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ADAM'S 



LATIN GRAMMAR 



WITH NUMEROUS 



ADDITIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS, 



DESIGNED TO AID 



THE MORE ADVANCED STUDENT BY FULLER ELUCIDATIONS 



LATIN CLASSICS. 



BY C. D. CLEVELAND, A.M. 

LATE PROFESSOR OF THE LATIN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN THE 
UNIVERSITY OF THE CITY OF NEW- YORK. 




PHILADELPHIA: WILLIAM MARSHALL & CO. 
HARTFORD: D. BURGESS & CO. 

1836. 



-^ 






Entered according to the act of Congress, in the year 1836, by W. Marshall 
& Co. in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Penn- 
sylvania. 



o oy 



WILLIAM STAVELY, PRINTER, 

No. 12 Pear street. 



PREFACE 



A Preface is not necessary to set forth the merits of Adam's 
Latin Grammar. Such as it is, it is known to almost every scholar 
in our country, from that critical inspection which is the result of 
constant use. Such an extended circulation would argue, what 
is believed to be the fact, that, as a manual, it is the best accessible 
to the English student. Butgood as it is, all acknowledge that it 
might be better. Whether the present editor has made it so, 
the public will of course decide. It only remains to state some 
of the most important alterations and additions that have been 
made in the present edition. 

1. The lists oi regular NOUNS of the first, and second, and 
fourth declensions, and of regular ADJECTIVES of the first 
and second declension, have been thrown out altogether, as en- 
tirely useless, and the space which they would have occupied 
has been filled with other lists presenting some peculiarities. 
See lists 1, 2, 3 and 4 on pages 19 and 20 : the lists of Irregular 
Nouns on pages 48, 49, 50, and 51 : the lists of Defective Nouns, 
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, on pages 60, 61, and 62, which have 
been much enlarged; and lists 11, 12, 13, 14, on pages 63 and 
64, which are entirely new ; and the list of Irregular and Unu^ 
sual Comparisons, on page 81. 

2. The remarks on Gender, on page 17, have been remodel- 
led ; and those on the Cases, (page 21) are entirely new. See 
also the end of Exc. 3, on page 23 — Exc. 5, on page 26— the 
declension of Deus, in full, on page 27 — and three of the para- 
graphs on page 54. — A Synopsis of the Five Declensions has 
been given on page 55 ; and the lists 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 of Nouns 



4 PREFACE. 

Defective in Cases on pages 58, 59 and 60, have been entirely 
re-written, and much enlarged. The remarks on Proper Names, 
on page 6Q, are also new. These are mentioned merely as spe- 
cimens of the minor additions that have been made throughout 
the work, in which, wherever the case has admitted of it, clas- 
sical authority has always been adduced. 

3. In ADJECTIVES, the Exceptions in the formation of the 
Ablative singular, on page 72, will be found, on a comparison 
with the common editions of Adam's, to be much enlarged. On 
page 76, there are some alterations, and Obs. 5 and the two next 
paragraphs are new. 

4. In the PRONOUNS, Observations 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 

19, 20 and 21, on pages 87 and 88, are entirely new. 

5» But it is in the VERBS that the greatest additions and alter- 
tions, and, as the Editor hopes, improvements, have been made. 
It is well known to every classical scholar, that the Supine of the 
Latin Verb is rarely found in the classics, but that the Perfect 
Participle of most verbs is in use. It is, therefore, obviously 
proper that Latin verbs should be conjugated with the Perfect Par- 
ticiple, rather than with the Supine. Dr. Adam, on the contrary, 
in conjugating the Latin verb, gives the Supine almost uni- 
formly, without any classical authority to support such a prac- 
tice. For example, on page 121, of the Boston edition, Creo is 
conjugated with the Supine, and then follows a long list of about 
four hundred verbs of the first conjugation " thus conjugated," 
whereas not one in ten is " thus conjugated." In this edition of 
Adam's, however, the verbs of all the conjugations are inserted, 
and conjugated with the Perfect Participle, if it be used ; if not, 
the verb has an asterisk (*) prefixed to it, and one of the Fu- 
ture Participles is inserted. The Futures RUS and DUS, 
when found, are indicated by the letters R and D, and the Su- 
pines UM and U, by M and U. In the notes will be found such 
parts of the verbs as seldom occur in the Latin authors, with the 
classical authorities for each. These are inserted on the autho- 



PREFACE. O 

rity of Dr. Hickie, one of the learned editors of Valpey's edition 
of the Variorum classics, who undertook the laborious task of 
going through the whole range of Latin writers, for the express 
purpose of ascertaining what parts of the verbs have classical 
authority for their support. 

In consequence of these additions, the verbs occupy seventy- 
two pages instead of thirty-two, as in the common editions of 
Adam's Grammar. But it is believed that the space could not 
be better filled. Not only will it afford the advanced scholar 
great satisfaction to be able to ascertain readily, whether any 
part of a verb which he may wish to employ, has been used by 
the best Roman writers, but it is highly important that the scholar 
in the Grammar school should begin right, and not in after years 
be obliged to do, what all know is so hard to be done — unlearn 
what has been learned amiss , 

6. The Article on DEFECTIVE VERBS, on pages 185, 186, 
187, and 188, is nearly entirely new, and classical authority is ad- 
duced for all the parts of each verb. The two lists of Redundant 
Verbs, on pages 190 and 191, are also very much enlarged. The 
same may be said of " Remarks on the Verb," pages 193, 194 
and 195. 

7. It, will be seen that the PREPOSITIONS are entirely remo- 
delled, and that considerable attention has been bestowed upon 
them. The original import of each is endeavoured to be given and 
illustrated, and the secondary meanings traced to the primary. 
Examples from the classics have been adduced in support of all 
the definitions. 

8. To the PREPOSITIONS in COMPOSITION four pages 
have been devoted, instead of a third of a page, as in the common 
edition of Adam's. See pages 210, 211, 212 and 213. 

9. The Remarks on the SIGNIFICATION of WORDS, 
pages 215, 216, 217, 218 and 219, at the end of the Etymolo- 

a2 



6 PREFACE. 

gical part, it is hoped will be of assistance to the student, by 
giving him some well defined principles that will enable him to 
translate the classics with greater accuracy. 

10. To the SYNTAX many additions have been made. The 
articles marked with an asterisk (*) are entirely new, and com- 
prise about twenty-five pages. As specimens of the additions, 
reference may be made to Adjectives that govern the Genitive 
(73) — the observations on the Dative (81) and (82) — Verbs go- 
verning the Dative that are variously construed (130)— Verbs 
that differ in signification according to the cases with which they 
are used (131) — the turning of the Active into the Pas- 
sive Verb (187) and (188) — and Rules for the construction of 
the Relative, when it should be followed by the Subjunctive, and 
when by the Indicative (342) (343) (344) (345) (346). See also 
articles (51) (100) (134) (185) (271) (272) &c. At the same 
time that so much new matter has been introduced, all the Rules 
and Observations of Adam's have been carefully preserved, in 
their order, and with the same numbers, so that those books, 
which refer to the Syntax of the common editions, can be 
used with this, ivith equal facility. Heretofore, however, par- 
ticular reference has been often difficult, from the extent of some 
of the Rules : in this edition that difficulty has been entirely 
obviated by numbering EVERY ARTICLE in the Syntax. 
This, it is believed, will be considered an improvement of some 
value, especially as it will enable Instructers and Editors of 
School Classics to make the most minute references, with the 
greatest facility ; and scholars to turn to these references with the 
greatest readiness. 

11. Some parts of the PROSODY have been entirely re- 
written, and much enlarged. See, particularly, the different 
Kinds of Verse, on pages 320, 321, 322 and 328, and the various 
Combinations of the different Metres used by Horace, on pages 
329, 330, and 331. As in Syntax, all the articles marked with 
an asterisk, (*) are new. The Remarks in the Appendix upon 



PREFACE. 7 

Roman Weights, Measures, and Method of computing by Ses- 
terces, are taken from Gould's edition of Adam, to whom the 
cause of classical learning in our country is much indebted for 
his beautiful and correct editions of the School-classics. 

The additions above specified, amount to nearly one hundred 
pages ; yet the size of the Grammar has been increased but 
about forty pages above the common editions. This has been 
effected by using in many of the least important parts a size 
smaller type, and by rejecting altogether some things that in a 
Grammar are of little or no utility : such as the long lists of 
regular nouns and adjectives, and the " Signification of Verbs," 
which is found in the " Appendix" of the old editions. The lat- 
ter occupied twenty pages, without being of any practical use ; 
for when the scholar wishes to know the various significations 
of a verb, he always has recourse to his dictionary. 

That the above mentioned alterations and additions, the result 
of much labour, may be found to be improvements ; that they 
may enhance the value of an already useful book ; and that they 
may aid the cause of sound learning, by presenting to the stu- 
dent of the higher classics, a manual to which he may turn for 
the solution of his difficulties, and not turn in vain, is the sincere 
desire of 

The Editor. 

Philadelphia, Feb. 1, 1836. 



The following works, besides the Classics, 


have been freely consulted in the 


reparation of the work. 




Scheller's Latin Grammar, 


2 vols. 8vo. 


Port Royal do. 


2 vols. 8vo. 


Grant's do. 


1 vol. 8vo. 


Hickie's do. 


1 vol. 12mo. 


Zumpt's do. 


1 vol. 8vo. 


Crombie's Gymnasium, 


2 vols. 8vo. 


Carey's Latin Prosody, 


1 vol. 12rao. 


Butler's Praxis on the Latin Prepositions, 


1 vol. 8vo. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Pronunciation of Latin - - 11 

PART I. 

Orthography, which treats of 

Letters - - - 13 

Diphthongs - - 14 

Syllables - - - - 14 

PART II. 

Etymology, which treats of 

Words - - 15 
Division of Words, or Parts of 

Speech - - 16 

I. Noun or Substantive - 16 

Latin Nouns - - 17 

Genders - - - 17 

Number - 20 

Case ... 20 

Declension of Nouns - 21 

First Declension - 22 

Second Declension - - 24 

Third Declension - - 28 

Fourth Declension - 52 

Fifth Declension - - 53 

Irregular Nouns - - 55 

Heterogeneous - 55 

Defective in Cases - 58 

Defective in Number - 60 

Redundant - - 65 

Division of Nouns according 

to their Signification and 

Derivation - - 66 

Adjective - - 68 

First and Second Declension 69 

Third Declension - - 70 

Rules for the formation of the 

Ablative - 72 

Numeral Adjectives - 74 

Comparison of Adjectives - 77 

Irregular Comparison - 81 

II. Pronoun 81 

1. Simple Pronouns - 82 

2. Compound Pronouns - 85 

3. Reciprocals - - 87 





Page 


. Verb 


88 


Voice 


89 


Mode 


90 


Tense 


90 


Number and Person 


91 


Conjugation of Verbs 


92 


First Conjugation - 


97 


Second Conjugation 


- 100 


Third Conjugation - 


- 104 


Fourth Conjugation 


- Ill 



Deponent and Common Verbs 115 

Formation of Tenses, - 117 

Signification of Tenses - 119 

Verbs of the First Conjugation 123 

Second - 136 

Third - 145 

Fourth - 170 

Irregular Verbs - - 176 

Neuter Passive - - 185 

Defective - - 185 

Impersonal - - - 188 

Redundant Verbs - - 190 

Frequentative - - 192 

Inceptive - - - 193 

Desiderative - - 193 

Remarks on the Verb - 193 

IV. Participles - - - 195 

Gerunds - - - 197 

Supines - - - 197 

V. Adverbs - - - 198 

VI. Prepositions - - 202 
Prepositions in Composition 210 

VII. Interjections - - 213 

VIII. Conjunctions - - 214 
Signification of Words - 215 



PART III. 

Syntax or Construction - 220 
Division of Sentences into Simple 

and Compound - - 221 

I. Simple Sentences - - 221 

Concord, or Agreement of 

Words - - - 221 



10 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Government of Words in Sim- 
ple Sentences - - 226 

I. Government of Substan- 

tives - - 226 

II. Government of Adjectives 230 

III. Government of Verbs 238 

1. Verbs governing one case 238 

2. Verbs governing two cases 250 
Construction of Passive Verbs 255 

Impersonal Verbs 257 

Construction of the Infinitive 259 
Construction of Participles, &c. 260 

Gerunds 261 

Supines - 264 

Construction of Adverbs - 265 

— Prepositions 268 

Interjections 270 

Construction of Circumstances 270 
Compound Sentences - 275 

Construction of Relatives - 276 
Construction of Conjunctions 280 
Construction of Comparatives 284 
Ablative Absolute - - 285 

APPENDIX TO SYNTAX. 



II 


Figures of Syntax - 
Ellipsis 


288 




288 




Pleonasm 


289 




Enallage 


289 




Hyperbaton 


290 


III 


Analysis and Translation 


■ 291 


IV. 


Different kinds of Style 


294 


V 


Figures of Rhetoric 


. 295 




1. Figures of Words, or Troj 


)es 295 




2. Repetition of Words 


299 




3. Figures of Thought 


300 



PART IV. 

Page 
Prosody, which treats of the 
■ Quantity of Syllables, of Ac- 
cent, and Verse - - 303 
Quantity of Syllables - - 304 

1. Quantity of First and Middle 
Syllables - - - 305 

2. Quantity of Final Syllables 311 
Quantity of Derivatives - 314 
Quantity of Compounds - 315 

Verse - - - - 316 

Different Kinds of Feet - 316 

Different Kinds of Verse - 317 

Caesura - - - - 318 

Iambic Measure - 320 

Choriambic - - 321 

Ionic - - 323 

Figures in Scanning - - 324 

Figures of Diction - - 326 

Different Kinds of Poems - 327 

Combination of Verses in Poems, 327 
Different Metres used by Horace, 

and their Combinations - 329 

Index to the Odes of Horace - 332 

APPENDIX. 

Punctuation, Capitals, &c - 333 

Abbreviations, &c. - - 334 

Division of the Roman Months 334 

Roman Coins - - - 336 

— Measures of Length - 337 

Measures of Capacity - 337 

Dry Measure - - 338 

Additional Remarks on Roman 

Money, - - 338 



THE 

PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN. 



The following rules for the Pronunciation of Latin, are such as pre- 
vail in the English Universities, and in the principal Colleges in the 
United States. They are in accordance with the standard laid down 
by Walker, (which it is desirable should be adopted wherever the 
English language is spoken,) that the Latin should be accented and 
pronounced by us, according to the prevailing analogies of our own 
language, without regard to the prosodial accent and quantity of the 
ancients. 

RULES FOR THE ACCENT. 

1. Monosyllables are of course accented. 

2. Dyssyllables have always the accent on the first syllables, as ndvis, 
helium. 

3. In Polysyllables the accent is regulated by the quantity of the pe- 
nult : if the penult be long it is accented, as, amdbam, docebam, 
amicus, honoris, secitrus: if the penult be short, or common, the 
accent is thrown back in the antepenult ; as, homlnis, legere, mu- 
lieris, tenebris. 

RULES FOR THE SOUND OF THE VOWEL. 

4. Every vowel has either the long or the short sound which it has in 
English, excepting that a in the end of a word of more than one 
syllable is sounded broad ; as, fama, agricola, where the final a is 
sounded like ah in Sarah. 

5. The Diphthongs <b and ce, when they end an accented syllable, are pronounced 
like the long English e ; as, Casar, CEta ; but when they are followed by a 
consonant in the same syllable, like short e ; as, Coesaris, CEdipus. 

6. The Diphthongs ai, ei, and ui, are read as separate syllables in prose ; as, a-io, 
cu-i, tu-i, de-inde, These-us ; excepting ui, with g or q preceding ; as ,quis, san- 
guinis. 



12 PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN. 

7. In MONOSYLLABLES when the vowel is the final letter, it has 
the long sound ; as, da, me, si, do, tu : otherwise it has the short 
sound ; as, jam, et, in, non, nunc. 

8. Custom, in disregard of analogy, has given to all terminations in 
es, and to plural cases in os, the long sound ; as, es, amdres, pes, 
res, nos, hos, populos. 

9. In DYSSYLLABLES the vowel of the first syllable, when it 
comes before another vowel, or a single consonant, has the long 
sound ; as, Cato, rei, ibi, honos, cui; but when it comes before two 
consonants or a double consonant, it has the short sound ; as, tan- 
dem, helium, ille, longus, buxus, Pcestum. 

10. In POLYSYLLABLES, when the Penult is accented, its vowel, 
before another vowel, or single consonant, has the long sound ; as, 
orator, speciei, amicus, multorum, securus : but before two conso- 
nants or a double consonant, the short sound ; as, amantur, docen- 
tur, extinguo, respondens, Tibullus. 

11. If the Antepenult be accented, its vowel has the short sound; as, 
trddita, exercitus, sidera, sermonibus, tantummodo. To this rule 
the following are the exceptions : 

12. Exc. 1. When u comes before a single consonant, and when an accented 
vowel comes before another vowel, they have the long sound ; as, dubie ; fa- 
dices, ocdanus, mulieres, procubuerant, 

13. Exc. 2. When the penultimate vowel is e or i before another vowel, the ante- 
penultimate vowel, except I, has the long sound ; as gratia, aggredior, inopia, 
mulier, perfidie, Scipio. 

14. Exc. 3. An accented vowel before a mute and a liquid, has usually the long 
sound ; as, sacra pdtria. 

SOUNDS OF THE CONSONANTS. 

15. C. and G. are hard before a, o, and u, and soft before e, i, and y ; as, 



carpo 


like 


card, 


cera like 


i cent, 


colo 


" 


colt, 


cibus, " 


circle, 


culmen 


u 


cucumber 


cycnus " 


cycle, 


gaza 


«< 


gave, 


gelidus " 


gelid, 


gorgon 


" 


gone, 


gigas, 


giant, 


gustus 


" 


gust, 


gyrus, " 


gypsey. 



16. Ch has the sound of k ; as, charta, like ch in character. 



THE 

RUDIMENTS 

OF 

LATIN GRAMMAR 



Grammar is the art of speaking and writing cor- 
rectly. 

Latin Grammar is the art of speaking and writ- 
ing the Latin language correctly. 

The Rudiments of Grammar are plain and easy instructions, teach- 
ing beginners the first principles and rules of it. 

Grammar treats of sentences, and the several parts of which they 
are compounded. 

Sentences consist of words ; words consist of one or more syllables ; 
syllables of one or more letters. So that Letters, Syllables, Words, 
and Sentences, make up the whole subject of Grammar. 

LETTERS. 

A letter is the mark of a sound, or of an articulation of sound. 

That part of Grammar, which treats of letters, is called Ortho- 
graphy, 

The letters in Latin are twenty-five : A, a ; B, b ; C, c ; D, d ; E, 
e; F, f; G, g; H, h; I, i ; J, j; K, k; L, 1; M,m; N, n ; 0,o; P, 
p; Q, q; R, r; S, s ; T, t ; U, u; V, v; X, x ; Y, y ; Z, z * 

Letters are divided into Vowels and Consonants. 

Six are vowels ; a, e, i, o, u, y* All the rest are 
consonants. 

A vowel makes a full sound by itself; as a, e. 

A consonant cannot make a perfect sound with- 
out a vowel ; as, b, d. 

* In English there is one letter more, viz. W. 
B 



14 DIPHTHONGS. SYLLABLES, 

A vowel is properly called a simple sound; and the sounds formed 
by the concourse of vowels and consonants, articulate sounds. 

Consonants are divided into Mutes, Semi-vowels, and Double Con- 
sonants. 

A mute is so called, because it entirely stops the passage of the voice ; 
as, p in ap. 

The mutes are, p, b ; t, d ; c,k, q, and g ; but b, d, and g, perhaps 
may more properly be termed Semi-mutes; because their sounds 
may be continued, whereas the sound of p, t, and k, cannot be pro- 
longed. 

A semi- vowel, or half vowel, does not entirely stop the passage of the 
voice ; thus, at. 

The semi-vowels are I, m, n, r, s,f. The first four of these are call- 
ed Liquids, particularly I and r ; because they flow softly and easily 
after a mute in the same syllable ; as, Ma, stra. 

The mutes and semi-vow^els may be thus distinguished. In naming 
the mutes, the vowel is put after them ; as, pe, be, &e. ; but in naming 
the semi-vowels, the vowel is put before them ; as, el, em, &c. 

The double consonants are, x, z, and, according to some grammarians, 
;. X is made up of cs, ks, or gs. 

In Latin, z, and likewise k and y, are found only in w T ords derived 
from the Greek. 

DIPHTHONGS. 

A diphthong consists of two vowels forming one 
syllable, and pronounced by one impulse of the 
voice. 

If the sound of both vowels be distinctly heard, 
it is called a Proper Diphthong ; if not, an Improper 
Diphthong. 

The proper diphthongs in Latin are commonly reckoned three ; au, 
eu, ei; as in aurum, Eurus, omneis. To these some, not improperly, 
add other three; namely, ai, as in Maia ; oi, as in Troia ; and ui, as 
in Harpuia, or in cui, and huic, pronounced as monosyllables. 

The improper diphthongs in Latin are two ; ae, or when the vowels 
are written together, ce ; as, aetas, or cetas, oe, or 02 ; as, poena, or 
pozna; in both of which the sound of the e only is heard. The an- 
cients commonly wrote the vowels separately; thus, aetas, poena. 

SYLLABLES. 

A syllable is the sound of one letter, or of seve- 
ral letters, pronounced by one impulse of the 
voice ; as, a> ad, heme. 



WORDS. 15 

In Latin there are as many syllables in a word, as there are vowels 
or dipthongs in it ; unless when u with any other vowel comes after 
g, q, or s; as in lingua, qui, suadeo ; where the two vowels are not 
reckoned a diphthong, because the sound of the u vanishes, or is little 
heard. 

Words consisting of one syllable are called Mo- 
nosyllables ; of two, Dissyllables ; and of more than 
two, Polysyllables. But all words of more than one 
syllable are commonly called Polysyllables. 

In dividing words into syllables, w r e are chiefly to be directed by the 
ear. Compound words should be divided into the parts of which they 
are made up ; as, ab-iitor, In-ops, propter-ea, et-enim, vel-ut, &c. 

Observe, a long syllable is marked with a horizontal line, [-] ; as in 
amare ; or with a circumflex accent, [ A ] ; as in amdris. A short syl- 
lable is marked with a curved line, [ w ] ; as in omnibus. 

What pertains to the quantity of syllables and to verse will be treated 
of hereafter. 

WORDS. 

Words are articulate sounds, significant of 
thought. 

That part of Grammar which treats of words is 
called Etymology or Analogy * 

All w T ords whatever are either simple or compound, 'primitive or de- 
rivative. 

The division of words into simple and compound is called their Fi- 
gure ; into primitive and derivative, their Species, or sort. 

A simple word is that which is not made up of more than one ; as, 
plus, pious ; ego, I ; doceo, I teach. 

A compound word is that which is made up of two or more words ; 
or of one word and some syllable added ; as, impius, impious ; dedoceo, 
I unteach ; egomet, I myself. 



* All words may be divided into three kinds ; namely, 1. such as mark the 
names of things; 2. such as denote what is affirmed concerning things; and 
3. such as are significant only in conjunction with other words; or what are 
called Substantives, Attributives, and Connectives. Thus in the following sen- 
tence, " The diligent boy reads the Lesson carefully in the school, and at home" the 
words boy, lesson, school, home, are the names we give to the things spoken of; 
diligent, reads, carefully, express what is affirmed concerning the boy ; the, in? 
and, at, are only significant when joined with the other words of the sentence.. 



16 PARTS OF SPEECH. — NOUN. — SUBSTANTIVE. 

A primitive word is that which comes from no other ; as pius, pious ; 
disco. I learn ; doceo, I teach. 

A derivative word is that which comes from another word ; as, pie t as, 
piety; doctr ina, learning. 

The different classes into which we divide words are called Parts of 
Speech . 

PARTS OF SPEECH. 

The parts of speech in Latin are eight, viz : 
1 Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Participle ; declined. 
2. Adverb, Preposition, Interjection, and Con- 
junction; undeclined.* 

NOUX. 

A noun is either substantive or adjective.! 

SUBSTANTIVE, 

Substantive, or noun, is the name of any 
person, place, or thing ; as, boy, school, book. 

Substantives are of two sorts ; proper and com- 
mon names. 

Proper names are the names appropriated to in- 
dividuals ; as the names of persons and places ; 
such are Ccesar, Rome. 

Common names stand for whole kinds, contain- 
ing several sorts ; or for sorts, containing many 
individuals under them ; as, animal, man, beast, 
fish, fowl & c - 

Every particular being should have its own proper name ; but this is 

* Those words or parts of speech are said to be declined, which receive dif- 
ferent changes on their last syllables, or their terminations. 

The changes made upon words are by grammarians called Accidents. 

Of old, all words, which admit of different terminations, were said to be de- 
clined. But Declension is now applied only to nouns. The changes made upon 
the verb are called Conjugation. 

f Tne adjective seems to be improperly called noun : it is only a word added to 
a substantive or noun, expressive of its quality; and therefore should be eonsi-* 
dered as a different part of speech. But as the substantive and adjective together 
express but one object, and in Latin are declined after the same manner, they 
fiave both been comprehended under the same general name. 



LATIN NOUNS. GENDERS. 17 

impossible, on account of their innumerable multitude; men have 
therefore been obliged to give the same common name to such things 
as agree together in certain respects. These form what is called a 
genus, or kind ; a species, or sort. 

A proper name may be used for a common, and then in English it 
lias the article joined to it ; as, when we say of some great conqueror, 
41 He is an Alexander ;" or, " the Alexander of his age." 

To proper and common names may be added a third class of nouns, 
which mark the names of qualities, and are called abstract nouns ; as. 
hardness, goodness, whiteness, virtue, justice, piety, &c. 

When we speak of things, we consider them as one or more. This 
is what we call Number. When one thing is spoken of; a noun is said 
to be of the singular number ; when two or more, of the plural. 

LATIN NOUNS. 

A Latin noun is declined by Genders, Numbers, 
and Cases. 

GENDERS. 

There are three genders; Masculine, Feminine^ 
and Neuter. 

Gender is the distinction of sex. In the nature of things, therefore., 
there are but two genders, the Masculine and Feminine. But in Latin, 
Gender is not only a natural distinction, but also a grammatical distri- 
bution of nouns into sorts or kinds, with respect to the terminations 
of adjectives with which they are construed. Liber, ' a book,' is mas- 
culine, because it is joined with that termination of adjectives which is 
applied only to males. Ratio, 'reason.' is feminine, because it is joined 
with that termination of adjectives which is applied only to females. 
Opus, 'a work,' is neuter, because it is joined with that termination of 
adjectives which cannot be applied either to males or females. Neuter 
is a pure Latin word, signifying ' neither:' when a noun, therefore, is 
said to be of the neuter gender, it means simply that it is 'neither' 
masculine nor feminine. 

Grammarians distinguish the genders by the pronoun hie, to mark 
the masculine; hcec, the feminine; and hoc, the neuter. 

Nouns which are used to signify either the male or the female are 
said to be of the common gender ; that is, are either masculine or 
feminine, according to the sense. Such nouns as are not found uni- 
formly of the same grammatical gender, but sometimes of one gender 
and sometimes of another, are said to be of the doubtful gender. 

The common gender differs from the doubtful in this, that, as the sig- 
nification of the noun includes the two sexes, it is always put in the 

b2 



18 GENERAL RULES CONCERNING GENDER. 

masculine when applied to a male, and in the feminine when applied to 
a female ; as, hie conjux, a husband ; hcec conjux, a wife ; and is con- 
fined to the masculine and feminine gender. Whereas a noun of the 
doubtful gender, being so only by usage, and not in sense, may be 
either masculine or feminine, as, hie finis, or hcee finis: feminine or 
neuter, as, hcec Prceneste, or hoc Prceneste : or may be either mascu- 
line, feminine, or neuter, as, penus, pecus, and others. 

General Rules concerning Gender. 

1. Names of males are masculine; as Homerus, Homer; pater, a 
father ; poeta, a poet. 

2. Names of females are feminine ; as, Helena, Helen ; midier, a 
woman : uxor, a wife ; mater, a mother ; soror, a sister ; Tellus, the 
goddess of the earth. 

3. Nouns which signify either the male or female, are of the common 
gender ; that is, with reference to the sex, either masculine or femi- 
nine ; as, hie bos, an ox ; hcec bos, a cow ; hie parens, a father, hcec 
parens, a mother. 

4. Nouns which are sometimes found in one gender and sometimes 
in another, without reference to the sense, are of the doubtful gender ; 
as, dies, a day, either masculine or feminine ; vulgus, the rabble, either 
masculine or neuter. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

Obs. 1. The names of brute animals commonly follow the gender 
of their termination. 

Such are the names of wild beasts, birds, fishes, and insects, in which 
the distinction of sex is either not easily discerned, or seldom attended 
to. Thus passer, a sparrow, either male or female, is masculine, be- 
cause nouns in er are masculine ; so dquila, an eagle, either male or 
female, is feminine, because nouns in a of the first declension are femi- 
nine. These are called epicene, or promiscuous nouns. When any 
particular sex is marked, we usually add the word mas or fcemina ; as, 
7nas passer, a male sparrow ; fcemina passer, a female sparrow. 

Obs. 2. A proper name, for the most part, follows the gender of the 
general name under which it is comprehended. 

Thus, the names of months, winds, rivers, and mountains, are mas- 
culine ; because mensis, ventus, mons, s.nd filuvius, are masculine; as, 
hie Aprilis, April ; hie Aquilo, the north wind ; hie Afrlcus, the south 
west wind ; hie Tiberis, the river Tiber ; hie Othrys, a hill in Thessaly*. 
But many of these follow the gender of their termination ; as, hcec 
Matrona, the river Marne in France ; hcec JEtna, a mountain in 
Sicily ; hoc Soracte, a hill in Italy. 

In like manner, the names of countries, towns, trees, and ships are 
feminine, because terra or regio, urbs, arbor, and navis, are feminine ; 
as, hcec Egyptus, Egypt; Sdmos, an island of that name ; Corinihus, the 



OBSERVATIONS. 19 

city of Corinth ; pomus, an apple-tree ; Centaurus, the name of a 
ship. Thus also the names of poems, Iicec Mas, -ados, and Odyssea, 
the two poems of Homer ; Ikbc JEneis, -idos, a poem of Virgil ; hcec 
Euniichus, one of Terence's comedies. 

The gender, however, of many of these depends on the termination; 
thus, hie Pontus, a country of that name ; hie Sulmo, -onis ; Pessi- 
nus, -untis ; Hydrus, -untis, names of towns ; hcec Persis, -idis, the 
kingdom of Persia; Carthago, -Inis, the city Carthage; hoc Albion, 
Britain ; hoc Ccere, Redte, Prceneste, Tlbur, Ilium, names of towns. 
But some of these are also found in the feminine ; as, Gelidd Prceneste. 
Juvenal, iii. 190 ; Alta Won. Ovid. Met. xiv. 466. 

The following names of trees are masculine, oleaster, olestri, a wild 
olive-tree ; rhamnus, the white bramble. 

The following are masculine or feminine ; cytisus,& kind of shrub ; 
rubus, the bramble-bush ; larix, the larch-tree ; lotus, the lote-tree ; 
cupressus, the cypress-tree. The first two, however, are oftener mas- 
culine ; the rest oftener feminine. 

Those in urn are neuter ; as, buxum, the bush, or box-tree ; llgustrum, 
a privet ; so likewise are siiber, -eris, the cork tree ; slier, -eris, the 
osier ; robur, -oris, oak of the hardest kind ; deer, -eris, the maple-tree. 

The place where trees or shrubs grow is commonly neuter ; as, ar- 
busturn, quercetum, esculetum, sdlictum, fridlcetum, &c. a place where 
trees, oaks, beeches, willows, shrubs, &c, grow ; also the names of fruits 
and timber ; as, pomum or malum, an apple; pirum, a pear ; ebenum, 
ebony, &c. But from this rule there are various exceptions. 

1. The following nouns are Masculine and 
Feminine, both in sense and grammatical construc- 
tion: 

Adolescens, a young man Dux, a leader. Patruelis, a cousin-german 

or woman. Exul, an exile. by the father's side. 

Affinis, a relation by mar- Hospes, a host, a guest. Frees, a surety, 

riage. Hostis, an enemy. Prcesul, a priest of Mars. 

Antisles, a chief priest. Infans, an infant. Princeps, a prince. 

Auctor, an author. lnterpres, an interpreter. Sacerdos, a priest, or priest- 

Augur, an augn.r. Judex, a judge. ess. 

Bos, an ox, or cow. Juvenis, a youth. Satelles, a life-guard. 

Canis, a dog, or bitch. Mdes, a soldier. Sits, a swine. 

Civis, a citizen. Mumceps, a burgess. Testis, a witness. 

Comes, a companion. Nemo, nobody. Yates, a prophet, or pro- 

Conjux, a husband, or wife. Per, a mate, husband, or phetess. 

Consors, a consort. wife. Verna, a slave. 

Conviva, a guest. Parens, a parent. Vindex, an avenger. 

Gustos, a keeper. 



2. The following are Masculine or Feminine in 
sense, but Masculine only in grammatical con- 
struction : 



20 NUMBERS. CASES. 

Arllfex, an artist. Fur, a thief. Obses, a hostage. 

Auspex,a. soothsayer. H(Bres,an. heir, an heiress. Opifex, a workman- 

Codes, a person having but Homo, a man or woman. Pedes, a footman- 
one eve. Index, an informer. Pugil, a boxer. 
Eques, a horseman Latro, a robber. Senex, an old person. 
Exlex, an outlaw. Libert, children. 

3. The following, though Masculine or Femi- 
nine in sense, are Feminine only in grammatical 
construction : 

Copiae, forces, troops. Operae, labourers. Yigiliae, watchmen. 

Custodiae, guards. Proles, an offspring. 

ExcuUae, sentinels. Soboles, an offspring. 

4. Some nouns signifying Persons are Neuter 
with respect to their termination. 

Acrodma, a jester. Mancipium, a slave. 

Auxilia, auxiliary troops. Serviiium, a slave- 

NUMBER. 

Number is the distinction of objects, whether as 
one, or more than one. 

There are two numbers, the Singular which 
denotes one, as homo, ' a man;' or the aggregate of 
many taken collectively, as, multitudo, 'a multi- 
tude;' and the Plural, which denotes more than 
one, as ho?nines, 'men.' 

Some Latin nouns of the Plural number signify 
but one, as, Athenae, 'Athens;' others signify one 
or more, as, nuptice, 'a marriage,' or 'marriages/ 

CASES. 

Various methods are used in different languages to express the dif- 
ferent connexions or relations of one thing to another. In English, and 
in most modern languages, this is done by prepositions, or particle? 
placed before the substantive; in Latin by Declension or by different 
Cases, that is, by changing the termination of the noun ; as, rex, ' a 
king ;' regis, ; of a king.' 

Cases are certain changes made upon the termination of nouns to 
express the relation of one thing to another. 



DECLENSION. 21 

They are so called from cado, ' to fall,' because they fall, as it were, 
from the nominative, which is therefore named casus rectus, 'the 
straight case,' and the other cases, casus obllqui, 'the oblique cases.' 

There are six cases, the Nominative, the Geni- 
tive, the Dative, the Accusative, the Vocative, and 
the Ablative. 

The Nominative simply expresses the name of a person or thing, and 
marks the subject of discourse, as Alexander interfecit 'Alexander 
slew.' 

The Genitive generally expresses the relation of possession or pro- 
perty, and in English it has the sign of before it, or 's (s with an apos- 
trophe) added to it, as Amor Dei, 'the love of God,' or 'God's love,' 
Domus Ccesaris, 'the house of Csssar,' or ' Caesar's house.' 

The Dative is used to mark the object to which any thing is refer- 
ed, whether it be acquisition or loss, and is generally translated with 
the signs to and for, though sometimes its true force can only be ren- 
dered by, from and by: as, Hoc mihi datur, ' this is given to me;' Hoc 
mihi seritur ' this is sown for me ;' Hoc mihi adimitur, ' this is taken 
away /rom me.' Nee cermtur ulli, 'nor is he perceived by any one.' 

The Accusative indicates the object to which the action of the verb 
passes; as, Alexander interfecit Clitum, 'Alexander slew Clitus.' 

The Vocative points out the object called upon or addressed, with or 
without the sign O, as O felix frater, ' o happy brother,' or ' happy 
brother.' 

The Ablative, (compounded of the preposition ah, 'from,' and latum, 
the supine of fero, 'to take,') often implies 'a taking away.' It also 
denotes concomitancy or accompaniment ; as, Ingressus est cum gladio, 
' he entered with a sword,' i. e. having at that time a sword along with 
him. When the preposition cum, ' with,' is not expressed, the Abla- 
tive may be considered as the cause, manner, or instrument, as, Inter- 
fecit eum gladio, ' he killed him with a sword ;' that is, a sword was the 
instrument with which his death was effected. In English, the Abla- 
tive has before it the signs with, from, for, by, in, through. 

DECLENSION. 

Declension is the regular distribution of nouns according to their ter- 
minations, so that they may be distinguished from one another. 

There are five different ways of varying or de- 
clining nouns, called the first, second, third, fourth 
and fifth declensions. 

The different declensions are distinguished from 



22 FIRST DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 

one another by the termination of the Genitive 
singular. 

The Genitive of the First ends in ee. 

Second in i. 

Third in is. 

Fourth in its. 

Fifth in ei. 

GENERAL RULES OF DECLENSION. 

Nouns of the neuter gender have the Accusative and Vocative like 
the Nominative in both numbers; and in the Plural, these three cases 
end always in a. 

The Nominative and Vocative* singular generally, and the Nomina- 
tive and Vocative plural always in all Declensions end alike. 

The Dative and Ablative plural end always alike in all declensions. 

The Accusative plural of the first, third, fourth and fifth Declensions 
is formed from the Accusative singular by changing m into s. 

The Ablative singular of the first, third, fourth, and fifth Declensions 
is formed from the Accusative singular, by dropping m. 

The Genitive plural is formed from the Ablative singular by adding 
rum in the first, second, and fifth Declensions, and um in the fourth. 

Proper names, for the most part, want the Plural. 
FIRST DECLENSION. 

Nouns of the first declension end in a, e, as, es. 
Latin nouns end only in a, and are of the femi- 
nine gender : {the rest are Greek.) 



TERMINATIONS, 




Singular. 


Plural. 


Norn. ) 
Voc. 1 a - 


Nom. ) 


Voc. S 


Gen. ; 
Dat. 1 <*' 


Gen. drum. 


Ace as. 


Ace am. 


» i ■-•• 


Abl. a. 



* Greek nouns in s generally lose sin the Vocative; as, Thomas, Thoma ; 
Anchlses, Ancfuse ; Paris, Pari ; Panthus, Panthu ; Pallas, -aniis, Palla, names 
of men. But nouns in es of the third declension, oftener retain the s ; as 6 Achilles, 
rarely -e ," O Socrates, seldom -e ; and sometimes nouns in is and as; as, O Thais-, 
Mysis, Pallas, -adis, the goddess Minerva, <fec. 



DECLENSION OF GREEK NOUNS. 23 

Penna, a pen. fern. 





Sing 


ular. 






Plural. 




N. 


penna, 




a pen ; 


N. penna?, 




pens ; 


G. 


penna?, 




of a pen ; 


G. pennarum, 




of pens ; 


D. 


penna?, 




to a pen ; 


D. pennis, 




to pens ; 


A. 


pennam, 




a pen ; 


A. pennas, 




pens ; 


V. 


penna, 




pen ; 


V. penna?, 




O pens ; 


A. 


penna. 




with a pen. 


A. pennis, 




with pens. 



EXCEPTIONS. 

Exc. 1. The following nouns are masculine. Hadria, the Hadria* 
tic sea; cometa, a comet; planeta,& planet; and sometimes, talpa, a 
mole ; and ddma, a fallow-deer. Pascha, the passover, is neuter. Pan- 
dectae, s pandects,' is rather masc. than fern. 

Exc. 2. The ancient Latins sometimes formed the genitive singular 
in di ; thus, aula, a hall, gen. aid di: and sometimes likewise in as, 
which form the compounds of familia usually retain ; as, mdter~fdmilias 9 
the mistress of a family; genit. matris-familias ; nom. plur. matres- 
familias, or matres-familidrum. 

Exc. 3. The following nouns, have more frequently dbus in the 
dative and ablative plural, to distinguish them in these cases from mas° 
culines in us, of the second declension: 

Anuria, the soul, the life. Filia, & Nata, a daughter. 
Dea, a goddess. Liberta, a freed woman. 

Equa, a mare. Mula, a she-mule. 

Famtila, a female servant. 

Thus de dbus, fill dbus, rather than filiis, &c. 

But when they are construed with Dudbus or Ambdbus, or the dis- 
tinction is clear from the context, the termination is in is only: thus 
Cicero has dudbus animis : but Livy xxiv. 26 has dudbus filidbus. 

GREEK NOUNS. 

Nouns in as, es, and e, of the tirst declension, 
are Greek. Nouns in as and es, are masculine ; 
nouns in e are feminine. 

Nouns in as are declined like penna ; only they have am, or an in the 
accusative ; as, JEneas, iEneas, the name of a man ; gen. JEneoz, dat 
*<b, acc. -am, or -an, voc. -«, abl. a. So Boreas, -ece, the north wind ; 
tiaras, -a, a turban. In prose they have commonly am, but in poetry 
oftener an, in the accusative. Greek nouns in a have sometimes also 
an in the acc. in poetry ; as Ossa, acc. -am or -an, the name of a 
mountain. 

I 



24 



SECOND DECLENSION GREEK NOUNS. 



DECLENSION OF GREEK NOUNS. 



J\om. 


Anchises, 


Penelope, 


Thyestes, 


Epitome, 


Gen. 


Anchlsae, 


Penelopes, 


Thyestae, 


Epitomes, 


Dat. 


Anchisae, 


Penelopse, 


Thyestae, 


Epitomae, 


Ace. 


Anchisen, 


Penelopen, 


Thyesten, 


Epitomen, 


Voc. 


Anchise, or a, 


Penelope, 


Thyesta, 


Epitome, 


Abl. 


Anchise, or a. 


Penelope. 


Thyeste. 


Epitome. 



These nouns, being proper names, want the plural, unless when 
several of the same name are spoken of, and then they are declined 
like the plural of penna .* 

The Latins frequently turn Greek nouns in es and e into a ; as, Atr'ida, for 
Atrldes ; Persa, for Perses, a Persian ; geometra, for -tres, a geometrician ; Circa, 
for Circe ; epitoma, for -me, an abridgement ; grammaVica, for -ce, grammar ; rheto- 
ncn, for -ce, oratory. So Clinia, for Clinias, &c. 

SECOND DECLENSION. 

Nouns of the second declension end in er, ir, ur, 
us, um; os, on. (os and on are Greek termina- 
tions. ) 

Nouns in um and on are neuter ; the rest are 
masculine. 



TERMINATIONS. 




Singular. 




Plural 


Nom. er, ir, ur,us, um ; os, on. 




Nom. ) • 
Voc. \ l0Ta - 


Gen. i. 




Dat. ) n 
Abl. \ °- 




Gen. drum. 




Dat. ) . 


Ace. um, or like the nom. 




Abl. i ls - 


Voc. e, or like the nom. 




Ace, os, or a. 


Gener, a son-in-law, mas 


C. 


Singular. 




Nom. gener, 




a son-in-law, 


Gen. generi, 


of 


a son-in-law, 


Dat. genero, 


to, or for 


a son-in-law, 


Ace. generum, 




a son-in-law* 


Voc. gener, 





son-in-law, 


Abl. genero, with, from, 


or by 


a son-in-law. 



* The accusative of nouns in es and e is found sometimes in em. We some- 
times find the genit. plural contracted ; as, C<s1%coli(,m> for Ccelicolartim ; £Entfa 

dam, for -arum. 



SECOND DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



25 



Nom. generi, 
Gen. generorum, 
jDat. generis, 
Ace. generos, 
Voc. generi. 



Plural. 



Voc. generi, O 

Abl. generis, with, from, or by 



of 

to, or for 

O 



sons-in-law, 
sons-in-law, 
sons-in-law, 
sons-in-law, 
sons-in-law, 
sons-in-law. 



After the same manner decline, socer, -eri, a father-in-law ; puer, 
•eri, a boy : So furcifer, a villain ; Lucifer, the morning star ; adul- 
ter, an adulterer ; armiger, an armour-bearer ; presbyter, an elder ; 
Mulciber, a name of the god Vulcan ; vesper, the evening ; and Iber, 
-eri, a Spaniard, the only noun in er which has the gen. long, and its 
compound Celtlber, -eri: Also, vir, viri, a man, the only noun in ir ; 
and its compounds, levir, a brother-in-law; semivir, duumvir, trium- 
vir, &c. And likewise sdtur, -uri, full, (of old, saturus,) an adjective. 



But most nouns in er lose the e in the genitive ; 



clS 3 



Singular, 



Ager, u field, masc. 



Plural. 



N. ager, 


a field, 


N. agri, 




fields^ 


G. agri, 


of a field, 


G. agrorum 




of fields, 


D. agro, 


to afield, 


D. agris, 




to fields, 


A. agrum, 


a field, 


A. agros, 




fields, 


V. ager, 


O field, 


V. agri, 




O fields, 


A. agro, 


with a field. 


A. agris. 




with fields* 




In like manner decline, 






Aper, a wild boar. 


Caper, a he-goat 


Faber, a 


workman. 


Arbiter, & -tra, an arbitrator Coluber, & -bra, a ser- 


Magister 


, a master. 


or judge. 


pent. 


Minister 


a servant. 


Auster, the south wind. 


Culter> the coulter of a- 


Onager, 


a wild ass. 


Cancer, a crab fish. 


plough, 


i knife. 


Scalper, 


a lancet. 



Also, liber, the bark of a tree, or a book, which has libri; but liber, 
free, an adjective, and Liber, a name of Bacchus, the god of wine, 
have liberi. So likewise proper names, Alexander, Evander, Perian- 
der, Menander, Teucer, Meledger, &c. gen. Alexandri, Evandri) &c. 

Dommus, a lord, masc. 





Sing 


ular 






Plural. 




N. 


dominus, 




a lord, 


N. 


dommi, 


lords h 


G. 


dommi, 




of a lord, 


G. 


dommorum, 


of lords 
to lords 1 


D. 


domino, 




to a lord, 


B. 


dommis, 


A. 


dommum, 




a lord, 


A. 


dommos, 


lords 1 


V. 


domme, 




lord, 


V. 


dommi, 


O lords' 


A. 


domino, 




with a lord. 


A. 

c 


dommis, 


with lords 1 



26 



SECOND DECLENSION OF NOUNS* 



Regnum, a kingdom, neut. 
Singular. Plural. 



N. regnum, 
G. regni, 
D. regno, 
A. regnum, 
V. regnum, 
A. regno, 



a kingdom, 
of a kingdom, 



to a kingdom, D. regnis, 

a kingdom, A. regna, 

O kingdom, V. regna, 

with a kingdom. A. regnis, 

EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER. 



N. regna, 
G. regnorum, 



kingdoms, 
of kingdoms, 
to kingdoms, 

kingdoms, 

O kingdoms^ 

with kingdoms. 



Exc. 1. The following nouns in us are feminine; humus, the 
ground ; alvus, the belly ; vannus, a sieve ; miltus, vermillion ; also 
Domus, ' a house,' partly of the fourth Declension. 

And the following, derived from Greek nouns in os ; 

Abyssus, a bottomless pit, iter of speech. Periodus, a period. 
Antidotus, a preservative Diametros, the diameter of Perimetros, the circumfer- 

against poison. a circle. ence. 

Arctos, the Bear, a constel- Diphthongus, a diphthong. Pharus, a watch-tower. 

lation near the north pole. Eremus, a desert. Plinthus, the foot of a pillar 

Carbasus, a sail. Lecythus, a vial. Synodus, an assembly. 
Dialectus, a dialect ov man- Methodus, a method. 

To these add some names of jewels and plants, because gemma and planta are 
feminine, (See observations on Gender, page 18;) as, 



Amethystus, an amethyst. Topazius, a topaz. 



fan Egyp- 
I tian reed, 
<{ of which 
j paper was 
\^made. 



Byssns, fine flax or linen. 
Costus, costmary. 
Crocus, saffron. 
HyssGpus, hyssop. 
Nardus, spikenard. 



Chrysolithus, a chrysolite. 
Chrysophrasus, a kind of ^g;uj us 
topaz. p- - ' 

Chrystallus, crystal Papyrus, 

Leucochrysus, a jacinth. 
Sapphirus, a saphire. 

Other names of jewels are generally masculine; as, beryllus, the beryl; car- 
bunculus, a carbuncle; pyrdpus, a ruby ; smaragdus, an emerald : And also names 
of plants ; as, asparagus, asparagus or sparrow 7 grass ; ellebvrus, ellebore ; raphanus, 
radish or colewon ; intybus, endive or succory, &c. 



Exc. 2. The nouns which follow are either masculine or feminine I 

Atomus, an atom. Barbitus, a harp. Grossus, a green fig. 

Balanus, the fruit of the C amelus, a camel, Penus, a store-house, 

palm tree, ointment. Colus, a distaff. Phaselus, a little ship. 

Exc. 3. Virus, poison ; pelagus, the sea ; are neuter. 

Exc. 4. Vulgus, the common people, is either masculine or neuter, 
but oftener neuter. 

Exc. 5. Seocus, i, a sex, of the Second Declension, is neut. ; but 
Sexus, us, of the Fourth Declension, is masc. 

EXCEPTIONS IN DECLENSION. 

Proper names in ius lose us in the vocative; as, 
Hordtius, Hordti ; Virgilius, Virgili ; Georgius^ 



SECOND DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 27 

Georgia names of men: Ldrius, Lari ; Mincius, 
Mind ; names of lakes. Filius, a son, also h&sjili; 
genius, one's guardian angel, gent; and dens, a 
god, has deus in the voc. and in the plural more 
frequently dii and diis, than dei and d'eis. Mens, 
my, an adjective pronoun, has mi, and sometimes 
mens, in the vocative. 

Other nouns in ius have e ; as, tabellarius, tabellarie, a letter-carrier ; plus, pie, &c. 
So these epithets, Delius, Belie ; Tirynthius, Tirynthie ; and these possessive*. 
Laeriius, Laertie ; Saturnius, Saiurnie; &c. which are not considered as proper 
names. 

The poets sometimes make the vocative of nouns in us like the nominative; 
as, fluvius Laflnus, for flume, Latine. Virg. This also occurs in prose, but more 
rarely ; thus, Audi tu, populus, for papule. Liv. i. 24. 

The poets also change nouns in er into us ; as Evander, or Evandrus, vocative, 
Evander or Evandre. So Meander, Leander, Tymber, Teucer, &c; and so an- 
ciently puer in the vocative had puere, from puerus. 

Note. When the genitive singular ends in ii, the latter i is sometimes taken 
away by the poets for the sake of quantity; as, tuguri, for tugurii; ingenz, for 
ingenii, &c. 

The Genitive plural drum in many words, especially those which denote 
money, w 7 eight and measure, is often contracted into urn, as Seslertium, nummum, 
modium, talentum, for Sestertiorum, nummorum, &c. So also, Deum, liberum, 
fabrum, duumvzrum, oppidum, exitium, prodigium, factum ; and in poetry, Tew- 
crum, Graium, Arg'wum, Danaum, Pelasgum, &c, for Teucrorum, &c. 

Deus, ' God,' masc. is thus declined. 

Singular. Plural. 

N. Dei, Dii, or Di, the Gods, 
G. Deorum, or Deum, of the Gods, 
D. Deis, Diis, or Dis, to the Gods, 
A. Deos, the Gods, 

V. Dei, Dii, or Di, O the Gods, 
A. Deis, Diis, or Dis, from or by 
the Gods. 



N. Deus, God, 

G. Dei, of God, 

D. Deo, to, or for God, 

A, Deum, God, 

V. Deus, O God, 

A. Deo. from, or by God. 



GREEK NOUNS. 



Os and on are Greek terminations; as, Alpheos, 
a river in Greece ; Ilion, the city Troy ; and are 
often changed into us and um, by the Latins; 
Alpheus, Ilium, which are declined like dominus 
and regnum. 



28 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



Nouns in eos or eus are sometimes contracted in the Genitive ; as Orpheus, 
gen. Orphei, Orphei, or Orphi. So Theseus, Prometheus , &c. But nouns in eus, 
when eu is a diphthong, are of the third declension. 

Some nouns in os have the genitive singular in o ; as, Androgeos, genitive An- 
drogeo, or -ei, the name of a man ; Aihos, Atho, or -i, a hill in Macedonia : both of 
which are also found in the third declension ; thus, nominative Androgeo, geni- 
tive Androgeonis. So Atho, or Athon, -onis, &c. Anciently nouns in os, in imi- 
tation of the Greeks, had the genitive in u; as Menandru, Apollodoru, for Me- 
nandri, Apollodori. Ter. 

Nouns in os have the accusative in um or on ; as, Delus, or Delos, accusative 
Delum or Delon, the name of an island. 

Some neuters have the genitive plural in on ,• as, Georgica, genitive plural 
Goorgicbn, books which treat of husbandry, as, Virgil's Georgicks. 

THIRD DECLENSION. 

There are more nouns of the third declension 
than of all the other declensions together. The 
number of its final syllables is not ascertained. 
Its final letters are thirteen, a, e, i o, y, c, d, I, n, 
r, s, t, x. Of these, eight are peculiar to this de- 
clension, namely, i, o, y, c, d, I, t, z; a and e are 
common to. it with the first declension ; n and r, 
with the second ; and s, with all the other declen- 
sions. A, i, and y, are peculiar to Greek nouns, 

TERMINATIONS. 



Singular. 

Nom. a, e, i, &c. 

Gen. is. 

Dat. i. 

Ace. em, or like the nom. 

Voc. like the nom. 

Abl. e, or i. 



Plural. 




Sermo, a speech, masc. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



N. sermo, 
G. sermonis, 
D. sermoni, 
A. sermonem, 
V. sermo, 
A. sermone, 



a speech, 

of a speech, 

to a speech, 

a speech, 

O speech, 

with a speech. 



N. sermones, 
G. sermonum, 
D. sermombus, 
A. sermones, 
V. sermones, 
A. sermonibus, 



speeches, 
of speeches, 
to speeches, 

speeches, 

O speeches, 

with speeches. 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



29 



Rupes, a rock, fern. 



Singulai' . 



Plural. 



N. rupes, 
G. rupis, 
D. rupi, 
A. rupem, 
V. rupes, 
A. rupe, 



a rock, 

of a rock, 

to a rock, 

a rock, 

O rock, 

with a rock. 



N. rupes, 
G. rupium, 
D. ruplbus, 
A. rupes, 
V. rupes, 
A. rupibus, 



Lapis, a stone, masc. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



N. lapis, 
G. lapidis, 
D. lapidi, 
A. lapidem, 
V. lapis, 
A. lapide, 



a stone, 

of a stone. 

to a stone, 

a stone, 

O stone, 

with a stone. 



N. lapides, 

G. lapidum, 

D. lapidlbus, 

A. laptdes, 

V. lapides, 

A. lapidibus, 



rock 

of rocks, 

to rocks. 

rocks. 

O rocks, 

with rocks. 



stones, 
of stones, 
to stones, 

stones, 

O stones, 

with stones, 



Caput, a head, neut. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



N. caput, 
G. capitis, 
D. capiti, 


a head, 
of a head, 
to a head, 


N. capita, 
G. capitum, 
D. capitibus, 


heads, 
of heads, 
to heads, 


A. caput, 
V. caput, 

A. capite, 


a head, 

O head, 

with a head. 


A. capita, 
V. capita, 
A. capitibus, 


heads. 

heads, 

with heads, 



Sedile, a seat, neut. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



N. 


sedile, 


a seat, 


N. sedilia, 


G. 


sedilis, 


of a seat, 


G. sedilium, 


D. 


sedili, 


to a seat, 


D. sedilibus, 


A. 


sedile, 


a seat, 


A. sedilia, 


V. 


sedile, 


seat, 


V. sedilia, 


A. 


sedili, 


with a seat. 


A. sedilibus, 






Iter, ajom 


*ney, neut. 






Singular. 


I 


N. 


iter, 


a journey, 


N. itinera, 


G. 


itineris, 


of a journey, 


G. itinerum, 


D. 


itineri, 


to a journey, 


D. itineribus, 


A. 


iter, 


a journey, 


A. itinera, 


V. 


iter, 


O journey, 


V. itinera, 


A. 


itinere, 


with a journey. 


A. itineribus, 






c 


2 



seats, 
of seats, 
to seats, 

seats. 

O seats, 

with seats. 



Plural. 



journeys, 

of journeys, 

to journeys, 

journeys, 

O journeys, 

with journeys. 



30 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS, 



Opus, a work neut. 



N. opus, 
G. operis, 
D. operi, 
A. opus, 
V. opus, 
A. opere. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



a work, 

of a work, 

to a work, 

a work, 

O work, 

with a work. 



N. opera, 
G. operum, 
D. operibus, 
A. opera, 
V. opera, 
A. operibus, 



Parens, a parent, common gender. 



Singuh 



N. parens, 
G. parentis, 
D. parenti, 
A. parentem, 
V. parens, 
A, parente, 



lar. 

a parent, 

of a parent, 

to a parent, 

a parent, 

O parent, 

with a parent. 



N. parentes, 

G. parentum,* 

D. parentibus, 

A. parentes, 

V. parentes, 

A. parentibus, 



works, 
of works, 
to works, 

works, 

O works, 

with works. 



Plural. 



parents, 
of parents, 
to parents, 

parents, 

O parents, 

toith parents. 



OF THE GENDER AND GENITIVE OF NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 

A, E, I, and Y. 

1. Nouns in a, e, i, and y, are neuter. 

Nouns in a form the genitive in atis ; as, diadema, diademdtis, a 
crown. 



Dogma, an opinion, neut. 



Singular. 

N. dogma, 
G. dogmatis, 
D. dogmati, 
A. dogma, 
V. dogma, 
A. dogmate. 

^Enigma, a riddle, 

Apophthegma, a short, 
pithy saying. 

Aroma, sweet spices. 

Axioma, a plain truth. 

Diploma, a charter. 

Epigramma, an inscrip- 
tion. 



Plural. 

N. dogmata, 
G. dogmatum, 
D. dogmatibus, 
A. dogmata, 
V. dogmata, 
A. dogmatibus. 

Niimisma, a coin. Stigma, a mark or brand, 

Phasma, an apparition. a disgrace. 

Poema, a poem, Stratagema, an artful con- 

Schema, a scheme, or trivance. 

figure. Thema, a theme, a sub- 
Sophisma, a deceitful ar- ject to write or speak on. 

gument. Toreuma, a carved ves~ 

Stemma, a pedigree. sel. 



* Nouns in ns and as from their genitive plural in ium and imi, but oftener 
admit a syncope of the i. 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



31 



Nouns in e change e into is ; as, rile, reds, a net. So, 



Ancile, a shield. 
Aplustre, the flag of 



pair 



Crinale, a pin for the hair. Ovile, a sheep fold, 
a Cubile, a couch. Praesepe, a stall; a bee- 

Equile, a stable for horses, hive, 
of Laqueare, a ceiled roof. Secale, rye. 
Mantile, a towel. Suile, a sow-cote. 

Monlle, a necklace. Tibiale, a stocking. 

Navale, a dock or place 
for shipping. 

Nouns in i are generally indeclinable; as gummi, gum; zingiberi, ginger; but 
some Greek nouns add ttis ; as, hydromeli, hydromeVitis, water and honey sodden 
together, mead. 

Nouns in y add 05 ; asmoly, molyos. an herb ; misy, ~yos, vitriol. 



Campestre, 

drawers. 

Cochleare, a spoon 

Conclave, a room. 



o. 



2. Nouns in o are masculine, and form the 
genitive in dnis ; as, 



Sermo, sermonis, speech ; draco, draconis, a dragon. So, 



Agaso, a horse-keeper. Equiso, a groom or ostler. 

Aquilo, the north wind. Erro, a wanderei . 
Arrhabo, an earnest-pen- Fullo, a fuller of cloth. 



ny, a pledge. 
Balatro, a pitiful fellow. 
Bambalio, a stutterer. 
Baro, a blockhead. 
Bubo, an owl. 
Bufo, a toad. 
Calo, a soldier's slave. 
Capo, a capon. 
Carbo, a coal. 
Caupo, an inn-keeper. 
Cerdo, a cobbler. 



Helluo, a glutton. 
Histrio, a player. 
Latro, a robber. 
Leno, a pimp. 
Liidio, & -ius, a player. 
Lurco, a glutton. 
Mango, a slave-merchant. 
Mirmillo, a fencer. 
Morio, a fool. 
Muero, \he point of 1 
weapon. 



whofollows a mean trade. Mulio, a muleteer. 
Ciniflo, a frizzier of hair. Nebiilo, a knave. 
Crabro, a wasp or hornet. Pavo, a peacock. 
Curio, the* chief of a ward Pero, a kind of shoe. 

or curia. Prseco, a common crier. 



Prasdo, a robber. 

Pnlmo, the lungs. 

Piisio, a little child. 

Salmo, a salmon. 

Sannio, a buffoon. 

Sapo, soap. 

Sipho, a pipe or tube. 

Spado, an eunuch. 

Stolo, a shoot or scion. 

Strabo, a goggle-eyed per- 
son. 

Temo, the pole or draught- 
tree. 

Tiro, a raw soldier. 

Umbo, the boss of a shield. 

Upiiio, a shepherd. 

Volo, a volunteer. 



Exc. 1. Nouns in io are feminine, when they signify any thing 
without a body ; as, ratio, rationis, reason. As, 

Oratio, ' a speech/ fem. 



Singular. 

N. oratio, 
G. orationis, 
D. orationi, 
A. orationem, 
V. oratio, 
A oratiOne. 



Plural. 

N. oratiGnes, 
G. orationum, 
D. orationibus, 
A. oratiGnes, 
V. oratiGnes, 
A. orationibus. 



32 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



Captio, a quirk. 
Cautio, caution, care. 
Concio, an assembly.. 



Cessio, a yielding. 
Dictio, a word. 
Deditio, a surrender. 
Lectio, a lesson. 
Legio, a legion, a body 

men. 
Mentio, mention. 
Notio, a notion or idea,. 
Opinio, an opinion. 
Optio, a choice. 
Oratio, a speech. 



Pensio, a payment 

Perduellio, treason. 
a Portio, a part. 

Potio, drink. 

Proditio, treachery. 

Proscriptio, a proscrip- 
tion, ordering citizens 
to be slain, and confis- 
of eating their effects. 

Quasstio, an inquiry. 

Rebeliio, rebellion. 

Regio, a country. 

Reiatio, a telling. 

Religio, religion. 

Remissio, a slackening. 



Sanctio, a confirmation. 

Sectio, the confiscation 
or forfeiture of one's 
goods. 

Seditio, a mutiny. 

Sissio, a sitting. 

Statio, a station. 

Suspicio, mistrust. 

Titillatio, a tickling. 

Translatio, a transferring. 

Usiicapio, the enjoyment of 
a thing by prescription. 

Vacatio, freedom from la- 
bour, tyc. 

V 7 isio, an apparition. 



But when they mark any thing which has a body, or signify numbers, they are 
masculine ; as, 



Curculio, the throat-pipe, Scipio, a staff. 

the weasand. Scorpio, a scorpion. 

Papilio, a butterfly. Septentrio, the north. 

Pugio, a dagger. Steliio, a lizard. 

Pusio, a little child. Titio, a firebrand. 



Unio, a pearl. 
Vespertilio, a bat. 
Ternio, the number three. 

Quaternio, four. 

Senio, six. 



Exc. 2. Nouns in do and go, are feminine, and have the genitive in 
znis ; as arundo, arundinis, a reed ; imago, imaginis, an image. 



Singular. 

N. arundo, 
G. arundinis, 
D. arundini, 
A. arundinem, 
V. arundo, 
A. arundine. 



Arundo, a reed, fern. 



Plural. 

N. arundines, 
G. arundinum, 
D. arundinibus, 
A. arundines, 
V. arundines, 
A. arundinibus. 



/Eriigo, rust {of brass.) 
Caligo, darkness. 
Cartilago, a gristle. 
Crepido, a creek, bank. 
Farrago, a mixture. 
Ferrugo, rust {of iron.) 
Form id o, fear. 
Fuligo, soot. 
Grando, hail. 
Hirudo, a horse-leech. 



So, 

Hirundo,a swallow. 

Intercapedo, a space be- 
tween. 

Lanugo, down. 

Lentigo, a pimple. 

Origo, an origin. 

Porrigo, scurf, or scales in 
the head ; dandruff. 

Propago, a lineage. 

Rubigo, rust, mildew. 



Sartago, a frying pan. 
Scaturigo, a spring. 
Testudo, a tortoise. 
Torpedo, a numbness. 
Uligo, the natural moisture 

of the earth. 
Valetiido, health. 
Vertigo, a dizziness. 
Virgo, a virgin. 
Vorago, a gulf. 



But the following are masculine : 

Cardo, -inis, a hinge. 
Cudo,-Gnis, a leatfier cap. 
Harpago, -onis, a drag. 
LTgo, -Onis, a spade. 



Margo, -inis, the brink of a river ; also 

feminine. 
Ordo, -inis, order. 
Tendo, -inis; a tendon. 
Udo, -Onis, a, linen or woollen sock 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 33 

Cup'ido, desire, is often masc. with the poets ; but in prose always fern. 

Exc. 3. The following nouns have In is : 

Apollo, -inis, the god Apollo. Nemo, -mis, m. or f. no body. 

Homo, -mis, a man or woman. Turbo, -mis, m. a vrfiirlwind. 

Caro flesh, fem. has carnis. Anio, masc. the name of a river, 
Anienis. Nerio, Nerienis, the wife of the god Mars ; from the obso- 
lete nominatives Anien, Nerien. Turbo, the name of a man, has 
onis. 

Exc. 4. Greek nouns in o are feminine, and have us in the genitive, and o in 
the other cases singular; as Dido, the name of a woman; genit. Didiis ; dat. 
Dido, &c. Sometimes they are declined regularly; thus, Dido, Didonis: so 
echo, -us, f. the resounding of the voice from a rock or wood ; Argo, -us, the name 
of a ship ; halo, -onis, f. a circle about the sun or moon. 

Dido, Dido, the name of a woman, fem, 

Sing. 

Norn. Dido, 

Gen. Didonis or Didus, 

Dat. DidGni or Dido, 

Ace. Didonem or Dido, 

Voc. Dido, 

Abl. Didone or Dido. 

C, D, L. 

3. Nouns in c and I are neuter, and form the 
genitive by adding is; as, 

Animal, aiiimalis, a living creature ; toral, -alis, a bed-cover ; halec, halecis, a 
kind of pickle. So, 

Cervical, a bolster. Minerval, entry-money. Puteal, a well-cover. 

Cubital, a cushion. Minutal, minced meal. Vectigal, a tax. 

Except, Consul, -iilis, m. a consul. Mugil, ilis, m. a mullet-jish. 

Fel, fellis,n. gall. Sal, salis, ra. or n. salt. 

Lac, lactis, n. milk. Sales, -ium, p!. m. witty sayings. 

Mel, mollis, n. honey. Sol, solis, m. the sun. 

D is the termination only of a few proper names, which form the genitive by 
adding is ; as, David, Davidis. 

N. 

4. Nouns in n are masculine, and add is in the 
genitive; as, 



34 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



Canon, -onis, a rule. Lien, -enis, the milt. Ren, renis, the reins. 

Daemon, -onis, a spirit. Paean, anis, a song. Splen, -enis, the spleen. 

Delphin, -inis, a dolphin. Physiognomon, -onis, one Syren, -enis, f. a Syren. 
Gnomon, -onis, the cock of who guesses at the dis- Titan, -anis, the sun. 

a dial. ^ positions of men from the 

Hymen, -enis, the god of face. 

marriage. 



Exc. 1. Nouns in men, are neuter, and make their genitive in mis ; 
as, flumen,fluminis, a river. So, 

Abdomen, the paunch. Discrimen, a difference. 
Acumen, sharpness. Examen, a swarm of bees. 

Agmen, an army on march. Foramen, a hole. 
A lumen, alum. Germen, a sprout. 

Bitumen, a kind of clay. Gramen, grass. 
Legiimen, all 
pulsi 



Cacumen, the top. 
Carmen, a song, a poem. 
Cognomen, a sir-name. 
Columen, a support. 
Crimen, a crime. 



Lumen, light. 
No men, a name. 
Numen, the Deity. 



Omen, a presage. 
Piitamen, a nut-shell. 
Sagmen, vervain, an herb. 
Semen, a seed. 
Specimen, a proof, 
kinds of Stamen, the warp. 
Subtemen, tlie woof. 



Tegmen, a covering. 
Vimen, a twig. 
Yoiumen, a folding, 



The following nouns are likewise neuter ; 



Gluten, -inis, glue. 
Unguen, -inis, ointment. 



Inguen, -inis, the groin. 
Pollen, -inis, fine four. 



Exc. 2. The following masculines have mis ; pecten, a comb ; tuhicen, a trum- 
peter ; fibicen, a piper ; and oscen, or oscinis, sc. avis, f. a bird which foreboded 
by singing. 

Exc. 3. The following nouns are feminine ; Sindon, -onis, fine linen ; aedon, 
-onis, a nightingale ; halcyon, -onis, a bird called the king's fisher; icon, -onis, an 
image. 

Exc. 4. Some Greek nouns have ontis ; as, Ladmedon, -ontis, a king of Troy. 
So Acheron, chamoeleon, Phaethon, Charon, &c. 

AR and UR. 

5. Nouns in ar and ur are neuter, and add is to 
form the genitive ; as, 



Calcar, a spur, neut. 



Singular. 

Nom. calcar, 
Gen. calcaris, 
Dat. calcari, 
Ace. calcar, 
Voc. calcar, 
Abl. calcari.* 



Plural. 

Nom. calcaria, 
Gen. calcarium, 
Dat. calcaribus, 

Ace. calcaria, 
Voc. calcaria, 
Abl. calcaribus. 



*See Exc. in Abl. Sing, page 45. 
and the Nom. Plur. in a. 



Keuter nouns in ur have the Abl. Sing, in e, 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



35 



Gutter, -uris, the throat. 
Jiibar, -aris, a sun-beam. 
Lacunar, -aris, a ceiling. 
Murmur, -uris, a noise. 



Ebur, -oris, n. ivory. 
Far, farris, n. corn. 
Femur, -oris, n. the thigh. 
Furfur, -uris, m. bran. 
Fur, furis, m. a thief. 
Hepar,-atis, or atos, n. the liver. 



So, 

Nectar, -aris, drink of the gods. 
Pulvinar, -aris, a pillow, 
Sulphur, -uris, sulphur. 

Except, 

Jecur, -oris, or jecinoris, n. the liver, 
Robur, -oris, n. strength. 
Salar, -aris, m. a trout. 
Turtur, -uris, m. a turtle-dove. 
Vultur, -uris, m. a vulture. 



ER and OR. 

6. Nouns in er and or are masculine, and form 
the genitive by adding is ; as, 

Anser, anseris, a goose or gander ; agger, -eris, a rampart ; der, -eris, the air ; 
career, -eris, a prison ; asser, -eris, and asses, -is, a plank ; dolor, -oris, pain ; color, 
-oris, a colour. So, 



Actor, a doer, a pleader. 

Creditor, he that trusts or 
lends. 

Cruor, gore. 

Debitor, a debtor. 

Fcetor, an ill smell. 

Honor, honour. 

Lector, a reader. 

Lictor, an officer among 
the Romans, who attend- 
ed the magistrates. 

Livor, paleness, malice. 

INIdor, a strong smell. 



Odor, and -os, a smell. 
Olor, a swan, 
Vk&ov, filth. 
Pastor, a shepherd. 
Prastor, a commander. 
Piidor, shame. 
Rubor, blushing. 
Rumor, a report. 
Sapor, a taste. 
Sartor, a cobbler or tailor. 
Sator, a sower, a fat her. 
Sopor, sleep. 



Splendor, brightness. 
Sponsor, a surety. 
Squalor, filthiness. 
Stupor, dulness. 
Siitor, a sewer. 
Tepor, warmthi 
Terror, dread. 
Timor, fear. 
Tonsor, a barber. 
Tutor, a guardian. 
Vapor, a vapour. 
Venator, a hunter, 



Rhetor, a rhetorician, has rhetoris; castor, a beaver, -oris. 
Exc. 1. The following nouns are neuter : 



Acer, -eris, a maple tree. 
Ador, -oris, fine wheat. 
^Equor, -oris, a plain, the sea. 
Cadaver, -eris, a dead carcass. 
Cicer, -eris, vetches. 
Cor, cordis, the heart. 
Iter, itineris, a journey. 



Marmor, -oris, marble. 
Papaver, -eris, poppy. 
Piper, -eris, pepper. 
Spinther, -eris, a clasp. 
Tuber, -eris, a swelling. 
Uber, -eris, apap, or fatness. 
Ver, veris, the spring. 



Arbor, -oris, a tree, is fern. Tuber, -eris, the fruit of the tuber-tree, is masa 
but when put for the tree, is fern. 

Exc. 2. Nouns in ber have bris, in the genitive ; as, hie imber, imbris, a show- 
er. So Insuber, October, <fec. 



36 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



Nouns in ter have tris ; as, venter, ventris, the belly ; pater, patris, a father : 
fr ater, -iris, a brother; accipiter, -tris, a hawk; but crater, a cup, has ci ceteris; 
sdter, -Iris, a saviour; later, a tile, lateris; Jupiter, the chief of the Heathen 
gods, has Jovis ; linter, -tris, a little boat, is masc. or femin. 

AS. 

7. Nouns in as are feminine, and have the geni- 
tive in atis ; as, 



Singular. 

Nam. aetas, 
Gen. setatis, 
Dat. astati, 
Ace. setatem, 
Voc. aetas, 
A6Z. aetate. 



iEtas, an age, fern. 



Plural. 

Nom. states, 
Gen. aetatum* 
Dat. aetatibus. 
Ace. aetates, 
Voc. abates, 
Abl. aetatibus. 



iEstas, the summer. 
Pietas, piety. 
Potestas, power. 
Probitas, probity. 
Satietas, a glut or disgust. 



So, 

Simultas, a feud, a grudge. Veritas, truth. 

Tempestas, a time, a, tern- Voluntas, will. 

pest. Voluntas, pleasure. 

Ubertas, fertility. Anas, a duck, has anatis. 



Exc. 1. As, assis, m. apiece of money, Mas, maris, m. a male. 
or any thing which maybe di- Vas, vadis, m. a surety, 
vided into twelve parts. Vas, vasis, n. a vessel. 

Note. All the parts of as are likewise masculine, except uncia, an ounce, fern.; 
as, sextans, 2 ounces; quadrans, 3; triens,\\ quincunx, 5; semis, 6 ; septunx, 7; 
hes, 8; dodrans, 9; dextans, or decunx, 10; deunx, 11 ounces. 

Exc. 2. Of Greek nouns in as, some are masculine, some feminine, some neu- 
ter. Those that are masculine have antis in the genit. as, glgas, gigantis, a giant ; 
Mamas, -antis, an adamant; el 'ephas, -antis, an elephant. Those that are feminine 
have adis, or ados; as, lampas, lampadis, or lampados, a lamp; dramas, -adis, f. a dro- 
medary; likewise Areas, an Arcadian, though masculine, has Arcadis, or -ados. 
Those that are neuter have atis; as, buceras,-atis, an herb; artocreas, -atis, a pie. 

ES. 

8. Nouns in es are feminine, and in the genitive 
change es into is; as, 



See note, page 30, 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



37 



rupes,rupis, a rock; nubes, nubis, a cloud. So, 

iEdes, or -is, a temple; hues, a plague. Sepes, a hedge. 

plur. a house. Moles, aheap. Soboles, an offspring. 

Cautes, a ruggid rock. Nates, the buttock. Strages, a slaughter. 

Clades, an overthrow, de- Palumbes, m. or f. a pi- Strues, a heap. 

struction. geon. Slides, a stake. 

Crates, a hurdle. Proles, an offspring. Tabes, a consumption. 

Fames, hunger. Pubes, youth. Vulpes, a fox. 
Fides, a fiddle. 

Exc. 1. The following nouns are masculine, and most of them like- 
wise excepted in the formation of the genitive : 



Ales, -itis, a bird. 

Ames, -itis, a fowler's staff. 

Aries, -etis, a ram. 

Bes, bessis, two-thirds of a pound. 

Cespes, -itis, a turf. 

Eques, -itis, a horseman. 

Fomes, -itis, fuel. 

Gurges, -itis, a whirlpool. 

Hasres, -edis, an heir. 

Indiges, -etis, a man deified. 

Interpres, -etis, an interpreter. 

Limes, -itis, a limit or bound. 

Miles, -itis, a soldier. 

Obses, -idis, a hostage. 



Palmes, -itis, a vine-branch. 
Paries, -etis, a wall. 
Pes, pedis, the foot. 
Pedes, -itis, a footman. 
Poples, -itis, the ham of the leg. 
Prases, -id is, a president. 
Satelles, -itis, a life-guard. 
Stipes, -itis, the stock of a tree. 
Termes, -itis, an olive bough. 
Trames, -itis, a path. 
Veles, -Itis, a light-armed soldier, 
Vates, vatis, a prophet. 
Verres, verris, a boar-pig. 



Bat ales, miles, hares, interpres, obses, and vates, are also used in the feminine. 

Exc. 2. The following feminines are excepted in the formation of the geni- 
tive : 



Abies, -etis, a fir-tree. 
Ceres, -eris, the goddess of corn. 
Merces, -edis, a reward, hire. 
Merges, -itis, a handful of corn. 
Quies, -etis, rest. 



Requies, -etis ; or requiei, {of the fifth 

declension) rest. 
Seges, -etis, growing corn. 
Teges, -etis, a mat or coverlet. 
Tiides, -is, or -itis, a hammer, 



To these add the following adjectives : 

Ales, -itis, swift. 
Bipes, -edis, two-footed. 
Quadrupes, -edis, four-footed. 
Deses, -idis, slothful. 
Dives, -itis, rich. 
Ilebes, -etis, dull. 
Perpes, -etis, perpetual. 



Pnepes, -etis, swift-winged. 

Reses, -idis, idle. 

Sospes, -itis, safe. 

Siiperstes, -itis, surviving. 

Teres, -etis, round and long, smooth. 

Locuples, -etis, rich. 

Mansues, -etis, 



Exc. 3. Greek nouns in es are commonly masculine ; as hie acinaces, -is, a 
Persian sword, a scimitar: but some are neuter; as, hoc cacoethes, an evil cus- 
tom ; hippomanes, a kind of poison which grows in the forehead of a foal ; _p«- 
naces, the herb all-heal ; nepenthes, the herb kill-grief. Dissyllables, and the 
monosyllable Cres, a Cretan, have -etis in the genitive ; as, hie magnes,magnltis- ) 
a load-stone ; tapes, -etis, tapestry ; lebes, -etis, a cauldron, The rest follow the 



38 THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 

general rule. Some proper nouns have either -etis, or is; as, Bares, Daretis, or 
Daris ; which is also sometimes of the first declension. Achilles has Achillis ; 
or Achilli, contracted for Achillei, or Achillei, of the second declension, from 
Achilleus. So Ulysses, Pericles, Verres, Aristoteles, &c. 

IS. 

9. Nouns in is are feminine, and have their 
genitive the same with the nominative ; as ? 



auris, auris, the ear; avis, avis, a bird. So, 

Apis, a bee. Messis, a harvest or crop. Ratis, a rafU 

Bilis, the gall, anger. Naris, the nostril. Rudis, a rod. 

Classis, a fleet. Neptis, a niece. Vallis, a valley. 

Felis, a cat. Ovis, a sheep. Vestis, a garment. 

F 'oris, a door ; oftener plur. Pellis, a skin. Vitis, a vine. 

fores, -ium. Pestis, a plague. 



Exc. 1. The following nouns are masculine, and form the genitive according 
to the general rule s 



Axis, axis, an axle-tree. Fascis, a bundle. 
Aqualis, a water-pot, an Fecialis, a herald. 

ewer. Foil is, a pair of bellows. 

Callis, a beaten road. Fustis, a staff. 

Caulis, the stock of an herb. Mensis, a month. 
Collis, a hill. Mugilis, or -il, a mullet- 

Cenchris, a hind of ser- fish. 

pent. Orbis, a, circle, the world. 

Ensis, a sword. 



Patruelis, a cousin-german. 
Piscis, a fish. 
Postis, a post 
Sodalis, a companion. 
Torris, afire-brand. 
Unguis, the nail. 
Vectis, a lever. 
Vermis, a worm. 



To these add Latin nouns in nis ; as partis, bread ; crinis, the hair ; ignis, fire ; 
funis, a rope, &c. But Greek nouns in nis are feminine, and have the genitive 
in idis ; as tyrannis, tyraniiidis, tyranny. 

Exc. 2. The following nouns are also masculine, but form their genitive dif- 
ferently i 

-£ris, 



Clnis, -eris, ashes. Pubis, or pubes, -is, or oftener, 

Ciicumis, -is, or -eris, a cucumber. ^marriageable. 

Dis, ditis, the god of riches; or rich, Pul vis, -eris, dust, 



an adj. 

Glis, gliris, a dormouse, a rat. 
Impubis, or impiibes, -is, o?- -eris, not 

marriageable. 
Lapis, -idis, a stone. 



Quiris, -itis, a Roman. 

Samnis, -itis, a Samnite. 

Sanguis, -inis, blood. 

Semis, -issis, the half of anything. 

Vomis, or -er, -eris, a ploughshare. 



Pulvis, and cinis, are sometimes feminine. Semis is also sometimes neuter, and 
then it is indeclinable. Pubis and impubis are properly adjectives ; thus, Pube- 
ribuscaulem foliis, a stock with downy leaves. Virg. JEn. xii. 413. Impube cor- 
pus, the bjdy of a boy not having yet got the down {pubes, -is, f.) of youth. 
Horat. Epod. 5. 13. Exsanguis, bloodless, an adjective, has exsanguis in the 
genitive. 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 39 

Exc. 3. The following are either masculine or feminine, and form the genitive 
according to the general rule : 

Amnis, a river. Finis, the end ; fines, the boundaries of a 
Anguis, a snake. field, or territories, is always masc. 

Canalis, a conduit-pipe. Scrobis, or scrohs, a ditch. 

Corbis, a basket. Torquis, a chain. 



Exc. 4. These feminines have idis: Cassis, -idis, a helmet; cuspis, -idis, the 
point of a spear; capis, -idis, a kind of cup; promulsis, -idis, a kind of drink, 
metheglin. Lis, strife, f. has litis. 

Exc. 5. Greek nouns in is are generally feminine, and form the 
genitive variously : some have eos or ios ; as hceresis, -eos, or -ios, or 
•is, a heresy ; so, basis, f. the foot of a pillar ; phrasis, a phrase ; phth- 
isis, a consumption ; poesis, poetry ; metropolis, a chief city, &c. 
Some have idis or idos; as, Paris, -Idis, or -idos, the name of a man ; 
aspis, -idis, f. an asp ; ephemeris, -idis, f. a day-book ; iris, -idis, f. the 
rainbow ; pyxis, -idis, f. a box. So JEgis, the shield of Pallas ; cantha- 
ris, a sort of fly ; periscelis, a garter ; proboscis, an elephant's trunk ; 
pyramis, a pyramid ; and tigris, a tiger, -idis, seldom tigris : all fern. 
Part have idis, as, Psophis, -idis, the name of a city : others have inis; 
as, Eleusis, -inis, the name of a city ; and some have entis ; as, Simois, 
Simoentis, the name of a river. Charis, one of the Graces, has Char ids, 

OS. 

10. Nouns in.osare masculine, and have the 
genitive in otis; as, 

nepos, -otis, a grandchild ; sacerdos, -otis, a priest, also fem. 

Exc. 1. The following are feminine : 

Arbos, or -or, -oris, a tree, Eos, eois, the morning. 

Cos, c5tis, a whetstone, Glos, gloris, the husband's sister, or bro- 

Dos, dutis, a dowry. ther's wife. 

Exc. 2. The following masculines are excepted in the genitive : 

Flos, floris, a flower. Custos, -udis, a keeper, also fern. 

Honos, or -or, -oris, honour. Heros, herois, a hero. 

Labos, or -or, oris, labour. Minos, -ois, a king of Crete. ■ 

Lepos, or -or, -oris, wit. Tros, Trois, a Trojan. 

Mos, mGris, a custom. Bos, bo vis, m. or f. an ox or cow. 

Ros, roris, dew. 

Exc. 3. Os, ossis, a bone ; and 5s, oris, the mouth, are neuter. 

Exc. 4. Some Greek nouns have ois, as, heros, -ois, a hero, or great man : So 
Minos, a king of Crete ; Tros, a Trojan ; thos, a kind of wolf. 



40 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



US. 



11. Nouns in us are neuter, and have their geni- 
tive in oris; as, 



pectus, pectoris, the breast ; tempus, temporis, time. So, 



Corpus, a body. 
Decus, honour. 
Dedecus, disgrace. 
F acinus, a great action. 
Fcenus, usury. 



Frigus, cold. 
Littus, a shore. 
Nemus, a grove. 
Pec us, cattle. 



Pen us, provisions. 
Pignus, a pledge. 
Stercus, dung. 
Tergus, a hide, 



Exc. 1. The following neuters have eris: 

Acus, chaff. Munus, a gift or office. 

Fiinus, a funeral. Olus, pot-herbs. 

Foedus, a covenant. Onus, a burden. 

Genus, a kind, or kindred. Opus, a work. 
Glomus, a clew. Pond us, a weight. 

Latus, the side. Rudus, rubbish. 



Seel us, a crime. 
Sid us, a star. 
Vellus, a fleece of wool. 
Viscus, an entrail. 
Ulcus, a bile. 
Vulnus, a wound. 



Thus aceris, funeris, &c. Glomus, a clew, is sometimes masculine, and has 
glomi, of the second declension, Venus, the goddess of love, and vetus, old, an 
adjective, likewise have eris. 

Exc. 2. The following nouns are feminine, and form the genitive variously : 

Incus, -iidis, an anvil. Jiiventus, -utis, youth. 

Palus, -iidis, a pool, or morass. Sal us, -utis, safety. 

Pecus, -iidis, a sheep. Senectus, -utis, old age. 

Subscus, -iidis, a dove-tail. Servitus, -utis, slavery. 

Tellus, -uris, the earth, or goddess of the Virtus, -utis, virtue, 

earth. Intercus, -utis, an hydropsy. 

Intercus is properly an adjective, having aqua understood. 

Exc. 3. Monosyllables of the neuter gender have uris, in the genitive ; as, 

Crus, cruris, the leg. Rus, run's, the country. 

Jus, juris, law or right ; also broth. Thus, thuris, frankincense. 

Pus, puris, the corrupt matter of any So Mus, miiris, masc. a mouse, 
sore. 



Ligus, or -ur, a Ligurian, has Liguris; lepus, masc. a hare, leporis ; sus, 
masc. or fem. a swine, suis ; grus, masc. or fern, a crane, gruis. 

CEdipus, the name of a man, has (Edipodis ; sometimes it is of the second de- 
clension, and has (Edipi. The compounds of pus have odis ; as, tripus, masc. a 
tripod, tripodis; but lagbpus, -odis, a kind of bird, or, the herb hare's ibot, is fem. 
Names of cities have untis ; as, Trapezus, Trapezuntis ; Opus, Opuntis ; Hieri^ 
chus, -untis, Jericho. 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 41 

YS. 

12. Nouns in ys are all borrowed from the 
Greek, and are for the most part feminine. In the 
genitive they have sometimes yis, or yos; as, 

Hkc clielys, chelyis, or -yos, a harp ; Capys, Capyis, or -yos, the name of a^ man ; 
sometimes they have ydis, or ydos ; as, haec chldmys, chlamydis, or chlamydos, a 
soldier's cloak; and sometimes ynis or ywos; as, Trachys, Trachynis, or ira- 
chynos, the name of a town. 

^$, AUS, EUS, 

13. The nouns ending in ces, and a^s, are, 

^Es, aeris, n. brass or money. Laus, laud is, f. praise. 

Fraus, fraudis, f. /rawd. ' Praes, praedis, m. or f. a surety. 

Substantives ending in the syllable eus are all proper names, and have the ge- 
nitive in eos; as, Orpheus, Orpheos; Tereus, Tereos. But these nouns are also 
found in the second declension, where eus is divided into two syllables : thus, 
Orpheus, genit. Orphei, or sometimes contracted Orphei, and that into Orphi. 

S with a consonant before it. 

14. Nouns ending in s with a consonant before 
it, are feminine ; and form the genitive by chang- 
ing the s into is or tis; as, 

Trabs, trabis, a beam ; scobs, scobis, saw-dust ; hiems, hiemis, winter ; gens, 
gentis, a nation ; stips, stipis, alms ; pars, partis, a part ; sors, sortis, a lot ; mors, 
-tis, death. 

Exc. 1. The following nouns are masculine : 

Chalbys, -ybis, steel. Merops, -opis, a vjoodpecker. 

Dens, -tis, a tooth. Mons, -tis, a mountain. 

Fons, -tis, a well. Pons, -tis, a bridge. 

Gryps, gryphis, a griffin. Seps, sepis, a kind of serpent; but 

Hydrops, -opis, the dropsy. Seps, sepis, a hedge, is fem. 

Exc. 2. The following are either masculine, or feminine : 

Adeps, adipis, fatness. Serpens, -tis, a serpent. 

Rudens, -tis, a cable. Stirps, stirpis, the root of a tree. 

Scrobs, scrobis, a ditch. Stirps, an offspring, always fem. 

Ariimans, a living creature, is found in all the genders, but most frequently in 
the feminine or neuter. 

d2 



42 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



Exc 3. Polysyllables in eps change e into i ; as, haec forceps, forctpis, a pair 
of tongs ; princeps, -ipis, a prince or princess ; particeps, -cipis, a partaker ; so 
likewise ccelebs, coeltbis, an unmarried manor woman. The compounds of caput 
have ctflttis; as, prcsceps, prcecipitis, headlong ; anceps,anc?p y dis, doubtful : biceps, 
-cipitis, two-headed. Auceps, a fowler, has aucupis. 

Exc. 4. The following feminines have dis : 

Frons, frondis, the leaf of a tree. Juglans, -dis, a walnut. 

GJans, glandis, an acorn. Lens, lendis, a nit. 

So librlpens, libripendis, m. a w T eigher; nefrens, -dis, m. or f. a grice, or pig ; 
and the compounds of cor ; as concors, concordis, agreeing ; discors, disagreeing ; 
vecors, mad, &c. But frons, the forehead, has frontis, fem. and lens, a kind of 
pulse, lentis, also fem. 

Exc. 5. lens, going, and quiens, being able, participles from the verbs eo and 
queo, with their compounds, have euntis ; thus, iens, euntis ; quieiis, queuntis ; 
rediens, redeuntis ; nequiens, nequeuntis : but ambiens, going round, has ambientis. 

Exc. 6. Tiryns, a city in Greece, the birth place of Hercules, has Tirynthis. 

T. 

15. There is only one noun in t, namely, caput, 
capitis, the head, neuter. In like manner its com- 
pounds, sinciput, sincipitis, the forehead; and occi- 
put, -itis, the hind-head. 



x. 



16. Nouns in x are feminine, and in the genitive 
change x into cis; as, lux, lucis, light. 



Vox, the voice, fem. 



Singxdar. 
Nom. vox, 
Gen. vucis, 
Dat. voci, 
Ace. voeem, 
Voc. vox, 
Abl. vuce. 



Appendix, -icis, an addi- 
tion ; dim. -iciila. 
Celox, -Gcis, a pinnace. 
Cervix, -icis, the neck. 
Cicatrix, -icis, a scar. 
Comix, -icis, a crow. 
Coturnix, -icis, a quail. 
Coxendix, -icis, the hip. 



Plural. 
Nom. voces, 
Gen. vocum, 
Dat. vocibus, 
Ace. voces, 
Voc. voces, 
Abl. vocibus. 



So, 

Crux, crucis, a cross. 
Fagx, -cis, dregs. 
Falx, -cis, a scythe, 
Fax, -acis, a torch. 
Fiiix, -icis, a fern. 
Lanx, -cis, a plate. 
Lodix, -icis, a sheet. 
Meretrix, -icis, a courtezan. 



Merx, -cis, merchandise. 
Nutrix, -icis, a nurse. 
Nux, niicis, a nut. 
Pax, -acis, peace. 
Y\x,\nc\s, pitch. 
Radix, -icis, a root. 
Salix, -icis, a willow. 
Vibix, or -ex, -icis the mark 
of a wound. 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



43 



Exc. 1. Polysyllables in ax and ex are masculine ; as, thorax, -acis, a breast- 
plate ; Cbrax, -acis, a raven. Ex in the genitive is changed into ?cis ; tiiS,pollex, 
-?cis, m. the thumb. So the following nouns, also masculine : 



Apex, the tuft or tassel on CImex, a bug. 
Vie top of a priest's cap, Codex, a book, 
the cap itself, or the top Ciilex, a gnat, a midge. 



of any thing. 
Artifex.ara artist. 
Carnifex, an executioner. 
Caudex, the trunk of a 

tree. 



Friitex, a shrub. 
Index, an informer. 
Latex, any liquor. 
Murex, a shell fish, pur- 
ple. 



Pud ex, the breech. 

Pontifex, a chief priest. 

Pulex, aflea. 

Ramex, a rupture. 

So rex, a rat. 

Vertex, the crown of the 

head. 
Vortex, a whirlpool. 



Vervex, a weather sheep, has vervecis ; fcenisex, a mower of hay, foenicecis ; 
resex, m. -ecis, a vine branch cut off. 



To these masculines add, 

Calix, -icis, a cup. 
Calyx, -ycis, the bud of a flower. 
Coccyx, -ygis, or ycis, a cuckoo. 
Fornix, -icis, a vault. 



Oryx, -ygis, a wild goat. 
Phoenix, -icis, a bird so called. 
Tradux, -ucis, a graff or offset of a vine ,' 
also fem. 



But the following polysyllables in ax and ex are feminine : 



Fornax, -acis, a furnace. 
Panax, -acis, the herb all-heal. 
Climax, -acis, a ladder. 
Forfex, -icis, a pair of scissors. 
Halex, -ecis, a herring. 



Smilax, -acis, the herb rope-weed. 

Carex, -icis, a sedge. 

Siipellex, supellectilis, household furni 



Exc. 2. A great many nouns in x are either masculine or feminine ; as, 

Calx, -cis, the heel, or the end of any LImax, -acis, a snail. 

thing, the goal ; but calx, lime, is al- Obex, -icis, a bolt or bar. 

ways fem. 
Cortex, -icis, the bark of a tree. 
Hystrix, -icis, a porcupine. 
Imbrex, -icis, a gutter or roof tile. 
Lynx, -cis, an ounce, a beast of very 

quick sight. 



Perdix, -icis, a partridge. 
Piimex, -icis, a pumice stone. 
Rumex, -icis, sorrel, anherb. 
Sandix, -Icis, a purple colour. 
Silex, -icis, a flint. 
Varix, -icis, a swollen vein. 



Exc. 3. The following nouns depart from the general rule in forming the ge- 
nitive: 



Aquilex, -egis, a well-maker. 
Conjunx, or -ux, ugis, a husband or 

wife. 
Frux (not used), frugia, f. corn. 
Grex, gregis, m. or f. a flock. 
Lex, legis, f. a law. 



Phalanx, -angis, f. a phalanx. 

Remex, -igis, a rower. 

Rex, regis, a king. 

Nix, nivis, f. snow. 

Nox, noctis, f. night. 

Senex, senis, & -icis, (an adj.) old. 



Exc. 4. Greek nouns in x, both with respect to gender and manner of declen- 
sion, are as various as Latin nouns; thus, bombyx, bombycis, a silk-worm, masc. 
but when it signifies silk, or the yarn spun by the worm, it is feminine ; onyx, 



44 THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 

masc. or fern, onychis, a precious stone ; and so sardonyx ; larynx, laryngis, fem. 
the top of the windpipe,- Phryx, Pkrygis, a Phrygian ; sphinx, -ngis, a fabulous 
hag ; stria:, -Igis, f. a screech-owl ; Styx, -ygis, f. a river in hell ; Hylax, -ctis, the 
name of a dog ; Bibrax, Bibractis, the name of a town, &e. 

EXCEPTIONS IN DECLENSION. 

DATIVE SINGULAR. 

The dative singular anciently ended also in e ; as, Esuriente lebni ex ore excul- 
pere prcedam, To pull the prey out of the mouth of a hungry lion. Lucil. H&ret 
pedepes, Foot sticks to foot. Virg. jEn. x. 361. for esurienti and pedi. 

EXCEPTIONS IN THE ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR. 

Exc. 1. The following nouns have the accusa- 
tive in im. 

Amussis, f. a mason's rule. Ravis, f. hoarseness. 

Buris, f. the beam of a plough. Sinapis, f. mustard. 

Cannabis, f. hemp. Sitis, f. thirst. 

Cucumis, m. a cucumber. Tussis, f. a cough. 

Gummis, f. gum. Vis, f. strength. 
Mephitis, f. a damp or strong smell. 

To these add proper names, 1. of cities and other places; as, His- 
panis, Seville, a city in Spain ; Syrtis, a dangerous quicksand on the 
coast of Lybia ; — 2. of rivers ; as, Tiberis, the Tiber, which runs past 
Rome ; Bcetis, the Guadalquiver, in Spain ; so, Albis, Araris, Ath$- 
sis, LiriSj &c. — 3. of gods ; as, Aniibis, Apis, Osiris, Serdpis, deities 
of the Egyptians. But these sometimes make the accusative also in 
in ; thus, Syrtim or Syrtin, Tiberim, or -in, &c. 

Exc. 2. Several nouns in is have either em or 
im; as, 

Aqualis, m. a water-pot. Pelvis, f. a basin. Seciiris, f. an axe. 

CI avis, f. a hey. Puppis, f. the stern of a Sementis, f. a sowing. 

Cutis, f. the shin. ship. Strigilis, f. a horse-comb. 

Febris, f. a fever. Restis, f. a rope, Turris, f. a tower. 
Navis, f. a ship. 

Thus navem or navim; puppem, or puppim, &c. The ancients said, avim, aurim, 
ovim, pesiim, vallim, vitim, &c. which are not to be imitated. 

Exc. 3. Greek nouns form their accusative va- 
riously : 

1. Greek nouns, whose genitive increases in is or os impure, that is, with a con- 
sonant going before, have the accusative in em or a ; as, lajnpas, lampadis, or lam- 
pados, lampadem or lampada. In like manner, these three, which have is pure 
in the genitive, or is with a vowel before it: Tros, Trois, Troem or Troa, a Tro- 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 45 

jan; heros, a hero; Minos, a king of Crete. The threo following have almost 
always a ; Pan, the god of shepherds ; cether, the sky ; delphin, a dolphin ; thus, 
Tana, athera, delpliina. 

2. Masculine Greek nouns in is, which have their genitive in is or os impure, 
form the accusative in im or in ; sometimes in Idem, never ida ; as, Paris, Pari- 
dis or Paridos, Parim, or Parin, sometimes Paridem, never Panda. — So, Daphnis. 

3. Feminines in is, increasing impurely in the genitive, have commonly idem 
or ida, but rarely im or in ; os, Elis, Elidis or Elidos, Elidem or Elida ; seldom 
Elim or Elin ; a city in Greece. In like manner feminines in ys, ydos, have 
ydem or yda, not ym or yn in the accusative ; as, chlamys, ydem or yda, not 
chlamyn, a soldier's cloak. 

4. But all Greek nouns in is or ys, whether masculine or feminine, having is 
or os pure in the genitive, form the accusative, by changing 8 of the nominative 
into m or n ; as metamorphosis, -eos or -ios, metamorphbsim or -in, a change. Tethys, 
•yos or -yis, Tethym or -#?i ; the name of a goddess. 

5. Nouns ending in the diphthong ens, have the accusative in ea ; as, Theseus, 
Thesea ; Tydeus, Tydea. 

EXCEPTIONS IN THE VOCATIVE SINGULAR. 

Many Greek nouns, particularly proper names, drop s of the nominative to form 
the vocative ; as Daphnis, Daphni ; Paris, Pari ; Tethys, Ttthy ; Melampus, Me- 
lampu ; Orpheus, Orpheu; Chelys, Chely; Poesis, Poesi. .Nouns in as, antis, make 
the vocative in a or in an; as, Pallas, Palla or Pallan ; Calchas, Calcha or Cal- 
cium : some in es make it in es or e ; as, Socrates, Chremes, Hercules, Achilles, <kc. 

EXCEPTIONS IN THE ABLATIVE SINGULAR. 

Exc. 1. Neuters in e, al, and ar, have i in the 
ablative ; as, sedile, sedlli; animal animdli ; calcar, 
calcari. Except proper names ; as, Prcenesle, abl. 
Prceneste, the name of a town ; and the following 
neuters in ar: 

Far, farre, corn. Nectar, are, drink of the gods. 

Hepar, ate, the liver. Par, pare, a match, a pair. 

Jiibar, -are, a sun heam. Sal, sale, or -i, m. or n. salt. 

Exc. 2. Nouns which have im or in in the accusative, have i in the 
ablative ; as, vis, vim, vi ; but cannabis, Bcetis, and Tigris, have e or i. 

Nouns which have em or im in the accusative, make their ablative 
in e or i; as, turris, turre, or turri; but restis, a rope, and cutis, the 
skin, have e only.* 



* Several nouns which have only em in the accusative, have e or i in the abla- 
tive ; as, finis, supellex, vectis, pugil, a champion ; mugil or mugilis ; so rus, oc- 
ciput : Also names of towns, when the question is made by ubi ; as, habitat Car- 
thagine or Carthagini, he lives at Carthage. So, civis, classis, sors, imber, anguis, 
avis, postis, fuslis, amnis, and ignis ; but these have oftener e. Canalis has only 
i The most ancient writers made the ablative of many other nouns in i; as, 
cestdti, cani, lapidi, ovis ; &c. 



46 THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 

Exc. 3. Adjectives used as substantives have commonly the same ab- 
lative with the adjective; as, blpennis, -i, a halbert; moldris, -i, a mill- 
stone ; quadrlremis, 4, a ship with four banks of oars. So names of 
months, Aprilis, -i ; December, -bri, &c. But rudis, f. a rod given to 
gladiators when discharged; juvenis, a young man, have e only; and 
likewise nouns ending in il, x, ceps, or ns ; as, 

Adolescens, a young man. Princeps, a prince. Torrens, a brook. 

Xnfans, an infant. Senex, an old man. Vigil, a watchman. 

Exc. 4. Nouns in ys, which have ym in the accusative, make their 
ablative in ye, or y ; as, Atys, Atye, or Aty, the name of a man. 

NOMINATIVE PLURAL. 

1. The nominative plural ends in es, when the noun is either mas- 
culine or feminine ; as, sermones, rupes. 

Nouns in is and es have sometimes in the nominative plural also eis 
or is ; as, puppes, puppeis, or puppis. 

2. Neuters which have e in the ablative singular, have a in the 
nominative plural; as, capita, itinera: but those which have i in the 
ablative, make ia ; as, sedilia, calcdria. 

GENITIVE PLURAL. 

Nouns which in the ablative singular have i only, or either e or i, 
make the genitive plural in ium ; but if the ablative be in e only, the 
genitive plural has um ; as, sedlle, sedili, sedilium ; turris, turre or 
turri, turrium ; caput, capite, capitum. 

Exc. 1. Monosyllables in as have ium, though their ablative end in 
e ; as, mas, a male, mare, marium ; vas, a surety, vadium : but poly- 
syllables have rather um; as, clvltas, a state or city, civitdtum, and 
sometimes civitatium. 

Exc. 2. Nouns in es and is, which do not increase in the genitive 
singular, have also ium ; as, hostis, an enemy, hostium. So likewise 
nouns ending in two consonants; as, gens, a nation, gentium ; urbs, a 
city, urbium. 

But the following have um; parens, vdtes, volucris, pdnis, juvenis, 
opes, forceps, and cdnis. Horace, however, has parentium, Od. 
iii. 4, 23. 

Exc. 3. The following nouns form the genitive plural in ium, 
though they have e only in the ablative singular : 

Arx, arcis, f. a castle. Lintcr, -tris, m, or f. a little boat. 

Caro, carnis, f. flesh. Lis, litis, f. strife. 

Cohors, -tis, f. a company. Mus, muris, m. a incuse. 

Cor. cordis, n. the heart. Nix, nivis, f. snow. 

Cos, cutis, f. a hone or whetstone. Nox, noctis, f. the night. 

Dos, dotis, f. a dowry. Os, ossis, n. a bone. 

Faux, faucis, f. the jaws. Quiris, -itis, a Roman. 

Glis, gliris, m. a rat. Samnis, -tis, m. or f. a Saimiite, 

Lar ; iaris, ra. a household god. Uter. utris, m. a bottle. 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 47 

Thus Samnitium, lintrium, litium, &c. Also the compounds ofuncia and as: 
as, sepiunx, seven ounces, septuncium ; bes, eight ounces, bessium. 

Bos, an ox or cow, has bourn ; and in the dative, bobus, or bubus. 

Greek nouns have generally urn ; as, Mucedo, a Macedonian; Arabs, an Ara- 
bian ; JEthiops, an Ethiopian; monoceros, an Unicorn; lynx, a beast so called; 
Thrax, a Thracian ; Macedonian, Arabum, JEthiopum, monocerotum, lyncum, 
Thracum. But those which have a or sis in the nominative singular, sometimes 
form the genitive plural in on ; as, Epigramma, epigrammatum, or epigrammalbn, 
an epigram ; metamorphosis, -turn, or eon. 

Obs. 1. Nouns, which want the singular, form the genitive plural as if they 
were complete; thus, manes, m. souls departed, manium; capites, m. inhabitants 
of heaven, caditum ; because they would have had in the sing, manis or manes, 
and cables. But names of feasts often vary their declension; as, Saturnalia, the 
feasts of Saturn, Saturnalium and Saturnalidrum. So, Bacchanalia, Compitalia, 
Terminalia, Sic. 

Obs. 2. Nouns which have ium in (he genitive plural, are, by the poets, often 
contracted into um ; as, nocentinn for nocentium : and sometimes, to increase the 
number of syllables, a letter is inserted ; as, codituum, for ccelitum. The former 
of these is said to be done by the figure Syncope; and the latter by Epenthesis. 

EXCEPTIONS IN THE DATIVE PLURAL. 

Exc. 1. Greek nouns in a have commonly lis instead of tlbus ; as, 
poema, a poem, poemdtis, rather than poematlbus, from the old nomi- 
native poemdtum, of the second declension. 

Exc. 2. The poets sometimes form the dative plural of Greek nouns 
in si, or, when the next word begins with a vowel, in sin ; as, Trodsi 
or Troasin, for Troddlbus, from Troas, Troddis or Troddos, a Tro- 
jan woman. 

Exc. 3. Bos, an ox, has bobus or bubus ; Sus, a swine, suibus, 
subus, or subus. 

EXCEPTIONS IN THE ACCUSATIVE PLURAL. 

Exc. 1. Nouns which have ium in the genitive plural, make their 
accusative plural in es, eis, or is ; as, partes, partium, ace. partes, par- 
te is, or partis, 

Exc. 2. If the accusative singular end in a, the accusative plural 
also ends in as ; as, lampas, lampddem, or lampdda ; lampddes or lam," 
pddas. So Tros, Troas; heros, heroas\ JEthiops, JEithiopas, &c. 

GREEK NOUNS THROUGH ALL THE CASES. 

Lampas, a lamp, f. lampddis, or -ados, -ddi, -ddem, or ~dda, -as, 
-dde. Plur. -ddes, -adwn, -ddibus, -ddes, or -ddas, -fides, -ddibus. 

Troas, f. Troddis, or -dos, -di, -dem, or -da, -as, -de. Plur. Troddes, 
-dum, -dibits or -si or -sin, *des, or -das, -des, -dibus. 

Tros, m. Trois, Troi, Troem or -a, Tros, Troe, &c. 

Phillis, f. PhiUldis or -dos, -di, -dem or -da, -i or -is, -de. 

Paris, m. Pdrldis or -dos, -di,-dem or Parim or -in, -i, -de. 

Chldmys, f. chlamydis or -ydos, -ydi, -ydem or -yda, -ys, -yde, &c. 

Cdpys, m. Capyis or -z/o.s, -yi, -ym, or -?/?2, -y, -ye or -y. 

Metamorphosis, f. -?'s or -ios, or -eos, -i, -im or -«t, -i, -i, &6> 



48 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



An alphabetical list of most of the irregular 
Nouns, both substantive and adjective, of the 
Third Declension. 

* Those thus marked, have e only in the ablative, and um in the 
genitive plural. 

t Those having i or e and i in the ablative, and um in the genitive 
plural, are thus marked. 

J Such substantives have i, because they are formed from adjectives, 
having i only in the ablative. Though used as substantives, they are 
in reality adjectives, the substantive with which they agree being 
understood. 

5 Substantives, thus marked, take either termination indifferently: 
those not marked take, in general, the first terminal ion mentioned. 

|| Carthago and such nouns have e or i when at a place is signified, 
that is, when the question is made by ubi i where V The names of 
Gods, rivers, &c, in is, take, in general, im or in in the accusative, 
i or sometimes e in the ablative. 



A 

Adolescens, 

Amnis, 

Amussis, 

Anguis, 

Aprilis, 

Aqualis, $ 

Araris, 

As and compounds, 

Avis, 

Adjectives. 
Ales, t 
Anceps, t 
Artifex, t 

B. 
Boetes, || 
Bilbilis, 
Bipennis, | - 



Ace. Sing. 



Buris, 

c. 

Canalis, 
Cannabis, 
Carthago, f| 
( ?aro, 
Centussis, 
Civis, 
Classis, 
Cohors, 
Clavis, $ 
Cor, - 
Cos, - 



im, 

era, 

im, or em, 

im, 



im or m, 
im, 



em, 
im, 



im, em, 



AM. Sing. ] 



e or 1 raro. 



e or i. 

e or i. 
e or i. 



l or e. 
i or e. 



e or i. 

e or i. 



Gen. PI. 

tium, rather turn. 



ltum. 

itum, (ia, nom.) 

um. 



bourn, (bobus, dat.) 



dium* 
tium> 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



49 



Collis, 
Cucumis, 
Cutis, - 

Adjectives. 
Capio, compounds 

of in -ceps, 
Caput, compounds 

of in -ceps, 
Celer, t 
Coelebs, * 
Compar, t - 
Compos,* 
Concolor, * - 
Color, comp. of, 
Corpus, comp. of in 

-or, * 
Consors, t - 
Concors, 

D. 
Decussis, 
Dos, - 

Adjectives. 
Degener, t - 
Dispar, t 
Dives, * 

F. 
Familiaris, | - 
Faux, 



Ace. Sing. 



im, 
im 



of in 



Febris, § 
Finis, 
Fornax, 
Fustis, 
Facio, comp. 

-fex, 

G. 
Gausape (perhaps 

indecl.) 
Glis, 
Gumrnis, 
Genus, comp. of in 



H. 

Haeresis, 
Hospes, adj. * 

Ignis, - 
Imber, - 
Infans, - 
Jus, 
Juvenis, 

Adjectives. 
Impos, * 
Impar, t 
Impubes, * - 
Inops, t 



im, in, 



AM. Sing. 
e or i. 



e or 1, 


• 


um. 


i» 


• 


um. 


e, 


- 


um. 


e, or i, 


- 


um. 


ote, 


- 


um. 


e, 


• 


um. 


e, 


- 


um. 


e, 


. 


um. 


e or i, 




um. 


l or e re 


rely, 


ium. 



e or i, 
e or i, 
e, sometimes i, 



i, e. 
i, e. 



e, i. 
e or \, 



ite, 



e or i. 
e or u 



jure, 



ote, - 
e or i, 
ere, 
e vr i, 



Gen. PL 



tium. 

um. 
um. 
um. 



cium. 



tium. 

um, ium seldom, 

um. 

um. 
um. 
um, 
um. 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



L. 

Labes, 

Lar, 

Lens, $ 

Linter, 

Lis, 

Locuples, adj. 

M. 
Mephitis, 
Messis, 
Molaris, % - 
Mons, 
Mugil, 
Mus, 
Memo, adj. t {olim 
Meraoris,) 

N. 
Natalis, J 
Navis, $ 
J\ T ix, 

November, 
such,) 

O, 
Occiput, § 
October, 
Orbis, 
Os, ossis. 
Ovis, 

P. 
Pelvis, § 
Par, m. tyf. 
Par, n. 



Ace. Sing. 



tim, tern, - 



1m, 



1m, em. 



(and 



Pal us, 
Pars, 

Postis, 
Pugil, $ 
Puppis, § 

Adjectives. 
Par, t 

Particeps, t - 
Pauper, * 
Pes, comp. of* 
Princeps, t - 
Praeceps, * - 
Plus, 
Pubes, * 

Q. 

Quintilis {and such,) 
Quiris, 

R. 
Ratis, 
Ravis, 
Restis, 
Rivalis f t 



em. 1m, 
im, 
im, em, 



Abl. Sing. 
e or i. 



ti, te. 



e or i, 



e or 1. 
e or i, 



1 or e. 
i or e. 



i. 

i or e* 

i. 

e or i. 

e or i. 

i or e. 

e, 

i, 



e or !. 

e or i. 
i or e. 
i or e. 

h - 
e or i, 
ere, 
e 7 

e or i, 
i, e, 
ri, re, 
ere, 



Gen. PL 



ium. 
tium. 
urn, ium seldom* 



um. 

rium.^ 



mm. 

ium. 

udium 



ium. 

urn. 

urn. 

um. 

urn. 

turn (la. nonu 

rium. 

um. 



itium, itum. 



i Semel apud Ciceronem murum. 



THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



51 



Rus, § 
Rudis, 



s. 



Sal, 

Samnis, 

Securis, 

Seges, 

Sementis, $ - 

Senex, 

Sentis, 

Septunx, 

Serapis, || 

Sextans, 

Sextilis, 

Sinapis, 

Sitis, 

Sodalis, t 

Sordes, 

Sors, 

Strigilis, 

Supellex, $ - 

Adjectives. 
Senex, * 
Sospes, * 
Superstes, * - 
Supplex, t - 

T. 
Tibris, || 
Tigris, || - 
Tridens, $ - 
Turris, $ 
Tussis, 

Adjectives. 
Tricorpor, * - 
Tricuspis, * - 
Tripes,* ' - 

u,v. 

Vectis, 
Venter, 

Vigil, $ 
Vis, pi. vires, 
Unguis, 
Volucris, X - 
Uter, - 

Adjectives, 
Uber, t 
Vetus, * 
Viail, t 
Volucris, t - 



Ace. Sing. 



im, em, 
im, em, 
em, im, 



im, 



em, 
im, 



em, im seldom, 



im, in, 
im, in, 



im, em, 
im, em, 



All. Sing. 
i or e. 



e or !. 
i or e. 



vim, - 



or o. 
e or i. 
e or i. 
e. 
i or e. 

e, 

ite, - 
ite, - 
ici, or e, 

i, e, ide. 
i, e, 
i or e. 
i or e. 
i or e. 



e or i. 

e or i, 



e or i. 
i or e, 



Gen. PL 



urn. 

cium. 

tium= 



urn. 
um. 
urn. 
um. 



e or i, 

, e seldom, 



um. 
um. 

um. 



ium 
um. 
rium, 

um. 
ium. 

um. 
um. 

um, ium 
um,ium 



52 



FOURTH DECLENSION OF NOUNS, 



FOURTH DECLENSION. 

Nouns of the fourth declension end in us and u. 
Nouns in us are masculine ; nouns in u are 
neuter, and indeclinable in the singular number- 



TERMINATIONS. 



Singular. 

Gen. us, 

Dat. ui, 

Ace. urn, 

Abl. u. 



Plural. 



Norn 

Ace 

Voc 

Gen. mini 

Dat, 

Abl, 



us, or ua» 



n. i 



Fructus, /n«£, masc. 



Singular. 



Plural 



N. fructus, 


fruit, 


N. fructus, 


fruits, 


G. fructus, 


of fruit, 


G. fructuum, 


of fruits, 


D. fructui, 


to fruit, 


D. fructibus, 


to fruits, 


A. fructum, 


fruit, 


A. fructus, 


fruits, 


V. fructus, 


fruit, 


V. fructus, 


fruits, 


A. fructu, 


with fruit. 


A. fructibus, 


with fruits. 



Cornu, a horn, neut. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



N. cornu, 


a horn, 


N. cornua, 


horns. 


G. cornu, 


of a horn, 


G. corn uum, 


of horns, 


D. cornu, 


to a horn, 


D. cormbus, 


to horns, 


A. cornu, 


a horn, 


A. cornua, 


horns, 


V. cornu, 


O horn, 


V. cornua, 


horns, 


A. cornu, 


with a horn. 


A. cornibus, 


with horns. 


Exc. 1. The following nouns are feminine : 




Ac us, a needle. 


Idus, uum, the ides of a Porticus, a gallery* 


Anus, an old woman. 


month. Specus, 


a den. 


Domus, a house. 


Manus, the hand. Tribus, 


a tribe. 


FIcus, a jig. 


Penus, a stort 


'.-house. 





FIFTH DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



53 



Penus and specus are sometimes masculine. Ficus, penus, and domus, with se- 
veral others, are also of the second declension. Capricornus, m. the sign Capri- 
corn, although from cornu, is always of the second decl. and so are the compounds 
oimanus; unimanus, having one hand; centimdnus, &c. adj. Quercus, an oak, 
has quercbrum, and -uum, in the gen. pi. Versus has versl, versorum, versis, as well 
as its regular cases. Sendtus has also -dti, in the gen. 

Domus is but partly of the second declension ; thus, 



Domus, a house, fern. 



Singular. 



N. domus, 

G. domus, or mi, 

D. domui, or -mo, 

A. domum, 

V. domus, 

A. domo, 



a house, 

of a house, 

to a house, 

a house, 

O house, 

with a house. 



Plural. 

N. domus, houses, 

G. domorum, or -uum, of houses* 

D. domibus, to houses, 

A. domos, or -us, houses, 

V. domus, O houses, 



A. domtbus, 



with houses, 



Note. Domus, in the genitive, signifies, of a house ; and domi, at 
home, or of home ; as, memineris domi. Terent. Eun. iv. 7. 45. 

Exc. 2. The following nouns have ubus, in the dative and ablative plural 



Acus, a needle. 
Arcus, a bow. 
Artus, a joint. 
Genu, the knee. 



Lac us, a lake. 
Partus, a birth. 
Port us, a harbour. 



Specus, a den. 
Tribus, a tribe. 
Veru, a spit. 



Portus, genu, and veru, have likewise V)us; as, portibus or portubus. 

Exc. 3. Jesus, the venerable name of our Saviour, has um in the 
accusative, and u in all the other cases.* 



FIFTH DECLENSION. 

Nouns of the fifth declension end in es, and are 
of the feminine gender. 



* Nouns of the fourth declension anciently belonged to the third, and were de» 
clined like grus,gruis, a crane ; thus, fructus,fructuis,fructui,fructuem, fructus, 
fructue ; fructues, fructuum, fructmbus, fructues, fructues, fructuibus. So that a 1 1 
the cases are contracted, except the dative singular, and genitive plural. In some 
writers, we still find the genitive singular in ids ; as, Ejus anuis causa, for anus. 
Terent. Heaut. ii. 3. 46. and in others, the dative in u ; as, Resistere impllu, for 
impetui. Cic. Fam. x. 24. Esse usu sibi, for usui. lb. xiii. 71. The gen. plur, 
is sometimes contracted ; as, currum, for curruum. 

d2 



54 



FIFTH DECLENSION OF NOUNS, 



TERMINATIONS. 



Singular. 

Nom. \ 
Voc. 5 
Gen. \ 
Dat. S 
Ace. 
Abl. 



es, 



ei, 




Res, a thing, fern. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



N. res, 


a thing, 


N. res, 


things^ 


G. rei, 


of a thing, 


G. rerum, 


of, things, 


D. rei, 


to a thing, 


D. rebus, 


to things, 


A. rem, 


a thing, 


A. res, 


things, 


V. res, 


thing, 


V. res, 


things, 


A. re, 


with a thing. 


A. rebus, 


with things. 



In like manner decline, 

Acies, the edge of a thing, Ingluvies, gluttony. 

or an army in order of Macies, leanness. 

battle. Materies, matter. 

Caries, rottenness. Pernicies, destruction. 

Caesaries, the hair. Proluvies, a looseness. 

Facies, the face. Rabies, madness. 
Glacies, ice. 



Sanies, gore. 
Scabies, the scab, or itch. 
Series, an order, or row. 
Species, an appearance. 
Superficies, the surface. 
Temperies, temper ateness. 



Except dies, a day, masc. or fem. in the singular, and always masc. in the plu- 
ral ; and meridies, the mid-day, or noon, masc. 

The poets sometimes make the genitive, and more rarely the dative singular, in 
e ; as, fide, for fidei. Ov. M. 3. 341. 

Gen. Die, Virg. G. i. 208. Sallust, Jug. 52, 106. Acie, Sallust. Dat. Die Plaut. 
Facie, Gell. Fide, Sallust, Jug. Hor. i. Sat. 3. 95. We find such Genitives also 
as, Acii, Peniicii, Fidi, &c. A few have their Genitive from the Third, as Re- 
quits, ei, or etis, rest. Plebes, the common people, makes pi Ibis, pi ebei, or pi ebi ; 
Fames, hunger, f amis, or f am ei. 

The nouns of this declension are few in number, not exceeding fifty, and seem 
anciently to have been comprehended under the third declension. Most of them 
want the genitive, dative, and ablative plural, and many, the plural altogether. 

All nouns of the fifth declension end in res, except three ; fides, faith; spes, 
hope ; res, a thing ; and all nouns in ies are of the fifth, except these four ; abies, a 
fir-tree ; aries, a ram ; paries, a wall ; and quies, rest ; which are of the third de- 
clension. Requies is of the third and fifth declension. 

Of the fifty-seven nouns of this declension, only two, Res, and Dies, are com- 
plete in the plural. The following plurals occur : Nom. or Accus, Acies, Facies, 
Flumes, Progenies, Scabies, Species, Spes, Superficies. — Gen. Facierum, Spe- 
cierum, Sperum, Materieum, Luxurieum. — Dat. or Abl. Splbus, Superficiebus. 
• Specierum et Speciebus nolim dicere, ne siLatine quidem dici possit.' — Cicero. 



IRREGULAR NOUNS. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE FIVE DECLENSIONS. 



55 



[Greek words and neuters are omitted. The nominative singular also 
does not appear in its various forms.] 





1. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


Sing. 












Nora. 












Gen. 


CB, 


if 


is, 


iis, 


ei. 


Dat. 


(B, 


o, 


i, 


ui, 


ei 


Ace. 


am, 


um, 


em, 


um, 


em. 


Voc. 


as Nom. 


as Nom. 


as Nom. 


as Nom. 


as Nom. 


AbJ. 


a, 


o, 


e, 


u, 


e. 


Plural. 












Norn. 


CB, 


i, 


es, 


us, 


es. 


Gen. 


drum, 


drum, 


um, 


uum, 


erum. 


Dat. 


is, 


is, 


ibus, 


ibus, 


ebus. 


Ace. 


as, 


OS, 


es, 


us, 


es. 


Voc. 


(B, 


i, 


es, 


us, 


es. 


Abl. 


is, 


is, 


ibus, 


tbus, 


ebus. 



IRREGULAR NOUNS. 

Irregular nouns may be reduced to three classes. 
Variable, Defective, and Redundant. 

I. VARIABLE NOUNS. 

Nouns are variable either in gender, or declension, or in both. 

Heterogeneous Nouns. 
Those which vary in gender are called heterogeneous, and may be 
reduced to the following classes : 

1. Masculine in the singular, and neuter in the plural. 

Avernus, a lake in Campania, hell. 
Dindymus, a hill in Phrygia. 
Ismarus, a hill in Thrace. 
Massicus, a hill in Campania, famous 
for excellent wines. 



Msenalus, a hill in Arcadia. 
Pangseus, a promontory in Thrace. 
Taenarus, a promontory in Laconia. 
Tartarus, hell. 
Taygetus, a hill in Laconia. 



Thus, Averna, Avernorum ; Dindyma, -brum, &c. These are thought by some 
to be properly adjectives, having mons understood in the singular, and juga, or 
cacumina, or the like, in the plural. 



56 IRREGULAR NOUNS. 

2. Masc. in the sing, and in the plur. masc. and neuter. 
Jocus, a jest, pi. joci and joca; locus, a place, pi. loci and loca. 

When we speak of passages in a book, or topics in a discourse, loci 
only is used. 

3. Feminine in the singular, and neuter in the plural. 

Carbasus, a sail, pi. carbasa ; Pergamus, the citadel of Troy, pi. 
Pergama. 

4. Neuter in the singular, and masculine in the plural. 

Ccelum, pi. cozli, heaven ; Elysium, pi. Elysii, the Elysian fields ; 
Argos, pi. Argi, a city in Greece. 

5. Neuter in the sing, in the plur. masc. or neuter. 

Rastrum, a rake, pi. rastri and rastra; frcenum, a bridle, ^A.frceni 
and frcena. 

6. Neuter in the singular, and feminine in the plural. 

Delictum, a delight, pi. delicice; epulum, a banquet, pi. epulce; bal- 
neum, a bath, pi. balnece and balnea. 

Heteroclites. 

Nouns which vary in declension are called heteroclites; as, vas, 
vdsis,& vessel, pi. vdsa, vasorum ; jiigerum, jugeri, an acre, \A.jugera, 
jugerum, jugerlbus, which has likewise sometimes jugeris, and ju- 
gere, in the singular, from the obsolete jugus, or juger. 

In double nouns, both nouns are declined when combined in the no- 
minative case ; as, 

Respublica, a commonwealth, fem. 
Singular. Plural. 



N. respublica, 
G. reipublicss, 
D. reipublicse, 
A. rempublicam, 
V. respublica, 
A. republica. 



N. respublicse, 
G. rerumpublicarum, 
D. rebuspublicis, 
A. respublicas, 
V. respublicse, 
A. rebuspublicis. 



Jusjurandum, an oath, neut. 
Singular. Plural. 



N. jusjurandum, 
G. jurisjurandi, 
D. jurijurando, 
A. jusjurandum, 
V. jusjurandum, 
A. jurejurando. 



N. jurajuranda, 

G. jurumjur and drum,* 

D. juribusjurandis, 

A. jurajuranda, 

V. jurajuranda, 

A. juribusjurandis. 



*The Gen. Dal. and Abl. plural are not used. 



IRREGULAR NOUNS. 



57 



If a nominative is combined with some other case, then the nomina- 
tive only is declined ; as, 

Paterfamilias, a master of a family, masc. 
N. paterfamilias, 
G. patrisfamilias, 
D. patrifamilias, 
A. patremfamilias, 
V. paterfamilias, 
A. patrefamilias, 

Some nouns are both of the second and third declension ; as, 




D. 

eo, 

ei, 
D. 



A. 



( eum, ) 
I or eon, \ 



ea, 



eu, 



Ab. 

eo ; 2d Declen. 
— ; 3d Declen, 



V. Ab. 



«** \ 6dis, | odi, 

N. G. 

Achilleus, | ei, 



urn, — 
odem, I u, 



o; 2d Declen. 
ode; 3d Declen. 



D. 

eo, 
li, 



lem, 
or len, 



V. 

eu, 
< les, 
} or le, 



Some nouns are of peculiar declension. 



Singular. 

N. Jupiter, 

G. Jovis, 

D. Jovi, 

A. Jovem, 

V. Jupiter, 

A. Jove. 



Singular. 

N. vis, 

G. vis, 

D. — 

A. vim, 

V. vis, 

A. vi. 



Ab. 
eo; 2d Declen. 
le ; 3d Declen. 



Plural. 



N. vires, 
G. virium, 
D. viribus, 
A. vires, 
V. vires, 
A. vinbus. 



Singular. 

N. bos, 
G. bovis, 
D. bovi, 
A. bovem, 
V. bos, 
A. bove. 



Plural. 

N. boves, 

G. bourn, 

D. bobus, or bubu§> 

A. boves, 

V. boves, 

A. bobus, or bubus. 



58 IRREGULAR NOUNS. 

II. DEFECTIVE NOUNS. 

Nouns are defective either in cases or in num- 
ber. 

Nouns are defective in cases different ways. 

I. Some are altogether indeclinable, and are 
therefore called Aptdta, or Aptotes.* 

Nouns in u are indeclinable in the singular number, but regular in the plural, 
as, coma, a horn, plural, cornua, cornuum, &c. 

Most nouns in i are indeclinable in both numbers; as gummi, 'gum;' sinapi, 
1 mustard.' 

Foreign or barbarous words, that is, names which are neither Greek nor 
Latin ; as, Job, Jerusalem, Abraham, Adam. 

Any words put for nouns, as velle tuum, * thy will ;' Istad eras, l that to-mor- 
row ;' O magnum Grcecbrum, ' the ' Omega,' or large O of the Greeks.' 

Cardinal numbers from Quatuor to Centum : also tot, quot, and their plurals. 
Mille, the adjective, is a plural aptole of all genders. Mille, the substantive, is 
an aptote in the singular, but regular in the plural ; as, millia, millium, &c. 

Cepe, ' an onion ;' mane, ' the morning;' gausape, ' a rough coat;' all of them 
neuter. 

Nequam andfrugi are aptotes in both numbers : so, pondo, * a pound,' is used in 
the plural; Duo pondo, ' two pounds.' 

Praesto and satis are generally considered adverbs. 

II. Some are used only in the one case, and are 
therefore called Monoptota. 

Nominatives singular. Inquies, s want of rest ;' potis, neuter pote, able ;' exspes, 
'hopeless.' 

Genitives. Dicis and nauci. Dicis gratia 'for form's sake:' res nauci, 'a 
thing of no value.' Yet abJ. nauco occurs in Naev. ap. Fest. 

Datives. Despicatui, 'contempt;' Ludificatui, ' mockery/ 

Accusatives. Amissum, ■ a loss ;' decemplicem, ' ten-fold ;' trilicem, • trebly-tis- 
sued ;' procerem, ' a peer.' 

Ablatives. Noctu, « in the night time ;' interdiv, * in the day time;' natv, ' by 
birth;' injussu, « without command ;' missu, l by despatch .;' promptu, 'in readi- 
ness;' ergo, ' for the sake of;' Ambage, ' with a winding story;' casse,' with a 
net;' compedc, ' with a fetter;' fauce, * in the throat;' are aJl regular in the plu- 
ral except ambage, which wants the genitive ; as, ambages, ambagibus ; com- 
pedes, compedium, compedibus. 

Accusatives plural. Infcias, 'a denial;' as, ire injicias, 'to deny;' incitas or 
incita, « extremities,' 'nonplus;' as, ad incitas redactus, 'reduced to one's wit's 
end.' 

Ablative. Ingratiis, ' in spite of one,' * against one's will.' 

* From et priv. " not," and jrr^c, « a case,' because they have no case. 



IRREGULAR NOUNS. 59 

III. Some are used only in two cases, and there- 
fore are called Diptota. 

Nora, and Ace. Necesse or necessum, ' necessity ;' volupe or volup, ' pleasure;' 
instar, • likeness ;' aslu, * a city ;' dica, dicam, ' an action at law ;' hir, ■ the palm 
of the hand.' 

Nom. and Abl. Astus, astu, * craft ;' vesper, vespere, or vesperi, * the evening ;' 
siremps, sirempse, ■ the same,' ' all alike.' 

Gen. and Abl. Impetis, m. impete, ■ force ;' verberis, n. verbere, ' a stripe ;' 
spontis, sponte, * of one's own accord ;' jugerisjugerc, ' an acre ;' but jugeris, and 
verberis are both entire in the plural. 

Dat. and Abl. Hortatui and hortatu, * exhortation ;' Irrisui, irrisu, ' derision ;' 
vbtentui, obtentu, ' a covering,' ' a pretext.' 

Ace. and Abl. veprem and vepre, ■ a briar.' 

Nora, and Ace. plur. S appetite, suppetias, ' help,' ' supplies,' inferice, inferias, 
'sacrifices to the dead.' 

Gen. and Abl. plur. Repetunddrum, repetundiSj 4 extortion/ 

IV. Several nouns are only used in three cases, 
and therefore called Triptota. 

Nom. Gen. and AbL Tabum, i, o, « gore.' 

Nom. Ace. and Voc. Fas, ' right ; ' nefas, * wrong ; ' nihil or nil, * nothing ; ' 
epos, 'an heroic poem;' melos 'a song;' liippomanes, 'a kind of poison which 
grows on the forehead of a foal ;' cacoethes, ' an evil custom ;' and other Greek 
neuters in es. 

Nom. Gen. and Ace. Tantundem, iantldem, lantundem, * even as much.' 

Nom. Ace. and Abl. Algus, um, u, ' cold ;' Inquies, item, ete adj. < restless;' 
Obex, icem, ice, * a bolt ;' Satias, atem, ate, satiety ;' Situs, um, u, ' situation.' 

Gen. Ace. and Abl. Feminis, i, e, l the thigh,' yhirai ferriina in nom. ace. and 
voc. Opis, em, e, ' help,' plur. opes, opium, &c, and generally signifies • wealth/ 
or ' power/ Sordisj em, e, ' filth,' plur. sordes$ ium, ibus. 

Dat. Ace. and AbL Freci, em,e, ' prayer;' plur. preces. um, ttus, tyc. Derisui t 
um, u, ' ridicule ;' Nuptui, um, u, ' marriage.' 

Nom. Ace. and Voc. Plural, the neuters Cete, * whales/ Tempe, ' a beautiful vale 
in Thessaly/ mele, * songs.' 

V. The following nouns w r ant the Nominative, 
and of consequence the Vocative, and are there- 
fore called Tetraptota. 

Vicis, f. ' of the place/ or « stead of another ;' Fecudis, f. ■ of a beast ;' Ditib- 
nis, f. ' of power, dominion ;' of these pecicdis has the plural entire ; ditionis 
wants it altogether; vicis is not used in the genitive plural. To these add Nex, 
'slaughter;' Daps, ' a dish of meat ;' and Frux, * corn ;' hardly used in the nomi- 
native singular, but in the plural mostly entire. Fors, fortis, fortem, forte, 
1 chance/ ■ fortune/ is not used in the dative. [Forti Fortunce occurs in Arnob; 
lib. viii and on some ancient coins and monuments.] 



60 IRREGULAR NOUNS. 

VI. Some nouns only want one case, and are 
called Pentaptota. 

Thus, Fax, faex, fel, glos, labes, lux, os (' the mouth') pax, pix, proles, pits, ros, 
soboles, and sol want the genitive plural. Chaos l a confused mass,' wants the 
gen. singular, and the plural entirely ; dat. sing. chao. Vis, ' strength,' seldom 
has the dative singular, but plural complete. Nemo, ' no body,' wants the voca- 
tive singular, and has no plural. Such words as qualis, quantus, quotus, have no 
vocative. 

DEFECTIVE IN NUMBER. 

I. Proper names of persons strictly want the 
plural. 

II. Proper names of places are used in the 
singular or plural only ; as, 

Italia, ' Italy ;' Athenae, ' Athens.' 

III. Most names of Virtues, Vices, Herbs, 
Metals, Minerals, Liquids, Corn, most Ab- 
stract Nouns, &c, want the plural; as, 

Justitia, ' justice ;' Inertia, ' sloth ;' Apium, ' parsley ;' Argentum, 
' silver ;' Aurum, ' gold ;' Lac, ' milk ;' Triticum, ' wheat ;' Hordeum, 
4 barley;' Avena, 'oats;' Juventus, 'youth;' Pueritia, 'childhood;' 
&c. 

IV. Masculines wanting the Plural. 

Aer, aeris, the air. Penus, -i, or -us, d. g. all manner ofpro- 

JKlher, -eris, the sky. visions. 

Cestus, -i, the girdle of Venus. Pontus, -i, the sea. 

Fimus, -i, dung. Pulvis, -eris, dust. 

Hesperus, -i, the evening star. Sabulo, -onis, gravel. 

Limus, -i, slime. Sanguis, -inis, blood. 

Meridies, -iei, mid-day. Sopor, -oris, sleep. 

Mundus, -i, a woman's ornaments. Veternus, -i, lethargy. 

Muscus, -i, moss. Viscus, -i, bird-lime. 

Nemo, -inis, c. g. no body. 

V. Feminines wanting the Plural. 

Argilla, -ae, potter's earth. Salus, -iitis, safety. 

Fama, -m,fame. Sitis, -is, thirst. 

Humus, -i, the ground. Siipellex, -ctiiis, household furniture. 

Lues, -is, a plague. Tabes, -is, a consumption. 

Plebs, plebis, the common people. Tellus, -uris, the earth. 

Pubes, -is, the youth. Vespera, -ae, the evening. 

Quies, -etiSj rest. 



IRREGULAR NOUNS. 



61 



VI. Neuters wanting the Plural. 



Album, i, an album. 

Balaustium, i, Hie flower of a pome- 
granate tree. 

Baraihrum, i, a gulf. 

Ccenum,i, mud. 

Crocum, i, saffron. 

Diluculum, i, the dawn* < 

Ebur, oris, ivory. \ 

Fel, fell is, gall 

Gelu, inv. frost. 

G I as turn, i, woad. 
\ Gluten, inis, or 
\ Gliitinum, i, glue. 

Gypsum, i, white plaster. 

Hepar, atis, the liver. 

Hilum -i, the black speck of a bean. 

Jubar, aris, a sun-beam. 

Justitium, i, a law vacation. 

Lardum, i, bacon. 

Letum, i, death. 

Luturn, i, clay. 

Macellum, i, the shambles. 

Mane, the morning. 



Nectar, aris, nectar. 

Nihil, nil, nihilum, i, nothing. 

Nitrum, i, nitre. 

Omasum, \,fat tripe. 

Opium, i, opium. 

Pelagus, i, the sea. 

Penum, i, or 

Penus, oris, provisions. 

Piper, eris, pepper. 

Prolubium, i, a desire. 

Sabulum, i, sand. 

Sal, salis, (neut.) salt. 

Salum, i, the sea. 

Senium, i, old age. 

Sinapi, inv. mustard. 

Tabum, i, gore. 

Ver, veris, spring. 

Veternum, i, lethargy. 

Virus, i, poison. 

Viscum, i, birdlime. 

Vitrum,i, woad. 

Zingiber, eris, ginger. 



VII. Names of Games, Feasts, 
wanting the Singular. 



Books, &e. 



A poll in ares, ium, games in honour of 
Apollo. 

Bacchanalia, ium, or orum, the feasts of 
Bacchus. 

Bucolica, 5rum, or on, a book of pasto- 
rals. 

Charistia, orum, love-feasts. 

Dionysia, the feast of Bacchus. 

Georgica, orum, or on, a work on hus- 
bandry. 

Hierosolyma, orum, Jerusalem. 

La Unas, feasts of Jupiter Latialis. 



Olympia, the Olympic games. 

Orgia, rites of Bacchus. 

Palilia, a feast in honour of Pales. 

Parentalia, solemnities at the funeral of a 
parent. 

Pythia, games in honour of Apollo. 

Quinquatrus, num, and 

Quinquatria, orum, & ium, feasts in ho- 
nour of Minerva. 

Suovetaurilia, ium, a sacrifice of a swine, 
sheep, and ox. 

Syracusae, arum, Syracuse. 



VIII. Masculines wanting the Singular. 



Antes, -ium, fore ranks. 

Cancelli, lattices or windows, made with 
cross-bars, like a net ; a rail or balus- 
trade round any place ; bounds or 
limits. 

Cani, grey hairs. 

Casses, -ium, a hunter's net. 

Celeres, -um, the light-horse. 

Codicilli, writings. 

Druides, -um, the Druids, priests of the 
ancient Briiains and Gauls. 



Fasces, -ium, a bundle of rods car- 

ried before the chief magistrates of 

Rome. 
Fasti, -orum, or fastns, -uum, calendars, 

in which were marked festival days, the 

names of magistrates, &c. 
Fines, -ium, the borders of a county, or 

a country. 
Fori, the gangways of a ship ; seats in 

the circus; or the cells of a bee-hive 
Furfures, -um, scales in the head. 



ft* 



IRREGULAR NOUNS 



inferi, the gods below. M inures, -um, successors. 

Laurices, young rabbits. Nalales, -ium, parentage. 

Lemures, -um, hobgoblins, or spirits in Pandectae, pandects. 

the dark. Posteri, posterity. 

Liberi, children. Proceres, -um, the nobles. 

Luceres, -um, a third part of the early Pugillares, -ium, writing-tables. 

Romans. Sentes, -im, thorns. 

Majores, -um, ancestors. Superi, -um, & -orum, the gods above 
Manes, -ium, spirits of the dead. 

XX. Feminines wanting the Singular. 



Alpes, -ium, the Alps. 

Angustiae, difficulties. 

Antiae, a forelock. 

Apinae, gewgaws. 

Argutiae, quirks, witticisms. 

Bigae, a chariot drawn by 
two horses. 

Trigae, — by three, 

Quadriga?, — by four. 

Braccae, breeches, 

Branchiae, the gills of a 
fish. 

Charites, -um, the three 
graces. 

Chtellae, panners, 

Cunae, a cradle. 

Decimae, tithes. 

Dirae, imprecations, the fu- 
ries. 

Divitiae, riches. 

Dryades, -um, the nymphs 
of the woods. 

Exeubiae, watches. 

Exsequiae, funerals. 

Exuviae, spoils. 

Facetiae, pleasant sayings. 

Facultates, -um, & -ium, 
5 and chattels. 



Ferise, holydays. 

Fraces, -ium, the lees of oil. 

Gades, -ium, Cadiz. 

Gerrae, trifles. 

Grates, -ium, thanks. 

Hyades, -um, the seven 
stars. 

Induciae, a truce, 

Indiiviae, clothes to put on. 

Ineptise, silly stories. 

Inferiae, sacrifices to the In- 
fernals. 

insidiee, snares. 

Kalendae, Nonae, Idus, 
-uum, names which the 
Romans gave to certain 
days in each month. 

Lapicidinae, stone quar- 
ries. 

Literae, an epistle. 

Lactes, -ium, small en' 
trails. 

Manubia, spoils taken in 
war. 

M mae, threats. 

Minutiae, little niceties. 

Nugae, trifles. 

JNundinae, a market 



Nuptiae, a marriage 

OfFuciae, cheats. 

Operae, workmen. 

Parietinae, old walls. 

Partes, -ium, a party. 

Phalerae, trappings. 

Plagae, nets. 

Pleiades, -um, the seven 
stars. 

Prasstigae, enchantments- 

PrimiUsd, first fruits. 

Quisquiiiae, sweepings. 

Reliquiae, a remainder. 

Sale brae, rugged places. 

Salinae, salt-pits. 

Scalae, a ladder. 

Scatebrae,a spring. 

Scopae, a besom, a broom 

Tenebrae, darkness. 

Thermae, hot baths. 

Thermopylae, straits of 
mount (Eta. 

Tricae, toys. 

Valvae, folding doors. 

Vergiliae, the seven stars. 

Vindiciae, a claim of liber- 
ty, a defence. 



X. Neuters wanting the Singular. 



Acta, public acts, or records. 
Adversaria, a memorandum book. 
^Estiva, sc castra, summer quarters: 
Arma, arms. 

Bellaria, -orum, sweetmeats. 
Bona, goods. 
Brevia, -ium, shelves. 
Castra, a camp. 

Charistia, -orum, a peace feast. 
Cibaria, victuals. 

Comitia, an assembly of the people to 
make laws, elect magistrates, or hold 



Crepundia, children's baubles. 

Ciinabula, a cradle, an origin. 

Dicteria, scoffs, witticisms. 

Exta, the entrails. 

Februa, -orum, purifying sacrifices^ 

Fiabra, blasts of wind. 

Forla, muck. 

Fraga, strawberries. 

Hyberna, sc. castra, winter quarters. 

Ilia, -ium, the entrails. 

Incunabula, a cradle. 

Insecta, insects. 

Justa, funeral rites. 



IRREGULAR NOUNS. 63 

lAmenta, lamentations. Praebia, an amulet. 

Lautia provisions for the entertainment Praecordia, the bowels. 

of foreign ambassadors. Principia, the place in the camp where the 

Lustra, dens of wild beasts. general's tent stood. 

Magalia, -ium, cottages. Pythia, games in honour of Apollo. 

Mcenia, -ium, & -iorum, the walls of a Rostra, a place in Rome made of the 

city. beaks of ships, from which orators 

Multicia, garments finely wrought. used to make orations to the people. 

Muaia, -iorum, offices. Scruta, old clothes. 

Qrgia, the sacred rites of Bacchus. Sponsalia, -ium, espousals. 

Oviiia, -ium, an inclosuie where the Siatlva sc. castra, a standing camp. 

people went to give their votes. Suovetaurilia, -ium, a sacrifice of a 

Palearia, -ium, the dew-lap of a beast. swine, a sheep, and an ox. 

Parapherna, all things the wife brings Talaria, -ium, winged shoes. 

her husband except her dowry. Tesqua, rough places. 

Parentalia, -ium, solemnities at thefune- Transtra, the seats where the rowers sit in 

ral of parents. ships. 

Phiitra, love potions. Utensilia, -ium, utensils. 

XL The following Plurals are sometimes found 
in the Singular. 

Annates, ium, annals. Genae, the cheeks. Phalerae, trappings. 

Antae, door-posts. Habenae, reins. Plerique, many. 

Argutiae, witticisms. Hyades, um, the Pleiads. Proceres, um, nobles. 

Artus, num, the joints. Ineptiae, silly wit. Pugillaria, ium, or 

Bigae, a chariot drawn by Latebrae, lurking places. Pugillares, ium, a note- 

two horses. Liberi, children. book. 

Casses, ium, a hunter's net. Majores, um, ancestors. Quadrigae, a chariot drawn 

Coelites, um, and num, the Manes, ium, the shades. by four horses. 

gods. Mapalia, huts. Quirites, um, and ium, 

Cyclades, um, the Cycla- Minutiae, little niceties. citizens of Rome. 

dian islands. Naiades, urn, fountain Reliquiae, a remainder. 

Decimae, tithes. nymphs. Salebrae, nigged places. 

Dirae, the Furies. Nares, ium, the nostrils. Scalse, a ladder. 

Dryades, um, the Dryads. Nates, ium, the buttocks. Sentes, ium, thorns. 

Epulae, a banquet. Ob[i\''m,forgetfulness. Singiili, one by one. 

Eumenides, um, the Fa- Offueiae, cheats. Spolia, spoils. 

ries. Optimates, um, nobles. Superi, the gods above. 

Facetiae, pleasant sayings. Palearia, ium, the dew-lap Transtra, seats for the row- 

Fides, ium, a stringed in- of a beast. ers in a ship. 

strument. Pascua, pastures. Utensilia, ium, utensils. 

Fraga, orum, strawberries. Penates, ium, household Vepres, um, brambles. 
Gemini, twins. gods. 

XII. The following Singulars are sometimes 
found in the Plural. 

Acomtum, wolfsbane. A vena, oats. Contagium, a contagion, 

Aer, ens, the air. Balsamum, balsam. Crocus, saffron. 

JEs, aeris, brass, money. Calor, oris, heat. Cruor, oris, blood. 

/Evum, an age. Caro, carnis, flesh. Cutis, the skin. 

Allium, garlic. Cera, wax. Ebur, oris, ivory, 

Amicitia, friendship. Cicu.ta, hemlock. Electrum, amber 



64 



IRREGULAR NOUNS. 



Far, farris, corn. 

Fervor, 5ris, heat. 

Fiiga, flight. 

Furor, oris, madness. 

Fumus, smoke. 

Gloria, glory. 

Horde urn, barley. 

Ira, anger. 

Jus, juris, justice, law. 

Laetitia, joy 

Languor^ oris, faintness. 

Latex, icis, liquor ; water. 

Lignum, wood, a log. 

Liquor, oris, liquor, 

Lux, liicis, light. 



Marmor, oris, marble. 
Mel, raellis, honey. 
Mors, mortis, death. 
Munditia, neatness. 
INequitia. wickedness. 
Nex, necis, cruel death, 
Oblivio, onis, f orgetf ill- 
ness. 
Palea, chaff. 
Pax, pacis, peace. 
Pix, picis, pitch. 
Pulvis, ens, dust. 
Purpura, purple. 
Quies, etis, rest, 
Ros, roris, dew. 



Rubor, oris, redness. 
Sal, salis, (masc.) salt. 
Sol, s5lis, the sun, a day, 
Sopor, oris, sleep. 
Spiima, foam. 
Sulfur, iiris, sulphur. 
Tepor, oris, heat. 
Terror, oris, terrour. 
Thy mum, thyme. 
Tribiilus, a thistle, 
Tristitia, sadness. 
Verbena, vervain. 
Vigor, oris, strength, 
Vinum, wine. 



XIII. The following differ somewhat in mean- 
ing with respect to the number in which they are 
•used. 



^Edes, is, a temple. 
./Edes, ium, a house. 
Auxilium, aid. 
Auxilia, auxiliary troops. 
Bonum, a good thing. 
Bona, property. 
Career, a prison. 
Carceres, a gaol. 
Castrum, a castle. 
Castra, a camp. 
Comitium, a part of the 

Roman forum. 
Comitia, an assembly for 

election. 
Cupedia, 33= delicacy. 
Cupediae, arum, and 
Cupedia, orum, dainties, 
Copia, plenty. 
Copiae, forces. 
Facultas, ability. 
Facultates, wealth. 



Fala, a trick. 

False, scaffolding. 

Fastus, us, pride. 

Fastus, uum, and 

Fasti, orum, a calendar. 

Finis, an end. 

Fines, boundaries, 

Fortiina, Fortune. 

Fortunae, luck, wealth. 

Furfur, bran. 

Furfures, dandriff. 

Litera, a letter of the al- 
phabet. 

Liters, an epistle. 

Lustrum, a space cf five 
years. 

Lustra, dens of wild 
beasts. 

Mos, custom. 

Mores, manners. 



Opis, gen. help. 
Opes, um, power, wealth. 
Opera, labour. 
Operae, workmen. 
Plaga, a climate. 
Plagae, nets, toils. 
Principium, a beginning, 
Principia, the general's 

situation in a camp. 
Rostrum, a beak. 
Rostra, the elevated place 

at Rome from which 

orators spoke. 
Riis, the country, 
Riira, fields. 
Sal, salt. 
Sales, witticisms. 
Torus, a bed, a tuft, a 

cord. 
Tori, brawney muscles. 



XIV. 

gular. 

Alta, the sea. 
Animi, courage, 
Aurae, the air. 
Carinae, a keel. 
Cervices, the neck. 
Colla, the neck. 
Comae, the hair. 
Connubia, marriage. 
Corda, the heart. 



Plurals sometimes used for the Sin- 



Corpora, a body. 
Crepusciila, twilight. 
Curriis, a chariot. 
Exiiia, banishment, 
Frigora, cold, 
Gaudia^'oy. .. 
Gramina, grass. 
Guttura, the throat. 
Hymenaei, marriage. 



J ejunia, fasting. 

Ignes, love. 

Inguina, the groin, 

Jubae, a mane. 

Li m in a, a threshold, 

Littora, ashore. 

Mensae, a service or course 

of dishes. 
Naeniae, a funeral dirge. 



UEDUNDANT NOUNS. 



65 



TSfumina, the divinity. Pectora, the breast. Tempora, time. 

Odia, hatred. Rictus, the jaws. Thai ami, marriage, or 

Ora, the mouth, the counte- Robora, oak, strength. marriage-bed. 

nance. Silentia, silence. Tori, a bed, a couch. 

Orae, confines. Sinus, the breast of a Ro- Viae, a journey. 

Oitus, a rising, the east. man garment. Vultus, the countenance. 

Otia, ease, leisure. Taedae, a torch. Thura, frankincense. 



III. REDUNDANT NOUNS. 

Nouns are redundant in different ways: 1. In termination only; as. 
arbos, and arbor, a tree. 2. In declension only ; as, laurus, genit. lauri 
and laurus, a laurel tree ; sequester, -tri, or -tris, a mediator. 3. Only 
in gender; as, hie or hoc vulgus, the rabble. 4. Both in termination 
and declension ; as, materia, -ce or matereis, -iei, matter ; plebs,-is, the 
common people, or plebes, -is, -ei, or contracted, plebi. 5. In termina- 
tion and gender ; as, tonitrus, -us, masc. tonitru, neut. thunder. 6. In 
declension and gender; as, penus, -i, and -us, m. or f. or penus, -oris, 
neut. all kind of provisions. 7. In termination, gender and declension; 
as, cether, -eris, masc. and csthra, -<b, fern, the sky. 8. Several nouns 
in the same declension are differently varied ; as, tigris, -is or -idis, a 
tiger ; to which may be added nouns which have the same signification 
in different numbers ; as, Fidena, -a ; or Fidence, -drum, the name of a 
city. 

The most numerous class of redundant nouns consists of those which 
express the same meaning by different terminations ; as, menda, -<b ; 
and mendum, -i, a fault; cassis, -idis ; and casslda, -ce, a helmet. So, 



Acinus, fy -ura, a grape-stone. 

Alvear, <J- -e, ty -iurn, a bee-hive. 

Amaracus, fy -urn, sweet mar jorum. 

Ancile, § -iurn, an oval shield. 

Angiportus, -us, fy -i $■ -um, a narrow 
lane. 

Aphractus, ty -um, an open ship. 

Aplustre, <8f -um, the flag, colours. 

Baculus, § -um, a staff 

Balteus fy -um, a belt. 

Batillus, $• -um, a fire-shovel. 

Capulus, fy -um, a hilt. 

Capus, <Sf -o, a capon. 

Cepa, fy -e, indecl. an onion. 

Ciypeus, ^-um, a shield. 

Colluvies, § -io, filth, dirt. 

Compages, fy -go, ajoining. 

Conger, $• -grus, a large eel. 

Crocus, $- -um, saffron. 

Cubitus, fy -um, a cubit. 

Diluvium, ^--es, a deluge. 

Elephantus, $• Elephas, -antis, an ele- 
phant. 

Elegus, <J- -eia, an elegy. 



Esseda, <£• -um, a chariot 

Eventus, Sf -um, an event. 

Fulgetra, fy -um, lightning. 

Galerus, fy -um, a hat. 

Gibbus, <^ -a ; fy -er, -eris or -eri, a bunch, 

a swelling. 
Glutinum, ^ -en, glue. 
Hebdomas, $• -ada, a week. 
Intrita, § um, fine mortar, minced meat 
Librarium, ty -a, a book-case. 
Maceria, fy -es, iei, a wall. 
Milliare, <£- -inm, a mile. 
Monitum, <$- -us, -iis, an admonition. 
Muria, fy -es, -iei, brine or pickle. 
Nasus, ty -um, the nose. 
Obsidio, <8f -um, a siege. 
GEstrus, fy -um, a gad-bee. 
Ostrea, fy -um, an oyster. 
Peplus, & -um, a veil, a robe. 
Pistrina, & -um, a bake-house. 
Prsetextus, -us, & -um, a pretext, 
Rapa, & -um, a turnip. 
Ruma, & -men, the cud. 
Ruscus, & um, a brush 



F2 



66 DIVISION OF NOUNS. 

Seps, & sepes, f. a hedge. Suffiraen, & -turn, a perfume, 

Segmen, & -mentum, a piece ox paring. Tignus, & -um, a plank. 

Sibilus, <fe -um, a hissing. Toral, & -ale, a bed-covering. 

Sinus, & -um, a milk-pail. Torcular, & -are, a wine press. 

Spurcitia, & -es, nastiness. Viscus, & -um, bird-lime. 

Stramen, & -turn, straw, Veternus, & -um, a lethargy. 

Note. The nouns which are called variable and defective, seem originally to 
have been redundant ; thus, vasa -drum, properly comes from vasum, and not 
from vas ; but custom, which gives laws to all languages, has dropt the singular 
and retained the plural ; and so of others. 



DIVISION OF NOUNS ACCORDING TO THEIR SIGNIFICATION AND DERI- 
VATION. 

I. The name of a particular person or thing 
individually is called a proper name ; as ? 

All christian and surnames of men, as, Paulus, Cicero, Charles, 
Frederic, &c. ; the names of cities, mountains, and rivers; as, London, 
Andes, Missouri. But a name which belongs to several things of one 
kind is called a common name ; as, homo, ' a man ;' rex, ' a king ;' 
fluvius, ' a river.' 

The Roman names of men generally consisted of three parts, as 
Marcus, Tullius, Cicero: 1. Marcus, the prcenomen, which an- 
swered to the English christian name. 2. Tullius, the nomen, distin- 
guishing the gens which included many families. 3. Cicero, the cog- 
nomen, which denoted the familia. Sometimes the family was sub- 
divided, and distinguished by a fourth name called the agnomen ; 
thus, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africdnus, Lucius Cornelius Scipio 
Asiaticus. If Cicero had had only one daughter, she would have been 
called Tullia ; if two, Tullia major and minor ; if more, Tullia 
prima, secunda, &c. If a person was adopted by another, he took his 
name with an agnomen, formed from his original nomen ; thus Octa- 
vius, when adopted by Cains Julius Csesar, took the name of Caius 
Julius Csesar Octavidnus. Freed-men took the prcenomen and nomen 
of their masters, with a new cognomen. Sometimes the order of the 
names was changed ; and under the Emperors the prsenomen was put 
last ; thus, L. Annseus Seneca and L. Annseus Mela were two 
brothers. 

II. A substantive which signifies many in the 
singular number, is called a collective noun; as, 
popiilus, a people, exercttas, an army. 



DIVISION OF NOUNS. 67 

III. A substantive derived from another sub- 
stantive proper, signifying one's extraction, is 
called a patronymic noun; as, 

Priamides, the son of Priamus ; JEetias, the daughter of iEetes ; Nerine, the 
daughter of Nereus. Patronymics are generally derived from the name of the 
father ; but the poets, by whom they are chiefly used, derive them also from the 
grandfather, or from some other remarkable person of the family; sometimes 
likewise from the founder of a nation or people ; as, JEacides, the son, grandson, 
great-grandson, or one of the posterity of iEacus ; Romulidce, the Romans, from 
their first king Romulus. 

Patronymic names of men end in des ; of wo- 
men, in is, as, or ne. Those in des and ne are of 
the first declension, and those in is and as, of the 
third; as, Priamides, -dee, &c. ; pi. -dee, darum, 

&c. ; Nerine, -es ; Tyndaris, -idis or -idos; JEe- 
tias, -adis, &c. 

IV. A noun derived from a substantive proper, 
signifying one's country, is called a patrial or 
gentile noun ; as, 

Tros, Trois, a man born at Troy ; Troas, -adis, a woman born at Troy. Sicu- 
lus, -i, a Sicilian man ; Sicelis, -idis, a Sicilian woman ; so, Macedo, -onis, Arph 
nas, -dtis, a man born in Macedonia, at Arpinum ; from Troja, Sicilia, Macedo- 
nia, Arpinum. But patrials for the most part are to be considered as adjectives, 
having a substantive understood ; as, Rdmanus, Atheniensis, &o. 

V. A substantive derived from an adjective, ex- 
pressing simply the quality of the adjective, 
without regard to the thing in which the quality 
exists, is called an abstract; as^ 

Justitia, justice; benitas, goodness; dulcedo, sweetness; from Justus, just ; 
bonus, good ; dulcis, sweet. 

The adjectives from which these abstracts come are called concretes; because, 
besides the quality, they also suppose something to which it belongs. Abstracts 
commonly end in a, as, or do, and are very numerous, being derived from most 
adjectives in the Latin tongue. 

VI. A substantive derived from another sub- 



68 ADJECTIVES. 

stantive, signifying a diminution or lessening of 
its signification, is called a diminutive ; as, 

Llbellus, a little book ; chartula, a little paper ; opusculum, a little work ; cor- 
culum, a little heart ; reticulum, a small net ; scabellum, a small form ; lapillus, 
a little stone; cultellus, a little knife; pagella, a little page: from liber, charta, 
opus, cor, rite, scamnum. lapis, culler, pagina. Several diminutives are some- 
times formed from the same primitive; as, from puer, puerulus, puellus, puel- 
lulus ; from cista, cistula, cistelli, cistellula; from homo, homuncio, homunculus. 
Diminutives for the most part end in lus, la, lum, and are generally of the 
same gender with their primitives. 

When the signification of the primitive is increased, it is called an amplifica- 
tive, and ends in o ,- as, capito.-bnis, having a large head : so, naso, labeo, bucco, 
having a large nose, lips, cheeks. 

VI. A substantive derived from a verb is called 
a verbal noun ; as, 

timor, love ; doctrina, learning ; from amo, and doceo. Verbal nouns are very 
numerous, and commonly end in io, or, us, and ura ; as, lectio, a lesson ; amator, 
a lover; luctus, grief; creatura, a creature. 

ADJECTIVE. 

An Adjective is a word added to a substantive, 
to express its quality; as, durus, hard; mollis, 
soft* 

Adjectives in Latin are varied by gender, num- 
ber, and case, to agree with substantives in all 
these accidents.! 

Adjectives are varied like three substantives of 
the same termination and declension. 

All adjectives are either of the first and second 
declension, or of the third only. 



* We know things by their qualities only. Every quality must belong to some 
subject. An adjective therefore always implies a substantive expressed or un- 
derstood, and cannot make full sense without it. 

t An adjective properly has neither genders, numbers, nor cases ; but certain 
terminations answering to the gender, number, and case of the substantive 
with which it is joined. 



ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSION. 



69 



Adjectives of three terminations are of the first 
and second declension ; but adjectives of one or 
two terminations are of the third. 

Exc. The following adjectives, though they have three terminations, are of the 
third declension : 

Acer, sharp. Celer, swift. Ped ester, on foot. 

Alacer, cheerful. Equester, belonging to a Saluber, wholesome. 

Carapester, belonging to a horse. Sylvester, woody. 

plain. Paluster, marshy. Volucer, swift. 

Celeber, famous. 

Rule for the Gender of Adjectives. 

In adjectives of three terminations, the first is masc, the second 
fern., and the third neut. In those of two terminations, the first is 
masc. and fem., and the second neut. Adjectives of one termination 
are of all genders. 

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSION. 



Bonus, masc bona, fem. bonum, neut. good. 



Singular, 



Plural, 



N. bon-us, 


-a, 


-urn, 


N. bon-i, 


-se, 


-a, 


G. bon-i, 


-SB, 


-h 


G. bon-orum, 


-arum, 


-orum 


D. bon-o, 


-a?, 


-0, 


D. bon-is, 


-is, 


-is, 


A. bon-um, 


-am, 


-um, 


A. bon-os, 


-as, 


-a> 


V. bon-e, 


-a, 


-um, 


V. bon-i, 


-83, 


-a, 


A. bon-o, 


4, 


-0. 


A. bon-is, 


-is, 


-is, 



Tener, tenera, tenerum, tender. 



Singular. 



X. 


ten-er, 


-era, 


-erum, 


G. 


ten-eri, 


-erse, 


-eri, 


D. 


ten-ero, 


-erse, 


-ero, 


A. 


ten-erum, 


-eram, 


-erum, 


V. 


ten-er, 


-era, 


-erum, 


A. 


ten-ero, 


-era, 


-ero. 



Plural. 

N. ten-eri, -erse, -era, 
G. ten-erorum, -erarum, -erorum 5 

D. ten-eris, -eris, -eris, 

A. ten-eros, -eras, -era, 

V. ten-eri, -erse, -era, 

A. ten-eris, -eris, -eris. 



In like manner decline, 

Asper, rough. Gibber, crook-bached. Miser, wretched. 

Cseter, (hardly used) the Lacer, torn. Prosper, prosperous, 

rest. Liber, free. 



70 



ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 



Also the compounds of gero and fero ; as, laniger, bearing wool ; opifer, bring- 
ing help, &c. Likewise, satur, satura, saturum, full But most adjectives in er 
drop the e ; as, ater, atra, atrum, black ; gen. atri, atra, atri ; dat. atro, atrce, atro, 
&c. So, 



^Eger, sick. 
C re ber , frequent. 
Glaber, smooth. 
Integer, entire. 
Ludicer, ludicrous. 



Macer, lean. 
Niger, black, 
Piger, slow. 
Pulcher,jftm\ 
Riiber, red. 



Dexter, right, has -tra, -trum, or -t-era, -terum, 



Sacer, sacred. 
Scaber, rough. 
Teter, ugly. 
Vafer, crafty. 



Obs. 1. The following adjectives have their genitive singular in 
ius, and the dative in i, through all the genders ; in the other cases, 
like bonus and tener. 



-um ; gen. unius, dat. uni, 



Unus, 
one. 

Alius, -ius, one of many, another. 
Nullus, nullius, none. 
Solus, -ius, alone. 
Totus, -ius whole.* 
Ullus, ius, any. 



Alter, alterius, one of two, the other. 
Uter, utrius, either, whether of the two. 
Neuter, -trius, neither. 
Uterque, utriusque, both. 

Uterlxbet utriuslSbet ? «***££ 

Utervis, -tnusvis, C 7 JL 

' ) please. 



Alteruter, the one or Hie other, alterutrius, alterutri, and sometimes alterius utrius 
alteri utri, &c. 

These adjectives, except totus, are called partitives ; and seem to resemble, in 
their signification as well as declension, what are called pronominal adjectives, 
In ancient writers we find them declined like bonus. 

Obs. 2. To decline an adjective properly, it should always be joined with a 
substantive in the different genders; as, bonus liber, a good book; bonapenna, a 
good pen ; bonum sedile, a good seat. But as the adjective in Latin is often 
found without its substantive joined with it, we therefore, in declining bonus, for 
instance, commonly say, bonus, a good man, understanding vir, or homo ; bona, a 
good woman, understanding famiina ; and bonum, a good thing, understanding 
negotium. 



ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 

Felix, masc fern, and neut.; happy, 
ar. Plural. 



N. 


felix, 


felix, felix, 


N. 


fellees, 


G. 


felicis, 


felicis, felicis, 


G. 


felicium, 


D. 


felici, 


felici, felici, 


D. 


felicibus, 


A. 


felicem, 


felicem, felix, 


A. 


felices, 


V. 


felix, 


felix, felix, 


V. 


felices, 


A. 


felice, or 
felici, 


• in all the genders. 


A. 


felicibus, 



felices, felicia, 
felicium, felicium, 
felicibus, felicibus, 
felices, felicia, 
felices, felicia, 
felicibus, felicibus. 



* Totus, so great, is regularly declined. 



ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 



71 



Prudens, m. f. and n. prudent. 





Singular* 




N. 


prud-ens, -ens, 


-ens, 


G. 


prud-entis, -entis, 


-entis, 


D. 


prud-enti, -enti 


-enti, 


A. 


prud-entem, -entem, 


-ens, 


V. 


prud-ens, -ens, 


-ens, 



A. prudente, or ^ in all the gen- 
prudenti, / ders. 



Plural. 

N. prudent-es, -es, -ia, 

G. prudent-ium, -ium, -ium, 

D. prudent-ibus, -ibus, -ibus, 

A. prudent-es, -es, -ia, 

V. prudent-es, -es, -ia, 

A. prudent-ibus, -ibus, -ibus. 



In like manner decline, 



A mens, -tis, mad. 
Atrox, -Deis, cruel, 
Audax, -acis, & -ens, -tis, 

bold. 
Bilix, -Icis, woven with a 

double thread. 
Capax, capacious. 
CIcur, -uris, tame. 
Clemens, -tis, merciful. 
Contumax, stubborn. 
Demens, mad. 
Edax gluttonous. 
Eff ieax, effectual. 
Elegans, handsome. 



Fallax, deceitful. 
Ferax, fertile. 
Ferc-x, fierce. 
Frequens, frequent. 
Ingens, huge. 
lners, -tis, sluggish, 
Insons, guiltless. 
Mendax, lying. 
Mordax, biting, satirical. 
Pernix, -Icis, swift. 
Pervicax, wilful. 
Petfilans, froward, saucy. 
Praegnans, with child. 



Recens, fresh. 
Repens, sudden. 
Sagax, -acis, sagacious, 
Salax, -acis, lustful. 
Sapiens, wise. 
Solers, shrewd. 
Sons, guilty. 
Tenax, tenacious, 
Trux, -ucis, cruel. 
Uber, -er is, fertile. 
Vehemens, vehement, 
Velox, -Gcis, swift. 
Vorax, devouring, 



N. mitis, 
G. mitis, 
D. miti, 
A. mitem, 
V. mitis, 
A. miti, 



Mitis, masc. and fem.; mite, neut.; meek. 
Singular. 



mitis, 

mitis, 

miti, 

mitem, 

mitis, 

miti, 



mite, 
mitis, 
miti, 
mite, 
mite, 
miti. 



N. mites, 

G. mitium, 

D. mitibus, 

A. mites, 

V. mites, 

A. mitibus, 



Plural. 

mites, 

mitium, 

mitibus, 

mites, 

mites, 

mitibus, 



mitia, 

mitium 5 

mitibus, 

mitia, 

mitia, 

mitibuSo 



Acer or acris, masc. acris, fem, acre, neut. sharp.) 
Singular. Plural. 



N. a-cer or acris, acris, acre, 
G. a-cris, a-cris, a-cris, 

D. a-cri, a-cri, a-cri, 

A. a-crem, a-crem, a-cre, 

V. a-cer or acris, a-cris, acre, 
A. a-cri, a-cri, a-cri 



N. a cres, a-cres, 

G. a-crium, a-crium, 

D. a-cribus, a-cribus, 

A. a-cres, a-cres, 

V. a-cres, a-cres, 

A. a-cribus, a-cribus, 



a-cna, 

a-crium, 

a-cribus, 

a-cria, 

a-crk, 

a-cribus. 



72 ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 

In like manner filacer, or alacris, celer or ceteris, and the other ad- 
jectives included in the exception on page 69; which form exceptions 
also to the rule for the gender of adjectives on that page, having in the 
norm and voc. sing, two terminations for the masculine. 

RULES. 

1. Adjectives of the third declension have e or i in the ablative sin- 
gular : but if the neuter be in e, the ablative has i only. 

2. The genitive plural ends in ium, and the neuter of the nomina- 
tive, accusative, and vocative, in ia : except comparatives, which have 
um and o. 

EXCEPTIONS. 

Exc. 1. The following have e in the Ablative singular, and um in the Gen. 
plur. They are scarcely ever used in the Neuter singular, and never in the 
Neuter plural. Ales, itis, ■ winged,' ' swift f Bipes, edis, ' two-footed ;' Ccelebs, 
ibis, ' unmarried ;' Compos, otis, * having obtained one's desire ;' Discolor, oris, 
' of various colours ;' Rospes, itis, ' hospitable ;' Impos, otis, ' without power ;' 
Impubes, eris, * under age ;' Juvenis, is, ' young ;' Pauper, eris, ' poor ;' Puber or 
Pubes, eris, ' full grown ;' Redux, ucis, ' returning ;' Senex, senis, ' old ;' Sospes, 
itis, 'safe;' Superstes, itis, 'surviving;' Tricuspis, Idis, 'three-forked;' (tricus- 
pide telo, Ovid); Tripes, edis, ' three-footed ;' Vigil tlis, ' watchful.' Also com- 
pounds in ceps, fex, corpor, and gener; as, Bicorpor, oris, 'two-bodied ;' Tri- 
corpor, oris, ' three-bodied ;' though Artifex, wis, ' artificial ;' Degener, ens, 
' degenerate;' Particeps, ipis 7 'partaking of;' Princeps, ipis, ' chief ; r have also 
i in the AbL 

Exc. 2. The following have e or i in the Abl. sing, and um in the Gen. plur. 
Dives, itis, ' rich ;' Inops, opis, ' needy ;' Quadriiplex, icis, ' four-fold.' 

Exc. 3. Concors, dis, * agreeing ;' Consors, tis, ' sharing ;' Exsors, tis, ' given 
by choice ;' Supplex, icis, ' suppliant ,•' have e or i in the Abl, and ia, ium, in the 
Nom. and Gen. pi. Locuples, etis, ' wealthy,' has e or i, and ia,ium or um. Sgjis, tis, 
1 guilty,' and Insons, tis, ' guiltless,' have e or i, and Gen. plur. ium, or um. 
Memor, oris, ' mindful,' has i and um. ' Uber, eris, 'fruitful,' i, a, and um. Veins, 
eris, ' old,' has i or e, and a, and um. Par, paris, ' equal,' has only i in the Abl. 
sing, and in plur. ia, ium ; but its compounds have e or i. 

Exc. 4. The following have the Abl. in e or i, and want the Neut. plur. 
Concolor, oris, ' of the same colour;' Versicolor, oris, 'parti-coloured;' Deses, 
/dis, ' slothful ;' Hebes, etis, ' blunt,' * dull :' Perpes, etis, ' perpetual ;' Prospes, 
etis, ' swift ;' Keses, idis, ' idle ;' Teres, etis, ♦ round.' Of these Prcepes only is 
found in the Gen. plur. 

Exc. 5. Exspes, ' hopeless,' and Potis, is, e 5 ' able,' are only used in the nomi- 
native. Potis has sometimes potis in the neut. 

The Neuter Plus, ' more,' is thus declined : 
Singular. Plural. 

N- Plus, N. Plures, -es, -a or ia, 

G. Pluris, G. Plur-ium, -ium, -ium, 

D. D. Pluribus, -Tbus, -lbus, 

A. Plus, A. Plur-es, -es, -a or ia r 

A. PluFeori. A. Pluribus, -ibus, -ibus-. 



ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 73 

REMARKS. 

1. Comparatives and adjectives in ns, have e more frequently than i ; and par- 
ticiples in the ablative called absolute have generally e ; as, Tiberio regnante, not 
regnanti, in the reign of Tiberius. 

2. Adjectives joined with substantives neuter for the most part have i; as, vie- 
triciferro, not victrice. 

3. Different words are sometimes used to express the different genders ; as 
victor, victorious for the masc. victrix, for the fern. Victrix, in the plural has 
likewise the neuter gender; thus, victr'ices, victricia; so, ultor, and ultrix,re~ 
vengeful. Victrix is also neuter in the singular. 

4. Several adjectives compounded of clivus, frcenum, bacillum, arma, jugum, 
limus, somnus, and animus, end in is or us; and therefore are either of the first 
and second declension, or of the third ; as, decl'ivis, -e, and declivus, -a, -um, 
steep ; imbecillis, and imbecillus, weak ; semisomnis, and semisomnus, half asleep ; 
exanimis, and exanimus, lifeless. But several of them do not admit of this varia- 
tion ; thus we say, magnaiiimus, jlexaiiimus, effrcenus, levisomnus ; not magnani- 
mis, &c. On the contrary, we say, pusillaiiimis, injugis, illimis, insomnis, exsom- 
nis ; not pusillaiiimus, &c. So, semiammis, inermis, subllmis, accl'ivis, decl'ivis, 
proclivis ; rarely scmiananus, &c. 

5. Adjectives derived from nouns are called de- 
nominatives; 

as, cordatus, mbratus, ccelestis, adamantinus, corporeus, agrestis, cesfivus, &c.; 
from cor, mos, caelum, addmas, &c. 

Those which diminish the signification of their primitives, are called Diminu- 
tives ; as, misellus, parvulus, duriusculus, &c. Those which signify a great deal 
of a thing, are called amplificatives, and end in osus, or entus ; as, vinosus, v'i- 
nolentus, much given to wine; operdsus, laborious ; plumbosus, full of lead ; nodo- 
sus, knotty, full of knots; corpulentus, corpulent, &c. Some end in tus ; as, 
aur'itus, having long or large ears; nasutus, having a large nose; liieratus, 
learned, &c. 

6. An adjective derived from a substantive, or 
from another adjective, signifying possession or 
property, is called a possessive adjective; as, 

Scoticus, palemus, herdis, alienus, of or belonging to Scotland, a father, a mas- 
ter, another ; from Scotia, pater, hems, and alius. 

7. Adjectives derived from verbs are called ver- 
bals; as, 

amabilis, amiable : capax, capable ; docilis, teachable ; from amo, capio, doceo. 

8. When participles become adjectives, they are 
called par ticipials; as, sapiens, wise ; acutus, sharp; 
disertus, eloquent. 



74 



NUMERAL ADJECTIVES^ 



Of these many also become substantives } as, adolescens, arfimans, rudens, ser>* 
pens, advocatus, sponsus, natus, legatus ; sponsa, nata, serta, sc. corona, a garland ? 
pratexta, sc. vestis ; debitum, decrltum, prceceptum, satum, tectum, volum, &c. 

9. Adjectives derived from adverbs are called 
adverbials; 

as, hodiernus, from hodie ; crastlnus, from eras ; binus, from bis, &c. There are 
also adjectives derived from prepositions; as, contrarius, from contra; anficus, 
from ante; posticus f from post, 

NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectives which signify number, are divided 
into four classes, Cardinal, Ordinal, Distributive, 
and Multiplicative. 

1. The Cardinal or Principal numbers are : 



Unus, 

Duo, 

Tres, 

Quatuor, 

Quinque, 

Sex, 

Septem, 

Octo, 

Novem, 

Decern, 

Undecim, 

Duodecim, 

Tredecim, 

Quatuordecim, 

Quindecim, 

Sexdecim, 

Septendecim, 

Octodecim, 

Novemdecim, 

Viginti, 

Viginti unus,or 

Unus et viginti, 

Viginti duo, or 

Duo et viginti, 

Triginta, 

Quadraginta, 

Quinquaginta, 

Sexaginta, 

Septuaginta, 

Octoginta, 

Nonaginta, 



one. 
two. 
three, 
four. 
Jive, 
six. 
seven, 
eight, 
nine, 
ten. 
eleven, 
twelve, 
thirteen, 
fourteen. m 
fifteen, 
sixteen, 
seventeen, 
eighteen, 
nineteen, 
twenty. 

twenty-one. 

twenty-two. 

thirty, 
forty. 

fifty- 

sixty, 
seventy, 
eighty, 
ninety. 



1. 


L 


2. 


II. 


3. 


II L 


4. 


IV. 


5. 


V. 


6. 


VI. 


7. 


VII. 


8. 


VIII. 


9. 


IX. 


10. 


X. 


11. 


XI. 


12. 


XII. 


13. 


XIII. 


14. 


XIV. 


15. 


XV. 


16. 


XVI. 


17. 


XVII. 


18. 


XVIIL 


19. 


XIX. 


20. 


XX. 



21. 
22. 



XXL 
XXII. 



50. 


XXX. 


40. 


XL. 


50. 


L. 


60. 


LX. 


70. 


LXX. 


80. 


LXXX, 


90. 


XC. 



NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. 



75 



Ceatum , 

Ducenti, -«, -a, 

Treoenti, -ae, -a, 

Quadringenti, 

Quingenti, 

Sexcenti, 

Septingenti, 

Octingenti, 

Nongenti, 

Mille, 

Duo millia, or 

Bis mille, 

Decern millia, or 

Decies mille, 

Viginti millia, or 

Vicies mille, 



a hundred. 


100. 


c. 


two hundred. 


200. 


cc. 


three hundred. 


300. 


ccc. 


four hundred. 


400. 


cccc. 


Jive hundred. 


500. 


D. 


six hundred. 


600. 


DC. 


seven hundred. 


700. 


DCC. 


eight hundred. 


800. 


DCCC. 


nine hundred. 


900. 


DCCCC 


a thousand. 


1,000. 


M. 


two thousand. 


2,000. 


MM. 


ten thousand. 


10,000. 


XM 


twenty thousand. 


20,000. 


XXM. 



A thousand was originally marked thus, cio. which in latter times 
was contracted into m. Five hundred was marked thus, io, or, by con- 
traction, D. 

The annexing of o. to io. makes its value ten times greater ; thus, 
loo. marks five thousand, and iooa. fifty thousand. 

The prefixing of c. together with the annexing of o. to the number 
€13, makes its value ten times greater; thus, ccioo. denotes ten thou- 
sand ; and ccciooo. a hundred thousand. The ancient Romans, accord- 
ing to Pliny, proceeded no farther in this method of notation. If they 
had occasion to express a larger number, they did it by repetition; 
thus, ccciooo. ccciooo. signified two hundred thousand, &c. 

We sometimes find thousands expressed by a straight line drawn 
over the top of the numeral letters"; thus, ill. denotes three thousand; 
X- ten thousand. 

The cardinal numbers, except unus and mille, want the singular. 

Unus is not used in the plural, except when joined with a substan- 
tive which wants the singular ; as, in unis adibus, in one house. Te- 
rent. Eun. ii. 3. 75. Unce, nuptice. Id. Andr. iv. 1. 51. In una mcenia 
convenere. Sallust. Cat. 6. or when several particulars are considered 
as one whole ; as, una vestimenta, one suit of clothes. Cic. Flacc. 29. 



Duo and tres are thus declined : 



Plural. 

N. duo, dua?, duo, 

G. duorum, duarum, duorum, 

D. duobus, duabus, duobus, 

A. duos or duo, duas, duo, 

V. duo, duae, duo, 

A. duobus, ckahus, duobus. 







Plural. 




N. 


tres, 


tres, 


tria, 


G. 


trium, 


triura, 


trium, 


D. 


tribus, 


tribus, 


tribus, 


A. 


tres, 


tres, 


tria, 


V. 


tres, 


tres, 


tria, 


A. 


tribus, 


tribus, 


tribus. 



76 NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. 

In the same manner with duo, decline ambo, both. 

All the cardinal numbers from quatuor, to centum, including them 
both, are indeclinable; and from centum lo mille, are declined like the 
plural of bonus; thus, ducenti, -tee, -ta ; ducentorum, -tcirum, -to- 
rum, &c. 

Mille, the substantive, makes Nom. and Ace. mille, Abl. milli; as ? 
mille hominum, ' a thousand men ;' milli hominum, ' with a thousand 
men.' In the plural it is perfect. Duo millia hominum, ' two thou- 
sand men;' Trium millium hominum? Tribus milli bus hominum, &c. 

Mille, the adjective is plural only, and indeclinable ; as, milli homi- 
nes, i a thousand men ;' mille hominibus, 'with a thousand men.' To 
express more than one thousand, it has the numeral adverbs joined with 
it; as, Bis mille homines, 'two thousand men;' Ter mille homi- 
nes, &c. 

2. The Ordinal numbers, are, primus, first; secundus, second, &c; 
declined like bonus. 

3. The Distributive are, singuli, one by one; bini, two by two, or 
by twos, &c.; declined like the plural of bonus. 

4. The Multiplicative numbers are simplex, simple ; duplex, double, 
or two-fold ; triplex, triple, or three-fold ; quadruplex, four-fold, &c; 
all of them declined like felix ; thus, simplex, -ids, &c. 

5. The Cardinal and Distributive numbers may be thus distinguish- 
ed ; the Cardinal expresses a number absolutely, as, one, two, &c; the 
Distributive are those which distribute the same number to every single 
person; as, Dedit nobis decem libros, l he gave us together ten books;' 
dedit nobis denos libros, ' he gave us each ten books. 5 

But poets, and sometimes prose writers, use the Distributive for the 
Cardinal numbers, particularly with substantives which are plural only ; 
as, bince nwptice, 'two weddings;' bines, liters, 'two epistles;' not 
duce, for duce literce w r ould mean two letters of the alphabet. 

The Multiplicative numbers are also sometimes used for the Cardi- 
nal by the poets ; as, Duplices tendens ad sidera palmas, instead of 
duas palmas. 

The interrogative words to which these numerals answ 7 er, are quot^ 
quotus, quoteni, quoties, and quotuplex. 

Quot, how many } is indeclinable : So tot, so many ; iotidem, just 
so many ; quotquot quotcunque, how many soever ; aliquot, some. 

The following Table contains a list of the Ordinal and Distributive 
Numbers, together with the Numeral Adverbs, which are often joined 
with the Numeral Adjectives, 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 



77 



Ordinal. 

Primus, -a, -urn. 
Secundus. 
Tertius. 
Quartus. 
Quintus. 
Sextus. 
Septimus. 
Octavus. 
Norms. 
Decimus. 
Undecimus. 
Duodecimus. 
Decimus tertius. 
Decimus quartus. 
Decimus quintus. 
Decimus sextus. 
Decimus septimus. 
Decimus octavus. 
Decimus nonus. 
Vigesimus, vicesimus. 
Vigesimus primus. 
Trigesimus, tricesimus. 
Quadragesimus. 
Quinquagesimus. 
Sexagesimus. 
Septuagesimus. 
Octogesimus. 
Nonagesimus. 
Centesimus. 
Ducentesimus. 
Trecentesimus. 
Quadringentesimus. 
Quingentesimus. 
Sexcentesimus. 
Septingentesimus. 
Octingentesimus. 
Nongentesimus. 
Millesimus. 
Bis millesimus. 



Distributive. 

Singuli, -a3, -a. 

BIni. 

Terni. 

Quaterni. 

Qulni. 

Seni. 

Septeni. 

OctGni. 

NovSni. 

Deni. 

Undeni. 

Duodeni. 

Tredeni, terni deni. 

Quaterni deni. 

Quindeni. 

Seni deni. 

Septeni deni. 

Octoni deni. 

Noveni deni. 

Viceni. 

Viceni singuli. 

Triceni. 

Quadrageni. 

Quinquageni. 

Sexageni. 

Septuageni. 

Octogeni. 

Nonage ni. 

Centeni. 

Dueeni. 

Trecenteni. 

Quater centeni. 

Quinquies centeni. 

Sexies centeni. 

Septies centeni. 

Octies centeni. 

Novies centeni. 

Milleni. 

Bis milleni. 



Numeral Adverbs. 

Semel, once. 

Bis, twice. 

Ter, thrice. 

Quater,/owr times. 

Quinquies, &c 

Sexies. 

Septies. 

Octies. 

Novies. 

Decies. 

Undecies. 

Duodecies. 

Tredecies. 

Quatuordecies. 

Quindecies. 

Sexdecies. 

Decies ac septies. 

Decies ac octies. 

Decies et novies. 

Vicies. 

Vicies semel. 

Tricies. 

Quadragies. 

Quinquagies. 

Sexagies. 

Septuagies. 

Octogies. 

Nonagies. 

Centies. 

Ducenties. 

Trecenties. 

Quadringenties. 

Quingenties. 

Sexcenties. 

Septingenties. 

Octingenties. 

Noningenties. 

Millies. 

Bis millies. 



To the numeral adjectives may be added such as express division, proportion, 
time, weight, &c; as, biparfdus, tripartitus, &c. ; duplus, triplus, &c; bimus, tri- 
mus, <fcc; biennis, triennis, <fcc; bimestris, trimestris, &a; bilibris, trilibris, &c; 
blndrius, ternarius, &c; which last are applied to the number of any kind of 
things whatever; as, versus sendrius, a verse of six feet; denarius nummus, a 
coin of ten asses ; octogendrius senex, an old man eighty years old ; grex centend- 
rius, a ftock of an hundred, &c. 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

The comparison of adjectives expresses the qua- 
lity in different degrees : as, durus, hard; durior, 
harder ; durissimus, hardest. 

G 2 



78 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

Those adjectives only are compared whose sig- 
nification admits the distinction of more and less. 

The degrees of comparison are three, the Posi- 
tive, Comparative, and Superlative. 

The Positive seems improperly to be called a 
degree. It simply signifies the quality ; as durus, 
hard; and serves only as a foundation for the 
other degrees. By it we express the relation of 
equality; as, he is as tall as I. 

The Comparative expresses a greater degree of 
the quality, and has always a reference to a less 
degree of the same; as, durior, harder; sapientior, 
wiser. 

The Superlative expresses the quality carried to 
the greatest degree; as, durissimus, hardest; sapi- 
entissimus, wisest. 

FORMATION OF THE DEGREES. 

COMPARATIVE. 

The comparative degree is formed from the first case of the positive 
which ends in i, by adding the syllable or for the masculine and femi- 
nine, and us for the neuter ; as, 

Nom. alius, alta, alium, 
Gen. alti : 
then adding or and us, we have altior, altior, altius. 

In adjectives of the third declension, the Dative is of course the first 
case that ends in i, as, Nom. mitis, Gen. mitis, Dat. miti ; then by 
adding or and us, we have mitior, mitior, mitius. 





Mitior, meeker, is thus declined. 






Singular number. 




Nom. 


Mitior, mitior, 


mitius, 


Gen. 


Mitior is, mitioris, 


mitioris, 


Dat. 


Mitiori, mitiori, 


mitiori, 


Ace. 


Mitiorem, mitiorem, 


mitius, 


Voc. 


Mitior, mitior, 


mitius, 


Abl. 


Mitiore, or ) . 77 ., , 
Mitiori, C in all the genders. 





COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 79 

Plural number. 



Nom. 


Mitiores, 


mitiores, 


mitiora, 


Gen. 


Mitiorum, 


mitiorum, 


mitiorum, 


Bat. 


Mitiori'bus, 


mitioribus 


mitioribus, 


Ace. 


Mitiores, 


mitiores, 


mitiora. 


Voc. 


Mitiores, 


mitiores, 


mitiora, 


Abl. 


Mitioribus, 


mitioribus, 


mitioribus. 



SUPERLATIVE. 

The Superlative degree is formed from the same case by adding 
ssimus ; as, Nom. alius, Gen. alti, Superlative altisslmus. So, mitis, 
Gen. mitis, Dat. miti, Superlative mitissimus. 

If the positive end in er, the superlative is formed from the nomina- 
tive by adding rlmus ; as, pauper, ' poor ;' pauperrlmus, 'poorest.' 

The Comparative is always of the Third declension, the Superlative 
of the First and Second. 





IRREGULAR AND DEFECTIVE COMPARISON. 




Bonus, 


melior, optimus, 


good, 


better, 


best. 


Malus, 


pejor, pessimus, 


bad, 


worse, 


worst. 


Magnus, 


major, maximus, 


great, 


greater, 


greatest. 


Parvus, 


mmor, minimus, 


small, 


less, 


least. 


Multus, 


plurimus, 


much, 


more, 


most. 



Fern. Multa, plurima; neut. multum, plus, plurimum; plur. rnulti, 
plures, plurirni; multse, plures, plurimae, &c. 

In several of these, both in English and Latin, the comparative and 
superlative seem to be formed from some other adjective, which in the 
positive has fallen into disuse ; in others, the regular form is contract- 
ed ; as, maximus, for magnisslmus ; worse for worsest. 

2. These five have their superlative in limus: 

Facilis, facilior, facillimus, easy. Imbecillis, imbecillior, imbecillimus, 

Gracilis, gracilior, graciliimus, lean. weak. 

Humilis, humilior, humillimus, low. Similis, similior, simillimus, like. 

3. The following adjectives have regular com- 
paratives, but form the superlative differently : 

Citer, citerior, citimus, near, &c. Maturus, -ior, maturrimus, or maturissi- 
Dexter, dexterior, dextimus, right. rnus, ripe. 

Sinister, sinisterior, sinistimus, left. Posterus, posterior, postremus, behind. 

Exter, -erior, extimus or extremiis, Siiperus, -rior, supremus or sumraus, 

outward. high. 

Inferus, -ior, inf lmus or imus, below. Vetus, veterior, veterrimus, old. 
Interus, interior, inlimus, inward. 



80 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES, 

4. Compounds in dicus, loquus,flcus, and volus, have entior, and 
entisslmus ; as, mdledicus, railing; maledicenti or, maledicentissi- 
mus: So, magnlloquus, one that boasteth; beneficus, beneficent; 
malevolus, malevolent; mlriflcus, wonderful; -entior, -entisslmus, 
or, mirificisslmus. Nequam, indeclinable, worthless, vicious, has 
nequior, nequissimus. 

There are a great many adjectives, which, though capable of having 
their signification increased, yet either want one of the degrees of 
comparison, or are not compared at all. 

1. The following adjectives are not used in the 
positive : 

Deterior, worse, detemmus. Propior, nearer, proximus, nearest 

Ocior, swifter, ocisstmus. or next. 

Prior, former, primus. Ulterior, farther, ultlmus. 

2. The following want the comparative : 

Inclytus, inclytissimus, renown- Nuperus, nuperrTmus, late. 

ed. Par, parissimus, equal. 

Merit us, mpritissimus, deserving. Sacer, sacerrimus, sacred. 
Novus, novisslmus, new. 

3. The following want the superlative: 

Adolescens, adolescentior, young. Pronus, pronior, inclined down- 

Diiiturnus, diuturnior, lasting. wards. 

Ingens, ingentior, huge. Satur, ssLturlor, full. 

Juvenis, junior, young. Senex, senior, old. 

Oplmus, opimior, rich. 

To supply the superlative of juvenis, or adolescens, we say minimus natu, the 
youngest ; and of senex, maxtmus natu, the oldest. 

These also want the Superlative : Adjectives in alis, His, and bills, and many 
in anus, ivis, and inquus ; as capiialis, ' capital ;' regdlis, * royal ;' civilis, ' civil ;* 
juvenilis, * youthful ;' tolerabilis, ' tolerable ;' arcdnus, ' secret ;' declwis, 
• bending downwards;' proclwis, 'down-hill;' longinquus, ♦ far off;' propin- 
quus, 'near,' &c. Some are found only in the Positive; the compounds of Gero 
and Fero, participles in rus and dus, and adjectives in hnidus, imus, inns, ivus, orus. 
Also, almus, ■ cherishing ;' calvus, ' bald ;' claudus, « lame ;' delirus, < out of the 
furrow;' 'doting;' dubius, 'doubtful;' egenus, ' indigent;' magvanimus, 'coura- 
geous ;' memor, ' mindful ;' mirus, wonderful ;' rudis, ' new,' ' rude ;' salv7is, 
'safe ;' vacuus, 'empty ;' vulgaris, ' common,' <&c. But many of these admit of 
Magis, Minus, Maxime, Minime, &c. 

Anterior, former ; sequior, worse ; satior, better, are only found in the com- 
parative. 



PRONOUNS. 



81 



4. Many adjectives are not compared at all; such are those compounded with 
nouns or verbs ; as, versicolor, of divers colours ; pestlfer, poisonous ; also, adjec- 
tives in us pure, in ivus, inus, orus, or imus, and diminutives ; as,dubius, 'doubtful;' 
vacuus, empty ;' fugitlvus, that fiieth away; malutlnus, early; canorus, shrill ; 
leg%imus,\&wi\i\ ; tenellus, somewhat lender; majuscidus, &c. ; together with a 
great many others of various terminations ; as, almus, gracious ; pr&cox-ocis, 
soon or early ripe ; minis, egenus, lacer, memor, sospes, <fec. 

This defect of comparison is supplied by putting the adverb magis before the 
adjective, for the comparative degree ; and valde or maxime for the superlative ; 
thus, egenus, needy, magis egenus, more needy ; valde or maxime egenus, very, or 
most needy. Which form of comparison is also used in those adjectives which 
are regularly compared. 

IRREGULAR AND UNUSUAL COMPARISONS. 



Apricus, sunny. 
Bellus,Jme. 

Celer, swift 

Communis, common. 
Consultus, skilled. 
Crispus, curled. 
Divers us, different 

Dives, rich. 

Falsus, false. 
Fidus, faithful. 
Imbecillus, weak. 

Jej unus, fasting. 
Infl lnitus, indefinite. 
Invictus, unconquered. 
Invisus, hated. 
Invitus, reluctant 
Licens, extravagant. 
Mellitus, honeyed. 
Nequam, wicked. 
Persuasus, persuaded. 
Potis, or Pote, able. 



Anterior, former, Caes. 
Apricior, Plin. 
Bellior, Varr. 

Celerior, passim. 

Communior, Suet. 
[Consultior, Tertul.] 
Crispior, Plin. 
Diversior, Gel. Lucr. 
Divitior, Ovid. Cic. ) 
Ditior, Hor. ) 

Falsi us, Petron. 
Fidior, Liv. 
Imbecillior, Cic. 

Jejunior, Cic. 
Inf initior, Cic. 
[Invictior, S. August] 
Jnvisior, Mart. 
Invilior, Plaut. 
Licentior, Cic. 



Apricissimus, Colum. 

Bellissimus, Cic. 
\ Celerrimus, passim. 
» Celerissimus, Enn. ty Cn. 
Manl. 

Communissimus, Suet 

Consultissimus, Cic. 

Crispissimus, Colum. 

Diversissimus, Liv. Tacit 

Divitissimus, Cic. 

Ditissimus, Virg. 

Falsissimus, Colum. 

Fidissimus, Cic. Ovid. 

Imbecillissimus, Senec, 
Cels. 



Invictissimus, Cic. et. al. 
Invisissimus, Plin. Senec. 
Invitissimus, Cic. 



Sylvester, or ) 

Sylvestris, woody. ) 
Siipinus, lying on 
back. 



the 



Nequior, Cic. 

Potior, passim. 
Satius, better, passim. 
Sequior, worse, Liv. 

Sylvestnor, Plin. 

Supinior, Mart 



Mellitissimus, Apul. 
Nequissimus, Cic. 
Persuasissimus, Cic. 
Potissimus, passim. 



PRONOUN. 

A Pronoun is a word which stands instead of a 
noun* 



* Thus, 1 stands for the name of the person who speaks ; thou, for the name 
of the person addressed. 
Pronouns serve to point out objects, whose names we either do not know, or 



82 



SIMPLE PRONOUNS. 



The simple pronouns in Latin are eighteen; 
ego, tu, sui ; ille, ipse, iste, hie, is, quis, qui; mens, 
tuus, suus, noster, vester; nostras, vestras, and eujas. 

Three of them are substantives, ego, tu, sui; 
the other fifteen are adjectives. 





Singular. 


N. ego, 
G. mei, 
D. rnihi, 


i, 

of me, 
to me, 


A. me, 
V. 

A. me, 


me, 
with rr 



Ego, /. 



Plural. 



N. nos, we, 

G. nostrum, or nostri, of us, 

D. nobis, to us, 

A. nos, us, 

V. 

A. nobis, with us. 



Singular. 



N. tu, thou, 
G. tui, of thee, 
D. tibi, to thee, 
A. te, thee, 
V. tu, O thou, 
A. te, with thee. 



Tu, thou. 



Plural. 



* or you. 



N. vos. ye or you, 

G. vestrum, or vestri, of yo f 
D. vobis, to you, 

A. vos, you, 

V. vos, O ye or you, 

A. vobis, with you. 



Sui, of himself, of herself, of itself. 



Singular. 



N. 

G. sui, of himself, of herself, of itself 

D. slbi, to himself to herself, &c. 

A. se, himself, &c. 

V. 

A. se, with himself &c. 



Plural. 

N. 

G. sui, of themselves, 
D. sibi, to themselves, 
A. se, themselves, 

V. 

A. se, with themselves. 



Obs. 1. Ego wants the vocative, because one cannot call upon himself, ex- 
cept as a second person ; thus, we cannot say, O ego, O I ; O nos, O we. 

Obs. 2. Miki in the dative is sometimes by the poets contracted into mi. 



do not want to mention. They also serve to shorten discourse, and prevent the 
too frequent repetition of the same word ; thus, instead of saying, When Ccesar 
had conquered Gaul, Ccesar turned Ccesar' s arms against Ccesar' s covntry, we 
»ay, When Caesar had conquered Gaul, he turned his arms against his country, 



SIMPLE PRONOUNS. 



83 



Obs. 3. The genitive plural of ego was anciently nosirorum and nostrdrum ; 
of tu, vestrorum and vestrdrum, which were afterwards contracted into nostrum 
and vestriim. 

We commonly use nostrum and vestriim after partitives, numerals, compara- 
tives, or superlatives j and nostri and vestri after other words. 

The English substantive pronouns he, she, it, are expressed in 
Latin by these pronominal adjectives, Me, iste, hie, or is ; as, 

Ille, for the masc. ilia, for the fern. illud for the neuter, that : or 
Me, he ; ilia, she ; Mud, it or that : thus, 



Singular* 



Plural. 



M. ille, 


ilia, 


illud, 


N. illi, 


illse, 


ilia, 


G. illius, 


illiu3, 


illius, 


G. illorum, 


illarum, 


illorum, 


D. illi, 


illi, 


illi, 


D. illis, 


illis, 


illis, 


A. ilium, 


illam, 


illud, 


A* illos, 


illas, 


ilia, 


V. ille, 


ilia, 


illud, 


V. illi, 


illae, 


ilia, 


A. illo, 


ilia, 


illo. 


A. illis, 


illis, 


illis. 



Ipse, he himself, ipsa, she herself, ipsum, itself; and iste, ista, 
istud, are declined like ille ; only ipse, has ipsum in the nom. ace. 
and voc. sing. neut. 

Ipse, is often joined to ego, tu, sui ; and has in Latin the same 
force with self in English, when joined with a possessive pronoun ; as 
ego ipse, I myself. 

Hie, haec, hoc, this* 



Sing 


ular. 




P 


lural. 




N. hie, 


hagc, 


hoc, 


N. hi, 


hae, 


haec, 


G. hujus, 


hujus, 


hujus, 


G. horum, 


harum, 


horum, 


D. huic, 


huic, 


huic, 


D. his, 


his, 


his, 


A. hunc, 


hanc, 


hoe, 


A. hos, 


has, 


haec, 


V. hie, 


haec, 


hoc, 


V. hi, 


hse, 


haec, 


A. hoc, 


hac, 


hoc. 


A. his, 


his. 


his. 



N. is, 

G. ejus, 

D. ei, 

A. eum, 

V. 

A. eo, 



Is, ea, id ; he, she, it ; or that. 



Singular. 

ea, 
ejus, 
ei, 
earn, 



ea 



id, 
ejus, 
ei, 
id, 

eo. 



Plural. 

ii, ese, ea, 

eorum, earum, eorum, 

iis or eis, iis, or eis, iis or eis, 

eos, eas, ea, 



A. iis or eis, iis or eis, iis or eis. 



84 



SIMPLE PRONOUNS. 



Quis, quce, quod or quid? which, what? Or quis? who] or 
what man 1 qua ? who 1 or what woman 1 quod or quid ? what 1 
which thing? or what thing] thus, 



Singular. 

N. quis, quas, quod or quid, 

G. cujus, cujus, cujus, 

D. cui, cui, cui, 

A. quern, quam, quod or quid, 

V. 

A. quo, qua, quo. 



Plural. 

N. qui, qua?, . qua?, 

G. quorum, quarum, quorum, 
D. queis, or quibus, 

A. quos, quas, quss, 

A. queis, or quibus. 



Qui, quce, quod, who, which, that ; Or vir qui, the man who or 
that ; fcemina quoz, the woman who or that; negotium quod, the 
thing which or £/i«£ .* genit. vir cujus, the man tohose or o/ w/jom ; 
mulier cujus, the woman whose or of whom ; negotium cujus, the 
thing o/ which, seldom whose, &c. thus, 



Singular. 



N. 


qui, 


quaa, 


quod, 


G. 


cujus, 


cujus, 


cujus, 


D. 


cui, 


cui, 


cujus, 


A. 


quern, 


quam, 


quod, 


V. 





— * — 





A. 


quo, 


qua, 


quo. 



Plural. 

N. qui, quas, quas* 

G. quorum, quarum, quorum, 
D. queis, or quibus, 

A. quos, quas, quas, 

A. queis, or quibus. 



The other pronouns are derivatives, coming from ego, tu, and sui. 
Metis, my or mine ; tuus, thy or thine ; suus, his own, her own, its 
own, their own ; are declined like bonus, -a, -urn; and noster, our; 
vester, your ; like pulcher, -chra, -chrum, of the first and second de- 
clension ; noster, -tra, -trum. 

Nostras, of our country ; vestras, of your country ; cujas, of what 
or which country; are declined like felix, of the third declension: 
gen. nostrdtis, dat. nostrdti, &c. 

Pronouns as well as nouns, that signify things which cannot be ad- 
dressed or called upon, want the vocative. 

Mens has mi, and sometimes meus, in the voc. sing. masc. 

The relative qui has frequently qui in the ablative, and that, which is remark- 
able, in all genders and numbers. 

Qui is sometimes used for quis : and instead of cujus, the gen. of quis, we find 
an adjective pronoun, cujus, -a, -um. 

Simple pronouns, with respect to their significations, are divided into the fol- 
lowing classes : 



COMPOUND PRONOUNS. 



85 



1. Demonstratives, which point out any person or thing present, or as if pre- 
sent : Ego, tu, hie, iste, and sometimes Me, is, ipse. 

2. Relatives, which refer to something going before : Me, ipse, iste, hie, is, 
qui. 

3. Fossessives, which signify possession : mens, tuus, suus, nosier, vester. 

4. Patrials or Gentiles, which signify one's country : nostras, vestras, cujas. 

5. Interrogatives, by which we ask a question: quis? cujas? When they do 
not ask a question, they are called Indefinites, like other words of the same 
nature. 

6. Reciprocals, which again call back or represent the same object to the mind ; 
sui and suus. 

COMPOUND PRONOUNS. 

Pronouns are compounded variously : 

1. With other pronouns ; as, isthic, isthcec, isthoc, isthuc, or istuc. Ace. lsthunc, 
isthanc, isthoc, or istkuc. W^bl. Isthoc, isthac, isthoc. Nom. and ace. plur. neut. 
isthcec, of iste and hie. So illic, of Me and hie. 

2. With some other parts of speech ; as, hujusmodi, cujusmodi, &c. mecum, 
tecum, secum, nobiscum, vobiscum, quocum, or quieum, and quibuscum: cecum, 
eccam ; eccos, eccas, and sometimes ecca in the nom. sing, of ecce and is. So 
ellum, of ecce and Me. 

3. With some syllable added ; as, lute, of tu and te, used only in the nom. 
egomet, internet, suimet, through all the cases, thus, meimet, tuimet, &c. of ego, tu, 
sui, and met. Instead of tumet in the nom. we say, tutemet: Hiccine, hceccine, 
&c. in all the cases that end in c; of hie and cine : Meapte, iuapte, suapte, nos- 
trdpte, vestrapte, in the ablat. fern, and sometimes meopte, tuopte, &c. of meus, 
&c. and pte : hicce, hcecce, hocce ; hujusce, hisce, hosce ; of hie and ce : whence hu- 

juscemodi, ejuscemodi, cujuscemodi. So, IDEM, the same, compounded of is and 
Jem, which is thus declined : 





Singular. 




N. idem, 


eadem, 


idem, 


G. 


ejusdem, 




D. 


eidem, 




A. eundem, 


eandem, 


idem, 


V. idem, 


eadem, 


idem, 


A. eodem, 


eadem, 
Plural. 


eodem. 


N. iidem, 


essdem, 


eadem, 


G. eorundem, 


earundem, 


eorundem. 


D. 


e'isdem, or iisdem, 




A. eosdein, 


easdem, 


eadem, 


V. iidem, 


esedem, 


eadem, 


A. 


e'isdem, or iisdem. 





The pronouns which we find most frequently compounded, are quis and qui, 
Quis in composition is sometimes the first, sometimes the last, and sometimes 
likewise the middle part of the word compounded ; but qui is always the first, 

H 



86 



COMPOUND PRONOUNS. 



1. The compounds of quis, in which it is put first, are quisnam, who f quis- 
piam, qaisquam, any one ; quisque, every one ; quisquis, whosoever j which are 
thus declined : 



Nom. 
Quisnam, 
Quispiam, 
Quisquam, 
Quisque, 
Quisquis, 



Gen,~ 



Dat. 



quaenam, 
quaepiam, 
qu33quam, 
queeque, 



quodnam or quidnam 


cujusnam ; 


cuinam 3 


quod piam or quid piam ; 


cujuspiam ; 


cuipiam ; 


quodquam or quidquam ; 


cujusquam ; 


cuiquam f 


quodque or quidque ; 


cuj usque ; 


cuique ; 


quidquid or quicquid; 


cujuscujus ; 


cuicui. 



alicujus ; 


alicui; 


eccujus ; 


eccui ; 


si cuj us ; 


si cui ; 


ne cuj us ; 


ne cui ; 


num cujus ; 


num cui. 



And so in the other cases according to the simple quis. But quisquis has not 
the fem. at all, and the neuter only in the nominative and accusative. Quisquam : 
has also quicquam for quidquam ; accusative quenquam, without the feminine, 
The plural is scarcely used. 

2. The compounds of quis, in which quis is put last, have qua in the nom. sing= 
fem.; and in the nominative and accusative plural neuter, as, aliquis, some r 
ecquis, who? of et and quis ,' also, nequis, siquis, numquis, which for the 
most part are read separately ; thus, ne quis, si quis, num quis. They are thus 
declined : 

Nom. Gen. Dat. 

Aliquis, aliqua, aliquod or aliquid ; 

Ecquis, ecqua or ecquae, ecquod or ecquid ; 

Si quis, si qua, si quod or si quid ; 

Ne quis, ne qua, ne quod or ne quid ; 

Num quis, num qua, num quod or num quid ; 

3. The compounds which have quis in the middle, are, ecquisnam, who ? wius- 
quisque, gen. uniuscuj usque, every one. The former is used only in the nom. sing, 
and the latter wants the plural. 

4. The compounds of qui are quicunque, whosoever ; quidam, some ; qulUbet 
quivis, any one, whom you please ; which are thus declined : 

Nom, Gen. Dat. 

Quicunque, qutecunque, quodcunque ; cujuscunque ; cuicunque ; 

Quidam, quaedam, quoddam or quiddam; cujusdam ; cuidam; 

Quilibet, quaelibet, quodlibet or quidlibet; cujuslibet ; cuilibet; 

Qui vis, quae vis, quod vis or quid vis ; cujusvis ; cui vis. 

Obs. 1. All these compounds have seldom or never queis, but quibus, in their 
dat. andabh plur.; thus, aliquibus, &c. 

Obs. 2. Qms,and its compounds, in comic writers, have sometimes quis in the 
feminine gender. 

Obs. 3. Quidam has quendam, quandam, quoddam or quiddam, in the ace. sing, 
and quorundam, quarundam, quorundam, in the genitive plural, n being put in- 
stead of m, for the better sound. 

Obs. 4. Quod, with its compounds, aliquod, quodvis, quoddam, &c, are used when 
they agree with a substantive in the same case ; quid, with its compounds, aliquid, 
quidvis, &c, for the most part have either no substantive expressed, or govern one 
in the genitive. For this reason, they are by some reckoned substantives. 

Obs. 5. Aliquis and Quidam may be thus distinguished ; the former denotes a 
•person or thing indeterminately ; the latter, determinately. 

Obs,' 6. Uter refers to two, and is therefore joined to comparatives 



COMPOUND PRONOUNS. 87 

t)bs. 7. Quis may refer to many, and is therefore joined to superlatives. 

Obs. 8. Hie and Me are often found to refer to two words going before them. 
Hie usually to the latter ; Me to the former. 

Obs. 9. As demonstratives, Hie refers to the person nearest to me ; Iste to the 
person nearest to you ; lile to any intermediate person. 

Obs. 10. Me denotes honour : Iste, contempt : as, ille vir ; iste homo. 

Obs. 11. Tuus is used when we speak to one; as, Sumne, Corioldne, in tuis 
castris capfiva an mater 1 ? Vester, when we speak to more than one ; as, Cives, 
miseremini cceli vestri. 

Obs. 12. Alter is in general applied to one of two ; Alius to one of many. 

Obs. 13. Quivis, 'any whom you please;' Quisquam, ' any one ;' and Vitus, 
! any,' are thus used : Quivis affirms; as, Quidvis miki sat est, 'any thing pleases 
me.' Ullus never affirms, but asks or denies, as also Quisquam. Thus, Nee ulla 
res ex omnibus me angit, ' nor does any of all these things distress me ;' Nee quis- 
quam ebrum te novit, * nor does any one of them know you.' In an interrogative 
sentence, as, An quisquam dubitavit ? * will any one doubt V Ullus is used in the 
same way. 

Obs. 14. Met, tui, sui, nostri, vestri, the genitives of the primitives, are gene- 
rally used when passion or the being acted upon, is denoted : thus, amor mei, means 
4 the love wherewith I am loved.' 

Obs. 15- Meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester, the possessives, denote action or the 
possession of a thing; as, amor meus, is * the love which I possess and exert to- 
wards somebody else.' 

RECIPROCALS. 

Obs. 16. Sui and suus are called Reciprocals, because they always refer to 
some preceding person or thing, generally the principal noun in the sentence ; 
thus, Ccesar Ariovisto dixit, non sese (Caesarem) Gallis, sed Gallis sibi (Caesari) 
helium intulisse, ' Caesar told Ariovistus that he had not made war upon the Gauls, 
but the Gauls upon him ;' in which se and sibi refer to Caesar, the principal noun* 

Obs. 17. The Reciprocals may likewise be applied to the word which follows 
the verb, provided that it is capable of being turned into the nominative without 
altering the sense; thus, Trahit sua quemque voluptas, (Virg.) 'his own pleasure 
allures each ;' in which sua refers to quemque, the object of the verb, because it 
may become the subject, as in the equivalent expression, Quisque traJiitur a volup- 
taie sua, * each one is allured by his own pleasures*' 

Obs. 18. Suus is sometimes used in the sense of unicuique proprius, ' pecu- 
liar ;' as ; Sabcei sua thura miltunt, ' the country of the Sabaei produces frankin- 
cense peculiar to itself It sometimes indicates i fitness,' or ' congruity ;' as, Sunt 
et sua dona parenti, (Virg.) ' there are likewise for my father fit, appropriate, or 
suitable presents. 5 

Obs. 19. Suus is often used without the substantive being mentioned ; as, suum 
cuique tribuito, ' give every man his own ;' {negotium, ' thing,' being understood.) 
Sui responderunt, ' his soldiers/ or ' countrymen answered ;' (cives or milites being 
understood.) 

Obs. 20. The reciprocals alone are used with quisque, and they are generally 
placed before it ; as, Pro se quisque acriter intendat animum, Liv. ' let each one 
for himself give his most critical attention ;' Sua cujusque animantis natura est, 
,Cic - every animal has its own peculiar nature.' 



88 VERBS. 

Obs. 21. Sibi, and sometimes tibi, mihi, &c, are used for the sake of ele- 
gance, when not indispensably necessary; as, Expedi mihi hoc negotium, Ter. 
• despatch this business for me/ 

VERB.* 

A verb is a ward which expresses what is affirm- 
ed of things ; as, The boy reads. The sun shines. 
The man loves. 

Or, A verb is that part of speech which signifies to 
be, to do, or to suffer. 

Verbs, with respect to their signification, are di- 
vided into three different classes, Active, Passive, 
and Neuter; because we consider things either as 
acting, or being acted upon; or as neither acting, 
nor being acted upon; but simply existing, or ex- 
isting in a certain state or condition, as in a state of 
motion or rest; &c. 

1. An Active verb expresses an action, and ne- 
cessarily supposes an agent, and an object acted 
upon; as, amare, to love; amo te, I love thee. 

2. A verb Passive expresses a passion or suffer- 
ing, or the receiving of an action ; and necessarily 
implies an object acted upon, and an agent by 



*lt is called a Verb or Word by way of eminence, because it is the most essen- 
tial word in a sentence, without which the other parts of speech can form no 
complete sense. Thus, the diligent boy reads his lesson with care, is a perfect sen- 
tence ; but if we take away the affirmation, or the word reads, it is rendered im- 
perfect, or rather becomes no sentence at all ; thus, the diligent boy his lesson with 
care. 

A verb therefore may be thus distinguished from any other part of speech : 
Whatever word expresses an affirmation, or assertion, is a verb; or thus,. What- 
ever word, with a substantive noun or pronoun before or after it, makes full 
sense, is a verb ; as, stones fall, I walk, walk thou. Here fall and walk are verbs, 
because they contain an affirmation ; but when we say, a long walk, a dangerous 
fall, there is no affirmation expressed ; and the same words walk and fall become 
substantives or nouns. We often find likewise in Latin the same word used as a 
verb, and also as some other part of speech ; thus, amor, -oris, love, a substantive; 
and amor, I am loved, a verb, 



VERBS. 89 

which it is acted upon; as, amdri, to be loved; tu 
amdris a me, thou art loved by me. 

3. A Neuter verb properly expresses neither ac- 
tion nor passion, but simply the being, state, or 
condition of things; as, dormio, I sleep; sedeo, I 
sit. 

The verb is also called Transitive when the action passes over to 
the object, or has an effect on some other thing ; as scribo literas, 1 
write letters : but when the action is confined within the agent, and 
passes not over to any object, it is called Intransitive ; as, ambulo, 1 
walk; curro, I run; which are likewise called Neuter verbs. Many 
verbs in Latin and English are used both in a transitive and in an in- 
transitive or neuter sense ; as sistere, to stop ; incipere, to begin ; du- 
rare, to endure, or to harden, &c. 

Verbs which simply signify being are likewise called Substantive 
verbs ; as, esse or existere, to be, or to exist. The notion of existence is 
implied in the signification of every verb; thus, I love, may be resolved 
into I am loving. 

When the meaning of a verb is expressed without any affirmation, 
or in such a form as to be joined to a substantive noun, partaking there- 
by of the nature of an adjective, it is called a Participle ; as, amans, 
loving; amdtus, loved. But when it has the form of a substantive, it 
is called a Gerund, or a Supine; as, arnandum, loving; amatum, to 
love ; amdtu, to love, or to be loved. 

A verb is varied or declined by Voices, Modes^ 
Tenses, Numbers, and Persons, 

There are two voices ; the Active and Passive. 

The modes are four; Indicative, Subjunctive, Im- 
perative, and Infinitive. 

The tenses are five ; the Present, the Preter-im- 
perfect, the Preter-perfect, the Preter-pluperfect^ 
and the Future. 

The numbers are two; Singular and Plural. 

The persons are three ; First, Second, and Third. 

VOICES. 

Voice expresses the different circumstances in which we consider an 
object, whether as acting or being acted upon. When the action is con- 

h2 



90 VERBS. 

fined to the agent or nominative, as, cado, l I fall ;' or when it is exert- 
ed by the nominative upon an external object, as, amo virum, ; I love 
the man,' the Active voice is used ; but when the action is exerted by 
an external object upon the nominative, the Passive voice is employed, 
as, vir amatur, ' the man is loved.' 

As an Active verb denotes that the nominative to it, is doing some- 
thing, and a Passive verb, that something is done to it, or in the lan- 
guage of grammarians, that it is suffering ; hence, to distinguish whe- 
ther an English verb is to be rendered in Latin by the Active or Passive 
voice, nothing more is necessary than to consider whether the nomina- 
tive be doing or suffering ; as, ' John is building,' Joannes cedificat : 
1 The wall is building,' munis cedificatur. The English is the same in 
both examples ; but in one, John is active, in the other the wall is pas- 
sive. 



Modes or moods are the various manners of expressing the signifi- 
cation of the verb : 

The Indicative declares or affirms positively ; as, amo, I love ; 
amdbo, I shall or will love ; or asks a question ; as, an tu amas ? dost 
thou love] 

The Subjunctive is usually joined to some other verb, and cannot 
make a full meaning by itself; as, si me obsecret, redlbo, if he entreat 
me, I will return, Ter. 

The Imperative commands, exhorts, or entreats ; as, ama, love thou. 

The Infinitive simply expresses the signification of the verb, with- 
out limiting it to any person or number ; as, amare, to love. 



Tenses, or Times, express the time when any thing is supposed to be, 
to act, or to suffer. 

The general divisions of time are into present, past, and future ; but 
grammarians make five tenses, namely: the Present, the Preter-imper- 
fect, the Preter-perfect, the Preter-pluperfect, and the Future. 

PRESENT. 

1. The Present tense denotes that an action is going on ; as, mdi- 
ficat, l he builds.' Historians and poets sometimes describe past ac- 
tions in this tense, in order to give animation to their discourse, by 
bringing them, as it were, under immediate observation. Thus, Livy, 
Ad equites dictator advolat obtestans ut ex equis descendant, ' the 
dictator^es forward to the cavalry, beseeching them to dismount from 
their horses.' 



VERBS. 91 

2. Any general custom, if still existing, may be expressed in this 
tense ; thus, Apud Parthos signum datur tympano, et non tuba, Jus- 
tin. ' Among the Parthians the signal is given by the drum, and not by 
the trumpet.' 

3. In Latin, as in English, this tense may express futurity ; as, qudm 
mox navigo Ephesum, Plaut. ' as soon as I sail,' or ' shall sail to Ephe- 
sus.' 

PRJETER-1MPERFECT. 

1. The Prseter-imperfect expresses an action as passing sometime 
ago, but not yet finished; as, cedificdbat, ' he was building.' 

2. It likewise denotes what is usual or customary; as, aiebat, 'he 
was wont to say.' 

PRATER-PERFECT. 

1. When we mean to say that an action has taken place, without 
particular reference to the present, or has taken place within some pe- 
riod of time not yet fully past, we use the Prseter-perfect tense, as, 
amavi, ' I loved,' or * have loved.' 

2. It is sometimes used instead of the Pluperfect indicative ; Quce 
postquan evolvit, ccecoque exemit acervo, Ovid, ■ which after he sorted 
(had sorted) and took (had taken) from the confused mass.' 

3. It is poetically used instead of the imperfect or pluperfect sub- 
junctive; as, nee veni nisi fata, Virg. 'neither would I have come un- 
less the fates,' &e., for venissem. 

PRETER-PLUPERFECT. 

When we mean to say that an action was completed before some 
other past action took place, we use the Preter-pluperfect tense, as 
hostes superaverat, ' he had conquered the enemy' before the succours 
arrived. 

FUTURE. 

Future time is expressed two different ways. When we mean to ex- 
press that an action will be going on, some time hence, but not finished, 
we use the Future indicative ; as, Ccendbo, ' I shall sup ;' but when we 
mean to say that an action will be finished before another action, also 
future, takes place, we use the Future subjunctive ; as, Cum coenavero, 
profiscar, ' when I have supped,' or ' shall have supped, I will go.' 

NUMBER AND PERSON. 

1. Number marks how many we suppose to be, to act, or to suffer. 
As one or more persons may speak, be spoken to, or spoken of, there 
are two numbers ; the Singular, which speaks of one, and the Plural, 
which speaks of more than one. 



92 CONJUGATIONS OF VERBS* 

2. Person shows to what the meaning of the verb is applied, whether 
to the person speaking, the person spoken to, or to some other person or 
thing. There are three persons in each number : in the Singular, 
Ego, ' I,' is of the first ; Tu, ' thou,' is of the second ; and Ille, ' he,' 
or Ilia, ' she,' is of the third person : in the Plural, JVos, * we,' is of the 
first ; Vos, i ye' or * you,' is of the second ; 111% (masc.) ' they,' or Illce, 
(fern.) ' they,' is of the third person ; and to each of these the verb has 
appropriate variations in its terminations. 

Qui takes the person of the antecedent. 

Ipse may be joined to any person, according to the sense. 

THE DIFFERENT CONJUGATIONS. 

A verb is properly said to be conjugated, when all its parts are pro- 
perly classed, or, as it were, yoked together, according to Voice, Mode, 
Tense, Number, and Person. 

Conjugation is the regular distribution of the various parts of verbs, 
according to the different voices, modes, tenses, numbers and persons. 

There are four conjugations of verbs in Latin, 
distinguished by the vowel preceding re of the 
infinitive mode. 

The first conjugation makes are long ; as Amare. 

The second conjugation makes ere long; as, 
Docere. 

The third conjugation makes ere short; as, Le- 
gere. 

The fourth conjugation makes ire long ; as, Au- 
dire. 

Except dare, to give, which has a short, and also its compounds ; thus, Cir- 
cumdare, to surround ; circumdamus, -datis, -dabam, dabo, &c. 

The different conjugations are likewise distinguished from one an- 
other by the different terminations of the following tenses : 











ACTIVE VOICE. 














Indicative Mode. 






' 








Present Tense. 










Singular. 






Plural. 








Persons. 






Persons. 








1. 2. 


3. 


1. 


2. 


3. 




f 1 - 


-o, -as, 


-at; 


-amus, 


-atis, 


-ant. 




12. 


-eo, -es, 


-et; 


-emus, 


-etis, 


-ent. 


C \3 < 

o a 


|3. 


-o, -is, 


-it; 


-imus, 


-ltlS, 


-unt. 


y be 


U 


-io, -is, 


•IN- 


-Imus, 


-Itis, 


-iunt 



CONJUGATIONS OF VERBS. 



93 



Imperfect. 



1. 


-abam, 


-abas, 


-abat ; 


2. 


-ebam, 


-ebas, 


-ebat , 


3. 


-ebam, 


-ebas, 


-ebat; 


4. 


-iebam, 


-iebas, 


-iebat ; 


1. 


•abo, 


-abis, 


-abit ; 


2. 


-ebo, 


-ebis, 


-ebit ; 


3. 


-am, 


-es, 


-et; 


1 


-iam, 


-ies, 


-iet ; 



-abamus, 
-ebam us, 
-ebamus, 
-iebamus, 



Future. 



-abimus, 
-ebimus, 
-emus, 
-iemus, 



-abatis, 
-ebatis, 
-ebatis, 
-iebatis, 



-abitis, 
-ebitis, 
•etis, 
-ietis, 



-abant. 
-ebant. 
-ebant. 
-iebant. 



-abunt. 
-ebunt. 
-ent. 

-ient 



Subjunctive Mode. 
Present Tense. 



1. 

2. 
3. 
4, 


-em, 
-earn, 
-am, 
-iam, 


-es, 
-eas, 
-as, 
-ias, 


-et; 
-eat ; 
-at; 
-iat ; 




-emus, 
-eamus, 
-amus, 
-iamus 


-etis, 
-eatis, 
-atis, 
-iatis, 


-ent. 
-eant, 
-ant. 
-iant. 










Imperfect. 






1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 


-arem 
-erem 
-erem 
-Irem, 


, -ares, 

, -eres, 

, -eres, 

-Ires, 


-aret; 
-eret ; 
-eret ; 
-Iret ; 




-aremus, 
-eremus, 
-eremus, 
-Iremus, 


-aretis, 
-eretis, 
-eretis, 
-Iretis, 


-arent 
-erent. 
-erent. 
-irent, 










Imperative Mode. 










2. 


3. 




2. 


3. 






1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 


-a or ato, 
-e or eto, 
-e or lto, 
-i or lto, 


-ato 
-eto 
-ito ; 
-lto ; 


i 


-ate or atote, 
-ete or etote, 
-ite or ltote, 
-ite or ItOte, 


-anto. 
-en to. 
-unto, 
-iunto. 












PASSIVE VOICE. 














Indicative Mode. 














Present Tense. 






i. 

2. 

3. 
4. 


-or, ■ 
-eor, 
-or, - 
-ior, - 


■aris or -are 
■eris or -ere : 
■eris or -ere, 
iris or -Ire, 


, -atur 

, -etui 

-itur 

-itur 


? 


-amur, 
-emur, 
-lmur, 
^Imur, 


-amini, 
-emini, 
-imini, 
-imini, 


-antur. 
-entur. 
-untur. 
-iuntur. 










Imperfect, 






1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 


-abar, 
-ebar, 
-ebar, 
-iebar, 


-abaris or ■ 
-§baris or - 
-ebaris or - 
-iebaris, or 


•abare, - 
ebare, - 
ebare, h 
iebare, • 


abatur ; 
ebatur; 
ebatur; 
iebatur; 


-abamur, 
-ebamur, 
-ebamur, 
-iebamur, 


-abamini, 
-ebamini, 
-ebamini, 
-iebamini, 


-abantur. 
-ebantur. 
-ebantur. 
-iebantur, 



94 



CONJUGATIONS OF VERBS. 



Future. 

1. -abor, -aberis or -abere, -abitur; -abimur, -abimini, -abuntur. 

2. -ebor, -eberis or -ebere, -ebitur; -ebiraur, -ebimini, -ebuntur. 

3. -ar, -eris or -ere, -etur ; -emur, -emini, -entur. 

4. -iar, -i-eris or -iere, -ietur; -iemur, -iemini, -ientur. 



1. -er, -eris or -ere, 

2. -ear, -earis or -eare, 

3. -ar, -aris or -are, 

4. -iar, -iaris or -iare, 



Subjunctive Mode, 
Present Tense. 



-etur ; 


-emur, 


-emini, 


-entur. 


-eatur; 


-eamur, 


-e amini, 


-eantur. 


-alur ; 


-amur, 


-amini, 


-antur. 


-iatur ; 


-iamur, 


-iamini, 


-iantur. 



1. -arer, -areris or -arere, 

2. -erer, -ereris or -erere, 

3. -erer, -ereris or -erere, 
4- -Irer, -ireris or -Irere, 



Imperfect. 



-aretur; 


-aremur, 


-aremini, 


-arentur. 


-eretur; 


-ere mar, 


-eremini, 


-erentur. 


-eretur ; 


-eremur, 


-eremini, 


-erentur. 


-iretur; 


-Iremur, 


-Ire mini, 


-irentur. 



1 

2, 
3, 
4. 



2. 

-are or -ator, 
-ere or -etor, 
-ere or ltor, 
-Ire or ltor, 



Imperative Mode. 
3. 2, 



-ator ; 
-etor ; 
-ltor ; 
-ltor ; 



-amini, 
•emini, 
-imini, 
-Imini, 



-antor. 
-entor. 
-untor. 
-iuntor. 



Observe. Verbs in io of the third conjugation have iunt in the third person 
plur. of the present indie, active, and iuntur in the passive ; and so in the impera- 
tive, iunto and iuntor. In the imperfect and future of the indicative they have 
always the terminations of the fourth conjugation, ilbam and iam ; iebar and 
iar, &c. 

The terminations of the other tenses are the same through all the conjugations. 
Thus, 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

Indicative Mode. 







Singular. 






Plural. 




I. 


2. 


3. 


I, 


% 


3. 


Per/. 


-i, 


-isti 


-it; 


-lmus, 


-istis, 


-erunt or ere 


Plu. 


-eram, 


-eras, 


-erat ,• 


-eramus, 


-eratis, 


-erant. 








Subjunctive Mode. 






Perf. 


-erim, 


-eris, 


-erit ; 


-erimus, 


-eritis, 


-erint. 


Plu. 


-issem, 


, -isses, 


-isset ; 


-issemus, 


-issetis, 


-issent. 


Fut.. 


-ero, 


*eris, 


-erit ; 


-erimus, 


-eritis, 


-erint, 



CONJUGATIONS OF VERBS. 



95 



These Tenses, in the Passive Voice, are formed by the Participle Perfect, and 
the auxiliary verb sum, which is also used to express the. Future of the Infinitive 
Active. 

SUM is an irregular verb, and thus conjugated s 

Pres. Indie. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indie. 
Sum, esse, fui. To be. 

INDICATIVE MODE. 



PRESENT TENSE, am. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



g 1. Sum, lam. 

£ 2. Es, Thou art, or you are. 

£ 3. Est, He is. 



Sumus, We are. 
Estis, Ye or you are. 
Sunt, They are. 



IMPERFECT. Was. 



1. Eram, 1 was. 

2. Eras, Thou wast, or you were. 

3. Erat, He was. 



Eramus, We were. 
Eratis, Ye or you were. 
Erant, They were. 



perfect. Have been or was. 



1. Fui, I have been. 

2. Fuisti, Thou hast been. 

3. Fuit, He has been. 



Fuimus, We have been, 

Fnistis, Ye have been. 

Fuerunt, or -ere, They have been, 



pluperfect, had been. 



1. Fueram, I had been. 

2. Fueras, Thou had st been. 

3. Fuerat, He had been, 



Fu eramus, We had been. 
Fueratis, Ye had been. 
Fuerant, They had been* 



1. Ero, I shall be. 

2. Eris, Thou wilt be. 

3. Erit, He will be. 



FUTURE, shall or will* 



Enmus, We shall be. 
Eritis, Ye will be. 
Erunt, They will be. 



* Shall and will are always employed to express future time. 

Will, in the first person singular and plural, promises or threatens; in the 
second and third persons, only foretells s shall, on the contrary, in the first person, 
simply foretells ; in the second and third persons, promises, commands, or threat- 
ens. But the contrary of this holds, when we ask a question ; thus, " I shall go," 
"you will go," express event only ; but "will you go?" imports intention; and 
" shall I go ?" refers to the will of another. 



96 CONJUGATIONS OF VERBS. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. 

present tense, may or can. 

1. Sim, I may be. Simus, We may be. 

2. Sis, Thou mayest be. Sitis, Ye may be. 

3. Sit, He may be. Sint, They may be. 

imperfect, might, could, would, or should. 

1. Essem, I might be. Essemus, We might be. 

2. Esses, Thou mightest be. Essetis, Ye might be. 

3. Esset, He might be . Essent, They might bd 

perfect, may have. 

1. Fuerim, I may have been. Fuerimus, We may have been. 

2. Fueris, Thou mayest have been. Fueritis, Ye may have been. 

3. Fuerit, He may have been. Fuerint, They may have been. 

pluperfect, might, could, would, or should have ; or had. 

1. Fuissem, I might have been. Fuissemus, We might have been. 

2. Fuisses, Thou mightest have been. Fuissetis, Ye might have been. 

3. Fuisset, He might have been. Fuissent, They might have been. 

FUTURE, shall have. 

1. Fuero, / shall have been. Fuerimus, We shall have been* 

2. Fueris, Thou wilt have been. Fueritis, Ye will have been. 

3. Fuerit, He will have been. Fuerint, They will have been. 

IMPERATIVE MODE, 

2, Es or esto, Be thou. Este or Estote, Be ye, or be you* 

3. Esto, Let him be. Sunto, Let them be. 

INFINITIVE MODE. 

pres. Esse, To be. 

perf, Fuisse, To have been. 

fut. Esse futurus, -a, -um, To be about to be. 

Fuisse futurus, -a, -um, To have been about to be. 

PARTICIPLE. 

future. Futurus, -a, -um, About to be. 

Obs. 1. The personal pronouns, which in English are, for the most part, added 
to the verb, in Latin are commonly understood ; because the several persons are 
distinguished from one another by the different terminations of the verb, though 
the persons themselves be not expressed. The learner, however, at first may be 
accustomed to join them with the verb; thus, ego sum, I am , tu es, thou art, or 
you are ; ille est, he is ; nos sumus, we are ; &c. So ego dmo, I love; tu amas, 
thou lovest, or you love; ille amat, he loveth or loves ; nos amamus,we love, &c. 

Obs. 2. In the second person singular in English, we commonly use the plural 
form, except in solemn discourse; as, tu es, thou art, or much oftener, you are; tu 
eras, thou wast, or you were ; tu sis, thou mayest be, or you may be ; &c. So, tu 
amas, thou lovest, or you love ; tu amabas, thou lovedest, or you loved ; &c. 



FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 97 

FIRST CONJUGATION. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

Pres. Lid. Pres. Inf. Per/. Ind. Supine* 

Arao, amare, amavi, araatura, To love, 

INDICATIVE MODE. 

present tense, love, do love, or am loving. 

S. Am-o, i" love. P. Am-amus, We love. 

Am-as, Thou lovest. Am-atis, Ye or you love. 

Am-at, Re loves. Am-ant, They love. 

IMPERFECT. Was. 

S. Am-abam, I was loving. P. Am-abamus, We were loving. 

Am-abas, Thou wast loving. Am-abatis, Ye or you were laving. 

Am-abat, He was loving. Am-abant, They were loving. 

perfect, have. 

S. Am-avi, / have loved. P. Am-avimus, We have loved. 

Am-avisti, Thou hast loved. Am-avistis, Ye or you have loved, 

Am-avit, He has loved. Am-averunt, or } m ■, 7 , 

-avere, \ he V have loved - 

PLUPERFECT, had. 

S. Am-averara, I had loved. P. Am-averamus, We had loved. 

Am-averas, Thou hadst loved. Am-averatis, Ye or you had loved. 

Am-averat, He had loved. Am-averant, They had loved. 

future, shall or will. 

S. Am-abo, I shall love. P. Am-abimus, We shall love. 

Am-abis, Thou wilt love. Am-abilis, Ye or you will love. 

Am-abit, He will love. Am-abunt, They will love. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. 

present tense, may or can. 

S. Am-em, I may love. P. Ara-emus, We may love. 

Am-es, Thou may est love. Am-etis, Ye or you may love. 

Am-et, He may love. Am-ent, They may love. 

imperfect, might, could, would, or should. 

S. Am-arem, I might love. P. Am-aremus, We might love. 

Am-ares, Thou mightest love. Am-aretis, Ye or you might love 

Am-aret, He might love. Am-arent, They might love, 



m 



FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBS, 



perfect, may have. 

S. Am-averim, 1 may have loved. P. Am-averirnus, We may have loved. 

Am-averis, Thou mayest have loved. * « t - i Ye or you may have 

Am-averit, He may have loved. iim-avenus, ^ ^^ 

Am-averint, 7%e?/ may have loved- 

pluperfect. might have. 

S. Am-avissem, I might have loved. P. Am-avissemus, We might have loved, 
Am-avisses, j ^^ have Am-avissetis, j Ye ""g "W* »« 

Am-avisset, He might have loved. Am-avissent, They might have loved , 

future, shall have. 



S. Am-avero I shall have loved. 
Am-averis, Thou wilt have loved 
Am-averit, He will have loved. 



P. Am-averimus, We shall have loved 
Am-averitis, j *]%£" wil1 haVe 
Am-averint, They will have loved. 



IMPERATIVE MODE, 



Sing. 2. Ara-a or am-ato, 

3. Am-ato, 
Plur. 2. Am-ate, or am-atote, 

3, Am-anto * 



Love thou, or do thou love. 
Let him love. 
Love ye, or do ye love. 
Let them love. 



INFINITIVE MODE. 



PRES. Am- are, 
perf. Am-avisse, 
fut. Esse amaturus, -a, 
Fuisse amaturus, -a, 


To love, 

To have loved. 
-um, To be about to lace. 
-um, To have been about to love. 




PARTICIPLES. 


pres. Am-ans, 

yut. Am-aturus, -a, -urn, 


Loving. 
About to love, 




GERUNDS. 


Norn. Am-andum, 
Gen. Am-andi, 
Dat. Am-ando, 
Ace. Am-andum, 
All. Am-ando, 


Loving. 
Of loving, 
To loving. 
Loving. 
With loving. 




SUPINES. 


Former. Am-atum, 
Latter. Am-atu, 


To love. 

To love, or to be loved. 



* The form of the present subjunctive is often used for the imperative in the 
npsl and third person; as, am emus, let us love : ament, let them love. 



FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



99 



PASSIVE VOICE. 

Pres. Indie, Pres. Injin. Perf. Part. 

Amor, amari, amatus, To be loved. 

INDICATIVE MODE. 



S. Am-or, 

Am-aris or -are, 
Am-atur, 



1 am loved. 
Thou art loved. 
He is loved. 



PRESENT TENSE. 
P. 



Am-amur, 
Am-araini, 
Am-antur, 



We are loved. 

Ye or you are loved 

They are loved. 



IMPERFECT. Was. 



S. Am-abar, 

Am-abaris, or j 
-abare, J 
Am-abatur, 



I was loved. 
Thou wast loved. 
He was loved. 



P. Am-abamur, We were loved. 

Am-abamini, Ye or you were loved ^ 
Am-abantur, They were loved. 



perfect, have been, was, or am. 



JSing. Amatus sum or fui, 

Amatus es or fuisti, 

Amatus est or fuit, 
Plur. Amati sumus or fuimus, 

Amati, estis or fuistis, 

Amati sunt or fueruntor fuere, 



I have been loved. 
Thou hast been loved. 
He has been loved. 
We have been loved. 
Ye or you have been loved. 
They have been loved. 



Sing. Amatus eram or fueram, 
Amatus eras or fueras, 
Amatus erat or fuerat, 

Plur. Amati eramus or fueramus, 
Amati eratis or fueratis, 
Amati erant or fuerant, 



pluperfect, had been. 

I had been loved. 
Thou hadst been loved. 
He had been loved. 
We had been loved. 
Ye or you had been loved- 
They had been loved. 



Am-abor, 
Am-aberis or 

-abere, 
Am-abitur, 



future, shall or will be. 



I shall be loved. 
Thou wilt be loved. 
He will be loved. 



P. Am-abimur, 
Am-abimini, 
Am-abuntur, 



We shall be loved. 

Ye or you will be loved, 

They will be loved. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MODE, 



present tense, may, or can be. 

S. Am-er, I may be loved. P. Am-emur, We may be loved. 

Am-eris or ere, Thou mayestbe loved. Am-emini, Ye or you may be loved. 
Am-etur, He may be loved, Am-entur, They may beloved. 



imperfect, might, could, would, or should be. 

I might be loved. P. Am-aremur, We might be loved. 
\ Thou lightest be A m-aremini, j" 



Am-arer, 

Am-areris or ) Thou mightest be Am-aremini $ Ye or you might be 

-arere, ) loved. ' ' ( loved. 

Ani-aretur, He might be loved. Am-arentur, They might be loved 



100 SECOND CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

perfect, may have been. 

Sing. Amatus sira or fuerim, I may have been loved. 

Amatus sis or fueris, Thou may est have been loved 

Amatus sit or fuerit, He may have been loved- 

Plur. Amati simus or fuenmus. We may have been loved. 

Amati sitis or fueritis, Ye or you may have been loved 

Amati sint or fuerint, They maylvave been loved. 

pluperfect, might, could, would, or should have been, 

Smg. Amatus essem or fuissem, I might havebeen loved. 

Amatus esses or fuisses, Thou mightest have been loved 

Amatus esset or fuisset, He might have been loved. 

Plur. Amati essemus or fuissemus, We might have been loved. 

Amati essetis or fuissetis, le or you might have been loved 

Amati essent or fuissent, They might have been loved. 

future, shall have been. 

Si?ig- Amatus fuero, I shall have been loved. 

Amatus fueris, Thou wilt have been loved 

Amatus fuerit, He will have been loved. 

Plur. Amati fuerimus, We shall have been loved. 

Amati fueritis, Ye or you will have been loved 

Amati, fuerint, They will have been loved, 

IMPERATIVE MODE, 

Sing. 2. Am-are, or am-ator, Be thou loved. 

3. Am-ator, Let him be loved. 

Plur. 2. Am-amini, Be ye loved. 

3. Am-antor, Let them be loved. 

INFINITIVE MODE. 

pres. Am-ari,. To be loved. 

perf. Esse or fuisse amatus, -a, -urn, To have been loved. 

fut. Amatum iri, To be about to be loved 

PARTICIPLES. 

perf. Am-atus, -a, -um, Loved. 

fut= Am-andus, -a, -um, To be loved. 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

Pres. Ind. Pres. Inf. Perf. Ind. Supine. 

Doceo, docere. docui, doctum, To teach, 



SECOND CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



101 



INDICATIVE MODE. 

present tense, teack, do teach, or am teaching. 

& Doc-eo, I teach. P. Doc-emus, We teach. 

Doc-es, Thou teachest, or you teach. Doc-etis, Ye or you teach. 
Doc-et, He teaches. Doc-ent, They teach. 



imperfect, was. 



Doc-ebam, I was teaching. 
Doc-ebas, Thou wast teaching. 
Doc-ebat, He was teaching. 



P. Doc-ebamus, We were teaching. 

Doc-ebatis, Ye or you were teaching. 
Doc-ebant, They were teaching. 



perfect, have. 



S. Doc-ui, I have taught. 

Doc-uisti, Thou hast taught. 
Doc-ui t, He has taught. 



, Doc-uunus, 
Doc-uistis, 
Doc-uerunt, or 
-uere, 



We have taught. 

Ye or you have taught, 

They have taught. 



iS. Doc-ueram, 
Doc-ueras, 
Doc-uerat, 



S. Doc. e bo, 
Doc-ebis, 
Doc-ebit, 



pluperfect, had. 



I had taught. 
Thou hadst taught. 
He had taught. 



I shall teach. 
Thou wilt teach. 
He will teach. 



P. Doc-ueramus, 
Doc-ueratis, 
Doc-uerant, 



future, shall or will. 



P. Doc-ebimus, 
Doc-ebitis, 
Doc-ebunt, 



We had taught. 

Ye or you had taught. 

They had taught. 



We shall teach. 

Ye or you will teach. 

They will teach. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. 



S. Doc-eam, 
Doc-eas, 
Doc-eat, 



present tense, may or can. 



I may teach. 
Thou may est teach. 
He may teach. 



P. Doc-eamus, 
Doc-eatis, 
Doc-eant, 



We may teach. 

Ye or you may teach 

They may teach. 



S. Doc-erem, 
Doc-eres, 
Doc-eret, 



imperfect, might, could, would, or should. 



1 might teach. 
Thou mightest teach. 
He might teach. 



P. Doc-eremus, We might teach. 

Doc-eretis, Ye or you mightteach. 
Doc-erent, They might teach. 



Si?ig. 



Plur. 



Doc-uerim, 

Doc-ueris, 

Doc-uerit, 

Doc-uerimus, 

Doc-ueritis, 

Doc-uerint, 



perfect, may have. 



i2 



i" may have taught. 
Thou mayest have taught 
He may have taught. 
We may have taught. 
Ye or you may have taught. 
They may have taught. 



102 SECOND CONJUGATION OF VERBS, 

PLUPERFECT, might, could, would, or should have. 

Sing. Doc-uissem, Imight have taught. 

Doc-uisses, Thou mightest have taught. 

Doc-uisset. He might have taught. 

Plur. Doc-uissemus, We might have taught. 

Doc-uissetis, Ye or you might have taught 

Doe-uissent, They might have taught. 

FUTURE, shall have. 

Sing. Doc-uero, I shall have taught. 

Doc-uens, Thou wilt have taught. 

Doc-uerir, He will have taught. 

Plur. Doc-uerimus, We shall have taught. 

Doc-ueritis, Ye or you will have taught . 

Doc-uerint, They will have taught. 

IMPERATIVE MODE. 

Sing. 2. Doc-e or doc-eto, Teach thou. 

3. Doc-eto, Let him teach. 

Plur. 2. Doc-ete or doc-etote, Teach ye or you. 

3- Doc-ento, Let them teach. 

INFINITIVE MODE. 

Pres. Doc-ere, To teach. 

Perf. Doc-uisse, To have taught. 

Fut. Esse doc-turus, -a, -um, To he about to teach. 

Fuisse doc-turus, -a, -um, To have been about to teach. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Pres. Doc-ens, Teaching. 

Fut. Doc-turus, -a, -um, About to teach. 

GERUNDS. 

Norn. Doc- end um, Teaching. 

Gen. Doc-endi, Of teaching. 

Dai. Doc-end o, To teaching. 

Ace. Doc-end um, Teaching. 

AH. Doc-endo, With teaching. 

SUPINES. 

Former. Doc-tum, To teach. 

Latter. Doc-tu, To teach, or to be taught 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

Pres. Indie Pres. Infin. Perf. Part 

Doceor, doceri, doctus, To be taught. 



SECOND CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



103 



S. Doc-eor, 

Doc-eris 01 

doc-ere, 
Doc-etur, 



INDICATIVE MODE. 

PRESENT TENSE, am. 



1 am taught, 
i Thou art taught. 
He is taught. 



Doc-emur, 
Doc-emini, 
Doc-entur, 



We are taught. 

Ye or you are taught 

They are taught. 



S. Doc-ebar, 
Doc-ebaris, or 

doc-ebare, 
Doc-ebatur, 



IMPERFECT. Was. 



I was taught. 
Thou wast taught. 
He was taught. 



P Doc-ebamur, We were taught. 

Doc-ebamini, Ye or you were taught. 
Doc-ebantur, They were taught. 



perfect, have been, was, or am. 



Sing. Doctus sum or fui, 

Doctus es or fuisti, 

Doctus est or fuit, 
Plur. Docti sumus or fuimus, 

Docti estis or fuistis, 

Docti sunt or fuerunt or fuere, 



I have been taught. 

Thou hast been taught. 

He has been taught. 

We have been taught. 

Ye or you have been taught, 

They have been taught. 



pluperfect, had been. 



Sing. Doctus eram or fueram, 
Doctus eras or fueras, 
Doctus erat or fuerat, 

Plur. Docti eramus or fueram us, 
Docti|eratis or fueratis, 
Docti erant or fuerant, 



1 had been taught. 
Thou hadst been taught. 
He had been taught. 
We had been taught. 
Ye or you had been taught. 
They had been taught. 



S. Doc-ebor, 
Doc-eberis or 

-ebere, 
Doc-ebitur, 



future, shall or will be. 
I shall be taugld. P. Doc-ebimur, 
Thou wilt be taught. Doc-ebimini, < 



He will be taught. 



We shall be taught. 
Ye or you will be 
taught. 
Doc-ebuntur, " They will be taught. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. 

present tense, may, or can be. 



S. Doc-ear, I may be taught. 

D ?e"are riS °" \ ThoU m ^ eS * be tau S ht 
Doc-eatur, He may be taught. 



P. Doc-eamur, We may be taught. 

J Ye or you may be 
( taught. 
They may be taught. 



Doc-eamini, 
Doc-eantur, 



S. Doc-erer, 
Doc-ereris or 

-erere, 
Doc-eretur, 



imperfect, might, could, would, or should be. 
P. Doc-eremur, 
Doc-eremini, 
Doc-erentur, 



1 might be taugld. 
Thou mighiest be 
I taught. 
He might be taught. 



We might be taught. 
Ye or you might be 

taught. 
They might be taught. 



104 THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

perfect, may have been. 

Sing. Doctus sim or fuerim, 1 may have been taught. 

Doctus sis or fueris, Thou may est have been taught. 

Doctus sit or fuerit, He may have been taught. 

Plur. Docti simus or fuerimus, We may have been taught. 

Docti sitis or fuerit is, Ye or you may have been taught. 

Docti sint or fuerint, They may have been taught. 

pluperfect, might, could, would, or should have been. 

Sing. Doctus essem or fuissem, I might have been taught. 

Doctus esses or fuisses, Thou mightest have been taught. 

Doctus esset or fuisset, He might have beentaught. 

Plur, Docti essemus or fuissemus, We might have been taught. 

Docti essetis or fuissetis, Ye or you might have beentaught. 

Docti essent or fuissent, They might have been taught. 

future, shall have been. 

Sing. Doctus fuero, I shall have been taught. 

Doctus fueris, Thou wilt have been taught. 

Doctus fuerit, He will have been taught. 

Plur. Docti fuerimus, We shall have been taught. 

Docti fuentis, Ye or you will have been taught. 

Docti fuerint, They will have been taught. 

IMPERATIVE MODE. 

Sing. 2. Doc-ere or doc-etor, Be thou taught. 

3. Doc-etor, Let him be taught. 

Plur. 2. Doc-emini, Be ye taught. 

3. Doc-entor, Let them be taught 

INFINITIVE MODE. 

Pres. Doc-eri, To be taught. 

Perf. Esse or fuisse doctus, -a, -urn, To have been taught. 
Fut. Doctum iri, To be about to be taught. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Perf. Doc-tus, -a, -um, Taught. 

Fut. Doc-endus, -a, -um, To be taught. 

THIRD CONJUGATION. 
ACTIVE VOICE. 
Pres. hid. Pres. Inf. Perf. hid. Supine. 

Lego, legere, Jegi, lectum, To read 

INDICATIVE MODE. 

present tense, read, do read, or am reading. 

S. Leg-o, / read. P. Leg-imus, We read. 

Leg-is, Thou readest. Leg-itis, Ye or you read. 

Leg-it, He reads. Leg-unt, They read. 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



105 



iMrERFECT. was. 



IS. Leg-ebam, 
Leg-ebas, 
Leg-ebat, 



I was reading. 
Thou wast reading. 
He was reading. 



Leg-ebamus, 

Leg-ebatis, 

Leg-ebant, 



perfect, have. 



We were reading. 
Ye or you were read- 
ing. 
They were reading. 



S. Leg-i, I have read. 
Leg-isti, Thou hast read. 
Leg-it, He has read. 



Leg-imus, We have read. 
Leg-istis, Ye or you have read. 

Le ^ vunior I Thru have read. 



' I They I 



pluperfect, had. 



S. Leg-e ram, 
Leg-eras, 
Leg-erat, 



Leg-am, 

Leg-es, 
Leg-et, 



S. Leg-am, 
Leg-as, 
Leg-at, 



S. Leg-erem, 
Leg-eres, 
Leg-eret, 



S. Leg-erim 
Leg-eris, 
Leg-erit, 



S. Leg-issem, 

Leg-isses, 
Leg-isset, 



S. Leg-ero, 
Leg-eris, 
Leg-erit, 



/ had read. 
Thou hadst read. 
He had read. 



1 shall read. 
Thou wilt read. 
He will read. 



P. Leg-eramus, We had read. 

Leg-eratis, Ye or you had read. 
Leg-erant, They had read. 



shall, or will. 

P. Leg-emus, 
Leg-etis, 
Leg-ent, 



We shall read. 

Ye or you will read. 

They will read. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. 



present tense, may, or can. 

1 may read. P. Leg-amus, We may read. 

Thou mayest read. Leg-atis, Ye or you may read. 

He may read. Leg-ant, They may read. 

imperfect, might, could, would, or should. 

P. Leg-eremus, We might read. 



I might read. 

Thou mightest read. 

He might read. 



Leg-eretis, 
Leg-erent, 



perfect, may have. 

I may have read. P. Leg-enmus, 

Thou mayest have read. L m \ 
He may have read. & , 

Leg-erint, 



Ye or you might read. 
They might read. 



We may have read. 
Ye or you may have 

read. 
They may have read. 



pluperfect, might, could, would, or should have. 

I might have read. P. Leg-issemus, We might have read. 

T • - f - ^ Ye or you might have 
Leg-issetis, | fe J « 

Leg-issent, They might have read. 



Thou mightest have read. 
He might have read. 



future, shall have. 



I shall have read. 
Thou wilt have read. 
He will have read. 



P. Leg-erimus, 
Leg-eritis, 
Leg-erint, 



We shall have read. 
Ye or you will have 

read. 
They will have rtad. 



106 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



IMPERATIVE MODE. 



Si?ig. 2. Leg-e or leg-ito, 

3. Leg-ito, 

Plur. 2- Leg-ite or leg-itote, 

3. Leg-unto, 



Read thou. 
Let him read. 
Read ye or you. 
Let them read. 



INFINITIVE MODE. 



Pres. Leg-ere, 


To read. 


Perf. Leg-isse, 


To have read. 


Fut. Esse lectiirus, -a, -um, 


To be about to read. 


Fuisse lectiirus, -a, -um, 


To have been about to 




PARTICIPLES. 


Pres. Leg-ens, 

Fut. Lec-turus, -a, -um, 


Reading. 
About to read. 




GERUNDS. 


Nom. Leg-endum, 
Gen. Leg-endi, 
Dat. Leg-endo, 
Ace. Leg-endum, 
Abl. Leg-endo, 


Reading. 
Of reading. 
To reading. 
Reading. 
With reading. 




SUPINES. 


Former. Lec-tum, 


To read. 


Latter. Lectu, 


To read, or to be read. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



Pres. Indie 
Legor, 



Pres. Infin. 
legi, 



Perf. Part. 
lectus, To be read 



INDICATIVE MODE. 



PRESENT TENSE, am. 



Leg-or, 
Leg-eris or \ 
-ere, J 

Leg-itur, 



/ am read. 

Thou art read. 
He is read. 



P. Leg-imur, 
Leg--imini, 
Leg-untur, 



We are read. 

Ye or you are read. 

They are read. 



IMPERFECT. Was. 



. Leg-e bar, I was read. 

Leg-ebatur, He was read. 



P. Leg-ebamur, 
Leg-ebamini, 
Leg-ebantur, 



We were read. 

Ye or you were read, 

They were read. 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 107 

perfect, have been, was or am. 

Sing. Lectus sum or fui, 1" have been read. 

Lectus es or fuisti, Thou hast been read. 

Lectus est or fuit, He has been read. 

Plur. Lecti sumus or fuimus, We have been read. 

Lecti estis or fuistis, Ye or you have been read. 

Lecti sunt or fuerunt or fuere, They have been read. 

pluperfect, had been. 

Sing. Lectus eram or fueram, I had been read. 

Lectus eras or fueras, Thou hadst been read. 

Lectus erat or fuerat, He had been read. 

Plur. Lecti eramus or fueramus, We had been read. 

Lecti eratis or fueratis, Ye or you had been read. 

Lecti erant or fuerant, They had been read. 

future, shall, or will be. 

S. Leg-ar, I shall be read. P. Leg-emu r, We shall be read. 

Leg-eris or ) Thou u h d Leg-emini, Ye or you will be read. 

-ere, ) Leg-entur, They will be read. 

Leg-etur, He will be read. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. 

present tense, mayor can be. 

S. Leg-ar, i" may be read. P. Leg-amur, We may be read. 

Leg-arks, or ) n b d Leg-amini, Ye or you may be read. 

-are, ) ^ Leg-antur, They may be read. 
Leg-atur, He may be read. 

imperfect, might, could, would, or should be. 

S. Leg-erer, I might be read. P. Leg-eremur, We might be read, 

Leg-ereris or ) mi • /., 4 l „j Leg-eremini, Ye or you mightbe read, 

•erere, \ Thou m ^ htest be read - LeI-erentur, They might be read. 
Leg-eretur, He might be read. 

perfect, may have been. 

Sing. Lectus sim or fuerim, I may have been read. 

Lectus sis or fueris, Thou mayest have been read. 

Lectus sit or fueril, He may have been read. 

Plur. Lecti sim us or fuerim us, We may have been read. 

Lecti sitis or fueritis, Ye or you may have been read. 

Lecti sint or fuerint, They may have been read. 

pluperfect, might, could, would, or should have been. 

Sing. Lectus es&em or fuissem, 1 might have been read. 

Lectus esses or fuisses, Thou mightest have been read. 

Lectus esset or fuisset, He might have been read. 

Plur. Lecti essemus or fuissemus, We might have been read. 

Lecti essetis or fuissetis, Ye or you might have been read* 

Lecti essent or fuissent, They might have been read. 



108 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



future, shall have been. 



Sing. 



Plur. 



Lectus fuero, 
Lectus fueris, 
Lectus fuerit, 
Lecti fuerimus, 
Lecti fueritis, 
Lecti fuerint, 



1 shall have been read. 
Thou wilt have been read. 
He will have been read. 
\Ve shall have been read. 
Ye or you will have been rt 
They will have been read. 



IMPERATIVE MODE. 

Sing. 2. Leg-ere or -itor, Be thou read. 

3. Leg-itor, Let him be read. 

Plur. 2. Leg-imini, Be ye read. 

3. Leg-untor, Let them be read. 

INFINITIVE MODE, 

Pres. Leg-i, To be read. 

Perf. Esse or fuisse lectus, -a, -urn, To have been read. 
Fut. Lectura iri, To be about to be read. 





PARTICIPLES. 




Perf. Lec-tus, -a, 


-um. Read. 




Fut. Leg-end us. 


-a, -um, To be read. 
ACTIVE VOICE. 




Pres. Ind. 


Pres. Inf. Perf. hid. 


Supine. 


Capio, 


capere, cepi, 
INDICATIVE MODE. 

PRESENT TENSE. 


captum, To take. 


Singular. 


Plural. 




Capio, 


Capimus, 




Capis, 


Capitis, 




Capit, 


Capiunt. 

IMPERFECT. 




Capiebam, 


Capiebamus 




Capiebas, 


Capiebatis, 




Capiebat, 


Capiebant. 

PERFECT. 




Cepi, 


Cepimus, 




Cepisti, 


Cepistis, 




Cepit, 


Ceperunt, or 
PLUPERFECT. 


cepere. 


Ceperarrij 


Ceperamus, 




Ceperas, 


Ceperatis, 




Ceperat, 


Ceperant 





THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS, 



109 





FUTURE. 


Capiara, 

Capies, 

Capiet, 


Capiemus, 

Capietis, 

Capient. 




SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. 




present tense. 


Capiara, 

Capias, 

Capiat, 


Capiaraus, 

Capiatis, 

Capiant. 




imperfect. 


Caperera, 

Caperes, 

Caperet, 


Caperemus, 

Caperetis, 

Caperent 




perfect. 


Ceperim, 

Ceperis, 

Ceperit, 


Ceperimus, 

Ceperitis, 

Ceperint 




PLUPERFECT. 


Cepissem, 
Cepisses, 
Cepisset, 


Cepissemus. 

Cepissetis, 

Cepissent. 




FUTURE. 


Cepero, 
Ceperis, 
Ceperit, 


Ceperimus, 

Ceperitis, 

Ceperint. 




IMPERATIVE MODE. 


2. Cape or capito, 

3. Capito. 


2. Capite or capitute, 

3. Capiunto. 




INFINITIVE MODE. 


Pres. Capere, 
Perf. Cepisse. 


Fut. Esse captiirus, -a, -urn, 
Fuisse capturus, -a, -urn. 




PARTICIPLES. 


Present. Capiens, 


Future Capturus 




GERUNDS. 


Norn. Ca pi end urn, 
Gen. Capiendi, 
Dat. Capiendo, 


Ace. Capiendura, 
Abl Capiendo. 

SUPINES. 


Former. Capture 


Latter. Captu 



110 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 
PASSIVE VOICE. 

Per/. Pari. 



Pres. Indie. Pres. Injin. 

Capior, Capi ? Captus 7 

INDICATIVE MODE. 



To be taken, 



Singular. 
Capior, 

Caperis or eapere? 
Capitur. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



Plural. 
Capimur, 
Capimini, 
Capiuntur, 



Capiebar, 

Capiebaris, or -bare? 
Capiebatur. 



IMPERFECT. 



Capiebamur, 
Capiebamini, 
Capiebantur. 



Captas sum or fui f 
Captus es or fuisti, 
Captus est or fuit. 



Capti surnus or fuimus. 

Capti estis or fuistis, 

Capti sunt or fuerunt or fuere 



Captus eram or fueram, 
Captus eras or fueras, 
Captus erat or fuerat- 



PLUPERFECT. 



Capti eramus or fueramus. 
Capti eratis or fueratis: 
Capti erant or fuerant. 



Capiar, 

Capieris or capiere, 

Capietur. 



Capiemur, 
Capiemini. 
Capientur. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



Capiar, 

Capiaris or capiare, 

Capiatur. 



Capiamur, 
Capiamini, 
Capiantur. 



Caperer, 

Capereris or -erere. 
Caperetur. 



IMPERFECT. 



Caperemur, 
Caperemini, 
Caperentur. 



Captus sim or fuerirn, 
Captus sis or fueris, 
Captus sit or fuerit. 



Capti simus or fuerimus, 

Capti sitis or fueritis, 
Capti sint or fuerint 



FOURTH CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



Ill 



Captus essem or fuissem, 
Captus esses or fuisses, 
Captus esset or fuisset. 



PLUPERFECT. 



Capti esemus or fuissemus, 
Capti essetis or fuissetis, 
Capti essent cr fuissent 





FUTURE. 


Captus fuero, 
Captus fueris, 
Captus fuerit. 


Capti fuerimus, 
Capti fueritis 
Capti fuerinl. 




IMPERATIVE MODE. 


2. Capere or capitor, 

3. Capitor. 


2. Capimini, 

3. Capiuntor. 




INFINITIVE MODE. 


Pres. Capi. 


Fut. Captum iri. 



Perf. Esse or fuisse captus -a, -um, 



Perf. Captus, -a, -um. 



PARTICIPLES. 

Fut. Capiendus, -a, -urn. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 



Pres. Indie. 
Audio, 



ACTIVE VOICE. 



Pres. Infin. 
audlre, 



Perf. Indie. 
audivi, 



Supine. 
auditura, To hear, 



INDICATIVE MODE. 

present tense, hear, do hear, or am hearing. 



S. Aud-io, I hear j 

Aud-is, Thou hear est. 
Aud-it, He hears. 



P. Aud-imus, We hear. 

Aud-itis, Ye or you hear, 
Aud-iunt, They hear. 



IMPERFECT. Was. 



S. Aud-iebam, I was hearing. 
Aud-iebas, Thou wast hearing 
Aud-iebat, He was hearing. 



P. Aud-iebamus, We were hearing. 
Aud-iebatis, Ye or you were hearing. 
Aud-iebant, Tfiey were hearing. 



perfect, have. 



& Aud-ivi, I have heard. 
Aud-ivisti, Thou hast heard. 
Aud-ivit, He has heard. 



Aud-ivimus, 
Aud-ivistis, 
Aud-iverunti 
pr -ivere, 



We have heard. 

Ye or you have heard. 

They have heard. 



112 



FOURTH CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



PLUPERFECT, had. 



S. Aud-iveram, I had heard. 
Aud-iveras, Thou hadst heard, 
Aud-iverat, He had heard. 



P. Aud-iveramus, We had heard. 

Aud-iveratis. Ye or you had heard. 
Aud-iverant. They had heard. 



S. Aud-iara, 1 shall hear. 
Aud-ies, Thou wilt hear. 
Aud-iet, He will hear. 



shall or will. 

P. Aud-iemus, 
Aud-ietis, 
Aud-ient, 



We shall hear. 

Ye or you will hear 

They will hear 



SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. 



S. Aud-iam, I may hear. 

Aud-ias, Thou mayesl hear. 
Aud-iat, He may hear. 



present tense, may or can. 

P. Aud-iamus, We may hear. 

Aud-iatis, Ye or you may hear. 
Aud-iant, They may hear. 



imperfect, might, could, would, or should, 

S. Aud-irem, I might hear. 

Aud-ires, Thou mightest hear. 
Aud-iret, He might hear. 



P. Aud-iremus, We might hear. 

Aud-iretis, I e or you might hear. 
Aud-irent, They might hear 



Sing, Aud-iverim, 

Aud-iveris, 

Aud-iverit, 

Aud-iverimus, 

Aud-iveritis, 

Aud-iverint, 



Plur. 



perfect, may have. 

I may have heard. 
Thou may est have heard 
He may have heard. 
We may have heard. 
Ye or you may have heard. 
They may have heard. 



pluperfect, might, could, would, or should have. 



Sing. Aud-ivissem, 
Aud-ivisses, 
Aud-ivisset, 

Plur. Aud-ivissemus, 

Aud-ivissetis, 
Aud-ivissent, 



I might have heard. 
Thou mightest have heard. 
He might have heard. 
We might have heard. 
Ye or you might have heard- 
They might have heard,. 



Sing. Aud-ivero, 
Aud-iveris, 
Aud-iverit, 

Plur. Aud-iverimus, 
Aud-iveritis, 
Aud-iverint, 



shall have. 

I shall have heard. 

Thou wilt have heard. 

He will have heard. 
We shall have heard. 
Ye or you will have heard. 
Then will have heard. 



Sing. 2. Aud-i or -Ito, 

3. Aud-Ito, 
Plur. 2. Aud-ite or -itute, 

3. Aud-iunto, 



IMPERATIVE MODE. 

Hear thou. 
Let him hear. 
Hear ye or you. 
Let them hear. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 
INFINITIVE MODE. 



113 



Pres. Aud-ire, 
Perf. Aud-ivisse, 
Fut. Esse auditurus, -a, -ura, 
Fuisse auditurus, -a, -urn, 



To hear. 

To liave heard. 

To be about to hear. 

To have been about to hear. 



PARTICIPLES. 



Pres. Aud-iens, 

Fut. Aud-iturus, -a, -um, 



Hearing. 
About to hear. 



No?n. Aud-iendum, 
Gen. Aud-iendi, 
Dat. Aud-iendo, 
Ace. Aud-iendura, 
Abl. Aud-iendo, 



GERUND& 



Hearing. 
Of hearing. 
To hearing. 
Hearing. 
With hearing- 



former. Aud-itum, 
Latter. Aud-itu, 



SUPINES. 



To hear. 

To hear, or to be heard. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



Pres. Indie. 
Audior, 



Pres. Injin. 
audiri, 



Perf. Part. 
auditus, 



To be heard, 



INDICATIVE MODE. 

present tense, am. 

aS. Aud-ior, / am heard. P. Aud-imur, We are heard 

A ud-iris, or ire, Thou art heard. Aud-imini, Ye or you are heard '. 

Aud-itur, He is heard. Aud-iuntur, They are heard. 

imperfect, was. 



Aud-iebar, 
Aud-iebaris or 

-iebare, 
Aud-iebatur, 



I was heard. 
Thou wast heard. 
He was heard. 



, Aud-iebamur, We were heard. 
Aud-iebamini, Ye or you were heard. 
Aud-iebantur, They were heard. 



perfect, havebeen. 



Sing. Auditus sum or fui, 

Auditus es or fuisti, 

Auditus est, or fuit, 
Plur. Auditi sumus or fuiraus, 

Auditi estis or fuistis, 

Auditi sunt or fuerunt or fuere, 



I have been heard. 
Thou hast been heard. 
He has been heard. 
We have been heard. 
Ye or you have been heard. 
They have been heard. 



k2 



114 



FOURTH CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



pluperfect, had been. 



Sing, Auditus eram or fueram, 
Auditus eras or fueras, 
Auditus erat or fuerat, 

Plur. Auditi eramus or fueramus, 
Auditi eratis or fueratis, 
Auditi erant or fuerant, 



I had been heard. 
Thou hadst been heard. 
He had been heard. 
We had been heard. 
Ye or you had been heard. 
They had been heard. 



S. Aud-iar, 
Aud-ieris or 

-iere, 
Aud-ietur, 



future, shall or will be. 
I shall be heard. 
Thou wilt be heard. 
He will be heard. 



P. Aud-iemur, We shall be heard. 

Aud-iemini, Ye or you will be heard. 
A ad-ientur, They will be heard. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. 



PRESENT TENSE 

S. Aud-iar I may be heard. 

Aud-iaris, or > Thou may est be 

-iare, ) heard. 

Aud-iatur, He may be heard, 



may, or can be. 

P. Aud-iamur, We may be heard. 

Aud-iamini, Ye or you may be heard 
Aud-iantur, They may be heard. 



imperfect, might, could, would, or should be. 

S. Aud-irer, 1 might be heard. P. Aud-iremur, We might be heard. 

Aud-ireris or ) Thou mightest be * , • « • ( Ye or you might be 

-rere, \ heard. Aud-iremini, | J^ 

Aud-iretur, He might be heard. Aud-irentur, They might be heard. 



Sing. 



Plur. 



Sing. 



Plur. 



perfect, may have been. 



Auditus sim or fuerira, 
Auditus sis or fueris, 
Auditus sit or fuerit, 
Auditi simus or fueriraus, 
Auditi sitis or fueritis, 
Auditi sint or fuerint. 



I may have been heard. 
Thou may est have been heard. 
He may have been heard. 
We may have been heard. 
Ye or you may have been heard. 
They may have been heard. 



pluperfect, miglit, could, would, or should have i 



Auditus essem or fuissem, 
Auditus esses or fuisses, 
Auditus esset or fuisset, 
Auditi essemus or fuisserr.us, 
Auditi essetis or fuissetis, 
Auditi essent or fuissent, 



J might have been heard. 
Thou mightest have been heard. 
He might have been heard. 
We might have been heard. 
Ye or you might have been heard. 
They might have been heard. 



future, shall have been. 



Sing. Auditus fuero, 
Auditus fneris, 
Auditus fuerit, 

Plur. Auditi fuenmus, 
Auditi fueritis, 
Auditi fuerint. 



1 shall have been heard. 
Thou wilt have been heard. 
He will have been heard. 
We shall have been heard. 
Ye or you will have been heard. 
They will have been heard. 



DEPONENT AND COMMON VERBS. 115 

IMPERATIVE MODE. 

Sing. 2. Aud-ire or -Itor, Be thou heard. 

3, Aud-itor, Let him be heard . 

Plur. 2. Aud-irmni, Be ye heard. 

3. Aud-iuntor, Let them be heard. 

INFINITIVE MODE. 
Pres. Aud-iri, To be heard. 

Perf. Esse or fuisse audltos, -a, -urn, To have been heard. 
Fut. Audi turn iri, To be about to be heard. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Perf. Aud-Irus, Heard. 

Fut. Aud-iendus, To be heard. 



DEPONENT AND COMMON VERBS. 

A deponent verb is that which, under a passive 
form, has an active or neuter signification; as, Lo- 
quor, I speak ; morior, I die. 

A common verb, under a passive form, has ei- 
ther an active or passive signification ; as, crimi- 
nor, I accuse, or I am accused. 

Most deponent verbs of old were the same with 
common verbs. They are called Deponent, be- 
cause they have laid aside the passive sense. 

Deponent and common verbs form the partici- 
ple perfect in the same manner as if they had the 
active voice; thus, Lcetor, Icetdri, Icetatus, to re- 
joice ; vereor, vereri, verities, to fear ; fnngor, fungi, 
functus, to discharge an office ; potior, potlri, potl- 
tus, to enjoy, to be master of. 

Conjugation of the deponent verb Miror, ' I admire.' Miror, mi- 
raris or are, mirari, miratus. 

INDICATIVE MODE. 

Pres. Miror, / admire ; miraris or are, ihou admirest, fyc. 

Imp. Mirabar, -abaris or -abare, <fcc, I admired, tyc. 

Perf. Miratus sum, or fui; miratus es or faisii, <kc, 1 have, <fr. 

Piajp. Miratus eram, or f ueram, &c, I had admired, tyc. 

Fut. Mirabor; miraberis, or mirabere, &c, I shall admire, <$c. 



116 FORMATION OF VERBS. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. 

Pres. Mirer; mireris or ere, &c, I may admire, tyc. 

Imp. Mirarer ; areris or arere, &c., I might admire, tyc. 

Perf. Miratus sim, or fuerim, &c , I may have admired, fyc. 

Plup. Miratus essem, or fuissem, <fcc., I might have admired, tyc. 

Fut. Miratus ero, or fuero, &c, I shall have admired, fyc. 

IMPERATIVE MODE. 

Pres. Mirare or mirator, &c., admire thou, or do thou admire, tyc. 

INFINITIVE MODE. 

Pres. Mirari, to admire. 

Perf. Miratis esse or fuisse, to have admired. 

Fut. Miratiirus esse, to be about to admire. 

Miratum iri, to be about to be admired. 

Miratiirus fuisse, to have been about to admire. 

Mirandus fuisse, to have been about to be admired. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Pres. Mirans, admiring. 

Perf. Miratus, having admired. 

Fut. in rus. Miratiirus, about to admire. 

dus. Mirandus, to be admired. 

GERUNDS. 

Mirandum, di, do, and dum. 

SUPINES. 

Miratum, miratu. 

FORMATION OF VERBS. 

There are four principal parts of a verb, from which all the rest are 
formed ; namely, O of the present, I of the perfect indicative, RE of 
the infinitive, and UM of the supine.* A verb is commonly said to be 
conjugated when only these parts are mentioned, because from them 
all the rest are derived. 

The first person of the Present indicative is called the Theme, or 
the Root of the verb ; because from it the other three principal parts 
are formed. 

All the letters which come before -are, -ere, -ere, or -Ire, of the infi- 
nitive, are called radical letters, because they always remain the same. 
By putting these before the terminations, all the parts of any regular 
verb may be readily formed, except the compound tenses. 

* 1. From o are formed am and em. 

2. From i ; ram, rim, ro, sse, and ssem. 

3. U, us, and rus, are formed from um. 

4. All other parts from re do come. 



FORMATION OF TENSES. 117 

FORMATION OF THE TENSES IN THE ACTIVE VOICE. 

Indicative Made. 

The Imperfect indicative is formed from the present, by changing 
o, in the first conjugation, into dbam ; as, am-o, am-dbam: — in the 
second conjugation, by changing o into bam ; as, dnce-o, doce-bam : — 
in the third and fourth conjugations, by changing o into ebam ; as, 
leg-o, leg-ebam ; audi-o, audi- ebam. 

The Pluperfect indicative is formed from the perfect in all the 
conjugations by changing i into eram; as, amdv-i, amav-eram ; docu-i, 
docu-eram; leg -i, leg -eram ; audiv-i, audiv-eram. 

The Future indicative is formed from the present, by changing o, 
in the first conjugation, into dbo ; as, am-o, am-dbo ; in the second 
conjugation by changing o into bo ; as, doce-o, doct-bo -, in the third 
and fourth conjugations, by changing o into am; as, leg-o, leg-am ; 
audi-o, audi-am. 

Subjunctive Mode. 

The Present subjunctive is formed from the present indicative, 
by changing o, in the first conjugation, into em; as, am-o, am-em. ; in 
the second, third, and fourth conjugations, by changing o into am ; as, 
doce-o, doce-am ; leg-o, leg- am ; audi-o, audi-am. 

The Imperfect subjunctive is formed, in all the conjugations, from 
the present infinitive, by adding m ; as, amdre, amdrem ; docere, do- 
cerem ; legere, legerem ; audire, audirem. 

The Perfect subjunctive is formed from the perfect indicative, by 
changing i into ertm ; as, amdv-i, amav-erim ; docu-i, docu-erim ; 
7 eg~i, leg-erim ; audlv-i, audiv-erim. 

The Pluperfect subjunctive is formed from the perfect indicative, 
by changing I /into issem ; as, amdv-i, amav-issem ; docu-i, docu- 
issem ; leg-i, leg-issem ; audiv-i, audiv-issem. 

The Future subjunctive is formed from the perfect indicative, by 
changing i into ero ; as, amdv-i, amav-ero ; docu-i, docu-ero ; leg-i, 
leg-ero ; audlv-i, audiv-ero. 

Imperative Mode. 

The Present imperative is formed from the present infinitive, by 
taking away re; as, amdre, ama; docere, doce ; legere, lege; au- 
dlre, audi. 

Infinitive Mode. 

The Present infinitive is formed from the present indicative, by 
changing o, in the first conjugation, into are ,• as, am-o, am-. are ; in 



118 FORMATION OF TENSES. 

the second and fourth conjugations, by changing o into re ; as, doce-o, 
doce-re ; audi-o, audi-re ; in the third conjugation, by changing o or 
io into ere ; as, leg-o, leg-ere ; cap-io, cap-ere. 

The Perfect infinitive is formed from the perfect indicative, by 
changing i into isse ; as, amav-i, amav-isse ; docu-i, docu-isse; leg-i, 
leg-isse ; audlv-i, audiv-isse. 

The Future infinitive is formed from the supine 5 by changing m 
into rus, and adding esse, or fuisse ; as, amdtu-m, amatu-rus, esse or 
fuisse; doctu-m, doctu-rus, esse or fuisse ; lectu-m, lectu-rus, esse or 
fuisse } - auditu-m, auditu-rus, esse or fuisse. 

Participles. 

The Present Participle is formed from the present indicative, by 
changing o, in the first conjugation, into ans ; as, am-o, am-ans : in 
the second conjugation, by changing o into ns ; as, doce-o, doce-ns ; 
in the third and fourth conjugations, by changing o into ens ; as, 
leg-o, leg-ens ; audi-o, audi-ens. 

The Future Participle is formed from the supine, by changing w 
into rus ; as, amdtu-m, amatu-rus; doctu-m, dGCtu-rus ; lectu-m, 
lectu-rus ; audltu-m, auditu-rus. 

Gerunds. 

The Gerunds are formed from the present participle, by changing 
s into dum, di, and do ; as, 



aman-s ; 


aman-dum, 


aman-di, 


aman-do ; 


docen-s ; 


docen-dirm, 


docen-di, 


docen-do s 


legen-s ; 


legen-dum, 


legen-di, 


leg en-do ; 


audien-s ; 


audien-dum, 


audien-di, 


audien-do. 



FORMATION OF THE TENSES IN THE PASSIVE VOICE, 

Indicative and Subjunctive Modes. 

The Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative; and the Present, 
and Imperfect Subjunctive, are formed from the corresponding tenses 
in the active voice. 

From those tenses in the active voice which end in o, the same 
tenses in the passive are formed by adding r ; but from those which, 
in the active voice, end in m, the same tenses of the passive are 
formed by changing m into r. 



Pres. Indie. 
Imp. Indie. 
Fut. Indie. 
Pres. Subj. 
Imp. Subj. 



FORMATION OF TENSES. 119 

First Conjugation. Second Conjugation. Third Conjugation. 



Active. Passive. Active. Passive. 



amo, amor, 

amabam, amabar. 

amabo, amabor. 

amem, amer. 

amarem, amarer. 



doceo, 

docebam, 

docebo, 

doceam, 

docerem, 



doceor. 

docebar. 

docebor. 

docear. 

docerer. 



Active. Passive. 

lego, legor. 

legebam, legebar. 
legam, legar. 
legam, legar. 
legerem, legerer. 



The other five tenses, namely, the Perfect and Pluperfect Indica- 
tive ; and the Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Subjunctive, are com- 
posed of the perfect participle, declined with the tenses of the verb 
Sum. 

Imperative Mode. 
The Imperative Passive is the same as the Infinitive Active. 
Infinitive Mode. 

The Present tense of the Infinitive mode is formed from the Infi- 
nitive Active, by changing e, in the first, second, and fourth conjuga- 
tions, into i; as, amdr-e, amdr-i ; docer-e, docer-i ; audlr-e, audlr-i; 
and in the third conjugation, by changing ere into i 3 - as, leg-ere, 
leg-i. 

The Future Infinitive is composed of the former supine, and iri, 
(which is the infinitive passive of the verb eo, to go,) as, amdtum 
iri ; doctum iri ; ledum iri. 

Participles. 

The Perfect Participle is formed from the former supine, by 
changing m into s; as, arndtu-m, amdtu-s ; doctu-m, doctu-s ; 
lectu-m, lectu-s ; auditu-m, auditu-s. 

The Future Participle is formed from the present active participle, 
by changing s into dus ; as, amans, amandus ; docens, docendus ; 
le gens, leg endus ; audiens, audiendus. 



SIGNIFICATION OF THE TENSES IN THE VARIOUS MODES. 

The tenses formed from the present of the indicative or infinitive, signify in 
general the continuance of an action or passion, or represent them as present at 
some particular time : the other tenses express an action or passion completed ; 
but not always so absolutely, as entirely to exclude the continuance of the same 
action or passion ; thus, Amo, I love, do love, or am loving ; amabam, I loved, did 
love, or was loving, &c. 



120 SIGNIFICATION OF THE DIFFERENT TENSES. 

Aniavi, I loved, did love, or have loved, that is, have done with loving, &c. 

In like manner, in the passive voice ; Amor, I am loved, I am in loving, or 
in being loved, &c. 

Past time in the passive voice is expressed several different ways, by means of 
the auxiliary verb sum, and the participle perfect; thus : 

Indicative Mode. 

Perfect. Amatus sum, I am, or have been loved, or oftener, I was loved. 
Amatus fui, I have been loved, or 1 was loved. 

Pluperfect. Amatus era?n, I was, or had been loved. 
Afflatus fueram, I had been loved. 

Subjunctive Mode. 

Perfect. Amatus sim, I may be, or may have been loved 
Amatus fuerim, I may have been loved. 

Pluperfect. Amatus essem, I might, could, would, or should be, or have been 
loved. 
Amatus fuissem, I might, could, would, or should have been 
loved ; or I had been loved. 

Future. Amatus fuero, I shall have been loved. 

The verb sum is also employed to express future time in the indicative mode, 
both active and passive ; thus : 

Amaturus sum, I am about to love, I am to love, I am going to love, or I will 
love. We chiefly use this form, when some purpose or intention is sig- 
nified. 

Amatus ero, I shall be loved. 

Obs. 1. The participles amatus amaturus are put before the auxiliary verb, 
because we commonly find them so placed in the classics. 

Obs. 2. In these compound tenses the learner should be taught to vary the 
participle like an adjective noun, according to the gender and number of the dif- 
ferent substantives to which it is applied ; thus, amatus est, he is or was loved, 
when applied to a man ; amdta est, she was loved, when applied to a woman ; 
amdtum est, it was loved, when applied to a thing ; amdti sunt, they were loved, 
when applied to men, &c. The connecting of syntax, so far as is necessary, 
with the inflection of nouns and verbs, seems to be the most proper method of 
teaching both. 

Obs. 3. The past time and participle perfect in English are taken in different 
meanings, according to the different tenses in Latin which they are used to ex- 
press. Thus, " I loved," wiien put for amabam, is taken in a sense different 
from what it has when put for amdvi ; so amor, and amatus sum, I am loved ; 
amahar and amatus eram, I w T as loved ; amer, and amatus sim, <&c. In the one, 
loved is taken in a present, in the other, in a past sense. This ambiguity arises 
from the defective nature of the English verb. 

Obs. 4. The tenses of the subjunctive mode may be variously rendered, ac* 
cording to their connexion with the other parts of a sentence. They are often 
expressed in English as the same tenses of the indicative, and sometimes one 
tense is apparently put for another. 



SIGNIFICATION OF THE DIFFERENT TENSES. 121 

Thus, Quasi intelligant, qualis, sit, As if they understood, what kind of person 
he is. Cic. In fachius jurasse putes, You would think, &c. Ov. Eloquar an 
sileam ? Shall I speak out or be silent ? Nee vos arguerim, Teucri, for arguarn, 
Virg. Si quid te fugeret, ego perierim, for per'tbo. Ter. Hunc ego si potui tan- 
turn sperdre dolbrem ; Et perferre, soror, potero : for potuissem and possem. Virg. 
Singula quid referam? Why should I mention every thing? Id. Prcediceres 
mi/ii, You should have told me beforehand. Ter. Attu dictis, Albdne, maneres, 
Ought to have stood to your word. Virg. Citius, crediderim, I should sooner be- 
lieve. Juv. Hauseret ensis, The sword would have destroyed. Virg. Fuerint 
irdti, Grant or suppose they were angry. Si id fecisset, If he did or should do 
that. Cic. The same promiscuous use of the tenses seems also to take place 
sometimes in the indicative and infinitive; and the indicative to be put for the 
subjunctive; as, Animus meminesse horret, luctuque refugit, for refugit. Virg. 
Fuerat melius for fuisset. Id. Invidiam dilapsa erat, for fuisset. Sail. Quamdiu 
in portum venis ? for venisti. Plaut. Quam mox navigo Ephesum, for navigdbo. 
Id. Tu si hie sis, aliter sentias. Ter. for esses and sentires. Cato affirmat, se 
vivo, ilium non triumphdre, for triumphaturum esse. Cic. Persuddet Casfico, ut 
occupdret, for occupet. 

Obs. 5. The future of the subjunctive, and also of the indicative, is often ren- 
dered by the present of the subjunctive in English ; as, nisi hocfaciet, orfecerit, 
unless he do this. Ter. 

Obs. 6. Instead of the imperative w T e often use the present of the subjunc- 
tive ; as, valeas, farewell ; hue venias, come hither, <&c. And also the future both 
of the indicative and subjunctive; as, non occides, do not kill ; nefeceris, do not 
do; valebis meque amdbis, farewell, and love me. Cic. 

The present and the preter-imperfect of the infinitive are both expressed under 
the same form. All the varieties of past and future time are expressed by the 
other two tenses. But in order properly to exemplify the tenses of the infinitive 
mode, w T e must put an accusative, and some other verb before each of them ; 
thus : 

Dicitme scribere ; he says that I write, do write, or am writing. 

Dixit me scribere ; he said that I wrote, did write, or was writing. 

Dicit me scripsisse ; he says that I wrote, did write, or have written. 

Dixit me scripsisse ; he said that I had written. 

Dicit me scripturum esse ; he says that I will write. 

Dixit nos scripturos esse ; he said that we would write. 

Dicit nos scripturos fuisse ; he says that we would have written. 

Dicit litems scribi ; he says that letters are written, writing, or in writing. 

Dixit literas scribi; he said that letters were writing, or written. 

Dicit literas scriptas esse ; he says that letters are, or were written. 

Dicit literas scriptas fuisse ; he says that letters have been written. 

Dixitliteras scriptas fuisse ; he said that letters had been written. 

Dicit literas scriptum iri ; he says that letters will be written. 

Dixit literas scriptum iri ; he said that letters would be written. 

The future, scriptum iri, is made up of the former supine, and the infinitive pas- 
sive of the verbeo, and therefore never admits of any variation. 

The future of the infinitive is sometimes expressed by a periphrasis, or circum- 
locution ; thus, sciofore or futurum esse ut scribant, — ut literal scribantur; I know 
that they will write, — that letters will be written. Scivifore or futurum esse ut 
scriberent, — ut literal scriberentur ; I knew that they would write, &c. Scivi fu- 
turum fuisse ut Uteres scriberentur ; I knew that letters would have been writ- 
ten. This form is necessary in verbs which want the supine. 



122 PRETERITES AND SUPINES. 

Obs. 7. The different tenses, when joined with any expediency or necessity ? are 
thus expressed : 

Scribendum est mihi, puero, nobis, &c., literas ; I, the boy, we, &c, must write 

letters. 
Scribendum fuit mihi, puero, nobis, <&c, I must have written, &c. 
Scribendum erit mihi ; I shall be obliged to write. 
Scio scribendum esse mihi literas ; 1 know that I must write letters. 

scribendum fuisse mihi ; — ■ — that I must have written. 

Dixit scribendum fore mihi ; he said that I should be obliged to write. 

Or with the participle in dus: 

Literce sunt scribendce mihi, puero, hombiibus, &c, or a me, puero, &c, letters are 
to be, or must be written by me, by the boy, by men, &c. So, literce scribendce 
erant, fuerunt, erunt, &c. Si literce scribendce sint, essent, forent, &c. Scio lite- 
ras scribendas esse ; I know that letters are to be, or must be written. Scivi lite- 
ras scribendas fuisse ; I knew that letters ought to have been, or must have been 
written. 

FORMATION OF THE PRETERITE AND SUPINE. 

GENERAL RULES. 

1. Compound and simple verbs form the preterite and supine in the 
same manner ; as, 

Voco, vocdvi, vocdtum, to call ; so, revoco, revocdvi, revocdtum, to 
recall. 

Exc. 1. When the simple verb in the preterite doubles the first 
syllable of the present, the compounds lose the former syllable; as, 
pello, pepuli, to beat ; repello, repidi, never repepidi, to beat back. 
But the compounds of do, sto, disco, and posco, follow the general 
rule ; thus, edisco, edldlci, to get by heart ; deposco, depoposci, to de- 
mand : so, prcecurro, prcecucurri j repungo, repupugi. 

Exc. 2. Compounds w T hich change a of the simple verb into i, have 
e in the supine or perfect participle ; a.s,facio, feci, factum, to make : 
perflcio, perfect, perfectum, to perfect. But compound verbs ending 
in do and go ; also the compounds of hdbeo, pldceo, sdpio, sdlio, and 
stdtuo, observe the general rule. 



FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 123 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 



L Verbs of the First Conjugation have are in the 
infinitive, avi in the Perfect, and cltus in the Per- 
fect Participle passive; as, 

Amo, 1 amare, amavi, amatus, r. d. love. 

Verbs marked thus * have no Perfect Participle 
passive, and those thus marked f have no Perfect 
active. The Futures rus and dus are expressed 
by r. and d.; and the Supines um and u. by m. and 
u.; those verbs, therefore, which have not one or 
more of these letters prefixed to them, are deficient 
in those parts respectively which those letters sig- 
nify. 

Amplio,9 d. enlarge. 
*Angario,io press for public service. 

Appello,n d. call 

Apto,i2 D . jit 

Aro,^ r. d. plough 

*Ascio,n chip with an axe 

*A use ul to,i5 listen 



In the following Notes are contained such Par- 
ticiples in Rus and Dus, and Supines of the verbs, 
as are found in the classics now extant; together 
with the less frequent and irregular formations. 

i Amaturus, Gell. 1. 3. 4. Amandus, Ovid. Amasse, Gel!. Amasso, Plaut. — 
2 Abundaturus, Tertull. — sAccusatum, Terent. Accusaturus, Li v. Accusandus, 
Cie. — 4 The Participles in ns, rus and dus, do not occur. — 5 JEdijicaturus,Q\c. Verr. 
JEdijicandus, Cic. Fam. — 6 JEquaturus, Claud. JEquandus, Ovid. — i JEstima- 
turus, Qnintil. JEstimandus , Gell. — 8 Ambulatum, Plaut. Obambulatum, Plaut. 
Deambulatum, Terent. Ambulandus, Gels. Ambulatur, impers. Varr. — 9 Ampli- 
aridus, Cels. — io Angario has no participles. — n Appellandus, Cic. Appellassis 
for appellaveris, Terent. — 12 Aptandus, Claud. — i3The Participle Arans occurs 
only in Cic. de Senect. c. 16. Araturus, Tibull. Arandus, Virg. — w Of this 
verb Ascieter only is found, Vitruv. vii. 2. — 15 None of the Participles are to be 
found. Auscultabxtur, impers. Plaut. 



*Abundo,2 r. • 


overflow. 


Acciiso,3 R. D. M. 


accuse. 


Adumbro,4 


delineate. 


JEd'if ico,5 r. d. 


build. 


^Equo,6 R. D. 


level. 


iEstimo," R. D. 


value. 


*Ambulo,s D. m. 


walk. 



124 



FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



*Autumo,i 


suppose. 


Considero,20 r. d. 


consider. 


tBasio,2 d. 


kiss. 


Cremo,2i d. 


burn. 


*Bello,3 R . m. 


wage war. 


Creo,22 r. d. 


create. 


Beo,4 


bless. 


Crucio,23 d. 


torment. 


*Boo,5 


bellow. 


CulpO,24 R. j). 


blame. 


Brevio,6 


shorten. 


Cuneo,25 d. 


wedge. 


Caeco, 7 


blind. 


Curo.26 R. D, 


care. 


C£elo,7 


carve. 


Damno,27 r. d. m. 


condemn. 


Calceo,8 d. 


shoe. 


Decoro,28 d. 


adorn. 


*Calcitro,7 


kick. 


Decurio,29 divide into 


companies. 

delineate. 


Canton m. 


sing. 


*Delineo T 30 


Capto«o d. m. 


seize. 


Desidero,3i r. d. 


desire. 


Carmino,*i 


card wool. 


Destino,32 d. 


tie, design. 


Castigo,i2 D. M. 


chastise. 


DiC0,33 r. d. M. 


dedicate. 


t*Catomidio, 


flog cm the shoulders. 


Dicto,34 


dictate. 


Celebro,i3 d. 


make famous. 


Dolo,35 


hew, cut. 


Celo," d. 


conceal. 


Dono,36 R. D. 


bestow. 


Centurio,i5 


divide into centuries. 


DupllCO,37 R. D. 


double. 


Certo,i6 d. R. 


strive. 


Duro,38 R. 


harden. 


Cogito," 


think. 


Effigio,39 


portray. 


Comparo,is d. 


compare. 


tEmacio, 40 


emaciate. 


Concilio,i9 r* d. 


reconcile. 


tEnucleo,4i d. 


explain. 



i None of the Participles exist : autumantur, pass. Plaut. — zBasidvi seems not to 
exist : Basiatus, Mart. xn. 59. Basiandus, Mart. i. 95 — 3 Belldtum, Nep. Debel- 
latum, Liv. Bellaturus, Claud. Bellaniur, « they fight,' Virg. iEn. xi. 660. — 
±Beasti Ter. Andr. Bedtus, said to be the Perfect Participle of Beo, is used as 
an adjective. — 5 Bount, as if from. Boo, bo'is, Pacuv. Bovantes, as if from Bovo. — 
6 Brevidvit, Quint, xii. 10. Brevidtus, Sidon. — 7 The Participles in ns, rus, and 
dus, of C&co, Ccelo, and Calcitro, do not occur in the classics. Ccelassis for 
C&laveris, Festus. — s Calceandus, Phsedr,— 9 Cantdtum, Terent. — io Captdtum, 
Plaut. Captandus, Plaut. — u The Participles ns, rus, and dus are not to be found. 
Carmindtus, Plin. N. H. ix. 38. — 12 Castigdtum, Plaut. Castigandus, Liv. xxxix. 
25. — 13 Celebrandus, Catul. — M Celandus, Just. — 15 Centuridvit, Val. Max. Centu- 
ridtus, Liv. — 16 Certaturus, Caes. Certandus, Liv. Certdtus, ' contended for,' 
Sil. Multum certdto, ' after much contention/ Tacit. Ann. like audito, ' it being 
heard;' comperto, 'it being discovered.' Certetur, impers. Pacuv. — *7 Cogitdtu- 
rus, Hirt. — is Comparandus, Terent. Comparassit for Comparaverit, Plaut. — 
19 Conciliaturus, Caesar. Conciliandus, Ovid. — 20 Consider aim us, Curt. Consi- 
derandus, Apul. Flor. Consideravisse pro considerasse, Quint. — 21 Concrematu- 
rus, Liv. Cremandus, Ovid. — 22 Creaiurus, Liv. Creandus, Gell. The Partici- 
ple in ?is does not occur. — 23 Cruciandus, Ovid. — 24 Culpaiurus, Apul. Culpan- 
dus, Apul. — 25 Cuneandus, Plin.— 26 Curaiurus, PJaut. Curandus, Cels. Curassis, 
for curaveris, Plaut. — 27 Damndtum. Quint. Damnatunis, Ovid. JDamnandus, 
Ovid. — 23 Decorandus, Cic. — 29 Decuriasse, Cic. pro Plane. Decuridtus, Liv. — 
30 The simple Lineo, ' I draw lines,' has no Perfect now extant. Linedtus is found 
in Plaut. Delineavit, Plin. It has no participles.— 31 Desideraturus, Plin. £>est- 
derandus, Cic. — 32 Destinandus, Vitruv. 33 Dicdtum, Liv. 1. 7. Dicaturus, Plin. 
Dicandus, Plin. — ^Dictdtus, Juv. vi. 390. — 35 The Participles in rcs, rzzs and cfas, 
do not occur. Dolavit, Cic. Dolatus, Juv. xn. 57. Dolere, 3d Conjugation, 
Lucr. ; hence, dolztus, Varr. — 36 Donaturus, Apul. Met. Donandus, Hor. — & Du- 
plicaturus, Cic. Att. v. 18. Buplicandus, Liv. xxvir. 11. — 38 Duraturus, Lucan. 
39 Effigidtus, Apul. — ■& Emaciatus, Colum. — 41 The perfect of this verb cannot be 
found- Enucledtus, Cic. pro Plane. Enucleandus, Cic, 



FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



125 



Equito,i 

Erro,2 

Existimo,3 r. d. u. 

Expl6ro,4 d. M. 

tExsanio, 

Exulo,5 R. M. 

Fabrico,6 r>. 
tFascio.7 
FatIgo,s r. d. 
Festino,9 r. 
Firmo,io r. d . 
Flagito,n D . m. 
*Flagro,i2 R . 
Flo,i3 D< 
Fonnoi4 r. d . 
tForo,i5 d. 
Fr£eno,i6 
Fraudo.n d- 
tFrio.iS 

F»gO,19 R. D. 

Fund 0,20 r. 



ride. 

wander. 

think. 

search. 

squeeze out blood. 

be banished. 

frame. 

swathe. 

weary. 

hasten. 

strengthen. 

demand. 

be on fire* 

blow. 

form, frame. 

bore. 

bridle. 

defraud. 

crumble. 

put to flight. 

found. 



tFurio,2i 
tGaleo,22 
Gesto,23 d. 
tGlacio, 
Gravo,24 d. 
Gnsto,25 d. 
Habito,26 d. M. 
t*Hok>, 

*Hi0,27 D. 

Humors r. D . 
Hyemo,29 m. 
Ign0ro,30 r. D . 
lmpero,3i r. d. 
Impetro,32 r. d. 
Inchoo.sa r. 
Indago,34 r. d. 
Jndico,35 r. d. M. 
fInebrio,36 
Initio,37 
Inquino, 
Instauro,38 d. 



madden. 

put on a helmet. 

bear. 

to congeal. 

to weigh down. 

to taste. 

to dwell. 

breathe. 

to gape. 

to bury. 

winter. 

be ignorant. 

command. 

obtain by request. 

begin, 

trace out 

show. 

inebriate. 

initiate. 

pollute. 

renew. 



i Equitdtus, ' ridden over;' Claud. Equitdta cohors, ' infantry intermixed with 
cavalry;' Inscript. ap. Murat — 2 Errdtus, ' wandered over;' Virg. ^En. in. 690. 
Errdtur, impers. Virg. G. in. 249. Errdto mihi, for cum erravero, Cic. — 3 Existimd- 
tu, Liv. Existitnaturus, Cic. Existimandus,Va\. Max. — 4 Explordtum and Explo- 
randus,lj\\. — 5 Exuldtum, Liv. Exulaturus, Justin — 6 Fabrtcor, deponent, Cic. 
Off. i. 41. Fabricandus, Sil. — 7 Fascidtus, Mart. — s Fatigandus, Cic. Off hi. 18. 
9 Festinaturus, Plin. Festinarentur, Tacit. Hist. hi. 37. Festinantur, Tacit. Germ. 
c. 20. — io Firmaturus, Justin. Firmandus, Colum. — i$ Flagitatus, Tacit. Fla- 
gitdtum, Cic. Flagitandus, Justin. — 12 Flagraturus, Cic. Defagrdtus, Cic. Cat. 
iv. 6. — 13 Flatus, ' blown ;' Flatus, ' cast,' ' coined ;' Gell. Flandus, Cic. Con- 
fiandus, ibid. — i± Formatter us, Justin. Formandus, Stat. Syl. — is The Participles 
ns and rus are not in use, Fordtus, Vitruv. Forandus, Cels. — i6The Participles 
ns, rus, and das, do not occur. Frcendtus, Hirt. 17 Trie Participles ns and rus 
are not in use. Frausus, ' having committed a fraud ;' Plant. Asin. Fraudan- 
dus, Quint. Curt. Fraudassis for Fraudaveris, Plaut. — 18 Fridtus. Lucr. w Fu- 
gaturus, Ovid. Fugandus, ibid- — 20 The Participles ns and ms do not occur. — 
21 Furidtus, Virg. Mv\. it. 407.— 22 Galedtus, Juv— 23 Gestandus, Stat. Theb. 
24 Gravdtus, 'weighed down,' 'overpowered;' Liv. xxv. 24. Gravdtus, 'indig- 
nant,' ' weary of bearing,' ' disdaining to carry;' as if from a deponent Gravor, 
Hor. iv. Od. n. 27. Gravandas, Propert. — 25 The Participle Gustans occurs only 
in Petron. o. 33. and Gallus 1. 98. The Participle in rus is not in use. Gustan- 
dus, Cels. — 26 Habitdtum, Plaut. Habitandus, Ovid. 27 Hiandus, Pers. — 28 The 
Participle n s is not to be found in the classics. Humaturus, Sueton. Human- 
dus, Virg. JEn. vi. 161. — 29 Hyemdtum, Nepos. — 30 Ignordtus, ' not known;' Cic. 
Ignordtus, 'undiscovered ;' Salust. — 3i Tmperaturus, Caesar. — 32 The Participle in 
ns seems not to exist. Impetraturus, Liv. Impetrandus, Val. Max. Impetras- 
sere for imperaturum esse, Plaut. — 33 Inchoaturus, Curt. Ad inchoandam rem, Liv. 
34 Indagatur, depon. The Participle in n s does not occur. Indagaturus, Apul. 
Indagandus, Gell. — & Indication, Liv. Indicaturus, ibid. Indicasso for indica- 
vero, Plaut. 36 Inebriatus Plin. — 37 fnitidri, depon. 'to begin.' Initidtus. Cic* 
Tusc. Initiantes for qui initiantur, Vitruv, No other participle. — 38 Instauran* 
dus, Gell. 



l3 



126 



FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



Intro,* r. d. 


enter. 


LoCO,22 R. d. 


place, let. 


Invito,* d. 


invite. 


Lustro,23 D. 


survey. 


Irnto,3 d. 


provoke. 

do again. 

throw, boast. 


Luxurio, 


be wanton, abound. 


Itero,4 d. u. 


Macto,24 d. 


slay. 


Jacto,5 R. D. 


Maculo, 


stain. 


Judico, 6 R. D. 


judge. 


Mando,25 r. d. 


command. 


JugO,7 D. 


couple, 
butcher. 


Manduco,26 


chew. 


Jugulo, 8 D. M. 


*Mano, 


flow. 


Juro,9 D. 


swear. 


Maturo,27 d. 


ripen, hasten. 


Lab5ro,i° r. d. 


labour. 


Mera6ro,28 d. u. 


tell. 


Lacero,n d. 


tear. 


*Meo,29 


go, pass. 


*Lacto, 


suckle, wheedle. 


*tMeridio,30 m. 


sleep at noon. 


Lanio,i2 d. 


butcher. 


*Migro,3i R . u. 


depart. 


Laqueo,i3 


ensnare. 


*MilltO,32 R. M . 


serve in war. 


Latro,i4 


bark. 


tMinio,33 d. 


paint red, 


Laudo,i5 r. d. 


praise. 


Ministro,34 


serve. 


Laxo,ie d. 


loose. 


MitigO,35 d. 


pacify. 


Lego,n 


depute, bequeath. 


Monstro,36 R . 


show. 


Levo,is R. D. 


lighten. 


MutO,37 R. D. 


change. 


Libero,i9 R. d. 


free. 


Narro,38 r. d . 


tell. 


Ligo, 


bind. 


NatO,39 R. M . 


swim. 


Liquo,20 d. 


melt. 


*Nauseo,40 


loathe. 


Lito,2i 


appease by sacrifice. 







i Intretur, pass. Tacit. Intrari, ibid. Intrari, impers. Caes. Intraturus and 
Intrandus, Liv. — 2 Invitandus, Suet. Invitassitis for invitaverttis. — 3 Irritandus, 
Liv. Irritassis for irritaveris, Plaut. — 4 Iterdtu, Plaut. Iterandus, Colum. — 5 Jac~ 
taturus., Cic. Jactandus, Ovid. — 6 Judicaturus, Caes. Judicandus, Cic. Judi- 
cassit for judicaverit, Cic. de Leg. in. 3. — 7 Jugandus, Hor. — % Jugulatum, Cic. 
Jugulandas, Val. Max. — sJuralus, 'sworn;' passim. Juratus, 'sworn by;' 
Ovid. Juratus, 'having sworn;' Cic. — 10 Labor dtus, 'wrought with labour,-' 
Virg. iEn. 1. 643. Labor atus, * calamitous ;' Val. Flac. Laborandus, Plin. La- 
bordtur, impers. Cass. — 11 Lacerandus, Lucan. — 12 Lanidtus, Met. Laniandus, 
Liv. — 13 Laquedre, Manil. Laqueans, ibid. Laquedvit, Luctat. No other parts 
of this verb are to be found. Ulaqueo is more usual, though its Perfect is not 
found. Ulaquedtus, Cic. — w Latrdtus, ' barked at.' Latretur, Impers. — is Lauda- 
turuSf'Nep. Laudandus, Tibull. — iQJbaxandus, Plin.— n The Participles inns, 
rus, and dus, do not occur. Legdtus, * left by will.' Legdtus, used substantively, 
' a person sent,' ' an ambassador;' passim. — is Levaturus, Curt. Levundus, Virg. 
Georg. Levasso for Levavero, En n. — w Liberaturus, Liv. Liberandus, Cic. Li- 
berasso for Liberavero, Plaut — 20 Liquandus, Cels. The Participles ns and rus do 
not occur. — 21 Lit atus, Virg. ^En. iv. 50. Litandum, 'sacrifice must be made;' 
ibid. ^En. v. 118.— 22 Locaturus, Liv. Locandus, Ovid. Locassim for Locave- 
rim, Cic. de Leg. — 23 Lustrandus, Virg. JEn.— 24 Mactandus, Ovid.~25 Mandatu- 
rus, Cic. — 26 Manducatur, depon. Pompon. — 27 Maturandus, Cass. — 28 Memordtu, 
Sail. Cat. c. 7. Memorandus, Virg — 29 Mearis, Hor. 1. Od. 4, 17. Meavisse, Tacit. 
Means, Lucan. No other Participles occur. — 30 Merididri, depon. Cels. The 
Perfect is not in use. Merididtum, Catull. — 31 Migrdtu, Liv. Migratur us, Suet. 
Migrantur, pass. Sil. Migretur, impers. Cic. Migratum est, impers. Liv. 1. 11. 

32 Militdtum, Terent. Militaturus, Liv. Militabztur, 'shall be served ;' Plaut. — 

33 The Perfect does not occur. Minidtus, Cic. Miniandus, Plin. — 34 Vasa mi- 
nistrandis cibis, Tacit. — 33 Mitigandus, Liv. — 36 Monstraturus, Curt. — 37 Muian- 
dus, Cic. — 38 Narraturus, Stat. Narrandus, Justin.— 39 Natatum, Cic. Natatu- 
rus, Ovid. Natdtur, Ovid.— 40 Nauseans, Cic. The other Participles are not 
found. 



FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



127 



Navigo,i R. D. 
Navo,2 r. d. 
Nego,3 r. d. M. 
*JNo, 

Nomino,4 r. d. 
Noto.5 D. 
Novo,6 r. d. 
Nudo,7 D. 
Nuncupo,s r. d. 
Nuntio,9 r. m. 
*Nuto, R. 
Obsecro,io r. d. 
*Obtempero,n r. 
Obtrunco,i2 r. 
Onero,i3 R . D . 
Opto.u D# 
Orbo,i5 r. 
OrHO,16 r. D . 
Oro,i7 R. D. M. 
Paco,is 
Paro,i9 r. d. 
Patro,20 r. 
*Pecco,2i r. 
Pio,22 d. 
Placo,23 R. D. 
PlorO,24 D. M. 



sail. 

act vigorously. 

deny. 

swim. 

name. 

mark. 

renew. 

make bare. 

name 

tell. 

nod. 

beseech. 

obey. 

kill. 

load. 

wish. 

deprive. 

adorn. 

beg. 

subdue. 

prepare. 

commit. 

sin. 

propitiate. 



bewail. 



Porto,25 r. D u. 

P0Stul0,26 r. j). M. 

Privo,27 d. 
Probo,23 R. d. m. U 
ProflIgo,29 D. 
Propero,so D . 
*PropIno,3i 
tPropitio,32 d. 
Pugno,33 r. 

PulsO,34, d. 

Purgo,35 r. D . u# 

PlltO ? 26 D. 

QuasbO,37 D. 
Rad 10,38 
Rapto,39 D. 
Recupero,40 r. d. : 
Reciiso,4i r. d. 
Repudio,42 r. d. 
Resero,43 jy. 
*tRetalio, 
Rigo, 

RogO,44 R. d. M. 

Roto, 

Sacrif ico,45 m. 
Sacro,46 d. 
Sagino,47 d. 



carry 
demand- 
deprive, 
approve, 
rout, 
hasten, 
drink to. 
appease, 
fght. 
beat, 
cleanse, 
prune, think, 
shake, 
emit rays, 
drag about, 
recover, 
refuse, 
reject, 
unlock, 
retaliate, 
water, 
ask. 
whirl, 
sacrifice, 
consecrate, 
fatten. 



iNavigatus, 'sailed over;' Tacit. Germ. c. 34. Navigandus, Ulpian. Navi 
gdtur, pass. Plin. Navigdtur, impers. Cic. — 2 Navaturus, Curt. Navandus, Tacit 
The Participle in ns does not occur. — 3 Negdtum, Liv. Negaiurus, ibid. Negan 
dus, Ovid. Negassim for Negaverim. — 4 Nominaturus, Suet. Nominandus, Curt, 

5 Notandus, Hort. Art. Poet. — 6 JSovaturus, Curt. Navandus, Ov. — 7 JSudajidus, 
Caes. — 8 Nuncupaturus, Justin. — 9 Nuntidtum, Sail. Jugur. c. 108. Nuntiaturus, 
Liv.— io Obsecrandus, Plin. Obsecraturus, Ter. — u Obtemperdtum esset, impers. 
Cic. — 12 Obtruncaturus, Justin. — 13 Oneraturus, Plin. Onerandus, Suet. — 14 Op 
tandus, Stat. — 15 Orbaturus, Ovid. The Participles in ns and dus do not occur 
!6 OrnatUrus, Claud. Ornandus, Gell.— n Ordtum, Cic. Oraturus, Tacit. Oran- 
dus, Virg. i£n. n. 235. — is 'Ad pacandas Hispanias,' Caes. — wparaturus, Justin 
Parandus, Tibull. — 20<p a cis patranda? merces,' Liv. — 21 Peccaturus, Geli. — 

6 Pidtus, Ovid. Piandus, Ovid.— 23 Placaturus, Justin. Placandus, Stat. Achil 
ziPlordtum, Cic. Plorandus, Stat. Theb. — ^Portatu, Plin. Porlandus, Virg 
vEn. ix. 312. — 26 Postuldtum, Caes. Postulaturvs, Liv. Postulandus, Cic. — ^ Pri 
vandus, Cic— 23 Probdtum, Cic. Att. Probdtu, Cic. Tusc. v. 1.— 29 The Partici 
pies 72s and rws do not occur in the classics. — 30 Properandus, Virg. Georg 
3i None of the Participles are (bund.— 32 The Perfect does not occur. Propitid- 
tus, Tacit. Propitiandus, Geil.— 33 Pugnalurus, Liv. Expugndtum, Justin. Op- 
pugnandus, Gell.— 34 Pulsaudus, Hor.— 35 Purgdtu, Plin. Expurgatu, Terent.— 
36 Putandus, Catull.— 37 Quassandus, Ovid.— 3« Radiatus, ' shining :' passim. Ra- 
didtus, 'illuminated;' Lucan.— w Raj)tandus, S\\.—40Recuperdtum, Justin. Re- 
cuperaturus, Caes. Recaperandus, Li v.— 4i Recusal urus, Sueton. — 42 Repudiaturus, 
Sueton. Repudiandus, Cic. The Participle ns does not occur.— 43 Reserandus, 
Cic. — 44 Rogaturus, Sueton. Rogandus, Cic. Tusc. Rogassit for Rogaverit, Cic. 
Leg. — « Sacrificdtujn, Plaut. Sacrificatus, 'sacrificed,' 'slain in sacrifice.' 
46 Sacrandus, ' to be established,' • ratified.'— 47 The Participles ns and rus do not 
occur. 



128 



FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



Salto,i R . 

Saluto,2 r. m. 

Sano, 3 R. d. 

Satio, 

Saturo,4 

Saucio,5 d. 

tScreo,6 

*Secundo,7 

Sedo, s d. m. 

Servo, 9 r. d. 

*Sibilo, 

Sicco, 10 D. 

Signo, 11 R. d. 

Sirnulo,i2 

Socio,i3 d. 

*Somnio,i4 

Specto,i5 r. d. m. 

Spero,is d. 

*Spiro,n 

Spolio,is d. M. 

Spumo,i9 

Stillo,20 

Stimulo, 

Stipo, 

tSlrio, 

tSuccenturio,2i 

Sudo, 

SuffGco, 

Sugillo,22 d. 

Supero,23 r. t>, 

Suppedito,24 



dance. 

salute. 

heal. 

satiate. 

fill, glut. 

wound. 

hawk. 

prosper. 

allay. 

keep. 

hiss. 

dry. 

mark out. 

pretend. 

associate. 

dream. 

behold. 

hope. 

breathe. 

rob. 

foam. 

drop. 

goad, vex. 

stuff, guard. 

flute, a column. 

recruit. 

sweat. 

strangle. 

taunt, jeer. 

overcome. 

afford. 



*Susurro,25 


whisper, 
stop, delay. 


Tardo, 
Taxo,26 d. 


rate, reprove. 


Ternpero,27 r. d . 


temper. 


Tento,28 r. d. M . 


try. 
bore. 


Terebro,29 


Titubo,so 


stagger. 


Tolero,3J r. d. u. 


bear. 


Tracto,32 D . u# 


handle. 


*fTripudio, 


dance, caper, 
kill 


Trucldo.33 r. D . 


Turbo,34 D . 


disturb. 


Umbro,35 r. 


shade. 


*Vaco, 


want, be at leisure. 


*Vapulo,36 m. 


be beaten. 


Vario, 


diversify* 


Vasto,37 


lay waste. 


Vellico,3s 


pluck, rail at. 


Verbero,39 r. d. 


beat. 


*Vestigo, 


search for. 


Vexo,4fl D< 


tease, harass. 


*tVindemio.4i 


gather grapes. 


Vibro,42 D . 


brandish. 


Vi6lo,43 R . D . M . 


violate. 


Vitio,44 D . 


vitiate. 


VitO,45 D. U. 


shun. 


V0C0,46 r. D. 


call. 


*V0l0,47 


fly- 


Voro,4B r. 


devour. 


VulgO,49 R. D. 


publish. 


Vulnero, 50 d. 


wound. 



i Saltaturus, Sueton. — 2 Salutatum, Sail. Salutaturus, Cic. — 3 Sanaturus, Cass. 
Sanandus, Senee. — 4 The Participles in ns, rus, and dus, are not found in the 
classics. — 5 Sauciandus, Colum. — ^Neither the Perfects nor the Perfect Partici- 
ples of Screo and Excreo are now in existence. — 1 The Participle 775 only, is 
now extant. — s Seddtum, Plaut. Sedandus, Cic. — 9 Servandus, Ovid. — 10 Ad 
corpora siccanda, Piin. — 11 Sigriaturus, Plin. Signandus, Stat. — 12 Simulandus, 
Sail. — 13 Sociandus, Hor. — 14 Somniatur, depon. Petron. — 15 Spectdtum, Ovid. 
Spectaturus, Suet. Spectandus, Stat. Theb. — 16 Sperandus, Propert. — i"The 
Participle in ns only is in use. Exspirafurus, Liv. — is Spoliandus, Lucan.-— 
19 Spumdtus, ' sprinkled with foam,' ■ foamy ;' Cic. — 20 Stillatus, ' distilling/ ' drop- 
ping.' — 21 Succenturidtus, Terent. — 22 Suggillandus, Val. Max. — 23 Svjieraturus, 
Cic. — 24 Suppeditor. depon. Cic. — 25 Susurrdtur, impers. ' it is whispered about ;' 
Terent. — 26 Taxandus, Senec. — 27 Temperaudus, Suet. — 2s Tentdtum, Terent. 
Tentaturus, Virg. ^En. iv. 293. Tentandus, Virg. Georg. in. 8. — 29 The Partici- 
ples ns, rus, and dus, are not found in the classics. — so Tibubdtus, 'stumbling;' 
Virg. Alw. v. 331. — 3i Tolerdtu, Cic. Toleraiurus and Tolerandus, Ibid. — 32 Trac- 
tratu, Plin. Tractandus, Juven. — 33 Trucidandus, Cic. — 34 Turbatur, impers. 
pass. Virg. iEn. Eel. 1. 12. Turbasso for Turbavero. — 35 Umbraturus, Honor, et 
Martial. — 36 Vapuldtum, Plaut. Yapulandum, Terent. — 37 Ad vastandos agros, 
Liv. x. 33. — 38 The Participle Vellicdtus, occurs only in Paulin. Nolan. — 39 Ver- 
beraturus, Sueton. Verberandus, Apul. — 40 Vexandus, Cic. — 4iThe Participle ns 
only is found in the classics. — 42 Vibrdtus, Virg. Vibrandus, Claud.— 43 Violatum, 
Cic. Violaturus, Cass. Violandus, Tibull. — 44 Yitiandus, Suet. — 45 Vitdtu, Hor. 1. 
Sat. 4. 115. Vitandus, Hor. n. Sat. 3, 14. — 46 Vocaturus, Liv. Vocandus, Ovid. 
47 Devolaturus, Apul. — 48 Voraturus, Justin. Devorandus, Apul. — 49 Vulgaturus, 
Claud. Vulgandus, Suet. — so Vuhierandus, Hirt. 



FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



129 



II. DEPONENTS. 

Deponent Verbs are formed like Passives ; as, 
Mir-or,i -ari, -atus, u. r. d. admire. — So, 



Ab6mTnor,2 d. 




abhor. 


C6mitor,i3 


accompany. 


Adulor.s d. 




fawn, flatter. 


Concionor, 


harangue. 


^Eraiilor, 4 D. 




vie with, envy. 


*Confabiilor,i4 M , 


discourse. 


*AprIcor,5 




bask in the sun. 


C0nor,i5 d. 


endeavour. 


Arbitror, 6 R. d. 




think. 


Conspicor,i6 


spy, see. 


Aspernor,7 d. 




despise. 


Contemplor,n 


view. 


Aversor.s d. 




dislike. 


Criminor,i8 m. 


blame. 


Aucupor,9 r. 




hunt after. 


Cunctor,i9 


delay. 


Auxilior,i° 




help. 


Deprecor,20 m. r. entreat, 


pray against. 


Causor,n 


plead 


in excuse, blame. 


*Digladior, 


fence. 


Calumnior, accuse falsely, calumniate. 


Dominor,2i 


rule. 


*Comissor,i 2 m. 




revel. 


Epulor,22 r. d. 
*Famiilor,23 m. 


feast, 
wait on. 



i M iratu, Senec. M irdturus, Ovid. Mirandus, Stat. Mirandus is generally 
construed as an Adjective. — 2 Abominandus, Quint. Abbmindretur, pass. Verrius. 
3 Adulandus, Val. Max. Adulari, pas& to be flattered, Cic. Off 1. 26. — 4 JEmulandus, 
Plin. JEmulaveris, act. Apul. — 5 Apricdre, act. Pallad. — 6 Arbitrdturus, Apul. Ar- 
bttrandus, Ulpian. Arbitrantur, pass. Ulpian. Arbitrdbunt, Flaut^Asperndtus, des- 
pising, having despised, Virg.Georg. in. 393. et passim. Asperndtus, pass, despised, 
Liv. xxxiv. 40. Aspernandus, Virg. iEn. xi. 106. Aspemdiur, pass. Cic. — %Aversa- 
tus, disliking, Ovid, et passim. Aversdtus, pass, averted, Aurel. Vict. Aversandus, 
Liv.xxx. 25. — sAucupdturus, Cic. The active form Aucupo occurs in Senec- Hence, 
Aucupdtus, pass, sought after, Lact. Aucupdtus, in an active sense does not 
occur. — 10 Auxilidtus, having assisted, Stat. Auxilio, Gracch. Hence Auxilid- 
tus, pass, aided. Lucil. — 11 Causandus, given in some Dictionaries, does not occur 
in the classics. Causdbor, pass. Ovid, de Nuce, 125. where Salmas, Heins. and 
Burm. read Causa habeor. — 12 Comissdtum, Liv. xl. 7. Terent. Some write Co- 
messor, others Comissor, or Comassor ; but Comissor is generally found in an- 
cient books and inscriptions. — is Comttdtus, attending, having attended, Caes. B. G, 
vi. 7. Comito, act. Pro pert. Comitor, pass Ov. Trist. in. 7. 47. Hence Comt- 
tdtus, attended. — 14 Confdbuldtum, Terent. Confab uldbunt in some old edd. of 
Plaut. Most. 11. 2. 78.; but the true reading is conturbdbmit. — 15 Conandus, Css. 
B. C. 1. 31. 1. 65. Cbndrem for condrer, is quoted by some grammarians from 
Ennius ap. Prise; but it cannot be found either in the ed. of Putschius, Hanov. 
1605, or in that of Krehl., Lips. 1819. — 16 The Participles in ns, rus, dus, do not 
occur. Conspico, act. Varr. Hence Conspicdtur, Varr. & Sail. Jug. c. 49. But 
Cortiusin the last passage reads conspicitur. — 17 Coniemplo, Apul. & Plaut. passim. 
Hence Contempldtus, Bzoepov/utvoe, Ammian, Contempldtus, Q'ta>f»i<Tccs Curt. in. 4. et 
passim. 'In contemplandis, rebus,' Cic. Nat. Deor. 1. 27, — ^Cr'imino, Plaut. 
Hence Crimindtus accused, Hygin. 18. Crimindtus, having accused, passim. 
Crlmindtum, Liv. 11. 37. — 19 Cuncto, Plant. Hence • Cunctdta, fides,' his faith was 
arrested, Stat. Theb. though it may be construed actively. — 20 Deprecdtus, having 
entreated, Cic. Orat. 11. 49. et passim. Deprecdtus, pass, deprecated, Justin, vm. 5. 
asked, Apul. Met. in. p. 59. Deprecdtum, Cic. de Amic. c. 11. Deprecdturus, Hirt, 
'Ad pacem deprecand urn,' Cic. ' Deprecandce malevolentiae, causa,' pro Balb. 
xviii. 7. — 21 Domindris, pass. Cic. Off — 22 Epuldturus, Val. Max. Epuianda, to 
be eaten, Ovid. — 23 Famulo, Tertul. Fdmuldtum, Sil. Famuldtus occurs only in 
Tertul. de Res. Car. c. 47. where he quotes St. Paul, Rom. vi. 22. cfiaiAaQw-rt? <Ti 
ra 0ta) k.t.x. Fdmulati autem Deo, &c. 



130 



FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



Faris,i or fare, u. 
Ferior,2 r. 
*Frumentor,3 m. 

Furor,4 m. 
Glurior, 5 r* i>. 
Gratulor,6 m. d. 
Horlor," 

Imitor,s u. r. d. 
Indignor,9 d. 
Inf itior,io d. 
*Injurior, 
Insector,ii 
Insidior,i2 r. 
Jaculor,]3 
Jocor, 1 -* 
Lsetor,i5 r. d. 



speak. 

keep holiday. 

provide corn, forage, 

purvey. 

steal. 

boast. 

rejoice,) congratulate. 

encourage. 

imitate. 

disdain. 

deny. 

injure. 

pursue. 

lie in wait. 

dart. 

jest. 

rejoice. 



Lamentor,i6 D , 
*Lignor,n m. 
Luctor,is 
Medicor,i9 R. d. 
Meditor,20 
Mercor,2i m. r. d. 
Minor, 
Miseror,22 d. 
Moderor,23 u. D. 
Mudulor,24 d. 
Moror, 25 R- d. 
Mutuor,26 
Negotior, 
*iNugor,2T 
Obtestor,23 
Operor,29 



bewail 

gather fuel. 

wrestle, 

cure. 

meditate. 

purchase. 

threaten. 

pity. 

rule. 

play a tune. 

delay. 

borrow. 

traffic. 

trifle. 

beseech. 

work. 



i For, Diomed, i. p. 375. Prise, viii. p. 793. but without authority. Fatu, Virg. 
JEn. xn. 25. Fandus, Lucan. Fdmino for fare, Cato R. R. Fdtur, pass. Sue- 
ton. — 2 Feridtus, Cic. Nat. Deor. i. 37. Feridturus, Sidon. The Participles in 
ns and dus are not found in the classics. — 3 Frumentdtum, Cic. Epist. ad Att. Cass. 
B. G.— 4 Furdtum, Plaut. Rod. i. 2. 23. Trin. iv. 2. 22. — o Gloridturus, Sueton. 
Gloriandus, Cic. Tusc. v. 17. — 6 Gratuldtum, Cic. in Pison. c 22. Grdtuldtus, 
Cic. Fam. hi. 11. Grdtulandus, Fronton. — 1 Horto, -as, Prise. Hortor, pass. Gell. 
xv. 13. Tacit. Ann.xn. 9. ■ Ad quas hortandas,' &c. Justin, xi. 9. 13. — zlmitatu, 
Val. Max. Imitdturus, Cic. Imitandus, Cic. Off Imito, Var. — 9 Indignandus, 
Ovid. Met. — loFrora in and Fdteor ; some derive it from in and Facio, and write 
Inficior. lnfitiandus, Ovid. — n Insecto Plaut. Hence Insectdtus, pressed on, 
pursued, Hirt. Insectdtus, having inveighed against, Tacit. Hist. n. 96. et passim. 
Insectans dves, Cic. — ^Insididverint, Callistr. Insidiat, in some copies of Virg. 
JEn. i. 719. according to Servius. Insididturus, Hirt. 'In legatis insidiandis, 1 
Cic. pro Ccel. c. 21. — 13 Ejdculdverat is found in Gell. xvi. 19. 4. and Jdculdtus, 
pass. Lucan. in. 568. Jdculdtus, having hurled, Virg. JEn. n. 276. et passim. — 
aJocdbo, Plaut. — 15 Lceto, tl<ppaiva>, I gladden, Liv. ap. Non. Hence Lcstdtus, glad- 
dened, Virg. ^En. xn. 841. Lcstdtus, having rejoiced, Cic. Phil. xi. 4. et passim. 
LcEtdturus, Cic. de Div. n. 9. Lcetandus, Cic. Leg. Manil. c. 1. These two 
passages may be construed actively ob, or propter, being understood. — 16 Ldmen- 
tdtur, pass, impers. Apul. Met. Ldmentdtus, lamented, Sil. Ldmentdtus, having 
lamented, Cic. Tusc. I. 31. et passim. Lamentandus, Fronton, de Nep. — n JLigna- 
turn, Liv. x. 25. This verb has no Participle. — isLucto, Terent. Hence Luctans, 
Virg. Mn. iv. 694. — 19 Medicare, idLrprjeiv, Sil. Medicare, medicinis imbnere, tin- 
gere, Virg. Georg. i. 193. Hence Medicdtus, ipipjusutevBek Virg. Mn. vi. 420. et 
passim. Medicentur, pass. Colum. Medicdturus, Colum. Medicundus, Tibull. 
20 Meditantur, pass. Minuc. Fel. Hence, Meditatus, pass. Cic. passim. Medltd' 
tus, act. This does not occur so frequently as the other. — 21 Mercatum, Plaut. 
Mercdtus, having bought, Cic. Mercdtus, pass. Plin. Mercdturus, Plin. Mer- 
candus, Cic. — 22 Miserandus, Cic. de Or. 1. 37. — 23 Mod'ero, Pacuv. ap. Won. vn. 

23. Hence, Moderdtur, pass. Moderate, Liv. iv. 27. Moderandus, Cic. deOrat. 
1. 18.— 24 Modiddtus, pass. Quint, ix. 2. Hor. 1. Od. 32. 5. al. passim. Modulan- 
dus, Hor. 11. Ep. 2. H3.—^Mordturus, Propert. in. 20. 12. Morandus, Hor. Art. 
Poet. 223.— 26 Mutuo, Caecil. a p. Non. Hence, Mutudtus, borrowed Plin. Mu- 
tudtus, having borrowed, Val. Max. The Participles in ns, rus, and dus, are not 
found in the classics. — 27 This verb has no Participles. — 28 Obtestdtus, pass, con- 
jured, Apul. Obtestdtus, having entreated, Sallust. Catil. c. 46. et passim. — 
29 Operdtus, pass, exercised, Lactam. Operdtus, working, sacrificing, Propert. n 5 

24. i. et passim, 



FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



131 



Opinor,i u. r. d. 


think. 


Opitiilor, 2 m. 


help. 


Ops0nor,3 m. 


cater. 


Otior,4 


be at leisure. 


Fabulor,5 m. d. 


graze, forage. 


PaIor,6 


wander. 


Percontor,? m. 


enquire. 


PerlclTtor.s d. make trial, be in danger. 


Piscor,9 m. 


fish. 


Populor.io R. D. 


lay waste. 


Praedor,n M. 


plunder. 


Praelior,i2 


fight. 


Praemior, 


make prizes. 


Precor,i3 m. u. r. d. 


pray. 


Recordor, 14 


remember. 



Rimor,i5 

Rixor,ie 
*Rusticor, 
Sciscitor,i7 m. 
*Scitor,is m. 
Scrutor,i9 
S6lor,20 D . 
SpSUior, 
Speculor,2i m. 
Stipulor,22 
Suavior, 
Suspicor,23 
Testor,24 
Tutor,25 d. 



search. 

scold. 

dwell in the country. 

inquire. 

ask. 

search. 

comfort. 

walk about. 

R. view, spy. 

stipulate. 

kiss. 

suspect. 

witness. 

defend. 



i Op'inatu, Plin. Opinaturus,Cic. Acad. Opinandus, Cic. Tusc. — zOpitula, Liv. 
Andron. ap. Non. Opifuldtum, Plaut. — sOpsono, are, dvi, dtus, is more usual. 
Opsonavit, Plaut. Obsonabo, Terent. Opsdndtum, Plaut. Some write Obsono ; 
but contrary to its derivation, o^cv, c-^wicv, opsonium, any thing provided for food, 
except bread and wine ; and particularly fish. — 4 Otidtus occurs only in Sidon, Ep- 
in. 1. It has no other Participle. — ^Pdbuldtum, Plaut. Pdbulandus, Colum. — 
6 This Verb is chiefly used in the Present Participle, Pdlans, Liv. i. 11. Virg. xn. 
738. al. passim. Paldtus, dispersed, wandering, Liv. Pdldre, act. occurs in the 
Satire of Sulpicia, vs. 43. — i Perconto, Apul. Met. Percontantur, pass. Gell. 
Hence, ' pretio percontato' Apul. Met. Percontdtum, Ter. — 8 Perictttdtus, pass. 
Cic. de Amic. c. 17. Peficlitdtus, having made trial, Cic. pro Quint, c. 31. al. 
passim. Penclitandus, Cic. Catil. i. 5.-9 Piscdtum, Plaut. The Participle Pis* 
cans occurs only in Festus.— io Populdvit, Propert. Hence, Populor, pass. Liv. 
and Populdlus, Cic. Populdtus, act. Stat. Theb. et passim. Populdiurus, Caes. 
B.C. Popidandus,0\\d. Met. — n Prcedo, Prise. Hence Prceddtum Iri, Plaut. 
Prceddtum, Liv. iv. 55. — & Proliant, Enn ap. Non. — wPreco, Prise. Hence 
Precantur. pass. Varr. ap. Non. and Precdtus, prayed, supplicated. Precdtus, 
having prayed, Cic. Tusc. i. 47. et passim. Precdtum, Liv. vu. 31. Precdtu, 
Stat. Theb. Precdtur us, Ovid. Precandus, Tacit. Ann. — 14 Recorddvit, Ann. ap. 
Non. Hence, Recorddtus, remembered, Sidon. Recorddtus, having remembered, 
Ovid Met. et passim. ' Ad ea recordanda, 1 Cic. pro Syll. c. 26. — 15 Rimdbam, Jul. 
Valer. Rimdrem, Accius ap. Non. Hence, Rjimdtus, pass, investigated, Sidon. 
1 Rhnandis offensis sagax,' Tacit. Hist. iv. 11. — 16 Rixant, Rixent, Rixarent, Varr. 
ap. Non. ' Cum rixdtus esset,' Cic. de Orat. c. 59. — n Sciscildre, act. Plaut. 
Hence, Sciscildtus, asked, Ammian. Sdscitdtus, having inquired, Petron. Scis- 
citatum, Gell. is Scitdbat, Ammian.; but Vales, and Gronov. read noscitdbat. 
Scltdtum, Virg. JEn. n. 114. — 1 9 Scrutdri, pass. Ammian. xxvin. 1. and Scrutdtus, 
searched after, xv. 8. Scrutdtus, having searched, Plin. xxm. 6. et passim. 
20 Sdlandus, Ovid. — 21 Speculdtum, Sail. Jug. c. 116. Speculdturus, Justin. • Ad 
speculandos actus Hannibalis,' Justin. — 22 Stipulat, Symmach. Epist. Hence, 
Stipulari, pass. Sueton. and Stlpulatus, contracted, Cic. pro Rose. Stipuldtus, 
having stipulated, ibid. c. 4. et passim. The Participles in ns, rus, and dus, are 
not found in the classics. — 23 Suspices, Plaut. — 24 Testo, -as, Prise, but without ex- 
ample. Testatus, attested, Liv. xxxiv. 41. al. passim. Testdtus, having called to 
witness, Cic. Fin. 11. 20. et al. passim. ' Hoc testandum est/ Cic. Orat. c. 68. — 
25 Tutetis, Plaut. Tata, Pacuv. ap. Non. Tufant, Naev. ibid. Tutaret. Pom- 
pon, ibid. Hence, Tutantur, pass. Plaut. and Tuldtus, defended, Symmach. Ep. 
ix. 11. TTddtus, having defended, Ovid. Trist. v. 6. 15. et passim. Tutandus, 
Phaedr. 



132 FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

Vagor,i wander. Versor,4 be employed, frequent, haunt, 

Veneror,2 d. worship. dwell. 

Venor.s m. hunt. V6ciferor,5 bawl. 



i Vagant, Enn. ap. Non. vn. — 2 Verier 0, Plaut. Hence, Veneratus, Hor. Sat. 
11. 2. 124. Virg. JE,n. in. 460. Veneratus, having worshipped, Propert. Vine- 
randus, Cic. Agr. 11. 35. Virg. JEn. ix. 275. &e. Venerantes, i. e, Veneri operant 
dantes, Hygin. Fab. lxxv. which is not to be imitated. Yet this, according to 
some etymologists, is the original meaning of the word. — 3 Vendium, Virg. iEn. 
iv. 118. Plaut. Vendtus, having hunted, Ovid. Fast. Venor, pass. Enn. ap. 
Non. — 4 Versor, though generally ranked with Deponents, is merely the Passive 
of Verso; * nam qui in aliquo loco, aut re immoratur, quodammodo in ea hue et 
illuc sese versat, et quasi volutatur, aut corpore, aut mente.' Facciolat. — 5 Vdci- 
ferant. Varr. Liv. vii. 12. vin. 38. Vocrferdtus, Colum. 



FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 133 



III. EXCEPTIONS. 



*Crepo,i crepare, crepui, , make a noise. 

*Ctibo, 2 ciibare, cubui, , cubitum, He down. 

Do,3 dare, dedi, datus, datum, daturus, dandus, give. 

Domo,4 domare, domui, dorrntus, domlturus, domandus, conquer. 

Frico,5 fncare, fricui, frictus, or fricatus, fricandus, rub. 

Jiivo, 6 jiivare, juvi, jutus, juvaturus, jtivandus, help. 

*Labo, 7 labare, — , , labasse, droop, totter. 

Lavo,s lavare, lavi, lautus, or lotus, or lavatus, lautum, 

or lavatum, lavaturus, lavandus, wash. 

*Mico,9 micare, imcui, , vibrate, glitter. 

i So Concrepo,! rattle, ring. * Discrepo, I differ in sound, I disagree, makes 
ui, or dvi: Discrepuit, Hor. Art. Poet. 219. Discrepdvit, Cic. de Or. in. 30. In- 
crepo, I sound, strike, chide, ui, sometimes dvi ; Increpdvit, Plaut. Lncrepitus, 
chidden, Liv. xxin. 26. Lncrepdtus, Prudent. Cathem. vn. 195, where the Jun- 
tine ed. has lncrepitus. The Perfect and Participles of Recrepo, I resound, do 
not occur. — 2 Cubasse, Quintil. vril. 2. Cubdris, Propert. Incubavere, Piin. In- 
cubui, Virg. vEn. vn. 88. et passim. Supercubasse, Apul. Met. Cubiturn, Cic. 
pro Rose. Incubandus, Plin. When the compounds of Cubo take an M, they 
are of the third conj. — 3 So four Compounds, Circumdo, I surround ; Pessumdo,! 
destroy; Satisdo, 1 give good bail; Venumdo,! set to sale. The other Com- 
pounds are of the third Conj. Datum Iri, Cess. B. C. Daturus, Calull. Dandus, 
Cic. Off. i. 21. The first person pass. Dor, does not occur except in Diomed. i. 
p. 375. — 4 Domavi, Ennius. Domaverunt, Flor. Domdtus, Petron. Hence Do- 
mator, a tamer, Tibull. iv. 116. Domiturus, Virg. Georg. iv. 102. Domandus, 
Propert. n. 34. 50. So Edorno,! subdue; Perdomo, I subdue wholly. Perdo- 
miturus, Justin, n. 13. — 5 Some Grammars and Dictionaries give this verb a Per- 
fect in -avi ; but no such Perfect exists now in the Latin classics. Frictus, Juv. 
Sat. vi. 577. Fficatus, Plin. Fricandus, Plin. Afrzcdtus, Apul. Met. Confri- 
cdtus, Piin. Defrictus, Colum. Defricdtus, Colum. Infricdtus, Plin. Per- 
frictus, Apul. Met. Perfricdtus, Vitruv. Refrlcdturus, Cic. The Perfects of 
Confrico and Inffico seem not to exist. — QJuverint, Catull. lxv. 18. and in some 
edd! Juerint. Vossius quotes Juvavi from jVlanilius. Juvdrit, Pallad. but 
Gesner reads juvdbit Jutus, Tacit. Ann. Juturus, Colum. Juvaturus, Sail. 
Jug. c. 47. Juvandus, Ovid. Adjuvi, Cic. Adjuero, for adjuvero, Cic. de Se- 
nect. c. 1. AdjTdus, Macrob. AdjTitum, Corn. i\ep. Adjuturus, Liv. Adjuva- 
turus, Petron. a IB. Adjuvandus, Cic. — 7 Of the Perfect of Ldbo we find no 
trace in the classics, exceot that we read Labasse in Plin. xiv. 28. — 8 Lavo, is, ere, 
&c. Hor. in. Od. 12. 2. iv. 6d. 6. 26. I. Sat. 5. 24. Ovid. iv. 340. Virg. Georg. in. 221. 
JEn. in. 663. Plant, passim. Lavdvit, Plaut. Lautus, Cic. pro Deiot. c. 10. Hor. 
ii. Sat. 3. 282. Ter. and Plaut. Lotus, Stat Ldvdtus, Plaut. Lautum, Ter. and 
Plaut. Lavdtum, Hor. i. Sat. 3. 137. I. Sat. 6. 125. & Ter. Lavaturus, Ovid. Fast, 
in. 12. Lavandus, Ovid. Fast. iv. 136. & Plin.— 9 Mtcui, Ovid. Micdverit, Sollin. 
c. 53. D'wiico, 1 fight, dvi, sometimes ui : Dimicdvi, Sueton. Dimicui, Ovid. 
Dimicdturus, Caes. B. G. in. 24. Emico, I spring forth, 1 shine forth, ui, ere : 
Emicui, Virg. iEn. n. 174. et passim. Quintil. i. 6. finds fault with those, who, 
too scrupulously following analogy, preferred Emicdvi to Emieui. Emicdtiirus* 
Senec. ad Helv. 11. The Perfects of Intermico, I shine among, and Promico, I 
spring out, do not occur. Promicandus, Naev. ap. Non. I. 329. 

M 



134 FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

Neco,i necare, necavi, or necui, necatus, necaturus, necandus, kill 

*Nexo,2 nexare, , , tie, knit. 

Plico,3 plicare, , plicatus, or plicitus, fold. 

Poto4 potare, potavi, potus, or potatus, potum, or potatum, 

poturus, or potaturus, potandus, drink. 

Seco, 5 secare, secui, sectus, secaturus, secandus, cut. 

*Sono, 6 sonare, sonui, , sonaturus, sonandus, sound. 



i Necavi, Cic. pro Leg. Manil. c. 5. Necui, Phaedr. Necatus, Sail. Jug. c. 50. 
et al. passim. Nectus in some edd. of Cic. de Leg. in. 10. * Proprie necatus, 
ferro, nectus vero alia vi peremtus.' Necaturus, Ovid. Necandus, Juv. Sat. 
vi. 596. Enico, etpxstiKBos. Eneco, I slay,u?, ctus ; sometimes avi, dtus: Enecui, 
►Sueton. Enecdvi, Plaut. Eriicasso, for enicavero, Plaut. Enectus, Cic. de 
Divin. Enecdtus, Plin. Enecandus, Cels. The Perfect of Interneco, I utterly 
destroy, and its Participles in ns, rus, dus, are not found in the classics. Interne- 
cdtus, Plaut. Internectus, quoted from Cic. Phil. xiv. 3. does not exist in correct 
copies. — 2jVe£ofias neither Perfect nor Participle. See Necto and Nexo, third 
Conj. — 3 The perfects Plicui and Plicdvi are found only in Priscian, and without 
example. Plicatus, Lucr. vi. 1085. Plicitus, Mart. Duplico, I double ; Mulil- 
plico, I multiply ; Replica, I unfold, make avi, atus. Replicasse, Plin. Replicdtus, 
Plin. and Replictus. Stat. Sylv. Supplico makes avi, and has no Perfect Partici- 
ple. Supplicdtum, Plaut. Supplicaturus, Ter. Suppllcassis, for Supplicdveris, 
Plaut. DiipUcaturus, Cic. Att. v. 18. « Ad DwpUcanda verba,' Liv. xxvn. 11. 
Applico, I apply, Lnplico, T entangle, make ui, ztus, and avi, dtus. Complico, ui, 
2tus, and dtus. Complicdvi does not occur. Applicui, Justin. Applicavi, Cic. 
Applicitus, Plin. Applicdtus, Caes. B. C. in. 101. &c. Appliciturus, Justin. Im- 
plicui, Virg. J£n. xi. 751. et passim. Implicdvi, Liv. ImpLicltus, Hor. Art. Poet. 
423. Liv. I. 31. et passim. Implicdtus, Cass. B. G. vn. 73, &c. Obs. Implicitus 
7norbo, not implicaius. Impliciturus,Ox. Explico makes ui, itus, and avi, dtus. 
When it means to explain, avi, dtus, are the more usual forms : in the sense of 
unfolding, ui, ttus are more usual. Explicui, Petron. Virg. Georg. n. 280. et al. 
passim. Explicavi, Plaut. and Cic. Geliius remarks, that Explicui was 
more usual in the time of Cicero, than Explicavi. Expliciturus, Stat. Theb. 
Explicdturus, Caes. B. C. I. 78. Complicui, Senec. Cowplicatus, Cic. Compli- 
citus, Apul. Met. — 4 Potus sum, for potdvi, Varr. Potus, act. Cic. Fam. vn. 22. 
Ovid. Potus pass. Cic. Ovid. Hor. Potatus. Cic. Tusc. v. 5. Poturus, Plin. 
Potaturus, Sueton. Potum, Virg. Eel. vn. 11. Potdtum, Plaut. Potandus, 
Ovid. Epblo, I drink up, makes epbtdvi, epctus ; Perpoto, perpotdvi, and has no 
Perfect Participle, nor the Participles in rus and dus. Epoto, has not the Partici- 
ples in ns, rus and dus. — 5 Secui, Virg. Georg. in. 444. al. passim. Secdvi, men- 
tioned by the Oxford Commentators on Lily, and by some others, does not exist in 
the classics. Sectus, Cic. Tusc. n. 53. et al. passim. Secdtdrus, Colum. Se- 
candus, Ovid. The Compounds make ui, ctus, Pr&seco, I chop off, pare off, and 
Reseco, I cutoff, ui ctus, rarely atus. Pr&secdtus, Apul. Met. Resecdtus, Apul. 
The Perfects of Circumseco, I cut about, and Interseco, intersect, are not in use ; 
nor the Participles Intersectus, Persectus. Inter secandus, Coium. Resecandus, 
Cic. Cat. ii. 5. — 6 Sonere, third Conj. Lucr. Sonit, Accius, ap. Non. Sonunt, 
Accius et Enn. Sonlvi, Non. Sonui, Propert. Sondverint, Turtull. whence 
Sonaturus, Hor. i. Sat. 4. 43. Sonandus, Ovid. Sunantur, pass. Albinov. ad Liv. 
i. 107. For AssOno, I resound ; Circumsono, 1 sound around ; Dissono, I am 
discordant, we find no Perfect. Resono, I re-echo, makes avi ; Manil. Consono, 
1 sound together ; Exsono, I resound ; Insono, I resound ; Persona, I sound loud- 
ly ; Prossono, I sound before, make ui. Yet Persondvit, Apul. Met. Resonit,for 
resonat, Accius ap. Non. Resonunt, Accius et Enn. ap. Prise. 



FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 135 

*Sto,i stare, steti, , staturus, stand. 

*Tono, 2 toriare, tonui, , thunder. 

Veto, 3 vetare, vetui, vetitus, forbid. 



i Staturus, Lucan. et Liv. nr. 60. The Compounds, Consto, I consist ; Exto, 
I exist, appear; Insto,! press on, am near; Obsto, oppose; Persto, I persist; 
Prcesto, I surpass, make stiti, staturus. Prcestandus, Ovid. Liv. x. 36. Cic. Fam. 
vi. 8. Asto, I stand near, stiti, stiturus ; Porein. ap. Prise. Pros to, I stand to be 
hired ; Resto, I remain, make stiti, without the Perfect Participle. Antesto, or 
antisto, I excel ; Circumsto, I stand about : Intersto, I stand between ; Supersto, 
I stand over, make steti, without the Perfect Participle. See Cic. de Inv. Caes. 
B. G. Disto, I am distant, I differ ; Substo, I stand under, I bear up, have neither 
Perfect nor Perfect Participle. ' Multa quae in praeteritis efferuntur, ad sisto, 
commode reduci possunt.; Facciolat. See the Compounds of Sisto, third Conj. 
Prastavi, Ammian. Prceslavimus, Paul. Dig. Prwstiturus in some edd. of Cic. 
Fam. vi. 8. — 2 Tonimus, third Conj. Varr. ap. Non. i. 245. Tonavi, given by the 
Oxford commentators on Lily, and by Gesner in his Thesaur. Lat. and Tonivi, 
quoted from Plautus, do not exist. Attono, I astonish, ui, itus ; Circumtono, I 
thunder round, ui ; Intono, I thunder on, ui, atus ; Intondvi, Paulin. Epist. Into- 
natus, thundered on, Hor. Epod. n. 51. RUono, I resound, has neither Perfect 
nor Perfect Participle. — * Vetavi, Plaut. according to the Mss. of Langius and 
seven others. Vetdvisti, vs. 46. according to five Palatine Mss, and three others. 
See the Delphin Plautus printed by Valpy. Veldvit, Pers. Sat. which some have ■ 
altered to notavit, others to retabit. Vetdveram, Plane, ad Cic. Fam. x. 23. where the 
ed. Vindel. 1469. and the Aid. 1533. have vetueram. Some from Stat. Theb. in. 
71. cite vetatam ; but the two Mss. at Cambridge, one in the Peter-house CoL 
and the other in St. John's, with more than twenty printed copies, have in this 
passage riegdtam, 



136 



SECOND CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 



I. Verbs of the Second Conjugation end in 
-eo 9 and change -eo into -ere long in the Infinitive ; 
into ui in the Perfect ; and into -itus in the Perfect 
Participle Passive ; as, 



Moneo, 1 monere, monui, momtus, r. d. 

—So, 

Admoneo,2 r. d, 

Commoneo, 

Prsemoneo, 

*Arceo,3 b. tie hard, 

Coerceo,4 d. 

Exerceo,5 d. 

Habeo,6 r.d. 

Adhibeo,? r. d. 

Cohibeo.s d. 

Inhibeo,9 i>. 

Exhibeo,io r. d. 

*Perhibeo,n d. 

Prohibeo,i2 r. d. 

Posthabeo, 

Prsebeo,i3 r. d. afford. 



adv 



admonish. 


Debeo,i4 r. d. 


owe. 


warn. 


Mereo,i5 r. 


deserve. 


forewarn. 


Commereo,i6 


deserve well or ill. 


drive away. 


Demereo, 1 " r>. 


earn. 


restrain. 


Emereo, 


merit. 


exercise. 


*Permereo, 


serve in war. 


have. 


Pr5mereo,i3 


deserve. 


admit, use. 


Terreo,i9 d. 


terrify. 


restrain. 


Absterreo,20 


deter. 


hinder. 


Conterreo,2i 


affright 


show. 


Deterreo,22 r>. 


deter. 


report. 


Exterreo, 


scare. 


hinder. 


Perterreo, 


frighten. 


postpone. 


Taceo,23 r. d. 


he silent, conceal. 



i Moniturus, Propert. I. Monendus, Plaut — 2 Admoniturus, Ovid. Admonttum, 
Cic. Admonendus, Plin. — 3 Arcendus, Cic. Off I. 34. — 4 Coercendus, Cels.— 
5 Exercendus, Cic. de Orat. i. 157. — 6 Habiturus, Cic. Philip, hi. 27, Habendus, 
Ovid. — i Adhibiturus, Curt. Adhibendus, Anson. — 8 Cohibendus, Cels. Cohibes- 
sit, for cohtbuerit, Lucr. ill. 445. — 9 Inliibendus, Sen. — io Exhibiturus, Petron. — 
Exhibendus, Plin. Epist. — ^Perhibendus, Cic. The Perfect Participle, and the 
Participles in ns and rus do not occur. — 12 Proliibiturus, Liv. xxxi. 25. Prohi- 
bendus, Cic. Off 1. 25. ProhWesso, is, it, for prohibeam. or prohzbuerim, Plaut. — 
13 Prabitur us, Liv. Pr&bendus, Cic. Off 1. 41. — ^Deozturus, Curt. Debitu iri, 
for debitum iri, ap. Uip. — is Meriturus, Cic. Acad. 1. 7. Liv. 11. 38. — 16 Commerz.' 
tus, pass. Plaut. Commerztus, having deserved, comes from the Deponent Com- 
mereor. — n Demerendus, Colum. 1. 4. The Participles in ns and rus do not occur. 
18 Prdmeritus, pass. Plaut. Promerztus, having deserved, from Prdmereor, Virg. 
JEn. iv. 333. ' Prdmerendi, amoris studium,' Sueton. Calig. c 3. — 19 Terrendus, 
Aul. Gell. — 20 Absterritus, Liv. — 21 Conterrztus,V'irg. ./En. in. 507. — 22 Beterren- 
dus, Hirt. B. G.— 23 Tacitus, concealed, Virg. Mn. iv. 67. Tdczturus, Cic. Ta- 
cendus, Hor. Obs. The Participles in ns, rus, aiad dus of Commoneo, Posthabeo, 
Commereo, Emereo, Absterreo, Conterreo, Exterreo, Perterreo, do not occur in th§ 
classics. Permereo has no Participle. 



SECOND CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



137 



II. Neuter Verbs of the Second Conjugation 
generally make -ui, and have no Perfect Partici- 
ple : 



*Aceo,i 


be sour. 


*Liceo,i7 


be put 


to sale, be valued. 


*Areo,2 


be dry. 


*Madeo,is 




be wet. 


*CaIeo, 3 R. 


be warm, hot. 


*J\tgreo,i9 




be black. 


*Candeo,-4 


be white, hot. 


*JNiteo,2o 




shine. 


*Caneo.^ 


be hoary. 


*Oieo,2i 




emit a smell. 


*Careo,6 r. 


want. 


*Palleo,22 




be pale. 


Clareo,7 


be bright, renowned. 


*Piireo,23 m. 


R. 


appear, obey. 


Doleo,s r. d. 


grieve. 


*Pateo,24 




be open. 


Egeo,9 r. 


want. 


*PercalleO,23 


be hardened, understand. 


*£mineo, 10 


be raised above. 






well. 


*Flacceo,n 


wither. 


*PJaceo,26 




please. 


*FlGreo,i2 


flourish. 


*Pubeo, 27 




arrive at puberty. 


*Horreo,i3 d. 


be rough, tremble with 


*Pufeo,2s 




stink. 




cold. 


*Putreo. 




be rotten. 


*Jaceo,i4 r. 


lie. 


*Rigeo,29 




be stiff. 


*Langueo,i5 ui', 


languish. 


*Rubeo,30 




be red. 


*Lateo,i6 


lie hid. 









i Acui, Ulpian. — 2 Aruit, Prudent. — 3 Cdlui, Stat. Theb. Caliturus, Ovid.— 
4 Candui, Ovid. — 5 Cdnui, Ovid. Fast. m. 880. Cdneret, Propert. — 6 Carui, Plaut. 
Cariturus, Ovid Met. — 7 Clarui, Sueton.— e Doha, Virg. Mn. I. 673. Dolitus est, 
for doluit, Inscr. Doledtur, for doleat, ibid. Dol'eri, Stat. Doliturus, Liv. xxxix. 
43. Dolendus, Ox 'id. — 9 Egui, Cic, in Brut. c. 67. Eguiturus, Tertul. Egiturus. 
See Sciop. — ioThe Perfect of the simple Mineo does not occur, Eminui, Veil. 
11 Flaccuit, Varr. where Gesner reads Fldcuit. ' Flaccenie, sententia,' Mamert,' 
uFldrui, Ovid.— 13 Horrid, Ovid. Fast. n. 502. Horrendus, Virg. iEn. ix. 112. — 
14 Jdcui, passim. Ja&rturus, Stat Theb. — 15 Langui, three syll. Lucan. vn. 245. 
Ovid. Met. — is Ldtui, Virg. JEn. I. 134. et passim. — W Llcui, Cic. — is Mddui, Ovid. 
l 9 Nigrui, Colum. — 20 Nltui, Tibull. — 21 Olid, Hor. The compounds of Oleo, 
when they signifv to smell, make ui : Adoleo, I smell, burn, ui, Varr. Adultus, 
Antias ibid. Adolendus, Ovid. Oboleo, smell, ui, Plaut. Redbleo, smell strong- 
ly, ui ; Redoluerat, had got a scent, Capitolin. in Gordian. Sub oleo, smell a little, 
ui; but of this there is no classical proof; Subollvi certainly does not exist. 
Perolesse, to have smelt strongly, is cited from Lucil. by Prise. In the significa- 
tion, to grow, grow out of use, fade, &c, they make evi : Aboleo, 1 efface, evi, 
Gell. Abolitus, Tacit. Aboliturus, Sueton- Abolendus, Sueton. Adolesco, I 
grow up, evi, Sail. Jug. c. 2. Adolesse, Ovid. Exoleo occurs only in Prise. 
Exolesco, I fade, evi, PlTn. Exolltus, Cic. pro Mil. Obsoleo, or Obsolesco, 1 grow 
out of use, evi, Cic. Manil. c. 17. Obsoletus, Cic. Inolesco, I grow upon/ implant. 
evi, Gell. Inolescendus, Gell. The Perfects Abolui, Adolui, I have grown up ; 
Adolevi, I have burned. Exolui, Jnolui, do not occur in the entire body of clas* 
sical Latinity. Priscian, gives Abolui, but without authority. — ^•Pallui, Propert, 
23 Pdrui, Mart. Pdriturus, Justin. Pdritum, Symmach.— 24 Pdtui, Ovid. Met. 

25 Percallui, Cic. Milon. The Perfect of the simple Calleo does not occur. — 

26 Pldcui, Ovid.— 27 Pubui, Ulp. Dig.— 23 Putuit, Hor. 11. Sat. 4. 66. So the Mss. of 
Cruquius, Torrentius, Bentley, three of the Harleian Mss. in the British Museum, 
and most of the modern edd. Pittruit, one of the Harleian Mss. with the edd, 
Mediol. 1477, Florent. 1482, and some others.— 29 Rigid, Ovid. Met. iv. 554, 
so Rubui, Ovid. 

m2 



138 SECOND CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

*Torpeo,6 be torpid, numb. 

*Tumeo,7 swell. 

*Valeo, 8 R. be able. 

*Vigeo,9 be strong. 

*Vireo,io be green. 

To these add the Actives Timeo,u ere, ui, endus, fear : and Noceo,w Ire, ui, 
nocitum, noctturus, hurt. Also Sileojz ere, ui, silendus, keep silent, conceal. 



*Sordeo,i 


be filthy. 


*Squaleo,2 


befoul. 


*Studeo,3 


study. 


*Stupeo,4 


be amazed. 


*Tepeo,5 


be warm. 



i Sordui, Alcim. — 2 Squalui, Paulin. Nolan. — 3 Studui, Cic. — 4 Stupui, Val. 
Flac— 5 Tepui, Mart.— 6 Torpui, Ovid.—? Tumui, Ovid.— 8 Valui, Tibuil. Vali- 
turus, Cic. — 9 Anciently Vigo. Vigui, Ovid. Met. xv. 426. — io Virui, Flor. — 
ii Timui, Cses. Timendus, Hor. — &Nocui, Cic. Att. et passim. Noxim, -is, -it, 
for nocuerim, Lucil. ap. Fest. in ' Tama.' Nocitum iri, Caes. B. G. v. 36. Nosci- 
turus. Cic. Off. Noscitus, Vet. Interp. — 13 Silui, Senec. Med. Silitum est, Au- 
gust, de Civ. Dei. Silendus, Ovid. 



SECOND CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 139 

EXCEPTIONS. 

III. Verbs in -beo and -ceo : 

Jtibeo,i jubere, jussi, jussus, jussurus, order. 

*Sorbeo, 2 sorbere, sorbui, , sup. 

Doceo,3 docere, docui, doctus, docendus, teach. 

Misceo,4 miscere, miscui, mistus or mixtus, r. d. mix. 

Mulceo,5 mulcere, mulsi, mulsus, mulcendus, soothe. 

*Luceo, 6 lucere, luxi, , shine. 

IV. Verbs in deo: 

Ardeo,? ardere, arsi, arsus, arsurus, burn. 

Audeo,8 audere, ausus sum, ausurus, audendus, dare. 

Gaudeo, 9 gaudere, gavisus sum, gavlsurus, rejoice. 

Mordeo,^ mordere, momordi, morsus, mordendus, bite. 

*Pendeo,* 1 pendere, pependi, , hang. 

Prandeo, 12 prandere, prandi, pransus, pransurus, dine. 

Rldeo,i3 ridere, risi, rlsus, risum, ristirus, rldendus, laugh. 



i Anciently Jusi. See Quintil. I. 7. Jussurus, Lucan— .2 Sorbui, Plin. Sorpsi, 
Diomec4. but without authority. Absorbui, Plin. Absorpsi, Lucan. Exsorbui, 
Pli n .__3 Docendus, Cic. de Or. II. 17. — * Mistus seems preferable to Mixtus ; 
though in the ancient Mss. of -Virgil and Inscript. ap. Manut. this Participle is 
written with XT. which is approved of by Dausquius. Misturus, Lucan. Mis- 
cendus, Ovid.— 5 Mulsi, Enn. ap. Prise. The Participle Mulsus is used only in 
the sense of sweet, as in Plaut. or mixed with honey, as in Colura. Plin. xxn. 24., 
Mulcendus, Ovid. Permulsi, Pacuv. ap. Gell. Permulsus, Caes. b. g. iv. 6. Per- 
mulctus, Sail, in Frag. Hist. iv. ap. prise. 1. 1. Gell. i. 11., where some read Per- 
mulsus.— -6 So the Compounds, Dlluceo, ' dawn ;' Eluceo, ' shine forth ,-' Pelluceo, 
'shine through ;' Produceo, 'shine before,' without the Perfect Participle. But 
Polluceo, ' I offer in sacrifice,' ' prepare a banquet,' ' consecrate,' makes xi, ctus. 
— 7 Ardui, Inscr. Arduerint, Inscript. Arsus, in the sense of tostus, Plin. Arsu- 
rus, Ovid.— « Ausi, for ausus sum, Cato ap. Prise; hence Ausim, for auserim, 
Liv. in Praef. Ausint, Stat. Theb. Auserim, Lactant. where Cellarius reads au- 
sis. Ausus, Virg. iEn. vi. 624. Ausurus, Ovid. Audendus, Liv. xxxv. 35. — 
9 Gavlsi, for gavzsus sum, Liv. in Odyss. ap. Prise, ix. 868. Gav'isurus, Terent. 
Gaudendus, pass. Syramaeh.— io Memordi, Gell. The Compounds do not double 
the first syllable : Admordeo, admordi, admorsus, &c. Yet Admemordi, Plaut. 
Mordendus, Ovid.— n The Participle Pensus, occurs only in the compound, Pro- 
pendeo, Pers. Sat. Pensurus comes from Pendo, -is, of the third Conj., which also 
makes Pependi. — 12 Some give this Verb another Perfect, Pransus sum. See Liv. 
xxviii. 14. Pransurus, Plaut.— 13 Rido, -is, Lucr. Irridunt, Brut. ap. Diomed. 
Ridear, pass. Ovid. Ridetur, Mart. Rlsus est, was laughed at, Val. Max. Rl- 
surus, Plaut. Rldendus, Hor. Risum, Cic. Irrlsum, Piaut. Derlsum, Id. 



140 



SECOND CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



^Sedeo, 1 seel ere, sedi, — — , sessum, sessurus, sit. 

Spondeo,2 spondere, spopondi, sponsus, promise. 

Suadeo, 3 suadere, suasi, suasus, suasurus, suadendus, advise. 

Tondeo,4 tondere, totondi, tonsus, clip. 

Vldeo,5 videre, vidi, visus, visum, visu, vlsurus, videndus, see. 



V. Verbs in geo : 



*Algeo,6 algere, alsi, , 

Auo*eo,7 augere, auxi, auctus, aucturus, 

*Fulgeo,8 fulgere, fulsi, , 

Indulgeo,9 indulgere, indulsi, indultus, r. 
*Lugeo, 1 o lugere, luxi, , lugendus, 



*Mulgeo,u mulgere, mulsi, ■ 
Tergeo, 12 tergere, tersi, tersus, 

*Turgeo»i3 turgere, tursi, , 

*Urgeo,i4 urgere, ursi, , urgendus, 



be cold, shiver with cold. 

increase. 

shine. 

indulge. 

mourn. 

milk. 

wipe. 

swell, be angry. 

press. 



VI. Verbs in -ieo and -leo : 



Cieo,i 5 ciere, [civi,] citus, 



stir up. 



i Sessum, Cic. Sessurus, Hor. Art. Poet. Sededtur, impers. Gell. — 2 Spopondi, 
Liv.; never Spospondi. The Compounds do not doable the first, syllable : Des- 
pondeo, despondi, desponsus, Cic. ; yet Despopondi, Piaut. Spepondi, Valer. 
Sponderat, Tertull. — 3 Suasus, Plaut. Suasurus, Quintil. in. 8. Suadendus, 
Trajan. — 4 The Perfect, though not found in the classics, is acknowledged by ail 
the old Grammarians ; and is confirmed by the Compound Detotonderat in Van*, 
ap. Prise, ix. p. 868., and Deque lolondit'm Enn. ibid., though Detondeo generally 
makes Delondi; see Colum. vn. 4. ; and so the other compounds, without dou- 
bling the syllable to. — 5 Visum, Cic. Visu, Juv. Vlsurus, Virg. Georg. 11. 68. 
iEn. v. 107. Videndus, Terent. We use the tense Videris, -it, -int, imperatively, 
when we disclaim the care of any thing, and leave it entirely to others. Vi- 
derint alii, let others look to it ; for it is no concern of mine. The passive V\- 
deor is often used in a neuter sense, I seem, I appear ; and generally with the 
datives mini, tibi, sibi : Videor inihi, Videris tzbi. &c. — 6 Alsit, Hor. Art. Poet. 
413. Alsi us, Cic. Att. iv. 8., as if from Alsus. — 7 Aucturus, Liv. 1. 7. 'Ad 
fruges augendas,' Lucr. Auxim, -is, -it, for augeam, -as, -at, or auxerim, -is, -it, 
Liv. xxix. 7. — s Fulceo, Diomed. Fulgo, Prise. Fulgit, Lucr. Fulgere, Virg. 
^En. vi. 827. — 9 Indultus, Ovid. Indulturus, (Jlpian. Indulgendus, Ulpian — 
10 Luxii, for luxisti, Catull. Lugendus, Ovid. Lugetur, impers. Catull. — U Mul- 
si, Virg. Georg. in. 400. ' Mulxi, differentiae causa, quidam protulerunt, quia 
Mulceo quoque Mulsi facil.' Prise, ix. p. 870. Neither Mulxi nor Mulclus oc- 
cur in the classics. — 12 Tergunt, Cic. Tergunfur, Varr. l. l. Tersti, for tersisti, 
Catull. - Tergendus mensis utilis,' Mart. The Participles in ns and rus do not 
occur. — is Turserat, Enn. ap. Prise, ix. p. 870. Turgo and Turgil occur in the 
ancient Glossaries. — 14 Some write Urgueo, contrary to the opinion of Longus, 
Papir., Cassiodor., Bede, Dausq.; but Pierius on Virg. ./En. v. 202., Barth., 
Heins., Cort., Drakenb. and Oudend. seem to prefer it, from its more frequent oc^ 
currence in Mss. Ursi, Cic. Urgendus, Quintil. — 15 Civi properly belongs to 



SECOND CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 141 

Compleo,i complere, complevi, completus, Jill. 

Deleo, 2 delere, delevi, deletus, delendus, blot out. 

Fleo, 3 flere, flevi, fletus, fleturus, flendus, weep. 

S6leo,4 solere, solitus sum or solui, be accustomed. 

VII. Verbs in -neo -queo, ~reo, -seo : 

Censeo,5 censere, censui, census, censendus, think, judge. 

*Haereo, 6 heerere, hsesi, , hassurus, stick, hesitate. 

*Maneo, 7 manere, mansi, , mansum, mansiirus, stay. 

Neo, 8 nere, nevi, netus, spin. 

Seneo,9 senere, senui, senectus, grow old. 

Teneo, 10 tenere, tenui, tentus, tenturus, tenendus, hold. 

Torqueo, 1 ! torquere, torsi, tortus, torquendus, whirl. 

Torreo,i2 torrere, torrui, tostus, roast. 

VIII. Verbs in -veo : 

Caveo, 13 cavere, cavi, cautus, cautum, cavendus, beware of. 

*Conniveo,u connivere, connlvi, , wink at. 

*Faveo,i 5 favere, favi, , fauturus, favour. 

*Ferveo,ie fervere, ferbui, -, boil, be hot. 

Cio of the Fourth Conj., which see in List. i. The Perfect Cii, mentioned by 
Charis. in. init. takes place only in the Compounds. Cltus, Cels. Concitus, 
Ovid. Excitus, Virg. /En. iv. 301. 

i Of the simple Verb we find only Plentur. Complement, for compleverunt, 
Caes. B. G. * Ad fossas, complendas,'' Hirt. B. H. — 2 Delendus, Cic. pro Leg. Ma- 
nil, c. 7. — 3 Flesse, for Jlevisse, Plin. Fletus, Virg. /En. vi. 481. Fleturus, Hor. 
Epod. v. 74. Flendus, Ovid. Trist. — 4 Soluerat, Sallust, in Fragm. Soluerint, 
CceI. Antipater ap. Non. Solitus sum, Cic. de Orat. i. 30. et passim. Solens, 
Plaut. — 5 Census, Liv. in. 3. Rectnsus, Sueton. Censitus, Cod. Justin ; hence 
Recens'dus, Sueton. Censendus, Ovid. — 6 Hcesurus, Ovid. 7 Mansti, for man- 
sisti, Lucil. ap. Gell. Mansum, Terent. Mansiirus, Virg. iEn. in. 85. Manen- 
da, Lucr. — %Nevit, Ovid. Nesse, Claud, in Eutrop. 1.274. Netus, Alcim. Avit. 
— 9 Senui, Sueton- Senectus, Lucr. Sail, in Orat. — io Tenui, Virg. Georg. iv. 
483. et passim. Tenlvi, Charis. Tetini. Festus. Tetinerim, -is, -it, Accius et 
Pacuv. ap. Non. ii. 838. Tetinisse, Pacuv. ibid. Tentus, held, Ammian. Ten- 
turus, Claud, de Torp. 19. Tenendus, Ovid. — n Tortus, Virg. JEa\. iv. 575. So 
Contorquo, -si, -tus, whirl about; Detorqueo, -si, -tus, turn aside; but the Partici- 
ple Detorsus is used by Cato ap. Prise, ix. p. 871., and the Supine Torsum is 
given by Prise, ibid., but without authority. Torquendus, Liv. xxiv. 5. — 12 Tor- 
rui, Ovid. Tostus, Cic. Tusc. in. 19. et passim. — is Cavi, Ter. Cic. et passim. 
Cautus, legally secured, Hor.; avoided, Plant.; defended, Mart. Cautus is a 
contraction of Cavttus. It is more frequently used in an active sense, cautious, 
circumspect. Cautum, Liv. Cavendus, Propert. Cic. Or. 11. 195. Caverem, for 
caverem, Tibull. ,• hence Cave, Hor. n. Sat. 3. — 14 Connlvi, Cassius ap. Prise, ix. 
865. Plaut. ' Dum ego connixi somne,' Turpil. ap. Prise. 1. c. ; but this seems 
to come from Connivo, -is, of the third Conj. Connivere, Calvus ap. Prise, ibid. 
At all events Conmvi is more certain, and more consonant with analogy. — 
15 Favi, Cic. pro Plane. ' Huic Romse ita fautum est, ut,' &c. Spartian. Fau- 
turus, Cic. 16 Ferbui, Pallad. Deferbui, Cato R. R. c. 96. Conferbui, Cels. Ferverit, 
Cato R. R. c. 157., where some Mss. h&veferbuerit. * Fervit aqua, etfervet ; fervit 



142 



SECOND CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



Foveo,i fovere, fovi, fotus, fovendus, cherish. 

Moveo, 2 movere, movi, motus, motiirus, movendus, move. 

*Paveo, 3 pavere, pavi, , pavendus, fear. 

Voveo,4 vovere, vovi, votus, vow. 

IX. The Perfects of the following Verbs are 
doubtful : 

*DIribeo,5 ui, count over, distribute. Splendeo,9 ui, shine. 

Frendeo,6 ui, fressus or fresus, gnash. Strideo,io ui, hiss, creak. 

*Fngeo,7 frixi, be cold. Vieo,n vievi, vietus, bind with twigs, 

*Frondeo,s ui, bear leaves. hoop. 

Marceo, I fade, is said to have Marcui, 
but is confirmed by the compound Emar 

X. These Verbs have neither Perfects nor Per- 
fect Participles : 



which does not occur in the classics ; 
cesco, emar cut, fade away, Plin. xv. 29. 



*Albeo,i2 




be white. 


*Aveo, 




covet. 


*Calveo,i3 




be bald. 


*Ceveo,i4 


fawn as a dog. 
be famous, exist, be. 


*Clueo, 


*Denseo,i5 




thicken. 


*Flaveo, 




be yellow. 


*Foeteo, 




stink. 


*Glabreo,i6 




be bare. 


*Hebeo, 




be dull. 


*Hiimeo, 




be moist. 


*Lacteo, 




suck milk. 



*Lenteo, 


be slow. 


*Liveo, 


be black and blue. 


*Maceo, 


be lean. 


*Mcereo,i7 


grieve. 


*Muceo,is 


be mouldy. 


*A T ideo,i9 


shine. 


*Polleo, 


be powerful. 


* Renideo, 20 


glitter. 


*Scateo,2i 


overflow. 


*Uveo,22 


be moist. 


*Vegeo, 


be strong. 



nunc, fervet ad annum/ Lucil. ap. Quintil. Fervat Pompon et Accius ap. Non. 
Fervere, Virg. Georg. 1. 455. 

1 Fovi, Virg. ^En. xn. 420. Fotus, Virg. ^En. 1. 699. Foven- 
dus, Colum. vi. 12. — 2 Moturus, Liv. Mbvendus, Virg. Georg. 11. 418. Mos- 
tis, for mdvistis, Mart. Morunt, for moverunt, Sil. — 3 Pavi, Petron. Ex- 
pavi, Hor. 1. Od. 37, 23. Pavendus, Plin.— 4 Votus, Cic. de Nat. Deor.— 5 Di- 
ribui is found in dictionaries only. — 6 Frendui, Bibl. Vulgat. Psalms, xxxiv. 16. 
Frendi, Lowe Gramm. p. 14. Fressus, Cels. Fresus, Colum.— 7 Frixi, Diomed. ; 
also Perfrigesco makes perfrixi, Cels., and Kefrlgesco, refrixi, Cic. Att. 1. 11. — 
8 Frondui, Prise. — 9 Splendid, Charis. — 10 Stridui, Prise. Str'idere, Hor. 11. Sat. 
8.78. Vid. Heins. et Burmann. ad Ovid. Met. ix. 171. ' rostrisque stridentibus' 
in some Mss. — 11 Vievi Grammatici. Vietus, weak, flaccid, is used as a mere ad- 
jective. Vietis in Hor. Epod. xii. 7. is considered by some as an Anapest ; it 
would be more correct to make it a Spondee by Syndesis. — 12 Albui Gram- 
matici. — 13 Calvi occurs only in dictionaries. — 14 Cevi, Valer. Prob. in Cathol. p. 
1482. Cevo, cevis, cevi, Idem ibid. p. 1484. — 15 Denseo, densi, Charis. in. p. 233. 
See Heinsius on Ovid. Fast. in. 820.— 16 Of this verb Glabrentibus only occurs, 
and that in Colum. n. 9.8. ed. Gesn., where Schneider and others read calenti- 
bus. — n • Moerui debuit facere, sed in usu non est.' Prise, vin. p. 817. Some 
give this Verb Moestus sum as a Perfect, which does not differ in signification 
from Mcereo, since Moestus is a mere adjective. — is Mucui is found in dictionaries 
only. — 19 This Verb occurs only in Petron. ' Areaqua attritis nidet] &c. where 
others read ridet. — 20 Reniduit, Gloss. Vett.— 21 ' Praeteritum Scatui analogia de- 
fenditur, ut Patui, Latui, &c. Facciolat. — 22 Of this Verb the Participle Uvens 
only occurs in the classics. 



SECOND CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 143 



DEPONENTS. 

Polliceor, 1 -eris or -ere, -eri, -itus, promise. 

Fateor,2 fassus, r. d. confess. *Medeor,6 , d. cure. 

Conf iteor,3 confessus, D. acknowledge. Misereor,7 misentus or misertus, pity. 

*DifT iteor, , deny. Reor,s ratus, think. 

Pr6fiteor,4professus, D. declare. Tueor,9 tuitus, D. see, protect. 

LTceoiv licitus, bid a price. Vereor, veritus,io d. fear. 



i Pollzcztus, having promised, Caes. B. G. n. 4. Pollicitus, pass, promised, Ovid. 
Polliceor, pass. Ulpian. Polliceres, act. Varr. ap. Non. — 2 Fassus, Piaut. Fassu- 
rus, Ovid. Fdtendus, Id. Trist. i. 9. 16. Faledtur, pass. Cic. But see Ernesti. — 
3 Confessus, act. Plaut. passim. Confessus, pass, confessed, manifest, Cic. Quin- 
til. et Plin. Confiietur, pass. Ulpian. Confitendus, Cic. — 4 Prbfessus, Cic. pas- 
sim. Prbfessus, pass. Ovid. Prof itendus, Cic. de Orat. Prof itemino, for pro- 
fiteatur, Vet. Tab. asn. ap. Murator, p. 582. — 5 Licitus, Cic. Verr. v. 11. — 6 Me- 
deor has no Perfect ; but in its stead Medicatus from Medicor, I heal, is used. See 
Diomed, i. p. 376. Medendus, Stat. Theb. Medendo, pass. Virg. ^En. xn. 46. 
'Ut huic vitio medealur,' that this fault may be obviated, Vitruv.-7 < Ipse sui rriiseret,' 
Lucr. Al2seritus,Fh?edr. Misertus, Justin. Misererier, for misereri, Lucr. Miserea- 
fur, pass. Cic. — 8 Of this Verb the following forms only are found in the classics : 
Reor, Hor. n. Ep. i. 69. Reris, Virg. ^En. vi. 96. Rerin, for reris ne? Plaut. 
Rere, Virg. Mn. vn. 437. Retur, Stat. Theb. Remur, Cic. Off. Rimini, Arnob. 
Rentur, Plaut. R'ebar, Cic. Rebare, Virg. vEn. x. 608. Rebatur, Cic. R'eba- 
mur, Plaut. Rebantur, Cic. de Nat. Deor. Rebor, Senec. Rebitur, Plaut. Rear, 
Id. Redre, Rearis, Auson. Reantur, Plaut. Ratus, Cic. See Quintil. vm. 3. 
and Cic. Or. in. 38. Wherefore this and many other Verbs might, with as much 
propriety, be classed among the Defectives, as Aio, Inquio, &c. — 9 Tuor, Stat. 
Theb. Hence Tutus, protected, Sail. Jug. c. 56. Li v. x. 37. Tuitus, Quintil. v. 
13. Tuentur, pass. Varr. Tuendus, Cic. Virg. iEn. ix. 175. — io Verilus, Cic. 
Verendus, Ovid. Met. Vereri, pass. 



144 



SECOND CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

Decet,i decere, decuit, it becomes. 

Ltbet,2 libere, libuit or libitum est, it pleases. 

Ltibet, 3 liibere, lubuit or lubitum est, it pleases. 

Licet,4 licere, licuit or licitum est, it is lawful. 

Liquet,5 liquere, liquit or licuit, it is clear. 

Miseret,6 miserere, miseruit or miseritum est, it pities. 

Oportet,? oportere, oportuit, it behoves. 

Piget, s pigere, piguit or pigitum est, it grieves. 

Pcenitet, 9 poenitere, poenituit, it repents. 

PiideVo ptidere, piiduit or piiditum est, it shames. 

Tsedetjii tsedere, taeduit or teesum est, it wearies. 



iDeceant,C\c. Decuerint, Sail. Jug. c. 53. 'Si non dedecui,' If I have not 
dishonoured, Stat. Theb. — 2 < Sciendum, quod hsc omnia inveniuntur perfecto- 
rum declinationem, habentia in usu veterum, teste, Capro, Pigec, Pudeo, TcEdeo, 
Pceniteo, Liqueo, Liceo, Libeo, Oporteo, quomodo, Placeo, Contingo,'' &c. Priscian. 
xi. p. 528. Libitum exit, Plaut. Asin. 1. 1. 9. — 3 Liibet is the ancient form for 
Libet, especially in the comic writers. Lubet, Plaut. Lubuit, Pseud. Lubere, 
Cic. Att. ^Licessit, for licuerit, Plaut. Licitum, trit, Cic. Licitum esset, Id. 
Att. 11. 1. — 5 Llqueret, Cic Nat. Deor. 1. 42. Litcuerit, Ulp. Dig. For licuit some 
write liquuit. Licitum, which some give to this Verb, belongs to Licet. — §Mise- 
rete, Enn. ap. Non. Misererent, Enn. ap. Prise. '• Ipse sui miseret,' Lucr. Mise- 
ruit, Apul. Met. Miseritum est, Terent. — 7 Oportebant, Terent. Oportent, Id. 
Andr. Oportuerirtt, Cascil. ap. Prise. Oporieto, for oporteat,Vel. Leg. — %Piguet, 
Petron. Pigitum, Sil." Pigens, Apul. Met. Pigendus, Propert. — QPceriitcbunt, 
Pacuv. ap. Non. Pcenitens, Cic. Phil. xn. 2. Pceniturus Quintil. Pcmitendas, 
Colum. Liv. 1. 35. Some write Pceriitet w 7 ith JE ; and so it is in an Inscript. ap. 
Grut. p. 502., and in some ancient Mss. of Virgil. Gellius seems to have written 
it in the same manner, since he derives it, xvn. 1., not from Pcena, but from Pome, 
ox P anuria. — 10 Pitdeo, Plaut. Pudent, Terent. Pudebunt, Lucan. Piiditum 
est, Plaut. Puditum esset, Cic. — u Tcedui, Sidon. Ep. TcBsumest, Plaut. Mostel. 
So Pert&det, perlceduit, pertcesum est, Cic. Virg. iEn. v. 714. PertcEdidssent, Cell. 
1. 2. Some of the ancients used to write Pertlsum, (as from Ccedo, Conclsum,) 
which is disapproved of by Cic. Orat. 159. 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS, 145 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 



I. Verbs of the Third Conjugation end in -0, 
and change -0 into -t or -si in the Perfect; into -ere 
short in the Infinitive ; and into -itus, -tics, or -sus 
in the Perfect Participle Passive ; as, 

Tnbuo, tribuere, tnbui, tributus, r. d. give, divide. 

II. Verbs in -co, -cto, and -go generally take -si; 
but the letters cs and gs unite to form x; as, Dlco, 
I say, fdicsij dixi; Rego, I rule, freGsiJ rezi. 

III. G before -tus becomes c ; as, Lego, I read, 
(legitus, leGTusJ lectus ; Jungo, I join, (jungitus, 
jmiGTusJ junctus, &c. 

IV. B before -si and -tus becomes p ; as, Nubo, 
I veil, nupsi, nuptus ; Scribo, I write, scripsi, 
scriptus. 

V. jR before -si and -tus becomes s ; as, uro, I 
burn, ussi, ustus; Gero, I carry, gessi, gestus. 

VI. D and t are generally dropped before -si, 
-sus, -tus ; as, Claudo, I shut, clausi, clausus, Dl- 
vido, I divide, dwisi, divisus ; Lczdo, I hurt, fast, 
Icesus ; Lildo, I play, lust, lusus ; Plaudo, I ap- 
plaud, plausi, plausus ; Rddo, I shave, rdsi, rdsus; 
Trudo, I thrust, trust, trusus; Vddo, I go, vast; 
Flecto, I bend, fjieosijflexi, (fleosusj Jiexus, &c. 

VII. D and £ sometime become s before s; as, 
Cedo, I yield, cessi, cessus ; Mitto, I send, mist, 
missus ; Quatio, I shake, quassi, quassus, &c. 

VIII. G is sometimes dropped before -si and 



146 TtflHD CONJUGATION OF VERES, 

-sus; as, Spargo, I scatter, sparsi, sparsus; Vergo, 
I incline, versi, versus; Mergo, I clip, mersi, mer- 
sus, &c. So Parco, I spare, drops c in par sums; 
and Pasco, I feed, drops c inpastus. 

IX. Verbs in -sco change -sco into -vi for the 
Perfect, and drop sc before -tus; as, Cresco, I grow 7 
crm' ? cretus; Nosco, I learn to know, novi, notus, 

X. m and n are frequently dropped both in the 
Perfect and Perfect Participle Passive; as, Temno, 
I despise, temsi; Frcmgo, I break, fregi.. fr actus; 
Rumpo, I burst, rupi, rupius, &c. jlf becomes s 
before -si in Premo, I press, pressi, pressus: ?i be- 
comes 5 in Pona, I place, posui, positiis. 

XL Verbs changing -o into -z for the Perfect, 
and into -itus, -tus, or -sus, for the Perfect Partici- 
ple Passive : 

*Abnu<v abnuere, abnui, , abnulturus, abnuendus, refuse* 

Accendo, 2 a'ccendere, accendi, accensus, set on fire, 

Acuo.s acuere, acui, aciitus, acuendus, sharpen. 

Appendo, appendere, appendi, appensus, weigh, 

Arguo,4 arguere, argui, argutus, argutum, arguiturus, 

arguendus, show, prove, accuse. 

*Batuo,5 batuere, batui, , batuendus, beat. 

B'iboe bibere, bibi, blbitus, bibendus, drink. 

*Cougruo, 7 congruere, congrui, , come together, agree. 

Defendo, 8 defendere, defend!, defensus, r. d. ward off. 

*Dego,9 degere, degi, — , degendus, live, dwell. 



i Neither the Participle Abnutus nor the Supine Ahmdum are found except in 
dictionaries. Abnuiturus, Sallust. Fragra. Hist. i. Abnuendus, Senec. — Z'Accen- 
dendis ofFensionibus callidi/ Tacit. Ann. — s.Aculus, Prise: but it is used as a 
mere Adjective. Acuendus, Cic. Phil. n. — 4 Argui, Liv. Argutus, Plaut. Ar- 
gutum, Supine, Festus. Arguiturus, Sallust. Arguendus, Tacit. — 5 Batui. Cic. 
Fara. Batuendus, Naev. ap. Fulgent. 21. Some incorrectly write Battuo ; hence 
Batlutum, Vett. Gloss. — 6 BVntus, Plin. Valer. Bibendus, Ovid. — ' Cangrui,VaL 
Flac. — s Dlfensums, Claud. Defendendus, Caes. B. G. & Terent. Defensum, Nepos. 
Defensu, Sallust. — sThe Perfect of Dego occurs only in Auson. Epist. xvn. ad 
Symmach-, where some copies have Deguimus. Degendus, Cic. de Amic. 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 147 

Edo,' edere, edi, esus, esum, esurus, edendus, eat. 

iEmo,2 emere, cmi-, enitus, emturus, emendus, buy. 
Exciido,* excudere, excudi, exeusus, vhake out, stamp, 

Exuo, 1 exuere, exui, exutus, exuendus, put off. strip. 
Fervo. See Ferveo, Second Conj. List vtii. 

Findo,'> iindere, fidi, fissus, findendus, cleave, 

Fundo,s f'undere, fudi, fusus, fimtrus, fundendus, pour, 

Ico,7 Icere, ici, ictus, icturu?, strike. 

Imbuo,8 k&buere, imbui, imbiitus, imbuendus, imbrue. 

lnduG,9 induere, indui, indutus, put on. 
fasucvo iasirere, insui, insutus, sow in, join to. 

*Lambo,n lambere, Iambi, -, lick. 

Lego, 12 lerjere, legi, lectus, lecturus, legendus, gather*, read. 

■*Linquo, 13 linquere, liqui, , linquendus, leave. 

*Luo, 14 luere, lui, , lulturus, luendus, pay, atone. 

Mando,i3 mandere, mandi, mansus, ma-ndendus, chew. 

Metuo,is metuere, metui, metutus, metuendus, fear. 

Minuo,i? mlnuere, mmui, rmnutus, minuendus, lessen. 

Pinso,is pinsere, pinsi or pinsui, pinsitus. pinsus or pistus, bake. 



i See Irregular verbs. — 2 Emtus, not Emptus ; because P. is never inserted in 
the Present Emo. So Sumtus, Camlus, Demtus, &c. See the old Grammarians, 
Terentius Scaurus and Marius Victorinus. Emturus, Justin. Emendus Cic. 
Emissim, for emerim. Plaut — 3 The Perfect of the simple Cudo does not occur. 
It makes Cusi according to some ; according to others, Cudi. See Priscian. x. p. 
S89. In Colura. xi. we have Excudit, and viii. 5. Percuderint. The Participle 
Cusus does not occur in the classics ; yet we find Excusus, hatched, Varr. R. R. 
Incusus, Virg. Georg. 1. 275. « Pullis excudendis triginta diebus opus est.' Colura. 
*' Exuendam ad fid em, hostes emercari,' Tacit. Ann. xii. 14. — 3 ' Findo quoque 
fidi facit; licet quidam flsi putaverunt.' Prise, x. p. 890. Fiderit, Cels. Fin* 
dendus) Cels. — 6 Fusurus, Lucan. Fund end us, Curt. — 7 Of this Verb the follow- 
ing forms only are found : Icere, infin. Plaut. Icif, Lucr. Icitis, Gael, ap. Prise, 
x. p. 886. Icdur, Plin. lamur, Lucr. Ici, perf. Plaut. Iceras, Cic. in Pison. 
Iceris, Turpil. a p. Non. Icisse, Cic. pro Balb. Ictus, passim. Iciuri, Senec. 
slmbui, perf. Catull. Imbuendus, Curt. — 9 Indui, Cic. Tusc. Indutus, Virg. 
AlaU. 11. 275. It has no other Participle. — 10 The Perfect of the simple Sue occurs 
only in Prise; but we have Insuere, Plin. Insuisses, Cic. and Insuerat, Liv. 
Stilus, Ovid. Suendus, Cels. Assutus does not occur. Ccnsuius, Plaut. Cir- 
cumsuo is not found in the classics; yet CircumsTdus, Plin. Dissulvs, Ovid. 
Dissuendus, Cic. Off 1. 33. — 11 Lamb trot, Lucil. ap. Prise. Lambui, Bibl. Vulgar. 
Priscian ibid, gives the supine Lambitum, but without authority. Lambo, -is, -wi, 
Cassiodor. de Orthogr. p. 2309. Putsch. — 12 Lecturus, Ovid. Met. Legendus, Ovid. 
13* Lictus, particip. quidam pulant legi ap. Capitohn. in M. Anton. Philosc. c. 7., 
sed locus ille incertus valde est, et raendo corruptus.' Facciclaf. Relictus, Virg. 
Georg. iv. 127. et passim. Linquendus, Ovid. Met. — ^ Lni, Justin. 'In prscteri- 
tis U dicimus longum. luit, pluit ; in praesenti breve, luit, pluiV So writes 
Varro, Lalurus, Claud. Luendus, Tacit. El u endue, Cic. Off. Ablulurus, Au- 
gust. AMuendus, Plin. Dlluendus, Liv.— 15 ' Quidam praeteritnm mandui, alii 
mandidi esse voluerunt ; sed neutrum obtinult.' Priscian. Mandisset, Liv. 
Mansus, Quintil. Mandendus, Cels. — 16 Metui, Terent. Mttulus, Lucr. Me- 
iuendus, Senec. — H Minuendus, Cic. Off — WPinserunt, Varr. R, R. Pinsui, 
Pompon, apo Diomed. Pinsitus, Colum. Pinsus, Vitruv, Pistus, Plin. 



148 THIRD CONJUGATION OF VEBBS, 

*Pluo,i pluere, plui or pluvi, , rain. 

Prehendo, 2 prehendere, prehendi, prehensus, r. d, or 

Prendo, prendere, prendi, prensus, r. d. take, seize. 
*Psallo, psallere, psalli, — — », play on an instrument. 

Rumpo, 3 rumpere, rupi, ruptus, rupturus, d. break. 

Ruo,4 mere, rui, riitus, ruiturus, rush, fall. 

*Mcafeo, 5 scabere, scabi, , scratch. 

*Scando, 6 seandere, scandi, , scandendus, climb. 

*Sido,'* sldere, sidi, , sink down. 

Solvo,8 solvere, solvi, solutus, soluturus, d. loose. 

*Spuo,9 spuere, spui, , spit, 

Statuo,w statuere, statui, statutus, statuendus, place. 

*Sternuo, n sternuere, sternui, , sneeze. 

Stride-,* 2 stridere, stridi, , hiss, creak. 

Tribuo, 13 tribuere, tribui, tributes, tributurus. d. give. 

Verro, 14 verrere, verri, versus, verrendus, brush. 

Verto, 15 vertere, verti, versus, versurus, vertendus, turn. 

Vinccys vincere, viei, victus, victurus, d. conquer. 

Volvo, 17 volvere, volvi, volutes, volvendus, roll. 

XII. Verbs changing -a into -si for the Perfect, 
and into -tus, or -sus> for the Perfect Participle 
Passive : 



i Pluisse, Cic. Div. Pluverat, Plaut. The Perfect Pluit according to Varro 
L. L. viii. 60, had the first syllable long. See Luo.—Z Prenderat, Stat. Theb. 
Prehensurus, Ovid. 10. Prchenderidus, Ovid. Some write Prcshendo, others 
Preendo. See Dausqu. in Orthogr. — % Rupturus, Piaut. Rumpendus, Justin. — 
4 This Verb is mostly used in the imperfect Tenses. Ruerant, Claud. Rutus is 
found only in the Neut, pi. Ruta casa, Cic. Varro de L. L. viii. 60., makes 
the U long in the simple Rutus. Ruiturus, Ovid. Diruendus, Veil. Obruendus, 
Colum. — 5 Scaberat, Lucil. None of the Participles are found. — 6 The Perfect 
Scandi cannot be found : Ainsvvorth cites scandisse, Liv. xxi. 62.; but the reading is 
escendisse, ascend isse,Cic. Conscen de-rat, Virg. i£n. iv. 646. Descendant. Liv. xxxvi. 
7. Yet Descendidit, Gell. Descend id tr at, ibid. Ascendi, Cic, proDom. c. 28. Scan- 
dendus, Propert, Ascensurus, Tibull. Ascendendus, Cass. B. C. — 7 Siderat, Stat. 
Sylv. S'tderit, Colum, Conslderant, Tacit. Ann. The Perfect Sedi given in 
grammars and dictionaries does not come from S'ido, but from Sedeo, — 8 Solvit Cic. 
Off. in. 12. et passim. Soluisse, Tibull. Soluturus, Cic. Off. Solvendus, Plin. 
Epist. — 9 Spuisse, Solin. This Verb has no Participle. Respuerit, Cic, Nat. 
Deor. Respuendus, Aul. Gell. — io Statutus, Varr. Statuendus, Colum. Consti- 
tuendus, Aul. Gell, — u Sternuerit, Plin. — 12 Striderat. See Strideo, Second Conj. 
List ix. — 13 Tributtirus, Ovid. Met. Tnbuendus, Lucr. — 14 Yerrerint, Hieronyra. 
in Helvid. in fin. The Perfect Verri occurs nowhere else, except in Charis, in. 
p. 218.; and in Prise, x. p. 900. But Servius on Virg. JEn. 1. 63. gives Versi. 
Versus, Propert. Vorsus, Plaut. Verrendus, Ovid. — ^ Verti, Cic. Propert. The 
Perfect Versi, found in Ovid, ex Pont. 1. 9. 52., does not come from Verto, as some 
suppose, but from Vergo. See Heinsius and Burman on the passage. Versus, 
Hot. hi. Od. 29. 2. et passim. Versurus, Liv. Vertendus, Colum.— 16 Victurus, 
Liv. Vincendus, Martial.— W Volvi, Virg. vi. 748. Volutus, Virg. Georg, in. 
5^1. Volvendus, Cic. 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS, 149 

Carpo,i carpcre, carpsj, carptus, carpendus, pluck. 

Cedo, 2 cedere, ceesi, cessus, cessurus, yield. 

Claudo, 3 claudere, clausi, clausus, clausurus, claudendus, shut. 

*Clepo,-* clepere, clepsi, — -- , steal. 

Como,5 comere, eouisi, comtns, deck. 

Demo,6 demere, demsi, demtus, demturus, demendus, take away. 

Divide 7 dfvidere, divisi, divisus, divisurus, d. divide. 

Gero,s gerere, gessi, gestus, gesturus, gerendus, carry. 

La3do, 9 lsedere, lsssi, lsesus, laesum, kesurus, hurt. 

Ludo, ludere, lusi, lusus, iusurus, play. 

Mergo, 10 mergere, mersi, mersus, mersurus, dip. 

Nubo,ii niibere, nupsi, nuptus, nuptum, r. veil, marry. 
Plaudo,! 2 plaudere, plausi, plausus, plaudendus, applaud by clapping 

the hands. 

Premo, 13 premere, pressi, pressus, pressurus, d. press. 
Promo, 14 promere, promsi, promtus, promturus, promendus, bring out. 

Rado, 15 radere, rasi, rasus, radendus, shave. 

*Repo, 16 repere, repsi, , creep. 

Rodo, 1T rodere, rosi, rosus, rosurus, gnaw. 

Scalpo,'s scalpere, scaipsi, scalptus, scratch. 

Scrfoo,i9 scribere, scripsi, scriptus, scripturus, d. write. 

i Carptus, Ovid. Carpendus, Cic. -de Graf. in. 49.— 2 Cessi, Ovid. Cesse, for 
cessisse, Lucr. Cessus, Liv. Cessurus, Tacit. Ann. — z Clausi, Hor. u. Od. 4. et 
passim. Clusi, Nummus Neronis, ap. Patin. Claudo, -is for claudus sum, I am 
lame, has no Perfect. Clausus, Virg. Mn. vi. 734. et passim. Clusus, Senec. 
■Clausurus, Ovid. Cl&udendus, Ovid. Cludendus, Scribon. Larg. c. 42. The 
Compounds drop A of" the root, — 4 Clepsi, Manil. Clepsit, for clepserit, Liv. xxn. 
10. The Perfect CUpi is (bund in Cic. de Leg. n. 9. This Verb has no Partici- 
ples. Cleptus is found only in dictionaries. — 5 Comsi, Tibull. See note on Emo, 
foregoing list. — 6 Demsi Liv. Demturus, Justin. Demendus, Cels. — 7 Divisse, for 
dlv'isisse, Hor. II. Sat. 3. 169. Dwlsurus, Liv. D'imdendus, Dlvidundus, Aul. 
Gell. — s Gesturus, Lucan. Gerendus, Cic. de Senec. — QLcssiun, Cic. Fam. Lce- 
sums, Lucan. The compounds make lidi ; Altido, I dash against ; Collide-, I 
<iash together; Elido, I dash out; IWido, I dash against. — io Lusus, played, Ovid. 
Trist. deluded. Id. Fast. Lusurus, Id. Trist. — n Mersurus, Ovid.: — 12 Nupsi, Cic. 
passim. Nubui, Valer. Prob. in Cathol. Nupta sum, Cic. ' Novus nuptus, 1 
Plaut. Nuptum, Caes. B. G. We should always say, ' Nuptum dare collocarc,' 
never Nuptui,as is found in some grammars and dictionaries. See Drakenborch 
on Liv. 1. 49. Nupturus, Ovid. — 13 Plausus, Virg. Georg. in. 185. Plaudendus, 
Ovid. Plodere, Varr. ap. ISon. whence the compounds, Complodo, I clap toge- 
ther : Explbdo, I hiss or clap off, explode, &c. — uPressurus, Ovid. Premendus, 
Cic. Tusc. The Compounds make jwt mo, pressi, pressus ; Compfimo, I press to- 
gether ; Expnmo,_ I squeeze out, &c. Depression eunt, Plaut. — is Promturus, 
Apul. Florid. Promendus, Cic. Depromtum, Plaut. See note on Emo, fore- 
going List. — tfRasi, Plin. xxvni. 4. Radendus, Tacit. Ann.— n Rdsisse, Plin. 
Circumroserit, Plin. Corroserint, Cic. de Divin. n. 27. Perroserint, Cels. 
Rosus, Stat. Rosurus, Phaedr. The Perfects of Abrbdo, Arrodo^ Erodo, Obro- 
do, Prcerod-o, are not found in the classics. — is Scaipsi, Plin. Scalptus, Cic. 
Acad. Circumscalpius, Plin. Inscalptus, Plin. though Circumscalpo, Inscalpo, 
do not occur. Exscalpo, Varr. L. L. Quintil. Exscalptus, Cato, R. R. — 19 Scripsti', 
for scripsisli, Plaut. Scripse, for scripsisse, Auson. Scripturus, Tacit. Ann. De- 
cemvir legibus scribendis ; Sueton. Describendus, Aul. Gell. 

n2 



150 THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERE^ 

Sculpo,i sculpere, sculpsi, sculptus,. sculpendus, carve. 

*Serpo, 2 serpere, serpsi, , creep. 

Spargo,3 spargere, sparsi, sparsus, sparsurus, v. spread. 

Sumo, 4 stimere, sumsi, sumtus, sumturus, d. take. 

*Temno, 5 temner e r temsi, , temnendus, despise. 

Tergo. See Tergeo, Second Conj. List V. 

Trudo, 6 trudere, trusi, trusus, thrust. 

Uro, : urere, ussi, ustus, urendus, bum. 

*Vado, 8 vadere, vasi, , go. 

Vergo, 9 vergere, versi, versus, incline. 

XIII. Verbs making -zi in the Perfect, and -zus f 
or -ctus in the Perfect Participle Passive : 

*Ango.io angere, anxi, , strangle, vex. 

Cingo, 11 cingere, cinxi, cinctus, cingendus, surround. 

Cdquo,i2 coquere, coxi, coctus, coctum, coquendus, cook. 

Bk:o,i3 dicere, dixi, dictus, dictu, dicturus, dlcendus, say. 

Dingo, u diligere, dilexi, dllectus, love dearly. 

Duco,i5 ducere, duxi, ductus, ductum, ducturus, d. lead. 



i Diomed. i. p. 574., does not admit of Sculpo ; but derives the Compounds, 
Exsculpo, Insculpo, from Scalpo. It is rejected also by Gesner in his Thesaur. 
L. L. Sculpsit, Ovid, where some read Scalpsit, others Sculpit or Scalpit. Scul- 
pendus, Vitruv. ' Sculpendis gemmis laus,' Apul. where others read Scalpendis. 
Cf. Plin. xxxvi. 4. — 2 Serpsi is found only in Festus, lib. xvil, where he says, 
1 Serpsit, antiqui pro serpserit usi sunt.' — 3 Sparsi, Virg, Georg. iv. 28. Sparsu- 
rus, Ovid. Spargendus, Veil. The Compounds make spergo f spersi, spersus. — 
4 Sumse, for sumsisse, Nsev. ap. Gell. Sumturus, Ovid. Sumendus, Sueton. The 
difference between Sumo and Accipio is this : Sumimus, ipsi ; accipimus, ab 
alio. — 5 Temsere, Lucil. where Scaliger reads Temnere, supposing the Perfect to 
be Temni. Temsi does not occur elsewhere in the classics, except in the Com- 
pound Contemsi, Cic. pro Mur. Tibull. Temtus occurs only in the Compound 
Conlemtus, Cic. Temnendus, Ovid. — 6 Trusi, Claud- Trusus, Tacit. — 1 Ussi, 
Pi in. Urendus, Hor. — 8 Vasit, Tertull. It occurs nowhere else, except in the 
Compounds Evasi, Cic. Catil. Invasi, Cic. Phil. Pervasi, Tacit. Ann. Evasu- 
rus, Liv. xxv. 11. Invdsurus, x. 35. lnvadendus, xxiii. 44. Pervasurus,xxxviL, 
25. — 9 Versi, Ovid. See note on Verio, foregoing List. Verxi, Diomed. but with- 
out example. The Compounds, Devergo, I incline downwards, Evergo, I send 
forth, Invergo, I invert, pour out, have neither Perfect nor Perfect Participle. 
Yet we read in Festus, 4 Deversus, dicebant, deorsum versus.' Versus, Liv. — 
wAnxit, Gell. The Participles Anxus and Anctus, and Supine Anxum, given by 
Prise, do not exist elsewhere,. though Scaliger would read, l Anctos, excruciates/ 
in Festus, where others read Antios. — u Cinxi, Virg. iEn. v. 13. Cingendus f 
Ovid. — 12 Coxi, Cic. Tusc. Coctum, Plaut. Coquendus, Id, — ^Dixli, dixis, for 
dixisli, dixeris, Gell. Dixe, for dixisse, Varr. ap. JNon. Dice, for die, Plaut. 
Dictu, Plin. Dicturus, Liv. Dlcendus, Veil. — M An irregular compound of Lego. 
Dilexi, Cic. Fam. So Colligo, I collect, collexi. Collectu, Plin. — ^Duce,fox due, 
Plaut. Duxti, for duxisti, Varr. ap. JN T on. Ductum, Caes. B. C. Ducturus, Liv. 
1. 44. Ducendus, Cels. 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



151 



Emungo, 1 emungere, emunxi, emunctus, wipe. 

Extinguo,2 extinguere, extinxi, extinctus, r. d. quench. 

Figo,3 figere, fixi, fixus, fixurus, fix, fasten. 

Fingo, 4 fingere, finxi, fictus, fingendus, feign, form. 

Flecto,s flectere, flexi, flexus, flectendus, bend. 

*Fligo,6 fligere, flixi, , dash. 

FluoJ fluere, fluxi, fluxus, fluxurus, flow. 

Intelligo, 8 intelligere, intellexi, intellectus, intellectu, 

intellecturus, intelligendus, understand. 

Jungo,9 jungere, junxi, junctus, juncturus, d. join. 

*Mingo,io mingere, minxi, , mictum, make water. 

Mungo. See Emungo. 

Necto, 1 ! nectere, nexui or nexi, nexus, nectendus, knit. 

Negligo, 12 negltgere, neglexi, neglectus, r. d. neglect. 

Pango,i3 pangere, panxi or pegi, pactus, pancturus, 

pangendus, drive in, fix, fasten. 

Pecto,H pexui or pexi, pectere, pexus or pectitus, pec- 
tend us, comb, dress, beat. 

*Pergo, 15 pergere, perrexi, , perrecturus, go forward. 



i Emunxti, for emunxisti, Plaut. The simple Mungo occurs only in the Vett. 
Gloss., and in the various reading of a Fragment of Cato, where the text has 
emungentur. — 2 Some derive Extinguo from Tinguo, * quia ignis aqua tinctus op- 
primitur.' Extinxit, for extinxerit, Plaut. Extincturus, Liv. Extinguendus, Cic. 
de Orat. 1. 14. — 3 Fixus, Virg. Mn. iv. 495. et passim. Fictus, {or fixus, Varr. R. 
R. So ' confictus sagittis,' Scaur, ap. Diomed. Fixurus, Ovid. Affixit, for affix- 
isset, Sil. — 4 Fingendus, Auson. — 5 Flectendus, Plin. — 6 FUxi, Lucr. Some cite 
Flictus from Virgil, but no such Participle occurs in that poet. Afflictus, Caes. 
B. G. et passim. Conjlictus does not occur. — 1 Fluxus, Apul. Met. Fluxurus, 
Lucan. Flucturus, Prise. — s An irregular compound of Lego. Intellexi, Cic. 
Intellexti, for intellexisti, Cic. Intellexes, for intellexisses, Plaut. Intelllgi, for 
intellexi, Ulpian. ap. Voss. Intellectus, Ovid. Intellectu, Nepos. Intellecturus, 
Ovid. Intelligendus, Cic. — 9 Juncturus, Liv. xxix. 5. Jungendus, Cels. Ad 
junctum iri, Cic. Fam. — 10 The imperfect tense of Mingo and its Compounds are 
scarcely ever found. Minxi, Hor. Art. Poet. 471. Meio, which is of more fre- 
quent use, has no Perfect, though Valer. Prob. Cathol. p. 1483, gives it Mexi, and 
Diomed. 1. p. 366, Meidvi. The latter also gives Mio, -is, -it, but cites no exam- 
ple to prove either. Mictum, Hor. 1. Sat. 8. 38. — 11 Nexui, Sallust. Fragm. Nexi, 
Propert. Annexui, Plin. Connexui, Claud. Rufln. Innexui, Virg. iEn, v. 425. 
Nexus, Cic. Tusc. Annexus, Id. de Iuv. Connexus, Id. Nat. Deor. et passim. 
Innexus, Virg. iEn. v. 510. Nectendus, Hor. — 12 An irregular Compound of Lego. 
Neglexi, Cic. Fam. et passim. Neglegi, for neglexi, iEmil. Macer ap. Diomed. 
Neglecturus, Caes. B. G. NegVtgendus, Id. B. G. — *3 This Verb should be care- 
fully distinguished from Pago, List xvi. Panxi, Colum. Pegerit, Cic. de Leg. 
(ubi Steph. et al. Peplgerit); Pegi, Pacuv. ap. Fest. Pactus, fixed, fastened, 
Pallad. Pancturus, Id. Pangendus, Colum. — uPexisti, Mecsenas. ap. Priso. 
Pexui, plerique ap. Prise. Pectwi, Asoer. J. c. et ap. Prise. The Perfects of 
Depecto, I trim, I curry, and Repecto, I comb again, do not exist. Pexus, Hor. i» 
JEpist. 1. 95. et passim. Pectitus, Colum. Peclendus, Ovid. Impexus, Hor. though 
Impeclo does not occur in the classics* — 15 Porgo, Lucr. 1. 930. Perrexi, Cic. pro 
Plane. Perrecturus, Cic. Tusc. 



1 52 THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS, 

*Plango, 16 plangere, planxi, , plancturus, beat, bewail. 

Plecto,2 plectere, plexi, plexus, plectendus, twine. 

Rego,3 regere, rexi, rectus, recturus, regendus, rule. 
Stinguo. See Extinguo. 
Stringo, 4 stringere, strinxi, strictus, stricturus, 

stringendus, tie hard, graze, strip.- 

Struo, 5 struere, struxi, structus, struendus, build. 

Sugo, 6 sugere, suxi, suctus, suck, 

Sorgo,? surgere, surrexi, surrectus, surrecturus, rise. 

Tego, s tegere, texi, tectus, tectums, tegendus, cover. 

Tingo, 9 tingere, tinxi, tinctus, tincturus, d. dip, die. 

Traho, 10 trahere, traxi, tractus, tracturus, d. draw. 

Ungo/'i ungere, unxi, unctus, ungendus, anoint. 

Veho,^ vehere, vexi, vectus, vecturus, carry. 

*Vivo, 13 vivere, vixi, , victurus, live. 

XXV. Verbs changing -o into -ui: 

*Accumbo,^ accumbere, accubui, , lie down. 

Ale-, 15 alere, alui, alitus or altus, alendus, nourish. 

Assero,ie asserere, asserui, assertus, r. d, assert, claim. 



l Planxi, Stat. Theb. Plancturus, Germanic, in Arat. 198. — zPlecio, in the 
sense of impllco, necto, texo, has the Perfect Plexi, Liv. Erotopaegn. ap. Prise, ix. 
p. 903. The Perfect Plexui, given by Vo-ss. Gram. v. 31, is found only in St. Je- 
rome's translation of the Bible, called the Vulgate, Jud. xvi. 13. Plecto, in the 
sense of verbero, has no Perfect, and is scarcely ever used in the Active. * Plec- 
tere eum,' Impp. Diociet. et Maxim. Cod. ' Fustis plectito,' Plaut. ' Plecte pug- 
nis,' Id.; but the true reading is peeffto, pecte. Plexus, Lucr. Plectendus, Solin. 
xv. 25. — iRexi, Propert. passim. Rectus, Sidon. Carm. Recturus, Manil. Re- 
gendus, Ovid. So the Compounds Arrigo and Erigo, I raise up ; Dingo, I 
direct; Corrigo, 1 correct; Surrigo, I raise up: Pcrrigo, 1 stretch out, some- 
times contracted to Porgo, whence Porxit, Stat. — 4 Strinxi, Stat. Slriclus, Id. 
Stricturus, Sueton. Stringendus, Cic. Off — 5 Struxi, Ovid. Met. Struendus, 
Tacit. Ann. Obstructum iri, Justin. — ^Suxisse, Cic. Tusc. Suctus, Pallad. — 
7 Surrexi, Cic de Inv. Surrexti, for surrexisti, Martial, v. SO. Surrectus, Liv. 
passim. Surrecturus, Colum. — 8 Texi, Propert. Tectums, Lucan. Tegendus. 
Ovid. — 9 Manut. Pier, on Virg. Dausq. and Broukhus. on Propert. prefer Tinguo. 
Tinxi, Ovid. Met. Tinctus, Hor. in. Od. 10. 14. et passim. Tincturus, Ovid. 
Tlngendus, Propert. — io Traxi, Senec. Tractus, Ovid. Met. Tracturus, Liv. 
xxxni. 9. Trahendus, Plin. Attraction rri, Cic. Att. Distrahendus. Gell. — 
ii Some write Unguo, whence the Perfect Ungui, ap. Prise, but without autho- 
rity. Unxi, Ovid. Unctus, Hor. Ungendus, Cels. — 12 Vexi, Cic. Nat. Deor. 
Vectus, Virg. iEn. 1. 528. et passim. Vecturus, Claud. — 13 Vixi, Cic. Off in. 2. 
et passim. Vixet, for vixisset, Virg. JExi. xi. 118. Vlvebo, Nonius ap. Vos. v. 35. 
Victurus, Cic. Verr. iv. 47. Caes. B. C. — u The Compounds of Cubo, of this Con- 
jugation, take M in the imperfect Tenses, and drop it in forming the Perfect and 
Supine. Accubui, Liv. xxvin. 18. Discubui, Cic. Discubitum, Plaut. — 15 Alui. 
Hor. Alitus, Curt. Alius, Cic. Nat. Deor. Alendus, Ovid.— 16 The Perfect of 
the simple Sero, 1 knit, does not exist now. Its Participle is Sirtus, Lucan. pas- 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 153 

Colo,i cdlere, colui, cultus, colendus, till, adorn, worship. 

*Compesco, 2 compescere, compescui, , compescendus, restrain. 

Consero, 3 conserere, conserui, consertus, conserturus, join together. 
Consulo, 4 consulere, consului, consultus, consultum, 

consulturus, consulendus, consult. 

Deps<v depsere, depsui, depstus, knead, tan leather. 

Desero,6 deserere, deserui, desertus, deserturus, forsake. 

*Desterto,7 destertere, destertui, , cease snoring. 

*Dissero, 8 disserere, disserui, , discourse, debate. 

Excello, 9 excellere, excellui, excelsus, be raised high, excel. 

Exsero, 10 exserere, exserui, exsertus, put forth. 

*Fremo, 11 fremere, fremui, , fremendus, roar. 

*Gemo, 12 gemere, gemui, , gemendus, groan. 

Geno, 13 genui, or 

Gigno> gignere, genui, gemtus, gemturus, beget, produce. 

Insero,u inserere, inserui, insertus, inserendus, ingraft. 

*Malo. See Irregular verbs. 

Molo,i5 molere, molui, molitus, grind. 

*Nolo. See Irregular Verbs. 

Occulo, 16 occulere, occului, occultus, hide. 



sim. Asserui, Ovid. Assertus, Sueton. Asserturus, Sueton. Claud. Asseren- 
dus, Sueton. Jul. So the other Compounds, Consero, I join together; Desero, I 
forsake ; Dissero, I discuss ; Edissero, I declare, discourse of; Exsero, I put 
forth ; Insero, I ingraft. 

i Colui, Virg. ^En. 1. 19. et passim. Colendus, Curt. — 2 Compescuit, Ovid. The 
Perfect Participle does not occur in the classics : yet we have ' saxo compescita,' 
in an ancient inscription, The Supine Compescitum is found only in Priscian. x, 
p. 887. Compescendus, Plin. Epist,. — 3 See Assero. Conserturus, Liv. vi. 12. — 
4 Consului, Caes. B. C. Consultus, Stat. Achill. Consultum, Plaut. Bacch. Con- 
sulturus, Tacit. Ann. Consulendus, Aul. Gell. Consuliturus, ap. Fortunat, 
Carm., is a barbarism not to be imitated. — 5 Depsui, Cato R. R. Depsi, Varr. ap, 
Non. Condepsui, Pompon, ap. Prob. Perdepsui, Catull. Depstus, Cato R. R. 
It has no other Participle.— 6 Deserui, Quintil, Desertus, Cic. Fam. Deserturus, 
Terent. Andr. i Deserendee Italic conjuratio,' Liv. xxiv. 43. — 1 Destertui, Pers, 
This Verb has no Participles. Stertui, the Perfect of the simple Sterto, does not 
occur in the classics ; but it is given by Prise, x. p. 903. Stertens, Cic. de Div. — 
3 See Assero. Dissertus, disputed, debated, occurs only in St. Jerome on Isaia. xi. 
4.— <9 Excelleas, of the second Conj. is found in Cic. Fragm. ap. Prise. The sim- 
ple Cello does not exist; though many grammars and dictionaries give it the Per- 
fects Ceculi and Cellui. Cillerentur, i. e. moverentur, is read in Serviuson Virg. 
Georg. 11. 389., and Cillentur, for moventur, in Isid. Excellui, Gell. Antecello, I 
excel; Prcecelto, I surpass, Recello,! move or draw back, have no Perfects. 
See Percello, List xvm. Celsus and Excelsus are used adjeetively.— 10 See As- 
sero. Exsertus, Plin, passim. — 1} Fremui, Martial. Fremendus, Stat. Theb. — 
12 Gemui, Propert. Gemendus, Ovid.— 13 Genunt, Varr. ap. Prise. Genendi, Id, 
R. R. Genui, Cic. Nat. Deor. Gemtus, Virg, JEn. ix. 642. et passim. Geniturus, 
Curt. ' GignendcB herb© aptior,' Curt. — i4See Assero. Inserendus, Cels. See 
Sero, List xvm. — 15 Molui, Petron. Sat. Molitus, Caes. B. G. — 16 A Compound of 
Colo. Occului, Ovid. Met. Occultus, Virg, Georg. in. 397. et passim. The other 
Participles do not occur. 



154 THIRD CONJUGATION' OF VERBS, 

Pono,i ponere, posui, positus, poslturus, d. put, place. 
Sterto. vSee Desterto. 

*Strepo,2 strepere, strepui, , make a noise, murmur. 

Texo, 3 texere, texui, text us, texendus, weave. 

*Tremo, 4 tremere, tremui, , tremendus, tremble. 

*Volo. See Irregular Verbs. 

Vomo,5 vomere, vomui, vomltus, vomiturus, d. cast up. 

XV. The following make ~wi: 

Arcesso, 6 arcessere, arcesslvi, arcessitus, arcessiturus, 

arcessendus, call, send for. 

*Capesso. 7 capessere, capesslvi or capessii, , ca- 

pessiturus, capessendus, take in hand. 

*Incesso,8 incessere, incessivi or incessi, , attack. 

Lacesso, 9 lacessere, lacessivi, lacessii or lacessi, laces- 

situs, lacessiturus, lacessendus, provoke. 

Peto,io petere petivi or petii, petitus, petltum, petitu, 

petiturus, petendus, ask. 

Qusero, 1 * quserere, qusesivi or qusesii, queesltus, quaesi- 

tum, qusesiturus, qussrendus, seek. 

Fdcesso, 12 1 execute, go away, makes faces si, facessltus. 

XVI. Verbs doubling the first syllable in the 
Perfect : 

i Posui, Csbs. B. C. Poslvi, Plaut. Pseud. So Apposlvi, Plant. Mil. in. 3. 30- 
Composivi, Inscript. Deposlvi, Plaut. Cure. iv. 3. 4. Catull. xxxiv. 8. Deposisse> 
for depuslvisse, Catal. Virg. de Sab. Exposivi, Plaut. Imposivi, Id. Imposisse, 
for imposivisse, Most. Opposwi, Curt. Reposlvi, Asin. Supposwi, True. Te- 
rent. Eun. Positus, Virg. Eel. n. 54. et passim. Postus, Lucr. Positurus, Ovid. 
Met. Ponendus, Cic. Orat. PrcEpositum iri, Terent. Eun. — 2 Strepui, Virg. JEn. 
viii. 2. The Participle in ns only is found in the classics. — 3 Texui, Martial. 
Some dictionaries add Texi, which, however, does not occur in the classics, ex- 
cept as ihe Perfect of Tego. Textus, Ovid. Fast. Texendus, Virg. Georg. n. 
371.— 4 Tremui, Virg. JEn. viii. 296. Tremendus, Stat. Theb. — 4 Vomui, Pers. 
Sat. Vomztus, Ccel. Aurel. Vomzturus, Plin. Vomendus, Lucr. — Q Arces so. not 
accerso, Voss. in Etym. Arcesslvi, Cic. Quint. Arcessitus, Propert. Arcessitu- 
rus, Plaut. Cas. Arcessendus, Cels. — 6 Capesslvi, Tacit. Ann. Capessii, Ann. 
xn. 30. Capessiturus, Apul. Met. Tacit. Ann. Capessendus. Plin. Paneg. — 
8 Incessivi, Plin. Incesserint, Tacit. Hist. n. 23., which is also the Perfect of 
Incedo,\ go.—^i Lacesslri, Col urn. Lacessivi, Cic. Fam. Lacessii, Liv. xxviii. 
12. Lacessisti, Cic. Phil. Lacessl/us, Virg. JEn. vn. 52G. Lacessiturus, Liv. 
Lacessendus, Caes. B. G. — w Petivi, Cic. Petii, Caes. B.G. Pelisse, Cic. Peillus, 
Ovid. Met. Peffium, Catull. Petitu, Ciaudian. Repefitunii Liv. in. Petiturus. 
Tibull. Petendus, Propert. — n Qu&sivi, Cic. Qua?sii, Cic. pro Quint, c. 3. 
Queesitus, Virg. ^En. vn. 758. et passim. Quoesltum, Terent. Quasi 'urns, Cic. 
Qucerendus, Lucr. Exqulsltum, Plaut. Inqu'isltum, Liv. xl. 20. — & Facesseris, 
Cic. Facessisset, Tacit. Hist. Neither the Perfect Fdcesswi, nor the Participle 
Facessus, given in some grammars and dictionaries, occurs in the classics, iv?- 
cessitus, Cic. Verr. iv. 64. 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 155 

*Cado,i cadere, cecidi, , casurus, fall, 

Ccedo,2 caodere, cecidi, csesus, csesurus, d. cut, beat, 

*Cano,3 canere, cecini, , canendus, sing. 

*Ourro,4 currere, cucurri, , cursurus, run. 

*Disco, 5 discere, didici, , disciturus, discendus, learn. 

Fallo, 6 fallere, fefelli, falsus, fallendus, deceive. 
Pago,? pagere, pepigi, pactus, bargain, lay a wager. 

*Parco, s parcere, peperci or parsi, , parsurus, spare. 

*Pedo, pedere, pepedi, Hor. 1. Sat. 8. 46. , wsg«T«. 

Pello, 9 pellere, peptili, pulsus, pellendus, drive. 

Pendo,io pendere, pependi, pensus, pensurus, weigh. 

*Posco,n poscere, poposci, -, poscendus, demand. 

Pungo, 12 pungere, puptigi, punctus, prick, sting. 

Tango, 13 tangere, tetigi, tactus, tacturus, tangendus, touch. 

Tendo,u tendere, tetendi, tensus or tentus, stretch. 

Tundo,i5 tundere, tutudi, tunsus or tusus, beat, pound. 
Also Pario, I bring forth, List XXV. 



i Cecidi, Virg. Mn. I 158. et passim. Casurus, Cic. Cadit, for cadat, Piaut. — 2 Ce- 
cidi, Juvenal. Ccbsus, Liv. Ccbsutus, Justin. Ccedendus, Cic. Occisum tri, Cic. Att. 
3 Cecini, Virg. Georg. i. 378. et passim. Canerit, for cecinerit, Festtis in ' Rumen- 
turn.' Canui, for cecini, Serv. ad. Virg. Georg. n. 384.: hence Caritturus, Vulgat. 
Apocalyps. vm. 13. Cante, for carnte, Carmen Saliare ap. Varr. L. L. vi. 3. Ca- 
nendus, Stat. Theb. — 4 Cucurri, Cic. Cecurri, Gell. Currisli, Tertull. Cursu- 
rus, Ovid. — BDtdiciyCic.de Senect. Discilurus, A pul. Fragm. ap. Prise. Dis- 
cendus, Plaut. — s Fefelli, Cic. Falsus sum, I am deceived, Piaut. Fefelltlus sum, 
Petron. Fallendus, Catuli. — 1 Pagunt, QuintiJ. Pepigi, Quintil. Pegi, Prise, 
but he does not prove it by any authority. Paxim, for pepigerim, I will lay a 
wager, Piaut. Pactus, Cic off I. 10. See Pango, List xiii. and Paciscor, List 
xxix. — 8 Peperci, Cic. Parsi, Terent. Parcuit, for parsit, Nsev. ap. Non. Parso, 
ibr peppercero, Piaut. Parcilum est, in some edd. of Plin. xxxiii. 4., where Har- 
duin reads parci. Parsurus, Liv. — 9 Pepuli, Li v. Pulsi, for pepuli, Ammian. 
but this is not to be imitated. Pulsus, Cic. de Orat. Pellendus, Justin. — io Pe- 
pendi, Justin. Pendissent,~L\v . xlv. 26. So in all the Mss. and in all edd. except 
Sigonius and Drakenborch., who read from conjecture, pependissent. See Voss. 
Gram. v. 26. Pensus, Ovid. Met. Pensurus, Liv. — n Poposci, Cic. Peposci, 
Valer. Antias ap, Gell. vn. 9. Depoposci, Cic. Expoposci, Liv. Repoposci 
seems not to exist in the classics. See Mordeo, Second Conj. List iv. Poscendus, 
Sil. Poscitus, given by Priscian and other grammarians, does not exist. — 12 Pu- 
piigi. Cic. Pepugi, Atta ap. Gell. Punxi, Diomed. 1. p. 369., but without au- 
thority. Pupiigerat, with the second syllable long, occurs in Prudent. Punctus, 
Cic. Of the Compound Repungo, I vex again, Repungere only is found, Cic. 
Fam. Compungo, I puncture, makes Compunxi, Senec. Compunclu.s, Cic. Off. 
Dispungo, I mark off, reckon. Dispunxi, Veil. 1. 13. Dispunctus, Tertull. — 
13 Tdgo, for tango, Pacuv. ap. Fest. Tetigi, Cic. Taxis, for tctigeris, Varr. ap. 
Non. Tacturus, Cic. Tangendus, Hor. — 14 Tetendi, Virg. JEn. v. 508. Tendisti, 
Propert. in the Mss. and early edd., but two Vatican Mss., and the edd. since 
Scaliger have nexisti. Carbasa tenderant, Senec. Tensus, Lucan. Tentus, Lucr. 
15 Tutudi, Varr. de L. L. Tunsi, Diomed. Tuserunt, Nsev. ap. Merulam in 
Collect. Fragm. Ennii p. 42. Tunsus, Virg. Georg. iv. 302. Tusus, Vitruv. 
The Compounds of Tango, Tendo, and Tundo, drop the reduplication of the Per- 
fect. The Compounds of Tundo make tudi, tusus; yet Detunsus, Apul. Met 
Obtunsus, Virg. Georg. 1. 252. Retunsus, Plaut. 



156 THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

XVII. The Compounds of do make -didt, -di- 
tus: 

Abdoi abdere, abdidi, abditus, abdendus, hide. 

Addo,2 addere, addidi, additus, additurus, d. add. 

Condo,3 cc-ndere, condidi, conditus, condendus, hide, lay up, build. 

Credo ? 4 credere, credidi, creditus, crediturus, d. believe. 

Dedo,5 dedere, dedidi, dedltus, dediturus, d. surrender. 
Dido, 6 dldere, dididi, diditus, give out, divide. 

Edo, 7 edere, edidi, editus, editurus, edendus, publish. 

Indo, 8 indere, indidi, indltus, indendus, put in. 

Obdo, obdere, obdidi, obditus, oppose. 
Perdo,9 perdere, perdidi, perditus, perditum, perditurus, 

perdendus, destroy. 
Prodo^o prodere, prodidi, proditus, proditurus, proden- 

dus, betray. 

Reddo,ii reddere, reddidi, reddttus, redditurus, restore. 

Subdo, subdere, subdidi, subditus, put under. 

Trado,i2 tradere, tradidi, traditus, traditurus, d. deliver. 

Vendo,i3 vendere, vendidi, venditus, venditurus, d. sell. 

XVIII. Verbs that cannot be classed with any 
of the foregoing : 

^Conquinisco,^ conqumiscere, conqnexi, , stoop, sit, squat. 

Fero, 15 ferre, [tiili,] [latus, laturus,] ferendus, bear , suffer. 

Conf ido, 16 conf idere, conf issus sum or conf idi, rely on. 

Meto, 17 metere, messui, messus, metendus, mow, reap. 



i Abdendus, Liv. — 2 Additurus, Tacit. Ann. Addendus, Ovid. — 3 Condendus, 
Liv. — 4 Crediturus, Gell. Credendus, Cic. pro Coel. — 5 Dediturus, Caes. B. G. 
Dedendus, Cic. — 6 The Participles in ns,rus, and dus, do not occur. — "'Editurus, 
Sueton. Edendus, Cic. Farn. — s Indendus, Cels. — 9 Perduis, perduit, perduint, 
for perdas, at, ant, Plaut. Perduunt, for perdunt, Piaut. Perditum, Sallust. Catil. 
52. Perditurus, Cic. de Orat. Perdendus, Ovid. — 10 Produit, in Lege Censorina 
ap. Fest. Proditurus, Terent. Prodendus, Cic. — 11 Reddibo, Plaut. Redditu 
Iri, Paul. Dig. Redditurus, Tacit. ' Ad vota Herculi reddenda,' Justin. — 12 Tra- 
ditu iri, Paul. Dig. Traditurus, Liv. Trddendus, Cic de Orat — 13 Venditurus, 
Plaut. Vendendus, Cic. — u Conquexi, Pompon, ap. Prise. — 15 Tuli comes from 
the obsolete Tido, or Tolo, whence Tolero, -as, -avi. See Diomed. Hence T$- 
tuli, Plaut. Tetulissem, Terent. And r. Tetulero, Plaut. Tetulisse, Rud. See 
note on Tollo. Ferre is a contraction of Ferere. Latus, seems to be formed from 
Tuldtus. See Voss. Laturus, Hor. Ferendus, Cic. — 16 Confisus sum, Caes. 
Confiderunt, Liv. Fisus sum, The Perfect of the simple Fido, given by Prise. 
viii. p. 818 Charis. and Diomed. does not occur. Fidebo, Naev. ap. Non. — n Mes- 
sui, Cato, ap. Prise. Demessui, Caes. Hemina ap. Prise. Messumfeci, for messui, 
Charis. Another Perfect, Messivi is quoted by Prise, but he condemns it. Messus, 
Virg. iEn. iv. 513. Metendus, Cic. 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 157 

Mitto,i mittere, misi, missus, missurus, mittendus, send. 

Percello,2 percellere, perculi or perculsi, perculsus, strike, shock, 

*Rudo,3 riidere, riidlvi, , bray like an ass. 

Scindo,4 scindere, scidi, scissus, scindendus, cut. 

Sero,5 serere, sevi, satus, saturus, serendus, sow. 

*Sino,6 smere, sivi, , siturus, suffer* 

*Tollo,7 tollere, tolli, , tollendus, raise, lift up. 

Sustollo, 8 sustollere, sustiili, sublatus, sublaturus, raise, take away. 

Vello,9 vellere, velli or vulsi, vulsus, vellendus, pull, pinch. 

XIX. Verbs forming the Perfect by transposi- 
tion or elision : 



i Misi, Ovid. Met. in. 38. et passim. Misti, for mlsisti, Catull. Missus, Virg. 
^En. in. 595. et passim. Missurus, Hor. Art. Poet. 476. Mittendus, Justin. — 
2 Perculi, Val. Flac. Terent. Cic. pro Mil. Perculsi, Ammian. Perculsit in 
some edd. of Horace, I. Od. 7. 11., and Terent. Andr. i. 1. 98.; but the true read- 
ing in the two last passages is percussit. Perculit, passively for perculsus fuit, 
Flor. Perculsus, Catull. passim, which is also often confounded with Percussus. See 
Bentl. on Hor. Epod. xi. 2. Burm. on Ovid. Met. iv. 138. — 3Persius Sat. in. 9. 
makes the first syllable in Rudo long. Riidlvi, as if from Rudio, Apul. Met. 
Rudi occurs only in grammars and dictionaries. — 4 Scidi, Stat. in. Sylv. Sciscidi, 
Afran. ap. Prise. Scescidi, Gell. Scissus, Li v. passim. Scindendus, Li v. Ab- 
scissurus, Quintil. Discindendus, Cic. — 5 Sevi, Cic. Verr. Satus, Tibull. 
Saturus, PI in. Serendus, Tibull. Serundus, Varr. R. R. Consero, in the sense 
of sowing, planting, makes evi, itus; in the sense of joining, putting together, it 
makes erui, ertus ; as in Quintil. Decl. ix 3. Ovid. Heroid. Epist. n. 58, &c. Yet 
' arborem conseruisset,' Li v. x. 24., where some read seruisset, others consevlsset. 
Conserturus, Liv. vi. 12. Asserturus, Sue ton. Conserendus, Arnob. So, Insero, 
I sow, plant, evi, itus; Insero, I ingraft, innoculate, insert, erui, ertus. Yet these 
are sometimes used one for the other. Insiturus, Colum. See Sero, List xvni.< — 
s S'iv'i, Cic. Siturus, Cic. Plaut. Sii, for s'wi, Varr. ap. Diomed. Terent. Sierit, Liv. 
Scistis, Cic. Sissem, Liv. in. 18. Sini, for sivi, in some edd. of Plaut. and Te- 
rent. Andr. i. 2. 17. But this may have arisen from the similarity of nand v in 
the ancient Mss. — 7 Tollisse, Ulpian. Dig. Tollit, Pers. Sat. iv. 2., which is un- 
doubtedly a Perfect, and the reading of all the Mss. and printed copies. See the 
passage, and Scaliger on Varr. R. R. I. 69. Tetuli, Diomed. See following note. 
Tollendus, Hor. I. Sat. 10. 51.— s Sustollere, Plaut. Sustolle, Plaut. Pcen. Sus- 
tolli, inf. Plaut. Sustollens, Catull. Sustollant, Id. Sustollat, Plaut. Sustollii, 
Seren. Samm. xxxvin. 716. Sustuli, Cic. Sublatus, Cass. B. G. Sublaturus, 
Cic. Att. — 9 Velli, Cic. Verr. Vulsi, Lucan. Vidsus, Propert. Vellendus, Colum. 
So Avello, I tear away ; Avelli, Curt. Avulsi, Lucan. Avellendus, Cic. Verr. 
Dlvello, I tear asunder,- Divelli, Hirt. B. A. Divulsi, Senec. Hippol. Evello, I 
pluck up ; Evelli, Cic. pro Sext. c. 28. Phaedr. it. 2. 10. Evulsi, Quintil. Decl. 
Evellendus, Cic. Pravello, I pluck before; Praivelli, Tertull. adv. Gnost. c. 13. 
Pr&vulsi, Labr. ap. Diomed. Revello, I tear away ; Revelli, Cic. Revulsi, Ovid. 
Met. In the former passage Heins. and Burm. read revellit, and in the latter 
revelli; which renders Revulsi doubtful; though Pierius reads so in Virg. iEn. 
iv. 427. the Vatican Ms. Convello, I tear in pieces, makes Convelli. Cic. pro. 
Dom. c. 21. Convellendus, Cels. in. 4. Convulsurus, Cic. 2. Devello, I pull 
away, Divelli, Plaut. Pcen. iv. 2. 50. Pervello, I twitch, Pervelli,Cic. Tusc. it. 
Ascon. Intervello, I pluck here and there, Intervulsi only, Colum. v. 10. 

O 



158 THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS, 

Cemcy cernere, crevi, cretus, cernendus, sift, distinguish, see, de- 
cree, <$£C. 
Sperno, 2 spernere, sprevi, spretus, spernendus, separate, spurn, des- 
pise. 
Sterno, 3 sternere, stravi, stratus, sternendus, strew. 

Tero,4 terere, trivi, tritus, terendus, rub, wear. 

Sisto,5 sistere, stlti, status, stop, make stand. 

XX. These change the vowel of the root : 

Ago, 6 agere, egi, aetus, acturus, agendus, do, drive. 

Frango, 7 frangere, fregi, fractus, fracturus, d. break. 

Lmo, s llnere, livi or levi, litus, anoint, daub. 

To which add Alllcio, Capio, Fdcio, Jacio, and Pario, from List 
XXV. 

XXL These Verbs in -sco make -vi, -tus: 



iThe Perfect Crevi is used in the signification of J have decreed, Cic. de Leg. 
in. 3. I have resolved, Plaut. I have taken possession of an inheritance, Cic* ABT. 
vi. 1 . I have perceived, i. e. I have heard, Titin. ap, Prise. In this sense it occurs 
nowhere else. Cerno, I see, has no Perfect Cretus, separated, sifted, Pallad. 
Cernendus, Ovid. — 2 Sprevi, Virg. JEn. iv. 679. Spretus, Id. Georg. iv. '233. 
Spernendus, Colura. — 3 Stravi, Virg. vEn. vin. 719. et passim. Strarat, Manil. 
Strasset, Varr. ap. Noil. Stratus, Virg. Eel. vn. 54. et passim. Sternendus, Liv. — 
4 Tr'ivi. Hor. I. Sat. 1. 45. et passim. Tristi, for trivisti, in some edd. of Catull. 
See Tergeo, Second Conj. List v. Intristi, for intrivisti, Terent. Terui, for 
trivi, Plaut. Hence Atteruisse, for attrivisse, Tibutl. Tritus, Ovid. Terendus, 
Ovid. Art. Am. — 5 The Perfect Stiti seems to be used only in the sense of appear- 
ing in court to a summons, or of appearing to one's recognizance. See Cic. pro 
Quint, c. 6. Corn. Nep. Att c. 9., and particularly Aul. Gell. n. 14. The gram- 
marians make the Perfect Steti, when the verb is used absolutely, and Siatui, 
when it is used actively. But they adduce no authority. Status, Cic. Off. &Ovid. 
These Compounds make stiti, but have no Perfect Participle: *Absisto, I stand 
off, desist ; *Assisto, I stand by ; *Consisto, I stand fast, halt ; *Desisto, I desist ; 
*Existo, I come forth, appear ; *Insisto, I tread upon, insist: * Inter sisto, I stop in 
the midst ; *Obsisto, I oppose ; *Persisto, I persevere ; *Resisto, I stand still ; and 
*Subsisto, I stop, withstand. *Circumsisto, has neither Perfect nor Perfect Parti- 
ciple. — 6 Egi, Hor. Actus, Id. in. Od. 7. 5. et passim. Acturus, Liv. Agendus, 
Caes. B. G. Axim, for egerim, Pacuv. Vid. Voss. Gramm. — 7 Fregi, Ovid. Met. 
Fractus, Cic. Phil. Fracturus, Claud. Frangendus, Veil. — 8 Some grammars and 
dictionaries give us three perfects for Lino : L'tvi, Levi, and Lini ; and the Ox- 
ford annotatorsonLily add a fourth, Linn. Livi, Juvenal Sat. Quintil. Levi, Hor. 
(Obleverunt, Gell.); and this seems to be the Perfect of the obsolete Leo. For Lini 
we have only the authority of Prise, who quotes Oblinerunt from Varr., where 
no such word is to be found ; and of Voss. Gram. v. 29 , who cites Llnisti, from 
Quintil. Decl. i. 15., where the Mss. and best edd. have Lusisti. Linii is a con- 
traction of linivi and comes from Linio of the Fourth Conj. So Oblinierit, for 
obhniverit, Paul. Vitus, Plin. Lisse, for livisse, Spartian. in Adrian. 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



159 



*Cresco,i crescere, crevi, , grow. 

Nosco,2 noscere, novi, notus, noscfturus, noscendus, learn to know. 
Ignosco,s ignoscere, ignovi, ignotus, ignoturus, igno- 

scendus, pardon. 
Agnosco,-* agnoscere, agnovi, agmtus, agnoturus, ag- 

noscendus, recognize. 
Cognosce*, 5 cognoscere, cognovi, cognttus, cogrutu, cog- 

Diturus, cognoscendus, know, 
Pasco, 6 pascere, pavi, pastus, pastum, pasturus, pascen- 

dus, feed. 

Quiesco, 7 quiscere, quievi, quietus, quieturus, rest. 

Scisco, 8 sciscere, scivi, scitus, sciscendus, ordain. 
Suesco, 9 suescere, [suevi,] suetus, be accustomed. 



XXII. Inceptives in -sco, when their Primitives 
exist, have no Perfect of their own. The follow- 
ing, whose Primitives are obsolete, make -ui: 



Coalesco,io coalescere, coalui, coalitus, 
*Consanesco, n consanescere, consanui, ■ 
*Consenesco,i2 consenescere, consenui, - 
*Conttcesco,i3 conttcescere, conticui, — 
*Convalesco,u convalescere, convalui, - 



grow together. 

grow sound. 

grow old. 

be silent. 

grow strong. 



i Crevi, Cic. Cretus, born, descended, comes by Syncope from creatus ; neither 
does the Supine Cretum, nor the Participle Creturus, as coming from Cresco, 
occur in the classics. Cresse, for crevisse, Lucr. — 2 Novi, Ter. Nosti, noram, 
nosse, norim, &c. Cic. passim. Nomus, for novlmus, Enn. ap. Diomed. Notus, 
Cic. passim. Noscuurus, ~L\v. viu. 32. a p. Ainsworth, Noscendus, Liv. — 3 Ig- 
n5vi,Cic. Ignotus, Hirt. Ignoturus, Cic. Ignosciturus, Piso Frugi. Ignoscen- 
dus, Virg. Georg. iv. 489. Ignosset, for ignovisset, Sil. — 4 Agnovi, Cic. Agnorunt, 
Ovid. Agnitus, Tacit. Ann. Agnotus, Pacuv. ap. Prise. Agnoturus. Sallust. 
Hist. 11. ap. Prise. Agnoscendus, Sil- — 5 Cognovi, Virg. JEn. ix. 245. Cognossem, 
Cognoram, Cognoro, &c. Cic. passim. Cogmius, Cic. Off 1. 6. et passim. Cog- 
?i y du, Val. Max. CognVurus, An!. Gell. Cognoscendus, Ovid. — sPavi, Tibutl. 
Pastus, Cic. c. 25. Pastum, Plaut. Pasturus, Varr. R. R. Pascendus, Hor. 
Pascor, in Plin. ix. 3. Virg. Georg. in. 314. iv. 181. JEn. 11. 471. &c. &c, may 
be considered as a Deponent, (see Serv. on Virg. JEn. 1. 189. 11. 215.) or as a Pas- 
sive, with a Greek construction. But the former seems preferable. Prise, cites 
the Supine Compescitum. but without authority. Compeseita, Inscript. — V Quievi 
Virg. JEn. vi. 226. Quietus is used as an adjective. Quieturus, Cic. de Orat.— 
B Scivi, Cic. Off. Scitus, decreed, Cic. de Leg. 1. 15. Sciscendus, ibid. Sciscor, 
depon. Prise. Rescitum, Terent. — 9 Suevi, dissyll. Propert.; but this seems to 
come rather from Sueo of the Second Cunj., which we find in Lucr. 1. 54. 301. 
Suerunt, for sueverunt, Cic. de Nat. Deor. Suerint, dissyll. for sueverint, Sil 
Suesti, for suevisti, Cic. Fam. XV. 8. Suetus, Lucan. or Suetus, Hor. 1. Sat. 8. 17. — 
10 Coalui, Sallust. Jug. Coalitus, Tacit. Hist. iv. 55. — U Consanui, Cels. — 12 Con^ 
senui. Ovid. — is Conticui, Ovid. — u Convalui, Ovid. 



160 THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERES. 

*Crebresco,i crebrescere, crebrui or crebui, , increase more and 

more. 

*DelIquesco, 2 dellquescere. dellcui, , become liquid. 

*DclItesco. 3 de]itescere, delitui, , lurk. 

*Dulcesco,4 dulcessere, dulcui, , grow sweet. 

4 Duresco,5 durescere. durni, , grow hard. 

*Elanguesco, 6 elanguescere, elangui, , become feeble. 

*Emarcesco, 7 emarcescere, emarcui, , fadeaway. 

^Erubesco,? ertibeseere, eriibui, , blush. 

*Evanesco,9 evanescere, evanui, , evanitxirus ? disappear. 

*Evilesco,io evilescere, evilui, . grow cheap. 

*Exaresco, n exarescere, exarui, , grow dry, wither. 

*Excandesco,i2 excandescere, excandui, , grow hot, be enraged, 

*Exhorresc<y 3 exhorrescere, exhorrui, , shudder, dread. 

*Expalleseo,M expallescere, expallui, , turn pale, dread. 

*Extlmesco, 15 extlmescere, extlmui, , be afraid, 

*Fracesco,i6 fracescere, fracuL , grow mouldy, 

*Inaresco,n Inarescere, inarui, , grow dry, wither. 

*Increbresco, 15 increbrescere, increbrui or increbui, — — , increase, 

grow frequent. 

*Indolesc<V 9 indolescere, indolui, , indolescendus, grieve. 

*Innotesco, 2 o innotescere, innotui, , become known. 

^Intumeseo, 21 intthnescere, intiimui, , begin to swell. 

^'Irraucesco, 22 irraucescere, irraucui, , grow hoarse. 

*Macresco,28 macrescere, macrui, , grow lean. 

♦Maturesco, 2 * maturescere, maturui, , ripen. 

*Obbrutesco, 25 obbrutescere, obbrutui, , become brutish, or sense- 
less. 

^Obcallesco, 26 obcalleseere, obcallui, , become, callous. 

*Obduresco, 2T obdurescere, obdurui, grow hard. 



i Crtbreseo and its Compounds make bui oftener than brut: Crcbuerat, Apul. 
Met. ai. erebruerat. ■ Libri et Mss. variant, et cum iis eruditorum sententia?.' 
Facciolat.—^ Delicui, Ovid. Trist.— 3 Dehtui, Cses. B. G. Though Diliteo does not 
exist now, yet we find its Participle Dehlens in Plin. xxxv. 1. — 4 Dulcui, Paulin, 
Nolan. Dulcit occurs in Lucr. u. 473., where some read Dutcis; others Dulcet, 
as if from Dulceo. — 5 Durui, Ovid. Met. Dureo. mentioned by Prise, and by 
Servius on Virg. Georg. i. 91., does not exist. — 6 Elangui. Val. Flac. iv. 572. — 
~ Emarcui, Plin. — 8 Eriibui, Ovid. Fast. — 9 Evanui, Virg. JEn. ix. 658. Evdnltu- 
rus, Lactant. — to Evilui, Sueton. Claud. — n Exarui, Cic. Fam. — 12 Excandui. Cit\ 
Tusc. — 13 Exhorrui, Ovid. Met. Yet Exhorreat is found in Colum. x. 154.— 
M Expallui,, Hor. — *5 Extlmui, Teren!. Hec. Exllmerentur occurs in Tacit. Ann. 
xv. 71., but it is rendered doubtful by various readings. — 16 Frdcui, Cato, R. R. — 
w Inarui, Colum. — is Some prefer writing Increbesco. See Crebresco. Increbrui, 
Cic. Orat. c. 20. Phil. xiv. 5. — 19 Indolui, Ovid. Trist. Indolescendus, Sidon.— 
20 Innotui, Ovid. Am. — -^Inivmui, Ovid. Fast — 22 Inaucutrit, Cic. Or. 1. 61., 
where some some read irrauserit. — 23 Mocrui, Festusin ' Curionem.' — ^Maturui, 
Ovid.— 25 Obbrutui. Festus in 'Obrutmt.'— 26 Obcallui, Cels.— 27 Obdurui, Cic 
Tusc. 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 161 

*Obmiitesco,i obmutescere, obmutui, , grow dumb, become silent. 

*Obstupesco, 2 obstiipescere, obstupui, , be amazed. 

*Obsurdesco, 3 obsurdescere, obsurdui, , grow deaf. 

*Peraresco,4 perarescere, perarui, , grow dry. 

*Percrebresco,> percrebrescere, percrebrui or percre- 

bui, be divulged, prevail. 

*Perhopreseo,6perhorrescere, perhorrui, , shudder, dread. 

*Per time sco, 7 pertimescere, pertimui, , perti- 

rnescendus, fear greatly. 

*Recrudeseo,8 recrudescere, recrudui, , grow raw, be sore again. 

*Relanguesco, 9 relanguescere, relangui, , be languid. 

*Reviresco, 10 revirescere, revirui, , become green again. 

*Vilesco,u vilescere, vilui, , become worthless. 

XXIII. These make -evi: 

Adolesco, 12 adolescere, adolevi, adultus, grow up. 

Exolesco,' 3 exolescere, exolevi, exoletus, grow old. 

Mansuesco, 14 mansuescere, mansuevi, mansuetus, grow mild, become 

tame ; make tame. 

To which add : 

Exardesco,i5 exardescere, exarsi, exarsus, be inflamed. 

^Refrigesco,' 6 refrigescere, refrixi, , grow cool. 

*Revivisco } 1 ? reviviscere, revixi, , revictu- 

rus, revive, come to life. 

XXIV. The following Inceptives, though hav- 
ing no other verbal form, want the Perfect: 

*v£gresco, grow sick. *Fatisco, gape, grow faint. 

*DItesco, grow rich. *Incurvesco, bow down. 

*Grandesco, grow big. *Integrasco, be renewed. 

*Gravesco, grow heavy. *Juvenesco, grow young. 



i Obmutui, Plin. Virg. JEn. iv. 279. — 2 Obstupui, Cic. de Div. — 3 Obsurdui, Cic. 
Somn. Scip. — 4 Perrdrui, Colum. — 5 Percrebrui, Caes. B. C. Percrebui, Cic. Verr, 
Tacit. Ann. xn. 6. — 6 Perhorrui, Ovid. Met. vi. 704. — 7 Pertimui, Nepos in Alcib. 
©, 5. Yet Perttmens, Lactant. Pertimescendus, Cic. Fam. l 9. — 8 Recrudui, LrV. 
x. 19. — 9 Relangui, Ovid. Amor. n. 9. 27. — 10 Revirui, Auct. ad Heren. iv. 34. 
Rlvirens occurs in Albinor. n. 113. — » VUtii, Avien. in Arat. 318. Of this Verb 
the Perfect only is found. See Evllesco. — 12, is See Oleo, Second Conj. List. 11. 
Adolui, in the same sense, Varr. ap. Prise. Adultus, Cic. Tusc. Exoleo, men- 
tioned by Prise, does not exist in the classics. — w Mansuevi, Lucan. Mansuetus, 
Varr. R. R.; but it is generally used as a mere Adjective. — 15 Exarsi, Virg. Mn. 
viii. 219. Exarsus, Cod. Justin.— 16 Refrixi, Cic. Refr'igui, Veget. R. V.— 17 Re- 
vixi, Cic. Verr. Yet Revlvent, Paulin, Nolan. Revlchirus, Senec. Med. 

o2 



182 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



*Lapidesco, 

*MItesco, 

*Mollesco, 

*Pinguesco, 

*Piumesco, 

*Pderasco,- 



petrify. 

grow mild. 

grow soft. 

grow fat. 

be fledged. 

play the child. 



*Rancesco, 

*Repuerasco, 

*Sterilesco, 

*Tenerasco, or 

*Teiieresco, 

*Uvesco, 



grow mouldy. 

become childish. 

grow barren. 

grow tender, 
grow moist. 



XXV. Twelve Verbs of the Third Conjugation 
end in 4o: 



Allicio, 1 alltcere, allexi or allicui, alleetus, alliciendus, 
Aspicia, 2 aspicere, aspexi, aspectus, aspiciendus, 
Capio, 3 capere, cepi, captus, capturus, capiendus, 
Cupio, cupere, cupui or cupii, cupltus, cupiendus, 
Facio,* facere, feci, factus, factum, factu, facturus, 

faciendus, 
Fodio, 5 fodere, fodi, fossus, 

*Fttgio, 6 fiigere, fugi, , fugitiirus, fugiendus, 

Jacio, 7 jacere, jeei, jactus, jaciendus, 

Pario, 8 parere, peperi, partus, pariturus, pariendus, 



allure. 

behold. 

take. 

desire. 



Conditio, 9 concu'.ere, concussi, concussus, concti- 



do make, 
dig. 

Jfy- 

cast, 
br rag forth, pro- 
cure, get. 



tiendus, 



shake, move violently. 



i Allexi, Plaut. Allicui, Piso. Hist. ap. Prise, et Hygin, Poet. Astron. Charis, in. 
p. 217., and Diomed. i. p. 364., give Alliceo, -es; and the latter adds that Allicio 
was the ancient form. Allecturus comes from Allego. Alliciendus, Ovid. Art. Am. 
Elicio, I draw out, makes Elicui, Li v. v. 15. Elexi, Arnob. lllicio, I inveigle, 
lllexi, Plaut. Sallust. Cat. c. 59. Pellicio, I entice, deceive, Pellexi, Cic. pro 
Cluent. Terent. Pellicui, Li v. Laodam, ap. Prise. Pelliceo, -es, Charis. — 2 As- 
pexi, Cic. passim. Aspexit, for aspexerit, Plaut. Aspectus, Tacit. Agric. c. 40. 
Aspiciendus, Ovid. Inspeclurus, Virg. JEn. n. 47. Inspiciendus, Ovid. Per- 
spectu, Festus, — 3 Cepi, Propert. Captus, Cic. Cat. in. 7. et passim. JExceptum 
zri, Cte. Capfurus, Sueton. Vesp. Capiendus, Terent. Capsis, for cape si vis, 
Cic. Orat. 45. Quintil. i. 5. Capso, is, it, for cepero, is, it, Plaut. — ± Feci, Virg. 
Eel. i. 6. et passim. Factus, Cic. Verr. vi. 18. et passim. Factum ~iri, Cic. Fam. 
Factu, Id. ibid. vii. 3. Facturus, Liv. xxvi. 25. Faciendus, Val. Flac. Face, 
for fac, Val. Flac. Faciem, for faciam, Cato ap. Quintil. Faxo,-is,-it. See Irreg. 
Verbs. — 5 Fodi, Sil. Fossus, Plin. <Ad fodiendos, puteos,' Hirt. B. Alex. — 6 Fugi, 
Stat. Theb. Albino v. shortens the first syllable : * Sic illi vixere, qui bus fuit aurea 
virgo, Quae bene praecinctos postmodo puha fugii;' unless this can be account- 
ed for by Heterosis. Fugitiirus, Ovid. Fugiendus, Cic. Off. ' Mors f ugitur,' 
Cic. de Leg. — i Jeei, Liv. i. 12. et passim. Jactus, Virg. Eel. vi. 41. et passim. 
Dejectum, Hor. Kejectum, Cic. Jaciendus, Curt. Abjecturus, Cic. Adjicien- 
dus, Qiiintilv — & Peperi, Tibull. Parii, for peperi, Cato, R. R. Parlbit, for pariol.y 
Pompon, ap. Non. Parire, for parere, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. Partus, Virg. iEn^ 
vi. 89. Partus is used like the Participle of a Deponent in Colum., having 
brought forth. Pariturus, Cic. Orat. Pari-ndus, Cic. Fam. — 9 See Quatio, List 
xxviii. Concussi, Juv. Sat. x. 328. Concussus, Virg. Georg. I. 159. Conculien- 
dus, Cels. Discussurus, Liv. Discutiendus, Cels. Decussu, Plin, 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 163 

Rapio,i rapere, rfipui, raptus, rapturus, rapiendus, snatch. 

*Sapio,2 sapere, sapivi or sapii, , savour, be wise. 

XXVI. To which add four Deponents in -tor: 

Gradior,3 graderis or gradere, [gradi,] gressus, go, walk, advance. 

Morioiy moreris or morere, mori or moriri, mortuus, 

monturus, die. 

Orior,5 Oreris or orere, orlri, ortus, oriturus, oriundus, rise, 

spring up. 
Patiar,6 pateris or patere, pati, passus, passurus, pati- 

endus, suffer, endure. 

XXVII. The following have neither the Perfect 
nor the Perfect Participle Passive : 

*Ambigo, doubt. *Glisco,9 grow, increase. 

*Clango,7 sound as a trumpet. *Gruo,io crunk like a crane. 

*Claudo, be tame. *i\ r exo,n bind, tie. 

*Cluo,s be famous. *Satago, be busily employed. 

Sallo,^ I season with salt, makes salsus, salsurus ; but has no Perfect. 

XXVIII. The Perfects of the following are 
doubtful : 

Frendo,i 3 frendere, frendi, fressus or fresus, gnash the teeth, break, 

bruise. 

i Rapui, Phaedr. Raptus, Virg. iEn. i. 382. et passim. Rapturus, Stat. Theb. 
Rapiendus, Own]. Dlreptum, Sil. Ereptum, Terent. Pr&reptum, Plaut. — 2 Sa- 
pivi, Naev. ap. Prise. Sapisti, Mart. Sapisset, Plaut. Rud. iv. 1. 8., where Pris- 
cian, vn. p. 328. ed. Krelil. reads sapuisset ; but two of Krehl's Mss. of Priscian 
have sapisset, and another sapivisset. The editio princeps of PJautus in the 
British Museum, the Mediol. an. 1490., and the edd. of Carpentar, Lucas Olchi- 
nensis, and Lam bin us, exhibit sapuisset; but the Burney Ms., No. 228., in the Bri- 
tish Museum, all the Palatine Mss. and the edd. since Larabinus, have sapisset. 
The Mss. of Bohte seem to have the same, since he does not mention a various 
reading. Resipio, I savour of, makes ivi, ii, or ui : Resipivi, Sueton. Resipui, 
Cic. Reslpisti, Plaut. Resipiisse, Terent. Consipui and Desipui, the Perfects 
of Conslpio, I am perfectly in my senses, and Desipio, I am foolish, occur only in 
grammars and dictionaries. — 3 The infinitive does not occur except in the Com- 
pounds. Gressus, Virg. iEn. vi. 633. The Compounds make gredior : Progre- 
dior, I advance, progrederis or progredere, prdgredi,prdgressus,2)rdgressurus, &c. 
iMorimur, Enn. ap. Prise. Muri, Tibull. Moriri, Ovid. Met. Mortuus, Cic. 
passim. Mordur us, Tacit. Hist. in. 10. — 5 Oriri, Lucr. Cic. Quintil. Ortus, Hot. 
Oriturus, ibid. Oriundus, descended, Li v. i. 49. et passim. — $ Passus, Virg. ^n. 
i. 203. et passim. Passurus, Ovid. Paliendus, Id. Trist. — 7 Some give this verb 
the Perfect Clanxi, others Clangui ; but we have not any authority for either. — 
8 Cluit, Prudent. Cluerent, Auson. Prof. — 9 Glisco seems to be an Inceptive. 
Glisceretur, pass. Sempron. ap. Non. — wThis Verb occurs in the Carmen de Phi- 
lom. v. 23., and in Paul, ex Festo. — n Neither Nexo, y is, nor Nexo, as, has a Per- 
fect. See Necto, List xni. — 12 Sallerent, Sallust. ap. Prise. Sallere, Lucil. Sal- 
lunt, Id. ap. Diomed. Salsus, salted. Colum. Salsurus, Mummiusap. Prise. See 
Sallio, Fourth Conj. List iv. — 13 Frendi and Frenduizre given in some grammars 
and dictionaries. See Frendeo, Second Conj. List. ix. 



164 THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

Frigo, 1 frlgere, frixi, frictus or frixus, fry, parch. 

*Furo, 2 ftirere, ftirui, , be mad, rage. 

Lingo,3 lingere, linxi, linctus, lingendus, lick. 

Pando, 4 pandere, pandi, passus or pansus, open. 

Quatio, 5 quatere, quassi, quassus, shake, agitate. 

*Vlso, 6 visere, visi, , go see, visit. 

i Frixi, Diomed. Frictus, Cels. Frixus, Cels. Sidon.-2 Furui, Serv. ad. ^En. i. 45. 
Fumerunt, Sedul. I. 196., where some read ferverunt ; Furuit, Plin. xxxiii. 53. 
edd Harduin. Bipont. Miller. Franz. Fuerit in the edd. before Harduin. Furit, 
Brotier.; but he does not say on what authority. Furo, furttis, and all the per- 
sons of the Futures and Imperative are nowhere to be found. We meet with 
Fiirimus andfurant in Senec. Ep. 95. Furio, is, Sidon. Carm. xxn. 94. — 3 Linxi. 
given in grammars and dictionaries, does not occur in the classics now extant. Yet 
we have Linctus, Plin. xxxv. 15. and Lingendus, xxxi. 9. — ± Pandi, Prise, x. p. 
891.; but he cites no authority. Passus, Ovid. Virg. JEn. I. 483. et passim. Pan- 
sus, Vitruv. The Compounds also want their Perfects. Dispando, I spread 
abroad, has only Dispansus, Plin. Expando, I spread out, Expassus, Tacit. Hist. 
Caecil. ap. Non. Expansus, Plin. Oppando, I spread over against, Oppassus, 
Tertull. Apol. Oppansus, Id. Prbpando does not occur; yet Propassus, Apul. 
Florid. Propansus, Id. — 5 Quassi is found only in grammars and dictionaries. 
Quassus, Ovid. Decussu, Plin- See Concutio, List xxv. — 6 The Perfects Visi, 
Tavist, Revisit are found only in grammars and dictionaries. 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 165 



XXIX. DEPONENTS. 

Amplectory amplectens or amplectere, amplecti, om* 

lexu?, amplectendus, embrace, encircle. 

Apiscor, 2 apisceris or apiscere, apisci, aptus, get. 

Commmiscor,3 comrmnisceris or comminiscere, com- 

minisci, commentus, devise^ invent. 

Complector,* complecteris or complectere, complecti, 

complexus, embrace, compass, comprehend. 

*Defeuscor,5 defetisceris or defetiscere, defetisci, be weary. 

Expergiscor,e expergisceris or expergiscere, expergisci, 

experrectus, awake, rise. 

Fruor,7 frueris or fruere, frui, fruitus or fructus, fruitu- 

rus, fruendus, enjoy, reap the fruits of. 

Fungor, 8 fungeris or fungere, fungi, functus, functurus, 

discharge, perform a duty. 

*Irascor,9 irasceris or irascere, irasci, , be angry. 

Labor, io laberis or labere, labi, lapsus, lapsurus, glide, slip, err, fall 

gently, decay. 
Loquoiyi loqueris or loquere, loqui, locutus, locutu- 

rus, loquendus, speak. 

Nanciscoiy2 nancisceris or nanciscere, nancisci, nactus, 

find by chance, find, obtain. 



i Amplecto, is, Prise, and Diomed. Amplexetur, amplecti, pass. Prise, vin. p. 
791. Amplector, axis, Prise, ibid. Amplexus, having embraced, Ovid. Am- 
plexus, pass. Petron. ap. Prise. Amplectendus, Manil., where some Mss. have 
amplectandus. — 2 Apiscuntur, pass. (,'. Fannius ap. Prise, vni. p. 791. Aptus, 
Plaut. ■ Apiscendi, favoris facultas,' Tacit. Ann. i. 31. The compounds make 
-eptus. — 3 Comminiscimus, act. Apul. Met. Commentus, having devised, Cic. 
Nat. Deor. Commentus, pass, feigned, fictitious, Ovid. — 4 Complecto, act. Pom- 
pon, ap. Non. Complecti, pass, Cic. ap. Prise. Complexes, having embraced, 
Stat. Sylv. Complexus, enfolded, interwoven, Luer. and Plaut. Amph. — 5 Be- 
/ 'at [iscen s, Plin. as if from Defatiscor. Defessus is a mere adjective. The sim- 
ple Fatiscor occurs in Luer. v. 309. Fatisco, I faint, am exhausted, Val. Flac. 
and Stat. Sylv. passim. — 6 Experrectus essem, Cic. Att. — 7 Fruitus, Senec. Epist. 
Fructus, Luer. in. 953. Perfructus, Cic. Fragm. ap. Prise, x. p. 883, Fruiiu- 
rus, Cic. Tusc. Fruiturum, Apul. Apol. where some read Fructurum. See 
Voss. Anal. in. 32. Fruendus, Ovid. — s Fungi, pass. Sex. Pedius ap. Paul 
Dig. Functus, Hor. Functurus, Apul. Met. ' Ad suum munus fungendumS 
Cic. Tusc. in. 7. — 9 Irascere, act. for irasci, Pompon. Ircdus is an adjective.-— 
io Lapsus. Val. Flac. Some Mss. of Virgil have lapsus, Georg. in. 448. and 
elabsus, n. 305. Lapsurus, Ovid. — " Loijuere,loquis, act. Petron. Frag. Trag. 
Locutus, Cic. Lucuturus, Ovid. Loquendus, Mart. v. 26. — 12 Nadus, Cic. in 
Orat. et passim. Nanclus, optt. codd. Li v. xxni. 2. and Plaut. 



166 THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

Nascoiy nasceris or nascere, nasci, natus, natu, nasci- 

turus, be born, spring up, 

Nitoiy niteris or nltere, niti, nixus or irisus, nisurus, 

strive, endeavour, be in labour. 
Obliviscor,3 oblivisceris or obllviscere, obllvisci, oblitus, 

obllviscendus, forget. 

Paciscor,4 pacisceris or paciscere, pacisci, pactus, pa- 

ciscendne, bargain. 

Prof iciscor,5 prof icisceris or prof Iciscere, proficisci, 

profectus, profecturus, set out on a journey, go. 

Queror,6 quereris or querere, queri, questus, questum, 

questurus, querendus, lament, bewail. 

*Reminiscor. 7 reminisceris or reminiscere, rermnisci, 

, call to mind, recollect. 

*Ringor, ringeris or ringere, ringi, , grin, show the teeth. 

Sequor, 8 sequeris or sequere, sequi, secutus, secuturus, 

sequendus, follow. 

Tuor, 9 tueris or tuere, , tutus, tuendus, see, protect. 

Ulciscor, 10 ulciseeris or ulciscere, ulcisci, ultus, ultum, 

ulciscendus, avenge, punish. 

Utor,n uteris or utere, uti, usus, usurus, utendus, use. 

*Vescor, 12 Vesceris or vescere, vesci, , vescendus, feed upon. 



i Natus, Terent/Andr. et passim. Natu, Plin. vi. 33. Nasciturus, Pallad. 
Jun. Nascere, for nasci, Cato R. R. ; but the reading is doubtful. — 2 Nixus. 
Ovid, passim. N'isus, Cic. pro Cluent. c. 57. Vitruv. i. 2. In all the Mss. of 
Livy fi'isus is more frequent than Nixus. Some distinguish them from each- 
other, thus : Nixus corpork, nisus animo ; but this distinction does not appear 
from the classics. Nisurus, Cass. B. C. n. 37. Annltor, I lenn upon, makes 
Annixus, Virg. JEn. i. 148. et passim ; AnnTsus, Liv. v. 25. Conmtor, I strug- 
gle, bring forlh, Connixus, Liv. i. 33. et passim ; Conmsus, Val. Fiac. in. 193. 
En'itor, I struggle hard, bring forth, Enixus, Liv. vi. 24. et passim. Emsus, Cic. 
an Q. Fr. in. 9. Diomed. t. p. 371. confines Enixus to the labour of bringing 
forth, and takes Emsus in a sense of general exertion ; but this distinction is not 
favoured by Mss. authority. Inriitor, I lean upon, Innixus, Caes. B. G. n. 27. et 
passim ; Imusus, Tacit. Obnitor, I struggle against, Obnixus, Virg. ix. 724. et 
passim. Obrusus, Liv. xxxiv. 46. Remtor, I resist, has no Perfeet Participle 
Passive. Subnitor is not found in the classics ; yet Subnixus, Virg. ./En. I. 510. 
et passim. — 3 Obl'dus, Cic. Obllviscendus, Hor. — 4 Facisco, INasv. ap. Non. Pac- 
tus sum, Cic. Servius on Virg. Mn. xi. 133. gives this Verb another Perfect, 
Peplgi. See Pango and Pago, Lists xni. xvi. Paciscendus, Ammian. xxxi. 
12. — 5 Proflcisco, Plant. Mil. iv. 8. 19. Profectus sum, Cic. passim. Pro- 
fecturus, Justin. — 6 Questus sum, Liv. Questum, Nepos in Chabr. Plaut. Questurus, 
Stat. Theb. Querendus, Ovid. Met. — 7 Reniinisco, Rufus ap. Auson. Epigr. — 
s Secutus sum, Virg. Eel. x. 23. et passim. Secuturus, Lucan. Sequendus, 
Ovid. Sequo, Prise, vni. p. 799. — 9 See Tueor, Second Conj. p. 140. — io Vitus 
sum, Propert. Ultum, Sallust. Jug. c. 71. Tacit. Ann. iv. 73. Ulciscendus, 
Cic. Fam. xn. 23. Ulciscerem, Enn. ap. Non. Ulcisci, pass. Sallust. Jug. c. 
34. Hence Ultus, avenged, punished, Liv. n. 17. — " Utor, pass. Novius ap. 
Gell. Uto, is, Cato R. R. Usus sum, Nepos Att. Usurus, Cic. Verr. Ute7i- 
dus, Cic. Verr. iv. 18. — 12 Yescet, Tertul. de Jejun. c. 5., quoting the Old 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 
Im PERSONALS. 



167 



Ningit,i ningere, ninxit, 
Vesperascit,2 vesperascere, , 



it snows. 
it draws towards evening. 



[An Alphabetical List of the preceding Verbs of 
the Third Conjugation, for easy reference. If 
the compound verb cannot be found in this 
List, look for the simple; then refer to it in its 
proper place, and the compound may be found 
in the notes.] 





TAGE 


Cado, 


155 


Consero, - 


153 


Abdo, 


156 


Casdo, 


155 


Consisto, - 


158 


Abnuo, 


146 


Cano, 


155 


Consulo, - 


153 


Absisto, 


158 


Capesso, - 


154 


Conticesco, 


159 


Accendo, - 


146 


Capio, 


162 


Convalesco' 


159 


Accumbo, - 


152 


Carpo, 


149 


Crebresco, 


160 


Acuo, 


146 


Cedo, 


149 


Credo, 


156 


Addo, 


156 


Cerno, 


158 


Cresco, 


159 


Adoiesco, - 


161 


Cingo, 


150 


Cupio, 


162 


iEgresco, - 


161 


CI ango, 


163 


Curro, 


155 


Agnosco, - 


159 


Claudo, - 


163 






Ago, 


158 


Clando, 


149 


D. 




Allicio, 


162 


Clepo, 


149 


Dedo, 


156 


Alo, 


152 


Cluo, 


163 


Defendo, - 


146 


Ambigo, - 


163 


Coalesco, - 


159 


Defetiscor, 


165 


Arnplector, 


165 


Cognosco, - 


159 


Dego, 


146 


Apiscor, 


165 


Colo, 


153 


Deliquesco, 


160 


Appendo, - 


146 


Comminiscor, 


165 


Delitesco, - 


160 


Arcesso, - 


154 


Compesco, 


153 


Demo, 


149 


Arguo, 


146 


Compiector, 


165 


Depso, 


153 


Ango, 


150 


Como, 


149 


Desero, 


153 


Apiscor, - 


165 


Concutio, - 


162 


Desterto, - 


153 


Aspicio, - 


162 


Condo, 


156 


Desisto, 


158 


Assero, 


152 


Confido, - 


156 


Dieo, 


150 


Assisto, 


158 


Congruo, - 


146 


Dido, 


156 






C^nquinisco, 


156 


Diligo, 


150 


B. 




Coq uo, 


150 


Disco, 


155 


Batuo, 


146 


Consanesco, 


159 


Dissero, 


153 


Bibo, 


146 


Consenesco, 


159 


Ditesco, 


161 



Test. Num. xi. 4., 'where the Vulgate has, ' Quis dabit nobis ad vescendum 
carnes ?' Vescendus, Plin. xx. 5. 

i Ningttur, pass, impers. Apul. Florid, i. 2. 2. JNingunt, Lucr. u. 627., 
where some read pingunt. Ninxeril, Accius ap. Prise. JSinguilis approved of 
by Pierius on Virg. Georg. in. 367. ; and by Prise, ibid. JSingii by Caper de 
Verb. Dub. p. 2249.-2 Vesperascit has no Perfect. Vesperascens occurs in Ne- 
pos Pelop. c. 2., and in Tacit. Ann. xvi. 34. 



168 



THIRD CONJUGATION OF VERBS* 



Divido, 


119 


Gradior, - 


163 


Necto, J- 


ioi 


Dnlcesco - 


160 


Grande&co, 


161 


Negligo, - 


151 


Duresco, - 


160 


Graves co, - 


161 


Nifor, 


166 


Duco, 


150 


Gruo, 


163 


Ningif, 


167 


E. 








Nubo, 


149 


Edo, 


147 


L 








Edo, 


156 


fco, 


147 


O. 




Elanguesco, 


160 


fgnosco, 


159 


Obbrutesco, 


160 


Emareesco, 


160 


Imbuo, 


147 


Obcallesco, 


160 


Emo, 


147 


fnduo, 


147 


Obduresco, 


160 


Emango, - 


151 


fncesso, 


154 


Obdo, 


156 


Erubesco, - 


160 


Indo, 


156 


Obmutesco, 


161 


Evanesco, 


160 


fncurvesco, 


161 


Obsurdesco, 


161 


Evilesco, - 


160 


fntegrasco, 


161 


Obliviscor, 


166 


Exardesco, 


161 


[ntumeseo, 


160 


Obsfup^sco, 


161 


Exareseo, - 


160 


Intelligo, - 


151 


Occulo, 


153 


Excandesco, 


160 


frascor, 


165 


Orior, 


163 


Excello, 


153 


Irraucesco, 


160 






Excudo, - 


147 


[nsero, 


153 


P. 




Exhorresco, 


160 


Insuo, 


147 


Paciscor, - 


166 


Existo, 


158 






Pando, 


164 


Exolesco, - 


161 


J. 




Patior, 


163 


Expalleseo, 


160 


Jacio, 


162 


Pario, 


162 


Expergiscor, 


165 


Jungo, 


151 


Pasco, 


159 


Exsero, 


153 






Pago, 


155 


Extinguo, - 


151 


L. 




Pango, - 


151 


Extimesco, 


160 


Lacesso, - 


154 


Pecto, 


151 


Exuo, 


147 


Laedo, 


149 


Pergo, 


151 






Lambo, 


147 


Peto, 


154 


F. 




Lego, 


147 


Pedo, 


155 


Facio, 


162 


Linquo, 


147 


Pello, 


155 


Fallo, 


155 


Lino, 


158 


Pendo, 


155 


Fatisco, 


161 


Lingo, 


164 


Perdo, 


156 


Fervo, 


147 


Loquor, 


165 


Peraresco, - 


161 


Figo, 


151 


Ludo, 


149 


Percrebresco, 


161 


Findo, 


147 


Luo, 


147 


Perhorresco, 


161 


Fingo, - - 


151 






Pertirnesco, 


161 


FJecto, 


151 


M. 




Pinso, 


147 


Fligo, 


151 


Macresco, 


160 


Pinguesco, 


162 


Fluo, 


151 


Mando, 


147 


Plaudo, - 


149 


Fodio, 


162 


Mansuesco, 


161 


Plumesco, - 


162 


Fracesco, - 


160 


Matnresco, 


160 


Pluo, 


148 


Fremo, 


153 


Malo, 


153 


Plango, 


152 


Frendo, 


163 


Mergo, 


149 


Plecto, 


152 


Frigo, 


164 


Metuo, 


147 


Pono, 


154 


Fruor, 


165 


Meto, 


156 


Posco, 


155 


Fugio, 


162 


Mitto, 


157 


Prodo, 


157 


Fungor, 


165 


Mingo, 


151 


Proficiscor, 


166 


Furo, 


164 


Minuo, 


147 


Premo, 


149 


Frango, 


158 


Molo, 


153 


Promo, 


149 


Fundo, 


147 


Mitesco, - 


162 


Prendo, 


148 






Mollesco, 


162 


Prehendo, 


148 


G. 




Morior, 


163 


Psallo, 


148 


Gemo, 


153 


M ungo, 


151 


Puerasco, - 


162 


Geno, 


153 






Pungo, 


155 


Gero, 


149 


N. 








Gigno, 


153 


Nanciseor, 


165 


Q- 




Glisco, - 


163 


Nascor, 


166 


Quatio, 


164 



third conjugation* 



169 



Queror, 


166 


Sero, 


157 


Tergo, 


150 


Quiesco, - 


159 


Serpo, 


150 


Pexo, 


154 






Sido, 


148 


Tollo, 


157 


R. 




Sisto, 


156 


Trado, 


156 


Rado, 


149 


Sisco, 


159 


Traho, 


152 


Rapio, 


]63 


Sino; 


157 


Tremo, 


154 


Rancesco, - 


162 


Solvo, 


148 


Tribuo, 


148 


Recrudesco, 


161 


Spuo, 


148 


Trudo, 


150 


Reddo, 


156 


Spargo, 


150 


Tuor, 


166 


Refrigesco, 


161 


Sperno, 


158 


Tundo, - 


155 


Rego, 


152 


Statuo, 


148 






Relanguesco, 


161 


Sterno, 


158 


U. 




Reminiscor, - 


166 


Sternuo, - 


148 


Ulciscor, - 


166 


Repo, 


149 


Stinguo, 


152 


Ungo, 


152 


Repuerasco, 


162 


Strido, 


148 


Uro, 


150 


Revivisco, 


161 


Stringo, 


152 


Utor, 


166 


Reviresco, 


161 


Strepo, 


154 


Uvesco, - 


162 


Ringor, 


166 


Sterto, 


154 






Rodo, - 


149 


Struo, 


152 


V. 




Ruo, 


148 


Sterilesco, 


162 


Vado, 


150 


Rudo, 


157 


Suesco, 


159 


Veho, 


152 


Rumpo, 


148 


Subdo, - 


156 


Velio, 


157 






Sugo, 


152 


Vergo, - . 


150 


S. 




Sumo, 


150 


Verto, 


148 


Sapio, 


163 


Surgo, 


152 


Verro, 


148 


Satago, 


163 






Vendo, 


156 


Scabo, 


148 


T. 




Vesperascit, 


167 


Scaipo, 


149 


Tango, 


155 


Vinco, 


148 


Scando, 


148 


Tego, 


152 


Vilesco, - 


161 


Scindo, 


157 


Tenerasco, 


162 


Vivo, 


152 


Scribo, 


149 


Tendo, 


155 


Viso, 


164 


Sculpo, 


150 


Tero, 


158 


Vomo, 


154 


Sequor, 


166 


Tingo, 


152 







110 



FOURTH CONJUGATION OF VERBS, 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 



I. Verbs of the Fourth Conjugation end in -to, 
and change -io into -is long in the Second Person 
Present ; into -ivi long in the Perfect ; into -ire 
long in the Infinitive, and into -itus long in the 
Perfect Participle Passive ; as. 

Audio, 1 audire, audlvi or audii, audltus, auditum, auditu, 
auditurus, audiendus, 

*Cio,2 civi, move, excite. 

Condio 3 ivi or ii, season. 

Custodio,4 Ivi or ii, d. keep. 

*Dormio,5 Ivi or ii, m. r. d. sleep. 

Eriidio 6 Ivi or ii, d. instruct. 

Expedio,? Ivi or ii, disentangle. 

Finio.s Ivi or ii, R. d. finish. 

*Gestio,9 Ivi or ii, leap, desire. 





hear. — So, 


Impedio,ioivi or ii, d. 


entangle. 


*Insanio,n Ivi or ii, 


be mad. 


Irretio,' 2 Ivi or ii, 


ensnare. 


Lenio,i3 Ivi or ii, d. 


mitigate. 


Mollio,i4 Ivi or ii, d. 


soften. 


*iMiigio,i5 Ivi or ii, 


bellow-. 


Munio,i6 Ivi or ii, R. D. 


fortify. 



i Audlbam, Ovid. Audtbis, Plant. Many of the Verbs of this Conj. making 
•Ivi, have also -ii in the Perfect. Audii, Virg. Eel. vi. 83. Aud'dum, Hor. Au- 
ditu, Csbs. B. Afr. Auditurus, Lucan. Audiendus, Caes. B. G. — 2 Civi, Tacit. 
Ann. xv. 33. & Plaut. The Participle Citus exists only in the Compounds, Con- 
citus, summoned, Val. Flac. excited, Lucan. v. 597. Excitus, called out, Virg. 
JEn. x. 38. Exciturus, Liv. Excibat, Liv. xxxu. 13. See Cieo, Second Conj. 
— 3 Condivi, Cic. pro Cluent. Colum. Condii, Varr. R. R. Condltus, Cic. de 
Orat. in. 25. — 4 Custodibant, Catull. Custodibtiur, Plaut. Custod'ivi, Plin. 
Custodii, Sueton. Custodisset, Auson. Epist. Custod'dus, Ovid. Custodien- 
dus, Caes. B. G. — 5 Dormibo, Plaut. Dormivi, Ovid. JDormii, Cic. Att. Dormi- 
tum, Hor. I. Sat. 5. 48. Dorm'durus, Cels. Dormiendus, Catull. — 6 Erudivi, 
Cic. Tusc. i. 26. Erudii, Val. Flac. Eruditus, Cic. passim. Erudiendus, 
Ovid. — 7 Expedlbo, Plaut. Expedmi, Liv. ix. 9. Expedii, Val. Flac. Expe- 
disses, Cic. Expeditus, Cic. Mil. c. 10. ' Ad expediendas pecunias,' Sueton. Jul. 
— 8 Finivi, Ovid. Met. Finii, Id. Flriitus, Ovid. Trist. Flmturus, Id. Art. 
Am. Finiendus, Tertull. Scorp. — 9 Gestibant, Plaut. Gestivi, Geli. Gestierunt, 
Veil. — io Impedivi, Cic. Impedii, Hor. I. Sat. 6. 27. Ovid. Met. Impeditus, 
Cic. pro Coel. et passim. Impediendus, Ovid. Met. — ^Insariivi. Plaut. i>2s«, 
msft, Cic. Or. c. 67. — 12 Irretivi, Colum. Irretisses, Cic. Catil. 1. 6. Irrelitus, 
Cic. Fin. v. 18. et passim. — 13 Lenibam, Lenibo, Virg. ^En. v. 527. vi. 468. Pro- 
pert. Lenivi, Cic. Att. vi. 2. Lenii, Id. Phil. 11. 45. Llnitus, Liv. 1. 16. Ze- 
jtiendus, Cels. Leniundus, Sallust. Cat. c. 48. — 14 Moltwi, Veil. Mollii, Ovid. 
Met. Mollitus, Sil. Molliendus, Cic. — 15 Mugwi, Propert. Mugissent, Liv. l 
w — 16 Moenio, anciently. Muriivi, Cic. Cat. 1. 4. Munii, Nep. Hannib. c. 3- 
Liv. ix. 29 et passim. Mun'dus, Cic. passim. Mun'durus, Hirt. Muniendus, 
Cic. Munibis, Veget. de R. V. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 171 

IvIutio,i ivi, mutter. Soio,7 sclvi, u. n. know. 

J\'utrio,2 ivi or ii, d. nourish. *Servio,s Ivi or ii. Bf. serve, obey 

Partio,3 Ivi or ii, r. divide. SGpio,9 Ivi or ii, lull asleep. 

Polio,* Ivi, d. polish. Stabilio.io Ivi or ii, establish. 

Punio,5 Ivi or ii, d. punish. Tinnio.n Ivi or ii, r. tinkle. 

Redimo,6 Ivi, crown, encircle. Vestio,i2 Ivi or ii, clothe. 

II. The following are irregular either in the 
Perfect, or Perfect Participle Passive, or in both : 

Armcio, 13 amtclre, amixi or amicui, amictus, armciendus, clothe. 

Aperio,* 4 aperire, aperui, apertus, aperturus, aperiendus, open. 
Bnllio, 15 bullire, bullii, buliitus, boil, bubble. 

Comperio, 16 comperire, comperi, compertus, find out. 

Farcio, 1 * farcire, Tarsi, farctus, cram. 

Fastidio, 18 fastidlre, fast id i i , fastlditus, fastidiendus, disdain. 

Fulcio, 19 fulcire, fulsi, faltus, fulciendus, prop. 

i Mutivi, Plaut. MiU'dus, Terent.— 2 Nictr'ibam, Virg. Mv\. vn. 484. Autrh 
bo, Rhemm. Nutrlmus, for Nutrzvitnus. Nutrttor, for nutrlto, Virg. Georg. ir> 
425. Nutrivi, Senec. Nutrii, Pers. Sat. Nutrissent, Ovid. Nutfitus, Hor. 
Nutriendus, Cels. — zPartior, depon. Virg. iEn. 1. 198. et passim. Partivi, 
Sallust. Jug. c. 47. Partisses, Lucil, Partltus, Cic Orat, 111. 30. Partiturus, 
Oaes. B. Civ. 1. 4. — 4 Potivi, Phasdr. Polltus, Cic. passim. Poliendus, Vitruv. 
PoUbant, Virg. ^En. vnr. 435.-5 Punivi, Apul. Met. Punii, Sueton. Jul. c. 
74. Punisse, Tib. c. 61. Punltus, punished, Cic. lnv. Pun'dus, having pu- 
nished, Cic. Mil. Puniendus, Cic. Pcenibat, anciently, Lucr. See Munio in 
this List. — 6 Redimlvit, Sueton, where Baumgarten-Crusius reads redimiit. Re- 
dim'dus, Tibull. passim. Redimibat, Virg. JEn. x. 538. — 1 Scivi, Terent. ' Pro 
scivisse, rectius dicimus scisse.' Facciolat. Scisse, Liv. Ovid. Fast. Scisti, 
Ovid. Scisse7it. Cic. Att. The Participle Scltus is used in an active significa- 
lion, knowing, shrewd. Sciturus, Liv. in. Senec. Epist. 6. Scitu facile, Terent. 
— s Servlvi, Plaut. 21. Servii, Veil. Servisset, Cic. Servisiis, Liv. Serv'dum, 
Virg. JEn. 11. 786. Serviimn est, impers. Cic. Or. Serv'ibas, Plaut. Servlbo, 
Merc. — 9 Sopivij Liv. Sopiit, Veil. Sopierat, Tibull. Sopisfis, Ovid. Met. Sd- 
pltus, Virg. JEn. x. 642. et passim.— 10 Siabttwi, Plin. Stabilisset, Gell. Stablll- 
tus, Lucr. — " Tinnivi, Tinnii, Plaut. Tinniturus, Sueton. — 12 Vestwi, Cic. de 
Nat. Deor. Vest ierint, Co! lira. Vesiltus, Propert. passim. — 13 Amicui, Brut. ap. 
Diomed. Amixi, Varr, ibid. Some add Armcim, but without authority. Amic- 
tus, Hor. Amiciendus, Fronton, ad M. Aurel. — 14 Apeflbo, Plaut. Aperui, Liv. 
passim. Some think the Perfect Aperii might also be used, reading in Cic. Att. 
vn. 3. Aperienmus, where the true leotion is Aperuerimus. Apertus, Cic. pas- 
sim. Aperturus, \a\. Aperiendus, Sallust. Cat. c. 58. — 15 Bullii, Apic. Bull'i- 
tus, Veget. Veter. — 16 Comperi, Cic. passim. Compertus, Cic. passim. Com- 
perior, depon. I know assuredly, Sail. Jug. c. 49. Hence Compertus est, for 
zomperit, Tertulh — n Farsi, Senec. Epist. Farctus, Cic. passim. * Ita in me- 
lioribus libris exaratum est.' Voss. Anal. in. 33. Some write Fartus. The 
Oxford Annotalors on Lily quote Farcitus from Cicero ; others quote it from 
Varro ; but this appears to be a mistake. Farsus, Hygin. Fab. — 18 Fastldii, 
Mart. FasCtdivi is found only in grammars and dictionaries. Fasftd'dus, Ovid. 
Trist. Fasfidiendus, Plin. — 19 Fulsi, Cic. Fulxi, Prise. Fulcwi, Vet. Inscript. sub 
Honor, et Theodos. ap. Murator. p. 466. Fultus, Virg. Eel. vi. 53. Fulc'dus, 
Cael. Aurel. Tard, Fulciendus, Cels. 



172 FOURTH CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

*Glutio,i glutire, gTutii, , swallow, 

*Grunnio, 2 grunnire, grunnii, , grunt, 

Haurio,3 haurire, hausi, rarely haurii, haustus, hausturus or 

hausurus, hauriendus, draw, drink up, absorb. 

*Lascivio, 4 lascivire, lascivii, , be wanton, frisk. 

*Ligurio,5 ligurire, ligiirii, , feed delicately. 

*Obedio, 6 obedire, obedii, , obediturus, obey. 

Operio, 7 operire, operui, opertus, operiendus, cover, hide. 

^Prosilio, 8 prosllfre, prosilui or prosilivi, , sally forth. 

Reperio,9 reperire, reperi, repertus, reperturus, d. find. 

^Saevio, 10 ssevire, sssvii, , sseviturus, rage. 

*Salio, u salire, salui or salii, , leap, 

Sancio, 12 sancire, sanxi or sancii, sancitus or sanctus, sanci- 

endus, establish, ratify. 

Sarcio, 13 sartus, sarsi, sarcire, patch, repair* 

Sarrio, 1 * sarrire, sarrivi or sarrui, sarritus, sarriendus, 

weed with a hook, hoe. 



i Glut Is se, Juv. Sat. iv. 28. Glut'wi, found in grammars and dictionaries, does- 
not occur in the classics. • Mors glutita,' Tertull. adv. Marc- — 2 Grunnisse, Juv. 
Grunnwi is found only in grammars and dictionaries. — 3 Hausi, Virg. JEu. i. 
742. Haurii, Varr. ap. Prise. Haustus, Val. Flac. et passim. Hauses, Sol in. 
Hauritus, Apul. Met. Hauritum, ibid. Hauritu, ibid. Hausturus, Cic. Hau- 
surus, Virg. JEn. iv. 384. Haur'durus, Juvenc. Hauriendus, Colum. Hauri- 
bant, Lucr. — 4 Lascivissei, GelL — 5 U,gurii, Hor. Obligurii, Cic. Catil. n. 5. Lu- 
gurivi, given in grammars and dictionaries, does not exist. — 6 Obedibo, Afran. ap. 
lVon. Obedisse, Apul. Florid, Obedlvi is not found in the classics. Obediturus, 
Piin. — "! Operui, Terent. Opertus, Virg. Georg. i. 465. et passim. Operiendus, 
Cels. — 8 Prosilui, Val. Flac. Lnean. Prosilivi, Curt. vn. 4., and so some read 
in Liv. 1. c. ; but the Perfect in ui seems more correct. See Salio in this List, 
Transilio, I leap over, makes Transilui, Liv. i. 7. TransiUvi, Plin. et Piaut. or 
Trajisilii, Hirt. Transtliendus, Ovid. — 9 Reperi, Ovid. Met. et passim. When 
the first syllable of this Perfect is made long, some double the P. Repertus, Virg. 
JEn. vi. 343. Reperturus, Curt. Reperiendus, Cic, Reperibo, Caecil. et Pom- 
pon, ap. Non. — io Scevii, Gell. Savit, for Sceviit, Ovid. Met. ScEvltum est im- 
pers. cruelty was exercised, Liv. i. 1. Curt. viii. 10. 6. Scevlturus, Liv. Scev'i- 
bat, Lucr. — n Salui, Virg. Georg. n. 384. Ovid. Salii, Claud. See Heins on 
Ovid. Salivi, found in grammars and dictionaries, does not exist in the classics. 
So Desilio, I dismount, I alight, desilui, Virg. JEn. xi. 501. desilii, Caes. B. G. 
iv. 12. Exsilio, I spring forth, exsilui, Plaut. exsllii, Sil. Substfio, I spring up, 
subsilui, Propert, iv. 8. 46. subsilii, Senec. Epist. 13. Three have ui only : 
Assilio, I leap upon, assilui. Val. Flac. i. 258. Dissilio, I fly asunder, I burst, 
dissilui, Virg. JEn. in. 415. Insilio, I leap upon, insilui, Ovid. Met. in. 367. & 
Plaut. See Prosilio. — i 2 Sanxi, Cic. Tusc. i. 27. Liv. xxiv. 8. Propert. Sancii, 
Pompon, ap, Diomed. Sancivi is quoted by Nizolius from Cic. pro Plane, 
where no such form is to be found ; and by others from Liv. x. 9., where the 
Mss. and best edd. have sanxi. Sancitus, Cic. de Harusp. Resp. Sanctus, Liv. 
x. 9. & Quintil. Sanciendus, Liv. vin. 7. — 13 Sard, Cato R. R. Sartus, Juve- 
nal, in. 254. et passim. ' Sarciendm infamise,' &c. Caes. B. C. in. 74. — 14 Sarri- 
vi, Colum. Sarrui, Cato R. R. Sarrii, given in some dictionaries, does not 
occur, except in the various reading of Cato. Sarritus, Colum. Sarriendus, 
Colum. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 173 

Sentio,i sentire, sensi, sensus, sensurus, feel, perceive. 

Sepelio, 2 sepelire, sepelivi, sepelii or sepeli, sepultus, 

sepulturus, sepeliendus, bury, inter. 

Sepio, 3 sepire, eepsi, septus, hedge in, enclose. 

*Sitio,4 sttire, sitii, , thirst, thirst after. 

SufFjo,5 suffire, suffii, suffitus, snffiendus, fumigate. 

*Vagio, 6 vagi r e, vagii, , cry as a child. 

*Venio, 7 venire, veni, , venturus, come. 

Vincio, 8 vincire, vinxi, vinctus, vincturus, vinciendus, bind. 

III. These Verbs end in -eo: 

*Eo,9 ire, ii or ivi, , iturus, go. 

*Queo,io quire, quivi or quii, , be able. 

*Nequeo,n nequire, nequivi or nequii, , cannot. 

*Veneo, 12 venire, venii, ■ , veniturus, be sold. 



i Sensi, Caes. B. G. v. 32. & Hor. Sensti, for sensisti, Terent. Sensus, Arnob. 
Se?isUrus, Ovid. Met. — 2 Sepelivi, Senec. Epist. Sepelii, Petron. Sepeli, 
Pers. Sat. Sepultus, Virg. ^En. n. 265. et passim. Sepeliius, Cato. ap Prise. 
Sepulturus, Sidon. Carm. Sepelieridus, Cic. Tnsc. u. 13. — 3 Dausqu. Cellar. No- 
ris. Pier, write Scepio, with a diphthong ; Voss. Heins. Erythraeus and others 
write it with a single vowel. Sepsi, Cic. Fam. xv. 4. Nat. Deor. Virg. JEn. 
I. 415. & Tacit. Ann. Dictionaries give Sep'ivi, Sepitum ; but neither sepitus, nor 
sepilum have any place in the classics; nor is sepwi to be found, with the ex- 
ception of the contracted form sepissent in Liv. xliv. 39., where the true reading 
is sepsissent. See Gronov. on the passage, Voss. Anal. in. 33. Septus, Virg. 
./En. ix. 551. et passim. — 4 :§ffisti t Justin. Silvi, given by grammars and dic- 
tionaries, does not occur in the ciassics. — 5 Suffii, Propert.iv. 8. 83. See Broukhus 
& Burman on the passage. Suffitus, Ovid. Fast. Sujjiendus, Colum. — 6 The author 
of the Carmen de Philom. makes the first syllable short. Vagii, Ovid. — 7 Veni- 
bo, Pompon, ap. Non. Veni, Cic. Venturus, Virg. vi. 66. Venitur, ventum est, 
impers. passim. Inventu ardna, Plin. n. 46. — 8 Vinxi, Virg. JEn. xi. 81. Vinx- 
tus, Ovid, et passim. Vincturus, Virg. Georg. n. 94. Vinciendus, Cic. — 9 Ivi is 
rare; it occurs in Aul. Gell. xin. 12. 3. Ii, Liv. Cic. Fam. Virg. JEn. i. 376. 
et passim. These Compounds make ii : Abeo, I depart, abii ; Adeo, I approach, 
adii ; Anteeo, I go before, anteii : Coeo, I meet, coii ; Exeo, I go out, exii ; Iji- 
iereo, I die, inter ii ; Introeo, I enter, introii ; Prodeo, I come forth, prodii ; 
Transeo, I pass over, transii. But Ineo, I enter, makes tnii, Cic. et passim; mi, 
Stat. Theb. Obeo, I go about, undergo, die, obivi, Virg. ^En. vi. 802. Obii, 
Lucr. Pereo, I perish, peril, Ovid. Perivi occurs only in A pul. Met. Prceeo,l 
go before, prceivi, Plin. prceii, Liv. Prcet'ereo, I go beyond, prceterii, Ovid. Art. 
Am. et passim ; prceierivi, Apul. Met. Redeo, I return, redii, Cic. et passim; re- 
dlvi, Lucil. ap. Non. Subeo, I go under, siibivi, Ovid, subii, Hor. I. Sat. 9. 21. 
Iturus, Cic. — io Qulvi, Virg. ^En. vi. 463. Terent. Quii, Lucr. vi. 855. See 
Irregular Verbs. Qwitus, Accius ap. Diomed. — n Nequivi, Virg. ^En. vi. 507. 
Nequii, Sail. Jug. c. 18. See Irregular Verbs. — 12 Venii. Cic. Cato R. R. et 
passim. Venisse, Liv. 11. 14. Venlvi, given iu grammars and dictionaries, does 
nor occur in the classics. Some give this Verb a Supine, Venum, which is a 
noun, and one of its component parts, (Venum eo,) and of which the ablative 
Vino occurs in Tacit. Ann. xin. 51 Venitus, Sedul. Hymn. Veniturus, Se- 
nec. de Const. Sap. c. 3. See Irregular Verbs. 

p2 



174 



FOURTH CONJUGATION OF VERBS 



IV. The 

doubtful : 



Perfects of the following Verbs are 



*Cambio.i eampsi, 
*Dementio,2 Ivi, 
Effutio,3 I vi, itus, 
*FerioA ferii, d. 



exchange, 

be mad, 

speak foolishly. 

strike. 



*Lippio,3 Ivi, r. be blear-eyed. 

*Raucio,6 rausi, r. be hoarse 

Saliio," Ivi, Itus, r. d. season with salt. 



V. These have neither Perfects nor Perfect 
Participles : 



*Bftlbutio,s 


sfa?n?ner. 


*lneptio, 


trifle- 


Vsecutio., 


be dimsighted , 


*Prurio, 


itch, tickle- 


*FerGcio, 


he fierce. 


*Rugio. 


roar as a lion. 


•^Gannio, 


yelp, whine. 


*Sagio, 


foresee. 


"Glucio, 


cluck as a hen. 


*Scaturio, 


gush out. 


*Grandio, 


make great. 


*Singultio, 


sob. 


*Iiinnio, 


neigh . 


*Tussio, 


COUgh. 



Pavio, I beat, pave, has no Perfect : but the Perfect Participle Pdvltus is 
found in Varr, R. R. i. 51. 1. and in Plin, ix. 10. 



i Campsi, Prise, x. p. 906. — iDementivi, Grammatici. — ^Effufivi, Grararaatici. 
EffufUus, Cic. Div. — 4 Ferii, Acron in his commentary on Hor. I. Od. 7. Jl. The 

Perfect of the Compound Referio, I strike again, does not occur. — 5 Lippivi, 
Grammatici. Lipplturus, Plin. — 6 The Perfect Rausi, and Supine Rausum oc- 
cur only in Prise, x. p. 907. Rausurus, Lucil, ap. Prise, ibid. — ' Salllvi, or sa- 
livi, Grammatici. Sal litus, or sallius, Colum. Salliturus, Nsev. ap. Prise, ibid 
Salliendus, Colum. The Participles Salsus. Colum. and Salsurus, Mumm. ap. 
Diomed. 1. c. come from Sallo, is, of the Third Conjugation. — 3 Balbutivi in some 
dictionaries. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



175 



VI. DEPONENTS. 

Blandior, 1 -Iris or -ire, -Iri, -Itus, 

Largior,2 give liberally, lavish. Partior,3 d. 

Mentior,3 r. lie. P6tior,6 r. d. 

Mulior,* d. attempt something difficult, Sortior,? r. 
contrive, plan. 



soothe, flatter. — So, 



divide. 

obtain, enjoy 

draw lots. 



VII. EXCEPTIONS. 

Assentior, 3 assentiris or assentire, assentlri, assensus, 

assensurus, assent. 

Experior, 9 expends or experlre, experiri, expertus, 

experturus, experiendus, try. 

Metior, 10 metiris or metire, metiri, mensus or metltus, 

metiendus, measure. 

Opperior, 11 opperiris or opperire, opperiri, oppertus or 

opperitus, opperiendus, wait for. 

Ordior, 12 ordiris or ordire, ordiri, orsus, ordiendus, begin. 



i Blanditus, Ovid. Met. Blandilus, pass. Verrius ap. Prise, vui. p. 792. — 
2 Largio, Accius ap. Non. Hence Larg'dus, pass. Tibull. Largitus, having be- 
stowed, Cic. — 3 Mentio, Prise. Hence Mentitus, pass. Virg. JEn. n. 422. Ovid. 
MenCibor, Plaut. Mentitus, having lied, Propert. Mentiturus, Ovid. — 4 Mbliebd- 
tur, pass. Apnl. Met. Molitus, Ovid. Am. Virg. Georg. i. 494. Mdliendus, 
Cic. Orat.— 5 Parfitus, Cic. de Univ. Pariiendus, Cic. See Pariio, List i. — 
6 This verb is sometimes used by the poets in the Third Conj. in the Pres. Indie, 
and Imperf. Subj. See Virg. JEn. in. 55. Ovid. Met. xin. 130. Also in the 
Pres. Infin. Poti, Pacuv. ap. Non. vn. 66. Poftvit, Plaut. Potitus, Caes. B. G. 
et passim. Potiturus, Cic. Tusc. I. 37. Potiundus, Ovid. Met. — 7 iSortltus, 
Virg. JEn. vui. 444. <& Ovid. SorCiturus, Cic. — sAssentio, act. passim. Hence 
Assensus, pass. Cic. Acad. iv. 31. Assensus, having assented, Cic. Assensurus, 
Cic, — 9 Experibis, Catull. Expertus, Val. Flae. Experturus, Plant. Experitu- 
rus, Cato H. R. Experiendus, Ovid. — io Metidtur, pass. Arnob. Hence Mensus, 
measured, Cic. N. D. n. 27. Mensus, having measured, Val. Flac. v. 476. 
Metitus, Claud. Ep. Metiendus, Cic. Orat. c. 57. — u Oppertus, Terent. Oppe- 
ritus, Plaut. Opperiendus, Tacit. Ann. iv. 6. — w Orsus, Virg. JEn. vi. 125. et 
passim. Orditus, pass. Sidon, Ep. Ordiendus, Cic. Leg. I. 7. 



176 IRREGULAR VERBS. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



The Irregular Verbs are, Sum, ' I am ;' Eo, 
1 I go ; Queo, 1 1 am able ;' Volo, ' I am willing ;' 
Fero, 'I bear or suffer;' Fio, 'I am made,' 'I 
become ;' Edo, ' I eat/ and their compounds. 

SUM has already been conjugated. After the same manner are 
formed its compounds. 1 

Prosum, to do good, has a d where sum begins with e. 
Prosum, prodesse, profui. 

Indicative Mode. 

Pr. Pro-sum, prod-es, prod-est ; pro-siimus, prod-estis, <^c. 
Imp. Prod-eram, prod-eras, prod-erat; prod-eramus, tfc. 
Per. Pro-fui, pro-fuisti, pro-fuit ; pro-fiumus, profuistis, <5fC. 
Plu. Pro-fueram, pro-fueras, pro-fuerat ; pro-fueramus, <J-c. 
Fut. Prod-ero, prod-eris, prod-erit ; prod-erimus, cj-e. 

Subjunctive Mode. 

Pr. Pro-sim, pro-sis, pro-sit; pro-slmus, pro-sitis, pro-sint. 

Imp. Prod-essem, prod-esses, prod-esset ; prod-essemus, eye. 

Per. Pro-fuerim, pro-fueris, pro-fuerit; pro-fuertmus, <fyc. 

Plu. Pro-fuissem, pro-fuisses, pro-fuisset ; pro-fuissemus, <$*c. 

Fut. Pro-fuero, pro-fueris, pro-fuerit ; pro-fuerim us, cj-c. 



i Compounds of Sum : — Absum, I am absent ; Adsum, I am present ; Desum, I 
am wanting ; Inter sum, I am present ; Obsum, I am against, I hurt ; Possum, I 
am able; Prcesum, I am before, I preside over ; Prosum, I avail, I do good ; 
Subsum, I am under, I lurk ; Supersum,! am over and above, I survive; and 
Insum, I am in, which wants the Perfect. Prosum takes n after pro, when the 
simple Verb begins with e ; as, Prosum, prodest, prodesse, &c. Compounds of 
Eo : — Abeo, I depart ; Adeo, I approach ; Anteeo, I go before ; Coed, I assemble, 
I meet; Exeo, I go out ; Ineo, I enter ; Intereo, I perish, I die; Introeo, I come 
in ; Obeo, I am about, T manage, I die ; Pereo, I perish ; Prceeo, I go before ; Prce- 
tcreo, I pass by ; Prodeo, I go forth ; Redeo, I return; Subeo, I go under; Tran- 
seo, I pass over ; Yhieo, I am sold. Compound of Queo : — Nequeo, I am unable. 
Compounds of Yolo: — Nolo, I am unwilling; Malo,\ am more willing. Com- 
pounds of Fero : — Affero, I bring ; Antefero, I prefer ; Aufero, I take away ; 
Circumferc, I carry round ; Confiro, 1 contribute ; Defero, 1 convey; Differo, f 
disperse; Effero, I carry forth ; Infero, I bring in; Offero, I offer ; Perfero, I 
carry through ; Prcefero,! prefer; Prqfero, I bring forward; Refero, 1 bring 
back; Suffero,l take up, 1 endure. Compounds of Edo : — Adedo, I devour; 
Ambedo, I eat around, I gnaw ; Comedo, I eat ap; Exedo,\ consume; Peredo, I 
eat through. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



m 



Imperative Mode. 

Pr. 2. Prod-es or prod-esto, 2. Prod-este or prod-estote, 

3. Prod-esto ; 



Pr. Prod- esse. 
Per. Pro-fuisse. 



3. Pro-sunto. 

Infinitive Mode. 

Fut. Esse pro-futurus, -a, -urn. 
Fuisse pro-futurus. 

Participle. 
Fut. Pro-futurus. 



Possum is compounded of potis, able, and sum: and is thus con- 
jugated : 

Possum, 1 posse, potui. To be able. 



Indicative Mode. 



potestis, possunt. 
-eratis, -erant. 
. . ) -uerunt 
• u,stls , \ or -uere. 
-n eratis, -uerant. 
-entis, -erunt. 



-sltis, -sint. 

-setis, -sent, 

-ueritis, -uerint. 

-uissetis, -uissent. 

-ueritis, -uerint. 



The rest wanting. 

Not?. : Possum wants the Fut. In fin. and has no Gerunds or Supines. Poten s 
is considered as a mere Adjective ; and not as a Participle. 

i Possum is comrpounded of potis and sum. They sometimes occur separately, 
;Virg. JEn. in. 671. xi. 148. Ter. Eun. n. 2. 32. Adelph. iv. 1. 5. Lucr. i. 
451. ii. 849. 911. iv. 718. v. 718. Catull. lxxi. 7. lxxv. 24. Varr. R. R. n. 2. Cic. 
Tusc n. 16. Gell. xix. 9, &c.) and then polls is Masc. Fern, or Neut. and Plur. 
as well as Sing. Cf. Plant. Poen. 1.2. 17. We find the following forms also: — 
Potessim, Plaut. Pers. I. I. 41. Potesset, Lucil. ap. Non. v. 98. where some read 
Putissel. Cf. Ascon. in Divin. Verr. 13. Polissum, Plaut. Cure. v. 3. 23. 
Possiem, es, et, Cic. in Arat. 304. Plaut. Bacch. iv. 5. 2. Most. n. 2. 34. iv. 
2. 68. Polesltir, Lucr. in. 1024. Pacuv. ap, Non. x. 34. cf. Pier, ad Virg. ^En. 
viii. 402. Possltur, Cat. R. R. 154. Possetur, Claud. Quadrig. Ap. Non. x. 30. 
Potesse, Lucr. i. 665. Ter. Eun. iv. 3. 24. Charis. in. p. 231. cites, Poteste,po- 
testo, poiestote, possunto t but without authority. 



Pr. 
Imp. 


Possum, 
Pot-eram, 


potes, 
-eras, 


potest ; 
-erat; 


possum us, 
-eramus, 


Per. 


Pot-ui, 


-uisti, 


-uit; 


-uimus, 


Plu. 
Fut. 


Pot-ueram 
Pot-ero, 


-ueras, 
-eris, 


-uerat ; 
-erit ; 


-ueramus, 
-erimus, 






Subjunctive 


Mode, 


Pr. 

Imp. 

Per. 

Plu. 

Fut. 


Pos-sim, 

Pos-sem, 

Pot-uerim, 

Pot-uissem, 

Pot-uero, 


-sis, 
-ses, 
-ueris, 
, -uisses 
-ueris, 


-sit ; 
-set; 
■merit ; 

:, -uisset ; 
-uerit ; 

Infinitive 1 


-simus, 

-semus, 

-uenmus, 

-uissemus, 

-uerimus, 

Mode. 


Pr. 


Posse. 


Per. Potuisse 


Th 



178 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



EO, 1 Ire, ivi, Itum. To go. 
Indicative Mode. 



PR. 


Eo, 


is, 


it; 


imus, itis, 


eunt. 




Imp. 


I bam, 


ibas, 


ibat ; 


ibamus, ibatis, ibant. 




Per. 


Ivi, 


ivisti, 


ivit ; 


ivmius, ivistis, iverunl 


: or ivere 


Plu. 


Iveram, 


iveras, 


iverat ; 


iverarnus, iveratis, iverant. 


Fut. 


Ibo, 


ibis, 


ibit; 


ibimus, ibiti 


s, ibunt. 










Subjunctive Mode. 






Pr. 


Earn, 


eas, 


eat; 


eamus, 


eatis, 


eant. 


Imp. 


Irera, 


ires, 


iret; 


iremus, 


iretis, 


irent. 


Per. 


Iverim, 


iveris, 


iverit ; 


iverimus, 


iverit is, 


iverint. 


Plu. 


Ivissem, 


ivisses 


, ivisset 


; ivissem us, 


ivissetis, 


ivissent, 


Fut. 


Ivero, 


veris, 


iverit : 


i ivenmus, 


iventis, 


iverint. 



Pr. 



Imperative Mode. 



I, 
Ito, 



Ito ; 



ite, 
itote, 



eunto. 



Participles. 

Pr. lens, Gen. euntis. 
Fut. Iturus, -a, -urn. 



Infinitive Mode. 

Pr. Ire. 
Per. Ivisse. 

Fur. Esse iturus, -a, -urn. 
Fuisse iturus, -a, -urn. 



Gerunds. 

Eundum. 
Eundi. 
Eundo, &c. 



Supines. 

1. Itum. 

2. Itu. 



The compounds of Eo are conjugated after the same manner ; ad-, ah-, ex-, 
Co-, in-, inter-, ob-, red-, sub-, per-, prce-, ante-, prod-eo; only in the perfect, and 
the tenses formed from it, they are usually contracted : thus, Adeo, adii, seldom 
adlvi, adilum, adire, to go to ; perf. Adii, adiisti, or adisti, &c. adieram, adierim, 

&c. So likewise veneo venii, , to be sold, compounded of venum and eo.) 

But ambio, -'ivi, -Hum, -'ire, to surround, is a regular verb of the fourth conjuga- 
tion. 



i Of this Verb the Infinitive Passive Iri occurs frequently joined with the 
Perfect Participle Passive of other verbs. We also find the Impersonals, Itur, 
eutur, tbatur, iretur, ibitur, 'itum est, tyc. Virg. iEn. vi. 179. Plaut. True. in. ]. 
21. Senec. Med. 460. Cic. Att. n. 1, Eundus occurs in Claud. Eutrop. n. 
419. lssem, Isse, Cic. Phil xn. 12. Verr. in. 44. and in Ovid. Propert. Stat. 
Sil. passim. Isfis, Lucan. vn. 834. lam, ies,itt, Cic. Agr. n. 25. Cf. Tibul). i. 
4. 23. Senec. Benef. n. 1. Apul. Met. vi. p 122. Most of the Compounds of 
Eo make ii in the Perfect, rather than ivi. Adeo, Ineo, Prcetereo, Subeo, Tran- 
seo, being used transitively, are found in the Passive. Cic. Q. Fr. I. 2. 5. Offic. 
i. 19. Cass. B. G. vn. 9. Cic. Tusc. v. 19. Manil. iv. 398. Juv. xvi. 2. Am- 
bio is conjugated regularly like Audio, Veneo, venii is conjugated like Eo; yet 
we find Yeniet, Murator. p. 1311. n. n. 2. f enear, and Yeneatur, Diomed. I. p. 
365. Venitus, Sedul. Hymn, i 21. Venitum, (Supine) Priscian. x. p. 907. 



IRREGULAR VERBS 



179 



Eo, like other neuter verbs, is often rendered in English under a passive form 
thus, it, he is going; wit, he is gone; werat, he was gone; iverit, he may be 
gone, or shall be gone. So, venit, he is coming ; venit, he has come ; venerat, he 
was come, &c. In the passive voice these verbs for the most part are only used 
impersonally ; as, iturab illo, he is going ; ventum estab Mis, they are come. We 
find some of the compounds of eo, however, used personally; as, pericula adeun- 
tur, are undergone. Cic. Libri sibylllni aditi sunt, were looked into. Liv. 
Flumenpedibus transiri potest. Caes. Inimicitice subeantur. Cic. 

QUEO, I can, and NEQUEO,^ I cannot, are conjugated the same way as eo ; 
only they want the imperative and the gerunds; and the participles are seldom 
used. 

VOLO, 2 velle, volui. To will, or to be willing. 
Indicative Mode. 



Pr. 


Vol-o, 


vis, vult; voliimus, 


vultis, volunt. 


Imp. 


Vol-ebam, 


-ebas, -ebat; -ebamus, 


-ebatis, -ebant. 


Per. 


Vol-ui, 


-uisti, -uit; -uimus, 


) -uerunt or 


Plu. 


Vol-ueram, 


•ueras, -uerat ; -ueramus, 


-ueratis, -uerant. 


Fut. 


Vol-am, 


-es, -et ; -emus, 

Subjunctive Mode. 


-etis, -ent. 


Pr. 


Velim, 


velis, velit ; velimus, 


velitis, velint. 


Jmp. 


Vellem, 


velles, vellet; vellemus 


, velletis, vellent. 


Per. 


Vol-uerim, 


-ueris, -uerit ; -uerimus, 


-uerttis, -uerint. 


Plu. 


Vol-uissem, 


-uisses, -uisset; -uissemus, -uissetis, -uissent. 


Fut. 


Vol-uero, 


-ueris, -uerit ; -uerimus, 


-ueritis, -uerint. 




Infinitive Mode. 


Participle. 




Pr. Velle. Per. Voluisse. 


Pr. Volens. 






The rest not used. 





i Of Queo and Nequeo these forms occur : Quiz, Priscian, x. p. 905. 907. Quiit, 
Accius ap. Macrob. vi. 1. Quistis, Juvenc. Hist. £v. it. 679. Quissent, Auson. 
Epigr. cxxxix. 7. Quisse, Lucr. v. 1421. Quiens, Apul. Met. vi. 113. ix. 206. 
Quitur, Csecil. ap. Diomed. i. p. 380. Quitus, Id. ibid. Apul. Apol. p. 402. Te- 
rent. Hecyr. iv. 1. 57. Queuntur, Caecil. ap. Diomed. i. p. 380. Queatur, Lucr. 
i. 1043. Queantur, Plaut. Pers. n. 2. 12. Qui-tum, (Supine) Priscian, ix. p. 
867. NZquissent, Lucr. iv. 1248. Sallust.Jug. c. 18. Nequitur, Sallust, Jug. c. 
34. Plaut. Rud. iv. 4. 20. Nequitum, Pacuv. ap. Fest. et Cato ibid. Nequitus, 
Caper Priscian. x. p. 899. Nequiens, Sallust, Fragm. Apul. Met. vin. p. 162. 
Auson. Prof. n. sub. fin. Ammian. xv. 10. 

2 Vis, vult, vultis, or, as they were anciently written, volt, voltis, (Auson. Epigr. 
xxxix. Ter. Andr. v. 3. 1. Plaut. Most. in. 2. 68. 71. Novius ap. JNon. x. 18, &c.) 
are contractions of volis, volit, voiilis. In Lucil. lib xxvii ap. Non. vn. 88. and 
Plaut. Asin. i. 2. 26. we find Volam for velim. 



180 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



NOLO, 1 nolle, nolui. To be unwilling. 



Pr. Nolo, non-vis, 

Imp. Nol-ebam, -ebas, 

Per. Nol-ui, -uisti, 

Plu. Nol-ueram, -ueras, 
Fut. Nolam, noles, 



Indicative Mode. 

non-vult; noliimus, non-vultis, noluht. 

-ebat ; -ebamus, -ebatis, . -ebant 

-uit; -mrnus, -uistis, j J«™J 

-uerat; -ueramus, -ueratis, -uerant. 

nolet; * nolemus, noletis, nolent. 



Subjunctive Mode. 



Pr. Nolim, nolis, 

Imp. Nollem, nolles, 
Per. Nol-uerim, -ueris, 
Plu. Nol-uissem,-uisses, 
Fut. Nol-uero, -ueris, 



nolit; 


nollmus, 


nolltisj 


nolint. 


nollet; 


nollem us, 


nolletis, 


nollent. 


-uerit; 


-uerimus, 


-uerilis, 


-uerint 


-uisset ; 


-uissemus, 


-uissetis, 


-uissent. 


-uerit; 


-uerimus, 


-ueritis, 


-uerint. 



Pr. 



Imperative. 

Sing. 2. Plur. 
J Noli or J nolite of 
( Nolito. l nolitote. 



Infinitive. 

Pr. Nolle. 
Per. Noluisse. 



Participle. 

Pr. Nolens. 

The rest wanting. 



MALO, 2 malle, malui. To be more willing. 



Indicative Mode. 



Pr. Mal-o, mavis, 

Imp. Mal-ebam, -ebas, 

Per. Mal-ui, -uisti, 

Plu. Mal-ueram, -ueras, 
Fut. Mal-am, -es, 



mavult ; 
-ebat ; 

-uit; 



malumus, 
-ebamus, 



mavultis, 
-ebatis, 



-uimus, -uistis, 



-uerat; -ueramus, -ueratis, 



-et ; &c. This is scarcely in use. 



malunt. 
-ebant. 
-uerunt 
or -uere. 
-uerant. 



i Nolo is a contraction of nbn volo. For ndnv'is we find nev'is, Plaut. Trin. 
v. 2. 32. Most. in. 2. 75. for nonvult, nevolt, Plaut. Most. i. 2. 29. Nolfts for 
nonvultis, Lucil. ap. Diomed. i. p. 381. Putsch. 

2 Malo is a contraction of magis, or mage volo. Of this Verb we find the fol" 
lowing forms: Mdvolo, PJ a ut. Asin. v. 1. 8. Pcen. i. 2. 90. mdvolet, Asin. i. 1- 
108. mavolunt, Naev. ap. Fest. in • Stuprum ;' mavoluit, Petron. Fragm. mavelim 
Plaut. True. iv. 2. 29. mdvelis, Capt. n. 2. 20. Pseud, i. 2. 8. mavelit, Trin 
ii. 2. 25. mdvellem, Plaut. Mil. n. 2. 16. Amph. 1. 3. 14. Pseud, i. 1 128, 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 

Subjunctive Mode. 

Pr. Malim, malis, malit; malimus, malltis, 

Imp. Mallem, malles, mallet; mallemus, malletis, 

Per. Mal-uerim, -ueris, -uerit ; -uerimus, -ueritis, 

Plu. Mal-uissem, -uisses, -uisset; -uissemus, -uissetis, 

Fut. Mal-uero, -ueris. -uerit; -uerimus, -ueritis, 



181 



malint. 

mallent. 

-uerint. 

-uissent. 

-uerint. 



Infinitive Mode. 
Pr. Malle. Per. Maluisse. The rest not used. 

FERO, ferre, ttili, latum. To carry, to bring ', or suffer. 



ACTIVE VOICE. 
Indicative Mode. 



Pr. Fero, fers, fert; 

Imp. Fer-ebam, -ebas, -ebat; 

Per. Tuli, tulisti, tulit; 

Plu. Tul-eram, -eras, -erat ; 

Fut. Feram, feres, feret; 



ferimus, fertis, ferunt. 

-ebamus, -ebatis, -ebant. 

tulimus, tulistis, \ tul ^- runt or 

1 ' ( -ere. 

eramus, -eratis, -erant. 

feremus, feretis, ferent. 



Subjunctive Mode. 



Pr. 


Feram, 


feras, 


ferat ; 


feramus, 


Imp. 


Ferrem, 


ferres, 


ferret ; 


ferremus, 


Per. 


Tul-erim, 


-eris, 


-erit ; 


-erimus, 


Plu. 


Tul-issem, 


-isses, 


-isset ; 


-issemus, 


Fut. 


Tul-ero, 


-eris, 


-erit ; 


-erimus, 



feratis, 

ferretis, 

-eritis, 

-issetis, 

-eritis, 



ferant. 
ferrent. 
-erint. 
-issent. 
-erint. 



Imperative Mode. 



Infinitive Mode. 



r» Fer, r . S ferte, e , Pr. Ferre 
PR -Ferto, ferto; |fertote, ferunt0 ' Per. Tulisse 



Participles. 

Pr. Ferens. 

Fut. Laturus, -a, -um. 



Fut. Esse laturus, -a, -um. 
Fuisse laturus, -a, -um. 



Gerunds. 

Ferendum, 
Ferendi, 
Ferendo, &c. 

Q 



Supines. 

1. Latum, 

2. Latu. 



182 IRREGULAR VERBS. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

Feror, ferri, latus. To be brought. 

Indicative Mode. 

Pit. Feror, > oHTerre- Jfertur; ferimur, ferimini, feruntur. 

Imp. Fer-ebar. < "^ .g"|' re ( -ebatur \ -ebamur, -^ebamini, -ebantur. 

Per. Latus sum, &c. latus fui, &c. 
Plu. Latus eram, &c. latus fuerara, &c. 

Fut. Ferar, < S "-' i feretur ; feremur, feremini, ferentur. 

Subjunctive Mode. 

Pr. Ferar, J or'fera're S fer ^ tur > feramur, feramini, ferantur. 

Imp. Ferrer. < oHferrl're s ^ errgtur » ferremur, ferremini, ferrentur, 

Per. Latus sim, &c. latus fuerim, &c. 
Plu. Latus essem, &c. latus fuissem, <&c. 
Fut. Latus fuero, &c. 

Imperative Modd 
Pr, Ferre or fertor, fertor ; ferimmi, feruntor. 

Infinitive Mode. Participles. 

Pr. Ferri. Per. Latus, -a, -urn. 

Per, Esse or fuisse latus, -a, -um, Fut. Ferendus, -a, -um. 

In like manner are conjugated the Compounds offero ; as, affero, attuli, alia- 
turn ; aufero, abstuli, ablatum ; differo, distuli, dilatum ; confero, contuli, collatum ; 
infero, inluli, illatum ; offero, obiuli, oblatum ; effero, extuli, datum. So, circum-, 
per-, trans-, de-,pro-, ante-, prce-, re-fero. Jn some writers we find adfero, adtuli, 
adlatum ; conldtum ; inlatum ; obfero, &c. for affero, &c. 

Obs. 1. Most part of the above verbs are made irregular by contraction. Thus* 
nolo is contracted for non volo; malo for magis volo ; fero, fers, fert, &c. for feris, 
ferit, &c. Feror, ferris or ferre, fertur, for ferreris, &c. 

Obs. 2. The imperatives of dlco, duco, and facio, are contracted in the same 
manner with/er: thus we say, die, due, fac ; instead of dice, duce, face* But 
t&dte often occur likewise in the regular form- 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



183 



FIO, 1 fieri, factus. To be made or done, to become. 

Indicative Mode, 

Pr. Flo, fis, fit ; fimus, fitis, riunt. 

Imp. Fiebam, fiebas, fiebat ; fiebamus, fiebatis, fiebant. 

Per. Factus sum, &c. factus fui, &c. 

Plu. Factus eram, &c. factus fueram, &c. 

Fut. Fiam, fies, fiet; fiemus, fietis, fient. 



Subjunctive Mode. 

Pr. Fiam, fias, fiat; fiamus, 

Imp. Fierem, fieres, fieret; fieremus, 

Per. Factus sim, &c. factus fuerim, &c. 

Plu. Factus essem, &c. factus fuissem, &Co 

Fut. Factus fuero, &c. 



fiatis, 
fieretis, 



fiant. 
fierent 



Imperative Mode. 



Pr 



<Fi, 
' l Fito, 



fito: 



, fite, 
' fitote, 



fiunto, 



Participles. 

Per. Factus, -a, -urn. 
Fut. Faciendus, -a, -um. 



Infinitive Mode. 

Pr. Fieri. 

Per. Esse or fuisse factus, -a, -um. 

Fut. Factum iri. 

Supine 

Factu, 



Note. — The Compounds offdcio which retain a, have also^zo in the passive, 
and fac in the imperative active ; as calefacio, too warm, calefio, calefac : but those 
which change a into i, form the passive regularly, and have / ice in the impera- 
tive ; as, conjlcio, confice ; conjicior, conftci, confectus. We find, however, confit, 
it is done, and confieri ; defit, it is wanting ; infit, he begins. 

Edo 2 , edere, edi, or esse, esus, eat. 

Infinitive Mode. 



Present. Edere, or esse. 

Future. Esurus, or esurum esse. 



Past. Edisse. 



i Fdcior, the Passive of Facio, very rarely occurs in the classics. Flo was used 
in its stead. Facitur, however, is read JNigid. ap. Non. x. 19. Faciatur, Petron. 
Frag. Priscian. vm. p. 101. Putsch. The Indicatives, Fls, Fimus, and the Impe- 
ratives, Fl, Fito, Fite, Fitote, rarely occur. Fls is read in Hor. n. Ep. 2. 211. 
Flmus, Arnob. n. p. 53. and in some edd. of Terent. Heaut. in. 1. 74. ubi. al. 
Sumus. Fl, Hor. n. Sat. 5. 38. Plaut. Cure. i. 87. Fito, 2d Pers. Cato ap. Non. 
vn. 62. File, Plaut. Cure. i. 1. 89. Fitote, Cato. Crassus, Liv. in Odyss. ap. Non. 
1. c. Of Fltis no trace can be found. Fiens occurs only in Diomed. i. pp. 352. 
177. Fltur, Cato ap. Priscian. vin. p. 789. Fiebantur, id. ibid. Fllum est, L\v> 
in Odyss. ap. Non 1. c. — Flo is sometimes used impersonally: Fit, it happens; 
Flebat, it happened, &c. 

2 Edo is a regular Verb of the third Conjugation ; but in the Infinitive and Im* 
neratiye Modes, in the Present-imperfect Indicative, and the Imperfect Sub- 



184 



IRREGULAR VERBS, 



Indicative Mode. 



Pres. Edo, edis, ores, edit, or est; edimus, 

Imp. Ed-ebam, -ebas, -ebat; -ebamiis, 

Per/. Ed-i, -isti, -it ; -lmiis, 

Plup. Ed-eram, -eras, -erat; -eramus, 

Fut. Ed-am, -es, -et; -emus, 



edit is, or est is, 
-ebatis, 

-istis, 

-eratis, 
-etis, 



edunt. 

-ebant 
, -erunt, 
[ or -ere. 

-erant. 

-ent. 



Pres. 

Imp. 

Per/. 
Plup. 
Fut. 



Ed-am. 
C Ed-erem, 
? or 

J Essem, 
Ed-erim, 
Ed-issem, 
Ed-ero, 



Subjunctive Mode. 



-as, 
-eres, 



esses, 
-ens, 



-ens, 



-amus, 

-eremus, 

or 



-at ; 
-eref, 

or 

esset; essem us, 

-ent ; -erimiis, 

-isset ; -issemus, 

-ent ; -erimus, 



-atis, 
-ere lis, 

or 
essetis, 
-eritis, 
-is^tis, 
-eritis^ 



-ant. 
-erent. 

or 
essent 
-erint. 
-issent. 
-erint. 



Imperative Mode. 



Singular. 

No first person. 

2. Ede, edito, or es, esto, 

3. *Edat, edito, or esto. 



Plural. 



1. *Edamus, 

2. Edite, editote, or este, estote* 

3. *Edant, edunto. 





Participles. 


Pres. Edens. 
Per/. Esus. 


Fut. in -RUS, Esurus. 
Fut. in -PUS, Edendus, 


Gerunds. 


Supines. 


Gen. Eden-di, 
Dat. $• Abl. Eden-do, 
Norn, fy Ace. Edendum. 


Former, Esum. 
hatter, Esu. 



junctive, it assumes other forms, as if from the Verb Sum. Esse, Cic. Nat. Deor. 
II. 3. Esse, ' to be eaten,' Plaut. Most. iv. 2. 42. Es, Plaut. Cas. n. 3. 32. Est, 
Hor. ii. Sat. 2. 57. i. Epist. 2. 39. Virg. Mn. iv. 66. v. 683. Esses, Val. Max. iv. 
3. Esset, Virg. Georg. i. 151. Essemus, Terent. Eun. in. 4. 2. Esto, Cato R. R. 
156. Este, Plaut. Most. i. 1. 61. Esus, Gell. ix. 6. Esurus, Ovid. Heroid. 
Epist. ix. 37. Edens, Ovid, Met. n. 768. Edendus, Cic. de Amic, 69, 
Ovid. Heroid. Epist. i. 95. Esum, Plaut, Stich. i. 3. 29. Esu, Plaut. 
Pseud, in. 2. 35. Estum, Priscian. x,p 893. These forms also occur: Esus 
sum, 1 1 have eaten,' Solin. 17—- 27. Edim, is, it, for Edam, as, at, Plaut. Aul. 
in. 2. 16. Poan. in, 1. 34. iv. 2. 45. Capt, in. 1.1. Editis for Edatis, Caecil. Nov. 
and Pompon, ap. Non. n. 114. x. 18. Cf. Virg. Mn. xn. 801. Hor. Epod. in. 3. 
Comedim, is, it, Cic. Fain. ix. 20. Plaut. Cure. iv. 4. 4. Eserim, for Ederim, 
Apul. Met. iv. p. 152. 32. Estur, Sen. de Ira, in. 15. Cels. v. 27. 3. Ovid. ex. 
Pont. i. 1. 69. Plant. Pcen. iv. 2. 13. — Of the quantity of Es no proof can be 
found. It would therefore be better to follow Servius, Vossius, Alvarex, and 
others, who suppose it long, than pronounce it short with some later gramma- 
rians, 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 185 

NEUTER PASSIVE VERBS. 

To irregular verbs may properly be subjoined what are commonly call- 
ed Neuter Passive Verbs, which, like Jio, form the preterite tenses 
according to the passive voice, and the rest in the active. These are, 
soleo, solere, solitus, to use ; audeo, audere, ausus, to dare ; gaudeo, 
gaudere, gavisus, to rejoice ; fido, jidere, fisus, to trust. So, confido, 
to trust ; and diffido, to distrust; which also have confidi and diffidi. 
Some add mcereo, mcerere, mcestus, to be sad ; but mcestus is general- 
ly reckoned an adjective. We likewise say jurdtus sum and cozndtus 
sum, forjurdvi and ccendvi, but these may also be taken in a passive 
sense. 

To these may be referred verbs wholly active in their termination, 
and passive in their signification ; as, vapulo, -dvi, -dtum, to be beaten 
or whipped ; veneo, to be sold ; exulo, to be banished, &c. 

DEFECTIVE VERBS. 

Defective Verbs are those of which several 
Tenses and Persons are not found in the ancient 
classics. The Verbs usually so called are, 1. Aio, 
'I say;' 2. Inquio, 'I say;' 3. Fart, 'to speak;' 
4. Apcige, 'begone;' 5. Ave, 'hail ;' 6. Salve, 'hail;' 
7. Ausim, 'I dare;' 8. Cedo, 'give me, tell me;' 




Quceso, ' I pray , 
15. Odi, 'I hate;' Memint, 'I remember;' Ccepi, 
'I have begun.' 

1. Ind. Pres. Sing. Aio, Plaut. Capt. i. L 3. Ais, Hor. n. Sat. 7. 67, Ait,Te- 
rent. Andr. v. 4. 4. Plur. Aiunt, Terent. Andr. n. 1, 21. — Imp. Sing. Aiebam, 
Hor. i. Sat. ix. 12. Aiebas, Plaut. Men. in. 3. 9. Aiebat, Cic. Verr. in. 18. Plur. 
[Aiebdmus, Diomed. p. 371. Putsch.] Aiebatis, Plaut. Capt. in. 5. 18. Aiebant, 
Sallust. Cat. c. 49. [Azbant, Accius ap. Priscian. x. p. 906.] — Perf. Sing. [Ai, 
Prob. Gram. p. 1482. Aisti, id^m. ibid, et Augustin. Epist. 54. et 174. Ait, Prob. 
ibid. Plur. Aislis, Gramm. Aierunt, Tertul. de Fug. in Persec. c. 6.] 

Subj. Pres. Sing. Aias, Plaut. Rud. n. 4. 14. Aiat, Cic. de Fin. u. 22. Plur. 
[Aiamus, Priscian. 1. I.] Aiant, Apul. Apol. p. 448. 

Imperat. Ai, Nsev. ap. Priscian. x. p. 906. et Plaut. True. v. 49. 
Particip. Aiens, Cic. Top. c. 11. et Apul. Met. vi. p. 118. 
The Infinitive Ailre, occurs in St. Augustin, de Trinit. ix. 10. Ain\ do you 

*2 



186 DEFECTIVE VERBS* 

say so? Plaut. Amph. i. 1. 188. Apul. Met. i. p. 6. The ancients wrote, Alio, 
aiis, aiit. See Quintil. i. 4. Voss. Etym. Lat. p. 132. and Anal. in. p. 140. 

2. Ind. Pres. Sing. Inquio, Catul. x. 27. or Inquam, Cic. Phil. n. 44. Inquis, 
Hor. i. 4. 78. Inquit, Nepos Alcib. c. 8. Inquimus, Hor. i. Sat. 3. 66. lnquitis y 
Arnob. n. p. 44. Inquiunt, Cic. Verr. vi. 14. — Imp. Sing. Inquiebat, al. Inquibat, 
Cic. Top. 12. Plur. [Inquibant, Grammatici.J — Fut. Sing, lnquies, Catull. xxlv. 
7. Inquiet, Cic. Verr. iv. 18. — Perf. Sing. Inquisti, Cic. de Orat. n. 64, Inquit, 
Cic. pro Cluent. c. 34. 

Subj. Pres. Sing. Inquiat, Auet. ad Heren. iv. 3. 

Imperat. Sing. Inque, Terent. Heaut. iv. 7. I. Inquito, Plaut. Aulul. iv. 10. 
58. Rud. v. 2. 55. 

Particip. [Inquiens, Grammatici.] 

Inquio, according to Priscian, lib. x. is of the third Conj. but according to Dio- 
med. i. p. 375, of the fourth. Inquiil occurs in some edd. of Catull. x. 14. and 
Inquii ibid. vs. 27. Inquit and Inquam are of frequent occurrence. Vid. Voss. 
Etym. Lat. p. 133. and Anal. in. 40. 

3. Infin. Fdri, Horat. iv. Od. 6. 18. Fdrier, Virg. iEn. xi. 242. 

Indic. Pres. Sing. Fdtur, he speaks, Val. Flac. in. 616. Virg. iEn. i. 131. et 
passim. Fdtur, is spoken, Suelon. ap. Prician. vin. p. 793. — Fut. Fdbor, Propert. 
iv. 4. 1. Fdbitur, Gell. xv. 6. 

Subj. Imp. Fdrer, St. August. Conf. i. 8. 

Imperat. Fare, Virg. JEn. v. 389. et passim. Fdrnino, Cato R. R. c. 141. 

Particip. Pres. Fans, Plaut. Pers. n. 1. 7. Propert. in. 5. 19. — Perf. Fdtus, 
Virg. iEn. ii. 323. et passim. — Fut. in -dus, Fandus, Pacuv. ap. Cic. de Divin. i. 31. 

Gerunds : Fandi, Virg. JEn. x. 225. et passim. Fando, in or by speaking, Stat. 
Theb. i. 655. Fando, by report, by hearsay, Cic. Nat. Deor. i. 29. 

Supine : Fdtu, Virg. Mn. xn. 25. 

For and Fdris do not occur in the classics, although cited by Diomed. i. p. 375. 
and by Priscian. vni. p. 791. Neither does, Dor, nor the Subjunctives Fer, Der. 
Similarly defective are the Compounds Affdri, Effdri, Profdri. 

4. Imperat. Sing, and Plur. Apage is considered by some as an Interjection. 
Apdgete is found in Oudendorp's ed. of Apul. Met. i. p. 13. Elmenh. also in Cic. 
Fam. v. 10. Terent. Eun. v. 2. 65. Plaut. Cas. n. 8. 24. Amph. it. 1. 32. where 
the best Mss. and most edd. have Apdge te. See Faciolati's Lat. Lex. 

5. Infin. Avere, Martial, i. 109. in. 5. 

Imperat. Sing. Ave, Martial, in. 95. et passim. Aveto, Sallust. Cat. c. 35. 
Plur. Avete, Grut. Inscr. p. 735. n. 6. Sueton. Claud, c. 21. 

The Eton and other grammars add Avetote for which there is no authority. 
Some write Have, hdvere, &c. Quintil. Inst. i. 6. finds fault with many learned 
men of his day for writing and saying Avete, with the second syllable long, in 
place of Hdvete, with an aspiration and the second syll. short. — The Verb Aveo, 
I covet, is complete. 

6. Infin. Solvere, Plaut. Rud. i. 5. 5. Petron. c. 98. 
Ind. Fut. Salvebis (for Salve) Cic. Att. vi. 2. 

Imperat. Sing. Salve, Virg. Geo. n. 173. ^En. xi. 97. et passim. Salveto, Plaut. 
Rud. ii. 4. 3. Men. v. 9. 17. Plur. Salvete, Plaut. Trin. in. 2. 39. 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 187 

Salveo is humorously put in the mouth of a clown by Plautus.Truc. n. 2. 4. To 
the Defectives Ave and Salve, some add Vale, vdlete, vulebis, vdleas ; but these 
come from Vdleo, I am well. 

7. Subj. Pres. Sing. Ausim, Virg. Eel. in. 32. et passim ; Austs, Fest. et Lac- 
tam, de Pass. Dom. vs. 66. where some read Auseris ; Ausit, Stat. Theb. 
xn. 101. Achil. i. 544. Plur. Ausint, Stat. Theb. xi. 126. See Voss. de Anal. 
in. 41. p. 124. 

8. Imperat. Sing. Cedo, Cic. de Orat. c. 86. et passim. Plur. Cette, Plaut. 
Merc. v. 4. 4. Enn. ap. Non. n. 122. Accius, ibid. 

Cedo is used in the Plur. Cic. Senect. c. 6. Cette is a contraction of Cedite 
which last some cite from the Fragm. of Plautus, p. 1216. ed. Gronov., but it is 
very uncertain. 

9. Infin. Covfieri, Caes. B. G. vn. 58. 

Indic. Pres. Sing. Conjit, Lucr. iv. 292. Terent. Adelph. v. 8. 23. Plur. Con- 
fiunt, Arnob. vi. p. 219. — Fut. Sing. Confiet, Lucr. in. 413. 

Subj. Pres. Sing. Confiat, Colum. i. 8. Imp. Sing. Confleret, Li v. v. 50. Cic. 
ad An, ix. 8. vin. 15. Liv. v. 50. Plur. Cojifierent, Arnob. n. p. 73. 

10. Infin. Defieri, Terent. Hecyr. v. 2. 1. Liv. ix. 11. 

Indic. Pres. Sing. Defit, Virg. Eel. n. 22. et passim; Piur. Defwnt, Gell. xx. 
8.— Fut. Sing. Def'iet, Liv. ix. 11. ubi al. Deficiet. 

Subj. Pres. Sing. Defiat, Plaut. Men. i. 4. 3. Rud. iv. 4. 63. 

11. Indic. Pres. Sing. Infit, Virg. iEn. v. 708. Lucr. in. 516. et passim ; Plur. 
lnfiunt. Mart. Capell. n. in fin. 

In/to, Varr. ap. Priscian. vin. p. 818. < Infe, tt$**t i. e. incipe,' in Glossis. 
Some to these add Explicit, it is finished. 

12. Indic. Pres. Sing. [Ovas, Grammatici ;] Ovat, Val. Flac. n. 506. iv. 342. 
Virg. JEn. x. 500. 

Subj. Pres. Sing. Ovet, Stat. Sylv. iv. 1. 8. — Past-imp. Sing. Ovdret, 
Gell. vi. 7. 

Particip. Ovans, Liv. v. 31. Cic. de Orat. c. 47. et passim. Ovatus, Persius, 
II. 55. Ovdturus, Solin. cap. 45 — 57. 

Gerund. Ovandi, Sueton, Claud, c. 1. Gell. v. 6. 5. 

13. Infin. Qucesere, Plaut. Bacch. n. 2. 1. 

Indic. Pres. Sing. Quceso, Terent. Eun. in. 2. 13. Qucesit, Lucr. v. 1229. 
Plur. Qucesiimus, Sil. xvi. 250. et passim. 

Imperat. Quccse, Plaut. ap. Non. i. 213. iv. 39. 

Particip. Qucesens, Apul. Met. iv. p. 70. Elmenh. 

Qucesis, given in some grammars, does not occur in the classics. Qucesi, Perf. 
Priscian, x. p. 505. ed. Krehl. Quces'ivit, Sallust. ap. Priscian. ibid, whosaysthat 
Quceswi is a perfect common to Quceso and Qucero. 

14. Indic. Fut. Sing. Faxo, fovfaciam, or fecero, Virg. iEn. ix. 158. et passim. 

Subj. Perf. Sing. Faxim, for flcerim, Plaut. Amph. i. 3. 13. et passim,- Faxis, 
Terent. Andr. iv. 4. 14. Faxit, Cic. de Leg. n. 8. Faximus, Plaut. True. i. 1. 
40. Plur. Fax'itis, Liv. xxrx. 27. Faxmt, Terent. Heaut. 1. 1. 9. et passim. — Imp. 
Faxim, for facerem, orfecissem, Plaut. Pseud. I. 5. 84. 



188 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 



15. These three, Odi, Ccepi, and Memini, are only used in the preterite tenses ; 
and therefore are called Preteritive Verbs; though they have sometimes likewise 
a present signification ; thus, 

Odi, I hate, or have hated, oderam, oderim, odissem, odero, odisse. Participles, 
osus, osurus ; exosus, perosus, 

Ccepi, I begin, or have begun, cceperam, -trim, -issem, -ero, -isse. Supine, cceptu. 
Participles, cceptus, ccepturus. 

Memini, I remember, or have remembered, memineram, -erim, -issem, -ero, -isse. 
Imperative, memento, mementbte. 

Instead of odi, we sometimes say, osus sum : and always exosus, per osus sum, 
and not exbdi, per odi. We say, opus ccepit fieri, or cceptum est. 

The following forms also occur : Odio, C. Gracch. ap. Fest. Odivit, Cic. Phil. 
xiii. 19. Odiit, Terlul. de An. c. 10. Odies, Tertul. adv. Marc. rv. 35. Osus 
sum, Plaut. Amph. in. 2. 19. Gell. iv. 18. Osurus, Cic. de Amic. c. 16. Odiendi, 
Apul. de D. Plat. in. p. 631. Odiens, Petron. c. 132. Odientes, Tertul. adv. 
Marc. iv. 16. Oderem et Odere, infin. Charis. in. p. 228. Oditur, Tertul. Apol. 
in. in fin. Odiremur, Hieronym. Epist. 43. — Ccepio, Plaut. Men. v 5. 57. Ccepiam, 
Cato ap. Fest. Ccepiat, Plaut. Trwc. n. ]. 23. Cceperet, Terent. An. in. 3.43. 
edd. Rivii, Faern. et Bothe ; sic. codd. Bentl. Boscl. et Donat. et Prisr-ian. x. p. 
879. Cazperit al. Coepere, Plaut. Pers. i. 3. 41. Coeptus est, Caes. B. G. iv. 18. 
Ccepturus Quintil. x. 1. Plin. N. H. xvi. 25. Cf. Caecil. ap. Non. n. 159.— Meml- 
nens, Li v. ap. Priscian. xi. p. 922. Auson. Prof. n. 4. Sidon. n. 10. ad. fin. iv. 12. 
vi. 3. vn. 6. 

Some to the Defective Verbs add Novi, I know ; but this is the Perfect of Noseo, 
I am learning. See Voss. Anal. in. 39. 



IxMPERSONAL VERBS. 

A verb is called Impersonal, which has only the terminations of the third per- 
son singular, but does not admit any person or nominative before it. 

Impersonal verbs, in English, have before them the neuter pronoun it, which 
is not considered as a person ; thus, delectat, it delights ; decet, it becomes ,- 
contingit, it happens ; evenit, it happens. 



1st. Conj. 



2d. Conj. 



3d. Conj. 



4th. Conj. 



Ind. 



Sub. 



Inf. 



Pr. 


Delectat, 


Decet, 


Contingit, 


Evenit, 


Imp. 


Delectabat, 


Decebat, 


Contingebat, 


Eveniebat, 


Per. 


Delectavit, 


Decuit, 


Contigit, 


Evenit, 


Plu. 


Deleetaverar, 


Decuerat, 


Contigerat, 


Evenerat, 


Fut. 


Deleclabit. 


Decebit. 


Continget. 


Eveniet 


Pr. 


Delectet, 


Deceat, 


Contingat, 


Eveniat, 


Imp. 


Delectaret, 


Deceret, 


Contingeret, 


Eveniret, 


Per. 


Delectaverit, 


Decuerit, 


Contigerit, 


Evenerit, 


Plu. 


Delectavisset, 


Decuisset, 


Contigisset, 


Evenisset, 


Fut. 


Delectaverit 


Decuerit. 


Contigerit. 


Evenerit. 


Pr. 


Delectare. 


Decere. 


Contingere. 


Evenire. 


Per. 


Delectavisse. 


Decuisse. 


Contigisse. 


Evenisse. 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 



189 



Most Latin verbs may be used impersonally in the passive voice, especially 

Neuter and Intransitive verbs, which otherwise have no passive ; as, pugnatur, 

favetur, curritur, venitur : from pugno, to fight ; faveo, to favour ; curro, to run ; 
venio, to come. 

Ind. Pr. Pugnatur, Favetur, Curritur, Venitur, 

Imp. Pugnabatur, Favebalur, Currebatur, Veniebatur, 

Per. Pugnatum est, Fautum est, Cursum est, Ventum est, 

Plu. Pugnatum erat, Fautum erat, Cursum erat, Ventum erat, 

Fut. Pugnabitur. Favebitur. Curretur. Venietur. 

Sub. Pr. Pugnetur, Faveatur, Curratur, Veniatur, 

Imp. Pugnaretur, Faveretur, Curreretur, Veniretur, 

Per. Pugnatum sit, Fautum sit, Cursum sit, Ventum sit, 

Peu. Pugnatum esset, Fautum esset, Cursum esset, Ventum essct, 

Fut. Pugnatum fuerit. Fautum fuerit. Cursum fuerit. Ventum fuerit. 

Inf. Pr. Pugnari. Faveri. Curri. Veniri. 

Per. Pugnatum esse. Fautem esse. Cursum esse. Ventum esse. 

Fut. Pugnatum iri. Fautum iri. Cursum iri. Ventum iri. 



Obs. 1. Impersonal verbs are scarcely used in the imperative; but instead of 
that we use the subjunctive; as, delectet, let it delight; <fcc. nor in the supines, 
participles, or gerunds, except a few ; as, pamitens, -dum, -dus, &c. Induci ad 
pudendum etpigendum. Cic. In the preterite tenses of the passive voice, the 
participle perfect is always put in the neuter gender. 

Obs. 2. Grammarians reckon only ten real impersonal verbs, and all in the 
second conjugation ; decet, it becomes ; pceriztet, it repents ; oportet, it behoves ; 
miseret, it pities ; piget, it irketh ; pudet, it shameth ; licet, it is lawful ; Tibet or 
lubet, it pleaseth ; tcedet, it wearieth ; liquet, it appears. Of which the following 
have a double preterite ; miseret, miserult, or misertum est ; pigei, piguit, or pi* 
gitum est ; pudet, puduit, or puditum est ; licet, licuit, or licitumest ; libet, libuit, 
or libitum est ; tcedet, tceduit, tcesurn est, oftener, pertcesum est. But many other 
verbs are used impersonally in all the conjugations. 

In the first, Juvat, spectat, vacat, stat, constat, prcestat, restat, &c. 

In the second, Apparet, attinet, perlinet, debet, dolet, nocet, latet, liquet, patet, 
placet, displicet, sedet, solet, &c. 

In the third, Accidit, incipit, desinit, sufficit, &e. 

In the fourth, Convenit, expedit, &c. 

Also, irregular verbs, Est, obest, prodest, potest, interest, superesl ; fit, pr&terit, 
nequit, and nequitur, subit, confert, refert, &c. 

Obs. 3. Under impersonal verbs may be comprehended those which express 
the operations or appearances of nature ; as, Fulgurat, fulminat, tonat, grandi- 
nat, gelat, pluit,ningit,lucescit, advesperascit, &c. 

Obs. 4. Impersonal verbs are applied to any person or number, by putting 
that which stands before other verbs, after the impersonals, in the cases which 
they govern ; as, placet mihi, tibi, illi, it pleases me, thee, him; or I please, thou 
pleasest,&c. pugnatur a me, a le, abillo, I fight, thou lightest, he fighteth,&c. So, 
Curritur, venitur a me, a te, &c. I run, thou runnest, &c. Favetur tibi a me, Thou 
art favoured by me, or I favour thee, &c. 



190 



REDUNDANT VERBS. 



Obs. 5. Verbs are used personally, or impersonally, according to the particular 
meaning which they express, or the different import of the words with which 
they are joined : thus, we can say, ego placeo tibi, I please you ; but we cannot say, 
si places audlre, if you please to hear, but si placet tibi audire. So we can say, 
miuta homini contingunt, many things happen to a man ; but instead of ego conti- 
gi esse domi we must either say, me conttgit esse domi, or mihi contiget esse domi, 
J happened to be at home. The proper and elegant use of Impersonal verbs can 
only be acquired by practice. 



REDUNDANT VERBS. 

Those are called Redundant Verbs, which have different forms to 
express the same sense. Some are Redundant 1. in Signification ; as, 
Criminor, ' I blame or I am blamed ;' 2. in Termination; as, Fabri- 
co and Fabricor,'! frame;' 3. in Conjugation; as, Lavo, lavdre, and 
Lavo, lavere, i I wash ;' 4. in Tenses; as, Suesco, 'lam accustomed,' 
Perf. Suevi and Suetus sum. 

I. Verbs of the same signification used in different Conjugations : 



Cieo, es, *Cio, Is, stir up. 

Claudo, is, Claudeo, es, be lame, 

*Denseo, es, *Denso, as, thicken. 

Excello, is, Excelleo, es, excel. 

*Ferveo, es, *Fervo, is, be hot. 

Fodio, is, Fodio, is, dig. 

*Fulgeo, es, Fulgo, is, shine. 

Lavo, as, JLavo, is, wash. 



Lino, is, Linio, is, 
*l\exo, as, *Nexo, is, 
*OIeo, es, Olo, is, 
*Scateo, es, *Scato, is, 
*Stiideo, es, Strido, is, 
Tergeo, es, Tergo, is, 
Tueor, eris, Tuor, eris, 



anoint. 

knit. 

smell. 

abound. 

creak. 

wipe. 

behold, protect. 



II. Verbs spelt alike, or nearly alike, but differing in sound or 
signification : 



Abdico, as, 


abdicate. 


Cselo, as, 


carve. 


Abdico, is, 


refuse. 


Censeo, es, 


think. 


*Accido, is, 


happen. 


Sentio, is, 


feel. 


Accido, is, 


cut short. 


Claudo, is, 


shut. 


Addo, is, 


add. 


*C la n do, is, 


be lame. 


Adeo, is, 


goto. 


Colligo, as. 


tie together. 


Aggero, as, 


heap up. 


Colligo, is, 


collect. 


Aggero, is, 


lay in a heap. 


Colo, as, 


strain. 


A 1 lego, as, 


plead, send. 


Colo, is, 


till, deck. 


Allego, is, 


choose. 


Compello, as, 


accost. 


Appello, as, 


call. 


Com pel lo, is, 


force. 


Appello, is, 


drive, land. 


C76ricido, is, 


chop off. 


*Cado, is, 


fall. 


*Goneido, is, 


fall, 
climb. 


Caedo, is, 


beat. 


Conscendo, is, 


Cedo, is, 


yield. 


Conscindo, is, 


cut in pieces. 


*Caleo, es, 


be hot. 


Consterno, as, 


terrify. 


*Calleo, es, 


be hard. 


Consterno, is, 


strew over. 


*Cano, is, 


sing. 


*Decido, is, 


fall down. 


*Caneo, es, 


be white. 


De( Tdo, is, 


cut off. 


*Careo, es, 


want. 


Deripio, is, 


deceive. 


*Caro, is, 


card wool. 


*Desipio, is, 


dote. 


Celo, as, 


conceal. 


Deligo, as, 


tie up. 



REDUNDANT VERBS. 



191 



Deligo, is, 


choose* 


Diligo, is, 


love. 


Dico, is, 


say. 


Dico, as, 


dedicate. 


Edo, is, 


eat. 


Edo, is, 


speak, publish. 


Educo, as, 


educate. 


Educo, is, 


draw out. 


Effero, as, 


make wild. 


Effero, effers, 


carry off, Lift up* 


*Excido, is, 


fall out. 


Excido, is, 


cut off. 


*Ferio, is, 


strike. 


Fero, fers, 


bear. 


Ferior, aris, 


keep holiday. 


*Frigeo, es, 


be cold. 


Frigo, is, 


fry. 


Fiigo, as, 


put to flight. 


*Fugio, is, 


fly- 


Fundo, as, 


found. 


Fundo, is, 


pour out. 


*Incido, is, 


fall into. 


Incido, is, 


cut. 


Indico, as, 


show. 


Indico, is, 


proclaim. 


Inficio, is, 


infect. 


Inf itior, aris, 


deny. 


*Intercido, is, 


happen. 


Intercido, is, 


cut asunder. 


Jaceo, es, 


lie, lie down. 


Jacio, is, 


throw. 


*Labo, as, 


totter. 


Labor, eris, 


slip, glide. 


*Lacto, as, 


suckle, suck. 


"'Lac to, as j 


deceive. 


*Lacteo, es, 


grow milky. 


Lego, as, 


send. 


Lego, is, 


gather, read. 


Liceo, es, 


be lawful. 


Liceor, eris, 


bid for. 


Liquo, as, 


melt. 


*Liqueo, es, 


become liquid, be ma- 




nifest. 


*Liquor, eris, 


melt, 


*Mano, as, 


flow. 


*Maneo, es, 


stay. 


Mando, as, 


deliver. 


Mando, is, 


eat. 


Meto, is, 


mow, reap. 


Metor, aris, 


measure. 


Metior Iris, 


measure. 


Metno, is, 


fear. 


Miseror, aris, 


pity. 


Misereor, eris, 


delay. 


Moror, aris, 


*Moror, aris, 


play the fool. 


Morior, eris, 


die. 


*Nicto, as, 


wink. 



JNieto, is, 
*J\iteo, es, 
JNItor, eris, 
Obsero, as, 
Obsero, is, 
*Occido, is, 
Occido, is, 
Operio, is, 
*Opperior, iris, 
Operor, aris, 
Pando, as, 
Pando, is, 
Paro, as, 
*Pareo, es, 
Pario, is, 
*Pario, as, 
*Pedo, is, 
Pedo, are, 
*Pendeo, es, 
Pendo, is, 
Percolo, as, 
Perco!o, is, 
*Permaneo, es, 
*Permano, as, 
Praed ico, as, 
Praedico, is, 
Praelego, as, 

Prselego, is, 
Prodo, is, 
*Prodeo, es, 
*Recedo, is, 
*Recido, is, 
Recido, is, 
Reddo, is, 
*Redeo, is, 
Rel'ero, refers, 
*Re(erio, is, 
Relego, as, 
Relego, is, 
Sedo, as, 
*Sedeo, es, 
*SIdo, is, 
*Sero, is, 
Sero, is, 
Sero, as, 
*Succido, is, 
Snecido, is, 
*Vado, is, 
Vador, aris, 
*Veneo, is, 
*Venio, is, 
Venor, aris, 
Vincio, is, 
Vinco, is, 
Volo, as, 
*V61o, vis, 



open as a hound. 

glitter. 

strive. 

lock up. 

sow, plant. 

fall. 

kill. 

cover. 

wait for* 

work. 

bend, bow* 

open, spread. 

prepare. 

appear. 

beget. 

balance. 

prop up. 
hang. 



filter. 

adorn. 

remain. 

flow over. 

publish. 

foretel. 

bequeath in the first 

place. 

read to one. 

betray. 

comeforth. 

retire. 

fall back. 

cut off. 

restore. 

return. 

bring back. 

strike again. 

remove. 

read over. 

allay. 

sit. 

sink. 

sow. 

knit, join. 

lock, bolt. 

fall down. 

cut down. 

go, walk. 

give bail. 

be sold. 

come. 

hunt. 

bind. 

conquer. 

fly, hasten. 

be willing. 



192 



REDUNDANT VERBS* 



III. Verbs having the same Perfect: 



*Aceo, acui, 


be sharp. 


Cresco, crevi, 


grow. 


*Fulgeo, fulsi, 


shine. 


*Luceo, luxi, 


shine. 


Mulceo, mulsi, 


soothe 


*Paveo, pavi, 


fear. 


*Pendeo, pependi, 


hang. 



Acuo, acui, 


sharpen. 


Cerno, crevi, 


take possession. 


Fulcio, fulsi, 


prop. 


*Lugeo, luxi, 


mourn. 


*Mulgeo, muisi, 


milk. 


Pasco, pavi, 


feed. 


Pendo, pependi, 


weigh. 



To these add Sto, Sisto, and some of their Compounds. 
IV. Verbs having the same Perfect Participle : 



Cerno, cretus, 
Cresco, cretus, 
Pasciscor, pactus, 
Pago, pactus, 
Pango, pactus, 



sift. 

grow. 

bargain. 

lay a wager. 

fasten. 



Pando, passu s, 
Patior, passus, 
Vergo, versus, 
Verro, versus, 
Verto, versus, 



expand. 

suffer . 
incline. 

brush, 
turn. 



DERIVATION AND COMPOSITION OF VERBS. 



I. Verbs are derived either from nouns or from 
other verbs. 

Verbs derived from nouns are called Denomi- 
native ; as, 

Coeno, to sup ; laudo, to praise ; fraudo, to defraud ; lapido, to throw stones ; 
operor, to work ; frumentor, to forage ; lignor, to gather fuel ; &c. from ccena, 
laus, fraus, &c. But when they express imitation or resemblance, they are call- 
ed Imitative ; as, Patrisso, Grcecor, bubula, cornicor, &c. I imitate or resemble 
my father, a Grecian, an owl, a crow, &c. from^ater, Grcecus, bubo, comix. 

Of those derived from other verbs, the following chiefly deserve attention ; 
namely, Frequentatives, Inceptives, and Desideratives. 

1. FREQUENTATIVES express frequency of action, and are all of the 
first conjugation. They are formed from the last supine, by changing dtu into 
tto, in verbs of the first conjugation ; and by changing u into o, in verbs of the 
other three conjugations ; as, clamo, to cry, clamito, to cry frequently ; terreo, 
terfito ; verto, verso ; dormio, dormdo. 

In like manner, Deponent verbs form Frequentatives in or ; as, ?ninor, to 
threaten ; minitor, to threaten frequently. 

Some are formed in an irregular manner ; as, nato from no ; noscito, from 
nosco ; scitor, or rather sciscttor, from scio ; pavtto, from paveo, sector, from se- 
quor ; loqmtor, from loquor. So, quctrito, fundito, ag y do,fiuito, &c. 

From Frequentative verbs are also formed other Frequentatives; as, curro, 
curso, cursito; pello, pidso, pulsito, or by contraction pulto ; capio, capto, captito ; 
cano, canto, cantlfo ; defendo, defenso, defensito ; dico, dicto, dictito ; gero, gesto, 
gesfito ; jacio, jacto, jacVito ; venio, vento, ventito ; mutio, musso, (for mutito,) 
mussiio, &c. 



INCEPTIVE AND DESIDERATIVE VERBS. 193 

Verbs of this kind do not always express frequency of action. Many of them 
have much the same sense with their primitives, or express the meaning more 
strongly. 

2. INCEPTIVE Verbs mark the beginning or continued increase of any 
thing. They are formed from the second person singular of the present of the 
indicative, by adding co ; as, caleo, to be hot; cales, calesco, to grow hot. So in 
the other conjugations, labasco, from labo ; tremisco, from tremo ; obdormisco, 
from obdormio. Hisco, from hio, is contracted for Masco, lnceptives are like- 
wise formed from substantives and adjectives; as, puerasco, from puer ; dulces- 
co, from dulcis ; juvenesco, from juvenis. 

All lnceptives are neuter verbs, and of the third conjugation. They want 
both the preterite and supine ; unless very rarely, when they borrow them from 
their primitives. 

3. DESIDERATIVE Verbs signify a desire or intention of doing a thing. 
They are formed from the latter supine by adding rio, and shortening the u; as, 
ccendturio, 1 desire to sup, from ccendtu. They are all of the fourth conjugation ; 
and want both preterite and supine, except these three, esurio, -Ivi, -Hum, to de- 
sire to eat; particrio, -Ivi, — to be in travail; nupturio, -'ivi, — , to desire to be 
married. 

There are a few verbs in LLO, which are called Diminutive ; as, cantillo, 
sorbillo, -are, I sing, I sup a little. To these some add alblco, and candico, -are, to 
be, or to grow whitish ; also, nigrico, fodico, and vellico. Some verbs in SSO 
are called Intensive ; as, Capesso, facesso, pelesso, or petisso, I take, I do, I seek 
earnest^. 

H. Verbs are compounded with nouns, with other verbs, with adverbs, and 
chiefly with prepositions. Many of the simple verbs are not in use ; as, Fulo, 
fendo, specio, gruo, &c. The component parts usually remain entire. Some- 
times a letter is added ; as, prodeo, {or pro-eo ; or taken away ; as, asporto, omitto, 
trado, pejero, pergo, debeo, prcebeo, fyc. for absporto, obmitto, transdo, perjuro, 
perrego, dehibeo, prcehibeo, fyc. So, demo, promo, sumo, of de, pro, sub, and emo, 
which anciently signified, to take, or to take away. Often the vowel or diphthong 
of the simple verb, and the last consonant of the preposition is changed ; as, 
damno, eondem.no ; caleo, conculco ; loedo, cottido ; audio, obedio, c|-c. Affero, 
aufero, collaudo, implico, fyc. for adfero, abfero, conlaudo, inplico, fyc. 

REMARKS ON THE VERB. 

A Verb has been defined as a word which signifies doing, suffering, or being. 
It would have been more simple and much more intelligible to have said, A verb 
is that part of speech which mentions some act, event, or circumstance of or 
concerning persons, places, things, or ideas; as, Ccesar v'icit, Caesar conquer- 
ed ; Roma ruit, Rome falls ; Argentum spUndet, silver shines ; Probitas laudatur 
et alget, honesty is praised and starves. A Verb being the most essential word 
in a sentence, and without which a sentence cannot subsist, any word that, placed 
after the names of Persons, Places, Things, or Ideas, will make full sense, is a 
Verb. An English Verb may be known by its making sense with the words he 
will, or it shall, placed before it ; as, He wilt conquer, It shall fall. 

The letters which precede the Infinitive terminations, -are, -ere, -ere, -Ire, are 
called Radicals, and always remain unchanged. Thus, Am is the radical part of 
Amare ;Mon of Mo n ere ; Reg of Regere ; Aud ofAudlre. By prefixing the radicals 

R 



194 REMARKS ON THE VERB. 

to the changeable parts, or terminations, which are the same in all Verbs of a simi- 
lar Conjugation, every person of the simple Tenses of a regular Verb may be 
formed with the greatest facility. 

Verbs seem to have had but one uncontracted Conjugation originally. At pre- 
sent there are four Conjugations ; one uncontracted in -ere, as Legere ; and three 
contracted in (aere) -are, as Amare ; in {-eere) -ere, as Monere ; and in (acre) -Ire, 
as Audlre. Charis. lib. n. and some other ancient grammarians admit of but 
three Conjugations ; and Vossius de Anal. in. 33. shows the fourth to be a mere 
contraction of the third > 

The Participles in -rus and -dus in the Future Infinitive and the Perfect Parti- 
ciple in the Past Infinitive Passive are used only in the Nom. and Accus. but in 
all Genders and N umbers; as, Amaturus, -a, -um, esse; Amatur-um, -am, -urn, 
esse ; Amatur-i, -ce, -a esse ; Amatur-os, -as, -a esse ; Amatur-us, a, -um fuisse ; 
Amatur-um, -am, -um fuisse, &c. Amat-us, -a, -um esse ; Amat-um, -am, -um esse ; 
Amat-i, -&, -a esse, &c. In the Future Infinitive Passive the termination -um of 
the Supine remains always unchanged. The Past Infinitive Passive seems to 
have been anciently of no certain Gender. In Piautus, Amph. Prol. 33. we read, 
Justam rem etfacilem esse oratum a vobis volo ; and in Cic. Att. viii. 18. Co- 
hortes ad me missum facias. The Neuter of the Future in -rus is found con- 
strued in the same manner. See Cic, it. Ver. v. 65. AuL GelL I. 7. Lambin, 
ad Plaut. Casin. in. 5. 37. Jan. Gulielm. Qusest. Plaut. p. 4. Voss. de 
Anal. in. 16. Perizon. ad Sanct. Min. i. 15. p. 125. 

To the Present Infinitive Passive the syllable -er was occasionally added by 
the early poets ; as, Amdrier for Amari ; Farier for Fari. So Dicier, Pers, 
Sat. I. 28. 

The Future Infinitive Active occurs sometimes in -ssere ; as, Expugnassere, 
Plaut. Amph. I. 1. 55. Impetrasslre, Aul. iv. 7.6. Casin. n. 3. 53. Mil. iv. 3. 
35. Stich. I. 2. 23. Peconciliassere, Capt. i. 2. 65, 

The Perfect Infinitive Active is frequently contracted; the syllable vi is 
omitted before s ; as, Amasse, Complesse, Nosse, Isse, &c. Also, Cesse, Lucr. 
i. 1104. Consumse, i. 234. Dlvisse, Hor. ii. Sat. 3. 169. Dixe, JNon. v. 17. 
Produxe, Ter. Ad. iv. 2. 22. Prdmisse, Catul. ex, 5. Subduxe, Varr., &c. In 
the 4th Conj. vi or v only is omitted ; as, Perisse, Plaut. Capt. in. 5. 35. Pe- 
riisse, Aul. n. 4. 21. A similar contraction takes place in the Perfects of the In- 
dicative and Subjunctive ; vi is dropped before s, and ve before r. Of Perfects 
in -ovi, Novi and Movi alone admit of contraciion. Also, Dixti and Dixis, Cic. 
proCaecin. c. 29. Quintil. ix. 3. Terent. And. hi. 1. 1. Gell. vn. 17. Accesti, 
Virg. iEn. i. 205. 

The Imperfect Indicative in the 4th Conj. anciently ended in -iham, and the 
Future in -ibo ; thus, Scibo, Plaut. Asin. i. 1. 13. Most. iv. 3. 5. True. ii. 6. 69. 
Servlbas, Ter. And. I. 1. 11. Plaut. Capt. n. 1. 50. Custodibant, Catull. lxiv. 
319. Vesiibat, Virg. iEn. viii. 160. Expedibo, Plaut. True, i, 2. 36. Larqibere, 
Bacch. iv. 7. 30. Servlbo, Terent. Hec. in. 5. 45. Mollibit, Hor. in. Od* 23. 19. 
Reddzbitur, Plaut. Epid. I. 1. 22. <fcc. <fcc. 

The termination -ere in the third Person Plur. Perfect Indicative is not so 
usual as that in -erunt, especially in prose. 

In the second Person Sing, of the Present Indie* Passive the termination -re 
for -ris is rare* In Cicero -re for -ris in the Imperfect and Future indicative, 
and the Present and Imperfect Subjunctive, occurs frequently. 

The Present Subjunctive anciently ended in -im ; as, Dui?n, Duis, Duit, Du 
tnt for Dem, Des, fyc. Perduim, is, it, int, for Perdam, as, $c. Vid. Plant. 
Amph. ii. 2. 215. Aul. I. 1. 23. iv. 6. 6, Terent. Andr. iv. 1. 42. Cic. Cat. i, 



PARTICIPLES. 195 

9. Att xv. 4. Deiot. c. 7. Liv. x. 19. xxn. 10, fyc. We also find such forms aa 
Ptrduunt, Plaut. Rud. Prol. 24. Creduis, Amph. n. 2. 40. Capt. ill. 4. 73. 
True. ii. 2. 52. Creduam, as, at, Plaut. Pcen. in. 5. 2. Trin. in. Bacch. iv. 8. 6, 
Siem, es, et, for Sim, tyc. Plaut. Amph. Prol. 57. Lucr. n. 1078. Terent. Eun. I. 
1. 21. Fuat, for sit, Virg. JEn. x. 108. 

The Future Subj. in a few instances occurs in -sso, and the Perfect Subjunc- 
tive in -ssim; thus, Levasso, Cic. de Senect. c. 1. Abjurassit, Plaut. Pers. iv. 3, 
9. Inv'Uassitis, Rud. in. 5. 31. Irritassis, Amph. l. 1. 298. Pers. v. 2. 47. 
Stich. ii. 2. 21. Servassint, Asin. in. 3. 64. Casin. in. 5. 16. Pseud, i. 1. 35. 
Seryassit, Cistel. iv. 2. 76. Servasso, Most. i. 3. 71. Licessit, Asin. ill. 3. 13. 
Prohibessis, Plaut. Pseud. I. 1. 11. Cic. de Leg. in. 3. So Jusso for Jussero, 
Virg. ^En. xi. 467. 

The Imperatives of Dico, Duco, Fero, and Facio, drop the final e; thus, Die, 
Due, Fer, Fdc. So Ingcr, Catull. xxvn. 2. But the Compounds of Facio re- 
tain the e ; as Con/ice, Per/ice. Dice, Dace, Face occur sometimes in the 
early poets. Vid. Voss. Gr. p. 131. 

The Present Subjunctive is frequently used for the Imperative; as, Ne facias, 
do not do it; and sometimes the Future-Indie; as, Non occides, thou shalt 
not kill. So Valebis and Videbis in Cic. for Vale and Vide. The Perfect Sub- 
junctive is used also in the same manner; as, Tu vldens, see you to it; Ne div- 
erts, do not say it. 

The termination ~mi.no in the second Person Sing. Passive, and -minor, for 
-mini, in the Plural, are exceedingly rare. Arbitraminor, Plaut. Epid. v. 2. 30= 
Progrediiriinor, Pseud, in. 2. 70. Famino for Fare, Cato, R. R. c. 141. 

The third Person in -to and -nto is used chiefly in law-giving ; as, Ad Divos 
adeunto caste, pietatem colunto, Cic. Leg. ii. 19. Sometimes in the comic writers; 
as, Phormionem lacessito, Ter. Phorm. v. 7. 38. 

The termination -tote is rare. It occurs in Ennius, Cicero, Ovid, and Plautus. 
See Voss. Anal. in. 4. 

The Participle in -rus and the Participle in -dug are found joined with most 
of the tenses of Sum. But the Participle in -rus does not occur joined with 
Fuero. 

PARTICIPLE. 

A Participle is a kind of Adjective formed from 
a verb, which in its signification implies time. 

It is so called because it partakes both of an adjective and of a verb, having 
in Latin, gender and declension from the one, time and signification from the 
other, and number from both. 

Participles in Latin are declined like adjectives ; and their signification is va- 
rious, according to the nature of the verbs from which they come ; only Partici- 
ples in dus, are always passive, and import not so much future time, as obligation 
or necessity, 

Latin verbs have four Participles, the present 
and future active ; as, Amans, loving ; amdturus, 



196 PARTICIPLES. 

about to love ; and the perfect and future passive ; 
as, amdtus, loved ; amandus, to be loved. 

The Latins have not a participle perfect in the active, nor a participle present 
in the passive voice ; which defect must be supplied by a circumlocution. Thus, 
to express the perfect participle active in English, we use a conjunction, and the 
pluperfect of the subjunctive in Latin, or some other tense, according to its con- 
nexion with the other words of a sentence ; as, he having loved ; qumn ama- 
visset, &c. 

Neuter verbs have commonly but two Partici- 
ples ; as, Sedens, sessurus ; sta?is, statiirus. 

From some Neuter verbs are formed Participles of the perfect tense ; as, Erra- 
tus,festinatus,jurdtus, labordtus, vigilalus, cessalun, sudatus, triumphdtus, regna- 
tus, decursus, destlus, emeritus, emersus, obitus, placitus, successus, occdsus, &c. 
and also of the future in dus ; &s,Jurandus, vigilaiuius, regnandus, carendus, dor- 
miendus, erubescendus, &e. Neuter passive verbs are equally various. Veneo 
has no participle : Fido, only jidens and Jisus ; soleo, solens, and solztus ; vapulo, 
vapulans, and vapidaturus ; Gaudeo, gaudens, gavisus, and gavisurus ; Audeo, 
audens, ausus, ausurus, audendus. Ausus is used both in an active and passive 
sense ; as, Ausi omnes immdne, nefas, ausoque potlti. Virg. iEn. vi. 624. 

Deponent and Common Verbs have commonly 
four Participles ; as, 

Loquens, speaking ; locuturus, about to speak ; locutus, having spoken ; loquen- 
dus, to be spoken. Dignans, vouchsafing : diguaturus, about to vouchsafe ; dig- 
ndtus, having vouchsafed, being vouchsafed, or having been vouchsafed ; dig- 
nandus, to be vouchsafed. Many participles of the perfect tense from Deponent 
verbs have both an active and passive sense ; as, Abomindtus, condtus, confessus, 
adortus, amplexus> blandllus, larglius, mentitus, oblltus, testatus, venerdtus, &c. 

There are several Participles, compounded with in, signifying not 
the verbs of which do not admit of such composition ; as, 

Insciens, insperans,indtcens for non dicens.inopinans and necopinans, immerens; 
Illcesus, impra?isus, inconsultus, incustodttus, immetdtus, impunitus, impardtus, in- 
comitdtus, imcomptus, indemndtus, indotdtus, incorruptus inierritus, and imperter- 
ritus, intestdtus, inausus, inopindtus, inultus, incensus for non census, not register- 
ed ; infectus for non /actus; invisus for non visus ; indictus, for non dictus, &c. 
There is a different incensus from incendo ; infectus from inficio ; invisus from invi- 
deo ; indictus from indico, &c. 

If from the signification of a Participle we take away time, it be- 
comes an adjective, and admits the degrees of comparison ; as, 

Amans, loving, amantior, amantissimus ; doctus, learned, doctior, doctisstmus ; 
or a substantive; as, Prcefectus, a commander or governor; consonans, f. sc. lite- 
ra, a consonant ; conttnens, f. sc. terra, a continent; confluens, m. a place where 
two rivers run together ; oriens, m. sc. sol, the east ; occtdens, m. the west ; die- 
turn, a saying ; scriptum, &c. 

There are many words in atus, itus, and utus, which, although resembling par- 
ticiples, are reckoned adjectives, because they come from nouns, and not from 



GERUNDS AND SUPINES. 197 

verbs ; as, aldtus, barbdtus, corddtus, cauddtus, cristdtus, aurltus,pellitu8, terrltus; 
ast ictus, cor nutus, nasictus, fyc. winged, bearded, discreet, &c. But aurdtus, cera- 
tus, argtntdtus, ferrdtus, plumbdtus, gypsdtus, calcedtus, clypedtus, galedtus, tuni- 
cdtus, larvdtus, pallidtus, lymphdtus, purpurdtus, prmtexldtus, &c, covered with 
gold, brass, silver, &c, are accounted participles, because they are supposed to 
come from obsolete verbs. So perhaps calamistrdtus, frizzled, crisped, or curled; 
crhiitus, having long hair; peritus, skilled, <&c. 

There is a kind of Verbal adjectives in Bundus, formed from the imperfect of 
the indicative, which very much resemble Participles in their signification, but 
generally express the meaning of the verb more fully, or denote an abundance or 
great deal of the action ; as, vitabundus, the same with valde vitans, avoiding 
much. Sal. Jug. 60, and 101. Liv. xxv. 13. So, errabundus, ludibundus, popu- 
labundus, moribundus, <fec. 



GERUNDS AND SUPINES. 

GERUNDS are participial words, which bear 
the signification of the verb from which they are 
formed ; and are declined like a neuter noun of 
the second declension, through all the cases of the 
singular number, except the vocative. 

There are, both in Latin and English, substantives derived from the verb, 
which so much resemble the Gerund in their signification, that frequently they 
may be substituted in its place. They are generally used, however, in a more 
undetermined sense than the Gerund, and in English have the article always 
prefixed to them. Thus, with the Gerund, Delector legendo Ciceronem, J am de- 
lighted with reading Cicero. But with the substantive, Delector lectione Cicero- 
nis, I am delighted with the reading of Cicero, 

The Gerund and Future Participle of Verbs in -io, and some others, often take 
u instead of e ; as,faciundum, -di, -do, -dus; experiundum, potiundum, gerundum, 
petundum, ducundum, &c. for faciendum, &c. 

SUPINES have much the same signification 
with Gerunds ; and may be indifferently applied 
to any person or number. They agree in termi- 
nation with nouns of the fourth declension, having 
only the accusative and ablative cases. 

The former Supine is commonly used in an 
active, and the latter in a passive sense, but some- 
times the contrary ; as, coctum non vapulatum y 
dudum conductus fut, i. e. ut vapuldrem, or verbe- 
rarer, to be beaten. Plaut 

r2 



198 



ADVERBS. 



ADVERB. 

An Adverb is an indeclinable part of speech, 
added to a verb, adjective, or other adverb, to ex- 
press some circumstance, quality, or manner of 
their signification. 

All adverbs may be divided into two classes, 
namely, those which denote Circumstance; and 
those which denote Quality, Manner, &c. 

I. Adverbs denoting CIRCUMSTANCE are 

chiefly those of Place, Time, and Order. 

1. Adverbs of Place are five-fold, namely, such as signify, 



1. Motion 


or rest in a place. 


Illorsum, 


Thitherward. 


Ubi? 


Where? 


Sursum, 


Upward. 


Hie, 


Here. 


Deorsum, 


Downward. 


Illic, ^ 




Atttrorsum, 


Forward. 


Isthic, > 


There. 


Retrorsum, 


Backward. 


Ibi, ) 




Dextrorsum, 


Towards the right. 


Intus, 


'Within. 


Simstrorsum, 


Towards the left. 


Foris, 


Without. 






Ubique, 


Every where. 


4. Motion 


from a place. 


Nusquam, 


No where. 


Unde? 


Whence ? 


Alieubi, 


Some where. 


Hinc, 


Hence. 


Alibi, 


Else where. 


Illinc, ) 




Ubivis, 


Any where. 


Isthinc, > 


TTience. 


Ibidem, 


In the same place. 


Inde, 5) 








Indidem, 


From the same place. 


2. Motion 


to a place. 


Aliunde, 


From elsewhere. 


Quo? 


Whither ? 


Alicunde, 


From some place. 


Hue, 


Hither. 


Sicunde, 


If from any place. 


Illuc, ) 
Isthuc, > 


Thither. 


Utrinque, 


On both sides. 


Superne, 


From above. 


Intro, 


In. 


Interne, 


From below. 


Foras, 


Out. 


Coelitus, 


From heaven. 


E6, 


To that place. 


Funditus, 


From the ground. 


Alio 


To another place. 






Aliquo, 


To some place. 


5. Motior, 


i through or by a place. 


Eodera, 


To the same place. 


Qua? 


Which way ? 






Hac, 


This way. 


3. Motion towards a place. 


Iliac, ) 
Isthac, ) 


That way. 


Quorsum ? 


Whitherward ? 


Versus, 


Towards. 


Alia, 


Another way. 


Horsura, 


Hitherward. 







ADVERBS. 



199 



2. Adverbs of Time are three-fold, namely, such as signify, 

Interim, In the meantime. 

Quoiidie, Daily. 



1 . Some particular lime, either pre- 
sent , past, future, or indefinite. 
Nunc, 
Hodie 
Tunc, 
Turn 



Heri, 

Dudum, ) 

Pridem, $ 

Pridie, 

Nudius tertius, 

Nuper, 

Jamjarn, *) 

Mox, > 

Statim, ) 

PrGtinus, 

IllTco, 

Cras, 

Postridie, 

Perendie, 

Nondum, 

Quando? 

Aliquando, 

Nonnunquam, 

Interdam, ] 

Semper, 

Nunquam, 



Now. 
To-day. 

Then. 

Yesterday. 

Heretofore. 

The day before. 
Three days ago. 
Lately. 
Presently. 
Immediately. 
By and by. 
Instantly. 
Straightway, 
To-morrow. 
The day after. 
Two days hence. 
Not yet. 
When ? 

Sometimes. 

Ever, always. 
Never. 



3. Adverbs of Order. 



Inde, 

Deinde, 

Dehinc, 

Porro, 

Deinceps, 

Denuo, 



Then. 
After that. 
Henceforth. 
Moreover. 
So forth. 
Anew. 



2. Continuance of time. 
Din, Long. 

Qu a md i u ? How long ? 

Tamdiu, So long. 

Jamdiu, ^ 

Jumdudnm, > Long ago. 

Jampridem, ) 



3. Vicissitude 


or repetition of time. 


Quoiies ? 




How often ? 


Saepe, 




Often. 


Raro, 




Seldom. 


Toties, 




So often. 


Aliquoties, 




For several times. 


Vicissim, 
Alternation, 


! 


By turns. 


Rursus, > 
Iterum, $ 




Again. 


Subinde, ) 
Idenlidem, ) 




Ever and ano?i, 




now and then. 


Semel, 




Once. 


Bis, 




Twice. 


Ter, 




Thrice. 


Quater, 




Four times, $c. 


Denique, 




Finally. 


Postremo, 




Lastly. 


Primo, -lira, 




First. 


Secundo,-um 




Secondly. 


Tertio, -urn, 




Thirdly. 


Quarto, -ura, 




Fourthly, $c. 



II. Adverbs denoting QUALITY, MANNER, #c, are either Absolute or 
Comparative. 

Those called Absolute denote, 

1. QUALITY, simply; as, bene, well; male, ill; forViter, bravely; and in- 
numerable others that come from adjective nouns or participles. 

2. CERTAINTY; as, profectb, certe, sane, plane, nte, utique, ita, etiam, 
truly, verily, yes; quidni, why not? omnino, certainly. 

3. CONTINGENCY ; as, forte, forsan, fortassis, fors, haply, perhaps, by 
chance, peradventure. 

4. NEGATION ; as, non, haud, not ; nequdquam, not at all ; neutiquam, by no 
means ; minime, nothing less. 

5. PROHIBITION ; as, ne, not. 

6. SWEARING ; as, hercle, pol, edepol, mecastor, by Hercules, by Pollux, $c. 

7. EXPLAINING; as, utpote, videlicet, scilicet, ?iimlrum, ne?npe, to wit, 
namely. 



200 ADVERBS. 

8. SEPARATION; as, seorsum, apart; separdtim, separately; sigil -dtim, 
one by one ; viritim, man by man ; oppiddtim, town by town, tyc. 

9. JOINING TOGETHER; as, simul, una, pariter, together; generaliter, 
generally ; universaliter, universally ; plerumque, for the most part. 

10. INDICATION or POINTING OUT; as, en, ecce, lo, behold. 

11. INTERROGATION; as, cur, qudre, quamobrem, why, wherefore ? num, 
an, whether? qubmodo, qui, how ? To which add, Ubi, quo, quorsum, unde, qua, 
quando, quamdiu, quoiies. 

Those Adverbs which are called Comparative denote, 

1. EXCESS; as, valde, maxime, magnopere, maximopere, summopere, admo- 
dum, oppido, perquam, longe, greatly, very much, exceedingly ; nimis, nimium, 
too much ; prorsus, pemtus, ommno, altogether, wholly; magis, more; melius, 
better; pejus, worse, fortius, more bravely; and optime, best; pessime, worst; 

fortissime, most bravely ; and innumerable others oi the comparative and superla- 
tive degrees. 

2. DEFECT; as, Ferme,fere, propemodum, pen e, almost; parum, little ; pau- 
lo,paululum, very little. 

3. PREFERENCE; as, potiiis, satiiis, rather; potissimum, prcecipue, prceser- 
tim, chiefly, especially ; imo,yea, nay, nay rather. 

4. LIKENESS or EQUALITY ; as, ita, sic, ddeb, so; ut, uti, sicut, sicuti, ve- 
lut, veluti, ceu, tanquam, quasi, as, as if; quemadmvdum, even as; sails, enough ; 
iCidem, in like manner; juxta, alike, equally. 

5. UNL1KENESS or INEQUALITY; as, aliter, secus, otherwise; alioqui 
or alioquin, else ; nedum, much more, or much less. 

6. ABATEMENT; as, sensim, pauldtim, pedetentim, by degrees, piecemeal; 
vix, scarcely ; cpgre, hardly, with difficulty. 

7. EXCLUSION; as, tantiim, solum, modo, tantummodo, duntaxat, demum, 
only. 

DERIVATION, COMPARISON, AND COMPOSITION OF ADVERBS. 

Adverbs are derived, 1. from Substantives, and end commonly in tim or tuB ; 
as, Partim, partly, by parts; nominatim, byname; generdtim, by kinds, gene- 
rally; specidtim : vicdtim, gregdtim ; radicitus, from the root, <fc. 2. From ad- 
jectives : and these are by far the most numerous. Such as come from Adjec- 
tives of the first and second declension usually end in e ; as, libere, i'ree\y ; plene, 
fully; some in o, um, and ter , as, /also, tantiim, graviter ; a few in a, itus, and 
im ; as, recta, antiquitus, privdlim. Some are used two or three ways; as, 
primum, or -6, pure, -iter ; certe, -o ; caute, -tim ; humane, -Iter, -itus ; public e, 
publicitus, fyc. Adverbs from Adjectives of the third declension commonly end 
in ier, seldom in e ; as, turpiter, feliczter, acriter, pariter ; facile, repente ; 
one in o, ommno. The neuter of Adjectives is sometimes taken adverbially; as, 
recens natus, for recenter ; perfidum ridens, for perf ide, Hor. multa reluctans, 
for multum or valde, Virg. So in English we say, to speak loud, high, fyc. for 
loudly, highly, fyc. In many cases a substantive is understood; as, primo, sc. 
loco; optatb advenis, sc. tempore ; hac, sc. via, #c. 

3. From each of the pronominal adjectives, ille, iste, hie, is, idem, $c. are form- 
ed adverbs, which express all the circumstances of place; as, from Ille, illic, 
illuc, illorsum, Mine, and iliac. So from Quis, ubi, quo, quorsum, unde and qua ; 
also of time ; thus, quando, quamdiu, fyc. 



ADVERBS. 201 

4. From verbs and participles; as, ccesim, with the edge; punctim, with the 
point; slrictim, closely ; from ccedo, pungo, stringo; amanter, properanter, dubi- 
tanter ; distincte, emendate, merit o, inopinato ; fyc. But these last are thought to 
be in the ablative, having ex understood. 

5. From prepositions ; as, intus, intro, from in ; clanculum, fom clam ; subtus, 
from sub, #c. 

Adverbs derived from adjectives are commonly compared like their 
primitives. The positive generally ends in e, or ter ; as, dure, fa- 
cile, acriter ; the comparative, in ius ; as, durius, faciliits, acrius ; 
the superlative, in ime; as, durisslme, facilllme, accerrirne. 

If the comparison of the adjective be irregular or defective, the comparison of 
the adverb is so too ; as, bene, melius, opfime ; male, pejus, pessime ; parum, mi- 
nus, minimo, fy -um ; multum, plus, pluriinitm ; prope, propius, proxime ; ocyiis, 
ocyssime ; priics, primo, -um ; nuper, nuper rime ; nove, fy noviter,novissime ; 
meritb, meritissimb, fyc. Those adverbs also are compared whose primitives are 
obsolete ; as, scepe, sapius, scepissime ; penitus, penitiiis, penitisstme ; satis, sa- 
tiiis ; secus, seciiis, tyc. Magls, maxime ; and potius, potissimum, want the 
positive. 

Adverbs are variously compounded with all the different parts of speech ; 
thus, postridie, magnopere, maximopere, summopere, tantopere, multimodis, omni- 
modis, quomodo, quare ; of' poster o die, magno opere, fyc. Itieet, scilicet, videli- 
cet, of ire, scire, videre, licet ; illico, of in loco ; quorsum, of quo versum ; corn- 
minus, hand to hand, of, cum or con and manus, eniinus, at a distance, of e and 
manus ; quorsum, of quo versum ; denuo, anew, of de novo ; quin, why not, but, 
of, quine; cur, of cuirei ; pedetentim, step by step, as it were, of pedem ten- 
dendo ; perendie, forperempto die ; nimirum, of ne, i. e. non, and mirum ; antea, 
postea, prceterea, tyc. of ante and ea, §c. Ubtvis, quovis, undelibit, quousque, sicut, 
sicuti, velut,veliiti, desuper, insuper, quamobrem, fyc. of ubi and vis, fyc, nudiuster- 
tius, of nunc dies tertius ; identidem, of idem et idem ; imprceserdiarum, i. e. in 
tempore rerum prcesentium, §c. 

Obs. 1. The Adverb is not an essential part of speech. It only serves to ex-? 
press shortly, in one word, what must otherwise have required two or more; as, 
sapienter, wisely, for cum sapientia ; hie, for in hoc loco ; semper, for in omni 
tempore ; semel, for una vice ; bis, for dudbus viclbus ; Mehercule, for Hercules 
me juvet, fyc. 

Obs. 2. Some adverbs of time, place, and order, are frequently used the one 
for the other ; as, ubi, where, or when ; inde, from that place, from that time, 
after that, next; hactenus, hitherto, thus far, with respect to place, time, or 
order, &c. 

Obs. 3. Some adverbs of time are either past, present, or future ; as, jam, aU 
ready, now, by and by ; olim, long ago, some time, hereafter. Some adverbs of 
place are equally various; thus, esse peregre, to be abroad ; ire peregre, to go 
abroad ; redire peregre, to return from abroad. 

Obs. 4. Interrogative adverbs of lime and place doubled, or compounded 
W 7 ith cunque, answer to the English adjection soever ; as, ubiubi, or ubicunque, 
wheresoever; quoquo, qubcunque, whithersoever, &c. The same holds also in 
interrogative words ; as, quotquot, or quotcunque, how many soever ; quantus- 
quantus, or quantuscunque, how great soever ; utut, or utcunque, however or how- 
soever, &c. 



202 PREPOSITIONS. 



PREPOSITIONS. 

A Preposition is an indeclinable word which 
shows the relation of one thing to another. 

There are Thirty-two Prepositions which go- 
vern the Accusative. 

AD, expresses conjunction or propinquity, and its general signification is to, as, 
ad Carthagmem, * to Carthage ;' omnes ad unum, ■ all to a man.' At or on, as, ad 
prcEstitutam, diem, * at the appointed day ;' ad portam, ' at the gate.' After, as, 
aliquanto ad rem avidior, * a little too greedy after money.' It is also used for se- 
cundum, 'according to;' as, ad cursum luna?, 'according to the course of the 
moon.' For, as, rebus ad profectionen comparatis, ' things being ready for a 
march. Before, as, ductus est ad magistratum, ' he was led before a magis- 
trate.' About, as, ad duo millia, 'about two thousand.' In comparison of, 
nihil ad Ccesarem, 'nothing in comparison of Caesar.' But all these dif- 
ferent renderings may be referred to the simple signification of ' to.' — 
Phrases. Ad summum, 'at most,' or 'to the top;' ad summam, 'in the 
whole ;' ad idtwium, ' at last,' ' finally ;' ad judicem agere, ' to plead before a 
judge;' ad hoc, 'in addition to this,' 'besides;' ad decern annos, Cic. 
• after ten years,' or ' ten years hence,' that is, up to the completion of ten 
years; ad manus venire, 'to come to a close engagement;' adlunam, 'by the 
light of the moon ;' ad amussim, ' exactly,' (literally, ' to a mason's rule.') 

ADVERSUS, or ADVERSUM. This is compounded of ad, ' to,' and the parti- 
ciple versus, ' turned.' So we have in English the same two prepositions compound- 
ed in the word, ' to-wards.' The general idea of this Preposition is that of opposi- 
tion, or tendency against something, and hence its general meaning is against ; 
as, adversus hostem, 'against the enemy;' adversus legem, 'contrary to law.' 
Hence it signifies opposition of place; as, adversus Italiam, ' opposite Italy.' 
From this, it signifies before, or in the presence of, or towards ; as, adver- 
sus me, ' in my presence ;' pittas adversus deos, ' piety towards the gods.' To, 
as, adversus hunc loqui, ' to speak to him.' 

ANTE denotes precedence of time or place, and hence means ' before.' It is 
opposed to Post ; as, ante, non post, decimam horam, ' before, not after the tenth 
hour ;' ante aciem, ' in front of the army.' It also signifies priority in point of de- 
gree ; as, Una longe ante alias specie ac pulchutudine, ' one far above the others in 
beauty and figure.' It is sometimes used adverbially, but in all such cases some 
noun or adjective may be supplied ; as, Hie ante incessit, ' he marched first,' that 
is, ante omnes, 'before all.' 

APUD denotes presence of place and person, and is said to be corrupted from 
ad pedes, ' at the feet.' It may generally be translated by 'at;' as, apud forum, 
1 at the forum ;' hence it is used for cum, as, coznavit apud me, ' he supped with 
me-,' potior apud exercitum, ' in greater credit with the army.' Hence it also 



PREPOSITIONS. 203 

signifies 'near,' or ' by,' being used forjuxia ; as, sedens apud eum, ' sitting by 
him.' From the notion of bodily presence, it comes to signify ' presence of mind;' 
as, vix sum apud me, I am hardly myself;' tufac, apud te ut sies, Terent. ' take 
care to be self-collected,' From presence of place may easily be deduced its sig- 
nification of inter, 'among,' as, apud majores nostros, ' among our ancestors.' 
The difference between Apud and Inter is, however, very clear. Inter means 
• among,' or ' in the number of,' as, inter amlcos, ■ among,' or ' in the number of 
my friends;' Apud means 'among,' 'with,' 'in the writings of,' 'in the cus- 
toms of;' as, apud Ciceronem, • with Cicero,' or 'or in the opinion of Cicero;' 
Apud Homerum invenio, ' I ilnd in the writings of Homer;' Apud Romanes mos 
erat, ' it was the custom among the Romans.' Another meaning is ' before,' as, 
causam apud regem dicere, » to plead before the king.' 

CIRCA, CIRCUM. This Preposition signifies approximation and comprehension 
of time, place, person, and number. It is derived from the Greek Kipnog ' a cir- 
cle.' Its generic signification is ' about,' or 'round about ;' as, circa portas, 
4 about the gates ;' postero die circa eandem horam capias admdvit, ' the next day, 
about the same hour, he advanced his army;' oppida circa septuaginta, 'about 
seven hundred towns ;' circa deos religionesque fuit negligens, ' about the gods and 
their worship he was negligent.' 

CIRCITER. This is nearly related to circa and circum, but is principally used 
in expressing approximation of time ,• as, circiter idus Mai, 'about the Ides of 
May ;' octdvam circiter horam, ' about the eighth hour.' 

CIS expresses limitation of space and time, included within some distant boun- 
dary or distant time, to the place where we are, or the time when we are speaking. 
Its signification is, ' on this side,' ' within ;' as, cis Appeninum, ' on this side the 
Appenine ;' cis dies paucos, • within a few days.' 

CITRA,* like Cis, signifies limitation within a certain boundary ; as, citra Rhe- 
num, on this side the Rhine.' It also means ' short of,' as, peccdvi citra scelus, 
1 1 have committed an offence short of guilt.' Hence from the signification of 
1 short of,' it comes to imply ' deficiency,' and is used for sine, ' without,' as, Phi- 
dias in eb ore citra amiulum fuit, 'Phidias was without a rival in ivory;' citra 
hanc necessitdtem, ' without this necessity.' 



* Citra is not immediately derived from Cis, but from its derivative Citer ; and 
is, like Extra, Infra, Intra, Supra, Ultra, an ablative case feminine, governed by 
a or ab, and having parte understood with which it agrees. It governs the accu- 
sative not by any natural power of its own, but by an ellipsis of quoad, or qucd 
ad . . . attract understood after it. Thus, citra Rubiconem, 'on this side the Ru- 
bicon,' when fully explained, means, a citer a (or citra) parte quoad Rubiconem, or, 
a citra parte quoad ad Rubiconem a.timet. Thus we see how prepositions are 
used even for whole sentences, for convenience of speech, and shortening those 
circuitous expressions, the frequent recurrence of which would be very tedious 
and unpleasant in common discourse. 



204 PREPOSITIONS. 

CONTRA,* in its general signification, implies opposition, and hence signifies 
1 against/ or ' in opposition to ;' as contra naturam, ' against nature ;' contra 
expectationem, ' beyond expectation ;' Carthago est contra Italiam, ' Carthage is op- 
posite to Italy.' It is also frequently used adverbially, signifying, ' on the other 
hand;' as, contra etiam, &c. Cic. 'on the other hand also;' stat contra, far ique 
jubet, ' he stands opposite and bids me speak ;' contra intueri aliquem, ' to look 
any one full in the face.' Contra is sometimes used to express ' price,' especially by 
Plautus, evidently from the idea of the value being put in the scale opposite to the ' 
commodity; as, non cams est auro contra, ' he is not dear for so much gold,' that 
is, ' he is worth an equal weight of gold put in the opposite scale ;' literally — ' he 
is not dear against gold.' So we say, • worth its weight in gold.' 

ERG A, 4 towards,' as, erga armcos\ l towards his friends;' 'before,' as, qua 
modoerga cedes habitat, * who lives now before our house.' 

EXTRAt implies something without or beyond the limits of the thing spoken of, 
and is opposed to Intra. Its general meaning is ' without ;' as, ingenium magis 
extra vitia, quam cum virtutibus, ' a character rather without vices than accom- 
panied with virtues.' ' Beyond ;' as, extra modum, * beyond measure.' Hence 
it easily passes into the sense of Supra, ' above,' or ' exceeding ;' as, esse extra 
culpam, ' to be above fault,' ' to be blameless.' Hence it is elegantly used for 
Prceter, ' besides,' ' except ;' as, neque, extra imam aniculam, quisquam aderat, 
* neither was anyone present, besides one poor old woman.' Extra jocum, ' with- 
out a joke,' 'joking apart.' 

INFRA, expresses inferiority or lower situation, and may generally be rendered 
by ' below," 1 or ' beneath,' as infra tectum, ' below the roof;' infra se, ' beneath 
himself;' magnitudine paulo infra elephantos, * in size a little inferior to the 
elephant ;' infra infimos, ' below the \ery lowest.' Hence it means ' within,' 
as infra decern dies, ' within ten days.' 

INTER, 'between,' as,i?iler eos magna contentio fuit, ' there was a great strife 
between them.' As that which is between two persons may be referred to one 
or the other, inter is often used for invicem, ■ one another ;' as, pueri amant inter 
se, * the boys love one another.' It also means ' among,' ' in the midst of;' as, 
inter exercitum, ' in the midst of the army;' inter omnem vitam, « during their life 
time.' 

INTRA,! is used to express the boundary within which any thing is contained 
referring either to time or space, and hence it signifies ' within ;' as, intra decern 
annos, ' within ten years,' intra muros, ' within the walls ;' intra verba desipiunt, 
1 they commit offence w r ithin words ;' that is, ' no offence beyond words.' 

J UXT A signifies approximation or contiguity, being derived from jungo, 'to 
join.' Its primary meaning is ' near,' or ' by the side of;' as, juxta murum, cas~ 



* Probably the ablative feminine of the obsolete adjective Contents, just as, 
citra, extra, infra, intra, and supra, are the ablatives of citer, extents, iaferus, inte- 
rns, superus. UIFSee note on Citra. 

t See note on Citra. t See Citra. 



PREPOSITIONS. 205 

traposuit, ' he pitched his camp near the wall ;' hence it means proximity of re- 
lationship; as, velocitas juxta for midtnem, Tacit. ■ rapidity is a-kin to cowardice.' 
Also, 'according to,' as, juxta prceceptum Themistoclis, 'according to the instruc- 
tions of Themistocles.' It is also used adverbially for alike, equally ; as, Eorum 
ego vitam, mortemque juxta aesftmo, ' I esteem their life and death alike.' Salust. 

OB, in its more general signification is used to express the reason or cause of any 
thing, and may be rendered by ' for' or ' on account of ;' as, ob qucestum, * for 
gain ;' ob hanc rem, * on account of this thing ;' also, ' before,' as, ob ociilos exi- 
tium versalur, ' destruction is before my eyes.' 

PENES is said to be derived from penus, * a store house,' being used to signify 
the absolute possession and power over a thing, as if it were laid up at our dis- 
posal. Its meaning is, 'in the power of/ or, in possession of; as, me penes 
est unum vasti custodia mundi, ' in my power alone is the custody of the vast 
world.' Also, ' with ;' as, penes te culpa est, • the fault lies with you.' 

PER, (derived probably from the Greek irtgetVi * to pass through,') is of exten- 
sive use. It denotes the cause, means, or instrument of an action, or transi- 
tion through some medium, and may generally be rendered by 'through;' as, 
per mare, per saxa, per ignes, Hor. ' through the sea, through rocks, through fire.' 
Also, ' through,' or 'for? signifying continuation of space or time ; as, per trien- 
nium, ' for the space of three years ;' also, ' through,' denoting the instrument or 
subordinate agency;' as, per servum epistolam misit, ' he sent the letter through a 
servant.' Sometimes it may be translated ' uwder pretence,' as, aliquem perfdem 
fallere,' to deceive any one under colour of security.' Per se, ' of himself,' ' by his 
own exertions.' Per ludum etjocum, ' in sport and jest ' Per me, ' by my permis- 
sion.' Per sileniium, ' silently.' 

PONE is derived like post, from the verb pono, and expresses the situation of a 
thing behind or after another in point of place ; but it is not used, like post, to 
signify the same relation in point of time. It is opposed to Ante. It may always 
be rendered ' behind.' Pone cedem Castoris, 'behind the temple of Castor.' It 
is often used adverbially; pone sequens, ' following behind.' 

POST has the same origin and general signification as Pone, but is used to ex- 
press relations of time as well as place. Applied to place, post montem, ' behind 
the mountain.' In point of time, post mortem, after death.' Post hominumme- 
?noriam, ' since the memory of man.' It is often joined with ea, forming the ad. 
verb postea, ' afterwards,' that is, ' after these things ;' and with quam y as, post 
quam, ' after that.' 

PRATER implies exclusion, and may be translated 'except,' or * but f as, 
omnibus sententiis prceter unum condemnatus est, ' he was condemned by all the 
votes but one;' neque Hit's vesdtus, prceter pelles, ' neither have they any clothing 
besides skins.' Hence it easily passes into the sense of ' along,' or ' by the side 
of;' as, prceter oram Etrusci maris Neapolim transmisit, ' he sent them by the 
shore of the Tuscan sea to Naples.' Hence it means ' before,' ' in sight of;' as, 
pr&ter oculos, ' before my eyes.' From the sense of ' exclusion,' it easily comes 

S 



206 PREPOSITION^. 

to signify, * beyond,' or 'above;' as, Horumille nihil egregie prater cetera slu* 
debat, Terent. * he inclined to none of these particularly above the rest.' Also, 
' contrary to,*' as, prater spem, ' contrary to expectation.' 

PROPE, ' near,' is rather an adverb, and when it is followed by an accusative 

ad or apud, is understood. It is the neuter of the obsolete adjective propis, of which 
the comparative and superlative yet remain in proprior and proximus. Prope hos- 
Hum castra, • near the camps of the enemy ;' prope calendar Sexfdis, ' about the 
calends of August.' It is often used adverbially; as, sapientia praditus prope 
singulari, * endowed with almost singular wisdom.' 

PROPTER is derived from prope, and has the same general signification of con* 
tiguity. Its primary meaning is 'near,' or 'by the side of;' as, In pratulo 
propter Platonis slatuam consedwius, Cic. ' we sat down in a little meadow by 
the statue of Plato.' Also, ' on account of,' ' for the sake of ;' as, Nam prop- 
ter frig ora,frumenta in agris malum non erant, ' for in consequence of the cold, 
the fruits of the earth were not ripe.' Propter miser icordiam, ' out of pity.' 

SECUNDUM. This preposition is the neuter gender of the ordinal adjective se- 
cundus, ' second,' (which follows the first,) which itself comes from sequor, ' to 
follow.' Its general signification implies the notion of ' following after' something 
which has gone before. Here it is translated, 'next to,' 'after;' as, Secundum 
te nihil est mihi amicius solitudine, Cic. ' next to your company nothing is more 
agreeable to me than solitude.' As he who follows after another goes in the same 
direction, secundum signifies ' after,' or ' according to ;' as, omnia qua secundum 
naturamfiunt, sunt habenda in bonis, Cic. ' all things which happen according to 
nature are to be esteemed good.' Hence it signifies ' in favour of;' as, Nuntiat 
populo pontiflces secundum se decrevisse, Cic. ' he tells the people that the pon* 
tifices had decreed in his favour.' 

SECUS, as a preposition, is obsolete, being superseded by secundum, wdth the 
same sense. As an adverb it frequently occurs, but in a sense almost diametri- 
cally opposite, signifying diversity or opposition ; as, nemo dicet secus, ' no one 
will say otherwise.' 

SUPRA is in reality the ablative feminine of superus ; (see Citra,) and implies 
elevation, and may be translated, 'above,' 'higher than;' as, supra lunam, 
' above the moon ;' supra modum, 'beyond measure;' Tres prohibet supra rixa- 
rum metuens tangere Gratia, ' the Graces, guarding against quarrels, forbid us to 
drink more than three.' Cum hostes supra caput sint, ' since the enemy are nigh 
at hand.' But the phrase supra caput is used to signify ' exceedingly;' as, supra 
caput homo levisac sordidus, ' a fellow exceedingly contemptible and sordid.' It 
is also used adverbially ; as, omnia hac qua supra et subter unum esse, * that all 
these things which are above and below, are one system.' 

TRANS, * over,' ' ox the other side,' • beyond,' is opposed to cis, and is li- 
mited to place. Trans mare, 'across the sea;' trans Euphralum, ' on the other 
side of the Euphrates.' 

ULTRA, ' beyond,' is referred to both place, time, and degree ; as, ultra ternu* 



PREPOSITIONS. 207 

num vagdri, 'to wander beyond the bounds;' ultra tempus, * beyond the time ;' 
ultra vires senectce, ' beyond the strength of old age ;' ultra mortem, * beyond 
what was sufficient to occasion death.' 

USQUE is more properly an adverb, and governs the accusative by the force of 
ad understood. Its signification is, ' as far as.' Usque Miletum, 'as far as Mi- 
letus.' As an adverb it is frequently used. Usque ambo defessisumus, ' we were 
both exceedingly wearied.' Ctesipho usque occidit, ' Ctesipho has all but killed 
me.' 

VERSUS, ' towards.' This preposition, like Usque, seems to govern the accusa- 
tive by the force of ad, which, though sometimes omitted, is generally expressed. 
Brundusium versus, ' towards Brundusium.' 

PREPOSITIONS GOVERNING THE ABLATIVE. 

There are fifteen Prepositions which govern 
the Ablative. 

A, AB, ABS. This preposition is derived from the Greek u7ro, * from,' and in its 
primary notion signifies beginning. ' From,' as, ab ovo usque ad mala, ' from the 
egg to the apple./ that is, ■ from beginning to end.' ' by reason of/ 
Vir ab innocentia clementissimus, t a man very mild by reason of his probity/ 
Also, ' on the side of/ 'to take any one's part;' as, a mendacio contra verum 
stare, ' to stand for a lie in opposition to truth.' A principio, ' from the very first' 
A ped/ibus, ' a footman ;' a ratioriibus, ' an accountant.' Afrigore, ' against the 
cold.' Hujus a morte, ' after his death/ 

ABSQUE, ' without/ Propositio nihil valet absque approbatione, 'the proposi- 
tion avails nothing without proof.' Nam absque eo esset, ' for had it not been for 
him/ &c. 

CLAM* conveys the idea of privacy, or secrecy, and may be translated ' un- 
known to,' ' without the knowledge of.' Clam viro, ' unknown to her hus- 
band/ It is also used adverbially ; as, plura clam de medio removebat, * he remov- 
ed many more out of the way privately/ 

CORAM marks the actual presence of a person before whom an action is done, 
and therefore signifies ' before/ ' in the presence of ;' as, coram rege, ' in the 
presence of the king/ It is also used adverbially ; as, cum coram sumus, ' when 
we are together/ 

CUM, ' with,' expresses the socie'y, presence, or accompaniment of some thing 
or person with another. Vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis, ' we w r ande 



* Clam is sometimes found with an Accusative ; as, Clam patrem, Terent. 
Also with a Dative; as, miki clam, Plaut.; and even with a Genitive, as, clam 
palris, Plaut. 



208 PREPOSITIONS. 

in poverty with our wives and children ;' helium gerere cum Juguriha, ' to carry- 
on war with Jugurtha :' exit cum nuntio, ' he departed as soon as he saw the 
messenger ;' cum prima luce, * at break of day.' This preposition is always added 
to the ablatives of the primitive pronouns, ego, tu, and sui ; as, mecum, 'with 
me ;' ndbiscum, ' with us ;' vobiscum, ' with you.' 

DE. The primary signification of this preposition is, derivation from some- 
thing anterior, descent, effect, consequence, or dependence ; and hence it may be 
translated ' from,' ' out of,' ' of,' ' on.' Epicuri de grege porcus, ' a hog of the 
herd of Epicurus.' Also, ' touching,' • concerning ;' as, de periculis reipublicee, 
4 concerning the dangers of the republic' De sententia mea, ' according to my 
opinion.' Somnus de prandio, 'sleep after dinner.' De loco superiore, * from the 
higher ground.' De integro, ' afresh;' de industria, ' on purpose ;' de transverso, 
1 across ;' de meo, ' at my cost ;' de die, ' by day ;' de improviso, * unexpectedly.' 

E. EX. This preposition implies motion out of, departure from the interior of 
any place, and hence is translated 4 from.' It differs from a or ab, in showing 
that. the person or thing excluded had a more intimate connexion with that from 
which it was excluded. Dejectus est e domo, 'he was driven out of the house/ 
implies that the person had been within it ; but dejectus est ab domo, ' he was 
driven from the house,' shows merely that the person was around or near it. Ex 
^Ethiopia est usque hcec, Terent. * this woman comes as far as from Ethiopia,' Ex 
quo in provinciam venerunt, * from the time that they came into the province.' Ex 
mea sententia, 'according to my opinion ;' magna, ex parte, 4 for the most part:* 
poculum ex auro, ' a cup made out of gold ;' ex equo, ' on horseback;' ex ordine, 
* in order ;' ex ammo, ' from the heart ;' ex industria, ' on purpose ;' ex tempore, 
' without taking thought beforehand,' 'suddenly ;' ex toto, 'on the whole.' 

PALAM is opposed to clam, and expresses something done openly. It is trans- 
lated ' before,' ' in the presence of.* Palam populo, ' before the people ;' 
palam omnibus, ' in the presence of all.' 

PR^E, 'before,' signifies precedence in point of situation, and hence prece- 
dence, in comparison of, or superiority. Prce oculis, 'before the eyes.' Hence the 
phrase prce se ferre or gerere, ' to carry before,' or ' in front of a man,' means 
' to profess,' ' to avow,' ' to have the appearance of Prce nobis beatus est, • he is 
happy in comparison of us,' Also, 'through,' 'that is,' ' by reason of;' as, 
nee loqui prce moerdre potuit, ' neither could he speak through grief.' Prce multi- 
tudine, ' by reason of the multitude.' 

PRO, ; for,' implies, primarily, interchange or substitution ; as, te,pro istis die- 
tis etfalsis,ulsiscar, Terent. 'for these reports and falsehoods I will pay you 
handsomely,' Cato mihi est pro centum millibus, ' Cato is to me instead of ,' that 
is, ' Cato is worth to me a hundred thousand.' Pro tempore, ' according to the 
time.' Also ' before,' ' in front of ;' as, sedens pro cede Castdris, ' sitting be- 
fore the temple of Castor.' 

SINE is in reality nothing but the imperative of the verb sino, 'to let 



PREPOSITIONS. 209 

alone,' and signifies privation, or being without a thing. Sinepondtre, ' without 
weight.' 

TENUS, ' up to,' ' as far as.' CapYdo temis, Cic. ' up to the hilt.' Antio 
chus Tauro tenus regndrejussus, ' Antiochus was ordered to reign as far as mount 
Taurus.' Tenus is sometimes used with a genitive case, but the noun is then al- 
ways in the plural number; as, crurum tenus, 'down to the legs;' labiorum 
tenus, ' as far as the lips.' 

Four prepositions, In, Sub, Super, and Sub- 
ter, govern the Accusative and Ablative. 

IN with an Accusative, ' to,' or ' unto,' or * into ;' as, Ex Asia in Europam 
exercitum irajicere, ' from Asia he marched his army into Europe.' Also ' to? 
wards;' as, indulgentia in liberos, 'indulgence towards children.' Inflammare 
populum in improbos, ' to inflame the people against the wicked.' In lucem, ' until 
day.' In rem tuam est, ' it is for your advantage.' Potestes infilium, 'authority 
over a son.' In dies, ' every day.' Vivere in diem, ' to live from hand to 
mouth.' 

IN with an Ablative, ' in.' Esse inmanu, ' to be in one's power.' 'Towards,' 
as, mitis in hoste, ' merciful towards an enemy.' Hence it is even put for ' con- 
cerning,' ' about/ or as we sometimes say, ' at ;' In quo igitur homines exhorres* 
cunt, ' at whom then do men tremble ?' Also, ' among,' as, esse in clarisstmus 
civibus, * to be ranked among the most illustrious citizens.' ' Within,' as, talenta 
ducenta in sex mensibus promissa, 'two hundred talents were promised within 
six months.' In primis, or imprimis, 'especially,' ' particularly.' 

SUB implies inferiority and contiguity. When applied to time it generally go- 
verns an accusative; when applied to space it generally governs an ablative ; but 
this rule is not invariable. With an Accusative. ' Under ;' as, sub ipsos muros, 
'under the very walls.' 'On, 1 'about; 1 as, Pompeius sub noctem naves solvit, 
' Pompey set sail about night;' sub cantum galli, 'at cock-crowing.' From 
the notion of proximity and inferiority which this word conveys, it some- 
times signifies ' next after, 1 or ' immediately following ;' as, Sub eas literas statim 
recitata sunt tuoe, ' immediately after them your letters were read aloud.' Sub 
hcec dicta, ' at these words.' 

With an Ablative. ' Under,' or ' beneath.' Manet sub Jove frigido, ' the 
hunter remains beneath the cold sky;' Sub poena mortis, 'on pain of death;' 
Sub specie venalionis, ' under the pretence of hunting.' 

SUBTER is derived from Sub, and like it, signifies contiguity and inferiority 
of place, but is not referred to time. It governs an accusative more frequently 
than an ablative. ' Under.' Subter mare, l beneath the sea.' Subter densa tes- 
tudine, * under a thick testudo.' Rhceteo subter litore, ! beneath the Rhostean 
shore/ 

s3 



210 PREPOSITIONS. 

SUPER expresses, for the most part, elevation, or a situation higher than our- 
selves, or the object spoken of. 

With an Accusative, ' upon? * above.' Super ripas, * upon the banks/ ' Be- 
yond', as, famosissima super cceterasfuit coena, * the supper was famous beyond 
all the rest.' ' Besides,' as, Puriicum exercitum super morbum eliam fames affecit, 
' famine also, besides the disease, affected the Carthagenian army.' 

With an Ablative. Fronde super viridi, ' upon the green leaf.' Consultant 
bello super, 'they take counsel about the war.' It is often used adverbially; as, 
satis superque dictum est, ' enough, and more than enough has been said.' 

Obs. There are five or six syllables, namely, am, di or dis, re, se, con, which 
are commonly called Inseparable Prepositions, because they are only to be found 
in compound words. 

PREPOSITIONS IN COMPOSITION. 

A, AB, ABS, signify privation, or separation, and may generally be rendered 
by the English Off, as, duco, ' to lead ;' abduco, ' to lead off,' « to lead away ;' 
moveo, ' to move ;' amoveo, ' to move off,' ' to remove :' scindo, • to cut ;' abscindo, 
* to cut off' A is likewise added to nouns as a privative; as, mens, ' the mind ;' 
amens, ' without mind,' ' senseless,' ' mad.' Ab is sometimes changed into au 
before words beginning wjth /, fur the sake of euphony ; as, fero, 4 to bear ;' 
aufero, ■ to bear off,' ' to take away ;' (in which verb the preposition ab resumes 
its place in those tenses which have not /, as, abstuli, ablatum ;) fugio, ' to fly ;' 
aufugio, ' to fly offj' ' to fly away.' Abs is used in composition before t ; as, teneo, 
'to hold ;! abstineo, ' to hold off from,' ' to abstain.' 

AD retains its primary signification of approach, or that of accession or aug- 
mentation, and may generally be translated 'to.' In the writers of the Augustan 
age it generally lakes the consonant of the word with which it is compounded ; 
as, curro, ' to run ;' adcurro or accurro, « to run to ;' Jigo, l to fix ;' adfigo or affigo, 
' to fix in addition,' or ' affix ;' loquor, ' to speak ;' adloquor or alloquor, ■ to speak 
to,' ' to address ;' nuo, ' to nod ;' annuo, \ to nod to,' ■ to assent ;' rogo, ' to ask ;' 
arrogo, * to ask for one's self,' ' to claim ;' sumo, ■ to take ;' assumo, ' to take to 
one's self,' ' to assume ;' do, ■ to give;' addo, l to give in addition,' ' to add.' It 
also increases the signification of the primitive; as, amo, * to love;' adamo, ■ to 
love much,' ' to be enamoured of;' bibo, 'to drink;' adbibo, l to drink hard.' 

AM is an inseparable preposition, being never found alone. It is from the 
Greek ct/uqi, ' round about ;' and may be translated ' around,' * about;' as, uro, 
1 to burn;' amburo, * to burn all about;' quero, ' to seek;' anquiro, ' to seek about,' 
1 to search carefully.' From the signification ' around,' it comes to mean ' on all 
sides,' ' two ways ;' as, ago, * to lead ;' amblgo, ' to be led around ;' that is, ' to 
doubt,' ' to hesitate,' ' what course to take ;' capio, * to take;' anceps, ' that which 
may be taken two ways,' * doubtful.' 

ANTE signifies precedence, and is translated ' before ;' as, cedo, * to go ;' ante- 
cedo, * to go before ;' fero, ' to bear;' antefero, ' to bear before,' ' to prefer.' 



PREPOSITIONS. 211 

CUM signifies « society/ 'participation,' or 'accompaniment ;' but is changed 
into com before m ; as, memoro, ■ to relate ;' commemoro, ' to relate together/ ' to 
commemorate,-' or else into con, which varies its last consonant before several 
others, and sometimes even drops it; as, curro, ' to run;' concurro, « to run toge- 
ther;' ago, 'to drive;' con-ago or co-ago or cogo, ' to drive together,' 'to collect;' 
agito, * to agitate,' or ' revolve ;' con-agito, or cogito, ' to agitate with one's self;' 
hence ' to think;' natus, * born;' con-natus or cognatus, ' having a participation 
of birth,' or ' related ;' pefdor, ' a candidate;' competitor, ' a fellow candidate/ 
or ' rival ;' gradior, ' to walk ;' congredior, ' to come together ;' hence ' to engage 
in battle.' 

DE in composition takes the sense of 1. privation; 2. diminution; 3. remo- 
val; 4. descent; 5. completion; and sometimes from the notion of completion it 
signifies, 6. excess. Thus — 1. decoro, ' to adorn ;' dedecoro, ' to disgrace ;' spero f 
' to hope ;' despero, ' to be without hope,' 'to despair;' mens, 'the mind;' de- 
mens, ' out of one's mind,' ' mad.' 2. facio, ' to do ;' dejicio, ' to do less than one 
ought,' 'to fail/ ' to be deficient.' 3. ferveo, ' to be hot;' deferveo, ' to remove 
heat/ ' to grow cool.' 4. cado, ' to fall ;' decido, ' to fall down.' 5. jinio, * to 
bound ;' definio, ' to bound completely/ ' to define.' 6. flagro, ' to burn ;' defla- 
gro, ' to burn excessively,' ' to burn to ashes.' 

DIS, DI, is an inseparable preposition, denoting 'separation/ 'division/ 'de- 
nial ;' as, traJio, ' to draw;' distraho, ' to pull asunder/ ' to disjoin,' ' to distract;' 
puto, ' to think ;' disputo, ' to think differently/ ' to dispute.' From ' separation' 
it comes to denote ' distinction ;' as, judico, ' to judge;' dijudico, ' to judge be- 
tween/ ' to distinguish/ ' to discern.' 

E, EX, generally signifies 'out/ and from this sense all its others may be de- 
duced, such as, ' privation/ ' perfection,' ' elevation,' ' declaration/ &c. Before 
certain consonants e is only used, and before/, a? is changed into /. Thus, 
bibo, ' to drink ;' ebibo, ' to drink out,' ' to drink up ;' dico, ' to tell ;' edico, ' to tell 
out/ ' to publish ;' levo, ' to lighten ;' elevo, ' to lighten out and out/ that is ' to 
lighten thoroughly/ and so ♦ to raise,' ' to elevate ;' vado, * to go ;' evado, * to go 
out of/ ' to escape ;' capio, ' to take ;' excipio, ' to take out/ ' to except ;' quaero, 
'to seek;' exquiro, ' to seek out/ 'to search;' sanguis, 'blood;' exsanguis, 'out 
of blood/ 'bloodless;' anima, ' life;' exanimis, 'lifeless.' 

IN, in composition, changes its consonant before the other liquids into the li- 
quid it precedes ; as, illudo, from in and ludo, and before b and p the n is changed 
into m as imbibo, from in and bibo. 

The signification of in is very various in composition, and in some cases even 
contradictory. Thus it augments, as minuo, ' to lessen ;' imminuo, ' to make 
less upon less/ or ' to make very small.' But it is more frequently used in the 
sense of ' negation/ as the & privative of the Greek, and the tin or in prefixed to 
words in English ; as, mundus, ' clean ;' immundus, ' unclean.' But in some in- 
stances the augmentative and privative senses appear in the same word; thus, 
impotens is used in the sense of ' very powerful,' that is, ' ungovernable/ and in 
the sense of ' weak/ ' powerless.' It has also various other significations ; as, 



212 PREPOSITIONS. 

ludo, ' to play ;' illudo, ' to play upon,' ' to mock ;' pono, ' to place ;' impono, * to 
place upon,' ' to put upon,' • to impose ;' habeo, * to have ;' inhibeo, ' to have 
within control,' 'to check,' 'to rein in;' albesco, Mo grow white;' inalbesco, 
' to begin to grow white ;' video, ' to see;' invideo, ' to see' or ' look against,' and 
thus ' to envy' a person. 

INTER has generally the same meaning in composition that it has when 
alone, namely : ' between,' or ' among ;' as, pono, ' to place ;' interpono, ' to place 
between,' ' to interpose.' Sometimes it signifies ' prevention,' as if from an op- 
posing medium ; as, dico, Mo say;' interdico, Mo say between,' and so Mo for- 
bid,' Mo interdict;' venio, Mo come;' intervenio, Mo come between, 1 and thus 
1 to prevent.' It also augments as interjicio, ' to do thoroughly,' « to do up/ * to 
kill.' Perhaps in this word the primitive meaning of' between' may be traced, 
as facio, ' to do,' ' to make ;' interjicio, ' to make' or ' go between' a person and 
the period of life to which he is aiming, and thus « to cut him off from the 
living. 

OB takes the sense of ' before/ 'against;' as, ruo, Mo rush ;' obruo, Mo rush 
before/ or ' overwhelm ;' loquor, l \o speak;' obloquor, Mo speak against;' duco, 
' to lead ;' obduco, ' to draw over/ ' to hide/ ' to blot.' Sometimes it increases the 
signification : as, dormio, ' to sleep ;' obdormio, ' to sleep upon sleep/ ' to sleep 
soundly.' 

PER retains its original notion of ' transition,' or its secondary one of inten- 
sity ;' as, eo, ' to go ;' pereo, ' to go through/ and so ' to go through life/ ' to pe- 
rish;' do, ' to give;' perdo, ' to give thoroughly,' ' to give without hopes of re- 
call :' and so ' to lose ;' adolescens, ' young ;' peradolescens, ' very young.' Some- 
times it is privative : asfidus, ' faithful ;' perfidus, ' perfidious.' 

POST takes the sense of ' behind;' as, pono, ' to place ;' postpono, Mo place 
behind' or ' postpone ;' habeo, ' to have,' ' to esteem ;' poslhabeo, ' to esteem less.' 

PRAE takes the sense of ' precedence/ or ' prevention.' Thus, dico, ■ to tell ;' 
prcedico, * to foretell ;' facio, ' to make ;' prcsfcio, ' to make first' or ' head/ that 
is, ' to set over;' claudo, ' to shut ;' prceclaudo, Mo shut before a person can get 
in/ that is, ' to shut out,' or ' prevent admission.' From the notion of priority, it 
also conveys the idea of ' excellence,' or ' superlativeness,' or ' excess :' as, po- 
tens, 'powerful;' pr&potens, 'very powerful;' maturus, 'early;' prcematurus, 
1 very early,' ' too early/ ' premature ;' stare, ' to stand ;' prcsstare, ' to stand be- 
fore the rest/ ' to excel.' 

PRO in composition has generally the sense of advancing : as, moveo, ■ to 
move;' promoveo, 1 to move forward,' Mo promote;' cedo, Mo go;' procedo, Mo 
go forward/ Mo proceed;' habeo, Mo have;' prohibeo, Mo have in advance' of 
another, and so in prevention of him, or ' to prohibit.' Sometimes it has the sense 
of ' substitution,' as, curator, ' a guardian ;' procurator, ' a guardian for another/ 
' a steward ;' nomen, ' a noun ;' pronomen, ' a word instead of a noun,' or ' a pro* 
noun.' Also, 'presence' 'publicity;' as, pono, Mo place;' propono, Mo place 
before' or ' in presence of others/ ' to propose ;' scribo, ' to write ;' proscribo, ' to 
write in the presence of the public/ or ' publicly denounce/ or ' proscribe ;' vocq, 
' to call ;' provoco, ' to call out before the public,' or ' challenge.' 



INTERJECTIONS. 213 

RE is an inseparable preposition, and means ' back again,' or 'against;' as, 
capio, 'to take;' recipio, ' to take again,' ' to receive;' pono, ' to place;' repono, 
' to place again.' 

SE is also inseparable, and means ' apart,' ' aside ;' as, voco, * to call ;' sevoco, 
' to call aside ;' claudo, ' to shut ;' secludo, ' to shut up.' 

SUB. The last consonant of this word is frequently changed into others ac- 
cording to the word with which it is compounded. Most of its meanings in 
composition maybe traced to its primitive signification of ' under;' and fre- 
quently corresponds with our termination l ish ;' as, jacio, ' to throw ;' subjicio, 
' to cast under,' ' to subject ;' rufus, ' red ;' subrufus, ' reddish,' that is, a little 
' under' red ; rideo, ' to laugh ;' subrideo, ' to smile;' timeo, ' to fear;' subtimeo,' to 
fear a little;' tristis, 'sad ;' subtrislis, ' a little sad.' Sometimes it means some- 
thing secret, or clandestine ; as, gero, ' to carry ;' suggero, ' to carry under,' ' to 
suggest ;' duco, ' to lead ;' subduco, ' to lead away,' ' to withdraw privily.' 

SUBTER signifies simply 'under,' or ' beneath ;' as, labor, ' to glide ;' subler- 
labor, ' to glide beneath,' or something secret; as, fugio, ' to fly ;' subterfugio, 
' to fly away privily,' ' to escape beneath the shelter of something.' 

SUPER, ' upon,' or ' over ;' as, gradior, ' to go;' supergredior, ' to go beyond,' 
or 'surpass;' scribo, ' to write ;' superscribe, ' to write upon,' ' to superscribe.' 

TRANS in composition has the same signification that it has by itself; as, eo, 
4 to go ;' transeo, ' to pass over ;' adigo, ' to drive ;' transadigo, ' to pierce 
through.' It sometimes drops its two final letters before other consonants : as, do % 
1 to give ;' trado, ' to give over to another,' and so ' to deliver,' 

INTERJECTION. 

An Interjection is an indeclinable word thrown 
in bet?veen the parts of a sentence, to express some 
passion or emotion of the mind. 

Some Interjections are natural sounds and common to all languages ; as, Oh ! 
Ah! 

Interjections express in one word a whole sentence, and thus fitly represent the 
quickness of the passions. 

The different passions have commonly different words to express them ; thus, 

1. JOY; as, evax ! hey, brave, lo! 

2. GRIEF ; as, ah, hei, hen, eheu ! ah, alas, woe is me ! 

3. WONDER; as,papce! O strange ! vah ! hah! 

4. PRAISE ; as, euge ! well done! 

5. AVERSION ; as, apage ! away, begone, avaunt, off, fie, tush I 

6. EXCLAIMING ; as, Oh,proh! O! 

7. SURPRISE or FEAR ; as, atatt ha, aha! 



214 CONJUNCTIONS. 

8. IMPRECATION ; as, vcb ! woe, pox on't ! 

9. LAUGHTER ; as, ha, ha, he ! 

10. SILENCING; as, aw, 'st,pax! silence, hush, 'st ! 

11. CALLING ; as, eho, ehodum, io, ho! soho, ho, 0! 

12. DERISION ; as, hui! away with! 

13. ATTENTION; as, hem! ha! 

Some Interjections denote several different passions; thus, Voh is used to ex- 
press joy, and sorrow, and wonder, fyc. 

Adjectives of the neuter gender are sometimes used for interjections ; as, 
Malum ! with a mischief! Infandum! O shame! fy, fy ! Miserum! O wretch- 
ed! Nefas! O the villany! 

CONJUNCTION. 

A conjunction is an indeclinable word, which 
serves to join sentences together. 

Thus, " You and Zand the boy read Virgil," is one sentence made up of these 
three, by the conjunction and twice employed ; I read Virgil ; You read Virgil; 
The boy reads Virgil. In like manner, "You and I read Virgil, but the boy 
reads Ovid," is one sentence, made up of three, by the conj unctions and and but. 

Conjunctions, according to their different meaning, are divided into the follow- 
ing classes ; 

1. COPULATIVE; as, et, at, atque, que, and ; etiam, quoque, item, also; cum, 
turn, both, and. Also their contraries, nee, neque, neu, neve, neither, nor. 

2. DISJUNCTIVE ; as, aut, ve, vel, seu, sive, either, or. 

3. CONCESSIVE ; as, etsi, etiamsi, tametsi, licet, quanquam, quamvis, though, 
although, albeit. 

4. ADVERSATIVE; as, sed, verum, auiem, at, ast, atqui, but; tamen, attamen, 
veruntamen, verumenimvero, yet, notwithstanding, nevertheless. 

5. CAUSAL; as, nam, namque, enim, for; quia, quippe, quoniam, because; 
quod, that because. 

6. ILLATIVE or RATIONAL; as, ergo,ideo, igitur, idcirco, itaque, therefore; 
quapropler, quocirca, wherefore ; proiude, therefore ; cum, quum, seeing, since ; 
quandoquidem, forasmuch as. 

7. FINAL or PERFECTIVE; as, ut, uti, that, to the end that. 

8. CONDITIONAL ; as, si, sin, if; dum, modo, dummodo, provided, upon 
condition that ; siqutdem, if indeed. 

9. EXCEPTIVE or RESTRICTIVE ; as, ?ii, nisi, unless, except. 

10. DIMINUTIVE ; as, saltern certe, at least. 

11. SUSPENSIVE or DUBITATIVE ; as an, anne, num, whether; ne, annon, 
whether, not ; necne, or not. 

12. EXPLETIVE; as, autem, vero, now, truly; quidem,equidem, indeed. 

13. ORDINAT1VE ; as, delude, thereafter; denique, finally; insuper, more- 
over; cceterum, moreover, but, however. 

14. DECLARATIVE ; as, videlicet, scilicet, nempe, nimzrum, <fcc. to wit, 
namely. 



SIGNIFICATIONS OF WORDS. 215 

Obs. 1. The same words, as they are taken in different views, are both ad- 
verbs and conjunctions. Thus, an, anne, &c. are either interrogative adverbs, as, 
An scribit ? Does he write ? or, suspensive conjunctions, as, Nescio an scribat, I 
know not if he writes. 

Obs. 2. Some conjunctions, according to their natural order, stand first in a 
sentence ; as, Ac, atque, nee, neque, aut, vel, sive, at, sed, verum, nam, quandoqui- 
dem, quocirca, quare, sin, siquidem, praterquam, &c; some stand in the second 
place ; as, Autem,vero, quoque, quidem, enim : and some may indifferently be put 
either first or second ; as, Etiam, equidem, licet, quamvis, quanquam, tamen, attti- 
men,namque, quod, quia, quoniam, ouippe, utpote, ut, uti, ergo, ideo, igitur, idcirco, 
itaque, proinde, propterea, si, ni, ntsi, &c. 

Hence arose the division of them into Prepositive, Subjunctive, and 
Common. To the subjunctive may be added these three, que, ve, ne, 
which are always joined to some other word, and are called Enclitics; 
because, when put after a long" syllable, they make the accent incline 
to that syllable; as in the following verse, 

Indoctusque pilce, disci ve, trochive, quiescit. Korat. 

But when these enclitic conjunctions come after a short vowel, they 
do not affect its pronunciation ; thus, 

Arbuteos foetus, montanaque fraga legebant. Ovid. 

SIGNIFICATIONS OF WORDS. 

The signification of a Latin word is the notion or thought which it 
conveyed to the mind of a Roman, and to express this clearly in ano- 
ther language is often a work of no small difficulty, and constitutes 
one of the chief advantages derived from the study of the ancient 
classics. To translate accurately and elegantly from one language 
into another, calls into exercise the highest powers of the mind ; and 
hence a classical foundation has ever been considered by every intelli- 
gent scholar as the only basis of a truly liberal and solid education. 

Every word has a primitive and invariable sense, which it is most 
important to know. From this original signification the secondary 
and metaphorical are derived. This sense must be found by separat- 
ing compound words ; by tracing derivative words to their roots, and 
by resolving compound ideas or notions into their simple parts. Cor- 
poreal words, such as, oculus, manus, &c. are easy, and seldom have 
more than one meaning. Incorporeal words, such as virtus, longitudo, 
nox, &c. are more difficult, as well as more frequent with the an- 
cients, and on these our greatest labour must be bestowed. 

The danger into which every English scholar, from the lowest 
class in the Grammar-school to the senior in college, is perpetually 



216 SIGNIFICATIONS OF WORDS. 

liable to run, is that of translating Latin words into those which re- 
semble them in appearance and sound ; as, virtus, ' virtue ;' crimen, 
« crime.' Against this fault they should be continually on their guard, 
and to aid them in this, we shall briefly point out, first, some erroneous 
interpretations, and second, attempt to facilitate the knowledge of the 
true meanings of words. 

I. False significations not to be adopted. 

Ambitio does not mean ' pride ;' but rather, ' love of honour,' t ambition/ 
* vanity ;' striving after honour and piquing one's self on certain outward things ; 
liking to be praised, to display one's self, and be in office. 

Aequor is, properly, 'a level,' or 'flat,' from (zquus, 'level,' 'even;' thence, 
1 the sea,' because it is level. 

Amoenus, ' pleasant,' ' agreeable to the senses,' particularly to the eyes ; thence 
peculiarly applied to places and situations; as, horli amoeni, regioamama. Homo 
amoenus, or fortuna amcena, would be improper. It also means ' agreeable to the 
ears,' as, verba amcena. 

Animal from anima, ' breath,' ' life,' denotes a living creature, and is therefore 
applied to homo and bestia. 

Apparere, not ' to appear,' that is, to seem, but to appear, that is, '■ to be manifest;' 
as, mendacium apparet, ' the falsehood is apparent;' nantes apparent, ' men are 
seen swimming.' 

Arma are properly ' arms for defence,' or ' armour ;' tela, ' weapons of offence,' 
as darts, swords, &c. 

Avarus, (from avidus and ceris,) ' desirous of gold,' ' avaricious ;' not covetous 
generally. 

Calamlias is not every misfortune or trouble, but something accompanied with 
loss, and must often be translated, ' loss,' ' deprivation.' 

Clemens is not, generally, ' merciful,' but • soft,' • mild,' ' gentle ;' ' one who is 
not easily provoked.' 

Convincere, not ' to convince,' or convict, generally, but of a bad thing, as of 
theft, error, &c. In a good sense we use persuadere. 

Crimen, not ■ transgression,' unless that be implied in the charge ; but 'charge,' 
' accusation.' 

Divertere, not ' to stop at an inn,' but * to separate,' when a number of people 
separate and go different ways. Deveriere means ' to stop at an inn.' 

Exsistere, or existere, means, 1. 'to stand forth,' ' to be in sight,' * to appear;' 
2. ' to be.' 

Imo, not merely ' yes/ but ironically, something like our ' yea rather.' 

Infans, (non and fans participle offari, ' to speak/) not every child, but ! an 
infant ;' one that ■ cannot yet speak.' 



SIGNIFICATIONS OF WORDS. 217 

Legem ferre, 1. 'to propose a law,' or ' introduce a bill ;' 2. 'to make or pass 
a law.' 

Opinio, not every opinion, but such as 'an ungrounded suspicion/ 'fancy,*' 
opinari, ' to fancy,' ' to think.' 

Pietas must be understood according to the subject ; it denotes love to God, 
parents, children, relatives, and benefactors, which will be shown by the con- 
nexion. 

Pubticus, not ' public, before the people,' but, 1. ' public,' what happened in the 
name, by the command, or with respect to the state; as, bellum gerere public}, 
' to carry on war in the name of the state ;' 2. ' universal,' 'common,' ' mean.' 

Stultus, not merely ' a fool,' but ' thoughtless,' ' hasty,' 'simple.' 

II. To facilitate the knowledge of the true 
meaning of words : 

First, we should observe whence a word is derived, as, animal, from 
anima, 'life,' thence 'animal,' or whatever lives: — cequor, 'a level,' 
from cequus, 'level,' 'even:' — mollis, from mobllis, (which is from 
moveo,) ' moveable,' ' bending,' ' soft :' — momentum, ' movement,' for 
movimentum from moveo; hence res magni momenti, ■ a thing which 
has much weight in causing something, which was unsettled and in 
equilibrium, to be decided: 1 — prudens for providens, 'seeing before 
hand.' 

Second, the import of terminations should be understood. 

1. Quam, ' any ;' quisquam, ' any one ;' usquam, ' any where.' 

2. Cunque, 'ever,' 'soever,*' quicunque, 'whosoever ;' ubicunque, ' whereso- 
ever.' Que has the same force in many words : as, ulique, ' howsoever,' ' at all 
events,' ' certainly.' 

3. O and Uc in adverbs of place, denote ' whither ;' as, eo, quo, hue, istuc, il- 
iac : Inc, ' whence,' as, hinc,illinc: 1c, ' where,' as, hie, illic. 

4. Osus denotes an ' abundance,' or ' fullness' of any thing ; as, piscosus, < full 
offish;' annosus, ' full of years;' vinosus, maculosus, verbosus, &c. Idus also 
has the same import; as,j#oneZws, 'flowery ;' herbidus, ' grassy,' <&c. 

5. Ibilis denotes 'facility,' 'worth,' 'that something may be done,' or 'is 
worth doing;' as, credzbilis, 'credible;' tolerabilis, amabilis, &c. To these be- 
longfacilis, difficilis, which seem to stand forfacibilis, &c. 

6. Fer, or ferus, from/ero, denotes ' bearing,' as pinifer, ' pine bearing,' &c. 

7. Eus and cdus denote the material ; but are thus distinguished : eus denotes 
the solid material, atus what it is adorned with ; as, aureus, ' golden,' ' of gold ;' 
auralus, ' gilded ;' so, argenteus, argentalus ; ferreus, ferratus, &c. 

T 



218 SIGNIFICATIONS OF WORDS. 

8. Alis, a 'resemblance,' or 'similarity;' as regdlis, 'kingly,' ' like a king,' 
but regius, ' royal,' ' belonging to a king;' as, diviticB regales, ' riches suited to a 
king ;' divitice regies, ' riches belonging to a king;' so, liberalis, ' suited to a free, 
well-born man,' ' liberal,' ' genteel.' 

9. In verbs, urio denotes l an inclination' or ' desire ;' as, esurio, ' to desire to 
eat,' ' to be hungry ;' parturio, ' to desire to bring forth,' ' to be in labour :' Sco 
denotes 'increase,' or 'growing;' as, calesco, 'to grow warm;' ditesco, 'to 
grow rich :' To denotes ' a repetition ;' as, dicto, dictito, ' to say often.' See Fre- 
quentative and Inceptive Verbs, pages 192 and 193. 

10. Etum and earn denote a place or situation ; as, dumetum, * a place of 
bushes,' or ' full of bushes ;' vinetum, ' a vineyard ;' museum, ' an abode of the 
Muses,' ' a study,' or' library;' arium denotes a place or habitation ; as, aviari- 
um, « an aviary ;' sacrarium, ' a place for sacred things,' ' a chapel.' 

11. In verbal nouns, or denotes a male, ix a female agent, io and us (of the 
fourth declension) the action ; as, victor, ' a conqueror ;' victrix, ' a conqueress ;' 
actor, 'a pleader;' actio, 'the suit;' qucesitor, 'an inquirer;' questus, 'com- 
plaint.' 

12. Mentum denotes what any thing is fit for; as, condimentum, ' something 
for seasoning,' 'seasoning;' atramentum, 'something for blacking,' 'blacking,' 
'ink.' 

Third. In words which have several meanings, we must try to get 
the proper and first meaning, from which the rest may be derived, and 
see if there be a connexion between the original and secondary sense 
which leads from one to the other. 

Amhire, 1. ' to go round' any thing, or from one to another : 2. ' to solicit an 
office,' because at Rome the candidates ' went round' to beg for votes, or be- 
cause going around for any thing shows a desire after it ; hence, amkitio 1. ' the 
soliciting an office' by going round after it ; 2. ' desire of honour,' ' ambition.' 

Ango, 1. 'to make narrow,' ' to tie fast,' as the throat; 2. ■ to cause anguish.' 

Adfligo or Affligo (from ad and fligo) 1. ' to dash a thing against' something, as 
the wall, the ground : 2. 'to drive to the ground,' 'to make unfortunate,' 'to 
afflict.' 

Callidus, 'thick skinned,' 'having hard lumps' from much labour, which sup- 
poses practice and experience : 2. ' experienced,' ' skilful.' 

Calairiitas, 1. ' injury to the stalk,' (from calamus, ' a stalk' ): 2. * a great loss' 
or ' hurt,' or misfortune attended with loss ; as when one loses his property. 

Confutare and refutare, 1. ' to quench boiling water by pouring in cold ;' 2. 
1 to damp, drive back, confute.' 

Egregius, 1. 'chosen from the flock;' 2. 'excellent.' 

Gratia 1. ' agreeableness ;' 2. gratia hominis, ' the favour which one has with 
the people,' or ' which he has towards others ;' 3. ' complaisance ;' 4. ' thanks.' 



SIGNIFICATIONS OF WORDS. 219 

Offendere, 1. inadvertently to tread or ■ stumble against any thing ;' 2. l to find, 
meet with ;' 3. ' to hurt ;' 4. ' to commit a fault,' ' to offend ;' 5. ' to be unfortu- 
nate.' 

Persona, 1. ' a mask ;' 2. « person/ ' part,' or ' character,' whether real or as- 
sumed, for the ancient actors wore ' masks' which corresponded to their assumed 
character; 3. ' person,' the man himself; mea persona, * my person, 1 ■ I.' 

Probus, 1. 'good,' 'genuine,' ' sincere,' when any thing is what it was taken 
for; as, aurum probum; 2. 'good,' 'honourable,' 'upright,' as, probus amicus, 
' a sincere friend.' 

Scrupulus, 1. <a small stone ;' 2. any ' obstacle ;' 3. ' hesitation,' ' uncertainty,' 
* scruple.' 
Sublevare, 1. ' to raise on high ;' 2. ' to help,' ' to stand by ;' 3, ' to lighten.' 



SYNTAX, 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS IN SENTENCES. 



SENTENCES. 

A Sentence is any thought of the mind expressed by two or more 
words put together ; as, 1 read. The boy reads Virgil 

That part of grammar, which teaches to put words rightly together 
in sentences, is called Syntax or Construction. 

Words in sentences have a two-fold relation to one another ; 
namely, that of Concord or Agreement ; and that of Government or 
Influence. 

Concord, is when one word agrees with another in some accidents ; 
as, in gender, number, person, or case. 

Government, is when one word requires another to be put in a cer- 
tain case, or mode. 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SYNTAX. 

1. In every sentence there must be a verb and a nominative ex- 
pressed or understood. 

2. Every adjective must have a substantive expressed or under- 
stood. 

3. All the cases of Latin nouns, except the nominative and voca- 
tive, must be governed by some other word. 

4. The genitive is governed by a substantive noun expressed or un- 
derstood : or by a verbal adjective. 

5. The dative is governed by adjectives and verbs. 

6. The accusative is governed by an active verb, or by a preposi- 
tion; or is placed before the infinitive. 

7. The vocative stands by itself, or has an interjection joined 
with it. 

8. The ablative is governed by a preposition expressed or under- 
stood. 

9. The infinitive is governed by some verb or adjective. 



SIMPLE SENTENCES. 221 

SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES. 

* The two general divisions of Syntax in this 
Grammar are into SIMPLE SENTENCES and 
COMPOUND SENTENCES. The latter will 
be found under rule LVII — ' The construction of 
Relatives. 7 

* A Simple Sentence is that which has but one nominative and one 
verb ; as, prceeeptor docet, ' the master teaches ;' a Compound Sen- 
tence is that which has more than one nominative and one verb ; as, 
prceeeptor, qui docet, laborat, 'the master, who teaches, is sick;' here 
the relative pronoun qui introduces another verb, docet, into the sen- 
tence. 

*In a Simple Sentence there is only one Subject and one Attri- 
bute or Predicate. The Subject is the word, (whether it denotes a 
thing or a person) of which something is said : the Predicate is what 
is said of the subject. The father is learned. Here ' the father' is 
the Subject of discourse, or the person spoken of; 'learned' the Pre- 
dicate, or what we affirm concerning the subject. Sometimes the 
subject is accompanied by an adjective; as, the fine book is lost ; here 
* the fine book' is the subject, and ' lost' the predicate. 

* In a COMPOUND SENTENCE there are either several sub- 
jects and one predicate, or several predicates and one subject, or both 
several predicates and several subjects ; as, ' My father, mother, bro- 
ther and sister are dead ;' — here, the predicate dead belongs to the four 
subjects, father, mother, brother and sister, which taken together form 
a plural; the predicate therefore with the verb should be plural. The 
subject is often separated from its predicate; as, ' my father, who has 
been absent many weeks, has not yet written ;' where the words, my 
father has not yet written form a sentence, between which another 
sentence, who has been absent many weeks, is interposed : In the in- 
terposed sentence, who is the subject, absent the predicate. 

CONCORD. 

The following words agree together in sentences. 1. A substan- 
tive with a substantive. 2. An adjective with a substantive. 3. A 
verb with a nominative. 

1. Agreement of one Substantive with another. 

Rule I. (1) Substantives signifying the same 
thing agree in case ; as, 

T 2 



222 AGREEMENT OF WORDS IN SENTENCES. 

Cicero orator, Cicero the orator ; Ciceroni* oratbris, Of Cicero the orator. 

Urbs Athena, The city Athens ; Urbis Atliendrum, Of the city Athens. 

* (2) This addition to a substantive, called Apposition, is properly a 
short mode of speaking for qui, quce, quod, or cum with the verb sum ; 
as, Cicero, Consul, hoc fecit « Cicero the Consul did this,' the same 
as, Cicero, cum consul esset, hoc fecit. 

* (3) It is not necessary that the nouns agree in gender, number or 
person; as, Magnum pauperies opprobrium, Hor. where opprobrium, 
which is neuter, agrees in case with pauperies, fern. But if it be pos- 
sible they should agree in gender and number : thus, docuit hoc me 
usus, magister optimus, ' experience, which is the best master, taught 
me this :' if for usus we substitute exercitatio, fern, we should say, 
magistra optima. 

*(4) When a plural appellative is used as descriptive of two or 
more proper names of different genders, it must be of the more worthy 
gender; as, Ad Ptolemaeum Cleopatramque reges legati missi, Liv. 
in which reges is equivalent to regem et reginam. 

*(4J) Sometimes the latter substantive is put in the Genitive; as, 
Fons Tirnavi, for Timavus, Virg. 

2. Agreement of an Adjective with a Substantive. 

II. (5) Adjectives, including Adjective pro- 
nouns and Participles, agree with their Substan- 
tives in gender, number, and case ; as, 

Bonus vir, a good man ; Boni viri, good men. 

Fcemzna casta, a chaste woman ; Foemma? casta?, chaste women. 

Dulce pornum, a sweet apple ; Dulcia poma, sweet apples. 

And so through all the cases and degrees of comparison. 

Obs. 1. (6) The substantive is frequently understood, or its place 
supplied by an infinitive ; and then the adjective is put in the neuter 
gender; as, triste, sc. negotium, a sad thing. Virg.; Tuum scire, the 
same with tua scientia, thy knowledge. Pers. We sometimes, 
however, find the substantive understood in the feminine ; as, Non 
posteriores feram, sup. partes. Ter. 

Obs. 2. (7) An adjective often supplies the place of a substantive ; 
as, Certus amicus, a sure friend ; Bona ferina, good venison ; Sum- 
mum bonum, the chief good : Homo being understood to amicus, caro 
to ferina, and negotium to bonum. A substantive is sometimes used 
as an adjective; as, incola turba vocant, the inhabitants. Ovid. Popu- 
lum late regem, Virg. for regnantem, l ruling.' 



AGREEMENT OF WORDS IN SENTENCES. 223 

Obs. 3. (8) These adjectives, primus, medius, itliimus, extremus, 
infimus, imus, summits, supr emits, reliquus, coztera, usually signify 
the first part, the middle part, &c. of any thing; as, Media nox, the 
middle part of the night; Summa arbor, the highest part of a tree. 

* (9) An adjective joined with two substantives of different gen- 
ders, generally agrees with that one which is chiefly the subject of dis- 
course, though sometimes with the nearest, although it may not be the 
principal one ; as, non omnis error stultitia est dicenda, Cic. where 
dicenda agrees with stultitia, instead of dicendus, to agree with error. 
But if the principal substantive be the name of a man or woman, the 
adjective agrees with it. ; as, Semiramis puer esse credita est, Justin, 
not creditus to agree with puer. 

Obs. 4. (10) Whether the adjective or substantive ought to be placed first in 
Latin, no certain rule can be given. Only if* the substantive be a monosyllable, 
and the adjective a polysyllable, the substantive is elegantly put first; as, vir 
clarissunus, res prcestantissima, &c. 

3. Agreement of a Verb with a Nominative. 

III. (11) A Verb agrees with its Nominative 
in number and person ; as, 

Ego lego, I read. Nos legimus, We read. 

Tu scribis, Thou writest or you write. Vos scribilis, Ye or you write. 

PrcBceptor docet, The master teaches. Prceceptores docent, Masters teach. 

And so through all the modes, tenses, and numbers. 

Obs. 1. (12) Ego and nos are of the first person; tu and vos, of 
the second person; Me, and all other words, of the third. The nomi- 
native of the first and second person in Latin is seldom expressed, un- 
less for the sake of emphasis or distinction ; as, Tu es patronus, tu 
pater. Ter. Tu legis, ego scribo. 

Obs. 2. (13) An infinitive or some part of a sentence, often sup- 
plies the place of a nominative; as, Mentiri est turpe, to lie is base; 
Diu non perlitdtum tenuit dictator em ; the sacrifice not being attend- 
ed with favourable omens, detained the dictator for a long time. Liv. 
7, 8. Sometimes the neuter pronoun id or illud is added, to express 
the meaning more strongly ; as, Facer e quce libet, id est esse regem. 
Sallust. 

Obs. 3. (14) The infinitive mode often supplies the place of the 
third person of the imperfect of the indicative; as, Millies fug ere, the 
soldiers fled, for fugiebant, orfugere cazperunt. Tnvidere omnes mihi, 
for invidebant. This is called the historical infinitive, and is only 
used in animated narration. 

Obs. 4. (15) A collective noun may be joined with a verb either of 



224 AGREEMENT OF WORDS WITH SENTENCES. 

the singular or of the plural number; as, Multitude* stat or stant ; the 
multitude stands, or stand. 

A collective noun, when joined with a verb singular, expresses many consider- 
ed as one whole; but when joined with a verb plural, signifies many separately, 
or as individuals. Hence if an adjective or participle be subjoined to the verb, 
when of the singular number, they will agree both in gender and number with 
the collective noun ; but if the verb be plural, the adjective or participle will be 
plural also, and of the same gender with the individuals of which the collective 
noun is composed; as, Pars er ant c&si: Pars obnixai trudunt, sc. formica. Virg. 
^En. iv. 406. Magna pars raptce, sc. virgines. Liv. ]. 9. Sometimes, however, 
though more rarely, the adjective is thus used in the singular ; as, Pars arduus, 
Virg. ^En. vn. 624. 

* (16) The nominative fails to the third person of certain verbs, especially 
those which mean ■ to say,' ' to tell,' &c; as, aiunt, dicunt,ferunt, narrant, that is, 
homines. So also with the third person of sum when qui follows and represents 
the subject; as, est qui dicat, for est aliquis qui dicat, * there is some one who 
says:' so, sunt quosjuvat, Hor. 

* (17) With certain verbs a nominative is always wanting; as passive verbs 
used impersonally; as,parciturmihi, * I am spared/ literally, ' it is spared to me.' 
So with the gerund ; as, mihi est eundum, ' 1 must go.' So also in the expression 
venit mihi in mentem illius diei, where illius diei seems to stand for the nomina- 
tive : but perhaps negotium or memoria is to be supplied. 

* (18) Sometimes the Nominative which fails must be supplied from the pre- 
ceding sentence ; as, et, in quern primum egressi sunt locum, Troja vocatur, (Liv. 
I. 1.) where the nom. hie from the preceding locum is understood w 7 ith vocatur ; 
or better, et locus in quern egressi sunt Troja vocatur. Sometimes from the fol- 
lowing ; as, vastatur agri, quod inter urbem ac Fidenas est, ' there was so much 
land laid waste as was between Rome &c; (Liv. 1. 14.) where id governing 
agri is nom. to vastatur ; and quod is used, as elsewhere, for quantum. 

Accusative before the Infinitive. 

IV. (19) The infinitive mode has an accusa- 
tive before it ; as, 

Gaudeo te valere, I am glad that you are well. 

Obs. 1. (20) The particle that in English, is the sign of the accu- 
sative before the infinitive in Latin, when it comes between two verbs, 
without expressing intention or design. Sometimes the particle is 
omitted ; as, Aiunt regem adventare, They say the king is coming, 
that being understood. 

Obs. 2. (21) The accusative before the infinitive alwavs depends upon some 
other verb, commonly on a neuter or substantive verb; but seldom on a verb 
taken in an active sense. 

Obs. 3. (22) The infinitive, with the accusative before it, seems sometimes to 
supply the place of a nominative; as, Turpe est militem fugere, That a soldier 
should fly is a shameful thing. 



AGREEMENT OF WORDS WITH SENTENCES. 225 

Obs. 4. (23) The infinitive esse or fuisse, must frequently be supplied, espe- 
cially after participles; as, Hostium exerctiuM ccesum fusumque cognovit Cic. 
Sometimes both the accusative and infinitive are underwood ; as, Pollicitus sus* 
cepturum, scil. me esse, Ter. 

Obs. 5. (24) The infinitive may frequently be otherwise rendered by the con- 
junctions, quod, ut, ne, or quin ; as, Gaudeo te valere, i. e. quod valeas, or propter 
tuam bonam valeludinem : Jubeo vos bene, sperdre, or ut bene speretis ; Prohibeo 
eum ex'ire, or ne exeat : Non dubxto eumfecisse, or much belter, quin fecerit. Scio 
quod flius amet, Plaut. for jilium amdre. Miror, sipotuif, for eum potuisse. Cic. 
Nemo dubitat, ut populus Romanics omnes virlute super aril, for populum Romdnum 
superasse. Nep. Ex animi sententia juro, ut ego rempubluam non deseram, ibr 
me non deserturum esse, Liv. xxii. bo. 

* (25) Care should be taken in using this construction not to render the mean- 
ing ambiguous, as in the famous answer of the oracle ; Aio te, JEacida, Romanos 
vincere posse, in which it could not be ascertained from the mere words, which 
party was to prove victorious. The ambiguity might be prevented by changing 
the active into the passive voice. 

The same Case after a Verb as before it. 

V. (26) Any Verb may have the same Case 
after it as before it, when both words refer to the 
same thing; as, 

Ego sum discipulus, I am a scholar. 

Tu vocaris Joannes, You are named John. 

Ilia incedit regma, She walks as a queen. 

Scio ilium haberi sapientem, I know that he is esteemed wise. 

Scio vos esse discipulos, I know that you are scholars. 

So Redeo irdtus t jaceo supplex ; Evddent digni, they will become worthy; Rem* 
publicam defendi adolescens ; nolo esse longus, I am unwilling to be tedious ; 
Malim videri timidus, quam parum prudens. Cic. Non licet mihi esse negligenti. 
Cic. Natura dedit omnibus esse bedtis. Claud. Cupio me esse clementem; cupio 
non putdri menddcem ; Vult esse medium, sc. se, He wishes to be neuter. Cic. 
Disce esse paler ; Hoc est esse patrem ? sc. eum. Ter. Id est, dominum, non impe- 
ratoremesse. Sallust. 

Obs. 1. (27) This rule implies nothing else but the agreement of 
an adjective with a substantive, or of one substantive with another; 
for those words in a sentence which refer to the same object, must al« 
ways agree together, how much soever disjoined. 

Obs. 2. (28) The verbs which most frequently have the same case 
after them as before them, are : 

1. Substantive and neuter verbs; as, Sum,fio,forem y and existo ; 
eo, venio, sto, sedeo, evddo, jaceo,fugio, &c. 

2. The passive of verbs of naming, judging, &c. as, Dicor, appellor, 
vocor, nomznor, nunciipor; to which add, videor, existimor, creor, con* 
stituor s saliitor, designor, &c. 



226 GOVERNMENT OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

(29) These and other like verbs admit after them only the nominative, accusa- 
tive, or dative. When they have before them the genitive, they have after them 
an accusative; as, Interest omnium esse bonos, sci). se, it is the interest of all to 
be good. In some cases we can use either the nom. or accus. promiscuously ; as, 
Cupio diet doctus or doctum, sc. me did ,* Cupio esse clemens, nonputari mendax ; 
vult esse medius. 

Obs. 3. (30) When any of the above verbs are placed between tw T o nomina- 
tives of different numbers, they commonly agree in number with the former; as 
Dos est decern talenta, Her dowry is ten talents. Ter. Omnia pontus erunt. Ovid. 
But sometimes with the latter ; as, Amantium irce amoris integratio est, The 
quarrels of lovers is a renewal of love. Ter. So when an adjective is applied to 
two substantives of different genders, it commonly agrees in gender with that 
substantive which is most the subject of discourse; as, Oppidum est appellatum 
Posidonia. Plin. Sometimes, however, the adjective agrees with the nearer 
substantive ; as, JSon omnis error stultitia est dicenda. Cic. 

Obs. 4. (31) When the infinitive of any verb, particularly the substantive verb 
esse, has the dative before it, governed by an Impersonal verb, or any other word, 
it may have after it either the dative or the accusative ; as, Licet mihi esse beato, 
1 may be happy ; or, licet mihi esse beatum, me being understood ; thus, licet mihi 
(me) esse beatum. The dative before esse is often to be supplied ; as, Licet esse 
beatum. One may be happy, scil. alicui, or homini. 

Obs. 5. (32) The poets use certain forms of expression, which are not to be 
imitated in prose ; as, Rettulit Ajax Jovis esse pronepos, for se esse pronepotem. 
Ovid. Met. xii. 141. Cum pateris sapiens emendatusque vocari, for te vocari sa- 
pientem, &c. Horat. Ep. 1. 16. 30. Acceptum refero versibus esse nocens. Ovid. 
Tutumque putdvitjam bonus esse socer. Lucan. 

GOVERNMENT. 
I. THE GOVERNMENT OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

VI. (33) One Substantive governs another in 
the genitive, (when the latter Substantive signifies 
a different thing from the former.) 

* (34) This rule might perhaps be better expressed, thus: 

The latter of two Substantives signifying dif- 
ferent things, is put in the Genitive, when it ex- 
presses the Possessor, Cause, or Source of the 
former ; as, 

Amor Dei, The love of God. Lex naturae, The law of nature. 

Domus CcBsaris, The house of Caesar, or Caesar's house. 

* (35) The Genitive has three senses. 1. It is used actively or denotes an 
action, — that one does any thing ; as, Victoria Ccesaris, ' the victory of Caesar. 7 
that is, which Cassar gains. 2. It is used possessively, denoting that the thing 
which is put in the Genitive has or possesses something ; as, liber patris, ( the 



GOVERNMENT OF SUBSTANTIVES. 227 

father's book/ ' the book which belongs to the father.' 3. It is used objectively, 
that is, denotes the object, whether person or thing, to which the action is di- 
rected ; as, amor mei, l love for me.' 

Obs. 1. (36) When one substantive is governed by another in the genitive, it 
expresses in general the relation of property or possession, and therefore is often 
elegantly turned into a possessive adjective ; as, Domus patris, or paterna f a fa- 
ther's house ; Filius heri or her'dis, a master's son ; and among the poets, Labor 
Herculeus, for Herculis ; Ensis Evandrius, for Evandri. 

* (37) The Genitive also sometimes follows substantives to denote their use 
or service ; as, abaci vasa, Cic. ' plate for the sideboard.' Apparatus urbium 
expugnandarum, Liv . ' Instruments for attacking cities.' 

Obs. 2. (38) When the substantive noun in the genitive signifies a person, it 
may be taken either in an active or a passive sense ; thus, Amor Dei, the love of 
God, either means the love of God towards us, or our love towards him : So 
caritas patris, signifies either the affection of a father to his children, or theirs to 
him. But often the substantive can only be taken either in an active or in a pas- 
sive sense ; thus, Timor Dei always implies Deus timetur ; and Providentia Dei, 
Deus providet. So, caritas ipsius soli, affection to the very soil. Liv. ii. 1. 

Obs. 3. (39) Both the former and latter substantive are sometimes to be un- 
derstood ; as, Hectbris Andromache, scil. uxor ; Venlum est ad Vesta?, scil. &dem 
or templum; Ventum est tria millia, scil. passuum ; three miles. 

* (40) The Latins often put an adjective instead of a genitive ; as, laus ali- 
ena, for alienorum, Cic. See (36) 

* (41) Instead of a genitive, verbal substantives are sometimes followed by 
the case which the verb, from which they are derived, governs; as, Quid tibi 
hanc curatio est rem? Plaut. for hujus rei, because curare governs an accusa- 
tive. So in Cic. Quodsi juslitia est obtemperatio scriptis legibus institutisque po- 
pulorum ; because obtemperare governs a dative. 

Obs. 4. (12) We find the dative often used after a verb for the genitive, par- 
ticularly among the poets; as, cui corpus porrigztur, whose body is extended. 
Virg. iEn. vi. 596. 

Obs. 5. (43) Some substantives are joined with certain prepositions; as, Ami- 
citia, inimicitia, pax, cum aliquo ; Amor in, vel erga, aliquem ; Gaudium de re ; 
Cura de aliquo ; Mentio illius, vel de ilio ; Quies ab armis ; Fumus ex incendiis ; 
Pr&dalor ex sociis, for sociorum. Sail. &c. 

Obs. 6. (44) The genitive in Latin is often rendered in English by several 
other particles besides of; as, Descensus Averni, the descent to A vermis; Pru- 
dentia juris, skill in the law. 

(45) SUBSTANTIVE PRONOUNS are governed in the geni- 
tive like substantive nouns ; as, pars mei, a part of me. 

(46) So also adjective pronouns, when used as substantives, or having a noun 
understood ; as, Liber ejus, illius, hujus, &c. the book of him, or his book, sc 
liominis ; the book of her, or her book, sc. fceiriinai. Libri edrum, or earum, 
their books ; Cujus liber, the book of whom, or whose book ; Quorum libri, whose 
books, &c. But we always say, meus liber, not mei: pater noster, not nostri ; 
suum jus, not sui. 



228 GOVERNMENT OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

(47) When a passive sense is expressed, we use mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri, 
nostrum, vestrum ; but we use their possessives when an active sense is express- 
ed ; as, Amor mei, The love of me, that is, The love wherewith I am loved ; 
Amor meus, My love, that is, the love wherewith I love. We find, however, 
the possessives sometimes used passively, and their primitives taken actively ; 
as, Odium tuum, Hatred of thee. Ter. Phorm. v. 8. 27. Labor mei, My labour. 
Plaut. 

(48) The possessives meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester, have sometimes nouns, 
pronouns, and participles after them in the geniiive ; as , Pectus luum hominis 
simplicis, Cic. Phil. ii. 43. Noster dubrum evenius. Li v. Tuum ipsius studium. 
Cic. Mea scripta, timentis, &c. Iior. Sclius meum peccdtum corrigi non potest. 
Cic. Id maxime quemque decet, quod est cujusque suum maxime. Id. *The rea- 
son of this is, because the adjective pronouns are equivalent to the genitive of 
the personal ; as, pectus tuum hominis is the same as pectus tui, hominis, &c. 
where hominis would agree in case with tui. 

(49) The reciprocals SUI and SUUS are used, when the action of the verb 
is reflected, as it were, upon the nominative ; as, Cato interfecit se, Miles defen- 
dit suam vitam ; Dicit se scripturum esse. We find, however, is or Me some- 
times used in examples of this kind ; as, Deum agnoscimus ex cperibus ejus. Cic. 
Persuddent Raurdcis, ut una cum Us proficiscantur, ibr una secum. Caes. See 
page 87. 

VII. (50) If the latter Substantive have an 
Adjective of praise or dispraise joined with it, 
they may be put in the genitive or ablative; as, 

Vir summa prudential, or summa prudentia, A man of great wisdom. 

Puer probes indolis, or proba indole, A boy of a good disposition. 

* (51) This Genitive or Ablative is called the GENITIVE or ABLATIVE of 
QUALITY, and the rule would have been better expressed by saying' an adjec- 
tive of description' instead of praise or dispraise. This Genitive or Ablative is used 
to express — 1. Property or character ; as, puer bonce indolis ; adolescens sum- 
ma virtute. 2. Form; as, mulier formce pulchrce, or egregia forma. 3. Worth, 
rank ; as, homo parvi pretii. 4. Power ; as, homo sui juris, ' a man at his own 
disposal,' 'one who is his own master.' 5. Weight ; as, lapis centum librarum. 
6. Time ; as, exilium decern annorum, ' a banishment of ten years.' 7. Length, 
Size, &c. ; as, testudo pedum stxaginta. 

Obs. 1 (52) The ablative here is not properly governed by the foregoing sub- 
stantive, but by some preposition understood ; as, cum, de, ex, in, &c. Thus, 
Vir summa, prudentia is the same with vir cum summa prudentia. 

Obs. 2. (53) In some phrases the genitive is only used ; as, Magni formica 
laboris, the laborious ant; Vir imi subsellii, homo minimi pretii, a person of the 
lowest rank. Homo nullius stipendii, a man of no experience in war, Sallust. 
Non multi cibi hospitem accipies, sed multijoci. Cic. Ager trium jugerum. In 
others only the ablative ; as, Es bono ammo, Be of good courage. Mira sum 
alacrildte ad litigandum. Cic. Capite aperto est, His head is bare ; obvoluto, co- 
vered. Capite et supercilio semper est rasis. Id. Mulier magno natu. Li v. 
Sometimes both are used in the same sentence ; as, Adolescens, eximia spe, sum- 
med virtutis. Cic. The ablative more frequently occurs in prose than the geni- 
tive. Qui nunquam cegro corpore fuerunt, Cic. 



GOVERNMENT OF SUBSTANTIVES. 229 

Obs. 3. (54) Sometimes the adjective agrees in case with the former substan- 
tive, and then the latter substantive is put in the ablative : thus, we say, either, 
Vir prcBslantis ingenii, or prcestanti ingenio ; or Vir prceslans ingenio, and some- 
times prcoslans ingenii. Among the poets the latter substantive is frequently 
put in the accusative by a Greek construction, secundum, or quad ad being un- 
derstood by the figure commonly called Synecdoche ; as, Miles fractus membra, 
i. e. fractus secundum or quod ad membra, or habens membra fracta. Horat. Os 
humerosque deo similis. Virg. 

Adjectives taken as Substantives. 

VIII. (55) An adjective in the neuter gender 
without a substantive governs the genitive; as, 

Multum pecuniae, Much money. Quid rei est ? What is the matter ? 

Obs. 1. (56) This manner of expression is more elegant than Multa pecunia, 
and therefore is much used by the best writers ; as, Plus eloquentice, minus sa- 
piential, tantum jidei, id negotii ; Quicquid erat patrum, reos dicer es. Li v. Id loci ; 
Ad hoc cetatis. Sallust. 

Obs. 2. (57) The adjectives which thus govern the genitive like substantives, 
generally signify quantity ; as, multum, plus, plurvnum, tantum, quantum, minus, 
minimum, <&c. To which add, hoc, illud, istud, id, quid, aliquid, quidvis, quid- 
dam, &c. Plus and quid almost always govern the genitive, and therefore by 
some are thought to be substantives. 

* (58) Tantum with the genitive always means 'so much,' 'so many:' but 
when it means 'so great,' it is always an adjective, and agrees with its 
substantive in gender, number, and case. Thus, tantus labor, ' so great a labour ; 
tantum laboris, ' so much labour ;' tantum negotium, ' so weighty a business ;' 
tantum negotii, ' so much business,' or ' trouble :' it is therefore incorrect to say 
that tantum laboris is put for tantus labor. So with quantum, * how much ;' as, 
quantum nogotium, * how great,' or ' how important a business ;' quantum negotii, 
' how much business,' or ' trouble.' 

Obs. 3. (59) Nihil, and these neuter pronouns quid, aliquid, &c. elegantly 
govern neuter adjectives of the first and second declension in the genitive ; as, 
nihil sinceri, no sincerity ; but seldom govern in this manner adjectives of the 
third declension, particularly those which end in is and e ; as, Nequid hostile 
timerent, not hosfdis: we find, however, quicquid civ'ilis. Li v. v. 3. 

Obs. 4. (60) Plural adjectives of the neuter gender also govern the genitive, 
commonly the genitive plural; as, Angusta viarum, Opaca locbrum, Telluris 
operta, loca being understood. So, Amara cur arum, acuta belli, sc. negotia. Horat. 
An adjective, indeed, of any gender may have a genitive after it, with a sub- 
stantive understood; as, Arnicas CcBsaris, P atria Ulyssis, &c. 

Opus and Usus. 

IX. (61) Opus and Usus, signifying need, re- 
quire the ablative ; as, 

Est opus pecunia, There is need of money ; Usus virzbus, Need of strength. 

U 



230 GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES* 

Obs. 1. (62) Opus and usus are substantive nouns, and do not govern the ab^ 
lative of themselves, but by some preposition, as pro or the like, understood. 
They sometimes also, although more rarely, govern the genitive ; as, Lectionis 
opus est. Quinct. Operce usus est. Liv. Temporis opus est. Liv. 

Obs. 2. (63) Opus is often construed like an indeclinable adjective ; as, Dux 
nobis opus est. We need a general. Cic. Dices nummos mihi opus esse. Id. 
Nobis exempla opus sunt. Id. 

* (64) Hence it is seen that opus is used in two ways ; 1. personally, that 
is, it has its subject with which it agrees in the Nominative, and is found in both 
numbers ; as, liber est mihi opus ; libri sunt mihi opus ; libri mihi opusfuerunt, &c. 
2. Impersonally, with est like other impersonal verbs, in which case it has its 
subject in the Ablative; as, Auctoritale tua nobis opus est. In both usages the 
person to whom something is necessary, is put in the Dative. 

Obs. 3. (65) Opus is elegantly joined with the perfect participle ; as, Opus 
maturato , need of haste ; Opus consulto, Need of deliberation ; Quid facto usus 
est? Ter. The participle has sometimes a substantive joined with it; as, Mihi 
opusfuit Hirtio convento, It behoved me to meet with Hirtius. Cic. 

Obs. 4. (66) Opus is sometimes joined with the infinitive, or the subjunctive 
with ut ; as, Siquid forte, sit, quod opus sit sciri. Cic. Nunc tibi opus est, ceuram 
ut te adsimules. Plaut. Sive opus est imperiiare equis. Horat. It is often placed 
absolutely, i. e. without depending on any other word ; as, sic opus est ; si opus 
sit, &c. 

II. THE GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 

1. Adjectives governing the Genitive, 

X. (67) Verbal adjectives, or such as signify 
an affection of the mind, govern the genitive ; as, 

Avidus glorice, Desirous of glory. Ignarus fraudis, Ignorant of fraud. 

Memorbeneficiorum, Mindful of favours. 

(68) To this rule belong, I. Verbal adjectives in AX ; as, capax, 
edax/ferax, tenax, pertinax, &c. and certain participial adjectives in 
NS and TUS ; as, amans, appetens, cupiens, insolens, sciens ; con- 
sultus, doctus, expertus, insuetus, insolitus, &c. II. Adjectives ex- 
pressing various affections of the mind ; 1. Desire, as, avdrus, cupi- 
dus, studiosus, &c. 2. Knowledge, ignorance, and doubting; as, 
callidus, certus, certior, conscius, gnarus, peritus, prudens, &c. Ig- 
narus, incertus, inscius, impnldens, imperitus, immemor, rudis ; 
ambiguus, dubius, suspensus, &c. 3. Care and diligence, and the 
contrary; as, anxius, curiosus, solicitus, providus, diligens ; incuri- 
osus, securus, negligens, &c. 4. Fear and confidence ; as, formido. 
losus, pavidus, timid us, trepidus ; impavidus, inter Titus, intrepidus 
5. Guilt and innocence ; as, noxius, reus, suspectus, compertus ,- in- 
noxius, innocens, insons. 



GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 231 

(69) To these add many adjectives of various significations; as, ceger ariimi; ar- 
dens, audax, aversus, diver sus, egregius, erectus,faLsus,felix,fessus,j'urens, ingens, 
integer , Icetus, prcestans animi ; modicus voti ; integer vitce ; seri studibrum. Hor. 
But we say, JEger pedibus, ardens in cupiditalibus, prcestans doctrina, modicus 
cultu; Lcetus negotio, dere, or propter rem, &c. and never eager pedum, &c. 

Obs. 1. (70) Verbals in NS are used both as adjectives and par- 
ticiples ; thus, patiens algoris, able to bear cold ; and patiens algo- 
rem, actually bearing cold. So, amans virtutis, and amans virtutem ; 
doctus grammatical, skilled in grammar ; doctus grammaticam, one 
who has learned it. 

Obs. 2. (71) Many of these adjectives vary their construction ; as, avidus in 
pecuniis. Cic. Avidior ad rem. Ter. Jure consultus and peritus, or juris. Cic. 
Rudis literdrum, injure civzli. Cic. Rudis arte, ad mala. Ovid. Doctus Lathie, 
Latinis Uteris. Cic. Assuelus labor e, in Omnia. Liv. Men see her tli. Virg. In- 
suetus moribus Romdnis, in the dat. Liv. Labdris, ad onera portanda. Caes. 
Desuetus bello et triumphis, in the dat. or abl. rather the dat. Virg. Anxius, 
solicitus, securus, de re aliqua ; dilviens, in, ad, de. Cic. JSegligens in aliquem, in 
or de re : Reus de vi, criminibus, Cic. Cerlior f actus de re, rather than rei. Cic. 

Obs. 3. (72) The genitive after these adjectives is thought to be governed by 
causa, in re, or in negotio, or some such word understood ; as, Cupidus laudis, 
i. e. causa or in re laudis, desirous of praise, that is, on account of, or in the mat- 
ter of praise. But many of the adjectives themselves may be supposed to con- 
tain, in their own signification, the lorce of a substantive ; thus, studiosus pecuniae, 
fond of money, is the same with habens studium pecunice, having a fondness for 
money. 

* (73) The following Adjectives are found with the Genitive Animi : Abjec* 
tior, Liv. AZger, Id. Amens, Virg. Anxius, Sail. Augustior, Apul. Aversus, 
Tac. Caucus, Quintil. Captus, Tac. Certus, Liv. Compos, Ter. Confidens, 
Sueton. Confirmdtus, Apul. Confusus, Liv. Credula spes, Hor. Ditior, StaL 
Diversus, Tac. and Ter. Diibius, Virg. Egregius, Id. Erectus, Sil. Exiguus, 
Claud. Eximius, Stat. Expletus, Apul. Externdtus, Id. Falsus, Ter. Ferox, 
Tac. Festinus, Apul. Fidens, Virg. Firmdtus, Sail. Furens, Virg. Plex, 
Apul. Impos, Plant. Infelix, Virg. Ingens, Tac. Insdnus, Apul. Integer, 
Hor. Lapsus, Plaut. Lassus, Id. Made, Mart. Miser, Plaut. Mutdtus, Apul. 
Prceceps, Virg. PrcEStans, Id. Recredtus, Apul. Stupenles, Liv. Suspensus, 
Apul. Tardus, Id. Tenella, Id. Territus, Liv. Turbdtus, Sil. Turbidus, Tac. 
Vagus, Catull. Vdlidus, Tac. Vecors, Apul. Versus. Tac. Victus, Virg. So 
Altemus ariimce, Si\. 

These are followed by the Genitive Ingenii : JEmiilus, Sil. Audax, Stat. 
Fervtdus, Sil. Lcetus, Veil. Versutus, Plin, 

These by Mentis : Diibius, Ovid. Integer, Hor. Mutdbile, Sil. Pares, Id. 
Potens, Ovid, Sdnus, Plaut. 

These by [rje. : Manifestus, Sail. Pervicax, Tac. Potens, Curt. Pulcher^ 
rimus, Sil. Viridissimus, Id. 

These by Militt^e : Acer, Tac. Impiger, Id. Ingldrius, Id. Lassus, Hor. 
Optimus, Sil. Strenuus, Tac. 

These by Belli : Expertus, Virg. Fessus, Stat. Medius, IJor, Promtus, 
Tac, Serus, Sil. Resides belldrum, Stat. 



232 GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 

These by Laboris : Anhelus, Sil. Insuetus, Cses. Invictus, Tac. Lcetus, 
Virg. Fortundtus laborum, Virg. Laudandus laborum, Sil. Xz&er laborum, 
Hor. 

These by Rerum : Fessus, Virg. Imperitus, Ter. Instabilis, Senec. Secors, 
Ter. Trepidi, Li v. et Sil. TJnicus, Sil. 

These by Fidei : Prcecldrus, Tac. Prdvus, Sil. Sinister, Id. 

These by iEvi : JEqudles, Sil. Floridior, Id. Maturus, Virg. Maximus, 
Sil. Memor, Virg. Validus, Aurel. Vict. 

These by Tui : Fidissima, Virg. Similis, Plaut. 

These by Sui : Mollior, Apul. Periclitdbundus, Id. Superior, Tac. 

These by Morum : Diversus, Tac. Exactus, Ovid. Fluxa, Sil. Gravis, 
Claud. Spernendus, Tac. 

So, Admirandus frugalitdtis, Senec. JEquus absentium, Tac. Alienus con- 
silii, Sail. Dignitatis, Cic. Jcci, Ovid. Pac?'5, Lucr. Ambiguus pudGris, Tac. 
Anxius furti, Ovid. Ardens Caedis, Stat. Argutus facinorum, Plaut. Assweft/s 
tumultiis, Liv. Airoz odii, Tac. Atlonitus serpentis, Sil. Avidus laudis, Cic. 
Renignus vini, Hor. Bibidns, Falerni, Id. Blandus precum, Stat. C<zcws iati, 
Lucan. Futuri, Stat. Callidus temporum, Tac. CaJus iegum, Auson. Ok? 
nandi, Sil. Certus destinatiGnis, Tac. Salutis, Ovid. Clambsus undae. Sil. 
Clarissimus disciplines, Veil. Commune omnium, Cic. Compos voti, Liv. Cow- 
terminus jugi. Apul. : cf. Sil. v. 511. Credulus adversi, Sil. Cumuldtissimus 
scelerum, Plaut. Cupidior salutis, Nep. Cup'idus rerum no varum, Sail. 
Damnandus facti, Sil. Deformis leti, Id. Degener artis, Ovid. Despectus taeda?, 
Sil. Devius aequi, Id. 7?ec^", Id. Disertits lepGrum, ac f acetiarum, Catull. Dis- 
bar sortis, Sil. Divlna futuri, Hor. Docilis modGrum, Id. Doctus virgae, Sil. Dubius 
fati, Sil. Sententice, Ovid. Dulcisswius fandi, Cell. Durus oris, Liv. Durior oris, 
Ovid. Effusissimus munif icentiae, Veil. Enuntiativi corporum, Senec. Erectus 
linguae, Sil. i^a/i, Stat. Exsors culpae, Liv. Secandi, Hor. Periculi, Ter. £;rwZ 
patriae, Hor. Mundi, Ovuf. Domus, Quintil. Extorris regni, Stat. Exutus for- 
mae, Sil. Facilis friigum, Claud. Fallax amicitiae, Tac. Falsus cupili, Sil. 
Fatigdtus spei, Apul. FeZ?'# cerebri, Hor. Operum, Sil. Fessus viae, Stat. Ma- 
ris et viarum, Hor. Salutis, Sil. Fldens armGrum, Lucan. Firmus propositi, 
Veil. Fldvus comarum, Sil. Formldolosior hostium, Tac. Frequens sylvae, 
Tac. Frustrdtus spei, Gell. Fugitlvus regni, Flor. Gaudens alti, Stat. Gra- 
tia metalli, Ovid. Impavidus somni, Sil. Improba connubii, Stat. Incautus 
futuri, Hor. Indecora formae, Tac. Indocilis pacis, Sil. Inexplebilis virtutis, 
Liv. lnfirmus corporis, Apul. Ingrains salutis, Virg. Innoxius consilii, Q. 
Curt. Insolens infamiae, Cic. Audiendi, Tac. Insvlitus servitii, Sail. Insons 
sanguinis, Ovid. Integer vltae, Hor. Urbis V. Flac. JFvi, Virg. Annbrum, 
Stat. Interrita leti, Ovid. Cupiti, Veil. Intrepidus ferri, Claud. Invictus ope- 
ris et laboris, Tac. lnvidus laudis, Cic. Laitus frugum, Sail. Lassus maris et 
viarum militiaeque, Hor. Lentus coepti, Sil. Levis opum, Id. Llberdlis pecu- 
niae, Sail. Lugendus formae, Sil. Madidus rGris, Apul. Manlfestus cnminis, 
Tac. Medius pacis, Hor. Fratris et sororis, Ovid. Melior lati, Sil. Modicus 
pecuniae, Tac. Voti, Pers. Onginis, Tac. Dignationis, Id. Virium, Veil. 
Voluptdtum, Tac. Munrficus auri, Claud. JSimius imperii, Liv. Sermbnis, 
Tac. Nbbilis fandi, Auson. Notus fugarum, Sil. Nudus arboris, Ovid. Occul- 
tus odii, Tac. Onusta remigum, Hirt. Otibsi studiGrum, Plin. Pares aelatis, 
Sil. Pavidus offensiGnum, Tac. Pa uper aquae, Hor. Perfida pacli, Sil. Pe- 
rinfdmes disci pllnae, Apul. Perltus juris legumque, Hor. PerUnax docendi, Id. 
Piger pericli, Sil. Polens lyrae, Hor. JEldlis, Sil. Voti, Ovid. Maris et terrae 
tempestatumque, Virg. Prcecipuus virtutis, Apul. Prcescia futuri, Virg. Prces- 
tans sapientiae, Tac. Procax Gtii, Tac. Profugus regni, Id. Properus occa- 



GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 233 

sicinis, Id. Prospera frugum, Hor. Pitrus sceleris, Id. Serpentum, Sil. Rectus 
judicii, Senec. RTidls literarum, Cic. Sdlicdus caedis, Ovid. Saucius famae, 
Apul. Scltus v ad Grum, Hor. Segnis occasiunum, Tac. Seri studiorum, Hor. 
Solers operum, Sil. Lyrce, Hor. Solulus, operum, Id. Spreta vigoris, Sil. 
Studiosissimus mei, Cic. Summits seventatis, Tac. Super sles dignitatis, Cic. 
Surdus ventatis, Col. Tardus fugae, V. Flac. Tenuis opum, Sil. Truncus pe- 
dum, Virg. V&fer juris, Ovid. Validus Grand i, Tac. Virium, Id. VShms veri, 
Virg. Venerandus senectas, Sil. Vitus regnandi, Tac. Vigil armenti, Sil. Utt~ 
lis medendi, Ovid. 

XI. (74) Partitives, and words placed par- 
titively, comparatives, superlatives, interroga- 
tives, and some numerals, govern the genitive 
plural; as, 

Aliquis philosophorum, Some one of the philosophers. 

Senior fratrum, The elder of the brothers. 

Doctissimus Romanorum. The most learned of the Romans. 

Quis nostrum. Which of us ? 

Una musarum, One of the muses. 

Octavus sapientum, The eighth of the wise men. 

(75) Adjectives are called Partitives, or are said to be placed 
partitively, when they signify a part of any number of persons or 
things, having after them in English, of or among ; as, alius, nullus, 
solus, &c. quis and qui, with their compounds : also Comparatives, 
Superlatives, and some numerals; as, unus, duo, tres ; primus, secun- 
dus, &c. To these add multi, pauci, plerique, medius, neuter, quo- 
tus, nounulla. 

* (76) If the substantive be a collective noun, the genitive sin- 
gular is used ; as, totius Grcecioz doctissimus. 

Obs. 1. (77) Partitives, &c. agree in gender with the substantives which they 
have after them in the genitive; but when there are two Lubstantives of dif- 
ferent genders, the partitive, &c. rather agrees with the former; as, Indus flumi- 
nummaximus. Cic. Rarely with the latter; as, DelpJiinus animalium velocissi- 
mum. Plin. The genitive here is governed by ex nume.ro, or by the same sub- 
stantive understood in the singular number; as, Nulla sororum, scil. soror or tx 
numero sororum. 

Obs. 2. (78) Partitives, &c. are often otherwise construed with the prepositions 
de, e, ex, or in ; as, Unusde fralribus ; or by the poets, with ante or inter ; as, 
Pidcherranus ante omnes, for omnium. Virg. Primus inter omnes. Id. 

Obs. 3. (79) Partitives, &c- govern collective nouns in the genitive singular, 
and are of the same gender with the individuals of which the collective noun is 
composed; as, Virfortissimus nostra*, civitatis. Cic. Maximus stirpis. Liv, U ta- 
mos orbis Britannos. Horat. Od. i. 35, 29. 

Obs. 4. (80) Comparatives are used when we speak of two ; Superlatives 
when we speak of more than two; as, Major fratrum, The elder of the bro- 
thers, meaning two ; Maximus fratrum, the eldest of the brothers, meaning more 

u2 



234 GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 

than two. In like manner, uter, alter, neuter, are applied with regard to two ; 
quis, unus, alius, nullus, with regard to three or more ; as, Uter vestrum, Whether 
or which of you two ; Quis vestrum, Which of you three ; but these are some- 
times taken promiscuously, the one for the other. 

* (81) [The Dative, when compared with the Accusative (which 
is the immediate object) may be defined to be the case of'the re- 
mote object. It answers to the question to whom? or for whom or 
what] to what end 1 to whose advantage or disadvantage] The ac- 
tive Verb with the Accusative expresses the amount of the action done 
to the object, which object is put in the Dative. Thus in the expres- 
sion, narras fabulam surdo, 'you are telling- a story to a deaf person,' 
the two terms narras fabulam (the active Verb with the Accusative) 
are required to express the amount of what is done, surdo, ' to the 
deaf person.' 

* (82) But the Dative according to our English idiom must fre- 
quently be translated by from or of, instead of to or for. Thus, 
Brutus percussit pectus Ccesari, ' Brutus struck the breast of Caesar ;' 
here the two terms percussit pectus are requisite to express the action 
done to the object, which object the Latins elegantly put in the Da- 
tive, Ccesari, ' to Caesar,' instead of the Genitive to be governed by 
pectus. Thus in Livy, I. 1. line 2d, the reading should be JEnece 
Antenorique, according to all the manuscripts : but in the school edi- 
tions and even in Drackenborch the reading is JEnea Antenoreque, 
probably, because the ablative could more easily be construed after 
abstinuisse by the common rule of Syntax, " A preposition in Com- 
position," &c. It is here stated by Livy that the Greeks abstinuisse 
omne jus belli l withheld every right of war.' To whom did the 
Greeks Jo this] to two persons, JEneas and Antenor. The English 
idiom indeed states the persons from whom every right of war was 
withheld, but the Latin idiom, with no less elegance, states the per- 
sons to whom this act of withholding was done.] 

2. Adjectives governing the Dative. 

XII. (83) Adjectives signifying profit or dis- 
profit, likeness or unlikeness, &c. govern the 
dative ; as, 

Utilis hello, Profitable for war. 

Pernicidsus reipublica?, Hurtful to the commonwealth. 

Similis patri, Like to his father. 

Or thus, Any adjective may govern the dative in Latin, which has 
the signs TO or FOR after it in English. 



GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 235 

To this rule belong : 

1. (84) Adjectives of profit or disprofit ; as, Benignus, bonus, commodus,faus- 
tus,felix,friicludsus, prosper, saluber, utilis. — Calamitosus, damnosus, dims, exi- 
tiosus,funestus, incommodus,malus, noxius, perniciosus pestifer. 

2. Of pleasure or pain ; as, Acceptus, dulcis, gratus, gratiosus,jucundus, latus, 
suavis. — Acerbus, amarus, insudvis, injucundus, ingrdlus, moleslus, tristis. 

3. Of friendship or hatred ; as, Addictus, cequus, amicus, benevvlus, blandus, 
carus, deditus, jidus, jidelis, lenis, mills, propitius. — Adversus, cemulus, asper, 
crudelis, contrarius, infensus, infestus, infidus, immitis, inimicus, inlquus, invl- 
sus, invidus, irrdtus, odiosus, suspectus, trux. 

4. Of clearness or obscurity ; as, Apertus, cerlus, compertus, conspicuus, mani- 
festus, notus, perspicuus. — Ambiguus, dubius, ignotus, incertus, obscurus. 

5. Of nearness; as, Finitimus, proprior, proximus, propinquus, socius, vicinus. 

6. Of fitness or unfitness ; as, Aptus, appositus, accommoddtus, habtlis, idoneus y 
opportunus. — Ineplus, inliabilis imporlunus, inconveniens. 

7. Of ease or difficulty; as, Facilis levis, obvius, pervius. — Difficilis, arduus, 
gravis, laboribsus, periculosus, invius. To these add such as signify propensity 
or readiness ; as, Pronus, procl'ivis, propensus, promptus, pardtus. 

8. Of equality, or inequality ; as, JEqudlis, cequcevus, par, compar, suppar. — Ine- 
qudlis, impar, dispar, discors. Also of likeness or unlikeness ; as, Similis, cemu- 
lus, geminus. — Dissimilis, absonus, alienus, diversus, discolor. 

9. Several adjectives compounded with CON ; as, Cogndtus, concolor, concors, 
confinis, congruus, consanguineus, consentaneus, consonus, conveniens, coniiguus, 
continuus, continens, contiguous; as, Mari aer confinens est. Cic. 

To these add many other adjectives of various significations; as, obnoxius, sub- 
jectus, supplex, credulus, absurdus, decorus, deformis, prcesto, indecl. at hand, se- 
cundus, &c. — particularly 

*(85) Passive Participles, and Verbal Adjectives in Bilis govern 
the Dative; as, 

Amandus or amabilis omnibus, To be loved by all men. 

So Mors est terribilis malis ; Optalnlis omnibus pax ; Adhibenda est nobis dili- 
gentia. Cic. Semel omnibus calcanda est via lelhi. Hor. Bella matribus dettstdla, 
4 Wars hated by mothers.' Hor. 

(86) Verbals in dus are often construed with the prep, a ; as, Deus est vene- 
randus et colendus a nobis. Cic. Perfect Participles are usually so; as, Mors 
Crassi est a multis defiela, rather than mollis dejieta. Cic. A te invildius, rogd- 
tus, proditus, <fcc. hardly ever libi. 

* (87) Exosus Perosus, and PertcBsus, signifying actively, go- 
vern an Accusative ; as, 

Exosus Trojdnos, Virg. Lucemperosi, Virg. Pert&sus ignaviam suam, Sueton. 



236 GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 

Obs. 1. (88) The dative is properly not governed by adjectives, nor 
by any other part of speech ; but put after them, to express the object 
to which their signification refers. 

The particle to in English is often to be supplied ; as, Similis patri, 
Like his father, to being understood. 

Obs. 2. (89) Substantives have likewise sometimes a dative after 
them ; as, Ille est pater, dux, or Jilius mihi, He is father, leader, or 
son to me ; so, Prcesidium reis, decus amlcis, &c. Hor. Exitium 
pecori. Virg. Virtutibus hostis, Cic. Auctor tibi sum, ' I advise 
thee.' 

Obs. 3. (90) The following adjectives have sometimes the dative 
after them, and sometimes the genitive : Afflnis, similis, communis, 
par, proprius, jinitimus, fidus, conterminus, superstes, conscius, 
(Bqudlis, contrarius, and adversus ; as, Similis tibi, or tui; Superstes 
patri, or patr is ; Conscius facinori, or facinor is. Conscius and some 
others frequently govern both the genitive and dative ; as, Mens sibi 
conscia recti. We say, Similes, dissimiles, pares, dispares, cequales, 
communes, inter se : Par and communis cum aliquo. Civitas secum 
ipsa discors 3 - discordes ad alia. Liv. 

Obs. 4. (91) Adjectives signifying usefulness, or fitness, and the 
contrary, have after them the dative or the accusative with a pre- 
position ; as, 

Utilis, inulilis, aptus, ineplus, natus, commodus, vehemens, accommoddtus, ido- 
neus, habilis, inhabilis, opportunus, conveniens, &e. allicui rei, or ad aliquid. 
Many other adjectives governing the dative are likewise construed with preposi- 
tions ; as, attentus qucesltis, Hor. Attentus ad rem. Ter. 

Obs. 5. (92) Of adjectives which denote friendship or hatred, or any other af- 
fection of the mind towards any one. I. Some are usually construed with the 
dative only ; as, Affabilis, arrogans, asper, cams, difficilis, jidelis, invlsus, iratus, 
offensus, suspectus, alicui. II. Some with the preposition in and the accusative; 
as, Acerbus, animatus, beneficus, gratiosus, injuridsus, liherdlis, me.ndax, misefi- 
cors, officio sus, plus, impius, prolixus, severus, sordidus, towns, vehemens, in ali- 
quem. III. Some either with the dative, or with the accus. and the preposition 
in, erga, or adversus, going before; as, Contumax, criminosus, durus, exitiabi- 
lis, gravis, hospitalis, implacab y dis, (and perhaps also inexorabilis and intolerabilis) 
imquus, scevus, altcui or in aliquem. Benevolus, benignus, moleslus, alicui or 
erga ALiauEM. Mitis, comis ; in or erga aliquem and alicui. Pervicax AD- 
VERSUS ALiauEM. Crudelis, in aliquem, seldom alicui. Amicus, cemulus, in- 
fensus, infestus, alicui, seldom in aliquem. Gratus alicui, or in, erga, adver- 
sus aliquem. We say alienus alicui or alicujus ; but oftener ab aliquo, and 
sometimes aliquo without the preposition. 

(93) AUDIENS is construed with two datives; as, Regi dicto audiens erat, he 
was obedient to the king ; not regis ; Dicto audiens fuit jus sis magistratuum. Nep. 
Nobis dicto audientes sunt, not dictis. Cic. 

Obs. 6. (94) Adjectives signifying motion or tendency to a thing, 



GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 237 

have usually after them the accusative with the preposition ad or in, 
seldom the dative ; as, 

Pronus, propensus, proclivis, celer, tardus, piger, tyc. ad iram, or in iram. 

Obs. 7. (95) Propior and proxlmus, in imitation of their primi- 
tive prope, often govern the accusative; as, Vroprior mon tern, sci\. 
ad. Sail. Proxvmusfinem. Li v. 

Obs. 8. (96) IDEM sometimes has the dative, chiefly in the poets; as, Invi- 
turn qui servat, idem facit occidenti. Hor. Jupiter omnibus idem. Virg. Eadem 
Mis censemus. Cic. But in prose we commonly find, idem, qui, et, ac, atque, and 
also ut, cum ; as, Peripatetici, quondam iidem erant qui Academici. Cic. Est ani- 
mus erga te, idem acfuit. Ter. Didnam et Lunam eande.ni esse putant. Cic. Idem 
faciunt, ut, &c. In eddem loco mecum. Cic. But it would be improper to say of 
the same person or thing under different names, idem cum ; as, Luna eadem est 
cum Diana. 

We likewise say, alius ac, atque, or et ; and sometimes similis and par. 
3. Adjectives governing the Ablative. 

XIII. (97) These adjectives, d£gnu$ r indi0mi$ 9 
contentus, prceditus, captus, andfretus; also natus, 
satus, ortus, editus, and the like, govern the abla- 
tive; as, 

Dignus honore, Worthy of honour. Fretus viribus, Trusting to his 

Contentus parvo, Content with little. strength. 

Prceditus virlute, Endued with virtue. Ortus regions, Descended of kings. 

Captus oculis. Blind. 

So generdtus, credtus, progndlus, oriundus, procredtus regibus. 

Obs. 1. (98) The ablative after these adjectives is governed by some prepo- 
sition understood ; as, Contentus parvo, scif. cum ; Fretus viribus, scil. in, &c. 
Sometimes the preposition is expressed; as, Ortus ex concublna. Sallust. Edi- 
tus de nympha. Ovid, and extorris. 

* Obs. 2. (99) Dignus, indignus, contentus, and extorris have sometimes the Ge- 
nitive after them; as, carrrClna digna deoe, Ovid. Indignus av5rum,V'irg, Ait- 
gusti clavi contentus, Paterc. Extorris regni, Stat. 

* (100) Made, the vocative of the adjective mactus, (that is, magis 
aucJus, ■ more increased,') and, by an Atticism, put for the nominative, also go- 
verns an Ablative, ft was anciently used in the nominative : afterwards the 
vocative came into general use from its denoting a wish for a person's success, 
and having the force of a prayer that he might be encouraged to proceed in his 
virtuous course. Thus, juberem macte virtute esse, Liv. 'I should wish thee 
success in thy valour.' It is also followed by a Genitive ; as, macte eslo virtutis, 
' increase in merit,' ' go on and prosper.' When used in the plural it admits only 
the ablative; as, Macti virtute mil ites Romani este, Liv, It is also used without 
a case ; as, macte ! Cic, ' O excellent!' 



238 GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 

4. Adjectives governing the Genitive or Ablative, 

XIV. (101) Adjectives of plenty or want go- 
vern the genitive or ablative ; as, 

Plenus iras, or ira, Full of anger, lnops rationis or ratidne, Void of reason. 

So Non inopes temporis, sed prodigi sumus. Sen. Lentulus non verbis inops. 
Cic. Dei plena sunt omnia. Cic. Maxima quceque domus servis est plena su- 
perbis. Juv. Res est sol iciti plena timoris amor. Ovid. Amor et melle et felle est 
fcecundissimus. Plaut. Fcecunda virdrum pauperias fugitur. Lucan. Omnium 
consilidrumejus parficeps. Curt. Homo ratidne particeps. Cic. Nihil insidiis 
vacuum. Id. Vacuas cadis habete manus. Ovid. 

(102) Some of these adjectives are construed, 1. with the genitive only; as, 
Benignus, exsors, impos, impotens, irrdus, liberalis, munificus, prcelargus. 

2. (103) With the ablative only ; Beatus, differtus, fruglfer, mutilus, tentus, 
distentus, tumidus, turgidus. 

3. (104) With the genitive more frequently ; Compos, consors, egenus, ex- 
hceres, expers,fertilis, indigus, parous, pauper, prodigus, sterilis, 

4. (lOo) With the ablative more frequently ; Abundans, cassus, extorris, foe- 
tus, frequens, gravis, gravidus, jejunus, liber, locuples, nudus, oneratus, onustus, 
orbus, pollens, solutus, truncus, viduus, and captus. 

5. (106) With both promiscuously ; Copiosus, dives, fcscundus ferax, immu- 
nis, inanis, inops, largus, modicus, immodScus, nimius, opulerdus, plenus, potens, 
refertus, salur, vacuus, uber. 

6. (107) With a preposition ; as, Copiosus, firmus, paratus, imparatus, inops, 
tnstructus, a re aliqua ; for quod ad rem aliquam attinet, in or with respect to any 
thing. ExU-rris ab solo patrio, banished ; Orba ab optimatibus concio. Liv, So 
pauper, tenuis, fcecundus, modicus, parous, in re aliqua. Immunis, inanis, liber, 
nudus, solutus, vacuus, a re aliqua. Potens ad rem, and in re. 

III. THE GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 

$ 1. VERBS GOVERNING ONLY ONE CASE. 

1. Verbs which govern the Genitive. 

XV. (108) Sum, when it signifies possession, 
property, or duty, governs the genitive ;■* as, 

* Sum never signifies possession, property, or duty. The rule 
would be much better thus, 

[Est takes a Genitive after it when the Latin 
word signifying Possession, Property, Duty, Cus- 
tom, or the like, is understood between them.] 



GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 239 

jEst regis pumre rebelles, 'It belongs to the king to punish rebels.' Militum 
est suo duci parere, * It is the duty of soldiers to obey their general.' 

* (109) To this rule may be referred the following and similar expressions. 
Suadere principi quod oporteat, multi laboris (est.) Tac. Grates persolvere dig- 
nas, Non opis est nostrce. Virg. Est hoc Galileo? consueludmis. Caes. Moris an- 
tiqui fuit. Plin. Est moris, ' it is usual or customary.' Sometimes the preced- 
ing word is to be repeated ; as, hcec mulier est (mulier) egregice formce. Nep. 
Hoc pec us est (pecus) Melibcei. Virg. To the same rule may be referred a com- 
mon elliptical form of writing, according to which the participle in dus with its 
substantive is subjoined to the verb sum ; as, Quce res evertendce reipublica soleni 
esse. Cic. Regium imperium quod initio conservandcB liberlatis, et augendce ret- 
publiccB fuerat. Sail. Some supply the ellipsis by inslrumentum, others by causat 
ergo, &c. 

* (110) These neuter nominatives Meum, Tuum, Suum, Nor- 
trum, Vestrum, Humanum, Romanum, &c. are excepted ; as, tuum 
est, » it is thy duty.' Romanum est, • it is the part of a Roman.' Hu- 
manum est err are, 

Obs. 1. (Ill) These possessive pronouns are used in the neuter 
gender instead of their substantives, mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri. Other 
possessives are also construed in this manner; as, Est regium, est hu- 
mdnum, the same with est regis, est homlnis. Et facere et pati 
fortia, Romanum est. Liv. ii. 12. 

Obs. 2. (112) Here some substantives must be understood ; as, qfficium, mu- 
nus, res, negoiium, opus, &c. which are sometimes expressed; as, Munus est 
principum ; Tuum est hoc munus. Cic. NeuViquam officium liberi esse hominis 
puto. Ter. In some cases the preceding substantive may be repeated ; as, Hie 
liber est (liber) fratris. In like manner, some substantive must be supplied in 
such expressions as these : Ea sunt modo gloriosa, neque patrandi belli, scil. 
causa or facta. Sail. Nihil tarn aquanda liberlatis est, for ad cequandam liber- 
tatem perfinet. Liv. 

Obs. 3. (113) We say, Hoc est tuum munus, or tui muneris ; 
So mos est or fuit, or moris, or in more. Cic. 

XVI. (114) Misereor, miser esco and satago go- 
vern the genitive ; as, 

Miserere civium tubrum, Pity your countrymen. 

~ ^ ., _ ( He has his hands full at home, or has 

Satagit rerum suarum, J enough {0 do about hig Qwn affajrg 

Obs. 1. (115) Several other verbs amon£ the poets govern the genitive by a 
Greek construction, particularly such as signify some affection of the mind ; as, 
Ango, decipiur, desipio, discrucior, excrucio, fallo an6faUor,fastidio, invideo, Lcetor, 
miror, pendeo, sludeo, vereor ; as, Ne augas te aiiimi, Plaut. Labdrum decipitur. 
Hor. Discrucior animi. Ter. Pendet mi hi animus, pendeo animi vol. animo ; 
but we always say, Pendemus aiiimis, not animorum, are in suspense. Cic. Jus- 
titiosprius mirer. Virg. In like manner, Abstineo, desino, desisto, quiesco, regno: 
likewise, adipiscor, condlco, credo, frustror, furo, laudo, libero, levo, participo, 
prohibeo ; as, Absfinelo irarum ; Deslne quereldrum ; Regnavit populorum. Hor. 
Desist e re pugnce. Virg. Quarum rerum condixit. Liv. 



240 GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 

(116) But all these verbs are for the most part differently construed ; thus, 
Angor, desipio, discrucior ', fallor ; ammo. Hoc aiiimum meum excruciat Fasti- 
dio, miror, vereor, aliquem, or aliquid. Lcstor aliqua re. Some of them are join- 
ed with the infinitive ; or with quod, ut, ne, and the subjunctive. 

(117) In like manner we usually say, Desino aliquid, and ah aliquo, to give 
over ; Desisto incepto, de negotio, ah ilia mente ; Quiesco a labbre ; Regndre in 
equitibus, oppidis, sc.ZTi.Cic. Per urbes. Virg. Adipisci id; Frustrari in re ; 
Fur ere de aliquo. Cic. 

Obs. 2. (118) The genitive after verbs, in the same manner as after adjectives, 
is governed by snme substantive understood. This substantive is different ac- 
cording to the different meaning of the verbs; thus, Misereor fratris, scil. causa ; 
Angor animi, scil. dolbre or anxietdte. 

2. Verbs governing the Dative. 

XVII. (119) Any verb may govern the dative 
in Latin, which has the signs TO or FOR after it 
in English;* as, 

Finis venit imperio, An end has come to the empire. Liv. 

Animus redit hostibus, Courage returns to the enemy. Id. 

Tibi seris, tibi metis, You sow for yourself, you reap for yourself. Plaut 

Non omnibus dormio, I do not sleep for all, that is, to please all. 

So, Non nobis solum nati sumus. Cic. Multa male eveniunt bonis. Id. Sol 
lucet etiam scelerdtis. Sen. Hozret laieri lethdlis arundo. Virg. 

But as the dative after verbs in Latin is not always rendered in English by to 
or for ; nor are these particles always the sign of the dative in Latin, it will be 
necessary to be more particular. 

1. (120) Sum and its compounds govern the dative (except pos- 
sum); as, 

Prcefuit exercitui, He commanded the army= 

Adfuit precibus, He was present at prayers. 

* (121) EST taken for Habeo, 'to have,' requires the Dative of 
the possessor and a nominative of the thing possessed ; as, 

Est mihi liber, A book is to me, that is, L have a book. 

Sunt mihi libri, Books are to me, i. e. 1 have books. 

Dico libros esse mihi, I say that 1 have books. 

* This rule might be better expressed thus : 

"The Dative follows many verbs in answer to 
the question, to or for whom, or what? whereunto ? 
for whose enjoyment, advantage, injury? &c, to 
please whom? for whom? &c." 



GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 241 

This is more frequently used than habeo librum ; habeo libros. In 
like manner deest instead of careo ; as, Liber deest mihi, 1 want a 
book ; Libri desunt mihi ; Scio libros deesse mihi, &c. 

* (122) To this rule may be added suppetit, suppeditat, used in a 
neuter sense* and foret, and the verbs of a contrary signification, deest, 
deforet, and defit, used for careo, or non habeo ; as, Pauper enim non 
est cui rerum suppetit usus, Hor. So, Defuit ars vobis, Ovid. Lac 
mihi non defit, Virg. 

* (123) The dative is often understood ; as, Sit spes fallendi, mis- 
cebis sacra profanis, Hor. that is, sit spes tibi. 

II. (124) Verbs compounded with satis, bene, and male, govern 
the dative ; as, 

Satisfacio, salisdo, benefacio, benedico, benevolo, malefacio, maledico, tibi, &c. 

III. (125) Many verbs compounded with these eleven prepositions, 
Ad, ante, con, in, inter, ob, post, pr^e, pro, sub, and super, govern 
the dative ; as, 

1. Accedo, accresco, accumbo, acquiesco, adno, adnata, adequito, adhcereo, adsto, 
adstipulor, advolvor, affulgeo, allabor, allabdro, annuo, appareo, applaudo, appro- 
pinquo, arrideo, aspiro, assentior, assideo, assisto, assuesco, assurgo. 

2. Antecello, anteeo, antesto, anteverto. 

3. Colludo, concino, consono, convlvo, 

4. Incumbo, indormio, indubito, inhio, ingemisco, inhcereo, insideo, insideor, inslo 
insisto, insudo, insulto, invigilo, illacrymo, illudo, immineo, immorior, immoror 
impendeo. 

5. Intervenio, interrriico, intercedo, intercido, interjaceo. 

6. Obrlpo, obluctor, obtrecto, obstrepo, obmurmuro, occumbo, occurro, occurso, 
obsto, obsisto, obvenio. 

7. Postfero, posthabeo, postpono, postputo, poslcribo ; with an accusative. 

8. Prcecldo, prcecurro, prceeo, prcesideo, prcduceo, prceniteo, prcesto, prcevaleo, 
prceverto. 

9. Propono, provideo, prospicio. 

10. Succedo, succumbo, sufficio, suffragor, subcresco, suboleo, subjacio, subrepo. 

11. Supervenio, supercurro, supersto. But most verbs compounded with super 
govern the accusative. 

IV. (126) Verbs govern the dative, which signify, 

1. To profit or hurt; as, 

Prqficio, prosum, placeo, commodo, prospicio, caveo, metuo, timeo, consiilo, for 
prospicio. Likewise, Noceo, officio, incommodo, displiceo, insidior. 

2. To favour or assist, and the contrary ; as, 

Faveo, gratulor, gratificor, grator, ignosco, indulgeo, parco, adulor, plaudo, 
blandior, lenocinor ; palpor -, assentor, subparasitor. Likewise, Auxilior, adminicu- 

X 



242 GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 

lor, subveneo, succurro, patrocinor, medeor, medicor, opitulor. Likewise, Derogo^ 
deiraho, invideo, cemulor. 

3. To command and obey, to serve and resist ; as, 

Impero, proecipio, mando ; moderor, for rrwdum adhibeo. Likewise, Pareo, aus- 
culto, obedio, obsequor, oblempero, morem gero* morigeror, obsecundo* Likewise, 
Famulor, servio, inservio, ministro, ancillor. Likewise, Repugno, obsto, reluctor, 
renllor, resisto, refragor, adversor. 

4. To threaten and to be angry ; as, 
Minor, comminor, inlerminor, irascor, succenseo. 

5. To trust ; as, Fido, confido, credo, dijfido. 

To these add Nubo, excello, hcBreo, suppllco, cedo, despero, operor, prcestolor? 
prcevaricor ; recipio $ to promise ; renuncio ; respondeo, to answer or satisfy ; tem- 
dero, studeo ; vaco, to apply ; convicior. 

Exc. (127) Jubeo, juvo, Icedo, and qffendo, govern the accusative. 

Obs. 1. (128) Verbs governing the dative only, are either neuter 
verbs, or of a neuter signification. Active verbs governing the dative 
have also an accusative expressed or understood. 

Obs. 2. (129) Most verbs governing the dative only have been enumerated, 
because there are a great many verbs compounded with prepositions, which do 
not govern the dative, but are otherwise construed ; and still more signifying ad- 
vantage or disadvantage, <fcc. which govern the accusative ; as, Levo, erigo, alo ? 
nutrio, amo, diligo, vexo, crucio, aversor, &c. aliquem, not alicui. 

* Obs. 3. (130) Very many verbs which govern 
the dative are variously construed, still preserving 
the same, or nearly the same significations ; as, 

Abdicare : abdicare magistratum, ' to abdicate the magistracy ;' abdicare se 
consulatu, Liv. ' to depose one's self from the consulship.' 

Acquieseere, rei, or re, or in re, ' to approve of any thing,' ' to be satisfied 
with any thing.' 

Adsuescere, ' to be accustomed,' ' to accustom one's self to anything;' alicui, 
Liv. 1. 19. — ad ALiauiD, Cass. — aliqua re, Liv. 3], 35. 

Adjacere, ' to lie next to,' ' to adjoin.' Tuscus ager, Romano adjacet, Liv. 2. 
49. adjacet mare, J\ep. Timoth. 

Adspirare, ' to favour.' Adspirat primo fortuna laeori, Virg. 2. 385. 'fortune 
favours the first exertion ;' ad eum, Cels. , 

Adhaerere, ' to adhere to any thing ;' alicui, or aliquem, or ad aliquem. 

Adflare, ' to breathe upon ;' rei or rem. 

Adferre vim alicui, ' to do violence to any one.' 

Adsideo, 'to sit by something,' with a Dative, Cic. Plane. 11. with an Accu- 
sative, Virg. J£n. 11. 304. 



GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 243 

Ad vol are, * to fly up to,' ei, or ad eum. 

Adscribere, ' to admit,' ' to enrol as a citizen ;' civitati, or in civitate?n, Cic. 
Arch. 4. or in civitate, Ibid. 

Advolvi genibus, or genua, or ad genua, ■ to fall at one's knees.' 

Adversari, 'To be against,' ' to oppose,' is always followed by a Dative. With 
an Accusative it occurs in Tacitus, but the best editors substitute aversari in all 
such instances. 

Adspergere alicui aliquid, ' to sprinkle any thing on one.' 

Adnare navibus, or naves, or ad naves, ' to swim to the ships.' 

Ad u lor, • to flatter,' ' to caress.' Adulari plebi Li v. 3. 69.— adulari mines, Cic. 
adulari Neronem, Tac. Ann. 

Allatrare alicui, or aliquem, ' to bark at any one.' The Accusative is more 
usual. 

Antecedere, * to excel;' antecedere belluis, Cic. Off antecedere eum, Neo. 
Ale. 9, r 

Antecellere alicui or aliquem, ' to excel any one.' 

Antepollere, ' to excel,' alicui, or aliquem. 

Anteire, « to go before,' ' to excel.' Virtus omnibus rebus anteit, Plaut. An- 
ieire ceteros, Cic. 

Antestare or antistare, * to stand before,' ' to be more eminent,' ' to excel,' ali* 
cui or aliquem. 

Antevenire, 'to come before;' antevenlre exercitum, Sail, 'to excel;' omnibus 
rebus antevenire, Plaut. 

Antevertere, * to come before;:' minor, ubi,nmc anteverterim, Terent. 'I won- 
der how I have come before him.' Veneno damnationem antevertit, * he antici- 
pated his condemnation by poison.' 

Apparere consuli, ' to attend ;' ad solium Jovis. Res apparet mihi. 

Appropinquate, BrittanicB, or portam, or ad p or tarn. 

Circumfundi alicui, ' to be put around any thing;' circumfusa lateri meo 
iurba, 'the multitude which surrounded my side,' for turba fusa circum lotus 
meum. So, circumjecta multitudine homznum totis moenzbus, ' when a multitude 
of men entirely surrounded the walls,' for multitudine hominum jacta circum tola, 
maznia. 

Circumdare aliquid alicui rei, ' to put one thing round another;' circumdare 
aliquid re, ' to surround one thing with another.' 

Congruere, ' to agree,' alicui, or cum re aliqua, or inter se. 

Confidere rei or re, ' to trust to any thing,' * to confide in.' Also with de when 
it means about ; as, de salute urbis confidere, Cass. ' to have confidence about the 
safety of the city.' 

Curare, ' to take care of,' ' to care for,' is commonly followed by an Accusa- 
tive ; as, euro kanc rem. Yet it is also joined to a Dative ; as, Quia tuo cibo curas, 
Plaut. 

Deflcere, ' to fail,' commonly with an Accusative ; as, tempus te deficeret, Cic. 
'time would fail thee;' sometimes also the Dative; as, tela nostris deficerent, 
Caes. B. G. 3. 5. ' our weapons failed us.' 

Desperare, ' to despair of any thing,' ' to have no more hope.' Sibi desperans t 
Css. ' despairing on his own account.' Also with an Accusative ; as, ut hono* 



244 GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 

rem desperasse videatur, Cic. We find also, desperate de aliqua re, Cic. The 
reason why despero governs an Accusative, seems to be, that Spero also governs 
one. 
Dominari, ' to rule over ;' cunctis oris, Virg. in Ccetera animalia, Ovid. 

Excellere aliis, 'to excel others,' or inter alios, ' among others,' or super alios f 
' beyond others.' 

Fid ere alicui rei, or aliqiia re, or in aliqua re. 

Habitare in loco, ' to dwell in a place ;' locum, * to inhabit a place.' 

Ignoscere mihi, or culpa mem, or mihi culpam, ' to pardon me,' or ' pardon my 
fault.' 

Impendere alicui * to hang over any one ;' or aliquem, or inaliquem. 

Tmpertire, 'to impart anything to any one;' laudem alicui impertlri. Imper- 
fire aliquem osculo. 

Tncessit timor ei or eum, ' fear seizes him.' 

Illudere, ' to make sport of Illudere auctoritati, Cic. Uludere prcecepta, Ibid. 
In ?ws illudere, Terent. 

Insilire, ' to spring upon,' with a Dative,. Ovid ; an Accusative, Hor.; and also 
with in and an Accusative, Caes. 

Insultare, ' to leap upon,' hence ' to insult ;' insultare solo > Virg. ' to stamp on 
the ground.' Insultare aliquem, Sail. 

Incumbere, 'to fall upon ;' toro ; gladium, or in gladium. 

Incidere, ' to engrave,' rei, or in rem, or in re. 

Indulgere alicui, or id ei. 

Inhiare, ' to gape after,' ' to desire much ;' inhiare auro. Inhiare bona ejus. 

Innlti rei, or re, or in re. Imiiti in aliquem, ' to depend on any one.' 

Latet res mihi, or me, ' the thing is unknown to me.* 

Mederi ei. Mederi cupiditdtes. 

Medicari, ' to heal,' used both with the Dative and Accusative ; the same as 
Mederi above. 

Moderari, ' to moderate,' ' to govern,' ' to rule,' * to regulate.' Moderdri for- 
tune sum, Liv. gaudium, Tacit. 

INocere, ' to hurt,' ei, rarely eum. 

Nubere, literally. ' to veil' one's self, as the bride did at the marriage ceremony; 
hence ' to marry,' always applied to the woman. Nubere vir.o. Nupta est cum 
illo, seems properly to mean, 'she is with him as a married woman.' 

Occumbere morti and mortem, ' to die.' We also find, Liv. 1. 7. occumbere 
morte, ' to sink in death,' where the Ablative is governed by some preposition 
understood. 

Obrepero, ' to creep upon,' ei or eum ; also in animos ; ad honores. 

Obtrepere auribus, or aures. 

Obtrectare ei, or laudibus ejus, ' to detract from him,' or ' his deserts.' 

Obumbrare, ' to overshadow,' with the Dative or Accusative. 

Praecedere, ' to go before,' ' to precede ;' prcecedere agmen. ( To excel ;' ut ves- 
trce fortunes meis prcecedunt. 



GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 245 

Praccurrere, * to run before,' ' to excel,' with a Dative or Accusative. 

Praestare alicui or aliquem, ' to excel any one.' 

Prsestolari, ' to wait for any one;' alicui or aliquem. It is also found with the 
Genitive, colwrtium, Sisenn. ap. Non. 

Pasisci, alicui, or cum aliquo. Pasisci vilam ab eo, Sail. 

Procumbere, « to fall upon,' terra? ; genibus ejus ; ad genua. 

Temperare, * to moderate,' ' to tame;' also, ' to govern,' 'to guide;' temperare 
linguce, Liv. ' to subdue his tongue.' So, temperare lacrymis, ' to moderate his 
grief;' also, temperare iras, Virg. ' to moderate anger.' 

* Obs. 4. (131) Many verbs when followed by 
different cases are used with different significa- 
tions ; as, 

iEmulari aliquem, 'to imitate any one with emulation,' 'to rival.' Studia 
alicujus amulari, Liv. 1. 18. ' to be the scholar of any one.' But cemulari ali- 
cui, ' to envy any one,' perhaps ' an envious rivalry,' better expresses the idea. 
In a word, with the Accusative it seems to be used in a good sense, with the 
Dative in a bad one. 

Accedo tibi t 'I accede or assent to you;' but hoc tibi aceeditad illud, 'this 
comes to you in addition to that.' Accedere ad aliquem, ' to approach to any 
one.' 

Auscultare alicui, ' to listen to any one;' also, ' to obey any one.' Auscultare 
aliquem, ' to hear any one ;' also, ' to obey.' 

Cavere alicui, ' to take care of any one's safety ;' Cavere sibi ab aliquo, ' to 
take care of one's self against any one.' Cavere aliquem, ' to beware of any 
one ;' Cavere aliquid, ' to guard against any thing.' 

Consulere tibi, ' to take care for thee,' (not to give counsel ;) Consulere altquem, 
' to consult any one,' ' to take any one's advice.' Consulere crudeliter, in aliquem, 
1 to proceed cruelly against any one,' Liv. 3. 36. Consulo boni, * I am satisfied,' 
or 'pleased therewith/ 

Cupio tibi, ' I am devoted to thee ;' Cupio aliquid, ' I am desirous after some- 
thing.' 

Deficit mihi and me, ' it fails me ;' Deficere ab aliquo, ' to revolt from any 
one ;' Deficere ab amicitia, ' to fall off from ;' also, Deficere ad aliquem, Liv. 22. 
61, ' to go over to any one ;' also, deficere aliquem, ' to desert any one.' 

Dare alicui literas, ' to give a letter to any one,' that is, ' to carry to another;* 
Dare ad aliquem literas, ' to write to any one.' 

Facere aliquid, * to do any thing ;' quid huic homini facias ? Cic. ' what will 
you do with this man V 

Horreo tibi, * I am frightened for thee,' on thy account; Horreo aliquid, 'I am 
frightened at any thing.' 

Imponere onus alicui, ' to lay a burden on any one ;' hnponere alicui, { to im- 
pose upon any one,' ' to cheat.' 

Incumbere rei, * to lean upon any thing;' ad aliquem, ' to bend one's self down 
to any thing,' ' to exert great labour on any thing;' Incumbere ad rempublicam t 
1 to devote one's attention to the state.' 

x2 



246 GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 

Interest mums, ■ there is a wall between ;' hoc maxime interest inter, &c. ' this 
is the chief difference between,' &c, also with the Dative in this sense. Inte- 
rest patris, ' it is the concern of the father.' Interesse rei, ' to be present at a 
thing.' 

Manet tibi helium, * war remains for thee ;' that is, ' thou hast not yet peace/ 
Liv. 1. 53. Manet me mors, ' death awaits me.' 

Merere sibi aliquid, * to merit,' or ■ earn something for one's self;' Merere equo, 
'to serve on horseback;' Merere or mereri de, 'to deserve of another;' bene or 
male, * well,' or ' ill.' 

Metuo tibi, ' I fear for thee,' on thy account ; Metuo te, ' I fear thee.' 

Peto mihi, * I seek for myself;' Veto aliquem, * 1 aim at somebody ;' Petere ali- 
quem gladio, * to attack any one with a sword ;' Petere locum, ' to seek a place,' 
1 to go to.' 

Praestare alicui or aliquem, ' to excel ;' prcestare aliquid, ' to be answerable for 
something.' Emtori damnum prcesfari oportere, ' the loss must be made good 
to the buyer.' Also, prcestare alicui qfficia, ' to render good offices to any one;' 
Prcestare se virum fortem, ' to prove one's self a brave man.' Prcestat, ' it is 
better.' 

Prospicio alicui, ' to provide for any one ;' Prospicere aliquid, * to foresee any 
thing.' 

Quserere sibi aliquid, 'to seek something for himself;' qucerere aliquid, 'to in- 
quire about any thing ;' also, de aliquo. Sometimes, qucerere de aliquo homine, or 
de aliqua re, means, ' to institute an inquiry by torture about any person' or 
1 thing.' 

Recipio tibi, 'I give you certain assurance,' 'I pledge myself to you ;' recipio 
in montem, ' I retire to the mountain.' Recipio res amissas, ' 1 recover my lost 
goods ;' recipere periculum in se, ' to take the risk on himself.' 

Renuntiare rei 'to renounce any thing,' 'to resign,' 'to give up;' renuntiare 
vitiis, 'to renounce one's faults ;' Renuntiare aliquem consulem, 'to proclaim any 
one as a consul.' 

Respondere alicui, 'to answer anyone;' rei, 'to correspond to any thing;' 
exitus non respondet spei, ' the event does not correspond to expectation.' 

Solvo tibi pecuniam, ' I pay money to thee ;' solvo te, ' I free thee ;' solvere 
naves, ' to set sail.' 

Timeo tibi, ' I fear for you ;' te, ' I fear thee.' 

Vacare, properly, ' to be at leisure;' also, ' to be without something ;' vacare a 
re, or re, ' to be free from a thing.' But vacare rei, ' to turn one's whole atten- 
tion to a thing,' ' to apply to a thing,' properly, ' to be free from all other affairs 
for that one ;' vacare Uteris, ' to be devoted to letters.' 

Valere rei, ' to be serviceable.' This construction is rare ; the more usual is 
with the ablative; valere eloquentia, ' to be effective by eloquence,' ' to be strong 
in eloquence.' Valere a pecunia, Plaut. ' to be well on the side of money,' is 
said jestingly. 

*(132) To this rule are referred many verbs 
which, among the poets chiefly, are construed with 
a Dative, after the manner of the Greeks, but 
which in prose are commonly found with the 



GOVERNMENT Otf VERBS. 247 

Ablative and a Preposition, according to Latin 
construction ; as Verbs of — 

1. Contending ; as, contendo, certo, bello, laclor, pugno, alicui for cum ali- 
quo. Solus iibi certet, Arnyntas, Virg. We also find Contendere contra or adver- 
sus aliquem, Cic. Certare inter se, Cic. Pugnare contra or adversus, Quinct. 
inter se, Curt, in aliquem, Li v. 

2. Differing ; as, distare, dissentire, discrepare, dissidere, differre rei alicui, 
for a re aliqua. We also find distant, dissentiunt, discrepant, dissident, differunt, 
inter se. Distare meta, Ovid. Dissentire, dissidere cum aliquo. 

3. Coming together ; as, cceo, concurro, concumbo, misceo. Placidis coeant 
immitia, Hor. Concurrere hosti, Ovid. Concubuisse deai, Propert. Mista Deo 
mulier, Virg. instead of cum placidis, cum hoste, &c. We also find Coire, con- 
currere, inter se, Virg. and Li v. Miscere vinum aquoe, or cum aqua, or aqua. 

4. Keeping, or Driving Away ; as, Arcebis gravido pecori, Virg. Solstitium 
pecori defendite, Virg. But these belong to verbs of taking away, which govern 

two cases, by Rule 25. 

5. Passive Verbs; as, Non intelligor ulli, Ovid, for ab ullo. Neque cernitur 
ulli, Virg. 

Obs. 5. (133) Verbs signifying Motion or Tendency to a thing, 
are construed with the preposition ad ; as, 

Eo, vado, curro, proper o,festino, pergo, fugio, tendo, vergo, inclino, &c. ad lo- 
cum, rem, or hom y inem. Sometimes, however, in the poets, they are construed 
with the dative ; as, It clamor coelo, for ad ccelum. Virg. 

* (134) The Datives Mild, Tibi, Sibi, Nobis, Vobis, are very 
often added to verbs in a redundant manner, particularly in confiden- 
tial speeches, letters, &c. This is the case in Greek, in English, and 
probably in all languages. E. g. Fur mihi es, Plaut, i to me, (that 
is, in my opinion) thou art a thief.' An Me Mim liber, cui mulier im- 
perat, ' is he to me a freeman,' that is, ' can I think him a freeman whom 
a woman commands.' These pronouns, though generally considered 
redundant, have usually a certain reference to the circumstances, or 
at least denote a participation in them by the person referred to in the 
Dative. 

3. Verbs governing the Accusative. 

XVIII. (135) A verb signifying actively go- 
verns the accusative ; as, 

Ama Deum, Love God Reverere parentes, Reverence your parents. 

* Obs. 1. (136) Neuter Verbs also govern the Accusative, when 
the noun after them has a signification similar to their own, or when 
the noun is of the same origin as the verb ; as, 



248 GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 

Vivere vitam, Ire iter, or viam ; Pugndre pugnam, Cur ere cur sum ; Ludere lit' 
dum, Sequi sectam. Yet generally an adjective, an adjective pronoun, or parti- 
ciple, is added to this substantive; as, pugnare pugnam acerfimam. So in Eng- 
lish we say, ' he died the death of a hero ;' * I have fought the good fight ;' ' Many 
live a happy life.' Many of these expressions are usual with the best writers ; 
as, Juravi verissimum jusjurandum. ' I swore the truest oath.' Some suppose 
that these accusatives are governed by some preposition understood, but there is 
no evidence of this, and the expressions must be considered as belonging to the 
idioms of the language. 

*(137) Sometimes a Preposition may be easily understood ; as, propter, per, 
or ad. E. g. Doleo casum tuum, that is, propter : so, horrere aliquid, sc. propter 
or ob : so also ardere aliquem, ' to be inflamed with love for,' ' to love passion- 
ately,' is probably for propter aliquem : Formosum pastor Corydon ardebat Al- 
exin : so, desperire aliquam, ' to love one desperately,' ' to die in love for one.' — 
Stygias jumvimus undas, sc. per Stygias, Ovid. Decurrere vitam, sc. per. So, 
pasci sylvas. Virg. « to be pastured through woods ;' i. e. ' they feed on.' Ire ex- 
sequias, sc. ad ' to go to a funeral.' 

* (13S) But sometimes Prepositions cannot be readily understood. The sim- 
plest examples are those where id, quid, and similar pronouns are joined to a 
verb; as, hocdubito, * I doubt this,' for de hac re. Perhaps in such cases ad, ' as 
to,' is the most proper preposition to supply; for quoad, mentioned by some, is 
not a preposition. Virg. Georg. 3. 421. sibila colla tumentem, (for the ablative si- 
bilo collo,) properly, * as to its hissing neck,' ad or quod attinet ad understood. So 
peccare aliquid, Cic. Particularly to these cases belong those verbs which sig- 
nify ' to taste of,' « to smell of ;' as, redolere vinum, 'to smell of wine.' Nihil 
oleant, Cic. ' they smell of nothing.' Gorgonius olet hircum, Hor. So, olere cro- 
cum, Cic. To these seems to belong the formula magnam partem, * a great part,' 
maximam partem, ' the greatest part ;' as, libros meos magnam partem amisi, ' I 
have lost a great part of my books. After Clamo, Crepo, Queror, Festino, the 
Accusative is remarkable, since aliquid clamare, &c. seem to stand for aliquid 
dicere clamando, &c. Under this head we may place the singular expression, 
Bacchanalia vivunt, for vivunt modo Bacchanalium, or vivendo Bacchanalia ex- 
primunt. 

(139) Sometimes, instead of the accusative, neuter verbs have an ablative; 
as, Ire itinere , dolere doldre, vicem ejus ; gander e gaudio ; mori or obire morte ; 
vivere vita ; ardet virgine. Horat. Ludere aleam, or -a ; manure, pluere, rordre, 
stilldre, suddre, aliquid or aliquo. Erubescere jura. Virg. origine. Tacit, equo 
vehi. Curt. 

Obs. 2. (140) Several verbs are used both in an active and neuter 

sense ; as, 

Abhorrere faman, to dread infamy. Liv. Degenerare animos, to weaken; patri, 

a litibus : ab uxure ducenda, to be to degenerate from; a virtute majo- 

averse from. Id. a meis moribus ab- rum. 

horret, is inconsistent with. Cic. Durare adolescentes labOre, to harden? 

Abolere monumenta viri, to abolish. Res du rat ad breve tempus, endures ; 

Virg. illis cladis Caudinae nondum In acdibus durare nequeo, stay or re- 

memoria aboleverat, was not effaced main. Plaut. 

from, they had not forgotten. Liv. IhcHnare culpam in aliquem. to lay ; 

Adolere penates, to burn, to sacrifice to. Hos ut sequar, inclinat animus, in- 

Virg. ^Elas adolevit ; adoievit ad dines ; acies inclinat, or inclinatur, 

aetatem. Plaut. gives away. 

Declinare ictum,fo avoid; loco; agmen Laborare arma, to forge ; morbo, a do* 

aliquo, to remove. 



GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 249 

lore, e renibus, to be ill ; de re all- quid ad normam ; alicui, in aliquem, 

qua, to be concerned. ad multa, to jit. 

Morari iter, to stop ; in urbe, to stay; Supped itare copiam dicendi, to furnish; 

Hoc nihil moror, 1 do not mind. Sumptns illi, or illi sumptibus. Ter. 

Properare peeuniam haeredi. Hor. in suppeditat aeratio, is afforded ; Manu- 

orbem; ad unam sedem. Ov. biae in fundamenta vix suppeditarunt, 

Quadrare acervum, to square. Hor. all- were sufficient. Liv. 

Obs. 3. (141) These accusatives, hoc, id, quid, aliquid, quicquid, nihil, idem, 
illud, tantum, quantum, multa, pauca, &c. are often joined with neuter verbs, 
having the prepositions circa or propter understood ; as, Id lacrumat, Id succen- 
set. Ter. Quid rides ? quid clamas ? Terent. 

Obs. 4 (142) The accusative is often understood; Turn prora avertit, sc. se. 
Virg. Fluniina prcecipitant, sc. se. Id. Quocumque inlenderat, sc. se, turned or 
directed himself. Sail. Obiit, sc. mortem. Ter. Cum faciam vitula, sc. sacra. 
Virg. Or its place supplied by an infinitive or part of a sentence ; as, Reddes 
dulce loqui, reddes ridere decorum ; for dulcem sermbnem, decorum risum. Hor. 

XIX. (143) Recordor, 7nemmi,remi?iiscor,^nd 
obliviscor, govern the accusative or genitive; as, 

Recordor lectionis, or lectionem, I remember the lesson. 

Obliviscor injurice or injuriam, I forget an injury. 

Obs. 1. (144) These verbs are often construed with the infinitive or some 
part of a sentence ; as, Memini videre virginem. Ter. Oblitus est, quid paulo 
ante posuisset. Cic. 

Obs. 2. (145) Memini, when it signifies to make mention, is joined with the 
genitive, or the ablative with ihe preposition de ; as, Memini alicujus, or de all- 
quo. So, recordor, when it signifies to recollect ; as, Velim scire ecquid, de te re- 
cordere. Cic. 

* (146) The phrase Venit mihi in mentem, denoting remembrance, is variously 
construed ; as, Venit mihi in mentem hcec res, hujus rei, de hac re. Mihi solet 
venire in mentem illius temporis. Cic. In mentem venit de speculo. 

4. Verbs governing the Ablative. 

XX. (147) Verbs of plenty and scarceness for 
the most part govern the ablative ; as, 

Abundat divitiis, He abounds in riches. 

Caret omni culpa, He has no fault. 

Verbs of plenty are Abundo, qffluo, exubero, redundo,Jloreo, suppe- 
dito, scateo, &c; of want, Careo, egeo, indigeo, vaco, deficior, desti- 
tuor, &c. 

* Obs. 1. (148) Egeo and lndigeo frequently govern the Genitive ; as, egeo 
consilii, Cic. egel ceris, '■ he needs money.' Non tarn artis indigent, quam laboris, 
Cic. Careo also is used with a Genitive; as, carendum tui, Terent. Also, sea - 
teo and abundo ; as, terra scatet ferarum, Lucr, Abundans with a Genitive in 



250 GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 

Virg. Eel. 2 20. We also find careo, egeo, indigeo, scateo, with pronouns of the 
neuter gender ; as, id, quod, &c. nee quidquam eges, Flaut. So, id luus scatet 
animus, Plaut. for ea re. 

Obs. 2. (149) The ablative after these verbs is governed by some preposition 
understood ; and sometimes we find it expressed : as, Yacat a culpa, He is free 
from fault. Li v. 

XXL (150) Utor, abator, fruor,fungor, potior, 
vescor, govern the ablative; as, 

Ufitur fraude, He uses deceit. Abutitur libris, He abuses books. 

* (151) To these add, gaudeo, creor, nascor, jido, vivo, victito, consta ; labbro, 
* to be ill ;' pascor, epulor, nitor, innitor, glorior, Icetor, detector, dignor, exulto, 
sto, &c. ; as, Gaudere bono, Cie. Fortes creantur fortibus, Hor. Fluminibus sali- 
ces nascuntur, Virg. Fidere prudentia, Cic. Piscibus vivere existlmantur, Caes. 
Ficis victitamus, Plaut. Mente vix const-it, Cic. Labordre podagra, Mart. Ccede 
pascitur. Ovid. Filio nititur, Cic. Gloriari no?ninibus, Cic. Lator tua digni- 
tate, Cic. Delectdri re, Cic. Me dignor honore, Virg. Stare promissis, Cic. 'to 
abide by one's promises.' Some, led away by our idiom, according to which we 
say, " To stand to an agreement," have supposed that it is the Dative which fol- 
lows Sto : but this is not so, as might be shown by numerous examples. 

Obs. 1. (152) Potior often governs the genitive ; as, Potlri urbis. 
Sail. And we always say, Potlri rerum, to possess the chief com- 
mand, never rebus ; imperii) being understood. 

Obs. % (153) Potior, fungor, vescor, e-pulor, and pascor, sometimes have an 
accusative ; as, Potlri urbem. Cic. Officia fungi. Ter. Munera fungi. Tac. 
Pascuntur silvas. Virg And in ancient waiters utor, abutor, and fruor ; as, Uti 
consilium. Plaut. Operam abutitur. Ter. Depasco and depascor always take an 
accusative ; as, Depascitur artus. Virg. 

5 2. VERBS GOVERNING TWO CASES. 

1. Verbs governing tico Datives. 

XXII. (154) Sum used instead of affero (to 
bring) governs two datives, the one of a person, 
and the other a thing ;* as, 

Est mihi voluptdti, It is, or brings, a pleasure to me. 



* This rule would be better expressed thus: 

The verb Est, when it may be construed 'to 
redound to/ 'to bring/ 'to be conducive/ 'to 
serve for/ governs two Datives, &c. 



GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 251 

(155) Two datives are also put after habeo, do, verto, relinquo, 
venio, tribuo,fore, duco, and some others; as, 

Ducitur honori tibi, It is reckoned an honour to you. Id vertitur mihi vitio, I 
am blamed for that. So, Misit mihi muiitri ; Dedit mihi dono ; Habet sibi laudi ; 
Venire, occurrere auxilio alicui. Li v. 

Obs. 1. (156) Instead of the dative we often use the nominative, or the accu- 
sative ; as, Est exitium pecori for exit io ; Dare altquid alicui donum, or dono ; 
Dare jiliam einuptam, or nuptui. When dare and other active verbs have two 
datives after them, they likewise govern an accusative either expressed or un- 
derstood ; as, Dare criviini ei,sc. id. 

Obs. 2. (157) The dative of the person is often to be supplied ; as, Est ex- 
emplo, indicio, prce.sidio, usui, &c. scil. mihi, alicui, hominibus, or some such 
word. So, ponere, opponere pignori, sc, alicui, to pledge. Canere receptui, sc. 
suis miliXibus, to sound a retreat; Habere curm qucestui, odio, voluptdli, religibni, 
studio, ludibrio, despicalui, &c. sc. sibi. 

Obs. 3. (158) To this rule belong forms of naming; as, Est mihi nomen Al- 
exandro, my name is Alexander ; or with the nominative, Est mihi nomen Alex- 
ander ; or more rarely with the genitive, Est mihi nomen Alexandri. 

2. Verbs governing the Accusative and the Genitive. 

XXIII. (159) Verbs of accusing, condemn- 
ing, acquitting, and admonishing, govern the ac- 
cusative of a person with the genitive of a thing ; 
as, 

Arguit mefurii, He accuses me of theft. 

Meipsum inertia condemno, I condemn myself of laziness. 

Ilium homicidii absolvunt, They acquit him of manslaughter. 

Monet me officii, He admonishes me of my duty. 

Verbs of accusing are, Acciiso, ago, appello, arcesso, inquiro, capto, 
increpo, arguo, defero, insimulo, poslulo, alllgo, astringo, urgeo, 
incuso, inierrogo, compello. Of condemning, damno, convinco, pre- 
hendo, judico, plector, condemno, infdmo, noto. Of acquitting, ab- 
solvo, salvo, liber o, pur go. Of admonishing, moneo, admoneo, com- 
monefacio. 

Obs. 1. (160) Verbs of accusing and admonishing, instead of the genitive, fre- 
quently have after them an ablative, with the preposition de ; as, Monere aUquem 
officii, or de officio ; Accusdre aliquem furti, or de furto. De vi condemndli sunt. 
Cic. 

* (161) The crime or punishment is sometimes put in the Ablative without a 
preposition being expressed, after absolvo, libero, damno, condemno, &c; as, Con- 
sulem regni suspicione absolverunt, Li v. Damnabis tu votis, Virg. Crimen quo 
argui posset, Nep. Teneri poena Cic. We also find Damnari voti, which signi- 
fies, • to have gained one's wish ;' properly, ■ to be condemned to the discharge of 



252 GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 

the vow which he had made for the prosperous issue of his undertaking,' which 
is a sign that he had gained his wish. Such a person is said to be reus voti. Virg, 
JEn. 5. 237. 

Obs. 2. (162) Crimen and caput are put either in the genitive or ablative ; but 
in the ablative usually without a preposition; as, Damnare, postuldre, absolvere, 
eum criminis, or capitis ; and crimine, or capite ; also Absolvo me peccdto. Liv. 
And we always say, Plectere, purure aliquem capite, and not capitis, to punish one 
capitally, or w-ith death. 

Obs. 3. (163) Many verbs of accusing, &c. are not construed with the ace. of 
a person, and the gen. of a thing, but the contrary ; thus we say, Culpo, reprehen- 
do, taxo, traduco, vitupero, calumnior, criminor, excuso, &c. avaritiam alicujus, 
and not aliquem avaritice. We sometimes also find accuse-, incuso, &c. construed 
in this manner ; as, Accusdre inertiam adolescentium, for adolescentes ineriice. Cic. 
Culpam arguo. Liv. We say, Agere cum aliquo furti, rather than aliauem, to ac- 
cuse one of theft. Cic. 

Obs. 4. (164) Verbs of accusing and admonishing sometimes govern two accu- 
satives, when joined with hoc, illud,islud, id, unum, multa, &c. as, Moneo, accuse, 
te illud. We seldom find, however, Errorem te moneo, but erroris or de errore ; 
except in old writers, as Plaulus. 

XXIV. (165) Verbs of valuing, with the ac- 
cusative, govern such genitives as these, magni, 
parvi, nihili ; as, 

JEstimo te magni, I value you much. 

(166) Verbs of valuing are, JEstimo, existimo, duco, facio, ha- 
beo, pendo, puto, taxo. They govern several other genitives ; as, 
tanti, quanti, pluris, majoris, minoris, minimi, plurimi, maxirni, 
nauci, pili, assis, nihili, teruncii, hujus,Jiocci, pensi. 

Obs. 1. (167) JEstimo sometimes governs the ablative ; as, JEsfimo te magno, 
permagno, parvo, scii. pretio : and also nihilo. We likewise say, Pro nihilo habeo, 
puto, duco. 

Obs. 2. (168) JEqui and boni are put in the genitive after facio and consido ; 
as, Hoc consido bom, cequi bonique facio, 1 take this in good part. 

Obs. 3. (169) The genitive after all these verbs is governed by some substan- 
tive understood ; as Arguere aliquem furti, scil. de crimine furti : JEstimo rem 
magni, scil. preiii, or pro re magni pre.tii ; Consulo boni, i. e. statuo or censeo esse, 
factum, or munus boni viri, or aiiimi ; Monere aliquem officii, i. e. officii, causa, or 
de re or negotio officii. 

3. Verbs governing the Accusative and the Dative. 

XXV. (170) Verbs of comparing, giving, de- 
claring, and taking away, govern the accusative 
and dative ; as, 



GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 253 

Compdro Virgilium Homero, I compare Virgil to Homer. 

Suum cuique tribuito, Give every one his own. 

Narras fabulam surdo t You tell a story to a deaf man. 

Eripuit me morti, He rescued me from death. 

(171) Or, — Any active verb may govern the accusative and 
the dative, (when, together with the object of the action, we express 
the person or thing with relation to which it is exerted ;) as, 

Legam leclionem tibi, I will read the lesson to you. Emit librum mihi, He 
bought a book for me. Sic vos non vobis fertis ardtra boves. Virg. Paupertas 
scepe suadet mala liominibus, advises men to do bad things. Piaut. Imper are pe- 
cuniam, frumentum, naves, arma aliquibus, to order them to furnish. Caes. 

Obs. 1. (172) Verbs of comparing and taking away, together with some 
others, are often construed with a preposition ; as, Comparare unam rem cum alia, 
and ad aliam, or comparare res inter se : Eripuit me morti, morte, a or ex morte : 
Mittere epistolam alicui, or ad aliquem: Intendere telum alicui, or in aliquem: 
Incidere ceri, in ces, or in cere ; and so in many others. 

Obs. 2. (173) Several verbs governing the dative and accusative, are con- 
strued differently ; as, 

Circumdare mcenia oppido, or oppidum, moznibus, to surround a city with walls. 

Intercludere commedtum alicui, or aliquem commedtu, to incercept one's provi- 
sions. 

Dondre, prohibere rem alicui, or aliquem re, to give one a present, to hinder one 
from a thing. 

Mactdre hostiam Deo, or Deum hostia, to sacrifice. 

Impertire salutem alicui, or aliquem salute, to salute one. 

Interdixit Galliam Romdnis, or Romduos Gallia, he debarred the Romans from 
Gaul. 

Induere, exuer eve stem sibi, or se veste, to put on, V put off one's clothes. 

Levdre dolorem alicui ; doldrem alicujus ; aliquem dolor e, to ease one's distress. 

Mindri aliquid alicui, or sometimes alicui aliquo, Cic. to threaten one with any 
thing ; C&sari gladio. Sail. 

Gratulortibi hanc rem, Tiac re, in, pro, and de hac re, I congratulate you on this. 
Metlus Tullo devictos hostes gratuldtur. Li v. 

Restituere alicui sanitdtem, or aliquem sanitdti, to restore to health. 

Aspergere labem alicui, or aliquem labe, to put an affront on one ; aram san- 
guine. Litdre Deum sacris, and sacra Deo, to sacrifice. 

Excusdre se alicui, and apud aliquem, de re; valetudinem ei. 

Exprobrdre vitium ei, or in eo, to upbraid. 

Occupdre pecuniam alicui, and apud aliquem, i. e. pecuniam fcenori locdre, to 
place at interest. Cic. 

Opponere se morti, and ad mortem. Renuncidre id ei, and ad eum, to tell. 

Obs. 3. (174) Verbs signifying motion or tendency to a thing, 
instead of the dative, have an accusative after them, with the preposi- 
tion ad ; as, 

Y 



254 GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 

Porto, fero, lego, -as, prcecipito, tollo, traho, duco, verto, incito, suscito; also, 
hortor, and invito, voco, provoco, ariimo, stimulo, conformo, lacesso; thus, Ad lau- 
dem milites hortatur ; Ad prcelorem hominem traxit. Cic. But after several of 
these verbs, we also find the dative ; as, Inferre Deos Latio, for in Latium. Virg. 
Invitdre aliquem hospitio, or in hospitium. Cic. 

Obs. 4. (175) The accusative is sometimes understood ; as, Nubere alicui, scil. 
se ; Cedere alicui, scil. locum ; Delrahere alicui, scil. laudem ; Ignoscere alicui, 
scil. culpam. And in English the particle to is often omitted 5 as, Dedit mihi 
librum, He gave me a book, for to me. 

4. Verbs governing two Accusatives. 

XXVI. (176) Verbs of asking and teaching 
govern two accusatives, the one of a person and 
the other of a thing ; as, 

Poscimus tepacem, We beg peace of thee. 

Docuit me grammaticam, He taught me grammar. 

1. (177) Verbs of asking*, which govern two accusatives, are 
Rogo, oro, exoro, obsecro, precor, posco, reposco, jlagito, &c. Of 
teaching, Doceo, edoceo, dedoceo, erudio. 

Obs. 1. (178) Celo likewise governs two accusatives; as, Celdvit 
me hanc rem, He concealed this matter from me; or otherwise, celd- 
vit hanc rem mihi, or celdvit me de hac re. 

Obs. 2. (179) Verbs of asking and teaching are often construed with a prepo- 
sition ; as, Rogare rem ah aliquo : Docere aliquem de re, to inform ; but we do not 
say, docere aliquem de grammatica, but grammaticam, to teach. And we always say 
with a preposition, Veto, exigo a or abs te ; Percontor, scitor, sciscitor, ex or a ie or te 
without the preposition ; Interrogo, consulto ie de re ; Ut facias te obsecro ; Exorat 
pacem divum, for divos. Virg. Instruo, instituo, formo, informo aliquem artibus, 
in the abl. without a prep. Imbuo eum artibus, in or ab artibus. Also, instruo 
ad rem, or in re, ignorantiam alicujus. Erud'ire aliquem artes, de or in re, ad 
rem. Formdre ad studium, mentem, studiis, studia ejus. 

Obs. 3. (180) The accusative of the thing is not properly governed by the 
verb, but by quod ad or secundem understood. 

5. Verbs governing the Accusative and the Ablative. 

XXVIL (181) Verbs of loading, binding, 
clothing, depriving, and some others, govern the 
accusative and the ablative ; as, 

Onerat naves auro, He loads the ships with gold. 

(182) Verbs of loading are, Onero, cumulo, premo, opprimo, obruo, repleo. Of 
unloading, levo, exonero, &c. Of binding, astringo, ligo, alligo, devincio, impedio, 



CONSTRUCTION OF PASSIVE VERBS. 255 

irretio, illaqueo, &c. Of loosing, solvo, exsolvo, libero, laxo, expedio, &c. Of de- 
priving, privo, nudo, orbo, spolio, fraudo, emungo. Of clothing, veslio, amicio, 
induo, cingo, tego, velo, corono, and calceo. Of unclothing, exuo, discingo, <&c. 

Obs. 1. (183) The preposition, by which the ablative is governed after these 
verbs, is sometimes expressed ; as, Solvere atiquem ex catems. Cic. Sometimes 
the ablative is to be supplied ; as, Complet naves, sc. viris, mans the ship. Virg. 

* Obs. 2. (184) Impleo, compleo, and expleo, sometimes take the genitive; as, 
Adolescentem suae, temeritdtis implet. Liv. Erroris illos el demenlice cornplebo. 
Plaut. Animutn explesse juvabit ultricis flammce. Virg. And among the more an- 
cient writers, also saturo and obsaturo ; as, Hce res vita me saturant, Plaut. Istius 
obsaturabere, Terent. Several vary their construction ; as, induit, exuit se vestibus, 
or vestes sibi. 

* (185) Muto governs the Accusative of the thing given in exchange, and the 
Ablative of that which is taken in exchange ; as, Muto librum pecunia. Some- 
times the preposition is expressed ; as, Mulare bellum pro pace, Sail. 



THE CONSTRUCTION OF PASSIVE VERBS. 

XXVIII. (186) When a verb in the active 
voice governs two cases, in the passive it retains 
the latter case ; as, 

Accusor furti, I am accused of theft. 

Virgilius comparator Homero, Virgil is compared to Homer. 

Doceor grammaticam, I am taught grammar. 

Navis oneratur auro, The ship is loaded with gold. 

So, Scio homines accusdtum iri furti ; — Eos ereptum iri morti, morle, a or ex 

morte ; pueros doctum iri grammaticam ; rem celatum iri mihi, or me ; me 

celatum iri de re, &c. 

Sometimes the active has three cases, and then the passive has the two last 
cases ; as, Habetur ludibrio Us. 

* (187) When a verb in the Active voice governs an accusative 
with any other case, it must be carefully observed that, whatever word 
is in the Accusative after the Active verb, that word, and no other, 
must be the Nominative to it in the Passive voice, and the other case 
remains unchanged. Thus, 'I give you a book,' Librum tibi do ; pas- 
sively, Liber tibi datur. ' He told me this,' Hoc mihi dixit ; passively, 
' I was told this,' Hoc mihi dictum est ' I present you with a book,' 
Dono tibi librum / passively, Liber tibi donatur. This rule is simple, 
perspicuous, and founded on the best classical authorities — that, what- 
ever is put in the Accusative case, after the Active verb, becomes the 
Nominative to it, in the Passive voice, while the other case is retained 
under the government of the verb, by this twenty-eighth rule. Thus, 
4 1 persuade you of this,' Persuadeo hoc tibi. Here the thing is gx* 



256 CONSTRUCTION OF PASSIVE VERBS. 

pressed in the Accusative, and the person in the Dative. The former 
therefore must be the Nominative to the verb in the Passive voice ; as, 
hoc tibi persuadetur, ' you are persuaded of this,' literally, 4 this is 
persuaded to you.' 

* (18S) But it does not follow that we cannot say, Ego dicor, Ille 
dicitur, or Ille dictus est. If the person be He to whom any thing is 
said, it must always be expressed in the Dative case, as in the preced- 
ing examples. But if the person be He of whom any thing is said, it 
may then be made nominative to the verb. Thus, i He is said to be a 
wise man,' Ille dicitur esse vir sapiens. Here Ille is the subject 
spoken of, the person of whom the assertion is made, not the person to 
whom the thing is told. In like manner, ' I believe you,' Credo tibi, 
that is, ' I give credit to what you say,' in the passive voice, tibi credi- 
tur, not tu crederis. But the latter expression is correct if used to sig- 
nify, not that credit is given to the words of the person, but that some- 
thing is believed of him, as the subject of discourse ; as, Tu crederis 
esse vir bonus, ' you are believed to be a good man.' 

Obs. 1. (189) Passive verbs are commonly construed with the ab- 
lative and the preposition a ; as, 

Tu laudaris a me, which is equivalent to Ego laudo te. Virtus diligitur a 
nobis ; Nos diligimus virtutem. Gaudeo meum factum probari a te, or te probdre 
meum factum: And so almost all active verbs. INeuter and deponent verbs also 
admit this preposition ; as, Mare a sole collucet. Cic. Phalaris non a paucis inte- 
riit. Id. So, Cadere ab hoste ; Cessare a prceliis ; Mori ab ense ; Patifurdri ali- 
quid ab aliquo, &c. Also, Venire ab hostibus, to be sold ; Vapulare ab aliquo, 
Exuldre ab urbe. Thus likewise many active verbs; as, Sumere, petere, tollere, 
pellere, expectdre, emere, &c. ab aliquo. 

The prep, is sometimes understood after passive verbs ; as, Deseror conjuge. 
Ovid. Desertus suis sc. a. Tacit. Tabula distingiiitur unda qui navzgat. sc. ab 
unda, is kept from the water by a plank. Juvenal. 

The preposition PER is also used in the same sense with A ; as, Per me defensa 
est respublica, or a me ; Per me restitutus ; Per me or a me factum est. Cic. But 
PER commonly marks the instrument, and A the principal efficient cause ; as, 
Res agitur per creditores, a rege, sc. a rege vel a legato ejus. Cic. Fam. i. 1. 

Obs. 2. (190) Passive verbs sometimes govern the dative, espe- 
cially among the poets ; as, 

Neque cernitur ulli, for ab ullo. Virg. Vix audior ulli. Ovid. Scriberis Vario } 
for a Vario. Hor. Honesta bonis viris quceruntur, for a viris. Cic. Videor, to 
seem, always governs the dative; as, Videris mini, You seem to me : but we 
commonly say, Videris a me, You are seen by me; although not always; as, 
Nulla tudrum audita mihi, neque visa sororum, for a me. Virg. 

Obs. 3. (191) Induor, amicior, cingor, accingor, also exuor, and discingor, are 
often construed with the accusative, particularly among the poets, though we do 
not find them governing two accusatives in the active voice : as Induitur vestem, 
or veste. 



CONSTRUCTION OF IMPERSONAL VERBS. 257 

Obi. 4. (192) Neuter verbs are for the most part used impersonally in the pas- 
sive voice ; unless when they are joined with a noun of a similar signification to 
their own; as, Pugna, pugndta est. Cic. Bellum militabitur. Horat. Passive 
impersonal verbs are most commonly applied either to a multitude, or to an indi- 
vidual taken indefinitely; as, Statur,fletur, currdur, vivitur, vemtur, &c. a vobis, 
ab illis, &c. We are standing, weeping, &c. Bene potest vivi a me, or ab aliquo: 
I or any person may live well. Provision est nobis optime a Deo; Reclamatum 
est ab omnibus, all cried out against it. Cic. 

They also govern the same cases as when used personally ; as, Ut majortbus 
natu assurgdtur, ut supplicum miseredtur. Cic. Except the accusative: for in 
these phrases, Itur Athenas, pugndtum est biduum, dormltur totarn nociem, the ac- 
cusative is not governed by the verb, but by the prepositions ad and per under- 
stood. We find, however, Tota mihi dormltur hyems ; Noctes vigilantur amarm ; 
Ocednus raris ab orbe nostro navibus aditur. Tacit. 



THE CONSTRUCTION OF IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

XXIX. (193) An Impersonal Verb governs 
the dative ; as, 

Expedit reipublica, It is profitable for the state. 

Verbs which in the active voice govern only the dative, are used 
impersonally in the passive, and likewise govern the dative; as, 

Favelur mihi, I am favoured, and not Eg of aveor. So, Nocetur mihi, impera- 
tur mihi, &c. We find, however, Hcec ego procurdre imperor, Ego cur invideor, 
for imperdtur, invidetur mihi. Hor. 

Obs. 1. (194) These verbs, Potest, cozpit, incipit, deslnit, debet, 
and solet, are used impersonally, when joined with impersonal verbs; 
as, 

Non potest credi tibi, You cannot be believed ; Mihi non potest noceri, I cannot 
be hurt; Negatjucunde posse vivi sine virtute, Cic. Per virtutem potest iri ad 
astra. Aliorum laudi et glorice invideri solet. The praise and glory of others 
are accustomed to be envied. Id. JSeque a fortissimis injirmissimo generi resisti 
posse. Sallust. 

Obs. 2. (195) Various verbs are used both personally and impersonally : as, 
Venit in mentem mihi hcec res, or de hac re, or hujus rei, scil. memoria ; This 
thing came into my mind. Est curoe mihi hcec res, or de hac re. Doleo or dolet 
mihi, id factum esse. 

Obs. 3. (196) The neuter pronoun it is always joined with impersonal verbs 
in English ; as, It rains, it shines ; &c. And in the Latin an infinitive is com- 
monly subjoined to impersonal verbs, or the subjunctive with ut, forming a part 
of a sentence which may be supposed to supply the place of a nominative ; as 8 
Nobis non licet peccdre, the same with peccdtum ; Omnibus bonis expedit rempub.- 
licam esse salvam, i. e. Salus reipublicce expedit omnibus bonis. Cic. Accidit, eve- 
nit, contigit, ut ibi essemus. These nominatives, hoc, illud, id, idem, quod, &c, 
are sometimes joined to impersonal verbs; as, idem mihi licet. Cic. Eadem 
licent. Catull. 

y2 



258 CONSTRUCTION OF IMPERSONAL VERBS, 

Obs. 4. (197) The dative is often understood ; as, Faciat quod libet, sc. sibi, 
Ter. Stat casus renovare omnes, sc. mihi, I am resolved. Virg. 

Exc. I. (198) REFERT and INTEREST govern the geni- 
tive; as, 

Refert patris, It concerns my father. Interest omnium, It is the interest of all. 

IT (199) But mea, tua, sua, nostra, vestra, are put in the accusa- 
tive plural neuter ; as, 

JSon mea refert, It does not concern me. 

Obs. 1. Some think mea, tua, sua, &c. to be in the ablat. sing, 
fem. We say either cujus interest, and quorum interest ; or cuja in- 
terest, from cujus, -a, -urn. 

Obs. 2. (200) Refert and interest are often joined with these nominatives, Id, 
hoc, illud, quid, quod, nihil, &c. also with common nouns ; and with these geni- 
tives, Tanti, quanti, magni, permagni, parvi, pluris ; as, Hoc parvi refert ; Illud 
mea magni interest. Cic. Usque adeo magni refert siudium. Lucret. Incessus in 
gravida refert. Plin. 

(201) They are frequently construed with these adverbs, Tantum, quantum, 
multum, plus , plufimum, infinitum, parum, maxime, vehementer, minime, &c. as, 
Faciam, quod maxime reipublica? interesse judicdbo. Cic. 

(202) Sometimes instead of the genit. they take the accus. with the prep, ad ; 
as, Quid id ad me, aut ad meam rem refert. Person quid rerum gerant ? Of what 
importance is it ? &c. Plaut. Magni ad honbrem nostrum interest. Cic. ; rarely 
the dative ; as, Die quid referat intra naturae fines viventi, &c. Hor. Sometimes 
they are placed absolutely ; as, Magnopere interest opprimi Dolabellam, it is of 
great importance. Cic. Permultum interest, qualis primus aditus sit. Id. Adebne 
est fundata leviter fides, ut ubi sim, quam qui sim, magis referat. Liv. Plurimum 
enim inter erit, quibus artibus, aut quibus hunc tu morions instituas. Juv. 



Obs. 3. (203) The genitive after refert and interest, is governed by some sub- 
cantive understood, with which the possessives mea, tua, sua, &c. likewise agree ; 
as, Interest Ciceronis, i. e. est inter negotia Ciceronis. Refert patris, i. e. refert 
se hasc res ad negotia patris. So, interest mea, est inter negotia mea. 



stantiv 



Exc. II. (204) These five, MISERET, PCENITET, PUDET, 

TJEDE T, and PIGE T, govern the accusative of a person with the 
genitive of a thing ; as, 

Mislret me tui, I pity you. Tmdet me vita, I am weary of life. 

Pariitet mepeccati, I repent of my sin. Pudet me culpa, I am ashamed of my 

fault. 

Obs. 1. (205) The genitive here is properly governed either by negotium un- 
derstood, or by some other substantive of a signification similar to that of the 
verb with which it is joined ; as, Miseret me tui, that is, negotium or miseratio 
tui miseret me. 



CONSTRUCTION OF THE INFINITIVE. 259 

Obs. 2. (206) An infinitive or some part of a sentence may supply the place 
of the genitive ; as, Pcemtet me peccasse, or quod peccaverim. The accusative is 
frequently understood; as, Scelerum si bene pcerutet, scil. nos. Uorat. 

Obs. 3. (207) Miseret, pceriitet, &c. are sometimes used personally, especially 
when joined with these nominatives, hoc, id, quod, &c. as, Ipse sui miseret. Lucr. 
Nonne hcec te pudent. Ter. Nihil, quod poznitere possit, facias, for cujus te pozni- 
tere possit. Cic. 

We sometimes find miseret joined with two accusatives ; as, Menedemi vicem 
miseret me, scil. secundum or quod ad. Ter. 

Obs. 4. (208) The preterites of miseret, pudet, tmdet, and piget, when used in 
the passive form, govern the same cases with the active ; as, miseritum est me 
tuarum fortundrum. Ter. We likewise find, miserescit and miseretur used im- 
personally ; as, Miserescit me tui. Ter. Miseredtur te fratrum ; Neque me tui, 
neque tudrum liberorum miser eri potest. Cic. 

Exc. III. (209) DECET, DELECTAT, JUVAT, and OPOR- 
TET, govern the accusative of a person with the infinitive ; as, 

Delectat me studere, It delights me to study. 

Non decet te rixdri, It does not become you to scold. 

Obs. 1. (210) These verbs are sometimes used personally ; as, parvum parva 
decent. Hor. Est aliquid, quod non oporteat, etiamsi liceat Cic. Hcec facta ab illo 
oportebant. Ter. 

Obs. 2. (211) Decet is sometimes construed with the dative ; as, Ita nobis 
decet. Ter. 

Obs. 3. (212) Oportet is elegantly joined with the subjunctive 
mode, ut being understood ; as, 

Sibi quisque consulat oportet. Cic. Or with the perfect participle, esse or fuisse 
being understood ; as, Communicatum oportuit ; mansum oportuit ; Adolescenti 
morem gestum oportuit, The young man should have been humoured. Ter. 

Obs. 4. (213) Fallit,fugit,prceterit,latet, when used impersonally, also govern 
the accusative with the infinitive ; as, In lege nulla esse ejusmodi caput, non te 
fallit ; De Dionysiofugit me ad te antea scribere. Cic. 

Note. (214) Attinet, pertinet, and spectat, are construed with ad ; Ad rem- 
publicam pertinet, me conservdri. Cic. And so personally, Ule ad me attinet, be- 
longs. Ter. Res ad arma spectat, looks, points. Cic. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE INFINITIVE. 

XXX. (215) One verb governs another in the 
infinitive: as, 

Cupio discere, I desire to learn. 

Obs. 1. (216) The infinitive is often governed by adjectives ; as, 
Horatius est dignus legi. Quinctil. And it sometimes depends on a 
substantive; as, Tempus equum fumanlia solvere colla. Virg. 



260 CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICIPLES, &C. 

Obs. 2. (217) The word governing the infinitive is sometimes understood ; as, 
JSlene inceplo desistere victam, soil, decet, or par est. Virg. Videre est, one may 
see. Dicere non est, sc'il copia, or facultas. Horat. And sometimes the infinitive 
itself is to be supplied ; as, Socraiem fidibus docuit, scil. canere. Cic. So, Dis- 
cere, scire, jidibus. 

Obs. 3. (218) The infinitive was not improperly called by the ancients, Nomen 
verbi, the name or noun of the verb ; because it is both joined with an adjective 
like a substantive ; as, Yelle suum cuique est, Every one has a will of his own : 
and it likewise supplies the place of a noun, not only in the nominative, but also 
in all the oblique cases; as, 1. In the nominative, Latrocindri, fraud 'are, urpe 
est. Cic. Didicisse Jideliter artes emollit mores. Ovid. 2. In the genitive, Perltus can- 
tare, for caniandi or cantus. Virg. 3. In the dative, Pardtus servire, for servituti. 
Sail. 4. In the accusative, Da mihifallere, for artemfailendi. Horat. Quod fa- 
ciam superest, prceter amdre, nihil. Ovid. 5. In the vocative, O vivere nostrum, 
ut non sentientibus effluis ! for vita nostra. 6. In the ablative, Dignus amari, 
for amdre, or qui ametur. Virg. 

Obs. 4. (219) Instead of the infinitive a different construction is often used 
after verbs of doubting, willing, order big, fearing, hoping ; in short, after any verb 
which has a relation to futurity; as, Dubitat iia facere, or more frequently, an, 
num., or utrum ila facturus sit ; Dubitdvit an faceret necne ; Noji dubito quin fe- 
cerit. Vis me facere, ovutfaciam. Metuittangi, or ne tangdtur. Spero te ventu- 
rum esse, or fore ut venias. Nunquam putdvifore ut ad te supplex venirem. Cic. 
Exislimdbant fulurum fuisse ut oppidum amitteretur. Caes. 

* (220) Dubito and dubium est, are sometimes followed by the Infinitive, but 
oftener by the Subjunctive, with an, num, utrum, and (if non goes before) quin ; 
as, non dubium est quin uxorem nolitjilius, Terent. It is to be observed that such 
phrases as Dubito an, Haud scio an, Nescio an, although from their very nature they 
imply some doubt, are, notwithstanding, generally used in a sense almost affirma- 
tive ; as, Dubito an hunc primum omnium ponam, Nep. ' for aught I know he may 
be placed first,' or 'I am inclined to place him first.' 

* (221) Verbs of fearing, such as, timeo, metuo, vereor, paveo, are used affirma- 
tively with ne, but negatively with ut, or ne non ; thus, Timet ne deseras se, Ter. 
' she is afraid that you may forsake her.' Paves ne ducas uxorem, Ter. denotes, 
1 you are afraid to marry.' Paves ut ducas, Ter. ' you are afraid lest you should 
not marry her.' 

Obs. 5. (222) To, which in English is the sign of the infinitive, in Latin may 
often be rendered otherwise than by the infinitive ; as, I am sent to complain, 
Mittor questum, or ut querar, &c. Ready to hear, Promptus ad audiendum ; Time 
to read, Tempus leisendi ; Fit to swim, Aptus nalaudo ; Easy to say, Facile dictu ; 
I am to write, Scripturus sum ; A house to let, or more properly, to be let, Domus 
locanda ; He was left to guard the city, Relictus est ut tueretur urbem. 



THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICIPLES, GERUNDS, AND 
SUPINES. 

XXXI. (223) Participles, Gerunds, and Su- 
pines govern the case of their own verbs ; as, 

Amans virtutem, Loving virtue. Carens fraude, Wanting guile. 



CONSTRUCTION OF GERUNDS. 261 

Obs. 1. (224) Passive Participles often govern the dative, particu- 
larly when they are used as adjectives ; as, 

Suspectus mild, Suspected by me ; Suspectiores regtbus. Sail. Inv'isus mihi, 
hated by me, or hateful to me; In dies invisior Suet. Occulta et maribus non 
invisa solum, sed etiam inaudtia sacra, unseen. Cic. 

(225) EXOSUS, PEROSUS, and often also PERTjESUS, govern the ac- 
cusative ; as, Tcedas exdsa jugdles. Ovid. Plebs consilium nomen haud secus 
qudm regum perosa erat. Liv. Pertcesus ignaviam suam ; semet ipse, displeased 
with. Suet, vilam, weary of. Justin, levitdtis. Cic. 

(226) Verbals in BUNDUS govern the case of their own verbs; as, Gratula- 
bundus patrice. Just. Vitahundus castra Iwstiwn. Liv. So sometimes also nouns; 
as, Justitia est obtemperatio scriptis legibus. Cic. Insidim consult. Sail. Domum 
reditionis spe sublata. Caes. Spectatio ludos. Plaut. 

* Obs. 2. (227) Do, reddo, volo, euro, facto, habeo, comperio, with the Accusative 
of a perfect participle, are often used by way of circumlocution, instead of the 
verb of the participle; as, Compertum habeo, for comperi, 'I have lound ;' Ejfec- 
tumdabo, for efficiam. Me milium face, Ter. tor mille. In certain instances there 
is an evident difference between the simple tense of the verb, and the peri- 
phrasis corresponding to the manner in which it is usually interpreted in English. 
Thus if we say, Gladius quern abdiderat, or Gladius quern abditum habebat, the 
translation of either is, ■ The sword which she had concealed.' The latter is the 
phraseology of Livy, describing the suicide of Lucretia, and implies the actual 
possession of the dagger at the time ; the former does not. 

* (228) Sometimes the Gerund is used with ad; as, Tradere ei gentes diripien- 
das, or ad diripiendum, Cic. Rogo, accipio, do aliquid utendum, or ad utendum ; 
Misit mihi librum legendum, or ad legendum. 

Obs. 3. (229) These verbs, euro, habeo, mando, loco, conduco, do, tribuo, mitto, 
&c, are elegantly construed with the participle in dus, instead of the infinitive; 
as, Funus faciendum curdvi, for fieri, or ut fieret ; Columnas &diftcandas locdviL 
Cic. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF GERUNDS. 

XXXII. (230) Gerunds are construed like 
substantive nouns ; as, 

Studendum est mihi, I must study. Scio studendum esse mihi, I know 

Tempus studendi, Time of study. that I must study. 

Aptus studendo, Fit for studying. 

But more particularly : 

I. (231) The gerund in D UM, of the Nominative case, with the 
verb est governs the dative ; as, 

Legendum est mihi, I must read. Moriendum est omnibus, All must die. 

So, Scio legendum esse mihi ; moriendum esse omnibus, <&c, 



262 CONSTRUCTION OF GERUNDS. 

Obs. 1. (232) This gerund always imports obligation or necessity ; and may 
be resolved into oporlet, necesse est, or the like, and the infinitive or the subjunc- 
tive, with the conjunction ut; as, Omnibus est moriendum, or Omnibus necesse 
est mori, or ut moriantur ; or Necesse est ut omnes moriantur. Consulendum est 
tibia me, I must consult for your good ; for Oportet ut consulam tibi. Cic. 

Obs. 2. (233) The dative is often understood ; as, Orandum est, ut sit mens 
sana in corpore sano, sc. tibi. Juv. Hie vincendum, aut moriendum, milites, est, 
sc. vobis. Liv. Deliberandum est diu, quod statuendum est semel, sc. tibi or alicui. 
P.Syr. 

II. (234) The gerund in DI is governed by substantives or adjec- 
tives; as, 

Tempus legendi, Time of reading. Cupidus discendi, Desirous of learning. 

Obs. (235) This gerund is sometimes construed with the genitive plural; as, 
Facultas agrorum condonandi for agros. Cic. Copra spectandi comadiarum, for 
comcedias. Ter. But chiefly with pronouns; as, In castra venerunt sui purgandi 
causa. Caes. Vestri adhortandi causa. Liv. Ejus videndi cupidus, sc. fcemince. 
Ter. The gerund here is supposed to govern the genitive like a substantive 
noun. 

III. (236) The gerund in Z>0 of the Dative case is governed by 
adjectives signifying usefulness or fitness; as, 

Charta utilis scribendo, Paper useful for writing. 

Obs. 1. (237) Sometimes the adjective is understood; as, Non est solvendo, 
scil. par or habilis, He is not able to pay. Cic. 

Obs. 2. (238) This gerund is sometimes governed also by verbs ; as, Adesse 
scribendo, Cic. Aptat habendo ensem, for wearing. Virg. Is finis censendo f ac- 
tus est. Liv. 

IV. (239) The gerund in DUMo? the Accusative case is govern- 
ed by the prepositions ad or inter ; as, 

Promptus ad audiendum, Ready to hear, 

Attentus inter docendum, Attentive in time of teaching. 

Obs. (240) This gerund is also governed by some other prepositions ; as Ante 
domandum. Virg. Ob absolvendum. Cic. Circa movendum. Quinctil. Or it de- 
pends on some verb going before, and then with the verb esse governs the da- 
tive case ; as, Scio moriendum esse omnibus, I know that all must die. Esse is 
often understood. 

V. (241) The gerund in DO of the Ablative case is governed by 
the prepositions «, ab, cle, e, ex, or in ; as, 

Poena a peccando absterret, Punishment frightens from sinning. 

(242) Or without a preposition, as the ablative of manner or 
cause; as, 



CONSTRUCTION OF GERUNDS. 263 

Memoria excolendo augelur, The memory is improved by exercising it 

Defessus sum ambulando, I am wearied with walking. 

Obs. (243) The gerund in its nature very much resembles the infinitive. — 
Hence the one is frequently put for the other ; as, Est lempus legendi, or legere : 
only the gerund is never joined with an adjective, and is sometimes taken in a 
passive sense ; as, Cum Tisidium vocarelur ad imperandum, i. e. ut ipsi impere- 
tur, to receive orders. Sail. Nunc ades ad imperandum, vel ad parendum potius ; 
sic enim anfiqui loquebantur. Cic. i. e. ut tibi imperetur. Urit videndo, i. e. dum 
videtur. Virg. 

Gerunds turned into Participles in dus. 

XXXVL* (244) Gerunds governing the ac- 
cusative are elegantly turned into participles in 
dus, which, like adjectives, agree with their sut>r 
stantives in gender, number and case ; as, 

By the Gerund. By the Participle or Gerundive. 

Pelendum est mihi pacem, "\ Q ^ f Pax est petenda mini. 

Tempus petendi pacem, 1 g g j Tempus petendce pads. 

Ad pelendum pacem, j S s ] Ad petendam pacem. 

A petendo pacem, J o §* [.A petenda pace. 

(245) Obs. 1. In changing gerunds into participles in dus, the 
participle and the substantive are always to be put in the same case in 
which the gerund was ; as, 

Genitive, Iriila sunt consilia urbis delendce, civium trucidandorum, nominis 
Romdni extinguendi. Cic. 

Dat. Perpetiendo labdri idoneus. Colum. Capessenda reipublicce habzlis. 
Tac. Areajirma templis ac porlicibus sustinendis. Liv. Oneri ferendo est, sc. 
aptus or habtlis. Ovid. Nalus miseriis ferendis. Ter. Literis dandis vigildre. 
Cic. Locum oppido condendo capere. Liv. 

Ace and Abl. Ad defendendam Romam ah oppugnanda Capua duces Romdnos 
abstrahere. Liv. Oralidnem Latinam legendis nostris efficies pleniorem. Cic. 

Obs. 2. (246) The gerunds of verbs, which do not govern the accusative, are 
never changed into the participle, except those of medeor, utor, abutor, fruor, 
fungor, and potior; as, Spes potiundi urbe, or potiund& urbis ; but we always 
say, Cupidus subveniendi tibi, and never tui. 



* The Gerunds in Dum, Di, and Do, constitute Rules xxxiii. xxxiv. and 

XXXV. 



264 CONSTRUCTION OF SUPINES. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF SUPINES. 

1. The Supine in um. 

XXXVIL (247) The supine in um is put 
after a verb of motion ; as, 

Abiit deambuldtum, He hath gone to walk. 

So, Ducere cohortes prceddtum. Liv. Nunc venis irrisum dominum ? Quod in 
rem tuam optimum factu arbilror, te id admonitum venio. PJaut. 

Obs. 1. (248) The supine in um is elegantly joined with the verb eo, to ex- 
press the signification of any verb more strongly; as, It se perditum, the same 
with id agit, or operam dat, ut se perdat, He is bent on his own destruction. Ter. 
This supine with iri, taken impersonally, supplies the place of the infinitive pas- 
sive ; as, An credebas illam sine tua opera iri deductum domum ? Which may be 
thus resolved ; An credebas iri (a te or ab aliquo) deductum (i. e, ad deducendum) 
illam domum. Ter. The supine here may be considered as a verbal substantive 
governing the accusative, like the gerund. 

Obs. 2. (249) The supine in um is put after other verbs besides verbs of mo- 
tion ; as, Deditjiliam nuptum ; Cantatum provocemus. Ter. Revocdtus defensum 
patriam ; Divisit copias hiemdtum. J\ep. 

Obs. 3. (250) The meaning of this supine may be expressed by several other 
parts of the verb ; as, Venit ordtum opem ; or, 1. Venit opem orandi causa, or 
opis orandce. 2. Venit ad orandum opem. or ad orandam opem. 3. Venit opi 
orandce. 4. Venit opem oraturus. 5. Venit qui, or ut opem oret. 6. Venit opem 
ordre. But the third and the last of these are seldom used. 

2. The Supine in u. 

XXXVIII. (251) The supine in u is put after 
adjectives implying Ease, Difficulty, Propensity, 
Quality, Fitness, Form, &c. 

Facile dictu, Easy to tell, or to be told. 

So, Nihil dictu fozdum., visuque, h&c limina tangat, intra quce puer est. Juv. 
Difficilis res est inventu verus amicus ; Fas or nefas est dictu ; Opus est scitu. 
Cic. 

Obs. 1. (252) The supine in u, being used in a passive sense, hardly ever 
governs any case. It is sometimes, especially in old writers, put after verbs of 
motion ; as, Nunc obsondtu redeo, from getting provisions. Plaut. Primus cubz- 
tu surgat (villicus,) from bed, po sir emus cubitum eat. Cato. 

Obs. 2. (253) This supine may be rendered by the infinitive or gerund with 
the preposition ad ; as, Difficile cognitu, cognosci, or ad cogrwscendum ; Res fa- 
cilis ad credendum. Cic. 

* Obs. 3. (254) According to the opinion of many grammarians, the Supines 
are nothing else but verbal nouns of the Fourth declension, used only in the Ac- 



CONSTRUCTION OF ADVERBS. 265 

cusative and Ablative cases, and are governed in these cases by prepositions un- 
derstood, the Supine in um by the preposition ad and the Supine in u by the 
preposition in. But this opinion will hardly bear examination ; for why should 
the Supine in um govern the case of its own verb unless it be really a part 
of it? 

* (255) Although in the grammars and dictionaries the Supines of most verbs 
are given by analogy, yet they are seldom found in the classics : instead of them 
are used the Gerunds; Participles in dus and rus ; and ut, with the Subjunctive 
mode. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF INDECLINABLE WORDS. 

I. THE CONSTRUCTION OF ADVERBS. 

XXXIX. (256.) Adverbs qualify verbs, par- 
ticiples, adjectives, and other adverbs ; as, 

Bene scribit, He writes well. For (iter pugnans, Fighting bravely. 

Servus egregie jidllis, A slave remark* Satis bene, Well enough, 

ably faithful. 

Obs. 1. (257) Adverbs sometimes likewise qualify substantives; 
as, 

Homerus plane orator: plane noster, vere Metellus. Cic. So, Hodie mane, 
eras mane, heri mane ,* hodie vesperi, &c. tarn mane, tarn vesptre. 

Obs. 2. (258) The adverb, for the most part in Latin, and always in English, 
is placed near to the word which it qualifies or affects. 

Obs. 3. (259) Two negatives, both in Latin and English, are 
equivalent to an affirmative ; as, 

Nee non senserunt, Nor did they not perceive, i. e. et senserunt, and they did per- 
ceive; Non poteram non examindri metu. Cic. So, non sum nescius, i. e. scio. 
Cic. Or. 1, 11. hand nihil est, i. e. est aliquid. Ter. Eun. 4, 2, 13. nonnulli, i. e. 
aliqui ; nonnunquain, i. e. aliquando ; non nemo i. e. quidam ; nemo non, i. e. quilibet, 
&c. Examples, however, of the contrary of this occur in good authors, both 
Latin and English. Thus, in imitation of the Greeks, two negatives sometimes 
make a stronger negation : Neque ego haud committam, ut, si quid peccalum siet, 
(Xe)fecisse dicas de meet sententia, I will not cause, that, &c. Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 
114. Jura, te non nociturum homini hac de re nemini, for nulli homini. Id. Mil. 
5, 1, 18, ef. Epid. 4, 1,6. & 5, 1, 57. Nolle successum, non Patribus, non consu- 
libus, They did not wish success either to the Patricians, or the Consuls. Liv, 
2, 45. So, nihil iste nee ausus, nee potuit. Virg. M. 9, 428, add. Virg. E. 4, 53, & 
5, 53. Ter. Eun. 5, 9, 47. Ileaut. 1, 1, 11. Nullius rex neque prces, neque manceps 
f actus est. Nep. 25, 6. 

(260) But what chiefly deserves attention in Adverbs, is the degree of compa- 
rison and the mode with which they are joined. 1. Apprime, admodum, vehe- 
menter, maxim e, per quam, valde, opptdd, &c. and per in composition, are usually 
joined to the positive ; as, Utrlque nostrum gratum admodum fee er is, You will do 
what is very agreeable to both of us. Cic. per -quam puerile, very childish; opptdo 
pauci, very few ; perfacile est, &c. In like manner, Varum, midtum, nimium, 
tajitum, quantum, aliquantum ; as, In rebus apertisswiis, nimium longi sumus; pa° 

Z 



266 CONSTRUCTION OF ADVERBS. 

rum firmus, multum bonus. Cic. Adverbs in um are sometimes also joined to 
comparatives,' as, Forma viri aliquantum amplior humana. Liv. 

(261) Quam is joined to the positive or superlative in different senses; as, 
Quam difficile est ! How difficult it is ! Quam crudelis, or Ut crudelis est ! How 
cruel he is ! Flens quam familiarlter , very familiarly. Ter. So, quam severe, 
very severely. Cic. Quam late, very widely. Cses. Tarn multa quam, 6zc. as 
many things as, &e. Quam maximas potest copias armat, as great as possible. 
Sail. Quam maximas gratias agit, quam primum, quam sapissime. Cic. Quam 
quisque pessvne fecit, tarn maxime tutus est. Sail. 

(262) Facile, for haud dubie, undoubtedly, clearly, is joined to superlatives or 
words of a similar meaning; as, Facile doctisstmus, facile princeps, or pracipuus. 
Loxge, to comparatives or superlatives, rarely to the positive ; as, Longe eloquin- 
tisslmus Plato. Cic. Pedlbus longe metier Lycus. Virg. 

2. (263) Cum, when, is construed with the indicative or subjunctive, oftener 
with the latter ; Dum, whilst, or how long, with the indicative; as. Dura hcec 
aguntur ; JEgroto, dum anTina est, spes essedicltur. Cic. Donee erisfelix, multos 
numerabis amlcos. Ovid. Dum and donec, for usqindum, until, sometimes with 
the indicative, and sometimes with the subjunctive; as, Opperior, dum ista cog- 
nosco. Cic. Haud destnam donec perfect ro. Ter. So quoad, for quamdiu, quan- 
tum, quatenus, as long, as much, as far as; thus, Quoad Caiillna fuit in urbe ; 
Quoad tibi aquiun videlV.ur ; quoad possem and liceret ; quoad progredi potuerit 
amentia. Cic. But quoad, until, oftener with the subjunctive ; as, Thessatenicce 
esse statueram, quoad allquid ad me scriberes. Cic. but not always; IS on faciani 

finem rogandi, quoad nunciaJum erit tefecisse. Cic. The pronoun ejus, with fa- 
cere, or fieri, is elegantly added to quoad; as, quoad ejus facere poleris : Quoad 
ejus fieri possit. Cic. Ejus is thought to be here governed by allquid, or some such 
word understood. Quoad corpus, quoad arnmam, for secundum, or quod atCmet 
ad corpus or anunam, as to the body or soul, is esteemed by the best grammarians 
not to be good Latin. 

3. (264) Postqu^m or Posteaquam, after, is usually joined with the indie. 
ante quam, priusquam, before : Si.mul, semulac, simul atque, simul ut, as soon 
as ; Ubi, when, sometimes with the indie, and sometimes with the subj.; as, An- 
tequam dico or dicam. Cic. Simulac persensit. Virg. Simul id videro Cur ionem. 
Cic. H&c ubi dicta dedit. Liv. Ubi semel quis perjuraverit, ei credi posted non 
oportet. Cic. So nje, truly, as, Ngb ego homo sum infelix. Ter. Nee tu, si id fe- 
cisses, 'melius fama: consuluisses. Cic. But .\e, not, with the imperative, or 
more elegantly with the subjunctive; as, iSejura. Plaut. Ne post conf eras cul- 

pam in me. Ter. 2Se tot anno rum felicitatem in unius Jwrce dederis discrunen. Liv. 

4. (265) Quasi, Ceu Taxquam, Perixde, when they denote resemblance, 
are joined with the indicative; Fuit olirn, quasi ego sum, senex. Plaut. Adversi 
rupto ceu quondam turbine venti cemfligunt. Virg. Hgec omnia perinde sunt, ut 
aguntur. But when used ironically, they have the subjunctive ; as, Quasi de 
verbo, non de re laboretur. Cic. 

5. (266) Utixam, o si, ut, for uttnam, I wish, take the subjunctive; as, Uti~ 
nam ea res ei voluptati sit. Cic. mild prateritos refer at si Jupiter annos. Virg. 
Ut ilium dii de&que perdant. Ter. 

6. (267) Ut, when, or after, takes the indicative ; as, Ut discessit, venit. &c. 
ITAlso, for quam, or quornodo, how! as, Ut valet! Ut falsus aiiimi est! Uts&pe 
summa ingenia in occulto latent! Plaut. VOr when it simply denotes resem- 
blance ; as, Ut tide es, ila omnes censes esse. Plaut. fin this sense it sometime* 
has the subjunctive ; as, Ut sementem feceris, ita metes. Cic. 

7. (268) Quix, for cur xox. takes the indie, as, Quin continetis vocem indicem 
stultitice vestra? ? Cic. ^"For Imo, nay, or but, the indie, or imperat. as, Quin est pa- 
ratum argentum ; quin tu hoc audi. Ter. ^For Ut xox, qui, qu.e, quod xox, or 



GOVERNMENT OF ADVERBS. 267 

quo minus, the subjunctive ; as, Nulla tamfacilis res, quin difficilis Jiet, quum in- 
vltus facias. Ter. Nemo est, quin malit ; Facere non possum, quin ad te mittam, 
I cannot help sending ; Nihil abest, quin sim miserrimus. Cic. 

THE GOVERNMENT OF ADVERBS. 

XL. (269) Some adverbs of time, place, and 
quantity, govern the genitive ; as, 

Pridie ejus diei, The day before that day. 

Ubique gentium, Every where. 

Satis est verborum, There is enough of words. 

1. (270) Adverbs of time governing the genit. are, Interea, postea, inde, tunc; 
as, Interea loci, in the meantime ; postea loci, afterwards; inde loci, then; tunc 
temporis, at that time. 2. Of place, Ubi, and quo, with their compounds, ubique, 
ubicunque, ubivis, ubiubi, &c. Also, Eo, hue, huccine, unde, usquam, nusquam, 
longe, ib'tdem ; as, Ubi, quo, quovis, &c. also usquam, nusquam, unde terrarum, or 
gentium ; longe gentium ; ibidem loci, eo audacia, vecordia, miseriarum, &c. to 
that pitch of boldness, madness, misery, &c. 3. Of quantity, Abunde, affatim, 
largiter, nimis, satis, parum, miiiime; as, Abunde gloria, affatim divitidrum, lar- 
giter auri, satis eloquentice, sapiential parum est illi or habet, He has enough of 
glory, riches, &c. Minwie gentium, by no means. 

* (271) Some add Ergo and Instar ; but these are properly indeclinable nouns. 
Ergo, (the Greek Hgya) means ' an account of,' ' for the sake of,' and is similar 
to gratia ; as, ejus victories ergo, Nep. an account of that victory ; honoris ergo, 
Cic. It may be considered in the ablative case by Rule 49. Instar, * similitude,' 
1 likeness,' ' worth,' ' shape,' may be considered in the accusative, and governed 
by ad understood ; as, amo eum instar patris, ' I love him like a father ;' that is, 
ad instar, ' according to the likeness.' Instar mentis equum cedificant, * they 
make a horse as great as a mountain,' that is, ad instar, ' according to the size,' &c. 

* (272) Many ad verbs of place, as, ubi, ubinam, ubivis, quo, quovis, aliquo, us- 
quam, nusquam, &c. are followed by the genitives Gentium, Terrarum, Loci, 
Locorum, which are not in general superfluous, but express an emphasis, as in Eng- 
lish we say, 'where in the world is he?' for 'where is he?' &c., of which the 
former is more emphatical, and implies more astonishment ; as, ubi terrarum sumus, 
1 where in the world are we ?' Nihil est virtute amabilius, quam qui adeptus fueril, 
ubicunque erit gentium, a nobis diligeter, Cic. Nat. Deor. ' Nothing is more lovely 
than virtue, and for him who practices it, in whatever part of the world he may 
be, do we feel the strongest affection.' Quo amentia, Liv. ' to what extent,' or 
' degree of madness.' 

Obs. 1. (273) These adverbs are thought to govern the genitive, because they 
imply in themselves the force of a substantive; as, Potential glori&que abunde 
adeptus, the same with abundantiam gloria ; or res, locus, or nogotium, and a pre- 
position, may be understood ; as, Interea loci, i. e. inter ea negotia loci ; Ubi terra- 
rum, for in quo loco terrarum. 

Obs. 2. (274) We usually say, pridie, postridie, ejus diei, seldom diem ; but 
pridie, postridie Kalendas, Nonas, Idus, ludus Apollindres, natdlem ejus, absolu- 
iionem ejus, &c, rarely Kalenddrum, &c. 

Obs. 3. (275) En and ecce are construed either with the nomina- 
tive or accusative ; as, 
En hostis, or hostem ; Ecce miserum hominem, Cic. Sometimes a dative is 



268 CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS. 

added; as, Ecce tibi Strato. Ter. Ecce duas (scil. aras.) tibi, Daphni. Virg. En 
tibi. Liv. In like manner is construed hem put for ecce ; as, Hem tibi Davum, 
Ter. But in all these examples some verb must be understood. 

XLI. (276) Some derivative adverbs govern 
the case of their primitives ; as, 

Omnium opVime loquitur, He speaks the best of all. 

Convenienier natures, Agreeably to nature. 

Venit obviam ei, He came to meet him. 

Proxime castris, or castra, Next the camp. 

*(277) Thus also, by Rule XI. Omnium opiime, Saepissime omnium, diutis- 
sime omnium, although the superlative of the two last, whence the adverbs come, 
are not used. By Rule XII. congruenter naturce convenienterque vivere. Cic. 
Huic obviam civitas processerat. Cic. 

II. THE CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS. 

1. PREPOSITIONS GOVERNING THE ACCUSATIVE. 

* XLII. (278) The Prepositions ad, adversus, 
adversum, ante, apud, circa, circum, cir titer, cis, 
extra, contra, erg a, extra, infra, inter, intra, jaxta, 
ob, penes, per, pone, post, prceter, prope, propter, se- 
cundum, secus, supra, trans, ultra, usque, versus, 
govern the Accusative. 

2. PREPOSITIONS GOVERNING THE ABLATIVE. 

*XLIII. (279) The prepositions a, ah, abs, 
absque, clam, coram, cum, de, e, ex, palam, prce, 
pro, sine, tenus, govern the Ablative. 

(280) To prepositions governing the ablative is commonly added 
Procul : as, 

Procul domo, far from home ; but here a is understood, which is also often ex- 
pressed ; as, Procul a patria, Virg. Procul ab ostenlatione. Quinct. Culpa est 
procul a me. Ter. 

3. PREPOSITIONS GOVERNING THE ACC AND ABL. 

XLIV. (281) The prepositions in, sub, super, 
and subter, govern the accusative, when motion to 
a place is signified ; but when motion or rest in a 
place is signified, in and sub govern the ablative, 
super and subter either the accusative or ablative. 

IN, when it signifies into, governs the accusative ; when it signi- 
fies in or among, it governs the ablative. 



CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS. 269 

Obs. 1. (282) When prepositions do not govern a case, they are 
reckoned adverbs. 

Such are Ante, circa, clam, coram, contra, infra, intra, juxta, palam, pone, post, 
propter, secus, subter, super, supra, ultra. But in most of these the case seems to 
be implied in the sense ; as, Long o post tempore venit, sc. post id tempus. Adver- 
sus, juxta, propter, secus, secundum, and clam, are by some thought to be always 
adverbs, having a preposition understood when they govern a case. So other 
adverbs also are construed w T ith the ace. or abl. ,• as, Intus cellam, for intra. Liv. 
Intus templo divum, sc. in. Virg. Simul his, sc. cum. Hor. 

Obs. 2. A and e are only put before consonants; ab and ex, 
usually before vowels, and sometimes also before consonants ; as, 

A patre, e regibne ; ab initio, ab rege ; ex urbe, ex parte ; abs before q and t ; 
as, abs te, abs quwis homine. Ter. Some phrases are used only with e ; as, e 
longinquo, e regibne, e vestigio, e re mea est, &c. Some only with ex ; as, Ex 
compacto, ex tempore, magna ex parte, &c. 

Obs. 3. (283) Prepositions are often understood ; as, Devenere locos, scil. ad ; 
It portis, sc. ex. Virg. Nunc id prodeo, scil. ob or propter. Ter. Maria aspera 
juro, scil. per. Virg. Ut se loco movere non possent, scil. e or de. Csbs. Vina 
promens dolio, sci\. ex. Hor. Quid illo facias ? Quidmefet, sc. de. Ter. And 
so in English, Show me the book ; Gel me some paper, that is, to me, for me. We 
sometimes find the word to which the preposition refers, suppressed ; as, Cir- 
cum Concordice,sc.o2dejn. Sail. Round St. Paul's, namely, church; Campum 
Stelldtem divisit extra sortem ad viginti millibus, civium, i. e. civium millibus ad 
viginti millia. Suet. But this is most frequently the case after prepositions in 
composition ; thus, Emiitere servum, scil. manu. Plaut. Evomere virus, scil. ore. 
Cic. Educere copias, scil. castris. Cees. 

XLV. (284) A preposition in composition 
often governs the same case, as when it stands by 
itself; as, 

Adedmus scholam, Let us go to the school. 

Exedmus schola, Let us go out of the school. 

Obs. 1. (285) The preposition with which the verb is compounded, is often 
repeated ; as, Adire ad scholam ; Exire ex schola ; Adgredi aliquid, or ad ali- 
quid ; ingredi oralionem, or in orationem ; inducere anzmum, and in animum ; 
evadere undis and ex undis : decedere de suo jure, decedere via or de via ; expel- 
lere, ejicere, extermindre, extrudere, exturbdre urbe, and ex urbe. Some do not re- 
peat the preposition ; as, Affdri, alloqui, allatrdre aliquem, not ad aliquem. So, 
Alluere urbem ; accolere flumen ; circumvenlre aliquem ; pr&terhe injuriam ; ab- 
dicdre se magistrdtu, (also, abdicdre magistrdtum ;) transducere exercitum Jlu- 
vium, &c. Others are only construed with the preposition ; as, Accurrere ad 
aliquem, adhorturi ad aliquid, incidere in morbum, avocdre a studiis, avertere ab 
incepto, &c. 

Some admit other prepositions ; as, Abire, demigrdre loco; and a, de, ex loco; 
abstrahere aliqutm, a, de, or e conspectu ; Desislere senlentia, a or de sententia ; 
Excidere manibus, de or e manibus, &c. 

Obs. 2. (286) Some verbs compounded with e or ex govern either 
the ablative or accusative ; as, 

z 2 



270 CONSTRUCTION OF INTERJECTIONS CIRCUMSTANCES. 

EgrZdi urbe, or urbem, sc. extra ; egredi extra vallum. Nep. Evadere insidiis 
or insidias. Patrios excedere muros. Lucan. JScelerdta excedere terra. Virg* 
Eldbi ex mariibus ; eldbi pugnam aut vincula. Tac. 

Obs. 3. (287) This rule does not take place, unless when the preposition may 
be disjoined from the verb, and put before the noun by itself; as, Alloquor pa* 
trem, or loquor ad patrem. 

III. THE CONSTRUCTION OF INTERJECTIONS. 

XL VI. (288) The interjections 0, heu, and 
proh, are construed with the nominative, accusa- 
tive, or vocative ; as, 

O vir bonus or bone ! O good man ! Heu me miserum ! Ah wretched me ! 

So, Ovirfortis atque amicus ! Ter. Heu vanitas humdna! Plin. Heu raise' 
randepuer ! Virg. O prceclarum custodem avium (ut aiunt) lupuml Cic. 

XL VII. (289) Hei and vce govern the dative ; 
as, 

Hei mihi! Ah me. V& vobis ! Wo to you! 

Obs. 1. (290) Heus and dhe are joined only with the vocative ; as, Heus Syre. 
Ter. Ohe libelle! Martial. Proh or pro, ah, vah, hem, have generally either the 
accusative or vocative; as, Proh hominum fidem! Ter. Proh Sancte Jupiter ! 
Cic. Hem astutias ! Ter. 

Obs. 2. (291) Interjections cannot, properly, have either concord or govern- 
ment. They are only mere sounds excited by passion, and have no just connex- 
ion with any other part of a sentence. Whatever case, therefore, is joined with 
them, must depend on some other word understood, except the vocative, which 
is always placed absolutely; thus, Heu me miserum ! stands for Heu ! qudm me 
miserum seniio ! Hei mihi ! for Hei ! malum est mihi ! Proh dolor ! for Proh ! 
quantus est dolor ! and so in other examples. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCUMSTANCES. 

The circumstances, which in Latin are expressed in different cases, 
are, 1. The Price of a thing. 2. The Cause, Manner and Instru- 
ment. 3. Place. 4. Measure and Distance. 5. Time. 

1. PRICE. 

XL VIII. (292) The price of a thing is put 
in the ablative ; as, 

Emi librum duobus assibus, I bought a book for two shillings. 

Constztit talento, It cost a talent. 

So, Asse carum est ; vile viginti minis ; auro vemale, &c. Nocet empfa dolore 
voluptas. Hor. Spem pretio non emam. Ter. Plurimi auro veneunt honores. 
Ovid. 



CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCUMSTANCES. 271 

IT (293) These genitives, tanti, quanti, pluris, minoris, are ex- 
cepted ; as, 

Quanti consdtit, How much cost it? Asse elpluris, a shilling and more. 

Obs. 1. (29-1) When the substantive is added, they are put in the ablative ; 
as, parvo pretio, impenso pretio vendere. Cic. 

Obs. 2. (295) Magno, permagno, parvo, paululo, minimo, plurimo, are often 
used without the substantive; as, Permagno constttit, scil. pretio. Cic. Heu 
quanto regnis nox sletit una tuis ? Ovid. Fast. ii. 812. We also say, Emi care, 
carius, carissime ; bene, melius, optime ; male, pejus, vilius, vilissime ; wide, 
care, cestwias : Emit domum prope dimidio carius, qudm cestimdbat. Cic. 

Obs. 3. (296) The ablative of price is properly governed by the preposition 
pro understood, which is likewise sometimes expressed ; as, Dum pro argenteis 
decern aureus unus valeret. Liv. 

2. MANNER AND CAUSE. 

XLIX. (297) The cause, manner, and instru- 
ment are put in the ablative ; as, 

Palleo metu, I am pale for fear. 

Fecit suo more, He did it after his own way. 

Scribo calamo, I write with a pen. 

So, Ardet dolore ; pallescere culpa ; cestudre dubitatione ; gesfire voluptdte or 
secundis rebus : Confectus morbo ; affectus beneficiis, gravissimo supplicio ; in- 
signis pietdte ; deterior licenlia : Pietdte jilius, consiliis pater, amore f rater ; 
hence, Rex Dei gratia: Paritur pax bello. Nep. Procedure lento gradu ; Ac- 
ceptus regio appardtu : Nullo sono convertitur annus. Juv. Jam veniet tacito 
curva senecta pede. Ovid. Percutere securi, defendere saxis, conjigere sagiU 
tis, &c. 

Obs. 1. (298) The ablative is here governed by some preposition understood. 
Before the manner and cause, the preposition is sometimes expressed ; as, De 
more matrum locuta est. Virg. Magno cum metu ; Hac de causa ; Pr& m&rbre, 
formidine, <fec. But hardly ever before the instrument; as, Vulnerdre aliquem 
gladio, not cum gladio ; unless among the poets, who sometimes add a or ab ; as, 
Trajectus ab ense. Ovid. 

Obs. 2. (299) When any thing is said to be in company with another, it is 
called the ablative of concomitancy, and has the preposition cum usually added ; 
as, Obsedit curiam cum gladiis : Ingressus est cum gladio. Cic. 

Obs. 3. (300) Under this rule are comprehended several other circumstances, 
as the matter of which any thing is made, and what is called by grammarians 
the Adjunct, that is, a noun in the ablative joined to a verb or adjective, to ex- 
press the character or quality of the person or thing spoken of; as, Capitolium 
saxo quadrdto constructum. Liv. Floruit acumme ingenii. Cic. Pollet opzbus, 
valet armis, viget memoria, fama nobilis, &c. JEger pcdibus. When we express 
the matter of which any thing is made, the preposition is usually added ; as, 
Templum de marmore, seldom marmoris ,• Poculum ex auro factum. Cic. 

3. PLACE. 

The circumstances of place may be reduced to four particulars. — 
1. The place where, or in which. 2. The place whither, or to 



272 CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCUMSTANCES. 

which. 3. The place whence or from which. 4. The place by, or 
through which. 

AT or IN a place is put in the genitive ; unless the noun be of the 
third declension, or of the plural number, and then it is expressed in 
the ablative. 

TO a place is put in the» accusative ; FROM or BY a place in the 
ablative. 

1. The place Where. 

L. (301) When the place where, or in which, 
is spoken of, the name of a town is put in the 
genitive ; as, 

Yixit Romce, He lived at Rome. 

Mortuus est Londlni, He died at London. 

U(302) But if the name of a town be of the third declension or 
plural number, it is expressed in the ablative ; as, 

Habitat Carthagme, He dwells at Carthage. 

Studuit Parisiis, He studied at Paris. 

Obs. 1. (303) When a thing is said to be done, not in the place it- 
self, but in its neighbourhood or near it, we always use the preposition 
ad or apud ; as, Ad or apud Trojam, At or near Troy. 

Obs. 2. (304) The name of a town, when put in the ablative, is here govern- 
ed by the preposition in understood ; but if it be in the genitive, we must sup- 
ply in urbe or in oppldo. Hence, when the name of a town is joined with an 
adjective or common noun, the preposition is generally expressed : thus, we do 
not say, Ndtus est Roma urbis Celebris : but either Rom% in celebri urbe, 
or in Roma celebri urbe ; or in Roma celebri urbe, or sometimes, Roma celebri 
urbe. In like manner we usually say, Habitat in urbe Carthaglne, with the pre- 
position. We likewise find Habitat Carthaglni, which is sometimes the termina- 
tion of the ablative, when the question is made by ubi ? Thus, At ego aio hoc 
fieri in Gracia, et Carthaglni. Plant. Cas. Prol. 71. Fuere Sicyonijamdiu Dio- 
nysia, the feasts of Bacchus were some time ago celebrated at Sicyon. Id. Cist. 
1, 3, 8, cf. Ps. 4, 2, 38. Neglectum Anxuri presidium. Liv. 5, 8. Convento An- 
tonio Tiburi, having met with Anthony at Tibur. Cic. Att. 16. 3. Nulla Lace- 
damoni tarn est nobilis vidua, qua non ad scenam eat mercede conducia. Nep. 
Praef. Tiburi genltus. Suet. Cal. 8. add. Id. Claud. 34. Sometimes, though 
more rarely, names of towns in the first and second declension are found in the 
ablative; as, Rex Tyro decedit, for Tyri. Justin. 18, 4. Eadem die, qua in Ita- 
lia pugnatum est, et Corintho, et Athenis, et Lacedamone nunciata est victoria. Id. 
20, 3, f. Add. Vitruv. 3, 2, 7. Praef. 8, 3. 

2. The Place Whither. 

LI. (305) When the place whither, or to which, 
is spoken of, the name of a town is put in the ac- 
cusative ; as. 



CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCUMSTANCES. 273 

Venit Romam, He came to Rome. 

Profectus est Athenas, He went to Athens. 

Obs. 1. (306) We find the dative also used among the poets, but more sel- 
dom ; as, Carthagvii nuncios mitlam. Horat. 

Obs. 2. (307) Names of towns are sometimes put in the accusative, after 
verbs of telling and giving, where motion to a place is implied ; as, Romam erat 
nunciatum, The report was carried to Rome. Liv. Hcec nunciant domum Alba- 
ni. Id. Messdnam litems dedit. Cic. 

3. The Place Whence. 

LIL (308) "When the place whence, or from 
which, or the place by or through which, is spoken 
of, the name of a town is put in the ablative ; as, 

Discessit Coriniho, He departed from Corinth. 

Laodicea iter faciebat, He went through Laodicea. 

When motion by or through a place is signified, the preposition per is com- 
monly used ; as, Per Thebas iter fecit. Nep. 

Domus and Rus. 

LIII. (309) Domus and rus are construed the 
same way as names of towns ; as, 

Manet domi, He stays at home. 

Domum revertitur, He returns home. 

Domo arcess'itus sum, I am called from home. 

Vivit rure, or more frequently ruri, He lives in the country. 

Rediit rure, He is returned from the country. 

Abiit rus, He is gone to the country. 

Obs. 1. (310) Humi, militice, and belli, are likewise construed in 
the genitive, as names of towns ; thus, 

Domi et militia, or belli, At home and abroad. Jacet humi, He lies on the 
ground. 

Obs. 2. (311) When Domus is joined with an adjective, we commonly use a 
preposition ; as, In domo paterna, not domi patentee : So Ad domum vaternam : Ex 
domo paterna. Unless when it is joined with these possessives, Mens, tuns, suits, 
noster, vester, regius, and alienus ; as, Domi mece vixit. Cic. Tusc. 5, 39, 4. Apud 
eum sic fui, tanquam domi mece. Cic. Fam. 13, 69. Nonne mavis sine periculo 
domi tu<B esse, quam cum periculo alienee ib. 4, 7. Me domo mea expulistis, Cn. 
Pompeium domum suam compulistis. Cis. Pis. 7. Alius, alium domos suas invl- 
tant. Sail. Jug. 66. add. Liv. 2, 7. Aurum atque argentum, et alia, quce prima du- 
cuntur, domum rcgiam comportant. Sail. Jug. 76. — RUS and rure in the singular, 
joined with an adj. are found without a preposition; as, appropinqua?ite vespere, 
equum conscendit, et rus urbdnum contendit, sc. ad. Justin. 31, 2; quartumque apud 
lapidem suburba.no rure subsliterat. Tac. An. 15, 60. — but never rura in the plural ,* 
as, ubi dilapsi domos, et inrura vestra erdis. Liv. 39. 16. 

Obs. 3. (312) When domus has another substantive in the genitive after it, the 
preposition is sometimes used, and sometimes not ; as, Deprehensus est domi t domo, 
or in domo Ccesaris. 



274 CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCUMSTANCES. 

LIV. (313) To names of countries, provinces, 
and all other places, except towns, the preposition 
is commonly added ; as, 

When the question is made by, 
Ubi ? Natus in Italia, in Latio, in urbe, fyc. 
Quo ? Abiit in Italiam, in Latium, in or ad urbem, tyc. 
Unde ? Rediit ex Italia, e Latio, ex urbe, tyc. 
Qua ? Transit per Italiam, per Latium, per urbem, tyc. 

Obs. 1. (314) A preposition is often added to names of towns ; 
as, In Roma, for Ro?nee ; ad Romam, ex Roma, &c. 

(315) Peto always governs the accusative as an active verb, with- 
out a preposition ; as, Petlvit Egyptum, He went to Egypt. 

Obs. 2. (316) Names of countries, provinces, &c. are sometimes construed without 
the preposition, like names of towns; as, Pompeius Cypri visus est. Cass. Cretcs 
jussit considere Apollo. Virg. Non Lybice, for in Lybici, non ante Tyro, for Tyri. 
Id. ^En. iv. 36. Venit Sardiniam. Cic. Romce, Numidi&que facinora ejus me~ 
moral, for et in Numidia. Sail. 

4. MEASURE AND DISTANCE. 

LV. (317) Measure or distance is put in the 
accusative, and sometimes in the ablative ; as, 

Murus est decern pedes alius, The wall is ten feet high. 

u muIpaLli g J! lta miUia " or triginta mil ' \ The cit y is thirt y miles distant 

Iter, or itinere unius diei, One day's journey. 

Obs. 1. (318) The accusative or ablative of measure is put after 
adjectives and verbs of dimension ; as, Longus, latus, crassus, pro- 
fundus, and alius : Patet, porrigitur, emmet, &c. The names of 
measure are, pes, cubitus, ulna, passus, digitus, an inch ; palmus, a 
span, "an hand-breadth, &c. The accusative or ablative of distance is 
used only after verbs which express motion or distance ; as, Eo, curro, 
absum, disto, &c. The accusative is governed by ad or per under- 
stood, and the ablative by a or ab. 

Obs. 2. (319) When we express the measure of more things than one, we 
commonly use the distributive number: as, Muri sunt denos pedes alti, and some- 
times denum pedum, for denbrum, in the genitive, ad mensuram being understood. 
But the genitive is only used to express the measure of things in the plural num- 
ber. 

Obs. 3. (320) When we express the distance of a place w r here any thing is 
done, we commonly use the ablative ; or the accusative with the preposition ad : 
as, Sex millibus passuum ab urba consedit, or ad sex millia passuum. Caes. Ad 
quintum milliarium, or milliare, consedit. Cic. Ad quintum lapidem. Nep. 

Obs. 4. (321) The excess or difference of measure and distance 
is put in the ablative ; as, 



COMPOUND SENTENCES. 275 

Hoc lignum excedit illud digito. Toto vertice supra est, Virg. Britamiice 
long itiido ejus latitudinem ducentis quadraginta millianbus superaL 

5. TIME. 

L VI. (322) Time when is put in the ablative ; 
as, 

Venit hora tertia, He came at three o'clock. 

*X (323) Time how long is put in the accusative or ablative, but 
oftener in the accusative ; as, 

Mansit paucos dies, He staid a few days. 

Sex mensibus abfuit, He was away six months. 

Obs. 1. (324) When we speak of any precise time, it is put in 
the ablative ; but when continuance of time is expressed, it is put for 
the most part in the accusative. 

Obs. 2. (325) All the circumstances of time are often expressed with a prepo- 
sition ; as, In pr essentia, or in prccsenti, sell, tempore; in or ad prsesens ; Per 
decern annos ; Surgunt de node ; ad horam destinatam ; Intra annum ; Per idem 
tempus, ad Kalendas soluturus ait. Suet. The preposition ad or circa is some- 
times suppressed, as in these expressions, hoc, illud, id, isthuc, setaiis, temporis, 
horse, &c. for hac xtate, hoc tempore, &c. And ante or some other word ; as, 
Annos natus unum fy viginti, sc. ante. Siculi quotannis tributa conferunt, sc. tot 
annis, quot or quotquot stint. Cic. Prope diem, sc. ad, soon ; Opptdum paucis die- 
bus, quibus eb ventum est, expugndium, sc. post eos dies. Cees. Ante diem iertium 
Kalendas Maias accepi tuas litems, for die tertio ante. Cic, Qui diesfuturus esset 
in ante diem octdvum Kalendas Novembris. Id. Exanlediem quintum Kal. Octob. 
Liv. Lacedsemonii septingentos jam annos amplius unis moribus et nunquam mu- 
tatis legibus vivunt, sc. quam per. Cic. We find Prirnum stipendium meruit 
annbrum decern septemque, sc. AtCicus ; for septemdecim annos natus, seventeen 
years old. Nep. 

Obs. 3. (326) The adverb ABHINC, which is commonly used with respect 
to past time, is joined with the accusative or ablative without a preposition; as, 
factum est abliinc biennio or biennium, It was done two years ago. So likewise 
are post and ante ; as, Paucos post annos ; but here eaor id may be understood. 



COMPOUND SENTENCES. 

A compound sentence is that which has more than one nominative, 
or one finite verb. 

A compound sentence is made up of two or more simple sentences 
or phrases, and is commonly called a Period. 

The parts of which a compound sentence consists, are called Mem- 
bers or Clauses. 

In every compound sentence there are either several subjects and one attri- 
bute, or several attributes and one subject, or both several subjects and severa 



276 



CONSTRUCTION OF RELATIVES. 



attributes ; that is, there are either several nominatives applied to the same verb, 
or several verbs applied to the same nominative, or both. 

Every verb marks a judgment, or attribute, and every attribute must have a 
subject. There must, thereiore, be in every sentence or period, as many propo- 
sitions as there are verbs of a finite mode. 



as, 



Sentences are compounded by means of relatives and conjunctions ; 
Happy is the man who loveth religion, and practiseth virtue, 
THE CONSTRUCTION OF RELATIVES. 

LVIL (327) The relative Qui, Quce, Quod, 
agrees with the antecedent in gender, number 
and person ; and is construed through all the 
cases, as the antecedent would be in its place; as, 



Vir qui t 
Fcemina quce, 
Negotium quod, 
Ego qui scribo, 
Tu qui scribis, 
Vir qui scribit, 
Mulier qucB scribit, 
Animal quod currit, 
Vir quern vidi, 
Mulier quani vidi, 
Animal quod vidi, 
Vir cui pa ret, 
Vir cui est similis, 
Vir a quo, 
Mulier ad quam, 
Vir cujus opus est, 
Vir quern misereor, 

cujus misereor, or miseresco. 

cujus me miseret, 

cujus or cuja interest, &c. 



Singular. Plural. 

The man who. 

The woman who. 

The thing which. 

I who write. 

Thou who writest. 

The man who writes. 

The woman who writes. 

The animal which runs. 

The man whom I saw. 

The woman whom I saw. 

The animal which I saw. 

The man w T hom he obeys. 

The man to whom he is like. Viri quibus est similis. 

The man by whom. Viri a quibus. 

The woman to whom. Mulieres ad quas. 

The man whose work it is. Viri quorum opus est. 



Viri qui. 
Fceiiiince qua. 
Negotia quce. 
Nos qui scribimus. 
Vos qui scribitis. 
Viri qui scribunt. 
Mulieres quce scribunt. 
Animalia quae currunt. 
Viri quos vidi. 
Mulieres quas vidi. 
Animalia quce vidi. 
Viri quibus paret. 



>The man whom I pity. 



w 7 hose interest it is, &c. 



(328) If no nominative come between the relative and the verb, 
the relative will be the nominative to the verb. 

(329) But if a nominative come between the relative and the 
verb, the relative will be of that case, which the verb or noun follow- 
ing, or the preposition going before, usually govern. 

Thus the construction of the relative requires an acquaintance with 
most of the foregoing rules of syntax, and may serve as an exercise 
on all of them. 

Obs. 1. (330) The relative must always have an antecedent ex- 
pressed or understood, and therefore may be considered as an adjective 



CONSTRUCTION OF RELATIVES. 277 

placed between two cases of the same substantive, of which the one 
is always expressed, generally the former ; as, 

Vir qui (vir) legit ; vir quern (virum) amo: Sometimes the latter; as, Quam 
auisque nbrit artem, in hac (arte) se exerceat. Cic. Eunuchum, quern dedisti no- 
bis, quas turbas dedit. Ter. sc. Eunuchus. Sometimes both cases are expressed; 
as, Erant omriino duo itinera, quibus itinefibus domo exire possenl. Caes. Some- 
times, though more rarely, both cases are omitted ; as, Sunt, quos genus hoc 
minimejuval, for sunt homines, quos homines, &,c. Uor. 

Obs. 2. (331) When the relative is placed between two substan- 
tives of different genders, it may agree in gender with either of them, 
though most commonly with the former ; as, 

Vultus quern dixere chaos. Ovid. Est locus in carcere, quod Tullidnum appelld- 
tur. Sail. Animal, quern vocamus hominem. Cic. Cogito id quod res est. Ter. 
If a part of a sentence be the antecedent, the relative is always put in the neu- 
ter gender ; as, Pompeius se affiixil, quod mihi est summo dolori, scil. Pompeium 
se affligere. Cic. Sometimes the relative does not agree in gender with the an- 
tecedent, but with some synonymous word implied ; as, Scelus qui, for scelestus. 
Ter. Abundantia edrum rerum, quse morldles prima putant, scil. neuotia. Sail. 
Vel virtus tua me vel vicinilas, quod ego in all qua parte amicitise puto,facit ut te 
moneam, scil. negotium. Ter. In omni Africa, qui agebant ; for in omnibus Afris. 
Sallust. Jug. 89. Non diffidentia futuri, quce imperavisset for quod. lb. 100. 

Obs. 3. (332) When the relative comes after two words of differ- 
ent persons, it agrees with the first or second person rather than the 
third ; as, Ego sum vir, quifacio, scarcely facit. In English it some- 
times agrees with either; as, / am the man, who make, or maketh. 
But when once the person of the relative is fixed, it ought to be conti- 
nued through the rest of the sentence ; thus it is proper to say, " I am 
the man who takes care of your interest," but if I add, " at the ex- 
pense of my own," it would be improper. It ought either to be, " his 
own," or "who take." In like manner, we may say, "I thank you 
who gave, who did love," &c. But it is improper to say, "I thank 
thee, who gave, who did love ;" it should be " who gavest, who didst 
love." In no part of English syntax are inaccuracies committed more 
frequently than in this. Beginners are particularly apt to fall into 
them, in turning Latin into English. The reason of it seems to be our 
applying thou or you, thy or your, promiscuously, to express the second 
person singular, whereas the Latins almost always expressed it by tu 
and tuus. 

Obs. 4. (333) The antecedent is often implied in a possessive ad- 
jective ; as, 

Omnes laud are for tunas meas, qui haberem gnatum tali ingenio prazdilum. Ter. 
Sometimes the antecedent must be drawn from the sense of the foregoing words ; 
as, Came pluit, quern imbrem aves rapuisse feruntur ; i. e. pluit imbrem came, 
quern imbrem, &c. Li v. Si tempus est ullum jure hominis necandi, quce rnulta 
sunt ; scil. iempora. Cic. 

Obs. 5. (334) The relative is sometimes entirely omitted ; as, Urbs antlqua 
fuit: Tyrii tenuere coldni, scil. quam or earn. Virg. Or, if once expressed, is 
afterwards omitted, so that it must be supplied in a different case ; as, Bocchus 

a a 



278 CONSTRUCTION OF RELATIVES, 

cum peditibus, quos films ejus adduxerat, neque in prior e pugna adfuerant, Roma,' 
nos invddunt: for unique in prior e pugna non adfuerant. Sail. In English the 
relative is often omitted, where in Latin it must be expressed ; as, The letter I 
wrote, for the letter which I wrote ; The man 1 love, to wit, whom. But this omis- 
sion of the relative is generally improper, particularly in serious discourse. 

Obs. 6. (335) The case of the relative sometimes seems to depend on that of 
the antecedent ; as, Cum aliquid agas ebrum, quorum consuesti, for qum uconsw- 
esti agere, or quorum aliquid agere consuesti. Cic. Restitue in quern me ac- 
cepisti locum, for in locum, in quo. Ter. And. iv. 1. 58. But such examples 
rarely occur. 

Obs. 7. (336) The adjective pronouns, Me, ipse, iste, hie, is, and idem, in their 
construction, resemble that of the relative qui; as, Liber ejus, His or her book ; 
Vita eorum, Their life, when applied to men ; Vita edrum, Their life, when ap- 
plied to women. By the improper use of these pronouns in English, the mean- 
ing of sentences is often rendered obscure. 

Obs. 8. (337) The interrogative or indefinite adjectives, qualis, quantus, quo- 
tus,&,c. are also sometimes construed like relatives; as, Fades est, qualem decet 
esse sor drum. Ovid. But these have commonly other adjectives either expressed 
or understood, which answer to them; as, Tanta est multitudo, quanlam urbs ca- 
pere potest: and are often applied to different substantives; as, Quale s sunt cives, 
talis est civitas. Cic. 

Obs. 9. (338) The relative who in English is applied only to persons, and which 
to things and irrational animals ; but formerly which was likewise applied to per- 
sons ; as, Our father, which art in heaven ; and whose, the genitive of who, is also 
used sometimes, though perhaps improperly, for of which. That is used indif- 
ferently for persons and things. What, when not joined with a substantive, is 
only applied to things, and includes both the antecedent and the relative, being 
the same with that which, or the thing which; as, That is what he wanted; that 
is, the thing which he wanted. 

Obs. 10. (339) The Latin relative often cannot be translated literally into Eng- 
lish, on account of the different idioms of the two languages; as, Quod cum ita 
esset, When that was so ; not, which when it was so, because then there would 
be two nominatives to the verb was, which is improper. Sometimes the accusa- 
tive of the relative in Latin must be rendered by the nominative in English ; as, 
Quern dicunt me esse ? Who do they say that I am ? not whom. Quern dicunt 
adventdre, Who do they say is coming ? 

Obs. 11. (340) As the relative is always connected with a different verb from 
the antecedent, it is usually construed with the subjunctive mode, unless when 
the meaning of the verb is expressed positively ; as, Aud'ire cupio, qua? legeris, 1 
want to hear, what you have read ; that is, what perhaps or probably you may 
have read ; Audire cupio, qum legisti, I want to hear, what you (actually or 
in fact) have read. 

(341) To the construction of the Relative may be subjoined that of 

the ANSWER TO A QUESTION. 

The answer is commonly put in the same case with the question ; as, 

Qui vocdre ? Geta, sc. vocor. Quid quseris ? Librum, sc. qucero. Quoth 
hora venisti ? Sexta. Sometimes the construction is varied ; as, Cujus est liber ? 
Meus, not mei. Quanti emptus est ! Decern assibus. Damnaiusne esfurti ? Imo 
alio crimine. Often the answer is made by other parts of speech than nouns ; 



CONSTRUCTION OF RELATIVES. 279 

as, Quid agitur ? Statur, sc. a me, a nobis. Quis fecit ? Nescio : Aiunt Petrum 
fecisse. Quomodo vales ? Bene, male. Scripsisfine ? Scripsi,iia, etiam, immo, 
&e. An vidisti ? JNon vidi, non, minime, &c. Chcerea tuam vestem detraxit tibi t 
Factum. Ft ea est iiidutus? Factum. Ter. Most of the Rules of Syntax may 
thus be exemplified in the form of questions and answers. 

* THE RELATIVE WITH THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 

To ascertain when the Relative pronoun should be joined to the Indica- 
tive and when to the Subjunctive mode, is one of the greatest difficulties 
which the Latin language presents to the student of the classics. The 
following Rules will be found, it is believed, to embrace every thing 
important upon the subject. 

* Rule 1. (342) When the Relative clause expresses no sentiment 
of the writer's, but refers that sentiment, directly or indirectly, to the 
persons of whom he is speaking, the Relative must be joined with the 
Subjunctive mode. Thus : Quoniam gemini essent, nee setatis verecun- 
dia discrimenfacere posset, ut Dii quorum tutelse ealoca essent, auguriis 
legerent, qui nomen novae urbi daret, Liv. 1. 6. The relative clause 
expresses a sentiment of the founders of the city, and is much the 
same as if the historian had said, ' That the gods, under whose protec- 
tion they conceived, those places were,' &c. The following passage 
will still further illustrate this distinction. " Thus born and thus elect- 
ed king, he has favoured the meanest sort of mankind, whence he him- 
self is sprung ; and the burdens, which were formerly common, he has 
laid on the principal citizens." These, supposed to be the very words 
of Tarquin, addressed to the Senators, would be thus rendered, " Ita 
natuSj ita creatus rex, fautor infimi generis hominum, ex quo EST 
ipse, omnia oner a, qua communia quondam FUER UNT, in primores 
civitdtis inclinavit.''' But as the historian (Liv. 1. 47.) has not intro- 
duced Tarquin as addressing the senate in his own words, but has 
merely detailed the sentiments which he expressed, the passage reads 
thus, — the verbs being in the subjunctive mode — Ita nalum, ita crea- 
turn regem, fautor em infimi generis hominum, ex quo ipse SIT, 
onera, quce communia quondam FUERINT, inclinasse in primores 
civitatis, He said, " that being thus born," &c. 

* Rule 2. (343) The Relative pronoun is joined to the Subjunctive 
mode, wmen the relative clause expresses the reason, or cause of the 
action, state, or event, and may generally be rendered in English by 
the preposition In, and the imperfect participle. Thus, ' Hannibal did 
wrong in wintering at Capua,' that is, 'because he wintered,' Male 

fecit, Hannibal, qui Capua hiemarit. If we should say, Male 
fecit, qui hiemavit, we impute error to the person who wintered, but 
do not express the error as consisting in his wintering. 

* Rule 3. (344) When the Relative pronoun follows an interrogative 
clause, in which the interrogative is equivalent to an affirmation or ne- 
gation, the relative is joined with the Subjunctive mode. Thus, Quis 



280 CONSTRUCTION OF CONJUNCTIONS. 

est enim, cui non perspicua sint ilia? Cic. * Who is there to whom 
these things are not clear? So also after a negation which expresses 
an affirmation ; as, nemo est, qui hand intelligat, ' there is no man who 
does not understand.' But when a sentence implies a question put for 
information, the Relative takes the Indicative mode; as, Quis est qui 
jEsculapium salutat, Plaut. Quis est qui salutet would signify ' who 
is there that salutes,' implying 4 nobody salutes.' Again, if we say, 
Nemo est qui ita bxistimat, it strictly means, ' he who thinks so is no- 
body,' that is, ' a person of no consequence ;' here nemo est is the pre- 
dicate, and the relative clause, qui ita eocistimat, the subject If we say, 
nemo est qui ita existimet, it means, ' there is no one who thinks so,' 
where nemo is the subject, and the other clause the predicate. 

* Rule 4. (345) The Relative is joined to the Subjunctive mode, 
when, in order to impart greater emphasis, a periphrasis with the verb 
Sum is employed instead of simply the nominative with the principal 
verb. Thus, instead of saying, Nonnulli dicunt, we say, Sunt qui 
dicant, Cic. ' there are persons who say.' This phraseology is employ- 
ed to excite the particular attention of the reader, as the word there is 
frequently employed in English. Fuerint qui censerent, ' there have 
been persons who thought' 

* Rule 5. (346) When Is qui, Ille qui, Hie qui, are used for 
* such,' ' that,' or in other words, when Qui is used for lit ego, Ut tu t 
Ut ille, it is joined with the Subjunctive mode. Atque ill^e dissentio- 
nes erant hujus modi, Quirites,oym . . . pertinerent. Cic. 'The dis- 
sentions were such that,' or 'of that kind that,' &c. 



THE CONSTRUCTION OF CONJUNCTIONS. 

LVIII. (347) The conjunctions, et, ac, atque, 
nee, neque, aut, vel, and some others, couple simi- 
lar cases and modes; as, 

Honora patrem et matrem, Honour father and mother. 

Nee legit nee scribit, He neither reads nor writes. 

Obs. 1. (348) To this rule belong particularly the copulative and 
disjunctive conjunctions; as likewise, qudrn, nisi, prceterquam, an; 
and also adverbs of likeness ; as, ceu, tanquam, quasi, ut, &c. as, 

Nullum praemium a vobis poslulo, prceterquam hujus dill memoriam. Cic. Glo- 
ria virtutem tanquam umbra sequitur. Id. 

Obs. 2. (349) These conjunctions properly connect the different 
members of a sentence together, and are hardly ever applied to single 
words, unless when some other word is understood. Hence, if the 



CONSTRUCTION OF CONJUNCTIONS. 281 

construction of the sentence be varied, different cases and modes may 
be coupled together ; as, 

Interest me a et reipubllcce ; Constltit asse et pluris ; Sive es Ro- 
mce, sive in Epiro ; Decius cum se devoveret, et in mediam aciem ir- 
ruebaL Cic. Vir magni ingenii summdque industrid g Neque per 
vim, neque insidiis. {Sail. Tecum hablta, et nvris, qudm sit tibi 
curta supellex. Pers. 

Obs. 3. (350) When et, aut, vel, sive, or nee, are joined to differ- 
ent members of the same sentence, without connecting it particularly 
to any former sentence, the first et is rendered in English by both or 
likewise; aut or v el, by either ; the first sive, by whether; and the 
first nee, by neither; as, 

Et legit, et scribit ; so, turn legit, turn scribit ; or cum legit, turn scribit, He both 
reads and writes ; Sive legit, sive scribit, Whether he reads or writes ; Jacere 
qua vera, qua. falsa ; lucre-pare qua consules ipsos, qua exercilum> To upbraid 
both the consuls and the army. Liv. 

LIX. (351) Two or more substantives singu- 
lar coupled by a conjunction, (as, et, ac, atque, 
&c.) have an adjective, verb, or relative plural; 
as, 

Petruset Joannes, qui sunt docti, Peter and John, who are learned. 

Obs. 1. (352) If the substantives be of different persons, the verb 
plural must agree with the first person rather than the second, and 
with the second rather than the third ; as, Si tu et Tullia valetis, 
ego et Cicero valemus, If you and Tullia are well, I and Cicero are 
well. Cic. In English, the person speaking usually puts himself last; 
thus, You and I read ; Cicero and I are well; but in Latin the per- 
son who speaks is generally put first ; thus, Ego et tu leglmus. 

Obs. 2. (353) If the substantives are of different genders, the ad- 
jective or relative plural must agree with the masculine rather than 
the feminine or neuter ; as, Pater et mater, qui sunt mortui ; but this 
is only applicable to beings which may have life. The person is some- 
times implied ; as, Athendrum et Cratippi, ad quos, &c. Propter 
summam doctoris auctoritdtem et urbis, quorum alter, &c. Cic. 
Where Athena and urbs are put for the learned men of Athens. So 
in substantives ; as, Ad Ptolemceum Cleopatramque reges legdti 
missi, i. e. the king and queen. Liv. 

Obs. 3. (354) If the substantives signify things without life, the 
adjective or relative plural must be put in the neuter gender; as, 
Divitice, decus, gloria, in ocidis sita sunt. Sail. 

a a2 



282 CONSTRUCTION OF CONJUNCTIONS* 

The same holds, if any of the substantives signify a thing without life ; because 
when we apply a quality or join an adjective to several substantives of different 
genders, we must reduce the substantives to some certain class, under which they 
may all be comprehended, that is, to what is called their Genus. J\ow, the 
Genus or class, which comprehends under it both persons and tilings, is that of 
substantives or beings in general, which are neither masculine nor feminine. To 
express this, the Latin grammarians use the word Negotia. 

Obs. 4. (355) The adjective or verb frequently agrees with the 
nearest substantive or nominative, and is understood to the rest ; this 
is by the figure called Zeugma. 

Et ego et Cicero meus flagitabit. Cic. Sociis et rege recepto* Virg. Et ego in 
culpct, sum, et tu, Both I am in the fault, and you ; or, Et ego et tu es in culpa, 
Both 1 and you are in the fault. Nihil hie nisi carmina, desunt ; or nihil hie 
deestnisi carmina. Omnia, quibus turbari solila erat civ y das, domi discordia, foris 
bellum exortum ; Duo millia et quadringenii casi. Liv. This construction is most 
usual when the different substantives resemble one another in sense ; as, Mens, 
ratio, et consilium, in sentbus est, Understanding, reason, and prudence, is in old 
men. Quibus ipse melque ante Larem proprium vescor, for vescimur. Horat. 

Obs. 5. (356) The plural is sometimes used after the preposition 
cum put for et ; as, 

Remo cam fratre Quirinus jura dabunU Virg. The conjunction is frequently 
understood; as, dam (Etas, metus, magister prohiblbant. Ter. Frons, oculi, vultus 
ssepe mentiuntur. Cic. 

The different examples comprehended under this rule are commonly referred to 
the figure Syllepsis. 



LX. (357) The conjunctions ut, quo, licet, ne, 
vMnam, and dummodo, are for the most part joined 
to the subjunctive mode; as, 

Lego ut discam, I read that I may learn. 

Utmam saperes, I wish you were wise. 

Ohs. 1. (358) All interrogates, when placed indefinitely, have 
after them the subjunctive mode. 

Whether they be adjectives, as, Quanta s,qualis, quotus, quotuplex, uter ; Pro- 
nouns, as, quis fy cvjas ; Adverbs, as, Ubi. quo, wide, qua, quorsum, quamdzu, 
quamdudum, quamprzdem, quoties, cur, quare, quamobrem, dum, utrum, quomodo, 
qui, ut, qudm, quantopere ; or Conjunctions, as, ne, an, anne, annon : Thus, Quis 
est? Who is it? Nescio quis sit, I do not know who it is. An venturus est! 
Nescio, dubito, an venturus sit. Vides ut alta stet nive candidum Soracte ? Hor. 
But these words are sometimes joined with the indicative; as, Scio quid ego. 
Plaut. Hand scio, an amat. Ter. Vide avaritia quidfacit. Id. Vides qudm turpt 
est. Cic. 

V (359) In like manner the relative QUI in a continued discourse; as, Nihil 
est quod Deus efficere nonpossiU Quis est, qui utilia fugiat ? Cic. Or when joined 
with quippe or utpote ; Neque Antonius procul aberat, utpvte qui sequeretur, 



CONSTRUCTION OF CONJUNCTIONS. 283 

&c. Sail. But these are sometimes, although more rarely, joined with the indi- 
cative. So, est qui, s"nt qui, est quando or ubi, &c. are joined with the indica- 
tive or subjunctive. 

Note. Haud scio an recte dixerim is the same with dico, affirmo. Cic. 

Obs. 2. (360) When any thing doubtful or contingent is signified, 
conjunctions and indefinites are usually construed with the subjunctive ; 
but when a more absolute or determinate sense is expressed, with the 
indicative mode ; as, If he is to do it ; Although he was rich, &c. 

Obs. 3. (361) ETSI,TAMETSI and TAMENETSt, QUANQUAM, in the 

beginning of a sentence, have the indicative; but elsewhere they also take the 
subjunctive; ETIAMS1 and QUAMVIS commonly have the subjunctive, and 
UT, although, always has it; as, Ut quceras, non reperies. Cic. QUONIAM, 
QUANDO, QUANDOQUIDEM, are usually construed with the indicative : SI, 
SIN, NE, NISI, S1QUIDEM, QUOD, and QUIA, sometimes with the indicative, 
and sometimes with the subjunctive. Dum, for dummodo, provided, has always 
the subjunctive; as, Oderint dum metuant. Cic. And QUIPPE, for nam, al- 
ways the indicative ; as, Quippe vetor fatis. 

Obs. 4. (362) Some conjunctions have their correspondent conjunc- 
tions belonging to them; so that, in the following member of the 
sentence, the latter answers to the former: thus, when etsi, tametsi, or 
quamvis, although, are used in the former member of a sentence, tamen, 
yet or nevertheless, generally answers to them in the latter. In like 
manner, Tarn, — quam ; Adeo or ita, — ut: In English, As, — as, or so ; 
as, Etsi sit liberalis tamen non est profusus, Although he be liberal, 
yet he is not profuse. So priiis or ante, — quam. Jn some of these, 
however, we find the latter conjunction sometimes omitted, particularly 
in English. 

Obs. 5. (363) The conjunction ut is elegantly omitted after these 
verbs, Volo, nolo, malo, rogo, precor, censeo, suadeo, licet, oportet, ne- 
cesse est, and the like; and likewise after these imperatives, Sine,fac t 
ox facito ; as, Ducas volo hodie uxor em ; Nolo mentidre ; FaccogUes. 
Ter. In like manner ne is commonly omitted after cave; as, Cave 
facias. Cic. Post is also sometimes understood ; thus, Die octavo, 
quam creatus erat. Liv. 4, 47, scil. post. And so in English, See you 
do it ; I beg you would come to me, scil. that. 

Obs. 6. (364) Ut and quod are thus distinguished : ut denotes the final cause, 
and is commonly used with regard to something future; quod marks the efficient 
or impulsive cause, and is generally used concerning the event or thing done ; as, 
Lego ut discam, I read that I may learn ; Gaudeo quod legi, I am glad that or be- 
cause 1 have read. Ut is likewise used after these intensive words, as they are 
called, Adeo, ita, sic, tarn, talis, tantus, tot, &c. 

Obs. 7. (365) After the verbs timeo, vereor, and the like, ut is 
taken in a negative sense for ne non, and ne in an affirmative sense ; 
as, 

Timeo ne facial, I fear he will do it ; Timeo ut faciat, I fear he will not do it. 
Id paves ne ducas tu illam, tu autem ut ducas. Ter. Ut sis vitdlis, metuo. Hor. 



284 CONSTRUCTION OF COMPARATIVES, 

Timeo utf rater vivat, will not live; — ne f rater moriatur, will die. But in some 
few examples they seem to have a contrary meaning. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF COMPARATIVES. 

LXL (366) The comparative degree governs 
the ablative, (when Quam is omitted); as, 

Dulcior melle, sweeter than honey. Prozsfantior auro, better than gold. 

Obs. 1. (367) The positive with the adverb magis, likewise go- 
verns the ablative ; as, Magis dilecta luce. Virg. 

The ablative is here governed by the preposition pra understood, which is 
sometimes expressed ; as, Fortior pra cceteris. We find the comparative also 
construed with other prepositions ; as, immanior ante omnes. Virg. 

Obs. 2. (368) The comparative degree may likewise be construed 
with the conjunction quam, and then, instead of the ablative, the noun 
is to be put in whatever case the sense requires ; as, 

Dulcior quam mel, scil. est. Amo te magis quam ilium, I love you more than 
him, that is, quam amo ilium, than I love him. Amo te magis quam ille, I love 
you more than he, i. e. quam ille amat, than he loves. Plus datur a me quam 
illo, sc. ah. 

Obs. 3. (369) The conjunction quam is often elegantly suppressed 
after amplius and plus ; as, 

Vulnerantur amplius sexcenti, scil. quam. Caes. Plus quingentos colaphos in- 
fr'egit mihi, He has laid on me more than five hundred blows. Ter. Castra ab 
urbe haud plus quinque millia passuum locant, sc. quam. Liv. 

(370) Quam is sometimes elegantly placed between two compara- 
tives ; as, 

Triumphus clarior quam gratior, Liv. Or the prep, pro is added ; as, Prselium 
atrocius, quam pro numero pugnantium editur. Liv. 

(371) The comparative is sometimes joined with these ablatives, 
opinione, spe, cequo, justo, dicto ; as, 

Credibili opinione major. Cic. Credibili fortior. Ovid. Fast. iii. 618. Gravius 
aquo. Sail. Dicto citius. Virg. Majbra credibili tulimus. Liv. They are often 
understood ; as, Liberius vivebat, sc. justo, too freely. Nepos. 2, 1. 

(372) Nihil is sometimes elegantly used for nemo or nulli ; as, 

Nihil vidi quidquam laitius, for neminem. Ter. Crasso nihil perfectius. Cic. 
Asperius nihil est humili, cum surgit in altum. So, quid nobis laboriosius, for quis, 
&c. Cic. We say, inferior patre nulla, re, or quam pater. The comparative is 
sometimes repeated, or joined with an adverb; as, Magis magisque, plus plusque, 
minus minusque, carior cariorque ; Quotidie plus, indies magis, semper candidior 
candidiorque, &c. 



ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 285 

Obs. 4. (373) The relation of equality or sameness is likewise 
expressed by conjunctions ; as, Est tarn doctus qudm ego, He is as 
learned as I. Animus erga le idem est ac fuit. Ac and alque are 
sometimes, though more rarely, used after comparatives; as, Nihil est 
magis verum atque hoc. Ter. 

Obs. 5. (374) The excess or defect of measure is put in the abla- 
tive after comparatives; and the sign in English is by, expressed or 
understood ; (or more shortly, the difference of measure is put in the 
ablative ;) as, 

Est decern digitis altior qudm frater, He is ten inches taller than his brother, or 
by ten inches. Altero lanto major est fratre, i. e. duplo major, He is as big again 
as his brother, or twice as big. Sesquipede minor, a foot and a half less ; Altero 
tanto, aut sesquimdjor, as big again, or a half bigger. Cic. Ter tanto pejor est ; 
Bis tanto arnici sunt inter se, qudm priks. Plaut. Quinquies tanto amplius, qudm 
quantum licitum sit, civitattbus imperdvit, five times more. Cic. To this may be 
added many other ablatives, which are joined with the comparative, to increase 
its force; as, Tanto, quanto, quo, eo, hoc, 7nulto, paulo, nimio, &c. thus, Quo plus 
habent, eo plus cupiunt, The more they have, the more they desire. Quanto me- 
lior, tanto felicior, The better, the happier. Quoque minor spes est, hoc magis 
ille cupit. Ovid. Fast. ii. 766. We frequently find multo, tanto, quanto, also joined 
with superlatives; Multo pulcherr imam earn haber emus. Sail. Multoque id maxi- 
mum fuit. Li v. 

THE ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 

LXII. (375) A Substantive and a Participle 
are put in the Ablative, when their case depends 
on no other word ; as, 

c 7 • . r • . . / ( The sun rising, or while the sun riseth, darkness 
Sole onente, fugiunt tenebrce, < a-,^ „„„ T 

,J ° ' ( hies away. 

^ ^ . 7 ,- \ Our work being finished, or when our work is 

Opereperacto.ludemus, J finished, we will play. 

So, Dominante libidine, temperantice nullus est locus ; Nihil amicitia prcestabi- 
lius est, excepta virtuie ; Oppressd libertate patrice, nihil est quod speremus am- 
plius ; Nobilium vita victuque mutato, mores mvtdri civitdtum puto. Cic. Pa- 
rumper silentium et quiesfuit, nee Etruscis, nisi cogerenlur, pugnam inituris, et 
dictatore arcem Romdnam respectante, ac ab avguribus, simul aves rite admisis- 
sent,ex composito toller etur signum. Li v. Bellice, depositis clypeo paulisper et 
hasta, Mars ades. Ovid, Fast. iii. 1. 

Obs. 1. (376) This ablative is called Absolute, because it does not 
depend upon any other word in the sentence. 

For if the substantive with which the participle is joined, be either the nomi- 
native to some following verb, or be governed by any word going before, then 
this rule does not take place; the ablative absolute is never used, unless when 
different persons or things are spoken of; as, Milites, hostibus victis, redierunt. 
The soldiers, having conquered the enemy, returned. Hostibus victis, may be 
rendered in English several different ways, according to the meaning of the sen- 



586 ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 

tenoe with which it is joined ; thus, 1. The enemy conquered, or being conquered. 
2. When or after the enemy is or was conquered, 3. By conquering the enemy. 
4. Upon the defeat of the enemy } fyc. 

* (377) Though an independent substantive, joined to a participle, be generally 
put in the ablative in Latin, it is sometimes with peculiar elegance and preci- 
sion, put under the government of the verb in the succeeding clause. Thus, 
'Having taken Regulus prisoner they send him to Carthage.' Regidum captum 
Carthaginem miserunt. Here Regutum is governed by miserunt. There are not 
wanting examples, however, to justify another phraseology, namely, Regulo capto, 
eum Carthaginem miserunt. But the latter form of expression is much less precise, 
lor it does not so clearly signify, that the person taken was the person sent ; as 
the pronoun eum might refer to some other person. 

Obs. 2. (378) The perfect participles of deponent verbs are not 
used in the ablative absolute; as, Cicero locutus hcec consedit, never, 
his locirfis. The participles of common verbs may either agree in 
case with the substantive before them, like the participles of deponent 
verbs, or may be put in the ablative absolute, like the participles of 
passive verbs; as, Romdni adepti libertdtem fioruhrunt ; or Romdni, 
libertdte adeptd, jloruerunt. But as the participles of common verbs 
are seldom taken in a passive sense, we therefore rarely find them 
used in the ablative absolute. 

Obs. 3. (379) The participle existente or existentibus is fre- 
quently understood; as, Ccesare duce, scil. existente. His consult- 
bus, scil. existentibus. Invito, Minerva, sc. existente, against the 
grain ; Crassd Minerva, without learning. Hor. Magistrd ac duce 
naturd ; vivis fratrlbus ; te hortatore ; Ccesare impulsore, &c. 
Sometimes the substantive must be supplied ; as, Nondum comperto, 
quam regionem hostes pelissent, i. e. cum nondum compertum esset. 
Liv. Turn demum palam facto, sc. negotio. Id. Excepto quodnon 
simul esses, ccetera Icetus. Hor. Parto quod avebas. Id. In such 
examples negotio must be understood, or the rest of the sentence 
considered as the substantive, which perhaps is more proper. Thus 
we find a verb supply the place of a substantive ; as, Vale dicto, 
having said farewell. Ovid. 

Obs. 4. (380) We sometimes find a substantive plural joined with 
a participle singular ; as, Nobis presente. Plaut. Absente nobis. 
Ter. We also find the ablative absolute, when it refers to the same 
person with the nominative to the verb ; as, me duce, ad hunc voli 
finem, me millte, veni. Ovid. Amor. ii. 12. 12. Lcetos fecit se con- 
sulefastos. Lucan. v. 384. Populo spectante fieri credam, quicquid 
me conscio faciam. Senec. de Vit. Beat. c. 20. But examples of this 
construction rarely occur. 

Obs. 5. (381) The ablative called absolute is governed by some 
preposition understood ; as, a, ab, cum, sub, or in. We find the prepo- 
sition sometimes expressed ; as, Cum diis juvantibus. Liv. The no- 
minative likewise seems sometimes to be used absolutely ; as, Pernio 
ciosd libidine paulisper usus, infirmitas natures accusdtur. Sail. Jug, 1, 



ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 287 

Obs. 6. (382) The ablative absolute may be rendered several dif- 
ferent ways; thus, Superbo regnante, is the same with cum, dum, or 
quando Superbus regnabat. Opere peracto, is the same with Post 
opus peractum, or Cum opus est peractum. The present participle, 
when used in the ablative absolute, commonly ends in e. 

Obs. 7. (383) When a substantive is joined with a participle, in 
English, independent of the rest of the sentence, it is expressed in 
the nominative ; as, Illo descendente. He descending. But this man- 
ner of speech is seldom used except in poetry. 



II. FIGURES OF SYNTAX. 



A figure is a manner of speaking different from 
the ordinary and plain way, used for the sake of 
beauty or force. 

The Figures of Syntax may be reduced to four 
kinds, Ellipsis, Pleonasm, Enallage, and Hyper- 
baton. 

l. ELLIPSIS. 

* (384) Ellipsis is the omission of some word or words necessary 
to complete the regular Syntax. When the word to be supplied is not 
to be found in any part of the sentence, the Ellipsis is termed strict. 
It affects all the parts of speech ; thus, 

*(385) 1. The Noun; as, Aiunt, supply homines. 2. The Ad- 
jective; as, Non est oneri ferendo, supply aptus. 3. The Pronoun; 
as, Studendum est, supply mihi. 4. The Verb ; as, Quid multa^su])- 
ply dicam. 5. The Participle ; as, Saturno rege, supply ente or ex- 
istente. 6. The Adverb; as, Vulnerantur amplius sexcenti, Caes. 
supply qudm. 7. The Interjection ; as, Me miserum, supply O or heu. 
8. The Conjunction ; as will be seen under Asyndeton. 

* (386) The Ellipsis is termed lax or loose when the word omitted 
may be supplied from some part of the sentence ; as, Virtus (cogebat) 
et honestas, (cogebat) et pudor cum consulibus esse cogebat. Cic. 
Under strict Ellipsis are contained the figures, Apposition, Synec- 
doche and Asyndeton. Under loose Ellipsis, the figures Zeugma, 
Syllipsis and Prolipsis. 

* (387) Apposition is, when, in putting two substantives together 
in the same case, existens, or the obsolete ens, or some other part of 
the verb Sum with a relative, is understood : as, Urbs Roma, i. e. 
urbs existens or ens, or qua est Roma. 

* (338) Synecdoche is, when, instead of an Ablative of the 
part, or of the adjunct, an Accusative is used, the Greek mr*, secun- 
dum, or quod attinet ad, being understood : as, Expleri (quod attinet 
ad, or secundum) mentem nequit. Virg. 



FIGURES OF SYNTAX. 289 

* (389) Asyndeton is the omission of a conjunction : as, Abiii, 
excessit, evasit, eriipit, Cic. scil. et. 

* (390) Zeugma is, when an Adjective or Verb referring to dif- 
ferent substantives, is expressed to the last only, with which it agrees, 
being understood to the rest : as, Et genus, et virtus, nisi cum re, 
vilior alga est. Hor. 

* (391) Syllepsis is, when the adjective or verb, joined to differ- 
ent substantives, agrees with the more worthy. In gender the Mas- 
culine is the more worthy : as, Ut templi tetigere gradus, procumbit 
uterque pronus, humi, Ovid. i. e. Deucalion et Pyrrlia. In person the 
First is the more worthy : as, Sustulimus manus et ego et Balbus, 
Cic. 

* (392) Prolepsis is, when the parts, differing in number or in 
person from the whole, are placed after it, the verb or the adjective 
not being repeated ; as, Boni quoniam convenimus ambo, tu calamos 
inflare leves, ego dicer e versus, Virg. i. e. tu convenisti bonus cala- 
mos injlare, ego conveni, &c. 

2. PLEONASM. 

* (393) Pleonasm adds unnecessary words; as, Video cculis, < I 
see with my eyes ;' Sic ore locuta est, Virg. • Thus she spoke with 
her mouth.' Under Pleonasm are comprehended, Parelcon, Polysyn- 
deton, Hendiadys, and Periphrasis. 

* (394) Parelcon is the addition of an unnecessary syllable or 
particle, to Pronouns, Verbs, and Adverbs, chiefly, perhaps, for the 
sake of emphasis : as, egomet, agedum, fortassean. 

* (395) Polysyndeton, is a redundancy of conjunctions : as, Und, 
Eurusque Notusque ruunt, creberque procellis, Virg. 

* (396) Hendiadys expresses one thing as if it were two : as, 
Pateris libamus et auro, Virg. for aureis pater is. 

* (397) Periphrasis is, when several words are used to express 
one thing : as, Urbs Troj&, for Troja. Teneri fcztus ovium, for 
agni. 

* (398) Quod si often occurs at the beginning of a period for Si. 
In such cases, however, quod seems to refer to what precedes, to con- 
firm the connexion and to promote perspicuity: it cannot, therefore be 
strictly redundant. It is an accusative with propter or ad or quod at- 
tinet ad understood, and may often be translated 'thence,' • '. because,' 

3. ENALLAGE. 

* (399) Enallage, in a general sense, is the change of words, or 
of their accidents, one for another. There are various kinds of it : 

Bb 



290 FIGURES OF SYNTAX. 

viz. Antimeria, Enallage strictly so called, Heterosis, and AntiptG- 
sis. To Enallage may likewise be referred Syn&sis, Anacoluthon. 
Hellenismus, and Archaismus. 

* (400) Antimeria puts one part of speech for another : as, the 
noun for the pronoun ; Si quid in Flacco viri est, Hor. for in me, as 
Horace is speaking of himself. 

*(401) Enallage, strictly so named, is when one word is sub- 
stituted for another, the part of speech not being changed ; as Noun 
for Noun, Verb for Verb, &c. : thus, the Noun substantive for the 
Noun adjective ; Exercitus victor, for victoriosus. 

* (402) Heterosis uses one Accident, especially of a noun, pro- 
noun, or verb, for another : as, nos, nobis, noster, for ego, mihi, 
mens. 

* (403) Antiptosis uses one case for another : as the Nominative 
for the Accusative : Uxor invicti Jovis esse nescis, Hor. for te esse 
uxorem. 

* (404) Synesis is when the construction refers to the sense, 
rather than to the precise nature of a word : as, Clamor populi, mi- 
raniium quid rei est, Liv. for mirantis. 

* (405) Anacoluthon is when the Consequents do not agree with 

the Antecedents : as, Nan nos omnes lucro est, Ter. in 

which the author began as if he intended to say lucro habemus, and 
ended as if he had said nobis omnibus. As the sentence is, there is no 
verb to which nos omnes is a nominative. 

* (406) Hellenismus, or Gr^cismus, is in imitation of Greek 
construction ; thus, abstine irdrum. Hor. for ab ird. 

* (407) Archaism is when an obsolete construction is used. 
Many examples of this figure will be found in the first book of Livy : 
e. g. the formulas of the heralds in declaring- war. 



4. HYPERBATON. 

(408) Hyper baton is the transgression of that order or arrange- 
ment of words, which is commonly used in any language. It is chiefly 
to be met with among the poets. The various sorts into which it is 
divided, are Anastrophe, Hysteron proteron, Hypalldge, Synchesis, 
Tmesis, and Parenthesis. 

1. (409) Anastrophe is an inversion of words, or the placing of 
that word last which should be first; as, Italiam contra; His accensa 
super; Spemque metumque inter dubii; for contra Italiam, super 
his, inter spem, &c. Virg. Terram sol facit are, for are-facit. 
Lucret. 



ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION. 29 1 

2. (410) Hysteron proteron is the placing in the former part of 
the sentence that which, according to the sense, should be in the latter ; 
as, Valet atque vivit, for vivit atque valet. Ter. 

3. (411) Hypallage is an exchanging of cases; as, Dare das si- 
bus auslros, for dare classes austris. Virg. 

4. (412) Synchesis is a confused and intricate arrangement of 
words ; as, Saxa vocant Itali mediis quce in flucllbus aras ; for Quce. 
saxa in mediis fluctlbus Itali vocant aras. Virg. This occurs parti- 
cularly in violent passion ; as, Per tibi ego hunc jurofortem castum- 
que cruorem. Ovid. Fast. ii. 841. 

5. (413) Tmesis is the division of a compound word, and the inter- 
posing of other words betwixt its parts ; as, Septem subjecta irioni 
gens, for Septentrioni. Virg. Quce meo cunque ammo libitum est 
facere, for qucecunque. Ter. 

6. (414) Parenthesis is the inserting of a member into the body 
of a sentence, which is neither necessary to the sense, nor at all affects 
the construction ; as, Tityre, dum redeo, (brevis est \'m,)pasce capellas. 
Virg. 

III. (415) ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION. 

The difficulty of translating either from English into Latin, or from 
Latin into English, arises in a great measure from the different arrange- 
ment of words, which takes place in the two languages. 

In Latin the various terminations of nouns, and the inflection of ad- 
jectives and verbs, point out the relation of one word to another, in 
whatever order they are placed. But in English the agreement and 
government of words can only be determined from the particular part 
of the sentence in which they stand. Thus in Latin, we can either 
say, Alexander vicit Barium, or Darlum vicit Alexander, or Alexan- 
der Darium vicit, or Darlum Alexander vicit ; and in each instance 
the sense is equally obvious : but in English we can only say, Alexan- 
der conquered Darius. This variety of arrangement in Latin gives it 
a great advantage over the English, not only in point of energy and 
vivacity of expression, but also in point of harmony. We sometimes, 
indeed, for the sake of variety and force, imitate in English the inver- 
sion of words which takes place in Latin ; as, Him the Eternal hurVd. 
Milton. Whom ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you. But 
this is chiefly to be used in poetry. 

With regard to the proper order of words to be observed in translat- 
ing from English into Latin, the only certain rule which can be given 
is to imitate the Classics. 

The order of words in sentences is said to be either simplf or artifi- 
cial; or, as it is otherwise expressed, either natural ov oratoriaL 



292 ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION. 

The Simple or Natural order is, when the words of a sentence are 
placed one after another, according to the natural order of Syntax. 

Artificial or Oratorial order is, when words are so arranged, as to 
render them most striking or most agreeable to the ear. 

All Latin writers use an arrangement of words, which appears to 
us more or less artificial, because different from our own, although to 
them it was as natural as ours is to us. In order, therefore, to render 
any Latin author into English, we must first reduce the words in Latin 
to the order of English, which is called the Analysis, or Resolution 
of sentences. It is only practice that can teach one to do this with 
readiness. However, to a beginner, the observation of the following 
rule may be of advantage. 

Take first the words which serve to introduce the sentence, or show- 
its dependence on w T hat went before ; next the nominative, together 
with the words which it agrees with or governs ; then, the verb and 
adverbs joined with it ; and lastly, the cases which the verb governs, 
together with the circumstances subjoined, to the end of the sentence; 
supplying through the whole the words which are understood. 

If the sentence is compound, it must be resolved into the several 
sentences of which it is made up ; as, 

Vale igitur, mi Cicero, tibique persuade esse te qiddem mihi carissimum ; sed 
multo fore caridrem, si talibus monumentis prceceptisque Icetabere. Cic. Off. lib. 
3. fin. 

Farewell then, my Cicero, and assure yourself that you are indeed very dear 
to me; but shall be much dearer, if you shall lake delight in such writings and 
instructions. 

This compound sentence maybe resolved into these five simple sentences; 
I. Igitur, mi, (fili) Cicero, (tu) vale : 2. et (tu) persuade tibi (ipse) te esse quidem 
Cfllium) carissimum mihi : 3. sed (tu persuade tibi ipsi te)fore (filium) caridrem 
(mihi in) multo (negotio): 4. si (tu) Icslabere talibus monumentis : 5. et (si tu laeta- 
bere taiibus) pr&ceptis. 

1. Fare {you) well then my (son) Cicero : 2. and assure (you) yourself that you 
are indeed (a son) very dear to me : 3. but (assure you yourself that you) shall be 
(a son) much dearer (to me): 4. if you shall take delight in such writings : 5. and 
(if you shall take delight in such) instructions. 

It may not be improper here to exemplify Analogical Analysis, as it 
is called, or the analysis of words, from the foregoing sentence, Vale 
igitur, &c. thus, 

Vale, scil. tu; Fare (thou) well: second person singular of the imperative 
mode, active voice, from the neuter verb, valeo, valere, valui, valiturus, to be in 
health, of the second conjugation, not used in the passive. Vale agrees in the 
second person singular with the nominative tu, by the third rule of syntax. 

Igitur, then, therefore ; a conjunction, importing some inference drawn from 
what went before. 

Mi, voc. jing. masc.of the adjective pronoun, mens, -a, -urn, my ; derived from 
the substantive pronoun Ego, agreeing with Cicero, by Rule 2. Cicero, voc, 
sing, from the nominative Cicero, -orris, a proper noun of the third declension. 



ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION. 293 

Et, and ,• a copulative conjunction, which connects the verb persuade with the 
verb vale, by Rule 59. We turn que into el, because que never stands by itself. 

Persuade, scil. tu, persuade thou ; second person singular of the imperative ac- 
tive, from the verb persua-deo, -dire, -si, -sum, to persuade ; compounded of the 
preposition per, and suadeo, -si, -sus, to advise; used impersonally in the pas- 
sive ; thus, Persuadeter mihi, I am persuaded ; seldom or never Ego persuadeor. 
We say, however, in the third person, Hoc persuadetur mihi, I am persuaded of 
this. 

Tibi, dat. sing, of the personal pronoun tu, thou ; governed by persuade, accord- 
ing to Rule 17. Te, accusative sing, of tu, put before esse, according to Rule 4. 

Esse, present of infinitive, from the substantive verb sum, esse,fui, to be. 

Quidem, indeed; an adverb, joined with caris.nmum or esse. 

Carissimum, accusative sing. masc. from carrissimus, -a, -urn, very dear, dear- 
est, superlative degree of the adjective carus, -a, -urn, dear : Comparative degree, 
carior, carius, dearer, more dear; agreeing with te or jilium understood, by Rule 
2. and put in the accusative by Rule 5. 

Mihi, tome ; dat. sing, of the substantive pronoun Ego,l; governed by caris- 
simum, by Rule 12. 

Sed, but; an adversative conjunction, joining esse and fore. 

Fore, the same with esse fuiurum, to be, or to be about to be, infinitive of the 
defective verb forem, -res, -ret, &c governed in the same manner with the fore- 
going esse, thus, te fore, Rule 4. or thus, esse sed fore. See Rule 59. 

Multo, scil. negolio, ablat. sing. neut. of the adjective mullus, -a, -um, much, 
put in the ablative, according to Observation 5. Rule 61. But multo here may be 
taken adverbially in the same manner with much in English. 

Cariorem, accus. sing. masc. from carior, -us, the comparative of carus, as be- 
fore : agreeing with te or Jilium understood. Rule 2. or Rule 5. 

Si, if; a conditional conjunction, joined either with the indicative mode, or 
with the subjunctive, according to the sense, but oftener with the latter. See 
Rule 60. Obs. 2. 

Lcetabere, thou shalt rejoice ; second person singular of the future of the indica- 
cative, from the deponent verb l&tor,lcetatus, latari, to rejoice. Future, Icet-dbor, 
-dberis or abere, -abitur, &c. 

Talibus, ablat. plur. neut. of the adjective talis, tale, such ; agreeing with monu- 
mentis, the ablat. plur. of the substantive noun monumentum, -ti, neut. a monu- 
ment or writing; of the second declension; derived from moneo, -ere, -ui,-itum, 
to admonish ; here put in the ablative according to Rule 49. Et, a copulative con- 
junction, as before. 

Prasceptis, a substantive noun in the ablative plural, from the nominative prce- 
ceptum, -ti, neut. a precept, an instruction ; derived from prcecipio, -cipere, -dpi, 
-ceptum, to instruct, to order, compounded of the preposition prce, before, and the 
verb capio, capere, cepi, captum, to take. The a of the simple is changed into i 
short ; thus, pracipio, pr&cipis, &c. 

The learner may in like manner be taught to analyze the words in English, 
and, in doing so, to mark the different idioms of the two languages. 

To this may be subjoined a Praxis, or Exercise on all the different parts of 
grammar, particularly with regard to the inflection of nouns and verbs in the 
form of questions, such as these, of Cicero ? Ciceronis With Cicero ? Cicerone. 
A dear son ? Carus Jiliiis. Of a dear son ? Cari filii. O my dear son ? Mi or 
meus carejili. Of dearer sons? CaridrumJiliorum,&c. 

Of thee? or of you? Tui. With thee or you? Te. Of you ? Vestrum or vestri. 
With you ? Vobis. 

Bb 2 



294 DIFFERENT KINDS OF STYLE. 

They shall persuade ? Persuadebunt. lean persuade? Persuadeam, or much 
more frequently possum persuadere. They are persuaded ? Persuadetur or per- 
sudsum est Mis ; according to the time expressed. He is to persuade? Est per- 
suasurus. He will be persuaded ? Persuade fritur, or per sudsum erit illi. He 
cannot be persuaded ? Non potest persuaderi illi. I know that he cannot be per- 
suaded ? Scio non posse persuaded illi. That he will be persuaded. Eipersud- 
sum iri. 

When a learner first begins to translate from the Latin, he should 
keep as strictly to the literal meaning of the words as the different 
idioms of the two languages will permit. But after he has made far- 
ther progress, something more will be requisite. He should then be 
accustomed, as much as possible, to transfuse the beauties of an author 
from the one language into the other. For this purpose it will be ne- 
cessary that he be acquainted, not only with the idioms of the two lan- 
guages, but also with the different kinds of style adapted to different 
sorts of composition, and to different subjects ; together with the va- 
rious turns of thought and expression which writers employ, or what 
are called the figures of words and of thought ; or the Figures of 
Rhetoric. 

IV. (416) DIFFERENT KINDS OF STYLE. 

The kinds of Style {genera dicendi) are commonly reckoned three ; 
the low, (humile, submission, tenue f) the middle, (medium, tempe- 
rdtum, orndtum, jloridum ;) and the sublime, (sublime, grande.) 

But besides these, there are various other characters of style ; as, 
the diffuse and concise ; the feeble and nervous ; the simple and 
affected, &c. 

There are different kinds of style adapted to different subjects, and 
to different kinds of composition ; the style of the Pulpit, of the Bar, 
and of Popular Assemblies; the style of History, and of its various 
branches, Annals, Memoirs or Commentaries, and Lives ; the style of 
Philosophy, of Dialogue or Colloquial discourse, of Epistles, and Ro- 
mance, &c. 

There is also a style peculiar to certain writers, called their Man- 
ner ; as the style of Cicero, of Livy, of Sallust, &c. 

But what deserves particular attention is, the difference between 
the style of poetry and of prose. As the poets in a manner paint what 
they describe, they employ various epithets, repetitions, and turns of 
expression, which are not admitted in prose. 

The first virtue of style (virtus orationis) is perspicuity; or that it 
be easily understood. This requires, in the choice of the words, 
1. Purity, in opposition to barbarous, obsolete, or new-coined words, 
and to errors in Syntax : 2. Propriety, or the selection of the best 
expression?, in opposition to vulgarisms or low expressions : 3. Pre- 
cision, in opposition to superfluity of words, or a loose style. 



FIGURES OF RHETORIC. 295 

The things chiefly to be attended to in the structure of a sentence, 
or in the disposition of its parts, are, 1. Clearness, in opposition to 
ambiguity and obscurity : 2. Unity and Strength, in opposition to 
an unconnected, intricate and feeble sentence : 3. Harmony, or a 
musical arrangement, in opposition to harshness of sound. 

The most common defects of style (vitia orationis) are distinguish- 
ed by various names : 

1. (417) A barbarism is the using of a foreign or strange word : 
as, croftus, for agellus ; rigorosus, for rigidus or sever us; alter are, 
for mutdre, &c. Or, a transgression of the rules of Orthography, 
Etymology, or Prosody ; as, charus, for carus ; stavi, for steti ; tibi- 
cen, for tiblcen. 

2. (418) A solecism is a transgression of the rules of Syntax ; as, 
Dicit libros lectos iri, for lectum iri : We was walking, for we were. 
A barbarism may consist in one word, but a solecism requires several 
words. 

3. (419) An idiotism is the using of a manner of expression pe- 
culiar to one language in another ; as an Anglicism in Latin, thus, 
I am to write, Ego sum scribere, for ego sum scripturus ; It is I, Est 
ego for Ego sum : Or a Latinism in English, thus, Est sapientior 
me, He is wiser than me, for than I; Quern dicunt me esse 1 Whom 
do they say that 1 am 1 for who, &c. 

4. (420) Tautology is a useless repetition of the same words, or 
of the same sense in different words. 

5. (421) Bombast is the using of high sounding words without 
meaning, or upon a trifling occasion. 

6. (422) Amphibology is when, by the ambiguity of the construc- 
tion, the meaning may be taken in two different senses : as in the an- 
swer of the oracle to Pyrrhus, Aio te, JEaclde, Romdnos vincere 
posse. But the English is not so liable to this as the Latin. 

V. FIGURES OF RHETORIC. 

Certain modes of speech are termed Figurative, because they 
convey our meaning under a borrowed form, or in a particular dress. 

Figures (figurce or schemata) are of two kinds: figures of words 
(fig iira? verborum,) and figures of thought (figured sententidrum.) 
The former are properly called Tropes ; and if the word be changed, 
the figure is lost. 

1. TROPES, OR FIGURES OF WORDS. 

(423) A Trope (conversio) is an elegant turning of a word from 
its proper signification. 



296 FIGURES OF RHETORIC. 

Tropes take their rise partly from the barrenness of language, but more 
from the influence of the imagination and passions. They are founded on the 
relation which one object bears to another, chiefly that of resemblance or simili- 
tude. 

The principal tropes are the Metaphor, Metonymy, Synecdoche, 
and Irony. 

1. (424) Metaphor (translatio) is when a word is transferred 
from that to which it properly belongs, to express something to which 
it is only applied from similitude or resemblance ; as, a hard heart : a 
soft temper: he bridles his anger: a joyful crop: ridet ager, the 
field smiles, &c. A metaphor is nothing else but a short comparison. 

We likewise call that a metaphor, when we substitute one object in the place 
of another on account of the close resemblance between them; as when, instead 
of youth, we say, the morning or spring-time of life ; or when, in speaking of a 
family connected with a common parent, we use the expressions which properly 
belong to a tree, whose trunk and branches are connected with a common root. 
When this allusion is carried on through several sentences, or through a whole 
discourse, and the principal subject kept out of view, so that it can only be dis- 
covered by its resemblance to the subject described, it is called an Allegory. 
An example of this w T e have in Horace, book I. ode 14. where the republic is de- 
scribed under the allusion of a ship. 

An ALLEGORY is only a continued metaphor. This figure is much the same 
with the Parable, which so often occurs in the sacred scriptures; and with the 
Fable, such as those of iEsop, The JEnigma or Riddle is also considered as a 
species of the Allegory ; as likewise are many Proverbs {Proverbia or Adagia ;) 
thus, In sylvam lignaferre. Horat. 

Metaphors are improper when they are taken from low objects; when they are 
forced or far fetched; when they are mixed or too far pursued; and when they 
have not a natural and sensible resemblance ; or are not adapted to the subject of 
discourse, or to the kind of composition, whether poetry or prose. 

When a word is very much turned from its proper signification, the figure is 
called Catachresis {abusio ;) as, a leaf of paper, of gold, §c; the empire flourished ; 
parriclda, for any murderer. Vir gregis ipse caper. Virg. Alium aedif icant caput 
Juv. Hunc vobis deridendum propino, for trado. Ter. Eurusper Siculas equi- 
lavit undas. Hor. 

When a word is taken in two senses in the same phrase, the one proper and 
the other metaphorical, it is said to be done by Syllepsis, (comprehensio ;) as, Ga- 
latea thymo mihi dulcior Hybl&. Virg. Ego Sardois videar tibi amarior herbis. Id. 

2. (425) Metonymy (mutatio nominisj is the putting off one 
name for another. In which sense it includes all other tropes: but it 
is commonly restricted to the following particulars : — 

1. When the cause is put for the effect: or the author for his 
works: as Bourn labor es, for corn; Mars, for war; Ceres, for grain 
or bread ; Bacchus, for wine. Virg. Cicero, Virgil and Horace, for 
their works. 

2. When the effect is put for the cause : as, Pallida mors, pah 
death, because it makes pale : alra cura, &c. 

3. The container for what is contained, and sometimes the con- 



FIGURES OF RHETORIC. 297 

trary: as, Hausit pater am, for vinum. Virg. He loves his bottle, for 
his drink. 

4. The sign for the thing signified : as, The crown, for royal au- 
thority ; palm a or laurus, for victory ; Cedant arma togce, that is, 
as Cicero himself explains it, helium concedat pad. 

5. An abstract for the concrete : as, Scelus, for scelestus. Ter. Au- 
dacia, for audax. Cic. Vires, for strong- men. Hor. 

6. The parts of the body for certain passions or sentiments, which 
were supposed to reside in them : thus, cor, for wisdom or address ; as, 
habet cor ; vir corddtus, a man of sense. Plaut. But with us the 
heart is put for courage or affection, and the head for wisdom : thus, a 
stout heart, a warm heart. 

When we put what follows to express what goes before, or the con- 
trary, this form of expression is called Metalepsis, (transmutatio;) 
thus, desiderdri, to be desired or regretted, for to be dead, lost, or ab- 
sent: So, Fuimus Troes <5r ingens gloria Dardanice, i. e. are no 
more. Virg. iEn. ii. 325. 

3. (426) Synecdoche fcomprehensio or conceptioj is a trope by 
which a word is made to signify more or less than in its proper sense : 
as, 

1. When & genus is put for a species, or a whole for a part, and the 
contrary: thus, Mortales, for homines; summa arbor, fox summa pars 
arboris ; tectum, the roof, for the whole house. Virg. 

2. When a singular is put for a plural, and the contrary : thus, Hos- 
tis, miles, pedes, eques, for hostes, &c. 

3. When the materials are put for the things made of them : as, 
JEs or argentum, for money ; cera, for vases of brass, trumpets, arms, 
&c. ; ferrum, for a sword. 

When a common name is put for a proper name, or the contrary, the 
figure is called Antonomasia fpronominatio ;) as the Philosopher, 
for Aristotle ; the Orator, for Demosthenes or Cicero ; the Poet, for 
Homer or Virgil ; the Wise man, for Solomon. 

An Antonomasia is often made by a Periphrasis ; as, Pelopis pa- 
rens, for Tantalus ; Anyti reus, for Socrates ; Trojani belli scriptor, 
for Hornerus ; Chironis alumnus, for Achilles ; Potor Rhoddni, for 
Gallus. Hor. sometimes with the noun added ; as, Fatdlis et incestus 
judex, famosus hospes, for Paris. Hor. 

4. (427) Irony is when one means the contrary of what is said : 
as, when we say of a bad poet, He is a Virgil ; or of a profligate 
person, Tertius e ccelo cecidit Cato. 



298 FIGURES OF RHETORIC. 

When any thing is said by way of bitter raillery, or in an insulting 
manner, it is called a Sarcasm ; as, Satia te sanguine, Cyre. Justin. 
Hesperiam metire jacens. Virg. 

When an affirmation is expressed in a negative form, it is called 
Litotes : as, He is no fool, for he is a man of sense 3 Non humilis 
mulier, for nobllis or superba. 

When a word has a meaning contrary to its original sense, this 
contrariety is called Antiphrasis : as, auri sacra fames, for execra- 
bilis. Virg. Pontus Euxini falso nomine dictus, i. e. hospitdlis. 
Ovid. 

When any thing sad or offensive is expressed in more gentle terms, 
the figure is called Euphemismus; as, Vita functus, for mortuus 3 
conclamare suos, to give up for lost. Liv. Valeant, for abeant 3 
mactdre or ferire, for occidere 3 Fecerunt id servi Milonis, quod suos 
quisque servos in tali re facere voluisset, i. e. Clodium inter fecerunt. 
Cic. This figure is often the same with the Periphrasis. 

The Periphrasis, or Circumlocution, is when several words are 
employed to express what might be expressed in fewer. This is done 
either from necessity, as in translating from one language into ano- 
ther: or to explain what is obscure, as in definitions : or for the sake 
of ornament, particularly in poetry, as in the descriptions of evening 
and morning, &c. 

When, after explaining an obscure word or sentence by a peri- 
phrasis, one enlarges on the thought of the author, the figure is called 
a Paraphrase. 

When a word imitates the sound of the thing signified, this imita- 
tion is called Onomatopceia, (nominis fictio 3) as, the whistling of 
winds, purling of streams, buzz and hum of insects, hiss of serpents, 
&c. But this figure is not properly a trope. 

It is sometimes difficult to ascertain to which of the above men- 
tioned tropes certain expressions ought to be referred. But in such 
cases minute exactness is needless. It is sufficient to know, in gene- 
ral, that the expression is figurative. 

There are a great many tropes peculiar to every language, which 
cannot be literally expressed in any olher. These, therefore, if pos- 
sible, must be rendered by other figurative expressions equivalent: and 
if this cannot be done, their meaning should be conveyed in simple 
language ; thus, Interior e notd Falerni, with a glass of old Faler- 
nian wine: Ad umbilicum ducere, to bring to a conclusion. Horat. 
These, and other such figurative expressions, cannot be properly ex- 
plained without understanding the particular customs to which they 
refer. 



FIGURES OF RHETORIC. 299 



2. (428) REPETITION OF WORDS. 

Various repetitions of words are employed for the sake of elegance 
or force, and are therefore also called Figures of words. Rhetori- 
cians have distinguished them by different names, according to the 
part of the sentence in which they take place. 

When the same word is repeated in the beginning of any member of a sen- 
tence, it is called Anaphora ; as, Nihilne te nocturnum presidium palatii, nihil 
urbis vigilice, &c. Cic. Te dulcis conjux, te solo in littore secum, Te veniente die, 
te decendente canebat. Virg. 

When the repetition is made in the end of the member, it is called Epistro- 
PHE, or Conversio ; as, Pcenos Populus Romdnus justitia vicit, armis vicit, libera- 
litdte vicit. Cic. Sometimes both the former occur in the same sentence, and 
then it is called Symploce, or Complexio ; as, Quis legem tulit? Rullus. Quis, 
&c. Rullus. Cic. 

When the same word is repeated in the beginning of the first clause of a sen- 
tence, and in the end of the latter, it is called Epanalepsis ; as, Vidimus victo- 
riam tuam prceliorum exitu termindtum ; gladium vagina vacuum in urbe non 
vidimus. Cic. pro Marcello. 

The reverse of the former is called Anadiplosis, or Reduplicatio ; as, Hie tamen 
vivit : vivit! imo insendtum venit. Cic. 

When that which is placed first in the foregoing member, is repeated last in the 
following, and the contrary, it is called Epanodos, or Regressio; as, Crudelis tu 
quoque mater ; Crudelis mater magis anpuer improbus Me ? Improbus ille puer, 
crudelis tu quoque mater. Virg. 

The passionate repetition of the same w 7 ord in any part of a sentence is called 
Epizeuxis ; as, Excitdte, excitdte eum ah inferis. Cic. Fuit,fuit ista virtus, &o. Id. 
Me, me, adsum qui feci, in me convertite ferrum. Virg. Bella, horrida bella. Id. 
Ibimus, ibimus. Hor. 

When we proceed from one thing to another, so as to connect by the same word 
the subsequent part of a sentence with the preceding, it is called Cliiuax, or Gra- 
datio ; as, Africdno virtuiem industria, virtus gloriam, gloria cemulos compard- 
vit. Cic. 

When the same word is repeated in various cases, moods, genders, numbers, 
&c. it is called Polyptoton ; as, Pleni sunt omnes libri, plence sapientum voces, 
plena exemplorum vetustas. Cic. Littora litloribus coniraria, jluctibus undas im- 
precor, arma armis. Virg. 

To this is usually referred what is called Synonymia, or the using of words of 
the same import, to expres a thing more strongly ; as, Nonferam, non patiar, non 
sina?n. Cic. Promitto, recipio, spondeo. Id. And also Expositio, which repeats 
the same thought in different lights. 

When a word is repeated the same in sound, but not in sense, it is called Anta- 
naclasis ; as, Amdri jucundum est, si cureturne quid insit amdri. Cic. But this 
is reckoned a defect in style, rather than a beauty. Nearly allied to this figure is 
the Paronomasia, or Agnominatio, when the words only resemble one another in 
sound ; as, Civem bondrum artium, bond.rum partium ; Consul pravo ariimo and 
parvo: de oratdre ardtor j 'actus. Cic. Amantes sunt amentes. Ter. This is also 
called a Pun. 

When two or more words are joined in any part of a sentence in the same 
cases or tenses, it is called Homoioptoton, i. e. similiter cadens, as, Pollet aucto- 



300 FIGURES OF RHETORIC. 

ritate, circumfiait opibus, abundal aniicis. Cic. If the words have only a similar 
termination, it is called Homojoteleuton, i. e. similiter desinens; as, Aon ejus- 
dem eslfacereforUter, and vivere turpiter. Cic. 

3. (429) FIGURES OF THOUGHT. 

It is not easy to reduce figures of thought to distinct classes, be- 
cause the same figure is employed for several different purposes. — 
The principal are the Hyperbole, Prosopopoeia, Apostrophe, Simile, 
Antithesis, &c. 

1. Hyperbole is the magnifying of a thing above the truth; as, 
when Virgil, speaking of Polyphemus, says, Ipse arduus, altaque 
pulsat sidera. So, Contractu pisces azquora sentiunt. Hor. When 
an object is diminished below the truth, it is called Tapeinosis. The 
use of extravagant Hyperboles forms what is called Bombast. 

2. Prosopopoeia, or Personification, is a figure by which we as- 
cribe life, sentiments, or actions, to inanimate beings, or to abstract 
qualities ; as, Quo? (patria) tecum. Catilina, sic agit, Sic. Cic. Vir- 
tus sumit aut ponit secures. Hor. Arbore nunc aquas culpante. Id. 

3. Apostrophe, or Address, is when the speaker breaks off from 
the series of his discourse, and addresses himself to some person pre- 
sent or absent, living or dead, or to inanimate nature, as if endowed 
with sense and reason. This figure is nearly allied to the former, and 
therefore often joined with it : as, Trojaque nunc stares, Priamique 
arx alia maneres. Virg. 

4. Simile, or Comparison, is a figure by which one thing is illus- 
trated or heightened by comparing it to another : as, Alexander was as 
bold as a lion. 

5. Antithesis, or Opposition, is a figure by which things contrary 
or different are contrasted, to make them appear in the most striking 
light ; as, Hannibal was cunning, but Fabius was cautious. Coesar 
beneficiis ac munificentid magnus habebdtur, iniegritdte vito? Cato, 
Sic. Sail. Cat. 54. 

6. Interrogation, (Greec. Erotesis,) is a figure whereby we do not 
simply ask a question, but express some strong feeling or affection of 
the mind in that form : as, Quousque tandem, Sic. Cic. Creditis 
avectos hostes ? Virg. Heu ! quo? me c?qudra possunt accipere. Id, 
Sometimes an answer is returned, in which case it is called Subjectio ; 
as, Quid ergo? audacisslmus ego ex omnibus ? minlme. Cic. Nearly 
allied to this is Expostulation, when a person pleads with offenders 
to return to their duty. 

7. Exclamation {Ecphonesis) is a sudden expression of some pas- 
sion or emotion ; as, O nomen dulce libertdtis, Sic. Cic. O tempora, 
O mores ! Id. O patria 1 O Divum domus Ilium ! Sic. Virg. 



FIGURES OF RHETORIC. 301 

8. Description, or Imagery, (Hypotyposis) is the painting of any 
thing in a lively manner, as if done before our eyes. Hence it is also 
called Vision ; as, Videor mihi hanc urbem videre, &c. Cic. in Cat. 
iv. 6. Videre magnos jam videor duces, Non indecoro pulvere sor- 
dldos. Hor. Here a change of tense is often used, as the present for 
the past, and conjunctions omitted, &c. Virg. xi. 637, &c. 

9. Emphasis is a particular stress of voice laid on some word in a 
sentence; as, Hannibal peio pacern. Liv. Proh ! Jupiter ibit hic ! 
i. e. iEneas. Virg. 

10. Epanorthosis, or Correction, is the recalling or correcting by 
the speaker of what he last said ; as, Filium habui, ah ! quid dixi 
habere me ? imd habui. Ter. 

11. Paralepsis, or Omission, is the pretending to omit, or pass by, 
what one at the same time declares. 

12. Aparithmesis, or Enumeration, is the branching out into seve- 
ral parts of what might be expressed in fewer words. 

13. Synathroismus, or Coacervatio, is the crowding of many par- 
ticulars together ; as, 



-Faces in castra tulissem, 



Implessemque foros flammis, natumque, patremque 
Cum genere extinxem, memet super ipsa dedissem. Virg. 

14. Incrementum, or Climax in sense, is the rising of one member 
above another to the highest ; as, Facinus est vincire civem Roma- 
num, scelus verberdre, parricidium necdre. Cic. 

When all the circumstances of an object or action are artfully ex- 
aggerated, it is called Auxesis, or Amplification. But this is pro- 
perly not one figure, but the skilful employment of several, chiefly of 
the Simile and the Climax. 

15. Transition (Metabasis) is an abrupt introduction of a speech ; 
or the passing of a writer suddenly from one subject to another ; as, 
Hor. Od. ii. 13. 13. In strong passion, a change of person is some- 
times used ; as, Virg. Mn. iv. 365, &c. xi. 406, &c. 

16. Suspensio, or Sustentatio, is the keeping of the mind of the 
hearer long in suspense ; to which the Latin inversion of words is 
often made subservient. 

17. Concessio is the yielding of one thing to obtain another ; as, 
Sit fur, sit sacrilegus, &c. at est bonus imperator. Cic. in Verrem, 
v. 1. 

Prolepsis, Prevention or Anticipation, is the starting and answer- 
ing of an objection. 

c c 



302 FIGURES OF RHETORIC. 

Anacoinosis, or Communication, is when the speaker deliberates 
with the judges of hearers ; which is also called Diaporesis or Ad- 
dubitatio. 

Licentia, or the pretending to assume more freedom than is pro- 
per, is used for the sake of admonishing, rebuking, and also flattering ; 
as, Vide quam non reformidem, &e. Cic. pro Ligario. 

Aposiopesis, or Concealment, leaves the sense incomplete ; as, 
Quos ego sed prcBStat motos commoner e fluctus. Virg. 

18. Sententia {Gnome) a sentiment, is a general maxim concern- 
ing life or manners, which is expressed in various forms; as, Otium 
sine Uteris mors est. Seneca. Adeo in teneris assuescere multum 
est. Virg. Probltas lauddtur et alget; Miser a est magni custodia 
census; Nobilitas sola est atque unica virtus. Juv. 

As most of these figures are used by orators, and some of them only 
in certain parts of their speeches, it will be proper for the learner to 
know the parts into which a regular, formal oration is commonly di- 
vided. These are, 1. The Introduction, the Exordium, or Procemium, 
to gain the good will and attention of the hearers : 2. The Narra- 
tion or Explication : 3. The argumentative part, which includes 
Confirmation or proof, and Confutation, or refuting the objections and 
arguments of an adversary. The sources from which arguments are 
drawn are called Loci, c topics ;' and are either intrinsic or extrinsic ; 
common or peculiar. 4. The Peroration, Epilogue, or Conclusion. 



PROSODY. 



1. Prosody is that part of grammar which teaches the proper ac- 
cent and quantity of syllables, the right pronunciation of words, and 
the structure of verses. 

2. Accent is a peculiar stress of the voice on some syllable in a 
word, to distinguish it from the others. 

3. The quantity of a syllable is the space of time used in pro- 
nouncing it. 

4. Syllables, with respect to their quantity, are either long, short, 
or common. 

5. A long syllable in pronouncing requires double the time of a 
short one ; as, tender e. 

6. A syllable that is sometimes long, and sometimes short, is com- 
mon ; as the second syllable in volucris. 

7. A vowel is said to be long or short by nature, which is always so 
by custom, or by the use of the poets. 

8. In polysyllables, or long words, the last syllable except one is 
called the Penultima, or, by contraction, the Penult ; and the last 
syllable except two, the Antepenultima, or Antepenult. 

9. When the quantity of a syllable is not fixed by some particular 
rule, it is said to be long or short by authority ; that is, according to 
the usage of the poets. Thus le in lego is said to be short by au- 
thority, because it is always made short by the Latin poets. 

In most Latin words of one or two syllables, according to our manner of pro- 
nouncing, we can hardly distinguish by the ear a long syllable from a short. 
Thus le in Lego and legi seem to be sounded equally long ; but when we pronouce 
them in composition the difference is obvious ,* thus, perlego, perlegi ; relego, -ere ; 
r el ego, -are, &c. 

RULES FOR THE QUANTITY. 

The rules of quantity are either General or Special. The former 
apply to all syllables, the latter only to some certain syllables. 



304 THE QUANTITY OF SYLLABLES. 

GENERAL RULES. 

I. (10) A vowel before another vowel is short ; as, Mens, alius : 
so nihil ; h in verse being considered only as a breathing. In like 
manner in English, create, behave. 

Exc. 1. (11) i" is long mflo, flebam, &c. unless when followed 
by e and r; as, fieri, fierem; thus, 

Omnia jam f lent, fieri quae posse negabam. Ovid. 

Exc. 2. (12) E, having an i before and after it, in the fifth declen- 
sion, is long : as, speciei. So is the first syllable in tier, dlus, eheu, 
and the penultima in aulai, terrdi, &c. in Pompei, Cai, and such like 
words ; but we sometimes find Pompei in two syllables. Hor. Od. ii. 
7. 5. 

Exc. 3. (13) The first syllable in ohe and Ditina is common ; so 
likewise is the penult of genitives in ius ; as, illius, unius, ullius, nul- 
lius, &c. to be read long in prose. Alius, in the genit. is always long, 
as being contracted for aliius ; alterius, short. 

(14) In Greek words, when a vowel comes before another, no 
certain rule concerning its quantity can be given. 

Sometimes it is short ; as, Danae, Idea, Sophia, Symphonia, Simois, Hyades, 
Phaon, Deucalion, Pygmalion, Thebais, <fec. 

Often it is long; as, Lycaon, Machaon, Didymaon ; Amphlon, Arion, Ixion, 
Pandion ; Nais, Lais, Achai'a ; Briseis, Cadmeis; Latuus and Latois, Myrtous, 
Nerei'us, Priamei'us ; Acheloi'us, Minoius; Archelaus, Menelaus, Amphiaraus ; 
^Eneas, Peneus, Epeus, Acrisioneus, Adamanteus, Phcebeus, Giganteus ; Darius, 
Basilius, Eugenius, Bacehius ; Cassiopea, Caesarea, Chaeronea, Cytherea, Galatea, 
Laodicea, Medea, Panthea, Penelopea ; Clio, Enyo, Elegia, lphigenia, Alexandria, 
Thalia, Antiochia, idolatria, litania, poliiia, &c. Laertes, Dei'phSbus, Dei'anira, 
Trues, heroes, &c. 

Sometimes it is common ; as, Chorea, platea, Malea, Nereides, canopeum, Orion, 
Geryon, Eos, eous, &c. So in Foreign words, Michael, Israel, Raphael, Abra- 
ham, &c. 

(15) The accusative of nouns in eus is usually short; as, Orphea, Salmonca, 
Capharea, &c. but sometimes long; as,Ido?nenea, llionea. Virg. Instead ofElegza, 
Cytherea, we find Elegela, Cytherela. Ovid. But the quantity of Greek words 
cannot properly be understood without the knowledge of Greek. 

In English, a vowel before another is also sometimes lengthened ; as, science f 
idea. 

* IT. (16) A vowel before two consonants, or before the double 
consonants^', oc, z, is long {by position, as it is called ;) as, arma, ftillo, 
axis, gaz a, major ; the compounds of jugum excepted; as, bijiigus, 
quadrijugus, &c. 

* In reality, in such cases j is a vowel, and with the preceding vowel consti- 
tutes a diphthong, as, maiortbus. In the same manner arises the quantity of such 
words as ejus, pejus, which, according to Priscian, the ancients write eius,peius. 



THE QUANTITY OF SYLLABLES. 305 

When the foregoing word ends in a short vowel, and the following begins with 
two consonants or a double one, that vowel is sometimes lengthened by position ; 
as, 

Ferle citiflammas, date tela, scandite muros. Virg. 

* (17) A vowel naturally short, when followed by sc, sp, sq, st, (with or 
without the addition of a third consonant, as Scripta,) may either remain short, or 
be made long at the poet's option. 

1F (18) A vowel before a mute and a liquid is common ; as the mid- 
dle syllable in volucris, tenebrce ; thus, 

Et primo similis volucri, mox vera voliicris. Ovid. 
JNox tenebras profert, Phoebus fugat inde tenebras. Id. 

But in prose these words are pronounced short. So peragro,pharelra t podagra, 
chiragra, Celebris, latebrce, tyc. 

To make this rule hold, three things are requisite. 1. The vowel must be na- 
turally short ; 2. the mute must go before the liquid ; and, 3. be in the same syl- 
lable with it. Thus a in patris is made common in verse, because a in pater is na- 
turally short, or always so by custom : but a in matris, acris, is always long, be- 
cause long by nature or custom in mater and acer. In like manner the penult in 
salubris, ambulacrum, is always long ; because they are derived from salus, salu- 
tis, and ambuldtum. So a in arte, abluo, tyc. is long by position, because the mute 
and the liquid are in different syllables. 

L and r only are considered as liquids in Latin words ; m and n do 
not take place except in Greek words. 

III. (19) A contracted syllable is long ; as, 

Nil, for nihil ; mi, for mihi ; cogo, for codgo ; alius, for aliius ; tibl- 
cen, for tibiicen; it, for lit; sodes, for si audes; nolo, for non volo ; 
bigce, for bijugte ; scilicet, for scire licet, &c. 

IV. (20) A diphthong is always long ; as, 

Aurum, Ccesar, Euboza, &c. Only prce in composition before a vowel 
is commonly short ; as, prceire, prceustus ; thus, 

Nee tota tamen ille prior praeeunte carina. Virg. AZ. 5, 186. 
Stipitibus duris agitur sudibusque praeustis. lb. 7, 524. 

But it is sometimes lengthened ; as, 

cum vacuus domino praeiret Arion. Tkeb. 6, 519. 

* (21) A Diphthong is once short in a line of Virgil, out of compo- 
sition : thus, InsulcB Ionio in magno, quas dira Celseno. This seems to 
be in imitation of Greek Hexameter. 

SPECIAL RULES. 
I. FIRST AND MIDDLE SYLLABLES. 

Preterites and Supines of tivo Syllables. 

V. (22) Preterites of two syllables lengthen the former syllable ; 
as, Veni, vidi, vici. 

c c2 



306 QUANTITY OF THE CREMENT OF NOUNS. 

Except bibi, scidi from scindo,fidi from findo, tuli, dedi, and steti, 
which are shortened. 

VI. (23) Supines of two syllables lengthen the former syllable ; 
as, Visum, casum, motum. 

Except satum, from sero ; cltum, from cieo ; Utum, from lino s si' 
turn, from slno ; stdtum, from sisto ; ztum, from eo ; datum, from 
do ; rutum, from the compounds of ruo ; qultum, from queo; rdtus, 
from reor. 

Preterites which double the first Syllable. 

VII. (24) Preterites which double the first syllable, have both the 
first syllables short ; as, 

Cecidi, tetigi, pepuli, peperi, didici, tutudi; except cecidi, from 
ccedo ; pepedi, fiompedo: and when two consonants intervene; as, 
fefelli, tetendi, pependi, momordi, &c. 

Other verbs of two syllables in the preterite and supine retain the quantity of 
the present; except posui, posttum, from pdno ; potui, from possum ; solutum and 
volulum, from solvo and volvo. 



INCREASE OF NOUNS. 

(25) A noun is said to increase, when it has more syllables in any 
of the oblique cases than in the nominative; as, rex, regis; sermo, 
sermonis ; interpres, interpretis. Here re, mo, pre, is each called the 
increase or crement, and so through all the other cases. The last syl- 
lable is never esteemed a crement. 

Some nouns have a double increase, that is, increase by more sylla- 
bles than one ; as, iter, itineris ; anccps, ancipltis. 

A noun in the plural is said to increase, when in any case it ha3 
more syllables than the genitive singular ; as, gener, gerteri ; genero- 
rum ; regibus, sermonibus, &c. 

Except nouns of the first, fourth, and fifth declensions, which do 
not increase in the singular number, unless when one vowel comes 
before another ; as, fructus, fructui ; res, rei ; and falls under Rule 
I. These nouns are considered as increasing in the plural, and come 
under Rule IX. 

(26) Nouns of the second declension which increase, shorten the 
crement; as, tener, teneri ; vir,viri; duumvir, -viri ; satur, saturi; 
except Iber, a Spaniard, Iberi } - and its compound Celtiberi. 

CREMENTS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 

VIU. (27) Nouns of the third declension which increase, make a 
and o long; e f i, and u short: as, 



QUANTITY OF THE CREMENT OF NOUNS. 307 

Piettitis, honoris ; mulieris, lapidis, murmuris. 
The chief exceptions from this rule are marked under the forma- 
tion of the genitive of the third declension. But here perhaps it may 
be proper to be more particular. 

A. 

(28) Nouns in A shorten atis, in the genitive ; as, dogma, -atis ; poema, -atis. 

O. 

(29) O shortens inis, but lengthens enis and dnls ; as, Cardo, -inis ; Virgo, inis ; 
Anio, -enis ; Cicero, -onis. 

(30) Gentile or patrial nouns vary their quantity. Most of them shorten the 
genitive ; as, Macedo, -onis ; Saxo, -onis. So, Llngvnes, Senones, Teutones, or 
-oni, Vangiones, Vascones. Some are long ; as, Suessiones, Vetibnes. Brlttones 
is common; it is shortened by Juvenal, 15, 124, and lengthened by Martial, 11, 
21,9. 

I. C. D. L. 

(31) I shortens itis; as, Hydromeii, -ids. Ec lengthens ecis ; as, Halec, -ecis. 

(32) Nouns in D shorten the crement ; as, David, -idis ; Bogud, -udis. Eccle- 
siastical poets often lengthen Davldls. 

(33) Masculines in AL shorten alls; as, Sal, sails ; Hannibal, -alis ; Hasdru- 
bal, -alis ; but neuters lengthen it ; as, animal, -alis. 

(34) Soils from sol is long ; also Hebrew words in el ; as, Michael, -elis. Other 
nouns in L shorten the crement ; as, Vigil, -"ills ; consul, -ulis. 

N. 

(35) Nouns in ON vary the crement. Some lengthen it; as, Helicon, -onis ; 
Chiron, -onis. Some shorten it ; as, Memnon, -onis ; Action, -onis. 

(36) EN shortens inis ; as, flumen, -inis ; tibicen, -inis. Other nouns in N 
lengthen the penult. AN dnls ; as, Titan, -dnls: EN enis ; as, Siren, -enis: IN 
Inis , m as, Delphln, -mis: YN ynis ; as, Phorcyn, -ynls. 

R. 

1. (37) Neuters in AR lengthen arls ; as, calcar, -drls. Except the following ; 
bacchar, -arls ; jubar, -arls ; hepar, -alls ; nectar, -arls : Also the adjective par 
parls, and its compounds, impar, -arls, dlspar, -aris, &c. 

2. (38) The following nouns in R lengthen the genitive ; Nar, Ndris, the 
name of a river ; fur, furls ; ver, verls : Also Reclmer, -eris ; Byzer, -eris, proper 
names ; and Ser, Serls ; Iber, -eris, names of people or states. 

3. (39) Greek nouns in TER lengthen teris ; as, crater, -eris; character, -eris. 
Except o3ther,-erls. 

4. (40) OR lengthens oris; as, amor, -oris. Except neuter nouns; as, marmor, 
-oris; aquor, -oris : Greek nouns in tor; as, Hector, -oris; Actor, -oris; rhetor, 
-oris Also, arbor, -oris, and memor, -oris. 

5. (41) Other nouns in R shorten the genitive; AR aris, masc; as, Ca=sar, 
-aris ; Hamllcar, -drls ; lar, larls. ER eris of any gender ; as, aer, aeris ; mulier, 
-eris ; cadaver, -eris, iter, anciently Winer, itineris ; verberis, from the obsolete 
verber. UR urls ; as, vultur, -urls ; murmur, -uris. YR yris ; as, Martyr, -yrls. 

AS. 

1. (42) Nouns in AS, which have alls, lengthen the crement ; ^s,pietas,-dtis ; 
Maecenas, -atis. Except anas, -alls. 



308 QUANTITY OF THE CREMENT OF NOUNS. 

2. (43) Other nouns in AS shorten the crement ; as Greek nouns having the 
genitive in adis, atis, and anis ; thus Pallas, -adis ; artocreas, -eatis ; Melas, 
-anis, the name of a river. So vas, vadis ; mas, maris. But vas, vasis is long. 

ES. 

(44) ES shortens the crement; as, miles, -itis ; Ceres, -eris : pes, pedis. 

(45) Except locuples, -His ; quies, -Ids ; mansues, -Itis ; hceres, -edis ; merces, 
-edis : also Greek nouns ; as, lebes, -His ; Thales, -Wis. 

IS. 

(46) Nouns in IS shorten the crement ; as, lapis, -idis ; sanguis, -inis ; Phyllis, 
-idis ; cinis, cineris. 

(47) Except Glis, gliris ; and Latin nouns which have itis ; as, lis, litis ; dis, 
ditis ; Quiris, -itis; Samnis, -itis. But Charis, a Greek noun, has Chantis. 

(48) The following also lengthen the crement; Crenis, -idis, Psophis, -idis , 
Nesis, -idis, proper names. And Greek nouns in is, which have also in ; as, Sa~ 
lamis or -in, Salaminis. 

OS. 

(49) Nouns in OS lengthen the crements ; as, nepos, -otis ; flos,floris. 
Except Bos, bovis; compos, -otis ; and impos, -otis. 

US. 

(50) US shortens the crement ; as, tempus, -oris ; vellus, -eris ; tripus, -odis. 

(51) Except nouns which have udis, uris, and utis ; as, incus, -udis ; jus, 
juris ; solus, -utis. But Ligus has Liguris ; the obsolete pecus, pecildis ; and in- 

tercus, -utis. 
(51i) The neuter of the comparative has oris ; as, melius, -oris. 

YS. 

(52) YS shortens ydis or ydos ; as, chlamys, -ydis or ydos; and lengthens 
ynis ,• as, Trachys, -ynis. 

BS. PS. MS. 

(53) Nouns in S, with a consonant going before, shorten the penult of the ge- 
nitive ; as, ccelebs, -ibis ; inops, -opis ; hiems, hiemis auceps, aucupis ; Dolops, 
-opis ; also anceps, ancipitis ; biceps, bicipitis ; and similar compounds of caput. 

Except Cyclops, -opis ; seps, sepis ; gryps, gryphis ; Cercops, -opis ; plebs, ple- 
bis ; hydrops, -opis. 

T. 

(54) T shortens the crement ; as, caput, -itis : so, sinciput, -Itis. 

X. 

1. (55) Nouns in X, which have the genitive in gis, shorten the crement; as, 
conjux, -ugis ; remex, -igis ; Allobrox, -ogis ; Phryx, Phrygis. But lex, legis, and 
rex, regis, are long ; and like wise /n/gis. 

2. (56) EX shortens ids ; vertex, -ids: Except vibex or vibix, -ids. 

3. (57) Other nouns in X lengthen the crement; as, pax, pads; radix, -ids ; 
vox, vocis ; lux, lucis ; Pollux, -ucis, &c. 

^?. Except/Sew, necis, vicis, precis, calicis, cilids, picis, fornicis, nivis, Cap- 
pad oc is, ducis, nucis, crucis, truds, onychis, Erycis, mastyx, -ychis, the resin of 
the lentiscus, or mastich tree; and many others, the quantity of which can only 
be ascertained by authority. 



INCREASE OF VERBS. 309 

4. (59) Some nouns vary the crement ; as, Syphax, 'dcis, or -acis ; Sandyx, 
icis, or -Icis ,• Bebryx, -ycis, or -yds. 

Increase of the Plural Number. 

IX. (60) Nouns of the plural number which increase, make A, 
E, and O, long ; but shorten /and U; as, 

musdrum, rerum, dominorum ; regibus, por tubus ; except bobus or 
biibus, contracted for bovibus. 

INCREASE OF VERBS. 

A verb is said to increase, when any part has more syllables than 
the second person singular of the present of the indicative active; as, 
amas, amdmus, where the second syllable ma is the increase or cre- 
ment: for the last syllable is never called by that name. 

A verb often increases by several syllables; as, amas, amdbdmini ; 
in which case it is said to have a first, second, or third increase. 

X. (61) In the increase of verbs, a, e, and o, are long; i and u 
short; as, 

Amdre, docere, amdtote ; legimus, siimus, volumus. 

EXCEPTIONS. 

* (62) Do and its compounds of the first conjugation have a short in their first 
increment ; as, damus, ddbunt, but not in the second, as, dabamus, where the 
second a is long. 

* (63) Beris and here are every where short ; as, amaberis ; excepting where 
the b belongs to the termination of the present ; scriberis and scribere, of the fu- 
ture passive being long by the first rule. 

* (64) E before ram, rim, ro, and the persons formed from them, is short. By 
Systole the poets sometimes shorten e before runt. 

* (65) These have i long : s'imus, velimus, nolunus, with the other persons 
coming from them and their compounds. 

* (66) I before vi in preterites isalways long ; as, pefwi. 

(67) The first or middle syllables of words which do not come under 
any of the foregoing rules, are said to be long or short by authority ; 
and their quantity can only be discovered from the usage of the 
poets, which is the most certain of all rules. 

Remarks on the Quantity of the Penult and Antepenult of Words. 

1. (68) Patronymics in IDES or ADES usually shorten the penult; as, Pria- 
rriides, Atlantiades, &c. Unless they come from nouns in eus : as, Pelldes, Ty- 
dides, &c. 

2. (69) Patronymics, and similar words, in AIS, EIS, IT1S, OIS, OTIS, 
INE, and ONE commonly lengthen the penult ; as, Achais, Ptolemais, Chryseis, 



310 QUANTITY OF THE PENULT OF WORDS. 

JEnlis, Memph'dis, Latois, Icariotis, Nerine, Acrisione. Except Thebais, and 
Phocdis : and Nereis, which is common. 

3. (70) Adjectives in ACUS, ICUS, IDUS, and IMUS, for the most part 

shorten the penult; as, JEgyptidcus, acadeniicus, lepidus, legitimus: also, superla- 
tives; &s,fortissimus, &c. Except merdcus, opticus, amicus, apricus, pudlcus, 
mendicus, anticus, posticus, fidus, inf id us, (hut perfidus, of per and fides, is 
short,) bimus, quadr'imus, patrimus, matrlmus, oplmus : and two superlatives, 
imus, primus. 

4. (71) Adjectives in AL1S, ANUS, ARUS, IVUS, ORUS, OSUS, 

lengthen the penult; as, dotdlis, urbtinus, avtirus, cestlvus, decdrus, arendsus. 
Except barbarus, opipdrus, and ovipdrus. 

5. (72) Verbal adjectives in ILIS shorten the penult ; as, agilis,facilis, &c. 
But derivatives from nouns usually lengthen it ; as, anjlis, civllis, herilis, &c. 
To these add, exilis, subtilis ; and names of months, Aprllis, Quincfilis, Sextilis : 
Except humilis, par ills ; and also similis. But all adjectives in atilis are short; 
as, versdUlis, volatilis, umbratilis, plicatilis, fiuviatilis, saxatilis, &c. 

6. (73) Adjectives in INUS, derived from inanimate things, as plants, stones, 
&c, also from adverbs of time, commonly shorten the penult; as, amaracinus, 
crocinus, cedrinus, faginus, oleaginus ; adamaniinus, crystallinus, crastinus, 
pristinus, perendinus, carinus, annotinus, &c. 

(74) Other adjectives in INUS are long ; as, agninus, caninus, leporinus, binus, 
trinus, quinus, austrinus, clandesfinus, Latinus, marinus, suplnus , vespertinus, &c. 

7. (75) Diminutives in OLUS, OLA, OLUM ; and ULUS, ULA, ULUM, 
always shorten the penult; as, urceolus, filiola, musozolum ; lectulus, ratiuncula, 
corculum, &c. 

* (76) Latin denominatives in aceus, aneus, arius, aticus, orius ; also verbals 
in abilis and words in atilis lengthen the Antepenult; as, testdceus, amtibalis, 
pluviatilis. 

* (77) Adjectives in icius, derived from nouns, shorten the i of the antepe- 
nult; as, gentillcius ; except novicius. But those which come from supines or par- 
ticiples, lengthen the i. 

8. (78) Adverbs in TIM lengthen the penult; as, oppiddlim, viritim, tributim. 
Except affdtim, perpetim, and statim. 

9. (79) Desideratives in URIO shorten the antepenultima, which in the se- 
cond and third person is the penult; as, esurio, esuris, esurit. But other verbs in 
urio lengthen that syllable ; as, ligurio, liguris ; scaturio, scaturis, &c. 

* (80) Frequentative Verbs, formed from the supine of the first conjugation, 
by changing atu into ito, have the i short. 

PENULT OF PROPER NAMES. 

(81) The following proper names lengthen the penult : Abdera, Abydus, Ado- 
nis, iEsGpus, iEtolus, Ahala, Alarlcus, Alcides, Amyclae, Andronlcus, Anubis, 
Archimedes, Ariarathes, Ariobarzunes, Aristldes, Aristobulus, Aristogiton, Arpi- 
num, Artabanus ; Brachmanes, Buslris, ButhrGtus; Celhegus, Chalcedon, Cleo- 
bulus, Cyrene, Cythera, Curetes ; Darici, Demonicus, Diomedes, DiGres, Dios- 
curi; Ebiides, Eriphyle, Eubiilus, Euclldes, Euphrates, Eumedes, Euripus, Eux- 
inus; Garganus, Gaetulus, Granicus ; Heliogabalus, Henricus, Heraclides, Hera- 
clitus, HippGnax, Hispanus ; Irene ; Lacydas, LatGna, Leucata, Lugdiinum, 
LycGras ; Mandane, MausGlus, Maximinus, Meleager, Messala, Messana, Mile- 
tus; NasTca, Nicanor, JNicetas; Pachynus, PandGra, PelGris & -us, Pharsalus, 
Phcenice, Polites, Polycletus, Polynices, Priapus ; Sardanapalus, Sarpedon, Sera- 
pis, SinGpe, Stratonice, Suffetes; Tigranes, Thessalonica; Verona, Veronica* 



QUANTITY OF FINAL SYLLABLES. 311 

(82.) The following are short: Amathus, Amphipolis, Anabasis, Anticyra 
Antigonus & -ne, Antilochus, Antiochus, Antiopa, Antipas, Antipater, Anti- 
phanes, Antiphates, AntiphTla, Antiphon, Anytus, Apulus, Areopagus, Arimi- 
num, Armenus, Athesis, Attalus, Attica; Bitiirix, Bructeri; Calaber, Callicrates, 
Callistratus, Candace, Cantaber, Carneades, Cherilus, Chrysostomus, Cleom- 
brotus, Cleomenes, Corycos, Constantinopolis, Craterus, Cratylus, Cremera, 
Crustumeri, Cybele, Cyclades, Cyzicus; Dalmatae, Damocles, Dardanus.Dejoces. 
Dejotarus, Democritus, Demipho, Didymus, Diogenes, Drepanum, Dumnorix 
Empedocles, Ephesns, Evergetes, Eumenes, Euryniedon, Euripylus; Fucinus 
Geryor-ies, Gyarus ; Hecyra, Heliopolis, Hermione, Herodotus, Hesiodus, Hesione 
Hippocrates, Hippotamos, Hypata Hypanis ; Icarus, Icetas, Illyris, Iphitus, Isma. 
rus, Ithaca; Laodice, Laomedon, Lampsacus, Lamyrns, Lapi'thae, Lucretilis. 
Libanus, Lipare or -a, Lysimachus, Longimanus ; Marathon, JVIaBnalus, Marma 
rica, Massagetae, Matrona, Megara, Melitus & -ta, Metropolis, Mutina, Myco- 
nus; Neooles, Neri'tos, Noricum ; Omphale ; Patara, Pegasus, Pharnaces, Pisis- 
tratus, Polydamus, Polyxena, Porsena or Porsenna, Praxiteles, Puteoli, Pylades 
Pythagoras ; Sarmatas, Sarsina, Semele, Semiramis, Sequani & -a, Sisyphus, Si- 
coris, Socrates, Sodoma, Sotades, Spartacus, Sporades, Strongyle, Stymphalus, 
Sybaris ; Taygetus, Telegonus, Telemachus, Tenedos, Tarraco, Theophanes, 
Theophilus, Tomyris; Urbicus ; Veneli, Vologesus, Voliisus ; Xenocrates ; Zoi- 
lus, Zopyrus. 

(83) The penult of several words is doubtful ; thus, Batavi. Lucan. Batdvi. 
Juv. and Mart. Forlultus. Hor. Fortuilas. Martial. Some make fortuitus of 
three syllables, but it may be shortened like gratmlus. Stat. Patrimus, matri- 
mus, prceslolor, fyc. are by some lengthened, and by some shortened; but for their 
quantity there is no certain authority. 

II. FINAL SYLLABLES. 
A. 

XL (84) A in the end of a word declined by cases is short ; as, 

Musd, templa, Tydea, lampada. 

Exc. (85) The ablative of the first declension is long; as, Musd 
JEned : and the vocative of Greek nouns in as ; as, O JEnea, O Palla m 

(86) A in the end of a word not declined by cases is long- ; as, 

A ma, frustrd, prcetered, ergd, intra. 

Exc. (87) ltd, quid, ejd, posted, putd, (adv.) are short; and 
sometimes, though more rarely, the prepositions contra, ultra, and the 
compounds of ginta ; as, trigintd, &c. Contra and ultra, when ad- 
verbs, are always long. 

E. 

XII. (88) E in the end of a word is short ; as, 

Nate, sedile, ipse, curre, posse, nempe, ante. 

Exc. 1. (89) Monosyllables are long; as, me, te, se; except these 
enclitic conjunctions, que, ve, ne ; and these syllabical adjections, pte, 
ce, te -, as, suapte, hujusce, lute; but these may be comprehended 
under the general rule, as they never stand by themselves. 



312 QUANTITY OF FINAL SYLLABLES. 

Exc. 2. (90) Nouns of the first and fifth declensions are long ; as, 
Calliope, Anchise,fide. So re arid die, with their compounds, quare, 
hodie, pridie, postridie, quotidie: Also Greek nouns which want the 
singular, Cete, mele, Tempi; and the second person singular of the 
imperative of the second conjugation ; as, Doce, mane ; but cave, vale, 
and vide, are sometimes short. 

Exc. 3. (91) Adverbs derived from adjectives of the first and 
second declension are long ; as, placide, pulchre, valde, contracted for 
valide: To these add jferwie, fere, and ohe; also all adverbs of the su- 
perlative degree ; as, doctisslme, fortisslme : But bene and male, in- 
feme, superne, are short. Also the adverbs here, and Hercule. 

I. 

XIII. (92) I final is long ; as, Domini, patri, docerl. 

Exc. 1. (93) Greek vocatives are short ; as, Alexi, Amarylll. 

Exc. 2. (94) The dative of Greek nouns of the third declension, 
which increase, is common ; as, Pallddi, Minoldi : short. 

(95) Mihi, tibi, sibi, are also common : So likewise are ibi, nisi, 
ubi, quasi ; and cut, when a dissyllable, which is seldom the case. 
Sicuti, sicubi, and necubi, are always short. 

* (96) Datives and Ablatives plural of Greek nouns in si are short; 
as, heroasi, Troasi. 

O. 

XIV. (97) O final is common ; as, Virgo, amo, quando. 

Exc, 1. (98) Monosyllables in O are long; as, 6, do, sto, pro. 
The dative and ablative singular of the second declensions are long; 
as, libro, domino : Also Greek nouns, as Dido^ Sappho, and Atho 
the genitive of Athos ; and adverbs derived from nouns; as, certo, 
falso, paulo. To these add quo, eo, and their compounds, quovis, 
quocunque, adeo, ideo ; likewise illo, idcirco, citro, retro, ultro. 

Exc. 2. (99) The following words are short: Ego, scio, putd, 
cedo, a defective verb, homo, cito, illico, immo, duo, ambo, modo, with 
its compounds, quomodo, dummodo, postmodo : but some of these are 
also found long. 

Exc. 3. (100) The gerund in DO in Virgil is long ; in other poets 
it is short. Ergo, on account of, is long ; ergo, therefore, is doubtful. 

£7 and Y. 

XV. (101) U final is long ; Y final is short ; as, Vultii ; Moly. 

B, D, L, M, R, T. 

XVI. (102) B, D, L, R, and T, in the end of a word, are short ; 
as, ab, apiid, semel, precor, caput. 



QUANTITY OF FINAL SYLLABLES. 313 

(103) The following- words are long ; sal, sol, nil, par and its 
compounds, impdr, dispdr, &c. ; far, lar, Ndr^ cw*-, fur ; also nouns 
in er which have iris in the genitive ; as, Crater, ver, Iber ; likewise 
aer, cether ; to which add Hebrew names: as, Job, Daniel; but 
David, Bogud, &c. are common. 

(104) M final anciently made the foregoing vowel short; as, Minium octo. 
Ennius. But, by later poets, m in the end of a word is always cut off when the 
next word begins with a vowel; thus, milW octo; except in compound words; 
as, circumago, circumeo. 

C,N. 

XVII. (105) C and N, in the end of a word, are long : as, dc, 
sic, illiic ; splen, en, non, &c. 

So Greek nouns in n; as, Titan, Siren, Saldmin; JEnedn, An- 
chlsen, Circen ; Lacedcemon, &c. 

(106) The following words are short : nee and donee $ Forsitdn, In, 
forsdn, tamen, an, viden; likewise nouns in en which have mis in the 
genitive : as, carmen, crimen ; also the nom. and accus. sing, of Greek 
nouns in on, when written with a small o (o /um^ov,) as, Ilion, Pylon, 
Erotion ,- and the accusative, if the termination of the nominative be 
short: as, Mai an, JEtglnan, Orpheon, Alexin, Ibln, chelyn ; so the 
dative plural in sin ; as, Arcasin, Trodsin. 

(107) The pronoun hie and the verb fae are common. 

AS, ES, OS. 

XVIII. (108) AS, ES, and OS, in the end of a word, are long : 
as, Mas, quies, bonds. 

(109) The following words are short : anas, es, from sum, and 
penes ; os, having ossis in the genitive, compos, and impos ; also a 
great many Greek nouns of all these three terminations : as, Areas 
and Arcddds, herods, Phryges, Arcddos, Tenedos, Melds, &c. and 
Latin nouns in es, having the penult of the genitive increasing short : 
as, Ales, hebes, obses. But Ceres, paries, aries, abies, and pes with 
its compounds, are long. 

IS, US, YS. 

XIX. (110) IS, US, and YS, in the end of a word, are short : as, 
Turris, legls, leglmus, annus, Capys. 

Exc. 1. (Ill) Plural cases in is and us are long; as, Pennls, 
librls, nobis, omnis, for omnes, fructiis, mantis ; also the genitive 
singular of the fourth declension ; as, porttis. But bus in the dat. 
and abl. plur. is short: diS,floribus, fructibiis, rebus. 

Exc. 2. (112) Nouns in is are long, which have the genitive in 

Dd 



314 



QUANTITY OF DERIVATIVES AND COMPOUNDS. 



itis, inis, or entis ; as, lis, Samnis, Salamis, Simois : To these add 
the adverbs gratis and forls ; the noun glis, and vis, whether it be a 
noun or a verb ; also is in the second person singular, when the plural 
has itis ; as, audis, abis, possis. Ris in the future of the subjunctive 
is lengthened by Ovid, Fast. 1, 17, but it is always shortened by Ho- 
race, Od. 4, 7, 20. Sat. 1, 4, 41. 2, 3, 220. 2, 6, 39. Art. 47. 

Exc. 3. (113) Monosyllables in us are long : as, grits, sus : also 
nouns which in the genitive have uris, udis, utis, untis, or odis : as, 
tellus, incus, virtus, Amdthus, tripus. To these add the genitive of 
Greek nouns of the third declension ending in o ; as, Clius, Sapphiis, 
Mantiis ; also nouns which have u in the vocative : as, Panthus : — 
so Iesus. 

Exc. 4. (114) Tethys is sometimes long, and nouns in ys, which 
have likewise yn in the nominative : as, Fhorcys or Phorcyn, and 
Trachys or Trachyn. 

IT (115) The last syllable of every verse is common ; 

Or, as some think, necessarily long, on account of the pause or sus- 
pension of the voice, which usually follows it in pronunciation. 

THE QUANTITY OF DERIVATIVE AND COMPOUND 
WORDS. 

I. DERIVATIVES. 

XX. (116) Derivatives follow the quantity of their primitives ; as, 

from decus, -oris, 

exul, -ulis. 
paveo. 
Quiris, -itis. 
radix, -icis. 
sospes, -itis. 
natus. 
mater, 
lego, 
legi. 



1. Long from short. 

Deni, from decern. SuspTcio, from suspicor. Mobilis, from moveo. 

Foraes, foveo. Sedes, sedeo. Humor, humus. 

Humanus, homo. Secius, secus. Jumentum, jiivo. 

Regiila, rego. Penuria, penus. Vox, vGcis, voco, &c. 



Amicus, from 


amo. 


Decoro, 


Auctionor, 


auctio, -onis. 


Exiilo, 


Auctoro, 


auctor, -5ris. 


Pa v id us, 


Auditor, 


auditum. 


Quirito, 


Auspicor, 


auspex, -icis. 


Radicitus, 


Cauponor, 


caupo, -Gnis. 


Sospito, 


Competitor, 


competitum. 


Natura, 


Cornicor, 


comix, -icis. 


Maternus, 


Custodio, 


custos, -odis. 


Legebam, &c. 


Decdrus, 


decor, -5ris. 


Legeram, &c. 




EXCEPTIONS. 



2. Short from long. 
Arena and arista, from areo. Lucerna from 



IN ota and noto, 


notus. 


Dux, iicis, 


Vadum, 


vado. 


Stabilis, 


Fides, 


fido. 


Ditio, 


Sopor, 


sopio. 


Quasillus, 



luceo. 
duco. 
stabam. 
dis, ditis. 
qualus, &c. 



QUANTITY OF COMPOUNDS. 315 

II. COMPOUNDS. 

XXI. (117) Compounds follow the quantity of the simple words 
which compose them ; as, 

Deduco, of de and d'uco. So profero, antefero, consolor, denolo, depeculor, de- 
pravo, despero, despumo, desquamo, enodo, ertidio, exsudo, exaro, expaveo, incero, 
inhumo, invesdgo, proegravo, prcendlo, regelo, apparo, appdreo, concavus, pro? gra- 
vis, desolo, suffoco and suffoco ; diffidit from diffindo, and diffidit from diffido ; 
indico, -are, and indico, -ere ; permanet from per mdneo, and permanet irom perma- 
no ; effod.it in the present, and effbdit in the perfect ; so, exedit and exedit ; deve- 
nit and devenit ; devenimus and devenimus ; reperimus and reperimus ; effugit and 
effugit, &c. 

(118) The change of a vowel or diphthong in the compound does 
not alter the quantity ; as, 

Incido from in and cado ; incldo from in and ccedo ; suffoco from sub and faux, 
faucis. Unless the letter following make it fall under some general rule ; as, ad- 
mitto, perc'ello, deosculor, prohibeo. 

Exc- (119.) Agriitum, cogriitum, dejero, pejero, innuba, pronuba, maledtcus, 
veridicus, nilfdum, semisopltus ; from notus, juro, nilbo, dico, hilum, and sopio ,* 
ambitus, a participle from ambio^ is long ; but the substantives ambitus and ambi- 
tio are short. Connubium has the second syllable common. 

* (120) Prepositions have generally the same quantity in composition as out of 
it : thus dmitto and deduco have the first syllable long because a and de are long. 
Aboleo and perimo have the first short, because ab and per are short. 

Obs. 1. (121) The preposition PRO in Greek words, for ante, 
before, is short; as, 

Propketa, prologus: PRO in Latin words is long ; as,prodo, promitto, <J-c.but it 
is short in the following words : profundus, profugio, profugus, pronepos, pro- 
neptis, profestus, prof art, profiteor, prof anus, profecto, precella, protervus, and 
propago, a lineage ; pro in prbpago, a vine-stock, or shoot, is long. Pro in the 
following words is doubtful ; propago, to propagate; propino, prof undo, propello, 
propulso, procuro, and Proserpina. 

Obs. 2. (122) The inseparable prepositions SE and Dl are long ; 
as, 

Sepdro, dlvello ; except dirzmo, disertus. Re is short ; as, remitio, refero ; ex- 
cept in the impersonal verb refert, compounded of res and fero. 

Obs . 3. (123) I and O, in the end of the former compounding 
word, are usually shortened ; as, 

Capricornus» omnipotens, agricola, sigriifico, blformis, aliger, Trivia, Tubtcen, 
vaticinor, architectus, bimeter, trimeter, &c. duodecim, hodie, sacrosanctus, Arcto- 
phylax, Argonauta, bibliotheca, philosophies, &c. But from each of these there 
are many exceptions. Thus i is long when it is varied by cases ; as, quidam, qui- 
vis, tantidem, eidem, &c. And when the compounding words may be taken sepa- 
rately ; as, ludlmagisler, lucrlfacio, slquis, &c. — or when a contraction is made by 
Crasis or Syncope ; as, trigce, for trijiigce; ilicet, for 'ire licet, &c. — So in the com- 
pounds of dies, as, blduum, tr'iduum, meridies, pridie, postridie ; but the second 
syllable is sometimes shortened in quotidie and quotididnus. Idem in the masc. is 
long, (in the neuter short ;) also ubique, ibidem. But in ubivis and ubicunque, the 
i is doubtful. 



316 VERSE AND POETICAL FEET. 

(124) O is lengthened in the compounds of intro, retro, contro, 
and quando ,• as, 

Introduce), intromitto, retrocedo, retrbgradus, controversus, controversia, quandd- 
que ; but quandoqiiidem has the second syllable short. O is also long in alioquin, 
cceteroquin, utrdbique : So likewise in Greek words, written with a large o, or 
co [Aty*. ; as, gebmetra, Mindtaurus, lagbpus. 

Obs. 4. (125) A in the former compounding part of a word is long ; as, qudre, 
qudpropter, qudcunque ; So, trddo, trdduco, trdno, for transno, &c. Eadem is 
short, except in the abl. sing, eadem. 

(126) £ is short; as, nefas, nefastus, nefandus, nefarius, neque, neqaeo; trede- 
cim, trecenti, equidem, selibra, valedico, ?nadefacio, tepefacio, patefacio, &c. 
hujuscemodi, ejuscemodi — Except sedecim, semodius, nequis, nequam, nequitia, 

nequando, nemo, credo, memet, mecum, tecum, secum ; veneficus, videlicet. 

(127) U also is short; as, ducenti, dupondium; quadrupes, centuplum, Troju- 
gena, cornupeta ; but jiidico is long. Y likewise in Greek words is short; as, 
Polydorus, Polyddmas, Polyphemus, Doryphorus. 

VERSE. 

(128) A Verse is a certain number of long and short syllables dis- 
posed according to rule. 

It is so called, because when the number of syllables requisite is 
completed, we always turn back to the beginning of a new line. 

The parts into which we divide a verse, to see if it have its just 
number of syllables, are called Feet. 

A verse is divided into different feet, both to ascertain its measure or 
number of syllables, and to regulate its pronunciation. 

FEET. 

Poetic feet are either of two, three, or four syllables. When a sin- 
gle syllable is taken by itself, it is called a Ccesura, which is com- 
monly a long syllable. 

1. Feet of two Syllables. 

Spondeus, consists of two long ; as, omnes, 
Pyrrhickius, two short; as, deus. 

Iambus, a short and a long ; as, amans. 

Trochceus or Choreus, a long and a short ; as, servus. 

2. Feet of three Syllables. 

Dactylus, a long and two short ; as, scribere. 

Anapcestus, two short and a long ; as, ptetds. 

Amphimacer, a long, a short, and a long ; as, chdritas. 

Tribrachys, three short ; as, dominus. 



DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERSE. 



317 



The following are not so much used : 



Molossus, 
Amphibrachys, 
Bacchius, 
Antibacchius, 

3. Feet of four 

Proceleusmaticus, 

Dispondeus, 

Dijambus, 

Choriambus, 

Dichoreus, 



delectdnt. 
honore. 
dolores. 
pelunlur. 

Syllables. 

honiiriibus. 

ordtores. 

amceiiitcis. 

pbntifices. 

Cantilena. 



Antispastus, 
Ionicus minor, 
Ionic us major, 
Paeon primus, 
Paeon secundus, 
Paeon tertius, 
Paeon quartus, 
Epitritus primus, 
Epitritus secundus, 
Epitritus tertius, 
Epitritus quartus, 



Alexander. 

properdbant. 

calcanbus. 

temporibus. 

potentza. 

dnimdtus. 

celeritds. 

voluptates. 

pairiitentes. 

dlscdrdids. 

fortundtus. 



SCANNING. 

(129) The measuring' of verse, or the resolving of it into the seve- 
ral feet of which it is composed, is called Scanning. 

When a verse has just the number of feet requisite, it is called Versus Acuta- 
lectus or Acatalecticus, an Acataiectic verse : if a syllable be wanting, it is called 
Catalecticus : if there be a syllable too much, Hyper catalecticus, or Hypermeter. 

The ascertaining whether the verse be complete, defective, or redundant, is 
called Depositio or Clausula. 



DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERSE. 

No. L HEXAMETER. 

(130) The Hexameter or heroic verse consists of six feet. Of 
these the fifth is a dactyle, and the sixth a spondee ; all the rest may 
be either dactyles or spondees : as, 



Ludere I quae vel- I lem cala- i mu per- I misit a- | gresti. Virg. 
Infan- | dum Re- | gina jii- j bes reno- | vare do- | lorem. Id. 

A regular Hexameter line cannot have more than seventeen syl- 
lables, or fewer than thirteen. 

(131) Sometimes a spondee is found in the fifth place, whence the 
verse is called Spondaic ; as, 

Cara De- | urn sobo- | les ma- | gniim Jovis | mere- J mentum. Virg. 

This verse is used when any thing grave, slow, large, sad, or the 
like, is expressed. It commonly has a dactyle in the fourth place, and 
a word of four syllables in the end. 

(132) Sometimes there remains a superfluous syllable at the end. But this syl- 
lable must either terminate in a vowel, or in the consonant m, with a vowel before 

d d2 



318 DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERSE. 

it ; so as to be joined with the following verse, which in the present case must 
always begin with a vowel ; as, 

Omnia j Merciiri- | 5 simi- | lis vO- | cemque co- | loremque. 
Etflavos crines 

Those Hexameter verses sound best, which have dactyles and spon- 
dees alternately : as, 

Ludere, quae vellem, calamo permisit agresti. Virg. 
Pinguis et ingratse premeretur caseus urbi. Id. 

Or which have more dactyles than spondees : as, 

Tityre, tu patulae recubans sub tegmine fagi. Virg. 

It is esteemed a great beauty in a hexameter verse, when, by the 
use of dactyles and spondees, the sound is adapted to the sense : as, 

Quadrupedante putrem sonitu quatit ungula campum. Virg. 
Illi inter sese magna, vi brachia tollunt Id. 

Monstrum horrendum, informe, ingens, cui lumen ademptum. Id. 
Accipiunt inimicum, imbrem, rimisque fatiscunt. Id. 

But what deserves particular attention, in scanning hexameter verse, 
is the (LESURA. 

(133) Ccesiira is when, after a foot is completed, there remains a 
syllable at the end of a word to begin a new foot ; as, 
At re-gina gra-vi jam-dudum, &c. 

The ccBSura is variously named, according to the different parts of 
the hexameter verse in which it is found. When it comes after the 
first foot, or falls on the third half-foot, it is called by a Greek name, 
Triemimeris . when on the fifth half-foot, or the syllable after the 
second foot, it is called Penthemimeris : when it happens on the first 
syllable of the fourth foot, or the seventh half-foot, it is called Hephthe- 
mimeris : and when on the ninth half-foot, or the first syllable of the 
fifth foot, it is called Enneemimeris. 

All these different species of the ccesiira sometimes occur in the 
same verse : as, 

Hie la-tus nive-um mol-li ful-tus hya-cintho. Virg. 

But the most common and beautiful ccesiira is the penthemim ; on 
which some lay a particular accent or stress of the voice, in reading a 
hexameter verse thus composed : whence they call it the ccesural 
pause : as, 

Tityre, dum rede-O, brevis est via, pasce capellas. Virg. 

When the ccesiira falls on a syllable naturally short, it renders it 
long : as, the last syllable of fultus in the foregoing example. 

The chief melody of a hexameter verse in a great measure depends 
on the proper disposition of the ccesiira. Without this, a line consist- 



DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERSE. 319 

ing of the number of feet requisite will be little else than mere 
prose: as, 

Romae mcenia terruit ImpTger, Hannibal armis. Ennius. 

The ancient Romans, in pronouncing verse, paid a particular attention to its 
melody. They observed not only the quantity and accent of the several sylla- 
bles, but also the different stops and pauses which the particular turn of the verse 
required. In modern times we do not fully perceive the melody of Latin verse, 
because we have now lost the just pronunciation of that language, the people of 
every country pronouncing it in a manner similar to their own. In reading Latin 
verse, therefore, w T e are directed by the same rules which take place with respect 
to English verse, as has been before observed. 

The tone of the voice ought to be chiefly regulated by the sense. All the words 
should be pronounced fully ; and the cadence of the verse ought only to be ob- 
served, so far as it corresponds with the natural expression of the words. At the 
end of each line there should be no fall of the voice, unless the sense requires 
it ; but a small pause, half of that which we usually make at a comma. 

No. 2. PENTAMETER. 

(134) The Pentameter verse consists of five feet. Of these the 
two first are either dactyles or spondees: the third, always a spondee : 
and the fourth and fifth, an anapsestus : as, 



12 3 4 5 



Natii- | rae sequi- | tur se- [ mina quis- | que suae. Propert. 
Carmini- | bus vi- | ves tern- | pus in 5m- | ne meis. Ovid. 

But this verse is more properly divided into two hemisticks or 
halves: the former of which consists of two feet, either dactyles or 
spondees, and a caesura : the latter, always of two dactyles and another 
csesura: thus, 

Natii- | rae sequi- | tur | semina, | quisque sii- | ae. 
Carmini- | bus vi- | ves | tempiis in | 6mne me- | is. 

The Pentameter usually ends with a dissyllable, but sometimes also 
with a polysyllable. 

No. 3. TETRAMETER A POSTERIORE. 

* (135) The Tetrameter a Posteriore consists of the last four feet 
of an Hexameter : as, 

Certus e- | mm pro- | mlsit A- | polio. Hor. 

No. 4. TRIMETER CATALECTIC. 

* (136) The Trimeter Catalectic consists of two dactyles and a 
semi-foot or catalectic syllable : as, 

Arbon- | biisque co- | mae. Hor. 



320 DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERSE. 

No. 5. DACTYLIC DIMETER or ADONIC. 

* (137) The Adonic verse consists of two feet, the first a dactyle, 
the other a spondee : as, 

Vise re j raontes. Hor. 

The Adonic is usually joined to the Sapphic or Trochaic Pentame- 
ter [No. 11.] In odes, one Adonic is annexed to three Sapphics to form 
the stanza. 

IAMBIC. 

No. 6. IAMBIC TRIMETER. 

Iambic verses take their name from the Iamhus, which, in pure 
Iambics, was the only foot admitted. They are divided into two 
kinds. The one consists of four feet, and is called by a Greek name 
Dimeter (a word meaning 'two measures ;') the other consists of six 
feet, and is called Trimeter (' six measures.') The reason of these 
names is, that among the Greeks two feet were considered only as 
one measure in Iambic verse ; -whereas the Latins measured it by 
single feet, and therefore called the Dimeter quaternarius, and the 
Trimeter, senarius. 

* (138) The Trimeter Iambic consists of three measures, or six 
feet, properly all Iambic ; the ccesura commonly falling on the fifth 
semi-foot: as, 

Phase- | lus II- | le quem | vide- [ lis hos- | pites. Catullus. 

But the pure Iambic was rarely used, and the Spondee was allowed 
to take the place of the Iambus in the first, third and fifth stations, for 
the purpose of giving to the verse a greater degree of weight and 
dignity. A further liberty was taken in the first, third and fifth 
places, that of dividing one long syllable into two short ones. The 
scale of the mixed Trimeter Iambic is as follows : — 



1 


2 


3 


4 

w* — - 


5 

v~^ — 


6 

v — 


ES 








— '— ' 





No. 7. IAMBIC TRIMETER CATALECTIC. 

* (139) The Catalectic Trimeter is the common Trimeter [No. 6] 
wanting the final syllable ; that is, it consists of five feet, properly all 
Iambi, followed by a Catalectic syllable; as, 

Voca- | tus at- | que rwn | \o ca- | tiis au- | dit. Hor. 



DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERSE. 321 

Like the common Trimeter it admits a Spondee in the first and 
third places, but not in the fifth, which would render the verse too 
heavy and prosaic. 

No. 8. IAMBIC DIMETER. 

* (140) The Dimeter Iambic consists of two measures, or four feet, 
properly all Iambi ; as, 

Perun- | xit hoc | la- | sonem. Hor. 

But it admits the same variations in the odd feet as the Trimeter. 

No. 9. IAMBIC DIMETER HYPERMETER. 

* (141) The Dimeter Hypermeter, called also ArcJiilochian, is the 
Iambic Dimeter [No. 8] with an additional syllable at the end ; as, 

Rede- | git ad | veros | timo- | res. Hor. 

Horace makes frequent use of this metre in conjunction with the 
Alcaic [No. 19] having always the third foot a spondee. 

No. 10. IAMBIC DIMETER ACEPHALUS. 

* (142) The Acpphalous Dimeter is theJDimeter Iambic [No. 9] 
wanting the first syllable ; as, 

Non | ebur | neque au- | reura. Hor. 

No. 11. SAPPHIC. 

* (143) The Sapphic verse (so called from the poetess Sappho, 
who invented it) consists of five feet, namely a Trochee, a Spondee, a 
Dactyle and two more Trochees ; as, 

Deflu- | it sax- | is agi- | tatus | humor. Hor. 

Of three such verses with the addition of one Adonic [No. 5] Sappho 
composed her stanza, in which practice she was followed by Catullus, 
Horace and others. 

CHORIAMBIC. 
No. 12. CHORIAMBIC PENTAMETER. 

*(144) The Choriambic Pentameter consists of a Spondee, three 
Choriambi, and an Iambus ; as, 

Tu ne | quaesiens | scire nefas | quem mihi quern | tibi. Hor. 

No. 13. CHORIAMBIC TETRAMETER. 

* (145) This species of verse consists'of three Choriambi, and a 
Bacchius (i. e. an Iambus and a long syllable); as, 

Jane pater, | Jane tuens, | dive biceps | biformis. Sep. Ser. 



322 DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERSE. 

Horace made an alteration, but certainly not an improvement, in this 
form of verse, by substituting a Spondee, instead of the Iambus in the 
first measure ; as, 

Te de-os o- j ro, Sybarin | cur properes [ amando, 
which must be considered as a lame Choriambic Tetrameter. 

No. 14, ASCLEPIADIC TETRAMETER. 

* (146) The Asclepiadic Tetrameter (so called from the poet As- 
clepiades) consists of a Spondee, two Choriambi, and an Iambus; as, 

Msece- [ nas atavis | edite re- | gibus. Hor. 

As the ccesura takes place at the end of the first Choriambus, this 
metre may be scanned as a Dactylic Pentameter, wanting the last syl- 
lable; thus, 

Mae ce- ] nas ala- ] vis | edite | regibus. 

No, 15. CHORIAMBIC TRIMETER, or GLYCONIC. 

* (147) The Glyconic verse (so called from the poet Glyco) con- 
sists of a Spondee, a Choriambus, and an Iambus ; as, 

Sic te | diva potens | Cypri. Hor. 

* (148) The first foot was sometimes an Iambus or a Trochee. 
Horace, however, who was very fond of the Glyconic, and has often 
employed it, invariably adheres to the Spondee, except in one solitary 
instance; viz. 

Ignis J Iliacas J domos. Od. 1, 13, 36. 

* (149) This species of verse, when it has a Spondee in the first 
place, might be scanned as a Dactylic Trimeter ; thus, 

Miles | te duce | gessent. Hor. 
Grato | Pyrrha sub | antro. Hor. 

No. 16. CHORIAMBIC TRIMETER CATALECTIC or PHERECRATIC. 

* (150) The Pherecratic verse (so called from the poet Pherecrates,) 
is the Glyconic [No. 15] deprived of its final syllable. It consists of a 
Spondee, a Choriambus, and a Catalectic syllable; as, 

Gratu | Pyrrha sub an- ] tru. Hor. 

Or it might be divided into a Spondee, a Dactyle and Spondee. See 
[*149] 

No. 17. CHORIAMBIC DIMETER. 

* (151) The Choriambic Dimeter consists of a Choriambus and a 
Bacchius ; as, 

Lydia die | per omnes. Hor. 



DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERSE. 323 

IONIC. 

Ionic verses are of two kinds, the Ionicus Major, and the Ionicus 
Minor, so denominated from the feet of which they are respectively 
composed. 

No. 18. IONIC A MINORE. 

* (152) The Ionic a Minor e is entirely composed of that foot or 
measure called the Ionic a minore, which consists of two short [a 
Pyrrhic] and two long- [a Spondee,] as, Doculssent. It is not confined 
to any particular number of feet or measures, but may be extended to 
any length, provided only that, with due attention to Synapheia [163] 
the final syllable of the Spondee in each measure, be either naturally 
long, or made long by the concourse of consonants, and that each sen- 
tence or period terminate with a complete measure, having the Spon- 
dee for its close. Horace's Ode 12, Book 3, may be divided into lines 
of four Ionics each ; as, 

Miserarum est | neque amori | dare ludum, | neque dulci. 

No. 19. GREATER ALCAIC. 

* (153) The Greater Alcaic consists of an Iambic measure (that is, 
two feet properly both Iambi) and a long Catalectic syllable, followed 
by a Choriambus and an Iambus ; as, 

Vides | ut al- | ta | stet nive can- | didum. Hor. 

But the first foot of the Iambic portion is, of course, alterable to a 
Spondee. 

* (154) The Alcaic is sometimes scanned so as to make two Dac- 
tyles of the latter colon ; thus, 

Vides | iit al- | ta | stet nive | candidum. 

No. 20. DACTYLICO-TROCHAIC HEPTAMETER or ARCHILOCHIAN. 

* (155) The Archilochian Heptameter consists of two members ; 
the first contains four feet from the beginning of the Hexameter — the 
fourth being always a Dactyle — the latter portion consists of three Tro- 
chees; thus, 

Solvitur | acris hi- | ems gra- | ta vice | veris | et Fa. | vorri. Hor. 

No. 21. DACTYLICO-TROCHAIC TETRAMETER, or LESSER 
ALCAIC. 

* (156) The Lesser Alcaic consists of two Dactyles followed by 
two Trochees ; as, 

Levia | personu- | ere | saxa. Hor, 



324 FIGURES OF SCANNING. 

FIGURES IN SCANNING. 

The several changes made upon words, to adapt them to the verse, 
are called Figures in Scanning. The chief of these are the Syna- 
lcepha, Ecthlipsis, Synceresis, Dicer esis, Systole, and Diastole, 

1. (157) Synalcepha is the cutting off of a vowel or diphthong, 
when the next word begins with a vowel ; as, 

Conticuere omnes, intentique ora tenebant. Virg. 

to be scanned thus, 

Conticu- | er' <3m- | nes in- | tenti- | qu' ora te- | nebant. 

The Synalcepha is sometimes neglected : and seldom takes place in 
the interjections, 6, heu, ah, proh, vce, vah, hei ; as, 

pater, 6 hominum, Divumque seterna potestas, Virg. 

Long vowels and diphthongs, when not cut off, are sometimes short- 
ened; as, 

Insulae Ionio in magno, quas dira Celseno. Virg. 
Credimus ? an, qui araant, ipsi sibi sorania fingunt. Id. 
Victor apud rapidum Simoenta sub Ilio alto. Id. 
Ter suntconati imponere Pelio Ossam. Id. 
Glauco et Panopese, et Inoo Melicertae. Id. 

2. (158) Ecthlipsis is the cutting off of m, with the vowel before 
it, in the end of a word, because the following word begins with a 
vowel; as, 

O euros hominum ! O quantum est in rebus inane ! Pers. 
thus, 

O cu- | ras homi- | n\ o quan- ] t' est Tn [ rebus in- | ane. 

Sometimes the Synalcepha and Ecthlipsis are found at the end of the 
verse; as, 

Sternitur infelix alieno vulnere, coslumque 
Adspicit, etdulces moriens reminiscitur Argos. Virg. 
Jamque iter emensi, turres ac tecta Latinorum 
Ardua cernebant juvenes, murosque subibant. Id. 

These verses are called Hypermetri, because a syllable remains to 
be carried to the beginning of the next line ; thus, qu* Adspicit : r* 
Ardua. 

3. (159) Sypoeresis is the contraction of two syllables into one, 
which is likewise called Crasis ; as, Phcethon for Phaethon. So e'i 
in Thesei, Orphei, deinde, Pompei : u'i in hide, cui : o'i in proinde : 
cd in aured : thus, 

Notus amor PhaedraB, nota est injuria Thesei. Ovid. 
Proinde tona eluquio, solitum tibi — Virg. 

Filius huic contra, torquet qui sidera mundi. Id. 

Aurea percussum virga, versumque venenis. Id. 



FIGURES IN SCANNING. 325 

So in antehac, eadem, alvearia, deest, deerit, vehemens, anteit, 
eodem, alveo, graveolentis, omnia, semianimis, semihomo, fluviorum, 
totius, promontorium, &c. as, 

Una eademque via sanguis animusque sequuntur. Virg. 
Seu lento fuerint alvearia vimine texta. Id 
Vilis amicorum est annona, bonis ubi quid deest. Hor. 
Divitis uber agri, Trojaeque opulentia deerit. Virg. 
Vehemens et liquidus puroque simillimus amni. Hor. 
Te semper anteit dira necessitas. Alcaic. Hor. Od. 1, 35, 17. 
Uno eodemque igni, sic nostro Daphnis amore. Virg. 
Cum refluit campis, et jam se condidit alveo. Virg. 
Inde ubi venere ad fauces graveolentis Averni. Id. 
Bis patriae cecidere manus : quin protinus omnia. Id. 
Caedit semianimis Rutulorum calcibus arva. Id. 
Semihominis Caci facies quam dira tenebat. Id. 
Fluviorum rex Eridanus, camposque per omnes. Id. 
Magnanimosque duces totiusque ex ordine gentis. Id. 
Inde legit Capreas, promontoriumque Minervae. Ovid. 

To this figure may be referred the changing of i and u mtoj and v, 
or pronouncing them in the same syllable with the following vowel ; 
as, in genva, tenvis, arjelat^ tenvia, abjete, pitvita, parjetibus, Nasid- 
jenus ; for genua, tenuis, &c. as, 

Propterea quia corpus aquae naturaque ten vis. Lucr. 
Genva labant, gelido concrevit frigore sanguis. Virg. 
Arjetat in portas et duros objice postes. Id. 
Velleraque ut foliis depectant tenvia Seres. Id. 
iEdificant, sectaque intexunt abjete costas. Id. 
Praecipue sanus, nisi cum pitvita molesta est. Hor. 
Parjetibusque premunt arctis, et quatuor addunt. Virg. 
Ut Nasidjeni juvit te coena beati ? Hor. 

4. (160) Dijeresis divides one syllable into two; as, aulai, for 
aula? : Tro'ice, for Trojce : Perseus, for Perseus : miluus, for milvus : 
solilit, for solvit : voluit, for volvit : aqu<z, suetus, suasit, Siievos, re- 
languit, reliquas, for aquoz, suetus, &c.; as, 

Aulai' in medio libabant pocula Bacchi. Virg. 
Stamina non ulli dissoliienda Deo. Pentam Tibullus. 
Debuerant fusos evoliiisse suos. Id. Ovid. 
Quae calidum faciunt aquae tactum atque vaporem. Lucr. 
Cum mihi non tantum furesque feraeque siietae. Hor. 
Atque alios alii inrident, Veneremque siiadent. Lucr. 
Fundat ab extremo flavos Aquilone Siievos. Lucan. 
Imposito fratri moribunda relangiiit ore. Ovid. 
ReliqLias tamen esse vias in mente patenteis. Lucr. 

5. (161) Systole makes a long syllable short ; as, the penult in 
tulerunt; thus, 

Matri longa decern tulerunt fastidia menses. Virg. E. 4. 61. 
e e 



326 FIGURES OF DICTION* 

6. (162) Diastole makes a short syllable long; as, the last sylfe* 
ble of amor in the following verse : 

Considant, si tantus amor, et moenia condant. Virg. jE. 11, 323. 

To the above may be added the following, which, though chiefly 
used by the poets, often occur in prose ; and are called 



FIGURES OF DICTION. 

* (163) Synapheia is the connexion or linking of verses together, 
so as to make them run on in continuation, as if the matter were not 
divided into separate verses. This figure obtains chiefly in the Ionic^ 
a minore measure. 

1. (164) Prosthesis* prefixes a letter or syllable ; as, gnavus for 
navus. In Latin there are but few examples of this, but in Greek 
they abound ; as, \117n for um, o^a for ag*. 

2. (165) Epenthesis] inserts something in the middle ; as, rettu- 
lit for retitlit, fAa.xwv-a.fx.ms for /ud^ia-a/utsvos. 

3. (166) Paragoge\ adds to the end ; as, dicier for did, rcvrovi 
for tovtov. 

4. (167) Aph&resis\ takes away from the beginning ; as, conia 
for ciconia. Of this, also, examples are rare in Latin, but frequent in 
Greek ; as, » for s<p». II. 1. 219. 

5. (168) Syncope\\ takes out something from the. middle ; as, pec- 
cdsse for peccavisse, e@av for q8»rt*y. 

6. (169) Apocope^ takes from the end ; as, peculi for peculii, St* 
for %,*. II. 1. 426. 

7. (170) Metathesis** transposes letters; as, pistris for pristis, 
tfgoatw for eSxgKOV, 2. a. of fcgwa. 

8. (171) Antithesis^ changes one letter for another ; as,faciu7i- 
dum for faciendum, olli for Mi, %uv for o-w. 



* Hgor&wis, adjectio » Trgoa-nQ/uL/jih addo t to prefix. 

t 'E^sv6s5-/f , insertio ; S7revriQiipt, insero in medium, to insert. 

\ TlcLp*ya>y», productio ; 7ra.pa.yu), produco, to lengthen out. 

§ 'Aqaipirts, ablatio ; *<pdipea>, aufero, to take away. 

|| Itryxmnt, from fl-ypo^Tfio, concido, to cut off 

IT A7roK07ni, amputatio ; a.7roico'7r<rco, amputo, to cut off 

** MiTctQia-t;, transpositio ; the change of places. 

tt From avn> instead of, and tiSh/U:', to place. 



COMBINATION OF VERSES IN POEMS. 327 



DIFFERENT KINDS OF POEMS. 

Any work composed in verse is called a Poem (Poema or Carmen.) 
Poems are called by various names, from their subject, their form, the manner of 
treating the subject, and their style. 

1. (172) A poem on the celebration of a marriage is called an Epithalamium ; 
on a mournful subject, an Elegy or Lamentation ; in praise of the Supreme 
Being, a Hymn; in praise of any person or thing, a Panegyric or Encomium ; on 
the vices of any one, a Satire or Invective ; a poem to be inscribed on a tomb, 
an Epitaph, &c. 

2. (173) A short poem, adapted to the lyre or harp, is called an Ode, whence 
such compositions are called Lyric poems ; a poem in the form of a letter is called 
an Epistle; a short, witty poem, playing on the fancies or conceits which arise 
from any subject, is called an Epigram; as those of Catullus and Martial. A 
sharp, unexpected, lively turn of wit, in the end of an epigram, is called its Point. 
A poem expressing the moral of any device or picture, is called an Emblem. A 
poem containing an obscure question to be explained, is called an ^Enigma or 
Riddle, 

When a character is described so that the first letters of each verse, and some 
times the middle and final letters, express the name of the person or thing de- 
scribed, it is called an Acrostic ; as the following on our Saviour : 

I nter cuncta micans I gniti sidera cozl I, 
E xpellil tenebras E toto Phoebus ut orb E ; 
S ic ccecas removet JES VS caliginis umbra S, 
V ivificansque simul V ero prcecordia mot V, 
S olem justitice S ese probat esse beati S. 

3. (174) From the manner of treating a subject, a poem is either Exegetic, 
Dramatic, or Mixt. 

The Exegetic, where the poet always speaks of himself, is of three kinds, His- 
torical, Didactic, or Instructive, (as the Satire or Epistle,) and Descriptive. 

(175) Of the Dramatic, the chief kinds are COMEDY, representing the ac- 
tions of ordinary life, generally with a happy issue; and TRAGEDY, represent- 
ing the actions and distresses of illustrious personages, commonly with an unhappy 
issue ; to which may be added Pastoral Poems, or Bucolics, representing the ac- 
tions and conversations of shepherds ; as most of the Eclogues of Virgil. 

The Mixt kind is where the poet sometimes speaks in his own person, and 
sometimes makes other characters to speak. Of this kind is chiefly the EPIC or 
HEROIC poem, which treats of some one great transaction of some great, illus- 
trious person, with its various circumstances ; as the wrath of Achilles in the 
Iliad of Homer ; the settlement of iEneas in Italy in the JEneid of Virgil ; the 
fall of man in the Paradise Lost of Milton, &c. 

4. The style of poetry, as of prose, is of three kinds, the simple, ornate, and 
sublime. 

COMBINATION OF VERSES IN POEMS. 

(176) In long* poems there is eommonly but one kind of verse 
used. Thus Virgil, Lucretius, Horace in his Satires and Epistles, 



328 COMBINATION OF VERSES IN POEMS. 

Ovid in his Metamorphoses, Lucan, Silius Italicus, Valerius Flaccus, 
Juvenal, &c. always use the Hexameter verse : Plautus, Terence, 
and other writers of Comedy, generally use the Iambic, and sometimes 
the Trochaic. It is chiefly in shorter poems, particularly those which 
are called Lyric poems, as the Odes of Horace and the Psalms of 
Buchanan, that various kinds of verse are combined. 

(177) A poem, which has only one kind of verse, is called by a 
Greek name, Monocolon sc. poema qr carmen ; or Monocolos, sc. 
ode ; that which has two kinds, Dicolon ; and that which has three 
kinds of verse, Tricolon. 

(178) If the same sort of verse return after the second line, it is 
called Dicolon Distrophon ;* as when a single Pentameter is al- 
ternately placed after an Hexameter ; which is named Elegiac verse > 
(carmen Elegiacum,) because it was first applied to mournful sub- 
jects; thus, 

Flebilis indignos, Elegeia, solve capillos ; 
Ah ! nimis ex vero, nunc tibi nomen erit. Ovid. 

This kind of verse is used by Ovid in all his other works except 
the Metamorphoses ; and also for the most part by Tibullus, Proper- 
tius, &c. 

(179) When a poem consists of two kinds of verse, and after three 
lines returns to the first, it is called Dicolon Tristrophon ; when 
after four lines, Dicolon Tetrastrophon ; as, 

Auream quisquis mediocritatem 
Diligit, tutus caret obsoleti 
Sordibus tecti; caret invidenda 

Sobrius aula, Horat 

(180) When a poem consists of three kinds of verse, and after 
three lines always returns to the first, it is called Tricolon Tristro- 
phon ; but if it returns after four lines, it is called Tricolon Tetras- 
trophon ; as, when after two greater dactylic Alcaic verses are sub- 
joined an Archilochian iambic and a lesser dactylic Alcaic, which is 
named Carmen Horatidnum, or Horatian verse, because it is fre- 
quently used by Horace ; thus, 

Virtus recludens immeritis mori 
Caelum, negata tentat iter via ; 
Ccetusque vulgares, et udam 
Spernit humum fugiente penna. 



* A Strophe or Stanza includes as many lines as are necessary to show all the 
different kinds of measure in an ode. It is called Strophe, which in Greek liter- 
ally means a turning, because at the end of it, you turn back to the same kind of 
verse with which you began. 



COMBINATIONS OF METRES IN HORACE. 329 

THE VARIOUS COMBINATIONS OF THE DIFFERENT 
METRES USED BY HORACE. 

The different speeies of metre used by Horace, in his Lyric com- 
positions, are twenty ; and the various forms in which he has employ- 
ed these metres, either separate or in conjunction, are nineteen. 

A TRICOLON TETRASTROPHON. 

I. (181) Two greater Alcaics, [No. 19,] one Archilochian Iambic 
Dimeter Hypermeter, [No. 9,] and one Lesser Alcaic, [No. 21,] as, 

O matre pulchra f Ilia piilchrior, 
Quern criminosis cQmque voles modum 
Pones iambis, sive flamma, 
Sive marl libet adriano. Lib. 1. 16. 

This appears to be his favourite form, as we find it in thirty-seven 
of his odes. Thence it is often called the Horatian Stanza. 

A DICOLON TETRASTROPHON. 

II. (182) The combination next in favour with Horace, was the 
following 1 — three Sapphics, [No. 11] and one Adonic, [No. 5,] in which 
form he composed twenty-six odes : e. g. 

Jam satis terns ni vis atque diras 
Grandinis misit pater, et, riibente 
Dextera sacras jaculatus arces, 
Terriiit urbem. Lib. 1. 2. 

A DICOLON DISTROPHON. 

III. ..(183) One Glyconic, [No. 15,] and one Asclepiadic, [No. 14,] 
which combination occurs in twelve odes : thus, 

Sic te Diva potens Cypri, 
Sic fratres Helenae, lucida sidera. Lib. 1. 3, 

A DICOLON DISTROPHON. 

IV. (184) One Iambic Trimeter, [No. 6,] and one Iambic Dime- 
ter, [No. 8,] in which form we see ten of his Epodes. 

Ibis Liburnis inter alta navium, 
amice propugnaciila. Epod. 2, 

A DICOLON TETRASTROPHON. 

V. (185) Three Asclepiadics, [No. 14,] and one Glyconic, [No. 15,] 
in nine odes : e. g. 

e e 2 



330 COMBINATION OF METRES IN HORACE. 

Scriberis Vari5 fortis, et h5stium 
Victor, Moeonii carminis aliti 
Quam rem cumque ferox navibus aiit equis 
Miles, te duce, gesserit. Lib. 1. 6. 

A TRICOLON TETRASTROPHON. 

VI. (186) Two Asclepiadics, [No. 14,] one Pherecratic, [No. 16,] 
and one Glyconic, [No. 15,] seven odes. 

Dianam, tenerae dlcite, virgines : 
Intonsum, piieri, dlcite Cynthium, 
Latonamque supremo 
Diiectam penitus Jovi. Lib. 1. 21. 

A CARMEN MONOCOLON. 

VII. (187) The Asclepiadic, [No. 14,] three odes : thus, 

Maecenas atavis edite regibus. Lib. 1.1. 

A DICOLON DISTROPHON. 

VIII. (188) One Dactylic Hexameter, [No. 1,] and one Dactylic 
Tetrameter a posteriore, [No. 3,] three odes: thus, 

Laudabiint alii" claram Rhodon, aiit Mitylenem, 
Aiit Ephesum, bimarlsve Corinthi. Lib. 1. 7. 

A MONOCOLON. 

IX. (189) The Choriambic Pentameter, [No. 12,] used alone in 
three odes : thus, 

Tu ne quaesieris, scire nef as, quem raihi quem tibi. Lib. 1. 11. 

A DICOLON DISTROPHON. 

X. (190) One Hexameter, [No. 1,] and one Iambic Dimeter, [No. 
8,] two odes : as, 

N5x erat, et caelo fulgebat luna sereno 
Inter minora, sidera. Epod. 15. 

A MONOCOLON. 

XI. (191) The Iambic Trimeter, [No. 6,] unmixed with any other 
species of verse, two epodes : thus, 

Quid obseratis auribiis fundis preces ? Epod 18. 

A DICOLON DISTROPHON. 

XII. (192) One Choriambic Dimeter, [No. 17,] and one Chori- 
ambic Tetrameter, [No. 13,] one ode : 



COMBINATION OF METRES IN HORACE. 331 

Lydia, die, per Gmnes 
Te De 6s OrO, Sybarin cur properes amando. Lib. 1. 8. 

A DICOLON DISTROPHON. 

XIII. (193) One Hexameter, [No. 1,J and one Iambic Trimeter, 
[No. 6,] one epode. 

Altera jam teritur bellis clvllibus setas 

Siiis et ipsa Roma, vlribus ruit. Epod. 16. 

A DICOLON DISTROPHON. 

XIV. (194) One Hexameter, [No. 1,] and one Dactylic Trimeter, 
Catalectic, [No. 4,] one ode. 

Diffiigere nives : redeiint jam gramma, campis, 
Arboribusque comae. Lib. 4. 7. 

A TRICOLON TRISTROPHON. 

XV. (195) One Hexameter, [No. 1,] one Iambic Dimeter, [No. 
8,] and one Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic, [No. 4,] one epode. 

Horrida tempestas caelum contraxit, et imbres 
Nives que deduciint Jovem : 

Nunc mare, nunc siluae. Epod. 13. 

A TRICOLON TRISTROPHON. 

XVI. (196) One Iambic Trimeter [No. 6,] one Dactylic Trime- 
ter Catalectic [No. 4,] and one Iambic Dimeter [No. 8,] only once 
used. 

Petti nihil me, sicut antea, juvat 

Scribere versiciilos, 
Amore perculsum gravi. Epod. 11. 

A DICOLON DISTROPHON. 

XVII. (197) One Archilochian Heptameter [No. 20,] and one 
Iambic Trimeter Catalectic [No. 7,) a single example. 

Solvitur acris hiems grata vice veris, et Favoni, 
Trahuntque siccas machinae carinas. Lib. 1. 4. 

A DICOLON DISTROPHON. 

XVIII. (198) One Iambic Dimeter Acephalus [No. 10,] and one 
Iambic Trimeter Catalectic [No. 7,] one ode. 

Non ebiir, neque aureum 
Mea renidet In domo lacunar. Lib. 2. 18. 



332 



INDEX TO THE ODES OF HORACE. 



A MONOCOLON. 

XIX. (199) The Ionic a minore [No. 18,] in one instance only. 

Miserarum est neque amori dare ludum, neque dulci. Lib. 3. 12. 

INDEX TO THE ODES OF HORACE, 



EXHIBITING THE FIRST WORDS OF EACH, WITH REFERENCES TO THE PRECEDING 
NUMBERS, ACCORDING TO WHICH THEY ARE SCANNED. 



iEli vetusto No. 1 

iEquam memento 1 

Albi ne doleas 5 

Altera jam teritur 13 

Angustam amici 1 

At O deorum 4 

Audivere Lyce 6 

Bacchum in remotis 1 

Beatus ille 4 

Casio supinas 1 

Casio lonantem 1 

Cum tu Lydia 3 

Cur me querelis 1 

Delicta majorum 1 

Descend e ccelo 1 

Dianam tenerae 6 

Diffugere nives 14 

Dive quem proles 2 

Divis orte bonis 5 

Donarem pateras 7 

Donee gratus eram 3 

Eheu fugaces 1 

Est mihi nonum 2 

Et thure et fidibus 3 

Exegi monumentum 7 

Extremum Tanaim 5 

Faune nympharum 2 

Festo quid potius die 3 

Herculis ritu 2 

Horrida tempestas 15 

Ibis Liburnis 4 

Icci beatis 1 

Ille etnefasto 1 

Impios parrae 2 

Inelusam Danaen 5 

Intactis opulentior 3 

Integer vitae 2 

Intermissa Venus diu 3 

Jamjamefficaci 11 

Jam pauca aratro 1 

Jam satis terris 2 



Jam veris eomites 5 

Justum et tenacem 1 

Laudabunt alii 8 

Lupis et agnis 4 

Lydia die per omnes 12 

Maecenas atavis 7 

Mala soluta 4 

Martiis coelebs 2 
Mater saeva Cupidinum 3 

Mercuri facunde 2 

Mercuri nam te 2 

Miserarum est 19 

Molis inertia 10 

Montium custos 2 

Motum ex Metello 1 

Musis amicus 1 

Natis in usum 1 

Ne forte credas 1 

Ne sit ancillae 2 

Nolis longa ferae 5 

Nondumsubacta 1 

Non ebur neque aur. 18 

Non semper imbres 1 

Non usitata 1 

Non vides quanto 2 

Nox erat 10 

Nullam Vare sacra 9 

Nullus argento 2 

Nunc est bibendum 1 

O crudelis adhunc 9 

ODiva gratum 1 

O fons Blandusiae 6 

O matre pulchra. 1 

O nata mecum 1 

O navis referent 6 

Osaepe mecum 1 

O Venus regina 2 

Odi profanum 1 

Otium Divos 2 

Parciusjunctas 2 

Parcus Deorum 1 



Parentis olim 4 

Pastor quum trah. 5 

Persicosodi puer 2 

Petti nihil me 16 
Phoebe, silvarumque 2 

Phoebus volentem 1 

Pindarum quisquis 2 

Poscimnr siquid 2 

Quae cura patrum 1 

Qualem ministrum 1 

Quando repostum 4 
Quantum distet ab In. 3 
Quem tu Melpomene 3 
Quem virum aut her. 2 

Quid bellicosus 1 

Quid dedicatum 1 

Quid fles Asterie 6 

Quid immerentes 4 

Quid obseratis 11 

Quid tibi vis 8 

Quis desiderio, 5 

Quis multa gracilis 6 

Quo me Bacche 3 

Quo, quo scelesti ru. 4 

Rectius vives 2 

Rogare longo 4 

Scriberis Vario 5 

Septimi Gades 2 

Sic te Diva potens 3 

Solvitur acris hiems 17 

Te maris et terrae 8 

Tu ne quaesieris 9 

Tyrrhena regum 1 

Ulla si juris 2 

Uxor pauperis Ibyci 3 

Velox amaenum 1 

Vides ut alta 1 

Vile potabis 2 

Vitas hinnuleo 6 

Vixi choreis 1 



APPENDIX. 



Of Punctuation ; Capitals ; Abbreviations ; Division of the Ro- 
man Months ; Tables of Roman Coins, Weights, and Measures. 

The different divisions of discourse are marked by certain charac- 
ters called Points. 

The points employed for this purpose are the Comma, (,) Semico- 
lon, (;) Colon, (:) Period, Punctum, or full stop, (.) 

Their names are taken from the different parts of the sentence 
which they are employed to distinguish. 

The Period is a whole sentence complete by itself. The Colon, or member, is 
a chief constructive part, or greater division of a sentence. The Semicolon, or 
half member, is a less constructive part, of subdivision, of a sentence or mem- 
ber. The Comma, or segment, is the least constructive part of a sentence, in this 
way of considering it; for the next subdivision of a sentence would be the reso- 
lution of it into Phrases and words. 

To these points may be added the Semiperiod, or less point, followed by a small 
letter. But this is of much the same use with the Colon, and occurs only in Latin 
books. 

A simple sentence admits only of a full point at the end ; because its general 
meaning cannot be distinguished into parts. It is only in compound sentences 
that all the different points are to be found. 

Points likewise express the different pauses which should be observed in a just 
pronunciation of discourse. The precise duration of each pause, or note, cannot 
be defined. It varies according to the different subjects of discourse, and the dif- 
ferent turns of human passion and thought. The period requires a pause in du- 
ration double of the colon ; the colon double of the semicolon ; and the semicolon 
double of the comma. 

There are other points, which, together with a certain pause, also denote a dif- 
ferent modulation of the voice in correspondence with the sense. These are the 
Interrogation point (?), the Exclamation or Admiration point (!), and the Paren- 
thesis (). The first two generally mark an elevation of the voice, and a pause 
equal to that of a simicolon, a colon, or a period, as the sense requires. The Pa- 
renthesis usually requires a moderate depression of the voice, with a pause some- 
what greater than a comma. But these rules are liable to many exceptions. The 
modulation of the voice in reading, and the various pauses, must always be regulat- 
ed by the sense. 

Besides the points, there are several other marks made use of in books, to de- 
note references and different distinctions, or to point out something remarkable or 
defective, &c. These are the Apostrophe ('); Asterisk (*); Hyphen (-); Obelisk 
( t )\ Double Obelisk ( J ); Parallel Lines ( || ); Paragraph ( f ); Section ( § ); Quo- 
tation (" "); Crotchets [J; Brace ( <{ ); Ellipsis {... or — ); Caret (a); which 
last is only used in writing. 



334 DIVISION OF THE ROMAN MONTHS. 

References are often marked by letters and figures. 

Capitals, or large letters, are used at the beginning of sentences, of verses, and 
of proper names. Some use them at the beginning of every substantive noun. 
Adjectives, verbs, and other parts of speech, unless they be emphatical, commonly 
begin with a small letter. 

Capitals, with a point after them, are often put for whole words ; thus, A. 
marks Aulus, C. Caius, D. Decius, or Becimus, L. Lucius, M. Marcus, P. Pub- 
litis, Q. Quintus, or Quinctius, T. Titus. So F. stands for Filius, and N. for 
Nepos; as M. F. Marci Filius, M. N. Marci Nepos. In like manner P. C. marks 
Patres Conscripti ; S. C. Sendtus Consultum ; P. R. Populus Romdnus ; S. P. Q. 
R. Senatus, Populusque Romdnus ; U. C. Urbs Condita ; S. P. D. Salutem pluri- 
mam dicit ; D. D. D. Bat, dicat, dedtcat ; D. D. C. Q. Bat, dicat, consecratque ; 
H. S. written corruptly for L. L. S. Sestertius, equal in value to two pounds of 
brass and a half; the two pounds being marked by L. L. Libra, Libra, and the 
half by S. Semis. So in modern books A. D. marks Anno Boniini, A. M. Artium 
Magister, Master of Arts ; M. D. Mediclnse Boctor,* LL. D. Legum Boctor ; N. 
B. Nota Bene, &c. 

Sometimes a small letter or two is added to the capital ; as, Etc. Et ccetera ; Ap. 
Appius ; Cn. Cneius ; Op. Opiter ; Sp. Spurius ; Ti. Tiberius ; Sex. Sextus ; 
Cos. Consul ; Coss. Consules ; Imp. Imperdtor ; Impp. Imperatdres. 

In like manner, in English, Esq. Esquire ; Dr. Bebtor ox Boctor; Acct. Account ; 
MS. Manuscript; MSS. Manuscripts; Do. Bitto ; Rt. Hon. Right Honourable, &c 

Small letters are likewise often put as abbreviations of a word ; as, i. e. id est; 
h. e, hoc est, that is ; e. g. exempli gratia, for example ,• v. g. verbi gratia. 

Division of the Roman Months. 

The Romans divided their months into three parts, by t Kalends, Nones, and 
Ides. The first day of every month was called the Kalends : the fifth day was 
called the Nones : and the thirteenth day was called the Ides : except in the 
months of March, May, July, and October, in which the nones fell upon the se- 
venth day, and the ides on the fifteenth. 

In reckoning the days of their months, they counted backwards. Thus, the first 
day of January was marked Kalendis Januariis or Januarii, or, by contraction, 
Kal. Jan. The last day of December, Pridie Kalendas Januarias, or Januarii, 
scil. ante. The day before that, or the 30th day of December, Tertio Kal. Jan. 
scil. die ante: or Ante diem tertium Kal. Jan. The twenty-ninth day of 
December, Quarto Kal. Jan. And so on, till they came back to the 
thirteenth day of December, or to the ides, which were marked Idibus Be- 
cembribus, or Becembris : the day before the ides, Pridie Idus Bee. scil. ante : the 
day before that, Tertio Id. Bee. and so back to the nones, or the fifth day of the 

* Two capitals in this way denote the plural number ; as, L. D. Legis Boctor : 
LL. D. Legum Boctor, 

t Kalends, or Calends, is derived from Calo, -are, to call. In the Infancy of 
Rome, a priest summoned the people together in the Capitol, on the first day of 
the month, or of the new moon, and called over the days that intervened between 
that and the Nones. In later times the Fasti, or Calendar, used to be put up in 
public places. 

The Nones [Nona\ are so called, because they are nine days from the Ides. 
Ides, [ldus] from the obsolete verb Iduare, to divide, because they divide the 
month nearly equally. 



DIVISION OF THE ROMAN MONTHS* 



335 



month, which was marked Nonis Decembribus, or Decembris : the day before the 
nones, Pridie Non. Dec. <fcc. and thus through all the months of the year. 

Junius, Aprilis, SEPTEMque, NovEMque tricenos ; 
Unum plus reliqui ; Februus tenet octo viginti; 
At si bissextus fuerit, superadditur unus. 
Tu primam mens is lucem die esse kalendas. 
Sex Maius, nonas October, Julius, et Mars, 
Quatuorat reliqui; dabit idus quilibet octo. 
Omnes post idus luces die esse kalendas, 
Women sortiri debenta mense sequenti. 

Thus, the 14th day of April, June, September, and November, was marked 
XVIII. Kal. of the following month ; the 15th, XVII. Kal. &c. The 14th day of 
January, August, and December, XIX. Kal. &c. So the 16th day of March, May, 
July, and October, was marked XVII. Kal. &c. And the 14th day of February, 
XVI. Kal. Martii or Martias. The names of all the months are used as Substan- 
tives or Adjectives, except Aprilis, which is used only as a Substantive. 

In Leap year, that is, when February has twenty-nine days, which happens 
every fourth year, both the 24th and the 25th days of that month were marked, 
Sexto Kalendas Martii, or Martias : and hence this year is called Bissextilis. 

TABLE. 



1 


Mar. Mai. 
Jul. Oct. 


Jan. Aug. 
Dec. 


Apr. Jun. 
Sep. Nov. 


Februarius. 


Kalendas. 


Kalendas. 


Kalendas. 


Kalendas. 


2 


6° Nonas. 


4° Nonas. 


4° Nonas. 


4° Nonas. 


3 


5 Nonas. 


3 Nonas. 


3 Nonas. 


3 Nonas. 


4 


4 Nonas. 


Pridie Nonas. 


Pridie Nonas. 


Pridie Nonas. 


5 


3 Nonas. 


Nonas. 


Nonae. 


Nonas. 


6 


Pridie Nonas. 


8o Idus. 


8° Idus. 


8o Idus. 


7 


Nonae. 


7 Idus. 


7 Idus. 


7 Idus. 


8 


8o Idus. 


6 Idus. 


6 Idus. 


6 Idus. 


9 


7 Idus. 


5 Idus. 


5 Idus. 


5 Idus. 


10 


6 Idus. 


4 Idus. 


4 Idus. 


4 Idus. 


11 


5 Idus. 


3 Idus. 


3 Idus. 


3 Idus. 


12 


4 Idus. 


Pridie Idus. 


Pridie Idus. 


Pridie Idus. 


13 


3 Idus. 


Idus. 


Idus. 


Idus. 


14 


Pridie Idus. 


19° Kalendas. 


18o Kalendas. 


16° Kalendas. 


15 


Idus. 


18 Kal. 


17 Kal. 


15 Kal. 


16 


17° Kalendas. 


17 Kal. 


16 Kal. 


14 Kal. 


17 


16 Kal. 


16 Kal. 


15 Kal. 


13 Kal. 


18 


15 Kal. 


15 Kal. 


14 Kal. 


12 Kal. 


19 


14 Kal. 


14 Kal. 


13 Kal. 


11 Kal. 


20 


13 Kal. 


13 Kal. 


12 Kal. 


10 Kal. 


21 


12 Kal. 


12 Kal. 


11 Kal. 


9 Kal. 


22 


11 Kal. 


11 Kal. 


10 Kal. 


8 Kal. 


23 


10 Kal. 


10 Kal. 


9 Kal. 


7 Kal. 


24 


9 Kal. 


9 Kal. 


8 Kal. 


5 Kal. 


25 


8 Kal. 


8 Kal. 


7 Kal. 


5 Kal. 


26 


7 Kal. 


7 Kal. 


6 Kal. 


4 Kal. 


27 


6 Kal. 


6 Kal. 


5 Kal. 


3 Kal. 


28 


5 Kal. 


5 Kal. 


4 Kal. 


Pridie Kalendas. 


29 


4 Kal. 


4 Kal. 


3 Kal. 




30 


3 Kal. 


3 Kal. 


Pridie Kalendas. 




31 


Pridie Kalendas. 


Pridie Kalendas. 







336 ROMAN COINS. 

The Romans, counting in the day on which they dated, called the second day 
before the Kalends, Nones or Ides, tertio, and so on. And, as the Kalends are 
not the last day of the current month, but the first day of the month following ; 
we must take this additional day into consideration in accommodating our ca- 
lendar to their dates ; according to the following method : 

Rule. Add one to the number of the Nones and Ides, and two to the number 
of days in the month for the Kalends ; then subtract the number of the day ; e. g< 
to find the Roman date of the 21st July ; to 31, add 2=33 ; from this take .21, the 
day of the month, and the remainder, 12, is the Roman date, 12mo. Kal. Aug. 



2 



2 
2 

2 



ROMAN COINS REDUCED TO FEDERAL MONEY. 

BRASS. 

$ cts. 
A Quadrans,f or teruncius, is equal to 00,35 of a cent. 
ATriens ,47 

A Semissis, or semi-ses - - ,71 " 

An As, or ees - - - - 1,43 " 

SILVER. 

A Teruncius is equal to ,35 of a cent. 

ASembella - - - - ,71 " 

ALibella - - - 1,43 
A Sestertius, or Nummus, marked L. L. S. 

or IIS, commonly written HS. - 3,57 " 

A Quinarius, or Victoriatus, marked V. 7,17 " 

A Denarius, marked X. 14,35 " 

GOLD. 

An Aureus, or aureus nummus $3 58,79 of a cent. 

The gold is reckoned at £4 sterling, (.$17 771) and the silver at 5 
shillings, $1 111) an ounce. 



* These numbers show how many of each denomination it takes to make one 
of the next following, nearly. 

t Quadrans signifies a quarter of the as ; triens, a third : teruncius, three uncice 
of brass, (12 of which made an as,) or a silver coin of that value; libella, a di- 
minutive of libra, being equivalent to the as, which originally weighed a pound : 
sembella semi-libella : sestertius, semis tertius, or three asses less a half (after the 
Greek idiom »,uio-v tpirov, for foo h/aio-v',) quinarius, Jive asses, called also victo- 
riatus, from the image of Victory, its usual device ; denarius, ten asses. 



6 

4 

25 

60 



ROMAN MEASURES AND WEIGHTS. 337 

GREEK COINS MENTIONED BY ROMAN AUTHORS. 

An Obolus is equal to - - - 2,39 of a cent. 

A Drachma .... 14,35 
A Tetradrachma or -urn - - 57,40 " 

according to Livy, 43,05 " 

A Mina $14 35,18 

A Talentum - - $861 111 



The Romans usually computed sums of money by sestertii, or ses- 
tertia. Sestertium is the name of a sum, not of a coin. When a 
numeral adjective is joined with sestertii, it means just so many ses- 
terces ; thus, decern sestertii = ten sesterces : but when it is joined 
with sestertia, it means so many thousand sestertii ; thus, decern ses- 
tertia = 10,000 sesterces. 

If a numeral adjective of another case is joined with the genitive 
plural, it denotes so many thousand ; as, decern sestertium, 10,000 ses- 
tertii. If a numeral adverb is joined, it denotes so many hundred 
thousand ; as, decies sestertium, ten hundred thousand sestertii. If 
the numeral adverb stands by itself, the signification is the same. 

ROMAN LONG MEASURES REDUCED TO ENGLISH. 



4 

1* 

3 
4 
H 

H 

H 

2 
125 

8 



Eng. Paces. Ft. In. DeCo 

1 Hordei granum, or barley corn, is equal to ?181 T 5 ^- 

1 Digitus transversus, or finger's breadth ,725^ 

1 Uncia, thumb's breadth, or inch - ,967 

1 Palmus minor, or hand's breadth - 2 ,901 

1 Pes, or foot - - 11 ,604 

1 Palmlpes, a foot and hand's breath 12 ,505 

1 Cubitus - - - 1 5 ,406 

1 Gradus - - - 2 5 ,010 

1 Passus, or pace - - 4 10 ,020 

1 Stadium, or furlong - - 120 4 4 ,5 

1 Milliare, mille passus or passuum 967 ,0 

ANCIENT ROMAN LAND MEASURE. 



100 Square Roman feet equal 


1 Scrupiilum of land. 


4 Scruptila - 


1 Sextiilus. 


11 Sextiilus 


1 Actus. 


6 Sextiili, or 5 Actus 


1 Uncia of land. 


6 UnciaB - - - - 


1 Square Actus. 


2 Square Actus - 


1 Jugerum. 


3 Jugera - 


1 Heredium. 


100 Heredia 


1 Centuria. 



Ff 



338 ROMAN MEASURES AND WEIGHTS. 

ROMAN MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS, RE- 
DUCED TO ENGLISH WINE MEASURE. 

Gal. Pts. Sol. In. Dec. 
0^0 ,117-^ 

i ,704J 

Oil ,409 

0^2 ,818 

15 ,636 

7 4 ,942 

3 4i 5 ,33 

7 1 10 ,66 

143 3 11 ,095 

The quadrantal is the same with the amphora ; congiarius, do- 
Hum, and cadus mean no certain measure, but a cask or keg. 

The Romans divided the sextarius, as well as the libra, into twelve 
equal parts, called cydthi; and therefore they called their calices 
either sextantes, quadrantes, or trientes; according to the number of 
cydthi they contained. 

The cydthus corresponded, in use and size, nearly to our wine 
glass. 

ROMAN DRY MEASURE REDUCED TO ENGLISH CORN 

MEASURE. 

Pk. Gal. Pt. Sol. In. Dec. 



4 


1 Ligula is equal to 


li 


1 Cyathus 


2 


1 Acetabulum 


2 


1 Quartarius 


2 


1 Hemina 


6 


1 Sextarius 


4 


1 Congius - 


2 


1 Urna 


20 


1 Amphora 




1 Culeus - 



4 


1 Ligiila is equal to 


li 


1 Cyathus 


4 


1 Acetabulum 


2 


1 Hemina 


8 


1 Sextarius 


2 


1 Semi-modius 




1 Modius 









°T8 





,01 








0JL 





,04 








or 





,06 











,24 








1 





,48 





1 





3 


,84 


1 


G 





7 


,68 



GRECIAN AND ROMAN WEIGHTS REDUCED TO ENG- 
LISH TROY WEIGHT. 



4 


1 Lens is equal to 


3 


1 Siliqua 


2 


1 Obolus 


3 


1 Scriptulum 


1* 


1 Drachma 


li 


1 Sextula 



lb. 


oz. 


dwts. 


grs. 











W 











3*Sr 











»& 











1 8 T 3 * 








2 


<Vt 








3 


Of 



ADDITIONAL REMARKS ON ROMAN MONEY. 339 



1* 


1 Sicilfcus or -urn 


3 


1 Duella 


2 


1 Uncia 




1 Libra 



lb. 


OZ. 


dwts. 


grs. 








4 


13f 








6 


If 








18 


5^ 





10 


18 


134 



ADDITIONAL REMARKS ON ROMAN MONEY. 

In the preceding tables of money the authority of Dr. Adam, as given in his 
"Roman Antiquities," has been followed. And perhaps no one could in general 
be followed with more safety. But on some few points he differs from writers of 
great respectability. Forcellinus and Eckhel agree in resolving HS, not into 
LLS, but into IIS; that is, two asses and a half; giving the letters or lines II 
their usual numerical power. This solution seems much more satisfactory than 
the former, and is supported by strong probabilities. We find, for example, on 
ancient coins, HVIR, for Duumvir ; and an X, standing for ten, has sometimes a 

mark drawn across it thus, -— as it is frequently found on the denarius, where it 
evidently stands for ten asses. 

The following account of the Roman mode of reckoning by sesterces is taken 
from a treatise on the subject by Mr. Raper, in the Philosophical Transactions, 
vol. LXI. 

" The Romans reckoned by Asses before they coined silver, after which they 
kept their accounts in Sesterces. The word Sestertius is an adjective, and sig- 
nifies two and a half of any substantive to which it refers. In money matters 
its substantive is either As, or pondus : and Sestertius As is two Asses and a half; 
Sestertium pondus, two pondera and a half [of silver,] or 250 Denarii. 

" When the Denarius passed for ten Asses, the Sesterce of 2i Asses was a 
quarter of it; and the Romans continued to keep their accounts in these Ses- 
terces long after the Denarius passed for sixteen Asses : till, growing rich, they 
found it more convenient to reckon by quarters of the Denarius, which they call- 
ed Nummi, and used the words Nummus and Sestertius, indifferently, as synony- 
mous terms, and sometimes both together, as, Sestertius nummus : in which case, 
the word Sestertius, having lost its original signification, was used as a substan- 
tive ; for Sestertius nummus was not two Nummi and a half, but a single Num- 
mus of four Asses. 

" They called any sum under 2000 Sesterces so many Sestertii, in the mascu- 
line gender; 2000 Sesterces they called duo or Una Seslertia, in the neuter; so 
many quarters making 500 Denarii, which was twice the Sestertium : and they 
said dena vicena, fyc. Sestertia, till the sum amounted to a thousand Sestertia, 
which was a million of Sesterces. But, to avoid ambiguity, they did not use the 
neuter Sestertium in the singular number, when the whole sum amounted to no 
more than 1000 Sesterces, or one Sestertium. 

" They called a million of Sesterces Decies nummum, or Decies Sestertium, for 
Decies centena millia nummdrum, or Sestertidrum (in the masculine gender,) 
omitting centena millia, for the sake of brevity ; they likewise called the same 
sum Decies Sestertium fin the neuter gender,) for Decies centies Sestertium, omit- 
ting Centies for the reason above mentioned ; or simply Decies, omitting centena 
millia Sestertium, or centies Sestertium : and with the numeral adverbs Decies, 
Vicies, Centies, Millies, and the like, either centena millia, or centies, was always 
understood." 



340 ADDITIONAL REMARKS ON ROMAN MONEY. 

The learned, while they agree as to the substance of the foregoing rules, and 
arrive at the same results in applying them to sums of money mentioned in the 
classics, yet differ widely with respect to the grammatical construction of the 
word sestertius. Forcellinus* contends, that sestertium is always the contracted 
genitive plural of the masculine sestertius : that the use of sestertia in the neuter, 
is confined to the poets, who form the word by a metaplasm, for the sake of 
the metre; and that, where it is found in printed editions of prose waiters, it has 
been arbitrarily substituted for the sign HS in the original manuscript, which 
sign stands in every such instance for sestertium, the genitive plural of sestertius. 

Eckhelt considers the numeral adverbs decies, &c. as taking the nature of 
neuter substantives, as in the expressions hoc decies, decies plenum, &c. which 
occur in ancient authors; and since sestertius is in its nature an adjective (e. g. 
sestertius pes, sestertius nummus,) he regards decies sestertium, decies plenum, &c. 
as phrases of similar construction. Hence we find the adjective sestertius varied 
through almost all the cases, as in the following examples : Decern arbusculdrum 
umbram tricies sestertii summa compenses. Val. Max. Bis et vicies millies sester- 
tium donationibas Nero effuderat. Tac. Sexagies sestertio margaritam mercatus 
es. Sueton. 



* Totius Latinitatis Lexicon. 

t Doctrina Numorum Veterum, vol v. p. 25, 



THE END. 



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