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1,^-^k^ /^tt*A 


iizMb, Google 




Jli^pdaiig, §t;aditi(inal, and Jiatorjt gjotitita 










by special permission 

His Royal Highness Alfred Ernest Albert, 

duke of edinbuegh, 

earl of kent, and eabl of ulster, 

duke of saxont, and prince of baxe coburo gotha, 

k. g., k. t., g. c. m. g., q. c. s. i. 

tqe first prince of the blood royal of england 
who has visited the island of cetlon. 

niS ROTAt I 






Jntrodnctorj Remarki.— On Ibe Origio of Buddhist, Hiodo, 
■nd Hohammadui Z^grimagei to Adam'a Peak ... 
Chaptbk n. 

Noticei of the Peak and Foot- print bj eftrij Chriitiui writers. 
•—Aceoniiti bj MarcoPolo, Sir Joho UiuDdeTUIe, Captain 
BibcTTo, Robert Knox, nid the Dutch historian Valentjn ... 
Cbaptbk III. 
TbeSamuiala Peak.— Batnapura Royal Mafl.—Panabakkei7.— 
Ef lani. — Buddhist T einples. — K a4uwela. — Hag wfUa. — Rirer 
scenery. — Awisstwela ... ... 

CBAPran IV. 

Awiss&irela.— SftA'a bath.— Sit&waka.— The BfT^^-k(;wiU.— 
Bock temple,— Piuwel la.— Kuruiri(a WaterfUl.—EkDf]!go<(a 
DisAira. — Eafatiyambariwa Tih&ra. — Weialupe. — Saman 



RatDapura.— Mount Karangoija.— Go^igamuwa. — Gilimalfi.— 
f^Uapita Totupola. — Garuluwan, Ealu, and Hatula-gaggas. — 
Bandira Mahatmaj&.— Tuntofa Feny.— Maskeliya-gaQga. — 
Bridge and Ford.— Alibtntenae. — "Estnary of Beeda". — 
Batapola. — Bock care.— Hvpaiias-flh WateriaU. — Palt* 
batldala ... „, ... ... 


Chapter VI. Pi^. 

PalSbnddala. — MountUD rangei.— Kalu-gs^ga firidi,'e. — Uda 
Fawan-flla. — Kilihela. — G^tanetul-gnla. — Dijabetma.— Idi- 
katupina. — Dharma-r^B-gata. — Kunudija-parvatS. — B^a 
Samanala. — TelihJIena. — Gangula-bjna. — SiU-gangula. — 
ll^rami^ip^a ... .. ... ... . . 161 

Chapteb VII. 
Ufrainitip&tia. — Ascent of the Peak. — Aaudija-DuUatenne. — 
Menik'lena. — Ebela-kanuwa. — MBba>giri>daii-kapalla. — 
Shrine of SamaD Binijd.^-Tiui Srf-F&da.— The BagliUi- 
g«.— The Kudamita.— Scenery of Che Skies— Sunrise,— The 
Shadow.— The View ... ... ... ... 191 

Chaftex VIII. 

Descent from the Peak. — Hf ramitipfina. — Alexander's 
Ridge.— Cave of Khizr. — Sita-Gangula. — Dhanna-r^&- 
gsla. — Uda rawan-^lla.- AccidenU.— Pal4baddala 10 RaC- 
napura ... ... ... ... ... ... 225 


The Ealu-gagga.^Ealutara. — F&nadur£. — Morafuira. — Rat- 
malina.— College of Priesta.— Galkiasa. — Mount Lavlnia. — 
Eollupitiya.- tialle Face.— Colombo ... ... ... 247 

Chaptek X. 

Facsimile Foot-printa.- Annr&dLapuTs.— Kurun^ta..— Alu- 
Vihfira. — S&tha DewiU. — Gannoruwa. — Alagalla.— Kot- 
timbulwala Vihira.— Dewanagala,— Khettirtma Vihira.— 
Ramboda. — Baddegama. — Sftakande.— Hot npriiig of Maba- 
palasse 266 

A.— ()n the Origin of the Sri-p&da 

B.— Ibn Batdta's Travels in Ceylon, and Ascent of Adam's 
Peak, 1347 .-. 


AFPBXDts :— Page. 

C. — SuiDU of King Eirtiuri, conferring Adam'i Peik upon 

Saranankars Unnfmsc of Wfliwifa ... ... 297 

D.— Buddha's Three Visit* to Ceylon. The Impression of 

hia Foot-print on the summit of the Peak ... ... SOI 

E —Legend of the Princess Sudhidiwi ... „, ... 326 

F.— The Dalad&-M&iig&wa: and ihe History of the Tooth ... 339 
Q.— Account of the Ascent of Adam'a Peak by Lieut. Hal< 
colm, c. B. R., in 1813; and of a lubaequent Ascent by 
another Officer ... „. ... .. 337 

H.— Ruini of Sftiiraka . . ... ... ... 344 

L— The Perahara . . ... ... ... ... 843 

J. — Documents relating to the Election or Appointment to 

theOfficeof High Priest of Adam's Peak ... ... 336 

E.— Description of the Attanagalu Forest ... ... 363 

L.— Vegetation about Adam'a Peak ... ... ... 363 

H. — Procession from Colombo, and Welcome at Mora(uwaof 
Joronia De Soysa, Esq., after his appointment to the 
rank of Mudaliyar of the Oovenior's Gate, in 1333 ... 369 
N.— Festivities at Bagatelle, Eollupitiya, in honor of His 
Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh, S2nd April, 
1870.... ... ... ... ... ... 378 

Addbnduh; — 

"PhilaJetLcB." ... ... ... ... ... 391 

Indbi:— ... ... .. ... ... 397—408 



OwiNR to an unfortuiiatu mistake, the RL-cuDipan^ing Map, engraved 
and printeil in London, Is not ao Bcuurntk in its dellneatiuu uf the couq- 
tiy and route fmm Palibaddala to DiyabeCtna aa it should have been. 

North of Palabaddala, trending to the ea<:t, riiies the mountain Kunu- 
diya-parvate, the western face of whiuh is a tremendous precipice. South 
of and forming an angle irith this mountain runs a range consisting of 
the mount&ins Kondagala, Nilihela, and K^killagala. Tlie route from 
Palibaddala is first between Kondagala and Nilihela, then up and over 
the latbjr, on to a range that cuUuinates at Di^'abetma, the watershed of 
the district ; the streams to the east of Dij'abetuia, between it and Dhar- 
ma-r^a-gala, Siti-gangula-hena, and H;rami[ip^a, flowing in a north- 
erly direction. The source of the Kolu-gapga is west of Dij^abetma, 
whence it runs south, finding i(a way down among the mountains and 
passing north of Palabaddaia, between it and the lower soutliern slopes 
of Kuoudiya- parr ate. 

The following sketch will shew the position of the mountains. 

P. PaUbaddal*. 

4. Diyabetma. 8. H^rai 

5. I<lik>tu[>«na. 9. Adan 

6. Dharmi-rija.gala. 10. Uvna 


The ranges of mouDtuns where EmulagallB and Kibil«gtlla are mu-ked on th* 
map, are wron^cly pUc«il, and tbe valley bclwaen KuadaKata and Diabetoa ahould 
be high mountainuus rid)^. 

The followinif error« apd correclii>ns are also here noticed ;— 
page IS, line sixlh ftum botloni, for " west" read " eaat." 
„ 65, line eighth rrom Inp, fur " aunth westerly" read " soath-easletlj." 
, 83, line thlileeutb Froin bottom, for"C." read " G." 
„ 104, and 1 07, for " Captain" FotIk*, read " Mnjor." 
» 117, the inscriptioD on tbe atone ii in memory of Eknf ligoda Diiiwai 

tbe son uf the builder of the vili^a. 
„ 1S4, al^er X rice twDJee" in first line, add "—riec" 
, 218, line fifth from botWm, for "least," read "last." 
Tbenamu of persons and places are so variously spelt by different writers, that 
it has not been possible to prevrve nnifannity of orthography throughout the work. 
In the Index, however, all names have been carefiilly revised, and are correct as 
they appear there. 



There is perhaps no mounUia in the world of which bo 
wide-spread a knowledge exiets, as Adam's Peak. Almost 
every traveller to, or writer on, India and the East, haa 
alluded to, noticed, or more or less described it. But, con- 
Bidering the Banctity in which it ia held by Buddhists, 
Hindus, and Mohammadana; the numerous legends and 
traditions connected with it; and the immense number 
of pilgrims who annually visit the alleged Foot-print upon 
its aummit; it is surprising how little haa been recorded by 
any one author, and what wide and glaring discrepancies 
appear in the different accounts respecting it which have 
from time to time been given to the world. 

An excursion to the aummit of the Peak, in the early 
part of 1869, having led to conaiderable research upon the 
subject, as well as to two subsequent excursions, the results 
of the observationa and inquiries made on each journey, and 
in the intervals between, are set forth in the following pages. 


lly principal endeavour has been, to bring into one c 
focus all attainable information; and todeacribe more fully 
than baa hitherto been done, the Pilgrims' route from 
Colombo to the Sri-Pada, or Holy Foot-print, that crowns 
the summit of the Samanala. 

In the prosecution of this task I hare received from 
many quarters much valuable assistance. And for aid most 
freely rendered my thanks are specially due to the Hon'ble 
H. T. Ieving, the Colonial Secretary; to Messrs. Rdssell, 
Saundkbs, Macready, and Steele, of the Civil Service; 
to Captain Fyers, the Surveyor General, and officers of 
his Department; to Mr. Thwaites, the Director of the 
Boyal Botanic Crardens, P^rddeniya; to the learned Advo- 
cates of the Supreme Court, Messrs. Lorenz, Ferdinands, 
Alwis, and Brito; to the Reverends Bailet.Ondaatjb, 
and Nicholas; to Hikkaduwa Sumanoala Na'yaka 
Unna'nse', High-priest of the Peak, and SuBmrn Tercn- 
i4a'nse' of Waskaduwa vihdra; to Mudaliyar Louis 
De Sotza, the Chief Translator to Government, and L. 
WijATASlNHA, Mudaliyar of the Ratnapura Kachcheri; 
to Ekneligoda Bat^mahatmayfi of the Kuruwite E^i-al^; 
aa well as to the learned pandit C. Alwis, and others, 
whose names are mentioned in the body of the book. 


As a contribution to the literature of the Island, I trust 
that the work now published may be deemed worthy of a 
place alongside those of others whose pens in times past 
have illustrated the history and antiquities of Ceylon. 
Much as they did, they yet left much to be done ; and fields 
rich in historic and legendary lore still await investigation 
at the hands of diligent explorers. To those whose tastes 
incline them to such pursuits, investigations of the nature 
indicated are most attractive. Hardly lees interesting is the 
work of detailing the results of such investigations. What 
may be interesting to an individual may not, however, interest 
the public at large; although to excite that interest should 
be the aim of every writer. Indulging in the hope that I 
may to some extent succeed in that aim, I will only add, 
that I have been scrupulously regardful of accuracy in every 
statement of a matter of fact; that the opinions I have 
advanced have been adopted only after much consideration 
and care; and that no pains have been spared to do justice 
to the subject upon which I have written. 

"VV. S. 
April 22nd, 1870. 



gitam's Jtali. 

Turn eastward now thine eyea, and in the ann-liglit bold 

The Somanala peak, that Hacred rock, behold. 

Where with his goddess train, great SuMtnA ador'd 

Th' illiUjtriouB lotus Foot-print of Buddh', Omniscient Lord; 

Bow'd reverently before, and ofienngs made the sign 

Of Parasat' and Mandar, fluwers of hues divine. 

SelI.A LlHINl Sandme- 

Introductort Reuabkb. — On THE Obioin of Buddhist, 


Adam's Peak, — known amongst the Sinhalese as the 
Sanianta-k6ta, or peak of the Samanala mountain; by 
Hindus* as the Sivan-oli-padam, and by Mohammadans 
as the Baba-Aadamalei, — is one of the most noted mountains 
in the world, celebrated alike for its singularly prominent 

* Or, more coirectlj, Sivfutes; Sxk being esteemed the supreme 
diTioity in the Hindu Mythology. The worshippers of S'nk are divided 
into the following sects : — Vairavas, Vimw, E&Umnk'hRS, Mab&vratas, 
]^supatas, and Saivas. The Sa'ivas are the predomiDant sect uuong the 
Tamils of Ceylon, 



anO striking nppcnrance, and for the interesting religious 
nsfociations connected with it. On its Bummit is a shrine 
which covers the renowned Foot-print, claimed by the re- 
spective votaries of India's old beliefs, as that of SivA, or of 
Oautama Budtiha; but by the followers of the Prophet of 
Mecca, as that of the first created man, — the great pro- 
genitor of the human race.* To that alleged foot-print, held 
sacred and reverenced by lar the largest portion of mankind, 
annual pilgrimages are made, alike by Hindus, Buddhists and 
Moslems; and from times remote to the present day it has 
been visited by devotees, the representatives of those forma 
of faith, from every region where they maintain their sway. 

As to the cause why and the time when this particular 
mountain peak first became an object of worship, and its 
summit a favorite spot for pilgrims to resort to, the following 
remarks which recently appeared in the published sketch of 
a journey thither.t may not be considered irrelevant. The 
writer says: — 

" Without attempting to discuss the history, or the mytho* 
logical legends connected with this place, I cannot help 
speculating regarding the origin of its sanctity in the first 
place. Here is a place which the Buddhist considered to ba 
sanctified by the impress of Buddha's foot, which the Hindu 
s as being marked by the foot of Sivi, which the 

* For further ioformalion as to tlie supposed origin of the Foot-priat 
tee Appendix A. 
I In the "Ceylon Observer," October 2nd, 1869. 



Mofaammadan coDsiders a holy place as bearing the foot-print 
of Adam, and which the Chriatiane, or rather some of them, 
delight to believe is stamped with the foot of St. Thomas. 
Now I ask, whence this consemuif How came all of these 
to regard this place as holy, and to associate their traditions 
and legends with it? How is this to be accounted for? I 
at once dismiss from the inquiry this wretched imitation of 
a foot-print, since the very question is, bow did the necessity 
arise to induce these various faiths to look on this shapeless 
mark as the representation of a foot at all ? Standing there, 
surronuded by that matchless prospect, there on that proud 
pinnacle and above that enchanting view, one may well 
refuse to accept that rock-mark as the answer to his question. 
I want a higher, nobler answer, and is it not afforded? 
Let each decide for himself, but I like to believe that these 
legends are all after- thoughts; that the place was already 
sacred to the primal religion of humanity — the worship of 
nature, — as the enduring, all origiuating, all absorbing uni- 
versal whole : — that to this faith, man's first, and perhaps 
his last, this spot was already consecrated as its most fitting 
temple. In a question of this kind I care little for historic 
evidences or their absence. There are many things of which 
history knows nothing, many more of which it has not chosen 
-to tell." 

Whether the "primal religion of humanity— the worship 
of nature," was mao's first and will perhaps be hie last faith, 
may be doubted, nay denied, while at the same time the fact 
is admitted,that the worship of false gods upon the high places 



of the earth 18 a practice that has prevniled from times of a 
very remote antiquity. And although history may not know, 
or may have failed to furnish, an answer to the questione 
when and how Buddhists, Hindus, and Moslems, came to 
attribute the special sanctity they do to this hollow in the 
rock, which all alike bow down before, and to which with 
one consent they render reverential homage, the subject is 
of too much interest to be diemiased without an attempt at 
investigation in these pages. 

Beferring to the Rdmayana,* the oldest known work which 
gives undoubted historic notices of Ceylon, it does not appear 
in the descriptions that are there given of events which 
happened 3000 or 4000 years ago, that any particular 
sanctity was at that ancient date accorded to the mountun; 
or that the worship of any special deity was connected with 

* "The Adventures of lUma," by the poet Valmiki, is an Indian epic 
poem of great antiquitj, and unsurpagsed interest and beauty. It refera 
to events considered bj some uhronotogers to have happened upwards of 
4000 jean ago. Id a note to Profbssor M. William's Indian Epic Poetry, 
p. 68, the following psss^e occur). "How maoj ceotiuies have pagaed 
since the two brothers (Rima and Lakshmana) began their roeniorable 
journey, and yet every step of it is known, and traversed annually by 
thousands of pilgrims! Strong indeed are the ties of religioD,nhen entwined 
with the legends of a country ! Those who have followed the path of 
R&ma from the Gogra to Ceylon stand out as marked men among their 
countrymen. It la th[s that gives the R&mayana a strange interest; the 
story still lives; whereas no one now, in any part of the world, puts faith 
in the legends of llomer." 



it ; but there can be no queetioD that at a period not long 
subsequent, the district of which it forms the most conspi- 
cuous feature, was identified, under the name of Saman, with 
Lakshmana, the brother of the principal hero of the poem, 
by whose aid and with that of Vibhishana, BAwana, the 
king of the island was overthrowu. Both Lakshmana and 
Viblshana* were deified, and became the tutelary divinities 
of portions of the island ; but the worship of the former, as 
an incarnation of ViBhnu, the deliverer and restorer, now 
alone maintains its hold upon the native mind, especially in 
connection with the great Saman d^w&le near Ratnapura, 
and the Saroanala mountain, of which he is still believed 
by both Buddhists and Hindus to be the potent guardian 
god. During Buddha's lifetime, and for ages previous, this 
mountain was the central seat of Samanite worship in 
Ceylon, and the Buddhist legends impute to Saman's special 
entreaty the fact that Buddha stamped his foot-print upon 
the summit of its peak. This was of course an afterthought 
on the part of some one in the Buddhist hierarchy, in order 

* Yibhiehana it stated in tbe Rijswalija to have succeeded to the 
throne of Lanka on the death of hie brother, which event occurred 1B44 
years before Buddha, or b. c. 2387; and to have fixed his Capital at 
Kflaniya, bis Mvereigntj extending over a large extant of country long 
since submerged bj the ocean. To Lakshmana was auigned tbe 
aovereigntji of the Western and Southern parts. of the island, the laws of 
vbich he much improved. The grovea of scarlet rhododendron tieea 
which clothe the eastern slopes of the Samanala from base to summit are 
dedicated to him. 



to add weight to the claim upon the belief of the worshippers 
ofSaman that Buddha was the Lord supreme, whom even 
Gods adored, just as the early Buddhist missionaries taught 
the serpent worshippers, that the king of the Nagas (cobras) 
recognised and protected Gautama when he attained the 
Buddhahood — a legend thus commemorated by Sri Kdhula 
of Totdgamuw^ in his poem "Sela Lihini Sand^se,"" 
written A. D. 1444, 

Thence to tbe Serpent chamber, irhere good it ia and meet 
The ima^c there beheld, th; worship to repeat; 
For there to eye depicted is seen how bj tbe lake — 
The lake of Muchalioda, — when fierce on Buddha brake 
Id his sixth week the rains, fVom ten directions falling. 
The N&ga-king himaelf through all that storm appalling 
Housed him in circling cuils, and o'er the Omnisclent's head 
His hood expanding wide a roof-like shelter spread. 

The earliest approach to an authentic record of the moun- 
tain having been dedicated to Buddha, as well ae to Saman, or 
Sumana, is that contained in the 32nd chapter of the Maha- 
wanso.f It is there recorded that the king Dutthf^&mini, 
being at the point of death at Anuridhapura, [b. c. 140,] 

• "The Sella's Mess^e." The Text, and a literal Translation, with 
Notes and a Glossary for tbe use of Students, was published in 1867, by 
W. C. Macready, Esq., of tbe Ceylon Civil Service. 

t The Mahavmato, which literally means " Oenealogy of the Great," 
is considered by competent scholars, "an authentic and unrivalled record" 
of the nalJonal history of Ceylon. It is written in Piili verse, and was 
compiled from annals in the vernacular languages existing in Anurddha* 



wished for the preeesce of the thero Th^raputtdbhftyo, one of 
hie otd military chiefs who had entered the priesthood, kod 
thattheaaid thero, "who waaresideQtattheP&njalimoimlaiii 
at the souroe of the river Karindo, oo^zant of his Doeditation, 
attended by a retinue of 500 sanctified disciples and by theiv 
supernatural power traveDiDg through the air,' descended, 
and arranged themselves round the moiurch." The king 
lamenting his approaohing end, was consoled by the thero. 
Recounting atl his pious deeds, the dying king at last said, 
that of them all two only " administered comfort to his miitd." 
The thero, referring to one of thes^^a donation of a mess of 
kangU seed to five eminent theros in a time of great famine — 
aaid " the chief thero, M&liyad^wo, one of the five priestf 
who had accepted the kangu mess, dividing the «wne among 
500 of the fraternity resident at the mountaia Samano, 

pura. The record of eventa up to A. B. 301, wai mitten bj Hah&oimo, 
uDcle of the reigning king Dh&tu Sena, between the ytn* 4ff9 tad ATT. 
Hie Bubteqneat portion! were conqwied from time (o time, by Older of 
the kings, from tfae nsdonal reoordt. The Gnt (hirt;-^ht chapters 
were translated into Englisb, and printed \>j the Hon'ble George Tumour 
in the ;eu 1837. 

* The distance in a direct line from Annridhapura cannot be leu 
than 110 miles; thePanjali mountain bebg one of a range About 40 milea 
weat of Adam'a Peak. The river Karindo is that now known as the 
Eirindi 07a. More than twanty-eigkt ceutuiiea ago the wisett of kings 
declared that there was nothing new under (be boh. Usj not Gauttmii 
Buddha and his principal followera have been acquainted with what in 
modem da;B is termed Mesmerism, and a state of dairToyance be nnder- 
■tood to mean (heir aapematural power «f MToUing through (he air? 



himeeir also partook of it." This passage certaiiily intimates 
that the mountaia iSumano (the same as the Samaoala) was 
believed to be a place of residence for priests at that time; 
but it does not settle the point as to whether the mountain 
peak was then a place of pilgrimage, and the alleged foot-print 
an object of worship. 

A tradition of a later period, current in the locality, with 
much of probability in its favor, attributes to king Walagam- 
b&hu the discovery of the Sri-p£da* on the mountain top. 
This king ascended the throne b. c. 104, and after a teign of 
five months was driven from it by Malabar invaders. For 14 
years and 7 months following, he wandered a fugitive amongst 
the hills and fastnesses of the mount^n districts, dwelling in 
caves and supporting himself by means of the chase. During 
this period, while living on the Samanala mountMn at Bha- 
gaw&lena (Buddha's cave), he saw a deer in the distance 
which he resolved to kill; to his surprise however, he could 
not approach near enough to secure it, the deer keeping just 
beyond his reach, slackening or increasing its pace or stopping 
altogether, in exact accord with its pursuer's movements. In 
this way the king was led to the top of the mountain, and 
when there the deer suddenly vanished. On reaching the 
spot Walagamb^u discovered the Sri-p&da; and it was 
then revealed to him that in this manner the god Sekrayi, 
to whom Buddha had entrusted the care of Ceylon and 
Buddhism, had chosen to make known to him the spot on 



which he had left the impreBs of his sacred foot. After his 
restoration the kiog caused the rock that bore the foot-mark 
to be eurrouDded with large iron spikes, which formed tho 
first foundation for the terraced platform from the centre of 
which the Samanta-klJta now seems to spring. Thus far the 
local tradition. History then records that the king, having 
recovered his throne, b. c. 88, "brought t(^ether 500 of 
the principal and most learned priests at a cave at "M&talA 
called Alalena, and, for the first time, had the tenets of 
Buddhism reduced to writing; which occurred in the 217th 
year, lOth month, and lOth day after they were promulgated 
orally by Mahindo."* It is curious that a somewhat similar 
story of the deer is also made use of to introduce Mahindo 
the princely Buddhist propagandist, to the notice of king 
D^wftnanpiyntisea, B. c. 307,t in whose reign and through 
whom the Buddhist religion was first established as the 
national faith of Ceylon, 

* Tumour's Epitome of the IliBtorj of Cejlon, p. 280, toI. ii . of Forbes'a 
Eleven Years in Cejion, 

t " Tlie king D^winaspi jfttissa departed for an elk bunt, taking with him 
arednue; and in the course uf the pursuit of the game on foot he come 
to the MUsa mountun. A certain devo asauming the form of an elk 
stationed himself there, grazing; the sovereign descried him, and sajing, 
it is not fiuT to shoot him standing, sounded his ttowstring, on which the 
elk fled to the mountain. The king gave chase to the fl;ing animal, and 
on Teaching the spot where the priests were, the thero Mahindo came 
within sight of the monarch, hut tfae metamorphosed deer vanished." — 
MahateuMli, c. xiv. 

DializMbyGu Ogle 


Divcated of the romance witli which the local tradition 
is clothed, there ia no reason to doubt that it contains certain 
genns of truth; for what more likely than that the king who 
thus caused the whole of Buddha's tenets to be reduced to 
writing, and whose subaequent reign was zealously devoted 
to the restoration of Buddhism, the building of immense 
d&gobas, and the founding of rock temples throughout his 
dominions, should resolve upon connecting so remarkable a 
mountain, — already sacred to the renowned god Saman, and 
the place which holy theros selected as their abode, — by 
indissoluble ties to the religion to which he was himself so 
enthusiastic an adherent. A vivid imagination pondering 
upon the discovery of the hollow, or the interpretation given 
to a dream, would be all-sufficient in an age of superstition 
to account fur a supernatural revelation; and aided by the 
efforts of a powerful and restored priesthood, the account 
of such a revelation industriously circulated amongst the 
people, and followed by the more elaborate legends which 
the priests concocted in their pansalas, would speedily es- 
tablish the fame of the Samaota-ktlta, and draw pilgrims to 
the Sri-p^da from every quarter of India and the East where 
Buddhism had established itself. 

So far therefore as the Buddhists of Ceylon are concerned, 
it would seem that the belief in the existence of the foot- 
print is not of an older date than a century and a half before 
the Christian era, if even it is as old, for although the 
legendary visits of Buddha to the island — (in the third of 
which occurred the stamping upon the top of the Samanala 

!.,LiOO glC 


peak the impress of his left foot) — are duly recorded in the 
Mtthawaneo, it must be remembered that the early chapters 
of that work were not written until the latter half of the 
fifth century ; more than a thousand years later than the 
date when the impression is said to have been made; and it 
is moreover noteworthy, that " except in the historical works 
of Ceylon, there is no account of this supposed impresuon of 
Baddha's foot in any of the earliest records of Buddhism :"*— 
a faith which was not accepted as national until nearly two 
and a half centuries subsequent to the death of its author; 
and the doctrines of which were not reduced to writing until 

* 3. D'Alwis'a AtUnagalurtuua, note IS, p. 9. — The evideot object of 
the hUtoriaos, (themselves Buddhist priests,) itbs to connect in a miraculous 
niMiner the invKsion of Wijaya, the firet king of Ceylon, with the 
propagation of the Buddliiet faith; and for that purpose the seventh 
chipter of the Mahawansii opens with arevehttion or command of Buddha 
to that effect — Wijaja's inTasion, according to the record of the historiaii, 
taking pkce on the da; of Buddha's death. But the logic of facts, aa 
established by chronology, fixea the invasion at a period 60 years 
subsequent. Aa to Buddha's visits to Ceylon, the fblluiviDg is the 
deliverance of the late Rev. Spence Hardy, an anthority on Bndilhism 
of the highest rank. He says, in a paper published in the Journal of the 
Ceylon Branch of the Boyal AmtJc Society for 1S46, "I have little 
doubt that it will one day be proved, even from the most sacred books 
of the Buddhists themselves, that the accounta we have of hi* vi«ts to 
Ceylon are a pare fiction. In all the Sinhalese books that I have read, 
the narration appears ont of the regular order of events, like an after- 
thought, and it is entirely at variance with the traditions of Kepal and 

i,z,.^b> Google 


a further period of 218 jeara had passed from the time of 
their oral propagation by Mahindo. 

The statement concerning Mfiliyad^wo* and 500 of the 
fraternity of priests living on Sumano, quoted at page 15, will 
hardly be accepted as other than apocryphal by those vho 
consider that the special object of the dying scene of the aged 
monarch, as depicted by the historian, was to elevate the 
order of the priesthood, and to shew that the smallest alms 
to them outweighed in merit the greatest of all other kingly 
deeds. That the mountain was a place of abode at a lat«r 
epoch is evident from the fact, that Afihindo III. [a. d. 
997 — 1013] repaired the edifices which in a previous reign 
had been destroyed by the SoHans; and he is praised as a 
patron of the religious institutions of the country. It is not 
however clear whether these edifices were actually on the 
peak or only at the base of the mountain, nor is the foot-print 
at all mentioned in the record of their repair. 

The first notice of the Sri-plida, after the legend of its 
formation in the opening pages of the Mahawanso, is contained 

* MalijaddnD tbero was > klnamaD of king WaUgambUiu, uid is etated 
in the Mahawsnai! to have b«en the last of Buddha'a inspired disciplea. 
It \m iiigniGcantly recorded, tbRt on the reduction to nriting of the 
doctrines of Buddha in the reign of Wolagambiihu, the age of inapiration 
passed twaj. The inspiration then nas connected with the capacitj for 
acqiuring and orally delivering the trsditioos and doctrines of Buddhism ; 
and one may readily conceive how constantly additions and marvellous 
legends and tales of miraclea would be made to these from age to age ; 
the tendency to which would at once be checked, if not entirely stopped, 
by an authorised promulgation of the written word. 



in the 64^ chapter of the work, which treats of the a 
of Pr&kramab£hu the Firat, a. d. 1153; and the first royal 
pilgrimage to Samanala ia recorded ia the R&jawaliya.* This 
was performed on foot by the just named king, a zealous 
Buddhist revivalbt, who on reaching the mountain peak 
worshipped the priest of the foot-print, and caused a shrine to 
be built on the rock for Saman D^wiyo, — an act, considering 
tbe hold that the Samanite worship had on the minds of the 
natives of the mountain districts, and the recent subjugation 
of the central and southern provinces to his rule, as much of 
policy as piety on the part of the monarch. His example was 
followed by Kirti Nissanga [a. d. 1192— 1201], and this 
king's is the first that is mentioned in the Mahawans6 as 
that of a pilgrimage to the foot^print itself. A period of 
from 1200 to 1300 years is thus passed over without reference 
in any way to the spot either in regard to its sanctity as a 
place of pilgrimage or an object of worship to the followers of 
Gautama; f and it is difficult to account for this silence in 
a history where the praise of Buddha is a dominant strain 

• The Rfijaffalifa waa compiled by djffereut persons, at various periods, 
and has both liiniished the materials tn, and borrowed from the Maha> 
wans^ ; but it is not considered so authentic a work. 

t In tbe RSja-Taringini, the historical chronicle of Kashmir, it is stated 
that the king MeghaTabana, who according to the chronology of Trojer, 
reigned a. d. 24, made an expedition to Cejlon for tbe purpose of extend- 
ing Baddbism, and visited Adam's Peak, nhcre be bad an interview with 
tbe native sovereign. Other authorities (Thomas, J. A. S., vol. xiii.), fix 
the date of Megbavftliana's reign at a, d, 144, which would make his expe- 
dition take place during the reign of Batiyad^a II. [a. n. 137 — 161], 



from the opening of the first to the close of the laat chapter^ 
Two causes may however be assigned, with some shew of 
reason, for this want of information : — (1) the destruction of 
Sinhalese records at various times by Malabar invaders and 
apostate Buddhist kings;* and (2) the fact that the capital of 
the island was, up to A. D. 1319, in the Northern kingdom, 
the Pihiti Rata (called also the Kfija Rata or country of 
the kings); the Mountain zone forming the central kingdom 
or Maj-d Rata; and the Southern portion of the Island the 
Ruhuna Rata. Up to about a. d. 1050 the MSy& and 
Ruhnna Ratns were under the dominion of independent 
princes or petty kings, and were only at intervals subjected 
to the sway of the northern potentate. Among those kings 
who were acknowledged sole sovereigns of the island wa« 
Duttbagameni. To the mountain fastnesses of the Mdyd 
Rata kings and priests naturally fled for refuge when the 

who like himscir iraa a zenlnus Huildiii^iL But no mentioD of such a visit 
at either date is to be found in tlie Mfthawansu, the Raja Batnakari, «r 
the R&JHirali^a. 

' Of Malabar invasions 17 are recorded between B. c. 204 and ». D. 
1391. The invaders were in almost every instance animated bj the same 
ipirit of deadly hostility to Buddhism which led to the ultimate extirpa* 
tion of that faith in Central India towards tlic end of the seventli century. 
Of apostate or impious sovereigns, the principal wfve Chora Nfiga, b. c. 
63;Kanijinitis3a, A.s, 33; Maha Sen, a. d. 275 ; M&gba, A. B. 1219; and 
R&ja SJngha 1,, a. d. 1381, This last king gave over the custody of the 
Samanala to a body of Aandiyas, or Hindu Fakecrs; who are di.>iu;ribed 
by S. C. Chitty, as a sort of begging friars belonging to the Saiva sect. 



Malabar invaders drove them from tbetr throne and temples 
st Anurfidfaapura or Polonnaruwa; although at times they 
established themselves in the Southern division; ultimately 
indeed [,a. d. 1059] the Mdyi was annexed to the Buhuna 
Rata, and the Island partitioned into two provinces, the 
Northern being occupied by the Solians, and the Southern 
being retained by the native princes. Throughout the 
Southern kingdom the Samanala was ever present to view, 
while in the Northern the high Nuwara Eliya range would 
exclude it from sight. 

Closed in on all sides by chains of mountains whose sidesand 
valleys were overgrown with dense and all but impenetrable 
jungle, visits or pilgrimages to the Samanta-kiita must ne- 
cessarily have been few and far between, and were probably 
only attempted at times when the influence and power of a 
paramount sovereign could make itself felt through every 
portion of his dominions. Such being the case, the wide- 
spread knowledge in the north of the existence, and the 
visibility in the west and south of the isolated cloud-capped 
peak that reared itself so loftily above all surrounding 
heights, would well keep alive in the minds of Buddhists the 
tradition, and foster the belief, that the founder of their faith 
had there indelibly impressed the foot-mark that was alleged, 
to have sealed the isle of Lanka as his own ; a tradition that 
was ultimately destined to become an article of faith where- 
ever Buddhism was profeBsed. A belief in the existence of 
such a foot-print was held, we know, amongst the Chinese, aa 
early as the third century of the Christian era, since there 

i :,.... >.LiOOgle 


are records in their literature of pilgrimagee to India at that 
date. All the pilgrims were struck by the altitude of the 
hills of Ceylon, and above all by the lofty crest of Adam'e 
Peak, which served as the land-mark for ships approaching 
the inland. They speak reverentially of the sacred foot-mark 
impressed by thejirst created man, who in their mythology, 
bears the name of Pawn-koo ; and the gems which were found 
upon the mountain, they believed to be his "crystallized 
tears, which accounts for their singular lustre and marvellous 
tints." The Chinese books repeat the popular belief, that 
the hollow of the sacred footstep contwns water, " which 
does not dry up all the year round," and that invalids re- 
cover health by drinking from the well at the foot of the 
mountain, into which "the sea-water enters free from salt."* 
At a later period, the belief of the Chinese as to the origin of 
the foot-print seems to have undergone a change, for Fa Hlan, 

• Sir J. E. Tennent'H Ceylon, vol. i. p. S86-7. Thb early belief of the 
Chinese that the mark on the top of Adam's Peak, wai an impression of 
the foot of the first created man, is so very remarkable, that one is inclined 
to suspect there must be some error on the part of the transistors of the 
books in irbjch it is recorded, unless indec^d it be the record of some an- 
ient tradition whicbwaBifterwarda grafted on to Buddhism. IbnBatutu, 
in hisaccountofthefoot-mark. Tinted by him about A. D. 1340, says "The 
Chinese came here at some former time, and cut out from thig stone the 
place of the great loe, together with the Stone about it, and placed it m 
a temple in the city of Zaitun ; and pilgrimages are made to it firom the 
most distant parts of China." Jlie rock does not however bear any evi- 
dences of such an outrage ; and the story probably owes its ori^ to the 



the Chinese pilgrim, who in the course of his travela visited 
Ceylon, a. d. 413, eajs in the 38th chapter ofhis iDteresting 
narrative, " By the strength of his divine foot, he [Foe, i. e. 
Buddha] left the print of one of his feet to the north of the 
royal city, and the print of the other on the summit of a 
mountain." This visit took place in the reign of Maba 
Nama, and the royal city alluded to was Anar&dhapura, 
where Fa Hian took up his ahode. He did not however 
visit the Sri-pfida, and only thus incidentally alludes to it; 
so that it does not appear to have then been a place of pil- 
grimage; nor does he mention that any of the priesthood 
resided on the mountain, a fact which he would scarcely 
have failed to note, had such really been the case. 

From the time of Kirti Nissanga, pilgrimages to the foot- 
print seem to have become a settled practice. The Rdja 
Batnakari,* an authority only second to that of the Maha- 
wane6, states, that Wijayabdhu, who established himself 
[a. d. 1240—1267] in the Mfiyii Rata, and fixed his 

craft of some of the Chinese merceoftriea employed in the army of Prik- 
raina III. a. d. 1266. One can imagine the inward chuckle with which, 
after his return to "the flowery land," one of these mercenaries practised 
the "old soldier" oTcrhia countrymen, in palming offa lump of stone with 
a chiseled toe-mark, aa a relic from the original impression of the foot- 
print of Foe &om the top of the sacred mountiuD of " Sze-taeu-kwo," 

* The exact date of the composition of the B^a Batnakari is not 
known ; but it would seem to have been writteo in, or immediately after, 
the reign of Wikremabdhu of Kandy, whose life and acts occupy a 
considerable space at the end of the work, and whose career the author, 
Abhayarfija of Walgump&ye wthare, eutogi«es in glowing terms. 



capital at Daoibadenija Id the Seven Kuralt^a, repaired the 
route to the peak, via Gampola, and with much pomp, 
viaited and worshipped the Sri-pdda. His successor Fandita 
Pr^kramabahu, improved the communicationa, and formed 
a road from the Samaaala to Bentota in the Southern 
Province, bridging the ravinea and rivers in the way, and 
among others, throwing a bridge of timber 193 ft 6 in. long 
acrosB the Kaluganga. Two hundred and seventy yeare 
later, Wikremab&hu, whose capital was at Kanda Kuwara, 
the modem Kandy, " caused bridges to be laid over the rivers, 
repaired the road, and caused 780 slepe to be cut in the 
rock, in order that travellers might the more easily ascend; 
and aleo caused restbouses to be made for the convenience of 
travellers on the road. And after expending a large sum of 
money, he caused a great flambeau ia be made which was 
capable of containing 100 pots of oil, and this he lighted as 
a beacon on the top of the peak, in order to make his works 
visible to the world ; and thus thb king accumulated an 
infinite amount of merit." * This route, there ia reason to 
believe, is the same that is now followed in ascending to the 
peak, via Ratnapura. The practice oflighting up the summit 
of the mountain at suneet, during the pilgrim season, is con- 
tinued to the present day, and the effect produced by the 
multitude of flaming lamps in front of Saman's ehrine, and 
the Raghili>gey, or temple of the foot-print, as seen either 
from Diyabetme or Heramittipane is exceedingly fine. 

■ Upham'B RJtjk-Eatoftku'i, p. 131-2. 



The belief amoDgst the Hiadus in regard to the origin 
and sanctity of the hollow on the eummit of Adam's Peak 
Taries. It is hj no means universal; and among those who 
hold it the Yishnaivites maintain it is the foot-print of 
Vishnu, while the Sivfiites insist upon it that the impression 
was made hy Sivi) the chief of the supreme triad of Hindu 
divinities, after whom it bears the name of Siv&n-olt-p&dam. 
They base their belief on the legend, that 8iv& in one of his 
manifestations retired to this mountain for the performance 
of certain devotional austerities, and that on their conclusion, 
in commemoration of his abode there, be left the impress 
of his foot upon the mountain-top. This legend does not 
appear in any of the eighteen Faranas; but is gathered from 
hints contained in several; and it was probably concocted at 
some bye-gone period more from political than any other 
motives. That there were occasions when such motives 
would be likely to sway the minds of both kings and priests, 
will be evident to all who have studied the history of the 
Tamils in Ceylon. 

The religion of the aborigines of the island was Naga or 
Serpent worship, subsequently superseded by or incorporated 
with the worship of Lakshmana and K&ma after their dei6- 
cation as incarnations of Vishnu. The bead quarters of 
this combination of religions were, Ratnapura, in Sabara- 
gamuwa, and Dewi Newara or Dondra, the extreme southern 
point of Ijanka, and boundary of R&ma's conquests in that 
direction. Thia was before the Buddhist historic period. 
After the Wijayan invasion, successive monarchs built and 



endowed Hindu temples, introdncing therein the worship of 
Brfthma, ViBhau, and Sivi, with that of other inferior deities. 
This worship the people clave to, while still profeaeing to be 
Baddhiats; and as it was tolerated bj the Buddhist priests, 
it gradualljr led to the anomaloos eight now almost every 
where to be seen, of Hindu d^w&lea in close proximity to 
Buddhist vihltras, and a people addicted alike to the adoration 
of Buddha and the worship of Serpents and Demons. 

Traditions of a remote age assert that a colony of 
Malabars founded the city of Trincomalee 1569 years B. c, 
and the earliest authentic notices of the place record the 
existence there of a very ancient and sacred Sivaite temple. 
Other traditions traceable to a period long anterior to historic 
times, make mention of a Tamil kingdom in the North-west 
of the island, ruled over by an Amazon princess named 
Alliaraeamy, whose capital was Kudremale, where granite 
ruins and rook inscriptions bear evidence to the truth of 
the tradition; while a Tamil drama, founded on the story of 
the queen, declares the people to have been Sivaites in their 
religious futh.' But 

"Hirdlj the place of such kntiquitjr 

Ur note of these great moDarchies we find ; 
Oulj a fiMling verW memory 
And eaqitj name in writ ii left behind." 


* The places conwdered speciallj bolj hy the educated Tamils and 
Hindus of UeyloD, in consequence of the presence of Bivi, we Trinco- 
malee oo tbe «Mt, and Uardodde oa Uie nonh-weet coMt. 



SeepectiQg the ori^ftl peopling of the northern peninBula, 
the following aooount ia given by Tunil writeis.* A cen- 
tury and a half before the Christian era there lived in the 
Chola or Soli country, a certun minatrel named Yilpiaa 
N&yan&r, otherwiee Virartigaven. Being blind he depended 
for his aubaiatence entirely on the earnings of his wife. One 
day, however, she having delayed serving him with his 
meals at the accustomed hour, he quarrelled with her, and 
quitted the house, saying, that he was going to Ceylon ; 
upon which she sneeringly observed, — "Ah I you are going 
to Ceylon to get a tusked elephant and a fertile field." On 
reaching Ceylon he made hie way to Anur^dhapura, where he 
obtained an audience of the hing, and sang the monarch's 
praises to the accompaniment of his lute, in so agreeable a 
DUinner, that the well -pleased potentate did in fact present him 
with a tusked elephant, uid moreover bestowed upon him in 
perpetuity the land on the northern extremity of the island ; 
tbus realizing the words with which his wife had ironically 
taunted him. The land was then covered with jungle and 
wholly uninhabited, but Yilp&oa induced a colony of Tamils 
from Southern India to settle upon and cultivate it ; and in 
the course of years it became a populous, fertile and wealthy 

• Extracted from the Tamil Platarek, by the l«te Simon Casie Chitty, 
the Uleated Diatrict Judge of Futtatjun, and author of the C«jloa Gazet- 
teer. Several Taluible {>apen were also cootribnted b; him to the 
Jmirnal of the Ceylon Branch of the Rojal Asiatic Society, and other 
local Magasinei and Jonmali, principally upon Tamil literature, and the 
lustory and cnttonu of the Tamili, Moors and Mookwas of Ceylon. 



district, which be named after himself Y&Jp&na nadu, or the 
minBtrel's couDtry — a name the origin of which is still pre- 
served in the modem Jaffna and Jaffnapatam. He did not 
however assume a personal sovereignty, but invited over a 
prince of the Solian race, and crowned him king under the title 
of Singariya Chakravarti, in the Kali year 3000, or B. c. 101.* 

The preceding tale is by no means an improbable one, for 
the early kings of Ceylon were of Indian origin, and always 
more or less connected with that continent by matrimonial 
alliances; and an Indian minstrel in the olden days would 
count it no uncommon reward to receive gifts such as those 
awarded to Y&lp£na by the king. The colonists he imported 
were worshippers of Siv&, and that worship was known else- 
where in Ceylon as early sb b. c. 426. 

It is recorded in the Mahawanad that in the reign of 
Pandukfibhaya [b. c. 437 — 367] that monarch, who seems 
to have been most tolerant in all matters of religion, built 
places of worship in his capital, Anur&dhapura, for all deno- 
minations. The historian writes, chap. x. " He the king 
who knew how to accord his protection with discrimination," 
established the yakkos in the royal palace itself and annually 
provided demon-offerings. "He provided a nigr6dha tree 

* Tbe descendautB of thia king continaed to reign in Jaffna, under tiie 
tide of ' Ariya ChakraTarti,' until near tlie close of the uiteeDth centuir. 
Thej were frequentlj at war with the Sighalese; and although at times 
conquered and deposed, recovered and muntained their power until 
finally subjugated bj the Portuguese. 



for the (d^ratfi) WessawaQO, and a temple ibi the Wij&dbo' 
devo." "He also C0DBtruct«d a dwe\]iag for the various 
classes of devotees." " The king built a temple for the 
KighaDtho Kumbhuodo, which was called by bis oame. To 

the westward of that temple he provided a residence for 

500 persons of various foreign religious faiths. Above the 
dwelling of Jotiyo [a Brabman — his chief engineer] and 
helow the Gamini tank, he built a residence for the Parib4j!k4 
devotees. In the eame quarter, but on separate eites, he. 
conatnicted a residence for the Ajiwako, a hall for the 
worshippers of Br^mo, (another for those) of Siv&, a« 
well as a hospital." 

These Brahtnana seem to have continued to reside peace- 
ably in Ceylon, until b. c. 246, when two Malabar advea- 
turers, military chiefs in the pay of the monarch Suratiesa, 
murdered the king and usurped the throne. EUla, of Soli 
(Tanjore) on the Coromandel coast soon after their dethrone- 
ment by Asela, invaded the island, and defeating that king 
possessed himself of the entire country, with the exception 
of Kuhuna. He retained his power till b. c. 164, when in 
his turn he was overthrown and slain in battle by Dutth^a- 
mine, and his followers driven out of the island. An army 
of Malabars again invaded Ceylon in the reign of Walagam- 
b^u, and held poeeeseion until B. c. 68. They seem to 
have remained quiet after their expulsion by Walogamb&hu 
until A. D. 106, when the prince of the Solians once more 
ravaged the country with an army, and after plundering and 
devastating it returned to his own land with immense booty 



and 12,000 captives. Six years later, tliia invasion was 
avenged by Gajabuhu, the captives recovered, and n similar 
number of Solians led prisoners to Ceylon. Respecting these 
transactions however, the Malabar and Siyhalese annalists 
give dissimilar accounts, the I'ormer asserting that the Solians 
voluntarily migrated to Ceylon at the request of Gajabuhu, 
who made them large grants of land for the support of a 
temple to Sivi, by way of expiation for a ein of intention, 
he iiaving at one time purposed to pull the said temple down. 
It is at any rate certain that at the time alluded to a Solian 
colony was established in Trincomalee, and that the colonists 
were Slvaites. Another Malabar invasion took place A. D, 
433, and the invaders again held possession of the land for 
six-and- twenty years. Anarchy and internal discord more 
or less prevailed from this time to the seventh century, in 
which the Malabars every now and again took part. In A. D. 
838 these inveterate invaders once more overran the country. 
Driven back after awhile, they remained quiet until a. d. 954, 
when war broke out afresh. A short peace ensued, and 
again the Soliana ravaged the country; and the number of 
Malabars increased so much in successive reigns that A. D. 
1023, they menaced the throne, and an army of Solians coming 
to their aid, the king Mihindu IV. was captured, and with 
his queen died a prisoner in the country of his foes. The 
Solians after this held the northern and mountain districts for 
upwards of fifty years, when they were reduced by Wejaya- 
b&hu, who died a. d. 1126; and during this period the 
Dhamilos [Tamils] succeeded in driving almost all tlie 



Buddliist prieeta out of the island. Seventy years of peace 
followed, when s fresh period of internal discord tempted 
the Solians to a fresh invasion, and the whole island became 
the prey of confusion, irreligion and anarchy, in which state 
it continued a third of a century. In other words, Hindu- 
ism prevailed, and Buddhism was all but extirpated under 
the strong hand of Mfigha B4j&, the Malabar king.* He 
reigned for twenty -one years, when a. d. 1240 Wijaya 
succeeded in expelling the Malabars from the Mflyi and 
Ruhuna divisions of the island ; but they were too numerous 
and too firmly rooted in the Pihiti or northern kingdom to 
be driven thence; and their descendants remain there to the 
present day.f 

The readiness with which the Sinhalese associated the 
worship of Hindu divinities with that of their national 
faith is easily to be accounted for, Buddha, while neither 

* The term "Malabar" U the coramoD but improper Dame applied by 
Europeans to the Taniila or Ceylon, whether they come from Malabar 

proper, in the southwest of the Dekkaii, from Tanjore, or from parta as 
far north as Cuttack and Orisfia. The word never occurs in Si((halese 
writings. The term used In tlie Mahawane<) and other P&li works is 
SD^i DhanillA, and in Sinhalese works S>^$s Dei""!"; corresponding 
to the Sanskrit word Drariija, Tamils. The king M^ha Rhji, was a 
native of K&llnga or Telegu, In the Northern Circars. 

■f- The District of Nuwarakalftviya, however, which formed a large 
portion of the Kingdom of Fihitl, and in which was included Anur£dha- 
piira, thi! ancient capital, i« still, as it always has been, occupied by the 
Siulialcsc, but with a large admixture of the Tamil race. 



denying aor diiiputing the claims of tlicee diviaities to god- 
ship, aescrted his own immeasuraljle superiority over each 
and all in every godlike attribute they were sup{ioEed to be 
invented with; hie followers therefore could worship whom 
they pleased, so long as they acknowledged and took 
refuge in him ae the All-Supreme. But this assumption 
of Hui)criority waa intolerable to those who rejected hb 
doctrines, and in their eyes his system was abominably ob- 
noxious — in short, it was a most pestilent heresy. It 
nevertheless made its way, for its originator was a king's 
son, and kings and princes were its nursing fathers; and ere 
long it became the dominant religion in the land of its 
birth. In process of time, however, there came a reaction. 
Brahmanism again prevailed, and proselytes were made with 
facility; for when argument failed to convince, the sword 
was brought to bear, and in the handsof its warlike wieldera, 
it wrought such effectual conversions, that ultimately Bud- 
dhism was either expelled from or extirpated throughout the 
whole of Central India. 

But, while the Hindus rejected Buddhism as heretical, 
and extirpated it wherever they could, they have all along 
manifested as ready a tendency as the most tolerant of 
Buddhists to add to the number of their gods, though their 
name already be legion. The ancient Tamil Poet Pudat- 
tazhvdr, a native of M^vilipuramnear Sadras, has thus been 
deified by the Yaishnavas, worshippers of Vishnu; in like 
manner the two poetesses Uppei and Uruvei, who lived in 
the ninth century of the Christian era, have been uumhcred 



with the ^oddesBCB, and obtained elevated niches in the 
Hindu Pantheon; while in more recent times the founder 
of a temple at Nellore, in the north of the island, has become 
the divinity worshipped within it walls. 

Such a tendency, it is but reasonable to suppose, would 
develope itself in connection with the Samanala peak, when 
the country in which it is situated became subjected to 
Hindu rule. The conquerors found the mountain dedicated 
to Saman, and its summit reverenced by Buddhists. Sivaite 
fakeers or ascetics discovered upon it medicinal trees and 
plants well known to them on the Himalayan ranges, the 
peaks of which are supposed to be Siyi's favorite abodes. 
They sought upon its slopes and surrounding valleys, — as 
their successors stilt continue the search for, — the plant 
" Sansivi," the tree of life and immortality, whereof whoso 
eateth he shall live for ever. Amongst them the mountain 
came to be called " Swargarrhanam," the ascent to heaven: 
and as all those whom Siv& destines to celestial bliss are 
said to receive upon their heads the impress of bis sacred foot, 
by an easy process of transition the belief would become 
prevalent among the uneducated mass of his worshippers, 
that the foot-print upon the mountain top, alleged by the 
Sinhalese to be that of Buddha, was none other than Hiv&'a 
own. When once such a belief obtained a hold upon the 
Hindu mind, the legend to account for it would speedily 
be framed. 

As already stated, however, many of the moat orthodox 
of the Hindus repudiate the legend and decline to accept the 

., LiOOg Ic 


rock-mark ae a tangible memento of the presence of Sivd on 
theepot. In the Tiruvathavar Purana, generally supposed 
to have been written about the eighth century A. D.,* there 
is a chapter entitled "the vanqiiishing of the Buddhiala in 
disputation," in which an account \s given of a certain ascetic 
visiting Ceylon, (then called " the spotless kingdom of IU"),t 
and vexing the righteous souls of the " beautiful-shouldered" 
king, and the Buddhist hierarch, by proclaiming Siva's supe- 
riority to Buddha. The king and the thero decided to go 
over to India and hold a public ditiputation upon the subject ; 
but were there defeated and converted by the convincing 
arguments of the Sage Vathavuren. As this account appears 
in one of the works the Hindus esteem divinely inspired, and 
there is in it no mention whatever of the sacred foot-print 
or tlie Siv£n-oli-padam, it may he concluded that so lute as 
the eighth century, both legend and belief were non-existent, 
80 far at least as the Hindus are concerned. 

The oldest probable period from which to date the legend, 
is that immediately following the invasion of the Soliane, 
A. V. 1023. The Sii^ihalese king was then captured, and 
for tifty years after, the Hindu race held possession of the 
Mfiyd, or mountain, as well as the northern province of the 

• A translation of this chapter, by S. C, Cliittj, Esq., was puhlislieil 
in tlip Jniirnitl of the Ceylon Itran:^li of the Royal Asiatic Socic'ty for 1846. 

t At that (late, and previc)usl_v, the old forni of Sighalese, known 8s the 
"Kin," would doubtless be the laiigunge commonly spokirn by educated 



islaod. Two years after this Soliaa invaaioD, a. d. 1025, 
a large body of Sivaites who fled in terror from Somnaut ia 
India, where MahiDOud of Ghuznee had overthrown their 
temple, found a refuge in Ceylon ; and this access of numbers 
no doubt largely contributed to etrcnglhen the power of the 
Hindus in the land. The circumstances of the country 
however, in both the next and the succeeding century, were 
equally as bad, from a Buddhist point of view; and quite 
sufficient to account for the origination and confirmation of 
any belief that connected the Samanala peak with the worship 
of ISiv^. There is no doubt about the fact, that the Siv&n- 
oli-padam was resorted to by Hindu pilgrims in the early part 
of the fourteenth century, and as the pilgrim^e was then sn 
established custom, it may have been in vogue for a century 
or two earlier, for all that is known to the contrary, That 
observing old traveller Ibn Batutu,* after his arrival at 
Futtalam, on the North-west coast, thus describes his re- 
ception by " Ayari Shakarti," the principal chief or sub-king 
of the district. " He said, Do not be shy ; ask for what you 
wish. I answered, My only desire in coming to the island 
was to visit the blessed foot of our forefather Adam; whom 
these people call Bihk, while they style Eve Mdmfi. This, 
replied he, is easy enough. We will send some one with 

you who will conduct you thither He then gave me 

a palanquin which his servants carried upon their shoulders. 

• Tlie chapter of Ibn Batutu'a Irnvela relBling to Cejlon, and eon- 

taiiiing the atcount of L'la astcnt to the lop of Adum's Peak will bu 
fiiuiiil in Appendix B. 



He alfio sent with me four Jogees, who were in the habit 
of visiting the foot-mark every year; with these went four 
Brahmane, and ten of the king's companions, with fifteen 
men carrying provisions." 

From the fourteenth ccnturj' to the pre^-ent the custom 
has been kept up amongst the Hindu worshippers of Sivfi. 
Hindus ofother branches of Itrahinanical faith aecm to have 
frequented the mountain peak at the same period, but they 
either did not know or entirely ignored the legend that con- 
nected it with Sivd. They, in fact, held to the more ancient 
worship of Saman, a worship by no means repugnant to 
the feelings of the Siyhalese. This is ascertained from 
the following dialogue between two Brahmans contained in 
the Sinhalese poem entitled "Perakumbiiairita," the life of 
Pcrakumb^, or Prdkramabfihu VI., supposed by some to 
have been written by Sri Rdhula of Totagamuwa, a loyal 
panegyrist of that monarch, at whose Court at Jayaward- 
hana, the modern Cotta, he resided:' — 

kiyaga magiya enu koyi sitn, Dada, Samauala gosiiia 
cpura amutu kiineka Bainuna SumaDa, surinclu wisiiiii 

•For die e.ttract in the text I am indchwil to Uie Rev. C.AIwis, whose 
intimate acquaintance wiih tlie da.igic literature of his native land. an<l 
exlensit'e knonledf;e of ila legendary lore are siiq>a«Beil liy but few of 
his contemporaries. He bas most obligingly assisted me in my researehes, 
and liirniahe'l mc with much valuable and interesting matter connected 
with the .subject of this work. The extrnct was accompanied by llie 



tSa ax* S'^^srf oid Qa 6is-desl 6»eD3 Saeo> 
gifa kala dcd&has pan siya rajek eteyi Diyanu 

kij'aliya tanwesi ^uau) PcrBkum raja mediuu. 

O tell me, trsTcller, from whence jou wend jour waj? 

From SamaDala, Brahman, have I arrived this day. — 

What uewB from God Siunana, who holUs thereo'er chief away? 

^Vhen thouHonits twain, and hundreds five, of years have paased away, 

The world to rule, a king ahall come, so folk who dwell there say. — 

King Perakum, then citizen, that ia, whom all obc}-. 

At: a, later date the Sivaites became the actual cuatodiana of 
the mountaiD, K&ja Siijha the Apostate from Buddhism 
having delivered it over to a body of AandiySa, Fakeere of the 
Saiva sect, after putting to death the orthodox Bhikkhus,* 
and burning all the sacred and historical books that he could 
find of the faith which he had abandoned. These Aandij^s 
retuued possession of the mountain for a period of I60yeare, 
when the pioue king Kirti Sri, restored it to the Buddhists, 
bestowing the custody of the peak, with the royal vill^e 
Kuttfipitiya, upon the priest Weliwita;t at the same time 

following literal translation. "Tell (me) traveller! where do you come 
from?— O Brahman (I am retunuDg) from having gone to Samanala. — : 
What Qewa is there in that country, Brahman 1 from the chief god 
Sumana? — When two thousand five hundred years sball have elapsed, 
they say that there would come a king, ihe chief of the world. — Then it 
can be saiit, citizen I tliat it ia the kiug Perakum of (big day." 

• Bhikkhu, a person who Uvea on fragments; a Buddhiat priest. 

■f A translation of the aannas or royal grant, ia given iu Appemlia C. 



onnfcrring iipou him, for liis eminent services in restoring 
tlie religion of Buddha, and procuring from Siam the 
UpiisainiMtdit ordination, the title of Sangha Rjljah, or king 
of prieijts. The Aandijaa tried to regain possession, and in 
an appeal to the king for that purpose, made him a present of 
a splendid pair of elephant's tusks. The king acecpted the 
present, but did not grant the petition ; remarking, that the 
mountain belonged to Buddha and was not hie to dispose of; 
at the same time he sent the tusks as an offering to the Sri- 
pdda. The high-priesta of the temple retained possession 
of these tusks until the British troops first entered the 
country, when they were removed to Kandy, and from thence 
to the Ga<lalfideni vihira in Udunuwara, where, in 1827, 
it was said they were still to be seen. 

There is nothing recorded in the life of Mohammad, nor is 
there anything in the Kur&n to shew that that enthusiastic 
Arabian iconoclast, the founder of the faith of Islam, was a 
believer in the tradition that connected Adam, the divinely 
created progenitor of the human race, and "greatest of all the 
patriarchs and prophets," with the holy mount of Serandib; 
yet the tradition was current amongst the Copts in the fourth 
and fifth centuries; and in a paper by Mr. Duncan, in the 
Asiatic Researches, containing historical remarks on the coast 
of Malabar, mention is made of a native chronicle, in which 
it is stated that a king of that country who was contemporary 
with Mohammnd, was converted to Islam by a party of 

,v Google 


dervieliea on tbeir pilgrimage to Adam's Peak.* But, as 
the standard of the Crescent rose, and the prowess of its 
turbaned followers, with almost incredible celerity, spread 
far and wide the doctrines of him who called himself the 
Apoatle of God, and, after Adam, "the last and greatest 
of the prophets," so, with like speed, did the wondrous tales 
of the old Arab voyagers and traders of Ceylout spread 

• Asiatic Researches, vol. t. p. 9. This conversioD " was effected hj 
a corapMif of derrishes Iroin Arabia *ho touched at Crungloor, of 
Cranganore (then the seat of Oovernment in Malabar) on their voyage 
to vitit the Footstep of Adam, on that mountain in Cejiloii which mariners 
diHtinguiab b; the name of Adam's Peak." Id a note, Mr. Duncan add«: 
" This Footstep of Adam is, under the name of Sre-pud or the ' holj foot,' 
equally reverenced and resorted to by the Hindus." 

t Arab traders were known in Ceybn centuries before Mohammad 
was born, " and such waa their passion for eoterpriB<>, that at one and the 
same moment tbey weT« pursuing commerce in the Indian ocean, and 
manning the galleys of Marc Antony in the fatal sea.fight at Actium. 
The author of the Periplut found them in Ceylon after the first Christian 
century, Cosmos Indico-pleustes in the sixth; and they had become so 
numerous in China in the eighth, as to cause a tumult in Canton. From 
the tenth till the fitleenth century, the Arabs, as merchants, were the un- 
disputed masters of the East ; they formed commercial establishments in 
every country that had producUons to export, and tbeir vessels saited 
between every sea-port IVom Sofala to Bab-el-Mandeb, and from Aden 
to Sumatra- The ' Moors ' who at the present day inhabit the coasts of 
Ceylon, are tlie descendants of these active -adventurers; they are not 
purely Arabs in blood, but descendants from Arabian ancestors by 
intermarriage with the native races who embraced the religion of the 
prophet."— Sr J. E. Tbhsbht's Ceylon, vol. i. p. 607. 



amongat thuir countrymen anJ co-religionists reports of the 
beauty, the fertility, and the riches of India's utmost isle. 
Not least in interest amongst the marvels told would be those 
respeclingthemysterioua relic on the summit of Al-rohoun," 
the mighty mount they saw above the horizon for days before 
they moored their ships beneath the shadow of the palms that 
marged the coast. From what was recorded of Adam in 
the Kuran, and the Coptic traditions, with which the Arab 
traders would be well ac()uainted, connecting his name 
with the mountain and the foot-print, the wliole combined 
failed not to invest the island with all the charms of an 
earthly elysium, and fixed in the minds of Moslems the idea 
that the mountain of Serandib; "than which the whole 
world does not contain a mountain of greater height,"! 
eprang from the site of Eden's garden, and was most pro- 
bably that sacred spot, 

" The Mount of Paradise, in clouds reposed," 

whence Adam was permitted to take his last long lingering 
look at the abodes of bliss from which he was for ever 
expelled, for 

* So called from the Rubiina division of the Island, in which Galle is 
situated, and irom which Adam'g Peak is ieen. 

t The description given bj Tababi, " the Liry of the Arabians," 
bom A. n. 83A, irhose writings contain, it is beliered, the earlieit alliuiuDB 
to Ceylon to be found ia any of ihe Arabian or Persian authors. 



"that mjiterious dime, 
Whose dire contagion through elapsing time 
DiB'Lued the curse of death bejond coDtrol ;" • 

or the pionacle upon which he alighted, when, according to 
other traditions, be was cast out from the Paradise of the 
seventh heaven, sad there " remained standing on one font, 
until years of penitence and Buffering had ' expiated his 
offence, and formed the footstep" that now marks the place 
upon which he stood.^ 

The traditions vary in their details; but all true Islamites 
hold to the belief that Ceylon wae rendered for ever famous 
by the presence upon it, and the residence therein, of the 
Father of Mankind.} Sale, in the note already quoted from, 

* Jamms Mobtoombbt'b "World before the Flood." 

"It is from the summit of this mouDtain, a tradition reports, that 
Adam took hit latit ricir of Paradiiie, before be i]iiit(ed it never to return. 
The spot st which his foot atood at the moment, is still supposed to be 
foand in an impressioQ on the summit of the mountain, resembling the 
print of a man's foot, but more than double the ordinary size. Alter 
taking this farenell view, the father of mankind is said to have gone 
over to the contineDt of India; which wm at that time joined to the 
island; but no sooner had he passed Adam's Bridge &ai> the sea closed 
behind him, and cut off all hopes of retorn." — FEacivAL's Account of 
Cejlon, p. 208-7. 

f Note to chap. ii. of Sii-i's Al-koran. 

X "There is another tradition Tclalcd in the Caberman-nameh, nanaely, 
that Adam was banished to Serandib after his expulsion from Paradise, 
and that Caherman-Catel, wishing to bequeath to posterity a monument 
to record the birth of his son Sam-Neriman, caused a town to be built 



mentions the further belief of the followers of the Prophet 
of Mecca, that Eve, who had fallen from Paradise near Jed- 
dah, or Mecca, in Arahia, was, after a separation of two 
huodred years, reunited to Adam, who was conducted to her 
by the angel Gabriel, and that they afterwards both retired 
to Ceylon, where they continued to propagate their epecies. 
Percival, in his notice of the mountain named aft«r him to 

"the evening breeze 
llml bi>rne tlie voice of OckI amun); the trccH; 

whose muruitig eye 
Outsbune the ^tar that told the bud whs nigh," 


etatea that one of the chains near the top is said to have 
been made by Adam himself I but he gives no authority for 
the statement. Sir W. Ou9ely,iQhis Travels, quoting from 
the Berhan Kattea, a manuscript Persian dictionary, writes 
" Serandib(or Serandil) is the name of a celebrated mountain, 
whereon the venerable Adam, (to whom he the blessing of 
God!) descended from Paradise and resided.. is likewise 
reported, that here is interred the father of mankind.' 
Ashref, a Persian poet of the fifteenth century, holding this 
belief, describes in the " Zafier Namah Skendari," a voyage 

in the great plain at the foot of the mountain where Ad&ra was interred, 
and that be called the tame Khorrem, plaee of joys and pleaeures, sueh 
SB the Gr«elc8 and Latins believed the Elyslsn lieldg to have been." — 
Itibliotheque Orientale of O'IIerbblot, vol. iii. p. 308. 



made to Ceylon by Alexander the Great, where, after land- 
ing and indulging himaelf and companiona in feasta and 
revets, he next explores the wonders of the ialand, and " with 
the philosopher Bolinas [celebrated for the composition of 
magical talismans] devises means whereby they may ascend 
the mountain of Serandib, fixing thereto chains with rings, 
and naila or rivets, made of iron and brass, the remains of 
which exist even at this day ; eo that travellers, by the assist- 
ance of theae chains, are enabled to climb the mountain and 
obtain glory by finding the sepulchre of Adam, on whom be 
the blessing of God I " " Unfortunately for Aahref 's credibility, 
his statements are not supported by any reliable authority, 
and hiatory ia utterly silent in regard to this alleged voyage 
of Alexander and his companions. f His own countrymen too, 
are at issue with him as to the place of sepulture of the 
father of mankind, for Hamdallah Kazwini, the Persian 
geographer, saya tliat Adam left Ceylon for the continent of 
India, and " crossed the aea on foot, though shipa now sail 
over the place of his passage, during the space of two or 
three days' voyage. "J 

• Sir W. Ocsblt's Travels, vol. i. p. S8. 

t This belief amongst Easterns of the TJait of Alexander the Great to 
Cejlon existed long before the time of Ashref Ibn Battits, a century 
earlier, mentionti " the ridge of Alexander," at the entrance to tha 
mountain Serandib, "in which is a cave and a weLl of water," and a 
minaret there "name<l after Aienander." 

t Sir W. OoSBLv's Travelfl, vol. i. p. 37. 

., LiOOg Ic 


The earliest account of the Mussulman tradition that 
connecte the story of Adam with the Peak is that contained 
in the narrative of Soleyman, an Arab merchant who visited 
Ceylon in the beginning of the ninth century. His attention 
waa particularly directed to the mountain called by his 
countrymen "Al-rohoun," "to the top of which" he says, 
"it is thought Adam ascended, and there left the print of 
his foot, in a rock which is seventy cubits in length; and 
they say, that Adam at the same time stood with his other 
foot in the sea. About this mountain are mines of rubies, 
of opals, and amethysts." * Ibn Wahab, another trader who 
visited Ceylon about the same period, speaks of its pearls 
and precious stones; and the Darrslives of both travellers 
are related in a work entitled " Voyaget of the two Moham- 
madant," written between the years A. D. 851 — 911, and 
first printed in France in 1718.t 

Sindbad the Sailor in his charming tales, written probably 
about the same period as those of the two Mohanimaduns, 
says in the account of his sixth voyage "The capital of 
Serandib stands at the end of a fine valley, in the middle of 
the island, encompassed by high mountains. They are seen 

•HUtory of Ceylon, by Philalethw, 1817, p. 7. The opals referred 
to by Boleyman must hiife been either cat's-eyes or mnonstunes; the 
real opal not benig found in Ceylon. 

t By Rbnaiidot; it was reprinted at Paris hy REiiiArD in I84J. 
Ad English tranalalion waa included in both Harris'i and Pikkbiton's 
collections of early trarela. 



three days' sail off at eea. Rubies aud several sorts of 
minerala abound. All kinds of rare plants and trees grow 
there, especially cedars and cocoa-nut. There is also a 
pearl-fishery in the month of its principal river; and in some 
of its valleys are found diamonds." I mode, by way of 
devotion, a pilgrimage to the place where Adam was confined 
after his banishment from Paradise, and had the curiosity 
to go to the top of the mountain." f The Arabian author 
Edrisi, in his Geography compiled at the desire of the 
Sicilian king, Roger the Normau, a. d. 11 54, repeats details 
of the height of the holy mountain of Ceylon, its gems 
and odoriferous woods; and in the next century Kazwini 
of Bagdad, the Pliny of the East, gives particulars of 
Ceylon as then known to the travellers and voyagers of 
his day. 

Ibn Batuta, a Moor of Tangiers, the record of whose 
thirty years' pilgrimage [a. d. 1324—1354] entitles him to 
rank amongst the most remarkable travellers of any age or 
country, whilst journeying through Persia, visited at Shiriz 
"the tomb of the Im&Di El Kotb El Wal! Abfi Abd Allah 

* DumoDda tre not foutid in Ceylon, but white Mpphires may have 
been passed oS* for such gems. A species of zircon ii found in Matura, 
which goes by the name of the Matura diamoDi!; these stones are 
exceedingly hard, and some of them possesa gr«at lustre : but they are 
Bcldom found of »ny size, and are of little commercial value. 

f Arabian Nights' EnterlainmeDts, by TownssHD ; Chandos Classics 
Edit., p. 428. 



Ibn Khafif, who U the great exemplar of all the region of 
Fkra." Of him heaa)'8"Thi8 Abu Abd Allah Ulhe person, 
who made known the way from India to the mountain of 
Serandib, ajid who wandered about the mountains in the 
Island of Ceylon. Of hismiraclea, his entering Ceylon, and 
wandering over its mountains in company with about thirty 
fakeers is one : for when these persons were all suffering 
from extreme hunger, and had consulted the Sheikh on 
the necessity of slaughtering and eating an elephant, he 
positively refused and forbade the act. They, nevertheless, 
impelled aa they were by hunger, tranpgrcwed his commands, 
and killed a small elephant, which they ate. The Sheikh, 
however, refused to partake. When they had all gone to 
sleep, the elephanta came in a body, and smelling one of 
them, put him to death. They then came to the Sheikh, 
and smelled him, but did hira no injury. One of them, 
however, wrapt hirt trunk about him, and lifting him on his 
back, carried him off to some houses. When the people saw 
him, they were much astonished. The elephant then put 
him down and walked off. The infidels were much delighted 
with the Sheikh, treated him very kindly, and took him to 
their king. The king gave credit to bis story, and treated 
him with the greatest kindness and respect. When I entered 
Ceylon I found them still infidels, although they had given 
great credit to the Sheikh. They also very much honour 
the Mohammadan fakeers, taking them to their houses and 
feeding them, contrary to the practice of the infidels of 
India; for they neither eat with a Mohammadan, nor suffer 



him to come oear them."* Sir Jamee Emerson Tennent 
obaervee upon this accouDt: — " Aa this saint died in the year 
of the H^ra 331, his story serves to fix the origin of the 
Mohammadan pilgrimages to Adam's Peak in the early part 
of the tenth century,"! 

Ibn Batdta's visit to Ceylon was the result of stress of 
weather, he being at the time on a voyage from one of the 
Maldlve islands, — where his long residence and popularity 
had excited the hatred of the Vizier, — to the " Maabar 
Districts " on the coast of Coromandel. His narrative will 
be found in the Appendix, accompanied with notes identi- 
fying many of the places mentioned in his route from 
Puttalam to Gampola, thence to Adam's Peak, to Dondra- 
head, Galle, Colombo, and back to Puttalam. 

* The Travels of Ibn Batilta, translated from the Arabic hj tlie 
EeT. S. Lee, Professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge, 1829, 
p. 42-43 Robert Knox, writing three hundred and forty jears later, 
tatty corroborates the statement of Ibn Batdta. 

t Sii J. B. Tbbnbmt'b Cejlon, vol. i. p. 579. 




It is stated in page 19, on the authority of a note in 
Mr. James D'AIwie'e " Attanagalu-vansa," that except in 
the historical works of Ceylon, there is no account of this 
supposed impression of Buddha's foot in any of the earliest 
records of Budhism." Since the printing of the sheet con- 
taining that page, I have been favoured with the fallowing 
communication from Mudaliyar Louie De Zoysa, the teamed 
Chief Translator to the Ceylon Government, whose merits 
as a Pali and Sanscrit scholar are patent to all who have 
occasion to consult him, but whose reluctance to publish the 
fruits of hia studious labours has hitherto prevented him 
from talcing that place amongst generally known Orientalists 
to which his abilities entitle him. 

" I have much pleasure in sending you an extract and its 
translation from Buddhagh6sa's Atthakath^onthe Winaya- 
pitaka, entitled ' Samanta P^idik^,' respecting the im- 
pression of Buddha's foot on the mountain of Samantakuta. 
Buddbagh6sa is the great commentator on the canonical 
Scriptures of Buddhism. Atthakathi is a Comment, or 
Glossary. Winayapitaka is that division of the sacred text 
which treats of the Laws of the Buddhist Priesthood. 

"Tiuikhopana Bhagavatti p&dachetiy&ni. Lagkidip^ ^kap, 
JambudipS Yduakaratth£ dw6ti. Tsttha h6dhit6 attliam^ waesu 
Ealyd^iyaQ Maniakkb! u&gar^^na nimantitii Bhagava pa^chahi 



blitkkliuaatKhi parivatd LaQkuJipamfigammftKatydni cbi^tiyalth^nd 
kat^ ratona-mBQdape nisinno bhaltikkiclicbaQ kntw^ Samantaku(e 
padag dassetwd agamasL" — Sauanta Pa'sa'dika'. 

" There are three foot-impresBions of the Deity of felicity : 
one in tlie Island of Lank&, and two in the Y6naka* country 
in Jambudipo. In the eighth year after his attainment 
of Buddhahood, the Deity of felicity, at the invitation of 
the N&ga king Maniakkhi, arrived at Lank& attended by 
five hundred priests, and having taken his seat in the ratana- 
mandapa (gem-decorated-hall) on the site of t]ie D&goba at 
Kelani, and having partaken of his repast there, left the 
impression of liis foot on the Samantakfita moantain and 

The above extract, however, only proves that the notice 
of the foot-print occurs for the 6rst time in any other 
than an historical work, in the Atthakath^ or commentary 
composed by Buddhaghdsa, which, although esteemed by 
many as of equal authority with the Tripitaka, was never- 
theless only written at about the same period as the 
corresponding statement in the MahawaQs6, or but a short 
while before. For Buddhaghosa arrived in Ceylon from 
Maghada, near Fatna, the original seat of Buddhism, during 
the reign of Mahandm6, a. d. 410 — 432; and he and the 
thero Mahnu£ma were both resident at the same time 
at Anar&dhapura, where the latter completed the early 
chapters of iJie Mahawanei^ in the reign of his nephew 
Dh6tu-Sena [a. d. 459—478]. The statements in the 
commentary and in the history are identical, and both 

• BactriauR, or Afighanistan. 

iizMb, Google 


had, without doubt, a common origin,* The express object 
of Buddhaghuaa'e viait to Ceylon, was to translate from 
Sinhalese iato Pali the Atthakatbds on, as well as the text 
of the Pitakas, but during his residence in the island, he 
himself composed additional comments, regarding which one 
of the most learned priests of the present day remarked, 
"that any one who road them through would be able to 
fulfil the office of Sangha Kiijd, or supreme ruler of the 
priesthood." t But at the same time, "they abound much 
more with details of mirnculous interposition than the 
Pitakas they profess to explain, "f and as there is absolutely 
nothing in the text of the Winiyapitaka respecting the alleged 
foot-mark, to give occasion to the extract quoted from the 
comment, it aeema evident that Buddhaghosa embodied in 
his commentary, as in a kind of common-place book, every- 
thing that in any way tended to the glorification of Buddha, 
however remotely connected it might be with the special 
subject he had on hand. 

• The Dipavmnia, or history of the Island, written in Pali, perhaps a 
eentury and ft halfcarliur tlian the Mahav>an36.\s the oldest known book 
in nhicli the legend Is stated. Itoth BuiUlhaglidan and Ktahoniima seem 
to hnve been indebted to its pages for what ihej have written on thia 
particular subject. 

t Habdi's Manual of lluddliism, p. 5\2. 

X Hakht's Eastern Moniichisni, p. 171. 


giant's Jiiai. 

" All the giftnt mountuiu sleep 
High in heaven tbeir monarch bUdiIs, 
Bright and beauteous from afar 
Shining into distant lands 
Like a new-created star." 



Notices of the Peak and Foot-pkint by early Chribtiak 
Writers, — Accocnts by Marco Polo, Sir John Maon- 
DEViLLE, Caftain Ribeyro, Robert Knox, and tde Dutch 
Uistorun Valentin. 

Tbb Gnostics, ia framiDg their theological system, made 
Adam rank as the third emanation of the Deit^ ; and in a 
maauacript of the fourth century, containing the Coptic 
version of the discourse on " Faithful Wisdom," attributed 
to Valentinus, the great heresiarch of that early corruptioa 
of Christianity, there occurs the oldest recorded mention of 
the sacred foot-print of " the primal man." The veneration 
they cultivated for leu, (the mystic name they gave to 
Adam) the protoplast of the human race, seems, afler their 
dispersion under persecution, to have been communicated 



by tliem to the Arabs, and it was probably under this 
influence that Mohammad recognized him in the Kurfin, ae 
the "greatest of all patriarchs and prophets," and the "first 
of God's ■vicegerents upon earth,"* It does not appear, 
however, that pUgrim^ea were at any time mode hy Chris- 
tians, as acts of devotion, to the sacred foot-print. 

The Portuguese authorities, when they became interested 
in the affairs of Ceylon, were not at all inclined to believe 
in the impresaion, as being that of the foot-print of Adam ; 
some attributing it to St. Thomas, and others to the Eunuch 
of Candace, Queen of Ethiopia. Percival, in his account of 
the island, apparently adopting this view, states, page 208, 
that " the Roman Catholics have taken advant^e of the 
current superstitions to forward the propagation of their own 
tenets; and a chapel which they have erected on the moun- 
tain, it) yearly frequented by vast numbers of black Chris- 
tiana of the Portuguese and Malabar races." But in this 
respect he seems to have fallen into an error; there are no 
traces of such a chapel on the mountain at the present day, 
nor does it appear, upon inquiry, that there had been any 
such in former times. Probably, when writing his work, he 
had present to hia recollection traditions of the old Roman 
Catholic church, which in the times of the Portuguese stood 
on the apot now occupied as the great Saman D^wale, about 
a couple of miles firom Ratoapura, in which city there is 

• Sir J. E. Tbknbht'b Ceylon, vol. ii. p. 135. 



still a bodj of Eoman CadioticB, and a small chapel where 
they assemble for worship. 

Early Christian travellers hare not failed to make mention 
of the Peak in the narratives they have left of their voyages 
and travels to the far East Chief amongst these stands 
Marco Polo, the celebrated VeoeliaD whose travels throagh 
the dominioDB of the Emperor Kublai Ehao and adjacent 
countries, a. d. 1271 — 1295, led Sansivino, the hiatoriao of 
the city of Venice, to call hbn "the first before Colambua 
who discovered new countries," He thus refers (booh iii. 
ch. zxiii.) to the traditions that connect the mountain o( 
Zeilan with both Adam and Buddha, 

" I am unwilling to pass over certmn particulars which 
I omitted when before speaking of the island of Zeilan, 
(cb. xix,) and which I learned when I visited that country 
in my homeward voyage. In this island there is a very high 
mountain, bo rocky and precipitous that the ascent fo the top 
isimpracticable, as it is said, excepting by the assistance of iron 
chains employed for that purpose. By means of these some 
persons attain the summit, where the tomb of Adam, our 
first parent, is reported to be found. Such is the account 
given by the Saracens. But the idolaters assert that it 
contains the body of Sogomon-barchan,* the founder of their 
religious system, and whom they revere as a holy personage. 

* Evidently a corruption of the terms S4kja-muni, chief sage of the 
SUjft rac«i vulBhaganat,suprenicspLrit;cou)monl; used by BuddhUt« 
to deaignat« Qauiama Buddha. 



He waa the bod of a king of the island," who devoted himself 
to an ascetic life, refusing to accept of kingdoms or any other 
worldly possessions, although his father endeavoured, by the 
allurements of women, and every other imaginable grati- 
fication, to divert him from the resolution he had adopted. 
Every att«mpt to dissuade him was in vain, and the young 
man fled privately to this lofty mountain, where, in the 
observance of celibacy and strict abstinence, he at length 
terminated hia mortal career. By the idolaters he is regarded 
as a saint. The father, distracted with the most poignant 
grief, caused an image to be formed of gold and precious 
stones, bearing the resemblance of his son, and required 
that all the inhabitants of the island should honour and 
worship it as a deity. f Such was the origin of the worship 
of idols in that country ; but Sogomoa-barchan is still 

' Marco Polo u here in error. GauUma Buddlia was the Priuce 
SiildArtha, son of hiog SuddbiSdaQa, who reigned at KapiUwaetu, ti citj 
on the borders of Nepal; he was born in a garden near that city in the 
jear b. c. 624.— Habdt's Eastern MoDachbm, p. 1. 

t PhiljU-etues, in \m History of Ceylon, oh. xxiii,, gives a limilar 
account J the; both originated in traditions coDcemiog Buddha current 
amongst the Sgbidese. The tranala^on and publication of the Maha- 
wans<5 and other ancient native histories, and tlie learned researches of 
Tumour, Gogerly, Hardy, Man Miiller, D'Alnis and others, regarding 
the life of Buddha, and the origin of Buddhism, have cleared up much 
that was obscure in the matter of these traditions, and shew, that while 
the; t«em with fanciful fiction and imsginary legend, they also contain a 
fair proportion of historic truth. 



regarded as Buperior to every other. In consequence of 
tbis belief, people flock from various distant parts in pil- 
grimage to the mountain on which he was buried. Some 
of his hair, hie teeth, and the basin he made use of, are still 
preserved, and shown with much ceremony. The Saracens, 
on the other hand, maintain that these belonged to the 
prophet Adam, and are in like manner led by devotion to 
vieil the mountain, 

"It happened that, in the year 1281,* the Grand Khan 
heard from certain Saracens who had been upon the spot, 
the fame of these relics belonging to out first parent, and felt 
BO strong a desire to possess them, that he was induced to 
send an embassy to demand them of the king of Zeilan. 
After a long and tedious journey, his ambassadors at length 
reached the place of their destina^on, and obtained from the 

* This nai in the reign of Paodita Prfikrninabfihu III., [a. d. 1267— 
1301], but there is no menlinn made of such an embassy in either the 
Mahawansu, the lUja Ratnfikari, or ihe Rijanaliya. Perhaps, as the 
otijpct of Ihe embasiy naa merely toobtain relics of Adam, the Buddhist 
annalisb considered it a matter unworthy of (heir notice. Marco Polo'* 
aiatemeot is boireTer confirmed hj Chinese authoritiea (quoted bj 
Sir J. £, Tennent, vol. i. p. 598), who thus describe the "alms-diah of 
Buddha," which was at length yielded to Kublai Ehaa as a gift from the 
king of Ceylon. "In front of tbcimage of Buddha there isasacred bowl 
which it Deillier made of jade, nor copper, nor iron, it ia of a purple 
colour and glossy, and when struck, it sotiDds like glasa. At the com- 
mencement of the TucD Dynasty, three separate eoToyi were tent to 
obtain it." 



king two Ifti^e back-teeth, together with some of the hair, 
and a handsome veeBel of porphyry. When the Grand Khan 
received intelligence of the approach of the messengers, on 
their return with such valuable curioeities, he ordered all 
thepcopleofKanbalu(Pekin) to march out of the city to 
meet (hem, and they were conducted to his presence with 
great pomp and solemnity." 

The first ofthe writers on Ceylon in the fourteenth century 
vas the Minorite Friar Odoric of Postenau in Fruili.* " In 
it he saw the mountain on which Adam for the space of 500 
years mourned the death of Abel) and on which his tears 
and those of Eve formed, as men believe, a ftiuntun;" but 
this Odoric discovered to be a delusion, as he saw the spring 
gushing from the earth, and its waters "flowing over jewels, 
but abounding with leeches and bloodsuckers," In 1349 
Giovanni de Marignola, a Florentine and Legate of Clement 
VI., landed in Ceylon, at a time when the legitimate king 
was driven away ; his attention was chiefly directed to " the 
mountain opposite Paradise." 

8ir John Maundeville, a native of St. Albans, who died 
at Liege in the year 1371, in his Voyi^es and Travel8,t 
says of Ceylon, "And there ben also many wylde Beates, and 
namelyche of Olifauntes. In that yle is a gret Mountayne; 

* He let out on bia travel* from die Black Sea, in 1318, tniTersed ibe 
Asian Contdoent to China, and returned to Italy aftfir a jonroej of 
twelve year*.— Sir J. E. TBHWBWT'a Ceylon, vol. L p, 612. 

t Chapter xviiL p. 230. Edit. 1727. 



Rnd in mjdd place of the Mount, U ft gret lake in a full fair 
Pleyne, and there U gret plentee of Watre. And thei of 
the Contree aeyn, that Adam and Eve weptfin upon that 
Mount an 100 Zeer, whan thei nerendryvenout of Parades. 
And that Watre, thei seyn, is of here Teres: for so much 
Watre thei wepten, that luade the forseyde Lake. And in 
the botme of that Lake, men fynden many precious Stone* 
and grete Perles. In that Lake growen many Beedes and 
grete Cannes: and there with inne ben many CocodriUes and 
Berpentes and grete watre Leche».'* 

Kicolo di Conti, a Venetian of nohle family, and merchant 
at Damascus, visited Ceylon in the early portion of the 
fifteenth century. His adventures were related to Poggio 
Brscdolint, apostolic Secretary to Pope Eugeniue IV., by 
whom they have been preserved in a dissertation on " The 
Vicissitudes of Fortune."* The notices of this work by 
Sir Emerson Tennent make no mention of either the Peak 
or the Foot-print; bat Diego de Couto,t a painstaking 
Portuguese writer, referring to Di Conti, says his description 
of both are full of errors. De Couto rejects the idea that 
the print of the foot was made by Adam, hut insists very 

* Di CoHTi'a kccoant was printed at Bai3, in 1S38. The work wm 
truislated into English for, and publbbed hj the Haklujt Society, in 1 857. 

t Da Couto wu the condnuator of a work written bj Odoakdo 
Bakbosa, a PortuguMe captain who Bailed in the Indian eeu in the earlj 
part of the lixteeDth centurj. Thia work wa« a aummtry of all thatwa* 
then known cunceruiDg the cuuntriea of the Eait. 



strongly on the claim made on behalf of St. Thomas, who 
also, he says, deeply impressed the marks of his knees upon 
a stone in a quarry at Colombo. 

In 1506, Ludovico Barthema, or Varthcma, a BologDeae, 
found it difficult to land in Ceylon " owing to the four kings 
of the island being busily engaged in civil war," but he 
learned that "permission to search for jewels at the foot of 
Adam's Peak might be obtained by the payment of five 
dncats, and restoring as a royalty all gems over ten carats." 
The pearls of Man£r and the gems of Adam's Peak were 
considered, in the early part of the 16th century, the principal 
riches of Ceylon.* 

Captain Bibeyro, who gallantly fought on the losing side, 
and who records the downfall in Ceylon of the power of 
the race.t which more than two centuries ago had for the 
previous hundred and forty years 

" 'Neath flag of Portugal found place 

Till from eacb stronghold both were huH'd 
And Holland atandard proud unfurl'd," 

and the whole of the maritime provinces of the inland passed 

* Sir J. E. Tedneiit's Ceylon, vol. i. p. \3S. 

t History of CeyloD, presented by Capinin Johb Ribbtbo to the King 
of Portugal in 168S. Translated from the Portuguese by the Abbe La 
Gband. Ee-tronslaied from the French, by Gboiqb Leb, Poitmaater 
General of Ceylon, 1S47. 



into the posseeslon of the Dutch,* givea the following 
account of Adain'a Peak : 

"We have already said that Adam's-peak separates the 
kingdoms of Uwa, Kandy, and the Two Corles, from each 
other. This mountain passes for one of the wonders of the 
world. It is twenty leagues from the sea, and seamen see 
it twenty leagues from the land; it is two miles high, and 
before reaching its summit, we arrive at a very agreeable 
nnd extensive plain.t where that rest can be had of which 
the person who ascends is eo much in need, as the mountain 
has then become very steep and rugged. This plain is inter- 
sected by many streams which fall from the mountain, and 
is entirely covered with trees; there are even very pleasant 
Tallies in it. 

" The heathens resort to this Peak on a pilgrimage, and 
never mias bathing in one of the rivulets, and washing their 

* The Portugueae eObcted their first settlement in Cejlon at Colombo, 
A. n. 1518. The Dut£h erected their Grst fort at Knttiar, near Trinco' 
malee, in 1609; obtained a permanent fooling (bj treatj with the 
Portuguese) in 1646, anil by I6S8 made themselves masters of the eotire 
•ea-borde of the Island. 

f Mr. Lee gives OS anote here "Diabetme.* But the plain of Diabetma 
is on a mountain top, and does not answer the description given bj 
Eibejro. The plain of GilimaM, 9 miles from Ratnapura, is " inter- 
sected by many streams," is "covered with trees," and haa moreover 
"pleasnnt vallies in it" Pnl&baddala however, is moat probably the place 
meant, thst being an elevated plateau, by and through which run streams 
and water -courses. It is the secood haltjag station on iLe loute, 
Id miles from Ratnapura. 

i,.,,,= .„L,OOglC 


lineD, their clothes, and all they bare on them in it. Thej 
are persuaded that the place is holy, and they think that 
by these ablutions their sins are washed away.* 

"After these superstitious observances, they clamber to 
the top of the mountain by chains which are attached to it, 
and without which it would not be possible to mount, so 
■teep is the ascent from the plain to the top, and there still 
remains to be achieved a distance of quarter of a league. A 
person leaving the foot of the mountain very early in the 
moniing will hardly reach its aummit till two in the after- 

" On the top of the Peak there is a targe open square, 200 
paces in diameter, and in tlie middle there is a very deep 

* In chapter viil. of his Hbtorj, Cnptam Ribejro mj*, that the Qne«ii 
Donna Catbarins, iridtnr of king Wimala Dharma [a. b. Ifi92_1627], 
manied Sen&ralana, tiie brother uf her deceased fauabaud, who at tha 
time of the king'a death, wu b priest "living in penitence on Adam's 
Ftttk." Thenatire Iiidtorians relate, that on the marriage of Seniiatan^ 
be was r^sed to the throne, and reigoed for a perluil of seven ;e*rs. 
He va* succeeded bj bia aoa Rija SiQha II., during wboae reign of 
fifty years the Portuguese were expelled from CejloD, being first 
driven by the Icing from all their possessiong excepting their fortified towns 
on the ses-coMt, after wbicb, with the aid of the Dutch, he succeeded 
in finally expelling them firom these; he then, bj treaty with his allies, 
IranBterred to them the iriiole of the const, with the exception of 
Batticaloa and Pnttolam. It wis while at Battiealoa, that Robert Knox 
and hi* companions were captured by order of Kija Sgba II. 

t This is about the time required, taking Fal&baddala as the starting 



lake of the finest water posaible. Thence issue those streams 
of which we have juat spoken, and which collecting their 
waters at the foot of the mountaio form the three largest 
rivera of the island.* 

" Near the lake there is a flat stone hearing the impression 
of a man's foot, two palms long and eight inches hroad; this 
impression is so well engraved that it could not be more 
perfect if it were done on wax. All the heathens profesi 
great veneration for this relic, and assemble at the Peak 
from all places to see it and render it their homage, and to 
fulfil vows which they make regarding it. On the left of 
the etone are some huta of earth and wood where the pilgrims 
dwell : and on its right is a p^oda or temple, with the 
house of the priest, who resides there to receive offering! 
and to relate to the pilgrims the miracles which have been 
wrought on the spot, and the favours and blessings which 
have attended those who have come thither on pilgrimage; 
and he never fails to impress on the minds of his hearers the 
antiquity and holiness of that stone, which they wish th« 
heathens to believe is the imprint of the foot of our first 

* The statement respecting llie Ittke and the itreanii is eTTO&Mus. 
There is however r small well near the top of the Peak. 

t Ribejro seems not to have knonn that the Sinhalese attributed the 
foot-print to Buddha. Re probabi; obtained bis informatioo ftom a 
Mohammadai) source. His account of the «ze of the foot-print dlSen 
conriderabl^ &om the reality. Its present length and breadth ia about 
fbur times lai^^ than the dimensions stated in the text. 



" Some trees have been planted round the stone to render 
the spot more venerable in appearnace; and in order that 
the heathens may have no doubt as to the holiness of the 
place, the priest declares to them that two emaller raountaias 
at the side of the Peak have stooped and bowed down before 
the sanctity of this mountain.* Is^o man of common sense 
would believe thia, any more than that the impression was 
made by a human foot, as the man who made it must have 
been of the most gigantic size; it is evident that it is the 
work of some heathenish hypocrite, a recluse on this spot> 
who sought to create a reputatiou for himself. 

" One of the rivers falling from Adam's Peak runs towards 
the north, crosses the Four Corles, passes through Sittawacca 
and Malwana, and falls into the sea near Colombo, at a 
place called Mutwal; another flows towards the south, and 
waters the Two Corles, Saffragam, the Pasdun and Kaygam 
Corles, and falls into the sea near Caltura; but the largest 
and most considerable of the three rivers is that which passes 
near Ksndy, and after crossing the kiagdoraa of Trincomalee 
and Btttticaloa, discharges itself into the hay dos Arcos, 
near the port of Cottiar. None of these rivers have any 
peculiar names, but take the appellations of the places they 

• Sir J. E. Tbbkbnt says, (vol. ii. p. 138.) "De Couto, in confir- 
maiion of the pious coDJecture (hat the fuoUtep on the snmmit was that 
of St. Thumu, asseriH that all the trees of the Peak, and for half a league 
OD all Bides around it, bend tlieir croirns in the direction of ihe relic; a 
homagenhichcouldonlybeofiered to the footstep of an Apostle." 



pass in their course, receiving as they flow onwards many 
smaller streams which entirely intersect the island."* 

The assertion of the priests referred to by Ribeyro in 
the penultimate paragraph, is but the expreaaion of a belief to 
which all true Buddhists tenaciously adhere. They appeal 
to the evidence of their senses; and plainly, the top of one 
the summits of the B^na Samanala, the mountain which 
nearly faces Adam's Peak in a south-westerly direction, 
overhangs its base with a very apparent bend ; while the 
tall rhododendron trees which flourish on the eastern side 
of the Peak, appear to lean over in the direction of the foot- 
print, as their branches rise above the wall of the platform 
which surrounds the rock that bears it. There, they say, 
you have, on either hand, a miraculous proof of the divine 
supremacy of Buddha, and the sanctity of the seal of 
his power which he has impressed upon the mountain top. 
Five centuries and a half ago this belief, then as firmly held 
as now, was again and again referred to in the Samanta- 
kiita-wannand, a poem descriptive of the Peak, and the 
origin of the Foot-print; and from wliicb De Couto and 
others seem to have derived much of their information. 

• This statement is not wholly correct. The first of the riTera named 
ia the K^lani-ganga, the second the Kalu-gaoga. Both of these 
have theiroriginin the western slopes ofthe Samanala range of mountains, 
but not from Adam's Peak direct The third is the Mahawflli- 
gangB, the source of which is in Pedum taligala, the highest mountain in 
Cejlcm. One of its tributaries however flows from the eastern slopes 
of the Samanala range. 



The following stanza 13 a fair sample of the poem: — 

Eae' So^'M (eSoj Sirai MSrfow 
Mftla 'w at ansa sainak^ girayo samanta 

Hutw4 Damanli api haoti aachetandwa 

Sabbupi tattha tarawo ciialatddayoclia 

Nachcltanti dibba nataka wiya onatagga.* 

Like canopies and garlands -fair became the rocka sround; 
And graceful as ihe danccni, in hearenl]' mansions found, 
The trees and doral creepers that clothe the monntnjni round. 
Their heads, like sentient beings, bent lowl; to Ihe ground. 

Robert Knox, in that moat interesting account he has 
given of Ceylon in the narrative of his twenty years' capti- 
vity in the interior, during the reign of R&ja Si^ha II., makes 

* The author of Samsntakilfa-wannanfi is generallj bcliered to hare 
been one Wb'de'ba, Ihe chief priest of a temple called Fatjraja Piri- 
weno, nho also wrote the Pali work Padja-madhu, and to whom is 
generally attributed the suthonhip of ihe Sidat Sangariwa, the oldeit 
known Gnunmu of the Sighalcae language. He lifed in tha rdgn of 
kingPandita-FarakkramabUiuIV. A.D. 13S0-1347. TbeSamantakifta- 
wannani is a poem containing upwards of 500 stanzas, and describea, in 
flowing Pali verse, the legends which narrate the circumstanceg that led 
to theimpressionof Buddha's foot- print upon the auinmit of the Samanta- 
ktita. Vide Introduction to the Sidat Sanguiwa, bf James D'At-wis. 
pp. clxxxii, clx^uciii, and cclxzxi. Colombo, 1852. 



frequent mentiOQ of Adam's Peak.* He says, " The land is 
full of hilU, but exceedingly well watered, there being many 
pure aod clear riverB running through them. ..The mun river 
of all is called Mavelagonga; whicli proceeds out of the 
mountain, called Adam's Peak (of which more hereafter); 
it runs through the whole land northward, and falls into tlie 

aea at Trenkinuilay On the south side of Conde Uda is 

a hill, supposed to be the highest on this Island, called, ia 
the Chingulay language, Hamalell ; f but by the Portuguese 
and the European nations, Adam's Peak. It is sharp, like 
a sugw loaf, and on the top a flat stone with the print of 
a foot like a man's on it, but far bigger, being abont two feet 
long. The people of this land count it meritorious to go 

'■*An Hiitorical reUtion of the Island of Cejlon In the £ut Indies; 
together i^itli ui BC«»Dnt of the detaining in Captivit; the Author, and 
divers other Eof^ishmen now living there; pud of the Author's mira- 
culous escape. By Robbbt Khox, a csptire there nepr tirent; jeata. 
[I6S9— 1679]. Edit. ISI7." This work wu first printed in 16SI. 
Captain Ribejro'a HisUny waa not pretented to the king of Portugal 
until 168S; and remained unpublished till 1701; bat a* be lived in 
Ceylon, and look part in tiie occurrences he deacnbes, previous to Knox's 
captivity, his account of the Peak isgiveoGratincmlerof time indie text. 
t"Tbe levned Baiutr, in his Analjua of Andent Mythology, lajs 
grvat freight upon tliis nane ; he says 'The Pike of Adam is properly 
the nrnmit sacred to Ad Ham, the king or deity Ham, the Amon of 
Kgypt- This is plain, to a demonsb«tion, from another name given to 
it by the native Siagalese, who live near the mountain, and call it Hoin- 
al-el; this, without any change, is Ham-eel-EI, (Ham, the Sun,) and 
relates to the ancient religion of the Island. In short, every thing in 



and worship this impression; and generally, about their new 
year, which is in Afarch, they, men, women and children, 
go up this vast and high mountain to worship: the manner 
of which I shall write hereafter, when I come to describe 
their religion. Out of this mountain arise many fine rivers, 
which run through the land, some to the westward,* some 
to the southward,! ^^^ the main river, viz. Mavelagonga 
before mentioned to the northward." 

" There is another great god, whom they call Buddou, 
unto whom the salvation of souls belongs. Him they believe 
once to have come upon the earth; and, when be was here, 
that he did usually sit under a lai^e shady tree, called 
Bogabah, which trees ever since are accounted holy, and 
under which, with great solemnities, they do, to this day, 
celebrate the ceremonies of hie worship. He departed from 
the earth from the top of the highest mountain on the Island, 
called Pico Adam;} where there is an impression like a foot, 
which they say is hie, as bath been mentioned before." 

these countries asvoura of Chaldaic and Egyptian institution.'" — Davt'b 
Account of llie Interior of Ceylon, p. 348. But Dr. Davy shews that 
Bryant'n explanation is entirely erroneous; that the sound of S and H 
being indiscriminately used by the Sinhalese, the mountain is called by 
them either UnmaniUa or Samanala, i. e. the rock of Saman; and that 
in Fali ila name in SomanS-kiita, and in Sanskrit Samanta-kiita-parwata, 
the meaning, in each of the three languages, being exactly the same. 

* F<imiing the K^lani-gaiiga. t Forminf; the Kalu-ganga. 

I Knox here followed Che current native tradition. Buddha's death 
took place near the city Kusin&ra, in the year 343 b. c. The exact Mte 



"His great festival is in the month of March, at their 
New Year's tide. The places where he is commemorated 
are two, not temples — but the ODe a moantain, and the other 
a tree;* either to the one or the other they at this time go 
with their wives and children, for dignity and merit— one 
being esteemed equal with the other. 

" The mountain is at the south end of the country, called 
Hammalella; but, by Christian people, Adam's Peak, the 
highest in the whole island; where, as has been said before, 
is the print of the Buddou's foot, which he left on the top 
of that mountain in a rock, from whence he ascended to 
heaven; upon this footstep they give worship, light up 
lamps, and offer sacrifices, laying them upon it as upon an 
altar.f The benefit of the sacrifices that are offered here 
do belong unto the Moors pilgrims, who come over from the 
other coast to beg, this having been given them heretofore 

of this cit7 h»* not yet been 6xeA. Different authorities suppoae it to 
have been in the Province of Assam, the kingdom of Nepal, or at 
Burdwar near Delhi. 

* The Bo-tree at Anurfidhapura, the oldest historical tree in the world, 
planted b. c. 2S8. 

t " A beautiful pagoda formerly stood upon the top of thU hill, 
respecting which taaay traditions are circulated, and manj stories told. 
The; sa; that it WHS the abode ofBhood,whowBs a disciple of the apostle 
Thomas. Tbej add, that he stood with one foot upon this hill, and 
another upon a hill upon the coast of Madura, when such a flood of wat«t 
burst forth, SB to separate the island of Ceylon from the main land,"— 

PuiLAJillTBES, p. 210. 



by a former king; bo that, at that aeaaon, there are great 
mimbera of them always waiting there to receive their 
accustomed fees."* 

The Rev. Philip Baldsaus, " Minister of the word of God 
in Ceylon," in bis " True and exact Description of Malabar, 
Coromandal, and also of the Island of Ceylon, &c.," printed 
at Amsterdam in 1672, added but little to the stock of 
in&nnation already known respecting the sacred foot^print. 
In March, 1654, he states, that some Dutchmen, who had 
gone purposely to examine it, were shewn by the Buddhist 
priests a representation of it in gold, and of similar di- 
mensions, on which diiferent images were engraven, which 
had before been exhibited npon the impression of the foot 
in the rock. But, said they, when these images had been 
ponrtrayed in gold, they vanished from the stone.f 

* Knox haa here, as in Bome oclier places, described the Hindus u 
Moori. He refers in this instance to the Aandij&s, who from about 1090 
to 17^0, were the custodians of the Peak (see ante, page 39). In their 
dresa these fakeera somewhat resembled the Mohammadana, but smeared 
their for^eads with aahea. Elsewhere, Knox particularlj diatinguishes 
thf^ Moors "who are Mohammadana bj religion." 

I Thia, according to a Bwddbiat tradiUon, iinpliciti; believed hy manj 
of the people, was not the first time impreaiiona Tanished from the sur&ce 
of that aacred rock. Bach of tbe three Buddbaa who preceded Qautama 
Buddha left tbe impression of his fool-print on the spot; and each time 
an impreaaion waa made, tbe former one sank through the rock to the 
bottom of tbe mountain, where it still remains, and would be clearlj 
visible, if only tbe mountain could be turned upside down to evbibit it. 



The hietorian Valentya, in hia great work on the Dutch 
East Indian poBaegsions,* complains much of the want of 
infomiation he found to exist among hia oountrjmen, re- 
specting the interior of Ceylon; what they had being chiefly 
derived from the Btatementa of fugitives and spies. Of 
Adam's Peak, he says: — " This mountain is the Peak on the 
top of which Buddha, so say the Sinhalese (or Adam, as 
others amongst them say,) left the great and famous foot- 
print impressed on a certua stone, when he ascended to 
heaven. It is to this footstep that so many thousand pilgrims 
come from all lands to offer sacrifices." Elsewhere he 
furnishes a notable instance of the inaccuracy of his own 
information, by minutely describing the temples and images 

• The following b the title of Talentfn's work:— "Ke«irijke beschiyTing 
Tftn Choromandel, Pegu, Arrakfto, fiengale, Mochft, ran 't Nederlandach 
eomptoii' in Penien ; en eenige fraije zBaken van PenepoBs oTerbtjftelen. 
Een nette begchr^Tioj; van Malaka, 't Nederlands coiaptair op 't Eilaod 
BomRtrs, mitsgadera een wjdlnftig« UndbeschrTritig van 't Eilaod Ceylon, 
en een net verhaal van des Kclft keiseren, en isaken, van oudi hier 
voergevoUen ; alao ook van 't Nederlands comptoir op de kuat van Malabar, 
en van oneen bandet in Japan, en eindeljk een beschiyving van Eaap 
der Goede Hoope, en't Eiland Manritlaa, met de zaaken tot alle de 
voomoenide lyken en landen behooreode. Met veele Prentverbeeldingen 
en luidkaaiien opgebeldert Door Faitccois V*abbttk, Onlanga Bedie- 
naar dea Goddeljken woorda in Amboina, Banda ens. Te Aroaterdim, 
by Gerard Onder de Linden, 1726." Thia work ia in five verj large 
rolaraea in folio, and containa man; hundred copper plates. One of tbeae, 
a whole page plate, repreienta " Adam's Berg." The monntain is depicted 
as exceedingly high and steep, and is surmounted b; two peaks like ragged 



of Mulkirigala, — a precipitous rock near Matara, called by 
the Dutch Adam'a Berg, — ae if they exiuted on the mountain 
of the Sri-pdda. Philalethes, accepting this statement as 
correct, endorses it In hia history ;* and Upbam and others, 
following him, perpetuate the error; although Cordiner.t 
who is coDStaatly quoted by Philaletbes, and who does not 

lTUDPa(«d cooes, on tbe top of one of whicb the fool print i« plwnlj 
shewn. Groves of cocoa-nut and forest trees ore scattered here and there ; 
and three rivera wind their waj to the base of the mountain. One of 
these, stthe foot of tbe picture, is meant for tbe SitagauguUa. Aeonipanj 
of pilgrims ire batliing ia tbe stream a short distance from a waterfall; 
and another company juat come up, are preparing to do so. The pilgrims' 
path is broad, and does Dot prcneut anj apparent dilGcultj, beyood ita 
steepness. Tremendons precipices however flank it on either side of the 
mountain. About sixtj pilgrims are seen on their way to the foot-print. 
Tarring in the perspective from three quarters of an inch in size at the 
bottom, to a mere speck at top. The whole forma a very curioua 
picture, and is as unlike the reality as one can conceive an artist would 
make it, who, never hinng seen the Peak, was asked lodesign arepreaeo' 
tation of it from such coofused and conflicting accounts as are given by 
the historian. 

• "TheUistoryofCeylonfrom the earliest period to the year mdccciv ; 
with eboracteristic details of tbe Religion, Laws and Manners of Ibe 
Feopte, and a CollecUon of their Moral Maxims, and Ancient Proverbs. 
By FHII.AI.ETHES, A.M., U;iou, 1817." 

t " A Description of Ceylon, containing an account of the Coantrj, 
Inhabitants, and Natural Froductiona, with Narrativeaof a Tour round 
the Island in 1800, the Campaign of Candy in 1803, and a Journey to 
Bamisseram in 1804. By the Rev. JaMus Cobdiheb, A.M., 3 vol». 



Beem to have been acquainted with Valentin's work, in that 
port of hia tour round the island which coatains the route 
from Mdtara to Tangalle, describes the same place, which 
was still called by Dutch residenta Adam's Brecht or Berg." 

To compensate for his own lack of informatioD in regard 
to particulars coDceming Adam's Peak, Yalentyn quotes, 
with approval, the following from De Couto:— 

"On that mountain in Ceylon called Adam's Peak is an 
impression of the foot, in regard to which authors hold 
different opinions; some, as for instance, M. P. Venetus, 
[Marco Polo,] Nicolaus Conti, and other Venetians, having 
published very many errors coaceming it. 

" Bat we have the true story, as gathered from the old 
Sinhalese and their books, and it runs thus: — 

" This peak, called after Adam, is a mountain in the midst 

* S. C. Chitti in the Ceylon Oazelteer, epitomiKei from Cordiner the 
following account of this singular rock:— " A<iam'» Btrg, a hill of 
coniiderable site, situated at the distaoce of 6 miles nortb-eatt of Kahk- 
watte, in the district of Matura. It is knovrn amongst the Singhalese 
bj the name of Mulgirigal, and is mentioned in their history ae early 
as tbetimeof king Swdaitissa, who reigned at Anooraadhapoom from 
the year 140 to 122 b. c. The hill i« about 300 feet in height, and is 
ascended by a winding flight of staita, formed of Bve hundred and forty- 
five Bteps of hewn nloiies. On the summit, which i* circular and teTel, 
stands a D&gobs, and almut half way below it are two gloomy Wihares 
excavated out of the rock, close together, and in each of which there is 
(besides several figures of natural size standing in a row) a colosial image 
of Oudha, in ■ recumbent posttu^, forty-fire feet lu length, and of a 
proportionable breadth, formed of atone." 



of certain lands called Dinavaca, and it is bo high that one, 
ae he approaches thU Island, can see it for more than twelve 
miles. It properly begins near Guilemale and Dinavaca, 
lying in a westerly direction from them. Guilemale lies 
twenty-four hours' journey from Colombo. 

"The Siphalese name it Hammanclle Siripade, that is, 
the mountain of the foot- impress! on. It begins from below, 
gradually ascendiug, and divides itself on the summit into 
twelve tops,* on one of which la the foot impression. On 
either side of it, there are rivulets flowing from fountains 
above and branching off into streams. At the foot of the 
mountiiin is a river which flows nearly all around it. 

"In this river, called Sitegangele.t the pilgrims, who 
come to the foot-impression to make offerings, wash them- 
selves, and this washing ie their baptism, they believing 
that by it they are cleansed. 

" On the summit of one of these peaks is a plain,} and in 
the midst of the plain, is a tank of water, called "VVella- 
mallacandoere,§ surrounded on the top with large stones; 

* De Couto is here confounding the mountHin range with the monntain 
of the foot impression. There is but one aumiDtt, and one top on the 
llaumancUe, and that is the Peak itsclt 

t This river does not flon frata Adam's Peak, but has \U source in the 
B^DH-Samanala mountain, and flows through the raTine which separate* 
that mountwa from (jaugullahena, a mountain west of Adam's Peak. 

I This answers to the plun on the top of Diabetma. 

§ This tank lies in a ravine on the southern side of HfrBmilipina. 
About two miles further south is the village Welligalle. The stream 



I ID the midst thereof is the shape of a great footstep which 

I they call Siripade, the foot much larger than a usual foot, and 

of such a form that it appears to be impressed in the stone, 
■ the same as if a seal was impressed in white wax.* ' 

I "Multitudes of pilgrims, aa well Moors as Heathens, | 

; flocking together here even from Persia and China, come to ' 

I this river for the purpose of cleansing themselves, and 

putting on new and fine clothing. After cleansing them* ' 

I selves, they ascend a very high mountain. At a little | 

I distance before reaching the top, they come to some steps, 

I on which are erected as it were two stone columns; over ! 

these another stone is lud, to which is suspended a large ' 

bell, made of the finest Chinese metal; to this hangs a great 

clapper, bored through ; through this hole passes a rope 

made of leather, which each one must pull, the sound of the 

bell indicating whether he who pulls it is clean or not; 

for if he is still unclean, they believe that the bell will give 

no sound, in which case he must return to the river and 

cleanse himself with greater ceremony. The Devils seduce 

them thus, although there is no one to whom the bell gives 

no sound. 

whiuh supplies thii TJUige nitli vnter, is beliered to lake its rise «t 
Wellemalakuidura; "kandura" signifying spring or head source of water. 
* There is no foot-print here. Db Couto u contused by hia twelve 
t«pa to (he Buminit of his ItammaDelle. U^ramitip&na, the pilgrim 
station which gives its name to the place, is od the luminit of a ridge 
which is divided from the Simanala b; a oarroir Tollej; and the foot- 
priut referred to is that on the t<)|i of Sanianala— the Sri-pida itself. 



" As many aa four or five hundred go thither together in 
jtilgrimagc, and having arrived on the top, they can do no 
more than kisa the stone with great reverence, and return ; 
tliey are not permitted to ascend by the pool or tank of 
water, which pool is called in the Sinhalese, 'Darroe- 
pockoene" that is, the tank of children. If women are 
barren, they drink of this water; but they may not themaelvea 
fetch it, it ia brought to them by jogia. To ascend by this 
pool or tank would be an unpardonable sin. 

" The Moors also make offerings here, saying that it ia the 
footstep of Adam ; that he ascended to heaven from thence, 
and that he left his last foot-print in that stone.f This story 
emanates from an old Eastern tradition, that Adam, when be 
was driven out of Paradise waa sent to an Island in India 
called Serandive (that is, the Island of Ceylon). 

"Marc P. Venetus says, that the Moors believe that 
Adam was buried here. He says further, from the account 
of these heathens, that the son of a King Sogomon Barcaon, 
despising earthly dignities, resorted to this mountain for the 
purpose of leading a holy life; that from thence he went 
up to heaven ; and that bis father commanded that pagodaa 

•'Daru' diililren; 'pokuoA,' ponrl. 'X'hi« well U about 25 or SCr feet 
from the top of the Peak, on ita northwetit aide. It is reached by a steep 
path from tlie northern angle of the platform which surrounda the 3ri- 

t "The ftkirs of the Mobammadan religion take impreiaions of the 
footstep on a piece of white cloth that has been previouslj' corered with 
pulverised gandar."— Habpt's Manual of Buddhism, p. 212. 



should be built and images made in hia memory, from which 
sprang the idolatry of India. But the Sighalese, having 
been asked about ibis, Uugh at it; and their ojd writings, 
and principally their ballads, wherein are preserved their 
antiquities, and which they 3tng daily, (in order not tu forget 
them,) tell quite a different tale. 

" They say that there was a king who reigned over tlie 
whole East, who bad been married many years and had no 
children; that in his old age, he obtained a son from God, 
who was the most beautiful creature that could be. 

" This king, having charged his astrologers to make the 
horoscope of his son, found that the child would be holy, 
and that he would despise the kingdoms of his father and 
become a pilgrim ; at which the father becoming grieved, 
resolved to confine fais son in some court, and so prevent 
him from having a sight of any thing; he accordingly confined 
him from his fifth year in walled gardens, and had him 
brought up in the company of many noble youths of his 
age, who were kept always near him, in order that bo one 
else might speak to him. 

" He was thus brought up till his sixteenth year, without 
having any knowledge of sickness, misery or death. Having 
arrived at the years of discretion, and understanding more 
things than were to be seen about him, he requested of bis 
father that he might be permitted to see the towns and 
villages of his kingdom. This was granted, with directions 
that the guards in charge of him should bring him to the city 
and keep an eye upon him. On his way to the city he was 

., LiOOg Ic 


met bj a cripple, respecting whom he inquired as to the cause 
of his condition. His companiona eaid, that th« man wao 
born 80, and that it was very common to see such sights, and 
that there were also men who were born blind, &c. At 
another time he saw an old nnan, hunchbacked, leaning on a 
stick, hia body also trembling. The prince inquired the 
reason of this, and they told him that it came from old age. 
He aUo saw a corpse, which was being taken for burial with 
much weeping and lamentation, and inquired what it all 
meant, and whether he and they should also die? They 
said yes; at which the prince became very sorrowful; and 
while in this sorrowful state there appeared to him in a vision 
a pilgrim who advised him to forsake the world and lead a 
solitary life. 

"Being much disturbed by this vision, he determined to 
find means to effect his escape, in the guise of n pilgrim, into 
uninhabited places. Concerning his flight and wanderings 
the Sinhalese recount many fables, adding at last, that he 
came to Ceylon with a great concourse of followers, and 
resorted to this mountain, where he spent many years of s 
very holy life, so that the Sinhalese adored him as they 
would a God. When about to leave the Island for other 
•lands, his followers implored him to leave them something* 
which might cause them to remember and think of him with 

* TluB seems to have rercrcnce to the legend wbich ilescribes the 
impres!<mii of a foot-prlnl mode b; Buddha in the bed of the Kf lani-ganga, 
at the time of his third Tjsit lo Cp^Ion, and before be departed for 



reverence; he thereupon kept his foot in this water tank, 
and left the impression to them for a remembrance. Their 
hiatorians give this prince many names, but his proper name 
was Drama Raju;* and after he became a saint, that of 
'Budhu,' which signifies the 'Sage.'" f 

After referring to what ia quoted in the note at p^e 64, 
DeCouto continues: — " The mountain of Adam has towards 
its base a marsh from which the four principal rivers of the 
island have their source. The Portuguese give it the name 
of the Peak of Adam, but the Sinhalese name it ' Dewa 
Gorata,' that is, God's country," The correct term for such 
an expression in Sinhalese is ' Deyyang^ rata,' and it is 
applicable not so much to the Samanala mountain, as to the 
whole country from beyond Gilimal^, which ia still called 
by the natives Saman's Country; the shrine of that deity, 

Samanala to leave behitid him the venerated Srf-p£da on the »umrait of 
that mountain. The two accounts are fused or confuted together in 
almost all the accounts derived from the oral traditiona of the natives. 

* There is here ^ain ■ confunion, arieing from the mixing up of 
traditions of Buddha with those of Dhurtna-r&Ja. Dfaurma-iija-galla ia 
the name given to a mountain about miUwa}' between Diabetma and 
Sitsgangulla-hena. jEs steepest part ia ascended bj the aid of 130 steps 
cut in the liviog rock; hy these atepa, on the bare rock, is tbe outline 
of a bnman figure, with an inscription above it. The purport of the 
inscription is that the stt^ps were cut bj order of Dhurma-r&ja, who died 
here while on a pitgrimige to the Sri-pHda. 

t For the above translation from Valentjn's work I am indebted to 
Mr. R. A. VjtnCuTLaHBiaa, tiie talented principal clerk in charge of the 
Record Uffice attached to the Colonial Secretariat at Colombo. 



almost on tte top of the Peak, being fully as much reverenced 
by the Sinhalese aa the foot-print that is juat above it. 
During the reign of "VViroaladharma Suriya II., a, d. 1684 — 
1706, that monarch, who ia praised by the hietoriane for his 
piety, made a state pilgrimage from Kandy " to pay his 
adoration on Adam's Mount, and to oiFcr a salver (aombero) 
of massy silver with other presents." * He was accompanied 
by a train of nearly 300 tusker elephants, which were kept 
by him merely for the parade of the Court; moat of them 
being ordinarily distributed among the temples in the 
neighbourhood of Kandy, where, for purposes of devotioii, 
he was a frequent attendant. 

* Phualbthrs, p. 130. 



g^dam's J^ah. 

" The mountaini of this glorious land 
Are conscious beings to mine eye. 

When at the break of day they stand 
Like giants, looking through the sky 

To hail the sun's unriscn car 

While one by one, u star by star 
Their peaks in ether glow." 



The Samanala Peak. — Ratnapura Rotal Mail. — Panabak- 
KEitT. — Eelani. — Buddhist Temples. — Kaduwkla._ — Hang- 
WEL1.A. — RiVEB Scenery. — Awissa'wela. 

The ehrine-crowned Samanalft is distant in a direct line 
from Colombo, the Maritime Capital of Cejlon, about 46 
miles,* and rises to a heigbt of 7352-8 feet above the level 
of the sea; where, in dear weather, it has been seen at a 
distance of thirty leagues.! ^^ forme the crowning point of 

• 43-9 from the Clock tower, Colombo, 

f It is stated in the Rfijawalia, that Wijaja, the Indian invader and 
first king of Cejilon, made for the island [b. c. S43] in consequence of 
seeing from his ehip the large rock called Simanta-kiita, whereupon he 



the south-western range of the mountaiD zone/ and waa for 
a long time considerei] the highest, as it certainly is the most 
conspicuous mountaiD in the Island. t Although not often 
visible during the southwest monsoon, (May to Kovember), 
it is generally, during the intervening months, more or Icsa 
distinctly seen from Chilaw on the northwest to Dondra- 
head on the south coaat, a distance of one hundred and fifty 

mnd hiE followcm concluded amongst tbcRi.iclrci tbst ihe country vould 
be a good one to reside in, and accorOinglj tbcj boT« up for it, and 
landed it Tatrnnfona Nuwara, on ibe northwest coast. 

Mobamiuad Ibn Datuta, in the narrative of hk travels, mentions tbit 
beingdriven from tlie AlaldiTes, he "arritcd at last at the Island of 
Ceylon, a place well known, and in which is situated the mountain of 
Serendib. This appeurcJ to us like a pillar of smoke, when ire were at a 
distance of nine days from it." 

" " On carrjing the eye onwards to the landward horizon, it is seen 
to be bounded by a noble mountain range, between thirty and forty milei 
distant, culminating, if the voyager has made the Island near Foint-de' 
Galle, in a conical summit named the Haycock, which in general effect 
may be compared with the SchehBUioD in Scotland, aa seen from the East; 
and if he make the coast nearer Colombo, in Adam's Peak, — a Bummit so 
eminent, that I do not remember to have seen anything that will bear 
compaiison with it, except perhaps Monte Viso, in the Maritime Alps, 
■a seen in the western horizon by the traveller when descending tcwards 
Turin." — Rev. Dr. Macticab on the Geology, Scenetj and Soil of 
CejIoD. Apptndii to Ceylon Almanac, 1834, p. 26. 

t It is, in fact, the fourth in altitude, P^urutal&gala, the higheal, 
springing from the Nuwara Eliya plains, being 6,295 feet above the sea 
level. The others are Kirigalpotta, 7,836-8, and Totapfl^ 7,720 feet in 



miles. On the weetern coaat, the low lying champaign region 
of which reaches from the sea almoat to the mountniD'n base, 
the range from which it springs forms a magnificent purple- 
tinted back-ground. The Peak, there lifted high in lonely 
grandeur, and shrouded at intervale from sight by the mists 
that rise from the surrounding valleys, or by the low clouds 
drifting in the monsoon wind, has been associated by the 
fervid imaginations of Oriental races with legends of the most 
romantic kind. With some of these, and with descriptions 
of the mountain, the writer was familiar in early life ; and 
when his lot was cast in Ceylon, he determined, if possible, 
to make the ascent to the " Sri-pdda,"— the Sacred Foot- 
print, — and thencefrom see what the intrepid blind traveller 
Holman, who visited it in 1&30,* described in graphic terms 

* The first Englblman who ascended Adam's Peak wai Lieut. Malcolm 
of the iBt Cerlon Rifle Regiment, wbo reacted the summit on the 2Tih 
April, 1827. The account of his ascent will b« found in Appendix C. 

Lieut. HoLMAK, R. N. in the 3rd volume of bis Travels Round the World, 
p. 228, thus writes: — "We reached the summit juaC before the sun 
began to break, and a aplcndid acene opened upon us. The insulated 
mountain rising up into a peaked cone of 7,420 feet above the level of 
the sea, flanked on one aide by lofty ranges, and on the other by ft 
champaign country Btrekhiog to the shore that formed the margin of an 
immense expanse of ocean. I could not see this sight with the nutoij 
orbs, but I turned towards it with indescribable enthuniaam. I stood 
upon the summit of the Peak ; and felt all its beauties rushing into my 
very heart of hearts." On his return from the Peak Holman mentions 
that his servant purchased a fowl from a native for 3J'/. In 1B70 the 
bazsar charge at the same place for & very middling sizcJ fonl waa li. 3<f. 



he felt. But time wore on, and many a wistful glance did 
he make towards that Alpine height, wondering when, 
if ever, he ehould be able, from the shrine a-top, to behold 
the beauties of the wide-spread scenery below; nor was it 
until twenty weary yeara had passed away that he was at 
length enabled to accomplish hia long-cherished purpose. 
This was done in the Eaater-wcek of 1869 (March 24—31) 
in company of Messrs. Larkum, Giles, and Deslandes, 
gentlemen connected with the Public Works Department of 
the colony; a second excursion was made in the month of 
September following," when the writer was accompanied by 
Lis eon, and Mr. Gullctt, the talented correspondent at Galle 
of the leading Australian Journals; and a third was under- 
taken during the Christmas holidays, in company of Mr. 
E. Gower of Colombo, The narrative of these pilgrimagee, 
BB given in the following pages, will, he trusts, prove not 
only interesting to the general reader, but also be useful 
aa a guide to pilgrim-visitors hereafter. 

Ou the first excursion three of us started from Colombo at 
* 6 p. M,, in the Ratnapura Royal Mail, a vehicle constructed 
on the char-a-banc principle, and with the addition of another 
passenger, with baggage, mails, driver and horsekeeper to 
boot, we were somewhat too much of a load for the wretched 

* Notes of these joumcjs appeared in the " Ccjlon Observer" at the 
time; those of the first by the present writer under the signature of 
" Pii^RiM BBonN," and of the second by one of hia com pan ions— an 
extract fi*oiii which is given in chapter I, 



animale with which the coach was singly horsed. "We did 
the distance from Colombo to Ratnapura, 56 miles, at the 
rate of exactly four miles the hour, inclusive of the half- 
hour we rested at Awiss^wela. Starting from Awissfiwela 
at past midnight, already considerably cramped by our six 
bouie' journey, we arranged for sleeping the remainder of the 
way, if sleep we could, in the following manner : No. 1 
coiled on the driver's seat; Ko. 2 in the well of the coach 
on the top of the boxes and portmanteaux; and Nos. 3 and 
4 on the side-seats parallel with him ; their three pairs of legs 
protruding over the back of the machine, and the whole party 
presenting a most extraordinary group to the eyes of any 
who in the bright moonlight might have seen them as they 
were dragged by each gaunt horse at a funeral pace from 
stage to stage. Kot unfrequently we came to a dead stop 
on a soft piece of road, or where a length of hill 
obstacle too much for the animal's strength to surmount:* 
and certainly had the rood not been in very fair order, we 
should have had to have bivouacked by the way, instead of 
breakfasting at the bungalow of our excellent host and fellow- 
pilgrim, whose house was to be our head-quarters, and who 
was anxiously awaiting us a mile on the road before we 

* It is onlv fairlo state, tb at since the time ofthceicunsionrererredto, 
there has been no improvement in both horses and caacbes in the Batna- 
pura liojal Mail. But a more uncomfurtnbic oight journej can Btill 
scarcely be made, m the writer and hia compauioD found to their cost on 
their Christmas journeys to and fro. 



drew up in front of the low hill on the brow of which stands 
Batnapura Fort. 

The morning, a couple of houra before sunrise, was raw, 
cold, and misty, but as it advnnced, and the sun rose behind 
the mountains, they came out clear and sharp in the rosy 
golden-tinted sky; and when we saw three small looking py- 
ramidal peaks of apparently just the same level, filling the 
space formed by a gap in the nearest range through which 
the Kalu-ganga (black river) winds its way, it was hard to 
believe that one of them, about twelve miles off in a direct 
line, but distant nearly thirty by the road, was indeed Adam's 
Peak itself, the lofty eky-piercing cone seen in the distant 
mountain view from Colombo and its adjacent Cinnamon 
Gardens: yet bo it was, and to reach the top of that Peak 
we purposed starting on the morrow's dawn. The peaks 
we saw, belonged, in fact, to two distinct mountains.* One, 
the Bena Samanala, nearly faces the other, and has two 
summits, the highest of which is called the False Peak. 
These two being brought into line with the true Peak at 
the place where we caught sight of them, the intervening 
distances had the effect of reducing the apparent altitude 
of the two hindermost to the exact level of the foremost. 

This night journey by coach is anything but ^reeable; 

* "Ptolemt ileacribes, in hia "System of Geography," two chains of 
mountains, one of them Burroimding Adam's Peak, which he designatea - 
M Malcea, the names by which the hills that environ it are known in the 
Mahawanao." — Sir J. E. Tennbnt's Ccjliin, vol. i. p. SSS-d. 

., LiOOg Ic 


and the traveller who has time at his command woul<l do 
well to proceed leisurely from Bta<;e to stage and make 
himself acquainted with the places of interest that lie along 
his route. This— diverging from the Bridge of Boats that 
leads to the great, but eince the opening of the Railway 
between Colombo and Eandy, now little used highway to the 
mountain capital, — runs partially along the left bank of the 
Kelani-ganga, and forms, as far as Awi8sfi.wela, a portion of 
what used to be koown ae the old Kandy road. The extended 
views and occasional glimpses of river scenery that greet 
the eye from the road, now skirting and now receding from 
the flowing stream, here narrow and rapid and there 
broadened into a placid lake-like bend, are exquisitely beau- 
tiful, and go far to justify the phrase that the Island of 
Ceylon is the " Eden of the Eastern wave." 

Distant about three miles from Grandpass (the road lead- 
ing from Colombo to the Bridge of Boats) the traveller passes 
by Panabakkery, once an extensive Government brick and 
tile manufactory, and also the training station for the 
elephant establishment belonging to the Public Works 
Department, where every now and again might be witnessed 
the operations by which the old tamed giants of the forest 
brought into subjection their newly caught companions, and 
intelligently, as well as literally by brute force, instructed 
them in the duties they were thenceforth to perform in the 
service of their lord and master, Man. 

A little beyond Panabakkery, is an ancient Buddhist 
temple, the Kitsirimcwan KeUniya vihira, probably 



originally built by king Kit8irimewaii,nfter whom it is named, 
and who reigned A. D. 302-330. To viait it the traveller 
has to branch off from the main up one of the minor roads. 
The resident priest, in lately making some excavations on 
the spot, dug up a stone, upon which was a Siyhalcae inscrip- 
tion partly effaced, but which, as far as has hitherto been 
made out, indicates that the temple had been repaired by or 
under the directions of Prdfckrama Bfihu I., in the latter 
half of the twelfth century. About two miles further from 
Colombo, on the north bank of the river, is the village 
Kelani, from which place, the river derives its name. 
Formerly the capital, and for ages the chief seat of the 
worship of the deified king Vibhfehana, tlie friend of Rdma, 
and traitorous brother and successor to R&wana on the throne 
of Lanka [b. c. 2387] it still po^scBses ns a memorial of its 
antiquity, a dagoba, which B. c. 280 was erected by the 
tributary king Yatalatissa over one asserted by Buddhists 
to have been built on the same spot by the Nfiga king 
Mah6dara, B. C. 580, Connected with, and contiguous to 
the ddgoba, are a vihdra and monastery, the Raja-raaha 
Kelaniya, so-called to distinguish it from the Kitsirimewan 
Kelaniya, on the opposite side of the river. The approach to 
this vih£ra is up a noble flight of broad stone slabs, and 
through an ancient gateway ; but the steps, gateway and 
ddgoba, are the only remains of antiquity ; the rest of the 
buildings are of modem date, the older structures having 
been ruthlessly destroyed during the Malabar invasions, as 
well as in the wars with the Portuguese, and the intestine 



struggles for power among the Sinhalese themselves. There 
is also a recently built lofty tower or belfry of a curious 
composite order of architecture. What the place once was 
has been deecribed in glowing terms in the "Sela^lihioi 
SandSse," written when Ceylon had attained to perhaps ita 
highest pitch of prosperity under native rule, during the 
reign of Prdkkrama Biihu VI.* 

Who with the tliree-Bcore four gemniM iimiuiients robed rounil — 

The aliL(« regnlia — was, niiglifj' monarch, crown'dj 

Who 'ueatb aae white umbrella's conopj'Jng aliadc 

Had brought the whole of Lankn, one kingilom of her made; 

Who pride ofliaughcy Toes had humbled in the <IuhI ; 

Who skill'd waa in each science ; in king-craft wise and just ; 

In use of arms proficient, and perfect oiastcr in 

The poet's art and dancing ; who far had hanish'd sin 

By knowledge of thn PiCHkaa, — the three fold cord 

That binds the wonilrous words of Buddhn the adored ; 

Who to the people's eje.i was like collyrinm laid 

When they beheld bis form in majesty display 'd ; 

Who chief of Dam bod iva'g sovereigns stood cnnfcst 

And in his godlike splendour shone like S^kru blest. 

The sites of the spots then fiimous are still pointed out by 
priests and people, who every July swarm thither by tens 
of thougandu; n national pilgrimage to the place made boly 
by the presence and relics of the founder of their faith. 
Externally the viliura is a plain and uupretentious tiled 

"A. D. 1410-146-J. 

., LiOOg Ic 


building; it contains in its principal apartment a figure of 
Buddha in a recumbent posture, upwards of forty feci in 
length, and in tlie vestibule colos^ial figures of Hindu deities: 
the ceilings are painted over with Buddhiet symbols, and the 
walla with scenes from Buddha's life and various mythic 
existencca before hia latest birth and attainment of the 

A place of renown ages before the adveot of Buddha, its 
sanctity in the eyes of his followers is thus specially accounted 
for. "At the timeof Gautaiua'8appearrtnce[B. C. 58S]Kaiany 
would seem to have been the capital of a division of the 
island called N&ga Divrayina, and that ilsinhabitaotscalled 
Niigas [serpent- worshippers] were easily converted, and 
afterwards zealously adhered to the Bnddbistlcal doctrines, 
for which they were rewarded by various relics and a second 
visit of the Buddha. In his first visit to Ceylon Gautama 
converted the l^dgas and settled a dispute between two 
of their princes, Cbulddara and Mahodara, who made an 
offering to him of the throne composed of gold, inlaid with 
precious stones, which had been the original cause of their 
quarrel; over this throne a dagoba was built, and is en- 
cased in the one now standing. At the request of Mini- 
akka, uncle of the Nfiga king Mnhodara, Gautama made 
his third visit to Ceylon, and left the impression of his foot 
beneath the water of the river: a deep eddy in the stream is 
DOW pointed out as the spot; it is near the temple, and the 
natives aay that the circling of the current here is the Kalani> 
ganga descending in homage to this sacred memorial. Having 

., LiOOg Ic 


nrrui^d the dieputee of the XdgasandcoDGrmed their fwth, 
the prophet departed for, Diggtuukhya, uid the 
other places which had been sanctified by the preseooe of 
former Buddhos."* 

The details of a romantic legend coaiiecte<I with the de- 
ftructjon of king Tidsa at thia place [b. c. 200. will be 
found in Appendix E. It was here too, tiiat Bhuwancka 
B&hu yil., the first native king who aUied himself with the 
Portuguese few tJie purpose of making war against liis 
brother Miya Dunnai, at Sit^wuka, met with his dealb, 
A. D. 1 542. The occurrence is thus recorded la the Bdjawalia, 
" fiuwanaika Bahu R^ah taking the Portuguese to his assist- 
ance, marched out with his Si^bnlese army to attack his 
brother, and on his route halted at Kelant, where there was 
a house built upon the river for hie residence, and being in 
this house with the doors open and walking backward aod 
forward, looking up and down the river, a Portuguese loaded 
his musket, and shot the king in the head of which he imme- 
diately died." The historian adds, "Hereupon it was said, 
that God only knew what was thereaaonof thia treachery, — 
that having been so 8im|de as to make a league with ihe 
Portugueae, aod so foolish as to deliver his grandson to the 
jtrotectionof theking of tbe Portuguese, tliin Judgment fell 
upon the said king; and on his account that calamity will 
be entailed on the peoiiie of Ceylon for generations to come." 

arK ill Coylor. v<j 
"f BudUhnV Ehrc 

. p. 15-2. Ill Apiieiidix D 
isita to Cejioii. 



Eleveq miles from Colombo, at the village Kacluweia, is 
a resthouac, pleasantly eituatod on the banks of the river. 
A halt here for an hour will suffice for a vieit to an ancient 
rock temple, supposed by some to be one of those founded 
by king Walagambtihu, after hia recontjueet of the kingdom 
from the JIalabars, b. c. 88, or perhaps, as others think, of 
even a still greater antiquity. The principal object of 
interest is an inscription on the rock, wliich has hitherto 
baffled every attempt mnde to decipher it, tb« letter:^ being 
cut in the ohkst type of Xdgari, or rather Pali, character, 
the key to which was first discovered by the late Mr. James 
P rinse p. 

From Kiuluwela, to Ila^wella, the road passes through 
several villages, the inhabitants of which are potters, who 
carry on a thriving business with Colombo in the manufacture 
of the common earthenware of the country. Between the 
villages lie tracts of paddy fieldsaud topes of cocoa-nut palms. 
On the rising of the river during the rainy season, portions 
of the road between Ila^wella, Kaduwela, and the Bridge 
of Boats, are more or less flooded. The inconveniences 
arising from this state of aftiiirs have led to the opeuinij of a 
new road, which crossing higher ground shortens the route 
to Colombo by about two miles, and establishes an almost 
direct communication with the Railway terminus, 

A little to the left of the road, on the summit of a bluff 
projecting tongue of land that overlooks the Hanwella ferry, 
are the grass-grown remains of a small star fort, supi)oscd to 
have been originally constructed by the Dutch, in the centre 

., LiOOg Ic 


of which is the present resthouee, the keeper whereof, a 
good humoured ohliging old Dative, is jocularly termed the 
Commandant. Here good acconimodatiou and very fair 
quarters can generally be procured. Round the steep flanks 
of the fort the river flows towards its outlet at Mutwal, a 
few miles north of Colombo; while landwards a choked up 
ditch indicates what in bye-gone days formed its protection 
on that side. From its position, previous to the annexation 
of the Kandyan Kingdom, it was a point of some importance 
as commanding the routes both by land and water from the 
interior to Colombo. 

During the campaign of 1803, the Kandians succeeded in 
taking the fort and village on the 20th August, but their 
progress was checked by a detachment of troops under the 
command of Lieutenant Mercer of the Slst regiment, who 
on the 22nd stormed the battery they had made in a strong 
position at the bridge of Putchella, near Haywclla, and 
drove them hack with great slaughter; a success which led 
to the immediate recapture of the fort. In the operations 
which followed, the British were everywhere successful; 
although in defending the almost untennble fortress of 
Chilaw, which the Kandians attacked in immense numbers 
on the 27th August, the little garrison, consisting of only 25 
sepoys and two young civilians, completely exhausted their 
ammunition,* and for twenty-four hours before they were 

s Ccjlon, vol. ii. pp. 226, 236. 

., LiOOg Ic 


relieved ke|>t the enemy at bay liy firing cupjier cuins iDstead 
of gra|>e shi>t. 

It was at llaijwrlla, after tiiD ahovementioned oecur- 
reoces, that Sri Wikrania Raja Siylia, the last King of 
KaDdy,direetei] an attack iu perjun, on the Cth September, 
against the Uritidli furces; he having resolved, after the 
treacherous massacre of the troops at Kandy, on Major 
Davie's surrender on the 26lh June, to invade (he British 
territory and attack Colombo. After an engagement which 
lasted for two hours, the Kandiang fled, headed by the king, 
Duriug his retreat he ordered the heads of hie two principal 
chiefs to be struck ofl', for their want of success, besides, 
in his rage at hie defeat, indiscriminately slaughtering a 
multitude of bis subjects, whose bodies were either cast into 
ravines or thrown into the river- A richly ornamented 
bungalow bad been erected for his reception near Hagwella, 
previous to the engagement, in front of which two stakes 
were placed, on which, in the event of the capture of the 
fort, the English prisoners were to have been impaled. 

From the ridge that formed the ramparts of the fort the 
river view is one of the finest to be found in Ceylon. The 
stream sweeps grandly down in its course in a curve from 
ifoutlieast to northeast — 

WlnTi' Rvalfful full.s thi' shaiio ujioii tbe fiiir twin sliore*, 
Where planlains, hoiicv inuiigoeB, yie\il tliuir luscious stoics, 
^Vlivrc Ok silk I'oltoii tree, villi Atm-i'viiig Ix'tul lu-ineil, 
AiiJ the lull nrckn mill cocoa )>ullll^ ^oii riiiil ', 

1, Google 


Wbere asoka, p&tali, and dombn fraeeful grow; 
Where champac, kina, mI, and ercliindi blow ; 
Where rC-rango, inideil, and iron-wood appear, 
And tJie sweet augar-canos tlieir alender stems uprear ; • 

and an endlesB varictj of magnificent forest trees and palms 
and bamboo clumpa reflect from either bank their images in 
the lucent stream, while in the back-ground rise the purple 
hille, their aummits veiled in clouds, or sharply outlined in 
the clear blue sky. 

A break down in our carriage was the cause of a day's 
detention here on our second journey. The village smith 
was however equal to the emergency, and while the repairs 
were being effected we strolled about the place, admiring 
the scenery, and listening to the somewhat monotonous if 
not doleful chants of the goyiySsf reaping their crops of 
kurakkan in the neighbouring fields and bill slopes. A 
most refreshing bath in a secluded nook in the river just 
below the fort, was not the least pleasant of our enjoyments ; 
and was moreover an excellent preparative for the capital 
dinner which " the Commandant" provided for us as the day 
drew to a close. 

Between Ha^wella and AwissAwela the scenery is bolder 
and more varied than that already passed. Noble trees 
overarch the road, and plantations of jack, bread- and other 
fruit trees, indicate Uie industry of the inhabitants as well as 

* S^la-lihini Sand use. 



the fertility of the soil. In the early days of British enter- 
prise, the cullivation of the eiigar-cane and the indigo [ilant 
was attempted on nn extensive ecale in the neighhourhood; 
the results were not however so profitable as were anticipated, 
and the luckless speculators soon abandoned the scene of their 
operations. A pleasantly situated resthouse on the slope of 
a hill, at the foot of which lies the village of Awiesdwela, 
affords the traveller an opportunity for halting and devoting 
a day to the inspection of Sitdwaka, nhere some interesting 
ruins, together with a rock temple on a mountain opposite, 
well repay the trouble of a visit. In the clear atmosphere 
of the season of the northeast monsoon, a fine view of the 
Peak is seen from the road near the resthouse. Twenty- 
one miles distant in a straight line, it rises from behind a 
range of mountains, which, when the southwest winds pre- 
vail, bounds the prospect on tlie horizon lo the southeast. 
The hilla on either side the road converging to this point, 
there is an apparent gap on the sky-line, save when, as on 
the occasion of our catching a glimpse of the Peak during 
our September excursion (the only one we had except when 
on the Peak itself,) 

"a tliciusond cubits high 
The sloping pjTjniid astends ihc sky." 

It then forms the central and most striking object in the 
scenery there beheld. 




gidam's 5^ali. 

"At last a lemple built in antient days 
Ere Ma wns i town they came unto; 
Huge was it, but not fair unto the view 
Of one beholding from without, but round 
The antient place Ihej s»w a spot of ground 
Where laurels grew each side the temple door," 


AwissaVela. — Si'ta'3 bath. — Si'ta'waka. — THE Bere'nui- 
Ko'wiLA. — Rock temple,— Pus wella, — Kurowita water- 
pall. — Eknelicoda Disa'wa. — Katutitambaba'wa 
tiha'ra, — Weralupe. — Sauan dewa'le. 

The villnge of Awisaiiwela, "a field not to be trusted," — 
80 named from the character of its adjoining paddy lands, 
which were liable to sudden inundations, — ie situated at the 
foot of bluff hills of black rock which rise almost perpendi- 
cularly from 900 to 1000 feet in height. From the time of 
the Portuguese to the annexation of the Kandiau kingdom 
by the British, it was a poet of importance; the territories 

* "The Life and Death of Jason," 



of the European and Xative powers there jmning each ether 
on the princijial route that led direct to the inferior from 
Colomho.' On the top of a low but steep hill, a picturesque 
canlonment was formed by the British, of which the ram- 
parts ami surrounding ditch yet reniain.f This is now the 
eite of the houBC occupied by the resident Magistrate.^ Being 
almost isolated, extensive panoromic views of the surround- 
ing mountnin ranges are here obtained. The Court-house 
is at the foot of tlie hill near the Sitawaka ferry. The 
jurij-diction of the Court extends over a considerable area of 
country; and a few lawyers, the leader of whom b a Sin- 
halese gentleman, ever on hospitable thoughts intent, seem 

• •' In his fifth Tolume, p. 352, Valbstth mentions the escape of two 
Englislimen, tSter a captivitj' of twentj-Iwo jears, from the capital of 
Kandj to the Dutch fortress of Sitiwaca." — raiLALBTKES, p. 10. 

f In the Kandj-an Campaign of 1S03, the natives obtained possession 
of tlie place, and commenced building some rude fortiRcatiotis ; but thej- 
were speedily dislodged by a military party under command of Captain 

} In the year ISdl the wric«r, while staying a few daya at this house 
with the then resident Mugistrate, Mr. N. Robertson, was witness to 
whatsecmed to him and others at the dine an extraordinary phenomenon. 
About 5 F. M , there commenced to bsuc out of the wall, near tlie ceiling, 
from a hole not more than a quarter of an inch in diameter, countless 
myriads of flying anta; in a very shoK time tbey so completely filled 
the house that every one was compelled to leave il. A dozen large 
bonGi'es were lighted round the building; and attracted by the blaze, 
the ants poured into these in dense clouds for the space of two hours. 



to have a fair amount of practice provided ihem by a people 
whose love of litigjition is an all-absorbing passion. A walk 
of about 250 yards in the rear of the resthouse leads to aro- 
mantic gleit, down which runs and leaps a brawling rivulot. 
Here ia what is called by the natives Sita's hath, and an 
adjacent cave, her dressing room; the popular belief being, 
that while the disconsolate wife of the hero of the Gdmayana 
was confined in a neighbouring grove by Biwana, she was 
permitted, as often as she desired, to come here with her 
attendants to bathe. It is abo, we were informed, called 
Bis6wala, or the Queens' bath, the King's consorts using it 
as a bathing place when the Court resided at Sitiiwaka. 

In the olden days Awiss£wcla formed a portion or suburb 
of the adjoining city, Sitawaka, Sita's city on the winding 
stream — so named after SitA, and the river on the banks of 
which it stood; the spot being rendered famous, according to 
Hindu traditions, because it was there that Indrajit the son 
of Rdivana, caused a magic figure of Sita to be beheaded, in 

When tlie flight was over, the scryuiits colleeled from tlic rooms basket 
after basket full of anta' wings, as well a» bodies, Ihe former a]ipenring 
to serve but tbe one purpose of aiding the insects to escape from llie 
earlh, since ihey drop from their bodies ininiedialelj' after. It was not 
until nearly 8 o'clock, that the house was ngain habitable. The bir<l» 
from (lie adjacent forests left their roosting places, and came in flocks 
to feed upon the atits lliat thus made their appearanee. Their incredible 
numbers maile it evident that tbe hill was an immen-ie breeding place, 
of which thej had held undisturbed possession for a ierifrth of time. 



the hope that Bama, who waa waging a destructive war 
with Eiiwana for the recovery of his consort, would iu the 
belief of her death be induced to return to India. 

" K^tt&vikca was the ancient residence of kings or r^jas. 
The kings of Sitavaca were rulera of all the low lands, and 
were of such paramount importance, that the kings and 
chiefit of tbe hill and wood country were their tributaries." 
The kingd of Sitavaca boasted that ihcy were of nobler 
blood and finer descent tban tl)Ose of the high lands. They 
asserted themselves to be genuine descendants from the 
legitimate stock of a Prince of Tanasserj, and a daughter 
of the royal race of Madura, whilst the Kandians kings 
were only bastards and of lees honourable extraction. But 
it is certain, thut when the king of Sitavaca was conquered 
by the kings of Kandy and U'va, they found it requisite to 
pay BO much deference to the people, in favour of the high 
claims of the extinguished dynasty, as to undergo the 

' " In more earlj periods, wlien the island was under tlie dominaiion of 
no less tlian sixU'en kings, the one who reigned ntSiliwaka waa scknnw- 
ledged as supreme, on account of bis dcatent from the leaitimate slock 
of* prince of Tanif^ery, in token of which he wm preKented every year 
with a guld arm ring, on which were engraved sixteen heads; and a 
meeting of the kings waa alao held at tlie capital to celebrate a great 
feaiival wiiieh lasCf d sixteen days corresponding with their numbers. In 
after times, however, tliis mark of homnge on the part of the other kings 
fell by degrees into disuse, and a spirit of independence began to prevail 
among them, lliouLjh they made no objection to the king of SitSwaka 
bearing the iioiniral title of emperor." — S. C. Chitti's Ceylou Qazctteer. 



ceremony nf inauguration in the ancient palace of Sitiivaca. 
This practice was still observed on the arrival of the 
Portuguese. Valentyn mentions, p. 229, that the palace at 
HitSvaca had been repaired by the Dutch, and that the gates, 
walls and architectural ernbellishmeDts attested its original 
magnificence; though he adds, it was not to be compared 
with the ruins of the buildings left by Malabar sovereigns,"* 

From its proximity to the outposts of the Portuguese 
and Dutch, the city underwent a variety of vicissitudes ; 
it was made a royal residence by M&ya Dunnai, about 1534, 
and became the capital of the kingdom, under hie warlike 
eon, in 1581; but after its abandonment as the sent of 
government by Wimala Dharmn a. d. 1592, it rapidly fell 
into decay; the inhabibmts indeed seem to have forsaken 
it for the preferable situatioa of Awiss&wela. Its ruins are 
now overgrown with jungle, but can still be traced, as well 
as the foundation and walls of a Portuguese fort, on a 
projecting tongue of land formed by the confluence with the 
Sftiiwaka-ga^ga of a small stream, in the bed of which rubies, 
Bapphires, and other gems have been found. This fort was 
once a place of some strength, and is described by Dr. Davy, 
who explored the place in 1817, and visited it on two aubse- 
queut occasions in 1819. f 

Situated ou a commanding eminence on the right bank of 
the river, opposite the site of the Portuguese fort, are the 



verj interesting ruins of tlic Borpndi-kowila," a temple built, 
or commenced to be built, by the "lion-king," Efija Slplia 
I., BO named by hia fallier, the king Maya Dunnai, but 
known and enccrnted in Buddhist annals aa "the Apostate 
Rajah." This king, renowned as a warrior from the time 
he was eleven years old, to the day of hia death, when 
he had attained the age of 120 years, resolved upon the 
building of this temple, to be dedicated to the worship 
of Kdii, as an atonement for BOme atrocious acts of cruelty 
committed in the course of hia life. The approach of 
death seems to have terrified bim. "Oppressed by the 
recollection of his monstrous barbarities, he sent for some of 
the leading Buddhist priests to attend him, and when they 
had come into his presence, he interrogated them as to the 
hope of pardon for his sina. The priests, whether emboldened 
by the sight of the sunken form of their aged persecutor, or 

• B^r^ndi is the Siuhalese form of the llindn t«rm Br&ndi. The 

deriTation of the term is doubtful ; probnbly it is a corrupt form of one of 
the names of the goddesa Kali, tbe consort of SivJi; aud assuming, niih 
FoBBEi!, the tradition to be correct nhich states that this kuwila or temple 
was erected b^ R^j^i Sigha on the advice of the Aanjty£a, vrho were 
worshippers of Sivii, the attributes of Bratidi, or E4li, were such as 
would peculiirly attract and suit the constitutional temperament of (he 
king, lie would hcticvc that by her aid he could destrii}> his enemies, 
since in sacrificing to her "An enemy may be immolated by proxy, 
substituting a bufi'alo or goat, and calling the victim hy the name of the 
enemy tliroui;h the whole ceronmiiy, tliereby ' infusing by holy texts, 
the no ul of the enemy into the body of the victim: which will, when 



impelled by the workings of confwiouB rectitude, replied, 
' that they could hold out no hope of forgivenesB in a future 
state.' SiQha, in whose nature the stern will of absolutism 
had been too deeply tm})laDted to depart but with the soul 
that enshrined it, raised his eyes lit up with a scarcely 
hunmu fire, and in his rage at their presumption, and as he 
deemed it, disloyalty, ordered them all, with the exception 
of the chief priest, to be shut up in a hou^e and burnt alive. 
After incurring in this manner the vengeance of heaven, he 
sent for the priests of another temple : these, warned by 
the fate of their brethren, responded in a more soothing 
tone to his question, declaring indeed that so great a sinner 
could not hope for absolution but by repentance, but that aa 
his majesty felt contrition for his enormities, they would 
endeavour, by the force of their prayers, to procure a sojourn 
for him in some intermediate region between heaven and 
earth, instead of an abode where he would be tormented by 

immolated, deprive the foe of life «lso."'— Mooa'i Hindu Pwitheon, 
p. 83. Edit. 1864. 

Ktinila is the term applied in Ceylon to « temple dedicated to an 
inferior Hindu god or goddess, in contradistinction to DeniJa, which it 
applied to a ttmple [Udicat«d to a superior deit;. The two word* 
however are similarly deriTed, and have the same signification. The one 
is Tamil, and the other Sanskrit; the FNiphalese apply the Tamil term to 
Hindu temples built by Tamils, and use the Sanskrit word for the 
temples to Hindu deiliea built by themselTes The olEciatiug priest of a 
D£w&la ia generally called a Kapurala, while that of a Kuwila ii called 
a Paltineharoi. 



devils. This answer seemed to compose the inquietude of 
the dying king, and he not only saved their lives but loaded 
them with presents, which they refused to receive. He 
requested them aUo not to take to heart the massacre of 
their brethren, which he had ordered in a paroxysm of rage. 
On receiving an assurance of forgiveness, he soon after gave 
up the ghost." • Some of the native traditions however ax'er, 
that the priests he sent for on the second occasion were the 
Aandiyis, to whom, for the consolatory answer he received 
from them, he gave the custody of Adam's Peak; that he 
recovered from his sickness, and under their advice set about 
the building of the Bercndi-kowila, which was left incom- 
plete at the time of his death. 

Whichever of the preceding statements as to the origin 
of the Ber4ndi-k6wila is correct, is perhaps a matter not now 
possible to determine, but the ruins themselves, although of 
no great antiquity, are unquestionably amongst the most 
interesting in Ceylon, and are moreover of easy access to 
the traveller. Dr. Davy and Captain Forbes both notice 
them, but at the times of their visits the overgrowing jungle 
had more or less concealed them from view. In this respect 
we were more fortunate, for the owners of the property, the 
priests of the Daladd Miligdwa, or Palace of the Toothf at 

* PaiDHAM'a Historical, Political and Statistical Account of Ce^'lon 
and its Dependencies, vol. i. p. 96. 

t For an account of this temple- palace, and its worshipped relic, see 
Appendix F. 



Kandy, had leased the grounds for a term of 99 years to the in- 
cumbent of a Buddhist vih^raat Cotaochina, near Colombo; 
and the leasee was making the aiost of his bargain. The 
jungle was nearly all cleared, and the crops of graiu we 
saw growing seenietl to indicate considerable fertility of 
soil. Our visit was greatly facilitated by the courtesy of 
Mr. J. W. Gibson, the Commissioner of Requests and 
Police Magistrate of the District, who obligingly accom- 
panied us, although the drenching showers which fell were 
the cause of no small discomfort at the time. We crossed 
the Sitiwaka-gapga at the ferry, also used as a ford when 
the water is low, the track of which is paved with broad 
flagstones, said to have been brought from the kowila; and 
after proceeding a short distance along the Yatiyantota 
road, turned to the right, the ground gradually rising, until 
we came to a ravine which forms a kind of base to the 
triangular knoll, on the summit of which the ruins are seen. 
Across this ravine a singular bridge permits access to the 
precincts of the kdwila. It consists of tive huge stones, 
admirably dressed on their upper surface, each fifteen feet 
long, varying in width from two feet to three feet and a 
half, and in thickness from twelve to eighteen inches. One 
of these is broken through the middle, and a native legend 
by way of accounting for the fracture, states, that owing to 
a woman crossing it when affected with a natural infirmity, 
the goddess to whom the place was dedicated became so 
incensed, that she caused the stone to split in two, and 
thereby precipitated the offender to the bottom of the ravine. 



Tlie surface of the lull, or slope of ground, at some distance 
bcyonti tlie bridge, is scarped and levelled into a ecriea of 
terraces or platforms. The first and lowest is a parallelo- 
gram about 280 feet in breadth; the second about 18(1; on and 
near the northern end of this is the third, a square of 80 feet, 
and on this again, perh.ips twenty feet from its northern aide, 
the fourth, a square of 20 feet. The sides of each face the 
cardinal points, those of the north overlooking what may be 
called the apex of the triangle, round which the river makes 
a, sharp curve. Kelaining walls of massive carved and 
moulded granite stones surround the first, third and fourth 
platforms; and From the angles of the waits of the fourth, 
which is wholly paved with broad flags, rise the handsome 
clustered pillars which formed the temple. A narrow groove 
or channel is cut through one of the carved blocks at the 
southwest angle, the use of which ia not very manifest, 
unless it was to carry off the blood of animals slaughtered 
in sacrifice to the goddess,* Flights of steps lead to the 
platform from the centre of each side, and corresponding 
steps are placed in each of the walls of the terraces below. 
Traces of such steps are also seen down the steep face 
of the hill to the brink of the river, from which, in its 
windings above and below, the Ber^ndi-k6wila must 

" All Himtu altars, I am informed, liave a passage to let out the water 
nhidi llic Hrahroans pour upon th«m for the (mrposc of piirif^'iiig ihem 
friini the defilcniont which they are supposed to contract when the goUs 
fea^l upon tlie oHerings whieh are there placed. 



have presented a noble appearance. Captnia FtM'bce i» 
of opinion, that tbe teini)[e was about 30 feet in height 
from the topmost platform; and that it consisted of pillars 
supporting a cornice, the plan appearing to be aa if eight 
ornamented pilasters projected two on each side from a 
plain square pillar. Excepting as to the height, which, 
including the basement wall, now scarcely exceeds fifteen 
feet, the description he gives of the plan of the temple is 
correct. The carvings in the stones are deep, and the 
mouldings project out boldly. These are all covered with 
delicate floral tracery, which must have required great 
manipulative skill on the part of those who had to execute 
it. The walls of the two terraces below harmonise with 
that on which the temple stands; the whole having evidently 
been designed by an architect of no mean ability. It is 
however questionable whether it was ever finally completed. 
Between the two lower wailed terraces an unwnlled one 
intervenes, and from the number of blocks of stone lying 
about, some in a rough, and others in a half finished 
state, it seems probable that the work was stopped when 
near its completion, owing to the struggles with the Portu- 
guese and the domestic wars in which the king was engaged 
previous to hU death," and the determination of his successor 

* 1'lie Incul cnulitioii is, tliat the works were Htu|)p«<l xt the titue vhen 
Kunnppu Bamlard raisLil an arm;, aii<I ndvaiiceil agninvt the king with 
a view lo his overthrow. This happened while Rkjn Siyha whs engaged 
in beaeigiiijj llie Portuguese in Colombo, lie having dflfi'inined upon 



to remove the scat of Ciovcrnment to Kandy. The new 
king, moreover, being a Biiddliist, would not be diaposed to 
promote the interests of an oppoiiing and persecuting faith. 
The conjecture that the tetnjile was destroyed by the Purtu- 
guese, is not borne out by the general appearance of rhe 
place; but from the time of its abandonment up to within a 
very recent period, the natives have made free with its 
etoDca for buildiuirj of their own." 

Pligher up the river, on the opposite side, is the Mdniyag- 
gnina vihara, a rock temple, the route to which is through a 

their cxpuUiiin from Cevlon. Kunappu BnnJnra nax one of the nival 
bmilv who ejicapiMj deatructiun at the buuds of R&ja Siylia, nhen he 
reaulvecl uptin removing every obslacle to liia claims to sole lovereignt/ 
throughout the island. lie had made hit way to Cotombo, and adcipUd 
the Christian religion, and wbb subsequenllj baptized at Goa under the 
title if Don John. To aid tlie Portuguese, hy means, if successful, 
he hoped U> gain the Kandian throne, lie now made liis waj from Jiifiba to 
Kandv, anil iiicreaairg his adherents at every step, ere long threatened 
Sitiwaka itself. Raja Sigha waa thus forced to raise the seige of 
Colombo in order to relieve bia capital, Don John, retiring to tlie south 
and east, waa pursued by the king, when the i'ortugueae, watching their 
opportunity, captured Awiss&wela. A desultory warfare followed, which 
lasted for some years. At length, in a 5nat batlle at Kadugannawa, Don 
John routed the forces of Et&ja Si^^ha, and that monarch, wounded by a 
thorn in the foot, could no longer take the field. This wound, combined 
with his chagrin at Iwing defeated, caused his cleuth in a few days; but, 
according to (lie K&ja-walia, his end wan hastened by the ireachery of 
some of bis attendants. 

* For an account of tlie ruins at Silawaka, in the timeit [>f the Dutch, 
sec Ap|>endix II. 



number of paddy fields intereected by nullahs or small r 
to croea which we had, at the time of our visit, either to wade 
knee and thigh deep in water or be carried over by nalivee. 
At one place, through which a pretty broad stream was flow- 
ing, my weight proved almost too much for the two men who 
weremy bearers fortheocca8ion,and we were nearly toppling 
into the watertogether. In about half an hour we began to 
ascend the hatte of a mountain, and after a considerable rise, 
and making our way over a lengthy flight of ateep steps 
formed of rough blocks of stone, we came to an enclosure 
within which waa the temple- This was made out of the 
recces below an immense overhanging boulder, which had 
probably been artificially hollowed in parte." A long wall 
built up to the rocky roof, and divided bo as to form one 
main hall, wherein was a recumbent figure of Buddha thirty 
or more feet in length, with several smaller apartments for 
the use of the priests; and wing walls at each end, forming a 
large open verandah; was the rude architectural device for 
constructing a temple here. The situation was nevertheless 
very picturesque; above and around, the rocky mountain; 
streams and small waterfalls running and murmuring and 
leaping in mimic cascades as they pursued their course over 
and among the rocks: immediately in front a broad level 

• King Walagambftliu, after bis recovery of the throne, "caused the 
housen or Ktones, or caves of the rock in (ihith he had taken refuge in 
the viUk'rneM, to be inndc more conimodioua." — Uphah'b Rijawalia, 
p. 2-24. 

., LiOOg Ic 


jilatform, on which wna erectcil a bana-miKluwa,* where 
several old men and women an<l young children were aa- 
Bcmblcd to listen to tlie priest reading bana; beyond tliiu a 
stretch of cultivated paddy fielde, bordered by forest trees, 
or topee of cocoa-palme, and mountain ranges rising in the 
distance on the other elde of the valley through which the 
Sit^waka-gayga wound its way. It was & scene to which 
might be well nppiied the following lines by the author of 
"Pleasures of Memory:" 

Fnuu lisn|[iiig wood, brtimi lieiuli niiil biKliy <lt'll! 
A ihouijaiid namulpHs rilU, thnt sliun thi' lij>lit 
Stifuliiig 3.WI music oil tlie vur of liigln." 

Id addition to the colossal figure of Buddha, there were 
Ecveral smaller ones, many of bronze, not an inch in height. 
The principal priest,Dhammadassi Maha Terunwahanse, paid 
ua every attention; honouring us in the presence of the 
people by spreading white cloths on the chairs he brought 
out for us to rest on.t We learnt from him that the temple 
was one of those founded by king Walagambdhu ; that one 
of ilB chief benefactors had been king Kirti Sri, the same 

• A pugoiis-like building, generally Wmpnrary, in whidi the prl 
icail OT preauli Bana, i. e. the word of lluddha. 

t WhiU! islhe rojid colour of Ci'jlon; and ihe rcpoption of stranj 
with the Bjireading of whiti; cloths is otic iit ihc highest compliniuut 
Siyhnlese cao offer. 



who restored the custody of the Sri-pdda to the Bud- 
dhists, snd who had given thia temiile the handsome pair of 
elephant's tusks, each six feet in length, which were displayed 
in front of the recumbent figure of Buddha. In an outer 
hollow he pointed out to us a small shrine dedicated to 
Mnhaaen, the divinity to whose temple at Kataragama, 
Hindus from all pnrta of the East flock with fanatic enthu- 
siasm during the annual pilgrimage in the months of June, 
July, and August; at which time Moors and Veddahs also 
take a part in the processions held in hia honor. We could 
not however make out whether there was any particular 
connection between this place and the temple at Kataragama, 
The internal decorations of thia temple, the appearance of 
the priests, and the colossal image, so closely correspond 
with the description given by Captain T. A. Anderson, 
formerly of the 19th Regiment, in his now rare poem "The 
Wanderer in Ceylon," that I do not hesitate to quote him. 

" The vaulted roof is studded o'er 
With various bierogljpliic lore : 
I'oucll'd b; the artists' gloving hand 
Plow'rs of all colours here expand ! 
There some wild legend lives porlMij'd, 
Here, all the zodiac stands displav'd ; 
While every vacant space between 
Some untouch form or shape is st'en. 
With jellow robes and shaven head 
The priests around that altar tread, 
Near Buddha's giant figure stand 
And inwnie shed with lavish hand. 



Then bending at his hallnw'il feet 
Tlieir wirthes, wants, and vows re]>e!it. 
Tho' painted robes the figure screen, 
And but the countenance is seen, 
You maj a due proportion trace 
Throughout his giant form nnd face; 
No lion look, no eagle eye. 
But that itcrenc philanthrop}' 
Whieh plainly in<licatea a breast 
With every milder virtue blest!" 

Returning to Awissiwela, it may be noted that the road 
so named tcrminatee at the Sitdwaka ferry, which forms ti)e 
link between it and ttie Yatiyantota road from tlie north. 
A aliort distance below the resthou&e i^ the junction with 
the Ratnapura road, which treads away in a south-easterly 
direction. On this road a- traction engine* haa just been 
placed, to run between Badulla, Hapiitale, Ratnapura, and 
Colombo. If successful in its operations, about which 
there can scarcely exist a doubt, it will be speedily followed 

• The "Enteepkiir," manufactured by Mr. R. W. Thomson, C. E., of 
Edinburgh ; im])orted by Mr. John Brown, for the Ouvah Cotfee Company ; 
landed in Colombo, on the S3nd January, in charge of the engineer 
Mr. James Weetlanil. This engine is of 6 horse power, but can be 
worked up to 12, and with a load of 12 tuns, in a train of four waggons, 
will travel on level ground 8 miles an hour, and on the inclines in the 
interior at from 2} to 4 miles an hour, accurding to (he nature of the 
gradients. The first trial trip in Ceylon was made at Colombo on the 
17th February, 1870. 



b; others elsewhere, and the traffic on the main lines of 
commuDicatioD throughout the island will be aa completely 
revolutionized in the course of a few years, as has already 
been the case with that between Kaody and Colombo, by 
means of the Railway. 

The first at^e for halting at, after leaving Awi^E^wela, 
is Puswella," The road undulates along the base of forest- 
clad hille, or through tracts of paddy lands, and presents 
nothing remarkable, beyond the paintings on the walls of 
a way-side Ambalama,t which represent, among other things, 
Buddha striding from the top of Adatn's Peak, after in- 
denting there the print of his left foot, to Siam, where he in 
like manner left the impression of his right foot } The rest- 
house at Puswella is perched on the summit of knoll, a 
little distance off the road, and affords a fair amount of 
accommodation. A secluded pool, a stone's throw behind 
the resthouse, at the foot of a small and shady glen into 
which a rocky stream pours its crystal waters, is a capital 
bathing place, a desideratum not always obtainable at a 
roadside resthouee in Ceylon. 

* * Fus,' a kind of jungle creeper; ' wella,' a tract of sand. 

t A native restlioiuc. 

I " The Siamese," »aja Baldteus, " exhibit a footstep impressed upon 
a stone on a mountain, wbich ia bd ell and a half long and three-fourthi 
broad. Tbe sides of it are covered wilb ailTer ; and amagnificent temple 
is erected in the neigbbourhood, round which man; of tbe priests of the 
country, and other people dwell," 



Beyond Puswella, and near the 48th mile post from 
Colombo, is the rivor Kuru-gnpga, a principal tributary to 
the Katu-ga^ga. By diverging to the left of the main 
road at the village Higgaba-h^na,.' about iialf a mile before 
reaching the bridge, a walk for a mile and a half through 
alternating paddy Gelds and cocoanut plantations will bring 
one opposite the Kuruwita waterfalls, which are well 
worthy of inspection. At the time of our visit the waters 
were high, and the Kuru-gagga was rushing along its bed 
with a dangerous velocity. From a gap in the rocky ridge 
that faced us, and' which formed an almost mountainous 
embankment to the river, abroad volumeof water thundered 
down and leapt in broken masses of ever-changing form from 
rock to rock, until, after a fall of a hundred afid fifty feet 

" tbe torrent with the mtaj hues of heaven "■ 

" Hung ita lines of foftming light along," 

surged against and mingled with the stream that hurried 
past to swell the waters of the Ralu-gagga. 

Besides the waterfall there are in this and ao adjacent 
range, two remarkable caverns, or grottoes, or subterranean - 
passages, six or seven miles apart from each other, the 

* Jlina, or cheno, a high jungle ground, cullivated Kt interTals, upon 
which oRginallj grew the Uik, or Hula^hik treea, Chickrauia tabuiarit. 




terminations of which have not been explored. The Rat6- 
tnahatma^-^* of the dietrict told uii he had examined one for 
a distance of two hundred fathoms, and might have gone 
further but for the annoyance of bats; and that the natives 
believed the other could be traced for at leaet two miles; 
but ihey had a dread of both, fearing serpents, &c. Possibly 
the author of Sindbad the Sailor had heard eooielhtng of 
these, and fancying the streams which ran by them to have 
gone through instead, worked thera up in his hero's ex- 
periences of Ceylon; for he speaks of rivers flowing through 
mountains; and declares that by one such he was floated on 
a raft into the interior of the Island. 

There ia a route through the jungle from this place to the 
pilgrims' path to the Peak, much frequented by those who 
make the pilgrimage from the immediate neighbourhood ; 
but the usual route being from Batnapurn, we turned back 
to the main road, and shortly after crossing the bridge, saw 
on our left, the Katutiyambar^wa vih&ra. AVe found it to 
be of modern date, having been built by Ekueligocla 
Dii-Awa, the daring chief who seized the person of the last 
king of Kandy, and delivered him, a fettered captive, into 
the hands of the British;! an act which greatly facilitated. 

• 'Batfranhatinaja,' the chief native revenue officer of a Kandian | 

District. The corresponding officer in the Mariiimc Provinoen hai Ih« : 
rank of Mudaliyar. 

t "On the I4th Ftbniary 1815, the British forces entered the I 

Kandian cnpital unopposed. The king having airokc loo late from his I, Google 


if it was not the actual immediate cause o( the annexation 
of the Kandian kingdom, and for which, as al^o for other 
eminent services, he received a gold niedid and chain from 
the then Governor, General Sir Kobert Brownrigg, together 
with the more euhstantial though not more prized rewards 

deliisire dream of seeuritj, haJ Hod on their approach into Piinibora, 
ai't'ompanjcd liy only a fi^w Tamil adhi.Ti.'litH; leaving the fi'malea orhlt 
family, with a coiisiilerable twa^ure to thf mercy of the viclor. Driven 
by henry rain from a mountain where be coiieealeil himself during the 
day, he descended and took aheller in a solitary bousu in the neighbour* 
hood of Medamabaiiuwara, nut anare that there was a force at hand 
lying in wait for him. The retreiit was soon discovered by aome of 
Ehflepola's atlherents, under the orders of Etn^ligocla, who cur- 
rounded the house in nhich he had hid himself with two of his wives. 
The door was strongly barricaded, but they battered down the wall of 
the apartment in which the tyrant was concealed; when he was exposed 
by the glare of torchlights to the derision of bis enemies. Their abrupt 
entry, — the Gr^t time for fifteen years since he became king that he had 
been approached without servile humility, —for a monieni seemed to 
confound him ; but as the party pressed forward, he dared them to touch 
him. The chief urged on his followers, and the orders to seize (he king 
were aooii obeyed. Ekneligoda had ventured too f^r to indulge any 
hopes of safety, unless the downfall of the tyrant could be accomplished. 
If the king should regain authority, he felt certain that he would have 
been added to the list of fnrty -seven bendtnen, many of them friends of 
his own, who in ihc previous year had been brouglit from Saffragam, 
and impaled by the tyrant's order. Wikrama Si(fha, was soon after 
conveyed to Vellore, in the Madras J'residency, where he died of dro[isy 
in 1832."— HiSToBT OP Cbiloh, published by the Sinhalese Trart 



of grants of lands, and the high native rank of Dia&wa." 
There is an inscription on a stone, set upon a pillar, record- 
ing the piety of the builder, who is also buried here. The 
image of Buddha is sedent, and some of hie relics are here 
preserved in a karandua or case carefully covered over vfith 
cloths, in order to preserve them from the profanation of the 
gnze of vulgar or heretical curiosity. The grounds about the 
vih^ra are kept in very neat order, bordered with laurels and 
flowers, and the pansala or priests' residence is of two stories, 
the upper one having a balcony in its front, from which was 
hung a representation on white cloth of the Sri-pAda, with 
the hundred and eight signs, marked in vermilion, that 
indicate the possessor of them to be a Buddha. These 
correspond with the embossments and ornaments on the 
cover of the sacred footstep kept at Pal&baddala, The 
signs consist of devices formed from the appearance of the 
lotus flower in its various stages of development, the lotus 
being, throughout the East, the emblem of beauty and 

The expression "lotus feet" or " lotus- footed," is one 

* Governor of a Kandisn Province, under fbe native kings. This titla 
is now either extinct, or in abeyance; its last holder, ^h$lijago<fa 
Dnsanftjakft Ranasigha Mudiyanse, Diafiwa of Three Kdniles and Lower 
Bulatgame, having died in September 1869. The grandfather of the biglilj 
intelligent and influential Kaadian Chief, William Alexander Abraham 
Ekn^ligoda, or Ekn^ligoda of that ilk, the present Ratemahatmayi 
of the Kuruwi(a Kcirale, was the Dis&wa referred to in the tekl. 


commonly useil when speaking of Bmldha's person; and the 
idea that 

"fluwera upiprang where'er Ills foi't were plnced" * 
ie repented again and again in the Icgenda and poetry of the 
Sinhalese. To realise this idea, and indicate the appearance 
of flowers as actually marked upon his feet, was but to ohey 
the tendencies of the Oriental mind. The same or a cognate 
idea is conveyed in purer form in the well-known language 
of the inspired Hebrew prophet, "How beautiful upon the 
mountaina are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that 
publisheth peace, that bringeth good tidings of good, that 
publisheth Balvation."t The doctrines of Buddha, when first 
promulgated, were good tidings in comparison with those of 
the Brahmuns; and whosoever received them, secured to him 
or herself, according to his teachings, peace and salvation 
— the perfect bliss and absolute never-ending repose of 
Nirwana. Perhaps this was referred to by the original 
Byraboliser in the full-developed lotus flower in the centre 
of the ball of the foot. At any rate this mode of sym- 
bolisation is more poetical than that adopted by Burmese 

* Thia IB in Hea firmly impresaeil upon tlie minds uf Buildbinlfi, who 
hire ■ singulsrmethod of perpetuaring tlie belief, in Ihc manufacture of 
a peculiar kind of sandal, from the upright peg uf which, gripped between 
the gr«aC uid second toe, each time a «ti.-p is taken, a spring causes a 
metal-shaped lutu:' to start up. 

t Isaitih Hi. 7. 



Buddhists; who, while they demand the same Dumber of a 
hundred and eight marks, depict them in a different form, 
each form, no doubt, symbolising perfection: thus, the toes 
are each marked underneath with a chank with right handed 
whorls,* and the ball of the foot has circles of alternating 
banzaSft and other animals and figures; which signs the 
orthodox Buddhists of Burmah now-a-days believe were 
actually marked upon the feet of the founder of their reli- 
gion, when he lived and moved and had hisbeing upon earth. 

The senior priest of this vihlira, Delgamuwe Terun- 
wahaDs4, ie afriendly hospitable old gentlemao, well pleased 
with the visits of Europeans, of whom he never fails to 
inquireconcerning Major Skiuner. He evidently entertains 
tn enthusiastic regard for the great Road-maker and ex- 
Director of Public Works in Ceylon. 

The village through which the main road passes at this 
place is called fembiliyana, or Ekneligoda, the ancestral 
domaiu of the Ekneligoda family. From thence to within 

■ In the ordinary Turhmelia rapa, the wborU run from left to rights 
but those called bj the natives Waliampory, have the irhorlt reTeraed, 
mimiiig from right to left. These were regarded with such reverence 
that fiirmerly tbe; sold for their iteight in gold. Even now Bpecimens 
can Bcarcelj be procured for less than four or five pounds aterllng. 

I The iecred hsnza, or Brahmanee goose, is tlie national emblem em- 
blazoned on^tbe standard of Burmah ; it hat been from time immemorial 
an object of veneration there, as well as throngbout all parti of India, 
including Ceylon. 



a few miles of Ratnnpura, the character of the country is 
much the eamc as that ah'cndy passed through from Awisea- 
wela. The hills perhaps assume more of a mountain cha- 
racter; their slopes may be are holder, their sides more rocky, 
their altitudes greater; and the forest timber with which 
they are clad or crowned is possibly of a heavier growth, 

The tract of paddy lauds, for ahout two miles before 
reaching Ratnapura, is called by the natives 'Weralupe,' 
the cat's-eye district. It is also famous for rubies and 
sapphires. This circumstance, and the richness of tlie beds 
of the immediately adjoining streams in similar precious 
products, gave to the city its name, — ' Ratnapura,' the city of 
gems. A large amount of money, we were informed, had 
recently been made by some speculating Moormen from 
Kalutara, in extensive gemming operations here, the prin- 
cipal of whom, owing to the excitement caused by a too 
sudden acquisitioo of wealth, had unfortunately lost hia 
reason. Gold is also found in the beds of these streams, 
but not in sufficient quantities to pay Europeans for the 
expense — irrespective of the risk to health — of washing it 
from the soil; and washing or digging for gold is not so 
attractive to the native mind as the search for gems. 

A minor road branches off from the main one to the right 
near to an iron bridge about a mile from Ratnapura. This 
leads to the Maha Saman D^wal€, distant about two miles 
from the city, and close to the righthankof the Kalu-gapga. 
To this place apilgrimage is made by large bodies of natives 
every July, when the festival of the Perahera, lasting 



fifteen dayg,* with proceesione of elephants, &c. is held. 
At this time a temporary town is erected for the accom- 
modation of the pilgrims. This consists principally of two 
streets, 260 yards long by 45 feet broad, on either side 
of which is a continuous row of huts made of bambus and 
jungle sticks roofed over with cadjans, or the plaited leaves 
of the cocoanut palm. These roads lead straight up to 
the eastern side of a quadrangular enclosure (60 ft. E. & 
W., by 200 ft. N. & S.), which forms the outer courtyard 
to the temple. An inner quadrangle (150 ft. by 200 ft.) is 
approached from this by a flight of 25 stoue steps.f Both 
quadrangles are enclosed by dwarf walls five feet high, above 
which are rows of palings alternating with pillars, the whole 
protected by a tiled roof to shoot off the rain. The gate- 
way to the first consists of two brick pillars, on the top of 
each of which a bo-tree is growing. On the top of the steps 
leading to the second is a narrow verandah, with four carved 
wooden pillars, two on each side the doorway. This is of 
stone, with rudely carved lintel and jamba. The inner 

*For ftn accouDt of the great Perahfra feetir^ at Kuid]>, to which 
that at Ratnapura is ver; umilar, see Appendix I. 

f Captain PaiDHiH, in hia woil on Ceylon, describes these steps aa well 
as those which lead up to the temple from the river, as made of marUe. 
This is a mistake. The atepi, which are very rongbl; dressed, are of the 
ordinary stone of the neighbourhood, gneiss or hornblende, with here 
and there a carved block apparently brought from some overthrowu 
building, probably from the Portuguese church iriiich once stood here. 



quadrangle scema origiDally to have been a low mound, 
tlie sides of which were artificially raised, eo as to form the 
foundation platform for a fortification. There is reason to 
believe that this was the site of a Duw&le from very ancient 
times,* and that upon the cajiture of the place by the Portu- 
guese, its strategical importance led them to convert it into a 
stronghold for themselves, f In the centre of the quadrangle 

* "The eailiest menlinn I have seeo msde of tbe SsfTrRgain temple of 
SamiD (which ia either this or the one on the Peak) ia, that in the reiga 
of DappooU A. D. 795, a statue of li&machandra, (an iDcaroaiion of 
Vishiiii) formed uf red snnilal wood, was sent from Dondra to be placed 
in the temple of Snman at Saflragam." — Forbbs's Eleven Tears in Cejlon, 
vol. i, p- 185. The inclemency of the weather for nine out of the 
twelve mondis of Uie 7ear being such as to prevent anj one living on the 
Fealc, and the Bhrine there, <ledioateil to Saman, being open on all side*, 
and onl}' about three feet high, the probability ia that the statue referred 
to, was sent to die temple at Sabaragainuwa, where it would be better 
cared for and preserved. During the season of the pilgrimage to 
the Peak, it might have been taken thither from Sabaragamuwa, and 
returned when the season ended. 

f Captuin RiBGiBo, in the chapter of his work which gives an aecouoC 
of the regular troops and militia which the Portuguese maintained in the 
Island of Cejlon, sajs, that besides the camp at Manicavary, where, in 
times of peace, at least 4000 men were always stationed, "there was a 
second camp in the Saffragam country, near the kingdom ofU'wa; it 
comprised four companies of Portuguese infantry, amounting to ISO 
men, and from 4000 to 5000 lascorins ; these were under the command 
of the Dis&wa of the FroTince, who had wiih him an adjutant and a 
chaplun. In these two camps consisted the chief strength of the 
country, especially in time of peace." 



tliey built tlieir Church, a porrion of which is probably 
included in the exiating XH'vru.\6. Oiiposite the doorway, 
in the centre of the quadrangle, is a colonnade fifiy-fourfcet 
in length, and twenty in breadth. This consists of two outer 
dwarf walls, five feet high, with openings near the west end, 
and five pillars rising at irregular distances five feet above 
the walls; inside these are corresponding rows of five brick 
or cabook pillar?, with a passage ten feet wide between. 
On each side of the colonnade, at the west end, between the 
lust two pillars and the walls, is a kind of raised dais, intended 
probably for the accommodation of prieslsormnsicians. At 
the end of the colonnade, a doorway gives access to a hall, 
about sixty feet long, dimly lighted by two small windows, 
and having in its side walls two central doors facing each 
other. A row of seven wooden pillars, three feet distant 
from each wall, leaves an avenue in the midst of the hall 
of about fourteen fi;et width, which leads lo five semicircular 
steps at the foot of the door of the sanctum, a two-storied 
building, occupying an area of 20 by 30 feet, the top of 
which, viewed from the outside, has a very pagoda-like 
appearance. Plaster statues of Hindu deities flank this door, 
and on either side of the second step is placed one of a 
magnificent pair of elephant's tusks, each seven feet in 
length. We could not gain admittance to this part of the 
building; but Captain Forbes states, that it contains what is 
called by courtesy, the golden bow and arrow of the god. 
AVe heard that it also containc<) a silver-stemmed umbrella, 
which in former times used to be spread above tlic shrine 



uf Saman, oa the summit of .Samiiiitila, iiulicatm<; his divine 
suprcuincy in tlie District. Inwitlc the hull were several 
larj^c long-handled fans, and nthcrurticlcs used in |micessions, 
besides six antique looking <;ingaUa, some of which we found 
to he of but very rough and modern manufacture. They 
were clgliteea inches long, with an inch thickness of metal, 
and a bore an inch in diameter. Kuch was firmly fixed 
u|ion a three-legged carriage niiscd about eighteen iuelics 
from the ground. 

In the open quadrangle, north of the sanctum, is a well, 
enclosed by four old massive walls (15 ft. by 24 ft.;, each 
wall having a narrow arciied doorway in its centre. Tins 
is the most archscological feature of the place; the walls are 
undoubtedly those originally built by the Portuguese, and 
the arched doorways differ from anything of the kind to be 
seen elsewhere. At the eaet end of the quadrangle, facing 
the two openings in the colonnade, are two Buddhist temples, 
each on a raised platform 16 ft. by 24, with four pillars on 
each side, forming narrow vcranilahs round a central room, 
in which is an image of Buddha, anil a kanindua coTitaining 
some of his relics. These relics hold an important [losition 
in the processions at the Perahera in the month of July. 
Against the walls of the quadrangle arc several lean-to 
buildings, either occupied by the temple attendants, or 
used as stores. 

Cordiner, in his description of this Dcwald, says, at the 
time of tlte Knndian canqmign in !80.3, "the apartments 
of the Pagoda"— (by whieh he evidently meant the whole of 




tlie buildings in this quadrangle)—" aflfbrJed excellent shelter 
for the troops; who found in acvcral cheats, a greater quantity 
of silver and copper coins than they were capable of carrying 
away. The Malays, probably from motivys of superstition, 
rt^fuscd to receive any share of them: and almost all the 
iiuligunt coolies [camp followers] disdained the sacrilege of 
either entering ihe Pagoda, or touching the coin. The idola 
had been removed, but a great many beautiful elei)hant8' 
tuekd, and other curious ariicles remained, which could not 
be brought away." ■ 

Scattered about the ground are sundry fragments of 
slender gothic pillars, which clearly formed a part of the 
church that once stood here; and near to one of the 
Buddhist temples stands what looks most suspiciously like 
a baptismal font. It consists of a stone pillar rising two 
feet three inches from the ground, square at the base for 
twelve inches, and octagonal above. This supports a font 
eighteen inches square on the upper surface; the outer edges 
of which are moulded, and carved with delicate tracery; and 
the sides rounded from the top to the base. The inside is 
hollowed into a circular basin fifteen inches in diameter, 
and four in depth. 

Let into a deep niche in the basement of the raised 
quadrangle, a little to the north of the flight of steps 
leading from the outer courtyard, is a mural stone of some 



historic value, nnd of singular interest iVoin the stnuige aud 
unexpected position in which it id found. On it, sculptured 
in bold relief, are two figures, about half the size of life. 
They represent the closing event of a mortal combat between 
a Portuguese, armed cap-a-pie, and a Siyhalese warrior. 
Conquered in the encounter, the latter has been stricken 
doB'n; his sword and shield are cast despairingly aside; and 
hia antagonist, trampling under foot his prostrate form, is 
now with one final blow about to deprive him of his life. 
The inscription below, partly in lloman, and partly in 
Siphalcse characters, is so much efi'aced as to be only very 
partially readable; some portions of the figures are also 
damaged, eeemingly from the action of the weather upon 
tlie stone. The whole is, however, most spiritedly executed, 
and enough of the inscription remains to shew that the name 
of the Portuguese soldier was Gomez. The Siyhalese say, 
the prostrate warrior was their champion, one Kuruwita 
Bandera, a dreaded enemy of the Portuguese, whose soldiera 
he had repeatedly cut off, and that some iifty had fallen by 
his hand ere he himself was slain. The sculpture was no 
doubt executed in Europe by royal or vice-regal command, 
and sent hither to do honor to the soldier whose valorous 
deed it commemorated. 

At the north and south sides of the outer courtyard are 
raised platfonns, with hi^jh canopies, which are profusely 
decorated during the pilgrim season. The backgrounds 
are then filled with jtaintings of the gods, and in front of 
these, gazed at by admiring multitudes, the dancing girls 

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in the service of the temple, perform their parte in the annual 
featival in honor of Saman. On such an occasion one can 
realize the description given bjr Sri R&hula of eimilar scenes 
in honor of Vibhisbana at the temple at Kelani, four cen- 
turies and a half ago. 

Yet linger for awhile and note the dancing fair 

Whose charming, handsome ears, bright shining gold plates bear; 

Whose ejes, long, lustrous, dark, wash'd with cotljriuiD, geem 

With deeper, darker lustre, beneath their lids to gleam; 

Whose tresses, twined with flowere their beauty to enhance, 

And fragrant odours flinging, beholders' hearts entrance. 

Upon their dancing stages, in gala garb array'd, 

Each vestment strew'd with jewels, gems dazzlingly display'd, 

At everj agile motion snd lissotn action light 

Thej scintillate in splendour, seem lambent lamp-flames bright: 

AiofV, alow, tbeir arms, tosEing, waving in the dance 

And around them casting manj a swift-sped sidelong glance. 

Their narubaras' * end- falls thej from their broad hips fling. 

The full-folds op'ning, closing, at each elastic spring. 

While bells from lonea gem-spangled thetr slender waists girt round 

In unison chime sweetly, as o'er the scarce touch'd ground 

They clink their golden anklets and flash their lotus feet 

And step in time responsive to music's measured beaUf 

A flight of fifty steps leads up from the river to a path in 
the outer temple grounds; and on the sides of the (xuadrangles, 

* The narutcra is a graceful kind of waist cloth, the wide end of which, 
about a foot in length, falls from the ginjle over the hips Id a number of 
thickly gathered folds or pUita. 

t S^la-lihini Sandese. 



Uu, Temple,* and other trees spread their umbrageous 
branches over the eDcloeiog walls, Kapurillas and temple 
officers and tenants perform a daily service within the walls, 
with the harshest of pipiDga and the noisiest beatings of tam- 
a-tams. A dozen or more elephants are attached to the place, 
their chief duty being to take a leading part in the annual 
processions. The temporalities are large, and the revenue 
is collected, antl all the affairs of the temple regulated by 
the Kaodian Chief Iddamalgoda Abayak6a Atapattu Mu- 
diyanse, himself a Buddhist, but the Basn^yaka Nilam^, or 
lay incumbent of the great Hindu D6wi,\6, which, with a 
kind of mutual toleration, Buddhists and Hindus alike agree 
to consider one of their most notable places of holy resort-t 

• The Ficat religiota, and die Michelia Ciampaea, 

t Saman b generally believed t« be an incarDatJon of Viahnil, (see 
ante, p, 13). Witli reference to this deity I am indebted for the following 
note, to the learned Tamil Adrocate, Mr. C Brito, "During the domi> 
nation of the Tamils, the elastic faith of the Sinhalese had to be extended 
so aa to iDclude a large number of the gods of the rulera. And every 
vih&ra had to receive a number of Imagae of theae uncoutb gods. But 
thej were not received indiscriminately. And if I do not greatly err, 
ViahnQ was the only god who waa received without reluctance. His 
shrine is the Dfwile we meet with everywhere atUched to Buddhist 
temples." The adoration of VishuQ under the forma of Rama aad 
Lakshamaoa, or Soman, was the old traditionary religion of the Kghalese 
before the Vij&yan invasion. Buddhists moreover believe that this god 
is tbe tutelary divinity of tlie island ; that he is ■ candidate for Buddha- 
bood, and will, in some fbture kalpa, be maiufeatod aa a Bnddba ; bence 
the readiness with which they allowed bis worAip at tbe time referred to. 
But at the same time many Hindus mwntain that Bnddba bimKlfwai only 
an aval&r or incarnation of VishnQ. 


Jdam's Pralt. 

"Amidst the (rmve tlint crowns jon tufted hill 
Which, were it not for manj a mciuniain nigli 
Kiaing in loft; niiika, sntl luriier still. 
Might well itxdlf be deemed of diguity, 
Tliu convent's white ivnlls glisten titir on high: 
Here ilnrella the ciiloyer, nor rude is he 
Nor niggard of his i;heGr; the pawier by 
Ih welonme still; nor lieedleM will he tli-e 
From hence, if lie delight kind Natnre'a sheen t 


Ratsai'iha. — Mount Karangoda. — GoDiGAsiuirA. — Gii.i'- 
mai.k'. — 5i-LAriTA ToTUi'oi.A. — Gdiiumwas, Kalv, and 
IIatcla GA^«AS■. — Banda'ua Maiiatmava'. — Tuntota 
Febry, — Maskeuva gasga. — Bridur axi> Fokd. — Au- 


CAVE. — Mapanan-ella waterfall. — Pala'baddala. 

The city of Ratnnpura, like the " Inng toun o' Kirkaldy," 
coneists principaliy of clustering rowa of houses on either 
side of ihe main road. On the left of the rond, approaching 
from Awiss&wela, picturesquely situated in an arborescent 
dell, is the residence of the Assistant Government A;rent of 

., LiOOg Ic 


tln^ Disliict, Ticnr to whicli is the small epifcopal place of 
wor!?!iip, called by courle^y, the church. On tlie right of the 
road is the gaol; beyoiid which, receding towards the bank 
of the river, are theivstUouae and theCi'ivemment Husjiitul. 
These are both newly creeled, coinmodio'ia binUling!»; and 
at the back of the former, fringing the high river-bank, is a 
luxuriant grove of nutmeg trecf. Witliin the walls of the 
amall fort, surmounting a rocky hillock, about 114 feet above 
the level of the sea, are the Government Kachcheri, in wliich 
a meteorological observatory has lately been eelablished, the 
Di:strict Court, and other official buildings. This fort waa 
formerly a military station; but the troops have been with- 
driuvn; and the Police, who have a station and barracks 
further on, now guartl the Kachcheri, and discharge the 
duties formerly entrusted to soldiers. The situation of the 
city is considered healthy; there is anexccllont bazaar; and 
a Roman Catholic chapel in a very central position. In the 
suburbs there are many pleasantly detached bungalows, the 
residences of the Judge, the lawyers, and other leading 
inhabitants. An ancient mosque, indicates that the faith of 
Islam is no very recent profession amongst a section of the 
community, the majority of whom it may be presumed, from 
the neighbouring viharas, and the great Saman Dcw&l^, are 
Buddhists and Hindus. Strings of bullock bandies con- 
tinnally pass up and down the road; either on their way to 
planting districts Badulla-wards, or with coffee to Colombo; 
or to and from the stores of an enterprising British Colonist, 
the depot for the traffic on the river, the southward rival of 



the road: taken altogether, the city has an asijcct of busy 
thriving industry, which may be considered an index of the 
prosperiiy of the District of which it forms the ca|iital. 

Many lofty mountain groups and ranges tower around, 
and radiate from t!ie point where Adam's Peiik ii^ seen. 
Amongst these, a few miles to the northeast of llatnapiira, 
is Mount Karangoda, the view from the summit of which 
is magnificent. Bennet, in chapter xlvii. of his work on 
Ceylon, gives the following description of its tem)de and 

" The ascent to the first landing is by some hundreds of 
broad «tep8, hewn in the solid rock, which is covered with 
jungle, and pine apple plants, whose leaves are from five to 
six feet in length, a proof of the effect of shade upon that 
plant. Upon the first landing is the residence of the priests, 
an extensive and substantial atone building, having a large 
interior square, with wide and covered verandahs, into which 
the dormitories open. 

"A similar but less inclined flight of rock steps leads to the 
second landing place, where a rock vihdra displays Buddha's 
recumbent image, surrounded as usual with Hindu deities, 
and having an oblong table before it profusely covered with 
flowers. But the-chicf attraction to the European is a well 
of the purest water, of so very cold a temperature, that in 
five minutei? a bottle of claret was cooled as well as if an 
experienced Hopilar [butlerj had iced it. 

"From hence the approach to the summit is extremely 
rugged, and covered with the gigantic groundsel ( Senedo 

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gignnttiis} exceeding twenty foet in Iieiglit, jungle and grass ; 
botli well tenanted with »n:ikod and land leeches; but one 
is amply rewarded for toil, tronhlc, an,l even danger, by the 
magnificent panorama which, on gaining the crown of the 
mountain, bui-dte upon the view. Here, castellated llatna- 
pura, and surrounding country, intersperneJ with every 
variety of champaign, undulating, and hilly land, intersected 
by the meandering and (for boats) navigable Kalii-gaygaj 
there, the Peak towering high above the clouiU lo the 
northeiistward, and the various villi^cfl dispersed tipon the 
banks of the river and its tributary streams, bordered by 
extensive aroka, kettule, and cocoanut tope,', with occasional 
patches of intervening jungle, scattered among verdant 
tracts of pasture land, as if by way of contrast to the golden 
glare of paddee and mustard fields in their approaching 
maturity; and everywhere teeming with abundance; the 
nearest plains covered with innumerable herds of bullocks 
and buffaloes, and the distant ones with deer and elephants." 

The route from Ratnapura to the Sri-p^a commences 
near the 57th mile-post, in a path which strikes to the north 
just before the road crosses the Ratnajiura bridge — a three- 
span iron latticed structure, each s|)an MO feet in length, 
with a roadway 18 feet in width. 

Our arrangements having been completed overnight, we 
thought to have started by daylight on the morning of the 
26tb Siarch, But our interpreter, and chair- bearers, and 
commissariat coolies and other servants, were by no means 
so anxious as ourselves for the trip, and it was nut until 



.. M. that we were all fairly off. A mrher ludicroua oc- 
i took place immediately before. Our hoat'a appu, 
who went by the name of the Angel Gabriel, hearing his 
roaster (our coiiimist>ary general) inquire about the supply of 
tea, in order that nothing might be wanting to ensure every 
requisite for making that refreshing beverage while on the 
road, detained one of the coolies until he had boiled a large 
keltlefull of water, with which he made a final addition to the 
man's load, and it woajust a chance that it was discovered, and 
the boiling water emptied out, before the man set oft" De- 
tjcending from the road (a pretty stiff embankment forming 
the approach to the bridge) we struck briskly across the fithi 
and were soon into the jungle, where we mounted our 
chairs,— arm-chairs with stout bambus tied to the sides, each 
one borne by four coolies. The chair that fell to my lot. 

•On our two subm'qiicnt joumejs our start wus here delayeJ. The 
tuiise of the first I give in Ibe words of one uf my companions: — " We 
mnilc our start from liatnapura in rainy weather, and nith about filtevn 
or twenty ciiolieii to carry our baggage, we headed up towarda the I'cak. 
A Irick of one oflhe coolies just afU'r siarting causeil us some amuse- 
niont. We ha<l some diffieul'.y in getting the number of men we wanted, 
and tliis one was the laai whom we obtaineil. As be fame last, he found 
a losd awaiting him whith many of the others had tried the weight of, 
and left as being ratlicr Ino heavy for tlieir Castes lie trudged along 
behind us with hia box, still lugging more and mure in the rear, and soon 
aficr we turned off on to the [lilgi-ims' track, we lost sight «( him al- 
to-etlior. The interpreter wus sent back to hurry him on, and sonie- 
tiuieutltir returned with another coulie carrying tiie load, and told us the 



however, soon gave way, iiiy weight cracking the banibu wliicli 
Bugiported it; and not being nccustotneJ to such means of 
progression, we found them so uncomfortable in r.'unding 
sharp rocky comers, and in going up and down ascents and 
descents, and we had to make such frequent dismounts at 
the frail bridges placed across watercourses and ravines — 
"edarida^,"i. e- logs of trees, many of thorn half rotted, with a 
loose swingiug bambu or length of jungle creeper fur a hand- 
rail, — that when we had proceeded about five miles, and cauie 
to a bend of the Kalu-gapga, which wc had to cross, we sent 
them back to Ratnapura, and performed the rest of our 
pilgrimage on foot. 

The footpath pai^acs througha considerable, well-cultivated 
tract of paddy lands, until it reaches Godigamuwa, when it 
skirts the base of a range of hills which abutt upon the Kalu- 
gagga, here called the Itatmone-ella. On the opposite side 
are the mountains Batugcdarakanda and Katugala. The 
river runs rapidly down the narrow intervening valley, and at 

first one hud left tlie box in thu road and bail bolted. Evidently tlie 
fellow, on finding tliat our wny turned off lowanls Adam's I'i;»k, liad, 
wilh n sagacity anil discrimiuation that di.l credit to his int«llei:tual 
poivrrs, determined tii run all riskn rmlier ihnii carry liis b<i\ to thi' top 
of the Teak, and had set down hin lond mid 'madetraeks' " Un the ihiiil 
journey, the toolie we hail desjMlclied from ColouiUi with pruviniDiis, 
four days previously, failed to Itinkc lii* np]icarance, anil after irniting fur 
liim in vain for twenty-four hours, wc liad t> proceed Willi siieli provender 
»■; we rotild prouiiru al the buKuar, 

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this jilnce the processions oF tlie Perahera terminate, the 
elephants marching thus far, wlien the Kapurfila proceedg 
to cut the watersofthc running stream.* Beyond this is the 
small village Koekolawatta, and opposite it, the mountain 
Kirigala.t — so named from a conspicuous patch of white 
rock near its summit. A narrow track near this leada to 
a ford, which in dry seasons enables the traveller to make 
a short cut, and 8ave a quarter of a mile's walk. Our guide 
took us down this track, but we found the current running 
too strongly, and the water apparently much too deep, to 
warrant the risk of an attempt to cross it; we therefore 
returned, and soon after, descending a ravine, came to 
the Irihadepdna-ella, or doIa,f a broad brawling mountain 
stream, considerably swollen by late rains, but passable 
without much difficulty, with the a.^sistance of large rough 
stepping stones laid at irregular distances across. This 
stream is the boundary between Crodigamuwa and Gilimal^. 
Kear the 61sl mile is the village Malwata, or, as its name 
indicates, "the flower village," a place where flowers are or 

* The Knpurida strikes Ihe water with a golden sword. At tbe iame 
instant a brazen Tcssel is di|>ped intu the Hrcr while the water is jet 
disparted, aod a portiou is taken up, which is kept in the Teagel until 
the following year. The water which was taken at the previous festival 
is then poured back into the river. 

+ 'Kiri,' white, milky; 'gala,' rock. 

J 'glla,' a stream free from stones. 'Dola,' a stream, tlic bed of which 
is full of sloues and rocks. 



were cultivated fur offennga to tlie temples. From tlionce 
the path leads acroi's the Dudaiikancrtc-ella, and the IJi'i- 
dola, beyond which the Kajiiwatia, a native roadside tavern 
is reached, where a short lialt is usually made. Wc here 
procured some kurumbfis,* and some of our coolies refreshed 
themselves with arrack, obtained at the primitive bar of 
fence and bambu sticks where it was retailed ia the hut. 
Leaving this, we shortly after reached Dimbulwitiya; and to 
cross the ella had to balance ourselves cautiously over an iigly 
t^danda. The road from this point to where the Kalu^apga 
id crossed, was being cleared and widened when we last 
travelled upon it; on the two former occasions it was pretty 
well overgrown with jungle. Here, at the Ellapita Totu- 
pola, or ferryj we dismissed our chair- bearers. 

Just before reaching this point we observed a remarkable 
species of fungus, of a kind which none of us had ever 
before seen. The stem was about nine inches long, and an 
inch in diameter at the ground. From the top, where the 
stem had narrowed to about a quarter of an inch, a cap 
loosely hung like a cup-shaped bell, covered with a fine white 
raised reticulation, the interstices of which were filled with 
a viscid liquor of an olive brown colour. From the neck, 
below the cap, and surrounding the stem to the ground, was 
a globe-shaped mantle, as if an outer skin had been blown 

cocoanut milk. 



out bladder- wise, and tlien pierced through and through 
until it became patterned into inimitable lace-work, of a 
white colour above and pink below. Nothing of the kind 
could be more beautiful. 

The banka of the river, on either fide of the ferry, are 
somewhat abrupt, and require care to avoid a slip down the 
steep slope of stiff mud of which they consist, when the 
weather is at all damp. In the dry season the natives 
usually ford the stream, which is then not more than from 
two to three feet in depth; but wlien the rains have been 
heavy and continuous, the passage is by the ferry-boat, a 
small fniil looking double canoe. Past the 64tb mile-post 
is the Yatowita ella, and beyond it the Malid-dola, both 
which are crossed by ^dandas. Between the 65th and P6th 
mile-poats, lies the plain of Gilimalt?, and here, ou each of 
our journeys, we halted. For, although from the point at 
Godigamuwa, where the road undulates along the base of 
the valley through which the Kalu-gagga runs and flows 
and eddies its seaward way, ferns and slender baltalees" 
overhang the path, while mosses of an infinite variety 
beautify the untrodden ground, and shrubs and flowering 
plants enliven the scenery, agreeably shaded here and there 
by gigantic forest trees or clumps of tall bambus, and every 
now and again diversified by ])atclies of open plains and level 
tracts of paddy-fields, — the pleasure all this affords the eye 

• TUe Bambttsa stridula. 



and mind, iloes not cniintorltalance the fcflini; nf fatigue 
tliat begins to mnkc rest ami rclVesliineiit luiiyed for, and 
heartily welcomed as soon as they can bo obtained. 

Giliniale, fiiiuoiiri for its betel leaves, is, in this partleular 
jiortion of it, a level fertile plain, about a iiiilc in eireuiii- 
ferenee, fringed and skirted with belts of cocoanut and areku 
palms, and ehimps of jaek, shaddock, orange, jitantaiii, and 
various other fruit trees, which flouriah in luxuriant abund- 
ance at the base of the lofty bills which surround it, and 
amongst which clusters of native dwellings and nestling 
villages may be seen half hidden in their grateful shade. 
The spot, and the singular shrinking sensilive plant' which 
here abounds, reminded us of old James Shirley's Hues in his 
poem "Xarcissus." 

"Fnim hence deliglit convoys 

Into a fpacioiis green, whose either side 
A liill did j!uard, whikt nith bid trees liku hall's 

Tiic clouds were busy binding up his hcud. 
The flowers here smile upon him as he Ireadn, 
And but when he looks up hang down their hea<ls." 

It waa here, or in the immediate neighbourhood, that 
Prince Dutugemunu, son of KAvantissa, king of Rolnina, 
concealed himself when threatened with punishment for 

• A plant of the genus Mimota, so called from the shrinking a 
traetiuu of its tcavi;a on being touched. 



the insult offered to his father, after failing in his en- 
{leavoiir;^ to imiuee or provoke him to make war n^ninst the 
Malnbars, then ruling in the Xurthern kingdom, and whose 
e:(Iiul8iou from the island it was his great nmhition to accom- 
phah; an objeet which he succeeded in eff'acting soon after 
his accession to the throne, B. c. 164,* 

The name of the place, Gilimalc, signifies "mountain iin- 
mei'ged," the Samantakuta not being here visible, although 

* '-Thia pi inco Gemini, who wns stilled in the elephant, horse, and 
lioiT exercises, as well as in stratagems, was thea residing at Mahagaiiio, 
and the king had ntationed his (wcondj son Tiseo, trirh a powcrlul and 
elHciciit force, at Digbawupi, for the protection oflm dominions, (against 
the invasions of the damilos.) 

"Afier a certain period had elapsed, priuce G&iDini, having held a 
review ofliis annj, proposed to his royal father, 'Let me wage war with 
the ilamilus.' The king, only looking to his (sun's) personal safety, inter- 
dicted (the enterprise); replying, 'Within this bunk of the river is 
anflicient.' He, however renewed the proposition, even to the third 
time ; (which being still rejected) he sent to hiui a female trinket, with 
thia message : *It being sjid my father is not a man, let him therefore 
decorate himself with an ornament of tJiia descidplion.' That monarch 
cnrjigcd with him, thus spoke (to his courtiers) [ ' Onler a gold chain to 
be made, with which I shull letter him; not being able to restrain him 
by any other means." lie (the Prince) indignant wiih his parent, re- 
tiring (from his court) fled to (Kiitta in) the Malayik d-strict [Kotmdlie]- 
I'rom this uircumstance of his h.iving bucorae ('duttha') inimical to his 
father, be acquired from that day the appellation, ' Dutthagamini.'" — 
Tiibnoub's Muhawansu, p. 145. The Itfijnwaliya, narrating ihc ^^ime 
event, adds that the prince first "fled to Giliiiialf, and hnving hid hiniacif 
there for several days, fled from thence to the plate called Kotmalie." 

DigjizMb, Google 


the two ^iiininits of tlic Beiin 8amana1:i nre. Tins iis 
owing to the lowness of the level, wliicli is [irubably not 
more tlian acvcnty feet higher than the s^'a. On the way from 
Goilif^iiinuwa, at the points wlicrc tlie road rises by the bank 
of the Kaiii-ganga, all the three peaks are distinctly Eceu 
when the sky ia clear; but the lower the path dciseeDds, the 
more the Peak of the Holy Footprint seems to i^hrink out 
of eight, until it is wholly hidden by the mountains that 
begirt the Gilimale plain. 

The bungalow where we breakfaste.I on our first excursion, 
and where, notwithstanding we brought all our supplies with 
us, we wore most hospitably entertained, and made to 
partake of the owner's abundant fare, was the Walawwa 
or mansion of Laksha Mudiyanselage Punchi Bandai-a, 
Mahatmayu of Gilimale. It lies a short distance to the 
ca^t of the road passing through the plain, where it is 

" W'fll set vfitU fair fruil bL-nriii-; irccs and grores, 
ntl [>ii|>iit()us witlt dovcd. 
Ami walereil by a wniiilerinK tlear gi-ceii strcnni," — 

the Guruluwan-gaiiga,— which 6owa in a northerly direction 
to join the Ilatula, a tributury of the Kalu-ganga. While 
breakfast was preparing we adjourned to the adjacent river 
for a bath; the stream was broad and rocky, and in some 
parts deep; the water cool, clear and most refreshing; and 
abounding with numerous small fish, of two kinds in parti- 
cular; — one, apparently a species of perch, from two to four 
Indies in length, with red mouth, tail, and fins, and banded 



verticnlly with alternate stripes of black and silver from 
head to tail; the other etmaller and more slender, of a dusky 
brown colour with a longitudinal black stripe on cither side. 
Both were bold and fearless, and swarmed about ua when 
we rested, pecking at our limbs with their mouths, and pro- 
ducing a sensation as if we were being pricked with a 
multitude of blunt pins. Their elegance of form and beauty 
of colour should make them valuable acquisitions to aqua- 
riums, as much so as the Ciiinese gold and silver fishes, to 
which one kind seems to be allied. 

On the opposite side of the plain, running south, and 
forming its western boundary, flows the Kalu-gauga, — here, 
attheGilimale Parapa-totupola, very picturesque and sylvan, 
with a fine shelving sandy bed, — a stream altogether to be 
prcfi^rred to bathe in; with its gentle windings, shady banks 
o'erhung with trees, and placid waters, which 

" to tlieir resting plaoe serciii! 
Come frrsbpuiiig anil reflecting all tlie scene 
(A niirmr in ihe duptli ofllmvery aLdves;) 
So aweet b spot of eurth, you might, ( I wccn) 
Have gui'ssdl BOiiie congregation of (lie elves 
To sport \>y summiT inooiia liaJ shaped it for lliemselves" 


Tiie Bandara family came originally from the Maritime 
Provinces. The cause of their settlement in (Jilimalu, we 
were informed, was as follows. — The grandson of Baja- 
Sitjba II., King Sri Wii-a Prakranm Nereudra Siijlia, the 



Inst of the Siulialcse born oovprci^ns of Ceylon, wlio reigned 
A. D. 168 5 — 1707, was consklerably addicted to drinking, 
and apt, when in hie cup.^, to resolve upon atrango freaks, 
lie was nevertheless, from a Bnddliist point of view, a pious 
monarch, who devoutly repaired and endowed vihtiras, and 
otherwise benefited llnddhism and Buddhist priests, Olc 
day, when on a visit to Sitawaka, he took it into his head 
to wisli for a light to be exhibited on the universally 
supposed inaccessible sunimit of the mountain Kunudiya- 
parvate. None of the Kandians would make the attempt, 
whereupon one Bandara, from Pagoda, a village near Cotta, 
undertook the tnsk, and after s|iending much time and 
overcoming many diflicultie«i, aucceeded. The king saw the 
light, and royally rewarded Bandara with grants of land : 
these lands his descendants still retain. 

After breakfast, to which our liberal host added plantains, 
oranges, curdled milk, and a variety of curries, we indulged 
in a few hours' rest, and did not resume our journey until 
3J p. M. Then, divesting ourselves of sundry articles 
of dress such as coats, waistcoats and neck-tyes, and 
grasping light tough sticks some five feet long, courteously 
presented to us by our host, we went on our way, as light 
hearted and merry — and I may add, in our purple, plaid, 
crimson and grey woollen shirts, varied-shaped pith and felt 
head-gear, and dissimilar cut and coloured nether gar- 
ments — as i)icturcr:(pie a quartette of pilgrims as ever trodc 
the pilgrim's jMith in that or any other direelion. One of our 
number, armed with a ilouble barrelled gun, was to sporting 



taates inclined, but the number uf pilgrime journeying to 
antl fro had made both bird nnd beast shy of the road we 
were taking, and cpnrt we had none; an occasional ehot or 
two, however, awoke the echoes of the woodland wilds, and 
reverbemled amongst the mountains that rose on either aide 
of us with a grand and sometimes startling efTect. 

From Gilimale to Palabaddala, where we purposed 
sleepin*^, a distance of six miles, the country begins to 
assume a more nigged and mountainous appearance; the 
ascents becoming higher and steeper, and the descents 
deeper and more difficult; the route in fact traversing some 
of the outlying spurs of mountains, iuto a chain of which we 
were penetrating. 

Shortly after leaving Bnnd&ra Mahatmay&'s Walawwa, 
we came to the Tuntota ferry, which crosses the Hatula- 
gavga; here, at its junction with the Kalu-gapga, a broad 
and rapid, but somewhat shallow stream, overhung with 
clumps of the tall gracefully waving feathery bambu, and the 
wide-spread branches of many a noble forest tree. Proceed- 
ing onwards through a well wooded country, we crossed the 
Pahalewala cdanda, and the Saman watte ella, — so called, 
because the land through which the ella flows belongs to the 
Saman D^wdld. Four low hills followed, from 60 to 100 
feet in height, at the bases of which flow 'dolas' of various 
names. We were now upon the bank of the rnshing 
Maskeliya-ga^iga,* A bridge was being constructed over 

■ ' Uaskclija,' playing of the fishes. 

~ DintizoribyGoOgle 


the river in lien of the olil roi;ky ford,— a difficult pafsaffe 
at best, iind at times decidedly dangerous. The site of 
the bridffe was 8onie distance above the ford; a huge 
precipitous boulder formed n natural abutment on one side, 
and a masonry one had been built to correspond on the other. 
The river, rustling from the north down a mountain gorge, 
strikes and ponds up against a mass of rock that causes it to 
make an abrupt bend to the wcat- In making iho bend, 
close to the right of the bridge, it swells into a deep lake-like 
pool, the waters of which swarm with plump, inky coloured 
fish, about 13 inches long, with large well defined scales. 
They were called by the natives oropuile, and were said to 
bennfit for food; this however is not the ease, unless it be at 
special eeaaona; but it is certain they are not held in esti- 
mation, and are but i-arely eaten. This particular part of 
the river ia called Nitna-wala, the king Sri Wikrama Raja 
Siyha, the last of the Kandian sovereigns, having used it as 
a bathing place. 

The bridge was about 60 feet in length, in two spans 
of 30 feet each, sup[)orted in the centre by wooden piles: 
its height above the water was about 30 feet. Coming up 
to this, and observing that in its then state one half consisted 
of but two round untrimmcd trunks of iron wood trees, 
between two and three feet apart, and the other of two 
similarly placed trees, roughly acjuared; and that the only 
side support was a loose swinging hand-rail of jungle cane, 
I paused in dismay, not perceiving the ford, about a hundred 
yards lower down, and not at all relishing the necessity for 

., LiOOg Ic 


venturing along so perilous looking a path. On the opposite 
eide however, numbers of pilgriine were asBcrablecl, who had 
all crossed in safety, and my companionsj all more or Icsa 
accustomed to such matters, encouraging me to make the 
attempt, on I went, hardly daring to lift one foot after the 
other, until I reached the squared timber, when 1 breathed 
more freely, and in a second or two felt myself wonderfully 
relieved, as I again trod the solid earth. From the bridge a 
short ascent led to a patch of comparatively level ground, 
perhaps 100 feet above the level of th« sea, where we were 
overtaken by a smart shower, and gladly availed ourselves 
of the shelter of a boutique on the wayside, until it had 
passed away. 

The characteristic features of the scenery from the right 
bank of the Maskeliya-gn^ga, where we crossed the stream, 
differ considerably from those we left behind us on our wny 
from GilimalC'. There, it was open, undulatory, park like; 
and "from the many jessamines, from the various orange 
flowers, from the citron and lime, from the areka, from 
innumerable plants and flowering trees arise divers perfumes, 
which blended in the morning dew and wafted on the early 
breeze, aflTorded the most delicate and exquisite fragrance."* 
Here, it was the rising base of a mountain range thickly 
clothed with magnificent forest trees, straight as pines, and 
from fifty to seventy feet in height. Gigantic creepers 

nCcjlon, Tol. i. p. 167. 



twined al'Out the trunks, and with perpentme convolutiona 
eprend from tree to tree; orchidd and nwweed and lichens 
overgrew their bark; while a floral underfirowth breathed 
ricli oiloiirs and scented the air with sweets of a difl'erent 
but not less fragrant [jerfume. Passing through the forest, 
and cresting seieral hills that rose each higher than the one 
bthind, we came to Ali-liAntenne,* a tract of dense canes 
or battulees, crossed in all directions by numerous elephant 
tracks. This was evidently one of the favourite feeding 
grounds of that monarch of the forest, as the name it bore 
jjlainly enough indicated. Beyond this is &d extensive 
nmrsh, thickly covered with large reeds,— "the estuary of 
reeds" of Ibn Batutfi, — a swampy district, not at all plea- 
pant to pAi-s at any season, wet or dry. owing to the swarms 
of leeches that infest it: and further on ia Batapola, a part 
of the domain of the Band&ra family. Here temporary 
buugalows are put up for the aecommodation of pilgrims. 
On the right of the path in the upward ascent, is one of the 
caves which Ibn Batutfl refers to in his narrative. It is 
formed by a straight fissure, in shape like an immense 
inverted v, \, running longitudinally through a huge 
boulder forty feet in length, from twelve to fifteen feet in 
height, and projRirt ion ally broad. In a distant range in the 
same direction is seen the Mapanan-cUa water-fall, leaping 
down the mountain side on its way to join th'e Maskeliya* 



" There was the rivur heard in bi^ of wruth 
{A pr<K;:pke of fuoin from inounlaiDs brown). 
Like tumulu heard Iroiu srime tar diatant town : 
Tiut Noflcning in appronvli he Icll hia gliHim 
And mnnnurcd pleFumntly, ami laid hiiu down 
To kiss rhoae easy curring banks of hluom 
That lent the windward nir an excjuiiiile perrnm 

A etcep and rough at^ccat, for a considerable distance 
I from Bntapola,— midway in which a stone tumulu:- haa been 

I erected on the spot where the remains of an old iiriesi were 

I burned, — brings the pilgrim loPal£badda1a, " the houec of 

\ the old woman," according to Ibn Batuti, "and the farthest 

; iuhabilcd part of the island of Cejion," that is, when he 

I travelled through it, about five hundred and thirty years ago. 

' Although fatiguing, the walk from Ratnapura to Pald- 

baddala, from the rich variety of scenery one passes through, 
! is very enjoyable, especially if the weather be fine: and in 

, this rcppect our first excursion was all ihiit could be desired. 

I It was not so on the two subsequent occasions. Opportu- 

nity serving, a second trip was resolved upon in the usuidly 
I fine and dry mouth of September; but the cycles of the 

I seasons are undergoing a change, and the month turned out 

i an exceptionally wet one. It was not the pilgrim aetison, 

and as Colombo coolies were averse to undertaking the 
journey further than Ratnapura, it was possible that our 
])rogrei-8 might be delnyed for want of assistance along llie 
uninhabited diiftrictc; owing iiowcver to the good offices 

,v Google 


most readily rendereil ua by Mr, F. R. Saunders, the A^^sist- 
ant Government Agent, and the directions given to their 
subordinntea by the Chief priest of the Peak and the Rate- 
niahatmayu of the Korale in which the Samanala is situnted, 
we were [Hit into coiniiiuiiieation with the (inn&rachchies 
(jictty headmen) of (jTodiganiuwa, Giliniale.and Haghapolla, 
(a village near Palfibaddala), and through them were enabled 
to hire, at different i^tagcs, aa many CDoliea as wc desired, 
at the rate of 9d. a day. Eknellgoda Ratemahatmayi alao 
placed at our service one of his retainers, a man who knew 
every inch of the route, and was in every respect a valuable 
acquisition to our party.' 

• The wrvicea of nui-li h man are invjilunlile on iinj similar journey in 
tlie jungle in Ceylon ; lie wiis a cupitnl alint, and neror at a Iohs for re- 
sources; anil I lieaitily agree wlib the following tribute paid him bj ooe 
of my companions:— "If ever there was a right man in the right place, 
Francina was ihe man. Iteaily, willing, active, inexlinustible in expe- 
dient, and c-heirful under all dilBcully, lie never fuJIeil us. He always 
was really to tinw, always came up smiling, anil if under trying eircum- 
slanceH, in posilions sometimes that would linvc redueeil Mark Tapley to 
the brink of suitirle, we were anableJ to bear diai'omforls which vex the 
spirit of even a good man, wilh a jolly philoaophj — and we certainly 
did — why it was to Francina's dinners in a large measure that we owed it. 
Foriilicd by those dinners wc d'.-fieil obsiacles, the adsersu spirits of the 
Teali, the evil genii of the way, and the clerk of the weather." Our 
interpreter, Ur. -Solomon Justin Iteliera, aldo proved a ii»eful intelligent 
assistant to us; hut the pilgrinnige knoi'luil him uji, and he returned to 
Itutnapurn, more fHilgiiol than eithei' of his European etnjihiyers. 

1, Google 


It was late in the afternoon when we etarted, and we did 
nut reach Ellapita Ferry until the sun had set. The rest of 
the way to Giliinalfe waa in the dark; and as a drizzling 
rain was contirinally falling, the "chulea" or torch e a tiiat 
we lighted were of no great use. I'unchirdla. and Muda- 
iihdmi, the Oanarachchiea of Godigamuwa and GilimaU. 
met us on the road, and the latter provided hnuac-room for 
us in his bungalow on the plain, where white cloths were 
spread above and around the apartment allotted to our 
use; our train of servants and coolies finding shelter in the 
neighbouring huts. Our first care was to get rid of the 
leeches which had swarmed over us while tramping along the 
sinmpy paddy fields, or through the dripping jungle." The 

' No description will c«nvcj to the reader's mind b better idea of these 
peats, than llie following by wortliy old Robbbt Knox. — " There is s 
sort of leeches of the nilure of ours, only diSertng in colour and bigneaa ; 
for they are of a dnrk reddish colour like the nkin of biicon, nud as big as 
a goone <|uill ; in length, some two or three inches. At first, vben they 
are young, they are no bigger than a horsehair, so that they can scarce 
be seen. In dry weather none of lliem appear, but immediately upon 
the Tnit of raina, the gr.iss an<l woods are full ol' them. These leeches 
seize U(ion the legs of travellers, who, going barefoot, according to the 
custom o( timt land, have them hanging upon their lega in multitudes, 
which suck their blood till their bellies are full, and then drop olf. They 
come in such quantises, that the pe<iplc c.iunot pull tbem off so fast as 
they crawl on: the blood runs pouring down their legs all the way they 
go, and it is no little smart neither; so that they would willingly he 
without, ihein if thoy could, especially those that have sores on their legs ; 
fur they uU gather to the sure. Some, therefore, will tie a piece of lemon 



night wasbuistcroiid, and the ruin fell in torrents; and at day- 
break we Iciirnt the Ma{ikcliya-gn;,iga was impaasiible. We 
were in the poaitiun of Jjisori of old on bis way to lolchoB, 

"...liglidy thr(>iij;li the well-kDnwn woihIs tip juiisnl. 
And cnmo out to tlie open plain at laxl, 
And went till ni>;lii came on him, nnil then slept 
AViihin a horapatcw) that i poor man kept, 
And rose aguin at dawn, and slept thiit aifUt 
Kigli the Anaurus, and at murroir'a light 
Hime up and went into the river'9 brim; 
IJnt fearful seemed the passage unlo him, 
For swift and yellow drave the stream adown 
'Twist eruinblin); bank? ; and tree trunks rough nnd brown 
AVhirl'd in the bubbling eddies here and there; 
So swollen wan ihc stream a maid niiglit <lare 
To crons, in fair days, with unwelted knee." 

We were not, like him, fortunate enough to And a godde^ 
to help ua acroee; the ^orrent raged furiously over and 

and salt in a rag, and fasten it unto a stick, and ever and anon strike it 
upon their lega to make the leeehes drop olf : otbera will st^rnpe them olf 
with a reed, cut flat and sharp in the fashion of a knife ; but this is so trouble- 
some, and the; cume on ajjain so &st and so numerous, that it in not worth 
their whila: and generally they suffer them to bit*, and remain on iheir 
legs during their journey; and they do the more patiently permit them, 
because it is si) wholesome fiir them. When they come to their journey's 
end, tiiey ruli all their le^s wiih ashes, and so clear thetn<>e1ves of them 
at once; but still the blood will remain dropping a great while after." 



among the rooks and boulders, and the bridge had, monthB 
ago, been swept away. Shortly after the burst of the mon- 
soon, in the month of May, the floods from the mountains, 
checked by the bend of the river, rose rapidly to a height of 
forty feet, and completely submerging the hanks, whirled to 
destruction every impediment they met with. On their 
Bubsidence it was found the bridge was gone, the masonry 
abutment on the right bank destroyed, and only a few logs 
of the entire timber work of piers and pathway, left stranded 
here and there on either bank.* 

We at first thought the natives were trying to frighten 
UB from going further, but on ascertaining the state of 
affairs for ourselves, we returned to Gllimalt;, and waited 
to see what another day would bring forth; in the mean- 
time a few pigeons, kingfishers, orioles, jungle crows and 
other birds, were shot, and a little taxidermy practised with 
a view to the preservation of their skins. Starting early 
the next day, we with some difficulty effected a passage; 
although in crossing the Hatula>gagga, we found that that 
river had fallen four feet during the previous twelve hours. 
The ford, where we crossed, was fully a hundred and fifty feet 
wide from bank to bank, and we had occasionally to make a 

* A bridge has again and again been put ap bere ; but 00)7 to be swept 
awBj as orien as erected. It is understood to be tbe intention of the 
Chief priest of the Srip&da to erect a anapension bridge of a single span; 
raised sutTicientlj high to enxnre it against ilestruction from catastrophiea 
similar to those which deotrojed its predec 



jump from one rock to another, in placea where a slip would 
have been followed bj inevitable desrruction ; iinlesfi one 
had the good fortune to be caught by or ugainst a length <)f 
cahle-ratan* which had been pitrtially strtitched across the 
bed of the river, apparently with a view to rendering assist- 
ance in case of possible accidents. The worst place was near 
the right bank, where a mighty tree had been overthrown, the 
trunk of which stretched diagonally over the deepest channel 
of the river, a chaem down which the waters were rushing 
and tumbling in tumultuous foam. A large Hmb of tiic tree 
was jammed between the rocks on one side of the channel, 
while the roots were stuck fast in the other. Up this limb, 
and along the wet and slippery trunk, and down the roots, 
each one had to pass ere he could gain the opposite bank. 
It was a nerve trying operation, and under such circum- 
stances heavy nailed boots certainly do not give one a feeling 
of security. Here the shoelet-s natives had a decided ad- 
vantage over us. Several of these indeed declined trying 
the tree; and slinging their loads on bambus, waded two and 

• This ratnn ia n epecies of Calamtu, occasionnlly fiiui'd 300 feet in 
tengih, an inch in diameter, and wiih acarcelv any difference in thiuknea* 
throughout its entire leiigth. From it' lightnea.", strengtb and toughness, 
it lia« been employed by the nacivea with strikiug success in the funnacion 
of sunpeoaion bri'lgea over water-courses an 1 ravine*. Oescriplions of 
the»e briit^s are given by both Sir J. E. Tennent, and Major Forbes. 
In the work by ihe latter a wiwid engraving is given of the one whit-b 
eroded tbe Dedru-oya, on the Triniiomalee road. 



two among the rockB above where we croasetl, probing the 
depth of water with long atickd as they went, somctUnce 
eiaking to their aniipib), but always »o zigzagging as to fiad 
the shallowest part of ihe stream. They knew the river 
an I we did not ; and after all had passed, ibey declared that 
but for our deterroination to go on, and the number we had 
to render help to each other, they would not have ventured to 
try the passage. Happily no accident occurred, and we 
reached Palfibaddiila with no further damage than that of 
being wet through; with the exception of what happened 
to one of the coolies, who, carrying a nitrate of silver bath, 
the top of which was fortunately screwed on, in shifting his 
load turned it upside down ; a slight leakage followed, which 
not distinguishing from the rain, he took no notice of; the 
consequence was, that the brown skin of his back and chest 
become covered with stripes and streaks of black, which, 
when a glimpse of sunlight broke through the clouds, shone 
with a bright metallic lustre, and he was very nearly believ- 
ing he had been bewiiebed, or was undergoing punishment 
from Samnn for venturing through hia tcrrilories at so un- 
wonted a season. It was a sort of satisfaction to our minds 
to find, on the third excunsion, that the natives themselves 
are not without feelings of apprehension, sure- footed as they 
are, and nonchalant as they seem to be. At this same ford, 
alihough the water was lower, and nothing near so foamingly 
boisterous as on our second journey, one of our coolies became 
completely panic-stricken. He stood trembling on a rock in 
the middle of the stream, perspiration pouring out at every 



pore from sheer dread : move he could not; and we had to 
^cnd two men to relieve him of his load, anything but a 
heavy one, and help luin over: but lie would go no further, 
lie liml had enough of the pilgrimage, and we were obliged to 
proceed without him. 

Piilabaddala, — or according to same authorities, 
dola,— Ktfinds on an elevated plateau, I.IHO or I,2n0 ftet 
above the sea. It conRiels of a village or hamlet, containing 
aevcriil email irrepuhir streets, with sundry spacious open 
bungalows for the nceommodation of pilgrims passing to and 
from the Peak. Its ordinary population, according to B aba 
Sinho, the intelligent Oandrachohi of Ilaghnpola, was about 
250; but thousands throng into it during the pilgrim season, 
espeeially in the months of February, March and April. 
In August 186fi, the place was nearly all burnt down by an 
accidental fire; but wattle and daub hute, withcadjan roofa, 
are soon run up again, and one good has perhaps resulted 
from the fire, in that several of the bungalows are now 
substantially roofed with tiles. 

The following legend ia connected with the place, and 
accounts for its name. Long, long ago, a very poor woman 
was desirous of performing the pilgrimage to the Sri-p£da, 
but, owing to her extreme poverty, could take nothing with 
her except some common jungle leaves, which in times of 
distress the natives occasionally resort to for food; these she 
boiled, and rolled up in a platntain leaf; and having arrived 
thus far, when about to |>artake of her food, she found 
the boiled l(fnves had been miraculously turned into rice. 



Thenceforward it was called Pala-bat-dula, "the place of 
rice nnd veffetables," a name which it has ever sioce retained. 
The fact that rice was eubslitutcd for the leaves, is, no doubt, 
correctly enough recorded; but the chanf^e was one which 
it needed do miracle to effect; although if niiracica were 
needed at the time, the eup|>ly, ae a matter of couri<e, would 
be created to meet the demand. 

To the south of the hamlet, separated from it by a field a 
few hundred foet in breadth, is a quadrangular platform 
about 90 feet long and 72 broad, raised three feet from the 
ground, anJ approached by six roughly hewn steps. On 
this is placed the Vihdra, a small modern building, udjoining 
which is the Ddgoba, formed of brick, about 1 'I feet in height 
and 70 in circumference. In Iront of the d^goba is a stone 
slab, 3ft. 6in. by 1ft. Sin., raised .Sfl. 6in. from the ground: 
faint traces of an inscription are observable upon it, and it 
is carefully roofed over; it id used as an altar, on which the' 
Buddhists make their floral offerings to the djigoba. This 
is apparently of onsiderabic antit^uity, but much <Iila])idated; 
it was partially grown over with a shrubby vegetation, the 
roots of which were penetrating through and threatening to 
destroy it. 

The vihara contains a facsimile in copper of a former 
golden and gem-adorned cover and representation of the 
Sri-p(iJa, long since lost, or destroyed. Engravings, and 
embossments in silver, represent the 108 marks upon the sole 
of the foot, which indicate their possessor to be a IJuddha. 
In this instance these are all represented by lotus buds and 

., LiOOg Ic 

ADAM'S I*1:aK. 

fli)wera, in various stiiges of dcveliipinciif. A brass rim was 
lyin^ by it in piece.-', ricbly chased nn 1 engraved, and at 
one time ndoriied with precluiia stones; but the sdckets they 
onct- filled were now eiliier empty, or 61led with imitations 
in '^\ass. There waa aldo an im:igc of ltu<ldhn, in a standing 
position, about two feet high, made of an amalgam called 
"loka'le," consisting of copper, brass, and three other nietala, 
the names of which the priests did not know. A silver 
diigoha-.-iha|icd karandua, with a golden top, containing an 
image of Buddha in bronze; and a shrine, covering a ecdent 
Buddha, about six inches high, made of a atone called 
"kirigarunde," stood in front of the copper Sri-]iada. This 
ehrinc was filled with dead fluwers, and had cerLainly not 
been looked into for some time; for when the priesit opened 
it, to give us an opportunity of examining the figure, out 
jumped a rat, and a family of yonng ones were discovered 
left behind in their neat. The two officiating priests, 
llattcmbe unauae, and Hatwelle ummse, reside in the central 
street of the hamlet. We were, on each of our visits, much 
beholden to them for accommodation and information. They 
are literally worshipped by the people, (and so, in fact, are 
Buddhist priests, by Buddhists,* in all other places), to a 

* 'The Buddlms, aacred books, anil ihe pricsthuod, are regnrdcil as 
tlic threp moat prefious getns. 1'hpy are all s-siitiatcrl in the lliree-folU 
fonniilHry rL<p«ntt^<l by llic BuiUllii:<t w)irii Ik> naini-s, as nii aol c>r worship, 
Ihp triii.l tn whicli lie h>.>k» as the ol.iwctnf liis roiiriJcaye ami hU ti-fiige." 
— IlAtiiiT'« Ka^lcni Monachisiii, p. )66. 



greater extent even than the Sri-padi, and the d%oba; 
and it was painfully pitiable to see men, women and children, 
making their ofFeringa of flowers, oil, money and valuables; 
and bowing doAvn in adoration before them. 

It beingnearly sunaet when we arrived, and every corner 
apparently occupied, we were for a wliile puzzled where to 
And a resting place. At last having told the interpreter to 
make known our wants to the priest, he was good 
enough to allot to our use an unfinished house, which, al- 
though its walls were of undried clay, and one Bide was minus 
both door and door-frame, was, happily for us, roofed in, and 
gave us all the shelter we were actually in need of. In a 
few minutes two rude bed-fiames were also supplied, as well 
as a small table; and while our servants were preparing 
dinner, we strolled out to observe what was going on around. 
The pilgrims came and went, in a continuous stream of 
companies of families, or villages, some of them in regular 
procession, headed by a party bearing an ornamented shrine, 
and accompanied by a band of shrill horanawa, tam-tam and 
doula* players, blowing and beating, and tormenting one's 
tympanums with their noisy discords. All found quarters, 
any where and every where, as best they could. Amongst 

* The lioranaiiTa U a kind of darionett; the tam-tam a small pair of 
ket'le drums slunjj in front of a nisn, anU beaten with two slender sdcka, 
tlie extremities of which iire bent into circiea; the ilouU is an obloDg 
drum, generally' btateii iit one und with a atiik, aiiil on the other with 
Ihe baud. 



tliem were a few Iliiulua, and a sprinkling of Moormen. 
Someof tlie^c latter, with aa eje to bunincss, had extempo- 
rized a bazaitr, where almost everything in a small way could 
be bought by tho^e who were so disposed. 

" The place aftbrded a very intcrnstiiiff view.* Situated 
just at the commencement of the upward elope, the altitude 
was scarcely sufficient to command much of a view of the 
low country, but the prospect given of the mountain range 
before us was fine indeed. A long barrier of mountains, 
covered with dark forests, lay in our front, and it was up 
one of the passes of these that our to-morrow's route would 
lie. About half way up the alope a long wall of perpendi- 
cular rock stretched along the mountain front, and over this 
cliff, many torrents were streaming in far resounding water- 
falls, on which the evening sun-light was pleasantly [ilaying. 
At the extreme left of the range a noble mountain erected 
its head to the clouds. The mountain I refer to is called 
Kunudiyaparvftte. It extends from the low country in 
one sheer, unbroken slope, to a height of upwards of 5,0(K) 
fect, like an enormous buttress to the mountain range behind. 
Towards its top it rises in precipit*>us rocka, and the black 
ehining surface of these lofty cUttd were on the evening 
that I watched them, all glowing in the last rays of the sun. 

• The above extract i« from a skcti;li ofoiir seooml est 
by one of my conipanin'is. It will be un<kTstu.Hi iliat a 
■ftisttnguifbeil by niark^ nf (jiiotatiun, bul tu wliicli no at 

is given, Ls frum ibc samu [len. 

1, Google 


tlien setting heliind the western liilU. Shortly afterwnrda 
the clouds lowered on the mountain, anil the beautiful view 
became lost in the night." 

Our appearance rather escited the cunoBity of the people, 
and when we dined, we nte our meal in state — a state which 
we would have dispensed with had it been po)isible, for we 
were gazed upon the whole time by as many fellow pilgrims as 
could crowd their heads in at the open doorway. They were 
not however otherwise rude or uncourteoua; but did nil that 
lay ir. their power to assint us in our wants. As the raoon 
rose, it being nearly full, and the sky clear, the appearance 
of the place was animated enough ; — here, companies of men, 
women and children, clustered round their cooking fires, 
eating their food, or chanting Buddhist legends; — there, 
lighted by the glare of numerous torches, throngs intently 
listening to men reading aloud from olas: — in one place, a 
number looking on and applauding the musicians, as they 
danced an accompaniment to their music;— in another, de- 
votees surrounding a portable shrine, worshipping the small 
image it contained, and depositing their offerings in a cup or 
basin placed before it. We did not escape the notice of the 
tam-tam beaters, who formed up before, and treated us to 
their best performances; and the way in which the two 
dancers, each beating a pair of kettle-drums slung before 
him, rattled away with stick and elbow and palm, and kept 
time with the seated douln, or big drum beater, and the 
horanawa blower, was marvellously strange and grotesi^ue. 
^Rewarding them with a few rupees, by way of getting rid 



of them, we laid down to try and sleep; but tlie continual 
noise occasioned by fr.ish bands of [iilgriins arriving and 
departing, was of so disturbing a nature, that we no sooner 
dozed off than we were again awakened, and were only too 
glad at laat to hail the rising of the sun as a signal to pro- 
ceed ourselves. It must be owned, our bods were not of the 
most sleep- inducing kind. Two of us lay on frame?, the 
canes of which were at least three inched apart; a couple of 
rough planks, and a door taken off its hinges, served the 
other two: but we had not expected luxuries ; we had pro- 
vided ourselves with ruga, and for the rest supposed wo j 
should have to rough it ; and we found our suppositions here i 
and there fully realised. The unfinished house we occupied ] 
was one being built for the |-riests, and on our subsequent 
visits we found the rooms pleasant quarters enough. The 
worthy unanses gave us a hospitable welcome, and the best • 
accommodation the place afforded, and we were abundantly j 
ijatisfied. I 


gdam's JJtali 

" Where'er we paze, around, nbove, belnw, 
U hnt rainbciw tintB, what magic tbiirms are rouml! 
Bock, rirer, forest, mountain all abound, 
An<l bluest skieii, that barnonize the whole: 
lienenth, the didlaut torrent's rushing aounil 
Tells where the mlumeU cataract dotli roll 
IK-tween lliuse hanging ruL-ks, that shock vet please the coul." 


Pai.a'baddai.a. — Mountain ranges. — KALCfiAXOA biiidge. — 
Uda Pawanema. — Ni'lihela. — Getanetcl-gala. — 
DiKABETMA. — Idikatupa'na. — Diiakma-ra'ja-cala. — Ku- 
nudiva-pabvate'. — Be'sa Samasala. — Teuiiilenna. — 
Ga.ngu la-hen A. — Si'ta-gangula. — IIeramitipa'na. 

After performiDgour morning ablutlona in the presence 
of a number of persona, who watched our proceedings in- 
tently, if not admiringly, we took, from a stand point near 
the vihira, and while waiting for coffee, a rapid survey 
of the scenery around. To the north of Pal&baddala rises 
Kunudiya-parvati^, the monarch of all the mountain ranges 
within view. Running south and shouldering agiunst it, as 



it were, is u range consisting dC the KoiiJagula, Xili- 
licla, and Kekillagnl^ moiintiuns. To tlie tioulliwect are 
the mountains Dewana^aln, ^lorangala, Nawemeneagalo, 
anil Kanngala-kanda. In tlic dislanco, simtliwarils, bevoml 
Katnajnira, arc tlic two liigh ninuntaiiis Ainl>uldeDiakanda 
and ICantigala-kanda;* and through the valley betwceu 
them, is seen another high range one of the moun- 
tains of which a|i)icnred to have a double sunniiit, not 
unlike that of the liena Sanianala, Our path lay up by 
Kundagala and over Nilihela. Passing out of Palabaddala 
by the c;ist, a glimpse of the top of the Peak is caught 
above the mounlains, and is hailed with shouts of " Sddhu!"t 
by all true pilgrims, botli going and returning. As the 
crow flies, the distance between the two points is not more 
than three and a half miles; but the height to be sur- 
mounted was etill 6,250 feet above where we btood; and by 
the pilij;rims' irath, the distance to be traversed was at least 
eleven miles. The intervening country forms a part of 
what is known as the " wilderness of the Peak." A walk 
of a furlong and a half, partly through paddy fields, brought 
us to on upper branch of the Kalu-gayga, which ia crossed 
by a well-constructed rustic Jiridge, about thirty feet in span, 
and threefeet wide, floored with short mopas (sticks an inch in 

* Qiiicre "Gallcnaknnda," It is sometimes difficult ti> uatoh the exflut 
names of places nhen npoken in n language not familiHr to the listener. 

t ■ SS'lbii ! ' — a joyous esclnmation. Well-duiie ! Goo*l ! lo a religious 
sotiie, e'lnivalcnt perimps to HftUtlujali ! 



diameter). The river liere runs down a steep and somewhat 
gloomy looking rocky ravine, and from this point, about 
a hundred feet higher than Palabaddala, the ditKcultica of 
the journey may be Biiid to begin. Immciliately after passing 
the bridge, tlie ascent is by a steep climb up the mountain 
side, here called Pawanoli-hela; after half an hour of this 
work, and pasting a huge overhanging rock, we came to the 
village Uda Pawan-ella, consisting of a few bungalows on 
narrow plateaux, rising one above another. They belong to 
the Bnnddra family ; and are of essential service to pilgrims, 
who generally halt at them for a while. Just below, there is 
a small plantation of coffee, growing under the shade of , tall 
forest trees, among which some specimens of the cotton 
family are conspicuous. This is the last regularly inhabited 
station, the elevation being about 1,500 feet above the sea. 
When we first passed it, the bungnlows were crowded, and as 
we did not care 1o stop, we pushed along up the path, which 
is simply the not always dry rocky bed of a mountain 
torrent, with here and there a few ladders of jungle sticks 
to assist the traveller up a more than oidinary precipitous 
piece, elsewhere with notches cut in the rock to afford a 
foot-hold;" and for the rest an ascent on and over gnarled and 

•"The walk frnniGilimal.' ta Pnl6ba<iUala la hy no raenna an easy 
one, nlthough much inferitir in ilifEculty and steepness lo that immeiUHtely 

succeeding Thia part of the road in by ftr the mnst difficult and 

precipitous; in lat'^ much inure bo considering the extent, than anytliing 
I could have suppused poaaible. I hail ascended Ben Lomond and 



interlacing ronts of trees, and stoIlGl^ nnd etepe of every size 
and sliiipe, from three inclic^i to three feet in height, the 
average gradient being one in two — some partsof which can 
eearcely be overcome otherwise than by crawling up on all 

Two wearying miles of this kind of toil brought ua to the 
jS'ilihela amhilama, a welcome halting place on a level of 
a few yards length; and a i^tntion celebrated for the loud 
and reiterated cclioes thrown hack from its surrounding 
mountain walls and etupondous precipices. Here we rested, 
and while partaking of a rouglily prepared breakfast, entered 
into conversation, through our interpreter, with some of our 
fellow-pilgrims. One old man, leading his family, told us 
this was his 51st trip; another, that he was returning from 
hU 52nd; and a third, whom we subsequently overtook, ohl, 
feeble, and tottering, and supported by son and grandson, 
WU3 making his 56th journey. 

Not far from the ambalama, near a bend of the path, a email 
patch of cleared jungle leads to the ledge of a terrible 
precipice; where it is said a fair and sprightly girl having 
carelessly stopped aside, fell over and was dashed to death 
in the abyss below. Her name was Xilihela, and her fate is 

Siioivdun, the laltcr alVr a liartl day'a i«alk, 

which I consider<;d do 

ordinary acliievemont; but anything like the ate- 

r.t from Palihaddala to 

Diviibetmn, I hud never before dreamt »f. It w 

s a ennstant succession 

of the most precipitous hilia to be climbed, on 

after the other, with 

wearisouie uniformity and unvarying difficulty.' 

—Hi-ilnrj of Ceylon, by 

W. KKI0I1T<>^, 1H45. p, 391. 

DigjizMb, Google 


commetDo rated by the place being named after ber. It is 
custoniary accordingly for tbe pilgrims as tbey pass to shout 
out Nilihelaakke! "sister Nilihcla!" and in a second a dis- 
tinct double echo comes back, — a voice thr-y think, from tbe 
spirit of the girl, in answer to their call; the fancied answer 
being 'efiiia!' — coming. The elevation here ia about 2,700 
feet, "The precipice is almost hidden by the vegetation 
which grows on its face. Looking over it you view a valley 
of immense depth, all filled with lofty forests, and on the 
opposite side of the chasm you are fronted by the long lofty 
precipice visible to us the previons evening from Palibadalla. 
Here we had a splendid view of the [8] waterfalls, which 
now ran full and strong, from the effects of tbe night's heavy 
rain. One was a broad deep stream, which leaped at two 
long bounds into the chasm below, where its roar was 
decpcucd by the reverberations reflected from the snrrouuJ- 
ing walls. Others were thin gauzy films of foam, others 
long drawn threads of silver, and each had a tone which 
contributed to the loud deep harmony of the whole." * 

" The evening miata, wiih ceaseless change. 

Now clothed the inountains' lofty range, 

Nov teft their foreheads bare. 

• "To show how these streams depend on the immediate rains, I may 
here montior, that on visiting the snme place the next day, on our rPturn, 
we saw that nearly all of the falle had diaappeared, and tlie place of the 
largest one was now only ninrked by the bare dry rocks over which it 
roared on the preceding daj." 



Atul munil tlic skirly llicir mantle furlL>d 

Or on tlie »a\i\a nalcri viirlvO, 

Or, on tlic eililving liTLVZ'.-it wliirlvil 

DKpcrseil in niiiUllc nir. 
A lid, oft condenseil at once tli.- v lower, 
Wlien, brief and (iorce, the inituiilain ^huwcr 

Pmirs like s loircnt doirn. 
And when return the sun's g!aJ bcanis 
Whitvn'd with foam a. tlioussnd streams 

Leap from tlii; mountain's grown."* 

The next object in the accent to whicli our attention was 
tlrawn was a etono or pebble tumulus, which we at first sup- 
posetl marked the last resting place of some pilgrim who had 
died on tlie road ; we were however mistaken in our surmise. 
It seems it Is the practice for each pilgrim to deposit a small 
Btonc here, and to pray to S;imaa-Dcwij6 to grant him a 
renewal of strength and enable him to proceed and finish his 
pilgrimage. These small mounds are of frequent occurrence 
further on, A long pointed jutting eliib of rock was next 
pointed out to us, called Uruhofa, " the pig's snout." Not 
very long ago, our informant said, the resemblance between 
the rock and a hog's snout was remarkable, but from some 
cause, — probably to facilitate the ascent, — the end had been 
broken off by some one, and the name is no longer applicable. 
Beyond this is the site of the Getanetui-gala ambalama. 
This no longer exiats, but on a rock below where it stood, is 

V, Google 

I lot 


a rough inarription after the opposite fashion; 
wliat the characters meant we could not learo. 
The elevation was ahoul 3,100 feet- 
Proceeding onwards, the oiountuin atill rises 
for 6vc or six hundred feet, when there is a dip, and in a 
nearly level hollow, of the length of ahout a hundred and 
eighty yards, — a part of the pilgrims' paih in fact, — is the 
Kalu-ga^ga-dowa,* the source of the Kalu-gapga. At this 
elevation, 3,500, or 3,600 feet above the sea, we duly halted 
at the spring which here welled out ita crystal waters, in 
order to quench our thirst, and otherwise refresh ourselves. 
Near the point Avhere we entered this small dell or ravine, 
the ddwa, a mere rill of water, runs down a channel to the 
southwest. The headman and the natives all agreed in call- 
ing this the source of theKalu-ga^ga, — its highest, or head 
waters. Baha Siiifio said he had himself traced its course 
down to Gilimal<;,and he was therefore quite certain about 
it. From this ' dowa' a toilsome half mile of uphill walking 
brought us to the top of the well known mountain Diya- 

We were now on the summit of the water-shed of this 
part of the country. The streams we had hitherto crossed 
ran in a south or southwesterly direction; flowing more or 
less directly towards the main branch of the Kalu-gagga. 
EaatofDiyabetma," the division of the waters," they took a 
northwesterly course, to be ultimately absorbed by the 

' Down," the Si 



Kitru-gnnpa, aa It winila its way tliroiigh the Kuruwiti 
KoraU'. The smull plain on tlic top of tlie mountain is about 
3,t^00 feet itbove eoa-levcl. The first object that catcliea 
the eye upon entering tliis plain on a elear ilay, is the Peak. 
Sliouts of reverential siilutation are then choruaaeil by the 
pilgriiufl na the object of their journey thii3 bursts upon 
their sight. Its appearance reminded ua of Milton's de- 
Bcription of the eiistern gate of Paradise, True, it was no 
" rock of alaljaster," yet was it, and tlie pilgrims' path, and 
the shrine, surmounting all 

■ " pitrd up to till' clnll.U 
('(•nspicuous fsr, wimling with one a.^OL-nt 
A<:cr)sil)]c frcim earth, one entrance liigli ; 
The rest was craggy cliff, that overliiing 
Still 03 it roHC, impossible to dimb." 

On the south of the plain stands a dilapidated bungalow, 
once a good eubstanlial rest-house, bnilt, the Gaf^-arachehi 
told US, for a lady, by Dasan&yaka Nilamti, in theRajakdriya* 
times. This lady, we understood, was the iiDivcrsally 
esteemed wife of the Governor, General Sir Robert IJrown- 
rigg. Our informant seemed to take an interest in the 
place, and added that his father was one of those who were 
obliged to assist in its construction. Roofless, doorless, and 

■ A royal or GoTcrnment service ; under which syslEin works were 
executed by the compulsory labour of the inhabitants. Tliia ayateii) u>u 
aboliebed In 1832. 



windowless, it is now utterly abandoned, the Interior being 
choked up with rank vegetation.* 

) visited Ihe Peak about 1844, an'i stnyed a night 
ill tills buiUiin<i, thus notices it. " The Amljalam at Diyubctine, is a largo 
uncomfortable tiled building, having two rooms aurniundcd bjr u kind of 
walled verandah of peculiarly' forbidding aspect. The interior of it, us 
may be easily imaj;incd, is a damp, cli"e uncomfortable cell, tlie floor 
being of earth, and so thiirougldj snmrated with the heavy dtws of the 
district, that the guide informed me, it was never knoivn to lie dry. 
The ambalam stand.i in the corner of a snmll plain, cleared of iis brush- 
wood for a short distance round the building . . . The teinpcrature of the 
place was so refreshing, that I felt compar.itivcly little fatigued liy my 
exertion, whilst the poor coolies who accompanied me, sat upon the damp 
cold earth the very piotures of misery and chilliness. Two of the numlwr 
were busily engaged In en<leavours to obtain a apark from the flint ami 
steel, in which however they did not succeed; and seeming utterly uu- 
coiisiuous of any other way of wanning themselves, they huddled together 
in a corner and lay down to sleep. Having dined upon a little bread 
and cold bacon, which we had fortunately brought with us, washeil 
down with libations from the brandy flask. 1 wrapped my blanket round 
mc, and endeavoured to ci>m[K>se myself to rest upon the bamboo plat- 
form supported by four rugged sticks, that served me for chair, table, 
couch anil sideboard. This was a vain attempt however; for what with 
the noise of elephants, cheetahs, monkeys, jungle cats, jungle fowls and 
crows, it wa.s utterly impossible even to doze, beside the pleasant ex- 
pectation of having some of the former as visitants (for our mud edifice wafl 
. without door?) iluring the long dark night that was approaching. I lay 
with my walking stick in my hand during that tedious night, listening hour 
after hour to the roar of the elephants, and the screams of the cheetahs, 
which were often, to all appearance, within a very short distance oi 



A (IcH'cnt of abimt forty feci brought us to Diyabelina 
]}i-|iata, a ruckj' strcaiiilct, when we aj;ain commenced an 
asreiit, c^)^^iTlg riili^e iifier ridge on our iipward route. 
Ik'twceii tlie.-^c ran sireiiiiiw, the most remarkable of wliieh 
is the Idikaiujinne,* abroactl, fifty feet in width, 
ofbure, smooth, slab rock. This name was given to the [ilaee 
because of a legend which asserts that Buddha, on one his 
\i?its to Samanala, stayed here awhile to mend his robes; 
while so occu|)ied, his terrible opponent, the great demon 
AVasawarli-inaraya,first caused the rock to riae to bar his way ; 
finding that to be useless, he then caused a torrent of water 
to rnsh down upon the spot wliere he was sealod. Buddha, 
seeing the flood approaching, merely traced a semicircle 
before htm with the needle he was using, when the waters 
parted right and left, and the malice of the demon was 
again defeated. On our second excursion, a sheet of water 
was rapidly rippling and running down the smooth rocky 
bed, and close to the place where we crossed, the stream 

tljo hriiixp. Ilntrever, 'it is a long lane that ha.') no turning,' and a still 
longer ni^ht tliaC has no enil — morning dawned at laal, and the miati 
which had encircled the moiintnin on which I stood Ibc wliole of the 
pri;ce<ling ei'cniiig. lite a vast sea of quiet foam, gradually wore away, 
and BmagnilU'cnt view rewarded uh for the tedium of the preceding night 
To the Bonih anil west wa< a bnjt aucce^si'iii of irregular hills, terniinaled 
bj an CKteiided plain, which appeared fading off" in tlie distance, lill 
tcnninated by the sea, whilst in the north a high range ol hilla al)ru|)Lly 
ended the prospecl." 
" The needle rock. 



divided in two, one branch running north, and the other 
northwest, uniting again a liUle distance lower down. 
The islet thus formed waa [jointed out to us as the spot 
where Buddha sat, and was alleged to be a convincing [>ro(if 
of the truth of the miracle recorded in the legend. The 
spot is considered sacred by Bnddhista, who upon reaching 
it, ceremoniously bore their eara over a hole near tiie 
middle of the river bed. Tlie height above the sea is about 
3,900 feet. 

A few yards further brought ns to the foot of the Dhar- 
ma-rdja-gala,* anallbut perpendicular mountain mass, with 
three flights of in-cut etepa to enable pilgrims to surmount 
it. Counting these, we found 21 at the bottom, 9 a little 
further on, and 100 leading to the top f From the morticed 
holes by the side of the top flight, it is evident stanchions 
and chains were once intended to be, and probably had heen, 
placed. But there is nothing of the sort there now, and on 
a gusty day the ascent or descent of this particular spot must 
be one of some little hazard, if not of actual danger. To the 
left of the steps, ascending, is cut in outline, on the face of 
the rock, the figure of a man with his hands joined above 

* Rock of the riglileoos king. 

t Buddhists l«li(!vf that thsse steps cannot bo count«I. A hutidrud 
(lllTereLit people liih^ eount tliem, the}' say, hut their iiuuihcrs will ulwajs 
tlilTer. A similar belief h held by some people in England, in regnnl tt> 
Stunehonge — the remains of the Druidiuul temple on Salisbury plain. 



Lis hcail, ]Kiintin<r towanls ami in aduratum of the still 
afar-oft' Finit-iiriiit. Above tliis figure id an inscrijition in 
Siylialese, very iiiiicli tililltcrated and weather-worn, but 
sail] to record the death of him, n kin<!;, who^c fij^ure is 
carved below, who there died, and whose name tlie rock now 

There is a very onrious tradition eonnccted with the 
mountain ran<re t>t' whieh the Dliarina-ruja-gala forms a 
portion. It is to the foil<)wing ell'>jct.* To tlie left of the 
Dharma-ri'ija-^ala, wme diotancc in the jungle, ia a tree, 
round the roots of vvliicii tlirec seqients aru continually tivin- 
iiig; about the distance of five bowshots from this tree la 
another, contact with which produces instant death. f Snr- 
rounding the place arc quantities of the bones of those wlio 
have in this milliner met their death. An exploration of the 
neighbourhood might lead to interesting results. Possibly 
this Golgotha of the hills may be one of those places to 
which the elephants retire to die. The whole of the sur< 
rounding country ia marlied by tlieir presence, ai.d we had 
seen their fpoor and other indications of their presence, all 
along the route since we left Paliibaddala. " It is certain" 
says Sir J. li. Tennent. "that frequenters of the forest, 
whether European or Sinhalese, aru consistent in their aa- 

n full, I am infonnwl, in a iiMtive work, an 
llirinaiit could nut ri'ciillect the r.amc of the 

o the dc^nilly Upas I 



eurances, thnt lliey have never fouinJ the remains of an 
elephant that had died a natural death."' 

On a fine clear day, the view from the small platform 
where the steps on the Dliarnia-raja-giila terminate, is very 
striking. To the north the towering Kunudija-parvate ;,its 
square rocky summit like the fracture on a mighty piUar 
from which, in a. convulsion of nature, the capital had been 
broken off; its western face a steep, tremendous, appalling- 
looking precipice: there it stands, the frowning tempest- 
battered Avarden of that amphitheatre of rock and mountain, 
c-ives and waterfalls and rushing streams, and legends, 
mystery and awe. To the south, of a nearly equal altitude, 
is the Itena Samanala, with its alleged demon-haunted double 
summit. Circling round between both lie a multitude of 

* " Tlie Singhak'Ht: have a furtlior superstition iu relatiun tu tlie close 
of lite in the etujihitnt: they bcltere that, on feeling the approach of 
dissoluiion, he ri'pairs to a sohtnry vnlley, nnd there resigns himself to 
<tt>nth. A native who nrcompanicd Sir. Cripps, when hualing, in the 
forests of AnorHJnpuora, intimated to him timt he was tlien in Ihc imme- 
diate vieiiiity of the opot ' to whic-h the eleptiants come to die,' but Chat 
it was so iii}'»teriously concealed, (hat althougli every one bcheved in its 
existence, nn one hnd ever succeeded in [icnetiating to il. At the corral 
ivliich I have described at Korncgalle, in 1S47, Dehi<;amc, one of the 
Knniljati chiefs, assured nic it was the universal beliel of his countrymen, 
that tlie ek'phanis, when abont to die, resorted to a valley in SaiTragam, 
among the mountains to the east of Adam's Peak, whii^h waa reached by 
a nurrow pass with walls of rock on either side, and that there, by the 
side of a lake of dear woter, they took their last repose. It was not 
without interest that I aft«rwanls tect^nised this tradition in the story 
of 6iiibad of Ihe Sea, who in his Seventh Voyage, after conveying the 



moTintain toi>8 of minor plcvatioti. In front, below, facing 
westward.s, is a miglity chasm, from whose depth!', and from 
the valleys between the smaller mountains, rises the ceaseless 
roar of the rush of many walers. These were the most 
striking features of that wide- spread mountain [j^inoramn. 
Concerning Kunudiyaparvatc, there is the follovying legend. 
Buddha, struck by its singular aiipenrance, at first intended 
to leave the impression of his foot on the summit of its 
crowning rock. Suspecting this, Wasawarti-mArayti [daced 
there the carcass of a dead rat-snake; whercuiwn Buddha 
turned from the place in disgust, and ever since the waters 
from the mountain have run foul and dirty — whence the 
name, Kunidiya, "dirty water." The upper part of the 
mountain also bears the name of Unudiya, "hot water." 

presents of Haroun al Riiscliid to tlie king of Serendib, is wrecked od hli 
return from Ceylon, and sold us a stave to n miiHttT ulio einploja hiio in 
shoot'mg elepbanta for the sake of their ivoi-y;tiIi one clay the tree on 
wbich he was stalioneil having been u|irnote<l by one of the herd, he fell 
lenscleas to the ground, and tbc great elephant approaching wound his 
trunk ariiund him and carried him away, censing not to proceeil until 
be had taken him lo a place where, bis terror having subsided, he 
tbund himself amongst the bones of elephants, and knew that this was 
their burial place. It is curious tn find this legend of Ceylon b wliat 
has, not inaptly, been described as the 'Arabian OJysacy' of Sinbad; 
the original uf which evidently embodies Ibe romantic recitals ot the 
sailors returning from the navigation of the Inli.m seas, in the middle 
agei, which were current amongst the Mussulmans, and are reprmlueeil 
in variiius forms tliroughont the tales of the Ariibinn Nights."— .Nalutal 
History of Ceylon, by Sir J. E. Teskkst. jip. -^35-2:17. 

., LiOOg Ic 


It would be intereeting to nscertaio whether there is a hot 
mineral spring here; if so, the name it beare would be 
much more rationally accounted for, than by the tale 
Bud<llii(ttio lore has handed down to present days. 

Ite^pecting Uena Samaniila, the highest of whose summits 
overhangs its base, and is sometimes called the False Peak, 
from being visible when intervening mists or clouds hide 
the Samanta-kuta from view, It is alleged that no human 
being has ever yet succeeded in scaling its topmost height, 
The name of this is Deyiguhfiwa, or cave of the God. Major 
Forbes states, that once a priest, confident in his sacred 
character, ascended so far that the light was observed which 
he had kindled at night beneath this overhanging summit 
of the haunted mountain, but that next day he returned a 
confirmed maniac, unable to give any account of what he 
had seen. He adds, " There is nothing incredible in this 
elory, fur the dreaded mountain is apparently easier of ascent 
than Samanala ; and we need not be surprised at the 
melancholy fate of the priest, if we take into consideration 
how strongly the mind of a native (nurtured in the belief 
of demons) would naturally be acted on when alone in an 
untrodden solitude, haunted by vague terrors of superstition, 
and the just dread of sav^e animals."* 

Ad ascent of some fifty feet brings the pilgrim to the crest 

* In I8S7 a company of Bmlilliist priests resolved Ui make the attempt. 
Tbc hearts of some failed when they reached the foot of the mountain, 
and tliey went uo furtlier. The rest proceeded, and found tbe ascent 



uf flic riilge of wliicli the Dharma-riijii-giila fiirni3 a part. 
On the otlici- ni(ic there is ^ rapid dcsi^ent of some hundred 
and twenty feet, to the Gani;ule-herK'-elIa, midway to which 
is the Telihilona, a roeky cave, wIiltc tradition wiys nn 
ancient king who had forsaken his throne for an ascetic life, 
took up his abode,* After cros^^ing the ella, nnd ascending 
about u hundred and seventy feet, a few poct-s on the top of 
the ridge poiut out the site of a former rest-house, known as 
the Gangule-hene ambalama. An elevation of nbont 4,UiO 
feet is here attained, from which a steep descent of fifty feet 
leadd to the Hfta or Slta-gangida— "the cold water fall," — 
across a portion of which, and carried a short distance up the 
precipitous gully from which we had just debouched, was 
the first of the chains, which from this point are slung at 
intervals to assist the pilgrims in the inot^t difficult parts of 
their journey. From the length of this chain, made of stout 
half-inch iron, with links a span long, wc iinagined it might 
have originally been slung on the site of the hundred steps, 
very likely before those steps were cut, since after their 
formation, the necessity foraiich aid would, to a considerable 
extent, be done away with. 

bynomcnosiiifficuU; but terror si'izeil tliem when on or near the top, 
and tliey swoi)ned away. While in tLis state one believud that he suw 
revealed to bini a magnificent tcmplL-, adorned througliimt with gold and 
prei'ioiia gems, and in the interior, resplendent be/ond all eUe, a Sri-pidii, 
lo which that nn (he Samanala wasnotinanj way to be compared. 

• This is probably the cave referred to by Ibn Baliitii, os tbut of the 
king Sibak. 



Large irregular mnsses of rock, filling a Bpan of perhaps 
two hundred feet in breadth, form the bed through which 
the river Ktormily forces ilsflf at the jioint where it is crossed. 
The rapid waters seem to rush out of space as they leap from 
the brow of a iiigh rocky ridge above, and are quickly 
hurried off down the slec|» ravine below, which carries them 
on their way to the KuruwitaFalls, where at their junction 
with the Kuni-gafjga, they bear the name of Bapat-ella, 
There is a stem grandeur in the scene, the effect of which is 
heightened by the dark forest banks on either hand, and the 
high back^^round in the distance, an Immense mountain wall, 
— a sheer bare precipice many hundred feet in depth. The 
rocks and boulders are piled about one another in stran^re 
confusion, and form a number of aivernous dens, which 
indentifies the spot as that named by Ibn Batiita, the "place 
of seven caves," "When crossed at the dry season, the 
appearance of these rocks is more likely to attract attention 
than that of the river itself. 

Pilgrims of all classes here make a halt ; their special 
object in doing so being to bathe in the stream, and to 
put on clean clothes; since any neglect in these matlers 
would nullify all the merit of their pilgrimage. Much wor- 
ship is also at the same time paid to the dewas or guardian 
spirits of the rock and stream, and many were the prostra- 
tions we saw made by young and old alike ; for large numbers 
were congregated, of both sexes and of all ages, from the 
babe of a few months old, to the tottering sage of seventy, 
and the ancient dame of even riper years. 

I by Google 


A variety of rcn^fins hnvo liocn as!-ii^nc;l for this ])ractirc. 
Slime consider tliut tlic iwnie of the stream rettu's to Sfta 
tiie wifeorRLima, who in tlic conr=a of her p;ii.tivity was 
(letiiiiu'ii in ihisjiart of ihe conn try ;* nn 1 llmt it h owiii^ to 
her havinj^ porfornit'd hoi- ahliitioiis in its waters tliat lUcy 
pus.iL'iis the [loeuliar sanctifying^ powers attrilnitcil to tlium. 
This corret^iioiiils with the belief in Inilia, where Wf know 
thiit tlic mountain t^priii^s in wliieh she batheil, when 
she and her brother-in-law aceonijianicl her husband m his 
exile, are to tliis day objects of veiieratiuu among the 
Ilijuius. It is to this fact that Kiilidusa ulludus, in the 
ojicniiig lines of the Me^^ha Duta:t — 

" WUpre Ri'ir 

Ami tli...^.- ] 

n(;iri'» tool ihirk « 


Others again believe in the tradition, that somewhere in 
the mountains near, Sainan possessed a garden, watered by 
the sources of the river, wliieli teemed with all precious fruits 
and delightful products; while a third party, holding to an- 
other tradition, fix at its source either the site of the garden 
of Kden, or of a garden cidtivate<l by Adam after hia ex- 
pulsion from Paradise. Both have their faith confirmed by 



placo wLere Q 

cen St'ta wa 

s liiiMcn was 

ilk-J Asoka-«a 

ne. 1 


diH) site of this p 

ace has not been delormini;!] 



Megho Duta, or 

Cloud Miiss 

iiger. BTitwn 

in Sanskrit ab 




TmiiHlateil intn 

Koglisli by 

Frofessor H. 

11. Wilson, 






the allefi;ed fact, that fruits, — king-cocoaDute, oraogea, limes, 
&c. — are occasionally brought dowo by the stream, the place 
of whose growth they consider is inaccessible; aod more- 
over believe, that any one venturesome enough to explore 
it would never return. At any rate, one could almost 
imagine, that it was from tbe Bpot where we stayed awhile 
to admire the peculiar features of the scenery, and with a 
knowledge of the traditions last alluded to, that the Bard 
of Sheffield wrote the following lines, so trnthfuUy does 
the latter portion describe what we saw on our second visit. 

" Tbere, on Euphrates, in its aDcient course 
Three beauteous rivers roU'd Ibeir confluent force, 
Whose streams, while m&n the blissful garden trod 
AJorn'd the earthly Paradise uf God; 
But since he fell, within their triple bound. 
Fenced s loDc region of forbiddun ground. 
Meeting at once where high athwart their bed 
Repulsive rocks a curving barrier spread, 
The embattled floods, bj mutual whirlpools crost, 
In hoarj foam and surging mist were lost; 
Tbeuce like an Alpine cataract of snow; 
While down the precipice tbey daah'd below; 
There, Id tumultuous bitlows broken wide, 
They spent their rage, and yoked their four-fold tide, 
Through one majestic channel calm and free 
The sister rivers sought the parent sea."* 

* "The WoHd before the Flood." The Sita-gangula, the Bapat-$lla, 
and the Kuru-gapga, add their streams to and unite in the Kalu-gagga, 
before it reaches the sea. 



in prose aa truthful, my compaQton wrote, "The bed of 
the river is of the wildest character. Overshadowed by 
lofty forests, and flanked on each side by towering moun- 
taio slopes, the flooded stream roared and blustered, as it 
tore its foaming course over and amougst the enormous 
angular masses of rock by which its bed is obstructed:" Mid 
if ever the injunction was needed, as regarded mere phy- 
sical actions, to "walk circumspectly," we found it to be 
BO when crossing the Sita-gangula, in the state described. 

"Huge terraces of graoile black 
AfTordcd rude ancl cuiubrous track ; 

For from the moiintBin hoar, 
Ilurl'd Leftiliong in some oiglit of fear 
WTien yell"<I the wolf and fled the deer, 

Loose crags had toppled o'er; 
And some chance-poised and balanced )aj 
So that a atripliiig arm might sway 

A mass no host could rtuae, 
In nature's rage at raudom thrown 
Yet trembling like the Druids' stone 

On its precariou-s base."* 

The bed of the river being passed, we found ourselves at 
the base of a shoulder of the Bena Samanala, from which 
rose an ascent as steep, as rugged, and as difficult, as any 
portion of that up which we had already toiled since leaving 
PaUibaddala, even if it was not more so. Again and again 

" The Lord of the Isles." % Sic Walter Scott. 



we were on the point of euccumbing to fatigue, but 88 often, 
rfter a bait of a few seconds, we Offua strode on — " Excelaier" 
our orjr,— ~untij, after pftsrang the Yakknhattawegala, aa 
immenee perpendicular rock frowning abore the path on the 
left of the ament, we stood on the aunimit of the ridge, and 
entered H^ ramitip&na, where wepnrposed restingour wearied 
limba. Hie heat was exceeeive, aadeome of us almost vowed 
never to undertake Bueh a joamey again; bat six moBthe 
later the experience of perhaps the most fatigued of the 
number was as follows : — 

From the Sita-gangula to H^ramitip&na, " we had before 
us a long series of high rough steps of rock, winding up 
the goi^e. Bat owing to the heavy drenching rain then 
falling, a mountain torrent was now rushing down, and 
each step was a small waterfall. Consequently, in forc- 
ing our way up this gorge, we bad to plunge through a 
ehower bath at every step. Not that we cared for the 
wetting. In fact we were always wet. It would be hard 
to say which would be most wetted by the contact — we or 
the torrent. Dry clothes we had long looked upon with 
scorn, as tokens of effeminacy and luxury. But even dis- 
regarding the wet, it was not very easy to make head against 
that water. However we at last reached the top, where we 
took possession of the bungalow buildings of Hcramitip&na."* 

* On this journej, anc) on tbc sulmequent one as welt, from the time of 
our leaving Ratnapura, it raned more or lesK the greater part of everj 
daj. AStet once getUng drenched, our plan was to strip off our irct clothes 



It was past mid-day when we reached this spot on our firat 
escursion, and we had not accomplished more than about 
eight and a half miles in more than six hours, and there were 
yet perhaps two and a halfto be traversed ere we "the sacred 
impress of the lotus foot could see," io its temple-sbrine at 
the top of the Samaoala, which stood full before us in all the 
sublimity of its m^escic height and size- To attempt to 
go further was out of the question, aud besides, our cooties 
with commissariat supplies had not yet come up, and we 
were hungry as well as weary. 

The station, huilt io the shape of a quadrangle, 70 feet 
hy '60, in its inner square, was filled to overflowiug, and as 
we could obtain no room under any sheltering roof, we were 
fain to do aa hundreds of others were doing, and bivouac 
in the open, with umbrellas to screen our heads from the 
sun's burning rays — the intensity of which was little less 
than in Colombo, although we were now 4,350 feet or more 
above the level of the sea. Casting ourselves down on mats 
courteously spread for us, we watched the animated scene 

at each halting place, and nrtng them as drj aa we could, and while ire 
rested or stayed, to enjo; the comforts of warm diy suits, which with 
our rugs, were cflrefuU; packed in a large water-proof wrapper. When 
we proceeded, we again got into our damp suits, but the active exertions 
which immediatelj followed, prevented asj inconvenient or evil results. 
The chief difference in our two journeys was, that in September we had 
much mist and little sunshine with the rain^ in Decemher we bad more 
aimsliinc and scarcely any mist. 



around. Huge cojiper nnd brass and iron caldrons were 
seething their contents over dozens of fires int^idc and out- 
side the bungalotvd on each side of the quadrangle; thousands 
of natives were buay eating, or arranging themselves in 
their beat for the final ascent; companies were coDtinunlly 
coming and going; singing or chanting on their way stanzas 
of the Samanala-helln;* the noise of the tam-tam and doula 
and horan^wa was incessant, and ever and anon arose the cry 
of" Sadhul SaJhnI" — the shout of many voices saluting the 
siicred shrine above, the outline of which was perfectly 
distinct, osaliio was that oftbe long and many -coloured string 
of natives, winding op and down the mquntain side, eagerto 
attain the end of their journey, or as eager to return, now 
the great object of their pilgrimage had i>een attained. We 
hnd not Iain long however, before we attracted the notice 
of a kind motherly looking Sinhalese la«ly, who sent each of 

• The Samanala-ljella is one of the popular ballnds of the Sinhalese, 
having about as much poetrj in its composition, in tiie estimution ol 
educated natives, aa the street aonga of LouiJod, the produclicmB of the 
bards of the Scvcn-Diala, have in comparison with the songs and ballads 
of tlie classic poeta of England. But for all that thaj catch the attention, 
and are rivcttec] in the tnemorics of those for nhom they are speciallir 
written. The Samanala-hella consist.? of forly-eight fuur-line stanzas, 
each of vrhich contains a rccitlLtion of on attribute of Buddha, or of on 
incident connected with his visit to the Saiiiana'i, or an allusion l«i Saman, 
or the features of the country, the usual occurrences on the journey, &c., 
and eooclu'lcs with the determination of the singer to worship the 'Siri- 
pa Simanala' — the sacreil foot of Samanala. 



iia a brimming bowl of liot rii^c coiijfp, bulled in fwoa-niit 
milk, a Jisli we found by no means iinpulatublc, and certiilnly 
very refreshing in ita inmicdiiitc efti'i-ts. Fur tins she wuuld 
accejit nolhin<; iimrc rlian tbanks; and wc eub,>'c<|nonlly 
ascertained tbat the wbolt- of the aci-oinminlatiim i>f the iiluoo 
ad well as the food distributed, waa given gratis by a Head- 
man of the District; — a very ineritiirioua and charitable act 
on his part, wliieh we, witli all tlic other jiilgrims there 
assembled, most gratefully aecejued. 

Uy the time our eervanta lia<l arrived, (and it was a 
marvel to us how they eamc at all wilh eiicli heavy loads 
upon their heads) an exodus of a part of the pilgrims had 
taken place, and we took possession of the quarters they 
vacated, a space in a cock-Uift of loose planks immediately 
below the tiles of the principal ambalania or bungalow. Tliia 
. ambalama (a building about 60 ft. by 3n, with lean-to's at 
each end), is unwalled on three of its sides; the roof is sup- 
ported by sixrowaof |iil!ara, on tliefour inuer rows of which ia 
laid the planking that forms the upstaira apartment; a clear 
open space of about five feet all round this planking, ena- 
bles those above to see nearly every thing that 16 going on 
below ; the ataircase leading to the cock-loft is the notched 
trunk of a tree. Here we spread our ruga and lay dowu 
awhile to rest, some fifty of our dusky coloured brethren 
sharing the apartment with us, ' Breakfast, tiffin, dinner, 
or whatever the meal might be called, was ere long served, 
our boxea doing duty for tablea, and our ruga for chairs; 
and however rude the acccasories might be, the vianda were 



good, and the cooking excellent; the only drawback to our 
eiijoymeot being the dipcovery that we hiid exhauBted our 
Block of beer and brandy ; we had however ample eupplies 
of tea and coffee, and except that tliey took lonffer in 
getting ready, they were jterhapa quite as good, if not better, 
tlian tlie nior? anient beverages. Refreshed by rest and 
the incal weliad partaken of, we amused ourselves, for the 
remainder of the day, in watching the procecdinga of our 
fellow pilgrims, — who a}ipeared to be etiually ae much 
amused with ours,— and in admiring ihe grandeur of the 
surrounding scenery ; the most attrnctive feature in which 
was the Samanala mountain, broad and huge and high, 
from the centre of whose long stretching ridge rose what 
here prcnentt'd the appearance of a bell-shaped cmiic ma^s, 
the venerated shrine-capped Peak, to vi;?il which wc had 
joined the pilgrim throng. 

"Tliere ptiwiJ in lliat rommitii- Hime 
[Tlic] niounliiin anfiillj sublime; 
O'er mnny a lenffue tlie bnsfment spreail, 
It lowerM [nc'r] many an airy lieml . . . 
Pure in niid-lieaven thai rwnrsltipp'ii] eimc 
A ilifldem of g]ory shone ; 
Re fleeting in the night-full'n skj 
The l)e8nis of day's ile|jartetl eyej 
Or holdicij;, ere the <lHy tii-gim, 
CumiQuiiinn with (he u 



The ^iiiisi^t was mairniliiTtit. lliuiijrii mir lioiiicon tn the 
west wits lioniHleil by tlic t«]>^ <•¥ the hills we Iiml just Biir- 
niimnteil, but tlip wn.nlcd slnpcs aii't tlio Iiijzli tnwcrinj: cone 
of tlu- Sniimiiah, as well ns the ni;rJ:<"I imviiiituiis sMcs of 
Ktiniuliyii-iiarvatL-, ivcrc a'^Vnv with hnj;hcst liiits of ■,n-con 
and purple, !>niwn and roil; and no ^tmiipr had "lie of tlie 
tliousand rajs" ,«iiuk bonciith the Imundiii;^ sca-liuo of the 
west, than the temple above us was lij;Iitcd up, and looked, 
as it was, a iiiij;hly Pharos in the blue serene. As the 
shades of evening rapidly advaneed, suddenly " ihe i-ilver 
mom in sjilondour *'hiine," rising just above and eclipsing 
with its hrilliiint gliiry the lamp-lit temple that liad jnst 
attracted our attention ; then sparkling up and down and 
zigzigging on the monntain'a side, came the flaring torches 
of parties of ascending and descending pilgrims : while 
light, fleecy clouds gathered round llic "shining monarch of 
the night"' to he wondrously illumined by the lustre of liia 
rays; and in the concave viiult above, now thick besprent 
with flashing stars, 

" Unnimber'ii orlis of living fire iipponr 
And roll in glittering eniniknir o'er the splipre," 

Altogether, the beauty of the night excelled anything that 
any of our party had ever cither witnessed or imagined. 


Tlic mooa 
n.k-r, while 

D ori 

ntiil piwlr/ 
s pursuniliFil 

s a female. 

n of i 

n tlic m 





But soon the mista from tlje valleys crept up the mountains' 
I sides, and gradually veiled from our eyes the enchanting 

scenes upon which they bad been gazing. 

I "Sweellysnil 

The twilight shadows o'er the darkening seeiit', 
' Earth, air, und oc-eun, all alike nereno. 

j Dipt in the hues of sunset, wrealhi.'U in loneii. 

The cli>uds are resting on their mountain thrones ; 

One peak alone exalts its [cone-like] ereat 

A golden piimdise ahove the rest; 

Thither the day, with lingering steps, retires. 

And in its own blue element expires.' * 

Feelings well nigh akin to nwe had by imperceptible 
degrees stolen npon our souls while contemplating the subli- 

, mities of nature above and around, and in this mood it was 

that we sought in our respective resting places, "tired 

j nature's awcet restorer, balmy sleep." 

[ But when we wrapped our ruga round us and lay down in 

j our quarters, the wish was father to the thought, that 

< Soniniis siion wouhl o'er us steal, 

I Our eyelids in soft slumbers seal, ' 

for while the noise continuously kept on, the smoke from the 
I greenwood fires undernenth us ascended through the chinks 

between, and clung about the planks along which we were 
; stretched; and its obnoxious pungency, mixed with the 



other nial-nddiiiy tliat aros't; from flic tleiif^cly sIowcJ tliron^^a 
Inilow, anil llie utter nej^lect ol' siiiiitiiry measures anmnil, 
gave jriievdu.-i ort'ence to tlie eyes and miritrils. Looked al 
from our {ilalform, the natives on the giiiund below were 
literally jiaekid toj;utlier a." close as hcn-ings in a harn-I; 
and we certiiinly Celt that, where we were ,iiinrtcred, we (vere 
undergoing the jiroccs of hcing cured like fliteherf of bacon. 
Dos|iitc every drawback, exhausted nature at his-t fell under 
the influence^ of the drow!*y god, and we had enjoyed a to- 
lernbly sound twn hours' rest, when the arrival of a fresh 
party, either coming or going, produced such a hubbub and 
commotion in the place that we were thoroughly roused. 

Such rest and accommodation were, however with all tJicir 
di-awbacki", infinitely to be preferred to our subsequent ex- 
periences. On our Septemler journey " when we stopped at 
the top, we soon began to discover that we had arrived at a 
far cooler climate than that we had left at the bottom of the 
mountain, A thermometer we had with us indicated 64° and 
afterwards went down to 59^. The bungalow was streaming 
wet ; the roof leaked at every joint ; it seemed considerably 
wetter in-iidc llianout;" the planks forming the floor of the 
central loft dripped heavily, and every drip was like liquid 
soot; "and a green damj) growth that coated the walls and 
the podden floor did not tend to make the place look any more 
comfortable. Outside, a cidd penetrating mist was driving 
past, and enveloped every thing, altogether obscuring the 
I)rospect. Certainly not a nice place to spend a night in. 
We thought that on the whole we might indulge ourselves 



in the luxury of dry clotlica, hut liad to wiiit almost an hour 
for the i>ortinaiitoau to arrive in wliicli they wore packed. 
We spent the time ia wnlking up and down, and iaiighing 
at the decidedly unhappy look oftlic coolie:*. Poor beggars, 
they felt the coM very much. Tluir attire was not calcu- 
lated for euch a climate. There we had an advantage over 
them, and they would no doubt gladly have exchanged tlie 
primitive simplicity of their rig for the trousers of civilisation. 
We told them to light up some fires, ^nd they made some 
attempts, but ihe-^e natives do not appear to possess the fire- 
making instinct, and some of their trials were very unf'uccess- 
ful. However they at last succeeded in filling the place with 
damp and smoke, wliicli had the most pungent action on the 
eyes and nostrils. If they could not extract heat from the 
ivct wood, they seemed pretty satisfied to get smoke, and 
b<'gau to look somewhat more contented. The couches 
which we had that nighl would not have satisfied a Sybarite. 
Our accommodation altogether was rather defective. The 
mist drove right through the building, and the only advan- 
tage we possessed by being inalde instead of out, was that 
we were nearly stifled and blinded by the smoke." We lay 
on some damp rough planks placed on the muddy floor, over 
which we spread our water-proofs and rugs; and although 
sleep visited the eyelids of some, the rest were thankful 
enough when the dreary night had passed. For — 

" I»u<l tlie (iiist/ nijrht wind blew, 
Mnnv an nwfiil p]!!].")! Ix-Iwci-n . 



And the mnonV bewilik'r'd linrk 
Sy tlic iiiicl>ii<;lit tciii]i<?.4t to"t, 
III a 3c:iof v'n)ioiii-s dark 
111 a giiirofL'lomis wns losL"* 

In December, the bungalow was dry; nltlumgli rain fell 
heavily during the night ; but there was no dense driving 
niisi, or gusty squalls, iind that was about all that could be 

said in its favour. 


giiliim's |i;ali. 

" Emerging from the cavem'd glen 
From steep to steep I slowly cllLib, 
All J far above the baunti of men, 
I tread in air sublime ; 
UerentL mv path the swallows sweep, 
Yet higher crngs impend. 
And wild flowers from tlie Hasiires peep, 
And rills descend. 
Now on the ridges bare and bleak, 
Cool round my temples sighe the gale ; 
Ye winds ! that wander o'er the Peak, 
Ye mountain spirits ! hail !" * 

Herahitipa'na. — Ascent of the Peak. — Aandita-mala- 


DAN-KAPALLA. — Shrike of Sauan Dewito'. — Tue Sai'- 
Pa'da. — The Kamiili -ge'. — The Kudamita. — Scenery 
OP TiiE Skies.— Sunrise. — The Shadow. — The View. 

TnE moon was still high in the heavens when we woke 
OQ the night of our first visit, and shining with unuaual 
brilliancy (or so it eeemed to us in the pure atmosphere of 

* "The Peak Mountains." Bj Jaues Moktgomekt. 



fo iiiHisiiiil a lici^'lil): mill lin^Iit wn? llio f^liciii of tiie many 
cliirs of magnitude hIio.-c rnyn llu; l:irj^or orb piiliil tiol in 
sti-lltir rijmi-o. Scar<-ely a cKniiI w.i^j vi>il)lc; aiul fcclinj; in- 
vifr.iratt-.l l)y (Mil- sli.irt ri>t, wo rrsolvcil foi'thwitli to ri>.-uinc 
our nicy. 

'■\V;tli Mruiij;tliy(L.-.l .■,>i.flil,ii,-i.., tlio i.iiiri-li li..,;iii. . . . 
A V[s(:.'|l:i(ll, lll»l tlll'l>U.>-ll llii- loivM ,-,], 

Tlic iiil-iinis Ira.'kM. (ill .m tliv iii»ii,il,.iii-s li.^i-til 
Tlu'v riu-t llif sun, n-wri-cii. in i.'li.ri..u- li;.-lit ; 
l;i..]iiirlik-a i.ii..(s nU-...r il,,. l,iiiiU.-;.i"> nillM, 
And ull tin- orifiit rlmi,-.! wi)lMl..uil> n(fr.,M"* 

Iloraniipiuina wlildi signifies "tlie rock of ntavcs," or 
"the Ininp of walking sticks," was, we wure also toKl, "tlie 
]>laco for tiic lightinp; of the torcli.'s ;"f and we, who haJ 
been wonilcring what tlio narrow cinilitooH-inch or two-foot 
rolls were, which we IiaJ noticed most of the jiilgrinis curried 
with them, now saw that they weie torches, — tubes filled 

■ "TIk; World Wf.irL- the Fl"i«l." 

t A frk-ml whii uiailf tli« aacynt fue nii<l twenly jcira nn;o, 
iiiloi'mx me, tliut iron nnh, lu be ui-uil iis walking slicks. u» lu tie 9iild 
t" tlic pilfTiims nttbis siaticin, at the mioufn rix-dullur, or U.6i/.,CR<'h: 
atid that on ttic arrival nf the pit{rriiis at tlie foot print, ihey iiinilc offer- 
iiigs of those sticks to the Sr!-pAda. When ns inanj ac filty wi'ri! thus 
col lot led, tbey were sont biick to HemniiliiiSud, by an ii;reii[ of the 
priest, to be re-suld; anil this would liii[>]ieii ilirce or four limes a day, or 
even more frequenlly, necordUig tu eireiimatanees, Tlie revcmie froip 
such a source must hove been [ireltj pnifitable, as long as it Iii8lc<l. 



witli & resinous Eiibstancc, — here first brought into use, and 
giving out a strong flaring blaze when lighted. Speedily 
providing ourselves with a supply of-thcse, and leaving our 
heavy baggage in charge of a hangani,* we set out accom- 
panied by our interpreter, and a few servants to carry up 
our overcoats and rugs, witich, for this part of the journey, 
they rolled up and slung upon their backs. 

A email valley with a steep dip, but not more than fifty 
feet below Heramifip&na, separates the Samanala from the 
mountain of the False Peak, or that ridge of it from which 
we weredet^cending. The first portion of tlie opposite ascent 
is through several gullies seven or eight feet in depth, and 
extremely narrow, cut through the soil at the base of the 
mountain by the torrents which pour down in the rainy 
season; these alternate with steep rocks on whose faces 
broad iron liidders are clamped, or with angular boulders, 
up and over which the traveller must scramble the best way 
he can. The ascent, nearly the whole of which lies through 
a densely wooded forest, may be divided into four parts, 
— I, the face of the mountain, as steep as anything we had 
yet surmounted; — 2, the shoulder, somewhat easier travel- 
ling ; — 3, the cone, the Akasagauwa, or "sky league," an 
awful f^tcep climb ; — and 4, the Peak, an all but absolute 

As we wended on our way, taking great heed to our 
steps, especially when a descending party seemed to block 

* A responsible head coolie. 



tlie path, we were much struck liy a peculiar ami incessant 
clacking sound wlilcli came from llie woods on either si<Ie; and 
ive arrived at tlie conclusion that it was produced by swjiniis 
of some inpcct or other, just as tlic "knife" or "scissor- 
grinder"— the Cicada — fills the air in the lowlands witli ita 
shrill car-piercing notes. Very weird-like was our proces- 
sion, as the torches flashed down their lifjht into the guiHcs, 
or glinted on the cliffs which frowned above and about us ; 
and nervous was the clutch with which we held on to the 
chains that helped us up some ugsome rock, with steps cut 
here and there in its adamantine lace ; or grijiped the ladder 
whose sloping irons gave but a slippery hold to the soles of 
our boots, admirably adapted although those irons were to 
the naked feet of the natives, whoae toes are trained to all 
the uses of fingers, as far as mere holding is concerned. 
Thus on and on we went, until we arrived at a mound which 
we were told by our guide was the grave of the first man who 
made a pilgrimage to the Sri-p&da, and who became a Saint 
in consequence; but he was not able to inform us whether 
the party canonized was a Buddhist, a Hindu, or a Moham- 
madan.* It is more than probable that the mound is the 

* Capt. PsiDHAM writes, (p. 614 of hie work on Ccj'lon), "On the 
luniiuit of the continued ridge, colled' Aandiyamallc-tenne, is the grave of 
an Aandiva or mendicaDt priest, now a Mahommedan eawt, who closed 
his pilgrimage, iloubtlesa to his great content, 90 near the place At whit-h 
the lather <if maakind and the lirsl of Mahommedan prophets, had, in bU 
belief, been compelled, tbaii pede in uno, to perform so long and uncom- 
furtuble a penance. After his bodj bad lain fur three months on this 



place of interment of one of the last named religionists, ivlio 
are aomewhat apt to revere :is eiiinta such notabilities of their 
faith as happen to die whilst on their journey, when led to 
undertake a pilgrimage. Immediately after, we entered 
Aandiya-malft'tenne, "the plain where the Aandiya died," 
a small plateau where once stood a two-roomed bungalow, 
now only a ruinous mound. Tliifl place no doubt obtained 
its name from the fakcers whom Kaja Siyha the Apostate 
made custodians of the Peak. Here we made a short halt, — 
adding one more group to the many already there, the whole 
forming a picture such as Salvator Koaa would have been 
delighted to transfer to canvass, — all jiausing at its immediate 

. . . . " In view that towering Teak 

That eastwanls, rears bis regal brow 

And sliadons half tlie vole below : 

One moment biiaking in the blaze 

}]is majesty of form iliaplajs 

'Jlien with a rube of splendid ulouds 

His giant bulk again enshrouils. 

With filial ane the Indiana siill 

View that mjslerious holy hill. 

Bpot, reiiisting the most inveterate causes of deeompoHilion. it was dis- 
covered by a hermit from the wilds below, who had undertaken, as an 
uddiiional penance, the task of reaehiog the Peak, through traeklesa 
deserts, thorns, rocks, under caverns, and over barriers of every kind, . 
where man hud never trod before ; and he it was who came upon the 
dead body, and pcrtonned the lost office of humanity over the swntud 



With tlic-m 

1- i.n 

ir pro,, 

'J'lii.' sai-rmi niiirk ji-t lii'- ii 
lIcTli'p every rank, niiit spx 
l'iT:«nn llip [.ioii- [.ilgrima 
Ana yearly (Inrk from fir i 

T.. • 

nib Mi>! .turk rock'^ 

Ajr^iin bracing ourselves to tlie ta^^k before lis, we sot out, 
and colj us the niglit was in those iii)[»er rejjions of t!ie air, 
we were all soon in a streaming pcrsjii ration from the violenee 
of our exertions in surmounting the diffiiiullie^ of the patli, 
which consisted of nothing but a aeries of chains, ladders 
and rnclts, and rocln, UJders and chains, until all hut 
breathless wo reached what may be termed the neck of the 
Peak itself. In this part of the ascent onu comes every nov 
and again to the edge of a precipitous cliff, from whence a 
magnificent view is obtained of the country I>eIow. At first, 
the suddenness of the opening, as it were on to space, the 
extent of the prospect, and the height one is conscious of 
having attained, is apt to produce a sensation of giddiness ; 
which a few moments in general suffices to dispel. When 
about forty yards from the neck of the I'cak, a divergence 



from the upward path for about the same distance, leads to 
a rocky cave called Menlk-lcna, wliere it is Bup|X)aed gems 
of great value may be found.* The top of thia so-called 
cave is a large projecting horizontal slab of rock, in size 
about 20 feet by 10, of considerable thickness, and about 
eight feet high from the ground. When seated underneath 
tht^, should the possibility of ltd falling in occur to the 
mind, a feeling of nervousness may result, which it is as 
well, at once, resolutely to shake off. 

In the neck of the Peak, a temporary abed of bambu and 
thatch had been put up. This we found crammed choke-full 
of pilgrims who had preceded us, either going or returning, 
the latter halting for a short breathing space before attempt- 
ing the final and most trying part of the pilgrimage. Here 
once stood the Ehela-kanuwa, or post of the Bhela tree, 
where the pilgrims were accustomed to register vows, marking 
them with chunamf on the post, before they made the final 
aijcent. As this post is no longer there, it having either 
fallen, or been thrown over the precipice, they now content 
themselves with marking a piece of rock which has been 
substituted for it-J 

• Tliu iiiinn; Mcnik-k'na, signififs "the cave of gems." 

t Cliuiiam, B fine kiud of slicit-iiiac, eaten with bett-t Icsf nnd areka- 

X A story gcwR snioiig the nntitCR, th»t some seventy or eiglity years 
ago, one of the Jlnngakkon MuUiliyard uf Mnt^u, wunt on pilgriinage 
to tbe Sri-|)li(la, and (iMceiilt'il as fur astlie ^hclo kunuvra, wben looking 
up (ho |n.'i]n.'inlicular asL-enl ho wa-i struck with fear, ami would go no 



Passing out from this, we at once came to the Malia- 
giri-dain-[or diin]-kapala, — " the grcat-rock-cliain-narrow- 
pass" — a ledge with a sc^nt foot-hold and a jutting corner, 
then a small bare sloping Blab, and tlicn the chains, and the 
ladder, which more than all else affect and test the pilgrims' 
nerves. This contititutes the final ascent, and ii divided 
into five portions; the sloping slab just mentionid ; lengths 
of chains to assist one up a well nigh perpendicular flight of 
sixty steps cut in the living rock ; another eloping slab of 
rock, with here and there a few built-up stones ; a further 
flight of forty in-cut steps, still steeper than the last; and 
a third slab rock immediately outside the wall that encloses 
the Sri-piida. On either side of the steps several lengths 
of chains, ten on one side, and the samfi number on the 
other, each from six to cij-ht fathoms long, and formed of 
various large oblong and triangular fashioned links, hang 
clustering down fiat against the siile of the nearly vertical 
cliffs; and by their aid, and, on the topmost fliglit, the addi- 
tional assistance of a chain on stanchions forming a low iron 
balustrade, all are bound to drag themselves up or let them- 
selves down the precipitous wall of rock that forms the 
pathway to the pilgrims' goal above- Those who prefer it, 

furtiicr, but returned, cursing Budillia in Ihe moat reproacliful mnniier, 
for being so cruelly uaklnil as to place bis foot-print on so dangerous 
a place; reinarkiug at dio same time, iioir mueh better it would Lai'ebcen 
had be left the inipresiion of his foot onastoneat tlie field of BatuKedara, 
the villuge next tu Katnapura, i>u tlic oppoaitc bauk of the Kalu ga^ga. 



may indeed, at one spot, take a slightly different but more 

I awfully perilous route,upa brood iron ladder close by, fixed 

' neither straight on, nor at an angle in front of, but at a slant 

i falling to the right, sideways from the rock; the slightest 

slip from which will hurt the pilgrim to destruction in the 

abyss below. And up this ladder one of our party actually 

made the ascent. I did not see him, being in the rear, and 

too busy on my own account to pay much attention to the 

proceedings of others; but when I saw the ladder, its hang 

J to one side made me shudder, and I gladly turned to the 

chains. A\^hen about half way up the final (light, down came 

( a company of returning pilgrims. To proceed onwards was 

impossible, and to recede I dare not; so clutching firm hold 

j of the chains with both hands, with the toes of one foot 

hitched on to a step, and those of the other pressing against 

; the bare vertical rock, I swung aside until all had passed, and 

I then swarmed up with an alacrity which made me wonder at 

myself. Arrived at the top, I was heartily congratulated 

by my companions as I entered the opening in the southern 

I angle of the wall which surrounds the platform, from the 

I midst of which springs the mass of gneiss and hornblende that 

! bears on it£ fop the far-famed impress—the "Sri'-pa'da" — 

to behold which we had thus far toiled and won our way. 
I We now had time to look about us and mark the novelty 

I of the scene. The platform or terrace round the central 

rock is enclosed by an irregular he.iagonal wall, five feet 
I high, and about seventy feet in length from the north- 

I eastern to the southeastern angle, by forty-five feet across 

., LiOOg Ic 


at its {jroatcst breailtli. Gifiantlo rlnKl(«IeTnlnni,-< ovcrliftng 
the wall on the eiistcrii siile of the Peak. Their beniling 
trunks f!eem,tofhe IJudillii^t mind, to bow to the foot-print; 
and to i>ff'or, in lioinaj^c mid adoration, thi^ir wealth of crown- 
ing crimson flowers to the |)Ctlal impress of tlie founder of 
their faith. The area wiiliin the wallc, as weU aa the eeiitral 
rock itself, wa3 crowded with devotecH. Numerous streiiniers, 
and flags of (plaint and strange device, flaunted in the breeze, 
suspended from the chains which servo as stays to sup[)ort 
and protect the temple roof ajcainst the violence of the mon- 
soon winds ; and many additional ones were hung on ropes 
temporarily rove here and there. On a jutting point of rock, 
a few pacoa from tlie entrance gap in the wall, was a shrine 
three feet in height, dedicated to 8aman Dewiy6,thc tutelary 
deity of ttie district, at whose request Buddha came hither 
andatamped his foot-print on the pinnacle immediately above; 
and thither every pilgrim rushed to fall prostrate in adora- 
tion, as soon as he or she had gained the level of the terrace, 
as well as to deposit certain otferings brought with them for 
the occasioD. 

Behind, and a little above thi^ shrine, is the Kudamita, 
a Urge iron stanchion let into a crevice in the rock, on 
which, in former times it was customary, during the pilgrim 
season, to fix the silver-handled umbrella which is now kept 
at the Saraan Dcwale in Ratnapura. 

Standards, supporting from a series of spreading iron 
branches circle above circle of big tin lamps, each threw 
their cumulated glare in front of the shrine, and of the steps 



which led to the foot-print ; and these were constantly being 
fed with oil, and grease, and incense, the fumes of which filled 
the air with a heavy and almost sickening odour. Before 
these standards, tam-tams and doulas, and hordnawaa were 
beaten and blown without pause; and a more demoniacal- 
looking personage than one of the leading horenawa players 
we never saw. One of his eyes protruded from disease ; his 
whole face was pitted and seamed with scars from small pox, 
and his cheeks were puffed out like bladders blown to almost 
bursting tension. If, as an ancient writer* has declared, 
the foot-print is that of none of those to whom it is usually 
attributed, but Satan's own, then in sober truth the Arch- 
fiend could not have chosen a worse or more truculent- 
looking piper to render due musical honors to his mundane 

Just below the temple, two large bells are suspended 
together, between short heavy beams. One of these is 
cracked, but the other was continually being rung by pil- 
grims, who thereby intimated the number of their ascents, 
as well as proclaimed their purity ; the legend being that 
the bell refuses to sound if attempted to be rung by an 
unclean person. Ten rough blocks of stone lead up to a 
kind of altar-tuble of wood, fixed outside the temple, in 
front of, but a little below, the toes of the foot- print, on 
which are placed what may perhaps be termed the honorary 

* MosEB or C1i5rene, who, in his IIiHtorj of Armenii, and Epitome of 
Geography, writes coDcemiDg it, " ibidem ^ataniE lapgum narrant." 



ofn;ri;ig.-' (.f the iiil:^rliiis. Tiie.-c arc chiefly flcral, and at the 
tiiiie of our visit consisted iilmost entirely of the unbroken or 
jiist-burdt Hower (iputhe* of the areka ]mlni. Above and 
ovcrhiokiufi ail, wasthc pa'roda-:iha[>ed Swi^s-cottasf-io'jking 
thi-inc thatai:rconed the holhiw in the rot-k, — the BO-c;dlcd 
Sitci'eil Foot-jiriiit, — wortihi])ped alike by liiiddiiip'tri, Hindus, 
and Mohaminadan^, as the iuHlre^B tliere left of the foot of 
Buddha, Siva, or the Father of Mankind. 

The Sri-iuidarock, theSainaiita-kiita, Ihcpinnade or apex 
of the Samauala, is of an irregular pyramidal forcn, very 
considerably steeper to the south and west, than to the north 
and east. Ita ba^e is abont a hundred and twenty feet in 
circumference, its greatest lengtti being about forty, and its 
breadth about thirty feet. We estimated its height to be ten 
feet above the level of the surrounding terrace or platform. 
The Raphili-ge," or temple, is a small quadrangular build- 
ing, twelve feet by ten, and is, in fact, nothing more than 
a tiled canopy supported on pillars, between each of which 
is a small balustrade, — balustrades and pillara alike shewing 
eigna of age and the eflfects of the weather ;t and neither 
the one nor the other at all improved by being carved all 
over with the names and initials of visitors and pilgrims. 
The roof was ceiled with white cloth, and similar cloths were 

• " 1'lie fjoldc'n tovert'd Iiohsl-." 

f This in about to be taken down nnd a new one put up in its l>lii('e. 
It in 1 1 ciders tot 111 that the ulU one vill be pro^rved in Ibe gruuuda of tlie 
AsBlNtant Govemineiit Agent's bouse at Ratuajiura. 



I stretched between some of the pillars. The entrance to the 

interior is on the north-west, ftiid cloee to thia is a great iron 

I bowl, two feet in diameter, which is kept filled with water' 

i from the well below. The indentation of the foot-print is 

I to the west of the centre of the interior. The heel is much 

; higher than the toes, and the artificiality of the whole is 

1 palpable. A thick raised edging of cement marks the rude 

outline of a foot, five feet seven inches long, and two fci't 

seven inches broad at the point where ilie heel begins to curve. 

The interstices between the toes are also formeii of cement, 

and the whole of tlie niiirkings of the foot every now and 

again need repair.* The inner portion of the heel and instrp 

are the only parts that are clearly natural rock. But as 

there are none so blind as those who will not see, the m-irka 

of iheartificcr'dhands are invisible to the thousands tvho come 

; to worahipthe venerated relic, whicli is just about the size of 

the foot of the colossal images they adore in their principal 

viharas. A white cloth concealed the Sri-pilda from view, 

except when the pilgrims were about to present offerings in 

the shape of money or valuables. These they were allowed 

to deposit in the foot-print itself, from which however they 

j were at once carefully swept out by the attendant unanse. 

* Tliin edging of cement. iu< wvll m IIic artiliciul markings betwcun tPie 
tnea, is pcrliaps renilered necessary, in order ui mnkc tlie fuut-print 
correspnuii ivilh the di'scriplian given of il in tlie Saiuan^-kiitn n 
nhcre it is suit) to be as eluar anil ircll ilelincil "us a nivnl ueal i 



After Jiie prostrations ami the repetition of the prescribed 
Buddhist formulas, the prieat bestowed his benedictioo, and 
- the devotees joy fully withdrew to make room for others; when, 
returning to tlie terrace, they collected around email fires, 
into family groups, while they rested to recruit from their 
fiitigues, previous to attempting the homeward descent ;■ for 

xeveral in 

Dr. D*vr thus di-scribes o 
Tbu party of |i 

■lie lie witncss,..|! on one of these 
1 that Lnil just arrived eunsistcU of 
alive Sin;j;haleNeof the interior, neatly dretsed 
ii) clean cUitheK. They i in me il lately jiroccedeil to their devotiuna. A 
priest, ill his yellow roboa, atooil on tlie rook close to the iinpreaEion of 
the fi)ot, with \m face to the penile, who had ranaied ihcnirtelvea in a row 
beloiT ; Botiie on their kncea, with their hands uplifted, and joined palm to 
palm, and otherM bending forwards, with tlieir handa in tlio same attitude 
of ileviition. The priest, in a loud clear voice, sentence bj sentence, 
recited the urtie'es of their rcli(;iDus faith, and dulies ; and, in response, 
they repeated thesame after bun. When he had finished, they raised a 
loud shout ; and, he retiring, they went through tlie same ceremony by 
themselvea, with one of (Jieir party for their lender. 

"An interesting ace ne followed thia: wives alTcctionstely and respect- 
fully saluted their husbanda, and children tbcir parents, and friends one 
aiiolhcr. An old grey-headed woman fir^t wade her salams to a really 
venerable old man ; ahe was moved to tears, and almoiit kissed his feet : 
he nlfeetionatcly raised her up. Scvi^rnl middle nged men then salamed 
the parriarchal pair; these men were nalame<l by still younger men, who 
had first paiil their reapeeta to the old people ; am! lastly, those nearly of 
llio same standing slightly salamed each other, and exehanged betel-leaves. 
, The intention of these salutations t waa informed, was of a moral bind, — 
In confirm the ties of kindred, — to strengthen fami'y love and friendship. 
It of the Interior of Ceylon, p. Si5. 



although the moon-lit night seema to be the favourite time 
for making the ascent, few or none care to sleep till day- 
break on the Pi'ak, the belief being that only priests and 
Europeans can do ao with impunity. 

It was pointed out to an attendant priest by a visitor some 
years ago, that as there is a hollow under the instep of a 
man's foot, eo there should be a corresponding height in any 
impression made by that member of the body upon any 
yielding non-clastic substance; and that in a foot sixty-aevcn 
inches long, there should be a proportionate rise in the centre 
of the foot-mark, which is not the case in the Srt-pSda. 
The priest admitted that ordinarily it should be so; but 
that the ascent to the top of the Saraanala was in places 
over soft and sticky soil, and that the hollow of Buddha's foot 
had been clogged with mud or clay as he came up, ao that 
aucb a rise could not be ahewn when the yielding rock vvaa 
moulded by the pedal pressure of the All-supreme. The 
answer was by no means bad, aa an off-hand reply to the 
objection of an unbeliever. But the priest either forgot the 
declarations in sacred olas about Buddha's power ofpassing 
through the air whenever he pleased, or of his mode of pro- 
gression when moving ordinarily from place to place; or he 
may have presumed upon the ignorance in regard to such 
subjects of the individual he was speaking to. Now, 
aceording to Buddhistic legends, the manner in which the 
Great Teacher walked, excited universal admiration." If 

* Haiiit's Mnnual of ItudUhisin, p. 366. 



there wore lliorna, rock:i, or otlicr ulihtructiona, they removed 
themselves epontaiieoualy ; if there was mini it dried up; if 
holes they disapjicared; if elevations they melted away like 
butter that sees fire; and the air was filled with choice and 
delicate perfumes. If he [>asned any body in pain, the pain, 
however intense, ceased in an in:itiiiit: and when his foot 
touched the ground, a lotus sprang up at every step! His 
foot came to the ground as lightly as cotton wool! He 
could walk in a »[)ace not larger than a mustard seed ; and 
yet with as much ease as a man may cross his door-step, he 
on one occasion placed his foot on the earth, then on the 
rork Yugandhara, then on the top of Mcru I Of the height 
of Mcru an idea is to be gathered from the statement, tliat 
a pebble would take four months to drop from the top to 
the base! 

The Kuiiia Jataka* describes the way Buddha walked as 
follows: — 

"At once frnm offtbo couch he rofe 
Ami on llie earth that did, wt'U-jili'ascii, liis happy advent greet. 
He aiiught in uiRJesty to place hU ever-eacred feet I 
Ere he, the Lord Supremi;, wlio h with everj meril graced, 
His shining: (cct upon the ground uiajestlcall,v placed. 
Til hear tlial ever-saercd twaiti ere lliey on earth hud trod, 
A scven-huddcd lotus burst all blooming fruro the »>d! "t 

* K. J., stanzas Sd, 57. 

t TliL- Ku^aJalaha was writlpn A.n. 1610. l>v ALiniAWASA Mohottaf.a, 
nn author who occupies in Siphalc-c literature the piiaition held lij Pope 
ill ihiLt of England. Il is a poem of 687 four-line xtauzta, descriptive 

1, Google 



Thinking over the strange iocongriiitiesof the scene before 
119, we ensconced oureclvcH in a sheltering angle at a corner 
of the terrace wall, not far from the email hut occujiied 
by the resident priests, one side of which reste on the base 
of the terminal rock of the Samanata; and glad of our 
over-coats, and the thick rugs with which we were provided 
aaa protection against the cold, we endeavoured to compose 
ourselves to rest, if not to sleep.* 

of one of the exislcni-rx of Ruilcllia frevioux to his final birth and 
assumption of the BuJdha-htHMi ; and in the opiuion of cioinpetenl judges 
"the unity of its plan, the steady progress of the narrative, and a certain 
unaflected displaj' of (genuine feeling in iu prlnci|>al characterrt, entitle it 
to ranic aa a poem of tlie higliCBt merit." A brief account of the author 
and his writings is given in page.*! ccvii. — ccxL of the Introiluction to the 
SiJat Sangarawa, by Ja.ues D'Alwis, Esq.. Advocate uf the Suprciiie 
Court, Ceylun, whose untiring rexearehes and manifold writings on the 
language, literature, history and religion of the Sinhalese, bare won for 
bim A reputation among Occidental scholars that lia.s never before been 
attained by any of his countrymen, and placed hiiu in a foremost rank 
amongst the highly distinguished Orientalists of the present day. An 
elegant English metrical trnnalationof the Kuaa Jalaka was published in 
the Ceylon Obnerrer, in the year 1865. It is understood to have been 
from the pen of T. Steele, Esq , of the Ceylun Civil Service ; and it is 
hoped that ere long it may appear in a more permanent form, with the 
author's latest touches to add tu its value. To the kindness of thia 
gentleman 1 am iudebte<l for the extract in the text. 

* In the ac^eompanying sketch of the ground plan of the Samanta*kiHa, 
o, is the Ragliili-ge, or temple; fi, the bells; c, the shrine of Saman-dewiyd; 
rf, the prientK* house; e, the entrance from Rntnnpura; and/, the entrance 
from the Kandlan Districts. 

., LiOOg Ic 


Rut our interpreter and servanls were not so well screened 
i'rnm the cold as we were, and it was not long before they 
nought out and obtained ]icm]ission for us to occupy a 
two-roomed house on the soiitheastern slope of the mountain, 
to which we descended by some rough steps, which terminate 
the road to the Peak from the Kandian Diatricts— a route so 
comparatively easy, that a man may almost ride to the door 
of the building we now took pos3i'ssi(m of.' Here we found 
a Police Constable, and a Priest; the latter attached to the 
temple, and the former placed on duty to represent the 
majesty of the law, and to protect the offerings made to the 
Sri-pada from the depredations of a litigant party, who claim 
them on behalf of a former chief priest. This priest it seems 
had been deposed from office, and another elected in his 
stead; but the deposed, although he had vacated the office 
and allowed his nuccessor to take pusse:<sion, had been per- 
suaded to dispute the validity of his deposul; and in the 

* It was up UiiH mail that, in IHI4, M<)1l1g'«l<l<-, the ncwlv apiwiiiteJ 
fimt Adikar and Diraiva of Sflburagainuwa, entered the Provinci;, nhen 
Bheylaimla hi.s preileoesaof, reliulled Bf,'iiiiist the luat king of Kandy, 
L'|>on reteivin-i the onler to su|ipvi'sa the rebellion, Dr. Davt aajn 
" Molligixlik' oboved with alaericy ; be entered Saffrai-am ovlt tbe lofiieat 
point of the island, and the most dillicult pas-— the -ammit of Adaiu's 
Peak. The hearts of the native.'' failed them on his approneh; and he 
met nlth hut little opposition. Kheylapohi, with some of his adherents, 
fled to Columbo, and MoUigcddii returned to Kandy witli a erowd of 
prisoners, forty-seveu of whom were impaled." — Account, of the Interior 
of Cejion, p, 321. 



previous season, he, or his supporters, hati made a foray upon 
the temple, and succeeded in carrying away the offerings, 
which are, in the nggregntfi, of considerable value. To prevent 
a similar procedure this season, the law had been appealed 
to, and by order of the District Judge, the value of all the 
offerings must be [laid into Court, until iho right to them of 
one or other of the claimants has been legally decided.* 

Notwithstanding all our wraps and rugs, the cold was so 
intense thut we shivered ngain, and our teeth rattled toge- 
ther like castanets : so ibiil we joyfully welcomed the appenr- 
ance of a fire, and watched with an unwonted interest 
the preparations made for boiling a caldron of rice conjee. 
Priest, policeman, pilgrims, interpreter, coolies, and all 
connected wilh our party, crowded into the small rooms, 
whose bare mud walls and low roof reminded one of an Irish 
cabin; a resemblance heightened in its effect by the croon- 
ing way in which, with coat collars turned up about our 
ears, and rugs drawn over our beads, we huddled together 
over the difficult-lo-be-kindled and slow-burning embers, 
and stoically endured the eye-smarting, eneeze-eicciting, 
larynx-irritating, cough causing smoke they emitted, for the 
sake of the warmth which gradually began to temper the 
biting keenness of the surrounding atmosphere. 

• Tlimiifth the obliging courtesy of llie learned Adrncnle of tlie 
Supreme Cimrt, Mr. C. L, Fcrdinamls, one of ihe Icsiling Counsel 
engaged in tlie case, I am enabled to give, in Appendix J, some inlci'e-''t- 
iiig documents relating to iho mode of appuintiuenl, and s 
tlic office of Cliief-priest of the Teak. 



The water for the cnokin^ was broiifrht from the well — 
(sDme pay spring, but I doubt the pl)^^ibility of there being 
n spring at such an elevated [loint fur above all immediate 
cumiunding mDiintnin top?)— a little ili^tiinoe niirtliweet of, 
and about thirty feet below the terrace wall. This water is 
said to possess many and peculiar properties, and is held in 
as much repute by pilgrim? as is the i)rcei()U^ water from the 
holy well Zem-zem at Mecca by every hadji amongst the 
faithful and turbancd Islamites. In due course the conjee 
was ready and handed round: and what with it, and the 
fires, about which we bat and stood, and the smoke which 
filled the rooms, we at last regained something like our 
natural warmlh, and began to feel ourselves again. 

We had just resolved upon lying down, as best we might, 
for a sleep, when a messenger came to say that the house 
was wanted for the accommodation of the family of the 
Itatemahatmay^ of Kuruwiti Korali;, who had just made the 
accent ; and out we had to tuni, which we did willingly 
enough, for ladies, young and old, were now the parties to 
be accommodated. This Bateinahatmaya, an able, active 
and intelligent Kandtan Chief, was educated at the Colombo 
Academy, and is believed to be a Christian, although his 
family are Buddhists; his presence therefore appeared more 
that of the natural protector of his family, than as a co-wor- 
shipper with them.* He offered to obtain for our use the 

• An appu once toUl his master, Bpologetit'ally, that he went on pilgri- 
mage to the Kflani vilrfira and dagubn, " to please the womans." 



priests' house on the Peak, but this we would not consent 
to. Returning thereCore once more to the terrace, we 
stationed ourselves near the entrance at the southern angle, 
and watched the companies of pilgrims as they came up. 

The ascent from the bambu shed at the Ehcla-kanuwa 
is usuallymade withoutapause; the peril appearing bo great 
that any check, allowing a glance around or beneath, might 
bring on giddiness and result in fatal falls.* Many, if not 
most of the women were completely worn out with fatigue 
by the time they had attained this point; they had therefore 
to be assisted up the acclivity by their male companions, 
who hauled them on to the terrace, and bore them, faint and 
utterly exhausted, to the nearest shrine, where they bent 
tlicm down and forced them to make the requisite prostra- 
tions, and then carried them, all senseless as they were — 
some in death-like swoons — to be recovered by the care and 

' Under ordinary circumatttnces, wentlier permitting, any one wiih a 
cool head and sieady nerves, may go up and down these cliffj with perfect 
safety. But accidents do somctiiuea oocjr, though happily but rarely. 
Major Forbfti mentions, that in 1815, "several natives were blown over 
the prceipicc, and yet continued clinging to one of the chnina during a 
heavy gust of wind ; but in such a situ.ition, no aasistance could be 
rendered, and they all periBlied." And Dr Davy was informed, that only 
a fortnight before his visit to the Peak, in April 1817, two natives 
looking down the precipice, " became giddy, and frightened, fell, and were 
dasbed to pieces." In April, 1S69, three natives were said to be blown 
down the precipice by the force of a fierce stonn that then came on j 
and it was allcgeil, tlut at the same lime several olbers perished from 
fatigue, and the intensity of (he cold to which they were exposed. 



attontum of thoir fiicndi', wherever they could find a vacant 

The heavens above ns were cleiir, the stara were shining 
briffht, and the ghirious fuU-orljed nuion was scarcely past 
the zenith. From the Peak, ahhize with ligiit, to the Hera- 
mitiiiiina station, similarly lighted np, the whole of the 
pilgrims' patli was filled as it were with a living chain of fire, 
connecting the two points together, and formed by the 
torches of the multitudes going to and fro. On our riffht, to 
the north, above, and beyond iloraniiiipiina, towered Unu- 
diya, the gigantic rocky Alp that crowns the Kiinudiya- 
parvatc; to our left, and almost rivalling in height the moun- 
tain just mentioned, was the Bena Samanala. These, with 
the Peak on which we stood, Mublimcst of thcni all, 
sharp and distinct, from two to three thousand feet above 
the clouds, which like an immense plain of enow, with 
irregular rifts blown into fantastic shapes along the level, 
hid all below from view. The mother-of-pearl tint of the 
apparent plain, the moonlighted tops of ihc fleecy rifts, the 
darkened shade of their caverned sides, and the shadows 
they threw Ujion the motionless mantic of cloud and mist 
thus suspended in mid-air, and spread westwards to an 
illimitable distance, was a spectacle that once seen can never 
be forgotten, and well illustrated the ins])ired assertion of 
the Royal Psalmist, that "the heavens duclare the glory of 
God, and the firmament ehewefh his handy work." 

The wonderful beauty of this scenery of the skiea did not 
however prevent us from noticing wluit was going on around. 



On the Rvtfsmahatmayaa family coming up to view the 
foot-print, one of their retinue unceremoniously swept from 
off the altar-table the whole of tlic floral offerings prevtoualy 
placed there, and pitched them over tlie terrace wall, in 
order to make room for those his party were about to 
present. The chief himself seemed to take little heed of 
anything but the welfare of the ladica of Wis family, the 
younger members of which were evidently greatly interested, 
and not a little amused, by the novelty of all they saw. 
They were weleomed by the musicians with a special burst 
of wild discords, improvised to do them honor in the presence 
of the assembled crowd. 

The night had considerably advanced, and the east, — 
hitherto bounded by the dark mountain ranges whose out- 
lines broke black against the deep blue sky,— bcgaa to shew 
indications that day-break was at hand. 

The clniiilk>sfl blue (lalod into grey, 
Tht givy tn umber tints gave way 

Tlien fiil8lii.ll u roay red; 
Tlio n-'Ugruw crimsiiii, ilicu aflame 
Willi hrigtiler brightness all became. 

AVIiilc dawn ainl [layiipriii<; s]>ri;ad. 

As the advancing light became more and more diffused, 
the mountain chains of the central zone grew more disiinct, 
and the stars above grew dimmer and yet more dim. Then, 
heralding the advent of the sun from his tabernacle at the 
end of the heavens, the morning star arose from behind 

., LiOOg Ic 


the (12 miles) distant Kirigallepotah* (7,871 ft. high) and 
rapidly iDOiiDtcd upwards in the coirulcan arch 

" As if an an^tl -sentinel of night 
From earth to Leaven had wing'd ha homeward flight 
Glorious at first, but Icssi^ning by the way 
And lust insensiblj in higlict daj."t 

Behind the mountain ranges, the light grew stronger, 
broader, and more and more intense, until, from north to 
south, the arc of. the horizon glowed like a molten looking 
glass; and rising from the Nuwara EHj-a plains (6,fi00 ft, 
above the sea), the purple dome of Pedurutalagalaf 8,295 ft. 
high, and 22 miles distant in a direct line), could be distinctly 
traced behind the peak of a northern range : 

"the heavens 
n<] more resplcnilcnt, till on earth 
peaka burn'd as with rosy flume." 

The morning star had attained an altitude of about twenty 
degrees above the mountain tops, and had already paled in 

* Or " Kiribat-gul-kanda." The Kandians in Uie neighbourhood of this 
mountain say, that when any important personage living near it is about 
to die, a great voice is heard to proceed during the night from its interior. 
This they allege has happened thrice within the memory of living men; 
once, a few days before ihe death of Doloswala Dis&vra; again, at the 
death of Galle N'&yaka, in 1836; and a third time, a few days 
before the death of the lato Sumangala Xayaka uniinie, in 1638, both of 
whom were Chief-priests of Adam's Peak. 

f'Thc World before the Flood." 



bi'illiaDcy, when, with electnc speed, a seeming stream of 
golden fire ran riglU and left through the fringe of forest 
trees which marged against the sky the brows of the mighty 
hilb in the distant east, and from the core of the arc, behind 
the peakof Totapclla( 7,720 ft. in height and2 1 miles distant), 
the light increased and radiated, until at last, with a vehement 
blaze, and an indescribable flush of effulgency,— all the more 
intense and intolerable to sight from the darkness of the 
mountain in its front, — the sun itself burst with a blinding 
flash on the eyes of the multitude who had assembled on the 
eastern side of the dizzy pinnacle where we stood, to gaze 
upon the brightness of his coming, and watch his going 
forth on his circuit to the ends of the earth. 

" Wilh such raviiihiDg light 
Ani] mantling crimson in tranaparent air 
Thu splendors shut before us. 

Eflch mount did seem 
Colossal ruby, vrhereon so inwrought 
The sunljeams glow'd, jet soft, it flamed intense 
In extany of glory." 

Old legends slate, and devotees believe, that as the sun 
rises, he seven times salutes the Foot-print on the Samanala 
Peak. We noticed several yellow-robed unanses intently 
looking at the blazing orb that rose before us; and could 
well understand how easily their dazzled eyes would lead 
their minds to endorse the mythic tale. Well, too, could we 

., LiOOg Ic 


a|>|ire('iatc at tliat nioiiioiit, tlie tliovpiit tliat iiromj.tid the 
lines of tlie Laureate .Smtlioy, in iiis Sminot on the Sun. 

" I miirvi-1 nor, () Runt tliat iwU> ilu-(> 
In ,i.U.nili,.n ii.on sl.miM l«>w llu- kucp, 
r.T like a gf d art, uii.t on ihy «iiv 
Off-lnrj- siir.Mi.!<l -nidi U'lii-miiit ruv 
Iteautj- and lifo nml jivanco fruiii iiliavc" 

Ilut it was Easier Simtlny morninjr, and we ili<l not furpet 
the cvt-nt tlicn celebrating tliroiijrlunit the Cliristian world, 
nor fail to breathe a prayer that the Sun of Kiylitconsness 
who tlieu arose with healing in his wing;*, Inumpbing over 
tlie night of Death and the darkness of the Grave, would 
hasten the time wiien the knowledge of his glory, here and 
eli-ewhere, ehonid fill the land, as the waters of the sea fill 
the channels of the niiyhty deep. 

The lustre of the moon was meanwhile fading fast; and 
warmer tints began to tinge the still cloud-covered west; 
but we who had witnessed the wondrous glories of both 
night and morn, and under their eubliniing influences had 
but slightly felt the effects of fatigue and want of alccj), now 
found our bodies yielding to nature's just rciiuiremeutp, and 
therefore hasted to return. We thus missed two eights, the 
magnificence of either of which amply repays whatever toil 
a traveller may endure to behold them. To see these was 
partly the reason why the present writer again, and yet once 
more again, journeyed to the Peak. The weather was such 
on the second excursion, that he did not ascend to the Sri- 

., LiOOg Ic 


Pdda, but contented himself with making observations about 
the base of the mountain, and around Heraraitipana. The 
followiufj however is an extract from the graphic account 
written by one of hie two companions who then went up. 

"Plaving just returned from an excurBion to Adam's Peak, 
I am told that it is the correct thing to write an account of 
my journey. Everybody does, so they say- Giving all the 
weight to this argument that it deserves, I don't know that 
1 could add much of interest to the literature respecting the 
Peak. Like Canning's knife-grinder, I have 'no story to 
tell.' And yet perhaps my journey possesses some elements 
of novelty, from the season in which it was taken, and the 
weather by which it was accompanied. The season was of 
the wettest, the ground was saturated by the rains which 
were constantly falling, the jungle was in a streaming state, 
the mountain water-courses were swollen, and the rivers in 
high flood. The prospect also which we obtalnt^d from the 
top of the Peak, although doubtless it has often been wit* 
nessed before, has not, so far as I am aware of, been described. 
Many no doubt have seen it, but they have not cared to 
write the description. It was not the prospect which so 
many visitors havesketched.that wide outlook over subjected 
mountains and rolling hills and far stretching forest, and open 
plain, and meandering shining rivers, all enclosed in the 
remote distance by the blue rim of the all-surrounding ocean. 
It was not this same view, as it is seen in calm beauty, 
sleeping in the silver light of the meridian moon, which sheds 
over all a pale faint lustre, softening irregularities, imparting 



to all the scene an air >tf roposo, ami liarmonUini; all into s 
picture of loveliness ami pi'iice. Xot tlic view of dajbrtak, 
when the wan lif,'lit of inorning is a.*ceiiJin{; in the ea.'t, the 
shailus of nif];ht hastening away before ihe inarcli of the 
morniji<^ U-^\\t, altho«trh slill lingerinf:; In places where 
sheltered hy the shailowrf of intervening; hllU, while tlie dawn 
ia advancing and 

•■j..i-mi.l <lny 

Stiiiul.i liptin' oil llic iiiistj- mnuiitmii t<'\>:" 

and the f^rcat redorb of the Mun h bnrsting into view, anil its 
roicate heaLiis are leapin;^ from hill to hill and chasing far 
away the last vestiges of darkness and night. Theao views 
many have seen and many have described. That which we 
saw was not like these, hut what it was, its like will be 
described. . , .The day broke dark and dreary. The same 
thick cloud wrapped all the prospect. It was evident that 
though we might go np the Peak, we ehould see nothing 
from the top; but my younger companion and I determined 
to make the ascent. At any rate we should see the road, 
and should also have reached the summit, and so have 
defeated the prognostications of many friends who prophesied 
tliat we should never get there. Accordingly we set out. 
The road up to nearly the top, as also for the least few miles 
of our yesterday's journey, bore traces of the late presence 
of an evidently large number of elephants, and the coolies, 
as we went on, endeavoured by constant ahoutinr's to scare 
them from our path. The road was not difficult. It wa-sio 



fact, a long rough rocky staircase. "VVe were, to epeak 
mathematically, ascending the terms of an infinite series — 
of steps. . . .On nearing the top and getting on the rock- 
cut steps, by the sides of which the numerous chains lie 
intended to assist the ascent, the coolies who were accom- 
panying us, evidently considering that our Uvea were only 
safe in their hands, made a frantic rush at us, ciiught hold and 
tried to hurry us at railway pace up the steps. We objected 
to this and preferred to take our own time. ■ . -Well' we 
rcachei] the top and looked around at the prospect. The 
view was one of the thickest clouJ, above us, bulow us, and 
all around. We were upon a little point of rock, a small 
air-suspended island in an ocean of mists. We knew that 
there were precipices around us, but we could not see them ; 
that there was a wide stretching prospect below us, bul it was 
all invisible. A strong westerly storm-wind blew in wild 
but fitful gusts, and howled and raved as it swept (laet us 
and beat on the rocky surfaces of the weather-assailed peak. 
. . . .When we were leaving to start on our excursion, we 
were informed that we should never reach the summit It ' 
was impossible to do so in such weather, the fury of which 
was indicated by the fact that the iron chains atthe top were 
so lashed by the tempest that their clanking could be heard 
two miles off. I believe that up to this hour one of my 
companions fondly clings to the belief in this statement. 
Indeed the idea b rather a poetic one, and creditable to the 
imagination that originated it. I think it is rather sublime 
to think of the mountain assailed by spirits of the storm; 

., LiOOg Ic 


rockinc; to iu ba^'c wlien sinitton by the teitijic^t blows, and 
the chains swin^inff an<l eliinkinjjin harsK horrified occom- 
pauimont. The fiction is ;;ranil, but it is a fiction. They 
don't clank at all. Not a clank. They tlierc lie and niht 
in motionk's:^ idicnc:?^, and uonid do c^o if all the tenants of 
the cave -T'olus were to dpend their utniest ray;e ujioii and 
around that hi^h summit.* 

" \\'e strolled about the little enclosed platform, climbed 
up to the .-brine, and examined the sacred foot-priijt. The 
latter id wliat Mr. Wackford Siiucers wonld call 'a rum 
and a holy thiii^.' Still, I was not all..p:ether satisfied 
with it. It i^, I think, i<(ime five and a hiilf feet lour:, but 
how is it that it is not bigj^er? M'hy do they fitop at five 
and a half i'eot ? This would only <!ive a slaturc to Bnddha 
or Siva of some forty feet. But 1 like to think of Siva as 
rather a tall party. Then, the shape of the thing? AVhy 
do they call it a footprint at all ? Certainly, by adding a 
lot of cement, and bita of tile, and by other devices, they 
have made it look something that may pa^s for being a very 
■ lame reprci^entition of a foot on a rather larjre scale, but 
who wad the first imaginative genius who thought that 
that depression in the rock resembled a foot in any way ? 

• The I'liuins I'vrlaiiily <iiil not clank wbon llie ivriiei of tlie prccoJing 
ski'leh nan on (lie I'tvik. But tliere is imtliiiig to himlor ilicm dDing so, 
when the wiud is bliiwir™ stmngly fiMm partiL-iihir (jiiortora, since llicj 
hnnj^ lo'isely down fr'iin their fastenings ot ihe tnp of the eliff; ind the 
natives pafJiiv>'lv usai^rt thut at suoh tiiuua they ctaiik loutlly. 



The same mark might as well be tlie impression of any 
other part of the body as the foot. If Buddha or Sivfi had 
sat down on the rock, the impression made by the divine 
coinboy might have been not unlike that. Down at PaU- 
baddala they show in the temple what they call a facsimile 
of the foot-print. The fact is, that it is no facsimile at 
all. It is perhaps the facsimile of what the foot-print 
ought to have been, if it was to preserve resemblance at all. 
The whole afTuir, with its patchwork of cement and tile, 
smacks of Brummagem rather too much. . .But yet we ought 
not to laugh at this specimen of superstition and credulity. 
There was a period when our own ancestors believed in the 
miraculous virtues of bits of the 'true cross, 'at a time when 
there were enough pieces of wood in Europe under that 
name to have built a three>decker, and enough 'true nails' 
to have turnished the iron for engines, boilers, screw, anchors, 
cables, and standing ringing. We should think of these 
things, and not judge harehly of uneducated credulity. 

" While we were upon the platform my attention was 
attracted by the devotions the coolies were paying to the 
shrine. They had brought with tliem some offerings, the 
flower shoots of some palms, and these they now laid reveren- 
tially before the foot-print. To see these poor coolies with 
such earnestness, and Huch apparent reverence and trust, 
make their lowly prayers, suggested to my mind many 
mixed reflections. It looked strange, contemplated from the 
stand-point of the sceptical nineteenth century. What 
with one side and the other, the claims of the one, the 



scciiticism and criticism of tlie other, they Hcem to have left 
eo little fur an honest man to believe in now ; and yet these 
poor fellows seemed quite satisfied to believe that this waa 
the foot-print of the great Buddh:i." 

On onr third visit, wc started from IToramitip^na at 
earliest dawn, and although we thus missed the glories of 
the sunrise, we had the opportunity we hoped for of seeing 
the marvellous Shadow of the Peak projected above the low- 
lying mist clouds, and stretching beyond the bounds of the 
Island far away into the surrounding ocean. Faint, and 
not very clearly defined at first, aa the sunlight became 
stronger, the outline and body of the gigantic pyramid- 
shaped umbra grew sharper, darker, and more distinct ; and 
as the sun rose higher in the heavens, the titanic shadow 
seemed actually to rise in the atmosphere; to tilt up and 
gradually fall back upon the mountain, shrinking and 
dwarfing in dimensions as it drew closer and yet closer to its 
mighty parent, until, absorbed in the forests with which tlic 
mountain is clad, it was wholly lost to view. So singular a 
eight,— one so strangely magnificent, and even awe-inspiring, 
can be seen nowhere else in the Island, perhaps nowhere 
else in the world.* 

* The Re», J. Nicholson, wlio ramie rl.e ascent in 1863, thus de- 
scribes this scene : —"As the sun rose in tbe huavens, eai'li penk and hUl 
gained a share of his ray», and threw its sliodon upon its fdlow, or into the 
valley ; but tbo lonjtest ami the best was that tlirown from 'iho holy 
shrine.' Right tn'yond, at an immenic di^lanee, the dark shadow was 



As the mist and clouds diepereed, the extensive views 
that opened out became eublimel; grand. Iforth and eaet, 
below and beyond ue, were range upon raoge of mountains, 
the valieyaand elopesof n hich, from Maskeliya to Rambodde, 
from DimbuIatoHapu tale, were the homes of the enterprising 
men whose capital and industry have, within thirty years, 
made Ceylon the third, if not the second, largest CuSce- 
producing country in the world. Sweeping round to the south 
were the eiinilar ranges of Sabaragarauwa and the Morawak 
Korale, where, before similar energy and enterprise, the 
primeval forests have disappeared, and in their stead now 
grows the coifec bush. Down the sidesof the mountains were 
eeen the ruahing waterfalls, the nearer ones broad bands of 
glistening foam, and those afar mere shining threads atid 
filaments of silver aa they shimmered in the light of day. 
To the south and west the circling ocean met the eye, — from 
Point-de Galle, soon to become the great steam-harbour of 
the Eastern world, to Kalutara, Colombo, Negombo and 
Chilaw, the sites of which, with the aid of a good glass and 
a map, could easily be made out ; — while in between lay the 
vast espanse of hill and dale, watered by the Kelani-gapga, 

gprcad. Photographed ea it were upon the clouds, as far m vision could 
reach, there was the picture of tlie sacred aumrait. With one hand I 
could cover a mountain, wliile the Bhadov from my small body was fear- 
ful indeed. I could hiudly take it as a compliment if anj friend were to 
espreas hia desire to me — ' May your shadow neTer grow less I ' But as 
that shadow shortened with the advancing light, we hastened on our 
homeward march." 



the Kfllu-gnygft, and other etreama, the chief of which sprang 
from the ranyes tliat immediately siirronnded the isolated 
pinnacle upon which we stood. Standing there, and seeing 
all this, wo felt there was not the Biifrhtei^t exaggeration in 
what Sir Emerson Tennent has written npon this accne, and 
I which he thus suma up: — "The panorama from tho summit 

of Adam's Peak Is, perhaps, the grandest in the world, as ni> 
I other mountain, although surjtassing it in altitude, presents 

! the same unobstructed view over land and sea. Around it, 

^ to the north and east, the traveller looks down on the zone 

I of lofty hills that encircle the Kandian kingdom, whilst to the 

I westward the eye is carried far over undulating plains, 

threaded by rivers like cords of silver, till id the purple 
j distance the glitter of the sunbeams on the sea marks the 

I line of the Indian Ocean," 


gidiim's |cali. 

" Stoi'p the (icacent tuid wcarisuiiie Uie way ; 
The twistecl boughs IbrbaUe the light of dnj- ; . . 
Upri^iit and tall (he trfes of ngt's grow, 
While all is Innelincas and waste lieluw : 
Tht're at the massy fiilinEe, fiir aloof 
DisplnyM a durk impenetrable ruof, 
So, gnarleil and rigid, elaspt and iiiterwound 
An uncomh innze of roots emboBs'U the gruund ; 
Blidwny btneulli, the sylran wihl asaiinicil 
A niilc).;r aspect, shrubi" and flow'ri'ls bhinni'd ; 
Openings of sky, and little plots of grccti. 
And tihoiTers of suiibenms through the leaves ner 


Descent phom the Peak. — Heramitip.vVa. — Ai.kxaxd Kit's 
EiitfiE.— Cavk of Kiii'zK. — Si'ta (iANori.A. — DiiAtiMA-R.v'jA- 
GALA, — Uda-Paweneixa. — AcciiiKNTS. - Pala'baddala to 

Cold aa we were, and fatigued as we felt, on our March 
trip, we divested ourselves of ruga and overcoats, and stnfF in 
band, turned westwards onour homeward journey. Down 
the cliff went two of my companions, holding on by the 

• "The World before the Flood." 



chains: and down the slanting liukler went he who had 
adventured up it. Arrived at tliebrow of llie precijiice, and 
seeing below nic but one step for my foot, and infinite space 
hcyoitd, I stopped short. Culling to the interpreter for 
a.-fi»tance, for without it I could not go down, an aolive 
Vidahii" readily came forward, and with his and the inter- 
[ircter's help, I accomplished the descent. This hesitation 
on my jMirt wae neither the result of fear nor of dizzinesB, 
but of tile stiffened state of my Ihiib?, wliich began to fail 
and flag, and shew symptoms of inability to act simultane- 
ou^ily with the volition that directed their movements. It 
behoved me therefore to be cautious. Just as I went over 
the brink, my ears were saluted by a most melancholy 
whining howl. Our commissary -general's dog, answering 
to the name of "Tinker," who had made the pilgrimage 
with us, and scrambled up to the top of the Samanla-kdta, 
where he found a solitary canine friend to keep him company, 
on coming to this spot shrank back, and gave doleful vent 
to Ilia dismay at the perils before him, and his grief at being 
forsaken; — for there we were obliged to leave him. 

We observed in our descent that some of the links of the 
chains, and irons of the ladders, had short inscriptions en- 
gmved upon them ; and that on the rocks here and there 
longer and more elaborate inscriptions had been cut. "We 
were informed that in the one case they simply recorded 

subordioale officer. 



the names of those who hnd fixed or repaired thnse useful 
aids to the ascent; and in the other gave an account of 
pilgrima who had vidited the Peak, eome of whom had died 
when they had reached thus far. 

Vt'e got back to Heramitipina in considerably less time 
than it took us to ascend from it the previous night; but we 
found the journey down the ijamanala, much more painful 
aud trying th:m the clamber up. We had observed the pre- 
ceding day, that from some [ilace below the station, on the 
side on which we entered it coming from Palabaddala, the 
pilgrims brou(;ht up their sujiplies of water; and on returning 
from the Peak, in going down towards the Sita-gangula, we 
saw a descent to our left, which mistaking for the proper 
path, one of us went partially down before he discovered 
his error. About fifty or sixty feet below, he saw a clearing 
in a small deil, in the centre of which was a square kind of 
tank; and this dell he determined to examine on the occasion 
of his third visit. The result of the examination was, that 
he identified the station Hcramitipfina, and this place, as 
that described by Ibn B:ittila, aa " the ridge of Alexander, 
in which is a cave and a well of water," at the entrance to 
the mountain Serendib. The old Moor's account is some- 
what confused, his notes or recollections not always carrying 
his facts exactly in their due order; but half-way down the 
descent, on the left hand, is a well, excavated in the rock, 
in which we found about five feet of water, and which 
swarmed with tadpoles. Possibly Batdta found it in the 
same condition, for he speaks of the well, at the entrance. 

V, Google 


full of fisli, of wlrifli "no one tiikcs any." At the bottom 
(if the ik'll is H cloart'J ppiicc ; in the centre of this is a 
eipmre tank, or well, the aides of whieh are formed of 
hldcks of Kiune, it'ix or eight feet lonf^. Beyond this, 
iiliiioat fiieiri^ the descent, some twenty tV^ct up the opiio- 
situ njountiiin's side, is a cave. To tliia my com|ianion and 
I forced our way throui^h the jungle, aod came to the con- 
clusion, that this was the eave of Ivhizr, where, Batuta aays, 
" the pilgrims leave their provisinns, and whatever else they 
have, ami then ascend about two miles to the top of the 
mountain, to the place of , Adanl'si font." In the preceding 
sentence he sayB, " Near this [cave 1 and on each side of 
the path, is a orstern cut in the rock." Now, no other place 
that we saw, or heard of,— and we were particuhirly minute 
in onr inquiries, — answers to such a description. There 
are the two wells, and the cave ; and the distance to the 
foot print is also pretty fnidy estimated. Making due 
allowance for a few inisphicementa of positions, which old 
travellers, — who more often than otherwise wrote from mere 
recollection, — were prone to, the account Ihn Batiita gives 
of the route to the Peak,' will in its general accuracv, bear 

• It ia quite iiossible tbiit ihi; roiit« lias been sliglitly variet! since 
Ibn llutiitu nri>t(^. 1 atii iiidinur) to tbiiik thit the palli (irij^innliy leil 
dirt'i't til die (k-ll abuve iK'serlbml, fri^m urime jLiiiit lowor duwn tlie aseent 
to lIcruiiiitii|iE^iia, anit tlmt the a<'ucnt to the I'vak wax also niaile direct 
fi-tmi it. |[cr)imi!i[)Aiia is hovrever a better .-'iiuateil and more healthy 

., LiOOg Ic 


comparUon wilh that of any narrative of any writer of tlm 
age ID which he lived. 

The elopes of the mountain leading tn IIeramiti|>ttaa arc 
thickly clad witli noble forest trcee. The vegetation on the 
crest of the ridge, aa well as the undergrowth amoDgat the 
trees, consisliii principally of several varieties of the Nilloo 
plant, * which we found in full bloom in the month of 
September, when too, it is evidently a favorite food of aome 
of the denizens of the forest, for the shrubs bore roarke of 
having been browsc'd upon in all directions. The Datura 
arbarea also added its quota of magnificent white gigantic 
trumpet-shaped flowers to the floral beauty of the epot; and 
the headman and interpreter pointed out to us other flowering 
plants, some of which are used by the natives lor medicinal 
purposes; such as the Adatodd, the Agal-dd&ra, the Pawatta, 
and the Wieta-hira-f 

* The Nilloo (5frt>6ii:tnfAM)isabritcli!Jointci) plant, well known in the 
mountain ttiitriuls of Oeylun, where it furmes a complete undergrowth In 
tlie furest. When in blouui the red anil blue Sowera with which it ia 
coveru<l are a singularly beautiful feature in the landiuape, and aru 
eagerly Bearelicil by the huney bees. Some siH'cics ara said to flower 
only oiiuc in live, lioven, or nine years; and after npening their seed 
ihey die. 

I The above are the native names. The Adatodi and the Agnt-idara, 
arj speties of the ilalabar nut ; the Pawatu is the PaotUa iadica, WillUT 
the Waita-hira, is a kind of lie<Ige plant, (he botanical nanieof wliieb I 
aui Ij^uorunt uf. 



I Stopiiing ftt tlic station on our March excursion just 

I eufticientl)' long to be able to get a cup of coffee, we started 

! for the Sita-g«ngula, where we purposed bathing aud 

I breakfasting. Two of my companions, younger and lighter 

than L. and myself, aoon shot ahead; but we found (and so 
I did they) that the going down was a very different matter to 

' the going up; — then, it was only the lifting muscles that 

I were brought into action, now it was the lowering ones, 

I with the whole weight of our bodies to bo sustained, at each 

I dcttcending step, upon our already strained ankles and trou- 

I bled knees. With the perspiration streaming from every 

pore, and with feet swollen and inflamed, we hobbled and 
I stumbled on our way, objects of com[>a-*sion to many who 

I passed ua, anl especially to one old sympathizing native— our 

[ bcnisons on his venerable head ! — who pausing to look at us 

i for a few seconds, drew from his wallet a fine orange, and 

I with & smile of encouragement handed us the refreshing 

I fruit, — a gift we most gratefully accepted. By the time we 

arrived at the river, I was obliged to seek the assistance 

of a coolie, in addition to that of the alpenstock I grasped. 
I Having resolved upon a bath here, we scrambled up the 

! bare smooth rock in search of a convenient pool, out of sight 

I of ihe pilgrims at the ford, and in so doing, I came to grief; 

. for on pa^ssing one of the fissures between the boulders, my 

foot sH|iped, and down I went, feet first, into an ugly-Iook- 
I jng hole filled with water, dragging my attendant coolie in 

! with and upon me. Instinctively throwing my arms across 

i the chasm, (about three feet wide), I brought myself up 

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when immersed to the waittt, although I touched no bottom 
with my feet.' The coolie quickly recovered himself and 
helped me out; hut I slipped again at the first atep I at- 
tempted, nod ihifl time went souse up to the arm-pile, 
receiving blows upon my clbowe and knees which did not 
facilitate my after progress. Helped out again, I stripped 
off boott) and socks, and made my way bare-foot to where my 
companions were distorting themselves; laughing merrily 
at ray mishaps, which they had witnessed though a crevice 
between the rocks ; an amusement in which I could not help 
joining, for the whole affair was irresistibly ludicrous. A 
brisk shampooing, combined with the bracing coldness of the 
waters, greatly revived us, and our subsequent breakfast on 
the rocks below was not the least relished meal of our trip. 
In a smalt stream which here joins the SIta-gangula, we 
observed eome good-sized crabs, about four inches broad 
in the body, and were not a little amused at the voracity 
with which one seized with both claws the wing and breast 
bone of a fowl, and commerced tearing off with its mouth 
the fragment of flesh that had been left upon it. 

The ascent frora the river to the Dharma-rdja-gala was 
comparatively easy work— a gentle shove behind from one 
of the following coolies being a most efficient upward help. 
When we reached the rock, an English-speaking Sinhalese 
who there overtook us, gravely declared that no two people 
could arrive nt the same number in counting the steps, it 
being a standing miracle, ordained by Buddha, that their 
number should never be exactly known. Unbelievers as 

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ive were, and one of oar party havino counlod tliem on tlie 
journey up, wc aj»rced, for the satislaction ofoiirinfonnsnt, 
to count them ngaiii — onr interpreter aUo counting with us. 
When wc came to the bottom anil compared notea, each one'a 
C()Mnt corresponded with the other's — exactly 130; amattcr 
of fact wliich evidently exceedingly puzzled our caaual 
acquaintance in the emart jacket and comhoy. 

After pafjiing the ruined resthouse at Piyabotma, when 
near the site of Gefanetul-gala ambalama, a beautiful view 
of the country below is obtained from anopeninjron the left 
of the path. The whole of Giiimale lies mapped out before 
theeye, with glimpses of the Kalu-gaiigamcanderina; through 
its plains. Further on, at a lower elevation, on the right 
of the patli, a Eimilar view is obtained of the Ivuruwili 
valley, watered by the Kuru-gaijga. But more welcome to 
our longing eyes than scenery, however beautiful or pic- 
turesque, was the rustic Nilihela ambalama, when we came 
within view of it. For our progress, slow from the first, 
had now become most painfully so. D. and G. had long 
since distanced L. and myself, — and gradually our pace had 
become reduced to that of a suail'a gallop. The old man 
who had made his 56th pilgrimage, decrepid from age, and 
bowed and bent with infirmity, was, with the help of his staff, 
and son and grandson, proceeding as fa?t as ourselves, and it 
became a question whether he or we would reach Pali- 
baddala first, a^ we passed and repassed each other on the 
rocky path. He had gtme on to the foot-print, while wo 
stayed at Hi.'ramitipfina, and had returned and recruited 



there, ami started on hia way back to Ratnapiira before us ; 
but we had overtaken him after leaving Diyabetma. Some 
extra steep places, I could only, us an emerald islander 
would say, face backwards, holding on by the coolie; others 
I literally crawled down crab-fashion. For first, an ankle 
gave way, and then n knee, and wlicn wc came to a some- 
what level patch ol' the length of a yard or two, we found 
ourselves staggering to and fro, from positive inability to 
walk as was our ordinary wont, 

A little beyond this, as we were toiling on, dog " Tinker" 
came bounding up. He had somehow contrived to over- 
come his difficulties, and his demonstnitions of joy at having 
come up with ua were excessive; the stump of his tail 
wagged wilh a. rapidity that threatened t^ difjoint it alto- 
gether; and his jumps and fawnings about us had in them 
an odd mixture of the ludicrous with the pathetic Soon 
after, L., seeing that my baitings were becoming more and 
more frequent, generously volunteered, although scarcely 
less fatigued than myself, to make a push forward and send 
back coolies to help rac on. This he did, and the welcome 
help came none too soon; for though I perse veringly hobbled 
on, upon the principle that each step brought me nearer to 
my journey's end, when about three-quarters of a mile from 
Pal4bnddala, both ankles and knees had so completely given 
way, that even with the assistance of a coolie and iny staff, I 
could scarcely move a step. Supported under the arm pits 
on either side, and gently forced forward from behind, 1 at 
last reached Paltibaddala, where our former quarters had 

., LiOOg Ic 


been |ilacp(l at oiir tli.-iiosal, and where my cum pan ions were 
alrcnilj- at rc!*t. 

lieforc tlio arrival of tlie additional coi>lie«, wlicn [mssing 
tlirnii;;h Uda Pawen-olla, wliere tlicre ia n iorge open tiled 
nnibalnma, the old gt'iitleinan who had made his 51st 
pilgrimago, and was there Imlting with his family, came for- 
wani nnil led me to a seat, lie ^aw at n glance the plight 
I was in, and probality fancied that I was worse than actually 
was the csii'C, for he soon begun to i|iiestiun me, while a crowd 
gathered round to hear the result of his inquiries. But aa 
none of the natives present understood English, and my 
knowledge of Siijhalc^e was by no means extensive, we had 
to fall back npon the language of figna, for a proper under- 
etanding of each other- First he felt my pulse, and then 
pointed to and felt my ankles; at this I shouk my head, ami 
eaid, Naraki(bad); he then pointed to my knees and thighs, 
to which I responded, Bohomi naraki (very bad); this, if I 
have any skill in the interpretation of looks, brought into 
play many expressions of sympathy and commisseration. 
He then pointed to my chest, whereupon I smiled, and eaid 
Tlondi (good). Hondi and Uohomi-hondi were repeated in 
cheering tones by him and by the bye-standera; and all seemed 
to think that if the chest was not affected, it did not signify 
much what ailed the muscles. With a benevolent smile and a 
hearty hand-shake, he bade me good-bye, and I saw him no 
more; but the recollection of his kindness, and of bis 
sympathetic conduct, will be lasting. lie was without a 
doubt, one of the good Samaritans of a country, of whom it 

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is in many respects a libel to ^ay— no matter upon what high 
authority — that in it "mno is only vile." My coolie now cut 
up and handed me, at the instigation, I believe, of my worthy 
native friend, some pieces of sugar-cane, the juice of which 
I found both refreshing and reviving. After munching 
these, and partaking of a draught of water, I again set out, 
and in a few minutes met the help that had been sent me. 

That morning's journey is one which none of us is likely 
ever to forget, for none had ever experienced in so great a 
degree such intensity of muscular pain or such severity of 
fatigue. Our frequent halts had however enabled us to 
note more closely the features of the track we traversed; 
and we found that in many places it narrowed to a mere 
ridge of a rock, bounded on either hand by a tremendous 
precipice, the terrors of which were happily hidden by a 
luxuriant growth of jungle and forest. 

The mosses and ferns, some or which were gathered and 
brought home by G, were singularly graceful; and one of 
the Utter proved to be a rare and seldom seen specimen. 
Tiny flowers, with stalks so slender and delicate that they 
looked like filaments of gossamer brightly sinning among 
the rain-droi>s with whoae moisture they were bedewed, 
clung to the faces of the rocks, encrusting them with 
an exquisite gem-like efflorescence, which would baffle the 
efforts of the most skilful artist to iiuitate. Admiring 
their beauty, we gathered samples of all within reach; but 
unfortunately, the c«olie to whom they were entrusted, 
contrived to lose them. We strongly suspected that, not 

.I'OOg Ic 


appreciating our tnntes, or our love cif tlie beautiful as 
manifested botanically, he ijiiiiply deemed tliem a lot uf 
valnelesd weeds, and an soon as he safely could, rid liim^clf 
of the trouble of carrying them by throwing them away. 

The forests were magnificent," especially where iron- 
wood abounded.! Perhaps no tree is more beautifnl than 
this, when on a trunk fifty feet in height, with a };irth on 
t!ie ground of four or five, and with branches symmetrically 
tapering to a point above, the whole mass of its leaves pre- 
sents to the eye a gor^^eous cone of carmined ftiliage, of 
almost every possible hue, from palest pink to deep blood 
red. In other seasons, when the leaves arc not tlius full of 
sap, they are more of a sober sage-green colour, which 
admirably contrasts with the profuse bloom of flowers with 
which the tree is then covered. These in appearance are 
not much unlike some kinds of white roses, the large petals 
surrounding a cluster of prominent delicate yellow stamens. 
Tliey emit an agreeable, but somewhat strong perfume, and 
are favorite flowers for offerings at Buddhist temples. 

Tlie river scenery was varied and exceedin-jly picturesque. 
The views ai the ferry before reaching Giiimal(:, and at the 
spots where we there bathed, were charming, but both were 
cidipsed by the greater beauties displayed at the junction 
of the Hatula with the Kalu-gt.vyi; while at Maskeliya, 

• Fur H viviii <lescri|itii)ii iif Cejlrni f<irrat scenery, see Apjiendix K.; 
iii'i CorHii aconunt of tlip RoiHiiy of Adam'* I'enk, Aiiju-nilix L. 
t Sing. Xfl-galm. Mesiin fcrrea, L, 



and at the Kalu-gttgr^a at Palibaddala, and the Sita- 
gangula, and other highland streams, the aspect of the coun- ' 
try id wholly ch.inged ; and the sylvan gives place to the 
wild and the grand, occasioned by the presence in and around 
them of rocks and boulderij and frownins; precipices and 
mountains huge, and towering Alp^, and gloomy forests 

In the higher parts of each of the mountains we had 
descended, we saw numerous traces of elephants, and were 
at first puzzled to make out why their paths through the 
cane brakes on either side of our track were so frequent and 
eo close. A little consideration however shewed, that in 
these places, evidently favorite feeding grounds, the saga- 
cious brutes, who always choose for themselves the easiest 
poBiible gradients, had made a series of zigz^s up the 
ridge ; and as these crossed our path every few feet, we 
understood at once both the steepness and the narrowness 
of the ridge we were descending, and a very little diver- 
gence to the right or left gave us ocular proof of the fact. 
We once thought we heard their trumpetings in the dis- 
tance; and all along the region of their tracks the pilgrims 
shouted and chanted lustily, evidently with the view of 
keeping them out of the way. 

There was one piece of fun which the wags of a party 
were very fond of. Dropping behind their companions, they 
would send up a loud imitation trumpeting, and startle those 
before them into swifter movements down the mountain slope. 
Some however, like ourselves, were unable to quicken their 

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paces, and tliere were one or two poor women whom wc 
pasaed, lying proalrate on the rocks, who seemed as if they 
would gasp out their lives ere they could reach their homes; 
they wore however carefully tended by their accompanying 

Of butterflies, although supposed to be in the region of- 
their homes, we saw but few: they were principally of the 
large-winged blue and purple-coloured vjirieties. The peat 
of leeches, the dread and torment of the route in damp and 
rainy seasons, we at this time luckily escaped, owing to the 
dryness and the heat; not more than two or three of ihu^e 
voracious bloodsuckera having assailed our persons. We 
saw one or two reptiles, the green wliip-snake, and a 
rat-snake; and on our third journey a tic-polonga was found 
in theambalama at NiliheU. At Uda Pawen^clla we saw 
an exceedingly ugly-looking centipede, at least eight incbea 
long, with legs spread out for half au inch on each side of 
its body. Some crabs were also seen at the same place, 
apparently of the same kind as the one we noticed at Sita- 

Comparing notes with, and laughing at one another's 
experiences, we ajient the afternoon of Ea-ster Monday, and 
before retiring to our primitive sleeping bunks, each had his 
limbs shampooed, and well rubbed with an embrocation of 
diluted Arnica, which one of us was provided with. The 
recollection of this excellent restorative waa 8ugge8t«d by a 
visit paid us by a' wederale/anative medical man, who had 
heard one of us was ill and came to proffer his services. Our 



raeonls of coolies grinned at the fun as we winced under 
tlieir handa while they operated upon ub; for the muscles 
of our thighs and the calves of our legs ached to agony, 
and our nerves shrank and quivered with pain at the slight- 
est touch; but we felt alt the better afterwards, and slept 
more soundly that uight than we had done during the three 

Expert cragsmen, hardy mountaineers, and roembers of the 
Alpine club, may smile at this account of our Gufferingi< ; and 
we should doubtless have not felt anything like what we did 
had we been in propertraining for the work we undertook; 
but as we saw numbers of lithe wiry-looking Sinhalese 
suifering in a similar manner, — pain manifest in every step 
they took, with their swollen ankles, feet, and limbs, — we 
have reason to think that the pilgrimage to and from the 
Peak, on foot as we performed it, is a feat that would fatigue 
even the hardiest and the best trained mountain-climbers 
amongst our countrymen. When we woke the following 
morning each movement was still the cause of considerable 
pain ; but another shampooing, and a cup of coffee, enabled 
us to make an early start ; and as the remainder of our jour- 
ney was on much more level ground, as we warmed with 
exercise we managed to get on more vigorously than we 
at first anticipated. 

On our second excursion the return to Folfibaddala was 
lonesome. There were none on the path besides ourselves, 
and we were struck by the quietude of everything around. 
At Nilihela, where on our upward route we saw eight 



watcr-falla leajiio;; down tlie mountain picd[»l(;e#, there was 
now not even a rill, Ixit 

. . . ."(Icrp tW hiwh; tlie torrenl's oliiiiinel dry 
Prcseiila h flony stw[), thi- o'lm's li;ituit." 

An olJ woniftn, and a child or two, stored in wonderment as 
we passed Uda Pawen-clla; and the priests and j;ood people 
at PaUbaddala rejoiced at our return, for they had tried to 
dissuade us from going, and prognoMicated that evils would 
surely befall us for not listening to their persuasions. One 
accident certainly did occur, and it was irreparable. The 
coolie who carried the box of glass plates and photographs 
taken on the journey, slipped, etunibled, and fell, just 
before reaching the bridge above the village; the box flew 
off his head, struck against a rock, and in an instant the 
whole of its contents were shivered to atoms. It was a 
serious loss to the artist, and my readers also lose the 
advantage which such illustrations would have afforded in 
their perusal of these pages. Another accident also occur- 
red, but not to our party; although the medioaland surgical 
knowledge which one of our number happened to possess was 
thereby brought into active operation. On our way up we 
had passed a poor purblind old man, who was then staying 
at Uda Pawen-ella. After our return to Pnldbaddala, about 
6( or y P. M. the same man was brought into the village in 
a most pitiable plight. He too, in venturing to come to the 
Tillage, had slipped, and fallen on or down the rocks; his 

D,9.i,z,.^bv Google 


scalp, and temple, and cheek bone, were laid open by the 
accident, and liib face was covered with clotted gore. He 
was certainly a very deplorable looking object when pre- 
sented to us; but by the uae and appHctitioa of sponge, 
sciesora, lint, lotion, a ticking-plaster and bandngea, he was in 
a short time made tolerably comfortabie. The result how- 
ever, was, that all the halt, maimed, ailing, withered, old, 
blind and decrepid of the village, immediately swarmed in 
and solicited aid, and 1o the best of our ability we prescribed 
and doclored right and left, until our drugs and medicaments 
were exhausted ; then, but not till then, did our would-be 
patients leave us to ourselves. 

On oiir third journey, we were accompanied by one of 
the Banddras from Gilimale- After we had visited tlie 
Peak, and were preparing to return from Heramitipdna, the 
coulie who had been sent on from Colombo witlt provi'^ions, 
made his appearance. He had come up to Kutnapura the 
day after we left, and followed our steps thus far ; but had 
left hia load on the rocks half wny between Sita-gangula 
and Heramitiplina, not being able to carry it further, owing 
to an attack of fever and ague, with which he was then 
shaking. We gave him a strong dose of brandy and qui- 
nine, and then hasted down to look after his load; for though 
there was no likelihood of any human being making free 
with it at that season of the year, we did not feel quite so 
sure about the elephants, whose spoor indicated that they 
were notfaroif. We had, bfjdides, just fiuiehed our stock 
of provender, and the contents of that box were of special 

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interest to us at that particular juncture. Finilin^ it where 
the man had left it, and waiting to recall uur jiartj' safely 
over, we were detained some time in croasiny ihc Sita- 
giui;;ula! wlkile there, the Colombo coolie pointc-d out to us 
a cave in the river hed, formed by three or four rocka piled 
againstcach other, where, foudleea and tireless, he had spent the 
jircccding night, the river roaring on either side, and theniin 
pelting down on the rock above him. It was the dreariest 
red ting-place conceivahle ; but we Hiw several similar caves 
about; and in dry weather, a party on a moonlight night might 
do worse than encamp in the rocky caves there, supposing 
always they were well supplied with food and fire- From 
thence our journey that day was most fatiguing, and through 
constant rain. We were not ablo to proceed as far us 
Palabaddala, but halted at Uda Pawen-ella, where Bandara 
made us as comfortable as circumetances would permit ; and 
although our lodging was on the cold ground, and our bed 
hut a water-prooF wrapper, we had Deverthelesc, a roof over- 
head, and a good supply of creature comforts; and conscious 
that we might have fared much worse, we contrived to enjoy 
ourselves, and slept soundly through the night. 

From Paldbaddala to Uatnapura the return journey ia 
comparatively easy. My companions on the first excursion 
re-croBsed the Maskeliya by the unfinished bridge, while I 
j)referred the river's bed ; on the second and third occasion 
wo all had to do the same. After crossing in December we 
saw in the jungloon the river bank a remarkable spider, or 
what we sup[iosed to be one, which wo regretted that we 



could Qot secure. Its body was oblong, about an inch in 
leiigth, and two-tbirdo of an inch broad; of a pale green 
colour, with a black etripe down the centre: za it held on to 
the cane on which we saw it, he legs extended an inch in front 
and an inch behind. We baited and bathed, and were well 
■hampooed, and breakTaatod or dined, and slept at Gilimal^j, 
on each occasion, as circuuiBtancee permitted or rendered 

" Meantime unnuniber'd glittering atreamleta pky'd 
And burled every where tlieir waters sheen 
Thul as they bicker'd through the Bunny gliitti; 
TLuugh restless titill themselves, a lulling murmur mnile." 


On OUT second journey, when nearing the Ellnpita ferry 
across the Kalu-gapga, we were overtaken by a moat violent 
thunder storm. 

" The wood* grew dsrk, ai though they knew no nowi ; 

The thunder growled about the high brown hilt, 

And the thin, waate<l, fthining summer rills 
I Grew joyful with Uie coming of the rain, 

1 And duubtfull; was shifting every vane 

... with changing gusfa of wind, 
! Til) came the storm blast, fnrioas and blind 

Twixt gorges of the mountains, and drove back 

The light sea-breeze ; then waxed the heavens blai'lt 
I Until the lightning leapt from cloud l<> cloud, 

1 With datterinc; thunder, and the piled-up trnwd 



Itp«[un rn turn from stiflv liliic h> Rroy 
Atiil luwiinl llie CLM l!ic lliiiniU-i' drew aw 
Leaving; tli« norlli winil blowiiii; tttmllly 
'Mip ruin-tl"inls from Olvniims."* 

Riglit glad were we to fcikc shelter in tlie forry -keeper's 
hilt uriiil its fury had abated; and thankful too, thnt we had 
encountered nolhing like it while in the mount:tins. 

At Dirabulwitiya, about six itnd a half miles from Ratna- 
pura, we met, while halting on our first journey, Wcilanc- 
watte Anunayaka Unanse, the seeond in rank of the priest- 
hood of the Peak. He was on his nay to the Sri-pdda, tra- 
velling in state,— banner-bearers and iniiificians before him, 
hiniBelf borne in a palanquin by four tall coolies, two attend- 
ant )>rie3ta on foot behind, and a retinue of servants and 
followers in the rear. Shrewd and intelligent in look, and 
in the full prime and vigour of manliood, he eyed us keenly, 
and on learning that we were returning from the [lilgrimage, 
became greatly interested, questioning ua as to the state of 
the roads, &c. When we that day regained our starting-point 
atKatnapura, we were glad enough that ourmarch of fifteen 
miles was done. D.'s bungilow, the creature comforts he 
there provided, and the delicious beds we that night slept 
on, are things ro be remembered as those productive of a 
heartfelt sutisfaL'tion, Huoh as one meets uith only on very 
rare occasions in the course of a busy but withni somewhat 
monotonous life. The next day we visited tliegem pit:? and 

• MiiKRls-3" Life ami Doalli iif Jn^foli." 

D,9.i,z,.^bv Google 


gold OiggingB of Ratnapura; but aa there were neither getn- 
mers nor gold washers at work, we hod to draw upon our 
im II gi nations for pictures of the treasures that possibly lay 
hidden heneath our feet. We saw however some fine epeci- 
men9 of the Talipot pnlin,* that 

. . . . "EuUnii of tlie statelv tribe, 
IV'hii otiKi; a century displaya 
His flow'rs to man's adiuiriiig gaze ; 
For none uf womiin born buhiild 
His budd a iiccond time unfold. 
\V'itli arfU on arch aucceasire crown'il 
'I'hu f ililing leaves tbe lop surround, 
Kacli leaf a fan-like circle Ibrnis, 
All ample screen from sun and storm;, 
It^T Nature kindly lent to bless 
The unrejoieing wUderuese 1 

" The Corypha umbrae ulifera, "the Bt«iu of which BometimeB attains 
the heiglit of 100 feet, and each of its enormous fun-like leares. when 
laid upon the ground, will form a semicircle of 16 feet in diameter, and 
cover sn area of nearly 200 superficial feet. The tree flowera but oocd 
and dies ; and the natives finnl; believe that the bursting.of the sheatiK 
which contains a magazine o( seeds, is accompanied by a loud explosion. 
I'he leaves alone arc converted by the biQhaleae to purposes of utility. 
Of them they lorni coverinj^s for their houses, and portable tents of a 
ruile but elTective character! and on uccasioDS of ceremony, each chief 
and headman on walking abroad is attended by a follower, who holdi 
ab.ive his head an elaburatclj' oniaioented fan. formed from a single leaf 
of the talpat. But the must interesting use to which they are applied Is 
as substitutes for piiper, both for books and for ordinary purposes. In 
the prcp.iratiiin of olaii, which in the tei'm applied to them whcu so 



As if her bounteous tnre bail sprp.iil 
A shelter for the Irareller'a hc«d, 
[tcncutli wlio^e umbellateil lent 
His languid fnrra might find relU'f."' 

One had ouly quite recently burst !nlo bloom; the central 
flower ppathe towered straight up from tlic stem, and was 
surrounded by others in gracefully drooping circles, the 
whole forming a most ma^nificeDt floral plume. Its appear- 
ance exactly corresponded with the description given of thi» 
noble palm by Mr, A. M. Ferguson in his Souvenirs of 
Ceylon. " The trunk rose about ninety feet in height. The 
grand spike with its immense mass of primrose coloured 
blossoms rising thirty feet high, formed a rich contract to 
the dark green of the foliage from which it sprang, and 
presented a spectacle perhaps the most glorious which the 
range of the vegetable kingdom can present." 

employed, the leaves are taken whilst still tender, and, afteraeparalingthe 
central ribs, thcj arc cut into alrips and boiled in spring water. 'J'bcy 
are dried first in the shade, and afterwards in the aun, then made 
into rolls, and kept in slore, or sent to the market for sale. Before, 
howerer, they are fit for writing ()n, they are subjeuled to a second 
process, called madema. A stnooth log of ureca-palm in tied horizontally 
between two trees, each ola is then damped, and a weight being attached 
to one end of it, it is dmwrt backwards and forwarils hj ihc other till the 
siirfiee beciuea perfectly smooth anJ polis1iL-d; and iluritij; the process, 
AS the moisture dries up, it hi necL'ssiiry to renew it till Ibe efi't'ct is 
complete. The smoothing of a single ola will occupy from fi/leen to 
(weniy minntcfl."— .Sir.I. E. TKSuKsr'B (\vlon, vol. i. pp. lOfl, 110. 
' " The Wnndrrer in Cejion." 


gidam's |e!ili. 

"A gentle river uuund Its quiet way 

'i'hriiiigli iliis sequL'Hter'd gUde, mennilciing wide; 
Smooth ss a mirror here the surface lay: 

Where the pure lotun, floating in its pride, 
Eninv'd the breath of heaven, the sun's narm benm, 
Aud tlie cool freiihness of its natiTe Btream. 

" Here o'er green Dieads whose tresses wared oulapreail, 
With silent hipse the glassy waters run, — 
Here ill fleet motion o'er a pebbly bed, 

Gliding, they glance and ripple to the sun : 
The stirring breeze that swept them in its flight ■ 
Raised on the stream a ahower of sparkling light." 

The Pobt'h Pilokimace. 



— Ratuala'na. — College of Pbiebts. — Galkissa. — 
Mount Lavixia. — Collupitiya. — Galle Face. — Colombo. 

Being pressed for time on our March 
returned to Colombo by the Batnitpura Coach; a course 
adopted, for the same reason, on our Chmtmaa aud New- 
Year's trip. But in September we determined upon taking 
the river route to Kalutarn, and from thence to return to 
Colombo, by the Galle road. We accordingly engaged a 



jij'ula-bont,' and as the resliiou^e ia very near tlie river, tliia 
w.ts l)roiiffht for our accimimc«!alioti to a landing place close 
liy. Sending onr horse Iiome by road, fi>r he would not enter 
the beat, we dismounted our carriage from its wheels aud 
stowing it with our boxes in tbo eentre of the boat, took uj) 
our quarters in the fore part, while our servants and a portion 
of the crew occupied the hinder end. The crew consisted of a 
lindal or stecrsiuan, and six rowers ; a complement which 
allowed four to be always working the sweeps on the over- 
hanging prow, while two rested, si)ell and sptill about. A 
good supply of fresh rice straw, covered with empty coffee 
bags, over which we spread our rugs, made excollent couches; 
while a clay hearth near the stem, with a few bricks and 
earthenware pana, served all the purposes ofa kitchen. Our 
arrangements being quickly completed, we started from our 
mooring shortly after daybreak. It was a lovely morning, 
although the night had been rainy; it seemed indeed as if 
we were now about to have a return of fine weather, so 
ausjHciously broke 

" tlie ilewv mum 
With breflth nil inceii!«, and with cliefk alt liltHim 
Laughing the clouds svay nirh plnjfiil Brorn 
And living as if earth cnnlnine'l no tomb 
And glowing into diij." Btkon. 

* A InTge flat-bottomed barge, about filly feet long, witli a riHiling of 
CHiljans, raised aufiiciently high in the centre to allow a man to stand 
uprisht; the ends of tliis are separately mailc so as to slidt bnokwanls 
and forwards over the central portion. 



A little delay occurred when we had advanced a couple of 
miles. The tiadal wentashore toprayst the 8aman D4w&l€ 
for a safe passage down the rlTer, and especially to entreat 
the god's protection against the dangers of the rapids lower 
down. Heathen as the man was, he herein set an example 
which it would be well for more enlightened Christian folk 
to follow; for there can be no doubt that, as 

"To jTreiue the nheel delajetb Done," 
"To church to pray doth binder none," 

two pithy sayings, which the mother of the great Reformer, 
Luther, was in the habit of impressing on the minds and 
memories of her oiFspriog. In about an hour we passed the 
junction of the Ha^gomu-gapga* with the Kalu-gagga; 
there was here a perceptible increase in the strength of the 
current, and some care was required to avoid rocks, which, 
as the river was pretty high from the late rains, were not 
visible above water- About 1 p. m. we passed the junction 
of the Kuru-gagga, and half-an-hour Inter shot swiftly down 
Penigala-^Ila, the first of the rapids, amongst the rocks of 
which our tindal, with an additional steersman, and all his 
men on the qvivtve, skilfully guided his apparently unwieldy 

* About three miles up this river is the Potgulu-vih&ra, or "vili&ra of 
librorien," the belief being that there was once here ■ large collection of 
all the l)uddhi»tii;al vrltinga. It is in this vih&m that the mouth of one 
of the supposed subterranean passages exisla, referred to at page tl4. 



craft. Here, on the right-bnnk of the river, is the Kiri- 
clle-d^wil^, where the natives are accuBtomed to make offer- 
ings to Saman, as well as at the Saman-ddw^le, higher up 
the Btreara. About 4, p. M., wo passed the K&ragala-c'lla, 
the second and largest of the rapids ; and at 5, the Kotnpata- 
ella, the third. Besides these, there are several minor 
rapids, which obBtruct the navigation, called by the boatmen 
"holombuwas" DarkncBS coming on, and the moon not 
rising until after midnight, the (indal would go no further; 
the boat was therefore moored for the night to the stem 
of an ovcrhanj>ing cocoanut tree. Submitting to circum- 
stances, we dined on board, and after passing a pleasant 
evening together, were lulled to sleep by the gentle plashing 
of the waters against the sides of the boat, aa the river 
ripplingly ran by. Before the break of day, we were again 
asUr, and ere long bad passed a remarkable rock in the 
middle of the river, split or as it were cloven in two in a 
vertical direction. There is an inscriptioa upon the face 
of the rook in very ancient characters; and from the position 
of the letters it is evident that the fracture took place snb- 
sequent to the time of their engraving. The belief amongst 
the natives is that the rook was split by the hard swearing of 
some perjured individuals. They have indeed a proverbial 
saying, that "pcTJurers can swear hard enough to split a 

The sun had not risen when we found ourselves alongside 
the Kalutara bridge, a sort of wooden-pile causeway, about 
three-quarters of a mile in length, the roadway of which 



was not much more than six feet ahove water-mitrk at the 
time; and here we had to wait awhile, until a drawbridge) 
over the priocipal channel of the river, was raised, to allow 
oar pfida-boat to pass; this being done, a quarter of an 
hour's further rowing brought ua b^ 6 A. H. to the mouth 
of the river, close to the Kalutara Besthouse. 

The scenery all down the Kalu-ga^ga, from Batnapura to 
Kalutara, is most varied, picturesque, and beautiful. The 
Peak range is seen again and again, the Samanala and the 
Bena Sauianala combining and grouping in different ways. 
Other ranges seem here to close in upon and narrow the 
stream, there to recede from and allow it to spread out in 
lake-like bays. Long, stnugbt river vistas, bordered by dense 
forests, were succeeded by sweeps and reaches with shelving 
cultivated banks; and at every turn new beauties were 
revealed to our admiring gaze. 

Monkeys of several species sat chattering among the trees 
or sprang from bough to bough, as we glided by; and 
an occasional chaige of small shot among the leaves, 
that may have alarmed but certainly could not hurt them, 
gave us an opportunity of seeing the prodigious leaps which 
some of the larger quadrumana can make, when under the 
influence of fear. 

There were places passed, to which the following lines 
are applicable to the very letter : 

"Sweet wwi the scene t apart t)ie cellars stoml, 
A sunn; iilet open'il in the wood; 



, With vernal t'tnLs the wild briar thicket glows, 

For here the iles^rt'il as tliu roM; 
Prom 8n|>ling uecn with luci<l r»lLigc crown'i) 
Uny lighl.4 And shadow* twinkled on tlie gruunil; 
U]> tliu t:ill atcms luxuriant creeiicrs run 
To hang their silrer blossoms in the sun ; 
Deep velvet verdure elad the turf beneath 
Where trodden flowers tlieir richest odours brcHthe ; 
O'er all llio bees, with murmuring music, flew 
FroBi bell to bell, to aip the treiwiired dew ; 
While inseet mjrlnda, in the aular gleams, 
Glanced to and fro, like intermingling beams; 
So fresli, 90 pure, the woods, the sky, the air. 
It seeni'd a place where uigeta night repair. 
And tune their harps beneath those tranquil shades. 
To morning songs ur niounljght suretuulea." * 

Birdsof bright plumage were continually glancing m the 
Eunbeaniij; in their HigUt like "flashing rays of rainbow light;" 
this was particularly the case with the kingfinhers, many 
epccies of which we saw dart into the stream from the over- 
hanging branches where they watched their finny prey. 

Hor were there wanting other sights and scenes. Small, 
frail-looting canoes were being paddled about here and there 
near the numerous landing places that led to adjacent villages. 
Sawyers and carpenters were bu^y on both banks felling 
and cutting timber, and pre[>aring it in floats to be taken to 
Moratuwa or Kalutara. Vihdras and Duwdli-s peered out 

• '• The World before ilie Flood," 



from clustering trees on knolls and crests of hills ; near each 
of which aiew boats or canoea were sure to be seen moored. 
Rafte of timber and bambus were floating down the stream in 
charge of one or two men, who were nearly as much in the 
water aa out, except when perched on one end of the float in a 
small hut in which they could scarcely squeeze themselvee. 
Large pdda boats similar to the one we were in, were being 
poled up the river, slowly creeping alongside the banks, where 
the force of the current was less than elsewhere, their crews 
now helping themselves on with a haul at the canes and 
creepers which fringed the water's edge, and anon availing 
of a slant of wind, when they quickly stretched a wide- 
spread sail on light elastic bambu mast«. Altogether, to 
quote the words of my companion— "I can imagine nothing 
more delightful to a lover of nature than our boating trip 
down thiu river. . .Its banks are lined with clumps of the 
tall bambus, nodding to their own image in the stream 
below ; with lofty forest trees, many of them richly over- 
grown with a foliage not their own — ferns, orchids, parasites 
of many kinds, — and with others, up which climbers as- 
cended in stout twisted cables, and then fell in cascades of 
green foliage from branch to branch, and hung in heavy 
masses to the surface of the river. Besides these, there 
were, as one descended the river, more and more of the 
kilul palms, the arrow-like arekas, and the bending stems 
of the cocoanuts. All these with a background of hills, 
and tlie whole repeated again by reflection in the surface of 
the smooth gliding water. And so we came slowly down 



ihe middle of the Btream, and shot hurriedly through the 
rapids, till the inereaaing roar of the oeean surf told us 
that we were Hearing Kalutara." 

The pleasant town of Kalutara is twenty-six miles distant 
from Colombo ; the healthiness ofita situation, facing the 
sea-breeze from the southwest, has always recommended it 
to Europeans as one of the ttanataria of the Island, and not 
a few deem a residence in its neighbourhood preferable to a 
visit to the colder region of Nuwara Eliya. The resthouse, 
formerly the residence of the District Judge, is one of the 
most commodioue in Ceylon. Views of picturesque scenery 
ate to be had in all directions from the surrounding emi- 
nences ; the most extended being that from a vih&ra, about 
six miles off, on the top of the steep rocky hill, Vehera-gal*- 
kanda, " the mountain of the temple rock," the residence of 
a Buddhist priest, celebrated amongst the Sinhalese for his 
extraordinary medical knowledge. The old fort on the 
promontory commanding the mouth of the river, has its own 
peculiar historic interest. It was originally the site of a 
Buddhist -Vih&ra, destroyed by the Portuguese for the pur- 
pose of converting the place into a fort. A mile or two from 
the town, a very singular Banyan tree, in front of a Moorish 
mosque, droops from an over-banging branch its aerial roots 
like a thick veil right across the road. Cocoa-nut planta- 
tions, gardens, roperies, distilleries, fisheries, busily occupy 
the inhabitants; so many of whom are Moormen, that Madam 
Ida Pfeiffer, led astray by the venerable bearded faces of 
the numerous Israelitish^looking antuents whom she saw, 



Bays, ill her description of the town, that it« population 
consiatB principally of Jena. A District Court and Minor 
Courts of Justice and a Jail, provide for -the litigants and 
the criminals of a numerous populaUon ; while schools and 
places of worship, well attended by children and adults, 
shew that the educational and spiritual wants of the people 
are not neglected. 

The low pile bridge, already referred to, was constructed 
to supersede the old "tara," or ferry, across theKalugagga, 
and forms a connecting link of the Galle and Colombo road, 
the beauty of which, as it skirts the sea-coast, and passes 
through groves of palms, and noble forest, or cultivated 
bread and jack-fruit trees, calls forth the admiration of 
every traveller. About a mile and a quarter from the bridge, 
in a prominent position on the road side, is a Dharma 
S&l&wa, or preaching hall, belonging to the Waskadawa 
Buddhist community, presided over by SaranapiUa Un&os^ 
of the Amarapura sect, whose principal pupil is the learned 
Subhfiti Un&ns€, known in the literary world as the editor 
of a recent edi^on of the Abhidhdaappadipikjt, an ancient 
Pdii dictionary, composed about a.o. 1153, by the th^ra 
Moggel&na. A drive of nearly eight miles further brings 
one to the town of Panadur^;* a thriving populous place. 

* Thera ore three deriTsiiona given Tor tbis Dune; one 'pAoft' rock, 
'dura' diaUuce, referring to the rock Gitni-gkia or "elk -rock," Men M 
adisUncefrom the re^tbouaeorabouttwo miles out Rt tea: the aecoad ii 
connected with a legend, which states that Dewol-dewiyd sailiitg tuihei 



and the head quarters of a Police Magistracy. Here is the 
Gal-kanda, an extensive viblira, presided over by Guna- 
ratana Un£nse,a priest of porlty presence and much affability. 
Being but sixteen milca from Colombo, P&nndur^ is a very 
favorite spot for an occasional visit. Folk from the capital, 
whose business will not allow of long absences, can with 
eaae run down on the Saturday and return on the Monday 
morning. The reethouse is admirably situated, facing the 
mouth of a broad estuary, bounded by a sand bank, against 
which the waves of the ocean fret themselves and break into 
foamy surf; the resthouse keeper ia proverbial for the soli- 
citude with which he studies the comfort of his visitors; 
excellent bathing is always attainable ; fresh fish may be had 
in abundance, morning, noon, and night; and a trip in a 
canoe up the estuary to visit ihc curious cane-wicker fish- 
kraale, or the rocks from whence the oysters are obtained, 
is most interesting and enjoyable. 

Crossing the estuary by the bridge, a further drive of 
four miles leads to the town of Moratuwa. Here we enter 

wilh xevcn sbipfi, and being irreclced, and escaping on seven atone r&rc«, 
saw a lamp ibioing at a ddwile, and endeavoured lo effect a landing ; but 
tbe goddess Pattini.tbepres'idiiigdeitjr of tbed^vtil^ objecting to Dewol- 
dewij'u landing Dear her domains, caused tlie light of the tamp to recede 
as the dewijd drew near; whereupon Dewol-dewiyu deeialud, remarking 
" p4na duraji," the lamp is too far. The third is connected with the 
time of the invasion of CeyluD bj Wijsja, and refers to some event con- 
nected with the breaking of lamps, respecting which I have not been able 
to obtain particular*. 


the reginn of CinQftmon ; and from thence to Colombo the 
road passes by or through almost continuous gnrdens of this 
renowned laurel, — the cultivation of the cocoanut palm dis- 
tinguishing the western, while that uF the fragrant cinnamon 
bush marks the eastern side of the road. Moratuwa,* for 
ft purely native town, is perhaps the handsomest in Ceylon. 
The great bulk of its population of upwards of I2,000eoula 
consists chiefly of carpenters of the fisher caste, who devote 
tliemsclves to the manufacture of furniture, and casks and 
barrels for the e:fport of cofiee and cocoanut oil ; but it also 
numbers among its inhabitants some of the most prosperous 
and wealthy of the Sinhalese community ; and these, emu< 
louB of one another, have erected mansions on either aide 
of the main load, in a style which shews at a glance the 
opulence of their owners. Amongst the most eminent of 
the inhabitants was the late Jeronis de Soyza, Mudaliyar of 
the Governor's Gate, whose dwelling-house on the outskirts 
of the town might be considered the model of a Sinhalese 
mansion, with its garden and oriental grounds. To his 
munificence the inhabitants are mainly indebted for the 
nolile Anglican church which adorns the town, — a eacrcd 
edifice that surpasses in its ecclesio- architectural beauty 
all others in Ceylon. His Uberalityf was in like manner 

* ' Mora,' a amall but plensant fruii ; ' atuwa,' s grantrj' or store. 

'f' t'ur an tccouDt of ibe proccssiuu and fS[« in Colombo aiid Ktoratuws, 
after OoverDor Sir George Anderson had conferred upon Mr. De Sojza 
the rank of Muduliyar, £ee Ajipendix M. 



manifci^tcJ, in the establishment of schoob, the erection of 
anibalamas, the making of roads, and in every kind of im- 
provement that conduced to the welfare of hia countrymen. 
The Wcslejane and the Konian Calholics form a lai^e 
and influential section of the population here, and poaeess 
Bpacioua places of worship, and well attended schools. 

Next to Moratuwa lies the village of Ratmalana, formerly 
as its name imports, " a forest of red flowers," but now famous 
for its extensive cinnamon cultivation; and for its panaala 
or monastery, where a college of priests is assembled under 
the presidency of Hikkaduwe Sumangnla, the Chief priest of 
Adam's Peak, elected to that office in lS6(i, because, in the 
opinion of his brethren— an opinion shared by all the literati 
of Ceylon — "his reputation for piety and scholarship stands 
super-eminent among the priesthood of the Malwatta es- 
tablishments of the Island of Ceylon."" The pansala is 

• There sre two iectti of Buddhist prieBts in Ceylon, the Siamese and 
the Amarapura; ^e former bag two establiehinenls, the Malwatte, and the 
Aagiriyn. Of these, the Utter establishment i» the more ancient, andnaa 
originally located in a dell on Asg^nja, "the horne iw-k," ahilt in theout- 
■kirts of tbe town of Kandy. The former was established by King Kirti Sri, 
on the re-establish nent, or resuscitation of Buddhism whiuh took place in 
his reign. It was placed under the charge of the SayghaKajii,\Vi;liwita, 
Cbief-priestof Adam's Peak, at Mal-watta, "the flower garden,"— a place 
bordering the Kandy lake, given by the king to be prepared as a residence 
for the priests from Sam, upon llieir arrival in Ceylon; and the privilege 
was conferred upon it of taking precedence over the Aagiriya esf ablisbnioul. 
Its members were supposed to be more subservient to the royal will; 
but the ductrines and practices of both are precisely the same. The 


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pleaaaotlj eituated about half a mile to the east of the road, 
surrounded by groves of fruit bearing and other trees. We 
paid our respects to the learned Chief-prieat on our return 
from the pilgrimage. He was agreeably surprised to learn 
that we had succeeded in reaching the Samanala, as the 
reports he had received about the weather, and the state of 
the roads, had led him to believe that we would be forced to 
return without accomplishing the object of our journey. 

A few miles further on, on theweatera side of the road, is 
Mount Lavinia, a rocky headland projecting into the sea, on 
which is situated what Sir Emereon Tennent deecribes as 
"the remains of what was once the marine palace of the 
Governors of Ceylon; an edifice in every way worthy of the 
great man by whom it was erected — Sir Edward Barnes." 

AmarapuTR sect was ettablisbeJ about the jetr 1808, bj a priest named 
Ambsgabapitija, vrho, with eight others, obtained the Upusinpad& ordera 
from the SagghaRiijaof Amarapuraat Bunoih. The two sects are dis- 
tinguished from eai;li other by a slight difference io dreas and personal 
■ppeamnce. The Siamese pHcita lesTfi their right shoulders uncoTcred 
bj their robes, and shsTC their eyebrows; those or Amanipara cover 
both shoulders with their robes, and leave their ejebrows in their 
natural slate. The Amarapura sect baa prospered principal!; in tbe 
Uaritime prorinces of the Island, where, since their establishment, their 
Dumber* have increased until the; arc about equal to those of the Siamese 
frateroitj, whioh word is perhaps the belter distinguishing term, since 
tbeir differences are not doctrinal but merely ritual. They hare a few 
members in Sabaragamuwa and U'va ; but there, and in all the otlier 
Kandian districts, the priesthood of the Siamese ordination form a pre- 
pouderating majority. 



After being diamantluil by orders from the home govem- 
ment, then undergoing a " paroxysm of economy," it under- 
went a variety of changes, and wae bought and sold, again 
and again, until a speculative purchaser ventured to rejmir 
it throughout, for the purpose of converting it into a private 
boarding-hous*;. It did not, however, remain lung in hia 
hands; and being once more put up for sale, has now become 
the property of a company, who let out its apartments to 
invalids and others desirous of recruiting their health, or 
of enjoying the sea-breczea more fully than is possible 
elsewhere, for many miles along the coast. And for both 
these purposes, aa well aa for pic-nic parties from Colombo, it 
is most admirably adapted. A cool airy barrack, officers' 
quarters, and the rifle butts of the European regiment 
stationed in Ceylon, adjoin Mount Lavinia. 

Mount Attidiya, a residence nearly opposite, but a little 
distance inland, once as famed for the beauty of its grounds 
as for the hospitality of its owner — a gentleman then high 
up in the Ceylon Civil Service— is now an abandoned ruin. 

At Galkissa," the village nest passed through," the tra- 
veller baa the opportunity of seeing a temple which may 
serve as an example of modern Buddhist buildings of this 
class in Ceylon. It is situated on a gentle eminence close 
bv the high road, surrounded by groves of iron-wood, 

• Th« name is derived from the wonls Oal-kesga. "stone-key"; 
'ItoHsa,' being an olil anil obsolete term fiir key, There is b tef^nd ti)M 
an imi>ortfliit key vm hidden here in ancient tiiuea. 



murutaa, champncs, and other trees, ofTerings of whose 
flowers form so remarkable a feature io the worship of the 
Siyhaleee. The modest paosala la which the prieets and 
their attendants reside is built in the hollow, and the ascent 
to the Wihara above it is by steps excavated in the hill. 
The latter is protected by a low wall decorated with my- 
thological eyuiboU, and the edifice itself is of the humblest 
dimensions, with whitened walls and a projecting' tiled roof. 
In an inner apartment dimly lighted by lamps, where the air 
is heavy with the perfume of the yellow champac flowers, 
are the pHamas or statues of the god. One huge recumbent 
figure, twenty feet in length, represents Buddha, in that 
state of bh'eeful repose which constitutes the elysium of his 
devotees; a second shows him seated under the sacred bo-tree 
in Uruwcia; and a third erect, and with the right hand raised 
and the two fore-fingers extended (as is the custom of the 
popes in conferring their benediction), exhibits him ia the act 
of ejihorting his earliest disciples. One quadrangular apart- 
ment which surrounds the enclosed adytus is lighted by 
windows, so as to exhibit a series of paintings on the inner 
wall, illustrative of the narratives contained in the jataAa*, 
or legends of the successive births of Buddha; the whole 
executed in the barbarous and conventional style which 
from time immemorial has marked this peculiar school of 
ecclesiastical art. 

"As usual, within the outer enclosure there is a small 
Hindu diwale (which in this instance is dedicated to the 
worship of the Katamgam deviyo), and near to it grows 



one of the sacred bo-trecs, that, like every other in Ceylon, 
is aaiil to have been raUed from a seed of the patriarchal 
tree planted by Mahindo, at Anarajnpoora, more than two 
thousand years ago. The whole establishment id on the 
most unpreteoding scale; for nine months of the year the 
priests visit the houses of the villagers in search of alms, 
and during the other three, when the violence of the rain 
prevents their perambulations, their food is brought to 
them in the pansala; or else they reside with some of their 
wealthier parishioners, who provide tliem once a year with 
a set of yellow robes."" 

From the populous village of Galkissa the traveller enters 
the suburbs of the capital, and soon begins to find himself 
among the residences of the European inhabitants of Co- 
lombo. Chief among these is the mansion long known as 
Bagatelle, where a generation ago the father of the present 
senior member of the Ceylon Civi! Service dispensed with 
lavish hand moat liberal hospitalities. It is now the property 
of Mr. Charles De Soyza, only eon and inheritor of the 
vast wealth of the Mudaliyarto whom reference was made 
when treating of Moratuwa. Rebuilt and extended, it is 
here that its opulent owner had the distinguished honor of 
entertaining His Royal Highness the Dukeof Edinburgh on 
the occasion of his visit to Ceylon in April of the present year 
[I870j,t A drive of two miles along what is now called the 

• Sir J. Kmersos Tbnmjst's Cevion, vnl. ii. pp. 144— U6. 
t For Bu account ofiliis entertainment, see Ajipeniiix N. 



Kollupitiya* road, brings one on to tlie Galle Face, or Faas, 
60 called by the Dutch from its being in front of the forti- 
fications that faced the direction of Galle. Thia fine open 
space — the general parade ground for the troops, and great 
lung of Colombo, is nearly a mile in length, and half a mile 
or more in breadth, and is traversed by three excellent roads, 
— one in the centre, one by the sea-side, and one past the neat 
Gothic church belonging to the Church Missionary Society^ 
the bridge leading to Slave Island, the Lake, and the 
Garrison Burial Ground; — all converging together and 
unitingin one that once led past the frowning Dutch batteries, 
the deep broad moat, and the quaint old gate, that gave 
access to the inner defences of the Fort of Colombo. 

The road that once led past I write, — for while this work 
has been in hand, the fortifications of Colombo, or that portion 
of them whicb overlooked theGalle Face, have disappeared, — 
have been razed and levelled with the ground; the moat 
from whence the earth work of the batteries was originally 
dug has received back into its bosom the soil rent from it 
a century and a half ago; the pick and the mine and the 
mamotyt have so far restored the site of moat and mound 
to its pristine state, that no one now can say with Captain 
Anderson : 

" Upon that fiirtlier point of land, 
See jaadez frowning furtresa stand. 

* ' Kollu,' a kind of pulM used for feeding horsea ; 
f A kind of sliort- bandied hoe. 



Whose mouldering but nrnjeBtio wslU 

Ti.s rnrmer grandeur yet n^rulls 

As when the conqucrora of the iile 

First rearM the firm (.■oinmiiiiilinjr pile. 

To keep their slippery footing !<uri;. 

An infiint empire to necure ; 

To overawe a saviipe fue 

And their superior science sliow. 

Now like a veterttn liecay'd 

Who onee the sword of valiiiir sway'il. 

You trace upon its evening hour, 

The vestige of its noontide powerl" 

There wad a certain eteru picturedqiieness about the 
frowning old walls and massive butteries, with their vmbattled 
crests and grim gaping embraeures, and ancient guns, all of 
which modern science has rendered useless, but which of yore 
begirt the town with a cincture of impregnable strength; and 
one grew bo accustomed to their appearance, that now they 
exist no longer, a feeling of regret at their destruction will 
occasionally obtrude itself upon the mind, especially as the 
work of demolition progresses, andday by day fuiniliar objects 
are for ever lost to eight. The ancients of the place may 
mourn departed glories, as did the sages among the return- 
ing Israelites when they recollected the Jerusalem of their 
younger days ; but the glory of the latter times, it was pre- 
dicted, should exceed by far those of the former. It needs 
no prophet to make known the advantages to Colombo that 
must accrue from the changes which are being made. Like 
a butterfly emerging from its chrysalis, the city stript of its 

., LiOOg Ic 


warlike garniture, becomes daily more and more beautiful 
to view; and with the magnificent approach to it from 
KoUupitiya across the Galle Face, with its public and 
other buildings nestling as it were in the groves of Tulip 
trees" that adorn and shade its broad and busy etreets, it 
appears to the eye of the traveller one of the fairest and 
most pleasantly situated, ns it certainly also is the healthiest 
by far of all the cities of the East. 


^dniu's jOtali 

" See frowning o'er tlie vulo bcluir. 
Yon rifted mountain's cloudy biow! 
On itit mniit elevnted crest, 
Perched like ihe snaring pn^le's nest, 
Huir blcndwi wiili the skiej blue. 
And scarce witliin our rcnch of view, 
Tliere liuddlm's lonely temple slanits 
Revered by all the neighbouring laniU! 
A pudi that skirts aloni; the base, 
AVinds up the mountain to the place; 
lie toil and danger then forgot. 
And let us gain the liallow'd apiit,''* 

Facsimile Foot-prists. — Asdba'dhapuba. — Kdruseoala.— 
Ai.c-viha'ra. — Na'tha-de'wa'le'. — Gansorlwa. — Ala- 
galla. — Kottiubulwala-vhia'ka. — Dewanaoala. — Khet- 
ta'ra'ha-viiia'ra. — Rajiboda. — Baddegajia. — Sitakande. 
■ — Hot-spring of Mahafalasse. 

Just as in Moscow the Russians have a facsimile of the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, to which the 
faithful of the Ruaso-Greek communiou make pilgrimages. 

* "The Wanderer in Ceylon." 


ADAM'S peak:. 

onJ honestly, if ignoraotlj, believe that the merit which they 
acquire in such pilgrimagea is only but in avery alight degree 
leas thau what they would have gained had they gone direct 
to the hallowed fane in the eacrod city itaelf; so in Ceylon 
there are numerous facsimiles of the Srf-pida, to which the 
old and infirm, and those Buddhiets who cannot nndertake 
the journey to the Saoianata, reverently repair, and make 
their ofierings of flowers and perfumes; and although they 
admit that the merit of such offerings is inferior to thnt of 
those offered on the Sri-p^da itaelf, at the summit of the 
Samanala, ench as it is they eagerly covet it, distinguishing 
the quality of their pious merit-bringing gifts by the term 
"udd^eika ptija," or substitutionary offerings. 

Fa Hian, the Chinese pilgrim of the fifth century, refers 
to the footprint on the Samanala, and also to one impressed 
by Buddha on some place north of the city of AnuriJliapura; 
this latter has not been identified, but was probably a fac- 
simile, to which no great sanctity was attached. 

At Knrunegala, the capital city of the island from A. D. 
1319 to 1347, there is a facsimile of the Sri-pdda, on the 
top of the enormous Ktugala, or Elephant's rock, so named 
from its having become so rounded and worn by time, that 
although 600 feet in height, it has acquired the form of a 
couchant elephant. Here was situated an ancient temple, 
to which access was had by means of steep paths and steps 
hewn out of the solid stone. This is still the resort of 
Buddhiats from many parts of the island, their chief object 
of veneration bcingllie facsimile Sri-p^da ; and from thi^ point 

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they can see the towering alp of Ailrvm's Peak, allhoiigh 
(liataQt about forty milea. Thla cojiy h said to have been 
originally cut to gratify the pious desires of a daughter of 
oncof the kings, who was unable to |ierform the pilgrimage 
to the Peak and personally ninkc her offerings on the holy 
foot-print. Lamenting her inability, the pnesta had com- 
paeaion upon her, and resolved that a copy of the foot-print 
should be cut on the summit of Etugala; this was done ; the 
distress of the Princess was removed, and the place soon 
became recognised as a bgitiniate place of pilgrimage- It 
was from this place that the usurping king Vasthimi Kunia- 
raya, was killed by being precipitated headlong by a band of 
assiissins, when on his way to join an assembly of priests to 
which be bad been invited. Unsuspicious of danger he 
accepted the invitation and was thus treacherously slain. 
This usurpation, tradition pays, led to the next monarch 
forsaking the plnce and removing the capital to Gampola. 

There is another facsimile at the Alu vihdra in Matale; of 
the rocks of which Major Forbes gives the following account: 
" Amongst the recesses of these crags the doctrines of Gau- 
tama Buddha were first reduced to writing, and under their 
huge masses many temples were formed at a very early 
period. These temples were destroyed bv the British troops 
in 180.'^, and only two out of eight have been since restored. 
On one of the higlieat pinnacles is a print of Buddha's foot- 
step, similar to that on Adam's Peak, from which it is 
copied; and a small hollow is formed in the rock near it, 
for the purpose of receiving the offerings of the pious. On 



a neighbouring crag are the remains of a ddgoba, and amidet 
ita scattered fragmeota a stone cut into twenty-five compart- 
menta; in the centre one of these tlie relic of Buddha had 
been placed, and the remaiaing celts in the stone had 
contained the offerings made when the relic was deposited. 
Through the middle of the Aiuewihare rocks there is a 
broad natural street of unequal height; to reach this you 
must ascend a flight of rude steps, then pass through a cre- 
vice, and again ascend unlil you come upon a flat rock, 
which is pointed out as the spot where the King Walagani- 
bahoo assembled the priests, who here compared their texts, 
which were then, or soon afterwards, committed to writing, 
and form the Banapota or Buddhist Bible. This took place 
about ninety-two years B.C.; and for two hundred and 
fourteen years previous to that time, if not from the date of 
Gautama's death, his doctrines had descended by tradition 

At the Natha dcwal^ in Kandy, is a third copy of the 
footprint. This was formerly on the Senkadagala, a hill 
behind the Kandy Kachcheri. The rock bearing the im- 
press was a few years ago conveyed to the d^w&le where it 
is now seen. 

A fourth facsimile exists, (some say it is an original one), 
on the top of a mountain on Gannoruwa, close to Peradenia; 
and a fifth on the summit of a mountain at Allagala. This 

II Ceylon," vol. i. p. 34G. 

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is known to have been made by the zealous restorer of 
Buddliisni, the Sangha Kdja Saraiiankara, who about 124 
ycara ago brought over to Ceyloii Siamese priests of tho 
Upaeampada order, and revived the religion of the country 
after a long peiiod of dormant inactivity and declension. 

A sixth copy was cut on thetopofUie Kotimbulwala 
vihdra rock in the Atakalao Kural^ of the Sabaragamuwa 
district. Thia was the work of a pious priest who resided 
in the vihara about eighty years ago. It was originally a 
mere outline ; but the late chief priest of the vih£ra had it 
cut deeper, and made more of a facsimile than it had pre- 
viously been. 

At Dewanagnla in the Four Kural^s there are two 
facsimiles, the origin of which I have not ascertained. There 
is also one at Khettariima viliiira, about a quarter of a mile 
inland from the 37th mile-stone on the Galle roa<], made by 
Mahagoda Dhammadassi Terunanae, of the Malwatta c»tah- 

In the Southern Province, there are two copies; one at 
Kaniboda, on a rock adjoining the high road to Galle, near 
the Police Court at Balapitimodare ; and another at Badde- 
gamn, about fourteen mites southeast from Galle. The 
Kev. James Selkirk says of thia,* " I went with the in- 
terpreter this evening to a small temple, alwut two miles 
from Itaddagoina, where is a mark of the Sri-p&da, or blessed 

• " RetolWliniis of Cvvi'>ii," 1844 ; p. 468. 

., LiOOg Ic 


foot, similar to the one which is on the top of Adam's 
Peak, and to which such vast crowds of worehippers are 
drawn every year.* It appears that a priest in this neigh- 
bourhood, eome years ago, went tu the Peak, and took 
the measure of the 'foot,' and on his return got a itone- 
mason to cut one out similar to it. Thia was erected on the 
top of a hill in this neighbourhood, and enclosed within a 
small building. Great numbers of people come at certain 
seasons of the year to make offerings to it. T measured the 
length of it, and found it to be seventy-two inches; the 
breadth is thirty-six inches. The length of each of the 
toea, which are all alike, is fifteen inches, and the breadth 
of each seven inches and a half. When I asked the priest, 
who resides at a pansala near the place, what sort of a body 
the person must have had who had so enormous a foot, he 
said, with much gravity, ' Don't you know that our Buddha 
is eighteen cubits high? By the cubit is here meant two 
feet three inches." 

There is also another impression of a so-called foot-print 
at Sitakanda in the Magam pattu ; but this is alleged to be 
not from the foot of a Buddha, but of some other giant. Of 
this I have not been able to obtain any definite information. 
Id the neighbourhood of the plaee where the impression is 
asserted to exist, there are, close together, a hot and a cold 

* It has been computed thot during the season nbout 100,000 Buddhists 
and others make the annual pilgrimage to the Srl-p&da on the summit 
of Adam's Fe»k. 



spring, respecting which I am indebted to the Assistant 
Government Af^ent at Hamhantota for the following infor- 
mation. — " The Mah4pi;lo?sa hot spring ia fuundiD a deserted 
hamlet, four miles from Kidiyfig»ma, and about eighteen from 
Hambavitota, The water gushes forth in plenty in a 
email tract of open ground in the heart of the jungle. It 
appeared to mc to have a temperature as high as that of the 
Hot Wells at Bath, consiJerably, if a conjecture may be 
hazarded, above 100°. I had no thermometer with me at 
the time of my visit. As it issues from the ground it is 
perfectly clear and limpid; but in the pool, a few feet below 
where it accumulates, it acquires a dark blue tinge. 
When rice is boiled in it the grains are said to be dyed blue- 
The pool ia much frequented by elephants, elk, and wild 
bulfaloes. At the time of my visit three wild peacocks, 
which abound in Magam Pattu, were hopping about briskly, 
or, as the Sinhalese say, dancing, in front of the spring. 
The water tastes as if it had some mineral salts in solution, 
which is no doubt the case. In the spring itself is a quantity 
of decayed leaves and twigs, although no large trees are 
near at hand. It ia possible the leaves may have been 
conveyed by the action of the water from some point higher 
up. People acquainted with both places say, that the 
water of the Mahapelcssa spring much resembles in taste 
and appearance, that of the Kannea hot-wells near Trinco- 
malie. For persons troubled with rheumatic, and skin, and 
such like ailments, all of which are but too common in 
Ceylon, bathing in the Mahapelessa spring would, no doubt. 



be beneficial. In any caae, tbe spring is a natural pbeno- 
menon of a kind rare in Ceylon (where traces of volcanic 
agency are very scanty) and ia well worth the attention of 
the curious. It is much to be wished that a careful 
analysis of the water could be made; but, so far as I am 
aware, this has not yet been done. 

" About 400 yards from the hot spring, is another spring, of 
deliciously cool water. Springs ofany sort are rare iaMagam 
Fattu, which suffers much from drought at all times, I do 
not doubt there was at one period a populous village near 
these springs. Tlie place is now however deserted ; and 
what was once a scene of thriving industry and plenty, is 
a dense jungle abandoned to the elephants, the cheetah, and 
other wild tenants of the forest" 






On the Origin of the Ski' Pa 'da. 

" Tub voneration with which tins majestic mouataio [AUam's 
Peak} boe been regarded for ages, took ite rise in all probability 
amongst the aborigines of Ceylon, whom the sublimities of nature, 
awaking the instinct of worship, impelled to do homage to the 
mountuna and the sun. Under the iniluence of such feeliags the 
aspect of this solitary alp, towering above the loftiest ranges of 
the bills, and often shrouded in storms and thunder- clouds, was 
calcnlated to convert awe into adoration. 

"Id a later age the religious interest became concentrated on a 
BiDgle spot to commemorate some individual identified with the 
national faith, and thus the hollow in the lofty rock that crowns 
the summit was said by the Brahmans to be the footstep of Siva, 
by the Buddhists, of Buddha, by the Chiuese, of FoS, by the 
Gnostics, of lel^, by the Mahometans, of Adam, whilst the For- 
tugueae authorities were divided between the conflicting claims of 
St. Thomas, and the Eunuch of Candace, Queen of Ethiopia. 

" The phases of this local superstition can be traced with curious 
accuracy through its successive transmitters. In the Buddhist 
annals, the Bojourn of Buddha in Ceylon, and the impression of the 
'tri-pada,' his sacred foot<inark, left on departing, are recorded 
in tltat portion of the Mahawanso which was written by Maha- 
naama prior to d, c. 301, and the story is repeated in the other 



sacred books of tho SioUaloHe. The Raja- Tar anpini atatea that 
in the first century of the Cbristiim era, a king of Kashmir, about 
(he year 24, resorted to Ceylon to adore the relic oa Adam's Feak. 
The Chinei^e traveller. Fa Uiao, who visited Ceylon a. d. 413, 
says that two foot marks of FoS were then veoerated in the Island, 
one on the sacred mountain, and the second towards the north of 
the island. Oo the continent of India both Fa Hisn and Hiouen 
Thsang examined many other sri-padas ; and Wang Ta-youen . 
adheres to the atory of their Buddhist origin, although later Chi- 
nese writers, probably from intercourse with the Mahometans, 
borroiv the idea that it was the foot-print of Pwan-koo, " the 
first man," in their system of mythology. In the twelfUi century, 
the patriot King Frakrama Bahu L " made a journey on foot to 
worship the shrine on Samanhela, and caused a temple to be 
erected on ita summit," and the mountain was visited by the 
King Kirti Nissaoga, for the same devout purpose^ in a. d. 1201, 
and by Frakrama III. a. d. 1267. Nor was the futh of the 
Sighalese in its sanctity shaken even by the temporary apostasy 
and persecution of the tyrant Raja Sipha I,, who, at the close of 
the sixteenth century, abjured Buddhism, adopted the worship of 
Brahma, and installed some Aandee fakira in the desecrated 
shrine upon the Peak. 

"Strange to say, the origin of the Mahomelan tradition, as to ils 
being the foot8l«p of Adaro, is to be traced to a Christian source. 
In framing their theological ayatem, the Gnostics, who, even 
during the lifetime of the Apostles, corrupted Christianity by an 
admixture of the mysticism of Plato; assigned a position of sin- 
gular pre-eminence to Adam, who, as * leA, the primal man,' next 
to the ' Noot' and 'Logot' viaa made to rank as the third 
emanation from the Deity. Amongst the details of their worship 



thej cultivated the Tenention for monumental relics ; and in the 
precions naniucript of the fourth century, vhlch contains the 
Coptic version of the discourse on " Faithful Wiadom," attributed 
by Tertttllian to the great Gnostic hereBiarch Valentinus, there 
occurs the earliest recorded mention of the sacred footprint of 
Adam, The Savioor is there represented as informing the Virgin 
Maiy that he hu appointed the spirit Kalapataraoth as guardian 
over the footstep (skemmut) 'imprtMted by ike foot of lei, and 
placed him in charge of the books of lefl, written by Enoch in 

"The Gnostics in their subsequent dispersion under the persecn- 
tioD of the emperors, appear to have communicated to the Arabs 
this mys^cal veneration for Adam as the great protophut of the 
human race; and in the religious code of Mahomet, Adam, as the 
pure creation of the Lord's breath, takes precedence as the EwtF 
ulenb^/a, 'the greatest of all patriarchs and prophets,' and the 
Kid^'y-Ekber, 'the first of God's vicegerents upon earth.' The 
Mahometans believe that on hie expulsion from Paradise, Adam 
passed many yean in expiatory exile upon a mountain in India 
befbre bis re-union witli Eve on Mount Arafath, which overhangs 
Mecca. As the Koran, in the passages in which is recorded the 
&U of Adam, makes no mention of the spot at which he took up 
his abode on earth, it may be inferred that in the age of Mahomet, 
bis followers had not adopted Ceylon as the locality of the sacred 
footstep ; but when the Arab seamen, returning from India, brought 
home accounts of the mysterious relic on the summit of Al'Vakoun, 
as they termed Adam's Peak, it appears to have fixed in the minds 
of their coontrymen the precise locally of Adam's penitence. 
The most ancient Arabian records of travel that have come down 
to ns mention the scene with solemnity ; but it was not till the 



tenth century that Ceylon bec«jne tlie eBtabliehcd resort of Mkko- 
metaa pilgrims, aod Ibn Batuts, about the jear 1340, relates that 
at Shiraz he visiteil the tomb of the Imam Abu -Abd- Allah, who 
first taught the way to Serendib. 

"At the present day, the Buddhista are the guardians of tin 
Sri-puda, but around the object of common adoration ijie devotees 
of all races meet, not in furioas contention like the Latins and 
G-reeks at th« Holy Sepulchre in Jenisslem, but m pious aj^n- 
ciation of the one solitary object on whidi they can unite in 
peaceful worship."— Sir J. Emerson Tehneht's Ceylon, toL ii. 
pp. 132—137. 



Ibn Bxtuta'b Travels ih Cetion." 

Whkn we sailed, however, (from the Maldive Islaoda) (he wiod 
changed upon us, and ne were near being lost; but arrived at 
last at the ieiand of Ceylon, a place well known, and ia which 
is situated the mountain ofSerendib. This appeared to us like 
a pillar of smoke, when we were at a distance of nine days from 
it. When we got near the land, we saw a harbour, into which we 
endeavoured to put, but were threatened by the Beia, who waa in 
the ship. The reason of this was, the harbour waa Id a dialrict 
belonging to an infidel prince, who had no intercourse with the 
captains of Mohammedan vessels, as oiher infidel princes bad. He 

• ProfcMor Lec'i tr«nsl«(lon, from which Ibis ihapler is Isken, i« not from tha 
origliial MS^ bntfrom tbr«« capias of an abridgcmeiit.or *h*t " Hohimined Iba 
Fst'h AU>h El Biildn( lUles that ha eilracted from the epitome of the Kitib 
HobunmAd Ibn Jizii El Kelbf, (upon whom ha the mercj of Ood.) from the Irsvets 
of Iha tbeologiaa Abu Abd Allah El Ltvit! orTangiers, known by the surname of 
Ibn Baliita." The dale of his arrival at Ceylon is not stated ; but it may be veiy 
DeaHf ascertained from aeTcral circamitsDcea elsewhere mentioned. He reaided 
for some time at Etelhi, where he wbb appointed a Judge, and In 1 342 was sent by 
the Emperor of UinduBtan on an Embaasy to the Emperor of China. On hia way 
be met with many adventnres and detentions, before reaching Kalidil, where hs 
wailed three monthafor the ship that was to convey him to China. Then, after har- 
ing embarked hia suite, and the preeenta with which he was enlnisted, while 


ADAM'S PKAK. Hkcwiso a very slupii] being. He had alao shipa with which 
he oeoasioTiiklly Iniiifixit'tcrl his troops Against the Iitohanimedan?, 
Bmili.'!) all llii^, wc were in danger or drowning, udIcks we could 
ruler ihfi port : I aaid to the Hfin, Ilii-iX'fore, Allow me lo come on 
sliote, ami I will ensure tliy safety, and that of tlioae about thee, 
with the King. To thia he consented, and myself, with aomo of 
my followers only, were brought on shore. The intidels then came 
aliout ua and said : What are you ? I answered, I am a relation 
of the King of ihc Maabnr districla, and am on a Toyage to 
visit him: wliatever is in the ship, is a present for the King of 
Maalmr. They (hen went to their king, and loUt him this. He 
therefore sent (or mo, and 1 went to him. IIo is the king of the 
cily of Baldilo," which is small, and aurrounded by two wooden 
fences. The whole of its ahore abounds with cinnamon wood, 
bakam, and the kalanj! aloe ; which, however, ia not equal to the 
Kamuri, or the KiikuU, in aceot The mcrehaDts of Maabar and 
the Maabar districts transport it without any other price than a 
few arlielea of clothing, which are given as presents to the king. 

perriinning hiB d^otions prerioua to embarkiDg himicK, « graat atorm «fDH, md 
the i>hip waa driven to tea withuut him. Tlib ou«d inotbei long drtention. Bat 
■t lut,ucertainingthsllha vessel hid reached China. aAer > tartlier del*7 he Hud* 
lii» nay to the Moldiva Ulands. There be settled dowa, mirried four wivei, and 
waa made a Judge. A child wu boru lo him, and he became ■ magnate 1r the 
land. But hit proapcritj' became hia bane; for the Tiiier, dreading hia own Iwa 
of iufluence, grew so hostile, tbat he ranulved to viiil the "Hsabar dintricta of 
Hindoetan," whoae king waa married to a lisler of one of hia wirfa. Taking 
all the abov? circumHlanrea into accouct, he could tctreely have reached Ceyion 
before 134Ti the pn>babililj' indeed i* that it wai later; for the rapitat of the 
Islnnd «a% at the time of bis visit, Kaukir, or Uanga-«ri-|iuia, tlie modern 
Gampola, which dl}' was aot made the capital until 1347. 
* rullnlam. 


This may be attribute)) to the circutnatttnce, that it is brought 
down by the mountain torrents, and left in great heapa upon the 
shore. Between thia city and the Maabar districts, there is a 
vojnge of one day and night, Tlie king of Ceylon, Ayari Sbaltari* 
by name, has considerable forces by aea. When I was first ad- 
mitted to his presence, he rose and received mo honourably, and 
said : Tou are to be my guest for three days. Security shall be 
forwarded to the people of the ship, because your relation, the 
kingoftheMaabar, ismy friend. After thanking him, Iremainod 
with him, and was troated with increasing respect. 

One day, when I was admitted to his presence, ho had with 
him a great number of pearls, which had been brought from the 

* It is not quite clear who the individual here called Uie king of Ceyloa vis. 
Perhaps Ibn Batilta aejjigned lohiiii tberankorkinftrruni the meaniDgor the name ; 
' Arje,' signifying in Ihe Sanskrit, noble ; and ' chakra-TBrti,' uiiiveraal monarcli. 
M^or Forbes, in the Epitome of the History of Ceylon appended to vol. ii. of bis 
work, menliooa that in the niga of BhuvanekaUhn I (A, D. 1303—1814,) Knla- 
iikaia the king of Ptndl, sent an army commanded by A'rya-Chakra-rartl 
to invade Ceylon ; and that he took the capital TJpaho, nnd earned off the Dalada, 
which he presented lo his sovereiKn. This relic was recovered by Prakramabihu 
III. the succeeding king, who went in person to treat witb the king of Find! for 
its realltuliun. IL is not stated wliether the Pandian hing retained posseadon of 
PattslaDi or not. The MalabaTs or Tamils oC Cerlon were settled In considerable 
numbers along the northwest coast, and the leading man, or chief, may have been 
named Chakra-varti, which is a common enough name to this day amongst the 
JalTnese ; or the P&ndian General ni>]' have remained at Pultalam as Ihe reiiresen- 
Utive of the king of Pindi. In the reign of a subsequent monarch, Bhuwaiieka- 
bibn IV. (a. Ik 1347—1361,) the capital of Ceylon was removed to Gangi-airi- 
pura or Ganipola,whlch may have been the Kaokir. referred to by Ibn Batiila 
further on ; but a* the worda mean only " the royal river dty," they may have 
been applied to other cities on the banks of a river as well as Gimpola. 



poarl- fishery, am] tlii-se liia companions were sortiog. He asked 
me, whether I liiwl ever seen pearl-diving, in aaj eountry which 
I had vi»iti'<l. I K;iid, yes, I had, in the island of FinnB. lie 
naid ; Do not bo shy ; awk for what you wish, I answered : My 
only deMire in coming to this islaad was, to visit the blessed foot 
of our forefather Adam ; whom these pco|>lc call Bgb4, while 
they style Eve, M&ma. Tliia, replied he, is easy enough. Wo 
will send some one with you, who shall conduct you tbilher. 
The ship (said 1) which brought we here, shall return to the 
Maabar ; and when I return, you shall send me there in one of 
your ships. He answered. It shall be so. When I told this to 
the commander of the ship, be refused to accede to it ; and said, 
I will wait for you, should you be absent a whole year. This I 
told to the King, who said: He may stay at my charge until you 
return. He then gave mc a palanquin, which his serrauts carried 
upon their shoulders. He also sent wiih me four Jogees, who 
were in the habit of visiting the foot'mark every year ; with these 
went four Brahmins, and ten of the King's companions, with 
fifteen men carrying provisions. As to water, there is plenty of it 
to be found on the road. We then proceeded on our journey : and 
on the first day crossed a river in a boat made of reeda, and 
entered the city of ftlanar Mandali,' which is handsome, and 
situated at the extremity of the territory of the infidel king, who 
had entertained and went us out. We then proceeded to the port 
of Salaw&l,'!' which is a small town. The roads, however, over 

* Pmhalily AnnemnilwK. Sir J. E. Tensest uva MinDcri Mundil. B 
Virr ia in opponitc dirpclion lu Ihs route to Cbllaw, vhilu Annemadooc i. 
midn-By btlween PulHilsni and tlial lowu. -f Cliilaw. 



vbich we travelled, were rough and abounding with water. In 
thoec there were many elephants : but tbej never t«ucbed either 
pilgrims or strangers, in consequence of the bleBsing obtained by 
the bheikh Abu Abd Allah Ibn Khaiif, the first who opened this 
road of pilgrimage to the foot. The ioddels would not formerly 
allow the Mohammedans to make this pilgrimage, but ii^ured 
them ; nor would they either sell, or give them any thing to eat. 
But when it happened that the elephaata killed all the companions 
of ihiB Sheikh, ooeof them sparing and carrying him ou his back 
from among the mountains to an inhabited district, the infidels 
ever after thought highly of the Mohammedans, admitted them 
into their housee, aud fed them.* And to this very day they speak 
of the Sheikh in the most extravagant terms of respect, aud call 
him "the greatest Sheikh." After this we arrived at the city of 
Kankir, which is the seat of the Emperor o( Ceylon. It is built 
in a valley between two hills, upon an cHtuary called the estuary 

It Ibn BatuM ii fully borne oat by Robert Knox, Kbo wys, 
speaking oftlie charity ottbe SiyhaJcH, in hiscbapter "coDcsmiDg their religious 
doctriDCt, opinions and practices," part ij), ch. 3. "Nor are they charitable onl/ 
to the poor of Ibeir own oalion ; but aa I said to others, and particularly to the 
Uooriah beggars, who are Uahometani by religion ; these have a lonple in Sandy. 
A certain former king gave this temple this privilege— that every freeholder should 
eontribnlea ponnam (fanam, l}rf.) toitg and these Uoon go to evety house in the 
land to receive it [except in Eblosljige]; and, if the bouse be shut, they have 
power lo break il open, and In lake of goods to the value of it. They come very 
eoulidently when they beg, and say Ihey come [o fulfil the people's charity ; and 
the people do liberally relieve them for charity't sake,...Tbeae Uoora pilgrims have 
many piecea of land given lo them, by well dinposed persons, oat of charity, where 
they build bouses and live ; and this land becomes theirs from generalion lo 
generation, for over." 



of rubies, anJ iu which rubies are fouuil." Wiihoul the cit; istho 
moMjiic of the Sheikh Olhniiin of Sliiraz, nliich bolli the Emperor 
and the people of the city visit, ami for which they have groat 

The Emperor is an iutidul, and is known by the name of Kin^. 

He has a white elephant, upon which he riilea on foast dajs, 

having first place<l on his head some very largo rubies. This is 

I the only white elephant 1 had ever seen. The ruby and carbuncle 

j are found only in thia country. These are not allowed to be ex- 

i ported, on account oftho great estimation in which they are heldj 

nor are tliey elsewhere dug up. But the ruby is found all over 

Ceylon. It is considered as property, and is sold by the inhabit- 

j onts. When they dig for the ruby, they find a white stone abound- 

I ing with fis:4ure9. Within thia the rulij is placed. They cut it 

out, and give it to the polishers, who polish it until the ruby is 

separated from the atone. Of thia there is the red, the yellow, 

and the cerulcau.f They call it the Manikam. It is a ciutom 

among ihein, tlmt every ruby amounting in value to biz of the 

golden dinars current in those parH, shall go to the Emperor, 

who gives its value and takes it. What falls shortof this goes to 

his attendants. All the women in the island of Ceylon have 

*Thia dswriplloD in some rcBpei^ts ansiTcrs to Gampola. and In othvri to Ril' 
napara. They Ore both on the lianka ota river, with bilta on either aide. Nev 
bnth ij an uicieut nio)^iie, Itatnapnn is rerlstolj' near " ihe eicuBrv of rubies," 
or diKlri<-t where such i^ma an Tound ; hut then, on the other hand. I am not 
aware thai it ever was tin' cii|>ital. whi^-h linrnpoUirrtainl)' •ms. Mar not this ha 

tThe tnpaz and (he Mp|>liiie. 



traces of colourei) rubies, wbicb they put upon their hands and 
IpgH aa chains, in the place of bracelets and ancle-ricgs. I once 
saw upon the head of the white elephant seven rubies, each of 
which was larger than a ben's egg. I also saw in the posaessioD 
of the king AyarS Shakart!, a saucer made of raby, as large as the 
palm of the hand, in which ho kept oil of aloes. I was much 
surprised at it, when the King said to me. We hare them much 
larger than this,* 

* There sremi to hav« been at one time, a contdderible DOmber of Ibese Urg« 
ruliiet, orbuncks, or (mettiyiil n, in Ceylon. Cdehihs, describing tbe adventures ot 
Sopaler, the Ant IrHveller who gave an account of the iilind from personal kiiow- 
led^e, says. "There are tvo kinga ruling at uppoiIU eoda of Iba iaUnd, one of 
whani piascMa the hyacialh, ... as Urge as a pine Cone, the colour of fire, and 
fiathing IVom a diiiUnc?, eapedallj' when catching the beama ot tbe sun — a matcb- 
leas sight." Marco Tulo says, "the king of Ceylon is rapufed to have the grandeat 
rubj that yitK ever wen, a span in length, the thickne&sof a nun's aini) brilliant 
beyond description, and nithuul a single flaw. Itbasihe appearance of a gtoning 
fire, and its vorth cannot be estimated in money, The Grand Khan KuUai, Mnt 
ambasudoTs to off^r for it the value of a city ; but the king Tould not part with 
it fbrati lbs Ireasum of tbe world, as it iraa a jevrl banded dom by bis aocettora 
ftom tbe throne." Jordan deSeverac, abont the year 1323, repeats tbe story, of 
the mby being " so large tbat it could not b« grasped in the clo!ed Land" Wfaal 
became uf it is not knonn. In tbe fourteenth centuiy bowe^'er, the Chineaa 
annalists make mention of an officer who nas sent to Ceylon by tbe emperor, to 
parchase ft "carbuncle" of unusual lustre. "This served as Ihe ball on the em- 
peror's cap, aad was transmitted to succcrcding eroperora on their accession as a 
precious beirloam, and worn on Ibc birthday and at the grand courts held on the 
flrst day of the year. It was upwards of an ounce in vdght, and cost 100,000 
strings of cash, Each time a grand levee was held, during thedarknenofthe night, 
tbered lustre filled the pabce,and it was for this reason designated ' The Red Palace- 
Uluminalor.' " Perbape the most extraordinary statement respecting a Ceylon ruby 
is that given by Valentyo, the Dutch historian, who Myi one of the two Engtiahmen 



We then proceetltil from Kiinkar, and came to a care knona bj 
the name of Islu Mahmu<1, then to Ihe estuary of Biizuta,* which 
in their language signifies monkeys, animals which are in great 
Diimbcrs in the mountains of thct^e parts. Thenc monkeys are 
black, and hare long tails: the bcar<l of the malee is like that of 
a man. I was tokl by the Sheikh Othmau an<I his son, two pious 
and credible persons, that the monkeyd have a leader, whom they 
follow as if ho wore their king. About his head is tit;d a turban 
composed of the leaves of trees ; and he reclines upon a stafT. At 
his right and left hand are four n)onkry!>, with rods in their hands, 
all of which stand at his head whenever the leading monkey Bits. 
Hia wives and children are daily brought in on these occasions, 
who sit down before him ; then comes a number of monkeys, which 
sit and form a sort of nseembly about him. One of the four 
monkeys then addresses ihcm, and they disperse. After this each 
of them comes with a nut, a lemon, or some of the mountain fruit, 
whiiih he throws down before the leader. He then eats, together 
with his wives, children, and the four princi)>al monkeys ; they 
then all disperse. One of the Jogeea also told me, that he once 
saw the four monkeys standing in the presence of the Leader, 

IT ho effected their esc»po from Ksmfy at Siliw»k»,»flertwenty-lwo years' e«ptiTity, 
related "that be had seen > ruby that had been found by a peasant, which «u or 
Buch immeniie size, that for Borne time be bed in hia «inipljci(y uaeJ it Tor a whet- 
alans, wjlhout knowing what il was I" But Robert Edoi, who wa« a captive in 
Kandy abont the laine lime, makes no mention of nich a gem ; and it is very 
unlikely that bad it been in exiilrnn, be would not have heard of il, or hare failed 

la int 

; of his 

apt! lit) in the 




aad beating another monkej with rods ; after this thej plucked 
off all hia btur.* I was also told by reepectftble peraoDs, that if 
one of thef<e monkejs happens to attack, and be too strong for a 
foung woman, he will ravish her. 

We next proceeded to the estuary of reeds, where rubies are 
also found. The next place we arrived at is known by " The 
house of the old woinaD,"t which is the farthest inhabited part of 
the islaod of Ce;lon. Our nest stage was the cave of B^bd T6hir 
who was one of the pious: the next, the cave of Sibak, an infidel 
king, who retired to this place for the purposes of devotion. 
Here we saw the fierce leech, which they call the zalaw. It 
remains on trees, or in the grass near water. When any one 
comes near to it, it springs upon him, and the part of the body 
attacked will bleed profiisely. People generally provide tliem- 
selves with a lemon for this occasion, which they squeeze over 
him, and then be drops off. The phice upon which the leech has 
fastened they cut out with a wooden knife made for that purpose. 

It is told of n pilgrim who passed by this place, that a leech 
fasleued upon him, so that the skin swelled; and, as he did not 
squeeze the lemon on him, the blood flowed out and he died. 

We next came to a place called the seven caves, and after this 
to the ridge of Alexander, in which is a cave and a well of water: 
At this place is the entrance to the mountain. This mounlain of 
Serendfb is one of the largest in the world : we saw it from the 
sea at the distance of nine days. When we ascended it, we saw 

■This is evidently ■ conrUMil iccuunt of the Veddilu and their ciutonu. 
Ibo Datul« VM now in tlieir coonlrj-. SabutganiDiri, thnngli which h« wu 
joutneying, being, u ita name import*, " the Veddah Tillage." 

t " PaliUddsl^" i-U. p. 154. 



the clouds passing between us and iu fool. On it is & great 
number of trees, the leaves of vhich never fall. There ara also 
doweraof various colours, vith the red roee,* about the aise of the 
palm of the baoJ, upon the leaves of which they think they can 
rend the name of God and of his [Vophet. There are two roads 
on the mountain leading to the foot (of Adam) ; the one is known 
by "the way of Balia," the other, by "the way of H^mi," by 
which they mean Adam and Eve. The way called Ibat of M&mi 
la easy : to it tlie traveller cotao, upon their first TisitiDg the plaee ; 
but every one who has travelled only upon this, is oonaidered aa 
if he hod not made the pilgrim^e at all. The way named B&bi 
is rough, and diflicult of ascent. At the foot of the mountain 
wh^e the entrance is, there is ii minaret named after Alexander, ' 
and a fountain of water. The ancients have cut somethii^ lika 
steps, upon which one may ascend, and b«v« fixed in iron pias, ts 
which chains are appended ; and upon those those who ascend 
lake hold. Of these chains there are ten in number, the last of 
which is termed "the chain ot witness," because, when one has 
arrived at this, and looks down, the flrightful notion seizes him, 
that he shall fall. Af^r the tenth chain is the cave of EluEr, 
in which there is a large spaee ; and at the eotranee a w«U of 
water, fiill of fish, which is ala« called after his name. Of those, 
kowerer, ao one takes any. Near this, and oa each side of tba 
path, is a datern cnt in the rock. In this care of Khisr titn 
pilgrina leave their provinotu, and whatever else ttwy have, amd 
then ascend about two mllea to the top of the mountain, to the 
place of (Adam's) foot. The holy fout (mark) is in a stone, so 

* RhododeDdroda. 



Uiftt iia place is depresBed. The length of the impresaion i« 
eleven spans. The Chinese cune hare kt some former time, mai 
tut out tfom L^a stone the place of the great toe, together with 
the stone about it, and placed it in a temple in the city of Zaiidn : 
and pitgriinages are made to it from the most dislant parts of 
China.* In the rock, too, in which the impression of the foot is, 
there are nine excavations which have been cnt ont : into these 
the infidel pilgrims pat gold, rubies, and other jewels: Mid hence 
jron will see the Fakeere, who have come as pilgrims to the well 
of Khizr, racing to get first to the excavations, in order to obtain 
whatmajbe in them. We, however, found nothing but a Utile 
gold with some rubies, which we gave to our guide. 

It is customary for the pilgrims to remain in the cave of KhJzr 
for three days; and during this time to visit the foot both 
morning and evening. This we did; and when the three days 
were expired we returned by the path of M&n)li,t and came down 
to the cave of Shiiiham, who is Slietli, the sou of Adam.} AfWr 

* Davit in bli work oa ChioB ind the Cblncvo. ujs thit tlia inhabitanta of tbe 
ftoirmylanditippost. tbsl at the hue of Adam'a Pnk is a tonple In irUch tbe real 
bodj- of Baddhi repDMaoD lutlde, and Ihal DMF ilare his teeth and other r^a. 

tSIr J. Emnwn Tennsnt somewhat mgnelj apoOuof Ibo Batdta^ucenl "from 
Gampolito Adam 't Peak." Thfe would implr that he asonded by Ere'i rente, 
whereaa it la plainly ihewn that he made the uaait via Ratoapura ; and he himself 
n;tba''r«tan]edb7 thepathofHim^" 

X Tide page 43. Bat other HohnmntadJUi vriten hold differrDt opinlona. 
Tbiu Uaaudi, a d. 948, make* mantfon of Homt Rahwan (FJ Rahonn) on 
which Adam d»ceoded whvn eip«l1ed from Paradiae, adding, that a race of Hio. 
dui, in tbe laUnd of Cajilon, deaceodad from Adam, dertvs their origin fkvm tha 
children of Cain, and lb* aaakgy between the tradiliom of tbe Arab* and 



this we ftrrived at the fish port, then at the village of KarkuD, 
tben at the village of DiMinuK, tlien at tlic village of At Kalanja, 
where the tomb of Abu Abd Allah Ibn Khaflf ia situated. All 
tbe»e villages and tilluJ laoda are u|>on the mountain. At iia 
fuot, and near the path, is a cypii'ss,* which ia large and never 
drops the leaf. But as to its leaves, there is do getting to them 
hy any means ; and these people's heads are turned wiiti eorae 
strange sod false notions rospeciiiig them. I eaw a number of 
Jogees about the tree, waiting for tlie falling of one; for they 
suppose that any person eating one of them, will grow young again, 
however old he may be. Beneath this mountain is the great estuary 
at which the rubies are obtained; its water appears wonderfully blue 
to the eye-t 

BoddhiiU miy probahlj be trsc«d to that period of eirlj hlitoiy when both 
peapls Kere Siniuieana i maintiiaing, according lo the anthority of tb« Mefntih- 
(l-olum, tbU the world hui no iKKinoing, Ilist nula traaiinigrBted from one bod^ 
to (Dotbrr, and that the eiirtb U lonatantl}- declining. — Bird's AimiverMi^ Dii- 
curse, jDum. Bombii}' A^ Socy. No. 6. The Rev. Spence Hsrdy, ia bia MidiuI 
of Buddhiara, p. SIS, commentirrg upon thia, in eaanectioD with the Sri-ptfHt, aaye, 
'It ia probable that Rtja Siphi, A. D. 1 58 1 would deMroy the Sr{-pMa tbsn is 
exIateDce iloog with the other objecu of Baddhiitji'.al veneratloa (hat fall banutb 
hii band." But he seema, in tbii iiutaiice, to bave overlooked the fact, that the 
foot-priot WM venerated bj the Aandiyaa aa that o( their Supreme deity SitI, 
and therefore it was not at all likely, when B^ja Siqha gave the SamiDala Inla 
their eustudy, tbac ha hud preriously des«;raled or destroyed (be r»lic which tbay 
venerated and worshipped quite ai mavb aa did (be Buddhisla. 

* Puuibly a Bo-lrce, or perkiap* the fancied San.-^vj, the tree of life, Teapecting 
which, see p. 35. 

t Probably the K^lani-gapga, In wh«ae head waters and tribulaiy aticanu, 
rubles and aapphiresand other precioue alaaee are atill found. 


From this place we proceeded, and in two days wrived at the 
city of Dloaur," which is large, aod iohabiled by mNvihaiits. In 
this is an idol, known by the same name, placed ia a large temple; 
and in which there are about a tboosand Brahmins and Jogees, 
and five hundred young women, daughters of the nobility of India, 
who sing and dance alt night before the image. Tlie officers of the 
city revenue attend upon the image. The idol ia of gold, and as 
large as a man. Ia the place of eyes it has two large rubiesi 
which, as I was told, ahine in the night-time like two lighted 

* Donden head, or D«wand«re, the Iilacd'a end, ilw ciUed Dewf Kewera, "th* 
SuniaiD of CefloD, and tbe aonthem extremity oT (he Island, i> covered with tha 
niinaof aletnpte, which «ai once oneof Urn most celebnladlu Cij'lon. The head- 
land iticir boa been tha retort of devotee* and pilgTiina,fVoai the most remote afcee;— 
Ptolemy deacribea it u DagMU. ' aacied to the moon,' aod the Bnddhiau constructed 
then one uT (heir earlieat dagobu. the realoration of which waa the care ofaaccesBlve 
■Dvereigna. But tha moat important temple was a abrine which, In very early time, 
had been erected bj the Hindu in hoaonr ofViahnn. It waa In tha height of ita 
■plendoui. when, in 1A87, (be place was devaatal'd in the coorae oF th* marandlog 
expedition by which De 3oiua d'Arroncbaa aougbt to create a divenden, during the 
siege uf Colombo by Raja SiQhalL The historlanaof the periodiuia, that at that 
time I^ondera was the most renowned place of pilgrimage ta Ceylon ; Adam'i Peak 
ecareely excepted. The temple, they say, was so vast, that fhim the aea, it had the 
appearance of a city. The pagoda waa niaei on vaulted arches, richly decorated 
and roofbd with plalea of gilded copper. It waa encompassed by a quadrangnlar 
elobler, opening under verandahs, opon ■ terrace and gardens with odorlfcnna 
shnibsand trees, wboteflowera were gathered by the priests for procewioiis. Da 
Sonzaentered thegateswitboatn»lstance; and his soldiers tore down the statue* 
which were more than a thousand in number. The temple and Its baildlngs were 
overthrown, ita arcbe* and its colonnades were demolished, end its gates and tower 
levelled with the ground. The plunder MOa Immense, in ivoiy, gemn, jewels, sandal- 
wood, and omauienti of gold. As the loat indignity that could be oflered to the 



From thif place we travelled to K^lt,* which ii a large town; 
then to Kolambu (Colombo), which ia the fiaest and largest c'lij in 
Sereodib, Afier three dajt we arrived at the city of Batt&la, from 
which we had been eeot hy its king, with his servacta, to vlait 
(Adam's) foot. This we entered, and were received hoaourabljr by 
the Itiug, who furnished ua with provisions. 

•acred pbee, coiri ir«n ilmogbterwl In th« courU, mud th« can of the idol, with 
Othtrcoiabiutibla niat(riaU.b«iiig &r«d,tbe ■hriiw wu ndaced la aBhca. A Uoot 
doorwajr exqnUlcly etrrtd, and > unall building, KboM eitrionUur; HrengUi 
nriiledtbarialcDcearthe deatroj^anitn ill tbU now nmain standing; but tba 
grauDd for a coiuiderabls tlUtaoca b tlnvrn witb ruin*, oooipicuout among whlcb 
are nambers of flnely cut colunua oT granite. Tbe digoba ohlch itood on tha 
crown of th* bill, i> • mound uf ehapeleu dfbru." — Sir J. Esiituoa TiN^fMMT'a 
C«>-1on, vol iL pp. 113—1 14. 
' Fuint-de-Galle. 



Note.— While the preceding sheet wm pMsiiig through the 
press, the writer was fiiTonred with the Avowing infbnDfttioD, 
obligingly obtained and forwarded by H. 3. O. RnaseU, Eeq^ the 
GoTerDment Agent of the Central Province. It wilt be foond to 
throw some additional light apon the subject of the Hindu worship 
of the Foot-print of Riva open the satnmit of Adam's Peak ; Hba 
origin of which is involved in considerable obscnrilj. It ihoold 
be read in connection with the subject discoMftd in chapter I^ 
pages 27—40. 

SITANOLtPATHAM— ^suO©Litu/r;*ii. 

In Cejion there are places dedicated to Slvi such at Trinco* 
malee or Thadchanakajlajsam {fiiL^esaaiiSeja fLc) Thirukkich- 
charam (^3s(?4<r<?iri£>) &c. There is a Puranam, (qjr.Tasrui) iu 
Sanskrit (which is the mother language of Tamul) relating to 
Thadchanakaylasam or Triucomalee, called Thadchaoa-ka^laya- 
nianmeium (fi^fsasaSeijrrffLDiTsirL^iuiii,') 

The following is found recorded in the 6tb and 7th chapters of 
that book. 

"In the middle of the mountain called Siviaolipatham, three 
rivers or kankat rise out of Siviln's foot {utrfiih.) 

From mj (Sivio's) foot, three rivers issue out, and the names 
are Mavillie-kankai (iaiTsSeSQ&iiesia) Hanikka-knnkai {uirret^k^ 
Ossieaa) and Karary-kanku (<siTG'euifiQ<sis)Si>«). M&villie-kankai 
flows towards the North, reaches SiviId's place at Trincomalee, and 
&1Ib into the sea south of it. 

M&nikka-kaukai flows towards the East and passes hj Eather- 
kamum {s^sriruuh) a place dedicated to Supermania-swamy, son of 
Siv^ and then falls into the Eastern sea. 



KAVftiy-kankfti flows towards tlie West, and passes into the place 
of Siv^ catleil Tlieiukkachcharum (situated at Mantotte in Mann^). 
These three kankais are highly meritorious streams " 

The names of these three rivei-«, thn direcliona they lake in 
their course, their connection with the above-named three famous 
places dedictated to Sivin's worship; iho name "Uivinolipatham" 
by which this peak is usually known, and the fact of these four 
places and the three rirera being recognised by Sivaites as places 
peculiarly adopted for the worship of Siv4 at the present as well 
as in the ancient timen, shew beyond doubt that the mountain in the 
Central Province of the Island of Cuylon which is called Kiviinoli- 
patham in Tamul, and Adam's Peak in English, is the very moun- 
tain epoken of in the Sanskrit work Thedchana-kaylaya-tnanmeium 
written several c 

P. K. T, Kanaoebatina, Mods. 



Sannas of King Kirtissi 

Our Great snd Supreme Omniscient Sovereign BudOha, ihe 
Teacher of the thi-ee worlds, who ia diatiaguisbed b^ the beauties 
of thirty-two most noble marks, and eighty secondary eigoa, and 
circnlar beams of light, and rowa of gloriea, who is pleasing to 
the eyes of dl beinga, and who is skilful ia the distribution of 
the noble and glorious ambrosia of his doctrluea, who is well con- 
ducted, and is of a felicitous advent, having completed all the 
thirty preliminary coursea of pdramtlds, such aa donationa, observ- 
ances and the like, during a period of four atankhyas and a hundred 
thousands of AaZ/HM, ranquished the m&rSyd with all his hosts, 
attained into the state of omniscient Buddha.sbip, and who in the 
eighth year ascended the centre of tho firmament, and came here by 
emitting forth clualcrs of his condensed beams of six colours, and 
carefully stamped the print of hia glorious foot, endued with a 
hundred and eight auspicious marks, such as the noble sign of a circle 
and others, upon the summit of the Samantakdta mountain, which 
represents a crown of blue sapphire gems, worn upon the head of 
the lady of the glorious Island of Lank&, bcautiBed with various 
rivers and cataracts, filled with clear water of cool springs, adorned 
with groves of multitudes of noble tree's, loaded with flowers, and 
enriched with much sweet fragrance of well blossomed filaments. 



Wlifti <»ir Mo-t llitil. aiiJ Mi.nnrcli Kirlissri lUjftsidh*, 
— whusp fame, glory, ami mujesty pervade ail ilirociiona, like the 
luoori, the jatiniLn flowers, ami rows of whito hama birds, and 
arc similar h> tlic rays of the sun that di^iicl tlie darkness of the 
multitu(l(-s of eDcmics, and who represeuts the central gom that 
adorns ihc pcnrl necklace of mauj hundreds of kings ftom tho 
prime Monarch Wijaj-a Rija, of the solar race, that uc-cupied the 
(krone of tho f^lorious Island of Latiku, tho incomparable ^mde 
for the three kinds of ri'lics, such as pdribkogika like the glorious 
footprint, $drlriha and uddet'ika, — hnd, like the king of the gods 
alighted upon ihc midst of the firmament, reigning in the great 
city called Senkhanda Saita Srlwardkaaapura, which is the desire 
of the eyes of muliiiudcs, and abounds witli all the glorious marks 
of a city ; — engaged iu the most noble pleasure of protecting the 
religion of the Omniscicut Suddha, liy causing the decayed and 
ruined temples of the glorious Island of Lauku to be cleared of the 
thonis with which they were covered, and to be repaired ; and 
by causing the erection of great temples, monuments, bo-trees, and 
houses of images anew, by enacting rules for celebnting constant 
offerings and services in the holy places, such as those in Anu- 
n'ldhapura, Mahiyangaoa, Kaly^nipura, and others; aad having 
presented them with gold, silver, pearls, gems, and such other 
things ; and by worshipping and honoring them j and by offering 
as presents such living and non-living things as gold, silrer, 
pearls, gems, clothes, jewels, elephant?, horses, estates, fields, men- 
scrvanta, and female'Scrvants, in honor of the glorious tooth relic, 
resembling a golden honey-making bee, which constantly dwelt 
in the pink lotus month of the Omniscient Supreme Buddha, pos- 
sessing an odoriferous aweet fragrance ; whose holy fuct are enve- 
lojicd in the shining clear light of the gems that embellish the 



crowns of the great Brahnutb, the occupant of a throne of lotnsf^s, 
and of Asurae aod men ; and by caueiog the celebration of offeringH 
and aervicee in its honor ; and bj enhancing the prosperity of the 
state and religion: — His Majesty having heai-d that for along time 
conBtant offerings and Borvicea bad not been celebrated on the 
peak of the Samantakuta monntain, where was situated the print- 
niM-k of the holy foot of the Supreme Buddha, who is like a rojal 
lion that breaks open the brains of the wicked religionists, the 
elephants ; — it having come in the time of the divine Sovereign 
Rejasigha of S(t4w&k& into the possession of the Aamjijaa who 
daub over their bodies with ashes, as protypical of their being 
burnt and reduced into ashes by the most cruel and very dreadful 
hell-fire; — was pleased to grant as an offering to it, the village called 
Kuttapiliya, die Bowing extent of which is one hundred and 
sixty-five amunams of paddy, situated in Naw&dun Koral^ of the 
District of Sabaragamuwa, including the houses, gardens, trees, 
vegetation, dry lands, and fields in this village, in order that 
offerings and services may be celebrated and well established in 
this place, until the time of the extinction of the religion, unmo- 
lested by the monarchs that will, hereafter, ascend the throne of 
the glorious Island of Lanki ; and that it may be a living for those 
who supply the services in that place: — Granted with the object of 
gaining the happiness of twarga and nirvdna on this Wednesday, 
the twelfth day of the increasing moon of the month of yikini, 
being the twenty-third day of the sun's entcriug the sign of Cancer, 
(Aug. 4,) in this year named prajapali, which is the two thousand 
two hundred and ninety-fourth of the year of the glorioiis Buddha, 
(a. d. 1751); given in charge of the Lord SaranonkaraofWcliwita, 
resident at the Temple of Up^uiatbar&ma, who is adorned with the 
magnificent qualities of Stla (observance) and A'chara (good 



conJurOi ■!>»■ tl>c olTcrings niar Ix* cHebrat^ii ami kept up hj the 
HucccD^ion or hilt pupilugc. This is the on.icimcnt. Mid this eoact- 
meiit i« thus recorJcil. 

SigricJ. for tbid heiag a true Copj, by SHrn;iBnkara Uananse 
of Weliwila, who had it la his charge. 

(Signed.) Weliwita. 
Translated by C. Anvis. 

., LiOOg Ic 


Buddha's three Visits to Cetlon.* 

Tbi3 gloriolu Island of Lonks, was the residence of Yaksbaa 
during the Don-BuddbUlJc periods of the world, and men dwelt 
there onlj in the Buddhistic periods. By some of the Buddhas, at 
the rely first attaiDmeut to perfection of wisdom, the yaksbaa were 
subdued, and tlie Island became the abode of men. There were 
other Buddhas who personally visited it, subdued the j'akshaa, 
made it the abode of men, and established their religion there. 
And this Island of Lanka is like the Buddhas' own treasury of 
the throe gems, as it is certain that the southern branches of the 
sacred trees, and the doctrines, the relics, and the religion of 
infinite and innumerable Buddhas, are established here. 

2. The residence therefore of false religionists in this Island 
of Laoka is certainly as unstable as that of the former yakshas 
was unstable. Although, occasionally, a king of a false religion 
majr usurp the sovereignty of the Island of Lanka, and reigu over 
it, yet it is the authoritative mandate of the Buddhas, that the 
dynasty of such kings should never be permanent 

3. A3 this Island therefore is suitable only to the kings of the 
true religion, the permanence of the "hereditary succession of 
their dynasty is sure. For such reasons as these, the kings 
reigning over Lanka should be assiduous in upholding the i-eligion 



vilh tlinl |:;rciit love ami vctK-nit Ion wliich is iiAtur&l towsrds 
ItuilJha, ami ought to pri'scrve the heritHgp of their dynasty by 
keeping the influence of their juii^'iiiclion ami that of (ho religion. 

4. Ix'ftving anido the perio.ln of oilier BuilUlias of former times, 
tliis Ii-lHTi.i wan called O'jiulwipa at the time of the Kakuumda 
Ituddiin, who in this Kalpa attained to ilic poifeciion of wisdom. 
Anuradiinpura was then cnHoil Abhiiyiipura ; the king thereof waa 
named Ahhaya. Tlie ]ir<-wnt grove Maha-mewiiiia had tho 
niime of Ktaha-tirlha-waiia ; the city was on the ea:<t of this grovo. 
Tlie nnmc of Piyatkuhi, or the Mihintal& rock, was D^wakuta. 

5. At that time a pestilential disease of fever struck such cities 
n^ Abhayapura, over all thin Islaiitt, abounding with large popu- 
lation and great wealth and riches ; and when a great affliction of 
llie poople prevailed, such as was in the city of Winili at the time 
of our Butlilha, ponple began to die. And the yakshas, t>eing 
unable, on account of the influence of Buddha, to enter the Inluid, 
st«od circumambulating round it, scattered over the sea, erecting 
theniselven up and observing the smell of the human carcases. 

6. At that time Kakusanda Buddha, knowing the exceeding 
unhappy state of the inhabitants of this Island, O'jadwtpa, and 
being impelled by great compassion towards them, repaired thither 
in an instant through the air, accompanied by a retinue of about 
40,000 holy priests, and descended upon Dcwakuta (Mihintala), 
and stood there like the moon attended by stars; he illuminated 
the t«n directions with his beams of six colours, and determined 
with his supernatural influence, " Let all the men of this Island of 
O'jadwipa see me, and as soon as they see me lot all their diseases 
vanish, and being sound in health, let them all come in an instant 
and stand round me." 

7. Anil at an instant, simultaneously with the thought of that 

., LiOOg Ic 


determitiBtion, all the ioLabitantH of the leluid saw Buddha like 
those who see the moon in the eky. And the epidemic of fever 
Taniabed, snd thej all, like those wLo had received ambrosial water, 
every man from the place where he had been lying, collected 
themselves round the rock, as those who collect themselves into a 
hall in the midst of a town. 

8. At this moment the kinga, eub-kinge and great ministers 
worshipped and invited him into the grove Maha-t!rtha-wana 
(Maha-raewuna), and conducted him thither in great pomp, and 
completed for him a beautiful temporary court, and erected a mag- 
nificent throne for Buddha with forty thousand other seats, and 
presented the grove to Bnddha with great ceremony. 

9. In that instant the great earth gave a shock and sprang 
up, and all the trees thronghont the grove stood embellished with 
supernatural flowers from their roots even to their topmost twigs. 
And the sentient beings, who were delighted at this miracle, with 
the roost profound veneration, made the great priesthood, with Bud- 
dha at their head, take the repast of the alms of Chatomadhura, and 
presented to Buddha perfumes and flowers and other things, in 
proportion to the wealth which each man possessed, standing at 
a reverential distance. 

10. At that moment Buddha preached his doctrine, and rescued 
forty thousand souls from transmigration ; he spent the day in that 
place, and in the afternoon, repaired to the site of the great sacred 
tree, and rested there for a moment under the blissful inSuence of 
dyana, when he rose and thought, "I will follow the practice 
of the preceding Buddhas," and then stretched his right hand 
towards the direction of the sacred Bo-tree, and determined with 
his supernatural influence, "Let the sanctified priestess Ruchinanda, 
the chief over those priestesses of my religion who performed 



minicles, apponr here coDvej'ing tlic suuthem branch of the great 
sacred Bo-tree." 

11. At that inHtant also the (>auctifled pneetesit perceiving the 
delermi nation which Ruililha had exercised, caused the king Kb4- 
niftwati of the city of Khcmdwaii, to nwke a streak of yellow 
orpiment round the southern branch of the sacred Bo-tree, »nd 
so got it by self-cutting, and placed it in the sacred hand which the 
Buddha had out-stretched. 

12. Then Buddha looked at the face of king Abhaya, and said, 
" great monarch, follow the practices of former blessed and 
prosperous kingt of this Island like thyself," and caused that 
sovereign to plant the sacred tree. Thence, on its northern direc- 
tion, he sat down in the s'te of Luwamahap&y^ which at that 
time was called Sii'i^a-Malaka, preached his doctrine, and reecsed 
twenty thousand souls from transmigration. lie proceeded thence 
and sat on the site of Thupitrikms, and rose from the blissful 
influence otd^dna, and preached his doctrine, and rescued in that 
place ten thousand persons from transmigration. And he delivered 
\i\9 dharmakara (waterBtrainingveRsel), saying, "Build ye a monu- 
ment here and worship the same, and make offerings to it, ood be 
rescued A-om transmigration." And he left ia this Island the 
sanctified priestess Kuchinanda, together with live hundred priest- 
eases, and the high and holy prient Mabad^wa, with teu thousand 
priests. Thence he pri>ceededtoI}fwakuta(Mihintala),and stand- 
ing upon the site of the Batamahosala mouumeut advised all the 
inhabitants of the Island, and returned to Jambudwipa in the sight 
of all the living beings, 

13. From that lime forth during the whole of that Buddhate, 
every succeeding king who was bom here, continued to worship 
the throe gems, and went to the city of Nirwano. 



14. Kow at the time of the second Buddhft, Koiiagiima, this 
Islaud wa« called WurudwipA; iht- nflmc of tbo Maha-mewiiaa grove 
was Mahii-snoind grove. The city on the south of the grore was 
named WadJhani.iaaka. It waa enriched with all sorts of wealth 
by lis king Sumiiidha. And D^wakuta was called Snmanakuta. 

15. At that thne this noble Island of Lanka, which was inha- 
bited hj four noble tribes of men, and full of females like goddesses, 
of cows and buffiiloes, and of all sorls of wealth, having had no 
rain for Rome inttsrval of time, was overspread with a great famine 
like the famine called BcminitiyA Saja at the lime of onr Bnd<)ba, 
and there was a great dlHtrcHs from want of footl. 

16. As the end of all the discourses of Buddha is aimed at 
(one or the other of) the three marks j he observed the time and 
Niw the distress by famine to which men had come ; and, concluding 
that " sentient beings could he established in faith when tbej had 
a sorrow," came here through the air attended by thir^ thousand 
sanctified priests, and stood on tlie very site of the foot-marks of 
former Buddhas, on the summit of Sumanakuta (Mihintala), and 
looked at the ten directions,* and said, "Let rain fall in this Island 
just at this very moment, and let all the tanks and dams be filled." 

17. At that instant, simultaneously with the thought of our 
Ix»rd, liundreds of blue condensed clouds of rain began lo present 
tbeingelves to the eight, as if the reflections of mountains appeared 
in the miiTor of the sky. Hundreds and thousands of pillars of 
rainy clouds began to shew themselves, resembling a pressure of 
pillars of blue sapptiire stones spreading in the bosom of the sky, 
and the clouds began to roar in tlie sky, as if the gods bad begun 
to play music as an oSering to Buddha. 

* The four cardinal, anil the (hot intervening, and ihe zenith and nadir points. 



IK. Tliriiifninia (if raiulKuvs begun lo o|i]>car ns so itiiiny divine 
nnlK's, wliieli ilu' prnls lind Imilt us an off^thi^ to Bu.Mlia. And 
iii>'ria<l:< of ligliiiiiii<:s began to xhcw thcin:4<.-U-('8 iu (lifTcruut 
djreciiiins, rescmbiing rowit of banners wLiiih tbc gada bad 
piTi'ifd. TboiisanJs of torrents of wul«r procecUod, bursting die 
l.ltLp oundcrii'ed clouds of rain like bcnps of strings of pearl b which 
godd oflir to Duddlm. Thousucid^ of pincurks began to erect ibeir 
lai!?, a^ if thoy held feather urabrdlas over their heads, for the 
pui-pose of iirotecliiig themselves from the wetting of tbe laio, 

19. At that instant tlironghout the wholooflhiBlalandvevj' thick 
find heavy showers of rftin fell, and filled tbe tanks, dams, rivers, and 
canals ; and torrent -stream 8 of fr&ih water fl'XiiIs began to run in 
dilKrcnt ilireclions, as if they had been reiKlened by rage, and were 
moving about lo find out where tbeir enemy, tbe beat, was dwelling. 

20. Tiiud BiiJilba having extinguished the beat by an unusual 
sbmver, caused the rain to ceaite, and then, in the sight of all 
living beings, be Mood on the summit of the rock like a statue of 
gob], and entered the state of Samapatti of aqueous kasina, and 
emitting streams of watei' fiom bis own body, also administered a 
healing to the (Kipulation. And all the living inhabitanta of tbe 
Island, who were delighted at tbe perfoiTaauce of ihia miracle, 
collected themselves together rouud Buddha, and worshipped him, 
immcrging themi^elveB under the beams of bis toe-nails, and carried 
him iu their arms unto the Maha-anoma grove. 

21. On that very day Buddha received the grove, with a shock 
of the great earth, and made bis repast, and at the conclusion of it, 
dclivci-cd his doctrines and rescued thirty thousand souls out of 
transmigration : and in the afleruoon, as was mentioned before, ho 
determined in his heart, and caused by bis superuatural iuflueoce, 
the southern branch of his sacred fig-tree to be self-cut as aforesaid, 



through the instrumentality of the inonarcli Sobhnna in tho city of 
Sobhana, and brought in an instant by fire hundred priestei^ses, with 
the sanctified pricsteSBKanakadatta at their head, and having caused 
the king Samiiidha to plant the sacred tree, and taking seat on the 
site of the LiSw&inah&paya, which at that time vas called Niiga- 
m&laks, he delivered his doclriues, and liaving given lo twenty 
thousand persona tho fruits of the paths of Nirwuna, proceeded 
thence and sat on the sit^ of Thiip^rania, and expounded the 
docti'ineN, and liberated ten thousand souls from transmigration, 
and left in this Island bis waist-band as a relic, togclher with five 
hundred priestesses, with the high and holy priestess Kauakadatta 
at their head, and one thousand priests, n-ith the great higli priest 
Sudlianna at their head. Thenue he came and xtood on tho site 
of the great stone monumeat called Sudaasanamalnka, advised all 
the living beings, and returned from this Inland into Jambudwipa. 

22. From that time forth in that Buddhatc all tlie princes that 
were bom liero, together with nil tlie people, continued to wor.-hip 
the three gems and filled the city of Nirwana, 

33. Moreover, in the time of Kusyapa, who became Buddha 
in the third place, this Island was designated as Mandadwipa, the 
grove Maba-mewuna had the name of Maha Sagara; the city on the 
west of it was called Wisalapura, in which a monarch of the 
name of Jayanta reigned ; Sumanakula was culled Subhokuta. At 
that time the inhabitants of this lahmd, with their kings, sub-kings, 
and groat ministers, 'were divided into two parties, and were jealous 
of one another, and carried on a civil war. They engaged arniies 
composed of four elements and arrayed in arms, and began to strike 
one another, saying "we will kill them and make oceans ofblood." 

24. Then Buddha having seen many persons perish in that 
civil war, impelled by great commisserution, reiwiirid thither 



llirou^rji the air, accoin|iiiiii{'d 1>y twTcily tlumsnuil saiiclifit'il Jis- 
eii'los, (iL'Na'rideil upon Subliakulu, niid ci'cnk'd a thick ilarkiici^s, 
niid (k'tcritiiiicJ iu his honrt with hiH dujxTnntuml iiifliicnce, " Let 
no two pi'i'.'iiHis see each other," uuJ put thi'tii into a traiici' with 
thi' chLi'kiLc^j, and thcti di:;]H'lled the darkricHs. 

23. And the people resumed the battle. Then He caused the 
whole Island (o i>moko, and get.'iiig that the nigc of the people did 
not subside, ho entered into the ptute of Samaputli of the igoL-oua 
Ka^ina, and emitted strcunir! of fire ont of his body, which was 
twenty cubits high, and tt-rrilied them by making the whole Idhmd 
tike a hou^e set in one bluzc of lire. 

26. Then the I>coplu seeing the mountains of lire moving nliout iu 
liie iiir, and the sparks of lire ince:^suiiily ilirown at every house, siiid, 
'■ U men I what consternation is this r* It ii? like the day of the de- 
slruclion of the world ; we are fighting against each other for the sBko 
of a kingdom, and that kijigilom is now burning; our wives und 
ehildreu are burning ; our wealth is buniiiig ; fields and gardens are 
burning ; and we ourselves shall be burned presently ; and what wars 
shall we carry on ?" And they trembling for fear of death, dropped 
down the weiipons which they hail in their hands, and were moved 
with affection towards each other, and the armies came to peooe. 

27. Thus Buddha, like one taking up a thorn by means of a 
tliora, extinguished the lire of their nigo by his miraculous fii-e, 
and then quenelied both the tires, and maJe himjclf visible to ait 
the living beings.' 



38. At that mometit nil men having seen Buddhs, stood up 
with cloaed hands upou their hewls, aod enquired of him, " Lord, 
art thou the god of fire, or art thou the deity of the sun ? Thy face is 
like a full moon, tby body is like a mass of ambrosia ; but on the 
contrary, the fire thnt issued out of thy body is exceeding fierce. 
Cnn a fire spring out of water ? Lord, whfit sort of personage art 
thou ?" And when tliey karned that he was Buddha, the supreme 
over the universe, they exulted with joy. 

29. Afterwards Buddfaa on that duy caused the great earth to 
shake, and received tlio same giove, ami at the conclusion of his 
repast he awakened the minds of the fuithful by the warmth of 
his preaching, as heat expands the blossoms of flowers. And he 
gave to twenty thousands of souls the fruits of the paths (to Nir- 
waua). And in the afternoon, he having proceeded to the site of the 
great and glorious sacrod tree, and having, as before, determined in 
his hetirt, witli his supernatural influence caused tlie southern 
branch of the sacred Nigrodha tree lo be self-cut by king Brahma- 
dutta of Benares, and brought in on instant by five hundred 
priestesses, at whose head Was tlie sanctified priesteas ^udharma, 
and planted by the monarch Jayanta; and then by tho discourse 
which he delivered, sitting on the site of the L^Swdniah^p&ya, called 
at that Buddhate Asoka-malaka, he rescued four thousand souls 
from tmnsniigration, and proceeded to the site of Tbupttrama, and 
preachedhisdoclrinesandgHve toa thousand souls thef\-uita of the 
paths (to Nirivfiua); rind left in this Inland his own bathing robe, 
aud the sanctified priestess Sudharma, with five hundred priest- 
essea, aud the great sauclificd priest Sarwananda, wiih n tlionsund 
other priesta ; and then having stood on the site of the third great 
stone monument Sonmnas!>a-mHlakl^ he advised gods and men, 
together with all the inhabitaaU of ihe Mundadwipa, aud rose up 



into the lrf.^om of llie sky and leti 
ia<K>n ntti''d b/ stai 
.10. Thus also iu I 
pxiM<>.l for twoiily til 

ciiy of XirwAiiB. 

Tlnii! Hbould be kn< 
first three BuJdh.ia il: 

BiKMiiiile of tlie K^apa BuJilbft, which 
iaivl yi'Hr.-t, the living la-ings bom here 
worship the three gems, nnd filled tbo 

iwn briefly the hi-^tory of the viaits of the 

lit were bom in t1ii» Ktilpn. 

Described in Pujawaliya. 

grcBt litiddlia Giiulnnift, who l)ceamo Buddha 
ill the fourth period of tliis Kalpu, i i»Ited this I^liuid uf Lsnka on 
the d-iy of full ickkiii of ihe month of Durulu (January), the ninth 
of his Biiddh&.'ihip. and Httiod iu tliQ air uvcr the midflt of s great 
army of Yakslms in the full blos-somed grove of Mahan&ga-w&na, 
three yoduns in length a&d one iu breadth, situated on the bank 
of the river Jliibitwuliika (Mahaweli), where, when they had com- 
menced ■ battle eguinst one tinothcr on account of some dinputc, — 
they were shouting with boasts like the roaring of thunders, and 
looking hero and there with various hostile weapona in their hands, 
poseeasing hearts like flames of fire, shaking the shrunk copper 
coloured hair of the head, raising up the pairs of contracted cruel 
brows like (be bow of PlutJ), revolving the red eyes like inflamed 
Imlls of fire, having cheeks blistered with strokes of the estreraities 
of tusks like crescent moons, tremulously shaking tongues thrown 
out of their hollow mouths, with disorderly teeth closed by the 
outward turned red lips, and revolving circular plates set at their 
ears, — he shewed himself in the air like a golden rock enveloped 
with many thousands of rainbows, lightnings and evening clouds, 
and caused a roaring of the aky and earth louder than their clamour, 
and created a fourfold thi<:k darkness, and terrified the yakaha^s, 



like Fisachas who had ofTended Waiearuwana. Again tio dispelled 
tUe dai'koess, and mode himself visible to tbem in the womb of the 
sky, like the diac of the rising aun, and struck terror among the 
army of yakshaa by volumes of smoke emitted from hia body, 
and then again be stood in their eight like the face of the moon, 
clear of the five obstruct ioua, issuing ambrosial bcama. 

32. At this raoniCDt the army of yakahas, who bad seen these 
miracU'S, saw Buddha and prayed him, saying, " O Lord, who art 
great and possessed of such influence as this, remove these calami- 
ties from us, and give us safety." Then Buddha addressed himself 
to the yakshas, who had supplicated him for safety, and said, " O 
yakdhas, if ye all wiab for safety, bestow on me aa much space on 
the ground aa yi'M suffice for me to sit," and having obtained as 
much space aa would suffice him to sit, ho removed the consterna- 
tion among the y^shas, and sat in the midst of (heir army, upon 
the skin carpet spread on the piece of ground given by them ; the 
place where Buddha sat being the site of the Mahiyangana monu- 
ment ; and from the four edges of the skin carpet be emitted 
four stroama of fire, which spreading on all the ten direclions, 
struck terror among the yakahaa, and dispersed them in different 
directions. Buddha then collected them on the sea-shore, and 
shewed tbem as if the isle of Yokgiri had been caueed to be 
brought near by bis supernatural influence ; he then presented 
that isle of Yokgiri to them, and settled the great yaksha army in 
it, but he remained there on the sea-shore. 

33. At that instant the chief of the gods, Sumana, resident at 
tho peak of Samanala, (Adam's Peak), together with all the aerial, 
domiciliary, and other gods dwelling on trees, mountains and other 
places, arrived there ; and when they st«od there making offer- 
ings of lights, incense, perfumes, flowers, and such other things; 



IJiiilrlha, "lio "11,* -iiiiiij,' ill liiiit jiliii-i-. ilci lured hi.- snund iluctriDC* 
lo iill iIk' (.'."U iLiL.t nuiLit^scs, |ircsi.U-a over by tlio cLitf god 
.Suiiiiiii.^ :iii.i «-l:,l.|j^ll.■d nmiuT.Mis K.'liw (ten nnllioHs) of tlie 
iiiiilrihidi' cjf ilic t^ttU ill the ciijovmciit of the fruits of iLe patbx,^ 
arni iiilmiilid uu Ai-uiikyii i>f ^i.iis iiilu the iniliakiry Sila. 

3 1. The chief gild Siiiiiaim, wh" wi thiit day atMiDod unio the 
h.ilv I'nth of Sciwan, hcMiiight for a relic suilahle for llim^M:l^ to 
woi'shi|. BEiU make olTeni.frs lo. Then llic meritorious Supreme 
ItiKhlim ruiilieJ his lieud mid gave a liui.Uful of hair relies to the 
ehief god Sumaim to worship and make offerings lo, and circutnam- 
bulated tliree times rimnd the Island of Laiika, like a meteor tliat 
moved mjiidly in the darkness, and gave it liis proieetion, and 
returned to Janiliudwijia on that very day. 

35. Tlicn the chief g(Mi. great Sumuna, placed in a golden shrine 
tlic handful of hair relic which he liad obtained, and collected a 
heap of gi-ms on the ^i>ot where Ituddha hail sat for subduing 
yak:^lias, and on the top of that heap of gtms he interred the 
shrine with the hair relic, and built thereupon a diigolia of blue 
sapphh-e gems, and made immense offerings to it. 

The first visit of Buddha to the Island of Lanka. 

S6. Moreover in the fifth year of our BuUdlia, who is a refuge 
to the refugeless, and in the fifteenth day of the waning moon of 
the month of Bhaga (March). two Nagakings, Chuldilara aud Malid- 
dara, maternal uncle and ncpliew, commenced a war on account of 
a "era throne, taking with them ecparate armies of eighty kelasof 
hlgas dwelling in water and in land, lieing twenty kelas of 
Kagas from K?lani, t.igetlior with tliirty kelas from Wadunnagala, 
against thirty kelas of Maninaga isle ; aud the two armies boasting 
violently, like two oceans stirred up by the vehemence of the wind 

., LiOOg Ic 


and ruBhing upon the Und, arranged liae by line like the rows of the 
waved moving thereon, taking various weapons, such as sworils, 
shields, darta, circular swords, clubs, bows, spears, lances, javelina, 
crowbars, maces, and arrows, and waving them like continuous flash- 
ings of lightniugB, rendering the whole battle-field a universal 
shout, anil contiuually running forward with bravery of heart, 
intoxicated with the pride of each outvieiug the other, and pressing 
hard each upon the other. 

37. Then our Buddha saw by inspiration the affliction suffered 
by the army of Nagaa who were thus boastingly assembled in the 
batrle field of the civil war; and impelled by compassion towards 
them, he started in the morning of tliat day fW>m J^tawana- 
^rama, and came tlirough the air under the shade of that very 
Kiripalu tree, which had been standing near the gate of the 
temple of J^tawana, and which the king of the gods, Samirdhi 
Sumana, who bod been residing on that self^same Kiripalu tree, 
rooted up and held over bis head, and descended at the isle of 
Maninuga, and presented bimself in the midst of tbe two Naga 
armies, who had the sharpest battle, and seated himself in the air 
under theshade of the blue-sapphire-banner-Hke Kiripalu tree. He 
then created a darkness for tbe purpose of frightening tbe Niga8,and 
afterwards threw a light upon ihem like that of the rising sun. The 
Nagas being thus frightened by the darkness, he shewed them many 
wonders, and preached his doctrines, and reconciled the two armies. 

38. Then all the Naga people, having thrown their weapons 
out of their hands, brought, in company with the Naga virgins, 
various kinds of splendid offerings and presents, and bestowed Ihem 
upon him : and they prayed BiMdba to descend on the ground ; 
and he, sitting upon the gem throne which the Nagas had bestowed 
upon him, made a repast of (he divine food which the Nagas gave 



Iiiin, and prenclicil Ins ilocuiiii'!' tu cighly krUa of Nagns, and eetab- 
liilied llicin in (lie iniriatory sUa. Anil in lliat N;iga companj, the 
Xuga king Maiii:ik, the mnlcrnal uncle of llie Naga king Mnlio- 
dara. su i-pl irate. t Bivl.Ilia to visit Ki^mi. 

39. Afterwards BuJdlia, Imving by liis silence conscatcd to the 
inviiiiiinn, nindc tliq Kirjpalu tree, and the gem throne, pari- 
bhc>glka monunieiitsi,* that they might worship and make ofieringa 
to thciii, in order tliat Iheir advundng merits might increase; and 
he Rul on the gpm throne, leaning against the Kiripalu tree, 

40. Thua having quelled the di:':>cnsion3 of the Nigsu, he left as 
piirihhogika monuments both the gem throne which ho bad received, 
and tlio Kiripabi tree, which the god had brought fi'om J^tftwuia 
with him, hohling it as a shade oyer bis head, in order that the eighty 
kelusofNiigan, and tiieir females inhabiting the three N^a abodes, 
which have the three N^ga kings, Chuloilara, Mabodarn, and Ma- 
niakkha, as their chiefs, may worship and muke offerings to tbem, in 
whatever way they choose. And be established protection to the 
glorious Island of Lanka, and returned to Jctswana Vibira in the 
city of Sewct in Dambadiva. 

41. Thus, the gem throne and the Kiripalu tree, which our 
Buddha received when he came to Maninaga isle, on bis second 
visit to Lanka, were placed in the oceanic Naga abode, and on 
the sea shore, as pitribhogika monuments. 

This is the account of the second visit of our Buddfaa to the 
Island of Lanka. 



42. MoreoTer our great Buddha, the teacher of the three 
vorlJs, who hRs a glorious &ce like a lotue, residing in the Vihura 
of J^tawana, thus thought about bis third visit to tlie Iislaod of 
Lanka; namely, "when I am dead (my) tooth relic, the jaw 
" bone relic, the forehead relic, and about a drona* of other relics, 
"which tbe inhabitants of the ci^ of Rambagam will receive 
"at my demise; the hair relics and many other relics, will bo 
" settled in the glorious Islaud of Lanka ; and many hundreds 
"and thousands of monasteries will bo established tliere. And 
"as a great many people, such as Kshastrias, Brahmans, Walsyas, 
" Shuddras, and many others, who will delight in tho three gems 
" will dwell there, I ought therefore to go to the Island of Lanka, 
" and visit the sites where ttie aixteen great places will have to 
"be situated, and indulge myself in the enjoyment of Sam&patti, 
"and then return here." 

43. So in the eighth year of his Buddhaship he, at the invitation 
of the great priest Sun&paranta together with five hnudred sancti- 
fied th^ras, mounted upon five hundred gulden palanquins which the 
god S^kraiahad created and presented to them, came to the territory 
of Sun&parant, and received the hall named Cbandana-mandala- 
m&laka, built by some merchants in the monastery of Muhulu ; 
and there he preached his doctrines to sentient leiiigs, and estab- 
lished them in the enjoyment of tho fruits of the patlis, and 
dwelt there several days, and went to the market town of Supparaka 
at the invitation of the priest Purna, and preached the doctrines to 
the people there. While he was returning to the city of Sewet, 
Lc came to the bank of the river Nermoda, and there he, at the 


ADAMS 1'1:aK. 

reijtii'.-t of the Xagii king NirniiuJi, who dwelt in the river, par- 
took of l}ie tlivine t'lHid prescnti-d by liiin, and gave him some 
jii'iK'tical ftdmoiii lions, and e.-:tid>]i:'lieil a preat multitude of N^igaa 
in till! iiiiiiiitory obsiTvunce of rclifjioii. And at ilic reque^it oftlie 
N.iga king Ni/nnodd, Kc made an im|ii'Liit of liia glorious right 
foot, eniloweU with a hundred and eight auapicioua signs, on a 
beautiful etrand like a heap of pearl dual, on the bank of tliat river, 
oti which the rippling waves strike and break themsclveH, and he 
provided the Nagus with the roeaiH of acquiring merits. 

44. When the spreading waves strike over the heap of sand 
on which the glorious foot was imprinted on the shore of that 
river in the Yi'moka country, the glorious foot-mark is covered by 
the water, auU when the waves retire, the imprintof the foot with 
all its audpieiuus signs i^-appears, like a seal impressed upon the 
surface of a lunip of extremely white beea-wnx, without the slightest 
diminutiou of any of the blissful marks, satisfying the eyea of 
every otic who sees it. And it imparts abundant happiness to the 
world up to this day. This is a paribhogika memorial. 

4.J. Anil from that place he proceeded to the rock of Rachcha- 
baddha, and at the request ofa certain pricstcalled Sacbchabaddha, 
he imprinted on the top of the thick blue rock of that name his 
glorious foot, endowed with a hundred and eight auspicious signs, 
such as Siriwoaa, Swastika, and so fortli, as if a foot smeared with 
ointment had been preased upon a lump of wet clay, without the 
defect ofa single jot of the parts of thoso auspicious marks, so as 
to be clear to the bodily eye of every one that sees thom. This 
also is a memorial of the foot of my Buddha, 

46. Thence Buddha, proceeding from the anid Saehehabaddha 
mountaiit, recollected the invitation which the Niig.1 king Ma- 
niakkha, — who enjoys the Naga pR>s|>crity in that Naga region 



which bad arisen contiguous to the new stream of water named the 
Kelani river, perhaps from its resemblance to an auspicious body of 
water emptying itself into the ocean, baring fallen at the foot of 
the rock after the entire washing and pm-ification of the noble moun- 
tain Samanlakuta (Adam's Peak) of the Island of Lanka, when the 
water of the auspicious consecration was poured on the top of ita 
bead for purification, previous to its sacred investment with the 
mark of the glorious foot, — had made on a former occasion, when 
he had gone to Maninitga isle, for the purpose of assisting his 
nephew Mahddara, the prince of the Nilgas, in a wv which he was 
carrying on against the Nig& Prince Cbulcidara, having seea 
Buddha, who had mercifully come there, — that be should visit 
K$lani ; — and on the day of full moon of the mouth of Wesak 
(May) be began to proceed, attended by five hundred sanctified 
priests, including the eighty dignitaries. 

47. In the place where Buddha was residing, there was, close 
to his bed chamber, a noble Naga named Sumana, enjoying great 
happiness, constantly attended by Hixteen thousand N&ga virgins ; 
and he, having seen the personal gracefulness of Buddha, 
greatly admired him; and he had bb mother as an object of 
veneration, and rendered bor such services as worshipping and 
honouring her, and shampooing hei- feet. 

48. When BudJha was about to depart, he invited this noble 
Nilga who stood by, and said "Follow us with thy retinue." And 
this noble Niga immediately obeyed these words, and said "Yea, 
my Lord," and took his train of about sixty millions of N&gas, and 
proceeded, holding over his head a full blossomed champack tree, 
BO that the rays of the sun might not strike against the glorious 
persoti of Buddha. 

49. Afterwards the meritorious Buddha, having arrived at the 



Nuga city of llio Nuga kiog Maniakklia nt the Kclaiii river in tha 
Islatnl of Lanka, sot upon the throne compleletl with all sorts of 
gems in the golden court, miraculously brought into existence by 
Maniakkhn, and remained with hi:> attendant priests on the eite of 
the Kclani monument, and made refvctioa of the diriiie food pre- 
sented to him by tho noble Nagn, and delivered to him some 
practical admonitions ; and, at the request of tliat noble Ndga, he 
made an imprecision of his glorious foot under that river of K^lani, 
in order that the Ndga king might make ofFerings lo him, nnil 
ho initiated many thousands of other Nigas into the threefold 
refuge, arul remained sitting there increasing their merits. 

50. Then the great god Sumana, resident at tlio dirine man- 
einii on the mimmit of the peak Samanala (Adam's Peak), who had 
heard of these circumstances, came with his numerous retioue 
of gods to the site of the Kclani monument, having prepared and 
brought things for offerings to him, and saw Buddha; and took 
drums and other musical instruments, and offered him immense 
divine fragrant flowers, lamps, incense, and other things, and 
worshipited him, by applying to the ground five places of the body, 
and prayed Buddha (o come to the Samanala mountain, while 
the Nagas remained worshipping him. 

51. Then the great god Sumana, resident of the Samanala 
mountain, addressed him in sis such slanzaa as these, standing 
before Buddha, with closed hands upon hishead,addrG3Bing him thus, 
praying: — 

52. " great Buddha, the lord of the whole universe, it wa« 
"with thy compassion to sentient beings that thou hadst cnlorcd 
" the impassable ocean of Sdnsiira, and moved about during an im- 
" mense period of time, suffering pains fi-om the moment of thy 
" obtaining, at the foot of the Dipankara Buddha, the sanction to 



"become Buddha, and completed the fulUbirtyjKiranitTaf. lam in- 
" eluded also among the number of all the aentient beings, such as 
" Gods, Brahmas, Asuras, Men, Nf^as, Supernas, Takshas, R&k- 
"shas, Siddhae, Widdhjadharae, and others whoenjoy the beneficial 
" rewards from that compassion of thine. Have mercy there- 
" fore upon mp, and in that viaible mountainous forest, uplifted 
"and graceful in all glory, beauteous in green foliage, tender 
" leaves, waterfalls, and rainbows, pressed bj the striking of wind, 
" delightful with clusters of lotuses and flashings of lightnings, 
"resounding with the noise of gentle breezes and of Hie roaring 
" clouds, resembling the black peak of a rainy cloud over the eastern 
" horizon, sprinkled by the fall of the extremely white ambrosial 
" showers of rain, situated in the midst of that visible wildemesa 
"like a peacock's neck, being anobject eligible for theceremoniea at 
"the ofierings made to Buddha, being an abode for gods and 
"goddesses engaged in divine spcvts, giving pleasure to multi- 
" tndes of gods performing dancee that property correspond to the 
" aire of the music variously produced by the simultaneous playing 
■' of the five kinds of sonorous instruments of dtata, witala, witat^ta, 
"ghana and suaira,* constantly kept up by describing variotu 
" kinds of objects, such as trees, creepers, rivers, quadrupeds, and 
" birds, and singing the aira agreeable to these on the summit of 
" that peaked mountain Somanta&AtA, appearing like a noble 
" Airiiwana elephant,! whose whole body is entirely blanched with 
" the white colour of the falling of dews, and who stretches forth. 

* "A'tati," ■ lun-tam btaten irlth tb« hands onl; I 'wiut*,' > t«in-tl 
with «tlek> onl]' ; ' wlutita,' one I>mI«o with the hud on on* lidc, «i 
sn th« other; 'ghana,' balls ; 'aunra,' tniinpcta. 

f Tbe D>me of the elaphant ridden by tba gud Sf krala. 



" like rowd of prolio'fpi, a mulritude of rivers that fsU in different 
" directions, graceful with rows of waves rieiiig up at the points of 
" rotkc, pplenJiil wiih a mulliluiie of round and rising rocks like 
"frontal gloltcM, niiil of rooi-Mlems of various eliajKiS like a mul- 
" lirudc of tiHk^ diyiiitieil with ealaraeiH, like thegenllj' dropping 
"exudation of juice; nnd wiltisIabH of gnat stones, like teniplee; — 
"impress there ihis (hy tender, dcjicalo nnd glorious fool, and 
" improve the proMj-eroua condition of the period of five tbousand 

53. The lord of the biped race, who gives commands conducive 
to the happineits of the whole univerBc, accepted the prayer 
offered by the noble god Sumana in stanzas like theae, aad when 
he waa proceeding from the city of K^lani, having ascended 
the air, attended by five hundred HanctiRed priests, including the 
eighty dignified diDciples, like the great Brohmah Sahampati, 
attended by the train of Brafamas, the noble god Sumana covered 
himself on one shoulder with a vesture of various Justres, dressed 
himself with divine ornaments of undiminished splendour, and 
habited with long broad and white divine silk garments, and 
himself looking like a pillar of cloud emitting torrents of rain 
water, enveloped with rainbows and flashings of lightnings, stood 
on the right hand side of the omniscient Baddba, bending himself 
with the utmost marks of veneration, and giving him his hand, 

.'i4. Then in troot of him proceeded in attendance many 
hundreds and thousands of female deities, exhibiting various feala 
of dancing, forming themselves into diSerent concerts, shewing 
their gestures comformably to the nine sentiinenta of dancing, 
descriptive of the six acts of the feet, sixty-four of the hands, eight 
of the eyes, and fire of the head, and standing in the midst of a 



great assembly of performers, producing aira coireaponding to the 
v&rioua tuues, — in the same way proceeded many bundreds and 
thousands of divine auldicrs in attendance, habited io their untforme, 
overtaking one another, eimultaneousl; raising various loud sounds 
of the five kinds of musical instruments, as if they were giving a 
violent shock upon the whole terrestrial element, — in the same way 
proceeded many hundreds and thousands of goddesses and com- 
panies of gods in attendance, carrying articles for offerings, such as 
umbrellas, fans, banners, bundles of feathers, palm-leaved fkns, 
spreading fans, gold and silver pitchers, pots full of scented water, 
nosegays, garlands, and silver torches and other things. 

55. In the some way proceeded Sckkros, Brahmas, great 
Iswaras, Nagas, Yakshas, Raksbas, Siddhas, Widdhy ad haras, and 
others, collecting tbeinsetveB together and attended by their retinues 
constantly spreading like canopies in the hollow of the firmament 
nosegays of fragrant flowers, and young branches of osuka trees, 
tender leaves of tlie honey mango trees, iion-wood trees, banyan 
trees, and creepers of spoiled betel, and throwing, like rain, gold and 
silver flowers, pearls, gems, and camphor, and scattering about for 
offerings an immense quantity of such precious articles as godlike 
ornaments, divine crowns, and their upper vestures; whirling round 
their heads numberless diviue garments like swarms of white cranes 
moving about the summit of a golden rock, snapping their fingers, 
producing sounds by the clapping of their hands, giving shouts of 
acclamations of joy, and filling all the points of the compass with 
the noise of excessive singing, intoxicated by the sports of sadhu. 
Thus the bands of gods proceeded through the air, logeiher with 
the company of the disciples, Buddha being at their head, as if 
the rocks of Mcru and Yngundara had landed on the shore of the 
great ocean, and bent their course towards the peak of Samanala. 



5C. Anil in IIjis wnv, wbilc the puiiml nilviiior of nil the sentient 
Ix-iii^'A, llie Huvct'('i-;n of the worlil, (lie liir<l of ilic liif>e<l races, had 
BwPciKicil the Hcrial pnlh, an.! wriii pri.pefding, tlip orb of the pun 
mtiile Ihi' r1u£tor4 uf hi.t U-iiniit a" siiD as the light of the moon, 
ami Mooil in llic !-ky like a white nmlirella lieM over his head for 
tlio purpose of presenting tho heal, then gentle drops of raia 
bfgtin to fall slowly like a »iirinkling of wiilcr upon an &ltar of 
flowers that had been elevuled to tho clouilud sky. And gentle 
lireozi's mined with perfumes begun to blow from various directions, 
to eooi the whole uiiivor?e like one orb of odour, 

57. ThuH Buddha suffiriug the pomps of the immense offerings 
which the gods i>t'rformcd, by pivaeiiting various miracles in tho 
whole firmament, filled the entire univer.'^o with the clusters of 
Buddhu'a dense beams of six colours, namely blue, yellow, scarlet, 
white, red and variegated, arrived at the summit of the peak 
Samanlaku(a, nnd stood with his focfi towards the west, attended 
by five hundred disciples, like the orb of the rising sun enveloped 
in a collection of the lustre of Buddha's beams which lied come 
over the top of the eastern rock, and which had looked towards the 
way of the interval of the western ocean ; and Buddha, at the 
prayer of the great Sumana, the noble king of the gods, clearly 
impresi'ed upon the summit of tho Samantakuta mountain, his soft 
and ruddy pink coloured lefl foot, with all its beauties, which in 
length is about three inches less than two carpenter's cubits,* 
endowed with a hundred and eight auspicious signs. 

53. So he properly gratified the noble god Maba Sumana, 
together with innumerable sentient beings such as Brahmas and gods, 

* Tiro tetl three inches it uid to be the measure or ■ Si^lialeM orpeoter's 
taUt : bat some isMrt that antienlly th« meanire wn two feet nine inches. 

D,o.i,2,,a.„ Google 


and set his glorious foot as a seal that ia impressed, purpoi'tiiig that 
the Island of Lanka was his own treasury, full of the three goms. 
At that moment, at the festival of the noble peaked mountain Sama- 
nala, the rocks, trees, rivers, cataracts, pools, brooks, earth, sea, and 
akj, like an army attendant upon it, clothed thcra'aelvLS with the un- 
folded garments of various hues of the six coloured rays of Bud* 
dha's beams, anointed with the ointment of the pouring of flowers 
of divine fragrance, adorned themselves with the jewelry of the 
showers of divine geme, decorated themselves with garlands of 
fiowers of fully expanded and unwonted blossoms, playine on the 
five kinds of muaical instruments like the roaring of the eca, singing 
agreeably to the measurement of the hum of the bees, clapping 
their hands as with the clash of rain clouds, shouting with applause 
like the roaring of the earth ; and in the continual sprinkling of 
unusual rains they disported themselves among the waters. 

69. Then the Omnisdent Buddha, attended by the train of the 
great priests, departed from that place, and rested during the beat 
of the day in the cave of Bhagawa-lene on the side of that peak of 
Samanala, making it also a p&ribhiSgika memorial, and proceeding 
from that place went to the district of Buhuua, and entered 
with his train into the state of samapatti, on the site where the 
monument of Diglianakha was to be erected, and rested there for 
a moment. 

60. Having rested in this way for a moment's time in the state 
of samapatti, together with his five hundred attendant sanctified 
priests, at the site of Digbanakha, and having placed in that spot 
the deity MahJU^na as guardian, and thence like a Gurulu-raja 
attended by a multitude of Garundos, ascended the aerial path and 
come to tlie city of Annr&dbspura, he sat, by shaking the earth, on 
the site where the great glorious sacred bo-tree was to be placed 



ill llu- midst of flio f;iove Mulia Mi'>,'liiiwiiiia, nnJ on the site where 
ItutiiHiiii'iti niotmmi-nt wn.s to be crei'tt-il, ami appointed there a 
ilciiy of llio name of Wi-iiila um ^iiardinn, an<l he proeeeiled theuce 
ami rfwteil, by shAkiii>r the earth as t>rlore, in the slato of NirdJha 
sftiiiiliintii, at tlie site where ilie Thupuriima monument was to be 

I uill at U having appoiii toil in lliat place, as guardian, a god of the 

II ime of Prathuwimdla, he proeeeded thence and rested for a 
moment in tht state of saitu^tatti at the nite of Miriflaweli Vihara 
aitLnded by five hundred sanctilied prieKt)), including the eight/ 
dignihcl disuple* then he rose from the state of sam^patti there, 
an I preitcht.d his loctrines to an innumerable multitude of gada 
who lifld colkcted themselves together in that plaee, and led them 
into the four rewards of tlie four paths, and commanded the god 
IndriL Co guitrd that place, and thus awakened the minds of the people. 

61. From that place he proceeded and rested ft moment with 
his retinue at the site where Lowamahupaya was to be erected, at 
the ^itc where the house of Lahatiat was to be erected, at the site 
where the pool Dantadhara was to l>e constructed, and at the site 
where Ruwanwelipaya was to lie built ; and he preached his doctrines 
to the assembled gods in these places, aud distributed the four re* 
wards of the four supreme paths ; from tliat plnce he proceeded and 
sat upon that most delightful spot of ground on thu summit of the 
rock of Mihintala where MahaHclasiiya was to l>e erected ; and he 
brought to his subjection those Gods, Brahmas, Nagas, Garundae, 
Siddhas, Widdhyudliaras, Rakshaa, Gandharwas, and others who 
were gathered near him, and he made them drink of the ambrosia 
of his doctrines, and straightened the path of the duration of Sau- 
sara, and displayed to tliem the happy way which speedily leads 
to the city of Nirwilna. 

62. lie went thence, logetbcr with five hundred sanctified 



priests, and entered the state of samipatti at. the place where the 
venerable d&goba of Kataragoma was to be built, and in that place 
also he caused the earth to shake, and for the future protection of 
that place he located the noble god Ghosha, and departed thence and 
entered the state of Ninidha samdpatti as before, at the site where 
Tis8A Maha Wihira was to be erected, and caused the earth to 
shake as before, and ho placed there for guarding it a god called 
Manibhuraka. He left tliat place and coming to Naga-Maha-Yihara, 
entered the state of sam&pattl as 1)efore, and caused the earth to 
shake, and he placed there for its protection a god named Mihinda, 
and proceeded thence and entered the state of Nir6dha samdpatti 
with the 6ve hundred sanctified priests at a very delightful spot 
of ground, near SiSruwila on the southern bank of the river Maha- 
weli, and caused the great earth to shake, and rose from hia seat. 

63. Then when the N^ar&ja Sumana had plucked some flowers 
from the champac tree which he had in his hands, and had gone to 
that place and offered them to Buddha and stood by him, he ordered 
that Nagarlija Sumana should reside there as the guardian god of 
that place, and then he gave his own protecting influence to the 
glorious Island of Lanka, and returned to Jambudwipa, 

64. This is the third visit of our Buddha to the Island of 
Lsnko. Thus all the fourteen places, at which he spent some time 
in moving about, by way of standing, or sitting, and so forth, in 
the three visits which the exalted sovereign of the wholesome 
doctrines paid to the Island of Lanka, are p&ribhogika memorials. 




"The fullowj'iig romntilic legend, cotitioetcd with Kcllania, is to 
be found io Siylinlcse historiefi ; tLe iktiuiI is aboul 200 B.C. i 

The beautiful Queen of Titt^a, King of Kdlania, having been i 

Beduecd by his brother Ultiya, and their intercourse detected, ha I 

fled to Gampola j flora tlience he soon after senl an emissary ] 

disguised aa a priest. This person was instructed to mix in the I 

crowd of priests, who, along wtilt their chief, daily attended at 
tlie palace to receive their alms; at which time it was expected I 

the messenger might lind an opportunity of safely delivering a i 

letter with which he was entrusted tn the Queen, who always 
assisted at the <listributiun of alms. The disguised messenger 
entered the palace along with a multitude of priests, and, having 
caught the eye of the Queen, dropped the letter (an ola) : the sound 
of its fall was heari) by the King, who immediately turned round and 
seized it. The King, having perused the guilty commupication, 
in the height of his fury decided that the Iligh-priest must bo 
cognizant of the intrigue ; for not only had the messenger come 
as a priest in his train, but the letter appeared to the King to have 
been written by the High-priest. He was forthwith thrown into 
a CHuhlrou of boiling oil ; at the same time, the Queen was bound 
and cast into the river, and the meHaongcr was hewn in pieces. 
The real writer was afterwards asecrlained, and it was then 



remembered that Uttiy& had been a pupil of the unfortunate 

High-priest, and had acquired exactly the same method of writing." 

The above circumstances are thus referred to in the Selft-lihini 


Tkcn in the nmneiDD beautiful,— jd memeij built. 
By men with merit blent, of deed of tragic gnilt, — 
Wkbin the ball whose pajntings the storj vivid tell 
Of prieiit alaia nithlewl/ b; kingly passioni fell ; — 
Where Tissa io the nuldran of bdling nil had prone 
The Rabat inn[>cent on biind suvpiciun thraim; — 
There, on that sacred spot, to Buddhista ever dear, 
The Sage's aedent image, bireat friend, revere I 

" Not long after theee events, the sea began to encroach rapidly 
on the west coast of Ceylon, and the King became persuaded that 
this calamity was a judgment against him for the cruel and unjuat 
sentence he had executed on the High-priest In hopes, of pre- 
venting the onward prc^i^ee of the waves, uid to appease the 
wrath of those gods who control the waters, Tissa determined to 
sacrifice his virgin daughter Sudh&dewi ; and, having secured 
her in a covered golden canoe, on which was inscribed "a royal 
maiden," he caused it to be launched into the ocean. The flood 
continued to increase ; and the monu\;b, mounted on his elephant, 
had proceeded to view the desbuctive efiects of the raging waters : 
while thus engaged, the earth opened, and the King disappeared 
amidst flames which burst from the sinking wreck of his richest 
provinces. Before the waves ceased to encroach upon Ihe land, 
six hundred and for^ villages (four hundred and seventy of which 
were principally inhabited by divers for pearls) had been over- 
whelmed, and the distance between KcUania and the Bea-<»aBt had 
been reduced from twenty-five to foiu' miles. 



The vc.'tM.'l in wliii:]i tbc young Princess van imniolBted, having 
bcrii driflcd to the soutli-wcst, wan discovered wid brought lo 
Iftnd by some fiabcrniou in the Mii),'iiin district, which was at that 
time a Ee|)ai'atc kingdom, ujidcr tlic cuulrul of Kowantistia Raja. 
He, having heiii'd v( the myatcrioiis apjieAraDce of the golden 
canue, prot-it-iicJ lo the coast at Tolalu ¥i.-nj ; and, &fU>T readiog 
the inKL'Hpiion, rclca^'d the Piijici-HS, whose name he changed to 
Wibari Dcwi, and whom he afterwards married. 

Wihari Uowi Ixjcnmc tlie mother of Doofoogaimoonoo, a prince 
who restored the SiT^balese power, and expelled the Malabars, to 
whom both Kellania Tis^a and Kawanti^ssa had been tributaries. 
Many Buddhistx l»elicve that her merits and good fortune are so 
great, that, in a future transmigration, bhe will become the mother 
of Mylrce,* Iho expected Buddha."— Forbeb' Eleven Years in 
Ceylon, vol. i. pages IS4— 156. 

nipUttid in its iutrmul 

If of the exfi«cteil Mylr^ who i> rep™ 



The DiLAD.v-MiLAr.AWA ; a\d the Histoht of the Toorn. 

"The principal objects in Kanily worthy of any notice, are the 
palace, and the different temples of Boodhoo and the gods. The 
palace did occupy a considerable apnce of ground. Its front, 
about 200 yards long, made ralher an imposing appearance : it 
looked towards the principal temples, and rose above a handsome 
moat, the walls of which were pierced with triangular cavities for 
purposes of illumination. At one extremity, it was terminated bj 
an hexagonal building, of two stories, called Pateripooa, in which 
the king, on groat occasions, appeared to the people, assembled 
in the square beloW. At the other extremity, it was bounded by 
the women's apartments, on the front of which the sun, moon, 
and stars, (not out of gallantry, but as insignia of royalty,) were 
earvcd in atone, and in which, at (he public festivals, the king and 
bis ladies stationed themselves to witness the processions. The in- 
termediate space was occupied chiefly by the great entrance to the 
palace, and by the teoiple (tlie Dalada Malegawa) a little iu the rear. 
The entrance was by a drawbridge over the moat, through a 
mapsive archway, on one hand, up a flight of huge steps, and 
through another archway to the hall of audience ; and, on the 
other hand, up another flight of steps to the temple and the 
hexagonal building . . . The hall of audience, where the king usually 
trunsacted business and kept his court, is a long room, in which 



nliil is now lo be tfcn, cxccptiiij; ihc rarvcil wooden 
[.lUar:* liy wliir:li tlic r<H)f is HiipporM . , . The principal temples in 
Kiitirlv nii<1 its iiiiino(liiitt>iieit:lilionrhi>ot], nrclli^DalatlaMalegawa, 
ili.^ :\T;il«'u(lO, iiii.l tho Asgiric Wilmrcs,— nml the Natn, Maha- 
Vii^hmi,- Katritgam, Diul Patiiu- IX-wnk-s. Ttie Dakda Mnlcgawa, 
«■:.? ihe iloincstio temple of tlie king, ami is tlie most vcneratod of 
nriy Jri llie couiilry, ns it contains the relic, the tuotli of Boodboo, lo 
which t!ic whole island wns dcdic.ite, mid which is considered by 
good Iloiidhisis as the most precioiia iJiiiig in the world. The 
tenijile U small, of two Htorics, built in ihe Cliineje Style of archi- 
Icctuie. The sanclum is an inner room, abmit twelve feet square, 
on the upper story, witbout windows, and to which a ray of natural 
light never penetrate.*. Yoii enter It by folding doors, with 
pnliplicd bra«B pnnticls, before and behind which is a curtain, Tlie 
splendour of the place is very striking; the roof and walls are 
lined with gold brocade; and nothing scarcely is to be seen bnt 
gold, gems, and sweet-smelling flowers. On a platform or stage, 
about three feet and a bnlf high, and which occupies about half 
the room, there is a profusion of flowers tas-tefully arranged before 
the olijeetf: of worship to which they are offered, viz. two or three 
small figures of Boodhoo,— one of crystal, and the other of silver- 
gilt, and four or five domes or caskets, called karaaduas, containing 
relics, and simibtr in furm to the common Dngobah, of which a 
figure baa been given already. All but one of the karanduas are 
small, not exceeding a foot in height, and wrapped in many folds 

* In jiagt 103 I Rtateil Ihat Ihe pricFtri of the MaltguKi. are proprietora a 
Kite nf the B^r^ndl krJKlti at Sflitraki) ; this I have rinrp learnt ii a tnli 
that pmiierty belongs la ihe Maha Vishnu l>4itili id Kandy. 



of luiuHn. One 19 of mach greater size, and uncovered, And, with 
ita decorations, makes a most brilliant appearance. It is five feet 
four and a half inches high, and nine feet tea iuches in circum- 
ference at its base. It ia of silver, from three-tenths to four-tenths 
of an inch thick, and gilt extemallj'. It consists of three different 
pieces, capable of being separated from each other. Its workmaoship 
is neal, but plain, and it ia studded with very few gems, the finest 
of which is a valuable cat's-eye on its top, which is rarely seen. 
The ornaments atlaclied to it are extremely rich, and consist of gold 
ciiaiiis, and a great variety of gems, suspeuilod from it. The most 
remarkable of these is a bird hanging by a gold chain, aod formed 
entirely of diaroon da, rubies, blue sapphires, emeralds, and cat's-eyes, 
set in gold, wliicli is hid by the profusion of stoues. Viewed at a 
little distance, by candle-light, the gems about the karandua seem to 
be of immense value ; but when closely inspected, they prove in 
general to be of bad quality, and some of the largest merely crystal, 
coloured by a foil. This great karandua is the receptacle of the 
Dalada, 'the Tooth,' as it is considered, of Boodhoo. Through the 
kindness of the Governor, I had an opportunity (enjoyed by fow 
Europeans) of seeing this celebrated relic, when it was recovered, 
towards the conclusion of the rebellion, and brought back to be 
replaced in the Dalada Malcgawa, from which it had been clandes- 
tinely taken. It was of a dirty yellow colour, excepting towurda its 
truncated base, where it was brownish. Judging from its appear- 
ance at ihe distance of two or three feet, (for none but the chief 
pric^its were privileged to touch it,) it was artificial, and of ivory, 
discoloured by age. Nc%'er a relic was more preciously enshrined ; 
wrapped in pure sheet-gold, it was placed in a case just large enough 
to receive it, of gold, covered externally with emeralds, diamonds, 
and rubif.", tastefully arranged. This beautiful aud very vuluablc 



bijou wns pill into n very Kiimll p^Kl kiirniiilun, richly unismeuleil 
witli riil>ifs, ilia 111 OH lis, aiiU cinft'uldB ; iliis wos endowed in a larger 
one ulsu of golJ, and vtry |irtltil_v <leei>ralcil with rubie»: this 
sfcond, suiTouiidcil willi tiiiai'l, was pliiwd in a lliird, which wu 
wni|i[>ed in niu.-llii ; uiid lUis in a fourlh, wliich wag simiUrly 
wrapjied ; both ihcse were of gold, beautifully wrought, and richly 
Htuilded with jewels: InBtly, the fourth kiiratiduH, about ■ fout and 
a liulf high, was deposited in the gtvat karandua. Here, It may be 
remarked, that when the relic wuis taken, the effect of lis capture 
was astonishing, atid almost Iieyoud the comprehension of the 
eiilighleiied : — 'Now (tlie pi^ople siiid) llie English are indeed 
masters of the country ; for they who pcsaess the relic havea right 
to govern four kingdoms ; Ihiii, for 20(X) years, is the first time 
the lelic was ever taken from us.' And the first Ad ikar observed, 
'TImt whatever the Eugllsh might think of the consequence of 
having taken Kappitipola, Pllimi; THbwe, and Mudugalle,* in bia 
opinion, and in the opinion of the people in general, the taking of 
the relic was of infinitely more moment.'"— Davy's Account of the 
Interior of Ceylon, pp. 365 — 3ti9. 



The fullowtDg ia a bi'ief account of th« history of the Tooth, 
of the iuc^timable value of which, and of the numberless uiracles 
wrought by it, Budilhiat literature ie full. Of theae last, one ex- 
ample may be giveu, quoted from aa aotieat P&li githi ia the 
Attaaagalu-vaoaa, a work writlea in the latter part of the tbir- 
Ceeutb century 

Held in the I'ltiis hand if Lanka'a king, 
Like rijs-hanM, binl of xnldrn wing, 
Instlnvt wiib life, the Danta brightly gteam'd 
Then Buddha's furm usuni'd. when rrDm it beam'd 
Effulgent flublags, which on all aides thrown 
IVith Bplendnur uniurpBBs'd ilsclf made kuuwa. 
Awt^jtnick the king the miraula beheld, 
Convinwd, delighled, and by joy impell'd, — 
SiKh joy as SlU a ChakkavHtti's* br«a«t 
When of ■ Cbakka-ratanat poaMil,— 
He to th' unrivBll'd relic oSerings (here 
Made of rii:b gems, and priceleas jewels rare. 

Afl*r the funeral rites of Gautama Buddha had been performed at 
KuBinaro, B.C. 543, his " left canine tooth" was carried to Dantapura, 
the capital of Kalinga, where it was preserved for BOO yeara. 
The king of Kalinga being engaged in a doubtful conflict, directed 
that, in the event of defeat, the sacrod relic should be conveyed to 
Coylon. The event he feared occurred, and the relic was con- 
veyed to Ceylon a.d. 31 1, by a princess of Kalinga, who concealed 
it in tlie folds of her hair. It was received by king Mahaaen and 



the pi'icr^ts with the grcnte!'t possiUo lionors; and rcmaiucd at the 
caintal until nboiit tlit? year 1315, wh(?iL, durlDg &n invasion of the 
Malnbars, it was cajitureJ at Yapalioo, aud carried back to 
Southern Iiiilia. Pre k ram a bah u III., the i^uccecding king, went 
in person to Ma<tura to negotiiitc fur ha surrender, and returned 
iviih it lo Cojlon, whtn it wns di'iiositoJ hj him in FoUaDoaruwa. 
In the troublous times which followed, the tooth was carried from 
one place to anolhfT, and preserved or hidden at Kandy, at Delgamoa 
io Sahara gnmuwa,* and at C'olta, where it was captured bj the 
Poitufruese iu l.lfiO, and conveyed by them to Goa. The king of 
Pegu, hearing of its capture, offered au immense ransotn for it, 
which Uon Coii3tnn(ine, the Viceroy of Goa, would have accepted, 
but for the determined opposition of the ArchbiHhop, who in a 
solemn assemhly, convened for the purpose, reduced the tooth lo 
powder in a mortar, and then burned its remains in a brasier, the 
contents of which he then cast into the river. In 1564 however, 
Bratna the king of Pegu having sent amba!<9adorB to Ceylon for 
ihe purpose of obtaining a princess of the blood royal as a bride, 
these, when about to undertake a pilgrimage to Adam's Peak, were 
secretly informed by tlic chamberlain of the Siyhalese monarch, 
llial he was siill in possession of the genuine tooth of Buddha, 
and that what had been destroyed by Don Conatantiue was k 
counterfeit. The king and his cbamljcrlain, both of whom were 
in the power of the rorluguesc, had, in fact, manufactured a 
facsimile out of stag's horn, and thought by this meiuis to effect 

" 1 >elgO[nun'a 



ffaeir parposc of palming off n daughter of the latter on the king of 
Prgu, the Sinhalese king being childless, and to effect aa alliaace, 
by which bis proBperity might be restored. The KmbassadorB, be- 
lieving in the genuineness of the tooth, negotiated for its removal, 
with the bride, to Pegu. In this they were not at first successful, 
but the ]ady was sent to Pegu, and married to the king. When 
however the discovery was made that she was the daughter of the 
chamberlain oflheking of Cotta, and not of the king, although of 
royal blood, the ambassadors informed Brama of the existence of 
the loolh, and the willingness of Don Juan to part with it. Valuing 
the tooth above every thing else, Brama forgave the deception as 
to the parcntflgc of his wife, and eagerly made overtures to Don 
Juan for the possesHion of the relic. It was accordiogly sent to 
him, and received with every demonstration of honor, and the most 
profound adoration ; the king, Don Juan, receiving in return, an 
immense amount of treasure. But now, another tooth turned up> 
For the king of Kandy, learning what had happcoed, and influenced 
by envy, despatched an envoy to Pegu, who being received with 
distinction by king Brama, informed him of the deceptions prac- 
tised by Don Juan ; but added "that the king of Eandy, anxious 
to ally himself with the sovereign of Pegu, had commissioned him to 
ofier in marriage a princess who was in reality his own offspring, 
and not supposilitioiis; besides which he gave him to understand, 
that the Kandyan monarch was the possessor and depositary of the 
genuine tooth of Buddha, neither the one which Don Constantino 
had seized at Jayawardana, nor yet that which was held by the 
king of Pegu, being the true one, — a fact which ho was prepared' 
to substantiate by documents and ancient otas. Braraa listened to 
his statement, and pondered it in his mind ; but seeing that tlie 
princess had already received the oaths of fidelity as queen, and 

ih..;^.>.L.UO glC 


tlmt llie tooth liml been \vclc<imi'<] widi ro much Roleninity, and 
■le|H)Hitod ill a wilmrc, fpi^ciiilly built for it, h<> resolved lo liush up 
the afliiir; to avoid coiifc^fingliimsi-irn dupe, (for kings must no 
more admit ttifinfelveH to lie in orror in their dealings with us, 
tliiin wp in oiir deiilinES with them). Arcordingly, he gave as his 
rejil)", iliai he was sensible of the honour designed for bim by the 
proffered allianee with the royal family of KanJy, and likewise by 
thti offer of llie moth ; that he returned his thanks to the king, and 
aa a mark of consideration would send back by liia ambassadore ■ 
ship ladtn willi presents,"* 

Thia latter loutli is no doubt, the one now preserved in the Muli- 
(;awa at Kanily, which Sir J. E. Tenmnt describes as "a clumsy 
substitute manufuftiirod by Wikrania IJuhu in 15G6, to replace the 
original daliiiia. The dimensions and form of the present dalada 
are fatal lo any belief in its' identity with the one originally wor- 
shipped, which was prolwibly human, wlienas the object now 
shewn is a piece of dincoloured ivory, about two inches in length, 
and less than one in diameter, resembling the tooth of a crocodile 
rather than that of a man." This description shews tliat the fabri- 
cators were in all probability unacquainted with the appearance of 
the original, which had been preserved as the palladium of empire 
by the king and priests at Cotta ; hut that accepting the tradition 
of Buddha's stature of thirty or forty feet as a fact, they made a 
looih big enough for a being of such an enoi'mons height. 




OF TUB 1st Cetlon Rifle Segihen't. 

"On the moniing of 26th April, 1815, I Icfl Batugeilera with a 
small escort of a sergeant and four Malays, (of the First Ceylon 
Regiment,) for the purpose of ascending Adam's Pe^ ; for I had 
been so repeatedly disappointed in expectation of guides, which the 
Headman of Batugedera, Dolip Nillam^, had promised, that I 
determined to Iftke my chance of obtaining them at Gillemall4 on 
my way. I merely took with me a few blankets, a quadrant, and 
measuring chain, and three days' provisions for my party. The 
route winded with the KaluGanga, or Eattura rirer, which, about 
two miles from Batugedera, receives the Mugell£-Oya, about two 
chains in breadth at the confluence. On the left bank, there are 
ruins of a Eandyan fort, erected during the late war to command 
the ford. 

"From the Mngell4 river to the rest-house of Oillemall^, the 
distance is about three miles and a half. At this place I procured 
two guides, after some delay, and leaving the Gillomall^ rest-liouEC, 
we immediately crossed the Malmelloe river, and about half a mile 
further on, the Maskell^ river. 

"From the banks or the latter, we entered a forest of mogniii- 
cent trees, straight as pines, and from fifty to seveuty feet in height ; 
and about four f. m. we arrived at Palabadoolla, ten miles and 



I Hal 

Here there is a conf^iJerable 
limisu fur pilgrims on their waj 

■» and of nil caalos 
n their way to, aiid 

t<']|i|)li- of Dii.Mli;!, iiikI u liir^'e 
I.) llic Triik. 

"AWui liv.i huii.ln'd pilgrim*, oflwlh 
mid renditions were Iutc nsxomhli.'d, boitk 
(ilhiTH on their rclum from, ihc Feuk. The danee was contiuued 
without iiiltTmi^sion, to the souud of Tam-a-tams and other inetru- 
nicnts of Singhalese niusie, until the pilgrimx, who were aboat to 
ft<cend tlie mouitlnin, be<ran to preimre tlit'ir lighta; and at about 
eight r, M. they prneeedcd onwanln in dirilinct parties. 

"'llie IIi>ad Priest, from whom I i-eceived every possible atten- 
tion, tried all the persuasive rhetoric he coull muster, to prevent 
mo from proceeding further t'jwards the Peak ; assuring me, that 
'no white man ever did and never could ascend the mountain.' 
1 soon convinced the l>enevolcnt Oonansti that I was not a white 
man tote dissuaded from the attempt throngh any dread of ulterior 
danger ; and therefore, liaving been well refreshed, and our chnles 
ready, we took Icnve of the priest, and left Palabadoolta about 
eleven at night. 

" After paasii)g throe small forts that had been thrown up during 
the war, we began to ascend the first mountain, and reached the 
Bummit in four hours. From the next, the Enlu-Ganga descends 
rapidly ; and, about five a. u., we breaklasted upon the rocks 
bordering its stream, and then continued our route up tbe mountain, 
Adam's Peak still towering far above our heads ; 

"Nil mortalium nrduum est— Ciclum ipium petimus," 

and, afVer surmounting two other distinct ascents, e(]ually sleep, 
but of less height, we came to the foot of the Peak itseW The 
face of the hill here appeared quite perpendicular, and the pilgrims, 



in ailrance of my putj, were seen climbing up the precipice by 
the ftssiatance of the iron cliains which are fired in the rock for 
that purpose. Wc halted a few minutes to take breath, snd af(«r 
great exertiona, we reached the top between eight and nine A. h. 
oftho27lh April. 

"The view from this great elevation fi^ aurpasited my moat 
sanguine expectation, it was bo magnificently ostentAve. On one 
Eido displaying a vast extent ef mountain, champaign, and forext 
scenery, the latter so variegated in foliage and so irr^ular in form, 
that I could only compare it to an ocean of woods, whose waves 
had suddenly bccomo fixed in aa unalterable position ; on the 
Others, the tops of the hills rising above dense fog!<, and resembling 
innumerable islands covered with wood and scattered over the sea 
that apparently filled the space below, fiatugedera was seen on 
one side, as if almost under our feet, and on the other, in the 
dbtance, the Eandyan mountains, interspersed with clouds. — But, 
alas ! whilst in the full enjoyment of this splendid scene, a thick 
fog arose from the bottom of the mountain, and drew a curtain over 
its sublimity. 

"The area ofthe summit of the peak is 72 feet long and 5i broad, 
and is enclosed by a pai-apet wall five feet high ; this baa paiUy 
fallen down on the east side, which is covered with scarlet Rhodo- 
dendrons C Rhododendron arboreum), and the remainder is sadly 
out of repair. In the middle of this arei is a lai^ rock of Kabooo 
or iron-stone, upon which is a mark of Adam's left foot, called Sri 
Pada by the Singhalese ; but it requires a great deal of help from 
imagination to trace it out. This sacied footstep is covered over 
with a small building fonncd of the most durable wood, 12 feet 
long, 9 broad, and 4^ to the liles, with which it is surmounted. 
Upon the iuiiiiJe it is enclosed by a frame of copper fitted to its 


ADAM'S 1'I:aK. 

sluij*, and ornamenled with numerous jewels set in four rows, bat 
not of ilie liC'Sl or most precious gems the bliuiJ has been known 
to produce, for to me they looked very like glasi-. 

"We were nut, 1 regret to say, provided with an 'Union J«k,' 
hilt we fired three volliod, to the great astonit^hmcnt of UteBuddbista, 
iw a memorial to them that a British armed party had reached the 
summit, npite of the prediction of the priest of l*alabadool]a. The 
priest liaving warned nn of approaching rain, we kad some fitith 
in that warning, as the result of his experience, and made the beat 
of our way down the mountain, which we fouod far more laborious 
to descend than it had l>ecn to climh. 

"The rain, which fell in torrents, increased the difficulties of the 
ahominiible roads, over rocks and fragments of iron-stone, to 
Palabailoolla, which we reached about 4 p, u., and returned to my 
quarters at Batugedera the next morning, 

" Sound lungs and hard feet are indispensable to the performance 
of such a trip, for in many places we had to climb barefoot over 
tbo iron-stone. As topalaakina, they are quite out of the question. 
There may be some risk in asccudiug Adam's Peak in heavy runs, 
but surely not in fine weather. 

"The summit of the mountain was only clear about a quarter of 
an hour, whieh did not even allow me time to satisfy my curiosity, 
or to take any bearings, whieh latter circumstance I particularly 
regret." — Bexnet's Ceylon and its Capabilities, pp. 380—383. 



The following it from the pen of an Officer who ascended 
Adam's Peah shortly after TMut, Malcolm, 

"While we were in Safir^am, we resolved to put id execution a 
project which we had talked of at Colombo, and before our return 
to visit Adam's Peak. This plan we have accomplished. Leaving 
Baddegeddera on the moniing of the 6th, we gained the summit on 
the next daf at half past two in the aflernoon. Our first march 
from Baddegeddera was S\ miles of tolerable road through a fine 
and interesting country, along the left banks of the Caltura river, 
to tlie royal village and extensive lawns of Gillemalley. From 
this place, the King received hia store of jaggery. There are 
about 250 inhabitants, who are well looking and of a creditable 
appearance. Their houses are numerous »id comfortable, Fi-om 
Gillemalley, at three o'clock, we set out for Falabatula, situated on 
the top of the AUehcntenne mountain, at the distance of 4^ miles 
in a northeast direction. The ascent is about 2^ miles in length. 
Here is a small religious establishment, where the priests live who 
have the care of the Holy Impression of the Foot on the Peak, and 
there is good shelter for travellers. We slept at this place, and soon 
after daylight next morning, renewed our journey, accompanied 
by one of the priests as a guide. The road leai^s for a mile and 
a half over a very rugged and abrupt ascent to the northeast, up 
the Kcela Hclla, at the bottom of which, about a quarter of a mile 
from Palabatula, we crossed the Caltura river, aud all the way up 
to the top of the hill we heard it on our right hand running 
below. The next ascent is the Ilourtilla Hilla, of three quarters 
of a mile, still more rugged and dilHcult tlian the former, the road 
at some places having an angle of full 50 degrees. We then 
ascended the Gonatilla lliUn, about half a mile, still more steep, and 



the air bi'nmK.' ciolor ami clearer. Tlio next stage la to Doabetmc, 
nitlier more tliitii a mile, Mid thin is tlio summit of the mouatain, 
the road up whii-h Is one cotitinual rise nf four miles without any 
intervening de^'eeiit, although the hill has four names, and each 
division \h markeil hj a wliiicwa.'jiioil stone on the right xiJe of 
the rond. There is hero a small Amhelam (a Cinliulcso resthouse) 
and the niins of a building ercctc I by Eyhcylapolle (Uio late 
Dessave of Siiffregam). The AdikaH, and Dussaves, wore accus- 
tomed lo lie cMTied as fiir as thin piint, when they visited the Peak, 
ivliicb oi)PiJs to the view bearing E. by N. The road now extends 
in aniirtheaft direction four miles over the hills of Durmarajoh, 
Fedrotollii^'itlla, Afalc Mulla Kandura, and AndeaMalleHelU,and is 
excessively ^teep and difUeult. From the latter the Peak itself rises 
n'Hjut a mite or three quarters in perpendicular height from this 
pluce. Tlio way in fair climbing; the direction at first N. E ., then 
P. E., again N. E , and lastly N. W., when the perpendicular ascent 
19 encountered: this is only to Iw surmounted by the help of 
several massy iron chains, which are strongly fastened at top, let 
down the precipice, and again secured below. These chains are 
donations to the Temple, and the name of the donor is engraved on 
one of the links made solid for that purpose. The height of the 
precipice is about 200 feet, and many holes are worn in the face of 
the rock by the feet of the numerous pilgrims who have aaccndod 
it with the assistance of the chain<(. At half-past two in the after- 
noon we reached the summit. It is an area of a)>out one fifth of 
an aci-c, surrounded by a sionc wall four feel and a half high, of 
four une<iu!il sides, with two entrances, one on the south and 
another on the east, ami an opening to the west in form of an 
embrasure. In (be middle is a I'ock aliout nine feet high, on which 
is the fancied impression of the Holy Font. It has in fact a most 



eliRpolcss appearance, bearbg little resemblnncc to a human foot, 
and what is most unfortunate for the tradUioa of lia being the last 
footstep of Buddha, when he strode from Ceylon to Ava, the toes, 
if they can be discerned, are turned towards the west. The clouds 
which arose as we were ascending prevented our having any view, 
and we occupied ourselves till four o'clock in tftking a plan of the 
sitminit ; we then found it was much too late to think of reluming 
to Palabatuia, and resolved to remain during the night on the 
Peak. I can hardly attempt to describe the extraordinary grandeur 
and variety of the scone that opened upon us at sunset. Above our 
heads, the air was perfectly serene and clear : below, a thick bed 
of clouds enveloped the mountain on all aides, and 'completely in- 
tercepted our view; but every now and then, the beams of the 
sun broke through the mass of clouds, and threw a brilliant light 
over the surrounding mountains ; then suddenly the opening was 
closed, and all was again hid from our sight. These beautiful 
glimp«es were often quite momentary, and frequently repeated, 
sometimes even twice in a minute, nor did the operation entirely 
cease until it was quite dark. We spent a wretched night in a 
moat comfortless hut about thirty feet below the summit. There 
was a piercing wind, and the cold was hr greater than I hod ever 
felt since I left England, Unluckily we had no thermometer 
with ns, but 1 think the quicksilver would not have risen above 
40°. I'he rising of the sua presented a magnificent scene, but 
quite different from that of the evening. The whole sur* 
rounding country except Ouva was covered with clouds, above 
which only the tops of a few mountains were visible— Hunas- 
garree, Kandy, bore northeast, and a mountain that we decided to 
be Idalgasina southeast. The whole country of Ouva vras exposed 
to view, and lay stretched out in appearance just beneath our feet. 



Q that side was pcrpc|ilible, and bore soulheast, which muit 
ID the neif;hl>ourh(Ni<l of PaltuO[HU)e ; and it was perhaps 
or great natural jialt[iun that wc oheerved. At seven 

ii'tiiiig we bcfrnn to dcr'ccnd the ntountain, and reached 

a at mwii."— From thi> Apiwmlix to Cajitain Akdersok's 

L-r in Ccj'l""-" 

" Sitawaka, tlio old court of the aneient Kings and Bajaa, with 
ils great gatos, walls and EtopH, in i-ituated at the branch of a 
particular rivulet flowing from the nearest promontOTy, and loses 
itself, after half an hour's sitiling, in the great river of Colombo, 
which comes from RuanclU; all that is brought here from Colombo 
is warranted good, and is thei'cfore for the house of the Dissawa; 
the stones of the old ruins which are hnapcd up in great numbers 
are sufficient for building a fortiticatioo in which to store Neli and 
Arecanuts, which come from the adjacent Eories. The situation is 
by nature very strong, and well protected. For the Colombo 
Dissawe, a better place cannot be preferred, ae be is in the centre 
of all the Colombo lands, as well as those of the Three and Four 
Korles to the north; the Safiragam lands to the south; sud Colombo 
itself on the west: all of them lying at almost equal dietaoces (torn 
each other; for from Sttawaka to Arandora it is six hours' journey, 
to Saffragam eight hours, and to Colombo ten hours by land, but 
may be done in six hours by water." — Valentyk. 



The Ferahaba. 

"Tbe word Perabarameonii literally a procession, and though the 
epithet may be applied to any proceasioti, it is used emphatically 
of a festival held annually in the city of Kandy, [and at Ratuapnra} 
which commeuced this year [1839] on the day of the new moon 
in August. 

We have tried in vain to obtain an account of its origin from the 
natives j they say that its history is lost in the darknessa of antiquity, 
A kapur^ of Udanuwara refers it to the time of Gajibfihu, who 
reigned a.d. 113, and aaya that this king was a native or some 
foreign country, where these processions were in common use. 
This account cannot be correct, as Gaj4bahu was the son of a 
native prince ; but on referring to the history of this monarch, there 
are circumstances related which may asuat us in our researches, 

G^abahu resided at Anur^dhapura. One night, when walking 
through the city in disguise, he saw a widow weeping, whoso sons 
had been taken captive by the Solli king, in on invasion of Ceyloa 
from the continent, during the previous reign. The king made a 
mark upon the door of the house, and returned to his palace. 
Next morning he called his nobles, and asked what injustice had 
been committed io the city. They replied that the whole city was 
as free fh>m injustice as a house wherein a festival is celebrated, 
when the king, in anger, sent for the woman whose dwelling he 



linil marked, anil n-skcil licr wliy hIil* was crying upon Ujo prcvioun 
evening. She said tbat in tlie rcigii of the kmg's latber, the 
|Rii].le of SolU liad tnkin 12,000 rnptivpe from Ojlon, among 
M'himi u-ero two of her sons, and tliiit it wu)^ on this account fihe 
wept. I'lHiii hearing this, the king colloeted an army, aud pro- 
eti ding to Yi'i|<;'i|ialuna, (Jafliui) he informed his people that as the 
Siilli King hod Inkcu captive his siibjeels, he muHt go and bring 
them back to their own homes, With Necla, a giant, he arrived 
at the sen shore, when- he dismissed hi» army, anil ttlking an iron 
tod he rtrnck the sen, which divided, and he and the giant went 
over to the contJQcnl. The Solli king was in great fear, and to 
increase his terror NeeU look one of the royal elephants, and 
da-^hed it egiiinut another with such force, tbat both khe antmals 
dioiL In the some maaacr, the giatit derastated tlte country. Tlie 
Solli king, when he heard of these things frcm bis aoMei^ asked 
Gajiibahu why he had eotne with an mny to destroy bis realm; 
to which ke replied, that ke bad brought no army besKfefl bis giant, 
and proceeded, "In the days of yowr father, when my fiither 
reigned, he went oyer to CeyloH aad sciied 12,000 persoas, and 
brought them hither e^ive, and I hare cono t« demand tben." 
The Solli king answered forthwith, " Thongii yon go to dewyn- 
l^kaya, and receive tlie aAsiutance of the aeoors, yoa will net be 
able to OTCFcame me." Gi^ubiihu wae greatly enraged at this 
refnital to dicliTer u|» tke captives, and declared that he wotild not 
only take his own subjects, but )2,00O other eofttires as well, sod 
he threatened to bom the rc^al city to ashes in caso of refoeal. To 
shew his great strength, and that the Areats were not idle word^ 
he nqwexeik water ont of a handful of dry sand, and afterwards oat 
of tbe iros roi^ which frightened the Solli king to such a degreej 
that he delivered op Qie 24,000 pcrssns demandbd, the gulden 



haUmba of Pattinee, the skcred utensils of four d^walas, and "the 
i-efection diah" of Buddha; and with these Gaj&b&hu returned to 
Cejlon. The 12,000 Sigfaaleae wore seat to their respective 
homes, and the 12,000 captives were allowed to reride in Aloot- 
kurak<Srla, a district to thu northward of Culombo, the inh^itants 
of which to this day retain manj marks of their continental origia. 

The saci'ed Teesels here referred to had been taken awa; in the 
reign of Walagamb&hu, B.C. 90, and there can be little doubt 
that it was to commemorate their return the Perahara was originally 
established, as the carrying of the halamba and other relics seems 
to be the most essential part of the procession, and to the dividing 
of the waters also a reference will af^rwards be made. It is not 
elear from the narrative whether the hidamba had been previously 
in Ceylon, though from other traditioos we have heard we should 
suppose they had; but this will make little difTererence in the 
intention of Uie festival, as it may still be betd to celebrate their 
arrival. It is upon these relics that the heathen natives swear in 
the courts of justice. The origin of the Perahara is therefore to 
to be dated as far back as the second century of the Christian lera. 

The account given of the Perabu-a by Knox, as it was celebrated 
in the reign of B^a Singha II. 1670, is as follows: — 

' The greatest solemnity is performed in the city of Cande ; but 
at the same time the like festival or Ferabar is observed in divers 
other cities and towns of the land. The Perahor at Eandy is 
ordered atler this manner. 

'The priest bringeth forth a painted stick, abont which strings 
of flowers are hanged, and so it is wrapped in branched sitk, some 
port covered and some not; before which the people bow down Mid 
worship; each one presenting him with an offering according to 
his free will. These free-will offerings being received from the 



people, the pri<;st takes his painted stick on his ebaolder, hmving ■ 
cluth tied about bin mouth to keep bis brettb from defiling this 
pure piece of wood, and gets up upoo an elephant all covered with 
white cloth, upon which be rides with all the triumph that king 
and kiugdom can afford, through all tb« slreets of the citj. But 
before him go, first some 40 or 50 elephants, with brus bella 
bangiag on each side of them, which tinkle as the^ go. 

'Next follow men dressed up like gyanta, which go dancing 
along agreeable to a tradition they have, that anciently there were 
huge men, that could carry vast burthens, and pull up trees by the 
roots, &c. After tbetn go a multitude of drummers, and tnim- 
pc'tters and pipera, which make such a great and load noise, that 
nothing else besiilea them can be beard. Then followetb a com- 
pany of men dancing along, and after these women of such eaatee 
or trades as are necessary for the service of the pagoda, as potters 
and washer-women ; each caale goelh in companies by themselves, 
three and three in a row, holding one another by the band; and 
between each company go drummers, pipers and dancers. 

'After these comes an elephant with two priests on hts back: 
one whereof is the priest before spoken of, carrying tlie painted 
stick on bis shoulder, who represents Alloul^neur-dio, that is, the 
god and maker of heaven and earth. The other sits behind him, 
holding a round thing like aa umbrella over his head, to keep off 
sun or rain. Then wiihiu a yard after bitn, on each hand of him, 
follow two other elephants mounted with two other prieste, with a 
priest sitting behind each, holding urabrellas aa the former, one of 
them represents Cotterogan dio, and tbo other Potting dia These 
three gods that reside here in company are accounted of all other 
the greatei>t and cbiefcst, each one having bis residence in a separate 



■Behind go dieir cook -women, with things like whisks in their 
hands, to scare away flies from them ; but very flne aa they can 
make themselves. 

'Next after the goda and their attendance, go some thousands of 
Udies and gentlewomen, euch as are of the best sort of the inhabi- 
tants of the land, arrayed in the brayest manner that their ability 
can afford, and so go hand in hand three in a row : At which 
time all the beauties in Zelone iu their bravery do go to attend 
upon their gods in iJieir progresB about the city. Now are the 
streets also all made clean, and on both sides all along the streeta 
poles are stuck up with flags and pennong hanging at the top of 
them, (uid adorned with boughs and branches of cocoanut trees 
hanging like fringes, and lighted lamps all along on both aides of 
the streets, both day and nigbL 

'Last of all, go the commanders sent from the king to see these 
ceremonies decently performed, with their soldiers after them. 
And in this manner they ride all round about the city once by day 
and once by night This festival lasts from the new moon to the 
full moon. 

'Formerly the king himaelf in person used to ride on horseback 
with all his train before him in this aolemui^, but now he delights 
not in these shows. 

'Always before the gods set out to take their progress they are 
set in the pagoda door, a good while, that the people may come to 
worship and bring their ofieringa unto them: during which time 
there are dancers, playing and shewing many petty tricks of 
activity before him. To aee the which, and also to shew them> 
selves in their bravery, occaalons more people tor eeort thither, 
than otherwise their seal and devotion would prompt them to do. 

'Two or three days before the full moon, each of these gods 



Lulh ■ patlenkine ciirrieil nrter tbem to add qdIo tbeir honour, in 
the wLicU there are euveral pieces of (ht-ir ■uperatitlous relicts, and 
A silver pot, wbicli jiii't at the hour of full moon they ride out unto 
a river, and dip full of wat«r, which ia carried back with tbem 
into the temple, where it is kept till the year after and then flang 
awny. And »o tlic ceremony is ended for that year. 

'This festival of the godii taking their progrcsi through tho 
eily, in tlie year 16C4 the king would not permit to be performed! 
and that aame year tho rebellion happened, but never lince hath hs 
liindered il. 

'At ihi^ time tliey have asiiperKtition, which Ustelh6or 7 days, 
tiio fiioliiih to write: it coniiiittit in dancing, singing, and juggling. 
The rea^iou of which ii, lest the eyee of the people, or the power 
of the jiiccoB, or infcrna] spirits, might any ways prove prejudicial 
or noisome to tho aforeaaid gods in their progress abroad. During 
the celebration of this great festival, there are no drams allowed 
to he bonleu to any particular gods at any private lacrifice.* 

Knox is right in his dcscriplions, but wrong, as might naturally 
be expected, in some of his explanatory remarks. The attendance 
of the gianis, commemorative of the rcdotiliUible Neela, is another 
evidonoo that It i» to the reign of GHJAbithu we are to look for the 
origin of tho festival. 

In the Ceylon Almanac for 1834 h a "Description of the four 
principal Kandian feslivais, compiled IVom materinU fVirnishcd by 
a native chief." From this document we leorn, that until the reign 
of king Kirtisrce (a.d. 1747-1780) tlie Perahara vm celebrated 
delusively in honour of the four deities, Natha, Vishnu, Katrogam, 
and Faltiuee, and altogether unconnected with Buddhism. The 
sacred Dahtd^ relic of finddha was first carried in prnceMion, 
together with the ioMgnia of the four gndn, in 177o. The 



circumEtBoceit which gave rUe to Hits innovktion were as follow .■^- 
The Siamese priesU who were imited bere by king Kirtieree, for the 
purpose of restoring the ITpaosampRdHwa, tbe highest order of 
Buddhist ordination, one day hearing the noiee of jiagaU^ &c^ 
enquired the cause, and were informed that preparatioBs were being 
made for celebrating a festival in honor of the gods. They took 
umbrage si this, and observed that they had b«en made to believe 
that BuddbiMA was the estaUiehed religion of the kingdom, and 
tliey bad never cxpffcted to see Htnduistn trrumphant in Kand^. 
To af^ase them the king sent to assure them that this festival of 
the Perofaarawaa chiefly intended toglorify the niemorf of Buddha, 
and to CMivtnce them of it, the khig gave directiona that the great 
relic ahoulil b« carried foremost in the procession, dedicating his 
own bowdah for ita reception. 

There ean be little doubt tint the Perahara received the counte- 
nance of the native princes, rather from a political than a retigioos 
motive, though these eircunwtances wonld vary with the dieposttion 
of the reigning kii^. It was one (^ the few occMtOTi» upoa which 
the monarch presented himseU to the public gaze. The most 
impowg edifice coniiected with the pkco was the Pattrippo, an 
OGla^n of two stories, the i/p^r atorj having a balcony that ovei'- 
leoked Ae [mntupal square of the royiJ eity, on one side of which 
waa a It^e, aad on the otlier varieas religiem and consecrated 
placea. The pvocesaioa waa collected in the square, that the king 
might see it fron the baleon^i and when tha curlaia which 
shrouded his majesty nt hia eatrance was withdrawn, and the 
asseiAbly did lowly reverence, amidst the clamor of the drums and 
pipes, the sight of the psoetrate thousands, the elephants richly 
eapariscuiei^ the royt^ guard in prend array, the countless baanera 
floating in the breeie, and tlie odlgars and other chiefs at the head 



of iheir res|M?ctive clans, nil arranRcd in due order and degree, 
must have produced mi i-ITect thnt ia not oflcn e<]ualled even io the 
restive Hceues of Tar mi^^litier kiiiffdoms. Od somo occaeions the 
king joined in the prnce^aiun, but in this there waa no uniformity 
of observance, bin majcBty being at one rime on foot, and at another 
we arc told, in a golden chariot drawn hy eight hornet. 

The Perahara afibrded an excellent opportunity to the king lo 
r^faratne into the state of tho provinces, the conduct of the 
governors, and the obedience of the people. The reiVsctoTy were 
punished, the loyal revalued, and new regulations were now 
promulgated, that ihoy might be carried to the more distant 
districts of the island. To the inhabitants generally it moat have 
been a time of grateful festivity, especially during the reigns of 
the more popular kings, as it was a spectacle of splendor, and the 
various chiefs were able to exhibit their consequence in the 
presence of the assembled kingdom. 

The Perabara begins on the day of the new moon in the monUi 
of JF.sala, which this year answers to our August. The commence- 
ment is regulated by the nekata, or situation of the moon; and at 
the appointed moment, which must be either in the evening or 
morning, never at mid-day, the kapurila of the Vishnu d^w&la cuts 
down a young jack tree which has been previously chosen, and ia 
consecrated for the purpose by mysterious rttee. The day before, 
the kapurila must bathe in pure water, anoint bis head with the 
juice of the lime, and clothe himself in clean garments. In ancient 
times flowers were naed, as mentioned by Knox, and these were 
the flowers of the »h»la, (catbantocarpus flstulata), but either 
because this tree doea not now boar flowers in the proper season, 
or because another tree is more conveniently found, the jack has 
been subs^tuted in its place, which, however, for the time, reoeivee 



tlie DKine of nhsla, Whon Knox wrote, the procession wu in 
June; when Davy wrote, in Jul/; it is now in Augasl; and like 
all other eastern festivals, from the imperfection of the native 
astronomy, it traverBes through all the months of Ihe j'ear. The 
ptunted stick of Kuox, adorned with flowers, appean to becomme- 
moratlTe of the wonder-working rod of Gfljlib6hu, and (he jack is 
undonbtedly an innovation. When the tree has heen cut down, it 
is divided into four sections, one of which is couvejed to each of the 
d4v&las, under a white canopy, and accompanied by music. The 
flccttOQ is cleaned at the d4w&la, and put into a hole, after which 
offeriDgs of cakes are presented, called ganab^dana. Theganaare 
an order of inferior deities attendant upon the gods, and bddana is 
the Elu form of bbiSjana, food. 

The consecrated wood is adorned with leaves, flowers, and fVuit, 
and during the first five days the procession simply passes round it, 
the kaporitas bearing the sacred vessels and implements. After 
this time they are brought beyond the precincts of the d^w^la, 
and paraded through the principal streets of Kandy. On the night 
of the full moon the procession is joined by a relic of Buddha, 
propei-ly accompanied, which is afterwards carried to the Adahana 
Maluwa, a consecrated place near which are the tombs of the 
ancient kings and other individuals of the royal race. The Maluwa 
is encircled by stones, within which, it is said, the kings bod no 
jurisdiction; it was a kind of sanctuary, llie relic receives the 
adoration of the crowd until the morning, when it is returned to 
the temple. 

Towards the end of the festival the procession approaches the 
river, at tlie ancient ferry not ftr from the Peradenia bridge, and 
whilst the multitude remains upon the bank, the kapurllas enter a 
boat that has been splendidly decorated for the occasion. The 



bo&t IB rowed to some diF^tnnce, wlieu the kapurala takes a golden 
Bword, and strikes the wator. At the same iiir>t»iit a brasen ressel 
is dipped ioto the river, and whilst the water is yet disparted, a 
portion is taken up, which id kept uDlil the vessel can be filled in the 
same manner at the next fi'stival. The water which bad been taken 
the previous year is at the same time poured back iat« the river. 

Tliere is a close analogy between this striking of the river and 
the striking of the sea by Gajab^hu, though what is meant hy the 
dividing of th^ waters we cannot tell. It is probable that there 
was Bomething extraordinary connected with the passage of tlia 
king, which tradition aflerwarda magnified into this miracle. 
Were we disposed to be fanciful, we might notice the resemhlaoce, 
wliich the striking of the sea by a rod, the Bquoezing of water 
from the dry sand, the errand of the king to demand captives, and 
some other circumstances, bears to certain facts in the laraelitish 
exodus, but we have seen so many similar constructiona levelled to 
the ground nt a itiuglo Ijlow, that we forbear to pursue the parallel. 

The geuoral arrangement of the Perahara is the same sow as in 
former times, but in the grandeur of tho spectacle there can bo 
no comparison. There are still elephants richly adorned; flags, 
pennons, and banners ; several bands of drums, lom-loms, and 
pipes; the palanqueens of the gods; the sacred utensils; and the 
chiefs of the dSw&Ias, 8cc., with their separate retinues. The streets 
are lighted by vessels of oil, placed upon poles, and carried by 
men, after the manner of the meshals of the Arab tribes. There 
are Beveral who have a light at each end of the pole, which tbey 
whirl round at intervals with aome velocity. The din of tbe 
tom-toms cannot be better described (ban in the words of Knox; 
' they make such a great and loud noise, that nothing else besides 
them can be heard.' 'i'he chieA walk alone, tbe crowd being kept 



off by their altenilants ; the etifibess of their gait aa thcj ara 
wrapped round with manifold lay era of cloth, being in perfect 
contrast to their usual ease, iuJeed we may t&j gracefulness, of 
manner. The long whips were cracked before the adigar until the 
present year, but no one has been appointed to this office since the 
death of the old man whose presence we now miss, and no other 
individual is entitled to the honour. Tlie whole procession may 
extend about a quarter of a mile, but this is only towards its con- 
clusion, as it gradually increiiBes in the number of its attendant 
elephants, 4c. from the commencement. The natives who attend 
OB spcctatJ^rs are now few, eren in comparison with recent yearr> 
and it would xeem that in a little while its interest will vanish away, 
with many a better remembrance of the olden time. The procession 
was one day prevented from taking ils accustomed round, as a man 
had hung hiriisclf in one of the streets through which it must have 
passed. The natives arc very unwilling to enter inlo conversation 
respecting the detail of this ceremony, and say that there are 
many mysteries connected with it which they cannot reveal. 

The history of the Perahara is another evidenci how tenaciously 
the people adhere to the Braminical superstitions, and would tend 
to prove, that even when liuddiiism was predominant upon the 
continent of India, it must have had very little hold upon the mass 
of the population ; and this may account for its almost total de- 
struction after it had once the ability to erect the splendid temples 
that yet remain, monuments at once of its majesty and its weakness. 
Buddhism is too philosophical, loo cold and cheerless, to be a 
popular creed, and it is only its present alliance with ita deadly 
antagonist of former times that now preserves it in the place it 
occupies as the national religion of Ceylon."— From the "B"kiekij," 
vol. iii. p. 41—50. 1839. 

Din tiz.n by Google 


Documents relatinu to the election ob afpointuent to tuk 
Office of Uiuh Priest of Adak's 1'eak. 

Ratnapura, IStb January, IS26. 
.TLe Board of CommiasioDerH, Kandj. , 


I HAVE the lioDor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of I 

16tli December last, wherein I am directed to select a fit peraon to J 

receive the appointment of High Priest of Adam's Peak. | 

Having in conacqucuce called upon the two Disrares, and the 
Bosnaike Nilleme, to report on the claims of those who might be | 

candidates for the OfGce, their selection fell on Qallay Madankare I 

Unanse, who though neither a candidate residing at preset in the i 

District, thef conceived should be the person to be appointed, IhnB 
his having l>een admitted into Priesthood in the District, been the j 

pupil of Waibuille Naike Unanse, the High Priest of the Peak, { 

and more especially on account of his piety and great learning, i 

which aresaid to hare procured for him a very extended reputatioo, j 

All the Upasampada Priests of the Malwatte establishment 1 

beneficed in the District were then assembled, and the individual I 

proposed being uoanimously approved by them, I signified to I 

Gallay Unanse, who reeides in the Matura District, my intuition 1 

of submitting his name for the Office, under the restricttoDS stated 
in your letter, and the additional one of constant residence in the 



DiasHTonj. He has acceded to the proposal, and I have, io roiiM- 
quence, to recommend that the appointment may be conferred upon 

I have ftlso to recommend that be sliould at the same time be 
appointed Chief Priest of the Saffragam Diesaronj', an ofBce which 
has not for some time t>een conferred upon any one, though the 
want of it has been much felt. It vas intended to have renewed 
it in 1822, as will be seen from the annexed copy of a letter from 
the late Resident^ but the Priest named declined accepting the 
situation owing to some diswnsioDs among the priesthood. Mr. 
Sawers' letter, to which Sir John Doyly rcfei-s, is not on record in 
tills Department. 

I have, &C., 
(Signed) Geo. Ttjrnour, 
Agent of Govt. 

Ratnapura, 27th February, 1827. 
The Board of Commissioners, Eandy. 

I HA.TE the honor to return the petition of the High Priest of 
the Malwatte Wih^re, in which he lays claim to the village Pfl> 
madulle. It is accompanied by a oounter-statement from the 
Chief Priest of Saffi-agam and the Peak. 

From the information I am able to collect, tbe dalm of the 
Halwatte High Prieat doea not appear to be well founded. 

When B^a Singha (whose capital was Slttawakka, and who died 
in Sacca 1514) abjured Buddhism, and became a convert to the 
Brahminical fiiith, he bestowed (be charge and the emoluments of 



the Prak on some Andes Fackeers. The institutions of Buddha, 
didcouDteoanced and deprcsiied, eoon lost the reqniaites for coo* 
fcrring the ordination of l'|uisampada, and that order of priesthood 
in time became extinct 

SulMeiguent kiugamade some efTorta to re-eslablish theM insti- 
tution^ by inviting over learned pricats ti-oin (he Eaatem continent 
but the object was never efiectually and permanenttjr attained till 
the reign of Kirtiitsry, 

The Upasampada ordination was ttien also extinct. The priest- 
hood chit'tly con!>isted of the Syloat order (not now in existence) 
who observed most of the rules of devotion and abatinenee, 
without being able to perfunn any of the functions considered the 
most important of a priest. The head of the Priesthood was a 
Samanairoo, named Welwita, known b^ the title of Saraoanken) 

To the zeal and exertions of this individual the natives now 
owe the footing of peroianency on which their religious eBtabliament 
is placed. He induced Wejai It^ah to depulo Wilbaagedere 
Mudeyanse on an embassy to Siam for the purpose of bringing 
over priests capable of conferring the Upasampada ordination, and 
of leaving behind them the means of perpetuating it 

Wejai Rajah died before the mission reached Siam, and the 
Mudeyanse returned to Ceylon. He wassent backbykingEirtissr;, 
and succeeded in bringing over the Siam priests. 

On the restoration of Upaeampada, Weliwita was placed at the 
head of the church, with the title, not of Nayaka Uoaose, but of 
SanghaRajah(KingofPriest8) and with unusu^ powers, to preserve 
the new institution from innovation. 

It was at this period that the Andee Fackeers were deprived of 
the Peak, which at that time had no land revenue attached lo it. 



That office, together with Kootlapittcje (till then a royal vilhkge) 
WDB conferred hy tlio king on Sangha Raja and the grant recorded 
on a copper Sannas. 

The Aiideea attempted to avert this alienation, hy making presents 
to the King, amongotherarlicleaof a pair of elephant tueke, which 
he req^ived firom the An Jees, and made an offering of, to the Peak. 

According to the enclosed Statement of the SaSVagtua Chief 
Priest, the Peak, with the village Koottapitleye, was bestowed by 
Sangha Riyah on MaaliboddeUnanseof this Province; together with 
the Wihare and village of P^ Imadulla, which Saogha Rajab ia asid 
to have received by the dedication of Kapugankande Syloat 
Namma. I am inclined (o think thia was some private arrangement 
ofSangbaK^ah. For by the account Wilbaagedere Mudeyanse has 
left of bis emhaasy, and of these i-eligious proceedings, it appears 
that the superintendence of the Peak, together with the office of 
High Priest of the Low Country (Safiragam and the Maritime 
Districts), were confided to Wnihelly Nayake Unanse by the king, 
at the same time that the Sannas itaelf was granted to Sangha 
Rajah. This point however, is not material to the present reference. 

From that period till the succession of Rajaadi R^a Singha 
(in Saccs 1703) four High PriesU had held the Chief-prieatship 
of the Low Country together with the Peak, residing at P^lmaduUa. 

The last of these was Korrattotte Nayake Unanse, who now 
reaidea in Matura District. Morraattotte Naike Unanse waa the 
High Prieat of Malwatto, and had been the tutor of hia king. 
Oa the pretence that the Saffragam Prieats were leagaed with the 
Datch, Morraattotte induced the king to deprive Korrattotte of the 
Peak. The Sannaa waa taken to Kandy by Ratnapura Nilleme^ 
and placed, it is said, by the king's order, by Dodangwelle Adikar, 
the Dissave of Saffragam, in Sanguka, in Malwatte Wihare. 



from that time, antil last jear, the Peak, with Koottapitteye, 
haa been held b^ llie Malwatte High Priesta. The Low Coanti^ 
bag been tvithout any rogular Cliief Priest, and PflmaduUa baa 
been the residence of the Pupils of Waihellj. 

The only advantage the Malwatte High PrieBla deriTed from 
Pflinadulla, consisted in having eight loads of the offerings made at 
the Peak, transported for them to Kandj. This exacticm also is 
not of old standing, KB the removal of (be offi;ringa at the Peak to 
KanJy was an irregularity which gntduaUy attained to the extent 
it was ultimately carried. 

I have been minute in my inquiry, as my Information must 
chiefly bederived from interested sources. I eeeno ground whatever 
for the claim preferred. P^lmadulla is certainly not a dependency 
oftbc Peak,n>.-itherdoesit appeartometoappertain to the Chief- 
prieetsbip of the Low Oountry ; ilirther than from the accidental 
circumstance of three aucceeding High Priests inheriting Pfl- 
madulla, as pupils of each preceding incumbent. But the Malwatte 
High Priests hold neither tif these appointments, and can have no 
claim on either ground. 

If the present arrangement is intended to be made permanent, 
it would be well to remove all ground for future litigation. With 
this view, I recommend that king Kirtissry's Sannas should be 
beelowed upon the High Priest, who now holds the Chiefship of the 
Peak by the appointment of the present Government The docu- 
ment was, I am told, in the possession of Paraknmbura Uaanse of 
Kandy, who some time ago placed it in the charge of Deheigwne 
Dewie Nileme. The tusks also presented by king Kirtissry 
(which have Sree-pada carved on tfaem) werG removed to Kandy 
when onr troops first entered the country, by Eobaikadoowe Nayaka 
Usaiisa, they are said to be new at Goddalladetieya Wihare in Ouda 



Neura. I have to euf^gest that the; Bhould ftlso be sent for, and 
restored to the Peak shrine. 

I have, &c., 

(Signed) Geo. Turnodr, 

Agent of Govt. 

Extract from letter of Aset, Agent of Ratnapura, July 27th, 1838. 

" It vill be eeen from the correspondence that about Sacca 1514, 
king I^jaaiuha, who had abjured Budhism, and became a convert 
to Brahaminifitic faith, bestowed the charge of the Peak to some 
Aadce Fakeers ; that it waa nubsequontly conferred hy king Kir- 
tisry to Wcliwita Saranaukera Ganiii, otherwise Sangaraja, to- 
gether with the village of Kuttapitiya, upon a copper sannaa; that 
however the superintendence of tbe Peak, together with the office 
of High Priest of the Low Country (Safiragam and ibe Maritime 
distrlcls) waa confided to Wehalla Naika Unoanse, and from that 
period to the accesaton of Rajady Bajasinha (Sacca 1703), four 
High Priests had held theChief-pHestship of the Low country and 
the Peak, rending at Pelmadulta. The laat of those, Karatota, 
was in a. d. 1827, living at Matura, having been deprived of the 
Peak by the King, on the iosligatioa of Moratola, the High Priest 
of Malwattn, on which occasion the Sannaa waa removed to Eandy, 
by order of the King, and kept in Saogika (or common.) From 
that time, up to 1826, about 40 years, the Peak was held by the 
Priests of Malwatta, but they appear to have derived but small 
advantage from its emoluments. 

As early as 1825 the claim set up by the High Priest of 



Mnlwnlte to llip Peak wan set nniJo, ui<l in the letter from the Bntrd 
of Commixaioners dated 16th Dec. of that jear, it was convened that 
the Governor hod decided, that the ap|>ointnieiit of High Priest of 
the Peuk should be conferred on a Priest of Saffrogam, it being 
nmde a comiition of that appointmeot that the greater part of the 
revenue ariHiiig from tlic offi'ringH should be applied to the repair 
and upkeep of Krst- house r, &c. 

On the Loth Februai7 1836, Mr. Tumour eommunicated to 
GovernnieDt the Belectioo by him, Kccording to instnictioDs, of Galle 
Medankara Uunaii**, to succecJ the late High Priest of Malwatle 
as Priest of the Peak, and by the letter of the Board of the Hth 
April 1826, was conveyed, that as a special favour to the then 
Maha Naikft Unnanse of Malwatte, the Government hod coRferred 
on him one-fourth of the offerings of the Peak, which reverted to 
the High Priest of the Peak on the death of the said Maha Naiks 

On the demise of Galle Naika Unnanse, 1836, his euecessor, Swnan- 
gala Unnanne, who died on the 21st May 1818, was elected by the 
priests of this district before the then Assistant Agent, Mr. Wells, 
under in BtructioDS of Government (so© letter No, 448 of 13th 
May, 1836,) which prescribed the same course as had been adopted 
by Mr. Turnoar." 

Paracnmbere was the nest High Priest ; then Galagaraa Attadassi 
Temnansi, who waa deposed on 26th May, 1866. 

Ilikkaduwe SumangaleTeruaansi of the Tibare called TilakarMoa 
in Hikkadawe, was then elected;— "a priest in every respect eligible 
for this high and important office, and one whose reputation for 
piety and scholarship stands supereminent among the priesthood of 
the Malwatte establishment of the Island of Ccjlon."— Act of the 
PricHtd, on the 10th June, 1866. 




D'Alwis, Esq. 

" When, stme yeitra ago, I visited thia part of the conntry,* my 
eyes rested oa & uoeDe which I could not soon or easily forget. 
Its greatest altraction waa tJie stately forest. Whilst Z stood 
amazed at the prodigious height to which the trees had grown, 
straight from the ground, the eye liogered with delight on the 
'glared Bhades,' thick willi tbeir dense greeo foliage, aud ladea 
' with their pendent fruile and Bdwen.' 

The Figs and the Palms which grew up together reminded ma 
of the Cocoaout and the Bread fruit which rose, as it were, in love's 
embrace, in the southwest coast of Ceyloa. The Talipot, the Na, 
the Sapan, the Hedawaka, tiie Ketakala, the De), the Milila, tho 
Godapora, (not to mention other timber trees), were all here seen 
side-by-side with the Katu-imbul, the Gor&ka, the Veralu, the Ktyu, 
the Erobadu, etc, etc. There were also cUmbiDg piMat» in endless 
variety. The Pot^, the Kirindj, the Kiritilla, aud the Kiri-auguoa, 
entwined ihcinselTes round the trunks as they clambei-od up in 
search of light, llie ferns and the orchids, which thrived luxuri- 
ously in the hollows of old trees, waving their brilliant foliage, 

* Attanigilu, oD the roail to tbe HcwBgAm Koralf. 



spcmi'<t as if ihey were tlic cultivation of some nymph of tlie forest 
Nothing could exceeii the heuuty of tho flowing tresses of the Heda- 
ya, of which two p]K;cJes were met within the colli Mid mosey cle A* 
of tree* that never snw the light of the fuii. Under ihe shade grew 
the Vaiia Ri'ija. Revelling in the rich and luxurious vegetable 
mould, which lay several feet thick, this dwarf 'Kingof the Forest* 
spread out its leaves, 'the mojt exi^uisitcly formed m the veget»ble 
kiiigilom, and whose colour rCi'ombleM dark velvet approachiog to 
hiack, and reticulaied over all the surface with veins of ruddy 
gold.' It is difficult to realize the beauty of the distant landscapa 
along the streams and marshes of the forest. The graceful Bambu 
was surrounded by the magniflcent Asoka, The pale azure of 
the Sal, which deeply contrasted with the burnished green of Iha 
delicately tinted foliage of the Siambalit on the hillocks, and both 
with the deep emerald brushwood below, — waved over the 
Gloriosa Sui>erba (Niagalii), whose malchless flowers festooned 
the adjacent heaps of verdure ; whilst the Muruta overshadowed 
the Bandurfi, that grew luxuriantly beneath the pink-clad branches 
of the former. Nothing, ogam, could surpass either the splendour 
of tho flowers, or the beauty of the leaves. Some of the latter hy 
themselves exhibited the hues of the former. The scarlet shoots 
of the Na, for instance, vied in beauty with the gorgeous flowers 
of the Katu-imbul, the pink clusters of the Muruta with the ripe 
leaves of the Kottamb^ the pale yellow Champac with the tawny 
Veralu, and the snow-white blassoras of the Idda with the tender 
buds and cream-coloured leaves of the Musscnda," — Attanagalc- 
VANSA, pages 91-93. 



\y G. II. K. TiiWAiTua, Eaq^ F. R. S., Director of (be Ro.val Botinic Girdeoi, 

The forest immediately about the Peak contains a number of 
interesting trees of various Natural Orders, comprising 
Magnoliace^ represented hj Michelia Nitagirica (Wal Sappoo 

uf ihe Sighalese.) 
Ahonace^ represented by species of Sagenea, Goniotbalamua, 

Uvaria, Unona, Miliusa, he. 
Mybisiicace*, by Myristica Horsfieldii, and M. laurifolia. 
Sautdacb^, by two or three species of Casearia, and the fi-ogrant 

dowered Osmelia. 
PJLSOIA.CKX, by Uydnoctu'pus and Trichadenia. 
Stebclliack^, by the Durian-Iike Cutlenia excelaa, and StercuUs 

BvTTNBEiACB.£, by FteroBpcrmum suberifolium, and Julostylis 

angusti folia. 
TiLiACEX,, by species of £l«ocarpus (Weraloo of the Sighalese.) 



iJji-TEROCinrt.t, l>/ EpicU-a of Dipterocarpus, Doouft, Sll0^e(^ 

Hopeo, Vat4:i'iB, Isausis, and Stenionoporua. 
Teb.vstrcemiace.e (ihe Tea tribe) by OorduuU, Eurja, T«m- 

strtEDiia, ahd AJinanJra. 
ArRANTiAC'F..v, hj Gljcosiniit and Atolantia, 
G1TTIKEH.E, by Gnroiiiia Morella (tlio true Gambogo tree), G. 

ccliinocarpa, G. tcrpnojihylla, XantUochymus ovalifolius, and 

Bpecioa of Calophyllum (Kcona of the Siglialese.) 
Celastsacf.^, by Kurrtmia, Kokoona, and Microtropia. 
SAriNUACt.£, by Schmidelia, Sapindus, and Nephelium. 
Meliace^ by Miluca, Amoora and Walaura, 
TerebintiiacE'E, by several specica of Semocorpus, by Maugifera 

(wild mango) and NulUopcgia. 
Bl'hserace^, by Canarium, ScutinaDtbc, and rieridophyllum. 
IIi>MALiSE.£, by UoiDalium Cc/lamcum. 

LegL'uiS'09.k, by Ei7tLrina, Puagamia, I'tcrotarpus, and Ualbergia. 
Rosacea;, by Fhotiuia and Pygcura. 
CoMBRETACCe, by Terminalia Bylerica and T. parriflora, 
MELASTOMACE.E, by several species of Memecylon. 
Mtrtace «, by Eugenia, JumlKJsa, and Sjzygium of many species. 
BARRiycTOSiACE^, by Barringtoniu, Careya, and Anisophjllea. 
KiiizopRORACB^, by CaruUia. 
I.TTiTitAKiACE^, by Axinandra and Lagcrstrosmia. 
Hlihace^ (Cofltic tribe) by upecies of Nauclea, Canthium, Ixoro, 

Pavetta, Diacospermum, GriOitliia, and Weudtandia. 
SlYRsiNArK.K, by Myrsiiie. 
Sai^otaik*, by fljK'ciea of Isonandra (the Gutta percha plant 

belongs to tills genus) Dasyanliis and Diehopsis. 
Ehexaije^ (Ebony tribe), by i<everal sjH-cies of DiosiijTosi, AIii- 

creigbliii, and Mal>a, 



AQiTiFOtiACEjE, by Kveral apeciea of Symplocos. 

VsoTKXCEM, bj Helida Ceylauica, tbe only representatJTe of the 

family in tbe lelaixL 
LachacE£ (Cinnamon tribe), bj Cinnamomtim, Macfailne, Crypto* 

cuya, Tetrantfaera, Actinodsphoe, and LitsKa. 
Urticace^, by several epccics of Picas, and by Cellia and Sponia. 
Ei'PHORBiACE^, by CleidioQ, Rottlcra Macaranga, Podadenia, 

Gelonium, Chietocar])UB, DesmostomoD, Sarcoclinium, Brie* 

delia, Cleislanthus, Prosorus, Cyclostemon, Aporoeo, and 

Faluacf.^ by Oncosperma fasciculata, and Ptychosperma rupicola. 
Amongst these forest trees grow gigantic lianet ; tbe Aaamirtus 
iana, Toddulia aculeata, Detrie sicoata, D. scandens, Guilandina 
Bonduc, Entada BCandens, Acacia Inteia, AnodendroQ paniculatum, 
Willughbeia Ccylanica, Plecospermum spinosaro, and two or three 
species of Calamus, being particnlar]y conspicuons. 

The beautiftil Kendrickia (Pachycentria, Enum. PL Zeyl.) 
Walkerj, and its allies, Medinella fuchsiodes, and M. maculata, 
with some species of Piper, Potbos, &c., mantle the trunks of the 
trees, and handsome Ipomoeas scramble over their branches. 

The undergrowth consists principally of shrubby Acanth&cete, 
RubiaceR, Urticacea:, L&biala;, and Zintiberacera. The open pat- 
tanas, or savannahs, are made gay by handsome species of Exacum, 
Osbeckia, Desmodium, Crotalaria, Caa8i% Chirita, and Burmannia. 
Numerotis Orchidb^ occur on tbe bunks of trees, or on ex- 
posed rocks, and several species of Lorauthus are attached 
parasitically (miseltoe-like) to tbe trnnka and bnnchee of tbe 
trees. Lovely Balsams in great variety, and pretty Utricnlariaa 
abound in damp spots. 



Near the top of the Peak the gorgeous Rhododendron arboreum 
occurs, with the Gaultherin fragruitis^ima, and the Vncclnium 
Leeichenaultii, with its arbutus-likc flumera. There too, maj be 
noticed Home very Leautiful Npecici of Sonerila and Osbeckia, 
anil Konie pretty spocic't of Bcdyoti«i. KIoaiK^s and Lichens al&o 
alioiiiid i]j)on the trees.* 

* Farther lDft>nn«tion rMpacting the Botaaj or the IiBand can be obteined in 
the EDumentia FlaoMTBai ZeyUaii, by G. H. K. Thwaitks, Eh|., F. R. &, &c, 
pnbliBbed by DaUa & Co., S«ho Sqoue, Linidon ; in which all tbe luta^n apedcs 
■re deieribed, or reTerrsd lo wbece Okj bad b«ea previoualj- described. 




OP JoKONia Db Sotsa, Esq., after his appointment to 


"Below we give a graphic and interesting account of the re- 
ception accorded at Colombo to the man whom, on account of hts 
public spirit, Sir George Anderson has delighted to honor. The 
matWr is more important than would appear at first sight to our 
English readers. The dignitj' conferred on Mr. Do Soysa is 
one that has hitherto been jealoualj confined to the small knot of 
obstructives amongst the Singhalese who call themselves first class 
Telates ; and on this occasion the Maha ^odliar, we believe, did 
his little best to prevent the Government from shocking the 
pr^udicea of the people— meaning b; that phrase a tittle knot of 
Modliars — b; conferring the highest Native rank in its gilt on a 
man of the fisher caste. All honor to Sir Gecrge Andersoa for the 
personal courage and decision displaj'ed b; him on this occasion. 
The British Government is not only too generous, but also too 
strong, to allow its own benevolent intentions, and the wheeb of 
progress to be anj longer impeded bj foolish fears of ofiending 
antiquated caste prejudices. 

The newly created Uodliar is a Native Colfee Planter on a large 
scale, very enterprising and very wealthy. But his claims to the 

* From tbc Colombo Obwsveb ofjaat IStb, lBd3. 



iligiiity confeiTeil on liim rest on the erection by him, at his own 
co^l, of pulilic works, such as AmbalaniaH and Bridges, the fonnktion 
of roaila, &<:." 

Colombo, June 1 0th, 1853. 

Sir,— The elevation of Mr. Joronis De Soyw of Morotto to 
the rank of Modliar of ihe Governor's Gate, appearing to have 
cau¥od a eoneidei'ablc sensation of eatisfaclion in the native mind, 
with possibly a little jealousy here and thi-re, I have thought some 
account of the proceedings on his return to Morotto, would not 
be unacceptable to your readers, especially as you hare already 
noticed in your columns the doings of hia friends in Kandy, some 
of whom exprespod the hope that their breUiren in the Weatem 
Province would not suffer themselves to be outdone in rendering 
due honor to the newly appointed Modliar. Nor have th^, as the 
proceedings of the 9th instant amply testify. I don't pretend to 
give you a very graphic account of every thing that happened, 
being altogether unused to that elyleof composition} but, as I was 
present a considerable part of the day, I will endeavour to slate 
what fell under my own obseiTation, and from that and such other 
accounts as may reach you, you will be able, I dare say, to make 
out for your readers a much more interesting narratiTe than I can, 
—BO you are welcome to use my information, and burn my MS., or 
publish it in toto, just ae you please. 

Well then, at 7 a. h. according to invitation, I, together with 
many others, assembled at Grand Pass at the houae of Mr. Soosew 
de Soysa, tho Modliar'e brother, where, in all the glory of gold and 
jewels, Joronis De Soytv Dbarma Goonewardene Wepolle 
Jsyaaooria Dessanayake Karoonaratne, Modliar of the Goveroor's 
Gale, received the congratulation s of his friends. 



Europeans, Burghers, Nalivea of rank, wmlth, BDd influence, 
Hindoos, Pareeea, Moormen, &c. &c. cftme dropping in one after 
the other until the house was filled to orerflowiDg. AfWr pnrtak- 
ingot'aslight refreshmetit, hospitably provided bj Soosew De Soys*, 
the ear-piercing flfes and deafening tom^tmns of the Oovemor'a 
Guard of Laacoreens, as they drew up into the Verandah, warned 
OS tliat the busiuese of the day was now about to b^In. The 
Guard having had a dusty walk, and being moreover droughthy 
souls, and withal not very much accustomed to their scarlet coal« 
aud conical caps, or the wielding of their venerable halberts, and 
antique, lion-headod, carving- knife -looking cutlasses, of course 
needed a dram each, by way of nerving them to their arduous 
duties; and judging tnai the apparent reUsh with which they 
tossed <tf their glasses, they got the genuine stuff. While this 
was going on, Guard No. 2 passed by. This, I believe, ie the 
Guard belonging to the Salpitty Korle, and gloriee in a uniform 
of blue. The poor sonla looked hard and longingly at their bro- 
ther lascoreens in red, but, obedient to the stem commands of 
duty, marvhed on to their appointed station on Norris's road near 
the Racket ground. 

In a few minutes the signal was given to start. The Guari), 
consisting of twenty-Jive men, preceded by the tom-tom beaters, 
took the lead; then came the Modliur attired in a coat of dark 
broad-cloth, over which was thrown bis chain of honor, formed of 
above 1 50 sovereigns linked together in couples, and terminating in 
an ornament formed of a clusler of forty-five of the same coins ;* 

• Tliis w«s » mere temporary enntrivanm. Tha predom metal wos aul«oril»cl 
for l>y abaut TOO oT th« Mudaliyar's pemnal Mends, and -was aflcrwarda wathal 


eroding thia wait the sword belt of brond gold lace, fhnn which 
bun^ nuKpcndcd tbe Hword encased in ma elabonitoly chased eilrer 
Eca1>liard inlaid with gold; tbe sword hilt was > mass of gems, 
principnll}' ruhioa anil emeralds, ect in gold, the lustre of winch 
was however complelely eclipnjd by the splendid jewels in the 
Bword knot. Altogctlicr the dress was a very rich and expensive 
affiiir— (I heard it estimated as wortli about i'1,000, but perhaps 
this included the brilliant and other rings worn by the Modliar)— 
and certainly it was terribly provocative to a serious infraction 
of the tenth commandment. 

The Moilliar't only son accorapanied his father; behind theia 
walked two lascoroena clothed in scarlet habiliments, bearing 
talipols of honour over their heads. Then followed, also on foot, 
the greater part of those who bad assembled at the house, tbe 
Mobandiroms in full dress, with their talipot bearers, who sported 
vestments of such a nondescript character, that no verbal descrip- 
tion can do justice to them, and I am afraid no pictorial represen- 
tation would be believed ; the nearest approximation I can give 
your readers will be to remind them of Pantaloon at Bartholomew 
Fiur, or old Shalabalar, bo inseparably connected with Punch and 
London street reminiscences. Oulrt as their appearance was, they 

biin of boaor, to which a corresponding medal wa* toaptiideil, 
containlDR the fullowinf; inAcription. " PreBented to JotoqIb De Soyaa, Eaq., 
Dhinna Goanrwardene Wepolle Jajaworiys Dp.-sanayake Karooaaratne, Modliar 
of the Governor's Gate ; By his numerous IViends, in token of their nspect aad 
csteorn, and of the admiralion wilh which they regard hia heaevotunt exertions 
for (he relief of the poorer classes, and his putriutic endeavours to promote (he 
politic good, Ac. Sii:,~ Wilh this chain and niedul he wts invested by the 
Govfrnor, at the J.evee held at Queen"* Huu-v, Culoniljo, on the SIth May, IMj4. 



nevertheleu added to the picturesqneneBa of the effect prodaced 
by the groupiogH and costumes of the rarious races and nations 
there assembled. 

The march began; guns were fired; the fifes squealed out moat 
horribly shrill; the tom-tom beaters plied their slieepekios so 
vigorously, that one had to scream into his neighbour's ear to make 
him understand; frantic people rushed out of houses on either side 
of the road, and deluged with sweet-scented waters the man whom 
the Governor delighted to honour ; and, either in their joy or for 
the fun of the thing, plentifully besprinkled all and sundry near 
them wiih the same ; horsekeepers gravely led their master's 
carriages at a funeral pace in the far distant rear; and doubtless 
those who overtook It imagined at first they had come upon a 
funeral procession, for a vile carl driver, with a Tillunously high- 
piled load of black wood, looking for all the world like a hearse, 
toould take the lead of the carriages. 

Passing the Queen's Advocate's honse, the Honourable Gentle- 
man himself came out and congratulated the Modliar on his eleva- 
tion. From thence the procession wound up Barber street, down 
by Wolfendabl Church, along Main street to the Esplanade, where 
the scarlet Guard gave place to the Halberdiers in blue. Nothing 
particular occurred in this part of the route, unless a few alight 
. passing showers be mentioned, which were more grateful than in- 
convenient; for walking in a crowd in the middle of a dusty road 
under a tropical sun is not the most pleasant thing imaginable; 
it was however amusing to note the shifts parties resorted to in an 
endeavour to escape l>eing wetted. Imagine Cowesjee Cunjoe,* the 

* Thia gentlemin, who died not long *ftar th« proceedings above ilescribed, wu 
of tba moat bulky proponioiu; but at geDial Id muiner u he «u great in iju 



portljr merchant of Main street, shariDg with k stoat Parsee friend 
a Rmall Chioa umbrella, scarcely big enonKh to cover the tops of 
Ihcir turbaoR ; anO the noodc^ript tali pot -bearers, officiouslj 
covering their masters' hcails, but taking good care at the eama 
time to secure the best part of the talipot to (hemselvea ! Mora 
sceuteil waters were sprinkled as Cuujee's stores were p&saed, and 
additions began to be made to the tail of the procession, which 
numerically more than compensated for the loss of those who by 
the calls of buBiiioKs and breakfast were hero compelled to lake 
leave of the Modliar. 

Arrived at Colpetty the Modliar paid his respects to the Govern- 
ment Agent, by whom ho was warmly congratulated; and further 
ou was met and complimented by Dr. Elliott, Mr. DalEicI and 
others. OutJiide the Gravetii there was a halt for some time. Here 
the Fishers' Guard met the Modliar, be being a Fisher, and the 
first, I undcrstaiul, of that caste, ever made Hodliar of the Gate. 
Groups of picturesquely attired dancing boys, grotesquely masked 
mummers, and singers and tumblers, besides a numerous assem- 
blage of friends and acqoaiutanccs were also here drawn up to pay 
their respects, and accompany their countryman to his home. 

From this point to Morotto every step only added to the magni- 
tude of the procession. Ascending the open carriage in readiness 
for him the Modliar again moved on. Foremost went the tumblers, 
eingers and dancers, delighting tlie concourse who surrounded 
them with their songs and anticsj next the bands of tom-toms and 
fifesj then the Fishers' guard, followed by the Korte lascoreens 
and a body of belted peons. Then the observed of all observers, 
with his son and brother in the carringe, behind which still walked 
the two talipot bearers in scai'let ; and after these a train of 
carriages and bandies, and a constantly increasing throng of 



pedes trianB. Mcon^itary baits were GMitiniuIly being made, bo 
many crowded up to the carriage to congratulate its occupants. 
Old men from all parts, many scarcely able to totter, and some 
irom Caltura and Panture (the latter village being Mr. De Soyaa'a 
birthplace,) came forward with almost infantile eagerness, M^ne 
BO oToijoyed as to lose the power of utterance, otbers in such a 
state of excitation as to be unable to restrain their garrulity, and 
one declaring that now he was conteut to die, having seen what 
be never hoped to see, and what be should never see again. 

When oppof'ite the residence of the Mohandinun of the Salpitly 
Korle, that fine old native gentleman came out and invited all who 
were disposed, to partake of relreshments, which he had most 
liberally provided, expressing at the same time his regret that official 
duties prevented him from having tlie pleasure of proceeding to 
MuTotto with tbe Modliar. Further on, every village and path 
contributed its quota of human t«ings to tbe mass already cougre- 
gated on the road i and the din of their rejoicing, the firing of guns 
and the shoutings of welcome were at times quito over- powering. 

A little beyond Eatmalane is the fine Ambalama erected some 
years back by Mr. De Soysa. At this spot a decorated arch was 
thrown over the road, and here the Washermau of the District 
waited on the Modliai-, requesting that he would allow them to do 
him the honor of spreading white cloths on the ground for bim to 
walk on until ho reached his house. This being done, all of course 
dismounted and finished the journey on foot. A light fence was 
tiirown up on each side the road IVom this point to Mi»rotto, IVom 
which an elegant festoon or fringe of strips of cocoanut leaves was 
suspended. All along, too, the inhabitants of the adjoining villages 
were drawn up; and to acknowledge and return all the salutes he 
received, was no slight task for the Modliar. 



From this point to Momtto, it was emphatically a triumphal pro- 
cession. Afit-r walking about three quarters of a mile, the Mod- 
liar'fl eye wan gladdi'iiod with the sight of a triumphal arch erected 
opposite his hou3«. Stretching across the roaii, of an octagoual 
form, and about thirty-tife feet in diameter, with a beautiful 
ceiling of open net-work, tastefully formed of the femi and gnsaea 
and flowers of the neighbourhooil, the arch, profuoclj decorated 
wilh fruits and flowers on its exterior, was unanimouslj pronounced 
lo be the most elegant thing of the kind ever erected by natives; 
and it certainly was well worth a trip to Morotto to behold. 

The number of jteople assembled at thin point was immense. 
Far as the eye could range along the road, and around on the 
adjacent grounds, was one dense mass of humanity; men, women 
and children, all eagerly straining to catch a glimpse of thmr 
honoured countryman and benefactor. The lowest computation 
gave 5,000 as the number present ; but many were of opinion 
that at least 7,000 was the most correct estimate. Whichever 
be correct, it was a moat gratifying sight, and such a one as it is 
but seldom the lot of a European to witness in Ceylon. The cmsh 
was very great at the front of the house, where Mr. De Soysii'a 
numerous relatives had assembled to meet and welcome him home 
with all his honors. As the meeting was of ihe most affectionate and 
affecting kind, and more than one drew back with moistened eyes, 
I shall not dwell upon that part of the subject, — sufBce it to say, 
that all seemed over-joyed. 

Looking from the Verandah down on the crowd, it was one se« 
of heads and up-turned eyes. The Act of Appointment was now- 
produced, shewn to all assembled, read first in English and theu 
translated into Singhalese ; whereupon one in the crowd made a 
short speech, and then uprose a loud Hurrah I that would hare 



dooe creilit to the lungs of a London mob. Kow commenced a 
rigbl joyous carousal. Numerous bootke and open bungalows had 
been erected in the compound, where tables were spread; and well 
did multitude after multitcde do justice to the good things the 
Modliar had provided. Inside the house a more select company 
or companies were entertained, consisting of Mohandirams, fi-iende, 
and acquaintances specially invited. Speeches were made, healths 
dnmk, toasts proposed; and while unbounded hilarity had free 
exercise within, ever and anon a loud hurrah from without gave 
notice of what was going on there. As soon as one company re- 
tired, another took their places, and speedily fresh courses made 
the laden tables groan again. Afler dark, fireworks illuminated 
the gardens, and to a late hour at night the Modliar was occupied 
in receiving the complimentary visits, and acknowledging the 
ealaniB, of the throngs who poured into the place in an almost end- 
less t^tream. 



■iTiF.a AT Baiiatei.i.e, Koi.i.rriTirA, ra noBOR c 


TuE enter Ukinm^nt given to His Royat Highness the Duke oF 
EdiDburgb hj Measra. Subcw &nil Charles De Soj'H was one 
unprcceJentod in the annala of Ceylon, and aa succcBeful !□ all its 
details aa it was unprecedented of its kind.* As soon as His 
ExcelUncy the Governor communicated to Messrs. De Soyea His 
Roy nl Highness' s gracious aceept*nce of their invitation, they com- 
menced their preparations, and with characteristic energy— (employ- 
ing daily fVom 300 to 500 men for several weeks,) — completed 
all their arrangements in the moat satisfactory mannu" by the 
morning of the 22nd April, on the evening of which day tbe 
entertainment took place. 

From Galle Face lo Bagatelle, a distance very little short of two 
miles, both sides of the Kollupitiya road were lined wilhdecorations. 

■ "For tbc fint time Id th« bistoiy afthe Iilind— for QotCTCu in Hit palmiest 
dayi of the Si|}hale*e monarchj, when > libenl ud lirge-minded ruler like 
Dutugl^muna or Prakkramsbdiu wielded lb< actftn, would Rujilt/ so ftr 
condHcend u lo nccfpt of the private hospilililira of a subject — ■ native hia 
wekomed a Royal guett to bla houis. The drcumstaaeea under which iMth 
Kuler and Ruled now live are very much changed ; bnt DOtwltfaatinding all t3st 
progTcu md Ibe ■dvancfmeiit which (he nitire* o( this coantry have nuule in 
Weetem cit-iliiitioii, 'the divinity that bedgce romld ■ throae' i« not a mere 



These coneiBted of k fhunework of upright bambu poaU, five sod 
ten feet each in beight, alternating at diBtances of five feet from 
each other — (wider Bpaces being left for entmnceBto oompoandB) — 
and crossed just above the emaller posts bj longitudinal bars eighteen 
inches apart. From the ground to the lower bar roBe skeleton 
arches of agothic form. The space between the bars waa&iranged 
in oontinnous panels of a diagonal pattern. From the ineide of the 
arched work hung loog ribbon-like stripes of fringed cocoannt 
learee, while the whole of the framework was wreathed over and 
ornamented with light green olas,* fee toons of which swung between 
the larger uprights, the tope of which were snrmoaoted with ola- 
formed crowns. At the Oalle Face end of the road an elegant 
triumphant arch with three terminal spires, the central one of 
which rose to a height of seventy-two feet, was erected; and two 
similar but perh^ja more elaborately decorated arches spanned the 
road on either side of the gate that opened into the central carriage 
drive of Bagatelle grounds. Each arch bore suitable inscriptions 
of welcome. Wild pines and other fruits, with flowers, ferns, and 
mosses, were added, to give grsater effect to the general appearance 
ofthedecorations, the whole of which glittered at night not only 
with innumerable lamps, but with fiambeaux in green cocoa-nut 

metipbor. It wonld thenlbre b« impouible for tha nitlve mind to overrate the 
honor which his Royal Hishn«u the Duke of Edinburgh hu done Mr. De Soru 
in accepting the invitation to his EntertiEnment ; while on the other hind it 
must b« matter fur sincere congnttulation to all elaise* who can claim Hr. De 
601-M for their countijman, that the Idand coaM affiird ■ native vho by poaltion 
and waallh, wae prc-eoiinenllj' qaaliSed to do tbe hoejiilalities or the whole race, 
in his own pereon." — Examiner, April 23. 
* The young and tender loaves of tha cocoa and other palnii. 


huaka; while a Urge iKMljormen in uniforms of red and white, 
each bearin){ a blazing torch, lined the road and lighted np the 
way, the brilliance of which was added to hj the illu mi nations 
with whicb almost every mansion on the route shone and sparkled 
and gave ovidunce of tlie loyalty of its occupants. 

Bagatelle House* aud grounds, with the numerous tamporarj 
buildings and corridors leading from one to the other, were ablaze 
with light, and preseutod to the eje a picture which reklited to 
the mind the description given by the poet of the encampment 
of the Princess Lalla Rookh when on her way to Cashmere. 

The invitations were issued for 9 o'clock, and by 10 most of 
the visitors had arrived; and although there must have been mi 
assembbgu of upwards of two thousand persons present, yet the 
arraDgements made were so admirable, that although the throng 
was pretty close at the principal door where His Boyal Highness, 
the Governor, Lady Robinson, and the Queen's House par^ were 
to alight, there was ao undue squeezing or crowding. "All over the 
grounds, there were tents, and booths, gaily decorated and brilliantly 
lighted, in which the various artists who bad boon gathered from 
every part of the Island, and even bpyond it, were to perform 
their respective rdtet. The dancing ealoon in rear of the main 
building was a credit to its designer ; for not only was it elegantly 
decorated and brilliantly lighted, but every attention bad been 
paid to ventilation. The ball-room upstairs, and the private 
apartments for His Royal Highness, His Excellency Sir Hercules 
Robinson, and Lady Robinson, were all tastefully decorated; 
several handsome pier glasses and mirrors reflected the light from 

• Since named " ALfnEu HtiViiE," in honor of the oceaiiao. 



the ch&Ddeliere, and rendered the reflected illuaion soperior even 
to'the reality. The aupper room was in the ehapo of a St AndreVit 
croBs, each limb holding three rows of tables with broad passages 
between them The floor was carpeted with coloured coir matting, 
and flowers and eyergreens and white olas, with some hundreds 
or lamps burning over head, gave to thu entire place the brilliance 
of a Btrictlj oriental scene. The refVeshment rooms were also 
. conveoientlj placed, and while the liquors, from the brandy and 
soda, the champagne and the ices, were all of the moat un- 
exceptionable quality, the attendance was of a kind which seldom 
can be secured at similar gatherings. The servants were ciril and 
obliging, and notwithstanding the incessant and loo often conflicting 
demands on their time and attention, they never grumbled them- 
eelves, nor gave occasion for Uie visitors to grumble."* 

While waiting the arrival of the Royal Gaest, the opportunity 
was seized by numbers of visiting the grounds and making them- 
solves acquainted with the localities, where in booths and tents, and 
kiosks and theatres, artists, dancers and actors of all kinds and 
varieties were to exhibit and do their best lo entertain those whom 
Messrs. De Soysa had honored with invitations. A long spacious 
corridor ceiled and carpeted, led from Bagatelle to what is known 
as little Bagatelle. From themaincorridorminoroa«4branched off 
to the temporary buildings, which were laid out in three parallel 
rows. The principal of these was the theatre in which the 
Kandian tragedynamed Eyehalapola, after the Adigar of that name, 
its principal hero, was to be performed. Tien of broad platforms 
and seats circled round the Interior of a spacious building ; iu the 



centre of which wu % pit where the muiicians, (tam-tam beaten), 
were seated. Tba space between these and the audience waa tba 
etage, on which all the best native perrormers of Colombo were to 
exhibit. Above this was an elegantly deaigneJ and decorated 
ceiling, from which hung lamps, the whole of which rotated on 
the central pillar of the theatre. The tragedy is baeed on the 
occurrences which took place in the Kandiao kingdom, immediatel; 
before the campaign which led to its siinexation hj the British. 
In another building was to be performed the corned; of " Slhau- 
wali," which refere to the supposed origin of the Sighaleee dynast/ 
of Wljajra, the Indian invader of Ceylon in the fear 543 B.a 
This however wasdelincated bj means of puppela, the wire-workers 
of whom sang the dialogues out of eight of the audience. Printed 
copies of abstracts of both these Playa were liberally provided for 
the benefit of those who could not understand the Sighaleseof the 
actors. In another theatre the Hungarian wiiard, Professor Ruch- 
waldy, was preparing his feats of art-magic and legerdemain. A 
troupe of Hindu Nautch girls, gorgeously dressed and adorned 
with solid gold head pieces, jewels, satins and silks, occupied one 
tent. Indian gymnasts, posture-masters and contortionists anoAer; 
Grotesque dancers from Hangurankeiti ; Rhodiya women who 
twirl brass plates on their fingers while dancing; Dancers in white 
from Pauadura, who gyrate with chatties in their hands; Boy 
dancers ia red who strike sticks to time as they wind in and out and 
thread in opposing couples the mazes of their dances; bands of 
timbrel and tambourine players, and other native musicians, each 
had their separate tent or booth ; a large circular swing afforded 
exercise and amusement to all who chose to venture within it ; 
while last but not least Dare Carson's minstrel and musical 
troupe, with Signor Donatio, the wonderful oue-lcgged dancer. 



pleaaed, delighted, «nd astonished all who heard and saw them. 
B7 half past ten all but the most important of the guests had 
arrived ; and a most ga.y and brilliant assemblage they irere. 
The ladies seemed to bare exhaasted the resources of the milliner's 
art in the elcgaooe and beanij of their dresses; for the daughtera 
of Lanka were by no means behind their sisters from the West 
in the richness and splendor of tbeir jewels and attire. Hilitary 
uniforms, blue and crimson and black, with gold and silver epaulettes, 
facings, and collars, — worn bj the Officers of the Staff, the Royal 
Engineers and Artillery, the 73d Regt. and the Ceylon Rifles; as 
well OS Naval ones worn by the Officers from the Galatea, the 
Forte, and M. I. M. S. Arraorlque, — contrasted witii the (Aeial 
dresaes of numerous Sigbaleie Mudaliyars, Mobandirama and 
Headmen, girt with quiunt golden-hilted swords suspended 
from variously patterned gold sashes. Chetties, and Poraees and 
Moormen, in their own peculiar and charocteristic habiliments, 
added a further variety to the rich display of colour and costume 
that relieved the sombre black of the evening-dress in which 
all the rest of the male Civilians present were clad. 

Gradually the principal gnests, Mnongst whom was Commodore 
Sir Leopold Heath, began to throng around the door and line 
both sides of the passage leading to the upper reception room, and 
shortly before eleven, His Royal Highness, the Governor, Lady and 
Miss Robinson, accompanied by Captains Hiug, Tweedie and 
St John, and Mr. Cockbum Stewart, drew up and alighted. Mr. 
and Mrs. De S<7Sa received the Duke, who led in Lady Robinson, 
the Governor taking Mias Robinson. Dancing cwnmenoed im- 
mediately aft«, the band of the 73d supplying the mnsic for the 
boU-rvom occupied by the Prince and the more select of the guests, 
while the general company danced, in the latter ball-room below to 



the raunic of the Ceylon Rifle band. At the cohcIubiod of the 
dances ia the Ducal ballToom, Mr. CarooD'a troupe of miiutrels 
were introduced nnd were most warmly kod deaervedly applauded. 
After lietening awhile to their songs, their music and their wit, the 
Ducal party adjourned to tlie supper room, "the Prince conducting 
Lady RobinBOD, and Sir Hercules Robinson taking down Miss 
Robinson. As with the other portions of the arrangements so 
with the supper, everything was orraaged in first-rate style. AfW 
supper there were the toasts of the 'Que«n,' and 'The Prince 
of Wales and the Duke of Edinburgh,' the Duke rising and bowiug 
his acknowledgments in reply to the cordial way in which the toast 
was received. The Prince supped off a plate, with a knife and 
fork, all of pare gold, the champagne and wtne goblets being of the 
same precious metal. Upon the spoon were delicately carved vine 
leaves, and around the stem was worked a row of pearls. Rows 
of rubies similarly encrusted the knife and fork. His Royal 
Highness left the supper room amid loud cheering, and sfWr his 
departure Mr. Flinch mounted the table and called for cheers for 
Mr. and Mrs. De Soysa. 

"After supper came fireworks. These were let off on the green 
in front of the house, and were very effectively rendered. Columna 
of light, through which rose rockets, soaring far above the 
triumphal arches adjacent, were intermingled with C'hineee candles, 
and other improvements upon the fireworke of the olden times. 
Devices succeeded these, and the whole concluded with a grand 
burst of flame worthy of the decorations which surrounded it and 
of the company watching its eccentric movementa. 

"The Prince, the Governor and the ladies belonging to their 
party, did not confine themselves to the upper room, but paid visits 
to all the entertainmenta going on. They viait^d the theatre during 



the performance of the tragedy of Eheyalapola, and stayed some 
time. The nautch too came ia for a share of their atteation, and 
with the puppet ehow they were evidently much gratified."" 

Id the mf^ntime dancing was resumed with spirit in the ball- 
room, and crowds thronged into the buildings where the tlifferent 
entertainmenta were going on. Dave Carson's minstrels attracted 
a constantly increasing audience, which was as much delighted 
with their performance, as it was astonished by Signer Donatto's 
marrellously graceflil uni-pedal dances. Indeed so varied and bo 
excellent were the numerous entertainments provided, and so 
admirable was every arrangement for the comfort and refreshment 
of the guests, that morning broke before the company separated. 
And they did so with the unanimous opinion, that the Messrs. De 
Soysa deserved the thanks of the entire communis for the successful 
manner and princely style in which, voluntarily aided as they were 
by some of the leading gentry of Colombo, Ihey had feted His Koyal 
Highness the Duke of Edinburgh, and in so doing afforded Her 
Majesty's li^ee an opportunity of i^mu testifying their loyally to 
their Sovereign, and their affection for Her dynasty, as represented 
in the person of Her Sailor Son. 

The foUowiog interesting sketch of the De Soysa family is 
taken fh>m the Ceylon Observer of the 23rd April. 

"The Dk Sotsas. — The late Joronis Soysa was one of a large 
family. He inherited no fortune, so that the immense property left 
by him at hie death is what be had himself acquired. From early 
life he showed signs of great enterprise, persevering application to 
bis work, and indefatigable industry. He was the first young man 

■ C«f Ion Obaerver, April 28. 



who left Morotto to try the new field which Kandy, then recently 
acquirod, preMnted. Ilccommenced by takini^ a coDtract to supply 
firewood to the Government, and, by deg^ee^ fresh contracts to 
supply rice and paddy. Having acquired some little money by these 
means, ho began to farm out the Arrack rent. At first the rent was 
limited to Bmall diviaiona, but by degrees it extended to the entire 
Kandjan District, the rent of which was purchased for many years 
successively by Mr. Soysa. His dealings with the GoTernment 
brought him under the observation of the Honorable George Tumour, 
then Agent of the Central Province, who was struck with Mr. 
Soysa's scrupulous exactness and punctuality in his dealings, and 
gave him large facilities in hia tran^ctions with the Government 
Encouraged by Mr. Tumour, Mr. 'Boysa purchased the Hangu- 
rankctti Coffee Estate in 1835, which proved a highly fortunate 
investment. It had been fomierly the Royal Coffee Garden, and, 
when tbejuoglo was cleared, krge portions were found covered with 
Coffee trees left to grow wild. A little pruning brought all these 
trees into bearing, so that the very first season after the purchase 
Mr. Soysa obtained back not only hb purchase money, bnt a targe 
sum in excess. This was the turning point in Mr. Soysa's career. 
Shortly after he became the owner of the estate Mr. Soysa enlarged 
his trade greatly, purchased targe Iknns, and became the owner of 
other valuable properties in Eandy and Colombo. In bis business 
he was ably assisted by his brother Mr. Susew Soysa, the present 
head of the family. The Hanguranketti estate, which was enlarged 
fh>m time to time, so that it now includes the whole of Diatalana, 
and has about a thousand acres under cultivation, and the other 
estates which he purchased from time to time, were all managed by 
young men selected by Mr. Soysa from bis native village, many of 
them his relatives, and he has never had a European in hb employ. 



As bis fortuae increased so did his usefulness, lie gave largely in 
charity, and constructed many useful public works, such as tanks 
and dams for irrigation purposes, besides bridges and roads. The 
road from Harragam to Hunguranketti was constructed at his 
expense, and so were also canals, roads and bridges at Mora^nwa. 
In 1853 Sir George Anderson offered him, on the recommendation 
of Mr. Charles Buller, the Agent at Kandy, theUudaliyarsbipof the 
Governor's Gate, which he accepted. This excited the opposition 
of the so-called first'Class Mudaliyars, who theretofore looked npon 
these high ranks as exclusively theirs. What particulai-ly called 
forth their ire was, that this was the first instance of a native getting 
such a rank per *alUm;~ia every former instance the recipient had 
(o go through the different grades of Mohandinun,Mudaliyar, and 
then Gate Mudallyar. The then Maba Mudaliynr, Emest de Saram, 
had great influence with Sir Geot^ Anderson, and prevailed upon 
htm to alter the title from Gate Mudaliyarlo Mudallyar of Moratuwa, 
This was made known to De Soysa on the morning of the day of 
the Levee, when the rank was to be conferred. He informed the 
Governor that be bad not solicited any rank, and that the only one 
he would accept was the Giate Mudaliyarship. Sir Charles Mac- 
Carthy the Colonial Secretary, and Mr. Buller, took up the matter 
warmly, and, at the last moment. Sir George Anderson with Lis 
own pen altered the warrant, and made Mr, Soyaa the Mudaliyar of 
the Governor's Gate, and the Maha Mudaliyar was subjected to the 
mortification of interpreting a complimentary speech which the 
Governor made in delivering to him his swtavl . All classes of the 
commnnity,8aveandexcept the so-called first-class, joined in applaud- 
ing the act of the Governor, and in congratulating Mr. De Soysa 
on his well deserved reward. After obtaining this rank he retired 
from trade, and confined himself t« the cultivation of his extensive 



fields, and Coffee, Cinnamon and Cocoanut Estates. Th« principal 
work constructed by bim after his elevation was ibo Moratawa 
Chnrch, which has cost more than £8,000, and is a monument of 
the deep piety for which he was always distinguished. He alao 
established several schools, which are still maintained by tlie family. 
Sir Charles MacCarthy (then Governor) and Ltidy MacCarthy, tlie 
Bishop, and all the principal rosidents of the Town were preaeot on 
the coneecratioD, anil went afterwards to the Mndaliyar's house to 
offer their congratulations. He died in 1862, deeply regretted, not 
only by his family, but by the community generally, and particularly 
by the residents of Moratuwa, by whom he was beloved for his 
charities. When it was known that he was ill, large numbers of the 
villagers flocked to sec him for the last time. On taking leave of 
them he earnestly besought them to 'avoid the Sureya tree.' There 
were large Sureya trees in the compound of the old District Court, 
under which natives resorting to the Conrt used to siL The 
Mudaliyar felt that the love of litigation was the bane of the 
natives, and always did his best to weaa them from it." 

The sequel to the Entertainment, given below, is extracted from 
the Examiner of the 27th April. 

"On Sunday afternoon, the Messrs. De Soysa waited by appoint- 
ment on his Royal Highno^s the Duke of Edinburgh and his 
Excellency the Governor, at Queen's House. They were very 
gracionsly received by His Royal Highness, who convoyed to them, 
through the Maha Mndaliyar, who was in attendance as interpreter, 
bis acknowledgments for the entertainment given by them in his 
honour on Friday evening. He also thanked them for the handsome 
presents which they had given bim, and while intimating his 
acceptance of the varions specimens of Ceylon products aod Ceylon 



workmanahip, Hia Royal Highness said, he coald not think, of 
depriving them of bo costly a memento of the entertainment as the 
service of golil plate which they were good enough to ask liim 
to receive. He would therefore beg of them to retain it as an heir- 
loom in the family, in remembrance of the pleasant evening he had 
passed at their house. To return a present made by a native is 
with thorn considered an insult, but tho hand^me terms in which 
the Duke excused himself from accepting the gold service, took 
away any pwn which the refusal might have otherwiee given. 

Hia Excellency the Governor next thanked Messrs. Da Soysa 
for the munificent offer which they had made to commemorate the 
visit of His Royal Highness to Ceylon, by the endowment of 
£10,000 for establishing a Model Farm and School of Agriculture. 
His Excellency said, that he gladly accepted the offer on behalf of 
the Government, and informed the Messrs. De Soysa, that His 
Royal Highness had signitietl his approval of the institution being 
called the " Alfred Model Farm." His Excellency then referred to 
the liberality of the De Soysa family, and as this was not the first 
time they had employed their wealA in benefiting their fellow men, 
it gave His Excellency great pleasure to mark his high sense of 
their liberalily by conferring on them the highest honours in his gifl. 
Ho would therefore appoint the elder Mr. De doysa, a Mudaliyar of 
the Governor's Gate, and hia nephew a Justice of the Peace for the 
Island. His Excellency added, that aa Mr. Charles De Soysa was 
more English in his views and aspirations, be would probably attach 
less weight to native rank than his uncle. His Royal Highness 
intimated his intention to present Mr. De Soysa with the sword 
and belt, and stated that, when received in Ceylon, it would give 
His Excellency great pleasure to invest him with that insignia of a 
Mudaliyar of the Governor's Gate. 



His Royal Highneae then asked the Messrs. De Soysa to accept 
a little souvenir of bis visit, and handed each of them a breast pin. 
The elder Mr. De Soysa, who was the spokeeman, in thanking 
His Rojal Highness, said, "anj thing in the estimation of jour 
Royal H ighness must be a trifle, but the moment it learee your Royal 
Uighncss's hands and comes to ours, it assumes the value of nntold 
wealth ; to us the gift which your Royal Highness has given is as if 
we had come into the possession of a world (Lankawak.)" The 
elder Mr. De Soysa then b^;ged to be excused for presuming to 
trouble His Royal Highness agun, but be could not allow the 
present opportunity to pass without asking His Royal Highness 
for another gift ; and on His Royal Highneas's enquiry for its nature, 
Mr. De Soysa begged to be favoured with a portrait of His Royal 
Highness to be placed on the wall of the ball-room, in which the 
Duke had done them tJie honor of being ivsMot on Friday last 
His Royal Highness seemed very much pleased with the request, 
and promised that he would order the picture at onoe. The visitors 
then withdrew, highly gratified with the result of their interview. 

The articles which His Royal Highness accepted from the 
Messrs. De Soysa were a very elegantly carved calamandor-wood 
gun-case, with ebony figures of Veddhas armed for the hunt at the 
base; a sandal wood easy chair, very elaborately carved; a casket 
contaming Bpecimens of Ceylon gems ; and a collection of the 
numerous essential oils of Ceylon." 




" PniLALEXnES." 

Thk work published under the above name having been fre- 
quently quoted in the preceding pages, llie following remarke upon 
the identiflcatioa of the author, ma; not be deemed out of place. 

The authorship of th« Historjr of Ceylon by "£THEb," 
published in LondoD in 1817, has been attributed to a variety of 
individuals. Sir Junes Emerson Tennent, in the introduction to 
bis work on Ceylon, says that " tbe author is believed to have 
been the Rev. 0. Bisset ;"* and in a note at page 90 of the second 
volume, on Hie subject of the Eandian Campaign of I8I5, he 
remarks, "from the identity of the materials of 'A Narrative of 
events which have recently occurred in Ceylon, written by a gentle- 
man on the spot,' (publbhed in London ia 1815,) with the 25th 
chapter of the History of Ceylon by Philaletheb, tbe two state* 
ments appear to bave been written by one and the same person, 
and evidently by one who was present whilst the occurrences he 
describes were in progress." This is however by no means 
conclusive, for tbe work of Pbilalethes consists, to a very great 

* Private Sacietir; nod Son-in law to Ocucral Sir Bobert Bromrigg, the then 
Governor of Uu Colony. 



extent, of quotalioHH, aiiO tnuiitlalioiia,and the "narrative of eTenls" 
ia only freely made use of by the author who so chose to designate 
hinisoir. There is reason to believe, as I shall afterwards shew, 
that the two works were not from the same pen. The Rev. R. 
Si'ENCE IIardt, in the "Jubilee Memorials of the Weslejao 
Misxion, South Ceylon, 1864," says in a note, " It appears strange 
that authors, (as in Barrow's Ceylon, past and present, 1851,) will 
persist in attributing to Mr. Bisset, the work on Ceylon by Pm- 
LALET1IE9, whose initials are H. W. B., and it is evident that he 
never was in the island. It has been supposed by others that 
Mr. Bennetis the author of this work, hut his initials are J. W. B." 

Now, on looking at the end of the preface to the work by 
PniLALEinEs, that name will be seen to occur at the right hand 
corner of the page,— (he usual, if not the invariable position in 
which A writer places his name, in print as well as in manuscript. 
The initials " H. W. B." stand at the left hand corner, immediately 
above the date "November 13, 1816." They therefore seem (o 
indicate the initial letters of a place of residence, rallier than the 
name of an author. In Clark's Summary of Colonial Law (1834,) 
p. 439, it is stated, that "the History of Ceylon, published under 
the assumed name of Philalethes, ia, in the copy deposited in 
the British Museum, attributed to Mr. R. Fellowes." 

My attention was originally drawn to Mr. Clark's work by 
Mudaliyar Louis De Soyza; and Mr. W. N. De Abrew Riyapakse 
hinted to me that Mr. R. Fellowes was probably an officer serving 
in the Ceylon Rifles at the time the woik by Philalethes was 
written. Following up the clue thus given, I examined the Ceylon 
Government Almanacs and the General Orders of the Ceylon 
Command, for the year 1815 and onwards. The result was, that 
I found Lieut. Robert Fisher Fellows, (also spelt Fellowes) served 



in the 4th and 2nd Regiments of the Cej-lon Rifles fi-om March 
16, 1810, to April 10, 1826, when he died in the Seven Eurales, 
to which place, after serving on (he Staff at several outstations, he 
had been appointed CommandanL In the course of his service he 
went to England on leave, on the 6th Soptember, 1814, and re- 
mained in England nntil the 24th March, 1817. In the General 
Orders of April 29, 1817, notifying on extension of leave, his name 
occurs as Fellowes. He was therefore in England during the 
whole of the years 1815, 1816, and part of 1817; and the work by 
Fhilaletheb was completed by the 13th November, 1816, and 
published at the commencement of the following year. But, not- 
withstanding this coincidence, it seemed scarcely credible, that if 
he was really the writer, he could have avoided intimating so much 
at least aa would have sufficed to shew that he had written Irom 
personal recollections of the events described, or have refrained 
from dropping hints here and there of having been an actual 
participator in them. Nothing of the sort is however to be found 
in the book. I therefore wrote to England upon the subject, 
requesting information upon certain points, and in particular, that 
the copy of the work in the British Museum should be examined, 
and an exact transcript sent me of any manuscript that might be 
found to warrant the statement made by Mr. Olark. 

In reply to my inquiries, I received the following particulars, 
kindly furnished under the hand of Geosqe BnLLSN, Esq., the 
Superintendent of the Reading-room in the British Museum; who 
also produced the book for the satisfaction of the friend who was 
good enough to make the inquiry for me. " In the Museum copy 
the name B. Fellowes, written in pencil, follows the words, 'by 
Philalethes, A. M., Oxon.' " Mr. Bcllen further informed my 
friend, that Mr. B. Fellowes was one of the superior officers in the 



British Museum at Ihe time tUo work wm written; that it was 
written by him at the British Museum ; and that he himself wrote 
hia own name io the Museum copy. There can therefore be now 
no more unccrlAiuty upon the subject. The iuitiok 'H. W. B,,' 
unquestionably refer to the name of a resilience, possibly Holly 
Wood, Blackhcath. 

From subsequent inquiries I have leamt the following further 
particulars conceruing Fhilalethes. The Rev. Bobbbt Fel- 
LOWEfl, L.L.D., was born in Norfolk in the year 1770, perhaps 
at Harerham llall, near Norwich, which is a seat of a lamtlj of 
that name. He wont to St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, was ordained a 
Clergyman of the Church of England in the year 1795, and obtained 
the degree of M.A. in 1801. From 1799 to 1807 he published 
several theological works — "Religion of the Universe,""Christian 
Philosophy," "Guide U> Immortality," "Religion without Cant," 
&c., which received bigb praise from the celebrated Dr. Fur, 
with whom he was on yery friendly terms, as well as wit^ Baron 
Meseres, who is said to have left him £200,000. He also published, 
io 1806, a volume of poems. The History of Ceylon, by Phila- 
LETiiEB, in 1817, is apparently his last work. He was a stanch 
partizan of Queen Caroline during her prosecution, and be also 
took a prominent part in the establishment of tbe London Uniyersi^, 
where be founded two annual gold medals — called the "Fellowes' 
Medals," He was Editor for many years of the London Critical 
Review, at least up to the year 1820. In his later years he seceded 
from the Church of England, and joined, it is said, the Unitarian 
body. He died in 1847. 

The fact that Dr. Robert Fellowes was the writer who assumed 
the nomde-plume of Philaletbes, accounts for the hitherto 
puzzling difficulty evidenced throughout the work, that that writer 



had never himself been in Ceylon. From whom then, beyond the 
authors he qnotee, did he derive his information, which as evidently 
came from some one who was intimately acquainted with the country 
and the contemporaneous events described ? I cannot but think, 
from the sinularity of name, and the coincidence already noticed, 
that Lieutenant R. Fisher Fellowea, of the Ceylon Rifles, must 
have been a relative or connection, who, during his stay in England, 
commanicated to him the information which a service of four 
years in the island could not fail t« have furnished him with ; and 
that the actual writer of the work chose to attach the name 
"Fhilalethes" to his book, rather than appear before the world as 
the author of a volume, the substance of which had been placed 
in his hands by another, and that other a relative of his own. And 
that Lieutenant Fellowee was neither the author of, nor the 
fiirziisher of tlie beta contained in the " Narrative of events which 
occurred in Ceylon Id 1815," is clear, inasmuch as he was in 
England at the time, having left Ceylon the previous year. 







A'naivsiiiBla-lVTinii . . 193 

Alihinl?nn. . . 146,341 | 

A'ndiVfc 22, 39, 10. 70, 102. IIM. 1 95, 




Alu'Vihira . 

. 268 

AM . .98 

AlwiB. Rev. C. 

255, 258 

An.t»U<n>, Pnawella 

. 113 

Abu Abd AUah . 48 


Accidents 911, £40 


. 387 

Aotium .41 

Annexation of Kandiar 

kingdom 116 

Aa>m41,43,44.9»,55, 58.59. 76, ITS 

29, 80. 38, 61, 

339, 342 

Arabian dcrvighea 

298. 333, 843 
. 41 

Arab voyagoi 

41, 4 j 

Ad>mB>b> ... 37 

A»l«, king . 

. 81 

Ad.m'»B«K . 73,73 


. 298 

Bridge . 43 

Aum Continent 

. 58 

Mount 80 

. 178 

P»di9. 15,21,34, 27, 41,49, 

. 809 


. 69 

83,86,96, 104, 113, 131,334 

. 863 

AMenUof 198, 217,289. 

AtthahatU . 



■ t><SMenl flrom . . 225 

Ayari Shakari . . 37, 283 

Flore of . 365—368 

HiKh Priwt of. 358, S63 

AUTHORS and W0BK9 qoaled :- 

Documents reUling to office 

Alaoiavwanna Mouotta'la 

Of High l-rieat 297,396—363 

KuwJitaka . SOS 

Aden ... 41 

Ai.w,is' JamkbD' . 96 

AITgluDistan . . .51 

Aiiiwina . . .319 

Sidat Sangariwtt . 06, 207 

Ajiwaka . . .31 

Anpersom, CpU T. A. [264, 266 

Aleiuid» the Great . 49 

Wanderra in Cejiop 111,199,246, 

AllVcd Hooae . . .380 

Sindbad the Sailor . 46.173 

Alfred Model Fuin . . 389 

Al.B.1. . . .269 

Zaffer Niinah Skendari 44 

Airiatic BMeaichn . .40,41 

Al-ko™n . . .43 

BAiJ>XL-sItev. P. 

Ai-rohoun . . .42.46 


la Capabiliiies 131,337 
LiK'ioiil Mvtbi}lug>- 67 

I.. T. 


IT, Sl^lOS 

CevW (iiuvtuer . 73,1(10 

Jmirnri C. B. R^vd As. Sue. 38 
Twnil PluWrch . . 29, 34 

. 369, 3SS 



>Ri.i!<i;ii, Rev. J. 

IJewrirtioD of Cevlon 7S, 93, 124 

*NTE . 31*,2I5 

Chini and tbc CblDcw . !91 
Daw, Dr. 

Account of Int. of Orion 68, Ini, 

204, a08, 3 1 1 , 329 

De CdUto, Diroo 69, ?3,33« 

Dk Maki(im>[.a, Giovanni . SS 


Biblioltaeque Oclantal* . 44 

DlCuNTl, NlCULU . , 59 

Dipawinw . . i% 

Aslalic BcwiTcbes . 41 


- Exsminet" 
Fa UiA.1 

rBRai SON, A. U. 

itouTcnin of Ceylon . 246 

Fletcher, Phineah . 28 

FoRKiu, M^or 

Et^ea Yean In Covlon »0, 132, 113, 
' 5, IS2,2I1,!6S. 326 


. »5, 267 


r.Y.llei-.D.J. . 



AUTHORS and WORKS quoted:— 

llAKiiv, Rev. B.Sience 

Eii«l«rn Hunachitm 53, ISe 

Journal, C. B. Royal Ai. Soc 19 
Juliile« Memorial!. 99S 

Uaa. ol Buddbitun ii, 76, 209, 293 

Hist, or (.'ETLON, Kng. Tr. Soc 1 16 

HiiLMAN. Lieut J,, R. n. 
Travtls . .S3 

Trirels21, 37, 47,82, 177,237,381 

]i>A Pfei 





Megka DiiU 
Kazwini. Hai 
Kkiohtos, W. 

Ilist-ofCeylon . 163.169 


Ilisl, ofOylon . 67, 149 

Leic,Gkc>i<ue . . 61 

L*GRA!in,Ablie . . 60 

Mai'Vicar, Bev. Dr. 

Gtwiugy of Ceylon . . 83 

Mama'rama . . . 25. 61 

Mataiwanio . 14,17,19,20,31,32, 
30,33,51,67, I3» 
Malcolm, Ueat., c. r. r. 83, 337 
Uaiuii PoU} 

Traveli . .55, 57 





Paradise Lost . .168 

UuN-nioMKRT, Jakes. . 81 

Greenland . . .187 

The Peak Uountaiiu . 191 

Reign of Summer . • 1S5 

M'andcrec in SwitierUnd 63, 189 
World before tbe Flood 43, 44, 96, 
IT9, 192,314,236,262 

MooH, E. 
Hindu Pantbeon . . 103 

MoRRiA. J. [150,343 

Life and Death of Jason 9T, 140, 




AUTHORS uid WORKS quol«d :— 

AUTHORS nnd WORKS quoted :— 

HiwEsofCbonns . . SOI 

Thohxon. J. 

Nci-Houra)!, R«v. J. . . 3SS 

CaaUe of Indolent . 343 

Oi>OR[c Friar . 58 

TirnnocR. Hon'ble G. 15. 17, 56 

Olbklv, Sir W. 

Uphau— See Rija E»tn»kiri« snd 

Trlvels ... 43 

R4j» Waliya 

Phhcivai., R. 


AccoDDt of C«ylon . . 4S, S4 

Rimiyanim . . IS. 99 

Phiulcthm [98,101.391 

TAr.RNTlNlB . . . 53 

Hilt, of Ceylon 46. 66. 69. 72, 80. 

VAi-MriTN, Franoois [98, 101, 344 

Poefi Pilgrim««e . 247 

Dutch East [nd. PoMfMions ri,73. 

P„,p..A«r<:apr C. 


Hi«. Ac of Ceylon 104, 121. 194 

Simuila-kiStawuinini . 66 

P««lm« . 212.315 

WlLMAM* Prof, a 

Bi}« RatnAbira . 22. 2S. 26, 67 

ludlaa Epic Poetry . 13 

Riti Tsradginl . 3| 

K£Ja W«liy» 13. 31,22, 57, 81, 91. 

109, 139 

RlBRTKO. Cnpt. John 

Hist, of Ceyton 60, 63, BS. 67, 1 22 

Baba-A«l>mtiU[ . 9 

R0GBti8,S. . . .110 

Bab-el Mandib 



Bactriani . 


Al-korui . . .43 

. 279 


. 112 

SinrijnB Guni-lankira . 801 

Bagatelle . 

963, 878 

8™rr, Sit W. 

. 110 

Lord oftbelalei . 166,180 

Bandira Uahatmiyi 


Selkirk, Rot. J. 

family origin 

f . 141 

RecoltactioM of Ceylon . 270 

Banyan tree . 

. 254 

Bapat^lla . 

. 177 

Kuci^*. . . 138 

Bani«. Sir Edward 

. 259 

SOLKVMAS ... 46 

Baaniyaka Sttuai 

. 128 

S,>l,TUET, R. . , . 216 


. 146 


. 62.64 

Pfr.kiiinbiiirit« . . 38 


8?l.-lil.ini SudM 9, 14. 89. 95, 

Bay doe Aifve 




. 809 

Stkbi.k,T. . . .272 



Tahaki ... 43 

Berhan kattiya 

Tknkent. Sir J. E. 

B«r«ndi kdwila 

t02, 104, 106 

C^lon a4.41.49,54,67,5e.59.64. 

Bfna SamanaU 65, 74, 86, 140. 173, 


175, 180 


Bhagawi-kna . .16,333 

Bhaganat . . . S5 
Bhikkhus . . 39 


BhnwanAabibu VII., king . 91 

Joum-AiS*. . 31 

BiaowaU . . .99 






niK^k 9n 

Cenlrat India . . 2i. S4 

l),-.g«li., orlW-lree 68. 69,121,187, 

Ceylon 12, 25, J9, 58,59,61.71, 78, 82 

303, 304 

C^vton kings. Indian origin or 30 



Chain* 44,45,55,63,176,196,199, 



326, 290 

BrKhiiiKlatta, kint; . 



. 3J.38 

Clianks . .119 

Kram., kiiXK of Pfga . 

334, 33S 

Chilaw . 82, 93. 284 



China . 34, 41,58.75 

Brito, Mr. C. . 

. 138 

Cl>i<i<w. . 23, 24. 67 

BrownriRg, General Sir R. 

. 116 

Chdia country . . 89 

Bmidb.9.10, 13, 11, 16,21.4 


kiuaof . . 30 


Chc')raNaga,king . 23 

10?, 118, 

24, 128 

Buddha', birth 


Cinnamon gardens , . 86 


Clement VI., Pop. . .58 

deMh' . 1 


Cubra monarch . . 14 

V foot-pript 10.19.5 

. 66, 80, 

Colombo . 49, 64, 81, 83, 86, 93, 394 

A 816,322,342 

Fort . 864 

J Sri alio Sri.Pidi. 

Colnmboa . . 6J 

' rayn . . 309, 


Cmde Uda . . 67 

ViiiU to Cejloo IB 

. 90, 91, 

Copla . . 40 

aot— 335 

Buddhism, 16— S*. 33, 34, 40. 56, 90, 

Coromandsl, e«ast of . 49,70 

Cosmo* Indico-pleuites . 41 

Buddhiit kiDg^ .postato sa 


Cotanchina TJhir* . 105 

CotU ■ 38, 148, 334 

priests .SB, 33, 


Cotliar,— »•» KotHar 


Cranganore, or Cningloor . 41 



CutUck . . 83 

BuddhisU . lo, ia.l3. 



. 136 

Burmese Buddhists . 


. 119 



Daneing girls . 137,382 


Dsnta . . .833 

Caltari— w< KalaUn 

Cand**, Queen 


Dantipura . .333 



Daladi Miligiwa 104, 329—382, 336 


. 116 

Dapula.king . .122 

Catherine, Qoeen Donna 



. 228 

Davia, Major. . 94 

Cava 14G, 1T6, 


Delgamoa . . .8*4 


INDEX. 401 



E'dandaa . . .184 

DekkiD ... S3 

Edm, garden of . .49,178 

Delhi ... 69 

Eh^kpola DMwa . 116,208.381 

Demon iror«*ip . . 88, 80 

Da SmtuB. Mtha HudalijF^ Eraeat 387 

»h?Hyaghda DiaiM . 117 

Ekn^ligod. . . .119 

DetraGoraU. . . 79 

Diaiwa . 116. 116 

DfvakiitJl . . 30S, 394,305 

RatAnahatmayillS, 117, 148. 


Diwi Naware. . 37 

EW].,klnK ... 81 

D^yiguh^". . . ITS 

EllapiUTotupol' • 138,149,243 

Deyy.ng6r.t» . . 79 

Elu language. . . 86 

Dc Soysa, Mudallyar Jomnil SG7, 885 

Ethioplln Eunnch . . 6* 

Fete iB honot of . 369 

Etugala . . . S67 

ChaHei . 262. 378 

EngenlujrV.,Popo . . 63 

Sum* . 870.S7S.SeB 

Eve . . . 44,68,59 

. De Soyaaa, Pete giveri by, in honor 

EveUimi ... 37 

of H. R. H. The Duke or Edin- 

bnrKh . . 378— S90 

De Zoyu, Hndalivu U . 60 

Dhamilon-BM TamlU 

«.h.n>« . . .110 

FaeaimUe Foot-prinU. 821. 267 

Dharma-nlja-gaU . 79, 171, 176, 

FailhW WUdom . . 69 

asi, 3*2 

FaUePrak . . 86. 17S 

DhaimaSiUn . . 255 

Fellowoi, Lieut. Robert Fisher . 392 

Dhitu-una, king . . IS, 51 

Rev. Robert. L. L. D. 894 

Dhurma n^ja . . .79 

Fishes . . 1*0,144 

Dighi naknya 91, 8S3 

Flightofanta . . 98 

Fo« . . . 2S 

Dinavac . . .74 

Forahead relic . . 315 

DfpuUEUa Bnddha . . 818 

Fortat Scwiery . .236,363 


Fool -print, the 9, 10. SO, 28, 34. 35, 4 1 , 

Divabttme 16, e 1 . 74, 79, 1 67, SSi, S4I 

*3, 69, 63. 66, 69. 70, 76, 79, 

80, 83, 113, 203. 230, 332 

B^paU . . 170 

FooTKrfral^. . .64 

Dodukanewe^lla . 186 

DoIoewaU I>u£wa . 214 

Dondni ... 17 

Dondra UoA . 49, 83, 29S 

Don Juan, king of Kan^y . 83S 

Gabriel, angel . . 44 

DnmbaiB . .116 

appD. . 183 

Dnteh . .61,63,70,101 

Gadalidenl vihfn . 40 

DaUhagimiDi, kldg S!, 81, 138, 826 

Gajibihn, king . 32, 345, 85* 

Gal-kanda . . .256 

GalkiMa . . .260 

i,.,,= .„L,oogle 





Cdle . . iS,i 

9, 8S, !!)4 

Clallf Fir<> . 



. 31* 

HimilaTan ranKRi . . U 

t;«mini, Uiik . 

. 31 

HlDdui>.:»ti^ . . 18 1 


-as. « 

ftkln. . . M , 

«M.KuU-h.'n.= - 

Hmdui.9. 10, 12, 13, S7, 28, 83—85.70 

■ smbjlmna. 

Hil■-EaD^^liB— KT Sil»-ga(jbuta 


. 176 

. 2B3 

Hollind ... 60 

S, S.V 70. 

Homer . . .12 


Gsm-IhroDB . 


Ilourlilla hllU . ■ 341 

CPtinrtul-ealn imbiUma 

I6C. 233 

: ,11 

llurdwar . . .69 

»iil«.,i., Mr. J. W. .' 

Udimalr 61 74 If', 13-^ 

1.1T ISit. 

139, 143, 163.832, W3, 837, Ml 


. 141 

IJnosliM, the . 


Idikatupine . . .170 

. 314 

leil . . ,53,279 

(lodigaiiinws . 134, 135, 137 

ira, kinKdom of . . B6 


lUngakkdn, Hodaliyar . 197 ' 

. ISO 

Ddi(p> pUnting . . 96 1 


. lafi 

ndr^it ... 99 

GonitilU hjV* 

. 341 

ribadeploa-flla . 13S 

r.rand pan . 


.Jam . . . 40 

Gunarald* L'Daina^ . 


Italy. ... 88 

n<ir rplic . 

aii, 81G 

Ham. the Amon of Ep-pt 


Jafllia ... SO 

Hamaldl . 

. 67 

Hamanala Siripide . 

. 74, 75 

JambBdfpo ... 61 


Hafln-.;Ua . . 93, 

93, 94, 9S 



Jawbone relic . . 815 


. 249 

JavanU . .807 

Huikc}', C«p(. 


J*ddah ... 44 


. 119 

J(UwuitMua» . 318,814,316 

llaputfJe . 

. US 

JoK«a . . 88,76,284 

Haroun-EI-IUwhia . 


J<Jtiyo ... SI 


143. 161 

Hatwellc Unniiu.^ . 

. I6« 



Ilfruoitip^na S6. 7*. 75 

181, 192, 

MS, 227 

Kaduwela ... 92 






. loe 

Kitaiiiniawui, king . 



Kaliu|iUi}-a . 

963, 374 

K^uwatu . 

. IM 

Kond.7al, . 

KikDwDda Buddhi . 

. 3oa 

K.ln-g.lfg» 20,65, 68, lU. 

120, 134. 

Kutapaw ¥ll« 

. 360 

187, Ml, 16S 


. 270 

. 167 


KiluUra . . 64 

120. 2S4 


2S0, aS5 

Kublai Khan, capcrot 

. 55,57 

. 201 

Kitdamlta . 

. aiM) 



Kudramate . 


. 307 

Kunappu Ban,p4r». princa 

. 107 


KuDDdiya-parvtld . 158 

161, 174 

K»ndy 26,«l,61,64,80 



. 40,42 



Kuru-gapga .114,168.177 

282. 249 

Kudiui CamiHUgn . 


. S6T 

KuijiDiliM. king . 



. 232 


Bandira . 

. 126 

127, IBS 

naterfalta . 


. 131 

KuidDiia . 







Katogal. . 

. 184 

Katutivambatiwa viUn 



. 824 

Klldniuk'baa . 

,27, 128 


. 102 

iMiki IB, 23. 27, 50, 89, 

810, 812, 




323. 825 

lUayap* Buddha 


Uws of Boddhut PrlegUuod 


KivaoUna. king . 


L«,Kev.S. . 


K^lMi . 88,91, 



. 149 

digoU U . 


Lagcrda and Tradilimu IB. U, 16, 16, 




gagga 66, 68, 78, 87, 817 

48,54,66,65,66,70, 77,90,99, 

KeUniy, . 


105,107,118,125, 142 


Khaaiwati . 

. 304 

170,172, ;73, 174, 176 

178, 194, 

KhetUrJoia vibAn . 

. S70 





268, 801—326, 32S— 32B. 


. 2M 

809. 3?4 


. 185 

.82, 914 

KiriDdioy. . 


Kirfpala liw. 


Kirti NiManga, kiog . 

. 91,25 

Macready, W. C. , 


Kirtia Sri, king 89,110,258 





. 297 

Ji.g«lh. . 


KiUirlnewan Kf lani vUUn 


Uaha aooma grove . 

. 3M 








M«li4-dew. . 

. 301 

MiUja-d^e . 

. 1S.90 

MHl.adoli . 


M<niya« vihto 

. 108 


. f>6 



Malia M.i'h.wuia . 

. H24 



Ma 111 menu Mi 

. 307 

MavUiporam . 


. SIO 

Miva UuDD^, kiu 

91, 101, 103 

Malm Nam., kin*; - 

. S5. 61 

MiyaKat. . ^ 

is, 33. as. s» 

. 16.61 



M>ha|x;K'v> holspring 

. 211 

Prophit of 



. 307 


MHh. Samu. WwiW . 


M««ha Ddta . 

. ITS 


. BH 


Uaha Sen, king 


Mer™. Litat, 





Ma)ia tfrtha wana 

. 303 

U^nik-lena . 

. 197 

Mahavrata. . 



. 335 

MahawiUuka . 

. SIO 


65, 67, an 




. 17,30 

Uihintala . 



. 311 

UiBH. Riaantala 


Mahmnud . 



. 953 

la. 314, 817 

Hohammad . 

. 40,64 






. 40 

. 48,78 




ig~ . 49 


. 33, 9J 

Molligoda DUiva 

. sns 


Monkey. . 

. 231 



MonWViao . 


Halni«Uoe river 

. 337 

Mookwa. . 




Moor. . 2 

9, 41,69, TO, 7< 


. t3S 


Malwana . 


Mount Attidlya 

. 160 

Ma]«atU . 

. 258 


. SG9 

Mandadxipa . 


Hopnlain rangn 

. 163 




. 825 



Maniakkhi, klngGl.W), 3 



Manicavfiy . 

. 123 

MuggelK oya. 

. S3T 

Maainiga . ■ B 



. 315 

Mapanan-^lla waterfaU 

. 146 

Mulkirigala . 

. 73.78 



iST, 319 

Maritime Alps 



Maakeliya-gadga 143, ) 

3, 146. IGl, 
343, 837 
U4. ISl 


. 64.98 

Max MuH«r . 


M*g..rAJ. . 

. 23,83 

Siga Diirayiaa 



INDEX. 405 



Nogs m4ha vihin . 

. S-J£ 

Fsiliall monntam . .19 


. 307 

Paradise . . 44, 7 S 

rija Samana . 

. 395 

Parasat ... 9 



Paribl^jika dsToWee . . 81 

N««aa . »1,81S,318.816,817 

Patir^a Piriweaa . . 66 

98 ... 61 

Nina-wala . 


Pawuih^Ii-heU . . 163 

Nfaagala 9l1a 

. !60 

Pflwn-koo ... 84 

Nil ha Diwm 

. 269 

Hidaboat . , .248 

Ndlor^t™ple«t . 

P*g.rf« . .142 



Pinadurt . . .256 

Nermadi . 

. SIS 

Pekio ... 68 

Nigrudha tree 


Pelmadnlla . , .861 



Perah?r« . . 12», 184, 186 

Aecoont of . 846—355 

legend of 

. 164 

Periplm ... 41 

Nlrvina .118,304, 

)07, 809, 824 

Persia . . , 47,76 
Peniaii authorities . . 44,46 

^orthern Ctrcan 




P^urataligala . «6,e2,214 

Nawara Erii,-a 

. 28,82 

P?nigria4ll« . .249 


. 83 

P^raknuiM ... 88 
PihitiRata . . .28,33 
Pilgrimaged 10, 16,21,24, 49, 89, 111, 
PUgrimroulB. . 26,116,138 

Ojadwip. . 

. 802 

Pilgrima . 18,37,69,71,73 

Origin of ihoSri-Pida 


Pitakaa . . . 62,89 



Polonnaniwa . . 33 



Portagal ... 60 

PortuguoM 54,61,62,68,91,97,101, 

107, H» 

Fort.roinsof . 101 

aculplare . . 126 



PoBtenau ... 58 

PahalewaU ManiJ* . 


Polgnin-Tibini . . 249 

PaUbiddaU 61, G3. 117, US, U7, 1S3, 

Prfkrani»b*ba I., king . 21.88 



m . .25,334 


. 151 

VT. . .38,69 


. 155 

Falace of the Tooth . 

104, 329 

Primal religion . .11 

Pali vene . 


Prinsep, J. . . .98 


Ptolemy ... 86 



Hndatlazhvir . . 34 

Pnrinaa ... 27 


. 66 

Punia.prie>l. . . 315 

PiDdukdbhaj-a, king . 

. 30 , 

Piuirflla . . .113 

406 INDEX. 



PuU-hclU bridtfe . . 93 

SMir*. ... 84 

putulun . . -i^ia.ei 

:Mdliit>>u, king . . 78 
B«v.. ... 9 
aila ... 43 


Qucea'.bBlb . . . 99 

Suun 13, 14, 16, 21, £6, 35, 129. 

166, 178 

(hrluaof . . 200 

R»ilK«y . . .87,113 

dsHilc 13, 64, ISO, 128, 148, 

K«iti^Kl« , . .270 


KiiH.:'^-<T»n. ... 7* 

Kaohilig9 . . .26,204 

85, 37, 39, 65, 67, 75, 79, . . 2J9 

81, 91,124,166,811,316 

KaimaUna . . .269 

Saaiuitakdt* 9, 17, 18, 9S, 50, 51, 66, 

Kitmone f U> . . . Ut 

61, 139, 175, 897, 299, 817, 82i 

Katulmill . . .321 

Kutuapiu* . 13, 26, 2T, 54, 61, 120, 
Uf. 244 

Samuute worship . 13,21,38 

bri.lKa . . 132 

SuDula Piiidiki . . M 

fort . . .86 

Simin-iTBlte f lla . .143 

i««d . . .112 

Roj.l mull . 84 

Sam Neriman . . 43 1 

IUlt?mb« InnioBO . . 166 

8>Dgha Miji . . 40i 6i 1 

lUJi Sivhi LUog 22, 39, 102. 107, 106 

SwmuorkmgEirtiiSri . 2U7 j 

11.. . 62,66,347 

' S>ui9jvi ... 86 1 

B*j>niabi-Kvl>°i7adii,,'ot>a . SS 

SumiviDO ... 66 

lUma .12,27, HN99, 100, 1 SB 

Saracen* . . . 55,67 

lUwiDS . . 13,88,99,100 

Ke^Iilo . . . 23i 

bikya-Diunl ... 55 

KbododendroDj . 13, 200 

ScetieryofllieSkiea . . 2l2 

SchahaJlion ... 82 

KiTertouM . . . 218 

KeniraUu, kiDK . . 6) 

Scenery . 94,236,261 

beiik<i<j>gaU . • . 269 

Koid TrocliuD «jigiiM. . 112 

KoberUun, Mr.W.N'.. . 98 

Bcrandib, mount uf 40, 42, 48,44,4% 

K«ktenip1e>7l, 72,73, 92, 96, 106,131 


IMiyaa . . . asi 

SenadivD . . . 76 

Uoget the Nonnui, kiog . 47 

iitrpent clumber , . U 

worahip . 27, 28, 90 

Uuhui»B>t« 22,28,31,83,42,328 

Mru«iU . . .826 

Stkray* 16,89,815 

8¥v™ Koral.!. . '. ' .6 

1 Sfw^t. . . 314,115 

1 Shadow of the Peak . . 2M 

: Sbeih . . .891 


1 Shisham, car* of . .991 

SachcbaLaddhi . . 31S 

Sian Wilis 



1 INDEX. 407 

SJimcMBnddbuli , SSS, »0 

flri Wikram. Kija Sijha. king 94 

PrieMs . 861 

SuQuui* 9, 13,14,36.39.311,313, 

Sihioiwall . . .06! 


Siddhithi, prince . . 66 

Snmanasala Niyaka VuDtjtii 314 

Sfndbad th« Stilor . 46, 115, IT3 

fiDmanak>i(a . 305. 807 

Siniriirijit OMkrkTBnl . 80 

Sumsno . . 16,16.20 

Sighilnw . . .9, ISB 

Sumatra ... 41 


- — iwonts, (Itstrnrtion of SB 

SunriwatibePeak . 


Sir* 9, to. 27,88,80,31.10*, 296 

Ssnwl at the Peak 


Fool-prinlof . .10 


Slvilte Temple ■ • 38, 32 


Siviitea . SI, 31, 8S, 87, 38, 39 


SJTin-oli.nidiuii 9, 17, 86. 37. S9B 

Sze-lKD-ltwo, mountain of 


Fffbak, Mverfkiiig . 176,189 

Sirt'uMalika . . 304 

Sfti. . . .97. 178 

bena . 79,178 

Talipot palnw . . 246 ■ 

Sili'sbath ... 99 

Tam-H-umi. . 126 

Sttikanda . . .371 

Tamil drama . . S8 

SfUwth. 64, 91, 96, 98.99. 100. 101, 

kingdom - . ]tB 


Tamil. . 9,37,98,29,83,138 

feiTV . .98,118 

• (WpB« . 101,106,110 

Tanaawry ... 100 

Skinner, Major . . 119 

TaupiU ... 73 

Tanjore . . . 31,33 

SobU ... 41 

TelBgu . . . BS 

Temple tree*. . 1S7 

Solevnun ... 46 

Th*rapultibh*rn, Ihero . 16 

SoH .... 31 

The Primal Man. . . 63 

SolUus . 20,23.31.32,39,845 

Tblbet ... 19 

Sominuu-niili^i . . 809 

Thonu«,St . 11,64,60,64,69 

Somnaut ... ST 

Source of tbeSala-gaqga . 167 

Southern Province !3,28 

TiMa,klnB . . .91, 336 

St. Albans . . . GB 

TiBa-maha-yihira . 325 

Subhikrita ■ . .807 

Toothrdic . . .816 

Subhilll CnDlned . . 255 

biirtory of . S!9. 888-386 

TotaKll" - . .83,315. 

Sudh4d§wi. prinoen . . 337 

Tripitaka ... 51 

Sn-pida 16. 18, 30. 2S, S6, 40, 41, 79, 

Tuntota ferry . . 148 

75. 79.83,111.117,199,202 

Turin ... 83 

cover to . . IfiS 

TuroKiralA , 61,64 






i:d. P»w«n-fll« 

63, S3*, J40, 244 

U'lMvsHl minyi . 




WellmDewitle Anuotj 


I'noiij* . 


WcMemilakindura . 


. 40,2.'.9 

Welligille . 


W«rala|w . 




Whfvwui* . 




WfliwiU, Sanghi Ri 

a 39.358,999 

L■ruho^ . 


Wih.ri D«.i 




Wij,,-^ king 



61, 100. 1 as 

Wijsvrirfho. king . 

. as. 3! 

Wiknma Kaji Siqh«. king . 144 | 

85, 86, 336 

Wildrnm™ of the PMk .163 1 

Wim<iUdliannaSiuiraII,UiiKen, 101 | 

V»\nvu . 



. 50, 53 

Vsishiavu . 


Wl^. . 




cilT of 


V»n Cuj-lfnbprB, R, 

A, . T9 



Vwtimi Kamiraf* 




VediUh* . 



. 8B9 




. 3tl 

Vdlore . 



vij»T«— M< Wij«r« 




13, S8, 127 



View from thB Puk 

323, 339, 343 

Tatiyanto*. to«1 




Yatowija «11a 

. 137 

Vi»hnu . . 1 

3.27,18,34, laS 

Ydpina Nivanir 

. Z9,30 





Youaka, coaotry of 

61, 316 

. 813 


Walagunbitau, king 

16, 20, 31, 91, 


Zaiton, dty of 


WJg«np*y« Tlhir. 



. 65, 57 

Wiubhi. king 

. 39.3fi 

Zcm 1^, holT well D 

f . 210 



ZovM, Mudlirar L. D 

• . 50