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Full text of "adamits"

AOYISANTAMITS 



H TASIKH BIA 
STHN AMEPIKH 




EKAOXEIX ■ AIAAOIH 



AOYIZ ANTAMITZ 



H TAHIKH BIA 
ZTHN AMEPIKH 

♦ 

1830-1930 



EKAOZEIZ ■ AIAAOZH 




T(tAoC, TTpCOTOTUTTOU: DYNAMITE 

The Story of Class Viole?ice in America (Revised Edition) 
Louis Adamic, THE VIKING PRESS, New York, 1934 

T\'T[{68r|KS oxr]v A8rjva tov No£(xppto tov 2008 as 800 avtmma. 

EKAOZEE AIAAOZH 2008 

http://www.diadosibooks.gr/ 

diadosi_publications@yalroo.gr 



llEPIEXOMENA 

ripofloyos ins'EK6oons 5 

ripofloyos iojv Meiacppaaicjv 7 

Kecpaflaio 1: «Avai6iis AiayajyrW 9 

Kecpaflaio 2: Oi Mofli MayKoudips 15 

Kecpaflaio 3: Oi Meydfles EE;eyepaeis iou 1 877 25 

Kccpaflaio 4:'Evas AnoaioflosinsTpo|joKpaiias epxeiai ainv AuxpiKri...37 

Kccpaflaio 5: H ripunn B6|j(3a 43 

Kccpaflaio 6: H Anepyia oio Xouaievi 53 

Kccpaflaio 1 . «H EJ;eyepon iou Nie|jns» 59 

Kccpaflaio 8: H Bia ata Auiiko 67 

Kccpaflaio 9: «Iio Aidoflo va ndeno Iuviay|ja» 71 

Kecpaflaio 10: Oi rbu6|jnflis 75 

Kecpaflaio 1 1 : Oi Auva|jiuaies peoa oinv AuxpiK. O|joonov6ia Epyaaias.. 8 1 
Kecpaflaio 1 2. H Iuvaj|joaia yia in BopPa aious «Tdi|js» 

iou AosAvi^efles 89 

Kecpaflaio 13: H'EKpn^n - Kai n luvexeia 95 

Kecpaflaio 14: «lKeucopia!» 99 

Kecpaflaio 15: Ta «riai6id» Ou.ofloyouv Kai o TKopneps OSupeiai 101 

Kecpaflaio 16: H AuxpiKdviKn O|joanov6ia Epyaoias xdvei in 

MaxniiKoinid ins 103 

Kecpaflaio 17: Icpayn oia AvaiofliKd Kai aia AuiiKd 105 

Kecpaflaio 1 8: H iKeucopia evaviiov icov Mouve'i Kai MniflflivyKS 1 09 

Kecpaflaio 19: H'Yppis am levipdflia 1 15 

Kecpaflaio 20: Ioko Kai Baviaeu 123 

Kecpaflaio 21: H Epyaoia Kano IeKivn|ja iou «EKPiaa(jou» 131 

Kecpaflaio 22: EkPiooijos cos (Jia CDdan insTa^iKns ZuyKpouons 143 

Kecpaflaio 23: Ia|jnoid^Kai «Anepyiainv'flpains Epyaoias» 147 

CDcoioypacpies Kai iKiiaa 157 

Eupeiiipio 173 



npoAoroi: thx ekaoshs 



Tin va eifuiors hoifioi va tyjaovjie, noenei nooijyovjievag va neomXavt/Oovfie 
or?/ oKei/jr/ tov Koajiov Kill Tr/v e-jineioin tov iivqio. " 



To 2001, [iia napea awxpocpcov awavxiExai [ieaa axo avxieipv- 
aiaaxiKO kivt]|xq rai axiocpaai^Ei va kovei xa xrpcoxa xi]^ ekSoxiko 
pYj^axa, KUKXocpopcovxac; 8uo [SipXia |.i£xa<ppaa|i£va quo xi]v ixaXiKi] 
yXcoaaa: xo ' Kdfteva km NjoKovfievTa ia>v 'EvonXcov IJffoAejagiaKaiv 
IIvqtjvcov , xo otcoio xipay^iaxEitexai xt]v taxopia |xiat; evotcXi]^ exca- 
vaoxaxiKi](; opydvcooi]^ nov y£wtJ9i]K£ (xsoa 0x15 ixaXiKEc; cpvXaKEc; 
rai £8paae xi]v Sekqexiq xou '70 rai xo ' Tcoga ma... dvai Agyd" , yxa. 
ox'ykXovuxuki] a(prjyi]or| yia xr]v £&)rj xou ixaXou avap^iKou 'Opax 
Oavxaxaivi, ypa|.i|i£vi| axro xov i'5io |^£oa oxa keXicx xuv cpuXaKuv xou 
ixaXiKou Kpdxouc; oxa oxioia Kai 9a acprjaEi xr|v xeXeuxoio xou xivorj 
xo A£K£|^|3pto xou 2001. Me auxd xa xtpcoxa Suo pi|3Xia, yEwiouvxai 
kqi 01 Ek86oeic; AidSoai]. 

'E^ovxac; Evav tcoXixiko xrpoaavaxoXia|id, xa (3i(3X{ci, xa Evxuna 
Kai 01 xaiviEc; xrou ^£xa<ppd£ouv, ExtifiEXouvxai, ekSiSouv koi 8iaKi- 
vouv 01 ekSooei^, Ep^ovxai va qATtXoiyrfaouv xo rjSi] xiXouaio —xoao 
oe xroaoxi]xa, 600 Kai xroioxijxa— ekSoxiko xteSio xov avxaycoviaxiKou 
Kivrj^axoc; Ka9c6i; Kai va TiXaiaiwaouv Eva auvoXiKOXEpo aycova tcou 
8iE^dyExai Ka6i]fiEpivd xoao oe npaKxiKO oao Kai 9£copr|xiK6 exhtceSo 
Evdvxia a£ Eva oikovo|iiko, xcoXixiko Kai koivcoviko auaxT]^ia xiou Ka- 
xa8iKa^£i £Kaxofi|.iupia £&)£? axic; %£ipox£p£^ auv9rJK£t; uxiapl^c; Kai 
Evav oXoKXi]po TiXavTJX'i] a£ acpavia|.i6. 

AidSoai], Xoixtov, xou avaxpExtxiKou Xoyou, xi]c; pi^oaxiaaxiKrjc; 
aKEv|/i](; Kai KpixiKrjc;, 8id8oai] —Kai Sidauai]- xijc; iaxopiKi](; |Xvrj(iT|^ 
Kai xcov Kaxay£ypafi|.i£vcov EpiEipiwv xov koivcovikou Kai xa^iKou 
aycoviaxiKOu Kivr']^iaxo^. 



To Trapov (3i(3Xio ^EKi'vi]ae xr]v iropeia xov Trpo^ tt]v ek8oot| cmc; 
cipjE^ tou 2007, oxav Kauoioi auvrpotpoi \ictc, TrXT]po<p6pT]aav tote 
yia tt]v uirap^r] ektevwv aTrocrnaafxdTCOv cmo to (3ipXio tov Aouk; 
Avtolutc; 'Dynamite', to ottoiq Ei^av ^ETacppdaEi aTa £XXi)viKa kqi 
aKOTiEuav va ekSooow. 

A-n:o(paa(aa|.iE Xoittov, va Tipo^copT]aou|i£ as \aa otto koivou ek8o- 
ot| tou Epyou, EKTrXijpcovovrac; etot Tairro^pova Suo oto^oi'c;: 

Ti]v £m9im(a tcov auvrpocpcov yia ti]v Ki'KXotpopta xou f3i(3Xi- 
ov aXXd kcu tt]v TipoBEar] tcov ekSooecov va ^ete^eXi^Bouv otto ti]v 
ap^iKi] TTpooTrdBsia [iiac. napEac; auvrpocpcov, a£ Eva orXXoyiKO 
ek8otiko a)[T]|^a to ottoi'o 6a ow8eei tetoiov eiSouc; |i£|.iovco|^£v£(; 
TrpoaTrdOEiEt;. 

A£V GfiCOpOULlE OTl fiEOTO TCOV TItXcOV TCOU ETTlXEyOULlE VCl EkSooOI^E 
1] TOD OTCTlKOaKOTOTlKOU I'XlKOU TTOU T[pay|^nTEl'6fiaaT£ SlVOl'fXE \iia 

cmdvTT]aT] oro ti Trpay|iaTiKd Eivai o aycovac; yia ti]v koivcovikt] qtce- 
X£i'9£pcooT]. To ^r']Ti]fia airto Ttapa|^£VEi TtdvTOTE avoi^TO. Adti'] Eivai 
i] i'5ia i] owia Ti]c; aXi]9ivrjc; tcoXitikijc; av£T]Ti]ai]<; Kai tou aAi"|9ivou 
ttoXitikou aywva. Aioti i] SiKaioauvi], t] eXeuBepiq, i] aXXiiXEyyui], 8ev 
Eivai aTravTT]a£K;, Xuoeic; tcoi< 9a |.iTiopoi)aav va So9ow Liia yia Ttdvra 
oro ^r]Ti]|.ia Ti]c; KoivcoviKrjc; opydvcoain;, aXXd iSeec;, ai]Liaai£c;, Eva 
8iapK£c; f3ouXEa9ai uou avoiyEi to £i]TTJnaTa Kai iron 8ev UTidp^Ei peo- 
ple; va 8T|(iioupyEi ^i]Ti]LiaTa. 



Ek86oei£ AidSoatj, Nosfifigiog 2008 

"...ki exovfie aKOfM xqovo!" 



npoAoroi: ton metaopatton 



To ptpXio xou Louis Adamic "DYNAMITE, The Story of Class 
Violence in America" ek869i]ke yia Tipwxi] ipopd axic; HEIA xr|v dvoi- 
fy\ xov 1931. H xrapouaa UExdippacn] eyivE ano tt] 8£ux£pr| ekSout] 
xou 1934. 

Zxo^oc; xtjc; UExdtppaaijc; Ei'vai i] Trapowiam] xwv EpyaxiKwv aywvwv 
axic; HEIA oxa xeXt| xov 1 9ou kqi axic; ap^Ec; xov 20ou aiwva kciBwc; kcu 
i] avdSEt^i] evoc; xurJLiaxoc; xtjc; Iaxopiac; dyvwoxou yia xtoXXouc;. 

Ext] UExdcppaar] avxr\ raxaypdcpovxai oi dypiEc; axrEpyiEc;, t] avv- 
SiKaXiaxiKi] opydvcoar] evoc; UEydXou UEpouc; xwv Epyaxwv, oi xrpo- 
andBEiEc; oa\moxapio\iaxoc, xr|c; Tcapaywyijc; Kai oi opyianEVEc; ov- 
yKpouaEic; ue xic; KaxaaxaXxiKEc; SuvduEic; xi]c; Exio^rjc;. ApdaEic; iron 
•ndvxa aKoXouBouvxai axro xic; avxiaxoi^E^ avxaxiEpyiEc;, xic; uq^ikec; 
axroXuaEic; rai Siw^eic;, xic; axi]U£v£c; Sikec; cikouci kqi xic; SoXoipoviEc; 
xwv mo Spaaxrjpiwv Epyaxwv. 

Ta laxopira yEyovoxa "xps^ouv" xoxe xrou i] ypauui] noi< ^wpi^E 
xa axpaxoxrE8n UExa^ii xwv KaxaxriEaxwv kqi xcov KaxaxriE^OLiEvwv 
i]xav aatpwc; mo SiaKpixrj kqi i] Sid^raT] xou Kpaxw\iov oxi]v koivw- 
via 8ev rjxav xoao oXoKXijpwxiKi] uiac; Kat t] vEoauaxaxi] Ouocmov8ia 
xwv HEIA ekqve xa npwxa xi]c; pYjuaxa. 

H ekSooi] auxrj aoyokeixca [i£ xt]v xiEpi'oSo usxd xi] "f3ioLii]^aviKT] 
ETravdoxaar]", uia xiEpi'oSo ttou ^apaKxijpi^Exai axro xixv xiayKoauia 
dvoSo xwv ExtavaoxaxiKwv Kivijudxwv. Mia xrEpioSo xrou r] koivwviktj 
£ipi]vi] 8e UTTopEi va Eivai atxT]ua xwv acpEvxiKwv kqi t] ewoiq uuvSi- 
KaXia(.ioc; 5ev KoupaXaEi aKoua xt] (3pw|.iid xwv EpyaxonaxEpwv kqi xo 
^ETioijXi]ua xwv avxiaxdaEwv. 

Zxo pif3Xio auxo avaSsiKvuExai xo yEyovoc; oxi oi koivwvikec; avxi- 
axdaEic; ue oXec; xic; avxicpdaEic; xouc;, kqBwc; kqi oi avxiaxoi^Ec; xtpa- 



kxikec; eivai xrdvxoxE TrapouaE^, ae kAQe totto kqi ae kciBe etto^i). 
Qaxoao, ETTipEpaiwvExai oxi 01 aywvEc; Ttou Siaxrjpouv Eva axEipo 
8i£k8iki]tik6 ^apaKTi]pa rat 5ev EnnXouxi^ovxai auo pi^oaTraaxiKO- 
TEpEi; Geoeic; kqi awoXiKoxEpa pi^iara TTpoxdy|.iaxa Eivat KaxaSiKa- 
o[ievoi oxr|v xeXikt] a(po|^oitoai]-auv6iiKoX6Yi)oi) rj aXKiac, axo Odvaxo 

TOD^. 

riapd xi^ ttoXXei; ttepikotte^ ttou Eyivav raxd xi] ^Exdcppaar], EyivE 
TrpooTrdSEia va [iixv oXXoicoBei o ^apaKTipa^ xou KEifiEvou kqi va [ir\ 
yaQei i] au9£vxiK6xi]xd xou. 

Av r] HExdtppaar] r\xav iiXi]pi]5, aacpaXwi; i] EiKova xtjc; etto^c; 9a 
■napoiiaia^oxav Ka6apox£pr| kqi TrXi]p£ax£pr| an' 6,xi xcopa. IlapoXa 
avxa Xoyco xov ^EydXor oyKou xov fiifiXiov eitiX£)[ti]ke va |i£xa<ppa- 
axouv xa ai]|.iavxiK6x£pa, Kaxd xi)v Kptai] \icu;, aTroaT[da|iaxa. 

TeXo^, va avcupepQei oxi ot a-n6v|;£i^ xoi< auvypacpEa Kai xcov |j.£xa- 
tppaaxcov ai'^vd rai ae Kon|3ira £i]xrj|.iaxa 8ev xauxi^ovxat. 



KEOAAAIO 1 

«anaiahi: AiArorH» 



Oaywvac, xcov |j.i] e^ovtcdv evdvTia axouc, e^ovxec, axic, Hvco^e- 
vec, rioXrrEiEC, ovo|^daxT]K£ yia npcoxi] cpopd «xa2;iK6c, tioXe- 
\ioq> to 1826 axr| Neq YopKi] and xtjv Opdvaic, Parr, sairrrj 
tt]v xoX^nprj kqi cptXi]8ovi] lEpoKTJpura xrjc, aKoXaaiac;», ottwc, TT] ja- 
paKxrjpiaE Evac, awxi]pi]xiK6c, auyypacpEac, xi]c, etco^i']c;. AXXd ekeivo 
xov Kaipo, Kai yia Kduoio Sidaxi^a apydxEpa, o ttoXe^oc, arxoc, rjxav 
anXd Xekxikoc;. Oi 8id(popoi |^Exappu0|^iaxEc;, ttou xoxe ETirri^oriaav 
xt] vEapt] Ai]|j.oKpaxia, iKavonoiorivxav \ie dypia Xekxiko ^EaTcdajiaxn 
ttod KaxdyyEXXav xa Koivcovira kqi oiKovo|j.iKd Seivq xr|c, etto^i'jc;. 

Zxo Trpcoxo XExnpxo xor SEKaxor Evaxou aicova XiyEC, EpyaxiKsc, 
aTTEpyiEC, Eyivav, yia r>i|n]X6x£porc, \wjBoxk; kcu yia xi]v avayvcopiar] 
xwv EpyaxiKcov opyavcoaEcov. Oi aTTEpyiEC, anxEC, ar>vT]9coc, Trpayjiaxo- 
Tioiorivxav ano \xia vxor^iva fj pa EiKoadSa avSpuv kcu rjxav %api<; 
E^aipEoi] i']pEjra, Eipr|viKa yEyovoxa. And xic, Kaxaypacpsc, ttou mrdp- 
yovv \iaQaivov\iE oxi orixE pa ypo9id 8ev ettecje a£ Kanoia ano quxe^. 
Oi aTCEpyoi, an' 6,xi (pai'vsxai, TTpoanaBoriaav va ekSikijBouv xorc, 
aTTEpyoaTrdaxEi; aTTOKaXcovxac, xorc, «apoi>paioi)c» Kai an£i>8r5vovxac, 
tow; dXXfic, PpiaiEc;. 

Oi aTiEpyiEc; BEwporivxav «arvco|^oai£c;» rai «fro%8i]p£c, etti^ei- 
pi]CTEic;» kqi UTidyovxav ottjv TcaXid ttoivikt] vofroGEaia xr|c, AyyXiac, 
Evdvxia axi]v avdfiEi^r] oxo E^-ndpio, i] onoia E^aKoXorGouaE va Ppi- 
aKExai a£ la^ri oxic, Hvco^ievec; iIoXixeiec, Kai |j.£xd ri]v AppiKdviKi] 
EnavdaxaaT]. 'Exai noXu ai^vd oi anEpyoi auXXa|ipdvovxav, Tore, 
Emf5aXX6xav Tip6ari|io rj tprXaKi^ovxav Kai oi Epyo86x£c, Tore, avxi- 
Ka6iaxoiiaav |i£ \iy] opyavco^Evorc; EpydxEt;. 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



AXXd outo (i] anoXuar]) 5ev tjtqv oofiapo TrpdpXr|Lia yia touc; 
anEpyouc;. H ydpa rjtav vsa rai tepdcraa ncpa qtto kcxBe ovtiXt]- 
i|n]' Kcmoioc; LiTuopouaE eukoXo va LiETaKom'aEi koi ttoXu mOavd va 
KaXuT£p£i|/£i Kai tt] £cot] tou. H |^£66pioc; SeXeo^e TOV dv6pC0TTO T1]C; 

TTEpiTTETEta^ TTOU sPpiOKE TOV £OUt6 TOU <J£ avTlTuapdBEai] |i£ TO NeO 

Bioiiij^aviKO ZuaTi]na otq AvaToXira. Zto Autiko t] yt] rJTav etoilii] 
va 5o8ei a£ ottoiov ti]v etuBulioucte, |xe kocttoc; 6yi LiEyaXuTEpo qtto 
am:6 evoc; Tai;i8iou, Xiycov cpuTcov kqi evoc; rj 8uo £c6cov. Aev imi]p^E 
Xdyoc; va aycovi^ETai koveic; yia Lua Beot] Epyaaiac;. Kai av Kanoioc; 
ava^i]TOua£ auyKrvrjaEu;, r] dypia <pt5ai] i]Tav aKo^ii] yELiaTi] otto IvSi- 
dvouc; ETOijiouc; va SoXocpovrjOouv. 

Elpoc; to teXoc; tijc; Sekoetio^ tou 1830, jiETavdaTEc; - crro LiEya- 
XuTEpo noaooTO touc; Tspyuivoi, IpXavSoi Kai OXXavSoi- dp^iuavva 
raTacpBdvouv ori] Tt] tijc; ETuayyEXiac; <je or]LiavTiKouc; apiBLiouc; Kai 
ektote Ta yEyovoTa EpyaaiaKijc; pfac; i]Tav au^vd. 

Ol OTv8t]K£C; EKEIVI] TT]V ETTO^l] OTl|V EupCOTTI] l']TOV da^1]|.l£C;, £Vc6 

01 avEp^o^Evoi aLiEpiravoi piopj^avoi fiPpiarav touc; vtotuouc; Epyd- 
tec; ttoXu av£^dpTi]Tou^ crra ^i]Ti]|.iaTa tcov luctBcov Kai tcov copwv Ep- 
yaaiac;. 'Etch, EaTEiXav avTinpoacoTiouc; touc; ott]v IpXav8ia Kai orr|v 
Kupi'coc; Eupcom] yia va SEXEaaouv touc; cpTco^oiic; kotoikouc; auTcov 
tcov TiEpio^uv va ^lETavaaTEuaouv otic; HEIA, XEyovrac; touc; cpavTa- 
otikec; loTopiEc; yia pouvd and ^puadcpi Kai auEpidpiaTi] eXeuBepici 
Kai Eumiptec;. H <Pcovrj rr/c; Biofit/xaviac;, iua E^E^ouaa EpyaTiKrj Kai 

|i£Tappi'6(.llaTlK1] £Cpi]H£p(8a TCOV T|(XEpCi)V EKEIVCOV TTOU EK8l8oTav CTT1] 

Maaa^ouaETi], KaTacpEpoTav \ie ayavaKTi]ai] Evdvria «qtt]v Eiaayco- 
yt] aTCEpyoaTTaaTCi)v» Kai KaTijyopouaE touc; EpyoSoTEc; oti Ec;um]pE- 
Touaav tov Eairtd touc; «EvdvTia otic; anEpyiEc;, KaTaaKEud^ovTac; Eva 
l-iEyaXo fiuy_6 Kai £c;apTT]|.i£vo ttXt]9oc; avOpuTicov... tcov otioicov i] 
TioTam'] KaTaaTaai] otic; ^copEc; touc; touc; KaGioroiiaE npoGi'Liovic; va 
SouXeuow 14 Kai 16 copse; ti] |i£pa yia onoia8T]TiOT£ a|^oif3i] to KEcpd- 
Xaio anocpdai^E va tocc; 8ivei». 

H TiXEioi|;i](pia tcov |.iETavaaTc6v tote, ottcoc; Kai apyoTEpa, rJTav 
av£i8iKEUTOi EpyaTEc; Kai aiiaBEic; aypoTEc;. Oi aiiEpiKavoi EpyoSoTEc;, 
lie ti]v avdTUTi'c;!] Ti]c; |^i]^aviKi]c; Kai ti]v aKo^a LiEyaXuTEpi] Ec;£i8i- 
KEuaT| tcov Ka9r|K6vTcov aTa EpyoaTaaia, Linopouaav va tovc; X El P 1 ' 
otouv \ie LiEyaXuTEpo TiXEOvEKTiiiia, aiiEif3ovTac; touc; lie ^aLii]Xouc; 
|iia6ouc; Kai ^piiainoTTOicovrac; touc; aTtd tt]v avaToXi] ecoc; Kai lieto 
ti] 8uai] tou t']Xiou, \ie oyy ^iiKpi] ^aaoupa yia touc; vtottiouc; ^EipiaTEc; 



10 



"AvaiSrj<; A inycoyrj " 



LTi^avcov. Oi a|i£piKdvot EpyaTEt; cpuoroXoyiKd Suaavaa^ETOuaav iie 
ttjv Trapouaia cwtcov tcov EupcoTrcu'cov — |.idXiaTa, touc; aTTOKaXouaav 
«KOTTpoiv>. Kdiroia aTto xa auvSiraTa ttou tote dp^i^av vn ELicpavi- 
£ovrcu axyxv nevaiiXpdvia, Ti] Neci Yopici] kcu tic; ItoXiteiec; ttjc; Neck; 
AyyXiac; touc; ePXettctv lie |i£yaXuT£pi] aTTE^0Eia air' 6,ti ePXettctv touc; 
1810115 touc; EpyoSoTEc;, ttou r\xav 01 utteu9uvoi yia ti] 8i]Liioupy{a au- 
ttjc; Ti]^ Td^i]^ tcov |.i£xavaaxcov. 

Ot S;evoi EpydxEc; TrpoaXciLipdvovTav a£ LTEydXouc; api9|ioik; otic; 
KcrraaKEi'Ec; tcov kctvciXicov oto Niou T^EpaEi], ti] Neci YopKir, to 
MEpiXnvT rat tt]v riEvouXpdvia lte aiioipY] cttto 5 ecoc; 12 SoXdpia 
to fxi]va. AouXeuctv, £Triar|c;, ite EXacppd uv|n]X6T£pouc; |iia9oi5c; otic; 
KcrraaKEi'Ec; tcov orSi]po8poLUK:c6v ypa|.t|icov. Zu^vd, otciv kqitoioc; 
ETTioTdTr]c; tt]v KOTidvayE \ie tic; a|ioip£<; touc;, Ejavav aKop] kqi auTd 
xa loyya £iao5T]|iaTa japit; kqltici auo^x]\daaj]. Ta KavdXia kqi 01 
oi8i]po8po|iiKEc; ypn|i|i£c; Sieoyi^av PciXtcoSeic; ektqoeic; kcii ot Epyd- 
tec; TiEBaivav quo eXovootci kcu qXXec; qoBeveiec;. AXXd 01 EpyoSoTEc; 
^coptc; SuaKoXia avriKa9icn:ouaav touc; dppcocrrouc; mi touc; vEKpouc;, 
acpou o^eSov kq9e ttXoio ttou ecdtove ano ttjv Eupcom] EcpEpvE an] 
X^pa TTEpiaaoTEpocc; «KOTTpouc;». 

KciTO TO SEUTEpO TETapTO TOU SeKCTTOU evcitou aicova au^vd Xd|l- 
Pavav %&pa «£^£y£pCTEic;», ottcoc; tic; aTToraXouaE o Tuttoc;, 01 iiEpia- 
aoTEpEc; cmo tic; ottoiec; rJTOiv au96p|iT]TEc;, avopydvcoTEc; kqi X w P^ 
riyEaia crrrEpyiEc;, yia (.lEyaXuTEpouc; Lua9ouc; kqi KaXuTEpEc; cruv9f|KEc; 
Epyaaiac; yi' ciutouc; touc; Suotu^ouc; ^evocc; EpyaTEc; ttou oSijyouvrav 
ott|v anoyvcoai]. H £9vocpuXaKTJ ovyya kciXeito yia va KcrraaTEi'XEi 
avxa xa l;£aTrda|iaTa. Av9pcoTioi okotcovovtciv kqi TTEpiouaiaKd qtoi- 

^ElQ KQTaoTpECpOVTav 1] UCplaTCTVTO £l]|il£C;. 

Etic; TiEpiaaoTEpEc; citto ciutec; tic; E^EyEpoEic; TrpcoTaycoviaTouaav 
01 IpXavSoi. Oi T£p\iavoi, 01 OXXavSoi kqi 01 dXXoi LTETavdoTEc; utte- 

(pfipav [IE a^ETlKl'l TTn9l]TlKOT1]Ta. 

II 

To 1836, fiia o|id8a IpXav8cov Xi|_i£v£pyaTc6v oti] Neq YopKi] «e^e- 
y£p9T]K£ yia |i£yaXi!T£poi'c; (.ua9ouc;» kqi yia ctottjv touc; tt|v «avai5r'] 
8iaycoyT]», ottcoc; ti] yapaKxr\pio£ \iia tottiki] Ecpi]Li£pi8n, i] naTi'voLTia 
touc; irpoKaXEaE «aopap£<; kqi m9av6v ettiki'vSuvec; acoLiaTiKEc; pXd- 
Pec;». 



11 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



Oi IpXavSoi ettiot]^ m'|pav LiEpoc; ott]v E^EyepaT] ottjv ttoXt] AXe- 
yKEvi to KaXoraipi tou 1848. Oi Li£Tappu9LuaT£<; ttjc; ri£vauX|Mvia 
TiETi^av va ETTi]pEdaouv touc; volio9etec; ttjc; rioXiTEiac;, oi ottoioi ei- 
aTjyayav Eva vollo ttou UEpiopi^E ttjv EpydaiLU] LiEpa otic; 10 c6p£c; rai 
anayopEUE tt]v Epyaaia iraiSicov kotco tcov 12 etcov oto EpyaaTT]pia 
|3afi|3aKiou, LiaXXiou, Li£Tac;iou, ^apxiou rai Xivapiou. Auto 8uaap£- 
ottjoe ttoXu touc; avEp^dLiEvouc; pioLn^avouc; ttjc; AXeykevi. Alieotoc; 
airEXuaav 2000 EpyaTEc;, oi ottoioi, ^covrac; coc; tote lie to Ka9i]Li£pivo 
LiEporaLiaTO, 8ev |TTTopoiiaav va £Trtf5ic5aouv dvEpyoi. Msaa a£ 5uo 
ePSolioSec;, oi TTEpiaaoTEpoi TTE0avav ano tt]v TtEiva t] EcpTaaav crro 
^ei'Xoc; ttjc; Xilioktovioc;. 

Mia LiEpa, Liiaa aTi]v aTTEXmata touc;, KdnoiEc; EKaTovTdSEc; 
dvrpEc;, yuvaiKEc; Kai iraiSid TrpoaTrd9T]aav va £TTiaTp£v|/ouv ott] Sou- 
XEid 5iaT£8Ei|.i£voi va EpyaaTouv lie to TrpoT]youLi£vo KaQeaxdi; twv 
12 copcov, i] aKOLU] Kai lie ^EipoTEpouc; opouc;. Toot] tjtov i] avuiro- 
Liovi]ai'a touc; va £TTicrrp£i|;ow otic; LU])(av£c; touc; Kai otouc; TrdyKouc; 
touc; ttou ouaiaaTira EKavav £ia(3oXT] crra Epyacmjpia. Oi ottXiolievoi 
cppoupoi touc; aTT(69T]aav. AXXd npiv oi EpyaTEc; £TTioTp£i|/ouv oTa otti- 

Tia TOUC|, LUO E^EyEpaT] EkSt]Xco9i]K£ a£ LUO OTTO Tic; f3lOTE^Vl£C;, OTTOU 

ttoXXoi TpauLiaTicm]Kav Kai LiEpoc; ttjc; TTEpiouaiac; KaTaaTpdcpT|K£. 

riEpiTTOT' 20 auXXT]l|;£lc; TTpayLiaTOTTOn]9T]Kav. AfiKOTpElc; E^EyEpLlEVOl 

— avd|i£ad touc; 5 IpXavSoi- KaTa8iKdcm]Kav oe TrpocrriLio, aXXd oi 
TTEpiaaoTEpoi air' auTOuc; 8ev Ei^av va TrXT]pc6aouv Kai o8T]yT|9T]Kav 
ott] cpuXaKT). Afysc; LiEpEc; |T£Ta tt]v E^EyEpai] EyivE luo veo auLicpcovia 
Trdvco ott] (3dai] tcov Seko EpydaiLicov copcov lie |iia lieicoot] tcov likj9c6v 
koto Sekoe^i toic; ekoto. 

H ut|tt]Xc6v tovcov EcprffiEgiSa tov EfmoQiov tt]c; Neo^ Y6pKT](; ava- 
(pEp9i]KE otic; E^EyspaEK; coc; «Eva e^cotiko cpaivd|iEvo yia outt'] tt] 
^wpa, ttou EiaT]^9T] Liac^i lie to KaTaKa9ia Kai to Ka9dpLiaTa tot< Ila- 
Xaioii K6aLioi'» koi i] aXacJoviKT] TlevaiXjidviav airoKaXEaE touc; e^e- 
yEpLiEvouc; «t]Xi9iouc; Kai 9Ep|iOKECpaXouc; aXXo8aTroi5c;». 

Ill 

Auto ipav to t']ttio ^EKi'vT]Lia tt]c; f3fac; otov tocjiko aywva otic; 

HvCOLIEVEC; IloXlTElEC; — l]TTlO OE a^EOT] LIE TT] p(a TTOU fiXa^E X^pa, LIE 

LiEyaXuTEpi] au5(y6TT]Ta, tic; ettolievec; Sekoetiec; tou Sekotou evotou 
koi tic; TrpwTEc; tou eikootou aicova. 



12 



"AvaiSrj<; A inycoyrj " 



Ot ayiaQeii; fXExavdoTEc; r\xav «KOTTpoi» kqi «KcrraKd9ia kcu Ka6dp- 
|^axa» kqi eiyav xt\v avrioTOiyi] avrt^ETComai]. MiXouaav eva ttXtjBcx; 
qtto SiacpopsxiKEi; StaXeKTOi^' uirrjp^av oy]\iavriK£.<; (puAexiKEt; Sia- 
(popc^ fiExa^u xoi't;' kqi av aKO|ii] 01 vtottioi EpycrriKoi r|y£T£c; kqi 
|^£Tappu8|^iaTEc; Ei^av Kdnoia avymdQsia yia ottouc;, ttou paaiKa 8ev 
Ei^av rapa cmoXuxcot;, 6a r\xav kqi TrdXi aSiivaTO va opyavcoGouv. 

Oc; aTTOTEX£a|.ia, i] tteivq kqi i] yEviKTJ 8ucm<)[{a xovi; oSrjyi)aav 
as oTiopaSiKi] «avai8i] SiaywyiiB, ti]v ottoiq 6Xot 01 a^EpiKdvoi xi)<; 
etto^i'h;, iaax; 8iKaioXoyT)H£va, BEwpouaav «aXXo8an6 (patvonEvo» \ie 
ti]v Ewota oti |^6vo — Vj Kvpicot;— 01 i^ETavdaxEc; TJxav i'tteuBuvoi yia 
ai'xo. AXXd 01 awBrJKEc; ttou tou^ oSiiyoiiaav vn E^EyEpBouv r\xav 
|3a6id a|.iEpiKdviK£(;. 'Hxav 01 a|.i£piKdvoi pio|ii)^avoi ttou EcpEpav 
otic; HELA auxou^ xovi; aXXoSaTrou^ kqi touc; aupT£pi(p£p6T]Kav [i£ 
axiavQpamd. 



13 



KEOAAAIO 2 

Ol MOM MArKOYAIPi: 



Kaxd tt] SidpKEia xcov 8uo Sekoexicov aciEacoc; xtpiv Kai xcov 
8uo aLiEacoc; liexo xov ElicouXio EloXelio, xo ALiEpiraviKO 
EpyaxiKO Ki'vT]|ia (3piaKoxav axa6epd oe Liia Kaxdaxaar| 
auy^wi]^. H Bio|ii]^aviKi] Enavdaxnar] ei^e |idXXov KaxaoxpocpiKEc; 
oweueiei; yia xoxx; EpyacpLiEvouc;. 

riptv air' auxT]v, o £pydxi]c; lie Eva ^Ei'ydpi iKavd %epia Kai raxroia 
KaXd spyaXEia avxiLiExcom^E xov acpEvxi] xov oyeiiKa etci fooic; opoii;. 
napi'iyayE lie 0x65(0 KaxEvBEi'av xi]v KaxavdXcoai] kqi axr|v TcpayLia- 
xiKoxi]xa KaxavdXwvE o (Sloe; LiEydXo LiEpoc; axro xo xrpoiov xou. Ecopa 
xo spyoaxaoiaKO auaxT]Lia yEviKEUoxav. Ta EpyaXEi'a Trapijyayav 
LU]Xavi]Liaxa. ELicpavi'^ovxav ayavi] Epyoaxdaia nov axraa^oXouaav 
^iXioSec; dvxpEc;, ywaiKEi; kqi TraiSid. Eacpvira 01 Lii]%av£i; Ei^av lie- 
yaXuxEpi] ar|Liaaia ano xa X^P la - EiSikeulievoi Lii]^aviKoi xrou raxroxE 
rjxav xrEprjtpavoi yia xic; xe^vec; xouc;, i'xrof3i|3d£ovxav xcopn oe a-rrXouc; 
EpydxEc;, oe aTcXd npoaapxrJLiaxa, a£ mrr|p£X£c; xcov Lii]^avuv. H Ep- 
yaaia EyivE Eva E|iTr6pEVLia LiEaa axijv ayopd, 6^1 SiacpopExiKO axro 
xic; TipcoxEc; uXec; rj xov dv6paKa. O poXoc; xr]c; 5ev rjxav tcXeov Kax£i>- 
0Eiav va TcapdyEt aXXd va KpaxdEi xic; LUj^avsc; oe XEixovpyia yta xov 
xtXouxiaLio xcov iSiokxi]xc6v xouc;. Kai 01 LiExavdoxEc; - fj LidXXov 01 
«KOTipoi»— KaxEcp9avav oe opSEc;. H rraicHKij Kai i] ywaiKEia Epyaaia 
av^avoxav, yiaxi rjxav cp9r]v6x£pr| axro xi]v avxpiKrj. Ti]v (5ia axiyixi], 
01 ywaiKEc; Kai xa naiSid i']xav Ei'KoXoxEpo va ^Etpaycoyi]8oi3v an' 
6,xi 01 dvxpEc;, 01 ouoioi, av SwapEaxouvxav arto xt] SouXEid, rjxav 
mo TciBavo va xa xrapaxrjaow Kat va cpuyow Tipoc; xa Auxira. 



15 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



O auv8iKO.Xia|.i6c; i]iav UTroTaKTiKoc; kcii 8eiX6c;. Oi TiEpiaaoTEpEc; 
cmEpyiEc; KaTEXijyav KaxaaxpocpiKa yia tic; EpycvriKEc; opyavcooric; ttou 
Xdfif3avav LiEpoc; a£ ctutec;. Ytttjp^ctv EpycvriKEc; evcooeic; otic; ottoiec; 
ypaTiToc; dpoc; £yypa(pi]c; fjtav to veo (.ieXoc; «va crnocpEuyEi ttjv ava- 
cpopd ae Qe\iaxa ttou TupoKaXouv». Oi cmoKaXouLiEvoi EpyaxiKoi r]y£- 
tec; rjxav cot; etui to ttXeiotov dv9pcoTuoi ttou oute EpydcpvTav oute 
TjyouVrav: tpiXoSo^oi ttoXitikoi Tprnjc; Kan]yopiac; rai tpXuapoi pi]TO- 
pEc;, ttou eiyav LUKpT] iKavoTi]Ta va Knravor|oow tic; veec; pio|xr|^a- 

VIKEC; 8uvQLl£lc; KQl TOV TpOTTO TTOU CIUTEC; £Tn]p£aC/XV TOV EpydTT]. 'H 

|i£Tappu9|.uaT£c; kqi aviaoppoTroi iSectXiotec;, yELiaTOi (pavTaaicooxic;, 
oi ottoioi avTXouaav tt]v ELiTrvEuaT] Kat tt]v opoXoyia touc; and ra 
Epya tcov outottiotcov aooiaXioTCOv. 

O £pydTT]<; SiSaaKOTav ano touc; i|y£T£c; tou oti rJTav «o Ap^cov 
ttjc; Oiiai]c;», tt] oTiy|ii] ttou ottjv TupaynaTiKOTTjTa rJTav to (p9i|voTE- 
po EfXTTopEi'ixa oti] |3ioLU]^aviKT] ayopd. Kai ttou t]tctv Ti^Epoc;, av ot 

OVV01|K£^ TT](; OTlyLUjC; TOU ETTETpETiav VQ TrapaTTjOEl TT] 5ouX£ld QTO 

EpyaaTi]pio r\ to opu^Eio Kat va (3pei Eva KO|.iLidTi yi]c; ott|v dypta 
i5iTai9po. 

II 

Ee o^Eia ovtOeot] \ie tic; avaTroTEXEonaTiKEc; EpyaTiKEc; opyavco- 
oeic; Ti]c; etto)[T]c; uiTTJp^av oi MdXi MayKoudipc;, luq liuotikt'] koivott]- 
to EpyaTwv opu^Eicov ottjv av9paKocpdpa nspio^i] tt]c; ri£vauX|Mvia, 
ttou 5paaTi]pionoir]9T]Kav oto teXt] ttjc; Sekqeticic; tod '60 kqi otic; 
ap^Ec; au/njc; tou '70 kqi tcov ottoicov r] Kupia lie9o§oc; £ttiteu1;t]c; tcov 
oto^cov touc; rJTav i] Tpo|iOKpaTia-5oXo<povia. 

H TipoiaTopia tcov ajiEpiKavcov MdXi MayKoudipc; cpTavEi ttioco 
oti] (pEoi'Sap^iKi] IpXavSia ttjc; TETapTTjc; Sekqetiqc; tou Sekcttou evci- 
tou aicova. Ekei ^oijoe \iia 8xsva\uxr\ yuvaiKa, i] yf\pa MdXi MayKou- 
dip, i] onoia 8ev anoSE^OTav to auaTi]|.ta tou aypoTiKou evoiki'ou 
tiou ioyye tote oti] xcopfl tt]c; kqi EyivE o i9uvcov vouc; |iiac; ypXapa 
opyavco|i£VT]c; avriaTaai]c; EvdvTia oe quto. 

H yuvaiKa quti] i']tqv |iia mroXiTioTi] Kai ypacpiKi] TipoacoTTiKd- 
Ti]Tn' E^acpE jiaupo to Trpdacoird ti]c; kqi kqtco a-no to |i£ao<p6pi 
ti]c; ei^e £va ttiotoXi 8e|.i£vo oe Ka9£vav and touc; Suvqtouc; ni]pouc; 
tt]c;. MiaouaE i8iaiT£pa touc; iSiokttjtec; yi]c;, touc; nvTmpoaconouc; 
touc;, touc; 8iKaaTiKouc; KXi]Ti]p£c; kqi touc; EmoidtE^, kqi oi EKcppd- 



16 



Oi MoXt MavKovdiipc; 



oeic; tou (xiaouc; tt]c; TiEpiopi^ovrav axov l;uXo8ap|.i6 rj ti] SoXocpovCa 
touc;. npayLiaTOTioioucjE tic; EVEpyEiEc; outec; lie xa (8ia tt]c; xa %£pia i) 
LIEOTO TCOV «TiaiSlCOV» TT|C;, TlOU auToanoKaXouvTav MoXi MayKoudipc; 
i] MoXic; yia auvroLiia. 

'Pirav EvnvTia ottjv KupEpvinar], T) OTtoia |3oi]9oua£ touc; Tupav- 
VIKOUC; lSlOKTT]T£c; yi]C| va (ia^Ei5ouv TO EVOIKIO. H MoXi MayKoudip 
f|Tav r] ETtiKEtpaXr]^ tou auToanoKaXouLiEvou KoLiLiaToc; tou EXeu9e- 
pou ESdcpouc;, £ii|3XT]Lia tou otioiou VJTav to kokkivo LiEaocpopi tt]c;. 
Av Evnc; iSiokttjtijc; yi]c; e8ico^ve Evav aypoxr] tiou 8ev TiXrjpcovE tic; 

OCOEiXec; TOU, TOTE aUTOC; fj O avTlTTpOCTMTTO^ XOV ETtpETTE OUTOLiaTa va 

Xoyapia^OTav vEKpoc;. Ot MoXic;, av o^i i] i'5ia i] Kupia MayKoudip, 
i]iav oryoupo ttcoc; 9a TiXipocpopouvTav to yEyovoc;' to TrrcoLia tou 
dvTpa Lioipaia f3piaKOTav ox Kanoio ^avraKi rj aKO|.u] Kai oto TidTco- 

[ia XOV CSlOl) TOU OTTITIOU TOU. 

Ol aUOTljLiaTlKEC; EKTeXeoTIC; TTOU SlETtpaTTE 1] M6Xl T]Tav TOQO 

aTTOTEXEa^aTiKEc; cocnx yia Eva 8idcm]Lia oXokXijpec; TiEpio^Ec; nic; 
IpXavSi'ac; -iSicoc; to TinEpEpi, to Toueot Mi9, oi Koliiiteiec; tou Ba- 
aiXid Kai Ti]c; Baai'Xiaaac;— Eyivav lit] KaToiKijorLiEc; yta ottoiov8t]ttote 
dXXov ektoc; aTto touc; MoXic;. TeXiko oi ap^Ec;, kotco and tic; ekkXi']- 

OEtq T(OV aTlEXlrlaLlEVCOV lSlOKTl]Tc6v yi]C;, apjlOOV va KaTaSlWKOUV TI] 

MoXi Kai Ta «TiaiSid» ttic;, coonou oti] SsraETia tou '50 oXoKXipEc; 
op8£c; and auTa, air' 6,ti cpatvETai Kai r\ iSia t] MoXi avd|i£od touc;, 

LiETavdaTEUOav aTl]V A|.l£piKl]. 

Oi MoXi MayKoudipc; Ei^av EyKa9i8pu9Ei coc; liuotiko TayLia erne; 
HnA )']8i] otto Ta |.i£aa ti]c; SeKanrfac; tou '50. Tia va yivfi kqvfii; \is- 
Xoc; ETipETTE va Eivai ipXavSdc; rj va zyzi ipXavSiKi] pi£a, va Eivai KaXdc; 
Ka9oXiKoi; Kai lie «t)9iko 3(apaKTi]pa». ETnai]Lia i] anoaToXii xi]i; opyd- 
vcoar|c; i]Tav «va T[pow9i'iaEi ti] cpiXia, ti]v EvoTi]Ta Kai tt]v npayi^aTi- 
Ki] xpiaTiaviKi] (piXav9p&3Tiia |.i£Ta^u tcov lieXmv xy]Q>. Kai yEviKa, «va 
KavEi Ka9£Ti v6|ii|.io yia ti]v Eur]H£pia Kai ti]v )[pi]aTi] 8ioikt]ot] tcov 
utto9ect£cov ttjc; £vcoai]c;». YnoaTi'ipi^av oti 0a ettitu^ouv touc; oto^ouc; 
outouc; «8iiLiioupycovTac; Eva ^pi]LiaTiKO KEcpdXaio yia tt] auvTT]pi]oi] 
tcov i]Xikicolievcov, tcov appcoaTcov, tcov TUcpXwv Kai tcov avia^upcov |^£- 
Xcov». O Kavovioyoc; touc; 8t]Xcove ettitcXeov oti «to Y-nEpTaTO Ov e^ei 
ELicpuTEuaEi on] cpuai] Liac; au|XT[d9Ei£c; Kai av0pcoTiiaTiKd aia9i]LiaTa 
Tipoc; Ta dXXa 8i]Luoupyt]LiaTa Tou ttou cjouv oti] 8uaTU^i'a». 

AXXd ti]v copa ttou auTrj r']Tav i] euoeP^c; f3dai] yia tt]v ETiiai]Ln] 
UTtap^r] tou TayLiaToc;, ott]v npd^i] oi MoXi MayKoudipc; Eyivav mo 



17 



A mauling: H Iaiogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 

dypioi axic; HT1A air' oao rjxav axi]v riaXid Xcopa, xi]v IpXav8(a - rai 
mGavov SiKaioXoyi]|i£va. 'Oxnv 01 MoXic; r\xav axo aTrc>Kopucpco|ia 
xi]c; 8t5va|if|c; xouc; — axic; apjeq xt]c, SEKaETiac; xou 1870— i] f3ia 8ia5e- 
Xoxav Ti] f3ia, \i£jpi ttou 01 avGpaKocpopEc; iiEpio^Ec: xi]c; ri£vauX|Mvia 
Eyivav Evac; koo|ioc; tp6(AOU. Oi yuvaiKEc; ExpEi-iav, oxav 01 au^uyoi 
xouc; aTTOtpdat^av va EmaKEcpxow tic; TTEpio^Ec; xcov opi^Eicov. Ot dv- 
BpcoTioi cpopoiivTav va xpiyupi£ouv sl;co |i£xd xi] 8iiai] xou rjXiou Kai 
TtoxE 8ev kivowxqv oxo cpcoc; xi]c; i]|iEpac; X^P 1 '? nicmSAl — xo onoio 
ndvxcoc; 8ev xouc; TtpoacpEpE Kai noXXd, acpou oi ekxeXeoeic; Efxota^av 
va Ttpay|.iaxoTroioi5vxai Tidvxa lie xi]v Tipc6xr| [SoXi]. 

'Evac; auyypacpEac; xrjc; £noyr\(;, axr]v A|.i£piKdviKi] Noluktj Em- 
8£c6pi]ar| xou Iavouapiou xou 1877, TT£pi£ypai|/£ xic; avGpaKocpopEc; 
TtEpio)[Ec; coc; «\iia XEpdaxia AXaax(a»: 

. . .Atio xa aKOXEivri Kai LU'axrjpia a-noLiovcoiiEva LiEpi] xouc; i]p9£ axov 
e^co koolio Liia xpoLiaxxiKi] asipd and laxopiEc; yia cpovouc;, £|mpi]aLiouc; 
Kai piaia EyKXi']Liaxa koGe e(8ouc;. <l>aiv6xav oxi ravEvac; aEpdaLiioc; dv- 
OpcoTioc; Sev rjxav aacpaXrjc; ekei, acpou xa GtiLiaxa ETiiXEyovxav Kaxd npo- 
xip]ar] ano xic; aEpdaLUEc; xd^Eic;. Ouxe koveic; LmopouaE va tiei av 0a 
rjxav TcpoypaLiLiEvoc; yia ofyoupi] Kai ^acpviKi] Kaxaaxpocprj, ano iispa as 
LiEpa. Movo ^iia ErrayyEXLiaxiKij mora ei^e aiyoupT] iioipa, oi EiriaxdxEc; 
Kai xa «acp£vxiKa» xcov avOpaKcopv^Eitov, rrou Liixopouaav va Eivai (3E[3ai- 
oi oxi oi LiEpEc; xouc; 8ev rjxav ttoXXec; axi]v riEpio^rj. Iiavxou Kai irdvxa 
Ss^ovxav ettiBeoi], EriEcpxav GlJLiaxa ^uXo8apLiou rj mipo|3oXouvxav, axic; 
8r]|^6aiEc; XECocpopouc; rj LiEaa axa (8ia xa anixia xouc;, as arroLiovcoLiEva 
Lispr] i] |.iEoa axo TcXrjGoc; xt]c; yEixovidc;. Auxoi oi KaxaSiraaiiEvoi «ette- 
cpxav» 8ia8o^iKa ano xa X^P la TC0V ekxeXeotcov. 

Ill 

Aev imdpxEi a|icpif3oX(a oxi i] fXExa^Eipiai] ttou 8E%ovxav oi Epyd- 
xec; otco xouc; i8iokxi']xec; xcov opc^Eicov SiKaioXoyouaE xa aia9T]|iaxa 
|ivi]aiKaKiac; Kai EK8iKr]ai]c;, xa onoia coGouaav auxocic; xouc; ipXav- 
8ouc; avBpaKcopuxocc; va xpi)ai|iOTioioiJv xoao 8paaxiKa |i£aa. 

Oi avOpaKcopu^oi TiXi]pcovovxav \ie pdai] xi]v kuPiki'] yidp8a, xo 
Kapo, xov xovo rj xi] ypafi|.iiKi] yidp8a xou Tipo'iovxoc;. Ta acpEvxiKd 
EKavav fiEydXEc; kXei|/iec; axo ^uyia^a Kai axo ^Expi^a. Oi i8iokxi']xec; 
8ev eSivov Ka|iia Trpoaoxi] axo Ge^o xi]c; aacpdXEiac; xcov avGpaKcopii- 
^cov. To KaxairXaKcofxa \ieoa axic; oxoec; r']xav ouvtjGec;, Kai EKaxovxd- 



18 



Oi MoXt Mayicovdigg 



8ec; dvrpEc; Gdf3ovTav ekei £covravo( koGe jpovo. Me kqBe Tpdno, oi 
EpyoSoTEc; EK|i£TaXX£iJovTav touc; EpydtEc;. 

Ytttip^civ ETTiai]c; koGe eiSouc; fiiKpoTCpopXrJLiaTa \i£.oa axa opu^Eia. 
Ymjp^av, yia TrapaSEiy^ia, «£Xacpp£c;» kcu «ctkXt]P£c;» SouXeiec;. Oi Ip- 
Xav8o( GECopouaav touc; EauTouc; touc; avcoTEpouc; auo touc; dXXouc; 
i;£vouc; mi QTratTOiJaav va naipvouv outoi tic; «£Xa<pp£c;» SouXeiec;. Av 
touc; to apvouVtav, 0X0 Kai Kanoioc; M6X1 9a SuaapEaTEiTO Kai t] 8d- 
aapEaKEia tou ei^e oav anoxEkea\ia to l;uXoKOTn]na tou acpEvriKou, 
av d%i Ti] SoXocpovia toil Att' tt]v dXXi], av to acpEVTiKO TTpoaXd|i[3av£ 
Eva MdXi i'tti'ip^e TcdvTa to ev8e^6|^evo oi Suo touc; va Kovrpapi- 

QTOUV CTTO HETpT](.ia T1]C; TTOaOTT]Tac; 1] OX1XV £KTIH1]CTI] TT|C; TtOlOTT]Ta(; 

tou opuyjiEVou dvGpara. Kai i] Siacpcovi'a \i Eva MdXi rJTav o^eSov 
f3£Paio^ GdvaToc;. Evu yia m-noio 5idcrn]|.ia TroXXd acpEvrtKa apvou- 
vTav va TrpoaXdf3ow ipXavSouc; EpyaTEc; ev yEVEi, teXiko 0X01 touc; e(- 
yav |3iaio GdvaTO. Av Evac; £moxaxt](; E|iipavi£oTav Tipoc; mTOcrr>]pil;i] 
tou acpEVTiKou Evdvria qto MdXi, yivoTav Kai auToc; aTanTiapiafXEvoc; 
Kai fioipai'a ^uXoKOTrouvrav r\ ekteXouvtov. 

AXXd Ta acpEvriKa 8ev rJTav oi ^idvoi E^Gpoi tcov MdXic;. Oi teXeu- 
Taioi ETpEtpav ettiot|c; oXoa^Epi] TT£pi(pp6vi]ai] Tipoc; tic; octGevikec;, 
avaTTOT£XEa|.iaTiKEc: |.i£0d8ouc; tcov KXaaiKcov EpyaTiKuv evcoctecov. Aid- 
cpopoi spyaTiKoi tjyetec; Kai aoaiaXicrrEc; prJTopEc; 8oXocpovi]GT]Kav ott)v 
nsvauXpdvia ekeivi] ti]v TiEpioSo — iriGavoTaTa and touc; MdXic;. 

KaTioioi and touc; KupioTEpouc; MdXic; rJTav £tt(ot]c: iiyetec; oe p] 
I^ottikec; opyavwaEic; avGpaKcopii^cov. Mia o|^d8a air' auTouc;, yia 
Trapd8Eiy|ia, rjX£y)(£ tt) OiXavGpcoTTiKrj 'Evcoai] AvGpaKcopu^cov Kai 
EpyaTUv Kai i]Tav utteuGuvi] yia ti]v axvyy\ «^iaKpd airEpyiaw yia m|/T|- 
XoTEpow; paGoiic; xov 1874-1875, KaTa tt] 8idpK£ia tijc; OTioiac;, Kai 
acpou to pdaava £i^av yivEi itoXi3 evtovo yia Tore; aitEpyouc;, oi Md- 
Xic; touc; £|^Tid8ioav va ETtioTp£i|;oiiv oti] SouXEid airEiXcovTac; tovic; [ie 
8oXocpov(a. 

IV 

Oi 8oXocpovi£c; SiairpaTTOvrav \ie \\ivjpo, anocpaaiaTiKO, oyeSov 
aiipdacoTTO Tpdno. 

O MdXl TTOC 1]0eXe KOTTOIO acpEVTlKO VEKpd OVECpEpE TT]V ETTlGr- 

|,iia tou ott|v apLid8ia tottiki] EniTpoTn']. Av i] TEXEi'Taia ekove Sektt'] 
tt|v aiTT]ai] tou Giy^Evou MdXi, ttou cpuaioXoyiKa etoi yivoTav, 8uo 



19 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



i] TTEptaaoxEpoi MdXw;, oyy euBecoc; Ev8ia(p£p6|.i£voi yia xtjv i'Tr69Eai] 
ETTiXeyovrav auo [iia dXXi] TtEpio^f), ar<vrj9coc; arro dXXi] KO|.u]x£ia, yia 
va ravow xt] «8ouXeid», Exai woxe ovxac; dyvcoaxoi va |xi] Lirropouv va 
avayvcopiaxow. Av Evac, M6X1 axov ottoio avaTi'9£xo Lua SoXotpovi'a 
apvowxav va xi] (pspEi a£ Trepan, m6avd 8oXo(povouvxav auxoc; o 
iSioi;. 

Oi ETTtxpoTie^ rraparrovcov awavxiowxav oxa xiioa 5coiidxia xcov 
aaXoriv ttou avrjrav a£ li£At| xt]c; opydvwar|5 rai, |^£xd xtjv ettitvi^tj 
oXoKXrjpcoai] \iiai; EVEpyEiac;, yiopxa^av xr|v «Ka9aprj 8or<X£id» iia£i 
[ie xovi; 8oXo(povout; lie xov TrapaSoaiaKO ipXavSiKO xporro. Oi tie- 
piaaoxEpoi MoXi^ i']Tav afya tekvq xti^ rrvEixiaxiKT]^ xoi'c; \n\r£pa<;, 
xi]c; ^i^pcxc; MayKoraip: ^EipoSuvaixoi, Suva^iiKoi, awxpocpiKoi, ttoxec;, 
o^i59u[i,oi, Kaiiyat^i'lSE^ aXXd ma-rot aij^uyoi kqi KaXoi uaxEpaSEi;. 
Zouaav Evav «ayvo oiKoyEVEiaKO (3io». Oi TrEpiaaoxEpoi rjxav [3a9id 
9pi]aKEr6Li£voi' 01 auvavxrjaEi^ ottov) a)(£Sid£ovxav 01 SoXocpoviEc; 
ar'^vd ^EKivouaav lie TtpoaEi'^E^. nrjyaivav xokxiko yia eS;olioX6- 
yr|OT|. Oi 5oXo(povi£c; oxa rrXaiaia xt]^ opydvcoarjc; 5ev 9£copoirvxav 
aLiapxiE^ aXXd rrEpiaxaxira lieoxi oxov «x[6Xelio», kqi 8ev xic; e^olio- 
Xoyouvxav. H Ka9oXiKrj EKKXi]aia, f3£pnia, ei^e £iriar]Lia KaxaSiKa- 
oei xr]v opydvasoT] kqi xi^ xpoiioKpaxiKEc; xr]<; rrpaKxiKE^. 

O T^EILIC; <J>OpvX PoOUVX^ OE Llia £CpT]fXEpi'Sa XOV 1909 £irl)[£l'pr]a£ 

va E^iiyrjaEi xi]v i|/u^oXoy(a xcov M6X1 MayKoi'dip^ coc; e^i]c;: 

E^aixiag tt|c; xupawia^ oxr]v naxpiSa o ipXav86<;, cpxdvovxac; axr|v 
AiiEpiKrj, xauxiaE xr]v eXEvGepfa lie xo SiraicoLia. Kai rjxav xoao Evxovr] 
r] awrjGEia xov va BecopEi xt]v Ku(3Epvi]ai] £^9po [e^atxiac; xcov Ecpxd ai- 
covcov Karcrjg 8ioiKT|ar|c; tt|<; IpXavSiac; arro xi]v AyyXia] coaxs, oxav EyivE 
o Kupiap^ot; xi]<; tt6Xi]<; \ie xt]v otixiki] xov, axika X£i]Xaxoua£ xov xtaXio 
xod avxmaXo. Me ai'xi] xi]v TrapaSooiaKi] £^Bp6xi]xd xov upoi; xt]v kv- 
|3Epvi]ai], xov t']xav eukoXo va yivEi M6X1 MayKOudip, xt] axiyLii] Ttou o 
dyyXoc;, o okoxoe^oi; Kai o ouaXoc; |i£xavdaxt]<; axroaxpEtpovxav lie xpotio 
Liia xsxoia opydvcoai]. 

V 



Kaxd xt] Sekqexio now ^EKtviiaE xo 1865, 01 SoXocpoviE^ airo xouc; 
MoXt MayKoudip^ i]xav ai'^yE^, lie XiyEt; auXXi]i|;£ic;, XiyoxEpE^ Slkec; 
koi KaLiia Kaxa8iKi] yia cpovo npcoxou |3a9Lioi). Oi 8oXocpovot rjxav 



20 



Oi M6X1 Mayicovdigg 



xidvxa Revert axr\v xothki'] Koivcovia, auvijGcoc; veoi dvxpsc; yprjyopoi 
axa uoSia ttou efyav rj8i] 8iacpuy£i irpiv kcxttoioc; apyiosi va xouc; ra- 
xa8ic6K£i. Av raxroioc; mavdxav, udvxa uxrVjp^E \ua Sco8£KaSa MoXic; 
Exot|ioi va opKiaxouv axov Kupio Kai xi]v napBsvo oil o Kaxr]yopoi> 
^evoc; rjxav \ia£,i xovc; koGe Xextxo to [3pd§u xov cpovou. Tauxo^pova, 
raGopic/xv oi 18101 xa aco^iaxa xcov EvopKcov Kai ExiEXEyav xouc; 8ira- 
qxec; noi' 6a SiKa^av xouc; auXXi]cpG£vx£c;. 

Xpi]ai|.ioTi:oic6vxac; xic; i'Siec; SpaaxiKEc; xokxikec; oi i]y£x£c; xcov Mo- 
Xic; xeXiko Eia£|3aAav axo ttoXixiko oki]viko Kai naipvovxac; oi 18101 
^apaKxi]piaxiKa «acp£vxiKc6v» Siopi^av 8t]Lidp)(ca<c; rat SiKacnxc; ttou 
rjxav lieXt] xou xdyLiaxoc;. Exic; ap^Ec; xi]c; 8£Ka£xi'ac; xou 1870 arrEKxi]- 
oav UTCoXoyiaiLiT] tioXixiktj wyy axijv riEvai'Xpdvia, iSicoc; axixv Ko- 
|^r]X£ia EkoiXkiX, 6xroi> TiEvxaKoaioi VJ £l;aKdaioi MoXic; SioiKouaav 
koivoxijxec; SekoScov ^iXidScov koxoikcov. 

H 8pdcn] xcov M6X1 MayKoraipc; EcpxaaE axo anoKopucpcond xtjc; 
xo 1873-74. Ta acpEvxiKa xcov opu^Eicov Kai dXXa dxoLia Ttou 8uaa- 
pEaxouaav xouc; MoXic; ErrEcpxav vEKpd koGe f38o|.id8a. TpEva iron 
|.i£XEcpEpav dvGpara EKxpo^id^ovxav. Orrcoa6rjrrox£, olicoc;, tcoXXec; 
SoXocpovtEc; Kai [SiaiEc; xipd^Eic; ttou atxo869i)Kav axouc; MoXic; rrpay- 
LiaxoiioniGTiKav and dXXa dxo|ia. 

Ym]p5(av xoxe apKEXEc; ^iXidSsc; «axo£c;» xcov MoXic; oxixv DevotX- 
pdvia lie Eva KEvxpiKO ekxeXeoxiko acoLia. H opydvcoai] i]iav exoilu] 
va f3dX£i ttoSi Kai axi] AirriKi] Bipx^ivia dxav, lie Tipcoxo|3oiiXia evoc; 
^Eipiaxi] [it]j_avav opu^efou xov oxioiou xa acpEvxiKa SoXocpovouvxav 
lie LiEydXi] ox^voxijxa, xo opyavcoLiEvo XLiijLia xtjc; Koivcoviac; xtjc; EIev- 
ai'X|3dvia Tiou 8ev eXey^oxov and xovc; MoXic; oveXoPe litoxiki] Spd- 
ar] Evdvxia axouc; xpoLioKpdxEc;. Muoxikoi aoxuvoniKoi ipXav8iKi]c; 
Kaxaycoyi]c; Emaaav SouXEid axa opi'^Ei'a Kai acpou Eyivav lieXt] xou 
xdyLiaxoc;, Eyivav 01 «uv|;i]X6xEpoi MoXic; lieqo axouc; M6Xic;» r\ aXXiwc; 
8oXocpovoi «xr]c; TTpc6xi]c; ypa|i|.ii]c;» Kai coc; xexoioi rjxav oe Geot] va 
Evxoniaow Kai va axaLiTidpow xouc; (Trpay|.iaxiKouc;) i)y£x£c;. 

To 1875, fi£xd auo Kauoiouc; iSiaixEpa axiE^BEic; cpovoi'c;, Sidcpopoi 
T|yEXEc; Kai |.ieXi] xov xdy(.iaxoc; ai'vEXrjcpBijaav Kai 8iKaaxi]Kav. Oi |i.u- 
oxikoi aaxwoiiiKoi xi]c; Exaipsiac; ni'vKEpxov rjxav upaKxiKa 01 liovoi 
LidpxupEc; Evavxiov xouc;. ElapoXo xroi' xo av kotioioc; auo xouc; Kaxr]- 
yopoiJLiEvoiic; r']xav ei'Becoc; Evoyot; yia xouc; cpovouc; xiou Kaxr]yopoiJvxav 
Ei'vai E^aipExiKa a|icpi(3oXo, |^Eoa oxa En6|iEva Xiya ypovia 8eko MoXic; 
EKXEXEaxT]Kav Kai SEKaxEaoEpic; cpuXaKi'axi]Kav yia LiEydXEc; xr£pi68ouc;. 



21 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



Mexd cmo auxd, 01 M6X1 MayKoudipc; coc; xpo|iOKpaxiKrj opydvco- 
ai] ypijyopa cmoawreGrjKav. 

VI 

'Oao aoKapiaxtKi] Kt av cpaivExai ae ranoiov nov i^r\ae \iiav 
aacpaXrj £cofj, i] ELicpdviai] xi]c; opyavco|i£VT]c; xpoLioKpaxiac; axo aryKE- 
Kpi|ievo xoxro kqi xpovo rjxav axroXuxa cpwioXoyiKrj. Zxijv xrpay|iaxi- 
Koxi]xa Eivai xrEpispyo xtou 5ev rjxav okolio mo 8in8£So|^evi]. 

KdnoiEc; E^iiyrjaEic; yia xo cpaivoLiEvo xcov MoXic; — tt)v avanoxE- 
XEa|iaxiKOxi]xa xcov awi]6iaLi£vcov EpyaxiKWv awSiraxcov |iTipoaxd 
axic; cmdvBpcoTTEc; awBrJKEc; Epyaaiac;, xi]v £yKXi]LiaxiKij aSiacpopi'a 
xcov Epyo8oxcov yia xi]v aacpdXEia xcov av8paKcopu)(cov mi xr]v evxo- 
vi] IpXav6iKrj v|ii'^oauv9£ar] nov TrporjX6£ ano aicovEc; KaKO§ioiKi]ai]<; 
Kai aSiKiac; axi]v riaXid Xcopa— xic; Eja rjSt] avacpspEi. AvBparac; kqi 
xtdXi dvBparac;, 6X0 Kai uEpiaadxEpoc;, cwxo rjxav xo |idvo ttou ei^e 
ai]|iaaia. Ot aLiExpijXEc; veec; pj^avEc; oxa Epyaaxrjpia mi 01 v£ec; 
ax|ioLir]^av£c; axouc; ai§r|poSp6fioiic; ^pEid^ovxav Kivi]xrjpia SwaLii]. 
Kai 01 avflpcortoi iron E^yac/iv xov dvBpara lioXic; kqi liexo f3iac; Ei^av 
di,ia. MExavdaxEc; nEivaafiEvoi yia SouXeiq, yia OTioiaSrJTTOXE 8oi> 
Xeiq, Ep^ovxav axic; HEIA Kaxd ^iXioSec; xt]v £(38o|idSa. 'Exai, xo av 
|iia 8co8EKa8a avBpaKcopu^oi eyavav xr| £corj xouc; cte [iia raxaaxpocprj 
rjxav £rjxT]Lia rjaaovoc; aijLiaaiac; yia xov EpyoSoxi). Kai 8ev i']xav Sia- 
xeBeilievoc; va kovei koxi yia va E|iTco8(aEi xa axi'^i'ifraxa axo lieXXov 
— ekxoc; psf3aia ki av <po(36xav xovc; MoXic;. Zkoxcovovxoc; iSiokxijxec; 
opi'^Eicov Kai acpEvxira \ie xi] vcou^iva, l;i'XoKOTic6vxac; £Kaxovxd8£c; 
dXXoi'c;, 01 MoXic; avaLicpi'PoXa KaXi'x£p£i|/av xic; auvBrJKEc; Epyaaiac; 
6yi liovo yia xoi'c; CSiouc; aXXd yia oXoi'c; xouc; EpydxEc; axic; avBpa- 
KocpopEc; Tcspio^Ec; xr]c; n£vauX|Mvia Kai Eacoaav xi] c/orj tcoXXcov an 
auxouc;. Aev undp^Ei a|icpif3oXia, Trdvxcoc;, oxi ttoXXec; SoXocpovfec; xcov 
MoXic; Eyivav \ie euxeXt], TipoaconiKd Kivi]xpa. 

Me xi]v Ei'Kaipia xi]c; 13i]c; exiexei'oi' xcov ekxeXeoecov xcov M6X1 
MayKoudipc; auo xr|v rioXixEi'a xr]C| riEvauXpdvia, o Tioux^iv Nxe- 
lixxc;, axo auoyEio, xoxe, xi]c; KapiEpac; tov coc; pi^oanaaxiKoc; i]yExi]c; 
axr]v ALiEpiKi], Eypai[;£ axi]v 'EKKXi]ai] yia xo Ai'kio: 

'OXoi 8iaKi]pu^av xi]v aBcooxi]Td xovc; koi 6X01 TrsBavav yewaia. Ka- 
vsic; todc; 8ev etteSei^e to Tiapa|iiKp6 i^voc; aSuvafiiai; i] cpo|3oi'. Kavsi'c; 



11 



Oi M6X1 MayKovAipq 



xouc; 8ev 8oAo(povi]9i]K£ axr\v tyvyf\. 'OXoi i']xav a[iaQEi<;, aKaxEpyaaxot 
Kai avEyyi^xoi, yEWT|fiEvoi tmo xt] cpxco^ia Kai ^xuttt]|ievoi axro xa av£- 
Xeijxq Kiyaxa xijc; |ioi'pac;. . . To va avxiaxaOovv axic; aSiKt'sc xcov ottoi'cov 
auxoi Kai oi auvxpocpoi tovc; i']xav 0i3|iaxa Kai xo va Tipoaxax£i|/oi'v xouc; 
Eauxout; xouc; ano xt]v Kxr]vco8ia xcov acp£vxiKc6v, ox5|icpcova [ie xi] 8ike<; 
xouc; araxEpyaaxEc; 9£copi']a£ic;, rjxav o [3aaiKdc; axo^og xr]<; opydvcocri]c; 
xcov M6X1 MayKoudipt;. Efvai aXi]9£ia oxi oi iie9o8oi xcov avSpcoucov au- 
xcov rjxav piaiEc;, aXXd 8ev xrpETiEi va S,eyyaei ravEic; oxi rjxav dvOpcoxroi 
okXt]po( Kai eix^v 5i']o£i |i£aa oxt]v auavOpcoxiid. 'Oxi i']xav ayvoi]|.i£va 
xiaiSid xr]c; cpxco^iac;, Ttpoiovxa 8uaxu^iaLi£vT]c; £&»']<;. . . Auxoi oi dvOpcoxioi 
xcov xi£8avav axo iKpico^ia coc; £yKAi]Liaxi£c;, i']xav oxi]v TtpaynaxiKdxi]xa 
EpyaxiKoi i]y£X£c;, oi npcoxoi iidpxupEc; xou xa^iKou aycova axic; Hvcolievec; 
rioXixEiEc;. 

Me xouc; MdXi MayKoraipc; e^oufxe rai xo i;£Kivi]|ia xor «£Kpia- 
o[iov» axT|v AjispiKi], EiSira tov EpyaxiKou EK|3iaa|j.oi) — yia va avacpE- 
poi'LiE Evav opo ttou dp^iaE va ^pi)aiLiOTroiEi'xai and xo 1920. Oi Md- 
Xic; ano xr|v n£var<X|3dvia txov Kp£|idaxr]Kav xr] Sekqetiq tou 1870 
BEwpoiJvxai arJLispa rjpcoEc; ano ttoXXouc; tjyexec; Kai ljeXt] EpyaxiKcov 
awSiraxcov, aKO\ia kqi ano Kanoia nou BECopouvxai «crovxi]pi]xiKd». 
H opydvcoai] xcov MdXi MayKoraipc; aTtoarvxE8i]KE xt] SEKaExia xou 
'70, aXXd xo TTVEijfia xi]c;, xo Sianopcpco^Evo aT[ d tic; andvGpcoTrEc; £p- 
yaaiaKEc; ouv6tJkec; axi] (3iojii]^avfn, HExaSdGrjKE otic; etio^evec; 8£Ka- 
exiec; Kai ano ekei axov eikooto aicova, Kai — ottcoc; 9a 8ou|iE |i£xpi to 
xeXoc; tou pipXiou— awE^i'^Ei Kai arjfispa xr]v TropEia tod |ie auocpaai- 
axiKoxEpo Pfj|xa ano ttote oXXote. 



25 



KEOAAAIO 3 

Ol MErAAES EHErEPSEIi: TOY 1877 



npiv to xeXoc; XT|C; SEKQETiac; TOU '60 1] «EnfypWI] Etto^t']», 
OnCOC; X1]V OnOKaXEOE o MapK Toueiv, El^E ^EKlVl'pEl KCU Ol 
HnA T]xav anoppocprjUEVEc; axi]v ekhexoXXetoi] tcov TEpd- 
axicov uXoi'xonapaywyiKcov nijycov xovc;, ayvowvxac; npaKxira ko9e 
dXXo ^i]Ti]fxa. To e9voc; i;£Kivi]a£ \iia axavpotpopia yia xi]v uAiktJ eut]- 
|i£pia. Eui]|i£pia \ie ko9e kooxoc;... 

Mia evtovi] £m9u|±ia yia nXo^'xia^o Kivi]xonou]a£ Kai £V£nv£ua£ 

XT]V AjiEpiKl] a%£86v oXoKXl]pWTlKd. AXXd OTQV QUTT) ECpapHOaXTjKE 

axnv upd^i], aTio5Ei^Ti]K£ anporaXunxoc; Eycoianoc; — andvBpwnoc;, 
ovxikoivuvikoc;. Oi mo Spi|i£ic; Kai oi;uS£pK£i'c; koivcovikoi Kai tto- 
Xixikoi napaxi]pi]T£c; xr|c; Eito^fjg EKavav Xoyo yia «tt]v nxwai] xtjc; 
8i]n6aia(; i]9iKi]c;»... «xi] aaxaviKrj SianXoKrj xov KEcpaXaiow... «xi] 
vEa aKXa(3id». 

«n6XE|^oi» Xdfx(3avnv X^pn H£xai;i) tcov KamxaXiaxwv nou ava- 
fijxouaav nXouxonapaywyiKEc; m]y£<;. To avxaycoviaxiKO nv£u|.ia 
yivoxav mo dypio \iEpa |±e xr\ ^Epa. E|Acpaviaxi]Kav veec;, a|i£iXiKX£c; 

ETTl^£ipi]HaTlKEC; ^eBoSoI: Kputpd ETTITOKIQ KQI EKUXUQEIC;, ScopoSo- 

kiec;, I'TToyEiEc; ivTpiyKEt;, tpovoi, eiSiktj vo|±o9£aia 9£ama|i£vi] alio 
TTOi'Xii|.iEvout; vo^ioBetec; yin to auficpEpov Kanoicov KamxaXiaxwv. 
Oi |i£yicrrdv£c; xov jpr\\iaxo(; Kai xt]c; [3io|ii]^avi'ac; ndXErav \ie vv- 
yia kqi |i£ Sovxia yia to noioi an' auxoui; 9a Enif3ic6aouv Kai 0a 
Kupiap^TJaouv. 'Oxav 8uo an' auxouc; 9£copouaav oxi \iia fXExa^u 
xouc; \iayj] Ba r'jxav a|ioipaia KaxaaxpocpiKi], svcovav xic; 8i<vd|i£i<; 
xouc; Kai noX£|iouaav Evav xpixo. Ta xpaax EKavav xi]v npcoxi] xouc; 
E^cpdviai]... 



25 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 
To Zuvxay|ia tcdv HnA Bscopouxav ovekSoto, to 1810 Kai to Avc&Ta- 

TO AlKaaTTJpiO. 'EvTl^OC; TToXlTlKOC; T]TQV aUTOC; TIOU £l%£ S;£TTOuXl]9£l 

oe [iia o|id8a au|xcp£p6vTWv. 

Oi KaniTaXiaTE^ cot; xafy] au^icpcovoijaav EiXiKpivd a£ Eva fxovo 
Trpdyjia — ott]v avriBEarj touc; otic; TipoaTudGEiE^ tou TipoXETapiaTou 
va KaXuT£p£i|;£i tt] Bern] tou. H acmrvo|iia rJTav to au|.if3oXo tijc; Suva- 
[ij)(; touc;. Mia (popd o T£. FkouXvt KOHTraor |.i£ Kuvia|i6: «Miropc6 va 
TrpoaXdpco ti] \iiar\ EpyaTiKrj Ta^i] yia va okotcgoei ti]v dXXi] |.uarj». 

Ett]v ayopd Epyaoiac; ko9e EpydTrjc; avTaywvitpTav tov dXXo. H 
to^iki] aXXi]XEyyiJT] rJTav aSuvaTi] Et;aiTiac; tt|c; uXucfjc; 5uva|ii]c; ottuv 
tiou Kupiap^ouaav, aXXd Kai dXXcov |.i£awv Empporjc; tiou SieGetov' 
oi ttXouotoi jiETEStoaav ox 6X0 tov TiXr|9uan6 ^EydXo \iepcx; twv 81- 
kcov touc; aia9i]|idTWv Kai iSecov oe o^eot| |^e touc; ettiSicoko^ievouc; 
oto^ouc; tt]c; a|.i£piKdviKi]c; Koivcoviac;. Zttjv ouaia, o ttXouotoc; Kai o 
cpTCO^oc; EfxcpopouvTav ano ttjc; iSiec; iSeec; Kai Kivi]TOiroiouvTav an 
touc; iSiouc; Tpo^aprKouc; ttoBouc;. 

II 

Kd-noioi EpyaTiKoi i]y£T£c; Kai |i£Tappu6fxicrr£c; £i|/a^vav \iia cpop- 
|iouXa |^£ tt)v OTioia i] Epyaofa 9a unopouaE va aTi£XEu9£pco9Ei cmo 
tt]v Kupiap^ia twv EpyoSoTcov, oi ouvGtjkec; o^coc; i'|tqv tooo ^ouSeic; 
Kai dXXa^av tooo yprjyopa Kai avaTrdvTE^a, tiou Kanoioc; |^6Xic; Kai 
|i£Ta |3iac; ei^e to ^povo va KaTavorjoTi \iia KaTaaTaai] otov ^acpviKa 
fXEaa a£ auTTJv £|j.cpavi£6Tav £va raivoupio Tip6pXi]|^a. To EpyaTiKO 
KlVTlJia rJTav, etto^ievcoc;, OTiaofiCoSlKO. 

H vikt] twv aucrrpaXcov EpyaTwv oro £rJTT]na tou o^Tawpou crra 
teXt] tt|<; SEKaETiac; tou '60 c69r|a£ Ta afXEpiraviKa auvSiraTa va i;£Ki- 
vrjaouv fxia EKcrrpaTEi'a yia to 1810 ^r]Tr]^a aTi]v AfiepiKT). AteXeicotec; 
avaXuaEic; aKoXoiiBipav' ettitpottec; opyavw9i]Kav crra |i£yaXuT£pa 
f3io|^i]^aviKa KEVTpa Kai oi ttoXitikoi otixv OudaiyKTOv i'jtov £TOi|ioi 
va napouaidaouv vo|ioa^£8ia yia tijv £yKa9i8puoT] tou o^Tawpou. 
KdnoiEc; aTiEpyiEc; c;EKivr]aav yia to ^i]Ti]^ia aXXd [i£ touc; a^ia9£ic;, 
avopydvwTouc; ^ETavdaTEc; tiou KOTE(p9avav ae ^lEydXouc; api9|.iouc; 
Kai tiou ?]Tav etoi^ioi va Se^touv Kd9s 9Em] Epyaafac; ^e o^eSov otioi- 
a5i]TioT£ a|ioif3T] Kai va SouXeuouv 12 rj 14 wp£c; tt]v T]|XEpa, oi Epyo- 
86tec; 8ev eij_ov SuoKoXfa va tic; SiaXuaouv. 



26 



Oi MsydXec; E^eyegoeig top 1877 



Ol EpydxE^ EKEIVT] XT]V TTEpioSo XlEXU^OV |XIQ [IOVO VIK1] — OT1] \l£- 

ydXr| axiEpyia xov 1872 axi] Nsa YopKT] axr|v onoia skafiav |.i£po<; 
TrepiTTOU 100.000 dv9pu>Tioi, yia xi]v £yKa9i8pwt] xov o^xawpou axic; 
oiKo8ofiE^ Kai axo E^nropio |.ii]^avwv. H ^dp] KpdxrjaE apK£xou^ \ir\- 
vec:, Kai xeAiko ot EpyoSoxEc; uxio^uprjaav. 

'Hxnv |iia ^EydAi] vikt], aXXd axiy|.iiaia. 'Ekove axoi^ EpydxE^ [ii- 
Kpo koXo (.laKponpoBEa^ia, atpou pfon oe X£yoi<(; p'jvEc; o xpo|i£p6(; 
xiaviKoi; xoi< 1873 adpcoaE xi] %(bpa Kai o Koa^ioi; xi]^ Epyaota^ fxxnjKE 
axi]v mo Kptaip] TiEpioSo xi](; laxopiac; xou. 



Ill 



H x^pn fJpiaKoxnv as |i£ydXi] oiKovo|iiKi] avE^Eia. Ei'^e xipoi]yi]- 
9ei jiia I'TTEpPoXiKd ypi]yopi] KaxaaKEiV] ai5i]po5p6ficov, axro|3a6pcov, 
ETTi^Eipi]a£cov Kai dXXcov oyeSiav xrov anaixouaav XEpdaxia Trood 
KEcpaXafou aXXd anfiSiSav d^Eaa Xiya KEpSi]. 'Evac; laxopiKO^ xi]<; 
etio^tjc; £ypai|/£: «H eikovo xi]<; ax[6XuxT]<; anaxaXiji; xi]v xtEpioSo 
auxrj, av i^nopouaE va qtioSoBei ETiapKui;, 9a (paivoxav axiiaxEiro] 
oe ottoiov 8ev xr]v e^i]oe». TeXikq, |i£ xi] ^pEOKOxrfa \iiat; ay]\iavxiKr\i; 
xpdnE^a^ i] oiKovo^tKi] |^i]^avT] PyrJKE ekxoc; XEixoupyiac;' o «xp£X6<; 
KaXxraafx6(;» xov AfXEpiKaviKov KaxrixaXiafxoiJ koxeXi]^ anoxo^a oe 
|i£ydXi] Kpiai]. 

H EpyaxiKi] xd^T], qn'aiKa, £xicofxiaxi]K£ 6X0 xo (3dpo<^ xor xiaviKou. 
Ai'x6|iaxa, EKaxovxdSEi; %iXid8£<; dvBpamoi EKSico^9r]Kav axio iv; 
SouXeiec; xoiv Oi |^ia9oi |j.Eiw8i]Kav. 'OXa auxd EcpEpav xiapaxExa- 
I^eve^ Kai axrEXmafXEVEi; anEpyiE^. 'OXec; axiExu^av. Kottoiec; otto xi^ 
axrEpyiEc; aKoXou9i]6iiKav axio Xok doux 1 , Kai Exai xEpdaxio^ apiB\i6<; 
av9pcoxrwv 8ev jmopouaE Kav va 8ouXei];£i, av£^dpxi]xa and xiq auv- 
9t'ike^ Epyaaiac;. Oi EpyaxiKof r]y£XE^ |^m']Kav a£ |xaup£^ Xioxec;. Avd- 
|^£aa axo 1873 Kai xo 1874, 01 xrpay|iaxiKoi |iia9oi ExiEaav axo \1106. 
Oi £pyaxiK£<; opyavcoaEi^ £Tiai[;av va uudp^ouv' 5ev UTTi]p^av i]y£X£(; 
va xic; Ka9o5T]yT]aouv Kai EpydxEt; 8iax£9£i|.i£voi va TiXT]pc6aow avv- 



1. O 6po<; TipoEp^EXai axco xic; ayyXiK£<; Ae^ek; Xok (kAeiScovco) liovr (e^co). 
IlpoKEixai yia Eva sffioc; avranEpyiac; Kaxa xi]v oxcoia o Epyo86xi]c; "kXeiSco- 
vei e^co" ano xi]v £Tii)[EipT]aT] xoi'c; £pya^6(iEvou(;, aTTOKXEiovxdc; xov<; axro xt]v 
Epyaai'a, (i£ okotto va aaKrjasi niEor] Kai va xou<; E^avayKaosi oe I'xrava^co- 
pi]OT] etti xcov 8i£K8iKr]a£c6v xouc;. 



11 



A mauling: H Iarogia Ttjg Trf^najg Bing crrtjv Afisoinr/ 



8po|i£<;. Ett) Nect YopKi] xa |ieXi] tcov awSiKcrrcov, auvoXira, cmo tic; 
45.000 ETTsaav otic; 5.000. 

Ee yna \mtjx>f\ awdvTT]ar] axi\v 'Evcoai] BapeXoTroicov, ait] N. 
YopKi) to AeKE^Ppi] tod 1873, wrVjp^E luq ek6eot| quo TrXciKaT uou 
8ii]Ye(to luct Tpo^ia^TtKi] toropia: 

10.000 AETErOI ANTPEE KAI TYNAIKEE ETOYE APOMOYE 
THE nOAHE MAE 

7.500 ETOIBAZONTAI ETA TEMATA OETEOOYAAKIA 
KAOE BAOMAAA 

20.250 ANEPrOI AnO 1 1 EYNAIKATA' MONO 5.950 EPrA- 
ZOMENOI 

182.000 EIAIKEYMENOI EPrATEE ANEPrOI ETHN nOAI- 
TEIA THE N. YOPKHE 

110.000 ANEPrOI OAQN TON TAHEQN ETHN nOAH THE 
N. YOPKHE 

AXXd icai erne; qXXec; ^EydXEc; ttoXeic; oi Epya£6fX£voi ^ivnrjOiiKav 
E^iaou aKXr]pd. Ekeivo to ^Ei^cova yiXiaSet; Xi|^OKTOvT]aav rj ei^ov 
eXXeiv|;ei(; poD^ia[ioi5 kqi cpapLiaKEimKrjc; TT£p(9aXi|/i]c;. 

EuyKEVTpuoEi^ avEpycov \a\ifiavav X^P a a ^d ° l £wirv£i8i]T£c; 
koivottjtec; 9opi'p > ouvTav, cpopoufiEVEc; oti evcic; HEydXoc; o^Xoc; and 
av9pwTroi'^ ttov \iEJpi ekeivi] tt] aTtyfii] virecpepav Tia9i]TiK:d, Kd-noia 
aTiyLirj 9n ^iTropouaE, av yivOTav avfiTrayi']^, vn 9ect£1 aE KivSwo 
£«£<; kcu TrepiowiEc;. To TEvdpi] xov 1874, yia TrapdSEiyfxa, oi i]y£- 

TEC; TC0V prVTnjfiEVCOV OTTO TT] CpTW^ElQ OTT] N. Y6pKl] TTrjpav dSEld 

cmo Ti]v aaTUvojiia va kqvow TiopEia, aXXd Kcrrd ti] SidpKEid ttjc, 
1] d§Eia avaKXi']9i]K£. 'Htciv aSuvcvto yia toiic, i]y£T£c, vn £vi]Li£pc6- 
aow to SiEaTiapnEvo aired aTpaTO tcov cpTCO^uv yia tic, aXXayLiE- 
vec; SiaTayEc;. 'Otqv o o^Xoc; — dvTpEi;, ywaiKEC, Kai TiaiSid— EtpTaor 
oto ar|HEio ttod ap^im ei^e Ka9opicrr£i, E|^(pnviaTi]K£ t] acrr.uvop.ia. 
Evjpcpcova \az luq avacpopd ti]c; etto^i')c; «dv6pcoTioi ^e^uvovtqv aTto 
tic; EiadSovc; Lisaa otouc; Spdpouc;, qkoXoi^oulievoi a-nd Ecpm-novc; 
acrruvopiKouc; new ETpE^av |i£ ti] fiEyicm] Ta%iJTi]Ta, ^TUTicovTac; 
toiic; X co pi ( J vn ttpokXt)9ouv. Oi KpauyEc; tcov yuvaiKcov kqi tcov Ttai- 



28 



Oi MsydXec; E^eyegoeig top 1877 



8icov 8ovouaav xi]v ax|.t6a(paipa Kai to ai\ia uoXXcov ef3ai|/E Tore; 
8popouc;». 

Mia f38o|.id8a |i£Ta to yEyovoc;, t] Ecpr]|.iEpi8n O Koofioq e^eScocte \iia 
ETTi6Eupi]ai] tuv yEviKcov oot8i|kqv, ttoti eSei^ve oti 3(iXid8£c; «£ouaav 
[ie 14 £a<; 70 qevtc; tt] f38o|^d8a»' Kai oti £KaTovTa8£c; Lpvoav nno xa 
aKoi'TTi'Sia ttjc; ttoXtjc; -«ott]v KvpioXe^ia oSoKa9apiaT£c;». 

IV 

Tux TEaaEpa ^povia i] opyi] ouoowpEudxav' Kai ^ncpviKa to kq- 
Xoraipi tou 1877 ^EaTiaaE r] ciTTEpyia otoi'^ Zi8r]po8p6|.iow; MudX- 
Ti^iop &: O^dio -XiyoTEpo otto Eva [ir\va acpoTov oi ijyetec; tcov MoXi 
MayKoraipc; aTray^ovioriiKav. 

Oi ETaipfec; ai8r]po8p6|^(ov ottcoc; kqi oXXec; ETaipiEc; |.i£aa oto dy- 
yps xov TraviKou, r\ ^pi]ai|^onoiwvTac; tov TraviKO oav SiraioXoyia, 
I^Eicovav touc; ^icfBoijc; Kai ovTac; avoi^Ta E^BpiKEc; Trpoc; xa awSiKa- 
xa, cmeXvav ai'Touc; ttou aun^ETEi^av oe ettitpottec; 8ia|iapTupiac;. 

Ztk; ap^Ec; IouXi], r] Mtt.& O. avaKoivcoaE dXXi] [iia fXEi'coai] koto 
10% otouc; ^loflouc; tcov 9£ppaaT(6v Kai tmv ^n^avoSijycov, r\ OTioia 
8a ^ekivouoe va EtpapfxooTEi a-no tic; 16 xov p']va. Ta v&i EcpEpav 
TiaviKO otocc; imaXXTjXouc;, oi ottoioi |i6Xic; ttou KaTacpspvav va t,r\- 
aouv tic; oiKoyEVEiEc; touc; |i£ ai'Ta ttou ETraipvav. AtteXttiotievoi, 
EKavav auyKEVTpcoaEic; 8ia|xapTvpiac; Kai EaTEiXav ettitpottec; qto Si- 
euBuvtt] tt]c; ypa|^|ii]^. Autoc; apvi]9i]K£ va touc; awavTrjaEi. 'Ottcoc; 
Kai oi dXXoi a^iu|.iaTOij^oi tt|c; £TTi3(£ipr]OT|c; tticttei'e oti oi Suctko- 
Xec; aw6i']KEC 9a E|.iTT68i£av touc; EpyaTEc; va aTTEpyijaow. Kai av 
to EKavav tooo to ^EipoTEpo yia airrouc;' UTrfjp^av opSsc; avEpycov 
8mXa a£ oXec; tic; aiSr]po8po|^iKEc; ypa^Ec; Ti]c; Mtt.& O., otto tic; 
ottoiec; |.iTTopoijaav va ettiXe^ouv dXXouc;. 

To Trpuf ti]c; 16i]c; IovXiou, to TpEva £TTav8pt69r]Kav coc; auvrjBcoc;. 
Efyav yiv£i KauoiEc; au^r]TT]CTEic; yia anEpyia, aXXd ottcoc; 6Xa eSei- 
yyav, Ka|iid Spdai] 8ev ei^e anoipaaiaTEi. To aTroyEiipa, |iia o|.id8a 
9fip|.iaoTC&v Kai |.ii]5(avo8i]YCOv aTa|.idTi]OE ti] SouXEid oti] SiaaTaij- 
pcoaT] tou MspiXavT. 'Epoia^E va Eivai |^ia tottikt] KivT]TOTroiT]ai]. H 
ETaipEia 8e SuaKoX£UTT]K£ va touc; avTiKaTaaTi]OEi. ElavTou, TTEiva- 
a^iEvoi dvBpuTTOi ^i]Tidv£uav SouXEid... 

AXXd oao to aTioyEpa npo^copoiioE, oi al;ico|.iaToi5)[oi tt]c; ETaipEi- 
ac; Sijovxay avacpopEc; yia SuokoXiec; oe 6Xo to |ti)koc; ti]c; ypa|ipi]c;. 



29 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



TiTioxa avyKEKpifXEvo ap^ira' anXd «Tip6p 1 X'i]|.ia». . . «Sixjap£aK£ia». . . 
«avv'Tuoxa^ia». Kai to Ttpo|3Xi]|^a E|ioia^e va Ei'vai EvxovoxEpo axo 
MdpTivafiTrepyK xr|^ Ai'xikijc; Bipx^ivia, ottou, Tipoi; to Ppd8u, 01 
dvrpe^ aKiviiTOTTOti]aav 6Xa xa xpEva rai axa|^dxr]aav xr\ SouAeid. 

Exa imoXoma |-i£pT| r] Kaxdaxaar] EyivE e^taou oi;£ia Kai 8pa\ux- 
TiKfj. 'Etpxaaav vea oxi 01 paprapijSEc; xcov KavaXicov aTa^aTouaav 
Kai auxoi va SouXeuouv. Me^pi xa |.i£advup:a 6X0 to auaxr]|xa xr|<; 
Mtt. & O. TrapsXiiae. 

'Hxav sva ai'96p|iT]TO Kivi]|ia, xipaKxira avopydvcoxo. 

Nxpomaa|i£VT] i] 5iotKT]ar] xi]c; ExaipEiac; £rjxi]a£ quo tov Kuf3£p- 
vt'itt] tt]c; A. Bipx^ivia evotiXt] npoaxaaia xijc; TiEpioraiac; xijc;. O kv- 
f3EpvT]xi]^ andvxT]a£ a^Eacoc; Kai xo Ttpcoi xtjc; 17i)? IouXiou 01 Tipw- 
xoi mipof3oXia|^oi avxaXXd^xi]Kav axo MdpxivanTiEpyK |.i£xa^i5 xcov 
aT[£pycov Kai xi]^ £6vocpi'XaKi]<;. 'Evac; 9£p|^aaxi]^ m'popoXi]9r|K£. H 
Kaxdaxaai] £yiv£ x£xa|.i£vi]. O^dSsc; axio KaxoiKouc; xr|c; tioXt]^ koi 
otto aypoxEc; xijc; yupu TiEpiop']^ £v(68i]Kav |xe xouc; axiEpyou^ Kai xe- 
XiKa 8ik> x|^i]naxa xr]^ EBvocpuXaKi]^ xou Mdpxiva|iTT£pyK, (3a6nocpo- 
poi Kai ottXixec;, TTTJyav Kai auxoi |xe xo yiipot; xoix;. 

'Oxav E(ia9£ xa v£a o Ki'P£pvi]xi]c; xtjc; TloXixEiac; auocpdaiaE va 
o8i]yT]a£i o i'8io<; Eva axpaxiwxiKO auoaxiaafia axo Mapxivoi-nxEpyK, 
aXXd oxo (i£xa^i5 i] anEpyia E^aTiXwBijKE Kai oxo rouiXivyK, xi]v npco- 
xEiiouaa. @opuf3T](.i£voc;, xr|X£(pc6vT]a£ axov EIpoESpo Xei^ oxtjv Oudai- 
yKxov £r|xc6vxac; va etie^Pow 0|ioaxrov8iaK£<; axpaxicoxiKEc; 8wd|i£i(;. 

O Tipo£8poc: £8paa£ a|i£aco^. Tokxike^ 5wd|i£ic; fiXa|3av 8iaxay£<; 
Kai [leoa cte xpsi^ fiEpE^ 01 avu|.iaXi£5 axi] A. Bipx^ivia xr£piopi'axi)Kav 
ai]|^avxiKa. Ta xp£va dp^iaav va Kivoiivxai l;avd. 

Exo i^Exa^u, i] axa^ia £l;aTrXw6r|K£ ypi'iyopa Kai ox dXXa or)(i£ia 
onot) XEixoupyouaE r] Mtt. & O. Oi O^ioaxrovSiaKE^ 8wd|.iEic; Kai r] 
E0vo(pi'XaKT] £|.i<paviaxi]Kav a|i£aco(; oxrou xow; koXeoe i] ExaipEia' oe 
8id<popa \iepy] i] dcpi^i] xou^ mipo86xT]OE TroXE^iKd EiiEiaoSia. 

Ext] BaXxi^opi], yia xrapd8Eiy|.ia, axpaxicoxE^ onXia^iEvoi |.iEXpi Ta 
Sovxia EKavav TrapEXaai] oe SijioipiEt; ^iecto axi]v xroXi]. Ee Kaxroia 
ai]|i£ia 5iaaxai'pw9r]Kav |i£ 6^X01^ npoXExapiuv — aTTEpyoi^, ai'^Tia- 
paaxdxEc;, aXi]x£^ Kai dvEpyou^. Kdxroioc; aTii]iJ8i'v£ |^ia xipoaf3oXi] 
axoi^ axpaxicoxE^. KdxroiEt; TiExpE^ xrE^o8po|.iiou Kai xou[3Xa TiExd- 
5(xi]Kav, xpai'^axi'^ovxac; Evav EBvocpuXaKa. A|^£aco^, X W P^ Siaxayi] 
auo xo 8ioiKi]xi] xou^, Kaxroioi axpaxiuxsc; xri'pop6Xi]aav xo nXi'iBoc; 
aKoxwvovxa^ Kai xpai'|iaxi£ovxac; opia|i£voi^. To xponoKpaxT]|x^vo 



30 



Oi MsydXec; E^eyegoeig top 1877 



xiXi]9oc; Ttpo^ axiyLirjv uiro^c6pr]ae ]mpoaxd oxa oxiXa xcov axpaxico- 
xwv' liexo olicoc;, aKOfxa TTEpiaaoTEpe^ iiETpe^ Kai xoiif3Xa Ti£xd)[xi]Kav 
Kai oi axpaxiwxE^ mipo(36Xr]aav i;avd acprjvovxac; axo oSoaTpu^ia tte- 
piaaoxEpoi^ vEKpoix; mi xpauLiaxiEc; E^EVEpLiEvouc;. 

Tia xp£i^ fiEpE^ t] E^EyEpai] aw£)[taTi]K£ axi] BaXxiLiopi] . Me xouc; 
axiEpyouc;, xiou xipaKxira 8ev efyav tjyexec;, Evc69i]Kav }(iXidS£c; Epyd- 
xe^ Kai dvEpyoi |At|)(ccvxkoi Ka9c6<; Kai oX6KXi]pi] t] £yKXT]LiaxiKT] xdl;i] 
xt]c; ti6Xt]^ xiou £i|/a^v£ pa Euraipia yia va xipo|3£i a£ X£i]Xaai£c;. 
'Eva^ LiEydXoc; apiOjioc; cm6 av9pcoxiou^ dXXcov ExiayyEXLidxcov, noi< 
xipoacpaxa Ei^av uxioaxEi lieicooeic; axouc; Lua9ouc; xovq, eiyav dap]- 
lit| 8id9£ai]. KaXcoaopiaav auxo nov 6£copouaav Liia xipoaxid9£ia ek 
|i£poi^ xcov Epyaxoov xcov aiSijpoSpoLicov va 5iop9c6aoi<v Eva koivo 
koko. BoT]9r]oav xoi'c; E^EyEpLiEvoi'^ Kai ai'v£|3aXav axi] Sid^wt] xou 
KivrJLiaxoc;, opyavuvovxa^ cpXoyEpEc; au£i]xi]a£i^. 

Exo Kd^TiEpXavx xoi< MEpiXavx r] £9vo<pi<XaKi] okoxcooe 10 £pyd- 
xec; Kai xpau^idxiaE SixiXdaiou^. 

V 

Msaa a£ LiEpiKEc; fXEpEt; ano xo ^EaxiaaLia axi] MxidXxiLiop & 
O^dio, i] auEpyiaKi] £xiiSi]]iia Li£xa869i]K£ axrjv ExaipEia riEvaiXpd- 
via ZEvxpaX. Kai e5co t] Spdat] r']xav ai<96pLii]xr]. Oi axiaixr]a£ic; xcov 
axiEpycov rjxav avdXoyEc; ]i£ aux£^ xcov Epyaxcov xi]^ Mit. & O. 

H ExaipEia, E^ovxa^ xo udvco ^spt Xoyco n]<; ysviKi]^ avEpyi'at;, ap- 
vi]9i]K£ va 8iaTrpayLiaxEu9£i lie xort; EpydxEt;. 

Exo nixaLnroupyK, xo oxioio EyivE xo ExiiKEvxpo xi]c; avaxapa^rjc; 
axi]v riEvai'X|3dvia, oi axiEpyof LiExscpEpav oXec; xi^ axLio|.ii]^av£<; 
axorc; axa9Lioi5c; Kai xirjyav axa axiixia touc;. AXXd KaQaq xa via xi]<; 
axiEpyia^ 5ia^i59i]Kav axi] noXi], oi SpoLioi yELiiaav lie o^Xoui; o^i 81- 
acpopExiKouc; axi' auxou^ xijc; BaXxiLiopi]^. H xotiiktj koivcovio e(3Xetxe 
lie auLnrd9£ia xr]v aixEpyia. Oi EBvocpuXaKEc;, xiou i']xav xiai8id xou 
riixaLixioupYK, ai'va8£X<pc69i]Kav lie xouc; EpydxE^, oxioxe i] 8ioi'Ki]ai] 
xi]c; ExaipEi'ai; koXeoe Eva auvxayLia E9vocpi'XaKi']^ axio xi] OiXoSeX- 
cpEia Kai apyoxEpa xk; OLioanov8iaK£i; axpaxicoxiKEc; 8uvd]i£i^. 

Oi dvEpyoi Kai 01 TiEivaaLiEvoi ap]Lidxiaav o^Xoi'c; ae Sidcpopouc; 
xolieic; xi]^ xi6Xt]<;. Oi axpaxicoxEc; xipoaird9T]aav va xow; 8iaXuaouv. 
Msaa a£ XiyE^ LiEpEc; udvco axio 20 EpydxEt; 8oXo<povi]9i]Kav axio 
acpaipE^ Kai xidvco ano xiEvrjvxa xpai'Liaxfaxi]Kav. 



31 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



Mia vu^xa, apKETE^ £Kaxovxd8£(; payovia ^Exacpopd^ xrpo'tovxuv 
drove; axa6|.iou^ xov nixaproupyK xr£piXouaxr|Kav \i£ nexpsXaio rat 
m'px[oXi]9i)Kav. H xrvpraytd ypijyopa H£xaS69i]K£ axa (.iaya£id rai 
xa Kxrjpia xcov axaB^iwv rat upiv xo ^imepcona £i%av KaxaaxpacpEi 
TtspioiiaiE^ auvoXiKi']^ n^fnc; HEyaXuxEpije; ™ v 5.000.000 SoXaptcov. 
Oi axtEpyoi, aacpaXu^, KaxiiyopTJ9i]Kav oxt s|3aXav xi] cpcoxid, aXXd 
epyaxiKoi Kat pt^ocmdaxEe; auyypacpEte; etti^evouv oxi xa Ttepioao- 
xspa payovia i]xav xraXid Kat aypy]oxa Kat oxi i) exaipeia TtXrjpeoaE 
Eimp^axE^ yta va Kaxaaxp£i|;ouv xov E^OTiXtapo cooxe va Eiaxipd^Et 
aTto^i]|iiWCTEtc; aitd xt]v EIoXixEia yta £r]Ht£^ Kaxd xi] SidpKEia xr|^ 
anEpyta^. 

Ot o^Xot, £^aYpiu|.iEvoi aTto xa 9avaxi](popa nupd nov Ept^E o 
axpaxoe;, xpiyrpvouaav axr] ttoXt] X£i]Xaxcovxa<; fiaya^id yia va |3pouv 
oxiXa Kat xpocpi^a. Tta Kanoio ^povtKO 5tdaxi]|.ia cpdvijKE oxt 01 e^e- 
YEp|.iEvoi, TiapoXo noi' 8ev Ei^av r]y£aia, 9a vtKouaav xeXiko xte; Ap- 
%£<;. 'Ottuc; Kat axr|v TrEpinxcooi] xi]^ BaXxi|i6pr|c;, 01 auEpyot atSr]- 
po8po|^iKOi Ttou £V£XiXdKi]aav axi]v E^EyEpai] rjxav Xiyot a£ ajiai] [IE 
xovt; xi£ivaa|i£vouc: Kat an£Xma|i£vou^ av9pcoxroi<(; ttou fiXa^av |i£poe; 
Kai Ttou 8ev Eiyav 6oi'Xei|/£i yta (AtJve^, av 65(1 yia ypovia. 

E^EyEpaEK; Eyivav Kat aXXox) axr]v riEvauXpdvia. Exo PtvxivyK, 
SsKaxpste; aKoxco6i]Kav Kai 20 xpai'|iaxiaxi]Kav |i£oa qe |ita |^6vo 
|i£pa. 

VI 

Exo EiKayo, OTion extiot]^ UTTrjp^E £KX£xa|.i£vii avEpyia Kat TtEtva, r| 
Kaxdaxaai] rjxav iStat'xspa x£xa|_iEvi]. Pi^oandaxEc; prjxopEe; E(3ya^av X6- 
youe; oxou^ Suoxii^ioxieVoi^ TipoXExdptoue; a^Exim [ie «xi]v Enavdaxa- 
ar|», xr]v ouoia rrapouaia^av avaTiocpEUKxi]. O AX|iTiEpx ndpaov(;, uou 
8ev ei^e ytvEt aKOfxa avap^tKoe;, pptaxoxav rjSi] oxt] ttoXi]. AidepopEe; 
axiEpyiE^ — 6Xe^ ax[EXxria(.t£VEc;— rjxav oe e^eXi^i] Kat Eva^ api9|^6^ |.i£yd- 
Xuv Exatpicov Et'^av kovei xtpoatpaxa Xok doux oxoi^ VTTaXXrjXouc; xouc;. 

Ti] vu^xa xi]^ 23r]c; Ioi'Xtou, i'ndXXT]Xoi xi]<; ExatpEiac; ai8i]po8p6- 
|.icov MixaiyKav EEvxpaX aT[£pyr]aav Evdvxta axr]v axtEtXi] dXXr]c; |^ia^ 
[iEiaay](; xov |.ua9oi5 xoi^, o onoiot; noXu npoaipaxa ei^e [leiaQei axro 
65 cte 55 SoXdpia xo |.n']va. ripiv xp£t^ |X£p£c; 01 dvxpE^ avxot 8ev eko- 
vav Ka(.tia aK£t|/r] yia auEpyia. Tcopa, axroxEXouaav Ttp69i'|.ici aKpoa- 
xi]pta yia E^xp£|.iiaxE(; ottcoi; o Eldpaov^. 



M 



Oi MsydXec; E^eyegoeig top 1877 



H omEpyia E^aTrAuBijKE kcu |.i£oa qe 24 wp£^ oXoKXijpo to Meoo- 
8utiko ai5aTi]fxa |.i£Ta<pop&)v, «to rap.dpi tou XiKdyo», TrapEXuaE. 

Ti] vup:a xiy; 24i]c, lovXiov t] aaTwo|ii'a SieXtoe xpfa ttXt]9t] Epya- 
twv uou eijov |^a^EUT£i yia va -rrdpow oSrjyiE^ cmo xov Eldpaovc; Kai 
dXXoi^ T]y£T£t; xov ZoaiaXiaTiKou EpyaTiKoii K6|inaTOc;. O Eldpaovc; 
e^eScooe EyKi'KXtou^ TTOi' TrpoETpETTav Tout; aTiEpyouc; Km Tout; av\ma- 
paaxdTEc; va aTiotpuyouv ti] XP 1 ! 01 ! P^ a ? V- E K d9£ kootoi;, Kai etoi va 
KEpSiaouv ti]v aXXiiXEyyui] tou koivou yta to Ktvr]|ia tou op:a<apou 
TtOU TOTE TipOwGoUTav QTtO TO KO|.l|ia tou. «Oi (.tEyaXEiwSEii; ap^Et; tk; 

Av8puTi6TT]Tac; kqi tt]c; Aaitcfjc; Kupiap^ia<;», eitte, «8ev ^pEid^ovTai 
f3ia yia va UTToaTT]pi)(9ouv». 

AXXd rJTav ttoXu apyd yia va TrpoTrayavSiaTEi i] |AT|-(3{a. Ti]v dXXi] 
|i£pa eXo^e y&pa (.ua evottXt] \tdyi] |i£Tai;u aaTUvo|iia(; Kai aTTEpyuv 
Kovrd otic; «KaTaaK£i'£(; Mas KopfiiK PtTtEp. Av0pcoTroi aKOTc69r]Kav 
Kai Tpai^aTi'aTi)Kav. O Aoivt Aouic; Kai o Xsvpi T^doTtv Z|ii9, qto 
f3if3X(o Tout; EiKdyo—Mui Itrtopia rt/c; <Prjfiri<; Tov, ypdtpouv: 

Eikooi ^iXidSEt; dv8p£t;, aaTuvoiua Kai ttoXitei;, rJTav evottXoi. Atto- 
oTidonaTa aTriTOvoiKOKupi]8cov Kou[3aXouaav nupoLia^iKd Kat TTEpmo- 
Xouoav otic; ysiTOviEt;. Ti]v (Sia crnyp], TTEvrjvTa 8iatpop£TiKo( o^Xoi av- 
yKpouovTav lie touc; £0votpi3XaK£t; Kai Tout; «E0eXovt£i;». Ta aaXouv r']Tav 
kXeioto. . . . EIoXiTEi; auyKEVTpcovav Trupoiia^iKa Kai dXoya iiTrpoaTa oto 
Ai]liotiko KsvTpo EkStjXgjoecov. . . Ztouc; aTaGiiout; Tpaivcov n]i; Autikijc; 
16i]i; 08ou, aTiioLii]^av£t; KaTaarpEtpovTav Kai ETiEtpTav oiio[3povTi£t; 
(mo atpai'pEt;. Mia LiEydXi] evottXi] Lid^m Xdii[5av£ X™P n OT, l yetpupa avd- 
\i£oa otic; Xscotpopout; XdXarEVT Kai ApTaEp. O Tpoiiot; ei^e KupiEuaEi 
Tout; ETTi^EipTiiiaTiEc;, oi ottoioi £i]Ti]aav 5000 £9votpuXaK£t; yia va KaTa- 
aTaXXouv «oi paKEvSi'TOi aXi]T£c; tt|c; Koiiiiouvat;» . . . Ta lieXi] tcov «avco- 
TEptov Ta^£tov» EyKaTEXEmav KaTa EiKoodSec; Ti]v ttoXt]. 

KaTOTiiv Eva toktiko awTay|.ia xov aTpaTou tqv HELA EtpTaaE 
oto EiKayo Kai av'TO T]Tav to teXo^ tou aycova. H aTTEpyi'a Eonnot. 
Ztic; 26 IouXi], r] NteiXi Niov^EYpcupe: 

Via oXoKXi]pa ^povia, oi ai8r]p68po|ioi airrfjc; ti]<; ^topai; XEiToupyou- 
aav avriGETa npoc; to EuvTayfia. . . XpEiovav 6 ,ti i']0EXav yia vavka Kai 
8aafioi5c;. KoupEXiaaav to KoyKpEao, ^pr]ai|^OTTOit6vTac; yia to okotto 
auTO £va X6|^Tii ttou e8ive ^t^Et; EKaTO^iupicov. . . Ot 8ieu9uvte(; toui; Xet]- 



}."> 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



Xaxouaav tic; aiSipoSpofUKEt; o8ouc; Kai KEpSoaKOTiouaav p.£ xk; p-Exo^Ec; 
xoug, yia xov TtpoacoTUKO TiXocmap.6 xoug. Exo xeXoc;, pr|v E^ovxac; va 
KEpSioouv xmoxa dXXo axr' xovc; pExo^ouc; xouc;, ETiESpapav Evdvxia axo 
koivo Kai axouc; UTiaXXi]Xoiic; xouc;. 

VII 

Oi pd^Ec; El;aTiXc69T]Kav pE^pi ti]v Akxt'] tou Eipi]viKoi5. Zxo Eav 
Opavxai'aKO oi EpydxEc; auy K P°i' crrl l 1<:av H- E aaxwopiKOuc; Kai E9eXo- 
vxec;. ZuvoXira axi] X^P n Tn 9upaxa r\xav EKaxovxdSec;' o aKpipY]c; 
api9p.dc; ttoxe 8ev imoAoyiaxiiKE. O api9pdc; xcov SuvdpEwv xi]c; xdl;i]c; 
tuovi eXqPe EVEpyd pEpoc; axr|v KaxaaxoXi] xcov E^EyEpaECOv nXi]aiaa£ 
xu; 20 ^iXidSEc; dvxpEc;. 'Ecoc; to xeXoc; xov IouXt], oi Et^EyEppEvoi Ei^av 
vikt]9e{. ApEacoc; p£xd, o awxT]pi]xiKdc; ximoc; rat oi TiaTrdSEc; ano 
xovq dpf3cov£c; tcov ekkXijoicdv dp^iaav va -npoxpETiow xtjv Opoa-nov- 
Siqki] Kv|3EpvT]ai] Kai xk; 8idcpop£c; EIoXixeiec; va avaSiopyavcoaow 
Kai va Ev8uva|icSoouv xic; evotuXec; 8wdp.£ic; xovq, c6ax£ axo pfiXXov 
va pnopouv va avxipExcoTri'aouv KaXuxspa XEXoia l;£aTidapaxa — piac; 
Kai Tciaco axio xic; E^EyEpaEic; SiEKpivav «xi]v anaiaia Trapowia tod 
XoaiaXiapou, o ottoioc;, TiEpiaadxEpEc; and pia cpopEc; ei^e kovei xi]v 
EvpcoTn] va xp£p£i, £t;aixiac; xr|c; EVEpyEiac; xov, xov SEa-noxiapou xou 
Kai rav Tpo^axJiKcov 9i]puo8ic6v XOU». 

Oi E^EyEpoEig rjxav ai'9dppi]xa Kivijpaxa ttou TtpoKXi'i6iiKav otto 
x?]v UEiva Kai Ti] SwTi'^ia —Kai avxd 9opuPr]a£ TiEpiaadxEpo xic; Ap- 
jic, Kai xa «aE|3aaxd oxoiyeia» xtjc; TiEpio^ijc;, an' dao av EupoKEi- 
xo yia TrpoaTrocpaaiapEva, a^ESiaapEva yEyovdxa. Av oi E^EyEpaEic; 
ziyav 8ei^ei KaTroia aijpdSia opydvcoarjc;, i] anoxia xouc; 6a rjxav 
pia KaXuxEpi] Eyyvniai] yia xi]v imoxayfj xcov raKopi^iKcov axo pEXXov. 
AXXd a' auxouc; xouc; avopydvcoxouc; 2;£aT|KcopoiJc; Sianiaxcovav Eva 
axoi^Eio au9oppi]xiapou ttoi< eSei^ve pia pa9id Kai SiaS£8op£vi] 8u- 
aapEaKEia avdp.£aa axoug KaxaniEap-Evoi^' Kai p.ia lo^upTJ 8id9Eai] 
xcov xeXeuxoicov v' avaxpEi|;oi)v xr]v UTrdp^ouaa koivcoviki] xd^i] . Ti 9a 
yivdxav av avttr\ i] SuaapEaKEia opyavcovdxav and Evav la^upd i]yExi] 
—yia TTapd8Eiyp.a and Evav Aavxwv r\ ano Evav Mttokouviv; 

Oi KaKopi^iKoi Ei^av TipoacpEpEi axov a^iEpiKaviKO KaTuxaXia^d 
xr|v TipcoxT] xovi fiEydXi] xpo^idpa. H fivi]p.£c; ano xt]v Elapiaivi] Ko|.i- 
l^ouva, e^i xpdvia vcopixEpa, i']xav aKO|j.a vcottec;. 

Tpo|.ioKpaxi]HEvoc; o KamxaXiap.dc; aTrocpdaiaE ncoc; ETipETiE va 
acpi't;Ei xa Xocpid Kai va Kpaxi']aEi UTroxaypEvi] xi]v EpyaxiKi] xd^i]. 



34 



Oi MsydXec; E^eyegoeig top 1877 



H avEyspaT] ^EydXcov KpcmKcov onXoaTaorcov otic; pio|.iii^aviK8c: tto- 
Xeic; l;£Ki'vi]a£ ekeivi] xi) ypovia, to 1877. To Y-noupyEi'o rioXELiou 

E^E8c0aE EVQ Ey^EipiSlO [IE toktikec; aVTlfiETCOTHaTjC; E^EyEpaECOV. Kai 

tJtqv |x6Xic; Xiya ypovia apyoxEpa otqv o aTpaTijyoc; MoXivw eScooe 
SiciXe^i] axo Ivotitouto ZxpaTicoxiKi]c; YTnjpEaiac;, 5ia[3d£ovTac; to 
Ttovi]nd tod «E£eyd(/<rEig <mq LJdXeig Kai r/ KmaoTolij jovg». 

VIII 

Oi aTCEpyoi ttou (3prJKav t?]v Euraipia £TT£aTp£i|;nv aTioKap8icon£- 
voi otic; SouXeiec; touc; \ie \i£ia\i£vov<; \iioQoxx;. Atto Kanoiouc; £iiti]0i]- 
ke va UTroypdi|;ouv 8i]Xc6a£ic; oti 5ev 6a fyxvaav\i[iExaajovv oe auvSi- 
K&ia oute 9a UTroaTi]pi'i;ouv crro |i£XXov to Kivr||^a yia to oprdcopo. 

rioXXd auvSiKaTa, ottcoc; TipoavEipEpa, 8iaXu0i]Kav KaTd tt] 8i- 
dpKEia tou naviKou Kai oi TCEpiaaoTEpoi KairiTaXiaTEc;, TiapoXo ttou 
i|iav aKOfxi] 0opuPr]H£voi auo tic; E^EyEpaEic;, BpiafiPoXoyouaav yia 
«to teXoc; tou EpyaTiKOT) ouvSiraXiaLiouw. 

O TtaviKoc; E^aKoXou9i]aE yia 8uo ypovia [ietA to teXoc; tcov e^e- 
yEpoEwv. 

Oi ooaiaXiaTEc; ayKiTaTopEc;, ttou Ei'^av TrXr|6uv£i kcito ti] 8idp- 

KEIQ TCOV (TKXl]pi6v l)fXEpUV, QT[oXdn(3avav aKOLlT] «TO ETTavaaTClTlKO 

Tiv£ijfxa» ttou o o^Xoc; £i^£ etiiSei^ei tic; 8uo aifiaTo(3a|j.LiEVEc; (38ofxd- 
Sec;. Tcopa eijov kcixi ndvco aTO ottoio |iTropouaav va 8ouXet|;ouv. 

ETriai]c;, |i£Td to 8iaTny|in EvdvTia oto ZoaiaXiaLio ttou e^eScoqe o 
B(a|inpK to 1878, LiETavdaTEuaav crac; HIIA EKaTovTaSfic; fxopcpcofiE- 
voi yEpLiavoi aoaiaXiaTEc;, ttoXXoi an' auTouc; £^TpE|iiaT£c;. MTrrJKav 
aTO jpXapd opyavcoLiEvo picpa-nacrriKO Kivij^ia otic; SidcpopEc; tioXeic;, 
Kupicoc; oti] N. YopKi] Kat aTO ZiKayo. 

Tia Ka-rroia ^povia VJTav E^aipETiKd aTiEpi'aKETTTO yia touc; EpyaTEc; 
va (iTTOUv oe auvSiraTa r\ va UTioaTi]pii;ouv pi^oa-rraaTiKd TroXtTiKa 
Kivrj^aTa. To ava-rrocpEUKTO aTTOTEXEa^ia rJTav, lieto tic; E^EyEpaEic;, 
ttoXXoi va ap^iaouv va auyKEVTpwvovTai oe fxuaTira ETravaaTOTiKa 
|ia^E|iaTa. 'Etqi, to Kivi]|ia tcov KaKopi^iKcov ouaiacrriKd ovveji^e to 
8poLio tou UTioyEicoc;. 

YTTT]p^av okolii] Kai OLidSEc; EpyaTwv Ttou dp^iaav va E^o-rrXi^ovTai 
Kai va E^aaKouvTai oti] XP 1 ') 01 ) t(ov 6-nkav [lEaa crra 8dar], yia tic; 
ETTEp^oLiEVEc; teXikec; lid^Ec; fiE tov KamTaXia|j.6 — «ti]v ETiavdaTa- 
ai]»— koto tt|v OTioia aKOTiEuav va avri|iETCOTTiaouv tt]v aaTuvofiia 
Kai to aTpaTO |AE TtiaToXia Kai Poli^ec;. 



35 



KEOAAAIO 4 

enae AnoxTOAOz The Tpomokpatiaz 
epxetai Sthn Amepikh 



EUpCOXTCUOl avap^lKOl OTTCOC; O MxrQKOUVlV, O KpOTTOTKlV KXU o 
TKiyiOfi Trou £ouaav axo AovStvo tj axr|v UEpio^T] xou Ioupa, 
TrapciKoXouBouaav e8co kqi ^povia xr\v xtpaynaxiKoxTjxa xwv 
HTIA pXETiovxac; xi] ocw eva mQavo yovi|j.o ^copdcpi yia avap^iKi] 
TtpoTiayavSa rai Spdar|. MdXiaxa o MxtaKouviv, aKouyovxa^ yia xiq 
xtopsiEc; xwv TTEivaafxevcov oxi] N. YopKi] kcu aXXou, aKscpxoxav va 
xidsi oxt]v AfiepiKT] t']5i] axro xo 1874 aXXd Kaxtoia ^i]xi']|^axa axrjv 
Eupuxn] kqi i] kqki'] uysia xou, y] oxroia auvxo^ia kcixeXi^e axo Gdvaxo 
xou, 8ev xov d(pi]oav. Apyoxepn, xo 1877, iraipvovxa^ xrXijpotpopi'ei; 
yia xi<; |J.d^e^ axic; SidtpopEc; EIoXixeiec;, 6Xoi xouc; Kaxai<XuaxT]Kav, 
oxrco^ xo eQeoe o rKiyio^, «aTco sva £cooyovo auvaia6i]fxa». 

O KponoxKiv auvexa^E a[iEoa(;, yin xo Exciai^o £VT]|^EpcoxiKO 5eX- 
xio xr]^ AvapyiKr\<; O^oaTTOvSiai; xou Ioupa, pa fiaKpoaKsXi] avatpopd 
axii; E^EyEpaEic;. 'Hxav Ev9ouaiaa|i£voc; \iz xk; «ExravaaxaxiK£i; ai;i£c;» 
xtou eu/e extiSei'^ei xo afXEpiraviKO TrpoXfixapidxo. «0 au9opp]xia|j.6<; 
xou ^£ai]KW|^ou, i] E^dxrXcoai] xov as xooa ^aKpivd H£xal;u xou^ |^£pii, 
i] ai'i^fiExo^i] kqi i] (3otj9eici cmo EpydxE^ Siatpopcov ExrayyEXudxcov, o 
axrocpaoiaxiKoc; ^apaKxrjpac; xou and xi]v apyr\ K£p8i'£ouv xr\ au|iTcd- 
0Eid \ia<;, E^dirxouv xi] cpavxaaia |j.at; kqi l;uxrvouv xi^ eXtci'Se^ \ick;». 

Apydxspa, xo 1882, o Tid^av Mdax, Evac; TEp^iavdi; avap^iKO^, 
EcpxnaE axi^ HELA kqi EyivE o paaiKoc; EKxrpoacoTroc; xuv i8ewv xou 
MxtaKouvtv, xou NsxadyiEtp kqi dXXwv Eupcoxtai'cov onaScov xi]<; 
«xrpoxraydv8a<; \ie xi] 8pdai]». 



37 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg TrfJ^iKijg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



II 



O veoc; a|i£piKdviKoc; pi£ooTraaTia|i6c; ^povoXoyEirai cmo Ta teXi] 
tt]c; Sekoeticic; tou '40, oxav oti] X&pa apyioav va auppEouv ttoXu- 

TtXi]9eIC; TloXlTlKOl TTpOaCpUyEC; CTTO TT]V EupCOTTT] KQl ElSlKO OTTO XT) 

Tepfiavia |i£Ta touc; i;£ar|Kco|iouc; ekei to 1848. 'Hxav onaSoi tod 
ooaiaXio|iou tiou t6te aTTOKpucrraXXcovoTav otic; Suva^iKEc; ekSotikec; 
airoTTEipEc; tcov Mapl; Kai 'EvyKsXc;. Oi TrpoocpuyEc; auToi 5ev tjtov 

KQKOpi^lKn OTOI^EIQ aXXd |ldXXov 1] £XlT, T] IVTEXlyKEVTOia TCOV |X£Ta- 

vacrrcov. To Kivr]|.ia outo rJTav Siavoi]TiKO, £c;£i'y£vio|iEvo, £^T](.iEpco- 
|i£vo, po^avTiKO. 'Htqv, yia 8uo Sekoetiec;, \ua 9oXrj EKcppaar] tcov 
iSecov tiou crro^Euav oe SpaoTiKEc; koivcovikec; |i£Tappu9|ito£ic;, air' 
tic; ottoi'ec; i] paaiKi] r\xav [iia avaS6|ii]or| tijc; oiKovo|iiac; wqte 6Xo 
to upoiov Ti]t; Epyaaiac; va mTaXijyEi otov EpydTi). Aev aKOTTEuav 
va KaTacrrp£i|;ouv to KEcpdXaio aXXd va §£cpopTco9ouv t?]v £i;£%ouaa 
Ta^T] tcov KamTaXioTUv, TrapoXo uou KavEic; 8ev ei^e luci EuXoyi] iS&i 
yia to Ttcoc; auTO 9a ETiiTuy^avoTav otic; HITA. 

Tt| Sekoetio tou '50, TroXiidpi9|i£c; yEpiiavo-a^EptKaviKEc; «ETra- 
vaaTOTtKEc; koivoti]t£c;» Kai «£KTrai8£UTiK£c; Xeaj_e(;» a}(T]|.iaTiaTi)Kav 
oti] N. YopKi], ti] BaXTt|i6pr], tt] OiXaSfiXcpEia, to ZiKdyo Kai oXXec; 
kevtpikec; ttoXeic;, ETiiSicoKovTac; v' ap^i'aouv «|iia ETiavdcrraai] otic; 
ouveiSijoeic; tcov av9pcoTicov». Ta oSocppdy|iaTa Kai i] (3ia 8ev Ei'^av 
9eot] oti] okei|/ii Ti]c; ouvTpiTrTiKi']c; nX£ioi|/r|cpiac; tcov aoaiaXioTuv 
£keivt]c; ti]c; £tto^i]c;. Autoi ovtitOevto oti]v «Tiapapiaai] tou vd|iou», 
TiiaTEuovrac;, ottcoc; o Mapl; Kai o 'EvyKEXc;, oti tetoiec; kivt]oeic; Eivai 
ETiipXapEic; yia to okotto. 

Koto to ti] Sekoetio tou '60, o aoaiaXianoc; Tiap£|i£v£ £^i]|.i£pco- 
|i£voc; Kai iSeoXiotikoc;, EuyEviKoc;, o^eSov al;ioo£|3aaToc;. Ta |ir]vu|^a- 
Ta tou 8ev aTT£u9uvovrav oto KaKopf^ira oxoiyeia aXXd oe oXec; tic; 
to^eic;. Ym]pj_av Xiyoi 9£pnoK£cpaXoi, aypi£|i£voi pi£ooTrdaT£c; e8co 
Kai ekei aXXd, ynac, Kai mrTJp%£ aKO|.ii] auvaivEar] tijc; nX£ioi|/T]cpiac; 
tcov EpyaTcov otic; (veec;) piop^aviKEc; ouv9t]kec; Kai ?] |.i£96pioc; rJTav 
aKO|ia avoiKTi], outoi K£p8ic^av Xfyi] Tipoao^i]. 

ApyoTEpa, otov o naviKoc; tou 1873 ^Ea-rraaE ott] %&pa, 8r]fiioup- 
yi]9i]Kav oi ouv9t]kec; ttou Tr£piypdcpT]Kav oto Trpoi]yoiJ|i£vo KEcpdXaio 
Kai o^eSov |.i£oa oe |iia vu^Ta to aooiaXiaTiKO Kivr]na E^aaE to av- 
|iTra9i]TiK6, 8iavoi]TiKO ^apaKTT]pa tou. Oi TiopEiEc; tcov TT£ivaa|i£vcov 



38 



Evag AnooToXog Ttjg TooftoKf>ajia<; Eoxerai arr/v Afieoiioj 



tov xpo|.iEp6 y*z\y.&va. xou 1873-74 opyavc69i]Kav qtto aoaiaXiorEc; 
r|Y£t£c;, vtothouc; Kai y.x\, Kai ektote o aoaiaXioridc; eyiv£ paaiKa — 

CT^eSov oXoKXl]p(j)TlKd— KlVljLia TCOV KOKOpi^lKCOV, TfflV TTElvaa^lEVCOV. 

Qc; tetoio, EyivE cpuaiKd auvaia9r|naTiKd Kai pCaio' a-naXXoTpico- 
9t]ke qtto tt]v aTTEXiriaia xov TtEivaonEvov oy^kov. 

Ill 

H mo pi^ocrnacrnKi] ttoXi] otic; Sekoetiec; tov '70 Kai xou '80 r\xav 
to ZiKayo. To EoaiaXiaTiKO EpyaTiKO K6|^|ia tou ZiKayo, i] apyj\ 
tt|c; aTa8ioSpo|.ii'ac; xov onoior otvSeBijke lie xa aiLiaTijpd yEyovoTa 
Ttoi) arv£pi]aav cttijv ttoXi] koto ti] 5idpK£ia xov TiaviKou, XEiToup- 
yOlJOE KaTCO QTTO TT]V £V£pyt]TlKT] i]y£aia avBpcoTicov ottcoc; O (PlXlTT Bav 
riaTEv, o 'AXjiTiEpT ITapaovc; Kai o T. A. Zi'XivyK, ttov i]iav ikovoi 
Ka9o8i]yi]T£(; anEpyicov Kai ayKiTaTopEc; E^aipETiKrjc; SfiivdTTjTac;. 

Z^eSov otto tic; npcoTEc; crriyLiEc; ti]c; SijLiioi'pyiac; xov to ZoaiaXi- 
otiko EpyaTiKO K6|i(.ia Ti£piXd|.if3av£ Kdnoia £i;Tp£LiiaTiKd otoi^eio. 
And raipo cje Kaipd, Kdnoioi an' tocc; r|y£T£c; xov aTToyoi]T£uovTav 
Ttou 8ev KaTatpEpvav va ttetu^ow raTi yia tt]v EpyaTiKrj Tai;i) lieoco 
tt]c; ttoXitiktjc;. 'Htov yvcoaTEc; tcov |iap^iaTiKcov i8ec6v, aXXd Sidpa- 

C/IV ETllOT]^ XfiyKfiX, KpOTTOTKlV, MnaKOWlV, AXE^dvTEp XfipT^EV KOI 

ZTiEvaEp. Ektoc; ano to Z.E.K., Ta axoijEia avxa Eiyav opyavco9£i 
Kai otic; aTTOKaXoii|i£v£(; «ETiavaaTaTiK£c; Aeo^ec;*, ttou awavriou- 
vTav |ii'aTiKa Kai Ei^av ap^iaEi v aTroyo^TEUovrai an tt] (lie^P 1 tote) 
TipoaTidBEid touc; va l;£Kivrjaow «Liia £TiavdaTaar| crac; oweiStJcjeic; 
tcov av9pc6ncov». ElapdLioiEc; Xeo^ec; £LicpaviaTt]Kav Kai oe oXXec; tio- 
Xeic; koto ti] SidpKEia tou naviKou. 

To 1881, Liia e9vikt'] awdvTi]cn] tcov ETravacrraTiKC&v Aeoyuv Eyi- 
ve ctto ZiKayo Kai 8i]|iioi'pyi]9i]K£ to «E-n:avaaTaTiK6 ZooraXicrriKd 
Kd|.iLia», avraycoviaTiKO Tipoc; to Z.E.K.. Tia EvaLiiai TiEpmou ^povo 
o ^apaKTTJpac; ai'TT]c; tt|c; kivt]ot|c; rJTav ttoXu 9oX6c;. Ynrjpxav yaXa- 
pEc; ati^r]TT]OEic; o^etiko \ie f3ia, Si'va^iTi] Kai ekteXeoeic;, aXXd crro 
auvoXd toii to Ko^ifxa TaXavrEUOTav avd|i£oa oto ^lap^ia^io Kai to 
|.U]8£viand, avd|.i£aa oti] 9Ecopia Kai ti]v npd^T]. 

Tote, T]p9E o Tid^av Moot. 'Htov evoc; dvSpac; Kovrd aTa aapdvra, 
|,iia EVtovr], EVTimcoaiaKi] npoacoTiiK6Ti]Ta, koti aav xov MnaKouviv 
aKO|.ia Kai aTi]v 6\\ir\' ei^e cpXoyEpi] auvEi8r]ai] Kai f3iaii] i8ioai'yKpa- 
oia' rJTav aTO|io \ie TiXaTid ai'TOfxdpcpcoai], 8i'va|.iiKd, aai'yKpaTi]TO. 



39 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing trim/ Afisoitcrj 



El^E EVQ EVTVTTCOaiaKO TrpoatOTiiKO lOTOpiKO cpvXaKiaEcav, OX; CITTOTE- 
\£o[ia tt]c; £TravaaTaTiKT]c; tov Spdaijc; ori] Biewt], to BEpoXivo Kai 
to Aov8(vo. Eto AovSivo, fi£ ncpop|iT] ti] 8oXo<pov(a tov Tadpov 
AXE^dvSpov tov B' quo tovc; pwaov^ iitjSevicfte^ to 1881, £ypai|/£ 
aTi]v E(pi]|.iEpt8a tov Freiheit (EXs.v8e.Qia) eva dpBpo ttov EyKco|iCa££ 
tt]v upd^r] curtrj Kai npoErpETTE mi dXXov^ va ravovv to 1810 otouc; 
anavTa^ov E^ouaiaoTEc;. IY outo, KaTaSiKaaTT]K£ a£ 18 |irjv£^ cpvXa- 

Kl]. A(pOV E^ETIOE TT]V TtOlVT] TOD ECOVyE yia Tl^ ffllA. 

Ettjv AjiEptKi] EyivE 8ekt6^ ax; ^pcoac; quo tovc; avvTpocpovc; tuv 
ETrnvaaTaTiKwv Aeo^cov Kai EyivE a|i£awc; o i]y£Tr|c; tuv £^Tp£|iiaTCOv. 
To a\jv9i]|id tov r]Tav: «E^oXo9p£uaT£ tovc; dGXiovc; PoXe|1£vovc;!» 
— Ewowvrac; oXovc; tovc; ttoXitikouc; koi tovc; ek^etoXXevtec; tcov [ia- 
^6v. H apjj] tov yia tt] Spdai] r\xav i] apyr\ tov MTraKouviv: «Ac; 
f3aaiaTou|i£ oto daf3EOTO Trv£u|ia tijc; KaTaaTpotprjc; kqi tt|c; e^oXo- 
6p£vat]c;, ttov Eivai r] aT£p|iovr| dvoi^i] tijc; veox; CcotJc;. H /apd tt|c; 
KaTacrrpocprjc; Eivai |iia 8r|(Aioi)pYiKfj yapa». O Moot ttictteve oto 8v- 
va\iixi] kqi tic; o$o\.iayie<; rai otic; avc/riTrjaEic; tov |ie tovc; p] Pfcuouc; 
a^EpiKavovc; aoaiaXiaTEc;, 8ev EKpi'^E xa tticttevco tov. 

'Htqv av^voc; £TciaK£TTTT](; tov EiKayo, ottov xa f3iaia 86y|.iaTa kqi 
01 TrpaKTiKE^ eijav ai]navriKi] ati|)[i]oi] avd|i£aa otovc; EpyaTEc; kqi 
tovc; r]y£T£c; tovc;. Kqtw qtc' ttjv ETTipporj tov Moot \ua aoaiaXicrriKT] 
Ecpr||i£pi8a, i] Die Arbeiter Zeitung (H Ecpt/fiegida tov EffyArr/), |.i£Ta- 
TpdmjKE e^' oXoKXrjpov a£ avap^iKrj. O 1810c; ^avdp^taE Ti]v ekSooi] 
tijc; Siktjc; xov EcpT](.iEptSa(;, ti]^ Freiheit [iia o|.id8a Toe^wv avap^iKcov 
^ekivijot vn ek8i8ei Eva cpvXo oto |3oi]|iiKd kqi yia tovc; AyyXotpcovovc; 
avap^iKou^, o AXfiTTEpT Iidpaov^, ttou ottw^ kqi ttoXXoi dXXoi ayra- 

TQTOpE^ TOU ElKdyO aTTo8£^01]KE TIC| l8££C; KQI T1]V Ka9oSrJYT]OT| TOD 

Moot, e^eScooe to Svvayegfto. 

IV 

AlyO fiETQ TT]V dtpi^l] TOV OTl^ HI1A O MoaT E^eScOOE OTT] N. Y6p- 

ki] eva \wcp6 pi^Xto |i£ titXo H Emajtjfi?/ tov EnavaoTanKov FloXifiov 
—Evctq Odrjyog yia tt/v ElagaaKEvt'/ xai tt/ Xpt/ot/ NiTQoyXvKeQivfjg, A v- 
vafihr/, Ekqi/ktikov Ydgagyvgov, Bofipav, <PvtiXmAv, At/Xr/Tt/piav, nXn., 
kXti. To 1885-86 KEtpdXaia tov f3ipXiov avaTVTtw9r]Kav oe avapyiKfc, 
scpi](_ispi5ec; tov EiKayo Kai tov KXipYXavT, oi ottoie^ etiittXeov TcapE- 

8ETQV dpBpa, £KKXl]a£l^ KQI |iavl(pEOTa a^ETlKd |1£ EKpi^El^. 



40 



Evag Ati6otoXo<; Ttjg TooftoKf>ajia<; Eoxerai arr/v AfieoiKtj 

riapa6ETC0 cmo tt]v Die Arbeiter Zeitung: 

[8 AnffiXr/, 1885] E8c6 imdp^Ei Kaxi ttou a^i^Ei va aKOuaxsi. Mia opd- 
8a axiEpycov axo Koutvou, X TE ?> mipofSoXriaE Evavxiov xcov acpEvxiKcov Kat 
o^i Evavxiov xcov aTTEpyoonaaxcov. Auxo auviaxdxai Ssppd cot; xcapd8Eiy- 
pa xipoc; pipijcn]. 

[5 Mdr/, 1885] Oi Epya^opEvoi xipExiEi va 8£copouv axo^o Ka8£ pEXoc; 
xr]c; ESvocpuXaKrjc; Kai xipETiEi va xo avxipExcoxu^ouv coc; ranoiov nou QeXei 
va xouc; ndpEi XT) ^corj. Euvxopa pxcopEi va yivEi SuokoXi] i] xcpopi]0£ia 
8oXocpoviKi6v pEacov... Epya^dpEvoi, ottXioxeixe! 

[18 Mdprr/, 1885] Av 8ev Kivi]8oup£ oxivxopa yia pia aipaxi]prj Exia- 
vdaxacxi], 8ev 8a acprjaoupE axa xiaiSid pac; xiapd povo cpxco^Eia Kai 
oKXa^id. ExiopEvcoc;, xipoExoipaaxEixE! Me TtXi']pT] puaxiKoxr]xa, xcpoExoi- 
paoxEixE yia xr|v ETravdoxaoi] ! 

To TiapaKaxw japio Epcpaviaxi]KE axo Hvvayegfio xou ndpaovc;, 
erne; 21 OAefSapii tou 1885: 

A wdfihrjg! 'Ait' 6Xa xa raXd uXira, auxo Eivai xo raXuxspo! BoXe 
KaxioiEi; X(|3p£^ axi' xo ££,oyp auxo uXiko oe Eva acoXr|va (acoXi']va 
yKa^iou i] v£poi5), cppd^E Kai xa 8uo avoiypaxa, TTp6a0Ea£ Eva Ka- 

TtdKl p£ Eva ipUXlXl EVatOpaXlOpEVO, XOTTo8£XT|aE XO OXT|V TIlO KOVXIV1] 

auvoiKia xcov nXouaicov ^aoop£pi]8cov ttou £ouv£ an' xov iSpioxa xcov 
dXXcov av8pcoTccov Kai dvai[i£ xo cpuxiXi. To mo ^apoupEvo Kai iKa- 
vottoii]xiko anoxEXEopa 6a £TiaKoXou8i]a£i. Aivovxac; xo 8uvap(xr| 
axouc; EKaxoppupta uxioxaypEvouc; xt]c; yi]c;, i] £xnoxr']pT] ekove xt|v 
KaXuxspi] Ttpd^T] xr]c;. To ayaxn]p£vo auxo uXiko pxcopsi va p£xaq>£p- 
0ei oxi]v xaExii] X^P 1 ? Kiv8uvo, xt] axiyprj ttou Eivai Eva xpopa^xiKO 
oxiXo Evdvxia oe koSe 8uvapi] E8vocpi'XaKi]c;, aaxuvopi'ac; i] vxexekxiP 
ttou 8a SeXtjoei va Kaxaxivi^Ei xt]v Kpauyi] xcov XEi]Xaxi]p£vcov aKXd- 
[5cov yia Siraioauvrp MxtopEi va xp'lCTipoTrotTjSEi Evdvxia oe xipooco- 
na i] Kxrjpia. Eivai KaXuxEpo va xo xpiiaipoTtoirjaEXE Evdvxia oxa 
npcoxa, xiapd Evdvxia as xou(3Xa Kai KaxaaKEUEt;. Eivai Eva EuysviKO 
8copo yia xoug Suo-ru^out;, acpou cpspvEi xpopo axouc; Xi]ax£c\ Mta 
Xippa axi' auxo xo KaXo uXiko Eivai la^upoxEpi] and pia oXoKXr]pi] 
KaXxii] pE ipi]cpo8EXxia —Kai pi]v ^E^vaxE! riEpiE^Ei ttio noXXi] 8iKai- 
ooiivi] psoa xou axi' 6,xi oi vopoi, ttou SeXouv va Ka8i]oi'x acFOUV TO 
nvEupa xcov avrjaux mv - 



41 



A mauling: H Iarogia Ttjg Trf^najg Bing crrtjv Afisoitcrj 



H icrtopia tov SwapxT] — tou wXikou»— otic, HT1A, coc; evoc; ottXou 
tcov \ii] e^ovtcov crrov aywva xovq Evdvria otovc, e^ovtec;, ^povoXo- 
yEiTai cmo Ti]v dcpi^i] tou Moot cm] X^P - 



42 



KEOAAAIO 5 

H TIPOTH BOMBA 



HayKiTnTaia yia to o^xdcopo auv£3(iaTi]K£ 6X0 to y£i\iava, ox 
oXoKXijpi] ti] X^P n - 
Zto XiKayo 01 avap^iKoi TrpcoTaycoviaToiiaav axi]v 6Xi] 
Kcnaoxaoi]. Aiopydvwvav owQvrr|OEi^ axic; 6^9ec; ti]c; Xijivijc;' to 
TrXr']9o(; ttou i^a^EUOTav a-noTEXouvTav Kupiwc; ano dvEpyoi'c; heivo- 
o|j.evou^ dv8p£c;, TioXXof air' toi'c; ottoi'ouc; 8ev Ei^av rav |j.Epo^ va 
Koip]9oi)v. H kokkivt] oi]|^aia uij/covoTav a' ai'Ta tq fia^EfxaTa kcu 01 
opXi]T£c; E^i]youaav oti aim'] rJTav «£va au^(3oXo tou XaiKou Eirava- 
aTQTiKou TivEiJnaTO(;». Metq £H(pavi'cro]K£ Kai i] ^laupT] ai]|^a(a «ov\i- 
f3oX(^ovTac; ti] ipTio^Eia kqi ti]v tteivq — ti]v aTi£XTnaia». O Eldpaovi; 
rai o Oi'Xvtev T]Tnv 01 mo 5r|fxo(piX£ic; o^iXijtec;. KnTayyEXXavE to 
EvfiPouXio E^iTropioi) («to Ziti|3oi)Xio twv KXe<ptwv») tioi< TipoatpaTn 
ei^e syKaivtdaEi to veo tou KTrjpio («to vao ti]c; TOKoyXucpiac;*) ai;(ac; 
2.000.000 SoXapicov, tt| aTiyjxi] ttoi< Si'd^iai EKaTO^upia dvBpcoTroi 
i']tqv dvEpyoi otic; HEIA. 

«ME^pi TtOTE 9a ElOTE lKavOT[Oll]|i£VOl |i£ Tn yEU^aTQ TC0V 15 
OEVTC;», pC0TT]a£ O OlXvTEV, «OTav QUTOl Ol TUTlOl TpCOVE QE au|j.Tr6aia 

ottou Kd9E mdTO kooti^ei 20 5oXdpia;» 

riEpiaaoTEpn ano ^iXia |^eXi] tcov aTroKaXoiifiEvcov Lebr und 
Wehr Vereine (ETTi^opcpcoTiKoi Kai Aiiuvtiko£ ZuXXoyoi) EtjaaKou- 
vtqv jiuaTiKa oTa ouXa Kai ekqvqv aKOTrof3oXrj aTa 8dai]. 



4,5 



A mauling: H Iajogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



Tt|v 181a aTiyp] 01 spyoSoTEc; auvavTiocVrav yia va auc/i]TT|aouv 
yia to 8uaoicovo Ki'vi]|.ia yia to oprdcopo, yia touc; «KaTapa|^£vouc; 
avap^iKouc;» Kai yia to «ti 9a EKavav yia 6Xa acn:d». 

To koivo yeviKa rJTav 8i}(aa|i£vo avd|.i£aa ae |xia BoXrj, ^laKpivi] 
ai'i^TrdGeia yia to Ka.TcvmEo\i£vo TrpoXsTapidTO Kai oto cpo|3o oti, 
[lEaa arouc; o^Xouc; cu'Ttov tcov avBpwTrcov |^e to aKiiBpcoTio pXE^a 
Kai tt]v dypia 6i|/t], touc; 6)[Xoi<c; tcov avEpycov Kai tcov daTEycov 01 
TTEpiaaoT£poi aito touc; otcoioi'c; rJTav aXXo8aTioi, koti aTtaiaio Kai 
yiydvTio KaipocpuAaKTOuas' Kai 01 dvBpcoTioi EvicoBav (ppuci] [ieoci axa 
aTiiTia tovc;, oTa ypacpeia Kai Tit; TioXuBpovEc; touc;. 06(3oc; koi TidXi 
(po^oc;. 

O 8i]|iap)(05 ekove 6, ti fXTropouoE yia va ^ieicooei Ti]v evraai] nou 

£l)(£ KUpiEUOEl TT]V Tl6Xl] KOTO Tl] SldpKEia TOl> KIVTJUOTOC; yia TO O^TO- 

copo. ArjXcoaE oti 8ev 6a ettetpette oto crrpaTO va eicteXOei ott]v tioXt] 
Kai va atpd^Ei Epya^o^Evoi^. AXXd rJTav o |xovoc; acotppcov dvBpcoTroc; 
[ie Kanoia ETripporj \ieoa axr\v ttoXi]' 6Xoi oi dXXoi Ei'^av TpsXaBEi. 
Ol fiEydAoi ETTl^Eipi]|iaTlE^ T]Tav l!TT£p|3oAlKd TTaviKopXi]fi£voi yia va 
aKEcpTOiiv Xoyira' -niaTEuav oti i) ayKiTaTaia yia to op:dcopo rjSi] 
zijz Tipo^coprpEi I'TiEpPoXiKa Kai ETipETiE va Xdftei teXoc;. H Tgifim- 
ovv St]|.ioot£U£ dp0pa Kai ypd|i|.iaTa awSpo|.ii]Tc6v ttou KaXouaav Tig 
ap^Ec; va SiaXuaow tic; owavTrjaEic; tcov EpyaTCOv |i£ TrcpopoXiaiiouc; 
—Kai av i]Tav aTiapaiTijTO, aKOLia Kai \i£ 8irva|iiTT]. 

'OXa E|.ioia^av va acvco|iOTOw yia Ti]v Kopucpcoai] ti]c; Kpi'or|c;. O 
^Ei^covac; aim] xr\ %povid i|iav (iapuc; Kai ekove tocc; (pxayovx; va 
CTiocpEpow TpofiEpd. O Sij^iap^oc; Kai Ta cpiXavOpconiKd i8pu^iaTa 
TiapEBETav auaoiTia \ie aou-na, aXXd auTO rJTav aTayova otov coke- 
avo. Ia^voi, paKEv8i'Toi dvTpsc; Kai yuvaiKEc; EKavav TiopEiEc; otodc; 
8p6|iouc; KpaTcovTac; kokkivec; Kai |iaiip£c; ar]|.iai£c;, TiopEiEc; ttou i] 
aaTuvo|xfa ai<)(yd SieXi'e, KXoTacovTac; Kai ^TUTTCovrac; |^e ponaXa 
oaouc; au|^HET£i^av, ovtiBeto npoc; tic; evtoXec; toc Sin^dp^oc Xdpi- 
oov. H aaTi'vo^iia, Tipocpavwc;, Ecpdp^ioc^E evtoXec; uoc npoEp^ovrav 
auo aXXfic; niiyEc;. 

Ti] \iipa tcov XpiaTouyEwcov oi avap^iKoi opydvcooav |^ia tto- 
p£ia cttt]v ko|^i(;t] AEtocpopo ripEpi, ott]v ouoia Tii]pav jiEpoc; apKETEc; 
ekotovtoSec; TiEivaofiEvoi Kai paKEvSi'TOi dvTpEc; Kai yuvaiKEc;. Mia 
ypid KpaTouaE |^ia kokkivi] ar)naia, |^ia dXXi] \ila |iaupi]. ETa|idTi]aav 
|iTipoaTd otic; kotoikiec; tcov nXoiioicov, EKOTO|ii^ovrac; avaaTEvay- 
|j.oijc; Kai ^TUTTCOvrac; Ta Kou8oi5via otic; eiooSovc;. 



44 



H IJffaJT}/ Bdfipa 

Oi avapywazc, £cpi]|j.Epi5ec; SijuooiEuav pfaia dp0pa. H Die Arbeiter 
Zeitwig eypacpe otic; 21 AnptXr] xou 1886: 

'Ottoioc; UTroxdaasxai era] o\]\izpi\n) xdip] xrpay|idxcov 8ev e^ei 8iraico- 
\ia va 8ia|iapxup£xai yia xouc; KaxrixaXiaxiKouc; £Kfiiao\iov(;, yiaxi i] xdi;r| 
cn]fia(v£i xr] 8iaxrjpi]ar| xouc;' Kai auxoc; xrou §£ar|Kc6v£xai... Eivai Evac; 
E^EyEpiiEvoc; Kai 8ev e^ei 8iKaicofia va 8ia|iapxup£xai av ppsGo avxiiiE- 
xcoxroc; |i£ axpaxicoxsc;. Kd9£ xdip] UTTEpaoxTi'^Ei xov Eauxo xijc; 600 KaXu- 
XEpa |iTcopEi. 'Evac; £^£y£p|i£voc; ttou oxekexqi |inpooxd axa ravovia xcov 
E^Bptov xou [IE xa X^P la d8sia, Eivai avoijxoc;. 

H 181a E(pi]|i£pi8a, \iia pSo|idSa fxexd: 

H aaxuvofiia mi 01 axpaxicoxEc;... xrpETTEi va avxi|i£xcoTTtaxouv ano 
OTrXiajiEVEc; axpaxiEc; Epyaxcov... Ta oxrXa Eivai mo aTtapafxT]xa orj|i£pa 
axr' oxi8t']t[Oxe dXXo. 'Ottoioc; 8ev e^ei ^pi]|iaxa, va ttouXijoei xo poXoi 
xou, av e^ei, Kai va ayopdaEi TrupopdXa ouXa. Oi TTExpsc; Kai xa ra- 
8povia 8ev Eivai ^pi']ai|.ia anEvavxi axouc; TTXi]pco|i£vouc; cpovidSEc; xcov 
EKpiaoxcov. Eivai copa va ottXioxeixe! 

II 

O j£i\.ubva(; TTEpaos Kai i] (.lEydXi] \iepa — der Tag, t] Trpwxr] xou 
Mdi]- T[Xi]a(a^E. 

Oi EpyoSoxEc; aTiocpdaiaav va p] Trpo|3oiJv oe qXXec; Trapa^coprjaEic; 
irpoc; xouc; Epya^ofiEvouc;. H iSeq xou o^xacopou ETrpeTTE va KaxairoXE- 
|tt]9e(. 'EnpETrE va xaaKiaouv xa auvSiraxa Kai va XEixoupyrjaouv xic; 
ETTi^Eipi]o£ic; xouc; oxt] f3doT] xi]c; «avoi^xi]c; ayopdc;». 

'Exoi xo OXE^dpi], i] ExaipEia «KaxaaK£U£c; Max K6p|iiK PiTi£p» 
kXeiScooe e^co EKaxovxdSEc; £pya£6|.i£vouc; ttou rjxav |teXt] auvSiraxcov 
Kai Tipoo£Xa|3E airEpyoamiaxEc;, KaBcoc; Kai xpiaKoaiouc; vtexekxi^c; 
xt]c; ExaipEiac; EIivKEpxov — maxoXaSEc;— yia va TrpoaxaxEij/ouv xouc; 
aTTEpyoaTrdaxEc;. Auxo rjxav Eva an' xa yEyovoxa ttou TipoKaXfiaav 
TTEpioodxEpo xi]v ayavdKXTjai] xuv TipoXExdpicov Kai 01 ayKixdxopEc;, 
cpuaiKa, (air' xt] |i£pid xouc;) ttieoqv xi]v Kaxdaxaai] oxo ETraKpo. 

Mia air' xic; opyavcoaEic; nou EV£TTXdKT]aav oxo Xok doux xi]c; Mqk 
K6p|iiK rjxav t] AieBvYjc; 'Evcoai] MapayKwv, |i£aa axi]v ottoio o Aouic; 
AivyK, o|ioXoyi]|i£vot; avap^iKoc;, T]xav o mo EVEpyijxiKoc; t]Y£xi]c;. 



^S 



A mauling: H Iarogia Ttjg Trf^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



riioTEUE crro 8uvU(A{*tT|, «to Trpay|iaTiK6 uXiko» kcu ouvTjyopoiioE uirep 
xi]c; 5(pi]ai](; tou. Aiyo listo to Xok douT £ypai|/£ sva kei'|ievo |ie to 
ottoio anEuBuvoTav otouc; dvTpEc; tou wc; E^rjc;: 

Aeco ticdc; TipETTEi v' avTicrca0oi)|T£ a' auTa to TEpcvra. npETTEi va touc; 
ttoXeht]oou|T£ \i£ Ta (Sia, aKOfiT] Kai |^e mXuTEpa o-rrXa an' auTa ttou 
ejovv, etto|tevcoc;, oac; KaXco axa oirXa!... H TrpcoTi] tou Mar] nh]cna£,£i. 

npETTEi va OKOTCOOETE TOUC; TTEipaTEC;. IlpETTEl VO OKOTCOOETE OUTOUC; TTOU 

ttivouv to af|ia oac. . . H SouXsid \ia<; TrpETTEi va siVai ai5vro|ii]' 8ev 9e- 

XoUflE TpiaKOVTOETT] n6X£|TO. TlVETE aTTOCpaalOTlKOl! 

O Eldpoovc;, o OiXvtev Kai o Z|3aiiTT opydvcovav p.a^Ep.aTa ko- 
vtq otic; «KaTaaK£i'EC, Mqk KoppiK PiTiEp». EXdooovEc; auyKpouaEic; 
TipaypaTOTTOiouvTav ekei kqBe Xiy£c; LiEpEc;. 

H KaTdoTQOT] T]TOV E^aipETlKQ T£Tap.£VT]. Ztt] |iia TcXEl'pd, TTElVa 

Kai cmEXmoia' ott]v dXXir, aTrXr|OTia Kai cpo|3oc;. 

Tt)v TTpuTT] tou Mai], i] Die Arbeiter Zeitung EypacpE: 

Me 9dppoc; TTpoc; to £|mp6c! H auyKpoucn] e^ei ap^ioEi... EpyaTEc;, 
to Xoyia oac; ac; Eivai: Kavsvac; ov|^(5i|3ao|^6c;! Oi SeiXoi ttioco! Oi dvTpsc; 
fiTTpooTa! H TipMTi] Mdi] EtpTaas. . . Ka6ap(oTE Ta 6-rrXa oac,, oufiTiXi]pc6- 
ote to TTUpo|ia^iKd oac;. Oi TrXi]pco|T£voi cpovtdSsc; tcov KaniTaXioTCOv, T| 
aaTuvojna Kai i] sGvocpuXaKi], Eivai etoi|toi va SoXocpovrjoouv. KavEvac; 
£pyaTT]c; 8ev TrpETTEi va pyei an' to ottiti tou, auTEc; tic; |T£p£c;, [i£ oSeiec; 

TOETTEC;. 

Ztouc; yEfxaTOUc; ano koo\io Spo^oug KUKXocpopouoav ttoXXec; cpr^Ec;. 

Hj_e56v ti]v TEXEUTaia aTiyp-r], to KEvrpiKO owp.a tcov Itttiotcov tt]c; 
Epyaaiac; tou ZiKayo (EtM: pEcpoppioTiKO ouvSiraTO tijc; etto^i'jc;, p.E 
LiaooviKEt; avacpopsc;, ttou i5pu6i]K£ to 1869) auEaupE to koXeolio 
yia yEviKi] aTTEpyia p.£ aixr]\ia to op:dcopo ttou ei^e E^ayyEi'XEi yia tt|v 
li] tou Mar]. AvBpconoi oticoc; o EldouvTEpXi Ei^av TponoKpaTi]9£i 
arro tic; iSiec; touc; tic; Suvd^Eic;' TrapdXXrjXa, 6X01 touc; UTrooTrjpic/iv 
oti to Kivi]|ia i']Tav «avap5(iKO» Kai «aXXo8aTro» Kai oiyoupa outoi 8ev 
fJTav oute avap^iKoi oute aXXo8aTroi. 

To ttXi']6oc; PpioKOTav oe af3£[3ai6Ti]Ta. Kottoioi otou^ SpoLiouc; 
Ep.oia^av aTTEXmofXEvoi. YTTT]p^av (pi'ifiEc; oti oi avap^iKoi aKOTTEuav 
va avaTivd^ouv aoTuvop.iKa Tp']p.aTa Kai va E^oXoBpEuoouv 6Xi] ti]v 
evottXi] cppoupd tt]c; n6Xi]c;. 



46 



H TlftcoTij Bdfipa 



AXAd TITTOTQ TpO|i£p6 5ev CFUV£|3l] T1]V TipCOTl] KCU TI] SfiUTEpi] \l£pCl 

tou Mdi]. 

Tt]v TptTi] tou Mdi], t] Die Arbeiter Zeitung eypacps: «KauTrj cn5- 
yKpouai]!... ©dppoc;! ©dppoc;! Amrfj Eivai i] Kpauyrj |.iac;.» 

Aim'] Ti] \iipa oi EpyaTEc; tiou ei^av kXei8co6ei e^u an' tt]v ETaipEia 
Max K6p|iiK auyK£VTpc66i]Kav ^a^iKd SinXa air' Ta EpyoTa^ia. Oi 
dv6pcoTTOi auToi r\xav ektoc; Epyaaiac; e8cg kqi 3 |ii]v£c;. 'Htciv anEX- 
TTia|i£voi. O Auyoucrroc; ETrdic; dp^iaE va |iiXa£i oto ttXijBoc; yia to 
Kivi]|^n tou oyxaapov, otqv to kouSouvi ti]c; ETaipEiac; p:uTTi]a£ Kai ot 
aTTEpyoaTrdaTE^, iron teXeicootiv ti] |3dp8ia touc;, PyrJKav z'fyn. 

Mia (id)(T| aKoXou8i]aE \i£ ttetpec;, TOiipXa, ypoBiEc; kqi KaSpovia. 
MEpiKoi TTupo[3oXia|ioi ETiEaav. Metq EipTaaE i] acrruvo|iia kqi avoi- 
yovrac; nup EvdvTia oto tiXi]8oc;, okotcooe apKETOuc; |i£aa a£ Xiya 
Xetitq Kai Tpau|idTiaE ttoAXouc; TiEpiaaoTEpouc;. 

O Z-ndic; E^aypico|i£vo(; TrrjyE axa ypacpsia Ti]c; Die Arbeiter Zeitung 
kqi tuttwot to 8idoi]no, ma, dp9po tou |A£ titXo «EkSiki]ot]! EpyaTEc;, 
axa OTiXa!!!». AiyEc; copEc; |i£Ta touc; Trupo(3oAia|iouc;, oi 8p6|.ioi Ei^av 
y£|i(a£i |i£ cpuXXd8ia. «Ei<8iKi]ai]!». 

Ill 

Etouc; Sp6|iouc; E|icpaviaTi]Kav TiEpiaaoTEpn cpuXXdSia ttou KaXoiS- 
aav touc; EpyaTEc; as |xa£itcrj 8ia8i']Xwai] Sia|iapTupiac; crri] TiXaTEi'a 
tou X£i|iapK£T to 1810 |3pd8u. «EpYa£6|i£voi, OttXiotei'te kqi E|.icpavi- 

OTEITE \l£ nXl'jpi] Ia^u!» 

To Ppd8u, TiEpiTiou TpEic; ^iXidSsc: dvTpEc;, yuvaiKEc; kqi nai8id [ia- 
^EUTT|Kav aTi] TiXaTEia. 

ZtoXec; Ppo^rjc; ETiEcpTav. Ztov oupavo um']p^av |^aupa, qtieiXi]- 
tikq auwEcpa kqi Evac; Suvotoc; aEpac; (puaouaE ano ti] Ai|ivr]. Oi 
auyK£VTpco]i£voi dp^iaav vn cpEuyouv yia Ta oniTia touc;, yiaTi aXXicoc; 
0a touc; ettiqve i] KaTniy(8a. 

Xtic; 8ekq, o Srj^ap^oc; Xdpiaov ]xaawvrac; to a(3i]crr6 Tioupo tou 
EcpuyE an ti]v TiXaTEia kqi |ittt]K£ oto acnuvo|iiK6 T|Afj|ia, otiou eitte 
otov A^ico|.iaTiK6 YTri]p£afac;: «TiTroTa 8ev TtpoKEiTai va au]x|3£i ttou 
va anaiTEi tt]v avd^u^i] jiac;» rai Tn]y£ otiiti tou. 

AXXd XiyoTEpo ano 15 Xettto apyoTEpa, o a^ico|iaTiKoc; Sieto^e va 
(3yei e^co oXoKXi]pi] i] cppoupd — 1 76 aoruvo|.UKOi— Kai va TiapfiXdaEi npoc; 
tt]v TiXaTEia, ottou Kai 9a Sieto^e touc; auyKEvrpcoj-iEvouc; va SiaXuBoiiv. 



47 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 

'Ef3pe%£. To ttAtjBoc; ei^e |xeiw9ei axa 500 d-ro^ia TTEpiTTOD, KDpiwc; 
dvrpEc;. To ^la^E^ia rJTav kAQe dXXo irapd emxvjy]\ievo. 

O OiXvtev, o teXedtoioc; o|.uAi]TT]^, eitte: «@a |.uAt]oco Xiya Xetttq 
Kai \iet& 6X01 6a Tia\iE axa anixta [ici(;». 

Me to |^ouai tod va crrd^Ei qtto tt] Ppo^rj, |.uXi]cte \ie avvxo\iia. 
«Zu|^TTEpaa|.iaTiKd— » 

Tote eiSe tt] crrpaTid twv aaTDvo|iiKwv va irapEXauvEi Trpoc; tttv 
TtXaTEia. 

<J>TavovTac; crra Xiya fiETpa ott' to ttXtJ9oc;, o Sioiktjttjc; cpwvatJE 
«AXt!»— mi (.IE yD|ivw|i£vo CTTT a9i Trpo^upi]aE irpoc; tov ofxiXr|Ti]. 

«Zac; SiaTa£w», eitte \ie tttv ttio SuvaTi] tpwvT] tod, «oto 6vo|xa tod 
XaoiS, va SiaXi'GfitTE a|.i£awc; Kai t]ctd%wc;!». 

Mia aTiy|ii] evtovi]^ otwtttjc; aKoXou9r]a£' (lovo o Sdvotoc; dv£- 
l^oc; an tt] X£|Avt] cpDaoDOE avd|i£aa crro ttXi']9oc; Kai tic; ypafx^iEc; twv 
aaTuvo|xiKcov, pi^vovTac; tt] (3pop'] crra TrpoowTrd todc;. 

«rta ttoio Xoyo Aioikt]ti']», eitte teXiko o OiXvtev, «ei[iaoT£ £ipi]- 

VlKOl». 

AXXi] (tin aTiyi-ii] aiwirrjc;. Aiyoi [ieaa crro ttXt]9oc; rjt;£pav TTpayLia- 
TlKd Tl ouv£paiv£. 

Tote — cjacpviKa— |iia EKTDtpXwTiKi] Xd(iij;i], Eva auwEcpo yKpi ra- 

TTVOD, \lia TpOLia^TlKT] £KTTUpaOKp6TT]ai], \lia VOaT]prj O0(ll'|... KdTTOl- 

oc; tteto^e [ua fio\ifia air' tt]v oXeo SiTrXa oti]v £c;£5pa tod o(tiXt]ti'], 
ttovw oti] 5£c;id TrXfiupd tod aaTDvo^iiKoij aTroaTrdaLiaToc;. 

Edy^dot]. Oi TTDpof3oXia|ioi dp^iaav. Aotdvolukoi TTDpopoXoDaav 
Evavri'ov tod ttXi]9odc; koi TiDpo|3oXoDVTav |xetoc;d todc;. Aoyw tod 
kottvod 8ev (TTTopouaav va 8odv. Oi EpyaTEc; avTOTTESwaav todc; ttd- 
po|3oXia(iODc; Kai i] TiXaTEia a|.i£awc; crrpw9i]K£ [ie Xaf3wLi£va aa\iaia. 

H aaTDvo|iia ava8iopyavw9i]K£ Kai ettiteBitke otodc; EpyaTEc;. Oi 
teXedtoioi cpwva^av, TTpocrn:a9wvTac; va tJEcpiiyoDv air' tic; o(.ioPpovTi- 
ec; twv aaTDvo(.iiKwv. KaTTOioi KODf3aXoDaav todc; vEKpoiic; Kai todc; 
TpaD(iaTionEvoDc; cpiXoDc; Kai aDyyEVEic; todc;. 

'OXa odto Eyivav LiEaa a£ 8do r\ xpia XETrtd. 

Att' tt]v irXEDpd «tod voliod koi tt]c; toc;t]c;», 67 aaTDvo|.iiKoi TpaD- 

(iaTlOTT]Kav. EcpTO OKOTw9l]Kav. 

Ta 9D(iaTa a-rr' ti]v TrXEDpd twv EpyaTWv tjtov SnrXdaia, iowc; Kai 
TpiTrXdaia' o teXikoc; apiB^ioc; ttote 8ev Ec;aKpi|3w6i]K£. Kduoioi ao- 
f3apd TpaD^iaTia^iEvoi |^ETa(p£p9i]Kav oto aaTDvo|.iiK6 T^ii^a fxac^i (.ie 



48 



H TlftcoTij Bdfipa 



xovc, aKOTC0|i£vovc; kqi Tpav|xaTi£c; aaxuvo^tKoij^, aXXd r] irA£ioi|/T|<pia 

|.l£Tacp£p9l]KE Kai VOaT]A£OTT]K£ OTTO CpiXoi'i; KQI allyyEVEl^. 

IV 

Tt]v ETTOjiEvi] |i£pa xci TrpcoTOa£Xi8a tt]c; Tgijimovv, tcov Tdiftc Kai 
ti]c; NteiIi Niov^apvovxav. 

Tin TrpcoTT] tpopd, Suvafxrn]^ ei^e }(;pi]ainoTTon]9£i otic, YLTIA [ie 

QKOTtO TT]V QCpaipEOT] avOpCOTUVl]^ £c01]C; . . . H f36|i|3a OTO XfilfiapKET 

i]iav o A8d|i tcov «avavdScov» ttou okqve otic; |i£p£c; ^ac; oto XiKayo, 
ti] Neo YopKi], ti] OiXaSsXtpEia, to NxiTpoix kqi aXXou rai e^ouv 
aixta xov «£K|3iaap.6» kq6e EiSorc;, ottcoc; kqi to opyavcofiEvo EpyaxiKO 
Kivr\\ia. 

Oi £(pii|^£pi'5E(; av£cp£pav oti i] ttoAi] «^T£vt^OTav» yia avap^iKouc;, 
otouc; ottoiouc; TrpaKTiKa ai_ifXTT£piXn|.if3dvovTav 6X01 oaoi eijciv EVEp- 
yi]TiKi'i au^ndBEia yia to EpyaxiKO KiVi]|ia. ApKETEc; EKaTovrdSEc; ovX- 
Xi]i|/£ic; Eyivav. H aaTUvom'a £ia£f3aX£ crra ypacpEia pi^oa-naoTiKcov 
£cpr||.i£pi8cov Kai a£ ^copouc; ouvavTipEwv. Oi ap^Ec; «i]xav aTrocpa- 
oio\i£v£c, va Ti|icopr]aouv Trapa8£iy|^nTiKd toix; tjyete^ xou Maiipoi' 
Tpo^oi'*. Oi ekSotec; Eypacpav oti i] ttoXi] rJTav «aTrocpaaia|X£vr| va 
teXeiwvei \.ua yia Tidvia fi£ to 00010X10^6, tov avapyiopo kqi tov 
KO|^fxoi'via|x6— tic; SiacpopETiKEc; etiketec; yia tijv i'8ia cppucrp. 

«KpEfxdaTE touc; kqi SiraarE touc; hetq», rJTav to xvpiapyo owai- 
a9i]|ia, o^i |idvo tcov KaXo^uta|^£vcov Kai tcov a£|3da|.iicov, aXXd kqi 
twv EpyaTWv. Oi Tia-naBEc; Sovouaav Tore; a^covEc; tcov £kkXt]oic6v [ie 
to Ki]puy^iaTd touc;. Oi Sidcpopa; tq^eic; ai'vaycovi'^ovrav yta to ttoiq 
8a £i]Trja£i Ta SpaaTiKOTEpa |.i£Tpa yia Ti]v KaTaaToXrj tijc; «Mai5pi)c; 
Aie9vouc;». Oi Itcttotec; ti]c; Epyaaiac; tov ZiKayo £t;£§coaav ETrioT]Lii] 
avaKofvcoai]: 

Ac; yi'vei KaTavoT|TO cm' oXouc; oti 01 I.t.E. 8ev e^ouv Ka^a'a ca'HTrd- 
Osia, a^ecri], 8Ea|i6 i] a£pao|i6 -rrpoc; tt] acyfiopia tcov SeiXcov cpovidScov, 
ocpayEcov Kai Xt]otc6v tcou Ei'vai yvcoaToi coc; avap^iKoi, 01 ottoioi Tpiyu- 
pi^ouv oti] %<i>pci oav ekteXeotec; tou i^eoovc^tiou, EyEipovTac; tq -ndBi] 
tcov ajiaGcov aXXoSa-ncov, ci|/c6vovTac; ti]v kokkivi] oi]|^ai'a ti]<; Avap^iac; 
kqi TipoKaXcovTac; E^EyEpasic; Kai ai(iaTo^ca(a... EXTTi^oc'|iE oXoKXi]pi] i] 
CTCini^opfa tcov Tiapdvo^cov va a|3i]aT£i cm' to Ttpoaco-no tt]c; yi]c;. 



49 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 

H aotwop'n «avaKdXuv|/£» (3o|j.pec;" oyy |.iovo HEHovcofiEVEc;, aXXd 
mi [AuaTtKci EpyaaTrjpia Swajihri], oXoKXipa onXoaTaaia yE|idxa ra- 
xa^66via avTiKEi^iEva. Oi £(pT]|^Epi'5e(; ti]^ yupac, SisSiSav owqsia 
dypiE^, UTT£p(3oXiKE^ laxopiE^ y la owcofioatEc; EKpi]^£cov. Era Kiipia 
dp0pa xov, o Tuttoc; ti]^ yapac. £i]toucte to ai\ia tuv avap^tKwv ayKi- 
TaTopcov. 

'Eva |i£ydXo aa[ia EvopKiov ap]|iax(aTi]K£, aTioT£Xou|.i£vo and tte- 
Tl'pifXEVOU^ £TU^£ipT]|.iaTl£^, mi QTldyyElXE KaTr]yopi£^. (...) O Zvd- 
oi'I-ItteXt (ZtM: Evai; air' tou^ KaTi]yopou|.i£vo<j<;) SpanETETOE otijv 

El'pCOTTI]. 

KnvEva^ 5iKi]yopoc; tt]c; ttoXi]^ 8ev Se^otov va avaXdfiEi xi]v imt- 
pdaTiiai] twv KaTT]yopoiTi£vcov. O 8i]Xr]Ti]piw8i]c; T throe; UTroaTijpi^E 
oti o 8iKr]yopo^ ttou 9a UTiEpdom^E tovc; avap^iKou^ 8ev i'jtqv koXu- 
TEpot; nn' ai'ioij^, ottote 9a ETrpEUE va Kp£|.iaoT£t \ac£,i tou^. TeXiko, 
ipEtc; 8r]|x6aioi UTidXXijXoi x6X|ii]aav va TidvE Evdvria axo aia9i]|ia 
6Xr]c: xr\<; yapac,. O ToiuXiafi n. MtcXok, o rov(Xia|x OoaxEp Kat o Zi- 
yK|^ouvT ZeioXep, Eva^ vEapoc; aXXo8aTro^, ttou npoacpaxa ei'^e yi'vEi 
8ektoc; axo SiKrjyopiKd oco^ia. 

Mia ETTlTpOTlT] l'TT£pdaTTl<JT]<; 8l]pOUpyrj9T]K£, aXXd T] OlKOVO^llKI] 

Eviajyoy] Tipoc; tovt; KpaTOunEvout; aiiyKEvxpcovoTav |^e apyo pi'9|i6, 
qe Ttoad and Eva u^ tievte 8oXdpia. 

H Kaxiiyopfa i]xav «cpovop>. O^i oti Ka-noioc; an tovc; o^tw dvxpEc; 
Ept^E tt] (36|a(3ci o {8105, aXXd anXd oti 01 nupivoi Xdyoi Kai xa dp9pa 
xovq co9i]aav to f3o|^(3iaTr'] — ottoio^ ki av rJTav— va pi'^Ei tt] (3o|,i(3ci. Oi 
KaTi'iyopoi Trapouoiaaav Eva auvoXo |iT|5(ccvxCT|Ac6v tovc; ottoiouc;, otcco^ 
ETTE|iEtvav, ei^e ^pT]ai|^OTTon'iaEi o Aivvk yta tt]v KaTaaKEin'] |3o|.if3c6v. 

ZtI^ 1 9 AllyOUOTOl' 01 EvopKoi EKpivav evoyovc, TOl^ KaTi]yopounE- 
vouc; Kai o SiKaaTrjc; rrapi KOTaSiKaaE xovi; Iidpaovc;, Endu;, AivyK, 
OiXvtev, E|3anTT, Oioxp Kai 'EvyKEX oe 9dvaTo. O Ni|.itt, ttoii aTiXd 
i]iav auvi8ioKTi']Ti]c; ti]^ Die Arbeiter Zeitung, KaTa8iKdcrri]K£ ae 15 
ypovia (puXaKi). 

'Otov o 6y\o(; e^w an' to 8iKaaTi]pio Efia0E ti]v a-notpaai), ^Ea-na- 
aE or TravT]yupia|.ioij(;. 

V 

Etouc; KaTa8iKaa|.i£voi'c: EnETpdm] va |^iXi]aouv oto 8iKaaTi]pio. 
Oi Xoyoi toii^ cmo tote TUTTCo9i]Kav ttoXXe^ (popsc; oe <pi'XXd8ia, oe 

6X0 TOV KOO|iO. 



50 



H TlftcoTij Bdfipa 
O Xltdic;: 

Av VOfU^ETE OTI \1E TO VQ flag Kp£flda£T£ 6a E^oXo8p£l5a£T£ TO EpyOTl- 
KO KlVtpa, TOTE CptOvd^TE TO 8l']flt6 oac;... AEV |iTTOpElTE VO KOTaXafiETE. 

O Oioep: 

'Oao TiEpiaaoTEpo 01 tiiotoi oe 8iKaiouc; okottouc; ekteXouvtoi, tooo 
ttio yprjyopa Ta io£(68r] touc; 9a yivovv TrpayfiaTiK6TT|Ta. 

O 'EvyKeX: 

Eijiai ttoXu orivaia9T]fiaTiKog dvBpconog coots va p|v aycovioTto svd- 
vria otic; oi]fiEpiv£g otivBtjkec;. Kd9£ ot>vei8t]t6 aTOfio upETTEi va tto- 

Xe|^1]OEI TO OT)OTT]|ia TTOU ETTlTpETTEl OE EVCIV dvOpCOTTO VO OUyKEVTptOVEt 

EKaTOfifHjpia \xsoa a£ Xiya ^povia, ti] arty^n'] ttou ^iXidSEc; dXXoi yivovTai 
TTEpmAavcofiEvoi rat C^Tidvoi. 

Kai O AlVyK — TTEpi(ppOV1]TlKOC;, TTpOKXljTlKOC;, OTTCOC; T]TQV KOI KCl9' 

6Xt] ti] SidpKEia ttjc; 8iKr|c;: 

EnavaXa|i(3dvco oti Eijiai £^9poc; tt]c; ai]fi£pivrjc; «Td£r]c;» Kai Enava- 
XanfSdvco oti \ie oXec; jiov tic; SuvdfiEic;, oao raipo ava-nvEco, 9a TToXE|ii]aco 
EvavTiov ti]c;. At|Xc6vco ^£Ka9apa Kai avoi^Ta oti Eifiai UTiEp ttjc; 5(prjar]c; 
Piac;. Eina otov Kotttev ZdaK (ZtM: to fmdTao tiou tov ovveXoPe) Kai 
to £TtavaXafi|3dvco: «Av jiac; m'poPoXrjoETE, 6a oac; pi^oufis 8uvafUTi]!» A, 
ysXaTE Xoittov! 'Iacoc; va ttioteuete oti 8ev 9a pd;ov\iE dXXsc; (36fi(5£c;, aXXd 
oac; SiapEfSaicovco oti TiE9aivco EUTV^iofiEvoc; ott] KpEfidXa. Toao tietiei- 
ofiEvoc; £i(iai oti oi ekotovtoSec;, oi ^iXidSsc; arouc; ottoiouc; fi(Xi]oa 6a 
6unoi5vTai Ta Xoyia fiou' Kai oti otov ma 6a jiac; e^ete KpEfidoEi, tote, 
oi]fiEicooTE Ta Xoyia \iov, avxol 6a pi§ouv tic; p6|*|3£c;! Me autVj ti]v eXttiSo 
oac; Xeco: Eac; raTaippovco! KaTacppovco tt|v «Ta^T]» aac;, touc; vdfiouc; oac;, 
Ti] aTT]piyfi£vi] oti] (3ia E^ouaia oac;! KpE^daTE fi£ yi' aired! 

VI 

MaviwSsic; TrpoaTrdBEiEc; i;£Kivi]aav an tt]v imEpdamai] Kai auo pi- 
^oaTiaoTiKEc; opyavcooEic; kqi aTOfia yia va acoBouv oi KaTa8iKaan£voi. 
H Eupcom] dp^iaE va EvSiatpepeTai yia to c/rJTijfia. O T^topT^ MuEpvap 
Eco TTi]y£ oto AovSi'vo |i£ |iia aiTi]ai] yia tijv aTTaXXayrj tcov avap^iKwv, 
|ia^Euovrac; imoypacpEc; ano dyyXouc; avBpwTroi'c; tou TtvEunaToc;. Avd- 
|ieoa a' auTouc; -nov i'TTEypaij;av r']Tav Kai o 'Oarap OudiXvr. 



51 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim/ Afisoitcrj 
Att' tt]v 6Xkr\ |±£pid, a|i£piKdvoi pi^oandaxec; kqi cptXeXEuBepoi 

OTTQq O P6|lTT£pT 'IvyKEpaoX KQt O XfiVpU T^OpT^ (ZtM: p£(pop|il- 

oxec, cpyaTiKoi i]vet£c;) apvi]9i]Kav va aTT£u9uv9ouv oto Kuf3£pvi]Ti] 
'OyK:A£a|.iTTi yia eXeoc;. O 'IvyKEpaoX E^rjyiiaE oxi otov E|icpuXio o 

'OyKX£a(.lTTl TOU Et^E OKI Tl] t/01] KQI TCOpa 8ev VJBeXe VOL TOV OTE- 

va^copi'iaEi. 

Ztic; 10 No£|.if5piovi xov 1887, o kuPepvtjtijc; 'OyKA£a|.iTn ^etetpe- 

v[lE TIC; TTOIVEC; TOU OlXvTEV KQI TOU Epa|iTT OE la6|3ia KaBEip^T]. Tt]V 

i5ia |i£pa o AtvyK tivq^e xa |iuaXd tou otov a£pa, TiupoSoTcovrac; Eva 
|iiKpo Kai|/ouXi |i£aa oto oxoyia tou. H ayaTn]|i£vr| tou to ei^e iiEpd- 
oei XaBpata |i£aa oto keXi tou. O ndpaovc; apvi]9r]K£ va kqvei am]- 
ar\ yia |i£TaTpom'] ti]c; Troivrjc; tou oe iao(3ia, avacpEpovTac; xa Xoyia 
tou ndTpiK XEvpi: «Ac6aT£ |xou eXeuBepiq r\ Scoote |iou to 9dvaTO». 
To dXXo Tiptoi, irpiv KpE|^aaTouv, |.uXT]aav air' tt|v Kp£|idXa: 

(PIZEP: Auti] Eivai i] mo £UTU^ia|i£vi] aTiy^i] tt]c; ^corjc; \iov. 

'ENrKEA: Zi']tco l] avap^ia! 

EI1AIE: 6n ep0Ei raipoc; ttou t| oicom'] \ia<; 8a Etvai ttio Swan] a-rr' 
tic; tpcovEc; ttou oTpayyaXtcjETE otjuEpa. 

I1APZONE: AcpTJarE \ie va niXrjaco, dvTpsc; ti]c; A|^EpiKT]c;. 0a jie 
atprjaEic; va fnXrjatD, aEpicpi] MaTaov; AtprjarE tt] tpfovrj tou Xaou va 

aKOUOTEl. O- 



52 



KEOAAAIO 6 

H AnEPriA ZTO XOM2TENT 



Ms Ti]v io^'poTTOi'r]ar] xi]c; ALi£piKdviKi]c; 0|ioaTiov8iac; Ep- 
yaaiac;, 01 KamxaXiaxsc; i']p9av avxiLiExcoTioi |ae \iia ukAi]- 
poxpd)[i]Xi] opydvcoar] -ki auxo Xiya lioXu; ypovia acpoxou 
Ei^av ■navi]yvpio£i xv; raxaaxpocpiKEc; ettitttcooek; xtjc; Aikt|c; xcov 
Avap^iKcov ndvco axo EpyaxiKO Kivi]|ia. Ap^iaav va KaxaXafSafvow 
oxi oik; TTEpiTCTuaEii; nov ot EpyaxiKoi ijyEXEc; rjxav |ii] E^ayopdai- 
|ioi, xo EpyaxiKO Kivi]fia ettpette va avxifXEXcomaxEi \ie iieBoSow; mo 
navoupyEc; Kai mo piaiEc; air' ai'XE<; ttou ^pi]aifxoT[on]6i]Kav yia va 
raxaaxaXouv 01 i;£ar|K(0|ioi xcov Sekoexicov xou '70 kqi xou '80. EIpo- 
aEBEaav Xoitiov Eva veo ottXo axov xtoXEfiiKO E^OTrXia|j.6 tow; — xt] 
Aiaxayrj. Airrrj r'jxav |iia PeXxiw^evi] ekSoqt] xou naXiou «vd|iou TtEpi 
awcoLioaiap), tiou aTtayopEVE axouc; EpydxEc;, oe kottoiec; TTEpiTixco- 
oek;, va anEpyow, va TiEpicppoupow xi]v anEpyia Kai yEvira va npo- 
TiayavSi^ouv toxx; okottoijc; lovq. 

H TipcoxT] TTEpiTcxcooT] EpyaxiKT]^ AiaTayrjc; eXo^e ^wpa axi] Maaa- 
5(oua£xr] xo 1888, oxav Eva SiKaaxrjpio aTiayopETOE axouc; aTiEpyouc; 
evoc; kXcooxikoij £pyaoxi]piou «va ui|/covoi)v ai]|iai£c; [ie aufx(3oXa, yiaxi 
auxEc; anoxEXouv |^£aa £Kcpo(3iafxou Kai aTTEiXi]^ Evavxicov ax6|icov, 
Exai waxE auxd va |ii] imouv axo x^po Epyaaiac; Kai va p] ouve- 
yioovv xt] 8orX£id». To aTroxEX£a|^a rjxav va otEpTJaouv an' xovq 
Epya^oiiEvoi'c; -oi TiEpiaaoxEpoi an' xouc; ottoiouc; rjxav tioXixec; xcov 
HnA— xa auvxayLiaxiKa xovc; 8iKaico|iaxa xt]c; £Kcppaai]c;, xor Tutiou, 
xt)c; awd9poiai]c;, aKOLia Kai xi]c; Tiapowiac; axouc; Spo^ouc; non rjxav 
Kovxd axic; iSioKxijaiEc; xcov £pyo8oxcov. 



53 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing crrtjv Afisoitcrj 

Atto tote i] AiaTayi] ^pi]ai|.ioTTon]8i]K£ an' Tore; KaTriTaXioTEc; cte 
ttoXXec; (TEydXEc; piopj^aviKEc; \iayzc,, avjya [ie |T£ydXi] aTioxEkea\ia- 
tikotijto, \aaC,i (.ie to Xok doi'T, ti] |raupi] Xicrra, tic; acpaipEc;, xa poTia- 
Xa ifflv aaTWO|iiKuv, Ti]v KaTaaKoma rai tt]v TrpoTTaydvSa. Ta SiKa- 
crrijpia i]Tav o^e86v oveu opcov oto irXEupo tou |i£ydXoi' KEcpaXai'oi' 
Kai Evdvria otot'c; £pya£o|.i£voc<c;. 

BEfkua, cm tt]v otttiki] ycovia tcov KaniTaXicrrcov i] AiaTayrj i]Tav 
8iKaioXoyi]|T£VT|. H aTTEpyta oto KaTto-KaTco i]Tav Evac; i;£ai]Kco|.i6c; 
Evdvria oto vxiapypv ai5aTi]fia Kai imo ai'TEc; tic; otvBtjkec; 8ev r\xav 
TrapdXoyo 01 iBuvovtec; va KaTapyTjaow to vdfxo. T.xa 8iaX£i'|.i|TaTa, 
OTnv orov tq^iko aycova wtrjp^e avaKcop], o vo\ioc, EirpETTE va ttq- 

ptaTQVEl TO SiaiTl]Tl] OTIC; a^EOElc; TCOV Tdi]EWV Kai TCOV TipOCJCOTTCOV, 

aXXd i] aTTEpyta i|iav tt6Xe[xoc; — aTTOKaXoirrav tt6Xe|.ioc; Kai an' tic; 
8uo ttXeupec;— mi t] AiaTayi] i]Tav \ua xipafy] ttoXe^ou. 

Att' tt]v dXXi] nXETpd, i] ekSocti] AiaTayijc; - ttou oTJ^aivE npaKTiKa 
oti oi EpyaTiKoi i)y£T£c; ai'XXa|.if3dvovTav Kat KpaTouvrav coc; «ai)y.id- 
Xcotoi ttoXe|.iot'» an' ti] aTiy|ii] ttoi< ^ekivouctov Eva la^upo KiVi]|.ia 
Evdvria qtouc; EpyoSoTEc;— auaawpEUE oti]v EpyaTiKi] Tal;i] 6Xo Kat 
|i£yaXtJTEpi] ayavdKTT]aT]. Ot EpyaTEc; dp^iaav va ^dvoi'v tic; ai'Ta- 
TtaTEc; touc; TTEpt tot' StKatoT' tou vo(itKoi5 ot'ott] (totoc; tijc; ^copac;. H 

TTap6p|Tl]OT| TCOV EpyOTCOV TTpOC; TI] f3ta — TTpOC; TO 8wa|TlTl], TOV E|TTTpi]- 

a|id, ti]v ekteXeoi]- ytvoTav la^upoTEpi] (iETa auo koGe AiaTayi], 
[lExa and Ti]v aTTOTi'^i'a kAQe vd|Ti[xi]c; TTpocmdBEiac; yia KaXuTEpEuai] 

TCOV OT'v9l]KC0V. 

II 

H TrpoTraydv8a yia to o^Tdcopo l;avdp^ia£ afTEacoc; [iexa Ti]v e(.i- 
cpdviai] oto TrpoaKi]vio ti]c; A|T£piKaviKi]c; 0|ioaTrov8iac; Epyaaiac;. 
O rKo^iTTEpc; (ZtM: Trpo£8poc; Ti]c; A.O.E.) Kai oi awEpydTEc; tou 8ev 
i]iav £v9oi'aiaa|T£voi \iz to yEyovdc; ai'TO. H iSecx VJTav T'TT£pf3oXiKd 
pi^oaTTaaTiKi] yi' auTouc; Kai i] utt66eot| tcov avap^iKuv (toti EiKayo) 
tjtov aKdLii] vcotti] oti] |^vi](«] toti Koivocj. AXXd a|T£acoc; |t6Xic; oi (3io- 
|ii]XaviK£c; ai'v6i]K£c; KaXuTEpEcaav EXacppd, oTa teXi] ti]c; SEKaETiac; 
toc '80, £|Tcpavicrri]K£ evtovo to aiTi]|.ia tcov aw8iKaTcov yia |TiKpoTE- 
pi] £pydai|Ti] |TEpa. 

Eto anv£8pio tou 1888, i] A.O.E. ETriai]na airocpdoioE va koXeoei 
oe yEviKi] aTTEpyia Ti]v li] Mdi] toc 1890 SiEKSiKcovrac; to o^Tacopo 



54 



H Aneoyia (no Xofiarevj 



yia 6Xe^ xi^ |3to|^i])[aviE^ ttou EKTipooxoTrouvxav oxi]v opydvwai]. H qtto- 
cpaai] syivE 8ektt] \ie iKavoTionjcn] an' xi] \idl^a xcov Epyaxcov' aXXd 

OTO ETTOfXEVO OTVESpiO, Ol T]y£T£C; E|.l(pavtaTT]Knv xpO|.lOKpaXl]}i£VOl. 

'Evico6av oxi 01 ettitttwctei^ |Aio^ TtiSavfjc; anoxi^'at; tt]c; aixEpyiac; 
9a rjxav UTT£p|3oXiKd KaxaaxpocpiKEi; yia va to piarapow. 'Exai, 
aTTOtpdaiaav va anEpyrjaEi |^6vo Eva awSiraxo — 01 ^apayKoi— xr]v 
TTpoKa6opia|i£vi] jispa. H aTTEpyfa EyivE Kai ^ieoti oe Xiysc; |38o|idS£<; 
K£p8i]8i]K£ i] £<pap|xoyrj xou oyxa&pov yia tov KXd8o a£ Trdvu and 
EKaxo ttoXek;. 

riaipvovra^ Gdppoc; an' xi]v ETrm^ia xcov fiapayKuv, 01 EpydxEc; 
Opi'^Eicov aTTOtpdaiaav va aTiEpyrjaow xi]v li] Mai] xou 1891, aXXd 
tt|v itapa|xovi] xr]c; anEpyiac; 01 tjyexec; anotpdaiaav 6xi to auvSiKaxo 
8ev ei^e tic; aTTapaiTT]T£(; 8uvdji£i<; Kai £8waav oSrjyiEi; aroix; £pydx£<; 
va TTapa|i£tvoi'v axi] SouXfiid. O <po|3o(; xuv r]y£X(ov yia anoxi^ia rjxav 
8iKaioXoyi]|^Evo^, aipou oxa opvyeia um'jp^E TrXi]9wpa p] opyavco|.i£- 
vcov jiExavaoxcov Epyaxcov, Sia0£ai|icov yia xo andai^io xt]c; auEpyiac;, 
xi]v upa ttou xo xa^Eio xov awSiKaxou rjxav tcoXu la^vo yia va awxr|- 
prjaEi Eva LiaKpu aycova. H naxai'coai] xi]c; anEpyiac;, ndvxcoc;, £^aa9£vi- 
oe 6Xr] xr]v TrpoTraydvSa yia xo o^xdaspo Kai rrEpaaav ^povia [isypi xo 
Ki'vi)|ia va avaKxrjaEi xo aOsvoc; xov. 

Tia |Aia axiyp'] o rKOLiTTEpc; avaKoucpiaxTjKE. Eiys. E^avayKaaBEi va 
aanaaxEi xr]v TCponaydvSa yia xo o^xdtopo, aXXd r] rapSid Kai xo |.iu- 
aX6 xou rjxav avxi'BExa a' au/tfj. H iSeo naparjxav pitpaTiaaxiKrj yx 
auxov' E|3a^E oe kivSuvo xic; auvxi]pi]xiK£c; tcoXixikec; xou, yia va \iy\v 
ttou|xe Kai xi]v (Sia xi] Bfiai] xov coc; npo£8pou xt]c; A.O.E.. O rKonrrEpc; 
8ev rjxav axpaxEi'i^Evoi; dvBpwrroc; ouxe auGop^nxoc; fxa^i]xi]^, aXXd 5o- 
XottXokoc;, itoXixikoc;, dvBpcorroc; tou au|i[3if3aa|.iou. rioXE|.ioijaE avoi- 
yxa i^ovov oxav 8ev LnxopouaE va kovei aXXicoc;. 

Ill 

AXXd TrpayfiaxiKT] Eiprjvr] 5ev i']p0E" avxi'6Exa, o ttoXe^oc: (.ioXic; 

dpx<e- 

To 1892 i] ayavdKXT]ai] ^EanaCTE oxi\v aTTOKaXou|iEvr] anEpyia oxo 
X6|iaxEvx, i] ouoia oxi]v npayi^axiKoxiixa i]xav sva Xok doi'x noi' 
evettXeke an' xi] \iia xovc; EpydxE^ ZiSipou Kai AxoaXiou, ttou [ie 
25.000 ^ieXi] i']xav Eva an' xa 8i<vaxox£pa auv5iKaxa axi] ydpa, Kai 
axi xr|v dXXr] xi]v ExaipEi'a AxaaXioii KdpvEx^i. Elpiv xpia jpovia xo 



55 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 

awSiKdxo ziyz avayvcopiaxEi air' xi]v ExaipEia' axi]v TrpayfiaxiKoxr]- 
xa, t] exaipsia Kai to auv8iKaxo eiyav owdt[)£i eva xpiEXEc; cnxipd- 
Xaio, a[i£out; [lExd xt] Xrji;T] tou ottoioi' t] Kdpvex^i 6a |.i£icov£ xouc; 
|iia9ouc;. To awSiraxo aTTonoii]9i]K£ xi] oa'^tpcovta avxr\ Kai xi]v li] 
IouXt], npiv Ki]pi')[XEi aiTEpyia, ot EpydxEc; fyupviKa KX£i8c69r|Kav e^w. 

ripiv an' ai'xo, navxcoc;, o Avxpiou Kdpv£x£i TipopXETiovxac; xo 
^EaTraa|.ia xtjc; pfac; napEScoaE xi] 8ioikt]ot| axov ap^tEmoxdxr], xov 
XEvpi OpiK, Evav o|ioXoyi]H£vo Kai |3iaio E^0p6 xcov auvSiraxcov Kai 
EcpuyE Y ln T1 l v EupuTn]. 

O <J>piK SrjXcoox a^iEacoc; \ie xi]v Tcpd^i] xor (xo Xok dorx) oxi i]9e- 
Xe xioXelio \ieypu; eoyaxav. 'Yi|/coa£ Eva aiipjidxivo KiyKXi5w|xa xpia 
l^iXia |^aKpu Kai Sekotievxe TioSia i[n]X6 yiipco air' xa Epyoxd^ia, Kat 
koXeoe xt]v ExaipEi'a vxexekxiP riivKEpxov va xou oxeiXei xpiaKoaiouc; 
maxoXdSEc;. 

Oi «kXeiScoli£voi e^co» EpydxEc; aKouaav oxi Ep^ovxai 01 EIivKEp- 
xovc; Kat Ti£pi|i£vav xi]v dtpi^i] xovc;. 'H^Epav oxi 8a epyovxav ottXi- 
o|^£voi maxoXaSfic; Kai Tipo£xoi|^daxi]Kav yia va xouc; avxi|.i£xcoTii'aow 
[ie xovc; 1810115 dpouc;. 

Ti] vvyxa xtjc; 5i]<; IouXiou Eva tiXoio y£|Mxo riivKEpxovc; npoad- 
pa^E axo X6|iax£vx. Mia \iayi] aKoXou9i]a£, axijv OTioi'a 8eko okoxu- 
9r]Kav Kai xpEic; cpopEc; TiEpiaadxEpoi xpau|^axiaxi]Kav. Exo xeXoc; 01 
EpydxEc; I'TtEpia^i'aav xcov TiiaxoXdScov, xouc; Emaaav oXoi'c; (ekxoc; 
au' xovc; Xiyouc; nou eijfiv aKoxco9£i) Kai xouc; Kpdxipav coc; «ai^- 
HaXcoxouc; tioXe[xou» yia 24 upEc;, 8ic6xyovxat; xouc; xeXiko and xi]v 
tioXt], acpou TTpoi]yoii|iEvt05 xouc; acpdnXiaav. 

El;aypicoLi£voc; o OpiK ^t]xi]cte an' xov KiipEpvrjxi] xi]c; EIoXixEiac; 
xr|c; n£vai'X(3dvia va oxeiXei xi]v £9vocpuXaKrj. 'Exai Kai EyivE, Kai 
I^Eaa a£ XiyEc; [XEpEc; r| jiiKpi] noXi] |.ie xa Epyaoxi'ipia Kai xouc; 12.000 
KaxoiKouc; HExaxpdm]K£ oe axpaxoTi£8o. 

Oi axpaxiwxEc; napEfXEivav |.i£xpi to xeXo^ xov NoEfiPpr], otioxe t| 
anEpyia eXi]^£ ETTiaima \ie TrXi]pi] rjxxa xuv Epyaxcov. To xa^iEio xou 
ai'vSiKdxov i']xav d8Eio' o ^Ei^wvac; TiXi]aia^£, Kai 01 oiKoyEVEiEc; xwv 
Epyaxcov TiEivouaav Kai Kpucovav. AtieXttioi^evoi, 01 EpydxEc; yupiaav 
axi] 8oi'XEid xov<; coc; |^r] aw8iKaXia|i£voi. 



56 



H Aneoyia (no Xofiarevj 



IV 



AXXd o OpiK Sev KEp5ia£ xi] |id^i] aXwPnTo^. Ytttjp^e tote otic; 
HELA Evac, vEapoc; avapyiKOi;, o AAE^avSpoc; MTi£pyK|.iav, 6ai^n- 
ott\<; xov Aotjk; AivyK Km EpnaTi]^ tijc; 'E|i|.ia rKoXvr^av, o ottoioc;, 
aKouyovrac; yia tt|v evottXi] auyKpoi'or) ^ETa^u tcov aTTEpyuv Kai twv 
TTiaToXd8cov KQTEcpTaaE oto XofxaTEVT Kai EioE^aXE oto ypacpEio TOU 

OpiK. 

«0 Kupioc; <J>piK Etvai a.TKXoyo~ki]\iEvo(;», xov eitce o ^aupo^ a^8o- 

(popOCI (JTOV OTTOIO O MTT£pyK|^av £8£l^£ TT]V KdpTQ TOT'. «A£V JiTTOpEl 

va oat; 5ei T(6pa». 

O MnEpyK^iav Pyi]KE an' to ScojidTio uttoSo^t'i? ETiiTa^wovTac; to 
fir\[ia xov |^Tn]K£ oto 5w|iaTio ottou Ka9oTav o KaXovTu^iEvo^ dvTpac; 
[i£ tt] jiaupT] y£v£td5a. Auo dXXoi ra9ovTav oto 1810 Tpans^i, Trpocpa- 
vw^ au£i]TcSvTac; |^£ to OpiK. 

«OpiK», eitte o MTtEpyK^iav' tote o ^opcpaafToc; Tpd^OU TOl< OpiK 
tov dcpT]o£ dcpuvo. «KaTdXnf5E», eitte |.i£aa tou o MTTEpyK^iav. «'Iaco<; 
cpopaEi aX£^tacpaipo», aK£(pTi]K£ Kai Pyd^ovTac; to pep6X(3ep tod ar]- 

[idSglj/E TO KECpdXl TOV OpiK. 

O OpiK dp-rra^E \ie xa 8vo xov %£pia Ta jiTrpaTaa tt]^ TroXuBpo- 
va^ Kai aTC£aTp£i|;£ to Tpo|^ay|^£vo npoauTro tou. O MTTEpyK^iav txv- 

po|36Xl]a£. O OpiK ETTECTE OTO yOVOTa, \l£ TO KECpdXl TOD TtdvW OTO 

l^-npdTao Ti]^ TToXi'Bpovac;. «E[£9av£;» avapuTi]9i]K£ o MTTEpyK^av. 
Tote KaTroioc; tov dpira^E TriawTrXaTa kqi tov spi^E oto sSacpoc;. Kai 
dXXoi EUEaav Ttdvu xov. 'Otov tov arJKtoaav, ei5e oti o OpiK 8ev 

1]TQV VEKpOC;. QoTOCTO Cli\ia ETpE^E aTTO \IICI TrXT]yi] OTO Xai|i6 TOT' KQI 

to naupo i^ouai xov elye (3a(pT£i kokkivo. 

Tin \iia aTiy|ii] o vsapo^ Kai a<; tote aTTEipot; Tpo^ioKpaTTjc; evicoot 
«evo napd^Evo awai'a9i]na, koti oa vTpom']»' a\ieoa(; |.iETd aTroyoi]- 
tei5ti]ke and tov equto toi\ etteiSt] ei^e vkboti airro to auvai'a9i]|.ia 
«to toqo aTaipiaaTO yia Evav ETravaaTdTT]». 

H aaTl'VOfiia £(pTaa£ Kai |i£T£(p£p£ TO MTTEpyK^iav OTI] (pi'XaKI]. 

«'Eyaoa xa yuaXid |j.ou», 8ia|^apTupT]Br]K£ o MTTEpyK^iav qtotk; 
aaTiivo|xiKoi5^. 

«@a Eiaai ttoXu TU^Epoc; av 8e ^qoek; to KEcpdXi aou», tou aTrdvTi]- 
qe Evac; qtt' qutouc;. 

O Mn£pyK|iav KaTa5iKdaTT]K£ a£ 22 ^povia cpuXaKr']. 'E^ieive ^ieoq 
15. H Trpd^T] tou 9£topT]9T]K£ £yKXr||ia, aXXd ttiow air' auTi] I'nrjp^E 



57 



cva KivT]Tpo KoivuviKrjc; EK5iKT]ai]^, [lux aTTEyvcoanEvi] TTpoaTrdBsia 
evo^ KoivwviKou iSEaXtaTi] va f3oi]9i]a£i tore; cm:£ATna|.i£voi<<; EpydxEc; 
ttod airEpyoiJaav, Py^ovxac; cmo xr\ [ilat] tov wyvpo tiipawo ttou 
toix; ttoXehoijcte. 



KEOAAAIO 7 

«H ESErEPSH TOY NTEMII5:» 



Ait' xi^ tcoXXec; |iiKp£<; aTTEpyiEc; axii; ap^ic; xi]<; Sekoexioc; xou 
90 t] Tito aii^avTiKT] rjxav aim] xcov ai8i]po5pofxiK<Bv X El P l ~ 
axcov axo MxidtpaXo, to 1892, yia XiyoxEpE^ Epydai^Ec; cop£<; 
Kai |i£yaAiJT£pou<; jiiaGouc;. 'Ottcoc; oi TiepiaaoTEpe^ anEpyiEc; xi|<; 

Tl£pi68oU EKEIV1]C;, aTTETl'^E. Zxi]V aTTEpyia QUIT] OV\l\XEXEl')(av |10VO 

300 dvxp£<;, aXXd oi auvETTEiEi; xijc; Ecpxaaav ttoXu fiaKpid. Oi ciSeX- 
(p6xi]TEc; (k£oy_E<;) xcov ai8i]po8pofiiKCDv apvrjOrjKav va axr\pi£pw xi]v 
aTTEpyia, Trpdy|ia ttou rjxav t] paaiKrj aixia xi]c; auoxuxiac; xijc; Kai 
ttou E^aypfcooE evqv dvxpa jiE xo ovofxa I\oux£iv Nxe^to;, xoxe yeviko 
ypafi|j.axEa Kai xafiia xou ZuvSiKaxou ©Ep^aaxcov Axnofxi]x avl te- 
O NxEprc; ei'^e TrpoaTTa0i']aEi va coBrjaEi xr]v opydvcoar] xou vn Ki]pu- 
^ei |iia aTTEpyia aXXT]XEyyiJi](; Kai, oxav aTTExu^E, Tiapaixi]6i]KE axi xi] 
9EQT] xou. 

Ti]v etto%Vj ekeivt] o NxEfiTK; 8ev rjxav ofxoXoyi]|j.Evo^ aoaiaXiaxrjc;, 
aXXd avayvcopt^E Kaxroia al;ia axo auv8iKaXiaxiKO Kivijfia pXsTtovxac; 
xo coc; Eva ypr\oi\io EpyaXEi'o. 'H9eXe va 8ei oXouc; xouc; EpydxEc; ai8i]- 
po8p6|icov «opyavw|i£vouc; a£ |iia Kai fxovaSiKrj jiEydXi] opydvcoarp. 

'Exai iSpuaE xo 1893 xi]v A^EpiKaviKi] Ei8r|po8poniKrj 'Evcoar], y] 
OTiofa \ieaa a sva ^povo EcpxaaE va e^ei 150.000 ^eXi]. 

O Nxe|ito;, ttou xoxe ei%e xtEpdaEi ma xa xpidvxa, rjxav Evac; \\ii]- 
Xoc;, Xettxoc; dvxpac; \ie yaXXoaXaaxiKrj pi£a' fiia ^EaaiaviKi] l-iopcpTJ 
yE|idxi] aia9rj|iaxa yia xouc; Suaxuxiafisvouc; Kai xouc; KaxamEofiE- 
vouc;' Evac; yEwaioc; Kai l;£Ka8apoc; dvBpcoTroc;, |^e TipoacoTTiKoxijxa 
xiou ekove oxioiov xov awavtote va xov aujma9i]a£i. Zxa 14 xou 
ei^e 8ouXei|/ei axa fiaya^id ax|io|ii]xavc6v axo TEp Ox xi]c; Ivxidva, 



59 



A mauling: H Iarogia Ttjg Trf^najg Bing crrtjv Afisoinr/ 

mi apyoiepa EyivE 9£p|^aaTi]^ otic; \ii]yav£(;. Tt] SsKaexia tou '80 
ei^e EKXsyei ypa|.i|^aTEac;-Taniac; ttjc; AS£Xcp6Ti]Tac; tcov @£p|.iaaTc6v 
|i£ |iia96 4000 SoXdpia to ^povo. O veoc; |±ia86c; tou, coc; nposSpou 
xi]c; A|i£piKaviKi)c; Ei8i]po5po|iiKT]c; 'Evcoaijc;, rJTav to ttoXu 75 SoXd- 
pia to fii]vn. 

II 

H A|i£piKaviKi) Zi5i]po8po|iiKi] 'Evcoai] ekXeive svn %povo ^a>r\<;, 
oxav |ita |iiKprj avaTapa^i] ^eKivi]aE ctttjv noXi] IlouXfiav tou IXi- 
voic;. ISpurjfc kqi i8ioKTT]Ti]t; ttjc; TroXric; VJTav o T^opT^ IiouX|iav, o 
|3aaiXidc; tcov EmpaTiKuv TpEvcov. Oi EpyaTEc; TrXrpcovav evoikio yia 
tic; KaToiKiEc; touc; cttijv ETaipEia EIouX|iav, c|/c6vi£av omo xa |iaya£id 
ti]^ ETaipEiac;, EaTEXvav xa TraiSid touc; a' Eva oyoXeio ttou avrJKE 
axi\v ETQipEi'a, Tpiyupvouaav otov eXeuBepo jpovo touc; axo ITdpKO 

TOU K. EIouX|iav KQt ETTlaKETTTOVTav TO 0EaTp6 TOU KQI TT]V EKkXijOTCT. 

tou. Ta Trdvra i'|tqv o ElouXfiav. 'Htov Evac; cpiXoc; tou EpydTr|, Ttou 
i]^Ep£ -kqi 8e otjkcove avrippTjai]— ti ryxav raXo yia tov EpydTT|. To 
qXkooX, yia TrapdSEiyfxa, r\xav kqko' etcti, t] riouX|iav r\xav \iia «oxe- 
jvr\» ttoXt]. Ta auvSiraTa r\xav KaKd' etot, o auvSiKaXia|.i6c; VJTav 
anayopEUfisvo 9£|ia au£i]TT]aT]c; oxyrv ElouXfxav. Me ti]v i'5ia XoyiKrj, 
o k. nouX^av yyxav EvdvTia aTO opxicopo, acpou to oprdcopo Ttpow- 

9ou<J£ T1]V TE|lTT£Xld. 

AXXd aX(|.iovo! Flap' oXec; tic; Trpo(3X£i|;£ic;, oi ayKiTaTopEc; ti]c; A|ie- 
piraviKijc; Ei8i]po8po|.UKi]c; 'Evcocttjc; KaTop6coaav va Trap£iacppi|aouv 
ott] au|.nra9i]TiKi] ttoXi] kqi va opyavwaouv touc; £pya£6fi£vouc; axa 

ETTlPaTlKQ TpEVQ. 

Tt]v dvoicjr] tou 1894 oi 8ouXei.ec; 8ev Trrjyaivav KaXd' etch, o k. 
ITouX|iav |.iEi'coa£ touc; |.ua9ouc; cmo 30 ecoc; 40 toic; ekqto kqi tov 
api6(.io tcov unaXXrjXcov tou tcaxa to 1/3, ^e^vcovtqc; tt]v iSia aTiy(.ii] 
va |i£icoa£i Ta EvoiKia tcov ottiticov tou koi tic; tiliec; tcov Ttpo'iovrcov 
crra ixaya^id tou. Oi a^dpicrtoi £pya£6|i£voi tt]c; ETaipEiac; tou 8ev 
Eu^apiaTi|9T]Kav (.ie 6Xa qutq, kqi to Mar] crra|^dTr|aav tt] SouXeio. 

Auti] Ka9auTr] T] aTUEpyia VJTav a^ETtKa ijoaovoc; oy]\iaoicu; ^t]ti]- 
[ia, o5T]yt]a£ 6|.icoc; oto |i£yaXuT£po EpyaTiKO c;£ai]Kcon6 aTi]v laTopi'a 
tcov HnA. 

'Otqv i] A.E.E. auv£5p(aa£ crto EtKayo otic; 12 Iouvr], t] aTUEpyia 
aTT]v EIouX|.iav ekXeive Eva \ir\va c^coi']c;' |ie tic; SouXeiec; va Trr]yaivouv 



60 



H E£,£yeoar/ tov Nrefing 

aoj)]\aa, i] exaipeia Se voia^oxav yia to nooo ot EpyaTE^ 9a £|i£vav 
ektoc; epyaaia^. 'Iaw^ to \iovo ttov cmaoyokovoe to [XEydXo av9pco- 
ttioti] Kiipio EIoi)X|.iav va r\iav xa 70.000 SoXdpia ttov tov ypaoxov- 
aav 01 aTtepyot yia evoikio. 

O nouA|iav ekoi|/e Ti]v tticftcoot] tuv |iaya£iwv tov Trpoc; tov^ 
aTrepyouc; Kai npiv to teXoc; tov Mai] i] TiX£iov|n](pia twv oiKoyEVEi- 
wv AijiOKTOvouaE. O ai5£ai|iOTaTO^ Toviha\i KapvTyovopvriv, even; 
TrnTtd^ ti]C| ttoXijc; EIoi)X|.iav ttou ai^iTrapaaTEKOTav crtouc; aTTEpyoik;, 
£|i(pav(aTi]K£ oto avvESpio XT]? A.E.E. Kai SrjXwaE: «Zto ovo^d tov 
©eou Kai xr\(; AvGpamoTijTa^, Spdcnx ypi]yopa». 

To avvfiSpio i|/rj(pia£ Ti]v Eiotpopd 2.000 SoXapiwv yia tt|v ava- 
Kovtpiar] tuv oiKoyEVEiwv twv anEpycov rai oi avTmpoacoTroi dp^iaav 

va al)£r|TOUV T1]V TTpOOTCTlKl] [iTTOUKOTa^. 

O Nte|ittc: npoaT[d9r]a£ va SiaupayfiaTEvGEt. 'EuteiXe avriTipo- 
awTrov(; <jtov T. X. Tovikk;, avrmpoESpo tt]^ ETaipEi'ac;, aXXd o ku- 
pioc; airr6<; Tore; eitte va ttoitv aTO Nte|ittc; va nasi oto SidoXo. Aev 
VTTi'ip^E «TiTcoTa yia 8iaTrpayndTEvai]». EIpoaGfiaE etti'ot]^ oti oi aTtEp- 
yoi 5e arjuaivav yia 'keivov koti TiEpiaaoTEpo ano touc; «£T]Tidvoi<<; 

TOU Tt£^o5pOfilOV». 

Ill 

Tote apyioav ot xapayec,. H A.Z.E. aia9avoTav |idXXov SirvaTrj. 
ripiv Svo |ir']v£c;, o Nte|ittc; ei^e SiopyavwaEi \iia aTTpo£i5oTTOU]Tr] 
aTTEpyia oto MEydXo BopEio Zi8i]p68po|io Kai tijv KEpSiaE. Twpa oi 
avTmpoacoTroi oto auvsSpio TTiorEuav oti opyavwvovTac; |iia |i£yaAi> 
TEpi] aTrpoEi8oT[oii)Tii anEpyia 9a TiETv^aivav |xia aKO|ia liEyaXuTEpi] 
Kai EVKoXoTEpi] viKT]. 'E8waav Siopia 4 |iEp£^ otijv ETaipEia riovX- 
[iav yia va ^£Kivi]a£i SianpaynaTEuaEi^ |i£ tt]v aTiEpyiaKi] ETUTpoTn']. 
H ETaipEia apvTJ9i]K£ aKO|ii] Kai va SiapdaEi to TEXfiaiypacpo. 

Etic; 26 Iouvt] o Nte|xtt^, Ei;oi<aioSoTi]|i£voc; an' to avvESpio, kt]- 
pv^E |.iTToiJKOTd^ oto f3ayovia tt|c; EIouAfiav a£ oXec; ti^ Autikec; ai5r|- 
po8po|iiKE^ ypa|i|.i£^. Ta payovia aTTOKomjKav cm' ti^ |ii]^av£c; Kai 
dpa^av oti^ Poi]9i]tike^ ypan|i£<;. Meoo oe 8vo |i£p£^ 6Xe^ oi av- 
vaXXayE^ avd^Eaa oto EiKayo Kai to Zav OpavTaiaKO 8iaK6TTi]Kav. 
ripaKTiKa, avTO o8r]yT]aE a£ auEpyiE^. 

Oi £<pi]|i£pi8E(; dp^iaav va copuovTai. rioio(; i]Tav teXoc; TidvTtov 
ai'Toc; o Nte|itt^; EIco^ i-iTTopovaE va KavEi TETOia Trpdy|.iaTa; 



61 



A mauling: H Iajogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 

To LlTTOiiKOTd£ TTOU KT]pi^E 1]TQV «avd|.l£ll;T] CTTO ELlTTOpiO TCOV al5r|- 

po8p6|i(j)v»' rjxav «awcoLioaia» Kai, aKOLia ^eipoTepa, rjxav «avap- 
yia». 

AXXd o Tpdiroc; ttou avaTTTU)[6T]KE to KivrjLia avaLitpipoXa rJTav ek- 
ttXt]^i] mi ook yia xov (Sio to Ntelitic;, oao t]tqv Kai yia tt|v i'ttoXoitti] 
^wpa. ripo^c6pi]a£ ttoXu LiaKpuTEpa air' oao ai'Toc; ei^e Trpo|3AEv|/£i. 
O Ntelitic; E^aaE tov eXey^o cilieckoc; lieto tt]v Ecpapfxoyr] "tou litto- 
i3KOTa£. Oi ypaLiLiEc; dSEiaaav cmo EpyaTEc;, acpou kqGe awoiraTO 
cpiXiKa TipoaKEiLiEvo Tipoc; tt]v A.E.E. airEpyouaE. 

O raXoc;, EuyEviKoc; Ntelitic; koXouoe touc; dvTpEc; va lit] ^pr]ai|.io- 
TTOirjaow p(a, aXXd 6a i']tqv aKpt(3w^ to 1S10 av 5e liiXouoe KaBdXov. 
Zto ZiKayo i] (3ia rJTav avanocpEi'KTr]. Oi Aouic; Kai Zlu9, oto Epyo 
tovc; EiKiiyo-Min IajoQia jt/g <P?fot/(; Tov, ypdcpow: 

'OXi] r] ayavdKTi]ai], i] -TTEpnrXdvriaT] Kai T] anoyvcoar] uoi' ziyz \xa- 
£eutei crn]v i\ivyr\ ttjc; tt6Xt]c: 6X0 tov airaiaio ai'TOv ^EiLiciJva, ^EcrnaoE 
otic; ai8T]po8poLUK£c; TtEpio^Ei;. Ta aiTTJLiaTa Ei^av irdi|(£i ma va e^ouv 
or|Liaaia. . . Oi LiEyiaTavEc; tcov TpEvcov ijxav aTrocpaaiaLisvoi va XEiToup- 
yrjaouv tic; LU|^av£c;. YiTdAXT|Xoi ttou yia eikooi ^povia 8ev Ei^av ^EipiaTEi 
(3aXpi8a, £TUOTpaT£iJTi]Kav Kai LinrJKav aTic; KaLnrivEc;' dXXoi, avEXaPav 
va ^Eipiorouv touc; 8iaKOTiT£c; tcov ypaLiLicov. EK8ic6^8i]Kav olicoc; air' Ta 
ttXi']8i] nou copuovrav Kai n£Touaav Toi3[5Xa. E8co ki ekei, Lir^avEc; Ka- 
TaaTpEcpovTav' oXoKXi]pa Tpaiva avairoSoyi'pi^ovTav. Metxi and Xiyo, 
Ta airoBELiaTa tcov ttoXecov a£ KpEac; dp^iaav va LisicovovTai. O Xilioc; 
dp^ias va aTTEiXsi to MsaoSimKa. 

O T£ov AXtykeXt rJTav tote KiipEpvTJTTjc; xou IXivoic;. 'Htqv cpava- 
tikoc; EpyaTocpiXoc; Kai pi£oairdaTi]c;. Tov TrpoijyoiJLiEvo ^(povo eScooe 
%apy] a£ TpEic; avap^iKouc; ttoi< Ppi'aKovTav cpuXaKiaLiEvoi yia tt]v e^e- 
yEpai] tov XEiLiapKET. Ettolievcoc;, oi EpyoSoTEc; 8ev UTtopoiJaav va 
PaaiaTouv a' auTOv yia Eva toqo aopapo ^i]Ti]|ia. 'Etoi oi ramTa- 
XiaTEc; xov EiKayo aTiEi'9i)v9i]Kav KaTEuBEiav oti]v OLioaTiov8iaKi] 
Ki'Pfipvi]ai] ^i)TcovTac; axpaTO yia KaTaaToXi]. 

O TipoESpoc; KXiPeXovt Sieto^e aLiEacoc; toktikec; ^iovoSec; va 
etteliPow oto ZiKayo Kai aXXou. 'H5i] Tipiv auo tt]v 4i] IouXiou TO 
EiKayo eijE LiETaTpauEi oe aTpaTOTCESo, lie udvco and 10.000 aTpa- 
ticotec; xov tie^ikoij, xov iTTTiiKoi) aKOLia Kai xou m'popoXiKou avoi- 



62 



H E£,£yeoar/ tov Nrefing 



nXi]9i] Epyaxcov ef3pi£av xovc; axpaxicoxsc;, axioKaXwvxac; xovc; 
«cm£pYOcnTdaT£(;» . 

Oi axpaxicoxEc; tppoiipociaav xa xpEva kqi xouc; axa9(iouc;, aXXd i] 
Kaxaaxpotprj TrEpiowiac; owe^otav xiapd xi]v uapouaia xouc;. O 

Nx£|iTTC; £TT£|.l£V£ OXI TQ (IeXi) XT]C; A.Z.E. 8ev El^av a^Eai] (.IE XI] f3ia' 

oxi i] TTEpiowia Kaxaaxp£<p6xav axio aXrjxEc; TiXr|pco(i£voiic; cm' tic; 
ExaipiEc; Tton Eiro(p8aX(iioi)anv ciTTOt^nicoaEic;, KaBcoc; Kai axio «av£i> 
Bi'voi'c; au|iTiapaaxdx£c;». 

O Kuf3£pvi']Ti]c; AXxyKEXvx xijXsypdtpijaE axov xipoESpo KXifk- 
Xavx: 

nXr)po(popi']6i]Ka oxi Siaxd^axE 0(ioanovSiaK£c; axpaxicoxiKEc; 8uvd- 
(ieic; va avaXdpouv KaBrJKOvxa \i£oa oxi]v IIoXixEia xou IXivoic;... Yla- 
paKd(iuxovxac; xa EpG>xrj|xaxa xi£p( xtjc; a^ExiKijc; 8iKaio8oa£ac; aac;, 0a 
8t)Xcooco oxi t) IloXrrEia xoc IXivoic; 65(1 \iovo Eivai iKavrj va cppovxiaEi xov 
cauxo xi]c;, aXXd Eivai exoi(it| va xiapda^Ei oxi)v Kx'|3£pvr|or| xi]v oxioia8i]- 
ttoxe (3orj6£ia auxVj ypziaoxEi, ottoc8i]ttoxe aXXou... Qc; Kup£pvrjxr|c; xtjc; 
IIoXixEiac; tod IXivoic;, 8ia(iapxi5po(iat Kai £r]xdco xr|v d(i£oi] aTiocnjpcri] 
xou 0(iooTTOv8iaKoi5 axpaxou auo xt]v IloXrrEia. 

EIoxE xipiv Kuf3Epvi']xi]c; (iiac; rioXixEiac; 8ev ei^e axiEi'GiivEi xooo 
cnyLii]p£(; Xe^eic; axov xipo£8po xcov HEIA. O xeXeuxoioc; andvxijaE 
oxi EVEpyouaE au(icpcova |i£ xo Zc!vxay(ia. 

Oi xiaxidSEc; kqi oi ekSoxec; £<pi]|.i£p[8cov axioKaXoiJaav «i5f3pT]» corn] 
xi]v «mo yiydvxia axiEpyia oxi]v Iaxopia». IV auxouc;, o Nx£|iTic; rjxav 
xouXd^iaxov 8a((iovac;' oi awSiraXiaxEc; kqi oi uxioaxr)piKX£c; xouc; 
j)xav qXtjxec;, £|XTipr|ax£c; Kai avap^iKoi. Kai o Ki'fkpvrjxnc; AXxyKfiXx 
8ev rjxav KaXiixEpoc;. 

H avo(i£a aw£3(iaxi]K£. ElEpixiou 2000 f3ayovia xpEvcov raxaoxpd- 
(pr]KQv Kai mipxioXi]9i]Kav. To kooxoc; xcov ai'voXiKtov Kaxaaxpoipcov 
i'TcoXoyiaxi]KE axio 50 ecoc; 100 £Kaxo|i|.iupia 8oXdpia. 

IV 

Zxic; 7 IouXr] o Nxe^ixic; kqi kotioioi dXXoi r]y£X£c; xi]c; A|i£piKavi- 
Ki]c; Ei8T]poSpo(iiKr']c; 'Evcootjc; Kaxi]yoprj9iiKav yia «awco|ioaia» kqi 
auv£Xi](p9i]aav, aXXd acp£9i]Kav \i£ £yyiji|ar|. To SiKaaxrjpio e^eScooe 



63 



A mauling: H Iaiogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



Aiaxayrj, raXcovxac; xocc; va |AT|V EVEpyijaow yia xi] ai'vE^iai] xi]<; 
anEpyidc;. 

Zxic; 12 IouXr], apvou^Evoc; va imaKouaei axi] Aiaxayrj, o Nxe]xttc; 
auvavxTJ8r|K£ [i£ Ttdvw arro 20 i]yex£c; acvSiraxcov cpiXira TrpoaKEiLiE- 
vcov npoc; xr]v A|.iEpiKdviKi] 0|.ioarrovSia Epyaaiac; Kai xouc; nposxpE- 
v|;e va Ki]pui;ow a\i£oa yEviKrj axiEpyia a£ oXouc; xouc; opyavco|i£vouc; 
ETTayyEA|iaxiKouc: KXdSouc; a£ oXokXijpec; xic; HELA. H A^lEpiKdvlKI] 
O|iooxrov8(a Epyaaiac; cpuaira apvT]9i]K£ xt]v rrpoxaai], \ie xt]v aixio- 
Xoyia oxi «9a r)xav KaxaaxpocpiKrj yia xa au^cpEpovxa xcov Epyaxcov i] 
TiEpaixEpco ETTEKxaoT] xi]c; aTCEpyiap), Kai oi'|.iPouXei|/e xo Nxe^tcc; va 
axafiaxTJaEi Kai auxoc; xr]v axrEpyia xou. 

Aev um]pi;£ aXXi]XEyyui| . Ot auvxr]pi]xiKoi, xrpoaE^xiKof i]y£x£c; xtjc; 
A.O.E. apvi]9i]Kav va au|.irrpdl;ouv |i£ xov EriavaaxaxiKO Nx£(.ixrc;, o 
ottoioc; T]8i] Et^E yivEi rjpcoac; yia xt] jiEydXi] |^d£a xcov Epyaxcov. O 
Nxe^xcc; yia auxouc; rjxav Evac; aKpaioc; xpsXoc;, Exoijioc; va xtpay^axo- 
TTOirjaEi xo ovEipo xov yia xo «(.iova5iKO LiEydXo auv8iKaxo», av £i%£ 
x?]v Euraipia. Av 6(.icoc; yivoxav auxo, xi 6a yivoxav o 8ikoc; xouc; «ayv6c; 
Kai ax[X6c;» auvSiraXia^ioc; Kai oi avanauxiKEc; KapEKXsc; xouc;; 

ATT£XTlla|i£VOC;, O NxELlTTC; XipOXElVE XI) 13i| IouXi] axi] Tevikt] 'Evco- 
at] Aieu9uvxcov (xo opyavo xcov KaxiixaXiaxcov oxi] 8ia|.id3(T]) xo xeXoc; 
xt]c; auEpyiac;, |i£ opo xt]v £xiavaxip6aXi]i|;i] oXcov xcov Epyaxcov X^pi? 
SiaKpi'oEic;. Ae 8£^xr]Kav va 8ianpaynax£u9ouv \iat,i xov. 

ripaKxiKa i] anEpyia EaxtaaE. H noXi] y£|.iia£ axpaxicoxEc; rrou cppou- 
pouaav xi] ai8r]po8poLiiKi] xiEpiouaia, SiaXuovxac; o^Xouc; axiEpycov. 

Mia yiepa xtpiv o Nxe^ittc: ei^e upoxEivEi xi]v Krjpi)^T| yEviKrjc; auEp- 
yiac;, nou av xsXira ei^e Ki]pu}(X£i 6a koxeXijye as E]icpuXio ttoXelio' 
£xai, KaxT]yopT]6T]K£ yia napapiaai] xi]c; Aiaxayrjc; xou 8iKaaxi]piou 
xi]c; 7i]t; IouXt]. 

Auxo i]xav xo xeXoc;. Oi i]y£X£c; xcov axiEpycov cpi|.ic69i]Kav Kai Se9t]- 
kov )(Eipoxi66apa. 'Oaoi axiEpyoi i^uopEaav ycipioav axi] SocXEid. Oi 
I'TioXoixioi Xi]iOKxovi]aav. 

H A|iEpiKaviKi] Ei8i]po8popKi] 'Evcoai] 8iaXu8i]K£ a|.i£acoc; liexo. 
Zxic; Sikec; tioi< aKoXoi56T]aav xouc; ettohevouc; |^t]v£c; axtocpaaiaxi]- 
Kav ttoivec; cpuXdKiai]c; yia xo Nxe^ttc; koi xodc; awEpydxEc; xov axi]v 
A.E.E. 

Aiyocc; |^t']vec; |XExd o xokxikoc; o|.ioaxiov8iaK6c; axpaxoc; avi;i]9i]K£ 
axouc; 50.000 dvxpEc; Kai UEpiaooxEpa oxrXoaxdaia ^xiaxi]Kav axo 



64 



H E£,syeoar/ tov Nrefing 



XiKdyo, tt] Nra YopKi] rai aAAou, yia Tr|v KaTaaxoXi] TriSavwv epya- 
tikuv £,zoT\K(i)\uiiv oto fxeAAov. Oi aTpnTKOTiKE^ E-mBecoprpeit; sypa- 
v[iav dp6pn yia xa crrpaTiomKa Ka6rJKOvTa Kai Tit; xarcriKEc; raxd tt|v 
KaxaaToXi] £^ey£paE(av. 



65 



KEOAAAIO 8 

H BIA ETA AYTIKA 



m \ ^eSov xcwxo^pova lie xouc; i;£aT|KCOL±ouc; crta AvaxoXira rai 
▼ oxa MeaoSuTiKcx, £Xa|3av X&pa Picuec; EpyaxiKEc; E^eyepoEw; 
^^mm axa Avxikq. 

H aTTEpyia axo Xolictxevx to 1892 5ev ei^e xeXeuoctei aKOLta, oxav 01 
av6paKcopu)[oi xtjc; TiEpio^ijc; KEp vt' AXev axo Aivxa^o aTT£pyi|aav 
Evdvxia axic; £TiavaAan(3av6fX£v£i; fXEiuaEic; luoGcov. AXXd i] cmEpyia 
i]Tav KaxaSiKaaLiEvi] e!;' app']c; a£ aitoru^ia. Oi dvxpEi; rjxav dop]|in 
opyavamEvoi, 8ev £iy_av cmoxEXEaLiaxiKTJ T]y£a(a Kai la^upo xqlieio 
yin va axi]pipx( i] cmEpyia. 

Oi £TTi)[£ipi]|^nTi£^ t(ov opu^Eicov LuaBcoaav aTTEpyoaTrdcnxc;. Md- 
%ec; £Xa[3av ytipa- H EBvocpi'XaKrj SoXocpovipE avBpuTiouc;. Kdicoiot; 
Ef5nX£ |36|.i.(3a kqi avaxiva^E Eva Epyoaxdoxo xrupixoXiBou. Kaxomv, oi 
anEpyoi KaxdcpEpav va 8icoi;ouvToi\ aTTEpyocmdaxEc; an xy\v TtEpiojfrj. 

Ol EXOipiEC;, 0£COpc6vxac; nvETTapKl] T1]V E6vOCpi)XaKTJ Via T1]V E1Tl(3oXl] 

xr\(; xc£,r\<;, £(3aXav tov Kv(3Epvi]TT) tou Aivxa^o va nTiEu6w9Ei axov 
TipoESpo xcov HIIA. Via Kaxtoio 8idaTi]|^a axo KEp vx' AXev Ki]pi5^xi]KE 
axpaxicoxiKoc; voLioc;, lie tov xokxiko axpaxo vn cppoupEi xic; TtEpiouaiE^ 
xi]v c6pa tio\) oi EpyoSoxEt; EcpEpvav l;avd aTtEpyoaTrdaxEi;. 

H auoxvyia xt]c; airEpyia^ ei^e, Ppa^impoGEaLia, xpayira axroxE- 
XsaLiaxa yia xouc; EpydxEc;, aXXd oSi]yt]a£ art]v opydvcocn] xr|c; Auxi- 
KT]g OjioairovSfag AvBpaKcopu^cov, i] oxroia xi]v ettolievt] Sekoexio 
e^eXi^6iike axov mo ettiBexiko, p(aio rat ETiavaaxaxiKO EpyaxiKO op- 
yavia^o axic; HELA rai EyivE xroXXd ypovia apyoxEpa i] pa)[OKOKaXid 
xcov BioLn]%aviKc6v Epyaxcov xov K6aLtoi\ xcov £TiovoLia£6fX£vcov kqi 
TotolittXic;. 



67 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg TrfJ^iKijg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



II 



Zxo Scihxpo \iioo xijc; SfiraExiac; xov 90 Evxaai] 5rniioiipyT]9i]K£ 
otic, avBpaKocpopec; xizp\,oy£(; xov Aivxa^o, xov KoXopdvxo rai xi]c; 
Movxdva. 

Ano xo 1896, i] AutiKfj 0|ioanov8ia AvBpnKcopu^wv i']xav i]8i] 
|iia lo'xypi] opydvcoai). Oi i]y£X£c; xi]<; r)xav Trpdy^axi av9paKcopu^oi, 
pi^oaxidaxEc;, (3(aioi, [i£ xiEpiaaoxEpo 9dppo<; an' oao 9a xouc; mra- 
yopEUE xo axEvd npoaconiKO xouc; ov[up£pov. Avd|i£ad xouc; (3piaKO- 
xav Kai o MmX XEiyowx, Eva npo'iov xi]c; Auaijc;, Evac; an' xov<; xtio 
EvSiacpspovxEt; ^apaKxrjpEc; |i£aa axo afispiKdviKO EpyaxiKO Ki'vt]|ia. 
'OXoi xovt; niarsvav axi] |3ia — ocp9aX|i6 avxi o(p9aX|iou!— Kai 8ev 
xo EKpvf3av. Oi 18101 oi T]y£X£c; Ei^av E|xnXaK£i as ^uXoSapi^ouc; Kai 
a£ evottXec; |id^£c; |ie xtjv EGvocpvXaKi) Kat [is xouc; anEpyoandaxEc;. 
KoupaXouaav maxoXia \ia£,i xovc, Kai a£ ranoiEc; nEpmxwaEic; Ei'^av 
TiiipopoXi]aEi Evavxiov xoi< E^Gpou. E^EXiaav tcoivec; axr] cpuXaKi] Kai 
or EiSiKa axpaxoTT£5a auyK£vxpwar]c;, yaQ |ie ^iXidSEc; — KupioXEKXi- 
ra ^iXidSsc;— dXXouc; awxpocpoi'c; xoix;. 

Tia ypovia oXoKXipa \iexa xv; xapa^Ec; axo KEp vx' AXev, xo Ai- 
vxa^o EyivE tteSio axEXEi'coxwv S,Eoxiao\iax(i)v. Tokxikoc; axpaxoc; 
xiEpiTToXouaE axic; nEpio^Ec; xcov opi^Eicov. H Kuf3£pvr|ar| xr\<; rio- 
XixEi'ac;, ottcoc; cpaivExai, rjxav xioXu avi'a^upi] yia va xa PyaXsi xiEpa 
|i£ xi]v Kaxdaxaai]. Z^e86v koGe p']va ranoio Epyoaxdaio rj opinio 
8uva|iixi£6xav. Av9pconoi SoXocpovouvxav, xoao xit; vupxc; oao Kai 
axo cpcoc; xi]c; |i£pac;. 'EvoxiXec; [lajEq Xd|i|3avav X^P a K ETa ?u xmv 
I^eXwv xi]t; A.O.A. Kai [ir] awSiKaXia^Evcov spyaxuv, xioi' aav axio- 
xfiXEa^a Ei'^av EKaxovxdSsc; 9u^axa. 

To Mat] xou 1897, i] Kaxdaxaai] i|iav xoao x£xa|i£vi] ttou o xipo- 
ESpoc; xi]c; A.O.A., o Mnoic;, KaXouaE 6Xa xa xomra auv8iKdxa xou 
Aivxa^o Kai xov KoXopdvxo va 8T)(Aioi)pYTJaouv EvonXa x|ii']|^axa, 
«Exai uaxE, LiEaa oe 8vo ^povia, va aKouaoi'|i£ xi] |j.ouaiKi] and xo 
axpaxicoxiKO |3i]|iaxiafx6 25.000 evoxiXuv avxpwv, \ieoa oxit; ypa[i\iE(; 
xcov Epyaxcov». 

MoXic; xeXeiwve |iia axiEpyia, Kanoia dXXi] ^ekivouoe. 

O tt6X£|ioc; Kaxd Kanoio xpoxio kXiliokcoG^ke xi]v dvoi^i] xov 1899, 
oxav xo Epyoaxdaio xi]c; ExaipEi'ac; MxidvKEp XiXX, ai;ia<; 250.000 8o- 
Xapiwv, Kaxaaxpdcpi]K£ |i£ 6wa|iixi] an' xov<; av9paKcopu^oiic;. 



68 



H Bin am A vriKii 



O OpavK ZTOVEVLinEpyK TjTClV TOTE Kl'|3£pvi]TT]C; TOU AlVTO^O. El^E 
EKXEYEl \l£ TT] aTl]pi^l] T(OV AaiKlOTQV KCU LIE TT]V unOOTT|pli;i] TCOV 

EpyaTtov, Kai [lEjpi ekeivt] tt] oTiyLiT] ei^e noXu koXec; o^eoeic; lie tic; 
EpyaTiKE^ opyavcooEic;, E^ovrac; Kai o 18105 uudpi;£i lieXoc; tou awSi- 
koitod T(ov Timoypdcpcov. 'Otciv kXt]6t]ke an' touc; iSiokttjtec; tcov opu- 
^eicov va Tout; nXi]pc6a£i ano£i]Liic6a£ic;, airtoLiaTa dXAa^E Tpo-rrdpio' 
£i]Tr|a£ an' tov npo£8po tcov HEIA Mqk KivXu va oteiXei OLioanov- 
8iok6 aTpaTO, Kai Ki]pul;£ Ti]v KoLU]T£i'a tov Zdooow oe KaTdoTaai] 
«avaTapa^i]c; Kai £^£y£poiic;». 

O TipOESpOC; 8l£TCli;£ va £n£Ll|3oW SlLlOipiEC; LiaupCOV OTpOTlCOTCOV 

an' to Mnpdouva|3iX tov Tscjac;. Oi anEpyoi avBpaKcopu^oi kukXco- 
9?lKav and ^iAioSec; an' auTouc; Kai kXeiotijkov a£ EiSiKa KaTaaKEU- 
aa|i£va aTpaTon£8a auyKEvrpcoaijc;. Ym'jp^av awTayLiaTa Xeukcov 
aTpaTicoTc6v noXu mo Kovrd ottjv KoLii]T£ia, aXXd 8ev nijpav 8iaTayrj 
va £n£Li|3ow. O MmX XsiyouvT £ypai[i£ oti]v auTofJioypacpia toi<: 

...Oi Ki'P£pvi]TiKoi a^icoLiaTou^oi nioTEuav OTi 6a evo^Xouoe nspia- 
ooTEpo touc; avBpaKcopu^ouc; av Liaupoi arpaTicoTEc; avaXaLiPavav Ti] 
cppoi5pi]or] Xeukcov KpaTOULiEvcov. npdyLiaTi, auTO EnscpEpE Eva kulio 
ayavdKTT]cri]c; o^i olicoc; Toao anEvavn otovc; Ey^pcoLiouc; arpaTicoTEc;, 600 
anEvavxi arouc; mi£i39uvouc; uou Tono9£TT|oav touc; onoiouc; oTpaTicoTEc; 
otic; avBpaKocpopEc; nspio^Ec;. 

'Evac; an' Tout; a^icoLiaTOU^ouc;, Evac d9Xioc; Xeukoc;, eoteiXe ypaLiLia- 
Ta otic; yuvaiKEc; Kai tic; a8£pcp£c; tcov KpaTOULiEvcov ^r]Tc6vTac; touc; va 
8iaaKE§daov'v touc; OTpaTicoTEc; av i]9£Xav va tu^ouv 01 8iko( tocc; «i8iai- 
TEpi]<; npoao^rjc;». Auto to KonpooKuXo i']9eAe va npoaGsoEi Ti]v npoafio- 
Xrj crac; dXXsc; nXi]y£c; nou ucpiaravro 01 af5orj9i]TOi cpuXaKioLiEvoi. 'Ehav 
npooPoXi] va ^T]Ta£i an' tic; oiKoyEVEisc; tcov av9paKcopu^cov va Ep9ouv 
oe onoia8i]noTE snacpi] lie touc; aTpaTicoTEc; Kai I'm^pjE avy^povcoc; Lua 
npoLi£XETi]|^£vi] npocmd9Eia va npooT£6£i i] paToioTiKi] npoKaTaXT]ij/i] 

OTT]V 6Xl] lOTOpia. 

Ill 

Oi av9paKcopi5^oi Epi^av to euBwt] otov Kii(i£pvi]Ti] ZTOVEv^inEpyK 
yia 6, ti awEfJi] otic; n£pio)[£c; tcov opu^Eicov oto teXt] tt]c; SEKaETiac; 
tou 90. Autoc;, otov dcpi]OE to a^icoLid tou nXouaiot; ma (evco npiv tt| 
9i]T£ia tou 8ev r']Tav), EyivE KTi]voTp6cpoc; |^EydXi]c; oXki']c; Kai avaKa- 
teijti]ke Kai lie oXXec; £m^£ipi]o£ic; yia to EnoLiEva e^i ^povia. 



69 



A mauling: H Iarogia Ttjg Trf^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



Tote, otic; 30 A£K£|iPpi] xou 1905, avoids tt]v E^UTropxa xou mn- 

XlOU XOV OXO KdAvTOUEA. 'HxQV T] XeAeUXQIQ Tipd^l] XOU. ZxT]V E^CO- 

TtopTa rjxav 5e|.ievo Eva Koii^dxi TiExovid^, i] \iia ciKpr] xou onoi'ou 
KaTEAi]yE a£ \iia (36(j.p<n ttou afiEaco^ E^Eppdyi] kcu tov 5ia|i£Aia£. 
OcpGaX^io avTi ocpGaA^iou! «Auvan£xr|^... auxo Eivai to uAiko!». 



70 



KEOAAAIO 9 

«ZTO AIAOAO TO EYNTArMA» 



m \ xk; apyec; xov eikocfxou atwva 01 oKXi]pe^ \iayec, avd|i£aa axo 
^w KEcpdXaio rai tt]v EpyaxiKi] xd^r| auv£^i£ovxav, iSiwc; oti^ tte- 
^^mm pio^Ec; xcov opu^Eiwv xi]c; n£vai<X|3dvia Kai xoi< KoXopdvxo. 
Zxo KoXopdvxo, r] Airnici] O^oaTrovSia AvBpaKcopu^cov rjxav i] ttio 
SuvatTJ EpyaxiKi] opydvuiai]. Eiys. tt]v iSioai'yKpaora «xou 'Pap Ou- 

£OT», X1]V KAl]po8oxi]HEVT] OTTO XOT'^ TT£piTT£X£lc68£K; A|.l£piKdvOllC; OV- 

BpuTTOii^ xi]c; (ieBopiou 01 ottoioi i;a(pvira Eiyav ppe9ei oe \iia %Eipo- 
x£pi] Gectt], auTTJ xov Epydxi], kqi [laXioxa xov Epydxi] ttoti SouXeue 
5(iXid8£<; TroSta raxco qtt' xr\ yr]. Kaxapp'jv r] A.O.A. xjxav [iia \iayo\iE- 
vi] opydvuai]. H cpiXoaocpia xi]t; i]xav Evdvxia axo vmdp^ov (3io|xi]^a- 
viko auaxi]]ia, Evdvxia axo acpsvxiKO. 'HBeXe ]i£yaXux£poi'<; ]iia9oik;, 
cpwiKd, aXXd auxo rjxav Eva Trapd-rrXEupo ^i']xi]|^a. O -rrpayi-iaxiKoi; 
xi]c; oxoyoi; Vjxav va E^acpaviaEi xov £pyo86xi] axt' xr] |3iop])(avia. 
'Hxav ExtavaaxaxiKrj, aooraXiaxiKi]. 

'Evaq axt' xou^ ijyetec; xi]^ i']xav o MmX XEiyowx. 'Evac, dv9pco- 
tioi; \ie 5uvQ|ii] f3o8iou, aKXiipoc;, eu9u^, etti^iovoc;, anx6i]xo<; an' xa 
E|in68ia, f3Caioc;, exoi|.io(; va avxairoSwaEi xo ^xum]|^a ttou 9a 8e^6- 
xav. Aev rjxav axtXd aoaiaXiaxrjc;. 'H9eXe xi]v a^Eai] £<pap|ioyrj xov 
Hooialioyiov. Yttt]p^e o ttio aKXrjpoc; ]xap]xrjc; tou a]i£piKdviKou £p- 
yaxiKoii Kivrj]iaxo^. ri£9av£ |^ov6(p9aXfxo(; rai E^opiaxoc; axi] Pcoaia, 

OTTOU 9d(pXT]K£ aXO Kp£]lXlVO. 



71 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



I 



Ti]v npwTO|iayid tou 1901 |xia omepyia Ki]pupr|K£ ora opi^eia 
^pwou kcu aor||iioi5 oto TsXoupivT to\j KoXopdvTO. To tottiko auv- 

SlKOTO, TTOU £l%£ SEa^OU^ \l£ XI] Al'TlKI] OfiOOTTOvSia Av9paKcop\5^cov, 

£t]Tr|a£ KaBopia^svi] Epydaifii] |i£pa Kai (JaaiKO |.iia96, avxt yia to 
KaSeaxuc: ti]^ SouAeidc; \ie to KO(.i|idTi ttoii tali's tote. 

Tia Eva \ir\va xa opi^Eia 8e XEiTOvpyoiiaav. Tote o ap^iEiroTm]^ 
twv opii^Eiwv, ov6|.iaTi KoXXivi;, eGeoe cte XEiTorpyia \iia oxoa opu- 
^eiou tpEpvovTac; airEpyoandaTEc;, 01 TiEpiaaoTEpot an' toi^ ottoiou^ 
r\xav onXia|iEvoi. 

Oi aixEpyot Trpoa|3Ai]9i]Knv. O Bi'vasvr Zevt T£ov, Evac; totukoc; 
a^icoixcruoifyoc; tou cruvSiKdtou, TiapdyyEiXE 250 m'popdXa otcXq rai 
50.000 atpatpEt; oe [ua ETaipEia oto Ntev|3ep. 'Eypai|/£ ttjv TrapayyE- 
Xi'a a£ ettiot]|^o %apTi xov avvSiKcnov, \.m£ypco\i£ o iSioc; Kai eocokXei- 
a£ EirtTayi] TiXi]pw|ii]^. 

To npwi ti]^ 3i]c; IouXi], tt]v wpa uou oi aTTEpyoaTidaTEt; ti]^ vd^te- 
pivi'jc; |3dp8ia<; Ecpsuyav axi to opinio 8£}(Ti]Kav ettiBeoi] qtto touc; 
aTtEpyou^ ttou toi^ Eiyav aTi)aEi £VE8pa. ApKETOt aTTEpyoaTrdaTEc; 

ETTEaav ^Tl'TTT]|i£VOl QTTO TKJ OtpatpE^' dXXoi avTOTTESwaav TOUC; 1TO- 

pofJoXiafioui;. O KowidSoc; tou ap^iETTOTTTi] KoXXiv^ Tpau|iaTion]K£ 
ao[3apd. Aiyoi |^6vo aTTEpyof aKOTw9r]Kav. 

H [la-p] SiTJpKEOE apK£T£(; wp£^. Zto teXo<; oi aTTEpyoaTrdaTE^, 
Tioi' fJTav XiyoTEpoi api8|ii]TiKa mi |i£ XiyoTEpa ottXq, arJKwaav Xe\> 
ki] ai]fiai'a. Mia 5iaTrpay|idT£iioT| aKoXou9r]<j£ |i£Ta^u xov Eevt T£ov 
Kai tuv aTt£OTaX|.iEvcov twv £pyo8oTuv, aa va EirpoKEiTO yia Tipay- 
l^aTiKO ttoXeho. To aTTOTEXEoxia i]iav to awSiraTO va KaTo^i'pwaEi 
ti]v, ek jiEpouc: tuv aTiEpywv, KaTaXi]i|/i] twv opi^Eiwv |i£ tov opo OTl 
oi aTTEpyoaTidaTE^ 9a acprjvovTav r\ovyoi va airo^wpijaow y.at,i \ie 
xovq Tpai'fiaTiEt; tou^. 

AXXd Tipiv oi aTTEpyoaTrdaTEi; teXiko aTTO^Mprjaoi'v, EyivE ki dXXi] 
|iia \i&yp] axr\y ottoio UTcf|p5av ki dXXoi Tpau|iaTiE^' a|i£awi; |.i£Td, «t| 
i'ttoXoittt] aii|inopta (twv aTTEpyoaTraaTWv) 8iaXu9T]K£ crra (3owd», 
OTtwc; to e9eoe o XElyOWT. 

'Eva ypovo [iexA, Kat atpou oi Tapa^Ec; cpaivoTav va e^ouv teXei- 

WOEl, O ap^lETTOTTTT]^ KdXXlV^ (ai'TOt; TTOU El^E KaX£CJ£l TOl'^ OTTEp- 

yoaTrdaTEc;) TTupopoXi]9i]K£ alio Evav dyvwaTO ekteXeott] £va (3pd.So 



11 



Sto A tdoXo to Svvjayfta 



Ti]v wpa nov kqGotqv axo cpcoxiafiEvo xiapd9upo xou anmou xou. 
To auvSiraxo, cpuaiKa, apvTJ9i]K£ ko9e a^eai] \ie xi] SoXocpovia. Exo 
(3i(3Aio xou, o MmA Xsiyouvx axiXd KaxaypdcpEi xo xiEpiaxaxiKO. 

II 

Oi xapayic, axo KoXopdvxo 8ev ziyav xeXoc;. To 1903, 01 av9pa- 
Kcopu^oi axiEpyijaav ox?]v Eirap^ia xou KpmX KpiK |i£ aixi]|ia xo 
o^xdcopo. Kup£pvi]xr]c; xou KoXopdvxo rjxavxoxE o T^ei^ic; nfyixiovxi, 
Evac; xpaxtE^ixi]^ xrou ei^e oxevouc; SEa^ouc; \ie xouc; auvxT]pi]xiKouc; 
KEcpaXaioKpdxEc; xr|c; rioXixEiac;. AnocpdaiaE oxi xo KpixiX KpiK (3pi- 
aKoxav oe «auv9i]K£c; avapyicv;, ottou i] xoxiikec; ap^Ec; Ei^av ekSico- 
^9ei Kai r\ £coi] rai i] TiEpiouaia [3pi'aKovxav ox kiv5uvo» kqi KVjpu^E 
xr]v TtEpio^i] aE Kaxdaxaai] avaxapapjc; mi £l;£y£pai]c;, yia xr]v oxroia 
i] \iovi] 9£paTTEi'a r\xav o axpaxiwxiKoc; v6|.ioc;. ApyoxEpa, etcekxeive 
xa |^Expa auxd rai axrjv xiEpiop] xou TEXouptvx. 

KdxioiEc; E(pT]|XEp(8£c; raxEKprvav xic; axrocpdaEic; auxEc; xtjc; Kupsp- 
vr|oric: xr]c; rioXixEi'ac;, ^apaKxiipicpvxac; xic; avxiauvxay^axiKEc;. Ee 
auxTJ xr]v KpixiKi], o 5im6aioc; Kaxijyopoc; xijc; EIoXixEiac; axidvxr|a£: 
«Exo SidoXo va xrdEt xo Euvxay^a' e|.ieic;, 8ev aKoXou9ou|i£ xo Xi> 
vxny|in». 

'OXo kqi TTEpiaooxEpa aipEvxiKa xwv opu^Eicov ekxeXouvxov, evu 
Epyoaxdaia Kai oxoec; opu^Eicov avaxivd^ovxav ^e 8uva|iixi]. 

O axpaxoc; £xi£|3aX£ xo 8£cmoxia|.i6. Av9paKcopu)(oi, oi TCEpiaao- 
xEpoi Iv8idvoi, auXXanf3dvovxav axi] ^Eai] xou Spo^ou, andyovxav 
axio xa axiixia xouc;, KXEiScovovxav a£ axpaxoxiESa auyKEvxpcoatjc; Kai 
8ev eijov ExiiKoivcovia \ie KavEva yia oXoKXipEc; £(38o|id8£(;. 'Oxav 
o xotcikoc; SiKaaxrjc; SiExa^E va cpspouv xouc; cpuXaKia|i£vouc; fxxipo- 
oxd xou yia v axiocpaaioEi av Kpaxouvxai 8iraia r\ d8iKa, o axpaxoc; 
TiEpiKUKXcoas xo 8iKaaxi]pio Kai xoTio9Exi]a£ eXeu9epouc; okotteuxec; 
axic; yupco ax£y£c; Kai Eva xiupopdXo axo SixiXavo 8p6|io. 'Oxav e\i- 
cpaviaxi]KE o SiKaaxrjc;, Evac; axpaxicoxr|c; xou KoXXrpE anEiXijxiKd \iia 
Xoypi axo 9upara. «Zxo 8idoXo va udEi xo ZuvxayfiaU 

MiKpd xiaiSid Kai yuvaiKEc; cpuXaKi'^ovxav otci axpaxonESa auyKE- 
vxpuai]c;, etteiSi] E^yaXav xi] yXcoaaa rj exieiSi'] ni'Xi]aav TTpoaf3Xi]xi- 
Ka axouc; axpaxiwxEt;. 'Eyivav Eiaf3oX£c; Kai EpEuvEc; a£ axiixia, X^pi? 
EvxdX|.iaxa. ATTayop£uxr]K£ a£ |iaya^dxop£c; va ttouXove aya9d axouc; 



73 



A mauling: H Iarogia Ttjg Trf^najg Bing crrtjv Afisoitcrj 



cmepycm^ rat, yia va |ii]v xr£6dvow xtjc; Tteivac; 01 oiKoyEVEiEc; Kai 
xa auvSiraxa avayKaaxijKav va Sijiiioiipyrjaow 81m xoi^ p.aya^id. 
H E9vocpi'XaKi] EiaEpaXXE a auxd, X£i]Xaxcma£, ekXe^e xpocpiLia rai 
e^q^e cpcoxid. 

Zxo xeXoc; EiKoodSfic: avBpuTrcov -01 nEpiaaoxEpoi a^iu|.iaxou^oi 
xcov aw8iKaxcov— , |.iExn(pEp9T]Kav |.ie xi] (3ia ano xr]v xrEpio^r] xou Te- 
Xovpivx axa auvopa xi]c; KO|x?]x£iac;, apyoxEpa Kai [ieaa axt]v noXi- 
XEia xoi< Kdvaac; Kai Siaxd^6t]Kav va lujv £maxp£i|;oivv. 

TeXiko, i] axtEpyia eohqoe. 



74 



KEOAAAIO 10 

01 roYOMnAii: 



«H EpyajiKr/ tA^ij km rj Tdiyj tcov zgyoSojcbv 
Sev exovv jinOTd koivo finalj) tovc. » 

— cmo to KcrraoraTlKo tcov B.E.K. 



! "W" "■" 5i] qtto to 1903, ai^TioTav [lEoaaxr] Ai'tiktj O^oaTrovSin 
B - ^B tcov Av0paKcopu^cov i] 18&1 yia to c;£Kivi]|ia evoc; Kivrj|iaToc; 
JL JL tcou 8a evcove oAoKAr]pr| tt|v EpyaTiKrj T&fy] tcov HITA, (acoc; 
Kai 6Aoi> tou koo[iov, a£ \iia yEviKrj ETravaaTaTiKrj opydvcoai) — «'Eva 
Kai MovaSiKO MEydAo Zw8iKaTO»-, ttou 9a Si]|iioupy£iTO -ndvco ott] 
pdar] tt]c; iSiac; tt|c; |3iofxi]^aviKT)t; Epyaafac; ovti -ndvco a' aim] tcov 
ETuifXEpocc; ETcayyEXLiaTCOv. 'Htcw \xia tvttiki] i8eo ti]c; Auai]t; — |i£ya- 
Aettvjp'oAi]: to auvopo rJTav o oupavoc;. 

Tov Iouvi] xov 1906, 186 avTinpoaco-noi and 34 spyaTiKEc; op- 
yavcoaeic;, piKpec; Kai |iEydXec;, aiiyK£VTpc60i]Kav aTO XiKayo, onou 
acpoli aTiEScoaav |ia£iKa cpopo tilii']c; otoik; Tacpocc; tcov avap^iKcov 
tou XEi|iapKET, Siafxopcpcoaav Eva KaTaaTaTiKO ottoii SrjAcovav oti oi 
EpyaTEc; Kai oi EpyoSoTEc; «8ev e^ouv imota koivo» . . . Kai oti «8ev 
I^TiopEi va imdpc;Ei rafxia Eiprjvi] dao i] TCEiva Kai r\ avdyKi] pr'TidvE 
EKaTO^ijiupia Epya^ofiEvcov Kai oi Aiyoi ttou a-noTEAow Ti]v Karara- 
Aiotiki] Tai;T] e^ow 6Aa to ayaBd Ti]c; £corjc;». H TcpoTaai] touc; i]Tav 
anAd i] anaAAoTpicoai] tcov piop]%avic6v. 'OAoi oi EpyaTEc; 6a yivo- 
vTav Sektoi coc; |^eAi] tou ocvSikotoi', av£c;dpTT]Ta cmo «tt] cpuArj, tt| 
0pi]aKEi'a, to 5^pc6fxa, to cpuAo, tic; Trpoi]younEVEc; ctuvBtJkec; £pyaaiac;». 
Oi ^pi]LiaTiK£c; auvSpofXEc; tcov [xeAqv 0a rjxav jiiKpEc;, a£ avTi0£ai] \ie 
auTEc; tiou anaiToiiaE i] A|.iEpiKaviKi] OfiocnrovSia Epyaaiac;. AAAco- 
ote oi Toi'dfiTiAic;, oticoc; aAAicoc; AEyovrav oi Bio|ii]^aviKoi EpyaTEc; 
tou K6a|ioi', aTO^Ei'av fioipaia aTijv aTco8iopydvcoai] ti]c; A.O.E. Kai, 
TipaKTiKa, aTO va «si;acpaviaouv dAouc; toi'c; EpyaTiKouc; anaTECovEc; 
Kai TipoSoTEc;, and tov TKOfiTiEpc; coc; tov MiTa£A». 



75 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



Mia avatpopd nspaaE oxo KaxaaxaxiKO, xiou Ev9dppuv£ xouc; «ou- 
vxpdtpou^ EpydxEc; xi]c; Paaiac, axov aycova xouc;». 

To 1908, t] xdai] xi]c; «dn£ai]c; 5pdar]^» imEpioyyoe |i£aa axo ki- 
vi]|ia Kai 8iaKrjpul;£, axo vco KaxaaxaxiKO, dxi o TidX£|io<; |.i£xal;u ke- 
cpaXaiou Kat EpyaxiKrj^ xdl;i](; «xrp£T[£i va ouve^iotei jiE^pi 01 EpydxEc; 
dXou xou Koa|iou va opyavco6ouv ux; xdl;i], va KaxaXdpouv xr| yi] Kai 
xa \ieaa TTapaycoyrjc; Kai va Kaxapyr]aouv xo ai5axi]|^a xi]c; [iiaGcDXT]? 
£pyaaia<;». 

'OXoi 01 i]y£x£(; xou Kivi'ifiaxoc;, auxd xov npuxo raipd, fjxav dv- 
BpcoTioi an' tic; ypaii^Et; xi]t; EpyaxiKrj^ xdi;T|(;, 01 otcoi'oi efyav Xdpei 
l^epoc; oe aKXT]p£^ fid^E^, Ei^av (puXamaxEi rj xpau|.iaxiax£i. (ZxM: 
AvdjiEad xou^, o MttiX Xfiiyouvx Kai o Bivasvx Zaivx T£ov). 

And xo 1906 ecdc; xo 1916, oi Biofiij^aviKoi Epyaxs^ xou Kda|iou 
EXaf3av fiEpoc; a£ ^EpiKEc; art' xic; mo aKXi]p£<; fid^E^ |.i£xal;u KEcpa- 
Xaiou Kai Epyaxuv ttou Eyivav tcoxe oxk; HEtA. H opydvwai] i]xav 
avoi^xd EuavaaxaxiKi], Kai yia raxioio 8idaxr]|^a (3iaii]. Zxi^ [layet; 
ei^e va avxi|i£XWTTiaEi d^i |^6vo xou^ KamxaXiaxEt; Kai xit; ap^Ei; aXXd 
Kai xr]v A|.iEpiKdviKi] O|iooxiov8ia Epyaoia^, r] onoia koxioie^ cpopsc; 
xipop]9£ua£ |i£xpt Kai aTiEpyoaTidaxE^ Kaxd xi] SidpKEia xmv auEp- 
yiuv xcov roi'dfixiXic;. 

To raXoraipi xou 1 909, axo MaK K15 Pokc; xi]^ ElEvauXfMvia, 01 
I"oud|iTiXi<; Ka6oSrjyi)aav 8000 UTraXXijXou^ xijc; Exaipsiat; EIpEovx 
Exi]X Kap, cmo 14 SiaipopsxiKEc; e6voxi]xe(;, cfe \ua aifxaxi]prj axiEp- 
yi'a. Aim'] avxifi£xuxiiaxi]KE an' xi]v noXixEiaKrj XcopocpuXaKi] — xa 
|ieXt] xi]^ oxioi'a^ axioKaXoirvxav «Ko£aKoi»— r] oxioia ei^e npdacpaxa 
8r]|.iioupYT]9£i an xovt; i8iokxi]xec; opu^Eicov Kai Epyoaxaaiwv yia xr|v 
KaxaaxoXi] EpyaxiKcov l;£ai]Kco|.ic6v. 

Oi Ko^okoi xi]^ nEvauXf3dvia rjxav i] mo aSiaxaKxr] Kai anoxfiXE- 
a|iaxiKi] avxEpyaxiKi] aaxuvo^ia crtic; HEIA, aXXd airtfj xi] (popd Pprj- 
Kav xo 8daKaX6 xoi>^ and xouc; roi)6|ATrXi(;. Mia |i£pa Evac; auEpydc; 
Tii'popoXi]6i]KE and Eva Ko^aKO, Kai o xidX£|io^ dp^iaE. H Enixpom'] 
x?i^ auEpyiac; a\i£oa(; nXiipo(pdpi]aE xo 8ioiki]xt] xt](; ^copo(pi'XaKi](; 
dxi yia koGe anEpyd ttov 8oXocpovoiJaav rj xpai'|.idxi^av 01 dvxpsc; xou, 
Evac; Ko^dKoc; 9a ekxeXeixo yia avxixioiva, Kai dxi 01 anEpyoi 8ev ev- 
8iatpEpovxav xioioc; Ko^aKoc; 6a xi]v nXi'ipcovE: 0X01 01 Ko^okoi r']xav 



76 



Oi rovofinXig 

18101 yi' auxouc; — £cotJ avxi c/orjc;! Oi anEpyoi Kpdxijaav to Xoyo xouc;. 
Mexd qtto 1 1 |iepe^ [Aucpcov E^BpOTrpa^iuv, \iia nap] eKa^e %(bpa 81- 
TtXn axo Epyoaxdaio xtjc; Exaipsiac; fxsxa^u evoc; o^Xou Epyaxcov rai 
xrjc; ^copocpuXaKi'i^. To aTTOTsAeana Vjxav irEpiTrou |^ia vxou^iva ve- 
Kpoi, rai auo tic; 8uo ttXeupec;, rai Trdvco qtto 50 xpau^axfec;. TeXiko 
01 Ko^aKoi £K8iwxTiTKav an' xouc; 8p6|iouc; rai KXEi'axriKav |.i£oa oto 
Epyoxd^to. H aT|iaxo^uaia xeXeicooe uirsp xtjc; airEpyiac;, kqt Xiysc; \ie- 
pEc; |i£Td i'ip9£ i] TiXi]pi]c; viki] yta xouc; EpydxEt;. 

AuEpyfa! Zcorj avxi £corjc;! -auxo Ewoouaav 01 rou6|iTTXic; [i£ xt| 
cppdai] «d|i£ai] Spdaip axa 1909. Exo 8idoXo va irdvE ot KaXnEc; Kai 
6X0 xo TtoXlXlKO oktjviko! 

To Aeke^Pph xou 191 1, xo 8t](.ioxiko au^|3ouXio xou Eav NxiEyKo, 
cot; aT[dvxT]m] oe ekkXitott xcov E|iTi6pcov, e^eScooe 8idxay|ia iron oma- 
yopEi'E xic; SrifioaiEc; o|.uXiec; 0x0 KEvxpo xtjc; ttoXtjc;. riEVTJvxa oikoSo- 
|iiKa XExpdycova |iT[XoKapi'axT]Kav. EoaiaXiaxEc;, rou6|iTrXic; kqi dXXsc; 
o|.id8Ec; afiEacoc; Sijpoupyiiaav xr] Y.v\i[ia.yia xov EXsuBEpou Aoyou 
xtjc; KnXicpopvia. Tt] |.i£pa ttou TipcoxoEcpnp|.i6axT]K£ o v6|xoc;, 40 o|ii- 
Xtjxec; aiivEXT]cp9r]oav. Kpaxrj9i]Kav X^P 1 '? ^tkt] kqi xouc; c/i]xt]9t]ke 
I'TiEpPoXiKi] ^pT]|.iaxiKT] £yyuT]aT]. Tpi'iyopa TrpoaxE8i]Kav dXXoi ekqxo, 
kqi 01 cpuXaKEc; y£|xiaav. Yttep|3oXik6c; apiBfxoc; KpaxounEvcov, dapifio 
auaaixio, appwaxiEt; Kai (3 {a i']xav xa ^apaKxi)piaxiKd xi]c; KpdxT]aT]c; 
xouc;. 

Oi B.E.K. KaXEaav avBpcoTrocc; qtto qXXec; ttoXeic; axo Eav Nxie- 
yKO. 'Oxav dp^iaav va cpxdvouv 01 rou6|iTrXic;, o avxiSpaaxiKoc; xuttoc; 
£nxoua£ KpEjidXEc; kqi SoXocpoviEc; X W P^ Stkit. H aaxuvo(.u'a xottoBe- 
xt]cte Ecpiiriroi'c; cppoupouc; axa auvopa xr|c; KO|.u]x£iac; yia va e^ittoSi- 
oei tttv £10086 xouc;. H |id)n] KpdxiiaE 8 |itjvec;, |.i£aa axouc; otioiouc; 
EiKoadSEc; avOpuucov auv£Xi]cp9T]aav, ^uXoKom'jBTjKav, aKETrdaxiTKav 
I^e Ttiaaa Kai TrouTrouXa. Mia o|id8a and rou6|iTrXic; inroxp£co9iiKav 
|i£ xa TTiaxoXia axov Kpoxacpo va tpiXrjaow xr] ai]fxafa Kai \iia dXXr] 
^uXoKom]9T]K£ qtto Evav 6)[Xo £yKXT]|iaxic6v onXia^iEvcov |i£ Ka8po- 
via. 'Evac; EpydxT]c;, uapoXo ttou 8ev r\xav rou6|iirXi, audx9T]K£ Kai 
|.i£xacp£p9T]K£ axi]v Epi)fio ottou xou 869t]ke Siaxayr] va ouvexioei va 
aTro|iaKp\jv£xai' xou Ei'irav 6x1 axi] TTEpiTrxcoor] uou EUEaxpEcpE xov 
Ti£pi|.iEVE o 9dvaxoc;. Exi]v ttoXt] Kax£f3p£xav |i£ xic; |idviK£c; xt]c; ttu- 
poa(3£axiKrjc; ooouc; TrpooTra9ouaav va |^iXT]aouv 8i]|i6aia Ka9c6c; Kai 
xo koivo xouc;, xpau|iaxi£ovxac; noXXouc;. TeXiko, oe pa auyKpouai] 



77 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 

|.i£ ti]v aoxwo\iia, Evac; rou6|.inXi 8oXocpovrj9T]K£ rat 8uo aaxuvo^iiKoi 
xpau(iaxiaxi]Kav. 

Auxo rjxav to xeXoc; xtjc; (laxi]?. Oi Bio(ii(xaviKoi EpydxEc; xou K6- 
o[iov Ei^av VXKTJOEI. 

To 1914 eAa[3£ %&pa «i] uttoGeot] xou T£o XiX» axi] riouxa, Eva 
kXooiko napdS£iy|ia xcov aK£ucopic6v nou Ekafiav %apa Evdvxia axouc; 
EpydxEc;. Mia auEpyia ei^e S;£anda£i Evdvxia axi]v KaxaaKEuaaxiKrj 
ExaipEia xr]^ riouxa, axo Mm'yKa|i Kdviov. £x£cp9r]K£ and Emxuxia, 
oncoc; oi n£piaadx£p£c; anEpyi'st; xcov rou6|inXic;. O T£o XiX, crivQe- 
xt]c; xpayou8ic6v rai (ieXoc; xcov B.E.K., rjxav o f3aaiKoc; ayKixdxopac; 
rai opyavcoxrjc;. Zuv£Xrjcp9r] axo ZoXx Aeik Zixu [ie xi]v Kaxijyopi'a 
xov cpovou evoc; vxomou (inaKaXr], xov onoib X m P^ a(icpif3oXia o XiX 
8ev ei^e 5ei TtOXE OX1] £wrj XOU. AlKaaXljKE KCU Kaxa8iKaaxi]K£' EKQVE 
EcpEor] Kai xr|v £y_ao£. Toxe l;£Kivr|a£ [iia EKoxpaxEia aXXi]X£yyur|c;, 
nap6|.ioia (.is avrvf\ nou eXqPe %&pa yia xr]v un66£ai] EaKO-BavxaExi 
ranoia xpovia apyoxEpa. To Ku[3£pvi]xiK6 |i£yapo y£(ua£ ypd|i(iaxa 
Kat xi)XEypacpi](iaxa, evco auyKEvxpcoaEic; Sia|.iapxupiac; Eyivav oe 6Xa 
xa |ispi] xov Koa|iou. AXXd xapic, anox£X£a(ia. Xxic; 17 No£(.if3pi] xou 
1915 o T£o XiX rjp9£ avxt|i£xcoTtoc; (i£ xo ekxeXeoxiko anoanaa|ia 
oxo npoauXio xr]c; OuXaKrjc; xtjc; riouxa. To nxc6(ia xov (i£xaip£p9i]K£ 
axo EtKayo Kai i] Ki]§£ia xou rjxav oxeSov xo i5io noXunXi]9ijc;, av oxi 
Kai E^iaov EvxuncoaiaKrj, \ie autf| xcov avapxiKcov xou X£i(iapK£x. 

O (iectoc; auvSiKaXiaxrjc; 8e voia^dxav ra96Xou yia xouc; a(ia9Eic; > 
a|3oij9i]xouc; aXXoSanouc; oxa Epyoaxdaia ucpavxoupyiac; ouxe yia xr|v 
a^iEpiKaviKi] EpyaxiKi] xdi;i) auvoXira. Aev auv£npaxx£ |i£ xouc; rbu- 
olittXic; axic; EKaxpaxEiEc; xouc; yia xnv £X£u9£pia xou Xoyou ouxe oxa 
dXXa Kivr'](iaxa yia xa 8iKaic6|.iaxa xcov KaKopi^iKcov. Kaxd npcoxov, 
o (Sioc; eixe eXoxioxo Ev8iacpEpov yia xouc; KaKopi^iKouc;' cot; eiSikeu- 
(ievoc; (ir)xaviKoc:, 9Ecop£ixo «o apiaxoKpdxi]c; xi)t; Epyaai'ac;». Kaxd 
8£i5x£pov, xo |idvo ttou (iTropouaE va KavEi i]xav va void^Exai yia xov 
Eauxo xou. Zuxvd eixe oiKoyEVEia i] ax£8fa^£ va 6i](iioupyi]a£i. Eixe 
|iia (iiKpi) TiEpiouaia rj eXtti^e va aTtoKXT]aEi Kanoia. Eixe Ka9i]Kovxa 
[lEoa axr)v Koiv6xr]xa Kai Kdnoio Kupoc; [ifoa a' auxrj. 

An' xi]v dXXr], oi TiEpiaaoxEpoi an' xouc; EVEpyouc; rou6|inXic; rjxav 
dv9pconoi X W P^ unoxpEcoaEic;, avunavxpoi, X<npic, nEpiouafa i] koi- 
voxiko Ka9rJKOvxa. 'Hxav axExiKa eukoXo yi' auxouc; va f3youv axo 



7<S 



Oi FovojitiXk; 



8p6|^o kcu va aycovicrtoDv yia todc; KOKopi^iKODc;, va nave cpvAaKi] yia 
tt]v a|i£piKaviKT] EpyaxiKT] xd^i] kcii yEvira va a-noXaDaoDv to fiapTu- 
pio. 'Etoi, o awSiKaXiaTrjc; d(pi]v£ todc; ayvouc; roDOfiTiXic; va kovodv 
ti] f3pc5|^iKi] SodXeio, r] onoia |.ioipafa evio^de rai to 8iko tod KDpoc; 
ott]v Koivcovia, evco o 18105 ciD^vd ETraipve to ^Epoc; tcov aEfMorucov 
otic; Ppiatec; ttod odtoi aTieuBuvav otodc; Bio|iT])[aviKouc; EpyaTEc; tod 
K.6o\iov. 

'Otov 01 HnA nm']Kav crrov A' nayKdoTiio ridXEno, r] A|i£piKa- 
vikt] OfxoaTTOv8i'a Epyaai'ac; au|iHETEi^e ott|v EKcrrpaTEia EvdvTia 
otodc; rouonTrXi^ aDvSpdfxovrac; crro va (puXaKiaToiJv KaTa EKOTOvrd- 
8ec; fi£ [XEydXEc; ttoivec;. 

Meto ti]v aTTEpyfa tou Mqk Kic; Pokc;, 01 EodohttXic; a-nEfyav oje- 
86v teXeicoc; otto tt] 3CPTJ CT1 1 f3iac;. 'OXi] i] p(a KaTa tic; aTtEpyiEc; tcov 
B.E.K. koi tic; EKOTpaTEiEc; yia ttjv eXedBepio tod XdyoD, and to 1910 
coc; to 1916, aaKEiTO aTt' tt]v aaTDvop'a, ti]v EBvotpiiXaKi] Kai todc; 
ttXt]Pcohevodc; TriaToXdSEc; tcov EpyoSoTcov. Meto to Mqk Kit; Pokc;, 
01 Bio|iT]xaviKoi EpyaTEc; tod Koafiou ^pi]ai|^OTTOii]aav f3aotKa odto 
ttod aTTOKaXouaav «8waLiT] tcov api8|^cov». 



79 



KEOAAAIO 11 

Ol AYNAMITirTES MESA 

ETHN AMEPIKANIKH OMOSIIONAIA 

EPrAIIAi: 



H 



«'W' "W" |3ia», kciteBeoe o XqlioueX rKOHTTEpc; an]v Emxpo-m] tou 
KoyKpeaou to 1900, «8ev qttoteXei qttoSekto xjii^a tou 
a^Ecuou 8pdar|c; tou EpycraKou KivTJfxaTOc;. H Suva^t] tijc; 
EpyaTiKi'n; xd^T]^ npETTEi vn |3piaK£Tai otouc; apiGLiouc;, ottjv opyavco- 

TIKT] aTTOTEXEOfiaxtKOTllTn, OTO SlKQlO TCOV [XeGoScOV T1]Q>. O rKOLlTTEpc; 

KmxiSiKa^E lie oGevoc; tic; iSeec; kcu tic; Tcpd^Eic; tcov avap^iKuv tou 
EiKayo, tt]c; Autikijc; Ofioa-novSiac; AvGpciKcopu^cov, tou Nte^tk; kqi 
tcov rouoLmXic;. 

ndvTwe;, Ti]v copa ttou qutoc; cot; TrpoESpoc; tijc; A|i£piK:dviKi]c; O^o- 
crnovSiac; Epyaaiac; EXfiys tq Trapa-rrdvco, to, auvSiraTa ttou avt'jKav 

QTT)V TeXeUTCUCT ^pTjOTLlOTIOlOUaav TTEpiaaOTEpi] KQI OTTC0a8l']TTOTE raXu- 

TEpa opyavcofiEvi] fiia nn' oti tq Trapdvofxa picpaTracrnKd KivrJLiciTa. 

Ee \lia OUVEVTEui;!] TOU TTOU 8l]fTOOlEUTl]KE OTOV KoajiO TT]C; NeQCJ 

Y6pKT]c;, o rKO^TTEpc; Trapn8E^TT]KE oti xa auvSiKQTa tou 3(pi]ai|io- 
ttoiouv ptaiEc; TrpaicnKEc;' aXXd TrpoaGEaE oti ciuto vjtqv Eva £i']Ti]- 
\ia ttou acpopouoE tic; aaTUvoLUKEc; ap^Ec;. H Koivcovia 6ev ettpette 

VQ TTEpiLTEVEl OTI TQ OUvSlKaTCl 6a KClT£8l8av TOV E^EyEpLlEVO r\ TOV 

Tpo^oKpaTi], yicra oe luq tetoiq iTEpiTTTCoai] «9n 8r|Hioupy£iTO Ttpo- 
KaTaXT]i|;i] oti]v uttoGeot] Tipiv axo^a aircrj cpTdaEi crro STKaaTTJpio... 
To EpyaTiKO auvSiKQTO ao^oXEiTm \ie tic; oikovo^ikec; ouvGvjkec; tcov 

EpyaTCOv' \l£ TQ C^TTJLlClTa TOU VOLIOU KQI TT|C; TQ^C;, Qa^oXElTQl 1] 

Ku(3£pvi]ai]». 

'HtCTV avClLlEVOLTEVT] QUT1] T| SlTTpOaCOTTlO, TOU rKO^TTEpC;. 'HtCIV 

avayKnaLiEvoc; an' tt] lwo. vn KaraSiKa^Ei tt] fiia kqi an' ti]v dXXi] 
ELi^iEaa kot LiuaTiKa va auLi^ETE^Ei oti] XP r 'l al l T1 1^- © a E fy E Y^ VEl tcoXu 



81 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



auvTo^a Evac; npc6r|v TjyETi]^, av i] «(pwxia|i£VT] T|y£ora» xov 8ev r'|Tav 
xaipinaTi] (.is xa aiaQr][iaxa twv onaSwv xov. 

Oi T]yETE^ tt](; A.O.E. omoKrjpiioaav [ietA (38£Xuynia^ to Swafii- 
xi], to awSiKaxa toix; 6|.iwc; tov ^piiai^ioTTOtouaav' yia va to kqvouv 
auxo rJTav auapaiT^Ti], av 6^1 t] t]8ikt], aiyoupa r] uXiktJ i<Tiocrn]pil;i] 
air' xr\v v\\n]kr\ i]yEa(a. 

I 

Ta KaiaaKEuaoTiKa ETTayyEX^aTa Kaxeijav xa TipcoxEia Tr]^ xpo- 
liOKpaxfa^ |i£aa axy\v A.O.E. ' Kai otto auTa, to mo tpo^oKpaxiKO 
tJtqv oi EpyaTE^ Zi8i]poii. H AieBvtji; 'Evwai] tov Epyaxcov TEcpupuv 
Kai KaxaaKEUcov, ottw^ r\xav oXoKXipo to 6vo|ia xov ovvSik&xov, 8r|- 
|^ioi'pyi]9i]K£ to 1896 a£ Eva awsSpio oto niTa|iTcoupyK, oto ottoio 
avriTrpoacoTTEuovrav ttevte tottikcx auvSiraTa' ti]<; Neo^ YopK?]^, tou 
MxicupaXo, xi]<; BoaTovr|c;, tou ntTa^Tcoi'pyK: Kai xov XiKayo. To %ti- 
oi\io [ie ti] ^_pi]cri] aTaaAiou i]Tav ojexiko. veo ETcdyyEAna. O npwTOc; 
oi'pavo^uaTT]c; —r\ KaXuTEpa ai'TO ttou tote ovo|ia£oTav oupavol;u- 
oti]c;— jxiaxy]KE axo ZiKayo oto teXo^ ti]<; SfiKaETia^ xov '80, aXXd 
ttoAu yprjyopa aKoXou9i]aav Kt dXXoi. 

To £Tidyy£A|.ia 8ev a-rraiTouaE fiEydXi] 8£^ioT£^v(a' cf^eSov koBe 8v- 
vaxoi; veo^ dvrpa^ ^iTropoiiaE va |j.d.9ei 6Xa Ta |.iwxnKd tou £Ttayy£X|^a- 
toc; oe i^iKpo ^oviko 8idaTi]|^a. Oi fiiaBoi twv or8£pd8wv, cmjv ap^i], 
r\xav tioXu ^apiXoTEpoi ott' auTouq twv auvacpwv eiSikoti'itwv. 

ndvrcoc;, KaBwc; Ta KTrjpia I'lj/wvovrav 6X0 Kat i|n]XoT£pa Ta ra- 
BrJKOvTa xov ai8Epd yivovrav 6X0 Kai mo SuaKoXa Kai auvro^a to 
£TTdyyEX|ia EyivE to mo ettikivShvo koi to mo po^avriKO an' 6Xa Ta 
oiKoSojiiKa ETiayyEX^aTa. Movov dvrpEt; |^e |i£ydXii cpvaiKi] Swa^i] 
Kai Bdppoc; yivovrav or8£pd8£<; otoih; oupavo^ijaTEi;' |3d£ovTai; oe 
ki'vSwo ti] £wi] tow; koBe fiEpa, avETTTi'^av Lua v|n^oaw6£ar| ttou 
^apaKTi]pi^oTav otto dyvoia kiv8ijvoi< koi |3(a, Ti]v onofa dvBpcoTroi 
ttoi' E^aaKoiioav XiyoTEpo ETTiKivSuva £TTayyEX|.iaTa 8ev KaTavoouaav 

EUKoXa. 

Ym]p^E aKO|ia o aiSEpdci-yEtpupoTioioc:, o ottoioc; dXXa^E totto 
8ianovi](; avdXoya |i£ to tiou ^ti^otov i] Kd0£ yEcpupa Kai ouvettcoc; 
^oi5oe ^iiav aqniaiKi] ^wrj. H £i8iKOTi]Ta ai'Ti] 8ev TpapoiiaE tov Timi- 

KO «KaX6 TToXlTT]», TTOl' TOU apEOEl va KdBETai 8lTlXa OTO Ti^OKI |i£ TI] 

au^vyo Kai Ta Ttai8id toil Teviko oi ai6£pd8E(; TtpoEp^ovrav atro tt]v 



82 



Ot A vvafiiTiajec; Mean oti/v AfteoiKavitcr/ OfioanovSia Egyaaiac; 



TTEpmXavcoLiEvi], xi]v aveuBwi] Kaxijyopia xcov avxpcov — aKXijpoi, 8d- 
vaxoi, [ie xic; ypoGiEc; xidvxa exoiliec; yia cwjmAoKrj. Extjv T[X£ioi|/r|cpia 
xouc; rjxav IpXavSoi LiEyaXcoLisvoi oe xcapdyKEc;, OXXavSoi, Iv8idvoi 
Kai Sidcpopoi dXXot. 

II 

Avtoi 01 dvxpEc;, coc; oa<v8iKdxo, eiyav va avxiLiExcoTriaow |iia air' 
xic; mo axiocpaaiaxiKEc; Kai p(ai£t; opyavwaEic; EpyoSoxwv arte; HEIA, 
xi]v EBviKi] 'Evcoai] EpyoXdpwv. 

'Eyivav aTTEpyiE^, otic, ottoiec; uxirjpx£ [3ia. Xxi]v apyf\ oi amp- 
yoi SiETrpaxxav 01 18101 xouc; l;uXo8apLiouc; Kai xic; avaxivd£;£ic; |i£ 8v- 
vafxiTi]. Me tov raipo, dfxcoc;, xa oa<v8iKaxa apyiaav va ttXtjpcovoitv 
EyKXi]|iaTiEc: Kai yKavyKaxEpc; yia va EmxOEvxai axovc; aTTEpyoaTid- 
otec;. Eldvxcoc;, 8ev uxidp^Ei aLicpipoXia oxi r] xiX£ioi|/i]cpia xi]c; pfac; Kai 
xou aaLixioxd£, Kaxd xic; Siacpcovfec; LiEaa oxo [3io|.ii)^aviK6 auaxi]Lia, 
aaKi']6i]KE and maxouc; auv8iKaXiax£c; lie Siki] xouc; xipcoxopouXia. 

Ekeivij xi]v etto^tj i] Kaxaaxpocpi] TCEpiowiac; ijxav auvfj8T|c; crtic; 
8iacpcovi£c; \ieoa axi] pioLirj^avia. Zxic; xapa^sc; axov xolieo xcov tt|- 
XEcpcovcov Kai xcov xi]X£ypacpi]Lidxcov, 01 £pya£6|i£voi EKopav xa raXco- 
8ia' 01 x^a|id8Ec; ££;£cppa£av xa aia9i]|iaxd xouc; Evdvxia oxa acpEvxira 
axid^ovxac; xa x^aLiia' Kai 01 LiapayKoi, TiapaLidpcpcovav xic; xioXuxe- 
Xeu; KaxaaKEi'Ec;. O axd^oc; auxou xou pavSaXiaLiou rjxav va pdXsi 
xov EpyoSdxi] oe ettixiXeov E^o5a Kai xiapdXXr]Xa va xov EKpidaEi 
cooxe va xipoaXdpEi awSiKaXiaxEc; avxi yia avopydveoxouc; EpydxEc;. 

'Hxav (puaiKO yia xovc; aiSEpdSfic; va i'ioGextjctouv xo 8 waLiixi], coc; 
xo mo axioxEXEafxaxiKO liecto Kaxaaxpocprj^. O 8uvaLuxi]c; eije EupE- 
co^ 5(pr|aiLioTTOU]0£i axi^ oryKpoucrEic; LiEaa axi] pioLujxavia Kaxd xr| 
Sekoexio xoi' '90 Kai Kaxd xi]v npcoxi] Sekoexio xov eikooxou aicova. 
Oi aiSEpaSfic; Linopoiiaav va Ppow eukoXo «xo i<Xiko»' xidvxa iimjp^E 
Lua TToa6xr]xa 8ia9Eai(.ii] oe koGe LiEydXo Epyoxd^io. AXXd o xpoxroc; 
xr]c; Kaxaaxpocprjc; 8ev e^ei xoai] ai]|iaaia, oao i] cpiXoaotpia uiaw an' 
auxov. H Kaxaaxpotpi] xipay|.iaxoxioiouxav |idvo atpou xa dXXa |.i£aa 
iKavoTcou]aT]^ xcov aixr|(xdxcov xcov Epyaxcov Ei^av axioxij^Ei. 

Oi Epya^oLiEvoi axic; KaxaoKEUEc; (pr]fxi^ovxav yia xic; aKXi]pEi; \ie- 
668ouc; ttov ^pi]ai(.iOTTOioi5aav, i]8i] axi' xr]v apyf\ xov eikooxou ai- 



83 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



cova. Auxfj i] cpi]jii] paai£6xav as yeyovoxa, otiqc; ekeivo ttou eXoPe 
^wpa xov IouXio xoi< 1906 axi] Nsa YopKi]. Tpidvxa aiSfipdSEc;, 6X01 
xouc; auv8tKaXta|AEVoi, Eiyav TrpoaXi](p9£i |.ia£i |^e Xiyovc; aKo^ia p] 
avvtSiKaXia^Evouc; KaxaaKEi'aaxEc; KXi|iaKoaxaaicov. Oi xeXeuxoi- 
01 SouXsrav axouc; KaxcoxEpouc; opocpouc; Kai oi aiSEpdSEc; xouc; tte- 
xouaav avvejdx;, 8i']0ev Kaxd XdGoc;, (3i8ec;, ai5£p£vi£c; pdpSouc; Kai 
f3apid EpyaXfiia. H ExaipEi'a irpoaEXapE eiSikoix; ExnaxdxEc; yia va 
ettiPXextoi'v, wax£ oi KaxaoKEuaaxE^ KXt|iaKoaxaai(ov va £pyd£ovxai 
rjau^oi. Ai'xo E^opyiaE xouc; aiS£pd8£c;. Mia (.lEpa Eva (.itcouXouki an' 
auxouc; ettixe0i]ke axouc; EiriaxaxEc;, xouc; ^uXocpopxwaE |-i£xpi avai- 
a9i]ai'ac; Kai ttexo^e £vav aTt' auxouc; otto xov 80 axov 5o opocpo. O 
£maxdxT]c; auxoc; tteGove. KavEic; axto xouc; dvSpEc; xiov ai'(.i|i£XEi^av 
axi]v extiGeoi] 8ev avayvwpi'axiiKE. Oi ijyEXEc; xov awSiKaxou E^rjyT]- 
aav oxi av ot EmaxdxEc; 8E^xi]Kav ettOeoi], uxr£u9wr| Eivai i] ExaipEi'a 

XtOU XOUC; El^E TipOoXdpEl. 

'Oxav oi aiSEpdSEc; 8ev Kaxd(p£pvav va £|iTToSi'aouv xouc; airEp- 
yoaxrdaxEc; va avaXdpouv Ka9i]Kovxa aird^ovxac; xouc; xa KEcpdXia 
rj aKoxcovovxac; xouc; cppoupouc; xouc;, TtpoaxraBouaav va KaxaaxpE- 
v)/ouv xo (Sio xo Epyo —Kai au^vd xo KaxdtpEpvav. Efyav xi]v ttexioi- 
9i]cn] oxi xo auyKEtcpifXEvo Epyo xouc; avrJKE, aKO|^a ki av oi i5ioi ap- 
vouvxav va 5ouXei|/ouv |xe oxtoiouoSrjxroxE dXXouc; opouc; ekxoc; cmo 
auxouc; xrou e9exe xo auvSiKdxo, xouc; oxtoiouc; o EpyoSoxijc; lacoc; va 
l-ii] Se^oxov. H axiXr] xouc; £TTixEipi]|iaxoXoyia rjxav oxi, coc; auvSira- 
Xia|.i£voi, Ei^av aycovioxEi exti ^povia yia va auijrjaouv xouc; \iiaQovt;, 
va jiEicoaouv xt|v Epydaifxi] piEpa Kai yEvira va KaXuxEpEuaouv xic; 
auv9i]K£c; Epyaaiac;. nXrjpcovav xic; auv§po|.i£c; xouc; Kai au|ifi£X£i^av 
oxic; auvSiKaXiaxiKEc; auvavxi]a£ic;. Ei^av ndpEi piEpoc; oe SekoSec; 
axrEpyiEc; Kai Xok doux. Efyav [ixiei oe |iaup£c; Xioxec;, Ei^av S;uXoko- 
m]9Ei Kai mipopoXi]6Ei. Ei'^av uxrocpEpEi axto UEiva Kai kokoi'^iec; 
yia va Kavouv xi] SouXeio xoao KaXoTrXi)pwnEVT] 6ao r]xav. ETTO|iE- 
vcoc;, i] Soi'XEid xouc; avr']KE. Aev utti]pxe TT£pi9copio au^i]xi]ai]c;' xou 
axrEpyooTidaxr] 9a xou Eaxrayav xo KEtpdXi Kai xou EpyoSoxr] iron 
9a xtpoaXdfiPavE xov aTTEpyoaTrdaxr] 9a xou avaxiva^av xo Epyo |.ie 
8uva|.ii'xi]. 

Texoioc; r']xav o «axtX6c; Kai ayvot;» auvSiKaXionoc; axr]v upd^i]. 
AXXd 8ev TtpExtEi koveic; va ^e^voei, oxi r\xav Exiiar]c; ouv8iKaXia|.i6c; 
a£ oi'vGijkec; axr6yvcoai]t;. 



84 



Ot A vvafiiTiajec; Mean oti/v AfteoindviKr/ OfioanovSia Egyaaiac; 



YliaxEva, TrdvTU^, oil o or'yKEKpinEvoc; tottoc; auv8iKaXia|iov) tcou 
aaKoiiae tote i] A.O.E. Eivai o novoc; ttov 6a |^Tropoi5aE va ETii|3icoaEi 
rai va e^ei aTTOTEAEa^ia oti]v aKpcoc; ^aoxiKi], TiapdXoyi], tucpXd p(aii] 
TiEpioSo tmv teXei'toicov aapdvTa ^povcov cm^ HEIA. 

O Epya^o^Evo^ ijEi OTy KE| <pi|X£va TioXiTiKa SiKaiw^aTa mi ^Tro- 
pEi va TrapaTT]OEi ti] 8oi<X£id xov ottote 9eXei — av, p^aia, ejzi quo- 
cpaaiori va TTEBdvEt ttjc; tteivo^. AXXd ektoc; an auTO, r| Kaxdaxaai] 
tou 8ev Eivai Kai ttoXu KaXuTEpr] an amr) xov TraXtou aKXdpov. Atto 
KaTTOta dnov|;i] Eivai Kai ^EipoTEpi). O «eXeij6epo^» £pya£6|.i£voi; toi< 
ar']|.iEpa Eivai, (pwiKa, eXeuBepoc; va nasi ottou OeXei — av e^ei xa 
aTiapaiTi]Ta ^pi'ii^axa. AXXd TipaKxiKa, 01 fi£TaKivi]a£i<; xov e^ow Eva 
l^ovo okotto: va Pp£i |xiav dXXi] SouXEid. Miac; Kai to £iaoSTJ|.iaTd xov 
audvia imEpKaXuTiTow tic; avdyKEc; xov, jiTiopEi va auoKTrjaEi \iia 
Ka-noia TiEpioi'aia ^ovo \i£ aKpaiEt; aT£pi]a£i^. Kai oxav aTioKTijaEi 
Eva ottiti, auxo yivETai pa Seotiewti] ttou xov KpaxaEi Se^xevo cfe Eva 
totto Kai otiou |iia oiKovofxiKi] Kpiar] oa^vd toi< to naipvEi uiaco. 

Ta TioXrriKd xov 8iKaic6|iaTa 8ev |iTiopEi va xa £'£,aoKr\o£i oweiSi]- 
xa [iexA ano ttoXXec; copE^ 8oi<X£id(; 8ev e^ei oute to jpovo oute ti]v 
EVEpyEia va aKEtpTEi yia Trpoaama Kai Tcpdy^iaTa. Eivai TiEpiaaoTEpo 
Eva avTiKEijiEvo, Evat; Sekttjc; aaTa|idTi]Ti](; TrpoTrayavSa^. 

Tia Xoyoi'^ auTod^iwa^ |iTca(v£i \aat,i \ie dXXouc; oav outov crro 
ai'v8iKaTO. To auvSiKaTO Eivai r] ^iovt] xov EXni'Sa, Kai Eivai 8ia- 
teGei^evo^ va to TraEi oao ^aKpid ^pEiacrtEi yia va SiaTijprjaEi ttjv 
imap^i] xov. Wr\q>ifei i]yETE(; Ttpd9v)|ioi)<; va 3y)i]ai|iOTTon]aoirv xn fiia, 
oxav t] p(a Eivai o |idvoc; Tponoc; yia va owe^Coei va imdp^Ei to 
ai'v8iKaTO. 



Ill 



Avd|iEaa oto 1905 Kai to 1910, o 8ova(im|i^ EyivE aacpui; \iia 
ano xv; toktikec; twv EpyaTcav Zi8i]poii otijv TrpoaTidBEid toi'c; va 
KaXuT£pEi|;ouv tic; aw6i)K£^ oto EirdyyEXfid touc; Kai crn]v Koivwvfa. 
Kai o 8uva|^iTi]^ i]Tav aTTOT£XEa|^aTiKO^. Oi EpyaTE^ ZiSrjpoi' aitE- 
Kpouaav tic; ettiBetike^, avTiai'vSiKaXiaTiKEc; ttoXitikec; tt]^ 'Evcoar](; 
EpyoXdpcov. Zti]v TTpay|iaTiK6Ti]Ta, |.iEaa a' avxa xa tcevte jpovia to 
i]|^Epo|.iia9i6 tou^ aii^i]6i]KE ano 2,50 8oXdpia yia 8eko wp£^ SouXei- 
d^ a£ 4,30 yia o)[T(6 copEc;. Tia va to ttetij^ei ai'TO, to Euv8ikoto twv 



85 



A mauling: H Iarogia Ttjg Trf^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



EpyaTcov Ei8rjpov avaxiva^E |i£ 8uva(AtTr| TiEpiTroi' 150 rcrrjpia Kai 
yEcpvpec; otic; HEIA kqi tov KavaSd. 

EiravaXafipdvw: 01 EpyaTEt; ZiSrjpou KaT£cpuy av aTO 5wa|iiTi] 
f3piaKO|.iEvoi a£ aKpai'a andyvcoaT], oe |iia \tdyi] ^corjc; Kai 9avaTOU, 
yia va acoaouv tic; SouXeiec; tcov |ieXc6v xov auvSiKdrou, yia va oco- 

OOW TO l'8lO TO OVvSlKaTO. 

Oi ETii^Eipi]a£ic; lie 8i'va|xiTi] a^£8id£ovTav axa KEvrpira ypacpEia 
tou awSiraTou axixv IvSiavduoXi], crrro tov ypn|i|iaT£a-Ta|^ia tt)c; 
opydvcoaijc;, tov T£ov Mqk NaLidpa, tov ottoioi' |3aoTK6c; awEpyd- 
tt]c; Kai avTiTrpoacoTTOc; tou rJTav o aSEpcpdc; toi<, o E^eilic; Mgk Na- 
l^dpa. O E£ov eije Eva Liijviaio TcpoiiTToAoyiaiio 1000 SoXapicov yia 
«okottoijc; tijc; opydvcoor]c;». KaGoTav aTO ypacpEio xov tcca anocpdoi^E 
tioiec; «8ouAeiec;» 9a TTpoco9oiVrav, evw o E^eilic; rJTav o «ethSe1;ioc; 
8i£KTT£paicoTrjc;». Ka9o8i]yoi)CTav tic; Em^EiprjaEic; auTEc; ev TrXijpi] 
yvwar] tcov i]yETC0v tov auvSiraTou Kai tijc; nX£ioi|/r]cpia(; tcov lieXcov. 
To acvSiKaTO e^eXe^e tov Ttpv oto a^icoLia xov ypaLiLiaTEa-TaLua, 
Kupiwc; etcei8t] ai'Toc; maTEUE aTO SwaLUTi] kqi rJTav Tip69ii|ioc; va tov 
Xpi|oi| 1 oTTOii]aEi a£ aov6i]K£t; £KTaKTi]c; avdyKi]c;. 

Aev Eivat SuokoXo va £p|.u]v£ua£i koveic; Tore; aSEpcpouc; Mqk Na- 
cidpa. 'Ehav IpXavSoi, KXi]po8oTr|Li£voi lie tq (8ia EvcmKTa ttoi< Ei'^av 
o8T]yi]a£i aTi] 5i]fxioi'pyia tcov MoXi MayKovdipc;' facoc; oi aSfipcpof 
Mqk NaLidpa va i]Tav Xiyo mo iSeqXiotec;, lie TTEpioaoTEpr] koivco- 
vikt] ouvEi5i]a?] alio touc; MoXic;. Ei;aipoii|i£vcov tcov SwaLiiTiaTiKcov 
tovc; £Tti^£ipi]a£cov, ot mo noXXoi dvBpcoTtoi 9a touc; anoKaXouaav 
«KaXd Trai5td». Ett]v iSicotikt'] Tout; £coi] i]iav VTLo5£iy|iaTiKoi oiKoyE- 
vEidp^Ec;, Kai ayauouaav tt] LUjTEpa tovc;. 'Evac; ott' tolic; 8uo rJTav m- 
cttoc; Ka9oXiKoc;. Kai oi 8uo mcnxuco oti TioXiTiKd i]Tav SijLioKpaTiKoi, 
raBcoc; Kai cpiXoi Kai Gai'LiaaTEc; xov Ha\i rKOLiTLEpc;. Zti] aw£i8i]ai] 
tow; to va (3d^£i koveic; SwaLiiTi] yia to ouvSikoto 5ev r]Tav a|iapTia 
Tioii 9a ETrpEUE va E^o|ioXoyi]9£i Evac; KaXoc; koGoXikoc;, aTO f3a9|i6 
ttod 8ev r]Tav a|.iapTia i] acpaipa ttou Epi^vE Evac; oTpaTiuTT]c; crrov 
tt6Xe|.io. 'Htov aTpaTEU|i£voi oto qkotio tt]c; EpyaTiKi]c; Ta^i]t;, otov 

TToX£|.lO |i£Ta^l) TCOV E^OVTCOV Kai TCOV |iT] e^ovtcov. 'Htov OI Il]aOl'lT£c; 

tov EpyaTiKou Kivi]|^aToc;, Kai oi qkottoi Tore; ayi'a^av Ta lieoo. 

Kai oi 8uo 9£copouvTav rjpcoEt; |i£oa oto ouvSikoto (koi aKO|ia 
9£copoi5vTai). 'Eacoaav to awSlKOTO oe |iia qtt' tic; mo SuokoXec; tte- 
pioSouc; tou. Eti]v ap^i] tou eikootou aiwva, 6Xa Ta aw8iKdTa otov 



86 



Ot A vvafiiTiajec; Mean oti/v AfteoiKavitcr/ OfioanovSia Egyaaiac; 



xolieo xov |i£xdXXou SiaXi)9r]Kav xeXei'coc; — ekxoc; otto xouc; EpydxEt; 
Zi8i]poi\ )(_oipi] axo 8i)va(AiTT| Kai xoi'c; aSepcpou^ Mqk Na|idpa. 

'Evac; an xouc; paaiKouc; aTroXoyT]x£t; xcov aSeptpwv Mqk Na|idpa 
kcu xcov Trpd^Euv xoi'c;, rjxav —Kai okolio Eivai- o Avxov Tioyavaev, 
o TrdXni ttote riyExijc; tcov awSiraxcov xov Zav OpavxaiaKO xa cmoia 
ETTiai]c; ^pi)at|iOTroii]aav Swapx!], rai xcopa EpyaxiKoc; i]y£xr|c; oxo 
XiKdyo. ElittXe^xijke axi] 8iKaaxiKi] YttoBeot] Mqk Na|.idpa Kai Eivai 
TTEpi'icpavoc; yi' auxo. To 1913 SrjXcoaE: 

Av Kdnoioc; liou ttei oxi 01 Mqk Na|Mpa TrpETTEi va KaxaSiKaaxcmv, 
i] aTrdvxi]ai] \iov Eivai: Evxd^Et, aXXd 6a KaxaSiKaaouLiE £Tiiar|c; mi 
xo Tpaox AxaaXiou. 

Av raTioioc; \iov ttei oxi xo ZuvSiraxo Epyaxcov ZiSi]poi< TrpETTEi 
va KaxaSiKaaxEi, Xeco: evto^ei, aXXd 9a Kaxa8iKdaou|i£ Kai xi]v E9vi- 
kt] 'Evcocft] EpyoXd|3cov. EIpiv xo auvSiraxo apyioEi va ^ptjoiliottoiei 
8uva^ixr] oi dvxpEc; £ouaav |i£ Liia9ouc; XiLioKxoviac;, ETiaipvav 400 
8oXdpia xo ^povo Kai Ei^av Kai oiKoysvEiEc; va 9pe\|/ouv. Av Trou- 
ve: GeXoulie va TiEaEi (put; Trdvco axic; SpaaxijpioxijxEc; xcov ai<v5iKa- 
Xiaxcov, £yc6 Xeco: Evxd^Ei, aXXd va tteoei cpcoc; Kai ndvco axo Tpaax 
AxaaXiou. Pi'^xe cpcoc; Kai axov koo|^o xt]c; Epyaai'ac; Kai axo KEcpdXaio. 
Ei|iaax£ Trp69ii|ioi va auyKpivoupiE xit; a|iapxi£t; Liac; |i£ xic; a|iapxi£t; 
xcov Epyo8oxc6v. 

IV 

To 1910, |l£Xa OTTO Llia OEipd l8iaiX£pa LlEydXcOV EKpVj^ECOV TTOU 

Kax£axp£i|;av Kxrjpia KaxaaK£raa^i£va axio pj auvSiKaXiaxsc; Epyd- 
x£C|, i] E9viki'] 'Evcoar] EpyoXd^cov TrpoafiXapE xo vxexekxi|3 TouiXiafi 
Mnapvc; yia va avaKaXiii|/£i Kai va auXXdpEi xorc; SuvapiixiaxEc;. 



87 



KEOAAAIO 12 

H EYNOMOSIA TIA THN anatinash 
TON «TAIMX» TOY AOX ANTZEAES 



+ ^-^^ aov acpopd xov tq^iko aywva, \iia TTEpiEpyr] Kaxdaxaar] 
■ ■ 8iaSpafxaxi£6xav ori]v KaXicpopvia axic; ap^Ec; xov 1910, 
^«^^ nKpipuc; Tcpiv xt]v avaxiva^r] xcov Tdifiq xov Aoc; AvxcJeXec;. 
To Zav OpavxaiaKO rjxav o^upo xov avvSiKaXiajxou. To epyaxiKO 
Kivi]fxa rjxav t)8t| la^vpo npiv xo aeia[io xov 1906' \ieia an' auxov, 
eyive o Kvpiap^oc; Ttapdyovxac; axr]v ttoXi). Ta awSiraxa, 181'coc; auxd 
xov KaxaaKEvaaxiKou xo^eq, £KLi£xaXX£uxi]Kav xi] ^aoxiKrj raxdaxa- 
ai] xrov aKoXo\50i]aE xo aEiaLio kcu opyavc69i]Kav lie xexoio xpoxto 
cooxe [lioa oe Svo )[povia eXey^civ xrpaKxira Kd0E spyo axo Zav <J>pa- 
vxaioKO. Tia va aTioKXTjaovv avxo xov eXey^o ot EpydxEc; ^pipiLiOTioi- 
i|oav okXtjpec; |i£96Sovc;, avd|±£aa a' odxec; kqi xo 8vva|i(xT]. 

Msxd xo 1908, oi EpyoXdpoi 8ev |iTropoiJaav va kivt]9ouv raBoXou 
ya pic; va Xd(3ovv utc6i|/t] xouc; xa auvSiKaxa. O Nx. TouopEv PdivxEp, 
oe Eva laxopiKO dp9po xov yia xi]v xcEpioSo ekeivt] nov 5i]|iooi£\5xi]ke 
axov AfiEQindviKO YSftdgyvQO, £ypai|/E xov AxcpiXr] xov 1926: 

Kavsva acpupi 8e aT]Kcovoxav, KavEva toi5[3Xo 8e ^ti^otqv, Kacua aco- 
Xi']va 8ev xottoGetouvxqv, KavEvac; xoi^oc; 8e Pacpoxav r\ 8e axpcovoxav 
[xe xauExoapfa X a P^ ^l ovvciCveot] xcov auvSiKaxcov. Av Evac; EpyoSo- 
xr|c;, LiiKpoc; i] |i£ydXoc;, qtteXue Eva Li£9i5axaKa, avuudKovo r\ avi'tcavo 
Epydxi] %a>pi<; xi]v d8Eia tou avv8iKaxov xi]v dXXi] LiEpa 0a Ep^oxav 
avxifiExcoTTOc; fi£ fiia axrEpyia Kai 9a avayica^oxav va ETtavaTtpoaXafSEi 
xov aTioXv|.i£vo Epydxi] Kai va TrXi]pc6a£i avxov Kai xouc; auvxpocpouc; 
xov yia oao raipo xrapE^sivav ektoc; SouXeioc;. Oi avxiTtpoacoTcoi xcov 



89 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



auv8iraxcov xpiyupi^av crrr|v TtoAr], 8ivovxa<; SiaxayEc; Kai £Tii(3dXXo- 
vxag xrp6axi|^a. H 8i5va^ir] xcov auvSiraxcov ijiav aitoXutT]. 

Oi iiysxec; xqv auvSiraxcov axo Eav OpavxaiaKO, dxicoc; Kat aXXou, 
ci^av xr]v (5ia l^u^oXoyia lie xouc; SieuGuvxec; xcov LiEydXcov xpaax Kai 
Exaipiuv. Airaixouaav LiEyaXiixEpouc; luoGouc; yia xouc; EpydxEc; Kai 
lu^ec; yia xouc; Eauxouc; xouc; Kai x^pi) axrjv ttXeovekxiki'] Geoi] oxi]v 
OTTOi'a f3ptaKovxav xa TiExu^aivav Kai xa Suo. 

'Ovxac; la^upd oikovoluko, xo opyavcoLiEvo EpyaxiKO KiVr]Lia xou 
Env <J>pavxai'aKO av£xixul;£ ottcoc; rjxav cpuaiKO Kai ttoXixikt] Suva- 
|iiKi]. Ta auvSiraxa rjxav o SuvaxdxEpoc; napdyovxac; Tri'aco air' xi] 
8iEcp9apfi£vi] 8iaKiipEpvi]ai] xou SijLidp^ou Eluxc;, xa ^pdvia LiExd xo 
o£w\io. Oi EpyaxiKof nyEXEc; EiaEupaxxav iroaoaxd and Xa8c6p.axa 
tuou irXTJpcovav oi LiEyiaxdvEc; oxo 8rJLiapxo yia va anoKxrjaouv irpo- 
vd|.iia. 

To 1909, acpou o Sioikijxikoc; \ii]yavio[i6t; xou 8r|Lidp5(ou Eluxc; 
ei^e ttXeov T]6iKa a-rra^icoBEi, oi EpyaxiKoi nyEXEc; npoc66i]aav Evav 
i'nov|ii]cpio ^EKaBapa Siko xouc; —xov ndxpiK MaK KdpGu, irpoESpo 
xou Euli(3ouXiou KaxaaK£uc6v xou Eav OpavxaiaKO. Oi dvGpcoTioi 
yupco an' auxdv rjxav xunoi lie SuvaxEc; ypoGiEc;, SuvolukoC, EKTtai- 
8eulievoi axo aKXrjpd o^oXei'o xi]c; EpyaxiKrjc; i]y£ai'ac;' la^upoyvcoLio- 
vec;, cpcovaKXdSEc; Kai euGek;. Kdnoioi air' auxoiic; rjxav OLioXoyi]|i£- 
voi ouaSoi xou 8uvaLiixi]. KopdiSfiuav xouc; avdrjxouc; aoaiaXiaxEc; 
ttou xrape8i8av LiaGrJLiaxa noXixiKijc; oikovoluoc; ae OLid8£c; spyaxcov. 
«Aux6 ttou %p£ia£oLiaax£», xovi^av, «6ev Eivai LiaGrJLiaxa oikovoluoc;, 
aXXd LiaGrJLiaxa p]Li£i'ac;». 'Hxav |3dp|3apoi vixcte'i'koi. Oi aoaiaXiaxEc; 
xouc; anoKaXouaav «yopi'XX£c;». 

Auxoi eSivov LiiKprj ai]Liaaia axa «£pya£d|i£va nxc6Liaxa» nou ppi- 
aKovxav ec;co air' xa auvSiraxa' urrrjp^av ^iXidSEi; EpydxEc; axo Eav 
OpavxaiaKO ttou 8ev Lmopouaav va yivouv lieAti xcov auvSiraxcov, 
acpou xo kooxoc; xcov auv8po|ic6v rjxav anayopEuxiKO yi' auxouc;. 

Tmoxa xo auvaiaGi)LiaxiKO rj xo aoaiaXiaxiKO 8ev uttt'ip^e axa 
ai'v8iKaxa xou Eav OpavxaiaKO. 

Ta auv8iKaxa r\xav Eva ayKaGi axa xrXEupd xcov ETTi^Eipiip.axic6v 
xr]c; udXric;. Oi LiiaBoi r]xav UEpiTrou 30 xoic; ekoxo i|/i]Xdx£poi axo 
Eav OpavxaiaKO Kai i] EpydaiLir] \iepa raxd 6uo ecoc; XEaaEpEic; copEc; 
LUKpdxEpi] axr' dxi axic; dXXEc; xioXeic; xi]c; Auxikt']c; Akxt']c;. 'O^i liovo oi 



90 



H Svvajioaia yia jrjv Avinivnfyj tcov "Tdifig" tov Aog'Avj^eXeg 



KaTTiTaAiaiEc; cpopdvTowav va cpEpow via KEtpdXaia crro Zav Opn- 
vtotoko, aXXd rai KEcpdXaia rjSr] ETTEvSu^iEva otijv TioXi] anoaupo- 
vxnv. 



II 



Ait' tr|v dXXr| iiAEiipd to Aoc; Avt^eXec;, 500 |.uXia popEioxEpa, 
TJtav [iia avaTTTuaoo^EVT] tt6Xt| tt|c; avoi^Trjc; ayopdc; |i£ ti] f3iop]- 
^aviKi) xov laxopta aTEvd aw8E5E(.i£vi] [i£ \iia £v£pyT|TiKi] TipoacoTTi- 
Koxiixa, to aTpaxiiyd Xdpiaov TKpEi 'Otic;. Aut6c; i'|tqv E^Bpoc; tcov 
auvSiKOTCOv Kai ekSotij^-Siei'Bi'vtijc; tov Tdiji^ xov Aoc; Avt^eXec;. 
AveXqPe it] 8i£i59wot| tt]c; E(pr||.i£pi8ac; erne; ap^Ec; tt]c; SEKaETiac; 
ton '80, ttoii coc; tote tjtov airXd [iia (pi'XXdSa iron aycovi^oTav va 
Emf3ic6aEt a£ [iia tioXt] 12.000 kotoikcov. 

'Htov Evac; ettiBetikoc; dvTpac;, KaTaSiKaa|.i£voc; va ^E^copi^Ei 
[i£aa oe |xia |.iiKpr'] n6Xr|. 'Evac; Trpcorjv crrpaTicoTiKoc;, y£|.idTOc; |xe 
aTpaTicoTiKO TcvEufxa. A^eoisc; npiv tt]v YttoSeot] MaK Na|idpa, 
otov ttoXe^iouoe to awSiKaTa, tot[o6ett]qe Eva ^iKpo ravovi ott| 

aKETTT] TOl' aUTOKlVTJTOl) TOl). 

O 'Otic; ayanouaE rr\ ^dp] Kai otov to 1890 to tottiko ovv- 
8iKaTO tcov TCTToypdtpcov Ki]pi^£ aTTEpyia Evdvria otic; EcpT]|i£piS£c; 
Ti]c; tt6Xt]c; £i]Tc6vTac; EpyaaiaKouc; Kavovia^ouc; Kai HEyaXcrrEpow; 
|iia9ouc;, ai'Toc; noX£p]a£ to Kivi]|.ia |i£ kAQe [ieoo ttou ei^e oti] Sid- 
8£ar'] tou, Benito Kat a6E(.UTO. K£p5ia£ ti] \iayi] Kai and tote EyivE o 
i]y£Ti]c; tcov 8vvd|X£cov ti]c; avoi^Tijc; ayopdc; crto Aoc; Avt^eXec;. 

Koto Ti] SidpKEia ttjc; SEKaETiac; toc '90, o 'Otic; ei^e yivEi o 
ttio dypioc; Kai anoTEXEa^iaTiKoc; E^Bpoc; tcov awSiKaTcov cm] X C0 P a 
Kai coc; anoTEXEoria tcov npa^Euv tou to Aoc; Avt^eXec; VJTav —Kai 
TiapafiEVEi— i] ttoXi] |iE ti)v ttio aKpaia eXeuBepi) ayopd cmc; HELA 
O 'Otic; TioX£|ioi5a£ to awSiraTa |i£ vvyia Kai |xe 86vTia. Ec^vd 
TipoKaXouaE £aKE(.i^i£va auyKpouaEic;. Ztouc; Tdific;, avatpEpo^iEvoc; 
crow; opyavco|i£voi'c; EpyaTEc;, ■%pi]ai\\.OTioio<boz ^apaKTi]pia^iouc; 
ottcoc; «(.iTipd(3oi», «TiXi]pco|.i£voi Tapa^oTroioi», «evottXi] oi^|iopia» 
— Kanoioi f3£f3aia an' touc; ottoioi'c;, oe auyK£Kpi|.iEV£c; TTEpiTiTcooEic; 
T]Tav 8iKaioXoyi]H£voi. 

Tupco oto 1909, o 'Otic; avaKdXui[i£ to Nitot. Oi Tdijig EKavav 
ai'^vEc; ava<pop£<; oe kei'vec; tic; Beoeic; toc Nitoe ttoc £|.ioia^av va Tai- 
pid^ocv |^£ tic; ttoXitikec; Kai Ti]v i|/u5(ocrt)v9EOT| toi) aTpaTi]you 'Otic;. 



91 



A mauling: H Iarogia Ttjg Trf^najg Bing crrtjv Afisoinr/ 



O 'Oxic;, cpuaioXoyiKd, aTT£KTi]OE tioXXouc; zyQpovc,. 'Hxav avxi- 
Tia9r|xiK6c; cot; dxo^io a.KO\ia Kai ae Kaxioiouc; and xouc; auvEpydxEc; 
xou, xouc; KEcpaXaioKpdxEc;. Ot EpydxEc;, cpuaira, [iiaovaav Km to 
ya\ia ttou TraxouaE. Oi ijyexec; tmv auvSiraxcov avacpEpovxav a' au- 
xov \ie ETTi'0£Ta ttou Se yivExai va xuticoOouv axo ^apxi. Oi axiXoi 
dv9pwxioi, SiafMcpvxac; tic; u^piaxiKEc; £m9£a£ic; xou Evdvxia axi]v 
Epyaaia, fiXfiyav: «E£vai 9au|ia xiou koveic; 8ev tov e^ei avaxivd^Ei 
aKO[ia». 

El;aixiac; f3aaiKa xou 'Oxic;, xa auvSiraxa rjxav i5ia£x£pa aSuva- 
\ia axo Aoc; Avx^eXec;. Oi |iia9oi rjxav ^ap]Xoi Kai i] Epydaifxi] \iepa 
l-iEydXi]. 

Ill 

Zxo Zav OpavxaiaKO, xo r£vdpt| xov 1910, xo E^ixropio Kai i] pV 
o|ii]^avfa Etp9ivav. EloXXd KEcpdXaia fiExacpEpovxav axo ElopxXavx, 
xo ZidxX Kai xo Aoc; Avx^eXec;, otiou oi |3io|xrJ3(avoi avEvo^Xrjxoi axt' 
xa auvSiraxa ^Tiopouaav va }(pr|ai|iOTCOiouv xt]v EpyaxiKr] 8l5va|AT] 
yia ooec; copse; i']9£Xav \ie fxiKpEc; a^oi^Ec;. XiXidSEc; auv8iKaXiafi£voi 
EpydxEc; rjxav dvEpyoi Kai o api9|^6c; xouc; avS,av6xav. Aev fxnopou- 
aav tcXeov va rrXr]pcoaouv xic; auvSpo|i£<; xouc; axa auvSiraxa. 

Zxic; ap)(£c; xou 1910, oi |i£ydXoi KEcpaXaioKpdxEc; xou Zav Opa- 
vxai'aKO Kat oi i]y£x£c; xou Zu^i|3ouX{ou xwv ZuvSiKaxwv auvavxrj- 
8r]Kav Kai au|^<pcovi]aav oxi 9a rjxav a|xoipaia EUEpyExiKO Kai yia 
xouc; EpyoSoxEc; Kai yia xa auvSiraxa av oi EpyaaiaKsc; auv9i]K£c; 
axo Zav <J>pavxaiaKO Kai axo Aoc; Avx^eXec; «yivovxav avdXoy£c;» 
— Si]Xa8rj, av oi EpyaxiKOi i]y£X£c; xou Zav OpavxaiaKO TTijyaivav 
axo Aoc; Avx^eXec; Kai opydvcovav xi)v xioXi], avayra^ovxac; xouc; 
£pyo86x£(; va uXripwvouv xouc; EpydxEc; |^£ xouc; iSiouc; v|/r|Xouc; \ii- 
a9ouc; xiou oi EpyoSoxEc; xou Zav <J>pavxaiaKO rjxav avayKaa^Evoi 
va TrXr|pc6vouv. 

AXXd xicoc; va opyavwaouv xo Aoc; Avx^eXec; \ie xov 'Oxic; va 
UXldp5(El ekei; 

Oi EpyaxiKOi i]y£XEc; xou Zav OpavxaiaKO, oticoc; rj8i] avacp£p9i]- 
ke, rjxav f3iaioi dv9pwTioi. Axiocpdaiaav va avaxivdcjouv \ie 8uva|^i- 
xi] xouc; Tdiptgxov Aoc; Avx^eXec;— Kai va xo Kavouv \ie xexoio xpoxio 
uax£ va KaxiiYopi]9Ei o 'Oxic; yi' auxo. O 'Oxic; r\xav naXio ayra- 



02 



H Svvajioaia yia jrjv Avinivnfyj tcov "Tdifig" tov Aog'Avj^eXeg 



9i axa TiXeupd m]^ A|T£piKdviKi]c; 0|ioaTTOv8Ca^ Epyaaia^. Tcopa, 
ottu^ Ttiatsuav, 8a tov avaTiVa^av kqi 9a Kupfeuav ttjv ttoXt]. 

'Etoi, 01 epyaTiKof ijyetec; tou Zav OpavxaiaKO £ia£|3aXav axo 
Aoc; Avt^eXec; to Mar] tod 1910. AvdfXEad tovc; t]tov rai 8vo dvrpEc;, 
ttou auToavaTT]vovrav coc; T£. Mir. Mnpdic; Kai 'EvrovapvT T. MCX- 
Xsp. 

T£. Mtt Mnpdic;, ottcdc; aTro8Ei^9i]K£ apyoTEpa, tjtov to ttoXeluko 
v|t£vSc6vvlio tov T^Eifx^ Mqk Na|idpa, evco o MiXXsp i]Tav o Zluvt, 
Evac; totiikoc; 8rva|iiTiaTi'i^ tov Zav <J>pavTa(aKO (ttov oTJLiEpa (3pi- 
oKETai qtt] cpvXaKi] tov Zav Kovevtiv). Oi «yopiXX£c;» tov Zav Opa- 
vtoioko 9£copouaav oti i] avyK£Kpi|TEvi] «SovX£id» qto Aoc; Avtc^eXec; 
r\xay ttoXu cn]|TavTiKTJ Kai EirpETTE va TTpayLiaTOTTOU]9£i award. Efyav 
^i]Ti]a£i, Xoittov, aTTO tov T£ov MaK Nafxdpa va touc; TTapa^copi'iaEi 
tov aSfiptpo tou, tov T£ei|t^, o ottoioc; tjtov Vj8i] yvcoaToc; avd|i£aa 
otouc; ouvSikoXiotec; i]y£T£c; coc; o mo iravoc; SuvaLUTioTTJc; LiEaa aTO 

K{vi]|Ta. 

IV 

'OXo to KaXoKaipi tou 1910 Kai LiEXpi to (pBtvoircopo, to Aoc; 
Avt^eXec; i]Tav y£|.idTO lie «yopiXX£c;» otto to Zav OpavTaiaKO. Ae- 
koSec; auEpyiEc; Xd|i|3avav X w P a - CH £pyo56T£c; eiyav iraviKopXr]- 
8e(. O 'Otic; TpiyvpvovaE |te to ravovi Tidvco oto auTOKivijTO tov. 
ZvyKpovaEic; TTpayLiaTOTroiouvTav' aTTEpyoaTrdaTEc; i;vXoKOTTOWTav 
otto tovc; TTaXXi]Kapd8£c; tcov avv8iKaTcov' aTTEpyiaKEc; avyKEvrpco- 
oeic; Se^ovtov ETTtBEai] an' ti]v aaTvvo|ria. Ym']p")(_av cprj|i£c; yia tttv 
avaTivac;i] tov toSe r\ tov Seivo icnpiov. Oi Tdijiq 8i]|.ioaiEvav Lia- 
vtaa|i£va dpBpa: 

Oi 91X01 tt]<; (5io|Ti]^aviKi']t; EXsvOEptac; TrpETiEi va vnooTi]p(^ovv 
tovc; EpyoSoTEc;, ttou aim'] tt] aTiy|Ti] Se^ovtqi ettiBeot] air' tovc; |TTTpd- 
Povc; tcov 8i£cp9ap|TEvcov acpEvriKcov tcov EpyaTCOv tov Zav Cppavrai- 
oko. 'OX01 ot a^ionpETTEic; dv0pcoTroi TrpETTEt va ovoTT£ipco9ov5v yupco 
an' tt] ai|]ia(a tt]c; Pio|Ti]^aviKrji; av£i;apTT]a(ai; a' aim'] tt]v Kpi'ai], 
ottov i] Evi]|TEpia oX6kXi]pt]c; tt|c; tt6Xt]<; ppiaKETai a£ k£v8vvo. Av 
01 yopiXXEc; tov Zav (DpavraiaKO ttetu^ovv, to Xa|.iTTp6 [teXXov tov 
Aoc; Avt^eXec; 8a teXeicooei, t| £TTi^£ipT]|TaTtKT] por'] 0a oTafraTi']a£i' 
to Aoc; Avt^eXec; 9a yivEi dXXo Eva Zav <I l pavTaiaKO-9a v£Kpco9£i. 



93 



A mauling: H Iarogia Ttjg Trf^najg Bing crrtjv Afisoitcrj 



Exic; 3 E£iiTE|^Ppi], p_£xd tov ^uXo5ap|i6 Kcmoiuv cmEpyoaTca- 
axuv ano awSiKaAiaxE^, 01 Tdijig Eypacpav: 

Efvai T] KaxdA/Vr|Ai] oTiyfii] va Aoyapiaaxou^E \i' auxouc; xouc; Aukouc; 
xou EpyaxiKou auv8iKaXia|iou, \ie xexoio 8paaxiKO xpouo ttou va avayra- 
oxouv va fiExaq)£p9oi5v az ahk\\ irepio^i], atpou av xou^ avE^xoufiE axo 
Aoi; Avx^sAsg o kivSuvoc; Eivai ^EyaXoi; Kai a^Eacx;... Ta evoxikxci xouc; 
Ei'vai EyKAi]fiaxiKa Kai Eivai exoijioi va Sia-rrpd^oiiv Efi-npi]ofi6, E^EyEpai], 
kXotti'] Kai SoXocpovfa. 



94 



KEOAAAIO 13 

H EKPHHH - KAI H EYNEXEIA 



m \ xi] [lia to -rrpcoi ti]<; li]<; OKxcof3pi] xov 1910 01 UTTdXXi]Xoi tcov 
▼ Tdifii;, avd^xEad xon^ mi KaTtoioi OTv5iKaXia|i£voi Ti'Troypd- 
<^mv tpot, VJTav etoi|toi va pdXow to tpuXo axo TUTioypacpEio. O 
aTpcmiydc; 'Otic; PpiaKOTav crro Me^iko ottou ei^e nasi va SiaTrpay- 
|TnT£i'8Ei \iia ayopaTicoXipia yi]<;. 

Eti] [lia kcu EtpTa Xetttq jiia EKKCocpavTiKrj EKpr]^T], Evac; «^Epoc; 
i]X°<?> i'ip9E ano tt|v maco TiXEupd tou KTi]p(ov tcov Tdijii;. Auo Xetttq 
apyoTEpa, 6X0 to ^Epoc; ei^e yEpiioEi yi<d£i Kai ei'^e ti)Xi%tei otic; <pX6- 
yEc;. Zto KTipio (3p(aKovTav TTEpiTroc 100 aTO|ra. Movo \iia EiKoadSn 
aTTOcpcyE t° v Tpaufxcmano. AvBpcoTioi m]8ouaav qtt' to §EUTEpo Kai 
tov TpiTO opocpo, aTrd^ovrac; to ttoSiq rat to KEcpdXia touc;. ApKETOi 

9d(pTl]Kav OTQ EpElTTia TOU KTT]piOC. 

O qdvoXikoc; apiG^oc; tcov vEKpcov VJTav 20. 

To KTTJpio KaTaaTpdcpi)KE oXoa^Epux;, aXXd oi Tdifit; KdcXotpopi]- 

oav KQVOVlKa TO TipCOl, [IE [lia JilKpi] fiOVO ^pOVlKI] Ka9uaTEpi]01]. O 

'Otic; ei^e ^tioei Eva Poi]0i]tik6 KTrjpio \i6Xk; 8vo TETpdycova piaKptd. 

To TtEpiHEVE OTl 9a TOU Ef3a£av Scva|TlTT]. 

«OI BOMBEE TQN ZYNAIKAA1ZTQN KATAXTPEOOYN 
TO YE TAIMZ», rJTav i] EiriKEcpaXiSa tijc; E(pi]|iEpi5ac;. 
Kai o 'Otic; ovveji^e, ypdcpovrac;: 

O, eqeic; avap^tra Ka8dp|iaTa, SeiXoi 8oXocpovot, ecfeic; (38eXXec; -rrdvco 
crro aa\ia tt]<; £vti|tt|<; Epyaofac;, ekteXeotec; too fCEaovr^Tiou, ttou tq 
^spia aac; crra£ouv to ai^ia tcov aBcocov GcyaTcov aac; (...) KoixdijxE toix; 



95 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



9pufi|^axia|i£vov)g Kai |^av.'pia|^Evov.'t; xoifov(;, Koixd^xs xa ^aXda^axa 
ottox' ppiaKovxai 8afi|.iEva xa KoviopxoTioiT]H£va aTto|i£tvdpia auxcov ttou 
8oXocpovT]aax£ . . . 

II 

TepdaxiEc; a|ioi|3£<;, awoXira TTEpiTrou 300.000 SoXdpia TTpoacpsp- 
9i]Kav yia xr]v Kaxd8oar| xcov «£yKXi]Liaxic6v». O 'Oxw; £TT£|i£v£ oxi 
01 auvSiraXiaxEc; Swafxixiaav xo Kxrjpio xou. 'Otioioi; xoX|iouae va 
SiatpwvrpEi \iat,i xov rjxav ek Tipooi|iioii even; oiynaQav xcov «£yKXi]- 
|iaxiKcov aw8iKaxcov», Evac; £%9poc; xov pxXXovxiKou LiEyaXEiou xov 
Aoc; Avx^eXec;. AvxfBexa, oxo Zav Opavxai'aKO ottoioc; xoXfxouaE va 
ttei 6x1 TTiaxEi'E xov 'Oxic; axo auyKEKpiLiEvo £rjxi]fxa r']xav m9av6 va 
PpeGei lie xo KscpdXi aTiaapxvo. 

EIoXXec; avxoij/iE^ Eyivav an' xtjv aaxwofxia, xo AvcoxEpo AiKa- 
axrjpio, xo Aiifxap^iaKO Kat xo Ai]|ioxiko E^|ipoiJXio. 'OXec; Kax£Xi]i;av 
o|iocpcova 6x1 xo Kxrjpio ei^e 8wapxiax£i. 

O T^o|itt Xdpi|iav, coc; TrXi]pE^oiJaioq xcov EpyaxiKcov awSiraxcov 
xov Aoc; Avx^eXec;, 8i£VEpyi|a£ ai'xoi|na ek ^Epoiic; xou EpyaxiKoii 
XvuPovAior. To Tiopiand tod rjxav 6x1 01 Tdijtg 8ev Ei^av Swa|iixi- 
qxei a£ Ka|i(a TiEpinxcoar] ' avxiBsxa, 6Xa eSei^vov 6x1 i] £Kpi]i;i] npo- 
i']X9e otto Siapporj yKa£io\5. 

TeXiko 01 auv8iraXiax£c; ia)(i<piaxi]Kav 6x1 o 'Otic;, «o y£po-d9Xi- 
oc;», m9av6xaxa avaxiva^E xo Kxrjpio |iovoc; xov yia va Kaxi|yoprja£i 
xa ox'vSiKdxa Kat va Eionpa^Ei aTro^ufxicoai] yia xov TTETTaXaiw^Evo 

E^OTlXlafXO. 

KaxijyopiEc; EKxo^Euovxav £Kax£pco9£v, aXXd xo koivo dp^i^E va 
Ss^Exai xi] 9Ewpia xr|c; Siappoijc; yKa^iou koi va xa pfyvEi 6Xa axov 
'Oxic;. Ouxcoc; tj dXXcoc;, rjxav EupEcoc; avxina9rjc; koi 9£cop£ixo iravoc; 
o^e56v yia oxiSrjnoxE. 

H EKpi]^T] EylVE TTpUXOaEXlSo XWV £Cpl]|l£pi5c0V OE 6Xec; Xlc; TTEpiO- 

y&c, xcov HFIA. 

H Evxaar] |i£xa^u xoc KEcpaXaioc rai xr]c; Epyaxwv axo Aoc; Avx^e- 
Xec; ai)v£^iaxi]KE 6X0 xo cpGivoucopo Kai xo ^£i|ic6va xov 1910. ApKE- 
xec; anEpyiEc; Xd^pavav X u P n > avd^Eaa a' auxEc; Kai i] auEpyia axov 
kXoSo xcov ai8£pd8cov. Oi anEpyiaKEc; auyKEvxpcoaEic; a-nayopEuxi]- 



96 



HEKgrffyj — Ktti r/ Svvexein 



kqv Sia voliou. O 'Otic;, lie to kqvovi aKOLia crri] oketii'] tou qutoki- 
vijtou tou, TpiyupvouaE «aa [Jpu^coLLEvo XiovTapi tlou £\\iayyE ttoiov 
9a KaTaPpo)[9taEi». 

AypiEc; ovtjryvf\o£.u; yivovrav \i£oa otic; OLidSEc; tcov EpyaTuv yia 
TTEpaiTEpo) TpojiOKpaTia oto Aoc; AvtcJeXec;' uTrrjpxav cpTJLLEc; oti to 
raivoupio uSpaycoyEio KaBcoc; kcu dXXa KTrjpia 8a avcxrivdtpvTav. 

ZTT]V TTEpiTTTUai] TTOU 1] OUfXLlOpia TCOV SuvQLUTlOTCOV Et^E ap^lKQ TE- 

Toia oye&ia, -maTEUco oti t] TpaycoSia ttjc; utl69eot|c; tcov Tdips touc; 
coBtjoe va tq £yKaTaX£iL|;ouv. rhcrrEuco oti TLpayLiaTiKa 8ev eijav 
TTp60£cn] va okotcocfouv tooouc; tloXXouc; avBpcoTrouc;, av Ei^av Si]Xa- 

8r] T1]V OTTOia5l'lTTOT£ TTp66Eai] va CTKOTCOaOUV. 

Movo dXXi] Liia |36|iPa eokqoc oto Aoc; Avt^eXec; ekeivt] tt]v tte- 
pio8o. Ti] vvyra tcov XpiaTouyEwcov tou 1910, KaTaaTpdcpr|K£ lie 
8uvaLUTi] T|.ii]Lia Tt]c; ETaipEiac; «KaTaaK£U£c; ZiSrjpou AoueXiv», otijv 
OTTOi'a 01 £pya£oLi£voi aTTEpyouaav. 



97 



KEOAAAIO 14 

«EKEYOPIA!» 



OToufXiafx M-rrapvc;, o vtetektiP ttou ei'^e TrpoaXi](p9£i p'lvsi; 
npiv ano niv EBviKi] 'Evcocni EpyoXdpwv yia va avaKaXuv|/£i 
rat va auXXdpEi qutouc; ttot< 5iETipa^av tic; eikoooSe^ twv 
Ponf3iaTtKwv ettiGeoecov otto to 1905 Kai ETTEixa, scpxaaE oto Aoc; 
Avt^eXec; ti] \iipa \xetci ttiv £Kpi]^r] ototk; Tdijiq. O 8i]|^ap^oc; AXE^d- 
vTEp xov TipoaEXa|3E yia va auXXdpEi touc; 8uva|j.n:ioTEc; xcov Tdifi(;. 

O M-rrapvc; ei'^e axafx-rrdpEi tov T£ei|ic; Max Na^idpa \it\ves; Tipiv 
xiiv «Trapdaxaai]» tou teXei'toioi' oto Aot; Avt^eXec;. riapdXXiiXa, 
ei^e (3dXEi SiKout; toi' avBpcoTTOVc; va irapaKoXovGouv to ypaipEia tcov 
Epyaxuv Si8rjpoi) crniv IvSiavdnoXi], Kai EiSira tov T£ov Mok Na- 
|idpa. Ettiotic; TrapaKoXou9ouoav Evav dvxpa ttou KUKXocpopouaE \ie 
to ovojia MaK Ticpo, tov otioiov to aXi]9tvo ovojia, oticoc; ottoSei- 
5(Ti]K£, i']Tav 'OpTi Mok MdviyKaX. 'Htov o poi]96<; xov T^ei^c; otic; 
«8ouXeiec;». 

O vtetektiP dq)T)aE tov T^ei^ic; va ravEi XiyEt; aKo^ia avaTivd^Ew; 
fXETa Tt] «8oi'X£id» oto Aoi; Avt^eXec;. TeXiko, auyKEvrpcooE apKETa 
aTOi^Eia Evavri'ov tov Kai otk; 14 AirpiXi] xov 1911 otveXoPe tov 
T^ei^c; MaK Napdpa Kai tov Mok MdviyKaX oto NTi]TpoiT, orrou 
PpfaKovrav yia «5ot!Xeiei;». O Mnapvc; UTtoaTr)pi^£i oti o T^ei^w; Tipo- 
aTid0i]aE va Xa8(6a£i touc; vtetektiPc; \ie 30.000 8oXdpia yia va tov 
aipfjoouv eXeuBepo. Kai otov auTO 8ev ei^e auoTEXEOTia, touc; Si'iXco- 
ot: «@a avaTivat^a oXoKXiipi] ttiv KaTapa^iEvi] tti %&pa, nv TriaTEua 
oti etoi 9a TTETii^aivanE to SiKia ^ap>. 

O MaK MdviyKaX o^oXoyiiaE, TrpootpEpovTat; ettittXeov crroi^Eia 
otov Muapvc;. Kdnoia kXeiSio ttou PpE9i]Kav croiv koto^t'i tou rai 



99 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 

ott] kcito^i'] xou T^ei^c; Mqk Najidpa dvoiyav tic; KXeiSapie^ ae kcx- 
ttoie^ <pdp|.i£t; Kai dXXa Kxrjpia Kovxd axixv IvSiavdxioXi], oxiou f3pe6i]- 
ke 8uva|xiTT]c; Kai poXoyia ttou xpipihioxioiowxai yia EKprj^Ei^ copoXo- 
yiaKwv |ir])[avia|icov. 

Kaxomv o Mxiapv^ auv£Xa|3£ Kai xov T£ov Mqk Na|.idpa, axo 
ypacpEio xou xeXeuxoiou axi]v IvSiavaxioXT). 

Ym]p^av vo^ikec; SuokoXi'ec; yia tt] |i£xacpopd xwv auXXrjcpGEvxuv 
axi]v KaXicpopvia. 'O^ico^ auxoi xiaparjxav |.i£ydXo KEipdXaio yia xov 
Mxiapvc;, uax£ va xo piarapEi \ie vopra xe^vikq £r]XT]naxa. 'Exai, 
xouc; «amjyay£» — xou^ jiEXEcpspE xiapdvo^a axi]v KaXicpopvia. 

Oi aSEpcpof MnK Na^idpa Kai o Mqk MdviyraX |.i£xa(p£p9i]Kav 
oxt]v rioXixEiaKi] <J>i'XaKi] xov Ao^ Avx^eXei;. H o(.ioXoy(a xou xeXeu- 
xoiou xou eSuoe xt]v EXEuGspia xou Xfyo |^£xd xi] SiKaaxiKrj axiocpaai] 
yia xr]v uttoBeoi] (ai']|^£pa £ei axo Ao^ Avx^eXe^ [ie \\ievxiko 6vo|.ia). 

O T£ov Mqk Na|.idpa rjxav Evac; pcojKiXEO^, KaXovxixisvo^, Kn- 
Xo^upia(.i£voc; veoc; dvxpa^. O a§£pcp6^ xou o T^ei|j.t; rjxav la^voc;, \ie 
Eva niKpo, ap^aio %a|x6y£Xo Kai |^e (JX£^|ia (pavaxiKou. Aev rjxav 
KaXd axi]v uyEia xou' uxiEcpEpE and XavGdvouaa (pufraxicoai). 

Oi <puXaKia|^£voi Eyivav aufx^oXa xou EpyaxiKou aycova, |idpxupE^. 
H uttoBeoi'] xouc; EyivE eGviko £rjxr]na. 

A|i£atoc;, oi EpyaxiKOi i]y£X£c; Kai oi pi^oandaxEc; a£ 6Xr] xr] X^P 
cpwva^av: «EK£uwpia! ZaxaviKij xipof3oKaxaia!» 

Zxic; 27 IouXi] xou 1911, 11 A^iEpiKaviKi] 0|.iocnTOv8i'a Epyaaiac; 
e^eSwoe £TTiai]|iT] avaKoi'vcoai] |AE xi]v oxioia KaXouaE xi]v A^EpiKd- 
vikt] EpyaxiKi] xdfy] va axa0£i SixiXa axouc; aSEpipouc; Max Na|.idpa, 
xiou rjxav aBcoa GiS|iaxa xtjc; KamxaXiaxiKijc; anXriaxiac;. 



100 



KEOAAAIO 15 

«TA riAIAIA» OMOAOrOYN 
KAI O TKOMnEPi: OAYPETAI 



Ti|v li] AeKeuPpiov Kcixi ELioia^E va TtXaviETai otijv aTfxoacpai- 
pa tov 8iKaaxT]pioi' xov Aoc, Avt^eXe^. 
To anoi(EV\ia, t] aiBonaa rJTav yE^nTi] SriLioaiOYpdcpovc;. 
H vmEpdaTTiai] anEoupE Ti] 5i]A(ooi] tcov KaT^yopoi^Evwv TiEpi «a9co- 
6tt]tci<;» tovc, (ZxM: \iEjpi tote 01 aSEpcpoi MaK Na^dpa SrjXcovav 
«a9cooi». ndvco crri] f3dai] tijc, a9cooTi|Tdc, touc, koi tt|c, aKEi'copiac;, 
£K§r|Xcoa£ic; nXXT]XEYY>5i]c; TrpayLiciTOTioirj9i]Kav as ttoXXec, ttoXeic, tcov 
HTiA). O T^eilic, MaK Najidpa 8rjXcoa£ evo^oc, yia tt|v avaTiva^i] 
tod KTijpi'ov tcov Tdiftc; rai tt] SoXocpovia 20 av9pc6Ticov' Kai o T£ov 
MaK Nafxdpa, evo^oc, yia ti]v avaTiva^i] tcov «KaTaaK£vcov Ei8i']poi' 
AoueXiv». «H Trp69Eai] |ioi) i'|Tavva TrpoKaXEaco £r|LU£c; crro KTtjpio Kai 
va Tpofxd^co tovc, iSiokttjte<;», eitte o T^eilu;. «EiXiKpivd Xr-naLiai Trou 
01 Suotv^oi ai'Toi dv9pcoTioi qaoav ti] £corj toix;». 

O irpoESpoc; PouoPeXt Ti]X£ypdcpr|a£ crro vtetekti|3 TouiXiaLi 
Mnapvc;: « 'OXoi 01 koXoi ALiEpiKavoi aio9dvovrai oti oon ypaoxovv 
LiEydXi] Ei'Yvco|ioauvr], yia ti]v ai]LiavTiKrj VTrr|p£aia ttou irpoaEcpEpEC, 
OTl]V a|l£piKdvtKl] TcoXiTEia». 

O TKOLiTTEpc; Efxa9£ to v£a yvpvcovTac, ano Eva auv£8pio crrr|v At- 
XdvTa. 

«E5aTTaTi]9iiKa ^v5a(a», SrjXcoaE Kai i;Ecrnao£ cte KXaLiaTa. «Auttj 
i] loropia 8e 9a ravEi raXo crro EpyaTiKO Ki'vi]Lia», KXar'9|ii]piaE. 

«rioia 9a Eivai Tcopa i] oTaai] ttjc, A|i£piKdviKi]c, OfxocnrovSiac; Ep- 
yaaiac;;», pcoTi']9i]K£ a-rro touc, Tdiftc;. 



101 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



«H O^ioanovSia 5e 9a avaXdp» Kayda 5pdar|. Av Eivai evo^oi, i] 
i'tt66eoi] xeXeubvei e5w yia \-icu;. Aev e^w xfnoxa dXXo vn nw, napd va 
EnavaXd(3w oxi E^aTTaTi]8i]Ka|^E )(uSaia». 

AXXd O VX£X£KXlf3 Muapvt; UnOOTTJpl^E OXI O rKO^TTEpt; an' XT]V 

apyj\ yvwpi^E oti 01 a8£p<poi Mas Na|.idpa i]xav evo^oi. 

M£|.iovco|.iEva orvSiraxa rai KEvxpira Epyaxira au^|3ouXia, as 
ttoXXec; ttoXei^ kqi ^coptd, E^EScoaav Kai EaxEiXav axouc; 8iKaax£(; 
i'TTOfivi]|^axa napoxpuvovxac; xoi^ «va |AT| Sei^ow eXeo^» axoi'^ Swa- 
l^ixioxEt; kqi va xouc; xi^wprjaouv «[i£ xi]v Ea^dxi] xwv noivwv». 

AekoSe^ ^iXidS£<; dv9pwnoi a£ 6Xi] xi] X M P n niax£i|;av oxi 01 
dvxpE^ ofxoX6yi]aav «yia va awaow xov Nxdpoou an' xi] cpuXaKiaip 
(ExM: O 5iKi]y6po(; unEpdamcn]^ xwv aSspcpwv Mqk Na^idpa, KXd- 
p£v<; Nxdpoou, eij_E Kaxi]yopi]8£i oxi raxd xr] 8idpK£ia xijc; §i'kt|<; ano- 
TT£ipd6i]KE va 8copo8oKi]a£i xovc; EvopKoi^). XiXioSe^ m'ax£i|/av — rai 
ranoioi xo maxEuouv aKo^a— oxi 01 8uo aSEpcpoi i']xav si;' oXoKXrjpou 
a9uoi, aXXd anotpdaiaav va 9uaiaaxoi5v yia ^dpi] xov Nxdpoou. 

AXXd ranoioi Xiyoi dvBpamot £K(ppdaxi]Kav |i£ KaXd Xdyia yia 
xov^ aS£p<pou<; Mqk Na|.idpa. 'Eva(; an' auxou^ Vjxav o T£ov Ki- 
yKav, i^eXoc; xou No|io9£xiKoii E(6|iaxo<; xi]^ EIoXixEia^ xr|^ Ivxidva 
rai rioXixEiaKoc; opyavwxrj^ xou EwSiraxoi' MrjxaviKwv, o onoio^ 
eitte: «Ei|.iat xo (8to nEprjcpavo^ yia xi] (piXfa \iov \i£ xov T£ov MaK 
Na|.idpa arjfXEpa, oao Vjfiouv Kai 8ijo £[3So|id8£c; Trpiv». O MmX Xe- 
lyowx, aaipaXwc;, xouc; unoaxrjpii;£. «Aev ^nopEi^ va 9£wpTJa£i^ xov 
xa^iKO aytova», eitte, «[i£oa an' xa TroXij^pu^a fravoudXia evoc; koBe- 
8piKou vaou i] \i£aa an' xi] |iaxid xwv v6|^uv xwv KaxaaKEraa^iEvuv 
an' xouc; KamxaXiaxsc;. Ei^ai fra^f \ie xou^ aSEptpoix; MaK Na^dpa 
Kai 9a Et^ai yia ndvxa fxa£i xoix;». 

Oi nEpiaodxEpoi aoaiaXiaxE^ ^acpviKa axpd<pi]Kav Evdvxta oxou^ 
8uva|^ixiaxE(;. 

Ext^ 5 AEKEfxPpiou, o T^£i|ic; MaK Na^idpa Kaxa8tKdaxr]KE oe iao- 
f3ia Ka9Eip^i] axi] cprXaKi] xou Hav Kouevxiv. O T^ov Kaxa8iKdaxi]KE 
a£ 15 xpovia Ka9£ip^T]' E|.i£tv£ |^£aa nEpfnou 10 ^povia Kai anfiXEU- 
9Epc69i]KE axi^ 10 Mar] xou 1921. O T^Eifx^ napa(.iEv£i axi] cpuXaKrj, 
i]XiKtw|^£vo(; nXEOv. 



102 



KEOAAAIO 16 

H AMEPIKANIKH OMOZnONAIA EPrAXIAX 
XANEI TH MAXHTIKOTHTA THZ 



* ■ ^ va Kivi]xpo yia xr]v OLioXoyia tuv aSepcpcov Mqk Na^idpa 
B-^ lacoc; r']xav i] £TTi9u|^ia xouc; va Trpoaxax£i|/ow dXXoi't; av- 
m 4 Gpcoirorc;, yiaxi, av xipo^copoixTE i] Sua], 01 i]y£x£c; xcov 
Epyaxcov EiSrjpou Troc Ei'^nv a r /ear\ \xe SwaLuxiaxiKEc; EVEpyEiEc; 9a 
E^nrXEKOvxav ^loipata ki auxoi. AXXd ^idxaia. Mexo xijv OLioXoyia, i] 
i'tcoBeot] xi]c; aTTOKaXo\5|^Evi](; Euvw^oaia^ xov Auvafiixi] EcpxaaE axa 
o^ocrnovSiaKd 8iKaaxi']pia xov Aoc; Avx^eXec; rai xtjc; IvSiavdxroXiic;. 

ME^pi xo raXorai'pi xov 1912, 54 qxeXe^i] koi [xeXi] xcov ouvSikq- 
xcov ttou a^Exi^ovxav |^e xt]v A.O.E. Kaxi]yopT]9i]Kav coc; avva\i6-iE(; 
SwapxiaxEc;. Avd^iEad xov(; kqi o xrpoESpoc; Pdiav xcov Epyaxcov Xi- 
8rjpoi\ [iai,i \i£ xo imoXomo ekxeXeoxiko aunPouXio xov ouvcnraxoi'. 
Kaxr]yopT]0i]Kav yia jiExacpopd Swa^m] \i£ ETci|3axiKd xpEva Kai yta 
awco^oaia [i£ aKOTco xt]v Tiapdpacrt] o^oaTiovSiaKCOv vo^icov. 

TeXikq 38 KaxT]yopoi5|^Evoi KaxaSiKaaxijKav yia oXec; xic; Kaxi]yopi- 
ec; (ExM: as tcoivec; cpuXaKioijc; axro sva ecoc; Ecpxd ypovia), 2 anaXXd- 
^6i]Kav kqi 5 KT]pu%xi]Kav evo^oi aXXd a<pE9i]Kav |i£ avaaxoXr']. 

BpiaKOLiEvoc; axi] cpuXaKi] Xiyoi^ jxvjvec; apyoxEpa, o xrpoESpoc; Pd- 
iav etkivekXe^xijke axo a^iw^d xou and xouc; EpydxEc; ZiSrjpou. O^i 
xioXu \i£xa, dXXoi 3 «auvcofi6x£c; 5uva|^ixtax£c;» EyKXEiaxoi axi] cpcXaia] 
xov Ai(3£vyou£p9 Enav£KXE^xi)Kav axa a£f3aaxd a^iu^axd xouc; axio xa 
auvSiraxa xouc;. Kai ano xr|v oxixiki'] ycovi'a xcov auvSiraxcov auxo rjxav 
XoyiKO. Auxoi oi dv9pcoTcot, otccoc; Kai o T£ov Mok Na^dpa, Ei'^av £,z- 
Ka9apa ekXeyei axa auvSiKaXiaxira xouc; ac;ico|j.axa aKpif3c6<; exieiStj 
i'TToaxrjpi£av xi] XP T 1 CT1 1 TOU SwaLiixi] oe auv9rJK£c; ekxokxijc; avdyKi]c;. 



103 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim/ Afisoitcrj 



To tpidoKO Ti]^ i'ttoBeot]^ Mate Na^dpa, xtpo^ axiy|ii]v, KaxEcnxiAE 
xi] SidBeai] y la XP 1 ! 01 ! rov Si'va|iiXT] \ieoa oxa awSiraxa xi]c; A.O.E. 

Mexn xov tt6Ae|io, xtavxco^, xa oa<v5iKdxa f3p£9r]Kav yia dXAr] \iia 
(popd va aycovi^ovxai aTTEATnoxiEva yia tt]v i'5ia xr]v UTcap^rj "roue;, 
181(05 CTTO SiKayo rat o 8uva(xixr|i; rjxav yta dXAr] (.ua cpopd xo |iovo 
|i£ao yia xr] awxi]pia xoiv AxtXd xwpa 01 r]y£X£^ xcov auvSiraxuv 
i]iav mo xrpoaEpxKoi. Aev ETrpexre va mrdpl;ow oXKec, vnoQeaen; 
Mqk Na|.idpa. 'Exai apyioav va |iia6uvouv aTTOKXetaxiKa ExrayyEA- 
I^qxiec; xou EyK/Vrji-iaxo^, av6pcoxrov^, xrou as avx(0£cn] |i£ cpavaxiKou^ 
oxrwt; o T£ei|i<; Mqk Najidpa, i]iav xtpaKxiKa xtEpa an' xr]v £|i|3£A£ia 
xou v6|iou. Auxoi i'|tqv 01 «£KpiaaxEp>, ottco^ dp^iaav axtoKaXouvxai 
atco xo 1922. 



104 



KEOAAAIO 17 

£<DArH ETA ANATOAIKA KAI ZTA AYTIKA 



Oii6Xe|.ioc; tcov EpyoSoTtov yia tijv «avoiyxr\ ayopd» EtpxaaE 
OXO aTTOyElO TOU TT]V ClVOl^l] TOU 1914, |X£ TT]V aTTOKaXoufiE- 
vi] Zcpayrj tou AdvTXoou. 
Ztic; avSpaKotpopEi; TTEpio^Ec; xor voxioi' KoXopdvro, apKEXEi; ekq- 
TOvrdSE^ av0paKcopi5^oi aTTEpyouaav axio to Zettte|iPpi] tou 1913. 
'Hxav ycikapa opyavci>|i£voi. 

Ta opi'^Eia crra onofn SouXeuov EXEy^ovTav crro |i£yaXi)T£po 
|i£poc; tolx; aTto tov 6|iiXo PoKcpsXEp. Ta aixi]|iaxn twv aTTEpyuv 
Ti£piXd|.ipavav ti]v o^Taupi] £pydai|.u] HEpa, £vav avE^dpTi]TO n-rro 
touc; EpyoSoxEc; ^vyicrrij tou opi<y|.i£vo<j dvBpara, ttjv KaTapyijai] 
xov EyKXi]fxaTiKou KaGEaTUTOc; twv cppoupcov, 10 xot^ ekqto aul;i]ai] 
utouc; [iioQovt;, tr]v avayvcopiuT] xov ovv8ik&xov Kai dXXa. 

H aTTEpyta ^£Ktvr]a£ tt]v dvoi^r] tou 1914. Tote, Ta opu^eia dp^i- 
oav va XEiToupyouv |i£ |At| awSiKaXia|i£voi^ EpyaTE^, oi mo ttoXXoi 
air' touc; ottoiouc; r\xav aXXoSanoi. Tia va TtpoaTaTEi|;ow to TiEpi- 
ouoraKa trroi^Eia Kai toi<<; p] aw8iKaXia|i£voiic; avGpaKcopu^ouc;, 
oi PoKcpEXfip Kai dXXoi £TU^£ipi]|.iaTi£c; TcpoafiXapav EKaTOvrdSfi^ 
«<ppovpoi)<;» Kai mcrroXdSEc;, tt|v wpa ttov i] lloXiTEia ETricrrpdTEi'E 
ai]|.iavTiK6 api9|io au|.idT&)v EOvoqn'XaKTJc;. O crrpaTiaraKO^ v6|ioc; 
Ki]pu^9r]K£ tcoXu Trptv UTrdpi;oi<v OTyKpouoTi^' apyoTEpa, aTTEpyoi £,v- 
XoKOTri'iBiiKav i] TTvpopoXi]0i]Kav Kai oi Tapa^Ei; i;£Kivi]aav. Oi anEp- 
yoi avBpaKcopij^oi yia va TipoaTaT£i|/ow Tout; eoi'touc; touc; dp^iaav 



105 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



va irpo|XT]9Ei5ovTat onXa Kai ■nvpo\iayiKci. ByTjKav quo xa £pyoxdl;ia 
Kai Eaxr]aav KaxaaKijvcoaEi^. Tupco axi' auxEc; i)i|;waav cppd^xEc; Kai 
[lEaa axa avxiaKijva £OKai|;av xpimei;, 6xioi< 01 ywaiKEt; Kai xa naiSid 
9a i^TTopouaav va Kpucpxouv a£ TTEpiTtxcoai] ttoi< 01 axrepyoi Ss^ovxav 
etiiBeot). 

Zxic; 20 AxipiXi] xoi' 1914, e(xe svac; axiEpyoc; mipo(36Xt]a£ eva |ii] 
auvSiKaAiafiEvo epydxi] eixe svac; axpaxi(6xT](; m'po(36Xiia£ EvavaxiEpyo 
Kovxd axr]v KaxaaKi]vcoai] ifyd an xo AdvxXoou, axi' 6ttoi< Kai l;£Ki'vi]a£ 
|iia \iay_r\ xiou ExiEKxd9i]KE oe [iia EKxacrt] xpicov (.uAicov. nEpiuou 500 
auEpyoi i]p9av avxi|i£xcoxioi \ie 200 £9vo<puXaK£^, aXXd oi xeXeiixoioi 
rjxav E<po5iaa(.i£voi \ie TroXu|36Xa Kai dXXa avwxEpa oxiXa, yEyovo^ xiou 
ekove xo tnr£pdpi9|^o rav aTTEpywv va |.ii]v tyzi Kap'a aijfiaai'a. 

BXi'i|.taxa ttoXii|36Xcov yd^waav xa avxiaKijva' ayieaac; i] Kaxaoxi]- 
vcoor] rn'ipE cpcoxid. «M£aa axic; xpuxiEc; ttou Eixav aKai|/£i yia va xipo- 
oxax£u9oiJv an xu; a<paip£t;», ypdcpEi [iia avacpopd yia xo yEyovoc;, «oi 
yuvaiKE^ Kai xa xiaiSid KaXi5(pxi]Kav air' xw; <pX6y£^ Kai xiEGaivav aav 
TTayiSEi'HEvoi apoupai'oi». 

Tpiavxaxpsic; dv9pcoxioi uE9avav, ei'xe and acpaipEt; eixe KaijKav 
£wvxavoi. ElEpiaaoxEpoi air' xoi^ ^laout; rjxav ywaiKEc; Kai naiSid. 
ndvw axio 100 dXXoi eixe xpai^axiaxijKav eixe uuEaxipav aopapd 
EyKau|.iaxa. 

H |*d%T| tou AdvxXoou KpdxipE 14 wpEt;, |^Exd air' xic; otcoiec; i] 
KaxaaKi]vcoai] £yKaxaX£i'(p9i]KE. Oi xiEpiaaoxEpEc; yuvaiKE^ Kai xa nai- 
5id, vEKpoi i] £wvxavoi, HExa(p£p9i]Kav axo Tpivixdvx xi]v wpa ttoi< oi 
auEpyoi dp^iaav va opyavwvovxai oe o|idS£i; Kai va naipvow 9£a£i(; 
|_id^i](; axoi^ Xocpoi^. ApKEXEc; oxoei; opu^Eiuv 8£)[6i]Kav ettiGeot] Kai 
mipxioXi]9r]Kav. Ki dXXsc; \iaye(; ^EKi'vi]aav. 

O npoESpoi; OuiXaov 8i£xal;£ o|.ioaxiov8iaK£^ ^ovdSE^ va ette|.iPow 
aXXd, xipiv ai'XE^ ipxdaow axo KoXopdvxo Kai acpoxiXioow Kai xouc; 
aTTEpyouc; Kai xouc; maxoXdSEc; xiou cpopouaav oxoXe^ xi]^ E9vo<puXa- 
kx\<;, xiEpiTTOU aKO|ia |Aia 8co8EKa8a axiEpyoi eij_av 8oXo(povi]9£i. 

TeXiko o PoKtpEXEp KEpSiaE' xo auvSiKdxo 8ev avayvcopi'axT]KE. 

II 

EIiaxoXdSE^, xou^ oxioioi'c; TTponi]9Euav ExaipiEc; vxexekxiP, xipo- 
a£Xi](p9i]aav an' xouc; piofxi^avoin; a£ xioXXec; auEpyiE^ xiov EXa^av 
^wpa Xiyo xipiv xi]v Eiao8o xcov HEIA axov nayKoa|.iio ri6XE|io. 



106 



Ecpayrj am AviitoXikA Kai gtii A mind 

EuvrjSwc; airxoi 01 SoXocpovoi Excaipvav arjuaxa poi]9ou asptcpi] rai 
xouc; EK^upouvxav t] E^owia tt]c; xoTUKrjc; aaxi'vopiac;, xr|v oxioia rai 
ai'^vd KQTQ5(pWVTav. 

'Hxav TToAe(.ioc;, rai axcoKaXoiixav «n6X£|ioc;» Kai an' xv; 8uo tiXeiv 
pe^. To Mdpxi] xov 1913 Kaxd xr\ SidpKEia \iick; aKAi]pi]c; kqi pianjc; 
axiEpyiac; avBpaKupu^cov, i] Md5sp T^dowc; kqi 49 avGpaKcopii^oi 
8iKaaTi]Kav as axpaxoSiKEio axo EIeivx KpiK T£dvl;iov xi]c; AuTiKfj^ 

BipX^lVia, QTT]V OTTOta ElJE KlJpU^El OXpaXlCOXlKOc; VO\lO(;, (.IE XI]V KQ- 

xijyopia ti]c; «ai<vco|ioai'ac; yia Sidnpa^r] cpovoiw. O SiKijyopoc; xouc; 
8rjXcoa£: «'Hxav cpovoc; T] [lajy] xov rKEXianTiEpyK 1 ;*- YTTOaxrjpil;£ oxi 
av 01 avBpaKcopu^oi aKoxcoaav, avxo EyivE ae auv9rJK£c; ttoXe^iou kqi 

T] Ttpd^T) XOVq 5fiV ETipETTE VCl ^QpaKTllpiOTEl CpOVOC;. Qc; aTToSfil^l] Xia- 

powiaaE xpEic; avaKoivwaEic; xou Ki'PEpvr']TT] xi]c; Auxikijc; Bipx^ivia, 
otic; ottoiec; o ^lEydXoc; piopj^aviKoc; aycovac; axo riEivx KpiK axiom- 
Xouxav «tc6Xe|^oc;». «Ot avGpaKwpu^oi xov avxiXa^|3dvovxai coc; tto- 
XE(io», EixtE o SiKijyopoc;. «Av KaxacpEuyow axr] p(a, 01 xtpd^Ei^ touc; 
axo)[Euouv axo ai5axi]|ia kqi 6yi oe (puaiKa xcpoacoTia. Kai 01 xrpd^Eic; 
xouc; Eivai upd^Eic; TioX£|iou, xic; oxcoiec; t] Koivcovia 8ev xipETrsi va 
8iraa£i \ie pdar] xouc; awr^ia^Evoi'c; kovovec; xov vo^iou Kai xi]<; i]9i- 
kt'i^». AXXd xcapoXa auxd 01 EpydxEc; ekeivt] xi] ^poviKi] xiEpioSo rjxav 
oyexiKa p] (3(aioi. To |i£yaXi5x£po ^Epoc; xtjc; |3iac; oqkeixo axco xy\v 
dXXi] TiXEupd. 

'Eva ai'(i|3dv xiou Eivai ximiKO TcapdS£iy|.ia xcov 8£Kd8cov pKpoxE- 
pcov EpyaxiKwv acpaycov ttou ai>v£|3i]aav axi] %(bpa |^Exa^i5 xov 1913 
Kai xov 1917, Eivai avxo Ttou owe^t] axo Niou T^EpaEi] axic; ap^Ec; 
xou 1915. Exic; 2 TEvapT], nEpixioi' 900 uxidXXi]Xoi 8iio Exaipiwv Kaxa- 
aKEi'i]^ XiTTaa|^dxcovaiiy KE vxp(a8i]KavaxT] paXxio8i] UEpiop] avd|.i£aa 
axo EXi^a|iTiE6 Kai xo ri£p6 A^ixiot] ^T]xc6vxa^ fiEyaXuxEpou^ [iia6oii<; 
Kai XiyoxspEc; topEc; Epyaaia^. 'Hxav EiprjviKoi Kai doxiXoi, aXXd aKoi> 
yovxac; oxi oi ExaipiE^ facoc; xipoaEXdfiPavav anEpyoaTidaxEc; Ei^av xo 
vou xoi'c; yia EvSE^dfiEvr] dtpi^i] xcov XEXEi'xaicov. Kai oi 8uo ExaipiEt; 
cppoi'poijvxav and Liia 8uva|ii] «poi]9c6v aEpi(pi]8uv» xiou Ei^av voiki- 
aaxEi cmo Eva «ypacpEio vxexekxiP» xov NiouapK. 

To xipwi xt]c; 19i]c; Tfivapi], Eva xiXr]9ot; axiEpycov auyK£vxpw9i]KE 
oe Eva (iiKpo ai8i]po8po|.iiK6 axa9(io Kovxd a£ Eva air' xa Epyoaxdaia, 



1. Iacoi; i] ai]|iavxiK6x£pr| [id^T] xoi' A(iEpiKaviKoi5 EjicpuXfou noXEjioi! (1863) 
i] EK|3aaT] xi]c; oxioiac; i'xir|pc;£ KaSopioxiKr] yia xt]v ETTiKpdxi]ai] xcov Bopei'cov 
('Evcoar]) cvavxi xcovNoxi'ajv (OpoaxiovSia). 



107 



A mauling: H Iarogia Ttjg Trf^najg Bing crrtjv Afisoitcrj 
Ti£pi|.i£vovTa^ sva xpsvo air' ti] Nca YopKi] to ottoio ottui; Ei^av 

OKOUOEl 6a |.l£T£(p£p£ OTT]V TTEpiO^T] apK£T£(; EKaTOVTClSEC; nTTEpyo- 

auaoiEi;. 'Evac; aaiuvo^uKoc; ei^e vnr\pe.aia oto oxaBy.6 mi xa y£- 
yovoxa aKoXoi)9i]aav uc; e^t']^, aufxcpwva |^e ti] [tapxvpia noi< civt6(; 
e8cooe axi)v Ecpi]|.iEpi8n Koafiog xi]c; Neo<; YopKijc;: 

Ei'i^ai aiyoupoc; oxi Kavsi'c; 8ev ei'^e y.at,i tou psPoA^Ep T] dXXo ottXo, 
ekto<; (acoc; and ravEva aouyid. Oi dvrp£<; (01 auyKEvrpconEvoi) (pai'vo- 
vxav teXeicdc; Eipr|viKot. 

To xpsvo EtpxaaE. Tote oi nopxEi; tov Epyooxaoiov dvoi^av, Kai oi 
Poi]9o( a£pi(pi]§Eg ^E^i50i]Kav e^co Kai dp^iaav va m'po|3oXoiJv. Oi aTTEp- 
yoi 8ev mipop6Xi]aav. Aev Ei^av 6-rrXa yia va •n:upo[5oXi]aoi'v. A-nXd ra- 
xaKp£oupyi']9i]Kav. (...) Oi Poi]9oi a£pupT]8£c; auvE^iaav va nupopoXoirv 
fiE^pt ttov.1 o 8ioikt]xt']c; touc; xouc; eSojoe arj|ia... Tote auXd |mr']Kav aro 
EpyooTaaio Kai KXEi8c60i]Kav fiEaa. 

28 dv9pwTroi Tpau|^aTioTi]Kav' Suo an' outou^ Ti£0avav Ti]v 181a 
p.£pa rat TEoaEpic; aKop.a \ieoa ott] f58op.d8a. Ako^o Kai oi mo ouvtt]- 
pi]xiK£(; £(pi]fi£pi'8£c; TiapouaidoxiiKav ayavaKxiop.£v£^ |i£ xi] atpayi']. 

22 |3oi]0oi a£pi<pi]8£<; aw£Xi](p0i]aav \ie xi]v Kaxi]yopia xi|<; av0pco- 
TtoKxoviac;, aXXd co<; ekei' Xiyo apyoxEpa a(p£0i]aav £X£i50£poi. 

Ill 

Msoa oxi^ ^poviEc; 1915 Kai 1916, anEpyoi SoXo(povrj0T]Kav and 
TiXr]pcop.£voi'(; SoXoipovouc; oxo KoXopdvxo, xi] AimKrj Bipx^ivia, xo 
Niou T^EpaEi] Kai a£ oKXec; Tlokneiec;. To KaXoraipi xou 1915, yia 
TrapdSEiyfxa, 8 dv0pcoTroi oKOTU0i]Kav Kai 17 Tpai'fiaTiaTijKav ao(3a- 
pd KaTa Ti] SidpKEia fiiac; anEpyiac; Evdvria otijv ETaipEia ETavTapvT 
'OiX oto M-nayiov tov Niou T^Eposr], i] onoia ei'^e TipoaXdpEi «cppou- 
poxx;». 



KEOAAAIO 18 

H EKEYOPIA enantion 
TON MOYNEI KAI MniAAINrKS 



Oi pioLirj^avoi toi' Xav OpavraiaKO Ei^av xy\v TrpoGsaT) va 
to £^o|ioi(aaow \ie to Aoc; Avt^eXec;, va to Li£TaTp£i|/ow 
8r|XaSt] as luo ttoXi] tijc; «avoip:T]c; ayopdc;». 
Me to oveiSoc; tt|c; i'Tr60Eai]c; Mqk Nafxdpn va e^ei ttecjei irdvco axa 
awSiKnTa, oi pioLirj^avoi £i8av |iia Evraipia va aTiaXXayouv auo tt|v 
Ki'piap^ia tcov EpyaTcav rai va avaraTaXdpow Ti]v ttoXi], oiKovofxira 
Kai uoXiTiKd. AiaKrjpi'l;av avoip:d Ti]v wrocro^piijr] touc; oto «A\ie- 
piKdviKO Z^e5io» Kai crac; lieGoSovc; xov ZTpaTi]you 'Otic; yia ti]v 
avTinETComar] xov EpyaTiKou KivrJLiaToc;. 

Ot kivtjotic; xovt; auTEc; rJTav ttoXu £Tim'%i]fi£v£c;. 

H 8wa|ii] tcov awSiraTcov |ieiw8i]ke aTTOTO|j.a. Ap^iaav va ^dvouv 
tov eXey^o oto ETrayyEXfiaTa, Kai \ieypi to 1915 oi opyavwoEic; tcov 
EpyaTcov 8ev ETiai^av ma ^EydXo poXo oti]v ttoXitikvj £corj tijc; tt6Xi]c;. 
Oi aTtoKaXou|iEvoi «awri]pr]TtKoi» EpyaTiKoi i]y£T£<;, m£a|i£voi Ka- 
9c6c; r']Tav auo Ti]v evo^t] tcov a8£pcpcov Mqk NaLidpa Kai tcov dXXcov 

«aWC0|lOTcSv TOl< 8l'vaLllTT]», T]TOV TToXu avaiTOTEX£a|iaTlKOl OTTEVavTl 

cmc; EcpoSouc; tcov opyavcofiEvcov KauiTaXiaTcov, oi ottoioi Tcopa Ei'^av 

KOI Tl]V TlXr]pi] UTtOOTTJpi^TI XOV LlEydXoU «T]9lKOl5 o^Xoiw fiEaa ctttjv 

KoivoTi]Ta. MsydXEc; ETTi^EipTJaEic; EcpdpLioaav to ai>aTi]Lia ti]c; «avoi- 
%xi}<i ayopdc;»' oi LiiaBoi ETTEaav Kai i] EpydaiLii] LiEpa LiEydXcoox. 

Al'Tl] T] KaTdppEl'Ol] TCOV OWTl]pi]TlKC0V CFUvSlKaTCOV OTTCOaSrJTTOTE 

evioyyoE Ti]v apiaTEpi] TTTEpuyn I^Eaa crac; EpyaTiKEc; opyavcoaEic;. H 
TTTEpi'ya airrrj ttioteue otijv «d|i£or| Spdcrrp Kai art] «aKXi]pi] crrd- 
ot|» atiEvavTi aroix; KaniTaXiaTEc;. Oi dvBpcoTioi ttoi' Ti]v a-ndpTi^av 



109 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



TiEpicppovcmaav xic; o^XrjaEic; tou rKOLmspc; npoc; xa awSiraxa va 
anocpuyouv xo 8uvafitXT|. «Zxo 8idoXo va Trdv£ 01 naXio|io8ix£t;!», eXe- 
yav. «Zxo 8idoXo o EuyEvrjc; Kai ayvoc; awSiKaXia^ioc; tov rKOfxn£pc;!». 
riapoXo nou rjxav ^eXt] awSiraxcov, auxoanoKaXouvxav aoaiaXiaxEc; 
mi Xd^i|3avav \iepcx; oe liucfxikec; awavxrjaEic; avap^iKwv. 

To 1915 i] Kdnou xoxe, o mo e^e^cov EpyaxiKoc; pi£oandaxr]c; axo 
Xav OpavxafaKO rjxav o T6|iac; Mouvei, o npay|iaxiKoc; r|y£xr|c; xou 
la^vpou apiaxEpou ^inXoK \iiaa ottjv O|ioonov8ia Epyaaiac; xijc; 
KaXicpopvia. 'Hxav evqc; ■/apia^anKoc,, EVEpyijxiKot; opyavcoxrjc; Kai 
Ka9o8i]yi]xi](; anEpyicov, auvaia6i]|iaxiKoc; otci Xoyia Kai axic; npd- 
^ei^, npdyfia noc xou anEcpspE |^EydXi] 8i]|^oai6xi]xa. Ei^e a^EaEic; \ie 
yvcoaxouc; avap^iKouc;, xoao xr]c; cpiXoaocpiKrjc; xdai]c; oao kqi xr]c; xd- 
aijc; xijc; «Ttpd^i]c:». 'Hxav |i£ opyrj Evavxiov xoc EupconaiKou noX£|ioii 
Kai xcov npoanaGfiicov xcov a|i£piKavcov naxpicoxwv Km |iiXixapiaxc6v 
va ei^ttXe^ouv Kai xr|v AjiepiKfj axi] auyKpouar]. 'Hxav yvcoaxo oxt o 
Moijvei rjxav onaSdc; xov 8wa|iixr], «xou npayfxaxiKoii uXikoi3». Kd- 
ttoxe ei^e Kaxi]yopi]9£i oxi 8wa|iixia£ i8toKxi]a(a (Xiac; £ni)(£ipi]ai]c; 
axo Zav OpavxaiaKO, aXXd \ieia and xpEic; 8ikec; anaXXdp:i]K£. 

Ti]v dvot^i] xou 1916, o Mouvei Kai r] au^uydc; tou r]yi]9r|Kav evoc; 
aKXijpou aXXd aTcoxi'p]fi£vou aycova yia xi]v opydvcoai] xcov KaKO- 
nXnpco^iEvcov Lii]^avo8i]yc6v xi]c; ExaipEiac; «Evcolievoi Zi8i]p68po|ioi 
xou Eav OpavxataKO". 'Exai, xpdpt]^av aTtdvw xouc; xt]v opyrj xi]c; mo 
iajypr\(; ExaipEiac; xr]c; n6Xr]c;, xrjc; onoiac; 01 8ieu6uvxec; rjxav ijyexec; 
xi]c; EKaxpaxEiac; yta «xo xaaKia|ia xcov ouv8iKaxcov». 

Ta jpr\[iaTa xcov «Evco|.i£vcov Zi8i]po8p6ficov» Kai i] i]6ikij xouc; uno- 
axr]pi^T] PptaKovxav nidco an' xo anoKaXouLiEvo Xu|i(3oiiXio xou N6|iou 
Kai xrjc; Td^T]t; xou E^iuopiKoiJ Em|.i£Xi]xi]pioii xou Eav Opavxai'aKO, 
\iia an' xic; XEixoipyiEt; tov otioiou, ekxoc; an' xo va TipoTiayavSi^Ei 
xi]v Trpo£XOi|xaaia yia xi]v eiittXoki] xcov HnA axov A' HayKoa^io 
ndXE|io, r']xav Kai va VTrEpaaTii^Ei iSicoxiKoiic; maxoXdSEc; oxav auxoi 
^uXoKOTroiiaav rj SoXocpovoiiaav |.ieXi] xcov awSiKaxcov. Ta Xscpxd xcov 
«Evcolievcov Ei8i)po8p6|.icov» Kai i] t]Bikt] xouc; i'Troaxi]pi^i] (3piaKovxav 
Em'ai]c; maco an' xov TaapXc; <l>iKEpx, Evav i]yEXT] xou aycova yia «xo 
xaaKia|.ia xcov aw6iKdxcov», o onoi'oc; xo 1914 ei^e ekXeyei 8r]|i6aioc; 
Kaxi'iyopoc; xi]c; Ko|.ii]XEi'ac:. AvaXaLif3dvovxac; xa Ka9i]Kovxd xoi\ o 
OiKEpx dp)[ia£ afiEacoc; va Kaxa8icoK£i EpyaxiKouc; i]y£x£c; Kai pi^o- 
andaxEc;. O Tdfxac; Moijvei EyivE i] «^£^copiaxi]» Xeio xou. 



110 



H Sicevaioia Evavriov tcov MovveX Km MniXXivym; 



II 



To 1916, Ji£ TOV EUpCOTTCUKO Tt6Xe|XO VQ aUVE^ETQl l']8l] y ta Sl'O 

ypovia, 01 HEIA ^atpviKd |ioXuv9i]Kav quo Evav ui|/i]X6 nupETO «Tipo- 
£TOi|iaa£ac; yia tt6Xe|^o». 

Eto Eav OpavTaiaKO, ottcoc; Kai aXXou, 01 tjyetec; tt|c; Tipo£TOi|ia- 
oiac;, ttou T]Tav Kai r|y£TiKoi EyKEcpaXoi xov Y.vyifiov'kiov xov No^iou 
kqi Ti]c; Tdi^c;, Eiyav tvav iSianxpo Xoyo yia va EmBufiow va op- 
yavcoaow \iia ixEydXr] TraTptwTiKT] orpaTicoTiKi] irapEAaai]. 'H9sXav, 
ottcdc; avEtpspe Evac; an' amove,, «va 5ei'^ow otoi'c; TiouTdvac; yiouc; 
as ttoio ai]fieio ETrpEUE va <Ttancm]aouv». Na mdp^Ei 5i]Aa8i'i \iia 
TTpo£i5oTTOU]cn] npoc; xo\\ EpyaTiKouc; mi touc; pi^oaTidaTEc; on av 
«i;£Kivouaav KaTi», 6a avTi|i£TCOTu£ovTav |i£ Tpdno oyy mo Ei'yEviKO 
air' auxov nov Ei^av ettiSei^ei 01 etuBetikoi EpyoSoTEc; xov KoXopd- 

VTO Kai TOU NlOU T^EpaEl]. 

Tic; TipcoTEc; |i£p£c; tou IouXr|, 01 ap^Ec; Ti]c; tt6At]c; Krjpi'2;av Ti]v 22i] 
tou \ir\va «M£pa Ti]c; npoETOi^aaiac;*, Kai oXec; 01 8t]|.iotik£c;, naTpi- 
cotikec;, QTpaTicoTiKEc; Kai E^iTiopiKEc; opyavwaEic;, Ka9c6c; Kai 01 oXec; 
A8eX(p6ti]tec; ti]c; ttoXtjc; -6X01 ST]XaSrj ektoc; aTi' xa EpyaTira aw8i- 
Kaxa— TrpoaKaXEaTT]Kav va aiTinETda^ow axi]v TiapEXaai]. 

Etic; 22 xov \ir\va, avdfXEaa otic; 12 Kai tic; 2 to |^Eai]|^£pi, Evac; 
l-iEyaXoc; o^Xoc; vTi'fisvoc; \ie orpaTicoTiKEc; otoXec; Kai EvSi'^aaiEc; tcov 
A8eX(poti']tcov, \ie 6Xa to au^poXd touc; oe uXi'ipr] Qea, [ie ar]nai£c; Kai 

Op^TJOTpEC;, aUyK£VTpc66l]KE OTO E|.lTTapKaVT£pO KOI OTa TTEi^oSpOfiia 
KOVTa OTl]V o56 MdpKET. 

Etic; 2 Kai ify XETrrd, r] KEcpaXi] tt]c; Tionm]c; \ie tov Ki'f3EpvT]TT] tt]c; 
KaXicpopvia Kai to 8i]^iap^o xov Eav OpavToiaKO va TrpoTTopEuovTai 
auvavrrj9r|K£ ottcoc; TTpo^copouaE qti]v o86 MdpKET \i£ Eva airvray|.ia 
f3£T£pdvcov xov lanaviKou ttoXehou, to otioio Ep^oTav cmo tt)v 086 
ETOuapT yia va eioeXGei oto Kupicoc; ac6|ia tijc; napEXaaijc;. 

Tote ^acpviKa -evu i] op^ijaTpa ott]v KEipaXrj Eirai^E Eva aTpaTi- 
cotiko E|iPaTi]pio- |^ia f36|.if3a alio 8uvafxiTi] nov r\xav totto6etii|.i£vi] 
otov toi'^o evoc; aaXociv ttou PpiaKOTav oti] ycovi'a ETOuapT Kai Mdp- 
KET, E^Eppdyi]. H p6nf3a okotcooe aKapiaia 6 aTO^ia Kai Tpau(.idTia£ 
Tidvco auo 40, TEooEpa and Ta onoia TTE6avav tic; £tt6|^£vec; |^ep£c;. 



Ill 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



III 



To Zav Opavxai'aKO avaxapd^9T]K£. EttiBetike^ aaxuvo|.UK£c; 
EVEpyEtEc; dp^iaav a|i£acoc;, rai o xuxroc; y£|.ua£ BscopiEc; yia xi] Xuai] 
xou xpayiKou |iuaxi]pi'ou. «Oi pi£oaxrdax£c; xo EKavav». H mxdaxaai] 
xrou aKoXou9i]a£ i']xav |iia rjma ExravdXi]i|n] xcov d|.i£acov ExtaKoXou- 
9cov xr]c; EKpii^in; axo X£i|iapK£x xou XiKayo, 30 ^yjovia xrptv. 

Iievxe fiEpE^ |.i£xd xr]v £Kpi]^T] o T6|iac; Mouvei, i] au^uyoc; XOU 
Pevq, o TonopEv MmXXivyKc;, o 'IapasX Bdiv|.iTTEpYK rai o 'Evxouapvx 
NoXav auv£Xrjcp9i]aav. 

O MiriXXivyKc;, 22 excov, r]xav evcu; vEapoc; apiaxEpiaxrjt;, avEp^o- 
|aevt| irpoatomKoxrixa \.i£oa axa EpyaxiKa auvSiraxa xou Xav Opa- 
vxaioKO, cpiXoc; xou Mouvei kqi oxtaSoc; xt]c; «d|i£ai]c; Spdai]c;». Ei^e 
xtaXatoxEpa KaxaSiraaxEi yia fiExacpopd £Kpi]KxiKc6v |i£aa oe £nt(3a- 
xiko xp£vo. 

AXXd o Mouvei, Xoyco xt]c; E^E^ouaac: 9£ai]t; xou |i£aa axo Epyaxi- 
ko Ki'vi]|.ia, EytvE axr' xr]v apyr\ xo ExriKEvxpo xijc; UTi69£aT]c;. 

Atto xi]v irXEupd xi]c; Kaxijyopouaac; ap^rjc;, fXExd xo 8i]|.i6aio 
Knxi'iyopo <J>iK£px, o mo ai](.invxiKO^ Kaxrjyopoc; f\xav o iSicoxikoc; 
vxEXEKXip 1 Mdpxiv Ef3dvaov, Evac; |iuaxiKoc; auvEpydxiji; xou Kivrj|ia- 
xoc; yta «xo xadKia|ia xcov auv5iKdxcov». 'Oxav r)xav |.ua9co|.i£voc; axr' 
xr]v «AxXavxiKT] ExaipEta TKa^iou kqi HX£KxpiKou», o Z(3dvaov ei^e 
TipoaTraGi'iaEi va EfiirXfi^Ei xo Mouvei axi]v avaxiva^i] Kaxtoiac; 1810- 
Kxi]a(ac: aXXd qtcexu^e, axr' oxi cpaivExai etteiStJ o MxciXXivyKc; kqi o 
BdivE|ixr£pyK apvi]9i]Kav xi]v -npoxaai] xou va KaxaBsaouv Evavxiov 
xou cpiXou xouc; «avxi afxoipY]c;». 

O MiriXXivyKt; 5iKdaxi]K£ xcpcoxoc;, xo cp9ivoxccopo xou 1916. 
'Evac; dvEpyoc; a^9ocpopo^, o oxioioc; apyoxEpa UTioaxrjpi^E axo 81- 
raaxijpio oxt ziyt v[i£u8opKTJa£i fi£ o8i]yi£^ axed xov OiKEpx Kai xov 
XfMvaov, KaxaBfiaE oxi axic; 13.50 \i.\i. xr\<; 22t]c; IouXiou eiye 6ei 
xo MxriXXivyKt; va acpi']v£i |iia (5aXixaa axov Tofyo xou aaXouv axi] 
ycovia xcov o5c6v Exiouapx Kai MdpKEX Kai |i£xd va |iiXa£i \ie xo 
Mouvei yia Xiyo axi]v E^couopxa xou oaXouv. Ki dXXoi |idpxup£<; 
Xiyo uoXu Evia^uaav xr|v laxopia auxi']. O MttiXXivykc; uxtoaxrjpi^E 
xr]v a9cooxT]xd xou, aXXd |idxaia. Kaxa8iKaaxi]K£ yia xt]v KaxT]yopta 
xr]^ av9pcox[OKXovia^ aXXd Xoyco xou vEapoii xi]c; i]XiKia(; xou yXixwaE 
xi]v Ea^dxi] xcov xroivwv Kai KaxaSiKaaxi]K£ oe tadpia Ka9£ip^T] axi] 
cpuXaKTJ OoXao|i. 



112 



H Sicevaioia Evavriov tcov MovveX Km MniXXivym; 



H 8(ki] tou Mouvei ava|3Xi]9i]K£ yia to rsvapr] tou 1917, aXXd 
[i£yp l t °te i] Kcmiyopia elye ai]|.iavTiKd aTroSuvancoGEi. OayroypacpiEc; 
ttou Tpaf5i]5(Ti]Kav tt]v wpa ttjc; Trap£Xaor|c; cro] okettt] tou KTijpiou 
ottou r] kq Mouvei SiomjpoiiaE to houotko Tilt; crroiVrio — Eva ^iXi 
|iaKpid air' tov totto ttj^ £Kpr]^r]^— HEy£8uv9i]Kav Kai omo Eva poXoi 
oti] (puToypaepfa cpdvi]K£ oti o Mouvei kqi t] au^uyoc; tod qti^ 13.58 
PpfaKovrav ott] ctkeuVJ, irpdyfia ttou auyKpouoTav [ie tt]v KaTd0£ai] 
ttou tottoOetouoe to Mouvei OTI] 5iacrraupa>aT] ETOUnpT KOI MdpKET 
oxu; 13.50. 

AXXd o <J>iK£pT ei^e kqi dXXouc; «^dpTup£p>. AvdjiEad touc; rJTav 
Kdnoioc; OpavK 'Oixiav, even; ^toE^nropo^ air' to 'OpEyKov, ttou (pai- 
votqv «eu9uc; rai £vri|.iop>. O 'O^iav kqteGeoe oti eiSe aKO|ia tte- 
piaaoTEpa. 

AtTO TT] OuXXt]i|/T] TOU KQI I^ETQ Ol E(pi]|^Ep(5E(; omoKaXEaav to Mou- 
vei otiStjttote, qtto avap^iKO \i£XP l yEp^avocpiXo, ti]v copa TTOU |.i£aa 
oti] SiKaaTiKi] a(9ouaa o OiKEpT tov aTTOKaXouor 8uva|iraaTrj, etti- 
kivSuvo dv6pcoTTO Kai upaKTopa Ti]^ r£p|iavia(;. 

To 8lKaaTT]piO TOV K1]pU^£ EVO^O KQI O MOUVEI KaTa5lKacrO]K£ va 
TT£9dv£l OT1]V Kp£|idXa. 

O Bdiv£|iTT£pyK: kqi t] kq Mouvei, ttou 8tKaaTi]Kav apyoTEpa |.i£aa 
oto 1917, nTraXXd^9i]Kav. O NoXav e^eive (puXaKT] yia 8uo ipovia 
Kai teXiko aTT£XEU0Ep(68i]KE X w P l ? Sua], Xoyij) eXXeitjiih; OTOl^ElfflV. 

IV 

O MOUVEI' U.£Ta<p£p9T]K£ OTI] (puXaKl] tou Zav Kouevtiv. 

AXXd o^e86v a|i£acoc; \iexa xi]v KaTaSiKi] tou auv£pr]aav yEyovoxa 
ttou KaT£OTT]aav ti] SiKaaTiKi] aTTOtpaar] Kai yia tov M-ruXXivyKc; Kai 
tov Mouvei ttoXu aj-KpiaPiiTTJoTuri. H KaTaBEar] tou 'Oixiav Trpoa(3Xi]- 
9t]ke. Atto5ei^6i]ke TTEpa airo koBe au.(pi|3oXia oti oti^ 22 tou IouXi], 
avTi va Eivai oto Zav OpavTaiaKO ottco^ UTroaTrjpi^E, o "OI;u.av (3pi- 
aKOTav u.e touc; cpiXout; tou oto TouvTXavT tt]<; KaXicpopvia, cf^eSov 
200 uiXia uxiKpid. 

KaTOTTiv, ki dXXoi udpTupEt; KaTrjyopiac; KaTEcrnjaav evteXco^ avu- 

Tt6Xt]TTTOI. ME^pi TO |i£oa TOU 1917 11 a^lEpiKdvlKT] EpyaTlKT] KOI (piXE- 

Xeu6ept] koivi'i yv(6|iT] ei^e tteiotei oti oi 5uo dvTpst; ava|.icpi|3oXa T]Tav 



113 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



8u|iaTa aKEUcopia^, tcoi< oST]yr]6r]Kav on] cpvXaKi] y.Eoa oto kXi^iq tt]^ 
TiaTpiwTtKi]^ kcu avrEpyaTiKrjc; vaxepiac; ttou £i)(£ tovcoGei cmo xi<; 
avriSpaaTiKEc; £cpr||.i£pi8£c; rai xou^ TrpdicropE^ tuv |i£ydAcov Exaipitov 
01 oitoioi PpiaKovrav [lEaa rat e^co air' to Si]|i6aio |.u)^avio|i6. 

H ^cot] xou Mo\5v£i ac69i]K£, aXKci tt] ariyjii] ttoii ypdcpco avxo to 
kei|.ievo -to j£i\.ui)va xov 1930, 14 ^povia |i£Ta tic; ot)XXtJ\|/£Ic;— mi o 
Mouvei Kai o MTTiXXivyKc; Trapa|.i£voi<v cpuAaKianEvoi Trapd tk; ot]|xq- 
vxikei; Trpocmd9£i£^ air' tt] |i£pid EpyaTiKwv Kai (piX£AEu9£pwv o|^d- 
8(ov yia tt]v aTtEAEuBEpcoar] toix;. 



114 



KEOAAAIO 19 

«H YBPIZ ZTH 5LENTPAAIA» 



H\iayj] cm] f5io|ii]^av{a aTaaXiou avvEji^oxav oxav, cmc, 
11 NoEfiPpi'oil TOl< 1919, Ol EWrroXljTTTOl TToXlTEC; TWV 
HITA aoKapia|iEvoi §id|3a£av cmc; EcprjUEpiSEc; y in T, l 8o- 
Xo(pov£a xsaadpcov avSpcov tt]c, A|.i£piKdviK:i]c; AeyEwva^ cmo \ieXy] 
tcov Bio|^i])[aviKc5v Epyaxcov xov K6cf|.io\j cm]v ttoXi] EsvTpdXia Tr|C, 
OvdaiyKTOv. O avxiSpaaxiKoc; tuttoc; avaici]pvi;£ «rjpw£c;» auTouc, tol'c, 
TxaaEpic; aTpcmuTEc;, oi ottoi'oi, ti]v upa ttoi' TrapijXawav ev otoXi] 
yia va yiopTdaovv ti]v npcoTi] etteteio tr|c; AvaKcop'jt;, a(payidaTi]Kav 
onto tone, youojiTiXic; ev i|/i))(pt6 -SoXocpovrjOrjKav a£ £v£8pa X U P^ va 
£%ouv 5iaTrpd^£i Kaxiia -rrpoKXijcn]. To TTEpicrraTiKO ^apaKTi]ptaTi]K£ 
to XiyoTEpo «i5f3pi^», kcu TTapouaidaTT]K£ Ttapa|iop(pw|i£vo cmo xa 
8id<popa opyava toi> I'TTEpnaTpitOTiai^oij kcii ti]c, avTiKO|i|iowiaTiKi]<; 
vaxepiai;. 

Ett]v npayi^aTiKOTiiTa, Ttioco airo tt]v «ii(3pi» Tr|c; SoXotpovi'ac; teo- 
adpcov AEyEcovdpicov imfjp^E \iia ^ciKpd asipd ttoXu ^EyaXiiTEpuv 
uPp£cov, oi otioi'ec, TTpay|^aTO'n:on]9i]Kav Evdvria axo EpycmKO Kivr)(xa 
tijc; fiio^yavicu; ^uXEiac; axa Bop£io8imi<d, aTto tone; KaxmaXiaxEC,, 
tic; Ap^EC, ttou aiiToi eXey^qv mi tov TraTpiwxiKO 6y\o tt]c; itepio^TJc;. 

To TiEpicrraTiKO nic; EEvxpdXia rjxav Eva EtSoc; Kopucpcoai]c; xov 
|iaKpo^poviou aywva xcov ^uXokottcov axa Bop£io8uxiKd vn miaow 
to TpaoT EuXeicic;. 



115 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



A|i£aCOC; |.l£xd X1]V E|i(pdvlOT] XCOV yOlld|lTlXlC; cm] PopeioSl'TlKT] TTE- 

pio^rj Trapaycoyrjc; ^i'Aeick;, dp^iaav 01 aTiEpyiEc;. To 1912 01 BEK 
(pi'AaKi^ovxav Kai ^vAokottoottciv raxd EKaxovxaSfic; axo AfmEpvxiv, 
6^1 fiaKpid and xr] EsvxpdXia, aXXd fxexd and [iia ai5vxo|ir] aTtep- 
yia avdyKaoav xovc; i5iokxt]xec, Tipioviaxijpicov va xiXi]pcovouv axouc; 
Epydxec; xoi'c, 2,50 SoXdpia i]|i£po|.iia9io. Meoa axa £xid|i£va ttevxs 
ypovia oi yotoiittAic; cScoaav kqi oXXec; xioXXec; viKijtpopec, \iay£t;, ya- 
pic, va i]xxi|9oiiv o^eSov tioxe, kqi awETiwc, oi owBtJkec; axr] piO|ir|- 
yavia ^uAeiac; axaSiara [3£Xxic66i]Kav. Oi EpydxEc; Xd|if3avav in|ii]Xd- 
xEpouc; |iia0oi5c, Kai KaXuxEpi] xpocprj, evw xa KaxaXu^axa axa onoia 
Koifxovxouaav rjxav mo raGapd. 

Oi BEK Eytvav |Aia 5uva|ir] axa BopEioSuxira 5dai] xr]v ouoia xo 
Tpaax EuXEiac, EnpExiE va uxroXoyi^Ei. 

To 1916 dp^iaav xr]v ayKixdxaia yia xi]v o^xdupr] Epydaip] |i£pa. 
Kax£Kxi]aav xo Simi'm^a va XTpayiiaxoiroiouv auvavxrjaEic; Kavo- 
vxac, |.ia£iK£c, EiapoAEC, axic, koivoxt]xec;, aXXd oi vikec; xoi'c; 8ev j)xav 
eukoXe^. Oi yon6|ixrXic; rjpBav avxi|.i£xcoxioi apKEXEc; (pop£<; |i£ xouc; 
maxoXdSEc; xoi< Tpaax EuXeioc;. Zxic; ai'^xiXoKEc; ainxc; ScoSekoSec; 
yoi'di^TrXic; E^aaav xi) £cofj xoiv 

Elpoc; xa |XEaa xov 1917, cupov oi HF1A Efyav eioeXBei axov Ila- 
yKoa|ito ri6X£|io, r] £>]Ti]ai] yia ^uXeio axic; 8id<pop£c; pioiiii^aviKEc; 
|iovdS£c; EytvE xEpdaxia, Kat oi ExaipEiEc; ^I'Xfitat; EKixExaXXEi'd^EVEc; 
xi]v raxdaxaai] avefiaoav xic; xi[i£<; axa ui|/r|. Tt]v (5ia axiy|XTJ oi [ii- 
a9oi xwv Epyaxwv j)xav sXd^iaxa ai<2;i]H£voi axic; TTEpio^Ec; oxrou oi 
dvGpamoi Efyav axr£pyT]a£i Kai TiiEaEi xouc; EpyoSdxEc; va xouc; avE- 
pdaow. 

H ai'9d8i]c, KEpSoaKonia xou Tpaax HuXeioc;, oe auvSuaoiid \ie 
xic; TraxpiomKEc; E^dpaEic;, |i£X£xp£i|;av xo Kdpf3owo X7]c; TiaXidc; 8» 
aapEaKEiac; oe cpXdya, Kai Exai xo KaXoraipi xou 1917 i) jiEyaXuxEpi] 
anEpyia axi)v a|i£piKdviKi] [5io|xi]^avia ^uXEiac; adpcoaE xi^ BopEio- 
8i'xiK£(; TTEpio^Ec;. H aito^fj and xi]v Epyaaia r\xav oXoKXi]puxiKT). 
H [3io|iT]xav(a TrapfiXuaE. SatpviKa i] xspdaxia KEp8ocpopia xrou ei^e 
ETTKpEpsi o ttoX£|.ioc; axa|.idxi]aE. 

Oi ^uXokottoi Kai oi dXXoi EpydxEc; a^Eacoc; KaxriyoprjBiiKav yia 
«aTi£i8Eia» and xo Tpaax SuXEia^, crno xov Tutio, axio xic; xottikec; 
Ap)[£(; aKOfia Kai and xt]v OnoauovSiaKi] Kup£pvi]ai]. Kaxiiyopi'iBi]- 
Kav dxi ETiE^Epyd^ovxav a^E8ia yia xi] Srinioupyfa «[iia(; auxoopya- 



116 



H'YfigK; arrj SevtqAXiii 



vcofiEvijc; 8iaKuf3Epvi]ai]^». H aTrepyia r\xav «Trpo8oora». Eav ottoxe- 
XEa^ia yikiabEi; aTTEpyoi KXEiaxijKav otic; cpuXaKEc;, Kai, oxav auxfic; 
ys^uaav, ae axpaxoTTESa auyKEvxpcoaTjc; ttou avEyepSiiKav etti touxou. 
AvGpCOTTOl ^uXoKOTTOUVXav \iEoa aTT] I^EOT] TOl) Spo^iou kcu dXXoi So- 
Xocpovouvxav jiEpa |^Eai]|i£pi. Ta ypacpEi'a xcov auvSiKaxcov Se^ovtqv 
ETTi5po|^£(;. XiXioSec; axoipdp:i]Kav |X£aa oe kXouPec; kqi «aTi£Xd0i]- 
rav» -8i]Xa8rj o8i]yrj9r|Kav a£ spi^Ec; TTEpio^Ec;, EKaxovxdSEc; |i(Xia 
|iaKpid ano xic; kqxoikiec; xouc; kqi acp£9r]Kav ekei. EiKoadSEc; av8puv 
aKETrdaxi]Kav lie niaaa Kai TrouirouXa. ApKEXouc; xouc; LiEXEcpEpav a£ 
Epi]fxiK£i; ai8i]po8po|iiKE^ yEcpupEc; ottou xouc; KpELiaaav. 

H koivt] yvcoLii] i]iav cpavaxira cpiXonoXELU], ucnxpiKd TraxpicoxiKi] 
kqi 8ev ei^e KavEva Trp6|3Xi]Lia va tteicjxei oxi t] anEpyia ei^e cpiXoyEp- 
Liavira Kivi]xpa, oti Vjxav avxiaLispiKdviKt], evqc; kiv8uvoc; yia «xouc; 
Bectlioix; (xap> Kai «tt] cn]Liaia Liac;», TiapoXo Ttou Evac; cmo xouc; mo 
laxupouc; LiEyiaxdvEc; axa BopEioSuxira, Evac; ap^i£p£ac; xou avxEpya- 
xikou luoouc; ei^e ripcoaiKi] i9ay£v£ia. 

H aTTEpyfa ettpette va KaxaaxaXEi! 

'Exai kqi EyivE. OXoKXi)pi] i] X^P 01 ' tu(pXco(J.EVr| qtto tov ttoXelio, 
axpd(pr]KE Evdvxia axouc; BEK. 'EvottXoi o^Xoi ano TraxpicoxEc; eth^ei- 
pi]Liaxi£c;, Kdnoioi and xouc; ottoiouc; cpopouaav axpaxicoxiKEc; axoXsc;, 
ettixi'Gevxo axa ypacpsia Kai xic; aiBouasc; tuv BEK, ekXe^qv xa xpa- 
TtE^ia, Ecrnayav 6Xa xa x^aLiia Kai xa ETriTtXa, EKaiyav xa ^ipXia Kai 
xa ap^Eia. Oi ypaLiLiaxEic; xcov EpyaxiKwv evcoctecov andyovxav Kai 
Ppi'aKovxav oe SiapKrj rivSwo. Oi ^iXidSEc; KpaxouLiEvoi axic; cpuXa- 
kec; Kai oxa axpaxoTi£8a auyKEvxpcoaTjc; Kpaxouvxav au^vd vi]axiKof 
yia LispEc;. To airvoXo xcov GrjpicoSicov ttou ouv£(3T]aav Kaxd xr] 8idp- 
KEia auxi]c; xr|c; aTTEpyi'ac; Tri6av6 va p] yivEi ttoxe yvcooxo. O cpovoc; 
evoc; youoLiTiXi i]xav ekeivec; xic; axiyLiEc; Liia Tipd^i] TTEpiaaoxEpo ttq- 
xpicoxiKi] ano xo cpovo evoc; TEp^avoij. 

H aTTEpyia EonaaE, aXXd oliectcoc; |^£xd oi liioGoi oxitv uXoxofxia 
au^i]8i]Kav ai]|.iavxiKd. EKaxovxaSsc; you6|iTiXic; TrapE|i£ivav Tipocpu- 
XaKia|.i£voi Kaxd xo fXEyaXuxEpo 8idaxi)fra xi]c; au|^fiExo)[i]c; xcov HEIA 
axov ttoXelio. 'Oxav aTrocpuXaKiaxi]Kav, ttoXXoi quo auxouc; Ei^av Ka- 
xavxi]a£i acooxoi okeXexoi. ApKEXoi TrsGavav ano xr|v tteivo t] airo xic; 
appuoxiEc; ovxac; KpaxoufXEvoi. 

OXoKXi]po xo exoc; 1918 i]xav aauvExo yia Evav youo^irXi va Xeei 
8r||x6aia oxi Eivai xexoioc;. 'Oooi £Ti£oxpEi|;av yia SouXeio axa Sdai] 
EKpui|iav xic; auvSiKaXiaxiKEc; xouc; xaux6xr]X£c; lieoo axa f3apid ttq- 



117 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 

Tiouxaia xouc;. To Kivima auvE^iaE va undp^Ei ^uaxiKa. Ta ^eXi] ou- 
vavnoiVrav Kpucpd rai auyKEvxpcovav ^prj|xaxa yia xic; oiKoyEVEiEc; 
auxcov uou efyav 5oXocpovr|9£i Kaxd xt] 5idpK£ta xr|c; anEpyiac; rj Ppi- 
aKovxav axr] cpuXaKi). 

Movo ae KdnoiEc; cmo tic; jiEyaXuxEpEc; Ti6X£ic;-axT] ZsvxpdXia yia 
TTapd8£iy|^a-aovE^ioav va Siaxijpouv tic; niGouaec; Kai xa auvSiKaXi- 
axiKd xouc; ypacpsia. 

II 

A|i£ococ; |^£xd xi]v axcEpyia, DUTJp^E (AiKprj Kivi]xiKoxi]xa oxi]v ai- 
9ouaa auyK£vxpc6a£cov xcov Bio|iT])[aviKc6v Epyaxwv xou K6a|iou axr\ 
ZfivxpdXia, aXXd aKO|ii] Kai Exai xo |i£poc; auxo TrapE^iEVE Tri]yi] axa- 
9£prjc; Evo^Xi]ar]c; yia xouc; avxi-youdfXTiXic; unEpxcaxpicoxEc; xou Tpaax 
HuXeiqc;. 

Tov AirpiXr| xou 1918 axr] XfivxpdXia 5iopyavc69i)K£ [lux napEXa- 
or| xou Epu9pou Zxaupou rai xou opyavia|.iou xou AavEiou xi]c; Ave- 
c;apxi]aiac;. O Aioiktjxtjc; xtjc; OudaiyKxov, o Arjfiap5(pc; Kai o Appjyoc; 
xr|c; Aoxuvofxi'ac; xi]c; EEvxpdXia f3pi'aKovxav axi]v KEcpaXi] xt]c; tco- 
|^ttt]c;. riiaco xouc; TiaprjXauvav xo E|.iTropiKO Etti|^eXi]xi'ipio Kai dXXsc; 
Em^EipiiiiaxiKEc;, xottikec; opyavcoaEic; KaBcoc; Kai aSeXcpoxrjXEc;. Ext]v 
oupd xi]c; nopeiac; vn^pjE \iia av\i\topia avxpcov, 01 ottoioi, au|i<pcova 
l±e xa Xey6|.i£va xcov BEK, Vjxav xpa^TioiiKoi TtXr|pcofX£voi Kai utto xic; 
8iaxay£c; Kdnoiou <J>. M. Xd^Tiapvx, xoxe upoESpou xou EpyoSoxiKou 
Zuv£xaipia|iOu xi]c; OudaiyKxov. 

H Tro^iTri] TiEpaaE unpoaxd alio xi]v aiGouaa auyK£vxpc6a£C0v xcov 
you6|^TiXic;. Kdnou cm6 xa vcoxa xr]c; nopEiac; evac; dvxpac; cpuva^E: 
«Ac; Kavou(.iE ETri5po(.n']!». AXXi] fxia cpcovrj aKouaxi]K£: «Endvco xouc; 
Tiai5id!» 

'Evac; o^Xoc; £<pop|.u]a£ and xi]v TropEia Kai £TrixE9r]K£ axo |.iiKp6 
i;uXivo Kxi]pio. Ta x£dpa 9pu|^axiaxi]Kav Kai 01 nopxEc; axcdaxijKav. 
Meoo, 01 xpajmouKoi Epi^av xic; ^ieooxoi^iec; Kai Ecrnaoav kopekXec;, 
xpaxiE^ia Kai tiivokec;. 

Oi oXiydpi9|ioi youo^nXic; ttou exu^e va PpioKovxai fXEaa axo kxtj- 
pio TtEpiKUKXco9i]Kav, c;uXoKOTn]9i]Kav Kai xpapY])[xiiKav axo Spd^o 
ottou UTro5(pEc69T]Kav va yivouv jidpxupEc; xi]c; Kauai]c; Kai xrjc; Kaxa- 
axpocpi]c; xcov ettittXcov, xcov ap^Eicov, xcov f3i|3Xicov Ka9c6c; Kai ^iiac; 
ypacpo^ii]^avi]c;. 



118 



H'YfigK; arrj SevtqAXiii 



Ext] ovwifixa |ita ScoSEKaSa rj rai TiEpiaadxEpoi youoLixiXic; ijSko- 
KOTTi]9i]Kav |X£Xpi Xnro9u|iiac;, cpopxc69r|Kav a£ Eva cpopxTjyd Kai TiExd- 

5^Tl)Kav £^(0 QTtO XT|V KOLll]X£ia. 

Ai'Ti] rjxav i] Trpcoxi] ExiiSpoLn'] Evavxiov xi]c; afflowac; xcov BEK 
axi] EsvxpdXia, rai [XExd yia Eva ^povo kqi ttXeov 01 youoLixiXic; 8ev 
Ei^av ypacpEta oxy\v xioXi]. 

Kaxomv, xo KaXoKaipi xov 1919, oi BEK dvoi^av [iia raivoiipia 
aiGouaa axi] EEvxpdXia. 

Aiyouc; |ir]v£c; |i£xd xr]v AvaKajj] xo Krvt]|xa xov «Evoc; kqi Mova8i- 
kou MEydXoi' Ei<v5iKdxoi'» qtcekxiioe ^atpviKa |i£ydXi] 5uva|iT] a£ 6Xt) 

XT]V TTEpiOp] XOl' ndx^EX Edoi'VX. 

Oi BEK aTT£KXT]aav xov eXey^o oe Kaxcoia axro xa ai]|iavxiKox£pa 
awSiraxa axo EidxX, axo Etiokeiv kqi axi]v TaKOfxa. Eia Eva auvxo- 
|io ^poviKO 8idaxT]|^a, vEKpcoaav xic; |i£ydX£c; (3io|At|)(civ{ec; \ie axiEpyi- 
£^, |ia£i Kai xo Xi|idvi xoi< EidxX, Kai r'jxav fXEaa axic; koivoxtjxec; auxEc; 
xo Kupiap^o OXOl^ElO. 

Exa 8dar], oi |iia9oi xioi< ioyyav Kaxd xov Tr6XE|io |.i£ic6vovxav, oi 
^uXokottoi npoa^copouaav cpavEpd axouc; you6|XTiXic; kqi EKavav Si]- 
|xoai£c; airvavxrjaEic;. H EEvxpdXia EyivE xo KEvxpo xou Kivrj|iaxoc; xcov 
Epyaxuv ^uXeiq^. O EpyoSoxiKoc; EuvExaipiaLioc; xr|c; EIoXixECac; xt|c; 
Oi'daiyKxov ExriKEvxpwaE xr|v avxi-BEK Spdai] xov axi] EfivxpdXia. 

'Evac; e^e^cov £^9po<; xcov yoi'OLixiXic; i]xav o TouopEv rKpi|i, o 

OTTOIOC; El^E T[oXE|iT]OEt OXIC; ypa|lLl£c; XOV A|i£piKdvlKOU EKaxpaxEr- 

xikou ac6|xaxoc; axi] Eif3i]pta kqi xou ottokw (3aaiKO yvcopiaLia rjxav 
i] I'PpiaxiKi] ariE^Eia xcpoc; xi] via Eof3i£xiKi] Kuf5£pvi]aii xtjc; Pcoai- 
at;. 'EPya^E Xoyouc; axouc; onoioi'c; |iiXo\5aE yia «xr|v KoivoKxi]|ioauvi] 
xcov yi'vaiKcov axi] Pcoaia» kqi anoKaXouaE xovc; BEK «A|.i£piKdvoi<c; 
MT[oXa£|3iKoiic;». ripo£xpExr£ oe «aKXi]pi] nvxi|.iExc6moT]» xcov yovo- 

\ixiku;. 

'H8r] aTco xo KaXoKaipi vxri'ip^E i] cpi]|ii] dxi xa vsa ypacpEta xcov 
BEK 9a Ss^ovxav ettOeoi]. 

Exr]v dXXr] uXEupd, 6Xo xo raXoraipi Kai xo cp9tvoTTCopo xou 1919 
oi youoLiTtXic; r^xav evxeXcoc; |ir]-|3iatoi Kai EipT]viKo(. npayfxaxoTtoi- 
ociaav xi]v ayKixdxaia xovt; Kai opyavcovovxav auaxi]pd Lisaa axa 
xiXaiaia xoi> vdfxoi'. 



119 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



III 

Xtic; 6 NoE^Ppi] to TLiTJLia ti]c; ALiEpiraviKijc; AeyEcovac; ti]c; Ze- 
vxpdXia avvavri]9i]K£ lie Liia ETriTponi] tov ELiTiopiKoii EttilieXi]ti]PI- 
ov yia va opyavwoovv Liia TiapEXaai] crac; 1 1 xov iiijva, crri]v Etteteio 
ti]c; AvaKco^rjc; -[iia «TiaTpicoTiKi] Tiap£Xaai]» axixv ottoio oi dvTpEc; 9a 
cpopovaav tic; otoXec; tovc;. 

Ta veq ypacpEia tcov yovolittXic; (3piaKovTav oe Evav aTioLiaKpv- 
olievo TOfiEa tt]c; ttoXi]^, d|icoc; oi ETTtxpoTTEi; aTiocpdaiaav 1] TTOLITTT] 
va TCEpdaEi 8inXa and avTa, etot coqte, oticoc; eittco6i]ke, «va tovc; 
8£ii;ovLi£ tt] SvvaLii] Liac;». 

Stic; 1 1 No£|i(3pT], oxav oi |i£pap%i'a tcov pETEpdvcov tijc; ZEvrpd- 
Xia EtpxaaE Lnrpocrrd ott]v aiBouaa tcov BioLU]^aviKcov Epyaxcov xov 
Koctliov, svac; AEyEcovdpioc; lie axoXi] Xo^ayov ocpupi^E lie luo acpv- 

pi^xpa. Ol yOTOLlTlXlC; £K TCOV VOTEpCOV £T[£Ll£lvav OTI avTO VJTav TO 

avv9i]Lia yia ttjv ETTiSpoLirj. Z^eSov aLisacoc; dnXa EKTivpaoKpoTijaav, 
TiopTEc; EOTiaoav, dv9pcoTcoi ETTEaav vEKpoi Kai Tpav|iaTiaTi]Kav ti]v 
copa ttov ot napEXauvovTEc; oKopiri'^ovrav npot; ko9e Kax£t59i5voT|. 

Oi TH'po|3oXiaLioi Ei^av oav a-noTEXEaLia tcov TpavLiaTioLid apK£- 
tc6v Kai to 9dvaTO TEaadpcov pETEpdvcov, avaLiEad tow; koi tov Tou- 

6pEV TKpiLl. 

Meto tovc; TivpopoXiaLiovc;, ottoioc; aird tt|v TTEpio^rj 9£cop£rro 
vtlotltoc; coc; lieXoc; tcov BEK avv£Xrjcp9i], Kai yia LiEpEc; ottXictlievoi 
dvrpsc; tyajyav Ta yvpco |i£pi] yia va evtottictovv cpvyd8£c;. 'Evteko 
dvrpsc;, dXoi tovc; youoLnrXic;, KaTi]yopT]9i]Kav teXiko yia ti] SoXocpo- 
via tou TKpiLi. 'Evac; cmo avTovc;, o 'E^EpEaT, ami^Ch] and ti] cpvXaKrj 
ti]c; TcdXi]c; ti] vvp:a lieto touc; mipopoXiaLiovc; Kai, acpou paaavicrn]- 
ke aTTdv9pcoTTa, tov XvvTaapav Kai tov KpELiaaav kotco and Liia y£- 
cpvpa kovto crri] ZfivTpdXia, Ti]v copa ttov to cpcoTa tcov avTOKivr'jTCOv 
tov d^Xov i']Tav aTpaLiLiEva Tipoc; to acoLia tov. 

AkoXov9i]ct£ Liia |^aKpid, T£Ta|i£vi] Kai ttoXijttXoki] 8(ki]. 

EtpTa cmo touc; KaTi]yopou|iEvoi'c; Kpi'9i]Kav evo^oi yia cpdvo Seute- 
pou pa9|^oii Kai KaTa8iKaaTT]Kav a£ cpi'XdKiar] cmo 25 ecoc; 40 ^pdvia- 
Trpocpavcoc; 05^1 etcei5t] i]Tav evo^oi yia ti] SoXocpovia tou rKpi|i, acpou 
8ev aTio8Ei)[9iiKE aird Ti) 8ia8iKaaia oti Kdnoioc; cmo dXouc; TipoocoTTi- 
Ka tov mipopdXi]a£, aXXd Kvpicoc; ett£i8i] i]Tav Ta mo 8paaTrjpia Kai 
Evcpi.ii] lieXi] tov ovv8iKaTOV tcov EpyaTcov ^vXeioc; Ti]c; EEVTpdXia. 



120 



H'YfigK; arrj SevtqAXui 



'ES;i quo touc; svopKouc; apyoxspa eScooqv EvopKi] KaxaBfiai] oxi 
xouc; z\,f£ aaKrjBei xpoLioKpaxia TrpoKEiLiEvou vn art"|p£i;orv xtjv qtto- 
cpaai] TTEpi Evo^rjc; Kat oti rjxav ttetteiolievoi ttcoc; r| 8£kt] r\xav zi, 0X0- 
KXf|pou Ttapdvop] mi dSiKi]. 

'OXec; 01 npoaTid9£i£c; and xi]v TrXfiupd xi]c; EmxpoTTijc; YTTEpdam- 
or]c; tbv BEK Kai Sidcpopcov cpiXEXEuGspcov opyavwaEcov Kai npoaco- 

TTIKOXTJXCOV X1]V TeXeI'TQIQ SEKOEXia TTpOKElLlEVOU VQ UTtdp^El ETTQVEK- 

8iKaai] tijc; utt69e<jt]c; ano8£ip:i]Kav LidxaiEc;. 

Msaa axr|v aTtXi]aTia kqi xtjv aXa£ov£ia xouc;, quxec; 01 Suvolieic; 
— xo Tpaax SuXeioc;, kXtc.— Ewooiiv va Kpaxoiiv xouc; youolittXic; axi] 
cpuXaKrj X w pi? vn yiv£i v£n Sfjcr|, coc; luo £Tu|3£paicoai] xi]c; Kupiap^iac; 
xoix;. Me xexoiec; lieBoSouc; TTExu^av va aTro8uvaLic6aouv xo KiVijLia 
xcov BEK axa Auxira ae xexoio (3a6fxo cocjxe aVJLiEpa va lit]v airoxEXEi 
aopapi] aTCEiXi] yia Ta K£p8r| xouc;. AGcooi i] evo^oi, 01 BEK ttou kcl- 
xa8iKaaxT]Kav axi] XfivxpdXia TrpEUEi va TrapaLiEi'vouv axi] (puXaicr] ax; 
|ita Trpo£i8oT[oiT]aT] npoc; 6Xa xa «Epya^6|i£va TrxcoLiaxa» ttou ejovv 
kXioi] Trpoc; xouc; BEK rj Trpoc; xov koBe eiSouc; auvSiKaXiaLio. 

IV 

OTTCoaSrJTroxE 8ev undp^Ei a|i<ptpoXia oxi kqitoioi youoLnrXic; xiv- 
pof36Xr]aav aid xi]v aiBouad xouc; Kai aird xo Xdcpo ZELiivapi Evavxi- 
ov amuv tcou au|i|iETE(^av axi]v TrapEXaai], i] mo ocoaxd Evavxiov 
xcov ETriSpofXEWv, irapoXo ttou Eivat a|icptaf3i]xi]ai|.io xo av Kairoioc; 
otto xouc; Ecpxd tcou Kaxa5iKdaxi]Kav £pii;£ Kdnoio nupopoXiaLio. 
AXXd ottoioi ki av i]xav TrpayLiaxiKa 01 eXeuBepoi okotteuxec; xcov 
BioLU]^aviKc6v Epyaxcov xov Kooliou, 8ev irrrdp^Ei aLicpifJoXta oxi 01 
TrupopoXiaLiof xouc; Evdvxia axov TraxpicoxiKO d^Xo rjxav 8iKaioXo- 
yi]Li£voi axi] pdai] xi]c; auxodLiuvac; -auxodLiuvac; 65(1 liovo lie xi]v 
dLtEaT] Ewoia xt]c; irpoaxaaiac; xi]c; £coi]c; xouc; kqi xou e^ottXioliou 
xcov ypacpEicov xouc;, aXXd kqi |^e xi]v ewoiq xr]c; vxiepaamai]i; xov 
auvStKaxou xouc;. 

rii'aco airo airt-rj xi]v «uPpi», BECopcovxac; oxt ot BEK dvxcoc; aKoxcoaav 
xouc; XEoaEpic; AEyEcovdpiouc;, uirrjp}(E i] xucpX/], BuvaLiiKfj aTrEXTiiafa, 
i] 9£Xi]ai] yia Liia KaXuxEpi] c^cor'] yta ^iXidSfic; Epyac^oLiEvouc; dvxpEc;, 
ywaiKEc; Kai Ttai8id. Kai anEvavxi xouc; PpiaKoxav i] aTrXi]axia xcov 
Epyo8oxcov axr|v ^uXeio Kai oXXec; Pioliij^oiviec;, 01 ottoioi liectco xcov 



121 



A mauling: H Iarogia Ttjg Trf^najg Bing crrtjv Afisoitcrj 



opydvcov toi'<; KaBoSijyoiiaav xi]v TraTpi&mKrj wrepia npoKEifXEvou 
va auvrpdj/orv to awSiraAicraKO Kivi]|.ia twv yotohttAic;. 



122 



KEOAAAIO 20 

ZAKO KAI BANTSETI 



OXokXtjpo to etoc; 1919, o anEpiraviKoi; Tirrroc;, ottcoc; kqi o 
Tuttoc; xcov dXXcov KamTaXurriKuv ^copcov, 8r|fxoai£D£ oye- 
86v Ka6i]fxepivd avncpopei; o^etikec; [ie tic; 8id(pop£c; «9r|pico- 
Si£p> xi]^ Pcootktjc; ETravdoracnjc;. Oi avacpops^ qutec; ouvoSeuovtciv 
axio TTpopXeij/en; yia ttjv £ttike£|j.£vi] KcvrappEDaT] tod ZoPietikod kq- 

BEaTCOTO^. A(pOTOU Ol TTpOCpr]TElE(; aDT£<; §EV £TTaXl]9Elj9l)Kav Km TO 

M'noAaEp'iKiKO TiEipa^a yivoxav 6X0 kqi TiEpiaaoTEpo \iia ttp6kXt]ot| 
ylQ TOV KQTTlTaXlaHO, KQI T1]V COpa XlOV Ol DTTOOTT]piKT£<; TOD TroXXa- 

TrXaaid^ovrav a£ oXec; tic; KcmiTaXioTiKsc; %c6p£<;, t] avTiKo^fiODviaTi- 
Ki] vaxEpia KupioXEKTira KcvreXafiE oXec; tic; koivottjtec; otic; HEIA. 
rioXXoi KaKOTrXi)po(popT]|j.Evoi kqi ttvoTjToi pto|ifjj(avoi, Ot OTCOlOl 
avTinETCom^av Kpi'ai] aDV£i8rja£coc; Xoyco tt]c; KEpSoaKomac; todc; cmo 

TOV TToXe^O, ElXlKpivd TTlOTEUav OTl 1] ETTavdaTQaT] TOUC; T1]V El^E OT1]- 

I^evt] oti] ycovia, ektoc; kqi av Xn^if5dvovTav ai<Xi]pd jiETpa EvdvTia 
aTT] pt^oaTraaTiKi] 8i]fi£y£paia. O cpdpoc; qdtoc; EyivE avriKEifiEvo ek- 
|i£TdXX£Dor|c; otto ETTayy£X|iaTiE(; KivSDvoXoyoDc; ot ottoioi £VTa^9i]- 
rav aTi]v ETTi^£ipT]aT] tijc; TraTpiGraKrjc; uoTEpiac; yia va Trpoco6r|6ouv 
oi 18101 oti]v ttoXitiki] f) a£ dXXouc; to^eic;. E(pi]|^Epi8ec; kqi TrpOTra- 
yavSioTEc; ttod TrXTjpcDvovrav quo evqqeu; EpyoSoTcov UTioKivouaav 
xa avriKO|j.nouvtaTiKd aia9i']|^aTn yia va SiKaioXoyijaoDv anjv koivtj 
yvcofii] ttjv kttjvwSt] KaTaaToXi] EpyaTiKuv £,£oi]Ka\iav. «Oi Beo^oi 
[ia(; kivSdvedodv! npooraT£i|/T£ Ti] Ei]nai'a!» 

EKQTOVTdSEi; TcpdKTOpEC; TOD DTtODpycfoD AlKaiOOUVT]^, OE 8iaTE- 

Tay|j.£VT] DTci]p£a(a, aKopTnon]Kav a£ 6Xr] Ti] X^P a - KaTaSiuKovTac; 
tow; Kokkivouc;, E^piaKav UTioaTi'ipi^i] kqi aDVEpyaoia atco tic; koto 



123 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



xottouc; acrn)vo|iiKE^ Kai SiraaxiKEc; apjiq, KaOcoc; rai and UTTEp-na- 
xpicoxiKEc; opyavcocTEic; ottcoc; i] A|.i£piKdviKi] Aeyecovn Kai 01 Kopec; 
xi]c; A|iepiKdviKi]c; E-navdaxaaijc;. Ze ttoXXec; ttepittxcocteic;, 01 totti- 
kec; ap^Ec; kqi 01 TraxpicoxiKEc; a8£X<p6xi]x£c; efyav i;£Kivi]a£i Spdai] 
Ttpiv 01 0|.iocrn:ovSiaKoi npdKxopEc; avaXd[3ouv xy] Ppc6|xiKi) 8ouX£id. 
Aidcpopoi 8r']Hoi uioBexijotxv Siaxdy^axa Evdvxia axi] pi^ocnraaxiKT] 
ayKixdxaia Kai apKEXEc; EIoXixeiec; Etpap^ioaav tout; aTTOKaXoii|i£vouc; 
vd|.iouc; Evdvxia axovEyKXi]naxiKO ZuvSiKaXia^d. O picpcrn:aaxia|.i6c; 
ETrpETTE va KaxanvryEi. «Zcoax£ xouc; Qea\iov(; [icu; ano xouc; MttoXoe- 
Pi'kouc;!» 

Zav arvETTEia EXaf3av X^pa avxiKo^i-iouviaxiKEc; EVEpyEiEc;, etti- 
8po|i£t; kqi KaxaaxpocpEc; a£ ypatpEia xcov Bto|^i]^aviKc6v Epyaxcov tod 
Koa^iou Kai dXXcov pi£ocrnaaxc6v, ^a^iKEc; auXXrjij/Eic;, ETri^EiprjaEic; 
Tpo|^OKpdTi]ai]c; avGpcoircov, aKEUcopiEc;, avaKpiaEic; xpixou pa8|iou 
kqi aTiEXdaEic; — 6Xa axo ovo^a xou Tiaxpicoxia|.iou. 

To aiTOKopu(pco|ia auxrjc; xrjc; TTapavo'iKijc; TiEpidSou rjxav i] utt66e- 
ot] xcov Eoko Kai Bovxoexi. 

II 

Zxic; 3 xou Mdi] xou 1920, Evac; ixaXdc; xuTroypdcpoc; ovd|.iaxi 
Avxpsa ZaXoxvxo iron ei^e npoatpaxa auXXi]cp9£i axo M-npouKXiv 
coc; «uttotixoc; yia pi£oaTiaaxia|.i6», PprJKE xo Bdvaxo |.i£xd and mcooi] 
auo xov evSekoxo opocpo xou x\ix]\iaxoq xou YnoupyEiou AiKaioauvr|c; 
axi] Neo YopKT]. To av Tiij8r|a£ o 1810c; r\ av xov Ti£xai;av 01 npd- 
KxopEt; xou YnoupyEiou AiKaioauvi]c; napa^EVEi ^luaxijpio. Eldvxcoc; o 
auyKpaxou^iEvoc; xou EaXoEvxo, o Po^TrEpxo EXia, etiiot]c; ixaXdc; Kai 
unoTixoc; coc; pi^oandaxijc;, a^Eacoc; |^£xd xo yEyovoc; aTiEXd9T]KE' Ttpiv 
xr|v aiTEXaor] xou 6|icoc; eScooe EvopKT] KaxdBEai], oxi]v ottoio UTroaxrj- 
pi£e oxi Kai auxdc; Kai o EaXoEvxo |3aaaviaxi]Kav and xouc; TipaKxo- 
pEt; xou YnoupyEiou AiKaioauvr|c; TrpoK£i|.i£vou va Trapa8£^xouv oxi 
t]xav evo^oi yia xic; Kaxi]yopi£c; tiou xouc; auoSi'Sovxav. Oi Kaxijyopi- 
ec; rjxav oxi Eivai avap^iKoi Kai UTioaxr]piKX£c; xtjc; piac; — KaxT]yopi£c; 
yia xic; ottoiec; i] ttoivt] rjxav r] d^iEar] auEXaai] axr] X^P n aTT ' ofr 015 
Ei^av EpBfii, xi]v IxaXia. 

EIpiv xo yEyovoc; auxd, Eiye TTpoi]yi]0Ei afxi]|.ia xcov opyavco|i£vcov 
ixaXcov Epyaxcov xi]c; Maaa^oua£xi]c; Kai xi]c; Nsac; YdpKT]c;, yia xr|v 
aTTEXEuBEpcoor] xcov EaXaEvxo Kai EXia. Oi iiyexec; xi]c; Ki'vT]aT]c; auxijc; 



124 



SAko KM Bantren 



axi] Maaa^oi'aETi] rjxav o NiKoXa Ectko koi o MxiapxoXo|i£o Bn- 
vxasxi, 8ifc> ixaXoi ^ExavdaxEt; xioi< 8£copoiVrav ox'vSeSelievoi |xe xt|v 
axroKaXoi5(.iEvi] avap^iKTJ o^dSa xov TKaXeavi axi] Not YopKi]. 

O EaKO £<pxaa£ axic; HEIA axrjv i]XiKi'a xcov SEKaEnxd. Msaa a£ 
Xiya ^povin e^eXi^B^ke as Evav dpiaxo xaayrapi] — oe Evav e^eiSi- 
k£1'|.ievo Kai E|imaxo Epydxt], napd tt] pi^oaxiaaxiKi'i 8pdor] xou. O 
|iia86c; xov r'jxav a^Exira i<i|n]X6c;. To 1918 rjxav SEi'XEpoKXaadxoc; 
i]y£xr|c; as fxia LiaKpdc; SiapKEi'ac; axiEpyia xcov xaayKdpiiScov, i] oxioia 
avdyKaaE xouc; Pioxe^vec; i'no8i]Lidxcov va au^joouv xouc; niaBouc; 
oxt|v xtEpiop] xi)t; Maaa)[oi'a£xr]t;. Eho xrpiv, ei^e Spaaxi]pioxioir|6£i 
yia xr]v uxTEpdamor] xou 'Exop Kai xov T£o|3av£Ti (ZxM: xipocpuXaKi- 
a^Evoi EpyaxiKoi i]yEXEc;, [iek\] xcov Bio|_ui^aviKc6v Epyaxcov xov K6- 
u^ou). Ekei'vo xov raipo rjxav 27 excov. 

Ta npcoxa ypovia xoi< Bqvxoexi axic; HEIA i]xnv \iia LiaKpid xiopEia 
avEpyiac; Kai kcikoi^icov oxr] Neq YopKi]. Kaxoxtiv TrrjyE axi] Mnoa- 
^ouoext], Kat EpydoxT]K£ axic; ui|nKa|.ii'vouc; xtou KaxaaK£t5a£av xoi> 
(JXa, axa XaxoLiEia Km xeXikq axa Epyaaxijpia a^oivoTrouac;. 'Oxav 
Ecpxaox axo EIXi'liouG xo 1914, oi ixaXoi Kai xiopxoydXoi LiExavdaxEc; 

TTOU SouXeI'QV EKEl ^OWQV KOXCO OTTO TToXu KOKEC; Ol'v6l'|KE^. Yxi1]p)[av 

au£uy° l ttou SouXEuav SixiXa SixiXa axr]v Trapaycoyrj a^oiviou fj ttod 
oa'vavxiowxav liovo axr]v EvaXXayrj xi]c; i]|^£pi']aiac; [is xi| vi^xEpivi] 
f3dp8in. Oi ywaiKEc; afi£i|3ovxnv |i£ 6 SoXdpia xi]v Ep8o|id8n Kai oi 
dvxpEc; xo ttoXij [IE 9. 

O BavxaExi, yupco axa 25 ekeivo xov raipo, ^ekiv^oe Liin EVEpyi]- 
xiKi] KaLindvia yia oiKovopKd aixrjfxaxa. 'H^spE Kai auxoc; xr]v laxo- 
pia xcov 'Exop Kai T£o|3avixi Kai rjxav avayvc6axr|c; pi£oaxiaaxiKc6v 
f3if3Xicov. 

Tov Iavoi'dpio xou 1916, f3aaiKa yapi] axijv ayKixdxaia xou Ba- 
vxoexi, xiEpiTioi' 4000 EpydxEc; o^oivoxioiof ^EKi'vi]aav axiEpyia axo 
nXf|.ioi'8, |ixiXoKdpovxac; 6Xr] xt] SouXEid xov KXdSou. 'Hxav i] xipuxr] 
axiEpyia xiou avxi|iExcoxnaE xo Tpaax E^oivoxiou'ac;, Kai |MXiaxa cte 
l^ia xtEpioSo \ie evxovi] i^t]xt]ot] yia xo upoiov. 

'Hxav |iia oKXiipr] |id^i]. Oi aaxuvoLiia Kai oi nXiipco|iEvoi xiioxo- 
XdSEc;, Ka6c6c; Kai oi otteiXec; xipoc; xic; oikoyeveiec; xcov axiEpycov oxi 
8a xouc; yivsi e^coot] axio xa axiixia xiou £ouaav Kai xiou avi]Kav axr\v 
ExaipEia, 5ev KaxdcpEpav va axidaouv xt]v axiEpyia, Kai avxo paaiKa 



125 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



Xdpi] crn]v Ka6oSi]yi]ai] xov Bavxaext. 'Hxav vi^6i]fi£p6v as Kivijai] 
Pydcpvxac; Xoyouc;, Lia^Eiiovxac; ^pi]|iaxa yia xr|v Evia^wt] xtjc; anEpyi- 
ac; Kai Kavovxac; xi) f3dp5ia xov axic; mKEXocpopiE^-TTEpicppouprjaEic;. 

H cmEpyi'a viKi]a£. Oi 4000 EpydxEc; yupiaav axu; SouXeiec; xouc; \ie 
l-iEynXuxEpov.^ |Aia9ov)c; — 6X01 ekxoc; quo xov BavxaExi, xov i]y£XT], xou 
OTTOtou xic; umipEaiE^ r] EpyoSoaia «5ev )(p£ia£6xav xtXeov». Mxn']K£ 
axi] i^nupi] Xiaxa Kai EyivE xrXav68ioc; tt(oXt]xt']^ i|/apic6v axo nXiLiouB, 
Trapa^iEvovxac; 6|icoc; i]y£XT]c; xcov Epyaxwv a^oivonouac;. 

O Eoko Kai o BavxaExi rjxav cpiXoi kqi 0|^oi8£axEc: pi£oaTidax£c;. 
Kai oi Si5o siyav pom'] xrpoc; El;xp£fxiaxiK£c; Beoei^ Kai 5ev Kaxa8ira£av 
pr]xd xi] (3ia. 'Oxav xovc; ai'vEXa^av sfyav axi]v Kaxop'] xouc; p£[36X- 
(3ep Kai acpaipEc;, xa onota ottcoc; E^ijyTjaav npyoxEpa rjxav yia auxouc; 
I^Eaa auxoTipoaxaai'ac;. Aev eCvqi am'flnvo coc; avap^iKoi vn Et^av lie 
Kanoio xporro o^eoek; \ie xpoLioKpdxEc; i] aKO|ii) Kai \ie EyKXi||.iaxi£c; 
xou imoKoaLiou. AXXd Eivai p^aio oxi xa itio Suvaxd Kivrjxpa axr| 
£wi] xouc; i]xav f3a9id i8£oXoyiKd. AKO|iT] mo Pe^ou] Eivai i] a9cooxi]xd 
xouc; yia xa eykXtJ ^axa nor xouc; ^pEtoaav. 

Kai oi 8i5o avi]Kav axov ximo avBpcorrcov nov xo YnoiipyEio Ai- 
Kaioauvi]c; ExrsXEyE yia auEXaai] axic; kxi]vc68eic; avxi|i£xavaax£i<xiK£c; 
£cpop|iT]o£ic; xoi', xic; otioiec; oi xottikoi pioLirj^avoi Kai TioXixiKof ypi]- 
aiLionoiouaav yia va umjpExrjaow xouc; 8ikou<; xouc; okottoijc; Evdvxia 
axo EpyaxiKO Kivi]|.ia. Elpcoxa axi' 6Xa rjxav ayKixdxopEc;, rroi' £|i,\|/i> 
yavav xouc; awaSEXcpouc; xow; c6ax£ va avxiaxaBouv axic; lieiwoeu; 
|iia6uv Kai axic; lieBoSeuoeic; xt]c; avoi)(xijc; ayopdc;. 'Hxav r|y£X£c;. 

Ill 

Zxic; 5 Mdi] xou 1920, XiyEc; |i£p£c; ^Exd xo 6dvaxo xou EaXaEvxo, 
o EdKO Kai o BavxaExi aw£Xrj(p9i]aav ^acpviKa axo MupoKxov xijc; 
Maaa^ouaExijc;, atpoxov Ei^av oXoKXi]pua£i xoi'c; 8iaKavoviafioiic; yia 
^iia 8ia8i]Xwai] Sia^apxiipia^ yia xo Gdvaxo xov ZaXaEvxo. Zxo xom- 
ko aaxuvo|^iKO x|irj|.ia avaKp(9i]Kav ax£vd o^exiko \.ie xic; TTEXioi9T]aEi(; 
xou^ Kai xic; kivt'ioei^ xouc; xo (3pd8u xiou Tipoi]Yi]9r|K£ xr](; ai5XXi]i|;i](; 
xou^, t| OTioia EyivE |XEaa axo X£W(pop£io. Apvi]9i]Kav va Swaouv av- 
yKEKpi|i£VE(; irXiipotpopiEc;, <pof3ou|^£voi oxi 9a auoKaXuTixovxav xa 
ovd(.iaxa xcov auvxpocpuv xoxic; axt]v Kivi]ai] yia xi]v im69£aT] ZaXaE- 
VXO. Ol5x£ Ol l8lOl OUXE OXrOlOa8r]TTOX£ nou xoi^ i]?£pE a|i<p£|3aX£ oxi 
xipoai'i^9i]aav axrXd cot; imoxixoi yia pi^oaTiaaxia|.i6. 



126 



SAko KM Bantren 



Kai 6[iac, xi]v ett6|.i£vi] \iepa Kaxi]yopi]9i]Kav yia Xi]ax£ia \ietA <po- 
vov. Kaxi]yopi]6i]Kav oxi rjxav |.ieXi] \iiai; ov\i\iopicu; Xipxcov nov XP 1 ]' 
aifiOTTOioiiaE ai<xoKivi]xa, rai i] ouoi'a ei^s Sianpdl;£i \iia pu|/oi<Cv8u- 
vi] Etpop^iiai] axo (pcoc; xi]^ i]|^epac;, axo Noxio MnpEivxpi Kovxd axt| 
Boaxovi]. O xa|ita^ [lieu; ]i£ydXi]^ UTio8i]|.iaxoTioiiac; Kai o aco|iaxo<pi> 
Xarac; xov eijav m'po(3oAii6£i e^co an' xi]v Eiao8o xov Epyoaxaaioi' 
Kai 15.000 SoXdpia nov Ei^av oxi]v Kaxop'] xoi^ Ei^av xiap0Ei. Mia 
oXoKXipi] aEipd xexoicov EyKXi]|MxG)v awxdpa^E xoxe xi]v avaxoXiKi] 
Maaa^ouaExi). 

Aito xt)v app'] 8ev uirrjp^E Ka|iid a|i<pipoXia oxi EupoKEixo yia 
aKEi'copfa. To EyKXi]|ia rjxav xipotpavu^ Soi'XEid E|.iTi£ipcov ETrayyEX- 
|iaxi(6v Xi]axwv. Oi Kaxi]yopou|.i£voi ijxav (pxu^oi, aKXi]pd £pya£6]i£- 
voi ava|.icpiapY]xi]xi]c; aK£paioxi]xa^, yvwaxof yia xi] tpavaxiKi] acpoai- 
cooi] Kai xi]v auxoBuaia touc; axa koivcoviko i8avira xouc;. 

H vxioBeot] dp^ioE va auyKEvxpwvEi xo Ev8ia<p£pov xou eBvoi'c;, 
AekoSec; pi^ooxiaaxiKa Epyaxira awSiraxa cmo noXXd ai]]i£ia xi]<; 
yapac, Ev8ia(p£p9i]Kav yia ai'xrjv Kai aw£ia£<p£pav axo xafiEio aX- 
Xi]XEyyi)i]^ tcoi' 8i]|xioupyt]aav oi ixaXoi £pya£6|i£voi xijc; Maaa^ou- 

a£XT|C|. 

IV 

H 8i'ki] xcov ZaKO Kai BavxaExi yia xo EyKXi]|.ia axo MnpEivxpi dp- 
%ia£ axi^ 31 Mar] xou 1921. An']pK£a£ 7 |38o|.id8£i;. Eixe Kaxd xpayiKi] 
au^iTixcoai] eixe (Mai] o^eSiov, axi] SiKi] TTpOfiSpEWTE o Siraaxi]^ @di- 
Ep. Auxoc; i]xav avoijxd npoKax£iXi]|^£voc;, yia xr]v aKpifteia E^BpiKoc; 
anEvavxi axouc; Kaxi]yopou|.i£voii<;. 'Hxav avoijxd Evdvxioc; xoao axo 
pi^oaTiaaxiano oao Kai axou^ ^evoi'c;. 'Hxav Eva^ and xouc; cpavaxi- 
kov(; cpopEic; T0)v Tiapa86a£(ov xijc; Neoc; AyyXiac;, oi ottoioi xcopa otiei- 
Xouvxav aito xi^ xapajEq tioi< EcpspvE i] Eupamaucrj |i£xavdax£wi]. 

Ew£a jiapxiipEc; ano xr] Boaxovi] KaxsGEaav oxi EiSav xo ZdKO 
axr]v ttoXt] Kai auvopXnaav |.ia£i xor xo aTcoyEu^ia xoi< (povou. Avd- 
I^Ead xoi'c; Kai o ypacpsac; tou IxaXiKoii ripo^EVEioi' axi] Boaxovi], 
o otioi'oc; opKiaxi]K£ oxi Xiya XETixd npiv xic; 3 xo aTi6y£ii|ia (otioxe 
awspi] o cpovo^ axo Noxio MnpEivxpi), o ZaKO Trapoi'aidaxijKE axo 
ypacpEio xou ^i]xwvxac; 8iapaxi]pio yia va xo!;iSei|;£i axi)v IxaXia. 



127 



A vviifihr/g: H IaTogia rr/<; Ta£,nafg Bia<; aripi Aftsoinrj 

Ta iSia kcu (xe xov Bavxoxxi. 'Ei;i fxdpxcpEc; KaxeSeaav oxi xov 
Ei8av kcu xou |i£Xi]aav axo nXi|ioi'9 xi]v r||i£pa xou cpovou, 35 |xiAia 
l^aKptd qtto to MnpEivxpi, ottou cot; cn<vrj9coc; ttoiiXoucte i|/dpia. 

AXXd TcapoXa avxa o SiKaaxVji; omcxpdcnaE «eic; 0dvaxov» yia xouc; 
Suo KaTi]yopou|X£vouc;. Tow; 3(apaKxi|pia£ «EyKXi]naxi£c;, ttod \ie av- 
vEi8i]ai] Si£Tipai;av xa Eyi<Xi]|iaxn xoc cpovou, xoc pi£ocmaaxia|ioi5 
Kai xr]c; Xmoxa^iac;». Me xo xeXeuxqio avatpEpoxav axi]v dpvi]ai] 
axpdx£v.iai]c; tcoc Kai 01 5uo eiyav ettiXe^ei axov npuxo nayKoa|iio 
tt6Xe|.io. 

H nTrocpaai] rjxav Evo^oT[on]xiKT] ' r] tcoivi] rjxav o Gdvaxoc;. 

Exit; 9 AnptXr] xou 1927, o BavxoExi, ae \iia EvxuTicoaiaKTJ ttveu- 
l^axiKi] E^apai], eitte: 

«Av 8ev ei^e ou|x(3ei auxo, jiTtopEi va eija £rja£i xi] £corj |iou, [ii- 
Xwvxac; axic, ycovfec; xcov 8p6|xcov a£ Kaxacppovi]|i£vouc; av9pc6TTO<Jt;. 
MnopEi Kai va Ei^a TCEGdvEi, dyvwaxoc;, aTrapaxrjpijxot;, anoxi^i]- 
|i£voc;. Tcopa 6|.icoc; 8ev EifiaaxE aTioxii^i]|X£voi. Aim'] Eivai r] KapiEpa 
l^ac; kqi o 9p£a(.i(36t; \icu;. Yloxe axi] £coi] [icic, 8e 9a HTiopouaa|X£ va 
Kdvou|X£ xooa TroXXd yia xr] 8iKcuoai5vr] Kai xr]v ai7toacv£i8r]OT] xcov 
avBpcoTtcov, an' oaa Kavou|X£ auxrj xr] axiy|irj d0EXd \ia<;. Ta Xoyia 
[iac„ i] £Tii|3icoarj [icu;, o tiovoc; \icu; — avxa 8ev Eivai xiuoxa. Auxd tcou 
EKcppd^ow oi ^coec; fiat; -oi £coec; evoc; ikovou xaayrapi] Kai evoc; cpxco- 
yov TicoXi]xi'i i|/apicov— auxo Eivai xo uav! H XEXEi'xaia axiyp'] [ia$ 
avrJKEi — acxrj r] aycovia Eivai o 9pia|.ip 1 6c; |^ac;». 

Kai aim'] 6a Eivai [ie f3E(3ai6xr]xa Kai r] EXU|iT|yop£a xrjc; Iaxopi'ac;. 

V 

Msxd xi] Sikt] aKoXou9r]aav 6 ^povia aTiEpiypaTTXTjc; aycoviac; yia 
xov Zoko Kai xov Bovxoexi Kai as fxiKpoxspo pa9|.io yia oaouc; EvSia- 
cpEpovxav yia xi]v aTioSoai] SiKaioauvrjc: axr]v UTi60Eai] xocc;. 

H UTiEpdonicn] ^T]xi]aE vEa 8(ki] imoaxi]p(^ovxac; 6xi tj npcoxi] l'jxav 
dSiKi). O SiKaaxrjc; @di£p aTi£ppii|;£ xi]v a£xi]ai]. 

'OXo acxov xov Kaipo o Zoko Kai o BavxoExi f3piaKovxav axi] cpv- 
XaKi], Kai oticoc; Eypai|;£ r] £(pi|fi£pi'5a Atcoi|;i] xoc AovSivoc, Eyivav 



128 



Eii. 



IlKO Kttl DllVT(T£Tl 



«ouli|3oXo yia EKaxoLi^upia av9pumouc; ae 6X0 tov Koafio, coc; 9uLiaxa 
xou KamxaXiaxiKou auaxrjfiaxoc; SiKaioauvrjc;, irou e^ei Eva vofxo yia 
xouc; cpxco^ouc; kcu Evav dXXo yia tow; TiXouaiouc;». 

'OXec; 01 aiTT]a£ic; as SiKaaxrjpia avcox£poi< p^Liou aTTo8£i)[9iiKav 
^dxaiEc;, acpou auxd axekEjavovxav aixd maxoiic; mrr|p£X£c; xou ram- 
xaXia|.iou Kai xi]c; apiaxoKpaxi'ac; xi]c; Neoc; AyyXCac;. AXXd oao i] vtto- 
9eot] xpa|3oi;a£ oe ^aKpot;, Epya^o^Evoi Kat cpiX£X£u9£poi oXcov xcov 
eiSqv, vxomoi Kai ^ExavdaxEc;, aw£ia£<pEpav awoXiKa -ndvco omo 
300.000 8oXdpia yia xtjv inrEpdamai] tov Zoko Kai BavxaExi. 

AixrjaEii; yia etueikeux owEppEuaav axo Ki'P£pvi]TiKO Kxrjpio xr|c; 
Boaxovijc; fiEaco Ti]X£cpwvou Kai xijXEypdcpoi' ano 6X0 tov TtXavrjxi]. 
AiaSi]X(6a£ic; Eyivav axic; mo jiEydXEt; tioXeic; twv HEIA. Zxic; S;ev£<; 
^copEc;, 01 aXXi]X£yyuoi axov ZaKO Kai otov BavxaExi 8iaSi]Xcoaav 
linpoaxd axic; Trp£a|3£i£c; Kai xa upo^EVEia tcov HEIA. 

TeXiko, axic; 10 Auyouaxou xov 1927 o Ku|3£pvi]Tr|c; OouXEp, o 
l^ovo^ ttou 9a |iTTopoiiaE va aKupwaEi xi]v eic; 9dvaxov KaxaSiKt], ava- 
KoivcooE tt]v auocpaof] xov. oi EaKO Kai BavxaExi ettpette va Ti£9d- 

VOUV. H 8lKT] TOUt;, KaT£Xl]l;£, I'TTl'lp^E SlKail]. 

Ak6|xi], avEaxEiXE xi]v ekteXeot] xtjc; uoivrjc; yia ScoSeko |.t£p£<;. To 

|iOVO TTOl' Kaxd<p£p£ |^E dUTljv XOV X1]V TTpd^T] l']TOV VO TiapaXElVEl TO 

f3aaaviaTi]pio. Oi ScoSeko ai'XEc; |i£p£c; ijtqv \i£p£<; aKpaiac; £vxa- 
ar\(; a£ oXoKXipo xov KoaLio. B6li|3£c; xotio9exi]|.i£vec; Exai coaxE va 
\m\v DTtdp^ow BuLiaxa, £l;£ppdyr|aav axov imoyEio oiSrjpdSpoLio xr]c; 
Neoc; Y6pKT]t; Kai aXXou. Zxi] Boaxovr] Ei^av aTcayop£u9£i oi auyKE- 
vxpwaEic; Kai oi nopEist;. 

Aliectux; LiExd xa LiEodvi^xa xi]t; 22i]c; Auyouaxou xou 1927, o ira- 
voc; xaayKdpT]c; Kai o cpxco^oc; TcwXi]xi]<; \|;apic6v ekxeXeox^kov and xi]v 
rioXixEi'a xi]C| Maaa)[oua£XT]c;. YleQavav \ie a^ionpETiEia, axpd(.n]xoi, 
^copic; Kanoia evSei^ xt]v xeXeuxoio axiy^i] tiou 9a |.iTTopouo£ va kXo- 
via£i xr]v TiETTofflTioT] oxi Kai oi 8uo T]xav £%,' oXoKXi]pou a9uoi. 

AXXd i] rioXixEia xi)t; Maaa^ouaEXTjc; 8ev ei^e aKo^i] iKavonoi- 
i]9e(. Exit; 28 Aiiyo^oToiN 6xav 7000 £ipi]viKoi dvxpEc; Kai yuvaiKEc; 
Tiop£i)9r]Kav xa 8 ^iiXia and xi] Boaxovr] npoc; xo Koi|_u|xi'ipio xoi' 



129 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



Oopsax XiXXc; maco ano tic; acopoik; tcov Zqko kqi Bctvtcteti, kqi evc6 
Ttdvw qtto 200.000 dv9pcoTTOt i]Tav auyKEvxpco^Evoi axa TrXdyia tt|c; 

TTO^lTTl'lC; CTE 6Xl] Tl] 5ia5p0^1] T1]C;, 1] TOTTIK1] KCU TToXlTEtaKT] aaTOvopa 

ettite6i]ke, xpai'(xdTta£ apKETOuc; kqi SieXiote to TuXrjBoc;. 



VI 



H SoXocpovia tcov Eqko kcu Bcivtueti, acpou TTpoi]you|i£vcoc; Kpa- 
Ti]8i]Kav TcpocpiiXaKia|.iEvoi yia £<pTa ypovia, oto^ei'e 65^1 \16vo va 
E^oi'SETEpcoaEi Suo pi£oaTudaT£<; ayKiTaTopEc;, aXXd va aTTOTEXsaEi 
TupcoTa air' 6Xa Liia TupoEi5oTTOU]ar] Tcpoc; oXouc; tovc; Evspyouc; kqi 
touc; ettiSo^ouc; ayKiTaTopEc;. 'Etot, rJTav aacpcoc; (.ua Tcpd^i) ttoXe|.iov\ 
acpou o Zqko kqi o Bqvtoeti tjtov oTpomuTEc; oto crrpaTOTrESo tcov 

KQKOpi^lKCOV [lEOCl aTOV K1]pily|X£VO Ta^lKO T[6XE|iO. 



130 



KEOAAAIO 21 

h eprasia kai to hekinhma 
Toy «ekbiai:moy» 



Oi EpyoSoTEc;, jiE xi] Suvajii] ttou xouc; e8ive o v£oaTTOKXi]fi£vo<; 
X6yC0 TOl' TroX£|J.Ol , XrXouXOC; TOUC; KOI £K|l£XaXX£TO|l£VOl XT|V 
avEpyia, tk; ^ooxikec; |i£xaTroX£LUK£c; koivcovikec; oa<v9rJK£<; 

OTTCDC; ETCl'cnjC; KCU X1]V avXl-KOHflOWUTXlKTJ TOXEpia X1]V OTTOia auxoi 

oi i'5iot i'TTo8auXt^av, i;£Kivi]aav an' xa LiEaa xou 1920 Trpocrn:d0£i£<; 
a 6Xt] ti] ^upa yia va «a|i£piKavoT[oii|aow» tov a^EpiKavo Epydxi]. 
EtteSico^qv, 8i]Xa8r'], va axrdaow xov eXey^o xcov awSiKaxcov axrjv 
ayopd Epyaaiat; ai'yKEKpinEvcov (3io|ii]^avicov kcu ttoXewv, vn Swjtpi]- 
fxiaouv xi] BEwpia Kat Ti]v TrpaKxiio] tov orvSiKaXiofiou, va EyKaOi- 
Spuaouv Travxou xt]v «avoi^xrj ayopd» Kai oxav rjxav aTrapaixi]xo, va 
opyavwaow xoxx; EpydxEc; a£ aKivSwa auvSiKaxa imo xov eXey^o xijt; 
8ioiKi]ai]^ tcov Etaipiuv. 

Ee 6Xi] tt] %(i>pa, oi pio^i^avoi apvowxav ttXeov va avayvcopiaouv 
xa auvSiraxa Kai va SianpayLiaxEuBouv |i£ auxd. EIoXXoi axt' auxout; 
apvowxav va TrpoaXdpow otcoiovStjttoxe orvSiKaXiafXEvo Epydxi]. 

Msiwaav xouc; LuaBoui; axa xtpoTioXEfiiKd ETUTtESa, xi]v copa nov 
xo Koaxot; ^corjt; avEfJaivE. Oi axtEpyiEc; axrd^ovxav |±e Sikocfxikec; At- 
axayEt; Kai TcXiipcoLiEvouc; maxoXdSEt;. 

II 

Tia apKExd ypovia fXExd xi]v iittoGeot] Mqk Na|idpa, xo aKXi]poTcu- 
pi]viKO x^i'i^a XT]t; A|iEpiKdviK:i]c; 0|j.oaxrov5iat; Epyaaiat; ei^e Se^xei 
xa Ki]p\5yLiaxa xou rKojmEpc; Evavxtov xov SuvaLuxi]' xwpa olicoc; t] 



131 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



anoTEXea|^axtK6xi]Ta kcu i] imapi;i] tuv opyavuaEuv tov^ otteiXeito 
ek veov. Oi ijyETEc; avyKEKpi^Evuv avvSiraTUv, |AE xa aTT£ATua|i£va 
Kai dvEpya \ieki] mau tovc; va tovc; ttie^ovv, o8i]yi]9i]Kav l;avd crtr|v 
vioBetijot] tov SuvajiiTT] Kai tod £;vXo§ap|iov. 

Etco|^evco^, 8uva|^iTT]c;. H naXid Kpavyi] tuv avap^iKuv tov Zira- 
yo -«AwaniTT]c;! . . .Avto Eivai to vXiko!»— aKoucrnjKE fyxvd, i8iaiT£pa 
oto ZiKayo. 

A-rrXd Tcopa ttiq oi «yopiXX£c;» ijtciv mo TipoaEpriKoi, EVEpyovaav 

TtlO EVTE^VQ. Zv^tpUVOVaav \l£ TO I^KO^-HEpc; OTl 5£V ETtpETTE va VTldp- 

i;ovv oXXec; uttoGeoek; Mqk Na|.idpa Kai aTTOKaXvi|/£i^ yia avvu|.ioai- 
e^ 8uva|.iiTia|^cov. Ot cpvaiKoi avTOvpyoi tuv avaTivdl;£uv, tuv I;vXo- 
8ap|.iuv Kai tov ekteXecfeuv 8ev ETipEUE va £pv ETci'ai]|.ii] ayzar\ |xe 
Ta auv8iKaTa oute oteve^ TrpoauiTiKEc; EiracpEc; \iz tovc; tjyetec;. 

'Etoi dp^ioav va paBuvovv £TTayY£X|.iaTi£c; £yKXi]naTi£c;, oi onoi'oi 
avvxo\ia —an' to 1922— anoKaXovvrav «£KpiaaT£Q>, Kai ovtoi oi 
EyKXi]|iaTi£^ rJTav ttov «EKavav ti^ SovXeiec;». Oi 8vva|xiTiaTiK£^ £v£p- 
y£i£c; yivovrav ttXeov a£ ETrayyEXi-iaTiKi], \ii] avvaia9i]|iaTiKrj |3dai). O 
ETTayyEX|iaTiac: £K|3iaaTri^ Sev ei^e ai'vaia6i]|^aTiKO rj 9£upi]TiKO ev- 
8iatpEpov yia to EpyaTiKO Kivi^a. EvSiacpEpoTav |^6vo yia tt]v a|ioipY] 
tov Kai uc; avTaXXay|ia EyyvoTav \iia raXi] SovXeio. 

Ati' to teXo^ tov 1920 oi |36|.if3E^ dp^ioav Kai TidXi va okove, 181'uc; 
qto ZiKayo. 

To 1920 Eyivav 50 |3o|.if3iaTiKE^ £TTi9£a£u; oto EiKayo' to 1921 
E^i']VTa Kai tiXeov' o i'Sioc; api9|id^ TTEpuiov Kai to 1922' Kai to 1923 
Tidvu airo 50. ndvu an' xk; \iiae(;, ottu^ vnoXoyi'^ETai, ziyav o^eot| 
\i£ to EpyaTiKa avvSiraTa' 01 TTEpiaaoTEpE^ TrpoKaXfiaav KaTacrrpo- 
cpE^ as KTi]pia vuo av£y£pai) Kai a£ cmma £pyoXdf3uv Kai oiko86|.iuv 

TTOV T]Tav E^BpiKOl npoi; TO EpyaTlKO KlV1]|^a. 

Aev vndp^Ei avvoXiKi] KOTaypacpi] tuv TTEpioraTiKuv l;vXo8ap|.iov, 
yvupi^u o^iu^ TipoauTTiKd Eva «yopi'XXa» air' to EiKayo ttov r|y£i- 
to tuv aKXi]poTTi'pr]viKuv TipaKTiKuv tov EvvSiraTov tuv MEydXuv 
KaTaoKEUuv. Mecto a' avTO to ouvSikoto, 01 TiapaSoaEic; tuv M6X1 
MayKoudipc; Kai tov Aouic; AivyK Eivai ttoXu ^uvTavEc;, oyy \hoyo avd- 
|.i£aa otoi'c; i]y£T£(; aXXd Kai avd|i£aa qto ^ieXi]. To KaXoKaipi tov 
1929, o «yopiXXa^» ovtoc; av£i]TT]a£ avoi^Ta \iat,i \iov ti] (pi5ar| xr\(; 
8ovX£id^ tov. Mov eitte OTi oi ^vXoSap^ioi l']Tav |i£pOC| TUV TOKTIKUV 



132 



H Eoynoia Kill to ^.eicivijfia tov "EKfiiaafioi!" 
XOU OTvSlKdTOU TOU OTt' TO 1920, Kai OXl Vjxav TTIO aTlOTEXEaLXaxlKOl 

aKO|ia Kai an' xic; (36li|3£c;. 

O dvBpcoTioc; ttoii yvcopiaa Eivai Evac; an touc; 12 r'] Kai TiEpiaaoxE- 
pouc; ETrayyEXiiaxiEc; |.iTipd(3ouc; xov ZiKayo. KdvEi qtco ttevte coc; Sekq 
SouXeiec; xi] f38o|.idSa, tic; TiEpiaaoxEpEc; air' cwtec; yia xa awSiraxa. 

Ot f3o|iPtaxiKE^ ETciBEaEi^ Eivai aKOfxa ou^vec; axo ZiKayo, aXXd 
I'-noXoyi^Exai oxi xeXei'xoio TioXii XiyEt; an' glutei; eij_av nixtn xo £p- 
yaxiKO Ktvi]Lia. To 1929, uou TipayiiaxoTioiriBiiKav irdvco auo 100 
EKpi'i^Eti;, lacoc; 6yi TiEpiaaoxEpEc; cmo 15 va Ei^av xi] acppayi8a xt|c; 
EpyaxiKrjc; xpo|.ioKpaxiac;. 

Ta TrEpiaaoxEpa awSiraxa Eivai Kai ndXi aacpaXrj, eyovxcu; cmo- 
cpuyEi xr]v dixEar] Kaxaaxpotprj touc; auo xouc; EpyoSoxEc;. O Si'vaLiirijc; 
kqi oi l;uXo§apLioi xa Eacoaav. 

Ill 

And xo 1925 kqi LiETa, avaxivd^Eic;, ekteXeoeic; Kai ELXTipijoxioi 
otto tt|v TiXEupd xi]c; Epyaorac; auLif3aivouv [i£ ixEydXr] au^voTijTa axr] 
Neo YopKi), xo MupoikXiv Kai dXXa pioLu^avira KEvxpa. 

riapaKaxco avatpEpovxai XiyEc; ano tic; TiEprrrrc&aEic; |3o|.ipiaxiKc6v 
ethBectecov Kai dXXcov |3i'aicov TiEpiaxaxiKcov xcov xeXeutoicov ^povcov, 
yia tic; otioiec; KavEvac; 8e aw£Xr]<p9i] r\ Kaxa5iKaaxi]KE. Ta irEpiaao- 
XEpa an' auxd mOavov 5iaxipd^6i]Kav auo ekPiooxe^ TrXi]pcoLi£voi<c; 
air' xa awSiraxa rj and touc; (Siouc; touc; auvSiKaXiaTEc;: 

Ztic; 25 Mai] tou 1925, Suo Kxi]pia nou avrjrav ott]v ExaipEi'a 
Era^iou Kai AvBpara EkXevtoX axi] Auxiki] Bipx^i'via, axa ouoia 8i- 
Ei^Evav |xi] ai'vSiKaXiai^Evoi avBpaKcopu^oi, avaxivdp:i]Kav Kai raxa- 
axpdtpi]Kav raxd xi] SidpKEia [iiai; anEpyiac; xcov avBpaKcopu^tov. 

Ztic; 30 Auyoucrrou tou 1926, Suo Pc5(j.(3e<; E^Eppdyrjaav axo Ep- 
yoaxdaio tijc; ExaipEiac; Pou^ia|iou A£[3ivaov axo Niou T^spaEi], 
SiaXuovrac; Eva xoi^o, TrporaXcovTac; ^tiiaiec; axa |ii])[avT]|.iaxa Kai 
crndcpvTac; 6Xa xa TrapdOupa. H Exaipsia auaa^oXouaE lit] auvSi- 
KaXiaiiEvouc; UTiaXX^Xorc; Kai t] avaxiva^i] EyivE Xiyo acpoxor Kanoioi 
EpyaxiKoi opyavcoxEc; anExi^av va tteioow xi]v ExaipEia va upoaXd- 
Pei auvSiKaXiaiiEvouc; dvxpEt; Kai yuvaiKsc;. 

Etic; 19 AllY ol ' CTT ol , tol) 1927, TCEpiaaoxEpoi and 50 ixaupoi ixi] 
ai'vSiKaXiaiiEvoi avBpaKcopu^oi TiExd^xi]Kav an' xa KpEf3dxia xoi'c; 
vcopic; xo Tipcoi, and [iia £Kpr]5il ixou Kax£axp£i[;£ Suo Kxrjpia axr| 



133 



A mauling: H Iajogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing artjv Aftsoitcr/ 

ri£vauXpdvia. Oi avGpaKcopu^oi Eiyav TipoaXi](p9£i an' ttjv Exaipei'a 
Av0paKa tou niTofiTTOupyK, cm]v oiroia Xiyo raipo uprv zijz XdpEi 
X w P a |Ata aTTEpyi'n. 

Tt)v 181a |i£pa oro XEVTEpaov Tt]^ Bopsiac; KapoXi'va^, to ottiti 
tou M. ndp-nv, ttou zif£ kqte|3ei a£ aTiEpyi'a \idC,i \ie dXXou^ 800 £p- 
yaTEt; twv EpyaaTTjpiwv BanPaKiou XdpiEx Suo p8o|id8£c; Trpiv aXXd 
apyoxEpa £Ti£aTp£i|/£ ott| SouXeio, 5uva|iiTiaTr]K£. H £Kpi]^i] SieXuoe 
tt|v maw TiXsupd Kai EonaaE xa Trapd9upa dXXwv aTrmwv tt]^ ycito- 
vid^. Ekeivi] xi] vvyra, oxyxv (8ia ttoXi], |iiKp£<; £Kprjl;£ic; Eyivav otic; 
ouXec; Kai dXXwv Suo Epyaxcov ttou axa|idxi]aav vn ai'fi|.i£XE^ow axi]v 
anEpyia. 

Exi^ 8 IouXr| tou 1927, 2 dxo^a qaanv ru; caoBr\o£i<; touc; Kai 4 
dXXa |.i6Xit; ttou aTTEtpuyav TOV tpai)(xatio|xd oxav \iia f36|.if3a 8uva- 
|iixi] E^Eppdyr] |iTcpooxd axo oTtixi tou T£ov Max Md^ov, ETCiaxdxr] 
opu^Eiwv xi]c; ExaipEiac; KXivxov MxtXok oxyrv ElEvauXpdvia. To ktt]- 
pio uttecftt] |iEydX£c; £i]|ii£? Kai oX6i<Xi]pT] i] yEixovid Sovt]9t]ke. H 
ExaipEi'a KXi'vrov MtiXok XEiroupyEi Eva opu^Eio \ie opouc; «avoi^xi](; 
ayopdc;». 

Xxic; 30 Iouviou tov 1928, |i£ydXi] Troaoxi]xa Suva|iiTi] KaT£aTp£i|;£ 
to opu^Ei'o T£6owa|3iX No 1, ttou avr']K£ oti]v ETatpEia An ZaX Kdp- 
I^ttov aTO IXivoic;. npoKXi]9i]Kav KaTacrrpotpEc; ttoXXwv %iXid8wv SoXa- 
piCOV. H £KpT]^1] aTTo869l]KE a£ auyKpoum] 5uo avriTraXwv auv8iKaTwv 
av9pnKcopu^cov, ott]v otcoiq r] ETaipEia Eiye E^Baa avap^GEi. 

Xti^ 23 Iouvi] tou 1928, jxia f36|.if3a SieXucte tk; Trpoaoi|/£i^ 4 kttj- 
piwv an] Autiki'] "PiXaSfiXtpEia. @paua|iaTa tt]<; (3o(_i(3ci<; (3p£9r]Kav 

OTOV TOl^O TOU OTIITIOU TOU Nt. A. 'IvyKEp, OTTOU |XaXXov KQI EOKQOE 1] 

f36|.if3a. O 'IvyKEp cmo8i8£i tijv £Kpi]i;i) a£ EpycrriKEc; avaxapajEC,. Ai- 
aTi]p£i ETTi^Ei'pi]ai] ETCE^Epyaai'nc; 8£p|iaTO(; Kai eitte oxitv aoxvvo\iia 

OXl £l^£ avTlfXETUTTlOEl OTO Tcap£X96v aTTEpyiaKECI KtVl]TOTCOU]aElC;. 

Eti^ 10 MdpTi] tou 1928, [iia po^pa koteotpeiJ/e to TETpacopocpo 
EpyooTaaio Tr]^ ETaipEiac; At(.ioii kqi TiiaXiaTiKcov oto MnpouKXiv, 
acpoTOV oi EpyaTEc; tt]c; ETaipEiac; anETi^av va K£p8faouv [iia aTTEpyia. 

KnTa Ti] 8idpK£ta ti]^ ciTTEpyiac; twv EpyaTwv |i£Ta^iou oe 8id<po- 
pEc; tcoXek; tou Niou T^EpaEi] to 1926 mi to 1927, TroXXd otiitiq 
EpyaTcov ttou apvouVrav va aTCEpy^oouv 8uva|.iiTiaTi]Kav Kai KaTa- 
aTpdcpr]Kav i] UTC£aTT]aav ^i]|ii£^. 

Ztk: 8 A£KE|iPpi] tou 1929, |iia p6|iPa E^Eppdyi] oto ottiti tou 
T£6a£<p OaX^oouv, evoc; TiXouaiou £pyoXd(3ou |.iapfidpcov tou Mupou- 



134 



H Eoynoia Kill to ^.eicivijfia tov "EKfiiaafioi!" 

kXiv, aKOTCovovrac; 3 air' to. Trai8id tov kqi KcrraaTpEcpovTac; ^EpiKwc; 
to aTtiTi. «EpyaTtKi] avaTapap']», ov|.i<pwva \ie tic; EcpnnEpiSfic;. 

Ztix; 3 OXsfMpT] tov 1930, o roviXia^ XiXi, evqc; EpyoXdpoc; ton 
Xirayo, «aTa|^TraptoTi]K£» rai TrvpopoXi]0T]K£. Eufxcpwva |is tq oaa t] 
aaxuvo^ua eitte otov Tutto, o XiXi Trpiv TreGdvEi KaTOv6|iaae wc; Evav 
ait' tovc; ekteXeotec; tov evav avriTTpoaamo tuv omEpycov tov Xvv8i- 
kqtov MapLiapd8uv. AvttJ rJTav [iia an tic; XiyEc; EpyaTiK£c;-£KpiaaTi- 
kec; SoXocpoviEc; oto Zirayo' o avv8iKaXiaTiKoc; £K[3iaafx6c; oe avxfj ttjv 
ttoXi] TTEpiXa^|3dvEi f3aaiKa £;vXo8ap|iovc; rai Trpoas^TiKEc; po^piaTiKEc; 
ettiOeoeic; (vTTEpfJoXiKd ttoXXec; yia v' avacpEpBovv e8w), oi ottoiec; to 
ttoXv va TTETOuaav avOpamovc; cmo xa Kp£(3aTia tovc; ti] vvp:a. 

Ztic; 29 ZettteuPpt] tov 1928, to orrfti tov rioX Xqket aTo O^dio 
8vvaniTiaTr]K£ rai tq |teXi] ttjc; oiKoyEVEiac; TTETdprrjKav an' tq KpE- 
f3aTia tovc;. O XdKET, ttov t]tctv KTT]naTO|.i£OTTT]c;, eitte oti t] f36|.if3a 
Tu6avov Trpoopi^oTav yia to SmXavo ottiti ttov aviJKE otov TaapXc; 

MovTyKO|^Epi. O TeXeVTQIOC:, £TTlOT|C; KTT]|^aTO|^£alT1](;, ElJE 8ei Eva 

qttiti tov avaTtvayfiEvo Trpiv TiEpiTrov 2 jpovia, acpoTov ei^e apvi]8Ei 
va TrpoaXd^Ei avv8iKaXia^Evov^ EpyaTEc;. 

Ztic; 15 OXE^dpi] tov 1930, pa la^vpi] £icpi]i;T| SvvaLiiTi] kote- 

aTp£v|;E TO OTTITI TOV P. T. Mt[6XvTOVIV, TcpOfiSpOV TT]C; KaTOOKEV- 

aaTiKT]c; ETaipsiac; Mdpiov crri] BopEia KapoXi'va, ott|v ottoio Liia 
aTTEpyia ei^e Xdftei %dpa yia Xiyo raipo. AiyEc; ^£p£c; Trpiv, [iia oXXt] 
f36|.if3a 5vva|TiTT] EaraaE oto EpyoaTaoio tt|c; ETaipEi'ac; TipoKaXcovTac; 
ao[3ap£c; £r||Aiic;. Oi i]y£T£c; tmv avvSiraTcov ttov T]yovvTav tt]c; aTtEp- 
yi'ac; apvrjBiiKav, ipvaiKa, kAQe oyjtcri] lie tic; poLi[3iaTiK£c; EmBeoEK;. 
Etic; 11 AvyouaTOV tov 1930, Liia aEipd cmo EpyctTiKEC, avara- 

pd^EC; OTT]V KoLU]T£ia FoVELlTTaTEp TOV KevTOKI KOpV(pc69l]K£ \l£ TOV 

|3o|.tf3ap8ia|i6 5vo opvysiav qtto aEponXdvo. Eweq (36|^|3£c; eheoqv 
qtto \j\\ioi; 2000 TTo8iwv, tt]v (opa ttov |^t] avv8iKaXia|.iEvoi nv9pn- 
Kcopv^oi Tci]yaivav yia SovXeiq. Ka|iia ^i]|-iid 8ev EyivE TTEpa and to 
dvoiyi-ia LiEydXasv Kpcm'jpwv aTo ESacpoi;' Trpocpavco^ i] «TrapdaTaoT]» 
ot6)[ev£ otov £K<po|3ion6. 

Zti^ 25 NoE^Ppiov tov 1930, |.iia f36|iPa E^Eppdyi] oti] ^Epavra 

TOV OTTITIOV TOV KapX ToVlXvTl, 8l£v6wTT] TipOOCOTTlKOV EVO^ VTTO- 

KQTaaTT]|^aToc; Ti]c; ETaipEia^ oto ZiKayo. Avto^ kqi t] yvvaiKa tov 
Trapd Xfyo yXiTwaav to GdvaTO. To ^iwpo tovc; TpavnaTiaTT]K£ kqi to 
ottiti KaTaaTpd<pi]K£. O ToviXvti E^r]yi]a£ oti npoacpaTa ei^e a-rroXv- 

OEl TTEpiTTOV 100 EpyQTEC;. 



135 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



Tt|v dvoi^i] xov 1929, Kara tt] 5idpKEia xi]^ |i£ydXi](; axiEpyia^ rav 
ai8i]po8po|^iKuv axi] Nsa OpXfidvi], 3 pd^Ec; 8i)vo|a{tt| E^£ppdyi]aav 
[lEaa oe 8uo |iT]VEc; KOTaaxpEcpovxat; paydvia xpEvwv Kai upoKaXco- 
vxcu; tj~\\ii£(; axov E^OTiXiafid. 

Atto to 1926 rai fiExd, Ttdvco otto |iia vxou^iva Bsaxpa Swa^itxi- 
axi]Kav oe Sidopopa |^£pr] tt|^ x w P n ? ott01 ' Xd|iPavav %(bpa EpyaTiKEc; 
avaTapa^sc;, |^e owoXikec; ^i](ais<; £Kaxo|i|.uipiwv SoXapicov. 

To (pBivoTrcopo xou 1927, oi £pya£d|.i£voi axa aKT]viKa xwv Bsd- 
xpuv otic; AiSi'^ie^ ndXEic; aTTEpyouaav ^i]xcovxa^ |iia fXEpa xi] pSo- 
|^d8a pETco mi oi OTtEpaxEp Kai oi |xootikoi QTrEpyoiJaav yia au^TTa- 
pdaxaa?] axouc; Ttpcoxoix;. Tt]v It] xov Oi<xc6[3pi], fxia pd|iPa EaKaaE 
axo ©Eaxpo 'I'opEax xi]v copa xi]c; Trapdaxaar](;, xpai'|.iaxi'^ovxac; \iia 
ywaiKa Kai TtaviKo|3dXXovxaq tow; Ttdvco aTto 300 Beoxec;. Ti]v (Sia 
|^£pa, pd^pa EaKaaE Kai axo ©Eaxpo Adyrav axi] MivEaTtoXr]. Oi 
i]yET£^ xr]t; aTtEpyiat; apvi]9i]Kav Kd0£ ava^il;-!]. 

Exi^ 19 Aiiyouaxoi' xou 1927, xo ©Eaxpo Pdix axo Apravaac; 
Kaxaaxpdopi]K£ |T£piKc6c; aTto Swa^m], fi£ xi] £t]|Tid va tpxdvEi axa 
20.000 8oXdpia. «EpyaxiKi] avaxapap])). 

Exi^ 8 NoEuPpiou xou 1927, xo ©Eaxpo xi]c; EIoXixEiac; axo TKEp- 
vxov xi]t; Ivxidva, ttou Ttpoatpaxa ei^e pnaxEi Kai ttov ei'^e kootioei 
1.700.000 SoXdpia, KaTaaTpd<pi]K£ oXoa^Epwc; and EKpr]^i] Suvafii- 
xt|. Zuv£Xi](p6i]aav Kai Kaxi]yopi]8i]Kav avxiTipoawnoi awSiraTiov 
ttov aTTEpyouaav. 

Xtic; 3 No£|iPpr] xov 1929, |iia pd^pa vixpoyXi'KEpivi]^ E^Eppdyi] 
axr|v aiBowa TipopoXi]^ xou ©Eaxpou Aeliei xou Zevx Aouic;, 8r]fii- 
oupycovxat; xpxma axr]v opocprj Kai KaxaaxpEopovxac; E^OTcXia^id a^iac; 
6000 SoXapi'wv. 30 Xettto apyoTEpa |iia dXXi] pd|.ipa EaKaaE oti]v 
afflovaa TrpopoXi']^ xov ©Eaxpov MokXovt axi] i'8ia ttoXt], TrpoKaXw- 
vto^ ^t]|^ie? atyaq 5000 SoXapi'uv. Oi ^otoikoi xwv BEaxpoov aTtep- 
youaav rjSi] eS;i pSo^idSEt;. 

IV 

O EpyaTiKoi; EKpiaa^idt;, air' Ti]v aTioi|;i] xi]^ aKpafac; p(ac;, PpiaKE- 
xai xcopa axo a-ndyEid xou oyy axo ZiKayo aXXd axi] Neo YdpKi). 

To KaXoKaipi xov 1929 KaSdfiow apyd xo Ppd8u axo ottixi evoc; 
cpiXou axo Mirpovi;, OTav ^aapviKa t| yEixovid (pcoxiaxi]KE axid \aa 
dypia Xd^nJ/i]. Ep^dxav axio Eva KTi]pio Sekoe^i opdtpoov vxio KaTa- 



136 



H Eoynoia Kill to ^.eicivijfia tov "EKfiiaafioi!" 



okevi] aXXd oyeSov etoilio, \ie oXec; tic; l;uXoupyiK£c; KaxaaKEUEc; va 

£}(OUV TOTro9£Tl]9£l CTTOUC; OpdcpOUC;. To KTTJpiO EUVE TTEpiXoUOTEl |±£ 

TiExpEXaio and ti]v Kopucpfj coc; to laoyfiio kqi tti'pttoXt]6t]ke. 'Htov 
Eva TTEpioTaxtKO tcoXe|iou avd|i£oa otouc; EpyaTiKouc; £K(3taaTEc; Kai 
touc; £pyoXd|3ouc;, to Tprro outou tou eiSouc; oto Mnpovi; \isoa. cte 
Xiyouc; |ir]v£c;. KavEic; 5e auv£Xi]cp9r|. Oi EpyoXdpoi lacoc; yvcopicpuv 
ttoioc; |iia9coa£ touc; £|inpr|aT£c;, aXXd 9a rJTav KaGapr] auTOKTOvi'a 
yl' outouc; rj yia tov ottoiov8t]tcot£ Sr||idoTO Kom'jyopo va avaXdpEi 
8pdai] EvavTiov touc;. 

To 5(Ei|icova tou 1929 £yiv£ r] 8iKacrriKi] EpEuva yia touc; «£KpV 
aa|iouc; otic; oiKoSo]i£c;» oto Mnpovc;, aXXd to |idvo ti]c; ottoteXe- 
a|ia r]Tav i] TtapaTro|iTTi] tou Avtovi MdvTcpopT, tou anoKaXounE- 
vou «Tadpou tcov £K(3iaaTc6v» oto oiKo5o|iiKd EnayyEXiiaTa Kai tou 
MdiKX MaK KXdaKi, avTmpoacoTiou tou ZuvSikotou ZaTrcovonoicov, 
|i£ ti]v KaTiiyopfa tou £K|3iaa|iou. AiKaaTijKav, KaTa8iKdaTT]Kav kqi 
o8iiyi']6i]Kav oti] cpuXnKi']. 'Otqv EmXEyovTav oi EvopKoi yia ti] Si'ki] 
tou MaK KXdaKi, ttoXXoi imoijrrjcpioi iketeuoqv va £t;aip£9ouv yiaTi 
«cpo|3ouvTav». 

Mfi^pi ekeivt] tt] 5iki] siyav Xdfki %(bpa Suo ekteXecfeic; EpyoXdf3cov 
on] Neo YdpKT]. H [lia EyivE to Mar] tou 1930. O £pyoXd[3oc; PyrJKE 

ail' TO OTCtTl TOU OTO XdpX£|l Kai KaT£u9uV9l]K£ TtpOC; TO aUTOKlVljTO 

tou, oti] ycovia tou 8pd|.iou. Tote TpEic; evottXoi tov TrupopdXi)aav 
TauTo^pova. 

Tt]v dvoicjr] tou 1930, apKETd anuria EpyoXd[3cov 8uva|iiTiaTi]- 
Kav tt] vu)(Ta Kai dvGpconoi Ti£Tdp:i]Kav ano Ta KpEpdTia touc;. Tov 
AnpiXi], Evac; eti6tttt]c; uSpauXiKcov Tiupof3oXi]9i]K£ Kai etteoe vEKpdc; 
tt]v c6pa tcou yupvouaE and tt] SouXeio oto ctttiti tou — dXXo Eva TTEpi- 
oraTiKO otov «£pyaTiKO Ti6X£]iO». 

Etic; 8 Auyouorou tou 1930 n£9av£ oto voaoKO|.iEio tou MTcpou- 
kXiv o Tc/ik AX|iTi£pT, o Evac; air' touc; 5uo |iTroyiaT^i]8£c; oi ottoioi, 
acpou ano^c6pi]aav air' to ouvSikoto, 8E^TT]Kav ettOeoi] Kai I;uXoko- 
m]9i]Kav ano 6 dvrpEc; Xiysc; (.icpec; |i£Ta. O ouvdSfiXcpdc; tou Tpau|ia- 
tioti]ke aof3apd. 

'E^w avacpspEi ti]v aTTEXma|i£vr] acpoafcoai] ttou EnESEi^vav to 
auvSiKaTa tcov |iouaiKcov. To 1924 8i]|iioupyi]9r]K£ to aTTOKaXou|.iEvo 
ZuvSikoto A]xoi(3afac; ITpoaTaaiac; tcov Mouoikcov, |iia la^upi] okXi]- 
poTiupi]viKT] cppd^ia |iEaa crrr]v A|i£piKaviKi) 0]ioanov8ia Mouoikcov 
ti]c; Neoc; YdpKi]c;. ripoa£Xa|3E tov Avtovio BarapfiXXi, ]i£ to v|/eu8c6- 



137 



A vviifihr/g: H IaTogia rr/<; Ta£,nafg Bia<; aripi Aftsoinrj 



vu(j.o rioX KeXi, sva yopiXXa |xe |^£ydXo 9dppoc; ttou 8uo ^povia npiv 

El^E KEpSlaEl <pi]|iT] \l£OCl OTTO XT] 8pdoT] XOU OXl^ aiTEpylE^ XCOV tpopXO- 
EKCpopxCOXCOV. 'EylVE «OlKOVOLUKOC; 8l£u9uvXT]C;» \l£ Liia96 20.000 SoXd- 
pia to ^(povo, |iE eiSiko KaGrJKOv va xpoLioKpaxEi oaouc; EVEpyouaav 

EKTOCI (Kat EVQVTlOv) XOU OUvSlKOXOU. MoUOlKOl TTOU 8ev E^TTQlvav 

axijv opydvcoai] i;uXoKOTiouvxav cmo \mpafio\x; axouc; 8iaSp6\io\x; 
ttou o8?]yoijaav axi] okijvi]. EiKoad8£<; KXapiviaxEc; [3p£9i]Kav lie Ta 
liTrpoaxivd xouc; 56vxta va Xeittouv kcu |3ioXiax£c; Kai maviaxEc; |.i£ xa 
8dp:uXd xou<; anaa|iEva. Oi EpyoSoxsc; ^ouaiKcov tiou 8ev avi]Kav 
oxo Z.A.n.M. Se^ovxqv £Tii9£ai] Kai oi japoi 8iaaK£Saai]c; ttou ei- 
yav axi]v i8ioKxi]aia xouc; avaxivd^ovxav. 

KnTTOia auvSiraxa evSulioxottoicov axi] Neq YopKi] Ei'vai cpi]LiiaLi£- 
vec; opyavwaEic; £K|3iaaxcGv. To 1927, xi] ^povid npiv 5oXo<povi]9£i, 
o ApvoXvx P69axdiV, app]y6c; \iiat; auLi^opiac; axo Mavjaxav, rjxav 
loyypoc; Trapdyovxac; axic; LiEydXEc; anEpyiEc; xcov youvapdScov kqi xov 
EvSi^nxoTTOiwv, fiExaSiSovxac; axa auvSiKaxa xo aKXi]poTTupT]viKO 
xou xoXevxo Kai «Kavovi£ovxac;» xttv aaxuvoLiia woxe va litjv ^xt'tti]- 
oei xouc; aTTEpyouc;. Tiaxi^ umpEaiEc; xou ETratpvE a]xoi(3£c; ttou (auvo- 
Xira) Etpxaoav xic; EKaxovxdSEc; ^iXiqSei; 5oXdpia. Atto xoxe, ttepi'ttou 
|iia vrou£(va f5io|ii]^avot evSulioxcov ejow ekxeXeoxei. H xeXeuxqiq 
ekxeXeoi] oxov ETrayyEXi^axiKO x^P xov £v5u|.iaxoc; EyivE Kaxd xi] 
8idpKEia Liiac; aTTEpyiac; xo cPXEfMpi] xou 1930. 'Evac; evotiXoc; ttu- 
po|36Xi]a£ Kai okoxcooe xov iSioKxrjxi] Liiac; ]i£ydXi]c; pioLiijxaviac; ev- 
8u]idxcov xi]v c6pa ttou e^ttqive axo auxoKivi]xo xou, LiTrpoaxd axo 
Epyoaxdaio. O evottXoc; Si£<puy£. 

Oi l;uXo8apLio{ i]xav Eiriaijc; \iia 8ia§£8oLi£vi] TrpaKxiKrj axi] Neq 
YopKi], axo MttpoukXiv kqi axo M-rrpov^. OTTCoa8i]TTOX£, ottcoc; Kai axo 
EiKayo, i] ciKpaia |3ia -ekxeXeoeic; kqi avaxtvd^Etc;— EiriaxpaxEuoxav 
auvi]9coc; oxav oi qtceiXec; kqi ^uXoSapjio^ 8ev Ei^av aTrox£X£a|.ia. 

V 

nfaco otci 1920, oxav o EpyaxiKO^ EKf3iaa|i6^ ekqve xa npcoxa xou 
f3i]|iaxa, T] a^Eai] |i£xa^u xcov EyKXi]]iaxic6v Kai xcov auvSiraxcov r']xav 
HaXXov fiaKptvfj. Ta auv8iKdxa |^ia9covav 8uva]iixiax£c;, SoXocpovouc; 
mi ]XTrpdpou^ Kai xouc; TTXr]pcovav yia xt] SouXeio xouc; —Kai auxo i]xav 



138 



H Eoynaia khi to SEicivtjfia tov "EKJiinofiov" 

6X0. AXXd [ie tov Kcupo 01 £yKXi]|^nxi£^ apyioav va K£pSi'£ouv fiSatpoc;, 
PpfaKovra^ to SpoLio yia to auvSiKaXiaTira ypacpEia kcu al;ic6|iaTa, 
rai as apKETec; nEpinuoaEi^ nrjpav otq f^pia touc; Kai tt]v iSia 5i£ij- 
9wot| tcov opyavuaecov. 

E^co auoSei^Ei oti o 5uva|iiTT]c; kqi 01 l;uXoSapLio( avjya eacoaav 
Ta auvSiraTa an' tt] SidXuar|. Ot yKavyKOTEp nou 5uvaLUTi£ouv Kai 
8£pvouv yia XoyapiaaLio tcov ouvSikotcov to auv£ic»]Tonoiouv auTo' 
kqi LioipaCa ap^i£ouv va GECopouv touc; eoutouc; touc; to oi]LiavTiKOT£- 
po Trapdyovra crra ^TjTrJLiaTa tou auvSiraTou, npdyLia nou dXXcoaTE 
io^uei Ti]v copa tou auvayEpLiou. Ap^C^ouv va 0£copouv oti 01 lu^ec; 
not) naipvouv an' to TaLiEio tou auvSiraTou Eivai un£p[3oXiKd LUKpEc; 
Kai UTi£p|3oXiKd otoktec; yia tt|v tooo oi]LiavTiKi] um]p£oia nou npo- 
OCpEpOUV. 'EtOI, npOTElVOUV va napE^ouv OTO OUvSlKOTO «aTa6£pi] 
TipoaTaaia» yia auyKEKpiLiEvo ^pi]LiaTiKO noao koBe Lirjva. Av 01 
r|y£T£c; tou auvSiraTou apvi]8ouv ina tetoio npoocpopd, noXu au^vd 
TiETayovTai sl;co an' to al;ic6|iaTa — kqiiote lie tt| |3ia, kciiiote lie ekXo- 
y£c;— Kai tt] 6eot] touc; naipvouv «yop(X£c;» nou Eivai Betikoi anEvavri 
oti]v iSeo tt]c; «npooTaoi'ac;» . 

EpyaTiKof i]yETE^ tou ZiKayo liou e^ouv ttei oti Tidvw auo 30 lie- 
ydXa auvSiraTa ottjv tcoXt] touc; Eivai, oXoKXi]pcoTiKa i] LiEpira, kotco 
an' tov eXey^o yKavyKOTEp r\ EKpiatrrc&v. 

O AX KanovE au^vd avacpEpETai coc; Evac; la^upoc; napdyovTac; aTa 
£i]Ti]LiaTa tcov EpyaTiKwv ouvSikotcov tou Zirayo. Kai ovtcoc; Eivai, 
aXXd niBavov oe LiEydXo |3a9|.i6 Evdvria oti] BeXijoi] tou. Eti]v npay- 
|iaTiKOTT]Ta noTE 8ev npoand6i]a£ aGsvapd va eXey^ei to ouvSiraTa. 
Tia va yivEi KaTavoi]TO outo, npEnsi koveic; va KaTaXdpEi oti o Ka- 
nov£ 8ev Eivai oe raLiia n£pinrcoar| to TEpac; nou to 8i]liioupyt]lievo 
and tov Tuno i[ieu8c6vulio «0 XijLiaSELiEvoc; AX» acprjvEi va ewoi]9ei. 
Eekivtjoe co^ XaBpELinopoc; Linupac;, aKonEuovrac; va nXouTioxi lieoo 
a' auTov tov to^eo tou EK(3iaaLiou Kai iieto va oTanaTrjaEi. AXXd 
LiETa iinXE^Tr]K£ |xe tt]v noXiTiKi], £vto oi Linpd|3oi TOU EVEnXfi^av TT] 
aunLiopia Kai cte dXXou^ EKpiaaLiou^, Kai Tupa Eivai o^e86v aSuvaTO 
yi' auTov va aTaLiaTipEi xapic, va SiaXuaEi ti] auLiLiopia. Mui]KE otov 
«EKf3iaaiid ti]c; npoaTaa(a^» Kai npoaTaTEUE voLioTayEic; Em^Eipi'iaEK; 
EvdvTia a£ dXXouc; yKavyKOTEp^, yiaTi r\ aoTuvo|iia aSuvaTOuaE va tic; 
npoaTaTEi|;£i. Kai napoLioicoc;, Ta auvSiraTa m']yav a' auTov yia va 



139 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 

touc; TtpoaxaT£i[;ei mi' to «MTrayKc;» Mopav Kai dXXouc; yKavyKOTEp, 
yiaTi to auv8iKcn:a l;£pouv oti o AX kcu 01 dvTpsc; tou sivat eu9eic; 
okotteutec; —oyy [iovo [ie tci onXa touc; aXXd rai omo TT]V TtXEUpd tt]c; 
EVTi|.i6Ti]Tac; kcii ttjc; ETrayyEXfxaTiKijc; t|9iktJc; touc;. 

H Tgijimovv tou EiKciyo tuc; 20i]c; A-npiXiou tou 1930 avatpEpsi 

Eva TtEpiaTQTlKO (...) 

OaivETai oti o T£ei|.ic; Mqk AdcpXiv, avriTrpoacoTroc; tod Euv8i- 
raTou Map|iapd5cov, TTpoaKaX£crn]K£ oto appjyEio tou «MTrayKc;» 
Mopav, ap^ijyou [lieu; au|i^iopiac; ttou tote PpiaKOTav as Eva eiSoc; 
ava.Kayr\c, [ie xi] au^fxopia tou KauovE. 

O MirayKc; tou eitte ttcoc; i']9eAe Eva ttooo Kd0E TrpcoTi] tou \ir\va yia 
va TtapE^Et «TrpoaTaaia» oto auvSiraTO. 

O MaK AdtpXlV TcapaTCOVE6l]K£ OTO NtOVI ZtOVTOV, TOV OTTOlO o 

KanovE ei%e ypioei utteu9uvo |.i£aa ott] au|inopi'a yia tq Qe\iaxa tcov 
EpyaTiKcov auvSiraTCOv. Zav aTTOTEXEafxa, o AX koXeoe to MnayKc; 
Kai tov «au|^pouX£i|;£» va dp£i tic; a-rraiTijoEic; tou upoc; to Mqk Ad- 
tpXiv Kai to ouvSikoto TOU. 

To ttou 9a cpTaaEi r] Kuptap^ia tou KanovE Trdvco oto EpyaTira 
auvSiraTa Eivai koti Ttou 9a cpavEi qto ^eXXov. AuttJ ti] cmy^i] (3pi- 
aKO|^aaT£ aKo^a cftt]v ap%r\- To 1 930, koto to |i£yaXuT£po |T£poc; tt|c; 
ypoviac,, ot EuyEviKoi, t^evtXe|.iev TriaToXdSEc; tou Kottove aiyyiEXEi- 
yav oe auvESpidoEic; ouvSikotcov, KpaTCOvrac; ^laKptd touc; maToXd- 
Sec; tcov dXXcov au|i|.iopic6v. 'Etot e^ouv tq Trpdy|iaTa yiejpi aTiy|Trjc;. 

To KaXoraipi tou 1930, Evac; EpyaTiKoc; and to ZiKayo |^ou eitte: 
«AidoX£, o KanovE |.iTTop£i va a^i^Ei TTEpiaaoTEpa yta Ta auvSiraTa aTr' 
6,ti Ta ui|/t]Xcov tovcov «aT£X£p]» |^ac; ttjc; A|i£piKaviKi]c; O^oaTTOvSiac; 
Epyaor'ac; oti]v OudaiyKTOv». Tia Ta «aT£XEp]» auTa UTiaivfy9r|K£ ttcoc; 
i]iav aKO|ii] Tpo|^OKpaTr]|TEva axio ti]v utt69eot] MaK Na^idpa, ttou 
ei'^e Xd^Ei %dpa oye&ov eikoch ^povia Tiptv. «Akou e8c6», eitte, «^£pco 
yia Ttoio Trpdyi^a |iiXdco. 'H|iouv |i£aa a£ oXcov tcov eiScov tic; air£p- 
yi£c;. E(|iai qto KivT]|ia 25 ypovia. nrjya qtt]v n£vauX|3dvia koto xt\ 
8idpK£ta tt]c; anEpyiac; oto aTadXi to 1919— koi yvcoptc/o, v£ap£, oti 
^pEid^ovTai TTEpiaaoTEpa otto opydvcoar] Kai TipoTrayavSa Kai aiiEp- 
yiEc; ora (pavspd yia va aco9ouv to auv8iKaTa, va aui;r]9ouv oi |^ia9oi 
Kai to XoiTrd. XpEid^ETai yy]\i£ia. Auva^iiTi]c;, \ia to @eo!». 



140 



H Eoynoia Kill to ^.eicivijfia tov "EKfiiaafioi!" 



H avepyi'a KaBwc; Kai r] axrXijaxia xcov EpyoSoxuv xpocpoSoxouv 
xi]v aTiEXmaia, yiaxi Evac; dvxpac; rai r] oiKoyEVEid xou xipExiEi ra- 
xtcoc; va tj']oovv. H a-nekmaia xpocpo5ox£i xi] (3ia-£K|3iaa|i6. EldpxE 
yia xrapaSsiyi^a \.ua ^apaKxijpiaxiKrj av rai aKpaia xr£piTrxwar| sp- 
yaxiKou EKptao^oij xtou ai<v£|3T] axic; 5 Oejipovapiov xou 1930 axo 
EiKayo. Auo dvxpEc; xtdprapav xo aiixoKivi]x6 xoi'c; Kovxd axo vo- 
ooko(Aeio Adiv-Iv, axo otioio Eva au|iTiXr|pco|.iaxiK6 Kxrjpio rjxav imd 
KaxaaKEDfj. Me cpuaiKO xpono pcoxijaav £vav Epydxr] av o MiyKEp, o 
ap^iEmaxdxT]^ xou KaxaaKEuaaxrj, i|iav ekei. O Epydxijc; xouc; e8ei- 
^e xtou fJpiaKOxnv o xeXeuxoi'oc;. Oi dyvwaxoi xrEpndxrjaav xipoc; xo 
|i£poc; xou Kai xou £pii;av 8uo acpaipEc; axr|v TrXdxr], ExpE^av xifaco 
axo auxoiavr|x6 xouc; Kai Ecpuyav. Auto ava|.icpi|3oXa rjxav [iia xpo- 
|i£pi] repair], aXXd nxaco axr' auxrj Kai oXec; xic; oXXec; xpo|iOKpaxiK£c; 
EVEpyEiEc; xcov Epyaxwv npETTEi va 8ou|X£ xi] cppiKi] xcov aTT£XTiia|i£vcov 
avxpcov, Ttou EK8ic5^9T]Kav axr' xr] SouXeio Kai Ei'^av oiKoyEVEiEc; tiou 
PpfaKovxav axo yeikcx; xi]c; XiLioKxoviac;. 



141 



KEOAAAIO 22 

o ekbiasmos os mia oash th£ 
tasikhs Zytkpoyshs: 



Kduoioi EKfiiaoiEc; |i£ Tore; ottoiouc; e^co yvcopicrrEi Eivai ttveu- 
fxaTwSEK;, e^i'ttvoi dvBptoTtoi. 'Evac; an' airtouc;, lacoc; o Ka- 
XuTEpoc; an' oXoi'c;, Eivai Evac; oai|iTTaTpicoTi]c; |iou riouy K °- 
aXdf3oc;. Eivai Eva air' ta «|i£ydXa K£cpdXia» a£ pa an' tic; OT|inopi£c; 
xov ZiKayo, Evac; Ei'yEviKoc;, 8taf3aa^£voc; dvrpac;, Ttpcoijv pi^oa-nd- 
ott]c;, to i5io iravoc; va ovij]Tr\o£i yia Mapc; i] yia Ni'toe oao kqi va 
8ioiKrja£i |iia (.lEydXi] aun|iopia Xa6p£|iTT6pcov aXi<o6X rai £K(3iaaTc6v 
Ttou TtonXdvE TtpoaTaaia. ripay^aTiKd, Eivai Evac; nn' xoi\ mo «i|;aY- 
|i£vouc;» kqi, |i£ tov Tpouo toi', o mo Tt|itoc; rai o mo quBevtikoc; 
dvBpcoTTOc; ttou c;Epw. 

'Otqv VJTav «Ti|iioc; £pya£6fi£voc;» kqi KEpSi^E 4 rj 6 8oXdpia tt] 
|i£pa, 8ev eij_e KxrratpEpEi ti'ttotq. Ei'^e UTrdpcJEi aoaiaXiaTijc; kqi avv- 
SiraXiaTrjc;, kqi Travrou ei^e auvavTrjaEi ScopoSoKiEc; kqi (vTpiyKEc;. 

'ApilOE va OT<V£l8l]TOTTOl£l, OTTCOC; EITTE, OTl Ol TTEpiCTOOTEpOl l]y£T£c; TOO 

aoaiaXicraKou kivi^qtoc;, tottikoi r\ eBvikoi, r\iav eite anaTEWvEc; 
eite aviaoppoTTOi auvaia6i]|iaTiKot, tt|v wpa Trou to kivtjuo ekei ec;co 
rJTav \iia TEpdaTia \aaC,a qtto i]Xi'9iouc; upoXETdpiow; crrouc; ottoiovc; 
to |ifjvu(xa rov ooaiaXia|^ou 8e 9a EcpTavE ttote koi oi ottoioi lacoc; 8ev 
afytfiv kqti raXuTEpo an] £coi] air' quto ttoi< Se^ovtqv. 

«Tcopa, yua to @eo, aiaBdvofxai TrdXi dv9pcoiroc;». Tupa a^Ei 
KaTi. Eivai Kauoioc;. To ovo^d tou E|icpav(^ETai aTic; aTrjXEc; tcov £<pr|- 
|i£pi5wv. Zei |xe otuX. Kd-rroTE ei'^e ^Xokottt]6ei air' ti]v aaruvo|xia 
a£ |iia aiTEpyia crro T£6Xiet tou IXivoic;' Tcopa e^ei touc; UTraTaovc; 



143 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg TrfJ^iKijg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



tou yzpiov xov. Aev Lmopouv va xov ayyii;ouv. Ztt]v TipayLiaTiKOTiiTa, 
ttoXXoi an' airrouc; eivai kcxtw air' tic; SiaTaysc; tou. 

Nai, nouXaLiE oXkooX, Kvpicoc; LiTrupa [ei'tte]' Kai Xomov; Ikovo- 
ttoioulie Lua etullovi], crra9£pT] ^i']Ti]ai]. AekoSec; ^iXioSec; tteXcite^ 
Liac; youcrrdpouvE tt] Linupa rai to oXkooX Liac;. Eivai KaXo TipaLia. 
Bpi'aKEi to 8poLio Tor yia tq omxia 8iKacrrc6v Kai dXXcov LiEydXtov 
avSpuv, KaTcoioi an' tovc; ottoiouc;, acpoij Li£9uaow aTt6i|;£, to itpcoi 
9a KaTaSiKdoow Kanoiouc; dXXouc; yta lie9i]. 

. . .Nai, %pT]aiLioTioioiJLi£ pia — kqi Xomov; EiLiacrrE liijttcoc; ^EipoTE- 
poi an' touc; voLioTayEic; £Tti)(£ipi]LiaTi£c;; MrJTrcoc; 01 LiEydXoi raniTa- 
Xiotec; 8e ^ijotliottoiouv (3(a yia va KaTaoTEiXouv tic; anEpyiEc;; Autoi 
8e crraLiaTavE Lnrpocrrd a£ TiTtoTa. Bspaia i] SiKid touc; pia KanoiEc; 
cpopEc; Eivai volulii]' Kd-noiEc; cpopEc; 01 TricrroXdSEc; touc; cpopdvE crro- 
Xec; lie acrrpa(pT£pd KOULimd (EtM: LidXXov ewoei ti] SioSeSolievi] 
TipaKTiKi] tcov TrXi]pa)|iEvcov 8oXo(povcov va cpopow cstoXec; E9vo<puXd- 

KWV 1] Poi]9(0V OEpi(pl]8c0v). 

. . . AvEtpEpEc; OTt to EpyoTiKa awSiraTa Liia9<uvow SwaLimaTEc; 
Kat LiTrpdpow; yia va ttetu^ow touc; aKOTtouc; toix;. Aoittov, LiTropEi va 
eilioi Evac; SiEcrrpaLiLiEvoc; EyKXi]LiaTiac;, aXXd 8e volii£co oti UTtdp^Ei 
Tip6pXi]|ia OTav yivETai koti tetoio. Me ttoio Tpono avTiLiETCom^ow 
01 KaTiiTaXiaTEc; touc; EpyaTEc;; Eivai ^EipoTEpo va avaTivdc^Eic; Eva 
KTi']pio, an' to va nETdc; e^co an' ti] SovXeio, cm] liecr] xov ^eilicdvo, 
yikiaSet; dvrpEc; tcov onoi'tov ot oikoyeveiec; TpEcpovrai an' to LiEpora- 
lioto; EKnXi'jaaoLiai nov crraLidTTjaav 01 avaTivd^Eit; lie Suvoliitt]. Av 
dp^i^av ndXi, 9a anoKTOuaa l;avd ranoio oxpaaLio npoc; tt]v Epya- 
tiki] xdfy]. Tcopa, va ndv£ crto SidoXo. Ta KaTapaLiEva Ta nTCOLiaTa, 
I'liocpEpow Tra9i]TiKd Kai lie ai]8id£ouv! Kai av KanoiEc; auLiLiopfcc; 
EKLiETaXXEuovrai LispiKa auvSiKOTa, 8e li' EvSiacpspEi. 

. . .AXXd Ka|xia air' tic; LisydXEc; ai'LiLiopiEc;, ait' oao S;£pco, 8ev ek- 
LiETaXXEUETai TrpayLiaTiKd to EpyaTira awSiKaTa. H Epyaata Eivai 
ttoXu TaiTEivi]' Eivai avi'a^upi] Kai 8ev KaxEj_ei TinoTa. Aev aa^oXocJ- 
LiaoTE lie toi'c; avia^iipouc;, Ttapd liovo — aTic; yEwaioScopEc; aTiyLiEc; 
Liac;- yia va tovc; poi]9i]aouLi£. Ee avTi'9£ar] lie touc; LiEydXouc; ra- 
TiiTaXiaTEc; ttov £KLi£TaXX£i5ovTai tt]v mo aSwaLii] Ta^i], elieic; avTi- 
crrpEtpoi'LiE Ti] 8ia5iKaaia. 



144 



O Exfliaafidc; cog fiia <Pdar/ Tr/c; Ta£,naj(; SvyKgotiatjg 



. ..Ei^naxE Em^EipnnnxiE^ xiy; a\izoT\c, Spdai]^, vn xi Ei^naxE. 
Et|iamx irapdvofiot, acoaxd, nXXd e^oi^e xovc; Sikouc; |^ac; v6|iow;. 
Kd-noia cm' xn xrai5id Kou^nXdvE xriaxoXin Km dXXn ram EpyaXefa. 
'E^eic; nKouoEi yin xottoBextJotk; po^pwv rai SoAotpoviei;. Kd6s xoao 
xa xrniSid Sev |xxropow vn Knvovv nXXiw^ nxro xo vn ^uXoKonrjcroi'v 
raxroio xuxro. Ti Kpi'pin! AXXd Eivm nuxo ^EipoxEpo nxi' xo vn oSiiyeic; 
Epyn^6(.iEvoi'c; rai xi^ oikoyeveie^ xoi^ axi] Xi|iOKxovin, fj vn mipof3o- 
Xei^ nvuxrEpdamaxoin; pnKEvSuxoi.^ TrpoXExdpiox^ oxnv nuxoi mi£p- 
youv ym vn KnXux£pEv|;ow xi]v raxdaxnai] xoi^; 

nEpnnxouan|^£ cmjv El£|.ixm] Aficocpopo, oxiou auvnvxi]an|i£ Evnv 
dvxpn \iz xo ovo^n En^i, Evnv SK^mcm'] ttou 8pnaxi]piOTTOi£i'xni oxouc; 
xojiEic; xoi< hXkooX, xoi< x£6you rai xt|c; Epynain^. 'Hxnv mid xo Nioi< 
T^spaEi] Knt yvutpi^oxnv |i£ xo riouyKoaXd|3o cpiXo |iou xroXXd ^povin. 
Tov £i^n ^nvnai'vnvxr]o£t pun cpopd axo xinpEXSdv. Eivm Evnc; yEwai- 
dSuipot; xuxioc;, npi£piKnvox[oii]|.i£vo^ E(3pmoc; xi]^ Pwain^, axn xpid- 
vxn xou, yi<|.ivnapi£vo(; nxi' xi]v Kopcprj toe; xn vu^in, pi£ £(38o|.in8inio 
Eia68i]|^n xrou KupinivExm nxid 8uo ew^ xievxe ^iXihSec; SoXdpin. 'E^ei 
oyjtoeic, \ie xou^ xrEpiaadxEpow; ttexv^iji.ievoi'c; ttoXixikou^, evxoc; rai 
ekxo<; n^iw^idxuv, as ttoXXe^ ttoXek; xoi< Niou T^Epasi]. 

Ekeivo xo OTToyEi'i^n eije |.in£i tov \iia dpiopcpr] piiKpi] i;nv8id, xi]v 
OTTOin \icu; auaxrpE co^ «Nx6Xi, pioXic; ncpi^Bfiian nxro xo XdXiyowx». 
Mn^ eixie oxi 9n xiTJymvnv yin i|/covin Km oxi nv 9£Xn|.i£ |xxiopouan|i£ 
vn xouc; airvo8£iiaoi<pi£. 

nYjyofiE \iat,i xovq Knt pi£an axr|v Exi6|X£vr| |iid(Aior| wpn ettiuke- 
(p9i]Kn|i£ xn mo ciKpifSd pinyn^id xr]^ ElEpixixric; AEcaipopou. O Hay. 
I;68e\|/£ 8uo r] xpEic; ^iXidSE^ SoXdptn ym xr| NxoXi. Ze evh ai]|.i£(o 
xr']c; nyopnaE 20 ^Euydpm xtnTTOiixain, ttou xo Kn0Evn kooxi^e 20 \iz 
25 SoXdpin, Km 20 xadvxEt; xroi' xni'pm^nv \iz xn nnTroiixain, ttod t| 
Kn6E|^in Koaxi^E rnro 25 ecoc; 100 SoXdpin. 'Hxnv xrpotpnvE^ oxi o T.a\i 
cruvVjBi^E vn tpEpExni Exai oe 6Xe^ xi^ cpiXfic; xou. 

ApyoxEpn Etxtn axo cpi'Xo \iov oxi BEupoiion xo Enpi xpsXo ttou ip- 
8ei'e xoan xroXXd XEtpxd ym fiin kotteXh. 

«Mx[opEi Km vn £ivm», |^ou mrdvxT]a£-«Km xi £yiv£; MtJtko^ ei- 
vai ^EipoxEpoc; rnro xov EKnxopLfii'piou^o xrou xrXoiixiaE nxto xi] TouoX 
Zxpix rj rnro Knxtoio f3iofxi]5(nviK6 Epyo8oxiKO EKpina^o; O vo|ioxnyr]c; 
xtXouxoKpdxi]^ KnvEi nuxd xn irpdy^nxn ym xn «Kopixain xt]^ Kouaxw- 



145 



A mauling: H Iarogia Ttjg Trf^najg Bing crrtjv Aftsoitcr/ 



8(ac;» xoi\ yiaxi va p]v kovei xa (8ia kqi o T.a[i yia xr|v o|iop<pouXa 
xou an' to XoXiyovvx; Ziyoupa, undp^ouv £Kaxon|.njpia dvepyot, y\- 
Xtd5e^ an' auxouc; TtEBaivow xi]c; UEiva^, aXXd yiaxi va EvSiatpepSei 
o Ea|i yia auxoik; Trepiaao-repo auo tov T£ov nipnovx Mopyrav, 

TOU OTTOtOU TO iSlCOXlKO ylOX — TTOU TOGO TT£Tl^l]|i£va OVOJiaaE O 

Kovpadpo^— xou Koaxiae 2,5 £Kaxo|i|irpia SoXdpia oxav xo Kaxa- 
aK£ua£e Kai xcopa xor kooxi^ei 3 ^iXidSc^ SoXdpia xi] |iepa yia va 
xo Xeixoi'pyT]aei; ... 

'Iacoc; kottoxe o T.a\i, r\ o yioc; xou av kottoxe aTtoKxrjaEi Evav, va 
cpxid^Ei Kt auxo^ Eva iSiuxiko yiox xo fSio ttoXi'xeXe^ |i£ xoi< MopyKav 
mi va xo ovofidaEi O Ei<|3iaaxi](;. Tiaxf 6yi;» 

Kai Ef3aXE xa ysXia. 



146 



KEOAAAIO 23 

EAMIIOTAZ KAI «AnEPriA 

thn opa ths EprAziAi:» 



+ m ^ vn pi^Xio p.£ tov titXo Eajinojd^ ztieoe axa yzpia \iov. To 

B-^ TTpfflTOTUTTO zifE ypacpTEl axa yaXXlKa OTTO TOV E^lX Ylovi^l. 

M 4 mi fX£Ta<ppdcrri)K£ oto ayyXiKa aito tov Aptoupo T£opa- 
vixi to 1912, OTav avTO<; f3pioKOTnv eykAeioto^ OT1] (pi'XaKl] TOU A6- 
pevc; TYf, Maoa^oua£TT]c;, |^£ KaTaaKEvaa^EVE^ KaTiiyopiE^ a^ETixd 

|i£ TO p6Xo TOU CO^ l]y£TT] TCOV rOTO^TlXK; aTl] Cpi]fila|J.EVl] QTTEpyia TG)V 

EpyaTcov utpavToupyia^. Zto pipXi'o ai'TO to aa|iiTOTd£ opi^oTnv w<; 

OTCOia5l]TTOTE aVV£l8l]Tl] TTpd^l] an' T1]V T[X£l'pd evoc; rj TTEpiaaOTEpWV 

EpyaTcov, ttoi' aTO^EUEt art] jiEiwai] ti](; Trapaywyi')^ oto piopj^aviKO 

TOfiEQ 1] OTT]V TtapE^TToSlai] TOV EfiTTOpiOU KQl Tl) ^ElCOOl] TOV K£p8c6v 

qtov £|XTTopiKO TO|^£a, |^Eaw tt]<; \i£.iam](; Ti]i; aTTOT£XEa|^aTiK6Tr]Ta(; 
ti]<; Epyaoiac; kcu \iioa tijc; TrpoKXi]ai](; pXapcov axa \ii]y(av\\\icna 
— to va TiapdyEi kqveii; ooo to Swniov XtyoTEpo, aTrotpEuyovTac; tt|v 
aTtoAuoT). 

Auto to ptpXio rJTav Eva ei8o<; EuayyEXfoi' yia tow; rouonTrXic;. 

'Evac; (piXoc; |tov rou6|i-nXi \iov eitte: 

Tcopa ttou t' atpevTiKa e^ouv ttetu^ei Eva a^£86v |ioipaio ^Tum^a 
EvdvTia OTO l-lTTOiiKOTd^' Ttopa Ttou r| Tt£piq)poi3pT]cn] tmv aTTEpyicov Eivai 
TipaKTiKa ektoc; vofiou oe ttoXXec; TTEpio^Ei; ti]5 5(t6pa<;, nou t] eXeu9e- 
p(a tou Xoyou e^ei aTpayyaXioTEi, Ttou r\ EXEuOspia Tfov auyKEVTptooEtov 
aTrayop£iJTi]K£ Kai oi SiKacrriKEg AiaTayEt; EvdvTia arou^ EpyaTEc; naip- 
vouv Tt] nopcpi] ETti8i]fiia(; — Tcopa to aa^-noTa^, airrfj T] okoteivtj, aopaTi], 



147 



A vviifihr/g: H IaTogia rr/<; Ta£,nafg Bia<; cttt/v Aftsoinrj 

xpofispr'] 8a(ioKXEtot; and9i] nou Kp£|i£xai ndvco qtt' xa KscpdXia xijc; ku- 
p(ap^i]t; xd^T)t;, 9a avxiKaxaaxrjaEi 6Xa xa onXa kcu xa uvpo^a^iKa xcov 
spyaxiov oxov noXEjio yia oikovo|iiki'] 8iKaiocn5vr| . Kai 8a viKi']a£i, ytaxi 
Eivai xo ttio (po(3£po onXo an' 6Xa, \i£ E^aipEcrt] xi] yEviKi] anspyia. (...) 

Aev Tuepaoe noXui; raipo^ yia va KaxaXdpco nooo anox£X£ap.axiKO 
— Kai oi]\iovxik6— rjxav xo aap.noxd£. 

II 

Meaco evoc; ypacpEiov EupEaEwc; Epyaaiac; fipi]Ka p.ia SouXeiq qe 
|iia \iciKpoyp6via KaxaaKEin') e^co axr' xo T£6Xiex. 'H]xow Evac; an' 
xovi^ EKaxo TiEpiTuou EpydxEc;, avd|i£aa axou^ onoiou^ 6nco<; ypi']yopa 
E^aKpi'Pcoaa imrjp^av Kai apK£xoi roTO]inXii;, anoaxoXoi xov aa|ino- 
xd£. 

«XaXdpcoa£ <piX£», \iov eitte evqc; an' auToiSc; ^anoyEXcovTac; xt| 
SEuxEpi] i] xi]v xpixi] \iEpa. «Mi]v npoanaGfiic; va p:ia£i<; to Spdpxi a£ 
|iia p;Epa. Eto SidoXo va nasi. riaipvEic; xa i'5ia \ie |±£va — xpid^iat xi] 
|i£pa, Exai 8ev Eivai; Mi] Soi'Xeuei^ aa va naipvEic; xpiavxan£vx£». 

Tta jiEpEc; o dvxpac; auxoc; oxekoxov Kovxd \iov Kai \ie napoxpwE 
va SouXeuco mo apyd. «Kdv£ SidA£ip.|ia, cpiXe», EXEyE. 'H, «ni]yaiv£ 
yia Xiyo v£po». 'H, «As vo^i^ek; oxi rjpGE i] upa va l;avand^ axr] Ppu- 
ar|;». 'H, «Kai aupio |ispa £ivai». 

«Mi] Soi'Xeueic; xoao xo cpxudpi, tpiXE. Mi] andaEii; xi] pxai] aou. 
0i'p:dp:ai xi ekove ]xia o]idSa and nxwpxixa (ExM: axo npcoxoxvno 
stiffs, nou ar|naiv£i «EpydxEc;» axi]v apyKo) axi]v Ivxidva xo 1 908, oxav 
xo aqiEvxiKO xouc; |±£icoa£ xovc; p.ia9oix;. nrjyav a£ Eva p-ij^avovpyEio 
Kai Kovxuvav xa cpxrapia xoix;. Einav axo atpEvxiKo: «MiKpoc; ]iiaB6c;, 
|iiKpo cpxudpi». 'Hxav Eva eiSoc; £vaxiKxu5ov<;, ai)66p|AT|Toi) aa|ino- 
xat,. Auto Eivai acoaxo Kai ai']p.£pa — «\iiKpo<; p.ia96i;, p.iKpo (pTrapi». 
riaipvEi^ xpia Kai n£vi]vxa' ttioxeueic; oxi xoao a^i^Ei i] Epyaaia aou; 
Mi]v Eiaai i]Ai9io<;. AcoaE xouc; ]xiKpo qjxudpi' oxav kccvsU; Sev KoixaEi, 
KaBoXoi' cpxudpi. Exo 8idoXo va tuove. Exap;dxa — kove aTUEpyia xi]v 
wpa xi]^ 8oi)Xsidg». 

Ap^iKa — xo 191 2 Kai xo 191 3- i] diroij/i] xcov roi'6|iTtXi^ i']xav 
va TipoKaXouvxai £i]Hi£? axa |j.T]xavi']p.axa -npiv xi^ anEpyiE^, coaxE 
oi aTTEpyoaTidaxEc; va |ii] p;Tropoi5v |j.£xd va xa XEiToupyfjaouv' aXXd 
an' xo 1920 Kai p.Exd, oi Bio|ii])[aviKoi EpydxEc; tod K6a|xov Kai oi 



148 



SiijinoTiii^ Km "Aneoyia tv/v (bgn jr/g Eoynaiiig" 

KO|ifxouviaT£c; ayKixaxopEc;, ttou tote apyyaav rai auToi va nni^ow 
ai]|iavriK6 poXo crro 8pd|ia tou aa^-noTa^ axt\v a|T£piKdviKi] pio|iT|- 
^avia, apyioav va «Kavov££ouv» tic; \ii]%av£(; xixv wpa ttou i] SouAsid 

ETpE^E. ZtT]V KOTaaKEUT] TOT' 8p6|iOU KOVrd aTO T£6Xl£T OTTOU Epya- 
£6|.lOUV, O ETTlOTdTT]^ KqBe Xly£^ fi£p£^ £l%£ TrpopXrj^aTa (.IE Tl^ |.ITTE- 

TOviEpE^, xa (popTT)yd mi to KO^TTpEaEp. Eacpvira xa \iy]javr\\iaxa 
ycikovoav cm] fXEar] tou Trpwivou t] tou aTToy£u|iaToc, mi etqi 10 rj 20 
dvrpEC, Tpiyupi^av %&>pic, va ravouv tittotq tt|v wpa ttou 01 \n\yawKoi 
xa £Tu8i6p6<»vav. 

O (pi'Xoc; |iou o roii6|TTrXi |te koitouoe tote |te voi]|ia, ^afxoyEXw- 
vra^. 

Mia \iepa auToc, Kai TpEic, dXXoi avrpsi;, ettiot|c, FouohttXic, Kai 
aTToaToXoi tou aa|iTiOTd£, aTroXu9i]Kav, aTio£T||iiw9i]Kav Kai npoEi- 

8oTTOU]6T]Kav va |T£lVOUV |.iaKpid OTT' T1]V TTEplOp] oto |teXXov' aXXd 

Trpiv cpuyouv E(.ia9a oti to 8uo p'Xia aatpdXTOU ttou Ei^afiE crrpwaEi 
tov teXetitoio £vd|iiai] \ir\va 9a y£|ii£av |i£ydX£c, pwy|i£c, |i£aa a£ TpEic, 
pSofxdSE^. KaTi eijfiv pi'^Ei oto Tai^EVTO ttoti 9a to ekove va a-rrdaEi 
Kai o EpyoXdpoc, 9a ettpette va to ^avacpTid^Ei an' Ti]v ap^rj. 

'E|T£iva oti) 8ouX£id aTO T^oXiet dXXov Eva (Afjva, apKETO SidaTi]- 
|ia yia va 8co tt]v daepaXTO va aTrdsi. 

Y.xa ^wpdtpia aiTapiou xov Kdvaac, ottou SouX£i|/a yia apKETEC, 
pSofxdSEc; to KaXoraipi tou 1920, imijp^ ttoXu aTa|idTT]na rj «aTi£p- 
yia tt]v wpa ttjc, £pyaaiac;» Kai oi aXwviaTiKEC, |ii]^av£(; Kai o utto- 
Xoittoc, e^ottXiohoc, au^vd E^yaivE ektoc, XEtroupyiac, ott] \.iear\ tijc, 
SouXeioc;, tote ttou i] ko9e Epydai^i] wpa |i£Tpay£ ttoXu yia tov 181- 

OKTTJTT). 

IrEpiTrou 30 |.iiXia an' to |i£poc, ottou SouXeuo, Eva ^wpdtpi aiTa- 
piou \ie EKTaoi] TTEpiTrou Eva TETpaywviKO fxi'Xi Kai]K£. Oi rou6|iTrXic, 
ttou yvwpi^a (pEpovrav avTi9sToi aTov £HTrpr]a(.i6 Kai KaTi]y6pr]aav 
yia tt]v «TrapdaTaar]» outt] tou^ KOfi|.iouviaTE^, oi ottoi'oi i']Tav yEvira 
ttoXu mo 8paoTiKoi. Yx{r\pjav (pr']|iE^ avd|T£oa otou^ Bio|iT])[aviKou(; 
EpyaTE^ tou K6a|iou oti oi «KonfxouviaT£^» otic; MIA Ei^av 8iaTa- 
yEc; «aTi6 tt] M6o^a» va oa|iTTOTdpouv Ti]v a|T£piKaviKT] f3io|Ti]^avia. 

(...) 

Aev UTidp^Ei afxcpi|3oXia oti, aTi]v apjr\ Ti]c; TTEpaonEvi]^ SEKaETi'ac;, 

Ol «KOH|TOUVIOTE^» aTl^ HflA E|.lTTXEKOVTav OE EVEpyElE^ aa|TTTOTd£' 



149 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



TrpEiTEi, 6|icoc;, va avacpepco oti 8ev uitVjp^E Kai Sev undp^Ei rapa 
ayeat] |i£Tal;u auxuv tcdv avBpcoTrwv Kai xuv Sidcpopcov Ko|X|.iouviaTi- 
kcov Kivi]|.idTcov ttou undp^ouv ai]|iepa axic; HEIA. Ot TTEpiaaoTEpoi 
a^epiKavoi «KO|i|^ouviaT£^» ekeivi] tijv etto^t] rJTav Siatpopuv £i8(6v 
8ia<pwvouvT£^ ttou Ei^av ano^copijaEi omo touc; B.E.K., kctveic; airo 
xovq ottoCouc; ai]|^Epa 8ev e^ei oyecn] |i£ tov KO|X|.iouvia|i6. 

Avd|X£aa atic; aT]HEic6a£tq |xou Tu^aivEi va eyu aTTOKO^fxaTa £<pi]- 
|i£pi8uv ttou avacpEpovxni axi] (3ia Kai to aa|xiTOTd£ ttou a^ETi'^ovTai 
|i£ ti^ nTTEpyiEc; twv oi8i]po8po|.UKc6v Kai rav avBpaKwpu^wv, to cpGi- 
voTTCopo tou 1922: 

OvdaivyKTOV, 1 Eetit- Atto 6000 at; 7000 (3ayovia (popTWfXEva \ie 
Tipo'iovra ejow uttootei SoXiocpGopEc; kqi TrpEnEi va a8£idaouv yia 
va ETii5iop9co0ow, avaKoivcoaE arjfXEpa to YTroupyEio Airaioauvijc;. 
Ta iiEpiE^6|XEvd touc; TipETTEi va cpopTwGouv oe dXXa (3ayovia yia va 
p]v rnidp^ow eXXeiijieic; aTO Boppd, ottou TroXXd an:' outo ETrpoKErro 
va aTTOOTaXouv. 

KAfinegXavT, 5 Hem.— Mia y£(pupa crro EpyoTai;io tov T^£p6|i, 181- 
OKTTjaia twv Zi8i]po8pop.wv MndXTi|iop Kai 0)(dio, avaTivdp:i]K£ p.£ 
5vva|xiTi] ttou ei'^e totto9eti]0£i kotw and Suo EpEiafxaTa. Kai to 8i5o 

ETTEaav (JTT| \l£01] TOT' 8pd|XOU [XETd T1]V EKpi]^T|. 

Mijicpii;, Teveai, 5 Eem.— 8 dvrpEc; 9a avri|X£TWTTiaouv tt]v raTi]- 
yopfa ttjc; avGpwnoKTOviac;, oi 4 an' outouc; oto MEfrcpic; Kai oi dXXoi 
4 aTO XioufiTTEpT tou Apravaac;' Evac; dXXoc; 6a avTi|i£TWTTia£i tt]v 
KaTi]yopia ttjc; auv£i8T]Trjc; KaTaaTpocprjc; Tpsvou Kai Evac; aKO|.ia tt]v 
KaTi]yopia ti]c; TTEpi(pp6vi]ai]c; o|ioaTrov8iaKou SiraaTiipiou, |i£ pdai] 
pa o^ioXoyia ttou XsyETai oti aTroaTrdaTTjKE ano auXXi]<p8£VT£c; aTTEp- 
youc; ai5r|po8po|xiKouc;. . . 

BilKig-Mneg, 7 Setti.— H awXijva Tpo<po8oai'ac; ttou koteXijye oto 
avd^u|xa twv Ei8T]po8p6p.wv Ae^ou BdXE'i, kovto oto EldKEpTov, r\ 
(iaaiKi] TTi]yi) •napo-/r\(; vEpou aTi^ ypa|ip_£c; tou^, 8uva|^iTi'aTT]K£ Kai 
Tivdp:T]K£ aTOv a£pa x T£c ; TO (3pd8i). 

IJoXt/ tr/g OnXaxdfia, 7 Hem.— Me tt] ouXXt]i|;i] 4 avTpwv yia tov 
E|iTrpi]a|i6 t\y, yEcpupac; aTO EiKayo ttou ovt]ke otouc; Zi8i]po8p6|iou^ 



150 



Safinojd^ Ktti "Aneoyia ti/v a>gn ing Epyaaiag" 



Pok AiXavx mi ElaaupiK, o ap^i]yo<; xi]^ aaxuvo|xiat; xcov HEIA ava- 
koivcooe dxi s^ei auyKEvxpcoaEi aTToSsi'^ei^ yia T1 l v unap^i] \iicu; auv(D- 
[loaiac, anEpycov twv ai8i]po8p6|icov ae 6Xi] xi] %&pa ttoii oav axo^o 
e/ei tt]v avaxiva^i] yEtpi'pwv, as |iia TipoaTrdGEia xr|^ va ETriaTiEuaEi 
l^ia yeviKi] aTiEpyia axov kXoSo. 

Tr]v teXei'tqiq Sekqetiq to oa\moT&^ Kai r] «aTr£pyia xi]v upa xt]^ 
Epyaaiai;» Ei'^av yivEi KO|.i|idxi xi]c; i|/ii^oXoyi'ac; Kai XT]? auLiTiEpupo- 
pdc; £Kaxo\i[ivpiav a(.i£piKavcov Epyaxwv, 01 ottoioi rata xa dXXn 9a 
8uaavaa^£Touaav av Kanoioc; xouc; OTroKaXouaE Fou6|.ittXic; r\ koli- 

LIOWIOXE^. 

Ill 

To 1921 (3pE6r]Ka kqi TidXi axa AvaxoXira. Mi|v Kaxatpspvovxac; 
va Ppco SouXsid axi] oxepid, m]ya axi] 6dXaaaa kqi \iiaa axov etto- 
lievo xpovo |.iTrapKdptoa a£ ttevxe 8ia<pop£xiKa TrXoia, ottou a£ 6Xa 
oa<vdvxT]aa xo aa|iTroxd£ xoao and xorc; vauxE^, Toi'dLiTiXi^ r\ \ii], dao 
kqi and xovq (3a6nocpdpow; (av kqi 01 xeXeuxoioi, OTtto^ Eivai (puaiKO, 
8ev 6a anoraXouaav ttoxe xic; Tcpd^Ei^ xouc; aa|.moxd£). 

EiSa va KaxaaxpEcpovxai rj va TrExdyovxai axi] BdXaaaa xpd<pi|.ia 
a^iai; ^iXid8uv 5oXapicov Kai (.iTtoyiEc; Kai e^ottXioho^ xou ttXoiou a^i- 
a^ 8£Ka8cov ^iXidScov. 

Ze Eva TtXoio lie xo OTtoio EKava xo xa^i'Si Neo YdpKi]-K6XTTO(; 
AxXavxiKou, ojeSov xo 100% xou TrXr|pe6naxo^ rjxav aaLmoxEp —Kai 
Kdnoioi nn' xou^ dvxpEc; ^idXic; tcou Ei^av okouoei yia xoi^ BioLiij^a- 
vikouc; EpydxE^ xou KdaLiou. Oi roudnTrXit; Et^av xoi'Xd^iaxov Eva 
mj/T|X6 koivcoviko Kivr]xpo dxav KTJpxixxav Kai 8iETrpaxxav xo oa^iTco- 
xd£' oi aa|.iTrox£p d^ico^ nor 8ev aviJKav axoi^ Biop]xaviKou<; Epyd- 
xec; xou Kda^iou ELioia^av auXd va PpiaKovxai a£ da^ijp] SidGEor] Kai 
avxXouaav Luav dypia iKavoTroftjcn] dxav epijyav oXoKXrjpa Koimd 
LiTroyidc; axi] BdXaaaa. «Zxo SidoXo va Tidv£», rjxav xo aw9r]|-ia. «Exo 
8idoXo oi i6iokxi]xe^». 

Mou Einav dxi axo Trpo-Trpoi]yoi)|i£vo xa^i'Si o KanExdvioc; Kai o 
|.u]XaviKdc: ei^av «Kavovia£i» xic; |^r]xav£c; wax£ xo TtXoio va jpEiaaxei 
va Tiapa|i£ivEi yia EmaKEi'Ec; oe Eva vauTn]yEio xou Eav ElEvxpo axr|v 
KaXicpopvia yia xpEic; pSo^idSE^, \ie xo kooxo^ xcov EmaKEUwv va (pxd- 
vei xa 23 5(iXid8£(; 8oXdpia, an' xa ouofa oi 18101 m]pav |ii^a cvno xov 
avxiTcpdacoTio xov vaiim]y£ioii. 



151 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



Atyoi'i; [AtJvec; npyoxepa |.iTTapKdpiaa oxo ttXoio OaKa(3a crri] Oi- 
XaSsXcpEia. 'Htqv vauXco|i£vo nn' to NaimXtaKO Zvji(3oi3Aio tov 

HEIA, KaTaaKEliaafiEVO TO 1918 \l£ KOOTOt; TTEptTTOU 8uo ekqt. 80- 

Xdpta rat |i£ Eva UTTEpauy^povo i|/uktik6 avaxy]\ia. ZaXTrdpa|i£ yia 
to A|.if3oijpYO |i£ Eva fxiKpd cpopTto. To irXi]po)|^a tou ttXoiou r\xav to 

TT'TTIKO ElSot; TrXTJpCOLtaTOC; TTOT< E^piOKE TOTE KOVElc; OTQ Q|l£piKdvlKtt 

E|iTTopiKd TrXoia, tacoc; Xtyo ^EtpoTEpo. 

Zto ALtpoupyo TrapaXd|3afXE Eva TEpdcmo cpopTto otto aaLfrrdviEt; 
rat XiKEp yia tt] NoTia AjiEpiKfj. 5 Vj 6 |i£p£c; acpoToi' acpi]aaLt£ xr\ 
TEpfiavia, |iTTOi'KdXia dp^taav va avotyow crra Scopxma tcov |3a6- 
piocpopcov' teXiko to 1810 <juve|3i] aKOLta kqi Tidvco crui] yEcpupa tou 
ttXoiou Kai oX6i<Xi]pa Ktpama nTr' xa Bav[iaoia aXKodkovya PpijKav 
to Spopio yia tic; Ka|iTTiv£c; tou TrXi]pc6|.iaToc;. 

'Otqv to cpopTto TrapaS66r|K£, aTTOKaXucp9i]K£ oti air' to OaKdpa 
eXeittqv TTEptTTOU ekqto Kipama oTTLiTrdviac;, koulieX Km dXXcov TTOTCOV. 
O yEpoc; (o KaTiETavio^) r'l^EpE, cpuaiKa, Tt ei^e aTroytvEi to £|ttto- 
pEi'l^a Ttoi' eXeitte. AXXd, \ie ct^eSov 6X0 to TTXrjpcoLia vn ov[i\iexe-)[_ei 
o£ Ltta ^aXapi] auvcoLtoata evovtiov tod, 8ev |ATTopoua£ va anoSEi^Ei 

TITTOTQ. (...) 

Eto toS;i8i ttjc; ETTiaTpo(pi](; tou <jto A|iPoupyo, to cpopTto xov 
Oara^ci 6a t]tov kottoioi tovoi KaT£i|/i!y|i£Vou KpraToc;. 

Mia LlEpa KaiTOlOC; Epi^E t'TTEpPoXlKl] TTOaOTl]Ta TTETpEXaiOU OTOT'c; 

cpoupvow; tou |ii]^avooTaa(ou. H cpcoTtd TtETayoTav, £Xa|iTT£ e^w an 
xa cpouydpa Kai KauTO Xd8i ^uvotov a£ oXokXtipo to ttXoio. H cparad 
KaTEOTp£i|;£ Eva |i£ydXo piEpoc; tt]c; dvco Sofirjc;, au|XTTEpiXa|ipavo|i£- 
vcov tcov TTEpiaaoTEpuv ococttikcov XEfxpcov, ttjc; yEcpi'pac; Kat titc; at- 
6ot<aac; TrXoTJyijaijc;. 

'Otov PpiaKO|^aaTav aKOLta apKETEc; |.i£p£c; |.iaKpid an' to A|iPoup- 
yo, o |ii])[aviK6c; EKai|/£ to SwaLio, ottote yia to uttoXoitto Tai;(8i to 
ttXoio 8ev ei^£ cpwTa Kat Sev i'ttt'ip^e aXkoi; Kpuoc; aEpac; yia xk; aco- 
XtJvec; tj/ij^iic;. 

(...) 

ATT£t^a|i£ TTEptTiou \iia |i£pa and ti] MaSEtpa, otov 01 fxi]^av£t; 
T£8i]Kav e£, oXoKXi'jpou ektoc; XEtTOupyta^. n£piTTXavi]9r]Ka|i£ yta \iia 
|i£pa Kat Ltta vu^Ta, 6ao to ttXoio ETTiaKEi'a^oTav ottw^-ottwc; etch 
wote va |iTrop£aou|i£ va TudaoT'|X£ aTt] MaSEtpa, ottou ETat ki aXXtcot; 
8e 8a utti'ip^e t] 8iivaTOTi]Ta yta ektetojievec; ETrtaKEUEt;. Ta 8wa|i6, 
an' oti cpatvoTav, tjtov teXeiwc; KaT£aTpa|i|i£va. 



152 



Safinojd^ Ktti "Aneoyia ti/v a>gn ing Epyaaiag" 

Me to otiaTijiia i|/i>i;i]c; va jxtj XErroupyEi, to KaT£i|A<y|.i£vo KpEac; 
apyioE va ^ETcaywvEi kcu va |M)p££ei. MeydXo \iipoc, nov cpopTiou ava- 
yKaaTiKa (.layEipEirrijKE VJ ttetci^ttike. 

Oi rovofXTiAn; aaTEiEuovrav ^lETa^iJ toth;, iiTToXoyi^ovrac; Tioaa 9a 
TT/Vi]pcov£ i] Kuf3Epvi)ai] tcov HELA yia to KaTEaTpajifiEvo cpopTio. 

Kcittoii e^co an tic; oktec; ttjc; OXXavSiac; Ta aTtoBEjiaTa TTETpE- 
Xaiou teXeicooov, ottote to tiXoio pu|xouAkt]9t]ke oto Anf3oi5pyo. Me 
tic; avaKpi'aEic; ttou aKoXouBiiaav o KaTTETavioc; o^eSov Tp£Xd9r|K£. 
TeXiko o C5ioc; aTiaXXd^TTjKE, evc6 Kd-iroioi f3a6|xocp6poi cpuXaKi'cro]Kav 
Kai aTEpr]9r]Kav Ta 8iTiXc6|.iaTd toix;. 

To OaKaf3a £TriSiop9c69i]K£ apKETa yia va TraEi Tiiaco otic; HEIA, 

OTTOU HETa<pEp9l]KE OE EVO «VEKpOTa<pElO TlXoiCOV» OTO OTTOIO rj8r| 

wnr\pyav EKaTovrdSEc; dXXa TiXoia a£ 65^1 KaXuTEpi] KaTaoTaai]. 

'Evac; cpi'Xoc; \iov air' to TTArjpco|xa, jieXoc; tcov B. E. K., [iov eitte: «Ae 
9a Linopouaav va ravouv KaXuTEpo oa\moxaC, aKO|.ia ki av 6X01 kotco 
air' tov KaiiETdvio r]Tav TouolittXic; r\ KO|.i|iouvioT£c;. AXXi]Xouia!» 



T.E Eva Epyocyrdaio SavTfiXac; ottjv El£vauX|3dvia ottoti 8ouX£\|/a 
yia Xfyo, f3pi']Ka touc; EpydTEc;, i8icoc; touc; dvTpEc;, as da^i]Lii] Sid9£ar|. 
H SioiKiiai] ETTiTd^cvE tic; |iT])[avEc; avayKa^ovrac; touc; EpyaTEc; va 
8ouXeijouv 6X0 Kai ypijyopoTEpa lie tov 1S10 |iia96, |te aTTOTEXEaiia 
va cndp^Et ^lEydXo aafXTioTd£ tcov iiij^avcov' 01 apyaXfiioi UTT£aTT]oav 
KaTaaTpocpEc;' otic; LiEydXEc; fxij^avEc; 01 §£p|.idTivoi i^idvrEc; kottiikov 
[ie i;updcpia. O ETTiaTdTijc; KaTi]y6pT]o£ «auTouc; touc; prdaTapSouc; 
touc; KO|^nouviaT£c;». Ze apKETOuc; koli^evouc; Sfip^idTivouc; iLidvTEc;, 
Eva Ttpcoi, f3pE9i]KE ypa^ifiEvi] i] cppdoi] «XdKO Kai BavTa£Ti» [ie daTrpi] 
Ki^coXi'a. 

AouX£i|;a oe Tpia rj TEaaEpa EaTiaTopia ott] Neo YopKi] Kai to 
EIira|.iTTOupYK Kai oi)vdvTT]aa to aa|iiroTd£ TouXd^iaTOv oto Suo nn' 
auTd. Eto Eva, Evac; Koi^ouviaTfjc; XavT^£pi]c; Tipiv oyoXaoEi e^uve 
TioXXd KOUTid Kr]po^i'vT] |^£aa as (3ap£Xia |te c^d^apr], Kai oupouaE 
I^Eaa a£ KifJcoTia Taayioii Kai KacpE. EKEcpTi]Ka ttcoc; 9a Tri'iyaivE ano 
8oi'X£id oe 5ocX£id KdvovTac; to i5io TtpdyLia. 

T.E Eva EpyooTaaio TraTrocTaicov oto MiXyouoKi \iov eSei^ov Evav 
dvTpa ttou r']Tav vvcootoc; oe ^lEpiKouc; arvaSEXcpouc; xov coc; aa|.iTTOT£p. 
'Htov sva aTO|io |^e EKKEvrpiKi] E(XcpdvxoT|, ttou ^iiaouoE tic; iri)xav£c; 



153 



A mauling: H Iarogia jtjg T/i^najg Bing aim Afisoitcrj 



rai Et^e EtpEupEi oXouc; touc; TpoTiouc; yia va touc; TrpoKnAsi (3Xci(3ec;. 
'Hxav eva araGopiaTO eiSoc; pi^ocnrdcm], ttou GficopouaE tic; [t\]yav£(; 
|iia |ieydXi] Kaxdpa yia tt]v avGpwTTOTijTa. 

ZwdvTi]cja auTO to paoc; yia tic; |.u]^av£c; Kai aXXoii. Avrpsc; kqte- 
cp£uyava£ 8idipop£c; fxopcpEc; oa^TcoTd^TO ottoio 8ev ei^e rafxia a^Eai] 
|i£ touc; Biofxij^aviKouc; EpyaTEc; tou Koa^iou r\ |te tov Ko|i(j.ouvto|x6, 
aXXd i]iav KaGapd ^i]Ti]|^n TcpoacoTTiKTJc; |TVT]aiKaKi'ac; Kai ekS£kt|ot|c;. 
'E^co 8ei dvTpEc; 01 ottoioi — kottoiec; cpopEc; \ieQvo\ievoi, KdnoiEc; cpo- 
p£c; vr|cpdXioi— KaTapiovTouoav tic; |.ii]^av£c; Kai, TiEpvcovTac; SmXa 
touc;, kouvouotxv aiTEiXijTiKd tic; ypoGiEc; touc; Trpoc; outec; SijXc&vovrac; 
touc; ttcoc; 8ev t]tov oxXdpoi touc;. KoGe ^lEydXi] piopj^avia cpaivETat 
ttcoc; e^ei «Tp£Xouc;» ttou TiiaTEiJouv oti oi p]%av£c; Eivat £covtqv£c; Kai 
KpaTavE touc; EpyaTEc; kotw air' tt]v £t;ouaia touc;. 

Aiyo i^etq tov tt6Xe|.io, Sidpaaa — 8e Gu^a^ai ttou— yia Evav a^i£- 

piKQVO aTpaTlWTl] -EVQV «Tp£X6»— TTOU TTIOTEUE OTI Ol (iT]^ClV&; OKO- 

twvouv avBpcoTiouc; coc; ekSiktjot] yia tt] SouXeio ttou 01 dvGpamoi tic; 
(3d£ouv va ravouv. «ZTanaTTJcrr£ tic; |.u]^av£c;», oSupoTav Tpau|iaTi- 
a|i£voc; a£ Eva voaoKojiEio, «Kai Se 8a uirdp^si dXXoc; ttoXe^oc;. Oi 
|ii]X av £? Kdvouv tov ttoXe^o -oi fxij^avEc; |.iac; okotuvouv». 

V 

Tt) SEKOETiaTou 1920 01 jiEyaXoi Kai or<Xi]poi EpyaTiKoi i;£ai]Kco|ioi 
i]iav a^ETiKd Xiyoi otic; HEIA, aXXd o ayuvac; twv |xi] e^ovtcov Evd- 
vria qtouc; e^ovtec; auvE^i'aTi]KE a8idKOTioc; Kai to 1810 a|.iEiXiKTOc;' 
|i6vo ttou Tcopa TTia 8ev £K<ppa£oTav [i£ avoi^TEc; E^9poTrpai;i£c;. Etitv 
ETTicpdvEia to Trpdy|iaTa E^oia^av Vjau^a, aXXd unoyEia oi EpyaTEc; 
|ioXuvovrav |^e to fxiKpopia tou aa|.iTTOTd£ Kai ttjc; «aTTEpyiac; Ti]v copa 
tt|c; 6ouXEidc;». 

Ytti']p^e, OTicoa8i]TiOT£, EvaTEpdaTio avopydvcoTO pi^oaTiaaTiKO ki- 
vT]|^a, ttou TTEpiXd|iPavE EKaTOjifrupia EpyaTEc; ttou PpiaKovTav ektoc; 
twv auvSiKaTcov Kai tcov oooraXicrriKcov Koii^dTuv, ei8ikeu|.ievouc; koi 
avEiSiKEUTOuc;, ttou o KaGsvac; |ie to Siko tou ato|AiKd TE^vda^iaTa 
TrpooTraGouaE va KaXuTEpEuaEi tt] ^cot] tou KaGcoc; koi va ek8ikt]Ge( 
Eva auaTi^ia ttou ^pi]ai|^OTroioua£ tov dvGpcoTio fxovo OTav o kottoc; 

TOU ECpEpvE KEpSl] OTOV EpyoSoTT], TTOU TOV dcpTJVE VO TTfiGdvEl TTJC; 



154 



Safinojd^ Ktti "Aneoyia ti/v a>gn ing Epyaaiag" 



Tieivac; oxav utttjp^e nAeovnafia TTapayuyTJc; Kai xeXiko tov TTExayE 
axo 8p6|io oxav yEpvoiiaE. 

O pi^oa-naaiia\i6(; xov Epydxi] xupa £|3piaK£ TrpoacoTTiKrj EKtppaai] 
axo va KdvEl oao XiyoxEpa ^nroporaE \i£ to |^ia96 ttou ErcaipvE Kai 
axo va a-rraxaXaEi oaa TTEpiaaoxEpa uXira \mopovae. O pi^oairaaxi- 
o|^6^ xupa 8ev ei^e KavEva KoivuvtKO opa^a Kai okotto' xo Ki'vijxpo 
xou rjxav a-rrXd i] TrpoacoTriKT] ek8{ki]oi]. 

Auxou xou EiSout; o pi£oanaaxia|i6^ owe^ei va imdp^Ei Kai ar\- 
I^Epa. Oi EpydxEc; Eivai kwikoi. Oi mo e!;uttvoi an' auxou^ 8ev e^ouv 
rapa E|^TTiaxoai5vT] oxr]v ttoXixiki']. XXEi'd^ow xo aoaiaXiaxiKO k6|x- 
[ia, i8ia<; oaoi ait' auxouc; E^aav otto kovxo xi^ avaTroxEXEafxaxiKEc; 
TtpaKxtKEc; xuv T]y£xuv xou. Aev ejow E^TciaxoouvT] axo auvSiraXi- 
a|i6' oi TTEpioaoxEpoi ttou av\i\i£x£jow axa auvSiKaxa aU|A|i,£TE3(ouv 
etteiSt] TrpETTEi, etteiSt] auxo xov raipo xa auvSiraxa aKO\ia eAey^ouv 
KaTroia £Trayy£X|iaxa. Hfipouv oxi 01 T]y£X£<; xou^ Eivai auaxEtovE^. 
'Ejco qkouoei jieXt] va anoKaXow xoi^ a^icofraxoij^ov^ aTraxEuvE^ 
cmo xi]v E^sSpa tt|c; auvSiraXiaxiKrjt; auvdvxT]OT]c;, Kai va avatps- 
povxai axi^ opyavwaEi^ xouc; |^e xo ^apaKxiipiafid «EKf3iaax£c;». Aev 
e^ouv ttioxt] a£ Kdnoio KaXuxEpo |.ieXXov yia xouc; Eauxouc; xovq ax; 
xd^i], evco xi]v i'8ia axiyni] aiaBdvovxai oxi Eivai «Kapcpco|^£voi» —oxi 
oi TTEpioaoxEpoi an' auxou(; Eivai Kaxa5iKaa|i£voi ott' xi] |ioipa va 
Trapa^iEivoi'v EpydxE^ ^E^pi va yi'vouv UTT£p|3oXiKd yEpoi yia va |iiro- 
poiiv va 8ouXei5ouv. 

Exi^ apyei; xov KaXoraipiou xou 1930, oi iSiokxtjxe^ tov opyavco- 
|i£vcov KatpEVEi'cov xi]t; Neo^ YopKT]^ Kai xou MttpoiikXiv eScootiv X1]V 
TrXT]po(popia oxi aa|inoxEp avdfiEaa otouc; uttoXXtjXouc; xovq oTcaxa- 
Xoiiv i] raxaaxp£(pouv xpo<pi|.ia ai;ia^ ano 1 coc; 2 ekox. SoXdpia koGe 
%povo. 

To aanTioxd^ Kai i] «aTT£pyi'a xttv wpa xi]^ £pyaai'ac;» Eivai |.iopcp£<; 
xt]c; £K5iKr]ar]c; ttot' airaixEi i] EpyaxiKi] xd^i] xi]<; A|^£piKT]c; — xucpXd, 
aauva(a9T]xa, aTT£XTTia|.iEva- yia xi]v avuTro^upiixi], aTrdvBpuTTi] 
avxiSpaaT] xcov EpyoSoxcov axoui; aywv£(; xt]^ Kaxd xo Trap£X96v. 



155 








X 



-- 




Mm 




OOTOrPAOIEE 
KAI 2KITZA 



Skitoo xor John Sloan e(ittvei'0(ievo 
cmo xa Y£Y°™ xa <Tto AdvxAooi) tod 
KoAopavxo (1914), 8t]|.iooieii(ievo 
oto TTEpto8n<6 The Masses (Iouvioc;, 
1914). 



0a-i 



TOYOlKflieC Kill ZKlTail 



oyptupieg 



Sidji 




Oi MeyaAEt; E^ey^P oe "; (1877), SiKnyo 



S 






^ 









. : -;.l 




To 60 £rvray(ia orpaToi: etadBetax oxoi'i; auEpyoi't;, BaXxmopt] (1877) 




158 



0(0, 



Tovoaqnec km. AKiTan 



oygaipiEg 



Sum 




159 



0a-i 



TOYOiKoiec Km AKiTaa 



oyoiupie^ 



Siihi 



Attention Wortinnn! 



MASS-MEETING 

TO-NIGHT, at 7.30 o'clock, 



rAT TrTEi"TJ7™" 



HAYMAEKET, BaBfloljh St, Bet. Besplai Bes ifl Wei 

Good Speakers will be present to denounce the latest 

atrocious act of toe police, the shooting* of our 

fellow-workmen yesterday afternoon. 

Wojkinpen km Yourselves and Appear in Full Force! 

THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 



H TrpoKi5pr|^r| ttou KUKXo(p6pT]0£ (i£xd xa yEyovoxa tt]<; 3t]<; Mar] 1886 
Kai KnXouoE touc; EpynTEc; as 8i'va(Uio] Tiapouafa ott] auYKEvrpcoai]. 



H f?6p(?a oro XeijiapKET, SiKayo (1886) s^* 




160 



0(0, 



oypatpiEg Km Sichaa 



Workingmen, to Arms!!! 

Tvnr m»UH Ht»t out their bloodhound i — thi -pollca - J tiny XiH*d aJa£ of tomT 
hntliin ht MoOcM-mirka tbLa rn.lv r.0 OOD ■ Tbay kLl.|*d tb* £441' wrttflbti, bfCHUt* tta't J. 
Ilk;* you, had ibu courage to dUabay LJa.fr lupnni* -will of y-jw bo mi. Tboy fcL'lad 
titan, bmr»Li" , j ihry ditnt a*Jc for tha ahortfruul of the hour* or toll, Tiany* fcMrc] tbeul 
ta "how you, ■ HV*'** AiAnH«titi C WWU lff toal you ■»«•*• be. nthflnl and 
tt7Btend*d Wltb whltflTfT fHCT ba*iM cionilitetm] tfl frJ]OW you, or 7«U will get klllfrd [ 
You havfr for yanre frudurvu thn rcieai a.bjnct humiliation* ; you b*T* for ye&ra 
Buffered unnifcuoribi* lalqultltp; you ta»T» wurktd, ygurialf to death; you be,ve endured 
Th.fr nanfe of wut and hunger, yo ax Cb lid MB you bar* ■ecrl.FJcfrd to toe faclui-y-tuj-da — 
In abort: You Hive been nilaerabl* and obedtant *J*T* all thn* yeera: Why t To tatiiry 
the lnaetlable #ro*d r lo All the coffer* of your luy tblevLDK nteatert Vhtu you aik i±l*eh 
tow to I*bh*s your burden, ba ■odd* hia bloodhonnda-out lo iboot you, kill you ! 

If you ar min, If you aro the eona of your Brand iliil, wins have abed their blooal to frH 
Jou L then you will He* L yourmJjrht. Hvrcultn, and daalroy tha hldt^m momitr tLit, 
aetka 10 ttfiiruyyau. To ■■run ni call you, to irmal 



■an ^ Mm ^ j 



taa ^ ^ ^ ■ 



// n£Qup?]fit] SiyXcoaafj nQOiaJQvfyj nov dnoSiSeTdi arov 'AXfineQT Xndig, Kdi SidVEjirjOrjKe dfteaoiq fiEzd Td 
yeyovojd ttj^ 3?jg Mdiov top 1886, Kdrd Td onoid SoXocpovr/Or/Kdv and tj/v darvvofiid 6 epydTeg Krti TQdvfidTi- 
arr/Kdv noXXoi neQiauoTEQOi. JldQdBejovjie rr/v eXXypinrj fiETdcpQdaf] dno ttj jmQoaovQd 'HIKAFO 1886', top 
£. FieXeVy dno Tig enSdaeig ORA NIHIL: 

EKAIKHXH! 

EPrATES ETA OIIAA!!! 

T' acp£VTiKd aac; E^ajisXvoav xa oKnXid Tout;, tt|v aaTuvo[ii'a Kai 8oXocpdvr|aav si;i ano xa aSspcpia 
\ia<; orj[i£pa to airdyEUfia orou Mqk KopfUK. ^KOTtoaav t' d[ioipa aSspcpia \ia<; yian ottco^ Kai oea; 
Ei^av to Koupdyio va |n]v uttqkouoouv orr]v avcoTaTij 0£Xi]oi] tcov atpevTiKtov oa<;. Touq oKOTCooav 
yiQTi ToApijGav v' aitatT^aouv ti] peuooi] tcov copcov aKXafiidc;. Toug okotcooqv yia va ano8£i'^ouv oe 
oac; xoug "EXeijOepoug A[i£piKavouc; noXiTEc;" oti ttpettei va £iaaar£ iKavonou](t£voi [i£ oti5t']ttot£ 
aiTotpaoioouv va aac; £niTp£i|/ouv aAXicot; 0a Ti£9dv£T£! 

E5co Kai }(p6via ucpioTaaGE tic; nio ^u8ai£c; TaTT£ivcoo£ic;, e8co Kai ^povia uirocpEpETE a[iETpi]Ta ttXt'iy- 
jiaTa, a^iETpi]TEc; aSiideg, Epya^ooaoTE jiE^pi avaio0T]aiac;, unocpEpETE and touc; ttovouc; tt]c; Ev8Eiac; 
Kai Ti]c; TTEi'vac;' Ta Ttai8id oac; Ta 0uoidoaT£ otov acpEVTi] tijc; cpdpnpiKac; - [i£ Xiya Xdyia 6Xa avTa 
Ta ^povia i]oaoTav 8i i otu^io[1£voi Kai uiraKouoi oicXdpoi. TiaTi; Tia va iKavoTToir']OET£ ti]v a8Tj)tpdya 
cpdpa, yia va yspioETE Ta ^pi][iaTOKi(?toTia xou Konpmj, kXecpti] atpEvri) oac;; 'Otov Ttopa tou ^i]- 
TaTE va aac; EXacpptooEi to cpopTi'o oac;, oteXvei Ta XaycoviKa tou yia va oac; nnpof5oXi']oonv, va aac; 
okotwoouv! 

Av EioaoTE dvrpEc;, av Ei'aaoTE TEKva tcov TraT£pd8tov aac; Ttou E^uoav to aipa touc; yia va oac; eXeu- 
0£pcooouv, tote 0a OT|Ktoo£T£ t' avdoTr]^id oac;, 0a 8ei'^ete ti] Suvapi] oac; Kai 0a KaTaoTp£i|/£T£ eoei'c; 
to aTiaioio TEpac; non 0eXei va oac; KaTaoTpEij/Ei. ^Ta dnXa, oac; KaXou[iE ora dnXa! 



T' AAEPOIA 2.AX 



0m 



lovoaqnec km AKiraa 



oyompieq 



Hldli 



Oi Avap^iKoi too SiKay 




Mi^arjA £(3a|iTT 

(Michael Schwab) 



A56A<poc; <Pio£p 

(Adolph Fischer) 



T^copT^ 'EvyKeA 

(George Engel) 



162 



0a-i 



Toyoaqnec Kill AKiTan 



oygaipiEg 



Sum 



'©a eqOei KdiQog nov tj oiconrj jid^ da eivai mo Svvajtj 
an ' Ti<; (payee; nov orgayyaXi^ere ar/fiega. " 




Ta TEAsivraia Xoyia too Aryouarov Sirdu; nplv o5i]yi]6£l cm]v ayxovij. 
H (ppdoi] aiytfj avaypdq>£Tal cn][i£pa oro (ivi][i£lo tg>v MapTupov tou StKayo (Trdvco). 



163 



0a-i 



Toyoacpiec km 2,Kiraa 



oyoiupie^ 



Slihi 




H auoTTEipa 8oAo<povi'ac; xov Xsvpi KAei OpiK 
cmo xov VEapo avapyitco A. MTTEpKpnv (1892). 



104 



0(0, 



Tovoaqnec km. AKiTan 



oygaipiEg 



Sum 




O KAdp£v<; Nxdpoor (towcd) omjp^E auvrjyopoi; imEpdoraaT]^ tcov a8ep(pc6\ 
MakNa|.idpa aAAd mi xou "Mmy*" MttiX Xeiyouvr (raTco) . 




165 



0a-i 



Toyoacpiec km 2,Kiraa 



oyoiupie^ 



Slihi 




166 



#&n 



Toyoaqnec Kill AKiTan 



oygaipiEg 



Sum 



SuyKEvrpcooi] tow Bio(iT]^aviKcov Epyaxcov ion Koajior (Xav OpavxafoKo). 




Oi "Ko^nKoi" ev 8pdaEi, Kaxd tt] SidpKEia tcov MEydAcov E^EyEpascov (1877). 



167 



0a-i 



oyoatpies Km Sxhaa 



H TatpT] XOl' roUEaXEt 'EfSEpEOX, CTTO XT]V ETTOTTTEIQ X>|<; sBvOCppOl'pdc;. 

To cpspExpo Kaxaakxuaaav Kai LiEXscpspav XEaaspic; Kpaxoi5(i£voi, (ieXi] xcov B.E.K. 







Industrial Worker* 



i myr to ow b ah hjubt to all- 



DEATH FRUIT OF MONTHS OF LAWLESSNESS 

|H VI Our Vunhrid 
Would L^jJIIt Ml** 



F«R#» ff *rt n lor EIH 
■•» VvjHja* rtTMr 



_ ThiB tnf Words at ■ IlM Cl |i el Ih* 
Mine* ■! tlM nwi thin On* Hmdrtd 

LUit,Th*lr 1*904 - L*»t Hd *■ Enil*¥infl 
g1 *lk WnrtK*' 0ri*MtU*a«. 




(ApioxEpd: E^cotpi'AAo xtjc; Ecpi](i£pi8ac; 
' Bwfir/xaviicog Eoyihrj^ ', ett{ot|(io evxu- 
tto xcov B.E.K.) 

Sxic; 5 No£(i(?pi'ov xoc 1916, oi xora- 
kec; ap^Ec; aXXd Kai ttXi']9i] ottXioiievcov 
avxpcov Exrixi'Oovxai oe TouoiittXh; ttoi> 
KaxacpOdvoov (i£ nXoidpio axo 'E(3e- 
psx xr]t; Oi'doivyKxov Kai okoxcovocv 
7 ano acxouc;. IiEpfTTOii 300 iieXt] 
xcov B.E.K. Ei'/av auocpaaiosi va xa- 
^i8£i|/ow (lE/pi ekei yia va ou(iTrapa- 
axaBoiJV axi]v ttoXi5(it]v>| axiEpyi'a xcov 
aavi8oT[piovioxc6v. 



168 



0(0, 



Tovoaqnec km. AKiTan 



oygaipiEg 



Sum 




169 



A vviifihr/g: H IaTogia rr/<; Ta£,najc; Biac; cttt/v Aftsoinrj 




O £d(lOU£A rKO[lTTEpt; (KEVTpo) ETTlOKETTTETal 

tovc, Tt,h\ic, MaKNa(idpa (apiarepa) Km T^cov MaKNn(idpa axi]v tpvXaKi]. 



170 



0(0, 



Tovoaqnec km. AKiTan 



oygaipiEg 



Sum 




(H 5l£i39ovoi] £TT£ppl\|/£ Ti]v EoOuvi] OTlq 'EpyaTlKXt; avaTapa^Et;'...^ 




171 



EYPETHPIO 



A8EX(pOTT]Ta 0Ep(iaaTCOV 

(Firemen's Brotherhood), 60 

AAsyKEvi (Allegheny), 12 

AAst;avSpo<; o B', Tadpo<; xi|c; 

Pcoai'cu;, 40 

Afynrcpx, T^cck (Albert, lack), 137 

AAxvkeAx, T£ov (Altgeld John), 62, 

63 

A(i£piKdviKi] Aevecovci (American 

Legion), 115, 120, 121, 124 

AjieqiKilviKfj NofiiKij Em0£(o,or/<rr/ 

(American Law Review), 18 

A(i£plKdvlKl] 2l8l]po5pO|llKl| 'Evcoai) 

(American Railway Union), 59, 60, 

61,62,63 

AjieqiKiivmo^ YSoAoyvpoc {American 

Mercury), 89 

A(i£piKdviKi] 0(iooT[Ov8i'n Epyacn'cK;, 

A.O.E. (American Federation of 

Labor, A.F.L.), 53, 54, 55, 64, 75, 

76,79,81,82,85,93, 100, 101, 

103, 104, 131, 140 

A(l£plKdvlKl] 0(lOOT[Ov8{n Moi'OlKCOV 

(American Federation of Musicians), 

137 

Avap^iKi] 0(ioaT[Ov8i'a xou Ioupa 

(Jura Anarchist Federation), 37 

B 

BdivutiEpyK, 'IopaE^ (Weinberg, 
Israel), 112, 113 



BctrapEAAi, Avxovio (Vaccarelli, 

Antonio), 137 

Bav ndxEv, <PiAm (van Patten, 

Philip), 39 

BioinixoviKi] Enavdaxaai] 

(Industrial Revolution), 15 

Bio(ii|^aviKoi EpydxE<; xoi> K6a(iot', 

B.E.K. (Industrial Workers of the 

World), 67, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, 

115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 

124, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 153, 

154 

Bia(iapK (Bismarck), 35 



Teviki'] 'Evtoan Ai£i'9uvxc6v (General 

Managers' Association), 64 

Tio^avaEv, Avxov 

(Johannsen, Anton), 87 

TKaXEdvi (Galleani), 125 

Trapi, T^o^Ecp, A. 

(Gary, Joseph A.), 50 

rKiyi6(i (Guillaume), 37 

rKoXvx(iav, 'E(i(ia 

(Goldman, Emma), 57 

rKO|m£pc;, £d(iot!£A (Gompers, 

Samuel), 54, 55, 75, 81, 86, 101, 

102, 110, 131, 132 

rKoi'Avx, T^ei (Gould, lay), 26 

TKpm, Tot'dpEv (Grimm, Warren 

O.), 119, 120 

Todikk;, T. X. (Wickes, T.H.), 61 

rom'Avxi, KnpA (Wildey, Carl), 135 



173 



EvgETtjglO 



Tov6\vnk\.c, (Wobblies), (f5A. Bioim- 
^qvikoi EpydxE<; xoi' K6a(iou) 



AieOvtjc; 'Evcoai] xtov Epyaxcov rEtpu- 

pcov rat KaxaaKEt'cov 

(The International Association of 

Bridge and Structural Iron Workers), 

82, 85, 87, 99, 103 

AieOvtjc; 'Evcoai] MapayKtov 

(International Carpenters' Union), 

45 

Ai'xikt] 0(iooTtov8ia AvOpctKopifytov 

(Western Federation of Miners), 67, 

68,71,72,75, 81 



'EpEpsox roi'EaAEi (Everest Wesley), 

120 

EGviKi] 'Evcoai] EpyoAd(3cDv 

(National Erectors' Association), 83, 

85, 87, 99 

EKK/Lr/on yia to A into 

(Appeal to Reason), 22 

EXevOepia (Freiheii), 40 

EAi'a, Po(iTt£pxo (Elia, Roberto), 124 

'EvyKsX, T£copx£ (Engel George), 50, 

51,52 

'EvyKeAc;, cpptvxpi^ 

(Engels Frederick) 38 

Evco(ievoi £i8i]po8p6|ioi 

xoi! £av <t>pavxaiaKO (United 

Railroads of San Francisco), 110 

Efyyeooetc otic FloXeic Kai n Kma- 

ojohj tovc (Riots in Cities and Their 

Suppressiori) , 35 

EmoTijftn tov EnavatnajiKov FIo- 

Xifiov, H (Science of Revolutionary 

Warfare — A Manual of Instruction 

in the Use and Preparation of 

Nitroglycerine, Dynamite, Gun- 



Cotton, Fulminating Mercury, Bombs, 
Fuses, Poisons, etc. , etc) 40 

Em(lOp<pC0XlKOl KCU A(UlVXlKOl £uA- 

Xoyot (Lehr mid Wehr Vereine), 43 
EpynxE<; £i8i']pou (Iron Workers), 
(|3X. Aie8vv|<; 'Evcoai) xcov Epyaxcov 
rEtpt'pcov Kai KaxaaKEticov) 
EpydxE<; £i8i']pou rai AxaaAioti (Iron 
and Steel Workers), 55 
EpyoSoxiKoc; £uv£xaipia|io<; xnc; 
EIoAixEiai; xnc; Ot'daivyKxov 
(Employers' Association of the Stae 
of Washington), 118, 119 
Ept'Bpoc; Sxat'poc; (Red Cross), 118 
ExnipEia TKa^iotJ Kai AvOpara 
FkAevxccA (Glendale Gas & Coal 
Company), 133 

ExnipEia Poi'^iojioti A£(3ivaov (L. B. 
Levinson Clothing Company), 133 
Efnfteoifia tov Ejmopiov (Journal of 
Commerce), 12 

'Exop Kai T£o(3avrn (Ettor & 
Giovannitti), 125 
E<pi](i£p(8a xor Epydxi], H (Die 
Arbeiter Zeitung), 40, 41, 45, 46, 
47,50 



OdiEp, Airaaxiji; (Thayer, Judge), 
127, 128 



'IvyKEp, Nx. A. (Ingher, D. A.), 134 

'IvyKEpaoA, PoiixtEpx 

(Ingersoll, Robert), 52 

ImroxEc; tiic, Epyaaiac; (Knights of 

Labor), 46, 49 



K 



KaxrovE, AA (Capone, Al), 139, 140 



174 



Evgmfgio 



KdpvEx^i, ExcupEia AxaaAiou 
(Carnegie Steel Company), 55, 56 
KdpvEx^i, Avxpiou (Carnegie, 
Andrew), 56 

Kapvxyov>6pvxiv, Fout'AAia(i 
(Cardwardine, William), 61 
KeAi, noA (Kelly, Paul) (|3A. Bqkq- 
PeXXi, Avxovto) 

Kiytcav, T^ov (Keegan, lohn), 102 
K/Vi(3£/VavT, npoE8pO(; (Cleveland 
Grover), 62, 63 

KAivtov MttAok, ExcupEia (Clinton 
Block Coal Company), 134 
Ko^okoi (Cossacks), 76, 77 
K6(i(io tov> EXeuOepoi' E8dcpoi>c; 
(Free Soil Party), 17 
KopEt; ti]<; ApEpiKdviKnc; Ertavd- 
axaar]t; (Daughters of the American 
Revolution), 124 
KponoTKiv (Kropotkin), 37 



Aa Xak Kdp(iTtov, Exaipsi'a (La Salle 

Carbon Coal Company), 134 

AdvxAoov, Stpayrj (Ludlow 

Massacre), 105, 106 

Ae(iei, Oraxpo (Lemay Theater), 136 

Ae^oi BdXei, £iSi|po8po(UKi] Exai- 

pEi'o (Lehigh Valley Railroad), 150 

AivyK, Aotuc; (Lingg, Louis), 45, 50, 

51,52,57,132 

Aovkciv, Oraxpo (Logan Theater), 

136 

AoivxAotiic. (Lloyd Lewis), 33, 62 

M 

Md8£p T£6oi'v<; (Mother Jones), 107 

Mcik iKpo, (pA. Mok MdvxyKaX, 

'Opxi) 

Mok KdpGt', LldxpiK (McCarthy, 



Patrick, H, "Pinhead"), 90 

Max Kt'vAi', rov)(XXia|i, LIp6£8po<; 

(McKinley, William), 69 

Mok KXdaKi, MoikA (McClusky, 

Michael), 137 

Mok KoppiK PittEp, ExaipEia 

KaxaaKEt'tov (McCormick Reaper 

Works), 33, 45, 46, 47 

Mok AdcpAiv, T^eijk; (McLoughlin, 

James), 140 

Mok MdviyKoA, 'Opxi (McManigal, 

Ortie), 99, 100 

Mok Md^ov, T£ov (McMahon, 

John), 134 

MaK Na(idpo, T^sipc. (McNamara, 

James), 86, 87, 91, 93, 99, 100, 101, 

102, 103, 104 

Mok Napdpo, T^ov (McNamara, 

John), 86, 87, 91, 93, 99, 100, 101, 

102, 103, 104 

Max Na(idpo, YxroOEai] (McNamara 

Case), 109, 131, 132 

MdKXavx, Oraxpo (Mackland 

Theater), 136 

Mapt,, KapA (Marx Karl) 38, 143 

Maupn Aie9vi']<; ("Black 

International"), 49 

MiyKEp (Meagher), 141 

MOAEp (Miller, Edward W.), (|3A. 

£(uvx) 

MixoeA, T^cov (Mitchell, John), 75 

MCxaiyKCCv ^EvxpaA, £i8t]po8po- 

(uki'i ExaipEia (Michigan Central 

Railroad), 32 

M6A1 Mayrcovidipc; (Molly 

Maguires), 15-23, 29, 86, 132 

MoAivco, Sxpnxnyoc; (Molineux, 

General E.L.), 35 

MovxyKO(iEpi, TaapAc; 

(Montgomery, Charles), 135 

Movxcpopx, Avxovi (Montforte, 

Anthony), 137 

MopyKav, T£ov LlipTtovx (Morgan, 



175 



EvgETtjglO 



John Pierpont), 146 

Moot, Tio^av (Most Johann) 37, 

39, 40, 42 

MoiivE'i, Pevci (Mooney, Rena), 112, 

113, 114 

Mouvei, T6(iac; (Mooney, Thomas J.) 

(PA. MmAAivyK^-MoiJVEi, YnoBEai]), 

110, 112, 113, 114 

"M-rTayKc;" Mopnv (Moran "Bugs" 

George), 140 

Mttcikouviv (Bakunin), 37, 40 

MTrdXTi(iop & O/dio, 52i8i]po8po- 

(UKi] Exaipeia (Baltimor & Ohaio 

Railroad), 29, 31, 150 

M-rrdvKEp XiXk, ExaipEia (Bunker 

Hill Company), 68 

Mttapvc;, roiu'Aia|i (Burns, William, 

J.), 87, 99, 100, 101, 102 

M-n:EpYK|inv, AAE^dvrEp (Berkman, 

Alexander), 57 

MTriAXivyK^, ToudpEv (Billings, 

Warren K.), 112, 113, 114 

Mm'XXivYK^-MoiivEi, V'TToOEai) 

(Billings-Mooney), 109 

MtcAqk, TouiXian n. (Black, William 

P.), 50 

Mtcoii;, Evt (Boyce, Ed), 68 

MttoAvtoiuv, P. T. (Baldwin, R. W.), 

135 

Mnpdu;, T£ Mtc. (Brice, J. B.), (|3A. 

Mcik Na(idpa, T^Ei(ic) 

N 

NExadyiEcp (Nechayev), 37 

Ni(itt, 'OaKap (Neebe Oscar), 50 

Nitcte, <J>pivrpi% (Nietzche, 

Friedrich), 91, 143 

NoAnv, 'EvtorapvT (Nolan, Edward 

D.), 112, 113 

Nxdpoou, KAdp£v<; (Darrow, 

Clarence), 102 

Nihil NiovC[HiKavo] {Daily 



News), 33, 49 

Nt£(itk;, Tioiit^iv (Debs, Eugene V.), 

22,59,61,62,63,64,81 

O 

'OyKAEau'm (Oglesby), 52 
0(ioaTtov8ia Epynm'a^ 
tuc; KaAitpopvta (California 
Federation of Labor), 110 
'Otic;, Xdpiaov TKpEi, 2/tpatr|Y6<; 
(Otis, General Harrison Gray), 91, 
92, 95, 96, 97, 109 
Ot'diAvr, 'OaKap (Wilde, Oscar), 51 
OtuAaov rouvtpooi', nposSpoi; 
(Wilson, Woodrow), 106 

n 

ndoi'vTEpAi, TepEv<;, B. (Powderly, 

Terence, V.), 46 

ndpaovc;, AA|nt£pT (Parsons, 

Albert), 32, 33, 40, 41, 43, 46, 50, 

52 

ndpiiv, M. (Partin, M. E.), 134 

TlevaiXpAviiiv (Penmylvaniari), 12 

nEvoiApdvia SEvrpaX, 

2i8T]po8po(UKi] ExaipEia 

(Pennsylvania Central Railroad), 31 

nivKEpTOv (Pinkerton), 21, 45, 56 

noi'^E, E(u'X (Pouget, Emile), 147 

nouAiiav, T£opi£ (Pullman, George 

M.), 60, 61 

npEavT £ti|A Kap, ExaipEia 

(Pressed Steel Car Company), 76 



Pdiov, npo£8po<; xtov Epynxcov 
£iSrjpot> (Ryan), 103 
Pdix, Bsaxpo (Wright Theater), 136 
Pdix, <J>pdvm<; (Frances, Wright), 9. 



176 



EvgETtjglO 



PoBaxdiv, ApvoAvx (Rothstein, 

Arnold), 138 

Pok AiAavx Kai naai'cpiK, 

£i8T]po8po(UKi] ExaipEi'a (Rock 

Island and Pacific Railroad), 150- 

151 

PoKtpEXsp (Rockefeller, John D.), 

105, 106 

Pooi'vx, T^eiuc, 3>opvx 

(Ford Rhodes, Janies), 20 

PovjoPeAt, <J>payKAivo<;, ElpoESpoc; 

(Roosevelt, Franklin), 101 



Saivr T^ov, Bi'vasvx (St. John, 

Vincent), 76 

£ciko (NiKoAa) Kai Bavxorxi 

(MriapxoXouEo) (Sacco Nicola and 

Vanzetti Bartolomeo), 78, 124, 125, 

126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 153 

SaAoEvxo, AvxpEci (Salsedo, 

Andrea), 124, 126 

SajinoTdC, '(Sabotage) , 147 

£(3aun, Mi^arjA (Schwab, Michael), 

46, 50, 52 

£(3dvaov, Mdpxiv (Swanson, 

Martin), 112 

SsioXEp, SiyKuowx (Zeisler, 

Sigmund), 50 

Sixdyo - Mia Iarooia ry<; <Ptjfir/<; Tov, 

33,62 

SaivyK, T. A. (Schilling, GA.) 39 

SkoiXkiX, Ko(ii]TEia (Schuylkill 

County), 21 

£(U0, Xsvpi T^doxiv (Smith Henry 

Justin), 33, 62 

Suivx (Schmidt), 93 

£vdot!(iTt£XT, PouvxoXip (Schnaubelt, 

Rudolph), 50 

SoaiaXioxiKO EpyaxiKO K6|i|io, 

2.E.K (Socialist Labor Party), 39 

Sttdic;, Auyoiiaxoc; (Spies, August), 



47, 50, 51, 52 

SttEvaep, XspuitEpx (Spencer 

Herbert) 39 

5>tdvTapvT 'OiX (Standard Oil), 108 

Sxdvxov, Nxdvi (Stanton, Danny), 

140 

5/t6v£v(nt£pYK, <J>pavK (Steunenberg, 

Frank), 69 

5a!|iPovjAio Tot' N6(ioi' rat tt|<; Td^u<; 

XOt' EuitOpiKOVj Enl|l£XT|Tl]plOtl XOU 

£av OpavxaiaKO (Law and Order 
Committee of the San Francisco 
Chamber of Commerce), 110, 111 
£ti|i|ia^i'o Ton EX£i59£pou Aoyou 
(California Free Speech League), 77 
Svvayeofidg (Alarm), 40, 41 
SuvSiraxo A(ioi(3ai'ac, npoaxaoi'ac, 
xcov Mouoikcov (Musicians' Mutual 
Protective LJnion), 137, 138 
St'vStKdxo 0£p(iaaxc6v Ax(io|ii|^a- 
vfjc, (Locomotive Firemen), 59 
£uv8iKdxo Map(iapd8cov (Marble 
Setters' Union), 135 
£uv8iKdxo SattcovonoKov (Lathers' 
Union), 137 

£co, MnEpvap T^topx^ (Shaw, 
Bernard George), 51 



T Alps (Times), 49, 89, 91, 92. 93, 

94, 95, 96, 97, 99, 101 

T£o(3avi'xi, Apxotipo (Giovannitti, 

Arturo), 147 

T£o(3avi'xi kqi 'Exop (f5A. 'Exop Kai 

T£o(3avixi) 

Tot'Eiv, MapK (Twain, Mark), 25 

Tpaox EuAEi'ac. (Lumber Trust), 

115, 116, 118, 121 

Tpaox S^oivonouac, (Cordage 

Trust), 125 

Toiftmovv (Tribune), 44, 49, 140 



177 



EvgETtjglO 



0> 

<J>aA£6ow, T^oaetp (Falzone, 

Joseph), 134 

<J>iK£pt, ToapAc; (Fickert, Charles 

M.), 110, 112, 113 

<J>iAav0pG)mKi] 'Evcoai] AvSpciKto- 

pij^cov rai Epynxcov (Miners' and 

Laborers' Benevolent Association), 19 

<J>iAvt£v, £d(iot'£X (Fielden Samuel), 

43, 46, 48, 50, 52 

<J>ia£p, A86A(po<; (Fischer, Adolf), 

50,51,52 

<J>6p£oT, Oscrtpo (Forrest Theater), 

136 

<J>opvt, ExaipEi'a (Form Motor 

Company), 135 

cpooTep, rot'i'Aia(i A. (Foster, 

William A), 50 

•DouAcp, Kt'PEpvi]Tr](; (Fuller, Alvan 

T.), 129 

<l>piK, Xevpi KAei (Frick, Henry 

Clay), 56, 57 

<Pavr/ trie Biofir/xaviac, H ( The Voice 

of Industry) , 10 



XepT^Ev, AAE^nvxEp (Herzen, 

Alexander) 39 

XiAi, Tov(Xia\i (Healy, William), 135 

XiA, T?o (Hill, Joe), 78 

X6|iot£vt (Homestead), 55, 56, 57, 

67 



XriKEt, Ylol (Hackett, Paul C), 135 

Xri|iTiapvT, $. M. (Hubbard, F.B.), 

118 

XripiEt, EpyaaxT'ipia Ba(i(3aKioi5 

(Harriet Cotton Mills), 134 

Xripi(iav, T£o(nr (Harriman, |ob), 96 

Xcipiaov, KdpxEp (Harrison, Carter 

H.) 44, 47 

Xe Y keX, r.B.<J>. (Hegel, G.W.F.), 39 

XEiyouvr, MraX (Haywood, Bill), 68, 

69,71,72,73,76, 101 

X£i(iapKET (Haymarket), 35, 47, 49, 

62,75,78, 112 

Xevpu, T^copi^, (Henry, George), 52 



178 



Ektottcoot] Bi[3Xio\j: 

K. nXsTaa^ - Z. KdpSapi] O.E. 

Xap. TpiKouuT] 107, AGfjva 

Ti]X.: 210 38.25.844 

Ektuttwcfi) EI;co<puXXoii: 

TaaKvrjc; Xprjaxcx; - AdVenture 

KoX^CSoc; 26 & Ai]|ii]Tadva^, AQr\va 

Ti]X.: 210 64.53.217 

BipAioSsaia: 

O. HAIOnOYAOZ - n. POAOnOYAOE O.E. 

Opcpccoc; 200, AiydXEM 

Ti]X.: 210 34.77.108 

ETOi^EioBeafa - EeXiSoTroniai] - Moketq E^wtpuXXou: 
EKAOZEIZ AIAAOEH 



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pini; n~ti|v ApcpiKfj enrd xa Trpcjxa /piivui ii)<; [JiopijjfiivojHmjffrji; 1117 pi Ta 

111' 1 m mi' 200V llll-JVU. 

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EKAOLEII ■ AIAAOIH