(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "ADA Transportation Accessibility Reference Guide"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/adatransportatioOOkrwi 



ADA TRANSPORTATION ACCESSIBILITY 
REFERENCE GUIDE 



PROJECT ACTION 

NATIONAL EASTER SEAL SOCIETY 

& 

U.S. ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION 

B/iRRIERS CC'IPLUNCE EO/JID 



KRW INCORPORATED 



f ■:** 



m 



w 


«■.-"', 


W :':,J 


UJ 


O 


., 


o 


-■f 


< 


, 




4 


z 


#' 



o 

Q. 
(/) 

z 

< 

< 
Q 
< 




o 

2 CO 

o m 

LiJ (/) 



5 



o< 
m 



CO 



o 
oc 
a. 



< UJ 

ceo 

HZ 
Q< 

So 

^CO 

a: 
cc 

o< 

oc 

< 



< 

UJ 



g t 

5 



CD 



(0 



oc 
tj CO 



CM 
CM 

< 

> 

T- 

^^ 
CO 

oo 



c/) < « 
> fv^ >^ i:^ 



CO 

o 



o 





Z3 




c 


CO 

E 




c 




•t-i 









SI o 




O 


d 


1 are blind, visually 
wheelchair depend 




■^ 4= 


z 

UJ 


the U.S. Archite 
iance Board. 


o 
? 

CO 
Q. 



^- 

Q. 

_C 

T3 



riers and proble 
n the use of 


CO 


ning is funded by Project ACTION through 
.1 Easter Sea Society under a cooperative 
ent with the U.S. Department of Transporta 
Transit Administration. 


s 


r? Q. 


% 


CO 





LU 
O 
Q 
UJ 

o 


erial was prepared f( 
rtation Barriers Com 


CO 
CO 
CO 

■D 

CO 
O 

o 

CO 

■> 

5 


ed transit users who 
aring impaired, and 


member identified b; 
sonaily encountered 
n vehicles and facilit 




E CO 




"O 
13 jC 

O " 


-D 
CO 


O 

'to 




r^£ 


JD 


tr -n 


O-O 


•c 




D) CO 
•1^ 


'co 

CO 




rd ii 
aire' 


Each Bi 
they ha 


o 

Q. 
CO 


e trai 
itiona 
reem 
deral 




2? 


O 


CO Q. 


c 




o 


CD.E 


CO 


-C ro O) 




1- CO 


< 


•*-> 


h- Z CO U. 



(fi 
m 

> 

I- 

o 

m 
o 

o 



< 

Ml 

X 



c 




o 


(/> 






'to 


Ion 

ratoi 

•se 


gners, 
lar app 
and 


untered by 
transportat 
mners, ope 
tions to the 


desi 
rticu 
:ies, 


„ CT3 — 


O U)^ =3 


(0 Q-o 
CD w J5 




tion plann 
ent official 
;portation 


t may be i 
sabilities u 
nsportatio 
s develop 


?E ^ 


CO ~ CO -^ 
x: TJ i3 .2 


o E 2 

Q. CD ■»-• 


CO ^ Q-iE 


:o trans 
nd gov 
fixed 


barrier 
h varioi 
dto he 
ment o 


■^ CO -^ 


cD--^ c c 


■i coO 


to > CO ^ 


Q.2S 


■K CO CO > (o 

CO c (D o i2 


X CO Q 

^ a5< 


^ O 75 O) CD 

•■= i2 z -D "E 


O Q.M- 


O CD CD C CO 


H O O 


H Q. > CO JD 









CO 


<D 


CQ 








o 
'co 


to 




ysica 
spec 








CO 


CD 


"- CD 


h- 






CD CO 


CO 


o 






•o 


CD c 

4—' 


< 






E.8 


C 
CO 


D CD 


(0 
UJ 






O CO 


CD 


8£ 








CD V. 


CO 


C CD 


t 






C CD 


o 


<^ o 


_J 






o n 


CO 


o x: 


< 






E 


O 

-o-o 


if 




^^^ 




CO 


CD c: 


.i= CO 


Q< 




J2Z 


-Q CO 


-I-' 




u 




c: 4= 


c . - 


ities coi 
barrier! 


X 

1- 


< 




Tierlca 
), and 


has te 
bilities 


(0 

z 
< 
o 






,000 Ai 
abilities 


ociety 
th disa 


disabil 
ication 


UJ 

< 




■ 
■ 
■ 
■ 

< 


e 43,000 
ental dis 


istorically, s 
idividuals wi 


ons with 
commun 
^deration 






< 


E E 


52 T3^ 






>- 


O v_ 


CD c O 






CO o 


X.b 


Q- CO O 






P^ 



< 
< 

11. 

o 

LU 

ifi 
O 

Q. 



0) 

-I 

CO T5 
C C 

o — 



CO 

0)1 



05 

c 



> 

CO 

c 

CD 



:^ 05 



C 

o 



0) 05 

"DID 
C ^ 
05 o 

^ CO 

CO .E "-E 

^ m CO 
> ^ CO 

2 p2"-5 

^s1 





05 
CD 
O . . 

c •+= 

CO 

"go o 

■ — CO 
CO .^ 

^ o 

O) CO 

c 
O O) 

CO CO 
-, CO 

C\5 ^ 
CD ID 

05 
O cB 

^? 



CO 

-I— • 

c 

o 

OS 
CO 

05 



c 

CD 
E 

c 

v.. 

CD 
> 

o 
O 

"cO 

CD 

7D 









05 







CO 

P o 



CO 



CO >. 
CO J3 


"D CO 

o v 

— OS 

.-ti: c 
CO "I 



CO 



o 

CO 



CO 
CD 



c^ "^ -"^ 
O JD 

O 2?^ 

O CO^ 





O 
> 



O ^ 
CO 
E Q. 

^§ 

£ Q. 



■o 

cz 
cd 



LU 



< 
Q 
< 



1- 
LJJ 

> 

o 

_l 

Q- 
LU 



LU 

_l 
I- 





< 


(/) 










cc 


lU 






~~" 




z 


o 






if) 

CD 




^ 


> 








cc 

LU 
O 


cc 

LU 
CD 






i- 
< 




DC 


\J J 






Q 




O 


QOD 






< 




5 

CC 






z 




CO 
LU 


o 
cc 

< 
< 

X 
H 

CC 
LU 


ODATIONS 
IIVATE ENT 


(S) 

z 

o 

o 

z 


o 

CO 

> 

O 

CE 
CL 


c 
E 

CD 

CL 

E 


O 
> 

LU 
CO 


IPORTATION 
ITATION OTHi 
MUTER RAIL 


ACCOMM 
ED BY PF 


CO 

D 

o 

LU 

Z 


-•— • 

■D 
CD 

C 

a5 
o 

c 
o 
o 


O 

_l 
GQ 


v-» cc -^ 
_,cc350 


-iCC 
CD LiJ 


o 
o 

LU 

_l 


_J 
LU 
O 
CO 


3 
CL 


2 CD "^ 7^ 


Q-O 


LU 

1- 


CO 




UJ 3 O 9 








CD 




OCL^g 








13 


1 


. 1 CD |_ 
< CD 3 Z 


' 


' 


1 


CC 





LU LU , . 




> 




H 


■^— 


_J _l ' — 


^^ 


> 


O 




HI- 


^^ 


— ~ 


LJJ 

_J 




LU 
_J 

1- 


UJ 

_l 
1- 


LU 

_l 
1- 


Q 

CD 



go 
(f) 

Lll 

o 
o 
< 



DC 

O 
CL 



< 
CC 

I- 

< 

Q 
< 



LU 

9 

CD 

LU 
O 

LU 
DC 
LU 
U- 
LU 
DC 

LU 



Li. 
O 

LU 
CO 
O 

a. 

DC 

CL 

LU 

I 



<■ CO 

-D<.9 
(0 p? CD 

„ O -Q.-ti 

O- CO ^ 
C CO CD ^ 

?:9cD>. 

Q-^ ° CO 

r: (D (D ^ 

g E g CO 

CO 1- 9^ c 
■C 0) ^ = 
O > H=: CD 
0.0 0; -D-D 
CO O) >- •= c 

> O CD "m O 
2tOQ.|45 

^ CD E O -D 

O CL o o c 

h- O O < CO 



CD 



O .Hi 



CO 

c 
o 

CO 

a5 



co 
o 

E 



CO 

c 



O CD 

CO *- 

CD 

O c 

§8 

CO c 
CO 

O CD 



CO 



CO 



^■^ CO 
T3 CO 

•> e:-e 
2 ^ ^ 

O 2.C2 

I— Q."D 







^ 


s 






= c 


o 






o o ^ 






^ 


c2^ 1 


n 




C/) 










a uj a 


u 






S Q 


< 






H 




a 


f 






! 




Q 




^ 


i 

§ 


S5 


5 1 u 


1 
1 


p. 




=a 




^ 




I 




CtJ 








O 




E 




(^ 




^ 


« 


% 


j;? 


- ;r 
1^- 


1 


e 






5 

> 


^ 






< 








f 




p 




^ 


H 




a, a 


■£ 


^ 


^ 


S 2 


■> 


U 




-^ = 


^ 


? 




> M 


^ 


U 




f 












E 




^ 




« 4) 


8 


s 


55 


a, o i:i 


.5 


^ 




1 > 


^ 


w 






S2 


s 




o 




o 








t 




Oh 








>, ! 




e 


CM 


;2 is: 


a 




C/) 


- 3 M 
















1 = "-S 


c 






2 W !5 


i« 






H o 








03 






t 






>-. 


u 






O E a, 


s 






K:i% 


DC 




CO 


•2f~ ^ 


rS 














o i w 


S 






H 


< 




t 






^ 


^^ 




8 


3 -5 


il 






s: 


p 






c 






E 












L. 






~ £ 


S 






8 














a ® i2 


as 




i2 ii 


v^ 




cf H a. 


Ji 




Q- O " 


o 


1 <^ 


ansit 

Exit 

rding 


ccessib 

1 


^ 


ri 


1 




H § 


< 




o 




— _ 


aa 


_ _ - 


- — 


B3 


- 


— - 


i ! 


— — 


— - 


g 


— . 




£ £ 


■^ 




jO 


n 1 










Si Ol 




1 S8 


ngPl 
To 
ngPI 


i 


00 


tnl 






? P 


i 




=5 > 


2^ 1 
















3 3 






§ 


CQ 




CO cq| 






M 






I ^ 



ll 





^ 












CO 






D 












u 


CO 




O 








t« 


^ 


rz; 


u 


Tf 


§ 


jj 






3 


a 


CO 

or: 


'cO 


00 




la 


c 




CO 


'cO 


3 






H 


> 


> 




"O 




a 


o 




u 


a 


c/T 




'5, 


5 


s 


1) 




2 
u 


!S 


3 






60 


3 


a 




> 


1 


o 




o 


o 


o 


o 




s 


















»: 






S 


















1 




S 








5 




"U 


(X 




JO 


B 


CO 






8 


£ 


a 

S 

i-i 

H 


^ 






-a 






a, 



c?5 


a 
W 




"cO 


.^ 




1^ 

2? 


i 


CQ 


V5 

3 

pa 


v5 


'5 




1 




O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


















a 


















o 


















'■= S 




g 














5 .2 

^ 5 




J 








CO 


9r 




~ 00 


on 


iNSIT FACI 
TRANCE 
BOARDING 
TFORM 




o 
oo 

CO 

3 


15 

a 

1 

3 


(70 

oi 

73, 
'5, 

CO 


o 

'cO 


5 

CO 
'cO 


ommuter Ra 
Itercity Rail 




^ C r> < 




ffl 


CQ 


Pi 


J 


■J 


U i 




^igsi 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o o 




Hg 


















|5 
















lyi 


zg 

M 


§ 
o 

< 


a 

3 

3 
00 

O 


p 

5 
O 

















CO 






< 








Q 














DC 






CO 








< 




CO 


^ 








Q 


CO 


^ 


LU 


H 






Z 
< 


z 

o 


LU 

_l 


_J 


Z 






P 


1— 


CQ 


o 


Z) 






CO 


1 


O 


DC 


< 

I a 






LJJ 

_J 


_l 
O 


DC 
Q. 


Q- 
LL 


LL 

o 

DC 

O 
LL 






OQ 


CO 


LL 


O 


LLI 
Q. 


CO 

z 

o 

1- 
z 


< 
O 

_1 
Q_ 

< 
LL 
O 


Q 

< 

CO 

LLI 

_l 
CQ 


O 

1- 

co 

_J 

o 

LU 

X 


ISCUSSION ( 
OLUTIONS 




O 


LL 


h- 


O 


o 


Q CO 




O 


IJJ 


co 


DC 








CO 


Q 


_l 


Q_ 


1 


1 



Lll 












1- 








cp 




Q 








CO, 




2 












< 








E 




03 
Q 








3 
E 




< 

LU 

X 


LU 
LU 






E 


V: 

CD 

■4—' 


DC 
LU 








CD 

x: 


> 

o 


CC 
CC 






""^ (D 


_c 








imum 
sirabi' 


<D 
CO 


X 


— 






Q. 


O 




CO 
CO 


b) 

c 


6" mini 
:12 de 


(D 


lU 




^ 


o 


O 


—I 

Q- 




<D 


"o 


CO •-- 


CO 


^ 
5 




a5 

a 


(D 


idth- 
ope ■ 


CD 
DC 


LU 




o 


(D 
-1-' 


^co 


oT 






(D 


O 

z 


1 1 


CO 






s— 












(D 












DC 









I 

CO 

CD 
D) 
(0 
Q. 



CO 

"c 



o 
CD 



■D 

C 
CO 

CO <i> 
^ (D 



CO 
CD 
CD 



O 
0. 
Q. 

E^ 

i_ -I-' 

Oo 



O) 



CO CM 





DC 

I- 

O 
Q 



%l 




r^ r^ 




SI 


"^ -t-" 




^" ^" 


■t-> 






1 1 


o 


*- CO 


CO 


H 





9.^ 


CD 


.?& 


o +- 


O 





O 0^ 


c 




^co 


i— 


o o 

w2 





29. 




_c 


lis page 
Diutions. 


O) 


> > 


CO 


c 
o 


CO CO 



DC DC 




n 

E 



■4-> 




X 

"•D 
C 
<D 
Q. 
Q. 

< 

0) 



O 

o 



JQ) 

13 

cc 

\- 
O 
a 

(D 



CD 
CO 
LO 
-^ 


D) 
CO 
Q. 

C 

o 

■D 

C 
3 
O 

CO 



CO 



CO 



o 

CD 
LO 




CO CD 



c 

CO 



CO 
£3. 



C C 
O O 

CD -— 




O 

C 
0) 

0) 


tr 

3 



in 

LO 
CD 
LO 





CO CO 
^ — CI 



CD 



^.^■^ 



> 

CD > 
CO 

c 






-o2 
i ^ 

W 
CO 
CO 





c Q 
O 

O CO 



^ J=; 'i:^ 






c\j _ 







CD 



1- ^ 



Z 





(D 




+-• 




.Ǥ 




■D O 




CD OJQ 




S^ci) 




eph( 
itten 
er-th 


<D 


ffgo 


> 




o 





c 
'c 

CO 

H 



(0 
(0 

(1> 
o 
o 

< 

c 

O 






"D CO 
CD > 

CO CD 
CO . 

o o 

CO iS 
CD go 

it o 5 

CD ^ 

■^ ^ ^ 

CO C o 
E CD C 

E CO -i^ 

v2 CO CO 

z ^ ^ 

coOO 

c 

CO c c 

^ g o 

4-' CO CO 

"5 E E 
Q o o 

Q '+Z ^ 



CO 

c 
o 

o 



H ±= — -5 



(0 
CO 

<u 
o 
o 

< 

(0 

•a 



a> 



CD 
Q. 



O 

n 

CD 



(0 



CO 


ZJ 

■o 

CD 



CO 

CO 

CO 

o 



— 

C 3 

■o 

CD 



O 
CO 

Ql 
CO 

E 



o 

CO ^ 

CO "^ CO 

S ^ CD CC 



(0 
(0 

a> 
o 
u 

< 

B 
c 

3 
O 

o 

(D 



(D 

> 

o 



CO 
Q. 

E 

CO 



CO 
0) 

o 

+-» 
CO 

■f-* 
CD 

-^ 

O 

c 
o 

E 
o 

.-g Z 

(O CD 

CO O) t^ 

^ ^ ^ 

o o ^ 
O O o 

<T30 



t 



CO 
CO 



CD 



w 



O) 



(0 



o .^ 



CO 

c 
o 



CO 

a5 

Q. 

o 

(D 

to 
> 



C 
CO 



_C0 
CO = 

■D 

C 
CO 



O O 



Q. 



Q. 
Q. 
CO 

c 

CD 

E 

CD 



CO 

g 

c 



c 


CD 

-I— • 

CD 

CO 
CD 
O 

c 

CO CD 



O 
(D 



M— 

O 






CD 5 
/^ '»- CD 

o Q. 5i: 
o 



CLO 
Q. C 



LU 

o 

z 
< 
cc 



LU 



< 



CO 



0) 



< 




_(0 


QC 




'^ 


1- 




•D 


o 




C 
CO 


H 




X 


Z 




^co- 


o 




CO c Q- 
Q- CO CO E 


oc 




CO E :^ CO CO 


o 


$ 


way 
1 Rai 
swa 
ge 1 
s, R 
age 




a> 


-^ X} CO D .^ C 


1- 


E 

> 
O 


i5 3 2 ^ .gj 





c 














CD 
O 








^ 






CO 














"■o 








E 






CO 








3 






■o 








E 






c 

CO 








■^ 






<D 








E 






> 








^ 






o 








■4-^ 






CO 








c 

05 






CO 














(D 






o 


'(f) 
CD 






O 






in 


^. 






CO 

-I-' 






^ 


Ql 






CO 








"^ 






n 






c 


CO 






o 




o 


CO 


^ 








E 


OJ 


■I-' 


IE 






o 


3 

c 


c 

CO 


CO 
CO 



cd' 






to 


E 


CO 


1 
CD 


CO 

-1— » 




'^ 




CD 
CO 


CO 


Q. CO 




0) 


c 
o 


_0 

1 


O 
CO 





c 
o 


>. 


V-* 


(- 


CD 


CO 


o 


Zl 


(0 


Loca 
Widtl 


Cros 
Surfc 


1^ 

o 

Ql 



(0 



(0 

Q. 

E 

(0 



O 



^ CD 

^^ 

C/) :± 

CO 03 

2 ^ 

O CO 

CO 



o 

c 



o 

b 

c 



CD 03 
.^ O 
-D O 



g5 



E 
E 



E 

E 

■^ 

E 



CO 

CO (D 

(D ^ 

^ O 

O _C 

^-'^ CO J- 
CO D 



CD 
■D 
CO 



O .^ - 
CX5 -zr 



E 

13 

E 

"c 

"E 

CO 
CO 

-t— • 

T3 



CM 



T- CO 

C 

c.o 

.etc 

o 



o 
5 — 

^ CD W 

C CO ^ 
I 1 CM 

CD CD y. 

O O 
CO CO 



3 CT 
cr CD 

CD ^ 

^ D) 

CD SZ 

D o 

H— 

— O 

CO T- 



tJ 

3 



CO 
CD 

■g 
"co 



o 

c 



o o 

-1— ' -1— ' 
O CM 



CO 
Q. >- 

o2 



Q. 
O 



CO 



O) -K 5P -K 



CO 

CO 
0) 

o 

00 



00 



■je 

c 
o 

CO 

V (D 

a Q. 

■^ 2 



c 

CO 



CO 
CO 
CD 



' CO 

C 2 

O o _C5 

±i £ LL 
CO 

C O CD 
05 CM "D 



CO ■= 

■^ CO 

CO r- 

2? § 

"— C 
CO o 

^ = h CJ) 

O CM ^ .E 

V. r. CD E 

03 > 

CO _g) 

CD 03 



O 
03 



O 
CD 



CO Q 



CM 



CO 
O 
CD 

>> 

> 

CD 



CD 

■o 

c 



Q 
O 



3 -ii 






■o 

CO 
■D 

C 

CO 

-I—' 

CO 

o 

Q 
< 



(A 
(0 

o 

6 



o 

c 
o 
o 

C 
CO 



CO a 
CD 

■D (D 
CD C 
Q.-— 

^ -g 
O =J 

!c ^ 

^ O 

— _C0 
0) Z5 

•^ c 



_c: CD s^ 

. ' ct: 
c o^ 

O CO ' 
CO Jt t= 

-l< > 



c 

CO 



o 


in 

CO 

CD 

E 

c 

O) 
"co 

C 0) CO 

CD ±:f CO 
0) ^ 

x: "D = 

.■t^ --zz CO 

> CO p 
CD - E 

^ '.5 1 

O CD CT3 

8 ■ " 

S|3 

_l ^ CO 



w 

3 
0) 





O 
>^ 

o 

■co 

c 

O) 
CO 

c 



CO 
CO 

o 
o 

o 

c 
c 

CO 

o 

CO 

c 

05 



CO 
CD 
"O 
CD 
Q- 



CO, 

CO 

o 

to 

Q. 
O 

_0 

o 

> 



CX) 

2. CD 




> 



CO 

CO > 
D) (D 

C ~ 

C 

^ <M 

CO -^ 



= 3 







0)p 
C0> 



CM 



C CD , 
_J ^CL CO C/D 



c 
o 

CD 
O 

c 

05 

■g 

'd 
CD 











CD 










U) 










C 




CO 






03 




■a 










CO 






E 




■o 






D 




c 






E 




CO 
















"c 




CO 






E 




o 











5 








CD 




Q 






"^ *\ 




< 






r- CO 

.9^ 




(D 

■!-• 

13 


i2 

CD 




CO 

<1^ r- 




O 


CO 




-Q^ 




^- 


'i— 




S 




CD 


c 




Q-J2 




"co 


<D 

o E 




IS 




(/) 

O 
O 
03 

c 


rm, no < 
minimu 




E-D 

■r^ (D 

c cr 

= CD 




05 


^% 


1 


^ - 




O 
tf 


C 1— 
13 , 


LO 


T i5 


^ 


CO 


' CO 


1 


cd2 


CO, 


Q. >, w -q 


i_ 


.E -D 




4— ii 


7;; U- 03 


CD 


CO c 


(0 


o 


*:^ CD CD 


.CO 


CO 


"5 

4-' 


z 


COCOHOCZ X 










0) 


, 


1 1 


1 


1 1 







4i 


o 

05 




















CO 


(D 












x: 








o 


T3 








o 




C 




CD 




^^ 


C 
05 








CD 






+-• 




D) 


.^^ 








r\ 




^_ 




13 






Q- 








— 




CV5 i^ -t;^ 




O 




^ = 


E 

CO 

sz 








o 

CD 




C 0) 




0) 




O Q. 








1 

c 




.N O O 




"co 




sz E 


o 

CO 










o 




X 




CO 
CD 

o 




O)C0 




Q. 




'7S 




i 






'f ^ 


H— 




E 









^ 




o 






o 




CO 




^— 








CT5 

c 




CM (0 
C " ^ 

lis 






(0 
CO 






■5 



c 




0) 
CO 


CO 


o 

CN 

c 


E 


C 
CO 

E 
o 




■o 

CO 
CO 


E 

=J 

E 

c 


05 

O 

CO 
Ql 




.coco 




05 


D 


t: 




^— ' 


E 
2 










E 


CD ' >- 
■ c u 


o 




CO 

CO 


E 




0) 
Q_ 




(3-24) 

1 - greater 
1 - 36" mir 


(- O O" 
> S ' 


to 

■D 



(0 >- 





O 

O) CD 

C M 


E 

E 

c 


o 

a5 c^ ^ 

E 

DC 






■t— • 


"m "O 
W CDC 


^T3 <1^ 


CO 


^ 





'cD 


E 






Q.O 




CO "D CO 


^ CO 
















ECO 


Q_ LJJ X 


o_i . 




1 


1 


1 








(0 






















cc . 


1 


1 1 1 


1 



















c 




<D 




CO 




> 




3 




C7 









1. 




go 




0^S-E 
3^ 3 07o zj 






o ^ E ^ E 




ep n 
amp 
'" dia 
r to ' 
mini 






'^ a; > 000 
> o O - 




O JD +- ;c\i CO 




JD CO =^ -" 3 




CO ;^ - --6 




=. c» -,- ■ m 


^ 


eight 
4" to 38 
34" to 3 
irface - 
larance 
nded, n 


s 


X CO , ,^ 0? 3 


1 




<n 


'ti "S E ~ ^ CO 


■■§■ 


c i2 CO Q- o 


(0 


=3 CO ir Q.^ O) 


c 


o ■!:= C T5 


^ , , CJ ^LU 


(0 





c 

O) 
0) 



c 

(D 

E 


O 

i5 

CL 



o 
o 



CO 

c 



E 
E 



o 

CO 

^ 2 

05 Q. 
"D O 

^ g> 

O W 

CO O 

b C 
CD O 

CO " 



^ C 
OJ CO 



CO 
CO 



C/5 n_ 

cH 

O CD 
+^ O O 
CO 



CO 




U) = 
C O 
CO CO 

CO c 
^gcO 

E ■ r- 
2b^ 

'*- CO 
C > 

o 



c 





E 

r3 

E 

■?§ 

E 

CM 



^ C 
0) CO 

If 

I 

D) = 
C O 
CO CO 

C 
§_"^ 

• i^ 
= cu 
o 



CX) 



o 





n 0) 



c 

CD 
CO 

JD 



CO 

O 



CO ^ '^ CO Xi 

c 
O 









E 




L 















3^ 















b 







03 













CO 

c 

CO 


CD ^ 
> 




c 






atte 
eight 








CO ^ LO 


SI 




E ^-^ 








CO 
(0 




00 n ' 


.^ 




a?(o 




if) 

c 




■D 
CD 

c 



E 

(O 


mounted at 
mple serif 
ratio - 3:5 t< 
-height ratio 
ackground - 




-glare, eggshell 
iper/lower case 
een letters - 1/1 
letter 




C/D 






or signs 
lerif or si 
to-height 
width-to 


^ 


+-• 




v/^ 




CO 


H— • 


SI 


- non 
or up 
betw 
case 




c 
o 




1— 



H— 


52 


c 


c 
o 


■5 D)LO 


floo 
3"fi 
ns s 

oke 


CO 

■4-' 

c 





j^ !?; <1J >- 
a^ '^ (D 

.^ Q-CO Q. 


CO 


CD 




CO :^ i: 





CO 


C Q. Q. Q. 


CC 


X 


1 





■D 


U- D CO =J 


(f> 


JZ 














c 





, 




1 1 1 


, 




1 1 1 


O) 
















(f) 


, 



















E 

CO 









CO 




D) 








m 




O 

o 








CM 








CO *+- 









^'> 








-o 




=5 ^ 




CO (D 




CO 




linim 
belo 




C = o CO 




-C 




E r- 




ers 
'to 2 
r simi 
letter 












CM 


■D 




4- Q. 




O CO O (D 


CO 


_0 




O) o 




5? ID it: J2 
i= »- CO 


•^ 


CO 




•|^ 




CO 1 o 


' 


Q. 


CO 


-^ -D 


c 

o 
o 


9d Ch 
eight 
ans s 
pper 
aised 


ccom 
igram 


0lO 
' O m 




coX a53a:< 






(0 


"co 






o 




c 


cc , , , 


1 


1 


CL 


1 1 


O) 












a> 


1 






, 





o 



2 













^mm 




1— 








a 




(D 









< 




■+-> 








o 

OQ 


0) 




z 








o 


Q. 










KO 


< 










1— 


Q 








LU 


(0 


< 








O 

T-Z 


(0 


-1— » 








^^ 


CD 


> 








l-H 


1 


_>> 








zz 

31U 


a: 


Q. 

E 







-»— • ir^ 


>- 
1- 

-J 






to 

-5 


CJ 









3 


E 


o> 




8 ^ 


< 

U- 

1- 


Q. 


c 



CJ 






(0 

< 




2 

CO 

c 





^ 


5 Q. w F 

^_. ^_. Co yi 
0)30) CL w 2 


cc 

1- 








CD 
CD 




■ ■IB 

> 


C CO C0§,O 
.ti CO =5 =5 .D' C 












> 


CO -1 CQ OQ 0) LJJ 






ZQ_ 








o 

0) 
0) 



i_ 

(D 
0) 

C 

c 

CD 
O 



o 



CO 

o 
o 

o 



(D 

■g 

■> 

o 

Q. 



C 
OS 



0) 

E 
a> 
u 
« 
o. 



-o 

CO 

o 



CO 
CD 



(D 
+-• 

O 
CD 



CO 
CO 
CD J3 

O 13 
CO o 



CO 

CD E ^ '^ 

E => 



ii o o 



Ql Q. 

o o 

-•-• ■I-' 

CO CO 

CO CO 

D 13 

n J2 



^ o o 

« (D 

CO ^ c 

5 o o 

O OO 

<0 



CO 
CO 

_ ^ CD 5^ -Q 

(T) r- Cu CO 

CO O = Z3 "^ 

CD _ •4= **- s- 

Q. o o 9^ o 

O W^ to'^ 

CO n "S^ CD t;^ 



c 
o 

CD 
O 

c 

CO 

"u 
O 



(0 

■o 

(0 
Q. 

Q. 
O 

CO 

3 
CQ 



(D 
O 
CO 



3 
O 



o ^ 

rt CO 

=5 2 

o "- 

■■5 o 

Q. CO CD 

E ^ ^ 



CO w 



i.i? 



CO 



CD = .^ 

, CD ' 
^ I CD 

CDi3 CO 
C -Dt 

-I ^ C/D 



(0 

a> 
o 

CO 

G) 

C 



(0 

(0 

(0 

Q. 

(0 

3 
OQ 



E 

E 

c 

E 

CVI 
CO 



CO 
D) 

c 
'c 

CD 

Q. 

O 



CO 

c 
'c 

CD 



-o 



CO 
D) CD 

c -o 

(D O 
Q. C 
O '^ 

n ^ 

:£> 
"O = 

■^ ^ 

> LO 

X 



X 

Q. o o 

CD ' , 

§■§§ 

05 ^ CO 
>^ 

C vt CO 

CO 



0) 
CO 

c 
x: 



E 

Z5 

E 

'c 

E 
b 



o 

CO 



C CO 

C i_ 
CD O 
Q- O 

O H= 

"*— ^ 

O CO 

(D 



O 



CO 
O 

h 

CO 

c 

CO 



ti J3 



o 
^ E 

?»i= CO 

i= ^ 

O CO o 
b: CO Q. 

c- CD ^ 
E ±i = 
O CD ti 



O 



CD 



CO 



c 
o 



CO 





E 
o 



W C 

o o 

o CO ?5 

CD O -^ 
CQ ^ -D 



c 
o 

CD 
O 

c 

05 

■g 

o 

■K 



CM 



<n 

c 
o> 

Q. 
O 

(0 

0) 

3 

CQ 



■K 
(D 
Q. 
CO 

(O 

T3 

05 

C 
CO 

CO 

CD 

13 

g- 

"c 

13 



CO 

O) 

c 

CT5 

> 

O 

c 

D) 

"to 



c 



E 
o 

ti 
O 



O 
CO 



CO 

o 

Q. 



E 

3 



■D 

(D 

C.N 

O) w 

CO !r 



CO ^ 

1 05 
CO'*- w 
-g 2 0) 

V <T( y-v 



o ii^ 



CT3 Q. 



O ^ o p)E 

1^ — T 



to.^O 
O CD 

CL X , 



CD f- 
(D C 

^ CO 

o . 

CO ^ 
I -C 
_ O) 
^ CT5 'cD 

CO . 

a> ^ CD 

»_ CO J? 



To ^ « 



(D 
CO 



CO 

C 
CO 
CO 



Oq= 



CO 

O 



-Q CO 

CD c 
.^ O 

E -^ ' 
b: ^ CD 

CD CS) Q. 

Q.~i >» 

— ' ■*-> 

C i ^ 
O +- CD 

EC CO 
._ o^ 
-dOO 



■D 

c 

•^ f> 
■D "^ 

CO (D 
CD O 

5 'to 

CD »- 
n^ 

O g) 

c-cO> 

■C f=^ O 
CO > W 



o . 



c 
o 

CD 
O 

c 

CO 

■g 

'd 

* 



CD 
(D 



05 
CD 

CO 
Q. 



3 
Q. 

Q. 

O 
+-• 
(0 

W 

a. 

CD 



1 



E 
o 





_o 

O 
Q. 

CO O 

— CO 

••= (D 

J^ CO 
o ^ 



o ^ 



UJ 



CD 



ZZDC 



l-Q. 






< ^ 

<0 



^ CO 

eS 

O ^ 
O .— 

-»-• 05 
CO »- 

=3 ^ 

If 

w 
c 

O (M 
O O) 



CO 
O^ 

CD 
C\J 



< 

Q 
< 



Q. 

E 
o 
o 

-t— ' 
W 

=3 

E 

CO 

c 
o 

V- • 
CO 

-I— • 
CO 



CD 
CO 

O :t 



C 
CD 

E 

(D 



<D 

■o 

CO 

E 

(D 
CD 



CO 

c 
o 



05 
<D 
CO 



CD 

Q 
< 

CO 

> 

CO 

< 



CO 

c 

O 

'to 

CD 

CO 

CO 

< 



^ ■■«£ 



CD 

O 

_C0 

Q. 
(D 

^c o 
.2 CO -^ 

;t= M_ "D 
O — 0) 

^ o 

w «= 
(O 

Is 

CD CO ^ 

■^ .CO 
O -D< 
■^ Jrt^ 

o§2 



is 

CD -ic 
CD 



CD --^ 



05 

■I— • 
C 
CD 



CO 
CD 



O 



3 

CT 
CD 



P CD .hz 
b CO -« 

Z3 
05 
O 
CD 

<o>5 



C3^ 



CM 






■D 
(D 

i- O) CO 73 
^15 CD ^ 

'co ^ c 

c 
o 



!s 



c 
o 
o 

"D 

C 
05 

CvJ 
G) 

LO 
C\J 



c 

05 



DO 



CD 

O -Q 
O _ 

05 "D o 

CD CD O 

Egto 

CD o 



CO 

to^ 

D) CO (D 



ir. i:; CO 



■D tt -^ 



CD 



CO 



> 



> 

(D 



^ CD ^ 
3 1- -D .52 CD 








CD 














D) 














C 














(D 














CO 














CO 














CO 














Q. 














c 





















CO 








■-co 






CD 








*-• 






"D 








CO 















CD 






E 




CO 




CO 











CD 

-1— » 

c 




0) 






-J— • 






CD 





■D 










-1— » 




CD 






> 




> 




(D 


VjO 






iri 







0^ 




CO 

-1—' 









X 


10 






CO 




CD 






c 




i_ 


c 


CO 


tii 












o 


D) 


CO 


to 




Q. 




"cO" 


o 

"■4— » 


c 

CO 




CO 

c 





c 

CO 




E 

C 


c 

CD 




'^ 





CO 

c 





Tl 


V 




■h-* 


1~ 


^^ 


CD 


CO 


CO 


CD 





CO 


'4— ' 


C 
CD 


C 




to 


■1— • 


10 


CO 

c 



CO 

-4—' 

cn 


Pass 
boar 
Iran 


Majc 

End 

Stati 

















i^ 


, 




1 


1 


, 


1 







(0 












^ (/) CO _ 


(O CO CO CO CO CO 


CO CO CO CO 




CD 


1 ■ 


C m m O 


(D CD CD CD CD CD 


CD CD CD CD 


« 


2 


t5 


0>>z>>>>->-> 


>> >> 






0) 












C 












o 












■■+-• 












o 










% 


D 


9? C/) C/) C/) 


CO CO CO CO CO CO 


CO CO CO CO 




<D 


tH 


C CD CD CD 


CD CD CD CD CD CD 


CD CD CD 




z 


c 


O >^ >>>>>>>- > 


>>>>- 






o 












O 


CO 




CO 

c 








CO 
CL 


CO 
CO 


CO 
CO cz 








C 

o 

'to 

ZJ 

o 


ems 
g Are 


Sign 
inatioi 








to .^ 


ation 
Dest 

s 








5 


(^ 1 








lo 


CO .9 


;H g^ 











CO 1— 








^ O to 


ion 
ddr( 

nes 
tion, 


C :3 T-5 CO 

■StgSg 


cm' 

CVJ 






inces 
ince Si 
ssible 
scalato 


evaton 
uminat 
ubIic A 
locks 
elephoi 
Collec 


Drms 
tation 1 
tation, 
latform 
rack C 









2 £ 9>LlJLiJ = CLO|- (D^COCOQ-h- 


■ ■■1 






+->■(-' o 


1m. 


CO 


> 






ceo 


CO 


vw 


0) 






LLI LU < 


U- Q. 


> 












o 













CO 

+-• 

0) 

o 


E 

E 
o 
o 

•s o o 

CO +5 4-1 



c 
g 

to 

-I—' 
CO 

c 



o 

CO 




CD 
O 

c 
CO 

c 





-Q 

CO 
CO 



o 
o 

CO 

5^ CD 

i § 

O 

CO -M 

i; < 



ID 




o 

CO 






CO 







C 

o 




O 

c 
CO 

■4— » 

c 




n 
"co 

CO 


o 
o 
CO 



CO 


+- » 

13 

o 




o 

1— c 

o 



c 





o 



-Q 



CD <^ 
C 



.^ 'co 



CO 0) 
"•— • CI 

CO 
^ CO 

CO < 



C 

_ o 

"^ CO o 

o§t5 

O "O 

3 — "co 
O^ 



CVJ 









(0 


■I— » 









D 






O 

c 


O 






(0 









*- 


n 






c 



CO 
CO 











o 




o 


(0 


o 

CO 




5 


D) 




Q 





c 




< 


o 
u 


;^ 




-1— » 


(0 


c 




> 


o 










4-< 


P 


O 


>. 







c 


Q. 


O) 





CO 


E 


re 

c 

O) 


D) 
CO 

c 


c 



o 
o 


w 


'co 





"co 


^_ 


-9 -^ 


re 





CO 


CO 


c 
o 


■o 
■> 


CO 



CO 

c 


4^ 


O 


o 


O) 


o 


1- 


o 







CL 


COC/3 



LU 



CM 











c 




c 










CO 




CO 


lO 












C" 


CVJ 








+-' 




+-* 


4 








CD 




2 


in 


o 






o 




o 


n 






E 




E 


Q. 


3 
Q. 






o 


c 


o 

c 


c 


^ 






3 ' 


D 


' 


o 


CD 






E 00 


O 

E 


b 

00 


« 


X} <I) 






CO 


CO 




3 

o 
O 




B 




CO _ 

i K. 


c 

CO 


"O 

c 

CO 


To 

a> 

*•> 

3 
O 

a: 


^ CD 


o 




= CM 


= 


CM 


O ^ 
*- CD 

■4-' ■!-• 

O =5 




o 


w 


f^ <- 


o 

00 


> 

o 


c 


CO ^ 




0) o 


c 


To 


JD 


O 




^S 




c 


^ JD 


CO 


c 


w 


V>o 


1- 


o 


1 1 


, 


O . 


(A 

o 


^ U- Q- 


1 






1 


O 














< 


, , 


1 











to 

CVJ 

(0 

c 
o 

c> 
o 

c 
c 
o 

o 

o 



CO 
W o 

i§ 

So 

M- O 

-D O 

a^ CD 
^^ 

f E 

"cO O 

+-• it 

(D ^ 

>- 0) 

.$5 o 
o •- 

a5 ^ 

E.-9 

o o 

+5 CO 

0)C 
C CO 

"D 
CO > 
(D CO 



O 

=3 
Q. 

^ CO 

(D 
D CO 

0) c 
E o 

CD 

Ei 

CO CD O 

Eto o 

^ CD 

CO C .i= 

Q..9 "O 
P Q- =3 

050 

(D _ (/) 
H-. CD Q 

2 , ,^ 



O 

Q- 




n 

CD 
CO 

c 
E 

CD 

E 

CO (D 

o ^ 
h ^ ^ 

^ ^ C5 
^ m "^ 

CO 2? — 

^ £ "cB 
o 

05 , , 



CD 
CO 
<D 
(D 

■*-> 



a> 
■g 

CM 



3 

O 

I— 

CO 
CO 
CD 

o 
o 



(A 
O 

O 

<n 

LU 



- -SsE 

CO .-tr: CO -^ -" 

CO *- "K -^ 
C c C5) CC CO 

o I— _o ^ *" 

■^ i:r CD "9 

^ ^, !9 CO oj 
3-5 o 0-5 

O CTQ- W Q) 

^ 9? CD O W 
_ "- il > O 

1^1^ = 

ILI <^ . , 



Q. 



CO 



C = 
CO 



o ^ 

O CO 

o o 





■D 




















C 




















CO 




















O 




















■1-' 




















c 




















o"^ 









































CD > 




















i5 CD 
















"O 




D)-5 





















CD 5 
















CO 
O 




CO CO 
















o 




x: ^ 










_ 






u. 




_ o 










^ 






o 




1§ 








= 


ir> 


o 


^^ 


o 
■a 




CO ^ 








LO 


i_ 


CO 


O 


c 




ities 
alio' 








lo 


o 
o 
■a 


^ 


CO 
CD 




sz _ 








CD 




■t— » 


•D 






\— 






meter circle 
Dns - 48" X 4 


00 


n transit f; 
t panel (s) 




CO 

1 
-I— ' 


CO 



CO 


c 
o 

I— 

H— 

o 
lo 


CO 

o 
o 

o 

-4-' 

"cO 


door cent 
door offse 


CVJ 


— c 




cB 


o 


^ 


^ 






'.«5 --p. 


4^ 


CO 2? 







O 


js: ^ 


^.^ 


^ "D 2 


(A 
O 

> 


Elevato 
transpa 


H— ^ 

O 

+-» 

13 
O 


Door c 
Clear fl 

- bac 

- bac 




- 60" 

- alte 
























UJ 









1— 


O 








o 


o 








o 


ID 








-o 


CD 








o 


+- « 








H-i 










CO 


CD 




^ 




h elev 
own 


> 

O 




c 
g 




CO 




ttom 
eject 




CO 

<^ o 


o 

CM 




c E 




le signal al 
two tones 1 






-42" 

' flush 
WN" 
laximui 




03 




ns 

height 
als 

ised 01 
p, "DO 
low, m 




1 audib 
or up, 
height 

n hall ( 


•— > 


O c CO n CD 




u *<- 


- ^ 


■4— > 

c 
o 

(0 

o 


1 call butt 
mounting 
visual sig 
size %", r 
"UP" on t( 
objects b 


II lanterns 
visible an 
one tone 


mounting 
size - 2y2 
visible frc 


(0 


CO 


CO 






> 


m 1 1 1 1 1 


X 


1 1 


1 1 1 













J_ 






"O 



















c 












^ 




■f-» 

CO 


03 












o 




J) 


~ 












o 




"cB 



CO 












c 




E 


v/y 












"a5 




CO 


CO 

c 




^__ 




(— 


(— 


c 




c 


05 




i5 




o 


o 


03 




■ 


CO 




■1— » 
CO 




CO 


CO 


Q- 




^^ 


-^ 




yj J 




o ^ 


o 


i^_ 




J^ 


x: 




T5 




Q. Q. 


o 




4— • 

CO 
03 

xf 


V..5) 




CD 
CO 




- side ap 
front ap 


E 
o 

n 




indicate 
2", 5/8" h 




2 

CO 






' 


03 




CO 


03 CO 


C 


■o 




^ 
^'^ 


CO 


CO 

o 




_g 


,C0 ^ 


o 




CO 




^c^ 


1 


c 




o 


> CO JD 
-CI CD •+- 






nel 

)n front 
button 




o 




"O 


■4— • ^ 


O 


CO 


■4-* 

c 




o 

>^ 

o 

c 




CD 
CO 


■s8c 

O -C o 



■D 

b 


o 


^ "-> -^ 




CD 


in 


co"^ 


w " 


+-• 


_o 


en 


rol p 
cate 
ghes 




nerg 
lan 3 


c 
o 

3 


men 
lised 


2 


c 
'co 


O 


^ oz 




0) 




^■D £ 


m 


E 


4^ 

(0 


o 
















> 


O . , 




, 




, 


1 




, 



0) 
LJJ 







^■D 






0) 
















O 






c 
















2c 

CO CO 






CO 




















Q. 














CO 


of ch 
comp 






O 














a5 






4— • 

c 
o 














CO 
CO 


0^ ^ 






o 

(D 








b 






JZ 


M-^ 






> 




, ^ 




o 






o 


i:; >- 






o 




CO 




H— 








o 


C w 






n 

05 









O 






c 
2 


to ce 
sans 






o 




o 






^ 


-,- 




c 






o 




■D 




+1 


4 







= 






o 




o 










^-^ 






■D 
CD 









c 

-1— ' 






B 


■1— » 




1- 






c 


> 






CO 

"o 






CO 
O 



> 


J^ 


1 


o 


o 




4-* 

c 
o 


■D 

c 


g he 
, rais 




_C 

c 


O 

n 

CO 


_D)cO 


1— 

Q. 
O 


U) 

c 
> 




CO 


•^hi 




g 


c 
o 

'to 

o 

■o 


;^ 


05 


o 




(0 

lb. 

o 


CO 

\_ 

o 

to 

> 


mount 
size - 



'co 

CQ 


"co 

o 

Q 



N 

"co 


IB 


■•§ 

E 
o 




CD 
CO 




CO 


(D 






CO 








13 






> 


HI 


1 1 




o 


1 


1 


1 


< 


1 





0) 
LU 



c 
o 

(0 

o 

> 
a> 

UJ 



■a 

c 
o 
o 

w 
in 



E 



w c 
= 9 

(0 M— 



o ^ 

■*- (D 

.9 CO 

E Q. 

'■^ (D 

— O 

CO O 



o 

CO 
0) 



T3 

C 
CO 



O 



o 



CD 
O 

> 

CD 



O 

O 

"O 

C 

CD 

Q. 

O 

CD 



J2 ^ j^ O 



CD 

■g 

■> 

o 



O 00 

'to^ 



C CO 

CO t 

CO c 

O 

Q . 



c 
o 
o 

CO 

o 

W CO 
CD ^ 

o V 



O) CO 

c o 

c ' 

Q. E 

o o 



o 

CO o 



CO 

c 
E 

3 



o 
o 

LO 




■D 

c 



> 

'•4— • 

o 



•4— • 

o 

Q. 

O 

O 

Q 



3 
CO 



E 
o 



gCVJ 

o o 



■D 

c 

CO 

c 

CD 

Q. 

O 



in 

V— 

o 

CO 

c 




CO 
■D 

c 
o 

O 

CO 

o 

CM 

c 


CI. 

o 


CO 

o 
o 
-o 



o 

c 
u 

E 

E 
o 

>. <D 

CO w 



O 
-Q ^ 

E o 

CO H- 

E 
o 



g 

to 
g 

c 

E 

E 
o 
o 


O 

b 
> 





^ ?0 , :^-=: 



O 

^: 

"5 
E" 

LU , 



CO 

E 
E 




o c 

= CO 
CJ) ^ 
CM CO 



c 
o 



(0 v^ 
















?l 






n 












i5 








Z5 ^ 


c 




^^ 








o £ 






CO 












> 








05 'C 


CO 




CO 








h back 
- 3" mi 


ance 
only) 






CO 
CO 








^ o 




CO 


E 










C «« 












CO (D 


oP 


s- 











2 E 






CO 








13 


^ 


E 




CM 

4 




E <= 


C= ^ "-^ ,« 






M— 







13 - -^ 




E 


E 


CO 



■D 





o 

CO 

M— 


c o 

.CXD 
CO , 


= C ^ CO 


0) 



CO 


"D 


^ 


"D ^ 


<_ O C =5 

E 0.9? = 


(0 


-6 


■D 


O 


o 
o 


^ D)E 


Provide unifoi 
Minimize glar 
Provide suffic 
Avoid optical 


0) 


O 


Q. 


o 


o 


< 
O 

■ ■■■ 


■> 

o 

Q. 

C 



CO 

c 
o 

CO 



Q. 


C 


1 
O 

o 


Uncluttered 
Contrasting 
Mounting h 
Locate unif( 



o 



I I 







(0 



=t1: 



n 




CO 




(0 




<D 




O 




O 
< 


>_ ^ ^ 


o o c 


0) 


o o fo 


CD 


=^M= J3 


,^1^ 


V <■ <■ 


o 

1 


a> CD 


1— 


Q. Q. Q. 




■g 

■> 

o 



=fe 



■D 
O -g 



+5 

"c 

0) 

c 

CO 



CO 

c 

05 




CD 

^ CO »_ 
O ID O 

1- T- OJ 



CO 
■D 

CO 
■D 

C 

CO 
-I-' 

(D 

(D 

C 

o 



o 

CO 

o ^ 



Q. 
Q. 
CO 


■D 
'co 

in 



o 

CO 

o 



Q. 
= Q. 
00 CO 



"so 




O 



c 
g 
'co 

D 
^-. 
-J— » 

o 

Q. 

E 



CO 

!\j E 

o 
c c 

.9 (D 
CO > 

O CO 



a. CO 
n 
u 

e2 



i^ 



o 

CO 



CM 



Q- 
0) 





C 



■•— ' -Q 
O 

CO CD O C 

lifi 

D = 

^ § ■^> 
O P ^ 



= "^ X 

O 03 

CO £ 

I 

r^ o 

C CM 

-^ 


If 

O 



c 

o 
E 



c 
o 
o 



CO 



O) 

c 

CO 



o 

CO 



CO CO 

05 
■ +- • 

CO 

c 



05 



H- ^ 



m O^Q. 





^ E 

O =3 

Q- o 

> 



CO 
Q. 



O 


E 


■^ 


o 
o 



CO 


■D 


c 
o 


"co 


Ji 


C 


3 
^ 


•^ 


x: 


CO 


CO 





13 


I CL 






CO ^ 

^^ 

O O 
CQO 



(A 
0) 



Q. 
O 

0) 







^ CD 
.- Q. 



O JD 

>. C 

CO O 

^^ 

0.03 

-t— ' 

C 



0.2? 
)S C CD 

JO— £- 

=3 C O 
O OS ^ 

'%^^ 
CD — -!-• 

(D C.9 

^ 05 

^ m ^ 
CO W Q. 



c 

03 



03 





c 

O 



■D 


o ^ 
o ^ 



05 



>. CI 



03 O 
4- 03 



CO i- 

— g 

O "^ 0) 
>,05 

"^ c S 
Q-O O 

■-"■^^ 

CD 

^ 05 C 

O ^ CD 
CI -»-• "^3 

^ CD - 
O o c 

^ c o 
5 =3 ^ '■« 

— ' pv s^ CU 

9?^ So 



CD 



CD 



O > JD 
C p D 

C (D O 
^ ^ ^ 

55 CO CD 
^ 0.C 

O " 

Q-.O 

'^ ^^ 

O CO o 

+=! Q._g 

■D O ^ 

.? 1 

13 =5 CD 

^^ 



CO 



CD ~ 
= (D 



O 



05 
+-» 
CO 

c 



— CD 
CD 



CD 

> 

CO _§ 



05 



C ^ 

n^ O 

CO "tt ^ 
O CO 

Q.^ O 

— < Q 
3 3^ 

Q-jr 
x: -ti "O 

-dO"g-D 
0^—0 



2?m 



O i- 





(D 

C 

o 

Q. 
<D 

CD 


g enough 

portable 
f and 
ndset flus 




ist be 
' phones 




O 


! Ion 
liver 
te a 
shel 


03 
(D 




^ CO 




+-' 


OJ 0^ CO ^^ 


o 




• O 




C 


n O-n (D 


^ 




CD ~ 




<D 
O 

CO 

TD 
CO 


d shall 
ne to re 
commo( 
a 6" wid 


O 




availabi 
as pub 




O 

c 


- S- O CO 


CO 





CD CO 

CO E 




00 in 

CM -t-^ 


-a^ ■!='ii 


n 




F--P 


■4-* 

^MB 


c« m 


ler use 

text te 

signed 

t shall 

Shall 




an be i 
same 


c 
o 


05 iti 


c coup 
ct from 
one de 
(hone, i 


4-^ 




O D) 


T3 cB 
03 >^ 




■t-> 
13 




units 
durin 
able. 


(0 


^^ 


O 




c 
o 

Q. 

o 


telephone 
permane 


enclosun 
if acousti 
to conne 
if pay ph 
text telec 


"co 

O 

■*-• 

o 

(D 
(D 


s— ■ 
CD 

CO 

c 

O 


portable 
available 
are avail; 


^ 










+^ 


-1— ' 1 


1 1 






1 


X 


X 










0) 













H 


f- 

















^. ^ 




r" 




^^ 




O) 




^ r^ 




x: 




CO ^ r^ 




e route 
be 36" 




les 

reach r 
from 2" 
atically 

s from 




n w 




2?-o CD E -g 


oT 


CO F 
l: <D ^ 

CD o i- 
■•=' O CD 




lO deg 
andar 
surfac 
3 auto 

secor 


CM 


§«i 




en TX +s CO fy^ 
^ ''^ CO CO ^ " 




o c 5 




en a 
'ithin 

lUOU 

oper 
e5l 
me - 


(0 


o coo 




(0 


C ^ 




0) 

< 

O) 

c 

■■g 


old over th 

must be o 

on of sales 




h when op 
: shall be w 
looth contii 
Dr or must 
3h/pull fore 
e closing ti 
from latch 


o 
o 

z 

0) 


media is s 
es counter 
" long secti 


3ates 

" clear widt 
in/card slot 
all have snr 
ove the flo( 
aximum pu! 
nimum gat 
igrees to 3" 


o 

o 


CD CO CD 

^ coco 


CD 

v— 


'CM o jz n c'E ^ 

CO O CO CO C C T3 




M— 


CO 




a> 


^ 1 1 


u_ 


III II 


^^ 








(0 








Li. 


, 


1 





c 
o 

Q 
0) 



O) 



0) 

o 



c 
o 

o 
o 

o 

0) 

c5 



CD 



CO 
CO 
CD 

o 
o 

05 



O 
(D 

CD 

n 

CO 

13 

E 
o 

"D 
C 
CD 
> 

CD 

^_ 

-Q 
"co 

CO 
CD 
O 
O 
05 

CD 

c 
O 



c 

E 
"co 

""D 
05 

■D 

C 
05 

C 
CD O 



13 
O 

'co 

CO 


o 
o 

05 

c 

05 

c 
o 

CD 
O 

c 

05 



CD 



O 
0) 

O 
O 

c 



CD 
> 

cB 

4— 

o 



00 _ 

o ^ 

r o 



CO >: s- 

_X CO CO 

Q) ^ CO 

CO CO , , 

"DO. ' 

§ o 2 



CD 

■D 

CO 

E 

c ^ 

"a. = 

CO CO 

CO ^ 
^ CD CO 

W 2 

:c o CO 

CO a)**- ^ 

CO o <i^ 

o ^ n d 

+i; CD ■<-• O 

05 o ^- 
■o ^ ° "^ 

^ 0^ C ^ 
^ -K •— 5 
- 2 -C o 



^ 0"^ 



■43 CO 



o 



CO 

E 
o 

■»— • 

13 

< 



c: (D c\5 

CD -n CD 
CO 

CO I I 



^ O Q. - 
O ^ 



CO 

-t— ' 

c 

(D 

E 

05 

a. 



c 
o 

CO 

> 



CO 

c 
o 

CO 






n 
"co 

CO 


o 
o 

05 

















CO 




c 












E 




o 
5 




CO 




t list 
'ith 




be 

latfoi 
sign 
ign 




D 




c 




CO ^ 




= C3.4- CO 




Ql 




o 

■■4-i 




:£>, 




he blind sha 
ch platform, 
ation on all 
r to center o 
within 3" of 




"co 

(D 

c 

0) 




CO 

to 




3 platform 
hall comp 








H= 


(O 


^ CO 




■^ S >< o o 




CO 




o 


m 


■'-' .^ 




s- CD O O +=i 




2 




2 


i 


c^ 




sign fo 
ion on 
niform 1 
from fl( 
proach 




CO 
(D 

E 




CD 

c 


(0 

E 


ted 
inatio 






CO 
CO 

E 
o 




o 
o 

Q. 


1 

(0 
Q. 


IS loca 
d desti 




fication 
m locat 
tion - ui 
ht - 60" 
ce - api 




«^— 




CO 


,^^ 


^ F 






"co 


CO 


o 

E 


(0 
(0 

c 


on sig 
utes ai 




1 identi 
unifor 
g loca 
g heig 
or spa 


CM 
4;^ 


■D 


c o 


0) 


CO o 




^ CO C C o 

O .^ H-. V" M— 




C 


-t-" 


CO 


c 


(D _ 




■^ CO c c . 


(0 

E 


CO 

■a 

CO 


CO 

-(— " 

CO 
CD 

c 


Q. 
O 


.2 

(0 

c 



aract 
tions 




e sta 

ced 

mou 

mou 

deal 


o 

(0 


o 

CO 


^ 


^ CO Q C CO 

O ■co<0 Q. . . . 


Q. 


, 




, 


Q 


1 




, 

















CM 




O 


















o ^ 






















O 




16 






















'i— 

CD 


















D) 05 






















"CD 'O 




CO 

E 


















-^ C 




















O 




CD 






>« 












G) +-* 




n 






n 












^O D) 




B 






■D 












E ' = = 

»- »- in - 




o 






t) 












of platfo 

diamete 

ing - 2.3! 

platform 




CD 






<D 

-1— • 

O 

Q. 

CD 






CD 
O 


CN 
4^ 






"D 

o 

CO 






"co 






•2 

CO 


CD 

1 

=3 
CO 

D) 




ingth 
mes, 
spac 
with 




Q. 
2 




fvT 


(O 
CO 

E 




c 

CD 


"c 

CO 




[long le 
ited do 
center 
ontrast 


ght 

e integ 




CO 


i 

Q- 


"05 


0) 

b 

CO 

E 


CD 
ID 


"c 

I— 
CO 


CD 


OUS a 
runca 
er-to-i 

lUSt o 


c 
o 


J2 

-t-' 
CO 

13 




O) 






CO 


<D "D 


=i^ E E 


^ 


E 




■o 


15 
> 

CD 


"D 


b 


O 


n 


> 


•-"^ ^ - 


CO 


^-. 


^^ 


lU 




1 


CD 


CO 


^ S^ " o 


"D 


o 


c 


E 
o 




3 


(D 


o 


^ 


O CO o 




o 


"05 


sz 


U) Q--0 


OJCVJ 
CD 




o 


Q. 


S: 


X 


1 


1 


, 


Q 


1 


1 1 1 




1 




(0 






















0. 


1 








1 













Detectable Warnings 



® — @ 



(B 



-^ — ^ 



- i - ( 






® 



@ — © 



® 



I 

:.35" 



2.35" 




0.9"Dia. 



VARIES 



PLAN 



2.35' 



2.35" 



/ ! \ 



/ 



{ V 1 



\ 



/ 



/ 



VARIES 



xzzTo- 



SECTION 





CO 

CO 
■D 

CO 
■D 

C 

CO 
■*-• 
CO 

<D 



o 



O 



CO 



Q. 
O 



CO 

3 



C 
CO 



0) 

O) > 

(D 



(D 
O 
CO 

^ 3 
O CO 
(0 



CM 

E 

CO "I 
Ei 



. o o 

CO (/) CO 
CD aJ 
D) CD 



'co 



,T — g^ CD CD 



CO C -^ 
CO 

CD , . 



CO 

o 

CO 



E 
o 

CO 



Trt O 



O) 

c 
"c 

Ik-. 
CO 

-Q 

05 
+- » 

o 

(D 

+- • 





-t=: n c 



CO 

CL ^ 
CD 
C/) . 



. CD 
C/) "D 



CO ^ 
ir CO 



^— » 

CD 
CD 

E 

CO 
Q- 

E 

05 



O 

CD 
CO 

13 

CO 

|£ 

o o- 

«_ CD 



o 

^^ 

zco 

U^LLJ 
ZUJO 

QJ < 

o 
o 
< 



■> 

> 
O 



c 

D) 
CO 
0) 

o 

DC 

T3 

C 
CO 

c 
g 

"to 

_c 

V- ' 
CO 
CD 

Q 


<D O 



CO 
CO 

< 

c 

CO 

CO 
■D 



CO 
CD 



f- D) 
co".g 

(7) -I 



(0 

c 

O) 

(7) 

o 

3 

o 
oc 

■o 
c 

(0 

c 
o 

c 

■ ■IB 

CO 


O 

Q) 
O 



in 

CO 

I 

g 
'to 



CD 



c 
g 

o 

Q. 

o 

Q. 

S 0) 
CO CO o 

■5>E ^ 
^ = o 

CD 



Q. 

3 



o g^ 
1- '0 



o ^ 

■^ CO 
LO -1- 



o •: 

-I— » ^^ 



O c/) 

*- o 

+i CO 

g)^ 

■(Do 

• c 

Pa; 

CD CD 

O CO 
»- Q. 
toC/D 



CO 
T5 

C 

Ocvj 

x: c 
■E'E 

c • 
CO CD 

co'C-C 

g^ CD 

800 







LO 
CO 



CD 

Q. 

Q. 

13 



CC 



O 
O 

■a 



o 
to 



c 






JC 


o 






D) 








'(D 


v> 






1 


c 






o 


O) 






-1^ 


J) 






-f-' 









■D 


3 






> 


o 






' 


tr 






C 

o 


C 
(0 

c 


c 




o 

Ql 

o 


o 

■ ■■■ 


(0 




Q. 


4-^ 


T3 




(0 

c 


■a 









0) 


CO 


■5 


(0 


O) 


C 


CO 



Q 


c 


E 


CO 


T3 


_D 


^ 


a> 




= 


O 


o 


o 







o cp 

^ "CD 



^ O 

LO 



CD 



CC 

C 

o 



O CO 

"toS 
*- o 

•^ CO 
■0O 

o £ 

5 ^ CO 
.y CD 

CD0-^ 
O CO CO 
CO CO O 



ii 

C ' 

^ g> 

CO 

-o sz 
^ 

CO ■« 
C CO 

o ^ 

oo 







tn 

O 
O 
O 



Q. 
O 



CO 

in 



tgco ^ 
BCDtr 

4i CO 

= _. 
s— T3 

C 

CO 



ECM 
O C\J 

CD CO ^ 

c -^ ^ 
S5 flS 0) 

- Sc\i 
o o^ 

■g CO CO 

CO 
CO CO 

x: 3 D 
05 CD CO 
> 
O . . 





c 














CD 














Q. 














O 














^_ 














O 














o 














■D 














C 

























CO 




H 










E 




^ 










o 




E CO 








CO 



1 




o ' 




CO 




O 

05 Cl 

t: ■ - 0) 






of pla 
hout li 




(A 
0) 




=^ -Izi +-^ 
^ CO CO 


Q- 

E 




SZ .ti 




(0 




"v^ CO ^ 


05 




ed - widt 
ad bus w 


CM 

c 

CO 

-I-' 


< 

c 

(0 
0) 


CO 
CD 
O 
05 

3 


s, all wall 
band loc 
- full wid 


CO 
0) 

7-J 


c 
o 


ar width 
If lift-equipp 
Over-the-ro< 


(O 
CO 

> 



C 


o 

(A 


CO 

-1—' 

c 

-1— • 
CO 

"co 

1 

o 


steps, aisle 
lor contrast 
step edges 
thresholds 
boarding e< 


(0 


CD 




(0 


^•A. 


o 




o 


O . . 




4^ 


CO 


. o . 


1 1 


o 












Q 


, 




0) 


1 


1 







(/) 








D 








-Q 


^,_,^ 






E 


CO 
CD 






o 


E 








-h-* 






>^ 


^_„ 






05 


"c5 






% 


-f-i« 






05 


^ 










CO 




CD 


CO 


CD 




CO __ 


CD 


■D 




CD P 


c 

CO 




"D 


05 


o 




C 
05 


o 


-1^ 

o 




O 


t> 


B 




o 


•B 


CM 




o 


CM 


1 




T- 


' 


E 


CO 


, 


_co 


^— 


> 


t 




o 


^ 05 


CD 


"a5^ 


i ^ 


"O 


^ 


i5 




"co 


Q. Q- 


o 

O) o 




B 


4ii 


C -D 


O 


{/) 


' — 



O) 



< . 



o 

LL 

I- 

15 





LL. 
< 


CD 




o 


J 




m 


LU 


CM 

■ 


ZUJ 


in u 


«J 


t 


LU 

1- 


1 
lU 

-1 


^ 


UJO 




CQ 


I 



LU LU 



6^ 

LU Q 

el 

(/) 
(/) 

LU 

O 
O 
< 



C 
0) 

E 

3 
O" 
d) 
QC 

c 
Q 



a5 



=g CD 

Q. ,^ 

o) 9 

I c 

> 

> 
O 



o 

1 



C 

CO 

O 

CQ 



O 

CD 

o ^ 
'to o 

11 

.5^ =3 O 
C/)Q-0 



(0 

a> 

■■■■ 

(0 
CQ 

(5 
O 



a> 
a> 



OQ 



■D 
CD 
CO 

=3 

CO 
D) 

c 
"■p 

CO 
O 

> 

(D 



O 

1 

Q- 

SZ 

0) 
0) 



o 



CO 
CD 

■4— • 

05 



CO 



O 

Q. 
CD 



C 
O 



^ CO 
(D ^ 



CD c 

0) CD 
-a 2? 



■=k <D 



Q. 



n Q.O 



CD 



o 

(0 

c 



0) 




B 




C CO 




_c 




O CO 




■o 




ayed 
door 




c 

CO 






displ 
SS all 




■t-> 

E 
E 




>,<D 




o 




■^-E 




o 




5 => 




c 




'co CO 




o 




acces 
e door 




E 
o 
o 

^— 




on 




CO 
0) 




— CO 








O CO 




CD 








JD 






'co 

CO 








CD 


CO 


"co "^ 


, 


O 

o 


o 


o o 


CD 


CO 


O 

■o 


CO o 


'co 

CO 


O 


CO 


Inten 
exter 


acce 
Sign 


o 
2 



2 I 



2z 



< -z 



= ? 



2 
< 



C/5 i. 



< 2 



2i 

2 C 
< ~ 
5^ 









"" 


== 
























































n 


3 






















































3 


2 


























— 


s 
















































































































^ 


























> 
































• 






















— 






















































•; 


,= 






^ 


^ 


< 








^ 


< 






"5 


■= 






i 


^ 


- 








i 


- 






^ 


^ 






? 


r 


~ 








~ 


~ 














^ 


7 










7 




























































































~ 


_ 






d. 


C. 


^ 








C- 


2i 






> 


z 






,c 


,c 


^ 








>^ 


Q 


































~ 


:i 






?, 


.?, 


— 








i7^. 


— 


































; 


- 




— 


< 


< 


< 






^ 


< 


< 
























£ 






1 


















































E 










^ 


_ 


^ 


x; 


~ 


~ 


-^ 




= 


X 


£ 


— 






= y 


< 


7 


;i^ 


s 


E 


^ 




-c 


:2 


£ 


>; 






: i 




























^ 


"1^ 


- 


2^ 


i7^ 


^ 




7 


^^ 


^, 


5 






> 


^ 


- 


= 


E 


~ 




3£ 


- 


= 


~ 






? y 






— 


(^j 


r I 


— 




U-, 


— 


"' 


^ 






-■ ^ 












^ 
















































< 










< 




s 


2 Z 


z 
< 




- 














a: 














































^•2 




































- ^ 




< 


- , ^ 


__, 




"5 






^ ^ 
















- n 


























— 




— 




i 






— — 










— ^ 




z 


■z - 

> — 


< 




~ 






= <, 










= < 


















■X. — 










■X. — 


















V. — 










•X. — 


























X 


< 


= j 


r 




■f 






— rz 










— fr ' 


£ 


r — 


z 




7 






>■ ^ 










>- ^ 






















































~ 


_ r 


< 




2. 






< z 










< z 


! 


? Z 
i - 


< 




li 






^ s 










5 2 




- 


:^ J 


-^ 




= 


= 


L ^ 




-^ 


-;^ 


= 


~ a; 




- 


z 


E 


= ^ 


z 


E 






E 


E 


E 


— C 
































z 


= 1 


■N^ 


>y-. 


^" e 


^ 


2 


- i- 




1/-, 


ir. 


s 


^ r 


































7 "- 


^ 










■y^ — 










■X. — 




























































1 

> 


:2 


— 


-^ 


-^ t 


^ 


^ 


^ Z 

> 5 




' 


-^ 


-^ 


^ Z 


























_ 






>, 




>^ 












— ^2 
































~ 


;; 






u: 




;^ 


< - 










< — 




z 


~ 






-^ 




^^ ^^ 


z :s: 










z ^ 




r^ 






^^ 






2o 






ip 


c^ 






< 


< 




J 


7 £ 


J 


■^ .2 


P 




•J 


;§ 


7 


< S 




z 


"~ 




z 


— J^ 


Z 


— vi 




Z 


u. 


■-L! 


ai ^ 




^ 














2- 2 










s:2 


























5 


z 










-p 


o ^ 
O f- 








■p 


52 






> 








5 


£ 


^^ 




J 


* 


1 


^^ 








Z 


Z 


c^ 


IX 


~ a. 




z 


Z 


C^ 










































•^ 


















< CI 




^ 


-T 




2, 3 




c» 






0^ X 






< z 




— 


^1 




i~) 


O) 




— 






•^ ^4 


































< ^ 


























































" 


"" 




~ 







~ 













_ 














































^ 


-3 








^ ^ 




-J 


-3 


-3 


-3 


"3 




















































r^. 


,^ 
















Z ■/: 




^ 


C-; 


3^' 


O^ 


^^ 




— 


— 


— 


— 






> 




■X. 


X 


X 


■X. 


^ 




■^ 


X 


X 


X 


















<-^ 




rn 


r^. 


















_ 


^ 






















H 


■^ 


'- 


^ 


















2 




ai 


2i 


a: 


ai 


ai 




~E 


"E 


"E 


"E 






,_ 




^ 


>- 


^ 


w 


- 




ai 


oi 


ai 


^ 


































y. 




2 


2 


= 


E 


E 




>- 


>-~ 


>-~ 


^ 










































E 


£ 




















































£ 




c 






















5 




z 




z 




c 


c 


c 


— 




1 






^ 


"^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 










~ 









E 
o 




CO CD 


(0 




i^^ 


Q. 




ehic 
e roi 


c 




> c 


^ 




= o 

2 c 


1_ 




(0 

o 




P2 


OQ 




Q.-^ 


XI 




CO 


4-^ 


:p 


^ o 


^ 




Se 


o 


(A 


"D O) 


o 


E 


C 


u. 


(D 


- > 






3 CO 


0) 


"5) 





o 

■ ■■■ 


(0 


ii- CO 






s_ C 


(D 


c 
o 


o 


> 


+3 
CO 


CO CO 
^ to 


o 


E 


Q. ^ 
CO .c 


c 


^n 




o 


o 

c 


irnal 
rate 


re 

c 


o 


0^ 


■ ■■■ 


s 


LJJ o 


o 


3 




o 


Q. 


1 


O 



CC 






o 






u. 






HlU 






^o 






Q. ^ 






,^^ 


ri 




Olu 


2. 




z> 






Q>- 






CCtL 


c 
o 

E 

0) 

"5 
o- 




5-3 

:en boa 

TEP ENT 


o 
o 


\-^(/> 


CC 


Q 


3Q]lij 


c 

O) 


CD 


dQq 


(0 


F w 


0) 


CD -o 


ROUTE 
E VEHI 


Q 
o 

o 


of Pass 
'hreshol 


..1^ 


CL 


^1- 


y^- 


(/) 


"6^ 


SSIB 
AND 


1 


nage 
ar Wi 
ps ar 
hting 


LU 


> 


O) o) 


o 





C/)0 CO_l 


o 


> 




< 


o 





CO 






CD CD 05 
woe 

en CO O 
CO ^ 

^ ^ O 

^ CO ^ 
CO 






-9 
"co 

CO 
CD 
O 
O 
05 



o 


O 




O 


o-o 


n 

E 


CD 

n 


CO 


'co 




CO 


IB 

c 
o 


CD 

o 
o 

CO 



CO 

o 

O 

■o 



CO = 
C CO 



(D 



O O 



O O) 



CO 



S? ^ c/) 



E 
o 

jO 
Q. 
O 



(0 

o 

CD 

>• 

<0 

o 
o 

Q 

o> 

c 
o 

(0 
0) 
(0 
0. 



re 

(I) o 



CO 



CM 
CO = 

^ CO 

CO . 

o ^ 

H— CO 

o o 

0) 'fe 



I 'TZ 



-o ^ 

CO <D 

9 o"w 

C CO jz 
<D o 

> c 

c o 

CO o 



(D 



CO 
CD 

c 
o 

o 
o 
■o 



CO g 

O O CD 

O I C 

■D _ O 

= "cO ' 

CO ^ — 

' q5 55 



0)0^ 

ZiO ^ 



o 

0) 



O 



■D 

C 
CO 



O) 
■D 


Q. 



-t— ' 

CO 

o 

sz 
■g 



;:^ 


O 


^ 


o 


uS, 


o 


(0 


O) 


W 


_c 


o 


V- • 




CO 


(0 


CO 


0) 


M_. -t^ 




c c 


^ 


CO O 


1- 


to ^-D 




• i^^ ^^^ ^_^ 


X3 


Woo 


C 


^ 


(0 


"- "D (0 




Q. C 


Q. 


COCO £ 



0) 
0) 



Q. 









■f-; 


c 


CO 


C CD 

o o 


E 

g 
o 


platf 
or is 
imes 


UJC 


E^lo 


>i= 

_ > 


CO c +^ 
>- CO 


m 36' 
ow le 
lift or 
ly wh 
idles 


^? 


Q. O CO 


^ -^ 


. P 


iO ^ 


n sti 
river 
foot- 


c o 


o T3 1: 


oz 


CO o , 


ndle 

W V€ 


-^ ' 


=dV: ^ 


C o 


CO o 


CO c o 


^ Va5 


9 --o 


5 "S-Q 


foot 
if doo 
other 


= ^ o 


^ 


= 0_ii- . . 



O) 



ot 

u I 

55 

0- (/) 

^Olu 

Q <0 

<QILI 
O 3 Q 

■ ^ ^ z 

lA LU ^ Mj 

^ .0 
hJm.ii! 



LU 



0^9 



LU 



LU 



CD LU 

^^ 
LU O 

< 



2 't: 
~ CO 



o 

> 

> 
O 



CD 

Q_ 


•g 

i_ o 

o> 

£^ 
t CD CD 



CO 



o o 



^ O 



i2 CD CD 
O. > C/) 



















c 


















o 


















t) 


















0^ 




































Q 








s_ 










D) 








CD 










c 








o 






Q. 

E 




CO 
O 








C 






CO 




ca 








o 






DC 




:;:^ 








■•^ 






CD 


c 
o 


c 

CD m 


CO 

i 
i2 


■D 
CO 

o 




cy Ope 

Barriers 

Surface 

Gaps 

Entranc 

Deflecti 

Movem 

tandee; 

1 




_l 

c 


JO 


C (J) ^^ 

0) E E E E E E ^-^ 




o 


D) »- 


1- 


1- 


L 


1- 


»— ?-> i— 


E 


O) 


1 ■ 


^^ o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


O -Q -n 


CO 


c 


a;^^^t=^"t= fi^ c 


o 


(D 


o 


Ei5 


ro 


ro 


ro 


ro 


ro (0 CO 


S: 


QOLUQ-CLCLCLCLCL3X 


CO 


















Q. 


1 


1 


1 1 


, 


1 


, 


, 


1 1 1 



■a 
m 
o 



O) 
Q 



c 
o 

TJ 

CO 
CO 

>< 



o 

CO 

>. 

0) 

"cO 
CO 

CO CO 

n -c 

— CO 
O Q. 

O ,^ 

-D C 
CO > 
O O 

c£ 
■^^^ 

^|C0 






O 
CO 

H — 

CD 

CO O) 

I c 

CO 2? 

C CO CO 
(Dec 
^ O ^ 
CO -^ (D 
CO -ti 

^ c 3 

c'^ c 

CD O O 

C ' CD 

.b ^ CO 

±i O CO 

=3 Z ^ 



CO 



CO it 



o 



o 

o 



(D 
CO 

3 




ous 
lift 




c 

CD 


n 




=5 C 
C CD 




SI 


kes, 
ans, 
is ir 










2^0) 




o o 




a5 


-°c.9 




CO .9 
CD x: 




o 


CD O ^ 




.^ OJ 




o'co 9> 




13 > 




i_ 


vehii 
ismis; 
hen \ 




- req 
nt of 




o 

c 


^^^ 




CO 




"co 


>-^ 




o E 

^ 0) 




'cO 


"D --^ CD 




c > 




CO 


^ <2 E 




^ ? 




^ 


-^, CO >, 




<^ E 




O 


8" o 

-^ = C2. 




^ 

Q.O 




«■§ 


CD CO CD 




to 




D)0 


shall be in 
n system 
D prevent > 




^? 




'o m 




[ry cont 
by ope 




sequen 
/ throuj 


,« O H=- 


c 


(omenta 
ressure 


"D 


— 


w-m ^ 


o 


CD 


CD 05 


ontro 
ropuh 
r doo 


Q 


epIoy 
evers 
; parti 


O Q.O 


o 


^ Q.-DCC.52 













___ 




■Q 










CD 






lo 




03 






"T 




C 






x: 










4 


CO 


T3 






CO 




.^ 




,_ 


0) 

3 


c 

CO 













n 
o 




o 

CO 


(0 

1 1 


Q. 

3 
O 


O 
U CD 







> 




E 




CO 


L^ 


O 

o 


CD C5) 
.i= CO 






■o 




o 




E 


c 




^1 






c 




^- 




b 


0> 


^— J 






o 




"co 




^ 


E 

a 




CO .-1=: 








n 




o 





CO 
Q. 


3 


£g 






CO 









C 


O" 








"D 




e| 







UJ 


D) 


■■= 






c 






x: 


o 

1 


c 

'>» 
o 

Q. 
CD 

-5 


^ 1=: 

If 

to CO 
O CO 


T3 


■q. 

O 







to 

-I-' 

E 


03 


II 

CD 


-^ 


"co 
O 

to T3 


o 
o 

Q. 

O 


■D 
O 

sz 

E 
o 


-D -D 
O O 

SI SI 



E E 

>. >> 

o o 


O 

o 

c 



E 


IT) 

4 

(0 

a> 

■■■■ 

(5 

CD 

E 
o 


±3 CO 

coxi 

s- CD 

o -^ 

= 


D) > 
-O 

02 



> 

o 

a 

c 

■■g 


o o 


o 

c 




c 


CD 

E 


^^0 

■=j 


o 

Q. 

' 1 


CO 

j:= 
o 

CO 





o 


E 

o 

^— 

s— 


to 9? 

13 O 

E E 


O 


LU 


9^ LU LU 


O 


*: 


LU ^ — 1 1 




1 


E 








(0 












LU 


, 


, , 




Q. 


1 




1 







0) 

u 

(0 



CO 

E 
o 

w 

Q. 



0) 

o 

CO 
CO 



o 

CO 



C3) +-. 
^ CO 

CO 
*- C\J 

> ' 

O ^ 

-I— » 

CO "O 

o > 

^w -»— » CI -— - 

t- P CO o 



Q. W p 

4- 'CO ^ 

O CD c 
(D X-- 

LL O) ^ 



0) 

Q. 
O 

(D 

> 

C 

UJ 

•a 
< 



o 




> 

o 
n 

CO 

b 

CO 

c 

CO 
CM 

c 




-I— » 



b 

CO 



■g 
>0 

55 CO 
_0 t 

CO 




> 

O 

CO 

b 

CO 
■D 

c 
CO 

c 





^ 

-I—' 


n 

00 



C 


— 

CO CO 
t 

O =5 
CO 

.si 



(0 

Q. 
(0 

O 



o 

(0 



CO 

CO 
CD 



CO 

n 

-a 

c 

CO 

CD 
O 

CO 

3 
CO 



O 



c 

CD 
<D 

n 

CO 
Q. 
CO 

O 



0) 

■D 
CD 



O 

1 

Q. 
CO 



■D 

C 
CO 

si 

si 



CD 

> 

C 





E 
E 



CD 

CL 
05 

CD 



c 
o 

N 



CO 

^— 

^_ 
CO 
jQ 

CD 
D) 

■o 

CD 

gi 

CO >S 

D CD O 
CI (D C 

« CO "^ 

00 9- X 

"^ Cu 

— O) 

CO "D -p 

"D > 

> C ^ 

CO 



CO 





rise 
rour 

ope 




mum 
and g 

1:2 si 




fT 




i 


E O C CD 




^ ^ 0) O) 


a. 


O iO £ "D 


E 


::; ^to ^ 


(0 


«> C 00) 


DC 


1- CD += > 


8 


CD i O^ 


C 


O CD 1 ' 


(0 

c 


CO i3 = -CM 


E 
o 


laxim 

ransit 

0"t 



Q. 



CO 



4 

c 
o 

o 
Q 



o 

(0 



i$ 



"I 

CO 
o o 

^■■§ 

CD 
O 

CO 

B CO 

CO CO 

o ^ 

— CO 
O 0^ 

cr 

g c\J 

"O c 

o 



E .— 2: 



E 
E 



CO 

CD 



^ 






O 



(0 

o 

CQ 



c 

(0 



o 

E 

> 
O 



E 
o 

4-< 

TO 
Q. 



T3 O) 

8 1 

o > 

O 



CO 



CO 



5 ? 



CD .b 

o Q. 
O (D 

o -o 

C C 
CD CD 

■D T3 


Q. Q. 
CO CO 



E 
E 



T3 
E ^ 



E 
J ^ ?J 



CO 
D) 

c 
o 

CO 



CO 
O 

n 

■(— ' 

^? 

C CO 

2 CO 
CD O 
0-g 

8 ■ 

_ c 

05 O 
O += 

CD ^ "D 
D C C 



E 'tJ 

_ O (D 
^ CQ JD 



^ 



CO 
0) 





CO 






c 




^ 






o 




-^ 






CO 




CO 
0) 






E 




c 

05 
O 






O »^ CO 








c -^^.2 
£ "^ ^^'S 




P- 








-1— • 










CO 






■i. 0-^90 




c 






O = 1- 




o 

CO 
Q. 






on both sides of 

length - 8" 
30" to 38" 
- 1 00 lb point for 
ction - 1 yv to 1 V2 
eased, minimum 
clearance - ^V2" 


CD 

t 

o 
o> 

■D 


CO 

T3 

O 

E 

E 
o 




f 


C 
(0 

0) 

n 
o 


o 
o 

CO 
"cO 


CO 
CD 

O 

•t-> 

b 


C 


Required 
Minimum 
Height - ; 
Strength 
Cross se 
Edges - 1 
Knuckle 


(0 






(0 

X 


II 



(0 

Q. 

O 
O) 



OQ 

:u 
O 

(0 

Q. 

E 

(0 

cc 

o 

■ iHHI 

x: 









c 












g 












'■+- • 






"D 






o 






CO 






(D 






3 




■D 


-1— • 
O 






C 


0) 

o 

CO 


O 
CO 


CL 
CD 


0) 


E 
o 


'(D 


t 





U) 


Q. 
O 


• CO 


CD 


3 


^ 


■D 


ti 


Q CO 


H 


Ljj(y)< 






w 


D)CO 


CO 


i— 


^ 

2 


C 
CO 


CO 


X 













■c 




CO CO 








o 




^ CD 








Q. 




O CO 








Q. 




S-c 








CO 




g-co 




CO 




To 




^'' Q) 









r" 




= > 




■K 




c/) 




05 O 




CO 












E 




C3) 




(/) p 






C 




g5^ 






to 




o 




G)JD 

c -c 




E 




b 

CO 




oto 




■¥-» 










13 




c 




■D "^ 








05 




c 




C 




x: 




§p 




O 




-•— » 




30" 
ntro 




CD 
CO 




CO 

-92 




CD 




05 




CO 






-t-' 4-> 








■4—' 




CO CO 




0) 




05 








CD 




^■Bi— 




Q--D 






Q. 















o 




O 






t 


~ Q- 




V. 




;z TJ 


LO, 


-Q-D 




o 




JD CO 

o 


TJ 


^ 03 




o 




i— ±1 


(0 
O 


O o 


CD 


CO 


sz 


O^i 


c/) ^ 


CM 




-•— » 


CO — 


c 


Q-:9 

Eo 


X 




U) 


05 o CD 


1 05 


^.^ 


CD ^^ 


'55 


DC CO C\J C/D 


w 


CC 05 


<D 












O 


, 




1 




1 









(0 








•D 








CO 








>» 








.-ti 
















o 








E 








"0 

























f 








rt 






sz 


•D 






.^ 


C 
CO 






sz 








- 









^ 









T-^ 


_ SZ 








> 








o 


ScD 






CO 


■o -s 






c 


•:^ CO 






g 


^■D 






CO 


^ o 








CO E 




-1— » 

c 

05 

-«— » 


CO o 


- 1 


4 


CO 

"co 

CD 


O Q- 

C O 


inimum 
ust ace 


o 


1— 
Q. 


n 




cTdoui^:^ 


3 








(/) 


1 


, , 


1 1 



CO 

E 



2 
o 

o 



VL/ 





_o 


Q. 


c 


O 


> 


CO 


o 


C\J 


-»-• 


1^ 


Q. 


C 


E 


o 


2 


(D 




O) 


TJ 


■D 


C 


(D 


CO 




Q. 

E 


> 

(D 


CO 


JD 



O CD 

■^ O) 

^-' "D 

^= ^ 

CU v^ 

^ O <^ 
O CL CD 

id ^ > 
c "cO ^ 

o o - 

■•E "C O 

CO CD "^ 
2 CD^ 

I— ^ ^ 





CO 




CD 




C5) 




-o 




CD 




^ 




■f-" 




O 




n 




c 




o 




1- 


:p 





4 


"v— 


1 

ID 


1- 




CO 


C 


JD 


o 


- 


■ ■■■ 


CN 


o 

0) 


E 


o 


3 
E 


a 


"c 





!^ 


■a 




UJ 


1 













CD 




i_ 


"D 












c 




o 


C 












■D 







CO 












CO 




O 


Q. 












O 




'jz 


E 












n 







CO 












w— 




> 


1- 




(D 








o 




o 


■o 




Q. 
O 








Q. 




-1— • 

■a 


c 

CO 




CO 


















c ^ CD 00 


CM 


O ' o 




sz 
9 


o 




Maximui 
1 


-^ 


■^ 


■^ 


2 CO m 




B 













It: 

6" curb 
city rail c 
passeng 




CO 


n 
"co 


> 

c 




1 












Cd"o ^ 




CO 


Xi 












mo — LO 




CO 



g-fe 




hide Floor 

3" 

6" 
i9" 


CM 


or measun 
buses - 1( 
mmuter & 
to floor at 


^ 


CO 
Q. 




orm 

imum horizontal g 

orm and ramp - 5 




(D O 
> r 


o 


o 


O 


ht of flO' 
ans and 
ight, Co 
latform 


4 


T5 


C\J 


^ b CO CD 

sz 


hi 


c 

E 
u 

(0 


CO 

CO 
Q. 




CD 
■(D 

X 








■0 


(^ CO CO CO 


o 












ti 






0) 










1 


< 


■ 


■ 



0> 
O) 

o 



Q. 

E 

CO 

■D 


O 

■4— • 

CO 



E 




CD _ 




■K T3 




J« (D 




AOjd 




i^ 




3 _ 




sec 
shal 




^- 




o <{? 









■*-• ■*-> 




C CO 




0Q. 


LO 


B 

Q..P 




E^ 

,9 - 


"(5 


O o 





CO 
CO 

O 
O 



c 

CO 
O 

n 
o 

D) 

13 
O 



CO 

O = 
Z5 00 
C CO 



5 0-Q;£ 
2? 5 jz i= 



^ c: CO 
O Q- 



CO 



c 
.9 

'■+- ' 
CO 

E 
o >_ 

-a "D 

^ P CO 

o S •- 

C CO = 

0"-5$o 

O = T- 

>2 E 

^ T^ ^ 
.e2 E 
o= c 

O 1— ^ 



§ -^ o o 0^ 

O = Zl ^ CO 

"O ^ O O CO 

j_: CO x: 

I— tJ ?k ■•-• CO 






CO o 



(0 

X 



9^ "D 








O "S 








s ^ 


x*-^ 






£^ 


JD C 


^ 


03 

c 


g^5 
.- o 


00 1 

tudi 


o 
o 


T3 


■^ E 


0-6) 


o 


"cr 


03 


^ c 


lO 


c 


-^ -C 


_o 




o 


CO o 








03 








DC CD 













c 





















o 






(0 




ining Fon 
ecuremer 
chanism 


:9 C 


:9 .E 












(0 

c 




,000 
gitud 


,500 
gitud 


ir:^ 




o 






(0 

X 




03 CO 0) 
^ ^ F 

CO CD 


C\J c 

o 


o 


(O 




■D 










^ Q- 






i 

0) 

o 




c 

05 






(D 

■a 

3 




DC 






o 




(D 






o 










> 


■D 


"5 






CO 


T- 

1 






CO 

o 


O 


CO 


(D 






o?< 


lO, 


n^ 


&— 


^>^ 


c 
E 




■4—' 

C 
CD 

E 

CD 


/age 
: Belt i 


■D 
(0 
O 

-J 


icle Siz( 
VWR) 


000 lbs 
greate 


O 
O 
O 

cS 

CO 


o 




E 

=3 


> 

O 


5> 

O 


CO 
CD 


c 


jz(3 

CD "-^ 
> 


o? 
^ ^ 


o 


3 

o 


Q Z S C/DC/D 


"5 




Q_ 

3 


0) 












0) 








0) 


1 


, 


, 


, 


1 


Q 











c 






o 


<D 




ts 


o 




CO 
CD ! 


3 
CD-£ 




■^ 


^ O 




o 


oU 




■D 






0) 










O) 


'5 




i 


C7 




lO 


CD 




c 


DC 




o 


<D 


04 


w 


n 




c 


E 




« 


13 




'C 


z 




O 






■D 






C 






(0 




4i 


ID 
0) 


•4— ' 


CM 
(M 


■ ^■H 


O) 


C 
CO 


3 
0) 


c 

CD 

-J 


cc 


CD 


>_ 






(D 


o> 


O 


O) 


r~ 


c 


A 


<D 


o 


E 


> 


_l 



CO 

(D 

(D >- 

^ O 
4= 





C 
CO 



(M 
(M 



E 




o 


o 


s— 






J^ 





o 

CO 


'i— 


n 


CO 




n 


_c 



■D T3 
CD CD 

§S 

CO C 
Q. CD 

CO " 
(D CD 

g-i 

2=00 
•n ^ .^ 

C0= to 

CX) 0) 

CC CO CO 



c 

0) 

E 

> 
O 



c 
g 

(D 



C 
CC 

CM 



■D 

(D 

^— 

o 



c 

(D 



C 
(D 

E 

(D 
> 

O 

E 

E 

u 

E 

X 

CO 



<1> 

O) 
(0 

o 



■D 
(D 
CO 

D 

(D 
JD 

C 
05 
O 

05 
0) 

c5 

c 

CD 



c 

CD 

E 

CD 
> 

o 

E 



c 

CD 
if) 
if) 
05 
CL 



3 

■D 

C 

05 

s— 

o 
o 



E ^ 
i i 

O o5 (D 

sl^ 

0) ^ 

T3 05 CD 

CO D).b 

o »- ctJ 
■"ox: 

^ CO '^ 

C CD CO 

CD 

C "O O 

:;C CO (D 



CO 

CO JD 
^ CO 

CO g 

-t: CO 

C CO 


CO >- 

a? 

-t-* ^ 
O CO 

_ CO -iii 

■^ COrg 
(D ^ 



CO o 

■d"> 



05 Q 



CO 
CD 

CD 8 



CO 



(0 
(A 




(0 

X 
o 

3 
O 

CO 

■D 

C 
<0 



CQ 

(0 






O 

CO 
TJ 

c 

CO 
■f-* 


to 


CO 



"cB 

CO 
05 

cB 

-I— » 

c 

CD 

E 

CD 

v_ 

=3 
O 

CD CO 
CO CO 

o E 

CO CO 
LU JZ 



(O 



CO 








o 
5lo 


< 








CM -H- 


^ 








00 m 


(0 
HI 






•o 

c 


>•• 


(0 






CO 








E 


1^ co-5 


m 






CD 


"D CD C7 


1 

^ 






■D 
■D ^ 

§5 


<D ^ ^ 
CO ^ C 


^J 




^^ 


n^ CD 


CO 5 ' 


^^ 




t 


CD ^ 


>- C ,rt 


OQ 

CO 
CO 






O ^ 


LO Si- -C 


LU 

o 






T3 ±i 
5>B 


CO CD -^ 


o 

< 




OS 
CO 


o 




LU 

1- 


c 




c5 

■D 


0) CO 

x: — 


> CO CD 


o 

Z 


E 


c 

■+-' 
CO 




LU 


3 


1- 


8f 


<^ ,n 


LU 
O 




O 

Q 

o 


CO H .b H= 


LU 

> 


S 

c 


■D 

c 

(D 


z 9^ 

1 


E S^ w 

CC Q-LU 2 

1 1 



0) 

> 

I- 
O 
Q 



CO 
Q. 

E 



o ^ 

*— ' c 

§.§) 

E o 
>.^ 

CD O 

■g 'Z. 
■> (D 

o > 



o 

CO 



■D 
0) 

o 

CD 

Q. 

CO 

CO 
CO 

o 

> 

c n 

^■co 
E CO 

^ o 
■5 o 



^ CO r- 

£-05 S 



CO — "D 



CD 
CL 



CO 

c 




CD = 



CO 
2, 

>^^ 

=3 CO 

-Q-O 

W C 
i_ CO 

■^ (D 
CL CD 

si 



CD 


:p- .tl 





"o = 


— i>a 


CD 
CO 


CD CO 


CLSZ 


^ CO CO 


■ « 


(- S^ l_ 


.2 > > 


1 ' 

CO 



■ — 05 05 

o 



CO 

c 

4-' 

Q. 

CD 

O 

O 

CO 



0) 

Xi 
CO 
Q. 
CO 
O 

^^ 

CO CO 

CD^ 
iD O 



5$ 



(0 

c 
E 

3 

cc 



o 

a 



> 

1- 

0) 

> 
O 



CO 

c 
o 

Jz 
o 

c 

05 
-h- • 
CO 

"O 

c 

03 
JCO 

"cB 

c 

CO 

x: 

c 
g 

^ CO 
O CO ^ 

g CO 2? 

o o 
■!=: O CD 
^LL CO 



CO 
CD 



CO 

E 

CD 
■I—' 

CO 



CO 


>. 




c 


CO 




O) 


c 




CO 


o 




O) 


■^5 




c 


E 


■I— • 
CO 


CO 


£ 


CD 


CD 


D 


CO 


^c 


cr 


.^._ 


o 





O JD 


Q. 
O 




D 


^^ 


+-• 


CL CL CO 



<0 

c 
o 

o 

c 

(0 

(/> 

c 

(0 

c 

(0 

I 



o 

*-• 

J5 
o 

o 

o 



1^ 

CO 

■^^ 
§e 

o '^ 
W CO 

^ Q. 

T3 CO 

c 

CO O) 
w -E CO 

rt ^ 2 

Q.CO g 
c/) O) ^ 



CO 



CO -ii^ 



CD 



a> 

c 



■»- c 



o o 

11 



= O CO Ql 




o 
CO 
Q. 
CO 

■D 

Q. 
CO 

H 
CO 



o 

o 
o 

1- 

CD 

+-' 

CD 

E 

CO 
ID 

b 

CD 

. . CM ' 
CO CO * 
05 , CO 

^ J ^ 
CD ^ CO 

CO o'to 



c 
o 

Q. 
CO 

to 





C\J 


CO 


CO 


CO 


^_ 


^ 


o 


o 


CD 


CO 


CO 


'cO 




CD 


* 


■D 


CO 


> 


SI 

■4-' 




■D 


CD 
CO 


> 


^ 





-I-' 


CO 






>< 



c 

O 


O 

c 

03 

■g 

O) 



^-^ ^ 



o 

■ ■Mi 

O 

■ ■■■ 

O 
o 

■ ■■■ 

(D 

c 



CM 

c 

CO 



c 
o 

(0 

c 
o 

o 

c 

(0 

a> 

■D 

c 

(0 

w 
"co 





c 
o 

CO 
CD 
CO 



CO 

c 

CT5 



CD 

"13 




C CD 

C 

J2 CO 

^ 05 

^ c 

CD O 

> CO 

-I— • 

2 ^ 

>t CO 

CO T3 



CD 



O 
CO 



CO 



CO ■— 



= O N 



7=^ O 



n -D 
CO C 

O 
N CO 



CO 

Q. 
CO 



-Q ^ € 



Q. 

O 
X 



■D 

C 
CO 



CO 


sz 



CO 

03 

E CD 

^^ 

^ O) 

CD O 

CO C\3 

j_, CU 1^ 

;c CD O 

G)^ ^ 

•pj: s^ Cl5 

2i CD CD 

-^ > CO 

05 T3 ^ 

^^ ^ 



O 
C/D 5 



CO 
05 
Q- 



(D 
> 

O 

CO 
O 

_C 

X c 

o o 
n o 



.CVi 



^ CD 

V -I— • 

S CD 

E 



CO 



05 



O "D 



O ^ O O U 

_ .E 05 '-^ _ 



§00 ^ 

j_ C CO 
O Oh- 

o-p o 

^ O (D 
il CO CD 



(D O 
Q. CD 
CO CO 

= CO 
05 CO 



E 

E 

c 

"E 

CO 



CO vcvj 

TD ^ 
05 CD 
'^ O 

CD CT5 

5>cB 

CD -5 



CD 



C 

05 

X 



o 



CD -^ 

o 5 



















CD 



















o 














X3 




■D 03 














CO 




(D Q- 














O 




"O CO 














■-I-J 




■> ^ 














o 




/IN O O 














CO 




^ O 














Q. 




CO "K ^ 










4:^ 




CO 
CO 




^ 05 
d CD 










CM 








rr« CO -^ 










CM 

C 


CO 
CO 





O 

c 

CO 

c 




y overii 
under 
neight 
struct c 










/IN 


o 







Cu 0) JO 










Q) 
O)*^ 







E^ ^ o 










c 
o 




- cr CD -K 
i^ § O g 


io 


CD 






CO 
<D 

O 


CO 
CD 

O 


CO 

O 

8 


X 

b 


ess ail 

area ^ 

has 9' 

1 shall 










CD 


CD 


^_ 


CO 


o ^ ^ a. 


5. 

(0 
(0 

< 


CO 

+-' 

c 

05 

■t— • 


(0 
< 

4-> 




> 
O 


> 

c 

O 
CO 


CO 


c 

CO 


CO 



^_ 

CO 

o 


joining ao 
f clear floe 
om of seal 
:s folded u 


■D 
C 
(0 

o 
o 


CO 


c 


^_ 


CO 


CO 


c 


o 


'co 
Q. 


0) 

E 

3 
O 
Oi 


CD 
E 



^ 


to 


O 

"to 
o 
o 

_l 


CC 
CD 

o 


™ = O 
^ CD Xi CO 



0) 









c 














CO 














x: 














+-' 




4^ 










0) 




CM 








en 




CM 










c 




C 






■ ^BB 




o 








n 






CO 






CO 




^ f\ 










CO 
T3 




CO 
CD 

o 




■I-' 
0) 


O) 




■*-• 




CD 

> 




gg 

a ^ 


C 

"■4— ' 

CO 




CO 




c 




to -t; m 


■f^ CO 


5 


c 
o 

CO 


Q. 

to 


CO 

i. 
(0 

E 
a> 


o 
■o 

CD 

cr 

CD 

E 

CD 




red on vehicle: 
: to securemer 
ual signal 
5" to 48" abov( 
s hand 


g, pinching or 
f force to oper 

6-1-7 


C 
O) 


(D 
CO 

O) 

c 


CO 

c 
o 


+-• 
CO 

CO 
CO 


s- 


requi 
jaceni 
nd vis 
ightr 
ith oni 


c 

CO — 

2 in 


c 
to 


■t5 

c 

CO 


■ MM 

(0 

E 


CO 

■o 


i. 

0) 
0) 


quest 
rol ad 
tory ai 
rol he 
ate w 




0) 

(0 


(D 
■D 


o 


CO 

o 


3 


"- 3 Q- to 


>> 
o 


C 
CO 


o 


p <^J 

Q- CM 


0) 

Q. 



Q-0<OOZ^ 


CO ..... . 


■^ 




3 








^H 






*^ 






0. 


, 


0. 


, 


(fi 


1 





< 
9 

Q. 

< 
a: 



(0(/) -J 
LU 



O 

lU 
LU 

o 

I 

LU 



(0 

c 
a> 

E 



<D 
CC 

C 


o 



_>» 

Q. 
Q. 
CO 

W 

-o 

CO 
•D 

C 

CO 
■)— ' 
CO 

h- 

o 

Q 

o 
■a 

c 





o3 




■D 


1- 

o 


■q. 

CO 


CD 


CC 


CO 




CO 


1 


x: 


CO 


o 


rrt 



13 
Q. 



CD 
CO 
05 
(D 



(D 
CO 
C^ 

O 
Q- 



CD 
LO ^^ 



O ^ 



05 

■g 
o 

CO 



■D 

CD 

"O 

"D 

05 



» CO 

CO ^ 
CD O 



O 

^. 

CD 

\^ 

(D 

•f- ' 

E 



o 
in 

00 



o 

(D 



CD 

> 



>5I 

O ^ 
CO ^ +:i 

5 ^ C 

^ cS 

> ^ c 

^ 55 ^ 

CD 05 CD 



o ^ 

O CO 

. ^ 

CO ^ 

CD 45 

T— ^ 

_l O 



CO 
CO 

CO ^ 

CO ^ 

CD ^-v 
C CO 

is- g 

CO id 
(D <D 

O > 

Z ^ 

^ O 

n o 



CD -;=. 



8s 

O CO 
"? ^ 

I- 

Z 05 

X ^ 

LU CC 



LO 

LO 
C\J 



"co 

CO 
(D 

o 
o 

05 

cB 
o 

CD 

c 
o 









<D 










U) 










CO 










c 






1-. 




D) 






(D 





CO 






L 


3 


(— 






CO 


OC 


■4-J 




(0 


O 


c 


> 




*•> 

c 
o 

E 


CD 

C 


2 

1 


^ CO CO CO CO 
^ CD CD CD 


O O O 


O 


H 


o>>>:^ 


zzz >^ 




















3 




CO 










^ 


o 


CO CO CO CO 


CO CO CO CO 


CD 


V- 


= CD CD CD CD 


(D CD CD (D 


O 


2 


CD 


<>>>> 


>>-> > 


■ ■■■ 




> 






O 










Q. 








E ^ 


(0 






CO CO 


CD += 


1 
(0 






o ^ "^ 




u 






^C CO 0) 


0) •> ^ O) 


> 

en 










Q. 






"co CO -^ w 

CO ±= W .^ CD 
CD ^ k ^ O 
O C O o CO 


g .9 .9 ^ o a 


(0 






OC0O-EQ.O-i^DOi5^ 

<Illq.c/)Ci-^clQcl^ 


oc 







(0 

o 
o 

Q 




(0 
(0 
<D 
O 
O 

< 



> i 

O CO 

O CD 



n 

'(/) 
(/> 

(D 

o 
o 

CO 
<D 

c 
o 



CVJ 
CO 

n 
"co 

CO 


o 
o 

CO 

' sz w 

■^ CO ^ 
"5 CD 



" CO 

a5=cvJ-3^, 

CL CO O 



CO 05 CD 
O) CD 



(D 

C 

O 



(/) 



OJ 
CO, 

0) 

c 
o 

o 

c 

03 

(0 

■o 
c 

(0 

w 

2 
■o 

c 
re 

X 

c 
o 

+- 

j2 

3 
O 

o 

o 





O) 

c 



c 
g 

o 

"O O) 

C 



CO 
"cO 

o 
o 

CD 

sz 



oE5 



CO 
_ CO 

C CO CO 

■■D c^b 

rrt 05 03 CO 

oto-92 X 



in 



CO -ti = 

CO CO 00 
05 ^ '^ 



O) c$ o 

CD 05 Q.£ 
1^ ^ ^ 

CL 05 < < 



.<M 



13 

E 

c 



CD 



0^ CD 
£, CD 

c CO 

ll 

?^"c^ 

Q- CD 

(fi CO 

I 
= CO 
CO CO 



■D 

c 

CO 

X 



o 
o 



CO 


;^ 


•— 


^ 


•D 




CO 





^— 


O 


CO 


C 





CO 
05 


"D 


CD 





O 



"^ CD 
(D — 

11 



a; 

Q. 

-t— ' 

13 
O 



CO 

c 
o 

> 

n 

to 



> _ 

(D -oj 



Q. W 
O g 

CO 0-^ 
till 



C 
05 



(X) 
CVJ 
CD, 

(A 

O 
O 



CO* ^ 

._^ CO 
COO . 



3 H- 

^ »- o c 
CD o ^E 

73 O 
CO — 



13 

E 



E 
E 

E 
E 



Q-"a5 

8Ie 



CD 
Q. 

o 

CD CO 
1- 



?a5^ 



C 

o 


O 

c 

CO 
■D 

O 








Q 




< 




c 




■H-» 




> 




>. 




-D Q- 




£ 




*r O 




O O 




CD _ 




g-to-CO 






*t <fi (Ji 




o 




c >> w 




-ti c 


o 


ts - 
rior 

Big 


"i" 


s. 




o> 


c 


^8e 


CO 


^ CD 


0) 
0) 




> 


£ £.^ 


■ ■^ 


^ D) f- 



(A 

■<5 





o 



C/DO 



I I 



(0 

(1) 
o 

Q. 



CO 

^_ 

0) 

c 

W 
CO 

CO 
Q. 





O 

H— 

O 

-I— • 

c 
E 

O 
CO > 
Q. O 
CO £ 

o o o 

'P CO "C 

"S ^ to 
> ^ 
i_ o *- 

Q. CO — 

O i= ^ 
> CO c 

^ = 3 

CO ^ O 
CO V c 
i^ _ C 

< CO O 






0) 



c 
o 



o 

o 

(0 

>« 

(0 

o 
o 

Q 



■O CO 

(D (D 
> 0) 



CO 5^ 



(D 

1— 

"l3 
C7 

CO 
D) 

c 



o 
o 



c o c 

O CD CD 

o; o 

P o 

^ s 

CO CO O 

o "8 

■§0 CO 

^ CO ^ 



c 
o 
o 



CO 



o 
o 



±: CO TD 



OJ 

E 
a> 

(0 

>. 

0) 

c 
o 

E 
o 



o 
B 

Q. 



c 


C 


to 


To 


^^ 







c 


Q. 


o 


O 






■D 


d 


<D 





u- 




o 

■•-• > 
CO 

CO o 

"^ 2? c ,^ 

(D "O »- o 

>co 0-| 

(D ■■= CD CO 

^■§8-3 

^ Q-_. 3 
O !_ CO o 

-D o E .1 
g-EmE 

CD 



(0 

c 

CO 



O) 

c 
o 

o 

o 
o 

Q 



3 

CD 

"cc 

c 

"co 

c 
"c 

CO 

"cO 
CO 

■> 

c 

CO 



o ^ 
.■ti o 

< > 



CVl 

o 

O 

sz 

> 

0) 

£ 
o 





O) 

(0 

c 

O) 



o 

(0 



o o 

'to g 

-I— • i— 

(/) = 

"05 



CO 

c 
g 

CO ^ 

2.e 



Q 
< 

sz 

Q. 

E 
o 
o 



CO D 

g *<- 

03 CO 
to <D 



E 
^ c 

0) o 

C N 
CO-C 

o "^ 
I Q. 

Is 

to ^ 

CO ^ 
(_ CD > 

Q-cO ^ 



CO 

CO 
CO 

c 
"co 






— -2 

0) CO-^ CO 

c c • F CO 

CD .O)-^ - 

O CO ^ 



^O 



< 



(D 



m 

COcOUJ 

Zqlu 

LU 



o 

LU 
LU 

O 

X 
LU 



c 
a> 

E 

a> -4^ 



_>> 

Q. 
Q. 
CO 

CO 
■D 

CO 
■D 

C 

CO 
(— ' 
CO 



75 

Q> 

C 



O 
Q 

o 

T3 

C 
(D 



CD 
CO 
CO 

o 

Q. 



CO 
CO 


CO ^ 

■ S • ^ 

(D LO ol -^ 
^ CM . = 
^ CO 






CO 



C 

o 

'to 
"o 
o 

CO 

I 

CO 

o 

CD O 
CO 1- 

CO 

-P" CD 






CD 



CD . 
C CO 



CO 
CO 



0-9? 

CO ^-^ o 



0) _ 

03 3 J5 



CO 



>^T3 o > LO 

^^B CD o LO 

CO c> gc^ 
OD ^ 5^ c\J 

_. O C X) 

y: Jg cp ^3 CO 

^ CD^ g CO 

-J CO t~n ^ »- 

C CO J^' ' CO 

CO x: -^ .^ o 
E 2^^ (D 

CD Z3 X 3 C 
CC Q.LJJ CC O 



c 

V 

E 

(D 

3 
or 

cc 
o 

■ ■§■ 

o 

Q. 
(0 

I 

fl) 

o 

■■■■ 

0) 






CD 
CL 

I 

O 

I 

CD 

C 

O 



DC 

c 



CD 



CO 

o 

CD 

> 



O) 





O) 

CO 

c 

O) 
"co 



9? CO CO ^ CO CO 
C: CD O CD CD 

o>>-z>->- 



CO CO CO CO CO 
z= CD CD CD 



CO 

c 
g 

^ o 

O CO 

5-^ 



CO 
(D 
O) 

■a 

LU 

Q. 

CD 

-t— ' 

C/D 

CO 

■a 



^ ■= o 



CO cc 

^ -7=1 

CD ^ 
O CO 

<x 



CO 

o 
o 



sz >> 



o o o 



CO CO CO 
(D CD 



(0 

c 
o 

■■g 



c 
g 

C^ CO 

CD 







CO 

"co 

o 




CO ^ 
o 

CO ^ 
CO 



CO 

E 

CD += 



CD 



c^ ~ o d -^ = 



CD 



O 
CTJ 
Q. 



~ CD 

§^ 

CO ^^ 

>« CO 
CO 

"" o 



CO 

>._ 

C/5 CO 
O "(O 

c o 

o 



E 
o 



U) 

CO 

c 

O) 
CO 



E^Eo. 



o 



O -i- 

o 9? 
Q > 



=5 5 

Q_ Q 



;^ 

CL ^ 



<2 

o 
o 

Q 

0> 



(0 

<n 
o 
u 
o 

< 



o (6 

O (D 



"(O 

w 

CD 

o 
o 

CO 
<D 

c 
o 



CO 

n 
"w 

CO 


o 
o 

CO 
' JZ w 

DC ^ -O 

~ CO "co 

CO 



o 



CO 



CL CO O 

1^. -^ 
CO OJ 

I CO ^ 
c ^ 
C O) 

OwZ 



CO 

(0 

c 
o 

u 

c 

(0 
(0 

■o 

c 

(0 

w 

c 

(0 

X 

c 
o 

3 

o 

■ ■■■ 

o 

o 

V- 

<D 



O) 

c 

'to 


CO 

c 
g 

o 

■V to -g 



CO 

'co 
o 







CO 
C ^ CO 

C CO CO 

E ctob 

COiS "5C0 



o 
n 


'to 

CO 



O -D 



CO CO 00 
CO >,^ 

g i ^ 



CO 



CO 

•1^5 5 
o "O o o 

CL 05 < < 



.CJ 



O ■;;; 



oT CD 

se, CD 

^§ 

C CO 

ll 

0-5 

Q. CD 
C/D CO 

I 

CO 
CO CO 



E 

E 

'c 

E 

CO 



CO vC^ 
CO 

»- o 

CO 
T3 CD 

0-^ 







^ o 



■D 

c 

CO 



o 



■o 

CD -^ 

ll 









CO 






Q. 










c 






^ 










o 






CO 










0) 






"co 










> 
















(D 






c 










n 






o 










i_ 






TJ 










<D CO 






CO 










1. a? 






CO 


^ 








^ D) 






"D 










D M- 






O 










o ■" 
















- " 






CO 










CD v^ 






CD 










> "~ 






Shi- 










-^S^ic 




O 
CO 












Q.a>-^ 




(D 


to 










O (/) ^ 




0) 


^_ 










o 0^-^ 




0) 


_g 










— C r- 




o> 












CO CD .y ^ 




LU 


o 
o 










urely 
firm p 
textur 
pile th 
maxim 




Q. 


-asting 
dth 






-4-> 

c 




S o Q^E E 


(D 


■a 

c 


c> 


>. 




CO 




CO _. 9 =5 -r- 


Q. 


<0 


O — 


c 


i 


to 

(0 
Q) 

Q. 


■K 

a 


attach 
no pac 
level Ic 
maxim 
edge ti 


O 
CO 

<M 


(0 

■a 
o 


nd of c 
ges, ful 


O 

CD 
O 

c 

CO 


(0 


CO 






(A 


iS "^ 


■D 


O 


COO 


1 1 1 1 1 




0) 


CQ (D 


"u 


O 














O 



O) 



(0 

0) 

CO 



o 



Q 

< 



T3 
0) 

"o 

CD 

CI 

CO 

■»— • 

o 

c 



Q- 

E 
o 
o 

CO "cB 

CD JZ 
CO CO 

>% CO 

o.5^ 



^ -iZ CO -^ 

c 
o 

CO 



CO 

CO x: 
o ^ 

^ CD 

<u -s "^ 

_Q CO 

zcoo 



o 

CO 
CO 



(0 

"5 



u 

0> 



(0 
0) 

o 

(0 

Q. 

CO 



CO 

a5 

c 

CD 

w 
w 

CO 
Q. 





o 
o 

c 

CD 

CD E 
O CD 
03 > 
Q. O 
CO £ 

o o o 

"F C\3 "C 







> ^ 



CO 



Q. CO — 

> CO c 

^ = D 

^2 _. 

CO ^ O 

*^ i^ c 

< CO O 





o 










(0 






"O CO 










.0 




c 










sz 




«s^ 










CD 

> 




CO v_ (D 














^•^■^ 










^^ 




O ^ D 















"F O O" 

0-05 9? 










C 












^u^ 




> « 










CO 




5f- 

> O) 










c 





c cn.g 










■0 




c o c 













T— 


009? 












CO 


^ c Q- 






E 




•3 


s 


^ c 








CT 




0^ >_ 











0) 

0) 


Poo 


cvT 

5 




>> 






o 


:?= "D 

"^^ CO 
0^0 


E 



CO 





if) 
(f) 

CD 


in 


c 

CO 


> 

O) 

c 

0> 


doors ar 

30" clear 

a 30" cl 


CO 

c 



new vehi 
iblic add 


CM 

c 


To 

CO 

■> 


c 


r^ ^ 


v 




^ 


(/) 


"D 




U)SZ 


(0 


c 


Q- 






o 


C .ti ^ 


E 


c 



■■M 

3 
0. 





Vi. 


O) 


CO 


1 

o 
o 
o 


- If connect 
an aisle ^^ 
dooHA/ay 1 


■D 



1- 

a 


DC 

1 






. C 


c 

"th 











4-' 

< 









C H- 












o o 












"to ^ 

-I-' ^ 












ain, s 
mid-li 
















Q 
< 


CO 






0) o 




-f- • 


i 






C N 




> 


0) 

o 






:i0 




>. 


w 








E 




c 
o 




o ^ 




o 
o 


a> 




CO 
CO 


1 stations - 
3tween top 




"co 


o 


CO 

CD 

C 

"D 


-1— • 

c 

-1— » 

c 




CO 
CO 

c 

CO 


4> 


C 


(D 


E-^ 


^ 




o> 


CT3 


3 




o 


c 


(0 

c 
E 


CO 

c 
o 


0) 


platfo 
all be 


■D 

C 


o 

CO 
0) 

1 ' 


CO 
•<— » 
CO 


"co 

CD 







o 

CO 

1- 




>, 


O 


c c 


'c~ 


CO 


o 


CD 


CO 


(D O) 


1 


^ 


5: 


i^CLQ-^ 


> 


o 


<o 












Q. 


, 


1 


, 




,, 



UJ 



O 
O 



CD 



^CO 



<oco< 

l_ LU O 



UJ 

I- 

o 

QC 

z 
m 

UJ 

o 

X 
UJ 



< 
cc 



_>. 

Q. 
Q. 
CO 

CO 
■D 



c 

E 

-p 



QC 

15 

o 

c 
a> 

O 



c 

CD 



CD 

CD 
CO 
CO 
(D 




CO 
CO 

o 

Q. 



C 
P 

CO 

o 



CO 

■o 


O 
CO 


c 




CO 


' 


■I-' 
CO 


CO 




h- 


o 


o 




Q 





r» 


> 





CD 
CO 
CO 
CD 



CD 
CO 
CO 

O 

D 



C 

g 
o 

CO 



CO 



(D 



CD 

o w 



c 

'cO 

^ U^ Ql 
— C^^ 

"S^O CO 

"D *- ^ 

■D^ (D 

^ coQ^ 

g2 CO 

1 ' I ■ ■ 



CO 


g 

x: 



> 





±^ 
^ CO 
5^ CO 

O 

O 

O 







CO 
CO 

O 
O 
CO 
^— 
CO 

o 



c 
o 

-I—' 
CO 
CO 




CO 


> 

CO 



CO 

x: 

CO 

c 

CO 



ilf CO CO - 



o 

CO 

H— 

9> CO 
lo E 

CO CC 



CO 
CD 



I 

c 
o 



(D^ 
^ CD 

o % 

CLLJJ 



cc JD 



(0 

c 
a) 

E 






O 

<u 

CO 



(0 
(0 

O 



(0 

"3 

E 

E 
o 

o 



CO cn 

CD CO 



CD 05 

ZO 



<D 

O) 

03 

C 

O) 

CO 





c 

o 



CO 

o 
o 
Q 



o o o o o o o 



CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 
:=CDCDCDCDCDCDCD 



CO 

c 
o 

CO o 

^ c 
o cc 

055 

CD^ 

^~ 
"cO 05 

CD ^ 

O CO 

<x 



CO 
CD 
D) 
"D 
LU 

Q. 

CD 

-I— • 



CO 

05 

O 



CO 

O 



CO 
05 

0) 

J^ ^1o 

05 O H 
CL LL h- 





0) 

c 


1 

CO 





(f> >: (f> 




c 


CO 


CO CO CO ^ CO 
CD CD CD -2 CD 

:^ > > ^> 



CO 
CD CD 

■^ -^ o --^ 

CD O CO 
C/) ^ >.-D 



3^ CD 

t: o 

O 03 



■^ Q. O ^ 



CO 

E 

0) 

to 
>. 

o ^ 

■^^ 



03 

o 

CD 



CD O 



CO cc -^ — /^i E 



2 •- ^ o 



ID O 
13 O 
Q_Q 



CO 

E 
o 
o 

CO 



i5 CD 
CL CC 



C 



(0 

o 
o 

Q 

o 

(0 

<u 
o 
o 

< 



> £ 



o 
o 

■D 

n 

(/} 

o 
o 

CO 



c 
o 



■D 

Si. 

CO 


O 

CM 
CO 

0" 

n 
'(/) 

CO 


o 
o 

CO 



CO 



+= 

CO _0 T3 

iL = ^ 
(D CM I 
Q_CO j^ 

I CO ^ 

C ^ 

C O) 

OcoZ 



s 

(0 

c 
o 



o 

c 

(0 



w E 



c 

(0 

■<5 



(0 

X 

c 
o 

■ ■■■ 

*^ 

w 

3 

o 



O 
o 

■■■■ 

c 




> 

C 

CO 

E 

C 
05 

O) 

c 
c 

^- 



C 

"g 

it 

CO 



CO 
CD 

■g 
o 



~ CL 



C CD 
> CO 



.CM 



p CD 

C CO 
O-D 

to^ 



o 



CO 



"G 

Q. CD 

CO CO 

I 
.— CO 

CO 

X , 



E 

-3 

E 

c 

E 

CO 



CO vC^J 
D -^ 

ID ^ 
CO CD 
»-- O 

CO 

O) CO 

T3 (D 

CD "5 



CD 



T3 
CD ^ 



(0 



>» 

0) 
O) 
(0 
(0 
(A 
(0 
Q. 



O 
O 
T3 

CO 
CO 
CD 
O 
O 
CO 

E 
o 

s— 
CD 

-H- » 

o 



0) 

CO 
CD 
> 



O 



CO P cB 

o tS o 

l«i 

.E jD .E 

.E -o) .E 
c: CO p 
c CD ^ 
= o = 
CM o C\J 
CO 05 ^ 



0) 
Ql 

o 



c 
o 

> 

CD 

CD 
0) 



CD ^ 
> _ ^ 

CD -c\j i-: 



c 

CO 
■*-> 
CO 

'co * 



(D 



(0 

o 

O 



1= CO 

c/)0 . 



Q. CO 

O (^ 

O g 

^ »- o" c- 
O ^E 

^ CO — C 

o > J5 
c^ E 





E 

E 

'^ 

E 

CO 
1- 



c 
o 

(D 
O 

c 

CO 

■g 

"3 
O 

■K 





Q. 




(D 




-(— ' 




(0 




16 




c 




o 




■o 




c 




CO 




CO 




■o 




o 




sz 




CO 




0) 




L- 


o 


sz 


■rp 


■*-> 


t 




CO 


■*-• 




CO 


(0 




0) 


o 




o 


LU 


o 


0) 


c 




CD -Q 


c 


^'i 


(0 


O — 


<^3 


(0 


M- **- 


2 


o « 




CO 


o 


■D (D 


J^ 


C CT 


in 


CO U 


0) 


CD <D 



(D 





Q 




< 




_C 




-1— » 




> 




>^ 




•D Q- 




.9^ E 




s= o 




o o 




0) _ 




"^ CD JZ 






+::; (0 (0 




o 




C >^ CO 




-ti C 


o 

5 


ts - 
rior 
sig 


s. 


CO Q. _ 


O) 


C 


•582 


(0 


^ CD CD 


a> 

M0^ 


JZ! "5 CO 


(/) 


> 


E E.c6 




Z5 C3)^ 


o 


ZC/DO 



I I 



CO CO 





T3 






c CO 




CD 

■o 






■2? 




CO O 






CO ^ 

CO >r 




O CT3 
— (D 


CO 
(D 




o g 




0) 0) 


(/) 




c o 




(D 


^1 V 




*" "D 




^ CD CD 


CD 




§2 


CO 

(0 


icIe 

Diear area for 

ble path 

ibIe path 

1" under adjac 

' toe clearano 


CO 

> 
o 

E 

b 

c 


1 

(0 

(5 
O 


are provided 
eelchair area 
is required 


o 
o 


er veh 
mum ( 
ccessi 
iccess 
ipto 6 
has 9' 
old-do 


O) 

c 

■ ■■» 

o 




;onnecting doors 
ar width from wh 
ar door opening 


1 

o 

(0 


At least two p 
48" X 30" mini 
Shall adjoin a 
May overlap £ 
May include l 
adjacent seat 


c 

'cO 

-t-J 

c 

O 

o 


c 
c 
o 
O 

(A 

(0 

o 


O 

(0 


■ CO 


O CD CD 
Sz O O 


Q. 






o 




CO 


1 1 1 1 1 


1 


o 


1 



CO 
CO 

o 



o 

O 

to 



CO 
O 

o o 

■^ CD 
CO p: 





^ 




E 




co = 


o 




CD 

C 




% 




•il 


^ 




c 
o 

■D 




CO 

c 

O 




rto 


Q 
< 




2 








CD n 


-1-' 




"5 
E 




equired 
cars 




walls n 
d horizi 


Q- 

E 


CM 




*- ^ 




c c c 


o 


t 







O) CD 




o o ^ 


o 


E 

0) 

c 
o 

(0 

E 


>. 

CO 

(0 
CO 
0) 

■D 

O 

3 


(0 

c 

CO 
O) 


and visual warnin 
ontrol doors on n 


CO 

i 

0) 
O) 

c 


ons and new stati 
frequent intervals 
latform stations - 
II be between top 


window 

Characters on signs shall 


o 

c 

o 

3 


Q. 

g 

■4-' 

c 


c 

w 
o 

o 

o 
o 


Auditory 
remote c 


(7) 

E 
o 


Key statii 
Place at 
Center p 
sign sha 


Q. 


1 


Q 


1 


Q. 


1 1 1 


■ 



> 

o 



(0 

E 
o 
o 



CO 

o 

CJ 
00 

>. 

n 

c 
o 

"to 
- g o 

o o g 

r- CC 05 
CO 



c 
o 



o 



i= CD 
CO CO CD 

O CD O 






^ < 

cc 



8-0 o 

00 



■g 

o 
o 
■o 

SZ CO 



CO 

g 
o 

(D 

t3 





CO 

o 

Ql 
CL 

o 

CD 

1— 

Z3 
CO 

o 

o 

c 

CD 



c 

CD 

o 
o 

^ CO 








O 

C 

"cS 

CO 



CO 






, 

Ojz 

^1 

2 
"a 
'co Q- 

c o 
o ' 

O 00 
■D — 

^ O 

o 
. Q 



c 

CO 



c 

o 

c 

^CO 
C C0 = 

CO _g X 

So , 



CD 
O 

C 

c5 

Q. CD 
i5 O 

a5 CD 
o +^ 

^^ 

co> 
<^ = 



Q. 
jCO 



> 

o 

CO 

8^ 

CO ^ 

^ 
O CO 
"D 





c 



c 

CO 



CO 

G) "cO 
C\J 

J= "^ 

= o 

CD "O 

o 



o 



c 
o 

(0 

E 
o 
o 

to 
a> 



(0 

o 

CO 

n 



to 
_o 

o 

CD 

to 

O CO 



+- (D 
CO ?5 

to'o 
-o O 

l§ 

c 
JD O 



O 
O 



D) 



CD 





E 


> 




o 

4= 


O 




— 


CO 




bj 




h) 


?^ 


to 

CO 


o 


5^ 


O 


-!-• 


r CO 




h- 


^ o 
CvJ o 


"^ 


"^ 


' i_ 


. o 



13 

cr 

CO 



o 

c 

"cO 
+i CO 



■a 

c 

CO 



CO 
CO 



c 

O 
O 



^to 

O) o 

•So 

CO *^ 
■> (D 



o c 



CD r- 

§io 






c 
o 



(D ^ 
CO 



CD C^ 
CO Q. t 

in 9 

O O) C t 



c 





f 




LU 




o 


jQ 


o 




CO 


-DZ 


^» ^ 


^Q 


-J 


cl- 


O^LLI 


^o 


:£ CO 


«< 


-E.CC 


■~ 1- 


0)LU 


oO 


oco 


(DLL! 


n-O 


SI < 


■^ LJJ 


D-CC 


_| 


CO D- 


< 


Ic 


z 


1- 


o 




H 




< 



-Of 

0C/5CO 

Ezz 

(D< ^ 

(DOb 
li-z 

Co 2 ^ 
CD LJJ S 

03 a: DC 

>- LU U-l 

^ LU 
§C0 



lO 



Z 
o 



w o » 






§ 



^ D (D ^ 

4:^ (0 X ^ Z CO 

-^l* w Q) -2^ o "O 

O, O (0 W 3. O 

ro 2. CD 01 5 3- 

00 Q) =: to ZiW 

3 § 



^ (D 

f^ m 

K ^ 

ro — 



30 

m 
o 

m 



5" 

X 

Q) 
0) 

-^ "n 
lo 5 

Jfe 5 
So 



■n Tj 
£3 

Q) (D 

— 5" J£. 
ro 3 < 

«r -h o 
CO :; 3" 

lo 55 

0) ^ 



o 

o 

c 

3 

o 
o 

ro H 5 



E 

5' 
a 

^ a 

!5 < 
£ % 

-^ w 

10 O 

o 






o > 

— ro 
ro -k 



4.^ 
"-' ro 
01 00 

^6 

o> ro 
o o 

(O 



^r: o 



^ § 

7J Z 

■D C/) 

en c 

it I 

5 > 

? Z 
C/) 



2. 

sr 

O 

3 

3 
fi) "n 

5' 

3 
O 



8 



^ < <? 
■^ «> S 

w o S" 

Ul ^ i-H 

ro ^ (D 
8=3 



Q) m 

M CO -O 

2 o § 

0) A) '^ 

<0 

o" 



S? 



|g 

O (0 

--* w y 
ro , 
-^ "D 

^ > 0) 

to a. 
^ «> q 

«> 3 E 

s| 

S3 
a 3 



>l CO 

? - 
ro 



o 

00 o 
o c 

O 2. 

roC? 
33 



3D 
(D 
O 

g 
01 S. 

51 

^ -* 
^ O 



M "0 



a 

o 14. 

9 ? 

w o 

ro — 



^ O (O _ 00 -h w 

I? 2i fe§ S 

-I -^ St ^ 

3 — 



5' 
a 



D 




0) 


? 






w 




T 








Q) 




n 


Q) 






o- 






W 






(D 




JJ 


> 




I 


Q. 




a 

0) 


(D 




m 


^ TJ 


^^ 


0) 


Q) 




i- 


ro 


10 




ro 30 




"0 


-^ -; 


_^ 




-k Q) 




■n 

c 


0) 3 


00 




4^ T3 


? 
? 


yi w 


ro 




^ H 


z 
c 


5!5 






Ca) 3 


10 5! 







ro w. 




00 


-^ 3 







CX) 





(Q 



m 

3D 
CO 



c 



•" «" 


IM 






~ 




m 





</> 


= ^ m 





m 





X OB 


X 


CO 




:<> < m 


00 







2^ 


t 


m 


LO 

m 


> 




■a ^ 


I 


7: 


yo 


m 


OARE 
UALLY 
AIRED 


Z 

LO 


NCIES 
.VING 



O.E c 




Z 
LU 
> 
UJ 

Q-co 
o w 

UJ z 

O-J 
O OQ 
(/) 
(0 



11 

O) CO 

fi 
21 

o i5 
o a 



i 3^.2?;; 





is 




^ m^ 




c > 




QC CC 




UJ LU 




H W 




2^ 


C4 


^1 


00 
CM 


ii 




< 


^ 


> 



CO 


c 


05 




1- 


i- 


n 






c 


CO 




0) 


o 






> 
o 


rt 

+; 


1 




w 


= 


o 






n 


CO 







& 


CO 




c 


£ 






"D 


■d 






C 


c 


o 




CO 


n 


CO 




1 

CO 


> 
CO 

CD 


1 

E 


CM 

g 


E 


< 


CM 


CO 


o 



> 

CO 


CO 


~ 


1 


■cO 


^ 


I 


O) 


1- 



(/) 

D 

o 

CC 

o 

I- 

QC 

O 

Q. 
Q. 

D 
CO 



0) 

c 

0) 
TOO ^ 

© o <o 
QtoJO 

0) 
CC 

a> 



CM 

O 00 
O CM 

CM 



o in 

00 TO 
00 lO 
00 TO 

Q. ob T^ 

S CM <0 

^ ^r> CO 
^^ 



(0 

O D O 

O CM . O 
&'^^'£, 
9-CM CT3 < 

/« CO S £ 

. "^ t T3 J 
It CO 0) i 

0) u-tr c 
<0 I ^ 



D 

5 LU 

O J 



■^■g^ 

^'^i 



5!iJ ^ ^ £ 



c/) ^ 



^ Q. CO 

B ^o 

coS^ 
O ^ C 

■E| "I 
CO i o o 
<D ?2 2 

C0T3 o 9 

fsas 

O -D jO CO 

e|B2 

IeoC^ 
O .E CO "-^ 



oc 

LU 

z 

UJ 

o 

UJ 

ox 

ii 

ss 
§■= 

o 

D 

o 

UJ 



2£t 

o i= £ 

o o !5 
w^ E 

8|i 

ill 

■£ CO x: 
0) ^ o 
E-9-0 

Q) _C0 CD 

3 CO ^ 
w CO E 



o 

CO 
(O 

W 
CM 



«5 5 >< ^ ^^ 

^ g « D) CM 

Q- a > CO '-' 



oc 

LU 

J- 

mi 
z>-«2 

HZ 3 
< jQ 
Zm< 

ocr>Q 
J m < 

UJ Q 

zP 

UJ u. 

UJ 

X 



>;i2 ^ 
a "J S 

CO 3 CO 

gP CO 
> > 9? 
■D T3 :tr 
coE = 

m P CO 



O O) 



CO c 

8-2 
a? 

<D .h 
CO £ 
c CO 
O >« 



II? ~ 



E?l P 



o " 

IS 



iS ^ E 



Z iS 



C CO 

11 

> CH 






o O 

> o 

«>TO 
Q TO 

g»ob 

•p CM 

T3 T- 
C CM 



Sc 

O 2 co^ 



q 

< 

QC 
Q 

<i 

<^ 
^° 

LU LL 

Z 

cc 
O 

z 



•II 






Q- 

2 CO 
CO? 

§*oco 

O O (0 

1 2S 

O T3 T- 



u.| 
oc 1 

UJ w *: 



2 a 



zH 

UJ < 

oo 
m Q. 



£ |e« 

O C TJ T 

a. OT CO i 





o T3 -a 








•7; c c 








•9 CO CO 








^Sc 






z 


.2 






o 


Cts, 

rmat 

pers 






h- _ 






<Q 
QZ 


odu 
info 
lind 






zii 


a-o€ 






Dm 


c -a 






Ouj 


^ CO OJ 

ctf ..^ 






zf 


|.i| 






ocu. 


lica 
ma 
llyii 




CM 
CM 


^og 




CM 
CM 


UJ 


Q-.E « 


2^ 

0) 


i/ides 

cation 

rralto 


■3 


It) 


< 


£ 
■B 


CO 




6^^ 05 


CM 





T3 > 






c = 






CO g 




>- 


+f OT 




u 






5UJ 
^ 


^ 






= 

Is 

c 2? 

1° 




Soc 


^ 
r^ 


T= 





CM 





CO CD 




des re 
assett 
ired. 


1 




■§"s 


^ 




i§E 


w 



oz 
"-> 

DCri 
UJ 



T3 CO 

.11 

So 

2 c 

olB 



8. 

TO 1- 

CO o 
<0 CO 

CO CM ,- 

a-^CM 

.i <i) TT 

CO > P- 



o 
o 

X 

o 

(0 

I- 

Z CC 

m I- 
cLcn 

g5 

z 

3 

_l 



1& 

o^ 
*^ c 

CO '- 
CO £ (N 






■o 2 
j^ CO ^ 

^E26 
S>c§ 

> CO -D ^ 

2 .1 z j;i 



UJ . 
0) o 
D £ 

Ei 

Om 

-lUJ 

cox 

Joe 
<o 



o ^ c 
■5. "So 



emf 
es,r< 
reati 




ion, 
rvic 
rec 




luat 
tse 
and 




5 = o) 




^^:i 




ional 
)lder 
unse 




IT 


gS8 

0.9 CD 


CC 
CN 


> .t: c 
2J ^ c 


CN 

CC 


p t 2 




■> ■•"' 


.5 


g- c 


cor- 




9 CN 



ADA TRANSPORTATION ACCESSIBILITY 
REFERENCE GUIDE 




PROJECT ACTION 

NATIONAL EASTER SEAL SOCIETY 

& 

U.S. ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION 

BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 



KRW INCORPORATED 



( 



ADA TRANSPORTATION ACCESSIBILITY 



TRAINING PROGRAM 
PREPARED FOR: 

U.S. Architectural and Transportation 

Barriers Compliance Board 

1331 F Street, N.W. 

Suite 1000 

Washington, DC 20004-1111 



PREPARED BY: 

KRW Incorporated 

2387 S. Dove Street 

Alexandria, VA 22314 

(703) 836-4691 



March 1993 






ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

This training material was prepared by KRW Incorporated under contract to the U.S. 
Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. To assist in the preparation 
of the material, an Accessibility Advisory Board was formed by KRW. That Board 
included transit users who are blind, visually impaired, hearing impaired, and wheelchair 
dependent Each Board member identified barriers and problems they had personally i 

encountered in the use of transportation vehicles and facilities and participated in the | 

documentation of accessibility barriers/problems and their solutions. These individuals _. 

provided invaluable assistance to the successful preparation of this training and resource Qj 

material. The presentation of this course is funded by Project ACTION through the 
National Easter Seal Society under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of 
Transportation, Federal Transit Administration. 






CONTENTS 

UNIT TITLE 

1 The Total Trip: A Series of Accessible Routes 



2 


Trip Planning 


3 


Accessible Route Between Trip Origin or Destination 
and the Transit Facility Entrance 


4-1 


Accessible Route Between the Transit Facility 
Entrance and the Boarding Platform - Bus Stops 


4-2 


Accessible Route Between the Transit Facility Entrance 
and the Boarding Platform - Bus Terminals/Rail Stations 


5-1 


Accessible Route Between the Boarding Platform and the 
Vehicle - Buses/Vans 


5-2 


Accessible Route Between the Boarding Platform and the 
Vehicle - Rail Vehicle from a Level Boarding Platform 


5-3 


Accessible Route Between the Boarding Platform and the 
Vehicle - Step Entry Vehicle 


5-4 


Accessible Route Between the Boarding Platform and the 
Vehicle - Mobility Aids Accessibility and Securement Devices 


6-1 


Vehicle Enroute Accessibility - BusesA^ans 


6-2 


Vehicle Emoute Accessibility - Rapid Rail Vehicles 


6-3 


Vehicle Enroute Accessibility - Light Rail Vehicles 


6-4 


Vehicle Enroute Accessibility - Commuter Rail Cars 


6-5 


Vehicle Enroute Accessibility - Intercity Rail Cars 



( 



THE TRAINING OBJECTIVES. 



o To explain to transportation planners, designers, operators and government officials 

particular application of ADAAG to fixed transportation facilities, and 

o To illustrate barriers that may be encountered by persons with various disabilities 

using transportation vehicles and to help transportation planners, operators, and 
government officials develop solutions to those barriers. 

A little less formally stated, the objective is to create an awareness, a sensitivity if you will, 
of the needs of persons with disabilities, of the ADAAG standards and how they are 
applied to help them better use transportation systems. 



THE PURPOSE OF THE REFERENCE GUIDE 

To provide transportation planners, designers, operators, and government officials 
with a quick and comprehensive reference to the DOT Rule and the ADA 
Accessibility Guidelines as they apply to transit vehicles and facilities, and 

To provide a discussion of solutions to most of the problems that are encountered 
by persons with disabilities. 



UNTTl 
THE TOTAL TRIP: A SERIES OF ACCESSIBLE ROUTES 



INTRODUCTION 

Slides 1, 2 

This training course is developed in a series of training units. Groups of units can be 
selected to simulate the various trips individuals with disabilities, including individuals who 
use wheelchairs, may take using the one or a combination of the various transportation 
system modes. The course is structured so that you, as a training participant, can simulate 
the trip that individuals with disabilities take. You will experience the problems and 
barriers the individuals who use wheelchairs and others with disabilities experience by 
reviewing and discussing a series of problems and solutions that may be encountered during 
each segment of the total trip. 

To provide a uniform framework for describing an accessible "Total Trip," some consistent 
terminology must first be established. The total trip is defined as a series of smaller trips 
taken by travelers using various transportation systems between their origins and 
destinations. The term "systems" is particularly difficult to deal with because of the 
widespread and meaningful uses it enjoys. The definition of system in the next section, sets 
the framework for this course. Once the system has been defined, it can be broken down 
further into its components and elements. 

The element is the key to accessibility. Barriers are generally identified and addressed at 
the element level. Thus, if all of the elements that make up a component are accessible, 
the component will be fully accessible and if all of the components of a system are 
accessible, the system will be accessible. Finally, if all the systems (transportation systems) 
used to make a particular total trip are accessible, then individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use wheelchairs, will be able to make their total trips free of 
barriers. 

The next section, "Definitions," establishes a uniform framework for describing the features 
one encounters during the total trip. Once a uniform framework has been established, the 
following section, the "Total Trip Concept," explains how a total trip is nothing more than 
a series of accessible routes between a defined origin and destination. 

DEHNITIONS 

SYSTEM: A SYSTEM is the entire transportation system in a specific geographic area. 
The total system is composed of various transportation subsystems. Examples include the 
highway/roadway system, a pedestrian walkway system, a parking lot system, single-mode 
transportation systems such as fixed route bus systems; rapid, light, commuter, and intercity 
rail systems; over-the-road bus systems; van and small bus systems; and other transportation 
systems. Mixtures of these modes are common and the largest multimodal SYSTEMS can, 
in effect, be made up of all of these individual transportation systems. 

1-1 



An alternate definition of a system, from the traveler's perspective, is a continuous route 
connecting the traveler's origination and destination points. An entire transportation 
system consists of the totality of the systems (i.e., routes) that travelers might use. A 
person with a disability is much more interested in the specific system he or she will use 
on a given trip. System failure (nonaccessibility) usually occurs because of a lack of 
continuity between the components and elements of the system. 

COMPONENTS : A component is a major part of a transportation system. Such major 
system parts are grouped into route components, vehicle components and facility 
components. For either definition of system given above, it is seen that each is a particular 
combination of route, vehicle and facility components. Analysis of system and component 
accessibility entails examination of all vehicle/facility interfaces for accessibility in addition 
to that for each route, vehicle and facility component. Buses of all sizes, various rail 
vehicles, etc., are examples of vehicle components. Facility components include bus stops, 
bus terminals, transit stations, etc. Route components include the path of travel from home 
to a transit stop or facility, the path through the vehicle or the facility, etc. 

ELEMENTS: An element is a constituent part of a component. The elements of a bus 
include the bus lift, signs, aisle width, handrails and stanchions, securement device, door, 
etc. Examples of transit station elements are ramps, signs, elevators, doors and gates, stairs 
and escalators, tactile warnings, platform/train interfaces, etc. Elements of a route include 
curb ramps, crosswalks, street furniture, etc. 

SINGLE-MODE SYSTEMS: Specific single-mode mass transportation systems are defined 
in the DOT Final Rule. Such systems include fixed route systems: bus, rapid rail, light rail, 
commuter rail, demand responsive systems, paratransit systems and vanpools. The 
definitions of these systems given in the DOT Final Rule are presented in the Appendices. 

VEHICLES: Specific mass transportation vehicles are also defined in the DOT Final Rule 
including bus, light and heavy rail vehicles, over-the-road buses, commuter rail car, intercity 
rail passenger car, new/used/remanufactured vehicles and other vehicles. The vehicle 
definitions are presented in the Appendices as given in the DOT Final Rule. 

FACILITY: All or any portion of buildings, structures, site improvements, complexes, 
equipment, roads, walks, passageways, parking lots, or other real or personal property 
located on a site. 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE: A continuous unobstructed path connecting all accessible 
elements and spaces in a building or facility. Interior accessible routes may include 
corridors, floors, ramps, elevators, lifts, and clear floor space at fixtures. Exterior accessible 
routes may include parking access aisles, curb ramps, walks, ramps and lifts. 

ACCESSIBLE VEHICLE: A transportation vehicle shall be considered readily accessible 
to and usable by individuals with disabilities if it meets the requirements of Part 37, 
Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA), and the standards of Part 
38, ADA Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles, of the 1991 DOT Final 
Rule. 

SITE: A parcel of land bounded by a property line or a designated portion of a public 
right-of-way. 

1-2 



ACCESSIBLE FACILITY: A transportation facility shall be considered readily accessible 
to and usable by individuals with disabilities if it meets the requirements of Part 37, 
Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA) and the standards of 
Appendix A of Part 37 of the 1991 DOT Final Rule. 



THE TOTAL TRIP CONCEPT 

Slide 3 

The total trip - from a traveler's perspective - is a series of trip segments which when 
connected form a continuous route between the traveler's origin and destination. Because 
of their barrier-avoidance needs, persons with disabilities must research and determine the 
feasibility of each specific segment they plan to use in traveling from one place to another. 

Exhibit 1 illustrates the typical trip segments which comprise a total trip. Travelers with 
disabilities first plan and, where a planned trip is feasible for them, proceed from origin to 
destination via these well-defined trip segments. The nomenclature for the trip segments 
is as follows: 

SO: Trip Planning 

SI: Origin to Transit Facility Entrance 

S2: Transit Facility Entrance to Boarding Platform 

S3: Boarding Platform to Vehicle 

S4: Vehicle Enroute 

S5: Vehicle to Boarding Platform 

S6: Boarding Platform to Transit Facility Exit 

S7: Transit Facility Exit to Destination 

S8: Boarding Platform to Boarding Platform 

This nomenclature describes each trip segment by its beginning and endpoint of travel. 
Each type of trip segment is displayed as a rectangle in the exhibit. The path of travel 
followed during each trip segment is shown just below each rectangle. For example, the 
path of travel for segment SI is the accessible route that a person with disabilities would 
take between his or her home and the transit facility entrance. If the transportation mode 
were a fixed route bus system, the transit facility entrance would be the point where the 
person passes the property line of the bus stop area. The same point of property-line 
passage definition of entrance would apply to rail systems, however the corresponding S2 
segments for a bus stop and a rail station are considerably different. More explicitly, for 
a bus mode, the S2 path of travel would be a short path within the bus pad area. For a rail 
mode, the S2 path of travel would be a much longer, possibly multilevel, path within the 
rail system transit facility. The path of travel shown in Exhibit 1 for each of the remaining 
trip segments are self explanatory and helpful in visualizing potential barriers/problems in 
"negotiating" each path. 

The most critical trip segment is SO, Trip Planning. Here, the persons with disabilities must 
use the telephone, system maps, advice of others familiar with the system's 

1-3 




.? — 



— - 


— — — 


" 




— — 




£l 


E 








u 








lilt 

tfo 


1 


1 


^ 1 


1 *^ 


l^l 


Ji 


1,1 






ansIt 

Exit 

rding 


ccessib 
S3 


rding 

T 

Veil 


1 1 




H § 


< 


» 




- - 


co| 


_ _ 


1 


_ _ 


— - 


"TTl 


— — — _ 


1 1 


— — . 




i tg 


i 


1 


8 1 


1 ^ 


ngPla 
To 
ngPla 


U. 


igPia 
To 
elilcle 






"C "O 1 


1 


:5 > 


^ 1 














1 l| 




1 


CB 






1-4 



barriers/problems, and other aids to assess the feasibility of the trip. Ascertaining feasibility 
requires anticipating the barriers that the trip will present and "mentally" overcoming them 
beforehand. Only when feasibility is firmly established can travelers with disabilities begin 
the trip. 

From Exhibit 1, it is seen that trip segments SI through S7 would be taken by travelers on 
any single-mode trips not involving transfers to other vehicles or other modes. As outlined 
with dotted lines in the exhibit, same-mode transfers are initiated by trip segment S8, 
wherein the path of travel is within the transit facility and proceeds from one boarding 
platform to another. Thereafter, as shown in the exhibit, the single mode trip would be 
completed via trip segments S3 through S7. If other transfers were made, they would be 
initiated by a trip segment S8 at the transfer point. Appropriate use of trip segments SI 
through S8 as illustrated by this single-mode with-transfer(s) trip can be used to describe, 
and plan in detail, any "total trip." This illustrates the generic nature of the trip segments 
and the straightforward building block approach to transportation trip planning that 
travelers with disabilities must thoroughly complete. 

This building block approach applies equally well to inter-mode transfers, also outlined with 
dotted lines in Exhibit 1. These transfers would be initiated after leaving the platform and 
traveling to the exit of one modal facility (trip segment S6) and proceeding along a route 
from the entrance to the boarding platform of the second modal facility (Segment S2) 
followed by boarding the second mode vehicle (Segment S3) to complete the transfer. 
Thereafter, the traveler would continue via segments S3 through S7 to complete the trip 
on the new mode. Should other transfers be required before trip end, they would be 
initiated either by a same-mode segment, S8, or a new-mode segment, S2, and proceed as 
explained above. 

This training program has been developed to enable the participant to simulate a total trip 
using various transportation systems. The training program has been developed in a series 
of units which correspond to the basic trip segments which make up a total trip. 

The number of trip segments for which training units are presented has been narrowed 
down to the first four: SI, S2, S3, and S4. Note that S5 and S3 are both passages between 
a boarding platform and a vehicle, one leaving (S5) and the other boarding (S3). The 
barriers associated with either of these trip segments are presented in the same training 
unit. This also applies to the two other mirror-image pairs of transit segments: S6 and S2, 
and S7 and SI. Finally, S8 is essentially an S2, both of which involve passage within a 
transit facility. 

Slide 4 

Exhibit 2, The Four Basic Trip Segments, summarizes the abbreviated version of the more 
detailed total trip. For each of the four basic trip segments, the exhibit shows various 
combinations of transportation systems and components that might be used during that 
segment of the trip. The exhibit includes most of the available means of transportation in 
urban or suburban areas within the United States. With the addition of the Trip Planning 
segment mentioned earlier, a total trip - single-mode or multi-mode - origin to destination 

1-5 



w 





^ 




















Jj 












U 


Urn 

CQ 




^ 


o 


V 






h. 

d 


<3 


Pi 


u 

CQ 




C/3 


m 


|o 






*e3 


:73 


9i 


Pi 






ti 


2 


a 
►J? 




DC 


Pi 


9 


.^ 






J 


> 


> 




•o 




s 


o 






i 


2 






05 


■s 




a 






1 


o 




o 


o 


o 


o 












s 




















1 

J2 




B 

ha 

o 










< 






cu 




ts 










J 




H3 






CO 


s 


(/) 




CD 




CO 


£ 




cr 




1 


■•3 






a 

i 


C/3 


00 




X 


1 






m 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




















'V 


a 




g 








1 




1 


S 

CO 




^ 


TRANSIT FACIL 
ENTRANCE 
TO BOARDING 
PLATFORM 


.^ 




"cd 

a 


i 

CO 


CO 


s 

CO 


1 


CO 
*CQ 




•55 


o 

c/3 


1 


1 

a. 


*c3 

PS 


Pi 

00 


E 


Pi 
.^ 

a 
o 




a 
to 

H 


CQ 
o 


CQ 
o 


p: 

o 


o 


o 


o 




tS 




















51 


















1-H 

C/D 




9 
O 
Pi 

Id 


a 

(Q 
CO 


a 
















§ 


5 














Ofc 


< 


o 


o 








^^ 


^^ 



1-6 



can be simulated by using combinations of these basic trip segments. 

The following training materials have been developed to address the problems/barriers 
individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs, encounter when 
taking a total trip. You can make up the trip of your choice and put your own training 
course together by simply selecting the appropriate training units for that trip. 

SHde 5 

For ease of reference. Exhibit 3 provides a listing of the course unit numbers that apply to 
each of the four basic trip segments. Unit 2 in these course materials addresses the 
barriers that may be encountered during the trip planning phase. 

An example of how to assemble the course materials for a typical home-to-work trip 
follows. The activities in the left column describe each segment of the trip. The 
corresponding course unit number and titie are presented in the right column. Note that 
some of the units are listed at the start of the total trip and again toward the end of the 
total trip (e.g.. Units 3 and 4-2). For this example, the tities of those units have been 
changed slightiy to represent a particular trip segment. Even though these title changes 
have been made here to illustrate a point, the basic Unit contained in the course material 
addresses all of the barriers that may be encountered during these trip segments regardless 
if one travels from an entrance to a platform or from a platform to an exit within that 
particular type of transportation facility. 



TRIP SEGMENT DESCRIPTION 



COURSE UNIT NUMBER AND TITLE 



Plan your trip 

Travel to the Bus Stop 

At the Bus Stop 



Getting on the Bus 

Riding on the Bus 
Transfer to Rapid Rail 

At the Platform 



Riding on the Rapid 
Rail Vehicle 



Unit 2 Trip Planning 

Unit 3 Accessible Route Between Trip Origin 

and the Transit Facility Entrance 

Unit 4-1 Accessible Route Between the Transit 

Facility Entrance and the Boarding Platform - 

Bus Stops 

Unit 5-1 Accessible Route Between the 

Boarding Platform and the Vehicle - Buses/Vans 

Unit 5-4 Mobility Aids and Securement Devices 

Unit 6-1 Vehicle Enroute Accessibility - 

Buses/Vans 

Unit 4-2 Accessible Route Between The Transit 

Facility Entrance and The Boarding Platform - 

Bus Terminals/Rail Stations 

Unit 5-2 Accessible Route Between the 

Boarding Platform and the Vehicle - Rail 

Vehicle Level Boarding Platform 

Unit 6-2 Vehicle Enroute Accessibility - Rapid 

Rail Vehicles 



1-7 



From the Platform to Unit 4-2 Accessible Route Between the 

the Street Boarding Platform and Transit Facility Exit f 

From the Street to your Unit 3 Accessible Route Between Transit 

Office Facility Exit and Destination 



1-8 





s 




























D 












U 


i>4 
ce 












Tt 





ii 






5 


















C/5 


W 


^o 






(3 


ns 


4> 


^ 














s 

S 

^ 


2 


3 








3 
& 
S 

o 






VO 


VO 


VO 


11 




.A 


CQ 




^ 


i-i 


U 


a 




g 


g 


g 


g g 




1 


o 




o 


o 


o 


o 




D 


D 


D 


D D 




s 

a: 






S 




























1 




o 


















< 






S 




tJ 
















S5 


CO 


2^ 


I 


a 
S 

M 

3 
ffl 


^ 




g 


■•5 














a 


a. 

1 

3 

m 


"S 
u 

a. 


iB 

a 


.a 

CkO 

5 


£• 
1 






•A 

H 

2 








m H 


ffl 


o 


O 


O 


o 


o 


o 




D 


D 


D 


D 


















s 


a 












J^ 








a 






iS 


o 










% 


TRANSIT FACILIT 
ENTRANCE 
TO BOARDING 
PLATFORM 


.^^ 




13 

a 


.2 

1 




a 

CO 


CO 


<-> 

iS 

CO 














%■ 

55 

3 


3 




'c3 

00 


oi 


1 


•g 

a 
o 


1 












o 


CQ 
o 


0^ 

o 


o 


o 


o 


D 


D 








b:8 




























^ Zi 

^i 


























CO 


^1 

si 

Or 


PC 

2 


1 

1 


a 












«n 












§ 


D 












g 










oS 


< 


o 


o 






^^ 




^^^^ 


^ 




^^ 





1-9 



UNIT2 
TRIP PLA^fNING 



SCOPE 



Prior to embarkmg on a trip, persons with different disabilities will ask different questions 
about the planned trip. Each will pursue different aspects of some questions in great 
depth, depending on the nature of his or her disability. In the main, all will ask various 
forms of the following questions: 

Slide 1 Ql: Can Your System Get Me TTiere? 

This question inquires not only about the geographical extent of the 
system and its on-the-system accessibility, but also asks about the 
proximity of the traveler's origin and destination point to the system, 
hours of operation, etc. If any of these general characteristics of the 
system fail to meet the needs of the user, he or she will not even 
attempt to use the system and will ask no further questions. Most 
persons with disabilities will pose Question 1 and the succeeding 
questions to the transit agency first For increased assurance of 
feasibility, they will ask these questions again of friends and others 
who may have the ssmie disabilities. 

Q2: Tell Me About the Entry and Exit Points? 

This question addresses the exact location, and accessibility provisions, 
of the entry and exit points of the system. Note that this question 
must also be asked by those in the general public who are unfamiliar 
with the system. Hence, the extent to which the requested 
information is available to the general public largely determines the 
extent of the barriers perceived by potential first time users. This 
entry/exit information is crucial to blind and low vision travelers who 
often conduct a pre-trip "practice run" to at least the entry point. 

Q3: Wayfinding, which requires a host of questions about: 

Getting on the bus, rail car, other vehicles. 

Getting through terminals and stations. 

Gaining status awareness (announcements, signage, lighting, 

elevation changes, elevator control panels, escalator locations). 

Transfer points and other vehicle/facility interfaces. 

Leaving the system, including where to exit vehicle, when (i.e., 

how to anticipate?), and where (i.e., the characteristics of the 

exit point from the system-side). 



2-1 



DEHNmONS 

Slide 2 

Text Telephone: Machinery or equipment that employs interactive graphic (i.e., typed) 
communications through the transmission of coded signals across the standard telephone 
network. Text telephones can include, for example, devices known as TDD's 
(telecommunications display devices or telecommunication devices for deaf persons) or 
computers. The operant word is "interactive", meaning the ability to conduct a real-time, 
two-way conversation. 

Braille: A system of writing for blind persons that uses characters made up of raised dots. 

Braille Writer: A machine for writing Braille. ^ 

Braille Alphabet: ^ k r H p f n h ; i 



r 

• • 



w 



X 



CapKdl Numeral 
Sign Sign 



• • •• •• •• •• •• •• •• 

braille alphabet 

Pictograms: One of the symbols belonging to a pictorial graphic system, a pictograph. 

Slide 3 

Sans serif: A letter or type face with no serifs. Serifs are any of the short lines stemming 
from and at an angle to the upper and lower ends of the strokes of a letter. 

Deal tray: A drawer-like tray used to distribute articles from a secured area to an 
unsecured area. Commonly used at drive-up windows at banks. 



2-2 



APPLICABLE STANDARDS 

Space Allowance and Reach Ranges ADAAG 4.2 

Accessible Route ADAAG 4.3 

Doors ADAAG 4.13 

Storage ADAAG 4.25 

Controls and Operating Mechanisms ADAAG 4.27 

Signage ADAAG 4.30 

Telephones ADAAG 4.31 

Fixed or Built-in Seating and Tables ADAAG 4.32 

Automated Teller Machines ADAAG 4.34 
Sales and Service Counters, Teller Windows, 

Information Counters ADAAG 7.2 

Fixed Facilities and Stations ADAAG 10.3; 10.3.1(18) 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

Information on transit system accessibility can be delivered in various ways. Each method 
of delivering the information poses special problems to the transit agency and the people 
with various types of disabilities. System information presented in such a way that it is 
accessible to a person who is blind may not meet the needs of a person who is deaf. Thus, 
information regarding the accessibility of a transit system must be developed recognizing 
the relevant differences between disabilities (e.g., mobility, vision, hearing or cognitive 
impairments). 

The following problems and solutions address those differences for three methods of access 
to the information, namely: telephone, written media and over-the-counter access. Some 
of the following can be applied to existing services whereas, for new construction and 
alterations, the standards in Appendix A (ADAAG) to Part 37 are mandatory. The last 
set of problems and solutions addresses training requirements. 

Check List of Problems 

n Telephone Access 

□ Written Media Access 

n Over-the-Counter Access 

n Training 



2-3 



n Telephone Access 

Problem; People who have hearing disabilities cannot obtain information about the 
transit system over the standard telephone. 

Slide Solution: Transit agency information offices must provide information in accessible 
4 formats. Therefore, they should have text telephones available and should staff each 

shift with a person who knows how to use the text telephone. Another option for 
transit agencies is to utilize a text telephone service agency. This allows people with 
hearing disabilities to call the text telephone service agency and correspond with a 
person who is skilled in the use of the text telephone. The service agency then 
relays the message via a voice phone to the transit agency. 



Problem: People who are visually impaired or blind and want to travel by public 
transit must be able to obtain detailed directions over the telephone about how to 
get to and use the transit system. 

Slide Solution: Transit information clerks must be sensitive to the needs of visually 
5 impaired or blind people and be able to provide very specific directions. Transit 

information clerks must have the information available to them (e.g., maps and 
transit facility layouts) so that they can refer to those materials when giving 
directions. 



Problem: People with walking disabilities want to know if the transit stations they 
want to use are accessible by elevator when they call for information. They would 
also like to know if the route between their origin and the transit facility and 
between the transit facility and their destination is accessible. 

Solution: Transit Agency information clerks should have the appropriate maps and 
floor plans of the transit facilities available so that they can locate and give 
directions to the accessible routes within the various transit facilities. Local 
governments should have mapping showing which intersections have curb ramps and 
which streets have accessible walkways for people in wheelchairs. 



24 



n Written Media Access 

Problem: People with vision impairments cannot read the maps or transit schedules 
published by the transit providers. 

Slide Solution; Transit system route maps can be printed in Braille for those people who 

6 are blind and can understand Braille. For people with limited sight, maps and route 
schedules could be printed in large bold typeface or the transit service provider 

Slide could, upon request, enlarge specifically requested maps and route schedules by 

7 simply expanding the existing schedule on a copy machine. 



Problem; The counters, shelves, and "pocket boards" where route schedules are 
distributed are not accessible to people who use wheelchairs. 

Slide Solution; Counters, shelves, and pocket boards that are built and installed by the 
8 transit provider should be constructed and installed in such a way that a person in 

a wheelchair can reach the schedule. Section 4.2 of the ADAAG Standards contain 
Space and Reach Ranges which should be followed when installing "pocket boards" 
on walls for the distribution of route schedules and when installing counters and 
shelves where written media is distributed. Service counters are covered by Section 
7.2, in new construction and alterations. [4.2.5, 4.2.6] 



Problem; Large system maps are sometimes mounted too high on the wall or 
mounted horizontally on a pedestal which is too high for people in wheelchairs to 
see. 

Slide Solution; Maps that are mounted on the walls should be located so that a person 
9 in a wheelchair can approach within 3 in (76 mm) of the map without encountering 

protruding objects. The map should be mounted so that its centerline is no more 
than 60 in (1525 mm) above the floor. When a map is located on a pedestal or 
platform, it should be placed on an angle with the floor (tilted) and mounted low 
enough so a person in a wheelchair can view the entire map. [4.30.6] 



Problem; Maps are often placed behind plexiglass to protect them from vandalism. 
Lighting over the map causes a glare making it difficult for persons with visual 
impairments to read. 

Slide Solution; If a plexiglass type cover must be used, a non-glare surface should be 
10 considered or the lighting for the map should be positioned in such a way so there 
is no glare on the plexiglass cover. The amount of glare may be different for a 
standing person as opposed to a person sitting in a wheelchair. [4.30.5] 

2-5 



Over-the-Counter Access 

Problem: Information or ticket booths or stores are not accessible to persons in 
wheelchairs. 

Solution; When a transit agency provides a ticketing and information service, it 
must be designed to accommodate people in wheelchairs. Applicable ADAAG 
Standards must be followed for entrances, doors, aisle widths, protruding objects, 
ground and floor surfaces, and signage. Most importantly, the store or booth must 
be on an accessible route. For existing facilities which are not key stations, general 
"program access" requirements apply. [4.14, 4.13, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5] 



Problem; Even though the information store or booth is accessible once in the store 
or to the booth, the service counter is too high for people in wheelchairs. 

Slides Solution: An auxiliary counter with a maximum height of 36 in (915 mm) in close 
11, 12 proximity to the main counter should be provided so that people in wheelchairs can 
transact business with the ticket or information clerk. [7.2(2), 10.3.1(18)] 



Problem: Information/ticket clerks cannot communicate with people who are deaf. 

Solution: The transit provider should have a TDD available at the 
information/ticket store. At least one clerk per shift should know how to operate 
the TDD. If a TDD is not available, the clerk should use a note pad. Messages 
should be written in large bold strokes so that if the person also has visual 
impairments, the message can be seen. The transit agency should provide sensitivity 
training to all information clerks so that they can better understand and deal with 
the various disabilities. 



Problem: Many ticketing areas have a thick glass screen between the ticket agent 
and the public. Window slots or deal trays are used to transact business. Many 
times the lighting on the window causes a glare and the person in a wheelchair 
cannot see the ticket agent. The window slot or deal trays are often too high for a 
person in a wheelchair to reach. 

Solution: Care should be taken when designing the glass screen. A non-glare glass 
can be used or the lighting should be located so there is no glare. When window 
slots and deal trays are used and cannot be placed at a height that is accessible to 
people in wheelchairs, a separate auxiliary counter can provide equivalent facilitation 
under some circumstances. The auxiliary counter must be a maximum height of 36 
in (915 mm). [10.3.1(18), 7.2(2)] 

2-6 



Training 

Probiem; The transit agency workforce that deals directly with the public, either 
across the counter or over the telephone, and those who design and distribute the 
written information about transit service are not sensitive to the needs, and do not 
know how to deal with persons with various disabilities. 

Solution; The Department of Transportation Final Rule on Transportation for 
Individuals with Disabilities, Section 37.173 Training, emphasizes several points: 
First, the requirements for training apply to private as well as to public providers of 
transit Second, training must be to proficiency. That is, every employee who is 
involved in the delivery of transit service to persons with disabilities must have been 
trained so that he or she knows what needs to be done to provide service in the 
right way. Third, training must be appropriate to the duties of each employee. An 
information clerk must be trained to be sensitive and provide adequate information 
to persons with various disabilities. Fourth, the training requirement applies to both 
technical tasks and human relations. Employees must know how to operate 
equipment (e.g., text telephone) and every employee who has public contact has to 
understand the necessity of treating individuals with disabilities courteously and 
respectfully. Finally, one of the important points in training concerns differences 
among individuals with disabilities. All individuals with disabilities are not alike. 
Recognizing the relevant differences between disabilities (e.g., mobility, vision, 
hearing or cognitive impairments) and responding to them is extremely important 
[37.173] 



2-7 



EXERCISES 

1. What is a TDD? 

2. What is the preferred type of print for accessible signage? 

3. If a transit map is mounted on a wall, how high off the floor should it be? 



4. How high should a ticket counter be to ensure that it is accessible to individuals who 
use wheelchairs? 



5. Is a public transit agency required to train its employees who deal with persons with 
disabilities? 



2-8 



UNITS 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE BETWEEN TRIP ORIGIN OR DESTINATION 

AND THE TRANSIT FACILITY ENTRANCE 

SCOPE 

The Department of Transportation rules implementing the facility accessibility requirements 
of ADA can be found in Appendix A of 49 CFR Part 37, the ADA Accessibility Guidelines 
for Buildings and Facilities. 

This training unit will address the various accessible elements one encounters when 
traveling from the origin of the trip to the transit facility entrance or from the transit 
facility exit to the trip destination. 

The accessible elements that will be addressed are: 

Walkways and Sidewallcs 

Curb Ramps 

Crosswalks 

Refuge Islands 

Stairs, Ramps and Handrails 

Signage 

A section for each of the above accessible elements follows which provides key deJQnitions, 
applicable standards, and a series of problems and solutions. 



I 

3-1 



WALKWAYS AND SIDEWALKS 



DEHNmONS 



Walkway or walk: An exterior pathway with a prepared surface intended for pedestrian 
use, including general pedestrian areas such as plazas and courts. 

Sidewalk: A walkway within a public right-of-way. 

Accessible Route: A continuous unobstructed path connecting all accessible elements and 
spaces of a building or facility. Interior accessible routes may include corridors, floors, 
ramps, elevators, lifts, and clear floor space at fixtures. Exterior accessible routes may 
include parking access aisles, curb ramps, crosswalks at vehicular ways, walks, ramps, and 
lifts. 

Note: Elements and spaces located on a site and required to be accessible must be 
connected with an Accessible Route. Elements and spaces on different sites may or may 
not be connected by a walkway or walk which meets the requirements for an Accessible 
Route. Most of the facilities discussed in this unit will have been built prior to the effective 
date of ADAAG or by an entity not yet subject to it Nevertheless, the standards for an 
Accessible Route (ADAAG 4.3) can be used to evaluate the accessibility and useability of 
any walkway or walk. 



APPLICABLE STANDARDS 



Width 

Passing Space 

Head Room 

Surface Texture 

Changes in Level 

Gratings 

Slope 

Detectable Warnings 



ADAAG 4.3.3 
ADAAG 4.3.4 
ADAAG 4.3.5, 4.4.2 
ADAAG 4.3.6, 4.5.1 
ADAAG 4.3.8, 4.5.2 
ADAAG 4.5.4 
ADAAG 4.3.7 
ADAAG 4.29 



3-2 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

This section will discuss some of the typical general design problems associated with the 
layout and placement of a walkway. Typical specific design issues will be presented. 

Checklist of Problems 

□ Walkway Location and Placement 

D Walkway Widtii 

D Walkway Slope and Cross Slope 

n Walkway Suriface 

n Temporary Walkways 



n Walkway Location and Placement 

Problem: Many walkways are located or placed in such a way that they abut 
potential hazards. 

Slide Solution: In order to be considered an accessible route, overhanging objects such 
1 as signs or tree branches must be mounted or trimmed so that there is an 80 in 

(2030 mm) vertical clearance above the walkway surface. Street furniture, shrubs, 
sign posts and parking meters must be placed so there is at least a 36 in (915 mm) 
wide sidewalk. Continuous driveway entrances (no curb) should be avoided. If a 
hazard cannot be avoided, a means (such as a curb, protective barrier, a hand rail 
or a detectable warning strip) must be devised to warn the disabled pedestrian of a 
hazardous vehicular crossing. Walkways which do not meet the requirements are 
not considered an accessible route. [4.4.1, 4.4.2, 4.3.3] 



D Walkway Width 

Problem: Some walkways in urban areas, especially in the older cities, are quite 
Slide narrow. The width is further restricted when the city engineering department places 
2 parking meters and signs along the curb. 

Solution: Affix parking meters and signs to the exterior walls of the buildings when 
the sidewalk width is restricted . Eliminate street furniture and consolidate signage 
onto one strategically located post. In new construction, walkway width must be at 
least 36 in (915 mm). Recommended width to accommodate two-way traffic is 60 
in (1525 mm). If possible, provide a 60 in (1525 mm) wide by 60 in (1525 mm) long 
passing area every 200 ft (61 m). [4.3.3, 4.3.4] 



3-3 



Walkway Slope and Cross Slope 

Problem: Some walkways are so steep that they cannot be used by persons with 
disabilities who are elderly. Some walkways are so flat and have no cross slope so 
they do not drain properly. 

Solution: Walkways with slopes greater that 1:20 (5 percent) should be treated as 
a ramp. Since this is impractical in many cities, an accessible route should be 
located to avoid steep grades whenever possible. If the terrain is very flat, the 
walkways should have a slight cross slope so that water will drain from the surface. 
A maximum 1:50 (2 percent) cross slope is required in new construction of an 
Accessible Route. [4.3.7] 



Walkway Surfaces 

Problem: Many sidewalks in urban areas are broken. After they are patched the 
joints are uneven and rough. Access grates or vent grates in the sidewalks have 
been damaged so that edges protrude above the adjacent surface or the center of 
the grate sags well below the adjacent surface. 

Solution: Joints between different materials should be flush. A maximum of 1/4 in 
(6 mm) vertical difference is allowable on an Accessible Route. If the difference in 
elevation is between 1/4 to 1/2 in (6 to 13 mm) the edge should be beveled with a 
1:2 slope. For existing streets and sidewalks, try to define an alternate route which 
avoids barriers. [4.3.8] 



Problem: Walkways around the perimeter of urban construction sites are often 
rough, uneven and slippery. 

Solution: Temporary walkways must be planned and built to comply with the 
ADAAG Standards, cited above. [4.1.1(4)] 



Problem: Some walkways on the transit property are at the same level as the 
roadway at the passenger drop off area. It is difficult for people with vision 
impairments to tell when they are in the roadway. 

Solution: If a new walk crosses or adjoins a vehicular way and the walking surfaces 
are not separated by curbs, railings, or other elements between the pedestrian and 
vehicular areas, the boundary between the areas shall be defined by a continuous 
detectable warning which is 36 in (915 mm) wide. The detectable warning shall 
comply with ADAAG 4.29.2. [4.29.5] 



3-4 



CURB RAMPS 
DEnNITIONS 

Curb: The edge of a walk or street surface which has been raised to protect or contain. 

Curb Cut: The removal or termination of a portion of a continuous street curb to permit 
a ramped connection between two surfaces at different elevations. 

Curb Ramp: A pedestrian ramp which cuts through a curb or builds up to it from a lower 
level. 

APPLICABLE STANDARDS 

Curb Ramps ADAAG 4.7 

Slope ADAAG 4.8.2 

Surface ADAAG 4.5.1, 4.5.2 

Detectable Warnings ADAAG 4.7.7, 4.29.2 



3-5 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

This section presents problems that commonly occur with curb ramps. Solutions that 
incorporate the applicable ADAAG standard are presented for each problem. 

Checklist of Problems 



D 


Curb Height 


D 


Curb Ramp Direction and Location 


D 


Curb Height 


D 


Curb Ramp Width 


D 


Curb Ramp Slope and Length 


D 


Curb Ramp Transition 


D 


Curb Ramp Side Flare Slope 


D 


Curb Ramp Surface Materials 


D 


Curb Ramp Detectable Warning 


D 


Curb Ramp Maintenance 


Curb 


Height 



Problem; Very high or low curbs are difficult for some pedestrians to cross and are 
difiQcult to treat with a curb ramp. 

Solution; Whenever possible, curbs should be 6 in (150 mm) high or less. When 
locating a curb ramp in an area that has curbs higher than 6 in (150 mm), the 
designer should ensure that the sidewalk is wide enough to accommodate the runout 
of the curb ramp using the desirable slope of 1:12. A slope of 1:10 or 1:8 is 
permitted for short ramps. If a slope of 1:8 cannot be obtained, the placement of 
the curb ramp should be changed. Low or "mountable" curbs are not suitable for 
wheelchair access without a curb ramp. [4.7.2] 



3-6 



Q Curb Ramp Direction and Location 

Problem; A curb ramp can be hazardous if it is located such that: 

• It directs the user out of the marked crosswalk, or 

• It requires the user to make abrupt turns, or 

• It does not line up and point in the same direction as the crosswalk, or 

• It does not provide a directional queue to the crosswalk direction, or 

• It requires the user to enter the pedestrian flow at a right angle. 

Slide Solution; The curb ramp should be positioned within, line up with, and run 
3 generally in the same direction as the marked crosswalk. Diagonal curb ramps (one 
ramp on the comer serving both crosswalks) are permitted but should be uniform 
in design and placement throughout a jurisdiction. Consistency of design in 
placement is as important as the specific design. When determining the direction 
of a curb ramp, the designer should ensure that it is positioned so that there is an 
overrun space at each end of the curb ramp. The overrun space should be a 
minimum of 48 in (1220 mm). If 48 in (1220 mm) is not available at the top of the 
curb ramp, then the slope of the flared sides of the curb ramp must not exceed 1:10. 
[4.7.9, 4.7.10, 4.7.5] 



Problem; Curb Ramps are difficult for some pedestrians to travel across because 
of the side slopes of the ramp flares. 

Solution; Pedestrian traffic should not have to move across the ramp and side 
flares. If this is not possible, then side flares should not exceed 1:10. [4.7.5] If 
there is less than 48 in (1220 mm) of clear width at the top of the ramp, the flares 
must have a slope not to exceed 1:12. 



Problem; Some people with visual impairments find it easier to locate the edge of 
the street at a curb rather than a curb ramp. 

Solution; Whenever possible, curb ramps should be located away from the direct 
line of travel used by people with visual impairments. In all cases the curb ramp 
must be within the crosswalk lines. Curb ramps located on properties owned by a 
public entity that provides public transportation service must have a detectable 
warning surface. [4.7.7] 



3-7 



Problem; Poor drainage or a drain or grate placed in the path of a curb ramp 
makes the ramp difficult to use. 

Solution: Whenever possible, avoid locating curb ramps near storm water inlets or 
where users must cross gratings or utility access covers. If a curb ramp must be 
located in line with a grating, ensure that the open spaces in the grate are no greater 
than 1/2 in (13 mm) in one direction and that the elongated openings are 
perpendicular to the predominant direction of travel. [4.5.4] 



Problem; Curb ramps are difficult to use when placed too close to each other or 
too close to signs, poles, or street furniture. 

Solution; Whenever possible, locate the curb ramp so that one curb ramp will 
provide access to both directions at the comer. Do not locate curb ramps too close 
to each other or too close to signs, light poles, or street furniture. As necessary, 
signs or street furniture must be relocated to properly install the curb ramp. In 
general, placement and design consistency is desirable. [4.7.10] 



Problem; Curb ramps located behind tall bushes or street furniture can be 
hazardous because they preclude a clear line of sight between wheelchair users and 
oncoming traffic. 

Solution; Curb ramps should be located so there is a clear line of sight between the 
user of the curb ramp and oncoming vehicles. "No Parking" signs or trimming or 
removing shrubbery may be warranted to maintain a clear line of sight. [4.7.8] 



3-8 



Curb Ramp Width 

Problem; If the curb ramp is too narrow and is heavily used by pedestrians, 
pedestrians who are disabled may be forced to wait in the street. If the curb ramp 
is too wide, there is little level ground left for people who do not want to use ramps. 

Solution; Width of curb ramps shall be no less than 36 in (915 mm). In areas 
where snow is common a 48 in (1220 mm) width makes snow removal easier. On 
street intersections with high pedestrian volume, curb ramps should be wider to 
lessen the conflict between wheelchair users and other pedestrians. [4.7.3] 



Curb Ramp Slope and Length 

Problem; Curb ramps that are too steep or too long cannot be traversed by some 
people who are disabled. If the gradient of the existing sidewalk and the camber of 
the road are not considered, the curb ramp may become too steep. 

Solution; The maximum slope of a curb ramp constructed as part of a new facility 
must be 1:12. If a curb ramp is installed at an existing intersection and the desirable 
1:12 slope cannot be achieved, then a steeper slope may be used within the following 
parameters. 

Maximum Maximum Available 

Curb Height Horizontal Projection Slope Range 

3 in (75 mm) 2 ft (0.6 m) 1:10 not to exceed 1:8 

6 in (150 mm) 5 ft (1.5 m) 1:12 not to exceed 1:10 

In accordance with the standard, in no case can a slope steeper than 1:8 be used. 
[4.7.2] 



3-9 



Curb Ramp Transitions 

Problem; A step as small as 1/2 in (13 mm) will prevent some people in wheelchairs 
from using the curb ramp. Wheelchair users often have to "take a run" at a ramp. 
Any step at the bottom of the ramp or an abrupt transition between the ramp and 
the sidewalk or street may overturn the wheelchair. Abrupt transitions between the 
curb ramp and the street may snag the foot rest of the wheelchair. 

Solution: Transitions between the curb ramp and sidewalk and the curb ramp and 
the gutter shall be free of abrupt changes in grade. The slope of the adjacent 
sidewalk and gutter shall never exceed 1:20. [4.7.2] 



Curb Ramp Side Flare Slope 

Problem; The flared sides of the curb ramp are often very steep and are hazardous 
for all pedestrians, especially for wheelchair users. 

Solution; The location of the curb ramp determines the treatment of the slopes or 
sides. If a curb ramp is located where pedestrians would not normally walk across 
the ramp and the sidewalk width at the top of the curb ramp is greater than 48 in 
(1220 mm), a curb ramp with returned curbs may be used. [4.7.5] 



Problem; A curb ramp with steep side flares located such that its length traverses 
the entire sidewalk is hazardous to all pedestrians. A vertical drop off at the edge 
of a curb ramp is hazardous. 

Solution: If a curb ramp is located where pedestrians must walk across the ramp 
and the sidewalk width at the top of the curb ramp is less than 48 in (1220 mm), the 
curb ramp side flare slopes shall not exceed 1:12. If a curb ramp is located where 
pedestrians must walk across the ramp and the sidewalk width at the top of the curb 
ramp is more than 48 in (1220 mm), the curb ramp cross slopes shall not exceed 
1:10. [4.7.5, Figure 12(a)] 



3-10 



Curb Ramp Surface Materials 

Problem; Curb ramp surfaces are sometimes slippery, particularly around the gutter. 
Curb ramp surfaces finished with rough textures to assist pedestrians with visual 
impairments are difficult to keep clean and can become hazardous. Pedestrians with 
visual impairments may not detect the location of the curb ramp if it is the same 
color and texture as the sidewalk or street. Painting of curb ramps with certain 
paints can make them slippery. 

Solution; Curb ramp surfaces shall be stable, firm, and slip resistant. The visual 
contrast of the curb ramp should be different than that of the adjoining sidewalk 
and street. This can be achieved by using different colored materials. TTie surface 
of the ramp should not be so smooth that it is slippery when it is wet and it should 
not be so rough that it collects dirt or makes it uncomfortable for wheelchair users. 
Certain concrete stains, which leach into the surface and thus become part of it, may 
be applied to in-place concrete. [4.5.1] 



Curb Ramp Detectable Warning 

Problem; Persons with vision impairments cannot tell when they have entered a 
street if they happen to walk in the direct path of a wide curb ramp with gently 
flared cross slopes. 

Solution; Detectable warnings must be placed at the curb ramp. The detectable 
warning must extend the full width and depth of the curb ramp, exclusive of the 
flared sides. A detectable warning must consist of raised truncated domes with a 
diameter of nominal 0.9 in (23 mm), at the base, a height of nominal 0.2 in (5 mm) 
and a center to center spacing of nominal 2.35 in (60 mm). Detectable warnings 
must contrast visually with adjoining surfaces, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light 
and be an integral part of the curb ramp. [4.29] 

Note: If a transit agency constructs the curb ramp, regardless of whether it is on its 
property, it must comply with ADAAG. 



3-11 



Curb Ramp Maintenance 

Problem; Snow, ice, and deicing agents can deteriorate curb ramps making them 
hazardous. Snow and/or debris accumulation can make curb ramps unusable. 

Solution: A maintenance program should be initiated to insure that all curb ramps 
on accessible routes are cleaned periodically and snow is removed. 



Problem; Repaying of the street can cause a step or a transition problem at the 
bottom of the curb ramp. 

Solution; When streets are repaved or repaired, the contract specifications for the 
project should specify no lip between the new pavement and the gutter or curb 
ramp. If the transit agency has jurisdiction or "sign-off' or approval of work done 
by other entities (e.g., city) it must exercise whatever authority it has to ensure 
compliance with ADAAG, to the extent possible. [4.5.2] 



3-12 



CROSSWALKS 



DEFINITIONS 

Crosswalk: A part of a roadway, generally at an intersection, that is delineated for 
pedestrian crossing. 

Stop Line: A wide solid line on the roadway extending across all approach roadway lanes 
which is used in conjunction with a stop sign, traffic signal, officer's direction or other legal 
requirement indicating the point behind which vehicles are required to stop. 



APPLICABLE STANDARDS 

Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, MUTCD Section 3B-18 

1988, Crosswalks and Crosswalk Lines 
Detectable Warnings ADAAG 4.29.5, 4.29.2 



3-13 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

The crossing of a street in an urban area or suburban area is one of the most hazardous 
points enroute to a transit facility entrance. Crosswalk markings at signalized intersections 
and across intersection approaches on which traffic stops, serve primarily to guide 
pedestrians in the proper safe path. Crosswalk markings across roadways on which traffic 
is not controlled by traffic signals or STOP signs, must also serve to warn motorists of a 
pedestrian crossing point at non-intersection locations. These markings legally establish the 
crosswalk. 

When a crosswalk directs pedestrians across the street directly into the entrance of a 
transportation facility owned by a public entity and the street surface is at the same level 
as the transportation facility entrance (e.g., no curbs between the street and entrance 
sidewalk area), a detectable warning must be utilized between the pedestrian area and the 
vehicular area. 

Checklist of Problems 

□ Crosswalk Location and Approach 

□ Crosswalk Width and Length 
n Crosswalk Markings 

n Crosswalk Surface 



D Crosswalk Location and Approach 

Problem; Some urban and many suburban intersections do not have marked 
crosswalks across the street. 

Solution: Crosswalks should be marked at all intersections where there is 
substantial conflict between pedestrians and vehicles. Crosswalks should also be 
provided where there is a continued large concentration of pedestrians. An 
accessible route may cross a vehicular way only if it is marked. [MUTCD 3B-18] 



Problem: Some crosswalks are not placed perpendicular to the curb line. This 
skewed placement may cause persons with visual impairments to walk outside of the 
marked area. 

Solution: Whenever possible crosswalks should be perpendicular to the curb line. 
The curb ramp must be placed within the crosswalk lines. This will direct people 
with visual impairments into the marked crossing. 



3-14 



Problem; Vehicles often stop or park in the crosswalk and force the pedestrians to 
walk outside of the marked area into oncoming traffic. 

Solution; A stop line should accompany a crosswalk. The stop line should be 
Slide placed 4 ft (1.2 m) in advance of and parallel to the nearest crosswalk line. A "No 
4 Parking" zone should be designated from 20 to 30 ft (6 to 9 m) back from the 

nearest crosswalk line. In some cities parking in the crosswalk area has been 

eliminated by extending that part of the sidewalk that adjoins the crosswalk out to 

the edge of the travel lane. 



Problem; The crosswalk leading from a major parking facility owned by the city 
leads directly into the entrance of a rapid rail terminal. The entrance to the rail 
terminal is fully accessible. Because of the large pedestrian volume entering the rail 
terminal, the pedestrian area at the entrance is at the same level as the street (e.g., 
no curb defining the pedestrian area and the vehicular drop-off area). Without 
curbs or railings it is difficult for people with vision impairments to know when they 
are in the vehicular area. 

Solution; If a walk crosses or adjoins a vehicular way, and the walking surfaces are 
not separated by curbs, railings or other elements between the pedestrian areas and 
the vehicular areas, the boundary between the areas shall be defined by a continuous 
detectable warning which is 36 in (915 mm) wide, and consisting of raised truncated 
domes with a diameter of nominal 0.9 in (23 mm), at the base, a height of nominal 
0.2 in (5 mm) and a center-to-center spacing of nominal 2.35 in (60 mm) in the 
same horizontal or vertical row (rows are staggered) and shall contrast visually with 
adjoining surfaces, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. The material used to 
provide contrast shall be an integral part of the walking surface. [4.29.5, 4.29.2] 

Note: The detectable warning is on the pedestrian portion of the walk, not in the 
vehicular way. 



3-15 



Crosswalk Width and Length 

Problem: Crosswalks are often too narrow and become congested during heavy 
pedestrian movements. This can be hazardous for people with ambulatory 
difficulties or poor balance. 

Solution: Crosswalk widths should never be less than 6 ft (1.8 m) wide. Where 
pedestrian volumes are high the crosswalk width may be increased. [MUTCD 3B- 
18] 



Problem: Some urban streets are so wide that people with ambulatory difficulties 
cannot make it across the street before the traffic hght changes. 

Solution: The length of the crosswalk must be coordinated with the amount of 
traffic signal green time or pedestrian walk time. The safe green time can be 
determined by assuming a maximum walking speed of 3.5 ft/sec (1.07 m/sec). An 
additional 2 seconds must be added for reaction time. If it is not possible to allow 
the required green time, a refuge island should be placed in the middle of the street; 
this effectively reduces the length of the crosswalk. 



n Crosswalk Markings 

Problem: Crosswalk markings vary from city to city and within a city. Some are 
painted lines, some are delineated by brick pavers, some are delineated by concrete 
borders set in the roadway pavement. 

Slide Solution: A standard crosswalk design should be adopted and used throughout a 
5 city. Crosswalk lines should be sohd white lines which delineate both sides of the 

crosswalk area. Lines must be at least 6 in (150 mm) wide and should be spaced 6 
ft (1.8 m) apart. If added visibility is required the crosswalk area may be marked 
with diagonal lines at a 45 degree angle to the border lines. Some crosswalks are 
delineated with different types of surfaces. [MUTCD 3B-18] 



3-16 



Crosswalk Surface 

Problem; The area within the crosswalk sometimes contains utility access covers and 
grates or in some cases it has been painted making it slippery when wet. 

Solution; Crosswalk surfaces should be stable, firm, slip-resistant surfaces. 
Whenever possible, utility access covers and grates should be located outside the 
boundaries of the crosswalk. If grates or utility access covers are within the 
crosswalk area, they should be flush with the surrounding pavement. Gratings 
should have spaces no greater than 1/2 in (13 mm). [4.5.4] 



3-17 



REFUGE ISLANDS 

DEnNITIONS 

Pedestrian refuge island: Specifically defined areas for pedestrians that cannot cross the 
entire roadway at one time. 

Traffic control island: A defined area between traffic lanes for control of vehicle 
involvements or for pedestrian refuge. 

APPLICABLE STANDARDS 

Islands ADAAG 4.7.11 

Detectable Warnings ADAAG 4.29.5, 4.29.2 

Curb Ramps ADAAG 4.7.1, 4.7.7 



3-18 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

Pedestrian refuge islands are useful at urban street intersections where there is a 
considerable amount of pedestrian traffic and where heavy volumes of vehicular traffic 
make it difficult to cross the entire roadway. Islands must be carefully planned and 
designed to provide travel paths that are obvious, easy to follow and continuous. Some 
typical problems are presented to illustrate the application of the standards. 

Checklist of Problems 

n Refuge Island Location and Placement 
n Refuge Island Shape and Size 
n Refuge Island Delineation 



Refuge Island Location and Placement 

Problem; Traffic engineers are faced with the trade-off of providing full width 
traffic lanes or reducing the lane widths at very wide intersections and providing a 
refuge island. 

Solution: At signalized urban intersections the length of the crosswalk and the walk 
cycle time of the traffic signal must be reviewed. If the entire roadway cannot be 
traversed using a walking speed of 3.5 ft/sec (1.07 m/sec) within the walk cycle of the 
traffic signal and the walk signal cannot be extended then a pedestrian refiige island 
should be considered. 



Problem: Some refuge islands are placed in areas where they are difficult to see 
from the oncoming vehicles. 

Solution: Refuge islands must always be placed so the vehicle operator will not be 
surprised. Large trees or shrubs or street furniture should not be placed on the 
refuge island since they can obstruct the view of the vehicle operator. 



3-19 



Q Refuge Island Shape and Size 

Problem: The shape of some refuge islands is such that they entice pedestrians to 
cross the street where crossing is prohibited. 

Solution: Refuge islands should be elongated or triangular in shape. Where 
Slide crossing is prohibited the island must be narrow enough to deliver the message not 
6 to cross. Where the island is to be used as a refuge area it must be wide enough to 

acconmiodate the pedestrian volume at that intersection. 



Problem; Some refuge islands are so narrow and small that pedestrians must stand 
in the street as they wait to cross. 

Solution: Refuge islands should preferably be 72 in (1828 mm) wide. In no case 
should the level area be less than 48 in (1220 mm) wide. The length of a refuge 
island should be no less than 12 ft (3.66 m) measured from end to end and including 
the section at pavement level at the crosswalk location. [4.7.11] 



Refuge Island Delineation 

Problem: Some refuge islands are difficult to see by persons with visual impairments 
because they are at the same level as the street and there is no contrast or 
detectable warning outlining the refuge area. 

Solution; Refuge islands should be well lighted. If a refuge island is at the same 
level as the street, the island can be delineated by using pavement markings, a 
different texture of pavement, buttons or flexible stanchions. The color of the 
roadway pavement and the refuge island should contrast. 



Problem: Some islands are delineated by a curb with no curb ramps. Other islands 
have had curb ramps installed at a point where there is not a sufficient level width 
for a person in a wheelchair to wait for the traffic to clear. 

Solution; Any raised islands in crossings shall be cut through level with the street 
or have curb ramps and a level area at least 48 in (1220 mm) long in the part of the 
island intersected by the crossing. New curb ramps shall have a detectable warning 
if constructed by the transit agency. [4.7.11] 



3-20 



STAIRS, RAMPS AND HANDRAILS 
DEnNITIONS 

Step: One unit that addresses a change in elevation consisting of a riser and a tread. 

Stairs: A series of steps, with or without landings, giving access from one level to another. 

Tread: The horizontal surface of a step. 

Riser: The upright (vertical) face of a step. 

Nosing: A rounded edge of a step tread that projects over the riser. 

Ramp: Any part of an accessible route with a running slope greater than 1:20 (5 percent). 



APPLICABLE STANDARDS 

Stairs 

Stair Handrails 

Ramps 

Ramp Handrails 



ADAAG 4.9 
ADAAG 4.9.4, 4.26 
ADAAG 4.8 
ADAAG 4.8.5, 4.26 



3-21 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

Although an accessible route does not include stairs, steps or escalators, it is important to 
understand the design standards for stairs because some people with disabilities prefer to 
use stairs instead of ramps. Stairs are required to comply with ADAAG 4.9 only where 
they connect levels not connected by ramps, elevators or lifts. However, ADAAG 4.9 
provides good design guidance even when not required. 

Ramps are an integral part of an accessible route and must contain specific features to 
ensure that they can be used by people with walking disabilities. 

Handrails are an important element of both stairs and ramps, thus specific applications of 
handrails must be understood. 

The following discussion addresses the most common problems encountered with stairs, 
ramps and handrails. Stairs are assumed to be covered by ADAAG 4.9. 

Checklist of Problems 

n Stair Treads, Risers and Nosings 

n Stair Handrails 

n Ramp Length, Slope and Width 

n Ramp Edge Protection and Handrails 

n Ramp Landings 



G Stair Treads, Risers and Nosings 

Problem; Many people have difficulty climbing steps, especially steps with high 
risers and narrow treads. 

Solution; All steps in a flight of stairs must have uniform tread depths and riser 
heights. The minimum tread depth is 11 in (280 mm). A safe comfortable riser 
height ranges from 5 in (127 mm) to 7 in (178 mm). Treads on outdoor steps 
should slope approximately 1/8 in (3 mm) in 12 in (304 mm). [4.9.2] 



Problem; Stair nosings that project too much make it difficult for people with 
prosthetic legs to climb because their feet can get caught in the projecting nosing. 

Solution; Nosings shall project no more than 1-1/2 in (38 mm). The underside of 
the nosing shall not be abrupt. The radius of curvature at the leading edge of the 
tread shall be no greater than 1/2 in (13 mm). Risers shall be sloped or the 
underside of the nosing shall have an angle not less than 60 degrees fi-om the 
horizontal. [4.9.3] 



3-22 



n Stair Handrails 

Problem; Some handrails are too high or too low. Others are too close to an 
adjacent wall. Some gripping diameters are so large that people with disabilities 
cannot use them. 

Solution; Handrails are required on both sides of all new stairways covered by the 
DOT rule. The handrail gripping surface shall be between 34 in (865 mm) and 38 
in (965 mm) above the stair nosing. The diameter of the gripping surface of the 
handrail shall be 1-1/4 in (32 mm) to 1-1/2 in (38 mm). Handrails that are attached 
to the wall shall be mounted so that there is 1-1/2 in (38 mm) clear distance between 
the wall and the gripping surface. [4.9.4] 



3-23 



Ramp Length, Slope and Width 

Problem: People with disabilities find it difficult to use extremely long or steep 
ramps. Ramps are sometimes too narrow for a person in a wheelchair to pass 
anyone. 

Solution; If the slope of a ramp is 1:12 the maximum length between landings 
(ramp run) is 30 ft (9.14 m). A length of 40 ft (12.19 m) can be used between 
landings when the slope is 1:16. Gently sloping walkways of 1:20 are not considered 
ramps. Ramps shall be a minimum of 36 in (915 mm) wide. A width of 60 in (1525 
mm) is necessary for two wheelchairs to pass each other. [4.8.2, Fig. 16] 



G Ramp Edge Protection and Handrails 

Problem: Some ramps do not have handrails or a curb along the edge. This is 
hazardous to people with disabilities since they could walk off the edge of the ramp. 

Slide Solution: All new ramps shall have curbs or rails along the sides. If a curb is used 
7 it shall be at least 2 in (50 mm) high and should be wide enough to accommodate 

a handrail installation. Handrails must be installed if any point on the ramp is 
higher than 6 in (150 mm) or when the horizontal length of the ramp is greater than 
72 in (1830 mm). Handrails shall be on both sides of the ramp and between 34 in 
(865 mm) and 38 in (965 mm) above the ramp surface. The gripping surface shall 
be 1-1/2 in (38 mm) away from the wall and 1-1/4 in (32 mm) to 1-1/2 in (38 mm) 
in diameter. [4.8.7, 4.8.5] 



n Ramp Landings 

Problem: Some ramps never have a level space where people in wheelchairs or 
people on crutches can stop and rest. 

Solution: Ramps shall have level landings at the bottom and top of each ramp run 
Slide [maximum of 30 ft (9.14 m)]. Landings shall be at least as wide as the ramp and 
8 shall be at least 60 in (1525 mm) long. If a ramp changes direction at a landing, the 

landing must be 60 in (1525 mm) by 60 in (1525 mm). [4.8.4] 



3-24 



SIGNAGE 

DEHNITIONS 

Signage: Messages conveyed by means of graphic symbols or lettering; verbal, symbolic, 
tactile and pictorial information. 

APPLICABLE STANDARDS 

Signage ADAAG 4.30 



3-25 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

Problems are encountered with sign placement and location, the character proportion of 
the text used on the sign, the finish of the material used for the sign, and the contrast 
between the text and the background. The following problems and solutions will illustrate 
the proper use of the signage standards. 

Checklist of Problems 

n Sign Location and Placement 
n Sign Legibility 



D Sign Location and Placement 

Problem; Street signs are often located too high to read or they are located behind 
other street furniture or trees where they cannot be seen. 

Solution; Signs should be located at a height that can be read by people in 
wheelchairs. Care must be taken when designing the size of the sign and the 
mounting assembly. 

Signs projecting from the walls of buildings over an accessible route with the leading 
edge between 27 in (685 mm) and 80 in (2030 mm) above the walkway surface can 
project no more than 4 in (100 mm) into the walkway. If the sign is mounted with 
the leading edge at or below 27 in (685 mm) or 80 in (2030 mm) above the walkway 
it may protrude any amount. Signs mounted on posts or pylons may overhang a 
maximum of 12 in (305 mm) if they are mounted between 27 in (685 mm) and 80 
in (2030 mm) above the walkway. [4.4.1] 



Problem; Signs mounted flat on walls or building surfaces are too high or there are 
pieces of street furniture or shrubs in the way so you cannot get close enough to 
read the text 

Solution; If a sign is mounted flat on a building or a wall the mounting height can 
Slide be 60 in (1525 mm) above the walkway to the center line of the sign. Signs that are 
9 mounted 80 in (2030 mm) or more above the walkway should have characters or 

letters with a minimum height of 3 in (75 mm). The area in front of the sign should 

be cleared so that people may position themselves within 3 in (76 mm) of the sign 

without encountering any obstacles. [4.30.6] 



3-26 



Sign Legibility 

Problem; The print on some signs is too small to read. Sometimes the letters are 
almost the same color as the sign background an in certain lights you cannot read 
the sign. Some signs have a plexiglass type cover on them which causes a glare and 
makes it difficult to read. 

Solution: The character proportions of letters and numbers on signs shall have a 
width-to-height ration between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke-width-to-height ratio 
between 1:5 to 1:10. Characters shall be sized according to the viewing distance 
from which they are read. If a sign is mounted 80 in (2030 mm) above the walkway 
surface the minimum character height is 3 in (75 mm). The characters and 
background of signs shall be eggshell, matte, or another non-glare finish. Characters 
and symbols shall contrast with their background — light characters on a dark 
background or dark characters on a light background. [4.30.2, 4.30.3, 4.30.5] 



Problem; Some persons with vision impairments cannot read a sign even though it 
has the proper character proportions and contrast. 

Slide Solution: Letters and numerals on signs which designate permanent rooms and 
10 spaces shall be raised 1/32 in (0.8 mm) upper case, sans serif or simple serif type and 
shall be accompanied with Grade 2 Braille. Raised characters shall be at least 5/8 
in (16 mm) high, but no higher than 2 in (50 mm). Pictograms shall be 
accompanied by the equivalent verbal (written) description placed directly below the 
pictogram. The border dimension of the pictogram shall be 6 in (162 mm) minimum 
in height. [4.30.4] 



3-27 



EXERCISES 

1. How wide must an accessible walkway be? 

(a) 24 in (610 mm) 

(b) 30 in (760 mm) 

(c) 36 in (915 mm) 

(d) 42 in (1065 mm) 

2. A walkway is considered a ramp if its slope is greater than . 

(a) 1:10 

(b) 1:12 

(c) 1:20 

(d) 1:30 

3. How wide must a curb ramp be? 

(a) 24 in (610 mm) 

(b) 36 in (915 mm) 

(c) 42 in (1065 mm) 

(d) 48 in (1220 mm) 

4. What is the maximum flare slope for a curb ramp? 

(a) 1:8 

(b) 1:10 

(c) 1:12 

(d) 1:16 

5. What is the minimum width of a crosswalk? 

(a) 4 ft (1.2 m) 

(b) 6 ft (1.8 m) 

(c) 8 ft (2.4 m) 

(d) 10 ft (3.1 m) 

6. What is the minimum width of the level area on a refuge island to ensure the safety 
of a person with a disability? 

(a) 4 ft (1.2 m) 

(b) 6 ft (1.8 m) 

(c) 8 ft (2.4 m) 

(d) 10 ft (3.1 m) 



3-28 



7. What is the minimum width of the tread (stepping surface) of a step? 

(a) 7 in (175 mm) 

(b) 9 in (230 mm) 

(c) 11 in (280 mm) 

(d) 12 in (300 mm) 

8. If a ramp changes direction, a level landing is required. What are the minimum 
dimensions of the landing? 

(a) 48 in (1220 mm) by 48 in (1220 mm) 

(b) 48 in (1220 mm) by 60 in (1525 mm) 

(c) 54 in (1370 mm) by 54 in (1370 mm) 

(d) 60 in (1525 mm) by 60 in (1525 mm) 



3-29 



UNIT 4-1 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE BETWEEN THE TRANSIT FACILITY ENTRANCE AND 

THE BOARDING PLATPORM - BUS STOPS 

SCOPE 

The Department of Transportation rules implementing the facility accessibility requirements 
of ADA can be found in 49 CFR Part 37, Subpart C - Transportation Facilities. Appendix 
A to 49 CFR Part 37, Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities, Section 10. 
Transportation Facilities, addresses the specific design standards for bus stops. 

Bus stop is a general term which encompasses all of the elements associated with the access 
to the loading area or bus stop pad, the interface area between the bus lift or ramp and the 
bus stop pad, the shelter, if provided, and the bus route signage. 

This unit will address the barriers that may be encountered due to location and placement 
of the bus stop and also the barriers that may be encountered when approaching the bus 
stop area. 

Since most bus stops are placed on existing sidewalks, the transit agency may not have 
direct jurisdiction. However, where bus stop pads are built by, or on behalf of, the transit 
agency, the transit agency must ensure compliance with the standards in Appendix A to 49 
CFR Part 37. If jurisdiction is shared, the transit agency must exert whatever authority it 
has to ensure compliance to the extent possible. Moreover, when siting bus stops on public 
sidewalks, the transit agency must choose the spot which most closely complies, within 
other necessary constraints. Also, when erecting new signs at existing stops, the transit 
agency must meet certain requirements for signage. 

Unless otherwise noted, the material which follows assumes the transit agency has control 
of the specified design or construction element 



4-1-1 



DEnNITIONS 

Commuter Bus Service: Fixed route bus service, characterized by service predominantly 
in one direction during peak periods, limited stops, use of multi-ride tickets, and routes of 
extended length usually between the central business district and outlying suburbs. 

Demand Responsive System: Any system of transporting individuals including the 
provisions of designated public transportation service by public entities and the provision 
of transportation service by private entities, including but not limited to specified public 
service which is not a fixed route system. 

Fbced route system: A system of transporting individuals including the provisions of 
designated public transportation service by public entities and the provision of designated 
public transportation service by private entities, including but not limited to specified public 
transportation service on which a vehicle is operated along a prescribed route according to 
a fixed schedule. 

Bus Stop: An area dedicated by signage or pavement markings or a specially designed 
turnout or pull through area for on- or off-loading passengers. 

Bus Stop Sign: A sign located at a bus stop area which identifies the transit provider and 
may identify the bus routes and schedules served at that stop. 

Bus Passenger Shelter: A shelter located at a bus stop which can be used by individuals 
waiting to board a bus. 

Bus Stop Pad: A firm stable surface located parallel to a roadway on a slope parallel with 
the roadway and connected to the sidewalk or pedestrian way. 



4-1-2 



APPLICABLE STANDARDS 

Bus Stops and Terminals ADAAG 10.2 

Accessible Route ADAAG 4.3 

Protruding Objects ADAAG 4.4 

Signage ADAAG 4.30.2, 4.30.3, 4.30.5 

Other Service Requirements ADAAG 37.167 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

Slides 1 and 2 

Bus stops are a common feature at urban and suburban intersections. Stops may be 
located on the near (approach) side or the far (exit) side of the intersection. The location 
is generally determined by city traffic engineers with consideration given to service and 
safety to bus system patrons, efficiency of transit operations and traffic operation in 
general. Bus stops in a terminal area are generally laid out in a "sawtooth" configuration. 

Numerous problems can arise when a bus stop is being located. The following checklist will 
address some of the common problems encountered. 

Checklist of Problems 

D Bus Stop Siting 

n Bus Stop Layout and Placement 

D Bus Stop Pads 

n Bus Passenger Shelters 

n Bus Stop Signage 

n Bus Route Information 

n Enforcement 



4-1-3 



Bus Stop Siting 

Problem: Many bus stops are located where there is not enough room to deploy the 
lift or ramp used by people in wheelchairs to board the bus. 

Solution; There are many factors that must be considered in locating a bus stop. 
Traffic flow and safety are major concerns to traffic engineers and efficient safe 
transit operations are concerns of the transit operator. Since most bus stops are 
located on property that is not under the control of the operator it is important that 
the transit provider work closely with the local jurisdiction's department of public 
works to identify sites for bus stops that can accommodate the proper layout, 
placement, and size for the bus stops. [10.2.2] 



D Bus Stop Layout and Placement 

Slide Problem: Bus stops located along suburban arterials are sometimes difficult to get 
3 to. 

Solution: Bus stops shall be connected to streets, sidewalks or pedestrian paths by 
an accessible route complying with ADAAG 4.3 and 4.4. [10.2.1(1)] 



Slide Problem; Some bus stops are placed several feet from the roadway and it is difficult 
4 to traverse the unstable surface between the stop area and the bus. 

Solution: Bus stops should be placed so it is possible to connect them with a 
continuous stable firm surface between the sidewalk or pedestrian path that provides 
access to the bus stop area and the boarding or alighting point of the bus vehicle. 



Slide Problem; Some bus stop areas are laid out so that the slope of the bus stop surface 
5 is level and the roadway is going up a hill. This prevents the lift from sitting flat on 

the ground when lowered. 

Solution: The slope of the bus stop area or pad parallel to the roadway shall, to the 
extent practicable, be the same as the roadway. [10.2.1(1)] 



4-1-4 



Problem; Some bus stops are laid out so that they have a severe slope 
perpendicular either toward or away from the street which limits the operations of 
a bus lift 

Solutions; Bus stop areas or pads shall have a minimum slope of 1:50 (2 percent) 
perpendicular to the roadway. This slope will provide adequate drainage. 
[10.2.1(1)] 



Slide Problem; Utility poles, street lights and large trees near or adjacent to the bus stop 
6 pad often restrict the access to the bus. 

Solution; Bus stops should be located a sufficient distance from utility poles, street 
lights and trees to allow for the minimum clear width of 60 in (1525 mm) measured 
parallel to the roadway and a minimum clear length of 96 in (2440 mm) measured 
perpendicular to the roadway. [10.2.1(1)] 



Slide Problem; Bus stops are often placed on a sidewalk where there is a lot of existing 
7 street furniture (benches, trash receptacles, newspaper dispensers) which restrict 

access to the bus stop and make it difficult for people in wheelchairs to align 

themselves to get on the lift or ramp. 

Solution; Street furniture that obstructs the use of a bus stop should be removed 
or relocated to a mid-block location where there is less congestion. 



Slide Problem; Some bus stops are located directly behind a drainage inlet in the gutter. 
8 These drainage inlets generally have a removable concrete top which can be broken 

or displaced if it is hit by a bus tire. 

Solution; Avoid locating a bus stop over the top of a drainage inlet. If the drainage 
inlet cannot be avoided put a permanent cover over the inlet with a man-hole cover 
to provide a way to clean out the drain. 



4-1-5 



n Bus Stop Pads 

Problem; Some bus stop pads are at the same level as the roadway and there is no 
way for a person with visual impairments to determine if he/she is standing in the 
roadway. 

Solution: If a bus stop is on a transit agency's property or site and the bus stop pad 
is at the same level as the roadway and there are no curbs, railings or other 
elements separating the vehicle areas from the pedestrian areas the boundary 
between the areas shall be defined by a continuous detectable warning which is 36 
in (915 mm) wide complying with ADAAG 4.29.2. Note: If the bus stop pad is 
NOT designed or constructed by the transit agency, the detectable warning may not 
be required. [4.29.2] 



Problem: Some bus stop pads are not long enough, so the lift or ramp extends 
beyond the pad. 

Slide Solution; New bus stop pads shall have a minimum clear length of 96 in (2440 mm) 
9 measured from the curb or vehicle roadway edge and a minimum clear width of 60 

in (1525 mm) measured parallel to the vehicle roadway to the maximum extent 

feasible with existing site constraints. [10.2.1(1)] 



Problem; How is a transit agency supposed to construct bus stop pads at all the bus 
stops along the city streets and suburban arterials? 

Solution: Section 10.2.1(1) does not require that bus stop pads be built; it does 
specify what a bus stop pad must look like if it is constructed. 

Section 37.9(c) further explains that public entities must exert control over the 
construction of bus stop pads if they have the ability to do so. The Access Board 
and DOT realize that most physical improvements related to bus stops are out of 
the control of the transit provider. Section 37.9(c) states that if the transit provider 
has control over construction it must meet the standards. [10.2.1(1), 37.9(c)] 



4-1-6 



Problem: Many bus stop pads, especially in suburban areas, get soft and muddy 
after it rains or during the winter months, which makes it difficult for people in 
wheelchairs to negotiate. 

Solution; New bus stop pads shall have a firm stable surface. For water drainage 
a maximum slope of 1:50 (2 percent) perpendicular to the roadway is allowed. 
Where there are no pads, the transit agency should consider constructing them or 
encouraging the appropriate jurisdiction to do so. [10.2.1(1)] 



n Bus Passenger Shelters 

Problem: Some bus passenger shelters are designed and located such that a person 
in a wheelchair cannot use them. 

Slide Solution: Bus passenger shelters should be designed with access openings at least 
10 32 in (1370 mm) wide. For a front approach, maneuvering clearance at the 
openings should be 48 in (1220 mm) long with the width the same as the opening. 
For a side approach, the maneuvering area should be 42 in (1065 mm) long by 54 
in (1370 mm) wide. A minimum clear floor area of 30 in (760 mm) by 48 in (1220 
mm), entirely within the perimeter of the shelter shall be provided. The shelter 
shall be connected by an accessible route to the boarding area. [4.13.6, 10.2.1(2)] 



Slide Problem: The benches in the shelter that are installed at a bus stop area that is 
11 sloping the same way as a steep parallel roadway are too high on one end for people 
with certain disabilities to use. 

Solution: Fixed or built-in benches should be from 16 in (406 mm) to 20 in (508 
mm) from the ground and should be a uniform height. If the height between the 
bench and the ground cannot be kept relatively uniform because the bench is 
located on the back wall of the shelter (parallel to a steep roadway) then the bench 
should be repositioned on a side wall of the shelter (perpendicular to the roadway). 
Sufficient clear area for a wheelchair [e.g., 30 in (760 mm) by 48 in (1220 mm)] 
must be maintained within the shelter. [10.2.1(2)] 



4-1-7 



Problem; Some bus passenger shelters are located so close to the street that a 
person in a wheelchair cannot pass between the shelter and the curb. Other shelters 
are located adjacent to utility poles, signs or street lights which restrict access 
between the shelter and the curb. 

Solution; When locating a shelter provide a minimum of 36 in (915 mm) of width 
between the curb and the shelter or between any existing pole and the shelter. 
ADAAG Fig. 7(b) shows that, if a wheelchair user must turn around an obstruction 
(such as the wall of the shelter), a minimum clear distance from the curb of 48 in 
(1065 mm) is required. For safety reasons, even more clearance from the curb edge 
is desirable. [4.3.3] 



4-1-8 



□ Bus Stop Signage 

Slide Problem: Many bus stop signs have route information printed on them but the sign 

12 is mounted so high or the route information is printed so small that people with 
impaired vision and people in wheelchairs cannot read the sign. 

Solution; When provided, all new bus route identification signs shall comply with 
Slide the following. The characters and background of signs shall be eggshell, matte or 

13 other non-glare finish. Characters and symbols shall contrast with their background 
- either light characters on a dark background or dark characters on a light 
background. In addition, to the maximum extent practicable, all new bus route 
identification signs shall comply with ADAAG 4.30.2 and 4.30.3. ADAAG 4.30.2 
and 4.30.3 require that letters and numbers on signs shall have a width-to-height 
ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke-width-to-height ratio between 1:5 and 1:10. 

Characters and numbers on signs shall be sized according to the viewing distance 
fi-om which they are to be read. The minimum height is measured using an upper 
case X. Lower case characters are permitted. If the sign is mounted 80 in (2030 
mm) above the walkway, the minimum character height shall be 3 in (75 mm). Signs 
are mounted at 80 in (2030 mm) above the ground when the sign protrudes more 
than 12 in (305 mm) beyond the post Route signs could be mounted on the wall 
of the shelter when a shelter is present This would make the sign readable by 
people in wheelchairs. If mounted on the wall of the shelter the center of the sign 
should be 60 in (1525 mm) from the ground surface. [10.2.1(3), 4.30.2, 4.30.3, 
4.30.5] 



Problem: People who are blind cannot tell when they are at a bus stop and when 
they determine they are, they do not know what routes serve that stop. 

Solution; Bus stop signs could be placed on a post that has a unique cross section 
Slide so that blind people could feel the size/shape of the post and know they are at a bus 
14 stop. 

Route information (e.g., the routes that stop at a specific bus stop) could be placed 
on the sign post in Braille either on a small plaque or tack welded onto the post. 
As the different buses stop at a multi-route stop the drivers should be sensitive to 
the various disabilities and call out the bus route number. The DOT rule requires 
that operators either provide a means by which a person with a vision impairment 
can identify the bus or a means by which the person can identify himself or herself 
as a person seeking a ride on a particular route. [37.167, p. 45755] 



4-1-9 



Problem: Many local jurisdictions have passed ordinances which restrict the size of 
signs. At a multi-route stop if all of the route information is placed on a sign face 
in compliance with the ADAAG standards 4.30.2 and 4.30.3 the sign will be larger 
than permitted by the local ordinance. 

Solution: Signs that are sized to the maximum dimensions permitted under 
legitimate local, state or federal regulations or ordinances shall be considered in 
compliance. In other words, use the maximum legal size of a sign and adjust the 
size of print as close to 3 in (75 mm) as possible so that all required route 
information will fit on the sign. [10.2.1(3)] 



4-1-10 



Bus Route Information 

Problem; Bus route schedules, time tables and maps are sometimes posted within 
the shelter at a bus stop. These are printed small and it is difficult for persons with 
visual impairments to read them. 

Solution; Although the standards do not require schedules, time tables or maps to 
comply with ADAAG 4.30.2 and 4.30.3, the transit service provider should make 
every effort to provide schedules and maps in large bold print and Braille whenever 
possible. [10.2.1(3)] 



D Enforcement 

Slide Problem; Buses cannot pull up to the bus stop pad to engage the lift or ramp 
15 because cars or delivery trucks are parked near or in the bus stop area. 

Solution; Bus stops must be clearly marked. The limits of the bus stop must be large 
enough for the bus to pull in close and parallel to the curb. Transit service 
providers should work closely with local police to enforce the no parking and no 
standing regulations at bus stops. In general, far-side bus stops are better than near- 
side stops. 



4-1-11 



EXERCISES 

1. The roadway is on an uphill grade. A bus stop is planned along the roadway. How 
should the bus stop pad be designed? 

(a) On the same grade as the roadway. 

(b) As level as practicable. 

(c) Half way between level and the grade of the roadway. 

2. The slope of a bus stop pad, perpendicular to the roadway, can affect the operation 
of the platform lift. Therefore, the pad should . 

(a) slope away from the roadway on a 1:50 slope 

(b) be level 

(c) slope toward the roadway on a 1:50 slope 

3. What is the minimum clear length of a newly constructed bus stop pad? 

(a) 36 in (915 mm) 

(b) 48 in (1220 mm) 

(c) 60 in (1525 mm) 

(d) 96 in (2440 mm) 

4. How is the clear length measured? 

(a) Perpendicular to the roadway edge. 

(b) Parallel to the roadway edge. 

5. What is the minimum clear width of a newly constructed bus stop pad? 

(a) 36 in (915 mm) 

(b) 48 in (1220 mm) 

(c) 60 in (1525 mm) 

(d) 72 in (1830 mm) 

6. The ADA Standards do not require that bus stop pads be built, but they do specify 
what a bus stop pad must look like if one is constructed. ADA requires bus stop 
pads to be . 

(a) concrete 

(b) asphalt 

(c) brick 

(d) stable and firm surface 



4-1-12 



7. If a bus stop sign is on a post at approximately 80 in (2030 mm) above the ground, 
what is the proper height of the letters on the sign? 

(a) 5/8 in (15 mm) 

(b) 1 in (25 mm) 

(c) 2 in (50 mm) 

(d) 3 in (75 mm) 



4-1-13 



UNIT 4-2 
ACCESSIBLE ROUTE BETWEEN THE TRANSIT FACILITY ENTRANCE AND 
THE BOARDING PLATFORM - BUS TERMINALS/RAIL STATIONS 



SCOPE 

The Department of Transportation rules implementing the facility accessibility requirements 
of ADA can be found at two levels of detail. The first area which addresses the more 
general requirements is contained in 49 CFR Part 37, Subpart C - Transportation Facilities. 
The second, more specific design criteria is contained in tiie ADA Accessibility Guidelines 
for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG). Section 10, Transportation Facilities, includes 
additional requirements specific to transportation facilities. 

This unit will address the barriers that may be encountered when entering into, circulating 
through, and exiting a bus terminal or rail station. The unit addresses those accessible 
features that are required throughout the terminal/station area and on the boarding 
platform. 

Unless otherwise noted, this section deals with design construction or alteration carried 
out by or on behalf of a transit agency. 



4-2-1 



DEnNITIONS 

"New" Transportation Facility: A facility or station on which construction began (i.e., 
issuance of notice to proceed to a construction contractor) after January 25, 1992, or in the 
case of intercity or commuter rail stations, after October 7, 1991. 

Primary function: A major activity for which the transportation facility or station is 
intended. Areas that involve primary functions include, but are not limited to, ticket 
purchase and collection areas, passenger waiting areas, train or bus platforms, baggage 
checking and return areas and employment areas. 

Altered Area: An existing facility or part of an existing facility that because of alterations 
affects or could affect the usability of the facility or part of the facility in providing 
designated public transportation services. Alterations for which a notice to proceed or 
work order was issued after January 25, 1992, or for commuter or intercity rail stations 
after October 7, 1991 are covered by ADAAG. 

Path of Travel: A continuous unobstructed way of pedestrian passage by means of which 
the altered area may be approached, entered, and exited and which connects the altered 
area with an exterior approach (including sidewalks, parking areas and streets) an entrance 
to the facility, and other parts of the facility. Path of travel also includes the restrooms, 
telephones, and drinking fountains serving the altered area. 

Accessible Path of Travel: A continuous unobstructed way of pedestrian passage which 
may include walks and sidewalks, curb ramps and other interior or exterior pedestrian 
ramps, clear floor paths through corridors, waiting areas, concourses, and other improved 
areas, parking access aisles, elevators and lifts, bridges, tunnels, or other passageways 
between platforms, or a combination of these and other elements. 

Key Stations in Light and Rapid Rail Systems and Commuter Rail Systems: Stations 
identified by a public entity or commuter rail authority through a prescribed public 
participation process and through the consideration of the following criteria: 

(1) Stations where passenger boardings exceed average station passenger boardings on 
the rail system by at least fifteen percent, unless such a station is close to another 
accessible station. 

(2) Transfer stations on a rail line or between rail lines. 

(3) Major interchange points with other transportation modes, including stations with 
major parking facilities, bus terminals, intercity or commuter rail stations, passenger 
vessel terminals or airports. 

(4) End stations, unless close to another accessible station. 



4-2-2 



(5) Stations serving major activity centers such as employment or government centers, 
institutions of higher education, hospitals or other major health care facilities or 
other facilities that are major trip generators for individuals with disabilities. 

Intercity Rail Facility: Facilities served by intercity rail passenger cars which are rail cars 
intended for use by the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak). Intercity rail 
stations shall be made readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use wheelchairs, as soon as practicable but in no event later than 
July 26, 2010. 



4-2-3 



APPLICABLE STANDARDS 



Transportation Facilities 

Transportation Facilities 

Entrances 

Accessible Route 

Signage [Exception 10.3.1(4)] 

Automated Teller Machines 

Controls and Operating Mechanisms 

Doors 

Detectable Warnings 

Telephones 

Elevators [Exception 10.3.1(17)] 

Sales and Service Counters, Teller 

Windows, Information Counters 
Space Allowance and Reach Ranges 
Alterations to an Area Containing a 

Primary Function 



49 CFR Part 37, Subpart C 

ADAAG 10 

ADAAG 4.14 

ADAAG 4.3 

ADAAG 4.30 

ADAAG 4.34 

ADAAG 4.27 

ADAAG 4.13 

ADAAG 4.29 

ADAAG 4.31 

ADAAG 4.10 

ADAAG 7.2 

ADAAG 4.2 
ADAAG 4.1.6(2) 



4-2-4 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

Problems and solutions will be addressed at two levels of detail: (1) General Requirements 
and (2) Specific Design Requirements. 

Checklist of Problems - General Requirements 

n New Construction and Alterations by Public Entities 

n Key Stations (Light, Rapid, & Commuter Rail) 

n Intercity Rail Accessibility 

□ Exceptions 



n New Construction and Alterations by Public Entities 

SHde Problem; A notice to proceed was issued on January 28, 1992 for the construction 
1 of a multi-million dollar multi-modal transportation center. The center has a rapid 

rail station, a commuter rail station, a collector bus terminal, a large multi-level 
parking garage, a day-care center and direct pedestrian connections to a major 
shopping center. The design for this transportation complex was developed over a 
two-year period and the design standards required compliance with UFAS and ANSI 
A117.1 - 1980, Standards. "Actual" construction of the complex did not start until 
February 24, 1992. What, if any, modifications have to be made to ensure that the 
transportation complex fully complies with the American with Disabilities Act. 

Solution; The Rule requires that all new facilities constructed after January 25, 
1992 be accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities. The requirement 
is keyed to construction which "begins" after January 25, 1992. The regulation 
defines "begin" to mean when a notice to proceed order has been issued. Since 
notice to proceed was issued after January 25, 1992, this entire transportation 
complex must be constructed in compliance with the ADAAG Standards. 

Since the ADAAG standards contain additional requirements than UFAS and ANSI 
A117.1 - 1980, a review of the design should be initiated and appropriate changes 
must be added by modification to the construction contract. Note: ADAAG 
requires areas used as work areas to be accessible so that a person with disabilities 
or a person in a wheelchair can approach and enter and exit the work area. This 
requirement applies even if the employees who work in the work area are not 
disabled. [37.41, p. 45627, p. 45738] 



4-2-5 



Problem: Some major alteration projects are being planned for several rail stations 
on the system. The Rule requires a public entity undertaking alterations that affect 
or could affect the usability of or access to an area of a facility containing a primary 
function to make the alterations in such a manner that . . . 
What is the definition of a primary function? 

Solution; Primary function is a major activity for which the facility is intended. 
Areas of transportation facilities that involve primary functions include but are not 
limited to: 

Ticket purchases and collection areas 

Passenger waiting areas 

Train and bus platforms 

Baggage checking and return areas 

Employment areas 

Note: Employment areas involving non-occupiable spaces accessed only by ladders, 
catwalks, crawl spaces, very narrow passageways, or freight (non-passenger) elevators 
which are frequented only by maintenance and repair personnel are not required to 
be accessible to persons with disabilities. [37.43, p. 45627, p. 45739] 



4-2-6 



Problem; A large rail station alteration contract was awarded on December 17, 
1991. On January 30, 1992 the notice to proceed was issued to the contractor. The 
alteration contract contains a number of items that specifically address accessibility. 
When the design was done for the project, UFAS and ANSI A117.1 - 1980 
Standards were used to ensure that the altered work would comply with each and 
every element in UFAS and ANSI A117.1 - 1980. Since all of the design work was 
completed, the construction work advertised and a construction contract awarded 
before the effective date of the rule (January 25, 1992), it is assumed that no 
additional work will need to be done to make the station fully accessible. 

Solution; Even though the construction contract was awarded prior to January 25, 
1992 and the design fully complied with UFAS and ANSI A117.1 standards, the 
Rule requires that any alteration which "begins" after January 25, 1992 (or in the 
case of intercity and commuter rail stations after October 7, 1991) must comply with 
ADAAG standards. The regulation defines "begin" to mean notice to proceed. 
Since notice to proceed was not given until January 30, 1992, the alteration contract 
must be modified to incorporate the new ADAAG standards. [37.43, p.45627, p. 
45739] 



Problem; A transit agency made several alterations to a rail station in 1990, and all 
of the alterations were in conformance with UFAS and ANSI A117.1 - 1980. Do 
the alterations have to be changed to comply with ADAAG? 

Solution; Previous alterations made in conformance with UFAS (for federally 
funded projects) are deemed to be accessible but only to the extent a specific 
element is covered by the applicable standard. For example, an elevator provided 
in conformance with UFAS is acceptable even if it is not glazed. 



4-2-7 



Problem: Alterations are planned for the platform of a commuter rail station. The 
platform will be raised to provide level boarding onto the new cars, a detectable 
warning strip will be added to the platform edge and signs will be upgraded to 
comply with the ADAAG standards. Coincidentally, the ticketing area and turnstile 
gates will be on the same level as the new raised platform. An existing pedestrian 
passageway leads from the ticketing area up a slight incline to a flight of four steps. 
Once past the steps, the street is accessible by an elevator which serves another 
station. The only alterations that are planned are those associated with the 
platform. 

Solution; The Rule requires a public entity or the owner of, or entity in control of, 
a commuter rail station undertaking alterations that affect or could affect the 
usability of, or access to, an area of a facility containing a primary function, to make 
the alterations in such a manner that, to the maximum extent feasible, the path of 
travel to the altered area and the bathrooms, telephones and drinking fountains 
serving the altered area are accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use wheelchairs. Provided that, alterations to the path of 
travel, drinking fountains and bathrooms are not required to be made accessible and 
usable if the cost and scope of doing so would be disproportionate to the planned 
alteration. 

Because of the Rule, the public entity must consider the costs of making the 
following non-accessible elements accessible: (1) the gates between the platform 
and the ticketing area, (2) the ticketing area, and (3) the pedestrian way between 
the ticketing area and the elevator to the street. This would require: (1) replacing 
the turnstiles with an accessible gate having a minimum clear opening of 32 in (815 
mm) and having a smooth continuous surface extending from 2 in (50 mm) above 
the floor to 27 in (685 mm) above the floor and complying with all applicable 
specifications in ADAAG 4.13 Doors; (2) altering the ticketing area to comply with 
all applicable specifications in ADAAG 7.2 Sales and Service Counters, Teller 
Windows, Information Counters; (3) replacing the stairs in the pedestrian 
passageway with a ramp complying with ADAAG 4.8 Ramps and ensuring that the 
pedestrian passageway complies with ADAAG 4.3 Accessible Routes, 4.4 Protruding 
Objects and 4.5 Ground and Floor Surfaces. 

If the costs of altering the turnstiles, ticketing area and steps is less than twenty 
percent of the cost of the platform alterations, all of the alterations must be 
undertaken. 

Note: If telephones, restrooms, and a drinking fountain are available for use by the 
general public along the path of travel between the platform and the elevator to the 
street in the other station, then: (1) the telephones must be made to comply with 
ADAAG 4.31 Telephones, (2) the restrooms must be made accessible (e.g., grab 
bars ADAAG 4.26, enlarged toilet stalls ADAAG 4.17, accessible faucet controls 
ADAAG 4.19), and (3) the drinking fountain must be made to comply with 
ADAAG 4.15 Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers. 



4-2-8 



Problem; In the previous problem, how should the improvements be prioritized if 
some can be done and others cannot because of the disproportion to the cost of the 
alteration guidelines. 

Solution: Priority should be given to the elements that will provide the greatest 
access, in the following order: 

(1) An accessible entrance 

(2) An accessible route to the altered area from the entrance 

(3) At least one accessible restroom for each sex or a single unisex 
restroom (where there are one or more restrooms) 

(4) Accessible telephones (including text telephones) 

(5) Accessible drinking fountains [37.43, p. 45628] 



Problem; Some station alteration work has been designed with in-house forces. 
The implementation (construction) of the alterations will also be accomplished with 
in-house maintenance personnel, that is, no construction contract will be awarded. 
Since a notice to proceed will not be issued, what is the triggering event that is 
equivalent to the notice to proceed? 

Solution; When alteration work is scheduled to be done with in-house forces, the 
date the work order is signed by the approving official is the official start date for 
construction. (35.43, p. 45627, p. 45739) 



4-2-9 



Key Stations (Light, Rapid and Commuter Rail) 

Problem; Using the criteria for defining key stations, it has been determined that 
ten stations are key on a particular system. The policy of the Board of Directors is 
full compliance with ADA, but because of funding limitations and the time it takes 
to implement a change (e.g., select a designer, design, advertise, award, and 
construction) it is not likely that all of the key stations will be modified to meet the 
ADAAG standards by the required date of July 26, 1993. 

Solution: A rail operator may request an extension of the July 26, 1993 completion 
deadline for accessibility modifications to one or more key stations. The extension 
for light rail and rapid rail stations can be up to July 2020, though two-thirds of the 
key stations must be accessible by July 2010. Commuter rail stations can be 
extended up to July 2010. The extension is granted by FTA on a station-by-station 
basis. To justify an extension, it must be shown that making a station accessible 
requires extraordinarily expensive alterations, such as raising the entire platform, 
installing an elevator, or alterations of similar cost and magnitude. An extension 
cannot be granted for Station A that requires some non-extraordinarily expensive 
changes because Station B which has extraordinarily expensive changes will require 
all of the available resources. In other words, non-extraordinarily expensive charges, 
however costly, when considered collectively for a system are not grounds for 
granting an extension. [37.47 & 37.51, p. 45628, p. 45739] 



Problem; Major alterations were completed at a rapid rail transfer station in June 
of 1990. These alterations made the station fully accessible in compliance with 
UFAS. This station has recently been designated a key station. A detailed survey 
was conducted and the station fully complies with UFAS and ANSI A117.1, 1980. 
What additional work, if any, must be done at the station? 

Solution: An earlier alteration of an entire station in accordance with UFAS or the 
ANSI standard does not relieve an entity from compliance with ADAAG standards 
for individual elements and spaces that were not covered in the UFAS or ANSI 
standards. For example, if a particular individual element is required by the 
ADAAG standards but was not required by the UFAS or ANSI standards, that 
element would now be required at the key station. Note: If federal financial 
assistance was used to alter a facility, the UFAS would have applied. If a facility 
was altered without federal financial assistance, the ANSI standards would have 
applied. 



4-2-10 



Intercity Rail Stations 

Problem; A commuter rail system is being planned. Several of the stations that are 
to be used by the commuter rail train are intercity rail stations used by Amtrak 
trains. Are requirements for stations under the control of Amtrak different than 
those for rapid rail or commuter rail? 

Solution; All intercity rail stations shall be made readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities including individuals who use wheelchairs, as soon as 
practicable, but in no event later that July 26, 2010. This requirement is separate 
from and in addition to the requirements discussed in the previous Problems/ 
Solutions for Rapid, Light and Commuter Rail Stations. [37.55, p. 45629] Where 
intercity and commuter rail systems share the station, the parties are expected to 
come to an agreement on how to share responsibility. Detailed guidance is provided 
in Appendix D to the DOT rule [37.49, p. 45740]. Where different parties have 
different schedules or deadlines for modification, the "late" part of the work should 
not get in the way of people's use of modifications resulting from the "early" part 
[37.59, p. 45741] 



4-2-11 



Checklist of Problems - Specific Design Requirements 



D 


Entrances 


D 


Accessible Routes/Circulation Paths 




n Escalators 




n Elevators 




n Illumination 




D Public Address Systems 




D Clocks 




D Telephones 


D 


Fare Collection/Ticketing Areas 


n Baggage Check/Claim Areas 


D 


Platforms 




n Station Identification Signs 




D Station, Route, Destination Signs 




n Platform Edge 




D PlatformA^ehicle Gap 




D Track Crossings 



4-2-12 



Entrances (New Construction and Key Stations) 

Problem; There are four entrances at one of the existing stations that has been 
designated as a key station. Do all four have to be made accessible? What are the 
design requirements for an accessible entrance to a rail station? 

Solution; ADAAG 10.3.2(1) requires at least one accessible entrance to a key 
station. 

The circulation path, including an accessible entrance and an accessible route shall, 
to the maximum extent practicable coincide with those used by the majority of the 
general public. 



Slide Problem; A new rapid rail station is under design. Four entrances are planned for 
2 the station. Entrance A will serve a direct connection pedestrian passageway from 
a Regional Shopping Mall and Condominium Complex. Entrance B will connect to 
a commuter rail station. Entrance C will serve a multi-level commuter parking 
garage and a bus terminal area where the local feeder bus routes arrive and depart. 
Entrance D will serve several surface parking lots and a bus terminal area where the 
regional commuter bus routes arrive and depart. Since cost is a major factor in the 
feasibility of this rapid rail station, the designer has been instructed to design the 
minimum acceptable accessible entrances. How many of the entrances must be 
made accessible? 

Solution; If the station is designed as planned all four entrances must be made 
accessible to comply with the following ADAAG standards. At least one entrance 
to each new rapid rail station shall be accessible (comply with ADAAG 4.14 
Entrances). ADAAG 4.14 requires entrances to serve transportation stops, parking 
and public sidewalks. In addition, if different entrances to a station serve different 
transportation fixed routes or groups of fixed routes, at least one entrance serving 
each group or route shall be accessible (comply with ADAAG 4.14 Entrances). All 
accessible entrances shall, to the maximum extent practicable, coincide with those 
used by the majority of the general public. [10.3.1(2)] 

Direct connections to commercial, retail or residential facilities shall have an 
accessible route complying with ADAAG 4.3 from the point of connection to 
boarding platforms and all transportation system elements used by the public. 
[10.3.1(3)] 



4-2-13 



Slide Problem: Once it has been detennined what entrance should be made accessible, 
3 how will people with disabilities know which one it is? 

Solution: Entrances which are not accessible shall have directional signage 
complying with 4.30.1, 2, 3 and 5, which indicates the location of the nearest 
accessible entrance. The characters on the directional signage shall have a width-to- 
height ratio between 3:5 to 1:1 and a stroke-width-to-height ration between 1:5 to 
1:10 (4.30.2). Characters shall be sized according to the viewing distance from which 
they are read with the minimum height measured using an upper case X. Minimum 
character height shall be 3 in (75 mm) when the bottom of the sign is mounted 80 
in (2030 mm) above the floor. [4.30.3, 4.4.2] 

The characters and background of the signs shall be eggshell, matte, or other non- 
glare finish. Characters shall contrast with their background - either light characters 
on a dark background or dark characters on a light background (4.30.5). The 
accessible entrance shall be identified with a sign containing the international ^onbol 
of accessibility. [10.3.1(1), 4.30.7(1)] Where signs are provided at entrances to 
stations identifying the station or the entrance, or both, at least one sign at each 
entrance shall comply with 4.30.4 and 4.30.6. Such signs shall be placed in uniform 
locations at entrances within the transit system to the maximum extent practicable. 
These station entrance signs, if provided, shall have characters which are raised 1/32 
in (0.8 mm) in upper case, sans serif or simple serif type and shall be accompanied 
with Grade 2 Braille. The raised characters shall be at least 5/8 in (16 mm) high, 
but no higher than 2 in (50 mm). If pictograms are used they shall have a minimum 
border dimension height of 6 in (152 mm). Each pictogram shall be accompanied 
by the equivalent verbal description placed directly below the pictogram. (4.30.4) 
The sign identifying the station entrance shall be installed on the nearest adjacent 
wall if applicable mounted at 60 in (1525 mm) from the floor to the centerline of 
the sign. The sign shall be mounted in a location so that a person may approach 
within 3 in (76 mm) of the sign without encountering protruding objects or standing 
within the swing of a door. [4.30.6] 

If the station does not have a defined entrance, but signage is provided as outlined 
above, then the accessible signage shall be placed in a central location. 

If it is not obvious what constitutes a "uniform location at entrances" or a "central 
location" where there is no defined entrance, the transit agency should discuss the 
issue with the local community of persons with vision impairments or organizations 
representing them. 



4-2-14 



Accessible Routes and Circulation Paths (New Construction and Key Stations) 

Problem; Many times the routes that have been made accessible are circuitous and 
go through some isolated areas where there are very few people. 

Elevators have been installed in some stations that provide service from the street 
directly to one end of a side platform station serving the northbound trains. If a 
person with disabilities is on the street level and wants to catch a southbound train 
he or she must use the elevator access to the northbound platform, traverse a long 
route to an elevator that connects the northbound platform to a platform below on 
another line and then get another elevator which connects the line below to the 
southbound platform. This rather lengthy circulation path is difficult for persons 
with disabilities. There are no signs or instruction to show a person in a wheelchair 
how to get from the street level to the southbound train platform. 

Solution; Elements such as ramps, elevator, or other circulation devices, fare 
vending or other ticketing areas and fare collection areas shall be placed to minimize 
the distance which wheelchair users and other persons who cannot negotiate steps 
may have to travel compared to the general public. The circulation path, including 
an accessible entrance and an accessible route, shall, to the maximum extent 
practicable, coincide with the circulation path used by the general public. If a 
circuitous route must be used to gain access to a transportation facility or if the 
accessible route is different than the route used by the general public signage shall 
be provided to indicate direction to and to identify the accessible entrance and 
accessible route. [10.3.1(1), 10.3.2(2)] 



Slide Problem; Many existing transit stations have direct connections to commercial, 
4 retail, and residential facilities. Unfortunately, the route between the transportation 

facility and the commercial, retail and residential facilities is not accessible to people 

in wheelchairs. 

Solution; Direct connections to commercial, retail or residential facilities at existing 
stations that are key stations shall, to the maximum extent feasible, have an 
accessible route from the point of connection to boarding platforms and all 
transportation system elements used by the public. The transportation agency 
should include language in whatever agreement it has with the commercial, retail or 
residential facility which requires or encourages the provision of an accessible route 
from the direct connection point into the connected transit facility. 



4-2-15 



Slides Problem: Direct connections from a planned transportation facility to adjacent 
5, 6 commercial, retail and residential developments are being considered. Some of 
these direct connections will not be needed until the new development is fully 
operational. Thus, a "knock out" panel is being provided in the transportation 
facility. What are the responsibilities of the public entity that is designing and will 
operate the transportation facility? 

Solution: The public entity must design and construct the transportation facility in 
such a way that all direct connections to commercial, retail or residential facilities 
shall have an accessible route from the point of connection to boarding platforms 
and all transportation system elements used by the public. Any elements provided 
to facilitate future direct connections (e.g., "knock out" panels) shall be on an 
accessible route connecting boarding platforms and all transportation system 
elements used by the public. The public entity should coordinate closely with 
adjacent developers to ensure that an accessible route is provided between the direct 
connection entrance and the development. 



4-2-16 



n Escalators (New Construction) 

Slide Problem; Escalators leading from the street level to the mezzanine and from the 
7 mezzanine to the station platform are difficult for people with visual impairments 

to use because it is difficult for them to see when the moving tread reaches the 

comb plate. 

Solution; On new construction, when escalators are provided they shall be designed 
so that at the top and bottom of each escalator run at least two contiguous treads 
shall be level beyond the comb plate, before the risers begin to form. All treads 
shall be marked by a strip of clearly contrasting color, 2 in (50 mm), wide placed 
parallel to the nose of each step. The material shall be at least as slip resistant as 
the remainder of the tread. The treads shall be apparent from both ascending and 
descending directions. 



Problem; The design for the alteration of a key station is underway. There are two 
areas where the designer has proposed to replace stairs with escalators. What 
design standards are required for escalators? 

Solution; An accessible route does not include stairs, steps or escalators. Thus, 
ADAAG 10.3.2 Existing Facilities: Key Stations does not address standards for 
escalators. Since many people with disabilities do use escalators they should be 
designed to be as safe as possible, especially for people with low vision. Thus, it is 
recommended that when escalators are provided as part of an overall alteration, they 
should be designed with the same parameters that were outlined in the previous 
Problem/Solution statement 



Slide Problem; The width of some older escalator treads make it difficult for people who 
8 use guide dogs because the step is not wide enough for the dog to stand along-side 

his/her master. 

Solution; On new construction where escalators are provided, the tread width shall 
be 32 in (815 mm). If a station is being altered and a new escalator is being 
installed, the tread should be 32 in (815 mm) wide if physically possible even though 
there is no specific standard. 



4-2-17 



n Elevators (New Construction and Key Stations) 

Problem; Since an accessible route does not include stairs, steps or escalators and 
ramps cannot address all level change problems, it is obvious that elevators or 
platform lifts will have to be installed in new construction and during alterations of 
existing stations, key stations, specifically, to make a route accessible. What design 
parameters must be addressed when preparing an elevator design? 

Slides Solution; Elevators shall be designed to comply with all applicable specifications 
9A,B contained in ADAAG 4.10 Elevators. In addition, when provided in transportation 
facilities, elevators shall be glazed or have transparent panels to allow an 
unobstructed view both into and out of the elevator car. [4.10, 10.3.1(7)] 



Problem; One of the rapid rail stations on the Blue Line has been designated a key 
station. In June 1990, an elevator was added to this station. No federal funds were 
used for this elevator project. ANSI A117.1 Specifications were used for the design 
and the elevator complies with the ANSI standards but it does not meet the 
ADAAG standards. Additional alterations are planned for this key station to bring 
it into compliance with the ADAAG standards. Does the elevator need to be 
modified to bring it into compliance with the ADAAG standards? 

Solution; No. If the elevator was designed to comply with the 1980 ANSI standards 
and it still complies with those standards, it is not required to modify the elevator 
to comply with ADAAG standards. All other modifications that are currently being 
undertaken must comply with the ADAAG standards. It should be noted that this 
"grandfathering" applies only to alterations of individual elements and spaces and 
only to the extent that provisions covering those elements and spaces are found in 
UFAS or ANSI A117.1 - 1980. [37.9, p. 45625, p. 45735] If the previous 
installation of an elevator was made with federal funds, compliance with UFAS, 
rather than ANSI 117.1 - 1980, would have been required for the grandfather 
provision to apply. 



4-2-18 



Slide Problem; Some areas in transportation facilities are quite restricted and it is 
9C,D difficult to accommodate a full-sized elevator in the area that is the most 

appropriate location. What are the minimum dimensions of the floor area inside 

the elevator, and how wide must the door be? 

Solution: The floor area of the elevator car shall provide space for wheelchair users 
to enter the car, maneuver within reach of the controls and exit the car. Door 
openings shall be a minimum 36 in (915 mm). All elevator cars shall be a minimum 
51 in (1291 mm) deep from the back wall to the front wall. A minimum clear 
distance of 54 in (1370 mm) is required between the back wall and the face of the 
door when it is closed. If the door is centered on the car, the minimum car width 
shall be 80 in (2030 mm). When the door is off-set to one side of the car, the 
minimum car width shall be 68 in (1730 mm). 

Note: In transportation facilities, elevator cars with a clear floor area in which a 60 
in (1525 mm) diameter circle can be inscribed may be substituted for the minimum 
car dimensions stated above. However, in alterations, as opposed to new 
construction or key station requirements, ADAAG 4.1.6(3)(c) permits an inside 
elevator car area of 48 in by 48 in (1220 mm by 1220 mm) where existing draft 
configurations or technical infeasibility prevent compliance with 4.10.9. 



Problem; The control panels inside the car of the elevator seem to vary 
considerably from elevator to elevator even on the same transportation system. Is 
there a standard for the control panel? 

Solution; Buttons shall be raised or flush and the smallest dimension shall be at 
least 3/4 in (19 mm). All control buttons shall be designated by Grade 2 Braille and 
sans serif characters, raised 1/32 in (0.8 mm) and at least 5/8 in (16 mm) high. Main 
entry floor call button shall be designated by a raised star to the left of the floor 
number. Any other raised pictograms shall be placed immediately to the left of the 
button to which they apply. Floor buttons shall have visual indicators to show when 
a call is registered and the indicator shall be extinguished when a call is answered. 
All floor buttons shall be no higher than 54 in (1370 mm) above the car floor for 
a side approach and 48 in (1220 mm) for a front approach. All emergency controls 
shall be grouped at the bottom of the panel and shall have their centerline no higher 
than 35 in (890 mm) above finish floor. Controls shall be located on a front wall 
if cars have center opening doors and at the side wall or at the front wall next to the 
door if cars have side opening doors. 

It is desirable for the configuration of buttons in elevators throughout the system to 
be uniform. For example, the "up" button should ahvays be above the "down" button 
on a two-stop elevator. 



4-2-19 



Problem; The elevator is a very critical element of an accessible route, and a very 
expensive element to install. Since an elevator is a specialized piece of equipment 
it would seem that there would be only a few manufacturers, and that it would be 
up to the manufacturers to produce a standard elevator which would fully comply 
with ADA- Yet when you ride on the various elevators around the country it seems 
like there is a lot of variety. How can the transportation facility designer be assured 
that the elevator that is selected for installation complies with the new ADAAG 
standards? 

Solution: The ADAAG standards for elevators (4.10 Elevators) should be cited as 
the minimum standards in the elevator specifications. If the transportation facility 
designer shows specific design details in the contract drawings, he should ensure that 
those design details comply with the ADAAG standards. [Sections 4.10 and 
10.3.1(17)] The ADAAG standards address the following criteria for elevators, a 
brief summary is provided for each criteria. 

Automatic Operation: Elevators shall be automatic, each car shall have a self- 
leveling feature that will bring the car floor and landing level to within + 1/2 in (13 
nmi) under rated to zero loading conditions. 

Slide Hall Call Buttons: Shall be centered at 42 in (1065 mm) above the floor. Shall 

10 have visual signals to indicate when a call is registered and when it is answered. Call 
button shall be a minimum of 3/4 in (19 mm) in the smallest dimension. Up bottom 
shall be on top of the down button. Buttons shall be raised or flush. Objects 
mounted below the call buttons shall not project into the elevator lobby more than 
4 in (100 mm). 

Hall Lanterns: Shall provide a visible and audible signal at each hoistway entrance 
to indicate which car is answering the call. Audible signals shall sound once for up, 
twice for down or shall have verbal announcements of "up" or "down." Visible 
signals shall have the following features: (1) Lantern centerline 72 in (1830 mm) 
above the floor, (2) visual element shall be at least 2-1/2 in (64 mm) in the smallest 
dimension, and (3) signal element shall be visible from the vicinity of the hall call 
buttons. 

Slide Raised and Braille Characters on Hoistway Entrances: Floor numbers shall be 

11 permanently affixed to each hoistway door jamb at 60 in (1525 mm) above the floor. 
Characters shall be 2 in (50 mm) high, sans serif, raised 1/32 in (0.8 mm). The 
raised numbers shall be accompanied with Grade 2 Braille. 

Door Protective and Reopening Device: Elevator doors shall open and close 
automatically and shall be equipped with a reopening device that will stop and 
reopen the doors if there is an obstruction. The reopening device shall be capable 
of sensing an obstruction between 5 in (125 mm) and 29 in (735 mm) from the floor 
without contact Door reopening devices shall remain on for 20 seconds and then 
the doors may close. 



4-2-20 



Door and Signal Timing for Hall Calls: This is the time that elapses starting with 
the visible and audible up/down signal until the doors of that car start to close. The 
time is calculated and is a function of the distance (D) between that door and a 
point in the lobby 60 in (1525 mm) in front of the furthest call button that operates 
that door. The equation is Time=D/1.5 feet/second or Time=D/445 mm/second. 
The minimum acceptable notification time shall be 5 seconds. 

Door Delay for Car Calls: The minimum time for doors to remain open in response 
to a call is 3 seconds. 

Floor Plan of Elevator Cars: Elevator cars in a transportation facility with a clear 
floor area in which a 60 in (1525 mm) diameter circle can be inscribed comply with 
the ADAAG specifications by exception. 

Floor Surface: Shall be stable, firm and slip-resistant. If carpet or carpet tile is 
used, it shall be securely attached, have a firm cushion, pad or backing or no 
cushion or pad, have level loop, textured loop, level cut pile or level cut/uncut pile 
texture. Maximum pile thickness shall be 1/2 in (13 mm). 

Illumination Levels: At car controls, platform and car threshold and landing sill 
shall be at least 5 footcandles (53.8 lux). 

Slide Car Controls: Buttons shall be raised or flush and the smallest dimension shall be 
12 at least 3/4 in (19 mm). All control buttons shall be designated by Grade 2 Braille 
and sans serif characters, raised 1/32 in (0.8 mm) and at least 5/8 in (16 mm) high. 
Main entry floor call button shall be designated by a raised star to the left of the 
floor number. Any other raised pictograms shall be placed immediately to the left 
of the button to which they apply. Floor buttons shall have visual indicators to show 
when a call is registered and the indicator shall be extinguished when a call is 
answered. All floor buttons shall be no higher than 54 in (1370 mm) above the car 
floor for a side approach and 48 in (1220 mm) for a front approach. All emergency 
controls shall be grouped at the bottom of the panel and shall have their centerline 
no higher than 35 in (890 mm) above finish floor. Controls shall be located on a 
front wall if cars have center opening doors and at the side wall or at the front wall 
next to the door if cars have side opening doors. 

Car Position Indicator: Visual car position indicators located above the door or 
above the car control panel shall illuminate to show which floor the car has stopped 
at or passed, numerals at the visual indicator shall be at least 1/2 in (13 mm) high. 
An audible signal shall also sound. Audible signal shall be no less than 20 decibels 
with a fi-equency no higher than 1500 Hz. 

Emergency Communications: If provided the highest operable part shall be 48 in 
(1220 mm) above the floor. The communication device shall be identified by a 
symbol raised 1/32 in (0.8 mm) and at least 5/8 in (16 mm) high. If the device is a 
handset then the cord length shall be at least 29 in (735 mm). If the device is in a 
closed compartment the door operating mechanism shall be operable with one hand 

4-2-21 



and shall not require tight grasping, pinching or twisting of the wrist. The force to 
open the door shall be no greater than 5 Ibf (22.2N). The emergency system shall 
not require voice communication. 



4-2-22 



Problem: Many times I have departed the train at my normal stop and proceeded 
to the elevator to exit the station only to find the elevator is out of service. 

Solution; Public and private entities providing transportation services shall maintain 
in operative condition those features of facilities that are required to make the 
facilities readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities. Accessibility 
features such as elevators shall be repaired promptly if they are damaged or out of 
order. When an accessibility feature is out of order, the entity shall take reasonable 
steps to accommodate individuals with disabilities who would otherwise use the 
feature. Thus, when an elevator is out of service at Station A the transit operator 
should make an announcement on the train as it approaches Station A. If a station 
close by is accessible (Station B) the operator should announce that Station A 
elevator is not operating but Station B entrance, only a few blocks away, does have 
an elevator. This announcement should be made in a timely fashion so that the 
affected riders can adjust their trips. If an accessible station (Station C) is not close 
to Station A, the transit operator could provide accessible bus or paratransit service 
between Station C and Station A. This temporary service should be announced 
throughout the transit system if possible but at a minimum, it should be announced 
on all trains serving Station A. 



4-2-23 



n Illumination (New Construction and Key Stations) 

Problem; A large suburban transportation facility has parking lots and bus platforms 
that are connected to the rail system. The lighting at certain points between the 
parking area and the rail station entrance is so dim that older people with poor 
vision sometimes trip and fall on some of the curbs. The ceiling lights on the 
mezzanine area and along some of the pedestrian routes leading to the platforms 
are designed so that there are bright spots and dark areas all along the route. This 
non-uniform lighting pattern makes it difficult for persons with low vision to see 
variations in the floor surface. 

Solution; Lighting along circulation routes shall be of a type and configuration to 
provide uniform illumination. [10.3.1(11)] Good general illumination on accessible 
routes and in accessible spaces is critical to the use of transportation systems by 
persons with disabilities, especially persons with low vision. Many forms of visual 
impairment cause a person's vision to respond slowly to changes in lighting level, 
especially in moving from bright daylight to dim transit stations. Relatively uniform 
lighting levels, as well as brightness are important Fluorescent ceiling lights with 
proper diffuser panels provide even illumination and are longer lasting and cheaper 
to operate than incandescent lights. Other types of illumination, such as Halogen, 
"daylight" spectrum, and some systems tested by the military, are also more 
appropriate for persons with visual impairments. On the other hand, recessed 
ceiling lights mounted in cans, or downlights, are examples of inappropriate lighting. 
They create pools of light and shadow which are disconcerting to many persons with 
low vision, (renditions such as glaucoma and cataracts cause particular susceptibility 
to glare and reflection which is aggravated as a person moves under succeeding 
downlights. Such lights also reflect off the interior surfaces of eyeglasses which may 
be particularly disconcerting to persons with vision impairments. Downlights are not 
prohibited but cannot be the only source of illumination on an accessible route or 
space. 



Slide Problem; The signs on the fare card machines are designed so that they appear to 

13 comply with the ADAAG standards for signage. The signs are covered with a clear 

plastic material. In the daylight the signs are easy to read but when it is dark and 

the ceiling lights shine on the signs the glare from the lights makes it impossible to 

read the signs. 

Solution; Illumination levels in the areas where signage is located shall be uniform 
and shall minimize glare on signs. [10.3.1(11)] The transit operator should change 
the light bulbs in the ceiling light fixtures to see if the glare can be reduced. If the 
sign is covered with a clear plastic cover a non-glare plastic should be considered. 



4-2-24 



Problem; The entrance signs at all of the transit stations appear to comply with all 
of the signage requirements in ADAAG. During the day they are visible and easy 
to read. At night the only light on the entrance signs is from nearby city street 
lights. Apparently the transit operator does not provide lighting at the street level 
of the transit station entrance. In many areas the street lights are not close enough 
to the station entrance and thus it is dark and the entrance sign cannot even be 
seen. 

Solution: When entrance signs are provided the transit operator should provide 
sufficient lighting so that the entrance sign can be seen by persons with low vision. 
Many times the local jurisdiction will relocate or adjust the lighting levels of the 
street lights if the transit operator brings lighting problems to their attention. The 
transit agency might also consider installing internally lighted signs, which would 
benefit all system users. 



Slide Problem: Some stations are lighted with indirect lighting which is located between 
14 the train tracks on side platform stations and beyond the train tracks along the 

station wall on center platform stations. These bright lights which shine upward 
tend to look like the edge of the platform for people with low vision, causing them 
to walk off the edge of the platform and fall onto the track bed. 

Solution: When designing lighting in a station, care should be taken to avoid using 
decorative lights that are brighter than wayfinding lights. Transit operators could 
have people with disabilities critique the station lighting after it is installed on the 
first station and make changes to follow-on designs that would make the stations 
more accessible. Note: On all new station construction and on key stations a 
detectable warning is required along the edge of the platform. 



4-2-25 



n Public Address System (New Construction and Key Stations) 

Problem; Many existing rail stations have audible public address systems which 
provide a range of information to the patrons of the system. These audible P.A. 
systems cannot be understood by people who are hard of hearing or people who are 
deaf. Reverberation or train noise may also reduce their usefulness to persons with 
average hearing. 

Slide Solution: Where public address systems are provided to convey information to the 
15 public in new and key stations, a means of conveying the same or equivalent 
information to persons with hearing loss or who are deaf shall be provided 
[10.3.1(14)]. Multi-message (LED) signs or TV monitors can be placed at strategic 
locations along the circulation path and on the platform. The message displayed on 
the screen should be clear and concise. Characters on the signs/monitors should be 
sized according to the viewing distance from which they are to be read. Mounting 
height and location should be such that persons in wheelchairs and persons with 
vision impairments can approach the sign/monitor within a reasonable distance 
without encountering protruding objects. Some routine information frequently 
conveyed by P.A. (e.g., no smoking, operating hours, etc.) can be disseminated by 
adequate signage. 

Some of the problems with P.A. systems in transit facilities which make 
announcements difficult to understand by persons with moderate hearing loss can 
be addressed by placing speakers at more frequent intervals and lowering the 
volume. This helps reduce distortion from reverberation. 



D Clocks (New Construction and Key Stations When Provided) 

Problem: Clocks in some transportation stations and terminals are difficult to find 
and then when there is one it is difficult to read because the numbers are too small 
and do not contrast with the background. 

Slide Solution: Where clocks are provided for use by the general public, the clock face 
16 shall be uncluttered so that its elements are clearly visible. Hands, numerals, and/or 
digits shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. 
Where clocks are mounted overhead to comply with the 80 in (2030 mm) headroom 
height, the height of the numerals and/or digits shall be a minimum of 3 in (75 mm). 
Clocks, if provided, shall be placed in uniform locations throughout the 
transportation facility and system to the maximum extent practicable. 



4-2-26 



n Telephones (New Construction and Key Stations) 

Slide Problem; The public entity that is responsible for the design of new stations and the 
17 operation of the existing stations adopted a policy to provide public pay telephones 

inside all new and existing stations. Do text telephones have to be provided? If so, 

how many at each location? 

Solution; If an interior public pay telephone is provided in a "transit facility" at least 
one interior public text telephone shall be provided in the station. [10.3.1(12a), 
10.3.2(2)] 

Note: The Department of Transportation defines a "transit facility" for the purposes 
of determining the number of text telephones required by the ADA as a physical 
structure the primary function of which is to facilitate access to and from a 
transportation system which has scheduled stops at the structure. [37.3] 



Slide Problem; Public pay telephones are provided on the street level at the entrance to 
18 all of the transit facilities on a particular system. Some entrances have only one 
telephone, others have as many as ten telephones. What is required by the public 
entity that operates the stations and if this policy of having telephones at the station 
entrances continues in effect for new stations, what are the requirements for the new 
stations? 

Solution; Where four or more public pay telephones serve a particular entrance to 
a rail station and at least one is in an interior location, at least one interior public 
text telephone shall be provided to serve that entrance. Thus, if all of the public pay 
telephones are mounted in an exterior location, no text telephones are required. 
[10.3.1(12b), 10.3.2(2)] 



Slide Problem; Public telephones were installed on the mezzanine level of a major 
19 transfer station in 1989. This station has been designated a key station. The 

telephones currently comply with UFAS, but none of the telephones have 
telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD's). Do these telephones need to be 
modified? 

Solution; Yes. The Rule specifically provides that "grandfathering" applies only to 
alterations of individual elements and spaces and only to the extent that provisions 
covering those elements or spaces are found in UFAS or ANSI A117.1 - 1980. 
Thus, even though the telephones were installed in 1989 and complied with UFAS 
there were no text telephones installed. The new ADAAG standard (4.31 Text 
Telephones) requires text telephones and thus the telephones must be modified to 
comply with the ADAAG standard. (37.9, p.45625, p. 45735) 



4-2-27 



Slide Problem: Text telephones are required at the key stations operated throughout the 
20 service area because telephones complying with UFAS were recently installed 

throughout the system. What standards should be provided so that text telephones 

that are installed will meet ADA requirements? 

Solution: ADAAG 4.31.9 Text Telephone applies, which is summarized as follows: 
(1) Text telephones used with a pay telephone shall be permanently affixed within, 
or adjacent to, the telephone enclosure. If an acoustic coupler is used, the 
telephone cord shall be sufficiently long to allow connection of iht text telephone 
and the telephone receiver. (2) Pay telephones designed to accommodate a 
portable text telephone shall be equipped with a shelf and an electrical outlet within 
or adjacent to the telephone enclosure. The telephone handset shall be capable of 
being placed flush on the surface of the shelf. The shelf shall be capable of 
accommodating a text telephone and shall have 6 in (152 mm) minimum vertical 
clearance in the area where the text telephone is to be placed. (3) Equivalent 
facilitation may be provided. For example, the transit operator may make a portable 
text telephone available at the information kiosk if equivalent service is provided. 
That is, if entrance A would be required to have a text telephone, the portable unit 
must be at the kiosk for entrance A, not entrance B. Moreover, the portable unit 
must be available during the same times that public pay telephones are available to 
the general public. 



4-2-28 



n Fare Collection/Ticketing Areas 

Problem; In designing the fare collection system for new light rail, rapid rail and 
commuter rail systems, the question has been asked ~ Can a special flash pass card 
be sold to people with disabilities so they can go through a simple swinging gate and 
won't have to deal with the automatic fare machines and fare gates? 

Solution: Automatic fare vending, collection and adjustment (e.g., add fare) systems 
shall comply with ADAAG 4.34.2, 4.34.3, and 4.34.4. At each accessible entrance, 
such devices shall be located on an accessible route. 



Problem; ADAAG 4.34 Automatic Teller Machines is a new standard which was 
not included in UFAS. Does this mean that the requirements of this new standard 
apply to existing facilities? 

Solution; Existing Facilities: Key Stations (ADAAG 10.3.2) requires at least one 
accessible route from an accessible entrance to those areas necessary for use of the 
transportation system. The accessible route is required to have automatic fare 
vending, collection and adjustment systems which comply with ADAAG 4.34.2, 
4.34.3, and 4.34.4 if this system is provided to the general public. 



4-2-29 



Problem: Since ADAAG 4.34 is required both on new construction and at one 
entrance on an accessible route at key stations on existing systems, what are the 
specifics of the required sections? 

Solution: Each section (e.g., 4.34.2, .3 and .4) will be addressed. It should be noted 
that other standards are referenced in these specific sections which make the 
understanding of the entire requirement more complex than it first appears. The 
following design parameters will be addressed: (1) Clear Floor Space, (2) Reach 
Range, (3) Controls and Operating Mechanisms, and (4) Operating Instructions. 

Clear Floor Space: Free-standing or built-in units not having a clear space 
under them shall have a clear floorspace of 30 in (760 mm) by 48 in (1220 
mm) that allows a forward or a parallel approach by a person in a 
wheelchair. One full unobstructed side of the clear floor space for a 
Slide 21 wheelchair shall adjoin or overlap an accessible route or adjoin another 

Handout wheelchair clear floor space area. If one half or more of a forward approach 
clear floor space area is confined on three sides, an additional 6 in (150 mm) 
shall be added to the 30 in (760 mm) clear floor space width. If one half or 
more of a parallel approach clear floor space area is confined on three sides, 
an additional 12 in (305 mm) shall be added to the 48 in (1220 mm) clear 
floor space length. [4.34.3, 4.27.2, 4.2.4] 

Slide 22 Reach Range: Controls, slots and dispensers required to operate the 

Handout equipment shall be between 15 in (380 mm) and 48 in (1220 mm) from the 
floor when the equipment is positioned for a forward approach and between 
9 in (230 mm) and 54 in (1370 mm) when the equipment is positioned for a 
parallel approach. [4.27.3, 4.2.5, 4.2.6] 

Controls and Operating Mechanisms: Controls and operating mechanisms 
shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, 
pinching, or twisting of the wrist. The force required to activate controls 
shall be no greater than 5 Ibf (22.2N). [4.34.2, 4.27.4] 

Operating Instructions: Instructions and all information for use shall be 
made accessible to and independently usable by persons with vision 
impairments. [4.34.3] Note: Auditory output of digital displays is one way 
to provide some of the necessary information but is not required. 



Problem: ADAAG 4.34 addresses the requirements of an automatic fare vending, 
collection and adjustment system.. What if a system sells fare media at a booth and 
the fare media is used to gain access to the system? 

Solution: If self-service collection devices which accept the fare media are provided 
for the use of the general public, at least one accessible device for entering, and at 
least one for exiting, unless one device serves both functions, shall be provided at 
each accessible point of entry or exit. 

4-2-30 



Slide Problem: The fare collection devices are accessible and the fare media must be 
23 purchased at booths in stations. What are the requirements that apply to the fare 
media sales booth? 

Solution: Where provided, ticketing areas shall permit persons with disabilities to 
obtain a ticket and shall comply with ADAAG 7.2 Sales and Service Counters, 
Teller Windows, Information Counters. [10.3.2(2), 10.3.1(18)] ADAAG 7.2 
requires the ticketing area to be on an accessible route, and also requires that a 36 
in (915 mm) long section of the main counter used by the general public be at a 
maximum height of 36 in (915 mm) from the floor or that an auxiliary counter with 
a maximum height of 36 in (915 mm) in close proximity to the main counter be 
provided. [7.2(2)] 



Problem; The fare collection devices on a specific system are accessible in that the 
Slide fare media slot is reachable and easy to use. The gates open automatically when the 
24 fare media is inserted. The only problem is that the clear open width of the gate 

is only 18 in (455 mm). Is this acceptable? 

Solution: Accessible fare collection devices shall have a minimum clear opening of 
32 in (815 mm); shall permit passage of a wheelchair; and where provided, coin or 
card slots and controls necessary for operation shall comply with the requirements 
for Reach Range and Controls and Operating Mechanisms which were presented 
in a previous Problem/Solution statement. [10.3.1(7), 4.27] 



Problem: The accessible route in an existing station that has been designated as a 
key station does not coincide with the route taken by the general public. What 
measures must be taken regarding fare collections? 

Slide Solution: Where the circulation path used by persons with disabilities does not 
25 coincide with that used by the general public, accessible fare collection systems shall 
be located at or adjacent to the accessible point of entry or exit. [10.3.1(7)] 



4-2-31 



Problem: Since the fare gates are not wide enough for a wheelchair and the 
requirements call for a 32 in (815 mm) wide gate, the gate array will have to be 
modified which will require reducing the total number of gates available to the 
general public. At high volume stations, this will adversely affect the flow of patrons 
into and out of the station. If the fare media slot in the gate array adjacent to the 
emergency access gate is within reach of a person in a wheelchair, can the 
emergency gate be used for access to the station? 

Slide Solution; Yes, provided the gates which must be pushed open and are used by 

26 people in wheelchairs or mobility aids have a smooth continuous surface extending 
from 2 in (50 mm) above the floor to 27 in (685 mm) above the floor. This surface 
must be flush with the gate frame, not recessed, so that parts of the gate will not 
catch on the wheelchair or mobility aid as it passes through. If the gate opens 
automatically, the smooth, continuous surface requirement does not apply. The 
gates shall also have a clear width of 32 in (815 mm) when the gate is open at 90 

Slide degrees. The maximum force for pushing or pulling open a gate shall be 5 Ibf 

27 (22.2N). If the gate is equipped with a closer the sweep period of the closer shall 
be adjusted so that from an open position of 70 degrees, the gate will take at least 
3 seconds to move to a point 3 in (75 mm) from the latch, measured to the leading 
edge of the gate. Maneuvering clearances at gates that are not automatic or power- 
assisted shall be as shown in the following figure. [4.13] 



4-2-32 




18 mln, 24 pnftrrtd 




rOTE: X « 12 in (305 mm) if door hu both a 
doMT and latch. 



(•) 



Front Approaches — Swinging Doora 



54mln 







\ — X. 



NOTE: X = 36 in (91 5 mm) minimum if y = 60 in 
( 1 525 mm); x = 42 in (1 065 mm) minimum if y = 
54 in (1370 mm) 




NOTE: y = 48 in ( 1 220 mm) minimum if door has 
both a latch and closer 



(b) 



Hinge Side Approaches — Swinging Doors 



Pull Side 


X 
,24 m« 




• 10 


.E 


S 


P \(? 



fiOTE; y « 54 in ( 1 370 nf»m) minimum if door has 




NOTE: y V 48 in (1220 mm) minimum if door has 



(c) 
Litch Side Approaches — Swinging Doors 

NOTE: AJI doors in alcoves shall compty with the clearances for front approaches. 

Maneuvering Clearances at Doors 



4-2-33 



Baggage Check/Claim Areas 

Problem; A baggage check/claim area is to be provided when a new wing is added 
to a multi-modal terminal. The existing terminal has a baggage area. The terminal 
contains intercity, commuter rail, and rapid rail lines. What are the accessibility 
requirements for the new area and does the existing baggage area have to be 
modified? 

Solution; If the existing terminal has been designated a key station, then the 
existing baggage check/claim area and the new one must comply with the following 
standards. The baggage area must be on an accessible route, and have space 
immediately adjacent which complies with all of the ADAAG Space Allowance and 
Reach Ranges (ADAAG 4.2). If unattended security barriers are provided, at least 
one gate shall be provided which must comply with ADAAG 4.13. If the gate must 
be pushed open by wheelchair or mobility aid users, the gate shall have a smooth 
continuous surface extending from 2 in (50 mm) above the floor to 27 in (685 mm) 
above the floor. 

If the station is not a key station, only the new construction must comply. 



D Platform 



Problem; A new system is under design. The design standards are being reviewed 
to ensure they are in compliance with ADAAG. One solution proposed as a cost 
savings measure is to make the section of the platform closest to the accessible route 
comply with all of the requirements and to leave the remainder of the platform as 
previously designed. Is this an acceptable solution? 

Solution; No. The standards state that stations shall not be designed or constructed 
so as to require persons with disabilities to board or alight from a vehicle at a 
location other than one used by the general public. 



Problem; The Bus loading platform is designed so buses can use both sides of the 
platform. Does the platform have to be a minimum of 84 inches wide (e.g., twice 
the width of a bus stop pad)? 

Solution; No. When there is space, this would be ideal, but if space is limited, 
operational practices may suffice (e.g., buses on either side could have staggered 
stops so lifts could be deployed, or if not possible, one bus waits until the other 
leaves). [45735] 



4-2-34 



n Station Identification Signs at Platforms 

Problem; Persons with hearing loss cannot hear the train attendant announce the 
station stop, and at many stations, the station identification signs are not placed in 
a location where they can be seen when sitting on the train. 

Solution; On all new rapid rail, light rail, commuter and intercity rail, high speed 
rail and other fixed guideway systems and on existing platforms in key stations, 
Slide station identification signs shall be placed at frequent intervals and shall be clearly 
28 visible from within the vehicle on both sides when not obstructed by another train. 
When station identification signs are placed close to vehicle windows on the side 
opposite from boarding (e.g., on the wall of a center platform station) each sign 
shall have the top of the highest letter or symbol below the top of the vehicle 
window and the bottom of the lowest letter or symbol above the horizontal mid-line 
of the vehicle window. Station identification signs shall be designed to comply with 
the following signage standards. 

Character Proportion: Letters and numbers on signs shall have a width-to- 
height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke-width-to-height ratio between 
1:5 and 1:10. 

Character Height: Characters and numbers on signs shall be sized according 
to the viewing distance from which they are to be read. The minimum height 
is measured using an upper case X. Lower case characters are permitted. 
If the height above the finished floor is 80 in (2030 mm), complying with 
minimum headroom, the minimum character height shall be 3 in (75 mm). 

Finish and Contrast: The characters and background of signs shall be 
eggshell, matte, or other non-glare finish. Characters and symbols shall 
contrast with their background - either light characters on a dark background 
or dark characters on a light background. [10.3.1(5), 10.3.2(2), 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 
4.30.3, 4.30.5] 



Problem; The station identification signs in the key stations of an existing system 
were designed and installed to meet the requirements of UFAS. Do any changes 
have to be made to the signs? 

Solution; Some requirements for station identification signs on platforms have been 
added in the ADAAG standards primarily in terms of location. The existing station 
identification signs in the key stations must be surveyed to see if they comply with 
the new standards. If the existing signs do not comply with ADAAG, then new 
signs must be installed. [10.3.2(2), 37.47, 37.51] If the exiting signs complying with 
UFAS are in the right locations (e.g., along platforms, at station entrances, etc.) new 
signs would not need to be installed. However, since all new signs and new stations 
must comply fully with ADAAG (e.g., character proportion, contrast, etc.), it may 
be desirable to change old signs to achieve design consistency. 

4-2-35 



Destination Signs (Routes and Stations) at Platforms 

Problem; There are route maps located at the ticket area showing where a 
particular train goes and listing the station stops. When waiting on the platform 
there are no signs to inform patrons where the train goes or at which stations the 
train will stop. 

Solution: Lists of stations, routes or destinations served by the station and located 
on boarding areas, platforms or mezzanines, shall be designed to comply with the 
Character Proportion, Character Height, and Finish and Contrast specifications 
summarized in the Problem/Solution addressing Station Identification Signs at 
Platforms. [10.3.1(6), 10.3.2(2), 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 4.30.3, 4.30.5] The requirements 
apply to lists of stations, where they are provided, not specifically maps. However, 
it is desirable to have at least some maps which comply. 



Problem; People who are blind or who have low vision cannot tell what station they 
are at when they are on the platform because there are no station identification 
signs on the platform that are accessible to them. 

Solution; A minimum of one sign which identifies the specific station shall be 
Slide placed on each platform or boarding area. To the maximum extent practicable, this 
29 sign shall be placed in a uniform location within the transit system. The sign shall 

be designed and installed to comply with the following standards. 

Raised and Braille Characters and Pictorial Symbol Signs (Pictograms'): 
Letters and numerals shall be raised 1/32 in (0.8 mm), upper case, sans serif 
or simple serif type and shall be accompanied with Grade 2 Braille. Raised 
characters shall be at least 5/8 in (16 mm) high, but no higher than 2 in (50 
mm). Pictograms required by this section shall be accompanied by the 
equivalent verbal (written) description placed directly below the pictogram. 
The border dimension of the pictogram shall be 6 in (152 mm) minimum in 
height. 

Mounting Location and Height: To the maximum extent practicable, the sign 
shall be placed at a uniform location on all platforms within the system. The 
location for the sign shall be such that a person may approach within 3 in (76 
mm) of the sign without encountering protruding objects or standing within 
the swing of a gate or door. Mounting height shall be 60 in (1525 mm) 
above the finished floor to the center line of the sign. [10.3.1(6), 10.3.2(2), 
4.30.4, 4.30.6] 



4-2-36 



n Platform Edge (New Construction and Key Stations) 

Problem; People who are blind cannot tell when they reach the end of the platform 
in a high platform station because there is no curb or detectable warning. As a 
result, there is a possibility that they can fall onto the tracks. 

Solution: Platform edges bordering a drop-off and not protected by platform 
screens or guard rails shall have a detectable warning. The detectable warning shall 
Slide be 24 in (610 mm) wide running the full length of the platform drop-off. Detectable 
30 warning surface shall consist of raised truncated domes with a diameter of nominal 
0.9 in (23 mm), a height of nominal 0.2 in (5 mm) and a center-to-center spacing 
of nominal 2.35 in (60 mm). A drawing of an acceptable detectable warning is 
shown on the next page. The detectable warning surface shall contrast visually with 
adjoining surfaces, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. The material used to 
provide contrast shall be an integral part of the detectable warning material 
[10.3.1(8), 4.29.2] 



Problem: The detectable surfaces specifications in the ADAAG are very specific, 
yet the word "nominal" is used. Is there some latitude in the design of the 
detectable warning surface? If so, how much variation is permitted? 

Solution: The word nominal was used to show that the 0.9 in (23 mm) diameter, 
0.2 in (5 mm) height, and 2.35 in (60 mm) center-to-center spacing could be varied 
Slide minimally. For example, if individual tiles or pavers are used, there may be a 
31 discrepancy in spacing between domes on adjacent tiles or pavers. This discrepancy 
will also depend on grouting or expansion joints between tiles, pavers or material 
segments. These discrepancies should be kept to a minimum. 



4-2-37 



Detectable Warnings 



® — @ 



€) 



e 



^t) 



^B 



€^ 



^ 



^^ 



^^ 



I 
2.35' 



e 



e 



^^ 




0.9"Dia. 



2.35" 



^ 



VARIES 



$^'-^ — ® 



PLAN 



2.35' 



/^ 



/ 



2.35- 



0.9" 



\ 



/ 



/ 



VARIES 



\ZZTo.: 



SECTION 



4-2-38 



□ PlatformA^ehicle Horizontal Gap (New Construction and Key Stations) 

Problem: People who use wheelchairs and other mobility aids are afraid to use rail 
transportation because the horizontal gap between the vehicle and the platform is 
so wide that the front wheels of their mobility aids could get caught in the gap and 
possibly overturn. Thus, they must back onto the vehicle which is extremely difficult 
for people with serious disabilities because they cannot see where they are backing 
and other patrons will not move out of their way. 

Solution; On new construction of rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, high speed 

rail and intercity rail stations, the horizontal gap measured when the new vehicle is 

Slide at rest shall be no greater than 3 in (76 mm). For slow moving automated guideway 

32 systems, the horizontal gap in new stations shall be no greater than 1 in (2.5 mm). 

[10.3.1(9)] 

In light rail, rapid rail and commuter rail key stations, the horizontal gap measured 
when the vehicle is at rest, shall be no greater than 3 in (76 mm) for at least one 
door of each vehicle or car required to be accessible. Existing vehicles retrofitted 
to meet the requirements of the one-car-per-train rule [37.93] shall be coordinated 
with the platform such that, for at least one door, the horizontal gap is no greater 
than 4 in (102 mm). [10.3.2(4)] 

On new construction and at existing key stations in light rail, intercity rail, and 
commuter rail systems where it is not operationally or structurally feasible to meet 
the horizontal gap requirements, mini-high platforms, car-borne or platform- 
mounted lifts, ramps or bridge plates or similar manually deployed devices shall 
suffice. [10.3.1(9), 10.3.2(4)] 



4-2-39 



n PlatformA^ehicle Vertical DifTerence 

Problem: The vertical difference between the floor of the rail car and the platform 
boarding surface is often so great that a person in a wheelchair cannot negotiate to 
get on or off the train. 

Solution; The rail-to-platform height in new stations shall be coordinated with the 
floor height of new vehicles so that the vertical difference, measured when the 
Slide vehicle is at rest, is within plus or minus 5/8 in (16 mm) under normal passenger 
32 load conditions. Existing vehicles operating in new stations may have a vertical 
difference between the new platform and the floor of the existing vehicle of plus or 
minus 1-1/2 in (38 mm), measured when the vehicle is at rest. [10.3.1(9)] 

In light rail, rapid rail and commuter rail key stations, the platform or a portion 
thereof and the vehicle floor shall be coordinated so that the vertical difference, 
measured when the vehicle is at rest, is within plus or minus 1-1/2 in (38 mm) under 
normal passenger load conditions. Existing vehicles retrofitted to meet the 
requirements of the one-car-per-train rule shall be coordinated with the platform 
such that, for at least one door, the vertical difference between the vehicle floor and 
the platform, measured when the vehicle is at rest with 50 percent of normal 
passenger capacity, is within plus or minus 2 in (50 mm). [10.3.2(4)] 

On new construction and at key stations in light rail, rapid rail, and commuter rail 
systems where it is not operationally or structurally feasible to meet the vertical 
difference requirements, mini-high platforms, car-borne or platform-mounted lifts, 
ramps or bridge plates or similar manually operated devices shall suffice. [10.3.1(9), 
10.3.2(4)] 



4-2-40 



n Track Crossings (New Construction and Key Stations) 

Problem; In some outlying stations, it is necessary to cross the tracks to get to the 
other platfonn. Many times the walkway across the track is rough and the gap 
between the walkway and the rail is so wide it is difficult to traverse with a 
wheelchair. 

Solution; Where it is necessary to cross tracks to reach boarding platforms, the 
route surface shall be level and flush with the top of the rail both at the outer edges 
of the rail and between the rails. A maximum 2-1/2 in (64 mm) horizontal gap 
between the crossing surface and the inner edge of each rail is allowable. This 
horizontal gap permits the passage of the rail car wheel flange. If the walkway 
across the tracks is not separated from both platforms by curbs, railing, or other 
Slides elements, the boundary between the platform and the walkway crossing the tracks 
33,34 shall be defined by a continuous 36 in (915 mm) wide detectable warning. The 
detectable warning shall consist of truncated domes with a diameter of nominal 0.9 
in (23 mm), a height of nominal 0.2 in (5 m) and a center-to-center spacing of 
nominal 2.35 in (60 mm). The detectable surface shall contrast visually with 
adjoining surfaces either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. 

If a curb separates the platforms and the walkway across the tracks, a curb ramp is 
required which must have a detectable warning surface the full width and depth of 
the curb ramp that meets the above nominal specifications. The curb ramp 
detectable warning shall also contrast visually with the adjoining surfaces. Note: 
The detectable warning consisting of a surface with truncated domes does not apply 
to the flared sides of the curb ramp. [10.3.1(13), 4.29.5, 4.29.2] 



4-2-41 



G Maintenance of Accessible Features 

Problem; Many of the accessible features are provided but much of the time the 
mechanical devices such as elevators are out of order and there are many instances 
where the only accessible route is blocked by temporary construction barriers or 
service vehicles/carts. Some of the walkways and curb ramps are deteriorated and 
in the winter the curb ramps are icy and snow is seldom removed from them. 

Solution: To the maximum extent feasible, facilities shall be accessible to and usable 
by individuals with disabilities. It is not sufficient to provide accessible features such 
as elevators and communications systems for people with vision or hearing 
Slide impairments if the features are not maintained in a manner that enables individuals 
35 with disabilities to use them. Inoperative elevators, locked accessible doors, 
accessible paths of travel that are blocked by equipment or boxes are not accessible 
to or usable by individuals with disabilities. Temporary pedestrian passageways and 
walkways around construction sites must comply with ADAAG. 

Temporary obstructions or isolated instances of mechanical failures are not 
considered violations. But repairs must be made "promptly." There are no specific 
time limits stated in the rule for repairs to be affected. However, making repairs to 
accessible features must be made a high priority. 

Accommodations must be made to individuals with disabilities who would otherwise 
use an inoperative accessibility feature. For example, if an elevator at a key station 
is out of service for repairs, the transit operator must announce the problem 
throughout the system to alert the passengers and offer an accessible alternative 
such as a shuttle bus to the area served by that station. 



4-2-42 



EXERCISES 

1. If there are four existing entrances to a station that has been determined to be a key 
station, how many of the entrances must be made accessible? 

(a) At least one entrance 

(b) Two entrances 

(c) Three entrances 

(d) All of the entrances 

2. What are the requirements at the entrances that do not have to be made accessible? 

(a) Nothing has to be done. 

(b) A directional sign which indicates the location of the nearest accessible 
entrance must be added. 

(c) Alternative accessible transportation service must be provided. 

3. If an escalator is provided, even though it is not considered an accessible element, 
what is the desired width? 

(a) 24 in (610 mm) 

(b) 30 in (760 mm) 

(c) 32 in (815 mm) 

4. What is the minimum clear floor area for an elevator that has a door centered on 
the car? 

(a) 51 in (1291 mm) deep by 80 in (2030 mm) wide 

(b) 60 in (1525 mm) deep by 60 in (1525 mm) wide 

(c) 51 in (1291 mm) deep by 68 in (1525 mm) wide 

5. Announcements are made over the PA system at an existing station. This station 
has been designated a key station. Does the PA system need to be updated? 

(a) No 

(b) Yes, a new PA system is required. 

(c) The existing PA system if operable could stay. A means of conveying the 
same message to persons with hearing loss or who are deaf must be provided. 

6. Telephones were installed on the platform of a key rapid rail system in late 1989. 
They were installed in full compliance with UFAS. The new ADA specifications 
require that a text telephone be installed. Do the existing telephones need to be 
changed? 



4-243 



7. The existing fare gates are 27 in wide and operate automatically. Does this comply 
with the ADA standards? 

8. When a station identification sign is placed on the wall of the station and the wall 
is close to the train, where should the sign be placed in relation to the windows of 
the train? 

(a) At the top edge of the window. 

(b) At the bottom edge of the window. 

(c) 24 inches above the top of the window. 

(d) Between the top of the window and the horizontal centerline of the window. 

9. How wide must the detectable platform edge be to comply with the new ADA 
standards? 

(a) 12 in (300 mm) 

(b) 18 in (460 mm) 

(c) 24 in (610 mm) 

(d) 30 in (765 mm) 

10. On a newly designed system with new rapid rail cars, what is the maximum 
acceptable vertical and horizontal gap between the edge of the platform and the rail 
car floor? 

(a) 5/8 in (16 mm) vertical 1 in (25 mm) horizontal 

(b) 5/8 in (16 mm) vertical 2-1/2 in (64 mm) horizontal 

(c) 5/8 in (16 mm) vertical 3 in (76 mm) horizontal 



4-2-44 



UNIT 5-1 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE BETWEEN THE BOARDING 

PLATFORM AND THE VEHICLE - BUSESA^ANS 



SCOPE 



The Department of Transportation rules implementing the vehicle accessibility 
requirements of ADA can be found at two levels of detail. The first area which addresses 
the more general requirements is 49 CFR Part 37, Subpart D - Acquisition of Accessible 
Vehicles by Public Entities and Subpart E - Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Private 
Entities. The second more specific design criteria is contained in 49 CFR Part 38, ADA 
Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles, Subpart B - Buses, Vans and 
Systems and Subpart G - Over-the-Road Buses and Systems. 

This unit will address both the general requirements and the more specific design criteria 
for these vehicles. 

This unit will address the accessible features that are required from the time the vehicle 
approaches the stop until the passenger is settled on the vehicle and if appropriate, fuUy 
secured on the vehicle. Unless otherwise noted, these requirements apply to vehicles for 
which the solicitation closing date was on or after October 7, 1991. 

This unit does not address the barriers encountered by individuals in wheelchairs or 
mobility aids as they board the bus and get settled into the securement devices. That 
portion of the trip for individuals who use wheelchairs and mobility aids is addressed in 
Unit 5-4. 



5-1-1 



DEHNmONS 

Slides 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 

Bus: Any of several types of self-propelled vehicles, generally rubber-tired, intended for 
use on city streets, highways, and busways, including but not limited to minibuses, forty- 
and thirty-foot buses, articulated buses, double-deck buses and electrically powered trolley 
buses used by public entities to provide designated public transportation service and by 
private entities to provide transportation service, including, but not limited to, specific 
public transportation service. Self-propelled, rubber-tired vehicles designed to look like 
antique or vintage trolleys are considered buses. 

New Vehicle: A vehicle (bus) which is offered for sale or lease after manufacture without 
any prior use. 

Slide 6 

Over-the-Road Bus: A bus characterized by an elevated passenger deck located over a 
baggage compartment 

Remanufactured Vehicle: A vehicle (bus) which has been structurally restored and has had 
new or rebuilt major components installed to extend its service life. 

Wheelchair: A mobility aid belonging to any class of three- or four-wheeled devices, usable 
indoors, designed for and used by individuals with mobility impairments, whether operated 
manually or powered. A "common wheelchair" is such a device which does not exceed 30 
in (760 mm) in width and 48 in (1220 mm) in length measured 2 in (50 mm) above the 
ground and does not weigh more than 600 pounds (270 kg) when occupied. 

Equivalent Service Standard: The service available to individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs that is provided, when viewed in its entirety, in the most 
integrated setting appropriate to the needs of the individual and is equivalent to the service 
provided other individuals with respect to schedules, headways, response time, fares, service 
area, hours and days of service, information availability, reservation capability, constraints 
on capacity or service availability, and restrictions or priorities based on trip purpose. 
[37.105] 

Slides 7, 8 

Vehicle Ramp: A sloping surface attached to a vehicle which leads from the ground 
surface to the floor of a vehicle. 

Slide 9 

Vehicle Lift: An apparatus or machine attached to a vehicle which is used to transport an 
individual from one level to another. 



5-1-2 



APPLICABLE STANDARDS 

49 OFR 37.71 Purchase and lease of new non-rail vehicles by Public 

entities operating fixed route systems. 

49 CFR 37.73 Purchase and lease of used non-rail vehicles by public 

entities operating fixed route systems. 

49 CFR 37.75 Remanufacture of non-rail vehicles and purchase and 

lease of remanufactured non-rail vehicles by public 
entities operating fixed route systems. 

49 CFR 37.77 Purchase or lease of new non-rail vehicles by public 

entities operating a demand responsive system for the 
general public. 

49 CFR 37.101 Purchase and lease of vehicles not primarily engaged in 

the business of transporting people. 

49 CFR 37.103 Purchase and lease of new non-rail vehicles by private 

entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting 
people. 

49 CFR 37.163 Keeping Vehicle Lifts in Operative Condition: Public 

Entities 

49 CFR 37.165 Lift and Securement Use 

49 CFR 37.167 Other Service Requirements 

49 CFR 37.169 Interim Requirements for Over-the-Road Buses 

Operated by Private Entities 

49 CFR 37.173 Training Requirements 

49 CFR 38.23 Mobility Aid Accessibility 

49 CFR 38.25 Doors, Steps and Thresholds 

49 CFR 38.27 Priority Seating Signs 

49 CFR 38.29 Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

49 CFR 38.31 Lighting 

49 CFR 38.33 Fare Box 



5-1-3 



49 CFR 38.35 Public Information System 

49 CFR 38.37 Stop Request 

49 CFR 38.39 Destination and Route Signs 

38 CFR 38.153 Doors, Steps and Thresholds 

38 CFR 38.155 Interior, Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

38 CFR 38.157 Lighting 



5-14 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

Problems and solutions will be addressed at two levels of detail: (1) General Requirements 
and (2) Specific Design Requirements. 

Checklist of Problems - General Requirements 

n Standards for Accessible Vehicles 
n Operation and Maintenance 
n Training 



D Standards for Accessible Vehicles 

Problem: A public entity is preparing to initiate commuter bus service and will use 
over-the-road buses. The public entity can either purchase the buses or contract out 
the service. What are the accessibility requirements for the over-the-road buses in 
both cases? Buses will be acquired in 1993. 

Solution; Since commuter bus sendee is fixed route service, the public entity shall 
ensure that the over-the-road buses are readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs. [37.3, 37.71] 

Slide Over-the-road buses purchased by, or provided by a contractor to, a public entity 
10 must have a lift or ramp which meets the performance requirements of a regular bus 
lift and must meet the specific design requirements for over-the-road buses (e.g.. 
Doors, Steps, & Thresholds; Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions, and 
Lighting). These specific design requirements are addressed in the next part of this 
unit [37.7(c)] 



5-1-5 



Problem: A private entity that provides inter-city service with over-the-road buses, 
intends to initiate commuter service to the downtown area from the outlying 
suburbs. What are the requirements for vehicle accessibility? 

Solution; Boarding assistance is required for over-the-road bus service provided by 
private entities. Each private operator may decide what type of boarding assistance 
is appropriate for its operation. Even though the preamble to the DOJ Rule for 
Title II of ADA contains a discussion on carrying or lifting persons with disabilities, 
carrying the person with a disability onto the bus in this case is allowed but should 
be avoided. It is required by the DOT Rule that any employee who provides 
boarding assistance — above all, who may carry or otherwise directly physically assist 
a passenger - must be trained to provide this assistance appropriately and safely. 
[37.169] 



Operation and Maintenance 

Problem; The 40-ft urban bus on a regular fixed route is equipped with a 
wheelchair lift but often times, at least once a month, there are several consecutive 
days when the lift cannot be deployed. What are the requirements on the public 
entity for providing back up service, or for fixing the lift? 

Solution; When a lift breaks down while the bus is in service the driver must report 
the problem by the most immediate means available. If a radio is on the bus, the 
driver must call in the problem. If there us no radio the driver must make a phone 
call at the first opportunity. It is not sufficient to wait until the end of the day. 

If the headways on the route exceed 30 minutes, the public entity must 
accommodate the passenger who requires a lift This accommodation could be by 
a paratransit vehicle or another lift equipped bus. 

If the lift is known to be inoperable, the public entity must take the bus out of 
service before the beginning of the next day and repair the hft before the vehicle is 
put back into service. There are exceptions to this requirement which are 
summarized as follows: 

If there is no spare bus (with or without a lift) available to take the place of 
the bus with the broken lift, then the bus with the broken lift may be placed 
back into service the next day. If the public entity's service area has a 
population over 50,000, the bus with a broken lift can be kept in service a 
maximum of three days. If the public entity's service area has a population 
less than 50,000 the bus with the broken lift can be kept in service for a 
maximum of five days until the lift is repaired. [37.163] 



5-1-6 



Problem; Many of the buses throughout the service area have inoperable lifts. Is 
there a requirement for preventive maintenance on the lifts so the lifts can be made 
more reliable? 

Slide Solution; The DOT Rule requires the public entity to establish a system of regular 
11 and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are 
operative. This does not mean that the public entity must check each lift operation 
daily. If alternate day checks or an alternate means of checking to see if the lift is 
operable can be implemented this is acceptable. It is a violation of the Rule if the 
public entity neglects to check lifts regularly and frequently. It is also a violation of 
the Rule if a pattern of lift breakdowns in service occurs which results in stranded 
passengers. [37.163] 



Problem; The bus operator refuses to assist persons in wheelchairs. He does deploy 
the lift but he will not help the passenger with a disability get on the lift or help him 
get secured on the vehicle. The operator has stated that his union contract does not 
allow him to leave his seat This type of interaction does not seem to be in the 
spirit of the ADA legislation. 

Solution; Both public and private entity employers have an obligation to ensure that 
a passenger with a disability is able to take advantage of the accessibility and safety 
features on vehicles. Consequently the operator must deploy the lift properly and 
safely and if the passenger cannot board the bus and use the securement device on 
his own, the operator must assist him. Even in public and private entities whose 
operators do not traditionally leave their seats because of labor-management 
agreements or company rules, this assistance must be provided. The DOT Rule 
overrides any requirements to the contrary. [37.165] 



Problem; A person with a disability, using a cane, asked the operator to deploy the 
lift because she could not step up onto the first step on the bus. The operator 
refused to deploy the lift and the person was unable to board the bus. Does the 
DOT Rule address this problem? 

Solution; Yes. People using canes or walkers and other standees with disabilities 
who do not use wheelchairs but have difficulty using steps must be permitted to use 
the lift, on request [37.165] 



5-1-7 



Problem; When waiting at the bus platform of a busy bus terminal it is difficult for 
people who have vision impairments to know which route the bus serves as it pulls 
up to the stop. 

Solution; When buses from more than one route serve a given stop, public and 
private entities must provide a means to assist an individual with a visual impairment 
or other disability in determining which is the proper bus to enter. Some acceptable 
means are external speakers. Colored mitts or numbered cards can be held by the 
disabled person to show the driver which route they want. [37.167] 



Problem; On a recent trip to town during midday, there was a person sitting in the 
priority seating that had a pet monkey sitting next to her. An elderly person was 
forced to walk further from the aisle to find a seat. Shouldn't the driver object to 
having people with pets on the bus and especially when they occupy the priority 
seat? 

Solution; The person in the priority seat could have been disabled. One of the 
most common misconceptions about service animals is that a service animal is always 
a guide dog used by persons with visual impairments. Other animals such as 
monkeys have been trained and are used to assist not only blind people but persons 
with other disabilities as well. [37.167] 



Problem; Recently a driver refused to deploy the lift at a stop to let a person in a 
wheelchair off of the bus. The driver told the person that the stop would not 
accommodate the lift and that he could get off at the next appropriate stop. 

Solution; It is inconsistent with the DOT Rule for a transit provider (public or 
private) to refuse to let a passenger use a lift at a designated bus stop, unless the lift 
is physically unable to deploy or the lift would be damaged if it were deployed. If 
there were a temporary situation at the bus stop such as an accident, parked car 
blocking the accessible area of the stop or some construction that would be 
hazardous for any passenger to use the stop, the operator was correct in refusing to 
deploy the lift. [37.167] 



Problem; A commuter bus must go through an underwater tunnel on its route to 
the downtown area. A person in a wheelchair that required breathing assistance 
from a portable medical oxygen supply tried to board the bus. The operator told 
the person with the disability that she could not ride the bus because the route 
(tunnel) taken by the bus prohibited pressurized containers. 

Solution; The DOT Hazardous Materials Rules allow a passenger to bring a 
portable medical oxygen supply on board a vehicle. Since the hazardous rule 
permits it, the transit provider ^public or private) cannot prohibit it. [ 37.167] 



5-1-8 



Training 

Problem; Even though all of the buses are equipped with lifts and, generally 
speaking, the lifts work the majority of the time, the drivers are very rude when they 
have to engage the lift and many of them are extremely rough when they help 
people in wheelchairs to board the bus. 

Solution: Each public and private entity which operates a fixed route or demand 
responsive system shall ensure that personnel are trained to proficiency as 
appropriate to their duties. This means the drivers must be trained so that they 
operate vehicles and equipment safely and properly assist and treat individuals with 
disabilities who use the service in a respectful and courteous way with appropriate 
attention to the difference among individuals with disabilities. [37.173] 



Problem; A new driver was assigned to a route where several people with 
disabilities normally catch the bus. When the driver stopped at the bus stop where 
the person in the wheelchair boards, he did not pull close enough to the curb. The 
person in the wheelchair told him that the lift would not reach the bus stop pad but 
the driver engaged the lift anyway. It took over ten minutes for the driver to load 
and secure the person in the wheelchair. With the normal driver it only takes 
about three or four minutes. This is not fair to the other passengers on the bus and 
most of the delay was due to the driver's poor training. Shouldn't training be 
required so the driver knows how to operate the lift properly? 

Solution; Yes. The Rule requires all public and private entities operating fixed 
route and demand responsive service to ensure that all personnel are trained to 
proficiency as appropriate to their duties. [37.173] 



5-1-9 



Checklist of Problems - Specific Design Requirements 

□ Bus Stops and Bus Terminal Platforms 

□ Vehicle Destination and Route Signs 
n Doors 

n Steps, Thresholds and Aisles 

D Lighting 

n Fare Box 

n Handrails and Stanchions 

n Priority Seating Signs 

□ Securement Area 



D Bus Stops and Bus Terminal Platforms 

Problem; The interface between the bus stop pad or platform and the lift or ramp 
is critical to accessing the lift or ramp. 

Solution; The specific design requirements and location and placement 
requirements for bus stop pads and platforms are presented in Unit 3-1 of this 
document. In general, bus stop pads or platforms built by or on behalf of the transit j 

entity shall be a level, firm, stable surface with a minimum clear length of 96 in 
(2440 mm) measured from the curb or vehicle roadway edge and a minimum clear 
width of 60 in (1525 mm) measured parallel to the vehicle roadway, to the maximum % 

extent allowed by legal or site constraints. Such pads shall be connected to streets, 
sidewalks, or pedestrian paths by an accessible route. [10.2.1] 



5-1-10 



G Vehicle Destination and Route Signs 

Problem; The signs over the front of the bus and over the side door of the bus are 
difficult to read because the letters are not bold enough. 

Slide Solution; Where destination or route information is displayed on the exterior of a 
12 bus (excluding over-the-road buses) each bus shall have illuminated signs on the 
front and boarding side of the bus. Characters on the signs shall have a width-to- 
height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke width-to-height ratio between 1:5 and 
1:10 with a minimum character height (using an upper case X) of 1 in (25 mm) for 
signs on the boarding side of the bus and a minimum character height of 2 in (50 
mm) for front "headsigns." Characters shall have wide spacing (generally the space 
between letters shall be 1/16 the height of upper case letters). Characters shall 
contrast with the background, either dark-on-light or light-on-dark. [38.39] 



5-Ml 



n Doors 

Problem: When a lift is put on a transit bus shouldn't the operator of the lift take 
into effect the height of the bus doorway? It seems like the door height could be 
a problem once the lift is at the bus floor level. Do the DOT vehicle specifications 
require a certain doorway height? If so, what is it? 

Slide Solution: Buses longer than 22 ft (6.7 m) shall have an overhead clearance between 
13 the top of the door opening and the platform (floor) of the raised lift of 68 in (1725 
mm). Note: Where the lift is the "elevator" type in which a standee is positioned 
fully inside the vehicle during lift operation, the door height requirement does not 
apply by virtue of a determination of "equivalent facilitation." If a ramp is used the 
clearance between the top of the door opening to the highest point on the ramp 
shall be 68 in (1725 mm). Note that there is no standard for the clear opening 
width of a transit bus because when the bus is equipped with a lift, the lift platform 
width dictates the door width. 

Buses 22 ft (6.7 m) long and shorter shall have an overhead clearance between the 
top of the door opening and the platform (floor) of the raised lift of 56 in (1420 
mm). If a ramp is used the clearance between the top of the door opening to the 
highest point on the ramp shall be no less than 56 in (1420 mm). Note that there 
is no standard for the clear opening width of a transit bus because when the bus is 
equipped with a lift, the lift platform width dictates the door width. [38.25(c)] 



Problem; Some of the doors on over-the-road buses seem very narrow, especially 
when the handrails are installed. It is very difficult to negotiate the width of the 
doorway if baggage is being carried on by persons with walking disabilities. 

Solution; Doors on over-the-road buses shall have a minimum clear width of 30 in 
(760 mm) when they are open, but in no case shall they be less than 27 in (685 mm). 
[38.155(c)] 



5-1-12 



n Steps, Thresholds and Aisles 

Problem; When it rains and snows the steps and aisle ways in the bus get wet and 
some of the smooth surfaces on the floor of the bus become quite slippery. 

Solution; All aisles, steps and floor areas where people walk and the floors in the 
wheelchair securement areas shall have slip-resistant surfaces on regular and over- 
the-road buses. [38.25(a), 38.153(a)] 



Problem; In developing a specification for a new bus procurement, what standard 
should be used to ensure that the floor area and steps are provided with the 
mandated "slip resistant" surface? 

Solution; The coefficient of friction can be used to measure slip resistance. The 
coefficient of friction is the ratio between the force necessary to move one surface 
over another surface and the pressure between the two surfaces. For example, the 
coefficient of friction for cast iron on oak is 38:100 or 0.38. A research project 
conducted with persons with disabilities concluded that a static coefficient of friction 
of 0.60 was appropriate for steps, floors and lift platforms and a coefficient of 
friction of 0.80 was desirable for ramps. 



Problem; It is difficult for people with vision impairments to distinguish when they 
are at the edge of the step. 

Slides Solution; All step edges, thresholds and the boarding edges of ramps and lift 
14, 15 platforms shall have a band of color(s) running the full width of the step or edge. 

The color shall contrast from the step tread and riser, or the lift platform or ramp 

surface either dark-on-light or light-on-dark. 

The material used should contrast by at least 70%. Percent contrast is determined 
by the following equation: 

B, -B, 

Contrast = — x 100 

B, 

where B^ is the Light Reflectance Value of the lighter area and Bj is the Light 
Reflectance Value of the darker area. Note that in any application both white and 
black are never absolute: thus Bj never equals 100 and Bjis always greater than zero. 
[38.25(6), 38.153(b), Appendix Part 38] 



5-1-13 



n Lighting 

Problem; When boarding and alighting the over-the-road bus that is used on the 
route between the outer suburbs and the city, and also when boarding and alighting 
the local transit bus that is used within the city, it is difficult to see in the area 
immediately outside of the front and rear doors when there is no street light located 
at the bus stop. One bus that was used had a light on the outside of the bus which 
helped to illuminate the boarding area and made it easier to see where the curb was 
located in relation to the steps. 

Slide Solution; The doorways of over-the-road buses and standard transit buses including 

16 doorways in which lifts or ramps are installed shall have outside light(s) which, when 

the doors are open, provide at least 1 foot-candle (11 lux) of illumination on the 

street or sidewalk surface, for a distance of 36 in (915 mm) measured perpendicular 

from all points along the outer edge of the bottom step tread. 

This standard applies to both of the doors on transit buses and to the door on over- 
the-road buses. [38.31(c), 38.157(b)] 



Problem; Even though the ground surface outside of the door of the bus is lighted 
when the doors are open, some of the treads of the steps on the transit buses and 
over-the-road buses appear to be quite dark. 

Slides Solution; Any stepwell or doorway immediately adjacent to the driver (on transit 
17, 18 buses and over-the-road buses) shall have, when the door is open, at least 2 foot 
19 candles (22 lux) of illumination measured on the step tread or on the lift platform. 
On transit buses, at all other doorways (including doorways where lifts or ramps are 
installed) the stepwell or doorway shall have, at all times , at least 2 foot-candles (22 
lux) of illumination measured on the step tread at the vehicle floor level. When the 
lift or ramp is deployed, the illumination level at the vehicular floor level shall be 
2 foot-candles (22 lux). [38.31(a)(b), 38.157(a)] 



5-1-14 



n Fare Box 

Problem; When boarding the bus, it is difficult to maneuver past the fare box, 
especially since the transit authority installed the new fare boxes. Apparently, there 
is no standard for clear width of aisle space in the vicinity of the fare box. If the 
fare box were moved slightly forward in conjunction with a minor modification to 
the pole across the aisle, there would be enough room. 

Slides Solution: When a fare box is provided, it shall be located as far forward as 

20, 21 practicable and shall not obstruct traffic in the vestibule, especially wheelchair or 

22 mobility aids. The stanchion immediately behind the driver shall either terminate 

at the lower edge of the aisle-facing seat or be "dog-legged" out of the aisle 

maneuvering space. 

The standard, as written, does not require a specific clear width for the vestibule 
area, but since the standard prohibits the obstruction to a wheelchair, it can be 
assumed that the clear width should comply with the minimum clear width for a 
doorway which is 32 in (815 mm). [38.33] 

Although the DOT Rule does not prescribe the reach limitations for a fare box, 
some general guidance may be used from ADAAG 4.2 Space Allowance and Reach 
Ranges. If the vestibule area of the bus allows a forward approach by a person in 
a wheelchair, the fare box controls and money slot should be between 15 in (380 
mm) and 48 in (1220 mm) from the vestibule floor. If the vestibule area of the bus 
allows a side or parallel approach by a person in a wheelchair, the fare box controls 
and money slot should be between 9 in (230 nmi) and 54 in (1370 mm) from the 
vestibule floor. 



5-1-15 



n Handrails and Stanchions 

Problem; When boarding the transit bus and the over-the-road bus it is difficult to 
reach up and grasp the rail as you negotiate the first step. 

Slide Solution; Handrails and stanchions shall be provided in the entrance to transit 
23 buses and over-the-road buses in a configuration which allows persons with 
disabilities to grasp such assists fi-om outside of the vehicle while starting to board, 
and to continue using such assists throughout the boarding process, and throughout 
the fare collection process where fares are collected. [38.29(b), 38.155(a)] 



Problem; Placement of stanchions and handrails around the vestibule area of the 
bus, in the doorway/stepwell area and along the aisles sometimes causes those spaces 
to be very difficult to negotiate in a wheelchair. Are there any specific guidelines 
in the DOT Rule which set the requirements for clear widths and clear floor space? 

Slide Solution; On transit buses, interior handrails and stanchions shall permit sufficient 
24 turning and maneuvering space for wheelchairs and other mobility aids to reach a 
securement location from the lift or ramp. Securement area clear floor space 
dimensions are specified in the DOT Rule. The DOT vehicle specifications do not 
specifically prescribe the minimum dimensions for the vestibule or aisles. Even 
though there are no specific requirements, ADAAG should be used for guidance. 
The following guidance is provided. 

Door clear width: ADAAG 4.13 Doors - Doorways shall have a minimum 
clear opening of 32 in (815 mm) with the door open 90 degrees, measured 
between the face of the door and the opposite stop. 

Vestibule area: ADAAG 4.2 Space Allowance and Reach Ranges - The 
space required for a wheelchair to make a 180 degree turn is a clear space 
of 60 in (1525 mm) in diameter or an L-shaped space with 36 in (915 mm) 
aisle ways. 

Aisle widths: ADAAG 4.2 Space Allowance and Reach Ranges - The 
minimum clear width for single wheelchair passage shall be 32 in (815 mm) 
at a point and 36 in (915 mm) continuously. 

Securement area: ADAAG 4.2 Space Allowance and Reach Ranges - The 
minimum clear floor area required to accommodate a single stationary 
wheelchair and occupant is 30 in (760 mm) by 48 in (1220 mm). 
[38.23(d)(2)] 



5-1-16 



Problem; When paying the fare, there is nothing stable to lean against or hold onto 
as you pay. Sometimes the driver starts moving the bus while people are still paying 
the fare and they must hold on to the stanchions across the aisle from the fare box. 
A person with a walking disability finds that difficult. 

Slide Solution; On transit buses longer than 22 ft (6.7 m) and on over-the-road buses 
25 where on-board fare collection devices are used, a horizontal passenger assist 
(handrail, grab bar or other appropriate surface) shall be located across the front 
of the vehicle between boarding passengers and the fare collection device to prevent 
passengers from sustaining injuries on the fare collection device or the bus 
windshield in the event of a sudden deceleration. This horizontal passenger assist 
must not restrict the vestibule space and must provide support for the boarding 
passenger from the doorway through the boarding process. The passenger assist 
shall be secured and designed such that passengers are able to lean against the assist 
for security while paying fares. [38.29(b), 38.155(a)] 



Problem; Some of the handrails are so close to the surface they are attached to that 
it is difficult to get your fingers between the handrail and the adjacent surface. Is 
there a specific offset that is required when mounting handrails? 

Slides Solution; Handrails used on transit buses and over-the-road buses shall have a grab 
26, 27 bar with a cross-sectional diameter between 1-1/4 in (32 mm) and 1-1/2 in (38 mm) 
or shall provide an equivalent grasping surface. Edges on the handrail shall be 
rounded and have a minimum radius of 1/8 in (3.2 mm). All handrails shall be 
placed and mounted so that there is a minimum 1-1/2 in (38 mm) space between the 
grasping surface and the adjacent surface. [38.29(b), 38.155(a)] 



Problem; Once the wheelchair lift has raised the wheelchair to the same level as the 
bus aisle floor, the individual in the wheelchair must negotiate through the fare 
box/driver vestibule area to the securement area. The placement of the vertical 
stanchions is critical because the footrest of the wheelchair can hit the stanchion as 
the turning movement is made if there is not enough clear floor space to maneuver 
the wheelchair around the comer. 

Solution; For vehicles in excess of 22 ft (6.70 m) in length with front-door lifts or 
ramps, vertical stanchions immediately behind the driver shall either terminate at the 
lower edge of the aisle-facing seats, if applicable, or be "dog-legged" so that the floor 
attachment does not impede or interfere with wheelchair footrests. If the driver seat 
platform must be passed by a wheelchair or mobility aid user entering the vehicle, 
the platform, to the maximum extent practicable, shall not extend into the aisle or 
vestibule beyond the wheel housing. [38.29(e)] 



5-1-17 



Problem: When the individual in the wheelchair moves from the lift platform 
through the vestibule area and down the aisle and into the securement area, it is 
important that there are no overhead objects that could obstruct this path of travel. 
How much distance should there be between the floor and the overhead handrails 
to ensure that individuals in wheelchairs have sufficient headroom to move from the 
ramp platform to the securement area? 

Solution: For vehicles in excess of 22 ft (6.70 m) in length, the minimum interior 
height along the path from the lift to the securement location shall be 68 in (1730 
mm). For vehicles of 22 ft (6.70 m) in length or less, the minimum interior height 
from lift to securement location shall be 56 in (1420 mm). [38.29 (f)] 



5-1-18 



n Priority Seating Signs 

Problem; Some transit buses do not have the sign which designates priority seating 
for persons with disabilities clearly displayed. 

Slide Solution: Each bus shall contain sign(s) which indicate that seats in the front of the 

28 vehicle are priority seats for persons with disabilities, and that other passengers 

should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. [38.27(a)] 



Problem; Generally the seats that are signed for persons with disabilities are the 
seats in the front of the bus behind the driver. In most buses when you sit in these 
seats you are facing sideways. This is difficult when the bus starts or stops quickly 
and it is also difficult to see out of the window to locate where you are. 

Solution; At least one set of seats which face forward shall be designated and 
signed as priority seats. [38.27(a)] 



Problem: The city bus system has the seats on the bus laid out so they all face 
toward the center aisle. This makes all of the seats on the bus face sideways. Does 
the DOT Rule require that at least one set of forward facing seats applies in this 
case? 

Solution; Even though the DOT rule does not have an exception listed for the 
requirement of one set of forward facing seats [38.27(a)], the technical assistance 
manual issued by the Access Board explains that this was not the intent 



Problem; The signs which designate priority seating areas and securement areas are 
sometimes so small you cannot read them. People with vision impairments that have 
to use wheelchairs have a difficult time reading the signs because the characters do 
not contrast with the sign background. 

Slide Solution: Characters on priority seating signs and securement location signs shall 
29 have a width-to-height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke width-to-height ratio 
between 1:5 and 1:10. with a minimum character height (using an upper case X) of 
5/8 in (16 mm). Wide spacing between the characters shall be used (generally the 
space between letters shall be 1/16 the height of the upper case letters). The 
characters and sign background shall contrast either light-on-dark or dark-on-light 
[38.27(c)] 



5-1-19 



Securement Area 

Problem: Where should the securement area be located? How big must it be to 
accommodate one wheelchair? If there isn't enough room, can the securement area 
overlap some of the aisle way? How close to some of the other seats can the 
wheelchair get? 

Solution; The securement area should be located as near to the accessible entrance 
as practicable. The area shall have a clear space of 30 in (760 mm) wide by 48 in 
(1220 mm) long. The securement area shall adjoin and may overlap an access path 
(aisle). Up to 6 in (150 mm) of the 48 in (1220 mm) clear length can extend 
underneath a seat or modesty panel provided there is a minimum of 9 in (230 mm) 
from the floor to the lowest part of the seat or panel. This 6 in (150 mm) space can 
be used to accommodate the footrest of the wheelchair. [38.23(d)(2)] 



Problem: When a securement area is provided, it takes seats away from other 
passengers when it is not being used. 

Solution; The securement areas may have fold-down seats to accommodate other 
passengers when a wheelchair or mobility aid is not occupying the space. The fold- 
down seats, if provided, must not obstruct the clear floor area 48 in (1220 mm) by 
30 in (760 mm) when they are folded up. [38.23(d)(2)] 



Problem; How many spaces for a wheelchair are required on a bus? Does the size 
of the bus have anything to do with the number of required spaces? If more spaces 
can be accommodated by squeezing the wheelchairs in sideways, is it better to have 
more spaces even though the person with the disability has to sit sideways when 
riding on a bus? 

Solution: In vehicles that are longer than 22 ft (6.7 m) at least two securement 
areas and devices are required. At least one securement area shall be provided so 
that the wheelchair or mobility aid, when secured, is facing toward the front of the 
vehicle. If other securement areas are provided, they shall be designed so that the 
wheelchair or mobility aid faces either toward the front of the bus or rearward. In 
vehicles 22 ft (6.7 m) long or less, the securement area can be designed so that the 
wheelchair or mobility aid can face either toward the front or the back of the 
busA'an. Sidefacing securement of wheelchairs or mobility aids is prohibited. 
[37.239(d)(4)] 



5-1-20 



Problem; When secured on a bus in a rear facing position, there is concern about 
the possibility of whiplash if the bus has to stop quickly. Is there some requirement 
for a head rest to provide a safety cushion for the individual's head? 

Solution: If the wheelchair or mobility aid faces toward the rear of the busA^an, a 
padded barrier shall be provided. The padded barrier shall be located such that it 
is centered in back of the secured wheelchair. The padded barrier shall extend from 
a height of 38 in (965 mm) to a height of 54 in (1370 mm) from the floor of the 
vehicle and shall be 18 in (455 mm) wide. [37.23(d)(4)] 



Problem; On many of the transit buses the securement area is taken up by fold- 
down seats. Even though the fold-down seats are generally different in appearance 
than the regular seats, it is sometimes difficult to know where the securement area 
is especially when all of the seats are taken. 

Solution; Each securement area or location shall have a sign designating it as such. 
[38.27(b)] 



5-1-21 



EXERCISES 

1. What is the minimum acceptable height of a character on the route destination sign 
on the side of the bus? 

(a) 5/8 in (16 mm) 

(b) 1 in (25 mm) 

(c) 1-1/2 in (38 mm) 

(d) 2 in (50 mm) 

2. What is the minimum acceptable height of a character on the route destination sign 
on the front of the bus? 

(a) 5/8 in (16 mm) 

(b) 1 in (25 mm) 

(c) 1-1/2 in (38 mm) 

(d) 2 in (50 mm) 

3. What is the acceptable lift or ramp overhead clearance of the doorway of a bus that 
is longer than 22 feet? 

(a) 60 in (1525 m) 

(b) 68 in (1725 mm) 

(c) 72 in (1830 mm) 

(d) 80 in (2030 mm) 

4. What is the acceptable clear width of the door for a transit bus that is longer than 
22 feet? 

(a) 27 in (685 mm) 

(b) 30 in (760 mm) 

(c) 32 in (810 mm) 

(d) There is no ADA standard for door clear widths. 

5. What is the maximum diameter of a handrail that will permit a disabled person to 
firmly grasp the rail? 

(a) 1 in (25 mm) 

(b) 1-1/4 in (32 mm) 

(c) 1-1/2 in (38 mm) 

(d) 2 in (50 mm) 



5-1-22 



6. What is the minimum interior height along the path of travel from the platform lift 
to a securement area on a bus that is longer than 22 feet? 

(a) 60 in (1525 m) 

(b) 68 in (1725 mm) 

(c) 72 in (1830 mm) 

(d) 80 in (2030 mm) 

7. What is the acceptable height of a character on a priority seating sign? 

(a) 5/8 in (16 mm) 

(b) 1 in (25 mm) 

(c) 1-1/2 in (38 mm) 

(d) 2 in (50 mm) 

8. How much clear area should there be in the securement area of a transit bus? 

(a) 30 in (760 mm) by 48 in (1220 mm) 

(b) 32 in (815 mm) by 54 in (1370 mm) 

(c) 36 in (915 mm) by 60 in (1525 mm) 

(d) a 60 in (1525 mm) diameter circle 



5-1-23 



UNIT 5-2 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE BETWEEN THE BOARDING PLATFORM AND THE 

VEHICLE - RAIL VEHICLE FROM A LEVEL BOARDING PLATFORM 



SCOPE 



The Department of Transportation rules implementing the vehicle accessibility 
requirements of ADA can be found at two levels of detail. The first area which addresses 
the more general requirements is 49 CFR Part 37, Subpart D - Acquisition of Accessible 
Vehicles by Public Entities and Subpart E - Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Private 
Entities. The second more specific design criteria is contained in 49 CFR Part 38, ADA 
Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles, Subpart C - Rapid Rail Vehicles 
and Systems, Subpart D - Light Rail Vehicles and Systems, Subpart E - Commuter Rail 
Cars and Systems, and Subpart F - Intercity Rail Cars and Systems. 

All new, used and remanufactured rapid rail and light rail vehicles, commuter rail and 
intercity rail cars that were purchased or leased after August 25, 1990 by a public entity, 
commuter rail authority or Amtrak must be readily accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs. Those for which a solicitation 
closed on or after October 7, 1991, must comply with the Part 38 standards discussed in this 
unit 

TWs unit addresses the elements that must be accessible to permit persons with disabilities 
to determine the route of a specific train, to safely locate the accessible vehicle or car, to 
determine which door is accessible and board the vehicle or car that is serving the desired 
route from a level boarding platform before the doors close. 



5-2-1 



DEnNITIONS 

Slide 1 

Commuter Rail Car: A rail passenger car obtained by a commuter authority for use in 
commuter rail transportation. 

Slide 2 

Intercity Rail Passenger Car: A rail car, intended for use by revenue passengers, obtained 
by the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) for use in intercity rail 
transportation. 

Slides 

Light Rail: A streetcar-type vehicle operated on city streets, semi-exclusive rights of way, 
or exclusive rights of way. Service may be provided by step-entry vehicles or by level 
boarding. 

Slide 4 

Rapid Rail: A subway-type transit vehicle railway operated on exclusive private rights of 
way with high level platform stations. Rapid rail also may operate on elevated or at grade 
level track separated from other traffic. 

New Vehicle: A vehicle which is offered for sale or lease after manufacture without any 
prior use. 

Used Vehicle: A vehicle with prior use. 

Slide 5 

Remanufactured Vehicle: A vehicle which has been structurally restored and has had new 
or rebuilt major components installed to extend its service life. 

Retrofitted Vehicle: A vehicle that has been modified to the extent necessary to comply 
with the specific accessibility standards required by the One Car Per Train Rule. 

Automated Guideway Transit System (AGT): A fixed guideway transit system which 
operates with automated (driverless) individual vehicles or multi-car trains. Service may 
be on a fixed schedule or in response to a passenger-activated call button. 

High Speed Rail: A rail service having the characteristics of intercity rail service which 
operates primarily on a dedicated guideway or track not used, for the most part, by freight, 
including, but not limited to, trains on welded rail, magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles 
on a special guideway, or other advanced technology vehicles, designed to travel at speeds 
in excess of those possible on other types of railroads. 

5-2-2 



APPLICABLE STANDARDS 


49 CFR 37.79 


49 CFR 37.81 


49 CFR 37.83 


49 CFR 37.85 


49 CFR 37.87 


49 CFR 37.89 


49 CFR 37.93 


49 CFR 37.101 


49 CFR 37.107 


49 CFR 38 


Subpart C 


49 CFR 38 


Subpart D 


49 CFR 


Subpart E 


49 CFR 


Subpart F 



Purchase or lease of new rail vehicles by public entities 
operating rapid or light rail systems. 

Purchase or lease of used rail vehicles by public entities 
operating rapid or light rail systems. 

Remanufacture of rail vehicles and purchase or lease of 
remanufactured rail vehicles by public entities operating 
rapid or light rail systems. 

Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail 



Purchase or lease of used intercity and commuter rail 
cars. 

Remanufacture of intercity and commuter rail cars and 
purchase and lease of remanufactured intercity and 
commuter rail cars. 

One car per train rule. 

Purchase or lease of vehicles by private entities not 
primarily engaged in the business of transporting 
people. 

Acquisition of passenger rail cars by private entities 
primarily engaged in the business of transporting 
people. 



Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems 



Light Rail Vehicles and Systems 



Commuter Rail Cars and Systems 



Intercity Rail Cars and Systems 



5-2-3 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

Accessibility from the level (high or mini-high) boarding platform to rapid rail and light rail 
vehicles and commuter rail and intercity rail cars will be addressed at two levels of detail: 
(1) General requirements and (2) Specific design requirements. 

Checklist of Problems - General Requirements 

n Accessibility of New and Used Rapid Rail and Light Rail Vehicles 

n Accessibility of Remanufactured Rapid Rail and Light Rail Vehicles 

n Accessibility of New and Used Commuter Rail and Intercity Rail Cars 

n Accessibility of Remanufactured Commuter Rail and Intercity Rail Cars 

D One Car Per Train Rule 



5-2-4 



Accessibility of New and Used Rapid Rail and Light Rail Vehicles 

Problem; A city has a system which uses light rail and rapid rail vehicles. The 
existing vehicles are not fully accessible. A procurement is underway to order used 
light rail vehicles and new rapid rail vehicles. Do these vehicles have to be 
accessible? 

Solution; Each public entity operating a rapid or light rail system making a 
solicitation after October 7, 1991 to purchase or lease a used or new rapid or light 
rail vehicle for use on the system shall ensure that the vehicle is readily accessible 
to and usable by individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use 
wheelchairs, and complies with the standards in 49 CFR Part 38. 

A public entity may purchase or lease a used rapid or light rail vehicle that is not 
readily accessible after making demonstrated good faith efforts to obtain an 
accessible vehicle. [37.79, 37.81] 



Problem; What are the good faith efforts that must be made when trying to 
purchase a readily accessible used light or rapid rail vehicle? How does the public 
entity document the good faith efforts? 

Solution; Good faith efforts shall include at least the following steps: 

(1) The initial solicitation for the used vehicles published by the public entity 
must specify that all used vehicles were to be accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, or, if a solicitation is not used, a documented 
communication so stating; 

(2) A nationwide search for accessible vehicles, involving specific inquiries 
to manufacturers and other transit providers; and 

(3) Advertising in trade publications and contacting trade associations. 
[37.81(c)] 

Each public entity purchasing or leasing used rapid or light rail vehicles that are not 
readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities shall retain 
documentation of the specific good faith efforts it made for three years from the 
date the vehicles were purchased. These records shall be made available, on 
request, to the FTA Administrator and the public. [37.81(d)] 



5-2-5 



Accessibility of Remanufactured Rapid and Light Rail Vehicles 

Problem; A transit authority plans to remanufacture some of its rapid rail vehicles 
and purchase some remanufactured light rail vehicles. Do the rapid rail and light 
rail vehicles have to meet the vehicle accessibility specifications? 

Solution; Yes, if a light or rapid rail vehicle is remanufactured after August 25, 
1990, so as to extend its useful life for five years or more, it shall, to the maximum 
extent feasible be readily accessible to and usable to individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use wheelchairs. [37.83] 

It shall be considered feasible to remanufacture a rapid or light rail vehicle so as to 
be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs, unless an engineering analysis demonstrates that 
doing so would have a significant adverse effect on the structural integrity of the 
vehicle. [37.83(c)] 



Problem; One of the light rail lines and one of the rapid rail lines on a particular 
system is included on the National Register of Historic Places. The vehicles 
operated on the lines are considered historic. The vehicles are scheduled to be 
remanufactured so that the service life can be extended for another seven years. Do 
these "historic vehicles" have to be made accessible? 

Solution; If a public entity operates a rapid or light rail system any segment of 
which is included on the National Register of Historic Places and if making a rapid 
or light rail vehicle of historic character used solely on such segment readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities would significantly alter the 
historic character of such vehicles, the public entity need only make (or purchase or 
lease a remanufactured vehicle with) those modifications that do not alter the 
historic character of such vehicles. [37.83(d)] 

A public entity operating a fixed route system as described above may apply in 
writing to the FTA Administrator for a determination of the historic character of 
the vehicle. The FTA Administrator shall refer such requests to the National 
Register of Historic Places and shall rely on its advice in making a determination of 
the historic character of the vehicle. [37.83(e)] 

Note: The regulation specifically states that the exception applies to rail vehicles 
operated solely on a rail segment which is on the National Register. A historic 
vehicle operated on other lines, for promotional purposes, for example, is not 
covered by the exception. 



5-2-6 



G Accessibility of Remanufactured Rapid and Light Rail Vehicles 

Problem: A transit authority plans to remanufacture some of its rapid rail vehicles 
and purchase some remanufactured light rail vehicles. Do the rapid rail and light 
rail vehicles have to meet the vehicle accessibility specifications? 

Solution; Yes, if a light or rapid rail vehicle is remanufactured after August 25, 
1990, so as to extend its useful life for five years or more, it shall, to the maximum 
extent feasible be readily accessible to and usable to individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use wheelchairs. [37.83] 

It shall be considered feasible to remanufacture a rapid or light rail vehicle so as to 
be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs, unless an engineering analysis demonstrates that 
doing so would have a significant adverse effect on the structural integrity of the 
vehicle. [37.83(c)] 



Problem: One of the light rail lines and one of the rapid rail lines on a particular 
system is included on the National Register of Historic Places. The vehicles 
operated on the lines are considered historic. The vehicles are scheduled to be 
remanufactured so that the service life can be extended for another seven years. Do 
these "historic vehicles" have to be made accessible? 

Solution: If a public entity operates a rapid or light rail system any segment of 
which is included on the National Register of Historic Places and if making a rapid 
or light rail vehicle of historic character used solely on such segment readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities would significantly alter the 
historic character of such vehicles, the public entity need only make (or purchase or 
lease a remanufactured vehicle with) those modifications that do not alter the 
historic character of such vehicles. [37.83(d)] 

A public entity operating a fixed route system as described above may apply in 
writing to the FTA Administrator for a determination of the historic character of 
the vehicle. The FTA Administrator shall refer such requests to the National 
Register of Historic Places and shall rely on its advice in making a determination of 
the historic character of the vehicle. [37.83(e)] 

Note: The regulation specifically states that the exception applies to rail vehicles 
operated solely on a rail segment which is on the National Register. A historic 
vehicle operated on other lines, for promotional purposes, for example, is not 
covered by the exception. 



5-2-6 



n Accessibility of New and Used Commuter and Intercity Rail Cars 

Problem; Do new commuter and intercity rail cars have to be accessible? 

Solution; Amtralc or a commuter authority maldng a solicitation after October 6, 
1991, to purchase or lease a new intercity or commuter rail car for use on the system 
shall ensure that the vehicle is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with 
disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs and complies with 49 CFR 
Part 38. [37.85,37.87] 



Problem; If a public entity purchases used intercity or commuter rail cars, do they 
have to be accessible? 



Solution; Amtrak or a commuter authority purchasing or leasing a used intercity 
or commuter rail car shall ensure that the car is readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs. 

Amtrak or a commuter authority may purchase or lease a used intercity or 
commuter rail car that is not readily accessible to and usable by individuals with 
disabilities if, after making demonstrated good faith efforts to obtain an accessible 
vehicle, it is unable to do so. [37.85, 37.87] 



Problem; What constitutes "demonstrated good faith efforts" to obtain an accessible 
vehicle? 

Solution; Good faith efforts shall include at least the following steps: 

(1) An initial solicitation for the used vehicles published by the commuter 
authority or Amtrak must specify that all used vehicles were to be accessible 
to and usable by individuals with disabilities; 

(2) A nationwide search for accessible vehicles, involving specific inquiries 
to used vehicle dealers and other transit providers; and 

(3) Advertising in trade publications and contacting trade associations. 

Amtrak and commuter authorities purchasing or leasing used intercity or commuter 
rail cars that are not readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities 
shall retain documentation of the specific good faith efforts it made for three years 
from the date the vehicles were purchased or leased. These records shall be made 
available, on request, to the Federal Railroad Administration or FTA Administrator, 
as applicable. These records shall be made available to the public, on request 
[37.87] 



5-2-7 



D Accessibility of Remanufactured Commuter and Intercity Rail Cars 

Problem; If a commuter rail car or an intercity rail car is scheduled to be 
remanufactured, does the scope of the remanufacturing project have to address all 
of the accessibility specifications? 

Solution: If Amtrak or a commuter rail authority remanufactures or purchases or 
leases a remanufactured car which has its life extended by ten years or more, the 
commuter rail and intercity rail cars shall, to the maximum extent feasible, be readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use 
wheelchairs. 

It shall be considered feasible to remanufacture an intercity or commuter rail car so 
as to be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs, unless an engineering analysis demonstrates that 
remanufacturing the car to be accessible would have a significant adverse effect on 
the structural integrity of the car. [37.89] 



One Car Per Train Rule 

Problem; What is the One Car Per Train Rule and what are the dates for 
implementation? 

Solution: Each public entity providing rapid or light rail service shall ensure that 
each train, consisting of two or more vehicles, includes at least one car that is readily 
accessible as soon as practicable but in no case later than July 25, 1995. Each 
entity providing intercity rail service and each commuter rail authority shall ensure 
that each train has one car that is readily accessible as soon as practicable but in no 
case later than July 26, 1995. [37.93] 

Note: For Amtrak, there is also a specific seating requirement which will not be 
addressed here. 



5-2-8 



Problems and solutions related to the specific design criteria address those barriers that a 
person with a disability encounters between the time the train arrives at a level boarding 
platform until the disabled passenger is on the vehicle and the doors are closed. This 
section addresses the barriers as they would occur sequentially during this segment of the 
trip. A checklist of the ADA requirements that address those barriers follows: 

Checklist of Problems - Specific Design Requirements 

□ Between-Car Barriers 
D Signage 

n Public Information System 

n Coordination of Vehicle Floor with Boarding Platform 

□ Clear Width of Passenger Doorway at the Boarding Platform 
n Doorway Threshold 

D Vehicle Floor 

n Door Closing Signal 

□ Handrails and Stanchions at the Entrance Vestibule 



n Between Car Barriers 

Problem: After the train has arrived at the platform, persons with visual 
impairments may have a difficult time finding where the door opening is located on 
the platform. The sound of the door opening is a useful clue but may be obscured 
in a noisy station. One way to find the door opening is to walk along the platform 
touching the side of train until an opening can be felt. Although use of a cane 
should detect the vehicle floor to determine whether the opening is a doorway or 
the space between the cars of the train, the rush of boarding can lead to mistakes. 
If an error is made, the person could fall off the platform between two cars. 

Slides Solution: Where rapid rail, light rail and commuter rail vehicles operate in a high 
6, 7 platform, level-boarding mode, and where between-car bellows are not provided, 
devices or systems shall be provided to prevent, deter or warn individuals from 
inadvertently stepping off the platform between cars. Appropriate devices include, 
but are not limited to, pantograph gates, chains, motion detectors or other suitable 
devices. 

On rail systems, between-car barriers are not required where platform screens are 
provided which close off the platform edge and open only when trains are correctiy 
aligned with the doors. Typically, such train screens are used in "people mover" 
systems. [38.63, 38.85, 38.109] 

Between-car barriers are not required on intercity rail systems because they have 
bellows. 



5-2-9 



Signage 

Problem; The one-car-per-train rule in the DOT regulations requires that at least 
one car per train be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabihties, 
including individuals who use wheelchairs. This accessible car must be provided as 
soon as practicable, but, in no case, later than July 1995. How will a person with 
a disability know which car is accessible? 

Solution; The standard which outlines the requirements for accessible doorways on 
rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail and intercity rail vehicles requires the 
International Symbol of Accessibility to be displayed on the exterior of all doors 
which comply with the accessible doorway standards, unless all cars are accessible 
and are not marked by the access symbol. [38.53(b), 38.73(b), 38.93(e), 38.113(e)] 

On commuter rail and intercity rail cars, appropriate signage shall also indicate 
which accessible doors are adjacent to an accessible restroom, if applicable. 
[38.93(e), 38.113(e)] 



Problem; Even though a sign is required to show which doorway is accessible on 
the rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, and intercity rail vehicles, it is not clear from 
the standards that the vehicle will be accessible or if only the doorway and its 
associated elements are accessible. 

Solution; The standards do, in fact, require the International Symbol of 
Accessibility to be placed on the doors that comply with the section of the standard 
addressing doorways. The Doorway sections address the following elements: Clear 
Width, Signage, Door Closing Signals, Coordination with Boarding Platform 
(horizontal gap and vertical height differences between vehicle and platform) for 
Rapid Rail, Light Rail, Commuter Rail and Intercity Rail vehicles. It should be 
assumed that if the doorway is signed as accessible, at a minimum, there will be an 
accessible route to a seat or an area on the vehicle that a wheelchair or mobility-aid 
can access. 



Problem; The standards do not explicitly require any signage on the accessible 
vehicle door that can be read by a blind person. How can a person who is blind tell 
which door is accessible? 

Solution; The requirements for accessible doorways apply primarily to persons with 
mobility impairments. Threshold edge marking is encouraged for existing doors. 
Although not specifically required, the International Symbol of Accessibility that is 
required to be displayed on the vehicle doors could be a tactile pictorial symbol sign. 
The ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (Section 4.30.4) 
contains standards for tactile signs. 



5-2-10 



n Public Information Systems 

Problem; At the Key transfer stations more than one line operates on the same 
track and serves the same platform. For example, the Blue and Green lines 
alternate trains at the same platform. Once you are on the train, you can hear the 
announcement for the next station stop and from that you can tell what train you 
are on, but many times it is too late to get off the train before the door has closed. 
Even though the signs on the trains comply with the standards, a person who is 
blind or persons with severe visual impairments cannot read the signs. 

Slide Solution; On rapid rail systems, each vehicle operating in stations having more than 
8 one line or route shall have an external public address system to permit 

transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized human speech messages, 

to announce train, route, or line identification information. 

Where station announcement systems provide information on arriving trains, an 
external train speaker is not required. [38.61] 



D Coordination of Vehicle Floor with Boarding Platform 

Problem; Persons with disabilities, especially persons who use wheelchairs or 
mobility aids, find it difficult to ride rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail and intercity 
rail systems even when there is a "level" boarding or a mini-high platform because 
the gap between the platform and vehicle floor and the difference in elevation 
between the platform and vehicle floor vary so much from station to station, vehicle 
to vehicle, and system to system. The new accessibility standards for vehicles 
address this problem in Sections 38.53(d), 38.73(d). 38.93(d), and 38.113(d). In 
addition, the ADAAG for Buildings and Facilities addresses this problem in Sections 
10.3.1(9) and 10.3.2(4). Both of the standards appear to be consistent but because 
of all the possible combinations between vehicles (new, existing, and retrofitted) and 
station platforms (new, existing, key stations) for the various systems (rapid, light, 
commuter and intercity), it is very difficult to understand the requirements. 

Slide Solution; There are a number of requirements for each of the different systems. 

9 The requirements do have exceptions which have been developed to make it possible 
to comply with the intent of the ADA legislation. Probably, the easiest way to 
summarize the variety of scenarios for which specific standards have been 
promulgated is with a chart which displays the maximum acceptable horizontal gap 
and vertical elevation difference between new, used and rehabilitated vehicles and 
new, existing and key station platforms for the various systems. The table follows: 



5-2-11 







™" 


^m= 
























« 


1 


























.E 
u 


ii 


























:5 


t 


























•5 


i 






■3 


■3 








"3 


•3 


UJ 






> 






5 


c; 








5 


g 


-I 






c 


~ 






— 


^ 








^ 




ca 






ji 


_s 






^ 


i_ 








,_ 


l_ 


< 






t 


■£ 






& 


'^ 








^ 


^ 


H 








f^ 






c 










c 


c 


0£ 






.1 






^ 










^ 




2 






•t 


i; 






E. 


C 








E. 


C 


X 






> 


Z 






i 










^' 


^ 









"n 


s: 






w. 


i?. 








ir 


^. 


^ 
























































1 






^ 






"e 


< 


< 






£ 


< 


< 






X 




's 


E 


J^ 


J^ 




? 


E 


^ 


J^ 


a. 






_; 


E 


X 


£ 


c 




£ 


X 


£ 


— 


LlJ 






!l 


< 


^ 




£ 


E 




£ 




£ 


£ 


i 

a 
< 






i-3 


> 


C 

i 


! 


_c 


,c 






! 








5 


si 
























^ 




z 




■"S 










■^ 






q£ 




% 


J — 


< 




f 
s 










s 






UJ 

=1 




< 


ji "^ 


<g 




■3 










■3 








i 


1| 
> - 

"2 E 


1 




1 










1 






13 




— 


c = 


;; 




c 










c 






V3 a. 




< 




5 




.2 

2 










.= 

2 






n 




i 


■= — 


Z 




55 










y5 






>• = 






















>< 










- 




< 




^ 










:^ 






<Z 




i 


ji Z 


w 




— y 
















§i 




s 


i - 


< 




<:5 


^^ 


^^ 






<:i 


^^ 


__^ 




s 


5-= 


-^ 


■=^-5 


E 


£ 




? 

£ 
1/-. 


T-F 


E 


E 


r a: 




5f 


S "2 


1 




1 


£ 


£ 






£ 




^0 






^ = 






r- c 








r- 


r- c 










tr •• 


5 




















C/3 -^ 








= 


_c 


?1 




■V 




'^. 


it 


_c 


£ 


0^ r 

02 




> 


s 






ii 




>. 






o 




>;. 


ii 




2 


~ 






u: 




ic 






:>:: 




:;^ 




5 

z 
























Z a: 




^ 

E 






If 

UJ Sri 


» 
^ 








•11 






g5 




5 
























Ss 






^~~ 






















5 

8 


c 








-p 
1 


■3 








■3 
u 
S 


■3 


°o 






E 




? 


9 


i 


k 




? 


» 


k 


i 


tl 






> 




u 


u 








u 


CI 












2 


z 


fi£ 


b: 




z 


z 


o: 


0£ 




< 2 






























s 


^ 




^ 




^ 


2 




^ 


ss 










-^ 






















< z 






rj 




ST 






rJ* 




S" 


XrT 






^- 




d 


d 




O 








! 


d 


d d 




























































r- --^ 




,_^ 


^^ 


^_^ 


^^ 




^_^ 


„^ 


^_^ 


^.^ 


,_^ 






= ^ 




^ 


"3 


■3 


■3 




■3 


^ 


^ 


;3 


^ 










































^T 






•^ 


^ 


rT 








E ir. 




<o 


vt 


IT; 


«/i 




r~' 


r~ 




1^ 


r- 






> 




S 


^ 


CSC 


?^ 




^ 


S 


s 


S 


^ 






s 
























































1^ 




(S 


Of 


1 


a^ 










"re 










"3 


"O 


"3 


•3 












^ 










l 


■p. 


C. 


■£. 




1 


i 


^ 


i> 


•& 








^ 


oc 


5 


(S 


a 




3 


■J 


— T 


13 


D 






5-2-12 



^"^ 


^=b: 


sms 


""^ 












"■" 




= 




"~ 


I 




O 


e 


























.2 




























u 


i 


























1 


s 


























> 


i 






■3 

5 


■3 

5 


iji 








1 


ij 








s 


■" 








^ 


ffi 








— 


5 








i 


= 






l_ 


i_ 


< 










< 








? 


:= 






^ 


Jb 










E 


r- 










^ 






c 


c 


^ 








? 


S^ 




















>»^ 








•Ir 




















c 


a. 
















































~ 


w 






{L 


C- 


g 








C- 


2£ 








> 


z 






vi 


vQ. 










^ 








































- 


:i 






^. 


?, 


i^' 








?, 


i^ 






































; 


^ 




^ 


< 


< 


<; 






^ 


< 


^ 














£ 






— 






£ 












s 


^ 


s 


E 


^ 


^ 


a. 




E 


£ 


^ 


HI 








c 


_ 


£ 


X. 


E 


s 


:j 




£ 


X 


E 


liL' 








-1 


< 


^ 


p^ 


E 


£ 


§ 




^ 


^. 


E 


g 










= 


c 


c 


2, 


^ 






c 


_c 


?. 


S 








"S ^ 




































c 


c 










c 












> 


3S 


"7 










3£ 


-7 












1 -= 




I/-. 








— * 








^ 










i- t 












< 
a: 










< 






2 


n 


z 
< 




'^ 


















— 


^ [= 


— 




z 






^2 










ii 






< 


Ji "^ 


^ 




"5 






-' 2C 


















" -3 






























■= ?: 






i 






-.1 '^ 
























c 






















i 


> - 

i 1 


< 
2 




n 






M 










1^ 






^ 


= i 


'J 




c 






i5- 










5^- 




< 


r 




■£ 






s; z: 










a; = i 




~ 


■r — 


z 




J5 






> 2 










> 3 


































- 


— = 
- s 


< 




:^ 






<z 










<Z 






^ 


^ Z 


'•^ 










^i 










^i 








S w 


_ 




<:l 


















X 


ll 


< 

z 


f 


?l 


E 


£ 






'c 


? 


£ 


£c 






Z 


= 1 






^= e 


5 


g 




£ 


£ 




oc ^" 












r^ 


r-^ c 










r^' 


r^' 














E 










V5 ^r 










t/: — 






X 


- I 


i 


c 


II 


c 


.E 


ai ". 




c 


c 


_c 


e£ — 








^ 




"■ 




" 


-» 


l^ 




". 


''■ 


''T 


S^ 






> 






~~~ 








> a: 










> oc 






s 






•J 




5^ 


- s 
















C 


^ 






u: 




U£ 


< - 














z 








^^ 




— ' ,^ 


Z Qi 










Z a: 






^ 






«^ 




„g 


o< 








so 

c 


c< 






^ 
5 


< 

5- 




» 


•5 ^ 


» 

o 


II 




» 
y 




.l 


ii 






z 


~ 




Z 


uj c;5 


z 


UJ 55 




Z 


UJ 


UJ 






5 














£5 










£2 
































i^ 








-3 
u 

r 
1 


1 


°o 








■3 
1 


05^ 

5^ 








— 




* 


^ 




t 


1^ 




» 


? 




^2 








> 




:^ 


z 








z 


^ 








,. 










^ 




















< S 




s 


^ 




£3 




^ 






SS 




































< 7- 






rT 




«^ 


— r? 










— rT 








%y. 




r»^ 


1—! 




<»i 


r«S f^ 




«-^ 






fi r-; 










d 


— ' 




o 


c d 




C: 






c: c; 












~" 


— 










*" 






~ ~ 








z^ 
















^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 








^ ? 




^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 




~' 




ir 


ir 






















f^ 




m 


m 












^ 


r^ 






r^ 


















^ v; 




s^ 


^^ 


cr 


C^ 


9^ 


















> 




oc 


X. 


oc 


oc 


OC 




oc 


oc 


oc 


oc 
















fn 


r^, 


<-i 




r^ 


m 


r^ 










































"n 




're 


'5 


"n 


















5 




0£. 


oc 


&£ 


DC 


0^ 




r= 


=5 


^ 


^ 








:^ 




(J 


5 


u 


i- 







X 


o: 


a: 


b; 








^ 




3 


3 


3 


3 


3 




i> 


>^ 


i- 


i^ 








> 




E 


E 


E 




E 







•| 


■3 


■u 












E 


£ 


C 


E 




w 


u 





:;' 












£ 






























c 


6 





6 




_C 


s 


S 


s 





5-2-13 



Clear Width of Passenger Doorway at Boarding Platform 

Problem; The critical access control point is the doorway. The clear width of 
doorways is sometimes a problem on trains for persons who use mobility aids and 
wheelchairs. 

Solution: On new rapid rail and light rail vehicles, all passenger doorways on 
vehicle sides shall have minimum clear openings of 32 in (815 mm) when open. On 
new commuter rail cars, at least one door, on each side of the car, that opens onto 
a station platform and that is used for passenger boarding shall have a minimum 
clear opening of 32 in (815 mm). Each new intercity rail car that is required to be 
accessible shall have at least one doorway on each side of the car from which 
passengers board that has a minimum clear width of 32 in (815 mm). [38.53, 38.73, 
38.93, 38.113] 

Note: Existing commuter and intercity railcars retrofitted to meet the one-car-per- 
train rule do not need to have wider doors, as long as they can be entered. 



Doorway Threshold 

Problem; People with impaired vision find it difficult to see where the platform 
stops and the threshold at the vehicle doorway begins, especially when the color of 
the platform is similar to the color of the vehicle floor. 

Solution: On light rail, commuter rail, and intercity rail vehicles, all thresholds shall 
have a band of color(s) running the full width of the threshold. The band shall 
contrast with the adjacent floor, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. 



n Vehicle Floor 

Problem: Some floors become quite slippery when they are wet. Others are so 
smooth that even when they are dry, they are slippery. Are there standards which 
must be followed on rail vehicles which prescribe what type of material should be 
used on the floors? 

Slide Solution; Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees, and areas where wheelchairs 

10 and mobility-aid users are to be accommodated are to be slip-resistant on all rapid 

rail, light rail, commuter rail and intercity rail vehicles. [38.59, 38.79(a), 38.99(a), 

38.117(a)] The appendix recommends that flat surfaces have a static coefficient of 

0.6, and ramps have a coefficient of 0.8. 



5-2-14 



Problem; The design of the new rail vehicles calls for carpet on the floor. People 
who use wheelchairs and mobility aids could have a problem with a carpeted floor 
especially if the pile of the carpet is very thick. Are there standards that prohibit 
carpet? 

Solution; The ADA Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles does 
not address carpeted floors. A guideline that could be used is Section 4.5.3 of the 
ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities. Note: If a carpet or 
carpet tile is used on a ground or floor surface, then it shall be securely attached; 
have a firm cushion, pad, or backing or no cushion or pad; and have a level loop, 
Slide textured loop, level cut pile, or level cut/uncut pile texture. The maximum pile 
11 thickness shall be 1/2 in (13 mm). Exposed edges of carpet shall be fastened to 
floor surfaces and have trim along the entire length of the exposed edge. Carpet 
edge trim up to 1/4 in (6 mm) high can be vertical. If the edge trim is between 1/4 
in (6 mm) and 1/2 in (13 mm) a bevel with a slope no greater than 1:2 shall be used. 



Door Closing Signal 

Problem; Many times people who are deaf start to board the train right when the 
doors start to close. There is an auditory signal to warn other people, but the 
people who are deaf get no warning. Is there a requirement for auditory door 
closing signals? 

Solution; All rapid rail and light rail vehicles shall have auditory and visual warning 
signals to alert passengers of closing doors. If doors to the platform on commuter 
rail and intercity rail vehicles close automatically or from a remote location, auditory 
and visual warning signals shall be provided to alert passengers of closing doors. 
[38.53(c), 38.73(c), 38.93(c), 38.113(c)] 



Problem; Visual public announcement systems are generally not available. Is there 
a specification that covers this? 

Solution; The ADA Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles do not 
contain a detailed specification. Announcements may be provided in a visual format 
by the use of electronic message boards. Electronic message boards using a light 
emitting diode (LED) or "flip-dot" display are currently provided in some transit 
stations and terminals and may be usable in vehicles. 



5-2-15 



Handrails and Stanchions at the Entrance Vestibule 

Problem; Even though it is easier to board a vehicle from a level boarding platform, 
people with certain walking disabilities need some support as they enter the vehicle 
doors. On some vehicles there is no handrail at the doorway. On other vehicles, 
the stanchions restrict the aisleway for people using wheelchairs or walkers. 

Solution On rapid and light rail vehicles, handrails and stanchions shall be sufficient 
to permit safe boarding, onboard circulation, seating and standing assistance, and 
alighting by persons with disabilities. 

On commuter and intercity rail cars handrails or stanchions, where provided within 
the passenger compartment, shall be placed to permit sufficient turning and 
maneuvering space for wheelchairs and other mobility aids to reach a seating 
location from an accessible entrance. 



Slide Problem; If onboard fare collection is used it is difficult for some people with 
12 disabilities to pay the fare especially when the vehicle starts to move. The fare 

collection device is not designed so a person can easily support himself while paying 

the fare. 

Solution; On light rail vehicles where onboard fare collection devices are used, a 
horizontal passenger assist shall be located between boarding passengers and the 
fare collection device and shall prevent passengers from sustaining injuries on the 
fare collection device or windshield in the event of a sudden deceleration. Without 
restricting the vestibule space, the assist shall provide support for a boarding 
passenger from the door through the boarding procedure. Passengers shall be able 
to lean against the assist for security while paying fares. 



Problem; When handrails and stanchions are required, what are the design 
parameters for each? 

Solution; The diameter or width of the gripping surface of handrails and stanchions 
shall be 1-1/4 in (32 mm) to 1-1/2 in (38 mm) or provide an equivalent 
Slide gripping surface and have eased edges with comer radii of not less than 1/8 in (3 
13 mm). Handrails shall be placed to provide a minimum 1-1/2 in (38 mm) knuckle 
clearance from the nearest adjacent surface. 



5-2-16 



Note: The Access Board-sponsored hand anthropometrics research project tested 
gripping by persons with various hand disabilities and confirmed the appropriateness 
of the specified dimensions. A 1-inch diameter handrail would not be usable. The 
Access Board notes that most vehicle handrails are made of pipe. In the building 
industry, pipe size typically specifies inside diameter so that a 1-1/2 inch pipe 
handrail actually has a larger outside diameter, sometimes up to 2 inches. Such 
handrails have not posed any known problem. Thus, the 1-1/2 inch diameter 
requirement can result in a handrail of approximately 2 inches under current 
building industry practices. The 1-1/2 inch clearance also received general support 



5-2-17 



EXERCISES 



1. The one-car-per- train rule means: 

(a) At least one car per train must be accessible by July 25, 1995. 

(b) Disabled people can only ride on one car per train. 

(c) A level boarding platform must be available for at least one car per train by 
July 25, 1995. 

2. Between-Car Barriers are required 

(a) Where rapid rail, light rail and commuter rail vehicles operate in a high 
platform, level boarding mode. 

(b) On all light rail vehicles. 

(c) When the distance between the vehicles is greater than 36 in (915 mm). 

3. If only one car in the train is accessible, how will a person with a disability know 
which car it is? 

(a) The car must be painted a different color. 

(b) The International Symbol of Accessibility must be displayed on all of the 
windows of the car. 

(c) The International Symbol of Accessibility must be displayed on the car doors. 

4. What are the standards for the vertical difference between the platform and the 
door threshold for a retrofitted rapid rail car in a new rapid rail station? 

(a) 5/8 in (16 mm) 

(b) 1 in (25 mm) 

(c) 1-1/2 in (38 mm) 

(d) 2 in (50 mm) 

5. What are the standards for the horizontal gap between the platform and the door 
threshold for a new rapid rail car in a new rapid rail station? 

(a) 4 in (100 mm) 

(b) 3 in (76 mm) 

(c) 2-1/2 in (64 mm) 

(d) 6 in (150 mm) 



5-2-18 



6. The doorway onto a rapid rail and light rail vehicle should be at least wide 

when opened. 

(a) 27 in (685 mm) 

(b) 30 in (760 mm) 

(c) 32 in (815 mm) 

(d) 36 in (915 mm) 

7. When the doors on a rapid rail or light rail vehicle close automatically, what type 
of warning system is required? 

(a) A bell must ring at least three times. 

(b) An auditory and visual warning signal shall be provided to alert passengers. 

(c) A flashing red light must be installed inside and outside of the car door. 

8. How high from the floor must the handrails be to comply with the ADA standards 
for handrails in rapid rail and light rail vehicles? 

(a) 72 in (1830 mm) 

(b) 68 in (1730 mm) 

(c) 84 in (2130 mm) 

(d) There is no standard regarding height of handrails in rapid rail and light rail 
vehicles. 



5-2-19 



UNIT 5-3 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE BETWEEN THE BOARDING PLATFORM AND THE 

VEHICLE - STEP ENTRY VEHICLES 



SCOPE 

The Department of Transportation rules implementing the vehicle accessibility 
requirements of ADA can be found at two levels of detail. The first area which addresses 
the more general requirements is 49 CFR Part 37, Subpart D - Acquisition of Accessible 
Vehicles by Public Entities and Subpart E - Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Private 
Entities. The second more specific design criteria is contained in 49 CFR Part 38, ADA 
Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles, Subpart D - Light Rail Vehicles 
and Systems, Subpart E - Commuter Rail Cars and Systems, and Subpart F - Intercity Rail 
Cars and Systems. 

All new, used and remanufactured light rail vehicles, commuter rail and intercity rail cars 
that were purchased or leased after October 6, 1991, must comply with the Part 38 
standards. Those purchased before October 6, 1991, but after August 25, 1990 by a public 
entity, commuter rail authority or Amtrak must be readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs and must comply with 
interim standards issued by DOT in October 1990. 

This unit addresses the elements that must be accessible to permit persons with disabilities 
to determine which route the specific train serves, to locate the accessible vehicle or car, 
to determine which door on the vehicle or car is accessible and to board a step entry type 
vehicle or car before the doors are closed. This unit does not address the barriers 
encountered by individuals in wheelchairs or mobility aids as they board a step entry vehicle 
and get settled. That portion of the trip for individuals who use wheelchairs and mobility 
aids is addressed in Unit 5-4. 



5-3-1 



DEnNITIONS 

Slide 1 

Commuter Rail Car: A rail passenger car obtained by a commuter authority for use in 
commuter rail transportation. 

Slide 2 

Intercity Rail Passenger Car: A rail car, intended for use by revenue passengers, obtained 
by the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) for use in intercity rail 
transportation. 

Slide 3 

Light Rail: A streetcar- type vehicle operated on city streets, semi-exclusive rights of way, 
or exclusive rights of way. Service may be provided by step-entry vehicles or by level 
boarding. 

New Vehicle: A vehicle which is offered for sale or lease after manufacture without any 
prior use. 

Used Vehicle: A vehicle with prior use. 

Slide 4 

Remanufactured Vehicle: A vehicle which has been structurally restored and has had new 
or rebuilt major components installed to extend its service life. 

Retrofitted Vehicle: A vehicle that has been modified to the extent necessary to comply 
with the specific accessibility standards required by the One-Car-Per-Train Rule. 



5-3-2 



APPLICABLE STANDARDS 


49 CFR 37.79 


49 CFR 37.81 


49 CFR 37.83 


49 CFR 37.85 


49 CFR 37.87 


49 CFR 37.89 


49 CFR 37.93 


49 CFR 37.101 


49 CFR 37.107 


49 CFR 38 


Subpart D 


49 CFR 


Subpart E 


49 CFR 


Subpart F 



Purchase or lease of new rail vehicles by public entities 
operating rapid or light rail systems. 

Purchase or lease of used rail vehicles by public entities 
operating rapid or light rail systems. 

Remanufacture of rail vehicles and purchase or lease of 
remanufactured rail vehicles by public entities operating 
rapid or light rail systems. 

Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail 
cars. 

Purchase or lease of used intercity and commuter rail 
cars. 

Remanufacture of intercity and commuter rail cars and 
purchase and lease of remanufactured intercity and 
commuter rail cars. 

One-car-per-train rule. 

Purchase or lease of vehicles by private entities not 
primarily engaged in the business of transporting 
people. 

Acquisition of passenger rail cars by private entities 
primarily engaged in the business of transporting 
people. 



Light Rail Vehicles and Systems 



Commuter Rail Cars and Systems 



Intercity Rail Cars and Systems 



5-3-3 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

Acx^essibility onto a step entry type light rail vehicle, commuter rail or intercity rail car will 
be addressed in this unit at two levels of detail: (1) General requirements and (2) Specific 
design requirements. 

Checklist of Problems - General Requirements 

n Accessibility of New and Used Light Rail Vehicles 

n Accessibility of Remanufactured Light Rail Vehicles 

n Accessibility of New and Used Commuter Rail and Intercity Rail Cars 

n Accessibility of Remanufactured Commuter Rail and Intercity Rail Cars 

D One-Car-Per-Train Rule 



5-3-4 



n Accessibility of New and Used Light Rail Vehicles 

Problem: A city has a system which uses light rail vehicles. The existing vehicles 
are not fully accessible. A procurement is underway to order some used light rail 
vehicles and some new light rail vehicles. Do these vehicles have to be accessible? 

Solution; Each public entity operating a light rail system making a solicitation after 
October 6, 1991 to purchase or lease a used or new light rail vehicle for use on the 
system shall ensure that the vehicle is readily accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs, and meets the 
requirements of 49 CFR Part 38. 

A public entity may purchase or lease a used light rail vehicle that is not readily 
accessible after making demonstrated good faith efforts to obtain an accessible 
vehicle. [37.81] 

Note: The entity must nevertheless meet the requirements of the one-car-per-train 
rule so procurement of inaccessible vehicles, even if permitted, may not be a prudent 
or cost effective decision. 



Problem; What are the good faith efforts that must be made when trying to 
purchase a readily accessible used light rail vehicle? How does the public entity 
document the good faith efforts? 

Solution; Good faith efforts shall include at least the following steps: 

(1) The initial solicitation for the used vehicles published by the public entity 
must specify that all used vehicles were to be accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, or, if a solicitation is not used, a documented 
communication so stating; 

(2) A nationwide search for accessible vehicles, involving specific inquiries 
to manufacturers and other transit providers; and 

(3) Advertising in trade publications and contacting trade associations. 
[37.81(c)] 

Each public entity purchasing or leasing used light rail vehicles that are not readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities shall retain documentation 
of the specific good faith efforts it made for three years from the date the vehicles 
were purchased. These records shall be made available, on request, to the FTA 
Administrator and the public. [37.81(d)] 



5-3-5 



Q Accessibility of Remanufactured Light Rail Vehicles 

Problem: A transit authority plans to remanufacture some of its light rail vehicles 
and purchase some remanufactured light rail vehicles. Do the light rail vehicles 
have to meet the vehicle accessibility specifications? 

Solution: Yes, if a light rail vehicle is remanufactured after August 25, 1990, so as 
to extend its useful life for five years or more, it shall, to the maximum extent 
feasible be readily accessible to and usable to individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs. [37.83] 

It shall be considered feasible to remanufacture a light rail vehicle so as to be 
readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, including individuals 
who use wheelchairs, unless an engineering analysis demonstrates that doing so 
would have a significant adverse effect on the structural integrity of the vehicle. 
[37.83(c)] 



Problem: One of the light rail lines on a particular system is included on the 
National Register of Historic Places. The vehicles operated on the lines are 
considered historic. The vehicles are scheduled to be remanufactured so that the 
service life can be extended for another seven years. Do these "historic vehicles" 
have to be made accessible? 

Solution: If a public entity operates a light rail system any segment of which is 
included on the National Register of Historic Places and if making a light rail 
vehicle of historic character used solely on such segment readily accessible to and 
usable by individuals with disabilities would significantly alter the historic character 
of such vehicles, the public entity need only make (or purchase or lease a 
remanufactured vehicle with) those modifications that do not alter the historic 
character of such vehicles. [37.83(d)] 

A public entity operating a fixed route system as described above may apply in 
writing to the FTA Administrator for a determination of the historic character of 
the vehicle. The FTA Administrator shall refer such requests to the National 
Register of Historic Places and shall rely on its advice in making a determination of 
the historic character of the vehicle. [37.83(e)] 

Note: The exception applies only to those vehicles operated solely on a historic 
segment. 



5-3-6 



Q Accessibility of New and Used Commuter and Intercity Rail Cars 

Problem: Do new commuter and intercity rail cars have to be accessible? 

Solution: Amtrak or a commuter authority making a solicitation after October 6, 
1991, to purchase or lease a new intercity or commuter rail car for use on the system 
shall ensure that the vehicle is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with 
disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs, complying with the standards 
in Part 38. 



Problem: If a public entity purchases used intercity or commuter rail cars, do they 
have to be accessible? [37.85, 37.87] 

Solution: Amtrak or a commuter authority purchasing or leasing a used intercity 
or commuter rail car after October 6, 1991, shall ensure that the car is readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use 
wheelchairs. 

Amtrak or a commuter authority may purchase or lease a used intercity or 
commuter rail car that is not readily accessible to and usable by individuals with 
disabilities if, after making demonstrated good faith efforts to obtain an accessible 
vehicle, it is unable to do so. [37.85, 37.87] 



Problem; What constitutes "demonstrated good faith efforts" to obtain an accessible 
vehicle? 

Solution: Good faith efforts shall include at least the following steps: 

(1) An initial solicitation for the used vehicles published by the commuter 
authority or Amtrak must specify that all used vehicles were to be accessible 
to and usable by individuals with disabilities; 

(2) A nationwide search for accessible vehicles, involving specific inquiries 
to used vehicle dealers and other transit providers; and 

(3) Advertising in trade publications and contacting trade associations. 

Amtrak and commuter authorities purchasing or leasing used intercity or commuter 
rail cars that are not readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities 
shall retain documentation of the specific good faith efforts it made for three years 
from the date the vehicles were purchased or leased. These records shall be made 
available, on request, to the Federal Railroad Administration or FTA Administrator, 
as applicable. These records shall be made available to the public, on request. 
[37.87] 



5-3-7 



□ Accessibility of Remanufactured Commuter and Intercity Rail Cars 

Problem: If a commuter rail car or an intercity rail car is scheduled to be 
remanufactured, does the scope of the remanufacturing project have to address all 
of the accessibility specifications? 

Solution; If Amtrak or a commuter rail authority remanufactures or purchases or 
leases a remanufactured car which has its life extended by ten years or more, the 
commuter rail and intercity rail cars shall, to the maximum extent feasible, be readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use 
wheelchairs. 

It shall be considered feasible to remanufacture an intercity or commuter rail car so 
as to be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs, unless an engineering analysis demonstrates that 
remanufacturing the car to be accessible would have a significant adverse effect on 
the structural integrity of the car. [37.89] 



D One-Car-Per-Train Rule 

Problem: What is the One-Car-Per-Train Rule and what are the dates for 
implementation? 

Solution: Each public entity providing rapid or light rail service shall ensure that 
each train, consisting of two or more vehicles, includes at least one car that is readily 
accessible as soon as practicable but in no case later than July 25, 1995. Each 
entity providing intercity rail service and each commuter rail authority shall ensure 
that each train has one car that is readily accessible as soon as practicable but in no 
case later than July 26, 1995. [37.93] 



Problem: If a commuter, light or rapid rail system has vehicles or cars which were 
considered accessible under previous DOT rules, but do not fully meet all of the 
standards in Part 38, can they be used to meet the one-car-per-train rule? 

Solution: Yes, provided they can be entered and used from stations in which they 
are to be operated. 



5-3-8 



Problems and solutions related to specific design requirements address those barriers that 
a person with a disability encounters between the time the light rail vehicle or light rail, 
commuter rail or intercity rail train arrives at the stop or station until the passenger with 
the disability is on the vehicle and the doors are dosed. This section addresses the barriers 
as they would be encountered as the disabled person completes this segment of the trip. 
A checklist of the ADA requirements that address those barriers follows: 

Checklist of Problems - Specific Design Requirements 

D Signage 

□ Clear Width of Passenger Doorway 

□ Steps and Thresholds 
D Lighting 

□ Vehicle Floor 

□ Door Closing Signal 

□ Handrails and Stanchions at the Entrance Vestibule 



D Signage 

Problem: The one-car-per-train rule in the DOT regulations requires that at least 
one car per train is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use wheelchairs. This accessible car must be provided as 
soon as practicable, but, in no case, later than July 1995. How will a disabled person 
know which car is accessible? 

Solution; The standard which outlines the requirements for accessible doorways on 
Slide light rail, commuter rail and intercity rail vehicles requires the International Symbol 
5 of Accessibility to be displayed on the exterior of all doors which comply with the 

accessible doorway standards, unless all cars are accessible and are not marked by 

the access symbol. [38.73(b), 38.93(e), 38.113(e)] 

On commuter rail and intercity rail cars, appropriate signage shall also indicate 
which accessible doors are adjacent to an accessible restroom, if applicable. 
[38.93(e), 38.113(e)] 



5-3-9 



Problem; Even though a sign is required to show which doorway is accessible on 
the light rail, commuter rail, and intercity rail vehicles, it is not clear from the 
standards that the vehicle will be accessible or if only the doorway and its associated 
elements are accessible. 

Solution; The standards do, in fact, require the International Symbol of 
Accessibility to be placed on the doors that comply with the section of the standard 
addressing doorways. The Doorway sections address the following elements: Clear 
Width, Signage, Door Closing Signals, Coordination with Boarding Platform 
(horizontal gap and vertical height differences between vehicle and platform) for 
Light Rail, Commuter Rail and Intercity Rail vehicles. At all doors on level-entry 
vehicles, and at each entrance accessible by lift, ramp, bridge plate or other suitable 
means, handrails, stanchions, passenger seats, vehicle driver seat platforms, and fare 
boxes, if applicable, shall be located so as to allow a route at least 32 in (815 mm) 
wide so that at least two wheelchairs or mobility aid users can enter the vehicle and 
position the wheelchairs or mobility aids in areas, each having a minimum clear 
space of 48 in by 30 in (1220 mm by 760 mm), which do not unduly restrict 
movement of other passengers. Space to accommodate wheelchairs and mobility 
aids may be provided within the normal area used by standees and designation of 
specific spaces is not required. Particular attention shall be given to ensuring 
maximum maneuverability immediately inside doors. Ample vertical stanchions from 
ceiling to seatback rails shall be provided. Vertical stanchions from ceiling to floor 
shall not interfere with wheelchair or mobility aid circulation and shall be kept to 
a minimum in the vicinity of accessible doors. [38.77] 



n Clear Width of Passenger Doorway at Boarding Platform 

Slide Problem; The critical access control point is the doorway. The clear width of 
6 doorways is sometimes a problem on trains for persons who use mobility aids and 

wheelchairs. 

Solution; On light rail vehicles, all passenger doorways on vehicle sides shall have 
minimum clear openings of 32 in (815 mm) when open. On commuter rail cars, at 
least one door, on each side of the car, that opens onto a station platform and that 
is used for passenger boarding shall have a minimum clear opening of 32 in (815 
mm). Each intercity rail car that is required to be accessible shall have at least one 
doorway on each side of the car from which passengers board that has a minimum 
clear width of 32 in (815 mm). [38.73, 38.93, 38.113] For new rail cars where entry 
is through a vestibule, the vestibule must be a minimum of 42 in (1065 mm) wide. 



5-3-10 



D Steps and Thresholds 

Problem; When it rains and snows the steps on the Hght rail vehicles and the steps 
on the commuter rail and intercity rail cars get wet. Some of the smooth surfaces 
on the steps become quite slippery. 

Slide Solution; All step treads on light rail vehicles, commuter rail and intercity rail cars 
7 shall be slip resistant. [38.79(a), 38.99(a). 38.117(a)] 



Problem; In developing a specification for a slip resistant surface, what standard 
should be used to ensure that the surface complies with ADA requirements? 

Solution; There is no specific requirement but advisory guidance is provided in the 
appendix. The coefficient of friction is the descriptor used to measure slip 
resistance. The coefficient of friction is the ratio between the force necessary to 
move one surface over another surface and the pressure between the two surfaces. 
For example, the coefficient of friction for cast iron on oak is 38:100 or 0.38. A 
research project conducted with persons with disabilities concluded that a static 
coefficient of friction of 0.60 was appropriate for steps, floors and lift platforms and 
a coefficient of friction of 0.80 was desirable for ramps. 



Problem; It is difficult for people with low vision to distinguish when they are at the 
edge of a step or when they are approaching a threshold. 

Slide Solution; All step edges and thresholds on light rail vehicles, commuter rail and 
8 intercity rail cars shall have a band of color(s) running the full width of the step or 

threshold which contrasts from the step tread and riser or adjacent floor, either 
light-on-dark or dark-on-light. [38.79(b), 38.99(b), 38.117(b)] 

There is no specific requirement for contrast but the ADAAG appendix 
recommends that the material used contrast by at least 70%. Percent contrast is 
determined by the following equation: 

B - B 

Contrast = — x 100 



where Bj is the Light Reflectance Value of the lighter area and Bj is the Light 
Reflectance Value of the darker area. Note that in any application both white and 
black are never absolute: thus Bj never equals 100 and Bi is always greater than 
zero. [Appendk Part 38] 



5-3-11 



n Lighting 

Problem: When boarding a light rail vehicle, commuter rail or intercity rail car at 
stops or stations where the steps must be used and where there are no lights on the 
platform area and or at the stop, it is difficult to see in the area immediately outside 
of the doors. 

Slide Solution; The doorways of vehicles not operating at lighted station platforms shall 
9 have outside lights which provide at least 1 footcandle (11 lux) of illumination on 

the station platform or street surface for a distance of 36 in (915 mm) perpendicular 
to all points on the bottom step tread. Such lights shall be located below window 
level and shielded to protect the eyes of entering and exiting passengers. [38.81, 
38.101, 38.119] 



Problem: Even though the ground surface or the platform surface outside of the 
light rail vehicle, commuter rail or intercity rail vehicle is lighted when the doors are 
open, it is difficult to see the step treads. When the lift or ramp is deployed, it is 
difficult to see the lift platform or ramp surface because there is very little light 
shining on those surfaces. 

Solution: Any stepwell or doorway with a lift or ramp immediately adjacent to the 
driver shall have, when the door is open, at least 2 footcandles (22 lux) of 
illumination measured on the step tread or lift platform. [38.81(a), 38.101(a), 
38.119(a)] 

Other stepwells and doorways with lifts or ramps shall have, at all times, at least 2 
footcandles (22 lux) of illumination measured on the step tread or lift or ramp, when 
deployed at the vehicle floor level. [38.81(b)] 



5-3-12 



D Vehicle Floor 

Problem; Some floors become quite slippery when they are wet. Others are so 
smooth that even when they are dry, they are sHppery. Are there standards which 
must be followed on rail vehicles which prescribe what type of material should be 
used on the floors? 

Slide Solution: Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees, and areas where wheelchairs 

10 and mobility-aid users are to be accommodated are to be slip-resistant on all light 

rail, commuter rail and intercity rail vehicles. [38.79(a), 38.99(a), 38.117(a)] 

Note: Appendix to Part 38 recommends the coefficient of friction as the 
appropriate descriptor to measure slip resistance. 



Problem: The design of the new rail vehicles calls for carpet on the floor. People 
who use wheelchairs and mobility aids could have a problem with a carpeted floor 
especially if the pile of the carpet is very thick. Are there standards that prohibit 
carpet? 

Solution: The ADA Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles does 
not specifically address carpeted floors. A guideline that could be used is Section 
4.5.3 of the ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities which states: 
If a carpet or carpet tile is used on a ground or floor surface, then it shall be 
securely attached; have a firm cushion, pad, or backing or no cushion or pad; and 
Slide have a level loop, textured loop, level cut pile, or level cut/uncut pile texture. The 
11 maximum pile thickness shall be 1/2 in (13 mm). Exposed edges of carpet shall be 
fastened to floor surfaces and have trim along the entire length of the exposed edge. 
Carpet edge trim up to 1/4 in (6 mm) high can be vertical. If the edge trim is 
between 1/4 in (6 mm) and 1/2 in (13 mm) a bevel with a slope no greater than 1:2 
shall be used. Some carpet can be "slippery" when wet, so specify with care. 



n Door Closing Signal 

Problem; Many times people who are deaf start to board the train right when the 
doors start to close. There is an auditory signal to warn other people, but the 
people who are deaf get no warning. Is there a requirement regarding door closing 
signals? 

Solution: All light and rapid rail vehicles shall have auditory and visual warning 
signals to alert passengers of closing doors. If doors to the platform on commuter 
rail and intercity rail vehicles close automatically or from a remote location, auditory 
and visual warning signals shall be provided to alert passengers of closing doors. 
[38.73(c), 38.93(c), 38.113(c)] 



5-3-13 



Problem; Visual door closing signals are generally not available. Is there a 
specification that covers this? 

Solution: A light at the door which flashes in synchronization with the door chime 
would suffice. Such a signal needs to be visible fi-om the platform as well as inside 
the vehicle. A bright light which raises the overall illumination of the doorway could 
be provided. 



G Handrails and Stanchions at the Entrance Vestibule 

Slide Problem: When boarding a light rail vehicle, it is difficult to reach up and grasp the 
12 handrail as you negotiate the first step. 

Solution: Handrails and Stanchions on light rail vehicles shall be sufficient to 
permit safe boarding assistance and alighting by persons with disabilities. [38.77(a)] 
At entrances equipped with steps on light rail vehicles, handrails and stanchions 
shall be provided in the entrance to the vehicle in a configuration which allows 
passengers to grasp such assists from outside the vehicle while starting to board, and 
to continue using such handrails or stanchions throughout the boarding process. 
[38.77(b)] 



Problem: If onboard fare collection is used it is difficult for some people with 
disabilities to pay the fare especially when the vehicle starts to move. The fare 
collection device is not designed so a person can easily support himself while paying 
the fare. 

Solution: On light rail vehicles where onboard fare collection devices are used, a 
horizontal passenger assist shall be located between boarding passengers and the 
fare collection device and shall prevent passengers from sustaining injuries on the 
fare collection device or windshield in the event of a sudden deceleration. Without 
restricting the vestibule space, the assist shall provide support for a boarding 
passenger from the door through the boarding procedure. Passengers shall be able 
to lean against the assist for security while paying fares. 



Problem: When handrails and stanchions are required, what are the design 
parameters for each? 

Solution: The diameter or width of the gripping surface of handrails and stanchions 
shall be 1-1/4 in (32 mm) to 1-1/2 in (38 mm) or provide an equivalent 
gripping surface and have eased edges with comer radii of not less than 1/8 in (3 
mm). Handrails shall be placed to provide a minimum 1-1/2 in (38 mm) knuckle 
clearance from the nearest adjacent surface. 



5-3-14 



Note: The Access Board-sponsored hand anthropometrics research project tested 
gripping by persons with various hand disabilities and confirmed the appropriateness 
of the specified dimensions. A 1-inch diameter handrail would not be usable. The 
Access Board notes that most vehicle handrails are made of pipe. In the building 
industry, pipe size typically specifies inside diameter so that a 1-1/2 inch pipe 
handrail actually has a larger outside diameter, sometimes up to 2 inches. Such 
handrails have not posed any known problem. Thus, the 1-1/2 inch diameter 
requirement can result in a handrail of approximately 2 inches under current 
building industry practices. The 1-1/2 inch clearance also received general support. 



5-3-15 



EXERCISES 

1. The one-car-per- train rule means: 

(a) Disabled people can only ride on one car per train. 

(b) At least one car per train must be accessible by July 25, 1995. 

(c) Only one-car-trains can be used to transport persons with disabilities. 

2. Light rail step entry vehicles are being remanufactured and the remanufacture 
process will extend the life of the vehicles approximately 10 years. There are no 
between car barriers on the existing vehicles. Are between car barriers required by 
ADA? 

(a) Yes 

(b) No 

3. A light rail transit authority is retrofitting its vehicles to comply with the ADA One- 
Car-Per-Train Rule. What section of the standards would you research to determine 
what elements must be retrofitted to make the vehicle accessible? 

4. What is the level of lighting required on the steps as you enter the step entry 
vehicle? 

(a) 2 footcandles (22 lux) 

(b) 1 footcandle (11 lux) 

(c) 5 footcandles (55 lux) 

(d) No light is required. 

5. What is the recommended percent of contrast between the color of a threshold and 
the color of the adjacent floor surfaces to ensure that people with low vision can see 
the threshold? 

(a) 100% 

(b) 25% 



(c) 

(d) 70% 

6. How wide should the entry doorway be on a light rail step entry vehicle? 

(a) 27 in (685 mm) 

(b) 30 in (760 mm) 

(c) 32 in (815 mm) 

(d) 36 in (915 mm) 



5-3-16 



UNIT 5-4 

ACCESSIBLE ROUHE BETWEEN THE BOARDING PLATFORM AND THE 

VEHICLE - MOBILITY AIDS ACCESSIBILITY AND SECUREMENT DEVICES 



SCOPE 

The Department of Transportation rules implementing the vehicle accessibility 
requirements of ADA can be found at two levels of detail. The first area which addresses 
the more general requirements is 49 CFR Part 37, Subpart D - Acquisition of Accessible 
Vehicles by Public Entities and Subpart E - Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Private 
Entities. The second more specific design criteria is contained in 49 CFR Part 38, ADA 
Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles, Accessibility Specifications for 
Transportation Vehicles, Subpart B - Buses, Vans and Systems, Subpart D - Light Rail 
Vehicles and Systems, Subpart E - Commuter Rail Cars and Systems, and Subpart F - 
Intercity Rail Cars and Systems. 

This unit addresses the barriers that may be encountered as a person with a disability uses 
a wheelchair lift, ramp or bridge plate to board a bus, van, light rail, commuter rail or 
intercity rail vehicle and as that person is secured at the securement area on board a bus 
or van. 

This unit is divided into three parts, namely, Platform Lifts, Ramps or Bridge Plates and 
Securement Devices. Each part addresses the specific design requirements for that 
particular mobility aid with a series of problems (barriers) that could be encountered by an 
individual who is disabled. Solutions to the specific problems are presented. The solutions 
are a statement of the design specifications that are required to make the system accessible 
to individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs. 



5-4-1 



DEHNITIONS 

Wheelchair: A mobility aid belonging to any class of three or four-wheeled devices, usable 
indoors, designed for and used by individuals with mobility impairments, whether operated 
manually or powered. A "common wheelchair" is such a device which does not exceed 30 
in (760 mm) in width and 48 in (1220 mm) in length measured 2 in (50 mm) above the 
ground, and does not weigh more than 600 pounds (272 kg) when occupied. 

Slides 1, 2, 3 

Platform Lift: A horizontal surface that is raised to a higher position and is used to 
transport objects from one level to another. 

Slides 4, 5 

Ramp: A sloping surface joining different levels. A walking surface that has a running 
slope greater than 1:20. 



Slide 6 

Bridge Plate: A stowable, relatively thin piece of metal or other material that provides a 
connection or transition over a gap or between two different levels which provides a way 
across for a pedestrian or a mobility aid user. 

Slide 7 

Securement Device: A mechanical contrivance used to restrain a mobility aid to protect 
it from moving during transit. 



APPLICABLE STANDARDS 

49 CFR 38.23 
49 CFR 38.83 

49 CFR 38.95 

49 CFR 38.125 



Mobility Aid Accessibility, Buses, Vans and Systems 

Mobility Aid Accessibility, Light Rail Vehicles and 
Systems 

Mobility Aid Accessibility, Commuter Rail Cars and 
Systems 

Mobility Aid Accessibility, Intercity Rail Cars and 
Systems 



5-4-2 



PLATFORM LIFTS 

Slides 8, 9 

Platform lifts or wheelchair lifts can be used on buses, vans, light rail, commuter rail, and 
intercity rail vehicles. The requirements for all of these vehicles are generally the same. 
There are some instances where requirements for a particular vehicle type are different. 
These will be addressed and specific requirements will be presented. The following 
elements must meet specific specifications in order for the platform lift to be accessible. 

Checklist of Problems - Specific Design Requirements 

n Design Load 

n Controls 

□ Emergency Operation/Power or Equipment Failure 

□ Platform Barriers 

n Platform Surface (Texture and Size) 

D Platform Gaps 

n Platform Entrance Ramp 

n Platform Deflection 

n Platform Movement and Boarding Direction 

n Use By Standees 

n Handrails 



n Design Load 

Problem: There are various sizes and weights of wheelchairs. Some of the 
motorized wheelchairs appear to be quite heavy, and when occupied by a person 
who could possibly weigh over two-hundred pounds, the load capacity of a platform 
lift could affect accessibility. How much of a load must a platform lift be able to 
transport to be in compliance with the specifications? 

Solution: The design load of the lift shall be at least 600 pounds (272 kg). Working 
parts, such as cables, pulleys, and shafts, which can be expected to wear, and upon 
which the lift depends for support of the load, shall have a safety factor of at least 
six, based on the ultimate strength of the material. Nonworking parts, such as 
platform, frame, and attachment hardware which would not be expected to wear, 
shall have a safety factor or at least three, based on the ultimate strength of the 
material. [38.23(b)(1), 38.83(b)(1), 38.95(b)(1), 38.125(b)(1)] 



5-4-3 



□ Controls 

Slide Problem; When the platform lift is onboard the vehicle, what prevents the vehicle 
10 from starting to move, even by accident, while the lift is being deployed? How can 

a person with a disability be assured that the lift is safe and will not go into a 

stowage location before he or she exits the platform? 

Solution: The controls shall be interlocked with the vehicle brakes, propulsion 
system (rail cars), transmission (vans, buses), or door, or shall provide other 
appropriate mechanisms or systems, to ensure that the vehicle cannot be moved 
when the lift is not stowed and so the lift cannot be deployed unless the interlocks 
or systems are engaged. The lift shall deploy to all levels normally encountered in 
the operating environment. Where provided, each control for deploying, lowering, 
raising, and stowing the lift and lowering the roll-off barriers shall be of a 
momentary contact type requiring continuous manual pressure by the operator and 
shall not allow improper lift sequencing when the lift platform is occupied. The 
controls shall allow reversal of the lift operation sequence, such as raising or 
lowering a platform that is part way down, without allowing an occupied platform 
to fold or retract into the stowed position. [38.23(b)(2), 38.83(b)(2), 38.95(b)(2), 
38.125(b)(2)] 



Problem; Are there any exceptions to the design specifications for controls stated 
in the above solution? 

Solution; For vans and buses, where the lift is designed to deploy with its long 
dimension parallel to the vehicle axis and which pivots into or out of the vehicle 
while occupied (i.e., "rotary lift"), the requirements of this paragraph prohibiting the 
lift from being stowed while occupied shall not apply if the stowed position is within 
the passenger compartment and the lift is intended to be stowed while occupied. 

For light rail, commuter rail, and intercity rail cars, where physical or safety 
constraints prevent the deployment at some stops of a lift having its long dimension 
perpendicular to the car axis, the transportation entity may specify a lift which is 
designed to deploy with its long dimension parallel to the car axis and which pivots 
into or out of the car while occupied (i.e., "rotary lift"). The requirements stated in 
the above Problem/Solution prohibiting the lift from being stowed while occupied 
shall not apply to a lift design of this type if the stowed position is within the 
passenger compartment and the lift is intended to be stowed while occupied. 

The brake or propulsion system interlocks requirement does not apply to platform 
mounted or portable lifts provided that a mechanical, electrical or other system 
operates to ensure that cars do not move when the lift is in use. [38.83(b)(2), 
38.95(b)(2), 38.125(b)(2)] 

Note: "Other system" could be a door interlock which prevents the vehicle from 
moving when the door is open. 

5-4-4 



□ Emergency Operation/Power or Equipment Failure 

Problem: If the power supply to the platform lift fails when the lift is deployed, how 
will the person with the disability be removed from the platform? 

Solution; The lift shall incorporate an emergency method of deploying, lowering to 
ground or station platform level with a lift occupant, and raising and stowing the 
empty lift if the power to the lift fails. No emergency method, manual or otherwise, 
shall be capable of being operated in a manner that could be hazardous to the lift 
occupant or to the operator when operated according to the manufacturer's 
instructions. No emergency method shall permit the platform to be stowed or 
folded when occupied, unless the lift is a rotary lift and is intended to be stowed 
while occupied. Platforms stowed in a vertical position, and deployed platforms 
when occupied, shall have provisions to prevent their deploying, failing, or folding 
any faster than 12 in/sec (300 mm/sec) or their dropping of an occupant in the event 
of a single failure of any load carrying component. [38.23(b)(3)(4), 38.83(b)(3)(4), 
38.95(b)(3)(4), 38.125(b)(3)(4)] 



n Platform Barriers 

Slide Problem: Once on the lift platform, what type of barrier or edge protection should 
11 there be to ensure that the wheelchair does not go over the side or roll forward or 
backward off the platform surface? 

Solution: The lift platform shall be equipped with barriers to prevent any of the 
wheels of a wheelchair or mobility aid from rolling off the lift during its operation. 
A movable barrier or inherent design feature shall prevent a wheelchair or mobility 
aid from rolling off the edge closest to the vehicle until the lift is in its fully raised 
position. Each side of the lift platform which, in its raised position, extends beyond 
the vehicle shall have a barrier a minimum 1-1/2 in (38 mm) high. Such barriers 
shall not interfere with maneuvering into or out of the vehicle. The loading-edge 
barrier (outer barrier) which functions as a loading ramp when the lift is at ground 
or station platform level, shall be sufficient when raised or closed, or a 
supplementary system shall be provided, to prevent a power wheelchair or mobility 
aid from riding over or defeating it. The outer barrier of the lift shall automatically 
rise or close, or a supplementary system shall automatically engage, and remain 
raised, closed, or engaged at all times that the lift platform is more than 3 in (75 
mm) above the station platform and the lift is occupied. Alternatively, a barrier or 
system may be raised, lowered, opened, closed, engaged or disengaged by the lift 
operator provided an interlock or inherent design feature prevents the lift from 
rising unless the barrier is raised or closed or the supplementary system is engaged. 
[38.23(b)(5), 38.83(b)(5), 38.95(b)(5), 38.125(b)(5)] 



5-4-5 



□ Platform Surface (Texture and Size) 

Problem; Some surfaces are very smooth and slippery when they get wet, and others 
are quite rough, which makes it difficult to walk and stand on. Is there a design 
requirement for the platform surface texture? 

The size of the platform is very important especially for some of the new, larger 
mobility aids. Is there a minimum size for the platform on the lift? 

Slide Solution: The lift platform surface shall be free of any protrusions over 1/4 in (6 
12 mm) high and shall be slip resistant. The lift platform shall have a minimum clear 
width of 28-1/2 in (724 mm) at the platform, a minimum clear width of 30 in (760 
mm) measured from 2 in (50 mm) above the lift platform surface to 30 in (760 mm) 
above the surface, and a minimum clear length of 48 in (1220 mm) measured from 
2 in (50 mm) above the surface of the platform to 30 in (760 mm) above the surface. 
[38.23(b)(6), 38.83(b)(6), 38.95(b)(6), 38.125(b)(6)] 



n Platform Gaps 

Problem; Some of the openings or cracks around the edges of the lift platform 
between the platform surface and the edge protection barrier are quite wide. A 
wheel on the wheelchair could get caught in the crack and someone could get hurt. 
The gap between the edge of the platform and vehicle floor is often very wide and 
sometimes there is quite a vertical difference between the platform surface and the 
vehicle floor. Are there any standards for these gaps? 

Slide Solution; Any openings between the lift platform surface and the raised barriers 
13 shall not exceed 5/8 in (16 mm) wide. When the lift is at car floor height with the 
inner barrier (if applicable) down or retracted, gaps between the forward lift 
platform edge and vehicle floor shall not exceed 1/2 in (12 mm) horizontally and 5/8 
in (16 mm) vertically. Platforms on semi-automatic lifts may have a hand hold not 
exceeding 1-1/2 in (38 mm) by 4-1/2 in (115 mm) located between the edge barriers. 
[38.23(b)(7), 38.83(b)(7), 38.95(b)(7), 38.125(b)(7)] 

Note: The 5/8 in (16 mm) maximum gap between raised barriers and platform is 
not a requirement for the platform itself; expanded metal platforms are not 
precluded. 



5-4-6 



n Platform Entrance Ramp 

Slide Problem: The slope of the ramp that leads onto the platform is a critical part of the 

14 trip. Is there a maximum slope that is allowable? What about the vertical distance 

between the ramp and the sidewalk or platform surface? Is there a maximum height 

before some type of beveled threshold must be used? If a threshold is used, is there 

a standard for the threshold design? 

Solution; The entrance ramp, or loading-edge barrier used as a ramp, shall not 
exceed a slope of 1:8, when measured on level ground, for a maximum rise of 3 in 
(75 mm) and the transition from the roadway, sidewalk or station platform to ramp 
may be vertical without edge treatment up to 1/4 in (6 mm). Thresholds between 
1/4 in (6 mm) and 1/2 in (13 mm) high shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 
1:2. [38.23(b)(8), 38.83(b)(8), 38.95(b)(8), 38.125(b)(8)] 



Platform Deflection 

Problem: In designing the platform of the lift, what is the maximum amount of 
deflection that is acceptable? Since the weight must be considered, the thinner the 
material that can be used on the platform, the better, but thinner materials will 
likely deflect more. 

Solution; The lift platform (not including the entrance ramp) shall not deflect more 
than 3 degrees (exclusive of vehicle roll or pitch) in any direction between its 
unloaded position and its position when loaded with 600 pounds (272 kg) applied 
through a 26 in (660 mm) by 26 in (660 mm) test pallet at the centroid of the lift 
platform. [38.23(b)(9), 38.83(b)(9), 38.95(b)(9), 38.125(b)(9)] 

Note: The centroid is the center of mass which, in most cases, will be close to the 
geometric center of the platform. 



5-4-7 



Platform Movement and Boarding Direction 

Problem: Is there a maximum safe speed for the movement of the platform from 
the street or platform level to the vehicle floor level? Is a faster speed more 
acceptable to speed up the boarding process? Is there a maximum acceleration 
rate? What is the preferred boarding direction? Some individuals would rather 
back onto the ramp and platform. Is this permissible? 

Solution; No part of the platform shall move at a rate exceeding 6 in/sec (150 
mm/sec) during lowering and lifting an occupant, and shall not exceed 12 in/sec (305 
mm/sec) during deploying or stowing. This requirement does not apply to the 
deployment or stowage cycle of lifts that are manually deployed or stowed. The 
maximum platform horizontal and vertical acceleration when occupied shall be 0.3g. 
The lift shall permit both inboard and outboard facing of wheelchairs and mobility 
aids. [38.23(b)(10)(ll), 38.83(b)(10)(ll), 38.95(b)(10)(ll), 38.125(b)(10)(ll)] 



D Use By Standees 

Problem; Many people who cannot climb steps and people who are on crutches or 
use walkers have a difficult time boarding a step entry vehicle. Can the platform lift 
be used safely by those individuals? 

Solution; Lifts shall accommodate persons using walkers, crutches, canes or braces 
or who otherwise have difficulty using steps. The lift may be marked to indicate a 
preferred standing position. [38.23(b)(12), 38.83(b)(12), 38.95(b)(12), 38.125(b)(12)] 

Note: Several transit agencies have initiated successful programs to allow standees 
to use lifts with no reported problems. [FTA Study] 



5-4-8 



n Handrails 

Slide Problem: When people use the platform lift, especially persons who stand on the 
15 platform, there must be something to hold on to when the lift is in motion. Are 
there specific design specifications for handrails? 

Solution; Platforms on lifts shall be equipped with handrails, on two sides, which 
move in tandem with the lift, and which shall be graspable and provide support to 
standees throughout the entire lift operation. Handrails shall have a usable 
component at least 8 in (200 mm) long with the lowest portion a minimum 30 in 
(760 mm) above the platform and the highest portion a maximum 38 in (965 mm) 
above the platform. The handrails shall be capable of withstanding a force of 100 
pounds concentrated at any point on the handrail without permanent deformation 
of the rail or its supporting structure. The handrail shall have a cross-sectional 
diameter between 1-1/4 in (32 mm) and 1-1/2 in (38 mm) or shall provide an 
equivalent grasping surface, and have eased edges with comer radii of not less than 
1/8 in (3 mm). Handrails shall be placed to provide a minimum 1-1/2 in (38 mm) 
knuckle clearance from the nearest adjacent surface. Handrails shall not interfere 
with wheelchair or mobility aid maneuverability when entering or leaving the vehicle. 
[38.23(b)(13), 38.83(b)(13), 38.95(b)(13), 38.125(b)(13)] 



5-4-9 



VEHICLE RAMPS OR BRIDGE PLATES 

Slides 16, 17 

Vehicle ramps or bridge plates can be used on buses, vans, light rail, commuter rail and 
intercity rail vehicles. TTie requirements for all of the vehicles are similar. There are 
particular situations where the slope of the ramp is affected by vehicle loading and the 
variety of areas where the ramp must be deployed. These situations are addressed and 
specific requirements are presented. 

Checklist of Problems - Specific Design Requirements 



D 


Design Load 


D 


Surface 


D 


Threshold 


D 


Edge Protection 


D 


Slope 


D 


Attachment 


D 


Stowage 


D 


Handrails 


Design Load 


Problem: Some of the 



than others to accommodate the slope requirements. There are so many different 
types of wheelchairs and mobility aids. Some appear to be quite heavy with all the 
batteries and other paraphernalia. It seems like some of the longer ramps may not 
be strong enough to support the heavier mobility aids. Are there some general 
guidelines regarding length and size of load for ramps? 

Solution: Ramps or bridge plates 30 in (760 mm) or longer shall support a load of 
600 pounds (272 kg), placed at the centroid of the ramp or bridge plate distributed 
over an area of 26 in (660 mm) by 26 in (660 mm), with a safety factor of at least 
3 based on the ultimate strength of the material. Ramps or bridge plates shorter 
than 30 in (760 mm) shall support a load of 300 pounds (136 kg). [38.23(c)(1), 
38.83(c)(1), 38.95(c)(1), 38.125(c)(1)] 

Note: For a "short" ramp or bridge plate, only the front or rear wheels of a 
common wheelchair or mobility aid will be on the surface at any one time, hence, 
half the load. No specific measurement technique is prescribed. 



5-4-10 



□ Surface 

Problem; It is important that the ramp be slip resistant, especially when it is wet. 
One way to obtain a slip resistant surface is to use a material that has protrusions 
or "small bumps" all over the surface. If the "bumps" are too large, the surface is 
very difficult to negotiate, especially when the ramp is at its maximum slope. 

Slide Solution: The ramp or bridge plate surface shall be continuous and slip resistant, 
18 shall not have protrusions from the surface greater than 1/4 in (6 mm) high, shall 
have a clear width of 30 in (760 mm) and shall accommodate both four-wheel and 
three-wheel mobility aids. [38.23(c)(2), 38.83(c)(2), 38.95(c)(2), 38.125(c)(2)] 

Note: Two ramps placed side by side with a gap in the middle will not 
accommodate a 3-wheel scooter. Expanded metal or perforated ramps are 
permitted. 



Threshold 

Problem; Sometimes getting on the ramp is difficult because the edge of the ramp 
does not have a smooth transition with the platform or sidewalk surface. What is 
the maximum vertical difference before some type of threshold or beveled edge 
treatment is required? 

Solution; The transition from the boarding surface (sidewalk, street or station 
platform) to the ramp or bridge plate and the transition from vehicle floor to the 
ramp or bridge plate may be vertical without edge treatment up to 1/4 in (6 mm). 
Changes in level between 1/4 in (6 mm) and 1/2 in (13 mm) shall be beveled with 
a slope no greater than 1:2. [38,23(c)(3), 38.83(c)(3), 38.95(c)(3), 38.125(c)(3)] 



n Edge Protection 

Slide Problem; Ramps are required to be 30 in (760 mm) wide. This is a sufficient width 

19 for most wheelchairs and mobility aids, but for some, it doesn't leave a lot of room 

on either side of the ramp. It's possible for a wheelchair to go off to the right or 

left a little bit and fall off the ramp. Is there a requirement that some type of 

barrier be placed along the edge of the ramp? 

Solution; Each side of the ramp or bridge plate shall have barriers at least 2 in (50 
mm) high to prevent mobility aid wheels from slipping off. [38.23(c)(4), 38.83(c)(4), 
38.95(c)(4), 38.125(c)(4)] 



5-4-11 



Slope 

Problem: The slope of a ramp depends on where it is deployed. For buses and 
vans, the locations where a ramp can be deployed vary widely. For light rail, 
commuter rail and intercity rail vehicles, the conditions are somewhat controlled. 
The loading of the vehicle would change the floor elevation and this could change 
the ramp slope, especially for those vehicles that service the same platform areas. 

Solution; For buses and vans, ramps shall have the least slope practicable and shall 
not exceed 1:4 when deployed to ground level. If the height of the vehicle floor 
from which the ramp is deployed is 3 in (75 mm) or less above a 6-in (150-mm) 
curb, a maximum slope of 1:4 is permitted; if the height of the vehicle floor from 
which the ramp is deployed is 6 in (150 mm) or less, but greater than 3 in (75 mm), 
above a 6-in (150-mm) curb, a maximum slope of 1:6 is permitted; if the height of 
the vehicle floor from which the ramp is deployed is 9 in (225 mm) or less, but 
greater than 6 in (150 mm), above a 6-in (150-mm) curb, a maximum slope of 1:8 
is permitted; if the height of the vehicle floor from which the ramp is deployed is 
greater than 9 in (225 mm) above a 6-in (150-mm) curb, a slope of 1:12 shall be 
achieved. Folding or telescoping ramps are permitted provided they meet all 
structural requirements of this section. [38.23(c)(5)] 

For light rail, commuter rail and intercity rail vehicles, ramps or bridge plates shall 
have the least slope practicable. If the height of the vehicle floor, under 50% 
passenger load, from which the ramp is deployed is 3 in (75 mm) or less above the 
station platform a maximum slope of 1:4 is permitted; if the height of the vehicle 
floor, under 50% passenger load, from which the ramp is deployed is 6 in (150 mm) 
or less, but more than 3 in (75 mm), above the station platform a maximum slope 
of 1:6 is permitted; if the height of the vehicle floor, under 50% passenger load, 
from which the ramp is deployed is 9 in (225 mm) or less, but more than 6 in (150 
mm), above the station platform a maximum slope of 1:8 is permitted; if the height 
of the vehicle floor, under 50% passenger load, from which the ramp is deployed is 
greater than 9 in (225 mm) above the station platform a slope of 1:12 shall be 
achieved. Folding or telescoping ramps are permitted provided they meet all 
structural requirements of this section. [38.83(c)(5), 38.95(c)(5), 38.125(c)(5)] 



5-4-12 



Permissible Ramp Slope 



Height of Vehicle Floor 

above Station Platform 

with 50% Loading 


Maximum Permissible Ramp Slope 


in (0 mm) to 3 in (75 mm) 
3 in (75 mm) to 6 in (150 mm) 
6 in (150 mm) to 9 in (225 mm) 

Greater than 9 in (225 mm) 


1:4 
1:6 
1:8 
1:12 



5-4-13 



Attachment 

Problem: Depending on how the ramp is attached to the vehicle, it can seem like 
it is quite loose and can move from side to side. Also, the gap between the ramp 
and the vehicle on some installations appears to be quite large. What are the 
requirements for ramp attachment? Are there any requirements which limit the size 
of the gap? 

Solution: When in use for boarding or alighting, the ramp or bridge plate shall be 
attached to the vehicle, or otherwise prevented from moving such that it is not 
subject to displacement when loading or unloading a heavy power mobility aid and 
that any horizontal gaps between vehicle and ramp or bridge plate, and station 
platform and ramp or bridge plate, shall not exceed 5/8 in (16 mm). [38.23(c)(6), 
38.83(c)(6), 38.95(c)(6), 38.125(c)(6)] 



Problem: What if a ramp is attached to a station platform instead of the vehicle, 
are the requirements for ramp attachment and gaps the same? 

Solution: Ramp or bridge plates attached to and deployed from a station platform 
are permitted in lieu of on-vehicle devices provided the same requirements that were 
outlined in the previous Problem/Solution are met. [38.83(c)(6), 38.95(c)(6), 
38.125(c)(6)] 



□ Stowage 



Problem: After boarding the vehicle, the ramp is generally stowed away. Is there 
a specific design requirement for stowage of the ramp? 

Solution: A compartment, securement system, or other appropriate method shall 
be provided to ensure that stowed ramps or bridge plates, including portable ramps 
or bridge plates stowed in the passenger area, do not impinge on a passenger's 
wheelchair or mobility aid or pose any hazard to passengers in the event of a sudden 
stop or maneuver of the vehicle. [38.23(c)(7), 38.83(c)(7), 38.95(c)(7), 38.125(c)(7)] 



5-4-14 



Handrails 

Problem: Many ramps do not have handrails which makes it difficult to negotiate, 
especially for a person who is walking up the ramp. Are handrails required on 
ramps, and if so, where should they be located? Should the handrails be the same 
size as handrails in facilities and onboard the vehicle? 

Solution: Handrails on ramps are not required, but if they are provided, they shall 
allow persons with disabilities to grasp them from outside the vehicle while starting 
to board, and to continue to use them throughout the boarding process, and shall 
have the top between 30 in (760 mm) and 38 in (965 mm) above the ramp surface. 
The handrails shall be capable of withstanding a force of 100 pounds concentrated 
at any point on the handrail without permanent deformation of the rail or its 
supporting structure. The handrail shall have a cross-sectional diameter between 1- 
1/4 in (32 mm) and 1-1/2 in (38 mm) or shall provide an equivalent grasping surface, 
and have eased edges with corner radii of not less than 1/8 in (3 mm). Handrails 
shall not interfere with wheelchair or mobility aid maneuverability when entering or 
leaving the vehicle. [38.23(c)(8), 38.83(c)(8), 38.95(c)(8), 38.125(c)(8)] 



5-4-15 



SECUREMENT DEVICES 

Securement devices are only required in buses and vans. In vehicles in excess of 22 ft (6.7 
m) in length, at least one securement device or system shall secure the wheelchair or 
mobility aid facing toward the front of the vehicle. Additional securement devices or 
systems shall secure the wheelchair or mobility aid facing forward, or rearward with a 
padded barrier, extending from a height of 38 in (965 mm) from the vehicle floor to a 
height of 56 in (1420 mm) from the vehicle floor with a width of 18 in (455 mm), laterally 
centered immediately in back of the seated individual. In vehicles 22 ft (6.7 m) in length 
or less, the required securement device may secure the wheelchair or mobility aid either 
facing toward the front of the vehicle or facing rearward, with a padded barrier as 
described. Additional securement locations shall be either forward or rearward facing with 
a padded barrier. Such barriers need not be solid provided equivalent protection is 
afforded. Commuter rail and intercity rail vehicles are required to have a space on the 
vehicle which will accommodate a wheelchair. The space shall have a minimum clear floor 
area of 48 in (1220 mm) by 30 in (760 mm), but no securement device is required on those 
vehicles. The specific design requirements for the securement area and securement devices 
for buses and vans follow. 

Checklist of Problems - Specific Design Requirements 



D 


Design Load 


D 


Location and Size 


D 


Orientation 


D 


Movement 


D 


Stowage 


D 


Seat Belt and Shoulder Harness 



n Design Load 

Problem: The differences between vans and buses is quite significant. Are the 
specifications for securement devices for these vehicles different? It would seem like 
the smaller vehicle would require a stronger securement device so if an accident 
does occur, the person with a disability would have more protection. Also, smaller 
vehicles seem to move more erratically through traffic and stop and start faster than 
a large bus. 

Solution: Securement devices on vehicles with GVWR's of 30,000 pounds (13,620 
kg) or above, and their attachments to such vehicles, shall restrain a force in the 
forward longitudinal direction of up to 2,000 pounds (908 kg) per securement leg 
or clamping mechanism and a minimum of 4,000 pounds (1816 kg) for each mobility 
aid. Securement systems on vehicles with GVWR's of up to 30,000 pounds (13,620 
kg), and their attachments to such vehicles, shall restrain a force in the forward 
longitudinal direction of up to 2,500 pounds (1135 kg) per securement leg or 
clamping mechanism and a minimum of 5,000 pounds (2270 kg) for each mobility 
aid. [38.23(d)(1)] 

5-4-16 



Note: These requirements are based on actual crash profiles for large and small 
vehicles. The reference to "securement leg" is not intended to imply that only a two- 
leg securement is specified, only that each leg which would exert force in the 
rearward direction have adequate strength. 



5-4-17 



n Location and Size 

Problem; Some securement areas are located too far away from the operator and 
this makes it difficult to gain access to the operator when required. The securement 
area is often in the same area as some seats and even though the seats can be folded 
up, they are generally occupied and the operator must ask the people to move. 
Once settled in the securement area, the wheelchair overlaps the aisleway and makes 
it difficult for people to pass by when entering and exiting the bus. 

Solution: The securement system shall be placed as near to the accessible entrance 
as practicable and shall have a clear floor area of 30 in (760 mm) by 48 in (1220 
mm). Such space shall adjoin, and may overlap, an access path. Not more than 6 
in (150 mm) of the required clear floor space may be accommodated for footrests 
under another seat provided there is a minimum of 9 in (225 mm) from the floor 
to the lowest part of the seat overhanging the space. Securement areas may have 
fold-down seats to accommodate other passengers when a wheelchair or mobility aid 
is not occupying the area, provided the seats, when folded up, do not obstruct the 
clear floor space required. The securement system shall secure common wheelchairs 
and mobility aids and shall either be automatic or easily attached by a person 
familiar with the system and mobility aid and having average dexterity. [38.23(d)(2) 
and (3)] 

Note: The DOT rule requires operators to secure common wheelchairs as best they 
can, even if the securement device is not designed for the specific wheelchair. It is 
advisable that transit agencies retrofit existing vehicles with current securement 
systems. 



5-4-18 



n Orientation 

Slide Problem: It is very difficult to see where the next bus stop is when facing sideways 
20 away from the sidewalk side of the bus. Also, the jerky movements of the van or 
bus would be easier to withstand if the wheelchair could be pointed in the same 
direction as the front of the vehicle. Some vehicles are arranged so the wheelchair 
faces toward the rear. When the vehicle stops quickly, it is difficult to prepare for 
the stop since the view is out of the rear window and without being prepared the 
stopping action could cause a person's neck to be thrown backward. 

Solution; In vehicles in excess of 22 ft (6.7 m) in length, at least one securement 
device or system shall secure the wheelchair or mobility aid facing toward the front 
of the vehicle. In vehicles 22 ft (6.7 m) in length or less, the required securement 
device may secure the wheelchair or mobility aid either facing toward the front of 
the vehicle or rearward. Additional securement devices or systems shall secure the 
wheelchair or mobility aid facing forward or rearward. Where the wheelchair or 
mobility aid is secured facing the rear of the vehicle, a padded barrier shall be 
provided. The padded barrier shall extend from a height of 38 in (965 mm) from 
the vehicle floor to a height of 56 in (1420 mm) from the vehicle floor with a width 
of 18 in (460 mm), laterally centered immediately in back of the seated individual. 
Such barriers need not be solid provided equivalent protection is afforded. 
[38.23(d)(4)] 



Movement 

Problem; Some securement systems don't seem to be tight enough and when the 
vehicle starts or stops, the wheelchair moves quite a bit. 

Solution; When the wheelchair or mobility aid is secured in accordance with 
manufacturer's instructions, the securement system shall limit the movement of an 
occupied wheelchair or mobility aid to no more than 2 in (50 m) in any direction 
under normal vehicle operating conditions. [38.23(d)(5)] 



n Stowage 

Problem: Once in the securement area, there have been times when the securement 
device has been vandalized and doesn't work. Also, some securement devices seem 
to stick out from the wall of the vehicle and it appears they could be a hazard to 
people standing nearby. 

Solution; When not being used for securement, or when the securement area can 
be used by standees, the securement system shall not interfere with passenger 
movement, shall not present any hazardous condition, shall be reasonably protected 
from vandalism, and shall be readily accessed when needed for use. [38.23(d)(6)] 



5-4-19 



n Seat Belt and Shoulder Harness 

Slide Problem: Seat belts and shoulder harnesses are required in automobiles for the 
21 safety of the passengers. Are they required in vans and buses for persons secured 
in the securement area? 

Solution: For each wheelchair or mobility aid securement device provided, a 
passenger seat belt and shoulder harness, complying with all applicable provisions 
of 49 CFR Part 571, shall also be provided for use by wheelchair or mobility aid 
users. Such seat belts and shoulder harnesses shall not be used in lieu of a device 
which secures the wheelchair or mobility aid itself. [38.23(d)(7)] 

Note: This section requires seat and shoulder belts to be provided; whether they are 
used is not addressed. 



5-4-20 



EXERCISES 

1. What is the size of a common wheelchair? 

(a) 27 in (685 mm) by 54 in (1370 mm) 

(b) 30 in (760 mm) by 48 in (1220 mm) 

(c) 48 in (1220 mm) by 48 in (1220 mm) 

(d) 32 in (815 mm) by 48 in (1220 mm) 

2. What is the design load for a platform lift? 

(a) 750 pounds (340 kg) 

(b) 450 pounds (204 kg) 

(c) 500 pounds (227 kg) 

(d) 600 pounds (272 kg) 

3. How high should the barrier (curbing) along the sides of the platform be? 

(a) 1 in (25 mm) 

(b) 1-1/2 in (38 mm) 

(c) 2 in (50 mm) 

(d) 3 in (76 mm) 

4. When the side barriers along the platform and the barriers at the front and back of 
the platform are raised, what is the maximum gap allowed? 

(a) 1/2 in (12 mm) 

(b) 5/8 in (16 mm) 

(c) 1 in (25 mm) 

(d) 1/4 in (6 mm) 

5. How long must the handrails on the platform lift be to comply with the standards? 

(a) 24 in (610 mm) 

(b) 36 in (915 mm) 

(c) 8 in (200 mm) 

(d) 12 in (305 mm) 

6. What is the design load for a ramp or bridge plate which is shorter than 30 in (760 
mm)? 

(a) 250 pounds (114 kg) 

(b) 450 pounds (204 kg) 

(c) 300 pounds (136 kg) 

(d) 600 pounds (272 kg) 



5-4-21 



7. What is the maximum permissible change in elevation at the transition 
between the street or platform and the ramp? 

(a) 1 in (25 mm) 

(b) 5/8 in (16 mm) 

(c) 1/4 in (6 mm) 

(d) 1/2 in (12 mm) 

8. How wide must a ramp be to comply with the standards? 



(a) 


36 in (915 mm) 


(b) 


27 in (685 mm) 


(c) 


30 in (760 mm) 


(d) 


32 in (815 mm) 



9. What is the maximum permissible slope for a ramp between the street and the 
bus/van floor? 

(a) 1:20 

(b) 1:12 

(c) 1:8 

(d) 1:4 

10. What is the maximum permissible slope between the platform and the floor of a 
light rail vehicle? Note the platform is 12 in (302 mm) lower than the floor of the 
vehicle. 



(a) 


1:20 


(b) 


1:12 


(c) 


1:8 


(d) 


1:4 



11. How high must the handrails on a ramp be above the ramp surface when handrails 
are provided? 

(a) Between 24 in (610 mm) and 36 in (915 mm) 

(b) Between 30 in (760 mm) and 38 in (965 mm) 

(c) 32 in (815 mm) 

(d) There is no specification on height. 

12. On a transit bus that is longer than 22 feet, what is the minimum number of 
wheelchair securement devices which must be provided? 

(a) One 

(b) Two 

(c) Three 

(d) Four 

5-4-22 



13. On a transit bus that is longer than 22 feet, how many forward facing wheelchair 
securement devices must be provided? 



(a) 
(b) 
(c) 
(d) 


One 
Two 
Three 
Four 


Can 


side faci 


(a) 
(b) 


Yes 

No 



14. 



15. Can all securement systems on vans (less than 22 feet) be rear facing? 
(a) Yes 

16. Are securement devices required on rail vehicles? 



(a) Yes 

(b) No 



5-4-23 



UNIT 6-1 

VEHICLE ENROUTE ACCESSIBILITY 

BUSES/VANS 



SCOPE 



The Department of Transportation rules implementing the vehicle accessibility 
requirements of ADA can be found at two levels of detail. The first area which addresses 
the more general requirements is 49 CFR Part 37, Subpart D - Acquisition of Accessible 
Vehicles by Public Entities and Subpart E - Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Private 
Entities. The second more specific design criteria is contained in 49 CFR Part 38, ADA 
Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles, Subpart B - Buses, Vans and 
Systems, and Subpart G - Over-the-Road Buses and Systems. 

Slide 1 

This unit addresses all of the barriers that could be encountered by individuals with 
disabilities including individuals who use wheelchairs and mobility aids while they are on 
a bus, van or paratransit vehicle. Barriers are encountered as an individual moves from the 
entrance vestibule to the seating area, finds the priority seating and gets settled, and, when 
appropriate, informs the bus operator of the desired destination. This unit does not 
address the barriers encountered by individuals in wheelchairs or mobility aids as they 
board the bus and get settled into the securement devices; that portion of the trip for 
individuals who use wheelchairs and mobility aids is addressed in Unit 5-4. 



6-1-1 



DEFINITIONS 

Bus: Any of several types of self-propelled vehicles, generally rubber-tired, intended for 
use on city streets, highways, and busways, including but not limited to mini buses, forty- 
and thirty-foot buses, articulated buses, double-deck buses and electrically powered trolley 
buses used by public entities to provide designated public transportation service and by 
private entities to provide transportation service, including but not limited to, specified 
public transportation service. Self-propelled, rubber-tired vehicles designed to look like 
antique or vintage trolleys are considered buses. 

Over-the-Road Bus: A bus characterized by an elevated passenger deck located over a 
baggage compartment. 

New Vehicle: A vehicle (bus) which is offered for sale or lease after manufacture without 
any prior use. 

Used Vehicle: A vehicle with prior use. 

Remanufactured Bus: A bus which has been structurally restored and has had new or 
rebuilt major components installed to extend its service life by 5 years or more. 

Fixed Route System: A system of transporting individuals, including the provision of 
designated public transportation service by public entities and the provision of 
transportation service by private entities, including, but not limited to, specified public 
transportation service, on which a vehicle is operated along a prescribed route according 
to a fixed schedule. 

Demand Responsive System: Any system of transporting individuals, including the 
provision of designated public transportation service by public entities and the provision of 
transportation service by private entities, including, but not limited to, specific 
transportation service which is not a fixed route system. 



6-1-2 



APPLICABLE STANDARDS 

49 CFR Part 37 
Subpart D 

49 CFR 37.71 
49 CFR 37.73 
49 CFR 37.75 

49 CFR 37.77 

49 CFR Part 38 
Subpart B 

49 CFR 38.21 

49 CFR 38.25 

49 CFR 38.27 

49 CFR 38.29 

49 CFR 38.35 

49 CFR 38.37 



Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Public 
Entities 

Purchase and Lease of New Non-Rail Vehicles 
by Public Entities Operating Fixed* Route 
Systems 

Purchase and Lease of Used Non-Rail Vehicles 
by Public Entities Operating Fixed Route 
Systems 

Remanufacture of Non-Rail Vehicles and 
Purchase and Lease of Remanufactured Non- 
Rail Vehicles by Public Entities Operating Fixed 
Route Systems 

Purchase and Lease of New Non-Rail Vehicles 
by Public Entities Operating a Demand 
Responsive System for the General Public 

Buses, Vans and Systems 



General 

Door Step Thresholds (Aisles, Floors) 

Priority Seating Signs 

Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

Public Information Systems 

Stop Request 



6-1-3 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

The problems or barriers individuals with disabilities encounter once on board the bus will 
be addressed at two levels of detail. The first level, General Requirements, will define the 
buses that must be made accessible. The Specific Design Requirements, the second level 
of detail, address the design specifications for each element that is required for a bus to be 
considered accessible. 

Checklist of Problems - General Requirements 

n Accessibility of New Buses 

□ Accessibility of Used Buses 

n Accessibility of Remanufactured Buses 

□ Existing Inaccessible Buses — 

□ Operation and Maintenance 



□ Accessibility of New Buses 

Problem; A public entity that operates a fixed route bus system is preparing a 
solicitation for new buses. The solicitation will be ready for advertisement in one 
month. Does the solicitation have to require accessible buses? 

Solution; Yes. Each public entity operating a fixed route system making a 
solicitation after October 6, 1991 to purchase or lease a new bus or other new 
vehicle for use on the system, shall ensure the vehicle is readily accessible to and 
usable by individuals with disabilities including individuals who use wheelchairs and 
complies with the standards in 49 CFR Part 38. [37.71(a)] 



6-1-4 



Problem: A public entity operating a fixed route bus system publicly advertised for 
the lease of several hundred buses. The advertisement specified that the buses had 
to be readily accessible and usable by persons with disabilities including individuals 
who use wheelchairs. The low bidder was selected and a contract was awarded. 
Several months after contract award, the lessee requested a modification to the lease 
agreement which would exclude the accessibility feature on fifty percent of the buses 
because there was no qualified manufacturer of lifts that could provide the -number 
of lifts required. Can the public entity change the lease agreement? 

Solution: A public entity may purchase or lease a new bus that is not readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use 
wheelchairs, if it applies for, and the FTA Administrator grants, a waiver as 
provided in this section. 

Before submitting a request for such a waiver, the public entity shall hold at least 
one public hearing concerning the proposed request. 

The FTA Administrator may grant a request for such a waiver if the public entity 
demonstrates to the FTA Administrator's satisfaction that - 

o The initial solicitation for new buses made by the public entity 
specified that all new buses were to be lift-equipped and were to be 
otherwise accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities; 

o Hydraulic, electromechanical, or other lifts for such new buses could 
not be provided by any qualified lift manufacturer to the manufacturer 
of such new buses in sufficient time to comply with the solicitation; 
and 

o Any further delay in purchasing new buses equipped with such 
necessary lifts would significantly impair transportation services in the 
community served by the public entity. 

The public entity shall include with its waiver request a copy of the initial solicitation 
and written documentation from the bus manufacturer of its good faith efforts to 
obtain lifts in time to comply with the solicitation, and a full justification for the 
assertion that the delay in bus procurement needed to obtain a lift-equipped bus 
would significantly impair transportation services in the community. This 
documentation shall include a specific date at which the lifts could be supplied, 
copies of advertisements in trade publications and inquiries to trade associations 
seeking lifts, and documentation of the public hearing. [37.71(b)(c)(d)(e)] 



6-1-5 



Problem: A public entity has submitted a waiver request to FTA. The waiver 
request clearly demonstrates that all of the conditions for a waiver have been met 
by the public entity. What actions must FTA take in granting and properly 
documenting the waiver, and what conditions, if any, should be contained in the 
waiver? 

Solution; Any waiver granted by the FTA Administrator under this section -shall be 
subject to the following conditions: 

o The waiver shall apply only to the particular bus delivery to which the 
waiver request pertains; 

o The waiver shall include a termination date, which will be based on 
information concerning when lifts will become available for installation 
on the new buses the public entity is purchasing. Buses delivered 
after this date, even though procured under a solicitation to which the 
waiver applied, shall be equipped with lifts; 

o Any bus obtained subject to the waiver shall be capable of accepting 
a lift, and the public entity shall install a lift as soon as one becomes 
available; 

o Such other terms and conditions as the FTA Administrator may 

impose. 

When the FTA Administrator grants a waiver under this section, he/she shall 
promptly notify the appropriate committee of Congress. If the FTA Administrator 
has reasonable cause to believe that a public entity fraudulently applied for a waiver 
under this section, the FTA Administrator shall: 

o Cancel the waiver if it is still in effect; and 

o Take other appropriate action. [37.71(f)(g)] 



6-1-6 



Problem: A public entity operating a demand responsive system is preparing a 
solicitation for new vehicles. The solicitation will be ready for advertisement in one 
month. Does the solicitation have to require accessible vehicles? 

Solution; A public entity operating a demand responsive system for the general 
public, making a solicitation after October 6, 1991, to purchase or lease a new bus 
or other new vehicle for use on the system shall ensure that the vehicle complies 
with Part 38, EXCEPT if the system, when viewed in its entirety, provides a level 
of service to individuals with disabilities including individuals who use wheelchairs, 
equivalent to the level of service it provides to individuals without disabilities, then 
the public entity may purchase new vehicles that are not readily accessible. 
[37.77(a)(b)] 

Note: For each new vehicle purchased, ask the question, "Do I have enough 
accessible vehicles?" If the answer is no, the vehicle must meet Part 38 standards; 
if yes, it does not. 



Problem: How is equivalent level of service between individuals with disabilities 
including individuals who use wheelchairs and individuals who are not disabled 
determined and documented? 

Solution: A demand responsive system, when viewed in its entirety, shall be deemed 
to provide equivalent service if the service available to individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use wheelchairs, is provided in the most integrated setting 
appropriate to the needs of the individual and is equivalent to the service provided 
other individuals with respect to the following service characteristics: 

(1) Response time; 

(2) Fares; 

(3) Geographic area of service; 

(4) Hours and days of service; 

(5) Restrictions or priorities based on trip purpose; 

(6) Availability of information and reservations capability; and 

(7) Any constraints on capacity or service availability. 

Before procuring an inaccessible vehicle, public entities must file a certificate 
showing that equivalent service is provided to individuals with disabilities and other 
persons. The certificate should be filed as follows: [37.77(c)(d)] 



6-1-7 



Public Entity: 


File Certificate: 


Receiving FTA Section 18 Funds 


With Appropriate State Program Office 


Receiving FTA Section 9 Funds from a 
State Administering Agency 


With Appropriate State Program Office 


Receiving Any Other FTA Funds and 
Operating Demand Responsive Service 


With Appropriate FTA Regional O'ffice 


Receiving NO FTA Funds 


In Public Entity Files for Inspection by 
FTA 



Problem; Can a waiver from the FTA be granted for vehicles operating on a 
demand responsive system similar to vehicles operating on a fixed route system? 

Solution; Yes. The waiver procedures and documentation/approval process is the 
same for a vehicle operating on a demand responsive system as it is for a vehicle 
operating on a fixed route system. [37.79] 



Accessibility of Used Buses 

Problem; A public entity is preparing a solicitation to purchase used buses which 
can be operated on its fixed route system. The solicitation will be ready for 
advertisement in approximately two months. Does the solicitation have to require 
accessible buses? 

Solution; Each public entity operating a fixed route system purchasing or leasing, 
after October 6, 1991, a used bus or other vehicle for use on the system, shall ensure 
that the vehicle complies with Part 38 standards. 

A public entity may purchase or lease a used vehicle for use on its fixed route 
system that is not readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities if, 
after making demonstrated good faith efforts to obtain an accessible vehicle, it is 
unable to do so. [37.73(a)(b)] 



6-1-8 



Problem: What constitutes good faith efforts to obtain an accessible used vehicle? 
Solution: Good faith efforts shall include at least the following steps: 

(1) An initial solicitation for used vehicles specifying that all used vehicles 
are to be lift-equipped and otherwise accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, or, if an initial solicitation is not used, a 
documented communication so stating; 

(2) A nationwide search for accessible vehicles, involving specific inquiries 
to used vehicle dealers and other transit providers; and 

(3) Advertising in trade publications and contacting trade associations. 

Each public entity purchasing or leasing used vehicles that are not readily accessible 
to and usable by individuals with disabilities shall retain documentation of the 
specific good faith efforts it made for three years from the date the vehicles were 
purchased. These records shall be made available, on request, to the FTA 
Administrator and the public. [37.73(c)(d)] 



Problem: A transit authority operates a large bus fleet on a fixed route system. The 
fleet is aging. A plan has been developed to extend the useful life of the fleet by 
purchasing several hundred remanufactured buses and to set up a rebuild process 
at the largest garage on the property so the transit authority can remanufacture its 
own buses. Most of the buses scheduled to be remanufactured on property are not 
accessible. Do the remanufactured buses that are to be purchased have to be 
accessible? Do the buses that are to be remanufactured by the transit authority 
have to be made accessible? 

Solution; If a public entity purchases or leases a remanufactured bus or 
remanufactures a bus after August 25, 1990, and the useful life of the bus is 
extended by 5 years due to the remanufacture process, then the remanufactured 
buses must, to the maximum extent feasible, be readily accessible and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs. Also, if the 
agency remanufactures buses to extend their life 5 years or more, they must meet 
Part 38 to the maximum extent possible. [37.75(a)(b)] 

Note: The requirement does not apply to an overhaul that is not designed to extend 
the life beyond its normal useful life. 



6-1-9 



Problem: What is the definition of maximum extent feasible as used in the previous 
problem: 

Solution: It shall be considered feasible to remanufacture a bus or other motor 
vehicle so as to be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use wheelchairs, unless an engineering analysis 
demonstrates that including accessibility features required by this part would have 
a significantly adverse effect on the structural integrity of the vehicle. [37.75(c)] 



6-1-10 



n Existing Inaccessible Buses 

Problem; Almost fifty percent of the bus fleet in a large metropolitan area is not 
equipped with lifts, ramps or other boarding devices. Does the ADA require that 
all of these existing inaccessible buses be retrofitted with lifts or ramps? 

Solution: The ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Vehicles does not require that 
inaccessible buses be retrofitted with lifts, ramps or other boarding devices. 
[38.21(b)] 



Problem; The agency is planning to refurbish the interior of some buses. Do they 
need to be made accessible? 

Solution; If elements covered by Part 38 are altered, they must meet the new 
standards to the maximum extent feasible. If handrails are modified or replaced, 
they must meet the handrail requirements; if flooring is replaced, it must be slip 
resistant. If the lift is replaced, the new lift must meet the new standards, to the 
extent feasible. 

Note: If the door isn't wide enough to accommodate a Part 38 lift, the widest lift 
feasible would be installed. 



n Operation and Maintenance 

Problem; The local public bus system is equipped with on-board public address 
(PA) systems. At one time, the drivers were supposed to announce each stop over 
the PA system. I have never heard a driver use the system. One operator told me 
that it was not required under the union contract. 

Solution; The DOT Rule requires that the entity (public and private) use the 
equipment it has. The operator is required to use the PA system to announce stops 
unless he can be heard throughout the bus without the PA system. On fixed route 
systems, the entity shall announce stops as follows: 

(1) The entity shall announce at least at transfer points with other fixed routes, 
other major intersections and destination points, and intervals along a route 
sufficient to permit individuals with visual impairments or other disabilities to be 
oriented to their location. 

(2) The entity shall announce any stop on request of an individual with a disability. 
[37.167] 



6-1-11 



Problems and solutions related to specific design requirements address those barriers that 
disabled persons encounter fi-om the time when they have boarded the bus and the bus 
doors have closed (for disabled persons in wheelchairs after they are secured in a 
securement location) until they have located and requested the bus to stop at their 
intended destination. If portions of the vehicle are modified in any way that affects or 
could affect accessibility, each such portion shall comply with the specific design 
requirements. 

Checklist of Problems - Specific Design Requirements 

□ Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

□ Floors, Aisles 

□ Priority Seating Signs 

n Public Information Systems - 

□ Stop Request 



6-1-12 



D Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

Problem; Placement of stanchions and handrails around the vestibule area of the 
bus, in the doorway/stepwell area and along the aisles sometimes causes those spaces 
to be very difficult to negotiate in a wheelchair. Are there any specific guidelines 
in the DOT Rule which set the requirements for clear widths and clear floor space? 

Solution: On transit buses, interior handrails and stanchions shall permit sufficient 
Slide turning and maneuvering space for wheelchairs and other mobility aids to reach a 
2 securement location from the lift or ramp. Securement area clear floor space 
dimensions are specified in the DOT Rule. The DOT vehicle specifications do not 
specifically prescribe the minimum dimensions for the vestibule or aisles. Even 
though there are no specific requirements, ADAAG should be used as follows: 

Door width: Clear door width is generally required to be 32 in (815 mm) 
minimum. Door width is not specified for buses because it will generally be 
controlled by the minimum lift width. 

Vestibule area: ADAAG 4.2 Space Allowance and Reach Ranges - The 
space required for a wheelchair to make a 180 degree turn is a clear space 
of 60 in (1525 mm) in diameter or an L-shaped space with 36 in (915 mm) 
aisleways. 

Aisle widths: ADAAG 4.2 Space Allowance and Reach Ranges - The 
minimum clear width for single wheelchair passage shall be 32 in (815 mm) 
at a point and 36 in (915 mm) continuously. 

Securement area: The minimum clear floor area required to accommodate 
a single stationary wheelchair and occupant is 30 in (760 mm) by 48 in (1220 
mm). [38.23(d)(2)] 



6-1-13 



Problem; When paying the fare, there is nothing stable to lean against or hold onto 
as you pay. Sometimes, the driver starts moving the bus while people are still paying 
the fare and they must hold onto the stanchions across the aisle from the fare box. 
A person with a walking disability finds that difficult. 

Solution: On transit buses longer than 22 ft (6.7 m) and on over-the-road buses 
Slide where on-board fare collection devices are used, a horizontal passenger assist 
3 (handrail, grab bar or other appropriate surface) shall be located across the front 

of the vehicle between boarding passengers and the fare collection device to prevent 
passengers from sustaining injuries on the fare collection device or the bus 
windshield in the event of a sudden deceleration. This horizontal passenger assist 
must not restrict the vestibule space and must provide support for the boarding 
passenger from the doorway through the boarding process. The passenger assist 
shall be secured and designed such that passengers are able to lean against the assist 
for security while paying fares. [38.29(b), 38.155(a)] 



Problem; Once on board the bus, often times the driver starts to move before 
everyone is seated. Sometimes it is difficult to negotiate the aisleway without 
anything to hold on to. 

Solution; For vehicles in excess of 22 ft (6.7 m) in length, overhead handrail(s) shall 
Slide be provided which shall be continuous except for a gap at the rear doorway. 
4 [38.29(c)] 



Problem; In the areas of the bus where the seats are facing sideways, it is difficult 
to stand while the bus is moving. There doesn't seem to be enough handrails or 
vertical stanchions to hold onto so one can move around the bus safely. 

Solution: Handrails and stanchions shall be sufficient to permit safe boarding, on 
Slide board circulation, seating and standing assistance, and alighting by persons with 
5 disabilities. [38.29(d)] 



Problem; Some of the handrails are so close to the surface they are attached to that 
it is difficult to get your fingers between the handrail and the adjacent surface. Is 
there a specific offset that is required when mounting handrails? 

Solution: Handrails used on transit buses and over-the-road buses shall have a grab 
Slide bar with a cross-sectional diameter between 1-1/4 in (32 mm) and 1-1/2 in (38 mm) 
6 or shall provide an equivalent grasping surface. Edges on the handrail shall be 

rounded and have a minimum radius of 1/8 in (3.2 mm). All handrails shall be 
placed and mounted so there is a minimum 1-1/2 in (38 mm) space between the 
grasping surface and the adjacent surface. [38.29(b), 38.155(a)] 

6-1-14 



Problem: Once the wheelchair lift has raised the wheelchair to the same level as the 
bus aisle floor, the individual in the wheelchair must negotiate through the fare 
box/driver vestibule area to the securement area. The placement of the vertical 
stanchion is critical because the foot rest of the wheelchair can hit the stanchion as 
the turning movement is made if there is not enough clear floor space to maneuver 
the wheelchair around the comer. 

Solution: For vehicles in excess of 22 ft (6.7 m) in length with front-door lifts or 
Slide ramps, vertical stanchions immediately behind the driver shall either terminate at the 
7 lower edge of the aisle-facing seats, if applicable, or be "dog-legged" so that the floor 

attachment does not impede or interfere with wheelchair footrests. If the driver seat 
platform must be passed by a wheelchair or mobility aid user entering the vehicle, 
the platform, to the maximum extent practicable, shall not extend into the aisle or 
vestibule beyond the wheel housing. [38.29(e)] 



Problem: When the individual in the wheelchair moves between the lift platform, 
through the vestibule area and down the aisle and into the securement area, it is 
important that there are no overhead objects that could obstruct this path of travel. 
How much distance should there be between the floor and the overhead handrails 
to ensure that individuals in wheelchairs have sufficient headroom to move from the 
ramp platform to the securement area? 

Solution; For vehicles in excess of 22 ft (6.7 m) in length, the minimum interior 
Slide height along the path from the lift to the securement location shall be 68 in (1730 
8 mm). For vehicles of 22 ft (6.7 m) in length or less, the minimum interior height 

from lift to securement location shall be 56 in (1420 mm). [38.29(f)] 



6-1-15 



n Floors and Aisles 

Problem: When it is raining or snowing the aisleways in the bus get wet from all the 
traffic moving in and out of the bus. Some floor surfaces are quite slippery when 
they get wet, making it difficult for individuals with disabilities to negotiate the 
aisleway especially when the bus is moving. 

Solution: All aisles and floor areas where people walk and floors in securement 
locations shall have a slip-resistant surface. [38.25(a)] 



Problem: In developing a specification for a new bus procurement, what standard 
should be used to ensure that the floor area and steps are provided with the 
mandated "slip resistant" surface? 

Slide Solution: There is not specific requirement, but an appendix recommends the 
9 coefficient of friction as the appropriate descriptor to measure slip resistance. The 

coefficient of fiiction is the ratio between the force necessary to move one surface 
over another surface and the pressure between the two surfaces. For example, the 
coefficient of friction for cast iron on oak is 38:100 or 0.38. A research project 
conducted with persons with disabilities concluded that a static coefficient of friction 
of 0.6 was appropriate for steps, floors and lift platforms and a coefficient of friction 
of 0.8 was desirable for ramps. 



6-1-16 



□ Priority Seating Signs 

Problem: Once on the bus, it is difficult to tell where the priority seating is located. 
The priority seating signs are often missing and on some buses they have never been 
installed. Generally, the priority seats are located in the front of the bus facing 
sideways. It is difficult to sit sideways on the bus especially when the bus is stopping 
and starting in heavy traffic. 

Solution; Each vehicle shall contain sign(s) which indicate that seats in the front of 
Slide the vehicle are priority seats for persons with disabilities, and that other passengers 
10 should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. At least one set 

of forward-facing seats shall be so designated. Each securement location shall have 

a sign designating it as such. 

Note: Forward facing seats are not required where all seats are aisle-facing. 



Problem: Many of the priority seating signs are so small that people with vision 
impairments cannot read them. Also, on some of the buses, the background of the 
priority seat sign is almost the same color as the lettering which makes it difficult 
to see and read. 

Solution: Characters on signs shall have a width-to-height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 
and a stroke width-to-height ratio between 1:5 and 1:10, with a minimum character 
height (using an upper case "X") of 5/8 in (16 mm) with "wide" spacing (generally, 
the space between letters shall be 1/16 the height of upper case letters), and shall 
contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. [38.75] 

Raised or Braille characters or pictorial symbol signs, are not required, but could be 
used to make it easier for persons with low vision or persons who are blind to tell 
where the priority seating is located. If a pictorial symbol is used, the international 
symbol of accessibility should be used. The border dimensions of the pictorial shall 
be 6 in (152 mm) minimum in height. If raised letters are used they shall be raised 
1/32 in (0.8 mm), upper case, sans serif or simple serif type and shall be 
accompanied with Grade 2 Braille. The raised characters shall be at least 5/8 in (16 
mm) high but no higher than 2 in (50 mm). [4.30.4] 



6-1-17 



n Public Information Systems 

Problem: It is difficult for persons with vision impairments to tell when the bus is 
approaching their stop. Since the bus does not automatically stop at all bus stops 
and a stop request signal must be used, it would be good if the bus driver could 
announce each stop, or at a minimum, announce when the bus approaches major 
intersections along the route. 

Solution; Vehicles in excess of 22 ft (6.7 m) in length, used in multiple-stop, fixed 
route service, shall be equipped with a public address system permitting the driver, 
or recorded and digitized human speech messages, to announce stops and provide 
other passenger information within the vehicle. [38.27(a)] In addition, the DOT 
rule requires drivers to announce certain stops. [37.167(b)] 

Note: Some systems have external P.A. systems and some electronic head signs 
announce route designation whenever the door opens 



n Bus Stop Request 

Problem: Individuals secured on the bus at the securement area generally tell the 
bus operator where they are going and where they would like to stop and get off the 
bus. Sometimes the bus driver forgets and overruns the stop which makes it very 
inconvenient for a person in a wheelchair. 

Solution: Where passengers may board or alight at multiple stops at their option. 
Slides vehicles in excess of 22 ft (6.7 m) in length shall provide controls adjacent to the 
11,12 securement location for requesting stops and which alert the driver that a mobility 

aid user wishes to disembark. Such a system shall provide auditory and visual 

indications that the request has been made. [38.37(a)] 



Problem: The stop request mechanism located on the wall of the bus near the 
wheelchair securement area is out of reach for some individuals who use the 
securement area. What are the design requirements to accommodate the reach 
limitations for persons who are in wheelchairs or mobility aids? 

Solution: Controls for the stop request in the securement area shall be mounted no 
higher than 48 in (1220 mm) and no lower than 15 in (380 mm) above the floor 
shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or 
twisting of the wrist. The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 

5 Ibf (22.2 N). [38.37(b)] 



6-1-18 



EXERCISES 



1. On transit buses that are longer than 22 feet where onboard fare collection is used, 
what are the requirements for handrails around the fare collection area? 

(a) A horizontal handrail should be placed around the fare box. 

(b) A vertical stanchion should be placed on each comer of the fare box. 

(c) A horizontal handrail should be located across the front of the vehicle 
between boarding passengers and the fare box. 

2. On transit buses that are longer than 22 feet, where should the overhead handrails 
be located? 

(a) One small handrail should be placed above each seat. 

(b) Continuous handrails should be placed along the total length of the bus over 
each side of the aisle. 

(c) Continuous handrail(s) should be placed along the length of the bus except 
for a gap at the rear doorway. 

3. How far away from the wall should the handrail be placed so people can grab the 
handrail easily? 

(a) 1 in (25 mm) 

(b) 1-1/4 in (32 mm) 

(c) 1-1/2 in (38 mm) 

(d) 2 in (50 mm) 

4. On a transit bus that is longer than 22 feet, what is the minimum acceptable clear 
height for handrails along the path from the platform lift to the securement areas? 

(a) 56 in (1420 mm) 

(b) 60 in (1220 mm) 

(c) 68 in (1730 mm) 

(d) 72 in (1830 mm) 

5. All of the seats on a bus face toward the aisle. How many seats should be 
designated as priority seating? 

(a) one set 

(b) two sets 

(c) one set on each side of the aisle 



6-1-19 



6. Is a public address system required on a transit bus that is longer than 22 feet? 

(a) Yes 

(b) No 

7. What is the range above the floor of a bus where the stop request control can be 
located? 

(a) 15 in (380 mm) to 48 in (1220 mm) 

(b) 9 in (230 mm) to 54 in (1370 mm) 

(c) 9 in (230 mm) to 36 in (915 mm) 

(d) 6 in (150 mm) to 24 in (610 mm) 



6-1-20 



UNIT 6-2 

VEHICLE ENROUTE ACCESSIBILITY 

RAPID RAIL VEHICLES 



SCOPE 



The Dejpartment of Transportation rules implementing tiie vehicle accessibility 
requirements of ADA can be found at two levels of detail. The first area which addresses 
the more general requirements is 49 CFR Part 37, Subpart D - Acquisition of Accessible 
Vehicles by Public Entities and Subpart E - Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Private 
Entities. The second more specific design criteria is contained in 49 CFR Part 38, ADA 
Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles,* Subpart C - Rapid Rail Vehicles 
and Systems. 

Slide 1 

This unit addresses all of the barriers that could be encountered by individuals with 
disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs and mobility aids once they are on 
board the rapid rail vehicle. Barriers are encountered as the individual moves from the 
entrance vestibule to the seating area, finds the priority seating and gets settied, moves 
between vehicles, gathers information during the trip and locates the desired destination. 



6-2-1 



DEnNITIONS 

Rapid Rail: A subway- type transit vehicle railway operated on exclusive private rights of 
way with high level boarding platform stations. Rapid rail may also operate on elevated 
and at grade level track separated from other traffic. 

New Rapid Rail Vehicle: A rapid rail vehicle which is offered for sale or lease after 
manufacture without any prior use. 

Used Rapid Rail Vehicle: A rapid rail vehicle with prior use. 

Remanufactured Rapid Rail Vehicle: A rapid rail vehicle which has been structurally 
restored and has had new or rebuilt major components installed to extend its service life 
by 5 years. 

Retrofitted Vehicle: A vehicle that has been modified to the extent necessary to comply 
with the specific accessibility standards required by the One Car Per Train Rule. 



6-2-2 



APPLICABLE STANDARDS 



49 CFR Part 37 
Subpart D 

49 CFR 37.79 



49 CFR 37.81 
49 CFR 37.83 

49 CFR 37.93 

49 CFR Part 38 
Subpart C 

49 CFR 38.51 

49 CFR 38.53 

49 CFR 38.55 

49 CFR 38.57 

49 CFR 38.59 

49 CFR 38.61 

49 CFR 38.63 

10.3.1(5) 



10.3.2(2) 



Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Public Entities 

Purchase and Lease of New Rail Vehicles by Public 
Entities Operating Rapid or Light Rail Systems 

Purchase and Lease of Used Rail Vehicles by Public 
Entities Operating Rapid or Light Rail Systems 

Purchase and Lease of Remanufactured Rail Vehicles 
by Public Entities Operating Rapid or Light Rail 
Systems 

One Car Per Train Rule 

Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems 

General 

Doorways 

Priority Seating Signs 

Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

Floor Surfaces 

Public Information Systems 

Between Car Barriers 

ADAAG Fixed Facilities and Stations, New 
Construction 

ADAAG Fixed Facilities and Stations, Existing 
Facilities, Key Stations 



6-2-3 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

The problems or barriers individuals with disabilities encounter once on board a rapid rail 
vehicle will be addressed at two levels of detail. The first level of detail, General 
Requirements, address which rapid rail cars must be made accessible. To be considered 
accessible, new, used, and remanufactured rapid rail vehicles must comply with specific 
design requirements. The Specific Design Requirements, the second level of detail,* address 
the design specifications for each element that is required for a rapid rail vehicle to be 
considered accessible. 

Checklist of Problems - General Requirements 

n Accessibility of New Rapid Rail Vehicles 

□ Accessibility of Used Rapid Rail Vehicles - 

□ Accessibility of Remanufactured Rapid Rail Vehicles 
n One Car Per Train Rule 



G Accessibility of New Rapid Rail Vehicles 

Problem: A public transit authority is preparing a specification to purchase new 
rapid rail vehicles. The solicitation is scheduled to be advertised publicly two 
months from now. Do the ADA Vehicle Specifications apply to this specification? 

Solution; Yes, each public entity operating a rapid rail system making a solicitation 
after October 6, 1991 to purchase or lease a new rapid rail vehicle for use on the 
system shall ensure that the vehicle is readily accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities including individuals who use wheelchairs. [37.79] A vehicle is 
considered accessible if it complies with Part 38 standards. 



Accessibility of Used Rapid Rail Vehicles 

Problem: A public transit authority is negotiating with another transit authority to 
purchase some used rapid rail vehicles. Negotiations started two weeks ago and 
should be concluded by the end of next month. Will the purchasing authority have 
to make the used vehicles comply with the ADA Vehicle Standards? 

Solution; Each public entity operating a rapid rail system that purchases or leases 
a used rapid rail vehicle after October 6, 1991 for use on its system shall ensure that 
the vehicle is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities 
including individuals who use wheelchairs and complies with Part 38. 

A public entity may purchase and lease a used rapid rail vehicle that is not readily 
accessible if after making demonstrated good faith efforts to obtain an accessible 
vehicle it is unable to do so. 



6-2-4 



Note: The one-car-per-train rule requires each public entity providing rapid rail 
service to ensure that each train consisting of two or more vehicles, includes at least 
one car that is accessible as soon as practicable, but in no case later than July 25, 
1995. Thus, care should be taken to ensure that this requirement can be met over 
the entire fleet [37.93(c)] [38.51(c)] 

Problem: What are the good faith efforts that must be made when trying to 
purchase a readily accessible used rapid rail vehicle? How does the public entity 
document the good faith efforts? 

Solution; Good faith efforts shall include at least the following steps: 

(1) The initial solicitation for the used vehicles published by the public entity 
must specify that all used vehicles were to be accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, or, if a solicitation is not used, a documented 
communication so stating; 

(2) A nationwide search for accessible vehicles, involving specific inquiries 
to manufacturers and other transit providers; and 

(3) Advertising in trade publications and contacting trade associations. 

Each public entity purchasing or leasing used rapid rail vehicles that are not readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities shall retain documentation 
of the specific good faith efforts it made for three years from the date the vehicles 
were purchased. These records shall be made available, on request, to the FTA 
Administrator and the public. 



n Accessibility of Remanufactured Rapid Rail Vehicles 

Problem: A transit authority plans to remanufacture some of its rapid rail vehicles 
and purchase some remanufactured vehicles. Do the rapid rail vehicles have to 
meet the vehicle accessibility specifications? 

Solution: Yes, if a rapid rail vehicle is remanufactured so as to extend its useful life 
for five years or more, it shall, to the maximum extent feasible be readily accessible 
to and usable to individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use 
wheelchairs. An entity shall not purchase or lease a remanufactured vehicle which 
does not comply with Part 38 to the maximum extent feasible. [37.83(b)] 

It shall be considered feasible to remanufacture a rapid or light rail vehicle so as to 
be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs, unless an engineering analysis demonstrates that 
doing so would have a significant adverse effect on the structural integrity of the 
vehicle. [37.83(c)] 



6-2-5 



Problem: One of the rapid rail lines on a particular system is included on the 
National Register of Historic Places. The vehicles operated on the lines are 
considered historic. The vehicles are scheduled to be remanufactured so that the 
service life can be extended for another seven years. Do these "historic vehicles" 
have to be made accessible? 

Solution: If a public entity operates a rapid rail system any segment of which is 
included on the National Register of Historic Places and if making a rapid rail 
vehicle of historic character used solely on such segment readily accessible to and 
usable by individuals with disabilities would significantly alter the historic character 
of such vehicles, the public entity need only make (or purchase or lease a 
remanufactured vehicle with) those modifications that do not alter the historic 
character of such vehicles. [37.83(d)] 

A public entity operating a fixed route system as described above may apply in 
writing to the FTA Administrator for a determination of the historic character of 
the vehicle. The FTA Administrator shall refer such requests to the National 
Register of Historic Places and shall rely on its advice in making a determination of 
the historic character of the vehicle. [37.83(e)] 



n One-Car-Per-Train Rule 

Problem: What is the One-Car-Per-Train Rule and what are the dates for 
implementation? 

Solution: Each public entity providing rapid rail service shall ensure that each train, 
consisting of two or more vehicles, includes at least one car that is readily accessible 
as soon as practicable but in no case later than July 25, 1995. 

Existing vehicles which are retrofitted to comply with the "one-car-per-train rule" 
shall have priority seating signs [38.55], adequate handrails and at least two areas 
for wheelchair or mobility aid users [38.57(b)], and slip resistant floors [38.59]. At 
new key stations, at least one door with proper signage [38.53(b)], 32 in (810 mm) 
wide [38.53(a)(1)], and a horizontal gap no bigger than 4 in (100 mm) and vertical 
displacement no more than 2 in (50 mm). Removal of seats is not required. 
Vehicles previously designed and manufactured in accordance with the accessibility 
requirements of 49 CFR 609 or the Secretary of Transportation regulations 
implementing section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that were in effect 
before October 7, 1991, and which can be entered and used from stations in which 
they are to be operated, may be used to satisfy the requirements of the one-car-per- 
train rule. 

Note: If there are vehicles in your fleet which were deemed accessible under 
previous (504) rules, and they can be entered and used in the stations in which you 
now plan to operate them, they can be used to satisfy the one-car-per-train rule. 



6-2-6 



Problems and solutions related to specific design requirements address those barriers that 
disabled persons and persons in wheelchairs encounter from the time when they have 
boarded the vehicle and the doors have closed until they reach their intended station stop. 
These barriers are encountered as they move within the vehicle to get settled for the trip, 
as they move between vehicles and as they approach the various stops along their route. 
If portions of the vehicle are modified in such a way that it affects or could affect 
accessibility, each such portion shall comply, to the extent practicable, with the- specific 
design requirements. 

Checklist of Problems - Specific Design Requirements 

n Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

D Floors 

□ Priority Seating 

□ Doorways Connecting Vehicles 
n Public Information Systems 

□ Platform Signage 



n Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

Problem; Once on the vehicle, it is difficult to move about within the vehicle/car 
when it is moving, accelerating or decelerating. 

Solution; Handrails and stanchions shall be provided to assist safe boarding, on 
board circulation, seating and standing assistance and alighting by persons with 
disabilities. [38.57] 



6-2-7 



Problem: The area immediately inside of the doors is always crowded with people 
Slide which makes it very difficult to maneuver a wheelchair through the area to a place 
2 where there is enough room to get settled out of the way of other passengers. On 

many vehicles, the vertical stanchions between the floor and ceiling are arranged and 
laid out so that you have to approach them from a specific angle with the wheelchair 
to be able to pass between them. Also, on some vehicles the seats nearest to the 
entryway take up space that could be used to position a wheelchair out of«the way 
from other passengers. 

Solution: Handrails, stanchions and seats shall allow a route at least 32 in (815 mm) 
wide so that at least two wheelchair or mobility aid users can enter the vehicle and 
position the wheelchairs or mobility aids in areas, each having a minimum clear 
space of 48 in (1220 mm) by 30 in (765 mm) which do not unduly restrict movement 
of other passengers. Space to accommodate wheelchairs and mobility aids may be 
provided within the normal area used by standees and designation of specific spaces 
is not required. Particular attention shall be given to ensuring maximum 
maneuverability immediately inside doors. Ample vertical stanchions from ceiling 
to seatback rails shall be provided. Vertical stanchions from ceiling to floor shall 
not interfere with wheelchair or mobility aid user circulation and shall be kept to a 
minimum in the vicinity of doors. [38.57] 



Problem; Some of the handrails are difficult to grasp. Some have very sharp edges 
which seem to be dangerous if a person was to fall on them. 



Solution: Handrails shall have a cross-sectional diameter between 1-1/4 in (32 mm) 
Slide and 1-1/2 in (38 mm) or shall provide an equivalent grasping surface and have eased 
3 edges with comer radii of not less than 1/8 in (3 mm). Handrails shall be placed to 

provide a minimum 1-1/2 in (38 mm) knuckle clearance from the nearest adjacent 

surface. [38.57] 



D Floors 

Problem: Some floors become quite slippery when they are wet. Others are so 
smooth that even when they are dry, they are slippery. Are there standards which 
must be followed on rail vehicles which prescribe what type of material should be 
used on the floors? 

Solution: Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees, and areas where wheelchairs 
and mobility aid users are to be accommodated are to be slip resistant on all rapid 
rail vehicles. [38.59] 



6-2-8 



Problem: In developing a specification for a new rail car procurement, what 
standard should be used to ensure that the floor area is provided with the mandated 
"slip resistant" surface? 

Solution; There is no specific requirement, but an appendix note recommends the 
coefficient of friction as the appropriate descriptor to measure slip resistance. The 
coefficient of friction is the ratio between the force necessary to move one surface 
over another surface and the pressure between the two surfaces. For example, the 
coefficient of friction for cast iron on oak is 38:100 or 0.38. A research project 
conducted with persons with disabilities concluded that a static coefficient of friction 
of 0.6 was appropriate for steps, floors and lift platforms and a coefficient of friction 
of 0.8 was desirable for ramps. 



Problem; The design of the new rail vehicles calls for carpet on the floor. People 
who use wheelchairs and mobility aids could have a problem with a carpeted floor 
especially if the pile of the carpet is very thick. Are there standards that prohibit 
carpet? 

Solution; The ADA Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles does 
Slide not address carpeted floors. A guideline that could be used is Section 4.5.3 of the 
4 ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities which states: If a carpet 

or carpet tile is used on a ground or floor surface, then it shall be securely attached; 
have a firm cushion, pad, or backing or no cushion or pad; and have a level loop, 
textured loop, level cut pile, or level cut/uncut pile texture. The maximum pile 
thickness shall be 1/2 in (13 mm). Exposed edges of carpet shall be fastened to 
floor surfaces and have trim along the entire length of the exposed edge. Carpet 
edge trim up to 1/4 in (6 mm) high can be vertical. If the edge trim is between 1/4 
in (6 mm) and 1/2 in (13 mm) a bevel with a slope no greater than 1:2 shall be used. 

Note: Some carpet can be slippery when wet, so specify with care. 



6-2-9 



Priority Seating 

Problem: Once on the rapid rail vehicle, it is difficult to tell where the priority 
seating is located. The priority seating signs are often missing and on some 
vehicles/cars they have never been installed. 

Solution; Each rapid rail vehicle shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain 
seats are priority seats for persons with disabilities and that other passengers should 
make such seats available to those who wish to use them. [38.55(a)] 



Problem; Many of the priority seating signs are so small that people with vision 
Slide impairments cannot read them. Also, on some vehicles, the priority seating sign 
5 background is the same color as the wall it is mounted on which makes it difficult 

to see. 

Solution; Characters on signs shall have a width-to-height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 
and a stroke width-to-height ratio between 1:5 and 1:10, with a minimum character 
height (using an upper case "X") of 5/8 in (16 mm) with "wide" spacing (generally, 
the space between letters shall be 1/16 the height of upper case letters), and shall 
contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. [38.55(b)] 

Raised or Braille characters or pictorial symbol signs, are not required, but could be 
used to make it easier for persons with low vision or persons who are blind to tell 
where the priority seating is located. If a pictorial symbol is used, the international 
symbol of accessibility should be used. The border dimension of the pictorial shall 
be 6 in (152 mm) minimum in height. If raised letters are used they shall be raised 
1/32 in (0.8 mm), upper case, sans serif or simple serif type and shall be 
accompanied with Grade 2 Braille. The raised characters shall be at least 5/8 in (16 
mm) high but no higher than 2 in (50 mm). [4,30.4] 



n Doorways Connecting Vehicles 

Problem; If there is an emergency situation in one of the vehicles of a multi-car 
train, even though the aisle widths are wide enough for a wheelchair or a mobility 
aid to negotiate, once the person in the wheelchair reaches the door at the end of 
the car it is too narrow to allow passage. 

Solution; If doorways connecting adjoining cars in a multi-car train are provided. 
Slide and if such doorway is connected by an aisle with a minimum clear width of 30 in 
6 (765 mm) to one or more spaces where wheelchair or mobility aid users can be 

accommodated, then such doorway shall have a minimum clear opening of 30 in 
(765 mm) to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to be evacuated to an 
adjoining vehicle in an emergency. [38.53(a)(2)] This provision applies only to new 
vehicles. 

6-2-10 



□ Public Information Systems 

Problem; When on the rapid rail vehicle it is difficult for persons with disabilities 
to tell when they should start getting ready to exit the train. Also, even though 
many of the vehicles have internal speakers, these speakers cannot be heard by 
persons with hearing impairments. 

Solution: Each vehicle shall be equipped with an interior public address system 
Slide permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized human speech 
7 messages, to announce stations and provide other passenger information. 

Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are also permitted. 
Each vehicle operating in stations having more than one line or route shall have an 
external public address system to permit transportation personnel, or recorded or 
digitized human speech messages, to announce train, route or line identification 
information. [38.61] 

If station announcement systems provide information on arriving trains, an external 
train speaker is not required. [38.61] 

Note: Some systems are experimenting with visual displays on vehicles. These 
systems help everyone. 



6-2-11 



n Platform Signage 

Problem; When the train pulls into a station, it is difficult to see what station it is 
in because the station identification signs are too high. The only way to see them 
is to squat down and look up and out of the windows. In some stations the station 
identification signs are placed so far apart that you cannot see them from some of 
the vehicles. 

Solution; New stations built after January 25, 1992, and key stations on rapid rail 
Slide systems shall have identification signs complying with requirements for character 
8 proportion and height, finish and contrast of ADAAG for Buildings and Facilities. 

Signs shall be placed at frequent intervals and shall be clearly visible from within the 
vehicle on both sides when not obstructed by another train. When station 
identification signs are placed close to vehicle windows (i.e., on the side opposite 
from boarding), each shall have the top of the highest letter or symbol below the top 
of the vehicle window and the bottom of the lowest letter or symbol above the 
horizontal mid-line of the vehicle window. [10.3.1(5), 10.3.2(2)] 

Station identification signs shall be designed to comply with the following signage 
standards. 

Character Proportion: Letters and numbers on signs shall have a width-to- 
height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke width-to-height ratio between 
1:5 and 1:10. 

Character Height: Characters are numbers on signs shall be sized according 
to the viewing distance from which they are to be read. The minimum height 
is measured using an upper case X. Lower case characters are permitted. 
If the sign is mounted over the circulation route, 80 in (2030 mm) above the 
floor, complying with minimum headroom, the minimum character height 
shall be 3 in (75 mm). 

Finish and Contrast: The characters and background of signs shall be 
eggshell, matter, or other non-glare finish. Characters and symbols shall 
contrast with their background - either light characters on a dark background 
or dark characters on a light background. [10.3.1(5), 10.3.2.(2), 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 
4.30.3, 4.30.5] 



6-2-12 



EXERCISES 

1. If a rapid rail vehicle is retrofitted to comply with the one car per train rule, the 
following elements must be brought into compliance with the ADA standards: 

o Priority seating signs [38.55] 

o Placement of stanchions and seats to allow a 32 in (815 mm) wide route so 

that two wheelchairs can center and be positioned in areas each having a 

minimum clear space of 48 in (1220 mm) by 30 in (716 mm) [38.57(b)] 
o Floor surface shall be slip resistant [38.59] 

o Passenger doorways shall have a 32 in (815 mm) clear width [38.53(a)(1)] 

o The International Symbol of Accessibility shall be displayed on the exterior 

of the accessible car [38.53(b)] 
o Horizontal gap shall be no more that 4 in (100 mm) [38.53(d)] 

o Vertical difference between platform and car floor should be plus or minus 

2 in (50 mm) under 50 percent passenger load [38.53(d)] 

(a) True 

(b) False 

2. How wide should the doorways connecting new vehicles be? 

(a) 32 in (815 mm) 

(b) 30 in (716 mm) 

(c) 24 in (610 mm) 

(d) 36 in (915 mm) 

3. How large should the characters be on the priority seating sign in the rail car? 

(a) 1/4 in (6 mm) high 

(b) 1/2 in (13 mm) high 

(c) 5/8 in (16 mm) high 

(d) 1 in (25 mm) high 

4. Is an external speaker and public address system required on rapid rail cars that 
operate through stations having more than one line or route? 

(a) Yes 

(b) No 



6-2-13 



5. Where should the station name signs be placed on the walls of the stations when the 
train is next to the walls? 

(a) The top of the highest letter on the sign should be below the top of the 
vehicle windows and the bottom of the lowest letter should be above the 
horizontal center line of the vehicle window. 

(b) The horizontal center line of the sign should be at the center of th© vehicle 
window. 

(c) The bottom of the sign should be at the bottom of the vehicle window. 

(d) The sign should be higher than the top of the train. 



6-2-14 



UNIT 6-3 
VEHICLE ENROUTE ACCESSIBILITY 
LIGHT RAIL VEHICLES 
SCOPE 

The Department of Transportation rules implementing the vehicle accessibility 
requirements of ADA can be found at two levels of detail. The first area which addresses 
the more general requirements is 49 CFR Part 37, Subpart D - Acquisition of Accessible 
Vehicles by Public Entities and Subpart E - Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Private 
Entities. The second more specific design criteria is contained in 49 CFR Part 38, ADA 
Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles, Subpart D - Light Rail Vehicles 
and Systems. 

Slide 1 

This unit addresses all of the barriers that could be encountered by individuals with 
disabilities including individuals who use wheelchairs or mobility aids once they are on 
board the light rail vehicle. Barriers are encountered as an individual moves from the entry 
vestibule to the seating area, finds the priority seating and gets settled, moves between 
vehicles, collects information during the trip, and locates the desired destination. 

This unit does not address the barriers encountered by individuals in wheelchairs or 
mobility aids as they board a light rail vehicle and get settled. That portion of the trip for 
individuals who use wheelchairs and mobility aids is addressed in Unit 5-4. 



6-3-1 



DEFINITIONS 

Light Rail: A streetcar- type vehicle operated on city streets, semi-exclusive rights of way, 
or exclusive rights of way. Service may be provided by step-entry vehicles or by level 
boarding. 

New Light Rail Vehicle: A light rail vehicle which is offered for sale or lease after 
manufacture without any prior use. 

Used Light Rail Vehicle: A light rail vehicle with prior use. 

Remanufactured Light Rail Vehicle: A light rail vehicle which has been structurally 
restored and has had new or rebuilt major components installed to extend its service life 
by 5 years. 

Retrofitted Vehicle: A vehicle that has been modified to the extend necessary to comply 
with the specific accessibility standards required by the One-Car-Per-Train Rule. 



6-3-2 



APPLICABLE STANDARDS 



49 CFR Part 37 
Subpart D 

49 CFR 37.79 



49 CFR 37.81 
49 CFR 37.83 

49 CFR 37.93 

49 CFR Part 38 
Subpart D 

49 CFR 38.73 

49 CFR 38.75 

49 CFR 38.77 

49 CFR 38.79 

49 CFR 38.81 

49 CFR 38.83 

49 CFR 38.85 

49 CFR 38.87 

10.3.1(5) 



10.3.2(2) 



Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Public Entities 

Purchase and Lease of New Rail Vehicles by Public 
Entities Operating Rapid or Light Rail Systems 

Purchase and Lease of Used Rail Vehicles by Public 
Entities Operating Rapid or Light Rail Systems 

Purchase and Lease of Remanufactured Rail Vehicles 
by Public Entities Operating Rapid or Light Rail 
Systems 

One Car Per Train Rule 

Light Rail Vehicles and Systems 

General 

Doorways 

Priority Seating Signs 

Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

Lighting 

Mobility Aid Accessibility 

Between Car Barriers 

Public Information Systems 

ADAAG Fixed Facilities and Stations, New 
Construction 

ADAAG Fixed Facilities and Stations, Existing 
Facilities, Key Stations 



6-3-3 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

The problems or barriers individuals with disabilities encounter once on board a light rail 
vehicle will be addressed at two levels of detail. The first level, General Requirements, 
addresses which light rail cars must be made accessible. To be considered accessible, new, 
used, and remanufactured light rail vehicles must comply with specific design requirements. 
The Specific Design Requirements, the second level of detail, address the design 
specifications for each element that is required for a light rail vehicle to be considered 
accessible. 

Checklist of Problems - General Requirements 

n Accessibility of New Light Rail Vehicles 

□ Accessibility of Used Light Rail Vehicles — 

n Accessibility of Remanufactured Light Rail Vehicles 

n One Car Per Train Rule 



n Accessibility of New Light Rail Vehicles 

Problem: A public transit authority is preparing a specification to purchase new 
light rail vehicles. The solicitation is scheduled to be advertised publicly two months 
from now. Do the ADA Vehicle Specifications apply to this specification? 

Solution: Yes, each public entity operating a light rail system making a solicitation 
after October 6, 1991 to purchase or lease a new light rail vehicle for use on the 
system shall ensure that the vehicle is readily accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities including individuals who use wheelchairs and complies with Part 
38. [37.79] 



G Accessibility of Used Light Rail Vehicles 

Problem: A public transit authority is negotiating with another transit authority to 
purchase some used light rail vehicles. Negotiations started two weeks ago and 
should be concluded by the end of next month. Will the purchasing authority have 
to make the used vehicles comply with the ADA Vehicle Standards? 

Solution: Each public entity operating a light rail system that purchases or leases 
a used light rail vehicle after October 6, 1991 for use on its system shall ensure that 
the vehicle is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities 
including individuals who use wheelchairs and complies with Part 38. 

A public entity may purchase and lease a used light rail vehicle that is not readily 
accessible if after making demonstrated good faith efforts to obtain an accessible 
vehicle it is unable to do so. 



6-3-4 



Note: The one-car-per-train rule requires each public entity providing light rail 
service to ensure that each train consisting of two or more vehicles includes at least 
one car that is accessible as soon as practicable, but in no case later than July 25, 
1995. Thus, care should be taken when planning for future fleet requirements. 
[37.93(c), 38.71(d)] 

Problem: What are the good faith efforts that must be made when trying to 
purchase a readily accessible used light rail vehicle? How does the public entity 
document the good faith efforts? 

Solution; Good faith efforts shall include at least the following steps: 

(1) The initial solicitation for the used vehicles published by the public entity 
must specify that all used vehicles were to be accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, or, if a solicitation is not used, a documented 
communication so stating; 

(2) A nationwide search for accessible vehicles, involving specific inquiries 
to manufacturers and other transit providers; and 

(3) Advertising in trade publications and contacting trade associations. 

Each public entity purchasing or leasing used light rail vehicles that are not readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities shall retain documentation 
of the specific good faith efforts it made for three years from the date the vehicles 
were purchased. These records shall be made available, on request, to the FTA 
Administrator and the public. 



Accessibility of Remanufactured Light Rail Vehicles 

Problem; A transit authority plans to remanufacture some of its light rail vehicles 
and purchase some remanufactured vehicles. Do the light rail vehicles have to meet 
the vehicle accessibility specifications? 

Solution; Yes, if a light rail vehicle is remanufactured so as to extend its useful life 
for five years or more, it shall, to the maximum extent feasible be readily accessible 
to and usable to individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use 
wheelchairs. 

It shall be considered feasible to remanufacture a light rail vehicle so as to be 
readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, including individuals 
who use wheelchairs, unless an engineering analysis demonstrates that doing so 
would have a significant adverse effect on the structural integrity of the vehicle. 



6-3-5 



Problem: One of the light rail lines on a particular system is included on the 
National Register of Historic Places. The vehicles operated on the lines are 
considered historic. The vehicles are scheduled to be remanufactured so that the 
service life can be extended for another seven years. Do these "historic vehicles" 
have to be made accessible? 

Solution: If a public entity operates a light rail system any segment of whidi is 
Slide included on the National Register of Historic Places and if making a light rail 
2 vehicle of historic character used solely on such segment readily accessible to and 

usable by individuals with disabilities would significantly alter the historic character 
of such vehicles, the public entity need only make (or purchase or lease a 
remanufactured vehicle with) those modifications that do not alter the historic 
character of such vehicles. 

A public entity operating a fixed route system as described above may apply in 
writing to the FTA Administrator for a determination of the historic character of 
the vehicle. The FTA Administrator shall refer such requests to the National 
Register of Historic Places and shall rely on its advice in making a determination of 
the historic character of the vehicle. 



D One-Car-Per-Train Rule 

Problem: What is the One-Car-Per-Train Rule and what are the dates for 
implementation? 

Solution: Each public entity providing light rail service shall ensure that each train, 
consisting of two or more vehicles, includes at least one car that is readily accessible 
as soon as practicable but in no case later than July 25, 1995. 

Existing vehicles which are retrofitted to comply with the "one-car-per-train rule" 
shall have priority seating signs [38.75], adequate handrails and stanchions and at 
least two areas for wheelchair or mobility aid users [38.77(c)], slip resistant floors 
[38.79(a)], and a level change mechanism or boarding device with sufficient clear 
width leading to at least two areas for wheelchair or mobility aid users [38.83(a)] 
At new and key stations, at least one door with proper signage [38.73(b)], 32 in (810 
mm) wide [38.73(a)] and a horizontal gap no bigger than 4 in (100 mm) and vertical 
displacement no more than 2 in (50 mm). [38.73(d)] Vehicles previously designed 
and manufactured in accordance with the accessibility requirements of 49 CFR 609 
or the Secretary of Transportation regulations implementing section 504 of the 
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that were in effect before October 7, 1991, and which can 
be entered and used from stations in which they are to be operated, may be used 
to satisfy the requirements of § 37.93 of 49 CFR Part 37, the one-car-per-train rule 

Note: If there are vehicles in your fleet which were deemed accessible under 
previous (504) rules, and they can be entered and used in the stations in which you 
now plan to operate them, they can be used to satisfy the one-car-per-train rule. 

6-3-6 



Problem: An agency is planning a new light rail system which will operate 
solely within exclusive right-of-way. Can mini-high platforms be used? 

Solution: No. Systems which operate in exclusive rights-of-way, not on streets or 
pedestrian malls, shall be designed for level boarding. 



Problem: A system operates two-car light rail trains with all vehicles purchased after 
October 6, 1991, and access is from a mini-high platform at one door of the first car. 
Each vehicle can accommodate two wheelchairs or mobility aid users, but three are 
waiting at one stop. Can the operator board two and tell the third to wait for the 
next train? 

Solution: No. If all three can fit on the first car, the operator should board all 
three. If not, the train must be moved to allow the third person to board the second 
car. 

Note: This illustrates a problem with mini-high platforms and wayside lifts. Be sure 
when purchasing new cars that each can accommodate the number of wheelchair or 
mobility aid users that could be expected. This will save having to move the train 
except in rare cases. 



6-3-7 



Problems and solutions related to specific design requirements address those barriers that 
disabled persons and persons in wheelchairs encounter from the time when they have 
boarded the vehicle and the doors have closed until they reach their intended station stop. 
These barriers are encountered as they move within the vehicle to get settled for the trip, 
as they move between vehicles and as they approach the various stops along their route. 
If portions of the vehicle are modified in such a way that it affects or could affect 
accessibility, each such portion shall comply, to the extent practicable, with the«specific 
design requirements. 

Checklist of Problems - Specific Design Requirements 

n Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

□ Floors 

n Thresholds - 

□ Priority Seating 

n Doorways Connecting Vehicles 
n Public Information Systems 
n Platform Signage 



n Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

Problem: Once on the vehicle, it is difficult to move about within the vehicle when 
it is moving, accelerating or decelerating. 

Slide Solution: Handrails and stanchions shall be provided to assist safe boarding, on 
3 board circulation, seating and standing assistance and alighting by persons with 

disabilities. [38.77] 



Problem: Once on board the light rail vehicle, many times it will start to move 
before the person with a disability pays the fare. The sudden start of the vehicle 
makes it very difficult for some people to hold their balance. If the vehicle has to 
slow down, there is a possibility the person could be thrown forward into the front 
window of the vehicle. 

Solution: On light rail vehicles where on-board fare collection devices are used, a 
horizontal passenger assist shall be located between boarding passengers and the 
fare collection device and shall prevent passengers from sustaining injuries on the 
fare collection device or windshield in the event of a sudden deceleration. Without 
restricting the vestibule space, the assist shall provide support for a boarding 
passenger from the door through the boarding procedure. Passengers shall be able 
to lean against the assist for security while paying fares. [38.77] 



6-3-8 



Problem: Some of the handrails are difficult to grasp. Some are square with shaqj 
edges which seem to be dangerous if a person was to fall on them. 

Solution; Handrails shall have a cross-sectional diameter between 1-1/4 in (32 mm) 
Slide and 1-1/2 in (38 mm) or shall provide an equivalent grasping surface and have eased 
4 edges with corner radii of not less than 1/8 in (3 mm). Handrails shall be placed to 

provide a minimum 1-1/2 in (38 mm) knuckle clearance from the nearest adjacent 

surface. [38.77] 



D Floors 

Problem; Some floors become quite slippery when they are wet. Others are so 
smooth that even when they are dry, they are slippery. Are there standards which 
must be followed on rail vehicles which prescribe what type of material should be 
used on the floors? 

Solution; Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees, and areas where wheelchairs 
Slide and mobility aid users are to be accommodated are to be slip resistant on all light 
5 rail vehicles. [38.79(a)] 



Problem; In developing a specification for a new bus procurement, what standard 
should be used to ensure that the floor area and steps are provided with the 
mandated "slip resistant" surface? 

Solution; There is no specific requirement, but an appendix note recommends the 
coefficient of friction as the appropriate descriptor to measure slip resistance. The 
coefficient of friction is the ratio between the force necessary to move one surface 
over another surface and the pressure between the two surfaces. For example, the 
coefficient of friction for cast iron on oak is 38:100 or 0.38. A research project 
conducted with persons with disabilities concluded that a static coefficient of friction 
of 0.6 was appropriate for steps, floors and lift platforms and a coefficient of friction 
of 0.8 was desirable for ramps. 



6-3-9 



Problem: The design of the new rail vehicles calls for carpet on the floor. People 
who use wheelchairs and mobility aids could have a problem with a carpeted floor 
especially if the pile of the carpet is very thick. Are there standards that prohibit 
carpet? 

Solution: The ADA Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles does 
Slide not address carpeted floors. A guideline that could be used is Section 4.5,3 of the 
6 ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities which states: If a carpet 

or carpet tile is used on a ground or floor surface, then it shall be securely attached; 
have a firm cushion, pad, or backing or no cushion or pad; and have a level loop, 
textured loop, level cut pile, or level cut/uncut pile texture. The maximum pile 
thickness shall be 1/2 in (13 mm). Exposed edges of carpet shall be fastened to 
floor surfaces and have trim along the entire length of the exposed edge. Carpet 
edge trim up to 1/4 in (6 mm) high can be vertical. If the edge trim is between 1/4 
in (6 mm) and 1/2 in (13 mm) a bevel with a slope no greater than 1:2 shall be used. 



D Thresholds 

Problem: It is difficult for people with vision impairments to see as they approach 
a threshold when moving about within or between light rail vehicles. Even though 
the threshold is beveled with a slope no greater than 1:2 as required by the ADAAG 
for Buildings and Facilities, it can still cause a tripping hazard for people with poor 
vision as they walk on the moving train. 

Slide Solution: All thresholds and step edges on light rail vehicles shall have a band of 
7 color(s) running the full width of the threshold which contrasts with the adjacent 

floor, either light on-dark or dark-on-light. [38.79] 

While not required, an appendix note recommends that the material used should 
contrast by at least 70%. Percent contrast is determined by the following equation: 

B - B 

Contrast = — x 100 

Bj 

where Bj is the Light Reflectance Value of the lighter area and B2 is the Light 
Reflectance Value of the darker area. Note that in any application both white and 
black are never absolute: thus Bj never equals 100 and Bj is always greater than 
zero. [Appendix Part 38] 



6-3-10 



Priority Seating 

Problem: Once on the light rail vehicle, it is difficult to tell where the priority 
seating is located. The priority seating signs are often missing and on some vehicles 
they have never been installed. 

Solution: Each light rail vehicle shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain 
seats are priority seats for persons with disabilities and that other passengers should 
make such seats available to those who wish to use them. [38.75] 



Problem: Many of the priority seating signs are so small that people with vision 
impairments cannot read them. Also, on some vehicles, the priority seating sign 
background is the same color as the wall it is mounted on which makes it difficult 
to see. 

Solution; Characters on signs shall have a width-to-height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 

Slide and a stroke width-to-height ratio between 1:5 and 1:10, with a minimum character 

8 height (using an upper case "X") of 5/8 in (16 mm) with "wide" spacing (generally, 

the space between letters shall be 1/16 the height of upper case letters), and shall 

contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. [38.75] 

Raised or Braille characters or pictorial symbol signs, are not required, but could be 
used to make it easier for persons with low vision or persons who are blind to tell 
where the priority seating is located. If a pictorial symbol is used, the international 
symbol of accessibility should be used. The border dimension of the pictorial shall 
be 6 in (152 mm) minimum in height. If raised letters are used they shall be raised 
1/32 in (0.8 mm), upper case, sans serif or simple serif type and shall be 
accompanied with Grade 2 Braille. The raised characters shall be at least 5/8 in (16 
mm) high but no higher than 2 in (50 mm). 



n Doorways Connecting Vehicles 

Problem: If there is an emergency situation in one of the vehicles of a multi-car 
train, even though the aisle widths are wide enough for a wheelchair or a mobility 
aid to negotiate, once the person in the wheelchair reaches the door at the end of 
the car it is too narrow to allow passage. 

Solution: If doorways connecting adjoining cars in a multi-car train are provided, 
and if such doorway is connected by an aisle with a minimum clear width of 30 in 
(765 mm) to one or more spaces where wheelchair or mobility aid users can be 
accommodated, then such doorway on new vehicles shall have a minimum clear 
opening of 30 in (765 mm) to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to be 
evacuated to an adjoining vehicle in an emergency. [38.73] 



6-3-11 



n Public Information Systems 

Problem: When on the light rail vehicle it is difficult for persons with disabilities 
to tell when they should start getting ready to exit the train. Also, even though 
many of the vehicles have internal speakers, these speakers cannot be heard by 
persons with hearing impairments. 

Solution: Each vehicle shall be equipped with an interior public address system 
Slide permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized human speech 
9 messages, to announce stations and provide other passenger information. 

Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are also permitted. 

[38.87] 



6-3-12 



□ Platform Signage 

Problem; When the train pulls into a station, it is difficult to see what station it is 
in because the station identification signs are too high. The only way to see them 
is to squat down and look up and out of the windows. Some stations don't have 
enough station identification signs so only every other car can see them. 

Solution; New stations built after January 25, 1992, and key stations on light rail 
systems shall have identification signs complying with requirements for character 
proportion and height, finish and contrast of ADAAG for Buildings and Facilities. 
Signs shall be placed at frequent intervals and shall be clearly visible from within the 
vehicle on both sides when not obstructed by another train. When station 
identification signs are placed close to vehicle windows (i.e., on the side opposite 
from boarding), each shall have the top of the highest letter or symbol below the top 
of the vehicle window and the bottom of the lowest letter or symbol above the 
horizontal mid-line of the vehicle window. [10.3.1(5), 10.3.2(2)] 

Station identification signs shall be designed to comply with the following signage 
standards. 

Character Proportion: Letters and numbers on signs shall have a width-to- 
height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke width-to-height ratio between 
1:5 and 1:10. 

Character Height: Characters are numbers on signs shall be sized according 
to the viewing distance from which they are to be read. The minimum height 
is measured using an upper case X. Lower case characters are permitted. 
If the sign is suspended above the finished floor, 80 in (2030 mm), complying 
with minimum headroom, the minimum character height shall be 3 in (75 
mm). 

Finish and Contrast: The characters and background of signs shall be 
eggshell, matte, or other non-glare finish. Characters and symbols shall 
contrast with their background - either light characters on a dark background 
or dark characters on a light background. [10.3.1(5), 10.3.2.(2), 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 
4.30.3, 4.30.5] 



6-3-13 



EXERCISES 

1. Provide a listing of the elements that must be addressed in the retrofit of a light rail 
vehicle for compliance with the One-Car-Per-Train Rule. 

2. On a light rail vehicle with onboard fare collection, what are the requirements for 
handrails around the fare collection area? 

(a) A horizontal handrail should be placed around the fare box. 

(b) A vertical stanchion should be placed on each comer of the fare box. 

(c) A horizontal handrail should be located across the front of the vehicle 
between boarding passengers and the fare box. 

3. What should the maximum diameter of the handrails be on a light rail vehicle? 

(a) 1 in (25 mm) 

(b) 1-1/2 in (38 mm) 

(c) 2 in (50 mm) 

(d) 5/8 in (16 mm) 

4. What is the maximum height of the characters on the priority seating sign that is 
installed in the Ught rail vehicle? 

(a) 1/2 in (12 mm) 

(b) 5/8 in (16 mm) 

(c) 1 in (25 mm) 

(d) 1-1/2 in (38 mm) 



6-3-14 



How wide should the doors between the light rail vehicles be so that a wheelchair 
can pass from one car to another? 

(a) 27 in (685 mm) 

(b) 32 in (815 mm) 

(c) 36 in (915 mm) 

(d) 30 in (765 mm) 

Where should the station name signs be placed on the walls of the stations when the 
train is next to the walls? 

(a) The top of the highest letter on the sign should be below the top of the 
vehicle window and the bottom of the lowest letter should be above the 
horizontal center line of the vehicle window. 

(b) The horizontal center line of the sign should be at the center of the vehicle 
window. 

(c) The bottom of the sign should be at the bottom of the vehicle window. 

(d) The sign should be higher than the top of the train. 



6-3-15 



UNIT 6-4 

VEHICLE ENROUTE ACCESSIBILITY 

COMMUTER RAIL CARS 



SCOPE 



The Department of Transportation rules implementing the vehicle accessibility 
requirements of ADA can be found at two levels of detail. The first area which addresses 
the more general requirements is 49 CFR Part 37, Subpart D - Acquisition of Accessible 
Vehicles by Public Entities and Subpart E - Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Private 
Entities. The second more specific design criteria is contained in 49 CFR Part 38, ADA 
Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles, Subpart E - Commuter Rail Cars 
and Systems. 

Slide 1 

This unit addresses all of the barriers that could be encountered by individuals with 
disabilities including individuals who use wheelchairs and mobility aids once they are on 
board the commuter rail car. Barriers are encountered as the individual moves from the 
entrance vestibule to the seating area, finds the priority seating area and gets settled, moves 
between cars, utilizes the restrooms when restrooms are provided, gathers information 
during the trip and locates the desired destination. 

This unit does not address the barriers encountered by individuals in wheelchairs or 
mobility aids as they board a commuter rail car and get settled. That portion of the trip 
for individuals who use wheelchairs and mobility aids is addressed in Unit 5-4. 



6-4-1 



DEFINITIONS 

Commuter Rail: Short haul passenger service operating in metropolitan and suburban 
areas, whether within or across the geographical boundaries of a state, usually characterized 
by reduced fare, multiple ride, and commutation tickets and by morning and evening peak 
period operations. 

New Commuter Rail Vehicle: A commuter rail vehicle which is offered for sale or lease 
after manufacture without any prior use. 

Used Commuter Rail Vehicle: A commuter rail vehicle with prior use. 

Remanufactured Commuter Rail Vehicle: A commuter rail vehicle which has been 
structurally restored and has had new or rebuilt major components installed to extend its 
service life by 15 years. 

Retrofitted Vehicle: A vehicle that has been modified to the extent necessary to comply 
with the specific accessibility standards required by the One-Car-Per-Train Rule. 



6-4-2 



APPLICABLE STANDARDS 



49 CFR Part 37 
Subpart E 

49 CFR 37.85 



49 CFR 37.87 
49 CFR 37.89 

49 CFR 37.93 

49 CFR Part 38 
Subpart E 

49 CFR 38.91 

49 CFR 38.93 

49 CFR 38.95 

49 CFR 38.97 

49 CFR 38.99 

49 CFR 38.101 

49 CFR 38.103 

49 CFR 38.105 

49 CFR 38.107 

49 CFR 38.109 

10.3.1(5) 



10.3.2(2) 



Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Public Entities 



Purchase and Lease of New Intercity and Commuter 
Rail Cars 

Purchase and Lease of Used Intercity and Commuter 
Rail Cars 

Purchase and Lease of Remanufactured Intercity and 
Commuter Rail Cars 

One-Car-Per-Train Rule 

Commuter Rail Cars and Systems 



General 

Doorways 

Mobility Aid Accessibility 

Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

Floors, Steps and Thresholds 

Lighting 

Public Information Systems 

Priority Seating Signs 

Restrooms 

Between Car Barriers 

ADAAG Fixed Facilities and Stations, New 
Construction 

ADAAG Fked Facilities and Stations, Existing Facilities 
and Key Stations 



6-4-3 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

The problems or barriers individuals with disabilities encounter once on board a commuter 
rail car will be addressed at two levels of detail. The General Requirements address which 
rail cars must be made accessible. To be considered accessible, new, used and 
remanufactured commuter rail cars must comply with specific design requirements. The 
Specific Design Requirements address the design specifications for each element that is 
required for a commuter rail car to be considered accessible. 

Checklist of Problems - General Requirements 

n Accessibility of New and Used Commuter Rail Cars 

□ Accessibility of Remanufactured Commuter Rail Cars 

D One-Car-Per-Train Rule - 



n Accessibility of New and Used Commuter Rail Cars 

Problem: Do new commuter rail cars have to be accessible? 

Solution: A commuter authority making a solicitation after October 6, 1991, to 
purchase or lease a new commuter rail car for use on the system shall ensure that 
the vehicle is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use wheelchairs and complies with Part 38. 



Problem: If a public entity purchases used commuter rail cars, do they have to be 
accessible? 

Solution: A commuter authority purchasing or leasing a used commuter rail car 
after August 25, 1990, shall ensure that the car is readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs and complies 
with Part 38. 

A commuter authority may purchase or lease a used commuter rail car that is not 
readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities if, after making 
demonstrated good faith efforts to obtain an accessible vehicle, it is unable to do so. 

Note: If there is a choice between cars, the car which comes closest to complying 
should be chosen. 



6-44 



Problem; What constitutes "demonstrated good faith efforts" to obtain an accessible 
vehicle? 

Solution: Good faith efforts shall include at least the following steps: 

(1) An initial solicitation for the used vehicles published by the commuter 
authority must specify that all used vehicles were to be accessible to and 
usable by individuals with disabilities; 

(2) A nationwide search for accessible vehicles, involving specific inquiries 
to used vehicle dealers and other transit providers; and 

(3) Advertising in trade publications and contacting trade associations. 

Commuter authorities purchasing or leasing used commuter rail cars that are not 
readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities shall retain 
documentation of the specific good faith efforts it made for three years from the 
date the vehicles were purchased or leased. These records shall be made available, 
on request, to the Federal Railroad Administration or FTA Administrator, as 
applicable. These records shall be made available to the public, on request. 



G Accessibility of Remanufactured Commuter Rail Cars 

Problem: If a commuter rail car is scheduled to be remanufactured, does the scope 
of the remanufacturing project have to address all of the accessibility specifications? 

Solution: If a commuter rail authority remanufactures or purchases or leases a 
remanufactured car which has its life extended by ten years or more, the commuter 
rail cars shall, to the maximum extent feasible, be readily accessible to and usable 
by individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs. 

It shall be considered feasible to remanufacture a commuter rail car so as to be 
readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, including individuals 
who use wheelchairs, unless an engineering analysis demonstrates that 
remanufacturing the car to be accessible would have a significant adverse effect on 
the structural integrity of the car. 



6-4-5 



n One-Car-Per-Train Rule 

Problem: What is the One-Car-Per-Train Rule and what are the dates for 
implementation? 

Solution: Each commuter rail authority shall ensure that each train has one car that 
is readily accessible as soon as practicable but in no case later than July 26, 1995. 

Existing vehicles retrofitted to comply with the "one-car-per-train" rule shall have a 
level change mechanism or boarding device with sufficient clearance to permit a 
wheelchair or mobility aid user to reach a seating location and at least two 
wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations [38.95(a)], proper signage on the 
exterior of the appropriate doors [38.93(e)], an accessible restroom if restrooms are 
provided for the general public [38.107], and a horizontal gap no bigger than 4 in 
(100 mm) and vertical displacement no more than 2 in (50 mm) at new and key 
stations. [38.9(d)] Vehicles previously designed and manufactured in accordance 
with the program accessibility requirements of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act 
of 1973, or implementing regulations of the Secretary of Transportation that were 
in effect before October 7, 1991; and which can be entered and used from stations 
in which they are to be operated, may be used to satisfy the requirements of § 37.93 
of 49 CFR Part 37. 

Note: If there are cars in your fleet which were deemed accessible under previous 
(504) rules, and they can be entered and used in the stations in which you now plan 
to operate them, they can be used to satisfy the one-car-per-train rule. 



6-4-6 



Problems and solutions related to specific design requirements address those barriers that 
disabled persons and persons in wheelchairs encounter fi^om the time when they have 
boarded the vehicle and the doors have closed until they reach their intended station stop. 
These barriers are encountered as they move within the vehicle to get settled for the trip, 
as they move between vehicles and as they approach the various stops along their route. 
If portions of the car are modified in such a way that it affects or could affect accessibility, 
each such portion shall comply, to the extent practicable, with specific design requirements. 
This does not require that inaccessible cars be retrofitted with lifts, ramps, or other 
boarding devices. 

Checklist of Problems - Specific Design Requirements 

□ Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

□ Passageways 

n Seating Location 

□ Floors 

D Thresholds 

n Priority Seating 

n Doorways Connecting Vehicles 

n Public Information Systems 

□ Platform Signage 
n Restrooms 



Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

Problem; On many commuter rail cars, the aisleways in the passenger compartment 
are narrow and there are no handrails or stanchions. Handrails and stanchions have 
been installed in some cars which made it more difficult for persons using 
wheelchairs and mobility aids to get to the seating area. 

Solution; When handrails or stanchions are provided on commuter rail cars within 
the passenger compartment, they shall be placed to permit sufficient turning and 
maneuvering space for wheelchairs and other mobility aids to reach a seating 
location from an accessible entrance. [38.97] 



Problem; Some of the handrails are difficult to grasp. Some are square with sharp 
edges which seem to be dangerous if a person were to fall on them. 

Solution; Handrails shall have a cross-sectional diameter between 1-1/4 in (32 mm) 
Slide and 1-1/2 in (38 mm) or shall provide an equivalent grasping surface and have eased 
2 edges with comer radii of not less than 1/8 in (3 mm). Handrails shall be placed to 

provide a minimum 1-1/2 in (38 mm) knuckle clearance from the nearest adjacent 

surface. [38.77] 



6-4-7 



Note: Handrails in doorways must comply with FRA regulations. There is a 
different requirement which must be consistent with 49 CFR Parts 229 and 231. 



□ Passageways 

Problem: The passageways between the entrance door of commuter rail cars and 
the accessible seating locations are sometimes too narrow for a wheelchair or 
mobility aid to use. 

Solution: A route at least 32 in (815 mm) wide shall be provided from the 
Slides accessible entrance door on the car to the accessible seating locations. [38.93(b)] 
3,4 

If passage is required through a vestibule, such vestibule in new cars shall have a 

minimum width of 42 in (1070 mm). [38.93(b)] 



G Seating Location 

Problem: Even when there is sufficient width to access the rail car, it is difficult to 
maneuver into an area when a person wants to remain in the wheelchair. 

Solution: Spaces for persons who wish to remain in their wheelchairs or mobility 
Slide aids shall have a minimum clear floor space 48 in (1220 mm) by 30 in (760 mm). 
5 Such spaces shall adjoin, and may overlap, an accessible path. Not more than 6 in 

(150 mm) of the required clear floor space may be accommodated for footrests 
under another seat provided there is a minimum of 9 in (230 mm) from the floor 
to the lowest part of the seat overhanging the space. Seating spaces may have fold- 
down or removable seats to accommodate other passengers when a wheelchair or 
mobility aid user is not occupying the area, provided the seats, when folded up, do 
not obstruct the clear floor space required. [38.95(d)] 



D Floors 

Problem: Some floors become quite slippery when they are wet. Others are so 
smooth that even when they are dry, they are slippery. Are there standards which 
must be followed on rail vehicles which prescribe what type of material should be 
used on the floors? 

Solution: Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees, and areas where wheelchairs 
Slide and mobility aid users are to be accommodated are to be slip resistant on all 
6 commuter rail cars. [38.99(a)] 



64-8 



Problem: In developing a specification for a new commuter rail car procurement, 
what standard should be used to ensure that the floor area and steps are provided 
with the mandated "slip resistant" surface? 

Solution: There is no specific requirement, but an appendix note recommends the 
coefficient of friction as the appropriate descriptor to measure slip resistance. The 
coefficient of friction is the ratio between the force necessary to move one surface 
over another surface and the pressure between the two surfaces. For example, the 
coefficient of friction for cast iron on oak is 38:100 or 0.38. A research project 
conducted with persons with disabilities concluded that a static coefficient of friction 
of 0.60 was appropriate for steps, floors and lift platforms and a coefficient of 
friction of 0.80 was desirable for ramps. 



Problem: The design of the new commuter rail cars calls for carpet on the floor. 
People who use wheelchairs and mobility aids could have a problem with a carpeted 
floor especially if the pile of the carpet is very thick. Are there standards that 
prohibit carpet? 

Solution; The ADA Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles do 
Slide not address carpeted floors. A guideline that could be used is Section 4.5.3 of the 
7 ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities which states: If a carpet 

or carpet tile is used on a ground or floor surface, then it shall be securely attached; 
have a firm cushion, pad, or backing or no cushion or pad; and have a level loop, 
textured loop, level cut pile, or level cut/uncut pile texture. The maximum pile 
thickness shall be 1/2 in (13 mm). Exposed edges of carpet shall be fastened to 
floor surfaces and have trim along the entire length of the exposed edge. Carpet 
edge trim up to 1/4 in (6 mm) high can be vertical. If the edge trim is between 1/4 
in (6 mm) and 1/2 in (13 mm) a bevel with a slope no greater than 1:2 shall be used. 



6-4-9 



n Thresholds 

Problem: It is difficult for people with vision impairments to see as they approach 
a threshold when moving about within or between commuter rail cars. Even though 
the threshold is beveled with a slope no greater than 1:2 as required by the ADAAG 
for Buildings and Facilities, it can still cause a tripping hazard for people with poor 
vision as they walk on the moving train. 

Slide Solution; All thresholds and step edges on commuter rail cars shall have a band of 
8 color(s) running the full width of the threshold which contrasts with the adjacent 

floor, either light on-dark or dark-on-light. [38.79] 

An appendix note recommends that the material used contrast by at least 70%. 
Percent contrast is determined by the following equation: 

B - B 
Contrast = — X 100 



where Bj is the Light Reflectance Value of the lighter area and Bj is the Light 
Reflectance Value of the darker area. Note that in any application both white and 
black are never absolute: thus Bj never equals 100 and B^ is always greater than 
zero. [Appendix Part 38] 



D Priority Seating 

Problem; Once on the commuter rail car, it is difficult to tell where the priority 
seating is located. The priority seating signs are often missing and on some cars 
they have never been installed. 

Solution; Each commuter rail car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain 
seats are priority seats for persons with disabilities and that other passengers should 
make such seats available to those who wish to use them. [38.105] 



6-4-10 



Problem; Many of the priority seating signs are so small that people with vision 
impairments cannot read them. Also, on some vehicles, the priority seating sign 
background is the same color as the wall it is mounted on which makes it difficult 
to see. 

Solution: Characters on signs shall have a width-to-height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 

Slide and a stroke width-to-height ratio between 1:5 and 1:10, with a minimum character 

9 height (using an upper case "X") of 5/8 in (16 mm) with "wide" spacing (generally, 

the space between letters shall be 1/16 the height of upper case letters), and shall 

contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. [38.105] 



Raised or Braille characters or pictorial symbol signs, are not required, but could be 
used to make it easier for persons with low vision or persons who are blind to tell 
where the priority seating is located. If a pictorial symbol is used, the international 
symbol of accessibility should be used. The border dimension of the pictorial shall 
be 6 in (152 mm) minimum in height. If raised letters are used they shall be raised 
1/32 in (0.8 mm), upper case, sans serif or simple serif type and shall be 
accompanied with Grade 2 Braille. The raised characters shall be at least 5/8 in (16 
mm) high but no higher than 2 in (50 mm). 



n Doorways Connecting Vehicles 

Problem; If there is an emergency situation in one of the cars of a multi-car train, 
even though the aisle widths are wide enough for a wheelchair or a mobility aid to 
negotiate, once the person in the wheelchair reaches the door at the end of the car 
it is too narrow to allow passage. 

Solution; If doorways connecting adjoining cars in a multi-car train are provided, 
Slide and if such doorway is connected by an aisle with a minimum clear width of 30 in 
10 (765 mm) to one or more spaces where wheelchair or mobility aid users can be 
accommodated, then such doorway shall have, to the maximum extent practicable 
in accordance with the regulations issued under the Federal Railroad Safety Act of 
1970 (49 CFR Parts 229 and 231), a clear opening of 30 in (765 mm). [38.73] 



6-4-11 



G Public Information Systems 

Problem: When on the commuter rail car it is difficult for persons with disabilities 
to tell when they should start getting ready to exit the train. Also, even though 
many of the cars have internal speakers, these speakers cannot be heard by persons 
with hearing impairments. 

Solution; Each car shall be equipped with an interior public address system 
Slide permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized human speech 
11 messages, to announce stations and provide other passenger information. 

Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are also permitted. 

[38.103] 



6-4-12 



□ Platform Signage 

Problem: When the train pulls into a station, it is difficult to see what station it is 
in because the station identification signs are too high. The only way to see them 
is to squat down and look up and out of the windows. Some stations don't have 
enough station identification signs so only every other car can see them. 

Solution; New stations built after October 7, 1991, and key stations on commuter 
rail systems shall have identification signs complying with requirements for character 
proportion, height, finish, and contrast of ADAAG for Buildings and Facilities. 
Signs shall be placed at frequent intervals and shall be clearly visible from within the 
car on both sides when not obstructed by another train. When station identification 
signs are placed close to vehicle windows (i.e., on the side opposite from boarding), 
each shall have the top of the highest letter or symbol below the top of the car 
window and the bottom of the lowest letter or symbol above the horizontal mid-line 
of the vehicle window. [10.3.1(5), 10.3.2(2)] 

Station identification signs shall be designed to comply with the following signage 
standards. 

Character Proportion: Letters and numbers on signs shall have a width-to- 
height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke width-to-height ratio between 
1:5 and 1:10. 

Character Height: Characters are numbers on signs shall be sized according 
to the viewing distance from which they are to be read. The minimum height 
is measured using an upper case X. Lower case characters are permitted. 
If the sign is suspended above the finished floor, at least 80 in (2030 mm), 
complying with minimum headroom, the minimum character height shall be 
3 in (75 mm). 

Finish and Contrast: The characters and background of signs shall be 
eggshell, matte, or other non-glare finish. Characters and symbols shall 
contrast with their background - either light characters on a dark background 
or dark characters on a light background. [10.3.1(5), 10.3.2.(2), 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 
4.30.3, 4.30.5] 



6-4-13 



n Restrooms 

Problem; On the commuter rail car the path of travel to the restroom is restricted 
Slide and the restroom layout is such that it is very difficult to use for persons in 
12 wheelchairs. Are restrooms required on commuter rail cars and if required, should 

they be made accessible to persons in wheelchairs and mobility aids? 

Solution: If a restroom is provided for the general public, it shall be designed so as 
to allow a person using a wheelchair or mobility aid to enter and use such a 
restroom. Restrooms required to be accessible shall be in close proximity to at least 
one seating location for persons using mobility aids and shall be connected to such 
a space by an unobstructed path having a minimum width of 32 in (815 mm). 
[38.107(a)(b)] 



Problem: The maneuvering space outside of the restroom on a commuter rail car 
is generally quite restricted. Because of this, coupled with the layout inside of the 
restroom, sometimes a normal 32 in (815 mm) wide doorway is not wide enough to 
permit a wheelchair to maneuver through the door. 

Solution: Doorways on the end of the enclosure, opposite the water closet, shall 
have a minimum clear opening width of 32 in (815 mm). Doorways on the side wall 
shall have a minimum clear opening width of 39 in (990 mm). Door latches and 
hardware shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, 
pinching, or twisting of the wrist. [38.107(a)(5)] 



Problem: The floor space inside most rail car restrooms is extremely restricted and 
there is not enough room to maneuver around to position the wheelchair. What is 
the minimum required clear floor area for an accessible restroom in a commuter rail 
car? Can any of the fixtures that hang from the wall share this space? Can fold- 
away fixtures be used that overlap the clear floor space? 

Solution: The minimum clear floor area shall be 35 in (890 mm) by 60 in (1525 
mm). Permanently installed fixtures may overlap this area a maximum of 8 in (200 
mm), if the lowest portion of the fixture is a minimum of 9 in (230 mm) above the 
floor, and may overlap a maximum of 19 in (485 mm), if the lowest portion of the 
fixture is a minimum of 29 in (735 mm) above the floor, provided such fixtures do 
not interfere with access to the water closet. Fold-down or retractable seats or 
shelves may overlap the clear floor space at a lower height provided they can be 
easily folded up or moved out of the way. [38.107(a)(1)] 

Note: These are minimum requirements and are quite difficult for many people to 
use. Larger restrooms should be provided where possible. 



6-4-14 



Problem: The height of an acx;essible water closet specified in ADAAG for 
Buildings and Facilities is 17 to 19 in (430 to 485 mm). Is this height the same for 
accessible built-in water closets like the type used in rail cars? 

Solution: The height of the water closet shall be 17 in (430 mm) to 19 in (485 mm) 
measured to the top of the toilet seat. Seats shall not be spring loaded to return to 
a lifted position. [38.107(a)(2)] 



Problem: In ADAAG for Buildings and Facilities, specific grab bars are required 
around the water closet area. Since water closets on rail cars are usually built in 
and the space is quite restricted, are grab bars required? If so, where should they 
be located and how long should they be? 

Solution: A grab bar at least 24 in (610 mm)) long shall be mounted behind the 
water closet, and a horizontal grab bar at least 40 in (1015 mm) shall be mounted 
on at least one side wall, with one end not more than 12 in (305 mm) from the back 
wall, at a height between 33 in (840 mm) and 36 in (915 mm) above the floor. 
[38.107(a)(3)] 



Problem: Many times the faucets and flush controls are hard to reach and even if 
you can reach them, they are very difficult to operate. 

Solution: Faucets and flush controls shall be operable with one hand and shall not 
require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist. The force required to 
activate controls shall be no greater than 5 Ibf (22.2N). Controls for flush valves 
shall be mounted no more than 44 in (1115 mm) above the floor. [38.107(a)(4)] 



6-4-15 



EXERCISES 

1. Provide a listing of the elements that must be addressed in the retrofit of a 
commuter rail car for compliance with the One-Car-Per-Train Rule. 

2. If handrails are provided on a commuter rail car, where should they be placed so 
that they comply with the ADA requirements? 

(a) Handrails shall be placed above each side of the aisleway. 

(b) Handrails shall be placed to permit sufficient turning and maneuvering space 
for wheelchairs and other mobility aids to reach a seating location from an 
accessible entrance. 

(c) Handrails shall be placed along the center of the aisle over each seat. 

3. How wide should the passageway be from the accessible doors to the accessible 
seating locations on a commuter rail car? 



(a) 


27 in (685 mm) 


(b) 


30 in (765 mm) 


(c) 


32 in (815 mm) 


(d) 


36 in (915 mm) 



How much space should be provided for individuals who use wheelchairs in the 
seating area of a commuter rail car? 

(a) 30 in (765 mm) by 48 in (1220 mm) 

(b) 32 in (815 mm) by 48 in (1220 mm) 

(c) 36 in (915 mm) by 36 in (915 mm) 

(d) 48 in (1220 mm) by 60 in (1525 mm) 



6-4-16 



5. How large should the characters on the priority seating sign be on a commuter rail 
car? 

(a) 5/8 in (16 mm) 

(b) 1/2 in (12 mm) 

(c) 1 in (25 mm) 

(d) 1-1/2 in (38 mm) 

6. How wide should the doorway be which connects adjoining cars, when the cars are 
new? 



(a) 


27 in (685 mm) 


(b) 


30 in (765 mm) 


(c) 


32 in (815 mm) 


(d) 


36 in (915 mm) 



7. Where should the station name signs be placed on the walls of the station when the 
train is next to the walls? 

(a) The sign should be higher than the top of the train. 

(b) The horizontal centerline of the sign should be at the center of the car 
window. 

(c) The bottom of the sign should be at the bottom of the car window. 

(d) The top of the highest letter on the sign should be below the top of the 
vehicle window and the bottom of the lowest letter on the sign should be 
above the horizontal centerline of the vehicle window. 

8. What is the minimum clear floor area of a restroom on a commuter rail car? 

(a) 35 in (890 mm) by 60 in (1525 mm) 

(b) 48 in (1220 mm) by 60 in (1525 mm) 

(c) 60 in (1525 mm) by 60 in (1525 mm) 



6-4-17 



UNIT 6-5 

VEHICLE ENROUTE ACCESSIBILITY 

INTERCITY RAIL CARS 



SCOPE 



The Department of Transportation rules implementing the vehicle accessibility 
requirements of ADA can be found at two levels of detail. The first area which addresses 
the more general requirements is 49 CFR Part 37, Subpart D - Acquisition of Accessible 
Vehicles by Public Entities and Subpart E - Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Private 
Entities. The second more specific design criteria is contained in 49 CFR Part 38, ADA 
Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles, Subpart F - Intercity Rail Cars and 
Systems. 

This unit addresses all of the barriers that could be encountered by individuals with 
disabilities including individuals who use wheelchairs or mobility aids once they are on 
board the intercity rail car. Barriers are encountered as the individual moves from the 
entrance area to the seating area or sleeping compartment, gets settled in the desired 
location, moves between rail cars, utilizes the restrooms in the coach car or the restroom 
in the sleeping compartment, gathers information along the trip and locates the desired 
destination. 

This unit does not address the barriers encountered by individuals in wheelchairs or 
mobility aids as they board an intercity rail car and get settled. That portion of the trip for 
individuals who use wheelchairs and mobility aids is addressed in Unit 5-4. 



6-5-1 



DEnNITIONS 

Intercity Rail Passenger Car: A rail car intended for use by revenue passengers, obtained 
by the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) for use in intercity rail 
transportation. 



APPLICABLE STANDARDS 

49 CFR Part 38 
Subpart F 

49 CFR 38.111 

49 CFR 38.113 

49 CFR 38.115 

49 CFR 38.117 

49 CFR 38.119 

49 CFR 38.121 

49 CFR 38.123 

49 CFR 38.125 

49 CFR 38.127 

10.3.1(5) 



Intercity Rail Cars and Systems 

General 

Doorways 

Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

Floors, Steps and Thresholds 

Lighting 

Public Information Systems 

Restrooms 

Mobility Aid Accessibility 

Sleeping Compartments 

ADAAG Fixed Facilities and Stations, New 
Construction 



6-5-2 



PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

New, used and remanufactured intercity rail cars shall comply with specific design 
requirements to be considered accessible. The elements that must be made accessible vary 
depending on the type and use of the car and if the car is to be modified or retrofitted. 
This General Requirements section identifies the various types of cars and provides 
guidance on the elements that must be made accessible. 

Checklist of Problems - General Requirements 

□ Single-Level Rail Passenger Coaches and Food Service Cars 
n Single-Level Dining and Lounge Cars 

n Bi-Level Dining Cars 

n Bi-Level Lounge Cars 

□ Sleeper Cars 

□ Car Modifications 
D Car Retrofits 



Single-Level Rail Passenger Coaches and Food Service Cars 

Problem; On short intercity rail trips, the most common car used is the passenger 
coach car. Once on the coach car, it is sometimes difficult for persons in 
wheelchairs to obtain refreshments from the food service car. 

Solution: Single-level passenger coaches and food service cars (other than single- 
level dining cars) shall comply with the following sections of ADAAG for Vehicles: 

38.113 Doorways 

38.115 Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

38.117 Floors, Steps and Thresholds 

38.119 Lighting 

38.121 Public Information Systems 

38.123 Restrooms 

Compliance with Section 38.125 Mobility Aid Accessibility shall be required only 
to the extent necessary to afford at least one but not more than two wheelchair 
seating locations on the passenger coach or food service car. The spaces for persons 
wishing to remain in their wheelchair shall have a minimum clear floor area of 48 
in (1220 mm) by 30 in (765 mm). Such space may have fold-down seats for use 
when not occupied by a wheelchair. In addition, at least one, but not more than two 
seating location(s) for individuals who wish to transfer from their wheelchairs shall 
include a regular coach seat or dining car booth or table seat and space to fold and 
store the passenger's wheelchair. The wheelchair spaces and seating locations shall 
adjoin or overlap an accessible route with a minimum clear width of 32 in (815 mm). 
[38.125(d)(2) and 38.125(d)(3)] 



6-5-3 



Note: The DOT rule requires personnel to serve passengers with disabilities at their 
seats, including a hard surface (e.g., tray), if they can't, or don't want to, go to the 
food service area. 



n Single-Level Dining and Lounge Cars 

Problem; When single-level dining cars are available on the train, they are 
sometimes difficult to gain access to, especially for people in wheelchairs and 
mobility aids because the connecting doorway between the coach car and the dining 
car is too narrow. Even when the dining car is accessible, sometimes there is no 
place for a person in a wheelchair to use. 

Solution: Single-level dining and lounge cars shall have at least one connecting 
doorway at the end of the car connecting the adjacent car. The doorway shall have 
a clear width of 32 in (815 mm) to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to enter 
into the single-level dining car. [38.113(a)(2)] Single-level dining cars shall have at 
least one space for persons who wish to remain in their wheelchairs. The space shall 
have a minimum clear floor area of 48 in (1220 mm) by 30 in (765 mm). Such space 
may have fold-down or removable seats for use when not occupied by a wheelchair. 
In addition, at least one dining booth or table seat shall be provided for individuals 
who wish to transfer from their wheelchair. A space to fold or store the passenger's 
wheelchair shall also be provided. [38.125(d)(2) and (3)] 



Bi-Level Dining Cars 

Problem: Bi-level dining cars are difficult to access. Barriers sometimes 
encountered include the doorways between cars, lack of handrails and stanchions, 
slippery floor surfaces, and the lack of public information in the dining car. 

Solution: Bi-level dining cars shall have at least one connecting doorway at the end 
of the car which connects to the adjacent car. The doorway shall have a clear width 
of 32 in (815 mm). (Note: The 32 in (815 mm) doorway width to the bi-level dining 
car is for semi-ambulatory persons since wheelchair users cannot get to the upper 
level where entry is provided.) [38.113(a)(2)] Where provided, handrails and 
stanchions shall be sufficient to permit onboard circulation, seating and standing 
assistance for persons with disabilities. [38.115(b)] Floor surfaces on aisles, step 
treads and areas where wheelchairs and mobility aid users are to be accommodated 
shall be slip resistant. [38.117(a)] A public address system that permits 
transportation system personnel or recorded or digitized human speech messages to 
announce stations and provide other passenger information shall be available in the 
bi-level dining car. [38.121] 



6-5-4 



Bi-Level Lounge Cars 

Problem; Bi-level lounge cars are often difficult to access for individuals with 
disabilities because of the following barriers: Narrow entry doors, lack of seating for 
individuals with disabilities, or lack of space for a wheelchair, inability for an 
individual in a wheelchair to pull up to a table and stay in the wheelchair. 

Solution; Bi-level lounge cars shall have doors on the lower level on each side of 
the car from which passengers board. Doorways shall have a clear width of 32 in 
(815 mm). [38.113] An accessible restroom complying with the design requirements 
of ADA Section 38.123 shall be provided. At least one space for persons who wish 
to remain in their wheelchairs shall be provided. The space shall have a clear floor 
area of 48 in (1220 mm) by 30 in (765 mm). Such space may have fold-down or 
removable seats for use when not occupied by a wheelchair. In addition, at least 
one dining booth or table seat shall be provided for individuals who wish to transfer 
from their wheelchairs. A space to fold or store the passenger's wheelchair shall 
also be provided. [38.125(d)(2) and (3)] 



n Sleeper Cars 

Problem; Sleeper cars on intercity rail trains are often difficult to access and use 
by individuals with disabilities. Some of the barriers encountered are the narrow 
doorways and passageways leading to the sleeping compartment and the layout of 
the sleeping compartment and access to restrooms. 

Solution; Sleeper cars shall have at least one accessible sleeping compartment which 
complies with Section 38.127 of the ADA Standards (see Problem/Solution on 
Sleeping Compartments). The sleeper cars shall have an unobstructed passageway 
at least 32 in (815 mm) leading from the accessible door to the accessible sleeping 
compartment. 



6-5-5 



Problems and solutions related to specific design requirements address those barriers that 
disabled persons and persons in wheelchairs encounter from the time when they have 
boarded the vehicle and the doors have closed until they reach their intended station stop. 
These barriers are encountered as they move within the vehicle to get settled for the trip, 
as they move between vehicles and as they approach the various stops along their route. 

Checklist of Problems - Specific Design Requirements 

n Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

□ Passageways 
n Floors 

D Thresholds 

n Doorways Connecting Vehicles 

□ Public Information Systems 

□ Platform Signage 

□ Restrooms 

n Sleeping Compartments 



n Interior Circulation, Handrails and Stanchions 

Problem: On many intercity rail cars, the aisleways in the passenger compartment 
are narrow and there are no handrails or stanchions. Handrails and stanchions have 
been installed in some cars which makes it more difficult for persons using 
wheelchairs and mobility aids to get to the seating area. 

Solution; When handrails or stanchions are provided on intercity rail cars within the 
passenger compartment, they shall be placed to permit sufficient turning and 
maneuvering space for wheelchairs and other mobility aids to reach a seating 
location from an accessible entrance. [38.115] 



Problem; Some of the handrails are difficult to grasp. Some are square with sharp 
edges which seem to be dangerous if a person was to fall on them. 

Solution; Handrails shall have a cross-sectional diameter between 1-1/4 in (32 mm) 
and 1-1/2 in (38 mm) or shall provide an equivalent grasping surface and have eased 
edges with comer radii of not less than 1/8 in (3 mm). Handrails shall be placed to 
provide a minimum 1-1/2 in (38 mm) knuckle clearance from the nearest adjacent 
surface. [38.115] 



6-5-6 



Passageways 

Problem: The passageways between the entrance door of intercity rail cars and the 
accessible seating locations and accessible sleeping compartments are sometimes too 
narrow for a wheelchair or mobility aid to use. 

Solution: A route at least 32 in (815 mm) wide shall be provided from the 
accessible entrance door on the car to the accessible seating locations and accessible 
sleeping compartments. 

If passage is required through a vestibule, such vestibule in new cars shall have a 
minimum width of 42 in (1070 mm). [38.113] If doors leading to the car from a 
platform close automatically or from a remote location, auditory and visual warning 
signals shall be provided to alert passengers of closing doors. [38.113(c)] 



D Floors 



Problem: Some floors become quite slippery when they are wet. Others are so 
smooth that even when they are dry, they are slippery. Are there standards which 
must be followed on rail vehicles which prescribe what type of material should be 
used on the floors? 

Solution; Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees, and areas where wheelchairs 
and mobility aid users are to be accommodated are to be slip resistant on all 
commuter rail cars. [38.117(a)] 



Problem: The design of the new intercity rail cars calls for carpet on the floor. 
People who use wheelchairs and mobility aids could have a problem with a carpeted 
floor especially if the pile of the carpet is very thick. Are there standards that 
prohibit carpet? 

Solution: The ADA Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles does 
not address carpeted floors. A guideline that could be used is Section 4.5.3 of the 
ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities which states: If a carpet 
or carpet tile is used on a ground or floor surface, then it shall be securely attached; 
have a firm cushion, pad, or backing or no cushion or pad; and have a level loop, 
textured loop, level cut pile, or level cut/uncut pile texture. The maximum pile 
thickness shall be 1/2 in (13 mm). Exposed edges of carpet shall be fastened to 
floor surfaces and have trim along the entire length of the exposed edge. Carpet 
edge trim up to 1/4 in (6 mm) high can be vertical. If the edge trim is between 1/4 
in (6 mm) and 1/2 in (13 mm) a bevel with a slope no greater than 1:2 shall be used. 



6-5-7 



n Thresholds 



Problem; It is difficult for people with vision impairments to see as they approach 
a threshold when moving about within or between intercity rail cars. Even though 
the threshold is beveled with a slope no greater than 1:2 as required by the ADAAG 
for Buildings and Facilities, it can still cause a tripping hazard for people with poor 
vision as they walk on the moving train. 

Solution: All thresholds and step edges on intercity rail cars shall have a band of 
color(s) running the full width of the threshold which contrasts with the adjacent 
floor, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. [38.117] 

An appendix note recommends that the material used contrast by at least 70%. 
Percent contrast is determined by the following equation: 



B - B 
Contrast = — x 100 



where B^ is the Light Reflectance Value of the lighter area and Bj is the Light 
Reflectance Value of the darker area. Note that in any application both white and 
black are never absolute: thus Bj never equals 100 and Bj is always greater than 
zero. [Appendix Part 38] 



Doorways Connecting Vehicles 

Problem; If there is an emergency situation in one of the cars of a multi-car train, 
even though the aisle widths are wide enough for a wheelchair or a mobility aid to 
negotiate, once the person in the wheelchair reaches the door at the end of the car 
it is too narrow to allow passage. 

Solution; Doorways at ends of new cars connecting two adjacent cars, to the 
maximum extent practicable in accordance with the regulations issued under the 
Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970 (49 CFR Parts 229 and 231), shall have a clear 
opening width of 32 in (815 mm) to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to 
enter into a single-level dining car, if available. 

Note: The DOT rule requires an accessible car adjacent to a dining car whenever 
possible. 



6-5-8 



Public Infonnation Systems 

Problem: When on the intercity rail car it is difficult for persons with disabilities to 
tell when they should start getting ready to exit the train. Also, even though many 
of the cars have internal speakers, these speakers cannot be heard by persons with 
hearing impairments. 

Solution: Each car shall be equipped with an interior public address system 
permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized human speech 
messages, to announce stations and provide other passenger information. 
Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are also permitted. 
[38.121] 

Note: Amtrak is experimenting with visual communication in cars. 



6-5-9 



□ Platform Signage 

Problem; When the train pulls into a station, it is difficult to see what station it is 
in because the station identification signs are too high. The only way to see them 
is to squat down and look up and out of the windows. Some stations don't have 
enough station identification signs so only every other car can see them. 

Solution: New stations built after October 7, 1991, and key stations on intercity rail 
systems shall have identification signs complying with requirements for character 
proportion, height, finish and contrast of ADAAG for Buildings and Facilities. 
Signs shall be placed at frequent intervals and shall be clearly visible from within the 
car on both sides when not obstructed by another train. When station identification 
signs are placed close to vehicle windows (i.e., on the side opposite from boarding), 
each shall have the top of the highest letter or symbol below the top of the car 
window and the bottom of the lowest letter or symbol above the horizontal mid-line 
of the vehicle window. [10.3.1(5), 10.3.2(2)] 

Station identification signs shall be designed to comply with the following signage 
standards. 

Character Proportion: Letters and numbers on signs shall have a width-to- 
height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke width-to-height ratio between 
1:5 and 1:10. 

Character Height: Characters are numbers on signs shall be sized according 
to the viewing distance from which they are to be read. The minimum height 
is measured using an upper case X. Lower case characters are permitted. 
If the sign is suspended above the finished floor, at least 80 in (2030 mm), 
complying with minimum headroom, the minimum character height shall be 
3 in (75 mm). 

Finish and Contrast: The characters and background of signs shall be 
eggshell, matte, or other non-glare finish. Characters and symbols shall 
contrast with their background - either light characters on a dark background 
or dark characters on a light background. [10.3.1(5), 10.3.2.(2), 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 
4.30.3, 4.30.5] 



6-5-10 



Restrooms 

Problem; On the intercity rail car the path of travel to the restroom is restricted 
and the restroom layout is such that it is very difficult to use for persons in 
wheelchairs. Are restrooms required on commuter rail cars and if required, should 
they be made accessible to persons in wheelchairs and mobility aids? 

Solution; If a restroom is provided for the general public, and an accessible 
restroom is required, it shall be designed so as to allow a person using a wheelchair 
or mobility aid to enter and use such a restroom as specified below. 

Restrooms required to be accessible shall be in close proximity to at least one 
seating location for persons using mobility aids and shall be connected to such a 
space by an unobstructed path having a minimum width of 32 in (815 mm). 
[38.123(a)(b)] 



Problem; The maneuvering space outside of the restroom on an intercity rail car 
is generally quite restricted. Because of this coupled with the layout inside of the 
restroom, sometimes a normal 32 in (815 mm) wide doorway is not wide enough. 

Solution; Doorways on the end of the enclosure, opposite the water closet, shall 
have a minimum clear opening width of 32 in (815 mm). Doorways on the side wall 
shall have a minimum clear opening width of 39 in (990 mm). Door latches and 
hardware shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, 
pinching, or twisting of the wrist. [38.123(a)(5)] 



Problem; The floor space inside most rail car restrooms is extremely restricted and 
there is not enough room to maneuver around to position the wheelchair. What is 
the minimum required clear floor area for a commuter rail car accessible restroom? 
Can any of the fixtures that hang from the wall share this space? Can fold-away 
fixtures be used that overlap the clear floor space? 

Solution; The minimum clear floor area shall be 35 in (890 mm) by 60 in (1525 
mm). Permanently installed fixtures may overlap this area a maximum of 6 in (150 
mm), if the lowest portion of the fixture is a minimum of 9 in (230 mm) above the 
floor, and may overlap a maximum of 19 in (485 mm), if the lowest portion of the 
fixture is a minimum of 29 in (735 mm) above the floor, provided such fixtures do 
not interfere with access to the water closet. Fold-down or retractable seats or 
shelves may overlap the clear floor space at a lower height provided they can be 
easily folded up or moved out of the way. [38.123(a)(1)] 



6-5-11 



Problem: The height of an accessible water closet specified in ADAAG for 
Buildings and Facilities is 17 to 19 in (430 to 485 mm). Is this height the same for 
accessible built-in water closets like the type used in rail cars? 

Solution; The height of the water closet shall be 17 in (430 mm) to 19 in (485 mm) 
measured to the top of the toilet seat. Seats shall not be sprung to return to a lifted 
position. [38.123(a)(2)] 



Problem; In ADAAG for Buildings and Facilities, specific grab bars are required 
around the water closet area. Since water closets on rail cars are usually built in 
and the space is quite restricted, are grab bars required? If so, where should they 
be located and how long should they be? 

Solution; A grab bar at least 24 in (610 mm)) long shall be mounted behind the 
water closet, and a horizontal grab bar at least 40 in (1015 mm) shall be mounted 
on at least one side wall, with one end not more than 12 in (305 mm) from the back 
wall, at a height between 33 in (840 mm) and 36 in (915 mm) above the floor. 
[38.123(a)(3)] 



Problem; Many times the faucets and flush controls are hard to reach and even if 
you can reach them, they are very difficult to operate. 

Solution; Faucets and flush controls shall be operable with one hand and shall not 
require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist. The force required to 
activate controls shall be no greater than 5 Ibf (22.2N). Controls for flush valves 
shall be mounted no more than 44 in (1115 mm) above the floor. [38.123(a)(4)] 



n Sleeping Compartments 

Problem; Many times persons in wheelchairs and other mobility aids would like to 
ride the train across country. When looking into that possibility, not all intercity rail 
cars have accessible sleeping compartments What are the design requirements for 
a sleeping compartment to be accessible? 

Solution; Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as 
to allow a person using a wheelchair or mobility aid to enter, maneuver within and 
approach and use each element within such compartments. 

Minimum door clear width leading into the sleeping compartment from an accessible 
vestibule shall be 32 in (815 mm). The accessible vestibule shall be 42 in (1065 mm) 
wide. Minimum maneuvering space for a wheelchair is a 60 in (1525 mm) diameter 
circle. If two hallways meet at a right angle, the minimum maneuvering space for 
a wheelchair to turn the comers requires each hallway to be 36 in (915 mm) wide. 
[38.127(a)] 

6-5-12 



Problem; Once settled in the sleeping compartment, it is difficult for a disabled 
person, especially a wheelchair user, to access the restroom. 

Solution: Each accessible sleeping compartment shall contain an accessible 
restroom which can be entered directly from such a compartment. [38.127(b)] 



Problem; Sometimes it is difficult to access the various controls, electrical plugs and 
switches in a confined space such as a rail car sleeping compartment, especially by 
persons in wheelchairs who have limited reach ranges. 

Solution; Controls and operating mechanisms (e.g., heating and air conditioning 
controls, lighting controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no 
more than 48 in (1220 mm) and no less than 15 in (380 mm) above the floor and 
shall have a clear floor area directly in front of a minimum of 30 in (765 mm) by 48 
in (1220 mm). Controls and operating mechanisms shall be operable with one hand 
and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist [38.127(c)] 



6-5-13 



MANUAL ON UNIFORM TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES 



3B-18 Crosswalks and Crosswalk Lines 

Crosswalk markings at signalized intersections and across intersectional 
approaches on which traffic stops, serve primarily to guide pedestrians in 
the proper paths. Crosswalk markings across roadways on which traffic is 
not controlled by traffic signals or STOP signs, must also serve to warn 
the motorist of a pedestrian crossing point. At non-intersectional 
locations, these markings legally establish the crosswalk. 

Crosswalk lines shall be solid white lines, marking both edges of the 
crosswalk. They shall be not less than 6 inches in width and should not be 
spaced less than 6 feet apart. Under special circumstances where a stop line 
is not provided or where vehicular speeds exceed 35 MPH or where 
crosswalks are unexpected, it may be desirable to increase the width of the 
crosswalk line up to 24" in width. Crosswalk lines on both sides of the 
crosswalk should extend across the full width of pavement to discourage 
diagonal walking between crosswalks (fig. 3- 14a). 

Crosswalks should be marked at all intersections where there is 
substantial conflict between vehicle and pedestrian movements. Marked 
crosswalks should also be provided at other appropriate points of 
pedestrian concentration, such as at loading islands, midblock pedestrian 
crossing, or where pedestrians could not otherwise recognize the proper 
place to cross. 

Crosswalk markings should not be used indiscriminately. An 
engineering study should be required before they are installed at locations 
away from traffic signals or STOP signs. 

Since non-intersectional pedestrian crossings are generally unexpected 
by the motorist, warning signs (sec. 2C-31) should be installed and 
adequate visibility provided by parking prohibitions. 

For added visibility, the area of the crosswalk may be marked with 
white diagonal lines at a 45 ° angle or with white longitudinal lines at a 90" 
angle to the line of the crosswalk (figs. 3- 14b, 14c). These lines should be 
approximately 12" to 24" wide and spaced 12" to 24" apart. When 
diagonal or longitudinal lines are used to mark a crosswalk, the transverse 
crosswalk lines may be omitted. This type of marking is intended for use at 
locations where substantial numbers of pedestrians cross without any 
other traffic control device, at locations where physical conditions are 
such that added visibility of the crosswalk is desired or at places where a 
pedestrian crosswalk might not be expected. Care should be taken to 
insure that crosswalks with diagonal or longitudinal lines used at some 
locations do not weaken or detract from other crosswalks (where special 
emphasis markings are not used) (fig. 3- 14a). When an exclusive 
pedestrian phase signal, which permits diagonal crossing, is installed at an 
intersection, a unique marking may be used for the crosswalk (fig. 3-15). 




Friday 
September 6, 1991 



Part IV 



Department of 
Transportation 

49 CFR Parts 27, 37 and 38 
Transportation for Individuals With 
Disabilities: Final Rule 





Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45621 



List of Subjects 

49 CFR Part 27 

Administrative practice and 
procedure, Airports, Civil rights, 
Handicapped, Individuals writh 
disabilities, Highways and roads, 
Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements. Transportation. 

49 CFR Part 37 

Buildings, Buses, Civil rights. 
Handicapped, Individuals v\rith 
disabilities. Mass transportation. 
Railroads, Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements. Transportation. 

49 CFR Part 38 

Buses. Civil rights. Handicapped, 
Individuals with disabilities. Mass 



transportation, Railroads, 
Transportation. 

Issued this 22nd day of August, 1991. at 
Washington, DC. 
Samuel K. Skinner, 
Secretary of Transportation. 

For the reasons set forth in the 
preamble, the Department takes the 
following actions: 

PART 27— [AMENDEDl 

1. The authority citation for title 49, 
part 27 Code of Federal Regulations, is 
revised to read as follows: 

Authority: Sec. 504 of the Rehabilitation 
Act of 1973. as amended (29 U.S.C. 794); sees. 
16(8) and 16(d) of the Urban Mass . 
Transportation Act of 1964, as amended (49 
U.S.C. 16(a) and 16(d); sec. 165(b) of the 
Federal-aid Highway Act of 1973 (49 U.S.C. 
142 nt.); the Americans with Disabilities Act 
of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101-12213; and 49 U.S.C. 
322. 

2. Section 27.19 of 49 CFR part 27 is 
amended by revising paragraph (a) to " 
read as follows: 

§27.19 Compliance witfi Americans with 
Disabilities Act requirements and UMTA 
policy. 

(a) Recipients subject to this part 
(whether public or private entities as 
defined in 49 CFR part 37) shall comply 
with all applicable requirements of the 
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 
of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101-12213) including 
the Department's ADA regulations (49 
CFR parts 37 and 38), the regulations of 
the Department of Justice implementing 
Titles II and III of the ADA (28 CFR 
parts 35 and 36), and the regulations of 
the Equal Employment Opportunity 
Commission (EEOC) implementing title i 
of the ADA (29 CFR part 1630). 
Compliance with the EEOC title I 
regulations is required as a condition of 
compliance with section 504 for DOT 
recipients even for organizations which, 
because they have fewer than 25 or 15 
employees, would not be subject to the 
EEOC regulation in its own right. 
Compliance with all these regulations is 
a condition of receiving Federal 
financial assistance from the 
Department of Transportation. Any 
recipient not in compliance with this 
requirement shall be subject to 
enforcement action under Subpart F of 
this part. 



Subparts [§§27.31-27.37) [Removed) 



Subpart C[§§ 27.61-27.67) [Removed) 
Subpart E [§§ 27.81-27.103) [Removed] 
Appendix to Subpart E [Removed] 
§27.73 [Removed) 
Appendix A to Subpart D [Removed] 

3. Subparts B (§§ 27.31-27.37), C 

(§§ 27.61-27.67), E (§§ 27.81-27.103) and 
the Appendix to subpart E of 49 CFR 
part 27 are removed, and § 27.73 and 
Appendix A to Subpart D thereof are 
removed. 

Subpart F [§§ 27.121-27.129] 
[Redesignated as Subpart C) 

Subpart D [ §§ 27.7 1 -27.75 ] [ Redesignated 
as Subpart B) 

4. Subpart F (§§ 27.121-27.129) thereof 
is redesignated as new subpart C and 
subpart D (§§ 27.71 and 27.75) is 
redesignated as new subpart B. 

5. The text of § 27.3 thereof is 
designated as paragraph (a) and a new 
paragraph (b) is added to § 27.3, to read 
as follows: 

§27.3 Applicability. 

(b) Design, construction, or alteration 
of buildings or other fixed facilities by 
public entities subject to part 37 of this 
title shall be in conformance with 
Appendix A to part 37 of this title. All 
^ther entities subject to section 504 shall 
design, construct or alter a building, or 
other fixed facilities shall be in 
conformance with either Appendix A to 
part 37 of this title or the Uniform 
Federal Accessibility Standards, 41 CFR 
part 101-19 subpart 101-19.6, appendix 
A. 

6. Wherever a reference occurs to 
§ 27.67(d) in 49 CFR part 27, it is 
changed to § 27.3(b). 

7. Removed from § 27.5 thereof are the 
definitions of "accessible," "closed 
station," "flag stop," "mass 
transportation," "mixed system," "open 
station," "passenger," and "urbanized 
area." 

8. Section 27.67 is amended by 
removing paragraph (d), effective 
October 7, 1991. 

9. Title 49, Code of Federal 
Regulations, part 37, is revised to read 
as follows: 

PART 37— TRANSPORTATION 
SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH 
DISABILITIES (ADA) 
Subpart A — General 

Sec. 

37.1 Purpose. 

37.3 Definitions. 



45622 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



Sec 

37.5 Nondiscrimination. 

37 7 Standards for accessible vehicles. 

37 9 Standards for accessible transportation 

facilities. 
37,11 Administrative enforcement. 
37.13 Effective date for certain vehicle lift 

specifications. 
37.15-37.19 [Reserved) 

Subpart B— Applicability 

37.21 Applicability: General. 

37.23 Service under contract. 

37.25 University transportation systems. 

37.27 Transportation for elementary and 

secondary education systems. 
37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. 
37.31 Vanpools. 

37.33 Airport transportation systems. 
37.35 Supplemental service for other 

transportation modes. 
37.37 Other applications. 
37.39 [Reserved] 

Subpart C— Transportation Facilities 

37.41 Construction of transportation 

facilitie ; by public entities. 
37.43 Alter d tion of transportation facilities 

by public entities. 
37.45 Construction and alteration of 

transportation facilities by private 

entities. 
37.47 Key stations in light and rapid rail 

systems. 
37.49 Designation of responsible per8on(s) 

for intercity and commuter rail stations. 
37.51 Key stations in commuter rail systems. 
37.53 Exception for New York and 

Philadelphia 
37.55 Intercity rail station accessibility. 
37.57 Required cooperation. 
37.59 Differences in accessibility completion 

dates. 
37.61 Public transportation programs and 

activities in existing facilities. 
37.63-37.69 [Reserved] 

Subpart D— Acquisition of Accessible 
Vehicles by Public Entitles 

37.71 Purchase or lease of new non-rail 

vehicles by public entities operating 

fixed route systems. 
37.73 Purchase or lease of used non-rail 

vehicles by public entities operating 

fixed route systems. 
37.75 Remanufacture of non-rail vehicles 

and purchase or lease of remanufactured 

non-rail vehicles by public entities 

operating fixed route systems. 
37.77 Purchase or lease of new non-rail 

vehicles by public entities operating 

demand responsive systems for the 

general public. 
37.79 Purchase or lease of new rail vehicles 

by public entities operating rapid or light 

rail systems. 
37.81 Purchase or lease of used rail vehicles 

by public entities operating rapid or light 

rail systems. 
37.83 Remanufacture of rail vehicles and 

purchase or lease of remanufactured rail 

vehicles by public entities operating 

rapid or light rail systems 
37.85 Purchase or lease of new intercity and 

commuter rail cars. 
37.87 Purchase or lease of used intercity and 

commuter rail cars. 



37.89 Remanufacture of intercity and 

commuter rail cars and purchase or lease 
of remanufactured intercity and 
commuter rail cars. 

J7.91 Wheelchair locations and food service 
on intercity rail trains. 

37.93 One car per train rule. 

37.95 Ferries and other passenger vessels 
operated by public entities. [Reserved] 

37.97-37.99 (Reserved) 

Subpart E— Acquisition of Accessible 
Vehicles by PHvate Entitles 

37.101 Purchase or lease of vehicles by 
private entities not primarily engaged in 
the business of transporting people. 

37.103 Purchase or lease of new non-rail 
vehicles by private entities primarily 
engaged in the business of transporting 
people. 

37.105 Equivalent service standard. ' 

37.107 Acquisition of passenger rail cars by 
private entities primarily engaged in the 
business of transporting people. 

37.109 Ferries and other passenger vessels 
operated by private entities. [Reserved] 

37.111-37,119 [Reserved] 

Subpart F— Paratransit as a Complement to 
Fixed Route Service 

37.121 Requirement for comparable 

complementary paratransit service. 
37.123 ADA paratransit eligibility: 

Standards. 
37.125 ADA paratransit eligibility: Process. 
37.127 Complementary paratransit service 

for visitors. 
37.129 Types of service. 
37.131 Service criteria for complementary 

paratransit. 
37.133 Subscription service. 
37.135 Submission of paratransit plan. 
37.137 Paratransit plan development. 
37.139 Plan contents. 
37.141 Requirements for a joint paratransit 

plan. 
37.143 Paratransit plan implementation. 
37.145 State comment on plans. 
37.147 Considerations during UMTA review. 
37.149 Disapproved plans. 
37.151 Waiver for undue financial burden, 
37.153 UMTA waiver determination. 
37.155 Factors in decision to grant an undue 

financial burden waiver. 
37.157-37.159 [Reserved] 

Subpart G— Provision of Service 

37.161 Maintenance of accessible features: 

General. 
37.163 Keeping vehicle lifts in operative 

condition — public entities. 
37.165 Lift and securement use. 
37.167 Other service requirements. 
37.169 Interim requirements for over-the- 

road bus service operated by private 

entities. 
37.171 Equivalency requirement for demand 

responsive service operated by private 

entities not primarily engaged in the 

business of transporting people. 
37.173 Training requirements. 



Appendix A to part 37 — Standards for 
Accessible Transportation Facilities 

Appendix P to part 37— UMTA Regional 
Offices 

Appendix C to part 37 — Certifications 

Appendix D to part 37 — Construction and 
Interpretations of Provisions of 49 CFR part 

37 

Authority: Americans with Disabilities Act 
of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101-12213); 49 U.S.C. 322. 

Subpart A— General 
§ 37.1 Purpose. 

The purpose of this part is to 
implement the transportation and 
related provisions of titles II and III of 
the Americans with Disabilities Act of 
1990. 

§ 37.3 Definitions. ^ 

As used in this part: 

Accessible means, with respect to 
vehicles and facilities, complying with 
the accessibility requirements of parts 
37 and 38 of this title. 

The Act or ADA means the Americana 
with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Pub. L. 
101-33Q, 104 Stat. 327, 42 U.S.C. 12101- 
12213 and 47 U.S.C. 225 and 811), as it 
may be amended from time to time. 

Administrator means Administrator oi 
the Urban Mass Transportation 
Administration, or his or her designee. 

Alteration means a change to an 
existing facility, including, but not 
limited to, remodeling, renovation, 
rehabilitation, reconstruction, historic 
restoration, changes or rearrangement in 
structural parts or elements, and 
changes or rearrangement in the plan 
configuration of walls and full-height 
partitions. Normal maintenance, 
reroofing, painting or wallpapering, 
asbestos removal, or changes to 
mechanical or electrical systems are not 
alterations unless they affect the 
usability of the building or facility. 

Automated guideway transit system 
or .4Cr means a fixed-guideway transit 
system which operates with automated 
(driverless) individual vehicles or multi- 
car trains. Ser^'ice may be on a fixed 
schedule or in response to a passenger- 
activated call button. 

Auxiliary aids and services includes: 

(1) Qualified interpreters, notetakers, 
transcription services, written materials, 
telephone headset amplifiers, assistive 
listening devices, assistive listening 
systems, telephones compatible with 
hearing aids, closed caption decoders, 
closed and open captioning, text 
telephones (also known as telephone 
devices for the deaf, or TDDs), videotext 
displays, or other effective methods of 
making aurally delivered materials 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45623 



available to individuals with hearing 
impairments; 

(2) Qualified readers, taped texts, 
audio recordings, Braiiled materials, 
large print materials, or other effective 
methods of making visually delivered 
materials available to individuals with 
visual impairments; 

(3) Acquisition or modification of 
equipment or devices; or 

(4) Other similar services or actions. 
Bus means any of several types of 

self-propelled vehicles, generally 
rubber-tired, intended for use on city 
streets, highways, and busways, 
including but not limited to minibuses, 
forty- and thirty-foot buses, articulated 
buses, double-deck buses, and 
electrically powered trolley buses, used 
by public entities to provide designated 
public transportation service and by 
private entities to provide transportation 
service including, but not limited to, 
specified public transportation services. 
Self-propelled, rubber-tired vehicles 
designed to look like antique or vintage 
trolleys are considered buses. 

Commerce means travel, trade, 
transportation, or communication among 
the several states, between any foreign 
country or any territory or possession 
and any state, or between points in the 
same state but through another state or 
foreign country. 

Commuter authority means any state, 
local, regional authority, corporation, or 
other entity established for purposes of 
providing commuter rail transportation 
(including, but not necessarily limited to, 
the New York Metropolitan 
Transportation Authority, the 
Connecticut Department of 
Transportation, the Maryland 
Department of Transportation, the 
Southeastern Pennsylvania 
Transportation Authority, the New 
Jersey Transit Corporation, the 
Massachusetts Bay Transportation 
Authority, the Port Authority Trans- 
Hudson Corporation, and any successor 
agencies) and any entity created by one 
or more such agencies for the purposes 
of operating, or contracting for the 
operation of, commuter rail 
transportation. 

Commuter bus service means fixed 
route bus service, characterized by 
service predominantly in one direction 
during peak periods, limited stops, use 
of multi-ride tickets, and routes of 
extended length, usually between the 
central business district and outlying 
suburbs. Commuter bus service may 
also include other service, characterized 
by a limited route structure, limited 
stops, and a coordinated relationship to 
another mode of transportation. 

Commuter rail car means a rail 
passenger car obtained by a commuter 



authority for use in commuter rail 
transportation. 

Commuter rail transportation means 
short-haul rail passenger service 
operating in metropolitan and suburban 
areas, whether within or across the 
geographical boundaries of a state, 
usually characterized by reduced fare, 
multiple ride, and commutation tickets 
and by morning and evening peak 
period operations. This term does not 
include light or rapid rail transportation. 

Demand responsive system means 
any system of transporting individuals, 
including the provision of designated 
public transportation service by public 
entities and the provision of 
transportation service by private 
entities, including but not limited to 
specified public transportation service, 
which is not a fixed route system. 

Designated public transportation 
means transportation provided by a 
public entity (other than public school 
transportation) by bus, rail, or other 
conveyance (other than transportation 
by aircraft or intercity or commuter rail 
transportation) that provides the general 
public with general or special service, 
including charter service, on a regular 
and containing basis. 

Disability means, with respect to an 
individual, a physical or mental 
impairment that substantially limits one 
or more of the major life activities of 
such individual; a record of such an 
impairment; or being regarded as having 
such an impairment. 

(1 ) The phrase physical or mental 
impairment means — 

(i) Any physiological disorder or 
condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or 
anatomical loss affecting one or more of 
the following body systems: 
neurological, musculoskeletal, special 
sense organs, respiratory including 
speech organs, cardiovascular, 
reproductive, digestive, genito-urinary, 
hemic and lymphatic, skin, and 
endocrine; 

(ii) Any mental or psychological 
disorder, such as mental retardation, 
organic brain syndrome, emotional or 
mental illness, and specific learning 
disabilities; 

(iii) The \.erm physical or mental 
impairment includes, but is not limited 
to, such contagious or noncontagious 
diseases and conditions as orthopedic, 
visual, speech, and hearing impairments; 
cerebral palsy, epilepsy, muscular 
dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, cancer, 
heart disease, diabetes, mental 
retardation, emotional illness, specific 
learning disabilities, HIV disease, 
tuberculosis, drug addiction and 
alcoholism; 



(iv) The phrase physical or mental 
impairment does not include 
homosexuality or bisexuality. 

(2) The phrase major life activities 
means functions such as caring for one's 
self, performing manual tasks, walking, 
seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, 
learning, and work. 

(3) The phrase has a record of such an 
impairment means has a history of, or 
has been misclassified as having, a 
mental or physical impairment that 
substantially limits one or more major 
life activities. 

(4) The phrase is regarded as having 
such an impairment means — 

(i) Has a physical or mental 
impairment that does not substantially 
limit major life activities, but which is 
treated by a public or private entity as 
constituting such a limitation; 

(ii) Has a physical or mental 
impairment that substantially limits a 
major life activity only as a result of the 
attitudes of others toward such an 
impairment; or 

(iii) Has none of the impairments 
defined in paragraph (1) of this 
definition but is treated by a public or 
private entity as having such an 
impairment. 

(5) The term disability does not 
include — 

(i) Transvestism, transsexualism, 
pedophilia, exhibitionism, voyeurism, 
gender identity disorders not resulting 
from physical impairments, or other 
sexual behavior disorders; 

(ii) Compulsive gambling, 
kleptomania, or pyromania; 

(iii) Psychoactive substance abuse 
disorders resulting from the current 
illegal use of drugs. 

Facility means all or any portion of 
buildings, structures, sites, complexes, 
equipment, roads, walks, passageways, 
parking lots, or other real or personal 
property, including the site where the 
building, property, structure, or 
equipment is located. 

Fixed route system means a system of 
transporting individuals (other than by 
aircraft), including the provision of 
designated public transportation service 
by public entities and the provision of 
transportation service by private 
entities, including, but not limited to, 
specified public transportation service, 
on which a vehicle is operated along a 
prescribed route according to a fixed 
schedule. 

High speed rail means a rail service 
having the characteristics of intercity 
rail service which operates primarily on 
a dedicated guideway or track not used, 
for the most part, by freight, including, 
but not limited to, trains on welded rail, 
magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles 



45624 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



on a special guideway, or other 
advanced technology vehicles, designed 
to travel at speeds in excess of those 
possible on other types of railroads. 

Individual with a disability means a 
person who has a disability, but does 
not include an individual who is 
currently engaging in the illegal use of 
drugs, when a public or private entity 
acts on the basis of such use. 

Intercity rail passenger car means a 
rail car, intended for use by revenue 
passengers, obtained by the National 
Railroad Passenger Corporation 
(Amtrak) for use in intercity rail 
transportation. 

Intercity rail transportation means 
transportation provided by Amtrak. 

Light rail means a streetcar-type 
vehicle operated on city streets, semi- 
exclusive rights of way, or exclusive 
rights of way. Service may be provided 
by step-entry vehicles or by level 
boarding. 

New vehicle means a vehicle which is 
offered for sale or lease after 
manufacture without any prior use. 

Operates includes, with respect to a 
fixed route or demand responsive 
system, the provision of transportation 
service by a public or private entity 
itself or by a person under a contractual 
or other arrangement or relationship 
with the entity. 

Over-the-road bus mgans a bus 
characterized by an elevated passenger 
deck located over a baggage 
compartment. 

Paratransit means comparable 
transportation service required by the 
ADA for individuals with disabilities 
who are unable to use fixed route 
transportation systems. 

Private entity means any entity other 
than a public entity. 

Public entity means; 

(1) Any state or local government; 

(2) Any department, agency, special 
purpose district, or other instrumentality 
of one or more state or local 
governments; and 

(3) The National Railroad Passenger 
Corporation (Amtrak) and any 
commuter authority. 

Purchase or lease, with respect to 
vehicles, means the time at which an 
entity is legally obligated to obtain the 
vehicles, such as the time of contract 
execution. 

Public school transportation means 
transportation by schoolbus vehicles of 
schoolchildren, personnel, and 
equipment to and from a public 
elementary or secondary school and 
school-related activities. 

Rapid rail means a subway-type 
transit vehicle railway operated on 
exclusive private rights of way with high 
'evel platform stations. Rapid rail also 



may operate on elevated or at grade 
level track separated from other traffic. 

Remanufactured vehicle means a 
vehicle which has been structurally 
restored and has had new or rebuilt 
major components installed to extend its 
service life. 

Secretary means the Secretary of 
Transportation or his/her designee. 

Section 504 means section 504 of the 
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93- 
112, 87 Stat. 394, 29 U.S.C. 794), as 
amended. 

Service animal means any guide dog, 
signal dog, or other animal individually 
trained to work or perform tasks for an 
individual with a disability, including, 
but not limited to, guiding individuals 
with impaired vision, alerting 
individuals with impaired hearing to 
intruders or sounds, providing minimal 
protection or rescue work, pulling a 
wheelchair, or fetching dropped items. 

Solicitation means the closing date for 
the submission of bids or offers in a 
procurement. 

Specified public transportation means 
transportation by bus, rail, or any other 
conveyance (other than aircraft) 
provided by a private entity to the 
general public, with general or special 
service (including charter service) on a 
regular and continuing basis. 

Station means, with respect to 
intercity and commuter rail 
transportation, the portion of a property 
located appurtenant to a right of way on 
which intercity or commuter rail 
transportation is operated, where such 
portion is used by the general public and 
IS related to the provision of such 
transportation, including passenger 
platforms, designated waiting areas, 
reslrooms, and, where a public entity 
providing rail transportation owna-the 
property, concession areas, to the extent 
that such public entity exercises control 
over the selection, design, construction, 
or alteration of the property, but this 
term does not include flag stops (i.e., 
stations which are not regularly 
scheduled stops but at which trains will 
stop to board or detrain passengers only 
on signal or advance notice). 

Transit facility means, for purposes of 
determining the number of text 
telephones needed consistent with 
section 10.3.1(12) of appendix A tothis 
part, a physical structure the primary 
function of which is to facilitate access 
to and from a transportation system 
which has scheduled stops at the 
structure. The term does not include an 
open structure or a physical structure 
the primary purpose of which is other 
than providing transportation services. 

UMT Act means the Urban Mass 
Transportation Act of 1964, as amended 
(49 U.S.C. App. 1601 et seq.). 



Used I ehicle means a vehicle with 
prior use 

Vanpo )/ means a voluntary commuter 
rideshar ag arrangement, using vans 
with a S( ating capacity greater than 7 
persons including the driver) or buses, 
which pr )vides transportation to a 
group of ndividuals traveling directly 
from their homes to their regular places 
of work .vithin the same geographical 
area, and in which the commuter/driver 
does not receive compensation beyond 
reimbursement for his or her costs of 
providing the service. 

Vehicle, as the term is applied to 
private entities, does not include a rail 
passenger car, railroad locomotive, 
railroad freight car, or railroad caboose, 
or other rail rolling stock described in 
section 242 of title III of the Act. 

Wheelchair means a mobility aid 
belonging to any class of three or four- 
wheeled devices, usable indoors, 
designed for and used by individuals 
with mol)ility impairments, whether 
operated manually or powered. A 
"common wheelchair" is such a device 
which does not exceed 30 inches in 
width and 48 inches in length measured 
two inches above the ground, and does 
not weigh more than 600 pounds when 
occupied. 

§ 37.5 Nondiscrimination. 

(a) No entity shall discriminate 
against an individual with a disability in 
connection with the provision of 
transportation service. 

(b) Notwithstanding the provision of 
any special transportation service to 
individuals with disabilities, an entity 
shall not, on the basis of disability, deny 
to any individual with a disability the 
opportunity to use the entity's 
transportation service for the general 
public, if the individual is capable of 
using that service. 

(c) An entity shall not require an 
individual with a disability to use 
designated priority seats, if the 
individual does not choose to use these 
seats. 

(d) An entity shall not impose special 
charges, not authorized by this part, on 
individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs, for 
providing services required by this part 
or otherwise necessary to accommodate 
them. 

(e) An entity shall not require that an 
individual with disabilities be 
accompanied by an attendant. 

(f) Private entities that are primarily 
engaged in the business of transporting 
people and whose operations affect 
commerce shall not discriminate against 
any individual on the basis of disability 
in the full and equal enjoyment of 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45625 



specified transportation services. This 
obligation includes, with respect to the 
provision of transportation services, 
compliance with the requirements of the 
rules of the Department of justice 
concerning eligibility criteria, making 
reasonable modifications, providing 
auxiliary aids and services, and 
removing barriers (28 CFR 36.301— 
36.306). 

(g) An entity shall not refuse to serve 
an individual with a disability or require 
anything contrary to this part because 
its insurance company conditions 
coverage or rates on the absence of 
individuals with disabilities or 
requirements contrary to this part. 

(h) It is not discrimination under this 
part for an entity to refuse to provide 
service to an individual with disabilities 
because that individual engages in 
violent, seriously disruptive, or illegal 
conduct. However, an entity shall not 
refuse to provide service to an 
individual with disabilities solely 
because the individual's disability 
results in appearance or involuntary 
behavior that may offend, annoy, or 
inconvenience employees of the entity 
or other persons. 

§ 37.7 Standards for accessible vehicles. 

(a) For purposes of this part, a vehicle 
shall be considered 'o be readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities if it meets the 
requirements of this part and the 
standards set forth in part 38 of this title. 

(b) For purposes of implementing the 
equivalent facilitation provision in § 38.2 
of this title, a determination of 
compliance will be made by the 
Administrator or the Federal Railroad 
Administrator, as applicable, on a case- 
by-case basis. An entity wishing to 
employ equivalent facilitation in relation 
to a specification of part 38 of this title 
shall submit such a request to UMTA or 
FRA, as applicable, and include the 
following information: 

(1) Entity name, address, contact 
person, and telephone; 

(2) Specific provision of part 38 of this 
title with which the entity is unable to 
comply, 

(3) Reasons for inability to comply; 

(4) Alternative method of compliance, 
with demonstration of how the 
alternative meets or exceeds the level of 
accessibility or usability of the vehicle 
provided in part 38 of this title; and 

(5) Public participation used in 
developing alternative method of 
compliance and input from that 
participation. 

(c) Over-the-road buses acquired by 
public entities (or by a contractor to a 
public entity as provided in § 37.23 of 



this part) shall comply with § 38.23 and 
subpart G of part 38 of this title. 

§ 37.9 Standards for accessible 
transportation facilities. 

(a) For purposes of this part, a 
transportation facility shall be 
considered to be readily accessible to 
and usable by individuals with 
disabilities if it meets the requirements 
of this part and the standards set forth 
in appendix A to this part. 

(b) Facility alterations begun before 
January 26, 1992, in a good faith effort to 
make a facility accessible to individuals 
v.'ith disabilities may be used to meet 
the key station requirements set forth in 
§§ 37.47 and 37,51 of this part, even if 
these alterations are not consistent with 
the standards set forth in appendix A to 
this part, if the modifications complied 
with the Uniform Federal Accessibility 
Standard (UFAS) (41 CFR part 101-19, 
subpart 101-19.6) or ANSI A117.1(1980) 
(American National Standards 
Specification for Making Buildings and 
Facilities Accessible to and Usable by, 
the Physically Handicapped). This 
paragraph applies only to alterations of 
individual elements and spaces and only 
to the extent that provisions covering 
those elements or spaces are contained 
in UFAS or ANSI A117.1, as applicable. 

(c) Public entities shall ensure the 
construction of new bus stop pads are in 
compliance with section 10.2.1.(1) of 
appendix A to this part, to the extent 
construction specifications are within 
their control. 

(d) For purposes of implementing the 
equivalent facilitation provision in 
section 2.2 of appendix A to this part, a 
determination of compliance will be 
made by the Administrator or the 
Federal Railroad Administrator, as 
applicable, on a case-by-case basis. An 
entity wishing to employ equivalent 
facilitation in relation to a specification 
of appendix A to this part shall submit 
such a request to UMTA or FRA, as 
applicable, and include the following 
information: 

(1) Entity name, address, contact 
person and telephone; 

(2) Specific provision of appendix A 
with which the entity is unable to 
comply; 

(3) Reasons for inability to comply; 

(4) Alternative method of compliance, 
with demonstration of how the 
alternative meets or exceeds the level of 
accessibility or usability of the facility 
provided in appendix A; and 

(5) Public participation used in 
developing alternative method of 
compliance and input from that 
participation. 



§ 37. 11 Administrative enforcement. 

(a) Recipients of Federal financial 
assistance from the Department of 
Transportation are subject to 
administrative enforcement of the 
requirements of this part under the 
provisions of 49 CFR part 27, subpart F. 

(b) Public entities, whether or not they 
receive Federal financial assistance, 
also are subject to enforcement action 
as provided by the Department of 
justice. 

(c) Private entities, whether or not 
they receive Federal financial 
assistance, are also subject to 
enforcement action as provided in the 
regulations of the Department of justice 
implementing title HI of the ADA (28 
CFR part 36). 

§ 37.13 Effective date for certain vehicle 
lift specifications. 

The vehicle lift specifications 
identified in §§ 38.23(b)(6), 38.83(b)(6), 
38.95(b)(6), and 38.125(b) of this title 
apply to solicitations for vehicles under 
this part after January 25, 1992. 

§§37.15-37.19 [Reserved] 

Subpart B— Applicability 

§ 37.21 Applicability: General. 

(a) This part applies to the following 
entities, whether or not they receive 
F^ederal financial assistance from the 
Department of Transportation: 

(1) Any public entity that provides 
designated public transportation or 
intercity or commuter rail 
transportation; 

(2) Any private entity that provides 
specified public transportation; and 

(3) Any private entity that is not 
primarily engaged in the business of 
transporting people but operates a 
demand responsive or fixed route 
system. 

(b) For entities receiving Federal 
financial assistance from the 
Department of Transportation, 
compliance with applicable 
requirements of this part is a condition 
of compliance with section 504 of the 
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and of 
receiving financial assistance. 

(c) Entities to which this part applies 
also may be subject to ADA regulations 
of the Department of justice (28 CFR 
parts 35 or 36, as applicable). The 
provisions of this part shall be 
interpreted in a manner that will make 
them consistent with applicable 
Department of Justice regulations. In any 
case of apparent inconsistency, the 
provisions of this part shall prevail. 



45626 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



§ 37.23 Service under contract. 

(d) When a public entity enters into a 
contractual or other arrangement or 
relationship with a private entity to 
operate fixed route or demand 
responsive service, the public entity 
shall ensure that the private entity 
meets the requirements of this part that 
would apply to the public entity if the 
public entity itself provided the service. 

(b) A private entity which purchases 
or leases new, used, or remanufactured 
vehicles, or remanufactures vehicles, for 
use, or in contemplation of use, in fixed 
route or demand responsive service 
under contract or other arrangement or 
relationship with a public entity, shall 
acquire accessible vehicles in all 
situations in which the public entity 
itself would be required to do so by this 
part. 

(c) A public entity which enters into a 
contractual o: other arrangement or 
relationship \- ith a private entity to 
provide fixed route service shall ensure 
that the percentage of accessible 
vehicles operated by the public entity in 
its overall fixed route or demand 
responsive fleet is not diminished as a 
result. 

(d) A private entity that provides 
fixed route or demand responsive 
transportation service under contract or 
other arrangement with another private 
entity shall be governed, for purposes of 
the transportation service involved, by 
the provisions of this part applicable to 
the other entity. 

§ 37.25 University transportation systems. 

(a) Transportation services operated 
by private institutions of higher 
education are subject to the provisions 
of this part governing private entities not 
primarily engaged in the business of 
transporting people. 

(b) Transportation systems operated 
by public institutions of higher 
education are subject to the provisions 
of this part governing public entities. If a 
public institution of higher education 
operates a fixed route system, the 
requirements of this part governing 
commuter bus service apply to that 
system. 

§ 37.27 Transportation for elementary and 
secondary education systems. 

(a) The requirements of this part do 
not apply to public school 
transportation. 

(b) The requirements of this part do 
not apply to the transportation of school 
children to and from a private 
elementary or secondary school, and its 
school-related activities, if the school is 
a recipient of Federal financial 
assistance, subject to the provisions of 
section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 



1973, and is providing transportation 
service to students with disabilities 
equivalent to that provided to students 
without disabilities. The test of 
equivalence is the same as that provided 
in § 37.105. If the school does not meet 
the criteria of this paragraph for 
exemption from the requirements of this 
part, it is subject to the requirements of 
this part for private entities not 
primarily engaged in transporting 
people. 

§ 37.29 Private entities providing taxi 
service. 

(a) Providers of taxi service are 
subject to the requirements of this part 
for private entities primarily engaged in 
the business of transporting people 
which provide demand responsive 
service. 

(b) Providers of taxi service are not 
required to purchase or lease accessible 
automobiles. When a provider of taxi 
service purchases or leases a vehicle 
other than an automobile, the vehicle is 
required to be accessible unless the 
provider demonstrates equivalency as 
provided in § 37.105 of this part. A 
provider of taxi service is not required 
to purchase vehicles other than 
automobiles in order to have a number 
of accessible vehicles in its fleet. 

(c) Private entities providing taxi 
service shall not discriminate against 
individuals with disabilities by actions 
including, but not limited to, refusing to 
provide service to individuals with 
disabilities who can use taxi vehicles, 
refusing to assist with the stowing of 
mobility devices, and charging higher 
fares or fees for carrying individuals 
with disabilities and their equipment 
than are charged to other persons. 

§37.31 Vanpools. 

Vanpool systems which are operated 
by public entities, or in which public 
entities own or purchase or lease the 
vehicles, are subject to the requirements 
of this part for demand responsive 
service for the general public operated 
by public entities. A vanpool system in 
this category is deemed to be providing 
equivalent service to individuals with 
disabilities if a vehicle that an 
individual with disabilities can use is 
made available to and used by a 
vanpool in which such an individual 
chooses to participate. 

§ 37.33 Airport transportation systems. 

(a) Transportation systems operated 
by public airport operators, which 
provide designated public transportation 
and connect parking lots and terminals 
or provide transportation among 
terminals, are subject to the 
requirements of this part for fixed route 



or demand responsive systems, as 
applicable, operated by public entities. 
Public airports which operate fixed 
route transportation systems are subject 
to the requirements of this part for 
commuter bus service operated by 
public entities. The provision by an 
airport of additional accommodations 
(e.g., parking spaces in a close-in lot) is 
not a substitute for meeting the 
requirements of this part. 

(b) Fixed-route transportation systems 
operated by public airport operators 
between the airport and a limited 
number of destinations in the area it 
serves are subject to the provisions of 
this part for commuter bus systems 
operated by public entities. 

(c) Private jitney or shuttle services 
that provide transportation between an 
airport and destinations in the area it 
serves in a route-deviation or other 
variable mode are subject to the 
requirements of this part for private 
entities primarily engaged in the 
business of transporting people which 
provide demand responsive service. 
They may meet equivalency 
requirements by such means as sharing 
or pooling accessible vehicles among 
operators, in a way that ensures the 
provision of equivalent service. 

§ 37.35 Supplemental service for other 
transportation modes. 

(a) Transportation service provided 
by bus or other vehicle by an intercity 
commuter or rail operator, as an 
extension of or supplement to its rail 
service, and which connects an intercity 
rail station and limited other points, is 
subject to the requirements of this part 
for fixed route commuter bus service 
operated by a public entity. 

(bj Dedicated bus service to commuter 
rail systems, with through ticketing 
arrangements and which is available 
only to users of the commuter rail 
system, is subject to the requirements of 
this part for fixed route commuter bus 
service operated by a public entity. 

§ 37.37 Other applications. 

(a) A private entity does not become 
subject to the requirements of this part 
for public entities, because it receives an 
operating subsidy from, is regulated by, 
or is granted a franchise or permit to 
operate by a public entity. 

(b) Shuttle systems and other 
transportation services operated by 
privately-owned hotels, car rental 
agencies, historical or theme parks, and 
other public accommodations are 
subject to the requirements of this part 
for private entities not primarily 
engaged in the business of transporting 
people. Either the requirements for 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45627 



demand responsive or fixed route 
service may apply, depending upon the 
characteristics of each individual 
system of transportation. 

(c) Conveyances used by members of 
the public primarily for recreational 
purposes rather than for transporation 
(e.g., amusement park rides, ski lifts, or 
historic rail cars or trolleys operated in 
museum settings) are not subject to the 
requirements of this part. Such 
conveyances are subject to Department 
of Justice regulations implementing title 

II or title III of the ADA (28 CFR part 35 
or 36), as applicable. 

(d) Transportation services provided 
by an employer solely for its own 
employees are not subject to the 
requirements of this part. Such services 
are subject to the regulations of the 
Equal Employment Opportunity 
Commission under title I of the ADA (29 
CFR part 1630) and, with respect to 
public entities, the regulations of the 
Department of justice under title II of 
the ADA (28 CFR part 35). 

(e) Transportation systems operated 
by private clubs or establishments 
exempted from coverage under title II of 
the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 
2000-a(e)) or religious organizations or 
entities controlled by religious 
organizations are not subject to the 
requirements of this part. 

(f) If a parent private company is not 
primarily engaged in the business of 
transporting people, or is not a place of 
public accommodation, but a subsidiary 
company or an operationally distinct 
segment of the company is primarily 
engaged in the business of transporting 
people, the transportation service 
provided by the subsidiary or segment is 
subject to the requirements of this part 
for private entities primarily engaged in 
the business of transporting people. 

(g) High-speed rail systems operated 
by public entities are subject to the 
requirements of this part governing 
intercity rail systems. 

(h) Private rail systems providing 
fixed route or specified public 
transportation service are subject to the 
requirements of § 37.107 with respect to 
the acquisition of rail passenger cars. 
Such systems are subject to the 
requirements of the regulations of the 
Department of justice implementing title 

III of the ADA (28 CFR part 36) with 
respect to stations and other facilities. 

§37.39 [Reserved] 

Subpart C— Transportation Facilities 

§ 37.41 Construction of transportation 
facilities by public entities. 

A public entity shall construct any 
new facility to be used in providing 
designated public transportation 



services so that the facility is readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities, including individuals 
who use wheelchairs. This requirement 
also applies to the construction of a new 
station for use in intercity or commuter 
rail transportation. For purposes of this 
section, a facility or station is "new" if 
its construction begins (i.e., issuance of 
notice to proceed) after January 25, 1992, 
or, in the case of intercity or commuter 
rail stations, after October 7, 1991. 

§ 37.43 Alteration of transportation 
facilities by public entities. 

(a) (1) When a public entity alters an 
existing facility or a part of an existing 
facility used in providing designated 
public transportation services in a way 
that affects or could affect the usability 
of the facility or part of the facility, the 
entity shall make the alterations (or 
ensure that the alterations are made) in 
such a manner, to the maximum extent 
feasible, that the altered portions of the 
facility are readily accessible to and 
usable by individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use 
wheelchairs, upon the completion of 
such alterations. 

(2) When a public entity undertakes 
an alteration that affects or could affect 
the usability of or access to an area of a 
facility containing a primary function, 
the entity shall make the alteration in 
such a manner that, to the maximum 
extent feasible, the path of travel to the 
altered area and the bathrooms, 
telephones, and drinking fountains 
serving the altered area are readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities, including individuals 
who use wheelchairs, upon completion 
of the alterations. Provided, that 
alterations to the path of travel, drinking 
fountains, telephones and bathrooms are 
not required to be made readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities, including individuals 
who use wheelchairs, if the cost and 
scope of doing so would be 
disproportionate. 

(3) The requirements of this paragraph 
also apply to the alteration of existing 
intercity or commuter rail stations by 
the responsible person for, owner of, or 
person in control of the station. 

(4) The requirements of this section 
apply to any alteration which begins 
(i.e., issuance of notice to proceed or 
work order, as applicable) after January 
25, 1992, or, in the case of intercity and 
commuter rail stations, after October 7, 
1991. 

(b) As used in this section, the phrase 
to the maximum extent feasible applies 
to the occasional case where the nature 
of an existing facility makes it 
impossible to comply fully with 



applicable accessibility standards 
through a planned alteration. In these 
circumstances, the entity shall provide 
the maximum physical accessibility 
feasible. Any altered features of the 
facility or portion of the facility that can 
be made accessible shall be made 
accessible. If providing accessibility to 
certain individuals with disabilities (e.g., 
those who use wheelchairs) would not 
be feasible, the facility shall be made 
accessible to individuals with other 
types of disabilities (e.g., those who use 
crutches, those who have impaired 
vision or hearing, or those who have 
other impairments). 

(c) As used in this section, a primary 
function is a major activity for which the 
facility is intended. Areas of 
transportation facilities that involve 
primary functions include, but are not 
necessarily limited to, ticket purchase 
and collection areas, passenger waiting 
areas, train or bus platforms, baggage 
checking and return areas and 
employment areas (except those 
involving non-occupiable spaces 
accessed only by ladders, catwalks, 
crawl spaces, very narrow 
passageways, or freight (non-passenger) 
elevators which are frequented only by 
repair personnel). 

(d) As used in this section, a "path of 
travel" includes a continuous, 
unobstructed way of pedestrian passage 
by means of which the altered area may 
be approached, entered, and exited, and 
which connects the altered area with an 
exterior approach (including sidewalks, 
parking areas, and streets), an entrance 
to the facility, and other parts of the 
facility. The term also includes the 
restrooms, telephones, and drinking 
fountains serving the altered area. An 
accessible path of travel may include 
walks and sidewalks, curb ramps and 
other interior or exterior pedestrian 
ramps, clear floor paths through 
corridors, waiting areas, concourses, 
and other improved areas, parking 
access aisles, elevators and lifts, 
bridges, tunnels, or other passageways 
between platforms, or a combination of 
these and other elements. 

(e) (1) Alterations made to provide an 
accessible path of travel to the altered 
area will be deemed disproportionate to 
the overall alteration when the cost 
exceeds 20 percent of the cost of the 
alteration to the primary function area 
(without regard to the costs of 
accessibility modifications). 

(2) Costs that may be counted as 
expenditures required to provide an 
accessible path of travel include: 

(i) Costs associated with providing an 
accessible entrance and an accessible 



45628 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



route to the altered area (e.g., widening 
doorways and installing ramps); 

(ii) Costs associated with making 
restrooms accessible (e.g., grab bars, 
enlarged toilet stalls, accessible faucet 
controls); 

(iii) Costs associated with providing 
accessible telephones (e.g., relocation of 
phones to an accessible height, 
installation of amplification devices or 
TDDs); 

(iv) Costs associated with relocating 
an inaccessible drinking fountain 

(f) (1) When the cost of alterations 
necessary to make a path of travel to the 
altered area fully accessible is 
disproportionate to the cost of the 
overall alteration, then such areas shall 
be make accessible to the maximum 
extent without resulting in 
disproportionate costs; 

(2) In this situation, the public entity 
should give priority to accessible 
elements that will provide the greatest 
access, in the following order: 

(i) An accessible entrance; 

(ii) An accessible route to the altered 
area; 

(iii) At least one accessible restroom 
for each sex or a single unisex restroom 
(where there are one or more 
restrooms); 

(iv) Accessible telephones; 

(v) Accessibie drinking fountains; 

(vi) When possible, other accessible 
elements (e.g., parking, storage, alarms). 

(g) If a public entity performs a series 
of small alterations to the area served 
by a single path of travel rather than 
making the alterations as part of a single 
undertaking, it shall nonetheless be 
responsible for providing an accessible 
path of travel. 

(h)(1) If an area containing a primary 
function has been altered without 
providing an accessible path of travel to 
that area, and subsequent alterations of 
that area, or a different area on the 
same path of travel, are undertaken 
within three years of the original 
alteration, the total cost of alteration to 
the primary function areas on that path 
of travel during the preceding three year 
period shall be considered in 
determining whether the cost of making 
that path of travel is disproportionate; 

(2) For the first three years after 
January 26, 1992, only alterations 
undertaken between that date and the 
date of the alteration at issue shall be 
considered in determining if the cost of 
providing accessible features is 
disproportionate to the overall cost of 
the alteration. 

(3) Only alterations undertaken after 
January 26, 1992, shall be considered in 
determining if the cost of providing an 
accessible path of travel is 



disproportionate to the overall cost of 
the alteration. 

§ 37.45 Constructon and alteration of 
transportation facilities by private entities. 

In constructing and altermg transit 
facilities, private entities shall comply 
with the regulations of the Department 
of Justice implementing Title III of the 
ADA (28CFR part 36). 

§ 37.47 Key stations in light and rapid rail 
systems. 

(a) Each public entity that provides 
designated public transportation by 
means of a light or rapid rail system 
shall make key stations on its system 
readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs. This 
requirement is separate from and in 
addition to requirements set forth in 

§ 37.43 of this part. 

(b) Each public entity shall determine 
which stations on its system are key 
stations. The entity shall identify key 
stations, using the planning and public 
participation process set forth in 
paragraph (d) of this section, and taking 
into consideration the following criteria: 

(1) Stations where passenger 
boardings exceed average station 
passenger boardings on the rail system 
by at least fifteen percent, unless such a 
station is close to another accessible 
station; 

(2) Transfer stations on a rail line or 
between rail lines; 

(3) Major interchange points with 
other transportation modes, including 
stations connecting with major parking 
facilities, bus terminals, intercity or 
commuter rail stations, passenger vessel 
terminals, or airports; 

(4) End stations, unless an end'station 
is close to another accessible station; 
and 

(5) Stations serving major activity 
centers, such as employment or 
government centers, institutions of 
higher education, hospitals or other 
major health care facilities, or other 
facilities that are major trip generators 
for individuals with disabilities. 

(c)(1) Unless the entity receives an 
extension under paragraph (c)(2) of this 
section, the public entity shall achieve 
accessibility of key stations as soon as 
practicable, but in no case later than 
July 26, 1993. 

(2) The UMTA Administrator may 
grant an extension of this completion 
date for key station accessibility for a 
period up to July 26, 2020, provided that 
two-thirds of key stations are made 
accessible by July 26, 2010. Extensions 
may be granted as provided in 
paragraph (e) of this section. 



(d) The public entity shall develop a 
plan for compliance for this section. The 
plan shall be submitted to the 
appropriate UMTA regional office by 
July 26, 1992. (See appendix B to this 
part for list.) 

(1) The public entity shall consult with 
individuals with disabilities affected by 
the plan. The public entity also shall 
hold at least one public hearing on the 
plan and solicit comments on it. The 
plan submitted to UMTA shall document 
this public participation, including 
summaries of the consultation with 
individuals with disabilities and the 
comments received at the hearing and 
during the comment period. The plan 
also shall summarize the public entity's 
responses to the comments and 
consultation. 

(2) The plan shall establish milestones 
for the achievement of required 
accessibility of key stations, consistent 
with the requirements of this section. 

(e) A public entity wishing to apply 
for an extension of the July 26, 1993, 
deadline for key station accessibility 
shall include a request for an extension 
with its plan submitted to UMTA under 
paragraph (d) of this section. Extensions 
may be granted only with respect to key 
stations which need extraordinarily 
expensive structural changes to, or 
replacement of, existing facilities (e.g., 
installations of elevators, raising the 
entire passenger platform, or alterations 
of similar magnitude and cost). Requests 
for extensions shall provide for 
completion of key station accessibility 
within the time limits set forth in 
paragraph (c) of this section. The UMTA 
Administrator may approve, approve 
with conditions, modify, or disapprove 
any request for an extension. 

§ 37.49 Designation of responsible 
person(8) for intercity and commuter rail 
stations. 

(a) The responsible person(3) 
designated in accordance with this 
section shall bear the legal and financial 
responsibility for making a key station 
accessible in the same proportion as 
determined under this section. 

(b) In the case of a station more than 
fifty percent of which is owned by a 
public entity, the public entity is the 
responsible party. 

(c) In the case of a station more than 
fifty percent of which is owned by a 
private entity the persons providing 
commuter or intercity rail service to the 
station are the responsible parties, in a 
proportion equal to the percentage of all 
passenger boardings at the station 
attributable to the service of each, over 
the entire period during which the 
station is made accessible. 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45629 



(d) In the case of a station of which no 
entity owns more than fifty percent, the 
owners of the station (other than private 
entity owners) and persons providing 
intercity or commuter rail service to the 
station are the responsible persons. 

(1) Half the responsibility for the 
station shall be assumed by the 
owner{s) of the station. The owners 
shall share this responsibility in 
proportion to their ownership interest in 
the station, over the period during which 
the station is made accessible. 

(2) The person(s) providing commuter 
or intercity rail service to the station 
shall assume the other half of the 
responsibility. These persons shall share 
this responsibility. These persons shall 
share this responsibility for the station 
in a proportion equal to the percentage 
of all passenger boardings at the station 
attributable to the service of each, over 
the period during which the station is 
made accessible. 

(e) Persons who must share 
responsibility for station accessibility 
under paragraphs (c) and (d) of this 
section may, by agreement, allocate 
their responsibility in a manner different 
from that provided in this section. 

§ 37.51 Key stations in commuter raii 
systems. 

(a) The responsible person{s) shall 
make key stations on its system readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities, including individuals 
who use wheelchairs. This requirement 
is separate from and in addition to 
requirements set forth in § 37.43 of this 
part. 

(b) Each commuter authority shall 
determine which stations on its system 
are key stations. The commuter 
authority shall identify key stations, 
using the planning and public 
participation process set forth in 
paragraph (d) of this section, and taking 
into consideration the following criteria: 

(1) Stations where passenger 
boardings exceed average station 
passenger boardings on the rail system 
by at least fifteen percent, unless such a 
station is close to another accessible 
station; 

(2) Transfer stations on a rail line or 
between rail lines; 

(3) Major interchange points with 
other transportation modes, including 
stations connecting with major parking 
facilities, bus terminals, intercity or 
commuter rail stations, passenger vessel 
terminals, or airports; 

(4) End stations, unless an end station 
is close to another accessible station; 
and 

(5) Stations serving major activity 
centers, such as employment or 
government centers, institutions of 



higher education, hospitals or other 
major health care facilities, or other 
facilities that are major trip generators 
for individuals with disabilities. 

(c)(1) Except as provided in this 
paragraph, the responsible person(s) 
shall achieve accessibility of key 
stations as soon as practicable, but in no 
case later than July 26, 1993. 

(2) The UMTA Administrator may 
grant an extension of this deadline for 
key station accessibility for a period up 
to July 26, 2010. Extensions may be 
granted as provided in paragraph (e) of 
this section. 

(d) The commuter authority and 
responsible person(s) for stations 
involved shall develop a plan for 
compliance for this section. This plan 
shall be completed and submitted to 
UMTA by July 26, 1992. 

(1) The commuter authority and 
responsible person(s) shall consult with 
individuals with disabilities affected by 
the plan. The commuter authority and 
responsible person(s) also shall hold at 
least one public hearing on the plan and 
solicit comments on it. The plan shall 
document this public participation, 
including summaries of the consultation 
with individuals with disabilities and 
the comments received at the hearing 
and during the comment period. The 
plan also shall summarize the 
responsible person(s) responses to the 
comments and consultation. 

(2) The plan shall establish milestones 
for the achievement of required 
accessibility of key stations, consistent 
with the requirements of this section. 

(3) The commuter authority and 
responsible person(s) of each key 
station identified in the plan shall, by 
mutual agreement, designate a project 
manager for the purpose of undertaking 
the work of making the key station 
accessible. 

(e) Any commuter authority and/or 
responsible person(s) wishing to apply 
for an extension of the July 26, 1993, 
deadline for key station accessibility 
shall include a request for extension 
with its plan submitted to under 
paragraph (d) of this section. Extensions 
may be granted only in a case where 
raising the entire passenger platform is 
the only means available of attaining 
accessibility or where other 
extraordinarily expensive structural 
changes (e.g., installations of elevators, 
or alterations of magnitude and cost 
similar to installing an elevator or 
raising the entire passenger platform) 
are necessary to attain accessibility. 
Requests for extensions shall provide 
for completion of key station 
accessibility within the time limits set 
forth in paragraph (c) of this section. 
The UMTA Administrator may approve, 



approve with conditions, modify, or 
disapprove any request for an extension. 

§ 37.53 Exception for New York and 
Philadelphia. 

(a) The following agreements entered 
into in New York, New York, and 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, contain lists 
of key stations for the public entities 
that are a party to those agreements for 
those service lines identified in the 
agreements. The identification of key 
stations under these agreements is 
deemed to be in compliance with the 
requirements of this Subpart. 

(1) Settlement Agreement by and 
among Eastern Paralyzed Veterans 
Association, Inc., James J. Peters, 
Terrance Moakley, and Denise Figueroa, 
individually and as representatives of 
the class of all persons similarly 
situated (collectively, "the EPVA class 
representatives"); and Metropolitan 
Transportation Authority, New York 
City Transit Authority, and Manhattan 
and Bronx Surface Transit Operating 
Authority (October 4, 1984). 

(2) Settlement Agreement by and 
between Eastern Paralyzed Veterans 
Association of Pennsylvania, Inc., and 
James J. Peters, individually; and Dudley 
R. Sykes, as Commissioner of the 
Philadelphia Department of Public 
Property, and his successors in office 
and the City of Philadelphia (collectively 
"the City") and Southeastern 
Pennsylvania Transportation Authority 
(June 28, 1989). 

(b) To comply with §§ 37.47 (b) and 
(d) or 37.51 (b) and (d) of this part, the 
entities named in the agreements are 
required to use their public participation 
and planning processes only to develop 
and submit to the UMTA Administrator 
plans for timely completion of key 
station accessibilty, as provided in this 
subpart. 

(c) In making accessible the key 
stations identified under the agreements 
cited in this section, the entities named 
in the agreements are subject to the 
requirements of § 37.9 of this part. 

§ 37.55 Intercity rail station accessibility. 

All intercity rail stations shall be 
made readily accessible to and usable 
by individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use 
wheelchairs, as soon as practicable, but 
in no event later than July 26, 2010. This 
requirement is separate from and in 
addition to requirements set forth m 
§ 37.43 of this part. 

§ 37.57 Required cooperation. 

An owner or person in control of an 
intercity or commuter rail station shall 
provide reasonable cooperation to the 



45630 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday, September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



responsible person(s) for that station 
with respect to the efforts of the 
responsible person to comply with the 
requirements of this subpart. 

§ 37.59 Differences in accessibility 
completion dates. 

Where different completion dates for 
accessible stations are established 
under this part for a station or portions 
of a station (e.g., extensions of different 
periods of time for a station which 
serves both rapid and commuter rail 
systems), accesssibility to the following 
elements of the station shall be achieved 
by the earlier of the completion dates 
involved: 

(a) Common elements of the station: 

(b) Portions of the facility directly 
serving the rail system with the earlier 
completion date; and 

(c) An accessible path from common 
elements of the station to portions of the 
facility dirtctly serving the rail system 
with the ea.-lier completion date. 

§ 37.61 Public transportation programs 
and activities in existing facilities. 

(a) A public entity shall operate a 
designated public transportation 
program or activity conducted in an 
existing facility so that, when viewed in 
its entirety, the program or activity is 
readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities. 

(b) This section does not require a 
public entity to make structural changes 
to existing facilities in order to make the 
facilities accessible by individuals who 
use wheelchairs, unless and to the 
extent required by § 37.43 (with respect 
to alterations) or §§ 37.47 or 37.51 of this 
part (with respect to key stations). 
Entities shall comply with other 
applicable accessibility requirements for 
such facilities. 

(c) Public entities, with respect to 
facilities that, as provided in paragraph 
(b) of this section, are not required to be 
made accessible to individuals who use 
wheelchairs, are not required to provide 
to such individuals services made 
available to the general public at such 
facilities when the individuals could not 
utilize or benefit from the services. 

§§37.63-37.69 [Reserved! 

Subpart D— Acquisition of Accessible 
Vehicles By Public Entities 

§ 37.71 Pufctiase or lease of new non-rail 
vehicles by public entities operating fixed 
route systems. 

(a) Except as provided elsewhere in 
this section, each public entity operating 
a fixed route system making a 
solicitation after August 25, 1990, to 
purchase or lease a new bus or other 
new vehicle for use on the system, shall 



ensure that the vehicle is readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities, including individuals 
who use wheelchairs. 

(b) A pubilc entity may purchase or 
lease a new bus that is not readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities, including individuals 
who use wheelchairs, if it applies for, 
and the UMTA Administrator grants, a 
waiver as provided for in this section. 

(c) Before submitting a request for 
such a waiver, the public entity shall 
hold at least one public hearing 
concerning the proposed request. 

(d) The UNfTA Administrator may 
grant a request for such a waiver if the 
public entity demonstrates to the UMTA 
Administrator's satisfaction that — 

(1) The initial solicitation for new 
buses made by the public entity 
specified that all new buses were to be 
lift-equipped and were to be otherwise 
accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities; 

(2) Hydraulic, electromechanical, or 
other lifts for such new buses could not 
be provided by any qualified lift 
manufacturer to the manufacturer of 
such new buses in sufficient time to 
comply with the solicitation; and 

(3) Any further delay in purchasing 
new buses equipped with such 
necessary lifts would significantly 
impair transportation services in the 
community served by the public entity. 

(e) The public entity shall include with 
its waiver request a copy of the initial 
solicitation and written documentation 
from the bus manufacturer of its good 
faith efforts to obtain lifts in time to 
comply with the solicitation, and a full 
justification for the assertion that the 
delay in bus procurement needed to 
obtain a lift-equipped bus would 
significantly impair transportation 
services in the community. This 
documentation shall include a specific 
date at which the lifts could be supplied, 
copies of advertisements in trade 
publications and inquiries to trade 
associations seeking lifts, and 
documentation of the public hearing. 

(f) Any waiver granted by the UMTA 
Administrator under this section shall 
be subject to the following conditions: 

(1) The waiver shall apply only to the 
particular bus delivery to whicfithe 
waiver request pertains; 

(2) The waiver shall include a 
termination date, which will be based 
on information concerning when lifts 
will become available for installation on 
the new buses the public entity is 
purchasing. Buses delivered after this 
date, even though procured under a 
solicitation to which a waiver applied, 
shall be equipped with lifts; 



(3) Any bus obtained subject to the 
waiver shall be capable of accepting a . 
lift, and the public entity shall install a ' 
lift as soon as one becomes available; 

(4) Such other terms and conditions as 
the UMTA Administrator may impose. 

(g)(1) When the UMTA Administrator 
grants a waiver under this section, he/ 
she shall promptly notify the 
appropriate committees of Congress. 

(2) If the UMTA Administrator has 
reasonable cause to believe that a 
public entity fraudulently applied for a 
waiver under this section, the UMTA 
Administrator shall: 

(i) Cancel the waiver if it is still in 
effect; and 

(ii) Take other appropriate action. 

§ 37.73 Purchase or lease of used non-rail 
vehicles by public entities operating fixed 
route systems. 

(a) Except as provided elsewhere in 
this section, each public entity operating 
a fixed route system purchasing or 
leasing, after August 25, 1990, a used bus 
or other used vehicle for use on the 
system, shall ensure that the vehicle is 
readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs. 

(b) A public entity may purchase or , 
lease a used vehicle for use on its fixed 
route system that is not readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities if, after making 
demonstrated good faith efforts to 
obtain an accessible vehicle, it is unable 
to do so. 

(c) Good faith efforts shall include at 
least the following steps: 

(1) An initial solicitation for used 
vehicles specifying that all used vehicles 
are to be lift-equipped and otherwise 
accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities, or, if an initial 
solicitation is not used, a documented 
communication so stating; 

(2) A nationwide search for accessible 
vehicles, involving specific inquiries to 
used vehicle dealers and other transit 
providers; and 

(3) Advertising in trade publications 
and contacting trade associations. 

(d) Each public entity purchasing or 
leasing used vehicles that are not 
readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities shall retain 
documentation of the specific good faith 
efforts it made for three years from the 
date the vehicles were purchased. These 
records shall be made available, on j 
request, to the UMTA Administrator and 
the public. 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45631 



§ 37.75 Remanufacture of non-rall 
vehicles and purchase or lease of 
renwnufactured non-rail vehicles by public 
entities operating fixed route systems. 

(a) This section applies to any public 
entity operating a fixed route system 
which takes one of the following 
actions: 

(1) After August 25, 1990, 
remanufactures a bus or other vehicle so 
as to extend its useful life for five years 
or more or makes a solicitation for such 
remanufacturing; or 

(2) Purchases or leases a bus or other 
vehicle which has been remanufactured 
so as to extend its useful life for five 
years or more, where the purchase or 
lease occurs after August 25, 1990, and 
during the period in which the useful life 
of the vehicle is extended. 

(b) Vehicles acquired through the 
actions Hsted in paragraph (a) of this 
section shall, to the maximum extent 
feasible, be readily accessible to and 
usable by individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use 
wheelchairs. 

(c) For purposes of this section, it 
shall be considered feasible to 
remanufacture a bus or other motor 
vehicle so as to be readily accessible to 
and usable by individuals with 
disabilities, including individuals who 
use wheelchairs, unless an engineering 
analysis demonstrates that including 
accessibility features required by this 
part would have a significant adverse 
effect on the structural integrity of the 
vehicle. 

(d) If a public entity operates a fixed 
route system, any segment of which is 
included on the National Register of 
Historic Places, and if making a vehicle 
of historic character used solely on such 
segment readily accessible to and 
usable by individuals with disabilities 
would significantly alter the historic 
character of such vehicle, the public 
entity has only to make (or purchase or 
lease a remanufactured vehicle with) 
those modifications to make the vehicle 
accessible which do not alter the 
historic character of such vehicle, in 
consultation with the National Register 
of Historic Places. 

(e) A public entity operating a fixed 
route system as described in paragraph 
(d) of this section may apply in writing 
to the UMTA Administrator for a 
determination of the historic character 
of the vehicle. The UMTA Administrator 
shall refer such requests to the National 
Register of Historic Places, and shall 
rely on its advice in making 
determinations of the historic character 
of the vehicle. 



§ 37.77 Purchase or lease of new non-rail 
vehicles by public entitles operating a 
demand responsive system for the general 
public. 

(a) Except as provided in this section, 
a public entity operating a demand 
responsive system for the general public 
making a solicitation after August 25, 
1990, to purchase or lease a new bus or 
other new vehicle for use on the system, 
shall ensure that the vehicle is readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities, including individuals 
who use wheelchairs. 

(b) If the system, when viewed in its 
entirety, provides a level of service to 
individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs, 
equivalent to the level of service it 
provides to individuals without 
disabilities, it may purchase new 
vehicles that are not readily accessible 
to and usable by individuals with 
disabilities. 

(c) For purposes of this section, a 
demand responsive system, when 
viewed in its entirety, shall be deemed 
to provide equivalent service if the 
service available to individuals with 
disabilities, including individuals who 
use wheelchairs, is provided in the most 
integrated setting appropriate to the 
needs of the individual and is equivalent 
to the service provided other individuals 
with respect to the following service 
characteristics: 

(1) Response time; 

(2) Fares; 

(3) Geographic area of service; 

(4) Hours and days of service; 

(5) Restrictions or priorities based on 
trip purpose; 

(6) Availability of information and 
reservations capability; and 

(7) Any constraints on capacity or 
service availability. 

(d) A public entity receiving UMTA 
funds under section 18 or a public entity 
in a small urbanized area which 
receives UMTA funds under Section 9 
from a state administering agency rather 
than directly from UMTA, which 
determines that its service to individuals 
with disabilities is equivalent to that 
provided other persons shall, before any 
procurement of an inaccessible vehicle, 
file with the appropriate state program 
office a certificate that it provides 
equivalent service meeting the 
standards of paragraph (c) of this 
section. Public entities operating 
demand responsive service receiving 
funds under any other section of the 
UMT Act shall file the certificate with 
the appropriate UMTA regional office. A 
public entity which does not receive 
UMTA funds shall make such a 
certificate and retain it in its files, 
subject to inspection on request of 



UMTA. All certificates under this 
paragraph may be made and filed in 
connection with a particular 
procurement or in advance of a 
procurement; however, no certificate 
shall be valid for more than one year. A 
copy of the required certificate is found 
in appendix C to this part. 

(e) The waiver mechanism set forth in 
§ 37.71{bHg) (unavailability of lifts) of 
this subpart shall also be available to 
public entities operating a demand 
responsive system for the general public. 

§ 37.79 Purchase or lease of new rail 
vehicles by public entities operating rapid 
or light rail systems. 

Each public entity operating a rapid or 
light rail system making a solicitation 
after August 25, 1990. to purchase or 
lease a new rapid or light rail vehicle for 
use on the system shall ensure that the 
vehicle is readily accessible to and 
usable by individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use 
wheelchairs. 

§ 37.81 Purchase or lease of used rail 
vehicles by public entities operating rapid 
or light rail systems. 

(a) Except as provided elsewhere in 
this section, each public entity operating 
a rapid or light rail system which, after 
August 25, 1990, purchases or leases a 
used rapid or light rail vehicle for use on 
the system shall ensure that the vehicle 
is readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs. 

(b) A public entity may purchase or 
lease a used rapid or light rail vehicle 
for use on its rapid or light rail system 
that is not readily accessible to and 
usable by individuals if, after making 
demonstrated good faith efforts to 
obtain an accessible vehicle, it is unable 
to do so. 

(c) Good faith efforts shall include at 
least the following steps: 

(1) The initial solicitation for used 
vehicles made by the public entity 
specifying that all used vehicles were to 
be accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, or, if a 
solicitation is not used, a documented 
communication so stating; 

(2) A nationwide search for accessible 
vehicles, involving specific inquiries to 
manufacturers and other transit 
providers; and 

(3) Advertising in trade publications 
and contacting trade associations. 

(d) Each public entity purchasing or 
leasing used rapid or light rail vehicles 
that are not readily accessible to and 
usable by individuals with disabilities 
shall retain documentation of the 
specific good faith efforts it made for 
three years from the date the vehicles 



45632 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



were purchased. These records shall be 
made available, on request, to the 
UMTA Administrator and the public. 

§ 37.83 Remanufacture of rail vehicles and 
purchase or lease of remanufactured rail 
vehicles by public entities operating rapid 
or light rail systems. 

(a) This section applies to any public 
entity operating a rapid or light rail 
system which takes one of the following 
actions: 

(1) After August 25, 1990, 
remanufactures a light or rapid rail 
vehicle so as to extend its useful life for 
five years or more or makes a 
solicitation for such remanufacturing; 

(2) Purchases or leases a light or rapid 
rail vehicle which has been 
remanufactured so as to extend its 
useful life for five years or more, where 
the purchase or lease occurs after 
August 25, 1990, and during the period in 
which the useful life of the vehicle is 
extended. 

(b) Vehicles acquired through the 
actions listed in paragraph (a) of this 
section shall, to the maximum extent 
feasible, be readily accessible to and 
usable by individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use 
wheelchairs. 

(c) For purposes of this section, it 
shall be considered feasible to 
remanufacture a rapid or light rail 
vehicle so as to be readily accessible to 
and usable by individuals with 
disabilities, including individuals who 
use wheelchairs, unless an engineering 
analysis demonstrates that doing so 
would have a significant adverse effect 
on the structural integrity of the vehicle. 

(d) If a public entity operates a rapid 
or light rail system any segment of 
which is included on the National 
Register of Historic Places and if making 
a rapid or light rail vehicle of historic 
character used solely on such segment 
readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities would 
significantly alter the historic character 
of such vehicle, the public entity need 
only make (or purchase or lease a 
remanufactured vehicle with) those 
modifications that do not alter the 
historic character of such vehicle. 

(e) A public entity operating a fixed 
route system as described in paragraph 
(d) of this section may apply in writing 
to the UMTA Administrator for a 
determination of the historic character 
of the vehicle. The UMTA Administrator 
shall refer such requests to the National 
Register of Historic Places and shall rely 
on its advice in making a determination 
of the historic character of the vehicle. 



§ 37.85 Purchase or lease of new intercity 
and commuter rail cars. 

Amtrak or a commuter authority 
making a solicitation after August 25, 
1990, to purchase or lease a new 
intercity or commuter rail car for use on 
the system shall ensure that the vehicle 
is readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs. 

§ 37.87 Purchase or lease of used Intercity 
and commuter rail cars. 

(a) Except as provided elsewhere in 
this section, Amtrak or a commuter 
authority purchasing or leasing a used 
intercity or commuter rail car after 
August 25, 1990, shall ensure that the car 
is readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs. 

(b) Amtrak or a commuter authority 
may purchase or lease a used intercity 
or commuter rail car that is not readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals 
if, after making demonstrated good faith 
efforts to obtain an accessible vehicle, it 
is unable to do so. 

(c) Good faith efforts shall include at 
least the following steps: 

(1) An initial solicitation for used 
vehicles specifying that all used vehicles 
accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities; 

(2) A nationwide search for accessible 
vehicles, involving specific inquiries to 
used vehicle dealers and other transit 
providers; and 

(3) Advertising in trade publications 
and contacting trade associations. 

(d) Amtrak and commuter authorities 
purchasing or leasing used intercity or 
commuter rail cars that are not readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities shall retain 
documentation of the specific good faith 
efforts that were made for three years 
from the date the cars were purchased. 
These records shall be made available, 
to request, to the Federal Railroad 
Administration or UMTA Administrator, 
as applicable. These records shall be 
made available to the public, on request. 

§ 37.89 Remanufacture of Intercity and 
commuter rail cars and purchase or lease 
of remanufactured intercity and commuter 
rail cars. 

(a) This section applies to Amtrak or a 
commuter authority which takes one of 
the following actions: 

(1) Remanufactures an intercity or 
commuter rail car so as to extend its 
useful life for ten years or more; 

(2) Purchases or leases an intercity or 
commuter rail car which has been 
remanufactured so as to extend its 
useful life for ten years or more. 



(b) Intercity and commuter rail cars 
listed in paragraph (a) of this section 
shall, to the maximum extent feasible, 
be readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs. 

(c) For purposes of this section, it 
shall be considered feasible to 
remanufacture an intercity or commuter 
rail car so as to be readily accessible to 
and usable by individuals with 
disabilities, including individuals who 
use wheelchairs, unless an engineering 
analysis demonstrates that 
remanufacturing the car to be accessibh 
would have a significant adverse effect 
on the structural integrity of the car. 

§ 37.9 1 Wheelchair locations and food 
service on intercity rail trains. 

(a) As soon as practicable, but in no 
event later than July 26, 1995, each 
person providing intercity rail service 
shall provide on each train a number of 
spaces — 

(1) To park wheelchairs (to 
accommodate individuals who wish to 
remain in their wheelchairs) equal to no 
less than one half of the number of 
single level rail passenger coaches in th 
train; and 

(2) To fold and store wheelchairs (to 
accommodate individuals who wish to 
transfer to coach seats) equal to not lesi 
than one half the number of single level 
rail passenger coaches in the train. 

(b) As soon as practicable, but in no 
event later than July 26, 2000, each 
person providing intercity rail service 
shall provide on each train a number of 
spaces — 

(1) To park wheelchairs (tb 
accommodate individuals who wish to 
remain in their wheelchairs)' equal to no 
less than the total number of single leve 
rail passenger coaches in the train; and 

(2) To fold and store wheelchairs (to 
accommodate individuals who wish to 
transfer to coach seats) equal to not less 
than the total number of single level rail 
passenger coaches in the train. 

(c) In complying with paragraphs (a) 
and (b) of this section, a person 
providing intercity rail service may not 
provide more than two spaces to park 
wheelchairs nor more than two spaces 
to fold and store wheelchairs in any one 
coach or food service car. 

(d) Unless not practicable, a person 
providing intercity rail transportation 
shall place an accessible car adjacent tc 
the end of a single level dining car 
through which an individual who uses a 
wheelchair may enter. 

(e) On any train in which either a j 
single level or bi-level dining car is used 
to provide food service, a person 
providing intercity rail service shall 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45633 



provide appropriate aids and services to 
ensure that equivalent food service is 
available to individuals with 
disabilities, including individuals who 
use wheelchairs, and to passengers 
traveling with such individuals. 
Appropriate auxiliary aids and services 
include providing a hard surface on 
which to eat. 

(f) This section does not require the 
provision of securement devices on 
intercity rail cars. 

§ 37.93 One car per train rule. 

(a) The definition of accessible for 
purposes of meeting the one car per 
train rule is spelled out in the applicable 
subpart for each transportation system 
type in part 38 of this title. 

(b) Each person providing intercity 
rail service and each commuter rail 
authority shall ensure that, as soon as 
practicable, but in no event later than 
July 26, 1995, that each train has one car 
that is readily accessible to and usable 
by individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use 
wheelchairs. 

(c) Each public entity providing light 
or rapid rail service shall ensure that 
each train, consisting of two or more 
vehicles, includes at least one car that is 
readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs, as 
soon as practicable but in no case later 
than July 25, 1995. 

§ 37.95 Ferries and other passenger 
vessels operated by public entities. 
[Reserved] 

§§37.97-37.99 [Reserved! 

Subpart E— Acquisition of Accessible 
Vehicles By Private Entities 

§ 37.101 Purchase or lease of vehicles by 
private entitles not primarily engaged In the 
business of transporting people. 

(a) Application. This section applies 
to all purchases or leases of vehicles by 
private entities which are not primarily 
engaged in the business of transporting 
people, in which a solicitation for the 
vehicle is made after August 25, 1990. 

(b) Fixed Route System. Vehicle 
Capacity Over 16. If the entity operates 
a fixed route system and purchases or 
leases a vehicle with a seating capacity 
of over 16 passengers (including the 
driver) for use on the system, it shall 
ensure that the vehicle is readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities, including individuals 
who use wheelchairs. 

{c] Fixed Route System. Vehicle 
Capacity of 16 or Fewer. If the entity 
operates a fixed route system and 
purchases or leases a vehicle with a 



seating capacity of 16 or fewer 
passengers (including the driver) for use 
on the system, it shall ensure that the 
vehicle is readily accessible to and 
usable by individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use 
wheelchairs, unless the system, when 
viewed in its entirety, meets the 
standard for equivalent service of 
§ 37.105 of this part. 

(d) Demand Responsive System, 
Vehicle Capacity Over 16. If the entity 
operates a demand responsive system, 
and purchases or leases a vehicle with a 
seating capacity of over 16 passengers 
(including the driver) for use on the 
system, it shall ensure that the vehicle is 
readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs, unless 
the system, when viewed in its entirety, 
meets the standard for equivalent 
service of § 37.105 of this part. 

§ 37.103 Purchase or lease of new non-rail 
vehicles by private entities primarily 
engaged in the business of transporting 
people. 

(a) Application. This section applies 
to all acquisitions of new vehicles by 
private entities which are primarily 
engaged in the business of transporting 
people and whose operations affect 
commerce, in which a solicitation for the 
vehicle is made (except as provided in 
paragraph (d) of this section) after 
August 25, 1990. 

(b) Fixed Route Systems. If the entity 
operates a fixed route system, and 
purchases or leases a new vehicle other 
than an automobile, a van with a seating 
capacity of less than eight persons 
(including the driver), or an over-the- 
road bus, it shall ensure that the vehicle 
is readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs. 

(c) Demand Responsive Systems. If 
the entity operates a demand responsive 
system, and purchases or leases a new 
vehicle other than an automobile, a van 
with a seating capacity of less than eight 
persons (including the driver), or an 
over-the-road bus, it shall ensure that 
the vehicle is readily accessible to and 
usable by individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use 
wheelchairs, unless the system, when 
viewed in its entirety, meets the 
standard for equivalent service of 

§ 37.105 of this part. 

(d) Vans with a Capacity of Fewer 
than 8 Persons. If the entity operates 
either a fixed route or demand 
responsive system, and purchases or 
leases a new van with a seating 
capacity of fewer than eight persons 
including the driver (the solicitation for 
the vehicle being made after February 



25, 1992), the entity shall ensure that the 
vehicle is readily accessible to and 
usable by individuals with disabilities, 
including individuals who use 
wheelchairs, unless the system, when 
viewed in its entirety, meets the 
standard for equivalent service of 
§ 37.105 of this part. 

§ 37.105 Equivalent service standard. 

For purposes of §§ 37.101 and 37.103 
of this part, a fixed route system or 
demand responsive system, when 
viewed in its entirety, shall be deemed 
to provide equivalent service if the 
service available to individuals with 
disabilities, including individuals who 
use wheelchairs, is provided in the most 
integrated setting appropriate to the 
needs of the individual and is equivalent 
to the service provided other individuals 
with respect to the following service 
characteristics: 

(a) (1) Schedules/headways (if the 
system is fixed route); 

(2) Response time (if the system is 
demand responsive); 

(b) Fares; 

(c) Geographic area of service; 

(d) Hours and days of service; 

(e) Availability of information; 

(f) Reservations capability (if the 
system is demand responsive); 

(g) Any constraints on capacity or 
service availability; 

(h) Restrictions priorities based on 
trip purpose (if the system is demand 
responsive). 

§ 37.107 Acquisition of passenger rail cars 
by private entities primarily engaged in the 
business of transporting people. 

(a) A private entity which is primarily 
engaged in the business of transporting 
people and whose operations affect 
commerce, which makes a solicitation 
after February 25, 1992, to purchase or 
lease a new rail passenger car to be 
used in providing specified public 
transportation, shall ensure that the car 
is readily accessible to, and usable by, 
individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs. The 
accessibility standards in part 38 of this 
title which apply depend upon the type 
of service in which the car will be used. 

(b) Except as provided in paragraph 
(c) of this section, a private entity which 
is primarily engaged in transporting 
people and whose operations affect 
commerce, which remanufactures a rail 
passenger car to be used in providing 
specified public transportation to extend 
its useful life for ten years or more, or 
purchases or leases such a 
remanufactured rail car, shall ensure 
that the rail car, to the maximum extent 
feasible, is made readily accessible to 



45634 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



and usable by individuals with 
disabilities, including individuals who 
use wheelchairs. For purposes of this 
paragraph, it shall be considered 
feasible to remanufacture a rail 
passenger car to be readily accessible to 
and usable by individuals with 
disabilities, including individuals who 
use wheelchairs, unless an engineering 
analysis demonstrates that doing so 
would have a significant adverse effect 
on the structural integrity of the car. 

(c) Compliance with paragraph (b) of 
this section is not required to the extent 
that it would significantly alter the 
historic or antiquated character of a 
historic or antiquated rail passenger car. 
or a rail station served exclusively by 
such cars, or would result in the 
violation of any rule, regulation, 
standard or order issued by the 
Secretary under the Federal Railroad 
Safety Act of 1970. For purposes of this 
section, a historic or antiquated rail 
passenger car means a rail passenger 
car — 

(1) Which is not less than 30 years old 
at the time of its use for transporting 
individuals; 

(2) The manufacturer of which is no 
longer in the business of manufacturing 
rail passenger cars; and 

(3) Which— 

(i) Has a consequential association 
with events or persons significant to the 
past; or 

(ii) Embodies, or is being restored to 
embody, the distinctive characteristics 
of a type of rail passenger car used in 
the past, or to represent a time period 
which has passed. 

§37.109 Ferries and other passenger 
vessels operated by private entities. 
[Reserved] 

§37.111-37.119 (Reserved! 

Subpart F— Paratransit as a 
Complement to Fixed Route Service 

§37.121 Requirement for comparable 
complementary paratransit service. 

(a) Except as provided in paragraph 
(c) of this section, each public entity 
operating a fixed route system shall 
provide paratransit or other special 
service to individuals with disabilities 
that is comparable to the level of service 
provided to individuals without 
disabilities who use the fixed route 
system. 

(b) To be deemed comparable to fixed 
route service, a complementary 
paratransit system shall meet the 
requirements of §§ 37.123-37.133 of this 
subpart. The requirement to comply with 
§ 37.131 may be modified in accordance 
with the provisions of this subpart 
relating to undue financial burden. 



(c) Requirements for complementary 
paratransit do not apply to commuter 

bus, commuter rail, or intercity rail 
systems. 

§ 37.123 ADA paratransit eligibility: 
Standards. 

(a) Public entities required by § 37.121 
of this subpart to provide 
complementary paratransit service shall 
provide the service to the ADA 
paratransit eligible individuals 
described in paragraph (e) of this 
section. 

(b) If an individual meets the 
eligibility criteria of this section with 
respect to some trips but not others, the 
individual shall be ADA paratransit 
eligible only for those trips for which he 
or she meets the criteria. 

(c) Individuals may be ADA 
paratransit eligible on the basis of a 
permanent or temporary disability. 

(d) Public entities may provide 
complementary paratransit service to 
persons other than ADA paratransit 
eligible individuals. However, only the 
cost of service to ADA paratransit 
eligible individuals may be considered 
in a public entity's request for an undue 
financial burden waiver under 

§§ 37.151-37.155 of this part. 

(e) The following individuals are ADA 
paratransit eligible; 

(1) Any individual with a disability 
who is unable, as the result of a physical 
or mental impairment (including a vision 
impairment), and without the assistance 
of another individual (except the 
operator of a wheelchair lift or other 
boarding assistance device), to board, 
ride, or disembark from any vehicle on 
the system which is readily accessible 

to and usable individuals with, 
disabilities. 

(2) Any individual with a disability 
who needs the assistance of a 
wheelchair lift or other boarding 
assistance device and is able, with such 
assistance, to board, ride and disembark 
from any vehicle which is readily 
accessible to and usable by individuals 
with disabilities if the individual wants 
to travel on a route on the system during 
the hours of operation of the system at a 
time, or within a reasonable period of 
such time, when such a vehicle is not 
being used to provide designated public 
transportation on the route. 

(i) An individual is eligible under this 
paragraph with respect to travel on an 
otherwise accessible route on which the 
boarding or disembarking location 
which the individual would use is one at 
which boarding or disembarking from 
the vehicle is precluded as provided in 
§ 37.167(g) of this part. 

(ii) An individual using a common 
wheelchair is eligible under this 



paragraph if the individual's wheelchair 
cannot be accommodated on an existing 
vehicle (e.g., because the vehicle's lift 
does not meet the standards of part 38 c 
this title), even if that vehicle is 
accessible to other individuals with 
disabilities and their mobility 
wheelchairs. 

(iii) With respect to rail systems, an 
individual is eligible under this 
paragraph if the individual could use an 
accessible rail system, but — 

(A) there is not yet one accessible car 
per train on the system; or 

(B) key stations have not yet been 
made accessible. 

(3) Any individual with a disability 
who has a specific impairment-related 
condition which prevents such 
individual from traveling to a boarding 
location or from a disembarking locatioi 
on such system. 

(i) Only a specific impairment-related 
condition which prevents the individual 
from traveling to a boarding location or 
from a disembarking location is a basis 
for eligibility under this paragraph. A 
condition which makes traveling to 
boarding location or from a 
disembarking location more difficult for 
a person with a specific impairment- 
related condition than for an individual 
who does not have the condition, but 
does not prevent the travel, is not a 
basis for eligibility under this paragraph 

(ii) Architectural barriers not under 
the control of the public entity providing 
fixed route service and environmental 
barriers (e.g., distance, terrain, weather) 
do not, standing alone, form a basis for 
eligibility under this paragraph. The 
interaction of such barriers with an 
individual's specific impairment-related 
condition may form a basis for eligibilitj 
under this paragraph, if the effect is to 
prevent the individual from traveling to 
a boarding location or from a 
disembarking location. 

(f) Individuals accompanying an ADA 
paratransit eligible individual shall be 
provided service as follows: 

(1) One other individual 
accompanying the ADA paratransit 
eligible individual shall be provided 
service — 

(i) If the ADA paratransit eligible 
individual is traveling with a personal 
care attendant, the entity shall provide 
service to one other individual in 
addition to the attendant who is 
accompanying the eligible individual; 

(ii) A family member or friend is 
regarded as a person accompanying the 
eligible individual, and not as a personal 
care attendant, unless the family I 

member or friend registered is acting in 
the capacity of a personal care 
attendant; 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45635 



(2) Additional individuals 
accompanying the ADA para transit 
eligible individual shall be provided 
service, provided that space is available 
for them on the paratransit vehicle 
carrying the ADA paratransit eligible 
individual and that transportation of the 
additional individuals will not result in 
a denial of service to ADA paratransit 
eligible individuals; 

(3) In order to be considered as 
"accompanying" the eligible individual 
for purposes of this paragraph (f), the 
other individual(s) shall have the same 
origin and destination as the eligible 
individual. 

§ 37. 1 25 ADA paratransit eligibility: 
Process. 

Each public entity required to provide 
complementary paratransit service by 
§ 37.121 of this part shall establish a 
process for determining ADA 
paratransit eligibility. 

(a) The process shall strictly limit 
ADA paratransit eligibility to 
individuals specified in § 37.123 of this 
part. 

(b) All information about the process, 
materials necessary to apply for 
eligibility, and notices and 
determinations concerning eligibility 
shall be made available in accessible 
formats, upon request. 

(c) If, by a date 21 days following the 
submission of a complete application, 
the entity has not made a determination 
of eligibility, the applicant shall be 
treated as eligible and provided service 
until and unless the entity denies the 
application. 

(d) The entity's determination 
concerning eligibility shall be in writing. 
If the determination is that the 
individual is ineligible, the 
determination shall state the reasons for 
the finding. 

(e) The public entity shall provide 
documentation to each eligible 
individual stating that he or she is "ADA 
Paratransit Eligible." The documentation 
shall include the name of the eligible 
individual, the name of the transit 
provider, the telephone number of the 
entity's paratransit coordinator, an 
expiration date for eligibility, and any 
conditions or limitations on the 
individual's eligibility including the use 
of a personal care attendant. 

(f) The entity may require 
recertification of the eligibility of ADA 
paratransit eligible individuals at 
reasonable intervals. 

(g) The entity shall establish an 
administrative appeal process through 
which individuals who are denied 
eligibility can obtain review of the 
denial. 



(1) The entity may require that an 
appeal be filed within 60 days of the 
denial of an individual's application. 

(2) The process shall include an 
opportunity to be heard and to present 
information and arguments, separation 
of functions (i.e., a decision by a person 
not involved with the initial decision to 
deny eligibility), and written notification 
of the decision, and the reasons for it. 

(3) The entity is not required to 
provide paratransit service to the 
individual pending the determination on 
appeal. However, if the entity has not 
made a decision within 30 days of the 
completion of the appeal process, the 
entity shall provide paratransit service 
from that time until and unless a 
decision to deny the appeal is issued. 

(h) The entity may establish an 
administrative process to suspend, for a 
reasonable period of time, the provision 
of complementary paratransit service to 
ADA eligible individuals who establish 
a pattern or practice of missing 
scheduled trips. 

(1) Trips missed by the individual for 
reasons beyond his or her control 
(including, but not limited to, trips which 
are missed due to operator error) shall 
not be a basis for determining that such 
a pattern or practice exists. 

(2) Before suspending service, the 
entity shall take the following steps: 

(i) Notify the individual in writing that 
the entity proposes to suspend service, 
citing with specificity the basis of the 
proposed suspension and setting forth 
the proposed sanction. 

(ii) Provide the individual an 
opportunity to be heard and to present 
information and arguments; 

(iii) Provide the individual with 
written notification of the decision and 
the reasons for it. 

(3) The appeals process of paragraph 
(g) of this section is available to an 
individual on whom sanctions have 
been imposed under this paragraph. The 
sanction is stayed pending the outcome 
of the appeal. 

(i) In applications for ADA paratransit 
eligibility, the entity may require the 
applicant to indicate whether or not he 
or she travels with a personal care 
attendant. 

§37.127 Complementary paratransit 
service for visitors. 

(a) Each public entity required to 
provide complementary paratransit 
service under § 37.121 of this part shall 
make the service available to visitors as 
provided in this section. 

(b) For purposes of this section, a 
visitor is an individual with disabilities 
who does not reside in the 
jurisdiction(s) served by the public 
entity or other entities with which the 



public entity provides coordinated 
complementary paratransit service 
within a region. 

(c) Each public entity shall treat as 
eligible for its complementary 
paratransit service all visitors who 
present documentation that they are 
ADA paratransit eligible, under the 
criteria of § 37.125 of this part, in the 
jurisdiction in which they reside. 

(d) With respect to visitors with 
disabilities who do not present such 
documentation, the public entity may 
require the documentation of the 
individual's place of residence and, if 
the individual's disability is not 
apparent, of his or her disability. The 
entity shall provide paratransit service 
to individuals with disabilities who 
qualify as visitors under paragraph (b) 
of this section. The entity shall accept a 
certification by such individuals that 
they are unable to use fixed route 
transit. 

(e) A public entity is not required to 
provide service to a visitor for more 
than 21 days from the date of the first 
paratransit trip used by the visitor. The 
entity may require that such an 
individual, in order to receive service 
beyond this period, apply for eligibility 
under the process provided for in 

§ 37.125 of this part. 

§37.129 Types of service. 

(a) Except as provided in this section, 
complementary paratransit service for 
ADA paratransit eligible persons shall 
be origin-to-destination service. 

(b) Complementary paratransit 
service for ADA paratransit eligible 
persons described in § 37.123(e)(2) of 
this part may also be provided by on- 
call bus service or paratransit feeder 
service to an accessible fixed route, 
where such service enables the 
individual to use the fixed route bus 
system for his or her trip. 

(c) Complementary paratransit service 
for ADA eligible persons described in 

§ 37.123(e)(3) of this part also may be 
provided by paratransit feeder service 
to and/or from an accessible fixed 
route. 

§37.131 Service criteria (or 
complementary paratransit. 

The following service criteria apply to 
complementary paratransit required by 
§ 37.121 of this part. 

(a) Service Area — (1) Bus. (i) The 
entity shall provide complementary 
paratransit service to origins and 
destinations within corridors with a 
width of three-fourths of a mile on each 
side of each fixed route. The corridor 
shall include an area with a three- 



45636 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



fourths of a mile radius at the ends of 
each fixed route. 

(ii) Within the core service area, the 
entity also shall provide service to small 
areas not inside any of the corridors but 
which are surrounded by corridors. 

(iii) Outside the core service area, the 
entity may designate corridors with 
widths from three fourths of a mile up to 
one and one half miles on each side of a 
fixed route, based on local 
circumstances. 

(iv) For purposes of this paragraph, 
the core service area is that area in 
which corridors with a width of three- 
fourths of a mile on each side of each 
fixed route merge together such that, 
with few and small exceptions, all 
origins and destinations within the area 
would be served. 

(2) Rail, (i) For rail systems, the 
service area shall consist of a circle with 
a radius of % of a mile around each 
station. 

(ii) At end stations and other stations 
in outlying areas, the entity may 
designate circles with radii of up to 1 V2 
miles as part of its service area, based 
on local circumstances. 

(3) Jurisdictional Boundaries. 
Notwithstanding any other provision of 
this paragraph, an entity is not required 
to provide paratransit service in an area 
outside the boundaries of the 
jurisdiction(s) in which it operates, if the 
entity does not have legal authority to 
operate in that area. The entity shall 
take all practicable steps to provide 
paratransit service to any part of its 
service area. 

(b) Response Time. The entity shall 
schedule and provide paratransit service 
to any ADA paratransit eligible person 
at any requested time on a particular 
day in response to a request for service 
made the previous day. Reservations 
may be taken by reservation agents or 
by mechanical means. 

(1) The entity shall make reservation 
service available during at least all 
normal business hours of the entity's 
administrative offices, as well as during 
times, comparable to normal business 
hours, on a day when the entity's offices 
are not open before a service day. 

(2) The entity may negotiate pickup 
times with the individual, but the entity 
shall not require an ADA paratransit 
eligible individual to schedule a trip to 
begin more than one hour before or after 
the individual's desired departure time. 

(3) The entity may use real-time 
scheduling in providing complementary 
paratransit service. 

(4) The entity shall permit advance 
reservations to be made up to 14 days in 
advance of an ADA paratransit eligible 
individual's desired trip. 



(c) Fares. The fare for a trip charged 
to an ADA paratransit eligible user of 
the complementary paratransit service 
shall not exceed twice the fare that 
would be charged to an individual 
paying full fare (i.e., without regard to 
discounts) for a trip of similar length, at 
a similar time of day, on the entity's 
fixed route system. 

(1) In calculating the full fare that 
would be paid by an individual using the 
fixed route system, the entity may 
include transfer and premium charges 
applicable to a trip of similar length, at a 
similar time of day, on the fixed route 
system. 

(2) The fares for individuals 
accompanying ADA paratransit eligible 
individuals, who are provided service 
under § 37.123 (f) of this part, shall be 
the same as for the ADA paratransit 
eligible individuals they are 
accompanying. 

(3) A personal care attendant shall not 
be charged for complementary 
paratransit service. 

(4) The entity may charge a fare 
higher than otherwise permitted by this 
paragraph to a social service agency or 
other organization for agency trips (i.e., 
trips guaranteed to the organization). 

(d) Trip Purpose Restrictions. The 
entity shall not impose restrictions or 
priorities based on trip purpose. 

(e) Hours and Days of Service. The 
complementary paratransit service shall 
be available throughout the same hours 
and days as the entity's fixed route 
service. 

(f) Capacity Constraints. The entity 
shall not limit the availability of 
complementary paratransit service to 
ADA paratransit eligible individuals by 
any of the following: 

(1) Restrictions on the number of trips 
an individual will be provided; 

(2) Waiting lists for access to the 
service; or 

(3) Any operational pattern or practice 
that significantly limits the availability 
of service to ADA paratransit eligible 
persons. 

(i) Such patterns or practices include, 
but are not limited to, the following: 

(A) Substantial numbers of 
significantly untimely pickups for initial 
or return trips; 

(B) Substantial numbers of trip denials 
or missed trips; 

(C) Substantial numbers of trips with 
excessive trip lengths. 

(ii) Operational problems attributable 
to causes beyond the control of the 
entity (including, but not limited to, 
weather or traffic conditions affecting 
all vehicular traffic that were not 
anticipated at the time a trip was 
scheduled) shall not be a basis for 



determining that such a pattern or 
practice exists. 

(g) Additional Service. Public entitie 
may provide complementary paratran 
service to ADA paratransit eligible 
individuals exceeding that provided fc 
in this section. However, only the cost 
service provided for in this section ma 
be considered in a public entity's 
request for an undue financial burden 
waiver under § § 37.151-37.155 of this 
part. 

§ 37.133 Subscription service. 

(a) This part does not prohibit the ui 
of subscription service by public entiti 
as part of a complementary paratransi 
system, subject to the limitations in th 
section. 

(b) Subscription service may not 
absorb more than fifty percent of the 
number of trips available at a given tii 
of day, unless there is non-subscriptio 
capacity. 

(c) Notwithstanding any other 
provision of this part, the entity may 
establish waiting lists or other capacit 
constraints and trip purpose restrictio 
or priorities for participation in the 
subscription service only. 

§ 37. 1 35 Submission of paratransit plan. 

(a) General. Each public entity 
operating fixed route transportation \ 
service, which is required by § 37.121 
provide complementary paratransit 
service, shall develop a paratransit ph 

(b) Initial Submission. Except as 
provided in § 37.141 of this part, each 
entity shall submit its initial plan for 
compliance with the complementary 
paratransit service provision by Janua 
26, 1992, to the appropriate location 
identified in paragraph (f) of this 
section. 

(c) Annual Updates. Each entity sha 
submit an annual update to the plan o 
January 26 of each succeeding year. 

(d) Phase-in of Implementation. Eac 
plan shall provide full compliance by 1 
later than January 26, 1997, unless the 
entity has received a waiver based on 
undue financial burden. If the date for 
full compliance specified in the plan is 
after January 26, 1993, the plan shall 
include milestones, providing for 
measured, proportional progress towa 
full compliance. 

(e) Plan Implementation. Each entit; 
shall begin implementation of its plan 
January 26, 1992. 

(f) Submission Locations. An entity 
shall submit its plan to one of the 
following offices, as appropriate: j 

(1) The individual state administer^ 
agency, if it is — 

(i) A section 18 recipient; 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45637 



(ii) A small urbanized area recipient 
I of section 9 funds administered by the 
State; 

(iii) A participant in a coordinated 
plan, in which all of the participating 
entities are eligible to submit their plans 
to the State; or 

(2) The UMTA Regional Office (as 
listed in Appendix B to this part) for all 
other entities required to submit a 
paratransit plan. This includes an 
UMTA recipient under section 9 of the 
UMT Act; entities submitting a joint 
plan (unless they meet the requirements 
of paragraph (f)(l)(iii) of this section), 
and a public entity not an UMT Act 
recipient. 

§ 37.137 Paratransit plan development. 

(a) Survey of existing services. Each 
submitting entity shall survey the area 
to be covered by the plan to identify any 
person or entity (public or private) 
which provides a paratransit or other 
special transportation service for ADA 
paratransit eligible individuals in the 
service area to which the plan applies. 

(b) Public participation. Each 
submitting entity shall ensure public 
participation in the development of its 
paratransit plan, including at least the 
following: 

(1) Outreach. Each submitting entity 
I shall solicit participation in the 

development of its plan by the widest 
range of persons anticipated to use its 
paratransit service. Each entity shall 
develop contacts, mailing lists and other 
appropriate means for notification of 
opportunities to participate in the 
development of the paratransit plan; 

(2) Consultation with individuals with 
disabilities. Each entity shall contact 
individuals with disabilities and groups 
representing them in the community. 
Consultation shall begin at an early 
stage in the plan development and 
should involve persons with disabilities 
in all phases of plan development. All 
documents and other information 
concerning the planning procedure and 
the provision of service shall be 
available, upon request, to members of 
the public, except where disclosure 
would be an unwarranted invasion of 
personal privacy; 

(3) Opportunity for public comment. 
The submitting entity shall make its plan 
available for review before the plan is 
finalized. In making the plan available 
for public review, the entity shall ensure 
that the plan is available upon request 
in accessible formats; 

(4) Public hearing. The entity shall 
sponsor at a minimum one public 

I hearing and shall provide adequate 
notice of the hearing, including 
advertisement in appropriate media, 
such as newspapers of general and 



special interest circulation and radio 
announcements; and 

(5) Special requirements. If the entity 
intends to phase-in its paratransit 
service over a multi-year period, or 
request a waiver based on undue 
financial burden, the public hearing 
shall afford the opportunity for 
interested citizens to express their views 
concerning the phase-in, the request, 
and which service criteria may be 
delayed in implementation. 

(c) Ongoing requirement. The entity 
shall create an ongoing mechanism for 
the participation of individuals with 
disabilities in the continued 
development and assessment of services 
to persons with disabilities. This 
includes, but is not limited to, the 
development of the initial plan, any 
request for an undue financial burden 
waiver, and each annual submission. 

§37.139 Plan contents. 

Each plan shall contain the following 
information: 

(a) Identification of the entity or 
entities submitting the plan, specifying 
for each — 

(1) Name and address; and 

(2) Contact person for the plan, with 
telephone number and facsimile 
telephone number (FAX), if applicable. 

(b) A description of the fixed route 
system as of January 26, 1992 (or 
subsequent year for annual updates), 
including — 

(1) A description of the service area, 
route structure, days and hours of 
service, fare structure, and population 
served. This includes maps and tables, if 
appropriate; 

(2) The total number of vehicles (bus, 
van, or rail) operated in fixed route 
service (including contracted service), 
and percentage of accessible vehicles 
and percentage of routes accessible to 
and usable by persons with disabilities, 
including persons who use wheelchairs; 

(3) Any other information about the 
fixed route service that is relevant to 
establishing the basis for comparability 
of fixed route and paratransit service. 

(c) A description of existing 
paratransit services, including: 

(1) An inventory of service provided 
by the public entity submitting the plan; 

(2) An inventory of service provided 
by other agencies or organizations, 
which may in whole or in part be used 
to meet the requirement for 
complementary paratransit service; and 

(3) A description of the available 
paratransit services in paragraphs (c)(2) 
and (c)(3) of this section as they relate 
to the service criteria described in 

§ 37.131 of this part of service area, 
response time, fares, restrictions on trip 
purpose, hours and days of service, and 



capacity constraints; and to the 
requirements of ADA paratransit 
eligibility. 

(d) A description of the plan to 
provide comparable paratransit, 
including: 

(1) An estimate of demand for 
comparable paratransit service by ADA 
eligible individuals and a brief 
description of the demand estimation 
methodology used; 

(2) An analysis of differences between 
the paratransit service currently 
provided and what is required under 
this part by the entity(ies) submitting the 
plan and other entities, as described in 
paragraph (c) of this section; 

(3) A brief description of planned 
modifications to existing paratransit and 
fixed route service and the new 
paratransit service planned to comply 
with the ADA paratransit service 
criteria; 

(4) A description of the planned 
comparable paratransit service as it 
relates to each of the service criteria 
described in § 37.131 of this part — 
service area, absence of restrictions or 
priorities based on trip purpose, 
response time, fares, hours and days of 
service, and lack of capacity constraints. 
If the paratransit plan is to be phased in, 
this paragraph shall be coordinated with 
the information being provided in 
paragraphs {d)(5) and (d)(6) of this 
paragraph; 

(5) A timetable for implementing 
comparable paratransit service, with a 
specific date indicating when the 
planned service will be completely 
operational. In no case may full 
implementation be completed later than 
January 26, 1997. The plan shall include 
milestones for implementing phases of 
the plan, with progress that can be 
objectively measured yearly; 

(6) A budget for comparable 
paratransit service, including capital 
and operating expenditures over five 
years. 

(e) A description of the process used 
to certify individuals with disabilities as 
ADA paratransit eligible. At a minimum, 
this must include — 

(1) A description of the application 
and certification process, including — 

(i) The availability of information 
about the process and application 
materials inaccessible formats; 

(ii) The process for determining 
eligibility according to the provisions of 
§ § 37.123-37.125 of this part and 
notifying individuals of the 
determination made; 

(iii) The entity's system and timetable 
for processing applications and allowing 
presumptive eligibility; and 



45638 Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



(iv) The documentation given to 
eligible individuals. 

(2) A description of the administrative 
appeals process for individuals denied 
eligibility. 

(3) A policy for visitors, consistent 
with § 37.127 of this part. 

(f) Description of the public 
participation process including — 

(1) Notice given of opportunity for 
public comment, the date(s) of 
completed public hearing(s), availability 
of the plan in accessible formats, 
outreach efforts, and consultation with 
persons with disabilities. 

(2) A summary of significant issues 
raised during the public comment 
period, along with a response to 
significant comments and discussion of 
how the issues were resolved. 

(g) Efforts to coordinate service with 
other entities subject to the 
complementary paratransit 
requirements of this part which have 
overlapping or contiguous service areas 
or jurisdictions. 

(h) The following endorsements or 
certifications: 

(1) A resolution adopted by the board 
of the entity authorizing the plan, as 
submitted. If more than one entity is 
submitting the plan there must be an 
authorizing resolution from each board. 
If the entity does not function with a 
board, a statement shall be submitted by 
the entity's chief executive; 

(2) In urbanized areas, certification by 
the Metropolitan Planning Organization 
(MPO) that it has reviewed the plan and 
that the plan is in conformance with the 
transportation plan developed under the 
Urban Mass Transportation/Federal 
Highway Administration joint planning 
regulation (49 CFR part 613 and 23 CFR 
part 450). In a service area which is 
covered by more than one MPO, each 
applicable MPO shall certify conformity 
of the entity's plan. The provisions of 
this paragraph do not apply to non- 
UMTA recipients; 

(3) A certification that the survey of 
existing paratransit service was 
conducted as required in § 37.137(a) of 
this part; 

(4) To the extent service provided by 
other entities is included in the entity's 
plan for comparable paratransit service, 
the entity must certify that: 

(i) ADA paratransit eligible 
individuals have access to the service; 

(ii) The service is provided in the 
manner represented; and 

(iii) Efforts will be made to coordinate 
the provision of paratransit service by 
other providers. 

(i) A request for a waiver based on 
undue financial burden, if applicable. 
The waiver request should include 
information sufficient for UMTA to 



consider the factors in § 37.155 of this 
part. If a request for an undue financial 
burden waiver is made, the plan must 
include a description of additional 
paratransit services that would be 
provided to achieve full compliance with 
the requirement for comparable 
paratransit in the event the waiver is not 
granted, and the timetable for the 
implementation of these additional 
services. 

(j) Annual plan updates. (1) The 
annual plan updates submitted January 
26, 1993, and annually thereafter, shall 
include information necessary to update 
the information requirements of this 
section. Information submitted annually 
must include all significant changes and 
revisions to the timetable for 
implementation; 

(2) If the paratransit service is being 
phased in over more than one year, the 
entity must demonstrate that the 
milestones identified in the current 
paratransit plans have been achieved. If 
the milestones have not been achieved, 
the plan must explain any slippage and 
what actions are being taken to 
compensate for the slippage. 

(3) The annual plan must describe 
specifically the means used to comply 
with the public participation 
requirements, as described in § 37.137 of 
this part. 

§37.141 Requirements for a joint 
paratransit plan. 

(a) Two or more entities with 
overlapping or contiguous service areas 
or jurisdictions may develop and submit 
a joint plan providing for coordinated 
paratransit service. Joint plans shall 
identify the participating entities and 
indicate their commitment to participate 
in the plan. 

(b) To the maximum extent feasible, 
all elements of the coordinated plan 
shall be submitted on January 26, 1992. If 
a coordinated plan is not completed by 
January 26, 1992, those entities intending 
to coordinate paratransit service must 
submit a general statement declaring 
their intention to provide coordinated 
service and each element of the plan 
specified in § 37.139 to the extent 
practicable. In addition, the plan must 
include the following certifications from 
each entity involved in the coordination 
effort: 

(1) A certification that the entity is 
committed to providing ADA paratransit 
service as part of a coordinated plan. 

(2) A certification from each public 
entity participating in the plan that it 
will maintain current levels of 
paratransit service until the coordinated 
plan goes into effect. 

(c) Entities submitting the above 
certifications and plan elements in lieu 



of a completed plan on January 26. 199 
must submit a complete plan by July 21 
1992. ' 

(d) Filing of an individual plan does 
not preclude an entity from cooperatin 
with other entities in the development 
implementation of a joint plan. An ent 
wishing to join with other entities afte; 
its initial submission may do so by 
meeting the filing requirements of this 
section. 

§ 37.143 Paratransit plan Implementatioi 

(a) Each entity shall begin 
implementation of its complementary 
paratransit plan, pending notice from 
UMTA. The implementation of the plai 
shall be consistent with the terms of th 
plan, including any specified phase-in 
period. 

(b) If the plan contains a request for 
wavier based on undue financial 
burden, the entity shall begin 
implementation of its plan, pending a 
determination on its waiver request. 

§37.145 State comment on plans. 

Each state required to receive plans 
under § 37.135 of this part shall: 

(a) Ensure that all applicable section 
18 and section 9 recipients have 
submitted plans. 

(b) Certify to UMTA that all plans j 
have been received. W 

(c) Forward the required certificatior 
with comments on each plan to UMTA 
The plans, with comments, shall be 
submitted to UMTA no later than April 
1, 1992, for the first year and April 1 
annually thereafter. 

(d) The State shall develop comment 
to on each plan, responding to the 
following points: 

(1) Was the plan filed on time? 

(2) Does the plan appear reasonable? 

(3) Are there circumstances that beai 
on the ability of the grantee to carry ou 
the plan as represented? If yes. please 
elaborate. 

(4) Is the plan consistent with 
statewide planning activities? 

(5) Are the necessary anticipated 
financial and capital resources 
identified in the plan accurately 
estimated? 

§ 37. 1 47 Considerations during UIMTA 
review. 

In reviewing each plan, at a minimur 
UMTA will consider the following: 

(a) Whether the plan was filed on 
time; 

(b) Comments submitted by the statt 
if applicable; Mi 

(c) Whether the plan contains ^\ 
responsive elements for each compone 
required under § 37.139 of this part; i 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45639 



(d) Whether the plan, when viewed in 

»it9 entirety, provides for paratransit 
service comparable to the entity's fixed 
route service; 

(e) Whether the entity complied with 
the public participation efforts required 
by this part; and 

(f) The extent to which efforts were 
made to coordinate with other public 
entities with overlapping or contiguous 
service areas or jurisdictions. 

§ 37.149 Disapproved plans. 

(a) If a plan is disapproved in whole 
or in part, UN4TA will specify which 
provisions are disapproved. Each entity 
shall amend its plan consistent with this 
information and resubmit the plan to the 
appropriate UMTA Regional Office 
within 90 days of receipt of the 
disapproval letter. 

(b) Each entity revising its plan shall 
continue to comply with the public 
participation requirements applicable to 
the initial development of the plan (set 
out in § 37.137 of this part). 

§ 37. 1 5 1 Waiver for undue financial 
burden. 

If compliance with the service criteria 
of § 37.131 of this part creates an undue 
financial burden, an entity may request 
a waiver from all or some of the 
i provisions if the entity has complied 
with the public participation 
requirements in § 37.137 of this Part and 
if the following conditions apply: 

(a) At the time of submission of the 
initial plan on January 26, 1992— 

(1) The entity determines that it 
cannot meet all of the service criteria by 
January 26, 1997; or 

(2) The entity determines that it 
cannot make measured progress toward 
compliance in any year before full 
compliance is required. For purposes of 
this part, measured progress means 
implementing milestones as scheduled, 
such as incorporating an additional 
paratransit service criterion or 
improving an aspect of a specific service 
criterion. 

(b) At the time of its annual plan 
update submission, if the entity believes 
that circumstances have changed since 
its last submission, and it is no longer 
able to comply by January 26, 1997, or 
make measured progress in any year 
before 1997. as described in paragraph 
(a)(2) of this section. 

§ 37. 1 53 UMTA waiver determination. 

(a) The Administrator will determine 
whether to grant a waiver for undue 
financial burden on a case-by-case 
I basis, after considering the factors 
identified in § 37.155 of this part and the 
information accompanying the request. 
If necessary, the Administrator will 



return the application with a request for 
additional information. 

(b) Any waiver granted will be for a 
limited and specified period of time. 

(c) If the Administrator grants the 
applicant a waiver, the Administrator 
will do one of the following: 

(1) Require the public entity to provide 
complementary paratransit to the extent 
if can do so without incurring an undue 
financial burden. The entity shall make 
changes in its plan that the 
Administrator determines are 
appropriate to maximize the 
complementary paratransit service that 
is provided to ADA paratransit eligible 
individuals. When making changes to its 
plan, the entity shall use the public 
participation process specified for plan 
development and shall consider first a 
reduction in number of trips provided to 
each ADA paratransit eligible person 
per month, while attempting to meet all 
other service criteria. 

(2) Require the public entity to provide 
basic complementary paratransit 
services to all ADA paratransit eligible 
individuals, even if doing so would 
cause the public entity to incur an undue 
financial burden. Basic complementary 
paratransit service in corridors defined 
as provided in § 37.131(a) along the 
public entity's key routes during core 
service hours. 

(i) For purposes of this section, key 
routes are defined as routes along which 
there is service at least hourly 
throughout the day. 

(ii) For purposes of this section, core 
service hours encompass at least peak 
periods, as these periods are defined 
locally for fixed route service, consistent 
with industry practice. 

(3) If the Administrator determines 
that the public entity will incur an undue 
financial burden as the result of 
providing basic complementary 
paratransit service, such that it is 
infeasible for the entity to provide basic 
complementary paratransit service, the 
Administrator shall require the public 
entity to coordinate with other available 
providers of demand responsive service 
in the area served by the public entity to 
maximize the service to ADA 
paratransit eligible individuals to the 
maximum extent feasible. 

§37.155 Factors in decision to grant an 
undue financial burden waiver. 

(a) In making an undue financial 
burden determination, the UMTA 
Administrator will consider the 
following factors: 

(1) Effects on current fixed route 
service, including reallocation of 
accessible fixed route vehicles and 
potential reduction in service, measured 
by service miles; 



(2) Average number of trips made by 
the entity's general population, on a per 
capita basis, compared with the average 
number of trips to be made by registered 
ADA paratransit eligible persons, on a 
per capita basis; 

(3) Reductions in other services, 
including other special services; 

(4) Increases in fares; 

(5) Resources available to implement 
complementary paratransit service over 
the period covered by the plan; 

(6) Percentage of budget needed to 
implement the plan, both as a 
percentage of operating budget and a 
percentage of entire budget; 

(7) The current level of accessible 
service, both fixed route and 
paratransit; 

(8) Cooperation/coordination among 
area transportation providers; 

(9) Evidence of increased efficiencies, 
that have been or could be effectuated, 
that would benefit the level and quality 
of available resources for 
complementary paratransit service; and 

(10) Unique circumstances in the 
submitting entity's area that affect the 
ability of the entity to provide 
paratransit, that militate against the 
need to provide paratransit, or in some 
other respect create a circumstance 
considered exceptional by the 
submitting entity. 

(b)(1) Costs attributable to 
complementary paratransit shall be 
limited to costs of providing service 
specifically required by this part to ADA 
paratransit eligible individuals, by 
entities responsible under this part for 
providing such service. 

(2) If the entity determines that it is 
impracticable to distinguish between 
trips mandated by the ADA and other 
trips on a trip-by-trip basis, the entity 
shall attribute to ADA complementary 
paratransit requirements a percentage of 
its overall paratransit costs. This 
percentage shall be determined by a 
statistically valid methodology that 
determines the percentage of trips that 
are required by this part. The entity 
shall submit information concerning its 
methodology and the data on which its 
percentage is based with its request for 

a waiver. Only costs attributable to 
ADA-mandated trips may be considered 
with respect to a request for an undue 
financial burden waiver. 

(3) Funds to which the entity would be 
legally entitled, but which, as a matter 
of state or local funding arrangements, 
are provided to another entity and used 
by that entity to provide paratransit 
service which is part of a coordinated 
system of paratransit meeting the 
requirements of this part, may be 



45640 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



counted in determining the burden 
associated with the waiver request. 

§§ 37. 1 57-37. 1 59 [ Reserved ] 
Subpart G— Provision of Service 

§37.161 Maintenance of accessible 
features: General. 

(a) Public and private entities 
providing transportation services shall 
maintain in operative condition those 
features of facilities and vehicles that 
are required to make the vehicles and 
facilities readily accessible to and 
usable by individuals with disabilities. 
These features include, but are not 
limited to, lifts and other means of 
access to vehicles, securement devices, 
elevators, signage and systems to 
facilitate communications with persons 
with impaired vision or hearing. 

(b) Accessibility features shall be 
repaired promptly if they are damaged 
or out of order. When an accessibility 
feature is out of order, the entity shall 
take reasonable steps to accommodate 
individuals with disabilities who would 
otherwise use the feature. 

(c) This section does not prohibit 
isolated or temporary interruptions in 
service or access due to maintenance or 
repairs. 

§ 37.163 Keeping velilcle lifts in operative 
condition: Public entities. 

(a) This section applies only to public 
entities with respect to lifts in non-rail 
vehicles. 

(b) The entity shall establish a system 
of regular and frequent maintenance 
checks of lifts sufficient to determine if 
they are operative. 

(c) The entity shall ensure that vehicle 
operators report to the entity, by the 
most immediate means available, any 
failure of a lift to operate in service. 

(d) Except as provided in paragraph 
(e) of this section, when a lift is 
discovered to be inoperative, the entity 
shall take the vehicle out of service 
before the beginning of the vehicle's 
next service day and ensure that the lift 
is repaired before the vehicle returns to 
service. 

(e) If there is no spare vehicle 
available to take the place of a vehicle 
with an inoperable lift, such that taking 
the vehicle out of service will reduce the 
transportation service the entity is able 
to provide, the public entity may keep 
the vehicle in service with an inoperable 
lift for no more than five days (if the 
entity serves an area of 50,000 or less 
population) or three days (if the entity 
serves an area of over 50,000 population) 
from the day on which the lift is 
discovered to be inoperative. 

(f) In any case in which a vehicle is 
operating on a fixed route with an 



inoperative lift, and the headway to the 
next accessible vehicle on the route 
exceeds 30 minutes, the entity shall 
promptly provide alternative 
transportation to individuals with 
disabilities who are unable to use the 
vehicle because its lift does not work. 

§37.165 Lift and securement use. 

(a) This section applies to public and 
private entities. 

(b) All common wheelchairs and their 
users shall be transported in the entity's 
vehicles or other conveyances. The 
entity is not required to permit 
wheelchairs to ride in places other than 
designated securement locations in the 
vehicle, where such locations exist. 

(c) (1) For vehicles complying with 
part 38 of this title, the entity shall use 
the securement system to secure 
wheelchairs as provided in that Part. 

(2) For other vehicles transporting 
individuals who use wheelchairs, the 
entity shall provide and use a 
securement system to ensure that the 
wheelchair remains within the 
securement area. 

(3) The entity may require that an 
individual permit his or her wheelchair 
to be secured. 

(d) The entity may not deny 
transportation to a wheelchair or its 
user on the ground that the device 
cannot be secured or restrained 
satisfactorily by the vehicle's 
securement system. 

(e) The entity may recommend to a 
user of a wheelchair that the individual 
transfer to a vehicle seat. The entity 
may not require the individual to 
transfer. 

(f) Where necessary or upon request, 
the entity's personnel shall assist 
individuals with disabilities with the use 
of securement systems, ramps and lifts. 
If it is necessary for the personnel to 
leave their seats to provide this 
assistance, they shall do so. 

(g) The entity shall permit individuals 
with disabilities who do not use 
wheelchairs, including standees, to use 
a vehicle's lift or ramp to enter the 
vehicle. 

§ 37.167 Other service requirements. 

(a) This section applies to public and 
private entities. 

(b) On fixed route systems, the entity 
shall announce stops as follows: 

(1) The entity shall announce at least 
at transfer points with other fixed 
routes, other major intersections and 
destination points, and intervals along a 
route sufficient to permit individuals 
with visual impairments or other 
disabilities to be oriented to their 
location. 



(2) The entity shall announce any sto[ 
on request of an individual with a 
disability, ' 

(c) Where vehicles or other 
conveyances for more than one route 
serve the same stop, the entity shall 
provide a means by which an individua 
with a visual impairment or other 
disability can identify the proper vehicl 
to enter or be identified to the vehicle 
operator as a person seeking a ride on a 
particular route. 

(d) The entity shall permit service 
animals to accompany individuals with 
disabilities in vehicles and facilities. 

(e) The entity shall ensure that vehicl 
operators and other personnel make us( 
of accessibility-related equipment or 
features required by part 38 of this title. 

(f) The entity shall make available to 
individuals with disabilities adequate 
information concerning transportation 
services. This obligation includes 
making adequate communications 
capacity available, through accessible 
formats and technology, to enable users 
to obtain information and schedule 
service. 

(g) The entity shall not refuse to 
permit a passenger who uses a lift to 
disembark from a vehicle at any 
designated stop, unless the lift cannot b 
deployed, the lift will be damaged if it i| 
deployed, or temporary conditions at th 
stop, not under the control of the entity, 
preclude the safe use of the stop by all 
passengers. 

(h) The entity shall not prohibit an 
individual with a disability from 
traveling with a respirator or portable 
oxygen supply, consistent with 
applicable Department of 
Transportation rules on the 
transportation of hazardous materials 
(49 CFR subtitle B, chapter 1, subchapte 
C). 

(i) The entity shall ensure that 
adequate time is provided to allow 
individuals with disabilities to complete 
boarding or disembarking from the 
vehicle. 

§ 37. 1 69 Interim requirements for over- 
ttie-road bus service operated by private 
entities. 

(a) Private entities operating over-the 
road buses, in addition to compliance 
with other applicable provisions of this 
part, shall provide accessible service as 
provided in this section. 

(b) The private entity shall provide 
assistance, as needed, to individuals 
with disabilities in boarding and 
disembarking, including moving to andi 
from the bus seat for the purpose of " 
boarding and disembarking. The private 
entity shall ensure that personnel are 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday. September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45641 



trained to provide this assistance safely 
and appropriately. 

(c) To the extent that they can be 
accommodated in the areas of the 
passenger compartment provided for 
passengers' personal effects, 
wheelchairs or other mobility aids and 
assistive devices used by individuals 
with disabilities, or components of such 
devices, shall be permitted in the 
passenger compartment. When the bus 
is at rest at a stop, the driver or other 
personnel shall assist individuals with 
disabilities with the stowage and 
retrieval of mobility aids, assistive 
devices, or other items that can be 
accommodated in the passenger 
compartment of the bus. 

(d) Wheelchairs and other mobility 
aids or assistive devices that cannot be 
accommodated in the passenger 
compartment (including electric 
wheelchairs) shall be accommodated in 
the baggage compartment of the bus. 



unless the size of the baggage 
compartment prevents such 
accommodation. 

(e) At any given stop, individuals with 
disabilities shall have the opportunity to 
have their wheelchairs or other mobility 
aids or assistive devices stowed in the 
baggage compartment before other 
baggage or cargo is loaded, but baggage 
or cargo already on the bus does not 
have to be off-loaded in order to make 
room for such devices. 

(f) The entity may require up to 48 
hours' advance notice only for providing 
boarding assistance. If the individual 
does not provide such notice, the entity 
shall nonetheless provide the service if 
it can do so by making a reasonable 
effort, without delaying the bus service. 

§ 37. 1 7 1 Equivalency requirement for 
demand responsive service operated by 
private entities not primarily engaged in the 
business of transporting people. 

A private entity not primarily engaged 
in the business of transporting people 



which operates a demand responsive 
system shall ensure that its system, / 
when viewed in its entirety, provides 
equivalent service to individuals with 
disabilities, including individuals who 
use wheelchairs, as it does to 
individuals without disabilities. The 
standards of § 37.105 shall be used to 
determine if the entity is providing 
equivalent service. 

§37.173 Training requirements. 

Each public or private entity which 
operates a fixed route or demand 
responsive system shall ensure that 
personnel are trained to proficiency, as 
appropriate to their duties, so that they 
operate vehicles and equipment safely 
and properly assist and treat individuals 
with disabilities who use the service in a 
respectful and courteous way, with 
appropriate attention to the difference 
among individuals with disabilities. 

BILLING CODC 491 



45642 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

Appendix A to Part 37--Standards for Accessible Transportation Facilities 



ADA ACCESSIBILITY GUIDBLINBS 

FOR BUILDINGS AND FAdLITIES 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1. PURPOSE 

2. GENERAL 

2.1 Provisions for Adults... 

2.2 Equivalent Facilitation 



3. NaSCELLANEOUS INSTRUCTIONS AND DEFINITIONS 



3.1 Graphic Conventions 

3.2 Dimensional Tolerances 2 

3.3 Notes 2 

3.4 General Terminology 2 

3.5 DefiniUons 2 

4. ACCESSIBLE ELEMENTS AND SPACES: 

SCOPE AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS 5 

4.1 Minimum Requirements 5 

4.1.1. Application 5 

4. 1.2. Accessible Sites and Exterior Facilities: New Construction 5 

4. 1.3. Accessible Buildings: New Construction 7 

4. 1.4. (Reserved) 10 

4. 1.5. Accessible Buildings: Additions 10 

4. 1.6. Accessible Buildings: Alterations 1 1 

4. 1.7. Accessible Buildings: Historic Fhreservation 13 

4.2 Space Allowance and Reach Ranges 14 

4 . 3 Accessible Route 15 

4.4 Protruding Objects 21 

4.5 Ground and Floor Surfaces 22 

4.6 Parking and Passenger Loading Zones 24 

4.7 Curb Ramps 26 

4.8 Ramps 27 

4.9 Stairs 30 

4. 10 Elevators 30 



Federal Registeir / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45543 



4.11 Platform Lifts (Wheelchair Lifts) 36 

4.12 Windows 36 

4.13 Doors 36 

4.14 Entrances 40 

4.15 Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers 40 

4. 16 Water Closets 40 

4.17ToiletStaUs 41 

4.18 Urinals 44 

4.19 Lavatories and Mirrors 44 

4.20 Bathtubs 45 

4.21 Shower Stalls 45 

4.22 Toilet Rooms 45 

4.23 Bathrooms, Bathing Facilities, and Shower Rooms 48 

4.24 Sinks 49 

4.25 Storage 49 

4.26 Handrails. Grab Bars, and Tub and Shower Seats 50 

4.27 Controls and Operating Mechanisms 51 

4.28 Alarms 52 

4.29 Detectable Warnings 53 

4.30 Signage 53 

4.31 Telephones 54 

4.32 Fixed or Built-in SeaUng and Tables 56 

4.33 Assembly Areas 56 

4.34 Automated Teller Machines , 58 

4.35 Dressing and Fitting Rooms 58 

5. RESTAURANTS AND CAFETERIAS 59 

6. BIEDICAL CARE FACILITIES 60 

7. BUSINESS AND BIERCANTILE 61 

8. LIBRARIES 62 

9. ACCESSIBLE TRANSIENT LODGING 63 

10. TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES 67 

APPENDIX Al 



45644 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



1. PURPOSE. 



This document sets guidelines for accessibility to 
buildirxgs and facilities by individuals with 
disabilities under the Americans with Disabili 
ties Act (ADA) of 1 990. These guidelines are to 
be applied during the design, construction, and 
alteration of buildings and facilities covered by 
Titles n and DI of the ADA to the extent required 
by regulations issued by Federal agencies, 
including the Department of Justice and the 
Department of Transportation, under the ADA. 

The technical specifications 4.2 through 4.35. of 
these guidelines are the same as those of the 
American National Standard Institute's docu 
ment Al 17.1-1 980. except as noted in this text 
by italics. However, sections 4.1.1 through 4.1.7 
and sections 5 through 10 are different from 
ANSI A 1 17.1 in their entirety and are printed in 
standard type. 

The illustrations and text of ANSI A 1 1 7. 1 are 
reproduced with permission from the American 
National Standards Institute. Copies of the 
standard may be purchased from the American 
National Standards Institute at 1430 Broadway. 
New York. New York 10018. 



2. GENERAL. 



2.1 Provisions for Adults. The specifica 
tions tn these guidelines are based upon adult 
dimensions and anthropometrics. 

2.2* Equivalent Facilitation. Departures 
from particular technical and scoping require- 
ments of this guideline by the use of other 
designs and technologies are permitted where 
the altemattve designs and technologies used 
will provide substantially equivalent or greater 
access to and usability of the facility. 



MISCELLANEOUS 
INSTRUCTIONS AND 
DEFINITIONS. 



3.1 Graphic Conventions. Graphic 

conventions are shown In Table 1. Dimensions 
that are not marked minimum or maximum are 
absolute, unless otherwise indicated in the text 
or captions. 



Table 1 
Graphic Conventions 



Convention 



Description 



36 



Typical dimension line showing U.S. customary units 
(in inches) above the line and Si units (in millimeters) 
below 



230 

9 36 



230 915 



nnax 
min 



Dimensions for short distances indicated on 
extended line 

Dimension line showing alternate dimensions 
required 

Direction of approach 

Maximum 

/^nimum 

Boundary of clear floor area 

Centerline 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45645 



3.4 General Tenninol<^y 



3.2 Dimensional Tolerances, au dimen- 
sions arc subject to conventional building 
industry tolerances for field conditions. 

3.3 Notes. Hie text of these guidelines does 
not contain notes or footnotes. Additional 
Information, explanations, and advisory materi- 
als are located In the Appendix. Paragraphs 
marked with an asterisk have related, non- 
mandatory material In the Appendix. In the 
Appendix, the corresponding paragraph 
numbers are preceded by an A. 

3.4 General Terminology. 

comply with. Meet one or more sp>eclflcatlons 
of these guidelines. 

If. If ... then. Denotes a specification that 
applies only when the conditions described 
are present. 

mqy. Denotes an option or alternative. 

shall. Denotes a mandatory specification or 
requirement. 

should. Denotes an advisory specification or 
recommendation. 

3.5 Definitions. 

Acce«» Aisle. An accessible pedestrian space 
between elements, such as parking spaces, 
seating, and desks, that provides clearances 
appropriate for use of the elements. 

Accessible. Describes a site, building, facility, 
or i)ortlon thereof that complies with these 
guidelines. 

ACCMBibU Element. An element specified by 
these guidelines (for example, telephone, con- 
trols, and the like). 

Accessible Route. A continuous unobstructed 
path connecting all accessible elements and 
sptaces of a buUdlng or facility. Interior acces- 
sible routes may Include corridors, floors, 
ramps, elevators, lifts, and clear floor space at 
fixtures. EMerlor accessible routes may Include 
parking access aisles, curb ramps, crosswalks 
at vehicular ways, walks, ramps, and lifts. 



Accessfblc Space. Space that complies with 
these guidelines. 

Adaptability . The abUlty of certain buUding 
spaces and elements, such as kitchen 
counters, sinks, and grab bars, to be added 
or altered so as to accommodate the needs of 
individuals with or without disabilities or to 
accommodate the needs of persons with 
different types or degrees of disability. 

Addition. An expansion, extension, or increase 
tn the gross Jloor area of a building or facility. 

ArtmlntfttrBttYC AnthOritY. a governmental 
agency that adopts or enforces regulations and 
guidelines for the design, construction, or 
alteration of buildings and facilities. 

Alteration. An alteration is a change to a 
budding or facility made by. on behalf of, or 
for the use of a public accommodation or 
commercial facilUy, that affects or could 
affect the usability of the building or facility 
or part thereof. Alterations include, but are 
not limited to. remodeling, renovation, rehabi- 
litation, reconstruction, historic restoration, 
changes or rearrangement of the structural 
parts or elements, and changes or rearrange- 
ment in the plan configuration of walls and 
full height partitions. Normal maintenance, 
reroofing. painting or wallpapering, or changes 
to mechanical and electrical systems are not 
alterations unless they affect the usability of 
the building or facility. 

Area of Rescue Assistance. An area, which 
has direct access to an exit where people who 
are unable to use stairs may remain temporarily 
in safety to await further instructions or assts- 
tance during emergency eixxcuaf ton. 

Assembly Area. A room or space accommo- 
dating a group o/" Individuals for recreational, 
educational, political, social, or amusement 
purposes, or for the consumption of food and 
drink. 

Automatic Door. A door equipped with a 
power-operated mechanism and controls that 
open and close the door automatlczdly upon 
receipt of a momentary actuating signal. The 
switch that begins the automatic cycle may be 
a photoelectric device, floor mat, or manual 
switch (see power-assisted door). 



45646 Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



3.5 Definitions 



Buildingi Any structure used and Intended for 
supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy. 

Circulat ion Path. An exterior or Interior way 
of passage from one place to another for pedes- 
trians. Including, but not limited to. walks, 
hallways, courtyards, stairways, and stair 
landings. 

Clear. Unobstructed. 

Clear Floor Space. The minimum unobstructed 
Jloor or ground space required to accommodate a 
single, stationary wheelchair and occupant 

Closed Circuit Telephone. A telephone with 
detlicated line(s) such as a house phone, cour- 
tesy phone or phone that must be used to gatn 
entrance to afajcilUy. 

C.nmmnn TT«^. Refers to those Interior and 
exterior rooms, spaces, or elements that are 
made available for the use of a restricted group 
of people (for example, occupants of a homeless 
shelter, the occupants of an office building, or 
the guests of such occupants). 

Cross Slope. The slope that Is perpendicular to 
the direction of travel (see rurmlng slope). 

Curt? RaiPPi A short ramp cutting through a 
curb or buUt up to It. 

Detectable Warning. A standardized surface 
feature butlt in or applied to walking surfaces or 
other elements to warn utsually impaired people 
of hazards on a circulation path 

PVCUing Unlti A single unit which provides a 
kitchen or food preparation area. In addition to 
rooms and spaces for iMng. bathing, sleeping. 
and the like. Dwelling units include a single 
family home or a townhoiise used as a transient 
group home: an apartment building used as a 
shelter: guestrooms in a hotel that provide 
sleeping cuxx>mmodations and food preparation 
areas: and other simdar facilities used on a 
transient basis. For purposes of these guide 
lines, use of the term "Dwelling Unit' does not 
imply the unit is used as a residence. 

Egress. M CIM Pfi A continuous and unob- 
structed way of exit travel from any point in a 
building or facility to a public way. A means of 
egress comprises vertical and horizontal travel 



and may include intervening room spaces, 
doorways, hallways, corridors, passageways, 
balconies, ramps, stairs, enclosures, lobbies, 
horizontal exits, courts and yards. An accessible 
means of egress is one that complies wUh these 
guidelines and does not include stairs, steps, or 
escalators. Areas of rescue assistance or evacu- 
ation elevators may be included as part of 
accessible means of egress. 

Element. An architectural or mechanical compo- 
nent of a building, facility, space, or site, e.g.. 
telephone, curb ramp. door, drinking fountain, 
seating, or water closet 

Entrance. Any access point to a buildirrg or 
portion of a buOding orfacHtty used for the 
purpose of entering. An entrance includes the 
approach ujcUk. the vertical access leadlrtg to 
the entrance platform, the entrance platform 
itself, vestibules if provided the entiy dooris) 
or gate(s). and the hardware of the entry dooris) 
or gate(s). 

Facility. All or any portion of buildings, struc- 
tures, site improvements, conyjlexes. equpment 
roads, walks, passageivays. parking lots, or 
other real or personal property located on a site. 

Ground Floor. Any occupiable floor less than 
one story above or below grade with direct 
access to grade. A building or facility always 
has at least one ground floor and may have 
more than one ground floor as where a split 
level entrance has been provided or where a 
budding is budt into a hillside. 

Mezzanine qt Waztming Flwr, That ponton 

of a story which is an intermediate floor level 
placed within the story and having occupiable 
space above and below its floor. 

Marked Crossing. A crosswalk or other Iden- 
tified path Intended for pedestrian use in 
crossing a vehicular way. 

MllltlfamllY PWCUtng. Any buUdlng containing 
more them two dwelling units. 

Occupiable. A room or enclosed space designed 
for hurrum occupancy in which individuals 
congregate for amusement, educational or 
simdar purposes, or in which occupants are 
engaged at labor, and which is equipped with 
means of egress, light and ventdatton. 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45647 



3.5 Definitions 



Operable Part. A part of a piece of equipment 
or appliance used to insert or withdraw objects, 
or to activate, deactivate, or adjust the equip- 
ment or appliance (for example, coin slot, 
pushbutton, handle). 

fflt/lgfrrgyeL (Reserved). 

Pfiwcr-Milated Door. A door used for human 
passage with a mechanism that helps to open 
the door, or relieves the opening resistance of a 
door, upon the activation of a switch or a 
continued force applied to the door itself. 

Public Uae. Describes interior or exterior 
rooms or spaces that are made available to the 
general public. Public use may be provided at a 
building or facility that is privately or publicly 
owned. 

^aniPi A walking surface which has a running 
slope greater than 1:20. 

Wnnnln f Slope. The slope that Is parallel to 
the direction of travel (see cross slope). 

Serylce Entrance. An entrance intended 
primarily for delivery of goods or services. 

Signage. Displayed verbal, symlxjllc, tactile. 
and pictorial information. 

aitfii A parcel of land bounded by a property 
line or a designated F>ortlon of a public right-of- 
way. 

^^*^ Imp rovement. Landscaping, paving for 
pedestrian and vehicular ways, outdoor light- 
ing, recreational facilities, and the like, added 
to a site. 

SlffftPlng Af romniTMlllttftnff. Rooms in which 
people sleep; for example, dormitory and hotel 
or motel guest rooms or suites. 

Space. A definable area, e.g.. room, toilet room, 
hall assembly area, entrance, storage room, 
alcove, courtyard, or lobby. 

Story. That portion of a building included 
between the upper surface ojajloor and upper 
surface of the floor or roof next above. If such 



portion of a building does not include occupiable 
space, tt is not considered a story for purposes 
of these guidelines. There may be more than one 
floor level within a story as in the case of a 
mezzanine or mezzanines. 

Stmctnral Frame. The structural frame shall 
be considered to be the columns and the 
girders, beams, trusses and spandrels having 
direct cormectlons to the columns and all other 
members which are essential to the stability of 
the building as a whole. 

Tactile. Describes an object that can be 
p)ercelved using the sense of touch. 

Text Telephone. Machinery or equpment that 
employs Interactive graphic (Le.. hjped) commu 
nications through the transmission of coded 
signals across the standard telephone network. 
Text telephones can include, for example, 
devices known as TDD's (telecommunication 
display devices or telecommunication devices 
for deaf persons) or computers. 

Transimt Lo^oina, ^ butuung, faauty. or 

portion thereof, excluding inpatient medical care 
facilities, that contains one or more dwelling 
units or sleeping accommodations. Transient 
lodging may include, but is not limited to, 
resorts, group homes, hotels, motels, and 
dormitories. 

VcynlCttlar WBYi a route intended for vehicular 
tralTic, such as a street, driveway, or parking 
lot. 

Kal^ An exterior pathway with a prepared 
surface Intended for pedestrian use. Including 
genercd pedestrian areas such as plazas and 
courts. 

NOTE: SecUons 4. 1. 1 through 4. 1.7 are differ- 
ent from ANSI A 11 7. 1 in their entirety and are 
printed in standard type (ANSI A117. 1 does not 
Include scoping provisions). 



45648 Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

4.0 Accessible Elements and Spaces: Scope and Technical Requirements 



ACCBSSIBLB ELEMENTS 
AND SPACES: SCOPE AND 
TECHNICAL 
REQUIREMENTS. 



4. 1 Mtnlmnm Requirements 
4.1.1* ApplicaUon. 

( 1) Genercil. All areas of newly designed or 
newly constructed buildings cind facilities 
required to be accessible by 4. 1.2 and 4. 1.3 
and ciltered portions of existing buildings and 
facilities required to be accessible by 4. 1.6 shall 
comply with these guidelines, 4.1 through 4.35, 
unless otherwise provided in this section or as 
modified In a special application section. 

(2) Application Based on Building Use. 
Special application sections 5 through 10 
provide additional requirements for restaurants 
and cafeterias, medical care facilities, business 
and mercantile. Libraries, accessible transient 
lodging, and transportation facilities. When a 
building or facility contcilns more than one use 
covered by a special application section, each 
portion shall comply with the requirements for 
that use. 

(3)* Areas Used Only by Employees as Work 
Areas. Areas that are used only as work areas 
shall be designed and constructed so that 
Individuals with disabilities can approach, 
enter, and exit the areas. These guidelines do 
not require that any cireas used only as work 
areas be constructed to permit maneuvering 
within the work area or be constructed or 
equipped (i.e., with racks or shelves) to be 
accessible. 

(4) Temporary Structures. These guidelines 
cover temporary buildings or facilities as well 
as jjermanent facilities. Temporary buildings 
and facilities aire not of permsment construction 
but are extensively used or are essential for 
public use for a period of time. EJcamples of 
temporary buildings or facilities covered by 
these guidelines Include, but are not limited to: 
reviewing stands, temporary classrooms, 
bleacher areas, exhibit areas. temp>orary bank- 
ing facilities, temporary health screening 
services, or temporary safe pedestrian passage- 
ways around a construction site. Structures. 



sites and equipment directly associated with 
the actual processes of construction, such as 
scaffolding, bridging, materials hoists, or 
construction trailers are not Included. 

(5) General Ebcceptlons. 

(a) In new construction, a person or entity 
Is not required to meet fully the requirements 
of these guidelines where that jjerson or entity 
can demonstrate that it Is structurally Imprac- 
ticable to do so. Full compliance will be consid- 
ered structurally Impracticable only in those 
rare circumstances when the unique character- 
istics of terrain prevent the Incorporation of 
accessibility features. If full compliance with 
the requirements of these guidelines Is struc- 
turally Impracticable, a person or entity shall 
comply with the requirements to the extent It Is 
not structurally Impracticable. Any portion of 
the building or facility which can be made 
accessible shall comply to the extent that It Is 
not structurally Impracticable. 

(b) Accessibility Is not required to (I) obser- 
vation gaillerles used prlmarliy for security 
purposes; or (U) In non-occuplable spaces 
accessed only by ladders, catwalks, crawl 
spaces, very narrow passageways, or freight 
(non-passenger) elevators, and frequented only 
by service personnel for repair purposes; such 
spaces Include, but are not limited to, elevator 
pits, elevator penthouses, piping or equipment 
catwalks. 

4.1.2 Accessible Sites and Exterior 
Facilities: New Construction. An acces- 
sible site shall meet the following minimum 
requirements: 

(1) At least one accessible route complying 
with 4.3 shall be provided within the boundary 
of the site from public transportation stops, 
accessible parking spaces, passenger loading 
7X)nes If provided, and public streets or side- 
walks, to an accessible building entrance. 

(2) At least one accessible route complying 
with 4.3 shall connect accessible buildings, 
accessible facilities, accessible elements, and 
accessible spaces that are on the same site. 

(3) All objects that protrude from surfaces 
or posts Into circulation paths shall comply 
with 4.4. 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday. September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45649 

4.1.2 Accessible Sites and Exterior Facilities: New Construction 



(4) Ground surfaces along accessible routes 
and In accessible spaces shall comply with 4.5. 

(5) (a) If parking spaces are provided for self- 
parking by employees or visitors, or both, then 
accessible spaces complying with 4.6 shall be 
provided In each such parking area In conform- 
ance with the table below. Spaces required by 
the table need not be provided in the particular 
lot. They may be provided In a different location 
If equivalent or greater accessibility, in terms of 
distance from an accessible entrance, cost and 
convenience is ensured. 







Required 


Total Parking 


Minimum Number 


in Lot 


of Accessible Spaces 


1 to 


25 


1 


26 to 


50 


2 


51 to 


75 


' 3 


76 to 


100 


4 


101 to 


150 


5 


151 to 


200 


6 


201 to 


300 


7 


301 to 


400 


8 


401 to 


500 


9 


501 to 


1000 


2 percent of total 


1001 and 


over 


20 plus I for each 
100 over 1000 



Ebccept as provided In (b). access aisles adjacent 
to accessible spaces shall be 60 In (1525 mm) 
wide minimum. 

(b) One in every eight accessible spaces, but 
not less than one, shall be served by an access 
aisle 96 in (2440 mm) wide minimum and shall 
be designated "Van accessible" as required by 
4.6.4. The vertical clearance at such spaces 
shall comply with 4.6.5. All such spaces may 
be grouped on one level of a parking structure. 

EXCEPTION: Provision of all required parking 
spaces In conformance with "Universal Parking 
Design" (see appendix A4.6.3) is permitted. 

(c) If passenger loading zones are provided, 
then at least one passenger loading zone shall 
comply with 4.6.6. 

(d) At facilities providing medical care and 
other services for persons with mobility impair- 
ments, parking spaces complying with 4.6 shall 



be provided In accordance with 4. 1.2(5)(a) 
except as follows: 

(1) Outpatient units and facilities: 10 
percent of the total number of parking spaces 
provided serving each such outpatient unit or 

facility; 

(il) Urilts and facilities that specialize in 
treatment or services for persons with mobility 
impairments: 20 percent of the total number of 
parking spaces provided serving each such unit 
or facility. 

(e)*Valet parking: Valet parking facilities 
shall provide a passenger loading zone comply- 
ing with 4.6.6 located on an accessible route to 
the entrance of the facility. Paragraphs 5(a). 
5(b). and 5(d) of this section do not apply to 
valet parking facilities. 

(6) If toilet facilities are provided on a site, 
then each such public or common use toilet 
facility shall comply with 4.22. If bathing 
facilities are provided on a site, then each such 
public or common use bathing facility shall 
comply with 4.23. 

For single user portable toilet or bathing units 
clustered at a single location, at least 5% but 
no less than one toilet unit or bathing unit 
complying with 4.22 or 4,23 shall be Installed 
at each cluster whenever typical inaccessible 
units are provided. Accessible units shall be 
identified by the International Symbol of 
Accessibility. 

EXCEPTION: Portable toilet units at construc- 
tion sites used exclusively by construction 
personnel are not required to comply with 
4.1.2(6). 

(7) Building Signage. Signs which designate 
permanent rooms and spaces shall comply with 
4.30.1. 4.30.4. 4.30.5 and 4.30.6. Other signs 
which provide direction to. or information 
about, functional spaces of the building shall 
comply with 4.30. 1 . 4.30.2. 4.30.3. and 4.30.5. 
Elements and spaces of accessible facilities 
which shall be identified by the International 
Symbol of Accessibility and which shall comply 
with 4.30.7 are: 

(a) Parking spaces designated as reserved 
for individuals with disabilities; 



45650 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday. September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.1.3 Accessible Buildings: New Construction 



(b) Accessible passenger loading zones; 

(c) Accessible entrances when not all are 
accessible (Inaccessible entrances shall have 
directional signage to Indicate the route to the 
nearest accessible entrcince); 

(d) Accessible toilet and bathing facilities 
when not all are accessible. 

4.1.3 Accessible BuUdings: New 
Construction. Accessible buildings and 
facilities shcill meet the following minimum 
requirements: 

(1) At least one accessible route complying 
with 4. .3 shall connect accessible building or 
faculty entrances with all accessible spaces and 
elements within the buUdlng or facility. 

(2) All objects that overhang or protrude Into 
circulation paths shcill comply with 4.4. 

(3) Ground and floor surfaces along acces- 
sible routes and In accessible rooms and 
spaces shall comply with 4,5. 

(4) Interior and exterior stairs connecting 
levels that are not connected by an elevator, 
ramp, or other accessible means of vertical 
access shall comply with 4.9. 

(5)* One passenger elevator complying with 
4.10 shall serve each level, including mezza- 
nines, in all multi-story buildings and facilities 
unless exempted below. If more than one 
elevator is provided, each fuU passenger eleva- 
tor shall comply with 4. 10. 

EXCEPTION 1: Elevators are not required In 
facilities that are less than three stories or that 
have less than 3000 square feet per story 
unless the building Is a shopping center, a 
shopping mall, or the professional office of a 
health care provider, or another type of facility 
as determined by the Attorney General. The 
elevator exemption set forth In this paragraph 
does not obviate or limit In any way the oblljga- 
tlon to comply with the other accessibility 
requirements established In section 4.1.3. For 
example, floors above or below the accessible 
ground floor must meet the requirements of 
this section except for elevator service. If toilet 
or bathing facilities are provided on a level not 
served by an elevator, then toilet or bathing 
facilities must be provided on the accessible 



ground floor. In new construction If a building 
or facUity Is eligible for this exemption but a 
full passenger elevator is nonetheless planned, 
that elevator shall meet the requirements of 
4.10 and shall serve each level In the building. 
A full passenger elevator that provides service 
from a garage to only one level of a building or 
facility Is not required to serve other levels. 

EJCCEFTION 2: Elevator pits, elevator 
penthouses, mechanical rooms, piping or 
equipment catwalks are exempted from this 
requirement. 

EJCCEPTION 3: Accessible ramps complying 
with 4.8 may be used In lieu of an elevator. 

EXCEPTION 4: Platform lifts (wheelchair lifts) 
complying with 4. 1 1 of this guideline and 
applicable state or local codes may be used In 
lieu of an elevator only under the following 
conditions: 

(a) To provide £m accessible route to a 
performing area In an assembly occupancy. 

(b) To comply with the wheelchair viewing 
position llne-of-slght and dispersion require- 
ments of 4.33.3. 

(c) To provide access to Incidental 
occuplable spaces and rooms which are not 
open to the general public and which house 
no more than ftve persons. Including but not 
limited to equipment control rooms and pro- 
jection booths. 

(d) To provide access where existing site 
constraints or other constraints make use of a 
ramp or an elevator Lnfeaslble. 

(6) Windows: (Reserved). 

(7) Doors: 

(a) At each accessible entrance to a building 
or facility, at least one door shall comply with 
4.13. 

(b) Within a building or facility, at least 
one door at each accessible space shall comply 
with 4.13. 

(c) Each door that Is an element of an 
accessible route shall comply with 4. 13. 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



45651 



4.1.3 Accessible Buildings: New Construction 



(d) Each door required by 4.3.10, Egress, 
shall comply with 4. 13. 

(8) In new construction, at a minimum, the 
requirements in (a) and (b) below shall be 
satisfied independently: 

(a)(1) At least 50% of all public entrances 
(excluding those in (b) below) must be acces- 
sible. At least one must be a ground floor 
entrance. Public entrances are any entrances 
that are not loading or service entrances. 

(11) Accessible entrances must be pro- 
vided In a number at least equivalent to the 
number of exits required by the applicable 
bulIdlng/flre codes. (This paragraph does not 
require an Increase in the total number of 
entrances planned for a facility.) 

(ill) An accessible entrance must be 
provided to each tenancy in a facility (for 
example, individual stores in a strip shopping 
center). 

One entrance may be considered as 
meeting more than one of the requirements In 
(a). Where feasible, accessible entrances shall 
be the entrances used by the majority of people 
visiting or working in the building. 

fb)(l) In addition. If direct access Is provided 
for pedestrians from an enclosed parking 
garage to the building, at least one direct 
entrance from the garage to the building must 
be accessible. 

(11) If access Is provided for pedestrians 
from a pedestrian tunnel or elevated walkway, 
one entrance to the building from each tunnel 
or walkway must be accessible 

One entrance may be considered as meet- 
ing more than one of the requirements In (b). 

Because entrances also serve as emer- 
gency exits whose proximity to all parts of 
buildings and facilities is essenUal. it Is prefer- 
able that all entrances be accessible. 

(c) If the only entrance to a building, or 
tenancy in a facility. Is a service entrance, that 
entrance shall be accessible. 

(d) Entrances which are not accessible shall 
have directional signage complying with 4.30. 1. 



4.30.2, 4.30.3. and 4.30.5. which Indicates the 
location of the nearest accessible entrance. 

(9)* In buildings or facilities, or portions of 
buildings or facilities, required to be accessible, 
accessible means of egress shall be provided in 
the same number as required for exits by local 
building/life safety regulations. Where a re- 
quired exit from an occuplable level above or 
below a level of accessible exit discharge Is not 
accessible, an area of rescue assistance shall 
be provided on each such level (in a number 
equal to that of Inaccessible required exits). 
Areas of rescue assistance shall comply with 
4.3.1 1. A horizontal exit, meeting the require- 
ments of local "buCding/life safety regulations, 
shall satisfy the requirement for an area of 
rescue assistance. 

EXCEPTION: Areas of rescue assistance are 
not required in buildings or facilities having a 
supervised automatic sprinkler system. 

(10)* Drinking Fountains; 

(a) Where only one drinking fountaiin is 
provided on a fioor there shall be a drinking 
fountain which is accessible to Individuals who 
use wheelchairs in accordance with 4. 15 and 
one accessible to those who have dlfllculty 
bending or stooping. (This can be accommo- 
dated by the use of a 'hi-lo" fountain; by 
providing one fountain accessible to those who 
use wheelchairs and one fountain at a stan- 
dard height convenient for those who have 
difficulty bending; by providing a fountain 
accessible under 4. 15 and a water cooler; or 
by such other means as would achieve the 
required accessibility for each group on each 
fioor.) 

(b) Where more than one drinking fountain 
or water cooler Is provided on a fioor, 50% of 
those provided shall comply with 4.15 and 
shall be on an accessible route. 

(11) ToUet Facilities: If toUet rooms are 
provided, then each public and common use 
toUet room shall comply with 4.22. Other toilet 
rooms provided for the use of occupants of 
specific spaces (i.e., a private toilet room for the 
occupant of a private office) shall be adaptable. 
If bathing rooms are provided, then each public 
and common use bathroom shall comply with 
4.23. Accessible toilet rooms and bathing 
facilities shall be on an accessible route. 



45652 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

4.1.3 Accessible Buildings: New Construction 



(12) Storage. Shelving and Display Units: 

(a) If fixed or built-in storage facilities such 
as cabinets, shelves, closets, and drawers are 
provided In accessible spaces, at least one of 
each type provided shall contain storage space 
complying with 4.25. Additional storage may be 
provided outside of the dimensions required by 
4.25. 

(b) Shelves or display units Eiilowlng self- 
service by customers in mercantile occupancies 
shall be located on an accessible route comply- 
ing with 4.3. Requirements for accessible reach 
range do not apply. 

(13) Controls cUid operating mechanisms In 
accessible spaces, along accessible routes, or 
as parts of accessible elements (for example, 
light switches and dispenser controls) shall 
comply with 4.27. 

( 14) if emergency warning systems are 
provided, then they shall Include both audible 
alarms and visual alarms complying with 4.28. 
Sleeping accommodations required to comply 
with 9.3 shall have an alarm system complying 
with 4.28. Emergency warning systems In 
medical care facilities may be modified to suit 
standard health care alarm design practice. 

(15) Detectable warnings shall be provided at 
locations as specified in 4.29. 

(16) BuUdlng Signage: 

(a) Signs which designate permanent rooms 
and spaces shall comply with 4 30. 1. 4.30.4, 
4.30.5 and 4 30.6. 

(b) Other signs which provide direction to or 
Information about functional spaces of the 
bundling shall comply with 4.30. 1. 4.30.2. 
4.30.3, and 4,30.5. 

EIXCEPTION: Building directories, menus, and 
all other signs which are temporary- are not 
required to comply. 

(17) Public Telephones: 

(a) If public pay telephones, public closed 
circuit telephones, or other public telephones 
are provided, then they shall comply with 
4.31.2 through 4.31.8 to the extent required by 
the following table: 



Niunb«r of each type 

of telephone prorided 

on each floor 



Number of telephones 
required to comply with 
4.31.3 through 4.31.8' 



1 or more single unit 1 per floor 



1 bank' 

2 or more banks' 



1 per floor 

1 per bank. Accessible unit 
may be Installed as a single 
unit In proximity (either 
visible or with signage) to 
the bank. At least one 
public telephone per floor 
shall meet the requirements 
for a forward reach 
telephone'. 



' Additional public telephones may be Installed 
at any height. Unless otherwise specified, 
accessible telephones may be either forwaird or 
side reach telephones. 

^ A bank consists of two or more adjacent 
public telephones, often installed as a unit. 

' EIXCEPTION: For exterior Installations only, if 
dial tone first service is available, then a side 
reach telephone may be Installed instead of the 
required forwcird reach telephone (i.e., one 
telephone In proximity to each bank shall 
comply with 4.31). 

(b)' All telephones required to be accessible 
and complying with 4.31.2 through 4.31.8 shall 
be equipped with a volume control. In addition, 
25 percent, but never less than one. of all other 
public telephones provided shall be equipped 
with a volume control and shall be dispersed 
among all types of public telephones. Including 
closed circuit telephones, throughout the build- 
ing or facility. Signage complying with appli- 
cable provisions of 4.30.7 shall be provided. 

(c) The following shall be provided in 
accordance with 4.31.9: 

(I) If a totcil number of four or more 
public pay telephones (including both Interior 
and exterior phones) is provided at a site, and 
at least one is in an interior location, then at 
least one Interior public text telephone shall 
be provided. 

(II) if an interior public pay telephone is 
provided in a stadium or arena, In a convention 
center. In a hotel with a convention center, or 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



45653 



4.1.3 Accessible Buildings: New Construction 



In a covered mall, at least one Interior public 
text telephone shall be provided in the facility. 

(Ill) If a public pay telephone is located 
In or ad)accnt to a hospital emergency room, 
hospital recovery room, or hospital waiting 
room, one public text telephone shall be pro- 
vided at each such location. 

(d) Where a bank of telephones in the 
Interior of a building consists of three or more 
public pay telephones, at least one public pay 
telephone in each such bank shall be equlpj^ 
with a shelf and outlet in compliance with 
4.31.9(2). 

( 18) If fixed or buUt-ln seating or tables 
(Including, but not limited to, study carrels and 
student laboratory stations), are provided in 
accessible public or common use areas, at least 
five percent (5%), but not less than one. of the 
fixed or built-in seating areas or tables shall 
comply with 4.32. An accessible route shall 
lead to and through such fixed or built-in 
seating areas, or tables. 

( 19)* Assembly areas: 

(a) In places of assembly with fixed seating 
accessible wheelchair locations shall comply 
with 4.33.2, 4.33.3. and 4.33.4 and shall be 
provided consistent with the following table: 



Capacitj of Seating Number of Required 
In Assembly Areas Wheelchair Locations 



4 to 25 




1 


26 to 50 




2 


51 to 300 




4 


301 to 500 




6 


over 500 


6, plus 


1 additional space 




for each total seating 




capacity Increase of 100 



In addition, one percent, but not less than one. 
of all fixed seats shall be aisle seats with no 
armrests on the aisle side, or removable or 
folding armrests on the aisle side. Each such 
seat sh£ill be identified by a sign or marker. 
Signage notifying patrons of the availability of 
such seats shall be posted at the ticket on"ice. 
Aisle seats are not required to comply with 
4.33.4. 



(b) This paragraph applies to assembly 
areas where audible coinmunk:atlons are 
integral to the use of the space (e.g.. concert 
and lecture halls, playhouses and movie the- 
aters, meeting rooms, etc.). Such assembly 
areas, if (1) they accommodate at least 50 
persons, or If they have audlo-ampllficatlon 
systems, and (2) they have fixed seating, shall 
have a permanently installed assistive listening 
system complying with 4.33. For other assem- 
bly areas, a permanently Installed assistive 
listening ^rstcm. or an adequate number of 
electrical outlets or other supplementary wiring 
necessary to support a portable assistive 
listening system shcill be provided. The mini- 
mum number of receivers to be provided shall 
be equal to 4 percent of the total number of 
seats, but in no case less than two. Signage 
complying with applicable provisions of 4.30 
shall be installed to notify patrons of the 
availability of a listening system. 

(20) Where automated teller machines 
(ATMs) are provided, each ATM shall comply 
with the requirements of 4.34 except where two 
or more are provided at a location, then only 
one must comply. 

ElXCEPnON: Drlve-up-only automated teller 
machines are not required to comply with 
4,27.2, 4.27.3 and 4.34.3. 

(21) Where dressing and fitting rooms are 
provided for use by the general public, patients, 
customers or employees. 5 percent, but never 
less than one, of dressing rooms for each type 
of use In each cluster of dressing rooms shaill 
be accessible and shall comply with 4.35. 

Examples of types of dressing rooms are those 
serving different genders or distinct and differ- 
ent functions as in different treatment or 
examination facilities. 

4.1.4 (Reserved). 

4.1.5 Accessible Buildings: AddiUons. 

Each addition to an existing building or facility 
shall be regarded as an alteration. Each space 
or element added to the existing building or 
facility shall comply with the applicable provi- 
sions of 4. 1 . 1 to 4. 1 .3, Minimum Requirements 
(for New Construction) and the applicable 
technical specifications of 4.2 through 4.35 and 
sections 5 through 10. Each addition that 



10 



45654 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday. September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.1.6 Accessible Buildings: AlteraUons 



aHects or could affect the usability of an area 
containing a primary function shadJ comply 
with 4.1.6(2). 

4.1.6 Accessible Buildings: AlteraUons. 

(1) General. Alterations to existing buildlrigs 
and facilities shall comply with the following: 

(a) No alteration shall be undertaken which 
decreases or has the effect of decreasing acces- 
sibility or usability of a building or facility 
below the requirements for new construction at 
the time of adteration. 

(b) ff existing elements, spaces, or common 
areas are altered, then each such altered 
element, space, feature, or area shall comply 
with the applicable provisions of 4. 1 . 1 to 4 1 .3 
Minimum Fiequlrements (for New Construc- 
tion). If the applicable provision for new con- 
struction requires that an element, space, or 
common area be on an accessible route, the 
altered element, space, or common area is not 
required to be on an accessible route except as 
provided In 4. 1.6(2) (Alterations to an Area 
Containing a Primary Function.) 

(c) If alterations of single elements, when 
considered together, amount to an alteration of 
a room or space in a butJdlng or facility, the 
entire space shall be made accessible. 

(d) No alteration of an existing element. 
space, or area of a building or facility shall 
impose a requirement for greater accessibility 
than that which would be required for new 
construction. For exaunple. if the elevators and 
stairs in a building are being altered and the 
elevators are. in turn, being made accessible, 
then no accessibility modifications are required 
to the stairs connecting levels connected by the 
elevator. If stair modifications to correct unsafe 
conditions are required by other codes, the 
modifications shall be done In compliance with 
these guidelines unless technically infeasible. 

(e) At least one Interior public text telephone 
complying with 4.31.9 shall be provided if: 

(1) alterations to ejdstlng buildings or 
facilities with less than four exterior or interior 
public pay telephones would increase the total 
number to four or more telephones with at 
least one in an interior location; or 



(11) alterations to one or more exterior or 
Interior public pay telephones occur in an 
existing building or facility with four or more 
public telephones with at least one in an 
Interior location. 

(0 ff an escalator or stair is planned or 
Installed where none existed previously and 
major structural modifications are necessary 
for such Installation, then a means of acces- 
sible vertical access shall be provided that 
complies with the applicable provisions of 4.7, 
4.8. 4.10. or 4.11. 

(g) In alterations, the requirements of 
4. 1 .3(9). 4.3. 10 and 4.3. 1 1 do not apply. 

(h) 'Entrances: ff a planned alteration 
entails alterations to an entrance, and the 
buUding has an accessible entrance, the en- 
trance being altered is not required to comply 
with 4. 1.3(8), except to the extent required by 
4 1 .6(2). ff a particular entrance is not made 
accessible, appropriate accessible signage 
Indicating the location of the nearest accessible 
enlrance(s) shall be Installed at or near the 
inaccessible entrance, such that a person with 
disabilities will not be required to retrace the 
approach route from the Inaccessible entrance. 

(I) ff the alteration work is limited solely 
to the electrical, mechanicad, or plumbing 
system, or to haizardous material abatement, 
or automatic sprinkler retrofitting, and does 
not Involve the alteration of any elements or 
spaces required to be accessible under these 
guidelines, then 4. 1.6(2) does not apply. 

()) EXCEPTION: In alteration work, ff com- 
pliance with 4. 1.6 is technically infeasible. the 
alteraUon shall provide accessibility to the 
maximum extent feasible. Any elements or 
features of the building or facility that are 
being altered and cam be made accessible shall 
be made accessible within the scope of the 
alteration. 

Technically Infeasible. Means, with respect to 
an alteration of a building or a facility, that it 
has bttle likelihood of being accomplished 
because existing structurad conditions would 
require removing or altering a load-beairlng 
member which is an essential part of the struc- 
tural fraime: or because other existing physical 
or site constraints prohibit modification or 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regula 



tions 



4.1.6 Accessible Bulldin|;s: Alterations 



45655 



addition of elements, spaces, or features which 
are In full and strict compliance with the mini- 
mum requirements for new construction and 
which arc necessary to provide accessibility. 

(k) EXCEPTION: 

(I) These guidelines do not require the 
Installation of an elevator In an altered facility 
that Is less than three stories or has less than 
3,000 square feet per story unless the building 
Is a shopping center, a shopping mall, the 
professional office of a health care provider, or 
another type of facility as determined by the 
Attorney General. 

(II) The exemption provided in p>aragraph 
(1) does not obviate or limit in any way the 
obligation to comply with the other accessibility 
requirements established in these guidelines. 
For example, alterations to floors above or 
below the ground floor must be accessible 
regardless of whether the altered facility has an 
elevator, if a facility subject to the elevator 
exemption set forth in psu-agraph (i) nonethe- 
less has a full passenger elevator, that elevator 
shall meet, to the maximum extent feasible, the 
accessibility requirements of these guidelines. 

(2) Alterations to em Area Containing a 
Primary Function: In addition to the require- 
ments of 4.1.6(1). an alteration that affects or 
could aSeci the usability of or access to an area 
containing a primary function shall be made so 
as to ensure that, to the maximum extent 
feasible, the path of travel to the altered area 
cmd the restrooms, telephones, and drinking 
fountains serving the altered area, are readily 
accessible to and usable by Individuals with 
disabilities, unless such alterations are dispro- 
portionate to the overall alterations in terms of 
cost and scope (as determined under criteria 
established by the Attorney General). 

(3) Special Technical Provisions for Alter- 
ations to Ebdstlng Buildings and Facilities: 

(a) Ramps: Curb ramps and Interior or 
exterior ramps to be constructed on sites or 
in existing buildings or facilities where space 
limitations prohibit the use of a 1:12 slope or 
less may have slopes and rises as follows: 

(1) A slope between 1:10 and 1:12 1s 
allowed for a maximum rise of 6 inches. 



(U) A slope between 1:8 and 1: 10 is 
allowed for a maximum rise of 3 Inches. A 
slope steeper than 1:8 Is not allowed. 

(b) Stairs: Full extension of handrails at 
stairs shall not be required In alterations where 
such extensions would be hazardous or Impos- 
sible due to plan configuration. 

(c) Elevators: 

(i) If Scifety door edges are provided In 
existing automatic elevators, automatic door 
reopening devices may be omitted (see 4. 10.6). 

(U) Where existing shaft configuration 
or technical Lnfeaslblllty prohibits strict com- 
pliance with 4. 10.9. the minimum car plan 
dimensions may be reduced by the minimum 
amount necessary, but in no case shall the 
Inside car area be smaller than 48 in by 48 in. 

(Hi) Equivalent facilitation may be pro- 
vided with an elevator car of different dimen- 
sions when usability can be demonstrated and 
when all other elements required to be acces- 
sible comply with the applicable provisions of 
4.10. For example, an elevator of 47 in by 69 in 
( 1195 mm by 1755 mm) with a door opening on 
the narrow dimension, could accommodate the 
standard wheelchair clearances shown In 
Figure 4. 

Id) Doors: 

(1) Where It Is technically Infeasible to 
comply with clear opening width requirements 
of 4. 13.5. a projection of 5/8 in maximum will 
be permitted for the latch side stop. 

(U) If existing thresholds are 3/4 In high 
or less, and have (or are modified to have) a 
beveled edge on each side, they may remain. 

(e) Toilet Rooms: 

(1) Where it Is technically infeasible to 
comply with 4.22 or 4.23, the Installation of at 
least one unisex toilet/bathroom per floor, 
located In the same area as existing toilet 
facilities, will be permitted In lieu of modifying 
existing toilet facilities to be accessible. Each 
unisex toilet room shall contain one water 
closet complying with 4. 16 and one lavatory 
complying with 4. 19, and the door shall have 
a privacy latch. 



12 



45656 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.1.7 Accessible Buildings: Historic Preservation 



(U) Where It Is technically Infeaslble to 
Install a required standard stall (Fig. 30(a)), or 
where other codes prohibit reduction of the 
fixture count (I.e.. removjil of a water closet Ln 
order to create a double-wide stall), either 
alternate stadl (Flg.30(b)) may be provided In 
lieu of the standard stall. 

(UlJ When existing toilet or bathing 
facilities are being altered cind are not made 
accessible, signage complying with 4.30. 1 , 
4.30.2. 4.30.3. 4.30.5. and 4.30.7 shaU be 
provided Indicating the location of the nearest 
accessible toilet or bathing facility within the 
facility. 

(f) Assembly Areas: 

(1) Where it is technically Infeaslble to 
disperse accessible seating throughout an 
altered assembly area, accessible seaUng areas 
may be clustered. Each accessible seating area 
shall have provisions for companion seating 
and shall be located on an accessible route that 
also serves as a means of emergency egress. 

(U) Where It Is technically infeaslble to 
cilter all performing areas to be on an accessible 
route, at least one of each type of performing 
area shall be made accessible. 

(g) Platform Lifts fWheelchatr Lifts): In 
alterations, platfoi-m lifts (wheelchair lifts) 
complying with 4. 1 1 and applicable state or 
local codes may be used as part of an acces- 
sible route. The use of lifts is not limited to the 
four conditions In exception 4 of 4.1.3(5). 

(h) Dressing Rooms: In alterations where 
technical LnfeasIbLllty can be demonstrated, one 
dressing room for each sex on each level shall 
be made accessible. Where only unisex dress- 
ing rooms are provided, accessible unisex 
dressing rooms may be used to fulfill this 
requirement. 

4.1.7 Accessible Buildings: Historic 
Preservation. 

(1) AppllcabUity: 

(a) General Rule. Alterations to a qualified 
historic building or facility shall comply with 
4.1.6 Accessible Buildings: Alterations, the 
applicable technical specifications of 4.2 



through 4.35 and the applicable special appli- 
cation sections 5 through 10 unless It Is deter- 
mined In accordance with the procedures In 
4.1.7(2) that compliance with the requirements 
for accessible routes (exterior and Interior), 
ramps, entrances, or toilets would threaten or 
destroy the historic significance of the building 
or facility In which case the alternative require- 
ments In 4. 1.7(3) may be used for the feature. 

EXCEPTION: (Reserved). 

(b) DeflnlUon. A qualified historic buUdlng 
or facility is a building or facility that Is: 

(0 Listed in or eligible for listing In the 
National Register of Historic Places; or 

(11) Designated as historic under gm 
appropriate State or local law. 

(2) Procedures: 

(a) Alterations to Qualified Historic BuUd- 
ings and FacUltles Subject to Section 106 of the 
National Historic Preservation Act: 

(1) Section 106 Process. Section 106 of 
the National Historic Preservation Act (16 
U S.C. 470 f) requires that a Federal agency 
with Jurisdiction over a Federal, federedly 
assisted, or federally bcensed undertaking 
consider the effects of the agency's undertaking 
on buildings cUid facilities listed In or eligible 
for listing in the National Register of Historic 
Places and give the Advisory Council on His- 
toric Preservation a reasonable opportunity to 
comment on the undertaking prior to approval 
of the undertaking. 

(U) ADA AppUcaUon. Where alteraUons 
cu-e undertaken to a qualified historic building 
or facility that Is subject to section 106 of the 
National Historic Preservation Act. the Federal 
agency with Jurisdiction over the undertaking 
shall follow the section 106 process. If the 
State Historic Preservation Officer or Advisory 
Council on Historic Preservation agrees that 
compliance with the requirements for acces- 
sible routes-f exterior and Interior), ramps, 
entrances, or toilets would threaten or destroy 
the historic significance of the building or 
facility, the alternative requirements In 
4. 1 7(3) may be used for the feature. 



13 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 1 73 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45657 

4.2 Space Allowance and Reach Ranges 



(b) Alterations to Qualified Historic BuUd- 
Ings and Facilities Not Subject to Section 106 
of the National Historic Preservation Act. Where 
alterations are undertaken to a qualified his- 
toric building or facility that is not subject to 
section 106 of the National Historic Preserva- 
tion Act, If the entity undertaking the alter- 
ations believes that compliance with the re- 
quirements for accessible routes (exterior and 
Interior), ramps. entraiKes. or toilets would 
threaten or destroy the historic signlflcaiKe of 
the building or facility and that the alternative 
requirements in 4. 1.7(3) should be used for the 
feature, the entity should consult with the 
State Historic Preservation Officer. If the State 
Historic Preservation Officer agrees that com- 
pliance with the accessibility requirements for 
accessible routes (exterior and Interior), ramps, 
entrances or toilets would threaten or destroy 
the hlstorlccil significance of the building or 
facility, the cdtemattve requirements In 4. 1.7(3) 
may be used. 

(c) Consultation With Interested Persons. 
Interested persons should be invited to partici- 
pate In the consultation process. Including 
State or local accessibility officials. Indlviducils 
with disabilities, and organizations represent- 
ing individuals with disabilities. 

(d) Certified Local Government Historic Pre- 
servation Programs. Where the State Historic 
Preservation Officer has delegated the consulta- 
tion responsibility for purposes of this section 
to a local government historic preservation 
program that has been certified in accordance 
with section 101(c) of the National Historic 
Preservation Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C. 470a (c)) 
and Implementing regulations (36 CFR 61.5), 
the responsibility may be carried out by the 
appropriate local government body or official. 

(3) Historic Preservation: Minimum 
Requirements: 

(a) At least one accessible route complying 
with 4.3 from a site access point to an acces- 
sible entrance shall be provided. 

EXCEPTION: A ramp with a slope no greater 
than 1 :6 for a run not to exceed 2 ft (610 mm) 
may be used as part of an accessible route to 
an entrance. 



(b) At least one accessible entrance comply- 
ing with 4. 14 which Is used t>y the public shall 
be provided. 

EXCEPTION: ff It Is determined that no 
entrance used by the public can comply with 
4. 14. then access at any entrance not used by 
the general public but open (unlocked) with 
directional signage at the primary entrance 
may be used. The accessible entrance shall 
also have a notification system. Where security 
Is a problem, remote monitoring may be used. 

(c) ff toilets are provided, then at least one 
toUet facility complying with 4.22 and 4.1.6 
shall be provided cilong an accessible route that 
complies with 4.3. Such toilet facility may be 
unisex in design. 

(d) Accessible routes from an accessible 
entrance to all publicly used spaces on at least 
the level of the accessible entrance shall be 
provided. Access shall be provided to all levels 
of a building or facility In compliance with 4. 1 
whenever practical. 

(e) Displays and written information, 
documents, etc.. should be located where 
they can be seen by a seated person. Elxhlblts 
and signage displayed horizontally (e.g.. open 
books), should be no higher than 44 In 

( 1 120 mm) above the floor surface. 

NOTE: The technical provisions of sections 4.2 
through 4.35 are the same as those of the 
American National Standard Institute's docu- 
ment Al 17. 1-1980. except as noted in the text. 

4.2 Space Allowance and Reach 
Ranges. 

4.2.1* Wheelchair Passage Width. The 

minimum clear width for single wheelchair 
passcige shall be 32 In (815 mm) at a point and 
36 in (9 1 5 mm) continuously (see Fig. 1 and 
24(e)). 

4.2.2 Width for Wheelchair Passing. The 

minimum width for two wheelchairs to pass is 
60 In (1525 mm) (see Fig. 2). 

4.2.3* Wheelchair Turning Space. The 

space required for a wheelchair to make a 180- 
degree turn is a clear space of 60 in (1525 mm) 



45658 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, Septe mber 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

4.2.4* Clear Floor or Ground Space for Wheelchairs 



diameter (see Fig. 3|a)) or a T-shaped space (see 
Fig. 3(b)). 

4.2.4* Clear Floor or Ground Space for 
Wheelchairs. 

4.2.4.1 Slse and Approach. The minimum 
clear noor or ground space required to 
accommodate a single, stationary wheelchair 
and occupant Is 30 In by 48 In (760 mm by 
1220 mm) (see Fig. 4(a)). The miiiimum clear 
floor or ground space for wheelchairs may be 
positioned for forwcird or parallel approach to 
an object (see Fig. 4(b) and (c)). Clear floor or 
ground space for wheelchairs may be part of 
the knee space required under some objects. 

4.2.4.2 Relationship of Maneuvering 
Clearance to Wheelchair Spaces. One full 
unobstructed side of the clear floor or ground 
space for a wheelchair shall adjoin or overlap 
an accessible route or adjoin another wheel- 
chair clear floor space. If a clear floor space Is 
located In an alcove or otherwise confined on 
all or part of three sides, additional maneuver- 
ing clearances shall be provided as shown In 
Fig. 4(d) and (e). 

4.2.4.3 Surfaces for Wheelchair Spaces. 

Clear floor or ground spaces for wheelchairs 
shall comply with 4.5. 

4,2.5* Forward Reach. If the clear floor 
space only allows forward approach to an 
object, the maximum high forward reach 
allowed shall be 48 in (1220 mm) (see Fig. 5(a)). 
Ttie minUnum low forward reach is 15 in 
(380 mm}. If the high forward reach Is over an 
obstruction, reach and clearances shall be as 
shown In Fig. 5(b). 

4.2.6* Side Reach, if the clear noor space 
cdlows parallel approach by a person In a 
wheelchair, the maximum high side reach 
allowed shall be 54 In (1370 mm) and the low 
side reach shall be no less than 9 In (230 mm) 
above the floor (Fig. 6(a) and (b)). If the side 
reach Is over an obstruction, the reach and 
clearances shall be as shown In Fig 6(c). 

4.3 Accessible Route. 

4.3.1* General. All walks, halls, corridors, 
aisles, skywalks. tunnels, and other spaces 



32 




36 



Fig. 1 
Minimum Clear Width 
for Single Wheelchair 




SQmin 



Fig. 2 
Minimum Clear Width 
for Two Wheelchairs 



15 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45659 



4.3 Accesssible Route 



that are part of an accessible route shall 
comply with 4.3. 

4.3.2 Location. 

(1) At least one accessible route within the 
boundary of the site shall be provided from 
public transportation stops, accessible parking, 
jind accessible passenger loading zones, and 
public streets or sidewalks to the accessible 
building entrance they serve. The accessible 
route shcdL to the maximum extent feasible, 
coincide with the route for the general public. 

(2) At least one accessible route shall con- 
nect accessible buildings, facilities, elements, 
and spaces that are on the same site. 

(3) At least one accessible route shzill con- 
nect accessible building or facility entrances 
with all accessible spaces and elements and 
with all accessible dwelling units within the 
building or facility. 

(4) An accessible route shall connect at least 
one accessible entrance of each accessible 



dwelling unit with those exterior and interior 
spaces and facilities that serve the accessible 
dwelling unit. 

4.3.3 Width. The minimum clear width of an 
accessible route shall be 36 In (915 mm) except 
at doors (see 4. 13.5 and 4. 13.6). If a person in 
a wheelchair must make a turn around an 
obstruction, the minimum clear width of the 
accessible route shall be as shown in Fig. 7(a) 
and(b). 

4.3.4 Passing Space. If an accessible route 
has less than 60 in (1525 mm) clear width, 
then passing spaces at least 60 in by 60 in 
(1525 mm by 1525 mm) shall be located at 
reasonable Intervals not to exceed 200 ft (61 m). 
A T- intersection of two corridors or walks is an 
acceptable passing place. 

4.3.5 Head Room. Accessible routes shall 
comply with 4.4.2. 

4.3.6 Surface Textures. The surface of an 
accessible route shall comply with 4.5. 



12 min 



o-o 




60, 




12 min 



(a) 
60ln (1525-mm)-Diameter Space 



(b) 
T- Shaped Space for 180° Turns 



Fig. 3 
Wheelchair Turning Space 



16 



45660 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.3 Accessible Route 





^?VC^ : 




(^g'i 


J^^* : 


48 




12X0 1 



(a) 
Clear Floor Space 




(b) 
Forward Approach 




(c) 
Parallel Approach 





MOTE: X $ 24 in (610 mm) 



MOTE. X ^ 15 in (380 mm) 



(d) 



Clear Floor Space in Alcoves 




.^ 


^O. 




7 


(^-i 
T-^^^'^^ 


^^ 


j^^ 


48 


12 




1220 


305 1 



NOTE: If X > 24 in (610 mm), then an additional 
maneuvering clearance of 6 in ( 1 50 mm) shall be 
provided as shown. 



MOTE: If X > 15 in (380 mm), then an additional 
maneuvering clearance of 12 in (305 mm) shall be 
provided as shown. 



(e) 



Additional Maneuvering Clearances for Alcoves 

Rg.4 
Minimun; Clear Roor Space for Wheelchairs 



17 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45661 

4.3 Accessible Route 





' 1220^ 



(a) 
High Forward Reach Limit 





MOTE: X shall be ^ 25 in (635 mm); z shall be :^ x. When x < 20 in (510 mm), then y shall be 48 in (1220 mm) maximum 
When X is 20 to 25 in (510 to 635 mm), then y shall be 44 in (1 120 mm) maximum 

(b) 
Maximum Forward Reach over an Obstruction 



Fig. 5 
Forward Reach 



18 



45662 



Federal Reyster / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday, September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.3.7 Slope 





(a) 
Clear Roor Space Parallel Approach 



(b) 
High and Low Side Reach Umits 




(c) 
Maximum Side Reach over Obstruction 

Fig. 6 
Side Reach 



4.3.7 Slope. An accessible route with a 
running slope greater than 1:20 Is a ramp and 
shall comply with 4.8. Nowhere shall the cross 
slope of an accessible route exceed 1:50. 

4.3.8 Changes in Levels. Changes in levels 
along an accessible route shall comply with 
4.5.2. If an accessible route has changes In 
level greater than 1/2 In (13 mm), then a curb 



ramp, ramp, elevator, or platform lift (as permit- 
ted tn 4.1.3 and 4. 1 .6) shaU be provided that 
compiles with 4. 7, 4.8. 4. 10. or 4. 1 1 . respec- 
tively. An accessible route does not include 
stairs, steps, or escalators. See definition of 
"egress, means oP In 3.5. 

4.3.9 Doors. Doors along an accessible route 
shall comply with 4. 13. 



19 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and RegulaHons 45663 



4.3.10* ECrcM 




.n 




(a) 
90° Turn 



ISOTE: Dimensions shown apply when x < 48 in (1220 mm). 

(b) 
Turns around an Obstniction 



^ 



^ 




(c) 
Changes in level 



(d) 
Changes In level 



Fig. 7 
Accessible Route 



4.3.10* Egress. Accessible routes serving any 
accessible space or element shall also serve as 
a means of egress for emergencies or connect to 
an accessible area of rescue assistance. 

4.3.1 1 Areas qf Rescue Assisttuice. 

4.3.11.1 LoccUion and CUnstruction. An area 
of rescue assistance shall be one qf the foUowtng: 



(1) A portion of a stairway landing within a 
smokeproof enclosure (complying with local 
requirements). 

(2) A portion of an exterior exit balcony located 
invnediately adjacent to an exit stairway when 
the balcony complies with local requirements for 
exterior exit balconies. Openings to the interior of 
the budding located within 20 feet (6 m) of the 



20 



45664 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

4.4 Protruding Objects 



area of rescue assistance shall be protected 
wUhJire assemblies hcuAng a three-fourths hour 
fire protectUm rating. 

(3) A portion of a one how fire-resistive corri 
dor (complying wUh local requirements for fire- 
resistive construction and for opentrxgs) located 
invnediately adjacent to an exit enclosure. 

(4) A vestibule located immediately amacent 
to an exit enclosure and constructed to the same 
fire resistive standards as required for corridors 
and opeaiigs. 

(5) A portion of a stairway landtng within an 
exit enclosure which is vented to the exteridr 
and is separated from the interior of the building 
with not less than one- hour fire-reststlve doors. 

16) When approved by the appropriate local 
authority, an area or a room which is separated 
from other portions of the building by a smoke 
barrier. Smoke barriers shall have afire-resis- 
tive rating of not less than one hour and shall 
completely enclose the area or room. Doors in 
the smoke barrier shall be tight fUttng smoke 
and drafi-contrcl assemblies having afire- 
protection rating of not less than 20 minutes 
and shall be self-closing or automatic closing. 
The area or room shall be provided with an exit 
directly to an exit enclosure. Where the room 
or area extts into an exit enclosure which (s 
required to be of more than one-hour fire resis- 
tive construction the room or area shall have 
the samejlre-reststive construction including 
the same opening protection as required for 
the adfacent exit enclosure. 

17] An elevator lobby when elevator shafts 
and adjacent lobbies are pressurized as re 
quired for smokeproof enclosures by local 
regulations and when complying with require- 
ments herein for size, communication arxd 
signage. Such pressurization system shall be 
activated by smoke detectors on each floor 
located in a manner approved by the appropri 
ate local authority. Pressurization equipment 
and Us duct work wUhtn the building shall be 
separated from other portions of the buUdtng by 
a minimum two-hour fire resistive construction 

4.3.11 .2 Size. Each area of rescue asststance 
shall provide at least two accessible areas each 
being not less than 30 irvches by 48 inches 
(760 mm by 1220 mm). The area of rescue 



assistance shall not encroach on arxy required 
exit width. The total number of such 30inch by 
48 inch (760 mm by 1 220 mm) areas per story 
shall be not less than one for every 200 persons 
of calculated occupant load served by the area 
of rescue assistance. 

EXCEPTION: The appropriate local authority 
may reduce the minimum number ofSO-tnch by 
48-tnch (760 mm by 1220 mm) areas to one for 
each area of rescue assistance on floors where 
the (xxnipant load is less than 200. 

4.3.1 1 .3* Stalnvay Width. Each stairway 
adUacent to an area of rescue assistance shall 
have a minimum clear width of 48 irxches 
between handrails. 

4.3.11.4* Two-way Communication. A 

method of two-way communication wUh both 
vtstt)le and audible signals, shall be provided 
between each area of rescue assistance and the 
primary entry. The fire department or appropri- 
ate local authority may approve a location other 
than the primary entry. 

4.3.11 .5 Identification. Each area of rescue 
assistance shall be identified by a sign which 
states 'AREA OF RESCUE ASSISTANCE' and 
displays the international symbol of accessibil- 
ity. The sign shall be Uluminated when exit sign 
Illumination is required. Signage shall also be 
installed at all inaccessible exits and where 
otherwise necessary to clearly indicate the 
direction to areas of rescue assistance. In each 
area of rescue assisUmce. instructions on the 
use of the area under emergency conditions 
shall be posted adjoining the two-way communi 
cation system. 

4.4 Protruding Objects. 

4.4.1* General. Objects projecting from walls 
(for example, telephones) with their leading 
edges between 27 in and 80 in (685 mm and 
2030 mm) above the finished floor shall pro- 
trude no more than 4 In ( 100 mm) Into walks, 
halls, corridors, passageways, or aisles (see 
Fig. 8(a)). Objects mounted with their leading 
edges at or below 27 in (685 mm) above the 
finished floor may protrude cuiy zunount (see 
Fig. 8(a) and (b)). Free-standing objects 
mounted on posts or pylons may overhang 
12 In (305 mm) maximum from 27 In to 80 in 
(685 mm to 2030 mm) above the ground or 



21 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / f^iles and Regulations 45665 



4.4 Protruding Objects 



Lobby 




any amount 



W/////////////////M 




z^^mmTmzm 



Fig. 8 (a) 
Walking Parallel to a Wall 




v///m/////A 



Fig. 8 (b) 
Walking Perpendicular to a Wall 

Fig. 8 
Protruding Objects 



finished floor (see Fig. 8(c) and (d)). Protruding 
objects shall not reduce the clear width of an 
accessible route or maneuvering space 
(see Fig. 8(e)). 

4.4.2 Head Room. Walks, halls, corridors, 
passageways, eilsles, or other circulation spaces 
shall have 80 In (2030 mm) minimum clear 
head room (see Fig. 8(a)). If vertical clearance of 
an area adjoining an accessible route is reduced 
to less than 80 in (nominal dimension), a barrier 
to warn blind or visually impaired persons shall 
be provided (see Fig. 8(c- 1)). 

4.5 Ground and Floor Surfaces. 

4.5.1* General. Ground and floor surfaces 
along accessible routes and In accessible rooms 
and spaces Including floors, walks, ramps, 
stairs, and curb ramps, shall be stable. Arm, 
sUp-reslstant, and shall comply with 4.5. 

4.5.2 Changes In Level. Changes in level up 
to 1/4 In (6 mm) may be vertical and without 
edge treatment (see Fig. 7(c)). Changes In level 
between 1/4 In and 1/2 In (6 mm and 13 mm) 



22 



45666 Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

4.4 Protmding Objects 



gr— tf than 12 



12 



^TzTi^-.^ 



U....J//////////////////////A 



Fig. 8 (c) Free-SUndlng Ooerhinglng Objects 



^ 




Ftg. 8 (c-1) Ooerhead Hazjuxls 



12n« 














305 














: 


1 












t) 
















^ 




f^ 




/ ' 


1 








tnis OM^rtMna c- 
arMter than 12 


Tk^, 










b*cmja* noooocan 












C8n« hits post or pyton 
b«for6 person hits ot)iact 



Fig. 8 (d) 
Objects Mounted on Posts or Pylons 



Fig. 8 
F^rotniding Objects (Continued) 



23 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45667 

4.6 Ground and Floor Surfaces 




additional protaction 
no! required between 
wing walls 



protruding objects 
hanging on wall with 
leadirtg edges above 
2716851 



Fig. 8 (e) 
Example of Protection around Wall-Mounted Objects and Measurements of Clear Widths 



ng.8 

Protruding Objects (Continued) 



shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 
1:2 (see Fig. 7(dJ). Changes in level greater than 
1/2 In (13 mm) shall be accomplished by 
means of a ramp that compiles with 4.7 or 4.8. 

4.5.3* Carpet. If carpet or cjirpet tile is used 
on a ground or floor surface, then It shcdl be 
securely attached; have a firm cushion, pad, or 
backing, or no cushion or pad; and have a level 
loop, textured loop, level cut pile, or level cut/ 
uncut pile texture. The maximum pile thick 
ness shall be 1/2 In (13 mm) (see Fig. 8(0). 
Exposed edges of carpet shall be fastened to 
floor surfaces and have trim along the entire 
length of the exposed edge. Carpet edge trim 
shaill comply with 4.5.2. 



4.5.4 Gratings. If gratings are located in 
walking surfaces, then they shall have spaces 
no greater than 1/2 In (13 mm) wide In one 
direction (see Fig. 8(g)). If gratings have elon- 
gated openings, then they shall be placed so 
that the long dimension Is perj)endlcular to the 
dominant direction of travel (see Fig. 8(h}). 

4.6 Parking and Passenger Loading 
Zones. 

4.6.1 Bfinimum Number. Parking spaces 
required to be accessible by 4. 1 shall comply 
wtlh 4.6.2 through 4.6.5. Passenger loading 
zones required to be accessible by 4.1 shall 
comply with 4.6.5 and 4.6.6. 



24 



45668 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rule s and Regulations 

4.6 Parkiixg and Passenger Loading Zones 




Fig. 8 (0 
Carpet Pile Thickness 



^ predominant direction 



of traffic 



1/2 



nrrr 



Fig. 8 (g) 
Gratings 



long dimension 
perpendicular to 
route of travel 







Fig. 8 (h) 
Grating Orientation 



4.6.2 Location. Accessible parking spaces 
serving a particular building shall be located 
on the shortest accessible route of travel Jrom 
adjacent parking to an accessible entrance. !n 
parking facUtties that do not serve a particular 
building, accessible parking shall be located on 
the shortest accessible route of travel to an 
accessible pedestrian entrance of the parking 
facility. In buildings with mulUple accessible 
entrances with adHacent parking, accessible 
parking spaces shall be dispersed and located 
closest to the accessible entrances. 

4.6.3* Parking Spaces. AccesstbZe parking 
spaces shall be at least 96 in (2440 mm) wide. 
Parking access aisles shall be part of an acces- 
sible route to the buUdlng or facility entrance 
and shall comply with 4.3. TWo accessible 
parking spaces may share a common access 
aisle (see Fig. 9). Parked vehicle overhangs 
shall not reduce the clear width of an acces- 
sible route. Parking spaces and access aisles 
shall be level with surface slopes not exceeding 
1:50 (2%) in all directions. 

4.6.4* Signage. Accessible parking spaces 
shall be designated as reserved by a sign 
showing the symbol of accessibility (see 4.30.7). 
Spaces complying with 4.1.2(5)(b) shall have an 
aJdditional sign "Van-Accessible' mounted below 
the symbol of accessibility. Such signs shall be 
located so they cannot be obscured by a vehicle 
parked In the space. 

4.6.5* Vertical Clearance. Provide mini- 
mum vertical clearance of 114 in (2895 mm] at 
accessible passenger loading zones and along 
at least one vehicle access route to such areas 
from site entranceis) and exitls). At parking 
spaces complying with 4.1.2(5)(b). provide 
minimum vertical clearance of 98 In (2490 mm) 
at the parking space and along at least one 
vehicle access route to such spaces from site 
entTance(s) and exitls). 

4.6.6 Passenger Loading Zones. Passenger 
loading zones shall provide an access aisle at 
least 60 in (1525 mm) wide and 20 ft (240 InJ 
(6100 mm) long adjacent and parallel to the 
vehicle pull-up space (see Fig. 10). If there are 
curbs between the access aisle and the vehicle 
pull-up space, then a curb ramp complying 
with 4.7 shall be provided. Vehicle standing 
spaces and access aisles shall be level with 



25 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



45669 



4.7 Curb Ramps 







to 


in 




•cc«sslbl« rout* ^ 


a 




S = S 


n 


D D 

D D . 1 D 1 1 ^ 1 1 

D ' ' D ' ' ' ' 


Q 

s 


Q D 

a 




D a [ 

D D [ 


] C 
] D 


u 
a 


a c 


1 I 


D D 


D 





a u 


1 1 


D a 


D 





a G 


Q 


D 


D 


a 


^■m^ 


D 


] 


G 







^o^ t 


1 G 

or 96 min for > 


u 




96m.n 




60 min 


/ANS 




2440 ] 


IS2S 


2440 






252m,n 






T 


6400 






Fig. 9 






D 


imensions of Parkin 


g Spaces 





surface slopes not exceeding 1:50 (2%) in all 
directions. 

4.7 Curb Ramps. 

4.7.1 Location. Curb ramps complying with 
4.7 shall be provided wherever an accessible 
route crosses a curb. 

4.7.2 Slope. Slof>es of curb ramps shall 
comply with 4.8.2. The slope shall be measured 
as shown In Fig. 11. Transitions from ramps to 
walks, gutters, or streets shcdl be flush arid free 
of abrupt changes. Maximum slopes of adjoining 
gutters, road surface immediately adjacent to 
the curb ramp, or accessible route shall not 
exceed 1:20. 

4.7.3 Width. The minimum width of a curb 
ramp shall be 36 in (915 mm), exclusive of 
flared sides. 

4.7.4 Surface. Surfaces of curb ramps shall 
comply with 4.5. 

4.7.5 Sides of Curb Ramps. If a curb ramp 
is located where pedestrians must walk across 
the ramp, or where it (s not protected by hand- 
rails or guardrails, it shall have flared sides; the 
maximum slope of the flare shall be 1: 10 (see 
Fig. 12(a)). Curb ramps with returned curbs 



may be used where pedestrians would not 
normally walk across the ramp (see Fig. 12(b)). 

4.7.6 Built-up Cuib Ramps. Built-up curb 
ramps shall be located so that they do not 
project into vehicular tredflc lanes (see Fig. 13). 

4.7.7 Detectable Wcunings. A curb ramp 
shall have a detectable warning complying with 
4.29.2. The detectable warning shall extend the 
full width and depth of the curb ramp. 

4.7.8 Obstructions. Curb ramps shall be 
located or protected to prevent their obstruc- 
tion by parked vehicles. 

4.7.9 Location at Marked Crossings. 

Curb ramps at marked crosslrigs shall be 
wholly contained within the markings, exclud- 
ing any flared sides (see Fig. 15). 

4.7.10 Diagonal Curb Ramps. If diagonal 
(or comer type) curb ramp)s have returned 
curbs or other well-defined edges, such edges 
shall be parallel to the direction of pedestrian 
flow. The bottom of diagonal curb ramps shall 
have 48 in (1220 mm) minimum clear space as 
shown in Fig. 15(c) and (d). If diagonal curb 
ramps are provided at marked crossings, the 
48 in (1220 mm) clear space shall be urithin the 
markings (see Fig. 15(c) and (d)). If diagonal 
curb ramps have flared sides, they shall also 
have at least a 24 In (610 mm) long segment 

of straight curb located on each side of the 
curb ramp and within the marked crossing 
(see Fig. 15(c)). 



IIIQ 

81^ 



240 min 



□o 



Rg. 10 
Access Aisle at Passenger Loading Zones 



26 



45670 Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday, September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

4.8 Ramps 



Actjolnlng slope shall 
not exceed 1:20 



walk street 

Fig. 1 1 
Measurement of Curb Ramp Slopes 





PUinting or other 
non -walking surface 



(b) 
Returned Curb 



l^XlslessOvmAQln, 

then the slope of the flared side 

shall not exceed 1:12. 



Fig. 12 
Sides of Curb Ramps 



4.7.11 Islands. Any raised islands In cross- 
ings shaU be cut through level with the street 
or have curb ramps at both sides and a level 
area at least 48 In (1220 mm) long between the 
curb ramps In the part of the Island Intersected 
by the crossings (see Fig. 15(a) and (b)). 

4.8 Raxnps. 

4.8.1* General. Any part of an accessible 
route with a slope greater than 1:20 shall be 
considered a ramp and shall comply with 4,8. 

4.8.2* Slope and Rise. The least possible 
slope shall be used for any ramp. The maxi- 
mum slope of a ramp In new construction shall 
be 1:12. The maximum rise for any run shall 
be 30 in (760 mm) (see Fig. 16). Curb ramps 




and ramps-to be constructed on existing sites 
or In existing buildings or facilities may have 
slopes and rises as allowed in 4.1.6(3)(a) If 
space limitations prohibit the use of a 1:12 
slope or less. 



27 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45671 



4.8 Ramps 



W—^ 




i: 



^ 



d 



e 



(a) 



48min 



siralghlcurb 




^ 



^z: 



(c) 



^■ 



m 



--=-— ^;^ 



M 



If Tl 

segment of ^ 
straight curb 




mx 



LU. 



H 



(b) 




well (tefined vdge 



(d) 



Rg. 15 
Curb Ramps at Marked Crossings 



28 



45672 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.8 Ramps 



Level Landing 



Surface of Ramp 




Rjsc Ma vimum Honzdnul Projeclion 



1:12 to < 1:16 30 760 

1:16 to < 1:20 30 760 



Fig. 16 
Components of a Single Ramp Run and Sample Ramp Dimensions 



4.8.3 Clear Width. The minimum clear width 
of a ramp shall be 36 In (915 mm). 

4.8.4* Landing*. Ramps shall have level 
landings at bottom and top of each ramp and 
each ramp run. Landings shall have the follow- 
ing features: 

(1) The landing shall be at least as wide as 
the ramp run leading to it. 

(2) The landing length shall be a minimum of 
60 in (1525 mm) clear. 

(3) If ramps change direction at landings, the 
minimum landing size shall be 60 m by 60 in 
(1525 mm by 1525 mm). 

(4) If a doorway Is located at a landing, then 
the area in front of the doorway shall comply 
with 4.13.6. 

4.8.5* Handrails. If a ramp run has a rise 
greater than 6 In (150 mm) or a horizontal 
projection greater than 72 In (1830 mm), then 
It shall have handrails on both sides. Handrails 
are not required on curb ramps or adjacent to 
seating in assembly areas. Handrails shall 
comply with 4.26 and shall have the following 
features: 



( 1) Handrails shedl be provided along both 
sides of ramp segments. The Inside handrail 
on switchback or dogleg ramps shall always 
be continuous. 

(2) If handrails are not continuous, they 
shall extend at least 12 in (305 mm) beyond the 
top and bottom of the raunp segment and shall 
be parallel with the floor or ground surface 
(see Fig. 17). 

(3) The clear space between the handrail and 
the wall shall be 1 - 1/2 m (38 mm). 

(4) Gripping surfaces shall be continuous. 

(5) Top oj handrail gripping surfaces shall be 
mounted between 34 in and 38 in (865 mm and 
965 mm) above ramp surfaces. 

(6) E^ids of handrails shaR be either rounded 
or returned smoothly tojloor, walL or post. 

(7) Handrails shall not rotate within their 
Jlttings. 

4.8.6 Cross Slope and Surfaces. The cross 
slope of ramp surfaces shall be no greater than 
1 :50. Ramp surfaces shall comply with 4.5. 



29 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45673 

4.9 Stairs 



4.8.7 Edge Protection. Ramps and landings 
with drop-offs shall have curbs, walls, railings, 
or projecting surfaces that prevent people from 
slipping off the ramp. Curbs shall be a mini- 
mum of 2 in (50 mm) high (see Fig. 17). 

4.8.8 Outdoor Conditions. Outdoor ramps 
and their approaches shall be designed so that 
water will not accumulate on walking surfaces. 

4.9 Stairs. 

4.9.1* Minimwn Number. Stairs required to 
be cuxessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.9. 

4.9.2 Treads and Risers. On any given 
flight of stairs, all steps shall have uniform 
riser heights and uniform tread widths. Stair 
treads shall be no less than 1 1 in (280 mm) 
wide, measured from riser to riser (see Fig. 
18(a)). Open risers are not permitted. 

4.9.3 Nosings. The undersides of nosings 
shall not be abrupt. The radius of curvature at 
the leading edge of the tread shall be no greater 
than 1/2 in (13 mm). Risers shcdl be sloped or 
the underside of the nosing shciU have an angle 
not less than 60 degrees from the horizontal. 
Nosings shall project no more than 1-1/2 in 
(38 mm) (see Fig. 18). 

4.9.4 Handrails. Stairways shall have hand- 
rails at both sides of all stairs. Handrails shall 
comply with 4.26 and shall have the following 
features: 

(1) Handrails shall be continuous along 
both sides of stairs. The Inside handrail on 
switchback or dogleg stairs shall cdways be 
continuous (see Fig. 19(a) and (b)). 

(2) If handrails are not continuous, they 
shall extend at least 12 In (305 mm) beyond the 
top riser and at least 12 In (305 mm) plus the 
width of one tread beyond the bottom riser. At 
the top, the extension shcdl be parallel with the 
floor or ground surface. At the bottom, the 
handrail shall continue to slope for a distance 
of the width of one tread from the bottom riser; 
the remainder of the extension shall be hori- 
zontal (see Fig. 19(c) and (d)). Handrail exten- 
sions shall comply with 4.4. 

(3) The clear space between handrails and 
wall shall be 1-1/2 In (38 mm). 



(4) Gripping surfaces shall be uninterrupted 
by newel p>osts, other construction elements, or 
obstructions. 

(5) Top of handrail gripping surface shall be 
mounted between 34 in and 38 in (865 mm and 
965 mm) above stair nosiJTgs. 

(6) E^nds of handrails shall be either rounded 
or returned smoothly to floor, wall or post 

(7) Handrails shall not rotate within their 
fittings. 

4.9.5 Detectable Warnings at Stairs. 

(Reserved). 

4.9.6 Outdoor Conditions. Outdoor stairs 
and their approaches shall be designed so that 
water will not accumulate on walking surfaces. 

4.10 Elevators. 

4.10.1 General. Accessible elevators shall 
be on cui accessible route and shall comply 
with 4. 10 and with the ASAfE Al 7.2-2990, 
Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators. 
Freight elevators shall not be considered as 
meeting the requirements of this section unless 
the only elevators provided are used as combi 
nation passenger and freight elevators for the 
public and employees. 

4.10.2 Automatic Operation. Elevator 
operation shall be automatic. Each car shall 
be equipped with a self-leveling feature that 
will automatically bring the car to floor land- 
ings within a tolerance of 1/2 in (13 mm) 
under rated loading to zero loading conditions. 
This self-leveling feature shall be automatic 
cind Independent of the operating device and 
shall correct the overtravel or undertravel. 

4.10.3 Hall Call Buttons. Call buttons in 
elevator lobbies amd halls shall be centered at 
42 In (1065 mm) above the floor. Such call 
buttons shall have visual signals to Indicate 
when each call is registered and when each 
call is answered. Call buttons shall be a mini- 
mum of 3/4 In ( 19 mm) In the smallest dimen- 
sion. The button designating the up direction 
shall be on top. (See Fig. 20.) Buttons shall be 
raised or flush. Objects mounted beneath halt 
call buttons shall not project into the elevator 
lobby more than 4 tn(IOO mm}. 



30 



45674 Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday, September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

4.10 Elevators 



12 mm 
"505 



n^^ 



I i!-"- ^ M 




:ufb 



P 1- 



I 



7777775 




;)!§ 



f,f """ I 



/jjjjMJjf>jf>y//MiMi 



TTTfA 



, 36min 

915 



I^Mmt,. 



vertical guard rati 



12m 
305 



////////J 



36 r 




r77t7777T7. 



railing with extended 
platform 



Fig. 17 
Examples of Edge Protection and Handrail Extensions 



^^rf* 





■-radK* 



(b) 
I Angled Nosing 



t 



)V- radus 



(a) 
Rush Riser 



Rg. 18 (c) 

Gsable Tread Width and Examples of Acceptable Nosings Rounded Nosing 



31 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday, September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45675 



4.10 Elevators 



31 



■^ 



(a) 
Plan 




Extension at Bottom of Run 



nOTE: 

X is the 12 in minimum handraii extension required 

at each top riser. 
Y is the minimum handrail extension of 12 in pius the 

width of one tread that is required at each bottom riser. 




Elevation of Center Handrail 




12 



I 



Tt=J)£ 



r^ 



(d) 
Extension at Top of Run 



J 



Fig. 19 
Stair Handrails 



32 



45676 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

4.10 Elevators 




riOTE; The automatic door reofjening device is activated if an 
object passes through either line A or line B. Line A and line B 
represent the vertical locations of the door reopening device not 
requinng contact 

Fig. 20 
Hoistway and Elevator Entrances 



4.10.4 Hall Lanterns. A visible and audible 
signal shall be provided at each hoistway 
entrance to Indicate which car Is answering a 
call. Audible signals shall sound once for the 
up direction gind twice for the down direction or 
shall have verbal annunciators that say "up" or 
"down." Visible signals shall have the following 
features: 

(1) Hall lantern fixtures shall be mounted so 
that their centerllne is at least 72 In (1830 mm) 
above the lobby floor. (See Fig. 20.) 

(2) Visual elements shall be at least 2-1/2 In 
(64 mm) in the smallest dimension. 

(3) Signals shall be visible from the vicinity 
of the haU call button (see Fig. 20). In-car 
lanterns located In cars, visible from the vicin- 
ity of hall call buttons, and conforming to the 
above requirements, shall be acceptable. 



4.10.5 Raised and Braille Characters on 
Hoistway Entrances. All elevator hoistway 
entrances shall have raised and BralUe floor 
designations provided on both Jambs. The 
centerllne of the characters shall be 60 in 
(1525 mm) above Jinish floor. Such characters 
shcdl be 2 In (50 mm) high and shall comply 
with 4.30.4. Permanently applied plates are 
acceptable if they are permanently fixed to the 
Jambs. (See Fig. 20). 

4. 10.6* Door Protective and Reopening 
Device. Elevator doors shall open and close 
automatically. They shall be provided with a 
reopening device that will stop and reopen a 
car door and hoistway door automatically if 
the door becomes obstructed by an object or 
person. The device shall be capable of complet- 
ing these operations without requiring contact 
for an obstruction passing through the opening 
at heights of 5 in and 29 In (125 mm and 
735 mm) above finish floor (see Fig. 20). Door 
reopening devices shall remain effective for at 
least 20 seconds. After such an interval, doors 
may close in accordzmce with the requirements 
o(AS\fEA17.1 1990. 

4.10.7* Door and Signal Timing for Hall 
Calls. The minimum acceptable time from 
notification that a car is answering a call until 
the doors of that car start to close shall be 
calculated from the following equation: 

T= D/(1.5ft/s) orT = D/(445mm/s) 

where T total time in seconds and D distance 
(In feet or millimeters) from a point in the lobby 
or corridor 60 in (1525 mm) directly In front of 
the farthest call button controlling that car to 
the centerllne of Its hoistway door (see Fig. 2 1). 
For cars with In-car lanterns. T begins when 
the lantern Is visible from the vicinity of hall 
call buttons and an audible signal Is sounded. 
The minimum acceptable notification time shall 
be 5 seconds. 

4.10.8 Door Delay for Car Calls. The 

minimum time for elevator doors to remain 
fully open in response to a car call shall be 
3 seconds. 

4.10.9 Floor Plan of Elevator Cars. The 

floor area of elevator cars shall provide space 
for wheelchair users to enter the car. maneuver 



33 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



45677 



4.10.12 Car Controls 









acceptable 
























# 


















/ 




















* ^ 


















^^ 


















/* 






s 










. 


^ 








3 








4 












8" 








P'^ 












Y, 




" 




































- d 































































S 6 8 to 12 U 18 18 

distance in feet 
ng.21 
Graph of Timing Equation 



within reach of controls, and exit from the car. 
Acceptable door opening and Inside dimensions 
shall be as shown In Fig. 22. The clearance 
between the cds platform sill and the edge of 
any holstway landing shall be no greater than 
1-1/4 In (32 mm). 



4.10.10 Floor Surfaces. 

comply with 4.5. 



Floor surfaces shall 



4.10.11 mumination Levels. The level of 
Illumination at the car controls, platform, cind 
car threshold and landing sill shall be at least 
5 footcandles (53.8 lux). 

4.10.12* Car Controls. Elevator control 
panels shall have the following features: 

(1) Buttons. All control buttons shall be at 
least 3/4 In (19 mm) In their smallest dimen- 
sion. They shaR be raised or flush. 

(2) Tactile. BraiUe. and Visual Control Indi- 
cators. All control buttons shall be designated 
by Braille and by raised standard alphabet 
characters for letters, arable characters for 
numerals, or standard symbols as shown In 
Fig. 23(a), and as required In ASAfE A i 7.1 J 990. 
Raised and BmUle characters and symbols 
shall comply with 4.30. The call button for the 
main entry floor shall be designated by a raised 
star at the left of the floor designation (see Fig. 
23(a)). All raised designations for control but- 
tons shall be placed immediately to the left of 
the button to which they apply. Applied plates. 




(b) 

Fig. 22 
>\inimum Dimensions of Elevator Cars 



permanently attached, are an acceptable 
means to provide raised control designations. 
Floor buttons shall be provided with visual 
Indicators to show when each call Is registered. 
The visual Indicators shall be extinguished 
when each call Is answered. 

(3) Height. All floor buttons shall be no 
higher thaui 54 In ( 1370 mm) above the Jinish 
floor /or side approach and 48 in (1220 mm) 
for front approach. Emergency controls. Includ- 
ing the emergency alarm and emergency stop, 
shall be grouped at the bottom of the panel 
and shall have their centerllnes no less than 
35 In (890 mm) above the finish floor (see Fig. 
23(a) and (b)). 



34 



45678 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.10.13* Car Position Indicators 



^44^ 



control button diarneter 



70 
_5^ 



80 



• 10 
S O 



-4 O 



20 
BO 

Hi O 

O o 





(b) 
Car Control Height 




Alternate Locations of Panel 
with Center Opening Door 



(d) 

Alternate Locations of Panel 

with Side Opening Door 



Fig. 23 
Car Controls 



(4) Location. Controls shall t)e located on a 
front wadl If cars have center opening doors, 
and at the side wall or at the front wall next 
to the door if cars have side opening doors 
(see Fig. 23(c) and (d)). 

4.10.13* Car Position Indicators. In 

elevator cars, a visual car position Indicator 
shall be provided above the car control panel 
or over the door to show the position of the 
elevator in the holstway. As the car passes or 
stops at a floor served by the elevators, the 
corresponding numerals shall Ulumlnate, 



and an audible signal shall sound. Numerals 
shall be a minimum of 1/2 In (13 mm) high. 
The audible signal shall be no less than 
20 decibels with a frequency no higher than 
1500 Hz. An automatic verbal announcement 
of the floor number at which a car stops or 
which a car passes may be substituted for the 
audible signal. 

4.10.14* Emergency Communications. 

If provided, emergency two-way communica- 
tion systems between the elevator and a point 
outside the holstway shall comply with ASME 



35 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



45679 



4.11 Platform UfU (Wheelchair Lifts) 



A 17.1 1990. The highest operable part of a 
two-way communication system shall t>e a 
maximum of 4S in (1220 rnm) from the floor 
of the car. It shall be Identified by a raised 
symbol and lettering complying with 4.30 and 
located adjacent to the device. If the system 
uses a handset then the length of the cord 
from the panel to the handset shall be at 
least 29 in (735 mm). If the system ts located 
in a closed compartment the compartment door 
hardware shall conform to 4.27. Controls cuxd 
Operating Mechanisms. The emergency tnter- 
communicatian system shaR not require voice 
communicatiorL 

4.11 PUtform Lifts (Wheelchair 
Lifts). 

4.11.1 Location. Platform lifts (wheelchair 
lifts) permitted by 4. 1 shall comply with the 
requirements of 4.11. 

4. 11.2* Other RequiremenU. If platform 
lifts (wheelchair lifts) are used, they shall 
comply with 4.2.4. 4.5. 4.27. and ASAfE y\ i 7. J 
Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators. 
Section XX. 1990. 

4.11.3 Entrance. If platform lifts are used 
then they shall facilUale unassisted entry, 
operation, and exit from the lift in compliance 
with 4.1 1.2. 

4.12 Windows. 
4.12.1* General. (Reserved). 
4.12.2* Window Hardware. (Reserved). 

4.13 Doors. 

4.13.1 General. Doors required to be acces 
sible by 4. 1 shall comply with the requirements 
of 4.13. 

4.13.2 Revolving Doors and Turnstiles. 

Revolving doors or turnstiles shall not be 
the only means of passage at an accessible 
entrance or along cin accessible route. An 
accessible gate or door shall be provided adja 
cent to the turnstile or revolving door and shall 
be so designed as to facilitate the same use 
pattern. 



4.13.3 Gates. Gates, including ticket gates, 
shall meet all applicable specifications of 4. 13. 

4.13.4 Double-Leaf Doorways. If doorways 
have two independently operated door leaves, 
then at least one leaf shall meet the specifica- 
tions in 4. 13.5 and 4. 13.6. That leaf shall be 
an active leaf. 

4.13.5 Clear Width. Doorways shall have a 
minimum clear opening of 32 in (8 1 5 mm) with 
the door open 90 degrees, measured between 
the face of the door and the opposite stop (see 
Fig. 24(a). (b). (c). and (d)). Openings more than 
24 in (610 mm) in depth shall comply with 
4.2.1 and 4.3.3 (see Fig. 24(e)). 

EIXCEPTION: Doors not requiring full user 
passage, such as shallow closets, may have 
the clear opening reduced to 20 in (510 mm) 
minimum. 

4.13.6 Bianeuvering Clearances at 
Doors. Minimum maneuvering clearances at 
doors that are not automatic or power- assisted 
shall be as shown in Fig. 25. The floor or 
ground area within the required clearances 
shall be level and clear. 

EIXCEPTION: Entry doors to acute care hospital 
bedrooms for in-patients shall be exempted 
from the requirement for space at the latch 
side of the door (see dimension "x" in Fig. 25) 
If the door is at least 44 in ( 1 120 mm) wide. 

4.13.7 Two Doors In Series. The minimum 
space between two hinged or pivoted doors in 
series shall be 48 in (1220 mm) plus the width 
of any door swinging into the space. Doors In 
series shall swing either in the same direction 
or away from the space between the doors 
(see Fig. 26). 

4.13.8* Thresholds at Doorwajrs. 

Thresholds at doorways shall not exceed 3/4 in 
(19 mm) in height for exterior sliding doors or 
1 /2 in ( 13 mm) for other types of doors. Raised 
thresholds and floor level changes at accessible 
doorways shall be beveled with a slope no 
greater than 1:2 (see 4.5.2). 

4.13.9* Door Hardware. Handles, pulls, 
latches, locks, and other operating devices on 
accessible doors shall have a shape that is easy 



36 



45680 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.13 Doors 



32 win 



1 




w 



/ 



u 



(a) 
Detail 



(b) 
Hinged Door 



i l^f^ 



(c) 
Sliding Door 



32 m in J 



32 mm 1 




(d) (e) 

Folding Door Maximum Doorway Deptii 

Fig. 24 
Clear Doorway Width and Depth 



to grasp with one hand and does not require 
tight grasping, tight pinching, or twisting of 
the wrist to operate. Lever-operated mecha- 
nisms, push-type mechanisms, and U-shaped 
handles are acceptable designs. When sbdlng 
doors are fully open, operating hardware shall 
be exposed and usable from both sides. Hard- 
ware required for accessible door passage shjcdl 
be mounted no higher than 48 in (1220 mm) 
above Jinis hed Jloor. 

4. 13. 10* Door Closers. If a door has a 
closer, then the sweep period of the closer 
shall be adjusted so that from an open posi- 
tion of 70 degrees, the door will take at least 
3 seconds to move to a point 3 in (75 mm) 
from the latch, measured to the leading edge 
of the door. 



4. 13. 1 1* Door Opening Force. The maxi- 
mum force for pushing or pulling open a door 
shall be as follows: 

(1) Fire doors shall have the minimum 
opening force allowable by the appropriate 
administrative authority. 

(2) Other doors. 

(a) exterior hinged doors; (Reserved]. 

(b) interior hinged doors: 5 Ibf (22. 2N) 

(c) sUdlng_or folding doors: 5 Ibf (22. 2N) 

These forces do not apply to the force required 
to retract latch bolts or disengage other devices 
that may hold the door In a closed position. 



37 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45681 

4.13 Doom 



Pull Side 








i 




18 mtn, 24 preferred 




I 


455 






NOTE: X = 12 in (305 mm) if door has both i 
closer and latch. 



(a) 



Front Approaches — Swinging Doors 




NOTE: X = 36 in (9 1 5 mm) minimum If y = 60 in 
(1525 mm); x = 42 in (1065 mm) minimum If y = 
54 in (1370 mm). 




NOTE: y = 48 in ( 1 220 mm) minimum if door has 
both a latch and closer 



(b) 



Hinge Side Approaches — Swinging Doors 




NOTE: y = 54 in ( 1 370 mm) minimum if door has 
closer. 




NOTE: y = 48 in ( 1 220 mm) minimum if door has 
closer 



Latch Side Approaches — Swinging Doors 

NOTE: All doors in alcoves shall comply with the clearances for front approaches. 

Rg.25 
Maneuvering Clearances at Doors 



38 



45682 Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.13 Doors 



^ 




(d) 

Front Approach — Sliding Doors 

and Folding Doors 



(e) 

Slide Side Approach — Sliding Doors 

and Folding Doors 



X 



^ 



(f) 

Latch Side Approach — Sliding Doors and Folding Doors 

iSOTE: All doors in alcoves shall comply with the clearances for front approaches. 



Fig. 25 
Maneuvering Clearances at Doors (Continued) 



i 



I I 1? r'" I 



'^i2~^ 



fc3„ 



I I I 



Rg.26 
Two Hinged Doors in Series 



39 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



45683 



4.14 Entrances 



4.13.12* Automatic Doors and Power- 
Assisted Doors. If an automatic door is 
used, then it shall comply with ANSI/BHMA 
A156.10-1985. Slowly opening, low-powered, 
automatic doors shall comply with ANSI 
A156.19-1984. Such doors shall not open to 
back check faster them 3 seconds and shall 
require no more than 15 Ibf (66. 6N) to stop 
door movement. If a power-assisted door is 
used, its door-opening force shall comply with 
4. 13. 1 1 and its closing shall conform to the 
requirements in ANSI A156.19 1 984. 

4.14 Entrances. 

4.14.1 Minimum Number. Entrances 
required to be accessible by 4. 1 shall be part of 
an accessible route complying with 4.3. Such 
entrances shall be connected by an accessible 
route to public transportation stops, to acces- 
sible parking and passenger loading zones, 
and to public streets or sidewalks if available 
(see 4.3.2(1)). They shall also be connected by 
an accessible route to all accessible spaces or 
elements within the building or facility. 

4.14.2 Service Entrances. A service 
entrance shall not be the sole accessible 
entrance unless it is the only entrance to a 
building or facility (for example, in a factory 
or garage). 

4.15 Drinking Fountains and Water 
Coolers. 

4.15.1 Minimum Number. Drinking foun 
tains or water coolers required to be accessible 
by 4.1 shall comply with 4. 1 5. 

4.15.2* Spout Height. Spouts shall be no 
higher than 36 in (915 mm), measured from 
the floor or ground surfaces to the spout outlet 
(see Fig. 27(a)). 

4.15.3 Spout Location. The spouts of 
drinking fountains and water coolers shall be 
at the front of the unit jmd shcill direct the 
water flow in a trajectory that is parallel or 
nearly parallel to the front of the unit. The 
spout shall provide a flow of water at least 4 in 
( 100 mm) hljgh so as to allow the insertion of a 
cup or glass under the flow of water. On an 
accessible drinking fountain with a round or 



oval bowl the spout must be positioned so the 
Jlow of water ts within 3 tn (75 mm) of the front 
edge of the fountain. 

4.15.4 Controls. Controls shall comply with 
4.27.4. Unit controls shall be front mounted or 
side mounted near the front edge. 

4.15.5 Clearances. 

(1) Wall- and post-mounted cantilevered 
units shall have a clear knee space between 
the bottom of the apron and the floor or 
ground at least 27 in (685 mm) high. 30 in 
(760 mm) wide, and 17 in to 19 in (430 mm 
to 485 mm) deep (see Fig. 27(a) and (b)). Such 
units shall also have a minimum clear floor 
space 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220 mm) to 
allow a person in a wheelchair to approach the 
unit facing forward. 

(2) Free-standing or built-in units not having 
a clear space under them shall have a clear 
floor space at least 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 
1220 mm) that allows a person in a wheelchair 
to make a pau-allel approach to the unit (see 
Fig. 27(c) and (d)). This clear floor space shall 
comply with 4.2.4. 

4.16 Water Closets. 

4.16.1 General. Accessible water closets 
shall comply with 4. 16. 

4.16.2 Clear Floor Space. Clear floor space 
for water closets not in stalls shall comply with 
Fig. 28. Clear floor space may be arranged to 
allow either a left-handed or right-handed 
approach. 

4.16.3* Height. The height of water closets 
shall be 17 in to 19 In (430 mm to 485 mm), 
measured to the top of the toilet seat (see Fig. 
29(b)). .Seats shall not be spnmg to return to a 
lifted position. 

4.16.4* Grab Bars. Grab bars for water 
closets not located in stalls shall comply with 
4.26 and Fig. 29. The grab bar behind the water 
closet shall be 36 in (915 mm) minimum. 

4.16.5* Plush Controls. Flush controls 
shall be hand operated or automatic and shall 
comply with 4.27.4. Controls for flush valves 



40 



45684 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.17 Toilet StaUs 



shall he mounted on the wide side of toilet 
areas no more than 44 In ( 1 120 mm) above 
the floor. 

4.16.6 DUpensers. Toilet paper dispensers 
shcdl be Installed within reach, as shown in 
Fig. 29(b). Dispensers that control delivery, or 
that do not permii continuous paper Jlow. shall 
not be used 



4.17ToUct Stalls. 

4.17.1 Location. Accessible toilet stalls shall 
be on an accessible route and shall meet the 
requirements of 4. 1 7. 

4.17.2 Water Closets. Water closets in 
accessible stalls shall comply with 4. 16. 




205 ' ' ' 750 

equipment permitted in shaded area 
(a) 
Spout Height and 
Knee Clearance 

30 mm 




(b) 
Clear Floor Space 



760 













30 m 




not Lo exceed 
fountain depth 



(c) 

Free-standing 

Fountain or Cooler 



(d) 

Built-in 

Fountain or Cooler 



Fig. 27 
Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday. September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



45685 



4.17 ToUet Stalls 






Fig. 28 
Clear Floor Space at Water Closets 





^6 mm 




9 


36 mm 




12 mm 






12 mm 


305 








305 




• 1 


= i 







Fig. 29 
Grab Bars at Water Closets 



4.17.3* Size and Arrangement. The size 
and arrangement of the standard toUet stall 
shall comply with Fig. 30(a). Standard Stall. 
Standard toUet stalls with a minimum depth 
of 56 in (1420 mm) (see Fig. 30(a)) shall have 
wall-mounted water closets. If the depth of a 
standard toilet stall Is Increased at least 3 in 
(75 mm), then a floor-mounted water closet 
may be used. Arrangements shown for stan- 
dard toilet stalls may be reversed to allow 
either a left- or right-hand approach. Addi- 
tional stalls shall be provided in conformance 
with 4.22.4. 

EXCEPTION: In instances of alteration work 
where provision of a standard stall (Fig. 30(a)) 



is technically tnfeasible or where plwnbing code 
requirements prevent combining existing stalls to 
provide space, either alternate stall (Fig. 30(b)) 
mag be provided in lieu of the standard stalL 

4.17.4 Toe Clearances. In standard stalls, 
the front partition and at least one side parti- 
tion shall provide a toe clearance of at least 
9 In (230 mm) above the noor. If the depth of 
the stall Is greater than 60 In (1525 mm), then 
the toe clearance is not required. 

4.17.5* Doors. ToQet stall doors, including 
door hardware, shall comply with 4. 13. If toilet 
stall approach is from the latch side of the stall 
door, clearance between the door side of the 



42 



45686 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.17 Toilet StaUs 



1 




, 1 








c-^--- - - 


— r.; 


^^ 




1 


1 c 

1 S; 


5r- 








S 


.1^ 




^5 










1 

1 




1 








O 


1 


12ma. 






fc 


? 




1 


305 








1 


1 


52m,n 








j 




1320 








{ 




56m,n 




w 


wall mounted wc 


' 




1420 








42 min latch 
approach only. 




59m,o 




w 


(1: mounted w c 




-soo 











other approaches 
48 min 



(a) 
Standard Stall 



1 4,2_. 

I 1065 



12. 



4 2m,n 



12m 
305 

54, 



66r 



I w wall mounted 



-o- 



1675 
69r 



mounted w c 






42 min latch 
approach only, 
other approaches 
48 min 



12- 



54 r 



(b) 
Alternate Stalls 



36 min 




Rg. 30 
Toilet Stalls 



(aO 
Standard Stall (end of row) 



36 r 



\ / 



AV^W^^VV 



Rear Wall of Standard Stall 



12. 



401421 



1015 110651 
I 36 man ^ 




toilet paper 



\\WV>\ ' 



(d) 
Side Walls 



43 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



45687 



4.19 Lavatories and Mirrors 



stxiU. and any obstruction, may be reduced to a 
mtnimum of 42 in (1065 mm) (Fig. 30). 

4.17.6 Grab Bars. Grab bars complying with 
the length and positioning shown in Fig. 30(a), 
(b). (c). and (d) shall be provided. Grab bars 
may be mounted with any desired method as 
long as they have a gripping surface at the 
locations shown and do not obstruct the re- 
quired clear floor area. Grab bars shall comply 
with 4.26. 

4.18 Urinals. 

4.18.1 General. Accessible urinals shaU 
comply with 4.18. 

4.18.2 Hei^t. Urinals shall be stall-type or 
wall-hung with an elongated rtm at a maximum 
of 17 in (430 mm) above the finish floor. 

4.18.3 Clear Floor Space. A clear floor 
space 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220 mm) 
shall be provided In front of urinals to allow 
forward approach. This clear space shall 
adjoin or overlap em accessible route and shall 
comply with 4.2.4. Urinal shields that do not 
extend beyond the front edge of the urinal rim 
may be provided with 29 in (735 mm) clearance 
between them. 

4.18.4 Flush Controls. Flush controls shall 
be hand operated or automatic, and shall com- 
ply with 4.27.4. and shall be mounted no more 
them 44 In (1 120 mm) above the finish floor. 

4.19 Lavatories and Biirrors. 

4.19.1 General. The requirements of 4.19 
shall apply to lavatory fixtures, vanities, and 
built-in lavatories. 

4.19.2 Height and Clearances. Lavatories 
shall be mounted with the rim or counter sur- 
face no higher than 34 in (865 mm) above the 
finish floor. Provide a clearance of at least 29 in 
(735 mm) above the finish floor to the bottom of 
the apron. Knee and toe cleararKre shall comply 
with Fig. 31. 

4.19.3 Clear Floor Space. A clear floor 
space 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220 mm) 
complying with 4.2.4 shall be provided in front 
of a lavatory to allow forward approach. Such 



clear floor space shall adjoin or overlap an 
accessible route and shall extend a maximum 
of 19 in (485 mm) underneath the lavatory 
(see Fig. 32). 

4.19.4 Exposed Pipes and Surfaces. Hot 

water and drain pipes under lavatories shall 
be Insulated or otherwise configured to protect 
against contact There shall be no sharp or 
abrasive surfaces under lavatories. 

4.19.5 Faucets. Faucets shall comply with 
4.27.4. Lever-operated, push-type, and elec- 
tronically controlled mechanisms are examples 
of acceptable designs, //"self-closing valves are 




clearance 205 



Fig. 31 
Lavatoiy Clearances 







17min 

430 


• clear 








: door 
: space 


c 
















1 


19 max 


> 




485 


1 
48 




min 






1220 







Fig. 32 
Clear Floor Space at Lavatories 



45688 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.20 Bathtubs 



used the faucet shall remain, open for at least 
10 seconds. 

4.19.6* Mirror*. Mirrors shall be mounted 
with the bottom edge of the reflecting surface 
no higher than 40 In (1015 mm) above the 
finish noor (sec Fig. 31). 

4.20 Bathtubs. 

4.20.1 General. Accessible bathtubs shall 
comply with 4.20. 

4.20.2 Floor Space. Clear floor space In 
front of bathtubs shall be as shown in Fig. 33. 

4.20.3 Seat. An in-tub seat or a seat at the 
head end of the tub shall be provided as shown 
In Fig. 33 and 34. The structural strength of 
seats and their attachments shcdl comply with 
4.26.3. Seats shall be mounted securely and 
shall not slip during use. 

4.20.4 Grab Bars. Grab bars complying 
with 4.26 shall be provided as shown in Fig. 
33 and 34. 

4.20.5 Controls. Faucets and other controls 
complying with 4.27.4 shall be located as 
shown In Fig. 34. 

4.20.6 Shower Unit. A shower spray unit 
with a hose at least 60 In (1525 mm) long that 
can be used both as a flxed shower head and 
as a hand-held shower shall be provided. 

4.20.7 Bathtub Enclosures. If provided, 
enclosures for bathtubs shall not obstruct 
controls or transfer from wheelchairs onto 
bathtub seats or into tubs. Enclosures on 
bathtubs shall not have tracks mounted on 
their rims. 

4.21 Shower Stalls. 

4.21.1* General. Accessible shower stalls 
shall comply with 4.21. 

4.21.2 Sixe and Clearances. Except as 
specified In 9. 1.2, shower stall size and clear 
floor space shall comply with Fig. 35(a) or (b). 
The shower stall in Fig. 35(a) shall be 36 In by 
36 In (915 mm by 915 mm). Shower stalls 
required by 9. 1 .2 shall comply with Fig. 57(a) 



or (b). The shower stall in Fig. 35fb) will flt into 
the space required for a bathtub. 

4.21.3 Seat. A seat shall be provided in 
shower stalls 36 In by 36 In (915 mm by 

915 mm) and shall be as shown in Fig. 36. The 
seat shall be mounted 17 in to 19 in (430 mm 
to 485 mm) from the bathroom floor and shall 
extend the full depth of the stall. In a 36 in by 
36 in (915 mm by 915 mm) shower stall, the 
seat shall be on the wzdl opposite the controls. 
Where a fixed seat is provided in a 30 in by 
60 in minimum (760 mm by 1 525 mm) shower 
stall a shall be a folding type and shall be 
mounted on the wall adjacent to the controls 
as shown tn Fig. 57. The structural strength 
of seats and their attachments shall comply 
with 4.26.3. 

4.21.4 Grab Bars. Grab bars complying with 
4.26 shall be provided as shown in Fig. 37. 

4.21.5 Controls. Faucets and other controls 
complying with 4.27.4 shall be located as 
shov^Ti in Fig. 37. In shower stalls 36 in by 

36 in (915 mm by 915 mm), all controls, 
faucets, and the shower unit shall be mounted 
on the side wall opposite the seat. 

4.21.6 Shower Unit. A shower spray umt 
with a hose at least 60 in (1525 mm) long that 
can be used both as a fixed shower head and 
as a hand-held shower shall be provided. 

EXCEPTION: In unmonttored faciUties where 
vandalism is a consideration, afbced shower 
head mounted at 48 in (1220 mm) above the 
shower floor may be used in lieu of a hand-held 
shower head. 

4.21.7 Curbs. If provided, curbs In shower 
staUs 36 in by 36 in (915 mm by 915 mm) 
shall be no higher than 1/2 in (13 mm). Shower 
staUs that are 30 In by 60 in (760 mm by 
1525 mm) minimum shall not have curbs. 

4.21.8 Shower Enclosures. If provided, 
enclosures for shower stalls shall not obstruct 
controls or obstruct transfer from wheelchairs 
onto shower seats. 

4.22 Toilet Rooms. 

4.22.1 Minimum Number. Toilet facilities 
required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply 



45 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45689 



4.21 Shower Stalls 



15 



1 








4 


■ 1 

; ciMr : 
1 floor 
,,v.J sp^e; 




60 mm i 







^ 


^ 




1 






<\-4- 


s 






t L____^ 




J 








c 


lav 1 




E„ 


















*' 




(lOOf 






space 



44- 



E 
CO'- 



clear 
floor 
space 



(P 



SYMBOL KEY: 
• Shower controls 
<] Shower head 
^ Drain 



j eorJr 



75 



(a) 
With Seat In Tub 



(b) 
With Seat at Head of Tub 



Fig. 33 
Clear Floor Space at Bathtubs 




area ~r---T 





^4m 




12m.x 


* 810 

i 




305 


1 




^ y : i 


^^ 






co« 


cz: 


y 




\\\\\\WvV\\\^ 



(a) 
With Seat in Tub 



E 



■zj^- 



12mln 



^.XXXXVVVN 



T_i 3 



12rnai 

305 



'vVVVW.WV 



48 min 
1220 



^80* 



bacK 

(b) 
With Seat at Head of Tub 

Fig. 34 
Grab Bars at Bathtubs 



CIT 



Vs.VV.\VV.V> 

head 



46 



45690 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

4.22 Toilet Rooms 



with 4.22. Accessible toilet rooms shcill be on 
an accessible route. 

4.22.2 Doora. All doors to accessible toilet 
rooms shall comply with 4. 13. Doors shall not 
swing Into the clear floor space required for 
any fixture. 

4.22.3* Clear Floor Space. The accessible 
fbdures and controls required in 4.22.4, 4.22.5, 
4.22.6. and 4.22.7 shall be on an accessible 
route. An unobstructed turning space comply- 
ing with 4.2.3 shall be provided within an 
accessible toilet room. The clear floor space at 
fixtures and controls, the accessible route, and 
the turning space may overlap. 

4.22.4 Water CloseU. If toUet stalls are 
provided, then at least one shall be a standard 



toilet staU complying with 4. 17; where 6 or 
more stalls are provided, in addition to the stall 
complying with 4. 1 7.3. at least one stcdl 36 tn 
(915 mm) wide with an outward swinging, self- 
clostr^ door and parallel grab bars complying 
with Fig. 30(cU and 4.26 shall be provided. 
Water closets in such stalls shall comply with 
4. 16. If water closets are not in stalls, then at 
least one shall comply with 4. 16. 

4.22.5 Urinala. If urinals are provided, then 
at least one shall comply with 4.18. 

4.22.6 Lavatories and Mirrors. If lavatories 
and mirrors are provided, then at least one of 
each shall compfy with 4.19. 

4.22.7 Controls and Dispensers. 

If controls, dispensers, receptacles, or other 





36 








915 

back 








. ■ 


^ 








[1 








vt 






} 




If 








tM« (o 








>n 






tI|o 


m 










• = 




due 








"Vl 








1 1 " 




: 
: 
I 
: 

1 

L.........^ 


i 1 

: 


in 
a, 


48 mm 








122 












27ma« 










TT 


685 








rrr" 


P 








pj- 






rr 


nr^ 


c 
E 

1 8 


































































^ 


























•■ 




















<t> 


^ ■ 


■"" 
























'^ 


































~ 




























L- - 


_ 


- 


- 








_ 





_^ 


- 




^ 




j- 


_i'i_j 




! c 

: i 

i 


5 




(a) 

36- In by 36- In 

(915-mmby915mm) Stall 



(b) 

30 InbySO-ln 

(760-mm by 1525-mm) Staii 



Rg.35 
Shower Size and Clearances 



47 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



45691 



4.23 Battaxooms. Bathing Facilities, and Sliower Rooms 



582 


























r 


N 




















jj 




E 










i 




in 


s 








:$! 
















S! J 






=s 








r 
































1 






IVi max 




1! 




33 






V V 




^ 


1 


16 m 


at 













Fig. 36 
Shower Seat Design 



equipment are provided, then at least one of 
each shall be on an accessible route and shall 
comply with 4.27. 

4.23 Bathrooms. Bathing Facilities, 
and Shower Rooms. 

4.23.1 Minimum Number. Bathrooms, 
bathing facilities, or shower rooms required 
to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.23 
and shall be on an accessible route. 

4.23.2 Doors. Doors to accessible bathrooms 
shall comply with 4. 13. Doors shall not swing 
Into the floor space required for any fixture. 

4.23.3* Clear Floor Space. The accessible 
fixtures and controls required in 4.23.4, 4.23.5, 
4.23.6, 4.23.7, 4.23.8, and 4.23.9 shaU be on 
an accessible route. An unobstructed turning 



vVVAWVVV 



^ 



18 



^^ 



n^ 



VVVVVV.V.V 

back (a) control wal 

36in by 36in (915mm by 915-mm) Stall 



27 




—L 



Side 

NOTE: Showfr head and . 



CO $ 00 2 00 a 
CO SCO S ^ J! 



back (long) 

I may be on back (long) wall (as shown) or on either sId 

(b) 
30ln by 60-ln (760-mm by 1525mm) Stall 

Fig. 37 
Grab Bars at Shower Stalls 



:vvvwA . vv 



48 



45692 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday, September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.24 Sinks 



space complying with 4.2.3 shall be provided 
within an accessible bathroom. The clear floor 
spaces at fixtures and controls, the accessible 
route, and the turning space may overlap. 

4.23.4 Water Closets. If toilet stalls are 
provided, then at least one shall be a standard 
toilet stall complying with 4. 17; where 6 or 
more stalls are provided, in addition to the stall 
complying wUh 4. 1 7.3. at least one stall 36 in 
(915 mm) wide with an outuxvd swinging, self- 
closing door and parallel grab bars complying 
with Fig. 30(d) and 4.26 shall be provided 
Water closets in such stalls shall comply with 
4. 16. If water closets are not in stcills. then at 
least one shall comply with 4. 16. 

4.23.5 Urinals. If urinals are provided, then 
at least one shall comply with 4. 18. 

4.23.6 Lavatories and Mirrors. If lavatories 
cmd mirrors cu^e provided, then at least one of 
each shall comply with 4. 19. 

4.23.7 Controls and Dispensers. If con- 
trols, dispensers, receptacles, or other equip- 
ment are provided, then at least one of each 
shall be on an accessible route and shall 
comply with 4.27. 

4.23.8 Bathing and Shower FaciUUes. If 

tubs or showers axe provided, then at least one 
accessible tub that compiles with 4.20 or at 
least one accessible shower that complies with 
4.21 shall be provided. 

4.23.9* Medicine CabineU. If medicine 
cabinets are provided, at least one shall be 
located with a usable shelf no higher than 
44 in ( 1 120 mm) above the floor space. The 
floor space shall comply with 4.2.4. 

4.24 Sinks. 

4.24.1 General. Sinks required to be 
accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.24. 

4.24.2 Height. Sinks shall be mounted 
with the counter or rim no higher than 
34 In (865 mm) above thejlnish floor. 

4.24.3 Knee Clearance. Knee clearance that 
is at least 27 In (685 mm) high. 30 In (760 mm) 
wide, and 19 In (485 mm) deep shall be pro- 



vided underneath sinks. 

4.24.4 Depth. Each sink shall be a maximum 
of 6-1/2 In (165 mm) deep. 

4.24.5 Clear Floor Space. A clear floor 
sp)ace at least 30 In by 48 In (760 mm by 
1220 mm) complying with 4.2.4 shall be 
provided In front of a sink to allow forward 
approach. The clear floor space shcill be on 
an accessible route and shall extend a maxi- 
mum of 19 In (485 mm) underneath the sink 
(see Fig. 32). 

4.24.6 Exposed Pipes and Surfaces. Hot 

water and drain pipes exposed under sinks 
shall be insulated or otherwise configured so 
as to protect against contact. There shall be no 
sharp or abrasive surfaces under sinks. 

4.24.7 Faucets. Faucets shall comply with 
4.27.4. Lever-operated, push-type, touch-type, 
or electronlccilly controlled mechcuilsms are 
acceptable designs. 

4.25 Storage. 

4.25.1 General. Fixed storage facilities such 
as cabinets, shelves, closets, and drawers 
required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply 
with 4.25. 

4.25.2 Clear Floor Space. A clear floor 
space at least 30 In by 48 in (760 mm by 
1220 mm) complying with 4.2.4 that allows 
either a forward or parallel approach by a 
person using a wheelchair shall be provided 
at accessible storage facilities. 

4.25.3 Height. Accessible storage spaces 
shall be within at least one of the reach ranges 
specified in 4.2.5 and 4.2.6 (see Fig. 5 and 
Fig. 6). Clothes rods or shelves shall be a 
maximum of 54 In (1370 mm) above the finish 
floor /or aside approach. Where the distance 
from the wheelchair to the clothes rod or shelf 
exceeds 10 tn (255 mm) (as in closets without 
accessible doors) the height and depth to the 
rod or shelf shall comply with Fig. 38(a) and 
Fig. 38(b). 

4.25.4 Hardware. Hcirdware for accessible 
storage facilities shall comply with 4.27.4. 
Touch latches and U-shaped pulls are 
acceptable. 



49 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.26 Handrails. Grab Bars, and Tub and Shower Seats 





>5^^^?^ 



(a) Shelves 



Fig. 38 
Storage Stielves and Closets 



(b) Closets 



4.26 Handrails. Grab Bars, and Tub 
and Shower Seats. 

4.26.1* General. All handrails, grab bars, 
and tub and shower seats required to be acces 
sa}leby4.1. 4.8. 4.9. 4.16. 4.17. 4.20 or 4.21 
shall comply with 4.26. 

4.26.2* Size and Spacing of Grab Bars 
and Handrails. The diameter or width of the 
gripping surfaces of a handrail or grab bar 
shall be 1-1/4 in to 1-1/2 in (32 mm to 38 mm). 
or the shape shall provide an equivalent grip- 
ping surface. If handrails or grab bars are 
mounted adjacent to a wall, the space between 
the wall and the grab bar shall be 1-1/2 In 
(38 mm) (see Fig. 39(a). (b). (c), and (e)). Hand- 
rails may be located in a recess If the recess is 
a maximum of 3 in (75 mm) deep and extends 
at least 18 In (455 mm) above the top of the rail 
(see Fig. 39(d)). 

4.26.3 Structural Strength. The structural 
strength of grab bars, tub and shower seats, 
fasteners, and mounting devices sh2ill meet 
the following specification: 

( 1) Bending stress in a grab bar or seat 
induced by the maximum bending moment 
from the appUcaUon of 250 Ibf ( II 12N) shaU 



be less than the allowable stress for the 
material of the grab bar or seat. 

(2) Sheair stress induced in a grab bar or 
seat by the application of 250 Ibf (1 1 12N) shall 
be less than the allowable shear stress for the 
material of the grab bar or seat. If the con- 
nection between the grab bar or seat and its 
mounting bracket or other support is consid- 
ered to be fully restrained, then direct and 
torsional shear stresses shall be totaled for the 
combined shear stress, which shall not exceed 
the allowable shear stress. 

(3) Shear force Induced In a fastener or 
mounting device from the application of 250 Ibf 
( 1 1 12N) shall be less than the aUowable lateral 
load of either the fastener or mounting device 
or the supporting structure, whichever is the 
smaller allowable load. 

(4) Tensile force Induced In a fastener by a 
direct tension force of 250 Ibf ( 1 1 12N) plus the 
maximum moment from the application of 
250 Ibf (1 1 12N) shaU be less than the allowable 
withdrawal load between the fastener and the 
supporting structure. 

(5) Grab bars shall not rotate within their 
fittings. 



50 



45694 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.26 Handrails. Grab Bars, and Tub and Shower Seats 



ii-3i t is — ^S 

1 







(a) 
Handrail 




I 



32-38 t 31 ^N^ 




r*V' i 



I 



1 



(e) 
Grab Bar 




Ct»l 



i 



Fig. 39 
Size and Spacing of Handrails and Grab Bars 



^5S55§ 



(d) 
Handrail 



4.26.4 Eliminating Hazards. A handrail or 
grab bar and any wall or other surface adjacent 
to It shall be free of any sharp or abrasive ele- 
ments. Eklges shsdl have a minimum radius of 
1/8 in (3.2 mm). 



4.27 Controls and Operating 
Mechanisms. 

4.27. 1 General. Controls and operating 
mechanisms required to be accessible by 4.1 
shall comply with 4.27. 



51 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday. September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



45695 



4.28 Alarms 



4.27.2 Clear Floor Space. Clear floor space 
complying with 4.2.4 that allows a forward or a 
parallel approach by a person using a wheel- 
chair shall be provided at controls, dispensers, 
receptacles, arid other operable equipment. 

4.27.3* Hei^t. The highest operable part 
of controls, dispensers, receptacles, and other 
operable equipment shall be placed within at 
least one of the reach ranges sp>ecifled In 4.2.5 
and 4.2.6. Electrical and communications 
system receptacles on walls shall be mounted 
no less than 15 In (380 mm) above the floor. 

EXCEPTION: These requirements do not apply 
where the use of special equipment dictates 
otherwise or where electrical and communica- 
tions systems receptacles are not normally 
intended for use by buildtng occupants. 

4.27 A Operation. Controls and operating 
mechanisms shall be operable with one hand 
and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, 
or twisting of the wrist. The force required to 
activate controls shall be no greater than 5 Ibf 
(22.2 H). 

4.28 Alarms. 

4.28. 1 General. Alarm systems required to 
be accessible by 4.1 shall comply wUh 4.28. At 
a minimum visual signal appliances shall be 
provided in buildings and facilities in each of 
thefoUowing areas: restrooms and any other 
general usage areas (e.g.. meeting rooms), 
hcdlways. lobbies, and any other area for 
common use. 

4.28.2* Audible Alarms. If provided, audible 
emergency alarms shall produce a sound that 
exceeds the prevailing equtvjilent sound level 
in the room or space by at least 15 dbA or 
exceeds any maximum sound level with a 
duration of 60 seconds by 5 dhA. whichever 
is louder. Sound levels for alarm signals shall 
not exceed 120 dhA. 

4.28.3* Visual Alarms. Visual alarm signal 
appliances shall be integrated into the building 
orfacUUy alarm system. If single station audible 
alarms are provided then single station visual 
alarm signals shall be provided. Visual alarm 
signals shall have thefoUowing minimum 
photometric and location features: 



(1) The lamp shall be a xenon strobe type or 
equlualent 

(2) The color shall be clear or nominal white 
(Le.. urifUtered or clear filtered white lighij. 

(3) The maximum pulse duration shall be two- 
tenths of one second (0.2 sec) with a maximum 
duty cycle of 40 percent The pulse duration is 
defined as the time interval between Initial and 
final points of 10 percent of maximum signed. 

(4) The tntenstty shall be a minimum of 
75candela. 

(5) The flash rate shall be a minimum of 
1 Hz and a maximum of 3 Hz. 

(6) The appliance shall be placed 80 in 
(2030 mm) above the highest floor level within 
the space or 6 in (152 mm) below the ceiling, 
whichever ts lower. 

(7) In general no place in any room or space 
required to have a visual signal appliance shall 
be more than 50 ft (15 m)from the signal (in the 
horizontal plane). In large rooms and spaces 
exceeding 100 fi (30 m) across, without obstruc 
tions 6 ft (2 m) above the finish floor, such as 
auditoriums, devices may be placed around 
the perimeter, spaced a maximum 100 fl (30 m) 
apart, in lieu of suspending appliances from 
the ceding. 

(8) No place in common corridors or hallways 
in which visual alarm signalling appliances are 
required shall be more than 50 ft (15 rrOfrom 
the signal 

4.28.4* Auxiliary Alarms. Units and sleep- 
ing accommodations shall have a visual alarm 
connected to the building emergency alarm 
system or shall have a standard 1 10-volt elec- 
trical receptacle into which such an jilarm can 
be connected and a means by which a signal 
from the budding emergency alarm system can 
trigger such an auxdiary alarm. When visual 
alarms are in place the signal shall be visible 
in all areas of the unit or roorrL Instructions 
for use of the auxiliary alarm or receptacle 
shall be provided. 



52 



45696 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.29 Detectable Warnings 



4.29 Detectable Warnings. 

4.29.1 General. DetectoJbie warnings required 
by 4. 1 and 4.7 shall comply with 4.29. 

4.29.2* Detectable Warnings on Walking 
Surfaces. Detectahle warnings shall consist 
of raised truncated domes with a diameter of 
nominal 0.9 in (23 mm), a height of nominal 
0.2 in (5 mm) and a center to-center spacing of 
nominal 2.35 in (60 mm) and shall contrast 
visually with adjoining surfaces, either light on 
dark, or darkon-light. 

The material used to provide contrast shall he 
an Integral part of the uxilking surface. Detect 
able warnings used on interior surfaces shall 
differ from adjoining walking surfaces tn resil 
iency or sound on-cane contact. 

4.29.3 Detectable Warnings on Doors 
To Hazardous Areas. (Reserved). 

4.29.4 Detectable Warnings at Stairs. 

(Reserved). 

4.29.6 Detectable Warnings at 
Hazardous Vehicular Areas. If a walk 
crosses or adjoins a vehicular way, and the 
walking surfaces are not separated by curbs, 
raUings. or other elements between the pedes 
trian areas and vehicular areas, the boundary 
between the areas shall be defined by a con- 
tinuous detectable warning which is 36 Ln 
(915 mm) wide, complying with 4.29.2. 

4.29.6 Detectable Warnings at 
Reflecting Pools. The edges of reflecUng 
pools shall be protected by railings, walls, 
curbs, or detectable warnings complying 
with 4.29.2. 

4.29.7 Standardization. (Reserved). 

4.30 Signage. 

4.30.1* General. Signage required to be 
accessible by 4.1 shall comply with the 
applicable provisions of 4.30. 

4.30.2* Character Proportion. Letters and 
numbers on signs shall have a width-to-helght 
ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke-width- 
to-height ratio between 1:5 and 1:10. 



4.30.3 Character Height. Characters and 
numbers on signs shall be sized according to 
the viewing distance from which they are to 
be read. The minimum height is measured using 
an upper case X. Lower case characters are 
permitted. 



Height Above 
Finished Floor 



Minimum 
Character Height 



Suspended or Projected 

Overhead tn 
compliance with 4.4.2 



3 in. (75 mm) 
minimum 



4.30.4* Raised and Brailled Characters 
cuid Pictorial Symbol Signs 
CPictogrcuns). Letters and numerals shall be 
raised 1 /32 in, upper case, sans serif or simple 
serif type and shall be accompanied with Grade 
2 BraiRe. Raised characters shall be at least 
5/8 in (16 mm) high, but no higher than 2 in 
(50 mm). Pictograms shall be accompanied by 
the equivalent verbal description placed directly 
below the pictogram. The border dimension of 
the pictogram shall be 6 tn (152 mm) minimum 
tn height 

4.30.6* Finish and Contrast. The charac- 
ters and background of signs shall be eggshell 
matte, or other non glare finish. Characters and 
symbols shall contrast with their background 
— either light characters on a dark background 
or dark characters on a light background. 

4.30.6 Mounting Location and Height. 

Where permanent identification is provided for 
rooms and spaces, signs shall be installed on 
the wall adjacent to the latch side of the door. 
Where there is no wall space to the latch side 
of the door, including at double leaf doors, 
signs shall be placed on the nearest adjacent 
walL Mounting height shall be 60 in (1525 mm) 
above the finish floor to the centerline of the 
sign Mounting location for such signage shall 
be so that a person may approach within 3 in 
(76 mm) of signage without encountering pro- 
truding objects or standing within the swing 
of a door. 

4.30.7* SsrmboU of Accessibility. 

(1) Facilities and elements required to be 
identified as accessible by 4.1 shall use the 
international symbol of accessibility. The 



53 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



45697 



4.30 Signage 



4Sm^ ! 


: ! ' : ! 1 : i 









-+-^;^.- 


1 ' 


'±~^z—rz 


:rrrl'' 


h^ 


\ : , 


-±,::.J 


/ ' ' \ \ 


1 ' \ \ 


\ yj\ Y 


A \ / j\ •'^^ 


SS^^^^f^^±^ 





(a) 

Proportions 

International Symbol of Accessibility 




L 



(b) 

Display Conditions 

International Symbol of Accessibility 





International Symbol of Access for Hearing Loss 



Fig. 43 
International Symbols 



symbol shall be displayed as shown In 
Fig. 43(aJ and (b). 

(2) Volume Control Telephones. Telephones 
required to have a volume control by 4.1 .3(1 7)(b) 
shjjll be identified by a sign containing a depic- 
tion of a telephone handset wtth radiating sound 



(3) Text Telephones. Text telephones required 
by 4.1.3(1 7)(c) shall be identtfied by the interna- 
tional TDD symbol (Fig 43(c)). In addition, if a 
facility has a public text telephone, directional 
signage indicating the location of the nearest 
text telephone shall be placed adjacent to all 
banks of telephones which do not contain a text 
telephone. Such directional signage shall include 
the international TDD symbol. If a facility has no 
banks of telephones, the directional signage 
shall be provided at the entrance (e.g., in a 
budding directory). 

(4) Assistive Listening Systems. In assembly 
areas where permanently installed assistive 
listening systems are required by 4.1.3(19)(b) 
the availability of such systems shall be identi- 
fied with signage that includes the international 
symbol of access for hearing loss (Fig 43(dJ). 

4.30.8* Illumination Levels. (Reserved). 

4.31 Telephones. 

4.31.1 General. Public telephones required 
to be accessible by 4. 1 shall comply with 4.31. 

4.31.2 Clear Floor or Ground Space. A 

clear floor or ground space at least 30 In by 
48 In (760 mm by 1220 mm) that allows 
either a forward or i>arallel approach by a 
person using a wheelchair shall be provided 
at telephones (sec Fig. 44). The clear floor or 
ground space shall comply with 4.2.4. Bases, 
enclosures, emd ftxed seats shall not Impede 
approaches to telephones by people who use 
wheelchairs. 

4.31.3* Mounting Height. The highest 
operable part of the telephone shall be within 
the reach ranges specified In 4.2.5 or 4.2.6. 

4.31.4 Protruding Objects. Telephones 
shall comply with 4.4. 



54 



45698 Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



4.31 Telephones 



Any width 



^ 



'/—optional 
I post and 
-u base 



YXX//X/X///////jY/jYA 



i 



(a) 
Side Reach Possible 



48 



1220 

Plan 



y/xx///}/x/x}///xAYA 



'Height lo highest operable 
parts which are essential to 
basic operation of telephone. 






- 






^ 


F 






O 


o 5 




fNJ 


" g 


o 




k 


lO 



6 n\in 



Forward Reach Required 



Fig. 44 
Mounting Heights and Clearances for Telephones 



4.31.5 He€u-ingAid Compatible and 
Volume Control Telephones Required 
by 4.1. 

(1) Telephones shall be hectrtng aid 
compatible. 

(2) Volume controls, capable of a minimum 
of 12 dbA and a maximum of 18 dbA above 



normal shall be provided in accordance with 
4.1.3. If an automatic reset is provided then 
1 8 dbA mem t>€ exceeded. 

4.31.6 Controls. Telephones shall have 
pushbutton controls where service for such 
equipment Is available. 



55 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



45699 



4.32 Fixed or Built-in Seating and Tables 



4.31.7 Telephone Books. Telephone books. 
If provided, shall be located in a position that 
complies with the reach ranges specified In 4.2.5 
and 4.2.6. 

4.31.8 Cord Length. The cord from the 
telephone to the handset shall be at least 
29 in (735 mm) long. 

4.31.9* Text Telephones Required 
by 4.1. 

(1) Text telephones used with a pay telephone 
shall be permanently ajfixed within, or adjacent 
to, the telephone enclosme. If an acoustic cou 
pier is used, the telephone cord shall be suffi- 
ciently long to allow connection of the text 
telephone and the telephone receiver. 

(2) Pay telephones designed to accommodate 
a portable text telephone shall be equipped with 
a shelf and an electrical outlet within or adja- 
cent to the telephone enclosure. The telephone 
handset shall be capable of being placed flush 
on the surface of the shelf. The shelf shall be 
capable of accommodating a text telephone and 
shall have 6 in (152 mm) minimum uertical clear 
once tn the area where the text telephone is to 
be placed. 

(3) Ekjutvalent facilitation may be provided. 
For example, a portable text telephone may be 
made cwailable in a hotel at the registration 
desk if it is available on a 24-hour basis for 
use with nearby public pay telephones. In this 
instance, at least one pay telephone shall 
comply with paragraph 2 of this section. In 
addttUjn, if an acoustic coupler is used the 
telephone handset cord shall be sufficiently long 
so as to allow connection of the text telephone 
and the telephone receiver. Directional signage 
shall be provided and shall comply with 4.30. 7. 

4.32 Fixed or Built-in Seating and 
Tables. 

4.32.1 Mini mum Number. Fixed or buUt-in 
seating or tables required to be accessible by 
4.1 shall comply with 4.32. 

4.32.2 Seating. If seating spaces for people 
in wheelchairs are provided at fixed tables or 
counters, clear floor space complying with 
4.2.4 shall be provided. Such clear floor space 



shall not overlap knee space by more than 
19 in (485 mm) (see Fig. 45). 

4.32.3 Knee Clearances. If seating for 
people in wheelchairs Is provided at tables or 
counters, knee spaces at least 27 In (685 mm) 
high. 30 in (760 mm) wide, and 19 in (485 mm) 
deep shall be provided (see Fig. 45). 

4.32.4* Height of Tables or Counters. 

The tops of accessible tables and counters shall 
be from 28 in to 34 in (7 10 mm to 865 mm) 
oboue thefintsh floor or ground. 

4.33 Assembly Areas. 

4.33.1 Minimum Numl>er. Assembly and 
associated areas required to be accessible by 
4.1 shall comply with 4.33. 

4.33.2* Size of Wheelchair Locations. 

Each wheelchair location shall provide mini- 
mum clear ground or floor spaces as shown 
in Fig. 46. 

4.33.3* Placement of Wheelchair 
Locations. Wheelchedr areas shall be cm inte- 
gral part of any fixed seating plan and shall be 
provided so as to provide people with physical 
disabilities a choice of admission prices and 
lines of sight comparable to those for members 
of the general public. They shall adjoin an 
accessible route that also serves as a means 
of egress in case of emergency. At least one 
companion fixed seat shaU be provided next to 
each wheelchair seating area When the seating 
capacity exceeds 300, wheelchair spaces shall 
be provided tn more than one location. Readily 
removable seats may be installed in wheelchair 
spaces when the spaces are not required to 
accommodate wheelchair users. 

EXCEPTION: Accessible viewing positions may 
be clustered for bleachers, balconies, and other 
areas having sight lines that require slopes of 
greater than 5 percent Ekjuivalent accessible 
viewing positions mag be located on levels 
having accessible egress. 

4.33.4 Surfaces. The ground or floor at 
wheelchair locations shall be level and shall 
comply with 4.5. 



56 



45700 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

4.33 Assembly Areas 



^ 



a)S toS 



j42_ 



accessible path of travel 



M 



S5S 



^-3(L 



l^ 



48 



Rg.45 
Minimum Clearances for Seating and Tables 



<V 



1 


1 




V 


5 

1 



66 



-^ 




(a) (b) 

Forward or Rear Access Sld€ Access 

Fig. 46 
Space Requirements for Wheelchair 
Seating Spaces In Series 



57 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



45701 



4.34 Automated Teller liachines 



4.33.5 Access to Performing Areas. 

An accessible route sheiU connect wheelchair 
seating locations with performing areas, includ- 
ing stages, arena floors, dressing rooms, locker 
rooms, and other spaces used by performers. 

4.33.6* Placement of Listening Systems. 

If the listening system provided serves Indi- 
vidual fixed seats, then such seats shall be 
located within a 50 ft (15 m) viewing distance 
of the stage or playing area and shall have a 
complete view of the stage or playing area. 

4.33.7* Types of Listening Systems. 

AssisOue Ustenlr^ systems (ALS) are intended 
to augment standard public address and audio 
systems by providtng signals which can be re 
ceived directly by persons with special receiDers 
or their own hearing aids and which eliminate or 
filter background noise. The type ofassisttue 
listening system appropriate for a particular 
application depends on the characteristics of 
the setting, the nature of the program, and the 
intended audience. Magnetic induction loops, 
infra-red and radio frequency systems are types 
of listening systems which are appropriate for 
various applications. 

4.34 Automated Teller Machines. 

4.34.1 Genercd. Ekich machine required to be 
accessible by 4.1.3 shaU be on an accessible 
route and shaU. corriply with 4.34. 

4.34.2 Controls. Controls for user activation 
shaU comply wUh the requirements of 4.27. 

4.34.3 Clearcuices tmd. Reach Range. 

Free standing or budt-tn unUs not having a clear 
space under them shall comply with 4.27.2 and 

4.27.3 and provide for a parallel approach and 
both a forward and side reach to the unU. allow- 
ing a person in a wheelchair to access the 
controls and dispensers. 

4.34.4 Equipment for Persons with 
Vision Impairments. Instructions and aR 
information for use shall be made accessible to 
and independently usable by persons with 
vision irr^irments. 



4.35 Dressing and Fitting Rooms. 

4.35.1 General. Dressing and fitting rooms 
required to be accessible by 4.1 shaU. comply 
with 4.35 and shaU. be on an accessible route. 

4.35.2 Clear Floor Space. A clear floor 
space allowing a person using a wheelchair to 
make a 180-degree turn shall be provided in 
every accessible dressing room entered through 
a swingirm or sUding door. No door shall swing 
into any part of the turning space. Turning space 
shall not be required in a priixUe dressing room 
entered through a curtained opening at least 

32 in (815 mm) wide If clear floor space comply 
tng with section 4.2 renders the dressing room 
usable by a person using a wheelchair. 

4.35.3 Doors. AH doors to accessible dressing 
rooms shaU be in compliance with section 4. 13. 

4.35.4 Bench. Every accessible dressing 
room shaU. have a 24 in by 48 in (610 mm by 
1 220 mm] bench fbced to the wall along the 
longer dimensiorL The bench shaU. be mounted 
17 into 19 in (430 mm to 485 mm) above the 

finish floor. Clear floor space shall be provided 
alongside the bench to aUow a person using a 
wheelchair to make a parallel transfer onto the 
bench. The structural strength of the bench and 
attachments shall comply with 4.26.3. Where 
installed in conjunction with showers, swimming 
pools, or other wet locations, water shall not 
accumulate upon the surface of the bench and 
the bench shaR have a slip-resistant surface. 

4.35.5 Mirror. Where mirrors are provided in 
dressing rooms of the same use, then in an 
accessible dressing room, a full-length mirror, 
measuring at least 18 in wide by 54 in high 
(460 mm by 1370 mm), shaU. be mounted in a 
position affording a view to a person on the 
bench as weU. as to a person in a standing 
position. 

NOTE: SecUons 4.1.1 through 4.1.7 and 
sections 5 through 10 are different from ANSI 
AI 17. 1 in their entirety and are printed <n 
standard type. 



58 



45702 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday. September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

5.0 Restaurants and Cafeterias 



RESTAURANTS AND 
CAFETERIAS. 



5.1* General. Elxcept as specified or modi- 
fied In this section, restaurants and Ceifeterlas 
shall comply with the requirements of 4.1 to 
4.35. Where fixed tables (or dining counters 
where food Is consumed but there Is no service) 
are provided, at least 5 percent, but not less 
than one, of the fixed tables (or a portion of 
the dining counter) shall be accessible and 
shall comply with 4.32 as required In 4. 1.3(18). 
In establishments where separate areas cu^ 
designated for smoking and non-smoking 
patrons, the required number of accessible 
fixed tables (or counters) shall be propor- 
tionally distributed between the smoking and 
non-smoking areas. In new construction, cuid 
where practicable In alterations, accessible 
fixed tables (or counters) shall be distributed 
throughout the space or facility. 

5.2 Counters and Bars, where food or 
drink Is served at counters exceeding 34 In 
(865 mm) In height for consumption by cus- 
tomers seated on stools or standing at the 
counter, a portion of the main counter which 
is 60 In (1525 mm) In length minimum shall 
be provided in compliance with 4.32 or service 
shall be available at accessible tables within 
the same area. 




Fig. 53 
Food Service Lines 



5.3 Access Aisles. All accessible fixed 
tables shall be accessible by means of an 
access aisle at least 36 in (9 1 5 mm) clear 
between parallel edges of tables or between 
a wall and the table edges. 

5.4 Dining Areas. In new construction, all 
dining areas, including raised or sunken dining 
areas, loggias, and outdoor seating areas, shall 
be accessible. In non-elevator buildings, an 
accessible means of vertical access to the 
mezzanine is not required under the following 
conditions: 1) the aiea of mezzanine seating 
measures no more than 33 percent of the area 
of the total accessible seating area; 2) the same 
services and decor are provided in an acces- 
sible space usable by the general public; and, 
3) the accessible areas eur not restricted to 
use by people with disabilities. In alterations, 
accessibility to raised or sunken dining areas, 
or to all parts of outdoor seating areas Is not 
required provided that the same services and 
decor are provided in an accessible space 
usable by the general public and are not 
restricted to use by people with disabilities. 

5.5 Food Service Lines. Food service 
lines shall have a minimum clear width of 
36 Ln (915 mm), with a preferred clear width 
of 42 in (1065 mm) to allow passage around a 
person using a wheelchair. Tray slides shall be 
mounted no higher than 34 in (865 mm) above 
the floor (see Fig. 53). If self-service shelves 




Ftg.54 
Tablevoars Areas 



59 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



45703 



6.0 Medical Care FacUiUcs 



are provided, at least 50 percent of each type 
must be within reach ranges specified in 4.2.5 
and 4.2.6. 

5.6 Tableware and Condiment Areas. 

Self-service shelves and dispensing devices 
for tableware, dlshware, condiments, food 
auid beverages shall be installed to comply 
with 4.2 (see Fig. 54). 

5.7 Raised Platforms, in banquet rooms 
or spaces where a head table or speaker's 
lectern is located on a raised platform, the 
platfonn shall be accessible in compliance 
with 4.8 or 4. 1 1. Open edges of a raised plat- 
form shall be protected by placement of tables 
or by a curb. 

5.8 Vending Machines and Other 
Equipment. Spaces for vending machines 
and other equipment shcdl comply with 4.2 
and shall be located on an accessible route. 

5.9 Quiet Areas. (Reserved). 



BIEDICALCARE 
FACILmES. 



6.1 General. Medical care faculties included 
in this section are those in which people re- 
ceive physiczd or medical treatment or care and 
where persons may need assistance in respon- 
ding to an emergency and where the period of 
stay may exceed twenty-four hours. In addition 
to the requirements of 4. 1 through 4.35. medi- 
cal care facilities and buildings shall comply 
with 6. 

(1) Hospitals - general purpose hospitals, 
psychiatric facilities, detoxification facilities — 
At least 10 percent of patient bedrooms and 
toilets, and all public use and common use 
areas are required to be designed and con- 
structed to be accessible. 

(2) Hospitals and rehabUitation facilities 
that specialize in treating conditions that affect 
mobility, or units within either that specialize 
in treating conditions that affect mobility — All 
patient bedrooms and toilets, and all public 
use SLnd common use areas are required to be 
designed and constructed to be accessible. 



(3) Long term care facilities, nursing homes 
— At least 50 percent of patient bedrooms 
amd toilets, zind all public use and common 
use areas are required to be designed and 
constructed to be accessible. 

(4) Alterations to patient bedrooms. 

(a) When patient bedrooms are being added 
or altered as part of a plarmed renovation of an 
entire wing, a department, or other discrete 
area of an existing medical facility, a percent- 
age of the patient bedrooms that are being 
added or altered shall comply with 6.3. The 
percentage of accessible rooms provided shall 
be consistent with the percentage of rooms 
required to be accessible by the applicable 
requirements of 6. 1(1), 6.1(2), or 6. 1(3), until 
the number of accessible patient bedrooms in 
the facility equals the overall number that 
would be required if the facility were newly 
constructed. (For example, if 20 patient bed- 
rooms are being altered in the obstetrics 
department of a hospital, 2 of the altered rooms 
must be made accessible. If. within the same 
hospital, 20 patient bedrooms are being altered 
in a unit that specializes in treating mobility 
Impairments, all of the ciltered rooms must be 
made accessible.) Where toUet/bath rooms are 
part of patient bedrooms which Eire added or 
altered and required to be accessible, each 
such patient toilet/bathroom shall comply 
with 6.4. 

(b) When patient bedrooms are being added 
or altered individually, and not as part of an 
alteration of the entire area, the altered patient 
bedrooms shall comply with 6.3, unless either: 
a) the number of accessible rooms provided in 
the department or area containing the altered 
patient bedroom equals the number of acces- 
sible patient bedrooms that would be required 
ffthe percentage requirements of 6.1(1), 6.1(2). 
or 6.1(3) were applied to that depcirtment or 
area; or b) the number of accessible jsatlent 
bedrooms In the facility equals the overall 
number that would be required If the facility 
were newly constructed. Where toilet/bath- 
rooms are part of patient bedrooms which 

are added or altered and required to be acces- 
sible, each such toilet/bathroom shall comply 
with 6.4. 



60 



45704 Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



7.0 Business and Mercantile 



6.2 Entrances. At least one accessible 
entrance that complies with 4.14 shall be 
protected from the weather by canopy or 
roof overhang. Such entrances shall incorpo- 
rate a passenger loading zone that compiles 
with 4.6.6. 

6.3 Patient Bedrooms. Provide accessible 
patient bedrooms Ln compliance with 4. 1 
through 4.35. Accessible patient bedrooms 
shall comply with the following; 

(1) E^ch bedroom shall have a door that 
compiles with 4.13. 

EXCEPTION: Entry doors to acute care hospi- 
tal bedrooms for In-patlents shall be exempted 
from the requirement In 4. 13.6 for maneuver- 
ing space at the latch side of the door If the 
door Is at least 44 in (II 20 mm) wide. 

(2) Each bedroom shall have adequate space 
to provide a maneuvering space that complies 
with 4.2.3. In rooms with 2 beds, it Is prefer- 
able that this space be located between beds. 

(3) Each bedroom shall have adequate 
sp>ace to provide a minimum clear floor space 
of 36 In (915 mm) along each side of the bed 
amd to provide an accessible route complying 
with 4.3.3 to each side of each bed. 

6.4 Patient Toilet Rooms, where toilet/ 
bath rooms are provided as a part of a patient 
bedroom, each patient bedroom that is required 
to be accessible shall have an accessible toilet/ 
bath room that complies with 4.22 or 4.23 and 
shall be on an accessible route. 



7. 



BUSINESS AND 
MERCANTILE. 



7. 1 General, in addition to the requirements 
of 4. 1 to 4.35, the design of all areas used for 
business transactions with the public shall 
comply with 7. 



7.2 Sales and Service Counters. 
Teller ^l^ndows. Information 
Counters. 

(1) In department stores and miscellaneous 
retail stores where counters have cash registers 
and are provided for sales or distribution of 
goods or services to the public, at least one of 
each type shall have a portion of the counter 
which is at least 36 in (9 15 mm) in length with 
a maximum height of 36 In (915 mm) above the 
finish floor. It shall be on an accessible route 
complying with 4.3. The accessible counters 
must be dlsp>ersed throughout the building or 
facility. Irr alterations where It Is technically 
Infeaslble to provide em accessible counter, an 
auxiliary counter meeting these requirements 
may be provided. 

(2) At ticketing counters, teller stations in 
a bank, registration counters In hotels and 
motels, box office ticket counters, and other 
counters that may not have a cash register 
but at which goods or services are sold or 
distributed, either 

(I) a portion of the main counter which 
Is a minimum of 36 in (915 mm) in length 
shall be provided with a maximum height of 
36 in (915 mm); or 

(II) an auxiliary counter with a maximum 
height of 36 in (915 mm) in close proximity to 
the main counter shall be provided; or 

(Ui) equivalent facilitation shall be pro- 
vided (e.g., at a hotel registration counter, 
equivalent facilitation might consist of: 
( 1) provision of a folding shelf attached to the 
main counter on which an individual with 
disabilities can write, and (2) use of the space 
on the side of the counter or at the concierge 
desk, for handing materials back and forth). 

All accessible sales and service coun- 
ters shall be on an accessible route complying 
with 4.3. 

(3)* Assistive Listening Devices. (Reserved) 



61 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45705 



8.0 Libraries 



7.3* Check-out Aisles. 

(1) In new construction, accessible check-out 
aisles shall be provided in conformance with 
the table below: 

Total Check-out Mtntmum Number 

Aides of of Accessible 

Each Design Check-out Aisles 

(of each design) 



1-4 


1 


5-8 


2 


8 - 15 


3 


over 15 


3. plus 20% of 




addlUonaJ aisles 



EXCEPTION; In new construction, where the 
selling space Is under 5000 square feet, only 
one check-out aisle Is required to be accessible. 

EXCEPTION: In alterations, at least one check- 
out aisle shall be accessible In facilities under 
5000 square feet of selling space. In facilities 
of 5000 or more square feet of selling space, 
at least one of each design of check-out aisle 
shall be made accessible when altered until 
the number of accessible check out aisles of 
each design equals the number required in 
new construction. 

Ejcamples of check-out aisles of different 
"design" Include those which are specifically 
designed to serve different functions. DtfTerent 
"design" Includes but Is not limited to the 
following features - length of belt or no belt: or 
permanent signage designating the aisle as an 
express lane. 

(2) Clear aisle width for accessible check-out 
aisles shall comply with 4.2. 1 and maximum 
adjoining counter height shall not exceed 38 in 
(965 mm) above the finish floor. The top of the 
lip shall not exceed 40 In ( 1015 mm) above the 
finish floor. 

(3) Signage identifying accessible check-out 
aisles shall comply with 4.30.7 and shall be 
mounted above the check-out aisle in the same 
location where the check-out number or type of 
check-out Is displayed. 

7.4 Security Bollards. Any device used 
to prevent the removal of shopping carts from 
store premises shall not prevent access or 
egress to people In wheelchairs. An alternate 



entry that Is equally convenient to that 
provided for the ambulatory population is 
acceptable. 



8. LIBRARIES. 



8. 1 General, in addlUon to the require- 
ments of 4. 1 to 4.35, the design of all public 
areas of a library shall comply with 8, Lnclud- 
tng reading and study areas, stacks, reference 
rooms, reserve areas, and special facilities or 
collections. 

8.2 Reading and Study Areas. At least 
5 percent or a minimum of one of each element 
of fixed seating, tables, or study carrels shall 
comply with 4.2 and 4.32. Clearances between 
fixed accessible tables and between study 
carrels shall comply with 4.3. 

8.3 Check-Out Areas. At least one lane at 
each check-out area shall comply with 7.2(1). 
Any traffic control or book security gates or 
tumsUles shall comply with 4.13. 

8.4 Card Catalogs and Magazine 
Displays. Minimum clear aisle space at 
card catalogs and magazine displays shall 
comply with Fig. 55. Maximum reach height 
shall comply with 4.2, with a height of 48 in 
(1220 mm) preferred irrespective of approach 
allowed. 

8.5 Stacks. Minimum clear aisle width 
between stacks shaU comply with 4.3, with a \ 
minimum clear aisle width of 42 In (1065 mm) 
preferred where possible. Shelf height In stack 
areas is unrestricted (see Fig. 56). 



62 



45706 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



0.0 Accessible Transient Lodging 




Fig. 55 
Card Catalog 




9. 



ACCESSIBLE TRANSIENT 
LODGING. 



(1) E:xcept as specified In the special techni- 
cal provisions of this section, accessible tran- 
sient lodging shall comply with the applicable 
requirements of 4.1 through 4.35. Transient 
lodging Includes facilities or portions thereof 
used for sleeping accommodations, when not 
classed as a medical care facility. 

9.1 Hotels. Motels, Inns. Boarding 
Houses^ Dormitories. Resorts and 
Other Similar Places of Transient 
Lodging. 

9.1.1 General. All public use and common 
use areas are required to be designed and 
constructed to comply with section 4 
(Accessible Elements and Spaces: Scope 
and Technical Requirements). 

EXCEPTION: Sections 9.1 through 9.4 do 
not apply to an establishment located within 
a building that contains not more than five 
rooms for rent or hire and that is actually 
occupied by the proprletof of such establish- 
ment as the residence of such proprietor. 

9.1.2 Accessible Units. Sleeping Rooms, 
and Suites. Accessible sleeping rooms or 
suites that comply with the requirements of 

9.2 (Requirements for Accessible Units. Sleep- 
ing Rooms, and Suites) shall be provided in 
conformance with the table below. In addi- 
tion. In hotels, of 50 or more sleeping rooms 
or suites, additional accessible sleeping rooms 
or suites that Include a roll-ln shower shall 
also be provided In conformance with the table 
below. Such accommodations shall comply 
with the requirements of 9.2. 4.21. and Figure 
57(a) or (b). 



63 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



45707 



9.1.3 Sleeping Accommodations for Persona with Hearing Impairments 





27 max 






685 








* 1 




- n-nm 




I 
















S : :::-2 




<x> 










in 
















, 




; 




it'---- 








: 1 

; 
: 

i__lav__, 






c 
. E 

CO 












36 






16 min «'5 








330 t 




C 

E 

'a- 
eg 


c 
E 

o 




/ \ Drain 




1 

c 
E 


c 
E 






CO 


S 


/ \ 
/ \ 



(b) 



Fig. 57 
Roll-in Shower with Folding Seat 



Number of 


AcccMible 


Rooms with 


Rooms 


Rooms 


Roll-in Showers 


1 to 


25 


1 




26 to 


50 


2 




51 to 


75 


3 


1 


76 to 


100 


4 


1 


101 to 


150 


5 


2 


151 to 


200 


6 


2 


201 to 


300 


7 


3 


301 to 


400 


8 


4 


401 to 


500 


9 4 


plus one for each 

additional 100 

over 400 


501 to 


1000 


2% of total 




1001 and 


over 


20 plus 1 for 
each 100 
over 1000 





9.1.3 Sleeping Accommodations for 
Persons with Hearing Impairments. 

In addition to those accessible sleeping rooms 
and suites required by 9. 1.2. sleeping rooms 



and suites that comply with 9.3 (Visual Alarms. 
Notification Devices, and Telephones) shall be 
provided in conformance with the following 
table: 



Number of 


Accessible 


Elements 


Elements 


1 to 25 


1 


26 to 50 


2 


51 to 75 


3 


76 to 100 


4 


101 to 150 


5 


151 to 200 


6 


201 to 300 


7 


301 to 400 


8 


401 to 500 


9 


501 to 1000 


2% of total 


1001 and over 


20 plus 1 for 




each 100 over 1000 



64 



45708 Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

9.2 Requirements for Accessible Units. Sleeping Rooms and Suites 



9.1.4 Classes of Sleeping 
Acconmiodatlons. 

(1) In order to provide persons with dis- 
abilities a range of options equivalent to those 
available to other persons served by the facility, 
sleeping rooms and suites required to be acx;es- 
siblc by 9. 1.2 shall be disp)ersed among the 
various classes of sleeping accommodations 
available to patrons of the place of transient 
lodging. Factors to be considered include room 
size, cost, amenities provided, and the number 
oi beds provided. 

(2) Ekjulvalent Facilitation. For purposes 
of this section, it shall be deemed equivalent 
facilitation if the operator of a facility elects to 
limit construction of accessible rooms to those 
intended for multiple occupancy, provided that 
such rooms are made available at the cost of 

a slngle-occujiancy room to an Individual with 
disabilities who requests a single-occupancy 
room. 

9.1.5. Alterations to Accessible Units, 
Sleeping Rooms, and Suites, when sleep- 
ing rooms are being ciltered in an existing 
facility, or portion thereof, subject to the 
requirements of this section, at least one 
sleeping room or suite that complies with the 
requirements of 9.2 (Requirements for Acces- 
sible Units. Sleeping Rooms, and Suites) shall 
be provided for each 25 sleeping rooms, or 
fraction thereof, of rooms being cdtered until 
the number of such rooms provided equcds the 
number required to be accessible with 9.1.2. 
In addition, at least one sleeping room or suite 
that complies with the requirements of 9.3 
fVisual Alarms. Notification Devices, and 
Telephones) shall be provided for each 25 
sleeping rooms, or fraction thereof, of rooms 
being altered until the number of such rooms 
equals the number required to be accessible 
by 9. 1.3. 

9.2 Requirements for Accessible Units. 
Sleeping Rooms and Suites. 

9.2.1 General. Units, sleeping rooms, and 
suites required to t>e accessible by 9. 1 shall 
comply with 9.2. 

9.2.2 Minimum Requirements. An acces- 
sible unit, sleeping room or suite shall be on an 



accessible route complying with 4.3 and have 
the following accessible elements emd spaces. 

(1) Accessible sleeping rooms shall have a 
36 in (9 1 5 mm) clear width maneuvering 
space located along both sides of a bed. except 
that where two beds are provided, this require- 
ment can be met by providing a 36 in (915 mm) 
wide maneuvering space located between the 
two beds. 

(2) An accessible route complying with 4.3 
shall cormect all accessible spaces «uid ele- 
ments, including telephones, within the unit. 
sleeping room, or suite. This is not intended to 
require an elevator in multi-story units as long 
as the spaces identified in 9.2.2(6) and (7) are 
on accessible levels and the accessible sleeping 
area Is suitable for dujil occupancy. 

(3) Doors and doorways designed to allow 
passage Into and within eill sleeping rooms, 
suites or other covered units shcdl comply 
with 4.13. 

(4) If fixed or built-in storage facilities such 
as cabinets, shelves, closets, and drawers are 
provided in accessible spaces, at least one of 
each type provided shall contain storage space 
complying with 4.25. Additional storage may 
be provided outside of the dimensions required 
by 4.25. 

(5) All controls in accessible units, sleeping 
rooms, and suites shall comply with 4.27. 

(6) Where provided as part of an accessible 
unit, sleeping room, or suite, the following 
spaces shall be accessible and shall be on am 
accessible route: 

(a) the living area. 

(b) the dining area. 

(c) at least one sleeping area. 

(d) patios, terraces, or balconies. 

EXCEPTION: The requirements of 4. 13.8 
and 4.3.8 do not apply where it is necessary to 
utilize a higher door threshold or a change in 
level to protect the integrity of the unit from 
wind/water damage. Where this exception 
results in paUos. terraces or balconies that are 
not at an accessible level, equivalent facilitation 



65 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, Se ptember 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45709 

9.3 Visual Alarms, Notification Devices and Telephones 



shall be provided. (E.g., equivalent facilitation 
at a hotel patio or balcony might consist of 
providing raised decking or a ramp to provide 
accessibility.) 

(e) at least one full bathroom (I.e.. one 
with a water closet, a lavatory, and a bathtub 
or shower). 

(f) If only half baths are provided, at least 
one half bath. 

(g) carports, garages or parking spaces. 

(7) Kitchens. Kitchenettes, or Wet Bars. 
When provided as accessory to a sleeping room 
or suite, kitchens, kitchenettes, wet bars, or 
similar amenities shall be accessible. Clear 
floor space for a front or parallel approach to 
cabinets, counters, sinks, and appliances shall 
be provided to comply with 4 2 4. Countertops 
and sinks shall be mounted at a maximum 
height of 34 in (865 mm) above the floor. At 
least fifty percent of shelf space In cabinets or 
refrigerator/freezers shall be within the reach 
ranges of 4.2.5 or 4.2.6 and space shall be 
designed to allow for the operation of cabinet 
and/or appliance doors so that all cabinets 
and appliances are accessible and usable. 
Controls and operating mechanisms shall 
comply with 4.27. 

(8) Sleeping room accommodations for 
persons with hearing Impairments required by 
9. 1 and complying with 9.3 shall be provided 
in the accessible sleeping room or suite. 

9.3 Visual Alarms, Notification 
Devices and Telephones. 

9.3.1 General. In sleeping rooms required 
to comply with this section, auxiliary visual 
alarms shall be provided and shall comply with 
4.28.4. Visual notification devices shall also be 
provided In units, sleeping rooms and suites to 
alert room occupants of incoming telephone 
calls and a door knock or bell. Notification 
devices shall ad be connected to auxiliary 
visual alarm signal appliances. Permanently 
Installed telephones shall have volume controls 
complying with 4.31.5; an accessible electrical 
outlet within 4 ft (1220 mm) of a telephone 
connection shall be provided to facilitate the 
use of a text telephone. 



9.3.2 E:quivalent Facilitation. For pur- 
poses of this section, equivalent facilitation 
shall Include the installation of electrical 
outlets (Including outlets connected to a 
faculty's central alarm system) and telephone 
wiring In sleeping rooms and suites to enable 
persons with hecUing Impairments to utilize 
portable visual alarms and communication 
devices provided by the operator of the facility. 

9.4 Other Sleeping Rooms and 
Suites. Doors and doorways designed to allow 
passage into and within all sleeping units or 
other covered units shall comply with 4. 13.5. 

9.5 Transient Lodging in Homeless 
Shelters. Halfway Houses. Transient 
Group Homes, and Other Social 
Service Establishments. 

9.5.1 New Construction. In new construc- 
tion all public use and common use areas are 
required to be designed and constructed to 
comply with section 4. AL least one of each type 
of amenity (such as washers, dryers and simi- 
lar equipment Installed for the use of occu- 
pants) in each common area shall be accessible 
and shall be located on an accessible route to 
any accessible unit or sleeping accommodation. 

EXCEPTION: Where elevators are not provided 
as allowed in 4 1.3(5), accessible amenities are 
not required on Inaccessible floors as long as 
one of each type Is provided In common areas 
on accessible floors. 

9.5.2 Alterations. 

( 1) Social service establishments which are 
not homeless shelters: 

(a) The provisions of 9.5.3 and 9.1.5 shall 
apply to sleeping rooms and beds. 

(b) Alteration of other areas shall be con- 
sistent with the new construction provisions 
of 9.5.1. 

(2) Homeless shelters. If the following ele- 
ments are altered, the following requirements 
apply: 



45710 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, S eptember 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

10.0 Transportation Facilities 



(a) at least one public entrance shall allow a 
person with mobility Impairments to approach, 
enter and exit including a minimum clear door 
width of 32 in (815 mm). 

(b) sleeping space for homeless persons as 
provided tn the scopLng provisions of 9. 1 .2 
shall Include doors to the sleeping area with a 
minimum clear width of 32 In (8 1 5 mm) and 
maneuvering space around the beds for per- 
sons with mobility Impairments complying 
with 9.2.2(1). 

(c) at least one toilet room for each gender 
or one unisex toilet room shall have a mini- 
mum clear door width of 32 in (815 mm), 
minimum turning space complying with 4.2.3, 
one water closet complying with 4. 16, one 
lavatory complying with 4. 19 and the door shall 
have a privacy latch: and, if provided, at least 
one tub or shower shall comply with 4.20 or 
4.21, respectively. 

(d) at least one common area which a 
person with mobility Impairments can 
approach, enter and exit Including a mini- 
mum clear door width of 32 In (815 mm). 

(e) at least one route connecting elements 
(a), fb), (c) and (d) which a person with mobility 
Impairments can use including minimum clear 
width of 36 In (915 mm). pa.sslng space com- 
plying with 4.3.4, turning space complying with 
4.2.3 and changes In levels complying wiih 
4.3.8. 

(0 homeless shelters can comply with the 
provisions of (a) -(e) by providing the above 
elements on one accessible floor. 

9.5.3. Accessible Sleeping 
Accoininodations in New Construction. 

Accessible sleeping rooms shall be provided Ln 
conformance with the table in 9.1.2 and shall 
comply with 9.2 Accessible Units, Sleeping 
Rooms and Suites (where the items are pro- 
vided). Additional sleeping rooms that comply 
with 9.3 Sleeping Accommodations for Persons 
with Hearing Impairments shall be provided in 
conformance with the table provided in 9.1.3. 

In facilities with multi-bed rooms or spaces. 
a percentage of the beds equal to the table 
provided in 9.1.2 shall comply with 9.2.2(1). 



10. 



TRANSPORTATION 
FACILmES. 



10.1 General. Every station, bus stop, bus 
stop pad. terminal, building or other transpor- 
tation facility, shall comply with the applicable 
provisions of 4. 1 through 4.35. sections 5 
through 9. and the applicable provisions of 
this section. The exceptions for elevators In 
4.1.3(5). exception 1 and 4. 1.6(I)(k) do not 
apply to a terminal, depot, or other station 
used for specified public transportation, or an 
airport passenger terminal, or facilities subject 
to Title II. 

10.2 Bus Stops and Terminals. 
10.2.1 New Construction. 

(1) Wliere new bus stop pads are constructed 
at bus stops, bays or other areas where a lift or 
ramp is to be deployed, they shall have a firm, 
stable surface; a minimum clear length of 

96 inches (measured from the curb or vehicle 
roadway edge) and a minimum clear width 
of 60 inches (measured parallel to the vehicle 
roadway) to the maximum extent allowed by 
legal or site constraints: and shall be connected 
to streets, sidewalks or pedestrian paths by an 
accessible route complying with 4.3 and 4.4. 
The slope of the pad parallel to the roadway 
shall, to the extent practicable, be the same as 
the roadway. For water drainage, a maximum 
slope of 1:50 (2%) perpendicular to the roadway 
is allowed. 

(2) Wliere provided, new or replaced bus 
shelters shall be installed or positioned so as 
to permit a wheelchair or mobility aid user to 
enter from the public way and to reach a 
location, having a minimum clear floor area 
of 30 inches by 48 inches, entirely within the 
perimeter of the shelter. Such shelters shall 
be connected by an accessible route to the 
boarding area provided under paragraph (1) 
of this section. 

(3) Where provided, all new bus route 
identification signs shall comply with 4.30.5. 
In addition, to the maximum extent practi- 
cable, all new bus route Identification signs 
shall comply with 4.30.2 and 4.30.3. Signs 



67 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



10.3 Fixed Faculties and Stations 



45711 



that are sized to the maximum dimensions 
permitted under legitimate local, state or 
federal regulations or ordinances shall be 
considered in compliance with 4.30.2 and 
4.30.3 for purposes of this section. 

EXCEPTION: Bus schedules, timetables, 
or maps that are posted at the bus stop 
or bus bay are not required to comply with 
this provision. 

10.2.2 Bus Stop Siting and Alterations. 

(1) Bus stop sites shall be chosen such that, 
to the maximum extent practicable, the areas 
where lifts or ramps are to be deployed comply 
with secUon 10.2.1(1) and (2). 

(2) When new bus route Identification signs 
are Installed or old signs are replaced, they 
shall comply with the requirements of 
10.2.1(3). 

10.3 Fixed Facilities and Stations. 

10.3.1 New Construction. New stations in 
rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail. Intercity 
bus. Intercity rail, high speed rail, and other 
fixed guldeway systems (e.g.. automated 
guldeway transit, monorails, etc.) shall comply 
with the following provisions, as applicable: 

(1) Elements such as ramps, elevators or 
other circulation devices, fare vending or other 
ticketing areas, and fare collection areas shall 
be placed to minimize the distance which 
wheelchair users and other persons who 
carmot negotiate steps may have to travel 
compared to the general public. The circula- 
tion path, including an accessible entrance and 
an accessible route, for persons with disabili- 
ties shall, to the maximum extent practicable, 
coincide with the circulation path for the 
general public. Where the circulation path Is 
different, signage complying with 4.30. 1 , 
4.30.2, 4.30.3, 4.30.5, and 4.30.7(1) shall be 
provided to Indicate direction to and Identity 
the accessible entrance and accessible route. 

(2) In lieu of compliance with 4. 1.3(8), at 
least one entrance to each station shall comply 
with 4. 14. Entrances. If different entrances to 
a station serve different transportation fixed 
routes or groups of fixed routes, at least one 
entrance serving each group or route shall 



comply with 4.14, Entrances. All accessible 
entrances shall, to the maximum extent 
practicable, coincide with those used by the 
majority of the general public. 

(3) Direct connections to commercial, retail, 
or residential facilities shall have an accessible 
route complying with 4.3 from the fKJlnt of 
connection to boarding platforms and all 
transportation system elements used by the 
public. Any elements provided to facilitate 
future direct connections shall be on an 
accessible route connecting boarding platforms 
and all transportation system elements used 
by the public. 

(4) Where signs are provided at entrances to 
stations identifying the station or the entrance, 
or both, at least one sign at each entrance 
shall comply with 4.30.4 and 4.30.6. Such 
signs shall be placed in uniform locations at 
entrances within the transit system to the 
maximum extent practicable. 

EXCEPTION: Where the station has no 
defined entrance, but signage Is provided, 
then the accessible signage shall be placed 
In a central location. 

(5) Stations covered by this section shall 
have Identification signs complying with 4.30. 1, 
4.30.2. 4.30.3, and 4.30.5. Signs shall be 
placed at frequent intervals and shall be clearly 
visible from within the vehicle on both sides 
when not obstructed by another train. When 
station identification signs are placed close to 
vehicle windows (i.e., on the side opposite from 
boarding) each shall have the top of the highest 
letter or symbol below the top of the vehicle 
window and the bottom of the lowest letter or 
symbol above the horizontal mid-line of the 
vehicle window. 

(6) Lists of stations, routes, or destinations 
served by the station and located on boarding 
areas, platforms, or mezzanines shall comply 
with 4.30. 1, 4.30.2. 4.30.3. and 4.30.5. A 
minimum of one sign Identifying the sp>eclfic 
staUon and complying with 4.30.4 and 4.30.6 
shall be provided on each platform or boarding 
area. All signs referenced In this paragraph 
shall, to the maximum extent practicable. 

be placed In uniform locations within the 
transit system. 



45712 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday. September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

10.3 Fixed Facilities and Stations 



(7)* Automatic fare vending, collection and 
adjustment (e.g.. add-fare) systems shall 
comply with 4.34.2. 4.34.3. and 4.34.4. 
At each accessible entrance such devices 
shall be located on an accessible route. 
If self-service fare collection devices are 
provided for the use of the general public, 
at least one accessible device for entering, 
and at least one for exiting, unless one device 
serves both functions, shall be provided at 
each accessible point of entry or exit. Acces- 
sible fare collection devices shall have a mini- 
mum clear opening width of 32 Inches: shall 
permit passage of a wheelchair; and. where 
provided, coin or card slots and controls 
necessary for operation shall comply with 4.27. 
Gates which must be pushed open by wheel- 
chair or mobility aid users shall have a smooth 
continuous surface extending from 2 Inches 
above the floor to 27 Inches above the floor and 
shall comply with 4. 13. Where the circulation 
path does not coincide with that used by the 
general public, accessible fare collection sys- 
tems shall be located at or adjacent to the 
accessible point of entry or exit. 

(8) Platform edges bordering a drop-off and 
not protected by platform screens or guard 
rails shall have a detectable warning. Such 
detectable warnings shall comply with 4.29.2 
and shall be 24 Inches wide running the full 
length of the platform drop-off. 

(S) In stations covered by this section, 
rall-to-platform height In new stations shall 
be coordinated with the floor height of new 
vehicles so that the vertical difference, mea- 
sured when the vehicle Is at rest. Is within 
plus or minus 5/8 inch under normal passen- 
ger load conditions. For rapid rail, light rail, 
commuter rail, high speed rail, and intercity 
rail systems in new stations, the horizontal 
gap. measured when the new vehicle Is at rest, 
shall be no greater than 3 Inches. For slow 
moving automated guldeway "people mover" 
transit systems, the horizontal gap In new 
stations shall be no greater than 1 inch. 

EXCEPTION 1: Existing vehicles operating 
in new stations may have a vertical dilTerence 
with respect to the new platform within plus or 
minus 1-1/2 Inches. 

EXCEPTION 2: In light rail, commuter rail and 
Intercity rail systems where it is not operation- 



ally or structurally feasible to meet the 
horizontal gap or vertical difference require- 
ments, mlnl-hlgh platforms, car-borne or 
platform-mounted lifts, ramps or bridge plates, 
or similar manually deployed devices, meeting 
the applicable requirements of 36 CFR part 
1 192. or 49 CFR part 38 shaU sufTlce. 

( 10) Stations shall not be designed or 
constructed so as to require persons with 
disabilities to board or alight from a vehicle 
at a location other than one used by the 
general public. 

(11) Illumination levels in the areas where 
signage Is located shall be uniform and shall 
minimize glare on signs. Lighting along circu- 
lation routes shall be of a type and configura- 
tion to provide uniform Illumination. 

( 12) Text Telephones: The following shall 
be provided In accordance with 4.31.9: 

(a) If an Interior public pay telephone Is 
provided in a transit facility (as defined by the 
Department of Transportation) at least one 
interior public text telephone shall be provided 
in the station. 

(b) Where four or more public pay tele- 
phones serve a particular entrance to a rail 
station and at least one is in an interior loca- 
tion, at least one interior public text telephone 
shall be provided to serve that entrance. Com- 
pliance with this section constitutes compli- 
ance with section 4. 1.3(17)(c). 

(13) Where it is necessary to cross tracks 

to reach boarding platforms, the route surface 
shall be level and flush with the rail top at the 
outer edge and between the rails, except for a 
maximum 2- 1 /2 Inch gap on the Inner edge 
of each rail to permit passage of wheel flanges. 
Such crossings shall comply with 4.29.5. 
Where gap reduction Is not practicable, an 
above-grade or below-grade accessible route 
shall be provided. 

(14) Where public address systems are 
provided to convey information to the public 
In terminals, stations, or other fixed facilities, 
a means of conveying the same or equivalent 
Information to persons with hearing loss or 
who are deaf shall be provided. 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45713 



10.3.2 Existing FacUitles: Key SUtions. 



(15) Where clocks are provided for use by 
the general public, the clock face shall be 
uncluttered so that Its elements are clearly 
visible. Hands, numerals, and/or digits shall 
contrast with the background either light-on- 
dark or dark-on-light. Where clocks are 
mounted overhead, numerals and/or digits 
shall comply with 4.30.3. Clocks shall be 
placed in uniform locations throughout the 
facility and system to the maximum extent 
practicable. 

(16) Where provided in below grade stations, 
escalators shall have a minimum clear width 
of 32 inches. At the top and bottom of each 
escalator run, at least two contiguous treads 
shall be level beyond the comb plate before the 
risers begin to form. All escalator treads shall 
be marked by a strip of clearly contrasting 
color. 2 Inches in width, placed parallel to and 
on the nose of each step. The strip shall be of 
a material that is at least as slip resistant as 
the remainder of the tread. The edge of the 
tread shall be apparent from both ascending 
and descending directions. 

(17) Where provided, elevators shall be 
glazed or have transparent panels to allow 
an unobstructed view both in to and out of 
the car. Elevators shall comply with 4. 10. 

EXCEPTION: Elevator cars with a clear floor 
area in which a 60 inch diameter circle can be 
inscribed may be substituted for the minimum 
car dimensions of 4. 10. Fig. 22. 

(18) Where provided, ticketing areas shall 
permit persons with disabilities to obtain 

a ticket and check baggage and shall 
comply with 7.2. 

( 19) Where provided, baggage check-in and 
retrieval systems shall be on an accessible 
route complying with 4.3, and shall have space 
immediately adjacent complying with 4.2. If 
unattended security barriers are provided, at 
least one gate shall comply with 4.13. Gates 
which must be pushed open by wheelchair or 
mobility aid users shall have a smooth continu- 
ous surface extending from 2 inches above the 
floor to 27 inches above the floor. 



10.3.2 Existing FaciliUes: Key Stations. 

(1) Rapid, light and commuter rail key 
stations, as defined under criteria established 
by the Departm.ent of Transportation In 
subpart C of 49 CFR part 37 and existing 
Intercity rail stations shall provide at least 
one accessible route from an accessible 
entrance to those areas necessary for use 

of the transportation system. 

(2) The accessible route required by 10.3.2(1) 
shall include the features specified in 10.3.1 
(1), (4)-(9). (ll)-(15).and(17)-(19). 

(3) Where technical Infeasiblllty in existing 
stations requires the accessible route to lead 
from the public way to a paid area of the 
transit system, an accessible fare collection 
system, complying with 10.3. 1(7), shall be 
provided along such accessible route. 

(4) In light rail, rapid rail and commuter 
rail key stations, the platform or a portion 
thereof and the vehicle floor shall be coordi- 
nated so that the vertical dKTerence, measured 
when the vehicle is at rest, within plus or 
minus 1-1/2 Inches under all normal passen- 
ger load conditions, and the horizontal gap. 
measured when the vehicle is at rest. Is no 
greater than 3 Inches for at least one door of 
each vehicle or car required to be accessible by 
49 CFR part 37 

EXCEPnON 1 : Existing vehicles retrofitted to 
meet the requirements of 49 CFR 37.93 (one- 
car-per-train rule) shall be coordinated with 
the platform such that, for at least one door, 
the vertical difference between the vehicle floor 
and the platform, measured when the vehicle 
Is at rest with 50% normal passenger capacity, 
is within plus or minus 2 Inches and the 
horizontal gap is no greater than 4 Inches. 

EXCEPTION 2: Where It Is not structurally 
or operationally feasible to meet the horizontal 
gap or vertical difference requirements, mlnl- 
hlgh platforms, car-borne or platform mounted 
lifts, ramps or bridge plates, or similar manu- 
ally deployed devices, meeting the applicable 
requirements of 36 CFR Part 1 192 shall suffice. 



70 



45714 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



10.4 Airports 



(5) New direct connections to commercial, 
retail, or residential facilities shall, to the 
maximum extent feasible, have an accessible 
route complying with 4.3 from the point of 
connection to boarding platforms and ail 
transportation system elements used by the 
public. Any elements provided to facilitate 
future direct connections shall be on an 
accessible route connecting boarding platforms 
and all transportation system elements used 
by the public. 

10.3.3 Existing Facilities: Alterations. 

(1) For the purpose of complying with 
4.1.6(2) Alterations to an Area Containing 
a Primary Function, an area of primary 
function shall be as defined by applicable 
provisions of 49 CFR 37.43(c) (Department 
of Transportation's ADA Rule) or 28 CFR 
36.403 (Department of Justice's ADA Rule). 

10.4. Airports. 

10.4.1 New Construction. 

(1) Elements such as ramps, elevators or 
other vertical circulation devices, ticketing 
areas, security checkpoints, or passenger 
waiting areas shall be placed to minimize the 
distance which wheelchair users and other 
persons who cannot negotiate steps may have 
to travel compared to the general public. 

(2) The circulation path, including an 
accessible entrance and an accessible route, 
for persons with disabilities shall, to the 
maximum extent practicable, coincide with 
the circulation path for the general public. 
Where the cLiculallon path is different, 
directional signage complying with 4.30. 1. 
4.30.2. 4.30.3 and 4.30.5 shall be provided 
which Indicates the location of the nearest 
accessible entrance and its accessible route. 

(3) Ticketing areas shall permit persons 
with disabilities to obtain a ticket and check 
baggage and shall comply with 7.2. 

(4) Where public pay telephones are pro- 
vided, and at least one is at an interior loca- 
tion, a public text telephone shall be provided 
incompliance with 4.31.9. Additionally. If 
four or more public pay telephones are located 



in any of the following locations, at least one 
public text telephone shall also be provided In 
that location: 

(a) a mam terminal outside the 
security areas; 

(b) a concourse within the security 
areas; or 

(c) a baggage claim area Ln a terminal. 

Compliance with this section constitutes 
compliance with section 4. 1 .3(17)(c). 

(5) Baggage check-in and retrieval systems 
shall be on an accessible route complying with 
4.3, and shall have space immediately adjacent 
complying with 4.2.4. If unattended security 
barriers are provided, at least one gate shall 
comply with 4. 13. Gates which must be pushed 
open by wheelchair or mobility aid users shall 
have a smooth continuous surface extending 
from 2 inches above the (loor to 27 Inches 
above the floor. 

(6) Terminal information systems which 
broadcast information to the general public 
through a public address system shall provide 
a means to provide the same or equivalent 
information to persons with a hearing loss or 
who are deaf. Such methods may Include, but 
are not limited to, visual paging systems using 
video monitors and computer technology. For 
persons with certain U-pes of hearing loss such 
methods may include, but are not limited to, 
an assistive listening system complying with 
4.33.7. 

(7) Where clocks are provided for use by the 
general public the clock face shall be unclut- 
tered so that its elements are clearly visible. 
Hands, numerals, and/or digits shall contrast 
with their background either light-on-dark or 
dark-on-light. Where clocks are mounted 
overhead, pumerals and/or digits shall comply 
with 4.30.3. Clocks shall be placed In uniform 
locations throughout the facility to the maxi- 
mum extent practicable. 

(8) Security Systems. [Reserved] 

10.5 Boat and Ferry Docks. 

[Reserved] 



71 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45715 

^pendiz 



APPENDIX 



This appendix contains materials of an advi 
sory nature and provides additional Information 
that should help the reader to understand the 
minimum requirements of the guidelines or to 
design buildings or facilities for greater accessi- 
bility. The paragraph numbers correspond to 
the sections or paragraphs of the guideline to 
which the material relates and are therefore 
not consecutive (for example, A4.2. 1 contains 
additional information relevant to 4.2.1). Sec- 
tions of the guidelines for which additional 
material appears In this appendix have been 
Indicated by an asterisk. Nothing in this appen 
dix shall in any way obviate any obligation to 
comply with the requirements of the guidelines 
itself 

A2.2 Equivalent Facilitation. Specific 
examples of equivalent facilitation are found in 
the following sections: 



4.1.6l3)(c) 

4.31.9 

7.2 



9.1.4 



9.2.2(6)(dJ 



Elevators in Alterations 
Text Telephones 
Sales and Service 
Counters. Teller Windows. 
Information Counters 
Classes of Sleeping 
Accommodations 
Requirements for Accessible 
Units. Sleeping Rooms, and 
Suites 



A4.1.1 Application. 

A4. 1.1(3) Areas Used Only by Employees 
as Work Areas. Where there are a series of 
Irvdtvidual work stations of the same type (e.g., 
laboratories, service counters, ticket booths). 
5%, but not less than one, of each type of work 
station should be constnicted so that an indi 
vidua! with disabiltties can maneuver within 
the work stations. Rooms housing individual 
offices in a typical office building must meet the 
requirements of the guidelines concerning doors, 
accessible routes, etc. but do not need to cdlow 
for maneuvering space awund individual desks. 
Modifications required to permit maneuvering 
within the work area may be accomplished as 
a reasonable accommodation to individual 
employees with disabilities under Title I of the 
ADA. Consideration should also be given to 
placing shelves in employee work areas at a 



convenient height for accessibility or installing 
commercially available shelving that (s adjust 
able so that reasonable accommodations can 
be made in the future. 

If work stations are made accessible they 
should comply with the applicable provisions 
of 4.2 through 4.35. 

A4.1.2 Accessible Sites and Exterior 
Facilities: New Construction. 

A4.1.2(5Xe) Valet Parking. Valet parking is 
not always usable by individuals with disabili- 
ties. For instance, an individual may use a type 
of vehicle controls that render the regular con- 
trols inoperable or the driver's seat tn a van may 
be removed. In these situations, another person 
cannot park the vehicle. It Is recommended that 
some self-parking spaces be provided at valet 
parking facilities for individuals whose vehicles 
cannot be parked by another person and that 
such spaces be located on an accessible route 
to the entrance ofthefacUtty. 

A4.1.3 Accessible Buildings: New 
Construction. 

A4. 1 .3(5) OrUyfuU passenger elevators are 
covered by the accessibility provisions of 4.10. 
Materials and equipment hoists, freight eleva- 
tors not intended for passenger use. dumbwait 
ers. and construction elevators are not covered 
by these guidelines. If a building is exempt from 
the elevator requirement it is not necessary to 
provide a platform lift or other means of vertical 
access in lieu of an elevator. 

Under Exception 4. platform lifts are allowed 
where existing conditions make U impractical 
to install a ramp or elevator. Such conditions 
generally occur where it is essential to provide 
access to small raised or lowered areas where 
space may not be available for a ramp. Ex- 
amples include, but are not Umited to, raised 
pharmacy platforms, commercial offices raised 
above a sales floor, or radio and news booths. 

A4. 1 .3(9) Supervised automatic sprinkler 
systems have buUt in signals for monitoring 
features of the system such as the opening and 
closing of water control valves, the power sup- 
plies for needed pumps, water tank levels, and 
for indicating conditions that wUl Impair the 
satisfactory operation of the sprinkler system. 



45716 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

A4.2 Space Allowances and Reach Ranges 



Because of these monitoring features, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler systems have a high 
level of satisfactory performance and response 
to fire conditions. 

A4. 1 .3(1 0) If an odd number of drinking 
fountains is provided on a floor, the requirement 
in 4.1.3(l0)(b) may he met by rounding down 
the odd number to an even number and calcu 
laltng 50% of the even number. When more than 
one drinking fountain on a floor ts required to 
comply with 4. 15. those fountains should be 
dispersed to allow wheelchair users convenient 
access. For example, in a large facility such as 
a convention center that has water fountains at 
several locations on afloor. the accessible water 
fountains should be located so that wheelchair 
users do not have to travel a greater distance 
than other people to use a drinking fountain. 

A4. 1.3(1 7Xb) In addaion to the requirements of 
section 4.1.3(1 7)(b). the Installation of additional 
volume controls is encouraged. Volume controls 
may be installed on any telephone. 

A4.1.3(19MaJ Readily removable or folding 
seating units may be instoRed in lieu of provid- 
ing an open space for wheelchair users. Folding 
seating units are usually two fixed seats that 
can be easily folded into a fixed center bar to 
allow for one or two open spaces for wheelchair 
users when necessary. These units are more 
easily adapted than removable seats which 
generally require the seat to be removed in 
advance by the facility management 

Either a sign or a marker placed on seating with 
removable or folding arm rests is required by 
this sectiort Consideratkxi should be given for 
ensuring identification of such seats in a dark 
ened theater. For example, a marker which 
contrasts (light on dark or dark on light) and 
which also reflects light could be placed on the 
side of such seating so as to be visible in a 
lighted auditorium and also to reflect light from 
aflashlighL 

A4.1.6 Accessible Buildings: 
Alterations. 

A4.1.6(l)(h) When an entrance is being 
altered, it is preferable that those entrances 
being altered be made accessible to the extent 
feasible. 



A4.2 Space Allowances and Reach 
Ranges^ 

A4.2.1 Wheelchair Passage Width. 

(1) Space Requirements for Wheelchairs. 
Many persons who use wheelchairs need a 
30 In (760 mm) clear opening width for door- 
ways, gates, and the like, when the latter are 
entered head-on. If the person Is unfcimlllar 
with a building. If competing trcdTlc Is heavy. 
If sudden or frequent movements are needed, 
or Lf the wheelchair must be turned at an 
opening, then greater clear widths are needed. 
For most situations, the addition of an Inch of 
leeway on either side Is sufllcient. Thus, a 
minimum clear width of 32 In (8 15 mm) will 
provide adequate clearance. However, when 
an opening or a restriction In a passageway Is 
more than 24 in (610 mm) long. It Is essentially 
a passageway and must be at least 36 in 

(915 mm) wide. 

(2) Space Requirements for Use of Walking 
Aids. Although people who use walking aids 
can maneuver through clear width openings 
of 32 in (8 1 5 mm) . they need 36 In (9 1 5 mm) 
wide passageways and walks for comfortable 
gaits. Crutch tips, often extending down at a 
wide angle, are a hazard In narrow passage- 
ways where they might not be seen by other 
pedestrians. Thus, the 36 In (915 mm) width 
provides a safety allowance both for the person 
with a disability and for others. 

(3) Space Requirements for Passing. Able- 
bodied persons Ln winter clothing, walking 



E 

COS 




Fig.Al 

Minimum Passage Width for One Wheelchair 

and One Ambulatory Person 



A2 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45717 

A4.2 Space Allowance* and Reach Ranges 



I 78 mm 


1 


1965 


Fig.A2 
Space Needed for Smooth U-Tum in a Wheelchair 








V' 1065 i 1*0* 

NOTE: Footrests may extend further for tall people 



ng.A3 
Dimensions of Adult- Sized Wheelchairs 



straight ahead with arms swinging, need 
32 In (815 mm) of width, which includes 2 in 
(50 mm) on either side for sway, and another 
1 in (25 mm) tolerance on either side for clear- 
ing nearby objects or other pedestrians. Almost 
all wheelchcilr users and those who use walk- 
ing aids can also manage within this 32 in 
(815 mm) width for short distances. Thus, two 
streams of trjifTlc can pass in 64 in (1625 mm) 
in a comfortable flow. Sixty inches (1525 mm) 
provides a minimum width for a somewhat 
more restricted flow. If the clear width is less 
them 60 in (1525 mm), two wheelchair users 
will not be able to pass but will have to seek 
a wider place for passing. Forty-eight Inches 
(1220 mm) Is the minimum width needed for 
an ambulatory person to pass a nonambu- 
latory or semi- ambulatory person. Within 
this 48 In (1220 mm) width, the ambulatory 
person will have to twist to pass a wheelchair 
user, a person with a service antinaL or a 




A3 



45718 Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / F riday. September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

A4.3 Accessible Route 



semi-ambulatory f>erson. There will be bttle 
leeway for swaying or missteps (see Fig. Al). 

A4.2.3 Wheelchair Turning Space. 

These guidelines specify a minimum space of 
60 In ( 1 525 mm) diameter or a 60 in by 60 in 
(1525 mm by 1525 mm) T shaped space for a 
pivoting 180-degree turn of a wheelchair. This 
space Is usually satisfactory for turning 
around, but many people wUl not be able to 
turn without repeated tries and bumping Into 
surrounding objects. The space shown In 
Fig. A2 wU] allow most wheelchair users to 
complete U-tums without difficulty. 

A4.2.4 Clear Floor or Ground Space for 
Wheelchairs. The wheelchair and user shown 
in Fig A3 represent typical dimensions for a 
large adult male. The space requirements in 
this guideline are based upon maneuvering 
clearances that will accommodate most wheel- 
chairs. Fig. A3 provides a uniform reference for 
design not covered by this guideline. 

A4.2.5 St A4.2.6 Reach. Reach ranges for 
persons seated in wheelchairs may be further 
clarified by Fig. A3(aJ. These drawings approxi 
mate tn the plan view the information shown tn 
Fig. 4. 5. and 6. 

A4.3 Accessible Route. 

A4.3.1 General. 

(1) Travel Distances. Many people with 
mobility Impairments can move at only very 
slow speeds; for many, traveling 200 ft (61 m) 
could take about 2 minutes. This assumes a 
rate of about 1.5 fl/s (455 mm/s) on level 
ground. It also assumes that the traveler 
would move continuously. However, on trips 
over 100 ft (30 m). disabled people are apt to 
rest frequently, which substantially Increases 
their trip times. Resting p>erlods of 2 minutes 
for every 100 ft (30 m) can be used to estimate 
travel times for people with severely limited 
stamina. In Inclement weather, slow progress 
and resting can greatly Increase a disabled 
person's exposure to the elements. 

(2) Sites. Level. Indirect routes or those with 
running slopes lower than 1:20 can sometimes 
provide more convenience than direct routes 
with maximum allowable slopes or with ramps. 




•fe Tils 



.5 



Fig. A4 
Cane Technique 



A4.3.10 Egress. Because people with dis- 
abilities may visit, be employed or be a resident 
in any building, emergency meinagement plans 
with specific provisions to ensure their safe 
evacuation also play an essential role In fire 
safety and life safety. 

A4.3.i 1.3 Stairyxxm Width. A 48 inch 
(1220 mm) wide exit stairway is needed to 
allow assisted evacuation (e.g.. carrying a 
person in a wheelchair) without encroaching 
on the exit path for ambulatory persons. 



Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45719 



A4.5 Ground and Floor Surfaces 



A4.d.ii.4 TYixMtxiy CommuniccUion. It is 

essenOcd that emergency conwnunlcation not be 
dependent on voice communications alone be- 
cause the safety of people with hearing or 
speech impairments could be Jeopardized. The 
visible signal requirement could be satisfied 
with something as simple as a button in the 
area of rescue assistance that lights, indicating 
that help is on the way, when the message is 
answered at the point of entry. 

A4.4 Protruding Objects. 

A4.4.1 General. Service animals are trained 
to recognize and avoid hazards. However, most 
people with severe impairments of vision use 
the long cane as an aid to mobility. The two 
principal cane techniques are the touch tech- 
nique, where the cane arcs from side to side 
and touches points outside both shoulders; 
and the diagonal technique, where the cane 
is held In a stationary position diagonally 
across the body with the cane tip touching or 
Just above the ground at a point outside one 
shoulder and the handle or grip extending to 
a point outside the other shoulder. The touch 
technique is used primarily in uncontrolled 
arccis. while the diagonal technique is used 
primarily In certain limited, controlled, and 
familiar environments. Cane users are often 
trained to use both techniques. 

Potential hazardous objects are noticed only 
if they fall within the detection range of canes 
(see Fig. A4). Visually Impaired people walking 
toward an object can detect an overhang if 
Its lowest surface is not higher than 27 in 
(685 mm). When walking alongside protruding 
objects, they cannot detect overhangs. Since 
proper cane and service animal techniques 
keep people away from the edge of a path or 
from walls, a slight overhang of no more than 
4 in (100 mm) Is not hazardous. 

A4.5 Ground and Floor Surfaces. 

A4.5.1 General. People who have difficulty 
walking or maintaining balance or who use 
crutches, canes, or walkers, and those with 
restricted gaits are particularly sensitive to 
slipping and tripping hazards. For such people, 
a stable and regulcir surface is necessary for 
safe walking, particularly on stairs. Wheel- 
chcilrs can be propelled most easily on surfaces 
that are hard, stable, and regular. Soft loose 



surfaces such as shag carpet, loose sand or 
gravel, wet clay, and irregular surfaces such 
as cobblestones can significantly Impede 
wheelchair movement. 

Slip resistance Is based on the frlctlonal force 
necessary to keep a shoe heel or crutch tip 
from slipping on a walking surface under 
conditions likely to be found on the surface. 
While the dynamic coefficient of friction during 
walking varies in a complex and non- uniform 
wwj. the static coeffijcient of friction, which can 
be measured in several ways, provides a close 
approximation of the sip resistance of a surface. 
Contrary to popular belief, some slippage is 
necessaru to walking, especially for persons 
with restricted gaits: a truly "non-slip' surface 
could not be negotiated. 

The Occupational Safety and Health Admini- 
stration recommends that walking surfaces 
have a static coefficient of friction of 0.5. A 
research project sponsored by the Architectural 
and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board 
(Access Board) conducted tests with persons 
with disabilities and concluded that a higher 
coefficient of friction was needed by such per- 
sons. A static coefficient of friction of 0.6 is 
recommended for accessible routes and 0.8 
for ramps. 

It is recognized that the coefficient of friction 
varies considerably due to the presence of 
contaminants, water, floor finishes, and other 
factors not under the control of the designer or 
builder and not subject to design and construc- 
tion guidelines and that compliance would be 
difficult to measure on the building site. Never- 
theless, many common building materials 
suitable for flooring are now labeled with infor- 
mation on the static coefficient of friction. While 
it may not be possible to compare one product 
directly with another, or to guarantee a con 
slant measure, builders and designers are 
encouraged to specify materials with appropri 
ate values. As more products include Informa 
(ton on slip resistance, improved uniformity in 
measurement and specification is likely. The 
Access Board's advisory guidelines on Slip 
Resistant Surfaces provides additional tnfor 
motion on this subject 

Cross slopes on walks and ground or floor 
surfaces can cause considerable difficulty in 
propelling a wheelchair in a straight line. 



A5 



45720 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



A4.6 Parking and Passenger Loading Zones 



A4.5.3 Carpet. Much more needs to be done 
In developing both quantitative and qualitative 
criteria for carpeting (Le.. problems assodated 
with texture and weave need to be studied). 
However, certain functional characteristics 
are well established. When both carpet and 
padding are used, it is desirable to have mini- 
mum movement (preferably none) between the 
floor and the pad and the pad and the carpet 
which would allow the carpet to hump or warp. 
In heavily traflflcked areas, a thick, soft (plush) 
pad or cushion, particularly in combination 
with long carpet pile, makes it difficult for 
individuals in wheelchairs and those with 
other ambulatory disabilities to get about. 
Firm carpeting can be achieved through 
proper selection and combination of pad and 
carpet, sometimes with the elimination of the 
pad or cushion, and with proper Installation. 
Carpeting designed with a weave that cxiuses a 
zig zag effect when wheeled across Is strongly 
discouraged. 

A4.6 Parking and Passenger Loading 
Zones. 

A4.6.3 Parking Spaces. The increasing use 
of vans with side-mounted lifts or ramps by 
persons with disabilities tias necessitated some 
revisions tn specifications for parking spaces 
and adjacent access aisles. The typical acces- 
sible parking space is 96 tn (2440 mm) wide 
with an adjacent 60 tn (1525 mm) access aisle. 
However, this aisle does not permit lifts or 
ramps to be deployed and still leave room for 
a person using a wheelchair or other mobility 
aid to exit the lift platform or ramp. In tests 
conducted with actual lift/ van/ wheelchair 
combinations, (under a Board- sponsored 
Accessible Parking and Loading Zones Project) 
researchers found that a space and aisle total 
ing almost 204 tn(5l80 nvn) wide was needed 
to deploy a lift and exit conveniently. The 'van 
accessible' parking space required by these 
guidelines provides a96 tn (2440 mm) wide 
space with a 96 in (2440 mm) adjacent access 
aisle which is Just wide enough to maneuver 
and exit from a side mounted lift If a 96 in 
(2440 mm) access aisle is placed between 
two spaces, two 'van accessible' spaces are 
created Alternatively, if the wide access aisle 
is provided at the end of a mw (an area often 
unused), it may be possible to provide the 
wide access aisle without additional space 
(see Fig. A5(a)). 



A sign is needed to alert van users to the pres- 
ence of the wider aisle, but the space is not 
intended to be restricted only to vans. 

"Universal' Parking Space Design. An alterna- 
tive to the provision of a percentage of spaces 
with a wide aisle, and the associated need to 
include additional signage, is the use of what 
has been called the 'universal' parking space 
design. Under this design, qH accessible spaces 
are 132 fn (3350 mm) wide with a 60 tn 
(1525 mm) access aisle (see Fig. A5(b)). One 



accessible route 




(3) 
Van Accessible Space at End Row 



132 



132 



324 



1 32 mm 



(b) 
Universal Parking Space Design 

Fig. A5 
Parking Space Alternatives 



A6 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45721 



A4.8 Ramps 



adixmtage to this design ts that no additional 
signage ts needed because all spaces can 
accommodate a van with a side mounted HJl or 
ramp. Also, there ts no competition between cars 
and vans for spaces since cdl spaces can accom 
modate either. Furthermore, the wider space 
permits vehicles to park to one side or the other 
within the 132 in (3350 nvnj space to allow 
persons to exit and enter the vehicle on either 
the driver or passenger side, although, in some 
cases, this would require exiting or entering 
without a marked access aisle. 

An essential consideration for any design is 
having the access aisle level with the parking 
space. Since a person with a disability, using 
a lift or ramp, must maneuver within the access 
aisle, the aisle cannot include a ramp or sloped 
area. The access aisle must be connected to an 
accessible route to the appropriate accessible 
entrance of a building or facility. The parking 
access aisle must either blend with tfie acces 
sible route or have a curb ramp complying with 
4. 7. Such a curb ramp opening must be located 
within the access aisle boundaries, not within 
the parking space boundaries. Unfortunately, 
many faculties are designed with a ramp that 
is blocked when any vehicle parks in U\e acces 
sible space. Also, the required dimensions of the 
access aisle cannot be restricted by planters, 
curbs or wheel stops. 

A4.6.4 Signage. Signs designating parking 
places for disabled people can be seen from a 
driver's seat if the signs are mounted high 
enough above the ground and located at the 
front of a parking space. 

A4.6.5 Vertical Clearance. High -top vans. 
which disabled people or transportation ser- 
vices often use. require higher clearances in 
parking garages than automobiles. 

A4.8 Ramps. 

A4.8.1 General. Ramps are essential for 
wheelchair users If elevators or lifts are not 
avciilable to connect different levels. However, 
some people who use walking aids have diffi- 
culty with ramps and prefer stairs. 

A4.8.2 Slope and Rise. Ramp slopes be 
tween 1:16 and 1:20 are preferred. The ability 
to manage an IncUne Is related to both Its 
slope and its length. Wheelchair users with 



disabilities affecting their arms or with low 
stamina have serious dlQlculty using inclines. 
Most ambulatory people and most people who 
use wheelchairs can manage a slope of 1:16. 
Many people cannot manage a slope of 1:12 for 
30 ft (9 m). 

A4.8A Landings. Level landings are essen- 
tial toward maintaining an aggregate slope that 
complies with these guideltnes. A ramp landing 
that Is not level causes Individuals using wheel 
chairs to tip backward or bottom out when the 
ramp is approachecL 

A4.8.5 Handrails. The requirements for 
stair and ramp handrails In this guideline are 
for adults. When children are principal users 
in a building or facility, a second set of hand- 
rails at an appropriate height can assist them 
and aid In preventing accidents. 

A4.9 Stairs. 

A4.9.1 Minimum Number. Only Interior 
and exterior stairs connecting levels that are 
not connected by an elevator, ramp, or other 
accessible means of i^rtlcal access have to 
comply with 4.9. 

A4.10 Elevators. 

A4.10.6 Door Protective and Reopening 
Device. The required door reopening device 
would hold the door open for 20 seconds if the 
doorway remains obstructed. After 20 seconds, 
the door may begin to close. However, if de- 
signed in accordance with ASME A 17. 1-1 990. 
the door closing movement could still be 
stopped If a person or object exerts sufficient 
force at any point on the door edge. 

A4.10.7 Door and Signal Timing for Hall 
Calls. This paragraph allows variation In the 
location of call buttons, advance time for warn- 
ing signals, and the door-holding period used 
to meet the time requirement. 

A4.10.12 Car Controls. Industry-wide 
standardization of elevator control panel design 
would make all elevators significantly more 
convenient for use by people with severe visual 
Impairments. In many cases. It will be possible 
to locate the highest control on elevator panels 
within 48 In (1220 mm) from the floor. 



45722 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



A4.11 PUtform UfU (Wheelchair Lifts) 



A4.10.13 Car Position Indicators. A spe 

clal button may be provided that would activate 
the audible signal within the given elevator only 
for the desired trip, rather than maintaining 
the audible signal in constant operation. 

A4.10.14 Emergency Communications. 

A device that requires no handset is easier to 
use by people who have dlfTlculty reaching. 
Also, small handles on handset compartment 
doors are not usable by people who have 
difficulty grnsptng. 

Ideally, emergency two-way communication 
systems should provide both voice and visual 
display intercommunicatioix so that persons 
with hearing impairments and persons with 
vision impairments can receive information 
regarding the status of a rescue. A voice inter- 
communication system cannot be the only 
means of communication because it is not 
accessible to people with speech and hearing 
impairments. While a voice intercommunication 
system, is not required at a minimum the 
system should provide both an audio and 
visual indication that a rescue is on the wag. 

A4.11 Platform Lifts (Wheelchair 
Lifts). 

A4.11.2 Other Requirements. Inclined 
stairway chatrllfls, and inclined and vertical 
platform lifts (wheelchair lifts) are available 
for short-distance, vertical transportation of 
people with disabilities. Care should be taken 
In selecting lifts as some lifts are not equally 
suitable for use by both wheelchair users and 
semi ambulatory individuals. 

A4.12 Windows. 

A4.12.1 General. Windows intended to be 
operated by occupants in accessible spaces 
should comply with 4.12. 

A4.12.2 Window Hardware. Windows 
requiring pushing, pulling, or lifling to open (for 
example, double hang, sliding, or casement and 
awning units without cranks) should require no 
more than 5 lbf(22.2 N) to open or close. Uxks. 
cranks, and other window hardware should 
comply with 4.27. 



A4.13 Doors. 

A4.13.8 Ttiresliolds at Doorways. Thresh- 
olds and surface height chcinges In doorways 
are particularly Inconvenient for wheelchair 
users who also have low stamina or restric- 
tions In arm movement because complex 
maneuvering Is required to get over the level 
change while operating the door. 

A4.13.9 Door Hardware. Some disabled 
persons must push against a door with their 
chair or walker to open it. Applied klckplates 
on doors with closers can reduce required 
maintenance by withstanding abuse from 
wheelchairs and canes. To be efifecUve. they 
should cover the door width, less approxi- 
mately 2 in (51 mm), up to a height of 16 in 
(405 mm) from Its bottom edge and be cen- 
tered across the width of the door. 

A4. 13. 10 Door Closers. Closers with de- 
layed action features give a person more time 
to maneuver through doorways. They are par- 
ticularly useful on frequently used Interior 
doors such as entrances to toilet rooms. 

A4.13.il Door Opening Force. Although 
most people with disabilities can exert at least 
5 Ibf (22.2N1, both pushing and pulling from a 
stationary position, a few people with severe 
dlsabUltles carmot exert 3 Ibf ( 13. 13N). Al- 
though some people cannot manage the allow- 
able forces In this guideline and many others 
have dlfllculty, door closers must have certain 
minimum closing forces to close doors satisfac- 
torily. Forces for pushing or pulling doors open 
are measured with a push-pull scale under the 
following conditions: 

(1) Hinged doors: Force applied perpen- 
dicular to the door at the door opener or 30 In 
(760 mm) from the hinged side, whichever Is 
farther from the hinge. 

(2) Sliding or folding doors: Force applied 
parallel to the door at the door pull or latch. 

(3) Application of force: Apply force gradually 
so that the applied force does not exceed the 
resistance of the door. In high-rise buildings, 
air-pressure differentials may require a modifi- 
cation of this specification in order to meet the 
functional Intent. 



A8 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45723 



A4. 15 Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers 



A4.13.12 Automatic Doors and Power- 
Assisted Doors. Sliding automatic doors do 
not need guard rails and are more convenient 
for wheelchair users and visually impaired 
people to use. If slowly of>enlng automatic 
doors can be reactivated before their closing 
cycle Is completed, they will be more conve- 
nient In busy doorways. 



A4.15 Drinking Fountains and 
Water Coolers, 

A4.15.2 Spout Height. Two drinking Joun 
tains, mounted side by side or on a single post. 
are usable by people with disabilities and 
people who find it difficult to bend over. 



18-30 ) 18 . 

455 - 760 455 




^ 





Takes transfer position, swings Removes armrest, transfers Moves wheelchair out of the Positions on toilet, releases 



footrest out of the way. sets 
brakes 



way, changes position (some brake, 
people fold chair or pivot it 
90° to the toilet) 



i — ^ — ^-m 



(a) 
Diagonal Approach 




h 



he 

3 


V M '/ 

U V I 



Takes transfer position, removes 
armrest, sets brakes. 



Positions on toilet. 



(b) 
Side Approach 

Fig. A6 
Wheelchair Transfers 



A9 



45724 Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Frida y. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

A4.16 Water CIomU 



A4.16 Water CloaeU. 

A4.16.3 Height. Height preferences for 
toilet seats vary considerably among disabled 
people. Higher seat heights may be cin advem- 
tage to some ambulatory disabled people, but 
are often a disadvantage for wheelchair users 
and others. Toilet seats 18 In (455 mm) high 
seem to be a reasonable compromise. Thick 
seats and filler rings are available to adapt 
standard fixtures to these requirements. 

A4.16.4 Grab Ban. Fig. A6(a) and (b) show 
the diagonal and side approaches most com- 
monly used to transfer from a wheelchair to a 
water closet. Some wheelchair users can trans- 
fer from the front of the toilet whUe others use 
a 90-degree approach. Most people who use the 
two additional approaches can ajso use either 
the diagonal approach or the side approach. 

A4.16.5 Plush Controls. Flush valves and 
related plumbing can be located behind walls 
or to the side of the toilet, or a toilet seat lid 
can be provided If plumbing fittings are directly 
behind the toilet seat. Such designs reduce the 
chance of injury and imbalance caused by 
leaning back against the fittings. Flush controls 
for tank-type toilets have a standardized 
mounting location on the left side of the tank 
(facing the tank). Tanks can be obtained by 
special order with controls mounted on the 
right side. If administrative authorities require 
flush controls for flush valves to be located In a 
position that conflicts with the location of the 
rear grab bar. then that bar may be split or 
shifted toward the wide side of the toilet area. 

A4.17ToUet Stalls. 

A4.17.3 Size and Arrangement. This 
section requires use of the 60 tn (1525 mrrO 
sUmdard stall (Figure 30(aJ) and permits the 
36 in (915 mm) or 46 tn. (1220 mw) wide alter 
nate staR (Figure 30(b)) only in alterations where 
provision of the standard staU ts technically 
tnfeastble or where local plumbing codes prohibit 
reduction in the number of fixtures. A standard 
stall provides a clear space on one side of the 
water closet to enable persons who use wheel- 
chairs to perform a side or diagonal transfer 
from the wheelchair to the water closet How 
ever, some persons with disabdUies who use 
mobiliiy aids such as walkers, canes or crutches 



are better able to use the two parallel grab bars 
in the 36 in (915 mm) wide alternate stall to 
achieve a standing position 

In large toilet rooms, where six or more toilet 
stalls are provided, U is therefore required that 
a 36 in (915 mm) wide stall with parallel grab 
bars be provided in ndditinn to the standard 
stall required in new construction. The 36 in 
(915 mm) width is necessary to achieve proper 
use of the grab bars: wider stalls would position 
the grab bars too far apart to be easQy used 
and narrower stalls would position the grab 
bars too close to the water closet. Since the staR 
ts primartiy^ intended for use by persons using 
canes, crutches and walkers, rather than wheel- 
chairs, the length of the stall could be conven- 
tionoL The door, however, must swing outward 
to ensure a usable space for people who use 
crutches or walkers. 

A4.17.6 Doors. To make it easier for wheel- 
chair users to close toilet stall doors, doors Cein 
be provided with closers, spring hinges, or a 
pull bar mounted on the Inside surface of the 
door near the hinge side. 

A4. 19 Lavatories and Mirrors. 

A4. 19.6 Biirrors. If mirrors are to be used by 
both ambulatory people and wheelchair users, 
then they must be at least 74 in (1880 mm) 
high at their topmost edge. A single full length 
mirror can accommodate all people. Including 
children. 

A4.21 Shower Stalls. 

A4.21.1 General. Shower stalls that are 
36 in by 36 in (9 1 5 mm by 9 1 5 mm) wide 
provide additional safety to people who have 
difficulty maintaining balance because all grab 
bars and walls are within easy reach. Seated 
people use the wadls of 36 in by 36 in (915 mm 
by 915 mm) showers for back support. Shower 
stalls that are 60 in (1525 mm) wide and have 
no curb may increase usability of a bathroom 
by wheelchair users because the shower zu-ea 
provides additional maneuvering space. 

A4.22 Toilet Rooms. 

A4.22.3 Clear Floor Space. In many small 
facilities, single-user restrooms may be the only 



AlO 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday. September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



45725 



A4.22 Toilet Rooms 



JacUittes provided for all building users. In 
addition, the guidelines allow the use of 
'unisex" or 'family' accessible toilet rooms in 
alterations when technical infeasibility can be 
demonstrated. Experience has shown that the 
provision of accessible 'unisex' or single user 
restrooms ts a reasonable way to provide access 
for wheelchair users and any attendants, 
especially when attendants are of the opposite 
sex. Since these facilities have proven so useful, 
it ts often considered advantageous to install a 
'unisex' toilet room in new facilities in addition 
to making the multi-stall restrooms accessible, 
especially tn shopping malls, large auditoriums, 
and convention centers. 

Figure 28 (section 4.16) provides minimum clear 
floor space dimensions for toilets in accessible 
'unisex' toilet rooms. The dotted lines designate 
the minimum clear floor space, depending on 
the direction of approach, required for wheel 
chair users to transfer onto the water closet 
The dimensions of 48 in (1220 mmj and 60 in 
(1525 mmJ, respectively, correspond to the 
space required for the two common transfer 
approaches utilized by wheelchair users 
(see Fig. A6). It is important to keep in mind that 
the placement of the lavatory to the immediate 
side of the water closet will preclude the side 
approach transfer iUustrated in Figure A6(b}. 



To accommodate the side transfer, the space 
adjacent to the water closet must remain clear 
of obstruction for 42 tn (1065 mm) from the 
centerUne of the toilet (Figure 28) and the lava 
tory must not be located within this clear space. 
A turning circle or T-tum, the clear floor space 
at the kLvatonj. and maneuvering space at the 
door must be considered when detennining the 
possible wall locations. A privacy latch or other 
accessible means of ensuring privacy duriixg use 
should be provided at the door. 

RECOMMENDATIONS: 

1. In new construction, accessible single-user 
restrooms may be desirable tn some situations 
because they can accommodate a wide variety 
ofbutiding users. However, they cannot be used 
in lieu of making the multi-stall toilet rooms 
accessible as required. 

2. Where strict compUance to the guidelines for 
accessible toilet facilities is technically infeasible 
in the alteration of existing facilities, accessible 
'unisex' toilets are a reasonable alternative. 

3. In designing accessible single-user restrooms. 
the provisions of adequate space to aRow a side 
transfer wUl provide accommodation to the 
largest number of wheelchair users. 



18 30 1 30 














: 








1 1 










seat 1 


<D 


1 i 


1 


t ' 





\i J 


seat • 




fl 




TT^ 




; 1 




'- ; 


1 




^ 1 




1 



■^ 



Fig. A 7 



45726 Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



A4.23 Batlirooms. Bathing Facilities, and Shower Rooms 



A4.23 Bathrooms. Bathing Facilities, 
and Shower Rooms. 

A4.23.3 Clear Floor Space, Figure A7 
shows tux) possible configurations of a toilet 
room with a roU-tn shower. The specific shower 
shown is designed to fit exactly within the 
dimensions of a standard bathtub. Since the 
shower does not have a lip. the floor space can 
be used for required maneuvertng space. This 
would permU. a toilet room to be smaller than 
would be permitted with a bathtub and still 
provide enough floor space to be considered 
accessible. This design can provide accesstbility 
in faculties where space is at a premium (Le.. 
hotels and medical care facilities). The alternate 
roll- in shower (Fig. 57b) also provides sufficient 
room for the Ttum' cmd does not require 
plumbing to be on more than one wall 

A4.23.9 Medicine Cabinets. Other alter 
natives for storing medical and personal care 
items are ver>' useful to disabled people. 
Shelves, drawers, and floor-mounted cabinets 
can be provided within the reach ranges of 
disabled people. 



A4.26 Handrails. Grab Bars, and Tub 
and Shower Seats. 

A4.26.1 General. Many disabled people rely 
heavily upon grab bars and handrails to main- 
tain balsmce and prevent serious falls. Many 
people brace their foreeirms between supports 
and walls to give tJiem more leverage and 
stability In maintaining balance or for lifting. 
The grab bar clearance of 1-1/2 in (38 mm) 
required in this guideline is a safety clearance 
to prevent injuries resulting from arms slipping 
through the openings. It also provides adequate 
gripping room. 

A4.26.2 Size and Spacing of Grab Bars 
and Handrails. This specification allows for 
alternate shapes of handrails as long as they 
allow an opposing grip similar to that provided 
by a circular section of 1-1/4 In to 1-1/2 in 
(32 mm to 38 mm). 

A4.27 Controls €Uid Operating 
Mechanisms. 

A4.27.3 Height. Fig. A8 further illustrates 




'W////////////////M 



V////////////////////y. 



Forward Reach Possible 



(b) 
Side Reach Possible 



Fig. A8 
Control Reach Limitations 



A12 



Federal Registe r / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45727 

A4.28 Alarms 



mandatory and advisory control mounting 
height provisions for typical equipment 

Electrical receptacles installed to serve indi- 
vidual appliances and not intended for regular 
orjrequent use by building occupants are not 
required to be mounted within the specified 
reach ranges. E^Komples ux)uld be receptacles 
installed specifically for wall-mounted clocks, 
refrigerators, and microwave ovens. 

A4.28 Alarms. 

A4.28.2 Audible Alarms. Audible emergency 
signals must have an Intensity and frequency 
that can attract the attention of individuals 
who have partial hearing loss. People over 60 
years of age generally have difficulty perceiving 
frequencies higher than 10.000 Hz. An alarm 
signal which has a periodic element to its signal 
such as single stroke bells (clang- pause- clang- 
pause), hi-low (up-down-up-down) andfast 
whoop (on-ojf-on-ojff) are best Avoid continuous 
or reverberating tones. Select a signal which has 
a sound characterized by three or four clear 
tones without a great deal of "noise" in between. 

A4.28.3 Visual Alarms. The specifications In 
this section do not preclude the use of zoned or 
coded alarm systems. 

A4.28.4 Auxiliary Alarms. Locating visual 
emergency alaima In rooms where persons who 
are deaf may work or reside alone can ensure 
that they will always be warned when an 
emergency aleirm Is activated. To be effective, 
such devices must be located and oriented so 
that they will spread signals and reflections 
throughout a space or raise the overall light 
level sharply. However, visual alarms alone are 
not necessarily the best means to alert sleepers. 
A study conducted by Underwriters Laboratory 
(UD concluded that a flashing light more than 
seven times brighter was required (110 candela 
v. 15 candelcu at the same distance) to awaken 
sleepers as was needed to alert awake subjects 
tn a normal daytime Ulumtnated room. 

For hotel and other rooms where people are 
likely to be asleep, a signal- activated vibrator 
placed between mattress and box sprirm or 
under a pillow was found by UL to be much 
more effective in alerting sleepers. Many readily 
available devices are sound-activated so that 
they could respond to an alarm clock, clock 



radio, wake-up telephone call or room smoke 
detector. Acttuatton by a butldUTg alarm system 
can either be accomplished by a separate circuit 
activating an auditory alarm which would, in 
turn, trigger the vibrator or by a signal transmit 
ted through the ordinary 1 10- volt outiet Trans- 
mission of signals through the power line ts 
relatively simple and is the basis of common, 
inexpensive remote light control systems sold in 
many department and electronic stores for home 
use. So-called 'wireless' intercoms operate on 
the same principal 

A4.29 Detectable Warnings. 

A4.20.2 Detectable Warnings on Walking 
Surfaces. The material used to provide con- 
trast should contrast by at least 70%. Contrast 
tn percent is determined by: 

Contrast = l(B, ■ B^)/BJxlOO 

where B, = light reflectance value (LRV) of the 
lighter area 

and Bj = light reflectance value (LRV) of the 
darker arecL 

Note that in any application both white and 
black are never absolute: thus. B^ never equals 
100 and B^ is always greater than 0. 

A4.30 Signage. 

A4.30.1 General, hi building complexes 
where finding locations Independently on a 
routine basis may be a necessity (for example, 
college campuses), tactile maps or prerecorded 
Instructions can be very helpful to visually 
Impaired people. Several maps and auditory 
Instructions have been developed and tested 
for specific applications. The type of map or 
Instructions used must be based on the Infor- 
mation to be communicated, which depends 
highly on the type of buildings or users. 

Landmarks that can easily be distinguished 
by visually Impaired individuals are useful as 
orientation cues. Such cues Include changes 
in Illumination level, bright colors, unique 
patterns, wall murals, location of special 
equipment or other architectural features. 

Many people with disabilities have limitations 
In movement of their heads and reduced 
perlphercd vision. Thus, signage positioned 



A13 



45728 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday. September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



A4.30 Sltfna^e 



perpendicular to the path of travel Is easiest for 
them to notice. People can generally distinguish 
signage within an angle of 30 degrees to either 
side of the centerllnes of their faces without 
moving their heads. 

A4.30.2 Character Proportion. The legibil- 
ity of printed characters Is a function of the 
viewing distance, character height, the ratio of 
the stroke width to the height of the character, 
the contrast of color between character and 
background, and print font. The size of charac- 
ters must be based upon the Intended viewing 
distance. A severely nearsighted person may 
have to be much closer to recognize a character 
of a given size than a person with normal visual 
acuity. 

A4.30.4 Raised and Brailled Characters 
cmd Pictorial Symbol Signs 
(Pictograms). The standard dtmenstons for 
literary Braille are as follows: 



Dot diameter 

Inter-dot spacing 

Horizontal separation 
between cells 

Vertical separation 
between cells 



.059 in. 
.090 in. 

.241 in. 

.395 in. 



Raised borders around signs containing raised 
characters may make them confusing to read 
unless the border is set far away from the 
characters. Accessible signage wtth descriptive 
materials about public buildings, monuwents, 
and dt^ects qf cultural interest may not provide 
sqfflciently detaCed and meaningful iriformadorL 
Interpretive guides, audio tape devices, or other 
methods may be more effective in presenting 
such tr^ormatkjn. 

A4.30.5 Finish and Contrast. An eggshell 
finish (11 to 19 degree gloss on 60 degree 
glosslmeter) is recommended. Research indi- 
cates that signs are more legible for persons 
with low vision when characters contrast with 
their backgrourvi by at least 70 percent 
Contrast in percent shall be determined by: 

Contrast = [(B, - B^)/BJx 100 



where Bj = light reflectance value (LRV) of the 
lighter area 

and Bj = light reflectance value (LRV) of the 
darker area. 

Note that in any explication both white and 
black are never absolute: thus, B, never equals 
1 00 and B, (s always greater than 0. 

The greatest readability Is usually achieved 
through the use of light-colored characters or 
symbols on a dark background. 

A4.30.7 Symbols qf Accessibility for 
Different Types qi Listening Systems. 

Paragraph 4 of this section requires signage 
indicating the avadabUity of an asststiije listen- 
ing system. An appropriate message should be 
displayed wUh the international symbol of 
access for hearing loss since this symbol con- 
veys general accessibility for people with hear- 
ing loss. Some suggestions are: 

INFRARED 

ASSISTIVE USTEMNG SYSTEM 

AVAILABLE 

PLEASE ASK 

AUDIO LOOP IN USE 

TURN T-SWTTCH FOR 

BETTER HEARING 

OR ASK FOR HELP 

FM 

ASSISTIVE USTENING 

SYSTEM AVAILABLE 

^PLEASE ASK 

The symbol may be used to notify persons of the 
avaHabUity of other auxiliary aids and services 
such as: real time captioning, captioned note 
taking, sign language interpreters, and oral 
interpreters. 

A4.30.9 Illumination Levels. lUumtnatton 
levels on the sign surface shall be in the 100 to 
300 lux range (10 to 30footcandles) and shall 
be untform over the sign surface. Signs shall be 
located such that the tUumtnatlon level on the 
surface of the sign is not significantly exceeded 
by the ambient light or visible bright lighting 
source behind or in front of the sign. 



A14 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45729 

A4.31 Telephones 



A4.31 Telephones. 

A4.31.3 Mounting Height. In localiUes 
where the dial-tone first system Is in operation, 
calls can be placed at a coin telephone through 
the operator without inserting coins. The 
operator button is located at a height of 46 in 
( 1 170 mm) if the coin slot of the telephone is 
at 54 in (1370 mm). A generally available 
public telephone with a coin slot mounted 
lower on the equipment would allow universal 
Installation of telephones at a height of 48 in 
(1220 mm) or less to aH operable parts. 

A4.31.9 Text Telephones. A public text 
telephone may be an Integrated text telephone 
pay phone unit or a conventional portable text 
telephone that is permanently ajjlxed within, or 
adjacent to, the telephone enclosure. In order to 
be usable with a pay phone, a text telephone 
which is not a single integrated text telephone 
pay phone unit will require a shelf large enough 
(Win (255mm} wide by 10 in (255 mm) deep 
with a 6 in (150 mm) vertical clearance mini- 
muwj to accommodate the device, an electrical 
outlet, and a power cord. Movable or portable 
text telephones may be used to provide equiva- 
lent facilitation. A text telephone should be 
readily available so. that a person using it may 
access the text telephone easily and conven- 
iently. As currently designed pocket- type text 
telephones for personal use do not accommodate 
a wide range of users. Such devices would not 
be considered substantially equivalent to con- 
ventional text telephones. However, in the future 
as technology develops this could change. 

A4.32 Fixed or Built-in Seating 
and Tables. 

A4.32.4 Height of Tables or Counters. 

Different types of work require different table 
or counter heights for comfort and optimal 
performance. Light detailed work such as 
writing requires a table or counter close to 
elbow height for a standing person. Heavy 
manual work such as rolling dough requires a 
counter or table height about 10 in (255 mm) 
below elbow height for a standing person. This 
principle of high/low table or counter heights 
also applies for seated persons; however, the 
limiting condition for seated manual work Is 
clearance under the table or courUer. 



Table Al shows convenient counter heights for 
seated persons. The great variety of heights for 
comfort and optimal performance indicates a 
need for alternatives or a compromise in height 
If people who stand and people who sit will be 
using the same counterjarea. 

Table Al 

Convenient Heights of Tables 

and Counters for Seated People^ 





Short 


T«ll 




Women 


Men 


Conditions of Um 


in 


nun 


in nun 


Seated In a wheelchair: 








Manual work- 








Desk or removeable 








armrests 


26 


660 


30 760 


Fixed, full-size armrests' 


32> 


815 


32' 815 


Light detailed work: 








Desk or removable 








armrests 


29 


735 


34 865 


Fixed, full-size armrests' 


32' 


815 


34 865 


Seated In a 16-ln. (405-mm) 








High chain 








Mcinual work 


26 


660 


27 685 


Light detailed work 


28 


710 


31 785 





' All dimensions are based on a work-surface 
thickness of 1 1/2 In (38 mm) and a clearance 
of 1 1/2 In (38 mm) between legs and the 
underside of a work surface. 

'This type of wheelchair arm does not Interfere 
with the positioning of a wheelcheilr under a 
work surface. 

'This dimension Is limited by the height of the 
armrests: a lower height would be preferable. 
Some people in this group prefer lower work 
surfaces, which require positioning the wheel- 
chair back from the edge of the counter. 



A4.33 Assembly Areas. 

A4.33.2 Size of Wheelchair Locations. 

Spaces large enough for two wheelchairs allow 
people who are coming to a performance 
together to sit together. 

A4.33.3 Placement of Wheelchair 
Locations. The location of wheelchair areas 
can be planned so that a variety of positions 



A15 



45730 Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday. September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 

Table A2. Summary of Assistive listening Devices 



within the seating area are provided. This will 
allow choice in viewing and price categories. 

Budding /life sqfety codes set minimum 
distances between rows of fixed seats with 
consideration of the number of seats tn a row. 
the exit aisle width and arrangement and the 
location of exit doors. 'Continental' seating, 
with a greater number of seats per row and a 



commensurate increase in row spacing and exit 
doors, facilitates emergency egress for all people 
and increases ease of access to mid- row seats 
especially for people who walk with difficulty . 
Consideration of this positive attribute of 
'continental' seating should be included along 
wtthaU other factors tn the design of fixed 
seating areas. 



Table A2. Summary qf Assistive Listening Devices 



System 


Advantages 


Disadvantages 


Typical 
.^plications 










Induction Loop 


Cost-Eflectlve- 


Signal spills over to 


Meeting areas 


Transmitter Transducer 


Lxjw Maintenance 


adjacent rooms. 


Theaters 


wired to induction loop 


E:asy to use 


Susceptible to electrical 


Churches and Temples 


around listening area. 


Unobtrusive 


interference. 


Conference rooms 


Receiver. Self-contained 


May h>e possible to 


Limited portability 


Classrooms 


induction receiver or 


integrate Into existing 


Inconsistent signal 


TV viewing 


p>ersonal hearing aid 


public address system. 


strength. 




with telecoil. 


Some hearing aids can 


Head poslUon affects 






function as receivers. 


signal strength. 
Lack of standards for 








Induction coll 


. 






performance. 




FM 


Highly portable 


High cost of receivers 


Classrooms 


Transmitter Flashlight- 


Different channels allow 


Ekjulpment fragile 


Tour groups 


sized worn by speaker. 


use by different groups 


Equipment obtrusive 


Meeting areas 


Receiver With personal 


within the same room. 


High maintenance 


Outdoor events 


hearing aid via DAI or 


High user mobility 


Elxpcnslve to maintain 


One-on-one 


induction neck-loop and 


Variable for large rsmge 


Custom fitting to 




telecoU: or self-contained 


of hearing losses. 


individual user may be 




with earphone(s). 




required. 




Infrared 


E^asy to use 


Llne-of-slght required 


Theaters 


Ttanamltter Emitter In 


Insures privacy or 


between emitter and 


Churches and Temples 


Une-of-slght with 
receiver. 
Receiver. Self-contained. 


confldenUality 
Moderate cost 
Can often be Integrated 


receiver. 

Ineffective outdoors 
Limited portability 
Requires installation 


Auditoriums 
Meetings requiring 
confidentiality 
TV viewing 


Or with personal hearing 


into existing public 






akl via DAI or Induction 


address system. 






ncckkwp and telecolL 









Sounac: Rehab Brief. National InaUtute on DtsablUty and Rehabilitation Reacarch. Washington. DC, VoL XII. No. 10. (1990). 



A16 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45731 

A5.0 Restaurants and Cafeterias 



A4.33.6 Placement of Listening 
Systems. A distance of 50 ft (15 m) allows 
a person to distinguish performers" facial 
expressions. 

A4.33.7 Types of Listening Systems. An 

assistive listening system appropriate for an 
assembly area for a group of persons or where 
the sp>ecific individuals are rwt known in ad 
vance. such as a playhouse, lecture hall or 
movie theater, maij be different from the system 
appropriate for a particular individual provided 
as an auxiliary aid or as part of a reasonable 
accommodation. The appropriate device for an 
individual is the type that individual can use. 
whereas the appropriate system for an assem- 
bly area will necessarily be geared toward the 
"average" or aggregate needs ofixirious indi 
viduols. A listening system that can be used 
from any seat In a seating area is the most 
flexible way to meet this specification. Ear- 
phone jacks with variable volume controls can 
benefit only people who have slight hearing loss 
and do not help people who use hearing aids. 
At the present time, magnetic induction loops 
are the most feasible type of listening system 
for people who use hearing aids equipped with 
"T-coiLs," but people without hearing aids or 
those with hearing aids not equipped with 
inductive pick-ups cannot use them without 
special receivers. Radio frequency systems can 
be extremely effective and inexpensive. People 
without hearing aids can use them, but people 
with hearing aids need a special receiver to 
use them as they are presently designed. If 
hearing aids had a Jack to allow a by-pass of 
microphones, then radio frequency systems 
would be suitable for people with and without 
hearing aids. Some listening systems may be 
subject to Interference from other equipment 
and feedback from hearing aids of people who 
are using the systems. Such interference can 
be controlled by careful engineering design 
that anticipates feedback sources In the 
surrounding area. 

Table A2. reprinted from a National Institute of 
Disability and Rehabilitation Research 'Rehab 
Brief.' shows some of the advantages and 
disadvantages of different types of assistive 
listening systems. In addition, the Architectural 
and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board 
(Access Board) has published a pamphlet on 
Assistive Listening Systems which lists demon 
stration centers across the country where 
technical assistance can be obtained in selecting 
and installing appropriate systenis. The state of 

BILLING CODE 4910-62-C 



New York has also adopted a detailed technical 
specification which may be useful 

A5.0 Restaurants and Cqfeterias. 

A5.1 General. Dining counters (where there 
is no service) are typically found in small 
carry-out restaurants, bakeries, or coffee shops 
and may only be a narrow eating surface 
attached to a wall. This section requires 
that where such a dining counter is provided, 
a portion of the counter shall be at the required 
accessible height. 

A7.0 Business and Mercantile. 

A7. 2(3) Assistive Listening Devices. At all 

sales and service counters, teller windows, box 
offices, and information kiosks where a physical 
barrier separates service personnel and custom- 
ers, it is recommended that at least one perma- 
nently installed assistive listening device com- 
plying with 4.33 be provided at each legation or 
series. Where assistive listening devices are 
installed signage should be provided iden- 
tifying those stations which are so equipped. 

A7.3 Check-out Aisles. Section 7.2 refers to 
counters without aisles: section 7.3 concerns 
check out aisles. A counter without an aisle (7.2) 
can be approached from more than one direction 
such as in a convenience store. In order to use 
a check out aisle (7.3). customers must enter a 
defined area (an aisle) at a particular point, pay 
for goods, and exit at a particular point. 

A10.3 Fixed Facilities and Stations. 

A10.3.1(7) Route Signs. One means of 
making control buttons on fare vending ma- 
chines usable by persons with vision impair- 
ments is to raise them above the surrounding 
surface. Those activated by a mechanical 
motion are likely to be more detectable. If 
farecard tending, collection, and adjustment 
devices are designed to accommodate farecards 
having one tactually distinctive comer, then a 
person who (kls a vision impairment will insert 
the card with greater ease. Token collection 
devices that are designed to accommodate 
tokens which are perforated can allow a person 
to distinguish more readily between tokens 
and common coins. Thoughtful placement of 
accessible gates and fare vending machines 
in relation to inaccessible devices will make 
their use and detection easier for all persons 
with disabilities. 



45732 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulation; 



Appendix B to Part 37— UMTA Regional 
Offices 

Region 1, Urban Mass Transportation 

Administration, 206 Federal Plaza, Suite 

2940, New York, NY 10278 
Region II, Urban Mass Transportation 

Administration. Transportation Systems 

Center, Kendall Square, 55 Broadway, Suite 

921, Cambridge, MA 02142 
Region III, Urban Mass Transportation 

Administration, 841 Chestnut Street. Suite 

714, Philadelphia, PA 19107 
Region IV, Urban Mass Transportation 

Administration, 1720 Peachtree Road NW.. 

Suite 400, Atlanta, GA 30309 
Region V, Urban Mass Transportation 

Administration, 55 East Monroe Street, 

Room 1415, Chicago, IL 60603 
Region VI, Urban Mass Transportation 

Administration, 819 Taylor Street, Suite 

9A32, Ft. Worth, TX 76102 
Region VII, Urban Mass Transportation 

Administration, 6301 RockviUe Road, Suite 

303, Kansas City, MS 64131 
Region VIII, Urban Mass Transportation 

Administration, Federal Office Building, 

1961 Stout Street, 5th Floor, Denver. CO 

80294 
Region IX, Urban Mass Transportation 

Administration, 211 Main Street, Room 

1160, San Francisco, CA 94105 
Region X, Urban Mass Transportation 

Administration, 3142 Federal Building, 915 

Second Avenue, Seattle, WA 98174 

Appendix C to Part 37 — Certifications 

Certification of Equivalent Service 

The (name of agency) certifies that its 
demand responsive service offered to 
individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs, is 
equivalent to the level and quality of service 
offered to individuals without disabilities. 
Such service, when viewed in its entirety, is 
provided in the most integrated setting 
feasible and is equivalent with respect to: 
|1) Response time; 

(2) Fares; 

(3) Geographic service area; 

(4) Hours and days of service: 

(5) Restrictions on trip purpose: 

(6) Availability of information and 
reservation capability: and 

(7) Constraints on capacity or service 
availability. 

In accordance with 49 CFR 37.77. public 
entities operating demand responsive 
systems for the general public which receive 
financial assistance under section 18 of the 
Urban Mass Transportation Act must file this 
certification with the appropriate state 
program office before procuring any 
inaccessible vehicle. Such public entities not 
receiving UMTA funds shall also file the 
certification with the appropriate stale 
program office. Such public entities receiving 
UMTA funds under any other section of the 
UMT Act must file the certification with the 
appropriate UMTA regional office. This 
certification is valid for no longer than one 
year from its date of filing. 

(name of authorized official) 

(title) 



(signature) 

MPO Certification of Paratransit Plan 
The (name of Metropolitan Planning 
Organization) hereby certifies that it has 
reviewed the ADA paratransit plan prepared 
by (name of submitting entity (ies)) as 
required under 49 CFR part 37. 139(h) and 
finds it to be in conformance with the 
transportation plan developed under 49 CFR 
part 613 and 23 CFR part 450 (the UMTA/ 
FHWA joint planning regulation). This 
certification is valid for one year. 

signature 

name of authorized official 



Existing Paratransit Service Survey 

This is to certify that (name of public entity 
(ies|) has conducted a survey of existing 
paratransit services as required by 49 CFR 
37,137 (a). 



signature 


name of a 


uthorized official 


title 



included Service Certification 

This is to certify that service provided by 
other entities but included in the ADA 
paratransit plan submitted by (name of 
submitting entity (ies)) meets the 
requirements of 49 CFR part 37, subpart F 
providing that ADA eligible individuals have 
access to the service: the service is provided 
m the manner represented: and, that efforts 
will be made to coordinate the provision of 
paratransit service offered by other 
providers. 



signature 


name of at 


ilhorized i 


3fficial 


title 



/oint Plan Certification I 

This is to certify that (name of entity 
covered by joint plan) is committed to 
providing ADA paratransit service as part of 
this coordinated plan and in conformance 
with the requirements of 49 CFR part 37, 
subpart F. 

signature 

name of authorized official 



Joint Plan Certification II 

This IS to certify that (name of entity 
covered by joint plan) will, in accordance 
with 49 CFR 37.141, maintain current levels of 
paratransit service until the coordinated plan 
goes into effect. 

signature 

name of authorized official 



State Certification that Plans have been 
Received 

This is to certify that all ADA paratransit 
plans required under 49 CFR 37.139 have 
been received by (state DOT) 



signatur 



name of authorized official 



date 

Appendix D to Part 37 — Construction 
and Interpretation of Provisions of 49 
CFR part 37 

This appendix explains the Department's 
construction and interpretation of provisions 
of 49 CFR part 37. It is intended to be used as 
definitive guidance concerning the meaning 
and implementation of these provisions. The 
Appendix is organized on a section-by- 
section basis. Some sections of the rule are 
not discussed in the Appendix, because they 
are self-explanatory or we do not currently 
ha\'e interpretive material to provide 
concerning them. 

The Department also provides guidance by 
other means, such as manuals and letters. 
The Department intends to update this 
Appendix periodically to include guidance, 
provided in response to inquiries about 
specific situations, that is of general 
relevance or interest. 

Amendments to 49 CFR Part 27 

Section 27.67(d) has been revised to 
reference the Access Board facility guidelines 
(found in appendix A to part 37) as well as 
the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standard 
(UFAS). This change was made to ensure 
consistency between requirements under 
section 504 and the ADA. Several caveats 
relating to the application of UFAS (e.g., that 
spaces not used by the public or likely to 
result in the employment of individuals with 
disabilities would not have to meet the 
standards) have been deleted. It is the 
Departments understanding that provisions 
of the Access Board standards and part 37 
make them unnecessary. 

The Department is aware that there is a 
transition period between the publication of 
this rule and the effective date of many of its 
provisions (e.g., concerning facilities and 
paratransit services) during which section 504 
remains the basic authority for accessibility 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45733 



modifications. In this interval, the 
Department expects recipients' compUance 
with section 504 to look forward to 
compliance with the ADA provisions. That is, 
if a recipient is making a decision abou! the 
shape of its paratransit service between the 
publication of this rule and January 26, 1992, 
the decision should be in the direction of 
service that will help to comply with post- 
January 1992 requirements. A recipient that 
severely curtailed its present paratransit 
service in October, and then asked for a 
three- or five-year phase-in of service under 
its paratransit plan, would not be acting 
consistent with this policy. 

Likewise, the Department would view with 
disfavor any attempt by a recipient to 
accelerate the beginning of the construction, 
installation or alteration of a facility to before 
January 26, 1992, to "beat the clock" and 
avoid the application of this rule's facility 
standards. The Department would be very 
reluctant to approve grants, contracts, 
exemption requests etc., that appear to have 
this effect. The purpose of the Department's 
administration of section 504 is to ensure 
compliance with the national policy stated m 
the ADA, not to permit avoidance of it. 

Subpart A — General 

Section 37.3 Definitions 

The definition of "commuter authority" 
includes a list of commuter rail operators 
drawn from a statutory reference in the ADA. 
It should be noted that this list is not 
exhaustive. Other commuter rail operators 
(e.g.. in Chicago or San Francisco) would also 
be encompassed by this definition. 

The definition of "commuter bus service" is 
important because the ADA does not require 
complementary paratransit to be provided 
with respect to commuter bus service 
operated by public entities. The rationale that 
may be inferred for the statutory exemption 
for this kind of service concerns its typical 
characteristics (e.g., no attempt to 
comprehensively cover a service area, limited 
route structure, limited origins and 
destinations, interface with another mode of 
transportation, limited purposes of travel). 
These characteristics can be found in some 
transportation systems other than bus 
systems oriented toward work trips. For 
example, bus service that is used as a 
dedicated connecter to commuter or intercity 
rail service, certain airport shuttles, and 
university bus systems share many or all of 
these characteristics. As explained further in 
the discussion of subpart B. the Department 
has determined that it is appropriate to cover 
these services with the requirements 
applicable to commuter bus systems. 

The definitions of "designated public 
transportation" and "specified public 
transportation" exclude transportation by 
aircraft. Persons interested in matters 
concerning access to air travel for individuals 
with disabilities should refer to 14 CFR part 
382, the Department's regulation 
implementing the Air Carrier Access Act 
Since the facility requirements of this part 
refer to facilities involved in the provision of 
designated or specified public transportation, 
airport facilities are not covered by this part. 
DOJ makes clear that public and private 
airport facilities are covered under its title II 
and title 111 regulations, respectively. 



The examples given in the definition of 
"facility" all relate to ground transportation. 
We would point out that, since transportation 
by passenger vessels is covered by this rule 
and by DOJ rules, such vessel-related 
facilities as docks, wharfs, vessel terminals 
etc. fall under this definition. It is intended 
that specific requirements for vessels and 
related facilities will be set forth in future 
rulemaking. 

The definitions of "fixed route system" and 
"demand responsive system" derive directly 
from the ADA's definitions of these terms. 
Some systems, like a typical city bus system 
or a dial-a-ride van system, fit clearly into 
one category or the other. Other systems may 
not so clearly fall into one of the categories. 
Nevertheless, because how a system is 
categorized has consequences for the 
requirements it must meet, entities must 
determine, on a case-by-case basis, into 
which category their systems fall. 

In making this determination, one of the 
key factors to be considered is whether the 
individual, in order to use the service, must 
request the service, typically by making a 
call. 

With fixed route service, no action by the 
individual is needed to initiate public 
transportation. If an individual is at a bus 
stop at the time the bus is scheduled to 
appear, then that individual will be able to 
access the transportation system. With 
demand-reponsive service, an additional step 
must be taken by the individual before he or 
she can ride the bus, i.e., the individual must 
make a telephone call. 
[S. Rept. 101-116 at 54). 

Other factors, such as the presence or 
absence of published schedules, or the 
variation of vehicle intervals in anticipation 
of differences in usage, are less important in 
making the distinction between the two types 
of service. If a service is provided along a 
given route, and a vehicle will arrive at 
certain times regardless of whether a 
passenger actively requests the vehicle, the 
service in most cases should be regarded as 
fixed route rather than demand responsive. 

At the same time, the fact that there is an 
interaction between a passenger and 
transportation service does not necessarily 
make the service demand responsive. For 
many types of service (e.g., intercity bus, 
intercity rail] which are clearly fixed route, a 
passenger has to interact with an agent to 
buy a ticket. Some services (e.g., certain 
commuter bus or commuter rail operations) 
may use flag stops, in which a vehicle along 
the route does not stop unless a passenger 
flags the vehicle down. A traveler staying at 
a hotel usually makes a room reservation 
before hopping on the hotel shuttle. This kind 
of interaction does not make an otherwise 
fixed route service demand responsive 

(Tn the other hand, we would regard a 
system that permits user-initiated deviations 
from routes or schedules as demand- 
responsive. For example, if a rural public 
transit system (e.g.. a section 18 recipient) 
has a few fixed routes, the fixed route portion 
of its system would be subject to the 
requirements of subpart F for complementary 
paratransit service. If the entity changed its 
system so that it operated as a route- 
deviation system, we would regard it as a 



demand responsive system. Such a system 
would not be subject to complementary 
paratransit requirements. 

The definition of "individual with a 
disability" excludes someone who is 
currently engaging in the illegal use of drugs, 
when a covered entity is acting on the basis 
of such use. This concept is more important 
in employment and public accommodations 
contexts than it is in transportation, and is 
discussed at greater length in the DOJ and 
EEOC rules. Essentially, the definition says 
that, although drug addiction (i.e.. the status 
or a diagnosis of being a drug abuser) is a 
disability, no one is regarded as being an 
individual with a disability on the basis of 
current illegal drug use. 

Moreover, even if an individual has a 
disability, a covered entity can take action 
against the individual if that individual is 
currently engaging in illegal drug use. For 
example, if a person with a mobility or vision 
impairment is ADA paratransit eligible, but is 
caught possessing or using cocaine or 
marijuana on a paratransit vehicle, the transit 
provider can deny the individual further 
eligibility. If the individual has successfully 
undergone rehabilitation or is no longer using 
drugs, as explained in the preamble to the 
DOJ rules, the transit provider could not 
continue to deny eligibility on the basis that 
the individual was a former drug user or still 
was diagnosed as a person with a substance 
abuse problem. 

We defined "paratransit" in order to note 
its specialized usage in the rule. Part 37 uses 
this term to refer to the complementary 
paratransit service comparable to public 
fixed route systems which must be provided. 
Typically, paratransit is provided in a 
demand responsive mode. Obviously, the rule 
refers to a wide variety of demand 
responsive services that are not 
"paratransit," in this specialized sense. 

The ADA'S definition of "over-the-road 
bus" may also be somewhat narrower than 
the common understanding of the term. The 
ADA definition focuses on a bus with an 
elevated passenger deck over a baggage 
compartment (i.e., a "Greyhound-type" bus). 
Other types of buses commonly referred to as 
"over-the-road buses," which are sometimes 
used for commuter bus or other service, do 
not come within this definition. Only buses 
that do come within the definition are subject 
to the over-the-road bus exception to 
accessibility requirements in Title III of the 
ADA. 

For terminological clarity, we want to point 
out that two different words are used in ADA 
regulations to refer to devices on which 
individuals with hearing impairments 
communicate over telephone lines. DOJ uses 
the more traditional term 
"telecommunications device for the deaf 
(TDD). The Access Board uses a newer term, 
"text telephone." The DOT rule uses the 
terms interchangably. 

The definition of "transit facility" applies 
only with reference to the TDD rcquirc.r.c;i; 
of Appendix A to this Part. The point of the 
definition is to exempt from TDD 
requirements open structures, like bus 
shelters, or facilities which are not used 
primarily as transportation stops or 



45734 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



terminals. For exdmple. a drug store in a 
small town may sell inteiclty bus tickets, and 
people waiting for the bus may even wait for 
the bus inside the store. But the drug stores 
raison d'etre is not to be a bus station. Its 
transportation function is only incidental. 
Consequently, its obligations with respect to 
TDDs would be those required of a place of 
public accommodation by DO| rules. 

A "used vehicle" means a vehicle which 
has prior use; prior, that is, to its acquisition 
by its present owner or lessee. The definition 
is not relevant to existing vehicles in one's 
own fleet, which were obtained before the 
ADA vehicle accessibility requirements took 
effect. 

A "vanpool" is a voluntary commuter 
ridesharing arrangement using a van with a 
seating capacity of more than seven persons, 
including the driver. Carpools are not 
included in the definition. There are some 
systems using larger vehicles (e.g., buses) that 
operate, in effect, as vanpools. This definition 
encompasses such systems. Vanpools are 
used for daily work trips, between 
commuters' homes (or collection points near 
them) and work sites (or drop points near 
them). Drivers are themselves commuters 
who are either volunteers who receive no 
compensation for their efforts or persons who 
are reimbursed by other riders for the vehicle, 
operating, and driving costs. 

The definition of "wheelchair" includes a 
wide variety of mobility devices. This 
inclusiveness is consistent with the 
legislative history of the ADA (See S. Rept. 
101-116 at 48). While some mobility devices 
may not look like many persons' traditional 
idea of a wheel chair, three and four wheeled 
devices, of many varied designs, are used by 
individuals with disabilities and must be 
transported. The definition of "common 
wheelchair," developed by the Access Board, 
is intended to help transit providers 
determine which wheelchairs they have to 
carry. The definition involves an "envelope " 
relating to the Access Board requirements for 
vehicle lifts. 

A lift conforming to Access Board 
requirements is 30" x 48" and capable of 
lifting a wheelchair/occupant combination of 
up to 600 pounds. Consequently, a common 
wheelchair is one that fits these size and 
weight dimensions. Devices used by 
individuals with disabilities that do not fil 
this envelope (e.g., may "gurneys ") do not 
have to be carried. 

Section 37.5 Nondiscrimination 

This section states the general 
nondiscrimination obligation for entities 
providing transportation service. It should be 
noted that virtually all public and private 
entities covered by this regulation are also 
covered by DO) regulations, which have more 
detailed statements of general 
nondiscrimination obligations. 

Under the ADA, an entity may not consign 
an individual with disabilities to a separate, 
"segregated." service for such persons, if the 
individual can in fact use the service for the 
general public. This is true even if the 
individual takes longer, or has more 
difficulty, than other persons in using the 
service for the general public. 

One instance in which this principal 
applies concerns the use of designated 



priority seats (e.g., the so-called "elderly and 
handicapped" seats near the entrances to 
buses). A person with a disability (e.g., a 
visual impairment) may choose to take 
advantage of this accommodation or not. If 
not, it is contrary to rule for the entity to 
insist that the individual must sit in the 
priority seats. 

The prohibition on special charges applies 
to charges for service to individuals with 
disabilities that are higher than charges for 
the same or comparable services to other 
persons. For examples, if a shuttle service 
charges $20.00 for a ride from a given location 
to the airport for most people, it could not 
charge $40.00 because the passenger had a 
disability or needed to use the shuttle 
service's lift-equipped van. Higher mileage 
charges for using an accessible vehicle would 
likewise be inconsistent with the rule. So 
would charging extra to carry a service 
animal accompanying an individual with a 
disability. 

If a taxi company charges $1.00 to stow 
luggage in the trunk, it cannot charge $2.00 to 
stow a folding wheelchair there. This 
provision does not mean, however, that a 
transportation provider cannot charge 
nondiscriminatory fees to passengers with 
disabilities. The taxi company in the above 
example can charge a passenger $1.00 to stow 
a wheelchair in the trunk; it is not required to 
waive the charge. This section does not 
prohibit the fares for paratransit service 
which transit providers are allowed to charge 
under § 37.131(d). 

A requirement for an attendant is 
inconsistent with the general 
nondiscrimination principle that prohibits 
policies that unnecessarily impose 
requirements on mdividuals with disabilities 
that are not imposed on others. 
Consequently, such requirements are 
prohibited. An entity is not required to 
provide attendant services (e.g., assistance in 
toileting, feeding, dressing) etc. 

This provision must also be considered in 
light of the fact that an entity may refuse 
service to someone who engages in violent, 
seriously disruptive, or illegal conduct. If an 
entity may legitimately refuse service to 
someone, it may condition service to him on 
actions that would mitigate the problem. The 
entity could require an attendant as a 
condition of providing service it otherwise 
had the right to refuse. 

The rule also points out that involuntary 
conduct related to a disability that may 
offend or annoy other persons, but which 
does not pose a direct treat, is not a basis for 
refusal of transportation. For example, some 
persons with Tourette's syndrome may make 
involuntary profane exclamations. These may 
be very annoying or offensive to others, but 
would not be a ground for denial of service. 
Nor would it be consistent with the 
nondiscrimination requirements of this part 
to deny service based on fear or 
misinformation about the disability. For 
example, a transit provider could not deny 
service to a person with HIV disease because 
its personnel or other passengers are afraid 
of being near people with that condition. 

This section also prohibits denials of 
service or the placing on services of 
conditions inconsistent with this part on 



individuals with disabilities because of 
insurance company policies or requirements. 
If an insurance company told a transit 
provider that it would withdraw coverage, or 
raise rates, unless a transit provider refused 
to carry persons with disabilities, or unless 
the provider refused to carry three-wheeled 
scooters, this would not excuse the provider 
from providing the service as mandate by this 
part. This is not a regulatory requirement on 
insurance companies, but simply says that 
covered entities must comply with this part, 
even in the face of difficulties with their 
insurance companies. 

Section 37. 7 Standards for Accessible 
Vehicles 

This section makes clear that, in order to 
meet accessibility requirements of this rule, 
vehicles must comply with Access Board 
standards, incorporated in DOT rules as 49 
CFR part 38. Paragraph (b) of § 37.7 spells out 
a procedure by which an entity (public or 
private) can deviate from provisions of part 
38 with respect to vehicles. The entity can 
make a case to the Administrator that it is 
unable to comply with a particular portion of 
part 38, as written, for specified reasons, and 
that it IS providing comparable compliance by 
some alternative method. The entity would 
have to describe how its alternative mode of 
compliance would meet or exceed the level of 
access to or usability of the vehicle that 
compliance with part 38 would otherwise 
provide. 

It should be noted that equivalent 
facilitation does not provide a means to get a 
waiver of accessibility requirements. Rather, 
it is a way in which comparable (not a lesser 
degree of) accessibility can be provided by 
other means. The entity must consult with the 
public through some means of public 
participation in devising its alternative form 
of compliance, and the public input must be 
reflected in the submission to the 
Administrator (or the Federal Railroad 
Administrator in appropriate cases, such as a 
request concerning Amtrak). The 
Administrator will make a case-by-case 
decision about whether compliance with part 
38 was achievable and, if not, weather the 
proffered alternative complies with the 
equivalent facilitation standard. DOT intends 
to consult with the Access Board in making 
these determinations. 

This equivalent facilitation provision can 
apply to buses or other motor vehicles as 
well as to rail cars and vehicles. An example 
of what could be an equivalent facilitation 
would concern rail cars which would leave 
too wide a horizontal gap between the door 
and the platform. If the operator used a 
combination of bridgeplates and personnel to 
bridge the gap, it might be regarded as an 
equivalent facilitation in appropriate 
circumstances. 

Section 37.7(c) clarifies which 
specifications must be complied with for 
over-the-road buses purchased by public 
entities (under subpart D of part 37) or 
private entities standing in the shoes of the 
public entity (as described in § 37.23 of part 
37). This section is necessary to make clear 
that over-the-road coaches must be 
accessible, when they are purchased by or in 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45735 



furtherance of a contract with a pubhc entity. 
While the October 4, 1990 rule specified that 
over-the-road coaches must be accessible 
under these circumstances, we had not 
previously specified what constitutes 
accessibility. 

Accordingly, this paragraph specifies that 
an over-the-road bus must have a lift which 
meets the performance requirements of a 
regular bus lift (see § 38.23) and must meet 
the interim accessibility features specified for 
all over-the-road buses in part 3, subpart G, 

Section 37.9 Standards for Transportation 
Facilities 

This section makes clear that, in order to 
meet accessibility requirements of this rule, 
vehicles must comply with appendix A to 
part 37, which incorporates the Access Board 
facility guidelines. 

Paragraph (b) of § 37.9 provides that, under 
certain circumstances, existing accessibility 
modifications to key station facilities do not 
need to be modified further in order to 
conform to appendix A. This is true even if 
the standards under which the facility was 
modified differ from the Access Board 
guidelines or provide a lesser standard of 
accessibility. 

To qualify for this "grandfathering," 
alterations must have been before January 26, 
1992. As in other facility sections of the rule, 
an alteration is deemed to begin with the 
issuance of a notice to proceed or work order. 
The existing modifications must conform to 
ANSI A-117.1, Specifications for Making 
Buildings and Facilities Accessible to and 
Usable by the Physically Handicapped 1980, 
or the Uniform Federal Accessibility 
Standard. (UPAS). 

For example, if an entity used a Federal 
grant or loan or money to make changes to a 
building, it would already have had to 
comply with the Uniform Federal 
Accessibility Standards. Likewise, if a 
private entity, acting without any federal 
money in the project, may have complied 
with the ANSI A117.1 standard. So long as 
the work was done in conformity with the 
standard that was in effect when the work 
was done, the alteration will be considered 
accessible. 

However, because one modification was 
made to a facility under one of these 
standards, the entity still has a responsibility 
to make other modifications needed to 
comply with applicable accessibility 
requirements. For example, if an entity has 
made some modifications to a key station 
according to one of these older standards, but 
the modifications do not make the key station 
entirely accessible as this rule requires, then 
additional modifications would have to be 
made according to the standards of appendix 
A. Suppose this entity has put an elevator 
into the station to make it accessible to 
individuals who use wheelchairs. If the 
elevator does not fully meet appendix A 
standards, but met the applicable ANSI 
standard when it was installed, it would not 
need further modificalions now But if it had 
not already done so. the entity would have lo 
install a t,jLtile strip along the platform edge 
in order to make the key station fully 
accessible as provided in this rule. The tactile 
strip would have to meet appendix A 
requirements. 



The rule specifically provides that 
■grandfathering" applies only to alterations 
of individual elements and spaces and only 
to the extent that provisions covering those 
elements or spaces are found in UFAS or 
AHSI A117.1. For example, alterations to the 
telephones in a key station may have been 
carried out in order to lower them to meet the 
requirements of UFAS, but 
telecommunications devices for the deaf 
(TDDs) were not installed. (Neither UFAS nor 
the ANSI standard include requirements 
concerning TDDs). However, because 
appendix A does contain TDD requirements, 
the key station must now be altered in 
accordance with the standards for TDDs. 
Similarly, earlier alteration of an entire 
station in accordance with UFAS or the ANSI 
standard would not relieve an entity from 
compliance with any applicable provision 
concerning the gap between the platform 
between the platform and the vehicle in a key 
station, because neither of these two 
standards addresses the interface between 
vehicle and platform. 

New paragraph (c) of this section clarifies a 
provision of the Access Board's standards 
concerning the construction of bus stop pads 
at bus stops. The final Access Board 
standard (found at section 10.2.1(1) of 
appendix A to part 37] has been rewritten 
slightly to clear up confusion about the 
perceived necessary construction of a bus 
stop pad. Section 10.2.1(1) does not require 
that anyone build a bus stop pad; it does 
specify what a bus stop pad must look like, if 
it is constructed. The further clarifying 
language in § 37.9(c) explains that public 
entities must exert control over the 
construction of bus stop pads if they have the 
ability to do so. The Access Board, as well as 
DOT, recognize that most physical 
improvements related to bus stops are out of 
the control of the transit provider. Paragraph 
(c) of § 37.9 merely notes that where a transit 
provider does have control over the 
construction, it must exercise that control to 
ensure that the pad meets these 
specifications. 

One further clarification concerning the 
implication of this provision deals with a bus 
loading island at which buses pull up on both 
sides of the island. It would be possible lo 
read the bus pad specification to require the 
island to be a minimum of 84 inches wide 
(two widths of a bus stop pad), so that a lift 
could be deployed from buses on both sides 
of the island at the same time. A double-wide 
bus pad. however, is likely to exceed 
available space in most instances. 

Where there is space, of course, building a 
double-wide pad is one acceptable option 
under this rule. However, the combination of 
a pad of normal width and standard 
operational practices may also suffice. (Such 
practices could be offered as an equivalent 
facilitation.) For example, buses on either 
side of the island could stop at staggered 
locations (i.e.. the bus on the left side could 
stop several feet ahead of the bus on the right 
side], so that even when buses were on both 
sides of the island at once, their lifts could be 
deployed without conflict. Where it is 
possible, building the pad a little longer than 
normal size could facilitate such an approach. 
In a situation where staggered stop areas are 



not feasible, an operational practice of 
having one bus wait until the other's lift cycle 
had been completed could do the job. Finally, 
the specification does not require that a pad 
be built at all. If there is nothing that can be 
done to permit lift deployment on both sides 
of an island, the buses can slop on the street, 
or some other location, so long as the lift is 
deployable. 

Like § 37.7. this section contains a 
provision allowing an entity to request 
approval for providing accessibility through 
an equivalent facilitation. 

Section 37.11 Administrative Enforcement 

This section spells out administrative 
means of enforcing the requirements of the 
ADA. Recipients of Federal financial 
assistance from DOT (whether public or 
private entities) are subject to DOT's section 
504 enforcement procedures. The existing 
procedures, including administrative 
complaints to the DOT Office of Civil Rights, 
investigation, attempts at conciliation, and 
final resort to proceedings to cut off funds to 
a noncomplying recipient, will continue lo be 
used. 

In considering enforcement matters, the 
Department is guided by a policy that 
emphasizes compliance. The aim of 
enforcement action, as we see it, is to make 
sure that entities meet their obligations, not 
to impose sanctions for their own sake. The 
Department's enforcement priority is on 
failures to comply with basic requirements 
and "pattern or practice" kinds of problems, 
rather than on isolated operational errors. 

Under the DO) rules implementing Title II 
of the ADA (28 CFR part 35), DOT is a 
"designated agency" for enforcement of 
complaints relating lo transportation 
programs of public entities, even if they do 
not receive Federal financial assistance. 
When it receives such a complaint, the 
Department will investigate the complaint, 
attempt conciliation and, if conciliation is not 
possible, take action under section 504 and/ 
or refer the matter to the DO( for possible 
further action. 

Title III of the ADA does not give DOT any 
administrative enforcement authority with 
respect to private entities whose 
transportation services are subject to part 37. 
In its Title III rule (28 CFR part 36), DO| 
assumes enforcement responsibility for all 
Title III matters. If the Department of 
Transportation receives complaints of 
violations of part 37 by private entities, it will 
refer the matters to the DO]. 

It should be pointed out that the ADA 
includes other enforcement options. 
Individuals have a private right of action 
against entities who violate the ADA and its 
implementing regulations. The DOJ can take 
violators to court. These approaches are not 
mutually exclusive with the administrative 
enforcement mechanisms described in this 
section. An aggrieved individual can 
complain to DOT about an alleged 
transportation violation and go to court at the 
same time. Use of administrative 
enforcement procedures is not, under titles II 
and MI, an administrative remedy that 
individuals must exhaust before taking legal 
action. 



45736 Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



We also would point out that the ADA 
does not assert any blanket preemptive 
authority over state or local 
nondiscrimination laws and enforcement 
mechanisms. While requirements of the ADA 
and this regulation would preempt conflicting 
state or local provisions (e.g., a building code 
or zoning ordinance that prevents compliance 
with appendix A or other facility 
accessibility requirements, a provision of 
local law that said bus drivers could not 
leave their seats to help secure wheelchair 
users), the ADA and this rule do not prohibit 
states and localities from legislating in areas 
relating to disability. For example, if a state 
law requires a higher degree of service than 
the ADA, that requirement could still be 
enforced. Also, states and localities may 
continue to enforce their own parallel 
requirements. For example, it would be a 
violation of this rule for a taxi driver to refuse 
to pick up a person based on that person's 
disability. Such a refusal may also be a 
violation of a county's taxi rules, subjecting 
the violator to a fine or suspension of 
operating privileges. Both ADA and local 
remedies could proceed in such a case. 

Labor-management agreements cannot 
stand in conflict with the requirements of the 
ADA and this rule. For example, if a labor- 
management agreement provides that vehicle 
drivers are not required to provide assistance 
to persons with disabilities in a situation in 
which this rule requires such assistance, then 
the assistance must be provided 
notwithstanding the agreement. Labor and 
management do not have the authority to 
agree to violate requirements of Federal law. 

Section 37. 13 Effective Date for Certain 
Vehicle Lift Specifications. 

This section contains an explicit statement 
of the effective date for vehicle lift platform 
specifications. The Department has decided 
to apply the new 30" by 48" lift platform 
specifications to solicitations after January 
25, 1992. As in the October 4, 1990, rule 
implementing the acquisition requirements: 
the date of a solicitation is deemed to be the 
closing date for the submission of bids or 
offers in a procurement. 

Subpart B — Applicability 

Section 37.21 Applicability. — General 

This section emphasizes the broad 
applicability of part 37. Unlike section 504, 
the ADA and its implementing rules apply to 
entities whether or not they receive Federal 
financial assistance. They apply to private 
and public entities alike. For entities which 
do receive Federal funds, compliance with 
the ADA and part 37 is a condition of 
compliance with section 504 and 49 CFR part 
27, DOT'S section 504 rule. 

Virtually all entities covered by this rule 
also are covered by DO| rules, either under 
28 CFR part 36 as state and local program 
providers or under 28 CP"R part 35 as 
operators of places of public accommodation. 
Both sets of rules apply; one does not 
override the other. The DOT rules apply only 
to the entity's transportation facilities, 
vehicles, or services: the DO) rules may cover 
the entity's activities more broadly. For 
example, if a public entity operates a transit 
system and a zoo, DOT's coverage would 



slop at the transit system's edge, while DO|'s 
rule would cover the zoo as well. 

DOT and DO) have coordinated their rules, 
and the rules have been drafted to be 
consistent with one another. Should, in the 
context of some future situation, there be an 
apparent inconsistency between the two 
rules, the DOT rule would control within the 
sphere of transportation services, facilities 
and vehicles. 

Section 37.23 Service Under Contract 

This section requires private entities to 
"stand in the shoes" of public entities with 
whom they contract to provide transportation 
services. It ensures that, while a public entity 
may contract out its service, it may not 
contract away its ADA responsibilities. The 
requirement applies primarily to vehicle 
acquisition requirements and to service 
provision requirements. 

If a public entity wishes to acquire vehicles 
for use on a commuter route, for example, it 
must acquire accessible vehicles. It may 
acquire accessible over-the-road buses, it 
may acquire accessible full-size transit buses, 
it may acquire accessible smaller buses, or it 
may acquire accessible vans. It does not 
matter what kind of vehicles it acquires, so 
long as they are accessible. On the other 
hand, if the public entity wants to use 
inaccessible buses in its existing fleet for the 
commuter service, it may do so. All 
replacement vehicles acquired in the future 
must, of course, be accessible. 

Under this provision, a private entity which 
contracts to provide this commuter service 
stands in the shoes of the public entity and is 
subject to precisely the same requirements (it 
is not required to do more than the public 
entity). If the private entity acquires vehicles 
used to provide the service, the vehicles must 
be accessible. If it cannot, or chooses not to, 
acquire an accessible vehicle of one type, it 
can acquire an accessible vehicle of another 
type. Like the public entity, it can provide the 
service with inaccessible vehicles in its 
existing fleet. 

The import of the provision is that it 
requires a private entity contracting to 
provide transportation service to a public 
entity to follow the rules applicable to the 
public entity. For the time being, a private 
entity operating in its own right can purchase 
a new over-the-road bus inaccessible to 
individuals who use wheelchairs. When that 
private entity operates service under contract 
to the public entity, however, it is just as 
obligated as the public entity itself to 
purchase an accessible bus for use in that 
service, whether or not it is an over-the-road 
bus. 

The "stand in the shoes" requirement 
applies not only to vehicles acquired by 
private entities explicitly under terms of an 
executed contract to provide service to a 
public entity, but also to vehicles acquired 
"in contemplation of use " for service under 
such a contract. This language is included to 
ensure good faith compliance with 
accessibility requirements for vehicles 
acquired before the execution of a contract. 
Whether a particular acquisition is in 
contemplation of use on a contract will be 
determined on a case-by-case basis. 
However, acquiring a vehicle a short time 



before a contract is executed and then using 
it for the contracted service is an indication 
that the vehicle was acquired in 
contemplation of use on the contract, as is 
acquiring a vehicle obstensibly for other 
service provided by the entity and then 
regularly rotating it into service under the 
contract. 

The "stand in the shoes" requirement is 
applicable only to the vehicles and service 
(public entity service requirements, like 
§ 37.163, apply to a private entity in these 
situations) provided under contract to a 
public entity. Public entity requirements 
clearly do not apply to all phases of a private 
entity's operations, just because it has a 
contract with a public entity. For example, a 
private bus company, if purchasing buses for 
service under contract to a public entity, must 
purchase accessible buses. The same 
company, to the extent permitted by the 
private entity provisions of this part, may 
purchase inaccessible vehicles for its tour 
bus operations. 

The Department also notes that the "stands 
in the shoes" requirement may differ 
depending on the kind of service involved. 
The public entity's "shoes" are shaped 
differently, for example, depending on 
whether the public entity is providing fixed 
route or demand responsive service to the 
general public. In the case of demand 
responsive service, a public entity is not 
required to buy an accessible vehicle if its 
demand responsive system, when viewed in 
its entirety, provides service to individuals 
with disabilities equivalent to its service to 
other persons. A private contractor providing 
a portion of this paratransif service would 
not necessarily have to acquire an accessible 
vehicle if this equivalency test is being met 
by the system as a whole. Similarly, a public 
entity can, after going through a "good faith 
efforts " search, acquire inaccessible buses. A 
private entity under contract to the public 
can do the same. "Stand in the shoes" may 
also mean that, under some circumstances, a 
private contractor need not acquire 
accessible vehicles. If a private company 
contracts with a public school district to 
provide school bus service, it is covered, for 
that purpose, by the exemption for public 
school transportation. 

In addition, the requirement that a private 
entity play by the rules applicable to a public 
entity can apply in situations involving an 
"arrangement or other relationship" with a 
public entity other than the traditional 
contract for service. For example, a private 
utility company that operates what is, in 
essence, a regular fixed route public 
transportation system for a city, and which 
receives section 3 or 9 funds from UMTA via 
an agreement with a state or local 
government agency, would fall under the 
provisions of this section. The provider would 
have to comply with the vehicle acquisition, 
paratransit, and service requirements that 
would apply to the public entity through 
which it receives the UMTA funds, if that 
public entity operated the system itself. The 
Department would not, however, construe 
this section to apply to situations in which 
the degree of UMTA funding and state and 
local agency involvement is considerably 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45737 



less, or in which the system of transportation 
involved is not a de facto surrogate for a 
traditional public entity fixed route transit 
system serving a city (e.g., a private non- 
profit social service agency vvhich receives 
UMTA section 16(b)(2) funds to purchase a 
vehicle). 

This section also requires that a public 
entity not diminish the percentage of 
accessible vehicles in its fleet through 
contracting. For example, suppose a public 
entity has 100 buses in its fleet, of which 20 
are accessible, meaning that 20 percent of its 
fleet is accessible. The entity decides to add 
a fixed route, for which a contractor is 
engaged. The contractor is supplying ten of 
its existing inaccessible buses for the fixed 
route. To maintain the 20 percent 
accessibility ratio, there would have to be 22 
accessible buses out of the 110 buses now in 
operation in carrying out the public entity's 
service. The public entity could maintain its 
20 percent level of accessibility through any 
one or more of a number of means, such as 
having the contractor to provide two 
accessible buses, retrofitting two if its own 
existing buses, or accelerating replacement of 
two of its own inaccessible buses with 
accessible buses. 

This rule applies the "stand in the shoes" 
principle to transactions wholly among 
private entities as well. For example, suppose 
a taxi company (a private entity primarily 
engaged in the business of transporting 
people) contracts with a hotel to provide 
airport shuttle van service. With respect to 
that service, the taxi company would be 
subject to the requirements for private 
entities not primarily in the business of 
transporting people, since it would be 
"standing in the shoes" of the hotel for that 
purpose. 

Section 37.25 University Transportation 
Systems 

Private university-operated transportation 
systems are subject to the requirements of 
this rule for private entities not primarily 
engaged in the business of transporting 
people. With one important exception, public 
university-operated transportation systems 
are subject to the requirements of the rule for 
public entities. The nature of the systems 
involved — demand-responsive or fixed 
route — determines the precise requirements 
involved. 

For public university fixed route systems, 
public entity requirements apply. In the case 
of fixed route systems, the requirements for 
commuter bus service would govern. This has 
the effect of requiring the acquisition of 
accessible vehicles and compliance with 
most other provisions of the rule, but does 
not require the provision of complementary 
paratransit or submitting a paratransit plan. 
As a result, private and public universities 
will have very similar obligations under the 
rule. 

Section 37.27 Transportation for 
Elementary and Secondary Education 
Systems 

This section restates the statutory 
exemption from public entity requirements 
given to public school transportation. This 
extension also applies to transportation of 



pre-school children to Head Start or special 
education programs which receive Federal 
assistance. It also applies to arrangements 
permitting pre-school children of school bus 
drivers to ride a school bus or allowing 
teenage mothers to be transported to day 
care facilities at a school or along a school 
bus route so that their mothers may continue 
to attend school (See H. Rept. 101-^85, pt. 1 at 
27). The situation for private schools is more 
complex. According to the provision, a 
private elementary or secondary school's 
transportation system is exempt from 
coverage under this rule if all three of the 
following conditions are met: (1) The school 
receives Federal financial assistance; (2) the 
school is subject to section 504: and (3) the 
school's transportation system provides 
transportation services to individuals with 
disabilities, including wheelchair users, 
equivalent to those provided to individuals 
without disabilities. The test of equivalency 
is the same as that for other private entities, 
and is described under § 37.105. If the school 
does not meet all these criteria, then it is 
subject to the requirements of Part 37 for 
private entities not primaiily engaged in the 
business of transporting people. 

The Department notes that, given the 
constitutional law on church-state separation, 
it is likely that church-affiliated private 
schools do not receive Federal financial 
assistance. To the extent that these schools' 
transportation systems are operated by 
religious entities or entities controlled by 
religious organizations, they are not subject 
to the ADA at all, so this section does not 
apply to them. 

Section 37.29 Privat'^ Providers of Taxi 
Service 

This section first recites that providers of 
taxi service are private entities primarily 
engaged in the business of transporting 
people which provide demand responsive 
service. For purposes of this section, other 
transportation services that involve calling 
for a car and a driver to take one places (e.g., 
limousine services, of the kind that provide 
luxury cars and chauffeurs for senior proms 
and analogous adult events) are regarded as 
taxi services. 

Under the ADA, no private entity is 
required to purchase an accessible 
automobile. If a taxi company purchases a 
larger vehicle, like a van, it is subject to the 
same rules as any other private entity 
primarily engaged in the business of 
transporting people which operates a demand 
responsive service. That is, unless it is 
already providing equivalent service, any van 
it acquires must be accessible. Equivalent 
service is measured according to the criteria 
of § 37.105. Taxi companies are not required 
to acquire vehicles other than automobiles to 
add accessible vehicles to their fleets. 

Taxi companies are subject to 
nondiscrimination obligations. These 
obligations mean, first, that a taxi service 
may not deny a ride to an individual with a 
disability who is capable of using the taxi 
vehicles. It would be discrimination to pass 
up a passenger because he or she was blind 
or used a wheelchair, if the wheelchair was 
one that could be stowed in the cab and the 
passenger could transfer to a vehicle seat. 



Nor could a taxi company insist that a 
wheelchair user wait for a lift-equipped van if 
the person could use an automobile. 

It would be discrimination for a driver to 
refuse to assist with stowing a wheelchair in 
the trunk (since taxi drivers routinely assist 
passengers with stowing luggage). It would 
be discrimination to charge a higher fee or 
fare for carrying a person with a disability 
than for carrying a non-disabled passenger, 
or a higher fee for stowing a wheelchair than 
for stowing a suitcase. (Charging the same fee 
for stowing a wheelchair as for stowing a 
suitcase would be proper, however.) The fact 
that it may take somewhat more time and 
effort to serve a person with a disability than 
another passenger does not justify 
discriminatory conduct with respect to 
passengers with disabilities. 

State or local governments may run user- 
side subsidy arrangements for the general 
public (e.g.. taxi voucher systems for senior 
citizens or low-income persons). Under the 
DO| title II rule, these programs would have 
to meet "program accessibility" requirements, 
which probably would require that accessible 
transportation be made available to senior 
citizens or low-income persons with 
disabilities. This would not directly require 
private taxi providers who accept the 
vouchers to purchase accessible vehicles 
beyond the requirements of this rule, 
however. 

Section 37.3] Vanpools 

This provision applies to public vanpool 
systems the requirements for public entities 
operating demand responsive systems for the 
general public. A public vanpool system is 
one operated by a public entity, or in which a 
public entity owns or purchases or leases the 
vehicles. Lesser degrees of public 
involvement with an otherwise private 
ridesharing arrangement (e.g., provision of 
parking spaces, HOV lanes, coordination or 
clearinghouse services) do not convert a 
private into a public system. 

The requirement for a public vanpool 
system is that it purchase or lease an 
accessible vehicle unless it can demonstrate 
that it provides equivalent service to 
individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs, as it 
provides to individuals without disabilities. 
For a public vanpool system, the equivalency 
requirement would be met if an accessible 
vehicle is made available to and used by a 
vanpool when an individual with a disability 
needs such a vehicle to participate. Public 
vanpool systems may meet this requirement 
through obtaining a percentage of accessible 
vehicles that is reasonable in light of demand 
for them by participants, but this is not 
required, so long as the entity can respond 
promptly to requests for participation in a 
vanpool with the provision of an accessible 
van when needed. 

There is no requirement for private 
vanpools, defined as a voluntary 
arrangement in which the driver is 
compensated only for expenses. 

Section 37.33 Airport Transportation 
Systems 

Fixed route transportation systems 
operated by public airports are regarded by 



45738 Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



this section as fixed route commuter bus 
systems. As such, shuttles among terminals 
and parking lots, connector systems among 
the airport and a hmited number of other 
local destmations must acquire accessible 
buses, but are not subject to complementary 
paratransit requirements. (If a public airport 
operates a demand responsive system for the 
general public, it would be subject to the 
rules for demand responsive systems for the 
general public.) 

It should be noted that this section applies 
only to transportation services that are 
operated by public airports themselves (or by 
private contractors who stand in their shoes). 
When a regular urban mass transit system 
serves the airport, the airport is simply one 
portion of its service area, treated for 
purposes of this rule like the rest of its 
service area. 

Virtually all airports are served by taxi 
companies, who are subject to § 37.29 at 
airports as elsewhere. In addition, many 
airports are served by jitney or shuttle 
systems. Typically, these systems operate in 
a route-devia'ion or similar variable mode in 
which there are passenger-initiated decisions 
concerning destinations. We view such 
systems as demand responsive transportation 
operated by private entities primarily 
engaged in the business of transporting 
people. 

Since many of these operators are small 
businesses, it may be difficult for them to 
meet equivalency requirements on their own 
without eventually having all or nearly all 
accessible vehicles, which could pose 
economic problems. One suggested solution 
to this problem is for the operators serving a 
given airport to form a pool or consortium 
arrangement, in which a number of shared 
accessible vehicles would meet the 
transportations of individuals with 
disabilities. As in other forms of 
transportation, such an arrangement would 
have to provide service in a 
nondiscriminatory way (e.g., in an integrated 
setting, no higher fares for accessible 
service). 

Section 37.35 Supplemental Service for 
Other Transportation Modes 

This section applies to a number of 
situations in which an operator of another 
transportation mode uses bus or other service 
to connect its service with limited other 
points. 

One instance is when an intercity railroad 
route is set up such that the train stops 
outside the major urban center which is the 
actual destination for many passengers. 
Examples mentioned to us include bus 
service run by Amtrak from a stop in 
Columbus. Wisconsin, to downtown 
Madison, or from San jose to San Francisco. 
Such service is fixed route, from the train 
station to a few points in the metropolitan 
area, with a schedule keyed to the train 
schedule. It would be regarded as commuter 
bus service, meaning that accessible vehicles 
would have to be acquired but 
complementary paratransit was not required. 

Another instance is one in which a 
commuter rail operator uses fixed route bus 
service as a dedicated connection to, or 
extension of, its rail service. The service may 



go to park and ride lots or other destinations 
beyond the vicinity of the rail line. Again, this 
service shares the characteristics of 
commuter bus service that might be used 
even if the rail line were not present, and 
does not attempt to be a comprehensive mass 
transit bus service for the area. 

Of course, there may be instances in which 
a rail operator uses demand responsive 
instead of fixed route service for a purpose of 
this kind. In that case, the demand responsive 
system requirements of the rule would apply. 

Private entities (i e,. those operating places 
of public accommodation) may operate 
similar systems, as when a cruise ship 
operator provides a shuttle or connector 
between an airport and the dock. This service 
is covered by the rules governing private 
entities not primarily engaged in the business 
of transporting people. Fixed route or demand 
responsive rules apply, depending on the 
characteristics of the system involved. 

One situation not explicitly covered in this 
section concerns ad hoc transportation 
arranged, for instance, by a rail operator 
when the train does not wind up at its 
intended destination. For example, an 
Amtrak train bound for Philadelphia may be 
halted at Wilmington by a track blockage 
between the two cities. Usually, the carrier 
responds by providing bus service to the 
scheduled destination or to the next point 
where rail service can resume. 

The service that the carrier provides in this 
situation is essentially a continuation by 
other means of its primary service, Wc view 
the obligation of the rail operator as being to 
ensure that all passengers, including 
individuals with disabilities, are provided 
service lo the destination in a 
nondiscriminatory manner. This includes, for 
instance, providing service in the most 
integrated setting appropriate to the needs of 
the individual and service that gets a 
passenger with a disability to the destination 
as soon as other passengers. 

Section 37.37 Other Applications 

The ADA specifically defines "public 
entity," Anything else is a "private entity," 
The statute does not include in this definition 
a private entity that receives a subsidy or 
franchise from a state or local government or 
is regulated by a public entity. Only through 
the definition of "operates" (see discussion of 
§ 37,23) do private entities' relationships to 
public entities subject private entities to the 
requirements for public entities. 
Consequently, in deciding which provisions 
of the rule to apply to an entity in other than 
situations covered by § 37.23, the nature of 
the entity — public or private — is 
determinative. 

Transportation service provided by public 
accommodations is viewed as being provided 
by private entities not primarily engaged in 
the business of transporting people. Either the 
provisions of this Part applicable to demand 
responsive or fixed route systems apply, 
depending on the nature of a specific system 
at a specific location. The distinction 
between fixed route and demand responsive 
systems is discussed in connection with the 
definitions section above. It is the 
responsibility of each private entity, in the 
first instance, to assess the nature of each 



transportation system on a case-by-case 
basis and determine the applicable rules. 

On the other hand, conveyances used for 
recreational purposes, such as amusement 
park rides, ski lifts, or historic rail cars or 
trolleys operated in museum sellings, are not 
viewed as transportalion under this nile at 
all. Other conveyances may fit into this 
category as well. 

The criterion for determining what 
requirements apply is whether the 
conveyances are primarily an aspect of the 
recreational experience itself or a means of 
getting from Point A to Point B. At a theme 
park, for instance, a large roller coaster 
(though a "train" of cars on a track) is a 
public accommodation not subject to this 
rule; the tram that transports the paying 
customers around the park, with a slop at the 
roller coaster, is a transportation system 
subject to the "private, not primarily" 
provisions of this part. 

Employer-provided transportation for 
employees is not covered by this Part, but by 
EEOC rules under title I of the ADA. (Public 
entities are also subject to DOJ's title II rules 
with respect to employment.) This exclusion 
from part 37 applies to transportation 
services provided by an employer (whether 
access to motor pool vehicles, parking 
shuttles, employer-sponsored van pools) that 
is made available solely to its own 
employees. If an employer provides service to 
its own employees and other persons, such as 
workers of other employers or customers, it 
would be subject to the requirements of this 
Part from private entities not primarily 
engaged in the business of transporting 
people or public entities, as applicable. 

The rule looks to the private entity actually 
providing the transportation service in 
question in determining whether the "private, 
primarily" or "private, not primarily" rules 
apply. For example, Conglomerate, Inc.. owns 
a variety of agribusiness, petrochemical, 
weapons system production, and fast food 
corporations. One of its many subsidiaries, 
Green Tours, Inc., provides charter bus 
service for people who want to view National 
Parks, old-growth forests, and other 
environmentally significant places. It is 
probably impossible to say in what business 
Conglomerate, Inc. is primarily engaged, but 
it clearly is not transporting people. Green 
Tours, Inc., on the other hand, is clearly 
primarily engaged in the business of 
transporting people, and the rule treats it as 
such. 

On the other hand, when operating a 
transportation service off to the side of to the 
main business of a public accommodation 
(eg,, a hotel shuttle), the entity as a whole 
would be considered. Even if some dedicated 
employees are used to provide the service, 
shuttles and other systems provided as a 
means of getting to. from, or around a public 
accommodation remain solidly in the 
"private, not primarily" category. 

Subpart C — Transportation Facilities 

Section 37.41 Construction of 
Transportation Facilities by Public Entities 

Section 37.41 contains the general 
requirement that all new facilities 
constructed after January 25, 1992. be 



Federal Register / Vol. 56, No. 173 / Friday, September 6, 1991 / Rules and Regulations 45739 



accessible to and usable by individuals with 
disabilities. This provision tracks the statute 
closely, and is analogous to a provision in the 
DO| regulations for private entities. Section 
226 of the ADA provides little discretion in 
this requirement. 

The requirement is keyed to construction 
which "begins" after January 25, 1992. The 
regulation defines "begin" to mean when a 
notice to proceed order has been issued. This 
term has a standard meaning in the 
construction industry, as an instruction to the 
contractor to proceed with the work. 

Questions have been raised concerning 
which standards apply before January 26. 
1992. There are Federal requirements that 
apply to all recipients of federal money, 
depending on the circumstances. 

First, if an entity is a Federal recipient and 
uses Federal dollars to construct the facility. 
regulations implementing section 504 of the 
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794), 
require the recipient to comply with the 
Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards. 

Second, since the Civil Rights Restoration 
Act of 1987 (Pub. L. 100-259). an operation of 
a recipient of federal funds would also have 
to comply with section 504, even though the 
activity was not paid for with Federal funds. 
Thus, the Uniform Federal Accessibility 
Standards would apply to this construction 
as well. 

As mentioned above, the Department 
intends, in the period before January 26, 1991, 
to view compliance with section 504 in light 
of compliance with ADA requirements (this 
point applies to alterations as well as new 
construction). Consequently, in reviewing 
requests for grants, contract approvals, 
exemptions, etc., (whether with respect to 
ongoing projects or new, experimental, or 
one-time efforts), the Department will, as a 
policy matter, seek to ensure compliance with 
ADA standards. 

Section 37.43 Alteration of Transportation 
Facilities by Public Entities 

This section sets out the accessibility 
requirements that apply when a public entity 
undertakes an alteration of an existing 
facility. In general, the section requires that 
any alteration, to the maximum extent 
feasible, results in the altered area being 
accessible to and usable by individuals with 
disabilities, including persons who use 
wheelchairs. The provisions follow closely 
those adopted by the DOJ, in its regulations 
implementing title III of the ADA. 

The section requires specific activities 
whenever an alteration of an existing facility 
is undertaken. 

First, if the alteration is made to a primary 
function area, (or access to an area 
containing a primary function), the entity 
shall make the alteration in such a way as to 
ensure that the path of travel to the altered 
area and the restrooms, telephones and 
drinking fountains servicing the altered area 
are readily accessible to and usable by 
individuals with disabilities, including 
individuals who use wheelchairs. 

Second, alterations to drinking fountains, 
telt.'phones. and leslrooms do not h.ive to he 
completed if the cost and scope of making 
them accessible is disproportionate 

Third, the requirement goes into effect for 
alterations begun after January 25. 1992. 



Fourth, the term "maximum extent 
feasible" means that all changes that are 
possible must be made. The requirement to 
make changes to the maximum extent 
feasible derives from clear legislative history. 
The Senate Report states — 

The phrase "to the maximum extent 
feasible" has been included to allow for the 
occasional case in which the nature of an 
existing facility is such as to make it virtually 
impossible to renovate the building in a 
manner that results in its being entirely 
accessible to and usable by individuals with 
disabilities. In all such cases, however, the 
alteration should provide the maximum 
amount of physical accessibility feasible. 

Thus, for example the term "to the 
maximum extent feasible" should be 
construed as not requiring entities to make 
building alterations that have little likelihood 
of being accomplished without removing or 
altering a load-bearing structural member 
unless the load-bearing structural member is 
otherwise being removed or altered as part of 
the alteration. (S. Rept. 101-116, at 68). 

Fifth, primary function means a major 
activity for which the facility is intended. 
Primary function areas include waiting areas, 
ticket purchase and collection areas, tram or 
bus platforms, baggage checking and return 
areas, and employment areas (with some 
exceptions stated in the rule, for areas used 
by service personnel that are very difficult to 
access). 

Sixth, "path of travel" means a continuous, 
unobstructed way of pedestrian passage by 
means of which the altered area may be 
approached, entered, and exited, and which 
connects the altered area with an exterior 
approach and includes restrooms, telephones, 
and drinking fountains serving the altered 
area. If changes to the path of travel are 
disproportionate, then only those changes 
which are not disproportionate are to be 
completed. 

Seven, the final rule specifies that costs 
exceeding 20 percent would be 
disproportionate. This is consistent with the 
DOJ. In determining costs, the Department 
intends costs to be based on changes to the 
passenger service area that is scheduled for 
alteration. 

Finally, the Department has defined the 
term "begin", in the context of begin an 
alteration that is subject to the alteration 
provision to mean when a notice to proceed 
or work order is issued. Two terms are used 
(instead of only notice to proceed in the 
context of new construction) because many 
alterations may be carried out by the entity 
itself, in which case the only triggering event 
would be a work order or similar 
authorization to begin. 

In looking at facility concepts like 
"disproportionality" and "to the maximum 
extent feasible," the Department will 
consider any expenses related to 
accessibility for passengers. It is not relevant 
to consider non-passenger related 
improvements (e.g., installing a new track 
bed) or to permit "gold-plating" (attributing to 
accessibility costs the expense of non-relaled 
improvements, such as charging to 
accessibility costs the price of a whole new 
door, when only adding a new handle to the 
old door was needed for accessibility). 



Section 37.47 Key Stations in Light and 
Rapid Rail Systems 

Section 37.51 Key Stations in Commuter 
Rail Systems 

These sections require that key stations in 
light, rapid, and commuter rail systems be 
made accessible as soon as practicable, but 
no later than July 26, 1993. Being made 
accessible, for this purpose, means complying 
with the applicable provisions of appendix A 
to this part. "As soon as practicable" means 
that, if modification can be made before July 
26, 1993, they must be. A rail operator that 
failed to make a station accessible by July 
1993 would be in noncompliance with the 
ADA and this rule, except in a case where an 
extension of time had been granted. 

What is a key station? A key station is one 
designated as such by the commuter 
authority or light/rapid rail operator, through 
the planning process and public participation 
process set forth in this section. The five 
criteria listed in the regulation are intended 
to guide the selection process but, while the 
entity must take these criteria into account 
(and this consideration must be reflected in 
the planning process and documents), they 
are not mandatory selection standards. That 
is, it is not required that every station that 
meets one of the criteria be designated as a 
key station. Since the criteria are not 
mandatory selection standards, the 
understanding of their terms is also a matter 
appropriately left to the planning process. A 
tight, legalistic definition is not necessary in 
the context of factors intended for 
consideration. For instance, what constitutes 
a major activity center or how close a station 
needs to be to another station to not be 
designated as key depend largely on local 
factors that it would not be reasonable to 
specify in this rule. 

Given the wide discretion permitted to rail 
operators in identifying key stations, there 
would be no objection to identifying as a key 
station a new (presumably accessible) station 
now under construction. Doing so would 
involve consideration of the key station 
criteria and would be subject to the planning/ 
public participation process. 

If an extension to a rail system (e.g., a 
commuter system) is made, such that the 
system comes to include existing inaccessible 
stations that have not previously been part of 
the system, the Department construes the 
ADA to require application of key station 
accessibility in such a situation. The same 
would be true for a new start commuter rail 
system that began operations using existing 
stations. Key station planning, designation of 
key stations, and with being consistent with 
the ADA would be required. The Department 
would work with the commuter authority 
involved on a case-by-case basis to 
determine applicable time limits for 
accessibility, consistent with the time frames 
of the ADA, 

The entity must develop a compliance plan, 
subject to the public participation and 
planning process set forth in paragraph (d) of 
each of these sections. Note that this plan 
must be completed by July 26, 1992, not 
January 26, 1992, as in the case of paratransit 
plans. The key station plans must be 



45740 Federal Register / Vol. 56. No. 173 / Friday, September 6. 1991 / Rules and Regulations 



submitted to UMTA at that time. (The statute 
does not require UMTA approval of the 
plans, however). 

A rail operator may request an extension of 
the July 1993 completion deadline for 
accessibility modifications to one or more 
key stations. The extension for light and 
rapid rail stations can be up to July 2020, 
though two thirds of the key stations (per the 
legislative history of the statute, selected in a 
way to maximize accessibility to the whole 
system) must be accessible by July 2010. 

Commuter rail stations can be extended up 
to July 2010. 

Requests for extension of time must be 
submitted by [uly 26, 1992. UMTA will review 
the requests on a station-by-station basis 
according to the statutory criterion, which is 
whether making the station accessible 
requires extraordinarily expensive 
alterations. An extraordinarily expensive 
alteration is raising the entire platform, 
installing an elevator, or making another 
alteration of similar cost and magnitude. If 
another means of making a station accessible 
(e.g., installation of a mini-high platform in a 
station where it is not necessary to install an 
elevator for to provide access to the platform 
for wheelchair users), then an extension can 
be granted only if the rail operator shows 
that the cost and magnitude of the alteration 
is similar in to that of an elevator installation 
or platform raising. 

The rule does not include a specific 
deadline for UMTA consideration of an 
extension request. However, since we are 
aware that, in the absence of an extension 
request, accessibility must be completed by 
July 1993, we will endeavor to complete 
review of plans as soon as possible, to give 
as much lead time as possible to local 
planning and implementation efforts. 

Once an extension is granted, the 
extension applies to all accessibility 
modifications in the station. However, the 
rail operator should not delay non- 
extraordinarily expensive modifications to 
the station. The key station plan and any 
extension request should include a schedule 
for phasing In non-extraordinarily expensive 
modifications to the station. For example, 
even if a key station is not going to be 
accessible to wheelchair users for 15 years. 
pending the installation of an elevator, the 
rail operator can improve its accessibility to 
persons with visual impairments by installing 
tactile strips. 

An extension cannot be granted except for 
a particular station which needs an 
extraordinarily expensive modification. An 
extension cannot be granted non- 
extraordinarily expensive changes to Station 
B because the extraordinarily expensive 
changes to Station A will absorb many 
resources. Non-extraordinarily expensive 
changes, however costly considered 
collectively for a system, are not, under the 
statute, grounds for granting an extension to 
one or more stations or the whole system. 
Only particular stations where an 
extraordinarily expensive modification must 
be made qualify for extensions. 

The UMTA Administrator can approve, 
modify, or disapprove any request for an 
extension. For example, it is not a forgone 
conclusion that a situation for which an 



extension is granted will have the maximum 
possible extension granted. If it appears that 
the rail operator can make some stations 
accessible sooner, UMTA can grant an 
extension for a shorter period (e.g., 2005 for a 
particular station rather than 2010). 

Section 37.49 Designation of Responsible 
Personfsj for Intercity and Commuter Rail 
Stations 

This section sets forth a mechanism for 
determining who bears the legal and financial 
responsibility for accessibility modifications 
to a commuter and/or intercity rail station. 
The final provision of the section is the most 
important. It authorizes all concerned parties 
to come to their own agreement concerning 
the allocation of responsibility. Such an 
agreement can allocate responsibility in any 
way acceptable to the parties. The 
Department strongly encourages parties to 
come to such an agreement. 

In the absence of such an agreement, a 
statutory/regulatory scheme allocates 
responsibility. In the first, and simplest, 
situation posed by the statute, a single public 
entity owns more than 50 percent of the 
station. In this case, the public entity is the 
responsible person and nobody else is 
required to bear any of the responsibility. 

In the second situation, a private entity 
owns more than 50 percent of the station. The 
private entity need not bear any of the 
responsibility for making the station 
accessible. A public entity owner of the 
station, who does not operate passenger 
railroad service through the station, is not 
required to bear any of the responsibility for 
making the station accessible. The total 
responsibility is divided between passenger 
railroads operating service through the 
station, on the basis of respective passenger 
boardings. If there is only one railroad 
operating service through the station, it bears 
the total responsibility. 

The Department believes that reference to 
passenge