ for tbcir eignature wag, in 
HttiDefsa confcMJoit that uniler " tbo wicked 
MtOMMtlB r>f Satan" they had " separated 
k"i 'So bo»>m of the Holy Cnorch." 

«n- * impious M*ct' of llic I'rolcst- 

«bu w:,.Mi iL>>n they nw to be " nolhiug eli*4! 
but an invt-ntion of arrogance, a snare of Sa- 
lin - -■ ■• >■ ...':-:... ., I.-- .;,fi rood which 
Ifc lure repenting 

^ i-^ , .- . ^-. . :.y-d for pardon 

*la the bowiiu of the holy and immucahite 



Armenian Church," nnd confeRvd that " her 
faith is Bpotlnta, her sacranientii divine, her 
riti>!i of apostolic origin, her ritual ptou!^ ;''and 
promised to receive '* whatever thitt ftamc holy 
Church rcceiveth. whether it be a matter or 
faith or ceremony," and " to reject with ana- 
theina."," ^ whatever doclridca she rejects." 

This first paper not being sofficieutly expli- 
cit to suit Bomc of the pereeenting parfy, ao- 
olhor W08 drawn np In the form ol n ere ' 
to which all were rtqmrwl to Bubacribe, tm 1 
oniv condition of being reslortd to the favo.,. 
of the Patriarch, that in to theirrivil |>rivilc^fli,| 
Thia creed contnincd substaatially all the ep-J 
rors of l*opory. It acknowledged thai gDodl 
works ju-stify n roan as well asTnith ; that tba] 
Church 16 infallible; that there are seven 1 
cramcntii ; that baptism by water, and privatitf^ 
confession to a priest are essential to salvnlion ; 
that thesoul of one dying without full pen- 
ance for bis Bins, ia after death, pnrified by the 
jjrayers of the ehnrch, by the blmxlle^ sacri- 
hce of the mass, and by the ainw-giviug of bta 
friendn ; that the bread nnd wine of eommun- 
ion arc the Inie body and blofwl of Christ ; 
that Mary ia iLe mother of Ooil ; thnt " the 
holy nnointed*' material cro?sc8 arc worthy of 
adoration, as also relics and pictures : thnt the 
iutercesBion of the saints is acceptable to 
Ood ; and that tbo Patriarchs rule (he Church 
as Christ'a vic<:'gerent9. It also required those 
who RuI>»erii>C4l it Ut join in nnatbeniutizing 
alt who call the worahip of the bnly cnws, and 
of rutics and pictures, idolatry, and who reject 
the oeremooies of the church iia Miiperi«titioaa. 

These two pa|)erg. the first buviug been com- 
monly caJlctl, I'he Pujin of lirmntation, and 
tlie second, The Patriarch ^^attoos's AVte Cr«rf, 
were issued under the high authoritj* of the 
Patriarch hinuM'If, and sent by liim llirough- 
out the country for the signature of the Pro- 
testants. In Sm^Tna, in Nicomcdia, in Ada- 
bu/ar, in Trcbizond, and in Krzrilm, the cvnn 
gelical brethren were suniraoned before their 
rcsi»cclivo ecclesiastical rulers, and iireseutt'd 
with itlentically the same creed, which, they 
were told, hnd been recoix*ed from the Patri- 
arch, and which tliey were required, by his 
eummaud, to ?ign. 

OiK- tndiviJiinl.a verj'reepeclable merchant 
who wiw in partnership with hi^ fatbir-in-luw, 
was driven from his shop, and separali d also 
from his wife and children, nod defru'uled of 
his properly fur refining to yield to tlu-se rfr 
quti^itiona of tbo I'atriarch. Another, who 
wan in the fitlk baaine^, was summoned before 
the Patriarch, who, when he found no signs of 
ru^wntancc, so far forgot himself, as (0 luhlroM , 
this tirothcr with nidi: and aogrvprofunencis; 
uni], deelariug that he and all IJko minded 
with him arc accursed, he drove him away. 
Tht? individnal returned to his shnp^ bat was 
soon followed by a beulle from the ratriiirch, 
who summoncii his partner before this digni- 
tary. The partner was required forthwith to 



I 



dif^IvD all connection with the lieretic, which 
fbnr let] liiixi to do without deliij. Since llie 
shop mid miwt of the capitnl bi-Ionpcd to Ihi* 
partntT, the brother was at onco rcdacod to 
circum«lan(T9 of the deepest distress. As n 
still further net of roiTcioD, the Pntriarrh aenl 
for his fttlhr.r, luid fiijnineii it upon him U> 
drive his own 5on from home, ami deprive him 
of his inheritnnof'. This command, En smb- 
stanee. was aflerwarda cornmiltcd to writinfj, 
and Hiidrtated to a prJefit, onder thu Patriarch's 
own ifwil, two iMliiT Bons beiiiff now included 
in it. The followiutj is a literal translation of 
tlic orig^innl, which the writer of this article 
has RM-ti. with the Pfttnorch's own gigiiaturc 
and 9cal Ht(Hcht*d : 

"My BKt/iTKD ParesT. — ^Tliia Khachadflr, a 
penitent, hai said ' I hare sinned,' and pro- 
roistHi to confess to you, and to comtnunc in 
Iho )>oBoni of our church. Hul. his three sons, 
(one of whom was thii hi!k uiorehaotj nrc im- 
pcniteot and hardened in iniquity. If tncy come 
to the hoQw of their father, ho ia not to re- 
orive Oiem, and he is not to retain them or 
hta heirs ; but let thejn be stripped of their 
inh<'ritaneo, if they do not tarn from their 
wickeilnes>. Farewell." 
Jnnttary 18. (0. S.) 1846, At 

tlio Patriarehalc nf tlio Ar- 

xnenians, Constnnlinople. 

(Scaled) 



Matteoit 
Patriarc/i. 



Many other cases of like cruelty and oppres- 
sion arc related by the niii<sionarie.'* aa Bjiecl- 
xnens of the cruelties practiced uiKin the peo- 
ple of Gwl, by their enrajred ix^rsecotorp. 

Nearlv forty individuals in Constantinople 
had their shops closed and their licenses to 
trailo taken away, and were theivby preventeil 
from lahorincr fur an honest livelihood. Nearly 
seventy were obliged to leave father, moUicr. 
hnjther, sister, husbaml, wife, or child, for 
CUrist'H sake ; and were rirci'tl hy the Palri- 
OTiJi's orders from their own hired houses, and 
fiomt'timcs even frfim honses owned by thera- 
selves. In order to increase their imtrcjw, 
bakeiT were r^'pcntedly and strinpently order- 
ed not to funil-m them with brca»l, and water- 
carriers to cut off their supply of water. As 
muUitadcs nf families in Ihc metropolis depend 
eulirely upon the Iatl*'r for all th*! water they 
use, and the grcator part of the water-carriuR 
are bigoted Arnienian.<i, this mcaauro oporattil 
with prcat scwrity. Many, who were thr'iwn 
out of bu-tincfis, were comwlJed to dissolve 
partnerehi|J8, and to brinp tneir accounts to a 
lorccd seltlcment, which involved Ihcir entire? 
TOJD. And the (rrc-alwt activity prevailed 
among iho Patriarch's a|*e.nts, to iwciTlain 
where debln were doe from anv of the analhe- 
mriti^cd to a faithful son of the Church : and 
the latter, howevi:r reluctant he might bo per- 
eonully lo diiilress his friend, was eoni]MdU\l to 
urgQ an inuuediatc settlement. In short, there 



rh. ^H 

n ^H 



was displayed the CTeatcst io^nnitj in itn 
ing various refined methods of afflicting 
people of (tnd, so as if pntsibic to " rnmpd 
them to blaspheme." Large numbers of sn»> 

?ected Protestants wcro carried before the 
•atrianrh, and nr^eii to submit to the Churci 
and sign the crwil ; but only four or five of 
those who were nrcvionsly known to tlie m{» 
sionarics as dcciuodty evangt^tical in sentiment, 
were led to give in their adhesion to the P*- 
triarch ; and they almost immediately renooiK^ 
ed the forced coiife»«ioii they had m«le, sad, 
returning to the Protestants, were anathema 
tized with the rest. Attempts were aim ma^ 
but without success, to persuade tliem by mild- 
er meanii, and even by offers of pccutiiary a^ 
vantage, to rctnm to their mother church. _ 

Nothing could he roorc evident than 
tbe suffering brethren had special grace ; 
them from above, lo enable them to bear as 
they did tlicsc severe trials. I>rivcn from Ihdr 
houses and shops, their famiUcs and fricndl 
and having no certain dwelling-place: nd 
many of them rednced to penury ; subject to 
constant insult in the strocts, and aomelTnia 
to pcraonal itijury ; and havinu every reasoa 
to apprehend pcrsecntion in sUll more violoit 
forms, they yet exhibited a calm and quirt 
spirit of endurance, a readiness to snflbr tbe 
loss nf all for Christ, and a |)cnce and jor lO 
the midst (jf their suffijrings, which coulu be 
acennnted for only on the supposition, that 
God was with them in very deed. One. who 
in fact Bpoke the feelings of many, eaid one 
day to a missionary, "My daily prayer to 
(iod i,s tlmt even if there should not bo lefl a 
single person except mvsclf to witness for the 
truth. He vonld still give me faith to 
stand firm for the doctrine of salvation by 
grace i» Christ alone. I know that all tw 
rwistnnce we now make to error, we ore mak- 
ing for coming generations. Wc may dctw 
n.'iip the fruils ourselves, but otir excrctsc of 
firnuu-SH and fuilh now, will enable thou;.Kaods, 
tuid perhaps niillion.i, in after davs to enjoy 
the rights of conscience in pure and holy wor- 
idiip." 

Anolhor brother, to whom an offer of np- 
wanls of 20.000 piastres (about 8l/)00) waa 
made by a rich friend, on condition that be 
would conform to the Church, replied : " If 
you knew anything of the value of the Oospcl, 
or the precioiisncHs of faith in Christ, yoo 
would not have thought to influence me otlW' 
by a thousand, or a hundred thoasand dnllara.** 
Sfuny of whom the nii.ssiouiLrics had known 
but little, were led by these violent measora 
to take a decided stand for the truth ; and in 
the inidst of the most violent raging^t of the 
enemy, the missionaries' houses and the room 
in the Khao, in the heart of the city, kept for 
the reception of visitors, were moro than ercr 
ihronged. The persecuted brethren wrote let- 
ters to tbe Ptttrmrch and to the primates of 
the Anncuion community, setting forth -'-*— 



ABUEMANS. 



145 



liftnnt] rSewx. dpclarinff their attachment Ui 
i<i I'lprrssiiiR thoir desiro to be 
:-:Qeil, yd dt'cluring that ihcy 
r" ling: ftffainst their cinificicncca. 

Ba- ■ ! no rvl'n'S: au*l at length, Ihoy 

ivmiili^l a iK'titioii to Rwhi<l Pallia, Tiirli- 
Ul M'^i^ifr of Foreign Aifair?, contajuing a 
pb" ■ " ! itatcmf'tit of tlictr griovttiices. 
'! ! wiw treated with respect ; hot, 

iM ([)■■ influence of some of the Arme- 
■imatce, it procnrwl no relipr. Snlwe- 
tfr. ft letter was addresMKl by the peraecii- 
id brt-tbrcu to the En(,,'liBh. Pnissian, and 
Affleri'.NiD Minis'tfT?. n.-;lcine: ^"r the influence 
rflbftM' high pablii* funrtiontines to procure 
Onir rrl-:^-^' from [irc-s^iit sufferine, and the 
commntei* of their civil rights. The kindest 
intfnvt was taken in their cose by the liberal- 
nincli^I and hninanc grntlemen who occupied 
ifcop prwis, and repented effurta were mode to 
twrarc for thctn ext-mpticm from BiifferiDg; 
wl ihf iwrsecution still went on. There was 
oidoith ft onnnivancc of some of the 'Nrkiah 
MftoritHS in this thin^. nod th? Fntriiirch 
Vii m mnch encourog-eu liy his success, thus 
ftr.tkat he wnt to the Porto the nanics of 
ftirtp::! li-^i.i n^ men among the Protestants, 
tti ' '.- banishment The reply of 

ttr : titiil to his plans. Thc'rab- 

tfakcv o{ it -was, that having adopteil the prio- 
ri^ of freedom of conseiont'e, they could not 
bsriA nen fur imputed religious* errors. The 
EnfK4) Ambjwsa<!or, Sir Rtniiford Canning, 
W -11 urging upon the attention 

of linistry. the pleil^e given three 

y»- ihe SiilTnn.and, m accordance 

«;■ ,iirit of this pledge, it was now 

fcv,.-, .^u'. .1 . porsccoiion of tne evongclieal 
tllliliiw fnalu nnt be allowetl. The humane 
lilbtT.irt r,r tli/» American charge. Mr. Brown. 
m' iy of the Amerlcuu minister, 

V* .ilso of the Prnntian niiiiitrter, 

Uf iitribnted essentially to bring 

iK-. .y ispne. A petition from the 

•Arii^ t^rf ihren, directly to the St'iltan hira- 
«l( m dooht. hod \\s shiire of influence. By 
tie apsicy of Sir irtratford, lieshid Ptiaha 
MBaoncd before him the Pntriarrh, and 
lkvy*d him to d»tst from hU persecuting 

•|\- . ..-»;»., k.,r.n., thf. lojttveek in Jnn- 

ar ^1' middle of March. 

Md ■— , L t thi» interval, the 

I tuUMmns had slrngj*le(l iu vnin, nntil Diia 
I Maxnt. to i.rrticun.' their civil and social right?. 
liiirflpilArly an the Sat>bath rame round, the 
' 4»^9i^iBr» ■■h'lrchP!', in nnd around the capital, 
■iM-mtui agnin.st ull the followers 
^ I." None were more violent 
uddrcsBCB than the Pntriurch 
me«i determlDcd that the e\ci- 
f an iminformcd and bigottil 
>-i the TO called " infidels '' and 
,-...» Id not imbiride, so long us be 
I MiM find fad to fc«U the llame, The mo6t 
10 



foolish calumnies in regard to the rcligioosi 
views anil practices of the ProtestontA, wcffii 
ottered from all the pnlpits, and even {Mibli^l 
ed in books ud^ the Patriarchal sanction. 
In one of the latter, having the imprimatur of 
t!io Patriarch upon the title page, it was coot* 
Iv asserted of tno whole Protestant Charch, 
tnat it formally approves of polygamy, adultery. 
'and theft, and sanctions rebellion against the 
' civil ixiwers 1 With each examples, and mch 
, untiring effort on the ]»rt of their spiritual lead- 
ers, in the use of means like tlnjse, to stimulate 
the fanatical feelings of the jM-opic, it was not 
strange that the brethren could not ptUB 
through the atrt'ela wilboat being abused by 
the most filthy language, and even Epit apOD 
and stoned. Great care was taken, particu- 
larly after it was known that tiie foreign am- 
bofsidors were keeping an eye on alf tbeaa. 
proceedings, not to exceed, if poraiblc, ths ' 
Ijounilst of the law ; so that when c^-en as many 
as threescore and ten men, women, and chil- 
dren, who had rcfusctl to bow the knee iu idol* 
otry, had l«?en writ to wander houseless in the 
streets, it was still declared that there was no 
persecution ! 

To the misflionaries, however, it was known 
that, for the faith of Chrint, they were driven 
out, and for the love of CHirist they could not 
n^fuse to take them in. Very proWdcntially, 
the Rev. Mr. Allan, mifwionary to the Jews, 
from the Free f^hurcli of Scotland, bad, a short 
time prcvioosly, sccuretl a large bouse, vith 
reference tc a preaching place, as well as a 
dwelling for his family; and, with true Chris- 
tian {sympathy and generosity, he opened his 
doors lor the oppres8C<I. UVenly individnolflof 
the persecuted, found a comfortable lodging 
place there. For the rest, the mifsionarics hired 
such tenement^; ns could be found, at the same 
time providing the starving with bread, while 
thcy^ wore cnt off from all means of procuring 
their own subtiistencc. A statement was drawn 
up of the gricvons things that had befallen 
tno brethren in Turkey, accompanied bv an 
appeal to evangelical Christians throughout 
the world for sympathv and aid ; and the 
generous contributions that flowed in from all 
quarters of the globe, wherever the story had 
gone, and pious hearts were found, showed 
how strong a bond of onion is the love of 
Christ. Letters of the tenderest Chri.stiaa , 
sympathy were received, accompanied, by don*> , 
tions for the sufferers, from every Protestant ' 
country in Europe, from Knglaud, Malta, and ' 
India, a" well as from the United iStntea ; and 
in this spontaneous moT,-ement in behalf of the 
persecuted people of God, denominational dis*- 
tinctions were forgotten. Nearly or quite five 
huudriii diillar.«i were contribulwl by foreign 
lVote.<tant residents ujion the ground, who 
naturally felt tlic more deeply, because they 
were personal sjiectators of the sofltrings they 
were called upon to relici-e. 

By tbe«e means the brethren who were»cftt* 



tcrcy3 OTcr an ftpcn of 8 or 1 milea were bronifht 
tdijofhfT, titi'l liad opportunity to moot for 
pr:iviT, to boeome acqnaintrd nnd Rympalhiae 
Willi cat-h other; tliTig forming a boDU of anion, 
which remaiiw tu this day. 

Tho Patriarch had now n.'peivcd trarh Iwwons 
from hijth qaarlrrs, iw prAtly to modify ln» 
expprtations of pnlliiife' down Frotostantisni 
by force; anJ he waa ovon compftllwl, reluct- 
luitly, to 188U0 pnblie onlcrR to his clergy, in 
ctTtain csfipfi, agninjit penwcmtion ; tbon^h it 
ID known that secret instructions were, at the 
nme tijoc, given of a contrary nuturf. 

Priuli'd copies of Oie Patriarch's two ana- 
themas were **nt to every part of I'nrkcy, lo 
bf reail in all theehnrchcs : aDdBlmilargcencs 
followed in Nicomcdia, Adabazar, Trebizond, 
Krzrdm, BrOsa, Smyrna, and othtr places ; and 
in some of them, fucfm'a of a still more rcTolt- 
tng character were enacted. 

Sir Stratford Canning, whoso noble cffortR 
Ibr peliKiouB liberty in Turkey are worthy of 
all praise, did not cease to nrgo upon the 
Turkish goveniment the necessity of eecuring 
to its Protestant fmbjcrfi? the right of pursuing 
their lawful caJliiigs without molestation. Be- 
Iwoeji thirty and forty in Ctmstantinoplc alone, 
were atill cxclndetl from thi-ir ahops and Ihtir 
busincw, on the plea that they wens without 
Barelte». The Ambassador rcpitwntrd that 
the demands of the law might l>e met, by their 
becoming Buretles for one another. This im- 
poHnnt conccasioD was at length made by the 
govt'rninent, and Ecshid I'asha, the Minister 
of Foreign Affairs, or (3rnnd Vizer, as he soon 
after became, gave orders that the Prolwlants 
bo pernnttcd to rt^inme their business on thih 
condition. nHiiii decision, which, with a limited 
»ppIlcation, had nlrcady released four imprison- 
ea watchmakers, bdng now made general, vir- 
tnally st-ttlod the qnc*tion of rclipioua liberty 
for thi* Protestontain Turkey. The imraodiale 
relief uITiirded was imjmrtant, though far fmiu 
being entire. The brethren were still tried in 
various wn)"*. Many, from the very circnm- 
Btancea of the case, could not hope to regain 
the t>ituations from whieh they had been thnwt. 
01 hers were still subject to secret persecution, 
which waK the hnnler to bear, because it could 
not easily be traced to its proper source, and 
brought in a tuiigiltle furm under the cogni- 
sance of the civil courts. The Patriarch, 
seeing which way the current was turning, 
very wlroitly attempted to set himself forth 
bcHire the world a? a friend of religious libertv, 
and u sympathizer wilb the BUlTering ; although, 
ai the Wimp time, he was repeating hifl ana- 
themu.^ in hi.^ own church every Sabbath-day, 
and i'.\riling the people, bv his appeals lb their 
famiticiFm, as before. This kept alive the 
spirit of poreecution, and various arts were 

Cracticed, olVn Riicress fully, to prevent tho 
rethrcn who had ojiened' their thops. from 
doing any busine^. Xomberh'ss vexations 
were practiced from time to time, and there 



wafl often a great want of promptnes5 in tilt 
Turkish courts iu relieving tho innocent nf- 
ferers of their oppressions, even when they bad 
tangible ground of complaint. Tfaetie irr^ib 
laritics. however, were to be ejcpected in saA 
a country, and nmler each circumf^tancea, 
Then- wa« Btill ratisfactory proof thnt tb? 
Turkish government n aa dinpoeed to 1 
and cfnWtent in its declarations in f;i 
Iigif>n» liberty. A vizirial letter, dati ii a^rj 
in done, 1846, commanding the Piuha rf 
Krzrtim to see that the civil rights of llie 
Proteslnnts were not infringed, so longuthif f 
were faithful subjects of the Sijlt«n, is wortl^ 
of mentiou. us ihe first imperial document em 
ifsned by the Tnrkish governmcut, for thepf* 
tectioD of itfi Protestant subjects. 

In the course of thej>er8ecutioDB that 
now been described tho Patriarch wm i 
in his efforts to break up the Miaeion Senll 
at Bobck. He succeeded at different 
in getting away seventeen, in all. out of twe 
seven stmlents ; but five o f these soon reti 
and ten others joined the institution, i 
whom were piww and promising young i 
who having been driven by |)eri3ecutioaJ 
their business, were led to consecrate i' 
selvin to the service of God in the tain 
Hiid to seek from the Mission Seminary 1 
teliectual and moral di^iplino they need 
this work. Mr. and Mrs. Kvcrctt, who-1 
Ixten connected with t}ie Smyrna station sifW ' 
April, 184.'), removed to Coii>;taulinople inlki 
Bummer of 18*IG, and Mrs. Everett wat «sso> 
cialcd with Mias Lovell in the instractioa of 
the Female Seminary. 

For nearly si.Y months continncinsly. the ui' 
thcma had been publicly rcin-nti'd every 6t^ 
bath in the Patriarchal Cliarch. as wvll u in 
other churches until many of the jv"!" i"*^ 
gun lo grow weary of the sound ; 
changes Mere so fret|ueutly mngtn ti 
forms of denunciation, which had been i 
to give force to the bull, that their ■ 
seemed rapidly worsting away. And yt-i, ujf 
to the middle of the year 1846, through li# 
influence of the Clhurrh authorities, bR'ul vaA , 
water were still withheld from many l*rot«l* 
ant fnmilics, by the regular dealerfi' in thov 
urtickv, uud ererrthing was done, tliat ooaU 
with safety be attempted, to vex thcwe when- 
niuined steailfost in tne truth. The niAffsn 
had again and again jietitinned tfl their Patri- 
arch, and to the j^rimatcs fur relief, but \htj 
were auiformly repulsed with the det^aratioa 
lliat there was no hope of any melioration of 
their condition, except by unconditional 9iV 
mission to the Church. Hitherto, no one had 
voluutarily Bcparated himself from tho Armfr 
nian conunnnity. Tho»>c) who wero calM 
schiscmatics., bad become such by the ocadBAi 
ing act of the Patriarch himself who w«a tiM 
aohi antbor of the schism, nod who seemed to 
try every method in ]iiA power to render the 
separation pcrjKjtual. 



ARMKMANS 



ur 



SUt of Jane, 1846, ho ^avo tho 
flow to this work, by a public official 
rcsultcil. Ihrriiii^h npix«ity, in Uie 
of the Evan^'ttiicul rrotratml 
Wi ia Turkey. Ou that day. it being 
t of M soluinufiMtivul for the Church, he 
% atrw biitl of excotnntiiiticatiou aud auo^ 
■gaiiut all vho remainotl liriii to tlicir 
Bcal pruiciples, dccrccjui; that it Almtild 
hflv r.*Hil ut cuch aoaaiu return of tliis 
•!jc Arraciiiao Churches through- 
' I "inati Empire, Thus were the 
kftUU cutoff ati'i cast cat forever. And 
1^ tht'y hufl no power to orgnuizc tlifni- 
into B civil community, ^et nothing 
W pUincr than their duty, immediately 
to lliL-m-selvifl and their ohildrt-n, as 
were atilo. the full jKi-wAsion of all 
I privili-gea of the Gospel. 

» written request to the raiwioa- 
a matter in which Ihey them- 
lO eA'perieocc. Acoordinirly, a 
_^ _ Id in Constanlinuple, of dt;!o- 
raA Che different tftations of tho mission 
'key. The Eev. Mesora. Allan and 
■, tni--ion»rie9 of the Free Church of 
111 til (he Jews nf Constantinople, and 
r, lit. Tomroy. then pastor of a CoDgre- 
J t'hnrch in Uangor, Maine, and now 
* rolariea of the Board, who was 
"0 a riisit to the f^evaut at that 
a[-<i present by iuvitnlion, and took 
df-iihcrutinns. All felt that (j!od 
and tJie u\i:Twhelming imf»ortauc»' 
on which thoT were convened, 
of their own ignorance and im- 
imcil to compel tbefu to throw them- 
" ipon brm. Much prayex was 
the incinbora of the convention 
etbren, and to thia it must be 
oogh there wcru rcpresenta- 
rent denominations of C'hris- 
m. yet the nifMt ciilire harmony 
i|f pcrvaiMl thi'ir deUhcTationti, ajid tl'a 
■ I ^ir a unaniirious vote. 

July, IS-lO. the Kvaugcli- 
... ..: .'nstuiitinMpIe, to tlv: niim- 
ihrw of whom wi-ro I'enialtss 
IT fur the nurpii;«d (if (<rguuizing 
tato a ChurcL The plun of organ- 
drawn up *t the aho<.e mentioned 
yiM md and ezphu'^ed, article by 
ajid thoK present g»ro their solemn 
JO the whole, and with [crfect unanimity, 
i it u their*, and werd thus con^ititutod 
"liB FiRtn- KvATiou-iCAi. Armbntxn 
or Co^fSTiXTisoPLH. Afterlhc names 
't /re hsd bii'u recorded, a 
V ballA. and wllhoat prc- 
i.li(» chwv fel) unanimoujiily 
ihom KhaclHi^ryan. The other 
'Ta wiTu tlwo nwlnl. atiil tJiu m<«t- 
IjuurtMwL AI'Mlfh the whole had 
torn four to flf^iilLr^. tiie deciwst io- 
maiutaiDcd U^nia|iuut; mach ton- 



dcrnes of feeline waa maaiftist«d, and many 
eyes were BuflWd with tcare. 

The artich-a of church organization hcr« 
adopted, provide for tho trial of offenders by a 
standing committee, or church ecaaion. chosen 
for a limiti^ time, and coui^istlng of deacons 
and " helpers," jr ho, after conducting a case to 
its cl'3ac, rcporPtheir proceedings with the evi- 
dence, to the male mi'mhers of the Church, 
and B vote is taken of ossont or dissent. In 
the event of dissunt, the case goes up to tho 
pastors and delegates mI the associated churcheo, 
Trhoso decision in all cases, is finaJL ProTJaion ii 
made for appeal to tlds body, before which the 
triolofministersaccuitedofc^cneegistotwhad. 
The Confisfsioo of Faith is similar to tbost' of 
the orthodox Calyinistic churches in this coun- 
try. ( For these documents in full, see " Chris- 
tianity Revived in the East," Appendix F.) 

In one woek from the organization of thfl 
church, the pcreou chosen wits publicly ordained 
to tho work of the tjlospel miuiatry, as paatfir 
of the newly fornietl Church. Under tho cir 
cuinstaucea it was necessary to perform tho 
ordination by an cedes iasticul conneil iuvil'tl 
by tho Church, and which consisted of the 
missionaries of tho board resident at Constan- 
tinople, and the Ucv. Mr. Allan of the minion 
of the Free Church of Scotland to the Jews 
of the capital. 

A £cenc so new 08 a Protestant ordlualion in 
the capital of the Turkidh Empire drew forth a 
crowd to the chapel, several ofwhora were of tho 
Futriarcb's party. The fitrictcHt silence, h«w- 
eveT. prevailed, and the most filed and soleraa 
attention wiw given to every part of the fwrrice. 

Aa an act of justice to thcniHclvcs, the mem- 
bers of this new church ]o(^t no time in netting 
forth before the world the dccbration of their 
faith, and their reuious for the step thev had 
taken. This document will be found in the up- 
ponlix of " Christianity Revived in the East." 

In the course of the same summer, churches , 
were turmed on the same basw. in Nieomedia, j 
Adabozar. uud Trobizond ; with tho most evi- 
dent giHhl r(su Its, although the original num- 
ber of members wag, in each cade, small. It 
is not known that tho least objection vma ever 
made to these organizations, by the Torkidh 
government, or any of ita officers. Indeed, tho 
svnipathica of the Mohammedans were with 
tiie peraocnted, rather than with their caeraiea»i 
The use of pictures in worship; the iuvoca-j 
tion of saints; and the doctrine of transub-l 
fltoutiation and priestly absohition, are as atvi 
horrent to the Koran as they are to the Bible, 1 
The L'uvornment of the Saltan had ordtrodj 
that the Prott-etants be no longer molested ia ! 
their civil rights, on account of their religiouB ' 
gcntiments. Their shops were reopened, but 
it was comparatively easy for their bosy ene- 
mies to prevent tralfic with them, without opco- 
ly infringing the law, and this was repeatedly 
done. They could out be imprisoned or bauh 
iidicd merely for their religions sentimental ■ 



148 



ARMENIANS. 



but faW- clskima of debt coutd and did imprison 
tliein ; and faleo cliurgca of viei*nw conduct, 
establisliwl hy perjury, could and did sccnrc 
tht'ir ItiuiuhmcDt In Constnntinopli^ consider 
able sums of money wen; paid by difffrent indi- 
vidoals to avoid imprii<onmcot for pretended 
deUU ; and more than a sq0v of PrutustautA, 
at different tini(s, were fihiit np with felons for 
allegtMl crimts which false witn(-»»«i bad proved 
against them, aud w)ni'h tlioy, from tJie very 
orf;ani2;itioii of tht'Turkb*h courts, could not 
dinnrove. Aa Qti example of the lenglh to 
which the Patriarch could even now go in hin 
pcTicculinK meafnircs, the following story is 
related : A place of Protestant worship was 
opened iu the eity proper, for the accommoda- 
llon of iu»ny fumihca who, on account of tJie 
distoiict'. cu'uld not often be present at the 
chapel in Pcni. The house hircti for thin pur- 
pot«o wufi built, bv a former Patriarch, thoudi 
now omied by hi« brother, who wns a worthy 
mcmWr of the Protistant community and 
Church. It wiw citimtcd near the Patriarchate, 
whirh no tluubt wa-^ an additional cause of 
Yexutinn to thvf dignitary. At that time no 
other hotitje could Ix' obluiucd iu all Constanti- 
nople, for 8ii>'h a pur[>iwo. Bv a cnuuing de- 
vice, the Paljiareh proeurwl the imprisonment 
of Stejiun. the owner of the house, by the Tur- 
kiafa police, on charge of flogging one of his 
priests I The pritst had been sent by his wi- 
perior to Stqmn'.s bnu-sc, in his absence to 
endeavor to persuade his wife to separate from 
him ; aud the injured huaband merely called 
at the ]>riest*s du<ir, aud warned Iiiin not to en- 
ter his hou^so attain, vn piiio of civil prosecu- 
tion. This waa u ^uffiricnt irround for a pre- 
text, the futility of which wua transparent on 
the trial, the whole object fliid nim of the 
charges being to prevent the holding of Pro- 
testant worship in llie house in question. 'ITie 
Patriarch Wrd claimed the hoirw as the pro- 
perly of the Church, having been built by 
a Patriarch. And whoa this was dccideil 
against him, he bepged that Stepao might be I 
rcmovtHl from the hoitie, since all his neigh- 
bors were complaining ugoinst him a* adi-s-' 
tarbcr of the peace. This also was set aside. 
Afler ^'veral otber vain shifts on the part of ' 
the Patriarch to aceompIi.sh his object, the 
ludge at length took up the same fide, and ' 
' 1 to Stupan, " Tlie goveriiment gives you no I 
TUiiiL*ion to hold muctiiigs in that house." 
"Sir," said Slepan, with solemn earnestness,' 
" I bc^' that you will not fatigue yourselvra ' 
wiUi i;fr<(rt*i to prevent us from meehng ; for 1 [ 
declare that not only I. but al! the Protestant ' 
Amii-nians also, are ready to shed our blood 
for this thing. Consult together, if you please, [ 
S8 to the LKwt method of getting rid of us, 
whether by exiling, drowning, or by cutting off 
our bt,-ads ; but it h useless to try to prevent 
us from nivAtitig. The Holy Oo^-pel cinrnmnd.-* ' 
us to meet ; it is a matter of conscience and | 
daly wiiU us ; and vc can never cease to meet ' 



for thn worship of nod." The Jndj 
rqdy to m&ko to this noble answer, 
directed hi« clerk to n?cord that ** til 
tunU) say it \« a matter of faith and ol 
with them to hold meetings." Std 
soon liberated. 

In interior places, where the nen^ 
things was not so well understood, a 
the local governors were more c<i 
th*! creatures and the tools of rich axi 
tial Armenians, it was still moreemy 
the Protestants with impunitv. In 
dia. after religious liberty liad ^>eeo pn 
to the Protestants, Uic ' brethren vit 
abused in the streets, and their houaS 
In Adabazar, a Prot<stant teacher wi 
chains and sent to prison, on thtf 
charge of disturbing tnc peace, thoa^ 
in liio town was rSilIy more peaeeSi 
he. At Trehizond, a mob of women 1 
with heavy utones, two females who ; 
turning from lh»" preaching of the nU^ 
and bfcausc their husbands endeot 
shield them from h-irm, these hnsba) 
thrown into prison, and there strel< 
with their faces dol^■nwards, upon 1 
damp gronnd, and their feet confined 
stoelwi In this painful |>osttir») tt 
left for a whole day, without footj, wi' 
became in$en^ble, and was more df 
alive when he was removetl. Th« tf 
carried to Constantinople, and thert 
close confinement for several month* 
eccutors, who were influential, instsul 
it that he v/as a disturber of the peal 
dangerous man. In the same pla(%, o| 
casion of the desith of a Protestant far| 
house where the body lay was wii 
stones from n fnrious mob, and 
was made to prevent the bnrial. 
sary duty could only be performed, at 
der shelter of the night, and by paying 
one dollars for permission to dig a 
the public highway ! At Erzrum an i| 
mob forcetl its way into the hoose 
Smith, and bore away a priest of th« 
who had escaped tliither to avoid pen 
he b"ing n Protestant in .sn'ntiment 
aftermiriis returned with renewe<l fur 
Into thb bouse a second time. feU« 
ground a native assistant and also a p 
the doctor, and destroyed seven or efi 
dred dollars' worth of books and hrn 

Even in thf» capital it5elf, at the b 
the first Protestant adult after the sm 
the procewion, in returning from tq 
was followed by a mob of Armcnll 
first began to fil-mit in a highly insnH 
disgraceful maiAter, unng the moet Q 
gnngr ; and a^|e^wards to hurt trtoocELi 
which were ojf in enormous size. 1 
thus followed wte procession for a rjoii 
mile or more, when they amounted to 
a thousand per«onp. .Several of the A 
brethren, and one at least of the inl^ 



M 



ARMEKlANa 



149 



I rtrmck with the stones, though proTideo- 

^ tUty DO ow wu seriously injured. la all 

ftnar i-rt=n«, ftjid uumborless others of a similar 

lurkish tribuiwls were iuimediutcly 

■ fur redrew; aod this was, soouer 

luitMl sure to be obtaiDcd, though 

• to the full extent Ihiit was due. 

■. '\'eruor ordered tb<j civil 

:'lcr3 of the Armenian 

- ■■! tbt'ir opprcssiund, 

> longer belong tu 

t tit interfere widi 

n. cren. was 

1 ■ iio mob. At 

i-erd were regularly sla- 

- of the I'rotiitant place 

fliiwii4>. «A itiiig OA such a step was con^id- 

iBMMwuy. By the prompt and decisive 

'■■H of th« Unitwl .Suu-a Minister at 

the domiitrt^ Hustuiiied nt Krzrfim 

ivere n?i>aid, and four of llie 

>b were imprisonod. And tn 

:he police took effectual m«L5- 

thi* recurrence of such di.*- 

,w ihifsfi dtscribcd in conuec- 

t. funeral. 

of the i'rotcslanta wu Still an 

I oae in Turkey. They were eepar- 

Ihe Armenian community, but nut 

t with ADy utJier. The TnrkiJth govern* 

lielenutued they shuuld not bemo> 

, by the Patriarch '«■ hia miniatiTB, but 

'ri^t to do with them was not mi cosily 

A'TurdiriLf to the municipal re(;TiIa- 

t*0M of C'MiitantuiupIe. nt.-itlitT inarriinre, 

I **|*irni, n-ir burial can be perfurmed without 

|liit|liHiiceof tlic civil power. A certifl- 

lahha Uw Patriarch must be presented to 

|lbb(B4g(tho police, to procure a jMrmit for 

fMRiagQ. The name of every child baptized 

Itiecommuuicatod by the Patriarch to the 

"Offcvr, ttir enrolment ; and proviuua pcr- 

■90 tnuBt be obtaineil, tbrouK'i tlie Patri- 

ifrim the Board of Health, for every burial. 

4m thb, no penOD can travel in tho couq- 

tiy vithoot ft paasport, and no pos^rt can be 

«AititMd without the Fatriarcn's voucher for 

tbtbtiocKly of I he man. Atflrstitsoi'nu?*! tu Ix' 

fi« pUa of the government, that while tlic 

PMoiUmU aboaid be entirely fteparatcd from 

ikt PatriMv-.h. »o far as relifrioas matters were 

ttaomK»i. h^: mii^ht stilt be left to act fur 

IVmi u their civil roprcs.-nlative at the Porte. 

iTVs vfti i*\n}a found to be utti^rly Jmpractica- 

\Vk T^TTi" twined to bo two principol ob- 

li lizin^^' tbein rosulurly into ■ 

iimunity ; namely, the fewness 

and the strcnj; objections of 

ving frTf.»t iiillniMu-e n-ith the 

i h'-y were iXMHCipicntly loft for 

It yt-nr and a half with their rights 

....{ ,,,,) .vf wlfL.-iit any reffiilar 

If - from invu- 

1', to friMJUCDt 
lOos, such as liavc 



boea dcscribod. Aod it is nlwayB U> be nodor- 
stood, Ibat Prot«(anl3 in the intmor were 
e-xposed to (greater trials of thiA sort in pro- 
portion to the remotcnesa of their sHuaHoD 
from the capital. 

But though the patience of the evanf^eltcal 
Amienians was loug tried in variotu; ways, 
through their imperfect acknowlcilgment by 
the government, gtill there was a graduiu 
melioration of their condition evidently going 
on, which, to such as were watebinp wifja 
rcusoonbic espwliititms, t!ie sigas of the times, 
was highly encoaroping. It is impofisibic for 
thoee who have never beeu in like circnm.<tau* 
ces, to conceive of the degree of gatisifticlion 
and cncouraj^ement felt by the Proteslnnla 
when they were for the first time permittod to 
bury their dead in peace, under the protection 
of the ci>Tl power, and to procnrc a permit 
for marriage, aod a passport for traveling, 
witliout the moiliation of the Patriarch. The 
fiecnnd adult funeral among them wa*" in strik- 
ing contrast with the first. It oceara-d on 
the Sabbath, and in the procession were from 
100 to 150 native Protestaul*, with their pas- 
tor at their h<«d, carrying a copy of the Herip- 
turea in hk hand. All inarched silently and 
solemnly, at mid-day, through the most pnblio 
street of Pera, to the Protestant burying- 
ground, under the protection of a bixly of the 
police. It wag a new and wonderful spectaclo 
for Turkey ; and Eho]>kcc-perH and artisans 
along the way turned aside from businrss for 
the moment, and inquired, What new tiling is 
this? llithorto the funenil procossionii of 
native Christians hai] been accompanied with 
gilded crosses elevated in the air. and candles, 
and priestly robcB, and chanting^. It was 
wbispered from mouth to mouth. '• ThcjMi are 
the ProtcMtants. See how the government 
protects them 1" Some of the Mussulmans 
said, " Look I Tlicre arc no crosses ! no sing- 
ing! Tliis is as it should be." 

Several buudredtj of |rtople of difleredt 
classes gathered aroand tho grave, where a 
hymn was sung, and a Rhort but earnest and 
appropriate addreaa was delivered by the pus- 
tor. Many went home fnjm that burial with 
new and more correct iinprwyions of what 
Protwtanliym ryally l^ The moral inlliience 
of the whole spcctaclo was highly salutary, 
and it was felt by nil that an im[>ortaut point 
hud been gained to the Protestant cause. The 
internal growth of the community -was onat 
in a<tvance of the external. N<i week pasood 
without furni-ihing evidence of the special pro- 
icnce of Ciod'a .SpiriL 

But in eight short montlw a heavy affliction 
lM!fciI thcrhurrli in the capital in the death of 
Wa beloved and useful pastor. His labors, and 
rarois and anxieties had been abundant, and 
he wad the object of many a shaft from tho 
eueniy. Ue was sometimes thrown inti-> vory 
exciting scenes, in the midst of mobji, raised 
in the streets to vrx the Protestants. Ouly s 



tbori time prcvicniB to bis dOAtb, lie Thit<^ 
Nic(tEQ«lia; and while there, was called to 
utteutj the fuiifral of a Protestant brother. 
As the procession paawd along ihii strwt, 
thousand:! of bustilu Armcfiians were OKM^m- 
blcd. to luoct it n-ttb insults ood abuse. Ar- 
rived at the place of burial, this rabble gftth- 
cavd around the gmvc, and Mr. Khachadftrvan 
took the t)p]Hirtniiity of preaching to them iho 
GosjKsl of Christ. They listcnt'O iij piTft.'ct 
silwnw. and then went quietly to their Iiomes. 
Th« piwior returned to CoiL^tuntlnonle, over- 
coin*^ by exertion and excitement. Within n 
weekthewaa expf^scd to the warrj-iDe intlucnc»j 
of a siiuilnr outru);e. at the funei-alof a Pro- 
testjuit duld, in the capital. Hts last disease 
immi'dinti*ly itevolopco itvlt which was pro- 
nounced by ajudicioud j^hv^tician to be a dis- 
ease of the braiD, iiiductKl by cxc(^£sivo mental 
ufTurt niid excitt-mcnt, a djc^caso in thi^ Ctirm, 
acarcely known in the country. During mi^st 
of his illncsfl he w&.q dclirioiw, bnt hw ruling 
passion was constantly showing itself. Scarc^^ 
ly anything else woa heard to proceed from 
his li|» but the name of tlie beloved Saviour, or 
what pertained to hia kingdom and glni-y. Tlw 
rofwn went ubroad anioiig his fluperstitioujt 
euoioies thatGoil hadsinitton him with raving 
matinee and despair, in coiwectnence of thi- 
winthemaii of the Church, which rested upon 
Iiim ; and great would have becu their glory- 
iug, had his eun thiu set under a cloud. Bui 
the eariieat supplicuLions of hia Church were 
heard: the cloud was lifted up; the laboring 
mind was uivihackloil ; ard the departing 
saint wa5 permitted to magnify the grace of 
Chrifii, by declaring how abundantlv ho was 
suatnined in that SMJeniii hour. A ithort time 
before he died, in am«wer to inquirieK, he said, 
that his heart was '■ fidl of sin, but Jesus Cliriiil 
was his rightcouane*', hia panctificalion, and 
his reilcm^tion ;" and that his hope was " not 
at all in hia own merits ; but only in the Irec 
<ind infifiiti:- grace of God." 

A brother of the deeoajted, Wr. Simon Kha- 
chadiiryau, was shortly after electt-d. and or- 
daineil pa.'Jtor in his plare. He had been 
educated al the Bebek Hcminnry, :ind potwess- 
od rare qualitica fL)r the office to which he was 
Ciilk-d, and which he still continues to adorn. 

Two nther pupik of the same seminary, Mr. 
Avodia, and Mr. Mugnrdich. were licensed to 
pn!ach the Gospel. 'ITie latter wa.q snbso- 

?aonttv ordained as pastor of the Erangolical 
'hnreh in Trebizond, and the former as co-^av 
tor in CoDstaniinople. Anolher pastor was 
ordained in Nicomc^Ua in the Intlcr part of 
November, 184". Thw was Mr. Hariilnn Mi- 
Dusimi. llisonlinat ion was attended by circmn- 
glances of jHiculinr intercut. HislittloiSockhHd 
been for many years ex]>oacd to almost constant 
peraoeution. Oftentimes they were driven 
from the al>ode3 of men, and compelled to hold 
their worship in the distiint fiolos; and even 
there, they w«re never Bare of being left na- 



molwted. Now tlicy had a uUoe for ^ _ 
worship in the very heart or the city; 
there, at mid-day, on the Sabbath, the 'ordiDA< 
tiou services weru performed — no one daring 
to " mo!c(!t them or make them afraid." 

Miwionary tonrs performed through varioaft 
part5 id the interior of the conntry, hn^n^ 
to light many encouraging facts in re. i ' 
the extent of the work of reform. In ii 
wa.s there a more remarkable mu^'emeru >->^\i 
at Ainbib, a town situated about three dnvg* 
rido north-cast from Aleppo. Some copies of 
the Scrii>tnrcs, and other books from the ia» 
sion press, had found their wnv to this town, 
chienv through the agency of Bedrog vartalxsl, 
who labored a.-^ a colporteur in those parU ; 
and a few individual.*, ny the blea=!ing of Go4 
on the simple rending o^ the word, had tbdr 
eyes opened to wh^ the tTrnrs of their Cliurrh. 
Soon after, the Patriarchal bull agninst jiriest 
Vertancs© and the other evangelical b- ' 
was rcceivctlfrom Con?tantinople, and i 
read in the Church, niosc who hod b-. . .1 ■ -n- 
vinced of tlic truth now learned, fiir the Cut 
time, that there existed in the Artucuiau com- 
munity a body of men who take the Bil>le sA 
their only guide. This greatly cueouragwl and 
strengthitned them, boon after, a vartabcii 
cione to Aiiitab. and bi-gan to preach tb» 
evangelical doctrines in the Armenian Olinrcbr 
in the most bold and zealous manner. Ho waa 
interoyting in his appearance, and elotpient in 
his speech ; ami with great fearl(-i;3nes? did he 
expose the errors of hia Church, m ' ' ' 
great power get forth the peculiar do' ' 
the Goiipel. Very many wero convi: 
him of the truth, and were led to i> 
Iheir previous errors, and openly avou ::. ... 
»5elvi:s a? Protestants, It t-eemed na though 
the whole fabric of superstition in Aintab 
mn.H speedily fall. It was soon disc^ivervd 
that this new nnd kcuIous preacher of the evan- 
gelical doctrines, wns himself evangelical only 
in name. His moral character provwl to he 
inf:imniifl, and ho wa.^ twnt away in .i' 
The fruits of h'w preaching, however, r- > 
although he proved so unworthy nn iasiniinnit- 
The evangelical brethren iroroedialely prepnretf 
a letter, signed by eighty-two hi>H(N of familin, 
reqnAting that a missionary might forthwith 
\yQ sent to them. Mr, Van Lenncp, of (\)D- 
stantinople, went in obedience to the calli 
thoujrh not to remain permanently, as they 1 
hop«i. |[)d vi^it was timelv andosefbL 1 
place wns aftcrwawU ri-<iite(f hy Mr, John 
oy Dr. Smith, and by Mr. Schneider; ati 
flourishing church was gathered, nnd one of ^ 
largest cttogregations of l*n»t»stants in 
Turkish empire I The condition of the 
meniau.-* in all that section of the country ' 
highly encouraging. 

In the latter part of the summer of II 
R<?v. liiftac G. BIlss and wife arrived in 
ctiimlJT from America, and procceried to 
Mr. Fcabody in hifi labor in ErTTfim. 



■MgnBeal Annealan Church hml t>eea organ- 
bri UUn ia April, aiK) atmlhfir wilh formed 
kBrftn in July, making' scvi-n \i\ all. 
1 ■' yo.w 1W7 Sir 8lratfonl Canning n- 
u »eii.s<'a to bii natiro lund, and 
■ ■■ .1* itpitDtnUi) to occanv. U'mpo 
He nrnvftl liimwif to be ikt 

-.^... _.. : a friuiiu of rcligioafl freeJom ne 

b pmleccepor. He exerted huniuTlf with the 

■M ■ttrtniitting zcfll to secure to the Pro- 

laUat Arni'Miians a distinct rocog-nilion on the 

ptl of tlu' Forte, and a foriiml orgauizatioa, 

tlnd) shimM yhu-v tbent oil llii* ttuiiio footing 

tWi nil oth'T ''liri'iiiuu eommiuiitio* in the 

«![■' ■- !ii'b!e cffortit w*'rc crowned 

r "i HI.' ('a. Od the 15tb of No- 

1^1 ii, lit! procurt-d from the Turkish 

,t an iuii»oriid dterco, rccottiiiziiig 

i»^.... ...j,tj( ftfl constitulinj; a pojmmU? 

t comraiintly in "I'lirkcy, In 

... :.. ij.1 r-optr it was doolured that 

hiU^r^ritiCf wliatcvcr should be |wrmittcd 

t/^iopuml or spiritual concerns, on the 

|V1 of tiiQ [Alrinrclifl, monks, or priests of 

iilher KCt^" *r\iia decreet was imiiLedialcly 

nt Id all the Fuhaa tn the interior, undor 

^Mjurudictioa Protestants weru known to 

A.'i iniiirklul elected by tlie new com- 

iras f<irinallj recognized by the rov- 

, I M the agent and repreaenltUive of the 

fMateltts at Iho Porte. 

^ lb cmidgeiical brvthrca in Constantiooiile 

vmHaUily apMinted n day for special 

loolqriving and prayer. Great woh the jov 

•flifProlestanta in every part of the lonil, 

thn^ Mill it was, in many cnspx, njoicing 

^irtmUiti^. At the dimui^nt miivtioimry 

iitiooi gnater botduttd in attendiui; the 

pMkuag oT the Ooapd wai noUoed. and a 

M» IcBjnba atemed to be givm to the spirit 

rf bqdi7. The special inflnences of the 

%irit wen CJrtensiTcly enjoyed, though in no 

BM^OMitmt the Female Seminary in Coo- 

iatiaofu, waji the mOT't^ient gejiiiral enough 

^ fa faigpBtwl as a revival of religion. In 

it4irtrict of ijcghi, sotill)-WL-:9t of Kncrum, 

VHtUkg fVom twelve to Hftpen thuu:^and 

n^Mr. Peubody fouitd very promising iodi- 

crtMM of aa cjcten^ivc religious awakening. 

IW rftrtabcfl hinirH^lf was the most dccidra 

•nanUcftl nan in the community. For per- 

■WMnrity, be viif obliged to Qec to BrxrQia, 

iIbp. «ft*T a ^iiffirii-nt tnul. he was revived 

Itv ' ' I ( 'harr-h. At Aiutab, the 

dr 1 ropid, perhaps, than any- 

■fcm-i L^- ji-, .-.riiiieidcr, i)f tlie BrOsa station, 

the sontmr'r of 1848 in luboni there, 

— atiori sleiulily 

'I to iearfi.uu* 

.,.. A very jntel- 

iit to the faith, nod 

re Llian ouce. to the 

At a comiumnou 

, lereiitocu persooa 

! hUoU iw U>e CUurvU. five of whom were 



mu 



log irbirh lime 
ifcrcMoi. and many 
^tbeprrachirv' 'i 
Wnl frioct be 

9g(m %x>' 



femalee. During the same month. Dr. Smith 
returned to Aiolah, where he took up hw rod- 
dcncc OS a missionary of the Board, together 
with hifi wife. Tlie importance of iho Miation 
was such, that it was determiuct] that Mr. and 
Mrs. Schneider, of BrOsa, should Iwconie per 
mntientlv cuuDectefl with it ; the fame f*(eumcr 
which Drought away Mr. Hi-hiicidrr from 
(fbendik, tlmiwrtof HrOKi.rnrrii-'l l«irk Ihithrr 
to occupy hii* plarc, the Ilev. (Hivor I'miioaiKl 
wife, who had jiwt arrived fmm America. 

Among the evangelical Obristioos at Ailh 
tab a most cotnmendable zed had ^lowtt itself 
for the H]iread of the go.S[>el iu the town^ and 
villages around. Bereral attempts had Ijeen 
mode by individuals to labor as colportcuTH, 
bat they were never suffered to remain long io 
11 pliice. The Armeuian nrinuiten ea.Tily mo- 
ccc^lcd in persuading the Turkish authoritiOB 
to order them away aa vagabonds. A novel 
ejtperimcut waj; made, early in the year I849» 
to accomplish the object in view without .«!ub- 
jecting themselves to the charge of In-ing mere 
idh'rH. and " busyljodica in ot ber men's matters." 
Five individuohtwho liud trades, went forth to 
different towns, with their tools in one hand, and 
iho Hword of the Spirit in the other. Wherever 
they went they worked at their trades, while, at 
the some time, they labored fur the s]>iritual 
good of tlic people. The experiment succeeded 
to admiration. The spirit of n;ligiou3 inqairy 
was pprending from Aintab in ulmosl nil direo- 
lions. The congregation in the town itwif 
hod become so large, that two places were 
opened for worship at the same time. And 
frrim rarions towns and villager throughout 
the country, the most urgent appeals came 
from sottis uungeriog for the bread of life. 

In November, 1848, Mr. Hobanncs Babak- 
yen, having upcnt several years in study ifi 
America, was licensed at Constantinople to 
ppeach the gospel ; and in the foMowiiig .sjiring, 
tie was ordained as pastor of the evaueoUcia 
Armenian Church in A<labazar, where he hw 
been mnce hiboiing with great diligcnei; and 
ffliocvss. Mr. KhachadQr, a pupil of the Be* 
bek Heminary, was Ucensctl as a preacher in 
February', 1849. 

In Trebizond, formal permission was givcD 

by the governor to the Protestants, to oso as a ^ 

burying-ground a piece of land pnrchased fiar | 

this pnrptee throe years previously. As loag 

ago as January, ]'&48, a vidrial letter Imd 

been procorod, through the generous eObrts of 

' Mr. Carr, the United States Minister at the 

I Porte, onleriog tb6 ontborilics in IVcbizond 

to see that the Protcetants be pemiiltcd to 

have a cemetery of their own, but various dip- 

' ticultics had prevented on earlier accompli^ 

' ment of the design. 

I The rulluwing table presents a compivhei^ 
sive view of the prc«ent state of the misaioa. ^ 
iTlie figure at the left of each group of out- I 
'.itatious, indicates the station un*i(ir whose so-j 
' {jcrvislou Oicy respecUvcly are. 



ARMKNTAN& 



158 



Tkt TCtr 1 d-lH vras remarkable lor the nuro- 

bffiin extent of llrt conflAgratidiis in tlte uitjr 

tf (VnilaiittiH>plp; and ftmoug the providoD- 

taimfrrpi^iitons in behalf of the Protestant 

' he nirntioocti the fnct. that in 6rc 

Dt ioHtuDci^ thedevuiiriti}^ di^uii'til 

wjt near to the cbajiel uiid F(imali> 

D IVra, as to leave bat a faint 

,t thry t'uiiM i?sc:ipe ; and once even 

bctually boiriin to born, but thi? flames 

_ Lvdily "-'Xtiufraished, Again and uf;ain 

'^i<}iili.il ill tJMMiiiriji of tho enemy, "The 

i C'UapcI u i»uiuimcd ;" but in caeb 

[ta flMBca haiid was strclcjicd out to ar- 

ileitroytfr, and rare the Protestant 

from Ro fgTi^ii a disaster. 

Patriarch Muttcos' plans for the otpf- 

%or nf Prott-^tantiim in the country, had 

•►"•ilh a pi-'tii sipjol fiiiliin,'. Hi« own ny 

■''•'■'■ wound np tbo scene, lie 

of various frands npon the* 

p .ind aecordinft to the iftTiL-iiU 

a 1 ilie ra.se in llie Kr(-nrh jour- 

iiioph', "of actfl of injustice 

!i patriarchal dignity." He 

..^.:^ dcirrmied, and sentenced to 

A friendly banker, l;owcvcr, bo- 

y f<jr him, and procured his release 

lu \k» port of the punii^lnncnt. He has 

■Ktbn'Q hviiig in retirement on theshorcsof 

Ub Botfihoruii. 

0« liinils will not permit lu even in the 

Witlttuitii*r in which tliat of the iirerioua 

JMahii been uHren. to continue Oie sketch of 

Miptswting portion of mi^tooary history. 

VtMBQolyBdtfafewwordp. In IbAOthopori- 

fatflie Armrtiian Prolcatanfji wflA improT- 

4Md ilA[itrnian('Ucy secured by a firman of 

!v iii.Mf, <,hLained throog-h the inter[Kifiilion 

iford Canninf;, now l»rd Stratford 

V OS the completion of his noble cf- 

t«* in behalf of the rightit of conscience in 

TVrlnr. which gives to the ProtestantB all tlie 

incited to the other Cliriatlan 

; -i. What had before been done 

to I^ rever8<?d by a change of ad- 

II, or of the policy of the gorern- 

■»^^ 1 Lia 'u. beyond recall ; and the finnan 

fi*ai ia lK!i3, in answer to the demands of 

•■iaJor aQOlho' object, to the Prote^tuntji 

■ 1» the othCT rayah (non-mit-Mtdniuii) com- 

ftukitl.* roiriei forward the caose of religious 

ibcr step by declaring these coin- 

II an eqaolitr before the biw with 

•^ Uahamnvdan p(>pn1ation. What is to he 

^ t-rni- nf thf f4-nrful conllict, which while 

■: U waging for national exist- 

.1 to ns; bnt the analogy of 

i-iui the eontinnc-d progri'ss ol' the 

iightt-nmcnt and ^piriloul n'geiKTa- 

wi'din her (wndTf, encourage the hojie 

wiU be Hii»piciouD to the intcresta of 

^; ... ^ i.;,.,.i ... ^^ mighty eoctal, 

inn 16 iu progrua; 

, .,-.-a)Cftvor, but cannot 



defeat. We may confidently ejcpcct that the 
religious freiilom j^itctl to others will ^oon 
be aecnrod ecpinltj t^he Alohantmetlami. so as 
to allow the profession of CbriHtiunity by 
them ; and when that shall come, the work 
accomplished among the Armenians will be a 
noble preparation for uDothcr and slttl more 
glorious one among those heri'lofurc e.xcluded 
frnoi Uic direct eflbrts of the Church for their 
Falration. 

The progress for the last six years of the 
mi.-vsii)ii under review can easily be learned 
from the rt-[K)rtt( and oilier puhlicalionii of iho 
Itonrd. The coat at which Protestanlinm ta 
still profcased, keopa the in£Hu of the Pro- 
testant civil cimimunity. as yet, healtlifuJIy 
low ; whilo evidence of the spread of evaoget. 
icat N'ntimenta and the leavening influence of 
the Otifipel is multiplying on every hand. In 
•tome placf-H the outward development is more 
rnjiid than in othera. The greatcftt is in Cill> 
da and on tbe borders of Me^sopotamin. Dur- 
ing the ynir enibriLced iu the ruitort IVirlA.'>3, 
five new churches were organized ; one in Ho- 
dosto, on the Kuropean ahorc of the Marmora ; 
one in Sm\Tna ; one iu Morsovun : one in 
Killis; an^ one in Keesab. Ten others pre- 
viooRly cxiitted : vik., three in ConBtanlinople, 
and one each in NioomediOf Adabazar, Brusa, 
Trebizoud, Krzrum, Siva«, and Atntab. Tbe 
increase of members Iu their communion dar- 
ing the year was 90; making tlie total to be 
351 ; which at the end of IHfid was inrreoscd 
to 395. The number in the Pruiestimt civil 
community was about 2,000; of whom about 
1G0 were in Ke<9^b, a village of tlic Aiutab 
district, iu which two jTara before not an 
avowed Protestant was to be found. BrQsa 
has ceased to be a station of the nuH-ion ; the 
mit«iiinu.ri(-M having been Iron^ft-rred to other 
pl3rcs.an<l thi.4 leit to the care, under the over- 
.sight of the Constantinople station, of the n^ 
live ]>astor, 'Sir. Slepan Khachadfiryoji, bro 
ther to the two brothers who succeeded one the 
other in the pastorate at the eapitol. The 
press, formerly ut Smyrna, hoa been removed 
to the cnjiilal. The S'emale Boarding School, 
now having 25 pupils, has become established 
in tbe subarb of lioNekcuy. The seminary at 
Bebck has enlarged its numbers to 50, and is 
yearly sending forth educated yonng men to 
preach the Gospel, and occupy otber posts of 
imiwrlanee in connection with the work of 
the mit^ion. Ou both these achooUi the Holy 
Spirit haa dot^cciidod and wrought a work of 
eonvereion and iianclification in the hearts of 
their papihL The charchcs maintain discipline 
with great strictness, and exhibit a gratifying 
jtpectarle of Christian consistency and activity. 
The converted Annenians ore indeed a Kenlous 
and effective body of cvoagelislo, whose laborv 
are not con6ned to any one claas or place. In 
all the <iivi«ions of society the^nflucnce of the 
tJoypel ii becoming more ejitended and power- 
;ful. A most cucouragtiig feature of the r^ 



154 



ARRAH— ASHAKTEE. 



fonnatioD is ibo wide oxt«Dt or ita influcuM 
seograpbically considered^blr. lAjard.of tho 
Cbarch of Eogliuid, who nu gainod m dtjecrt- 
cd a ct'lebrily byhis dwc<n'Brii-aat Ninevfh.in 
hift n^-ciit piihlirntioD, rWpfl incideiitH|iU'atiing- 
ly illustrating this ; bdo in a pua^agc, too long 
ror quoUliuu, in which be culoH-izcs the Aiuct- 
iOttQ niisniouaried fnr their "juuiciuiis, earDust, 
■ad Z)culuii9 exerttotu," ami epenka of tho 
chunj^ fur tho brtt^T whicli thi-y are efltfot- 
ing in the Anucnian Cbarch and on iu flcr- 
gy, ho Bays that " tborc is now scarcely a town 
of any importance in Tnrkcy without a Pro- 
tflstant commuiilty." (Kineveb and Babylon, 
p. 405.) In the irports of the Boanl for 1852 
and 1S53, lists of townsi containing cont^idcro- 
Wy more than 100 names arc iutrwlnccil, in 
woicb there is so decided a devolopmnit of a 
spirit of io(|niry. in connection with the fact 
of the pn^cnw in each of truly enliflitened, 
and one or more of whom hope Is ciittTtainwl 
that they ore truly regenerated, individuals, as 
to JmpOBC an urgent necessity for evangelical 
instruction tn Iw cxtrndiHl to them. "From 
every part of the laml," wiys Mr. Dwigbt, 
" ronios t'j us one appcul, ' Hend i« preachers,' 
' Rend u3 pri'acbtjw.' " And, says Mr. Sohnei- 
dw t»f thf? Ainliili alatJon," VVe'aro constantly 
rueeivirii; ciiIIr fur Bomeone to preach the gos- 
pel. These calU wnx more loiid and more 
earnest ertry month. Sometimes 1 almost 
fttir to hnve the poet arrive, lest some 8uch 
app-.'nl, to which w»! cannot n^pond, come to 
incri'ftitp onr perplexity." 

The mission in connection with the misaion of 
tho Koai-d to tbt- Jews in 'l\irkey, baa ten fonts 
of type in the Armenian, Greek, Hul;rarian, 
and Hebrew languages. There are cnrollwl 
Prolw-laiits in places when' tho misHon has 
no laborers, and who, theref jre, ar.? not inclu- 
ded in the tabular view ; viz.. IHmk. 23; 
Mukgcrd, 10, etc. The ivbolc iiuuiivr iu 
the ooQDtry b not known. 

PRlKTINa. 

VlmW nantwrnrvnU. priutM In IIm jsu.. - 16,000 
'• " " traeto " " " ,. 13,000 

" " •< !«■» of Seriptunt •' .. ],«Ta,ooa 
" " " " iraeu «»•! booki •■ . . a,ftM,000 
Whola No. of ooplu printed Uoiing Ui« jur 33,000 

«t •' p*gM ■■ *• '. u 5.ai8.«00 
'• coptenrroii) tbtb^ouitip,.... 1,M3 -ilO 
" " pi«M 121,T80'0fl0 

Daring tho present year (1654) at least eight 
miMionarics. with tlieir wives, arc expected to 
be added io the mission, and the following 
places to be speedily occupied as slutioii-*, vj^., 
Toriil, Koi-=ery, Sinui. and perhaps Oorfa, Ma- 
TMh, and Kharpoot 

In the preparation of the foregoin? article. 
fVee U9P has Ixtn made of Smith and Dwight's 
Raeardtn in Armmid, and DwigbtR ChnMtan- 
ity Hevived m the Earf.— Rkt. G. W. Wood. 

ARRAH : A town in Bahar. 35 milca W. 
by S. from Potna, in Cochin, India ; a station 
of Owner's Mispionary Society. 

AROEANOAI: A sUtion of the I/ondon 



MiflBionary Society on the Island of Rorol 
ga, one of the Ucrvey lahuidB. 

AURACAN : A proviuoc of the Ba 
Kmpiro ceded to the English East India < 
pany, in Id'Jti. It li« on tho eastern 
of tho Bay of Bengal, and embraces ]6i 
e^juure miles, and cuutainfl a popalatioaj 
about 250,01)0. It is ilivide«l into four \ 
iriets. Akyab, Sandoway, Aeng and Ran 
It \& the fieut of a fiouri'shing nii»<ii(iu of 
American Baptist Misioaary Uoioo, wk 
was begnn in 1835. 

ASe^EN810N ISLAND: An 
in Mitirt'iiesin, three hundred mile* fn 
Strong's Ltlund, a station of the Aoic 
Board, 

AS-UAN'TER: Ashantoe ia include 
that general divuiini of Wejrtiirn Africa wh 
bos been denominated Guinta. Tboemp 
AshaDtec is not so much one state, as ani 
blago of states, uwinga kind of feudal obe(_ 
to the sovereign of Asbantije. The cmpir_, 
cording to Dapuia, extends westward (rom J 
river \ olta, about four degrees, and about P 
degrees inlaud frum tho Ould coast, cump 
an area of about 60,000 Hqoare mites, 
embraces, alao^ several provinces cadt of ths 
Volta. Over the whole of this ttTritory thg 
king of Ashautee ejcerciAos absolute ewiqr, 
all the kings, viceroys, or caboccera, being ha 
abeolute aixl unconditional vasala. Bat tho 
]iou-cr of the kin^f 13 somewhat limited, by tho 
principle of tho ancient Medes, and PcTBians, 
that a law once passed can never be changed'; 
and the caboccers and captaias cJaiin to be 
heard on uU ipiestioiis relating to war and for- 
eign politics, which ore cou.iidercd in a ffcooal 
assembly. The king employs a number of 
Iwys, Iruined for the puriHise, who are placed 
OS spies on the great men, and rejKirt to thd 
king all they see and hear ; thus verifying thf 
words of tiolonion : '* C'uree not the king, for n 
bird of tho air HhoiJ carrv the voice, and ihail 
whicii bath wiuga shall tell the tnattGTi" 
Speaking against tho king is puntHhod as inm 
»ou. The king has the pn)pCTly as well ma tin; 
lives uf hid people iu his power. He is the 
legal heir of all bis people, and can claim wXl 
\\\v\r gold at their death. The produce of tiu 
gold mines is the property of the king. Thfl 
gold contained in tau soil of the market plaot 
of Kumasi also belonfrs to the king ; and 01 
two occarion^ tho washings of this soil yieidd 
1600 ounces of gold. Freqacutly, after a nua 
lumps of gold are laid bare; but they an 
covered up again, for any one picking thca 
uji would lc«e bis head. On the public reo^ 
lion ofvisitore at the capital, the king la RUig^ 
nificently attired iu silk, with necklaces, braoe< 
lets, knee-bands aad ankl&«tjing8 of gold and 
beads, with various other omament«. soma d 
which nro of maasive gold. The throoe il 
coveriMi with plates of gold ; and all hta tii 
teodant« are decked in a corrcspondiug fityJf^ 
each bearing the emblems of his office ; 



ASIL4NTEE. 



165 



Rl&/r pre^eotlDg a very Imposing appe&mnco. 
Ou liic*' occftfliong, tlic marKct pTucc. which « 
»(->«t B mile in circuiuft^rctiee, is jreneniUy 
VTheu Mr. Freeman was reccivecl, 
.;.>) thp nnmbor present al 40,000. 
rhotn ffoiv soldiers. The Ashatitec 
is heni-litarT ; but inslciid of de- 
from futher to son, il juvsacs from 
I brolhpr. A frmalo emiiiol ascoitd 
he ; bat if, when the \ttst uf tb^ lino of 
I dSv, hb sister has a bod, the crowo 
terada to him. 

Axonctic slarory exiBts in Ashnntpp.and the 

fita Mtd aervIccH of the slaves arc at tho din- 

^ of (heir masters. Yet the treatment of 

tltf riavf% 15 Drtt uniformly harsh and sevpre ; 

:i f Iiivc hpccxnfN heir to hia mxi- 

.15 instances, they rl^c to power 

fc-ri ■III- . 1 lie foreign shivc-tradr*, mra livv- 

«lnj.ijTnJiicd by the nnlive priucw, not only 

L.U. :.~..--,i i,nt ofl an outlet for a re<iuudfjnt 

1. which often becnmos bo proat 

L.iptivcs taken in war, as to be 

tant. 

Wwamjf prevails in Ashanlcc to a fHjrht- 

Tnicnt- It irt said that tho law allow3 tho 

^to hare 3333 wives ; about half a doixn 

-J are kept at the palace at a time, and 

I lirp on IiIh plantutioii, or at the capi- 

; two fftroetP are ilevoted to their a.ae, 

f lAw-'h no one Is pemiitteil to enter ; and 

Sttjry pi abn>a(l, no one iaallnwetl to look 

>p«j twill. Tho chief men of the nation have 

Bianywlv- ^'ctf.rrnre able to procure. Mar- 

ri^V r- I withnnt coni«nliinff the 

noan, tv.: n infancy and childhood. 

h .WiwifN' and the neighboring countries. 

•^ TiilTjnyny prm'ails. the husband lives 

-tp, who dwell in houses 

'.'t cHch other, in tho form 

I . some Cities, thoyrenmin with 

tier morriajrn. They cook ami 

;li?ir husband, but art' not ol- 

1" ih hirn. Sometinics his chilil- 

■: '■ t more rretpionlly. he cut« 

;i are left cbietiy to the 

■^. and prow up without 

"I tlte iwrvenwnerifl of the 

^f; V endnroci, the father pan- 

w» bira by cat tin;; off nn car. Unfaithful- 

■* on tlir'ijnrt of a irife. is punished witli 

wwrity ; liritu nartioa bcin* fioroctimes pun* 

iiM rith dwith. *mt mnre fn-finenlly with a 

% ' ' ln-r jmrainmn*, in do- 

k: I ratJ>offhernoe& If 

*y -'■■iiui;; 1" ilia private convpTsa- 

'" an ear. In Aiihant«e one of 

ife .-' '•■ made jji'VL-rnor of all the 

»• : ! in. The women of As- 

Iw i< ;ithen land;;, arc made the 

"Jn men, the heaviest work being 

II , :i l>ecn made from Kumoj^i, or 
Cv^-:...v , . : ir eaptal uf Ashantw, lo the 
■Qit Uutoiit jnu-td of the empire, andUicseare 



I intersected by nufflcroas otoMtffr The 

' population of tiiQ Aitat has been catlmatcd 
at lUO.OOO. and or the whole kingdom, at 
•1.000.000. 

Wou'w.— The jVflhantoGS, and other ualivcs 
contijnioiM to tho eoost. build their hotiacs of j 
Diud iind sticks with a verandah in front, froo 
which the door oix^na into an open court*"' 
around which are nuilt. luita or »he<lH, fiir the 
dillcrcut membera of the hoiLsehold. AH the 
housvs in the capital of .V^bantoc arc of 
aort, except the csetle of the king, which ii of^ 
atone. 

Art*. — The Ashantces ore inp:cnioti3 artiHts 
in the ppeeioui metals whieJi their country pro- 
dnoes. Jrcn is manafactured to aconsiderahlo 
extent. They can'e and work in wixmI with 
no little skill. The art of tanninfr lejither is 
understood. Tbey have made considerable pr(H 
^nts ill weaving, and have done something at 
jKJtIory. 

TkuU.—T^w spirit of tnule docs not prevail 
ofl much with the Ajihanb.'os an with some of 
the ndjoiniog countries, and the trade is mostly 
confined to the king and his chiefr, who carr; 
on a considerable traffic with liie interior. 

Reiigion. — ^Thc notion of a Supremo Bein 
lies at the foundotlou of their rcligiooa BV*tciL_ 
He Li called Yatihtmpmt, from yanktti frivod^J 
and jton, great. Another name iue<| by tlio' 
Pnntew, Yeinnt, from yeh, to make^ ond emit 
mo, recognizes him as the Creator. Tho As- 
bantecs also give him a title which siimifies oto"- 
uol existence. They have a curiou.'t trodi- .- 
lion of the creation, which represents <jod a*^^ 
having cre:ited three whit4^ men and threO' 
black, with AR many women of each color, and 
allowing them to fix their destiny, by Uw 
choice of guod and evil A box or calabaah*^ 
and a scalod ]>aper were placed on the groandr 
The hlflck men, who bad the first choice, took 
tho box, in which they found only a piece 1 
gold. Home iron, and other metalii, whichi 
they did not know bow lo use. 'l'h<? whitJtti 
men oix-mnl the pajXT, and it taught them 
every thing. The black? were left in Afri- 
ca, under the caro of inferior deities, while tho 
whites were conducted to the wotcr-sidc, where 
Uod commnaicated with tbom every day, and 
taught them to build a vessel, which carried 
them to another country, &c. To thi«i tradt 
tion, it is fmpposcd their polytheism may be 
traced ; which ia very similar to tbiit of the 
Vonibas. (See Yoruba.) To the innumerable 
objects of wonihip iu nature ia added imogca 1 
of tho same. But they do not profess to wor- 
ship the objects themwlvia but the spinlSt 
which make their abode id ihesn. To theaa 
they make offi>riDgs, having micb crude notiooB j 
of ^piritnal beings as to suppose that they r&> ., 
rjuirc food. 

Tho notion of a future stftto unirensally pre- 
vail)*. It is believed that, at death, Uio sunl 
pa:«aea into another worM, where it exists in a 
stale of ooDHUNUDBM and activity. Tbey bo- , 



156 



ASIA. 



• 



liere that the spirits of their d«parU)d reltitiTeB 
exercise a goaraiaD caro ol|t tnem, and hence 
prayurs are offered to tliem. llicy havo, how- 
ever, DO correct ideas of the iiiniiutiiriality of 
aeparato pniritd ; nor do tbev appear to have 
AUTJust idea of ttie imniurtulity of the soul. 

!rhey btlicvc iu the existence of the devil, 
an evU hcin^ dauposed to \)ti ever at hand for 
porpoees of mischief; but be doua not appear 
to bo ail object of worship with the Ajihon- 
tecs. 

IVnoea of the Sabbath are found iu this part 
of Africn, the year beio^ divided iuto moous, 
aud tiie moous into veek^ the seveath day of 
which is reganled as sacred. Aloog the coas* 
the Bucrcd dav is Tuesday ; oti whicii the peo- 
ple rest from lubor, dress in white, and mark 
tliL'UL-wlvfs with white clay. They have also 
their " lueky " and •* unhicky days." 

Tlie priests or " fetinli-nien," are a numeroiiH 
order, and employ a variety of stratagems and 
impostores to keep np thuir influence. The 
word "fftish," aeenis to he emplnyeil as a geue- 
ral term for thioj^s B&cred ; thuK, the deitii.t{ 
thciB£clves aru called fetishes, as well as the 
religious rites, and the offering presenter). 
These acU of worship are daily perlurmetl I'V 
the people, and they consult their deities hy 
various su[H'rstiti()ns practices, answcriiifr to 
the lot, to ascertuiu wniit course of conduct to 
porsoe ; a practice which necessarily loads to 
the subjection of judfrinent aud rea.soa to blind 



every possible variety of climate, from 
dreary confines of the polar world, to 
heart of the tropical re^pous. Every thing 
in Asia is on a vast ecale : its mount"'""" 
its table-lands, \l& deserts. The graoi] 
feature, aud one which makes a camp' 
HtctioQ of the continent, is a chain of m<) 
taJoj. which, at various heiKhts. and 
various names, but with very little, if any.j 
terniption, crosses Asia from the Mcdit 
nean sea to the Eastern ocean. Tuuros, i 
casus, and the Himalaya, are the iK-^t kno 
portions of this chain. On the one side it] 
Houthem Asia, the finest and most cxten 
plain in the world, covered with the ric 
tropical products and watered by mngoifi 
rivtTs procee^Hu;^ from this prcat stortvho 
and filled with popiiluns nutioitg ami i^jcat i 
plrcs. On tlie othiT Hide, thw ehaiii serve* j 
a bulwark Ui thi; wide lable-Iund of 
which, though under the latitude nf \hv 
of Europe, haa many of the chamcteristics i 
northern region. To tho north, the rco 
obiwrvatious of Humboldt exhibit ilircc _ 
allel chains, the Hicntim or Muur Togh, 
Tliianchan or Celestial Mountains, and tlS 
Altaian, which also support table-lands. But 
thosse do not exceed 4,000 to 0.000 feet, acoord- 
luf^ to Uuniboldl, iind in niuny places e^joy tk 
mild iind t^'miMtratc climate, yielding not only 
grain, but wine aud silk. Elsewhere, thny art 
covered with rich pastures, and tcanalcd with 



sway over the minds of the people ; uml on 
great occ^ons, when the qutstions to be di> 
tismined are of public importance, human sa- 
crifices are offered, sometimes to thy number 
of many hundrcik This consulting of tho 
fetish is also connected with witchcruft. Oatlis 
are administered by it ; and accuf^ persons 
are tritsl by what is callf^l the " oath-draught." 
which is the drinking of a piiisooons draught 
as a test rif gnilt or innocency. in which it la 
supposed that the spirit or fetisli goes down 
with it, and searches the heart of the accused, 
aud if it (inils him innocent, returns with it, as 
he voinit« it up; but if guilty the fetish re- 
mains to destroy him. It will rtadily be jwr- 
ceivcd that such a system, in the bauds of wily 
pricsta and powerful chiefs, is capable of beJnt? 
made an engine of immense oppression and 
cruelty. To obtain a supply of victims for 
their altars, is the principal end for which the 
national deities are supposed to promote war ; 
aud the saoriHco of their prisonei-s beeomisi a 
religious obligation. Hence, dreadful are the 
Rceaes of barbjirity exhibited after a victorious 
campaign. — Betduimn Asfiantee ami the Gdtl 
CoaM. The Eufflish Wesleyans have a mission 
to Aahantt* amf the Gold Coust, for which see 
Water » Africa. 

3IA : An immense continent, prcscating 



sapcrstitinn. It would be tediou.s to describe | numerous wandering races, ut once pastoral 
all the ceremonift! l>y which this wor.-<hip l< atid wnrlikc, whose victorious baiuLs have over- 
carried on. It is by consulting the deities by run and subju;:ate<I the empires of the Suutk 
means of oracles, that the priests hold their The Altaian chain separates Middle Asia fntm 

t^ibcria : a long range of tho bleaker hind on 
the face of the earth. Some of the sotithcm 
districts have been found, by tho Russians, ay 
pable of 8up[>orting numerous herds of caitie ; 
but the rest is abandone<l to wild animals, not 
generally of a ferocious character, but covered 
with rich and precious furs, which afford a 
grand object for hunting and trade. A^ia has 
Imx'U the scene of the most remarkable events 
in the hisUiry of tho human raee. In Asia, 
man was created, and fell. In Asia, his re- 
demption was accomplished by the iacama- 
tion, suficrings, and death of the Son of God : 
and from thence proceeded the messengers of 
the Saviour, the heralds of His gmpel, who 
])ublished thoso tidings of Divine mercy, which 
are now proclaimed on every continent, and on 
many of the remotest ialantU of the sea. Asia 
was the imrscry of learninKi and of tJie tirt3i,ui 
their earliest infancy. It nas been the sobooL 
and also the victim of the succcesive forms of 
false philosophy, and of idol worship. In Asia 
have existod some of the greatest empires, 
tbrouffh which have orii^lnatod tho most ur- 
iraordiuary revolutions ^in tlw affairs of Uie 
world. This immense continent, moreovert 
tei^ms with nations, and contains, on the mc 
inuderatc cstimalr, .')00,000,000 of luaukiod 
lioote't Yfar Book of Missiom. 



jiSUL 



m 



Kam of People. — Not only tbc majority of 
fa haman riuv, ia oamber, but also tbe 

rt:I*it vjiri'ty of Uic species, is foantl 
it:A of Aflia. The first fainilv. 
comprises ftll the origiDal in- 
toii.lAiiU u{ the mountoiuotu rc(riun Ijiug 
Wtv-.iii tli>: UIiu.-k Hva aoit the C^pian, fruu 
tbont t)w. 3vStli ta the 42*1 deprco of N. lati- 
tediL It inclu<l>!s the mDatitdluwrii nf tho vaU 
hp of thti Cuucastu. sach as the Abosians, 
(^afita, Le^hians, and Kuti ; and in the more 
fevttcDanUT, the GcorgionM, Mingn-Haiu, anil 
Aiawfaitw." In persona] form, this family muT 
fc<V>.rriJn>d as European, but in niind, Asi- 
f*ce ii of un oral form ; the fore- 
1 and o.tpandi<d ; the now ulerulcd, 
w.iX A nligbl convexity ; the tips mod<>ratc in 
BBf RTtd ih" chin full and round. The com- 
bat withnut the clenmesa of 
The ej'fs an? generally dark, 
I'lafk. 'I'hp stature 'n nearly 
'•pean, and the form sjmmet- 

1 iji the Arnbmn, called Semitic, 

i ^ thut they are di-woodcd from 

,ir , ull tlio aboriginal inhnb- 

. A.;iu MiiH.r, Syria, and 

•lie ^ieditorra- 

-■t coast of the 

-V bruuclti.'CMinplcxion ; block 

! eyis : long, lank, bluck hair; 

l« ; an oral face, in bold, dw- 

li a Dogc alwav^t e1cvatc<], nud 

'-'I'lnily afjuilint*; nigh forrlinid — 

wttBm^ ih'.' most prominent ehamctcristics 

'^ tie family. From the condition of thf 

i"tilry ttn-y iiilmbit, they have mitnrally Ik*- 

irito two op]>iKito ajui hostile 

ing and predatory, and the 

.ilrioos. 

hv Ca5pian Si-a and the Ptr- 

wi^(. the itn-AJi to thcflouth, 

t, tutd an indefinite line to the 

iTf iwvoral racw which have] 

'■■••■.t which di'T ' in 

-'uago.to h ■ "I*-; 

I "' ■ 'if tlit'x'. i>i*:/i:iii[ir.J 

J .' corapIeAKin fair, 

-■ . . ' '-'"■/. fltniighl, ami 

:;t and biinhy ; 

.1 ;.. : •talun; little 

m stanihircl, hut le*5 r"»- 

i.liabilanlsuf IVrsia, how- 

(uiAvd with the blond of Am- 

li <tf*tler«. 

fiimilieg is the Tttrhs'i or 

:.t connirr of tlnii family 

:i:>Ui and BOlli iL^gnvs of Int- 

flind'M) oxL'rt to the itelar 

-' '* I r\n Sen to the wft-t- 

i)f (?nhi, whcM they 

'-. Tho complexion 

'jn''ttc ; h;iir gtMie- 

— , . ,., . Jij^ ; cTp.liglit brown, 

Mnwwhitt contructiHi ; akaU remarkably ffhib- 



if 
t 



.lirl.I 



1'. 
II' ■ 
HTj. ■ 



■towtjri'hliiVk; l 

iJ,, 

u 

n ■ 



itTi 



qlar ; proportiuug of the face nymraetrical ; 
body stout, but shorter than the ICnropcon. 
They have made little progrcaB in civilizatioo- 

In the Bouth-cast angle of what ia commonly 
considered Pcr?ja, arc tlirec races of men, the 
Belocheea, Braboos and Dehffar«. Tlie first of 
these have dark brown compIciii>n, hlnckhoir, 
long visage, ekrratcd fcatarcjt, with tall, active, 
but not robiut persons. The Brahc-js, have 
thick, short bones, and are a squait inutea^l of 
a tail pojnie. The Dehvars have blunt feo- 
turt\<!. hiuh check-bo nfs, blnff cheeks, short per- 
Bons, and are an ill-favored race. 

To the north of these is the Afghan raix, 
marked by a brown complexion, black hair, 
aometiniea brown, a profusion of board, high 
noses, high check-bones, long facea. a rolnut 
person, and a Ftaturc short uf the I<)itro]>can. 

Among the high mountains and narrow dfr 
^-att-d valleys, east of the Afghani, exists a 
people called KalTrc» or iiifhiel!*, by their Mo- 
hammedan neighbors. They arc di?scribc<l aa 
reniiirknblc fur fuirn<.»i, possessing occasionally 
light hair, blue eyes, and great personal beauty. 
I'bey .qpcak many langoages unknown to Bti- 
ropeans. 

4. i'roccpding eofitvard, we come to the 
great nnd numcrons Hindoo family, spread 
from the Tth to the 3.'Jlb degroo of N. Jatitadc, 
and from the 68th to the 95th of K. longitude. 
Corrcctiv speaking, this is. perhaps, not one 
family, but an aggregate of race?, bearing 
such a general resemblance to each other u 
the Kur>pean varieties do among themselves. 
The color is commonly black, or ot least a 
d'}en brown ; and hence the name of Unuloo^ 
applied to them by their Tartar and Persian 
invailers ; for that word, in Persian, w equina 
lent to negro in oun>. The hair Is long, coane 
and black ; beard of the same color ; the m 
bluck or deep brown ; the face oval, and ttiB, 
feutores huuilwme ; except aomo defect JD the 
lower limbs, tlie person is well formed. Thfi 
statire is jibort of the European, and the body 
spare and d(.-ficient in :f(rength. Cleam^Bod 
flihtlet>'. rather than d"plh and vigor, charac- 
teri/j- their intellectual capacities. But this 
race is :(nlHlivided into Kn-eral othero. having 
distinct ixTtilinritics, as the Cashmrrwns, the 
Ben'^nUees, the Orti/as, the Trtin^s, the Alah- 
mttas. and the Hnuln^ChincK, inlmtiiting ft 
country from the Tth to the .^6th degr^is or N. 
lalilnde, from the eastern limits of the Hindoo 
country, to the western limits of China, and 
consisting of several dilTTcnt variet ir.-*, viz., tho 
Bemi-hftrharous people of Ca«ay, Cnchnr tod 
A-4sam, and to tiie Houth and east of tbeBe,tbe 
Arracancse. Burmese. Peguana, I*ofl or Shan% 
Siamese and Camhojuns; and coFt of them, 
the Annra raw, comprising the Cochin-Chi- 
nese and Tonquinese. 

5. The Chtnei^. (See China.] 

(j. Near thu Chiuew is another grpat (am- 
ilv, bearing it some rosemblance, and ypt a 
distinct clav, the Japarme. They occupy a 



16S 



ASIA. 



couDtrr of great cxtcat aud flue tcmperataro, 
ratcndiajf from 30^ to 45o N. Their color 
ii Liiwoy, stature ahort but robust, nose flnt^ 
tL^Ii, evelidH thick JUid puffixl, eyes dark, lower 
liiub.s Wgc and thick. 

Norlb-i'UFt uf Cbiua are Uie Corean3,.occu- 
lyiiig u, |»>niiuiuliL equal in extent witb Great 
Britain. Tbcy arc superior in strength to the 
'ilhuteso ftud Jupancjv, but ioftrior m mcutal 
Rpacity. 
I. Tbc inbabitauto of tT&-thirdfl of the 
snperticics of ^Vsia, from the seats of the (am- 
ilies already specified, to the frozen oceuii, re- 
maio tu be dcifcribed. Tbt.'tie huve a cumuioti 
rCMCmblaDce, in suiae iinuortaut featurca ; but 
it is oolv suck a resemblance as exists in all 
the fiuiulius already mcutiuued, from the eiust- 
eru bbure <jf the Alluiitlc lo the cadteru con- 
fiuc« of lliudabetaii. The first of these races 
comprt.'^ca the inhiibitiuitA of Bootan, a stout, 
aclivij race, their gtuture rising occosioualiy to 
six feet. 'I'hcy are a long settled agricultural 
rai^e, having a peruliur laii^uagt; of tht'ir own. 
Vivai of these is the VorMn family, a nbort, 
robii:ii people, of an olive complaxion. North 
of thcHe, on the terrace of the Himalaya, at 
an elevation of 12,000 to 13,000 fett above 
he sea, ore tho Ttbdian family, lianng a. T art^ir 
ountenanco, angular fuce, brood ucrosa the 
cljcvk-bones, linixll black eyes, and very little 
hcaiL Tbey are short, stiuut, broad-fibouldi-r- 
cd, and slu(!gish both iu mititl and body. 

\ve come now to the MotigoltuH family, 
inhnbitiMg the vast ^(i/£iiu and extensive oft- 
ccuLk between the TTimaluya and Altui ranges, 
as fur 88 Ulo HOtb degree of tougitude, and 
then betwe«^n the former and the right bank 
of the Amur. Their general features arc, 
forehead low aud .•tlanting ; head square, broud 
chwk-bouea, chin promiutnt; body short, 
brortd, square, and robust. Hair bluck, luug, 
aud luiik, lieiird iicmit. ThtTt! arc two areat 
divi!*iuna ol" this family, the Kastern and Wegl- 
ern Tartars, the former being the present lords 
of iJUiim. 

Tlie true Monguls extend westward from 
116'^ longitude ta tJie sea of Aral, a sweep 
of at least 3,000 miles, and embrace the 
communities known as MongotK Kalkas, 
Kluths, Ogurs, Kokonors, Kami, and Kalumcii. 
These were the iostrunicuta of the conquests 
of Jeuuhiit Khau aud his soiih. Thcv have 
firm and robust bodit.«, lean and palUj coun- 
tenmices, high and broad shoulders, short and 
distorted ni/n.-s, poiuted and prominent chins, 
a low and deep up|)cr jaw, long teeth, distant 
from tucli otjier, eyelida 8trete.bed out from 
the teuipLc to the mi«e, eyt^ bbck aitd un- 
ati?a*lpr, an expression oblique and stern, o,v- 
treniitics liony and dqtous, large and muscu- 
lar thighs, short legn, nod stature cnual to the 
Em-oiican. 'ITie country of the Mongols is 
oold, clcvutcd und dry, lew parts of it being 
fit fur callure, and a great portion of it con- 
siiting of descrta or seas of sand. It abounds, 



however, ia game and wild vumaU. Witli 
the exception of a very !>mall nnmber, 
live exctuMvcly on animal food ; and 
clothing and dwelliogB are for the mo0t^ 
made of aniuiat Uigument or fibre- 
employment cousistfi in tendinis cattle,! 
chase, and war. The native capacity of j 
family is ?ui£dcoUy atteBted b^ the prodafl 
of such D;ea aa Attila, Jcnghis, Tiiuur, F 
and Kublay Rbon ; aawoU as iu the cooq 
retention, and govermneot of ChiiM lot* 
years. 

Between the AJt&i range and river , 
tribes exist almost as nunierau.>t as in 
equal extent of the American eont 
and for more distinct in physical form, 
near to, and on the banks of tbe Ainurj 
four nations, culled tSoloni, Kertclu'n^, Da 
and Natkls all of which have languages wS 
different from their immediate neighbors, 
Manchoos ; rude, dull, without tltc Knoirli 
of letters, living on fish. 

Sherbani, the grandson of Jeogliis 
led a colony of Mon;rola into Siberia, an 
inp: to 15,000 families, and his dcaccad 
n-igued there for 300 years, till conqa 
the Russians; so that the Mongol^, 
originally foreigners, now form a consid 
port of the popolation of Siberia. Bttidci 
these, there are a number of families, ^Unct 
from each other, inhobitiag these regiooi. 
Among all the native races to the north of ibfl 
Altai mountains, letters are wholly unkopWBi 
agriculture is scarcely practic:?<I, and i" r-b: jin 
food and clothing nearly the whole tii < 
peo[)le is consumed in fishing and the 
Abridgrd/ram McCuUoJi. 



followina 



Rcltffion, — ^faltebmn gives the 
mournful, but just picture of the moral ami re 
ligious condition of the imnieusc population d 
tliis vast continent : "The mental tur;Kirsub 
sibling in combination with some virtuon 
mild, and hospitable feelings, keeps alive Um 
empire of religinus superstition, under thcyoki 
of which we find all the ea£tern ajid ecnM 
partf of .\j^ia languishing ; while the Chrbti 
onity of the Grec^ Church slowly penetrate 
by the north, and Mohammedanism still flour 
ishcs in tlio western regions. Polygamy, rap 
ported by the same spirit tbrou|;honl Ajut 
with the single exception of Japan, debaM 
family connections, and deprives life of its en 
dearmenls, by inking from the female all cos 
»ideration and infiucnec ; at the Banto tiDI 
being averse to the laws of nature, it dlminisbe 
the population, and deteriorates the humai 
race." ^ 

Population. — We have no means of woeifll 
ing with any degree of ccrtaintr the exton 
and population of tliis rast conifneot. Tfa 
following estimate, which we find in Tlarpfr' 
new Universal Ciazetcer, is probably eoiSQv|ii 
above the mark ; 



ASIA. 



159 



artalBiq.mtUi 



' Iniljia, 
► Proper, 

idtsfHOHkncioi 
■Um 

ToUl 



616,000 
834.000 

voo.ooo 

1,665.090 
917,575 
1,300.000 
3,810,000 
700,000 
6,200,000 
1,075,400 



16.918.065 



Pnpnlaiwn. 



13,700.000 
10 000,000 
16,700.000 

168.697,277 
2r.. 162,5 10 

367.000,000 

76,800,000 

12,000.000 

7,400,000 

55,326,676 



752,806,493 



Pop. aaording to Reiigioua Pro/tnifm. 



Btulhista, ... - 
Itrabtniriiflta, 

MuxtulmaxjR, . . . - 
Shamans, .... 
Sikhs, . - . - . 
St'L-t of Lao Kluu io Chioft, 
Sect of Coufucius, 
Sect of sJinto in Japan, 
GhcbirB, . . , . 

Jews, 

Chrktlaoa of all denoiniaiatioDS, 



360.000.000 

irio.ttno.O'Wi 

'J.OOU.OOQI 
5,000,0 
2,500,0 
- 1.500.0 

1,300,00 
• 500.00 
800.0 
• 50.000,000 



TABDLAK VIEW OF UlfjSIONS IN ASIA. 



(XnJNTBIfii A5D SUCIkTUS. 



lynxA* mending Ce\fon, Burmah, mid Siam. 

Cborch Mtnionary Society, 

Loodoa MimoniuT' Socictjr. * . . 

Oh^ Propa^^ation Society 

Onnral Baptist Hiaiooory Society, (Eng.) . . . 

Bqitist Xiarionary Society, (Eog.) 

Bojflah Wealeyaa Society, 

Anertean Board 

Aaneaa Baptist Mis. Union, inclading China, 

AncricttD Prcct^yUrian Board, 

lah Prcahvt<*rian«, 

flootohr ' HIS 

Oeman . Societies, 

AaiyWili tiiijiifrfi, , . 

Aacricaa Mlariooary ABaociation, 

CiTWA. 

iaeriean Board, 

Aipch Mtarioaary Society 

Aaarimi Kptscopal Churdi, 

Hotlbmi Ha[itii4t Board 

Oflrnno Koc)c(ic« 

VeUndUts. Xorth and Soath 

Walmns, 

Amemn Pmbyterian Board, 

AjgliBfa Pr»bytcriati3 

AauTin XsLA.vDR 
tkgfii IVepaf^tion Society in Borneo, . . . . 

BhnUah Socioty in Borneo, 

Oow<!T*B Society io Java, 

KtllKrUodi Scmcty, Amboyna, Celebas, Java, ) 
audSamarang .....) 

WmvtN Asia. 

(Iknrch Missionary Society, 

Americttn B^xml. lu Syria, Awyria, and Pcreio, . 
Aaoog th« Jews in Syria, 

ToUla 



40 



206 577 



23 



176 



6.182 
1,024 

4.629 
225 

1.656 

2.137 
926 

8,873 
226 



68 



28,372 



ei 



1,084 



24.036 
a,919 
5,500 

3y492 
4,936 
8,042 
1.682 
2.932 

9.405 

3,274 
Ifil 



146 

550 

10,000 



84,168 



160 



ASSAU 



Owin^ to Iho imperfect reports of the m»- 
rions, it is inipoesible to make mch a table a» 
this complete ; and it is pof^ible tliat some 
Blight errors may be dtscovorrd in the BUtie- 
ticN; but it is in approximation mfflcicutlv 
ttear to give a fair riew of the preseot state of 
the missionary work on the coatinent of Asia, 
as comparej with its vast population. ]>e- 
ductinL' the flO.OOO.OftO nominal Christians 
from tnc cfitimatc of the population, we have 
left about 700,000.000 of Mohammcdam. 
Jews, and heathens in Asia, which would give 
more than 1.000,000 toeaeh missionary. But 
then it 18 to be considered that the 'mndcrn 
missionary enterprise commenced but a little 
more than fifty years ago ; and besides these 
miasionarics, tberL' arc now probably not less 
than 2,000 native Oi^ii^tant^ laboring fur the 
eranjjeiization of their crmntrymcu on the 
same field. More than ll>00 have been re- 
ported ; some of the societies make no reports 
of native u-'^t-Lstants ; and most of the ryj>()rts 
arc very doCeiout on this head. And then, a 
Tiwt aninnnl of prepamtory work h.-u botn 
done in the way of caucntion and the printing 
and circnlation of books. The 20.000 con- 
Tert« from heathenium, and the 80,000 pupils 
in the mwion Bchools, and the millions nf 
pages of Bible tnith in circulation, must he 
now e.Tcrting a powerfnl influence in sapping- 
tlie foundalionfi of heatheitiitm. 

ASSAM : The countrv known as Ajsam, 
lies on the north-western frontier of Bormah, 
and from that frontier strctehes nernsa the 
plains of the Bnihmopntra, from 70 to lOfl 
miles in breadth towards the TJimmala^'a 
mountains. On the nortli-en.st it reaehre 'to 
the border* of China. It* inliahitnrits are of 
maov different r»c«>, though they are known 
by tlic common name of Shuam or Sfmiis, a 
term which has given rise to the English name 
Assam. It was formerly an independent state, 
but in 1S22 i( was incorjjonitod with tlie Em- 
phre of Burmah and in 182ri it was eeileil to 
llie English. The tribes that inhabit the coun- 
try are numerouit, and differ widely from each 
other, the most important l)ein;r the Axmmcsi, 
the Khamtis, the Snif^hos and the Nagtu. 

MiHstos — AxitRicAN BAmsT Union. — The 
attention of the Board wa.** first direcfcd to 
the inhahitanta of this country by Captain 
Pmncis Jenkins, Comraiiwioner of theOover- 
nor-Genernl of India for A«am. This gentle- 
man feeling a lively interest in the singular 
people whom ho had been appointeil to govern, 
in J834 addrea«t!d a letter to some of his 
friends in Calcutta, rc^ocsting them to invite 
flome of the missionaries of the American 
Bnptista to come and Mile in the etitintiy. 
Capimn Jenkins aW promised to eoulribule 
1000 rupees for tlie estrtbliKhmont oFa mi^si'm 
on the arriral of the first mi»-ion:iry, and KiOO 
more on the arrival of a printing-preso. 'i'hi:^ 
proposal was communimied to the Bour<] of 
maoagera and was farorably received by them. I 



b^ing rcrommendcd by several special] 
ratiomL The language of the i»eople wm 
to the Burman, and the chararters nwd j 
ing were ctiwiitially Ihe same. 'Ilic 
mi»sion also appefln»d to opc-n a nearer! 
China, which wa.4 at that time Imr 
miasionary i-ffort by the exclusive 
.«ned by its covernnient. It was ima^ 
while the Iniprrial officers were carefll 
eluding foreigners from the ports, the 1 
aril's from -\5snm might join the caravi 
traded tu the interior of (Tliina, and tH 
the tJospel to the very centre of the m 

With views like these, Ihe Board dcti 
to comply with the request nf Capt^ 
kins, and immcdiatelv referred the mi 
the missionaries at ^laulmain to coiff 
plan into e.Tecution. It was at the tinl 
Rev. Mr. Brown and Mr. Cutter, a J 
had just been obliged to leave Baogol 
they were immediately selertwi to eon 
the propo.sed mission at Sadiya — tMj 
de<-mcd most eligible for the pHrpofci 
gentlemen with their families reached 4 
ta in .September, 1h;J5, where thej 
Ihi'mselves with a printing-prces, m i 
pri«s, and a suitable supply of p^KT 
er materials fur their work ; sec 
same time from the Board the i 
ndditiunal press and a complete app 
printing to be sent from tiiis count 
provided, they embarked at Calcutta,! 
on the Brahmaputra, and afterft pa 
months they reached Sadiva on the ] 
March, 1836. They were liindly reecfc 
Captain Jenkins, wlio immediately fulfil 
proniise to the mireion.aml riinlinuL-d fg 
years if a lii>pr»I beni-fiirtorand ruiislantj 

Podiya is the principal tovm of a J 
bearing the same name. It is licaatifl 
ualcd jn the nortli-eosteni portion of J 
about 400 miles north of Ava, and lid 
distance from the Chinese frontier, j 
taiiu: a large populnlitm, cora^MMod of i 
eral roets that occupy the country. J 
these people the missionaries immc^liat^ 
pared to commence their Iab*irs. So 8 
a siiitatde building could be erected. th< 
of the mission established schooU, Mrs.] 
for boys and Mrs. Cutter for girU, w 
which* were well attended. Meanwhll 
Brown and Mr. Cutter employed thetnad 
learning the condition of the people, J 
feeting their acquaintance with the tad 
in the printing of which they decided i^ 
tlie Unman instead tif the Burman 01 
oriental alphabet.* Mr. Cutter soon | 



■ 'nifi Mm itf lifting tb« RnnikiiaV))"^t ^ ^*J 
ff bot-kd In ihr iangimar* at lii-lia, ■»i tint oi^ 

t'l the n]lMii.n»ric» iu 1834, by Mr. F "^ T }•■•» 

llrmnn rxnnertMl wUh the goTWntii' a 

' lltifpiUhMl tM-irotal *r1tolar mad ib K. 
frlrn<t <if inU«ii>ii&. llio inrlltixl Wb~ > >. .. ;..u<: 
t-y iSd mU«liinarh>« of FPiernl dtwuntriititin* ia Uf 
liOA tti^n vhullr abArnlannH. It it uft^o ir^ 
til Ibr Biuuiiiurj cumi>iuDiJvaoc of the tlino 



ASSAIL 



161 



£ -boc^ for the scboob^ and Mr. BrowD 

I to prepare works for the pren, both in 

r AiMUDCse and Shjaa langnaffeB. 

Ib April.. LK37, iicv. Milra Brnoson, and 

T. Jftcob Thomas, with their wivea. arrircd 

L Calcutta as miesionarifiB to Asffliu. Tliey 

l«ikid from Itostoa ia the prcccdiog Oe- 

Y.tuvinjf with tbcm an ad^litioiml printing 

, aod a full soppljof all tho mattTiob for 

'iB(f. Tbcy s«Jon ag-ain uiuborked at Cal- 

Itto OD the Hralinia)Hitra, for the distant 

ot their dftitinatiou. They had iK^en 

> weeks OD their pOAsofp n^nst iho ra- 

levreot of the ri7«r, and had nearly reached 

diya, when Mr. Bronson barinf; become dan- 

ilj ill uf the juo^^Ie fo\Tr, Mr. Thomas 

ihacteoinK forward in a sinall boat to pro- 

• nfdical asfiUtonce for hia ofisoctato. He 

i ilraulT come within ei^bt of the town of 

%i^at>o evrn of the mission prumisea, when 

I tnm, whose roota were united, saddenty 

I Iran the loosened bAok of thcrircr, direct- 

tbe boat in which hit was seated, 

; the boat and caosiog Mr. Thomoa to 

A calamity so noexpectcd could not 

ikldtfkfQ the prosoects of the miasiun. A 

I fev ^« afterwards, Mrs. Thomas and her as- 

watm nachod Sadiya, where they were wul- 

mtai hy the mission families. 

As ■wo M the newly-arriTetl mi>wionaries 
tn pRpared to enter upon their appropriate 
UoB, tt was fonttd expedient to distribute 
tier Ubora amon^ the several races of the 
pnfina. 3lr. Brown gave his attention prin- 

nto the Ajsamesc and the Kbaintis; 
>in«0D to the Slo^phos; while Mr. Cut- 
litantly occupied at the two presses 
u^ mperv'ision of the schools of the 
It sLotdd also l>e rciuitrk(*d that a 
object had in view by Uie Board in 
liiaif the mtf^ion in Aiwim waa, if pos- 
l|o peoetrate the northern porta of Bur- 
* Slam, and also the upper provinces 
In acconlance wi(n this general 
tllr. KLincuid, of the Burman inif««ion, 
m joarncy from Ava to SadEra, in 
Ba was able only to reach Ho^aong, 
llw ntoracd to Ara, Ihruoffh the many 
T ft general insarrection of the provin- 
\ Ihe north. For the fume pnrpoeie, alao, 
'lea at Sadiya made Kvcral cxcur- 
itwanl, andprooeeded almost to the con- 
\til China. Tfaeae excorriong led to no 
molt than to make them acquainted 
^tt turn multitudes of heathen, who were 
i^mAf acc<»ible to the pn:aching of the 
' TTwt entrance to Bunniih proper and 
, bowww, continmd to be r-oiilrolling 
I oif htqniry and B«|)iration both to the 
and thoi Board, till the barrlerB 
loD|r shut thfm out of these coontries 
Hy brtiVt^n down. 
May, lh:iS, Mr Bronson and his family 
to Jaipur, on important post of the 
Imlia Compoiiv, on the river Dibiog, 
U 



three or four da^' journey soath-eait from 8a> 
diya. It was in ihin regioo that the Bing- 
phoe, the people to whom he was partieulArfy 
soQt^ wore the most numcrons. It wi^ also 
in the immediate vicinihr of the Nagon, a 
people living among the bills, who had been 
visited by the missionaries, and had awakened 
the interest of the English residents. Mr 
Bronson was warmly welcomed to Jaipur b> 
Mr. Brace, a friend of the miaaion, who was 
I lien rt:«iding there as the Oompany's accent 
for promoting the cnltore of the tearplant. 
Other British officers and residents then at 
Jaipur contributed liberally towards the estab- 
liahment of the new station, and the personal 
comfort of the missionary and his family ; and 
several of the ladies of the post joined with 
Mrs. Bronson in opening schools and teaching 
the heathen children who attended them. At 
about the same period, Captain Jenkins, in 
addition to his previous benefactions, also con- 
tributed 500 mpces for replenishing the fonts 
of type, and offered 500 more towards the 
support of a superintendent of the schools, in 
case one was appoint^-d by the lioard. The 
interest which this gentleninn manifested to 
the plans and operations of the mission is a 
high testimonial to the beneficent results which 
it was producing among the people over whom 
he ruled. Not only was he the constant ad- 
viser of the missioDarica in all their entcrpriscB, 
but ho often addressed communieatiohs direet- 
ty to the Board, snggcsting foch measures ■■ 
ho deemed important to its growth and pros- 
perity, and conpliug with his snggeetions the 
mmi liberal oWen of aid in carrying them 
into execution. 

Id 183!), the labors of the mission at both 
its stations were for a time interrupted by an 
imtorrectioQ among the Khamtis, woo had unit- 
ed portions of other tribes in a leagno against 
the power of the English. Ther began wiOi 
an attack npon ,Sadiya, and a large number 
of the Knglish solibcrs and residents were slain 
in the fury of the onset. The miiwionarics at 
thu station flcil to the cantonments of the 
troops, where tlicy remained in safety till the 
insurrection was quclleil, when they removed 
to Jaipur. At tlte time of the tnsurnK:lion, 
Mr. Bronson was absent on a tour among the 
Nogos, among whom he was preparing to es- 
tablish a station. lie immediately hastened 
back to Jaipur, where ho found the schools 
broken up, and the whole rxtpofation distract- 
ed with alarms. The whnlo ttody of the mis- 
sionaries being now at Jaipur, it was deemed 
best to remove thither olso the entire property 
uf the mission, and almndou altogether the 
station at Badiyo. The expenses of the re- 
moval were generously defrayed by Mr Bniee ; 
but in consequence of the agitation and aliurm 
produced among the people by the insnrroo- 
lion, it was several months before the miasion 
fully recovered from the sliock it had sns- 
toioed. Sadiya was soon afterwards aban- 



162 



AAilL 



doDcd by the govcrDtnont odicere and Kogliflh 
rewdonts, moet of vrhnm aUo rcmovtil Ut .Tai- 
pur- Ueanwliilc llic mitv-^ionuricK, in the ^s- 
pension of their cxt«nuU Isbors, dt-roled 
tlieinettivuft with Uie moro aiuiduily tu the 
study of the laRfnu{r>% the pre{)arutiou nf 
trartH and bookt, tkod the tmrutlation of (bo 
Scriplureti. 1q thcspciuff of lb39. the Uuspcl 
of UaUhtw, traovlAted ay Kr. Brown, ww 
priDled ttt the miasioii press. 

In January, 1840, Mr. BronwD made a 
socood visit to the Nagofi among tho hillf 
aroaod Jaipur. FindiDg them now in a quiet 
ooodition, uud u^part'ittly vagur fur instruction, 
be dctermine<l iiumt'diutfty to seLtle anionic 
tibcm, and c»itibli^i a branch of the mlmiou. 
He wod (TTcatly encouraged In this undertak- 
ing by several English oOletiro and rcaidenta, 
of whom Mr. Brac« contributed 500 rupees 
and <.)uLpt Uannay 250 for the cstAbli&hment 
of schools. In the following Murch Mr. 
BroHbiOO, having made the necessary preparii* 
liuna, removed hi» family to the coootry of ibo 
Kagas, and connnenoeJ his labors auiong the 
people. 

In May. Iter. Gynu Barkw and his wifb, 
and Miae Rhuda BronsoD, sister of Rev. Mr. 
Bronaon, woro added to ttic roiBsion. They 
had Bailed from the United States with on ap- 
pointment specially to the Naga* ; bat finding 
that Mr. Brunuon bod already begun the sta- 
lioa among the hills, Mr. Barker dM-idid tu 
dorote hiiusclf to thn Aflsainese, while Mks 
BronsoD soon went to loin her brother at biit 
new rci^tdencc. Bat the several dcpartmeDta 
of th<^ nii.sfliun were scarcely organuxtl when 
changes and afflictions began to fall u]h>u 
them. Mr. and Mrs. Brown wero obliged 
temporarily to leave tho mission to recruit 
their health. Mr. Bron.son soon found the 
climate of tho hills exceedingly unhealthy ; 
and on account of the swcre ilfuess of mem- 
bers of hiH family, he vait noon obliged to nv 
turu to Jaipur, where Misa Itrouson died of 
feviT in December, 1840, before she had 
scarcely begun her work uh a mijottouory. Mr. 
Barker, after acquiring tho Inngaofje at Jai- 
pnr, selected as the place of his residence Sih- 
Kgor, u flonrldiing ])ost of the East India 
Oompany un the Bruliinuputru, about three 
days' journey below Jaipur. Uo settled here 
with his family iu May, IB41. and in tho fol- 
lowing July was followed by Mr. and Mrv. 
Brown. I'fiis place proved Ut be particularly 
favorable to the culture of the tea-plant, anil 
soon withdrew most of the English rcsidcntf 
from Jaipur,— from which, without entirely 
abandoning it as a station, the miasionariett at 
length aiKo removed to Sibaagor. Mr. Bron- 
aon. however, went to Nowgong, a flourishing 
town in Central A.s»iani, to which ho waa spe- 
cially invited by Captain ti. T. Gonioo, an 
KuKliah officer who had long been a friend and 
benefactor of the missiuD. The miaiiooarica, 
Wo, at all the stations, fitKling the other races 



comparatively inaccessible to the 
termlDed to restrict their labon to the 
ese population. At Nowgong, Mrs. Bi 
with lue aid of Captain Gordon, soon 
a large mission school, in which she em; 
ua assistants two native converts from 
to. This school still continued to 
and has been productive of much refij 
benefit to its members. 

Meanwhile Mr. Cutter still cootiawd 
Jaipur, conflucting tho presses bolonging 
the mission. The Gospels of Matthew 
John, and bIeo the Acts of the Apostles, 
been translated by Air. Brown, and. t< 
with school books prei>arcd in various 
guagcs, were cow printed for the n» of 
numerons schools. In the winter of 1 
the insurrectionary spirit began again to 
itself among the people, and Jaipur wai 
several week's exposed to attacks from 
of insurgents. During thus time Mr. , 
was obliged to takedown tbeprcseB, ~^ 
ceal them with the other propwty bel' 
the niiwion. On the itiitoration of 
lily they were again set qd and put 
tion ; bat the events whico had O' 
the exposed condition of the miasion 
dticidc<l the nisttionurica on the total 
ment of Jaipur, and tho removal of the 
tion to Sibmiffor. This was accompli 
with the approbation of the Board in NovoD- 
ber, 1843. At about the same time, in tjritr 
to pn^ivent a. concentration of the mission ftt 
too ftrw points, Mr. Barker removed into Co* 
tral Aaam, first to Tezpnr, and tlien to Goy- 
ahatti, the reaidenco of Maior Jenkins— Ibr 
thiy was now his military rauK, — and the most 
important town iu the province. Here a ft#- 
tion was begun, and Jaipur was wholly tbo- 
doncd. 

The three stalions of Sibsagor, 'N'owgoog. 
and Gowabatli, into which the mission wsi 
now divided, still continue to be the con' ' 
its oi>rration, which have been for tn.iv. 
post entirely restricted to the Asudc^ 
lalioD, instead of embracing the BUibd 
•SingphoB, and the Nagas, as was cri 
designed. A church wa** constitulod 
of tho stations soon after its estabh 
and these churches have gone graduallv fot* 
wunl in winning converts to the goepd^nMB 
the heathen population of the coontry. Al 
each of these stations, ahto, the work of preacth 
ing, translating, and teaching has been ~^ 
stantlj proeeented by the mnsionBricfl, 
only sncti hindrances as nsuaUy attend ^ 
semination of the go?]*! among men. In 
dilion to the strictly religious schonU w 
are directly supported by the mission, 
ore also others which ore sustained in a __ 
degree by Bnglish residents ; and thii 
taught generally by native assistants, ei 
belonging to the country or brooght from 
cutta, are yet under the general care of 
missioD, and ai^ to be nmnbcrvd among 



A5BAM. 



haTG bommc very du- 
are widely scAtterod ainoti)? tbn 
oirtiotry. Bat the school to 
ArieM iLtlacb tb<* inotit iuix>rt'- 
hu been proiluctirH of tbc 
Orphan Iiu>(itQtiijn ut Xoiv*- 
coUect frnm ull parte of tbe 
UnUf rirpbou cbildriii, and train 
\ occQpnliotiH and to a knowledf^e 
It went into ojieration in lBi4s 
il ynrs part it biw nambered 
aeretity mpmltcra. Its expenses 
krs w«re wholly defrayed, and arc 
ick ttehtened, by the genercmrt 
of tJ^ philaatnropic Kni^Ht^ 
amn. Many of its popils bare 
nod Bt'veral nave been 
■■latatita in the missioD. Prior 
here and there a nativo convert 
I, but in the course of that 
^ elder papib of the Kowgong 
'•BYexal other persons at the 
I irere • adntittM] to the church. 
„ of tho Tcor. 1847, tbe church at 
■umbercJ twcnty-6cvcn niembere, 
if the three stationa coutaJDcd to- 
mb of fiixty native diseipluB. 
Mra. Brown vuiteil the United 
Kwaketied &n increased interest in 
nzisgion amon? tbe chtircbes and 
of [be Board, and mrly in tbe ful- 
, two siesionaries, Itev. A. H. 
id Ber. Ira J. Stoddard, oflbred 
I to the manngcr?, and were ap- 
Laam— the f«>rin(.T to join the stn- 
ahattl : the tatter to relieve Mr. 
tbc cburire of the orphan instito- 

EDg. They arriviil atthe pbcAB 
lion early in the Bpring of 1848. 
( year, Mr. and Mre. Brown, 
r, wi^re oblijrcd, by tU health, to 
to the Uuitetl ril«ti«. They 
until (be summer of 1B50, vhen 
to tbcir ijtatioiM, accompanied 
Wbitinp anil Ward, and thrar 
Sliaw, a ttraelier, all uf whom 
_ til ibc mLs.Yion. 'Hiev roocbod 
following June. 3tr. tl. Dauble, 
10 bod been employed na a 
(n Pt«nKnl, by the Banle Mis- 
10 A»sam in 1850. and 
■ i.^t, WO! tcmpirarilv con- 
.s <»\ jTMtig institution, lie waa 
asamiftsionary.aud in 1861, 
ihaw. Uc died at Nowgong 
Bfiv. t.'ynw Barker, alan, 
I of dociinin^ healUi, cm- 
Unitod States, and died at wa, 
l^tU). HiK family now live in thk 
Ir. CutUT, tlio printer, waa also 
Uiu miasion in tbe autumn of 

of the Kow Tettamcnt in 

h\ by Mr. Brnwn, and 

In 1849. Suicc then it 



has paaecd throuph other cditlonii ; and soviro] 
bMilcR of the Oul Twiuraeut have also been 
printed, together with a lonir )i^ of books to 
nc used in tbc Pcbovlst. The Kiiglijih officcn 
and resident-* in the province, still continue to 
evince their wonte<i interest in the prosperity 
of the mission, and in the results which it aims 
to accomplifih for the peoT>Ie. The religion of 
the Bmhmina has, for Honio time^ bwn losing 
ita bold on the popular mind, and the impree- 
sioQ is widely prevailing, not only in Anam, 
but in other parts of India, that it muat give 
place to the religion which is taught by the 
Eogliith. Thij) however ia only a negative and 
comparativoly ammportant remit The mis- 
aionariea have still before them their gr<>at 
work of persoading tbe people to embruoe the 
gospel — a work for wbicn, uius far. a prepara- 
tion only has t>ocn made, bnt which haa of 
itdelf scarcely begun to be accomplished. — See 
Proftaaor Oammeil's Hvtory of Am. Bapttat 
Mimom,and ncmt Report* o/* Managm <f 
Musionary Union. — Pbop. W. Gamscu.. 

TABrLAR VIBW. 



niMtcor... 
OowaliAltl 



TvUU 



I Ml 
IM1 
IStt 



AMbtent*. 



tin. 



en, *e. 



7 1 70 



I eh. 



gehoUft. 



i& 



SBch'U. 



lie 



a» 



ATnRNS: See Otw«. 

AUCKLAND ; Capital of New Zoalond, 
in Int. 3(j ' 51' S. long. 174o 45' E. A station 
of the WeslCT'an Mifflionary Society com- 
menced in 1623. Population 1800, baa now 4 
rai»ionari», 5 chnnpU, 26 local nreacbers, 53 
teachers. 291 memDers, 492 scholttrs. and 810 
attendants on public worship. Ancklond con- 
tains besides a college and seminai^ for tbc 
education of tbe aom of the Wcalcyon Mis- 
sionaries in AuBtrolia and Polynwia, having 
now 70 students ; and there t^ abw a native in- 
stitution, giving th*" benefit of an education id 
the Enii^lish and Maori jangiiogea to native 
young men, to fit them for future uwAilncn. 
Also, a station of the Church Mifflionary So- 
ciety. 

AUSTRAI. ISLANDS : A group of Ave 
iBlantU in the Houthirn Pftjeifie, between 220 
27' and 2"o 36' S. lat,. and 144^ II' and 160° 
47* W. long. The namea of the islands are, 
Raivarai, Tnbnai, Rnmtu, lUmat&m, and 
lUpa. 

AUSTRALASIA : The Encyclopedia 




Britonnica gives the folloirinff &s the bounda- 
ri.* nf Aur*iruliLsin : - Take ihi-t-qnuloros the 
nortlR-rn liuc. from 132* k- IT.'i- K. long. : 
cmilinui* a line on tW lueritliati to llip 6r>lh 
{wtraltel, (bcDdini^ a lilUu to take in New Zeiv- 
mnil.) for Ihe eastern ; a lino od the same par- 
nllW to 66'-' K. Innr. for the aouthern ; aud s 
dkntirii? point on ilie niiiutor, m tm to incluiie 
Kcr^'iifinnds Land, and pass on the (lastern 
aide of Timorinnt. Cerum. Mysol, and Sal- 
walty. for the wofli-rij liouudorv; those lines 
will enibraa; the whole of lh« AtmtrolasiaD 
liiluiidrf, viz.. Aufilralia or Xew Ilolh^nd, Van 
Dirman's land or Tiismania. New liuinea. 
and lilt- I ouwrade AwhipelRffo, New Ilritain. 
New IreluiMi uml iiei0ilwirin^ islands, HoJo- 
Diuu's Island-ti. Ni'w Hi'hritleM, Ni*w Culednnla, 
New Zenlaiid and isles lotlie HoutJiward, Kcr- 
guelund Islandit. .St. Patd mid Amsterdam, and 
oawerouM coral n-ef<i and Ideti*. 

AUSTUAUA. or NEW HOLIiAND lit* 
between 10^ 30' and 39^ H. lat and betwwn 
112- "iO- and 153' 40' E. long. Its extreme 
leniyrlli \s ahinit 260.'J milce. and ifj' avcriu^e width 
1200, making aboiit 2.690^10 square miles; 
the rnntineutof Europe ombrueing 3,6h4,841, 
which will give the readiT a comftarative 
idea of ibei^i?* of this new continent. The 
prevailing featorca of the country are barren 
and wyodt-d plains, traversed by long ridges of 
pre(!ipito!i8, l>ut not very lofty moantains, 
and rivers which oft^-n pp'read into marshes. 
and do not continiii> their courge to any great 
distance in proportion to the extj.'nt of the 
Country. Thcro are few deep bays ; nor docs 
the 8ca, so for 08 yet discovered, receive any 
rivor, whose magnitode corrcsijooda to that of 
the land. Great portions of thnt part which 
has been cx]>Iorcd arc onfit for cultivation, or 
even fur traveling. There are, however, fine 
meadow tract*, on a grand scale, where the 
richest ht-rbage grows apontaneously, end 
where indoKtry mny raise Ibu raoet plentiful 
cnip;*. In itii geographical features uiid in 
some of its prmhu-tions, Atwtralia differs wide- 
Iv from all other portions of the known world. 
The diifcuvery ol frold has recently ullractcd 
c^nisiderablo attention, and drawn great nom- 
Iwrs of emigrants from Great Britain to that 
for uff l(knd. 

luhiilntanli. — Wo have no de6uttc and relia- 
ble infurmaiion as to the number of the aln*- 
riginal pupulution ; but it Is gunpa>)cd to U; 
about U»,000. Major T.S.MitcVll, huwever, 
who haA made threti tours into the interior, 
thinks there arc lees than 6,000. This gcnUi- 
man c^cprcsses a high opioioo of their charac- 
ter, tie siiy^ that, in manners and general 
intelligence, tbiy appear nuperior to any class 
.of white nmticKhe had socd. The triba of 
(he niirtheni Coa.«t of Auntralia pos^eas a 
pccniiar intcrwt.on accnnntof theirpruximity 
to the Jmiiiin Ar«-hiix*I:tgn. Here, within a 
cirtle iif oOO niili-B. may bt fuund a Inrgft num- 
bfr of dialiiict tri^>es, varying in color from 



emXD^w 
era ^M 
red ■ 
nmoidir 



was originally a penal acttlement, to wR 
criminals were transported from Oreat Brih 
After thip, it wa« ojjciied to independcut 
bounty emigrants. And, within a few yt»n 
past, the discovery of gold has cansed a gmt 
rush of emigralton. In 1810, ihv. popamiaa 
was but 8,923. In 1&:>1. it was 26-1,000. 

lO^lONS. 

UsmtD Bbbthrk-v. — The Moravians estab- 
lished a tni^ion to the alxirigines of Aoeta^ 
tin ill 1H40, and have one missiouorr labMl^| 
at Ijike Boga ; but no specific resaits an^P 
reported. 

Sot^IETT FOR PnOPAfiATWO THB OoeTEL n 

FoRKiON Pakth. — New South Wales hariog 
been occupied by the British GovernXDOtfi , 
ae a penal settlement, cbuphuna wcra 
uoiuted as their services were reqiiireA 
1795 the Society becTtn, on the recomn 
tion of the local chapLi'm, to pay two Kho^ 
miistore in (lie settlement. In 1798, R«T. 
Haddock became the Society's first 
ary in Norfolk Island. In lfi25, when ! 
po'tmlation of Aus^tndia wa<i 31.1*^3, ibmi 
only 10 chaplains maintained by the 
mcnt.and but 14 in 1637, when tbo \ 
had more than doubled. In 1836. '. 
liam G. Boughton was consecrated btAhopj 
ie2,000 were granted by the Society for j 
mot ing Christian Knowledge, ami £1.0" 
the Society for Propagating the Go 
Foreign 1 arts, to aid the work ; as 
after 10 mtssiouories were eout out bv the laU. 
ter Society. Year after year, mnr\> cle 
were bent out, and coiuiidcrablc granlii 
money were placed by the Hocicty at 
Biabop's disposal. In 1843 the Society < 
nasisting to maintain 40 clergymen id Am 
lia, and 10 in Van Diemun's Land; nod] 
1H51. the nnmbcr aided was about 50. lulfl 
the Diocese waa divided, and three new i 
Newcaslle. Adelaide, and Melbourne wein: < 
^tituted. The increase of clergj* since 
lime will be seen by the following table ; 

IMT IHO 

Newcastle .... 17 27 

Adelaide .... 11 22 



i.OOO] 



Melbourne 



20 



A meeting has been held, attended by 
four bishoje of AnBtmli-a, and the bishojie] 
New Z*'aland and Van Dicnian's Ijind, an 
Board of Mi.ssions constituted, for the pro 
gnlion of tlic Gospel among the ubong' 
iuhabitanU of the Australian continent 
the islauiisi of the Western Pacific. 

Wkslktan MiKHiorfAity ^ocwnr. — The'^ 
leyan Hwleiy Ofx-ned a mi»4on in New 
W qIw, in li^ll") ; in South Australia in If 
and the fnllnwing year they began their op 
tious in Western Australia, at a place coUod 



AUSTRALIA. 



i6i; 



Perth. Rfty ycare ago. Now South Wales 
TH ft poiuU Kttlcmeat. There were a few 
tWnnd «»»ttl«TB. ftlMf, HcaUm-d over the coao- 
' ■' . in reariop" sheep and iu 
! -i. The peal of Uiu popnJa- 
■ iun.ni;im». A few of the 8ettlw> 
. Uwa HeUiodista in England, auil had 
V ' ralia cither OS Carmers or as school 
:; lhein}KiIve«i irilbout rcliKiuos 
• M' ruirnmndtid by rriinuials 
'I by hcathcnfi ou tbo other, 
picuces to thcinselvefi aad 
I in the year 1812 one of 
I — «;d a letter to the 3f is- 
umn Couituillot! imploring hi'Ip. Ilie statu 
of aoctpiy was frightful iu the cxlromr*. The 
n«t dcbuing^ crimes were openly perpetrated ; 
ttd whm any one remooatnited, tie rt-ply wua. 
'huthe atstom »f Oic cnuntnj .' " Tlie writtT 
«f the letter alluded to, i>lead.H mo8t eunit^ily, 
tv btnudf, oud in behalf of the little com- 
ing HMciated vith him, ami also for the 
itoighMii; and intimates thai lij^bt might 
ptbn»kfurtli from that plnco to the thou»- 
mA of isles by which An^truliu issurnmndod. 
DmA wu tbe fouudatiDQ of the Wi^Ieyun Mi»- 
dn la Aastralia. What Quite miud can 
0«9 the resnlta of ihotie labors which were 
waneamcatly invited I A day id coming 
^^ tbo mat Soatbern Commonwealth, 
■ill up by Oold, and Commerce, and A^nri- 
idtuc^ and Mannfacturefl, may stand almost 
Mkkaman^ the nations of the ciirth, repo^- 
nC ifm freedom and evaofn^lieul faith, and 
JArnvbttok with meek ndoratioo ujion the 
■wR of her origin ! 

Tklret clsas meeting ever held in Anstra- 

*mo& the ereniug of March 6, 1812; und 

^J July, a divison of that little band had 

^vnd three mch small companies, united to 

J**^ ud tucbort one another to " work out 

^ ova fi&lratioo," two at Sydney, and one 

•I WiiMbor. " We have here," saj-s the writer 

j'the letter. •• In aocietv.tJie following p(*non9: 

J»8jilaey. Mr. John l\., who leads a class in 

"kovii ^gQK, consisting of Mrs. £L, Mrs. U., 

■B^Xtl T^ aod three of the senior girls iu the 

■W. Mr. R haa atoo a clas in hL^ bouw, on 

'lUky cToning. oonsiatu^ of Mr. U., J. F., 

'^J^tDd a soldier or two of the T5th Rcgi- 

ImL Oar meetings are generally rery com- 

Mablc and profitaole. At Winilgor we have 

*elft» ondf-T the care of Mr. K„ oonii>^tinp of 

■^ Ur K. IB a piooti, eemible young man, 

«Dt )mn from Ireland, where be was converted 

n tence of death for forgery. lie 

- 1>ar. Being of an humble, uf- 

lOjiitioQ, and Kealoua in tlte('iim<e 

'>t not, (eHpeeiatIv could biA re- 

„ .i*<.-d away,) he would make a useful 

Ban among as. lie hM been umployud for wme 

Uh nul in teaching sobool, and he goes 

I mun into the country on tbe tsundny, 

« be read* the Churen Liturgy, and ex- 

ponud*, or prvftcha*, to the acttlerB, several of 



whom are thankful for his lahon." Such was 
the first class, and such was the fin>t preacher 
of Methodism in Australia ! This litUe band 
of 20 ChrLstiaiis as^mbled at Windsor, on the 
3pd of April, to hold their firet Ixivo FeaaL 
Thev enjuyod a season of great bli-shinir, und 
at tue cfo-ic of the service, they rojolved tliura- 
ftelvca into a Committee of Consultulioii, to 
SCO what could bo doue to ubtuin Uii orilirumcea 
of tbi; Uw(m:I fur tlieiiiitetves, and the. b]t»^i^ga 
of on itinerant miiii-stry for Australia. Tbcy 
appointed one of ibelr number to tddrc^ tbo 
UissioDary Committee in London, ou their be- 
half, and to plead for the sake of the perishing 
tbousuniht uf aclllcnt, convict^ and savages 
around them, to send tliem a misMionury ; at 
the Houie time enfrufiing to meet hifi support. 
The cuiiiuiunicaliou biurs date July 20, 1B12. 

And thiLi uri^iuatf-'d thai action, which, un* 
der the ble»4;ing of God, baa resulted, (Ulj In 
the establishment of one of the lurfrest of tho 
Briti^ Colonial Churcbe<,huvin^ hiid on inde- 
pendent Conference, and nearly 100,000 perBOU 
under itti pastoral cure ,- which (2d) has also 
rescued from sin and n Binner'ft doom, hundreds 
of those whose crimes had driven them H'om 
tlteir native land; for tlm Mi^ioiiaritvi have 
sought oat tlie unha})py, bruudMl exiles; and 
ID many a delightful iiLstanco have those 
" banished ones," iu " the land of their captivi- 
ty," repeoled beneath the iuflucuce of Cbris> 
tian aomnnitioD, and found mercy at the hand 
of God ; and the morning of eternity alouo 
will tell how muny iif thorns cbildnni of rrimo 
and puitislmietit :^hall be welcomed in Heaven, 
by the parents and frii'nd.4. who in shame and 
despair had seldom darctl to mention thcur 
nanifs on earth; and, (3) hucIi wa^ the agency 
fr<^im which originated the Auiitraliau and 
Polvncsiau Wcskyan Missions, to the abori- 
ginics of the roulbcrn hemisphere, and which 
this day yields (including memben, Bcholan^ 
and regular hearers.) a result of more than 
2:>.000 ehristitiTiized heutbens, to the pastoral 
core of the W'esleyuu Mis*ionury Society. 
" What hath God wrought 1" To f lim uloue 
be lUl the irlorj- 1 

In atuwer to their rei|nc-sl, tlie MiJ^iouary 
Committee sought out a Kulluble man, in the 
pcreoD of A/r. Leigh, who arrivetl at Australia 
u August, IBIfi. tie wiw joyfully retfived, 
and was favored with great and increasing 
praiperity. Boon thnw clmjiels were ere*'1eu, 
at Sydney. Win^dor 35 niilcw. and Ciutlereagh, 
i)0 miles fmm Sydney, and hmr Sundny-tichooU 
were conimonce<i. a ciretiit wim fonntil, eni- 
bniciiig 1.") preiw^hinjr statiouH, eslendiiijc over 
I'ltl mile« of the eoluny. Mr. Lawry was wnt 
.10 help Mr. Leigh, in the following ycmr. Tho 
(Committee Hiy iu tbo remirt, " As many of the 
aboriginul Datives of the country are occ4i- 
siouall^ met with by Mr. Leigh ou his vxc%it- 
sioiiii. it in hoped that, on the arrival of Mr. 
I*awrv, not only will the cuUsi of the A'ttiirs 
for rdigiouB help be met but soincthiug eflbo 



166 



AUSTHAUA. 



tnal Ikj <Iono by the brethren for the civiliza- 
tion fthd Chrift'tiaii instraction of the natires 
Ihi'insL'lcea. Mr. Lawry was cnconr^ed by 
the (VjimniltiS! to make the atlempt, anil in 
COtsitkr this ont: of the objeda of h'ls mbaiftn." 
In 1S17. the miaaionarlra had the pleasure of 
enttrtaining right inifwiocary brethren, [among 
whom wiia Ihiil dcToti^d miin who tweuly-two 
years afterwards became " The Martyr of Er- 
romanga,") sent out by the Ijondon Missionary 
Society, to what was tlicn railed, OtaJteite. 
Daring their visit to tlie "WesWan mission 
stations in Aaalralia, they zealously engaged in 
preaehirig tln^ Grtwr*!, and condncltS tbein- 
selvcB toward ihi; Ml«Ionartea, and Oie work 
in which they were employed, in such a maiimir 
as to leave behind liiem " a sweet Bavor of 
ClirUt." 

The Uer. Walter Lflwry arrived to Sydney, 
May I, 18IB, and was joyfbUy met by Mr. 
Leigh. The fw^piilation of the colony was 
then abont 20.0(10, of whom not one in five 
had any opiNjrtunitv of attending pablic wor- 
ship; atsd iu i«nnc (JiiHtrielji the runaway cun- 
victe, who prowled amund tlic homes of the 
B&ttlers, mode it dangerous to leave tlieir resi- 
dences to go any distanct) to the hoTisc of Gcfd. 
even had thciv b*'cn places of worship providwi. 
The itineraney, thcreforo, wa<! the only mode 
of Benrching ool those detiUtutc people. Tliere 
were at this time onlv foar chaplains in all 
the eolony ; and it is ilue to truth and charity 
tu stale that these cl^-rienl gentlemen welcomed 
the Methfkdisl itinerants tf> their adopted coud- 
try with hearty good will, and showrd them- 
Bclves ready on all occa^iomi to aadst them. 
The niiBoioufiri»« bad grtat trials to paaa 
tliroiigh. Thp roods were few, (he rides long, 
and the lodgings often very indifll-rent. Fn> 
quenllr hml thf-y to lie on boards or on tbe 
gronnd, witii their Middle-tMigf) for a pillow, 
liieir only covering being their top-coat. But 
the eau.10 of Ciod was triumphing, and this. 
reconciled them to everj- (jrivation. In «ich 
uircumatancGS and with such encouragement, 

••lAbor WM re«t, uul p«ts wu iwmL" 

The eaaw of God gained strength. Cbapclis 
were erected, elmrcUcs and eongregations gath- 
ered, and missionaries multiplied tu meet the 
Cwing necessitiep of this great work. But 
p we must leave (he delightful record of 
I»rofiiMTity, as the great object of this pablica- 
tion Vi to trace the riec and progress of the 
Christian religion among the heathen. 

Tlio partidenco of God overrulwl the mis- 
Btons in Australia so x<i to accomplish ih\s 
prcat end ; for while the Ooapel waa gaining 
its triuni]>hH among the AngUi-SaxoD settlers 
and tlie convJeb<, and thiu turoiog a colony 
wbicl] wa'* onpc literally " a den of thieves." 
into a pfAcefuI fliristian comiouiiity, the at- 
tention of tln»L* rcupwi.vl ntid enlightened peo- 
ple wag turned in pity toward the degradi'd 
aborigines around tbcm, txa well as to those 



heathen in the isles of the Sotilh Seas, 
which they now began to hnvr 
relations. Accordingly in 1820, 
sionary was appointed for Now r- 
whose bbors were to be devoted e» 
to the aboriginal population, and wbL.„ 
iration and moral improvement were 
considen-d by many to W atlt-'rty ho 
An institution for the children of the a1 
nal nativf-j; had hecn established at Parann 
under tlm Governor's aiu^iccs; all 
ground for coltivation were made; 
annual general friendly meeting waff' 
liabtd by proclaraalion. Tliui meeting 
well attended by most of the tribes in the 
ooy. They were kindly treatcil, and good 
preesiona were made upon their minds ; bat 
was found that nnlcfid Cbristian mi^^iionji ' 
were obtained, 1o rci^idc among them, ir] 
" wonld have compassion on the ignorant, 
on them that are out of the way," and 
them " the path of lifn," little good 
(»llierwi?e be accomplbdied. The Go'._ 
nobly offered to bear the cxiwnse for two vi 
out of hia private pnr?e, and the Wcsfi 
Missionary Society snjjplicd the man. 

J!r. Wiilker commenced with a tribe 
uudorstood English, and through whom 
endi'avored to acquire the native lanj 
The commencement of the misaion wat v 
I'noouraging. Tlie fact of a missionary 
ap]>oint«] L'xpnsaly for their benefit and 
struclirtu, improssed thi'jn with sur|)ri»e 
conciliated their rcgartL The only object 
worahip to which Mr. ^V'allicr found them 
potted to pay any adoralirMi was (he wi 
moon. Tlioy were also much influenced 
fear of the evil spirit, nnd bad a terror 
darkness. But the mi^isinnary had hard w 
to make any imprt»s3ion whatever upon them. 
Nevertbeltwii, though tboy bad biiuk so Ii 
they do mui-h the more umled the applicatii 
of that only power which could awak'jn 
torpor of their minds, nnd conquer their sskvagp 
habiltf. As a sample of Kome uf the dif^csiV 
tit* which our missionary* liud to cncounl ~ 
with bis flt^ck of wild Papnc:*, take the foil 
ing : Mr. AValkcr says, '•They am very i 
and vagrant ; and the colonista often en< 
age their vice:?. For instance, if they 
wooil. or do anv other trifling work fur th 
they arc rewarded by the colonisti with w 
they call intit ; Eomctimes this is eoioposed 
a mixture of ^irituous liquors, and at 
it is the waaliing of liquor puncheons, 
they are permitted, they take a bucket of 
in^ water, pat it into the puncheon, when 
agitate It until it has drawn out the stre 
of the liquor. They then surround the p"i 
cbctm nnd drink till tliey arc intoxicat 
Quarreling of course ensues. I was lately 
turning from Paramatta to Sydney, ha 
visited the Kative Institution, when I fell 
with a trilte of these revelers. Some witp not 
at all intoxicated, others were fearfully soi 



^ 



AUSTRALIA. 



1«T 



the dmnkcn and the sober knew me. 

tidtird Lbem to go luia tlie woods, knoving 

if tkft couvicU met Ihcm tht^y would Ue ex- 

dU4 to 6tfliL am] probi^bly to mnrtlcr odc 

notkr ; all followLHl me Uat mich a noiite 1 

KRr bnvi l>€fore ; aod so mnch w&nton bar- 

Wly t tii'ViT witnMwd. The men would 

kkK their u\:djlies. whtrh arc mado ot bard 

wood, »buut thrw feet lone, and four or five 

tyks in cinrotorcrcucc at Uic end, and strike 

tfaobowh of their wom(m with gtich violcncf 

ill 1 <xi»'_tcd iiuthing leas than the death of 

ufi the hiubandji stood op to 

i.i*. When one mao Hfteti ujv 

ik ««Uf tu strike another, I pteppo<l in be- 

fwwilV.'m. I then turoL-d round ami fnund 

lilocdmjr moKt pmfiisoly. Before I 

i away the blood from the head of 

vu^ urnhcr woqld be 'm dauger. At liiHt I 

Mmd I wmild not lire with s<i c]qarreliM)n«; 

" '•■^^. This produced a clamor whieb made 

rirur, and all vociferated, " Parson, 

a bnndred times n*peated. This 

itiaring^ them, acted like oil on the 

iN'rs. It endfd tho row ; and all 

I peaceably to their homes. Though 

''^ fmch nn extent, vet they were not 

^<.-sl carlhly frienil. Tht-y 

> (if hw vuhte. Mr. Walk- 

-trtng'th in vipiuiiK- ihcm 

< ttlcmcDt?, gaining their 

■^'■m eiemente of in- 

>reachinp, and class 

-'. ^«j liij them. Ho also 

fc»pl»»rri iijrlit the children, 

8<if(hi!t ;l^ given him. One 

pM& ui pariicular. of the name of l^homa^;, 

NtVH tnily coDVcrti-d to God, and soon learii- 

fltln Rfed the Biblt!, and bevan to be useful 

l>koldiB^ meeting Bat he EickeneU ami 

Asia did aldo another equally pioa'>, though 

M n efficient as Thomas. Both of these 

r«k ifi«d well—" the finft-fniite " of the Aus- 

tahaaborijirinAi to Christ. Bat hero a new 

ttWtoaroiir. Tho^ are to nperstitioiu that 

ttcf bcwre the place where ooe has died to 

^aqmllf fifttAt ti> tltpowelvca. They therefore 

■4 bui tho rolvion )iuui<«. lest they also 

*^4dd£g. Thid diijpersiou. and the ilMicaltli 

■' ftp Btailonarr. together with the un^ttlcd 

^■Wh nf thta iribo, and the vices they had ac- 

Jiwd by their iDtercoarse with the lower 

*■•• or IV polonist», all ppoveii unrHendly 

■'\ and the eonimitteo reeolvod 

'i be done anmng those triliea 

WfTc located in the iottTior and more 

of the country, and which, by 

., wvo mor« out of the rcftch of 

flf Aoao eonntcracting ca«w8 to which 

__io \m9 hem mn-l'- Tb(?y tliereforw open* 

I'lmiMliia at ' . I'tav, where there 

•Wiixlfibes. ' '■ ir-H. llie Marrylong, 

^<* \6rf, t^ bcndjass, the Mudjeo, aad tlie 

*y«wl. ' 

Attooff t&ac tribes Ihu iigenta of the So- 



ciety labored for a time, but with araoJI mo- 
cesa. owing chiefly to their migrutury hab- 
its, joined U> their want of appreciation of 
those means which were adopted for their 
bcDoiit Uad the committee been able to 
have incnrrcd tho c.vpenM of adopting some 
viporooa and extensive plan of looulixing the 
lril>cs, and tbiis bringing them under cotmlAut 
and regular inetruclion, micc(a«, on a largo 
scale, might have been realize^]. But they 
were imable to do this, and the miiBinn to 
these people was therefore suspended in 1828. 
But the committee, findiug themselves in a 
bettor position in 1836, o^ain renewed tl»eir 
efforts among the Aastralion aboHgiDna, and 
thrLi; miasionarieB were sent out. They loct- 
teil therafielvcB, two at Port Philip, in '8outh 
An.stndia, and the otiier at PertK on 8waa 
Uirer. in "Wegtcm Au-stralia. These mlainooa 
have been blest i^-jth conaidcmhle SDcecM, and 
liave been irtrengthened from time to time by 
an increase of agents. 

In 1B38 a minion among the altoriginca 
wa» commenced at a place culled Buntmgdaiet 
(now ealk>d Gcelong) in AoBinilia Krtix, and 
two nnVionarics weri' placed there. Tho gov- 
ernment kindlv donated a tract of laud for the 
uye of the natives brought under Christian ill- 
Ftmction. From that lime, to the present, 
coiksidcrable prtusjuTit^. mingled with many 
trials, has attended their labors. The mission- 
aries have mastered the languages of the na- 
tivefl ; schools have been opened at each sta- 
tion ; the print ing-prcas haa also been brought 
into rwjaisition ; and wrhool-books, with Cat- 
echiams and the Holy Seripturea. printed tbr 
their benefit. An iostitutiou for training nar 
tivt* young men for u.«efuli>e«P ammi^ Iheir own 
irilxB, is in operation at Perth, in Western 
Australia. It haa now been open for about 
eiirht years, and has from twenty to thirty 
students. 

Karm.»j have been attat-hnl to each of these 
throe missions, and alw nhwp-raising, by which, 
not only is a large part of the expcuso of the 
mianons provided for, but tlie trilH« which have, 
in each case, settled on the mi.ssion rcBerve, are 
thereby trained to remain in a sctUed home, 
where they ore stimulated to indostry, and en- 
joy those comforts of life, which, in tboir hea- 
then state, they never knew. At each elation, 
drtightfol instances of the sanng power of the 
IiOh|h;'1 are constantly witneflsed among these 
once degraded people, who, 30 years ago, were 
regarded as almost, if not ultogether, beyond 
the reach of civilization or renewal. They ore 
now beginning to repay the labor and stifler- 
inga endured on their behalf, and have be«ii 
thoB broucbtinto connection with that {Uirirti- 
auity which stands tks the only barrier between 
them and nttcr dcelruction. 

'Vhe statistics of the mission to the aborigiDM 
ore not separated, in the following table, from 
thoee which have refercuct! to the Kngli&h 
poputulioo. 



AVA— BAPTIST MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 



160 



'it Vi 1)C lamented tliat the rapid iit- 

nf Uic ADglo-SnxoQ race, diirin;^: tlio 

or kIx years, has roaile ^^crioos 

il upon their little sottlemeutjii, 

^ tbo means adopted for their wei- 

hrr; Mtd vbich has mlso Icfl the aborlgi- 
wi OBfiions unangmeatcd, in the anxiety 
«( the cQtnniittee to proride ministcro Aod 
CbvtiaTi inAtitationn for the gold 8e<:keni and 
«teK. who have of lute floeked by thousands 
IfiAnstntlio. Bui it is to be hopt^ that when 
'Ik gold feviT" ia ovt-r, lunl 8«x;iety settles 
km inU) calmness, and begins its efTorts to 

iann.vi- llif ir.iUiTry of their odoptioD, thc 

iims of Australia, which 

-U'd by tens of thonaantU, 

init mnetobnr in ni*Try those abortgincs in 

vkn coantry they huru found a home of 

enfirt and of wealth. It was worthy the 

ladom of iiim " who worketh all things aftor 

lb<«aiucl of his own will," to convert ** the 

bi tnasores" of Atutnilia into a lure by 

vUdiibinild be drawn to that far-ofT land, a 

PiMotaot [Krpulation, whose evan^t-lical zeal, 

i; w^mr- tnfiir.- dtty, will cuuvert tbo millioDS 

Malaysia and Polyutsia, to the 

Already are the WesJej-ans 

' Jia moving in this great enterprise. 

^orautei^ soon to suatain all their 

uow Dcarlv sixty iu numlMr ; they 

■ ■ re«'*'ivcd Irom the parent body a 

[hk-nt ecclcsiaiitical or^mni- 

adopted thc miasiooa to 

I TiiMM! in PoIvDCsia, as their 

^/un*«ibillty, to God and to his 

I 111 future years it will be grate^ 

. il, tliat tlie tianie yem- which 

"Ft' itiization asnu independent 

■< d the p?t.ibIi!(lunonL of 

~ ' ivty for the hi-ntbcu of 

iTr^ynn MtsxroiHiry Sntices ami 

• ,aitii The Armtnian ASagaztne. 

• . IkTuen. 

The e«pita] of Burmnh, situated 

^ ^ irrttwa*ldy, three hundred and fifty miliw 

i^itiiiKiuth. It has been at different pe- 

t,..\. . ..... ^ r>f the AjDcrican Baptist mi»- 

A fftnlioQ of thc London 

ioty on the island of Raroton- 

Ik-rvey l.nlands. 

V£: A utation of the Sonlheru 

I ' iiivrnlion, in Yoruba, West Africa, 

•rih of Abbeukuto. 

'!UY: A town and port in AVcst 

I the Gold Coast, in ihv M't^hi of 

1 niilos \. X. K. of Whydah, at 

■ -tiitirtn nf the mission of tlic 

mry Socirly to llic Tonibue. 

• ■* ■■ s- "•* nf the native 

Ifi ' ly rcilnci-d in 

hflj- 1 -.- . -., . :i:- . of lis iubabit- 

K9U. and thc stotiun wu transferred to Lo^os. 
IV Weleraos also have a Etation there. 
JPAGAMK: A station of thc Church 



Mi««ionary Society in Ceylon, 10 miles north 
of f'oint <|i; (iaile. 

BAD RIVKU: A slation of the Ameri- 
can Hoard omong^ the Ojibwa Indians, ne&r 
Lake Superior. 

BAGUAD : A large city on the Ticria, 
the metropnIU of an extensive poshalJc which 
bears itjt name. The Jewiah popnlatiou U 
6,000, and thc whole trade of the town is iu 
their hanch;. It is a station of the London 
Jett's' Society, whose missioDarics have been 
visitc<l by crowds of Jews, eager for instruc- 
tion. 

BAOAMAS : See Wat hiditA. 

BAHAUnTSE: Stntion of the London 
Miisionar)- Society in South Africa, about 25 
mills from Touna ; inhabited b^^ a naroerons 
tribe of tho Balmrntse, who wctc, some time 
ago, driven from their own country, wlitch waa ' 
a i-oii«iiUTub!o dietHnce lo the north. 

BAPTIST MIS.SIONARY HOCIKTY, 
(KN'tJLISli :) Tlic origin of this SocicLy is 
trac<M| to the wurkinp? of the mind of Kcv. 
William t.'oriry, which had been inlcnrtely di- 
TL'tted to thc conversion of the heathen" fur 
nine or ten years previous. Hl* mos at this 
time piutor of a small Baptist church at Moul- 
ton. He was Uirn in olweurily, in the connly 
of Northampton, Aug. 17, 1751, made a pub- 
lic profuasioa of religion in 1783 ; and was or- 
dained, 1787. Under the pressure of poverty, 
first as a jounieynian shoemaker, and after- 
wards as a village schoolmaHter, he liad ac- 
Quircd spvcral lauguagcs. With thc earliest 
oawn of miusionary purpose in his mind, was 
asnoeiatc«l the study of geognq>hy and history. 
He addicted himself to uie construction of 
maps of the world ; in doing which, bo 
n.'IIi!(-te<] much ou its spiritual dcj^litntion. 
In 17M, ;it a meeting of the associalinu to 
which he belonged, at Nottingham, it was 
resolved to set apart an hour ou the lirst Mon- 
day evening of every month, " for extraordin- 
ary prayer for tlie revival of religion, and fw 
the extending of Christ's kingdom in the 
world." This was done at the mggestion of 
the venerable Mr. SatclilT. This concert of 
prayer has since become almost univcrval in 
the churches. At these meetings, Mr. Carey 
was iucessautly introdncing uud di.'Kcaiitiiig 
upon the importAnce and practicability of a 
mission to the heathen, nml of his own wil- 
lingness to engage in it. Bnt he met with 
little sympathy. Some recrarded him as in- 
fatuated, and denounced his project as wild 
and liofH^IeitH; and others hesitated, amid 
doulits and fears. On one occasion, a request 
tieiog made for a topic for discnsBion, at a 
meelintc of niinliters, Mr. Carey proposed 
" The dnty of (.^hrifltians to attempt the spread 
of UicGo:!;]H.>1 among heathen nations;" when., 
Mr. Bylnnd, father of Dr. Byland, cxprmed 
great (jurpriso. and called him bo oothusiast fur 
entertaining »ich a notion. 

While laborio^ as a Bchoolmiutor and 



170 



BAPTIST MISSIONAHY SOCXETY. 



prcftching nt AToalton, he wrote a-n essay, whicb 
vtaa oftcrwartls pTibliBliwl umlt-r the title of 
"An luqiiiry into iho oblijfatiou of ChriFtians 
to iiw lutaas Tor the cooTersioQ of thcbealhcD." 
This unpcal pn^kcod a strong impreasion. In 
1788, Mr. Cnrcv l)ecame p««tor of a chnrcK in 
Leicester. While there, his anxiety for the 
sjirend of the Gospel ahroai) iocrenscil, till it 
bceaiDc an habitual and irreprt^ssible po&tion 
of his 5ouI. In 1791, at u ministcnt' uiet-tiiij;, 
he urf'wi forwanl the iltjieuf^ion, " whether it 
woTi^ not practicable, and onr bounden duty, to 
attempt somewhat towards fpiradinR- the Oos- 
p<"l in the heathen world." AUwt thin time, 
lU'O 8eniioii» wf:re preached on the snhjcct by 
Mr. Sdtcliff and air. Fuller which deepened 
the impression. At the unnivfrsury of the 
asstK-ialion at Notlingliam. iu May, 17D2, Mr. 
Carty pri^u'liod a si'-rmon from Im. 54 : 2, 3, 
urangLtl under two diTiifiions. (I) *• Ezped 
great thicff^ from God. (2) attempt great 
thinffs/or God," which prodnucd (men a pow- 
erfsl iuipreafionoH led the nKtociation torcftolvc 
that a plait for a, missionary society should be 
prtfituled at the fall meeting ; and on the se- 
cond of October, the plan wna adopted, the 
GOuiety fnrmnl, and a eontribntioQ of £13 2*. 
(w/. made on the (ipot .Se\oi'al meetings were 
hfld soon aft^, and the eontributiuus in- 
creasocj. 

Mr. Corey had his aUentlon directed to the 
South Scaa ; and he proposed to go, if aoy bo- 
cioty wonld Beod hiiu out, with the means of 
support for one year. Jlut, after the formation 
of the KCK'iety, he Isecame acquainted with the 
fa('t that a Mr. Thomas, who had been a surgeon 
in the Eadt Indies, and aHerwards bod become 
a preacher, was collecting funds for a nii»don 
in Btmgol ; and sought to unite the two ob- 
jeets. And the committee, ha\ing satiHfied 
tJiemhtJvea as to Oie character of Mr, Thomas, 
and being fully of opiuion that a d<ior wa^i 
opened in the Ka^t Indies for peaching the 
Goffpcl to the heathen, agreed to invite him to 
go out under the patronage of the Societv, 
agrceine to furnish him with a compaut<»a, if 
one could be obtaiood. Mr. Carey was aj*ked 
if he waa incHuoil to acoomp«ny him, lo which 
he answered in the aJBnnative. '\^^liIe tliey 
were discutsiiur tbc matter, Mr. Thomas came 
in, and Mr. Ourey rising from his sent, they 
fell on each other's necks and wept. ■• From 
Sfr. Iliomna' account," said Mr. Fuller, " there 
is a gold mine in India, but it seems almost as 
deep as the centre of the earth. M'^bo will 
rciituro to explore it?" "I will go down,'" 
&ai(l Mr. Carey, '* but renicml>er, that i/ou imut 
lioiii the Topea.'* This they solemnly Vugogod 
to do. 

But Mr. Carey found difliculties id bis way. 
His wife voa utterly adverse to the raifQion, 
and refused lo accomjiany him. She consented, 
however, lo bis taking with him their eldest son 
Felix. 

An eflurt was made in London, in behalf of 



the object ; bat it wta viewed with CTcat J 
truiH, and the leading men were ftfrniu of e 
mitting the dcnomiuation to the Society. 
Thotnaa vi-sited differeut nartg of the coau 
to nM'akcu interest and enllect funds. Mr. Ca 
mode n^poatcd attempts to pcrsoodc bb ^ 
to Qcc<:)mpauv him ; but she resolutely i 
Yet, he cuuisidered hU duty to God paramoanl,' 
and amidgt the RevcTcst stnigglea of mind, r» 
solvixt to go, intending to return for her as 900a 
as lie had secured a footing for the misBion. Bd^ 
being dissappoiuted of sailing at the time set, 
in the internal liefore another veaBel was to 
sail, Mr. Carey rioted her again, with the 
hope that ?he might change her mtnd ; but die 
still Tvftised. Mr. Thomaa, however, took up 
the case of bis friend, and after renewing his 
appeals with rfaleruttnl urgL-ney, she yielded, 
and aceompaDJed her hugband. They aa- 
barked, June 13, 1793, and arrived at Bal»- 
sore, on the 7tb of November. For tia* histg 
of the early trials and struggles of thi.i miii 
the reader is referred to the appropriate 
under the article '' HiNDoosTiJi.'* 

In 1795,tbeSo<.ictydetenniuedou< 
iug a miseion in Africa ; and two yooaff 
were sent out, who reached Sierra Leone < 
first of December the same year. Bat ( 
them wiw obliged to return on account 
health the next year, and the other emh 
himecir in disputes with a principal p 
Sierra Leone, so that the Governor in 
his leaving tlie colony, and he wae i 
from the service of the Hociety. 

'I'hc organization of this Society is 
simple, a contribution of irta. Cff., conBtit 
membership, with the right of voting 
mectingM. It« officer] are chuflt'U at- tbc an-, 
nual meeting by ballot. Its a^int are 
ducted by a committee of 36 ; and all hofl 
nry and corresponding members of the 
mittee, together with all ministers wbo 
menibcrs of thn Society, and oflieers of 7 
don aoxilinries. are entitled to vote at 
meetings of the Committee. 

Thi« Society hove exliiidtHl their nii!»ioiai| 
the dillcrrut jiorlions of Iiuliu, and liuve tli 
now in operation, in Calcutta, Bengal, Nc 
pru India, Madras and Cerlon : nUo, in 
West Indies : in Jamaica, Trinidad, Ba 
and liayti; in Africn, ni>d in France, 
table at the close of this article exhibits 
prcBcnt state of their misEions, and shows 
suce««8 which has attended their labors; 

Utcetpti. — The following table shows ae , 
proximation to the aggregate rccclptB oft 
society from its organization lo March . 
1853, with the average annual receipts j 
the periods specified. It is not, howevcTt J 
fectly nceurate, as no financial statements 1 
pear in the reports for the finitfive years ; 1 
in Iwn other years in which they are Incklj 
we have given the amount-s of the jireee " 
and folluwiug yeors : 





*jiAJ'(_ I, -A: } or the W^ 

iXUMtuiiin' ii'H ] h ATrica. 

)t>t8 : .-^ii' *»r.- India. 

;)0A : Thv ohii-r cit.v of a dnUict of 

tvpf.... i,. lM.|i;i. sao iiiili*) from Bnm- 

; Pen. 100.000. Near 

ri*» _ r the ICiver Visuttoiilni, 

> rauarkuiiic »> beitijc the odIv ono in 

tt A cution of the Loadoo Muw'onttTy 

^ POINT: A eUtion (if Ibe Wtt- 
"i-y Socie^ in West Africa, moat 

"■K'. A KtiiUou of tbe Gospel 
wiy in Inliii, IG nillia soulb- 



-ROVE: 



A fttation of tlic 

In llrin-li OuifiDA. 



■V: A 

I- iritMT- 
■'■■ < ihvc<iu<*»tion of nii-*i<»nariofl 

■ '- 'Hint Ten r. a Kii=sian anny 

^■■tei«m|«J oo oDe eide or (he Iowd, and a 
"^miiua omiy no Iho otJtrr, and a tDnrnt 
^wvIh wm upcood upon the Inwn. But the 
«4R|«dI ft vioMnt cut wind, which had such 
* 4M vpon Uw fire of tho piieinj, that Uie 
'"^'Ifsvens ezfaaiutird In the air before tbef 
)f«vi. 'I... Kf.tuj«. lu coonqnenoe of thu 
-rancvr tb* |)eo{»le of God r«- 
.1 n miiKinn oiTtiinary, to Irnln 
^V I. 'I'he firat 

^. iiiid a small 

■w' . Uninjf £;»0; 

^i'. ihlfl 10 build 

It^ttittottf^ culJiigCi lUcir xuccipti huviti^ in- 



croificd to £5X)00. Vora Ili«n 40 ftwdUwy 
sodcrticB hod been formed, in Switzcrlaod, Otr- 
mnuy, and France. This institution bns «inc« 
sent out a large nnrobor of raluablo and de- 
vour laborere, whf> have been cmployf^l in 
different parte of the vorld. It bos furuitibod 
the Charch Hiadoniuy Society many of tiicir 
most efficient laborers. In 1m2, the institu- 
tion bad sent (rat 175 raiarioDariea, and t6 
more were parsuinfc their Btodica. 

It ^as uo part of the original plan to Bond 
out mis^ouoricfl to the heauicu ; oni in 1^21. 
a aociety was regularly orffautced, (Die £van- 
gelischeHianoM^eadlacbaftza Basel,) withtlie 
aeeign of enga^g fully in the miraionury 
work, lu first representAtireR went forth tu 
the following year. It now has 16 niiwioo* 
arios in Western Afk-ica; 28 in India; and 3 
in China. It has also a miamou in North 
America. From tbe last report it appears 
that tbe receipts of the pnrviouB year were 
3(U,2:)8 fr. The diabonemcntii were am fol- 
lows :— fur the ATriean ralttion, 71^91 fr. ; for 
tbe India niLwion, ISS.WQ fr. ; for the Chinew 
miffiion, 21,193 fr. ; fur North America, 1,443 
fr.; for the Miariooory Institute, 39.815 fr. ; 
for other expenses, 22,221 fr. The paymenta 
exceeded the receipts in tho nun 8,5 1 4 fr. Ono 
vear befon'. the debt of iIk; society was 65,000 fr, 
'Towards the tir|iiiilutit>ii of this amoant, 26,403 
fr. have since tioen paid, 12,r>CH fr. lmviii|f been 
received from tho ritv of Basic for Ibis purpose. 

BAtrSETKUHK * A Mnlion of the Cnitcd 
Brt'lhrcn in St. Kitt^ West Indie*. 

BATH : A stntiou of tbe Weeleyan Mis- 
sionarv Sociply in Jamaica, West IndiiS. 

BASSEIN" a district and a citv in Bnr^ 
iiinh, m'ur tlie bonU-ra of Arracan.and thetrat 
of a mission of the Am. Baptist Mtsaiouarj 



172 



BASSA COVE— BETHABARA. 



ITnioTi. Tbe ini<«ioD is pnticipally for the 

BAS9A COVE: A wtUenienl ou Uie ^y. 
coast of Africa, at tlie month of the Mcchlio 
river, a station of tiic Am. BaptUt an*] Epi»- 
cuuhI MUsiotta in Liburia. 

iJ ATA VIA : A city and seaport of Java, 
capital of tho Dutch poascssioni iu the eojtt. 
and of residency of Romc name, at tbe mouth 
of iJiy Jaccatra river, on tlio iiurth nmni of ihe 
iiilanj. Pup. iu 1B42. 53,HG1, uf whom about 
3.000 were Boropoaua, the rest Chinese, Java- 
ncsv, Malim, kc. 

BATIIURST : A viUflge of recaptured Af- 
ricans, in Ihe parish of Bt. James, Sierra 
L«nni\ West Afriea, a station of the Church 
Mtwionary Society. Also a statioa of the 
Wffileyun Miiatonttr)' Society, id Great Na- 
mafjualiiiul, 8011U1 AlViea. 

BA'rnCALOA: A town and district on 
an island three miles iu circumference, ou the 
cafit cooft uf Ct:yluM, 66 iuik« H. S. E. from 
Trincouiftle, A station of the Wcslcyan Mis- 
siuniu-v Sooietv. 

IIAMTICOItA: A station of the Am. 
Board, iu the nurlbeni mrt of Ceylon, about 
6 intlc8 north-wcHt of Jaliimpatam, nud 7 miles 
aotith'WQHt from Titlipally. It is the i>cflt of 
the male eeminnry, now in charge of Mr. 
Uosttng^. 

BAU : One of the Foejeo IrIouiIs, about two 
miles in circumference, most inconveniently 
aitaated for evtry tiling except defence. The 
town U conliiioally in ruins Ihim fire, some 
pirt of it bciiif^ coustuotly ignited by carclcs 
or malicious people. It is one of the largest 
towns, and the inetronoliD of Fecjec. A eto- 
tioii uf the Weeleyan MiaKionory tiiK-iety. 

BEAUFORT : A station of the United 
Brethren, in Jamaica, "SVffit Indies. 

BKKCHAM-DALE: See Aotea. 

BEERHHKBA : A station of tlio Rhenish 
Mi&Vionury yocioly, in Great Xamiu|nahLnii, 
South AlVicii. near Bethany. 

BKKR.SHKUA; Station of the French 
Protuitant^, In ^onth Afrlci, on the Culednn 
river, 60 miles south-west ofl'laatberg. 

BFKA : A station of the Weblei,-aa Mia- 
aionurv Society in KaOraria, Sotitb jV/rica. 

Bi?;LUAUM : A town iu the province of 
B<y«iioor. India, lat. Ift^ r»3' N.,and long. T4^ 
42' I'i 1\3 climate is healthy, but ail external 
trade is stopped for six montlw iu tbe year, by 
tlic rains. Population in 1B20, 7,6M, oiie- 
thirtl Muhrattafl,oucv«i.'cth Mohammedans, one- 
eighth Jain.", and one-ninth Bruhmins. A 
station of the London Miisionary Society. 

BKI JZE : A town of 400 houses, situated 
at the moutli of a river of the same name, in 
Horuiura.*! Bay. A station of the "Wesleyan 
Miwioimrv Society. 

BEIiT.AuV : A fortified town in the Uaior 
gaut called distrtcta, India, and the head qtiar- 
ters of a civil uud military- divinion ; lat. 15^ 
5' N., long. 76^ 59' E. lie town is large and 




popnlous. Population of the d istrict. 927.857. 
A titotion of the Txiudon Missionary Sociftr. 

BENARES : A largcand celebrau^l > i';. 
in the Presidency of Bcogal, capital of n p: — 
viiice and district of the some name. It it <i\- 
oated on the north bank of the Ganges, 40) 
miles north-west of Calcutta. Popnliitiitn 
ti32,00Q. It w the most fu4y city ofiht- Hin- 
doos, the ecclesiastical metropolis of India, ui^-l 
is resortcil to by pilgrims from all qiKu'r^ 
Benarcfl is crowded with mendicant pru»U 
There arc said to be B.OOO houses occupied f ^ 
Brahmins, who live upon the ulni": m\,} ,,w,i 
ings of the pilgrim.*, fhie city iy ' 
the nindoos to form no part of tli. ,ti 

globe, but to rest upon the point of l?iva» 1 
dent ; hence, they say, no earthquake can < 
affect il. 

BKRBICE : A colony in British Guiiina, 
about 70 miles cast of Georgetown, in which 
there are several stations of the litmdOa M»^ 
sionary Society. 

BEUEA : .Station of the French Protoft- 
tanta in Koulb Africa, on the Caledon river. 

BEllHAMPORE : A town in Bengal atr 
uated on the east liank of tlie Cti»<imhMr 
river, about si.Y miles south from Moomhcdabttd. 
Population 20.000. It became n station fif 
the I^indun Miwionary Society in 1^24. 

BERHAMPORE: A town in Ornsa, {| 
nindooatan, on the coast of the Bay of Bengafcj 
It is the mofd itonthcm station of the OfW 
Buptiiftii in OrisKi. 

BERLIN MISSIONARY POCIETTi 
Au intilitulion was formed at Bcr'i" '•■ '>^"0,'' 
by mejixbcrs of tho Lutheran Chui .1 1 

to qualify pious yonng men for t;i _ .iJ 

The number of studentB who had Inxm eda 
tal there, amounted, in 182.5. to 40. Tho 
ciety has 14 missionaries in South Africa ; hnt 
it 1)0.% in general, oisistcd other bodies of 
Christians m the work of c^'angelizing the 
healhcn. rather than ennght to cstabli^ niiih 
.^ions itself. 

BERLIN MISSIONARY UNION FOR 
CHINA : Thi? socictv was formed in Jn, 
18')0, during a vJait of Dr. GutzloIT to HerU 
Dr. P. W, K rummochcr was chosen Preside 
and I*rof. Lachs, Secretary. The object of 1 
society is to send forth Enropean lalwrera, ma 
and female, and also to support in.'itituliotuc f 
Ih.-. training of native preachers ; and it ho 
to aid in e\'angelizing, not only Chir""" 
Thibet and the adjacent countritw. ^ 

BERMUDAS : A nomeroua dusted 
small IwluiuLs in the Atlantic Ocean. cxtcDdii] 
about 45 miles from S. W. to N. E., and b»^ 
ing their northern point in long. 63° 26' W., 
lat, 32^ 34' N. Population 9 or 10.000. The 
Wpsleyan Mi-'wioniiry Society have sereral 
.itationit on these islands. (See IVtst India.) 

BETHANY: A station of the Berliti 
Mi'wtonary Society in S. Africa. 

BETILUJAUA : A station of the Mora- 
vians in Jamaica, W. L 




BIBLE SOCIKTIES. 



178 



BKTirKL : A Btotion of tbe Herlin Mie- 

61UUT r!<i<'iet}', SoQtfi Africa. 

BTTViiki.: a station of Uie Moravians 

\V. I. 

-DOKP: StAtion of the Lon- 

i^ -.-J Society, a settlement of Hot- 

V: ~^'Uth Afncu, 450 miles cost of 

Cat': lown, au<l 7 miles north of Fort Frcd- 

BKTHESDA: Station of the French 
h/tolxLt-- ill Sooth Africa, 73 miles N. E. 

" A : A stalioo of the ftforarians 
\V. L 

1 A : Station of the French Fro- 

:j- id South Africa, 54 miles S. K 

ot rkiiipuiid. Inhabitanta, 2,600, chicflj 

f F'.RRT : A station of the Ger- 
( r Society in India. 
: i I tiA>V': A station of the Khcoish 
Mi'ti'iury ii^ocicty in Great Naniw^uuland, 
KpRiih Afrirn. 

DhVl. A H : A station of the Ltondon Mis- 
«V.'i-.- -. , ;,.(y in tbc Society Islundi. 

. A Bfttlonicnt in Western Af- 
H' . Mwhlio rivpT, six luiks from tUu 

ceut. the chief station of tho American Bap- 
tin Uiicioo. 

BKIBUT : The ancient Brn/tuM, a seaport. 
4al the chief town of the Druses. Its streets 
Ut narrow anil irre;;rular, aoi! the ^uhtirhs arc 
mrly u large lu the town, consLsting of 
ktmet intanpenied with gardens planted with 
Im^ iHdcli g\re it a U'autiful appearance. 

HlBtsVTT : - 'lid oat in plaatationa full of 

Soitrv^ umdL¥cending from Mount 

Lrteann •.....: i..i-utigh Ihii country to the 
SOL 'l*he BountaiiH nncloee n fine pliun fll]e<1 
irith nialbcrrT' trees, on which is reared the 
fifivt silk ill t^Triii. r*>>]»it:ttion Miuiat«d from 
53.'Wi fM 'iOfliHi. Hiiiut is the firet commer- 
- ria. and is visited by the Tork- 
' in !il<timeri, and vi»«*l8 from 
U;f li ■ world. The ]x»oplD are 

d3'< I w<:\», but arc principally 

m( ■■"■. uiul Hppnk the Amljic lan- 

^u <it is the principal station of 

Uk .^... 1^- Tfl in »^jTia. 

BIlA I : A jstalion of the Church 

jn*'!"' ..in North India. 

I t : lu Hiud(Nmt«o, two miles 

& litii^noir, and waM occupied u a 

M* -! miwinn in 1846. Pop. 4,00- 

A stuIiuD of the WCfilcyan 
.uiury 6oc'il^ty on the Island of St Vin- 

■"TT • On^n.— Until the 

lint and Kon-i(rn liililf 

II, 1: 1- ■■■-licvcd that there diil 

•■world lujv society havina: for 

■ 'li- dij5lril)utiuD of iLe Iloly 

note or euoiim-iit anmng 

!v. An amociution had ox- 

rtn'toadon iot KvenI years, hftving for 



its object tho snppty of the Scriptures to the 
soldiers and sailors. It wii<ii alWwanis some- 
what remodeled, and called the " Naval and 
Military Bible Hocicty," but its cfTortA were di> 
rected to a single puint, and were somewhat 
limited even titcre. A society culled the 
" French Bible Society," was foniie\l iu 
France, in 1792, but its ojierations were impe- 
ded from various cuobcs, and af^cr etrug^Iuig 
along for a lew years, the eoelety disposed of 
Uie Bibles on hand, scttlL-d np their accouuta^ 
and (lissol red iu Aoffust, 1 &U3. It is uol , bow- 
et'cr, to be suppoeca that no eiTorl hud been 
{nit forth to furnish a supply of Bibles fur the 
deatitntc generally, for too scx'en&l niisalunary 
societies in Enelund ond Scotland publislied 
large editions of Bibles and Tcstnmenli^ as well 
as other religions books, and tract*. One 
society olcine, "The Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge," formwl in IC98. printed 
the New Testament in Arabic, tlte whole Bitilo 
in the langriagi} of the Isle of Man. and four 
editions of it in tho Welsh language, beeiidta 
many editions in Knglieb. The operatiooB of 
this society arc still increasing. By the 
ulfurts uf these societies many copit-a uf the 
Scriptures were put in circulation, while as yot 
then; was no gencnU society to 8aiH;rvi»e the 
effnrt, and carry forward the worit with an 
energy and s^'stem becoming its importance. 
The supply of an oditicui of the Welsh Bible, 
for distribution in that principality, seems to 
have tieen the moving spring of the e»tjiblicih- 
mcnt of the British and Foreign Bible .Society. 
The Rov. Mr. Cbujles, a Welsh niiuistor, had 
urged that •^r.imething should be (luiie. and at 
length, the Uev. Joseph HiiL'hc-it. a (lissenting 
miuteler, who had iroverseil ilio gruuiid, wroto 
find published an Ksay, setting forth the im- 
jMjrtnncc of the snbjecl, the nw»i*sity of siwcUy 
and vigorous actinu, and sujcrgestin^ the forma- 
tion of a large national iostituiion. 'Vhit/is 
hints rented with weight in tbcniii)d.<! of many 
benevolent men, a general meeting was invited, 
and the British ami Foreign Bible Socicly. 
WU3 duly organized on the 7ui of March, 1 H04,l 
loimeili'ulely after tho ftirmatiou of the society 
a curre9iM)ndence was opened with many 
friends of tho Bible, in all tho lar-/' ■■!'i>-' '-n 
tho continent of Euroj*. and in ' h 

more distant, unfolding the views rn . 1, 

as well as the platia proposed ; urging ctK)pcr- 
alion either by Llie formation of distinct soci- 
eties, or becoming unxiliary, and offering poctfc^ 
niaiy aid if needed. It wan not long before aj 
response come from Germany. The friends < 
the euse at the citvof Nurenberg ajwcmblo 
arid fornu-d a Bible StK-iety ou the generali 
|irineipl« nf the British ond Foreign Society, J 
calling it the " Nurenberg Bible Society." In 
u hell t two years tho seal of the society vma 
traiKsfiTrwl to Brunle, ns prtsMs^ing mnn* facill- 
tics for printing and distributing the Scrip- 
tures. The Sueiety is now known as tho 
•* tieriMD Bible Society." 



174 



BmLB SOCtBTIES. 



Other ploon soon followed* Bad hi % few 
TCQis tho graai work was fairlj' anilor way. 
In ten ynua from the formatinn of tlic Hritisli 
and Fonriirn Bilile Hocicty, wid nuiinly thnnijjii 
tbcir ailvitfc and vooncration, H'l \k^, inilo- 
pendent Biblo eocii'tics Imd hwa furmed in 
Europe, several buvinj; ronny anxiliarim of 
Uiuir own ; (ifv. imp(>rtatit brancbcfl luul been 
artahlidhKl in Ai^ia, four of them oaxitiary to 
the ]$riiiah t?ociety, vit, Calcutta, Colombo, 
Bombay and Java, and one, vus^ Astntchan, 
anxiliarr to tho ItuKiiaii. Two aoziliary bo 
aietiGB had been formed in Afrii*a, viz^ one on 
tho tal«8 of SianritifUt ood Bourbon, and tlio 
other at St Helena. One hundred and 
iwcnty-nin« Bible societies had been furmed 
on tlie American continuDt, excluftivo of one 
at Quebec, and one at Picton.nith ihe " Nova 
Scotia Bible l^ocicty," established at Jlaliliu. 
with branches in ullthe principal towns in that 
Fruviucc. Two auxilianta to the BriliRh bl<> 
Ciiol7 were fonned in the Wot ludtw, viz.. one 
ibi Jamaica^ of colorod people, and one at An- 
tiffna. The same timo that the work was thus 
advaodng^ in the four great quarter!! of the 
rlobe, no less than 559 Hocietira uoxiHary to 
the great parent Bociety in l^ndon, hail IJeen 
fbrme<l within the British domiuiona. 

Ttie folluwing^ table will exhibit the names 
of the several large independent societies on 
the oonUoent of Buropo, and in Asia and Af- 
rica, nTC\ion8 to the formation of the Amer- 
ican hiblo .Society, with tlie date of their eor- 
enU organ iznliontf. 

TAQLE. 

lun «• 

lUHBi OUAJTBUnOOf. 

Oormaii BtblvSocict; lb; 10, 1M4 

B»rUn mW- SWI*ty Feb. U, IMA 

" _...-.. jg,j^ 

IWB 

litn 
Jnlr 81, iw» 

isn 

eepl., 1811^ 
1812 
UlS 
1M2 

nv.i 
nv6 



0(>n Bible Sodatr „ 

Bmucn EHbk eoewtjr. ...... 

Luna B( bio Sodffty k. 

Icrlwu) Blblo Soci«t> Jotr.l 

Branatrldi mUe BoeMj ,. Jquk IS 1 

N'wsDu Himburic HMe ttecMj Jib.],T 

Ff»Dkf<irt Hibl» Sociflv Urn. 4, 1 

N>w WirduHl Wlf*lKunck«lIllblfi6uc.. Ju. ^ J 

CUsntU (Boxili&ry) nilil« .ScwWty. 

C&lgmbo (sauliftrj-) lill>l« t'ocittj' 

[lniBbaj> (auUUtjy) BibUSodMy..... . ^ 

Ja«ft (>axlll*r7> Dtbl* Horte^ Juwlli 

AiUnrliui (RUJolbrjr) Bibb Bockty " 

Ufturitlua vA BourtKib (auO BfUaSnoh 
:?!. HclcD* (kuiUiu-jJ Bibl« Suclstjr 



I.:) Dtbte 3ori«t;. 
!y (aflurwBp'ui ftiix.).. 
• «.)■■ 



Jan, ?3, nn 
Jnlr 3, 1613 

Oct.' 13, ma 

Not. < imiK 
1»3 



in. 

H;'-' . --■■:. ('afliTiTardji *u«. 

fUiiiiiii.-Bi. iLM .•• rtK. (Brirrwuda ftux.) . 

llunffRriBD Ult<l« iSKiAtf 

Sturicb IBble twklj- 

mrtwnbnv Ubto 14o«iM7 

VkuidiJILbl* 9ock»ii 

KooliuKbinah Hlbl* Socletj 

Oior WWci &*>l r (CbtTroHc ) 

SpbuBlikuimi BiliU SodHj 

Kauvhin DiMv ix'Civty ^itti Wa lMr]te nuX* 

i' ' .- i'M>-!iolfil3,18H,»iidlSI5 

Pt ■: I tr 

IiIm ' Uible Soeirt; 

auU-k.,„„i. .,..,.. Sxfiitjr 

WrtUlMiMUfl twcietT 

BanM Bnde «ooietT 

AmitttrdUR niiilUi Bible 8oc4otr lUKhS3,lB14 

N«lbcrUjMl«BlbloSoc!«tr, wUbUbTsacb ^ 

x^rfPtiM- 

UiUMrrr Bthl« ttocletjr wiUi ui autUluj 

At Ooftbiin Jtilr 2ft, iai4 

Bbcrbrltl Uible SdcIpIj wllb auxUUrfH. . 

IVuMlM Bib. Bue. wilb muj uodlAtlM Any. 2, 18)4 

thurimiaM JUbLo Socletr Au*. 10, 1814 

SUDW HMp SmW7 Sfpt. IB, l!n4 

iMbecBlblp PofMj Oct. 12, 1814 

BuDtaco-Altunn Mbl* Societv. 1014 

»r«4b>b Dlblu Soclely 1814 

Dftukb rtiUr?«cM» 

6tn»hur^ Diblo i^ocWly '.','.'.'. Dm. SO. 1814 

iAiiMDii*- tlibl" Surirtj ,.,,, Hcc 30,1814 

tit-am lUhU- -•;«cietr ,., U« ai m* 

KUb*a>U Bfbia Softblr HinlilftllSlt 



The establishment of the American ^ 
Society forms a grand era in the Bible 
tions on the globe. It is belicvtil that lb 
Gr»t Bible tjociely in the United States, Ttf| 
the Fhiladelphta Bible Soeiely, which 
formed in the year ISOtl, but out 
after this Bible societies were also 
in Connecticut, Majtsachn.%t(ji, Mwdc^'! 
iiampskire, Mew York, New Jersey.Yiririiilit 
untl other soatbern states, while tbu actiw ex- 
ertions of Messrs. Mills and S('hermerhoni,i*liO 
performed a misBJonary tour tu the sonth-w«A 
and west, in 1^14, aided by the I*hilR(l*'l;>hi£. 
Connecticut, and New York Bible Soci-;..-, 
were iiijttnimoiitnl ia arousing the fliurvti-:.:. 
and procuring ultimately, the epinbii'-liiricni ■>[ 
Bit)lo Boeietiefl in Ohio, Kentucky. I'tniKaarv*, 
ML<!sts.Hippi, and Louiftinna, compn.'hi.'n<iii::r 
both state and county socicticfl, ao tbut i>o the 
establishment of the Amerieun Bible Society, 
in 1816, there existed more than fifty Bible 
Societies in the United States in active opera- 
tion, for^-threc of which become at oooe nox- 
ilianr to the National Xn9tituliua. 

The subject of formiu^ a national eodci^) 
had been ngitat^.'d from year to year, omoi "~ 
friends of the Bible cau^ in various parts 
the couDtrr, but nothing^ definite bad 
efiected, until the year 1815, when u plan ^ 
sketched by iJie New Jitac; Bible Bocie , 
and eent out to the Ei&ter societies fur eonca 
rvnce. 'ITiis plan met with very general favo 
and not long after, tlie managers of the N< 
York Bible Society cxpnwed tlieir vieivo ia \ 
aurifs of roiinlutiuns, approving of the plan, and 
concluding by reciuenting tlie lion. Klitu Boo- 
dinot. then President of the New Jersey Bibli 
Bociely, to invite a geuerol meeting to be i 
iabie city of New York <m the second We 
ncsday in May, 1816. Tbis was done^ and 1 
meeting was held acconlingly, and 61 ddo^ ' 
"^Bi^; 1814 1 gates, from ten different stales lu the Uoiooi 
" appeared with credentials from lt>etweeD 90 

and 'U> difK-rent looal societies ; the subjects 
involved were all carefUly examined, and oa 
the second day of meeting, viz. lliursday. May 
Ilth, 1816, a constitution was adupted, ana 
"Tifs Amkkicah BiBU SocaKrr" wm duly 
orgaoified. 
From that tinui to the present, the American 



BIBLE SOCffiTr^. 



176 



pSUm Soc4et7 hM gone steadily onwnrd. on- 

w^ii<r it« opcKtions from year to Tcor antU 

iu imliuiKx liM bwa fell to soiiw extent by 

tljB<>l every lutliou uuikr hmTen, fihrery 

ftut" lui.l Terriuiry in the Union lias owwrnted 

in the good work, either directly or tnroogh 

twtL-tic9 auxiltury tu tlie national institution, 

of wlii-h. up to Uuy, 1853, there were 1457, 

. 'I to branches, seatttjrwl throughout the 

-^ totes. For abcHit twenty yi-are, most 

Lt not kll of tbo ttruigelic&I dcDominaliowi co- 

ip«mt«d twrmonioiulT in tho operatioos oT 

..... A..,^fj^gQ Bible wejetv. At length, in 

liiogreement arose between the Bap- 

MtniDation and the Managers of the 

in Bible Society, in relation tn the 

- lU which new versions should be 

^n languages; and in cons«- 

action of the latter, in ado|ilinK 

.'lU to the effect that thvy *'feel U 

.» enconrage only such versions as 

' '>>■ principles of their tmnalatiou 

t" >n KnKli^h ventlon, at least so 

hi ax mm ail the religious de Dominations, 

itprestuittrj tu this Socit-ty, can consistonily 

DM and oirt-ulate naid vureiouu iu their aeverul 

«e^o<>U and coniiiiuititic«,'' the principal part 

ot the UaptLit dcmnninalion in the I'uitod 

Am«» withdrew from tiie Am. B. S.. and in 

Mr, ihcy formed the American and Foreign 

IfiUa ZMicitity ; a pniTisioiml urf^anizaiioQ, 

aoiiw the same name, having been formed iE 

3t»i» York ibc year before, lliis Society now 

hm alioot &Sft Huxiliariea. Hut n portiun of 

wiH> left thv Aiuei ican iiible Sociely, on 

[i0ou>ion. wt-n.' •i<.-'~iiiiiiBuf making an en- 

ivitiufi of Uie Kngliith ven^ion. 1'his pro- 

dlviaion In the American and Foreign 

8ed»ty^ which led to the forraation of 

^Asiuncan Bible Union in 1630. 

'• hvn sketchod the history of the British 

Foreign Bible Hocit-ty on the foregoing 

% (iroiB it« fcrmntioo iu IHOl to the form- 

of the American Society in 1810. lt= 

for thu thirly-sevcn ywiB which hare 

I dace that lime haa been, in a most 

4BBK, upward uud onward. From a 

of men at tlic bcg^inning, not more 

eaolfl sit around n tablu, it hm become a 

Id strra(j;th, strctdiing its giant arms, 

wisli blentmgM, to the utiuc«t limits of 

Tbc Bibl«! Socieli(;i in oontiuental 

well as la Asia aud Africa, haTc 

many changes iu the lost thirty- 

«vrrtt trmt% Some which were then formed 

hftve urMKv] to cjcisi, and many others have 

tiM ocpuiiE^d. aud at tho preaoQt time Bible 

VkMim are found in aacccasfiil oi>enilion iu 

wnry Rurupnm naltou, as wHl as in many im- 

fnrliiot plonrs in Aiua, on the African coast, 

aad ta laany win of the sea. It might be 

dUlmll 10 naine tlicm oU, w«re «c to attempt 

societies 
-;- .-...-... ^. iuony hull- 



»Uak. 



rbvm 



drcda of aiudltariefi and branches which are 
clustering around them. Such is a vi.-ry brief 
sketch of tho origin and progrcBS uf Uilile »>• 
cietleM to Lhc presuut time. Wc torn now ta 
trace the 

Resuits. — Very great and encouraging re- 
sults may be fitat<Kl here in very few word& 
The British aud Fonagn Bible Society celfr 
brated » juhiioc on the 8th of March, 1B53, on 
entering the fiftieth year of their existence; 
and tbm reported that the society had i.'wucd 
Bibles and Teetameota to the number of 2^,- 
402,309 copies, and bod expended iu (hat work 
four millions of pounds Sterling, about twenty 
millions of dollars. The number of languages 
aud dialects in which it had printoti and 
circulated the Scriptures wa0 148. 'llie uuui- 
Iter of its auxiliaries direct, was 4,257. 

The Ajncricoo Bible Society, from ita in^ 
tntion. in 1816, np to May 1, 1853, a period 
of thirty-fleven years, baa put into circuiationi 
9,088,352 copies of the BcriptoreB. in many dif- 
ferent languages, raisiag fh>m Tarioua sources 
about four and a half nullions of dollars, at 
Icuit S-100.000 of which has bcencxiicndod to 
aid in furnishing the Scripturui for distribuLio^j 
amoug the heufbeu. 

In addition to what lias boon accompUdie 
by these two great national inHtitutiom, with 
their host of auxilinrius, the Bible societies in 
continental Kurojw. in Asia, and in Africa, 
have published and circulated some five or six 
millions of copies of tbc Holy Scriptures, in 
the various languages spoken there ; white the 
American and Forei^ Bible Society, daring 
the fixteea years of its cxisteoce, boa put into 
circulation more than half a million uf copioa 
of the .Scriptures, in 35 diffenmt langrmges, 
and OS many more in Engliiib. aud expended 
more than half a millioo of dollara, Dcariy 
26.5,000 of which was expended iu the foreign 
work. The ais'^^egatc of all these apcratioai| 
is tlio publication and circulutiun of nearly" 
."in ,000,000 copies of tlie Holy Bcriptun*, in 
almost uH the languages spoken ujwu eortli* 
and the expenditure in this importaul work of 
at least tliirty millious of doIlariL Such aro 
tho preut results of the operations of Bible 
f:ocictia iu tlie Inst fifty years. Thnie resulle 
encoart^ the h<*pe that the lime tiromised is 
at hand, when tlie gO!>i>cl shall blossom and 
bud, and till the face of the world with fmjL 
For tho details of this subject, the reader Is 
referred to tho Annual RqtorU of Ok Snt. and 
Fvreign Bib. Soc. ; Owen's Jiutoru of the/irti 
tm ycart of thai aociety ; the Annuul keport* (f 
tfu Am. Jitb. Soc ; attd the Atuituii Htport$ <C 
the Am. ami For. Bib. Soc, ; and alao to Stria 
lamlH HiMory of the Am, Bib. Soc., pubitthed m 
18-19.— Ret. J. Okxehuup. 

Tho following t&ble embodies mnch valuable 
information, ehowing tho progrrasiTc ailvmice> 
mrnt of the Bible cause in this ctruotry for 
the lof^t 22 years ; and tho proportion of do- 
mestic and foreign appropriations : 



176 



BOOK AKD TBACT SOCIETIES. 



BSCSII'TS or TUB AMUtlCAM BIBLB SOCICrT AS THE BBStXT OF DOKATT0K8, AMD TBK 
APPROPRIATIOHS HADE OF THE SAHB. 



Yemr. 


Booefpta. 


Fvriuds. 


f<jT Fur. Dii. 


AitpronrUM 
lot For. Uao. 


FttriodiL 


PurBwBtCili 


1832. . . 


^7,5G4 






631 




. 


iwrt^, . . 


•10,091 






15,300 




1 


IH.ll, . . 


fi4,570 






17,000 




• 


K^i;i, . . 


62,8G8 


211,093 




35,500 


68,431 


143,662 






183C, . . 


58,781 




13,789 


39,070 






1837, . . 


36,728 




6.589 


6,326 






1898, . . 


44^5 




3,631 


20,230 






1630, . . 


fi3;285 


192.159 


5340 


19,465 


85,091 


107,068 






1840, . . 


48,030 




6,418 


10.549 






1841. . . 


61.810 




2,666 


30.794 






1842, . . 


74,530 




3343 


16,619 






1843, . . 


65,244 


249,644 


2,419 


15.518 


73,480 


176,lCi 






1844. . . 


67,«0(; 




U47 


23.945 






1845. . . 


68.468 




1,091 


13.792 






1846, . . 


10*1 ,551 




1,626 


1.500 






1847, . , 


73,946 


314,571 


965 


18,000 


57,237 


357,334 


1848, ■■ . 


54,505 


1.938 


9,500 


18-19, . . 


91,80* 




10,762 


11,188 






1850. . . 


117,704 




1,463 


17.900 






1851, . . 


120,065 






0,100 






1852, 




424,166 






47,788 
332,027 


376.380 






1.391,635 


1.059,600 



'3IMBIA : A station of thti Engliah Bap- 
tists at Old Calabar, Wc^l Africa. 

ULNTENNK : A station of Ihe Wceleyana 
ou an iiiland on tlio cant lUi&iii of Ccjlon. 

BIRKLAXD3: Station of the London 
MisioDur.v Society, in Soulb Africa, contaiaing 
a large pupulntion of Kaflrct;. 

bCaCIv town : 'nie fortifit-d and most 
populous portion of the city of Madras, oo the 
ciuittTti cvust itf Iliudixftitan. It vas occupied 
Bfi a otalion of the Am. Board, ia 1849. 

BIJ N K W ATKR : A station of the Lon- 
don Missionary Society, on the Buffido river, 
in Sonth A frira. 

BLUKFIKLDS : A stulirm of the Gosiwl 
PropaKation Si>cictv. in Jamaica, W. I. 

BL Y EN DAAh ': A station of the London 
Miasionary Society, in Bcrbice. 

BOMBAY : A city on the west coast of 
India, occupying an itiland of the game name, 
8 miles in length N. to 8., and 2 or 3 in 
vidtb. Ilio popnintion, aa reported in 1851, 
is 55C.OOO. (Jf Ihfac, 297,000 are Hindoos, 
speaking the Mahrattaand Gujatbe laogungea, 
and 124,000 are Mohammedans. Tbo rest are 
Pareecs, Jains, &e. Tlie Mohamniftlanfl gen- 
erally Hpcnli rjindo^tanec. The Poraeea of 
Bomltay arc aliout 100,000 in number, while 
the Jaiii» DuatWr only a few Uiou^ands. lllie 
lloman Catholici are numerous. Bombay, next 






to Madras, is the oldest of the British posH!>> 
aions in India, and commands the whole mule 
of the north-wtst coast, and of the Pct^ui 
Gulf. The Am. Board commenced ilainiauon 
heroin 1812. 

BOOK AND TRACT SOCIETIES : The 
Bible itself is a ecries of in.spired tract:?, path- 
ere<l iuto a taicrcd volamc. WickltO wiis the 
onthor of more than one hundred rolumes 
against Popery, besides commcutariea on 
Scriptoree, and noxaerous tracts, which 

extensively read, notwithstanding tbey 

ordered to be barncd. Some of his tractiv 
borne to Bohemia by an Oxford student in 
1389, Bowed the seeds of tmth in the heart of 
Joliu Htiss, whose writings in turn wrre 
hlei^^ tu Murlin Luther, who wa.<i the author 
of 740 tracts and books, which bore no incoD- 
siderable part in the Great Reformation. The 
Society for Promotwg CAnrfwn A*?ic«r/odg-c was 
formed in England in 1701, partly "to dia- 
{tersc both at nome and abroad, Bibles a&d 
iraclfl of religion." In 1750, was formod 
first institution of a catholic character, 
which there is anpr notice — "The Swiety 
Promotion Religious Koowledj^re among 
PiM>r," and its works were cstoiwively 
In 1756, similar institutions were formed 
I^iinburgh and Glasgow. Near the close 
the hut eentiu?, the deluge of infidel publicf 




BOOK AND TRACT SOCIETIES. 



n; 



hfi o&pring of the French Kcrolation. 
Il Mn. Hannali More tn pn-niirc a 
»t/*«.i)», entitled "The Cheap KLp<"«i- 
ACt^" which hikil an immenac &nd nso- 
alAtiuzL Moro thau 2,000,000 copies 
ftUcrat abroad. The dcmoastrailioD of 
NT of a cbvap, r«pular ri.-Iig^kiii3 litem- 

ttw succctt of MnC Morc's eOurtii, uud 
erulent xcal of t)ie Rer. George Bur- 

lo the forimition of 
Bmjdioch TuAOt BociKTV, London, iu 
vfaicfa may be regarded, perhaps, as the 
of the Dunicrotu and respectable pro- 
' tmrt fwcictics throughout ihc world. 
Their organization was to publish 
vanffi-licul tnitb. in simple, nn- 
ia Cunoa. locoooimilti'H wuh rompOHtil 
1 nntnbrraof cbarcbmcn and dissenters ; 
ar first nddrees declares tlmt its publi- 
ituLJ! rontnin " nuthiiig of the slitbboicth 
} fitfibiug to recoiimieud one deriomiiia- 

to thivw odium on another ; nothing 
HTimon^of contending particn agalniit 
lat difltr from them ; but pure ^ooA- 

ChriFtJaiiity, in which all the follovcn 
\juab, who ore liwkin^ for the mere; 
Jj>Td Jeeos Chriiit onto eternal life, 
le vith pltasore, as iu one great com- 
Vm&. Xor should any worldly schemt- 
rvoTeo with the truth, nr attrnipteil to 
icakd under it^ tjUin. Uerc should not 
I tbt slightest vc-stige of ooy carnal end, 
Pma or for any purpose, however lauda- 
H lOur think it ; notldng but dtrine 
mdapcdi anadaltcrated, and pore as it 
npufw 1h«<aren, fit for tbo wliofc human 

■_[■■ iiptM by tlio Society's edifice in 
I li OIK of the most interesting in his- 
iioD to bo found in the melro- 
I St PwU*8 church-Tard, where 
^ _i« petMCMiors, aw T^Tidale'a 
I mA Latlicr's writings were com- 
t flanat. and where martyn sof- 
I trulb. It 18 a befitting spot for 
licotion of thon govpel writings 
I the revived power and nlti- 
ifib orer all error and oppc«itioo, 
Md llaeU^ in all laod?)^ 
liUcatioM of the " Bengions IVart 
art' aboat 6^0 in ininbcr, and are 
k1 in diarscU'r, style and Ungti^Blk as 
L the wanta of all danet. Beudw a 
a nrittf of tract* aDd childrco'a tracts, 
fcaniliid booka (br the yonng, a rich 
of ctandard. nraetical trratiMv, and 
«lpi to the study of ihf Srripinna. the 
BROW four or five pirioiliciils for young 
t wttb a wide and U54*fu) rirruliitidn. 
#»T^'— -" ■■■■'-■•■ -"""■' ■•■'•u-j 

Uu. ■• ■ ^:..,~ - - AKK). 

MUl drmlatloci of the Londou Hoci- 
>fcUt!ltfi?TT excceda fix hundrtd mtUtoni 
9. lis total annual raceipts are about 
12 



£70,000 or abont 8350.000, including £K,000 
or £10,000 in donationii:. Its total reccipti Tor 
the firtl fifty years were, in donations £l.Vi.552, 
and for Bales £1,023,215 = £l,2(>2^'i:;, or 
about $6,000,000. Its gratuitous issues aut; 

rts of money, paper, engravingSt Ac^ for 
foreign CliriHtian prcsa in fifty years, 
amouDted to £16.').372, or aboat 8750.000. 

The fruits of these stupcndoia opwatifl 
arc found In every part of Uic world, and manf ^ 
havo been parncretl for the great day. A faci 
of p1ea«iDg interest in the early history of ihir., 
society must cooclude oar condensed 8kot4]bf 
^L'arvt'ly were its own foundations laid, and it 
special work commAnoed, before it« fouodcnl 
and early managers were providentially led ta\ 
consider the necessity of a kindred society f»* 
the circulation of the liolv Scriptures, Thi 
secretary and cojumittcc of the Tract Bociftj 
became the founders of the linttsh and For 
rig-n Btbie Sociaij iu 1804, and tlte Rev. Joha 
Ifnghes, secretary of the former, became th>' 
first flccrctary of the latter. 'ITius were linked 
together by ^}arcntal and flliul ties two of tho 
most influential and DBofhl of the bencvoleuf 
institutions of the world. 

Thk Amkricax Tract Sociktt was formed 
in New York. Ma:^ H* 182*'^> U") kas boooiDf 
the largest institution of its clas« in tho world 
A brief sketch of its history l>cflts theeepa^Qi, J 
Soon after the organization of the RcligiooiJ 
Tract Society, London, the MaaeachnactlB S* 
ciely for Promoting Christian Knowledge, com- 
menced iu 1803 tbe publication of tracts and 
hooka. The Connecticut Tract Society, Rev. 
Pr. Dwight, president, and Jeremiah kvarta, 
secretary, was formctl in 1807, and other klD* 
drcd ins'titntinnfi came Into being. The traota 
of Hannah More found their way to Boi^tOD, 
and rc-oched the youthfid niemlters of a com- 
mereiol firm, by whom they were highly 
priwd. Thfty caused several cumbers to b« 
reprinted, and were in the habit of accompa- 
nying the packages of goods sent from tb^r 
store to rarioiB parts of the countrv. with 
somo of these trncta. During long anu uacful 
lives. Ilomcs and Uomer contlnuetl the active 
friends of the Society which owed its origin 
in a considerable degree to their inftuennr. In 
ISl'l the New Kngland (afterwards the Amer- 
ican) TVact Society, was formed at Boston — a 
SDggostion at a meeting of half a dozen Chris- 
tian firieoda having led to the contribution of 
suma for printinc wveral trnrts, and after a 
few months of di'liU-ration and eii>eriment, to 
IIh? organization of a society wliiih put In 
circulation about 4,250.000 ol puMiealiorei in 
the ten snccitilinj; year?. Other societies, 
catholic or di'iiomlnaiional, were formt-d in va- 
rious frfirt-s of the United Stat€ti, and the total 
< iroiilation prerioos to 1825, reached about 
10.000,000 copies. 

In 1824. a correspondence commcn<M!d b«y 
Iwccn tie New York lUligiouK Tract 8ocloty 
and tho American Tract Society at Boston, 



178 



BOOK AXD TRACT SOCXETIES. 



irbich rcsiiUotl in a pnhlic mcdinfr licM in the 
city or New York, MurcU 11. 1825, at which 
the plan of a national tract aocicty was 
iu]o)it(-(l, to hv 9ubniiLt('ii to t)w principal tract 
societiis ; un<l a nubsi-ription for the erection 
of a tract-house was commcnceil with 95,000 
by Mr. Arthur Tappan. $3,000 hv Mr. Momb 
Allen, and 81,000 eiicli by W. \V. Chester 
and Uiclifiid T. llninof , whi'-li were afterwards 
incren^tod to more than 82;'i,000 by donors in 
New York city. A coiiveution of delepatea 
from variotts tract BoeJeticB aKwcnibli'd in New 
York, May 10, 1825, Uie Rev. Dr. Milnor, 
chairman ; the coDstitntiqji was apj^rorcd, and. 
on the succeeding day tlic orpanization was 
c&wtcil, and the corner stone of the iradr 
house laid with solemn rciigioos services ; S. 
V. S. Wilder, Kpr|.. president; Itev. Wm. 
A. Hollock, secretarv ; Mosen Allen, Ksq.. 
treflsoTGr ; Rev. Dnt. Milnor, Spring, Knox and 
Edwards, and I^v. Messre. Sninniers and ijum- 
mcrlleld, Publit^bin^ ('onimitttic It wn.s near 
the cloee of this meeting that the lamented 
Snmmerfield mode his tost public address, in 
which hi^ Kuid, " Id nil the onuiversaritiK I have 
ever attended, in Koropn or America, I have 
nemr been so conscious of the presence of the 
Holy Spirit and Christian lovo pervading^ 
ei'ery heart. Apiiu and again I conid not re- 
frain from woffping. Tlie very atmosphere wc 
breathe is the atmosphere of heaven ; one 
which liu^els comedown to inhale, and in which 
Gorl himHolf delights to dwell." Of the ii^ti- 
tation 80 uQPpiciOQsIy forraod. the Americun 
Tract Society at Ikwton, become a branch, 
transferring its stereotype plates, and render- 
ing the moRt efficient cooperation in tlic pre- 
sent lime- Other co|lhoIic Rn:ietif8 also be- 
came anxiliarics of tuo new institution. 

'* The tiiuas of anion" wns declared in tho 
Brst address of the Executive Committee to 
the Chrietinn pnblic to be the following great 
doclriiica of the GfwjK-l, in ivhieh evangclicnl 
believers are agreed : " Mttii'.s native ninfulncMi : 
the purity ami obligation of the law of God ; 
the true and proper divinity of our Ljrd 
JcflUK Christ; the necessity and reality of his 
atonement and snerifice ; Uie efliciency nf the 
Holy Spirit in the work of renovation ; the 
free and full ofli^rs of the Gospel, osd the duty 
of men to accept it; thcneceesity of personal 
holiness ; and an cvcrloeting state of rewards 
and punishments beyond the grave." 

Bcsidctj the preparation of a scries of tracts 
and children's tracts for domestic circulation, 
the claims of the Christian press in Pagan 
landit were recognised from ihe ontset, and 
tppropriatioDf; were made for tliis objc<-t in 
the secoad and third years, as in all the Hubsc- 
qiient years of its history. The principles gov- 
erning foreign prantfl were dmwn up ny Jere- 
miah Erarlfl, Esq., then the far-slghteil Secre- 
tary of the A. B. C. F. M. How c.Ktrnsivfc 
anau»>fnl thUcooperntioDwith the misaiooary 
work hm been, will appear hereafter. 



VtJuma Enterpriu. — Ic the third year, Um 
Society eoninicnccd the Vciume EnUrtvritt, by 
stercotyjiing Doddridge's Rise and FrogrOB. 
at the expense of benevolent friends, f " --' 
by Bascter's Saint's Hwt, und Call to i 
converted, Bunyau's Pilgrim's Progn - >.. 
other practical works. The Rev. Dr. I'U-nut, 
of Virginia, prompted an enterprise 6 
plying the southem Atlantic States "^ 
volumes, which was extended io ol 
Agents were raised op who visited 
tioiiK in various narU of tho eouo 
mote tho circulation of good books by 
of voluntary distributors ; and the fnundatii 
were laid for the emjiloymeat of the 
religious pnis» as a means of popular _^ 
izaUon. The various ■• Boards of Publicatiia, 
and the nnprocedcnted activity of reliKiw 
book-publishing, may be traced, in a com i 
gree, to tho prosperity and sucocss of the"T( 
nroc Enlcrprisi'." 

Si/Mtmatic Distributfon qf Tracts. — In 
fourth year attention TTOS directed to *ys(r 
tract visitatim, or the employment of /oi 
perfouai effort for the salvation of itiaivH 
iK/%i/s, in connoction with the systcmutic d' 
bntion of niligious tracts. Ilarlan Page, 
the Socie^'s dep'witatr, enlisted his ene,, 
in this work, Olio furnisheil an ilhutraiirja 
the efficiency of the principle underlying i 
system of doing good. Numerooa auxiliary 
socictiea were formed, especially in oar great 
cities and larger towns, which still pcnenro 
in the tract-mLSHion work, and ore widely me- 
ful to the neglected classes of tiie populatim. 
r/« New York Citit Iroct Society employs 26 
missionaries, including three for German and 
other cmi^aols, and one for seamen, who 
have associated with them 1,110 visitors, oitd 
distribute annually abont 1,600,000 tracto. 
The resnlte ore moiit cheering, aa appean fnai 
the following statistics for 1853 : Tracta £1* 
trilmted in KngHsh and other laDgiracas, 
l,rj79,756, embracing 6.319,030 pages; Bibica 
and T(£tamcnts supplied to the destitute, 2,434 ; 
voluuKS k'Ul from ward libraries, G,41G ; child- 
ren gathered into Sabbath-schools, 2,24 7 ; into 
public schools, 28-1 ; into Bible classes, 121 ; 
into church, 1,602 ; teniperance pledges oIk 
tained, 5G2 ; district prayer-meetings held, 
1.483; backsliders reclaimed, 32 ; persons re- 
ported as hopefully converted, 173; coaverts 
united in tlio evangelical churches, 15-i. 

Coiportagr. — In May, 18-11, the system of 
Colportage commenced. The Volume Enter- 
prise had not reached the destitute classes, acd 
tract visitation had been restricted mainly to 
largo cities and towiUL The combination of 
the elements of both enterprises, systematic-ally 
applied to the destitute, constituted the ba^i.^ 
of tho new movement ; and competcni u;n u- 
cies for directing and superintending the lujH^r* 
of colporteurs had been providentially trui(n.\l 
in the Volnme Enterprbc. The annual rej.>ott 
for 1841 prcseuteU a vien of the dcatituUi — 



it^ 



t-'J-'Otl , 

^1 



BOOK AND TRACT 80CIETI&B. 



179 



tilht omintr}*. The wcrctarr for thu deport- 

■nt, (Mi*. Cook.) tmmedialcl}' after the annl- 

y^^ry ^'■ V, w York, addressed the annual 

miiji r >'ty ut Boetoo, and moiie an 

tot>t-«l 1 1 funds to beffin the colpor- 

t : e; tit; has been Die author of 

k. i]u«:umeut4 ami appeaU relating 

WiL b'n^ja the four or fire eaDdidato who 

purruted tbemadTfa the next inomiD?, two 

«iR idcrted aod oonunissiunetl ; Mr. Aijn 

hsoott. nuw a pastor io Dliuois, who went 

iB % litttltiite part of Indiana ; and Kcr. V. 

t(ilM»\H*ey who labored with (pt>at acccptaneo 

tit &)ur yvars in Kcotuckr, and then euterod 

Nkk gracious reirard. 'j'b«.-y were tlic ftrvt 

imricim colporteurs. 11te nutn)»er inereaied 

frw U iu 1641, to riOB in 1850, and G19 \a 

Ifil, fur iJie whole or part of the year. 

h \hf nuiniiKT of lb42, one of the secn>ta- 

^ mtuh titi official extended tour nt the West, 

1 beciuao Ctmiiiar with the condition and 

Db oC the German emigrant popalAtloD. 

I ivprvacntationa led to the saccewiul appli- 

ttka of colpcrta^ to the rariona cIaffiC8 of 

"■ '^'it*. Oermaos. French, Irish, Welsh, 

Norwcg-ian, and Spanish, both Protes- 

— .4^ PapaL An aTtTagu of about 100 

are cmplo^-e'l among tJiein ; and 

il*i ho fi?ature of the Society's work is 

&. t Olid hopefnl than this. Some 

of l.oering; reconls of modem evan- 

ftfisaiuu may be foand omong the rt-porta of 

flk» German and Xorwe^ian colporteure. The 

~ Qenaul colpiirti-nr tn this country ws3 

' Kitty, a eouvcrtc^l Kouion CutLollc. 

( ploa porrotd io the prwsocation of col- 

' fOrtefps It an follows ; the (|ua[ifi<-utioni« of the 

tc9^)ort««r having b(x>n invv!=tigated and a 

[adBnuMiod i«m.il,hi> i? tti7pplicd with the pub* 

"■ fl..ii. t.f It,.- >-'.i.iety and procoetli to hi« 

iiirily otH" or two counties. 

Io h'^u'/', fuelling his book* 

■ '' hdpplyiiiirlhe famiticsof 

■ ring gTutuitoit«ly, accom- 
fiu^ Um \l-iU: with fuTsijnal religious eon- 

i and pniycr : bulding pruver-meetinga, 

I'lrcsso, fonning Habhath- 

' inpemncc, and wlvaucing 

tiag < -■ ' m(.T ill all appropri- 

-u of hi§ labors are 

I to til' . ..|.- ..i ut nreolp<trtag(!, and 

rljr fpporu hotii to Uic SuptTlntrn- 

^■au lu the Committ'Uc. 8 u[>eriri tending 

I are atabliahed nl important conuuer- 

Pfctjtn*. with dr-pii-^itr.rir', us at Kochcster, 



PPh--" nnd, New Or- 

noti, Chicago, 
iving each the 
[■ortt'ure. Mi- 
1 • II ui the waota, 
-cir-4l«tiviDg baud of 
' ■ ' tne oTcraight 
-. aa they tra- 
,,. untnct with the 
6«»l|Wr1«Qra, and of the ejctcstivv officen, who 



ocea£ioDaily convene them, and spend aerortd 
days in intercourse with them. It is mnch 
due, under ttod, to these precautions thai lliu 
pystem biu thufl far worknl without friction or 
disuppiiintmeiiL 

Among the throe thousand diOereut jN>n«ons 
enlLrtcd iu this cause, gince the enterprise be* 
gan, more than lOOOharobeon connecter] with 
alMiut 50 diOt-rent coUegea, nnireniiiiirH and 
Uieolofpcal semiuariw, of aboat '20 different 
dcQomiuutioQS, engaged in a course of train- 
ing fur the goipel ministry. And beaida 
accntnpUahiDg antold good to otliera, tKeir die- 
cipline hw \nvn of much beDcfit to themftclvis, 
in preparing them fur the prai-tical dutits of 
pastoral life. Many who ore usefuHy employed 
m the sacred office in this or otJher lands will • 
luiitfi in the tes>timuny recently borne by the 
firet Amorican colporteur : " Among all the 
meana of preparation which the Lord has 
8\teDt upon me, I look upon my colportrur la- 
bors OS holding an important, tf not the most 
important place, ejcccpt the agency of Uie 
Huly .Spirit." 

The statistics of colportoge famish an im- 
prcasirc illoatralioD of its practical (AiricDCT 
and usefnlncflB. In the Rrst 13 yettnt of the en- 
terprise, DO leas than 3,620,101 families have 
1km:u visited, iriih l,8b7,225 of whom thecolpoi^ 
tcum hiul religious cunvcreatifm or prayer, gen- 
erally both. Tin; number of religious bookssuld 
to these households was 3,900,739; and the nom- 
Ut granted to the destitute was 1,0G8,6€2, of 
the pecuniary value of 817«,000. The aggro- 
pate eirmlation of books by the Society dor- 
mg thcee thirteen ycon was ?.675.224. The 
moral and rdigioos condition of the fninilies 
reached by comortago may be infrrrrd fn»m 
the fact tliat 483.135 of them habituutly neg- 
lected evangelical worship ; M1,3D7 wero des- 
titute of all religious bo<^ except the Ifihte, 
and 235,002 bad not a copy of the Holy 
rfcrintiircfs. The number of Itoman Catholic 
families, or other errorist*. was 366,.l<16. Tbc 
number of prayer-meeiiogs held or public meet- 
ings wIdrtWcd was 100.169. These stati.'itics 
embract^ the emigrant population, and relate 
to all the Statci and Territories in thi^ T7nion. 
They ore worthy of attention and study on the 
part of Christian philantliropist«. 

The bearings of such a wide-epread ^tcv 
of o-angeliol eCTort, among our uncvan* 
gclized popalatioD, cannot but be the moot 
hnppy, on all iotcrc$>ts, civil, social and rdt- 
gitimt. As a practical demonstration of cran- 
gclical unity ; as an iilnstration of the power 
of the Christian prcn, and a restraint and cor- 
rective for the ills of a corrupt literature : aa 
a means of awakening the spirit of activo 
piety ; as an agency tor exploring and reveal- 
ing oar moru WMtes, and dispoising fbo 
means of grace among the scattered htmae* 
holds in oar new settlemeata, as well as among 
the nefflectod abodes of crowded cities ; m a 
well-adaptod agency for reaching the emigrant 



IBO 



BOOK AND TRACT SOdETTIES. 



clancs. vUo crowd oar shores ; u aa instru- 
menlolitT for impurtiug tlie Irotli in lovo to 
papiaU, iufi(k<lH aud oibcra wLo come not to 
Uie uTaugdicol sunetunry, aiitl arc not othcr- 
VLHO! Mc^m-aI with savinjr'u-uth; as the hand- 
nmii] of the Sabbalh-School anil tcmperanco 
aiid Bible aud iSabballi observance cnterpri- 
0M i 1L1I a ccuieiiling ititbiciioc, ui Church and 
Stulc ; mid above oil as u hcavcD-blcseed mcatis 
of edifying the bttdy of Christ, couvertiuj; 
aouls aud pruiiiotiug' the rcvivid of God's 
work amon^ men, Colportnge has dcinoD- 
gtrated it£ cTuiiu to the reg:an] of those who 
lo^-e their conntn,', and especially of those who 
love till! KedK'iner'fi Kiugdoui. 

Ftimipi itiairtbiuiitn. — The entfcrprisea of 
the AuiLiiian Tri«ft .Society Id j'oieitrH atui 
fxisan Icuds. hove bccii earned forwani sten- 
dit- '-- ■ Irout its fimudati^iu. Liuiiliiig itjj 
111 M lu tlic preparation aod circiila- 

;i.'.itions anrordant with iLs firinoi- 



ples, and aimJug to meet the waute of the mis- 
sioiia aitd fiocioUos especially of Amencan ori- 
ffiii, in all purls of tiie world, it has come to 
1)0 ideulifieu with abnii»t every pluii for fur- 
nishing the nations with a Christiuu literature. 
The fuUowiuif schedule of the appropriations 
in money, amtmnting U* §423,794, Oflidc from 
the grunts of publicaliou^. engTaving^ &c., Qp 
to lb54, will show how wide ie the sphere of 
its u]MTution8 in this department. There have 
bifiii reinittitl in uuib to the iSaridwicli hlandh' 
$2r»^00 ; Java, IJurUi-o and Malacca, SHOO ; 
China, the various iniiisions, S-VJ, 15(}; Siau, 
820.31X1 ; Aisftin. Sa,9uu ; Burnioh and Karens. 
632.600 ; NorthcTU India. 837,500 ; Caieutto, 
»H00j Ori>(^, glO.SJO ; Telwfgooe, S2,600 ; 
Mttdroa, $19,1M); Aiadura, 97,7 fiO ; Ceyloo, 
$32.3U0; Bumbav, $14,198; Ahmedmiggnr, 
&c.. 52.901; Africa, S4,200; Nestorians. 
W,50U; .Syria, $5,750; Turkey, f 30,930 : 
Greece, 821.200; Italy, 32,&0U ; Riii>A\a and 
Poland S22.9O0 ; KwedLU. 82^00 ; Dciiinurk. 
S1.4(I0; IterliD, S2,HO0 ; Hamburg,', Si9.2o0 : 
liremcu, Barmen. Calw and Ilunifary. 84,650 ; 
Ba8le.dl.5O0; Hclsiuni nml UolTand. «2,650 ; 
SocielicM in Frtuu-e, $23,020 ; Spain, 61.400 : 
Moravian missions, 83,000 ; Indiuti missions, 
$3,144 : udil gruntd for the blind, 81^00— to- 
tol, 8l23.7y4. 

The number of bot^ka and tracts approvtHl 
for disLribatioD in foreign lands is 2,88.'i, fn- 
ctudiug 2S2 volumes ; and the .Society and the 
iuslitutiom it aids, have iteued publicatJOHa tn 
one hundred atui nineteen iangvages and dtaiats, 
08 follows : 

Seneca, Mohawk, Delaware. Ojibwa, Otoo. 
or Iowa. Wea, Putawatomie, Shawaooo, Kan- 
aa«, i)jia*:e. Ottawa. Alwrnupiis, Sitmx, or 
Dakota, Pawnee, Greek, Choc^taw. Cliprokcc. 
Nez IVTces. Creole, or Ncf^ivflermun, Negro 
English. KnKlish, Welsh. Irish, French, Low 
Ba-tiin, Fh-mish, Spanish, rurtiign'?^*, Italian, 
Dutch, Geimun, llomunciie, Lithiumian, Bohe- 
mian, ilungariaa or Mu^^r, Slarouiaa, Up- 



per Wendish. Nether Weodisb. Tjutdalli 
SerTian, Wallachian, Crootian, Daniih, ** 
wpgian, Icelandic, Greenlandish. Ksqni 
Sw^dhJ), Polish, Jndeo-Polish, F' ' ' 
pish, Rnw, Rival-Estonian, Dor| 
Mongolian, lielti^h. Tartur-Tnrkl-u, i huk- 
Bulgarian. Armcninn, Armeno-Turkith, 
brew. Ilebrtw-Qcrmau, Uubrew-Sponiflb. 
dern Gn-ck, Grcco-Turkiah, Araoic, Syri 
Nestorian. Persian, Grebo, Mpongwe. B«ki _, 
Buasa, Kaflrc, Zida, Hcwuto, Wanika, Kinika, 
Timnch, Mahratta, Goojuratoe, Latin, Tato 
Cinjgalese, Teloogoo, Onyn, Bengali. Cai " 
Malayalim, Tulu, Uindni, or i>ev X 
Hindoostani. or Urdu, Paojabi, or Onrma 
Coshmire, Bnrm&n, Pegaan, Salonp. Hgau 
rcn. Sho Karen, Kcmrace, Siamese, 
Tai, or Khamti, Sing^tho, Nfcga, Chi 
Jajuneee, Klahiy, Bngis, Javauea«, Lettim 
Dv.ik, Hawaiian, Marquceos, Feejec. Total, 
ll'9. 

One or two illuBtrations of the xael 
tract ili5tribntion abroad, from the 
injttanreg in the records of thifl branch of 
voleuce, nmat suffice. The KeT. Dr. Doff, 
eminent Scotch missionary from India, gtated 
at the tut anniversary of the American Tr»ci 
.Societv, that a missionary visited the wt»t 
Bengal, and found that ficveral years before 
visit, a tract called the " Ten Commandi 
had fallen into the hands of a Hindoo dcroi 
The devotee had diol unafTected, but the 
Rccd had come in contact with the soi 
honest hearlA, and did a noble work. Vary 
sooD one hundred sonb were baptised, oU tw 
fruit of that wngle tract. 

llie present amazing revolution lu China, 
threatening tho existence of the Tartar " 
and the ovcrlhr(»w of idolatry in thai Vi 
Kmpire, may lie traced, in the wonde-r-wc<rkii 
Providence of Go<i, to tho intinence of 
Cliino?e tract, which fell into the hands 
Tne-Ping-AVang. the insurgent cliii-r, in 1834? 
Lcnng-Afa, the faithful native preacher, wtf 
the author of " Good Wortls to admoniBh ths 
Ago," copies of which he distributed among 
the literati during the CYaminatiom at Cantoo, 
in 1H33-4, sufiering persecnlinn for his ceaL 
llie head of the present movement was ama 
the literati, ond gained his Grst knowledge 
the Christian scheme from the tract li 
place*! io his hand. Ten years later •* be 
found traveling through Kwangai, preachii 
the new doctrine;" and in 1846. receiving 
iuslructioiiH of the American mi*iori8ry, 
the insurgent army, of which he is the l 
advances in its progress toward the capital 
the Empire, 400 printers are emploj-wJ in m 
tiplyin>r copies of the Pentatoach and the 
(Jijs'iwl of Matthew. Giilzlaff'svefsion, 80 di 
beml OS to indicate the parpose of printi 
the aacred volume entire ; ana one accoont ; _ 
prespnld the forces of the chief, as " an army of 
colporteurs," scattering publications moru or 
less pure in their rdigioos tencta, auoog tbo 





m 



BOOK AND TKACT SOCEBTIEa 



181 



■nr'if.rMx itcy travcrse. They are described 

i^ooary as fullows : "TboiW inicba 

- very correct kDowledjfe of nil llmmnst 

inyortaat potuU of Cliristian doctrine, and 

#M pvvpuod and printed by tbc iosorgcuts 

thoEDrlns. Oxtf. nf tJicm cimtaiosasammitnr 

0t tV T-n r.iinmiuidiaeiita, each commaiiJ- 

'rompaucd by a brief cxplaua- 

^1' of a hymn. Forms of prayer 

one of whicb contains g«=vcral 

^ 'A Ihe h'jrti'B Prayer. Prayer 

•i'l intliiencr^i of Ihe Holy Spirit 

■ orrupt heart, and fur Lht^ iulor- 

- t '1-1 ist as MciJifltor. The ob- 

libuth 13 eujoiDtxl, a? also 

'n\; worship, aijtl giving of 

'. These precepts, it is believed, 

.l.i«rvod by the whole army. 

A upium^mokiog ore both capital 

ver may be the ia^iue of this remork- 

i-mcat, and how roach soever of supcr- 

. - •■ ■ mingled in the religious ele- 

iri-iurreKjlioD, it is an inipriswivo 

tijc power of the Christian prea*, 

ill miration of the efficiency of the 

'. : ';< when employed by the I'ro- 

of God for me accom- 

-iilti 

-■ . 'luiud/s. — Beside;; the ontcr- 

pf'.- i'.'ed, the Tract Society has be- 

ftKoi: u:iL- of ihc most txtcnsive pnbllshcrs of 

KetigKnit Pfftodicais in the world. In 1813 the 

'dmtrtcoA Hetten^r," a monthly newspaper of 

t hagUy eraogchcal, practical character, was 

lOHMBeiioed, and it hoA advanced in circiilatiou 

froaiVMrto year, till it has reached the immense 

wmmir of 2UM,000 copies monthly, or about 

tmo and a half mlllioa copies in a year. The 

*AjmnAanmJur BoUcka^er" [American Mes- 

iBm«r in Gaman) voa usucd in 1847. and has 

IpiioeA a rircaTat.jnn fnboiit 25,000 mrtnthly) 

gn»lartliaaa'i; n'riiKlicalin thatlan- 

gvMifft. "Thr' . -," a beautifully ilius- 

trai- ' i[f:.r lor '.he young, began Jaa. 

IS^'- idv reacheit more fumiliea than 

WWT Kn>pii'j«j witn juvenile papers of all chisscs, 

■t tfc^tnM ft Viu iissncA ; wh i le most othcra have 

■iaea h a ppo m i inchorueler uud in cireulatiou. 

The namber print<.>d monthly is not far from 

300,ODU copies, requiring the time of a potver- 

BRMi ftrrty'iiic dayft fiir each monthly iame, print- 

Bg two papers each stroke of Uu press. A 

dUDttbd nos arisen for the •* Child's Paper" in 

Ok«aC Britain, and ticveral thousand copies are 

MBi toonliily to Edinburgh, Scotland. Biucc 

ikw* fnu-rytritn commenced, there have been 

prill ' Vmcrican Mfifflengcr, lG,l'2.'),<iOU 

eDj.< Itotacbaftor, l,36ti.OQU ; and of 

efe ( CM.M I'uprr. S.Gll.OOO; total. 'ii,iQ2r 



WJ--' 



■rt,n 



I'Mmilons of the foci- 
, now number about 

rj. -- -!.ia 4U0 book;*, or 

*t!^ voiiunca and Isti tracts tuid childrea'a 



tracts are in the Orrman langtiage ; 21 boolra 
and 102 tracla in the Fnanrh ; 13 bonk- liu.I 
65 tracts in the Spanish ; '11 books and tructa 
in the Portu^uggt ; 16 in the Italian ; .^j in 
the tVehfi ; 27 in the Ihttrh ; 4-t in the /AwisA; 
28 in the Swedish ; and 4 in the Hun^nrmn ; 
tlio remainder being in Enfili^i. Thfy em- 
brace as rich and varied a colleotion of stand- 
ard works in practical theology as cjtjsia in 
any language. The style of printing and illufl- 
trutioo in which they are is«ue<i HrkVi c.viyWt lo 
American art. In cheapness they are U-lio^'wl 
to be uiirirnled. The circiilation uf some of 
the tracts has exeee<1ed half a million copies ; 
and of particular volumes. 200.000 or ,^00,000. 
Baxter's Call has hwl a circulation of •lOn.uOO 
copies ; the Pictorial Tract Primer, :JUO,OUO ; 
and D'Anbigne'8 History of the Refanuutiun, 
82,000, sets of 4 or 5 volnmcfl. The oggregato 
circulation of tracts has been about 1 10,000.000, 
and of volumes abont 10,000,000, embracin 
15,000 libraricit ; making u total, inciudin 
24,102,600 copies of pcriodical.s of about on] 

HU.NUURU AXD SEVKSTY-Pna MILLIONS OK PV| 

LICATI0S8. If to this Iw added the nnblicationa^ 
diatributctl in foreign lanils by liie Bociely's 
friends, e^timatcrl to average 20 pag»>8 each, 
21,115^00 copies, it will make a grand tnt«l 
of about TWO noKDRBD MiLLiosa OP rruLirii- 
Tioxs, f>r an average of more than ouo for eoch 
family of the human race. 

7Vtid UouAc. — The Tract Hociety's House is 
a spacious edifice near the City ffull, New- 
York, about 80 feel on Nassau street, and 100 
feci on Hpnice street, and is five stnrie* high 
in front and Btx stories in the rear, with ii cen- 
Irai court for light and air It was built in 
182j on the situ previoaslv oecopied by a ttmall 
tavern or grocery, and rebuilt In 1B46 lo pro- 
vide for new machinery, and to meet the in- 
creating neoessidcB of tho Society's biisiucM, 
Itri flfty lunirtinents ore heated throughont by 
steam. Btvides the two trtorcs oodoroocs nov 
rented to others, it furnishes accommodiilinna 
for nearly thirty printing and hrdrauHc pren»j 
e», propelled by steam, and ^r nearly 3001 
persoiu engaged in the esoculive, ciwnmerciall 
and nmnnfiictoring departraynta of the Soct-.^ 
ety« .'"orvim A debt of atH>til 8-10,000 t»lill 
ini-umbers iho estiite of the Society. Tho 
lirsl building was the sceue of Ihi* ext«isiva 
n-Tivals <if religion, conncctul with llie lulxjr 
of Hurhui Pflgt; ; and a daily pmver-meetlng 
of tho employw-S in the Tract llouge, now 
luill'jws all itn influenf<-s for giXKl. Tlii! rtii-vt- 
ing:j of every commiUoe are uniformly opened 
with prayer. 

Execulivt Ofiffr* of the Jmerienn Tnitf St^ 
crrt^.— Hon. '1 homas S. Williams. Prfttid'nt; 
Hov. Wm.A. UftlhKk, D.U..l{e\-. O. K-wtninn 
and Ul'V. R. .S. Cook, Corn>poiiding S'rr<-ta- * 
ries ; Rev. (*hurle3 H. tioiami^rs. Recording 
.Secretary, O. R Kingsbury. Ajwistiwit .Hct-ny^ 
tar)*; Moses AJIcn, &iq. Tronsurer and bau^ ' 
W. Brinekerhoff, Depositary. 



tax AXEKICAX TUCT SOOVrr's RBCETPTSi XSnjES, ORAirrS, KTC, DOBUro -nrKKTr-lfrtZ T&ltt 







UnOFIB. 




nrnnzD. 


OBtXUUlV. 


ORAna. 


Foniga if; 




i 














0miU In C ! 




JtaQiiUotv. 


8ftb». 


•Solai. 


FftCW. 


Pagw. 


n»SGa. 


Cub. 


J» 




1 


•O^WS 6« 


•3,333 13 


tlO.lSS 78 


1S,0&3,&00 


3,611.800 


1U,000 




iiTI 


s 


ii,6&a M 


n.iiau 


*30,418 01 


30,114.600 


M,768/ja2 


1,OI8.0U 




» 


s 


12,404 H 


93,ffT«» 


40,134 U 


M,M7.000 


40,321,784 


8,008,704 




IQf 


4 


S6,173 18 


84.M0 80 


S0,l&3 M 


08,810,000 


48.808,302 


2,992,861 


S880 


n 


K 


31, 7U 09 


4B,4M AS 


00,310 S4 


03,420,030 


82,300,444 


6,000.201 


800 


8r _ 





B.TfU (» 


84,187 77 


42,»i3 49 


08,780,000 


08,622,704 


<168,800 


800 


iifl 


7 


si,4:4 ;s 


97,430 20 


ei,M& 07 


88,847,000 


60,180,48; 


4,708,110 


8.044 


1 


8 


IIA'AT 2;> 


8I,U7 M 


02,944 83 


89,700,008 


48,400,007 


7,480,007 


in,ooo 


8lH 


• 


S£,Z12 -26 


si.iffii an 


00,381 SI 


8I,834,0M 


67.038,010 


9.96A,82» 


2(V0(» 


44fl 


le 


eo,T2i 4:; 


Sl.ftSO SB 


02,307 81 


&a, 804,052 


88.910,388 


8.838,987 


30.000 


tlB 


u 


BA,<0« 04 


47,ft73 87 


104,311 41 


101,208,884 


T2,480,»ZD 


8,830,700 


730.000 


Itfl 


11 


Tl,«t2 V\ 


ag.o&s »3 


130,991 2S 


ISA. 082,000 


9fl,a&l,174 


10,807,010 


4lH 


IS 


■T.IT3 T4 


M.US 8fl 


DI,T32 10 


48,877,100 


88,479,031 


8.893,743 


10.000 


^'1 


14 


' M,8&1 61 


7&,nO M 


131. 070 77 


124,744.000 


]19,T33,:iS8 


to. 631 ,076 


r^o.'KXi 


ic8n 


w 


41,476 40 


Trt.VJO 67 


iniOM 10 


117,970.000 


123,687,707 


1 8.073.4411 


■ ■ 1 


1« 


41, 7M »1 


»7.::io M 


08,0«2 89 


96.088,500 


80.881,808 


11,908,266 




IT 


H,Hi ua 


C«,.114 U 


91,185 14 


100.108,000 


M,339,M5 


18.604.810 


' ,, 


U 


43,433 06 


4&.EKU 13 


•H,'i40 &3 


78,844,000 


80.800,400 


18,68'J.4U 


l-'i.UOQ bLl 


19 


M.OM 91 


ftl.BM 13 


108.484 44 


««.n8,ooo 


01,471,486 


£1,318.121 


20.000 


^1 


to 


e2,30« » 


8^^(w 01 


• 182,870 78 


U7,018,O0O 


1&2,727,228 


20,749,448 


0.000 


oif 


11 


71.133 16 


' 8i?84 w 


183,016 16 


110.178.000 


lX3,ft4S.&08 


30,708,148 


18.000 


"1 


82 


«7,7JO W 


flS,3nOS4 


100,131 12 


180,01 3,6mt 


183,078,014 


38,030,308 


lO.UQO 


«l 


S 


10&,fll& IS 


1S».744 31 


S85,040 40 


217.490.000 


211.f»,a08 


40,048.489 


11, WW Ttt f 


94 


94,081 U 


lfi4,i'1S 73 


288,8i» 16 


»8,264.000 


384,408,800 


47,89^128 


I4.«' 


Sft 


lUfr,S94 M 


auiaTi w 


308,200 73 


807,0aA,«O 


200,097,600 


88,138,810 


lh,i>'" 


SO 


l<»,t»7 7fl 


3oo,;-;ii 33 


810,018 09 


283,914,»00 


w»,vM,ntt> 


80,888,848 


itntx*' 


« 


11(1, 4<M 41 


«!0,813 &0 


343.740 01 


810,818,800 


SM.200,888 


«8,184,101 


SO.OM) , 




ZB 


I4T.374 M 


SaT,«k!l SI 


384,0-Jfl 8A 


287,479.800 


S&8.9OS,S10 


71,218,841 


ae.ooo III 




,» 


1i«.(U3 48 


:i&«,i36 12 


41&,1M 00 


803,881,000 


318,100,887 


78,134,818 


20,000 7( 






«1. 700,906 71 


«>iM&,&iM la 


84,224,191 07 


3,881,418,894 


3,621,078,917 


08S,«81,9OO 


HH.TU 







* tni'luding n««lirtii from ranU, 3d ymr, 013 ; IHth vmf, 8.1,«)2 42 ; 20th jtv, $3,774 89. 
t Iticludlaft KtmoM for the bUod, lltli je&r, 8900 - l:Ati jv*x, 81,000. 



The Pbrsbytbrian Hoajid oi* Pubucatiok 
WM organized by tbo General ARscmbl^r in 
1840. Ita great desijru wiis to cooperate with 
tbe Chriatinn ministry in imbliihiiii; diviuc 
truth. Onu uf the »»[X'cific objects of the Boajd 
iu, to counttract the influence of lia'ntious lit- 
erature ADOther i*. " to funiiah a thoroughly 
aoand CalviDistic lilcriilure." It dota not, 
howfvtT, alteoipt to Turuisli esclosively doc- 
trinal worka, but ulso such aa arc j)ractica! 
8L0d devotional. A Inrgc portion of its ii-sucB 
arc oi the Utter description, Aud such as may 
be rc-ad without ofllMicu by all cvaDgi^licol 
deooininatioict. 

PuJiiisfuii}^ Department. — During- the year 
CiHliri>; Murcli 31, IB/i4, th^ Hoard have pit1>- 
lirtbLHl 10 ut^r bookg, one of which is in the 
Germau luKiuffo. Of these books, there hiwc 
been printed 38,250 copies. They have also 
added to their Catolu^ic 9 tracts in l'2wo, 
Mid 1 iu It^iuo. or wliicb have been printed 
26.000 copies. They have also printed 25,000 
copies of tbe Preshytcriftn Family Almanac. 
Tola] copiwof new boi)k3 anil tracts, 89,250. 
The rt-pririls of former publieationa during tlie 
year, amouut to r>06,rj00 copies. Total amount 
of cupit^ published during the year, 595, "oO. 
The »w,'^rl■e^o^^t' uumWr of viAume% |mblii>htd 
4>y the litJiirii, from their orpaniztUion in 1840, 
to March 31, 1S:j3, has amumiled to 2.020,450. 
The airnrt^te number of trads iiublished dur- 
ing the same period hiui amounted to 2,131,450. 



The total nnrober of volnmw and tracts \ 
lished by the Botird, from 1840, lo Marco I 
1S53, has amounted to 4.151,900. 

Hcsideo this, the Honril printed and cir 
lated, the lust year, 15,000 copies of ilie Ho 
and Foreign Itccord, and of tlic f^abbatl 
Scliool Visitor, 41.000. 

Retxipti. — The receipts of tbe past year hare 
been, for books and tracts Bold,9'T,64d ; dotia* 
tionti for palaricfl and c»>enjies of oolporleur?, 
S15,8G6 ; for Sabbath-School Viaitor. $0,1 U ; 
for distrlbntion of iKXjks and tracts. €1.413; 
for stiTCotj-ping certain books, 81,175. The 
aggrtgate amount (tf saies.fTom the 1st of April, 
1841, to April 1, 1853, is S40G,573 75. *1V 
agffregale receipts fo' colportage, from April I 
1&47. to April f, 1853, liave amounted '' 
S47,C77 10. The aggie gate reteiph /or ilti 
bulion, from April 1, IftiB, to April 1, 1€ 
have amomited to 86,035 19. Total an 
of receipts for colportage and distribatj 
during the jwjriods above mentioned, h 
$53,702 29. Tlie total mcrmse nf irrerpti I 
all sources, tbe year past, amount.^) to 8lj 
052 35, which is nearly 14 per cent, comp 
with the receipts of 1844. It nppe.fr.s Ihnl ' 
income of the Board fms iteen trefM m 
ymrs, and, indeed, compared with that 
1818, the year in which the w-lfMirlour ent 
prise commeDcod, the increase has been ne 
an great, presenting 8103,544 46, instead i 
838.213 92, or 365,330 54 iucTCttsc 



BOOK AND TRACT SOCtBTIES. 



1S3 



Tke CtifmrUur EnierpriM.— - This branch of 

•rriiv \s ewry nair Uicreuging in iulcTcr^t, and 

■yiinybcfi)re the Cborcb most plcuniu^ proe- 

^•rti of cTcat nod iwrmanontly bcu^ciol re- 

' ' followttif( Eammarj will ahow 

'I Jone tbt" ptttft yeur : 

f lumber o/ Ci>lpt)rtenn, 151 ; of 

:- in Iiitliu, SIX in the Hritisti l*ro- 

'uiv.s utro: m Maine, two m New ITanuBiblro, 

tmitftwo in New York. /o«r in New Jersey, 

iMm io PcatuyK'unia, <»u: in Maryluod, tico 

ii Tbyium, twve in North Corolinii, six in 

Soutli r..i..Iiua,J|/Jff7i in Georgia, tico in Fli>- 

Vlabamu, one in Adffiisippi, one 

^w iu Texas, one ia ArlcaiuMifl, 

> kv, (7n« in Micliignn, nz in-Ten- 

II Ohio, thrn m lowo, fourteen in 

'litlaiu, •v.* in lUinoui, four io MiftVHiri, utid 

«»• ill Uiscon'un: or 144 distrlbated in 25 

1 ZJ. f Boob.— SalcB 91^85 vol- 

*^im. OuLi, ;.,jc;l volumes. To wliich add 
55^"'** voJuines diBtrtbuted by the S>iuk1s of 
JpiMibflrKh (23,000) and Virgiuia (o,000),und 
^*517 iocladed io t£e report of donations ; the 
Vatel k 135^83 Tolaoics. 

Jhi^Aviwtv of Trarts. — By the cotportears, 
%T1>47 Jtgw; by tlw Synods of PitUhurgb 
pSJkOOl and Virginia (23, (WO) —48.000, and 
Snclntfed ia the roiKirt of dunutiooa 381,000; 
^iUitf a VAn\ of 1,300,M7 pages. 

4. ramdurs vuiital, 05,734 ; oud 2,451 Id Sy- 
ft'-' ' " '■ . total, 68,185. 

[!\niili(sj witlioat the Con- 
ftwivii Ml {- itkU). -,'JAO. 

C P*mil)c« without aoy roli^oniB book ex- 
Opt Uk Bible. 1.003. 

$ ?« Ttme vpL'tit by col[»rtcani, 41 years and 
mkn da.%%. 

Of tJMj' practical results of thi? enterprise, the 
Board aay, ia their report :—" By the testitno- 
IMl «f cwrgynKD of our own and otlier church- 
well M tboeo of colporteurs, and by the 
lof otlKtB,vcllqnal!fl(Hl to judge, wo aro 
1 tltat the booki of thi-; Board ure exert- 
i nwst poteni and uihilnry vijhmnfe on the 
iOt» KkoTOtUr of tmrmiliim. This !.'< done, oa 
ia& bj a p^Hiiivr cITt'ct in inrurming meii'd 
laiada luid uj<->viiig their hcart/i, as by the indi- 
ruci, bol no 1<K valuublu operation of convert- 
bi( wrong iatitsi and moulding religioiut tLink- 
iair !■> .■■ >nii> definite sliapc. The historical, 
Ui' aod practical works are cxtend- 

Jdi,' i-'diog the imprcssiotts of acorn- 

Oiftn CUiMtiunityaodacnmniOD Protc^lmitiain, 
and sidincr "(tw^r innueiux^ in fixing upon the 
bi^ "^ I'l-' tlrfj gn"-at priueiiiio, that 

: Oic BiVjlc is the .«irnng de- 
»* iL 1^ ti.i true souret*, of oar eivi.rand 
ilibiTty. Of actual ccmvcrsions through 

" •.!'(■. of booVii and troctK, oar 

.' lincrom plcoj^ing accounts." 

; /'juTiCTt.— The Board have 

r.B of books aud tnict^ the yffn&v 

L- of ihosn given awiiy by coljH*r- 



tenr»«, to the amoant of 82,35ft, vift. : to Sab* 
bath-school5, 2,.'i35 volumes ; to nnval and 
military stations and shiiiis^f-war. 142; to 
humano tnstitutioris, 60 ; tii literary and thoc>> 
logical institutioDSr 226 ; to minislrrs, H50 ; 
to feeble churcfaet;, 1376 ; to individuals for 
grnhiitoaa distribwlion, 1328 ; total volnmee^ 
6^17. and 381,032 pages of tracts ; 9,5S1 vols, 
and 871,547 pages of tracts have been given 
awav by colporteurs. 

Tie a!rgTegi\t( onmber of volumes ffivcn 
away. inde|M*nd('nt of tlie dimationi nuide by 
colporteurs, from 1847, when the Board com- 
mence*! ranking donations, to 1854. is 32,285. 
The aggregate number of pof^ of tract;; given 
away during the same wTiml, ia 1,467.300. 

Ttte "McrnoDisT Book Coscerk," New 
York, is the extensive and enterpri.«inir pub- 
lishing ajjcncy of the Metliotliat Kpisco[«l 
Church, North. By a recent decision of the 
Ooiirta apt) rata portion of its accumulated 
funth have bein or are to be paid over Io the 
MethudiHt Church, South : and llio hitter or- 
ganization formed an establish mojit in 1H54, 
for piibli.shing at the Smith. From the im- 
wrl'cct data available, wo can only give the 
fuels of 1853—1, as fnllows : the number of 
vulumoa of general catalogue bcxiks printed, 
680.500 ; number of Sunday-school books, 
1,128,000; number of tract books, 110,000, 
making the iwues of a single year, of larger 
or pnialler books, not !br from 2.000,000. 'Ilie 
"Hnnday-Scliool Advocate," ha-* a circulation 
of about 1 15,000, semi-monthly. The " Mis- 
sionary Advocate" has a monthlv circulation 
of 50,000. ITie Christian Advmute and 
Journal, weekly, a circniation of 33,f)00. The 
staiistitrtuf the "Concern** at Cincinnati, O., 
are not included, for the most part, in the 
above. 

The AjfERiCAJf Baptist I'itblipatiojt So- 
ciCTY wna formed in 1824. Its publications, 
denominational and general, now numtH>r 450, 
of which 208 are volumes. Of the tnu-ts, 218 
are in Kngjl*!), 15 in German and 3in French. 
The rereipu* for 1853-4 were $49,612. oT 
which ?3.'),218 were for sales of publicationa. 
The numU'r of colporteurs employed wns 62, 
including 13 studeutt fur short pcri'wis, who 
sold 18,^66 hooks; granted 609 books and 
236,308 pages of tracla; visited 32,690 fanii- 
lie.^ and 3,758 vessels and canal boatK ; held 
1,081 meetings; preached 1,558 sermons, and 
organized 1(1 chiirches, and 7 Sunday -peh<tot». 
The Soeiety has a building fund of 625,000. 

CoNaREOATIO.VAL BoARD OK PtTnUCATCOJf. — 

The Doctrinal Tratrt Society was frinnwl in 
1 829. ■ For about 20 years its operatiniw were 
fonfinrti to the pnhlictttion of lloctrinal 
'IVftctii, fitting forth and defending the doo- 
trinal views, which have from Die beginningi 
di^tiDgnished th<^ leiuling divines nniong the 
orthndon Congregtttionnlists of New Kiitrland. 
In 1850. its CO at lit ut ion was revi.sc<i. ao a-* to 
embrace the publiualion of books ; Itcv. S«w- 



184 



BOOK Am TRACT 50CIBTTE8. 



atl Hanlin^, was appointed Secrotary nnd 
OcDerftI Ag^ent ; ildcI ao uct of iocorporatiou 
was obtaitiod. Tbe (>bject »{ the Society is 
thus stated iu tlio socodu article of ite consti- 
tatioD : 

" It is the object of this Society to procure 
aiid circulate sacli trocta and bwka, as nre 
adupui) to explain, prove, vindicate and illiui- 
tiate the peculiar and cssenttaJ doctrines of tlic 
goq)d,and todiscriiniDatc bctweca gGoaineond 
BfMirions reliftioiia affcctiooa aod earperieuce." 

lu their report for 1B52, the Kxecutive Com- 
mittee gay : To pursuance of thi« object, the 
Society &^t published a bcHcs of tracU, fort^- 
fire in nnmbcr. on important subjecta of Chris- 
tian dijclrine and practice. More recently they 
have given their attcnMoa to the publication 
of b[>oks ; and they depiRn to make this Soci- 
ety, for the Coiigrt^iiiional churches of our 
bod, what the FrtwUvleriun Board of Publi- 
cation ifi for the Fre£byl<>rian churches. And 
it might be appropriately called, oa it ta iu 
fact, ibe Ctmgregational Board of Publication. 
We Lave commenced the work of pablbthiug 
tbe writinffs uf the moet difitin^iiishiHl New 
England theolog^ians ; and we hope to be able 
to continue this, ontii we bavc issued cditiomt 
of the works of that cla^ of mtfn, bo distin- 
gaiahed for their theobi^ical acumen, and 
wImm writings and labors Tiave been ho lii;ihly 
■ppreoiated, and so Btgnalty blessed, in the 
fonuation and prosperity of our religious char- 
acter and insli to lions." 

IJOT or PRIKClPAIi UOOK AMD TRACT flOCIITIBS. 



AnMrlcfto 

*■ BmUni 

" UiscvlUnAOBi 

Ihjdr, Pwllicrlaiid 

PruialAu, Boitin 

CUcutU aod vUicrm, lulia. 

ft'MigtilkAl &MU(t;jr, IlnuMOla . , . 

Jkffiu, Ceylon 

RalUn Chmniltt««>, tiroivft 

iMwtT aftzoor. llambuis 

BunbBJX MImoii 

HonfhlrltaL Loadoo 

Plirto... 

SUrllcw, ScoU'iid (TQUrOrudi- 1 

mond) J 

St. Pkl«nbtifgli, RanlA 

8toaUii)lm,SinattO 

TralMue, Fk*iie«- 

IWonto 

OtMiiluicNt, BwMhm 

Bm. Tnul Societj, I^widon 

See. for fVomoUnf R«l. Knnwl. > 

io^ai / 

** BookCooeera. 



" " " (Soalh] 
7n^ BoftH of PabUMUdn. . 



tep. Bwrdof Pab 

Coos. BocrO of IVb. 

Ctu(. KnuwL Son. Pivt. ^it«. . 



1B2& 

iaj4 

1844 

I81A 

iiRn 

1835 

184« 
MCHt 
\SM 
1(137 
1830 

1U7 

1830 
IIH>« 
18U 

IfOU 
17W 
17M 
1U3 



ISM 

IMO 

IBM 
1»4 



loiAL anajunos. 



230,000,000 

•4,217.WIO 

•b,n3,000 

2,000,000 

a.000,000 
s&,<ioaooo 

8,000,000 
8,600,000 
1.000,000 
7,000,000 
I.7S1,«?& 
3,DDO,OCfO 
ll,604,ft7fl 
10,000,000 

4,306,000 
6,000,000 

1.000,000 

000,000,000 

30,000,000 

f f«r 1863-4, 

1,000 bouki. 



is,ooo,< 

/ »oU. 302.94a, 
'ltracU,2,l31,4») 



• PMduqs to 18!U. ~ ' " 

For SoadAy-Pcbool fMibUoftUiw SoHMIm. mw .SMtf«y. 



I flornii 



Gbnkkal In<:rra»r of RbUOIDIB 
The foregoing statements show the moit 
ifpng rtaolts of the Christian prca, in ~ 
ing to tbe majwes a truly Christian Ul ^ 

But Toat and beyond calcniation us tJiey appeal; 
tlioy by no means prcsscnt n complete view of 
the immense difTui^ion of religious truth, by 
this instrumentality, for the lavt half cetitmy. 
The improTfmcnts in tbe art of printiag. tbe 
more gcocnil diffusion of weal! h, the enT«rprMe 
of Chriatian .<u>cleiica, and tbe progress of r^ 
gion, hare greatly stimulated the i^rodnction 
and circaUtion of books, and especially good 
books. la Knglnnd, a century ago, the saSm 
of books and periixlicala amounted to leas thin 
$500,000 per annum. Now, tbey exoe«d 8l(^ 
600,000. In 1471, Swcynhmm and Panoarts, 
printers at Rome, whose entire stock of books 
was 12,000 Tohimcs, tcll the Pope, in a pcU- 
tiou. "You will oilniire how and where we 
could procore a sufficient quantity of paper, or 
even rags, for such a number of volumcB," 
which l,lK)rt rtuio^ of paper would Lave pro- 
duced ! Isaiah Thomas, in his Hit^tory of tbe 
Art of Priuting, 8a}*a,''The paper mauofito- 
tured and u^i'd fur Uiok printing (m 1810) iiw~ 
be calculatcnl at about 70,000 reams, (prooabT 
equal m woig^bt und size to 30,000 renini i 
the h'tylo liDW used,) a eonsidcrable part of 
which u uM>d for qieltlng and orther small 
school-books. The price, at S3 50 a rtam. 
amounts to $245,000, aod it mny weigh about 
B30 tonin." 8nch was tbe book-trade in this 
country leas than forty years ago. In 1846. 
the sum of $1-12,122 wus paid fur paper oIudc 
by the Anierieau llil>lG. Tracts aiuj Saud«y- 
scbool societies — SU7,U00 by the Tract Sodety 
—on amount exceeding oue-half the amount* 
paid in the whole country in 1810. Probablv 
a single private publishing boose pay as mn^ 
as all tncec societies together — ponibly m 
mnvh as ull publishers in IHIO. 

A3 late aa 1 ^25, publishers of religious books 
afU-n resorted to subscriptions to stKrare IboB* 
selvts from loss. Such worltfi as are now ahoO' 
dant, at Ujc lowest pricai, could hardly be 

fjroL-un.'d at bookstores ; ond bookstores weie 
\iw ill uumber, and of doubtful succctB. An 
nxnniinalion of tbe fiUs of tlic New Terk Ob- 
server ahows that the whole nombcr of reli- 
^oufl books noticed in aor way in ita oolumiii 
in 1826, was m^ifmi. For months tege^^ ~ 
there was no advertisement of a religions h 
Scott's Commentary was offiTed for 834. 
1835, the " new publication " list bad /« 
/our new books by the trade. At this peri 
commenced the vigorous prosecution of 
■* volume circulation " by the Amerii'on Ti 
Switty, nnd other institutions were stimulai 
to efTurt, or brought into being. The isBoct 
of the book-trade rapidly incnawifd, and, 
IiBll, the Observer's "new publication" ' 
noticed one kundrtd and timtif-Jive roUgli 
works by the trade — exclusive of all by 
lisliiu^ societies — or Jive ttnua a* 





BRABMIN& 



180 



Tn lAii, colnortAM, OT tlie Kysleni&tic 

gocin boolb, eBpcuiatlv among 

. oQtincDoil, and it bm (kx>ii enih 

fing since. Other ioatitutious 

\!'ii(1p<1 iheir eHbrts for Ihc d'ts- 

^ik». Hiit thi- iHX'k-trade 

! ward xls eiiccfssful cnter- 

V ; oncl one /tumirctl and 

'■ouks issued hy the tradf. 

'■ v.-r of 1848, or an ad- 

r c«Ji(. on tlic issues 

^..',v i^suL' editions of 

of snch books, ns in 182G, 

riled it baairdoas to pab- 

Q. Tilt! bookflomng 

.:■, lucratiTc, and proe- 

iScvini] fxtonsivi! hoiLWS arv 

. -ircly in Ibe jiublicatioD of rcli- 

itnd il is probable that om of 

PL' prBL'tir-fiJ ruligiooa works an- 

' I ■ , tJio wliole corps of 

1 States twenty-flvc 

' that the production 

rf^-litrious bimkfl by 

it may deprive the 

; l>oakH, far tiiurt; than 

I ny Uie taste which il 

maite tor ^'utid nnd rrli^ioQS rcadiDg. 

T!if f'.r<:/n:nt,' staiements respecting the 

2"" lent iustitiiiloDH, including 

r . , show tliut they are the 

rr^Li «i;w cj ih: iiiisstonara aiterprtst, in all 
ludh Tb'" d'liii'^tic niisBionory who wisely 
arailf hxu-t-If ct the aid lie may derive fVom 
dabfaath-ff hool publicatioDB, Inictd, books cuid 
, i-illier M a mran? of ediHtaliou nod 
ti<iin for the [leople of his churj/r, or aa an 
n».ilMr c.- .'vtendini^ bis inHuence bo- 
[ ibi of bis turigivyation, may 

iifh ' 1 I r good indefiniiely. Aua, 

■ lie hcip of a faithful colporteur, 
111- • n^ious beyond,* and convey 
Ibe kAuntaUgv of Christ to* the destitute and 
f ning wboiD he may not penonally reach, the 
I of tbe Gof^el may l>c made to itcrvade 
t uf the |K^iple, and a demand Le i-reU' 
' {nilpit iDtai»tratiuu&, such a>4 mifibt not 
[ ttilt In long ycftr^, were thi'cc auxiliary In- 
OB^xied or uvcrlookcd. And so of 
the yordgn Missionary. If Euccci'ding gencr- 
uSoBB of misBJonAnis are to pru6t by toe ex- 
paimor uf tlieir predeoewors, the rtsolls of 
cxnrricDcc moat bo comntittcd to the 
k If Ok: schools on heathen ground are 
' nt»H<* ih'* imtirre of abiding good* there 
''nrc provided for the 
iruiniil. IfdieGoe- 
Uj b'j prudjuiijijU U-youd tlio r«-tricted 
of tbe several miwioDS, and any 
'' [ ^'^ '-'iitg g^'nciraliun 

"t life. H UOSt 

.., ; .-tni P<igc. If 

BtAiii* of b\. -irnl error and 

^ ! nrv to Ix: i I ;< m the bealheu 

[i^nS, lb* lever of the press mtut be applied. 



If the advances mode from year to r.nr t.i dtp 
acqui.<i)tiuu of langun^ti^ and in tli> 
of truth tositriple niinJji, are to l>o j > _ ;. 

the mis^'iouarics must employ Uieir peus, uiid 
the prinling-prcas mnrt cmbo»ly nnd nTilii]-i!y 
the result* tifmio^ioiiary t^-'il. lli * 

andcrUiking-ofprintiuga Christian i v 

the itorlil most be prosecuted with .sltndy iscai 
and enlarged lilx^'idity. The improvcmentB 
constantly making in all that r< 1 ' ;' -' 

priulJDg art must be potent Iw t! < 
cause ; and the relijrious litcraturi.: i-. .■i...,j,..i..l 
worth in ibe Kuglisli langnago mosL Ir- made 
the heritage of the reading world. The g«- 
tcms of aggrcsjive Christian effurt Wfvi aasfy 
ciatcd with the pr(«s in Anien'ca, Fhould be- 
rome a part of the machinery of miasionft uni- 
verwvlly; so that native piety may find ftctlve 
employment, and the nnevangelized hordeR be 
approached with adnpleil npenciep for their 
ffiivntiou and aalvution. Wuy-side. fire-Krde 
preaehiii^'. ontl uud ptinteil, shimld attend and 
complement the more formal proclamations of 
divine truth, until the time comes when none 
need say to bii* broUier. "know the Lcrrdr 
for all shall know bim from tbu least even 
unto thcf greatest." 

BOODALOOB : A station of the Goiipcl 
Propagation Society in India. 

BOOTAN : A village in the dlslriet of 
Muulmain In Hurmali^uu out-sta^u of tJie 
Mautmain Iluptist ulfi^iiou. * 

BOItABOUA : One of the Society Islands 
and a station of (be London Mlieiooary So- 
cietv. 

liORKEO : SfC hultan ArdttpdaBo. 

B08JE.SMA^S : The same as Bustimaif 
which sec. 

BRAHMA: 'ITie supreme god of the 
niiidooit. In nfndofltani. the word isa ocntcr 
noun, derived by grainmarians fVom the verb 
brih to grow, and the safflx man, and thus 
means thntwhich prows, or the i^upreme Bcin 
regarded under the aspect of development, an 
revealed by the creation of worlds. The word, 
however, U used in a secondary sense, also, 
uud means the Supreme Absolute Spirit, not 
nganlcd as a creative fure*, but shut up in 
himntlf without external uianifcstations of any 
kind. 

BRAHMINS : The name emjiloyrd to 
designate that body or order of pnesl.s who 
have always been the solo guardiatu, pn.cep> 
tors and ministers of the Hindoo religion. 
This order is of extreme antiquity, and the? 
and their followers are univcreaify nckuowK 
edgcd OS a tribo sprung from the Caucasian 
variety of the human species. ITieir ptierud. 
bi>okg or fedag represent them as invading la^l 
dia from Ihe north-west, through Afi^hauistaa [ 
and the Punjanb, at a very early period, wbco [ 
they seem 1o have made more couEiderivble pro* 
grtss in litcratore, philot^ophy. matbemuliiii 
and mcdiciue, tluui their cotiiLpururii-d in 
other regions of the world. 



186 



BaAIlMIXIIiM. 



BKAIIMINISM: Tie religion oftlioBnOi- 
miDS, which is the prcvnilinc rcHplon nr Ilin- 
dooeUD. and prnrfj«4,><) by tiiioiit 1 r>U,<)0n.()UO of 
people, is one of ihe groftecat impositioua eirer 
nmilo iifK)!) an ignorant and dcgriulcd people, 
b_T n corrupt and avoricious pricsthocx^ bear- 
ing, in many particular, a striking resem* 
bianco lo Popery. 

Iilms of God.— T\i<i Hindoos, in general, en- 



frt'Di tbcm it is called SrahmiDiBin. Tbey cr- 
nit themselves above evciy other eluB of iheir 
coniittTincn. They arc arropant, rabtle, anh 
ricious, dcceitfal, sclfifh, and vicious. Thiy 
uakc grr^at pretcn6ir<Ds tu luuniiug and muO' k| 
tity ; while they are n;ally ifrnoraul ""■' •■*• 
ceodingly disriolute and dratitutu of ['i>: '■'■■. 
Hindooiiim, from the foandalion to il. : '^- 
Htono. is one cold system of selfishness. la 



lortuin vague, incongmous, and anvorthy no- j ultimate object is the aggrandinnncitt of tte 
tiouj) of the Deity. Some call him the iiiviM- priitftlKXKl ; uml lo accumpllsh lfais» tlK^kcra 
bic and evtir blcvsed ; others astribc to him a the people in darkni"^ auu ig-uorancr. 'lliiar 
h>nu ; others snpposc be exists like an incoo- sacred books arc kept in a langunf^ tiDkuoi 



ceirably small atom ; sometimes he is repre- 
sented ax male, and at other times, ns female ; 
sometimui both mule and female, pro<tiicin<; a 
world by 0003111:^*1 onion ; eometirTics the cle^ 
mcntfi n!«imi! \us place, and at other times hi! 
is u deified hero. According to the 11 indoo 



and forbidden to the people, and can be 1 
plained onl^- by the Brahmins. All Iwinii 
13 luonopolizcil by them ; and the people * 
discoaraged from anyattompls toelevn 
intoUectiial condiii'm. In their doma 
social capacity, nothing can be done ' 



theology. BraJirru, the great Being, is the 

sapreme, etcnal, uncreated Beiop. Bramha, 

the first creatcil be.ing, by whom nc made and 

^orernfl the world, ir the prince of good spir- 

ita. — Veeshnu, or Vifihnoii, is tlic great pre- 1 to ISrahmina is the mofet cOtclaal way cif _ 

server of men. IIo is said to have appeared ing the favor of the pods, and obtaiainr 

on earth nine iimon, iu eo many ineomations. [pardon of sin. The Brahmin is reviTwf 

Soero, or Siva, is the destroyer. This three- pod, and addresaed and worshi|>e«I an a 



Brahniiu; uiul a Brahmin cannot wo 
out a fee or a fea.«t. All o(Terii:p« mad 
gods, go to these aTariciou.>) pricats ; aail i 
giving of presents aiid distribtitiun ufi 



I 



fold divinity, armed with almighty power, has 
under him no 1(*« than 3.1.'i,OOli,000 of inferior 
dciliiv. 'I'hvm' am i-cproscnted in innumerable 
forms, by dimtb idoU of wood and stone. The 
Biudon^Lsi> worship men, covs, mmiktys, ti- 

fcn, acrpcitts, trees, stones, rtvcrt, and even Satan 
fmiteff. 
Character of their pxh. — The Hindoo gods 
on* represented a« practising without restraint 
every i^peeiett of widcedncss that can be im- 
agined ; and their sacrod books are filled with 
details of thc«c disgusting abomiuatioas, too 
poUutJiig to be rer-ited. In obscenity, nothing 
cau be (rompand with on<^ of these ancred 
books, eaUcd Bhogawntn. Tet it is the de- 
light of the Hindoos, and the first book they 
put in the hunds of their children ; ae if they 
dclil>eratf-ly intended to iVirm thi*m to dissolute 
habitj!. Tnc- most frightful images are made 
n» repn*eutations of tlieir g'Mla. Doorga. the 
wife of yiva or Scovii, the DestrojXT, is repre- 
sented with a frowning countenance and naiictl 
brcost Her right fool treads on a lion. She 
lias fotir hiuids, in one of which i<ho holds an 
infant by the hair of the head, while its body 
ia pierccil through with a trident phe holds in 
the second hand. The other two hands ore 
filled n-ith weapons of destraction ; and she is 
ornamented with a necklace of-humnn skulk 
Sivtt, also, is renr«iented in a most terrifit; 
form, ornmuenled with gcrpent.'t. covered with 
the ashes of a funeral pile, alighting in cemeter- 
ies, and accompanied by a troin of ghosts and 



I'he pi-ople fall dowii before him, and lickl 
very dwst of hia feet. 'I'hey believe that I 
Bralimin can. by bis cccliantnienti oud ri^ 
eousncss, control both the potls and men ; and 
this gives him a woiiderfuT pr-'cmin' un-. In 
all things he domineers over thi 
works ou their fears; turns ever_\ :. 

to his own uf eoont ; and takes evtrv :iiJi;ii- 
tagGof their igufirnnfe, superstition, aii<j .0^ 
dality, to enrich himself and iultcom; his 
power. The pride and dissimulation, and the 
intripiie and dishonesty of a Brahmin, oic 
proverbial. 

licligious Metidi(ants. — Monkrry is a very 
necessary appendage to every svstem of priest 
cruft ; and, of course, mipht lie expected to 
find a place in llrahminism. The monks of 
Bnihrninicm, like thoec of Popery, are divided 
into numerous duKs; and several of the 
highest uf thesft dosBes ant only open to the 
Brahmins. Some jiersons become ascetics by 
iulicritance, and in consequence, enjoy eertjuc 
revennts ; others become such from nccesiily ; 
other?, on account of their pretended sanctity 
and abstraction from the world ; others OD 
account of a vow, devote themselves to what 
they call a rdtgioMS life. Most of tliom pre- 
tend to bo religious teachers. The Himlooe 
entertain the idi>a that religion is some wll 
vagary, attainable only by jtricsts and 
lees, but not practicable for people in « 
life. These Jieligious Orders are U-pirars 
profession ; and it is esteemed meritorioos 



goblinK. In this character, human victims, or give to them. They are a grcat scourge to 



the binod of bcufita, is necessary to appease 
their Hrath. 

Character if their Priti^thctid. — The Brah- 
mins ore the legal priests of HiodooBtim ; luid 



country, contributing greatly not only to 
jMjverislk it, but also tu corrupt and debase 1 
morals of the |»eople. These idle and preten 
ed devotees assemble sometimes in armies 1 



BRAHMIXISM. 



187 



*«1w t'bousaad, ftHii nndor pretcnso of 

i_'<s to ccrtaia Icmpl&t. lay 

:ilr;r coritribalioti. Thuy are 

11/ rot^a-^t aud atouL They wear do 

^ ud commit kII manocr of exccfaea. 

inflicrt TolitntaiT penances njMU 

of UD cxtnLordiimry character. 

ncttimes bold up one arm, in a fixed 

, till it becflmes stiff", and rvmuins in 

jathm daring the rwt ot their lire*. 

t-nch their hBia very hard, an/1 keep 

^Uli tJ K'ir nails grow into lluir i>nlm9, 

rough the back of their Laiids. 

heir facea over tbcir aliouldew, 

w>, till thL-y fix their heads 

ards. By aiieh means tJiey in- 

debrity, and become objects of 

Ktioa. The snppc»so<l /uittncss of 

as to sanctify, iu the mintU of 

Vc, all Uieir liocatiousDees and abomi- 

sr of Ifieir Worshtp.^Vram what w(^ 
or the chamctcr of their gods, it 
readily percciTwl what kind uf wor- 
ld be supposed to bejileawintf to them. 
aobri'lied and diiigiit'tin(; liceutions- 
Dade a purt of the public worship of 
* r ; and every temple ban a com- 

f girls, who arc married to tke 
opt for parpoHCS of imparity. 
CDCo of some of tne most eeleurnled 
OQ^ which 13 Joggcmaatv all disiiziC' 
' KX and caste arc abolished, bo that 
r gratify their evil desirea with Jmpn- 

^ rtotiont of fin,— The notions of ein. 
to the nindoo snered books, like 
' part of Ihe system, are calcubited 
s priesthood. ' Even the Urahmins. 
rellgioas teachers, idiow the moc^t stupid 
Sdfstio^fibiu^ betucL-n good uid 
Tcall good CTil. and eril gf>od; 
, and darkntMil li^'lit. Lying is 
uH in immediate bcuiJit ; to 
I is evil, if it terminate in ini- 
Heats and drinks, divers waab- 
fttxporesl inflictions, nuke np their! 
■ont, white no is really but a trans- j 
(of the laws of easte. To lie, steal, 
kieive. commit adulterv, and wallow 
^e En mnrul torpittide, la too trifling a 
[ be named ; it is only what their gods 
thrm. But to eat with a man of 
, howev«.T respectable he may he, 
"lit of the some cnp, is a bio only 
' a lar^'c sum of muuey. He who 
1 with a Hndimin, or occasions 
nent, direcilv or indirectly, in 
scnu, will, according to the 
, be condemiKd. in his second 
omu a devil. He will not ho per- 
1 dwell en the eortb or live in the air ; 
oblijired to make his abode in a 
noug the braochra of a bushy 
khall never cease to groan by 



night and dnr, cursing his nnhappy lot, and 
deprived of nil food but toddv, mixwl with the 
slttverof a dog, which he shall drink out uf the 
skull of a death's heail. It U in this way that 
ofleacoa. imaginary or of auiixU account, nro 
moDoccd wiUi cudlos punishment ; while 
odnlterer^, perjurers, robbers, and other real 
oRi^iiders, arc absolved by the Brahmins of 
their actual crimes, for scttlsh objeclfl, and as- 
sured of a recompense after death. 

Hindoo idfos of Atonement. — Tho fact that 
all fals4^ syittenLS uf rcIigioD contiun devices of 
atonement for sin, is a strong lustimuny that 
an atonement is necessary ; while the (jospel 
of Ji"»iw Christ nlone reveals the only true aud 
rational mntht)d of recmtilmtion between of* 
f[:nding man and offende^l Deity. But, the 
bliud lieathen, conscious rf bi)< guilt, resorts 
to vain and foolish e.tpedionts for taking away 
sin. Bruhmiuiam ulKtuods in atunoments. 
IIoI^V batliing, reading tlK-sihiwLra.s, pilgrimage, 
fastmg, giving to the Brulimiuft, feetliitg devo- 
tiH« or religiooa beggars, building temples, with 
tlie eudliiw routinu of saiTifiw-s, |)cnanw5*, and 
religious austerities, which make up a very im- 
portant part of Uindooism, cuustitote their 
atuuements fur sin. tSome of those [lenauces 
am very eipeasive, and most of them attended 
with great liodily mortiticalioua ; whilri othcra 
are disgusting, filthy, and degniding. Among 
these are, driiiklnj^' tJie woter in wtuch a Brah- 
min ha.i washed hts foot, and takinjkfofirjnroj 
pillx, which are composed of the niuKS, curds, 
clarifie*! butter, and excreuiont of a cow. A 
man in Boml>ay hail been jfcrforming a ]»eiianco 
of a very painful character for sixteen years. 
He sat io a muwrablc shetl, holding on his left 
baud a vessel of about ten pounds weight, 
which contains the sacred nhrub. Hi.s wholo 
arm wa^ withered, and the finger noils had shot 
out like ram's horns, five or six inches in length. 
Another man sat in the open air, for three 
month.-^, during tlie coldest jHirt of tho year, 
almost nakul : confining himself toa^otaoout 
eight foet in diameter. Tossing a rod of iron 
thrOQgh the tongue ; hangiuK suspended by 
the legs from a tree, over a slow burning fire, 
inhaling the smoke and spurks ; leaping on a 
plank act full uf stiorpemMl pluto<i of iron ; 
lying on a bed mode of a plonk set with iron 
spikes ; looking at the meridian sun for whok) 
days in sncceasioo ; falling on the face, mark- 
ing the place of the head, riaiu^ and fulling 
again from the marks, and repeating this, till 
a specified distance has bocu nraasun^ ; swing* 
ing through the air, suspended f^om a book in- 
serted in the back ; and other pcuancod, too 
oamcroos and too fooUsli to be mentioned, arc 
resorted to as expedients fur taking away sin. 
ud aecomulating rigbteousnoss. And their 
aacrod books prescribe even tho moftt indeveut 
crimes, as atooements for sin. 

Fule — Accountabthty. — The Hindoo? arc the 
most cohj-bloodetl fatttlist« in the world. Every 
oocurrcnco in lifb is, according to their notioos, 



ISS 



BRAIIMINISM, 



thi? rerolt of diro nereasity. If they are prrw- 
peniiw, U U fate. If they ore id dtHtrcsti. it is 
tnt€. To lie, cheat, or ftrat, is fate. To bo 
idle, dlwipatei), poor, and iitijimnDed. is fate. 
Tbc {>i)or suSItct npparcDtly feols uo remom 
th;it hid own flin Va» bnnig:lit inisory od him. 
lie only cuntra ]iis ImnI fatf. Whon tlie cri- 
mloal IB doicctcd uid coodcmucd, he scema 
ttevnr to iTgnrd himself na tuQlTitiK' tlio jiut 
penalty of tlio law ; it i-> all fkte. The Hindoo 
writiuRS U-ai-h, that it la Iho Great Spirit 
whii'h is difliLHcd llirougli erftry fcjrm of uiii- 
miit«Kl miittcr : that actions of every kind are 
htt. By this doctriin?, all acconiitabilily ia de- 
slroyctd* and liability to punishment ruudered 
prcpoatcroita. 

SoliouM of Futuntu. — Tbc Hindoo scriptures 
tcadi that the soui must j)tu«, in certain 
circumsLtunoos. into t'ipht mitliuii four hundred 
tliuitsaiid diffi-rcnt animal bodies, after it leaves 
the human. Tot, th^ (Kvipln are wholly iu thu 
dark on the subject of futurity. They say 
they can know nottiiiig about it. Boyjuud the 
pn-wnt life, all is inii»enetmble darknesa to the 
Hiriilofrt. 

Ihfitrent Ages of (he ITorW.— Tbc HindooB 
hold timl there art; four aj^ee of the world, the 
firat throe of which aro alrtaidy paal. Tlic 
flfBt wa«t the goldcu age, of I ,"28,000 years 
duration ; the second, the silver age of 1,296,0U0 
years ; tl^ third, tbo brazen aye, of 864,000 
yooni ; aiW the fourth, which w the present, 
the iron age, of 432,000 years. Thpy IwUeve 
that iu the Qrat age, men were as tall as trees, 
ajid lived many thouiuind yeara : but as cverj- 
iitfo l»ecame worse and worae, the people dtmiu- 
islivd in size, and their Uvoe were snortcued ; 
that cvrto the itraliniina theinsolvos. the gods 
of the iM^jple, have lost their holiness, and are 
now filled with coTetoameBa and man^ vices. 
ThitK they account for the prevailing vice and 
dogra<lat!on, instead of tracing it to the depra- 
vity of thfiir own faftarta. 

Cajtte. — There U no part of the Hindoo 8y»- 
tem, which exerts such despotic Kway, and so 
cflectually prevents all improvtmeul, as caste. 
Tht*y^ were orig-inally dindcd into four castes 
or tribes, viz., the Brafimins. the KsfuUriittis op 
JCrfrru, tlie Vdfsijas or Bica, and the Swlrei or 
SoodfTs, each of whieh is apain subdivided into 
ft large number of bmnelKs, Kvorv indivi- 
dual remuias invariably in the caste fn which 
he WAS bom, practices its duties, and is dcbor- 
re«l from ever aspiring' lo a higher, whatever 
may ho liis merit or hw genius. The members 
of eai'h tribe rau.st adhere invariably to the 
prnfiMsion of their aucrvtoK^ and continue from 

frtmeratioQ to generation, to pursae one uni- 
t>rm wnlk of life. Id oont^uenee of this an- 
natural distinction of caste, all moli>-esto ex- 
crtiou. irinniry. or irajiruvcment, aiv completely 
estin^^niKlntl iimong the Hindoos ; for the most 
honomble action?, the most beneflcial di-scov- 
erleA. the imwl firluoua conduct, seeurc no rc^ 
gppcr or pdvantagc to a person of inferior 




caste. Konc of the high castes wUl cat wil 
any of the low cantcs. The fourth and 1 
numeroiiB castes an the iSudres or tsDoden 
Their bnsincGS is servile labor ; and wben 
the original spirit of the institution has i 
been infringed on, their desrradation is in. 
man. They arc eomDcIlcd to work fur I 
Brahmins, being consiacrcd as cretited sole 
for their use. They are not allowed to co " 
property because such a spectacle would gii! 
pain to the Brahmins. To them, the Vi 
or Eaered books, must never be read. Th 
IB also a race of the most degradL-d and no 
venolly insulted outjeasti, called rumyos. 
many places, their very apprtmch is su^ 
to pollute a whole neighborhood. Thq 

not enter a street where the Br 

Wheu they tronsgresa, the higher classes wiff 
not assault them, for it is pollution r-ven ta 
touch them with a long pole ; but through I' 
medium of others, they often beat them 
pleasure, and somotimcs put them to disll 
without dispute or imjairy. *Kor everyi 
of labor, there is a distinit elass of mcjj,j 
division of labor is rcguhitcd acco 
caste. The divisions of the furmer, hO 
are so much more extensive than tbo nominal 
grades of the latter, that different individuala 
of the ^mc ca^tc arc engaged in diSbrent o^ 
cupatious. Still, wliatevcr be a mnn^ capid- 
tics, he can never rise above the calling of his 
father. He will perfonn only that kiml cf 
labor to which his own subdivi.«;ion of ' 
arc accustomed. One man of low east > 
be a </o6os or washerman, and another • 
same cute, a coo/i« or carrier of bnrdr: 
a third, a palanquin bearer. But a >. ■["•■ 
would acorn to act as a coolie. Even thi U\(>\ 
pedlar will not carry bis own pack of gi*odo; 
nor will the Hindoo servant, who provides for 
his master's table, bring from tbc market a 
piece of meat, or a basket of Tixctables. He 
must employ a coolie. The cootie in his turn 
can do nothing that does not come within tbc 
:^here of his business. The first missit»nark3 
in Southern India undertook to aceommodato 
Christianity to the prevailing prejudices of the 
people. The Rev. Uollis Uead, who has tr»> 
veled extensively among the Hindoos, regardi 
caste as one of the most exceptionable featora 
of Hindooism ; and the Bishop of Calcutta Itos 
become so well convinceil of ita utter incoo- 
sistency with Christianity, that he has address- 
ed two charges to the missionaries of the 
Church of England, rctjuiring them uo \Qn^ 
to tolerate the distinction of caste in the nft- 
tivo churches. "ITie main barrier to all Mt 
manent improvement," says he, " is the beatlieii 
usages of ca^^o, in the Christian cbr.r 
Ho says, " the different caster Fut on <l: 
mata, on diSbrent sidut of the church, to \'.iii'-ii 
they entered by different doors. Tlicy ap- 
pn^iached the Lord's table at diffiirent *■■■>■ 
and hod once diOcrent cups, or manage i 
the culechiats to change the cap.bc[(,.v 




BEAHHINISM. 



189 



Imk casta hegan to communicftte ; they 
•arid Allow DO pcreoDS at bapti&m. of an in- 
ferior cxKt'* : BiiH tliey hod supurate dirUionit 
kihe t'K' ii'ls." 'i1io UBBges of cusle 

■tor 9- '" the auctfU consUtution of 

lie n'uiui"", Mini every tliioa; is offocU-d by it. 
I;tr'»lt» preat iriconvL'mL'nce, ajid coostitnU'S 
It-'vT'.uUjBt barrier uguirist inipriiveinenteilbcr 
1/ Uii' Kxiiiil «r rtli^'iou-4 Cktriditiun of the [>co- 
pk. Then COD U: Dotblug more at variance 
itt (he npirit of tbo Gospel thou the ppirit of 

•itiL 

%n. Dr. Allen, late miauonury nt Bombfty. 
_Sik<aUi'* f ■llriwiitsr gtalciueiiUi rCHpeuUDfr tlie 
' '<iQ the missionary work : 
1^ of the American Board, 
klftiliauuil Lcyluii, luiVL' always retitiired a 
atioa of Cute, just oa much as of idul- 
y. ad other parts of bcatheoism. of all cod- 
Mi bcfcin: they were baptized. No arrongc- 
*)i(^, iMw ai»wmiDodatioii9, uor cbuiigea huvu 
MTcf U«u mode in the seats, or in the sittto^ 
b liir cljtircbGa, or in the adniiuistratioii or the 
•i^BaauuB on account of tht> Caste. Caste 
^mkwt respect recognizod. All were treated 
Mof 000 cImBt u mucti 00 Chri«liawi in tliis 
flnntrr an h treated. 

><>ald natorally be expected that ?Qch 

nmuQciutioQ of Caste, and euch Eiub- 

ttupimi matmeol of it, would be sufTicient to 

MtiHMib It in tbc charch. Bat experience 

iManwo that it was not gufiicient. CaaU' 

I foand to be snrprisinj^Iy iDsidloos in 

.jncc ; and to be capable of osuming 

t Mtgr cumplexioo and wape, suiUn^ to the 

r character and their drcunulanccs. In 

l]lbGSs.aa in ^ north jiart of Ocylou, 

f; thnnBh rrlijrioTa! in iu origin, yet retains 

!n,'ioui» cbarucler. It 

11 »r>cial digtinetion, 

i:il as coiilaTing' pcr.<ioncl and fam- 

]uUty. In pTuportiou as it luses its 

it Uei-orncx ta^y ff-ir thow 

I it to be rwturfd to tbeir 

■Ute of fecliujr in tbo com- 

< '^stanl motive for these 

iiM W.T1? originally of hijfh 

,%' 'ndsn tliiiiffS ill tjicir 

, ft'i 1" rsom in their toriul 

, which olTeut llicir per*i.iial or fam- 

* Tlity. In snch circumatunct'S. 

aoalogonn tu the civil dbtliuc- 

i «f Mciat^r. and n-scmbluA thn» antipa- 

twad a«^ntti>ua which exist between differ- 

I and ratTs of people. 

^Tbr ' T - - •■^iuv alsovr—, ' :-n in 

Mkftir (bk'i In m>ni>' K-re 

I leave i '"■■'' rfPiiiii.-; ,i '-.y of 

tattle ar ■ tlmt du-d of them- 

lit) :ind vilSttgw. They 

!>! I rion. and their 

Ml I 1 ' ly on>-iMive,di9- 

^ and iiiLhy. Nvw Uic limhuiiiiH never 
■y kkwl nf ment; and Uie Hindoos of all 
icaatssbold tfacoattagofbcerintbg 



greatCBt abhorrCDOC With what fn^Iiogs, then, 
must all such cahtee regarrl the Parioivi or 
Parayofi and ^lahan ; and what must be thcir 
inToluutary Hhriukioff from coutact, or pIusc 
por3on.al intioiacy with them ? The Brahmtim 
ojid otlior higheastc» naturally nnd ncc«Hgarily 
fet^l far more aversion to asfitwinte intimately 
with Mivhars and Fariais, and to have persoaai 
ixnituot with them, than the most rcfiDed und 
delicate: people in this country would feci in 
aaaociating intimately with the most degraded 
and filthy. 

" It shonld not appear Btrange, then, in view 
of these things, if persona roccnlly convtjrted 
from the darkuetfi ami i^oroncc of lieathon* 
ism. aliould yield to the influence and motives 
whtcli conliuuully isurraund them, and exhibit 
the fctJings, and perfunn, or rvfuw^ to (lerform 
the actions which are &icnbtid to Caste ; 
ciolly when they know what rcspoct wac 1 
merly ijiowa to such feelings and actions 
some of tbo best men, [as tichwarts, and 
rellow4aboren0 evor engogal in the niiMiion-^ 
ary cause ; ana know oLso, bow such fecliogs 
and actions are still regarded in some native 
churehe:^ and by some miwiionarits. Feelings 
of thiit ciuiractor are somctimca develu|>cd un- 
expectedly and in much strongth, wber« none 
were Bupposed to exist These factn show th« 
importanco of continually wutehiug such 
hydro-headed motutcr aa Caste. '^ Vorion 
ways and means have been tried to develop 
these feelings, and so to cxtlngoii^h. as far as 
possible, the spirit in which they originate. 

"The Madras MisKioUary CuntiTcnce 're- 
commend a lore feast, at wniL-b ult the mem- 
bcTs of the church, including the pastor and 
teachers, chall partake of u t>iiuple uud »uilable 
repast' 'ITiia custom has been oI»&crved in tho 
missions of the American Board, and with 
tcnr good effiict When tl>e spirit of Castv 
at these meetings, ur 00 any other occasions, 
bus ajipeAred, it ha.'4 been made the subject of 
adini>nition, or sm^pcnsion. or cidusiou from 
the church, according to the nature of the 
oflenco, 

'■ During a residence of more than a (piartor 
of a century in India, 1 had opportunities of 
tiooing mijisionary operations ami inisHion 
rhurclicft in Bengal, in Madras, in Ceylon, and 
in Jtombay; and I can fully euucur in tbeaeu* 
timent of tlie Miidriu Missiunary i'onferencei . 
that ' ('afite in one of the greatest obstacles to ' 
tbo progress of the Gospel in ludiii. It meeta 
and thwarb) the missionary, not only in bear- 
ing tbc nnsearcbablo riches of Chrwt to tbo 
i)neonv(frted Hindoos, hut also id building up 
tbc native cborch in futh and love ; and lo 
tolerate it in any form, is to oppose the law of 
Christ' And again, iu a commumcaiiou uf 
a Bubaoquent date, they say, 'Wo have long 
regarded Caste as a most formidable opponent , 
to genuine Chri.<!tiauity, and a deadlier enemy* 1 
in some re»pect«, to Uii^ souht of this jieople, 
than even idolatry. We are called to unecaft*i 



190 



BRAnUIMSAC. 



ing effort to pxtiDpiisb iU spirit ami pomr In I vhr-re sbo commeDces tlio fiame work 
DattTfl <,'brijtUa.n« who Imve openly rcmmDCcd [ mercy or compowion. In order to propilb 

this naliguaul demon, Ihcy make omnoKM 



it* ' Cat^tc is a dradHcr cocmy to the souls of 
the iJiudoos tbaa idolatry,' on ucconiit of its 
MsatuinR-, as oxpcrienco shows, almoel any 
coioplexioD — adapting itself to circiitnstftDKfl 
and pxi^ncics, and then again aivnming Its 
poHitivo eharat'ter. In the system of Hindoo- 
um, it is decidedly relifri^ms in il*i nature — and 
Jd, in connection with the Danish and Ger- 
man misaionp, it became so far divested of its 
•ligious character thitt it voa admitted into 
I church, and there toleratetl for a long lime, 
I coutainiti^ otdy civil and social iiistiuctions 
not inconsistent with the principle and spirit 
of Christianity. After it bad gained admifi- 
Bion into the 'natiiT Christian commonitv, it 
again aii$<inieil a religious characttT, tmd those 
of high Caste becamo as much attached to it, 
and as reluctant to abandon its nauges, as the 
heathen aniuud them. And considering how 
little was known of the nature of thia [leeuliar 
feature of Uindooif^m, when the fir^t uiiwion- 
arira of the Board went to India and Ceylon, 
Aod the state of the Proteftant churches in 
India, in connection with the high character 
^ttod great \*cneratioa of Schwarlz and Itia fel- 
' low-la borers, who formed these churches and 
presided over them, Uiero ts caiwc fur gratitude 
and thankfutnciv. that Cafitc has never Imtcmi 
knomngty admitted into any of oar mission 
churehrfi ; has noTcr been recognised by any 
arrungenionta to faror it ; and when its itpirit 
has been miuiiresled in any manner which has 
called for the coiL-^idernlion of the ntis^iiniaricH 
and their churches, discipline has been admin- 
bteret] io the way of admonitiou, suspeminn, 
and cjcconnnunication, aeconling to the nature 
of the uffrnce. 'Phus, while in looking back 
wc sec rcaam to thank Uod, the present etnte 
of this cniL<;e in such, that in looking forward 
wc see reason to take courage." 

i^ijiFT^sUons. — Like the votaries of nil faL«o 
religious, the niiirioos are very mipcrstitious. 
Anil, ill proportion tu their ignorance and de- 
gradation, tlieir absurd superstitions have di> 
luiniiio over them, Thtuv w .scarce an occur- 
rence iu life, which, to the enpcrstitlous Hindoo, 
18 not oniiiKJua of good or evil ; and scarcely 
an hour of tiic day when he is not bound to 
the performance of B{tme ■ ceremony, or not 
made a slave to some supcrelitioii. He leavca 
liit! house iu the morning ; but if ho sees a bird 
fly in a wrong direction, or meets an animal 
of ill-omen, ur tirst sees a person of n certain 
coate, or any object betokening ill, he must re- 
turn, and relinquish hi^ enterprise, au<l |M'rhap.s 
may not go out of his house again that day. 
These 8uj>crt;tili(ju3 are of eodlesi variety ; and 
only a few will bo speciGed here. The cholera 
ii regarded as a mnlignant goddess, whom they 
iroisbip, in order to deprecate her anger. They 
bcUcvc that thU gtiddess walks to and fro, np 
aod down the earth, afflicting the people in 
one place, and then moving off to another, 



rice, gbe«, flowers, fruits, and the Hke, and 
crifiee to her sheep, goata, buflaloeH, and TqhJ^ ^ 
Consistently with their belief, they can 
medicine for the cholera. The only ^ 
cxordae the demon. This, they preteo 
be done by the numtm, which u the {, 
charm of uie Brohmimi. This henrt a \ 
prominent place iu the Hindoo religion. It 
a m}-8ti<; verse or incantation, the repetitiool 
which is ikN^larcd to be attended witb theaa* 
wonderful effects. None but UraJiaiiasi_ 
the higher order of Hindooe, are aUomdj 
repeat it. Tlie lower costeB are forbidda f 
repeut or even hear it, on pain of ctcniilt 
meat All things arc Hubeervient to the m 
tra. The gods themselves cannot resist itt 
is the essence of the Vedas, or eacred 
it is the united power of Bramha, Visl 
and Siva. By its magic power, it confmi 
B&nelity ; pardons all sin ; secures all 
temporal and spiritual, and procures ere 
ing blcwednogg in the world to come. It \ 
sesses the wonderful charm of iDlercbaa^slf 
good for evil, truth for fa].<)choo<L light to 
dark ucss, aod of confirming such 
by the miMst holy snnctionB. There' is no 
BO difficult, BO silly, or so ab!^urd, that it mj 
not be achieved by this extraordinary nun 
As might be eipooted, it is cmjdoyod very l 
tensively for removing paiu*, for the curing | 
dit^u^L'g, the bite of venomous snakes, i^fL,t 
Itut the vholera is by uo means tbconlrdise 
whicli is ffuppossd to be the etR-cl of on \ 
spirit; or of some animal or oUier object 
tlic part uifected, Evary disease is repr 
cd OS poesessed of a bodily form. A liver 
complaint is said to be caufieu by a crab, who 
L^ eutiug the liver ; a cough, by a large caUr- 
pilltir in the throat ; the tooth-ochci from the 
gtjawiiigs of a little worm in the decayed tooth. 
The Hindooe believe that if tbcy look at the 
moon on a certain day, thev shall be instantly 
struck dead. Nothing will induce a moo lO 
niiw! his eyes to the unwii on that day. 

The Hindoo aacred books abound with \ 
rections about such frirolouB things ascleaoj^ 
the t«eth, bathing and washing, cooking i 
eating, washing or drying clothes, Jfce., 
beiiig some iueky or unlucky omen coanectj 
with the particular manner in which 
thing is done. Of these, only a very few 
ciniea^i can be given. Kating with the face'l 
the cost, cnsurea long life ; with it to 
south, celebrity ; to the weat> wealth ; to 
north, pecuniary embarrassment. If. bcfoi 
eating, they do not make a circular mark, with 
water, around where they set the dish, it isaoid 
the demons will devonr the food. On the firrt 
day of the moon, be who cata a purupkin ' 
comes indigent Ignorance follows eating i 
cocoa-nut on the eighth. It is said to be fin 
to eat beans on the etevcoth; and so ou. throu 



Aad, so on, to every action 
" To BDCiSEfi, when one is aboat to sit 
»r Vw down, or cat, or is clrcsing, or bc- 
» gift--^. ia highly inaaopicioos. Tbew 
a fcw. among & rast nialtitude of such 
fas notions, by which the minds of the 
pre fae3d in bondage Their notions of 
■lil imparity are oUo equally burdeu- 

H iDCOOVCDlCUL 

RTr^.i....^ bdiere that a pprwn aboat to 
parts an cxtniordiuarr sanctity 
^, hf Umch*j3. F(tr this rfason, he 
flowers, fruits, and Bpicea, to the crowd 
le ribliet, who ea^prly catch them, and 
B mm w a sort of charm. In one in- 
tbFf actxully worshiped the dead car- 

a man who hod I)c;d executed, while 
^ on the g-ibbct, iu coQ.<iequc'QCO of a rc- 
it m!nu:ulrm<t cares had been cxpcricnc- 
auchiDfi: his body. Amalets are almost 
dly wtirn by the Hindoo?, for prevcut- 
:«ring diseases and the bite of wtjhmiL^. 
■^il.^r.- iuffcr exceedingly, oh account of 
■OS in reference to sickneas and 
■i - iv a wretched crcotare spends all 
ag for the preftriptions of some nmick, 
k oat a miserable txL^touce, and uieei in 
W ^f ^c charms aud the enchantments 
iBnihmin. The number of the blind. 

■ '■''■ 'eproiu, and diiicased in India, 
!;roat ; and no doubt one prin- 
ii-a*"!! lor this la the Imd treatment, or 
ht «fgo"«l tnintment, in the ori^oal 
IsL They hare a singalar aupersiition 
lop Uie i-<:lt[MC of the lun. Tliny sop- 
bl a kind of corporeal divioity. very 
nut and mi'whif'voii^, vcrv black, foul, 

Earo, fic>tZM on the sun, \>IarkenH it na 
. and thai infecui and obMcun^ it. 
i»V whiuh thuf guppoae to be a atmilM 



tion. She is cxoladed Arom all oeremomea i 
joy ; forbidden to marry, and ahot out from ro- 
spoclablo society. Tbia is no doubt the ctuise 
of the burning of widows, and burying tbcm 
alive with their deceosetl hu.«band.-i. 'i'ho for 
mer of these practices, has, however, betm 
abolii<;hed by the British government. When 
tho aged bo(»)me burdensome, they are often 
dragged to tho borders of some sacred river, 
by their own children, their mouths tilled with 
mnd, and thus nbnndonod to die. There is no 
benevolence, no ilisinU'rcstodneBS, no mfrcy. in 
the Hindoo chanicter. In tinuw of prevailing 
disease, this isjxjrfipicuously manifftil. Peoplo 
are left to expire unattended, and their bodu^ 
to consume in their own honscs. Wom<-*n, in 
performance of some vow, cast tlieir children, 
in cold blood, into the sacrod river*, and coolly 
look on, and hoc them devoured by tlie sharks. 
And, iu some sectious of tbo country, a lar^ 
portion of the female children are murdered by 
thi'ir narenta osskmmi a'* tlmy arolrorn. Surely, 
the [lindooii are " without natural aSection." 
Tho varions tortures resorted to for pmatite, 
also indicate the cruelly of Qindooiitm. 

H'Jy Days. — These are among the moat 
fruitful sourcoi of poverty, covetooancM, and 
depravity, among the Hindoos. Of thcw, they 
have no 1«» tlian one hundred and forty-five; 
tea of which occnr monthly, and twenty-6vo 
are anniversaries. Wlien it is corMidereU that, 
on these days, they abandon all tht^lr eniploy- 
mcnti), and give tnemselveE np to all manner 
of licentioosucss, the effect upon soeiely may 
remlily be imagined. Wo sec the di'moruliz- 
ing effects of two or three of theao holy-days in 
a year, in our own conntry ; what then may we 
suppose them to bo, whcrt- thpypmbnirt; nearly 
one lulf the day.'f of the year, on which all 
maaneff of reBtfMPt k Uaoirn off. A doaeripr- 



193 



BBAimtXLSM. 



be nLTfurmeJ, when a Brahmin mnat be called, 
nad prvsciits frivcn ; and when he is <Scui, he 
Dtu.>r)t U' ffikikil UiruugU a Bmhmin'a mouth, 
ojid olferin!:? most l^ maJti for his benefit 
throujrb u Bmlmiiu'd hmid. 

fiijij HUicrs. — Auuthcr fruitful Murco of 
pn-erty and vit* among' tlie people, and of Hjj- 
gratidizcment od tbc part of the Drahmius, u 
tht! inultitn>k of Uolv Plsoea, colobratod for 
their Huiu-tit)-, to which pilgrima^ ore made, 
&9 meiiiis nr'acciimulatiug merit To an igno- 
rant and sclf-rightc-ous pooplu, the idea of pil- 
grimage id extremely fasciiiaUng. and the subtle 
priest is uot alow Ut turn thi>! priiirlplc of hu- 
man uiiture to hia own accuniit \ liriuuit ex- 
pcdiouu are nssorted to by the nrahuiiaji, to 
keep up tbo rt'pQtatioD of these Holy Places. 
Tbc principal ovua arc Bc^uns, Juguuath, and 
Raiuvsliwur ; but there ure a in'eat Dumb(.'r of 
oUicr pittcoa which art hold in ihi^h estimation ; 
and to all of thorn, crowd* of pilgrims are con- 
tiuuiilly QnL:kiiig : porsotu who hare left tlteir 
homi-s,' aud f<acrtficed tb«.'ir all, with the vaiu 
cxpoctuiiun of laytug up a stock of merit, by 
viffltia^I a sacred ^itao:. They are noon, by the 
wiles of old pilgrims and covetous Brahmins, 
stripped of every thinp, and plangcd into all 
%iHiincr of escesiia. Those who wxvq read the 
disjrui'ting accounts of pilgriraagefl to Jiigu- 
natli, " of the roads for Bfly miles bciog marked 
by the akiiWi of thox who have perished on 
tfaij war ; " and of the thou*taud<; wno are left 
to die on thi' banks of the Ganges ; aud those 
who will take the [iaiu«t to caU-ulato what 
maiit be the probable con^eijueneei) of a com- 
pan;p of people, both poor and unprincipled, 
leaving ttieir houses for nearly a year, travc^ 
iDg acrot» the cuunlry, and visiting the cen- 
tral pluces of iniquity in India, may form 
some idc-a of the eOccts of these pilgrimages. 

Dfgrndatton of Females. — ThCTc b no Tear 
tore of Brahminiam more revolting to the be- 
nevolent hwirl. aud the ingenuous mind, than 
Uie et>nilitiuu of Hindoo females. The genius 
of Uiu'iuoism stujia io llie heart of m;in the 
rery foundation of all those tender and noble 
ftffuetioas of his soul, which capocilatc him to 
appreciate and admire tlia-te excelloticicH which 
are jieeuliartothe otiior sex. Hindooimn must 
make ita votario:^ selQ^h, distrustful, and brutish. 
Love, tendomcaa, avmpathy, weakneic, modesty 
and dqjendencc, wbico we accord to tiie female 
as her appropriate virtueti. ure ridiculed, if not 
despiited, by uie Hindoo. He nmrriett, or rather 
bays a wife, aa he wonUl a beast of burden, 
Miu oAerwards regards bcr in very much the 
same li^ht. All those civilities} and attentioc^ 
Trhieh K-malts receive in a Chrisliaa country 
are unknown in India. Were a Hindoo toin- 
qnire after the health of his neighbor's wife 
or daughter, the husband and fulber would 
doom himself iimulled. A Hindoo '\n never 
8Wn to treat his wife with familiarity or fond- 
ncB?. All this is in aeeordanee with tlie prin- 
cl|»tiii of the Hindoo ticripliirea. According to 



them, ** tho raprcmc duty of the wife is to obey 
the hosbond. I^t the wife, who vuhes to per- 
form sacred ablation, waih the feet of oer 
lord, and drink the water; for the limibaod ■ 
Lo a wife greater than Hlmnura or Viihnoa 
Her husband is her god and gooroo, (teaehrrj 
and religion and ill aenrioeB ; wherefore, abaa- 
duuiu^ ererv thing else, she ought chiefly to 
worship ber niubaua." This iniplicit obedieoee 
of the wile extendi to any thing which Qv 
hu<!band may chooao to command. His wOl 
and authority are panunonnt to any lav, W 
man or diviue. If be command hla wife to 1' 
flteul, or commit udnllery, slie must 
Such U the Uognage of the Hindoo scrip 
To become the Eather of a son tJ regardol L. 
greatest honor and happincas ; but the birtt 
of a daughter in a calamity. Tliu.-t tk^'l, 
from her infancy, i^made to iecl her inftrifirity. 
8bc ia regarded as incapable of mental ttt- 
provcment, and is doomed to a servile Ufib 
Ignorant and indolent, she becomes a vllK 
without any choice of her own, and onmsvIlT 
ugiiinst ber wishes. If she be of high Urti 
tdie Ls little more than the priaoner of bcr km- 
band. He imraorcs bcr within the walbi of » 
ploomy mansion, and watches .over her wilh s 
jealous eye. But if of low caate, ahc becona 
the wife and tho drudge at the same tune; 
carrying bunlens, laboring in tlie field, hrtng- 
ing water, gathering cow-Jung, kneotling into 
cakes, and drying it for fad, are her npr-rv 
priato departments of labor. Nearly 
occupation which nature pointj out xi Ui^ 
sphere of the hardier sex, u*, in this country, 
assigned to the woman ; while ber appropriate 
labors arc performed by men. Hcrwajfaiogu 
done by the washerman ^ her sewin?. by the 
tailor ; her milk and biilier, aud :i ' -' 

food, which require bot little coolc 
chased in the bazar. She had no furtiit r^ to 
cleiui, no flix>rs lo sweep or scrub. A O'^i of 
cow dung and water, once a week, settles that 
long account, which the iudiiatrions hotuewlA 
in UiU country, bos with her doors. Indolence 
and dirt at home, aud drudgery and disgriM 
abroad, pecm the only alternatives of HiadoQ 
women. Such is the condition of females in 
Hiodoostan ; aud for this there is do 
bnt Christianity. Wherorer this ha« pr 
tbc rights of women have been aoknov 
and their character and condition elevate 
CluiTacter of the People, — After what 
been already said, little neetl be addetl no 
this head. It can hardly be expected that ' 
character of any people will be better ti; 
that of their goct, their priests, and their mo 
ere. And when to these sourcoa of corrujitioB^ 
are added the demoralising influence of igno- 
rance, superstition, the doctrine o( faU, 
heathen festivals and pilgrimages, we ore 
pared to contemplate a people reduced to 
lowest state of moral degnwlution. To | 
vide for the diiilv wants of the body, 80cnia_ 
absorb the whole sool of the UiuJoa " 



BRAmOKISK. 



193 



i 



Hied to remain envelop- 

_ ce, without mukiiiK uny 

proper (Aorta for its iUumtDalioii. The qTCat 

ami of the penplc arc content to do ^ their 

(iliicr? did, una U> worship what thuifliithcrs 

»nTTh»r"'d uih! whcthfir that object be a god 

' •■• not, provided it Iw the era- 

I'l do so. Custom with 

>ui t* i.iw, ii. which reason and conseiciicu 

nsi BubmbuiTi-ly bow. Moral principle ;iiid 

btorrolmt feelinf; ftxm lo bo entirt;!}- obljter- 

Alod in the heart of the Hindoo ; and be 

buiwt no higher motive of action thonsclBsh- 

Aw. He will lie. cheats steal, and commit 

ftll DuuiniT of lic^iitioosneas, whenever it will 

•orvc fai« tani, withont the Icofit compa action. 

Attbon^h rxcccdiogly u^nuA in their religion, 

kcnrpulottglv miUDtaininp, in their way, their 

Aulj dirroljuDs. and having temples to cvunr 

Tjll^; j^U ail their huliness is ccremoDial. 

faaring bo nxpcct wluiievor to the state of tlie 

kari, or the character of the actions. 

BnthmimjmajtdFoPtryamfored. — Tbcsimi- 
laritjr i>f Toptsy aou Brahminiaro, is so slrik- 
1^^ that it ta worth while to occupy a emidl 
i^Mv in dnwing a comparison between the two 
•vvtaSM; cspecally ns this rcsemblanco hus 
&lleo under the eyis of the miisionarics, who 
•M thra liotb in operation, side by side ; there 
bdaf isany Koman ('aiholic conventJi aud 
cbar^ui in India. Tho following comporimn. 
■Birwhat abridrod, wm drawn apoo the spot, 
br Brv. Mr. liomsay, miasionary in IntUo. 
IV niadooa acknowk-dge one supreme god, 
with many imbrinlinate deities, entitled towor- 
iidp. The nrnhmins are held lo be the repre- 
MoUliftM of ((CmJ. iMiewsising the keyti of life 
«ad death, beavcn and bell, aud therefore thoy 
iro worthit>.^i hv Itiiwintr down, before them, 
oixi The Pop(*, in like 

mm I the vicar of ('hrist, 

and evtTy p'itxt k bid n-prrscntatjve, lie too 
baldi the kt-yf of heaven and hell, and his toe 
has favcD fiivored with many a ki>«. By the 
Hiiukio lawR, none hot their priesta are per- 
dIi'- 1 their eacred bo^ik»; and to flc- 

oiT 'he priests opjiose education, and 

Imbi.ir t'> iv'--i p tiie people in ic^norance. The 
BomkAi priwtet wilt not allow the peoj[>Ie to 
ttmd thr H' ■-''"'■■' w : ftud to sccnre ihcir own 
Mcrodat. five to keep the jK'OpIe in 

trnenuK:'- ._ :iijjdoofl have a multitude of, 
woh, which they daily worship. Some of 
tbcia eoTydder the idol as the representative of 
Oral, and othrn wondiip the thing itself, and 

eno fiuiluT. liesides lemplo deititaf. Ihuy 
v« bouHhotd godo. which they worship doily. 
T\m BoiBiuiifbi in India have also imogei of 
•oiala in ihrir diapck, and in their faonses, to 
wkir.b llirr buw down dully. In tho ntrcetft, 
ttxmH% ax* set up ; olid in the eveninpB, Iam|w 
■re pbcod at the fact of them, after the liin- 
4iuir omd^ <rf idociog bunr'" >^- '^■>"- th4>ir idok;. 
At ther pMa Ifaew craBL'^ , . iIeIb laJte 

gfl th^ hfttfl Bod bow duv ^ ___ui. or pros- 
13 



Ik 



trste themselves before them. Tho worship of 
images is sanctioned by the chorch in Icdm, as 
it \n aUo by the woona council of Nict:. The 
II indooa have many millions of inferior deitiea, 
corn-sponding to which the Uomonists have 
multitudes of ougeLi. 1'he Hindoos huve their 
Gooroos to intwcede for them ; and the Romaa- 
\sts have their «ainta, fur the same purpose. 
The Hindoos hold that a man may obtain 
righteoQSDeas by big own works, and more 
Uiiui he necchi for him^'lf, the surplus of which 
he may sell. 1'bc iionuinlsu nlm liave their 
workd of gupcrcrogatiou, which lead to the 
sole of indulgences. The Hindoos obscrre a 
certmouy, in which they offer up prayer* for 
the dead, and for wbirh they feed and fee the 
H