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/^ f\ 



«." -V 





Lt-Colonel A. S. G. JÀTAEAR, i. M. s. (Retìred) 
Hon. Fellow of the DniTaraUy of Bombay, p. R. M. s., e. u z. s., v. R. a. s., &o. 





I ^ ì 'j" 3 

Ali rlghts renrved 




Htmi^um" ""'^**"* IWHAHV PAIR> 

-- mw <m ì m ILI 

I. Il II •' :: :■ "" i, 





^lyi (as-Zd^).^ — [The rook]. One of the species of crows. 
It is ulso callecl az-zar^i anil jKtirai az-zar*' (the harvcst crow), and isa 
smnll black nrovv. It is soinetiines roil in tlie beak and Icgs^, and is 
called nurAb az-zaitun (the crow oF the olive), because it cats that 
fruit. It is oC a pretty forni and beaiitiEul appearance; bat it is des* 
cribed in ^Ajd*ìh al-makhhtki'ft to be the largo black kin«l of cro\\% 
and said to live more than a thonsnnd yenrs, which is only an imagi-* 
iiation, wliilst the correct tliing is what has been mentioned bofore. 

(A vvonderf 111 thing.) I bave scen it statod in al-Muntakà 
(^olected) from the Intikhàb of the Uàfij as-Silaft and on the last 
leafof ^AjiVih ai-maMZit.fc^/, regarding Muhanitnad b. Ismà^tl as-Sa*dl, 
US having related, ^^ Yahy& b. Àktlìain (once) sent for me, and I 
ucnt to him; when I eutered bis presence, I found on bis right side 
a cago. He then made me sit down ani orderetl the C4ige to be 
opened, whcreupon there carne out oF it something baving a head 
like tbat ot* a human being, and the appearance of a rook from its 
lowest part to the nave!, with two oxcresconces on it, ono on the chest 
and the otlier on the back. I becamu frightcned, but Yahyà langluul ; 
iio I asked bini, * What is this thing? May God render yonr 
state good I' Ile replied, ' Ask it regardlng itself.' I therefore 
asked it, * What art thou?' upon which it stood np and recited the 
following lines in a clear voice : — 

* I am a rook (oz-c<ij/), the fatker of 'Ajwah dates ; 
I ain the eoii of a Hon and a lioneBS ; 
I love wine and Bwect scent (basii) 
And Coffee and ìuloxication ; 
Mj haud fears not my enemj, 
Nor is his attackiug an object of fear with me; 
1 h«ive thiiigs which are apprcciated 
Ou the day of uarriage aud feast, 

1 lu P&lestine the hooded crow, Corvua cornta;; in £g>pt it la called gìtuib 
JlVf/iì. * lu Egjpt the red-iegged crow, Fregilus graciUus, 

Oai of whioh one la an exorMoenc^ on the baek, 

Noi oonoealed by mj ftathert; 

And M io the other excreaeenee, 

H*d it ùBìj a hiacDe, 

No man woiild have doabted 

Ita being a drinking-eup.* 

It then Bcreamed and raising ita voice said, * zdg zàg ; ' it then went 

and threw itself in the cage. I thereupon said, * May GK>d oause the 

liàdl to be illoatrioiiB I li b a lover toc.' He replied, * It is what 

jon aee^ and I have no knovledge regarding it^ bejond ita having 

been aent to the Oommander of the faithfol with a sealed lettor cqn- 

taining an acoonnt of ita condittoni which I have not read.* " 

The IBàfid Abù-Tàhir ae-Silafl haa (alao) related thia differently, 
namely, in the manner narrated by Musa ar-Rid&. He aaid that 
Abùl-Baaan *Alt b. Mnhammad aaid, *' I (once) went to Ahmad b. 
j Àbl-Buwàd and fonnd on bis right aide a cage ; he aaked me to 
nncover it and to look ai the wonder (in it) ; ao I ^|f ned it, and 
there cameoat of it before me a man, a apan in beight and having the 
I appearanoe of a human being from hia middle to the nppermoat 
part, and from hia middle to the lowermost part that of a rock in ita 
iail and lega. He aaked me, * Who are you 7 I therefore mentioned 
to him my pedigree. I then aaked him regarding hia name, and he 
replied : — 

• I am a rook (as-)e4^), the father of *Ajwah datea, 
A cumpanioD of wine and coftee ; 
I bave tbinga the daima of whioh cannot *be denied 
On the d<«j of play at a feaat; 
Oat of them are aa ezcresceoce on the back, 
Dot ooncealed by my feathtfirs, 
I And another on my cheat, 

l?hich, had it only a handle« 
No man would haye donbted 
To be Uuly a drìnking-cup.' 

le ihon aaid to me, ^ Recite to me some linea of amorons verse 

ipon which I recited the follo wing : — 

* A night having on ito aidea treaaea ( redundancea) 
Of darkneea blaok. intensely blaok, 
Aa if it« stara were the pent np teara, 
Fliokerìng between the ejelida of girla. * 

b then acreamed ont, '0 my father and my mother!' and retami 
I the cage hid himaelf. Ibn-Abt-DuwfiJ then aaid, ' He ia a lover toc 




[Tlie author bere qaotes, ont of the biography of Yahyft b. 
Aktliam, f roin the B. D. of Ibn-Kh., the reasons which led Ma'mAn 
to appoint Yahya a Ikàdt, the reply given by TabyA to the people 
of al-Bosrah when he found that they considered hi in too yonng to be 
a ^adl, the incident whioh led to maJLà^ marriages being declared nn« 
lawfnl» the conversation which passed between Yahyà and a certain 
man who had asked him for some advice, the vice for which Yahyfi 
was reproached, together with the incident of bis interview with a 
€ert«in KhnrAsàni, the particalars of bis death, and tlie dream in which 
he was seen after bis death.] * 

(Lawfulness or unlawfalness.) It is lawfal to eat the rock, 
which is the correct opinion according to ar-Ràfi't; and al-Hakam, 
HammAd, and Mnhammad b. al-Hasan bave said the same thing. 
Al-Bailiakt relates in bis S1u% '^ I asked al-Hakam regarding tlie 
«ating of crows, and he replied, * As to the large block ones, I dis* 
approvo of eating them, bnt aa to the amali ones which are called the 
rock, there is no harm in (eating) them/ '' 

The Proverbe will be given under the lettor ^ in the art. v Lr^^ '. 

(Properties.) If the tongne of a rock be dried and eaten by t 
thirsty person, it will take away bis tbirst, even in the middle oi 
isnmmer. In the same manner, if its boart be dried and reduced te 
a fine powder and then drnnk by a person, he will never feel thirsty 
on bis joarney, becaase this bird does not drink water in sammcr. I 
its bile be mixed with the bile of a domestic cock and then used as s 
collyrium, it will remove dimneas (darkness) of vision (the eye) 
4ind if it be applied to hair, the hair will become wonderfally black 
Its gìzard proveuts the forination oE cataract, (if it: is Hsed) at it 

(Infcerpretation of it in a dream.) A rock having redness in il 
beak, in a dream» indicates a man possesaing power and given t 
amoseinont and pleasnre. ArtAmidùs states that a rock in a dreai 
indicates men loving partnership, and soinetimes it indicates poc 
men. Some say that it indicates a bastard and a man having geo 
and evil mixed in him. 

1 De Slane*8 T. Voi. IV, pp. 34.38 ànd 48. 

* •, 


^iS^ i (as-2djbi). — ^The domestic oock. PI. oz-zaroàH. ^j.j^yi 

Ai vodferaied or erowed ; and everyihing ihat vocif erates or- 
crow8 18 a sdju. 

It Ì8 said in a tradition oE Hishfim b. ^Urwah, ^^You are heayier 
than domestic oocks {az'^zawA}A)y* meaning thereby that when they 
crow ai dawn, nigbt-conipanions and frientls pari, yj^ 1 and i^jf^ 

are the roots of the word. ^^^1 ^J, j*^ and <^3i, ^3=»^*^ echo 
answered or the male awl hooted ; zàki =a voeiferaiar or crower ; — -sa 
al-Jawhart says. 

[The author bere gives the lines oE Tawbah b. al-Huniayyir, the 
loYer of Lailà al-Akhyaliyah, which are already given in the art. 
fj^\ (Voi. I, p. 347), and etates that they will he again given 
under the letter u^ in the art. ^ à^ I.] 

jj^^y^ {as'ZAmùr), — Àt-Tawhidt states that it is a cert<tin fish,. 
sroall in body and fond of hearing the voices of men, on hearing 
which itis pleased; on that account it accoin panica sbips, taking 
a delight in hearing the voices of the men in ^m. When it sees a 
largo fiflb attempting to scratch and break sbips,' it jumps and entera 
the ear of the largo fish, in which it continually makes a singing 
noise, nntil the latter mns a wa}*^ to the beacb in search of a bank or a 
rock ; on findìng it, it keeps on striking its head over it, until it 
dies. People travelling in sbips are fond of as-rdmtlr; they givo it 
food and search for it as a lost tbing, for tlie pnrpose of its l)eing con- 
tinually with them and in the company of their sbips, so that they 
may escape annoyance from any injurious fish. If they tbrow nets 
andas-fdmurbappens tobe càught in them, they let it go on account 
of its generous action. 

AiUyi {a^Zabàbdh). — Acertain species of fieid-rat which steal» 
what it is in want of and what it is not in want of. Some say 
that it is a blind and deaf rat. PI. zahàb. An ignorant man is 
likened to it. Àl-Hàritb b. Kaladah says : — 

'< I hiive 866n a boày of men 
Who have eoUected for ihemseWes wealtli and children, 
Bnt tbey are onlj perplezed fleld-rats {zabàh) 
Whose ean bear not thunder." 

CTatìt ai>9ataw1n 


^t 18 to say, they do noi hear anything, meaning thereby that they 

Ì.re dead. The poet lias desoribed az'-zabdb as possessing the qaality 

i^f being perplexedy which qnality lielongfl to the blind; he intends by 

il that wealth (the nieans of sustenanco) is not distrìbated according 

i'tbe proportion of men's intellect. The word alrumld (child or child- 

m) ia einployed both in the sing. and in the pi. senso. The words 

of the poet, ''«i^jc;'^^' C^^^^i" mean that their ears do not hear thun- 

ler ; he has substituted J I for apposition, as in the words of God, 

[••Verily, Paradine is bis resort (^jWI) 1"» He has explained that, 

pnk acconnt of the great deafness o£ their ears, they do not hear with 

|ihem (even) thander. The Imam ath-Tha'àlibt states in Fikh alAugak 

ihat a man is said to bave in bis ear ìoa}:r (heaviness of hearing); . if 

?iit be a degree more than that, it is called famam (deafness) ; if it be 

^eater in degree than that, it is oalled l^arash; and it it be stili great- 

[ler than that| so that thunder Ciinnot be heard, it is called jfolakh. 

This species of animai possesses the special characteriritic of 
Ì)eing deaf» in the same manner as al-khtdd (the moIe«rat) i^ossesses 
tbat of being blind. 

liti lawfalness or unlawf ulness will be given under the lettor <J 
An the art j^àil. 


(Proverbs.) '^More thievish than aso&dfta/t," so said, because it 
«teals wliatit wants and (also) vvhat it is not in want of . 

*u s 


w>j>>JI {az'Zabzab), — ^A certain beasi like thec4ii; so it is naid in 

li is related in the Kàmil of Ibn-al-Athir, among the evenis of 
the year 30:1 A.H., that in that year ali the people of Bagdad were 
in a state of alarm, owing to a certain animai which they called 
i az''zabza]b\ they alleged that they used to see it on the tops of their 
honses, and that it ate their infanis. Sometimes it used to bite the 
hand of a man or a woman and cut it off. The people used to 
defend and guard one another against it and beat basins, plates, and 
other articles, to frighten it away. Thns Bagdad was in a state of 
panie on its account. Then after that, the followers of the Sul^n 
seized ai night an animai of a niixed colour having black in it and 

> > Al-Eur'àn LXXIX-41. 


short m its fore and hind.legs, and said that that was os-za&safr. 
They then impaled it over the bridge, vhich oansed the panie 
among the people to sabside. 

«JjlIJj I (M-Zakhdri/),— The pi. of zukknif. Certain siuftll Aie» 

having £oar legs, that fly aboat over water. Aws b. ^ajar sajrs : — 

** Ha beoAine reminded of a spiing in «UmAii sud jts wster 
Haiing A swell in it, in which oi-uMàrif go aboat briBkljr.* 


jjjjy^^ (oz^ZurMur). — [The starling].^ A oertain bird of the 
passerine kind, so called on aoooant of its zarzarah^ that is to say, its 
pecaliar crj. Al-J&hi4 states that, if the feet of any bird having 
short wìngs like starlings and sparrows he oat off, it is nnable to fly,. 
in the saue manner as a man with one of bis feet out off is unabl» 
to ruQ. 

Its hiìiffnlness or unlawf nlness will he given under the lettor ^ 
in the art jjLamJ f . 

(Information.) At-Tsbarànl and Ibn-Abl-Bhaibah relate regard*^ 
ing *Abd-AlUh b. ^Amr b. aPls as having said, ^* The sonls of Be» 
lieTors are in the interior of green birds like starlings, oontending 
one with another in glory, and being fed on the fraits of Paradise.'' 
How beautiful are the lines of our sbaikh, the Shaikh Burhàn-ad-dtn 

^ I said, when he pssMd bef ore me, 

CarrTing in his hand a ttarling, 
< O thou, whose delay (in ooming) has tortured me, 

If thou viali me noi in peraon, viait me aa a Btarling/ '* 

It is related in the hook, Mandhib al'Itndm ash-Slidji'l by 
'Abd-al-Mul^asan b. 'Uthm&n b. Q&nim, that ash-ShàfiI said, '' It 
may he mentioned, as one of the wouders of the world, that there is 
a talisman made of copper and having the appearance of a starling in 
Kùmfyah, which whistles one day in a year, and that thereupon no bird 
of the kind remains without ooming to Bùmiyah with an olive in its 
beak. When ali the olives are ooUected, they are pressed ; and 
that is the stock of olive oil of the people for the year." This will 
be (again) related in the art. àxi\^j^\ under the lettor cr • 

> In Paleatine and Sgypt Sturwu vid§ùfx§. In < Oman the Siberian atarU 
ing, jS^timiif mewìAieri, is called al-waBkwdMh. 

9At1t al-^atawJLm 


;; , (Lawfalness or unlawf alness.) It is lawEul, becaase it ìa one of 
^tha species of passerine birds. 

(Properties.) Its flesh increases the sexaal power. If ita blood 
N be applied to boils, it will prove benefioial. If the ashes of a starling 
l be sprinkled over a woand, it will beai by the permission of God. 

C^ . (Interpretation of it in a dream ) A starling in a dream indi- 
» cates going forwards and backwards on journeys, both on land and 
^ by sea. Sometimes it indicates a traveller who is in the habit of 
travelling mach, like one who lets ont beasts on hire, never resting 
in any one place, and others like him; it also indicates lawfally 
f.aoqnired food, becanse, when Qod sent Adam down ont of Paradise, 
^ it held food and drink nnlawfnl for iiself and did not take either 
-; of them, nntil Qod became again gracions to him. It sometimes 
\) Indicates a mixture of good and bad actions, or a man who is neither 
r rioh nor poor and neither high nor low in life, Sometimes it indicates 
f^ alto meanness, satisfaction with the smallest means of sustenance, 
I; and play; and sometimes it indicates a writer. 

-♦.F » ... . . 

i^: ójy^^ {oz^ZurrafL). — ^A certain bird nsed for catohing other 

l^birdSy botween the common hawk {alrbAsA) and the sparrow-hawk 

^'(aI-£4«7ia^);— so Ibn-Stdah says. Al-Farrà* states that it is the white 

rfalcon. PI. zaràrik' It is a sort of a hawk and is delicate, but is 

,, botter and drier in temperament than that bird, on account of which 

^ it is more powerf ul in its wings, swifter in flying, and stronger in 

rattaoking; it is deceitful and treacherous. The best colours for it 

;^ are blaclc on the back, white on the breast, and red in the eyes. Al- 

;j. ^asan b. al-Hàni' says in bis 'faAdah : — 

•*^> ^ Often do I go ewly with a receptacle of travelling provisions 

slang np, 

And containiDg what one desires to profit by, — 

In the morning with a male or female twrràf^^ 

"Which I now desorìbe, givinga true desoription; 

Iti eye, on account of the beauty of the pupil, 

la as though it were a lily springing upon a leaf, 

And it has a beak dyed with oongealed blood; 
,^ Many a goose and many a stork have we chaeed with its aid, 

Y^hereupon its talons (weapons) separated in their flesh." 

(Lawfulness or nnlawfulness.) It is unlawful to eat it, as has 
* been already mentioncd in the art. ^jj ^^ I . 



8 AD-DAVtRfs 

Jljji l {az-Zardfnh) and '^i tjji I (flr-Ziir4/a*).— [The giraffe]. 
Ita sobriquel is umm-^hà. U ìs a certain beasi oE a beautiful make, 
baving long Core lega and short hind ones, the oollective length of 
both the hind and fore legs being neariy ten .cnbits. Ita head is like 
that of a carnei, its hom is like that of a cow, its skin is like that of a 
' leopard» its lega afld hoofs are like those of a cow, and its tail is like 

a ihat of a gazelle. It has no knees to its hind legs, but its two kneea 

a : are attached to its fore legs. When it walks, it advances its loft hind 

leg first and then its right fore leg, oontrary to the rule of ali other 
Iq quadrupeds, which advance the right fore leg first and then the loft 

^ hind leg. Among its naturai qualitiea are affection and sociableness. 

It ruminates and voids globular dung. As Qt>d knew that it would 
derive its sustenance f roin trees, He has created its ft>re legs longer 
than the hind ones, to enable it to graze on tliem e:i8Ìly ; — so al- 
]{azwlnt says in ^AjàHb aUmakhluìUU. 

It is related in tlie Hbtory of Ibn-Kh., in the biography of 
Muhammad b. 'Abd-AUàh aPUtbt al-Baiirì al-Akhbart, the well. 
known poet, that he uaed to say, ^^Az-taràfah^ which may he prò- 
nounced with a fathah or a ^mmàh over the j , is a certain well- 
known animai, the product of three animals, namely, the wild she- 
carnei, the wild cow, and the male hyena. The byena mounts the 
she-camel, which then begets an animai between a she-camel and* 
a hyena ; if the ofiEspring is a male animai, it mounts the cow, 
which then brings forth the giraffe. This occnrs in AlM^sinia, 
and on account of what is mentioned above, it is cnlled az-Mctrafah^ 
which originally means a collection; and because this animai is the 
product of several animals, it is thus callod. The Persians cali it 
vshtur gàio yalanh (palank)^ because usIUur is a carnei, ffdio a cow, 
and yalanh (palatik) a hyena." 

One party of aathorities states that it is the prodact of several 
animals, the reason being that dnring summer beasts and wild ani- 
mala coUect together over the water (in the watering places), and bave 
(promiscuous) sexual intercourse with one another, as the result 
of which some of the females conceive and others do not ; sometimes 
several males monnt the same feniale animai, thas cansing the 
seminai fluids to he mixed up; and, in consequence of it, the females 
givo birth to animals varying in appearance, colours, and forms. 
But al-Jàhid is not satisfied with this explanation, and states that it 

PAvAt al-9ayaw1h 9 

ince and oomes only Froin anc who Im-s no fncnltjr ot' 
(inhirh), for Gkid croates wliatever Ho {iloases; it ia 
es oE animili, indeponJent (standing by ìtself) Ilice tho 
Rss, wbich is proved by tlie fact Omt ìt ia aUe to brii);r 
itsclf, n fact wlitcli hnn beeu soen and asctirtnined. 
nrd to ìtfl lawfulneas or nntawFutneiu, tliei-e are t\v» 
ig tliiit it Ì8 unlnwl'nl, wliicb ia ao decided by the niithoi' 
lutile 5A(ti-<^ al-Muhiulhdliah by an-Nawnwf, itìatutid 
rful witliout nuy contradictioii, and that some rcckon 
uct t>atwoen an edìble and an unedible aiiimtl. Tlie 
liatt^t), one of tbo ^anballa, nlao declarea it to Iw uii- 
ither view ia that it ia lawful, wbicb bas becn so de- 
haikh Ta^t'il-dln b. Àb!'d-Dam al-Uumawt, aii'l wbtcU 
rat ot' the Faldioà of tlie ^11 '^uaaìn. À1>ù>l-Klmtt&b 
iaconfurmable toitfllawEuìnuaa, for hegivt'sin hU/'tcìl' 
jtjtutea ot the tuw) tw<> at»t«menta with ic^ird to t)ie 
ler in tlie caae of tlie erano, tbeduck, ami the gimtte, 
;out ia to be j^iveii aa a siibstitute, or thoir prive, whiiat 
ing oE aubatittil^a, ezoojitìng in the casa of auch ani- 
len. Ibn-iir-ltafit'ah «tate^t wbat ia wortby ot' believ- 
i the Mime way as bus bcen decided by aUUagiiwl ^ 
t Ihere are some who bave eicplained the word {us-zu- 
rjg that tbere ìa no «J in it biit n J. The Irìliaikh 'l'u^i- 
I atjttos tbat tbis roaaon ia of no con30i|iioiice, l) 
1 (to be 3]>cU with a ù). It ia n'!C0[>tG<l to be lawf id in <(/- 
Ima bcen decided by Ibii-Abid-Dani and copied by bini 
Iltiaaìn and froin Tatimtnat nt-TtUimmah. Ho atiite^, 
wawì boa doclared, namely, llint ìt is probi bìtoit, hihI 
latt^b hna duclnred, make it [maaible tliat the iianic ia 
, specioa of niiimal whioh obtnins ila nonrishmentby 
ine tooth, biit in tbis wbich we bave come ncross, thcro 
for holding it nnlawfnl, nnd I never hcard fum 
ypt." Ibn-AW'd-Dam atutea in 5/wj/i iit-T^Mh tbat 
:b bns mentioned in at-TaiMk ia not meiiHoncd in Ib» 
ion, wbilat the K&ilt Uuaaìn hna stited it to be luwCtil; 
"I atate tbis notwithstanding ita nonr roscmiilance to 
;, namely, the carnei and the cow, wluch poinis to \in 
It is poaaible that it may be aaid that the Sliaikb has 


10 AD-DAHtBfS 

aaid 80, d^pending on the statement of the lexicologists, namely, that 
ii ìs oue of the beaats of prey, their calling it thos indicatiag its on* 
lawf alneflo. As it is so, the author of Kiidb aWAyn states that at-^ 
sani/oA, with a/afAoA or a 4ammaK over the 3, b one of the beaste 
of prey and is oalled in Persian usUur gàw yalank (palank). It ia 
mentioned in another place that the giraffe is the prodaot (of connec- 
tion) between a wild she-camel and a hyena, the offspring being partly 
like a she-camel and partly like a hyena ; if the offiiprìnff be a malo 
one, it monnts a wild co w and canses it to conceive, the cow then gi v<^ 
ing birth to a giraffe» which is called oM-^zard/ah^ because it is (partly) 
a he-camel and (parUy) a she-cameL As snch is the case and as the 
Sbaikh heard that it was one of the beasts of prey, he believed it to be 
trnly so, bnt he conld not bave seen it He therefore condnded 
that it is nnlawfnl to eat iL" It has» howeTer, been already mentioned 
ibat al-Jft^ij was not satisfied with this statement and said, *^ Thia 
atateraent is rank ignorance, the giraffe being a certain independent 
apecies of animai like the borse and the ass.'* 

I (the aathor) say that this, what al-Jà1^t4 states, is opposed to 
what Ibn-Abt'd-Dam has copied from the author of Kitdb al-^ilyn^ 
namely, that the giraffe b the offspring of two (different) edible 
animals, whilst the likeness which Ibn-Abt'd-Dam considers to exist 
between it and the carnei on the one band, and the cow on the 
other, is a distant one, as its fere legs are long and its hind lega 
short. If a distant reaemblance were suffioient, the eating of a cricket 
wonld bave been also lawf al, on account of its resemblance to a 
locusta and so would the giraffe bare also been lawf al to eat, because 
its foot resembles that of the camel. It is said in SJiarh oI-Afu/t^ 
adhdkab that some hold the opinion that the giraffe is the offspring 
of an edible and an unedible animai, which points to its being 
imlawful. Bat al-Jftl>i4's statement sets this aside» and shows that it 
b lawf al, which is the opinion accepted in al'Fatdicà al-'PalaUì/dt^ 
as has been already mentioned ; this is the doctrine of the Imam 
Ahmad, and is couformable with that of Màlik, the Hanafl doctrine 
also tending towards it. If, then, the statements (of the different 
antborities) conflict and reasoning over the proofs for them is cut of 
the question, we must return to the originai permission (for the use 
of such animals asaro not declared to be unlawful), whilst this animai 
enters the class of those in regard to whioh there is no dis* 

9AYÌT AL-9A7àw1n 


I tinct deolaration as to their nnlawfulness or lawfalaess, and wliicb 
will bd mentioned hereafter uoder the letter j in the art. Jjj^^. 

(Properties.) Ita flesh is ooarse and atrabilious, and gives rise 
to a corrupt humour (chyme). 

(Interpretation of it in dreams.) A gira£Fe in a dream indicates 
a calamity affecting property. Sometimes it indicates a glorious or a 
beautiful wife, or the receipt of wonderf ul news f rom the direction 
from which it is seen to come ; there is, however, no good in the news.. 
If it he seen (in a dream) to enter a country or town» there is ho gain 
to be obtained from it, for it indicates a cahimity affecting proper» 
tji and do not be suro of the secnrity of whatever you take a pleasuro 
in through it (die property), whether it be a friend, a spouse, or a 
ohild. It may sometimes be interpreted to mean a wife who is not 
faithfal to ber husband, because it difiers from the riding beaste 
in its back. 

^ o» 


vijjjpi* (az'Zirydb). — It is said in KitM Mantih at-fat/r that it is 

the same as ab&^zuraik' The anthor of that hook states thut a oer- 
iain man (once) went out oE Bagdad with four hnndred dirliams^ 
beside which he did not possess anything. On bis having seen some 
young ones of the bird ùryàh^ he purchased them with the snm of 
money he had with him. He then returned to BagdAd ; the next 
moming he opened bis shop and hnng up the young birds over it, 
but a|Cold wind blew over them^ and thoy died, excepting one which 
was tie weakest and the smallest ef them ali. The man now became 
aure of becominga pauper; so he continually addressed himself with 
energetic supplication to God during that night, saying, '* Helper 
of those asking for help, help me !'* When the morniug dawned, 
the cold abated, and the young bird oommenced to rufile its feathers 
and to sing with a clear voice, '^ Helper of those asking for help, 
help me !" The people thereupon assembled to bear its voice, and 
a slave-woman of the Commander of the faithful ha])pening to pass 
that way purchased it for a thousand dirhams. 

Look at what true faith in God and turuing to His omnipotence 
witli extreme energy in supplicating before Him, keeping the 
beart with Him and preventing it irom looking to anybody else for 
the accomplishment of the want despaired of, did I What do you 

12 ad-dah}rì*s 

think of one wbo lefb the (usaal) means and taraed towards Ood wiili 
a tarning, troni wbich no engager of afctention coald draw hiin away, 
and no ooncealer or screener ooald screen biin, — for bis veil would 
have been bis own self, bat be bad rid biinselE oE it — ? Tbat was the 
place in wbich asking was pleasant and tbe drink sweet Fraise be 
to Itiin wbo distingaisbes, by His grace, wbomever He pleaseaJ He 
is tbe mighty one, the giver of gifts 1 

aaì^I {az'Zugbalij* — A certain sniall animai reseinbling a 

mouse; — so Ibn-Sìdab says. He states tbat tbe Arabs nsed to employ 
it as a proper nanie (for uieu), wbereby be allades to 'Isa b. ]^mn]àd 
al-Basrt Zugbab, wbo related traditions on tbe aathority of Ràshid 
b. Sa^l, 'Abd-AUàb b. Wabb, and al-Laitb b. Sa'd, and on wbose 
antbority MusHin, Abù*Da'wùd, an-Nasa'l, and Ibn-Màjab bave 
rebted traditions. He died in 248 A.H. . 


Jjli^ I (az^ZugltU). — ^Tbe young of tbe pigeon so long as it is 
fed by tbe parent bird, AA^^lbJl Jij I = 77**? bini /ed it$ youìig one 
ioUh iti bill. Also, a yoang goat or sbeep and a yonng carnei persis- 
tent in sucking (milk). It also means a man iight in respect of 
dignity and manners. 

t^ < 

f^^\ (az-Zugaim). — A certain bird ; some speli it witb a j; — 
so Ibn-Stdab says. 

6 * 

iiy I (as-^wjfeM).— A certain aquatic bird, tbat sits stili until 
it is very nearly seized, wben it dives into tbe water and cornea out at 
a distance; — so Ibn-Sìdab says. 

r 4 

O^S^ I (az-Zulàl). — -A certain worm tbat is bred in snow ; it is 
marked witb yellow spots and is about tbe length of a finger. Men 
seize it in its biiunts to drink wbatever la in iU interior, on account 
of its great coolness ; bence, cold water is likened to it, but in a^ 
^ihdhf md* zidéU is given as sweet water. Abù'l-Faraj al-'Ijli states in 
Sharh aUWajiz tbat tbe water wbich is inside tbe snow-worm is pnre, 
and he wbo says tbat agrees witb tbe Kadi Husain in regard to 
what bas been already mentioned in tbe art. òjA^ I . What is, however, 
generally known is tbat ai-ziddl is cold water. Sa'id b. M\d b 



9AYÌT AIi-9AYAW1k 13 

* • 

r? ' •Arar b. Nnfail, who wns one of the ten for vhoin testiniony waf» 
' .: borne (by the Prophet) that they wonld enter Paradise, and regard- 

ing whom the Prophet said, *'He would come as a nation by hiuiself 

(on the Day of «) udgment)," says : — 

** I have tarned my face with resìgoatioD to Him io whoHi 
^^ - The cload oontaining sweet and cold water has reBigned iUelf.'* 

^^ How boaDtiful nre the words of Abtfl-Fuwàris b. Hamdftn, whose 
h • proper name was al-Hàrith ! : — 

k " Tbou wert my weapon with which I trosted to attack, 

^ . . Aiid my hand when fortaiie aad my arm would prove false, 

^^. Bui ihf^vL hast thrown to me from thyself oppoftite of what I 

^V.' had boped for ; 

[t ' Whiluta man may be ohoked even with limpid cold water." 

l4; Anolher (iK>et) says : — 

'f^' *< He who ift ili and haa a bitter tasto in bis mouth, 

^S': , Finds even cool limpid water bitter in it." 


II-. -■.■ 

W How beautiful are the h'nea of WnjJh-ad-dawlalì Abù'l-Mutà* b. 
n ^amdftn surnamed DhùM-Karnain, who was a dÌBtÌDgui&hed poet 
f . and who died in 428 A.H. : — 

\ , ** Sbe said to the phaotom of imagiuary shadow which had visited me 

s ; and paascd away, 

* By Ood ! descrìbe him and add not to, nor detract from (bis state).' 
It replied, * I saw him in a state in which, if he was dying from tliirst 

['' . And tbou wert to say, << Stop from going to the watering place," he 

I ^ would not go.' 

\*^ She said, < Thou'hast said truly, for fulness in love is bis habit.' 

Oh, how refreshin jly cool was the eifect of what she said on my 
heart (li ver) ! " 

É^-> Here is one of bis beautiful pieces : — 

0r « Scest tbou linea olothes over which 

f?« . The light of the full moon shines at times and canses them to become 

> old ; 

y\ ' H* w dost thou then deny that ber head garments^ beoomc old, 

V ^ When tberoiis the full moon always present in them? 

ì , 1 «AbUv (ma*(l/tV), pi. of joi^^ (nn*jar) «a piece of cloth worn by » 

^^ ; woman on ber head, lliìs word is given in ouly one of the copies, wbilet in ali 
^'the others the word^U< (ma*ààr) is given, which seema to me tobea 



U ab-damìrPs 

Anoiher (poet) says : — 

« Wonder noi ai the wearìng away of his coat of muì, 
?or iU buttoDB are buttooed o^er the rnoon.*' 

TbÌ8 pieoe and the one that preoedea it are qaoted in suppori of the 
faci that the light of the moon has the effect of caaaing lìnen 
clothes io wear away (rapidly), aa has been said by olever phU 
loaophem, especially if tlie clothee are throwa into water when 
the two iaminaries, the san and the moon, are preeent together 
(in the Bky). The two lamìnaries are preeent together from the 
twenty-fifth to the thirtieth day of the (tonar) month. Henoe ìa the 
expression ^^^ji^ta garment tearìng quieUy^ the reaaon of whioh 
ìa what we haye inentioned. Ar-Ra'ls Ibn-8tn& (Ayioenna) has 
allnded to thìs fact in hia rajoM poem in the followìng worda :-^ ^ 
** Waah not yonr Hnen clothes, 

Nor fiBh in them either, 

Ai the tìme of the con jnoctioii of the two luminaries, for then they 
wear awaj (qnickly); 

This 18 trae, and adopt it aa a fandamental rale.'' 

Linén clothea onght to he gnarded from the light of the moon and 
ooght not to be waahed when the two luminariea are preaent 
together (in the aky), aa we bave aaid. 

(Lawfnlneaa or unlawfulneaa.) AbùM-Faraj al-'Ijl! aaya in SJiarh 
ohWajU that the water iriaide the anow*worm ia pare (clean), and 
wliat he saya agreea wilh the atatement of the KA(1Ì Huaain in 
regard to what haa been ah-eady mentioned in the art. <»j«^l; but 
the well-known thing ia tliat az-^ulàl ia oold water, aa haa been 
mentioned before, on the anihority of al-Jawhart and otbers. 

U3JI {aZ'ZuiMnàf), — l^ike rummàn. A certain bird tliat naed 
to stand, in the Time of Ignorance, over U^am^ in al-Madtnah and 
nlter aomething whicli waa not underatood. Some aay that it 
naed to alight in a mirbad • belongìng to one of the inhabitanta 
of al-Madtniih and eat hia frait, wheroupoii the people uaed to 
throw (Htoiiea) at it and kill it, but nobody oould eat ita flesU 
wiihont dying. A poet saya : - 

<'!« nnim-*Amr in the sanie state as she was ? 
Wonld that I knew ii! Or has a zumm^ destroyed her?** 

So Ibn-Sldah and others aay 

1 A fortreas in al-Madlnah. • A place for drjing datca i«- 

9at1t al-qatawIn 


e é. 

M^y I (az-Zummaj). — Like al'kJiurrad. A certain well-known 
Ati employed by kiugs for seìzìng otber birds. Tbe people of al- 
lasdarah oonsider it one of tbe ligbt kinds of birds of proy, which 

Ffact 18 known from ita eye, ita movement, and tbe vobemeoce of ita 

^àttacking ; tbey desoribe it to be deceitful, uDgrateful, and untain- 
Ale, on account of the coarseness of ita nature. It is capable 
\( being traìued but after a l<»ng timo, and ìa in the habit of 

[SMising (otber) birda ou the aurface of the earth. The praiae- 
rorthy thing in it ia that it ia of a red colour. It ia one of the 

rtwo speciea of tbe eagle, which will be descrìbed bereaf ter under 
[ti proper lettor ({^). 

Al-JawàU]^ States that az-zummai is a certain speciea of bird, 
[by meana of which otber birda are seized. Abù-Hàtim states that 
it ia the male of tbe eagle, and that tbe pi. ia az-zamdimj. Al-Laitb 
làtatea that it is a certain bird, smaller than the eagle and haviug 
[the red colour prevalent in it ; the Peraians cali it du birddaran, 
fWhioh when traualated means that, wlieii it faila in seìzìng ita 
'game, its brother helps it in seizing it. 

(Lawfulness or unlawfnlness.) It is uulawful to eat it like 
*9\\ other birds of prey. 

(Propertiea) Tbe habitual eating of its flesh is beneficinl in 
palpitation of tbe beart. Its bile, if added to collyrinms, is high- 
iy beneficiai in obscurity and dimness of vision. Its dung removea 
freokles and spots on the skiu, if it is applied externally . 

#Wl^^j (Zummaj al-nicC). — [The gull].* A certain bird, called 
Q Egypt an-^iaxoraaj* of a white colour, and of the same size as the 
Igeon or a lìj^ bigger. It aoars high in the sky and tiien dart- 
Dg down into the water snatches fisti from it, but it does net 
ight on a dead animai and does not eat anythiug but fish. 

(Lawfulness or unlawfuluess.) It is Inwful to eat it, bnt ar- 
Rùyàui States, on the authority of as-Sairaarf, that a white 

> In Maskat the diiferent species of giills have diiferent uames; Larug 
ìdibundui ia called hawairi^ L. ìiemprickii is called suipaidi, aud L. cachìnnans 
eallad ziraikt * This name is applied in Palestine to Lanu ridibundnt. The 
!•• fouud in Egypt are L. leucophtkabnus, L» gehistes, L. hemprichii, and 
^ttra! othen. 




Bqniiric bird ia uulawful, oii aooonnfc of the uafllioefis of ita fleah. 
Ar-Rafi't, bowever, stiiteB tiiat the is tliat ali aqnatio bìrda 
are Inwful, exoepting al-lalUah (the atork), wbich will be deacribed 
bereafter under tbe letter J. 


jj^^ì (ar-Zwittir).— [Tbe bomer.]* Tbe aame aa ad-dabr. li 
18 (aometiinea) niade of the feui. gend. . Xz-etnMi** ia a dialeotioal 
varìetv of it, aud sumetiinea tbe bee ia oalled zunMr. PI. az-zandUÀr. 

Ibu-Khàlawaih atates in Kitàh Laua^ '* I bave not beard 
aiiybody mentioD a aobriqnet for tlie bornet, exceptiug Àbù-^Amr 
az-Z&hidy who aaya tbat ita aobriqnet ia ahà'^AlL 

It ia of two kiiids, tbe mountain boruet and tbe bornet of the 
' plaiu. Tbe mountniu bornet livea io moantaina and builda ita neat 

in treea; ita cobmr ia inclined t<> blaok, and at firat it ia of tbe 
forra of a worm, after wliiclì it takea ita proper form. It bnilda 
ueata of eartb like tboae of the bee, roaking foiir door-waya to the 
Deat for tbe eutrance of tbe four wiuda* Il poaaeaaea a ating witb 
wbich it stinga, and it derivea' ita nouriahment from fruita aud 
flowera. The malea are diatinguiahed froin the feraalea by tbe 
largeneaa of their bodiea. The boruet of the plaiu ia of a red oolour 
and builda ita neat under the ground, diggiug out tlie enrth froiu it, 
in the aame manuer aa tbe ant. It bideaitaelf in winter, for, wben- 
ever it ahowa itaelf duriug tbat aeaaon, it diea. It aleeps during 
tbe wbole of winter like a dead animai to eacape the cold of it 
and doea not atore up any proviniona of food for winter, ita habit 
in tbat reapeot being contrary to that of the ant. Wlien apriug 
cornea, hometa becoine like dry wood from oold and want of food, 
and God tben blowa life into their bodiea, upon wbich they live 
Hguin aa in the previene year. Tbia ia their uaunl habit. Tbere ia a 
VHriety of thia apeciea having a different colour and a long body, 
aud poaaeaaing in ita nature the qualities of avarice and groedi- 
iieaa ; it aeeks kitohena and eata meat out of them ; it fliea aingly 
and livea under tbe ground and in walia. Tbe head of tbia auimal 

A In 'Oman the uame az-tauìr!^ is applied to thA wood-burrowiog bee 
Xjflocopa violaeea and A', divisa, the homet being called ad-dibt, Veipa orientalii 
(dihi *akar) aitd foUsieM hebraicus (dW kitaif). • The author girea it aa 
«AjljOl^ whicb appears to be a mislake; in Lane'a Lex. the word ig giren aa 


ie separate fro.n ita middle part. on which account it does «et at ali 
reap-re fn>,n .ta interior. When it ia immersed i„to oil. it becle" 
ahll, ou «ccoant of tl.e «arrowneaa of i,a pnanagca (UoL) a„d tf 

;l!:^X' *'"■"'" "'! ''""'''"' " '^^""'" '^"'« <^^'^ 

a.^*^1Z"^';r "* "K^*r-''' *"** couìmentary cu the chapter 
^^H tìut a tlnng .a expected neceaaarily to happen Ly 
.o,n«t„ne« be expreaaed as a thing that haa actually occurred an 
.«BUnce of which is what haa bee» related regarding 'Ibd ar Ih 
.nàn b. Hoasan b. Tbàbit ul-Ansàrt, wbo. while^e 2 ^ lUtle ^fud" 
l.avu.g goue i« to bia fatber orying. waa a«ked by tbe father « Whai 
inukea you orj. ? " au.i he replied, "A flyinir ihin^. 7^Z' l Za 
in twocloaks «f atriped cloth%aa'a.u„gr.^.%°^ J tW^ ^;/ 
upon«aid. "By.he Lordofthe Ka-bah. .„y ao,, you W^' 
poe.ry!" .aean ng thereby, «You wiU a poet.» 'A; Xr 
!:::;:]:.' ^'-«"-twaa expected tooccu, aainUad 

How beautiful are the liuea ,.f oue of the early poeta:- 
• ' Both the hornet and the ha vk poaseaa 
Fot fljing. wingg and the propertjr of flappi,,» them. 
But betwecn what the hawk huuts 
And what the hornet hunts, there ia a difforence.»» 
The Shaikh J>hJr-ad-dtM b. «Aakar. the ^àd! «f aa-SalJà.ufyah hàa 
aaid exoellently ui (l>e followiug linea :— 

Wh,l,t truth I. wndered «naound by a b:«l wayof expreBsIng • 
Thua when you «ay. « Thte U honcy.'. yoa pralac it, * ' 

(l.leu";f'' ■""'*''•*"' •'"™'»"' •"^' "n.e ron,it of bea. 
""Ì^à "''"' "' •* " '•'^*' -' '^*""'>-' 'o« «"-«e not ita 
^'T^t>*^' "^" "' '*'*'^ (olo<i«enoe) show- darknesa to be 

. Al-rur'an. VII. «De Siano ho. erUently not underetood « 1 *k, 
« aaya in hi. note on the .«bjeot «The Ar^bh^^-^ 1 *'**' 
thechad do not appearto form • ve«e/ ^^he^ aan't IITk?' '' 
niotrical «jole.» whiist tbe father as ezDkin«.l iL». . «sanned by any 

.147 .«l^m •J-^ljC^,,Werfl..^ '^"i^tJ •'■ 



Sbaraf-ad-dawlah b. Hon^'dh speaks enigmatìoally of the horoet 
and the bee in the followtng linea : — 

<< Both of them boss and make a rhytlimio toond in an aMembIf, 
Both are diiven away on aceonnt of the annojaiice they canse meo; 
Thi8 one ia liberal in ita gifta» and that one the oppoaite of it, 
lliia one ia praiaed, and the other diapraiaed (blamed).'' 

Ibn-Abì'd-Dunyà relates on the anthorìty of Aba'l-Hnkhtilr 
at-Tamimi, who said, ^*A man haa informed me, Bayiog, ' We went 
forth oo a journey, and had a man with ns who vilìfied Abù-Bakr 
and 'Umar ; we forbade him, but he would not be forbiddeo. 
One day he went forth for a natnral purpoae of hia, when hornets 
awarroed over him» and he oried ont for help ; we therefore went 
to bis help, bnt they attacked ns, and so we left him alone, and the 
bometa did not leave biro, nntil they had cnt him into pìecea.* " 
Ibn-Sab* has related it similarly in Shi/ap^fudur and adde<l, 
^' We then tried to dig a grave for him, but findiug that khe ground 
had become so hard that we ooold not dig it, we threw him on 
the flnrfdce of the ground and threw some leaves aud atonea over 
him. One of our friends then sat down for the purpoae of makiiig 
water, and one of those hornets alighted on bis private parta, but 
it did not injure him, from which we understood that those hornets 
were ordered (to punish bini)/" 

YaJ^ya b. Mu*ln relates that YaMà b. Mansùr ar-Bftzl wasono 
of the greatest of the leamed raen of Bagdad; he related tradì tions 
on the authority of Màlìk, al-Laith, and others. One day wliile he 
was praying, a swarm of hornets alighted on him, but he did not 
tnrn round or move, uutil he had fiuished bis priiyer. The people 
then looked at bim and found that bis head had swollen up from 

(Lawfulness or uulawfulness.) It ia unlawful to est it, on 
account of ita nastiness, and itis desirable to kill it, on account of 
what Ibn-^Adt has related in the biograpliy of Maslamsh b. 'AH, 
on the authority of Anas, namely, that the Prophet said, ■' Who- 
ever kills a homet earns (the reward of) three good actions.'* 
But the burning of their bouses with fire is disapproved; — ^so 
aUKba^àbl aays in Ma^dlim as^Sunan. The Imam Ahmiid, haviug | 
been asked regarding the smoking of the honses of hornets, replicd, 


9AYAT AL-9AYAW1n 19 


t '* If any injury or anDoyance (on their part) ia dreaded, theu there 
f ia uo harm in doing so, and I like it batter than burning them." 
\ Their sale is not valida beoause they are a kind of creeping things 

■ » 

i (ProperHes.) If ahornet be thrown into olive oil, itdies, and if 
iìt be then tlirown into vinegar, it cornea io life again, aa haa been 
already mentioned. If young horneta are taken ont of their hivea 
> and boiied in olive oil, and then me and cara way aeeda are aprinkU 
ed over thera and they are thna eaten, they increase the aexnal 
power and deaire. *Àbd-al-Malik b. Ziihr atatea that, if the 
ezpreaaed jaìce of al-muli),khii/& (a certain apeciea of marahmallow) 
be applied over a hornet ating, it will cure it. 

(Interpretation of it in a dream.) A hornet in a dream indi- 
,' calca a fighting enemy. Sometimea it indicatea a builder, a 
laapper, and an engineer; aometimea, a highway robber and a 
fplunderer; and aometimea, a muaician not keeping pniper time. 
I Sometimea a dream regardìng it indicatea the eating of poiaona 
f or drinking them. Some aay that a dream abont it indicatea a 
(*oontendìng dreuded man, one who ia firm in fighting and vnlgar 
[and filthy in hia food. If horneta enter a place, they indicate 
Lfloldiera posaeaaing the power of inapiring dread, qnick (iti ilieir 
l' movementa), brave, and fighting witb the people openly. Some 
lény that a hornet indicatea a man contending with falae argu- 
[menta. It ia a tranaformed animai. The Jewa state that fhe 
^hornet and ihecrow indicate gambiera and aheddera of l>lood. 
^Some aay that liornets in a dream indicate a merciloaa people. 

Jajixì^Ji (az-Zandahll). — A largo elephant. Yahyà b. Jln'in 

:~qnotoa : — 

<*The/7canie to us Karaish, Kiiraiftli of the Vftlley, 
Ilustrioas banda, 
Led by the elephant, az'zandahtl^ 
And the one possessing a proniinent tooth and npper lip.*' 

f^Ynhyà statea that he (the poet) intenda by the elephant and 
\^n%<andalAl 'Abd-al-Malik and Abftn, the two aona of Biahr b. 
i-HarwAn, who fonght in the company of Ibn-Hubairah the Leaner 

le . 

[(yonnger), and that he intenda by'^The ouepoaaeaaingaprominent 
l^tooth Hiid upper lip'' Khàlid b. Maalamah al-Makhzùmi welU 


20 AD-DAHtal'B 

knowii by tbe uarae of al-Fa'fa' al-Kùfi; iraditìons are related hj 
Maslim and theother foar coUeofcors^ o( traditions as given by biin, 
and be related traditions on tbe autbority of asb-Sba^bt and bis 
follo wers; Sbn^bab b. al-Hajj&j and tbe two Sufyftns bave (ulso) 
related traditions on bis autbority ; be was a Mnrji' * and nsed te 
hate 'Alt. He was seized witb Ibn-Hubairab, and Àbù-Ja^far al- 
MannAr cut off bis tongue and tlieu slew bim. 

^ o «. 

C ^^y^ I (aS'Zahdam). — ^Tbe falcon ; it is also said to be tbe 
yonng one of a bawk. Zabdam b. Mndrib al-Jarml was named after 
it ; al-Bnkb&rt, Mnslim, at-Tirmidb!, and an-Nas&'t bave related tradi* 
tions as given by bim. Az-Zabdam&n were two brotbers in tbe tribe 
of tbe Beni-^Abs, namely, Zabdam and Kardam, regarding wbom 
IKais b. Zubair says : — 

** The two Zahdains have reqoìted me with eyil, 
WheD I was one worthy of being requited with generoeity." 

i}ij)ji t (aWU^tiro/^). — ^Tbe same as al-h^ht wbicb will be de- 
acribed nnder tbe lettor J , and tbe same as OB^ziryàh^ wbicb bas beeu 
already described (p. ìl)before. It is tame witb men and oau be 
quickly tangbt, picking np qnickly wbat it is tangbt. It sonietìmes 
exoels (even) tbe parrot, tbe excellence consisting in its being nobler; 
if it is taugbt, it prodnces tbe sonnds of tbe letters distiuotty, 
80 tbat a person bearing it bas no doabt of its being a bamati 
being tbat is «ttering tbein. It bas been already described in tbe 

(Lawfnlness or unlawfulness.) It is lawful to eat it, asit is iiot 

j ooDsidered filthy. Some, bowever, say tbat it is a bybrid produced 

, between tbe green magpie (aih^shiharràli) and tbe crow, nndèr 

I wbicb condition it is open to be beld unlawful, thongb it is net 

mentioned so. 

ttil^iJ^I (abU'ZijUddn). — ^A certain species of bird. 

A Abù-Dà^waa, at-TImiidht, an-Naaàt, and Ibu-M&jah. * Beloagioff to 
the seot of Mnrjiyah, who assert that good works are unnecessaty, and ihat 
liiih alone is soffieient. 

9ATÌT al-9ayaw1n 21 

«i ^3 j^ • (ahé-Zit/dd). — The ass. A poet says : — 

'< Ziyàd, I know not who his father u , 
But the ass Ì8 oalled the father of Ziy&d." 

also nieans the male organ of generation. A poet says : — 

"* She trìes to excite àhù-Ziyddf 
But the (black) crovr becoming white would be easier than its 

also means the poor-rate tax (az-zakad bdf); — so it is said in 

22 AD-DAIltfit's 

J»^U (Sàbùi). — ^A certain marine animai; — so Ibn-Sldah and 
othcrs 3ay. 


(3 ^ («Sd^ Anrr).— It is the same as al'\oai^%li&n aud is the 

male of oollared tnrtle-dovea (oXA^amAA). It is an indeclinable 
word. Al-Kamait says ; — 

''The warbling of a pigeon standing on a stem is answered, 
Bj one of the loud warblers, possessing a ring (round the neck) and 
a dS^T^ neck.*' 

Uuniaid b. Tbawr al-HilflU says : — 

<< Nothing has ezcited this destre but a pigeon 
That called a èàk hnnxt cheerf ally and warbling ; 
It 18 oollared and handsome, and warbles the more 
As snmmer approaches and the ohange in spring shows itself ; 
It is decked with a ring whioh is net an amalet, 
Or one made by a goldsmith's hands for money ; 
It sings on a branch at early part of the night and leaves not 
For a f emale moumer, a shsre in its plaintiye note ; 
When the wind shakes the branch, or when it is bent down, 
It stili warbles, whether the branch is erect or bent 
I wondered as to whence its power of vvarbling 
So eloqaenUy, when no moath has ever uttered its speech ; 
I bave neyer aeen one like me in whom a voice like its has ezcited 

ardent desire, 
Gran Arabexcited (to desire) by a foreign voice.'' 

Ibn-^idah states that the male of collared turtle-doves is called 
«d^ ìiuvT^ on account of its cry, for it says, '* «d^ ììutt^ idk hurr^** 
and for that reason the word does not bear (final) vowel-marks; 
if it had final vowel-marks, it could be declined, in which case one 
coold say eiLr^ c3^ in case by apposi tion, and e; Lr^ (3^ in & state of 
govemment, and it could then be declined on account of its being 
indeterminate. But tlie leaving off ofits (final) vowel-marks is 
proof of its being the sound of its cry. Sometiuies, however, (in the 



case of compoand words) Ihe first word may 1)6 in apposition with the 
Mcond one as in j^.j^ (khàz bdz)^ for that among words resembles 
^the door of a house. 

This bird will again be mentioned under the lettor J in the 
art. ijj^'^^\. 

* 9 

^JUil (a^-iSeiZiH). — A certain black species of serpent. It has 

been already described in the art. «^aììII under the lettor 1 . 

•^ L/>^l (*^ (Sdmm ahrafi).^ — Lexicologists state that it is one of 
thejarge kinds of geokoes. It is a determinate word, but only in the 
lense of a generic appellation; they are two nouns compounded into 
one, and there are two ways of asing the word, nam^^ly, one to use 
^the two nouns with afathah like ^^ Wi., and the other to use the 
first one determinate and to join it to the second with afathah, because 
;lt cannot be declined and has neither a daal nor a plnral out of the 
same root. But one may say as its dual, 'Hhese two sàmmd abra^y* 

■ and ih the pi., '^ these sawdmm ahraf^^^ and if he wishes, he may say, 
•** these as'sawdmmj^* without mentioning abra^^ or if he wishes, he 

may say, ^Hhese al-iira^ah or al^abdri^y^ without mentioning sdmnu 
; A poet says : — 

^ By Qod, even if I were his entirely, 
I shouUl uot be a slave eating ahàrl»*^ 

If one uses the second word only, he may say in the dual ahra^da and 
in the pi. abàrifi^ as the poet hsis dono (in the above lines), for he has 
igivon the pi. of the second word only. 

This species is called $dmm abra^^ because it is a samm (poison), 

■ that is to say, God has created a deadly poison in it, and because He has 
^made it of a leprous appearance (abrai). It will be mentioned again 
\ under the lettor j in the art. ^3^^ t . One of the characteristic qnalities 
^of this animai is that, when it settles down in salt, it rolls about in it^ 

giving rise to w^Rd becomes a means of producing white leprosy. 

(Lawfulness .or unlawfulness.) It is unlawful to eat it, on 
account of its being cousidered filthy, and on account of the order (of 

i A Bpecìes of gecko. In £gypt geo. Ptyodaetyha. 


the Propbot) io kill it ; and ifc is not permisible io soli it, as is the 
case with other animais from which no benefit is derived. 

(Properties.) If its blood be applied over a patch of alopecia, it 
will caaae hair to grow on it. Its liver relieves tooth-aclie; and if iti) 
flesh be placed over a scorpion stinga it will prove beneficiai for it. 
If its skin be placed over a bornia, it will cause it to disappear. Tt 
does not enter a hoase in which tbere is the smeli of saif ron. 

(Interpretation of it in a dream.) Sdmm abra^ and al-^a^'/j/ah 
mean, in the interpretation of dreams, two sconndrels going abont 
with slander. ArtamtdAs states that a sdmm ahra^ indicates poverty 
and anxiety. 

«i w I (as' Sanili), — Applied to a gazelle or a bird or any other 
animid that tnrns its right side (towards one) in passing. One says, 

♦• CLy^ ^ u^ I ^ « The gazelle presented its right side to me in 
passing^^ when it passes from the direction of bis loft side to that of 
bis right one. The Àral)s look npon as-sànik as an anspicions onien 
and npon al-bàrih as an inauspicious one. It is said in a proverb, 
^ IVho will be responsible to me for an auspicions event (as-sànik) 
after an inauspicious one (al-bàrili)?^* 

Abù-'Ubaid states tbat T&nus having aaked Ra'bah rogarding 
as'sdnH^ and aìrbdrih^ the latter replied, ^^As-sdrufi is that which 
turuB its right side towards you in passing, and al-bdrih is that 
which turua its left side towards yon in passing; the latter used 
to stop people from proceeding to accomplisli their objects, but 
the Prophet liae prohibited that by an interdiction against omena, 
and iuforme<l tliat it Ima neither the power of drawing any ad van- 
tage nor that of drìving away any evil." Labtd says: — 

** Bj thj life, the divinerà with pebbles know not, 
Nor Uie divinors bj the flight of binls, what Qod is doing.'* 

Tlie snbjectof aMìt/arah (an omen) will be given in the arts. j^^' I and 
ts^ì under the Icttcrs -t and J • 

^ é 

1 (as^Sulfad). — A certain bird having soft plnmage over 
which, if a drop of water is dropped, it flows over it on account of 
}ts softness. PL siMdn. A rdjiz says : — 

r ^ayìt al-^ayawìn 25 

t^ " Oh I Eyerj cUy ber house is my place of resi ai dooii, 

■^' So that you aee the long breeches 

f Like the wiog of a washed subad,^* 

^ ' Tho Araba liken to it a borse wben it swcats. 'j^nùiìì ul-'Àmir! suys : — 

'* Ab if it werc a suboul washed with wiiter." 

l' I ilo nofc iiiìdtbat oiir diviiie3bav6 0xpros.seJ any views rogardin^i; 

iU lawfuiiiess or unlawf ulness. 

y^JI (as'Sabu^ aldo CH^-'I (as'SaJb^) — An animai of prcy, Tls. 
ahu^ and sibd\ axa«^ ^^j | ss A land ahounding with avimals of prey. 

Al-Uasan and Ibn-U:iy&t used to recite, '* And wbat wild bcasts 
or prey (a^sabif^) bave caten/' * witli a saktiah on tbe v (ajr-«afr*), 
^hicb is a dialectical variety witb the people of Najd. Hasssìn b. 
Tbiìbit says witb regard to ^Utaibab b. Abi-Labab : — 

** VV'ho will return thia year to his people ? 
For, verily, ouo that is eateu by a liou will not return ! *' 

Ibn-Mas'ftd used to recite (in tbe above verse) jf*-'! ^^^\j , and Ibn- 
^Abbàs used to recite f^t^i I J^ \j . 

Some say that it (tbe lion) is called a sab\ because it remtiins in 
the womb of its mother for seven montbs, because tbe female does not 
give birth to more tban seven wheips in a litter, and becaur^e the malo 
does not leap tbe female nutil it is seven yctirs old. 

Abù-'Abd-AUàb Y&^At al-IIamawj states in Allah al-A/usfUnril; 
under the (combinatiou of tbe) letters £ and v, that Q^bah is tbe 
nanie of a certtiin pbice in tbe direction of Syria, betwcen whicb and 
al-Madinah there is a distiince of four nìiles; it is mentioned in tbe 
military expeditions of the Propbet, and it was in it that the bcasts 
of prey carne to tbe Prophot to ask bini to assign for thom somcthing 
as food. It is related in tho TabakcU of Ibn-Sa^d, on the authority 
of *Ab:l*Allàli b. Uantab, who said, " Whilo tho Pro^)hot was scatod 
in al-Madinab, a wolf approached, stood liefore him, and howlcd, 
npon which thS'I^ropbet said, 'This is an ambassador to you troni 
the beasts of prey; if you wish to assign for it soniothing (as food), 
it will not pass on frouiittoany other tliing, and if you wish, you 
may leavc it alone and guard agaiust it, in which case whatever it 

i Al-Kur'àn ¥-4. 



' » 



26 AD-DAlltRÌ'8 

is able io seize wtll be its means of snstenance.' Thej replied, ^ 
Apostle of CJod, onr hearts are not inclined io grani ii anyihing/ 
Tlie Prophei ihereupon beckoned io ìt wiih ihree of bis fingers, 
meaning tìiereby, *Snatch li from them nnawares/ Tbo wolf 
then weni away." A poriion of ibis bas been already related under 
the leiter ò in ihe ari. *r^V\ » 

Tbe Wàdi as-Sibà^ (ibe valley of ibe beasis of prey) is on ibe road 
to Rnkkab. Wà'il b. Kftsit, wbile passing tbrongb ii by Asm&' bini 
Rnwaim, ibongbiof (enjoying) ber, wben bo saw ber alóne in ihe ieni; 
she Baid, **By God, if yon are thinking of me, 1 sball cali my beasis of 
prey," upon wbicb be said, " 1 see nobody in ibe valley bai yourself." 
Sbe iherenpon called oni to ber sons, " Dog, Wolf, Lynx, 
Bear, Sirbàn (wolf), Lion, Sabn' (lìon), Hyena, Leopard,** 
npon wbicb ihey carne wiib Uieir swords, vying wiib one anoiber in 
rnnning. He then said, *^ Tbis is noibing bai tbe Wddi as-SibiV 
j (valley of ibe beasis of prey)." ^ 

Ti is related in the iwo ^ahths ihai ibe Apostle of God bas 
probibited a person saying a prayer io spread oni bis iwo forearms 
in tbe niannor ihai a lion (beasi of prey) does. 

Ai-Tinnidbi and al-Hàkim relate on tbe anibority of Abù-Sa^id 
al-Kbudri ihai ibe Prophei said, *^ By Him in wbose band my soni 
is, ibe Hoar of Jadgmeni will noi arrivo, nniil ibe beasis of prey ialk 
wiib men, and antil ibe lash of a man's scoar/^e and the strap of bis 
sboe talk io him, relating io him of whai bis people may bave done 
in bis absence (after him).'' He (al-Hàkim) adds ihai ii is a iradi* 
tion delivered on respectable anibority, and resiing on ihe anibority 
of a single narrator. We do not, however, know it, excepiing 
as being oni of a iradiiion of al-K&sim b. al-Fadl, who is a 
trasiwortby anibority with ibe collectors of iraditions. Yabya 

b. Sa^ìd al-Kattàn and ^Abd-ar-Rahmàn b. Mabdì bave considered 

• • • • 

liim trnsiworiby. 

(Information.) The Apostle of God was asked, ^' Shall we perform 
ablniion for prayer with the water lofi behind by asses ? " and he 
roplied, "And with the water lofi behind by ihe beasts of prey (too)." 
It has been tbns rendcred by ad-Dàrn]katnt. As-Snhailt siates that 
the Prophei intondcd by ii, " Yes, and with ihe water leflAebind by 
tbe beasts of prey (too)," and tbai resembling ibis in consiruciion are 


9ay1t al-9AYAw1n 27 

r the words of God, "*Seven, and the eighth of them was tlieir dog.' "* 

^ He adds, ^^The j in it is said to be the j ofthe eiglU. It is, however, noi 

\ 80| bui tlie j in it indicates an admission ot the truth of what the 

' speakers said, namely, that tliey were seven, because it refers to the 

antecedent words being trtie with the ineauing, *' Yes, and the eighth 

i of theni was their dog,' as would be the case if one were to say, *' Zaid 

18 a poet,' aud I were to reply, 'And a jarisconsult too,' meaning 

thereby, *Yes, and a jarisconsult toc' It is said in the Kur'àu, 

*Ànd provide the dwellers there with fraits.'* Az-Zamakhshari 

States that this j is permissible, for those that said, 'Seven, and the 

oighth of them was their dog/ said that with a firni knowledge and 

aatisfaction on their part, and did uot nierely gness or iniagino it 

like the others." 

Al-Kushairi relates in the first part of ar-Risdlah regarding 
Bunùn al- Jainmal (the camel-driver), who was a man of great power 
and a worker of miracles,thathaving beencast before a lion, the lutter 
began to smeli him and did not do him any harm. When ho camo 
out, he was asked, '^What was there in your niind when the lion 
smelt you ? " and he replied, ''I vvais thinking ofthe diftbrenco of 
opinion among the learned, in regard to the remains of food loft 
by a lion." 

It is said that Sufy&u ath-Thawri happened to go on the piU 
grimage in tlie company of Shaiban ar-Ra'ì (the pastor), when a lion 
appeared before them. Sufyàn thereupon said to Shaibfin, '' Do 
not you see this lion ?" but he replied, '*Be not afraid," and then 
taking hold of its ear, he rubbod it, upon which the lion wagged and 
shook ita tail. Sufy&n said, '^ How great is this notorioty ! " and 
Shaibftn replied, ^'If it were not for thefear of notoricty, Isliould bave 
placed my travelling provisious on its back, until it came to Makkah.'' 

The Hàfi^ Abù-Nu'aim mentions in at-Hilyah that Shaibàn ar- 
Rà% whenever he was under the obligation of performing a toUil 
abhition on account of sexual intercourse and haJ no water near hini^ 
used to ask bis Lord (for it), upon which a cloud used to come and 
sbade him, with (the water of) which he used to bathe and then go 
away. When he used to go for tiie Friday congrega tional prayer, 
ho used to draw a line round bis shcep and goats, and when he 

i Al-¥ur*An XVIlI-21. ■ Idem. 11-120. 


retamed, he used to find them in the same state that he had lef t 
thein in, without their having moved at ali. 

Abft'l-Fiiraj b. aKTawzt and oUiers rekite that the Imam Ahmad 
and ash-»ShàlìÌ one day passed by Shaibfin the pastor, upon which 
the Imam Ahmad said (to his companion), ''I shall ask this pastor a 
qnestion and see vrhai his answer is ;'' bat ash*Shàfi^l said, ^' Do 
not come in his way/' The Imftm Ahmad, however, said, *'I must 
do that," and asked him, *^ Shaibàn, what do yon say.' regarding 
a person who says a prayer with fonr bowiugs of the body and 
makes a mistake in the four prostrations, — what ought he to do ? " 
Shailìdn tliereupon asked, '* According to our religious doctriue, or 
joiirs ?" So, Ahmad asked him, *^ Are there two religions doctrines 
abont it ? " He replie<l, " Yas ; as to yon, you hold Uiat he ought to 
gay a prayer with two bowings of the body and make a prostration 
for the mtdUke, bat as to us, we hold tliat tlìat person is divided in 
his heart and therefore onght to panish his heart, so that it may not * 
repeat the misttike." Ahmad then asked him, ^* What . do yon say 
regarding a person possessing forty sheep or goats, a year oidg-what 
onght he tado? " Shaibftn replied, " According to yon, he ought to 
gtve a sheep or goat (as a poor-rrate), bnt according to us, a slave 
cannot possess any thing while he is with his Miister (God)," upon 
which the Im&in Ahmad swooned; and when he retnrned to his 
senses, tìiey both went away. 

I (the anthor) say that a party oF hiter Icarned men bave adopted 
the doctrine that the pniyer of a person making a mistake (in his 
prayer) is spoilt, on the anthority of the saying of the Prophet, ** No 
part of a man*s pniyer is acceptable, unless he lias compieteti (bound) 
it properly, both as rogards actions and words." They say that a 
prayer is not spoilt, excepting throngh leaving off some obligatory 
part (cut of it); if not so, for wliat purpose are the bowing of the 
body and prostration ? Their object is (to ensure) the magnificatiòn 
{of God) and the presence of one's mind, and not the absence of one's 
roind and neglect It is a tradition delivered on respectable authority. 
The learned bave fixed upon that as the test for the coinpletenefls of a 
prayer, on account of their inability to perceive the secret intentions 
of hearts, and they bave handed it over to persons siiyìng it, so that 
they may consult tliemselves, so as to enable the jurisconsulU to keep 
away the machination and vociferation of Satan from ihose who 

'}■' ^kYlT AL-9AYAWÌK 2*J 

v^recile the formula, ^'Thoro is no deity but God," nnd io lesid theiii 
^ tò the propor obsorvance o£ prayor. Tbey (the learned) liave not 
'l^docidod thnt that in which the hcart and tho tonj[(uo do not confornì 
t-Vfìiìi each othor, though thcro inay be sincerity towards Goti, h 
Yi beneficiai to theni as re^ards tlic future worid. Sincerity towards 
^ Goi! Ì8 oblii^atory in ali devotional acts, and consists in freodoni 
ir from turbidity (of the mind) and clearness f rom impuritìcs. God 
'\ hasMiid, " (We givo you to drink from that which is in their bellies,) 
^V betwixt chyme and blood, — pure milk, — (easy to swallow for thoso^ 
'.; ì¥ho drink)."* In the sanie way as is the freedom of milk from chyme 
^ and blood, there ought to ho the freedom of the sincerity (of man). 
:f in devotional acts from hypocrisy and the several desircs of the soul. 
^ I ha ve discussed this subject at length in al-Jawhar al-farUl^ to which 
r the reader is referred. 


;'^ I bave seeu in one of aUMajàmi^ thtit ash-Sha(i4 uscd to sit 

I'; with Shaib&n the pastor to ask him decisions on certain subjects. 
i(< Ash-Shafi4 was therefore nsed to be asked, '' Oan one (loiirned) liko 
I* you ask this Badawt for decisions?'' and he use<l to reply, '^ He has 
: j. been granted knowledge of what we do not know.'* Shaibàn was illi* 
f;. terate ; and if sucb was the position of one unlearned in the scienoes- 
''^among them (the people of former days), what do you think of their 
ì imàms? Men who had attained the highest degree in leiirning, like 
j. ash*Sli&fiÌ and others^ used to acknowledge the abundance of tlie 
i excellence of the learned men versed in hidden or secret knowledge ! 
i'^'The two illustrious ImAms, ash-Shafi'i and Abù-Hanlfah, bave said. 
!^,*'If learned men are not thesaints of God, God has nosaiut (at ali)." 

n ■ « 

; More b&fid") than one bave related that ÀbA'P Abbas b, Sburail^,. 

f. whenever those present at bis lectures used to be astonished at what 
^^^^ he expounded out of the sciences, used to say, ^* Do you kuow whcnce 
^'- 1 bave derived this (knowledge) ? f bave derived it from the blessing 
• of my sitting with AbiVl-li&sim al-Junaid." 

Shaiban's mode of snpplioation (to God) was this : — *' loving 
'. one, boloved one, owner of tho glori(»us throne, creator, 0* 
' restorer, doer of what Thou desirest, 1 ask of Theo, by Thy might 
^: which none can attempt (desire) to reach, by Thy kingdoni whicL 

' » Al Kur»4n XVI— 68. 



paaseth not away, by the ligbt of Thj face whìch bas fiUed the pillara 
ot Thy throno, and by Tby power witb wbicb Tboa basi assigned a 
1 destiny for ali Thy creatares, tbafc Tbon raayest spare me from die 

evi! of ali tbe wrong-doersl " One oF the poeta bas given in verse 
the names of a party of saints, ont of which are the foUowing lines : — 

** Shtibfin was % pMtor, 
And the secret of his secret wu not concesled. 
Bxert yourself and leave alone yoar boastf al assertion**, 
Eren if some (of them) ha?e become mauifest to yoa (as trae).'' 

I It is related in ar-Risdlah^ in ihe chapter on the mirocles 

I performed by saints, that Sabl b. 'Abd-All&b at-Tostari had 

; in bis house a room whìch the people nsed to cali *^the room 

of the beasts of prey {ÌHÙt a^ùbà"). " The beasts of prey nsed to 
come to biin» and he nsed io show thein into that room, treat tliem 
1 hospitably, eniertain thein with meat, and then allow them to take 

\ their way. It is related in BjfaycA al^mu^taìud^ where mention is 

made of the eartb baving been collected together before them 
(saints) withont any motion on their part, which is more excellent 
(sìs a miracle) than flying in the air and waiking over water, abont 
Sabl b. *Abd«ÀIlàh at-Tostart as baving related, ** I performed tbe 
ablntion for prayer one Friday in thè early days of my career, and 
went to the congregational mosqne. The mosqne was fall of people, 
and the preacher was thinking of moanting the pnlpit ; so leavìng 
good manners and passìng over and beyond the necks of the people, 
j I reached tbe first row. I sat there and foand on my right ^tide 

a yonng man, beantifnl in appearance, fragrant in smeli, and 
baving old and wom-out woollen garments on him« When he saw 
me, he said (to me), ^O Sabl, bow do yoa find yonrself ? ' I replied, 
^Qnitewell; mayGod render yonr state good!' Ithen remained think- 
ing over tbe fact of his baving knowledge of me withoat my know- 
ing bim. Wbile I was in that state, I wsis taken with a barning 
l sensation for making water, which distressed me ; so I remained in a 

I etate of fear between baving to step over the necks of the people, and 

my pniyer not being accepted if I sat down. The yonth then looked 
towards me and said, * Sabl, are yon taken with a bnming sensa- 
tion for making water ? ' and I replied, 'Yes,* upon which taking off 
his sleeveless garmont (hirdm) from bis shoulders, he covered me with 
it, and said, 'Accomplish yoar want, and be quick, so that you may joir 


t the prayer.' I then swooned, and when I opened my eyes, I fonnd an 
"open door and heard a voice saying, ^Enter the door; may God ha ve 
"mercy on* yoii ! ' So, I entered and fonnd myself in a high and forti- 
[fied palaceraised on lofty colnmnSy witli a dato pahn standing in it 
^and by ita side a wator-closet containing water swecter than honoy, 
' and having in it a place for making water, a towel that was hung up, 
and a tooth«stick. I therefore iook off iny clothes, made water, then 
'. bathod, and wiped myself with the towel. I then heard a voice say- 
! ing, *D Sahl, ifyou bave finished yoar want^ say, "Yes."* So, I 
l said, * Yes/ and the youth thereupon took off the hiràm from over 
r me, when I fonnd myself sitting in the place in which I was, and 
\ nol)ody knew (oF my having moved oat of it). I remained puzzled, 
} thinking within myself and Hot admitting what had occnrred to be 
[ true. The timo for prayer having then come, 1 prayed, and I had no 
{ business loft but the yonth, so that I might know bini, Whon I had 
^ finished my prayer, I followed bis traces and found bim to bave 
I entered a certain Street ; be then tnrned towards me and said, * Sahl, 
^'yon seem as if not to believe what you saw,' and I replied, ' No, not 
I at ali.' He then said, 'Enter the door ; may God h<ave mercy on 
;^ you ! ' I saw the door to be the very same one (as J had entered 
^ before) ; I entered the palace and saw the water-closet, the date- 
y palm, and their oondition to be the very same (as I had seen bofore). 
% I then wiped my eyes and oi)ened them, but did not find tbe youth 
^^or the palace." I bave mentioned this narrative, becausc it is one 
;/'of the many wonderful tbings with otliers beside this class o£ mcn, 
:fand because a great many people hardly believe them. Tbere are, 
^ihowever, many possible explanations oE it, one of which i.s that it is 
^ possible that he was removed from bis place whon he swooned, to 
!l^^where God desired, withont bis knowledge, and then brought back 
^to his place, out oE God's grace and as a mark oE bonour for His 
!f saints. 

■ r 

■ » 

l( Onr Sbaikh al-Yàfi*t relates that among other tbings 

^^ told aboiit Sahl, it is also related that the Àmir oE Khur&sàn. Ya'kùb 
;;■ b. al-Laitli, having been attacked with a disease in the treatment of 
which tbe pbysicians were tired, was told, '• In your governmenfc 
, :there is a pions man called Sahl b. *Abd- Allah ; iE you cause bim to 
^: be brought before you, and to pray for you, we shall hopo of your 
f>' being restored to health." So, he had bini brought to bim and 








I 32 ad-dauìrì's 


I askeil hìin to pray (for him), bnt Sahl replied, " How oan my prayer 

I for you be answered, when you are engaged in a ooiirae of wrong- 

iloing?" Ya*lùb thereiipoii resolve<l ui>on repentìng, turiiing 
away froin wrong action», and ncting well towards hia sabjects ; 
lie Uion set freo such of tlie oppressoli people as were in ìiis prison. 
Salii then prayed, " O God, in the aaiue manner as Thou liast shown 
him the abaseinent of sin, show hitn (now) tho glory of obedience 
and clear away from him (the soarce of) his grief I He thereupon 
rose op, as tliough he were loosed from his bond, and was restored to 
health that moment. He oifered a largo sum of money to Sahl, bat 
the latter refased to accept il. When he returned to Tu:itjir he was 
told at the tarning of the road, ** (You wonld have done well), had 
you accepted the wealth which the Amtr oiForeil you, and distributed 
it among the poor," uiK)n which he looked down at the pebbles, and 
they were converted into gems. He then said, " Take as mach as 
you wish," and added, " Does one who has been given like this, 
want the we^ilth of Ya^kiìb b. al-Laith ?*' 

Resembling this narnitive is the following one ont of JCalb aU 
a'yàn regarding the Sliaikh 'Isa al-Hitdr, namely, that he happened 
to pii8s one day by a prostitute and said to hec, " After the first part 
of the night I shall visit yoa." Sho was pleased with it and adoro- j 
e«l herself. When the first part of tho night carne, he entered the 
house in which she was, said the prayer with two bowings of the 
body, and then went out, npon wliìch she said, "I see you are going 
cut,*" but he replied, "I have accompiishod my object." Then a man 
esime to ber and disquieted her mìnd with regard to the Ufo she was 
lesitling. She therefore went out after tho sliaikti and repented 
through him. He married her to one of tho beggars ( poor men) and 
Siiid,''Hold a feiist viith *a/WttA^ as tlie principili dish for it, but do 
not pnrchase any condiment for it." They did aooordinaly and j 
bronght the sbaikh there; and the beggar-j aUo came, but the shaikh 
seemed like one ex{)ecting that somethiug was yet coming. In. the 
meantime that news reached the ears of an amlr (nobleman) who 
waA a friend of that woman ; he therefore took out two flasks filled • 
with wine and sent them to the shaikh, desiring thereby to sneer at 
him; he directed the messenger to say to the shaikh, "I am delighted : 

* A lort of thick gruel DiAde wilk boiliag water, iloar, clarìfied batter» 
vmà honey. 

Eivehenrd, bat I leam that yoa bave no con'Iìmeat; 
I and nae ìt as a condìment.'* Wben the messenger 
1 said to liim, "You are late (in comìng);" 
of the finska and shaking it, ke poured oat 
ilear honej'. He thon did the aaine thìng with 
ind ponring out of it Anibian cbirifìed buttur, 
iger, "Sit down and eaL" So he nte and tasted 
: and honey, the 1Ìke of which two in taute, coloar, 
fiever seen. The messenger tlierenpoii went baek 
amlrofitj ao he uext citine and ate, wns |tuz»led 
and repeuted (oE his gins) tlirough the ahaikh. 
tì»a is what has been robited regardìng oiie of 
lìJ, "While^I was going through a desert, I found 
nd a thorny trae and eating out of it fresh datos. 
a salutation, and he rotiirued it and said, 'Advanca 
Tore advanced to the tree, but overy timo I took a 
retarned to the condition ot'a thorn, apon which 
d said, 'Begone, had you obeyed Hlm in yonr places 
wonld bave fed you with datcs in deserta I'" 
eral narratirea aboat them like this, but I bave 
drop out of the deep ocoans. In abort, the world 
the light of an ohi woman wbo survea theiii, as will 
under tbìa Ictter. To refer ali this to an origin 
, namely, thut "God is niighty over ali ;" whìlat 
lal naturai lawa is not inconsistnnt wilh reaaou. 
regurding the Shaikh Abit'l-(^uit1i al-Yamant tliat 
ky to collect wood, and tbat wlùle ho was engnged in 
ne tbere and ate bis asa. He tberefore said to the 
ht of Him wbo is worsbipped, I ahall not carry 
ly back." So, the lion sabmitted itsolf to him, 
ded the wood on ita back and drove Ìt to the town» 
. it, and then Ut the lion go. 
hat Sha*w&Dah waa blest with a son, and that sfao 
io the best manner possible. Whea he grew np 
ago, be asked ber, " mother, I aak yon by God, 
1 me to God (aa a present) ?" She replied, "0 my 
leople of learniag and those that bave the feur of 


31 AD-DAMfBrs 

God in Uiein are fit subjects for making a present of io kiogs» whilst 
yon mj son are (yet) devoid of experìence and knowledge and do noi 
know what is wanted of yon ; yonr time for it therefore bas not yet 
come." He then did not speak any more on the subject with ber. One 
day he went forth to the mountain to colleot wood; he had bis riding 
beast with bim, so he dismonnted f rom it^ tied it, and then went away. 
He coUected the wood» and on returning finding tbat a lion had 
eaten bis beasi^ he placed bis band on the lion's neck and said to it, 
*' dog of God, thon bast eaten my riding beast ; so by the trnth of 
my Master, I shall certainly load Uie wood on tby back, in the same 
way as thon bast acted wrongfnlly towards my beasf He then loaded 
the wood on its back, and it was obedient to bis order, so mnch so 
tbat it went with bim to the boose of bis motber. He then knocked at 
the door, which she opened for bim. She then said, ^' my son, now 
that I bave seen this, yon are certainly fit for the service of the King 
(Qod); therefore depart now in the service of Ood/' He therenpon 
bade ber f arewell and went away. 

The author of Manàkib ai'àbrdr relates regarding Sbàb al- 
Kirmànì, who was the king of Kirmàn, tbat baving (pne day) gone 
ont for bnnting, he went so far in pnrsnit of game tbat he reached 
a desert by himselL He there saw a yonng man moanted on a lion, 
and ronnd abont bim a great many beasts of prey. When the 
beaste of prey saw bim (Sbàh), tbey hastened towards bim ; bat the 
yonth tnrned tbem away from bim. While he was doing tbat, an 
old woman approached with a cnp of water in ber band; she handed 
it over to the yonth, wbo drank some of it and gave the rest of it to 
Sbàh. The latter drank it and said, *'I bave never tasted any thing 
pleasanter or sweeter than it" The old woman then disappeared, 
and the yonth said, '^This world, the wbole of which belongs to G-od, 
is at my service, and wbenever I want anytbing, I cause it to be 
present before me nntil snob time as I wisb." ShAh was surprised 
at it, and the youth added, *^ 1 inform you that when God created 
the world, He said to it, ' world, serve bim who serves me, and 
make bim serve thee who serves thee.'*' He then gave bim some 
good ad vice. That was the reason of Sb&li's repentance and turning 
away from bis sinfal coarse. 

It is related in al-I^yd', in the subject of 'Ajd'ih al-kalb (the 
wonders of the heart), on theauthority oflbràblm ar-Ratt*» who said, 

hatJLt al-hatàw&n 




t to Abù'l-Khair ad-Dailaral at-Tlnàtl (?) te pay my respects 
he said the evening prayer, bnt did noi recite the first or 
ohapter of the Kiir'àn standing ; so I said to myself , * AH 
mey is in vain.' When the morning carne, I went to the 
Dg piace for ablation, when a lion carne to me ; so I returned 
éft and said to him, *A lion carne to me,' npon which he vrent 
id oried ont to the lion, * Have I not told thee that thou art not 
me in the way oE my gnest^?' The lion then tarned away, and 
brmod the ablution. When I refcarned, he said, ^ Ton devote 
Ives to the observance of the external forms and are thereEore 
d oE the lion, whiist we devote onrselves to the observance oE 
temal forms, and the lion is thereEore aEraid of ns.' " 

shaikh, the Im&m the very learned Jamal-ad-din b. 'Abd- 
b« Asad al-Yàfi'i, recited to us the foUowing lines composed 
mself : — 

*'They are the (true)lioD8l "What is the lion ? The lions are in dread 

of them 1 
And what is the leopard, and vhat are the claws of the lynx and ita 

canine tooth, 
And what is the shooting viìth. arrows and what the stabbing with 

a spear, 
And what is the stroke of a sharp (bold) sword, and what ita point, 

to them? 
They have resolutions that cut cutting instruments; 
They have hearts a change in which is the most ezcellentor thinga 

desired ; 
To them everything ia obodient and subacrvient, 
Nothing ever rebela againat them, nay, to obey them ia the custom 

of everything ; 
They fear Qod and nothing elae, 

Wlìilat ali beside Him, the animate and inanimate thinga fear them' 
They have prepared themaelvea for acquiring ali kinda of honour 
And reapcct, to count which would take a long time, 
Until they have ( now ) plucked the fruìt of love after undergoing 

And the torturea of love have (now) become aweet." 

t ia related in a narrative that God inspired David to the effect, 
avid, fear Me as thou Eearest the injurious lion." Tho mcan- 
it ia, " Fear Me on account oE My fear-inspiring character in 
jbape oE My niight, My greatness, My magnificence, My 
ipotenco, My imiignation, the vehemence of My stcrnncss, and 




the execution of My order, in the same waj as thou fearest the liei 
accustonied to seize ita prej, on account of the greatness of ita body 
ihe anaterity of its conntenance, the interlocking of its canine teeth 
the strength of its claws, the conrnge of its heart, the qnickness witl 
'which it becoines enraged, the snddenness of its attack, its excessivi 
msfaiug, and the vicissitades of fortune in the seizing of its prejJ 
my brother, entertain a due fear of God and leave off the rest 
everything fears him who entertains a just or due fear of God, an< 
everything obeys him who observes due obedience to God. 

Its lawfulness or unlawfulness has been already given under th 
lettor t • The riding of lions is disapproved, on account of what Ibn 
*Adt has related in the biography of Ismà^il b. ^Ayyftsh, on th 
anthority of Bal^yah, who had it on the authority of Yahyà b. Sa^ìd 
who had it on the authority of Khàlid b. Ma'dftn, who had it oi 
the authority of al-Mikdàm b. Ma'di-Karib, who said, ^' The Pro 
phot has prohibited the riding of the beasts of prey/' The sale of suoi 
of the beasts of prey as are not nsef ul is not valid, but some say that i 
is allowable to sell them for their skins. As to such as are nseful lik 
the lynxi the elephant, and the ape, itis allowable to sell ihem. 

i^^f*J \ (as-Sabantà) and (^ AXfJ I (as-Sabandày—^A bold or dai 
ing leopard. Fem. sabandàh. 

'A'ishah said that the genii wailed for ^Uuiar three day 
before bis death. 

[The author bere gives some lines purporting to he the lumec 
tation of the genii, which are omitted bere on account oE their lengt] 
and on account of their not being in connection with the subject o 
this art., excepting the last line. The last distich is as follows :— 
<* I did not fear that bis death woold be 
At the hands of a daring leopard (M&in/d), blue in the eyes, indig 
nant and lookiog down.''] 

(jjkj\ss Olle who is iììdignant vnth his eyeìids relaxed and lookin 
down on the ffrouììd. The word as-sabantà may sometimes be prò 
nounced with a maddah. Al-Jawhari attributes these lines to asb 
ShammAkh and says in aUhtVdb that, when 'limar died, the peopl 
asoribed these lines to ash-Shamm&kh b. Diràr and his two brothera 
they were three brothers, and ali of them were poets. The leopar 
{^n^namir) will be described hereaEter under the lettor e; • 




iàm}\ (as^Sabaitar). — Like al-^'amaitlud. A certain bìrd havìng 
p long neck, always seen on shallow water, and hearing the 
lt|iiet of i(}nCWaizAr\ — so al-Jawharì and Ihn-al-Athir say, and it 
Ident that they intend hy it mAlik aUhaztix. It is said in ài- 
km that al-hiivld (the orane) U sarnamod libuH-^aizàr. Al- 
ihal will he deserihed hereaf ter under the lettor f • 

'■^^ «I 

lihi^^l (ai-Suhalah), — Like al-humazali. A leveret or a young 
that has beeome larger than a klùmih and has separated from 
^oompany o£ ita mother. 

.■ o< 


I^lmr^ \ (as'Suhlti/ah),^ — ^Thesameasthe lizard aWa/iàyah, Ibn- 

t\s statos that it is a certain reptile larger than the common 
kO| and that in ar-Iiaw^aK al^'adàyah is reckoned to he a species 

lizard al-toazcui (geclio); he says tluit it is unlawful. Ibn-Ku- 
h and the anthor o£ al-KifAyah state that the male of aU^aiiàyah 
led al-^afira/ut, and al-Jàhid states that al-Utflrafut is in the 

t oE al-Kais the same as al-^acidi/ah. Under the lettor » will 
yen the statement of al-Azhari, namely, that it is a sleek (shiniug) 
lo that rans aboat and goes to and f ro mnch, resembling sdnim 
/, hut it does not injare (anybody) and is better looking than it 

i^^ \ (aS'Sahà) — The bat. Sing. sahdh;—Bo an-Nadr b. Shu- 
says. The bat {al-khuffàsh) has becn already deserihed under 
lettor ^ . 


*• {Saknfàn) and eij**^ (Suhnun). — A certain very i nielli* 

\Ì bird found in Morocco; it is so called on account of the sharp* 
oE its intelligence and sagacity. 

8abnùn b. Sa^ìd at-Tanùkhì al-Kairaw&ni was named after 

It 18 a unique surname, bis proper name being ' Abd-as-ISaldm. 

i was adisciple of Ibn-al-Kasim and the author of al-Mmlaicicanah^ 

luob was before bini (at first) drawn up by Asad b. al-Furut, on the 

ithority of Ibn-al-K&sim, but withoat any arrangement in it. Ibn- 

*iiràt then, however, withheld it from Sahnùn, and Ibn-al-Kasim 

refore prayed against him to the eifect that neither it nor he wonld 

> Called iu <Oiniln iiuilàn-^Chalcides ocelìatits. Lacerta oeelkttd of Forak&l, 




be of any nse to God, which has happeued aocordiugly, as that book 
Ì8 neglected, and reliance is plaoed on the Mudavnoanah of Sahnùn. 
Babnùn died in the month of Rajah in the year 240 A. H., and was 
boni in the month of Ramadàn in the year 160 A. H. . 

_r o« 

*A^ I (ajf-SoA/i/aA). — [A kid or lamh]. The young oneofa 
flhe-goat or a ewe, both male and temale, Pls. $ak1d^ BÌkkalah^ and 
ùhhàL A poet aays: — 

"For death, the mothen noarìsh their youDg ones (tiMai), 
In the aame way Mfor the ruina of hoDBea, are direllÌDg-houBes boilt.'' 

The J in the above linee (*AjJJ and ^^j^) is the J of eonsequeiìce^ 
as in the linee of another poet: — 

'* Onr wealth for those who are to inherìt, we colleot, 
ADd our houses for min io be oauaed by vicUntudes of fortune, we 

Honses are not boilt for rnin, bnt their end is roin, which is like the 
linea of another poet: — 

" If death is their end, 
Hien (snrely) what the mother brings forth is for death." 

OtùA has said, ^^ And Pharaoh's people picked him np tliai he might be 
(ttl^^) for them a foe and a grief."* And God has said, ** Moses said, 
* O oar Lordi verily, Thoa hast bronght to Phuraoh and bis cliiefs 
ornamenta and wealth in the life of this world; our Lord I that they 
may err (!>^-^) from thy wayl our Lordi Confo und their 
wealth and harden their hearts that they may not believe until they 
aee grìevous woel * "■ 

(Information.) Abù-Zaid stiites that the young ones of a ewe or 
she-goat, the moment they are born, are (each one) called sahhlah^ 
whether they are males or females; then they are called hahmah in the 
sing., both masc. and fem., and in the pi. baluim; when they become fonr 
months old and are separated from their mothers, the young ones of a 
ahe-goat are called y//ctr, sing. ja/r, and fem.^'a/raA; when it (:i kid) 
grazes and becomes strong, it is called ^uA^ and ^atiUl^ pi. 'ir^dn 
and *itildìi. The male during ali these stages is called jadi» and the 
female which has not become a year old is called *andk^ pi. ^iinUk; the 

1 Al-Kor'An XXyUI— 7. « Idem X— 88. 

9AY1t AL-9A.TAWltT 39 

oomes a yenr old Ì3 called tait, and the female ' anz. 
ind yenr it becomes a fadha', the male beiag called 
Temale jW/ia' A. 

18 regarding 'Untar as havÌDg said, " For taking the 
hem, cennt the kids and lambs (too)." Ash-Shàfi't 
open this AB a proof that one onght io pny a poor- 
at isproduced frotn tazable property {an-nifdb),^ by 
over tbe originai stock,* for a year represents on 
e youDg kida and tainba are an inorease in Uves, — so 
sn if they are boni beEore the compie tion of the year 
rinkting of an eye), tlie poor-rato tax oaght traly to 
, on tlie oonipletion of tbe year over the nifàb, even 
i have died before the completioa oE the year. Bat 
U conditioiin] on the lìifdb oat of the tnothers being 
)), and others my that it ìs conditionnl only on some 
n ìE it he one, being alive. 

Ll)inad and Àbù>Ya'là a1-MawHÌlt relate out of a tradì- 
nirub that the Prophet happened to pass by a inangy 
oh its people had taken out (froin the rest); the Pro- 
«ìd, " By Hini in whoso hand my soni ia, verily, the 
signi(ì<tant in tbe eyea of God than this one ìs in the 
I." Al'Bazz&r relatea in bis Mtiinad, on the anthority 
, that tbo Prophet happened to pass by a dung-ploce 
lich a kid or laiiib was lying dead, when lie aaked, 
eople any need of it?" and tUey ropliod, "0 Pro- 
d its peoplo any need of it, they woald not have 
' The Propliet ihereupon said, "By God, verily, the 
intempUble in the eyea of God thun thia kid or kmb 
its people. May 1 not fìnd one of yon destroyed by 

in the ^rak of Ibn-Hish&m tlint when the Prophet 
Iona started on the expedition to Badr, they met a 
id bim for the news of the people, bat they dìd not 
om biin. The men tben said to him, " Saluto the 

hnndred dirkams, or fire caiuels, or twenty dto&ra, or fort/ 
ali of whicb the poor-rate ìb lened. • From the date of the 
I poot-rate. 

40 AD-BAMlRrS 

Apostle of Ood ;" so he asked them, '* Is ihere an apostla of God 
ftmong yon ?'' They replied, *' Tes/' and so he salated him and 
said, **IE yoa are an aposUe of Qod, inforni me as to what ihere h 
in the womb of ttiis mj she-camel.'* Salamah b. Salàmah b. Wakasb, 
who was then qaite a young boy, said to him, '^ Do not ask the 
Apostle of God that qnestion, bnt tarn to me, I shall inform yon of 
it; there is in ber womb a yonng one (saJchlah) from yon." The 
Apostle of God therenpon said to Salamah, ** Desist, yon bave 
nttered obscene langnage towards the man," and then tnmed away 
from him. Al-Hakim has related it in aUAftistadtak^ ont of a tradii 
tion of Ibn-Lnbai'ah) on the anthoriiy oE Abù'l-Aswad, wlio had it on 
the anthority o£ ^Urwab, with some addittonal words, namely, that the 
Aposile of God having mei ai ar-Rawhà* a man ont of the people of 
the desert, who was going in the direction of Badr, the men asked 
him regarding the news of the people, bui they did not find any 
news with him. They then said to him, *' Salate the Apostle of God;" 
so he asked them, ''Is ihere an apostle of God among yon?" and 
they replied, ^^Tes." He then salated him and said to him, *^If yon 
are an apostle of God, inform me of what there is in the womb of thia 
my she-camel." Salamah b. Salàmah b. Walkash, who was then 
qnite a yonng boy said to him, ^ Do not ask the Apostle of God, 
bui tnrn to me, I shall inform yon abont it; yon bave covered ber, 
and there is in ber womb (as the resnlt of it) a yonng one (takltlah) 
from yon." The Apostle of God thereapon said to Salamah, ** De- 
sisi, yoo bave nsed obscene langnage towards the man." Tlie 
Aposile of God then tnrned away from him and wonld not speak to 
him ai ali, nntil they rètarned from the joamey, and the Maslims 
welcomed them ai ar-Rawbà' and congratnlated them, when Salamah 
said, ** Apostle of God. what do they congrainlate yon aboat ? By 
God, we saw none bnt barren old women like confined (tied down) 
sacrificial camels, and we slanghtered them!" The Apostle of God 
said, ** Every tribe has the facnlty of iniaitive perception, and the 
noble ones are aware of it." Al-Hàkim adds that it is an an then tic 
iradition, bnt one not traced to the Oompanion (of the Prophet) who 
first related it {mursal). 

Connected with the snbjeci of the facnlty of intuitive perception 
{(d'Jlrdsah) is what al-Hàkim has related regarding Ibn-Mas'ùd as 
having said, '^Thebesiof mankind in iniaitive perception were three. 

5AYÌT al-payawìn 41 

1 he perooived the intrinsìc state ot Josejth and 
[ononr hia ahidmg here;"' the womaii, who 
i said to hor father, "Omy Father, hire hìni 
1 Àbà-Bakr, when he nppointed 'UmarnshU 
adda that Ibn-Maa'ùd haa broiight tliein Ut~ 
:h tbis niitbentlc antbority. 
,) À kid or lamb that bas Iieeu reared on tbe 
egards ita lawfulness, hi the sanie po!<Ìtioii ns ■ 
re (al-jalldlah); the eating of it ia dìiuipproved 
at ot a tbing from which one oiight to keep at 
clean. 'l'hÌB ia aaid to he triily ao, hi asIi-Sharl^ 

and ai-MinhAj, and nr-Uftyftiit and thfl jmople 
id in the saine way, wbilat AbCt-lHliàk al-Mar- 
« tbat tbe di:M|;i|i rovai of it ìs to bo in tbe light 
!ie Imfitn al-Qazziilt, al-Bagawi, and ar-Rafi't 
iclined to tbe aaine opinion. AUjallàlak is ali 
ating orduro and nnclean tliinga, whether it ha 
lois, or C0W3, or goats antl abeep, or dumostio 
, or any other kind uut of tbe edible iminuda. It 
ited under tbe lettor i in the art, g**.*'! tbut 
wiahed to eata domestio few], he naed to ordor 
. done aocordingly for days, after which ho iiacd 
[iit, al-USkim, and al-Uaibiikì rolate on tba 
Mi b. 'Uiiiar tbat tbo Propliot has prohibìtcd 
lal fcoding on orduro, and tbe driitktiig of ita 
id; nl-Uàkiin adda that tbe tradition is anthoa- 
>ut id-liuibaki atatoa that it i» not a atrong one, 
ibange he upparont in ita fleah on account o£ 
tliere ia no unhiwhdnesa in it or any disapprovai 
ng from Talimmat ut-Taliininali, states tliat^ 

eata clean tliings, it is not a jaUàlttfi, hut 
test doea not conniat tu wliat it does moatly, 
f tbere is the slightest smeli of unclcanness in 

flven if it he very httle, it Ìs in tbe poaitìon of 
itlicrwiae not. It Ìs rolated on the autlinrity of 
)e test for prohibitlon is that tbere ahonld 
acss in tlie wbolo ofit, or tlie amell sbould 

l. • Idem XXVni-26. 

42 AD-DAJrìars 

nearlj reseiuble the snueU oE nncleaaness; bafc as io a little smeli, 
it is Dot to be taken into consideration. Bat the former is the 
true opinion, and it corresponds in that respeot to anj slight 
ohange towards uncleanness in water. If, howeyer, an ordare« 
eating animai eats clean fodder for a long time, so that its flesh 
beooraes good and is free from uncleanness, the condition of disap* 
provai is also removed from it. There is no particnlar period wìth as 
for feeding it on fodder, bui the test is the removal of the smeli by 
irhatever means. Ar-Ràfi't states that, according to some of the 
leamed men, the period of feeding with fodder in the case of camels 
and cows is forty days, in the case of goats and sheep seven days, 
and in the case of domestio fowls three days. He adds, ^^With ns 
that is the period mostly allowed." If it be not fed on fodder, the 
prohibition for its use b not removed by (simply) washing it after 
slaughtering it, or by cooking or roasting it, or drying it in the air, 
even if that shonld remove the smeli, and similarly according to the 
authorof at^TahdhSby even ifthe smeli passes away in process of 
Urne. Some, however, say the opposite of this. In the same manner 
as its flesh is prohibited, so are also its milk and eggs prohibited, 
and riding it without a thing intervening between the rider and it 
18 disapproved ; its bidè beoomes clean by tanning, bnt the trae 
opinion is that it is like its flesh and cannot be rendered clean by 
slaughtering it, according to those who hold the animai to be unclean. 

Sahnùn was asked regarding a lamb suckled by a sow, and he 
replied that there was no harm in eating it. At-Tabarl states that 
ali the leamed men are agreed in the opinion that, if a kid (al-jadi) 
be fed with the milk of a bitch or a sow, il; is not unlawful, thoagh 
there is no difference of opinion with regard to the doctrine of tìie 
milk of swine being unclean like ordura Ànother authority states 
that the meaning of it is that the milk of the sow is not recognisable 
either by tasto or smeli in the lamb ; God removes it and converts it 
(into another thing), in the same way as He converts nourishment| 
whilst God hasdeclared as unlawfal for editing (only) the things which 
are in themselves unclean, and the uncleanness of which is recognis* 
able by the senses ; — so Abii'l-Hasan ^Alt b. Khalaf b. Bastài al- 
IKurtabt says in Sliarh aUBuhMA. He died in the year 419 A. H. 
and was one of the shaikhs (teachers) of Abù-^Umar b. 'Abd-al-Barr. 

9av1t al-^ayaw&h 43 

ii-5»iftiin).— The wolf. Pls. tardff and sarSldn. Fem. 

fem. pi. b oE the naual form. It means the 1Ìoa in the 

lail. Abù'i-Muthlam eays as un elegy on ti denti iiiao! — 

[hter In TaHejw, iho aorriec of baonera, 

ter in ouemblieB, the lion (nV/id») of youtk*." 

States that the m in sirhdn is an additionnl or servilo 

it the word Ì9 of the measare m^, the pi. beìag 

Às&'ì states that the fem. ts sirhdnali. 

lì relates regarding a postor that he alighted in a valley 
ind goats, and that a wolf snntched away a sheep out 
therenpon rose and raising his voice exclaiincd, "O 
ivalleyl" npon which he heurd a voice saying, " 0> 
hiin his sheep." The woU then brooght the aheep 
here, weiit awiiy. 

loss or nnlawEuhiess, propertiea, and the interpretatioa 
have beeii already given. 

) " The seeking far the evening meal niade him ligbt 
b&-'Ubaidah states that the origin of it ia that a man, 
t in search of his evening meal, fell upon a wolf 
Al'Asma^ states that a beaat went forth in search 
neal, and a wolf baving come aerosa it, ate it. Ibn- 
that the origin of it is that the people naud to he 
ti cidled Sirhan, who was a brave man; a man, bow- 
liiy, " I shall anrely grnze iny camels in tbiri vaìiey, 
Taid oF Sirh&n b. Hnzlali," hnt Sirhtln ciiniu to liiin, 
t took away his cumels, saying : — 
NajltiBh that the paator of their oameU 
on Sirh&n, while he «as in search of hi* e?enìug meal ; 
e search for an evening meal inade him fall npon ooe like a 

both banda «nd accnstomed to stabbing." 

to the seeking of an object of want which tenda one 

s-Saratàn). — [The crab]. A certain well-known ani- 
called the water-scorpion. Ita sobriqnet is ahH-balyr. ' 
I aqnatic creatores, but alao lives on land; it ia very 

44 AD-DAMIRfs 

qnick in walking and running, and bas two jaws, clawa, sharp naila, 
and Beveral teedi, and is hard in ita back ; a person seeing it wonld 
ihink tbat it is an animai withont a head or a tail. Ita two eyes are 
placed on its shonlders, its inouth is in ita chest, and its two jaws 
are split on the two sides. £t has eight legs, and walks on one side. 
It draws in through the nostrils both water and air together. 
li casts off its skin six tiines in a year, and bailds for its hole two 
doors, one opening into water and ibe otber on dry land; wben it 
<SàsÌB off its skin, it closes the door wbìch is next to the water, ont of 
fear for itselE on account of the animala of prey of the fisi) kind, and 
leaves the one which is next to the dry land open, so that the wind 
may reach it, dry np the moisture in it, and strengthen it; wben it 
becomes strong again, it opens the door next to the water and seeks 
its nonrishment. 

Aristotle states in an-Nu'Ht tbat people assert that, if a dead 
crab be fonnd in a hole (pit) thrown on its back in a village or any 
land, that place will be secnre from heavenly misfortaneSi and that 
ìf it be hnng on a tree, it woald incretise the quantity of its f ruit 
A poet says descriptive of it :-^ 

** There is a wonder in the crab of the sea, 
Visible to mea, and noi concealed ; 
It ia esteemed to be weak in ita morement, 
Bat it ia more powerf al in aaaaulting with ita arma than ita neigh- 

It ahowa itself to one vho aeea it, aa a whole, 
Bat when it movea, he aeea it (only) aa a half." 

It is said that in the Chinese Sea tliere are crabs which, when 
they come ont on land, hecome hard liko stono, and physicians make 
ibem inio a collyrium, wliicb has the effcct of clearing away opacities 
(in the eye). 

The crab does net affect to be crcated by means of propagation 
(of the species) or production, bat it affects to be created in the 
shell; it comes ont of it and is tiien born. 

It is related in al-Hilyah regarding Ab(i*l-Khair ad-Dailami as 
having said, "I was with Khair the weaver, when a woman carne 
to him and asked bim to weave a sash for ber; she asked him, 
'Whatwould be the cost of making it?' and he roplied, ^Two 
•dirbams.* She said, *I bave nothing with me this moment, bnt 



^AWk'ja AL-HAYAWAK 45 

io-niorrow uiornìng I sball bring tbem io you'. He then said , ^When 
; JOQ bring tbem in tbe niorning, if you do not see me, tbrow tbom 
fallo tbe Tigris, and wbeu I return I sball take tbem out of it/ upon 
irbieb sbe replied, * WilHngly and witb pleasure.' Tbe woman carne 
Ittie next morning, and Kbair boing away, sbe sat down for a time ex- 
peoting bim, after wbicb sbe got up and tbrew a rag witb tbe two 
dirbams folded in it into tbe Tigris. A crab tbereupon beM up tbe rag 
and dived (witb it) into tbe water. Tben after a time Kbair carne 
back, opened tlie door of bis sbop, and sat on tbe bank (of tbe river) 
ÌTor tbe pnrpose of performing ahiution for prayer, wben a crab carne 
out of tbe water, bastening towards tlìe direction of tbe ]dace 
^wbore be was, witb tbe ragon its back. Wben it approacbed tbe 
ibaikb, be took it, and tbe crab went its way. I.tbeieupou said to 
bim, ^I saw sucb and sucb a tbing I' and bo said, ^Iwisbyounot 
to divulgo tbis secret in my lifc-time.' I consentcd to do so." 

(Lawf ulness or unlawfulness.) It is unlawful to eat it, on account 
pf its being considered filtby like a sbell-fisb, and ar-Bàfi4 states,. 
[bn account of an injurious propcrty in it, Bnt according to ono 
latatement it is lawf ni, wbicb is tbe doctrine of tbe scbool of Màlik. 

; (Properties.) Tbe eating ofacrabis beneficiai inpainoftbe 
-back, wbicb is tbereby strengtbened (bardened). It is said in 
(an^Ifu^'At tbat be wbo bas tbe bead of a crab bung on bis person 
! b not able to sleep, if tbe raoon is invisible or black (burnt), but if 
;lt be otberwise, be would sleep. If a crab be burnt and pile.*» o£ 
ybatever nature are stuffed witb it, it will cure tbem. If its leg be 
^hong on a tree baving fruit on it, its fruii will fall down wìtbout 
iany (obvious) reason. Its flesb is bigbly beneficiai to persona 
[àuffering from consumption. lE a crab be placed over wonnds, it 
^wonld extract an arrow, and it is beneficiai in suake-bite.<5 and 
[ aoorpion-stings. 

(Intorpretation oE it in a dream.) A crab in a dream indicates^ 

\ a man mucb given to plotting, on account of tbe largo number of its 

» ìreai)ons, — one possessing mucb energy, diiBcult to be caugbt, and 

' dlfficult to be made a friend of. He wbo dreams of eating a crab 

Vili obtain wealtb from a distant land. Jàmftsb (v^^U?) sta tea 

tbat tbe flesb of a crab in a dream indicates unlawful propcrty. 


46 A1>-DAUtBÌ'S 




»^\ (as-Sur^iib). — [The weasel]. The some as Um-Hr^. 
It ia also called aii'iiiìns (the ichneanion) ; — so it is saìd io Kifàyai 

^jtr*^ I ({u-Sarafàt). — ^A certain small ìnsect that bniids ita 
nest in a fornace for making glass, ai theiime of its being excessi vely 
lieated ; it lays its eggs and prodaces its yonng ones in it, and it 
does net bnild its nest, excepting in a place in which fire is con- 
iinnally bnrning ; — so Ibn-Kh. says in the biographj of Ta^]kùb K 
§àbir ai-Man jnnlki. This insect shares tliis descriptive character 
In common with the phoenix {ai^samandàl)^ which will he described 
in its proper place. 

^ o* 

iìjmì I (as'Surfah). — ^The same as al^ra^ah (the wood-fretter). 
Ibn-as-Sikklt states that it is a certain creeping thing having a black 
bead, the rest of its body being red. It bailds for itself a sqaare 
nest or habitation ont of small fragments of twigs, which it glues 
together by means of its stayer in the shape of a coffin. It then 
enters it and dies. 

lyg^ \ ly^ I oJ^, aor. UJLr-3 with a iaim/t, ^^-« . as Tlìe mrfaU 
aie the leaves of the tree^ the tree becoming ^ijj»^ ^j^* 

It is related in a tradition ihat Ibn-^Umar said to a man, "When 
yon come to Mina and reach snch and snch a place, alight there 
nnder a certain tree which is there, the leaves of which never fall, 
npon which locnsts never light, which is never attacked by the 
insect surfaJij which is never pastared npon by pastnring cameU and 
goats and sheep, and nnder which seventy prophets aliglited." 

(Lawfnlness or nnlawf ulness.) It is unlawful to eat it, becanse 
it is one of the small animals that creep on the earth (al-hashardt). 

(Proverb.) '^ More skilled in f abricating than a surfah^^ which 
bas been already explained under the letter <. 

^UJ«J I {a&'Siirmàn), — A certain insect liko a stono. Also, a 
species of hornets, yellow, black, and of mixed colonrs. 





J I (aS'Sinoah).— The locnst in its first stage, when it is a 

J larva. The word is originally with a liamzah (sar*)^ and a»'SÌnoah{?y 
' in a dialectical varietj. 

>--^ I (a*-&'»fn4A).— The locnst;— so Ibn-S!dah says. 

£|«XA«.J| (aj-Sa'rfcinal). — A pigeon. 

IAa^JI ((w-5/'ZaA).— The most inalignant kind of devils called 
^ ol^Udn. As'siHd also means the same. It may be written with 
I either a long or short » (at its end). PI. ds-sa^dlt. i f^J I o.UJUls3 
'^Tké woman beeame vertj clamorous and fouUtongued, A poet says : 

<* I bave seen a wonder sinoe yesterday, — 
Five old women like goblins {fU-Ma^àlt) 
j. ' Eating what I make, by cbewiog ifc gently with closed moutbg; 

May Qod noi leave a tooth for tbem ! *' 

; Abù-'Umar says : — 

««0, may Qod remove far from good, the oUldren of the fem&Ie 
goblin ! X 

;• • Amr b. Yarbù*— the most wicked of men {an-nàk) ; 

i They are neither chaste dof piudent («Aya/).** 

^The poet has converted the cr in an-nàs and àky&s into ^ , which 
; Is a dia], variety with some of the Arabs. 

Al-Jàhi4 States that it is said that *Amr b. Yarbu* waa the 
' bffspring of a female goblin and a man. He adds that Jurhum was 
|oiit of the oflfspring of angels and women (daughters of Adam), and 
•that whenever an angel rebelled against God in heaven, he was sent 
down to the earth in the guise of a man, as was dono in the case of 
JHàrfit and Màrùt; in this manner one of the angels had sesual 
rlntercoarse with one of the women (daughters of Adam)^ who then 

e gave birth to Jurhum, on which account a poet of theirs says i 

" There is no harm, for Jurhum are your slaves • 
People are strangers (to you), but they are your inherited slaves." 

JA1-Jàhi4 further states that cut of this class was Bilkìs, the queen of 
[^Bheba, and likewise Dhtf 1-Karnain, whose mother was a woman and 

> A$-9Ìfyàh is given as a dial. var. in Lane*e Lex. 

48 ad-damìbìb 


vrhode futher was aii angel, Eor which reasoD, when ^Uinar b. ai 

KhaU&l> heard a man csilling out another man, '^0 Dhù'l-Karnain, 

he said, ^* Ha ve you finìshed the names of the prophets, so that yo 

liave now taken to the names of angels ? '' The trath aboat it i 

that angels are preserved f rom the minor and major sins like prophets 

as the Kàdi ^ly&d and others have said. Às to their saying tha 

Jarhnm was ont oF the offspring of angels and women, and likewis 

Dbù'l-Kamain and BilUs, it is a thing which is rejected (denied] 

whilst their adducing in evidence the story of Hàrùt and Màrùt i 

not worth anything, for it does not establish the argament whici 

they advance, nay, Ibn-*Abbàs states tLat they were two meo 

enchanters, living in Babylon. Al-Uasan states that they were tw« 

strong sturdy men out of the nnbelieving foreigners, who nsed i 

decide dispates between men and teach them the art of enchantmen 

or magio ; but they were not angels, because angels do not knos 

magic. Ibn-*ÀbbAs and al-Hasan al-Basri used to recite the wor< 

42^i^Ui I in the yerse, ** And wliat has been reveailed to the tw< 

angels at Babylon, Hàrùt and Màrut/'* with a kasrah under the J 

An account of them will he given hereafter under the lettor sJ h 

iheart v^l. 

There is a differenoe of opinion with regard to the pedigree 
(origin) anduameot Dhù'l-Kamain. The antbor of Ibtilà^UakhyA 
states that the proper name of Dhù'l-Ksirnain was Alexander, anc 
that bis father was the most learned man out of the people of thi 
1^ earth in the science of astrology ; nobody had observed the move 
menta of the stars as he. God had extended his period of life. H 
said one night to his wife, *' Want of sleep has very nearly killed me 
lei me alone that I may sleep for a timo, and do you watch the sk] 
(for me); when you see a (certain) star rising in this place/ 
pointing with his band the place of its rising, ^ wake me up 
that I may compress you, and you may conceive a son who wil 
live to the end of timo/* Now, ber sister was listening to his worda 
The father of Alexander then slept, and the sister of his wife kept u] 
watobing for the star ; when the star rose, she informed ber husbanc 
\ . of the afi&iir, and he compressed ber, with the result of ber conceivini 

j al-Khidr, so that al-Kbidr was the son of Alexander's (matemai; 

> Al-ffar'an 11-96. 


^" 9AY1t AL-9AYAW&N 49 

[mnnt; he was bis wazir (too). Wben Alexander's (ather woke np, be 
fiftw tbat tbe star had deacended into a sign of the Zodiac other than 
fbo was watching; so he said io bis wiEe, '^Wby did you not wake me 
flip ?" ' Sbe replied, "I was asbamed." He then said to ber, " Do not 
you know tbat I bave been watching for tbis star for forty years? By 
[Qodf 1 bave wasted iny life without any profit; bnt at tbis moment 
ihere will rise in its steps anotber star, and I sball compress yon then, 
[so that yoa will conceive a son wbo will possess tbe two borns of tbe 
^•on.'' He had not waited long wben tbe star rose, upon which he 
oompressed ber, and sbe conceived Alexander, wbo and the son of 
hb maternal aunt, al-Khidr, were born on tbe same night. Then 6od 
beato wed on Alexander bis firm possession of tbe earth; beconquered 
toouutries. and bis career was anch as is known to bave been. 

^ li is related on tbe authority of Waiib b. Munabbib, wbo said 
iithat Dhù'l-Karnain was a man out of tbe Qreeks and the son oE 
(bne of their old women, wbo had no son beside bim. His name was 
Alexander, and he was a pious man. Wben be reached tbe age of 
paborty and maturity of judgment, God said (to bim), ^' DbA'l- 
^)^rnaiu, I am sending you to the nations of the world, wbo are 
idiversified and of varions classes ; out of them there are two nntions 
ibetween wbom there is the length of tbe eartb, and two nations be- 
^tween wbom there is tbe breadth of the earth, and there are nations 
[CU the nliddle of tbe eurth." Dhd'l-Karnaiu thereupon said, '^0 my 
|.Qod| Thou hast, verily, summoned me for a groat task, the magnitudo 
bf which none but Thou can estiniHte; inforni me thorofore ahout 
these nations for wbom Thou hast summoned me, as to by what 
':ltrengtb I am to overpower thein, by what patience I ani to 
«enduro their troubles, in what languago I am to talk to them, bow 
ti am to understand their languages, with what ear I am to bear 
Ctheir words, with what eye I am to look furtively at them, with 
; what argument I am to dispute with them, with what rcason 
^I am to reason about them, with what beart and wisdom I am 
' to inauage their affair, with what justice I am to administer 
gostice among them, with what knowledge I am to decide (di;iptttos) 
iJbetween them, with what band I am to domineer over them, with 
pwbat foot I am to tread upon them, with what power .1 am to compute 
t ikem, with what army I am to fight with them, and with what kind- 
.^ness I am to aot towards them, whilst, my God, I possess notbing 


50 AD-DAttiRfs 

ont of what I have mentioned, nothing that wonld stand for them, tbat 
wonld be strong enoogh against them, and that wonld be able to bear 
the bnmt of their strength. Thon art meroifal and compassionate, . 
one who '^reqaires not of a soni save its capaci ty" and bnrdens it 
not beyond its power/* God said, *'I shall giyeyou strengtbto! 
domineer, lead yon, and widen yonr ehest that it may become capa-i 
cioos enongh for everything; I shall strengthen for you yonr power; 
of nnderstanding tbat yon may nnderstand everything, stretohontj 
for yon yonr tongne that yon may talk in every language, open yonr j 
ear that you may bear everything, and eztend yonr sight that yon ! 
may gase fnrtively at everything; I shall strengtlien for yon yonr j 
army that nothing may overpower yon, and I sball strengthen yonr; 
heart that nothing may frighten yon. I shall gnard for yon yonr 
intellect tbat nothing may be concealed from yon, and I shall extend^ 
what there is before yon that yon may domineer over everything; li 
shall strengthen yonr footsteps that yon maydemolish everything, and I 
I shall dress yon with grandenr that nothing may terrify yon. I shall 
make snbmissive to yon light and darkness and appoint them among 
yonr forces, that light may gnide yon from before yon and darkness 
may protect yon from behind yon," which is meant by the words o( 
God, ** And we gave bim a way to everything."* i 

Ibn-Hish&m states that Dhù'l-Karnain's proper name was as-§a*b 
b. Dhf-Marthad al-Himyart, and that he was ont of the children of 
WA'il b. Uimyar. Ibn-Isbftlc states that bis name was Marznbàn b. 
Mardbabfdi; — so it is mentioned in the Strah compiled by him. It is 
% mentioned that he was the same as Alexander. Some say that he was 
a man ont of the children of Yùnàn b. Tàfith ( Japhet), and that bis 
name was Hermes (Hnrmns), bnt others say that it was Hardls. What 
is, however, apparent from the science of History and acconnts of 
military expeditions is that there were two different persons (of that 
name), one of whom flonrished in the time of Abraham; it was he who 
decided in favonr of Abraham, when he went to him for jnstice witb 
regard to bi*r as-sab^ (the lion's well) in Syria. The other one 
flonrished near tlie time of Jesus. Some, however, say that he waa 
the same as Af rtdùn ; he it was Uiat killed the rebellions king who 
was in the time of Abraham or some time before him. 

^ Al-far'Aa xyiII-83. 



Tliere is a differenoe of opinion in regard io bis being surnained 

ù'Klfamain. Some saj tbat be was tbns named, because be 

9S6d tbe kingdoms of Persia and Greece, and some say, because 

e were on bis bead tbings resembling two homs ; others Bay, 

use be saw in a dream tbat be bad seized tbe two borns of tbe 

the explanation of tbe dream being bis circumventing the east 

the west Some, bowever, say tbat be was tbns saniamed, 

use be invited bis people to declare tbe unity (of God), npon 

)|ph tbey strook bim on tbe rigbt side of bis bead; be then again 

ted tbem to declare tbe nnity (of God), bnt tbey struck bim on 

loft side of bis bead. Others say tbat be was noble in bis origìn 

both the sides, out of the people of honour, both on the «side of bis 
er and tbat of bis mother. Some say, because in bis time two 

erations of men passed away, and yet be was alive. Some say, 
use, wbonever he went to a battle, he fought with both bis two 

ids and bis two stirrups. Some say, because be entcred both ligbt 
darkness, and others say, because be bad two beautiful forelocks, 

orelock (adh~<lhu*dbah) being also called a luirn. Ar-RA*! says: — 
"I kissed her mouth, taking hold of ber forelocks (^4' j^^)." 
e say tliat be was so called, because be was given both tìie open 
the secret knowledge. He was a man from Alexandria hearing 
name of Iskandar (Alexander) b. Failabash (Philip) tlie Greok, 
ho flourished in the interval which elapsed after Jesus. 

Al-MujWìid status that thero were four men out o£ the believers 

unbelievers who possessed tbe kingdom of the whole earth, the 

evors being Solomon and Dhù'l-Karnain and the unbelievers 

rod and Ncbuchadnezzar. A fìfth one, out of this nation 

Muslims), wùll bereafter possess it, namely, al-Mahdl. 

There is a difforence of opinion witb regard to Dliò'1-Kar- 

h baiing bcen a prophet. Some say that he was a prophet, on 

unt of the words of God, «We said, '0 Dhù'l-Karnain! ' " * but 

rs say tbat be was (only) a pious and just king, which is most 

bly true. Those who argue tbat he was a prophet say that the 
of the angel that used to come to bim with tlìe rcvelation was 

A*tl, who is the angel of the Eìarth, and who it is tbat will fold 

1 Al-Kur^àn XVIU-86. 

52 ao-damìbì'b 

np the Earth on the Day of Jadginent and decrease it, the fe< 
of ali the creatnres treading on the surface of oi-Sàhirah;* — ao Ibii 
Abi-Khaithainah says. As-Sahailt states that this state resembh 
the duty with which he was charged in respect of Dhù'l-l^aniain, wh 
travened the whole eartli — ^all ita easteni and western parts — in th 
sanie nianner that the narrative regarding Khftlid b. Sinàn al-^Abs 
who was a prophet in tlie interrai that elapsed between the time e 
Jesus and that of Muhainmad, in respect of his subduing fire,' reseni 
bles the state of the angel who was entrasted with his charge, namc 
ly, Malik> the keeper and guardian of Hell-fire. The subject e 
Kliàlid and his prophetic inission will be treated of hereafter nnde 
the letter » in the art. #Iaìa j | . 

Al-Jah]4 states that it is asserted that sometimes sexual intei 
coiii'se between men and genii and thcir conception (in conse<]uenc 
of it) do take place, on account of the words of Qod, *^And shar 
with tlìcm in their wealth and children."' This is quite evideni 
for feinale genii set theniselves to cause men to ho affectcd with a: 
ardent desire for sexnal interconrse (with theni), and in the sam 
manner uìale genii act towards women, and, were it not so, the male 
(of one kind) would bave presented themselves to the males (of th 
other kind), lùid the females (of one kind) to the females (of th 
othor kind). God has said, ^^Whom no man nor jinn has defiowere 
beforc thcm;"* so then, if male genii were not in the Imbit e 
dcflowerìng women, why is the word introduced into what God ha 
said in the above verse? It is said that al'wdkwdh is a cross-bree< 
between one of the planis and an animai. 

As-Suhaili states that as^sHàh is the goblin that shows herself i 

men in the daytimc, and that al^^/iU is the one that shows herself a 

night. Al-Kazwini states that as'siHdh is a species of devilish beings 

the reverse of al-^HL 'Ubaid b. Ayyùb says : — 

*' Were the eye of the enchantress of my eyes 
To see what I meet with in the shape of horrors, she would go mad 
I remain at night, and the derils and goblins in the deserti 
When the night conceais the confusednees of the darkness, utter 
pUdntiye cry.'* 

1 **k land which God will create anew on the day of Resurrection/'- 
Lane's Lex. art ^^^m . • See Ibn-al- Athtr's at-Ta'rÌkh al-K&mi]. • Al-Eur>& 
XVU-66. « Idem LV-56 and 74. 





>lffaxwtnt adcls that as^si^Wi is mostly io be fonnd in thickcts 

roods, and that wlien she overpowers a man, she makes liim dance 

rat and plays with him, in the way that a cat does with a rat. 

1^ further Btates that sometimes a wolf seizes her at night and 

her ; when she is thus seized as a prey, she raises her voice, say- 

ig} ''Come and reachme (for help), for a wolf is verily eating me;" 

Miìétimes she says, '' Wlio will save me ? The person who does it 

III have the thonsand dtnàrs wlìich are with me/* Pcople know 

io be the words of a sHàh^ and nobody delivers her f rom the 

ilf, which then eats her. 



o « 

yÌA«J I (ait'Sufnuj). — AV>ù-*Anìr states tliat it is a swif t (l*g'^0 

ile ostrich. Tt is a word rendered into one of five letters by 

ibling the third letter ont of it (sa/annaf); — so al-Jawhar! says. 

jilso means a certain bird that jnmps aljoiit much; — so it is said 



^ i (as^Sakh). — A yonng one of a she-camel or one that is just 
• Pls. ash^by sikAb^ siikuh^ and svftbdn. Fem. safcl^hy and the 
kher-animal is called misfuib and misìiàb. 

;*• (Provcrb.) " Viler than the male young ones of camels among 
i camels." AUhaìaih is the plnral of halilbali^^ a slié'-camel that 



jStmJì (aS'Sahry. — ^Al-Kazwint state» that it is a certain bird of 
ly of the size of the whìte falcon (ash-sliaMiiy, Us legs are, how- 
fi cxcessivcly tliick, and it does not live in any but cold coun- 
I ; it is found largely in the country of the Turks. When it is let 
i after birds, it soars high above them and flies round al>out them 
e form of a circle, and then, when it returns to the place f rom 
Idi it starts, ali the birds remain in the middle of the circle, and 
è of them goes out of it, cven if they are a thonsand in numbcr ; 
jihen romains stationary over them and keeps on alighting gradnal- 
whilst with its desccnt the birds (in the circle) also kcep on de- 
ding, until they touch the earth (dnst), upon which the falconerà 
them, not one of them at ali escaping. 



In Egypt Fidco ftaker. 

54 AD-DAlfÌRÌ's 


jjixLJì (a#-5aifca?iibrtr).— [The skink— Voi. I, p. 51.] There ar 
two varìeties of it, the Indìan and the Egyptian. One variety of it i 
produced (born) in the Red Sea, which was tlie sea in whie 
Pharaoh was drowned near the ^AliahcU aUHàjj. It is also produce 
in Abyssinia. It lives on fish in water, and on hind on the sane 
grouse, which it swallows like serpente». The female lays twenty egg 
which it bnries in the sand, and that process takes the pkce ( 
hatching (in their case.) The female has two vnlvee and the mal 
two penes like the lizard a^^abb ; — so at-Tamìml says. 

Aristotle states that as-saluinkur is a marine animai, and that 
ia sometimes born in the sea, in places where thunderbolts (al 
A wonderf ul thing in connection with it is that, if it bites a m« 
and the man then precedes it to the water and washes it (the poisoi 
off froni him, the sahcinlcur dies, but i£ it precedes the mn 
to the water, the man dies. There is enmity between it and ti 
serpeut, so that if one of them vanquishes its opi)onent, it kills i 
The difference between it and the monitor (al-^waral) is in man 
respects, one of which is that the monitor is a land-animal and do< 
not betake itself to any places but desei*ts, whilst the skink does n< 
betake it^self to any places but to such as are near water, or to wai 
iteelf ; another difference is that the skin of the skink is softer ai; 
more delicate than that of the monitor ; another difference is th 
f the l)ack of the monitor is yellow and dusty coloured, whilst th 

of the skink is ornamented with yellow and black colours on it> 

The male of tliis animai is the one selected (for mediciiì 
pnrposes), because it is more usef ul in quulity and quantity as regan 
II the aphrodisiacal property which is attributed to it, lioth analogical 

and experientially, aye, the male is almost the ì^nly one which 

supposed to bave that property. Among the members of its bod 

the part of its liack next to the tail is the one which is preferre 

because it is more useful (than the rest of its body). This animai 

about two cubits in length and about half a cubit in breadth. It 

said in aUMufraddJt that at present, in our times, the skink is n 

\ known to exist in any part of Egypt but the district of al-Fayyùi 

iji whence it is imported into Cairo for those who want it. It is hunt 

;{ in winter, because when the cold becomes too severe for it, it coni 

il out and proceeds on land, when it is caught. 



4. 9AY1t AL-9AYAWÌN 55 

r ' (Lawfulness or unlawfalness.) It is lawFul to eat it» because 
^it IB a fish. Bnt it is possible to look npon it in the light of it'S being 
Limlawhil, because there are two aniiiials resembling it on land, name- 
mri the monitor which is unlawful and the ^àbb {Uromastix) which is 
Fedible bnt nearly unlawful. According to what has been related 
^der the lettor f , it is unlawful, because it is produced out of the 
Srocodile, as has beeh already mentioned ; it is therefore unlawful 
[like the originai animai (which begets it). 

ti . (Properties.) The flesh of the Indian skink while f resh is hot 
^and moist of the second degree, and as to the salted and dried flesh, 
tt la hotter but less moist, especially if a long period has passed after 
Bànging it to dry ; on that account it is not suitable to persons hav- 
{ng hot and dry constitutions, but is suitable to persons having 
oold and moist constitutions. If two persons having enmity be- 
[tween them eat (together) of its flesh, the enmity betwceu them 
will disappear, and they will become friendly (towards each other). 
The (chief) property of its flesh and fat is that of exciting the sexual 
dèsire, acting as an aphrodisiac, and that of being useful in diseases of 
^inuscles and tendons arising from cold. If it he used alone, it is 
more beneficiai than if mixed with any other medicine. Tho dose 
^for drinking it is from a mithkdl to three mithkdlsy according to the 
^constitution of the person taking it, bis age, the timo of the year, 
ànd the countr}\ Àristotle states that, if the flesh of the Indian skink 
1)e cooked with ccruse, it swells up the flesh and fattens (the body); 
Its flesh relieves pain in the back and kidneys, and causes the flow of 
3ho seminai fluid to be abundant ; and if the vertebra from the middle 
of its back be tied (suspended) on the back of a man, it will excite 
e venereal desire and increase the sexual power. 

;*l (Interpretution of it in a dream.) In a dream it indicates a learned 
j^imàm, one who can be trusted for guidance in darkness, for its skin can 
t:be lighted, and its flesh restores strength, the beat of which it excites. 

* Or 4, 

r iij^\l\i^\ (a^-^w/aA/tf/i o/-ftan4ya/i).— [The tortoise].» The 

i n. of unity of as-saldhifi — so Abù-*Ubaidah says. Ar-Bu'àst calls 



I In Egypt Teitvdo marginata. 


56 AD-PAUiRt's 

it sulah/iyàh like hdahmyah. Ali use a i with it, bui Ibn-^Abdùs 
gives it as as^sidcJìfà withont a i. The male 18 oalled gaiìam. This 
animai lays its eggs on land; sncli of the eggs as slide down into 
the sea beoome converted into tnrtles (Za/a'a/i), and suoli as remain on 
landbeoomeoonverted intotortoises (iula(i/dh). Boththe varìeties attain 
alargesize, reachingthe size of a camel-load. When the male desires 
to tread (the temale) and the female does not sabmit to it, the male 
brings a biade of (a ceriain) grass in its month, one of ^he properties of 
-which is to render the animai bringingit acceptable; when it does that, 
the female snbmits itself to the male. Only a few men know this grass. 
When the female lays an egg, it devotes ali its energy to it in looking 
after it, and continnes to do so, nntil God produces a young one ont 
of it, for it (the mother) cannot batch it, so as to make it complete 
by means of its beat, becanse the nnder snrface of the mother is hard 
and has no heat-givìng power in it. A tortoi»$e sometimos seizes 
the tail of a serpent and cats off its head, and then chews it going 
npwards from the tail, whilst the serpent keeps on beating itself on 
the back of the tortoise and on the ground until it dies. It has a 
wonderfal dodge in obtaining its prey, which consists in its coming 
cut of water, then rolling abont in the dust, and going to a place in 
which birds bave alighted for drinking water; it thus remains 
concealed there from the sight of the birds, owing to the dirty colonr 
which it assnmes from the misture of water and dust ; it then seizes 
out of them as many as are necessary for its food and enters water 
(again) with them tliat they may die, after which it eats them. The 
male has two penes and the female two vulvos; the male takes a long 
time over completing the act of treading. The tortoise is very fond of 
eating serpents, and when it eats them, it eats after them saltar (the 
leaves of Zataina multijlora). The shield which is on its back is a 
means of protection for it. A poet says l>eautif ully in describing it : — 

"May God oppose the animai with a Bpeeohless mouth I 
CWhen) ita vain thoaght is proloDged from walking, 
It tams OH ita back its ahield, 
And protradea out of ita carapace its head ; 
Bot when ont of precaution its mind is in a state of anxiety, 
And out of fear ita breathing becomes dilficult, 
It conceala ita arma towarda ita ueck, 
And inserto ito head into ito carapace.*' 




Iè; , (liawfulness or unlawfulness.) Al-Bagawl givos two %ncws in 

Uiolding it lawful ; and ar-Ràfi*! confìrins ììs unlawfulness, on account 

\ct Ita being considered filtliy owing te its mostly oating serpents. 

pbn-Hazm statcs tliat both the land and sea varieties aro lawful, 

i^'And so are likewise their eggs, on account oF the words of God, 

|,** Eat of what is in the earth, things lawful and things good/*' together 

jiwith His words, " When He has detaìlod to you what is unlawful 

ìtÒT you," • whilst God has certainly not dctailed to us the unlaw- 

^folncss of the tortoise, on which account it is lawful. He adds 

|that the jerboa, the crab, the field-rats, the chaineleon (^umm-hubaiii)^ 

^ftiie monitor, and ali the birds are likewise lawful. He states, 


^jj*f We bave beeu informcd rcgarding 'AtA' as having said that the 

^Mting of the tortoiso is pcrmissible, and rcgarding Ibn-^Àbbas that he 

^hn* prohibited the killing of the Egyptian carrion-A'ulture by a pcrson 

fin Uie stat^ of ihrdm^ and that he has assigned a penalty for doing it." 

^^bA-Zaid al-Marwazt, one of onr religious doctors, states that the 

b^mnons froin the nose, saliva, senien, and other things like those are 

Tnot unlawful, as if he wcre satisfied that nicn would naturally 

rkeep away from them, and he therefore does not rcstrain (thcm) 

^rom them. 

(Proverb.) " More stupid or sluggish than a tortoise." 

• ■ (Properties.) The author of aUFaUihah and al-Ka%wini state 
t)uity when the cold in auy land is intonale and injurious to that 
rplaeo, a tortoiso niay bc taken and tnrned over on ifs back in it, 
fjlò that its feet are turncd (upwards) towurds the sky, tlie 
^<K)Id will not (thon) bave an ìnjurious effoct on that place. 
^It is beneficiai in articular rhcumatisni (pain in the joints), if the 
^ (patient's) hands and feet are besmearcd with its l)lood. Its blood is 
Ibeneficial in rigors and cramps, if it he continually applied ; the 
reating of its flesh act^ alno siniilarly. If its blood be dried, pounded, 
iind applied over a lanip, whoever lights that lamp will break 
^vind, which is a tried and wonderful secret. If a member of a 
^(ortoise's l>ody corres][X>nding to any membor of a hnman Ijody that 
)i{f aifected with pain be tied on it, the pain in it wnll ))e relieved by 
:ilie order of God. Whoever takes the end of the tail of a malo 

' ' . i Al-Knr'àn 11-163. • Idem VI-llO. 


58 ad-damibì'b 

tortoise at the time of its being in heat and ties ìt over hiinself will 
bave bis seKual desìro excited. If a lid or cover be made of its back, 
and a caldron be covered with it, (the contenta of) it will not boil 
while it is on it. 

(Interpretation of it in a dream.) A tortoise in a dream in* 
dicates a wonian decorating herself, perfumiug herself, and exposing 
licrself to the sight of men. Some saj that it is to be interpreted in 
the sense of the ^dl of ^àdis, becaose it knows what is in the sea. 
Some say that a tortoise means a leamed man. If one dreams that 
a tortoise is honoured in a pkce, the learned men will be honoured in 
that place. He who dreams of eating the flesh of a tortoise will 
acquire knowledge, and the Christians say that he will acqnire 
-^-ealth and knowledge. 

s o^ . ^ it**, 

Aj^I jliJ^I (at-Sulahfàh o/-ioMi«»/0-— The turilo (a/- 
lajclaJi)^ which will be described hereafter under the letter J . 

Al-Jawharl stutes that it is asserted that the danghter of a 
soldicr placed her necklacc on a turtle, which tlien crept into the 
sea, u|)on which she said, " peoplo, take the water ont, take the 
wut<*r ont ; tliere is not remaining in the sea more than handfuls 
{gjLT&f) of water." 

The skin of the turtlo is what is called tortoise-slicll, of which 
combs are niadc. Combing (liair) with a comb made of tortoise- 
shell ha^he effcct of removing nits. If tortoise-sholl be bunit, 
and its aslies kneaded with the white of an egg, and then painted on 
cracks on heels and toes, it will prove l>eneficiul. Some say that 
tortoise-shell is the skin of the Indian tnrtle. 

(Information.) The Prophet posscssed a comb made of tortoise- 
shell ( aWàj ), which is the same as adh-dliabl and which is a thing 
takcn from the back of the tnrtle ; combs and bracelets are made of it» 
It is relatod in a tradition that the Prophet ordcrcd Thawb&n to pur* 
clìase a pair of bi-acclets made of tortoise-shell (al-àj) for Fà^imah. As 
to ivory (al'àj) which is a bone of the elephant, it is unolean 
according to ash*Sh&fiÌ, clean according to Abfi-Uantfah, and 
aocording to Màlik it becomes clean by polishing. It is allowable 


\ to conìb liair with a comb made of al-^àjy which is the sanie as tortoisc-- 
\ flliell, and that is wliat an-Nawawi mentions in Sharh al'Muhadhdhab 
regarding the lawEuhiC98 of combing with it, intonding by aWdj 
• tortoise-shell and not ivory, which is tho tusk of the elephant. 

mUL>J| (as-Sil/dn) — ^Young partridges ; n. of nnity suIafììkQ 

^fojdy pi. firdàn. Abù-^Anir states that the word sulafah is not 
heord applìed to the female, but if sulafah (fein.) be used in the 
Mnie way as sulakah h as the n. of unity of silkdn, it wouhl 
be approvable. 

o - 

^U I (as-Silìc). — ^The he-wolf ; fem. sUfuih. A clamorona and 

long-tongued wonian is soinctinies called a silkahy and in that sense 
ire tlio words of God, " But when tlio fear has possed away they 
will assail you with sharp tongues." ^ As^sdli!uiìi^=a loonian vaisiny 
her voice on the occasioa of a culamky. 

^ * 

^SXmJì (iiS'Stilak). — ^The younfe one of tho sand-grouso, and 
according to some the young one of the partridge. Feni. sttlakah^ 
pi. tUkdn, Hke funul^ pi. fiirdan. Some say that the n. of unity of 
' it is silkdnah. 

The Arabs uso the name of Sulaik b. Sulakah proverbially in tlie 
" matter of running. He was a Tamtml out of the sub-tribo of Beni- 
Sa^d. Sukikali was bis mother and was of a black colour. He wsi>) 
; called Sulnik al-Ma^nib. A poet says : — 

" To terror, running faster than Sulaik ol-Makiinib.'' 

He was one of the black Anibs ; an account of them will be given 
hereaf ter under the lettor g^ , 


%SfjSléJ I (as^Salakùt). — ^A certain bird ; so it is givcn in 
aUMìihkam among the four lettered words beginning with c^. 

i Al-Kur'an XXXIII-19. 


4jP-J I (as-Salwa)j — [ The qoail.] t Ibn-Stdah says that it is a 

certain white bird like as-sumànà. Tlie n. of unity Ì8 salwdh. 

Ai-taJìvà (also) means honey. Kh&Iid b. Znhair al-Hudliali says : — 

<' He Bwore to her, * By 6od, jon are tweeter 
Thau honey {oi-saltoà) when it ìm freshly leathered.* '' • 

Az-2ja]j&j states that Khàlid has made a mistake, for (U-saìwà means 
(only) a certain bird. Some say that as-saltoà means meat or flesh. 

The ImAm the Hnjjat-al-Isl&m al-Qhazzall states that ' as^saluÀ 
is so called, becaose it comfort» and renders a man content in the 
absence of ali other condiments, and that men cali it ^^ the remover 
of dcsires (^Ìj4^ì t^^V 

Al-Kazivlni and Ibn-al-Bai^Ar state tliat it is the same as 
aS'Sumànà^ but others state that it is a bird nearly resembling it. 
Al-Akhfash states tliat its n. of nnity is not heard in nse, bnt it 
wonld scom that the sìng. of it is (also) salwà^ in the same way as is 
the case with diflà^ l)eing the same both in the sing. and plnraK 
It is a bird that lives the whole of its timo in the niggod monn- 
tainons valleys ; and when falcons become ili from disease (ptiin) of 
the li ver, they seize it and eat it^s li ver, which cures them. It was 
this bird tliat God sent down to the Beni-IsrA'il according to the 
woll-known narration, bnt al-Hudhali has made a mistake al)Out it 
in thinking it to be honey, for he says : — 

'* Svreeter than honey when H is freshly gathered." 

It is rclatcd in the ^'ahth of nl-Bnkhàri among the tradi- 
tions regarding the^^ophcts, and in Mnslim in the chapter on 
Marriage, ont of a tradition of Mntiammad b. lUfiS who snid, 
** *Abd-ar-Razz&)[ has related to us, saying, ^Ma'mar has related to 
US on the anthority of Hammàm b. Mnnabbih, who said, '* This 
is what has l)een related to ns, by Abù-Hurairali,'' and mentioned 
several traditions, out of which is this : — ^the Apostle of God said, 
** If it were not for the Beni-IsrA'il, flesli-meat wonld never bave 
lieoome pntrid, and if it were not for Ève, no woman would ever 

> In Pule^ttne and Egypt Coturnix eommuni» (eotwmis). < In one of the 
copies this is given as iàjlj U 1 5 1 (when it is roasted), in which case the 
tali9à in the linea would mean the quail, but in the other copies it is given as 

9AYÌT al-9ayaw1k 61 

bave bccome faithless io her husband." ' " The incaning of it is tliat 
Sosh-ineat would nevor have clìunged or become putriti. Tlie 
Icarnod state that the meaning of it is tliat when God sent down to 
the Beni-Isrà'il the manna and quails, they were prohibited to store 
theni up, bui they stored thein up, upon which they bectiine s|x>ilt 
and putrid, and that has coutinned (to happen) evcr sincc. Ibn- 
M&jah rehites on the anthority of AbuM-Dardà' that the Prophet 
auid, '' The prinoe of food for the people of this world and Paradiso 
is flesh-meat." It ìh also related on bis authority that thcrc was 
no flesh-meat offered to the Prophet which he did not accept, and that 
thero was no meat asked of him which he did not givo. It is 
al:H> rekìted regarding the Prophet as having said, ^^ The best of meat 
b the meat on the back." How beautiful is what our shnikh, Uur- 
hàn ad-din al-Kirat!, has said : — 

" When I sair that Salawwà was baflled in what ho desircd of >'oa, 
And the knot of rny patience was andone, 
I carne loving under your sabjection, 
* That God might accoinplish a thing that was as good as doue.' ^ '^ 

(Lawfulness or unlnwfulncss.) It is lawful to cut it accorda 
: ing to ali. 

(Pro|>ertie».) Ibn-Zuhr stiites that, if its eye be hung ou 
the person of one suffering f rem ophthalmia, it will cure Inni, and 
that, if it be used as a collyriuni, it will be beneficiai in pain of the 
liver. If its bile be niixed witli warmed saìffron and paintcd over 
alphus ( dull-white leprosy), it will stop its progress. If its dung 
^ be roduced to a fino powder and sprinklod over corroding uIoei*s, it 
will prove beneficiai. If it^: head be buried in a pigeon-tower or 
house, ali the vermin will clear out of it ; and if a place be funiigatcd 
. witli its head, the f ret-worm will clear out of it. 

(Interpretation of it in dreanis.) A dream aliout a quail indi^ 
cates the removal of a difliculty, the act of being saved f rom an 

'r enemy, the fulfilment of a promise, prosperity, and easy means of 
Bustenance without any trouble or fatigue, for one who secs it or has 

' it in bis possession (in a dream). It sometimes indicatos forgetfulncss 
or unmindfulness of a lover, on account of its name ; and sometimes 

> AUKur'ftn VIII*43 and 46. 

02 AD-DAUtRfs 

li iiidicates ingratitude for favoun, loss of a position, and straitnesa 
in the means of living, on account of the vords of GUmI, ^ * Do ye 
Hsk wliat is meaner instead of what is beat ? ' " « 

^^ < 

^iLmJi (as-Sumànà).* — ^As-Zubaidi states that it is thns spelt, 
that it Ì8 of the same measnre a.s al-fìubàràf and that it is the name of 
a certain bird that lies on ita breast, cleaving to the ground and hardly 
flying unless it is made to flj. It is a certain well-known bird. One 
ought not to say summànà with a shaddah* PI. nimAnaydt, It is called 
/uUtl at-ra^dy because when it hears thunder it dies. It is said that 
its young one, directly it comes out of thè egg, begins to fly. It may 
he mentioned, as a wonderful thing in connection with it, that it 
remains quiet in wintcr, and that when spring comes, it begins to utter 
its cry. It feeds on hUh and hUlià^ (aconito) plants, both of which 
are deadly poisons. It is one of the birds of passage, and it is not 
known as to what phice it comes from, so tliat some jieople state that 
it comes out of the sea, for there is a bird seen on it with one of its 
wings dipping into it and the otlier one spread out like the sail of a 
.ship. The people of Egypt are anxìous in purchasing it and bid 
against one another in raising its price. 

(Lawfulness or unlawfuhiess.) It is lawful to eat it accord- 
ing to ali. 

(Properties.) Its flcsh is hot and dry, and the bost kind are snch 
as liave put forth featliers after the first fcatlìers (cìajU;«^|) and are 
fresli. The eating of it is beneficiai in articular rheumatism (pain 
in the joinis) arising from cotd, but it is injuriouH to a hot liver, 
which injurious property may, however, be removed by means of 
coriander and vinegaj^ It produces blood of a hot kind and is 
suitable to pcrsons witn cold temperamcnts and old people. Tlie 
roasting of as-mmành is disapproved, on account of its dryness and 
drjring property; — so Ibn-*Abdùn says. Othcrs say that the 
property of its flesh is bctween that of the domostic fowl and that 
of the partri«lge, but more inclined to the former. It produces very 
good chyme, and the eating of it dissolves stone (in the bladder) and 

1 Al-Kur'àn 11-58. * This name is aÌso applied in Egypt to the common 
qnail — Coinmix communii. 






arine io flow (easily). If its blood be dropped into the ear, 
tys pain in it. If it be eaten continually, it sofiens the heart, 
it is said that thia property is fonnd only in its heart. 

;(Interpretation of it in a dream.) A dream abont it indicate» 
^fits and means of snstenance in tlie shape of agricultural produce» 
r' one who desìres to bear its voice, it is an indication of means of 
^nance of a doubtful nature. It sometimes indicates playing, 
rasement, and dissipating (money). A dream abont it sometimes 
ioicates a crime deserving imprisonment and crocifixion. 



*' I {ài'SamluLJ). — A long-backed she-ass. PI. sanidfyij. It 
means a long-backed mare, bnt it is not applied to the male. 

o » 


l ^W I (jaS'Sim^), — Tlie young one of the wolf begotten from the 

a. It is a beast of prey and possesses the severity and strcngth of 
hyena and the boldness and lightness of the wolf. It is 
BÌrted that it is like the serpent, not knowiug any diseascs, that 
liìoes not die a naturai death, and that it is quicker in rnnning 
wind. Al-Jawharl states that às-sim^ al-azall means the 
f lean in the thighs,* for every wolf is lean in the thighs, tlùs 
riptivo property being inherent in it, in the same way that the 
ma is called aWarjà\ A Badawi says rcgarding it : — 

^ '< Yoa see him, sharp in sight, brighi and cheerful in countenance, 
; Handsome, having long arma, and quicker of hearing than a stW.*' 

li said that its jnmp exceeds twenty or thirty cubits. 

There is related in Kitàh Khair al-lntsliar hi-khalr al4)ashar a 
mtive told by Ibn-Dafar on the authority of Kabi'ah b. Abi- 
r, who said, " My maternal uncle informed me, saying, * When 
^. cansed the Apostle of God to gain a victory at Hunain, wc 
me separated on every road, not even a solicitons relation turning 
ainother. While I was on one of the roads, I saw a fox 
an arjcam which had coiled itself round it, and it 
rnnning vehemently. I threw a stono at it and did not miss 
aim ; then going to it, I found that the fox had died 
'Ore my arrivai, and that the arkam was cut to pieces and in a 

} This is the primary meaning, the secondary meaning being Ughi or aciive. 

I . . ; .• i 

' : I 64 ad-dauìbì's 


f w .■ , 



i i 

« t 


I r- 5 

\ ". 


state o£ convukion. I tlien stood tliere looking at ifc, wlien an 

invisiblc speaker CKclainied to me wìUi a voice more frightening than 

;. • I any I had ever heard before, "May perdition and calamity scize 

J '\ ! you! You bave killed a chief and done a wrong to the mighty one." 

He then cried oat, "0 Dnthir, Dàthìr," upon whick a voice answered 

f rom the other side, ^^Here I ani at thy service, bere I am I" He then 

: I ,1 said, "Hasten, baston to the Beni'l-Qhid&far and inforni them o£ \rhat 

i ì H, the iufìdel has done." I thcreupon said, " I \va.s not aware oE it, bnt 

' |l I take refuge with tbce ; thereforo protect me." He replied, " No, 

not at ali, by the sanctity of Otoà (c^V I), I shall not protect one who 
\ìikA fougbt with tlic Mutflims and servcd other than the Lord of the 
worhU." I next oxcluimod, " I cmbrace al-Islàm ;*' upon which ho 
replied, " If you embrace al-Islàm, the punishment in your case will 
Ijc done away with, and you will succccd in being saved, but other- 
wLse there would bo no tiine to escape. " I then said, ** I bear testi- 
«»ony tiiat there is no deìty but Qod and I bear testimouy that 
[ \' *' Muhammad is the A[>0!stle of Qod." He replied, " You are now 

saved and rightiy guided, and if it were not for that, you would 
bave perished. Now return to the place whence you carne." I then 
returued rctracing niy steps, uiwn which he recited the foUowing : — 

** Rido the leau-thighed «m% 
Which will aficend the hill with you ; 
There you wUl fiud Aba-*Auiir, 
And he will follow np with you tho defeated ones.*' 

j% \\- I tì»cn looked round and fouud a «m' of tho size of a largo lion ; I 

j^ [* mounted it, and it went on running until it reached a largc hill, which 

j'. \j ì*^ *I>C" climbcd until it rejiched ìts top. I observed froni thore tho 

! f;: cavalry of tho Muslims ; then disniounting from it, I went down a 

p f>i i:i »'<>pe towards them. When I approached tbeni, there carne forth to . 

.; ì; "»eet me a rider liko a largo double-liumped carnei excited by \mi ; 

' Il \\ **® ^*^ ^^ ""®)' "'^^""^w <^own your iirms, may you bave no raothor I" i 

ij ! j »*Pon which I threw down my arm^ and ho asked me, " Who are 

' i; '5 y®" '^ " ^ replied, "A Muslim." He then said, " Salutaition to you, - 

' '' »«*' the mercy and blossing of God upon you I " and I said, " Salu- ' 

^ , ^ ^^^ìon *o you, and the mercy and blessing of God upon you I Who 

\\ »» Abù-*Amir ? " upon which he replied, " I am he ; " and tlxon said, 

i . "Tlianks to Godi No harui (will come) upon you ; those over thore ' 

'I ' ■ j 

'. i' !•' ' M 







top of the pot is tkeii Govereil with a stona or a piece of iron with 
tlie view oE its noi escaping oat oE it, wbilo it is not cooked, ifc doe» 
noi die, evcn iE it he cut into a thousand pieceì*. 

(Profìtsihle narrative^.) The Im&m Ahmad relates in az-Zuhd^ 
Olì the antliority of Nawf al-Bakàlt, who said, ''A believer and an 
unbeliever (once) ;<et oiit Eor fishing ; the unbeliever asod to cast his 
net and take the namo oE his deity (idoi), upon which the net 
used to he filled with fish, whilst the believer used to throw his 
net ond take the name oE God, bnt coald not sncceed in getting 
anjthing. Thoy did that unti! snnset, when the believer caught a 
fish, which he took in his band, upon which it became agitiited and 
Eell into the water, so that the believer returned withoat anything, 
whilst the unbeliever returned with his boat EuU. The gnnrdian 
angel of the believer thereupon became dojectcd and said, * Lord, 
Thy believing servant, who aeks in Thy nainc, has returned without 
anythincr, whilst Thy unbelieving servant has returned with his boat 
full/ God said to the guardian angel uE the believer, *" Come,' and 
then sliowed hiin the dwellhig-place ot* the believer in Paradise, say- 
ing, * What has bafìillen thìs my believing servant will not harm him, 
when Ile coines to possess this.' He then showed him the dwelling* 
place of the unbeliever in Hell-fire, 8<aying, ' Wonld anything he has 
Eonnd in the world stand in good stead for him?' The angel replied, 
* No, by God, O Lord I ' " 

Anotbcr of tbese narratives is the one that is related at the end 
of finfioat af-i^'aficahy on the authority -of Abù'PAbbas b. Masrùk, 
who said, *' I wsis in al-Yaman ; there I saw (once) a fisherman 
fishing on one oE the shores of the sea, with his daughter by his side» 
He u.^ed to throw into the basket he had with him every (ish he 
caught, but the girl used to return it to the water. The man then 
looked round, and seeing no fish, asked ber, * girl, what bave you 
dona with the fish ?' upon which she replied, ' my father, I bave 
heard you relate regardiiìg the Apostle of God as having said, 
'*A fish Ealls not into a net unless it forgets to remember God." ' The 
man thereupon cried and threw away the fishing-hook." 

Another of thcso narratives is the one related in Kitdb ath-TliU' 
wàb^ on the authority oE Nàfi', regarding Ibn-'Umar. Nàfi' stated, 
^ Ibn-'(Jmar having been ili and having had a desire for fresh fish. 



«•nrolied fòr ìt for liiin in nl-Miultnali, liut could nofcfìnd any; at last 
?tftof ducli and biicIi a luiinbur oF dav-^*, l louiid one, wliich I purcliascd 
[for a dtrkam and a lialf, and tlien after roasrin;^ it I took it io him 
ton a oake of kread. Jii.stt.liena l>cig<rar liappcned to come to tbe 
|door; so he said to a slave, ^ l^oll it tip wiili tlie cake of bread on 
Ivrlduh it is and give it to him ;' but Hi« sluve said to bini, ' May God 
grenler your state good I You bave bad a desire Cor it since sucb and 
jSiich a day, and we could not finJ it, bnt novv wben \ve bave found aud 
^uroliased it for a dirbam and a balF, you order un to give it 
[liway to tbe begsrar ! We sball give bim (instead) its price.' Ibn- 
PUinar said, 'Roll it up and give it away to bim ; but tbe slavo asked 
Uliè beggar, ' Will you take a dirbam and leave tbis fisb ?' He then 

returned tbe fisb. Tbe slave tben cunìe back 
ven tbe beggur a dirbam and tiiken it from bim.' 

mie beggar, ' VYiU y< 
fiook a dirbam and 

gVd said, *I bave gi 
Mi-*Umar said, *Uoll it up and give it away to bim, and do not 

ke auytbing from bini, for I bavo board tbe Apostle of Qod say, 
^^ Wboever bas a desire for u tbing and prefers to give it avtray (to 
anotber person) to taking it for bimself, bas bis sins pardoned for 
bbn by God." ' " 

Anotber of tbese narratives is related by at-T^barànt, giving 
aatbentio autborities, on tbe originai autbority oE Nafi% namely, 
tliat Ibn-'Umar baving become ili and baving bad a desiro f«»r grapes, 
a buncb of thcm was purcbased for bim for a dirbam, but a beggar 
having (just then) come, he said, "Give it to bim." A man, bowever, 
dUolM^ycd bis order and purcbased it from the beggar for a dirbam, 
'àtìd tben carne witb it to Ibn-'Qmar, vvbo did as before tbree timcs, 
bat on tbe fourth occasion Ite ate it. Had he, bowever, known o£ tbis 
[èironmsbmce, he would not bavo (even) tasted it. 

ii^ . Suraij b. Yùnus relates, "Iwent out on a Friday for (he Friday 
OOngregational prayer and saw two roasted fisbes, wbicb I desired to 
[havo from the bottom of my lieart for the cbildren, but I did not say 
^'a word about it When I returned, I had not remuincd long, wben a 
I man knocked at the door witb a tray on bis head containing tbe two 
rfiahes, soiqe sweets, vinegar, ami a largo quantity of fresh ripe 
i^dates, and said to me, ^0 Abù'l-UAritb, eat tbis witb tbe cbildren.' " 
t^Abd-Allàb, the son of tbe Im&in Ahmad b. UanbaI statos, " I bave 
uieard Suraij say, 'I once ssiw the Lord of gIory« and he said to me, 
[?* Suraij, ask for what you want." I tben said, ** {J Lord, sar 




basar (head with head)>/' ' ** It is related in the History of Ibn*Kh. 
that ibis Haraìj was the grandfathor of Abù*l-*Àbb&s, the leader of 
ibe juriscousults of the Shftfi'i school. 

(Lawfalness or niilawf ulaeAS.) Ali the species of fish are lawful 
without slaughtering (in the legai way), being eqaally so, whether 
they havediel from an apparent cause such as force, or collision with a 
rock, or from exhaostion of water, or from a fìsherman striking them, 
or died a naturai deuth, on account of ali that has beeu related regard* 
ing tlie saj'ing of the Prophet, '^Lawful for ns are the two dead things 
and the two bloods — fish and locnsts, and the liver and the spleen.'* 
AH the Musliins are agi*eed on the deanness of these two things (fish 
and locnsts) as dead animals. Under the lettor ^ will be given the 
tradition regarding the whale (aU^anbar) which Abù-'Ubaidah and 
hÌ9 companions found and of which the Prophot partook some. 

(Side-information.) If a fire-worshipper (j\Iajù.it) catches fish, 
it is clean, on account of the statement of al-Hasan, '*I bave seen 
seventy of the Companions of the Prophot eat fish caught by fire- 
worshippers, and they had not the slightest compunction aliout it in 
tbcir minds«" Ali are agreed with regard to this thing about fish, 
bnt Halik differs with regard to locusts. 

(Side-information.) It is not lawful to cut a live fish, on account 
of inflicting paia by doing so, just in the saine way as frying it bc- 
foro its death in boiling oil ; — so Abù-Hàinid says. An-Nawawi 
atates that this derived doctrine is on account of bis electing the 
doctrine of the unlawfulness of swallowing it alive, which is perniis- 
siblo. I (the author) say that this is doubtful, for, bocause it is perniis- 
BÌblo to swallow it (ulive), it is not nccess:irily permissible to fry it 
(alive), on account of inflicting pain (on it) with firc. 

(Side-information.) Slaughtering finh (in the throat) is dis- 
approved, uniess it is a very big one, so that there is fear of its remain- 
ing alive for a long time, in which caso it is trnly desinible to^ cut 
its throat as a raeans of (bringiug) relief to it. Ar-Ràfi'l sUites that 
there are two vìews regarding eating a sraall ronsted fish, without 
slitting open its interior and extracting wliat is contained in it, and 
that the first I;:»Iàmic doctors pardoned it. Ar-RAyaut states, " I 

^ Without any pre-eminence over others. For an explanation of th« 
phnse, see De Slane's T. of Ibn-Rh.'s B. D. Voi. I, p. 48. 


l' _ •> 

V»* Ji 



^dfecido it in this way, and hold its excrement io bc clean," wliich is 
ihe doctrine elected by fil-Kaffàl. 

) J (Sido-ìnformation.) Tho loarno.l diflFor \\\ìh regard to the ani- 
^als which are in tho sea bcside fish. Some of tliom say that ali the 
^•nininls which are in tho sea niay be oat^n, excepting the frog, even 
l^ongb tho animai may bave the appearnncc of a man. Abù-*A11 at- 
llWyyibi out of our reliorious doctors acted according to this doc^l•ine ; 
lUissaid \\\ Sharh al'^lnyah that he \va^ asked, "Wonld ir bo so, if it 
|.lwi« tho appearance of a man ?" and he roplied, " Even if it speaks 
^ilie Arabie language, and say», * I am sudi a one the son of sudi a 
fone,* tor it would not be belirtve<l." This is on weuk authority and 
j^'àtrnnge. The modem religione doctors state that ali the ani mais may 
ibo eatan, excepHng sudi as bave tho appearance of the dog, the pig, 
lùX the frog. iSomo stite that, truly speaking, the animals in the sea 
rCOrresponding to such land-animals as are oaton sluQghrorcd in the 
|làwful manner, may be eaten either slaughtorcd or noi, but others 
ijAti^ that it is nccossary to slaughter thoin, which doctrine has becii 
^ected by as-Saidalant. According to this, the water-dog (boa ver or 
ìotler) would not be lawful, nor the water-pig (dolphin), nor tho «ea-ass 
W), even though there is an animai reicmbling it (the Inst one) on land 
■Jwhioh is lawful, namdy, the wild ass, becauio there is another animai 
^on land resembling it which is uiilawFul, nainely, the domestic ass, 
l^trhioh influences tlie soa-ass soas to reniler i* unUivYful ; — so ir is said 
^n ar-'Uairfiali and Sharh al'^fnhadh^lhah, T (HMMinlhor) say that 
riha doctrine to guide in decidino- (Miis !>oini) ìh ali tlu* animal.s 
ràfttlawlul, excepting the crab, the frog, and the crocntJiU, \\lit»tlier 
>iif not they are of the appearance of a dog, or a i»ig, or a num. 


r:'^ (Side-information.) If a man takes an oath thai he wouhi not 
'ttit flcsh {lahni)y hedoos not violate the oath by eatìn^* fish, because 
lit li not understood by general nsage to bear the senso of the word 

^flMh(/a/im), even though God has calleJ it " frolli flch ^i/-!»^** )/'' 
^^rt the sanie way as he does not violate bis oath by siltin;i[ in Hie san, 
^iriid were to bike an oath that he would not sit in the lisilit of alami), 


^ytn though God has called the sun a "lamp C^ *>«),"• and in tho 
•amo way as he does not violate bis oath by sitting on the ground, 

1 Al-Kur'àn XVM4 and XXXV-13. « Ideui XXV.62, LXXM5, and 

74 AD-DAMiBfS 

ìE le were io tnke an oath that he would not sii on a carpet (bÌ8àf\ 
even though Ood bas caHed the earth a " carpet ( UbL^ )."» 

(Side informntion.) There ìa a difference of opinion with re- 
gard to the application of the terni sanuik to other animala oC thia 
class beside fisti. Ash-Sb&fi4 has deulared in al-Umm tliat, in short, 
it is applicable to ali the aniinals (living in the sea), whicli is tru<i as 
given in ar-Rawilah. Àsh-Shaifi't states with reference to the differ- 
ence oC opinion of the people oEaPIral^ in renard to the words of 
God, *' Lawful for you is the game of the sea, and to eat thereof ; a 
provision for you and for travellers ; but forbi Iden you is the g:inie 
of the land whilo ve are on pilgrimage ; so fe:ir God to whtun 
je sball be gathered,"' that the commentators say that by ^'eating 
thereof" is meant the oating of ali the aniinals that are in the sea. 
It certainly scoms to be as ash-ShafiI says, but God only knows the 
mcaning of this exprcssion of His, whilat it seeniR plainly to declare 
the lawfulness of ali the aniinals. It is inentioned in al'MinhdJ that 
the word samak is not appliod to any animala but fish. 

(Side-information.) It is allowable to niakea payment in fish 
and in locusts, whethcr they be living or dead, when they aro to be 
had in largo quantities, but each class has to be described (beftire- 
band) for what it is worth. It is not allowable to sell fish while it is 
in water, on account of what the Iin&in Àhmad has related on the an- 
ibority of Miihainniad b. as-Sainin&k, who had it on the authority of 
Yazid b. Ahi- Ziydd, who had it on the authority of al-Musayyab b. 
Bàfi', who had it on the authority of 'Abd-Alblb b. Mjis'AJ, who said 
Uiat the Apostle of Uod said, **Do not M\ in the water, be- 
cause it is a sale of liazard or risk (j^ )." Al-B.iihakt stsitos that the 
tradition is thus related in a discontinued manner, without its being 
traced to the Oompanion who originally related it, and that there is a 
looseness in it bi)tween ul-Musayyab and Ibn-Mas'ùd, whilst the true 
version is the onc related by Hushaiin on the authority of Yaztd« the 
authorities being tben discontinued, on the authority of 'Abd-Al- 
làh, naroely, that he (the Prophet) disapproved the sale of fish in water. 

(Side-inforinatiou. ) The amphibious animala are the frog, the 
crocodile, the serpent, the tnrtle, the crab, the lortoiso, the snail, the 

> Al-Eur'ftn LXXM8. • Idem V-97. 






iÌBLTWì of mosqnitoos (ad-da^dmifi)^ the shells, nnd an-nasnàs. Ah to 
liihfifiri't nix, tliey are tiiilavvful ; as to the siinil, ifs hiwFuhiess or un* 
|Uwruhift3.s ha.s been already givon under the lettor ^ (al-halaznn); as 
io the hirvoe of mosqtittoes, tliey are, aocording to the KAdt, organiz- 
ed in water and do not live in anything but water; tliey are tlieroiore 
hWfuI to eat ; bnt according to al-JAhìj, they are unlawt'ul, b(*c:iase 
rinosqiittoe.s are nnlawfid; their hiwfulness or lias been 
l^lilready given nnJer the letter ò, às t.o sholl-fish it is nnhiwful, a3 
f^his been iilready inf'ntioned in the art. ^i)^JoJéml\^ nnd as to an^ 
in'findSf there is a difference of opinion aboiit it, which vvill be given 
^ iinder the letter o. 

,^^« (Properties.) The flesh of fish is cold and inoist, the bestkind 
i^being that of marine fÌ8h,having variegated colours on the back, smali, 
^ilid scaly (on the body). It possesscs the iiseful property of fattening 
|]ean bodies, bnt it prodncos thirst and a phlegniaHc hnmonr. It 
l%vM^ pprs'm.H with hot temperamentsand youngpeople. Thebestkinds 
. offish are those that are eaten in snmmer and in liot countries There 
-;;are several species of fish, and ont of theni tlie black, the yellow, the 
-igreen, an I stich as feed on black nind are disapproved (for eating). 
\^l'Hdfrdmis muì al-hùrl^ are disapproved, on account of their injurious 
^f^Rect on the stomach, their property of giving riso to looseness of 
kthe bowels, their causing pains and aches, their giving rise to anger 
lafter catini: them,and their causing diseases of a bad type. The ri ver- 
g*ji«h aro very bony and delicate, and possess ni neh moistnro, whilst the 
i> marine fish are jnst the opposite of that. The ccl siUùì% which is 
^TUie same as al-jirA^ is very nourishing, has a cathartic action 
|on the bowels, cleans the Inngs, and cloars the voice; and the cel 
kmàrmàhi increascs the seminai fluid and the fsit of the kid- 
noys. The larger-sized fish are very nourishing and give rise to 
flabbiness. Avicenna states that the flesh of fish benefiLs the lustre 
l(wuter) of the eye, and if eaten with honey sliarpens the sight. 
[Another autliority states that it increases tlie sexual power. Al- 
^ttzwhii states that the eating of fresh fish with green onions exeiles 
Hlio venereal desire and increases the sexual power, if it be eaten hot. 
%\l a drunken person smells fish, he vvill return to bis senscs, 
^!tml tlio intoxication will pass away. If the bile of a fish 


r ^ A Bpecies of mullet, MugH cepkahs. 

76 ad-dauìrì'b 


' and that of a turile are mixed| and tben used with aii iron pcn 

for writing on paper, the Tvriting will be seen at night, as if it wóre 
gold. Tlie bile of fish, that of the erano, and that of the partridge, 
if Qsed UH a colljriain, prevent the forination of cataract in the eya 
If the bile of (ish be drunk, it wìlI prove beneficiai in palpitadon 
{of the heart), and so also, if it be bl(»wn into the throat with 
some 8ngar. 

(Interpret:ition of il in dreains.) 1^'ish in dreams, if their nain« 
ber be known to be up to fonr, indicate woinen, but if they are more 
than fotir, they indicate wealfch and booty, on account of the words oÌ 
Ood, '*He it in who has 8ul>jected the uea, that ye inay eat fresh flosh 
theref roin," * which is fish. A great fish (al-hui) is interpreted to 
mean the waztr of the king and small finh (as-samak) bis troops. He 
who takes (ish (in a clrnani) will obtjiin woalth froin the troops ol 
the king; and he who dreains of calching fish in a woU is a 
sodoinite, or will soli bis slavo to a man. The Christians state thal 
the catching of fish in tnrbid water (in a dream) has no good in it, 
bnt ho who dreams of fishing in clear water will bear words whicfa 
will plcase him. Fish, for ono who is ili and bedridden, is a bad 
indication, on account of the moistnre (in it). If a traveller dreams ol 
its bcing in bis bed, it is indicative of trouble (difficalty), and some* 
tinies fear is tobe entertained of the drcatner's drowning, on accounl 
of the fish iying by bis HÌdo. He who dreams of fishing in clear 
water will Ix* bh*<t with an anspicious son. Sali fish means anxietj 
on account of tlie sultan, bocause saU< fìsh are laid one over another 
Some say tliatsalifish indiciitns prosperity and bisting weaUh, becajise 
tbesalt (init) preserves ili<) fish from becoming spoilt'; but others saj 
tliat it indicatos anxiety on account of slaves. Roasted fi^h indicatec 
travelling in pursuit of knowledge. He who dreams that a fish has 
come forth out of bis padondnm, if ho has a pregnant wifo, will bave the 
glad tidings of having a girl (boni to him). If one soes niany fislies. 
nmong which thore is a largo ono, which ho thon seos roasted, the 
unjnst and tyrannical ono will perisb. Fried fish indicatos the answer- 
ing of the piiiyer of the person dreaming of it, because Jesus prayed 
to 6od, and bis prayer was answered with the gift of f riod fish on the 
tablc. Dreams rogarding the largor kiu'ls of fish indicato booties and 

» Al-Kurta XVI. U. 


9AtIt al-^ayawìn 77 

liilst dreamsaboofc the sinaller kiiuls of fi»h Indicate aiixieties 
I, because tlie bones in the smaller fish are inoro than tlie 
il is difficuU for an eater to eat tbcm. 

ther section.) A dream regardìng a groat lish (a/-/ul/) iu- 
i oath, because God took an oath in its nanie, sayin£(, '^N. 
)n."^ It sometimes indicatos a placo oE vvorship of pious 
a inosqne of the devout oncs, because (the propht-t) Jonah 
iraiso the glory of God in its bell}\ A dream aboiit it 
9 ìndicates grief, straitness^ loss of po»ition, and the bofalliug 
noe, because God had dochired for the Jews thcir fish to bo 
on Saturdays, but the}' disobeyed flis ordor and becamo 
f being cursed ou that account. A dream about che fish of 
it Yunui) indicntes secnrity for one who ìsafraid, riches for 
m, nnd relief for one who is in straifs, and in h'ke mnnnor 
i of Joseph, the Cave, the llakim, ami the oven of Nonh. 

)ther section.) As to the interpreta tion of such fish as are 
1 such as are sweet, and such as are salted, and such as have 
tid such as have spines (vveapons), and such as are cut into 
)s, and such as live in fresh water, and such as live in salt 
d such as have an andiblo voice, and such as float on the 
)f water, out of the sumll ones and big oncs, and such as 
r likes on land, and such out of them as can he tamed in 
nd such out of theuì as can bo beld in the band witliout the 
instrument, they are to be intorpretcd, and a due explanation 
iven, as foUows: — If one dreams that he lias caught out of the 
and sweet fish l)y the aid of a fishinginslrument, it indicatos 
irnings, exertions on that accounl^, and tho acquircmcnt of 
eans of sustenanco. Fishing in the case of a man indicatos 
;ing of bis opinion and utmost exortion ; if tho dreamor be 
id, he will niarry, and if he be already married, ho will 
d with children corresponding to tho number of the iìsh ho 
I bis dream. Fishing in the case of a woman indicaites wealth 
e will colleot Erom ber husband or ber father. Fishing in the 
slave is mdicative of what he will acquire out of bis ma.-iter'b 
Fishing in the case of a child is indicative of what it will 
r out of knowledge or a craf t, or of property which ii will 

^ir*fin LXVIIM. N. here stands for ntin (fish). 

78 AI>-PAMÌRr8 


ncqnire from iis parenK lE the insiramenfcs nsed in fisliinor are nefi 

or liooki or snch ns go deep down into ilie sea, ihey are indictitivo off 

difficuUy whicli tlie dreiimer will enconnter nnd a dunger wliioli lu 

will meet witli. lE his instrnraent of fisliing be a tight one, and fish thal 

is caught ivith the hesivier kinds of gear be canght with it, it indicate^ 

an extension of ineuns oE sastenance, and tliat bis aiFairs will becomc 

easy. lE fi.'»h that i.^ generali/ canght in the lighter kinds of gear be 

eaiiglit with the heavier kinds of gear, it indicatos troabje, Eatigae, and 

scnnty ineans of nnstenance. lE much fish be caught, it indicates 

means of sustenance out of what the sea indicates. As to wliat the 

sea indicates, it will be given hereafter under the letter «j in tbe 

art. j^^ ov^ • lE the water (in which the dreamer fislies) be salt^ 

he will acqnire a gtiii or knowledge Erom a Eoreigner or a lieretic. If 

what he fishes bus (ni:iny sinall) bones in it and skin, it indicates pure 

Silver, or gold; if it hiA no (:icaly) skin, it indicates vain (profitloss) 

octions which will not lie conìpleted, on acconnt oE its slipping away 

qnickly out of the band nnd irs sleekness. If the (ish has spines, liko 

asli'shdl^ and aili-slùlhil^* it indicates bis vanquishing bis eneniies, nnd 

BOinetiines hu beconiing a friend of bad inon. lE it be a fish that c:in 

be cnt into longsiips, it indicatos merchanlise for merchants. lE he 

dreams that fish out of fresh water has gone to salt water, or (ish out 

ofs^dt water has gonetofresh water, it indicates bypocriny in tlie anny 

and a change on tbe part of the people general ly in what lias been 

custoniary, by way of wrong-iloing nnd exliibition oE beresy. If be 

dreams uE fiih floating on tbe surface of water, it indicates afìFairs 

becoming easy, the nearness oE what is <li.stant, the pnlilication 

oE secrets, the exposition of concealed tliings, or propgrty wliich 

is originally out oE an inlierit.since. If one seos in a dream that he 

has with him small and largo finh, it indicates his being concerned 

with joys and grieFs, or what would' necessitute the collectin;^ ^o- 

getlier oE good and bad (men). If he dream-) that ho has with him a 

fish oE the appearance oE a man orabird, it indicates making ncquain- 

tance of merchants travelling abont much on land and sen, or that of 

interpreters possessìng a knowledge oE lanr^nages, or that oE per-tons 

having pleasing qnalities, the interpret^ition being nccording to the 

animai the fish rcsembles. If he sees wìih him uny fish which is 

1 Severa! fisbes of the Fam. SnmiJsB; ono of the upeciea ith>U abù-riìfàl ia 
VhrygichthjfM aitratuM^ audanotheris SijnodtntU »chaL * (r«n. Qchilbe. 



, tho company of man and wbioh can be reared in bonses 
tnrtlo, al^karmùtj^ and others like them, it is indicative 
ess io orpbans and strangers. If be dreaius tbat be bas taken 
I tbe bottom of fcbe sea, it indicates tbait be bas an extcnsive 
gè of bis craf t and extensive means of sastenance, or that 
)t about getting tbe property of saltàns, or tbat be bas be- 
bbief or a spy. If tbe sea beconies exbausted (of water) and 
is (macb) iisb or gems, be will become aoquainted witb tbe 
lowledge of God by God impnrting it to lùm, roligion will 
plain to bini, be will be guidod to the rigbt courso, and tbo 
iscasewitb regard to it will become a good one; ii'tbefish 
ly from bim and roturns to tbe sea, be will become a foUower 
and acqoire from tbem knowledge wbicb nobody ctm bave 
e of, and if be intends proceeding on a joarney, be will find 
3ns wbo will stiit bim and from wboin be will derive a 
ind will tben return to bis place laden witb spoils. 


^«Jl (as-Samandal). — [The pbenix]. Al-Jawbart calla it a#- 
rithout tbe ^, and Ibn-Kii. calls it as^samarul without tbe J • 
)rtain bird tbat eats al-Ush (aconife), wbicb is a plant found 
nd of China whereit is edible; it is green in (bat country, and 
is dry it becoines a kind of food for the people of it without 
irious eff(*ct on them, but it it be iaken avvay from China^ 
the distance of a bundred cnbils and is then oaten, tho catcr 
» instantnneonsly. A wonderful thing in connection witb 
ix is tbat it takes a pleasure in lire and in remaining in it. 
3 skin becomes dirty, it cnnnot be washed but by means of 
9 found largely in India. It is an aninial sinaller in size than 

piebald in colour, witb red eyes and a long tail; siisbes 
en of its soft bair, and when tbey become dirty, tliey are 

ito fire, npon whicb tbey become clean without being burnt. 

)r autborities assert that tbe pbenix is a bird fonnd in 
lat lays its eggs and prodnces its young ones in fire; it 
the property of being unaifected by fire. Saslies tire mado 
ihers and taken to Syria; if any of tbem becomes dirty, it is 
ito fire, wbicb consumes the dirt over it, but the sash itself 

tVif anguiUaris, 

80 AO-pAUIB^B 

:/ is not burnt. £ba-Kb. sfcates, *' 1 hiivo seeti a thick piece of il wovei 

in the sliape oE a bolt for a riiling beasi throaghoiit Us longth an( 

f breadth; it was pat iiito lire, but tlio fire had no effoct on it what 

ever; one end of it was theu dipped in oil and lefl over the (burning 
wick o£ a lamp, upon which it lighted np and remained so for a lon^ 
tinte, after which the ilanie was extingnished, and it was fonnd to b( 
in the saine condition as beforo, analtcred in any waj." Ho fnrthei 
atatos, " I bave scen in the writin;^ of oar shnikb» the very learnec 
'Abd-al-Lattf b. Y&siif ul-6agdàdt, who stsites tliat a jìiece o: 
samaiìdal a cubit in breadth and two ciibits in length was presentec 
io al-Mu1ik ac|-pilhir b. al-Malik an-Nàiir Salàb ad-dtn, the sover 
eign of Àleppo ; they kepi on dipping it in oil and lighting it up 
until the oil wtt». finished, but yet it remained as white as it was.' 
Ibn-Eh. hns mentioned this in the biography of Ya'^ùb b l^àbir al 
ALinjantkt with othcr additional tliings; the verses will be givei 
hereafter under the lettor ^ in the art. ai>*CÌAJI ,> 

Àl-Kazwtnt statos that as-samandal is a spccies of rat that enteri 
fire, and nientiona what has been relatcd above. But the well-knowi 
thing is that it is a certain bird, as has been stated by al-Bakrl li 
Kitdb aUMasdlik wa^ilamdliky und others niso. 

( Properties.) If a dànak weight of its bile be given to drink 
niixed with the boilcd water of chick-peaa and strainod with fresi 
milk sevoral times, to ono who has deadly poisons in him, it will cur 
him of that. If a person haviiig a cataract in bis eye uses its braii 
mixed with aniimony as a collyrium, it will cure him and preven 
the pnpil of bis vye from bcing afifectcd by any other diseascs. 1 
its blood be painted on patches of white leprosy, it will chiingo thot 
colour. Ile who swallows a part of its heart^i^ill not bear anythioj 
without remembering it. Its bile will cause Air to grow, even if it i 
* applied over the |>si]m of the band. 

jj^l (fli'Satnmilr). — [The sable].* It is a word of the sjim 
lueasure as as'safud and aUkallUb. A certain land-aiiimal resem 
Uing the cat Some people assert that it is the ^ame as the ichneu 
mon, and chat the placo in which it is found has exerted its iuflueuc 

> Do Slane'sT. of IbnKh.'s. B. D. Voi. IV, p. 376. • MutUla zibeUint 
In Paleiiine the name MtnmiAr w applied in àfuMa bocca mela. 




ihinnging its colonr. ^Abd-nl-Lattf al-Rngd&d! states flint' ìt is 

old .animai, and tbat aniong animals thcre is nono bolder tlian it 

àrds man. It cannot be seized biit by a dodge, \rbich consists in 

rying for it a carcase, by wbich means it is doceivod. Its flosb is 

jand tbe Tiirks eat it; its skin cannot be tanned lìko other skins. 

It niay be bere stated as a strange tbing nientioned by an« 
awawì, in Tahdhib al^asma xca^Ulvg^àt^ tbat as-sammùr is a cevtxiiii 
I but porhsips it is only a slip of tbe pen. But a stili stranger 
g tban tbat is wbat Ibn-Hisb&m al-Bustl bas stated in Sitarli aU 
'fth tbat it is a kind otjinn. 

Tbis species of animai is specially selected in making fnrrcd 
rments out of its skin, on account of its softness, lightness, warmth, 

beauty; kings and grandees wear tbeni. Mnj&bid says, ^'Isaw 
ash-Sba^bì's person a garment of sammnr (tbe skin of tbe sable). 

(Lawfulness or unlawfalness.) It is lawful to eat it, wbich 
trine in its case is derived from the fox, because it does not eat 
of the filtby tbings. 

(Interpretation of it in a dream.) In a dream it indicates a 
nt — a tbief, one >vho does not mix ^vith anybody. 



^kx^ém)\ (as'Samaitar). — Like al-^amaithaL A certain bird having 

fory long neck, tbat is always seen in sballow water. It bears tho 

^ritiuet of ahul'^aizàr; — so al-Jawbarì says. It is also callcd 

'thalaikirj and evidently it is malìk al-hazin^ wbich is the sanie as 

\la$hiin (the heron), as bas been already inentionedi and wbich 

Il be described hereafter under the lettor ^. 



j9^^mJ\ (ai'Samandar) and jù>i^\ {ai-Samaiilar), — [Tliesala- 
nder]. A certain animai well-known to the people of India and 
[Ina; — so Ibn-Stdah says. 

A^ (iS/iidrf).— [The rhinoceros]. Al-Kazwini states that it is 

lohnal of the same description as the elephaut, but it is smaller 

it in body and larger than the ox. Some say that its young 

pota its head out of the vulva of the dam (before it is completely 

) and grazes until it becomes strong; when it becomes strong, it 

forth and flees away from the dam, out of fear of the latter 



Sì AD-DAMiRfs 

licking it with its tongne, for its tongne is like a thorn ; if» however, 
the dam suooeeds in finding it, it licks it nntil its flesh separates f rom 
ita bones. It is verj oommon in India. 

( Lawfnlness or nnlawf alness.) It is nnlawfal to eat it lika the 


wliF*^l (a*-5in/4J). — [The sqoirrel].» A certain animai abont 

the size of the jerboai bat larger than the rat; its far is excesaively 
flofty and farred garments are made of iti skin, which persons in 
afHuent circnmstances wear. It is a highlj dodgy animai, for vrhen 
it sees a man, it climbs np a high tree, in which it takes shelter, and 
then eats its frnit It is oommon in the oonntries of the ISclavs and 
the Tnrks. It is of a hot and moist temperament, on account of the 
qnickness of its movements when compared with those of a man. 
The best kinds of skins of it are the gray and smooth ones. The 
anthor of the following lines has expressed beautifuUy : — 

^ The more my akin becoines gray from oold^ 
The more I fancy that it is the skin of a squirreL'* 

( Lawfnlness or nnlawfulness. ) It is lawfal to eat it, because it 
18 one of the good things. Bat al-lKadi cut of the Hanball sect 
declares it to he nnlawfal, the reason for which is that it bites serpents 
with its fore-teeth and therefore resembles the field-rat The 
general body of anthorities, however, hold it as resembling the jerboa« 
and when opinion vacillates between its permissibleness and nnlaw- 
f nlness, the former overpowers the latter, becanse it is the originai 
opinion. If a sqnirrel he slanghtered in the lawf ul manner, it, is lawfal 
to wear a farred garment made of it, bat if it be strangled and then 
its skin tannedi its hair, trnly speaking, is not dean, being like the 
skins of ali dead animals, becanse the hair is not affected by tanning. 
Some, however, say ti ^t the hair becomes dean ^ conseqaence of the 
skin becoming so, bat it is a version given by ar-Rabt^ al-Jtzf on the 
anthority of a8h-Shàfi% whilst there is no opinion copied in o^ 
Mulìodhdhab on bis anthority excepting on this point. This opinion 
is, however, confirmed by the Ust&dh Abù-IsbA^ al-Isfaràyinl, ar- 
Bùyànt, and Ibn-^Usrùn, and has been elected by as-Subki and others, 
becanse the Oompanions (of the Prophet) divided (among themselves), 

a In W. Palestine Sehtrw syriaeui^ and in Egypt Xerut (S,) rutilw. 

Patìt al-patawIn 83 

Umar, the fiirred frarmeiits jiliindered fromthe Per— 
9 mode froin tlie aniinnla aTauglitered by the (ìre-wor— 
elated ìii the ^afyih of Musliin, oiit of a tradition o£ 
rthnd h. 'Àhd-Àllali nl-Barniil, wlio said, " Havinat 
MI of IlKi-Wa'ilnli as-Siibé'i n fiirred garment, I felt 
le, 'Why do yon feel it? I nsked Thn-'Abbàs (ahout 
ie live in Jlorocco, and we havo tlie Barlmis nii<l 

nitli nfl; n sbeep that haa been slnnglitercd by tbem 
ironght to US, bnt we do not eat aiiiinalii s]au^lit«reil 
bey (sonietiines) bring skiii-bottles ìii n-bich tboy 
iieat," nj>on which Ibn-'Abb:'is rep)ied, "We oskcij 
ìod regardiiig il, and Ite replìed, ' The act of tannin^ 
rendering it elea».' " ' " 

,) If if:4 flesh be giveii to ent to a niadman, it will 
adnci». If its desìi be «ateii by a persoli siifTering 
;is diiieasfla, it will beneHthim. Ith miiiin al-Mu/mildt 
ty of ìmixirting wannth in the skin of the Bqnirrel is 
lut property niostly follows the temperninent of th« 
in the case of the squirrel) U that of eccessive moia- 
eat, on account of its liviug on friiits. The wearing 

hot and yonng porsons, bocausc ìt imparts only a 
it of wannth. 

n-Simlàwali). — A ahe-wolf. 

iHjia/i). — Also a she-wolf. 

5anrfa/).— [The phenii]. The sanie as ai-tamamJaf, 
already describcd a little liefore ibis. As-8andnl 
e oE 'Amr b. Kais al-Makkt, who is rejected as nn 
ditions. There are two weak traditions given on lii's 
Sìinan of Ibn-MSjah. 

Shnator). — [Tlie eat]. Tlie n. of imity 
Il «ibinissive and soc-iahle animai. God lina crratcd 
iiy the rat. Ita aobriqoefs are ahi-yiidàth, nM- 
■ItaUìtam, and abtì'iltammAIclt, and the sobrifjnct of - 

bl ad-dam}rì's 

the female is umm-shammàlch* It has scvernl nanies. Et is rcluied 
that u Badaci (oiieej hiint^d a cat, biit did noi know wliat it was ; u 
man thcn mei liiiii and askcd Inni, '^ Wliat kind of as-shuiawr is 
tliis ?" He then mot anothcr man wlio asked him, ". What kind of 
aUhiiT is this?" He then met another man who askcd him, " What 
kind of aUfùU ì^ this ? " He then met another man who asked him, 
*^ A\'hat kind of afi^aiìcan is this ?" He then met another man who 
askod him, " What kind of al-kltaid^ is this ?" He then met another 
man who asked him, '' W^hat kind of al-^khaital is this ?" He theu 
met another man who asked him, ^' What kind of ad-<lam is this ?'* 
The Badawt therenpon said (to himself), ^^ I shall carry it and sell it; 
)>ercliance God may give me much money for it." When he carne 
with it to the market, he was asked, " For how mnch is this?" and he 
ra|ilied, ** For a hundred." He was thcn told that it was worth only 
half a dirham, u)K>n which he threw it away and said, '^ May God 
curse it I How many are its names and how little is its price !" AH 
the.<e nanies are applied to the male; — so it issaid in al-Kìfàyah. Ibn- 
Kutaibsih status that the female is called sinnawrah^ in the same way 
Hs the female of frogs is called fii/di^ah. I (the anthor) say that 
analogy does not prohihit the fonns khaìtalali, ^hvanah^ hittah^ 
khahVaJi^ and hin^ah, 

Àl-Btlkim relatos on the authority of Abù-Huniirah, who said, 
** The Prophet used to visit the house of some people oiit of the 
Hel|>ers, and there were near their house other houses, which he did 
not visit. This troubled their minds, so they spoke to him (abont 
ìtjj and he repHcd, ' There is a dog in your house,' but they said, 
'Surely in their house there is a cat;' upon which ho rcplicd, *Tho 
cat is a lìon.' " Al-Hakim adds that it is an authentic tradition. 

NuSiim b. Hammdd relates in Kitdb al-Fitan^ on the authority 
of Abù-Shurai^ah al-Qifàr!, a Companion of the Apostle of God, that 
he (the Prophet) said, '* Two men out of the tribe of Muxainah, who 
will be the last of men to be collected for judgment, will he brought 
to Judgment. They will come fi*onì a mountain which will be quìtc 
hiilden and in a rotired placo, and wijl proceed, until they conio te 
trace::^ of (habitations of) men, but they will fiud the earth dcserted 
until they come to al*Madinah. When they will arrive near ai 




tnali, tlioy will sny, * Wliere ore the men ?' Init thoy will iiot see 
ijboily. One of thein will say to his compaiiìon, ' The people are 
ihcir liouscs,' iipon which thcy will cntcr the honscs, whcre ihoyr 
find nol)ody, but will find the beds occupied by foxes and oars. 
06 of theni will then say to bis companion, ' AVhero ai-e the nioii ?* 
i the other one will reply, ' I think thoy are in the nuirkets, 
Igiged in buying and selliug.' They will next go out, iintil they 
i^SODio to the niarkets, but will net find anybody in theni. Thoy will 
go away, until they come to the gate of al-Madinah, whcre thore 
Il bo two angola, who will seize them by their legs and drag tlioiii 
ilio place of Judgment. Those two will ho the last of men to be 
^iectcd for Jiidgnient." 

(A ^trange thing.) It is said that Uukn-ad-dawlah had si rat 
hioh was in the habit of being present in bis a.ssombly. Whon any 
bill conipanions dosired to bave an interview with bini, but fouìid 
difticult, he used to write bis want on a slip of papcr and to bang 
U to the ncck of the cat. Uukn-ad-dawlah used then to see it, tnke 
and after reading it to write an answor on it ; he thon tiod it to 
^Ihé ueck of tlie cat, which used to return with it to the writer of it. 

It is said that the ])eo])le of Noah's ark having suffered annoy- 
^^•Dee fronì the rat, Noah rubbcd the forchcad of the lion, upon whìirli 
titncezed sind threw out a cat ; on that account it rosoni1)los froinc- 
brrliat the lion, for it is not possible to draw a picture of a rat 
^itliout (at the sanie tinie) drawing an imago of a lion. 

Ji It is graccfid and elogant, and cloans its face with its saliva ; 

ben nny part of it^ body is dirty, it cloans it. Jt is in lust a.1>out 

end of wintor, when it is in great pain owing to the burning 

lation of the spormatic mattar, and keeps continua Uy screa ming, 

antil it throws out that niatter. When the f emale is hungry, it ears 

'lU young onos ; but some say that it does that out of oxcessive love 

Tot them. Al-Jahi4 says : — 

<* She carne Trith the two whose lips did not dose together, in a litter, 
Driving (^jt^yì) to vìctory* her forces, 
As thoagli in hor action she wore a cat, 
Desiring to eai her young ones." 



S^ I lu one of the copies instead of *< to an-na^rah,** ^* to al-Ba$rali," is giren« 


The meaning of u^yi is she drives: God has saiii, '^ Uast thon 
Hot secn tluit Goti drive:* ( is^S^ ) the clouds ?" » 

When a cat uriiuitos, it conccals ìts nrìue, so that nits niay not 
pcrccivo its smeli and run away ; it smclls it itsclf at first, and if it 
finds the smeli of it strong, it covers it with what woiild conceal the 
smeli and colour (oE it), otherwise it is satisfied with covering it in 
tlie easiest way possible. It is said that mts kiiow the excrcmeut of 
cats. Az-2iamakhifhar! statcs that God has plantcd that' as an instinct 
in the cat, so that an answeror of the cali of nature out of men may 
take a lesson from it and cover up what eomcs out of him. When a 
cat becomes accustomed to a house, it prevents any other cat from 
entering that house, though it may he of the same kind, knowing 
tliat the people of the house nuiy perchance like the other one better 
and prefer it to itselF, or uuiy perhaps divide the Food hetween the 
two. I£ it takes anything, whicli would grieve the people of the 
house, it runs away, knowiiig what it will get in the way of beating, 
and if tliey drive it away, it comes flatteringly near them and rubs 
itsclf against them, knowing that flatt'Cring would save it (fron^ 
punÌ2(hment) and ensure for it pardon and good treatment. God 
lias implanted fi^ar oF it in the heart of the elephant, for when it sees 
a cat it runs away. ft is rclatod that a [mrty of India ns (once) 
routed (tlieir enemy) in this way. 

(•ats are oF tlnve kinds, — the domestic', the wild •, and the 
€Ìvet-<rat.^ Botli the wild and the donicstic cats bave an austero 
nature ; they seize a prey and eat the living flesh ; they resemble 
man in some of the naturai characters, namoly, that tliey sneeze, yawn, 
extend themselves, and bike things with their hands. The female 
conceives twice a year, and the period of ìts gcstation is fiFty days. 
Tlie si/e oF the wild cat is bigger than that oF the domestic one. 
Al-Jàhi4 states that it is a desirable thing to adoi>t and rear a cat. 
Al-Kazw!ni states in al-Aalikàl on the authority oF Ibn-al-Fakib that 
some cats bave wings like thuse oFfìats exteuding From the root oF 
the ear to the tail ; iF it bo true, it is evident that thov nui:*t be like 
the wild cat in resoml»lanec. 

i Al-Kur'fin XXIV-43. • FélU domestica. » FcUa maniculata and F. 
thùH», « Viverra genetica 


9ATÌT al-9atàw1k 87 

- 1 

Mnjàhid statos that a man went to Shuraih, the ^àdf, witli a 
eomplaint against another man rogardiug a cai, upon which the ]k«^t 
[laid, " Produce your evidence," but the man replied, " I do not 
:find any evidence abont a cat which its dani gave birth to with us." 
; Bhuraìh thoreupon said, " Go with it, both of you, to its dam ; if it 
- rcmains tliere and continaes there, leave it, for it is your cat, but iE 
it trembles and its hair stands on its end, and it then runa awuy^ 

' it is not yours." 


(Tiawfuhiess òr uulawfulncss.) Truly spcaking, it is unlawFul to 
1 ent both, the domestic cat and the wild cat, on account of what is relat* 
\ ed in the tradition alreiidy mentioned, nainely, that it is a lion (a 
^.beast of prey). Al-Baihaki relates on the authority of Àbù'ss-Zubair, 
I who had it on the authority of Jftbir, who said that the Apostle of 
[ Qod has prohibited the eating of cats and the taking (cating) 
of thcir pricc. It is said in the (Sahth of Muslim, the Miisnad of tho 
' Imam Àhmad, and the Sunan of Abù-Dftwud that the Prophet has 
P prohibited the selling of cats. Some say that this applies to the 
: wild cat, f rom which there is no benefit to bc derivcd. Some say that 
he has prohibited it as a thing to keep oneself at a distance f rom, 
80 that men may beconio accustomed to making a prescnt of it and 
to lending it, as is mostly dono. If, however, it is a cat from which 
a benefit is to be dcrived, and as such it is sold, the sale is valid and 
. its pricc lawful. This is the doctrine we follow, and it is the doctrine 
' of ali the learned men, with the exception of what Ibn-al-Mundhir 
has said on the authority of Abù-Uurairah, and what 1'à'u^(, Mujà« 
; hid, and JAbir b. Zaid bave said, nanielv, that it is not allowable to 
' seti it, arguing on the strength of this tradition; but the general l)ody 
of authorities bave replied to their argument, on the strength of the 
tradition in which the prohibition is applicsible to what we bave 
mentioned; — this is what is to bo depcndcd upon. As to what aU 
Khatt^bi and AbiVUmar b. *Abd-al-Barr bave mentioned, nnmely, 
that the tnulition is one delivered on a slender authority, it is not 
as they state, but the tnidition is an authentic one, as has boen ai- 
ready mentioned. As to the statement of Ibn-'Abd-al-Barr that no- 
body has reluted it on the authority of Abù'z-Zubair but Hammad b. 
Salamah, he has also made in it a mistake, bectiuse Muslim lias 


related it in liis fiatjJh oiit of ilio version o{ Ma^V^l, on the autkority 
of *UbaiJ-Allàh, who Imd it on the anthority of Abu'z-Zubair; 
these two rehitcrs are trnstworthy, and they have rolatcd it on the 
antliority of Abù'z-Zubair, who is trustworthy. Ibn-Màjah has also 
related it on the anthority of Ibn-Lnhai'ah, vrho had it on the anthority 
of Abù'z-Zubair, which does not detract anytliing f roni its worth. This 
wìll be again hinted at in the art. óV • . Tlie versìons of the statement 
of the Imam Ahmad regarding the wild cat diffcr, but modt of them 
tend to hold it nnlawfnl liko the fox, whilst al-Hadnimi ont of our 
religions doctors declares it to be lawful^ whieh is the doctrine of the 
school of Màlik. As to the doraestic cat, it is unlawful according to 
Abù-Hanifabi Màlik, and Ahmad, whilst al-6ùshanji ont of onr doc- 
tors has elected the doctrine of its being lawfnl, but trnly spcaking 
it is unlawful, as has boen alrcady mcntioned. 

(Proverbs.) " Qnicker in taking or seizing (^*J I) tlian a cai." 

miiS ì = Qidek in taking. ^^^ ì-Aa) Ja^j «= A nian quick in snaicliing 

avoay (a thing). " As if he wore the cat of *Abd-Alirih." This prò- 

verk is applied to one who, with bis advance in ycars (of age), increases 

also in luss (of worth), and in ignorance. With regard to it Bashshar 

b. Bnrd the blind says : — 

<<0 AbA-Mukk1if,i you nsed to swim in the deep 8ea of generosity, 
fiat now, when you have become old, yen hare pitched your tent 

on Ufi shore, 
'Likethc cai of * Abd-Allàh/ which wassold fora dirhani, Mrhen young, 
Bui when old, for a ktrdt.^ 

It is a post-classical provcrb and not out of the classical language of 

the Arabs. Ibn-Kh. states, " I have mado inquìrios nboutthe proverb, 

•the cat of 'Abd-Allah,* in places whero an exphination ofitnmybe 

supposed to be found, and asked about it people possessing knowle<lge 

of sncli matters, but I have not leanit any history of it nor come aerosa 

any traees of it. I have subsequently succeeded in finding the 

following lines of al-Famzdak : — 

<* I bave aeen other men Increase day by day 
In honour (prosperij^, whilst your honour is on the decline, 
IJke the cai, which, when yoang, is dear, 
Until when it becomes old, it is cheap.'' 

1 Abu-RhfiUd in Ibn-Kh.'s B. D. The first line is givendifferentlyin that 
book.— De Slane's T. Voi IV, p. 76. * A twenty-fonrth part of a dirham. 

9.vyAt at^payawan 89 

wns froni ihis tliat Baslisliar took liis idea ; no particulur cai is 
Jantby it, hot tlie price of overy cat, when 5t. is youiig, isgreatcr 
an when it. in ol<l ." 

(Projìorties.) Enchant.nìcnt (magic) has no offect on him ^Yllo eats» 
flosli of a black doniestic cat. If its spleen bo tied on the person 
a nienstrnating woman, it will stop the nienstrnal flow. If its eyen 
) dried and a person f inniguted witli theni, therc ayìII bc no want o£ 
fl that will nofc be acconiplished. He who «utìcs abont bis person 
é canine tooth will not fear at night. If its heart be tied in a ])ieco 
i it8 skìn and carried abont by a person, bis eneinios will not 
inqnish hiin. He who nses its bile as a collyrium will see by- 
iglit as he sees by day ; if it be n)ixe<l wilJi salt and KirniAni cummin--- 
i^ed and painted over fcstering wounds an<l nlcers, they will beai* 
La blood, if it l>e a])plied locally, acts ns a powerfid apbrodisiac. lE 
porson siiffering from leprosy be given to cb'ink some of it, it will 
i^neKt him; and if any man drinks it, women will love him. ]£ 
é dnng be used for fumigation, it will cause tlie foetal membrancs 
iocundines) to come ont. Al-Kazwint states tlìat, if the bile of a black 
ìmostic cni and the bile of a black dome.sti(t fowl be (b*iod and poundcJ 
lìe and then used by a person as a collyrium mixed with (the 
'dinary) collyrium, genii will ai)pear before him and serve him* 
adds that it is a tried thing. If lialf a dirham weight of the bile of a 
ack cat be taken and oil of jasmine be added to it. and then used as aii 
rhine by a person suflFering from facial palsy, it will cure liinu 

As to the wild cat, its marrow is a wonderfnl remedy for [wini 
the kidneys and diflficult micturition, if it is dissolvod in the juico 
' water of rocket (a/-;/7i;/u* — eruca) plant, then warmed over tire, and 
*unk on an enipty stomach in a hot vapour-batli. Fuìnigation with 
e smoke of its brain expels the spermatìc fluid from the wonìb; — so 
-Kazwinl 8a)'S. 

The int^rpretation of it in dreams will b<» given undor the lettcr 
in the art. ^«^1. 

As to the civet-cat, it is like the domestic cat, but longer than it in 

(ali and larger in body ; its hair is inclined to black, and sometimcii 

Ì8 spotted black and white. It is imported from India and Sind, and 

civet in it has the resemblance of black viscid dirt, baving a fetìJ 


90 AD-DAMÌni's 

smeli, iocorporatcd with wkich is a smeli like that of inusk ; it is found 
in its armpits, on the inside of its thighs, on the under snrface of its tail 
und round about its anus, from wliicli parts it is taken with a small 
8poon or a tliin dirhani. A i)art of this lias been already mentioned 
under the letter j . 

(Ldivrfulness or unlawf ulness.) It is truly speaking unlawful te 
cai it like the douiestic cat and the wild cat. As to civet, it is clean, 
bnt Màwardi statcs, and also ar-RnyAni at the end of the chapter 
al-^iirar^ that civet is the milk of a cat found in the sea, from 
mrhìch it is extractcd, and is like nnisk in smeli and like milk in 
Di'bitcncss, and that the sea-faring people use it as a perfume. This 
render» it lawful ; but if we say that the milk of an animai which 
eannot l>e eaten is unclean, there are two views regarding it. An- 
Nawawi states that it is clean and iis sale valid, because it is tnie 
tliat ali the animais of the sea aro clean, and tlieir milk and flesli 
lawful. Tlìis would be so, ìf we grant that it is a marine animai ; 
liut the correiit tliing is that it is a land-aninud; according to this, 
ai is clean without any differcnce of opinion. But it is said that 
iììh is influence<l by the fact of the mixture with it of the animars 
liaìr which falls in it, antl it is necessary to withhold from a thing 
Ihat has in it tlie animal's hair, because truly speaking the hair ofi 
an animai that eannot lic eaten, if rcmoved during its lifc, except in 
the case of man, is nndean. 


yj^mJ] (iiS'Sunnun).^ — Sing. saimiuilu A ccrtiiin specios of 
swallows ; on tliat account the jaimdicc-stono {hajar al-ifarkàn) is 
called hajay a*'Siin{nitiy but the author of ^Ajffih al-nuikldàkàt 
Las used a wrong lettor, namcly, cp> »"*l spclt it as hajar afi-^unUnu; 
tlie correct spelling, iiowevcr, is with u* , tlie namo bcing derivcc 
from this species of swallows. Jamal-ad-din b. llawahah has 
expressed a beautiful metaphor alwnt it in the foUowing lines : — 

^ A Btraiiger, she yearued for her nest, 
And carne to it at the fortunate tinie ; 
Sbe Bpread ber ebony-like black wings and dapped 
Witb the ivory-like wbite under surface, and tben laugbed witb tb( 
aandal-like yellow bill." 

1 In W. Palestine UinimiAìiutica, 


Its InAvfulness or nnluwfulncss has bccii alrcady given under tho 
rtcr ^ in the art. UUur'l . 

(ProiMìrtìcs.) If one takcs its two eycs, ties thcm up in a rag,. 
1(1 liangs theni on a cot, wkoevcr niouuts tliat cot will not bo 
ilio to slcop. If sparrows are fumigateci witli its eyc, they will fly 
pray, and if a jìerson snfforing froni fcver bo fumigated wìth it, ho 
fili bo cured by the pormission of God. 

^ *.. . ^. .- - .. , .« r« 

*AÌ|oj^-JI {as-SAdàntyah) and '^,3lj-^l {aB-SaicéUliynhy — A cer- 

•in blrd that cata grapcs ; — so Tbn-Sidah »ay.s. 

(Wondorful infonnation.) It i.-^ rcUited that in tlio city of 
DAnnyah (Rome), there is a tree of copper, on whìch tlii»re is a 
fùdiìmyak of copper, in the beale of which there i» an olive. Wliou 
ttio season of olives conies, that bird whistles, upon whicli no siMnìj/ah 
rcmains without coming there, every ono bringing with it three 
olivea, one in its beak and two with its (two) legs. They thcn 
throw the olives over the head of the sùd&nìyah of copper. The 
l'pooplc of Kumiyah extract oil out of them, suffieient to last them for 
itilo wlìole of that yeur. 

T (tho autlior) ?ay that as-sùddnlyali is evidently the sanie ud- 
itile starling {aZ'Zurzur)^ and that the above narrative has been already 
iT^lated in that art., on tlie aitthority of ash-Shan*i. It eats gra\>es 

(Properties.) The flesh of these birds is cold, dry, and bad, 
f^pccially if they are lean ; tho best ones aro thosc which are eauglit 
h]n a net. It is an aphrodisiae, but has an injurious effect on the brain, 
^'wliich niay he warded off l)y meuns of nioist broths. It proiluces a 
l^borning humour and is suitable for cold eonstitutions and old men^ 
{The most suitable ones are those that aro eaten in spring. The eatinjj; 
.oftheir flesh is disapproved, on account of their eating crceping thing.n 
\[al'f^ashaviit) and locusts, for which reason there are jnmgency and u 
^dii^gusting smeli in their iiesh, which is worse tlian that of larks. 

\ Hiifus divides l)irds into tliree grades and says that tlie bcst 
of birds aro tho wild ones, namely, ar-rukh^^ ash-sliuhrtu^ and a*- 

^ Seeaote 22, Clmp. XX of Lane's T. of «Thousand and one nights. 


t)2 AD-DAMiRfs 

4umiUà^; next corno the partridge, tho francolin, at4aihùj*^ ash^ ;, 
éha/ntn^^ the yoiing one o£ the pigeon, and a/-/(iA7ti(^ ; then come ì! 
tlie qnail (as-sahoà) and larks, only tluit in medicine hirks have more 1 
rciienibhince to nourishment than the qaail. ^ ^ 

cJ-^i^-»^! {as-Sììdhanfh). — Tlie falcon; — so it is said in Kifàyat 

cir>*»'' ' (as^SiU). — [The motli-worm and the weevil.*] A certain 
^'orni that attacks wool and food; — so al-Jawhari and others say. 
One says urj"^ (^^^^^fooil attacked hy weevilsy and òj<v« ^UJ» ^food 
attoiiked hy toarnu. [The author here quotes two lines from a ràjiz 
poet, in which tlie two words u'j'^'^ ^nd òj^^ are nsed, and which 
are also given in the art. òjaJI^ Voi. 1, p. 792.] 

Katadah and JMujfthid stiite with regard to the words of God, 
" He creatos also what ye know not of,"* that the worni which 
4it4:Ackd clothes and that which attticks frnits are here meant. Ihn- 
'Al)l)às says that to the right of the throne (of 6od) is a river of 
light like the seven heavons and the seven earths, and that Gabriel 
enters it sevonty tinies at the duwn of every day and bathcs in it, 
wliereby hi.s already existing light, bouuty, and greatnoss aro 
increaiited ; he then shakes, and God can:«es to fall from bis every 
f<*ather seventy thousand drops, from every one of which seventy 
tliousand angels are born, oltt of whom seventy thousand enter 
al-Bait al-Ma'mur' and seventy thonsand enter al-Ka'bah every 
day, andthey will not return till the Day of Resurrcction. At-Tabarì 
day:<, " You do not know what God hjis prepared in Paradise for its 
people, of tlìings which the eye has never seen, the ear has never 
heard, and the heart of man has never imagined." 

We have been informed in one of the narrative», on the authority 
of al-Hàrith b. al-Hakam, who said, '* God has revealed in one of the 
(saered) Books, ' I ani God, and besi<le me thcre is no deity ; liad I 

> A specìes of quail. ^ x gmaìl speoies of partridge. * A species of 
tarUe-dove. * A speoies of collared tartle-dove. • Hie larva of Pluiìatna 
tinea and of Cui-culìo.— Lane's Lei. • Al-Kur'&u XVI-8. ' The Saered Honae 
in hcaven oorreaponding to the Ka'bali. 



roFiiction (stinking) for tlic domi, tlioir [toojile woiiltt 
liem in tlieir lioiiiies. I am God, and Itoside me HitM-e 
Din Hio roditcfii* oF jiriccs wlicii cotiiitricij are afflict<-<] 

I niii God, and beside metherc ìs no ileìty; T am tlio 
wlieii graiiurtcs aro Etili. I ani God, and Wsido tue 
y ; liad I not deereed for tjip woevil the (nilliijj; «>F 
ings woiild liave ^torcd it n\ì. I uni God, aiitl 

ia uo deity ; liad I noi cauitod liopc to dwoll Ìii tho 
i), caro wotdd liave killcd tlicni." Wlion 'Aiar I). 
ted iil-Miitalanntiia freni cating tlic wlicat o( itl-'Iià^» 

e prevents me froni ettting tUe wliCKt of hI-'ItA^, 
the weevil ìb aaling tlie wheat in tlie villnge." 

ì l'olatoN in Iiìh Stiri' ro^trding Tlin-Ma.-i'itd a^ liaviiij( 
L' out oE yoti i^ aldo to [duce ltÌM treasui'c in lioavon,. 
cntinot liave an aoci'ss to it, noi' tlie weevil can eut 
0, (or tlie-lteart o( ovcry man ìy witli his troasnro." 
■d on tlie autliority o£ tlie Sliaikli tlie loitmod Aliù'l- 
si tliatuwonian said to liim, " We liud some wlicat 

va» attuukcd hy wecvils, ati^l \vc gromid it, no tliat 
e alrio grottnd witli it ; and wc liad some lioitns attackod 

we prciwrodoftliein tlio brotli called tlaiftìsiiali, a\ton 
«vils caino out o£ it alive." He wiid to lior, " TIi» 
oE great ones leails to safcty." 

igtiiisi» wliat Ibn-'Atl}'ali has related in liis coiniiion- 
i]iter o£ tbo Cave (al-Kur'àn XVIll), nunidy, tliut 
Eonncd him rcgarding Abù'l-Fitdl al-Ja wliai-ì, tiie 
cachcr in £g}'pt, as having said in hts proacliing— 

hocvor accoin(>unÌoi> the peopleoE goodness Iiuh tlioir 
^ted 011 liiiu ; tliis dog aoconijwnìctl piotis {>eople, 
pcned, an tlie rcsuU of tlieìr Idest^ing on it, tliut God 
it in tlie IKnr'àn, and tliat Ha iianic in coiiRtantly on the 
o£ nien." On tliut account, it is stiid, "AVlioever sitn 
ly of men tuking tbe natne of God is roifscd from 
liecdles!>ue!)s, und wliocver serves tlie pìoua in raiscd. 




• t 




94 ad-dam!rì's 

I liave been givcn by one of the good peoplo the wondcrful in- 
lormation tliat, if the namcs of the scven rcHgious lawycrs who wcro in 
the honoured city oE al-Mudinah are writteu on a piece of paper and 
placed in wheat, it will not he attacked hy weevils while that piece o( 
paper is in it Tlieyare ali given in the following lines by an old 

poet : — 

« Verily, every one who is not gaided by imims, 
HU divisioD i8 defective and anjast ; 
Take them,—'Ubaid- Allah, *Urwah, l^hìm, 
Bà*ìà, Abù-Eakr, Sulaimàn, and Kh&rijah. 

One of tìie verifiers of tmth has inforined me tliat, if their namet 

be written down and hnng on a head afifected with hcmicrania or men- 

tioned over it, the hemicrania will bc cured. Under the lotter ^ in th< 

art òh^^y there bave becn already given the vcrscs of the ^nr'Ar 

whicharc beneficiai in hemicrania. Ono of thelcarncd incn has inform« 

ed me tliat if the following worda be written on a piece of paper and timi 

paper hnng on the head, it will take away headache and hemicrania :— 

*' In the name of God, the mercif ni, the compassionate 1 Be stili ovci 

him head, by the trnth of Him who has created in thee the front tcetl 

and the lateral or molar teeth, and has decreed it a writing withont a pei 

and withont pai>cr, romain tranqnil by the firmncss of Qod, becom< 

stili and bc quiet by the order of God for l>ecoming stili, by the reputa 

tion of Mnbammad b. *AlMl-Allah, ihe Ajiostle of God ; there is n< 

atrength nor power but in God, the High, the Great I " Hast thon no 

looked to thy Lord how He prolongs the shadow ? but hnd He willet 

He would bave made it stationary."» Become stili, pain ani 

headache, and hemicrania and throbbing, (and ceaso) froin (nnnoying 

the wearer (carrier) of these words, in the sanie way as the Throne o 

the Merciful became stili (stationary). "His is whatsoever dwells ii 

the night or in the day, Heboth hcars and knows."» "And we wil 

send doAvn of the Kur'àn that which is a healing and a mcrcy to th 

believers."» " *God is enough for us, a good guardian is He/ "* An 

may peace and safety be granted to our lord Muhammad, the last e 

the prophets and apostles, and to bis people I" 

* Al-Kat^àn XXV-47. • Idem VM3. • Idem XV1I.84. ♦ Idei 


9ATÌT al-9ataw1n 



Oot o( the tried reinodìes for gctting rid of wccvils aud luoths» 
be mentioned wliat I liave been inf onncd by one of the imftms of the 
lyah sect, nainely, to write on a piece of laiirel-wood(^ Wl v**^) the 
^hig words iu the shado, in such a place that the sun can never see 
i— either at the timo of writing or at the tiine of taking it away — 
ihen to hury the piece of wood in the wlicat or barley ; it \\'\\\ then 
attacked either by weevils or moths : — " In the name of Qod, 
merciful and compassionate I '* Dost thoii not look at those who 
tbcir homes by thoasands, for fear of death ; and God saìd to theni 
^^t»in They died, and so also will the weevils and moths die and 
away by the order of God. '^ Go out, weevils and nioth.s, by the 
Àr of God quickly, or yon will go out of the jurisdiction of the C^ivi* 
dor of the faithful, 'Alt b. Abi-Talib, and tostimony will l)e l)orne 
iQst you that you stole the hai ter of the mule of the propliet of God^ 
iltim&n b. Dawud." It is a wonderfal and tried remedy. 

(Lawfnlness or nnlawfulness.) It is unlawful to eat it scparatcly 
itsetf), l)ecanse it is a species of worni. 

i (Provcrbs.) *'The pcrsons who compose a hoiisehold are the 
ibs (weevils) of propcrty." " More eating (greodier) than a 
>vil." KliAlid b. ^afwàn b. al-Ahtam was a.<«ked, " How is your 
P *' and he replied, " He is the lord of young men, and bis coin- 
kions are accomplished and well-mannorod." He wtus noxt a.sked, 
[ow nnich do you allow bini for maintenance evcry day ? " and Iie 
ilied, " A dirham." He was then askod, " How can the thìrty 
trhams a month he sufficient for him, whilst you derive a revenuc of 
Irty thousand ?" upon which he replied, '' The thirty dirbams are 
licker in ruining property than the grubs in wool in snmmer." His 
iwor having been related to al-Hasan al-Basri, he said, '^ I boar 
itimony that Kh&lid is a Tamimi." Al-Hasan said that, because tlie 
mi«Tamim are noted for miserlincss and greediness. 

In its inierpretation in a dresim, it is Hke a worm ( i>j^ ' )> which 
[riicle may be referred to. 

» Al-Ear*àn 11-244. 

96 AD-DAMtRfs 

AA^J I (ai-5f </). — One pf the iianies for the wolf, Froin it wag 

nameil the |rrau()fat1ier of Abù-Muhammad 'Àbd-AlUih b. ]^[uhanima({ 
b. as-Sìd al-Batalya\v;5Ì, >vho was a phìlologist, granimarìany aud tho 
nuthor of many instructive and good works. He was born in tho year 
444 A. H., in the city of Badajos (in Spain), and died in tho month of 
liajab in the year 521 A. H.. 

ÌAA«»J| (as'Siilali). — A slie-wolf. Froni iti» sui)po::»ed to be 

derived tlie nanie of the IniAni, the very learned, the Utlfij, the grani* 
tnarian, tlie philologist, the verifier of trnth, Abu'l-Hasan 'Ali b. Ismael 
li. Sididi al-Mursiy who was a leader in philology and rare words and 
expressions, which liotli he used to renieniber well, and on which 
Bubjccts he lias coini»osed bis work al'Mnhkam and bis work a/- 
èluìdia^fiait and othor boiiks ; he was blind (not natundly), and no also 
'was bis father. He died in ìhxW I in the year 458 A. H. at theageof 
60 years. 

*ÀÀA* (Slfaniuih), — Like himanìuih. Ibn-a»-Sani'àni state» in a/- 

Ansdb that it is a certiiin bird in Egypt that throws down the leavos 
of treas, not leaving any behind. Abù-Ishàk Ibràliìm b. Hasiin b. 
^All al-Uaindàn! Sìfsmnah, oneof tho groatosttraditionists, is likened to 
it, bocanse, whenovor he snccoeded in coining across a rehiter of 
Iraditions, he nsed to liear ali the tmditions he liad with bini, not 
leaving behind Cunheard) any of theni. 

u"lr*^-^' ((i/>M-Sti/r{Jj« ?). — Al-Kazwint st4ites in al-AMdl that 
it is a certain aiìimal found in thickets and having in its nasal eavity 
twclve i)crfect lioU's. AV^hen it brcathes, therc is board coniing f roiu its 
uose a sonnd like the sounds of flutes, and the óther aninials thereupon 
ipither (round it) to bear that sound ; if any of theni happens to 
bceome confonndcd witli the sound, it seizes that animai and eats it^ 
bnt if it doos not find it practicable to seize any of thcm, it gives a 
lorrible scroam, upon which the othor animals separate and ileo 
away froni it. 


98 ad-damìbis 

ooidd not control my eyes and said, *Who has donethis deed?' upon 

which they replied, * ]9amzah b. 'Abd-al-Mn^talib, and he is in Ìbis 

place, in this honse, in the drinking-place of the Helpers. A femala 

singer (fudnah) had sung to him the foUowing in the preaence o{ 

bis oompanions : — 

<* O HuDzah, be off to the fat aged she-cameli 
Whieh are tied up in the yard.; 
Inirodace the knife luto the place f or atabbing them 
And amear them, O Hannah^ with blood ; 
Bring quicklj to the drinkiog-place the beat parta out of them 
For eating, either aa ileah-meat aplit lengthwiae or roaated, 
Por yen are Abù-'AmArah, * who ia ezpeeted 
To remoTe from na diatreaa and allliotioii« " ' ^ 

The reat of the tradition ia well-known. Al-Bnkh&rl, Muslira, 

and Abù-Ddwnd bave related it ; and it ia an evidence of the 

permiaaibleneaa of eating any animai wliiob haa been (It^^^ully) 

slanghtered by any peraon, like an oppreaaor or a thief , who is not 

the rightfnl owner (of it), aa an act of transgreasion (againat the 

owner). This ia the statement of the general body of leamed men, 

bnt Sa^nùn, Dawnd^and ^Ikrimah, who differ in this, say that ii 

cannot be eaten, which is a very strange statement. The argumenl 

of the general body is that the slanghtering at the hands of th< 

transgressor satisfies ali the necessary and special conditions for it 

whiUt he ia only responsible for the price of the slanghtered animai | 

the animai therefore is not subject to the prohibition of eating it 

Thb act of Hamzah's occnrred before wine was declared to b( 

nnlawf ul, becanse he was slain in the battio of Ul^ud, and wine wai 

declared to be nnlawf al after that battio. It was thercforo excusabh 

in him to bave said that he was not liable to punishment for it, anc 

bis drinking it, to which he was led, was a permissible thiug, he beinj 

like a sleeping person or one in a swoon. When wine was declare< 

to be nnlawfnl, the drinker of it became liable to punishment fo 

drinking it, being forbidden to do it. 

lUJI (aih'Skdt). — [A sheep or a goat]. One of the animai 
called al-^anam (sheep and goate), applied to the male and the femal 

» One who weara an <a»i4raA— anything which a ohief puta on hi» hca 
anoh aa a tnrban ftc.— Lane'a Lex. art. 



lép and goats. The originai form of the word is ihcUtah^ becauae 

irti. Ì8 thmcailiah. PI. shit/éh^ vrith a I as the pi. of paucity, tkat 

0ay, for any nnmber froin three to ten, but for any number in 

I oE ten, one says with a i , whilst if they are many, one says 

U {hd(ìhihi èlià^). Ash-shdt also means a wild bull. Of or 

ng to ash'shd^ is shdtoi. A poet says : — 

**Not ali bii goata and sheep would arati the owner of goata and eheep 

(aA'8hdiot) ia that inatter, 
Nor would bis two stones, nor the third crosB-sione." ^ 

It is related in the Kdmil of Ibn-^Adt in the biography oE 

ijah b. *Abd-Allfth b. Sulaimàn, on the authority of 'Abd-ar^ 

làn b. *À'idhy who said that the Apostle of God said, '* Whocver 

cwe or a she-goat and does not food bis neighbour or a bcggar 

its milk onght to slaughter it or soli if 

The following are some out of the anecdotes reccivcd successive* 
garding the wisdom of Lukmàn. His name was Ln^m&n b» 
I* b. BairAn, and he was a Nubian out of the people of Aylah 
Ile coast of the Red Sea). His master (one daiy) gave him a sheop or 
and ordored him to slaughter it and to bring to him the best thing in 

he slaughtercd it and brought to him its heart and its tongue. 
Iier da}^ his master gave him another sheep or goat, and ordcred 
jo slaughter it and to bring to him the worst thing in it; so he 
htered it and brought to him its heart and its tongue, upon 

1 his master :isked him regarding it, and he repliod, '^ They are 
K'O best things in it, if they behave well, and they are (also) the 
vorst things in it, if they behave badly." Tbis is the meanin^ 
le saying of the Prophet, *' There is a piece of flesh (mufyah) 
e body; if it tunis out to be good, the whole Ixxly is in 
od state, and if it turns out to l>e corrupt, the whole body 
a corrupt state; it is nothing but the heart." It is said that 
oAn's master one day went to the privy and sat thcrc for a 

tnne, so Lukmftn shouted out to him, '' Do not sit 'for a long 
over the pri^y, for it causes congestion.(blowing out) of the li ver, 
iccs piles, and dcadens the heart." 

AiJUHj |ljU*.]fj. liimdràn ^Tvro BtoncBt whicharcact np, an.l upoa 
, is placcd another stono, which is thin and is called *alUt, whereon [ tbo 
ration of card called] akit is dried. — Lane's Lex. art. 

100 ad-damIr^s 

The follo%YÌng is out of Lal^àn's advice to Iiis soii, whose nanie ì 
vrB3 Thàràn, but according to some, finothor ono, ^' uiy tfon, beware { 
of a mean man if you hononr him, pf a noble man if jon demean ^ 
hiui, of an intelligent man if yon satirize him, of a fool if you joke | 
with Uim, of an ignorant man if you accompany him, and of'aq ; 
ìmmoral man if you contend with him. The completenesa of ; 
kiudne^ U quickness in itd execution. my son, there are throe i 
things which look well in a man — goodness of appearance, for- 
bearance toward;} (one's) brethren, and notbeingtiredof(one'8) friend. 
Tlie beginning of anger is madness< and the end of it is repentance. ] 
my son, there are tliree things in which tliere is rectitude — 
Consulting an adviser, courtesy to an enemy and an envier, and 
aCEection for ali. ray son, the deceived ono is he who trusts 
in three things — ho who bolieves hi what he has not seeu, trusts ; 
in him who ought not to he trusted, and aspires to what he cannot 
obtain. my son, beware of envy, for it eorrupts roligion, weakens 
the soul, and results in repentance. my son, if you serve a governor : 
or a prìnce, do not slander anybody to him, because that will not add 
anything to your position, but will only bave the effcct of bis kecping 
at a distance (from you), for if ho listens to you with regard to 
others, he would surely listen to others with regard to you, and bis 
heart will he frightened of you, lest you nìuy slander him in the 
fisime way as you may bave slandered anybody else before him, in 
consequeuce of which he will he always on bis guard against you. 
my son, at the timo of bis joy, he the nearest of men to him, but 
at the time of bis anger, he the most distant one of them from him ; 
if he trust« you, do not betray bis trust; if he gives you even a 
little, take it and accept it, as it may lead to your getting much; respect 
his servants, act well towards bis f riends, cast down your sight (eyes) 
from bis women (sacred things), dose your ears against his replies, ' 
ahorten your speech (tongue) at the tuue of talking with him, 
eonceal his secret in the assemblies (of people), delicately follow his 
desires, act advisedly in his service,'Jcollect your rcason at the time 
of conrersing with him, and trust not fortune with regard to his 
anger, for there is no relationship between him and you, whilst 
anger is a tbing^which^ may como^ quickly to him at any time, and 

9ay1t al-9àtawJIk 101 

té Icnpiiig 18 Hke that of a leopard. my gon, the conccaling oF 
i secret is the prcservation of character. my son, if you desire 
to be strong in wìsdoin, do not deliver yonrself to the control oF 
wonien, for a woinan is a state of war, and tliere is no peace in 
ber ; if she loves yon, she consnmes (eats) you, and if she hates yoo, 
she ruins you." 

l. In Kitdb J?aM V /-atr^r by az-Zamakhslmrf and in iìxe Jiihiah 

- of Ibn-as-»SaIàb> (in the copy) which is in bis own writing, it is 

i-.rclated tliat al-Hasan al-Basrl said, ^' If I found a cake of bread 

^^(hrough hiwful means, I should Imrn it, then pound it, and theD 

?\ treat with it the sick." After that he said, " The sheep and goats 

L,^f the desert bave mixed with the sheep and goats of. al-Kàfah." 

^t: Abtì-Hanlfah (once) asked, " How long does'a sheep or goat live ?** 

p^ andhaving been told, " seven years," ho gave up cating the flosh 

'of sheep and goats for seven years. Al-Mubarrad says : — 

\J^'" *' Never has deaire led me to an iininoral act, 

But modesty and nobleness of oharaoter have rebelled againat it ; 
Neitker has my hand atretohed itaelf to anyihing unlawful, 
Nor have my feet aver led me to anything suapicious." 

[The author bere quotes froin the History of Ibn-Kh. , out of 
t%: the biogmphy of al-A'inash, the anecdote about Hishàni b. 'Abd-al<^ 
^ Malik's asking al-A*inash to wrìte on the vii-tues of *Uthmàn and 
the criines of *Alt.] » 

The proper name of al-A^mash was Sulainiàn b. Mihràn, and he 
:,was onc of the loamcd Follo wcrs (ut-TdbiHn). He saw Anas b. Malik 
: and AbA-Bakrah ath-Tliakafl, whose stirrup he (once) hold, upon 
^. which he said, " my son, you have verily honoured your Lord ! ** 
He had elegant qualitics and was a great jest^r ; he nevor missed for 
V.' seventy years the first takbtrah,^ Thcre are sevcral anccdotes 
related regarding him. [The author bere givcs the anecdote rcgard-^ 
{ng bis wife, the anecdote regarding some fricnds that visited him 
whcn he was ili, and the anecdote regarding the saying of the 
Prophet about a man oversleeping liimself at night.]* 

I D ) Slan^'a T. of Iba-Kh.'8 B. 0. Voi. I, p. 588. * At a congregational 
prayer. Tukbtrah^Bt^jìng, <' Gei is greateat! »* s De Slancia T. of IbD-Kh.'B 
B.D. Voll,p. 588. 




l 102 AD-DAMt&i's 


Amoog othor auecdotes regarding faìm, it may be mcntioned 
that Ibrahtm an-Nakim't desired (one day) io walk with hiin, npon 
irhich al-A^mash replied, ^^ If people seo us togetlior, they will say 
friie blear-eyed and the blind (are together)/ " An-Nakba4 there- 
npon said, ''What does it niatter to you, if they comiuit ^ sin aud we 
should get a reward (for it) ? " But he replied, ^' What does it matter 
to yoii, if they shoald be safe (froiu sin) and we should be su fé 
^f rom their repronch) ? " 

Another anccdotc regarding hiin is that he was one day seated 
in a pkce in which there was a small channei of rain-water, and he 
liad on him an old wom-ont f urred garment ; a man carne thcre and 
said to him, ^* Qet up and take me across ibis channei; " then drag- 
ging him by the liand, ho made him rise up and monnted bis back, 
sayingy '^ ' Celebrated be the praises of Him who hath sabjected this 
to US I We could not bave got this oursolves/ " ^ Al-A'mash wont on 
with him until he reached the middle of the channei, wlien he thrcw 
Iiim down, saying, '* 'And say, '' My Lord I make me to alight in a 
Ueased alighting-place, for Tliou art the best of those who cause men 
to alight I " ' " s Al-A4nash then carne out and lef t the man tò 
stmggle about (in the water). 

Another of thcse anecdotes is tliat a man having (once) come to 
msk for him, and having been told that he had gene to the mosque 
with a woman, he wont to him and found thom on the road, upon which 
he asked them, " Which of you two is al-A'mash ? " So, al-A*maah 
replied, *' This one," and pointed at the woman. 

He wrote to one of bis brothers the following lines in condo* 
lence : — 

" We condole with you, noi beoause we beliere 
la liviog permaneutly, but beoauM it is an instituie of the religion. 
Neither woald he, who is condoled with, be spared after hia dead 

Nor the condoler, eren if they live for a time.'* 

He died in 147 A. H., but some say in 148 A. H., and according io 
others in 149 A. H. . 

> Àl.Enr'àn XLII1.12. • Idem XXIII-SO. 

PAvIt AL-9AT&VÌH 103 

rekted in the aame book (Htstory oE Iba-Eb.) Uuitwhea 
I. az-Zubair sacceedod to the khtUfoh in Hakkuh, he 
brother Mos'ab b. az-Znba!r goveroor over a)-Madliuth 
b of it Marvin b. al-}Iaka)n and bis son, who then went 
.bd-AllSh b. az-Znbair continucd to lead the peopte 
nage f rom the year 64 A. H. to the jear 72 À. H., hot 
1-Halik b. Marw&n carne to the throne (in Syria), he 
I people of Syrìa to go to the Pilgrimage (at Makkah), 
Ibn-az-Znbair, who used to get the people to toko the 
llegiance) to him when thejr went to the Pilgrimage. 
being thus probibited to go to the Pilgrimage, raised 
pon whicb 'Abd-al-Malik (re-)bailt the Dome of the 
it lui-^akbrah^, and the peoplo nscd then to stand aboat 
)f 'Arafah. It ia said that that waa the reoson of imita- 
gioua cercmonies due at 'Arafah i*-*tj^'), in the holy 
maalem and in the Egyptian mosqnea. It ia said tbat 
to estabUah tbis inetitution of the relìgìous cere- 
tt 'Arafah, in al-Basrah was 'Abd-AIlfib b. 'Àbbàs, in 
il-'Aztz b. Marw&n, and in Jeruaatem 'Abd-al-Malik b. 

Lbd-al-Mulik »lew Mua'ah b. az-Zubair and dcsired the 
the kliilàfah, al-]Iajj&j appeared before bim and said, 
1 in my dream tliat I seized 'Abd-AII&h b, az-Zubair 
lim ; nppoint me thorefore to fìght with bini. " 'Abd' 
roopon sent him at the head of a numerous army 
the peopio of Syrìa. He besieged Ibn-az-Zubair and 
at the Ka'bab from a catapólt, npon whioh tbunder 
ghtning blazed in the sky. The peoplo of Syria wore 
se of it afraid, but al-HajjAj exclaimed, " The3C aro the 
of Tihfimab (Makkah), of ^vhich I am an inbabitant 
hen stood np and bimself threw stonea froin tho 
1 whicb the tbander and lightning increased and the 
followed ono anotber, killing twelre of hia followora ; 
rere consequently more afraid. But wben the mornin^ 
I more tbunder-bolta carne down and slew some of tba 
Ibn-az-Zubair ; al-^ajj&j therefore aaid, " Be firm, for 
yoa has (also) befallen tliem." He then continned 

104 ad-dahìri's 

ihroiring stones at the Ka'bah wiih the catapult, nntil he demolished 
it. Thej then threw at it jugs oontaining naphtba, which caused 
the screens to bnrn, nutil they were converted to ashes. Ibn-az-; 
Zabiir said to his inother, '' I am afraid that I shall not be secure 
(rem being mntilated and cracified, if I am slain;" but sho said to him, 
^* O my son, when a sheep or goat is once slain, skinning it docs not 
cause it any pain," npon which he bade her farewell and went forth 
away froin her. He then charged the enemy, nntil he made them 
retreat to their hindinost post. In the meantime he was hit with a 
brick, which cansed his face to bleed, and when he f elt the warmth 
ot the blood on his face, he recited : — 

" Oor woonds bleed noi wbile retreating, 
Bat oar blood drops while adyaDciug (attackiDg).'' 

A mad slave-woman belonging to &l-az-Znbair (the honsehold 
of az-Znbair), who had seen him fall, cried ont, '^Alas, the 
Commander of the faithfnl !" and pointed to him. He was slain 
on the 13th of Jumàdà II in the year 73 A. H. • When the news 
reached al-Uajjàj, he fell prostrate (thankfnlly), and then he and 
Tàrik came and stood over him. T^n^ said, *' Women bave not 
given birth to any one worthier of being remembered than he," 
npon which al-Hajjàj said, ** Do yon praise one who robelled agaiust 
the Commander of the faithfnl ? " He replied, *'Yes, he has given 
an excnse for us, and if it were not for tlmt, we shouid bave had 
no excnse (in slaying him); we were his besiegers, whilst he was 
withont a fort or any defensive works for eight months, and yet 
he dealt justly with us, nay, he even did favours to us every time 
we met together." Their conversation havìng reached the ears of 
*Abd-al-Malik, he lield the opinion of Tftri)^ to be the correct one. 

Al-Qajjàj then sent the head of Ibn-az-Znbair with a party to 
,Abd-al-Malik, who sent it on to *Abd-Allàh b. Hàzim al-Aslaml, who 
was at the time the govemor of Khnràsàn on behalf of Ibn-az-Znbair, 
asking him to submit himself to his anthority, on the condition 
of bis giving him Khnràsàn as a means of livelihood for seven years. 
Bnt Ibn-Hàzim said to the messenger, '' Were it not for the mie 
that messengera are not slain, I shouid bave ordered your head to be 
atmok off ; but eat the lettor of your maeter." The messenger ate 

Li t. ' 


r I 

Hi and Ibn-Hàzitn then taking tlie head and washiug and perfan»-- 
piog it| slironded it and bnried it. Some, however, state that he Beat 
?& io the people of az-Zubair in al-Madìnah, who bnried it togetlier 
^with bis body in tbat place. Ibn-az*Zubair's mother Asm&', the 
j^'danghter of Abù-Bakr as-Siddlk, died in al-Madinah five days after 
i^ldm, being then a hnndred years old. 

:[:■ ' The Uàfij Ibn-<Abd-al-Barr mentions that thè ICa'bah was shot 
Ijat a seoond time with a catapult, when Muslim b. al-Waltd b. 'Ulkbali 
3V« Abl-Mu'ait besiege<I it in the reign of Yazid b. Mu'àwiyah at the 
ffbattlo of al-Harrah; Yazid haviug died, Muslim rcturncd to Syria. 

; (A wonderful narrative.) Mal^ammad b. 'Abd-ar-Bahm&a 
; tl-Hàshimt states, *' I paid a visit to my mother on the day of the 
[Feost ('id) of Sacrifice and saw with ber a woman in soiied clotliea. 

Ky mother asked me, ' Do yoa know tliis woman ? ' and I replied^ 

•No.* So, slie said, 'This is *Att4bah, the mother of Ja'far b. Yahyà 
^al*Barmak!.' I then salated ber and said to ber, * Inform me some 
j'of your history,' upon whioh she replied, * I shall inform yon the 
s>wholo, in which thcre is admonition for him who requircs to he 
[admonished. There was a time when snob a day as this one of the 
fud came to me, and there used to he four hnndred slavo-womca 
r standing at my head, wliilst I used to assert that nìy son Ja'far- 
pthwartod me (in my desires). But to-day I bave come to yon to 

ask you for two goat-slcins (or sheep-skins ) to use, one as an inner 
'garmcnt and the othcroneas an outer gannenti* T ga ve ber five 
[hnndred dirhams, and she used to come to us always, until dcatb 
^brought about scparation botwcen ns." An account of the slaying 

of Ja*far wìll be given under the letter j^ in the art. ytAAJl . 

It is relatcd in the Sttnan of Ibn-Majah and in the Kdmil of 
flbn-'Adt, in the biography of Abft-Razin b. 'Abd-AllAh, ont o£ a 
tradttion of Ibn-^Umar, that the Prophet said, " The shocp and the 
goat are out of the animais of Paradise." 

In al'Istt'db by the Hàfid Abft-*Umar b. 'Abd-al-Barr, it 13 
rolated in the biography of Abù-Rajà' al-'Utàridi that the Araba 
used to bring a white shoep ( or goat ) and worship it, and théa 
a wolf used to come and take it away, upon which they used te 
Bubstitute another for it. 

106 AI>-DAIltBt*8 

It is stated in the Suìian of al-Baiha^ and other books tbat the 
Prophet nsed to dislike in a sheep or goat, when it waa slanghtered^ 
seven things, namely the penis, the two testicles, blood» the 
fpiU-bkdder, the vulva, the clitoris, and the bkdder. He states 
tbat the part of it he (the Apostle of God) liked most was the 

Umui-Salamah said, ^*The Àpostle of God was with me, wlien 
m goat (or sheep) entei*ed and took a cake of bread f ròiu under a jar 
fceloDging to US ; so I rose up and went to it, and took the bread 
firom between its two jaws, upon which the Apostle of God said, 
^ Yoo onght not to bave seized it by the neck and sqaeezed it.' " 

Muslim relates on the authority of Snhl b. Sa'd as-Sft4d!, wiio 
said that between the Prophet's plaee of prayer and the wall there 
iras room enough for a goat or sheep to pass. I (tlie author) say 
tìuit this points to its being desirable to keep dose to the iutrali^^ 
«8 b related also on the Propliet's authority, namely, ^' When any of 
yen prays facing a sutrahy let him he dose to it, so that Satan may 
noi interfere with bis prayer;" — so Abu-Dàwud has related it. 
The above tnidition about the Prophet leaving enough room for a goat 
or aheep to pass (before him) does not contradict the tradition about 
ihe Prophet praying in the Ka^bah with three cubits of space between 
Idmself and the wall, whidi may possibly be to allow the person 
praying to rci)d any one passiug before him, because some mako 
ihe traditiuii about die room for the passing of a goat or sheep 
mpplicable to the standing posture, and the tradition about the three 
eabita of .space applicablo to the bowing and prostrating postures. 
ll&iik, however, does not mention any limit for it. Some calculate 
ttie room for the passing of a goat or sheep a span. A part of 
tiiis has been already related in the art.s ^♦ifV I and ^J ^ I. 

(Information.) It is related in the Stinan of Abù-Dàwud and 
ottier books that a Jewess madc a present of a roast goat, in which 
fihe had niixed (some) poison, to the Prophet at Khaybar. The 
Prophet ate some of it, and a party of bis Companìons also ato some 
•f it. Bishr b. al-Barft' b. Ma^rùr having died ( in conscquence of 

< A thiag ftet np by a person praying before him as a whip, a staff, <&c., in 
«vder that no liviug being or im«ge may be tlie objeot next before liim. 

/ . .* ■ 

|»t . ^AyXt AL-VAYAWÀK 107 

^'éìiting it), the Prophot scnt for tlie Jewess and asked ker, ^^Wliat 
léd you to do what you bave dono ?" She replied, ^* I said io luy- 
^èelf, ' If he is a prophet, it would nofc barin bini, bui if he is not a 
rophet, we sbould be rid of bini.' " Tlie Prophet tbereii^jon orderd 
her to be skui, and she vras accordingly slam. So Abu-Dftwud 
lias related it, bat it is a mursal tnidition ; az-Zubri did not 
bear anything (about it) from the lips of JAbir. What is remem-^ 
f berod of the tradition is that the Prophet was asked, '^ Will you not 
p'kill licr?" and he replied, '^No." It bas been so related by al-Bukbarl 
[mò Muslini, whilst al-BaibakI bas reconciied tlie two statement^ by 
^aaying tliat the Prophet did not kill ber at first, but iiN'bcn Bisbr 
b' diod« he orderd ber to be killed. Her name was Zainab bint al-Hàrith 

Ir • 

^ÌÙ Sallàin. Ibn-Ishàk states that she was a sister of Marhab the Jew^ 
bMa'mnr b. Rftshid relates on the authority of az-Zuhri thut slic 
Lenibniced al-Isluni. 

r ' ' Àt-Tirinidhi relates on the authority of Haktm b. Uizànì that 
Ithe Prophet baving sent hiin to buy for bini a goat or sheep for a 
l dtnàr, he purchased one, and made a profit out of it of a dìnàr ; 
ho tbcrefore purchased anothcr in its place and carne with it and 
the dtnàr to the Apostle of God, who thcn sacrificed it and gare 
[riho dinar away in ahns. 

\^ It is related in the {yahih of Al-Bukhàri and in the Simun of 


l'Abft-Dàwud, at-Tirniidhl, and Ibn-Màjah that the Prophet gave 
f;*Drwah b. al-Ja'd, or aa some say, Ibn-Abl*l-Ja*d al-Bàriki a dm&r 
t^io purcliase with it a sheep or gout. He purcliased two sheep or 
kfgoats, and selling one of theni fòr a dìnàr, he canie ( to the Prophet) 
r with the other one and a dtnàr, and infornied hiiù of what he liad 
fidone, upon which the Prophet said, '^ May God blcss you in making 
\- bargains ! " After that he used to go out to the KunàmU of al-Basrah 
! and niake largo profits, so that ho becanie one of the wealthiest 
I snen among the peoplc of al-Kùfah. Shabib b. Qarkadah says, '' I bave 
\_^ Boen (as many as) seventy horses tied in the house of 'Urwah aU 
. Bàrill^l for waging the holy war in the cause of God." *Urwah b^ 
. Abl'1-Ja'd has related thirteen traditions regarding the Prophet; he 
vas the first one to becoine a ^fidì in al-Kùfah, and ^TJniar b. al-Kha(- 
} l&b appointed bim over ali the ^àdts of that place before Shuraih. 

108 AD-DAMtRt's 


( A wonderful narrative.) Tbn-^A<I! relates on the authority of 
Hasan b. Wfl)dd the butcher that Abù-Ja*far al-Basrt, who was 
one of the good and pious men said, *' I had lain a sheep or goat on 
the ground for slanghterìng it, when there passed (by me) Ayyùb 
as-Sikhtiyànt ; so I threw down the knife and stood np talking with 
him. In the meautime, the sheep or goat sprang up, then dag a pii 
4it the bottoni of the walI, and rolling the knife (over the ground)/ 
threw it into the pit and then threw some earth (over it). Ayyùb 
then said to me, ' Do yon not see, do you not see ?' Tliereupon I 
Yowed not to slanghter any animai after that day." 

(Farther information.) Abù-Mnbammad 'Abd-AllAh b. Yahyà 

b. Abt'l-Haitham al-Muga'bi, one of the disciples of ash-Shàfi4, was 

.« pions and leamed imAm ont of the people of al-Yaman and one 

of the contemporaries of the anthor of aUBayàn ; among the works 

he coniposed were Ihtlràzàt al-madlkrhah and al^Ta^rìf fC Infilili, It is 

related regarding him that people strnck liim with their swords, 

bat the swords had no effect on him; he was therefore asked 

regarding it, and he repliod, " I was reciting, ^' And it tires Him 

not to gnard them both, for He is high and grand."* "And He sends 

to you gnardian angcls."* " Verily, my Lord is guardian over 

ali I "* " But God is the best of keepers, and He is the most merciful 

of the merciful."* '' Each of them has pursuers (guardian angels) 

before him and behind him, to kcep guard over him at the 

command of God."* "Verily, we bave scnt down the Reminder, 

and, verily, we will guard it."* "Andwo bave guarded them 

(the signs of the Zodiac) from evory pelted devil."' "And wo 

made the lieaven a guarded roof."* "And to presei*ve it from 

*every rel)ellious devil."* "And guardian angels; that is the 

•decree of the mighty, the knowing One."** "For thy Lord 

guards everything." * * " God watohes over them, and thou hast 

not charge over them."** "But over you are guardians set, — noble, 

wrìting down ! they know what ye do ! "* • " Verily, every soul has a 

:gnardian over it."** "Verily, tlie violence of thy Lord is keenl 

& Al-Kur'An 11-258. s Idem VI-61. • Idem X[-60. « Idem XII. 
64. • Idem XlII-ld. • Wcm XV-Q. ^ Idem XV-l?. ■ Idem XXI-Sa 
•Idem XXXVII.7. i« Idem XLMl. »>Idem XXXIV-20. i* Idem 
XLU.4. s • Idem L XXXIUIO— 12. ^ « Idem LXXXyi.4. 

9àtJLt AI/-9AYAWlìf 


WS •' 

ji'-He produces and retunis, and He is the forgiving, the- 
fi the Lord of the glorious throne ; the doer of whut He- 
I Has there corner to thee the story of tlie hosts of PImi*aolì- 
mùd ? Naj, those who mìabeliove do say it is a lie ; but 
behind them— encompassing! Nay, it is a glorious Kur'àit 
preserved tablet."*" He then said, "I went out one daj»- in 
Sompany of a party of men, and we saw a wolf plapng with a 
goat (or shoep) and not injaring it atall; whon we approached 
the wolf ran away froin us ; so, wo went to the goat 
^•boop) and found tied to its neck a hook containing those 
verses of the Knr'an." Al-Musa'bl died in 553 A. H. . 

Tlie Hàfi4 Ab6-Ziir'ah ar-B&zì states that a fire took place 
urjàn, in which nine thonsand houses were burnty and there 
i found in them nine thonsand copics of tlie Kur'ftn, ont of 
one of which ali but the following verses were burnt: — 
t is the decree of the mighty, the knowing One."* " And 
God let the bclievers rely!"* "So think not God carelcss of 
the unjust do."* " But if ye try to number God's favours, ye 
not count them."* "Thy Lord has docreed that ye shnll not 
e any other than Him."* "(The Kur'ftn) descending front 
who crcated the earth and the high heavens, the nierciful 
led on the throne I His are wliat is in the heavens, and M'hat 
in the earth, and what is between the two, and what is l>eneatli 
ground ! " ' " The day when wealth shall profit not, nor sons, 
i only he who comes to God with a sound heart."* " ' Come, ye 
Of whether ye will or no!' They said, 'We come willingly !'"• 
d I bave not created the genii and mankind save that they raay 
Orship me. I do not desire any provision from them, and I do not 
them to feed me. Yerily, God, He is the provider, endowed 
th stcady might. " ' * "And in the heavcn is your provision and 
t which ye are promised. But by the Lord of the heaven and the 
h I verily, it is the truth, — ^like that which ye do iitter 1 "** He 



i Ai-Qiur'lUì LXXXV.12— 82. > Idem VI-96, XXXVI-SS, aad XLI-il. 
Idem III-118 and 154, V-U, IX-61, XIV-14, LVIIMI, and LXIV-ld. 
Idem XiV-id. • Idem XIV-37 and XVI-18. • Idem XVIl-24. r idem 
X-3-*& ^ Idem XXVI-88— 89. • Idem XLMO. >o Idem LI-56— 58. 
t Idem LI-22^23. 



adda that if these verses are placed in any commodity, or a house, 
or a shop, or any thing else, Qod will preservo ii. I ( the author ) 
imy that it is a very beneficiai and tried thing. 

Aih-Tha*labt, Ibn-*A(1yah, al-^arfubt, and others relate on the 
authority of Sàlim b. Abt'l-Ja'd, who said, *^A copy of the ]£nr'àn 
belonging to us was bnmt, and nothing remained ( nnbumt ) out 
of it, excepting the words of God^ ^'Ay, to God affairs do tend I ''* 
and a copy of the ^nr'An belonging to ns was drowned, and every- 
thing in ìt was obliterated (wiped off) excepting this verse." 

Our shaikh, the Imam, one who knew God, ^Abd-AUfth b. 
Ajsa'd al-Tafi^l has informed ns, saying, " I bave board from onr 
master, the knowing one, the Imlm Abù-^Abd-AUàh Mabammad al- 
l£arash! regarding bis shaikh Abù'r-Rabl* al-Mftla^ as having said 
to bim, 'Slmll I not inform yon of a treasaro out of which yon niay 
spend(asmnchasyon like) and which will yet not beoome exlmnsted?* 
He replied, 'Tes*, npon which the shaikh said, 'Say, ^'By God, one 
Qod ! sole one 1 existing one I beneficent one ! dispenser 
of riches I generous one I bestower of gifts I possessor of 
bonnty I selfHiofficient one I satisfying one ! opener (of the 
gates of sastenance and mercy)! granter of means of sustenanoe l 
O wise one I living one I eternai one I merciful one ! com- 
passionate one I creator of heavens and earth t one pos- 
sessing glory and reverence I affectionate one I propitiona 
one I Ganse to blow over to me from Tliee the blast of goodness, by 
which I may become independent of others than Thyself 1 '* If ye wish 
thematter to he decided, adecision has now come to yon." ' '^Yerìly, 
we bave given thee an obvious victory I" ' ^' Help from God and vio- 
tory nighl"* GK>dIO self-sufficient onci praisod onel 
creator and retnmer ! loving one I possessor of the glorions 
thronel doer of what Thon desirestl Grant (me) enough of Thy luw- 
fai things to make me independent of Thy unlawfnl things, make me 
independent by Tliy grace of others than Thyself, and preserve me 
¥ntli that wiih which Thon liast preserved the Books of the prophets, 
jf and help me with that with which Thou heli>edst the npo^^tles. Yerily, 

> Al-Kar'àa XLll-63. • Idem VIIM9. • Idem KLYHM. ^ Idem 

9àt1t al-9ATAw1n 


art mighty over ali I ** ' He said, ' Whoever recitea ibis alwaya 
\ eyery prayer, especially after the Friday congregational prayer^ 
will preserve him from every frightening tliing, grant hiin help 
hifl enemies, make him wealthy, give him the means of sustenanoe 
where thoy are not expected, render his means of livelihood easy^ 
pay off the debt against him; even if the debts against him are as 
as monntains, God vrill pay them off by His benevolence and 
terosity.' " 
Ibn-'Adt relates on the anthority of 'Abd-ar-Rahmàn al* 
tirashty who said, ^^ We bave been informcd by Mu^mmad h« 
ad b. Ma'rùf, who had it from Ja'far b. ^asan, who had it fronn 
father, who said, * We bave been informed by Thàbit al-BunAnt^ 
the anthority of Anas» who said that the Apostle of God said, *^ I 
ita God for the Most Great Name, npon which Gabriel bronght 
me coverod and soaled; it consista in saying, * God, I ask 
lee in Thy Most Great Name, the concealed, the pnre, the olean, the 
irified, the holy, the blessed, the living, the self-existent t "" " <A'i- 
(once) said (to the Prophet), '* May my father and mother \m 
mv ransom I Teach it (the Most Great Name) to me, npon which 
lie roplied, ^' ^A'ishah, we are prohibited to teach it to women, 
lildren, and fools/' 

(Fnrther information.) It is relatcd on the anthority of Abù- 
tnrairah, who said, ^* While Jesus, the son of Mary, and John, the 
of Zacharias, wore (once) going together, they saw a wild shi»-- 
it (or owe) in kbour, npon which Jesus said to John, * Say theao 
^rds, ^'Hanna (Hannah) gave birth to John, and Mary gave birth io 
fetas; the earth calls thee, young one, come forth, young onel" ' '* 
immàd b. 2jaid states that, if these words are uttered near any 
roman in labonr in a tribe, she will not be long in delivcring by the 
ler of God. John (Taliyà) was the first one to believe in Jesus; Uiey 
rere the sons of (each other's) materna! aunts, and the former was 
Ràlder than the latter by six months; John was killed before the 
fiìranslation of Jesus to heavcn. It is relatcd regarding Yùsuf K 
f^Ubaid as having said, ^'No man can say, * God, Thou art my 
ffiroparatìon in my distress, Thou art my companion in my exilo^ 
hriion art my preserver in my afiSiction, and Thou art the pr«^ 
[der of my happiness I ' near a woman or a beast in labour, without 




112 AD-DAMÌRÌ'8 

God rendering easy for ber the act of deliverìng her young one." Soma 
of the phyaicians state with regard to the pro|)ertie8 of the cuttle* 
bone tbat, if it he hung on the person of a woinan in labour, it will 
render delivery easy; and in the saine way, if the shell o( an egg 
be ponnded fine and drunk with water» it will render delivery easy; 
tt has been tried nnmerons tiines aod fouml to l)e trne. 


It is said in a tradition, *'A believer U like a goat or sheep that 
bas eaien a needle (ma*it2ra7i)," that is to say, one that has eaten in its 
food a needle, which has then stuck fast in its interior, and in conso« 
qaence of which, the animai tioes not cat anything, and if it does eat, 
Ibe food does not do it any gooil. It is also said in the same tradi- 
tìon, "A bypocrite is like a goat or sheep living (ràbifUh) between two 
flocks,'' by which the Prophet meant one that is nnsettled between 
two flocks of goats or sheep, — ^neither belonging to those nor to 
diose. Ar-rdlA^h also means certain angols who were sent down 
^th Adam, and who guide those that err from the right way, so 
called perbapB from their remaining (on the earth). Al-Jawhart 
States that ar^ràbifUk means the bearers of evidence (%«*^l *A*a) or 
Kuardian angels, of whom the earth is not destitute. . 

(Lawtnlness or nnlawf nlness.) It is lawf ul to eat it with ali. If 
a person be directed to take a ahdiy he muy be given a small one in 
body or a largo one, a aonnd one or a defective one, and a sheep or 
» goat, the wurd boing trnly applied to ali (of them). 

(Side-information.) With regard to its lawfulness as a sacrifi- 
cai animai, a sacrifico is (only) an institute of the Prophet and there- 
foro not obligatory, but it is not valid unless the animai is one of 
the cattle-kind (an-na'm). Ont of shet^p none makos satisfaction 
(as a sacrifico) bnt ai-;fadha*ah, which is one that has completed a full 
^ear and entered npon the sccond year, according lo the dootors of 
«or sect, as has becn already related under the latter ^^ in the art. 
i» iiJ I ; and ont of goats none makes satisfaction bnt ath'4hantyah^ 
which is one that has entered npon the third year. It ought to be a 
soand one and f ree from any detect having an injurions effoot on its 
flesh • a lean one, or one blind of one eye, or a sick one, or a lame one, 
•r a mani'y one, or one with a broken horn, or one with its ears cut, or 
#ne born without ears, does not make satisfaction (as a sacrifico). As to 
«ne with split ears, there are two opinions;— so it is said in aWUhùb. 

9A.tIt &L-9&TAWÌH 113 

ODe doea not make satìsf»otion, muoli leas wodM n totali^ 
; bot OS to dimness and weakness of aigbt in oiie or both 
iiot dobar it frotn makìiig satisEnction (as a. sacrifico). Ar- 
s that, ita white opncìtj coverà tlie y>npil, destrojing a 
most of it ìs dostroyeJ, the animai doea not iniike satisfao- 
ilice, bnt ifonly a little part is destroyod, it doea, Witb 
;)it-blindne^, in wliich the aniinnl aees in the day but not 

lire two opinions, the correct one being tbat it ninkes sn- 
!bere ìsa prohibition with rogard to H^^ I, wliicli meana 
■one tbat roams about in the pastarnge, but grazoa ouly a 
lOines einucittted. Às to one with nnear cut, tbo sucrificer 
ito conaiderntioit (oertiiiii tliinga); it' nonu of tho lìeEect 
it the pendiilous ]>artoredge ofit stili reinains, it is trnly 
ed; al-KnlT&t, however, alates tliat it doea not iiinke 
ven if a pnrt ut tlie onr U visible. ir tbere be a good deal 

in reliitioii to the (whole) eiir, it doea not nt nll miike 
ami if only a little, it does not truly inake SHtisfaction, 
E the Iosa of an cdiblo pnrt. The Ini&m (ttl-Unraninin) 
le difierenco between inuch and little is tliiit, ìf tbere 
'Qct Erom a distance, it is mach, otherwise it is a little. 

1 statea that, if the cut part is under- a third, it is not 
A inark niade by hrnnding is not againat it, bnt some 

aro two opinions regiirding it. A goator sheep ^vith sninll 
SII tisf action, but one freni the tliigli of which a wolf 
visibly largish piece doea not niiike it, nor doe^ a slii-op 
cut off, iiccurdiiig to onr i-eligioiia doctriiie.-i. A !ili<!e[> 
witliout an udder, or a sbutp witliout a tail, truly 
iikos aatisFiiction, wbilsl a portion of eitber of Iliuni 
' ia like the whole o£ eitber being cut off. One witli 
cnt off iIoGS not ninke sa ti sf action, and, trnly s]>i?Hkìng, 

genitals cut ofE and a cnstrated one make antisfaction. 
, however, come ont with a very strango thing, stiitlng 

to a castrnted ono two viewa and holding tbe vittw 

castrated one doea not make satisfactìon. A hornlcas 
tisfactiori, and so nlao one with a broken horn, whetlier 
is liealed or not. But al-MaMmill luis decidcd in 
ut it (lotia not make siitjsfactioii, hs has been ulready 
{alFAl atates tbat., nnlesa the [uiin caused by the brenking 

114 AD-DAHtRfs 

of the hom lias affected ibe flesh, it is like a mangj one, bnt one vrìth 
the horns entire is betier. A goat or sbeep some of wbose teeth are 
gone inakes satìsfaction. 

(Information.) Al-Jawbarl states tbat tbere are fonr dialectical 
f orms of tbe word aj^JII (gacrìficial animai)* , namely, 1 ufihit/àk^ 
2 iiUAyah, pi. of botb ofldAi, 3 ^l^yahj pL ^UxhAyà^ and 4 a^ì^h, 
like ar^\ pi. aflAà, like arih. From tbe last one is formed 
u-^JII ^^ (tbe Day o£ Sacrifice— lOtb of DbùU-Hijjab). 

(Side-information.) Design {niyali) is an essential condition 
witb regard to a sacrifioial animai, and it is trnly allowable to 
entertain it (some lime) before slaagbtering it. If one says, ^* I 
bave set aside ibis sbeep or goat as a sacrifioial animai/' — is tbat 
enongb by way of speoifying, wbilst an intention (^^) is sbort 
of a design to slangbter it ? Tbere are two views regarding it, tbe 
correct one being Uiat it is not enongb, for a sacrifice is only one of 
tbe institntes of tbe Propbet, as bas been already stated, and is in 
itselE a tbing by wbicb nearness (to Qod) is songbt; it is tberefore 
necessary to entertain a design (nfya/t). Tbe Imam and al-Qazzàli 
bave, bowever, elected tbe doctrine tbat it is enongb. If we say 
tliat it is enongb, it is desirable to make tbe design anew. 

(Side-information.) It is desirable for a person setting aside a 
sacrificial animai to slangbter it bimself wiUi bis band, bnt it is 
(also) allowable for bim to entrust tbat dnty to anotber person. It is 
allowable to entrast it to any person wbose act of slangbtering is 
bold in the ligbt of being a lawf al one, bnt it is better tbat tbat person 
sbonld be a Mnslim and a jarisconsnlt, so tbat he may know of the 
proper timo (Eor it) and tbe necessary conditions aboat it. But it is 
also allowable to appoint on one's bebalf a person ont of any people 
believing in a revealed Scriptnre. M&lik, bowever, states tbat it is 
not allowable, and tbat wbat be may slangbter is only a sbeep or goat 
for meat Al-MawafFa): b. Tabir of tbe llanbalt scbool states on the 
antbority of Abmad in tbe same way. 

It is desirable tbat a tbird (of tbe sacrificed animai) may be 
eaten (by the sacrificer and bis people), a tbird given a way 
as a present, and a tbird given away in cbarity ; bnt in another 
statement it is said tbat a balE may be eaten and tbe othei 

1 ▲ sheep or goat, also a cameli and a ball or cow alaiigktered as a saorifioa 

^AYIt Alr-pAYAWlH 115 

liftrity. lE, tiowever, tlie sacrifìcer eats 
Kocording to onr religiona doctrìne, he must 
ulne of the pnrt which is anflìcient for hiiii 
b Ì3 the smnlloat pnrt; hot some say thnt he 
ind some othors say that lie innst pay a p«- 
ì9 part which is desirnble for Itim (to ent), 
r. It ja not atlowable to soli any part of it 
to tbe butcber as bia hire, bnt the bire (pro- 
must be j^iven by tbe sacrificar (separately), 
liire (proviaions) for reapÌDg. 

Know tbat the lenrned say tbat Uio keeping 
ced nnimni above tbree duys is iuterdicted. 
itìon if it is allowable to e:it the whole of it, 
I of tbem being in tbe affirinalive; it is givcn 
-t, and Ibn-n1-KiVsri and elcctfld by Ibii-nl-\Vn- 
lecnuse it is ailowablo to eat most of it, il ì-ì 
le, whìlst the reward (of sacrìfìcing it) is tn l>e 
ic spillìng (shodding) of blood with tbo iii- 
^U^). Ibn-aUK&s.^ haa based this opinion 
tion oraab-Shàfi'ì). Àl-Mawnffnk tbe Unnball 
OD lliA antliorily of ÀbA-Hanìfub, bnt tho 
jpinions is thnt it is absobitidy necessarj' to 
[nantity snfficient in the sense of tliat word 

If one «ays, "I Iinve net aside this sliecp or 
sncrificfìd, or as a vow," t]iat he wouid Hitcvi- 
oat, he haa lost his ownershìp oC ìtund Una no 
iiig it aa ho plonsos, liy way of selling it, or 
)r changing it or cven a p:)rt of it; biit tticro 
utliorttyoE the Sbaikli ÀhiVAII, nainely, tbiit 
ership oEiit, antil it is slauglitcred and iti! fle^li 
I c:we being annlogons to thia : — if b« pays, 
liia slave," be does not lose his ownersbip oE 
' free.^ iiini. According to Abd-Hanlfah, lio 
sliip of tho sheep or goat, bnt it is not allow- 
abnnge it, If Un vows to freo a cortiiìn stavo, 
bi:n to .sell or cbange tbat slave, though lio 
rship of him. Abù-Huntfah, Iiowever, slatea 




11(J Àl>-DAMÌRÌ'8 

ihat it is allowable for him to eell the slave aud to cliange Lim. If 
he sells the sheep or goat, it ought to be taken back if it be ia 
existence (at the tìrne of sacrifice), but if tlie purchaser kills it or it 
dies while it is in his possession, he is boand to pay the price o£ it,. 
from the day of taking delivery of it to the day of its death. If two* 
men slaoghter each other's animai intendod for sacrifice, witliout 
each other's pennission, each one of thein must pay a fine eqiial 
to the difference between the prices of the two animali?, in which case- 
each animai makes satisfaction as a sacrifice. 

(Side-information.) Al-Mabàmilì states that one stabs in the^ 
neck (nahr) in the case of camels, and cuts the throat (dhahh) in the 
case of sheep and goats, biit it is allowable to stab both, camels^ 
and sheep antl goata, in the neck, and to cut the throats of both, 
camels and sheep and goats. The place of stabbing, according to the 
institutes (of the Prophet) and choice, is the pit above the breast- 
bone (aUlahlah) , and that of cutting the, throat is the lovvermost 
part of the junction of the two jaws. In a complete cutting of the 
throat, it is neccssary to cut the trachea (wind-pipe), the esophagus 
(food-pipe), and the two external juguhir veins, and theleast amount 
of cutting required to satisfy the conditions of lawful slaugliteriug 
is that the wind-pipo and the food-pipe must become visiblc. 

(Side-information.) If un animai iutended for sacrifice gìves blrtb 
to a young one, it is necessury to slaughfcor its young one with it, 
whether it has been specified or is (only) in trust (dhimmah) after the 
sacrificer's specifying it The sacrificer may drink such of its milk 
as may remaiu after ssitisfying its young one;— so the Kildl Sa*ld 
al-Harawi says. 

(Proverbs.) "Every sheep or goat is suspcnded by its (own) leg.'* 
The first one to say it was Wakt* b. Salamah b. Jnhair b. lyàd, 
vAìO succeeded Jurhum in the government of the Sucred House. 
He built a lofty palace in the lower part of Makkah and kept 
in ita slave- woman called Hazwarah, from whom the Hazwarah 
which is in Makkah is called; he placed in the palace a lad- 
der and nsed to assert that he was in the habit ot asceuding 
it to converse from it with his Lord. He used to say a great 
man}" good maxims, and the learned men of the Arabs used to 
say that he was one of the truthful ones. When his death drew 



% he coUected bis sons and said to them, ^' Hear my exhortatioriy 

V^llow bim who foUows the right way, and relinqaish hiin who errs ; 

jìry sheep or goat is sasponded by its (own) leg.'" It has 

m passed into a proverb, meaiiing that every one is rewarded 

^rding to bis action. *^ * ^' Nor shall one hearing a biirden bear 
ié burden of anotber."* * *' 

( Properties. ) If the skin of a sheep or goat be taken when it is 
skinned and put on a person beaten with lashes, it will benefit 
llm nnd relieve bis pain. 

o> « 

kJ^VSJì (ash'SMmurk). — A young(male) domestic fowl a few 
iys l)efore it lays eggs; — so it is said in aUMuraf^a^. Its sobriqnet is 
\ùrya^là, It is an arabicized word from (the Persinn) sliàh mnrj^ 
leaning the king o/birds. 

^jALlJl (ash-Shdhtn).— [The gerfalcon].* PI. sluiwdhin and 

'ììhojfdìdn, It is not an Arabie word, bnt the Arabsnse it. Al-Farazdalk 
lys: — 

'* Anger (or heat) passes not away from him qnickly, nor does it 
beoome lese ; 
Nu^vairali's anger (or aotintj) contends with gerfalcons {ash^ 

lelines aro given in a version with the word asJi^sJiawdhtn, 
'Abd-All&h b. al-MnbArak says : — 

** A man opens a shop for trading in, 
But you liave, vcrily, opened for yourself a shop for religion, 
Between columns—a shop withont a lock to it; 
You purchase with religion the property of poor people, 
And have made of your religion a gerfalcon (tthàhtm) to chase with, 
Bnt the owners of falcona (agh-shawàhU) never prosper." 

tomo of bis verses reseinbling these lines have been already given 
^nder the letter v in the art. ijj^^\. Ainong bis other sayings 
this: — " We learnt knowledge for this world, but it has led ws to 
ir leaving oflE the world." 

i Al-Kur'&n VI- 164. * In Egypt Falco lanariu». In Palestine this 
iliamo is applied to the long-legged bazzard lììdeo féroji^ the launer being 
f«alled Makr shdhtn. 







118 AD-DAMÌRt'8 

There are three varieties of ash^shàkin^ naiiiely, shdMìv 
(gerfalcon), hcttàmt^ and anifti* Trnly speaking, the gerfalcon is a 
speciea oE the hawk {a^^éihr)^ kat it in oooler and drier than it in 
temperament, and on that account its motion in alighting from ahove* 
ia a rapid one, and on that account also it ponnces on ita prey in a ] 
direct waj, without hoverìng over itin cirdea; but it is cowardly 
and backward ( in attacking); notwithstanding which, it is greatly 
addicted to chasing, sometimes on that account strikihg itself on the 
ground and dying. Its bones are harder than those of ali other birds 
of prey» and some state that it is like its naine (in nature), that id 
to say, (the beaui of ) a balance, becanse it is neither able to bear the 
sltghtest oversatiation nor the least degree of hunger. The best (prais- 
ed) oue of its kind in descriptive characters ought to be hirge in the 
head, wide in the eyes, wide in the breast, full in the up(>er part of the 
breast, broad in the middle, strong in the thighs, short in the \egHj 
scanty in plumage, thin in the tail, and if its two \rings be drawn 
over it, no portion of them ought to be redundant; if it be a bird of 
ibis description, it would chase the orane and other birds. 

It is said that the first one to chase with it was Constantine, for 
whom gerfalcons used to be trained and tanght to hover over him 
in cirdes when he mounted (bis borse), thus shading him from the 
8UU ; they used tO come down one moment and go up another mo- 
ment (over him). When he mounted, they used to stand round 
about him, and one day it happened that ho had just mounted (bis 
borse), when a bird having sprung from the ground, oue of these 
gerfalcons pounced upou it ; so he took it and having liked it, 
trsiined it for the chase. 

Its lawfulness or unlawfuluess will be given under the lettor u^ 
in the art y^^K 

[The author bere gives a copy of one of the Basd'il (epistles) 
writtenby him from al*Madlnah to F&ris-ad-din Sli&hin, consisting 
of a series of metaphors taken from astronomical names in bis pmise, 
which is omitted bere on account of its length and its being uncon- 
nected with the subject of this article.] 

The interpretation of it in dreams also will be given in the 
art. >Ui|. 

9AYÌT al-9ayaw1k 


I (asJi'SJiabab). — A bull advanced in yeara (full-grown) ; 
aih'shaUìò and al-misliabb. 

r^ ■ 

I (ash'Shahath),^ — ^The spider. It is said in aUAfuhkam tliat 
eerlain stnall oreepin^ animai having six long legs, jellow in 
sk and in tiie outer side of the legs, blaok in its head, and blae 
eyes. Some say that ifc is a certain small creeping animai 
ig many legs, big in the head, viride in its month, and high in 
[nder part (of its body), that perforates (rips) the ground and is 
ime as the animai calle d shafimat'aUarfi. PI. ashbdth and shib^ 
Al*Jawharl states that ash'shàbath is a certain small creeping 
Ig having many legs; one ought not to cali it ash-shilth in the 
(• ; the pi. is shibtliàn^ like kharab^ pi. khirbdn. 

(Lawfulness or unlawf ulness. ) It is unlawfnl to eat it, be- 
it is one of cU-hasliardt (the creeping things of the earth). 


^iUm)^ (aah'SIubthdn), — Ibn-]£utaibuh states in Adab cd-hàiib 

il it isa certain small creeping animai found in sand; it is so called 
^account of its adhering to the thing it creeps on. A poet says : — 

^** lite ftteps of ihibthàn are death to them." 

(Lawfulness or unlawfulness.) It is unlawful to eat it, because 
one of the creeping things of the earth, which cannot he eaten. 


Lù^\ {aslfSliibdt). — ^Thescorpion. PI. a«A-«AtZ»ac/i*; so Abù-*Amr 

al-AHina^l say. It is related in a tradition, '^Whoever bites bis 

ìhiU^ is secure f rom sins , " that is to say, bis tongue, 

laaning thereby, ^' he is silent and does not discnss any snbject with 

that are in the habit of discussing and does not sting peoplo 

Ith it," because one that has bitten bis tongue does not speak, the 

Ingue being bere likened to the injurious scorpion. 

* o^s 

(joi^li I (ash-Shabarbaf). — Like safarjal. A small he-camel. 


\i^ i (aih'Shibl). — ^The whelp of the liou, when it has attained 
IO age to seek its prey. — PI. aslibéU and shJfiU. 

I Probably Gakodes oalled in < Om&n bà-shabak — G. arabi. 

120 AD-DAUÌRt'8 

ÌjaUI (ashrShabicah). — ^Tfae scorpion. PI. shabaxodt. A ràjiz 

says: — 

"A icorpion has commenced to tremble 
And to cover its hind pari with fleeh and contract itself and tara 
ita taiL" 

Je>^Jl [oik-Slialbilf). — [A species oE Cyprinm or carp.] Like 
Moff^. A certain species of fish. AULaith i^tates that as^sabbiìt is a 
dialectical variety of the word. It ìs slender in the ttiil, wide in tb^ 
middle, soft to the feei, and sinall in tlie head. The females of this 
species are few in nnmber and the males many, and on that nccount 
its eggs are scanty. 

Some of the fishermen state that when it gets canght in a net 
and is nnable to get ont of it, it knows that nothing bnt jumping 
woald save it; it therefore draws back the length of a spear, then 
sqneezes itself and jnmps, sometimes jamping into tlie air a height 
of more than ten cnbits, and thna perforating the net, it gets ont of 
it. Its flesh ié very excellent, and it is fonnd largely in the Xigris. 

^4s^l (ashrShujd^), also j^MfTÌ (ash'SJujd% — A certain large 
serpent that jamps at a rider and (also) at a person on foot, and 
stands np on its tail, sometimes reaching the head of a rider. It is 
fonnd in deserts. ^ 

It is related that Màlik b. Ad-ham went ont (one day) for 
the chase, and when he reached a barren part of the conntry, he 
became thirsty. He had a party of bis followers with him, and they 
went in search of water, but did not sncceed in getting any. So, 
he alighted, and a tent was pitched for him. He then ordered bis \ 
followers to search for water and game; they therefore went ' 
in search of them and found a ffabb^ with which they carne to hiin. 
He said to them, ''Roast it, but do not cook it completely, and then 
snck it; perchance yon may he benefited byit." They did that 
They then fonnd a skujd*^ which they wanted to kill, bnt it went' to 
M&lik in bis tent, npon which he said, ^* li has songht my protection, 
give it therefore protection," which they accordingly did. He 
and bis followers then went forth in search of water, when an- 
nnknown voice from an invisible speaker addressed them tbns : — 

** O men, O men, yen will find no water at ali, 
Untll joa orge yoar camela to nndergo f atigue this day ; 



e tlia road oh th« right, where hj the auid-liill U w&ter, 
«r whiah iadeep and aapting whioh cleuv »way diseaie; 
whcii ron «ili Ilare utisficd ;oiir want of it, 
I jnur Minela to drink oot of it and fili ;oar akina «itii it" 

bll"wor3 ttiorenpon followcd tlio direction which the 

cribw] to tfaem in verse, nnd tliey carne npon » deep 

whtuh t\tey guve water to drink to tlieir camela and 

e For tliemselves as travellìng-provision. When they had 

ìiy oonld not see nny tnioe uf tlie apring; Wt the stime 

i!fl agnin addressed ttieiii anying :— 

Iftlik, ma; Qod cause y oiir reward to bo good on our acooant ! 

I il mj partÌDg farewflll and utuUtion to you : 

lot withhold the doiog of kindneaa to aojr one, 

if a DuiD nìthholda kindaeaa, it i« ulto witliheld fioin him ; 

I laati, even if a long limo pasaes over a inau'a death, 
ilat h? ìsblamed for evil wliile he Uvea." 

atcd io the two ffafittiA, on the antliority o( Jàbir, 
h, and Ibn-Mas'ùd, that the Prophetsaid, "There is not 
oes not piij the poor-mte on hìa property but wilL bave 

II tlie Diiy of Judgment a bald-headcd (fj* V ■) thujd', 
[fllections of tbepoisonoaa foam at the sidea oC its inoutb 
n which Ile will run away, but it will follow him, untìi 
E round his nock." In the version given by Mnsliin it 

will follow him witb it3 niouth wide o|)en, and when it 
liin, he will rnn away front it, bnt it will cry fmt lo bini, 

treasnre which you hava sl^red up,' and when he seca 
no escape from it, ho will inserì lùs linnd Ma tb nioutb, 
t will itite it ('««'^ìi), ns a siallion-cumel bites {ita food) ; 
sei/.e the two prujecting portiona of bis jnw under the 
')," thatistosay, thetwooomers ofhisroonth (*i**-), 
him, 'I am youu property, I am yonr treasnre;' it will 
IÌ3 verse of the ^ur'&n, "And Ict not thoso wbo are nig- 
; God has given them of His grace, connt that it is hest 
lay, it is worse for tliein, Wbat they bave been niggard oE 
llar round their necks npon the resarrcction day."' " 
U-ahra') U one, the hnìr of whose head hna fnllen off and 
I white by reaaon of the poison. la '**iiy t (as-zo^E^Mii) 

b> IIM75»nai76. 

122 AD-DAMtRrS 

are the two coUections of foam (uj^j — Aihatdn) on the two sides 
of the montb, from the great quantity of the poison (in it); there 
may be collectiona like them in the corners oE the inonth oE a man 
i¥hen he speaka mach. Some say that it means the two spots in ita 
ej^es, and that the vairtety of serpeuts in which this descriptive 
character is fonnd is the raost malignant. Others state that they are 
the two canine teeth projecting oat of ita nionth. Lf*^AÀjat^ mll eat it 
or lite it (the band); the action conveyed by the word ^ihÀìII {al-hofim) 
is performed with the edges of the front teeth, whìist that conveyed 
by the word ^imÀìt'i (al-kìiafim) is performed with the whole montb; 
some say that cU-kafimis eating dry thinigs, and that al-j^ha^m is eating 
moist things. 

The Arabs assért that when a man has been long hungry, a 
serpent appears in bis belly, which they cali ash'shujd^ and afi»fa/ar, 
Abù-Khirftsh says addressing bis wife : — 

'I taro away the serpent of my stomaob (thufà^ al-hatn), — ^had you onìj 

knowB it ! — 
And render easy for others of your family than royself, the getting 

of food ; 
I drink in the erening plain oold water, and tarn back, 
"Whilst food has a particular reìish in the eyes of one iiTing on little.'* 

A poet says : — 

"He looked down ab Icoks the Eerpent ash-skìod', & 
And had he seen his wsy to planging his bold canine teeth U (jU) he 

wouid have bitten (strnok)." 

This is a dialectical peculiarity of the Beni'l-H&rith b. Ka'b, namely^ 
the retention of the I of the dual nnmber in the two cases, the accasa* 
tive and the genitive; it is also the rule of the Kùtts. As un example 
of it are the words of God, *^These twain are certainly two raagicians 

(Interpretation of it in dreams.) In a dream it indicates a bold 
son, or a wife (woman) perfect in experionco. 


jXì^^^ idsh'Shufjtmr). — Like mhmXn. A certain hlack bird 
largar than the size of a spurrow, that sings diiferent airs; — so Ibn- 

« When the poison is coltected in its poiflon-sacs. * Al-IIur'àn XX -OG. 

9AYÌT al-hayawìn 123 

1 and othors say. How beantiFul are the linesi of the ShaikU, the 
learned, 'Alà'd-din al-B&jl, who died in 714 A. H. I 

^Tbrough the bulbul, the nightingale, and the shtthrAr^ 
The heart of one who ia sad and beguiled with a vaia hope ia 

clothed with joy ; 
Rìse ap qaickly and enatch the pleasore 
Which the hand of the Omnipotent has beneficently granted.*' 

et has suid excellently in describing it : — 

" A garden, the branches of the trees in which are full of flowera, the 
birds in which are singing, 
With the duty of watering which the cloudsare entrusted, 
And oyer which the ninging shuhHir haa cast a shade ; 
You thiuk it to be a small bkick piper, whose date ia made of gold.'* 

beautiful is hÌ8 word usaiwidj which is the diui. of asiocui l 
her poet has said excellently : — 

** He haa on hia roay cheek a ni'^le, 

Round which the violet of hia cheeka encirclea, 

Like a thuhHir hiding in a thicket, 
. Out of fear of the bird of prey pouuciog from the pupil of hia eye." 

Its hiwfulness or nnlawf ulness is like that oE the sparrow, which 
be given hereafter. 

[Interpretition o£ it in dreams.) In a dream it indicates a 
r oE a 8ultàn possessing a knowledge o£ gramniar and good man- 
sometimes it indicates a sagacious and eloquent son or a boy 
Ing in a school. 

^jUl ««•«^ {Slìahmat-^Ll-arf), — A certain worm that, i£ a man 
3S it, contracts and becomos like a head. Al-Kazvvìnt states in 
\k&l that it is called al'khardtif and that it is a long red worm 
in moist localities. Az-Zamakhshari states in RaWiil-abnìr that 

small worm speckled with red spots looking like a white 
id that the hand of a womsin is likened to it. Hurmus states 

is a small animai with a plesisant smeli ; (ire does not bum it ; 

}rs fire from one direction and comes out of it in another 


Voperties.) He who paints liim2<elf with its fat will not be 
I by fire, even if he enters it, If it be taken, dried, and giveii 


124 ad-dauìkì's I 

io drink io a woman in difficalt laboar, she will deliver iinmediately.i 
Al-Kazwint states that, if it be roasted and eaten witb brearl, it will | 
dissolve stono in the bladder. If it be dried and given to eat to enei 
snffering f rom jaundice (or scrof ula), it will take away bis yellow 1 
colonr. It* its aslies be inixed witb oil and painted on the head et < 
a bald man, it will cause hair to grow and reinove the baldness. 

Its lawf alness or unlawfuluess and the interpretation oE it in \ 
dreanis are like those of a worin ( òy^ t )• It htis ibeen already nien*:i 
iioned under the letter ò that it is not eaten, beoanse it is one o( \ 
the filthy things. \ 

IòJmJI (aslinSliadhd). — Dog-flies; they al so lighton camels. N.' 
of unit}'' sìuulhdL 

CS ^ ! 

m ly^ t (agJirSJiarrdn). — Oertain insects resembling mosquitoos, \ 
"which cover the faces of men. 


cJ-^r^-' ' (ash'Slurshik). — ^The sarae as the green magpie (ash» 

j 04 

Jl^f-r^ I (ash-Shurshùr). — Like 'ujt/Hr. A certain bird like the 
sparrowy of an ashy oolour witb some misture of redness ; — so 
Ibn-Sidah says. It bas been already mentioned under the letter y 
that it is same as ahu-haraUsh 

CLawfulness or unlawfulness.) It is lawful to eat it, becanse it 
is inclndcd in ali the passerine birds. 

OS o*- 

^y^l {ash'Sliar(/)y ^j^\ {ash-Sliirg)^ and ^y^-'i (ash'SJiarag).— 

A small frog. It will be de^cribed in the art. ^^^il under the 
letter (j«. 

fj*^j^ I {atlì^Sharanbà). — Like hàbantà. A certain well-known 
bird ; the Arabs of the desert know it. 

j^aJU I (ash'SIiafiar). — The young one of the gazelle ; and so 
also ash'sMfiir; — so Abù-*TJbaidah says. 





ìylìì {ash'Sha'rd'), a]^ l^*^» (a^/i-S/uVA').— Certain blue or 

ilies that light on cainels, asses, and dogs, causìng tlieni considcr-^ 
injury. Some say that they are flìes liko the dog-flies, 

Ik 18 relftfced in as-Stnih that the believerd in tlie phirality of 
Sa encamped at Uhiid on Wedne^^duy, and that whcn the Apostle- 
Gòd heard of that, ho took counsel with his compauions, aad 
lèd *Abd-Allàh b. Ubayy b. Salùl, whom he never used to cali 
I, and took coansel with lìiin Uhì, * Al>d-Àll&h b. Ubayy 
pUed and so also did moit of tho Helpers^ '^ A|)osllo of God». 
iV in al-Mad!nah and do not march out to tliem, Cor by Go<], \ve 
!?• never (before) gone forth out oE it to meet an enemy withoat 
riutter having obtained the desired object from us, an<l an oneniy 
nover entered Iiere against U9 without our having obtaineil the 
irod objnct from bini ; — ^how then when you are with us I Leuvo- 
m alone, O Apostle of God. If they remain, thoy will he in an 
I plight, and if they march in bere, the inen will fi;rht witli them, 
id the women and children will throw s^tunes at theni from above 
jem, after which, if thoy retreat, they will retreat disappointed.'*' 
Ile Apositle of God was pleased with this counsel, but some of his 
lìnpanions said to bini, ^' Let us march out against tho^e dogs, so 
t they may not observe that we bave beld back from thcm from 
wardice, and that we are weak." The Apostle of God thon said, 
bave dreamt of a cow in tho act of being slanghtered, which I 
ierpret to mean a good thing; and I bave dreamt of the end of 
iy Bword being broken, which l interpret to indicate a defeat; and 
Ahave dreamt of my being clad in a strong coat of mail, which I 
terpret to mean al-Madinab. Tf you aro of the Ofiinion of staying 
l^ill-Madinah, do so." The Prophet himself wished that the enemy 
lould enter the city and fight in the streets; bnt sudi of the Mus- 
;ins as wcro not present at the battio of Badr and whom God 
il favourod with the hopo of being present at Uhud said, "Let us 
forth to meet the enemies of G»)d." The Apostle of God 
reforo went inside his house and put on bis coat of mail. AVhen 
)ym\y that he had put on his armour, they said (anìong tbem-^ 
veé), *'Bad is what you bave dono I AVo connsel the Apostle of 
(1, whilst he receives a revelation!" Thoy therefore saì«l to bini, "Do 
hatyou think proper, Apostle of God," and apologized to bim» 



126 AD-DAMtRt's 

He ihen saie], " It does not become a propilei to wear liis coat of 
mail and tlien to lay it down, nntil he figlits (with the enemy)." i 

The unbelievers remaìned encamped at Uhod on Wednesday ^ 
and Tharaday, and on Friday the A posile of God marched ouii 
againsi ihein, after. ^aying the. Friday congregaiional prayer with! 
bis foUowers. Early on Satarday morning, the middle of Shawwal 
3 A.H.,he reached a brandi of the bill of Uhnd. Hia foUowers were ! 
aeven hundred in nnmber. Placing ^Àbd-Allàh b, Jnbair, the j 
brotber of Khawwàt b. Jnbair, at the head of the archerà, who were j 
fifty in nnmber, he said to them, *^ Remain at the foot of the bill ^ 
and scatter (over the enemy) abowers of arrows, so tliai ihey may j 
noi be able to tnrn onr flank, and whether we gain the victory or > 
they, ceaae noi trom doing thai, nntil I send yon (a word), for we ! 
aball be coniinnally Wictorions so long as yon remain steadfast in < 
your position." .. 

Knraish then advanced, with Khàlid b. al-Waltd at the head of 
their righi wing and 'Ikrimah b. Àbl-Jahl at the head of their left ; 
wing, and with the women beating timbrela and singìng poema, 1 
They then foaglit, until the battio waxed hot, when the Apoatle of j 
God took bis aword and said, '* Who will take ibis aword, givo it ita : 
dne, and atrike with it the enemy, so that it may aave ns ? " Abù-Dnja- ; 
nah Sim&k b. Kharashah thereupon took it, nnd when he took it, ho'^ 
wrapped round bis head a red turba n and commenced to walk in an ; 
ele<^ani and self-conceitcd manner, twìsting about hia body, upon i 
wbicb the Apostle of God aaid, ^'Yerily, that is a walk which 
God haies, excepiing in ibis place." AbA-Dujànah then clave with 
it the beada of the nnbelievers, whiiat the Prophet and hia followera ] 
attncked them and broke their ranka. The followera of 'Abd- Allah 
b. Jubair then ahoated ont, ''Plander, plnnder! By God, lei uà go to ' 
the people and take onr sitare oE the booty." When they therefore 
went to them, their faces were tnrned away. A%-Zubair b. al-*Aw--' 
wàm stsites that, when the archerà saw that the general body of the 
enemy'a army had gone away, and thut their own comrades were 
en<niged in plundering, they also advanced with the desire of obtain- 
ing some I>ooty. When Khàlid saw the amali number of the archerà, 
and that the men were bnay plundering and their flnnk was thns 
exposed, he shonted ont to tho cavalry of the unbeliovers, and then 


9AT1t AL-9AYAWÌN 127 

attacked the followers of tbe Apostle of God from their rear and 
lìlefeated them. 'Abd-All&h b. Kami'yah tbrew ^ stone at the Frophefe, 
pwbioh broke one of bis lateral incìsor-teetb and bis nose and woanded 
hbli facei caasing bim to feel very weak. His coinpanions baving in 
fibe meantime become separated from bim, he stood up near a rook in 
Morder to climb it, bat being atUred in two coats of mail, he coald 
»jM>t climb up ; so, Talhah sat nnder bim, and (with that snpport) the 
làpostld of God managed to climb it, nntil he was firmlj settled on it. 
pBUnd and the women vrbo were with ber waited (in the field of 
[btttle) and matilated the dead, cutting off their ears and noses, 
Sio mach so that Hind made necklaces of them and gave them to 
iàbsbt; she then toro out the liver of Uamzab and chewed it, but 
Ót being able to swallow it, she spat it out. 

'Abd-AllAh b. l^ami'yab bad advanced with the intention of 
lUying the Prophet, but Mus'ab b. 'Umair, the boarer of tbe Apo- 
Jtlo's standard, baving repelled bim from tbe Prophet, he (Ibn-Kumi*» 
[ jtb killed bim (instead). Thinking that lìe bad slain the Apostle oE 
iGfod, he returned, saying, " I bave slain Muhammad," upon which 
Itheory, '^Verily, Muhammad is slain," went forth. Itis said that tbis 
mar was Iblts. The men then retreated, and the Apostle of God 
loòmmenced to cali them to tbe worship of God, but only tbirty men 
Ijgatbered together and defended bim, so that they kept the nnbelie- 
^ers from bim. The band o£ T^^lhab was woanded when he defended 
l^wlth it the Apostle of God, and an eye of KatAdah was woanded at 
timi tììììe, so that it lay hanging on bis check, but the Apostle of God 
^having replaced it in its proper place, it became even bettcr than 
fc was originally. 

> ♦ 

■;/ . When the Apostle of God turned away, Ubayy b, Ehalaf al- 
.^Jnmabt overtook him, saying, '^lamnot saved, if Muhammad is 
rhtved;" apon which the men said, " Apostle of God, shall not one 
fu OS turn round upon bini ?" He replied, '' Lea ve bim alone," unti! ho 
^aame quite dose. Ubayy used to meet the Apostle of God bofore 

bit and s:iy, "I bave a mare which I feed every day on a /arib» of 
tilhirah^i so that I may slay you mounted on it," aud the Apostle 
*^f Ood used to reply, " But I shall slay you, if God wilU it." When 

^;. ^i Acertaia measare of capaciiy. — ^See Lane'sLex. • A species of raillet 
^Ucknt torglmm of Liun. • 



therefore he approacbed Iiiin at the battio of Uhad mounted on hisj 
mare, the Apostleof Goil took the juveliii from al-HArith h. aH-Siin« 
mah and sliook it so violently that the followers of the Prophet (we)] 
were scattered awaj froiii it, in the saine way as the shaWà^ flies fly 
away froin the back of a carnei, when it shakea itself. He thenj 
gave hiin a shib with it in bis neck, wbich scratched a mark on it' 
bntnot a largo one. Ubayy therenpon foli freni bis mare, bollowing] 
like a ball and s<aying, *' AI nhaminad has killed ino.-' Illa friends' 
then carried bini and took him to Kuraish; his blood, howevor, did net] 
flow ont bnt coUocted inside, so they 8:iid to hiin, '* No barin will come 
to yon." But he replied, '^Indeed not ! Ir this st.ib wus inflicted on 
the Rab^ab and Mndar (clans), it would bave killed thoin. Did he^ 
not say, ' I shall kill you ' ? By God, bad he (only) spat on me after, 
those wordd, he would bave killed me." The onemy of God romained. 
not more than a day and died in a placo callod Sarif. ILissàn b/j 
Tb&bit aUÀiis&ri saya rogarding him : — 

*' He baci, verìly, inherited demtion from the rigUt course f rom kit 
father : 
Ubayy, — when the Apostìe carne before hiiu to combat, — 
You carne to him carrying decayed bouea (in your bod>) 
And threatened him^ bat you wt^re iguoraut of his power." 

The Àpostlo of God said, ''The greatest torture among men is for biin 
Vfho slays a prophet or wbom a prophet slays," because it is a welN 
known thing that a prophet does not kill anybody, nor doos suoli 
a thing bappon, unloss he i.s the worst of men. 

^yJL}\ {ash'SImgiocL*). — ^Tbe eagle, so Cixlled, becauso its upper 
uiaiidiblo exceedi the lowor ono (in longtb). A poot says :-^ 

^'An eagle dwelling betwecu the uioat difficnlt place io a mountain and< 
the highest pari thereof."^ 

^ PS 

ùiJU\ (ash-^'hafda^). — A small frog; — so Ibn-Sìdah says. 


^xxÀUl (a^/i-iS'Ai/ni/i). — ÌAke al-t/ìshntn. A cortain cross- breed' 

producod betweeu two spccios (of birds) wbich cun ho eaten. AUj 
Jfihij reckons it among the species uf pigeons. Some say that it la 
tho same as what the vulgur cali al-yamàm. Its noto (voice^j 
» Lane'a Lex. art. {^^ • 


like tliiit oE t)ie mnsical instrameiit ar-ntbób^ and 
ibolio tone in it. FI. tha/dMa. Tlieir voicos are 
liey are mixeO together. It h a part of its nature 
) Ì09A3 ita temnle mate, it alwaj-s remnina single, 
i lÌkewÌ4A the feinnlo, if ìt 1o5A!« Ha imitn nvit^. Il 
i feathem full oFE, and it tlien reEnsed to trcaJ. Aii- 
natiire ia that it profers scclnsicn. It is giren io 
, and giiarding agaìnst, it9 enemies. 
or nnlttwfalness.) It ia Inwfat to eat it with ali. 

Its flesb ia hot and dry, and on that account this 
to be eaten, nnleen the birds are yoang and snoh 
:h fnatherB afler the fir^t feathers (al-ntathà/tf). 
ced frolli ita flesli h hot and drj, hnt a larga 
iproves il. The eating of ita egga with olive oil 
lal power. If the oil of roses be added to its mate 
1 noman nsea it externally (as a pesaary), it will 
a pain of the womb. If one applies its blood to bis 

it will bave an aphrodiaiacal effect, and if he dies» 
marry again. Atnong the reniedies beneficiai in 
nrelling of the e;e ia thìa one : — To drop tnto it the 
iJtlfnin or the blood of a pigeon and tben to plaoe 
ìde iteutton-wool nioislened with the wliito of an 

SODIO oil of roveri, It ìs a trìed nnd b«>nefiuial 

hifcfi). — Àl-^a7.winì 3tates tliat it Ìs one of the 

having the appearance of balf a human being. It 
H-mundt is a cros3-breed between a «Aiib^ and a 
t presenta itself to u man in hia travela. 
1 tbnt 'At^mah b. ^ifw&it b. Uiiiayyah went out 
ched a oertnin place, where a »Iùlth presented liiin.self 
eh 'Al^amah said to him, " O ihif^ wLat ia tliore 

theo ? Fot away thy avrard from me into its 
Jst thou kilt one who wouid not kill theo ?" The 
omo on, and bear patiently what ia decreel for 

stnick oacb other and both fell down dead. 

130 AD«DAÌlhlf8 

Afl to Slu)f)p and Satth, they were the two great sooth^ayers, 
ihe former half a human being having one hand^ one fooi, and one eye ; 
and the latter withoat any bones or fingerà, so that he couid be 
folded np ]ike a mat They were boih bom on the day tbat 
Taraifah the soothsayer, the mte of *Àmr b. *Amir, died ; she 
seni for Sat!)^ on the day she died betore ber death, and when he 
was bronght before ber, she spat into bis montb and informed 
(him) that he wonld be her snccessor in the matter of her knowledge 
and her profession of soothsaying. His face was on bis cbest, and 
he had neither a head nor a neck. She also sent for Shil^k, and after 
treating him in the same way, died. Her grave is at al-Jahfab. 

The U&fid Aba*l-Farn] al-Jawzi states that Ehàlid b. 'Abd- 
AllAh al-Fihri was one of the children of tliis Shi^^ 

It is related in the Strah of Ibn-Hisb&m» on the authority of 
Ibn-Ish&^9 that Màlik b. Nasr al-Lakhmt (once) saw a dream which 
terrified him ; so he sent for ali the sootbsayers, magicìnns, and 
astrologers ont of his sabjects. They accordingly collected together 
round him, and he said to them, ^*I bave scena dream which has 
terrified me, and in conseqaence of which I bave become frightened.'* 
They said, '^Uelate it to us, so tbat we may inform yon of its 
ìnterpretation ; " bat he said to them, ^*If I relate it te yoa, I 
sball uot be satisfied with wliat yoii may inform me as its 
interprehition, nor would I believe any one in regard to its 
intepretation but him who knows the dream before I relate it" 
They then said to one another, ''This, which the king desires, 
cannot be had trom any one bat Shi^^ and Satih.'\ When 
they informed the king of it, be sent (for them) a person who 
broogbt them to him. He then asked Sa(th about it, and he re- 
plied, ** king, yon bave dreamt that yon saw a sknll which carne 
ont of darkness and ate np everything having a sknll." The king said, 
*^ Yon bave not at ali erred; how would you interpret it ? " Satlli 
said, ^* I swear by the scorpions, serpents etc. (hanash) between the 
two black stony tracts that the Abyssinians will invade yonr land and con- 
quer ali tliat part of the country which is between Abyan and Jurash." 
The king tberenpon said, ^0 Satth, that causes ns to be painfully 
angry ; but when will ithappen, in my timo or after that?" He re- 
plied, *^7e9, some timo after that ; more than sixty or seventy yoars will 


bayìt al-payawìn 


élapse (l>efor6 it tsikes pliice) ; tlien after tliat, tliey will I)o slain, 
ami some will go fortli oiil: o( it fleeing." l[ììe king nskeJ, *^ Wlio 
wilI etTecfc tliiit., niimely, Hluying and driving thein away?" He re- 
plied, ^' Ibn-Dlit-Yazan, wlio will march against tliem froin Aden and 
hot loavo any of thein behind in al-Yainan. The king nest askec], 
rt Will hÌ3 sovereignty he permanent or will it come to an end ? " 
He replied, '^Yes, it will come to an end." Tlie king then uske<], 
»"**Who will cause it to come to an end?" He replied, "A pure 
ff propbet, to whom a revelation will descend from Iiis Lord, the high. " 
P The king asked, ^'And oat of whom will this prophet he?" He 
t^^replied, ^^Oat oE the descendants (children) of^&lib b. Fihr b. 
llulik b. an-Nadr ; he will he the king oE hia {ìeople to the end of 
r. timo." Tlie king asked, " Sa^ih, has time then got an end ?" He 
ìt replied, " Yes* on the day on which both the ancient and modem 
onefl will ali collect together, and on which the doers of good actions 
will he happy and the docrs oE evil actions will he miserable." The 
king then asked, ** Is what you ssiy trae, Satlh ? " He replicd, 
" Yos, by the redneas of the sky after sunset, and by the darkness of 
the night, '* And by the moon when it is at its fall," ^ what I bave 
informed )-ou is verily triie." 

The king then had Shiklk broaght before him, ami asked 
bini in the sanie way as he had asked Satih. Shikk told bini, *^ Yon 
bave dreamt that you saw a skull which cnme out of darkness, and 
that it foli betwcen a garden and a bill and atc everytiiing having a 
breath (in it)." When the king board »ShikVs words, he said to liim, 
" You bave not at ali errcd ; how do you interpret it ? " Shikk 
roplied, "I swear by the men between the two black stony tracts that 
the Ethiopians will invade }'oar land, vanquish yonr womcn (ali 
possessing soft fingers), and conquer that part of the country which 
extonds Erom Abyanto Najran." The king then said, '^0 Shikk 
by your father, that causes U4 to he painEully angry; but when 
will this happen, in my time or after me?" He repHed, "Yes, 
it will happen some time aEter it; and then one liaving a grent mis« 
8Ìon will dclivor you Erom them and cause them to tasto great humi- 
liation." The king then asked, "Who will tliat one liaving a groat 
mission be?" He replied, "A youth out oE the youtlis oE al-Ynman; 

1 Al.Kur'4n LXXXlV-18. 

Vii AD'DAMruì's 


he will come out oE the hoase of Dliù-Yuzaii.*' The king next anlced 
hiin, "^ Will hU sovereignty lie permnnent or will it octine to un end ?** 
He replied, '^Ye8, it will l>e broughl; to nn end by sm a[»ostlo who 
will he the last of the apostlos and who will bring Truth and Jnstice 
auiong the people ol religion and grace; he will he the king of bis 
people till the Day of Jadgment (ìXaì) I ^ji)" The king next asked, 
"And whatisthe Day of Jadgment?" Shi|:k replied,. "The day 
on whicb the persons in aathority (rulers — wdlts), will be reconi|>onsed 
(for their actions), and calls coming froni the sky will be hcard by 
the living and the dead, on which people will be gathered together 
for the apiM)inted timo (of judginent), and on which the piou.s, the 
doers of good actions, will pro8i»er.*' The king*then asked, "0 
Shikk, ìA what you say trae?*' He replied, " Yeé, by the Lonl of the 
sky and theearthand of what there isbetween tlioni raised and lower- 
ed, what I bave inforined yon 13 true, and there will be no fuilnre 
(breach) in it.'* It enterod the king's niiml as being true, on account of 
the agreement he found between Shi^k*^ and ìSatfh's statements. He 
therefore prepared the people of bis house and departed with them, 
ont of fear of the sovereignty of the Abyssinians. 

It Ì3 also related on bis (Ibn-Tshàk's) aathority that on the night 
on which the Apostle oE God was born, the palaoe of Easrà shook, and 
there fell down from it foarteen of its acroterial ornaments. Kasrà 
Nashirwftn therenpon becamo impatient, took it as a bad omen, and 
carne to the conclusion not to keep it a secret from the loading men 
of bis kingdom. He therefore cansed to be present before him the 
high priest of the Magi, who was the head man of their wise men and 
from whom the fire-worship[>ers used to take the decrees in the mutter 
of their religioas law^ the ordinary priests who were their l^àilts, the 
atteudants at the fire-temples, who were among them'Iike the agents 
of the priests, and the general (al^shahbad)^ who was the protector 
of their forces and the chief òf their nobles. He caused to be present 
before him also Buzurj*mihr bis minister, who was bis highest 
waztr, the satraps who were the guardians of the confines of hostile 
countries, and the governors of provinces. He informed thcm ali of 
the shaking of the palace and the falling down of its acroterial 
ornaments. The high priest said, ^'Ibave dreamt, as if camcis led 
horses; they crossed the Tigrisand scattered thoniselves in the country 
of the Persians." At the sanie time, bis people told him of the (sacred) 



<V^ fire haviiig booome exdngnished that night This frightened li ini 
%\*t tnd tliose tliafc were presenfc in lii.s assombly ; thoy looked upon it 

"V, • 


I 4 

t • 


a great csilainity, and did not see the mcaning (reason) of it; ihey 
' becanie frightcned and went away Erotn tlio kin;r tiilking abonfc thè 
1^*; ] tffiiir. The i)ost then broaght to Kasrà (rom ali his doininions the 
^ J oewi) oE the exUnguishing of ali tlie (sacred) fires that night, and he 
^ received also the news that the water of tlie hike at Sawah had did- 
appeared. He therefore coUected the leaders of bis religion and 
dominion, and after intbrniing theni of ali the news he had received, 
\'4'' ' askod theni for snch explanation as tliey had to givo regarding it* 
^ -^ The high priest 8aid, " As to niy dream, ìt indicates some great 
event wliich will bike place at the hauds of the Àrabs." 

Kasrà then wrote to An-Nu'm&n b. al*Mundhir, ordering bini to 

tend bini the most learned man ont of the Arabs in bis country. 

V So, he nent to bini ^Abd-al-Mastli k 'Amr al-Qas.sànt, wbo hadlived a 

r "' long lite. When he ap[>roacbed Kiisrà, the latter asked bim, ^^Have 

yoii any knowledge regarding what I desire to ask you ?" He 

replied, ^'Ijet the king (first) inforni me regarding that of which he 

f:, desires knowledge, ami if [ bave any knowledge of it, I shall 

'^ communicate it to bim." Nn.sbirwan thoreuiK>n said, *' I want some- 

f ' body wbo wouid know of my case before I mention it to bim,'' ii|K>n 

\ which 'Abd-al-Msisth replied, ^* This knowledge, a materna! nnclo of 

l mine, wbo livcs in the castern part of Syria and wbo is called S»tìh, 

/ bas." Kasrà said to bim, " Qo to bini;" so, ^Abd-al-Masth went aw«y 

and esime to Satìh, wbom he found on the pointof death. He 8nlute<l 

bim, but Sa^ih not having returncd the salatation, ^Abd-al-iilasih 

j:, apoke in a loud voice : — 

** la the chief {g.ltri/) of al-Yaman deaf or docs he hear? 
O master of eiichantment, do you kiiow who (is come) aud from 



t Therenpon Satth openeil bis eyes and said, " 'Abd-al-Masth on a 

strong and fleet oimel (pf^) bas come to Satth, wbo is on tbebrink 

of bis grave (fij^^ 0* ^'^^ ^^^n ^^ ^^^ Beni-Silsftn bas sent you, on 

acconnfc of the sbaking of bis palace, the extinguishing of the (sacred) 

. V fires, and the dream of the high priest, in which he saw hardy camels 

^"' leading Arab horses, cro:»sing the Tigris, and becoming scattered 

*f a))ont in the country of the Persiana. O ^Abd-al-Masih, when the 

V>. recital of the Kur'an comes, and the ix)sse8sor of the staff is sent, 

Vói AI»-I>AUÌBÌ'b 

aad the water oE the hike ut Sàwah mìka iiito the enrth, then Btibylon 
will noi be the pinete for horà^es io reiuiiiii in, nor Syria the phice 
for Sa^ì^ to dwell in, nnd the kings and qneens of their (Sasan) 
dynasty to the nuniber oE the acroterial oroaineots wììì have ruled. 
And ah that is coniing, is coming !" Then Sa^ib died, and *Abd- 
al-Masth moanting his dromedary returned to Kasrii and infonued 
him oE what Satih had said. Ksisrà therenpon said, '' Until fourteen 
oE our sovereigns shall bave ruled, there will be a long period 
(of aflEairs)." But ten of thein ruled in fonr year:», and the remaining 
nuuiber till the latter end of ^Uthiuau*» reign. 

Bdbil U Babylon in al-'Irak, which is so called from the phrase 
tabaUml al-aliun (conEusion oE tongues), which occurred in it at the 
time oE the Ealling oE Nimrod's tower, that is to say, the diiference in 
the languages. Ibn-i\fa.s'ùd states that Bàbil is the land of al-KùFali ; 
hot some say that it is the mountain Dnmb&wand. 

Kasrà was the first slaiu person who had (himself) retaliation on 
his innrderer, as the UAfij Abù*l-Fanij al-Jawitt says in Kitdb al" 
Adhkìifà\ It liAppeued in this way : — Kasrà was informcd by his 
astrologers that he would be shiin, and he thereEore said, ^^IshuU, 
Terily, slay my stayer." He then took a deadly poison and placing 
it in a small box wrote on it, *^This is a trnly tried aphrodisiuc ; iE 
fiuch and such a weight ofitbe used, ono would have erection, and 
be able to have scxual intercourse such and such a nnniber of tiines.' 
When his son slew him, he hastened and oi>ened his treasures, and 
fonnd that little box sealed; he then read what was written on'it and 
said, *'With this Elasrìi used to fortify hiinselE for sexual intercourse 
with women." He thereupon opened it and used Home of itaoeording 
to the directions, and died. Kasra was therefore the first sia in per- 
son who had (himself) retaliation on his slayer. It has beeu àlready 
mentioued under the Ietterò in the art. '^t«^t, on the authority 
of the KAmll of Ibii-al-Athir, that Kasrà had three thousand wives 
(women) and fiEty thousand horses. 

* o*** 


I (ath'Shahaìttah). — Like sa/arjal. A ram having four 
homs. PI. ihahàhit and ihaluìtiL 

9AYÌT AL*9AYAW1n 135 

^t&i^l (ash'Shahadhdn). — ^The male chameleon ; — so Ibii- 
8!(lnh says. Ifcalso means (the lizards) a^^^jh (the inastiguer), 
ahìcaral (the monitor), ap4^ihany and samm aì^ra^, and (the serpent) 
ad^assdsah. * N. of unity shakadhah. 

Ji/tóJI (a*/i.5/4a*maib) ami ó!?^ H<^J^'Shikirràk)\— [The 

green woodpecker and the conunon roller. — Lane.] So it is given 
in al'Muhkam and by Ibn-Kataìbah in Adab al-Katib. Al- 
Batalyùfti atatea in ash-Sharh tbat the word with a kasrah 
under the «^ of Jf^^UJl is a form more in accordance to analoga, 
for the measure u^^ is found in the formation of nonns, for 

inritrinoe, ^/r/n(iA and sJtinkdr^ whìle the measure m^A^ with ikfathah 
10 not fonnd ; he add»» '*We bave read the word aa shikirrdk 
in al-Qarib IPl^Mu^annaf.^ Likewiee al-EhaI!l baa mentioned it, 
and bue stated tliat there are tbree dialeotioal forma of it, namely, 
th'krdki shakrdk^ and shuhrdltt and tbat sometimes it is oalled 

It is a sinall bird, and ìh called (also) al-àkkyaL It is band- 
aome, of a green oolour, aiìd about the size of a pigeon; ita green 
la of a pleasing obaraoter, and it lias blackneaa in its winga. Tbe 
Araba regard it as a bird of evil omen. It baa winter and anmmer 
qnarters and is very oommon in tbe eonntry of tbe Greeka, >>yria, 
Kbnrà»&n, and adjacent placea. It ia apeckied with red, green, 
and black apota. It is ghittonous and mulioioua in ita nature, 
and stenis tbe young onea of other birds. It alwaya keepa itaelf 
aloof froni men, and betakea itself to high liills and topa of moun* 
tains, but it iiatchea ita egga in caltivated and popnlated placea 
in higli localiiiea, where banda oannot reach them ; its neat is 
higbiy atiukiug. 

The commentatora o( cd'Qunt/ah and al-J&hij state tbat it is a spe-» 
eie:» o£ ero WS, and tbat by nature it is chaste in treading; it cries much 
for holp when any bird aniioys it, in which case it strikes the other 
bird and cries out, as though it$elf were the one tliat was strnck. 

1 la Egjpt Efìfx jaeulut, * In Palestioe the roller, Coraei,ts garrula^ 
In 'OmAa the Indian roller, C. tm/Zca, is called dàiù. 

136 AD-DASfinfS 

(Lawfalnefls or nnlawfulness») Ar-Rùyànt and al-Baga\vt liuve 
decided it io be unlawf al io cai ii, on accoani of iis beinpr considered 
a filifay iliing, ami ar-Bàfii Las copied ii on ihe aailioriiy of as-^ai- 
mart. Amonji^ oihers wbo hold ii io be nnlawfal is ai-'ljl!, tlie 
oommentaior oE cU-ffnnyahot Ibn-Saraijy and al-MAwardi has decid- 
ed ii and al-^ak^ak^ io be nnlawful in al'Pdwi and ;;iven ibe reason 
for ii iliai those two birds are regarded by tbe Arabs ns filiby. 
Thai is tbe staiemeni of inosi of ihe auiboritiei), bui some of tbe 
reb'gious dociors bave siaied ii io lio biwfnl. 

^Provorbs.) *^ More ominons or inanspictous iban an akht/al (a 
green magpìe)/* wfaicb is ibe sanie as ash-shilùrràk* 

(Properttes.) If any gold be deficieni in toacb and be tborc- 
fore melted and ibe conienis of ita gall-bladder iK>ured over it» ibe 
gold will booome of a red ooloar and tncrease in iU touch, in ihe 
sanie nianner as, if ibe conienis of ibe gall-bladder of a fox be fiour* 
ed over ii^ ii wonld becoine deficieni in touch. If iis bile be used 
for dyeing {bair), ai will blacken ii. Its flesh is boi 'and ciiuses 
extemally syinptoms ut beai ; ii is very difiiculi io digest, bui it 
removes any beavy (thick) wind whicb may be in the intestines. 

(InterpretatJon bf ii in dreams*) In a dream ii indicaies a 
handsonie woman possessing beauty. 

{a$1ìrShanuiyaK).* — Abù-Hayyun at-Tawhìdt siates thai 

ii is a cortiun species of serpont, red and lusirous ; wben ii becomes old 
and is affecied witb |niin in tbe eyes and l)ecoines blind, ii bétakes 
itself to a garden facing ibe easi, wbere wben ihe sun rises, it exposes 
iis sigbi energeiically towards ii for an lìour, and wben the rays of 
ihe san enier its eyes, its blindness and darkness oE vision disappetir. 
Tbis ii does coniinaally for seven days, by whicb timo it finds its 

^ In some pori* of ^Omfin, Curaeiiu garrula is called by ibis asme. In 
Ptlestine *o.%'a^ is OarruUu atricapìUui^ In sU^Irftk (hnms fica U called «dlr'oAc. 
* In *Omàu a«ft-sAaiai<it/r istbe name of a csrtain species of lixard, Lacnta 
jt^akarit wbich is known by ibis name only iu some parto of it ; in other parto 
ol it^ it is called 'adàrah^ and ia *OmànProper and on tbe Jabai Akbjar range, 
it is caUed ba$. 



• •' 

: jtght to be perfcct. Another kind of serpent also, wkeu it becoiiies 
L Dliiid, socks tbo green plttnt of fennel, wlùch it uses ns m col* 
:'. Tjrrium ; it in tbcii cured, as bus beeii iiientioned before. 


vii^t (asIt^Shunhnf*). — Like l-vèifudh, A cortain well-known 
kpecie:! of birds. 

*A (ShaJi). — Ibn Sfduli shites tluit it is a cortsiin bird rcscnibl- 
Ing the gerfalcon {ash-s/uHun), tbat seiz<)s tliepigcon (as a prey), but 
la not the sanie bird (as the gertalcon), and that it U a Porsìan word. 

- jl^l^Wl (a*A.5/ia/.dm).— The kind of goblin called as-sNah; 
•—80 aKJawliart and others say. Tlie word l*iu» has been already 
ipvcn under the letter ^ . 

r 0^€ 

ii)l^j4Ì^\ (ash'ShaJmndn?).—A certain apecies of aquatic 
birds, ha ving short h?gs, piebald in colour and snialler ihan aUahlak 
(tlie .sturk). In une of the books on atrange things, it is «lid to Ijo a 
certnin species of birds. 

«r 4 


e^jm}\ (a«/i-6MM).— lbn-a.s.Sal/ih states in aUlatàioìi that it 
is the Sitine as the kite, which has been already descriM under the 

lettor ^ . 


sj^ t {aslmSìuiwf ?).— The hedgtdiog, wljich will U*, described 
nereatter under the letter o * 

•t^^-^* I (tt*/t.5/<aiM/fai).— The sanie as the louse, the scorpion, 
and the aut, every one of which will be described under its proiier 


AjAJ I (ath-ShawO.—A certain specics of lìsb, but iiot the aiune 
as ash-s/iabbùt ; — so al-Jawhar! says. 


^38 Ar»-DAHtRr6 


cLr^ -^^^ (5Aair^ bardfi).—The saine as the jackal ;— so it is said ! 
bj al-Jawhnrt, wbo adds tliat tho fine particles whicli are seen \ 
floatiug iu the light coming throiigh an aperture (window) are 
called shatct bdtU. l 


Jj^l {ashrSk&xcaì). — She-camels wbose milk bas dried up and 

ndJers bave contnicted^ and wbo bave p:issed seven or eigbt montbs 

siuce tbe time of tbeir bringing fortb. N. of nnity sjidUlahj tbe pL 

beÌDg au auoinaIou.s one. From it i$ derived (tbe ezpression) 

' iSliJì ssJjJSJ ^ tliat is to siiy, tbe sbe-cainel bas become snob as is 

termed a «Ad't'ZaA. It is said in a proverb, '^Two stallion-camels do 
not uieet aiuong siie-caniels tbat bave passed seven or eigbt montbs 
aince tbeir bringing fortb." 'Abd-al-Malik b. Marwàn quoted it at 
tbe time oE bis sbiying 'Amr b. Sa'td al-Àsbda]|^ and tbe meaning of 
it resenibles tbat of tbe words of God, *' Were there in botb 
(beaven and eardi) gods beside God, botb would surely bave been 
oorrnpted/'^ Az-Zamakhsbari biis mentioned tbis under tbat verse 
in al'KashsM/'. Asli-shutoal will agaiu be mentioned under tbe lettor 
«J iu tbe art J^^t . 

AJ|>« (Sìiaiclah). — One of the names for tbe scorpion, wbicb is 
80 named, becanse of tbat being the name of the part of its tail 
wbicb it raises, namely, its spine. Tlie word for it and tbe snbject 
in oonnection with it will ho given under the lettor ^ . 


ijòj^^\ ^^^^ {ash'-S/taikh al'YaMlili).^ — Abfi-Uamid and al- 

]j[iizwlnt in ^AJd'ib (d'makMul:dt state tbat it is a certain animai 
having a face liko tbat of a human being, a white board, a body like 
tbut of a frog, and hair like tbat of a cow ; it is oE tbe sixe oE a calf, 
and Comes ont of the sea on tbe night beEore (of) Saturday and 
remains (on knd), until tbe snn sets on the night before (of ) Snnday. 
It bops about like a frog and then enters tbe water, and ships cannot 
overlake it 

(Lawfulness or unlawEuluess.) It is incli^ded among tbe 
different sjteoies of fi^b, ais bas been already mentioned. 

1 Al-Enr'ftn XXI-22. ^ Forskal gives yaMd as a apecies of Ohtetodon. 




Ji (Properties.) It is suid tbnt if its skiii be placed oii a goatj 
rt| it would take awuy the paio in it inmiediately. 

.*• >c« 

i ^Làà^iJì {ash'Shafdhuèèìdii), — ^The wolf, which has been al ready 
Boribed under tlie idtter . 

*» -^a 

c;4-*t^t {aslfShaifalpan). — ^Tlie mule ant. 

C*^l (a#/i-5/iay).— Like a/-to//. Thewbelpof the liuu, whicb 
9 been already de^sribed in the art. iX««]| 1 under the letter 1 • 

fti^ì (asIfShim).* — ^A certain species of fish. A poet suys : — • 

'* Bay to the rile ones oat of Azd, ' Do not boaat 
Of atth's/afHf al-jirrìth*, and al-han'ud;* ** 


^•♦i^i {ash^Sìiaiham). — Like a^^^atganu The male ofhedge* 
js, AI-A^sha says : — 

'* If the reasoiis for enmity betweeu ns becomo stronger, 
Yoii Willy verily, go away from me on the back of a hedgehog.'' 

Anma't nays that ash'sluihdtn ih the saine us as^iHdlt, 

Abu-Dhu'aib al-HudhuIt tlie poet sbites, ** When we heard 
news of the Apostlo of God being ili, I felt much grieved and 
lainod awake, tliinking the night to be the longest one ; neither 
ild its durkness cleur away nor woald its light show itself; I 
lained measuring its length uutii the time oE early dawn, when I 
)t, upon which an unknown voice said to me : — 
' A great calamity has befallen al-lsl&m, 

Btftween the date-palms and the fortified liouse« : 

The Prophet Matuunmud U dead, and oar eyes 

Are shedding tears for hìm in drop».' 

i MoBt probably what is called in Maskat and on the coast of 'Oman gene* 
' as-ftètt (n. of un. flnahy-4Jaranx crumenopfukalmw, t A species of eel, 
g[eneric name for which in Masljcae is al^mtfsaf. • C^bium commeuoniL 

140 AD-DA>ltUÌ's 

Thereapon I jiiinpeJ up froiii my sleep in higìxt anJ looked ni the 
akj, when I savv none of the stsirs but Sa\l adh^Dhdbih^, I inter» 
preted it to rnean the slaagliter whicii wouid tsike phice tiinong the , 
Arabs, and I learnt (troni it) that the soni oE the Apostle oE Qod \ 
was seized bj the angcl oE death or that he had died oE hìà disease. ^ 
So, I nionnted niy sho-cainol and went, and when the inomiìig calne, j 
I wanted soinethincr to draw an omen froin. I saw tliat a male ^ 
hedgehog (shaiham) liad seized a serpent, which kept winding itself 
Toand its liody, und that tlie Eoriner bit it, bit by bit, Bntil It ate 
the whole oE it. I drew an oinen froin it, and said (to myselE) that 
the male hedgehog aiesuit grief, and the winding oE the serpeut the 
tnming avray oE the people from the trnth and their rebelling against 
the saccessor of the ÀposMe of God. I then ìnterpreted the rating 
of the serpent by the hedgoliog to niean the success of the suocessor 
t>f the Appostle oE God in that affair. I stirred my carnei, until when 
I carne to al-Qàbah, I <lre\v an omen from a bird, which informed 
me of the dcath oE the Apostle oE Gt>d. A raven then presenting its 
rìght side to me croakod, which also gave me the same inEormation 
«s the previous omen. I then songht refiige witli God Erom the 
evil which had presented itselE to me on tlie road. I proceeded 
to al-Madinah, where there was a clamoar of crying, like the clamoar 
oE the pilgrims wben thej' say the talhiyah* in the state of ihrànu 
I asked, * What is the news ?' and was told that the Apostle of God 
had died. I then went t^ the mos<|ue and found it enipty ; so, I 
went to the house of tlie AjK>stM oE Go<l, bnt fonnd its door closcd. 
I was told that he was lying dead and covered over with a piece of 
doth, and that bis hon.sehoM were alone with bis deaid body. 
I next askcd as to where the people were, and was told that they 
were in the shed of the Beni-S&Sdab, wbitber they had gone to the 
AasAr (Helpers). 1 went then to the shed and Eonnd Abft-Bakr, 
^Urnar, Abù-'Ubaidah b. al-JarrA^y and a party of Kuraish there. 
I saw that the Ansar had among them SaM b. ^Uhadah and alao 
some pof ts, namely, HassAn b. Thabit and Ka'b b. Mfilik. I went to 
the side of Kuraish. The An^àr then spoke, and long were both 
the discourse and the reply. Then spoke Abù-Bakr, and to God he 
attributed tlie goodnosa oE him as a man who does not lengtiion 

>Two B ars in one of the horos of C»pricornap. For fartht* r explanation, B«e 
LMie*8 Lez. art. 4ju«. « Sajing, ''At Thyservice, &c..'' 



I 8|ieecb und knows the places o£ distinguishing wliut in true and: 
Imi 13 faUo in dti$coiirso ! By God, lie spoko sudi words as none^ 
utd bear wifcboui Mlowin;; him and inclining towards btin. Then^ 
oke 'Uniai* in a nianner less eloqnent than that ot* Abù-Bakr, and 
> tbtm .-^aid to Abft-Bakr, ^^Strotcb out your band, I sball take tbe- 
eil};6 ol* alle;{iauee to yoii. " Abd-Bakr tlion strctcbcd out bis 
md, and Mimar took tbe pledgc to biin, and the peoplo tben took 
Abù^Bakr tben returned, and 1 returno J >vitb Iiini. I was tbeit 
'etfent at tbe prnyer wbiob was said over tbe body oE tbe Pro[diet» 
id a1:50 at liis bnrial." 

^j^^ji^ {ahà'ShttbIcunah). — It is said in al-MuraJtfia^ that it is 
oertain ^i^ecies of bird found with asses and cattlo ; it eats flies. 

142 ad-damìrì's 

; < 

ìjI^I (a^^(i'd(aA).— [A nit]. An egg of a lonne. PI. ^u^db 
and ^rbdn wliich latter is pronounced by the vnlgar without a 
hanvsah as ^nìn^ but the correct forin ir with a ' hamzdli. Ibn-as* 

SikkttBtates that the word is nsed thns, ^jt^ è^j ^^ pi ^Pìnln^ with 
a 7iafit2;a7i,and *-«lj v^ ^^his lieodaimmiled tcith iuV«,with a ìiamzah, 
A1-Jàhi4 States thatlyfts b. Mii'àwiyah says tiiat a^fìhdn are the 
males of the lonse, which is one of those aniinais whose males are Binai I- 
er in size than their females, liko the white falcons {az-zardAh) nnd 
hawks (aZ-7m2MÌ/t), tlie latter betng the feinales of the formcr; bot whnt 
he has mentioned is not trne. 

Khaitainah b. Sulaimàii rehitos in bis Miunad^ at the end of the 
twenty-fìftli chapter, on the aathority of Jabir b. 'AlMl-Allah, that the 
Ai)ostle of God said, '^Scales will he plaoed on the Day of Jiidgment, 
wherewith will he weighed good ainl bad actions ; he whose good 
actions will overbalance bis bad aetions by the weight of a nit will 
enter Paradise, and he whose bad actions will overbalance bis good 
actions by the weight of a nit will enter the Gre of Hell. '' The Pro- 
phet was tbereupon asked, *' Apostlo of God, what about those 
whose good and bad actions will he eqiial?" and he replied, '^hey will 
be the oocnpants of the wall between Paratlise and Hell ( <J 1^1 ). 
^* They cannot enter it (Paradise) althongh they so desire/' * '' 

(Lawf alness or nnlawfulness.) Ash-Shà(i^! states tliat the law- 
falness or nnlawfulness of nits is the stime as that of the louse for 
one in the state oE ihr&m ; if he happens to kill any of them, it is 
desirable that he should givo in alms, even iE it be a monthfal. It 
is stated decisively in ar-Ratcfiah that they are the eggs of lice, as 
has been mentioned by al-Jawhari and othcrs. It has beeu already 

mentioned in the art hj^ i iistr^^ I that combing hair with a coinb 
made oE tortoise-shell has the effect of removing nits, on account oE a 
peculiar property in it, 

^ Al-Kur»An VlI-44. 



(Proverbs.) '^He ooants things like nits, when there are in his 
^Rrn) ayed things like a jar. " Al-Maydànt stafces that it is applied 
one wlio blames another for a little thing, when there are inany 
ivìti in himself. Ar-RiyÌ8ht says : — 

** O you who blame me for my f orm, 
Do you find fault with Anything in yourself P 
How can you see the mote in your frìend's eye, 
And f orget the mote in your own eye, which U a Urge one !" 

^jLIj I (afi'fidrikh)* — ^The domestic cock. 

Àl-Bnkhari, Musliin, Abù-Dàwad, and an-Nas&'i rehite, on the 
Suthority of Masrù^» wlio said, ^* I asked 'A'ishah regarding the 

ftractice of the Apostle oE Qod, and she replied» *' ile used to love the 
mtinual doing of good actions. ' I then asked her, MVhat time 
[did he use to pray ?* and she roplied, * When he used to hear the 
[cock (a^-fidrikh)j he used to rise up to pray.' " An-Nawawt states 

that afi'fidrikh liere ineans the cock by a general agreement on the 
'part of the learned, and that it is so called, on account of its crj'in^ 

cut much at night, AbA-Hanuil states in al-Iht/d* that that 

time is a sixth of the night and net less than it. 

yun (a^^djir), called also ììjUla}\ (a^^w/driya/i).'— A cer- 

tain well-known bird of the passerine kind; its peculiar characterietic 
Ì3 that| when the night approaolies, it betakes itselE to a branch of a 
tree, suspends its foet from it, hangs down its head, and then keeps on 
crying out the whole night, until the moming dawns and duy-Iight 
flhows itself. Al-^zwtnt states that it cries ont, out of fear of the 
sky falling over it. Another authority stsites that it is the same as 
àl'tunawioitf which has been already describecl nnder tlie lettor cb ; if 
I it has a nest, it constructs it like a pouch (purse), and if it has no 
nesti it suspends itself from branchos in the manner we have 

( Lawfulness or unlawfulness.) It is lawful to eat it, bccause it 
is a species of the passerine birds. 

1 In Lane's Lex. this word is gìveu m 'ì^^aJ I . 



IH AiwnAMiRr s 

(Proverbs.) "Morecowardiy and more oonfitsed than a^d/f/. " 
As io tlie proverbi ^^There is no whUtìAr (^d/Ir) in the hoase/' Àb(^- 
*T7baidah and aI-A8inaH stato tliat tìie meaning of il; is in the nense oE 
the measare ^ J>^^ (one t;0 he called by whistling), in the same way 
as the expressions *'cP'^^" and "^Jtf^ **, mean (reapectively) 
•* water poured forth" and "a hiddon secret" Other anthorities, 
however, state that it means, tlure is no one in the hou9e to lohistle, 

( Interpretation of it in a dream. ) A fidfir in a dream indicates 
oonfasion (perplexity), conceahnent, and trnsting oneselE on the 
snpport of powerf al men, ont of foar of an enemy, because it is said 
in the proverb, *' More conf ased or perplexed than a fidfir^ " as has 
been already mentioned. 

tjù^ì (a^^ckl/i/).— [Shell-fish]. It is a species of marine ani- 

It is relate«l in a tradition of Ibn«^xVbba.s that, when it rains, 
(pearl-oyster) shells open their moaths; they are the covering of pearis, 
N. of un. ficula/ali» X(hitnwàdìf vltq camels that come to other camels 
which are already at the drinking-trongh and wuit at their rumps« 
watching Cor the depurtiire of the drinkors that they may go in. In 
ibis sen^ a rftjiz suyi) : — 

'^The ezpecters, the hangers behind, a^-ataicddif,** 

(Proiiorties.) Tho property of a poarl is that it romoyes palpita* 
tion,expels biliousness, clears the blood of tlie heart and the li ver, and 
brightens the sight, for which last parpose it is mixed in collyrinms. 
If it he mclted, until it bocomos oE tho consistence of a tremuloas 
liqiiid, and then with it patches of alplms he painted, it will remove 
them at the Rrst application, without anynecessity of another applica- 
tion (of it). 

As to a dream aboiit pearls, it may be interpreted in several ways ; 
they may indicate ijoys and girls, and sons, riches, and good words. 
He who dreams of having bored a stniight liole tlirougli a pearl will 
explain the KnrMn correctly. He who dreams of having an unstrung 
pearl in his band may rojoice with thd good news of getting a boy, 
ìE he has a pregnant wifc; but if he has not a pregnant wife, he will 
come to be in possession of a slave-boy, onaccoant of the words ofGod, 
And ronnd them shall go boys of thetrs, as though they wer€ 




pearis." « He who dreains c»f liaviug extracted a pearl 
'auld it, will forgel; the ^ar'&ii ; if he Bella ìt with-ait 
^tiiig it (frolli the ahell), he will beconie fina in liis 
ìun uinotig iiien. He who dreaina of Bcattering pearle^ 
»f people pickiug tliein iip, will preaoU fo people, and^ 
'prtacbuig will be of Bervioe to theta. He who drenniR of * 
ring a pearl in hia band may rt-joioè with Ihe good news of 
'ge«ting a male cliìld^ but if he liaa no wife who Ì8 preg^naii^, 
Sfwill piirchase a slave-girl, and if he la unmarritd, he ivill- 
urry. ile wbo dreania of iiaving taken so many pearlsont of the 
tbat they^pan bQ. mQaaurqd out aud weighed with ItirgeRcnleRy 
[)){(^btaÌQ iii)yn0ii|9e w.ealthfrom. a. man wbo ia conn^cted with 
irseli, Jl^in&ib atiites. that he who couuta pearla in a dream will 
(t with trouble, aud Iiq who ih ^ir^n. pearla (in a dream) will; 
Jn.happiiieaa. A neoklaoe of pearla indioatea a heiiutiful mid 
[daoaie woman, and aometimes a neeklace of pearla indic««t60 
latri niouiul.tie. 

lPropertie.<a.) Al-Kazwìnf atait-a tliat u (pearl) ahell uatul nB^ 
fponUiue, ia uaofal in gout aud rheumiiliain. If it be riibbed with 
Inegar, it ohecka hemorrhiig^ fr(»m the noae. The auimni in it 
l'iiaeful in a dog-bite. In ita burnt alate naed aa a dentifiice, it 
inghtena the teeth, and used aaacollyrium it iabenefioiid in nlcers 
the eye; if it be applied over a place in an eyelìd in which there 
1^ redundant growth of hair, after extracling the Imir from it, it 
[ll,prevent hair from growing on ìt again ; it ia (iilao) uaefiil in 
Ìji|*ilfl froni fire. If u elean piece of it be lied to the boily of a 
it wiii unt ila, toetli without pain. Another authority 
Kh-a, tliHt, if a ahell inaid^ wliioh the animai movea ab(»l1^, 
jyjn){^a qoveriug on the top reaembling a atoue, be rubbed tu a 
loti pow<1er itnd aprinkled on the faoid of a aleepjng peraon, he 
r{ll rem'iin.qin'nt aud not niove abont for a long time, which ia a 
ihing thaii oannabia (for tliut purpoae). Aa a remedy for 
ieoking epistnxia, a aliell niny be tnktm, theu rubbed fine 
[ethor with opopauax, ami uaed uà a poultice over the noae. 

(luterpretatiou of a aheU in a dreiim.) He who dreama of 
^ing a alitali in hia hand wijl turu away from a thing iie has 

I Al-Kur'Au LII.24. 

146 AB-BAHtRf B 

determined npon aiid canoel bis d<»t6rmÌDation, wliefclier it be a 4 
good or bad ooe. 1 

^^^m.^ì (afi-Stdà). — [The owL] A certain well-known bird. The : 
Araba asserì thai it is formed ont oE the head of a ^lain person, and 
ihat it cries oat in bis head, if bis blood bas not been avenged bj re- 
taliation, saying, *' Give me to drink, gìve ine to drink," until bis 
alayer is slain. On that account, it is also called ^ddi and ^d:K, mean* ; 
ing a ildrtty one. It is the male of the owl, and the pi. is apda^* 
It is called ibìX'jalHd^ iJm4udt and (pi.) bandi-rafiioò. 

Al-^Adabbas aPAbdl states that af^padà is a certain flying thing 
[cricket], that creaks at night and hops and leaps (or flies) ; it is 
considered by the people to he the locast aX-jundah^ bat it is af^fodk 
(a cricket); and as to al-jtmdàb it is smaller than it. 

Af-fadà (an echo) also means the voice that retnrns from a 
Yoice, wlìon it is attered and when it finds something to obstract it. 
The linea of the lover oE Lailà al-Akhyaltyah are al ready given under 

the letters v &"<! 3 (^^^' I* P- ^^^)' ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ ^^'^® ^''*^^ returns to 
one from moantains and other things. Abù'l-Mahasin b. ash-Sliawwà' 

says beantifolly regardiiig a person who could not keep a secret : — 

<« I bave a friend wbo speaki nothing 
Bat sUnder and absard tbinga ; 
Gai of men be is the one most resembling an ecbo ; 
If one tells bim of a tbing, be repeats it immediately." 

Qgiiyg^««sldM# A^aa&if ac/u> became dumh or Ite perished^ otmayhe 
perish 1" and ^'«1^^ ^^^^ ^ì^mat/ Ood eause Jii$ eelìo to beeomedtimh 1" 
fchat is to say, ^'May God deitroy /ami" for, whena man dies, the 
echo does not bear anything from bim to respond to. In this senso is 
the saying of al-Hiijjftj to Anas b. Mftlik, •* I moan yoa. — May God 
cause your ecbo to return no sound (become dnmb) I " 

It is related, on the authority of *A1! b. Zaid b. Jud'àn, thal 
Anashaving paid a visit to al-Hajjàj b. Yftsnf ath-Tha^aifl, the 
tyrant, the destroyer, the latter said to biro, " you scoandrel, yot 
old Constant mover about in intrigue — ^now with AbA-Turàb, anothei 
timo with Ibn-az-Zubair, another timo with Ibn-al-Ash^a»h, and stil 
anotber timo witblbn-al-Jàrùd,— I swear, by God, that I shall, verìly 
strip you in the way that the lizard (labfr is stripped, and pulì yoi 


/'* : 

9ay1t al-^ayawIn 147 

SWày in the way that a lamp (dot) of ginn is pnlled away, and dra^ 
jròa away in the inanner that the branohos of the salamah tree aro 
Uragged together after being tied, Eor beating the leavos off them : i^ 
yonder on the part of those evil-doers, the misers, and apostatasi*' 
hastheronponasked hiin» *^ Whom does the Amtr mean ?'' Al*Hajjaj 
plied, " I mean you. — May God cause your eclio to beconie dninb !*• 

)^' ' *Alt b. Zaid states that when Anas went away from In'm, he said, 
** I swear, by God, that were it not f or iny son, I would bave givea 
liim a proper reply. " He then wrote to ^Abl-al-Malik b. Marwftn, 
rcomplaining of the treatment he had received at the hands of al-Uajjàj. 
SAbd-al-Malikthereupon wrote a letter to al-UajjAj, nnd sent it to him 
by Ismael! b. *Abd-Allali b Abi'li-Mahajir, the enfrancliised shive of 
the Boni-Makhzùm, who proceeded (with it) to al-HujjAj. He first, 
howover, went to Anas and said to him, '*The Commander of tlie 
]tfaithfal considors al-Hajjàj's treatment of yon, a great and serioaa 
affair, bat I assnre (advise) yoa that nobody is eqnal to al-Hajjaj in 
^1^ the estimation of the Commander of the faithfal. He has writtcn to 
«f^^ him to come to you, bat I am of opinion that you should go to him, 
r- and he will apologize to you, and yoii will come away from him after 
I' receiving an hononrable treatment from Iiiin and with an appreciation 
[' Oli bis part ofyonr pr«»per worth.'* He then went to al-HajjAj nn»! 
P gave him the letter of 'Abd-al-Malik, upon roaiding which bis face 
i(. fall, and he commencod to wipe tlie perspiration oif bis face, and to 
r^'ì-iay, ** May God pardon the Commander of ilie faithfull I had not 
^ thonght that he wouM reduce me to this state." Tsma'tI ssiid, ^* AI- 
k'Hajj&j then threw tiio lettor to me, and tliinking tliat I had read it, 
^Jjmidy ' Lotus go to him,' that is to gay, to Anas, upon which I sai<I, 
j:^*No, but he will come to you ; — may Gi>d render your stjite propiti- 
lOQsI' I then went to Anas and Siiid to him, ^ Let us go t^ nl-Uajjaj.' 
^^.He thereupon came, and al-Hajjàj welcomed him and sai<I, ^0 Abù- 
jjTIamzali, you were in a hurry with your reproof, for my treatment 
^'of you was not the result of rancour; buttile pcoplo of al-'Iràk do 
B jìot like that God should bave sovereignty over them so as to suind 
, - M evidence (against them). Notwithstanding this, I desircd that the 
i^byi^ocrites and transgressors out of the people of al-^Ir£k might 
:now that when I attacked you, it vfna an easier thing (for me) to do 
to, in regard to ihem, and that I couid bo quicker with them. We 


148 AD-DAMfUrs 

oherisli good feeliiigs towtirds yoii, sucli oa yrouid pWse };Oii.' Anas, 
replied, * I wns not in a hurry ividi my repropEt nntil ali Il|e people 
gofc nn opportanity ( to laugh afc me) and noi; only a few select ones, 
and nntìl yoa called ns, whoni God haa called Helpcrs, evil-doers. 
fon allego ibat \ve are minerà, wben we are those tliat were generoos 
to tbem (fche Itofagees). You alle«^e that we are bypocrites, wben we 
bave followed tbe bouse (of the Fropbet) and tbe Faitb from bofore. 
Yoa ulle<re tliut you bave adopfcod me as a means oE/ access to tbe 
people ofaPIrallF by bolding as lawful in respect of me wbat God baa 
declared as unlawf ul for you, but between us and you God is tbe 
Jndge. Uè is tbe one to be most plesised witb a subject of approba* 
tiou and tbe <me to be most displeased wltb a subject of disupproba* 
tion ; uiK>n Him depends tbe recompense of men and tbe rewurd of 
tbeir actions, *'tbat He may punisb those wbo do evil for wbat they 
bave dono, and may reward those wiio do good with good."^ Yerily, 
by God, bad tbe Christians, notwitbstanding their belief in a plu- 
rality of goda nnd thoir infidelity, seen a man wbo bad served Jesus 
only one day, they wouid bave bonoured and venerated bini ; bow 
tben does the faot of my having been in the service uE tbe Apostle of 
God for ten years not secure that for me? If we receive kindness 
from you, we ahall thank you for it ; but iE we bave die revorse of it, 
we sball wai( patiently until God gives ns relief." Isma'tl said that 
tbe letter of 'Abd-al-Malik to al-Hajj&j was as follows : — '^You 
are a man wbose atfairs bave risen to a higli pitch, so as to over* 
wbolm you, until you bave excoeded your proper measure. By God, 
you, tbe son oE one wbo used to stufi ber vagina witb the stones oE 
raisiiM (al'iniuta/rlnìah), I bave thougbt of biting you with the teetb, 
in tbe manner that lions bite Eoxch, and of striking you vehemently 
witb tbe band sucb a stroke that you wouId wisb that you were 
straitened Eor your exit out oE your mother's womb. The news of 
your treatment oE Anas b. Mtìlik has reached me, and 1 thiuk that 
you wanted to try the Commander of the faithful, to iind out iE be 
possesses any spirit, so tliatiE otherwise, you would proceed Eurther. 
Msiy tbe curso oE God rest on you and your ance.stors, narrow in tbe 
eyes wi^h scanty bair on the eyebrows, and slender in the shanks l 
You bave forgotten tbe position of your anco»tors at a(-T&*if) and tb» 

I Al-l^ur'àu LllI-32. 


9AYÌt Àl.-ÌGtATÌwlH 



ma km if^hòbìé state in Mùeh Àiéy Were, «ben they ìised te dìg 
ini ili the wàròri'ng-pTaòes with their hands and tò ctirry stoncs on 
;è!f bàcìcs. When ìh\i^ my ìetter, re'acbes yx)!!, and yoa will ha ve 
ft, do nót cist li frohi yonr liand, until yoà meet Anas in ìiis 
Am aAd apòlògiasH tò liiin ; othorwise the Oommander of the faith- 
wtll sènd yon òne whò will driig yon inpside down, until he takés 
!h fò Anàs, wbò will tlien décide yònr case. Tlie Ooniinander of 
faithriil \A noi ìgiVòrànlbf yóiir liews ; ^'tò every prophecy ia a set 
tline* and in the end ye sliall know. "^ Do nót àct agàiiist the letter 
of the Oommander of the (uithfnL bat hononr Anas and bis son ; 
therwise I r>haH send yoa one who will exposé y^onr faults and give 
use io your eneniy to rejoioe over yonr affliction. And salatation 
io you ì" 

. Afias died in 91 or 1)2 or 93 A. H. at al-Basrah, and was the last 
et the Prophet's Companions to die there. 

s m 

^l^^it (a.<^^arrdklì). — Like kattdn. The peacock, whicb will 
W described nnder the letter J». 

UiU»j!>-» (^rrSr àZ-ZaiI).— [Tlie cricket], the sanie is àU 
^jiiàhtdi wliich has beèh àlreàdy givén under the letter g. It is larger 
tbàii al'jundàbj and sohie of thè Araba cali it a^Jnulà. 

e é 

Ll^^t (a^&urrdh), — ^Like rumnidn, A certain bird known 
ib ihó Arabs ; it is eatcn. 

^j^i\ (a.^^urcul). i — Like rufah. Abù-*Àmr b. as-Sal&h statés 
iài it is a word with none of the letters hearing a dot, of the 
measnre of ju^aL Its sobriqnet is abù^katMr. It is a certain bird 
abont ihe size oE the sparrow, that preys u'pon sparrows. PI. fiirddn; — 
ità an-Nadr b. Shumail says. It is parti-col òured, hàs a làrge head, 
and is fonnd ainoiig trees ; it is half white and half black, wiih 
a iarge l>oak and largo toes ; it is not seeti àny whére but amohg 

i A1-Kar*Aii VI.66. s In «Oman and W. PnleBiiiie the shrike— Za/t»u« 
fàUu or L. aueheri It is cftUed in *Om&a ^ra»i and also H-piraid, 


150 AD*DAMÌi(Ì's 


date-palins and trocs, and nobody is able io seize it. It is of an { 
evil disposition and greatly given to koeping aloof (from men). \ 
It fceds on floah. It Ima several modca of whistling ; it whistles \ 
tot every kind of bird it wants to prcJy npon, in its own way, and | 
thus calls the birds of that kind near it ; when they coUcct round it^ \ 
it ponnccs npon some of thom, and having a strong beak, when it | 
pecks one of them» it splita it lengthwise iinmediately and eats \ 
it ; tbis is always its habit. Its places of habitation aro trees and 
the tops of forts and castles. 

(Infonnation.) The Imùin, the very learncd, Abù'l-Faraj al* 
Jawzl has copied in al^MuiUhuhj with regard to the words of 
Ood, *^And when Moses said to bis servante * I will not cease until I 
reach the conflnence of the two seas, or else I will go on for years.' '* 
from Ibn-^Abbàs, ad-Dahhftk, and Mukatil, who said that, when 
Moses liad learnod soundly the Peutatcuch and knew what was in ' 
it, he said to hiinself , '* There has not remained on the earth anybody 
more learned than myself/' withoat, however, speaking to anybody 
abont it. He then saw in a dream that God had as though opened 
the flood-gates of the sky, ùntil ali that was between the east and 
the west was drowned. He then saw a pipe on the sea in wliich was 
a gradali ; it used to go to the water which had drowned the land, 
and carry it in its beak and then throw it into the sea. When the 
S^tcakcr witli God (Moses) woko up, he was frightoned with the 
dream. Ghibriel then carne to him and asked hiin, "0 Moses, why do I 
sec yon sorrowfnl ?" npon which he informod him of the dream. 
Grabriel said, '* You allegcd (to yourself) that you comprchcndcd ali 
the knowledge, and that nobody remained on the earth more learned 
tlian yourself. But God has a servant who can impart to you some 
knowledge ont of bis knowledge, like the water which the ^uradah 
carried in its beak and threw into the sea." Ho snid, '^0 Ghìb-* • 
riel, who is this servant ?" and he replicd, " Al-Khidr b. ^AmH, 
out of the offspring of a^Ta}'yib, " mcaning thoreby Abraham the 
Friend (of God). He then said, "AVhero am I to seek him ?" and 
Gabriel replied, " Beyond this sea." He then asked, " Who will 

1 Al-Kor'Au XYllI-59. 





[de me io him ?" and Ghibriel replied, " Some of jour proviaiona 
for tiie jonrney." 

They said that owing to Moses' eager desire to meet al-Khidr, 
ila did not (even) appoint his substìtate i«i the tribe, bui weiit away 
Immedtately (after him). He accordingly said to his scrvant 
^jjronng man) Yfisha^ b. Nftn ^^ Will yon be my help ?" and he replied, 
[| Yes," upon which he said to him, ^'Go and fetch for ns provision 
(or the joarney." So, Joshua went and brought some cakes of bread 
land an old salted fish. They two then proceeded to the sea and waded 
>through mud and day, and were tatigued and weary, until tliey 
|reachod a rock projecting into the sea beyond the sea of Armenia, 
hich was called the rock (fort) of protection (Kal'at al-hirs). They 
[oame to it, and Moses then went away to {)erform the partial ablntion 
(or prayor ; then jamping over a phice, he found one of the springs 
bf Paradise in the sea. He performed ablution with the water out 
of it, and as he retarned his beard was dripping with water. Now 
iloses had a good beard, and uobody had a beard better than his. 
As he shook his beard, a drop (of water) oat of it fell on that salt-fìsh, 
whilst the water of Paradise does not fall on any dead creature 
without its being restored to life ; so, that fish revivod and jumping 
into the sea went away, its conrse in the sea becoming a f ree and 
dry onc. Now Joshua had forgottcn abont the fish he had brought. 
" When they had passed by, ho said to his servant, * Bring us our 
dinncrs, for wo bave met with toil f rom this jouniey of ours.* " * Ho 
then mcntionod to him the affair of the fish, upon which Moses said, 
"That is what we want." They thereforo retunicd, rotracing 
thoir stcps, upon which God ordorod the water througli an 
inspiration, and it accordingly becamo solid and a free course 
up to the height of Moses and that of his servant ; the fish then 
proceeded before them, until it came out on land, its course becoming 
for them a beat^n patii upon which they walked. A voice from 
lieaven then cried out to them, '^ Leave off the beaten patii, for it is 
the road of the devils, leading to the throne of Iblts, and take the 
road on the right band." They therefore took the road on the right 

1 Al-Kur'lin XVlII-61. 

11^2 AD-DAMtKl's 


'band, imtil thcy reached a largo inou'ntain, iicnr wliich was a plnife 
for pniyer. Moses said, '^How boautifal U tlils place ! It ooglit ti 
beloDg te the pioiis servant (of God)." Tliey had nofc waited long 
when aI-Kliidr caino and proceoded io that place and spot. Wlien 
he stood on that siK>t, it became agitated into ohe of a green colonr, 
'Thej (rbn-'Ab1)às, ad-Dab'bàk, and Mu^atil) stsited that ho Ts 
^amod al-lEOiulr, becanse directly he stands on a white spot it 
otecomes green. Moses said to him, ^^ Salatation to you, ó Kludr !" 
taid he répited, " Salatation tó yòu, "Mòàes, pròphot òf thè 
^eni-ìsràMl I '* Mo^os thercfòro aiked him, " Who ìnformcd 
yon as to who I ara ?" and ho Topliòd, " He %vho gnicìed you to ihy 
:place infortned ine of it." Then there occurrcd of their affair what 
look plado and whiit thè groat Kur'^àn has relatod. Mentioh ha6 
lihready beòn made abont theìi^ under Uiè lettor ^ in the art. ^>^^ t , 
Vhore \re havo cópi'od the diffei^éncè of opinioni) in rcspoò't ot 
Ìd-Khiilr^s Yianio, hìs pedigree, a'hd bis pròphetic mlssion. 

Al-l£nrtabi states that this bird is called a^purad af-fatoicdm. 
We are intormed in the Mu^jam of Mbd-al-(^ni b. KAniS on the 
anthority of Abù-Qhili4 Umayyah b. Khalaf al-Jumahi,^ Avho said, 
'* The Apostle of God liaving seen me with a ^urcul on iny band, 
said, * This was the first bird to fast.' " It is (also) relatod in one 
version that it was the first bird to fast on the day of 'Ashftra' (the 
lOth of al-Mnharrani). The UHfi<j Abfi-Mfisà luis also extractcd it in 
the sanie way, but the tnidition is, like the naine of the authority (for 
it), a difficnlt one (g,alti() to conip^eliend. Al-Màkiin states that it is 
one of the ttadttions fabricatèd by the slayers of al-Husain. *Abd- 
ÀllAh b. Ma^àwiyah b. Musa hals relatod it on tlio anthority of Abù- 
Qali(|, who said, ^'The Apostle of God having seen me with a 
■^^urad on my band, said, * This Waà the first bird to fast on (the 
day of) ^Ashùrà'. * " It is, however, a false tradition, and the 
relaters of it are unknown persons. 

> I ftnd the foUowiDg marginai note in one of the copìes :~" In some of 
liie copies instea<Ì of * Àbd-al*Qanl the name of < Ahd^al-RAJkl is glven, and 
fnvtead of Àt>ù-Giót:| Umayyah, the name in given aa Àbù-G ìt.^ MaMim b. 
Uinayysdì, and in tome Salainah b. Uinayyah." 

^.'^yJLt al-patawàn 



(Information.) It U said that, when A)>rah«im went forth froin 
(Syria io Iraild* tlie (SacroJ) Houho, thero vrorc with liiin the swift 
Irind (aS'SaktìMh) and a parade tìio latter to guido him to the .siiot 
iund the former to |)oint ònt tlìo ni'easuroincnts (cxtent) of it. Wht^n 
Ile rt^chod tho si^ot of tho Houso, tho Snìdndh (i>wiFt wind) stojijied 
there, and cried out^ *^ Baild, Àbnduun, over tlie extent of niy 
ibadow/' A party of the commentators of tho KnrVm state that 
Ood created the si)ot on which tho Hoilso is situated two thousand 
yeara before creating the carth; there was a white fosini on tìie 
water, and tho earth was spread underncath it. Whon God seni 
Adam down to tìio carth, ho foli loncly andeomphiined (of it) to Ood, 
wno thcn sent down to him the edificc in heavcn corresponding to 
the Ka*bah ( ^i^*** ' *s*aa.» i )j which was Imilt of a riiby out of the 
rabios of Paradise nnd had two gatcs of green emerald, the eastorn 
and western gatcs. God phiccd it on tho spot of the Sacred 
and said to Adam, ^'0 Adam, I bave sent down toyou a House that you 
may cireuit it, in tho samo way as my throne is circuited, and that 
you may pray ncar it^ in the sanie way as pniyers are «lid near niy 
throne." God then sent do\Vn tho Black Sfone, the wliiteness of which 
was(tlicn) gròater than that of milk, but which snbsequently l>ecanie 
black by the touch of the menstrual bloo<I in the Timo of Ignonince. 
Adam then proceeded walking froui India to Makkah, and God a|)- 
pbinted for him an angcl io guide him to the House. Adam thero- 
bpon performed the pilgrimage and observed the ceremonies of it ; 
'when he had finislied doing that, the angels nìet him and saitl, ^' May 
your pilgrimage bave been sinlessly i>erformed 1 Adam, we bave, 
vérìly, performed pilgrimage to tliis House before you by two thou- 
'sand years." It is related that Adam j^rformed forty pilgrimagcs, 
going ìvovfx India to Makkah walking, and that tlie House remaincd 
ih that condition till the lime of the Flood, when God raiscd it up to 
the fou'rth heaven and sent down Grabriel, who hid the Black Stono ìli 
Mount Abii-Kubai's to preservò it from being drowncd. 

From that timo to the timo of Abraham the spot of the Hou;3e 
remained vacant, and then after bis son Lshinael was Ikm-i) to hiiii, 
God ordered him to build a house in which His name might ho rc- 
membered. Abraham thereupon asked Gofl to point out to him the 


154 ad-damìbì's 

spot for it, aiul Goti seni to guide Iiiiu fco the siK>t of the House, a$-» 
SaHiial^ (swif t wind), which means a violent wind (Jcli^ijàj) with two 
hcadd and roseinbling a sorpent. Some say that al-^kluijuj means a 
▼iolent wind, shining, glistening inteusely, having a head like that 
of a cat^ a tail like its tail, two wings of pearU and emeralds, and 
two eyea with rays (of light) in them. *Ali said that it means a 
Yiolent sbining wind, with two heads and a face like that of a 
human beipg. 

God ordered Abraham to build (the House) whero as^Sakiiiah 
would settle ; he therefore follo wed it, until they (two) reachèd 
Makkah, where. as-Saiunah environed the spot of the House, as a 
serpent environs (a thing). This is what 'Ali and Hasan bave 
stated ; but Ibn-'Abb&s has said that God sent a cloud of the size of 
the Ka'bah, which kept on going, and in the shade of which 
Abraluim kept on vfalking, until it took bim to the hououred 
Hukkah, where it stopi>ed at the place of the Great House, upoii 
which a voice out of it oriod out to Abraham, " Build on the place 
shadod by it ; do not exccod it or fall slvprt of it." Some, however, 
stato that Gt>d sent Gubriel, wbo guided bini to the spot of the 
House, and otbers say that liU guide was a furati^ as has been men* 
tioned bcfore. 

Abraham uscd to build, and Ishmael used to bring stone^i to 
him. He built it out of fivo inountain.4 — Mt. Sinai, Mt. Zibft 
(ncar Jcrusalem), Mt. Libanus, which are mountaius in Syria, and 
Mt. Ararat, which ìs a mountain in Mcsopotamia, the foundutions 
being built by tlicm two out of the stonoi of Mt. Hirft', which 
is a mountain in Makkah. Whon Abraham reachod the spot of the 
Black Stono, ho said to bis son Ishmaol,*' Bring me a beautiful stono 
which may provo to bc a mark for the pcoplo ; " so, Ishmael brought 
him a stono, but Abraham said, '* Bring mo a bcttor ono thun tlib." 
Ishmacl tlierofore wcnt to look for one. In the moantimo Mt. Abft* 
Knbais criod out, '* Abraham, I havo with mo a dopositcd trust 
for you, tsike it," npon which ho took tlio Black Stono and (ilaced it 
in its s|)ot. 

Some say that tho fir^t one to buihl the Ka'bah was Adam, and 
that it was ruinod, and ali tnices of it were loit at the timo of the 


» * 

y * 



; then Qod showed it to Abrulmm, who built it up, wliich 

* Uie nioaiiing of the worda of God, ^' Aud wlien Abraliain raisod 

ip tlio foanduttons («)^ ^y) of ilio House," > tliat is to say, laid ita 

fwìulationSy sing. i«^t#, bat al-Kiaà't stutos tluit it mcans its tealls. 

(Lawfulueas or unlawfuhiess.) It is truly spcaking unlawful 
eat it, on acconnt of wlmt the Imftni Abmad, Abù-Dawnd, and 
Ibn-M&jidì have rolated, and what ^Abd-al-Ha^k has oonfirmod on 
the autlìority of Ibn-'Abbàs, namely, that the Prophet has prohibited 
the killiug of the bce, the ant, the hoopoc, and a^^-intraJ^ the i)rohibi« 
.tion to kill it bcing a proof of its unlawf alness, and also on account of 
the Arabs taking an evil omen frouì its voice and its api>eanince<^ 
Some, howover, state that it caiì l>c eaton, boeause ash-Shàfì'i has 
dechircd the [)ayincnt of a penalty for it by ono in the state of 
t^nim, if he kilis it, to be obligatory; — so Mfilik says. The Iinànu 
the very learned, the Kfidi Abù-Bakr b. al-* Arabi ssiys that the 
Trophet prohibited the killing of it, because the Arabs iised to take 
an evil oinon from it ; he therefore prohibited the killing of it to 
reinove from their niinds what was fixed in theni as a I>elief in its 
being of an evil onien, and not beciiase it is unlawful, Al-*Abbftdt 
has also mentioned it in at-'J'ahakàt, 

(A wonderful anccdote.) Mansùr b. al-Husain al-Àbì has ro-^ 

lated in JWitlir ad-durar that a son of a Badawi having gene on a 

journey and rcturned, the father asked hini, •* What did you sce on 

the road ?" He repliod, " I went once to the watcr-skin to drink, 

npon which a isurcul cried out, * Leavc it, or you aro not niy son ; ' 

80 I left it ; theu after a tinie, feeling thirsty, I went to it a second 

timo, but the furad cried out, * Leave it, or you are not my son ; 

80 I loft it again ; and then after that, my thirst having inoreiìsed, 

I went to it a third time, npon which the punul cried out, ^ Cut it 

' longthwise with your svvord, or you are not my son,' and I accord- 

^ ingly cut it." The father then asked hini, '* Did you see the 

; scrpent hi it ?" and he replied, ''Yes," ui>on which the father said, 

- ** Qod is most groat !" 

i Al-Kur'&a IM21. 


He states thiit a son oT a BadaWt haViiVg gòrìe on a joùVnoy *n:na j 
Vefoi^éil, the tathér mìil ìo liiiÀ, '' Infortii aie of wlmt yòù àaW oh \ 
^è *Way/* Ho replied, " I iiaw k bird oh 'a hilloctc, àhd a jtu^, 
BÌìid io me, * MaWe it fly àway, òr I am ndt yÒuY fatkor V so I made 
ìt fiy away." The father next asked him, " Wluit next ?'* and he 
replied, '* It alighied oh a treó, upon which the ^^urcul said, / Make 
'tt fly àway, or lara hot yoar father ;' ^ 1 ^id accòrdingiy." ThV 
iBkther thòh àskéà, « Whàt heVt ?" and hfe réi^lièd, " ìt thòh àlightèà 
'«ih à stòhe, hpoh whicli the )urad sàid, ' Tàrh tìiò stohe oVeV, òr I U^ 
ikò\ yòùr father ;' so I did that/' The father thereupòn safd, " Givi 
\ùè my gharò of what yòu fóùhd under ìt." Thére wàà a Iróàisarèì- 
trovo under it whieh hia son had taken, and so the son gave hiih h% 
sbare òf it. 

(Intérprétatlòh of ìt in à dream.) In a dream it ihdicates a 

•bypiocrite, one ivho exhibit^ sùbmissivéhesd oh his part (in rellgión) 

dnring the day, and òommits tinlawf al f^ctiohs at night. Some 'sajr 

that it indicatès a high-way robber, ohe who àmasses mnoh wealtìi 

«nd does nói mix. with anybody. 

M (à^{}arsàr)y^ called also a^-jj?a>*^£r. — A cortaih àmnldll 
liaving in it some resemblance to h lócust, that lòaps and c'reak's with 
a fine soan^l, mostly at night, on which accónnt it is called farràr 
airìail (cricket). It is a specias of handt toardàn and has no wings. 
Some say tliat it is the sanie as al-judjud (cricket), and it has bcen 
already mentioned thàt al-Jàwh*art has given the meanuig óf àf- 
jùJjuil as farrdr aUlàil (cricket). Ib place is ohly known by foUoW'- 
ìng its voice, tts places of habitation are plnces of moistnro, and itla 
colonrs are diversified, some l)cing of a black coìòiìV, some of a blu<9 
èòlour, and some of a red coIóHr. It is aìrjandab (hirge lochst) o1 
'deserts and barreh places. 

(Ijawfnlness or unlawfalness.) It is unlawful to cat it, on 
account of its bcing considcrcdfoul. 

i For«k«l gìweà the naine paritur for the E^yptUii coo'<rouoh — Pclyphtigc 
(Blatto-Forak.) mgjffiiaea. 



(Propcrties.) Avicenna statos that nìixed witli wihl «miwny it 
inolicial in pilos, tromor», and poi.sond of verinin. If ìt l>o lairnt^ 
ibod to a fino powdor, and addod to antìniony, and tlien iised 
oollyrium, it i^lìar{>cl1S the ì*iglit, and if it be used as a epllyriuitt 
with the bile of a cow, it in l>eneficial in a watery running f roiiv 


n- * * o •. 

I (a^^r^ardn). — ^A cortnin wcll-known sniootli fislu 

^ UjuaU (ao-^'ay*) » — A certain sinall bird. PI. fwf. 

.*o « 

ijA^J I (a.j-jS'tt'wa/0- — A certain bird ont of tlie snuiller kind of 
i^rinp birds, with a red head. PI. Aa'ir. Tn Kitàh al-^Ayn 
vA in aUMiihkam they are said to ho small iHU«.serine birdn. 

„ Abnnid relates in Kìtàli az-^Zulul rogarding Malik b. Dlnàr- 

^t he uscd to say, " Thero are likonossos among nìon, an thero- 

varieties aniong birds ; a» a pigoon goes with a pigeon, a 

|fipk with a duck, a ì.a^'w with a pu^Wy and a crow with a crow, so 

tbo.a man goos with onc of bis own kind (likcnesr^).*' 

[ The aiithor boro gives some of the vorses of the Katli Ahniad 
[b.' Muhamniad al-Arnìj&nt. The last two linos in ono of tlie vorses 

go arrangcd that they inay he read backwards witliont altoring 
[the po:^ition of the words or]» 

[ The author thcn qnotos front Ibn- Kb. \s B. D. wbat passed 

itwcon al-^Tmad and tlic K&lt al-F<ldil witli rogsird t<» Kinùlar 

^hra^cs, which can be read backwards without altering wordri or 

mse, and also the linos recitod by al-'fniad while tlioy wero ono day 

>gcther in the eavalcado of the Saltali.] , 


\ AI-^Tniad died on the Ist of l^imadiin 507 A. H. at Dania»cus. 
iid was buried in tlie ccmcter)' of the ^SuRs. Al-Fàdil died on the- 
fth of Kabi* II, 597 A.H. at t*airo and was biiried at the foot oC 

[t. al-MutoUtam. 

It^s hiwfulness or unlawfulness, propcrties, and interpreta tion 
ini a dretun are the sanie as thoso of s^tarrows or passerine birds. 

^1 ( 1 The author gives it ap'!}a^h, whiub in evideiitìy a mUtake. > De Slaae'a. 
\ of IbaKli '« 15.1 >. Voi. I, pp. 130, lUe. • Idem Voi. Ili, p. dvìi. 


158 ad-damìri's 

(Provcrbs.) " Weaker tlian a faUoah^^^ in tho samo way aa is 
«aid, « Weaker than a wa^o/i." 

iij UuaJI (a^^u/dAffoIì), — ^The bird called by the naine of orf- 
tabashiry which has been already described under the lettor ^. 

I (a^^/ar). — ^The Arabs of the Time of Ignorance nsed 
to believe in tho exLstence of a serpent in the belly stieking to 
its ihardstf (cartilages of the ribs), tliat word mcaning the sides of 
the ribs which are over the belly. |t is callcd a^fafar ; when it 
moves, a man becomes hnngry, and it hnrts him when ho is hnngry ; 
it transgresses ; but al-Islftm has cancelled that belief. 

Musliin relates on the authority of J&bir, Abù-Harairah, and 
others that the Prophot said, '^Tiiere are no tnmsmission of a disease 
snch aa mango or scsib from one to another by its own agenoy 
Qadìoa)y no augoration (of good or ovil — ilyarali)^ no owl (of tho dead 
man — Ad/na/i), no sori>ent in tlie belly (^fafar\ and no goblin Ozu/)/' 
The meaning of ^adioh is what one fancios of the transinission of a 
disease, snob as mango and scab and other diseasos, from a porson 
having it to another porson by social interconrso or othor causos. 
It Ì8 related in an anthentic tradition that a Badaw! having said to 
the Prophot, ^^You bave said tluit thoro is no transmission of disease; 
how then, if a mangy carnei gei*) among tho sonnd oncs, tho lattcr 
are fonnd affoctod ?" Tlio Prophet ro}>Iiod, " Who gavo tho disease 
to tho first one ?" Ho romovod from bis mind tho imagination 
abont the transmission of disease (by itsolf) and informod him that it 
18 God who is tho causcr (of it). Under tho lettor ■ in tho art. 

A«« jl , a tradition about a lepor, resembling this one has been 
already given. Tho meaning of al4ìifarah will l>e given heroaftor 
under the lettor -t. As to a^fa/ar^ thoro aro two exphmations 
abont it, one of thcm boing that tho meaning of it is tho i>ost- 
ponoment by tho Arabs (of the Timo of Ignorance) of holding sacrod 
the month of al-Mnharram to tho month of ^afar, boing tho nasi* 
(embolism of a month) which they usod to practiso ; — so lil&lik and 
Abù-Uantfah say. The othor exphination is that it raeans tho 


i^atIt al-hatawìh 159 

uh the Àrabs nsed to have a belief, lu Ims bcen men- 
Tiie Im&tn an-Nawawt statcs tliat tliìa Ì9 Uic corrcct 
poti vhich ftll the tcarncd aro agrccd, and tlmt 
ren it on the anthority ut Jàbir, the rclatcr oE tlie 
dependa npon it. Bnt hoth this and the first oxplnna- 
le, the l>elief in both the fofan bcing a false one and 

f-^ifritl)* — Liktì 'irbiil. AI-Mayd4n! haa copicd from 

to the effectthat itia Bcertain InrdontoE the igitohle 

. It ia said ìn a provcrb, " More cowardiy than a 

et says : — 

Me him lìk« * lioD in the lime of peacr, 

n ft battle he U more cowinllf tbsn t «i/iùf." 

ites that af-ti/rid ia a cortain bird whicit tlio vulgar 

(A. It ia statcd in al-Muraffo,'- that alii'l-malih ìs the 

the partrìdge (al-habj), tlio nightingalc, and a ccrtaìn 

ed af^/ritl, which ia like the sparrow ; it ia included 

I class oE passerine birda. 

(-j?— [The hawk]. Tha bird wìtb which one 
03 game ; — so a)-Jawliar1 says. Ibn-Sidah saya that 

bird that prcys or catches game, out oE the birda ciiUed 
asIi-thaiodMn. Pia. a^^iir, fu^ar, fuk'traìi, /ihàr, 

Sìluiwaih states tlmt I ia added in a plural oF thig 
g atroaa as ìn hu'illak, Vom. fa^rali. Af-rakr ia the 
t<litt ; it ia also uilled al-ltatilin1, ÌU aoltriqiints 
i', ahA'l-adia', aìtii'l'hamrà', oiii-'aH»", aiiit-' ir mi rdn, 

awìstateain Shar(t aUMuJiadhdhab tliat Al>ù-Zaid al- 
irwazt has aaid that ilio birda callcd al-bnx^i, aih-sha- 
liera (like theni), tìiiit proy or hant (gnnio), are callod 
fahr, fem. fakrahy and sahr by oonvorsion oE u* info 
ijtr by convcraion oE tj* into «^ . Aa-Suid:ililnt states 

io 'Omftn tufrid—Crtx pralintU. 

160 AI»-L»AMÌKrB 

|. in Sìuirh al-Mukhtafar that thcro aro thrco variations in tho caso ot 

; ali worJi liaving a u* and a «3 in thoni, as al-lm/tdì:^ biudl^^ and 

!' al-lnisil}^ but Ibn-as-Sikktt dcnics it in tho caso oE tho word bamlty 

i saying that it mcans it. became long or tali ; Gk)d has said, '* And 

\ tho fcill (.c»i5-«lj) p:xlin tcoos," ' that Ì3 to saj-, raised high, 

^ Ahm^d rolutoà in \xu Musnad. ^^ Kabisah has informod ns» 

saying, * Ya^kftb b. ^Abd-ar-Rahniiln b. Muhainmad b. 'Amr b. Abi<» 
*Amr has infonncd us, on tho autliority o£ nl-Mitt(iiIib, \yhp h}id it 

I on tho authority of AbA-Harairah, that tho Prophot said, ^'(The 

prophot) Dàwud wos a vory jcalous man, and thoreEore, whenover 
ho wont ont, ho usod to look up (ali) tho doors of tho house, so that 
nobody could go in to bis people, until ho roturncd. Ho wont oufc 
ono day, and the houso was lockod up («is usuai) ; in the incantiino 
his vrifo, having gone to look after the houso, found a man standing 
in the middle of it. She thcrcfore asked tiiose tluit wero in the 
houso, ^ Whenco did tliis man oater, whiist the house is locked up ? 
Verily, by GoiI, \vo sliall be disgracod V DXwiid thon caine, and^ 
finding the man standhig in the middle of Hie house, asked liim, 
* Who are you ?' upon which he replied, • I am ho \vh:j is not 
afniid of kin;{;4 and is not restrained (from entorin^) by i)iei).ns of 
curtains.' Da\vud thereupon salti, ' Then by GoAy you are the. 
andrei of death. Welcome to the order of God !' Ha thon reiuained 
in his place until his soni was soizod. Whcn his boily was washed 
and shroudcil, and tiie business (of prepariu^ t!)e boily for burial) waS; 
finishcd, the sun shone upon his body ; so, Snlaiinaii said U) tlie birds, 
* Shatlc over l-)?i\vud,' uiwm' which they so imuh sliaded over him, 
that tlic carili became dark to Sulaimàii. He thereupon said to tho. 
birds, ' Draw in j'our Avings, wììì;^ by wing.' " Abù-Hiirairah stated,, 
** The Apostle of God then commencod to show as Iiow tho birds did 
that by contr.ictin;; his band." *' That day the Ihiwks v.ith long wings 


(al^Afadmh\t/uh) ovcrpowerod in shadiug hiiu/' ' " The Imam 
Ahmad is the only ono who has oxtracted this trailition ; bis autho^ 
riiies are exciMlent, and tho men on whos<» auiliorlty it is relatcd 
are trustwortliy. The m(anin>{ of 't^j*ÀJ 1 1 ùX<jì **'* ^^à is that the 

i Al-Rur'Mii \*'h\ 

\ i^ayIt al-qàtaw1k ICl 

l'hftwks with long wings overpowered in ^hading him timi day ; sing« 

'^ma^ralft. Al-Jawliari statcs that it mcan» a hawk luivìny Umy wìnys^ 

^ whicli meaning is rendcred plain and distinct by wliat Walib b. 

^ ilnnabbih has related, naincly, that the Prophct said, *^ The people 

;riuwcinbled round Dàwud's bier and sai in the snn on a hot day ; the 

|4 persona that accompanied bis bier that day wcro fort}^ thonsand nionks 

V with woolen hooded cloalcs over thom, besido other nien, and as they 

J[felt the/ beat, they called out to Sulaiinan to constriict over them 

( a protection (from the san), on account of their suffering f rom the 

t Iiont. Sulaiuì&n thcreupon went out and callcd the birds, wliich 

i liaving answered bis cali, he ordered them to shade over the people* 

} Tliey therefore arranged themselves so dose to one another from ali 

{the sides that ali the wind was cut off, and the people were very 

nearly dying from the sultriness o£ the weather. They therefore 

complaìned to Sulaimàn of the sultriness, ujìcn w-hich he went forth 

and called out to the birds, saying, ' Shade the people only on the 

*nide of the sun and keep away from the side of the wind,' wliich 

they accordingly did, so that the people were in the shade, and the 

win<l also blew over them. That was the first (^vondcrful) thing of 

the kingdom of Sulaimàn they saw." 

(Information.) Ad-Dabbàk and al-Kalbì stolte that Davidi 
ridod, after bis slaying Goliath, for seventy years, that the lìoni- 
InràMl had never been united under one king, excopting under 
David, and that God caused to be united in him the kingW and 
y prophetic oflfices, whìeh were never beforo bis time united in one 
; man, but the kingly office used to bc in one tribe and the prophetic 
\ in another ; that is the meaning of the words of God, " And God 
: gavo him the kingdom and wisdom."' Some say that it means 
\ knowledg" witli action, and that every one that knows and acts may 
I Im wiid to bave wisdom giveu him. Il)n-'Abl)As states that David 
' was the strongest one out of the kings of the earth in .««overeiffntv ; 
I thirty-six thousand men used to watch bis (prayer-^ niche overy 
night. That is the sense convoyod by the words of (ìod, '* And Me 
: utrengtlicnod bis kingdom.*'* Mukatil stafos that S(»Ionu)n \v!i< a 

1 Al-lfur'an 11-252. » Ileni XXXVIfI-l9. 


162 ad-damìr^b 

greater king and more judicious tlmn David, and was thankful 
for the blessings of God, whilst David was more dovotcd to divino 
iforship than he. David died wheu he was a huudred years old ; 
the ago of Solomon when the kingdom carne into his hands was 
thirteen years, and he died when he was fifty-three years of age. 

The hawk is one of the four birds of prey ((iUjawàrihL)y namely, 
the hawk (a^,ra^r), the white falcon (asli'shdh{n\ the eagle (al-^ufiàti)^ 
and the falcon (aZ-&<iz:{); they are also dcscribed as the animals of prey 
(as^sibd^)y the animals trained to hunt (afi'^iodrl)^ and the birds that 
contract their wings hi order to alight (al-kuwàsir). There aro threo 
species of the hawk, namely, the (common) hawk, kawinj^ and 
yu!yu\ The Arabs cali any bird that preys on or seizes game, 
excepting the vulture and the eagle, a ^a^?*, and they cali it also 
alniMar^ al-ajdaly and ul-akht/aL It liolds amoug the birds of proy 
the sanie position that the mule does among beasts, because it en- 
dures fatigue moro patiently, puts up with coarse food and hurt 
more quietly, is more easily tamed, and is more forward in attacking 
ali the birds out of the orane and othors. Its constitution or tempera- 
ment is cooler and moistor than that of ali the birds of prey that 
have been hitherto described, and for this reason it can be trained 
to ohase the gazelle and the bare, and cannot be trained to chase 
birds, for they escapo it. It is quieter in its nature, quicker in 
a^isociatmg with men, and more contentcd than the falcon. It cata 
the flesh of quadrupeds ; and on account of its cold temporament, 
it does not drink water, even if it has to remain a long tnne without 
it, and for that reason it is described to have a stinking and fetid 
mouth. As a naturai characteristic of it, it may be mentioned that 
it does not betake ii^elf to trees or tops of mountains, but dwells in 
caves, caverns, and fissures in mountains. The hawk has two palniii 
to its (two) feet (hands), and so has a boast of prey two palms to itd 
(two) forefeot (liands), because it proventi with their aid anything 
which it has seized (from escuping). 

Tlie first one to hunt with it was al-Hàrith b. Mu^&wiyah b. 
Thawr, and the reason of liis taking to it was that, having one day 
come across a hunter who had pitched bis net for catching sparrows, 


lio saw that a hawk darted down on a sparrow and coinmcnccd to 
cat it. Al-U&rith was surpriscd at it and ordcred it to bo iaken • 
it Xfdè thon placed in a house, and a person to fecd, train, and tcach 
It ohnsing was appointed to look a£tor it. AVhilo one day it was 
with hini, and he was going on, a hare suddonly appeaired, upon 
which the hawk flew to it and seized it. In conseqiicnco of it, 
al-Hàrith's astonishnient increased, and the Arabs adopted it after 
hiin (a3 a bird of chaso). 

l- The socond variety or specics of hawks is al'kawinjy which 
hold:» tlio iuinìo rehitionship to ujt^fiakr ius az-zurrak docs Uì the 
liilcoiì (al-hàzi) ; only that it is hotter (in temperament) than it, 
«nd on that account lighter than it in its wings, and less stinking 
iiuin it ; it catches game ont of the game of wat«r nnd is unnble to 
batch a young gazelle. 

I, The third species is aZ-^a'^u', which the peoplc of Eygpt and 

Syria cali al^jalam^ on occount of the lightncss of its wings and 

thcir quickncss (in iiying), and becausc al-jalam (shears) is a thing 

to cut with. It is a small bird with a short tiiil, and its toinperamont, 

in coinparison with that of the sparrow-hawk (al-biUhak)^ is coki and 

dump, for it is moro patient in its nature and more shiggish in 

its movemcnts ; it does not drink water unlcss compollcd by neccs- 

iity, as the sparrow-hawk does, but it is more stinking than the 

»lKirrow-hawk. Its temperament, in comparison with that of 

the common hawk, is hot and dry, and on that account it is 

boldor than the hawk. It is said that the first onc to train it and to 

liunt with it was Bahràm-gor, and the cause of bis taking to it was 

tlmt, having seeu a yu^jjiC attiicking a lark, then doluding it, 

rising and falling with it, and not Iciiving it, uutil it had sei/.ed it, 

ile was astonishcd with it aiid ordcred it to bo taken; ho thon ti*ained 

t inni chjised with it. An-Nà.shi says, giving a doscription of it : — 

'< A trained and active yu^ìfu^^ 
As thoagh ito two eyes at the tiine of ezumìnatiou were really 
Two carueliau riDg-stoues plaoed in a pouoh/* 

Ib&'NuwAs says descrijitively of it: — 

*'fle (foes out in the morniug, whiìe yet the mora ia iu its darknetM, 
^ Like the edge of the f ali-moon at the time of its setting (retarning) 


164 ad-damìrì's 1 

With a yu^ffH' which wonld pleate him who seea it ; ;| 

Among ya*d*}ft (hawks) there Ì8 no yu*fu' like it ; j 

Of a blue oolour, ita eyes deoeive it not; ^i 

Were a hunter only to see what it aeea, ^ 

He would ranaom it with his mother and parchaae it ; '\ 

That Ì8 wbat Qod haa given na aa a favotir, ''I 

Bleased be God who haa gaided it rìghtly !" .'^ 

(Information in the matter of polite accomplishments.) The] 

Iinèin» the very learned, a(-!INir(&shì relates in Sirdj al-Mulilky oir 

the anthority of al-Fadl b. Marwàn, who said, ^' I asked the am* 

bassador (messenger) of the King of ar-Rùm (the Greeks) 

regarding the condnct of their king, and he replied, ' He haa 

bestowed nnsparingly of his beneficence and drawn his sword, so 

that thehearts (of menj are drawn to him out of desire and ont of fear ; 

the obtainment of gifts has rendered easy (to bear) the grief of an 

exemplary pnnishment ; both hope and fear are tied together in his 

band/ I then asked him, *• How is bis justice ?' and he replied, 

* He redresses grievances, restrains the wrong-doer, and gives every 

one having a right his due ; the subjects are in the two staies of 

liappiness and satisfaction.' I then asked him, ' What is his 

respect (dread) among them P' and he replied, ^ It is pictnred in 

their hearts, and eyes are closed towards him.' The ambassador of 

the King of Abyssinia saw me listening attentively to him and 

paying attention to him ; — ^the ambassadors were in the habit of taking 

their qnarters with me ; — ^he therefore asked his interpreter, * What is 

it that the Rftmì ambassador has been saying ?' and he replied, ' He 

has l)een describing their king and his condnct.' He then spoke 

to his interpreter, who said to me, ' Tlie Abyssiniàn says that their 

king is one possessing patience and moderation when it is in his power 

(to pnnish), forbearance at the time of anger, and power at the time of 

contention f or a victory ; he is ready with a pnnishment when crimes 

are committed ; he has, verily, clothed bis subjects with the goodness 

of his happiness and subdued them with his rigorous pnnishment ; they 

see him like the seeing of the new moon in imagination, and fear him 

with the fear of death as a pnnishment ; his justice is snfEoient for 

them, and his power of snbjagation protects them ; jesting does not 

serve him, nor does nnmindf nlness deceive him ; when he gives, he 

9A.¥tT AIr-9ATAVrÌN 165 

\y, and when he panuihea, he cauees pain. The people 
1, either boping or feariiig ; the hopor in not disappoint- 
, uor is the tearÌDg ono distant From dcstmction.' I ' 
m, ' In what feeling of respect (dread) do they hold 
opliod, * Eyes do not mise (beir lida towar<ls bini, 
ImlU omke tlieir papila follow hiin, aa tbough liis 
lirda over whom aro flnttering cbasìng hawtu.' I 
ITO tbìngs to ul-Ma'mùn, who nakcd mo, * Fad), what 

(price) in yonr estiination ?' npon wliìcli I rcplieii, 
irharns.' He saìd, ' Tbcir toIuo io in; etitiinutìon h 

oE the kbilàfah. Uo not you know the aaying of 
uè oE every man ia wliut be knows." P Do you knoir 
TU or orators that know to dcscrìbe any of tlio rìgbtly 
gnidod regcnts (kbaltfuhs) of God like thi^ Y' I 

He thcn said, ' I order to be giveii to thein two, tweiity 
s nd a» udvanoe, nnd I make a proiiiiue hetweon uiysrlf 
ive Uiein moro) on tbeìr return ; for, wero it not for the 
dm and ita people, I sbouid consider tbo giWng to 
be contenta of the public treasury as ahort of wluit 

I. Murwfln hud adiiiÌniat«rod the oatb of ullegittiioe on 
u'taiitni fto the people) at Bagdùd, \vbile the bitter 

I witli al-Mu'mfin. Al-Mu'tiuim therofore c»lculut«il 
in it and apjminted liim hi» wuzir ; but Iio Ihìohiik: 

II tliu affair;! of tbo sbite, ho Uiiit tlin kbìlàfali wi» 
only in naine and al-Facll'a in reality. It ia rebitiMl 
uviiig one day takuii bia aeut for tlie adiuìniati-ntìon oi 
and the meiiioriab o£ the people baving beeii preseiitcìl 
' among tbein a piece of paper on whiuh were writteu 

kTfl aoted iuordiDAtely like tLe l'husoha, O Ftu}l b. Uarutn* 
vuning i 

jou «ere tA-Ft^l, al-Fxll, nnd al-Fftdl— 
prìnou who hftTe now gone their wajr, 
lom fettera, impriMnment, And murder bave destrofed. 

166 AD-DAlftRi'a 

You bare acted among men tyrannicaHy, 

And vii! hereafter raffer as those ihree before you did/* i 

The writcr meant (l)y the tliroe al-Padl») nl-Fadl b. Yahyà 
al-Bannaki, al-Fadl b. ar-RablS ftnd al-Fadl b. Sahl. Al-Mu- 
*tasim used to order gifts to be given to bis lK)on companiona 
and bis singer, bnt al-Fadl did noi nse to carrj ont tbe order, on 
which account al-Mu'tasim bore rancour against bini and tnmed him 
and the people of bis house away, appoìnting in bis place Muhammad . 
b. ^Abd-al-Malik az-Zayyàt. Al-Fadl was a person of blameworthy 
qnalities ; so when he was tnmed away, the people were rejoiccd 
(over bis fall), so mncb*so that one of tbcm said regarding biin : — 

** Verìly, the soul of al-Fadl b. Marw&n it orying over him, 
For tbere is none known to cry over bim among men. 
He, verìly, befViended tbe world, witliboMing ita good (from othort), 
Bnt haa now paried from ìt, a cruol tyrant. 
Lei bim and ali those like bim go to the fire of Hell ! 
For wbat thins» of bis we miss, are we to grieve ?*' 

Wben al-Mu^taflim tuimed away al-Fadl b. Marw&n, he said, 
" He disobeyed God in bis obedience to me, and God bas therefore 
given ine power over biin." Al-Mu'tasim then took bis wealtb, 
bnt did not do any barm to bis person. Some, bowever, say that he 
took from bis house a million din&rs, and bousebold furniture and 
utensils worth another "million dtnSrs, and impvisonod bim for five 
montbs, after wbich be set bim at liberty. He servcd after tliat 
several otber khalìfabs, and died in 250 A.H. . One of bis sayings 
was, ^^ Oppose not your enemy while he is facing you, for bis facing 
you will aid bim against you, and attack bim not when be bas tnrned 
bis back, for bis tuniing away bas given you wbat would be enough 
for yom in bis case."* 

(Further information, also in the matter of polite accomplish- 
ments.) It bas been already allnded to in the epistle wbich I bave 
given in the art. cK*^-^*, in reference to the saying of Abù'l- 
Hasan *A11 b. ar-Bùml in bis poem in wbich he says : — 

« Bee alBO De Slane's T. of Ibn- Rb.'s B. D. Voi. II, p. 476. t Tbls 
saying may alao be tranalated tbus, ** Do not oppose your enemy in bis state 
of prosperìty, for bis prosperìty will belp bim against you, and do not oppose 
him in bis state of adversity, for bis adversity is enough for you.'* 


9ATÌT àl^pATAWiM 167 

rhU ù AbA'(-$akr, the nniqne one in liii ttndable actiona, 

Jnt of the offiprìng of Shubin, in the place «her« the lote-tree 

and the miraou flouri*h. 
le ia, u if he vere the eun in bis loftj m&nnon 
)Ter meo, and not (mere) fire over a mountain." 

int«ntltj l»j at-ì'urj liìs loEfy jinlacc, niiil ns ho lun 
ri to the Bun, lie Ììoh likencd liis piilace to t)ie mniision (of 
The poet's ohjeet wna to produce somctliìiig more l>6niitiful 
illowing line» of &l-KlianMd' witli ri^gtird io Iier lirotlior 

' Verily, with $afchr, guidance in the rlght direction is pcrfcct. 
Al if he were a mountain on tlie top of wiiich is tiro," 

1 Shams-nd-dtn Hnliatnmiid b. nl-'Iinàd lins said, "I li&ve 
icross tlie biography of AbftV§'*^''> oi' t''^ ''"te *>f bis doniJi- 
r wns ft cousìn of Ma'ii b. Z&'ìiltili nRli'Sliftitmnt, »iid one 
ora oE the nnny of tlio C'oininniider of the fuithfid, .la'far 
Ho Tvna appoiuted to mie ovnr gloriona dopudmcies 
crn mngnifìccnt provinccs, arni liìcd iif^foro the yoar 1 80 
G (tbc father) and hia son ÀbaVSu^t-, wlm U nlludotl to in 
jf Ibn-ar-U&mt in the abovc lines, " In tlio place whorc tlie 
id the mimosa flourìsli," used to live in the <losprt, thosfl 
ì fotind in the desert. ÀbA'ri-Sa^r waa a govenior of Eoinc 
vinccs on bchalf of al-AV&tliik HàrAn b. al-Mu'tiuini nnd 
, bis Bon nl-Muntasir ; he livcd till the reign of nl-Mn<taclid 
of bis son nl-Mu'famid. A roaidonco in Ilio desert is 
Araba tjike a pride in. Tbc fidlowing aro some al hi^ 

Tbe iigblen of a desert-iìre on liigh ground, 

Beoume not townamen, wliilat among townunen there ia no glorv.' 

, scen any other Hnea of hia." 

-^asan b. nr-Kflmi dieil in Bagdild in Jumàd^ I, in the year 
I bat there is a differcnce of opinion with regard to it. Tlio 
a dcntb, nccording to wliat Ibn-Kh. and othera rcbile, was 
mn b. * Ubaid-Altóh, tlie waztr of al-Mn'fadid, U'ing nfrnid 
es, seurotly inatigatcd Ahù-FìrAs, wlio gave him it poisoned 
cat. When he became aware of hìa Iiaving liwii [>oÌsone<I, 

168 AD-DAUÌBÌ'8 

he rose up, npon which the wazlr said, " Whoro are yoii going ? *' 
and he replied, " To the pkce you have sent me to." The vraztr; 
said, " Give my salutation to iny fathcr ;" hnt he replied, " My, 
Avay docs not lio in the direction o£ the firo of Hell." He thon. 
remained (ili) for some days and died. 

(Lawfniness or nnlawfnlness.) It is unkwful to eat the hawk^ 
on account of the general prohibition for eating any animai having 
a canine tooth among the beasta of prey, and any animai having a . 
talon ainong birds. As-Saidalàn! states that there is a difEerence of 
opinion with regard to the definition of the term, the bcasts and 
birds of prey (al-jawdrih)^ some saying that it means any animai 
that wonnds game with a canine tooth or a talon or a claw, and 
others saying that they aro the sanie as proyers (al-haicàsiU). 
Ibn-'Abbfts states that al-jawdrifi are the same as the wild animals 
that hnnt or chaso (ait-^awà^id)^ which definition refci*s to tlio 
meaning of preying (al-kasb). Ali the bcasts and birds of prey 
(al'jatcdrih) aro unlawful with us, on account of the general prohi- 
bition mentioncd above ; but M£lik holds the doctrine of thcir being 
lawfiil, stating that whatcver thero is no Kur'Anic tcxt agaìnst is 
lawful, and one of bis discii>les has gene cvcn beyond it, extending 
lawfniness to the dog, the lion, the Icopard, the bear, the ape, and 
other animals, and has said with rogard to the domestic ass that it is 
(only) disapproved, and with regard to the borse and the mule that 
they are unlawful, arguing on the strength of tlie words of God, 
** Say, * I cannot find in what I ani inspired with anything unlawful 
for the ttister to tasto ; uiiless it bc dead (of itself), or blood that ha.s 
been shed, or the flcsh of swiiic, — for that is a horror^-or an abomi- 
nation that is consecrated to other than God. But he vvlio is forced, 
not wilfully nor transgressing, — thon, verily, thy Lord is forgiving 
and merciful.* '" Ash-Shàfi't has refutod thìs arguinent by saying, 
*^ that is to say, out of such animals as you were in tlie luibit of 
eating," as it (the verse) does not convey the meaning of permission 
with regard to what they were not in the habit of eating and of 
considering as good, in the Sinne mannor as it is not correct that 

Al-Kar*ftn VI-UC. 


PayIt àl-hayawìn 169 

wnU of Qod, " but forbiddeii you ià the game of tlie land wliile 
'0 Oli pilgrimnge,"' apply to wluit was unlawful before, but it ìi^ 
only with regard to such aiiiinals as are generally chased. 

(Pi-overbs.) "More offenaive io tbe odour of tbo iiioutli (akhla/j 

a hawk," the word akhlaf beiug derived froin khtihlf* of the 
,h, whicli ineans au alteration in its odour. In the sanie senso 

B saying of the Prophet, " Verily, the odour of the niouth (Ì:/iwÌm/) 

fasting man is sweeter, in the estiniation of God, than that of 

:." A dispute having occurred between the Shaikh Abii-*Ainr b. 

il&h and the Shaikh *Izz-ad-dJn b. 'Abd-as-Salàm, as to 

lier this sweetness of odour is nieant to he both in this worhl 

the next oiie, or specially only in the next one, the latter said 

it is nieant to he in the next world only, on account of the saying 

le Prophet, according to the version given l)y Muslini, nanicly, 

Hini in whose band the soul of Muhaniniad is, the odour of the 

lì of a fasting person will be sweeter in the estiniation of God 

that of musk, on the Day of Judgment," whilst the Sluiikh 

•*Ainr b. as-Salàh said that it is nieant to be l)oth in this world 

• • • 

he next one, pointing out niany things in support of it. Aniong 
he nientioned what is given in the Musmul of Ibn-Hibl>àu, 
was one of our religions doctors, jurisconsults, and relaters of 
bions, and who states one view in favonr of the opinion of its 
rring on the Day of Jndginent, and another in favour of the 
on of its being in this world, and relates in respect of this latter 
on, giving fimi and authentic authorities, that the Prophet said, 
•ily, the odour of the niouth of a fasting person, wlien it alters 
the worse), is sweeter in the estiniation of God than that of 
." The Imam Abft'l-Hìisan b. Sufyan relates, giving hi« 
►rity as coming from Jàbir, that the Prophet said, " My sect 
)n) liave been given five things in the month of Ranìadan. As 
) second one, when the evening ooines, the odour of tlieir mouths 
the estimation of God sweeter than that of musk." The Imam, 
[ftfid Abù-Bakr as-Sam'àiit lias related it in bis AmM and said 
t is a tradition delivered on respectable authorìty. Evorv one 
) relators of traditions has cloarly exphiined that at the timo 

i Al-Kur'àn 7-97. • TLe autUor ^pells the word aa khiMf. 

170 AD-DAUfRÌ'8 

of the oocarrence of the odoar of the month, its description, namely, 
that it Ì8 sweeter in the estiinatioxi of God ihnn that of musk, la 
confirmed. He (Abù-*Amr) said, "The learned mcn of the east and 
west ha ve ali gìven the stime meaning asl ha ve inentioned in explanation 
of it. Al-Kha^tàbì states that the sweetness of its odour has the mean- 
ing with God, His senso of pleasare or satisfiiction ivith it. Ibn-'Abd- 
al-Barr states that its meaning is that it is in the estimation of God 
more fragrante nearer Him, and more valualile (higher) than the 
odonr of raask. Al-Bagawi states in Sharh as-Siinnah that it means 
an ealogium of the fasting person and satisfaction with his act. The 
Imam al-Kudùri, an imftm of the sect of Abù-Hantfah, has said simi- 
larly in his hook, with regard to the difference of opinion, that the 
meaning of it is that it is more excellentin the estimation of God th*in 
the best of odoars. The Imam, the very learned, al-Bùnì, the author 
of al-Lam^ah and otlier books, and one of the old leaders of the 
Maliki school has (also) said it Tlie Imflm Abft-'Utlimftn ag-S£hùnt> 
Abft-Bakr as-Sam%ii, Abù-Hafs b, as-Saffàr ont of the great imAms 
ofthe Sbafi*! sect in their Amdlt, Abù-Bakr b. al-'Arabl of the 
M&liki sect, and others state the sanie thing. These are the imftms 
of the Miislims in the east and west, and they bave not mentioned 
anything otlier than wliat I h-.ive done, and none of them has givon 
the view of its being specially meant to be in the next worid, thongh 
t^eir books contain ali the welUknown and strange views, and thongh 
tlie version of the tradition, in which mention is made of the Day 
of Jiidgment, is a welUknown one in afi-^'ahlh; but they bave 
(ovidently) decided that it is an expression meaning pleasare or 
satisfaction (on account of the fast) and its acceptance and other 
things like these, ont of those which exist in this world and the next 
one. Às to the reason of the Day of Judgment being mentioned 
in that version, it ìs that that will be the day of recompense, and that 
on that day will be seen the preponderance of the odonr of the 
month over that of mask, which is employed to expel any nnpleasant 
odoar, out of a desire to please G(>d, hoc une it is ordered to shan an 
nnpleasant (abiminable) smeli and to draw (near) a good odour, as 
in mosqnes, at prayers, and otlier devotional observances. For this 
reason, special nioniion is made in the version of the Day of Judg- 
ment, as IH made in the words of God, " Verily, thy Lord upon that 




^ 9A7lT AL-9AYAWÌN 171 

'day is well aware," As to the other (remaining) versions, they 
[may be explained io menn tliat the excellence of fasting exisU in boili 
^Ihe worlds." (End of the statement of the Bhaikh Àbù-^Ainr). 
ÌWhat is necessary to know is timi in ali matters in dispate botween 
[these two shaikhs, tlie correct tliing was what the Sbaikh ^Izz-ad» 
dtn b, 'Abd-as-SaUm stated, excepting in tlio case of this questiona 
in which the correct thing is what the Shaikli Abù-'Ainr b. as-Sulàh 

*' More fetid (aòMar) in the moath or breath tfaan a hawk." A 
[ poet says : — 


l' '* He lias the board of a goal, 

The beak of a Tultare, 

And iho odour of the breath of a lìon, 
r With which is mized the odonr of the breath of a hawk.'' 

' (Proi)erties.) Aveczoar (Ibn-Ziihr) states tliat the hawk hae no 
rgall-bhidder, and thatifa man seizes it, it dies from foar. If its 
I brain be applied locally, it excitea tlio venoroal desire. Abù-Sàrt 

ad*Dailamf states, in ^Ayn al-lhatoà?? composed by himself, that, if 
' the brain of a hawk bo ruhbod over black freckles, they will be 

removed and cleared away, and that if it be rabbcd over the ring- 

worm, it wili be removod. 

(Interpretation of it in a dream.) Ibn-al-Mukrt states that a 
dream about a hawk indicates liononr, power, a victory over eneniiea, 
the accomplislnnent of hopes and the obtainment of position, child- 
ren, sponses, slaves, h»gal conoubines, valuable properly, liealth, 
theexpulsion of griofs and anxieties, tlie sonndness of eyos, and much 
travelling and roturning with great profits. Sometinios it indicates 
death, on acconnt of its chasing animals ; sometimes it indicates a 
prison, tlie act of marking or stamping, and scantiness of food and 
drink. A trained one, in comparison to an untrained (stupid) one, in- 
. dicates an eloquent man, and similarly do ali the birds of prcy, bccanse 
they pass by an animai, break its bones, and tcar its flesh. Whoover 
sees any of these birds of prey not fìghtin;^ wtU obtain a booty. 
Any animai with which one hunts, snch as the dog, tho lynx, and the 
hawk, miy be intorpreto 1 to moan a brave son. Ho who is pursuod 

» Al-Kar'ftn C-ll. 

172 a0-dahìrPb 



(followed) by a hawk will bave a brave man turniDg round against 
him» but if he has a pregnant wife, it indioates fcbat he will bave a brave 
8on. Every one of fcbe birds of prey indicates a male cbild. The 
foUowing 18 one of tlie interpreted dreama : — A man came to Ibn* 
Sirtn and said, ^* I bave dream t that, as if I saw ihat a sbe-pigeon 
aligbted on the topmost parfc of the wall (of the town), and that a 
hawk came there and swallowed it" He roplied, •' If your drean\ 
proves to be correct, al-Hajjàj will marry a daughter of at-Tayyàr."; 
It happened so. 

*-*-^l (aif-^i7/).— A certain kind of serpent against whicbj 

cbarming is of no use. From it is taken (the i)roverb), " Such a \ 
oneisaaeileut (i3^) as a ,fi7/," whioh was the description givenj 
by the Imam al-Haramain of bis disciple Abù'l-Mu4affar Ahroad b. | 
Mulìaminad al-Khawàft. He was a very learned man òut of the ! 
people of Xus, an equal (in learning) of al-ÌJ^iizzàli ; he was wonder- 
f uUy clever in discassing and skilf ul in usiug bitting expressions. \ 
He died in 500 A. H., and be, al-Kiyà al-Harrfisl, and al-^azzàl! i 
were the most importaut ont of the disciplesof the Iin&m al-Haramaiu* i 

vl-AJ I {af'^ulab) — Like fiurad. A certain well-known bird :— 
so it is mentioned in aU^Uhdb. 

gtAAtail {a^^ìUnhàJ). — Like sikintdr. A certain long and 
elender fish ;— so it is mentioned also in al-'Uh&b. 

o * 

J.aLaj I {a^^^uUid). — The sanie us the collared turtle-dove o:\lled 
alr/dkhilah ; — so al-Jawhart and otbers say. AUfàkhitah will be 
described hereaf ter nnder the letter iJ . 

/A.LLaJ| (afi-^anndjah). — AI-Kazwhit states in al-Ashkdl that 
ibcre is no animai larger than this one, and that it is foand in the 
land of Thibet ; this animai builds its den (house) over a space of 
ground a leagne square, and any animai whose sight falls ou it dies 
instantaneonsly, but if its sight falls on otlier animals it dies. Other 
animais know of this peculiari ty, for which reason they present 


IfkYlT AL-9A7AW1k 173 

jftemBelves before it with their eyes closed, so that ita sight inaj fall 
' them and it maj die, for vhen it dies, it lasts as food for them for 
long period. This is one o£ the wonders of creation (existence). 

I (the anthor) Bay that al-Hariri has employed the word 
'i^fanndjah in the forty-sixth Asseinbly, where he says, '* Well 
'Jone, dwarf (nti<{at^7i), singer (jtanndjah) of the anny I '* The 
ioommentator oE bis assenibliea (words) says that anmugaish means a 
dwarf. It is related in a tradition that the Prophet happened to seo 
a dwarf (nugààhi)^ upon which he fell prostrate. The fiannàjdh of 
^the anny is explained to mean the well-known dram {d^ I ). I (the 
|anthor) say that the simile between the drnm and the singer lies in 
l^ihe faotthat men rejoice with (the soand of) it, in the same way that 
men'gathering ronnd a singer do ; a singer istherefore called by that 


^Vame. Al-Uarìri evidently said that of him to give an intensity of 
^v senso. A^'fiannàjah also means a player with a cymbal, an instru* 
£ n^ent of music (play) made of brass, in which one of the pieces is 
^ strnok on the other. 

» Tiie Hafid Ibn-*Abd-al-Barr and others state that the first one 
^.to be inherited in (the time of) al-TsI&m was 'Adt b. Nadhih, and 
that the first one to inherit was Na'mau b. 'Adt. *Adi had proceeded 
for refage to Abyssinia, where he died, and bis son Nu'màn in- 
herited him there. 'Umar appointed Nu'màn as bis officiai over 
pilaisàn, but he did not employ any one bcside him out of bis tribe. 
[a%&n endeavoared to get bis wife to go forth with him, but she 
Irefosed, upon which he wrote to ber the foUowing lines : — 

^ <* Who will commanicate to the beautiful woman {hasnà^ that her hnsband 
Ì8 at Mais&D, 
And is served with wine in a glass cup and a green wine-jar 1 
-p/'i ' If I dedre, the chief meo of the village wonld sing for me, 
*-v'«.. And plajen on cymbals wouid aing in every posaible way. 

If you are my boon companion, serve me (the wine) in a Urge glaas, 
And serve it not to me in a sraall broken cup. 
Perchanco the Commander of the faithful will be displeased with It, 
^' • Namely, our convivial meeting in the demolished palace. " 

\ This having reached the eurs of 'Umar, he wrote to him, " *' In 

•j ^^ 

rthenameof God, themeroiful, the compassionate. H. M. (^). The 

174 ad-damìri'b 

seuding down of the Book froiu God, the mighty, the kuowÌDg, the 
forgiver of sia and accepter oE repenteiice, keeii nt punishment, long 
sufforingi there i;3 no god but He! to whom the jouruey is !*'' I 
Lave heard of yoar words, 

* Perchaaca tlie Comioander of the faitbful will be displeaBed with it, 
Namelj, oar conTivial ineetiDg in the de^nolished pahice. * 

Verily, by God, it has dlspleased me." He then dianiissed hiui 
(froni hU servici), When he went to 'Umar, he said, '^There 
was (really) nothing ont of this, nor was it anything but the excel- 
lence of a verse I had found, nor bave I druuk it (wiue)." 'limar 
replied, '*I believe so, but yoa shall uever serve me as an officiai 
(again)." He then lived in al-Basrah and used to commit raids in 
the company of the Muslims until he died. His verse is eloquent, 
and lexicographers qnote it to show that nadmàn means a pot or 
boon companion {nadim). 

^ •• 

j\yù^\ (af'^'iwdr). — A herd of cows. PI. fttmn. It also means 

a vesiclo of niusk. A poet has given together both the meauingsin 
his lines : — 

" When a herd of oowa preaente itaelf, I remeinber Laiià, 
iknd I remember ber wheu a muak-veaicle givea out ita smeli." 

iM^j^aJì {af'^aioma^ah). — The eagle, so called because it is 
alvrays found in the highest place it cau reach ; — ^so Kurft' says 
in aUMujarrcuL 

u> k*-^ ' (a^-iS'it(i;i).— This word has been alroady given in the 
early part of ihe present letter. 

«M-aJ| {afi'^yd). — ^The word is an infinitive uoun used as a sub- 
stantive, and is employed to denoto any animai that is oaptured or 
caught by the chase, &c. Qod has said, '' ye who believe I kill not 
game while ye are on pilgrimage.*'* Abfi-Talhah al-AnnAri said :— 

'' I am Abù.^altukb, and iny name ia Zaiil, 

** And every day in my weapona therc ia game." 

» AlEnr'An XL-l-S. « Idem V-96. 


« . 

1' . 


9AYÌT AL-9AYAWÌtr 175 

t ì 

f - AI-BukliArt htis dassified f this suliject.) under separate heads in 
l^-lhe first part of the fourth qunrter of Ijis hook, und boa said tliat on» 
K bead refers to the sobject of what Gud bas said, '' Lawful for yon 
KÌ8 the game of the sea, and to eat thereof ( A/«Caì,)."ì *Uuiar bas&taid 
\ that the game of it is what is captured, and tbat the food oiit of it 
^ (A^(a^) is what is tbrown ont. Abù-Bukr bas said tbat aiiy 
[.(sea-) animai floating (on its surface) is lawful. ibn-'Àbbas Las 
[^ laid, ^' The food out of it (a^IaJt) are the dead animals outof it, ex- 
1; oepting such as are seized. The Jews do not eat the eel (al'jin'i)^ bui 
I we do.'* Àbft-Shurai^, a Companion of the Prophet, bas Siiid tLat 
;'. every animai that is in the sea is (ah-ea<ly) lawfully sbiugbtorod. 
**Atu' says, *' As to birds (flying things), I ani of opinion that tbey 
It OQgbt to be lawf uliy slangbtered." Ibn-Juraij said, ^' I asked ^A^fi'» 
*Are the game of the rivers and the animals killed by torrents (<:!» Jl?) 
\' inoluded in the game of the sea ? ' and he replied, ' Yes/ and tben 
[, recited, *' (The two seas are not eqnal :) one is svveet and f rcsb aud 
s pleasant to drink^ and the otber is salt and pungent ; but f rom each 
;doye eat fresh flesb.*'*" Al-Hasan rode on a saddle made of tL» 
: tkins of beavers (wateV-dogs). Ash-Slia4>i said, *' Were my people iiv 
: the habit of eating frogs, I would bave given them as food to tliem.'* 
^ Al-Hasan was of opinion tbat there is no barm in the turile. Ibn- 
: *Abb&s said, *' Eat of the game capturod by a Christian or a Jcw or 
a Magian." Abù'd-Dardà' bas said in the disconrse on the subject 
of al^muiri • tbat the slaugbtering lawfully (fio) of Nvine consistii 

^ in (adding) fish (to it) and (tben exposing it to) the sun. 

The words Ji«»ilts*^ mean the animals tbat are kiUed in a tor- 
^ rent, on account of the saying, ^'Verily, a traveller and bii* goods ar<t 

' In danger of destruction («^Ai)."* As to bis statement about al-mìn^-t 
f lo the end.of what he hsis Siiid, he alludes (by it) to the descriptioii 
l of it as prepared in Syria, namely, tbat wine is taken, and salt and 
^ fiali are placed in it, and it is tben placed in the sun ; the wine is 
^' cbanged iute (a thing of) a bitter tasto, becoming tbus transformed, 


^ , i Al-Kur'&n 7-97. ' Idem XXKV-IS. «A cert&ìn kiud of eondimcnt 
' eaien with food to reuder itpleaaant or sayuury.— Laue's Lex. * Sitid by 
^t'an^Arabof thodesart.— Lane'sLez. art» o^lj , 

i^g ad-damIrì's 

in ihe same manner os it does in ita conditìon as vinegar. He states 
Lt in "e same way as an animai dead (by itselO is unlawfu and 
Tne lawfnlly slanghtered is lawful, «re these tbings. The vrme being 
one '»7*"7 « . j jt jg ,endered lawfnl, the slanghtenng being 
t:fX^ZXr^n^^r^n, (it) lawful. ^.A..« originaily 

ineans splitting (a»A-*fca^*)- 

The proper name of Abù-Sburai^ was Hàni'. apd accordmg to 

1 A.Ìt he was Ibn-Shnraib, ^Wch is only an unagination. In 
"^■^ L^K Z mfid Ibn-' Abd-al-Barr, Shuraili ia said to bave been 
"^^Tcota^on. <Ì the Prophet, and an inhabitant ot al-Hii».. 
one of the Gompanion j traditions on bis 

^'f " J^th of tt m havSg heard him relate traditions on the 
anthon^. ^'aÌ 'Ur ^§iddlkf He said. « Bverything in the sea 
anthontyof Abù-Bakras^iaa «Unghtered for you 

-(*^-^T^ttrS^;has<ÌSinthe^i" AbùVZubair and 
Sb^'Z rrte^ of te 

p't:;het AbUàtim States tbat he was a Oo.npan.on (of the 
Prophet). (al-Kur'àu V-96) 

animals .hich - «-f^ "j; ^^^^^^^^ 
f:lgTV^T^.et astvi; l:^d, "Tbere are five noxious animai s 
Vllav he kUled botli in the state of ih-Am and, 
namely the crow^^tt. J^^t^j^be ^^ ^^^_^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

rZlal aSd lii-RàWaib Uve takei the apparent meaning o 
!h^ WTdH on and do not allow a person in the state ot .M'» to k.ll 
f„; b^ to animala. Malik bas deduced by analogy from a 
^ • n/doir thelion theleopard,thelynx,thewoU,andany(other) 
rapa« oas «^^^ *^^^^^ ^ tUe cat, the fox. and the hyena. 

S;; X a7- in the state of iM^ is not to kiU any of 
JZi shonld ho howevor, do so, he is to pay a penalty for .t. The 
X;rrof analogy (foUoUs of Abù-Hanifah) .tate thnt, .f a bcnst 

. Tki. term i. al«. appUed to alion, « lynx, a «oopard. and * wolf- 
Lane't Ltx. «rt. ^fi*. 


PAyIt ▲l-^ayawìn 


prey firsfc oominenceà io attack a person in the state of ihrdni, he 
f kill it, but ìi he coinmences to attaok it first, he has to pay its 
rice. MajàhiJ aud au-Nakha^ state that a person in the state oE 
i^ràtn is not to kill any of the beasts of prey, nnless it is one out of 
fthoin that aunoys (injures) him. It is confirmed ret^arding Ibn- 
^Umar as having ordered persons in the state of ihrdm to kill serpents, 
itnd the people ara ali agreed on their being permitted to be killed. 
It 18 also confirmed regarding Ibn-^Umar as having permitted the 
killing of the hornet, beoanse it is in the sanie category with regard 
to lawfulaess or anlawfnlness as the scorpion. M&Iik says that the 
killer of them must givo away some food (as alms); and he has also 
•aid similarly with regard to a person killing fleas, flies, ants, and 
other animals of that kind. The followers of analogy state that thero 
is no penalty imposable on a person killing any of ali these animals. 
As to the birds of prey, M&lik states that a person in the stxite of ihrdm 
ìuust not kill them ; if, however, he does so, he must pay a penaltj\ 
Ibn-'A^iyah states that ali animals of a poisonous nature, such as the 
viper, a'T^rutaild^ aud others like them are in the sanie category as 

(Supplemeutary informatiuu.) Abù-Hauifah states that a 
Ihiefs band need not be cut in the case of bis stealiug what is 
originally permissible out of auy game of the land or sen, or in tlie 
case of bis stealiug any bird, but asli-Sb&(i^t, MAIik, Ahmad, 
and the general body of the authorities state that it must be cut, 
if it ìa a gUarded animai and its price is a qunrter diuftr, ou 
account of ali the evidenoe (being in favtiur of tliis view). If 
a persoli in the state of ihrdm slaughters lawfuUy any game, 
it is unlavvful for hiin (to eat it) in the state of ihrdm^ ac- 
Cordiug to a general agreement about it among tho learned. 
But as regards its unlawfulness for otliers, there are tvvo state- 
uients, the modem one, wliich is the correct oue, being thatit is 
unlawful, as in the case of an animai slaughteved by a fire-wor- 
shipper (ìlajAst), according to which it is in the ccmdition ofan 
animai that has died (by itself). The ancien t statement is that 
it 18 hiwful. If a persoli in the state of i(irdm b^-eaks an egg of 
any game or boils it, it is uulawful for bini, but with regard 
to its being uulawful for others, tbere are tvvo view», tlie better 


178 AD-BAUtRt's 

known one of which consista of two statemenfs, the batter knowQ 
of which is that it ia also unlawful. If a Majtksi or fire-worshipper 
brenks it or boils it, it is lawful Ifa person in the state of 
ihrdm milks any game, the case is like that of breaking an egg 
of any game. 

(Side-information.) If a person in the state of ihrdm shouts at 
any game and it dies as the result of his shouting, or if any person 
in the state of /Ardtn shonts at any game in the saored territory 
and it dies as the resalt of it, there are two views regarding 
it, one being that he pays a fine for it, beoaiise he wouid be 
the canse of its death, and the case is a similar one to his shouting 
at a child which dies (as the resuU of it). The Imam aii-Nawawt 
states that this is what is apparent. The seoond view is that he 
bas not to pay any fine, the case being a similar one to shouting 
at a man who has reached the age of pnberty. If he hits aiiy 
game and it happens to fall on any other game or its young ones 
or its eggs, which die as the result of it, he has to pay a fine for 
ali of them, / 

(Side-information.) If a relation of a person in the state of 

ihrdm^ having in his possession any game, dies, be may take, 

aocording to onr religious doctrines, snob a possession of it as to 

be able to dispose of it in any way he likes, excepting by killing 
or destroying it. 

(Side-information.) Ar-Rùyànt states that some say that a 
minor pilgrimage (al-^umrah) in which no game has been killed 
is better than a greater pilgrimage (hijjah) in which game has 
been killed, bnt the truth is that the greater pilgrimage is 
(always) better. 

(Side-information.) The game of the saored territory oE al- 
Madlnah is nnlawfnl, on account of what Muslim has relatedout of 
a trndition of Jàbir, namely, that the Prophet said, "Abraham 
consecrated Makkah, and I bave conseorated al-Madiiiah and 
(declared unlawful) what there is betweeu its two tracts of blaok 
stones. No U^dh tree in it is to be cut, nor any game in it is to be 
killed." Opinione dìffer as to whether or not a fine is to be paid 
in the case of its game, as in the case of the game of Makkah. Ash«'t states in the modem statement that there is no fine for it, 


J f 


9AY1t AL-9AYAWÌN 179 

beoanse itis a plaoe to enter wbich withont being ia the state of 
l iljLrdm Ì8 allowiible ; no fine iieed tlieretore be paid for it, as iu 
the case of the game of (the valley) Wajj of at-T&'if* It is related 
[Ma the Sunanof ul-Baihalkt with authorities of a slemlei* nature 
; that the Prophet aaid, ** The game tif VVajj of at-Tà'if and ita 
V(2(iA trees are aaored and unlawful (to be killed and cut).*' In the 
•nucient statement, ho^ever, itis aaid tiìat the killer of game iu 
the saored territory of al-Madinah and the cutter of ita trees is 
to be despoiled (of bis things), which view an-Na\va\vl has elected 
by way of a proof. Acoording to ihin, the apparent thing is the 
construoti<m put by the imàms, namely, that the despoiling ia 
not to be oouditioual on the killing (destruction) of the game, 
but is to be done tor simply catchiug it(hy the chiise, etc). The 
5. despoiling is to be, acoording to most of the authorities, like the 
despoiUng of a slaiu one cut of the uiibeUevers ; but some say 
thnt he is to be despoiled ouly of bis gannenrs, and others say that 
fi \ ulothes enough to bidè bis nakedness ouly are to be left with 
^\ him, which ia the correct thing acoording to ar-Uaw^ah and 
Sluirh cd-Afiihadhdhab. The clothes are then to be the property of 
the despoiler, but some say that they are to be the property of 
the beggars of al-Madtiiab as a compeusution for the game, and 
others say that they belong to the public treasury. Exceptiou 
is, however, made as regards the payiiient of a fine, in the case 
of snch game as springs upon a persou to attack him, in conse- 
quence of which he kìlls it as a defensive measure. 

(Side-information.) If locuste aro lying uU over the road, 
and thcre is no escape from treading tliem, there is evidently no 
fine to be paid (for them). If an unbeliever enters the sacred 
territory and kills any game, he mn»4t pay a fine, but the Shaikh 
Abft-Ishàk States in a2-i/uAa<{/u2/ta&, '' I am of opinion that itis 
p:)f:sibly not nacessary for him io pay a fine/' An-Na\va\vJ, hi»\v« 
evAr, States in llie commeutary of it that he was the «nily one out 
of the religious doctors to expreas this possibility and to hold 
it AS a view in die niatter ot ita explanation. But Ihn-Kajj, 
wlio lived years b*^fore the auihor ot al'Mnhatllul/uUf^ having <iÌHd 
in the year 404 A. H., has copied it as a vi»*w put f*>rth by our 
religious docKirs, 



180 AD-DAMÌRÌ'8 

(Admonitiona) Euow that, ifany game diea froni two canaes, 
one a permissible one and the otber ao anlawful one, it is unlaw- 
fui, being drawn to tbe side of uulawfulness. lu the aame way, 
if it dies from an arrow and a sbot, or if tbe point (side) of a apeai 
hits it and tbe broad side of an arrow makes a mark on it in ite 
passage, and it dies from tbe two oauseiB, (it is unlawful); atid 
also in tbe same'way, if an arrow is sbot towards it and wouudc 
it wbile it is ou a margin of tbe top of a bou^e, from wbiob jt 
tnmbles down, or tumbles down into a well or into water, or on a 
tree over tbe branobes of wbiob it is dasbed, it is uulawful, 
for it wonld not be kuown from wbiob of the two oauses il 
may baye died. Iti the same way, if auy game falla on tbe edge 
oE a knife or anything else, it is unlawfiiK If an arrow is shol 
and bits any game in tbe air, after wbiob it falla ou th€ 
ground and dies, it is la wful, equally so, wbether it dies befor€ 
reaobing tbe ground or after it, or even if it be not knowo 
wbether ita deatb oocurred before or after ita reaobing tbe ground^ 
for tbere is no esoape for it from falling on the ground ; it may 
be allowed iu the same way as an animai is allowed without beiug 
slaughtered (lawfuUy) when tbere is an exouse for it, and in the 
same way as in tbe oase of any standing game falling on its sid^ 
on account of an arrow bitting it fiut Màlik says that, if it diec 
after reaobing tbe ground, it is not lawful. Tbere is no barm io 
a little flattering or trembling after the hittinis: of an arroWj 
because it is like tbe falh'ng on the ground. If it rolla from a 
mountain from one side to anotber, there is no barm, because it 
is a tbing that does not affect a tbing like that so as to destroy it. 
If an arrow is sbot at any game iu the air so as to break its wing 
without wounding it, and it then falla and dies, it is uulawful, 
because it bas not been wounded so as to cause its death. If the 
wound be a light one, not h'kely to bave any efiect on a thiiig 
like it (tbe game), but snfficient to preveut it the use of its two 
wiugs, and it falla and dies, it is uulawful ; — so the Imam (al-}Iarii« 
main) says. If the game falla from the air after being In't aud 
wounded by an arrow into a well, it requires oonsideratiou ; if 
tbere be any water in tbe well, it is uulawful, and if tbere be uo 
water, it is lawful, for tbe bottom of tbe well is like tbe ground, 


ndition that it ia not dashed agaìost the walta of tha 
game be standing on a tree and an nrrow hits and 
n oonseqaenoe of whioh it falla on the ground, it ia 
it falla (first) on a branoti or branches and then on 
it ia noi lawfnl. The duliing sgainat branches or 
r of a mouutaiu at tbfi tiine of ita falling from the 
e ita dHahing on the ground, for the fonner ia noi a 
ing, nor doea it reioatly ooour, whiliit there is so 
be iatter, TUe ImAm Uaa given Itro poasìbilitiea on 
m aooonnt of the freqnent altghting of birda on 
air daabing against the aidea of n mountain, if the 
lie mouotaiii. If an nqaatio bìrd beahot, ìt reqntrea 
; if it be on the nurfaue ut water, and bd arrow hita 
t, in flonsequenoe of wliioli it diea, it ia lawful, as tlia 
t like the gronnd (in the oaae of other birda), but 
' water, and theu falla iiito it after baìog hit by aa 

are tvo riawa (regardiug it) mentiooed in al-ffùiot^ 
lat it il uttlawful, for (fulling iuto) water after ita 
tsd wonld lead to ita death (destruotion), and the 
hit it ia lawfnl, fur water doea uot oanae it to be 
it moatlj doea not purt from water, and ita falliu^ 

therefore hke the falling of otliera on the ground, 
8 more weighty, It la meutioued ìii at-Tahtlhib that 
Ì8 in the air over the aea, ìt reqniree ooneideratioit ; 
r (of it) ia on Und, it ia not lawfnl, but if he ia on the 
ni. If the bìrd ia uat of water and then falla into 
; hit b; an arroM, there are two viewa regardiug ila 
À.l-Bagawl in at- Taltdktb and the ShaJkh Abft-Muham- 
ildUafar liave deoided it to be lawfnl. Ali that whioh 
ed ia witb regard to oases in whioh the game ii not 
the wonnd into the oonditioa of a lawfnlly alanght- 
bnt if it be eo wounded aa to ont open ita wiudpipe or 

other thiog, ita lawfalaesa ia oomplete, and it does 
wliat happens (to it) after thab If the game be 
luoli a way that the wound doea uot kill it (outrìgbt)* 
sarà and ia fouod dead afterwsrdH, some aay that it 
1 othera aay ia uot lawful, uf which the furmer 

182 ad-dauìrì'b 


ia the oorreot opioion, provided that it ìs converted jbj means of ^ 
tlìat wonnd into the state of a lawfully slaoghtered' animai and /^ 
there is no mark (on ita body) in oonsequeuce of ita diaHppearauoe, i 
for, if it 18 not converted ìnto the oouditiou of a lawfally slauglit» ;j 
ered animai (by the wound) and ìs fouud in water, or there ie a ' 
mark (on it) of ita daahing (against a thing), or auother wound . 
Ì8 found on it, it ia not lawful. Àooording to onr religioos doctors, 
there are three ways (of looking at it), one of whiph is that there 
are two statements regarding its lawfalness, the better koown of 
which is what the aothor oi ai-TalidlAb has given, namely, that it 
ìs lawfnl, whilst the people of al-'IrAk and others are more in* 
clined towards ite nnlawfulness ; tlie seooud way ìs that it ìs ab* 
solntely lawfol ; and the thìrd one is that ìt is absolutely un- 
lawful. Abù-Hanlfah states that, if one foUowa it ìmmediately 
after shooting it and finds it dead, it ià lawful, but if he waits for 
a short tìroe and then foUows it, it is not lawful. It ìs related on 
the authorìty of Màlik that, if he finds it on land it is lawful» 
otherwise not An-Nawawl and al-Q^azzàll bave ookifirmed its 
lawfulness, on account of the traditiòns that bave been reoeived 
on the subject. 

If one shoots without any expectatiou or thought or iutention 
of getting any game, for instance, if he shoots an arrow in the air 
or in an open place or against a butt, which, ooming across any 
game, hìts and kills it, there are two viewa with regard to its law* 
falnees, the correct one, which is also the one explicitly declared 
(by ash-Sh&fii), being that it ìs not lawful, because it was not bis 
intention to get the game either expressly or doubtfuUy ; an ana- 
logous instance to this wouid be any game falling iuto a net and 
being killed by an iron instrument or thing in ìt. A distinctiou 
has to be made between suoh caaes and a case in which a man 
thìnks a certain thing (which is really game) to be clolh (and 
shoots at it); bere there is an express inteutiou in it ; and so also,. 
if he shoots at what he thìnks to be a stono, but which ìs really 
game, and kìlls ìt^ ìt is lawful. And in the same way, if he thìnks 
that a certain thing is an inedible game, and ìt turns cut to be an 
edible game, (it is lawful), because bere he intends (to kill) a thing 


9atIt al-9ataw1h 


,^Hie sarae kiud. Tliis ia analogìoally deduced from the foUowitig: 

itanoe: — If one baa two goatfl or slieap aud slaaglitera lawfully 

of them^ thinking it. to be the otlier, (it is lawfol). In a^- 

Ihib and other booke, the view that it ìs not lawful ìb given^ 

^oatiae it waa not bis intontiou ko get the game; — bo Màlik aaya, 

«' If one raiaea a knife or a aliarp ìron inatrument, or if there 
iappona to be in hia band a aharp iron inatruroent, and it bappens 
[io fall on the tbroat of a goat or abeep and to alanghtei it, it ia nn- 
lawful, beoauae be will not bave alaoghtered it, nor ia it bia in- 
[tention to do ao, and wbat he obtains ia aimply tbrongb an aot 
[of the goat or aheep, or witbout an aot of cboioe. It ia aaid in a<- 
[Tahdhib and otber booka that, acoordiiig to Abù-Iahallc, the goat 
oraheep in the inatanoe of a knife falling (aooìdentally) over it, is 
Jawful, and that there ia no donbt that game cornea under tbe aame 
'Oategnry. In the aame way, if one haa a aharp iron instrumeut in 
ibia lìand, wbìoh be ia ahaking aboat, and a goat or abeep bappens 
.at the game tiroe to rub ita throat over it, wliereby ita windpipe 
'and gnllet are cut by tlie doublé raotion, it ia unlawful, for ita 
death will have occurred through the oonjoint action of tbe 
alaugbterer and tbe beaat. The K&dt Abù-Sa^td al-Hara¥rt atates 
in al'Lubàb that if a bliud man aboota any game, being directed 
ptoitbyaman with aound aight, aooording to our religioua doc- 
triuea it is not lawful. 

(Side-information.) In the mattar of more than one person be* 
ing engaged in the chase ofgame.^ It has soveral phases, one oE 
which is that, if any game receives consecatìvely two wounda from 
two men, the -first one ont of them may be either acute (quickly 
despatching) or chronic, or neither acute nor chronic. It it be neitber 
acute nor chronic, it (the game) is not lawful and is in a condition to 
be abstained from. If the (second) wound be either an acute or a 
chronic one, the game would belong to the second person, and there 
would be no penalty on the first one for the wound inflicted 
by him. If the wound caused by the first person bo an 
acuto one, the game would belong to bim, and the second one 
would have to pay a fino for what may be wanting in its flash 

1 ^\jlAi ìj^^ùjìlì Ut. a eroìod ^nd company. 

i* 5 ; 

184 AD*DAM}Rt'8 

and skin. I( the womid caufled by the first one he a ohronio one, thi 
game ia to belong to hhn, and as regards the second one» the matt 
reqntres consideration. If the first one wonnds it acntely in anch' 
vfBj as to cnt ita windpipe and gnllet, it ia lawfnl, and the aecon 
pers5n haa to pay the difforence of its price between its conditioi 
aa a lawfnlly slanghtered animai and ita condition oa a chroni 
cally wonnded animai. The Imam (al-Haramain) statea, ''Thè' 
distinction would become apparent, (if we considèr) in the event of . 
ihere being settled life in it, whether it ia aafe f rom death, or it ia !n^ 
a condition in which, (even) if it he not alanghtered it wonld die ; I ami 
of opinion that it doea not become ii^anting in anything ont of it by| 
its being alanghtered." If the aecond peraon wonnda it acntelyi^ 
bnt not in anch a way aa to cnt ita windpipe and gollet, or if he doea ' 
not wound it acntely, and it dica in conaeqnence of the two wonnda, -. 
it ia in tlie state of a dead animai, and it ia therefore. obligatory on 
the aecond peraon to pay the price of the game aa alanghtered game. ; 
It is said in Kkdb at'TaJidhtb that some aay that it ia aniilogona to the ' 
case of one wonnding. hia alavo and another peraon also wounding him, 
the alavo dying from the twp wonnda, which is regnlated by the 
mie that, in the event of a stranger wonnding a slave, bis price is to 
he reckoned aa ten (parta), and if another peraon (also) wonnds the 
slave and ho dies, there are several views regarding it. Al-Mnzant 
States that each of them is bonnd to pay a mnlct for the wonnd in- 
flicted by him, and that the remainder of the price (of the slave) is 
to be recovered in two eqnal shares (halves) from each of them ; bnt 
some say that each one is bonnd to pay half the price of the slave on 
the day of wonnding him ; whilst Ibn-Khayràn states that the 
price is to be detemiined by adding together bis price on the day of 
bis receiving the first wonnd, which is ten (parts), and bis price on 
the day of bis receiving the second wonnd, which is nino (parts), 
ihns making np a total of nineteen parts, ont of which ten are io 
be against the first person and nino against the second one. AU 
KaflE&l states that half the mnlct of the wonnd inflicted by each one 
of them is to be against him, and that the remainder of bis price as 
one (a slave) having two wonnds is to be divided iute two halves 
(against each of them). 




&jiothcr phose (way) of it is thai, if tho first persoti doos not 

:o the game alive, ita price as acntcly woanded game is to bo 

the second person, bat if ho overtakea it and does not 

(ter it lawfnlly, the fine for wounding it only is to be against 

md person according to one view, and according to another 

its price as acutely wonnded game is to be against him. TE 

persons shoot at it and both hit it at the samo timo and kill it, 

dongs to both of them. If one of thcm hiis it acutely and the 

ler one hits it in the slanghtering place, and it is not known 

lieh of them was the first one to wouhd it, and each of theni 

[ni8 that he was the first one to wonnd it acutely, they ought to 

an oath, and it will then belong to hotìi of them, on account of 

possibility of the priority of the acute wound ; but if one of 

im is the desiiatcher (of the game) but has not hit it in the place 

'slaughtering, the game is unlawful. 

(Side-information.) Know that whoever capturcs game bear* 
a mark of possession (on it), such as l>eing branded with a mark, 
(r adorned with ear-rings, or dycd, or clippcd in its wings, cannot 
ike possession of it, because these marks show that it is already 
[possessed property and has probably got loose. There is no necessity 
'òf taking into consideration the possibility that he (tho possessor) 
may bave captured it in the state of tArdm, and after doing that 
'(putting a mark on it) may bave let it loose, for such a possibility is 
« distant one. 

(Side-information.) If any game be cut Icngthwise into two 
lalves, the whole of it is lawful. If, however, one of the mcmbcrs 
[)of its body becomes separated from it and it dies in conscqucnce of 
it after a timo but before slaughtering it, the separated or divided 
momber is lawful, according to one of the two viows (on the subject), 
«s it would be in the event of the game dying immediately on that 
fiocov^ntf If it be overtaken alive and slaughtered lawfuUy, the 
originai (game) is lawful, but not tho separated portion. If any 
game dies by the weight of the beast or bird of prey that catches it 
{al'jàrihaJi)y it is not unlawful according to one of the statemcnis^ 
the weight of it being (thus) different from that of an arrow. 

.; -.1 




(Side-information.) Aiiy game may beooine one's property in 
severa! ways, — ^by falling into liis hands, or by being wounded, or by 
its inability to fly or ran, or by being caught in a net spread out for 
that parpose. If a net falla from bis band (bim) and any game beoomes^ 
attacbed to it» there are two views regarding it, and so also with 
regard to fowlera' snares and nooses wbich are set up, other snares^ 
and other things like those. 

(Side-information.) If one catcbes a fish and finds in its belly 
a bored pearl, tbe bitter is (only) a picked tbing (luktah) ; but if it 
be not bored, it belongs to bim togetber ¥rith the fish. If one bays 
a fish and finds in its belly an nnbored pearl, the latter belongs to 
him, bnt if it be a bòred one, it belongs to the seller (of the fish), if 
he claims it ; — so itis given in at-Talulhibìn au nnrostricted way ; but 
it is apparent that it may be said that the pearl belongs to the person 
-who catcbes the fisli, as in the case of a treasure-trove found in the 
ground, which belongs to the remover of the earth (from. over it). 

(End.) If one lets any game loose and leaves it to itself , does 
bis right of possession of it cease ? There are two views, the more 
apparent one being that it does not cease ; but it is not allowable for 
him to act thus, because it would be an act of the Time of Ignorance, 
namely, of setting at liberty animals (as'SawdHb) on account of vows, 
whilst it is due to it that it ought to be protected. The subject of 
as'sd^fftah will be treated of hereafter under the latter ei « and that 
of chasing with a dog and a t)east or bird of prey will be treated 
of under the letter v^. If the game escapes from bis hand, he does 
not lose bis right of ownership ; if any one takes it, be is bound te 
return it to the first person, and there is no difEerence whether il 
goes and joins the wild animals in the desert, or goes away at a dis- 
tance from houses, or roams about in the town or round about it. 
Mftlik says that so long as it is in the town or round about it, hi£ 
right of ownership does not cease, but when it joins the wild ani« 
mais, bis right of ownership ceases, and whoever takes it (aftei 
that) has a right to (keep) it. It is stated on bis (Màlik's) authorit} 
that, if a long time elapses, bis right to it ceases, but if it be soor 
(after losing it), bis right to it does not cease. It is (also) said on 
his authority that bis right of ownership ceases absolutely by iti 


9ATÌT al-9ayawIk 


mÀ • 

^(iSng. Aooording io us it is a case analogous to tlie ruiiiiiiig 
j of a slave or a Ideasi. 

:' (Sapplementary infonnation.) If any game becoiiies covered 
with mire in a field and is cauglit, there are two views regard- 
it| tlie oorrect one being that there is no righi o£ ownership of it,. 
oso in watering the land it was not the intention to catch 
e, whiist intention govems the right of possession. If one enters- 

jgarden of anotlier person and catches a bird in it, he hns an 

Iute right of ownership to it, and the owner of the garden has 

right as to a thing restrained, for a garden docs not include a 

bt over birds. How beautifully has a ]x>et said : — 

" Some men come io be in a state of adversity, and others through them 

come io be in the same siate, 
Whiist Qod canses some people to be prosperoos through other people. 
A man's means of sustenance are not obtAÌned through the excelleuce 

of bis own plans, 
Bui rank and poùtion are obtaiued ihrongh fortune and luck, 
In the same manner as a skilf ul archer misses (bis aim at) game, 
Whiist one who is not an archer shoots (at it) and gets it." 

(Information.) [The author here quotes, from the History of 
bn-Kh., the account of the complaint niade against al-Fadl b. Yahyà, 
ben he was govemor of al-Khnr&sàn, to ar-Rushld, and the letter 
yrittcn by the lattcr to him.] * 

It is said that al-Fadl went one day to sec bis fathcr Yahyà 
itlì a proud and self-conceited gait, inclining bis liody from side to 
[le, which Yaliyà did not like on bis pari. He therefore feuiid, 
Tlie wise bave said, * Miserliness and ignorance with bnmilìty are 
greater adornment for a man than generosity and learning witb 
ride.* How wonderful it is for a good action to cover (bidè) two 
bad actions, and how wonderful for a bad action to cover two 
good actions I " 

Wben al-Fadl and Yahyà were in prison, the superintendont of 
the prison one day happened to bear them laugh excessively ; he 
therefore informed ar-Rashtd abont it, who thereupon soni Masrùr 
tò inquire about it. He went to them and askod them (about it). 

'* » Ut iiUiie's T. of Ibn-Eh.'a B. D. Yol. II, p. 460. 


Miying, " The Commander of the faithfnl asks you, * What is thU 
contempi of my dùspleasore ? ' ** They then langhed more than before, 
lind Yahyà replied, " We desired to eat some siklxìj * and theref ore 
managed to pnrchase a pot, some meat, vinegar, and other things ; when 
we had finished cooking and preparing it, al-Fadl went to take down ' 
the poi (from the fire), when the bottom o£ the pot fell down, which 
<cansed us to laugh and to be astonished at the comparison of the 
state in which we were with the one to which we are (now) rednced.'^ 
When Masrùr informed ar-Rashld about it, he cried and ordered a ' 
table of food to be served to them every day, and also ordered a man ^ 
ont of thoae in whose company they nsed to bo happy to visit tliem 
every day, to take bis moming meal with them, to talk with them, 
and then to go away. * . • 

[The anthor bere gives an instance of al-Fadl's dntifulness to \ 
hia father, namely, tliat of placing the ewer of water on bis stomach ] 
to warm it so as to enable bis father to bave warm water.]* ^ 

Ta^yà died in prison in the year 193 A. H. (190 A. H. — j 
Ibn-Kh.), and when ar-Rashid board of bis death, he said, ^' My fate | 
is near bis (in timo) ;" he died five months after bim. 

^*A^ I (jXfi-^aidaJì) — ^A borse strong in neighing. Al-Jawharl 
«iatcs that a^^atc/a/ft is the male of theowl. Its name is derived 
from its cry, for it means crying out. A poet says : — 

M My pusioQ of lo?e is exoited, if a dasky ooloared doTe, 
"With 1» ring round its neck, that cries out (^ duai) early in the moming^ 

Al-Jfthij states that the owl and ali other noctnrnal birds do 
aiot cease crying out at the timo of early dawn. Saidah was also 
the name of the she-camel of Dhu'r-Rammab, wbo says in praise of 
Bilàl b. Abt-Bnrdah b. Abi-Mùsà al-Ash'ari :— 
** I saw meu aaking rain for food, 
Bnt I aaid to $aidati» ' Ask BilAl for forage.' '* 

These lines bave already been given before in the art. UjHI . 

1 A disk made of meat^ wheat-flonr, and yinegar. * Tkis inoident is 
gìren brìefly and alighUy differently in De Siane'» T. of Ibn-Kh.'« B. D. Voi. IV, 
p. lU. • Idem Voi. II, p. 467. 

hatIt al-hayaw1n 189 

^o>f<AJ t (af-^ùlan). — The fox, M'iiich has been alrcady dcscribed 

bnder the lotter «^ • Af-^ulan also means a king. 

h %-ìUaÌ^^ I (af'iiaulaadnty — ^A certaiii sinall animai that makc:» 
ita dwelling inside the earth and conceais it f roin men. 


r j^ I (a^ jSSr). — [Anchovy.] * Certain sinall fish of which the 

r >• * 

condiments called jfihnàli* and murrt are prepared. Thoro are some 
fwho oxplain a^^^tr to be the condiment fiihndh (itsolf). 

: . It is related in the Sunan of al-Baihaki, in the chaptor in wliich 
ihe subject of eating locnsts ia given, regarding Wahb b. ^Abd-Allàh 
!al-Mugàfirt, that he and ^Abd-All&h b. 'Umar having paid a visit to 
[Zainab, the daughter of the Apostle of God, she phiced beforc them 
flocusts f ried in olarified butter and said, *^ Egyptian, cat out of 
^this ; perhaps you like a^fitr botter than it." He said, " I said,. 
l* AVe are certainly very fond of a^-fiir.^ " 

;; It is rehited in a tradition that a man having with him some 
( /(r having passed by Salim b. 'Abd-Allfth, the latter tast^d some of 
it and asked him, *'How do yoa soli it ?*' The meaning of it in the 
tradition is the condiment fihndh. Jarir says satirizing a tribc : — 

^ ^ When onioD waa added to their sir^ 

And then the aalted kan^ad* fish was roasted, they uaed to row." 

Al-Jawhari states that its meaning in the tradition is the condi- 

! mont fiifyndh either with the prolonged or short t . It is related that 

a man having asked al-Hasan regarding a^^hndh, he said, ^' Do the 

Mnslims eat a^-^hndh ?'' It is the samo as is called a^-filr^ both the 

vrords being non-Arabie. 

t Thi8 is the name applied to it in Efcjpt. It ìa called ia «Omftn haniyah 
when freah and kdshu^ when drìed, — EngrauìU comnienotiianut. In the Red 
Sta and al-Yaman ìt ia called halam — J^ngmuìit hotlama (Olupea bcdama of 
Forak.), in al-Hljàz ìnaUU, and in Muktìla' watuf. t Io ' Oman M'tkUjmdh ; it 
ÌB prepared bj removini; the heads of the dried ilah, then poiiuding the liah and 
mixing with it the powder of red chilies and the juice of freah ìimea or 
pounded dried limea. • The skirmàht fiub— •6'yòm/ii commerionìù 

I I 


190 ab-damìri's j 

j (Properties.) Jabrìl b. Bakhtyishù' says that Ihe condimentj 

I' yihnàkìa made froin spic68 ; it drìes the stomach of its dampness; 

and moistare, preventing the forination of gas. It rendere the smeli : 
j of the breath pleasant, and is beneficiai in pain of the hip arìsing 

t from phlegm, and the stinging of Acorpions, if it be applied (over 

I the part). 

9AT1t AL-f ayawan 191 


^l^jl (afl'Pa*n). — [Sheep.] Sudi aniinals o{ the ganam kìnd 
(shcep and goats) as bave wool. It is the pi. of ffa'in ; fem. 
Hnahy and pi. 4^w(Vin. Some say that it is itself the plural, and 
tlìat it has no singnlar. Others Htiy that its plural is fià*in like 

^/a6</, pi. ^aM(L 

. (Information.) God has said, " Eight pairs, — of sheep two, 

ànd of goats two ; say, ^ Are the two males unlawful or the two 

(emales, or what the wombs of the two females contain ? inforni me 

with knowledge if ye teli the truth.' " ^ The people of the Time of 

Jgnorance nsed to say, ^^ ^ These cattle and tilth are inviolable ; '* and 

f^ What is in the wombs of these cattle belongs exclusively to our mcn 

|ind is unlawful f or ourwives.'"* They also held that ashe-camel 

g|or a sbe-goat set at liberty (al'hahirah)^^ a camel set at liberty on 

f account of a vow {as-$d*ibah)^* a she-camel or a ewe or a sbe-goat set at 

^liberty (ai-wni^t/a/i),* and a stallion-camel set at liberty (al-lidmiy^^ to 

|be unlawful or forbiddcn (for use), and uscd to consider some of tbcm 

r!' unlawful for women. But whcn al-Islàm and its institutions bccamo 

Y éstablished, they disputed with the Prophct, and the foreman of tlioso 



that disputed was Màlik b. 'Awf b. al-Ahwas al-Jushami, who said, 
|<< Muhammad, you declare to be unlawful things which our fathers 
1 ùscd to do/' The Apostle of God replied, " You certainly held 
icertain kinds of goats and sheep to be imlawful without aiiy ground, 
f whilst God has created these five pairs for the purposes of eating and 
^ deriving profit from tliem. Whence is this unl^wfulness then ? Is 
i'it on account of the animai being a male or on account of its being a 
^' temale ?" Màlik thercupon remained silcnt and puzzled and did 
Jnot speak ; so the Prophot asked him, " Why do not you spoak ? 
; upon which M&lik said, " Nay, speak, and I shall listen to you. 
K Had he said that the imlawfulness was on account of its being male, 

1 Al-Kur»àn VI— 144. • Idem VI— 139. » Idem VI--140. ♦ For an 
l eiplanAtion of these t^rma Bee Lana'a Lex. 


192 ad-damìbi'b 

it wonld havebeen necossary to hold ali the male» unlawEal, and had he 
said that the unlawfuliiedd waa due to its» being fetnale, it would have 
beon necessary to hold ali tho feiualos unlawf ul, and liad he said that 
it was dae to its being contained in a \vonìb, it would bave boen necea- 
sary to hold ali nnlawful, for the woinb holds both inales and females, 
As to the specif ying of the fifth or the seventh young one as unlawful 
or holding some of thein as unlawful and not others, whencc 

was it derived? The vowel-niark of inflexion in ^^jjt ^it^Ui (eighl 
ones of pairs) is VLfathah^ on account of its standing as a substitute foi 

éJj^s^ (to ride on and to carry loads on) and ^/i (to spread when 
slaughtered) (in the preceding verse), that is to say, Ho (God] 
created of cattle eight in pairs, that is to say, sorts, — ont of shee; 
two, namely, the male and the female, the male being one (ol 
the species — ^^atr;), and the female one. TheArabs cali, one zawj 
if it cannot be separated froin the other. The subjects of aUbahirak 
ai-sdUbah^ al^ìoafilah^ and aUfidmi will be treated of hereafter undei 
the letter u in the art. ^«àJI. 

Qod h'is bestowed a blessing on this species (of animals) 
namely, slieep and goats ; they give birth to young ones once ( 
year, and as many as it pleases God are esiten out of them, anc 
yet the surface of the earth is filled with them^ which state h 
opposed to the case of the animals of prey, for they give birtli t* 
young ones both in wìnter and suinmer, and yet only one of theii 
nt a tiAie is seen in the distsuit parts of the earth. À proverl 
expressive of the softness of their skins in einploycd, on account ol 
what al-Baihakt and at-Tirmidbì have related oa the authority ol 
Abù-Hurairah, namoly^ that tlie Prophet said, ^^Àt the end o 
timo, there will be men who will deludo ( ìì}j^^ ) the world in th< 
name of religion and whose tongues will be sweeter than honey 
bnt whose hearts will be the hearts of wolves," In one version it i: 
said, '^ whose hetirts will be bitterer than aloes, who will put on foi 
luen the skins of shoep in softness, and who will purchase the worli 
at the expense of their religion. Qod will (then) say, ' Do thej 
deceive in my name, aud do tiiey embolden themselves against me ! 
I have swom by myself that I shall, verily, prepare for them sud 
a trial as will leave the humblest of them confused.' '' 

'' 9AYÌT al-payaw1n 193 

0oncealed Uself io tehe tlie pretf. 

X* Tliere is an opposition of uature bctween goats and sheep ; they 
lOogbfc noi tberefore to be bronght togeiber for tbe purpose of 
jleaping. As a wonderEul pari of iheir nature, it maj be mentioned 
timi tbey may Bée an elepbani and a buffalo, and, notwitbstanding the 
largenesfl oF their bodies, may not be afraid of tbem, bui ìf they see a 
\ Wolf, they are ovèrtaken by great f eàr, on account of an object Qod 
;bas created in their' nature. A ^onderfnl thing in connection with 

• them is that a great nnmber of ewes and sbe-goats may givo birth 
, to young ones during a night, and in the moming the pastor may 
f drive the dama out to pasture, returning with them in the evening, 
il when be leaves tbem and the kids and himbs together, upon which 

every one of the kids and lambs goes to its (proper) dam. 

A variety of sheep is imported front India in ii^hich there is a 

iutnp of fat on the chest, two lumps on the two shouldérs, two Inmps 

: on the two thighs, and a lump on the tail. The lump of fat on the 

tail of a sheep may become so large as to prevent it f rem walking. If 

goiits and sheep leap at the timo of the falling of rain, the fctnales 

do not conceive ; if they do so when the northerly wind is blowing, 

the young ones are males, and if Hiey do that when the southerly 

. wind is blowing, the young ones are females. If sheep graze on 

; plants, the latter will grow again, but if goats graze on them, they 

will not grow again. The Arabs cali the sheàring of (th^ wool of) 

; sheep jazz and thè shearing of (the bair of) goats hallt' 

(Lawfulness or unlawf ulness.) They are lawful according to ali* 

\ (Proverbs.) "More ignorant tlian a pastor of sheep." "More 

stupid than a pastor of eighty sheep." "More foolish tban one 
seeking eighty sheep." Thìs is so employed, because sheep run away 
from everything, necessitating their pastor's collecting them together 
un every occasion'. It is »iid in a^fSahàhy ** More foolish than the 

• asker for eighty sheep."^ The origin of it is that a Badaw! having 
given some good news to Kasrà whieh pleused him, he said, "Ask 
me for whatever you wi«h,**^ upon which the Budawi replied, "I 
ask you for eighty sheepr" Ibn^Khfilawaih states that a man having 
sntisfied some want òE the Prophet, the. latter said to binnv "Come 
to me in al-Madtnah." The man tberefore went tO' him, and ììt^ 



Apostle of Qod asked him, '' Wbich of the two wonld yoa lik 

better, — eighty sheep or ihat I shoold pray io God io ask Him t 

place yoo with me in Paradise ? " The Badawi replied, " Tee 

eighty sheep/' whereupon the Prophet aaid, *^ Qive them to hirr 

Moses' woman was wiser than yon, which incident occarred thi 

way: — ^An old woman having pointed to Moses the place wher 

the bones of Joseph were deposited, he asked her, 'Which of th 

two wonld yon like better, — that I should ask God that yoa may b 

allowed to he with me in Paradise or a hnndred sheep (or goats) ? 

She replied» 'Paradise.'" Ibn-Hibbàn haa related this traditici] 

and al-Hàkim has related it in ahMuitadrak with a little variaiioi 

in it. Al-Hftkim states that it is antbentic in ita anthorities. It ii 

related on the anthority of Abù-Mùsà al-Ash'arl, who said tha 

while the Prophet was dividing the plunder obtained from the trìbi 

of UawAzim at Hnnain, one of the men stood np before him anc 

said, '* Ton owe me a promise, Apostle of God ;" upon which th< 

Prophet said, ''Ton bave said the trnth, elect what yen wisl 

for." He replied, '' I elect eighty sheep with their pastor." Th< 

Prophet therenpon said, '' They are for yon, bnt yen bave electei 

(for yonrself), something small, whilst Moses' woman^ who pointec 

ont to him the place of Joseph's bones, was, verily, wiser than yon 

for when Moses asked ber to elect, she said, ' 1 elect that yon should 

canse me to be a yonng woman again, and that I may be allowed te 

enter Paradise with yen?' " It is said in ah'lhyà\ towards the end 

of the subject of the thirteenth misfortnne ont of the misEortnnes 

oansed by the tongne, that the people looked npou what that man 

elected as a mean thing, so that they employed it as a proverb, 

namely, *' More contented than the man who asked for eighty sheep 

and their pastor.^' 

(Properties.) The flesh of sheep prevents the f ormation of hlack 
bile, increases the seminai secretion, and is beneficiai in poisons. Il 
is hot and moist, compared with the flesh of goats. The best kind ol 
it Ì8 that of a sheep a year old ; it is beneficiai to the stomach of a 
person with a moderate temperament, bnt it is injarions to one 
who babitnally nses it at the eyening meal ; the injarions effects of 
it may, however, be warded off by means of astringent sonps. The 
flesh of a ewe is to be disapproved, becaase it prodaces a bad kind 

se , 

9At1t al-9ayaw1n 195 

joE.blood. The flesli of lambs gives a great deal of hot and damp 
^Donriflhment, bot it gives rise to phlegm. A year old sheep is more 
oarisliing than a'young iHmb, and the flesh of sheep is more delicate 
ih^spring and more nsefnl at ali times than it. The flesh of a 
Oistrated ram increases the sexual power. If their blood be taken 
irhile it is hot when thej are slaiightered and applied over a patch of 
léprosy, it will change its coloar and remove it. If the fresh liver o£ 
a he-goat be bnrnt and teeth are rubbed with it, it will whiten them. 
E a horn of a ram be baried under a tree, the tree will yield 
kbandont frait. If the bile of a ram mixed with honey be nsed as 
a coUyrimn, it will prevent the formation of cataract (in the eye). If 

[its bone be bumt with the wood of common tamarisk (aJb4arfà*) and 
the resnlting ashes be mixed with the oil of wax prepared with the 

lOiI of roses and then applied to a broken (hollow) part, it will cause 

|lt to be united. If a woman uses the wool of a ewe as a pessary, 

he will cease to couceive. If a pot in which there is honey 

be covered over with the wool of a white sheep, ants will not 

i^oome near it 

i^ ■ 

j^j^ t (a^'Du^du*).^ — It is the same bird as is called al-akhf/al 
■{the green wood-pecker) ; — so Ibn-IStdah says, but Ibn-Daraid doubts 
Ita correctness. 



I {afi'Pahb).^ — A certain well-known land-animal, re- 
riembling the monitor (al^waral). Lexicologists state that it is 
^ne of the nouns having many signi fications. It is applied to a 
(tdmour on the foot of a camel and also to a broad piece of 
^(ron (with which a door or anything else is clamped). Ad-Dabb 
^a the name of a mountain near the roosqne of al-Khaif, (which is) 
^i ita bottom. The Dabbah of aUKfifah aud the Dabbah of al- 
asrah are two tribes of the Araba. A^-^ahh is the taking by a 
^ilker of both the teats of a site-curael iiito his two hauds (for the 
^nrpose of milking). Ibu-Duraid says:— 

% In *Om&n iài<k — Coraeiat indica, * In 'OmUn, figypt, and Palestine 
ffùmaitix Mptnipet, 




199 APrPAMtBfp 

*f I \qfik lipld pi the spear wHh mj baii4 (or «tt^bbiiig him, 
A^ % mill^er seizet the two teata of a ahe-oamel io the pode pf milkii 
oalled a^^aòò." 

Ita spbiiquet ÌB o&^-^V, Pls. ^iMb apd a(2u&(, like A:o^, p 
<T*w^J f^ro- ^hah. The Arnba say (proverbially), **I gliall ijot d 
it i:(pt]| the lìzard ^àbb cornea to water (to driqk it),*' becauBe a\ 
ioibj^ does not coma to water (to drink it). Al-Kbftlawaih says ì 
tbo &3t part of Kitàh Laisa tbat a^^lib doea not drin^ wat^ 
Unci \^9s\ it lives aevep buudr^d y^ara apd upwards. I( ia said thi 
it Ypida (only) ^ drop of urine §very forty daye, and tbat no tool 
of it^ fucila;; it Ì8 said tbat ali iti| teetb fire oue plat^ witlioutan 
di vision iu it. Tbe followìng ia one of tbe tbinga repreaented l 
the ^iraba aa if to bave been said by animala :-^A Qab ia suppose 
to bave aaid to a ^hb^ *' Come tQ driul;: water/' pppa whiph ti 
(fan replied : — 

*< My heart haa beoome inten^ely oold, 
It doea aot deaire to drink (water]|, 
It only desirea the hard ^aràd plant 
And the eold «iUiyàn plant 
And the dense withering graas ('anJkatA}." 

On aoepont of tbÌ8 oppoaition between fish and (i(2-f2a2>ò, Hàti 
al-Àsamm haa alluded to it in bis linea: — 

** How can I be afraid of poyerty when Qod ia the givei^ ^ P^e Qf ti 

means of fruatenance, 
And the giyer of the meana of suatenance to ali theae creaturea 

dipes of difficulty and eaae \ 
He ia responaible for anpplying the meane of anatenance to ali ti 

To cut^hb in the deaert aad to ^h in the Bea.'' 

aIaJI v^ and Al*ilv-*t ss» th CQUntrtf ahounded xoith ti 

lizards oalled (i/646 (pi. of iabl). S^ Jij f =iami abounding wi\ 
the lizarda called ^bdb. 

^Abd-aI-La|if aNBagd&di states tbat tbe monitor (al^icaral)^ Ui 
^bb^ tbe chameleon, the shatMiat-^il-arfit and tb^ geoko (al-%oazagi 
ali reaemble one another in form. and tbat the male f2a66 baa tv 
organa of generation (penea), and the female two organa < 
generation (volvse), like the monitor (ab^aral) and the lizai 

9AT1T At-$AYAWÌN 197 

[éHifdhdwn {SteUio vulgaris). ''Abd-aUK&hir Btates tliat a^^^hb 
t ÈttìtAl antnial abotit the fiize of a stnall yoang one of the 
fofooòdile, with a Uil liké ita tail, and tliat it adBamea vairious 
[(òòloQni with thè (ytirìation in the) h«iat of tlie nun, in the same 
y^kf that the ohaméleòn does, 

Ihiì-AblM-Diinyà relatòB in Kitdb al-*Ultub&i, on the authority 

'òf Anaè, who said, *^ Afi-^iibb, ^erily. dieé in ita hole from emn- 

olatión, on acooiiot of the Wròng-doing on the patt of men/* 

[Wben AbA-Hantfah was askòd regarding thè petìis òf a^-^abb^ he 

if^replied, *' It ir like the tongae of a terpeni, bein^ otie àt its mot 

with two forks or branóhes." Wben the female ^h wants to 

bring torth its eggR, it diga a pit in the ground, lays the eggs ìq 

l {t| and covers thern with earth ; it goes to them repeatedly every 

Sday, until the young ones come forth, which ooours in forty days ; 

ff it hiyii seveuty eggs and more at a time, and its eggs resemble 

Ithose of the pigeòn. The (young) ^b wben it (first) comes cut 

l^of the liole is dim-eyéd, and it sharpens the sight by exposing 

r^its eyes to the sùn. It feeds on breeze and lives on the ooohiess 

rof the air which it does when it becomes old and the moìstare 

!^ (in it) has vanished and the warmth (in it) has beoome lessened. 

p-There is afteotion between it and scorpions, on which account it 

T gives shelter to them in its hole, so that they may sting any 

»^person seeking to captare it, when he introduces bis band into 

^the hole to seize it. It does not m^ike its hole in any place but 

►'a hard rock, cut of fear of a torrent (washing it away) and any 

l person digging (it) ; for this reasoii, its claws are found to be 

^^efective and blunt to enabie it to dig with tliein in hard placea 

f; Forgetfulness and a want of being rightly directed are a part of * 

[: ita natare^ and it is therefore spoken of proverbially to express 

L being puzzied or confusion ; on this account, it does not make ita 

^ hole in any place but uear a bill or a rock, so that it raay not miss 

1 its way to it, when it goes forth in search of food. It is described 

l to be cruel, because it eats its (own) young ones, cut of which none 

; but sudi as run away from it escape from it safely. A poet has 

alluded to this in bis linea:— ^ 

** Yoa bave oaten yoar soiis in the way that a^-^ò does, 
Until yoa haye left yoar aons io a state in which they bare no name 
(namber) atalL" 

198 AD-DAHtRi's 

It Uvea a long ago, and in this respeot serpenis and vipera 
resemble it. It is a part of ita nature that it retnrns to ita vomit 
like the dog, and eata wliat it hns brought np from ita atomach. It 
Uvea for a long tiine after it ia slaughtered and ita head broken ; it 
ia aaid that it livea for a night after it ia slanghtered, and if (after 
that) it be thrown into fire, it movea about. In winter it doea uot 
oome ont of ita hole, (o whioh oharaoterìatio Umayyah b. AbtV 
^alt has alluded in hia linea (said by him) when he weut to 'Abd- 
Allah b. Jad'an to aak a gif t (from him) : — 

** Shall I express (to yon) mj want, 
Or would yonr sanse of shame be enongh for me P It is your natare 

to satisfy wants; 
When a man praises you any day, 

His act of pralsing you ont of bis application ia enough for him. 
Generous, neither morning ohanges him 
From his good qualities, nor erening ; 
He rìyals wind (in speed) in generoaity and glory, 
When winter contlnes ai'iabh to its hole ; 
The whole of your land is one of glory created 
By the Beni-Taim, and yon are its sky." 

(Information.) Ad-Dàraku(ni, aUBaihakt, hia ahaikh al-Hakim^ 
and hia shaikh again, Ibn-'Adt, bave related, on the authority of 
Ibn-^Umar, that, while (one day) the Prophet was aeated in ao 
aaaembly of hia compnuiona, a Badawt of the tribe of the Beni* 
Sulaim, who had oaptured a ^Uibh and placed it in hia sleeve te 
take it to liis reating-pluce, oame there. Seeing the company round 
about the Prophet, he aakeJ, '' Ronnd wliom bave tliese peoplc 
ooUeoted? '' npon which tliey replied, *< Round thiaone, who aaaerts 
that he ia apropliet." The Badawì thereupon went up to him and 
said, ^^ Mnhammad, women bave never held (in their womba) a 
more lying apeaker than yon ; if it were not for (the fear of) m} 
being oalled by the Araba a hasty man, 1 ahould alay you (now), 
and render ali the people happy by alaying you." ^Umar theo 
aaid, ** O Apostle of Qod, let me kill him; " but the Prophet aaid, 
^'No, do not you know that a humble peraon ia very near being a 
prophet ?" The Badawt then turned towarda the Apostlé of Qod 
and aaid, '* By al-L&t and al-^Uzzà, I ahall not believe in you 
uutil thia iMb believea in you," saying whioh, he took the ^UM 
cut from his aleeve and threw it before the Apoatle of God, and 


9AtAt al-^ayawIn 199 

then added, ** If it believes in you, I aliali believe in yon." The 
Prophet therenpon said, *' f2a6ò/' and it replied in clear eloquent 
plain Arabie speecb, euoh as the whole company oouid nndersfand, 
**At yonr servioe, and to aid your cause time after tiine« 
Apostle of the Lord of the worids!" The Prophet then asked 
U, **Whoin dost thoo worship?'* and it replied, "Hiin whose 
throne ìs in Heaven, whose sovereignty is on Earth, whose way 
ifl in the sea, whose niercy is in Paradise, and whose punisliment 
Ì6 in the fire of BeìV He then asked it, *'0 4abb, who am I?" 
aod it replied, ^*Yon are the Apostle of the Lord of the worlds 
and the last of the prophets; whoever believes yon will he pros- 
perous and whoever disbelieves you will be disappointed." Upou 
this the Badawl said, " I bear testimoay that there is no deity 
but God, and that you are truly His Apostle. By God, verily, 
wlien I carne tò yon, there was nobody more hateful to me on the 
face of the earth than you, but by God, at tlus moment I love you 
more dearly than myself and my sou. I wholly (ali my hair and 
skiu, ali my internai and external parts, and ali my hidden and 
exposed parts) believe in you." The Apostle of God thereupoa 
saìd, '' Praise be to God, who has guided you to this religion 
which is high and than whioh nothìng is higher I God does noi 
accept it but by means of prayer, and prayer is not aocepted bai 
by means (of the recitation) of the Kur*àn." The Badawi said, 
**Teach me.'' The Prophet then taught him the Opening 
Chapter^ and the Chapter of Uuity,* and the Badawt said, '' O 
Apostle of God, I bave never heard in the long (bastt) or short 
(toajiz) metro anything better than this." The Apostle of God 
said, ** These are the words of the Lord of the worlds and not 
poetry. If you recite once, 'Say, He is God alone!'* you 
will bave as though recited a fhird of the Kur*an; if you recite 
it twice, you will bave as though recited two thirds of the Kur'àn; 
and if you recite it thrice, you will bave as though recited the 
whole of the Kar'àn." The Badawt said, ^* Onr God accepta 
a little and gives much." The Prophet then asked him, ^'Have 
you any property?" and he replied, ^^ There is none among the 
Beni-Sulaim poorer than myself." The Prophet therenpon said to 

I Àl-Ear'àn I. > Idem CXII. • Idem CXU-1. 


200 AP.DAMIM'B. 

hi9 Oompc^nioq^i " QÌvq hjm w^eT* and they aocordlngly gave bim 
fl9m§, UDtil ^bej ipade hivn q^ite prQud (of bÌ9 wealtb). ^Abd^r- 
Baboa^a b, ^Awf si^id, '' I give bim ii sbe^oaiuel tìmt bas been ten | 
montbs pFegpai^t, pae tbat will oy^rtake bat not be overtaken, and tbnt^ 
^as giv^n to ma a9 a presenfc in tbe CainpHign of Tabùk." Tbe 
Propbat than sf^id (tq «Abd-ar-Rnhman), *' Toa bave describod 
irbat you wiU givo bim, and I sball now desoriba to yoa what God 
ìirill give yoa in compen^ation,** Uè replied, ^^OApo^tle of God, 
yea, describe it.'* Tbe Propbet «dd, ^^ Yoa will bave a sbe^eamel ^f > 
wbite pearls, wide in tbe belly, witb lega of green emerald and eyes of 
red oprai, and baving on it a litter witb brocade and satin embroid* 
ered witb gold on it. It will pass witb you over tbe Bridge like 
flashing ligbtning (tbat takes away tbe sigbt)/' 

Tbe Badawt tben went away from tbe Apostle of God, and a 
tbousand Badawts monnted on a tbonsand borses witb a tbousand 
swords baving met bim (on tbe road), be asked tbem, *' Wbere do 
yon desire to go ? '' Tbey replied» '' \Ve desire tbis one wlio has 
been lying and asserting tbat be is a propbet" Tbe (first) Badawt 
tben said» I bear testimony tbat tbere is no deity bnt God, and that 
Hnbammad is the Apostle of God.'* Tbey said, **Tou have 
ohanged your religion.'' He tben narra ted to tbem hia case, and 
tbey ali said, ** Tbere is no deity bnt God, and Mahammad is 
the Apostle of God.'' Tliey tben went to tbe Propbet and said 
to hira, ** O Apostle of God, order ns to do your bebest," and the 
Propbet said, ^^Remaiu under the banner of Khalid b. al-Walid." 
No tbousand men (in a body) out of the Araba or otbers joìned 
tbe Faitb in the timo of tbe Prophet but tliese. 

([^Awfulqess or unlawfulness.) It is Uwf ul to eat a^-^ahb 
according to alL It id said in al-WasU that none of the oreeping 
thinga (al'hasharéU) exoepting a^-^hb are to be eaten. Ibn-as 
^alàb atates in hid Mtuhkil tbat this is not satisfuctory, for among 
^e oreeping tbings are incladed the jerboa and the hedgehog, both 
pf wbich bave been mentioned (among tbem) by al-Azhari and 
Qtbers. Tbe two sbaikbs have related on tbe antbority of Ibn-'Abbàs 
tbat the Propbet baving been asked, '* Is it unlawf al ? " replied, ^' No, 
bnt it is not fonnd in the land of my tribe, and I sboald find myself 
loatbing it." Is is related in tbe Sunan of Abft-Dàwnd that when the 

9AY1t A]>9AYAWÌN 201 

Vopbet 8aw the two roasted ^ìMb, he spai oat, upon which Ehalid 
ddy **0 Apostle of God, Isee that yoa coasider it filthy/' He (Abù- 
NlWQd) has related the whole tradition. In the version given by 
lualiin, it Ì8 said that the Prophet said, '^ I neither eat it nor declare 
i U> be unlawEol," Bat in another version, it is said that he said, 
Eat it, for it is hiwEal, bat it is net my food.'' Ali these versions 
re qaite cletir on the subject of its being a pormissible tliing, aud 
le Araba used io consider it a good thing, in proof of which are the 
>Uowing line» of a poet : — 

"I ftte i^ìbdb and did Dot abetaia from them, 

And I desired slips of the fleBh of Bhecp and goats, 

And the roaiit flesh of a lamb. 

Which .was aeryed to me lakewarm in the water of the moath (tecth) ; 

Ab to rice mixed with milk and your liah, 

I bave become yery ili from them ; 

1 placttd aome batter over a date, 

Aud both the food and the condiment were delicioua, 

Aud I obtained from it a reliah like tliat which you bave obtained ; 
- But I did not find in them any taate ìike that of an old cfabb^ 

Nor 18 there in he-goata a taate like that of the egga of liena; 

The egga of hena are a cnre for a craving for meat, 

And the egga of 4ìbdb are a food of the Araba, 

Whilat their fat ia in the heada of the Peraiana.'* 

[The author bore explains the difficult words in the above lines.] 

According to our doctrine, the eating of it is not disapproved, 
rhich is op[)osed to the doctrine of some of the followcrs of Abù- 
{anifuh. The Kàdt *lyàd 8i)eak8 of its iinhiwfulness on tlie aiitlior- 
ty of one party, but the Imam the very learned an-Nawaw! stati^s, 
^I do not think it to be true on the anthority of anybody." 

As to wbat is related on the authority of 'Abd-ar-Rahmàn b. 
Sasanili, itis that he said, ** We alìghted in a land abonnding with 
rany ^hdby and being hungry we cooked some of them. While tlie 
)ots were boiling, the Apostle of God happened to come there, and 
le asked (as), *What is this?' upon which we replied, ^Dìhàlt which 
ve bave found.' He thereupon stiid, ' A certain tribe (nation) of the 
3eMÌ*l9rà'il bas been transformed into some animala of the earth, and 
!am afraid of these possibly being outof them. I neither eat them nor 
)roIiibit them (to be eaten).' It is possible that this occurred before the 
?rophct's coming to know that a transformed being has no progeny. 



<j 202 AD-DAHiRfs 





It is related in the fiaMh o( al-Bakhàri, on the aathority of ; 
Abù-Hurairahy that, when the Prophet went forth to (the battle o() ^ 
Hnnain, he passed bj a tree belonging to the believers in a plurality ' 
of gods, called dhdt-^nwdf^ on which they nsed to sospend their 
arms. The Prophet's followers therefore said, ** Apostle of Qod, 
assìgn for ns a dhàt-antoàt Hke the one they bave." The Prophet 
replied, ^* Celebrated he the praises of Goti I This is like what the 
nation of Moses said (to him), namely, *^ Make for ns a god as they 
bave gods.*' * Verily the ways of those who bave gone before you 
bave been followed, span by span and cnbit by cubit, so much so that, 
it they bave entered the hole of a ^hb^ you also do the same.'' They 
then asked, "The Jews and the Christians?" and he repHed, "Who 
else (then)?" Ibn-<Abbàs said, " 'How like is this night to yester- 
night ;' they were the Beni-Isrà'tl." Ibn al-'Arab! states in ^Arifiat 
aì-Ahtoadhtf " I bave thonght over the mode of the application of 
ibis proverb regarding a4'^alb, and many meanings bave struck to 
my mind, the most likeiy one oE which now is that, according to the 

,: Arabs, a^-^àb is used proverbially for a judge of inen, a jndge 

being a person to whom ali men come on account of the various things 
or cases that occnr to them, so that nobody keeps away fronv him. The 
meaning therefore is that their oonduct was like that." 

i (Proverbs.) '' More straying or losing the right way than a ^abb^** 

> which senso is also applied to the monitor (al-toaral)j which will he 

described hereafter. "More undntifal (to klndred) than a fiabW* 
Ibn-al-A*r&bt states that the female is meant bere, and that its undnti- 
fnlness consists in its eating its young ones. "More long lived than 

i a ifabbJ** " More cowardly than a ^abb^* " More stupid than a 

■ ffató." "More guileful than a fiabb.^* A poet says : — 

y '* More gailefal than a 4a6&, (whioh) when a hunter (thief) cornea, 

Keepa prepared for him a scorpioa near its tali (pointed estremi ty)/* 

" More knotty than the tail of a fia6t," because there are many knot- 
like nodes in it. It is asserted that a townsman having given some 
: clotlies to a Badawi, the latter said, " I shall recompense you for your 

action by what I shall teach you. How many knots are there in the 
tail of af^-{2a6ò T" The townsman replied, " I do not know ;" upon 
which the Badawt said, "There aro twenty-one knots or nodes in it." 

lAl-Kur'àn VII- 134. 


9ay1t al-9ataw1k 2()3 

(Properties.) If a fZa&ft passes forth between the feet of a niaii» 
)ìò will not be able io He with womeii after thaL If one eats its 
|[[li6art, grief and palpitatioD (oE the heart) will pass away froin him. 
^:I! iU fat be melted and painted over the penis, it \yill excite tbe 
/ Mxnal desire. Whoever eats it will not be thirsty for a long time. 
^ il one carries aboot its two testicles with him, bis domestics will love 
fp.hlm intensely. If its heel be tied to the face oE a borse, no horse 

•':j will be able to go before it in a race. If a scabbard for a sword be 
':' Diade of its skin, the owner oE it will becoine coaraj^eous. If it^ 
'» tkin be made use of as a receptacle for honey, whoever sips ihat 
honey oat ofit will bave bis sexnal desire excited. Its globular 
dang is nseful in white leprosy and freckles, iE applied (ex ter- 
nally), and in opacities oE the cornea and cataract, iE used as a 

(Interpretation of it in a dream.) À f2ai»& in a dream indie» tes 

an Àrab, guilefal in respect of the property of men and in respect 

of the property oE bis friend. Some say that it indicates a man oE 

,, nnknown erigi n (pedigree), and some say that it indicates a cursed 

. man, becanse it is one oE the transEormed beings. Some say that 

it indicates difficulty (doubt) in the matter of earning, and some 

' Bay that he who sees a ^6b in a dream will fall ili. 

^aJLI I (a^'Pabu^). — [The hyena.] A certain well-known beaste 
One ought not to say fiabu^ahj becaase the male of it is ^iò^àìiy tho 
pi. oE which is fiabdHn like sirhdn, pi. saràhin ; the Eemale is called 
(also) ^fiib^dnah^ pi fiih^dndt and fiibd^ which latter is a plural for 
both the male and the female, beiiig like sabn^y pi. sibii^ ; — 00 al- 
Jawharl says, but Ibn-Barrt says that with regard to al- Jawhari's 
words, '* the female is called ^ib^dnah*^ that word is not known 
(to be applied to the female). Among the questiona in connection 
with the word afi-^CLÒu^ is one of an interesting (delicate) nature ; it 
18 that, out of the rnles of the Arabie langunge, which direct their 
influence and which cannot be broken, is tliis one that, when a 
mascnline noun ^nd a feminine one come together, the influence of 
the masculine overcomes that of the feminine, because it is the 
originai form of the noun, and the feminine is only a derived form 
Erom it, exceptiug in two places ; — one place is when one desires to 

204 AD-DAHtRi'S 

use the dual number óf the masctiliiie and femii&ioó òf a^-^ibd^ 
(hyenas), lie says ^a/m^dn, which Is done toavoid tli« additional lettors 
which would bave to be used, if the dnal were f ormed from the 
mascaline noan. The second place is in the case oi a ta^rikh (date) 
in coaating it by al4ayàli (nights), which is a feminine noun aa 
opposed to àlHiìiyàm (days), wliich is a mascaline noun ; in this the 
feminine overcomes the masculine ont of respect for the one that pre- 
cedes, the preceder oE a month being its night. Thédó aire hid 
(Ibn-Ban-l's) very words. Al-Harlrl stateS in ad-Durrah that, 
when the mascoline and feminine of a noan come together, the mas- 
coline overcomes (the feminine), excepting in the case of at-ta^rtkh 
(a date), in which the role is reversed, and in forming the dnal of 
tio^u* and fiib^dn^ the doal being fiabu^àn. It is related on the 
aothority of Ibn-al-Ànbari that the word afi-^abu* is applied both 
to the male and the temale ; so has also Ibn-Hishàm HUKhadrAwj 
said in bis hook aUIf^àh fi faioà'id aUI^àh by al-Farisl, on the 
aothority of Abù'l- Àbbàs and others. Bat the well-known thing in 
regard to the role affecting it and other things is what has been 
already mentioned. 

The diminutive of afl-fiabu^ is tulaiba\ on accoont of what has 
been already mentioned an<ler the lettor ' , from what Muslim has 
relat4»d in the chapter on the sabject of gìving a slayer the plun- 
ilered property of a slain person, according to the version of Àbù- 
KatAiIah out of a tradition of nl-Tjaith, namoly, that Al)ù*Bakr said, 
** No, not at ali will he givo it to a little liyena (u^aiba^) ont of 
Koraish and leave offa lion oat oE the lions of God." But al« 
Kha(t&lit has given a wonderfnl explanation (of it)» saying that 
al'ufiaiba^ is a cerhiin species of birds. 

The following are some of the other names of the female 
hyena : — jcLf/dl, ja^dr^ and hff^ah Its sobriquets are uìnm-klianniir^ 
umììi^urraik^ umni-'dniiry umm-al-k'^bAr^ umm'nawfal^ and those of 
the male hyena are abu-dmir^ abù-kaUlak^ and abiVl-liinbar. It 
has been already mentioned onder the lettor f , that the female hyena 

menstraates like the bare. ^^^ v^' * jS^ * c*C«^=i/j^ liares menstruated. 

A )K>et suy s : — 

"The hares menstroated («^lAìZ;) on the flag-itDoes 
(Blood;, like the blood of war on the day of battle.'' 



Tbat is to say» th^y meostruatej {^afiik) accordine io some. Ibn^ 
nl-iA^rfibi saya, with rQgard to tbQ Uuq3 of tbe son of the sister 
o{ Ta'abbata-JSharrau :— 

<'The (^npAle byena meiiBiriiatest on aocouot of the slain of Hndhail 
Apd 9eeA the wolf bowling* (for cthera to come) to them." 

(Tbat Ì8 to say) ibat, when tbo female bycna eats the flesh of ineu 
%\HÌ drinka tbeir blood^ it menetraates, tbe blood cansing it to 
m^ustrnate. A pQfjt says \-^ 

** The; a.words of Sa^d cant ed the byeiiae to grin (or meu^truate), 
On aoooant of the slam which lay unburied and anwashed." 

Ibn-Duraid used to rilute tkis explanation and say, '' Who has seeu 
hyenas at tbe timo of tbeir menstraation, so as to know (bat tbey 
inenstmate ? Tbe poet means tbat tbey siiarl in order to eat fiesb." 
Bat ibis ìa a mistaLe on bis part on account oE bis likening tbeir 
anarling to langbing. Some say tbat tbe ineaning oE it is tbat tbey 
rejoìce on account of tbe sLiin, so tbat wben tbey eat tbem tbey 
wbine and snarl at one anotber, tbeir wbining being likened to 
grinping or laqgbter Some say tbat tbe poet intended by it tbat 
tbe byena Ì9 rejoiced over tbe sbiin, tbe joy being likened to biugbter 
pr grinning, for laugbter cornea from joy, as is tbe case witb calliiig 
aWinab (grapes) oX'kliamr (vrine). wUiJ I sy^ìs^the xcolves screain 
or liowl ;-^SQ Ibn-Sldab say9. 

It may be mentioned as a vonderful tbing in connection witli 
it tbat like tbe bare it is one year a male and anotbcr a femalo, 
impregnating (tbe female) in its male condition and giving birtb to 
young ones in its female condition ; — so al-Jàhij, az-Zumakbsbari 
in RaH'un-abrdr, aUlSazwlnì in 'Ajd*ik aUMakUùHt and in liis. 
hook Mufìd al-ulUm xoa Muhtd cU-humiim^ and Ibn-as-^^aldh in bis 
Jiihlah bave mentioned on tbe autbority of Àristotle and otbers. AU 
Kazwini states tbat tbere is a tribe among tbe Arabs called ad^ 
Dab'ayùn ; if one of tbem is in a crowd of a tbousand men and a 
byena bappens to come tbere, it makes for none but bini alone. Tbe 
byena is described to be lame, but it is really not so, only tbat a 
seer fancies it so, tbe reason for fancying tbos being tbe 
snpplenesa (flesibility) of its joints and tbe presence cf more moisture^ 

i Lane has translated this word aa '^diaplays her teeth or grias." Lane^a 
Lex. art. ^Xor^, • J«^. 

206 AD-DAUtRt*S 

in its right side than in ita left side. It ifl addicted to digging up 
(dead bodies from) graves, on account of its great fondness for human 
flesli ; wlien it sees a man asieep, it diga under bis bead and seizes bim 
hj tbe throat and tben kills ;bim and drinks bis blood. It is a yery 
immoral animai, for no animai of its own kind passes by it mtbout 
its monnting it. Tbe Arabs employ it in a proverb in tbe senso of 
destruotion, for wben it|falls upon sbeep or goats, it becomes conf nsed 
and is not satisfied witb wbat tbe wolf is satisfied. Wben a wolf 
and a byena come to be togetber in a flock of sbeep or goa^s, tbe 
latter (tbe flock) are safe« for tbey prevent eacb otlier (from seizing 
tbe sbeep or goats). Tbe Arabs say in one of their prayers for 
asking, *' God, send a byena and a wolf ! *' Tbat is to say, 
** Bring tbem togetber among tbe sbeep or goats, so tbat tbe latter 
may be safe I " In tbe same senso are tbe lines of a poet : — 

■'My goats or sheep dispersed themielves one day, and I said 
about tbem, 
* O Lord» set a wolf and a byena npon theml '"^ 

Ai-Asma^ baving been asked, '* Is tbis a prayer in tbeir favour or 
an imprecation against tbem ? " replied, ** It is a prayer for tbeir 
safety/' and mentioned wbat bas been already said before. If a 
liyena treada over tbe sbadow of a dog in moonligbt, even if tbe 
dog be on tbe top of a bonse, it falla down, and tbe byena eats it It 
is described to be a stopid animai, wbicb is so on tbis account, 
namely, tbat bunters in pursuit of it say at tbe door of ita den 
certain words and captnre it by meana of tbose worda, as bas been 
already mentioned in tbe art. ^A^l. Al-Jàhij is, bowever, of 
opinion tbat tbis is one of tbe fabnlous stories of tbe Arabs. A 
feinale byena (aometimea) givea birtb by a male wolf to a wlielp 
called aUhhàr. A ràjiz aaya : — 

<* Wonld that I had two sandala of the akin of a female hyena, 
With thoDga made from the skin of her vulva that they may net 

get toro 1 ■ 
The bare-footed whose sole is hurt by the mgged ground and stonea 
will pnt ou any aandaL '* 

(Lawfulneaa or unlawfulness.) It is lawful to eat it. Asb- 
Sbàfi'i States tbat tbe Ai>ostle of God bas probibited tbe eating of 
•every animai possessing a canine tootb, out of tbe animala of prey, 

* Lane'a Lez. art ^a^ , • Idem art. j i^xk , 

9ATÌT aL-9AYaw1n 207 

tor direoUy ita canine teeth beoome strong, it acts wrongfnllj with 
ihem towards another animai, seeking io seize it (as a prey) witbont 
itself being songht fas a prey), ita trangressions with its canine 
ieetb being the reason of the nnlawfnlness of eating it. The byena» 
boweveri does net feed itaelf by acting wrongfully and may some- 
times live withont (the nse of) ita canine teeth. Thia has been 

ilready mentioned QDder the letter > in the art amjI. The Imam 
^^mad, lahà^ Abù-Thawr» and the collectors of traditions state 
^hat it is lawfal. Màlik aaya that the eating of it is disapprovable, 
bnt the disapprovai according to him doea not amonnt to a sin on 
;he part of its eater ; he does not, however, decide it to be unlawful. 
/Uh- Sbafici argnes on the strength o£ what is related regarding 
3a^d b. Abì-Wa]^kà8, namely, that he used to eat the hyeua. 
[bn-*Abbàa and *Atà' say the same thing« Abù-Uantfah states 
;hat the hyena is unlawful, wbich is the statement of 8a^id b. al- 
tlusayyab and ath-Thawri, who argue on the strength of its 
x>8se8sing a canine tooth and of the Apostle of God haviug prò* 
libited the eating of every animai possessing a canine tooth out of 
be animals of prey. Our proof is what 'Abd-ar-Ua^m&n b. Abi- 
Ammàr has related, namely, '* 1 asked Jàbir b. *Abd-Alldh re- 
Harding the hyena, * Is it game ? ' and he replied, * Yes.' I then 
isked him, * Can it be eaten ? ' and he replied, * Yes/ I then asked 
iim, 'Has the Apostle of God said so ?/ and he replied, ' Yea.' " 
^t-Tirmidhi and others bave eztracted this tradition and said that it 
s delivered on respectable authority and authentic. Jftbir said that 
he Apostle of God said, " The hyena is game, the penalty (of 
[illing it in the state of ihrdm) ia a full grown ram, and it may be 
laten." Al-Hakim has related it and said that it is authentic in 
ts authorities. Ibn-as-Sakan has also mentioned it in bis fìahàli 
U-Tirmidhl states, " I asked al-Bukliàri regarding it, and he replied, 
It is an authentic tradition. ' " It is related in al*Baiha^ on the 
nthority of *Abd-AIIah b. Mugaffal as-Sulamì, who said, *' I asiced, 
Apostle of God, whut do you say about the hyena?' and he 
eplied, ' I neither eat it nor prohibit it (being eaten).^ I then asked, 
Why do not you prohibit it ? I eat it.' " This tradition is of 
lender authority. Ash-Shàfi'l states that the flesh o£ the hyena 
7aa alwaya aold between aa-^afà and al-Marwah (in Makkah) 

208 ad-dahìbi's 

withoai any manifestation of disapprovai (of tLe pradice). As toi 
what has been mentioned out oE the tradition mgarding the 
prohibition of eating anj auin^al posi^eBsing a canine tooth oat ^ 
of the animals of prey, it applies to sach an animai as obtains Its' 
food by means of ita tootb, on the proof ihat the bare is la wf al» "] 
thongh posaessing^ a canine tooth, bat it is so weak that it does not 
trunsgress wilh it.. 

(Proverbs.) '' More stnpid tban a byena*" Ont of the vrelU 

known proverba regarding it ia what aUBaibu^ haa rebited at the 

eud of Shi*b al'Ctìidn about Abù-'Ubaiduh Marmar b. al-Muthanuà 

US having asked Yùans b. Habib regarding the well-known proverbi 

^^Like the protector oE the female byeua." He replied, .^^The 

narrative regarding it is that a party (of Arabs) went out to hunt 

OD a very hot day» and while tbey were proceeding, a feinale hyeiia 

presented itself to them, so they went in parsuit of it and followed 

it, until they caused it to take refnge ia the tent of a Badawt, 

where it mada for him. ; the Badawt thereapon went oat ta tbem 

and asked them^ *What is yoar business (bere)?' They leplied» 

^Ourgame^ the object of oar chaae (is bere).' Hesaid^^No, uot 

al alL By Him in whose band my soni is^ you will not reach it 

while the hilt of my aword is firm in my band/ They therefore 

returned and left him alone. He then went to a milch carnei 

belonging to him, aiul milkiiig it placed the milk und some water 

near it It kopt on turning at oue time to the milk ta hip it nnd 

Hnother time to the water, until it felt to be alive (agaia) and easj'. 

While the Badawt was asleep inside bis tent, it leaped on him, aiul 

ripping open bis belly drank bis blood, ate bis bowels, and thenlert 

him* A oousin of bis bappened to come there, and findìng him in 

that state, tumed towards the spot of the byena, hot did not see it 

there. He thereupon said, ' My coinpanion (has done this), by 

God t ' and taking bis sword and qaiver he followed it ; he kept eu 

proceeding» until he overtook it and killed it ; he theu said the 

f ollowing linea ; — 

* He who does kindaeM to one net worthy of it, 
MeetB with what the protector of the female hyena met with ; 
He extendeé to it, when it aought proteotion ncar him, 
Uoapitalitj bj giving it the milk of miloh. camola aboandìng ia oc^ioua 


*^ 9AYÌT AL-9AYAWÌN 209 

And oftniied it to be MtUted, antil when it wm fllled, 
It ilit him open with ita canine teetli and claws : 
Say to one doing kindnesa, «Thia ia tlie reward 
Of liim who doea kindueaa to an nngrateful one.' ** 

Àinong other proverbs, al-Mayd&ni says, w, ** This ia net concealed 
(even) from the hyena/* applied to a thìng which (ali) people know, 
the hyena being (considered) the most atnpid of beasts. 

^^' (Properties.) The author of ^Ayn aUKhaxcàff states that the 
hycna drawa doga, as a magnet draws ìron. As an ìnstance of Wy 
^ it may be mentioned that, if a dog happens to be on the top of a 
j^houae on a shining inodnlight night, and a hyena happens to tread 
\\ Oli ita shadow on the ground, the dog will fall down from the top 
^ of the honse, and the hyena will eat it It tlie body be anointed 
M^with the fat of a hyena, it will cauRe (the anointed per&on) to be 
^^ secare from any injnry on the part of doga. If ita gall-bladder be 
U dried and the weight of a dàìUih of it be given to drink to a woman, 
[Ishe will hate aexaal interooarse and lose ali sexual desire. If a 
i: lieve be made of the skin of a hyena and aeeds be sifted with it 
i^and then aown, locusta . will net injure them. Mu^ammad b. 
I^Zakarìyà ar-Ràzt haa mentioned ali this in bis books. 

^Utàrid b. Miihammad states that the hyena runa away freni 
^fthe plani: nightshade ; if the body of a person be painted 
^ witli its expressod juìce, tliat person will be aocure from any injury 
'I Oli the part oE a hyena. If a man holds the skin of a hyena (in bis 
^liand), doga will not bark at him. Its bile uscd as a collyriuin is 
^beneficiai in dimness of vision and cataract in the oyo, and 
, aharpena the sight. If ita right eye be puUed out, steepcd in 
r vinegar for soven days, then taken out of it, and placed under a stone 
ijn a ring, whoever wears that ring will not be afraid of sorcer)' 
l or of the smitìng o£ an evil eye, whìle he wears that ring ; if for a 
[; person that is under a speli of sorcery that ring be washed with 
f; water and the resulting water be given to drink to him, the speli 
bof sorcery will vanish from him ; it is also useful in inability for 
sexual intercourse and other spells of magic. If the head of a 
! hyena be placed in a pigeon-tnrret, the pigeons in it will increase. 
He who holds its tongue in bis right band will not be barked at 
liy doga or injured by them ; clever scoundrels and scamps do 



210 AD-DAXÌBfs 

that. Let him who ia afroid of hyenos take in his band a root on 
of tho roots of sqnill, they will then flee away from him. If a sic) 
child (boy) be fnmigated for seven days with the hair on the baci 
of a hyena, it will be cnred. If a woman be given to drink withou 
ber knowledge, the organ of generation of a mule hyena groum 
fine, it will take away from ber the desire for sexual interconrse 
He who hangs on his person a piece of the vulva of a fé male hyenn 
will be loved by men. The teeth of a hyena, if they be tied on tli 
arni, are nsefnl in loss of memory and in toòfchache. If a dr 
mensnre be bound with its skin and with that measure see< 
bo measnred out, the plants springing from that seed will b 
secure from ali accidents (misfortnnes). One of its wondertu 
properties is that he who eats its blood loses ali vain prompting 
of the mind. If one holds in his band a colocynth gourd, hyena 
will flee away from him. If the body be anointed with the fat o 
hyenas, the anointed person will be secare from the biting of dogs 
Hanain b. Ishàltc states that, if the hair growing inside the eyelid 
be pulled ont and then the bile of a hyena, or that of a parrot, or tha 
of a lion, or that of a she-goat be used as a oollyrinm, it will dis 
appear (entirely) by the order of God. If its penis be dricd 
reduced to a fine powder, and then eaten by a man as a dry powdc 
tibout the weight of two ddnahs^ it will excite in him the soxus 
desire, and he will not be tired of women. Another authority state 
that, if half a dirham weight of the bile of a hyena be drunk mixc 
with an eqnal quantity of honey, it will be beneficiai in ali discasc 
that arise in the head and the eye, will prevent the formation e 
cataract in the eye, and will bave an aphrodisiac effect ; if the bil 
l>e mixed with honey and nsed as a collyrium, it will clear the ey 
and increase its beauty ; the older this mixture becomes th 
better and more nsefnl it is. Màsnrhawaih (?) states that nsing tli 
bile of a hyena as a colljrrinm is nsefnl in watering (of the eyes) an 
excessive flow of tears. One of its wonderfnl properties — one i 
respect of which physicians agree — is that, if the hair of the rigi 
thigh of a male hyena round about its anus be pulled out, bum 
and mixed with olive oil after reducing it to a fine powder, and 1 
then applied over a person having an inflamed wound, it will cui 

9AT1t AL-9AYAWÌN 211 

m ; but lei it bo nndcrstood that it produccs the disease in a sound 
non, if tho hair be f rom a f emale hyena ; it is a wonderf ul rcnicdy 
(I haa been tried namerons timcs. 

(Interpretation of it in a dream.) A dream regarding the 
ena indicates the divulgence oE sccrets and entering u)ìon what 
C8 not concern (one). A dream aboiit amale hyena sometimes 
Jicates a handsome hermaphrodite and sometimes a tynuìnical, 
ceiving, and opposing enemy. Some say that a fcmale hyena in- 
2atcs an ugly-looking woman ivith a low origin, an enchantros^^ 
old woman. ArtàmidArns states that a hyena indicates treachery, 
d that he who rides it in a droam will obtain power. 


'H>^' (ahiUPahlHih), — ^Tho franeolin {cul-HhtrraJ) ; — so it is said 
al-Mura^ifa^. The art. g lj«^M has been already given under the 
ter »>. 

^ O m *»*'0» 

* li ^ I (aft-Pit^dm) and «- «i^ I (a^-pirgùmali) .—The 1 ion . 

)w beautiful is what AbA'l-Mu^aifar as-Sam'àni has rehited on 
) authority of bis father, who said, " I bave heard Sa'd b. Nasr, the 
ìacher, al-Haywànl, say, ' I was once afraid of the Khalifah, on 
ìount of a misfortune which had befallon me, and a vigilant soarch 
s bcing made for me. I remained thcrcforo conecaled, and (b'oaint 
3 night, as it I were sitting in an upper room on a chair and in tlio 
, of writing something, when a man came thcro and standing 
ìosite to me said, " Writo what I diciate to you." He tlion 
litod the following lines : — 

« Drive away with your patience the accìdent of fortune, 
And hope for the kindneu of the One, the alUknowing One ; 
Despair not, even if the distress of it preeses (upon you) 
And the disquietude due to ita vicìssitudes shoots you with arrows, 
For He the High has (ready) in the midst of it, relief, 
Whìch is conceaied from eyes and minda ; 
How many have been saved between the points of spears. 
And how many preys have escaped safely from the lion (a<t-</irp4}M) ! " 

ìon the moming came, relief came to me, and my fear and di.strcss 
lishcd.' " 


III Sirdj al'Muluk by the Imam, the very learaed, at-Turtùs 
ìt ìa related on the anthority of 'Abd-Allàh b. Hamdftn, vvho sa 
" I was with al-Mutawakkìl when he vfQnt forth to Damascus. C 
day he went up to the town of ttuaàfah * of Hishàm b. *Abd-al-Ma 
b. ]yiar>yàn> where he looked at the palaces iii it, and thcn comi 
cut saw an old convcnt beautifully bailt amoug field.<i and riv 
and trees ; ho entered it, and while he was going over it, ho sa\ 
piece of pai>er stuck in its hall. He ordered it to be puUcd av 
and fomid on it the following linea : — 

'< O house in the convent, which has become empty, 
And in which the north and west winds have full play, 
As if fair, cheerful, and sociable ladies never dwelt in thee, 
And beautiful-eyed damsels never walked jauutily in thy courts, 
Nor the som of iniquitous and lordly kìngs, 
The least one of ^Lom was amoLg men a great one, 
Who whtn thcy put on thrir coaià of mail were lions, 
And whén they puc on thcir crowuà wcre moons, 
And wLo wfeic, indcfed, Uoia (iurdjiàn) on the ndd of battle, 
And whoèe hands on the day of giving were seaa ! 
Those nighU when HLshàin dwelt at Rusafah, 
And bis 8on wa& in ihee, O convent, and he an amir, 
When fortune was fresh and the khilàfah soft (elastic), 
And the life of the Beni-Marw&n was in thoe brìght! *' 

In another version the last two lines are given thus : — 

" And thy garden produced herbs and phinU and thy light was shiuiug, 

And the life of the Beni-Marw&n in thee was bright ! " 
•* Yes, indeed, God gave thee to drink of the pourìugs of the ci 
over thee, 

After the evcnings, in the mornings ! 

I remembered my people who are goue and cried for them, 

Out of anguish, and one like me is fit for orying ; 

I oonsoledmy mind, which, 

When it remembers my people, groans and sighs. 

Perchanoe, had fortune, which one day tyranniaed over them, 

Been in their favour, turning about with things which minds deaire, 

The bereaved ones would have been glad, and the miserable ones hi 

And the prisoner free from the straitness of bis bonds. 

QenUy ! Tti-dny will be foUowed by to-morrow, 

And the vi'^issitttdes of fortune are (constantly) turning about ! '» 

» Note 5— De SUne's T. of Ibn-Kh's. B. D. Voi I, p. 299. 

hatìt al-hayawìn 213 

Wlicn al-Mutawakkil rcad it, he bccame fright43ned9 took a Unì 
Oinen from it, and said, ' I takc rcfiigo witk 6od froin His cvil 
dccrecs 1 ' He thcn called the owner o£ the convent, and asked hini 
re gnniing it and as to who had writtcn it, but he rcpiicd, * I havc no 
knowledge of both/ " Another authority mentions that attor his 
return to Bagdad, he reniained only a few days and was then assassi- 
natcd by his son al-Mantasir. An account of his assassination and 
the mode of it bave becn ah*cady given under the lettor ' in th«» 
art. 3 j l'I, in the account of the Khalìfahs. Ibn-Kh. has nicntiontnl 
in liis History, in the biography of 'Alt b. Muhannnad b. Abt'I-Hasan»Shabàbushtl % that this incident occurred to ar-]ta.slìtd and has 
aJdcd, *' We do not know f roin what tlie appelhition Shababushti 
(SbW)Ushtì) is derived." 

^j-ij^\ (a^-piryas), — ^The sanie as at-talhuj (a certain snall 

»|Mvie8 of partridge), which will be described hercafter under the 
I lettor -t . Aniong the vulgar current proverbs is, " Lazier than 
• f/iVycM," because it throws ìts excrement on its own young ones. 

^^jaà^aJI (a(l'Pt(glnls). — A young one of ath-thurmulah^ which 
Ibi In'on already nientioned under the letter «i« to be the feniale 
il foxv^> 

A oouÀJ I (ad'Pl/di^). — [Tlie frog.] Like al-khvisir. It is the 

ibg. of a{l'{la/iuU'. Fein. ff(/5W'a/i. Some cali it flz/l/a'. Al-Khalil 
liT» tliat there are no words in the (Arabie) languagc of the 
IMlBure filini but four, naniely, dirham, hijra\ which nicans tali 
mhngy hihla^y which nicans a glutton^ and JfCil^am {JBil'amY)^ 
:'vliÌch U a jiropor name. 

Ibn-as-Salah states that the better known forni of the word in 

tt philological point of view is with a lasrali under the ò , whilst 

'Ae batter known forni in the speech of the vulgar is with a /ut fiali 

fQ it, the vulgar having it from cxcellcnt (special) nien ; some of the 

1 This Ì8 evidenily a miatraiiBcrìption. Tiie aame given by Ibn-Eh. ìa 
fMlbashlt, but Uììb incident is not given ia ash-Shàbushtl'B life in De Slane'ft 
I. of his B. D. Voi. II, p. 262. 

211 AD-DAMiRfs 

leaders out oE the lexicologists, however, disallow it Al-Batalyawst 
states in Sharh aUKdtib that it is also called iufda\ but it is rare.^ 
Al-Mutarrizt states the same thing. It is said in aUSjfàyah that 
the male of frogs is called aWuljHm, The frog is also called by the] 
naines, abù-masthi^ abtUhubairahy abà-mu^abbad^ and umm-hithairah 

There are several species of frogs, and they are reproduced 
(some) by means of treading and (some) withont trpading. They are 
bora in stagnantand slowly-rnnning water, and in stinking moist places, 
and also after heavy showers of rain, so as to givo one an idea that 
they fall from the clouds, on account of the large nambers of them 
that are seen on the tops of houses after rain and wind, but they 
are not (then) the product of the male and the f emale ; God creates 
them that moment as the resalt of one of the naturai qualities of 
that land (earth). It is one of the animals that bave no bonos in 
them. Some of them croak and otliers do not ; such of them ns 
croak bring out their voice from near their ears. It is described to 
bave sharpness of hearing when it leaves off croaking and is out of 
water. When it desires to croak, it introduces its lower jaw into 
water, but when water enters its month, it ceases to croak. How 
elegant are the words of one of the poets, who had been censured 
for the littlenes;^ of bis speech : — 

^ The frog said oertain words, 

And the philosophers inierpreted them to be, 
*Iq lay mouth ia water, and oan one 

Who haa water in hia mouth apeak ? ' " 

*Abd-al-Kàhir states that the serpent thu^bdn is guided to (the placo 
of) a frog by its croaking ; it comes guided by its croaking and eats 
it ; he gives the foUowing lines regarding it : — 

** It placca water in ita jawa, whioh reachea to half the upper jaw (^ài^A 
That it maj croak, whilat ita croaking leads to ita destruction/' 


*i-Aij — He doos not mean by it bere equalìzìng or dividinj into iwo 

equal halves^ but it is intended by it that the toater reaches hai/ of the 
upper jaw, ^^ cf^aiii — He means by it that when frogs croak, the 
serpent thu^hàn is guided to them (by their croaking), and then 
going to them euts them. A po3t says regarding that : — 

9ATÌT al-qatawIh 215 

*' Frogs in the dMrkneBB of night anawer one another, 
But their oroaking guidea to them the aerpent of the sea {j^ I ^4^)/' 

bV i^^^the vìper^ which is a land animai, but which can live both 
I land and in the sea, aa has been already mentioned. 

The sight òf fire makes some frogs confnsed or puzzlcd, as it 
)cs some of the wild animals, which, when they see fire, are 
itonished at it ; even though they may be croaking, they become 
Icnt directly they see it and keep on continnally looking at it. Its 
»t appeanince in water is like a grain of millet, black in colour ; it 
:ìcu Comes out of water and is like a du^mHf^ then after that limbs 
prout out from it. Celebrated be the praises of Him who is 
oworf al to do what Ho pleases I Celebrated be His praises I There 
j no deìty but He 1 

In aUKàmil by Ibn-*Adl, in the biography of 'Abd-ar-Rahmàn b, 
iiiM b. 'Uthuiàn b. Sa'd al-Kara^, the Prophet's Caller to prayer, 
k is related on the authority of J&bir that the Prophet said, " Whoso 
:ilU a frog must give as compensation a sheep or goat, whether he 
le in the state of ihràm or not." Snfyàn states that there is nothing 
hnt remembers God more than it. It is also related in the sanie 
)Ook, in the biography of Hammfid b. 'Ubaid, that he has related, on 
he authority of Jàbir al-Ju'ft, who had it on the authority of 
Ikrimah, who had it from Ibn-'Abbàs, that a frog liaving thrown 
tself iuto fire out of the fear of God, He has requited (ali) f rogs with 
:ho coldness of water and assigned their croaking as a celobnition 
)f His praises ; lio (Hammàd) has siiid that the Apostle of God lias 
prohibitcd the killing of the frog, the bird furcul^ and the bce. But 
[lni-*Adt says, " I do not know of any tradition related by 
Hummftd b. 'Ubaid besides this." Al-BukhAri says that his tradition 
is not trustworthy. Abù-Ufttim says that the tradition is not a 
trustworthy one. 

It is related in Kitdh az-Zàhir by Abù-'Abd-AUah al-Kurtubt 
that David said, " I shall, verily, celebrate the praises of God 
to-night in a manner in which none of His creatures has (ever) 
done," upon which a female frog called out to him from a channel 
for water in his house, " Dàwud, do you boast, in respect of 
God, of your celebration of His praises, when I bave remembered 

216 AD-DAHtRrS 

the nome of God for the last seyeiity years, so as to have causod my 
tongne to be drìed np, and for the last ten nights I have neithcr 
tasted yegetation nor drank ^ater, on account of my being engaged 
in repeating two formnlas?" David thereupon asked ìt, ^'What 
are they ? " and it replied, ^* They are, ^ Thon whosc praises are 
celebrated by every tongne and who art remembercd in every 
place I ' " David ihen said to himself , ^' It is not possible for me 
to say anything more eloqnent than this." 

AI-Baihal^ relates in bis Shi^b regarding Malik b. Anas as 
havìng said that the prophet of God, Dftwnd, having thonght to him- 
self that nobody conld praise bis creator in a better way than that 
in which be praised Him, God sent down to him an angcl, while he 
was standing in bis prayer-niche with the tank of water by bis side. 
The angel said to him, *^ Dàwnd, nnderstand what tliis female 
frog is nttering," npon which Dàwnd listened to it silently and 
fonnd it saying, '^ Celebrated be Thy praises I and with Thy praise 
is the end of .the knowledge of Thee." The angel then asked him, 
*^ What do yon think now ? " and he replied, ^* By Him, wìio lias 
appointed me a prophet, I never praised Him thns." 

It is related in Kitdb Fafil adh-dhikr by Ja'far b. Muhammad 
b. al-Hasan al-Qkriyyàni (?), the Ufifij, the very learnod, regarding 
^Ikrimah as having said, '' The cry of the frog is the celebration of 
the praises of God." It is also related in the sanie hook, on the 
anthority of al-A^mash, regarding Abù-2^àlih, that having heard the 
creaking of a door, he said, '* It is doing that as a celcbmtion of the 
praises of God." 

(Information.) Ar-Ba'is Ibn-S)nà states that, when frogs 
become plentifnl in a year, and more numerons than usuai, there 
will be an epidemie (of plague) after them. Al-Kazwtni states 
that frogs lay their eggs in sand like the turtle ; thcro are two 
varieties of them, the mountain variety and the water varicty. Az- 
Zamakhshari has copied in al-FàHky on the anthority of 'limar b. 
*Abd-al-'Aziz, who said that a man ha%àng asked bis Lord to show 
him the place of Satan in the heart of man, he saw in a dream in 
the manner that a sleeping man does, a man like crystal glass the 
interior of whose body could be seen from outside it, and Satan in 

9AY1t AL-9iYAWÌN 217 

the appearance of a frog with a proboscis like that of a mosquito, 
which Satan had introduced through tho man's left shoulder into 
hb heart to excite (in it) vain promptìngs ; but whenever the man 
remembered tho namo of God, ìt rocedod. This will be agaiii 
related in the art. (jO^ I in the words of as-Suhaili. 

(LawFulnesfl or unlawfnlness.) It is unlawful to eat it, on 
aocount of the prohibition for killing it. Àl-6aihaM relates in bis 
Sunan^ on the authority of Sahl b. Sa*d a^-Sé'idt, that the Prophet 
prohibited the killing of five animals, — the ant, the 1)ee, the frog, 
the bird fìirady and the hoopoe. It is related in the Musnad of 
Abù-Dàwud at-Tayàli«t and in the Siuxaìi of Abù-Dftwud, an-Nasà'i, 
and al-Uàkim, on the anthority of ^Abd-AUàh b. ^Uthman ai- 
Taiml, regarding the Prophet, tliat a physician having askcd bini 
about a frog for the purposc of putting it into some medicine, he 
prohibited hiin from killing it, wliich show» that the frog is 
unlawful to be eaten, and that it is not included among the aquatic 
animals which are pcrmittcd (to be uscd). One of the jurisconsults 
statos that the frog is declared to bo unlawfnl, bocause it was a 
ncìghbour of God in the water upon which was His Throno bcforc 
the creation of the heavens and earth ; God has said, *' And His 
Throne was upon the water." ' 

Ibn-*Adl relates, on the authority of 'Abd-AUàh b. 'Dmar, that 
the Prophet said, " Do not kill frogs, for their croaking is a cole- 
bration of the praiscs of God." As-Sulamt says, "T asked ad- 
Darakutni about it, and ho replicd that it is based on slentler 
authority." I say that tlio correct thing is that the relation of tho 
tradition ceases with 'Abd-Allàh b. 'Umar ; — so al-Baihaki says, as 
has been already mentioned in the art. iJ(i:s^l. Az-2iamakhsharl 
says that frogs say in their croaking, ** Celebrated be the praiscs of 
the King, the Holy one ! " It is related on the autliority of Anas, 
** Do not kill frogs, bocause they passed by the fire of Abraham, 
carrying water in their mouths and sprinkling it on the fire." In 
Shifd^ ^"fiiuiùr by Ibn-Sab*, it is related out of a tradition of 'Abd- 
AUfth b. *Amr b. al-'Aa that the Prophet said, ** Do not kill frogs, 
for their croaking is a cclebration of the praiscs of God." 

lAl-Eur'&D XI-9. 


Among otlier orders regarding its lawfulness or unlawf alness^ 
it may be mentioned that it becomes uncloau by its death, like tho 
other uneatable animals. A view is copiod in aUKxfàyah^ on the 
anthority of al-Màwardt, io the effect that it does not becomc unclean 
by its death, about which onr shaikh holds the opinion that it is^ 
a mistake in copyiug, and says, ^^ This view is not mentioned in 
aUHàid or any other of bis (al-M&wardì's) books." If they die in 
a little water, an-Nawawi states, '' If we say that they cannot be 
eaten, they render the water unclean, withoat any difiEerence of 
opinion." Al-Màwardt states that there are two opinions regarding 
its uncleanness, one of them being that it causes a person or thing 
to be unclean in the same manner that other unclean things do, and 
the other one being that it is excusablo like the blood of fleas, 
but the correct opinion is the former one. 

When the auibiissadors froin al-Yauiàniah carne to Abù-Bakr 
after Musailamah was killed, he said to theni, " What was your 
leader (friend) in the habit of saying ? " They asked to be excused 
from stating it, but he said, ^' You shall, verily, state it ; " upon 
■which they said, "He used to say, *0 frog the son (daughter) 
of a frog, how long (inuch) wilt thou croak ? Thy upper part is in 
water and thy lower part in niud ; thou neither preventest a drinker 
(from drinking) nor renderest the water turbid 1 ' " 

(Proverbs.) " More croaking than a frog." Al-Akhtal says : — 

" Frogs in the darkness of night answer one another, 
But their croaking guidea to them the serpent of the sea. " 

This has been already given bcfore. It is like the proverb, 

*' Bar&kish has guided (the enemy) to lier people." Baràkish was a 

bitch, which, having heard the sound of the hoofs of horses, barked, 

audthus guided by ber barking (the enemy) to the tri be (in which 

slie was) ; the enemy tlien extirpated them. Hamzali b. Abyad 

says : — 

** It (a punishment) cannot have overtaken me on account of a crime, 
For neither mj left nor my right hand has committed a crime ; 
But a nòbie brother has committed it against me, 
Whiist Baràkiah committed a crime against her (own) people.'' 

(Properties.) Ibn-Jumay' says in bis hook aUIrshàd that the 

flesh of frogs causes nausea and a bloody diarrhoea ; the colonr of 


the body chauges, the body swells up, and reason bccomes conf uscd 
from ita use. The f uothor of *i4yii aUKhawàpf states that, if the fat 
of frogs from thickets be placed on the teeth, they inay be reiiioved 
without pain, and that, if a bone of a land-f rog be placed on the 
top of a cookmg-pot, it will prevent it from boiling. If a f rog bo 
dried in the shade, pounded, and then cooked with marsh-inallow 
(althea) and applied after the application of lime and orpimcnt, no 
hair will grow on that part after it. If a frog be thrown alive 
into some neat wine, it will die, bnt if it be then takcn cut and 
thrown into some clean water, it will rovive. It is co))ied from 
Muhammad b. Zakarìyft ar-Ràzi that, if a foot of a frog bc hung 
on the person of one suffering from gout, bis pain will bc rolicvod. 
lì a woman tukes a water-frog and then opening its nìouth spits in 
it thrice and then returns it to water, she will not eonceive. If a 
cooking-pot be rnbbed on its out:jide with the fat of a frog and if 
after that any inflammable substimce of whatcver kind be lighted 
luider it, it will never boil. If a frog be crnshed and placed over 
the sting of reptiles, insects, etc. {1iawàìnm\ it will cure it instanta- 
neously. One of its wonderful properties is that, if it be split into 
two halves from iis head to its end and a woman then looks at 
it, she will be overcome by sexual desire and ber iiiclination for 
nien will greatly increase. If its toiigiie be hung on the person of a 
sloeping woman, she will inEorm (in ber sleop) of ali that she ma j bave 
ilono while awake. If its tongiie be placed on bread and given to eat 
to one who is suspected of having committod a thctt, ho will coiifoss 
it. If its blood be applied over a ])art from which hair is pulled 
out, it will never grow on it (again) ; whoever applies it io bis 
face will be loved by people ; it it be placed on a ginn, the (corres- 
ponding) tooth will fall off without any trouble. Al-Kazwlnt states, 
" When I was in al-Maw«il, we had a friend living in a garden ; ho 
built in it a sitting place and a tank, in which frogs were then boni ; 
they annoyed the residents of that place by their croaking, biit 
they were unable to stop it until a man carne and said, 'Phice a 
metallic basin turned npsido down on the surface of the water.' 
They did that, and there was no more croaking hcard coming from 
them after that." Muhammad b. Zakarlyà ar-ltàzt states that, 


220 AD-DAMfRÌ's 

if a lamp be placed in a drinking cup and that cnp then placed on 
water or in a water canal in which the croaking of frogs is heard, 
thcy Avill beooino silent and their voice will not at ali be heard. 

(Int^rpretation of it in dreanis.) A frog in a dream indicates 
a devotee exerting bis utmost in the obedience of Qod, because it 
ponred water over the fire prepared by Nimrod (for Abraham). (The 
presence of) niany frogs indicates torture, because they were one of 
the miracles performed by Moses ; God has said, ^*' Then we sent 
upon them the flood and the locusts and the lice and the frogs and 
the blood, — signs detailed ; but they were big with pride and were 
a people who did sin/' * The Gliristians say that he who dreams of 
being in the company of frogs will bave bis association with bis 
relatives and neighbours of a pleasing nature, and that he who eats 
the flesh of a frog in a dream will fall into a dìfliculty. Ar^tmtdùrus 
states that frogs in a dream indicate treacherous men and enclianters. 
J&m&sb states that he who talks with a frog in a dream will obtain a 
kingdom. If one dreams that frogs bave gene out of a town, 
torture will go out of it. 

^ é 

^j^ I (afi'Puwa^). — ^An-Nawawl states that the better known 
explanation of the word is that it is a certain species of the animals 
called (U'hawamm (reptiles, insects, etc.). Al-Jawharl states that it 
is one of the noctnrnal birds out of the species of the owl (al-hàm). 
Al-Mufaddal states that it is the male of the owl {al-bùm). Pls. afiwd^ 
and fii*dn. 

Tlie correct one out of the two statements (regarding its law- 
fnlness or unlawfulness) is that it is unlawfnl to eat it, as is 
distinctly said in Sharh al^Muliadlidltab, Ar-Ràfi4 states that this 
decides that aét^uica*^ is the male of the owl, and then mcntions 
what has been already said before ; he then states that according 
to this, if there be any stsitement regarding afi-fiuwa^ it is also 
necessary to apply it to the owl, because the male and the fcmale 
of the same species do not differ (in lawfnlness or unlawfulness). 
An-Nawawt states, '^ I bave said that the better known explanation 
of (the word) fiaiwi^ is that it is a species of al-haioàmm^ and that 

» Al-ffur'fio V1I.130. 



thorefore there is no nocessity o( classing theiu two (a^-^uwa^ aud 
tho owl) together in the inatter of thoir lawfulncss or unlawfulncss.'* 
Truly speaking it is uniawf ul to eat it, as is distinctly said in Sharh 

e ■ 

I (afl'Paiby^^A certain animai ont of the marine animai^,, 
of the appearanoe and size of a dog ; — so Ibn-Sidah says. 

HxLaJ I (a^'Pa^tlali). — ^A stender serpent ; — so al-Jawhari says^ 

The word ^i^ I (the serpent) has been ah*eady given under the 

^jV^I (afi'Paiwan). — A tom-cat. PI. ^ayàmiu Hassàn b^ 

Thàbit says: — 

*' A pott-horse, looking as though it were the sua and having at ita aidea 
The stara of the Pleiadea or the eyea of tom-oata {ai-^ayàwin)** 

(Proverbs.) " More wont to creep gently than a toin-cat." A 

poet says : — 

^ He creepa gentlj at night to hia female neighboura, 
In the aame manner that a tom-cat creepa to a lat (Jkamahy* 

«« More wont to catch game than a tom-cat." '^ More given to coni^ 

mitting fomication than a tom-cat.'' And '^More given to leapin»- 

(the female) than a tom-cat." 

(End). As-$a^allt states that there aro no words in tho 
langnage having a qniescent ^ with a j after it having a fathah 

over it bnt three, namely, tj^ , \s)j^ì Qud mf^ , which lastmenns 
the planet Satnm. Astronomers state thatits own special revolution 
from the west to the east is completed in twenty-nine years, eight 
months, and six days. Astrologers cali it the greatcr unprosperous 
planet, because it is in an inauspicions place abovo Mars ; they attri^ 
bute to it devastation, destruction, anxiety, and grief, and assert that 
looking at it is beneficiai in anxiety and sorrow, in the same manuer^ 
that looking at Venns is beneficiai in joy and happiness. 



222 AD-DAMfRt-S 

^•^cH^*^ (Tthnir Un Tdmir). — ^The flea, It also means an 

ignoble or base man. Ti is said of an obscnre man» oiie who is not 
known» that he is a T&mir bin T&mir. 

4 ■ 

^j.j UkJI (a^Xdu'*). — [The i>eacòck.] A certain well-known 

bird. Dim. ^/toai«, formed after dropping the angmentative lettera. 

Its Bobriquets are QbxCl-huin and abiVl-wasM. It is among 

birds, in respect of hononr and beauty, like the borse among 

beasts. It is by nature a chaste bird and fond of glorying in itself, 

Iieliaving proudly, admiring its own fcathers, and twisting its train 

(tail) like an arch, especially if the fcmale bird is looking at it. 

The f emale lays eggs after becoming three years of age, and at that 

time the feathers of the male bird are fuUy developed and their 

colonr is perfect. The f emale bird lays twelve eggs once a year, 

sometimes less and sometimes more, but it does not lay thcm imme- 

diately one after another. It treads at the time of spring and casts 

off its feathers in autumn, in the same way that trees cast off thoir 

leaves. When leaves commence to spring out on trees, its feathers 

also come out. It is much given to playing with the female when 

the latter is hatching (eggs), sometimes (even) breaking the eggs, 

and for this reason its eggs are hatched under a domestic fowl, ^vhich, 

however, is not able to batch more than two of ite eggs ; but it is 

necessary to watch the fowl for the purposo of providing ali the 

tlìings it may rcquire in the sliape of food and drink, out of the fear of 

its rìsing from over the cgg and the air spoiling it. The young bird 

which Comes forth out of an egg hatched by a domestic fowl is less 

beautiful, and is defective in form and body. The period roquired for 

haixihing it is tliirty days. Its young one comes out of the egg like 

a chicken of a domestic fowl, with feathers on and ready to obtain 

its food. A poet has described it beautifully whore he says: — 

9at1t al-QatawIn 223 

" Celebrated be the pniaeB of Uim out of whose ereation is the peacockl 
A bird whioh is a chief over animala of ita kind ; 
In ita deeoratioDy it ia aa it were a bride ; 
In ita feathera are aet ooina, 
And in their cirolea, anna ahine ; 
On ita head are treea planted, 
Aa thoQgh it were a yiolet plant walking gayly 
Or a flower prohibited to dry up." 

It may be mentionod as a most wonderful tliing that, notwith- 

at4inding ita beauty, it is looked upon as an unpropitious oiiicn, ilio 

rcason of which is, — ^bnt God knows bcst, — ^that as it was the cause 

of Iblls entering Paradise and of the expulsion of Adam freni it, 

and the cause of that abode remaining uninhabited by Adam (hiring 

the period of the existence of this world, keeping it in honscs is 


It is related that, when Adam phmted the vine-crooper, Iblis 
carne there and slaughtered over it a peacock, and the creeper drank 
its blood. When its leaves carne forth, he slaughtered over it »n ape, 
and the creeper drank its blood. When it>s fruit carne oiit, he 
slaughtered over it a lion, and the creeper dnink its blood. When 
its fruit was fully ripe, he slaughtered over it a pig, and the creeper 
drank its blood. On this account the dcscriptive qualities of thcse 
four animals seize a drinker of wine in this way : when he first 
drìnks it and it creeps into bis limbs, bis colour becomcs red, nnd he 
appeai'S handsome as a peacock docs ; >vhcn the commencomont of 
intoxication sets in, he plays, claps (bis hands), and danccs as sin ape 
does ; when the intoxication becomes strong, the leonino quality 
Comes upon him, and he sport-s and beliaves in an annoying nuinner 
towards bis companions and talks incohcrently useless nonsense ; he 
is then affected with torpor in the manner that a pig is afPected with 
it, seeks slcep, and the strings of bis strength })ecome loose. 

(Information.) T^'us b. Kaisfin, the jurisconsult of al-Yaman, 
whose name was Dhakwàn, was styled Xà*us, because he was 
a peacock of the reciters (of the Knr'àn) and the Icarned men. 
Some, however, say that bis (proper) name was Wu^, and that 
bis sobriquet was Abù-'Abd-ar-Rabnian. He was at tlie liead 
of the chiefs (lords) out of the Followers in learning and practice, 

224 AD-DAlCÌBt's 

and had met fifty of the Companious of the Prophet and heard 
Ibn-<Abl>&8, Abù-Hnrairah, J&bir b. 'Abd-Allàh, and 'Abd-Allfth b. 
az-Zubair. MujAhid, 'Amr b. DìnAr, ^Amr b. Shu^aib, Mnhammad b. 
Shihàb az-Zahrty and others bave related traditions on bis authoritj, 
Ibn-a9-$alah relates In bis Kiftlah^ *^ We bave been informed 
regarding az--Zahit as having said, ^ I went to *Abd-al-MaIik b* 
Marwàn, and he asked me, " Znhrt, whence bave you come ?" I 
replied, ^^ From Makkah/' He then asked me, '* Whom have you 
lef t behind to govem the people ?" I replied, '' 'A\i* h. Abi-Rabftb." 
He ihen asked, " Is he ont of the Arabis or out of the enfranchised 
slaves ?" I replied, " Out of the .enfranchised slaves." He then 
asked, ^* By what means has he become their ruler ?" I replied, 
*^ By means of religionsness and the relation of traditions." He 
then said, " It is necessary that religions people and relaters of 
traditions shonld nile men." He then asked, '^Who rules the 
people of al-Yaman ?" I replied, " Tà*ns b. Eaisàn." He asked, 
^^ Is he ont of the Arabs or enfranchised slaves?" I replied, '^ Out 
of the enfranchised slaves." He then asked, ** By what means has 
ho become their raler ?" I replied, '^ By the same means that 
*At&' has become their ruler." He then said, *' It is necessary that 
one like him should rule men." He next asked, ** Who rules the 
people of Egypt ?" I replied, " Yazld b. Hablb." He asked, " Is 
he out of the Arabs or enfranchised slaves ?" I replied, *' Out of 
the enfranchised slaves." He tlieu said the same thing that he liad 
dono in the two previous cases. He then asked, ^' Who rules the 
people of Syria ? " I replied, « Makliùl ad-DimasliM." He asked, 
" Is he out of the Arabs or enfranchised slaves ?" I replied, " Out 
of the enfranchised slaves. He is a Nubian slave enfranchised by 
a woman of the tribe of Hudhail." He then said the same thinjr 
as bcfore. He then asked, ^^Who rules the people of Mese- 
potamia ?" I replied, " Maimùn b. Mibràn." He then asked, ^' Is 
he out of the Arabs or enfranchised slaves ?" I replied, ^' Out of the 
enfranchised slaves." He then said the same thing as before. He 
next asked, "Who rules the people oEKhurAsftn ?" I replied, "Ad* 
Jpahhàk b. Muzàhim." He asked, " Is he out of the Arabs or 
enfranchised skves ?" I replied, " Out of the enfranchised slaves." 

r * 

I * 9AYÌT AL-flAYAWÌN 225 


• He thoii aaid a» boforo. Ho next asked, " Who rules tho pcople o£ 


al-Bftsmh?" I ropliod, "Al-Hasan b. Abl'I-Hnsan.*' He asked, 

[ •* Is lio out of tho Anibs or enfranohisod slaves ?" I rcplicd, " Out 

1» oE the enfranchised slaves ;" upoii which he said, " Woo betide you I 

Who rules the peoplo of al-Kù£ah ?" I replied, " Ibnihim an- 

: Nakha't." Ho asked, " Is he out of the Arabs or enfranchised 

slaves?" I replied, "Out of the Arabs ; " upon which he said, " Woo 

; betide you I Zuhrt, you bave dispclled grief from me. By God, 

the enfranchised slaves rule the Arabs to suoli an extent that they 

preach to theni from the pulpits, whilst the Arabs remain boneath 

them ! " I said, " Commander of tho faithful, it is the ordcr of 

God and His religion. Whocver preserves it, riscs in honour, and 

whocver trifles with it, falls.' " 

Whcn *Umar b. *Abd-al-*Aziz became a khalffah, Tfi'us wrote 
to him, " If you wish your actions to be good, employ pious mcn," 
upon which ^Umar said, " It is sufScient as an exhortation." 

Ibn-Abi'd-Dunyà relates, giving his autliority, regarding Jà'us 
as having »ud, " While I was in Makkah, al-Uajjfi j sent for me. 
I thcrefore went to him, and he caused me to sit down by his side 
and to lean against a pillow. While we were talking, ho heard a 
loud voice saying, *Hcre I am, what is your command?' upon which 
he said, 'Bring the man to me.' He was therefore brought before 
him, and he asked him, ^ Out of whom is the man ? * and the 
man rcplicd, 'Out of the Muslims,' upon which al-IJajjsij said 

* I asked you regarding your country and tril>o.' The man replied, 

* Out of the pcople of al- Yaman.* Al-Hajjàj then asked, * In what 
condition did you leave Muhammad b. Yiìsuf ? ' meaning his brother, 
who was the govcmor of al-Yaman. He thereupon replied, * I Icft 
him fat, comcly, clothed in silk, mountod, and frequently going 
out and in.' Al-Hajjàj then said, * I asked you regarding his 
conduct.' He replied, ' I left him iniquitous, oppressivo, obcdient 
to created beings, and disobedicnt to the Creator.' Al-Hajjftj said, 
*Do you dare to say that of him, when you know in what 
estimation I hold him?' The man said, *Do you soe his 
position in your estimation more honourable than my jiosition 
in the estimation of my Lord, when I &m a believer in Hi« 


226 AD-DAMtRfs 

Prophet and a visitor to His House?' Al-Hajjaj tkereupon 
remained silont, and the man went away witkout permission. I 
f ollowed him and said, ^ For the sake of company.' But he said, 

• No, not wiDingly and with pleasnre. Were you not the person 
leaning against the pillow just now, when you have seen men asking 
you for decisions in the matter of the religion of God ? ' I replied, 

* Bat he is a commander in power, and having sent for me I went 
io him just in the same way that you did.' He asked, * Wherefore 
then that leaning against the pillow in an easy f rame of mind ? 
Was it not your dnty to advise him and to make him act rìghtly 
towards his subjects by exhortation and waniing against -the wrong 
^misfortunes) arising from his oppression? But you keep out of 
your mind for an hour of pleasant society with him, what will here- 
after perturb that serenity of the mind ? ' I then said, * I ask 
pardon of God and I repent (return to Him), and now I ask your 
permission to accompany you.' He said, 'God has pardoned you^ 
bnt I am already accompanied by one who is excessively jealous 
about me ; if I am happy in anybody else's company, He will reject 
me.' He then Icft me and went away." 

It is related in the History of Ibn-Kh., on the autliority of 
'Abd-Allàh ash-Shàmi, who said, *' I went to visit T&'us, when an 
old man came out to me. I asked him, 'Are you Tà'us?' and he 
rcplied, 'lam his son.' I therefore said to him, 'If you are his 
són, then the shaikh has certainly become a dotard,' but ho replied, 
■' A leamed man does not become a dotard.' I then went in to him, 
and he asked me, ' Do you wish me to brìng together for you the 
Pentateuch, the New Testamont, the Psalms, and the Kur'àn in this 
my assembly ? ' I replied, 'Yes.' He therefore said, 'Fear God 
with such a fear that there is nothing else more fearful tlian He in 
your estimation, and hope in Him with a hope that is greater than 
your fear for Him, and wish for your neighbour what you would 
wish for yourself .' " 

A woman said, " No man remained without being tempted by 
me, escepting Jà'us. I therefore appeared before him, upon which 
he said to me, ' When it is such and such a timo, come.' I therefore 
went to him at that time, and he then took me with him to the 




i 9AYAT al-hayawAn 227 

('flacred mosiiue and said, • Lie down,' upon which I siiid, * Here ? * 
fiind he replicd, * He wlio sees us here, will sce iià in any otlier 
[place.'" The woman thercupon . repcnted. He said, "The roli;^iou.s 
' dovotion of fli youth is noi completo until ho niarries." 

Jà'us nscd io say, " There is nothiiig whicli a man say-i but 

is countcd agàinst him, cven his moaning in illnens. " He said, 

;** Jesus having mot Iblls, the hitter mùd io liim, 'Do not you know 

thnt nothing will betide you hut what is de.stinftd for you?' Jo<ii.s 

replicd, *Yes.' Iblts tlion said, 'Ascend io the summit of rliis 

mountain and throw yourself down ; soe whether you will live or 

not. ' Jesus replied, * Do not you know that God has sjiid, *• My 

aervant cannot test me, for I do what I please. " ? Verily, a scrvant 

does not try his Lord, but Grod tries his servant. '" Tà'us said, 

** Iblts therefore became his enemy." He uscd to say, "Associate 

with wise men ; you will become connected with them, tliough yoii 

may not be one of them." Abù-Dfiwud a^-Tayalist rclates on tho 

authority of Zama'ah b. Sàlih, who had it on the authority of Ibn- 

Jà'us, regarding his fathcr as having &iid,^ " He who is not mentÌ€)ned 

in a will as an executor (of it), is not beset with trials, and he who is 

not appointed a ]kà(l! to decide (disput-es) between mon, does not 

expcrience the distress of trials." Ahmad rclates in Aititi az-Zulul 

regarding him as having S4iid, " The dead are tried in thoir graves for 

sevcn days, and wish that for tliose «lays the póor may be fed on 

thcir account. " He stat<».s that the following used to be tho fonn 

of a supplication-praycr of Ta'us: — " Go<l, grant me faith and 

practice, and bless me with wealth and children I " 

The Hll(i4 Abù-Nua*im and olhors rolate regarding bini as 
having said, "There was a man who had four sons ; he foli ili, and 
one of the sons said (to the others), ' Either you will take care of 
him, and bave \\o inlierittmce for you f rom him, or I shall tsiko care of 
him and bave no inheritance f rom him for me.' They rejdied, 'Take 
care of him and bave no share of inheritance for you from him.' He 
tlien took care of him until he died, and did not then t4)ke anything 
out of his share of inheritance from him. The father carne to liini in 
a dream and said to him, * Go to sudi and sudi a place an«l take from 
it a hundred dtnàrs,* upon which he asked him in his sleep, * Is 


tlìere auy bledsing in it ?' nnd the fatfaer reiilicd, ^No.' AVhen the 
nioruing carne, he inentione J tho dream to Ììm wife, ^'Iio snid, ^ Take 
it, for by ita blessiug you niay be able to clothe and Eeed yourself •' 
He, however, refused (to do it), and whcn the evoning carne, the 
father carne to him (again) in bis sleep and said to bini, ^Go to such 
and snch a place and take From it ten dinArs,' upon which he asked 
him, ^Ifl there any blessing in it ?' and the father replicd, 'No/ 
When the moming carne, he niontioned it to bis wifo, wbo replied 
Avhat she had said the first time. He, however, refused to take it. 
Tlie father baving come to him the third night said, ' Go to snob 
and siicb a placo and take from it jx dìnàr,' u})ou which he asked him, 
*' Is there any blessing in it ?' and the father replied, 'Yes/ He 
therefore went and took the dìnàr, after which he went to the 
market, where he found a man carrying two fishos ; be asked bini, 
^Wliat is the priee of tiiem ?' and the man replied, 'A dtnàr.' He 
took them from him and went away with them to bis abode, where 
he slit open their bellies and found in them two pearls, the like of 
wbich was never seen (before) by men. The king baving (in the 
meanwhile) sent for a pearl in order to purchase it, none wm found 
vrith anybody but him, and so he sold it for tbirty mnle-loads of 
gold. When tho king Siiw it, he said, ' This would not do (suit) 
without its companion (sister) pearl, therefore search for its compa- 
nion, even if you bave to pay doublé its price.' They therefore came 
to him and asked him, * Have you got its companion pearl ? We 
sliall givo you (for it) doublé of what we bave (already)given you.* 
He asked tliem, ' AVill you (really) do that ? ' and they replied, 
* Yes,' upon which be gave it to them for doublé the price at which 
they had taken the first one." 

fà'us died a little over seventy ycars of ago, wbile be was 
performing the pilgrimago at Makkah, a day before tlio day of 
Tarwìyahy and Hishàm b. ' Abd-al-Malik, wbo was the Commander of 
the faitbful (at the time), said the funeral prayer over him. Tbia 
occurred in the year 106 A. H. . He performed forty pilgrimages, 
and bis supplication-prayer (to God) was (always) answered. 

(Lawfulness or unlawfulness.) It is unlawful to eat the flosh 
of the peacock, on account of its nastiness. But some say that 


it is kwful, for it (locs not cnt fìlthy things and flosh. T)ie 

flclling of it is valid in two ways, citlicr on account of the kwfulncss 

of cating it or on account of the pleasnrc dcrivcd from looking ai ita 

colonr. It has alrcady been mcntioncd in the art. aa-^-** that Abù- 

^antfah statcs that the hand of a person stealing birds is not to be 

cut, for originally it is based on its perniissiblcness, but ash-Sh&fi^f, 

Mftliky Ahmad, and otliers difEer from hiin in that niatter. 

(Proverbs.) " More self-conceit^d than a peacock." Al-Juwliuri 

fitates that the proverb, " More inaus))icions than Tnwais, " rcf era 

to a catamite that used to live in al-Madinah ; he said, ^' pcople 

of al-Madtnali, expect the arrivai of Anticlirist while I ani alive 

and anìongst you, for when I die, you yfìW be secure, as I was 

born on the night on which the Prophet died, weaned on the day tluit 

Ahtì-Bakr died, attained the age of piil)erty on the day that 'Uiiiar 

was niurdered, married on the day that *UthniAn was niurdered, 

and had a 8on bom to me on the day that Ali was as3as.sinated.'* 

Ibn-Kli. relates that SulaimAn b. •Al)d-al-Malik wrote to bis oflScer 

in al-Madinah, "Connt (^j-A^t ) ali the catamites in your pjirt, ** in 

which a dot liaving f alien on the ^(in tf'^J^'), that officor ordorecl ali 

the catamites to be castrate d ((^-^i ), which was dono, f^wais was 

also castnited among them. When they were castrated, they showed 

so mudi Joy over it that one of them sjiid, "How indepondcnt 

we are now of arms with which we do not fight I " and another, 

who was Tnwais, said, " Fie to you I You bave not doi^rivcd me of 

anything but of the urine-spout (cjinal)." The muno of Tn\vai:i 

was X^'wus, but wlien he liecaune a catamite, it was convertod into 

tlie diminutive form T^wais. He was also «illed 'Abd-an-Na'ini. 

He said about himself : — 

"I am, Terily, *Àbil-nn-Ka1n], 
1 am the peacock of Hell, 
I rnn the inost inauBpioious of thoBe 
That walk on the face of the earth ; 
I am ^ , then J ^ 

Then (3, and then the stni&ng of ^ ." 
He means by the stuffing of ^ (ìnim) ^, for when one f^iy s 7nim 
(/•-*)> u intervenes between the two mimn. He intends by it (jgÀl^ 
(one having bis sexual organ cut off). Twwats died in 92 A. H. . 


(ProperHes.) Tlie flesli o£ the peucock is difficiilt of digention and 
o£ an inforior nature^ the best kiiid of it being tbat oE a yoiing bird ; 
it is beneficiai to a hot stoniach, and boiling it gcntly witìi vinegar 
before cooking it takes away its injiirious p^ope^t3^ It produce» a 
<ìoan»e kind of chyme and suit3 hot constitntions. Physicians dis- 
approvo the flesh of peacocks and say that it is the coarsest out of 
the flesh of ali kinds of birds, and the inost indigestible one ; it is 
necessary to keep the bird after slaughtering it under a wcight for 
a night and then to cook it thoronghly well ; mei*^ in easy circuni- 
stances ought to I>e prevented froni eating it, for it is out of the food 
of men undergoing great exercise. Avenzoar (Ibn-Zuhr) states 
with regard to its properties that, whcn a peacock sees poisonod food 
or sniells it, it is delighted, and spreading out its two wings, dances 
and shows signs of being happy. If its bile he mixed with oxymel 
and hot water and then given to drink to a person suffcring from 
colicky pains in the belly, it will cure bini. It is copied on the autho* 
rity of Hermes tliat, if its bile he drunk mixed with vinegar, it will 
prove I)eneficial in the stings of insects, reptiles, otc. (hawdmm)^ but 
the author of 'jly/i aUKÌiawàfi^ says that physicians and A(hùras (?) 
state that, if the bile of a peacock be given to drink to a human 
being, he becomes mad ; he adds, '^ I bave tried it." Hermes states 
that, if its blood bc mixed with flesh-gluc and salt and then painted 
over malignant (bad) ulcers of which there is fear of corroding 
(eating throngh tissues), it will cure thcm. If its mute be applied 
to warts, it will pulì them out. If its bones be burnt, rnbbcd fine, 
and painted over frcckles, they will be cured by the order of God. 

(Interpretation of it in a dream.) A dream about a peacock 
indicates pride and astonishment on account of beauty and band- 
someness, for one who possesses it. Sometimes a dream about it 
indicates slandering, conceit, pride, submission to (one's) enemies, 
the vanishing of happiness, and expulsion from a happy state to one 
full of troubles and from amplitude to straitness. Sometimes it 
indicates ornaments, garments, a crown, beautiful spouses, and band- 
some sons. Al-Makdist sbites that a peafowl in a dream indicates a 
foreign (Persian) woman possessing wealtli and beauty, but in- 
aus]iicious in ber forelocks, and that the male bird indicates a foreign 

hayJLt al-hayawìn 231 

(Pcrsian) king ; he who dreains of having entered iiito frìondly 
relatìons witli pcacocks, will enter upon brotherly relatìoiis with the 
kings o£ the Persinns and obtain from theiii a Nabathean girl 
(slave). Artàmldùrns states that peacocks in dreains indicate meii 
witli handsome taccs and laughing teeth. Some say that a peacock 
indicates a noii-Muslim foreign (Persian) woman. 

^ikll (a^J\t'iV). — [A bird, or a flying thing whcthcr a birci or 

an insect.] The sing. of at4uy^T. Fem. tdUrah^ Avhicli is sekloiu 
nsed. Pls. t^j/r^ oJtyàr^ and tuyiìtr. At^yardn is the motion oE an 
animai possessing two wings in the air witli its two wings. 

God bas said, '^ There is not a beast upon the earth nor a bird 
that flies with both its wings, but is a nation like to yon ; " ' that is 
to say, in forni, means of snstenance, life, death, resurrection, judg- 
nient, and retaliation of one against another, as has bccii alrcad}*^ 
mentioned. If He does that in respcct of beasts, we are bctter suited 
for it, since we are endowed with reason. '*A nation like to you 
(^ll«l («^1)," is in the singular and definite ; — ^so *Atà' says. As to 
His words, " with both its wings," they are used to confimi its 
(originai) sense and to avoid the frequently used metaphorical sense 
of the word, for td'tr (omen) is employed for what is inauspicious 
and auspicious. Az-Zamakhshari states that the necessity of this 
verse) was to show the great power of God, the subtlety of His 
knowledge, the extent of His sovereignty, and His arrangement in 
arranging those different creatures and kinds, numerous in their 
specics, and that He is the protector of what belongs to them and 
what is against them, and their defender in their different conditions, 
one business not taking Him away from another. 

Ahniad rclates on authentic authorities, on the originai authority 
of Anas, that the Prophet said, "The birds of Paradiso are like 
the Bactrian cainels and feed on the trees of Paradise." Abù-Bakr 
asked him, " Apostle of God, are those birds delicate (in taste) ? '* 
and he replied, " Yes, but the eaters (thereof ) will be more delicato 
than they." He said that thrice and addcd, " And I hopo you will be 

1 Al-KurVin Vl-Sd. 


232 AI>-DAMtBt*8 

one of ihose tliat will eat out of them." ÀtrTirmidh! hiia related it 
in nearly similar wordd and added that it is a tradition delivcred on 
respcctable autliority. 

Al-Bazzàr rclates on the anthority of Ibn-Mas'ùd that the 
Prophet saidy '* Tou will look at the birds in Paradise and desire to 
have thòin (for food), npon which thej will fall ready roasted 
before yon." It is related in the Afràd of Muslini, on the 
anthority of Abù-Hnrairah, that the Prophet said, *' People with 
hearts like those of birds will cnter Paradise." An-Nawawi states 
that some say that it nieans hearts like those of birds in their delicacy 
and weakness, as in another tradition^ namely, '^The people of al- 
Yamun are tlie most delicate and woakest in hearts. " Biit others 
say that it mcans hearts like those of birds in fear and dread, for 
birds aniong animals are niost given to fear and dread, as God has 
saidy *' None fear God bnt the wise among His servants/' ' in which 
it is as it were intended, ^'a people overcome by fear/' as is 
related regarding some of the parties of the ancients abont thcir 
excessive fear. Some say that the object bere is, '' those that trust 
(in God)," and some say that at^^ir bere means what one takes 
an anspicious or inanspicious omen from, the originai mcaning boing 

anything possessing wings. The Arabs nscd to say ^JSlLn AiJ tJjtX 

(what God decrces and docs, not what you do), with a fianiìnah 
in this sense ; there is (also) a sense of snpplication-prayer in it. 
J'd^ir al'insdn means a man's action, which he wears like a necklace ; 
some say that it means a man's means of sustcnance. At^d^ir also 
means (a share of) lack in good or evil, as in the words of God, '' And 
every man's fortnne (augury) have we fastened on his ncck ;" • in 
which some say that S/^U» means his fortune. The commentators 
state that it mcans, ^* What one does of good or evil, we have 
fastened on his neck," so that every man has a share of Inck in good 
or evil, which God has docreed and which is fastened to his neck. 
Lnck in good or evil is tàHr^ on account of the saying of the Arabs, 
^ikil ^4 IìXj ^l^\ àJ^jM, (fortune bronght to him such an evil 
evont), by way of augury. It is related in the Sunan of AbA-D&wud 

1 Al-Kur'àa XXXV-25. «Idem XVIi-14. 

9AY1t AL-9AYAWAN 233 

and other books, on tho authority of AIiA-RazIiì, who siiid, '^Tlic 
Apostlc of Qod said, ^Drcama are on tho wings of a bìrd w'iiile tliey 
aro not intcrprctcd ; if thoy aro int^^rprctcd, thoy conio to he triio 

: (alight).' I thmk that he said (al^M)', 'Do noi conininnicato thcni 
to anybody but one for whoni yoa bave affoction or one who has 

, (good) judgment.' " 

[The author bere qnotes froin the B. D. of Ibn-Kh., out o£ 
the biography of Musa b. Nii^air, an account of tlìc table of Solonion 
and tlie crowns of the kings of Spain supposed to liave becn found 
by liiin at Toledo, when he conquercd Spam, and also the rciuson of 
the Oreeks omigrating to Spain and colonising it, etc.] ^ 

In Kìfàyat al-Mit^tahid by onr ."«baikb, the IniAni, the knowìng, 
Janiftl-ad-<lin al-Yàfì'i, ìt Is related that the Shaikli, one knowiug 
God, *Uniar b. al-FArid hnppened (one day) in the days of the 
commencenient of bis career to enter a coUege in Egypt, where Iie 
found an old green-grocer pcrfornùng ablution for ))niyer out of 
a tank of water in it, without any regard to the proper ordcr. He 
therefore said to bim, " old man, you bave advanced to this age 
and are in a country like this, and yet you do not know wcll bow 
to perform ablution for prayer ! '* The old man said to bini, " O 
*Umar, you will not prospcr (become fortunate) in Eg)'pt." He 
then went to bim and sitting bcfore bini, said, " my master, in 
what place shall I prosper (become fortunato)?" He roplied, " In 
Makkah." Ibn-al-Fàrid asked bim, ''0 my master, wherc is 
Hakkali ?" and he roplied, " Kore this," pointing out to bini the 
direction of it. The old man then ordercd bini to proc(^cd to it at 
once ; so he went thcre immodiatoly and rcmaincd in it for twelvo 
years. He became a prosperous (foi-tunatc) man and composcd 
ih ere bis Diwdn, Then some timo after that, he board the «ibovo 
mentioned old man saying, " *Umar, come (bere), he prcscrt dt 
my death." He therefore went to bini and the old man said to 
him, " Take this dìnàr and make proparations with it for me, and 
then carry me and deposit me in this place," pointing with hiu 
band to a place in al-Karàfah, which is the place in whick 

1 De SlAoe'B T. Voi III, pp. 479, 480, and 485. 

234 AD-DAHIAÌ'8 

Ibn-al-F£rid is burìed ; (he added), ^' then watcli as to what becoinei 
of me." Ibn-al-Fftrid states, ^^ I aidcd him and remained aidinj 
hini, until I madc the preparation for hiin, after 'which I carried 
him and deposìted him in that place and waited there, when I found 
that a man alighted from the air. We praycd over him and stood 
there to see what would become of him ; the sky then became filled 
with green birds, out of which a largo one carne and swallowed him 
and flew away. I was surprised at it, bnt that man said to me, ' Do 
noi be astonished at thid, for the souls of martyrs are in the triplo 
siomachs of the gi*een birds which feed in Paradise and repair to 
ilìe lanterna hanging nnder the* Throne.' '' Our shaikh states, 
** Tliose are the martyrs caused by means of swords, but as to the 
martyrs caused by means of the sincerity of love, their* bodies aro 
Bouls." I (the anthor) bave disconrsed on the value (position) of love 
towards the end of the eighth part of my hook aUJawhar aUfaAd in 
nearly five karàAs^ (sheets of paper), to which the reader may refer. 

(MiscoUaneous side-information.) If a man possesses a bird or 

game and desires to let it loose out of bis band, there are two views 

regarding it, one being that it is allowable and that he loses bis right 

of ownership over it, in the same way as in the case of bis liberating a 

slave, which view is olected by Ibn-Abi-Hurairah. The other view is 

that it is not allowable ; it is elected by the Shaikh Abù-Ishà^, al- 

Kaffàl, and the 1Ì6AÌ Abù't-T&}T^b ; it is the corrcct one according 

to ar^Batc^h and ash'SItarfjL ; if he docs that, he does a wrong act, 

but it does not go out of his ownership by bis letting it loose, for it 

resembles the animals set at liberty on account of vows, etc. in tlie 

Time of Ignorancc, as has beeu alrcady mentioned under the lettor u^, 

and is analogous to tlie case of a beast set at liberty. Al-Kaffal states 

tliat the vulgar (public) cali it ^atf: (a liberated one) and reckon 

U as a preptiration for a reward (from God), which is unlawful, 

and it is necessary to withliold from doing it, for a liberated bird 

may mÌK with other birds which are allowable to be eaptured, and 

a seizer may capture it and think that it is his property when really 

he cannot possess it, which may lead to his brother Muslim doing 

interdicted tliings. The author of al-l^àh has elected a third view, 

> Each ÌBuvtàèah conaibts of a?e sheets of paper. 




ifiy, tlmt if the man intends by setting the bini etc. at liberty-, 
«roaching near God, bis owne^5^bil) of it ceases, otberwise net. 
yct aece[)t tbo first vicw, the bird rctunis by ita bcing Ict loose to 
originai state as rcgards its allowablcness (to be taken); il \ve 
pi the socond view, which is the corrcet one as has bcen suid 
fore), it is not allowble (to seize it) for one ^vho knoAvs tlmt it ìs^ 
e property of anothcr person and knows its condition to bc the 
ned property of another person on account of its bcing brandcd or 
rkcd on the nosc or clipped in its wings or having car-rings or 
little bells (on it) or being branded or colonrcd or having any othcr 
Imarks showing it to bc owned property. If therc be any doubt wirli 
regard to its condition of being owned property, it is cssontially 
(originally) lawfiil. If the person letting it loose says at the tinie 
òf doing so, " I bave niade it lawful for any person that takes it,** 
it is allowablo to capture it. If \ve accept the third view, the ques- 
tion is, " Is it luwful to captnre it ?" There are two views reganU 
ing it, one being in the affirinative, because it returns to tho 
Originai condition of being lawful (to be capturcd), ami becuuse 
if we interdict captiiring it, it would resemble the liberateti aniniuls 
in the Time of Ignoranco. This is the correct view according to^ 
av'Jìawfiah The other view is that it is interdicted (to captnre it), 
being like a slave, who, if he be liberated, cannot he reducod to 
ulavery (again) ; it is, however, necessary to specify this view witli 
* the condition that a Mu^ilim has libonited it, for if an unbelii^vcr 
setj» it at liberty, it is absolutely allowable to recapture it, Imhuuisc Iiis 
setting it at liberty is not a vah'<l act, and a person he niay set ut 
liberty may be again reduced to slavery. 

Know that the ImAm ar-Hàfi't has declared the statement 
that it is interdicted to let loose (a bird) to bc absolute, biit therc 
are certain conditions in which it is necessary to make an exceptiou 
to it. First. — If the bird is in the habit of running, it is allowable 
to let it loose in a i-ace. Second. — If the bird has a young one 
which it is feared would die ; in such a case it is necessiiry to decide 
it as oblìgatory to let it loose, for the young one is an animai to be 
held in respect, and it is obligatory to exert oneself in protccting its^ 
life. The religious doctors distinctly declare that the punishment 

2«36 AD-DAMÌRrs 

oE a pregnant womaii is io he jìosiponod and put off, if stonìng hcr or 
retaliation agaìii.4t her lias bocoin e incninbent, for the puri>090 of her | 
snckling the (expected) infant. The Shaikh Abù-Muhaininad al- j 
Juwaini has docidod \t aiilawEul io slanghtcr an edible animai carry* \ 
ing (in its womb) an uneaUible onc, the reason of which is that in | 
slanghtering it thore wonld ìye the killing of an animai vrhich it is ] 
noi Liwfal to shiughter, namely, the embryo. The Proiihct certainlj 
set at liberty a femile gazelle that complained (to him) of having 
-two yoang one.s in the wood, and in the Prophct's setting it free 
thore is a prooE of iti being obligatory to do so, it was a 
tliing not prohibited or (sab.sequontly) abrogated. Then again it is | 
'dechired to bo allowable (to do a thing) under certain circnmstances, 
•and its being thns allowed is in (itself) a proof of its being obliga- \ 
tory, as in the c.ise of looking at the |)riyate pùrts in circumcision ; 
4ind because the letting loose of an aniuì.il on account of its being a 
liberated one (s'Vihah) ^as a prohibited thing and then (subsoqucntly) 
jna<Ie allowable in sonio cortiin condì tions, the fact of its being thus 
:raade allowable is in (itself) a proof of its being obligatory. Third.— 
If one has with him a bird or an animai and has nothino: with him 
"wborewith to slaughter it, or to feed it, it is obligatory to let it loose 
to enable it to exerb itself in obtaining its sustenance. Fourtli. — If 
one wishes to enter the state of ihrdnif it is obligatory for him to 
let it loose. 

(Interpretation of it in dreams.) A bird indicat<)s an action. 
God h'is said, "And evcry min's action (fortune) bave we fastened 
^n his ncck." ^ 8am3tim3s an unknown bird indicates C4iutioning 
and exhDrUition, on account of the words of God, " Said they, 'Your 
4iugury is with you ; what 1 if yo are rcminded ? Nay, ye are an 
extravagant people !' " * If one sees a good bird in a dream, his 
•action will be good, and a messenger will come to him with good 
(news) ; and if one dreams of having a shy (unsociable) bird of a 
contemptible nature with him, perhaps his action will l)e ba<l or a 
messenger with evil (news) will come to him. As to a ncst of a 
bird, it indiciites a wìfe, and the limit at which a knowing person will 
stsmd. A dream about a nest indicat<)s delivery in the case of a 

1 Al-Kur»AQ XVII-H. « Mena XXXVl-18, 


pregnnnt woiiìan. An ^ashsh is a ncst in n troe, and if it ho in si wuU 
or II cavcrn or ii mountain, it is (calle d) a iraJr. Widm* (pi. of iraib*) 
indicntcs brotlicl-hoiiscs or tiio niosqucs of reclui>e devout nion. As 
to tho eggs of a bird, tkcy indicate cliildren hegotton fronì wivcs and 
slave-women ; somctimes tliey indicate graves, and sonietinios ogg^ 
indicate the whiteness of teeth or a heauHful girl ; somotinios ihey 
indicate meeting is-ith one's people, relation^, and fnond.s, and soma 
times they indicate collecting dirhams and dinarss and storin g thcm. 
The explanation of feathers (in a dream) ì» \^ealth ; they .sometimcs* 
indicate the buying and selling of silken .stnff, and hcmctimes rank or- 
dignity, on account of the siiying '^ Sudi a onc ii^flying ii\'ith the Avings^ 
of anothcr.". Sometimes they indicate the sprouting of vegetation^ 
A talon indicate» a victoiy over enemies, in the same Avay that it is. 
in the case of a bird au offensive and defensive weapon. A bill or 
a beak indicate^ in a dream honour and a wide rcputaticn and 
dignity in the case of a person po^^^essing it. As to the mute of aiv 
edible bird, it indicate» hiwfully aequired wealth, and that of an 
uneatable one indicate» unla\yfully aequired vvealth. Its mute 
(Jj^Jlì indicate» clothe», on account of it» rcsemblance to cloth». 
Sometimes the nuite of a bird contracting its wings in its de^cent 
(al'kdnr), like the vulture, the eagle, and oihers like Uiem, indicate» 
robe» of honour from kings and great men. Tliis i» cjuite elear in. 
respect to what has been (already) menti oned and what >vill 1:e- 
montioned heroafter, on the subject of birds ; Uiereforc deduce 
analogically according to your understanding and reason, and God 
willing, you will be correct.- 

(Information.) Ibn- BashkuM'fìl relates, on the «uthoriU* of 
Ahuìad b. Muhammad aPAtt^r, who had it from hi» father, who- 
said, **We had a ncighbour, who was ma de a ea})tive and remained in 
captivity for twenty yeai'S ; he had despaired of (ever) seeing bis 
people again. He related, * While I wa» one night thinking over tho 
children I had left behind and crying, I saw that a bird alighted on a. 
"Wall of the prison saying the folloving prayer. I leanit it freni the 
bird and tlien jirayed to God with that pniyer for thrcc night» consc-- 
cutively and then slept. TN'hen I woke up, I found myself in my 
country on the top of my house. I then descended to my people, 

238 AD-DAMfttfs 

wlio wero dclighted (to see me), after having bcen afraid of me 
when they saw me and my changod state and appearance. I then 
went to the pilgriinage that year, and while I was circiiiting 
(the Ka'bah) and saying tliis praycr, an old man struck his 
hand on mine and asked me, " Whonce did you get this prayer ? 
It is a prayer whìch none but a certain bird Hving in' the air in 
the country of the Greeks (ar-Rftm) says." I then informed hìm 
of my narrative and what had happened to me, wliile I was a captive , 
in the country of the Greeks, and that I liad learnt the prayer from 
the bird. He said, '^ You bave said the truth." I tlien asked the old 
man regarding his name and he replied, "I am al-Khidr." Here 
13 the prayer : — " God, I ask of Thee whom no eyes can see, 
whom no thoughts can comprehend (can commingle with), wlìom no 
describcrs can describe, whom accidenis and times change not^ 
who knowest the wcights of monntauis and the measures of seas and 
tlie number of the drops of rain and the number of the leaves of 
trees and the number of things which the night conceais in its dark- 
iiess and over which the day shincs, from whom the higliest heaven 
or the lowest earth conceals not anything ; nor is there a mountain 
hut Thon knowest what there is in its ruggcd acclivity and in ita 
plain, nor a sea but Thou knowest what there is at its bottora 
nnd on its shore I God, I ask Thee to assign the bcst of my actions 
as the last of them and the best of my days as the day on which I 
shall meet Theè ! Thou art mighty over ali 1 God, troat him with 
hostility who treats me with hostility, treat him with soverity who 
t.rcats me with soverity, dostroy him who seeks my destruction, 
pnnish him who desires evil for me, extìnguish the fire of him who 
has kindlcd his fire for me, be sufBcient for me against the anxiety of 
him who has brought anxiety on his account on me, take me under 
Thy protcctive armour, and screcn me behind Thy guarding 
soreen ! Thou, who art sufficicnt for me against ali things, 
be sufficient for me against what is important for me in this world 
and in the world to come, and accopt my words and actions 
as true ! merciful and kind one, remove from me evcry 
straitnoss, and l)urden me not with what I cannot bear I Thou 
art truly my God 1 clear one as regards the proof of existence, 

PAyIt al-patawìk 239 

strotig onc in support, Tliou whoso morcy is io be found in ali 
placca and in this place, Thon froin whose presence no place is 
free, protect me with Thy eye which sleopeth noi, be sufficìont for 
me in Thy protection which none ctin attempi (desire) io aiiain t 
Verily, my heari bclieves as ceriain ihai iherc is no deiiy bui TIiou^ 
and ihai I shall noi perish \Yhile Thou ari wiih me ! my Iiope^ 
compassionaie me wiih Thy high power ! greui one in whom 
hope Ì3 cenired tor overyihing greai, knowing onc, forgiving 
one 1 Thou knowosi my need and ari powcrful enough to deliver 
me, ihai being for Theo a irifling affair. Favour me by graniing 
li I benevoleni of ihe bcnevoleni ones, liberal of the liberal 
ones, quickesi one of ihose ihai iake an acc ouni, liord of ihe 
worldd, bave mercy on me and on ali ihe sinners oui of ihe 8cci of 
Mubammad 1 Thou ari mighiy over ali ! God, answcr our prayer 
Hs ihou answeredsi ihe prayer of ihose ihai prayed (before), by Thy 
mercy 1 Grani us quickly rclief f rom Thee, by Thy beiicvolencc, 
Thy kindness, and Thy exalted posiiion in ihe highesi pari of Thy 
heaven I mercif ul of ihe merciful, Thou ari powerful io do what 
Thou pleasesi. And may ihere be peaco and safoiy on our lord 
Muhammad, ihe lasi of ihe prophet.s, and on bis people and bis Com- 
panions, — ^all of ihem 1 '" " 

A^-Tabarànt has relaied a pari of this prayer, giving autheniic 
anihoriiies, on ihe auihoriiy of Anas, (who saìd) ihai ihe Prophet 
happened io pass by a Badawl while he was supplicaiing (God) in 
bis prayer and saying, " Thou, whom no eyes can sce, whom no 
ihoughis can comprehend (commingle wiih), whom no doscribcrs can 
describe, whom accidonts change noi, who foaresi noi vicissiiudes, 
who knowesi ihe weighis of mouniiiins and ihe measnrcs of ilio scas 
and ihe number of ihe drops of rain and ihe number of the Icavcs 
of ireos and ihe number of tbings which the nighi conceals in 
iis darknoss and over which ihe day shincs, from whom the higliest 
heaven or ihe lowesi earih conceals noi anyihing ; nor is ihere a sea 
bui TIiou knowesi whai is ai iis boiiom, nor a mountain bui Tboa 
knowesi whai ihere is in iis rugged accliviiy ! Assign ihe best 
of my life io be iis lasi pari and ihe besi of my aciions to be ihe last 
of ihem and ihe besi of my days to be ihe lasi day on which I shall 


240 AD-DAMini's 

meet Thee I " The Apoi^tlo ot God thoreupon leffc u man to watchl 
tlie Budu\i'l and told liini, " Wlion ho ha» finished liis prayer, bringi 
him to me." When the Badawt finished his pniyer, the man tookj 
him to the Prophet, who had been given as a present a piece of goldj 
ont o£ one of the mines ; s^o, when the Badawt carne to him, he gave^ 
liiui that piece oE goki and asked him, '^ To what tribe do yon-, 
belong, Budawi ? " and he rcplied, " To the Beni-*Amir h.] 

• r 

§a*5a*ah." Tlie Prophet then asked him, "Do' you know why I- 
have given you this piece of gold as a gìft ? " and he rcplied, " On 
account of the kinship betwecn US and yon, Apostle of God." The 
Prophet said, " Truly, there is a ' rìght for kinship, but I gavo you 
the gold, on account of your beautiful praiscs of God, the Mighty 
and Glorious. 

(^ L^kil {at~fahtdl). — ^A certain bird with large eurs. 

* s 

^jAkJì (af-Tat/m*).— The tike (i^ihJJì), which will be de- 
flcribed under the letter J . 

^^^xkll (at-fathraj). — ^The ant ; — so al-Jawhari says ; but 
according to others, young ants. It will be describcd under the 
letter sa* ' 

\jr^\ (at'-fiihun). — A certain small creeping thing, accord* 
ing to al-Jawhari and others. According to az-Zamakhshari, as 
meutioned by him in RaWxCUah'àVy it is a certain creeping thing 
resembling the lizard umm-hubain ; boys gathor round it and say to 
it, " Grind for us,"" upon which it grinds with itself the ground and 
disappears in it. 

^ o m 

^j^jk}\ (at-Tarfìlfy ? ). — A certain marine fish, which, if eaten 
persisteutly, causes dimness of sight. 

^ ^^ O X N 

(j»i>>1Ì/Jb {^argfll{idas). — A certain bird known to the people 
of Spain, who cali it a^-4^traÌ8. Ar-llazi SMiys in Kitàb aUKàfì 
that it is a certain small kind of passerine bird, smaller than ali 
the other kinds ; its colour is a mixture of grey, red, and yellow, and 





(t has in each of ita wings a golden (coloured) feathcr ; its bill is 

'flnOi and its tail has vrhite spots scattered on it ; it b in the habit 

bf wbistling constantly, and the best birds of its kind are those 

Srhich are fat. 

/ (Lawfulness or iinlawfulness.) It is lawful. 

^ (Properties.) It has a wonderfnl mcdicinal property of dia- 

solving stono in the bladder and of preventing its fonnation. 

o » 

dj^\ (itt-T^irf). — A high-bred or generous borse. Àccording 
to Abà-Zaid, the epitbet is applied only to the male. 

f,Uk)\ (af-J'agidm) and a^«ì£ji (a^TajfflWja/i).— The inferior 
or ineaner sorts of birds and beasts of prey ; both the words are also 
applied to low or ignoble persons. Both the sing. and pi. are the 
«amo ; — so Ibn-Stdah says. 

lUÌJ I (ai-fifl). — ^A young one of any kind of wild animals, and a 

young one of the human species. PI. aifàl^ but soraetimes the word 
at4lfi may he used both as sing. and pi. like aUjunuh. God has saici, 
" Or to children (aP-tifi) wlio do not note women's nakedness." * AU 
mntfil is a female gazelle that has with ber, ber young one which 
she has recently brought forth ; it is also applied to a she-camel ; 
pi. ma^/ì(/. Abù-Dhu'aib says: — "And verily discourse f rom thee, 
if tliou wouldst bestow it, would be (like) gathered honey oE 
bees in the milk of camels such as bave recently brought forth 
{matAfd) having young ones with them, (and) that bave brought 
forth but once, whose bringing forth has been recent, such milk 
being mixed with water like the water of the places of separation 
of mountains from tracts of sand." * How beautiful are the linos o£ 
another poet : — 

" How wonderful that he whom I reared as a child, 
And fed with tlie ends of my fingerà, 
Whom I used to teach arohery daily, 
Directly hÌB arm beoame profioient, ahould have shot me ! 
That he whom 1 uaed to teaoh the prìnciples of lìberality on every 

1 Al-Kur'ftn XXIV-Sl. • Lane*s Lex. aH. wUi . 


242 AD-PAHtnrs 

DirecUy hU moattaoh^ sprooted forth, shonld have treated me wil 

unkindness ! 
How often haye I taaght him to compose poems, 
Bui directi/ he was able to compose one himself, he satirized me I " 

\j>f^^\ y^ (dhù^p-fufyatain). — A ccrtain malignant kind ( 
' serpent, at4ufy(ih meaning orìginally a leaf of the Theban or dwai 
palm (aìrifnuìd); pi. t^fà. The two lines on the back of this serper 
are likened to two leaves of this pahn. Az-Zamkhshari states thf 
in KhàA aWAyn it (fLpt^fyàh) is described as a certain soft malignar 
serpent, and gives the foUowing lincs : — 

** They humiliate her after hononring her, 
In the same manner that aUtufà become haroble by the enchaatment < 
a charmer.'* 

' Ibn-Sidah also describes it similarly. 

It is related iii the two ^hths and othor books, out of a trad: 
tion of Ibn-'Umar and ^A'ishah, that the Prophet said, *<KiIl serpenti 
and dhiVp4ufyatain and al-aòtar^ the latter two, becanse they cans 
pregnant women to abort and destroy sight." The Shaikl 
al-Islàm an-Nawawì states that the leamed say that ai4ufyatàn ai 
the two white lines on the back of the serpent, and that al-^ahic 
means the thart-4ailed., An-Nadr b. Shumail says that it (the lattei 
is a certain species of serpent of a bine coloar, with its tail sho 
(cut), which no pregnant woman can look at witliont generally abor 
' ing. Mnsliin relatcs in bis yersion (of the tradition) regarding a 
Zohrl afl having said, '' We are of opinion tliat it is due to its poison 
As regards the Prophct*s saying, "They destroy sìglit," the 
are two explanations, the correct one being that they sudden 
snatch away sight and pnt ont its light, dircctly thcir sight fa 
on the eye of a human being, owing to a peculiar quality God h 
implanted in their sight. This is confirmed by what is givcn 
Muslim's version, namely, "they snatch away (cj^iiJaii) sigh 
Tlie other explanation is that they attempt to sting and bit<) the e; 
The leamed say that there is a species of serpents called an-^éUii 
if its sight falls on the eye of any human being, he dies immediate 
Abù'l-'Abbàs al-Kur^ubi says, " It is evident that these two kii 
of serpents possess a peculiar property which has that effect, t 




U not nt ali iinproliable/' Abù^l-Fnraj b. al-Jawzi staies in liis 

ik Kaslif al-mushkil limd /V^^'ahthain that in the Pci^ian ^ImTf 

are some spccics of serpcnts which kill the scer of thcm by 

rfr sight alone, and others the passing over whose road is cnongh 


^Ùl (a^Ti7/i).— The tick, which will he describcd in the art. 
il^Wl under the lettor J . 

Ka*b b. Zuhair say»: — 
<* Aod ber skin i« that of a tnrtle, 
Ou whioh even a tick (tilh) emaciated on the eiposed parta of ìt% MeB 
cannot obtaia a footio^." 

hat is to say, cvon a tick cannot tread on ber skin, owing to ita 
lleckness ; — so it is said in ^ihdt/at al-jartb. 

JlUt (ut'J'ald; according to the aiithor at^TihV). — A young 
[ono of any of the cloven-hoofed aniinalri. PI. atld\ 

(Proverb.) " How are at-4<dd and its mother ? " applied to one 
hoso anxiety has passed away and who is full of sweet words. 

(^^^^\ (at-fali), — A young lamb or kid, because its two lega 
fare tied with a string to a pcg. PI. tidt/dn^ likc ragl/y pi. rugi^fàn. 

c5|^-*a^l (at-TamvAk). — The bat; — so Tbn-Sulah says. Ithas 
becn already described under the lettor ^. 

J^WI (uUTinil) and jij^n (ut-Timhìì), anvl also cT^Ì^I 
(al-Atlas). — The wolf. It has been already dcscriljcd under tho 
lettor ò . 

^^AxiaiJI (at-Tanbur). — A ccrtain .«pocies of horncts possos<ing 

stings, that eats wood. The word j^^y^ (the hornot) has boin 

^ already givon under the lettor J. The Simikh-al-IslAni an-Nawawì 

I says in Sharh al-Miiluidluìhalt that among the animals pos.'^ossing 

stin<rs and spinos (pricklcs) the locnst is inadc an oxception of, fur it 

r? is absolutoly lawful, and so is also the hcdgohog. 

244 AD-DAMtRÌ's 

-. -^ « 

i^ìjyUì (at'f uràni). — [The wild or . mountain pigcon.] AI- 
J&hij dtates that it is a 8i>ecie8 of pigeon, Avhicli has been already] 

descrìbed under the letter ^ 

àJljJJì (at-fubàlaJiy—A ewe ;— so Ibn-Slilah myn. It will be' 
detfcribed under the letter u; . 


J^l (ap-Tdwal). — A certain bird ; — so Ibu-Sldah and 
others say. 

ix^jWl (a^7W^).— The Hujjat-aUslàni Abù-Hàmid u\A 

Qazz&li says in the beginning of the second oliapter of v«XJ I ^S^' 
(Hahn aUKatb) that it is the parrot (^^xJ! ^^ which word has been 
already given under the letter v • 


j^\ (at-faì/r). — [Birds or flying things,] The plural of W'iV,; j 
like fidìuby pi. ^hb. The pi. of at4cLt/r is tui/Hr and also afi/dry liké ] 
farkhy pi. fiirdkh and afrdkh. Ku^rub says that ap-iayr may also he i 
used as singular. j 

(Information.) 6od said to His Friend Abraham, ^* Then take . 
four birds, and take them dose to thyself •" ^ Ibn-^Abbfis says that ho ' 
took a peacock, a vulture, a crow, and a (domestic) cock. Some say ^ 

that he took a pigeon, a crow, a cock, and a duck. MujAhid, 'Afù', and ] 


Ibn-Jnraij say that he took a peacock, a cock, a pigeon, and a crow. < 
Some also say that the birds were a green duck, a black crow, a whito i 
pigeon, and a red cock. It is said tliat the object of coUecting these.; 
was that the naturai temperaments being four, one of them prodouii- \ 
nates in one of these birds. God then ordered ali of them to be '■ 
killed, and their flesh, blood, and feathers to be ali mixed up together. ' 
Then after separating their several parts and depositing them on 
the peaks of mountains, Abraham called them out, but some say that 
he kept the heads with himself . Ali the several parts then carne 
together, striving to join their proper heads, and, verily, did Qod 
revive them as He wished by His power, and verily, there is a hint 
(in it) of the fact that the quickening of the soni with eternai life 

1 Al-Eur'aiì 11-262. 


9At1t al-9Ataw1k 245 

for ihe pnrpose of properly dUposing (the qualities), by pnttìng 
death the Insta and pomposity which are the characterìstics o£ the 
>k| the impetaosity or facalty of attocking with which the cock 
well'known to he endowed, the meanness and despair which are 
)ribed as peculiar to the crow, and the haughtiness and syriftness 
making love with which the pigeon is described to be endowed • 
od specially seleoted birds, becanse they most resemble man and 
tre nnited in them (ali) the qualities of animals. He bronght 
'togcther the two (birds) whose flosh is lawf al to eat and two that are 
^opposite of thenii the two hated ones, namely, the peacock and the 
érow, and the two loved ones, namely, the cock and the pigeon, the 
|two tluit are swift in flying, namely, the pigeon and the crow, and 
the two that cannot fly much, namely, the cock and the peacock, 
ÌLììà lastly, the two whose sex can be easily distingnished, namely, 
.the peacock and the cock, and that whose sex can only be determined 
jby a trained person, namely, tlie pigeon and that whose sex it is 
idifBoult to distingnish, namely, the crow. How l)eantifal are the linea 
of Ibn-as-Sà'fttl :— 

'* And the dew on ihe row of branohbs like wet pearls, 
Beiag ahaken bj the Eephyr, falla (to the ground), 
I WhilBt the birds lecite and the pool of water is ihe book, 

j^ The wiod wriies and the donda (rain) mark the diacrìiical points 

l ' (drops)/» 

f It is ccrtainly a marvcllous division (of laboar) ! 
^ The bird which visits a certain mountain in upper Egypt every 
year is called ^ ^ , which lias becn already described under the 
rieiter y • 

i^ (Two pieces of useful Information.) — First. — Ash-Sh&fi^ì rehites, 
I on the authority of Snfyàn b. 'Uyainah, who had it from Sibà^ b. 
|Tlitbit, who had it from Umm-Kurz, who said, ^^ I went to the 
^ Prophet and heard him say, * Lcave the birds (to resi) in their nests 
Ij ((fSUCo ^ji^) ; ' " but in another version the words used are U>^j ^ ; 
f' ibis is a pari of a tradition related by Ahmad, the authors of a«- 
l, Sunan^ al-Hftkim, and Ibn-Uibbftn. He (À^mad) says that Snfjr&n 
[ inrned to ash-Shàfi'i and asked (him), ''0 Abù-'Abd-AIlàh, what is 
the meaning of this?" upon which ash-Shàfi't rcplied, ^'The 
knowledge of the Àrabs used to consist in divination by means of 


246 AD-I»AMÌRÌ'» 

(the flight of ) hirds. If aiiy of thein dcsircd to go on a journoy, aiid 
vrith that objcct wont out of his houso and happencd to pass by a 
bird in its ueat, ho used to cause it to fly ; if it weiit in the direction ] 
of tho right side, ho procooded on his' business, but if it wont to tho^ 
lef t side, he returncd. The Prophot therefore said, ^ Leave tlie birds - 
(to rest) in their ncsts.'" Ibn-^Uyainah used to be asked after that| 
regurding the nicaning of this tradition, and he used tp explain it in ti 
the sjime way that ash-Sh&fii did. Ahniad b. Muhdjir says, *'I^'| 
a^ked ai-Asma^! regarding the explanation of this tradition, and he^ 
replied in tho sanie way as ash-Sbàfii." He says (also), " I asked ; 
Wahl', and ho replied, ' In our o[)inion it refers to chasing and hunt- J 
ing at night;' I then nientioned to hini ash-Shilfi^i's statement, i\\yo\\^^ 
vhich he approved of it and said, ' I did not tliink (before) that it 
applied to anything but chasing at night.' " AI-Baihakl rehites in 
his Sanan that a man having asked Yùnus b. 'Abd-nl-A'là regard-,'^^ 
ing its nieaning, he replied, '* God loves the truth ; ash-Shàfi*ì lias i 
said such and such a thing in its explanation," mentioning what has | 
been already reUted (above). He (further) said, " Ash-Shàfi'l was j 
a singuhir man (nastj wahdiht) in regard to these meanings." As \ 
regards his words nasij toahdihiy it is a case by apposition. Ibn- \ 
^utaibah says that the originai meaning of this expression is that \ 
on a loom intended for a fine and valuable cloth, no other kind of l 
cloth is woven, but if the cloth be not valuable, several kinds of cloth ^ 
may be woven on its loom. A simile has therefore been taken from ; 
it to mean any noble man. A.s-Saidalànì says in Sharh al-Mukhtafiar u 
that al^nakinah means a place of remaining at rest in and bcing 1 
settled in. He adds that, as regards the meaning of this tradition, \ 
there are several statements, one of them being that it is a prohibition ^i 
to chase at night, another what has been already mentioned on the j 
authority of ash-Sli&fi'i, and the third what Abfi-'Ubaid al-Kasim b. ! 
Sallàm has giveu, namely, *' Let them remain on their eggs, which i 
they are hatching," the originai meaning of al^nakin being the 
eggs of the lizard ^tbb. As-^aidalanl says that according to this | 
the sing. is maknah^ like tamrah^ pi. iamardt. 


(Second piece of Information.) — Ap4iì/arah is auguring evil | 
from anything. God has said, *< And if there befell them an enl. 



9AYÌT àl-payaw1k 247 

took the ill-lack (angury) froin Moses and those with liini ; — is 
their ill-luck (augury) only in God's hands ? " » That is to sjiy, 
[r eyil onien carne f rom God, and He it was who destincd it £or 

lenif One says, *^i^/^j^^^=ssanevUoinenisauguredy and i/^^^^^' 

'a ffood {selected)one or thing is chosenJ* There are no other words 
lerìved in the same manner from their roots. 

The augnring oE a bad omen used to prevent the Arabs from 
irrying ont their objects, but the religious law luis now set 
laside this by the words o£ the Prophet, " There is no aiiguring of bad 
foinens, and bettcr than that is ai-/a'/." The Prophet was asked, 
^** What is a /a'/ I '* and he replied, " It is a good word which any o£ 
jo« may bear." In another version it is said that he said, ^' I like a 
ifaH and I love a good/a7." The Arabs used to augur good and bad 
omens by driving gazollosand birds; if they went to the direction 
of the right, they looked upon it as auspicious and continued their 
ijonrney and business, but if they went in the direction of the left, 
they used to turn back. In another tradition it is said that auguring 
by omens, that is to say, a belief in their power to profit or injure 
(any one), is a belief in a plurality of gods. The word %amA is 
dorived from tayr (birds), on account of the belief of the Arabs in 
Uie swiftness of a misfortune in overtaking them being like the 
swiftness of a bird in flying. 

As to the word aUfa% it may be used with or without a hamzali^ 
and the Prophet has explained it to mean, " a good word." It b 
generally applied to a thing that ploases one, but may also somctimes 
be applied to an evil thing ; whilst the word a^xyaràh is invariably 
used in a bad senso. The learned explain (the saying of the Prophet), 
'^ I love a fcCl " to mean that, if a man hopes for the favour oE 
God, he is on the right or good track, but if he despairs of getting 
any good from God, he is surely on a bad track ; whilst in the case 
of a tiyarahj the thought is a bad one, and there is an expectation' 
of the occurrence of a misfortune. It is related in a tradition that 
the Prophet having been asked, ^* Apostle of God, none of us is 
secure from omens, envy, and suspicion; what are we to do?'* 

1 AKEur*àQ VIM28. 

t48 AD-DAHtBt'S 

replied, '^ If yon observe an omen proceed on your way, if yon \ 
beoomo envions do noi covet, and if yon suspect do noi asceriain ' 
the truth.'' A(-Tabarànt and Ibn-Abl'd-Dunyà haye related it. 
The snbject of angnry will also be treated of hereafter nnder the \ 
letter J in the art. *«^ ' • 

It ia said in Miftàh dar m^ML^Ódàh^ ^' Enow that an omen only 
injures him who is cantioufl on its account or afraid of it, but never 
at ali injnres one who does not heed or mind it, especially if he ! 
aays at the sight of , or on hearing, anything tliat is looked upon as an 
omen, * Lord, there is no omen bnt Thine, no good bnt Thine, and 
no god but Thon ! Lord, nobody brings ns any good bnt Thyself, \ 
and. nobody removes any eyil f rom ns bnt Thyself, and there is no ^ 
strength bnt in Thyself I ' As io one that concems himself abont it, 
it is more rapid in overtaking him than a flood in approaching a , 
low-lying place ; it opens the gates of snspicion and snggeation f or 
him in everything he sees and hears, and Satan opens to bis iriew 
ali its distant and near bearings, which tends to min bis religions 
spirit and straitens for him bis means of Hvelihood." 

*Abd-al-Hakam relates that when 'Umar b. 'Abd^al-^Asslz started 
£rom al-Madlnah, there was a man belonging to the tribe of al- 
Lakhm with him, who related, ** I looked np and saw the moon 
in the Fonrth Mansion, bnt did not like to teli him so ; so I 
said to him, * Do not yon see how beautiful the moon is to-night I ' 
npon which 'Umar looked up at ber and seeing ber in the Fourth 
Mansion replied, ^As if you wanted to teli me that she is in the 
Fourth Mansion, but we start neither by the sun nor by the moon, but 
by Qod the only One, the all-powerfuL' " 

Ibn-Eh. relates that an evil thing which occurred to Abù-Nuw&s 

vas that, when the house which Ja'farb. Yahyà al-Barmakl had built 

and on which he had spent a great deal of bis energy was completed, 

and he had removed to it, Abù-Nuwàs composed a poem about it in 

which he praised Ja'far. The first part of the poem runs thus : — 

*' abode of assiety, yerily, has hamilUiioii already begun to oyertake thee t 
Bui I shaìl not proye false in mj affection for tbee ; 
Farewell to the world when you miss 
Tfa« Beni-Barmak in the eyenings and in the mornings ] " 



9AT1t AL-1?AYAWÌN 249 


;.'The Barmakides took a bad omen from it and said, ^*0 Abfi- 
^Nawàs, yoa bave made as laraent over onr own dcaths." Noi 
f long after this, ar-Rashld carne down npon them (with bis wratb), and 
\\ the omen proved to be trae. 


A('Tabari/ tbe Kha(tb al-Bagdàdt, Ibn-Kh., and otbers relate 

{ tbat wben Ja^far b. Yabyà bailt bis palace, and its building was com- 

rpleted and it was in its fall beaaty and be resolved upon removing 

y to it, be coUected astrologcrs to select tbe timo for renioval to it. 

[f. Tbej selected for it a certain tiine at nigbt, and be sUrted at tbat 

' bear, tbe streets being then empty and tbe soand (noise) of tbe people 

r quiet ; lie, bowever, saw a man standing and reciting : — 

*' Yoa oonsult the start and know noi 
That the Lord of the stara does what He pleasesJ' 

^ Jft'far took a bad omen from it and stood stili; tben calling tbe man, 
be said to bim, *' Repeat wbat you said." He tberefore repeated 

I the lines, and Ja'far asked bim, ^ Wbat did yoa mean by them ?'* 
He replied, "I did not intend any particutar meaning by them, but 
they came to my mind, and my lips (tongne) nttered them." Ja'far 

' then ordered a dìnàr to be given to bim and went bis way, but bis 
Joy was gone and bis life was mìserable. A short time only passed 
(after that)^ before ar-Basbtd came down npon them (with bis 
wratb). An account of tbe manner in which Ja^far was slain will 
be given bereafter nnder tbe lettor ^ in the art. ylàAJl . 

In at" TamUid by Ibn-'Abd-al-Barr, there is given a tradition of 
al-Malcbni*i, on the authority of Ibn-Luhai'ab, wbo bad it from Ibn- 
Hubairabi wbo bad it from Abù-*Abd-4ir-Rahman al-Jilt, wbo bad it 
from *Abd-Allàb b. 'limar, regarding tbe Apostle of Ood, wbo 
said, *^ Whoever is tumed back from bis business by an omen, bas 
certainly believed in a plnrality of gods ( d^j^ I ) .'* They tben asked, 
*' Apostle of Qod, wbat is the atonement for it ? " and he replied , 
'' One of you must say, * O God, there is no omen but Tbine, no 
good but Tbine, and no god but Thoo I* and tben pass on to 
bis business.'' 

(Important admonition.) The Imam, tbe very learned, tbe K&lt 
Abù-Bakr b. al-'Arabi bas decfded in al^Ahkàm^ on the subject of tbe 
chapter of tbe Table (al-Kur'àn V), tbat it is nnlawful to take an 
omen from tbe Kur'àn, and al-Karàfl bas copied it, on the authority 


260 AD-DAMtRfs 

of the very learned, the Imam Abft'l-Walid at-Turtùshì, and 
oonfirmed it. Ibn-Bat^ah of the Hanhall school allows it, but the 
tendency of onr religious school ìs to disapprovo of the practice. ÀI* 
Màwardi relates in Kitdb Adah adtlin wa\l-dunyd that al-Walid b» 
Tazld b. 'Abd-nl-Malik having one day looked for an omen in the 
Kur'&o, fonnd these words of God, "Then they asked for an issue ; 
and disappointed was overy rebel tyrant I " * upon which he tore the 
Knr'An and said: — 

** Thoa threateoest every rebel tyrant, 

Here I am that rebel tjrant ! 

Wben tlierefore thou comest to thy Lord on the Day of Jadgiuent, 

Say to Uim, « O Lord, al-Waltd tore me up.» '' 
Soon after this, al-Walld was slain in an inhuman manuer, and bis 
head lA'as bang np first on bis pakce and afterwards on the wall of 
bis city, as bas beon alrcady mentioned under the letter > in the 
art, jjHì. 

(Further information.) At-Tirraidh!, Ibn-Majah, and al-Hakim 
relate and hold it as authcntic, on the authority of the Commander 
of the faitbful, •Umar b. al-Kbattab, that the Prophet said, " If 
you bad placed your entire trust in Qod, he would bave provided for 
you the means of sustenance, in the same manner that He provides 
them for birds, \trbich go forth in the morning with empty stomachs 
and return in the evening with their stomachs full." The meaning 
of it is that they go away in the early part of the day with their 
stomachs lean fronl bunger and return in the last part of the day 
irith their stomachs full from being satiatcd. The Imam Ahmad 
States that this tradition is no'argumcnt for sitting idle^ instead of 
working for one's livelihood, but on tlie contrary it points to sceking 
for the means of livelihood, and the Prophet intended by it — but Qod 
knows best — ^tliat bad they relied on God in their going forth, in their 
ooroing (back), and in what they did, and remembered (knew) that 
ali good is in His band and comes from Him, they would not bave 
gene abont but safely and well-provided for, like birds, which leave 
in the morning with empty stomachs and return in the evening with 
full stomachs ; but they relied on their own strength and exortious, 
which is contrary to trusting in (}od. It is related in aUIhyà^ in 




l^tbe first part of the chapter on v«JJ t f^C^, t tlmt Àhinnd, having becn 
I aakedy '* What do you say regarding a man who sits in liis house or 
hitf niosque and suys, * 1 shall not do any vrork, so that niy susto- 
> nanoe will come to me of itself/?'' rcpliod, '^That man ìs ignorant 
o( knowledge, Has he not heard the saying of the Prophet, ' Ycrily^ 
Gml has placed my sustenance hi the shadow of my spear; ' and Iiis 
saying, * Birds go forth in the morning with empty stomnchs iiud 
return in the ovening ^vith full stomachs.' ? The Companions of the 
Prophet nscd to travel about by land and sca and attend to thoir date 
palms, and an oxamplo ought to be taken from thcm." 

(Question.) If a thing be left in a will for the Trusters in God 
( c^K»**^ ), (who are thoy) ? Ibn-*Abbà3 has dccidcd that the terni 
applies to the cultivators (of land), for they plough and sow seed,. 
and aro therefore the Trustci*s (in Qod). This senso is indicatod by 
what al-Buiha^t has related in ash-SId^b and al-^Askarl in al-Aìnthàl, 
namely, that 'Uniar b. al-Kha^tab having met some people 
from al-Yaman and asked them, "Who are you?" they replied, 
"Trusters (in God)." He then said, ** You He, for the real Trusters 
are such that a man (out of them) throws bis seed iiito the ground 
and then trusts in the Lord of hosts." Some of the jurisconsults of 
Jerusalem decided the question in the sanie way in old days. The 
two Iinàms ar*RàfiÌ and an-Nawawì, in their comparison of the^ 
severa! occupations, argue from the superiority of agriculturo that 
it is as near as it can be to trusting (in Godj. It is related in ash- 
Shi^b also, regarding *Amr b. Umayyah ad-Damii as having said,. 
"I said, '0 Apostle of God, I shall let loose my ciimel and trust (in 
God)/ upon which the Prophet replied, ^ Tie it by the leg aiid then 
trust in God.' '* This will be mentioned in the first part of the 
lettor CI • Al-Hallmt says that it is desirable for every one that 
throws seed into the ground to recite, after repeating the formula of 
taking refuge with God (iit**-*JI»), this verse of the Kur*àn, "Ha ve 
ye considered what ye till?" * and then to say, **Nay, God is the 
sower, the grower, and the maturer I God, grant peace and 
safety on Muhammad and bis people, and grant us the sustenance of 
its fruit and keep us distant from its injurious efFects and cause us to 
beof those who are grateful for Thy giftsl" Abù-Thawr relate» 

i Al-Eur'ln LVI-68. 

252 AD-DAMÌRrs 

aa having heard ash-Shàfi'l sajr that God has kept His Prophot (Erom 
anch things) and raised his dignitj and said (to him), ''And rely thou 
npon the Living One who dies not." ^ This was aaid, becanse people 
trast in severa! things, in themselves or their property or tbeir 
repntation or their power or their crafts or the produoe of their trees 
or other men, every one of them trosting in the living which dies or 
in the flitting whioh is fast proceeding to destrnetion. God there- 
fore restrained His Prophet from doing that and ordered him to rely 
apon the Living One who dies not The Iinfim, the very leamed, the 
ahaikh of religions law and trnth, Abù-Tftlib al-Makkt says in bis 
bock ^(U al'J^uliib^ '' Know that the |eamed who bave knowledge of 
God do not trust in Him for the pnrpose of His protecting their 
interests in this world, or for the pnrpose of His granting them their 
pleasures and desires ; nor do they make a condition witb Him that 
He may decree well in respect of things they love ; nor do they trast 
in Him for the pnrpose of His changing for them, the execution of 
such of His orders as they dislike or His old-established way to what 
they may consider to he proper, nor for the pnrpose of His removing 
from them the action of His law whioh bos beooine oarrent among 
men in respeot of temptations, triais, and seleotion ; bat beoanse He 
is the Qlorions and High God, whioh is the reason in their minds 
for plaoing trust in Him. They know better and think better than 
to trust in Him for the above reasons. Shonld any one who knows 
God believe in any of tliese reasons for trusting in God, he oommits 
a grave sin, which would necessitate for him repentance and returning 
to God, for his trusting in God under those circumstances is an aot of 
disobedience (to Him) . Bnt they are patient as regards His orders 
in whatever manner they are carried out and control their minds, 
«o as to he pleased with any way in which He ezecutes them. 

(Information.) It is related on the anthority of Ea'b al-Ahbàr, 
^ho said that birds fly to a height of twelve miles and not more, and 
that above tlie attnosphere is as-^iukdh (air next to the sky), the 
atmosphere being the air between the sky and the earth. 

(Interpretation of birds in dreams.) A bìrd in a dream indicates 
rneans of sustenanoe for one who dreams of having it in his possessione 
on account of the words of a poet : — 

1 Al-Kttr'an XXV-60. 

Payìt al-pavawìn 253 

** Fortune (kneans of sastenance) ìa nothing bat a bird which ali mankind like 
And for wbloh ali binda of anarea are tpread.'* 

It also indicates happiness and power. Some say thai black birds 

indiente evil octions, and ihat wbite ones indicate good actions. If 

one seea birds aligbt npon a place and then aseend (in the air), they 

indicate angela. A dream about birds which associate with men 

indicates spouses and children, whilsta dream about birds which 

do net associate with men indicates the society of enemies and 

foreigners. A dream aboat a rapacious bird that foids its win«>s 

when alighting (al-kasir) indicates evil, troable, and debts, whiUt 

that about a trained bird of prey is inclicative of hoiiour, success, 

aiBuence, and riches. A dream about an edible bir'J indicates nn 

easily acquired gain, and that about birds endowed with a good 

voice, a company of good men. A dream about a male bird 

indicates men, and that about a female bii*d indicates women. A 

dream about an unknown bird indicates a company of strangers, 

and that about a bird which has neither good nor evil in it indicates 

ease after trouble and prosperity after diflSculty. A dream about 

anocturual bird is indicative of boldness, vehemence of seeking, 

and remaining concealed (for an enemy). A dream about a bird 

which has really no vaine, if it aoquires vaine in a dream, indicates 

usury and the taking of wealth by false means and the opposi te 

of it. A dream about a bird which is in the habit of showing itselE 

only at a particular timo of the year and which is seen in a dream 

at a timo which is not its proper season, indicates the mispLiceniont 

of things, or strange news, or entering upon a thing which does 

not concern one. AH that is stated above refers to the difFerent 

species of birds that bave been already described and that will 

he described hereatter. Understand that and interpret by analogy 


(Snpplementary information.) The interpreters of dreams suy 
that ali the words uttered by birds (in dreams) are highly good, and 
that Ile who dreams of a bird talking to him, will rise in po.^ition, oii 
account of the words of Qod, ** ^ ye folk I we bave been taught 
the speech of birds, and we bave been given everything ; verily, this 
is an obvious gracel"'^ The interpreters of dreams disapprove 

i Al-^ur'An XXVII-16. 

254 AD-DAHfRÌ's 

of Uie cries of uqaatic binisi tlie peacock, and the domestio hen, 
which, tliey say, represeni anxiety, grief, and lainentation on accoant 
of death. Tlie cry of a mule ostricli indioates tliat a brave slave 
will cominit a murder» and ìt the dreainer hates its cry (in a dream), 
ìt is an indicaiion of a slave getting the better of him. The cooing 
of a pigeon indicates a woman recifcing the Kar'àn, and the ory oE a 
swallow, the exhortation of a religions preacher. 

(End.) Ibu-al-Jawzt says in fifdb Uni aUFartd ira higii/at 
al-ìlurid tliat Ibn-'Àbb&s haa stated that in the Kur*àn there are ten 
ilying animals which God has mentioned by their names, namely 
the mosquito in the chapter of thè Cow (i/^f'l)) tlie orow in the 
Table (i<vJUl), the locnst in al-A'aràf (ciy^t), the bee in 

Ibe Bee («-^^1)» ^^^^ V^^^^ ^^ ^^^ (^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^<^ >>) the T* H. 
(Ai>)» the antin the Ant (^^^^)^ the hoopoe also in tlie same 

ohapter, the fly in Uie Pilgrimage (#^0) ^^'^ bntterfly in the 
Striking 0'i»jUUi ), and al-^àMl in the Klephant (OiiLf t ). 

ua^j^I^aJ» (Toyr aZ-'am^tó). * — A cert4un bird of bad omen 

according to the Arabs; they also <)pply that name to any bird from 
which a bad omen is augured. 

Among the decisions in connection with the snbjcct of birds is 
this one: — Whoover opens a bird-cage and excites the bird (in it) to 
fly, is responsible for it. Al-Mftwardi agrees with others iu saying 
that this is so, becaose he impels the bird to do that. But if he 
confines bis action to (simply) oponing the cago, thore are threo 
stateraents regarding it, one being that ho is absolutely responsible, 
another that he is absolutely not responsible, and the third one which 
is the clearest one that, if the bird flics immcdiately, he is responsi- 
ble for it, but if it waits a little and then flies, he is not responsible, 
for its flying iraniediately is a proof of its having come to he in that 
condition owing to bis causing it to fly away, whiist as to its fljing 
after waiting a little while, it is a clear sign of its having flovvn by 
its own choice, for a bird hns choice. If (he bird by (in) its exit 
from the cago breaks a flask or dcstroys nnything else, or the cage is 
broken while it is in the act of escapi ng, or a cat., which may happen 

^ The bird tthikirràk — green woodpecker. 




['to be present there at the tiine oE opening the cage^ onterg it and 
: eato (he birci, Ite is boiind to pay an ìndemnity for ìt. 

UJI^aJ» {fayr al-mff). — [The water-l>ird.] Tts sobrìqnet is 
ialkA'iahU and it is also called by the names o£ ibn-al-mcV and 
^ (pi.) Itandt-al-mà'. 

(Lawfulness or anla\yfuInesR.) Ar-R^fi*t says that it is lawful 

(to eat) ali its species, exoepting the stork^ which is certainl}*' unlaw- 
I fui to be eaten. Ar-Rùyànt inentions two viewn on the suhjecfc 

oE water-birda, on the authority of ari-Suiinart, bnt what nr-Ràfi't 
- haB saìd is the correct thing. In thìs class are inoluded the duole, 
> the goose, and the heron {mdUk (d-hadtì). AbiV^Aisiin al-^Abbudi 
' states that there are more than a linndred species of watcr-birds. 

bnt the Arabs do not know the names oE most of them, as they are 

not Eound in their country. The sabject of {:/iy^ I «-^'^ nyìU I)e treated 

of heroafter under the lettor f* . 

(Proverbs.) ''As though birds were on their heiids ((j^ciiP 
jxk}\ d^4^jj )/' in which ji^\ has a fathah on the final lettor, being 

the agent oE o \iy that is to say, on the head oE every one (of them), 
there is the bird he wishes to catch, and thercfore he does not movo. 
It is applied to persons who are quiet and gentle. Such nsed to be 
the description of the Prophet's Companions (persons who used to sit 
in bis assemblies), Eor when he apoke, the persons in bis assembly 
nsed to bend down their heads, as iE there were birds on their hcads, 
that is to say, they usod to remain silont, Eor a bird ali;;hts only on 
one who is quiet (silent). Al-Jawhari says that thìs proverb was 
applied to them when they were silent Erom reverential awe oE liim, 
and that the origin oE it in that when a crow alighU on the head of 
a carnei to pick np a larger or smaller species of tikes, the latter does 
n<>t sliHke for Eeitr oE the crow flying away Froin it 


^jjkxk)\ (a^yi^itó).— Aristo tle says in Kh&h an-Nu^xit that it 

i;< a certain bird thnt does not leave thickets or phices abounding in 
nnich water, because it does not eat uny vegetable 8ubst4ince or fiesh, 
but lives on worms, which breed in stink on the borders of foresta 
and thickets. Falcons search for this bird when they aro ili, for 
the falcon is a bird which is oEten ili on account of the beat in its 


256 AD-DAMiars j 

liver, and wben tt aoffers from tlmt diseuse, it searches for a titatoài 
eats its liver, and then becomes well. This bird generali/ feels 
secare in its piace and utters its cry ; it does not leave its place, ; 
nnless afalcon is after it, in whicb case it flies away to auotker ^ 
place; if (it occars) at nigbt, it utters its cry and flies, but ifin the 
day, it simply fiies away aud hides itself in the grass. 

Atb-Tha4abt, al-Bagawi, and otliers state in the coinmentary 
oQ the chapter (of the Kur'àn) the Aiit, where God has suid, 
** * O ye folk I we bave been taught the fipeecli {mantik) <>E birds, 
etc./ " ^ tbut Qod haa called the cries (voice) of birds mantiki ^>tt 
account of their beuig just H8 intelligible asthe words of human 
beings. They state that Ea^b al-A^hàr and Far^ad as-Sinjt relate 
that the prophet Solomon having happeued to pass by a hulbul cu 
a tree, whioh was shakiogits head and tail, asked bis companious, 
<*Do you know what this hìdbul is sayiug?" npou which they 
replied, '^0 apostle of Qod, no«" He theu said» ^*It is sayiug, 
^I bave eaten balf a date, and uow let the worid perìsh I '" fle 
then passed by a hoopoe and inforuied them, *'It is saying, 
^When destiuy descends, perception becomes bliud."' Bnt iu 
the version given by Ea'b it is said. **It says, *He who has 
no compassiou on others, bas uo compassion showu to bim.' The 
ring-dove says, * Would to God this creation were not created, but 
wben oreatedy wonld to God they knew what they were created 
for, and if they knew that, would to God they aoted accordiug 
to what they knew ! ' A^^irad says» * Celebrated be the praises 
of my Lord, the High, to the exteut of filling His sky and 
earth! ' The crab says, *0 ye siuuors, ask forgi veuess of God.' '* 
A tUovjà haviug happeued to utter its cry uear him, he iufornied 
ihetn, '*It says, 'Every liviug being is dead and everythiug 
new isold.'" He said, ^'The swallow says, ^Sendgood before, 
and you will bave i( with God.' The wood-pigeon (al-ioarashdn) 
says, *Bring forth for death and build for destructiou.' The 
peacock says, * As you do, so will you be requited. ' The pigeon 
says, ^ Gelebrated be the praises of niy Lord, who is remembered hy 
every tongue ! ' The francolin says, * **The Merciful settled on the 
throue !" * ' Wben the eagle utters its cry, it says, ^ Distauce froui 

I Al-Kar^&B XXVI1.16. • idem XX-4. 

9AT1t AL-9ATAWAK 257 

'menis pesco.'*' Bat aocording to anotber version, '* 'Distance from 
^men is social happiness/ When tlie swallow utters its cry, it 
Vècites the firsi cbapter or al-Fatikah of tbe Kur'àn to its end, and 

ìrben it comes to {ji^^^^j^ it prolongs its voice justasa rcciter 
'C (of tbe Kiir'fln) does. Tbe fuloon says, ' Oelebrated be tbe praises of 
I my Lord, tbe Great, and (I begin) by praisiiig Hiiu I ' The turtle« 
I dove says, 'Celebrated be tbe praises of iny Lord, tbe Higbestl"* 
|[ But some say (bat it says, ''O Compassionato One ! " **Tbe crow 
I' ourses tbe collector of custonts and prays against biin. Tbe kito 
i says, * Every tbing is perisbable except God. ' Tbe sand-grouse says, 
' *IIe wbo is silent, is safe.' Tbe parrot says, ' Woe bolide bini, >vho 

has tbis worid more at iieartl' Tbe starling says, ^0 God, prò- 
^ vider, I ask Tbee for tbe means of sustenance day after day ! ' The 

lark siiys, '0 God, curse tbe baters of Muhammad and bis people I ' 
; Tbe domestic cock says, * O ye beediess ones, remember God.' The 

vulture says, * man, live as long as yon wisb, you are really dead.' '* 

According to one version, when two arraies meet togetber in the 
i iicld of battio, tbe borses say, " Holy and pure, tbe Lord of angels 
^. and tbe soni (or Gabriel);" tbe ass curses tbe ta^c-collector and 

bis occupation, and tbe frog says, ^' Celebrated be tbe praises of my 

Tjord, tbe Higbost 1 " 

(Interpretation of it in a dream.) Ibn-Slrin statcs tbat it 
mcans a woman in a dream. 

(Properties.) Its flesb binds tbe bowels and increases tbo sexual 

^j^xk)\ (atrTaihiij). — A certiiin bird resembling a small (red- 
legged) partridge, but its neck is (also) red ; its beak and foot are 
red like tbose of the partridge^ and under its wing it is black and 
wbite. It is light in weigbt like tbe francolin. 

(Lawfulness or unlawf ulness.) It is unlawful. 

(Properties.) — Its flesb is considered very heating and damp ;— 
so Yfìhann& says, but some say tbat it is temperate, being neitber 
hot nor cold, whicb, I (tbe author) say, is correct. Some say tbat 
it is in tbe third grado of digestiveness. Tbe best enea are tbe fat 
and jnicy (moist) ones found in autnmn. It increases tbe sexual 
power and binds tbe bowels, but it bas an injurious eifeot on persona 


258 AD-DAMlRfs 

wbo carry heavy weights ; ita injnrioQS effect may be avoided by 
cooking it ìq haAsalia. ^ It prodacos a temperate kind of blood and 
Baita sach young children as bave temperate constiiutions. Tbe best 
are those eaten in spring, espeoially in eastern conntries. In tbe 
matter of nonrisbment, ct4aih(ij^ tbe francolin, and the par bridge 
are like one anotber in temperateness and delicacy of flesb, but a.t- 
taihAj stands first, tben comes the francolin, and then the (red-legged) 
partridge. It has been already mentioned under tbe lettor (j* 
tbat it is the same as a^-ìtiryas. 

jiXcX (Wni-Xataib) and i^^, Jl^ {ummr'fabah). •—The turtle, 
T?bich has been already desoribed under tbe lettor i^ . Some say tbat 
it is a certain krge serpent the obaracteristic of whieb is to sleep for 
six days and then to wake up on the seventb day ; it kills every tbing 
it blows upon ; both its varieties bave been already desoribed in their 
proper artioles. On this account a great calamity is called a itW- 
taibah^ and from it comes tbe saying, " Umm-fàlxih (a calamity) has 
knocked or arrived at tbe door, with its concomitant evil/' 

(Proverb.) ** Such a one has come with a hint-tahah!* applied 
to one who brings a difficult or serious affair with bim . 

1 Harà^U^ pL of hatiiàh > a kind of thiok poiiage prepared of cooked 
wheat and cooked flesh-meàte mach ponoded together. — Lane's Lex. * In 

'OmAo jabAii il the generic name for the ekate. 


9At1t aIì-9ataw1n 259 



^jÀiJl {ail'Dahi/). — The gazelle. Pls. adbi^ dibd\ and rf«M. 

Fem. dàb^CL^h pl* d(ibar/dt and diià'. i^-^ (jf;) = a land ahùtinding 
mih ffazdles. ipabynh is the naine of a woman, who will come forth 
before Antichrist, warning the Muslims of bis coming: — so Ibn- 
Bldah says. AI-Kurkht says tbat oA'Uhà^ are the inales of gazelles, 
the feinale being the gazelle, bnt the Im&ra (Imftin al-Uaramain) 
says tbat this is only an imagination, for the gazelle is a young one of 
a dahi/ah^ till it grows strong and its horns sprouL The Im&in an- 
Nawawl says ihat what the Imam has said is to be depended npon. 
"As regards the words of the anthor of at^ Tanbih^ namely, *' *^13 1 ^yt 
Xa<^U UaIo (if he destroys apregnant gazelle)/' an-Nawawl says tbat 
the correct form is UAa.U ìaaJ» ^ becanse makliii means jn*egnant and 
the temale is only called {\ahya1ij the male being iahy. Dahf/ah has 

for its pi. ilibd' like rahtoal^ pi. rikd\ for words of the measure i^^ 
wlìich ìiaye a fathah over their first debile or weak letter form 
their plurals with a prolonged I , and no word escepting al-havyah 

opposes this rule, for a-j^ has as its pi. hurà withont any analogy, 
and as it is an irregular form, the rule of analogy cannot be applied 
to it ; — so al-Jawharl says. 

The sobriquets of the female gazelle are umm-al-kldsh/y umm-- 
shddiiij and umm^ap-tald. 

Gazelles are of di£Ferent colours, and there are three priucipal 
varieties of them. One variety is oalled al-àràm, sing. Am^ which 
are of a wbite colour and inhabit sandy places; they are called the 
sheep of gazelles, becanse they are very floBby and fat Anotber 
variety is oalled al-^u/r ; they are of a red colour, bave short 
uecks, and are the weakeat in runuingofall the gazelles ; they 
keep to eleva ted und rugged places. Al-Knmait says: — 

'< Whenever a hauglity leader of men wanted to seize ns 
By atratagem,^e used to raise him on a hom of an a*farà (gazelle)." 

Tbat Ì8 to say, <'We nsed to kill him and raise bis head on a 
gpear,'' for in old days spears nsed to be made of horns. The 


third varìety is oalled a2-uJm,* whiob bave long necks and lega 
aud white bellies. 

Gazellea are desoribed as having a ebarp BÌglif, and they are 
tbe awirtest oF ali auiroais iu fleeiug. Aa an iiistaiice of the^ 
sagacìty of tbe gazelle, it niay be menfcioned tbat, wlieu ìt wishes 
to enter ita bidiug*place, it eotera it backwarda aud faces wbatever 
it inay be afraid of ou ita òwu or ita young ouep' acGOiint. If it 
aeea any one watchiiig it, it doea uot enter the liiding-plaoe, but 
otherwise it doea ao. It enjoya the colooyutb«gourd aud reliahes 
ita food, and theu viaita the aea to drink of ita bitter aud brnckisli 
water. Ibn-Kutaibah atates that the young of a gazelle ia ealled 
in ita firat year tald and kliish/^ then in the aecond yearjadha^ aud 
in tbe third year tJiani which name it retaina tili it diea. 

Ibu-Kh. uientiona in tbe biography of Ja^far as-ì^àdik thut 
be aaked Abù-Hanlfah, ^^Wbat do you aay regardiug a man in 
tbe atate of il^rdm who haa broken the lateral inoiaor tooth (rahd'^ 
%a/i)* of a gazelle?" Abù-Htiutfab replied, ^* aon of the 
danghter of the Apoatle of Qod, I do uot know wliat (peualty). 
tbere ia for it." Ja'fur then aaid, << A gazelle ia never a rabd%^ 
but alwaya remaiua a thani ;" — ao Kuahàjim boa related in Kitdb 
ai'Mafà^ìd wa'l-matdrid. 

Al-Jawbarl atatea nuder tbe head of (the lettera) o e; cr 
regardiug tbe linea of a poet deacrìptive of aome camela :-— 

*< Tbey (the cameU) carne, of the age ai which the gazelle haa ita teeth^ 
and I had uè ver aeen any Uke thcm, — 
À cure for the aick or a milch oamerfor a hungry one.'' 

that they were oamela that had ahed theìr centrai inciaor teeth, 
for a thant ia an animai whiob ia aheddiug ita contrai inciaor 
tootb, whilat a gazelle ia never iu tbe atate of aheddiug ita 
centrai inciaor teeth, beiug alwaya one which bas ita centrai 
inciaor teeth. 

Ibn-Shuburmah atatep, '' Abù-Uauìfah aud I (oue day) viaited 
Ja'far b. Mn^ammad aa-S&dìk, aud I aaid, * Here, thia man U 

i In Ja*làn, a pari of *Oin&n, the gazelle ia ealled Itulm, which appeara to 
be the lame word aa thia. In Algeria the name admi ia applied to QauUa 
cuvieri * The tooth between the centrai inciaor and the canine teeth. • Ao 
animai that haa ahed ita rabd*tyah tooth (lateral inciaor). 


PatXt al-patawìn 261 

jarisoonsalt f rom al-^ Ir&V ^P^i^ whìcli Ja'far said, ' Ferliapa, 
18 the ODO that dedaoes religion analogically by bis opinion. 
hean-No'mànb, Thàbit?* I did not know Abù-Hauifah's 
)per Dame uotil that day. Abù-Hantfab thereupon flaid^ 
'ea, I am ba May God render yonr state good 1 * Ja'far then 
d to bim, * Fear God, and jadge not religion by your opinion, 
the first one to deduce analogioally by bis opinion was Iblis 
en he said, '** I ain better than he ;' " * in whicb he erred and 
nt astray/ He tben asked bim, ' Do yon approvo of your 
Iging of your head analogioally f rom your body ? ' and ÀbiV 
utfab replied, ' No.' Ja^far tben said, * Inform me, wby bas God 
lated saltisbness in the two eyes, bitterness in the two eàra, water 
the two nostrils, and sweetuess in the two lips ? ' Abù-Hantfah 
iKed, *I do not know/ upon wbioh Ja'ffcr explained. ^ God haa 
ated the two eyes as two pieces of fat and endowed lliem with 
tishoess as a favour from Him to man, for were it not for 
t| they wonld melt away and disappear ; in the same way He 
\ endowed the ears witb bitterness as a favour from Him to man, 
were it not for that, inseots would attack them and eat bis 
tin ; He bas created the water in the nostrils to facib'taf e the 
s of inspiration and expiration (the rising and falling of the 
lath), as also to distinguisb good smells from bad oues ; and He 
I created sweetness in the lips to obtain the tasto of food and 
nk.' Ja^far then said to Àbù-Hanifah, ' Inform me of an expres- 
1 or phruse in whicb the first part means unbelief (in God), and 
I latter part belief (in Him),' Abfi-Hanifnb replied, ^I do not 

)w/ upon whicb Ja'far said, 'Such a phrase is ^^t Xl aU i J| (there 
IO deity but God), becanse, if one says, « aU t y (there is no deity)" 
1 then remains sileut, he declares bis unbelief (in God).' Ja^far 
n asked, * Whicb is the greater of the two sins in the estimation 
God, — the kiiling of another person, wbioh, without a proper 
son, God bas declared to be unlawful, or adultery ?' Abù-Hanifah 
•lied, ^ Murder ; ' but Ja'far said, * God acoepts the evidence of 
y two witnesses in the matter of murder and does not accept 
\ evidence of less than four witnesses in the case of adultery« 
»w would aoalogy serve you (now)?' He then asked, 'Whicb of 

> Al.Kur*Aa 711*11. 

262 AD-DAHTBfs 

the iwo Ì6 greater in the estimatioii of Qod, — fastìng or prayer?' 
Abù-HaDffah replied, ^Prayer.' Ja'far thereapoii afiked him, 
^ How then cau a menstruating womaii fast but oannot say ber 
prayers? Fear God, 'Abd-Allab, andjudge not of religion by 
yoar opiuion, for bereafter (to-morrow) we and those that oppose 
US ahall stand before God, and we shall Bay, ** God bas said (so) 
and the Apostle of God has said (so)/' whilst you and your disciples 
wìll say, "We bave beard (so) aud we bave seen (so)," upoa 
which God wìU aot towards us and you as He pleases.' " Now, 
as to the reply in the case of God not aooepting lesa tban four 
witnesses in the matter of aduUery, it is so out of a desire to 
protect (the parties from disgrace) ; and in the case of a 
menstraating wornan not saying ber prayers, it is so to prevent 
ber froin exerting berself inncb, becaiise prayer comes repeatedly, 
five times dnriiig a day and night, nnlike fasting, which coiues ouly 
once a year. 

Ja'far as-^&diVs proper name was Ja'far b. Mnhainmad al- 
Sfinir b. <A1Ì Zaiu-'aPAbidiu b. al-Uusain b. 'Ali b. Àbì-TdHb, 
ànd he was one of the twelve Imàms according to the Im&mtyah 
flect. He was one of the lorda cut of the people of the house (of the 
Prophet^, and was styled as-§Adi]^ (tbeTruthful) on account of bis 
trutbfulness in whatever he said. He has written on (the subjects 
of) ebemistry, augnry from the flight of birds, and the readiugof 
omens. It has been already tnentioned under the leiter * in the 
art. ijÀff\ regarding Ibn-Kutaibah as having suid in bis hook 
Adah aUK&tih that Kìtàb aUJajv was written on a lamb's skiu by 
the Imam Ja'fur as-^adi^ for the people of the house (of the Pro- 
pbet), and oontaiued iuformation regarding what was ueoessary 
for them to know and what is to happen np to the day of 
Besurrection, and so also has Ibn-Eh. said abont it. But many 
men attributo Kitùh aUJafr to 'Ali b. Abì-T&lib, which is ouly 
an imagination, the correct tbing being that the person to write it 
Was Ja'far as-^&dik, as has been already mentioned. 

Ja'far charged bis son Musa al-E&dim with certain precepts. 
He said, " my son, remember my exhortation, so that you may live 
prosperously and die a martyr. my son, he who is satisfied with 
what is portioned to him, is independeut, but he who extends bis eye 

9Ay1t al-^atawìk 263 

to wbat Ì8 in the banda of another^ dies a poor man, and he who is not 
latisfied with what God has portioned to him, accuses God as rogarda 
Hìb decree. He who looks npon his own sin as trifling, magnifies tho 
ains of others, and he who magnifies his own sin, looks npon the sina 
of others as trifling. my son, he who nnoovers the veil froin over 
otherSy has the nakedness of his own house exposed ; he who draws 
the sword of disobedience, is himself killed with it ; he who digs a 
well for his brother, himself falls into it ; he who mixes with ile 
yalgar, beoomes mean ; he who mixes with the learned, gains in 
honour ; and he who enters evil places, is accnsed. my son, reduce 
the olaims for and against yoa, and beware of slandering, for it sows 
enmity in the hearts of men. my son, if yon ask for a boonty, 
yon onght to go to its mines." 

It is related that Ja'far as-§àdi^ was asked, '' What bappens to 
. men in the times oE famine that their hnnger increases, contrary to 
what exìsts in the timo of cheapness ? " He replied, *' Becanse they 
are created out of earth and are its children ; when therefore it ftbe 
earth) receives no rain»tbey too snffer, bat when it is fraitfnl, they too 
are in a flourishing state.'" Ju'far was born in 80 A. H., but some 
say in 83 A. H.» and died in 148 A. H. . 

It is related in a tradition that the Prophet and his Companions, 
while they were in tha state of ihr&m^ having happened to pass by 
a gazelle which was lying down in the shade of a tree, the Prophet 
said to one oE his Companions, '* Yon, snob a one, stand bere till the 
people pass by, so that no one may disturb it with anything." 

It is mentioned in oJ-MustadraK on the antliority of Kabtsah b. 
J&bir al-Asadi, who said, ** I was in the state of thràm^ and I happened 
to see a gazelle ; so I aimed at it and hit it ; it died, and there 
carne on me a feeling of remorse. So, I went to 'Umar to ask him 
abont it and found there by his side a fair man with a thin face, whq 
was no other than 'Abd-ar-Rahmftn b. *Awf. I asked ^Umar, who 
turned round to 'Abd-ar-Rabm&n and said, ^Do yon think a sheep 
or goat wonld he enough for it ? ' He answered, * Yes,' and *Umar 
accordingly ordered me to slaughter a sheep or goab When wo got 
np to go away from him, a friend of mine remarked, ' The Commander 
of the faithf ul did not think it proper to give a decision in your 
case without consulting that man I ' 'Umar having heard a part of 

264 AD-DAUtBt'g . , 

bis remark, raised his whip to strike hi in and then tarned to me to 'j 
strike me, npon which I said, * Oommander of the faithf al, I did not 'i 
say anything ; it was he who said (that).' He then left me and j 
said, * Yon wished to do an nnlawfal thing and then to oppose a j 
religions decree. There are ten qnalities in man, nine of which are 1 
good, bnt oae bad, corrapting the others. Beware of the slips of the 
tongne/" 1 

Al-Mabarrad relates regardiog al-Àsma^l asbaving said, "I j 
bave been informed that a man once saw a female gazelle going to 
the water-side, when a Badawt asked bim, ^ Do yon wish to bave it 
lor yon ? * and the man having replied, * Yes,* the Badawt said, • Qive 
me fonr dirbams to fetch it to yoa.' The man having paid the 
money, the Badawt went runniiig in its traok ; the gazelle then 
strnggled, and he straggled, nntil he seized it by its horns and broaght 
and gave it to the man sayìng : — 

' She at a distance tunm away ber cheek, 

And wards o£f my atiack while I ward off ber attack ; 

AVhat thiok you, O boy, of my ranniDg to turn ber, 

WbOst tbe more tbe ezerted (to get away), the more sbe f ound me 
(goiDg) at ber ? ' ** 

Ibn-Kh. relates that Kntbayyir ^Azzah having one day gone to 

•Abd al-Malik b. Marwàn, the latter asked bim, "Haveyon ever seen 

anybody deeper in love tban yoarself ? " He replied, " Yes ; while 

I was travelling in the desert, I carne across a man who bad fixed 

hfa snare and was seated. I asked bim, «What has made yoa 

8it bere?' He answered, * Hunger has (nigb) killed me and my 

people. 1 bave therefore fixed this my snare, so that something 

may be oanght in it for their sake as well as mine.' I aeked bim, 

If I stay wlth yon, will you givo me a share of yonr game? ' 

He said, * Yea' While we were thus talking, a female gazelle 

fell into bis snare, and be bastened wìtb me to it ; he undid the 

mare and let the gazelle go away. So I asked bim, * What made 

you do that?' and he replied, •Myheart took compassion on it 

because of its likeness to Lailà.' He said, 

* O tbon, tbe likeness of Laflà, fear not, 

Verfly, I am to-day a greater friend to tbee tban tbe wild animala j 
While I said so, I let ber off from ber bonds, 
For tbon art Lailè, free wblle alive."* 

9ATÌT al-payawìn 265 

It i« related in the thirtoeath ohapter of KUab Thiiìutr cU- 
IfCulàb hj ath-Tha^&libt that there waa noi a greater archer among 
[the Persiaut than the King Babràm-gor, and that one day a 
ìtj strange tiiiag happened to him, uaruely, that he went oat f or 
!tbo chase, riding a carnei, and took a female slave, for whom he 
bad great love, riding the same oainel as hiinself bebiud him. 
Some gazellee happening to pass before him, he aeked lier, '*In 
what spot (of the body), do yoa wieb 1 shouM ahoot the arrow 
among theee gazelles?*' Slie reph'ed, ^' l wish you to make the 
inalea look like the femaleu, and the femalea like the males." He 
thereupon 8hot a double-headed arrow at a male gazelle, 
oausing its two horns to be pulled oat, aud then he shot two 
arrows at a female gazelle aud fised the honis in the place of 
home. Bhe then asked him to cause one of tlie ears aud a hoof 
of a gazelle to be joined with au arrow, npon whioh lie first 
shot a ear .of a gazelle with a ballet, and when it brought its 
foreleg to its ear to scratch it, he shot it with an arrow, so that 
bòth the hoof and tlie ear were joined together. He then turned 
towards the slave, and notwithstanding bis love for ber, threw 
ber down to the groaud and raade the camel trample ber, on 
account of ber exceeding the due bounds in ber oonduct 
towards him. He said, *^ She wished nothing but to expose my 
incapacity. *' She died soon af terwards. 

(Another section.) Resembling this species is the musk* 
gazelle or musk-deer.^ It is oE a black colour and resembles 
the species that has beeu just described, in height, slenderness 
of legs, and division of hoofs, but every gazelle of this species has 
two white oaniues protruding through its mouth and situated 
in the lower jaw ; they are situated in the face like the two oaniues 
of the pig, aud eaoh of them is iu length a little less than the 
distance between the thumb and the index-finger (al^jitr), li 
is said that it travels from Thibet to India, wbere it throws 
its mnsk ; it may be of an inferior qnality. But as a mattar of 
fact, musk is the blood which accumulates in the navel at 
a particular time of the year and takes the place of the mattera 
which rise to the limbs. God has created its navel a mine for 



266 AD-DAMtBrS 

mask» and it gives ita prodaot (fniit) every year like a tree, 1 
which ^* gives ita fruii at every seasou by the permiseion of ita 1 
Lord,*'^ When it becomea full, the gazellea aicken until the | 
musk becomea mature. It ia said Umt the people of Tbibet fix (^ 
pega in the ground, ao that the gazellea may cab (themaelvea) "^ 
againat them and the musk may fall bear them. .^ 

AI-Kazwlui atates in aUAshkdl that tlie muak-auimal cornea '\ 
out of water just aa gazellea go forth, at a particular time ; ^ 
the people then chaae them in largo numbera; they are then ' 
slaughtered, and in their navela blood is found, which is musk, ' 
but it haa no smeli there uutil it ia removed to another part of 
the country. Thia ia&trange, but what is well-known iameutioued . 

In Mushkil al'ÌFasit by Ibn-as-^alàh it ia mentioned, cu the 
authority of Ibn-'Àkll al-Bagdàd!, that the muek-bag ia in the 
belly of the female gazelle like the reimet-atomach iu the belly 
of a lamb or kid, and that having travelled to oountries in the 
Easti he carried the animai with him to the West, cu account of 
the difference of opinion regarding it It is copied in Kitdb aU^Ipr 
by him, on the authority of 'Ali b. Mahdi at-T«ibari, one of the im&ms 
(leaders) of our religious doctors, that it throws the musk-bag out 
of its belly in the same mauner that the domestic f owl laya an egg, 
I (the author) say that the well-known thing is that it is net placed 
inside the gazelle, but is outside attached to the inside of its navel, as 
haa been already described. 

Muslim relates on the authority of Abù-Sa'id al-Ehudri that 
the Prophet said, ''There was a short woniau out of the Beni* 
larà'il walking with two tali women ; ahe had wooden lega on and 
a gold ring fiUed with musk, which is the best of scents ; she passed 
between the two women, aiid they did net kno\v her ; she then 
apoke with her band thns/' shaking bis finger (indicative of the 
gesture). An-Nawawi says that this tradition shows that musk 
18 the best of scents and the most honoured one, and that it is 
clean, and it is allowable to use it on the body and clothes, and also 
to aell it. AH are agreed on this point. Our religious doctors, 
however, mention of the Shl'ah having a false doctrine on the 

1 Al-]9[ur'aa XlV-dC. 




Il ' 



F* » 


■» • 

snbjeot of musk, but they are at variance with ali the (other) Muslims 
Ud with the authentic traditions regarding the Prophet's practices and 
tbose of his Oompanions. Our religious doctors aud others say that 
miisk is an exoeption to the well-known rule, namely, whatever is 
•eparated from the living is dead. He (an-Nawawi) says, "As 
[regards the short woman fitting herself with two woodeii lega and her 
walking between the two tali ones, so as not to be dìstingnished, its 
lawEulness or uulawf ulness according to our doctrines is that, if 
her intention was a sincere legai one to conceal her identity, so 
aa not to be recognised, meaning thereby only an annoyunce (to 
others), no harm would be done, but if she did it out o£ pridc or 
with the intention of pretending perfectiou or of deluding men or 
others, it would be nnlawful." 

(Information.) Dàrakutnì and at-Tabaranl in his Mv'jamaU 
awsat relate, on the authority of Anas b. Màlik, and al-Baihaki 
relales in his Shi% on the authority of Abù-Sa'ld al-Khudrt, that 
the ApoBtle of God happened to pass by a party of men who had 
oaptured a female gazelle and tìed her to a tent-post, when she said, 
«* Apostle of God, I have lately given birth to young ones, and 
I have two young ones ; ask leave therefore (from them) for me 
to go and suckle them, and after that I shall return to thcm." The 
Prophet thereupon said, " Leave her, so that she may go to her two 
young ones, suckle them, and then return to you." They asked, 
«•0 Apostle of God, who will guarantee that to us? " and the 
Prophet repHcd, "1;" upon which they set her at liberty, andsho 
went away, suckled her two young once, and then returned to 
them. Tliey then tied her up. The Prophet asked them, "Will you 
sell her to me?" and they replied, "0 Apostle of God, she is 
yours," and left her alone, upon which he set ber at liberty. It is 
related in the version on the authority of Zaid b. Arkam, who said» 
" When the Apostle of God set her at liberty, I saw her running in 
the desert aud saying, 'Tbere is no deiiy but God and Muhammad 
is the AposUe of God!'" 

At-Tabarànt relates on the authority of Umm-Salamah, who 
said, " The Apostle of God happened to be in the desert, when a voice 
cried out, *0 Apostle of God/ upon which he turned round, but 
did notsee anybody; be then turned round again and found a female 

268 AD-DAMÌRt's 

gazelle tied ap. She said, ^ Apostle of God, come near me/ npon 
wbich he drewnear ber and asked ber, * Wbat dosi tboa want ?' Sbe 
replied, * I bave two yoang ones in tbe mountain, let me loose ibat 
I maj go to tbem and snckle them, and tben I sball return to yon/ 
Tbe Propbet asked ber, ^ Wilt tboa do it ? ' and sbe replied, * May 
God torment me witb tbe tortnres of a titbe-collector, if I do not do 
tbat I * He tben set ber at liberty» npon wbicb sbe weqt to ber two 
yoang ones, sackled tbeiu, and retnrned ; be tben tied ber np. Tbe 
Badawt tben woke np and asked bim, ' Apostle of God, do yon 
want any thing ? * and be replied, ^Yes, will yon set tbis (gazelle) 
at liberty ? ' He tberefore set ber at • liberty, and sbe went forth 
rnnning and saying, ' I bear teatimony tbat tbere is no deity bnt 
Ood, and tbat yon are tbe Apostle of God I ' " 

In DaWil an-NabUìoah by al-Baiba]|ct it is related, on tbe 
tintbority of Abd-Sa*td, wbo said, *'Tbe Propliet bappened to pass by 
■a tem ile gazelle tied to a tent ; sbe said, * O Apostle of God, let me 
loose tbat I may go and snckle my yoang one, and I sball tben 
return, and yon may tie me up.' Tbe Propbet said, ^ Tbou art tbe 
game of a party of men, and tbey bave tied tbee up ; take an oath 
tbat tbou wilt do tbat.' Sbe tbereupon took an oatb for bim, and be 
let ber loose ; sbe was not long away before sbe retnrned sprinkling 
tbe contents of ber udder. Tbe Apostle of God tied ber up, and tben 
going to tbe tent of ber owners, asked tbem for ber as a presenta 
Tbey gave ber to bim as a present, and be let ber loose and said, 
*Did cattle know wbat you know of deatli, you would never eat tbe 
lat ones cut of tbem.' " ^àlih (a follower of) asb-Sb&fi^i says about 
it in a poem oomposed by bimself : — 

'* A man one d^y oame after hanag teized a female gaselle, 
Wkich had a yoang one she had lefi in a siony plaoe ; 
She called oat io the Apostle of Qod, while the men were standing by, 
So he released her, aad the meo heard the voice.'' 

In the art. t^AÌ i two otber distiobes cut of it will be given. 

(Lawfulness or unlawfulness.) Tbe eating of ali ita species is 
lawful. It is related regarding a party of religious doctors as 
baving stated tbat it is obligatory on a person in the state of i/^mm 
to give a sbe-goat (^anz) for killing a gazelle (aii'^aJiy)\ — so tbe Im&ni 
^Imftm al-£[aramain) says ; ar- Rifili approves of it, and an-Nawawt 


holds it to be correci, but it is onlj an imaginatìon, for aA-i\ahy (male 

gazelle) is a male and cU'^anz (she-goat) is a female. The correct 

thing is that for (killing) a male gazelle tLe penalty is a ikree-year 

old he-goat (thani). As to musk it is clean, and so is also its bag, but 

on the condition that it is tsikeu ont during the life-iime of the guzclle. 

Al-Mahàmili has qnalified (the word) nwsk^ in Kitdh al-Lvlàh^ with 

(the words) of lite gazelle» and siiid that the musk of the gazelle is 

olean, that is to say the munk taken from the gazelle, by whicli lie 

guards the reader from confounding itwith theThibetan niii^k, wbich 

is taken from a (species of) rat that will described hereafter under the 

letter vi, and which is nncleun. This shows that the latter animai is 

prohibited to be eaten, for if it were an edible animai^ its muskvvouid 

bave acquired the same position (in the matter of cleannesa) as that 

of tbe gazelle. The dealers in pcrfumes cali the Thibetan musk, 

Turkish musk, and in their eslimation it is of a bctter kind and higher 

in price ; but it requires great caution in using it, on account of 

its uncleauness. What al-Jàhi4 has said about the musk-rat will 

be given hereafter under the letter «J. The Shaikh Abù-'Amr b. 

a8-§aiah has copied from al-Kafifal ash-Shàsh! that the musk-i-at^ 

that is to say the musk-bag, may be tanned together with wbat 

there may be of musk in it, upon which it acquìres the same 

cleanness as that of other tanned things. One of the commentaf ors 

o£ the Gtunyàli of Ibn-Suraij states that the bair which is on 

the musk-rat, that is to say the musk-bag, is unclcan, withont any 

difference of opinion, for the musk tans the skin which comes 

in contact with it and is dose (opposìte) to it ; it therefore 

becomes clean, but sucb portions of the sidea of the mnsk-ba^ 

as do not come in contact wilh it remain unclean. Thia which he 

has said is evident, excepting bis statement, "its hair is unclean 

without any difference of opinion," which is not appareut, for there 

is a difference of opinion according to our doctrine in the fact 

of the hair being clean as follo wing the state of the tanned skin 

which is the veraion given by ar-Rabl' al-Jlzl, on the anthority of 

ash-Shafi'l, eleoted by as-Sabkì and olhers, aud confirmed (held as 

authentic) by the Ustàdh Abù-Iehiì^c al-Isfaràyinl, ar-Ruyànì, 

Ibn-Abl-'Usrùn, and others, as has been already stated under the 

letter u- in the art. y^:*^!. 

270 AD-DAUtRfs 

A1-Azra^ mentions as an instance of the sanotity of the 
f^aroe of the saored preoincta, on the aathority of 'Abd-al-^Àziz b. 
Abi-Rawwftd, that a company of mea having betaken themeelves 
to the yalley of Dhù-Taw2l| rested there» when presently a gazelle 
out of the gazelles of the saored precinots having approached 
thera, one of the party seized it by its leg, upon which hia 
companìons said to him, ^^ VVoe betìde yon I Let it go ;'' bnt he 
commenoed to langh and refused to let it go. The gazelle then 
voided ita excrement and made water, so he let it go. The party 
then fell asleep, and after a timo, some of them waking up, fonnd 
a serpent coiied ronnd the belly of • the man who had seized the 
gazelle. Hia companions said to him, ^ Woe betide youl Do 
DOt stir." '* Eventnally the serpent did not come down from 
hìm, until the same thing that had happened to the gazelle 
bappened to him. 

He (al-AzraV) relates, on the anthority of Majàhid, who 
saidy ** A company of morchants from Syria having eutered 
Makkah in the Time of Ignorance, after (the time of) Knsayy b. 
Kilib, alighted io the valley of Jawà under some acacia-treea. 
They baked bread over some hot ashes they had, but having had 
no condiment to eat with the bread, one of them got np and 
fixing an arrow to bis bow shot with it a temale gazelle out of the 
gazelles of the aacred precinots, wiiioh were grazing aronnd them, 
They then went up to it, skinnod it and oooked it to use as a 
condiment While they were thas engaged and their cauldron was 
boiling with the meat of the gazelle in it over the fire, and some 
o( the company were busy roasting the flesli, there carne forth 
from under the fire, a largo flame (ueck) of fire and bumt them 
ali (to death), but it did not bum their dothes or their things 
or the acacia-trees under which they had taken shelter. 

(Proverbs.) " Safer thau the gazelles of the sacred precinots." 
^' The gazelle bas left its shelter," which is like anotlier proverb, 
** He has left bis (another man's) protection as a gazelle leaves 
its shelter,'* applied to a person who runa away, the shelter of a 
gazelle beiug its cover under which it seeks shelter from the 
severity of the beat ; if it flees avay from it, it never returns to it. 
This will be mentioned again under the letter ^ • 

ÌTIt At-?ATAWÌN 271 

iTabahtyah sfatettliat, if ita horn be scraped 
ated with tlie ecrapingo, vermin wìll be 
[f itfi toQgue be Ariei in the shade nnd a 
Dgae be fed with ìt, fihe will lose the 
If itB bile be dropped into & paiiifut «ar, 
ear. If its dang be bnrat together with 
1 fioe aad mized with the food of a boy 
grow aonte, eloqaent, poesessed of a gopd 
ta mask atrengtheua the BÌght, drìea np 
Boa the heiirt and brain, oleara the white 
in palpitatìan ; ìt ia also an antidote for 
jrellowness of coantenance, and if used with 

of glving rise to a fetid breatli. 
Mank ia lieatiiig and drying in its qnality. 
lì vhich ia iiuported frotn Thibet, bnt it ìb 
; its ev'ìl efFeota may be avoìded hj usiog 

Ita Binell anita cold temperamenta and the 

the fleah of the gaselle ia hot and dry and 
of ali game ; the beat flesh ìs tliat of a 
Sciai in colie, paralyeia, and for bodies 
18, but it drìea np the limba, whioh evil 
7 the use of oily aad acid thtnga (with it). 
id ia beat eaten in winter. 
) Thibetan mnsk-baga area6n6varioty and 
be of them in fìneneas and amell, wliiUt the 
etwecn the two, and the i^auawbnrì inferior 
rted enclosed io ita (mnsk) baga in separate 
' the animai is frooi the sea, the graater are 
[>f its mnsk. 

it ia a dream.) A gazelle in a dream 
Irab womaa. Ha who dreams of having 
a female gazelle by the cbaee, will obtain 
l by a triok aiid treachory or will marry a 
na of having alnnghtered a female gazelle, 
of a girl. He who ahoots a female gazelle 
chasing it, will accula a womau (of ìnoon- 

272 AD-DAMinfs 

tinefice)^ aud he wko slioots n feinale gazelle when bis inleution J 
Ì8 to ebase it, will gei wealtb from a womao, and be who obases a ' 
mule gazelle (ìu a dream), will obtain enjoyment of pleasures iu j 
thts world. He wbo dreams of baving seized a gazelle, will get ; 
a legacy aud great wealtb. He wbo dreams of baving i^kinued a % 
feinale gazelle, will conimit adultery witb a woman. He wbo 
dreams uf a gazelle jumping at bim, wiil be opposed by bis wife 
in every tbiug. Jàimlsb States tbat be wbo dreams of baving been 
walking in tbe track of a giizelle, will bave bis strengtb 
iucreased. Wbeuever a man gets possessiou of bonis or bair or 
skìns of gazelles (iu a dreaui), it is au indicutiou of wealtb from tbe 
side of womcu. 

(End.) Musk in a dream indicates a lo ver or a girl. If a tbicf 
dreams of carrying musk (witb bim), be will bo arrestcd, for a fragrant 
smeli bctrays its owner and carrier and reveals bis secret. It also 
indiciitcs wealtb, because its price is greater tban tbat of gold or any 
otbcr tliing. It also indicates a happy life, for a good smeli rctums to 
one who smclls it or posscsses it. It also indicates tbe acquittid of 
llccn;^ed persons. Some say tbat it is indicative of a male child, and 
otbers say tbat it is indicative of a woman. 

(Information.) I bave scon in Miikhtafiar al-Ihya by the 
Sbaikh Shanif-ad-din b. Ytinns, tbe commentator of at-Tanhihy 
in tbe chapter aUIhldàf (sincerity), tbat wboever does any action for 
God's sake witb a sincere motivo and does not do it witb the objcct 
of gaining a reward for it, has the traces of His blessing on bimself 
and his postcrity till the Day of Resurrection, in the sanie manner 
as is said (to bave occurred to gazelles), namcly, tbat whcn Adam 
desccndcd to the Earth, the wild animals of the descrt camo to 
visit bim and to i)ay bim tlieir rcspects, and as each kind of animai 
passed bcfore bim, be prayed for it as suited tbat kind ; a species of 
gazelles coming, be prayed for thcm and mbbed his band on their 
backs, upon which musk-bags made their appearance in thcm. When 
tbe rest of the animals saw tbat, they said to the gazelles, *^ Wbence 
bave you acquired this ?" and the latter replicd, " We visitod the 
sincere friend of Qod, Adam, and he prayed for us and rubbcd his 
band on onr backs." Thereupon tbe rest of the animals went to bim, 


ut<l lie pniyeil for tlioni and rubbeil hU hnud on tlieir Imcks, but 
Qothing oE the kiiiJ whiuh appeared in the gaselles sUowed itselE in 
them, Ti[K>u whicli tlioy tolti the gazolles, " We diil aa joa did, but we 
hare not got anythiiig oE wlmt yoii bave got." Tho; wero tlieit tuld, 
" Yonr action waa perfonned wUh the object of obtaiuiug wlmt yoar 
brotliron hnve obtoìned, wtiilat their action wna purely for God's soka ' 
witliout any other niotiv«, and the reward for it tua sliown itsolf in 
tlioir poeterìty tilt tlie Day of Resnrreotìon." Tliiit ìa oue oE those 
tUingB whìcli the Slmikh ShnraE-ad-dìn haa hiiiiself added to al-Ihyà*. 
We liave also written on tlie «ubjecta of sincerity and liypocrìsy in 
Kitàh al-JatcJiar aì-farid in the Eourtli chnpter, to whicli the reader 
niay refer. 

^iij^ì (iui-J}aribdn).' — Like al-fi(Uirdn, A ccrtnin amali 
animai abovo tho size oE u dog's puppy, having an offenaive atì'nic and 
mach giveu to emitting win<l f roto ita anua, which tho animai knowa to 
come from itaclE and which thoroEore it makcs nae of aa a (deEensive) 
wenpon, in the aame mnnner tlmt the bustard knowa oE ita poascssing 
in it» dung a weapon which it inay use wlienever a hawk approaches 
it. In the aame manncr, ad-^arìbdn gocs to tho hote oE the lizard 
^abb, whcre the young oncs and tho egga of tliat Hzard are, and then 
going to the narrowest part of it, which it atopa with ita taìl, it draws 
the tail to itaelE, and beEore ìt haa fìnished emitting the wind tliree 
times, tho lizard Eainta, tii>on which the ^arihdn eats it and romaìns in 
tho boto tìll it finiahca tho laat young ^abb. Tho Àraba aasert that, iE 
ono chasea it, it emtta wind in hia clotho8,nnd the atink doca not 
Ioave nntìl the clothea bccoiiio ohi. 

(Information.) Àbfi-*AH al-F9rÌst the physician asked AIjuiad b. 
al-Hnaain nl-Mutanabbt the poet, who nsod to tninacribe a good 
dea! of the langoage, " How inany plurais hnve we oE the inoaanrQ 
(^Ui (/i'iò)?" Ho rcplicd inatantaneonaly, " i^h^ {(lijlà) titid tfij^ 
{itiriià]." Abù-*Alt atates, " I then soarchod soveral hoofca on the 

■ Probitblj tUa Muie animai tliat ia wlled in Egjpt {A&-'iifan~Tebmj/m 
. erythrta {R&abdogatt muttilma). 


274 AD-DAUÌBf8 

langnage for three nights and conld not find a third word of the same 
measnre." This has been already mentioned under the lettor {>. 

A4'4aribdn ìb abont the sise of a oat or a short Chinese dog and 
hna an offensive smeli, both externally and internally; it bas ihe 
orifioea of the eara withoat any (external) eara, short lega witb aharp 
claws, and a long tail. Ila baok has no vertebrae or joinia, but ia 
composed of one bone from the joint of tlie head to the joint of the 
tail. Soraetimea roeii snooeed in overcoming it, npon wbich they 
atrike it with swords, \?hich bave no effect unless they fall on the side 
pf its nose, for its skin is like a leathem thong in tonghness. It 
ÌB its habit that, when it sees the serpent thu^bdrif it approaches it and 
jamps at it, and that when it seizes it, it thips itself out lengthwise 
nntil it looks like a piece of rope ; the serpent thencoils itself round 
it, and when it has oompletely coiled itself, the iiaribón blows itself 
oat and takes a deep inspiration, which causes the serpent to fall off 
torn in pieces. It has the strength for climbing walls in searoh of 
birds, and if it happens to fall down, it blows its belly out, so that 
the fall does not injure it. It goes right into the middle of a herd 
of camols (f rem forty to a hundred), where it emits wind from its 
anus, which causes the camels to scatter about, in the same manner 
that the presence of apes in the camels' resting-place causes them to 
acatter about, and the camel-keeper has the greatest difficulty in 
making them return to their places. On this account, the Araba 
cali it the separator of cattle. It is found largely in the country 
of the Àrabs. 

(Lawfulness or unlawfulness.) It is unlawful to eat it, on 
account of its being considered nasty, which cannot be set aside by 
the statement of Ibn-^utaibah, namely, that the Arabs chase it as 
game, upon which it emits wind from its anus in tlioir sleeves, for 
ibey do not cali anything game but what is eaten. 

(Proverbs.) ^ Ad'^aribdn emitted noiseless wind from its anus 
among them," employed when a rnpture or separation in a party 
.takes place. A poet says : — 

'* Kow teU ye ^eys and Khiodtf that I bave stmck Ketbeer in the place 
of strìking of the daribàn,** & 

i Lane't Lez. art. y^ , 


^l&ll (ad'Daltm). — ^The male of the ostriche wbich will be 

described hereafter under the letter u) . Its sobriqnets are àbtCìrbai^i 
ahH'thaMtMn^ and dbiV^fidhdrà, PI. diltnàn^ like tcaltd^ pi. wihldtu 

[The anthor bere qnotes a line from Zubair, sbowing the word 
ad-^Uindn to be the pi. of a^'^aitm^ but as the context is not 
clear, it is not translated.] 

God has sud, *^ And there sball go round abont them eternai 
boys (mlddn)** ^ Otber words of the sanie measnre are ^afii/>, pi. 
kifibdn^ *art4i pi. 'ir^àn, and /afll^ pi. fi^ldn. Stbawaih says tliat 
ali these pia rais (words) are like toiUldn^ and that tliej are plarals of 
pancity. Another authority gives some additional words, namely, 
^iUkarif wbich means a water-coarse« pi. tiiiryan^ «arC, pi. mrydn^ 
foM pi. ^ilydn^ and kluifi^ pi. hlù^ydn. 

(End.) One says, "^IfeJljU t j^ , !;!;* (the male ostrich utticred 

its cry),'* the last word being its cry. Ibn-Kh. and otbcrs state that 

from this word is takcn the namc of ^IrAr, whose full name wns 'Irar b* 

^Amr. b. Shàs al-Asadi and rcgarding whom bis fathcr said: — 

*'8be derired to brìng contempt on *Ir&r, but whoever desires 
To bring contempt on <Ir&r, by niy Hfe, does a wron^ (to hìm) ; 
Fot tliougb 'Ir&r is not of a white eomplexion, 
I stili love the blaok one with broad sboulders.'' 

His father had for a wife a woman oiit of the tribe, whiist bis 

son, this ^Iràr, was from a slave-woman, and thcre existed cnmity 

bctwecn 'Iràr and his father's wifc. His fathcr 'Amr tricd to bring 

al)0ut reconciliation bctwecn bim and his own wifc, but conld not 

snccccd, and thcrcforc divorccd ber ; ho rcpontcd, howcA'cr, for it 

aftcrwards. *Iràr was cIo(]ucnt and intclligcnt ; he wcnt as a 

messenger from al-MuhalIab b. Abt-§ufrah to al-Ha jjaj li. Yùsuf atli- 

Thakaf! rcgarding some important afEuir. When he appcarcd bcfore 

al-Uajjàj, the lattcr did not know him nnd hcld him in light cstimation, 

butwhcn he questi oncd him, he showcd him his good qualities and 

spoko Arabie flucntly to snob an cxtcnt that he rcachcd ì\\q cxtrcmo 

point in fluency, upon which al-Hajjùj quoted thcsc lines : — 

" She deftired to bring contempt on 'Iràr, but whoevcr derires 
To bring contempt on *Ir&r, by my life, does a wrong to him.*' 

» AlKur'àn LXXVM9. 

276 AD-DAMiRt's , i 


*Iràr therenpon said, " May God help you 1 I am *Iràr.*' Al-Hajjàj i 
was snrprìsed at it and at ibis coincidence. * ^ 

[The author bere qnotes from al-Mujdlasah of ad-Dinawar! and . 
ad'Durrah of al-Harlri a similar narrative.] » 

> De Slane'B T. of Ibn-Eh-'a B. D. YoL III, p. 121. 


j^3 uJ f (a2-^^^'^).— rAl-Jawhari says tliat it is a young bird above 

the stage of that termed an-^ndhiif. One says, ^*I bave taken a yoang 
('dtift) sand-groose," which term is applied to it when it is able to 
fly and is independent. Abù-^Ubaidah says, ^' We are of opinion that 
the sense is derived f roin ouiBtripphig^ as if it cì^H » that is to say, 
cutiiripi!* Ibn-SIdah says that aWatiìi is a young sand-gronse in 
the stage oE anmàìd^ when the first originai feaihers are cast off and 
new feathers bave grown. Some say that aWàtili oE a pigeon is a 
young bird that has not advanoed in age and attained ita full 

vigour. PL *awàt%k. c>i**^ ^ cr^ * = ^ ^wift and gmerous horse. 
iidfi iì^\ = a handioììie and generous xoonian* 

It isrelated in the ^oAtAof al-Bukbftri regarding Ibn-Mas'ùd that 
be used to say, *' The Chapters of the Kur'fln, the Beni-Isrà'il, the 
Oave, Mary, T* H., and the Prophets are out of the first most excellent 
{'iià\i) and oldest [f,ilàdi) ones," intending by V^ijfc the pi. of 'o^iib, as 
the Arabs cali anything which has reached the height of excellence 
*ol{ì^. He desired to oonsider these chapters as the most excellent, 
on account of the narratives of the prophets and the bistories of 
nations they contain. ToXàd means ancient property, and he intended 
thoreby that they were the first of the chapters to be revealed ai the 
oommencement of al-lslam, beoause thy were ali revealed in Makkab 
and were out of the first chapters of the Kur^tn to be recited 
and remembered. 

•Jiì UJ I (oZ-'ut^'A;). — ^The borse. PL ^awùJtih. A poet says : — 

<* We cause io follow them, our noble steeds 
la baitle, wlthout saddles, and they rush to places of danger.'' 

(Information.) ^Abd-al-Bà^ b. Kàni' in bis Mu^jam and the 
H&fid Abù-Tahir b. Muhammad b. Ahmad as-Silaft relate out 
of a tradition of Siyfinah b. 'Asim, who was a Companion of the 


Prophet, that the Propbet suid at ilie batile oE Uunain, ^^I am 
descended frora tbe ^Àw&Hk oufc of Snlaitu.*' The ^Awfttik 
were tliree ladies oui of tbe tribe oE tbe Beui-Sulaini» who were 
amoiig tbe niatemal relationa of tbe Prophefc. One of tbein waa 
'Atikab biiit Hilàl b. Fftlij b. Dbukwàiì as-SuIaiutyab, wbo was 
tbe Dìotber of *Abd-ManàE b. Kiisayy. Aootber was ^Atikab bint 
Mnrrah b. Hilfil b. Falij as-Snlamiyab, who was the mother of 
HAsbim b. *Abd-Uauàf. And tlie tbird was ^Atikab bint al-Aw^pas b. 
Murrah b. Hil&l as-Sulamt^^ah, who was the mother of Wahb, tlie 

fatber of Aminah, tbe mother of the Propbet. The first of the 
*Awàtik was (thus) tbe annt of the second one, who was the aunt 
of the tbird one. The fieui-Salaim are proud of this connection 
(with tlie Propbet)» and bave otber reasons (also) to he prond, one 
of which is that thej joined tbe Propbet in tbe conqnest of Makkab,. 
ihat is to say, a thoasand of tbeui were preseut with hitn ut the 
battio, and that the Propbet ad vanced on that day their banner, which 
was red, before ali tbe otber bauners. Anotherof tbese reasons is that 
*Umar, having written to the people of al-KAfah, al-Basrali, Egypt 
and Syria, askiug them to send from each of the countries, the most 
honoured man from among them to bim, tbe people of al-Kùfah 
aent bim ^Uibab b. Furkad as-Sulami, the people of Syria sent 
AbA'l-A'war as Salami, the people of al-B:israb sent Mujfisbi^ b» 
Mas'ùd as-Snlami, and the people of Egypt sent Ma^n b. Yaztd as-» 
Sulami So, a party of authorities say. Uut the correct tbing is 
that there were only nino hundred of tbe Beui-Sulaim at the conquest 
of Makkab, and that the Propbet therefore said to them, ^^ Ilave you 
got a hundred more men to make up the number of a thousand ? " 
They replied, '* Tes," upon wbich he gave them in ebarge of 
ad-Duhhflk b. Safyan, who was their leader, and he appoiuted bini 
oyer them, beoause they were ali out of liais 'Ayl&n. 

^^^ I jUtf Qltdh al-t^yr). — Birds of prey ; — so al-Jawbari says. 

^^ * 

*^^Jt {aWAtalali). — A sbe-camel that does not conceive and 
always remains strong ; — so Abù says. Tbe art. *-it*Jl (a sbe- 
camel) will be gìven under tbe letter e; • 


Uff (al-'À(lih) and f*^U)l (ó^-'ifl/Aa/i).— À serpcnt that 

kilU A person instanily it bites him. The art. ^^ I (the serpent) 
has Leen already given under die letter ^. 

J-tbJl (aP^f jì/).— The wolf. Pls. aPii^w/ and a/-*ati?(i«7. Fcm. 
*a$alà. The art. *^iJ t has already beon given under the lettor ò . 

f^jSfUJì (al^^ Al/Ai)* — ^A certain Least froin which an cvil omen 
ifl augnred. It will be given hereafter under the letter <J in the 
art. fj^j^^K 

i^ ìmJ t (aU^Afiyali), — ^Any seeker of the nioans of subsistence cut 

oE human beings, l>easts, and birds, being derived f roni ^^jAp, (which 
one says) \^hen one goes to any one to ask for bis beneficence. 

(Information.) It is said in a tradition, " Whoever revives dead 
land owns it, and whatevor a seeker of subsistence Qàfiyàh) cats out oE 
that land is alms given by him." In one vcrsion the word used is 
aU^axoAfi^ which is the pi. of ^Ajiyah. An-Nasà'i and al-Baihak! bave 
relatod it, and Ibn-Uibbàn has declared it to be authentic, out of the 
vcrsion given by Jàbir b. *Abd-Allàh. It is related in the ^ahlh of 
Muslim, out of the vcrsion given by az-Zuhri, on the authority of 
Sa*ld b. al-Musayyab, who had it from Abù-Huniirah, namely, .that 
the Prophet said, ^* You will^leave al-Madìnah, and nothing will cover 
it but seekers of subsistence (aì-^au?^/^)," moaning thercby scekera 
of subsistence out of the l>easts of prey and birds. " Then thcre will 
come forth from the tribe of Muzain&h two pastors, who will proceed 
to al-Madlnah, driving their sheep and goats, but they will find it 
deserted, and when they will arrivo at Thaniyat-al-widàS they will fall 
prostrate on their faces." The Imam an-Nawawi states that the elected 
opinion is that this desertion of al-Madtnah will take place at the end 
of time, when the Hour of Judgment comes, and that this is rendered 
clear by the narnitive regarding the two pastors from the tribe oE 
Muzainalì, for they will fall prostrate on their faces when the Hour of 
Judgment overtakes them, they being the last persons to be collected 
(for judgment), as is established by what is related in the ^fjAfjt oE 

280 AD-DAMiRrs 

al-Bukhàri. The Kàdi *Iyàd says that this is what alroady occnrrcd 
in timcs gono by and is one of the miracnlons prophecies of the 
Prophet ; becanse al-Madìnah was dcserted notwithstanding ita 
floarishing condition, whcn the seat of government was removed f rom 
it to Syria and al-*Irft)^ ; at that time the city of al-Madinah was in 


the most flonrishing condition, both as regards religious and worldly 
affairs, — the former on account of the great nnmber of learaed men 
ihere were in it, and the latter on acconnt of ita cnltivation and 
prosperity and the affluent circnmstances of its people. He states 
that historians inention, as one of the trials throagh which al-Mudinah 
has passed when the people were frightened» that inost of the people 
once deserted it, leaving ali or inost of the friiit for searchers of food 
to eat ; then after a time they retumed, bat it« present state nearly 
approaches that condition stili, iis adjacent suburbs being in ruius. 

AJtAJ t (al'^AUdh), — A she-caniel that has ber young one with 

ber. Some say that it is a she-camel that has recently broaght 
forth, and for some days afterwards, nntil ber yoang one becomes 

It is said in a tradition that ISaraish went forth to fight with 
the Apostle of God, and took with them ai'^4dh cd-matdfil^ which 
18 the pianti of ^d^idh^ meaning thereby that they took with them 
their milch camels, so that they might obtain sustenance from their 
milk and not return till they liad defeated Mu^ammad nnd bis 
followers and gained their object. But it is mentioned in Niliàyat 
àlrgwth that by ai- tulli al'^atdfU is meant the woraen and children. 
A slA&-camel is called an ^dUdhf thongh it is the young one that 
seeks protection with ber, because the dam inclines towards its 
young one, the word being thus employed in the same manner as 
in the case of ^'^Ij ij^ (profitable trade), thongh it is a thing in 
which profit is obtained, because it has the senso of increasing, and 
80 also in the case of ^i^ tj cAi^ (a pleasant or comfortablo existence), 
because it is in the senso of a good existence. 

^ti^ ^«'^ 

I (al-^Alluirì and u^j^^ * 0^'^ Ubh<ifi). — A certain small 
animai ; — so Ibn-Sidah says. 

9Ay1t al*9ataw1n 281 

jj^^ f (al^^AlUr). — A young lamb or kid a ycar old or even 
yoanger than thai. Al-Lìhyàni gives ibis name as a special one 
for a yonng one (lamb or kid) and says tbat it is that after weaning. 
PI. *abdHr; — so «l»o Ibn-Sidab says. 

jj,U^Jl (aZ-*t7/rMAì/i).— The (domestìc) cock. Tbo ari fJ^Ì 

bas l)een already given under tlie letter 0. *Adt b. Zaid suiys : — 

**'ihree jears and the inonth of Mu^iarrain 
I bare passed )ike the eye of a fightiug oock (oi-'nirii/Hu)." 

^jIaJ I (al'^AtiUì). — A young goat that bas become vigonrons, is 
able to grazoy and is a ycar old. Pls. aHidah ani Udtldn^ wbich latter 
is originally ^itdàn^ but one of tbe letters («a») is incorporated wìth 
anotlier {0). 

Muslim relates, on the antbority of'Ukbab b. 'Amir, tbat tbe 
Propbet gave bim some goats to distribute among bis (ìompaniona» 
%Tben a yonng goat (^attìil) luiving reniaincd bebind, tbe Propbet 
said (to himX ^^Sacrifice it yourself." AI-Buibu]kì and ali our 
religious doctors say tliat tbis permission wns given to ^Ukbah 
b. *Amir specially, like tbe one given to Al»ft-Burdab Hàni' b. Nij'àr 
al-BHlawi. Al-Baibii^^t relates tbat tbe Propbet said to ^Ukbab k 
'Amir, **!Sacrifice it yourself, but nobody ìa allowed to sacrifice it 
after you.'* It is related in tbe Sunaìi of Ab&-Dft\vud tbnt tbe Pro* 
pbet gave permission in such matters (genorally) to Zaid b. KbAlid, 
and tbose specially appointed for snob a purposc were tbrce, naniely, 
A bù-Burdab, 'U]^bah b. 'Amir, and Z*ùd b. Kbàlid. 

ìajl)\ (al'^Uththah), — ^A certain motb-worm (insoct) tbat oata 
clothcs and wool. Pls. ^lUhth and Uithath. It is more usnally 
fonnd in i>vool or woollcn dotlics. It is said in al-Afuhtam tbat 
it is a certain ìnsect that attaches itsclf to hidos or skins and devours 
thcm, wbich is the statement of Ibn al-A'r&bt. Ibn-Duraid statcs tliat 
al-^utldh without the i is a certain insect that attacks wool, wbich 
sbows that both the sing. and the pi. are Utthth. Ibn-Kutuiiiab Sjiys 
that it is a certain insect tliat eats leathcr, and tliat there is a differcnce 
botwcen it and the wood-fretter. Al-Jawhari stntes that al^^tiththah 
is the larva of a certain moth {as-^sumhy that eats wool. 

^ The larva of Phakena /tiiea.—Lfine'B Lex. 

282 AD-DAUllti'g 

(LawEalnoaa or unlawfalncss.) It h unkwEul tó cat tt. 
(Proverbs.) " A little nioth-worm gnawing a sinooUi 
«pplied to one wlio tries to inake un iinpression on a tliing 
nnable to ilo so. Al-AhnuE b. ^is enid tlint to UArit 
Zaid wlien the latter waiited 'Ali b. Abl-T'<tib to give hit» a 
in state nfFair!), but in al-J'Wifi ìt \s nieiitioned tbnt al-A^m 
tbut to a ^tersoli who liatl sntiriìied liiiii, its ia snid :^ 
" If ye AbDH lu tot four bhme, 
Verily, the moth-wonn trìea to gnaw the thiniog letther," 

(al-'Atltamlliamalt). — ^A strong sho-camcl, th 
boiiig un 'athamtham. Al-Jawliarl anys tlint al-*atliamtham 
lìon, being so callod liecuuso of ita boavy stop or troadii 
iiijiz says : — 

" Uolky aod bekvy in hU wolk, — % lion {'aAamthamy" 

ujU^Ajr (al-'-Uthm'irC). — Tho young one o£ the baatai 
UuhArà), und Uie young one oE tlio serpont atli-lhu'f>dn, and 
8eri>ci)t oE any s|»coies or iU young one. 

-ijljj I (al-^AthawlIiaj). — A bnlky cnmcl. 

tJjyT*^t (al-^ Ujriif). ' • — A ccrtain email crocpìng Uiing witli 
long Icgs. Soino aay that it ìs a spocics oE the ant witli long Icgx. 

i^T*^' (ai-*///). — [A culF]. The young ono oE tbo cow. 
PI. 'ajiljil, and (cin. 'ìjlalt. l^^^ì^~a emc harìnff a cai/. 

(InEormntion.) It ia said Uiat it is cullod 'ijl, on account oE 
the liurry with whicli the Benì-T»rftìl went to worship it. Tlie 
period during wliicli they worshìp^ied it was forty day», and 
tbcy wcrc thcrefore piinÌMlied Eor Ìt in tlie desert Eor Eorty years, 
Qod liaving appointed a yeur in reciuitnl Eor evory day tboy 
wordhipped it, Abù-Mansùr nd-Dailnint relatAs in Matnail al- 
Jt^nhici, out oE a traditiou oE HudhaìEtili b. at-Ynm&n, tliat the 
Fropbct said, " Ercry iiution hiis nn idoi (a calE), and the idol 

1 Cf. 'OniAiit fa'rAf^lhe bUck »ut)— Oim/wnofw oomprutiu. 


' tliU nailon is the dìnàr and the dirhuni. " The Hujjut nU 
il-Qaxzàli says that the originai calf of the [leople oE Mosei» 
do of gold and »ilver ornamenti). Al-Jawhari shites that sonie^ 
coinnientatora expUiin tlie word» in the Kur'an, '^a cor|>oro4il 
a8 meaning otte niade of red gold. 

ea^n.) The rcason of the Beni-Isr&'il worshipping the csilf 
ut God had api>ointed for Moses tliirty nights (of fasting), 
ilo supploniented with ten more, and that when on tho 
lentary tenth day He made theui cross tlie sca, after destroying 
t and his {jeeplo, they {rnsscd a peoplc who werc in the 
l worsliipping idois like tho statuos of tho cow, in total 
il of the worship of God. Ibn-Juniij states that that was 
hi timo they worshipped tho calf, and it ha))pcncd in this 
When the Boni-Isr&'il saw that, they said to Moses, ** Mako 
a deity," that is to say a statue, *^ which we may worship,. 
ssuno way as they havc an idol." This is not to he takcn in 
of tho Bcni-Isra'il having any doubt as to the unity of 
t what tlìcy mcant by it was, '^ ìlako for us somothing which 
' niagnify, and by magnifying which we may scek the favoiir 
(ncarncss unto God)," thinking that it would not in any way 
) with their religious bolief, but this was cntirely due to 
mt ignorance, as God lias said, *' ' Yerily, ye are ignonint 

es had proniised the Beni-Isrà'il, when tlioy werc in Egypt, 

ni Go<I would destroy their eiicinies, He would givc theiii 

containing an ex|>osition of what they were to do and what 

3 to discard. Therefore when God did that, Moses asked 

the Book, npon which Ho ordcred hini to fast for thirty 

t when the thirty days of fasting werc over, he was so 

with the offensive smeli of his mouth, that he rubbed and 

lis tectli with a tooth-stick cut out of a branch of the carob 

:ree, or as some say, he ate of the bark of a trce. The 

rcupon said to him, ^^ We nspd to smeli musk out of your 

it you bave now corrupted that smeli with the use of the 

, for which rcason supplement the fa.sting with a fast oF 

irMn Vll-ue. « Idem VIM84. 

284 AD-DAMÌRfs 

tcn moro days," When the thirty daya wcre over, thoy wcro tried 
\rith (the trial of) tcn more days, which was an additional trial. 

As-SAmirl was one of the people who worshipped the cow, and 
ulthough extemally he prof essed al-Islum, he had at hcart the love 
of the worship of the cow ; Gtod therefore tried the Beni-IsràMI ^ 
throngh him. As-Sdmir!, whose propcr name was MAsà (Moses) b. 
jJafar, said to them, ** Bring me the ornamenta of the Beni-Isrà'il." 
They therefore coUcctcd thcm and bronght them to him, upon which 
he made for them ont of them, *^ a corporeal calf which 
lowed." I He then thrcw into its mouth si handful of the dust from 
tlie foot^print of Ghibricl's borse, npon which it was converted into 
41 calf, with a body of flcsh and blood and endowed with tlio lowing 
cry, which is the cry of the cow ; — so Ibn-'AbbAs, al-Uasan, 
Katadah, and most of the commentators state, and this is the corrcct 
version, as is given in al-Bagawi and other books. Some, however, 
say that it was corporeal, but the body was of rcd gold without any 
lifc (soni) in it, and that a cry could be board coming from it. Some 
also say that it never cried bnt once,' upon which the people hovered 
roand it, dancing and rapt with ecstasy, for the purpose of worsliipp- 
ing it, in exclusion of the worship of God. Some say that it uscd to low 
niuch, and that wlicncvcr it lowcd, thcy thrcw thcmselves prostrate 
bcforc it, and whcn it bccamo silcnt, they raiscd their heads. Wahb 
says that a lowing ciy uscd to bc board coming from it, but it did 
not move, wliilst as-Suddi says that it uscd both to bcllow and walk 
und had a body like the body of a human bcing, bcside which no 
bodics that are fcd aro called by the name of jasculj but it is 
said that the jinn too bave similar bodics. The calf of the Beni- 
li^rA^il had cortaìnly a Itody which could produco a cry (sound), as has 
been montioned, but it did not eat or drink. God has ssiid, ^' And 
they were made to drink the calf down into their hoatts, " * that is 
to say, the love of the calf. God hsis said about Abraham, *' And 
he fetched a fat calf. " ' Katildah says that the whole of Abraham's 
property consistcd of cows, and that he selected a specially fat one, 
cut of respect for bis gucsts. Al-Kurtubl says that aZ-*y7 in some 

i Al-Kur'lln V1M46 and XX-dO. « Idem 11-97. See the foot-note 
«o it in Sale'8 T. of the Eur'&n. • Idem LI-26. 

9AYÌT al-patawIk 285 

lialccts nieans a sheep and a goat ; — so al-Kualìairi has mentioncd. 
Ile prophet Abraham used io be very liospitable, and it is enoiif^h 
or the rcader (you) io know that he has ordained places for charU 
iible and hospitable pnrposes (aìoliélf)^ which are (t^till) visited by 
everal nations, notwithstanding the difference in their nationalitios 
nd religione. 'Awn \i. ShaddAd says that Gabriel rubbed the calf 
rith liis wing, npon ^hich it rose up inuuediately and weut and 
oincd its inother. 

[The author bere gives the judiciul qiicstion proix>sod by the 
^àtib Abft'l-^Abbas to the Kddl Ibn-Kur'aiah rogarding a Jcw, wìxo 
ras snpposed to bave comniitted fornication with a Christian wonian, 
rho gave birth as the" result of it to a child \vith a human body and 
ho face of an ox.] * 

(Furthcr information.) Al-Kur^iibl has coi>ied rogarding Abù- 
Bakr a^-Tur^tishl that he ivas askcd a qnestion, ^* in rcsi)oct of a 
)CopIe who mcct togethor in a phice, recite a little of the Kur'iìn», 
md thon a reciter of poctry rccites some poctry to them, npon which 
hoy dance, show emotional joy, and beat on a dram and play on a 
luto. Is it lawful to bo prescnt with them or not ?" He rcpiied,. 
* According to the doctrines of the Sùfts, this is frivolity, ignoranco» 
md error ;" — to the end of bis reply. But I (the author) say that I 
lavo soon that ho rcplied in othor. words than thosc, namcly, *^ The 
religion of the 8ùfis is frivolity, ignoranco, and error, and tlicre is no 
[slam but the Book of Qod and the roligious institutes of His Aj)ostle^ 
A.S to the dancing and affoctation of ecstasy, the first ones to adopt 
them woro tlie followcrs of as-Sàmirt, whcn ho mado for them a cor- 
>oreal calf with a lowiug cry, upon which thoy bcgan to dance 
round about it and make a show of love for it. That is the roligiòn ot 
imbclievers and the worshipi^ors of the calf, whilst in tho assembly of 
the Prophet, in which bis ( •ompnions mot, tliore used to be |>erfecl; 
ilonce (as if birds were on their heads), out of respect and venera- 
ion. It is tlierefore necessary for the Sultàn and his doputies to 
)revent them from being present in mosques and othor places. It 
^ not lawful for any one bolieving in 6od and the last day to bo- 

» De Slane'a T. of Ibn.Kh.'s B. D. VoL III, p. 93. 

286 AD-DAM}uf8 

prescnt with them or to help thein in tlieir frivolons condoct. ThÌ8 
is ilio rcligious doctrine of Malik, ash-Sluìfi^l, Àbiì-Hantfuli, Ahmad» 
and other iniàms of tho Muslinis." 

(Fnrther ìnformatìon.) It is rclated that there was a rich man 
among the Beni-Isrii'il, wlio had a poor cousin, and tbat there was 
nobody to inhcrit liini bui the consin. When the latter fonnd tho 
former's death long in coining, he killed hiin in order to inhcrit 
Ili in, and reinoved the body to anothcr villagc, whcre he threw it in 
a court^yard there. The next moming, he demanded vengeance for 
the murder, and coming with the people to Moses complained to 
him abont it. Moses inquired %vith them, bnt they denied knowledge 
of it, and the affair proved a difBcult one for, him to decide. Al- 
Kalbl states that this occurred bcfore the revclntion regarding tho 
administration of the oath in the Pentateueh. They thercfore. asked 
Moses to pray to God to bring to light tho mystery of the murder, 
Moses thcreupon prayed to God, who inspired him to the effect that 
he was to inform them that God ordered them to kill a cow. 

It is (fnrther) rehited tliat it liappened that there was a certnin 
pious man among tlie Beni-Isri'il, who had an infant son posscss- 
ing a heifer. He took it to a thieket and said, *' God, I leave 
this heifer in Thy charge for my son till he grows up.^' The man 
then died, and the heifer grew up into a middle-aged cow in the 
thieket, but she used to run away f rom evcrybody that saw ber. 
When the boy also grew np and was dntiful to bis mother, he used 
to divide the night into three portions, one of which he devoted to 
prayor, another to sleep, and the third to watehing at the head of bis 
mother. In the moming he used to go out, colleet wood, and bring 
it cn . bis back to the market for sale ; a third of the proceeds of 
it he used to spcnd in alms, another third in feeding himself, and the 
remaining third he used to givo to his mother. One day bis mother 
told him, " Tour father has left for you the legacy of a heifer in the 
charge of God, in sudi and such a thieket. Go forth, Uierefore, and 
pray to the God of Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, and Jacob to return her 
to you. Tho sign by which she is to 1)0 recognised is tlmt directly 
you see her, you would imagine sun's rays to l)e proceeding from 
her skin." The heifer was named on account of it^ l)eauty and 

V- - 


llow coloar al-Mudhahhabah (the gilt oiic). The youth then Tieni 
the thicket and saw her grazing, upon which he shonted out to her^ 
I oonjure thee by the Gt>d of Abraham, Ishinael, Isaac, and Jacob 
I come to me.'* Tlie heifer therenpon turned towards hini and 
nnning stood before him. He then seized her by her neck and 
Vas aboot to lead ber, when she s}K>ke by the order of God, '^ yoa 
youth, who are so dutiful to yonr mother, ride me, in which case it 
vouhl he easier (or yonrself.'' The yonih, however, replied, '* My 

t mother has not ordered me to do that, but she has told me, * Seize 
licr by the neck.' " The heifer therenpon said, ** By the God of the 
Bcni-Isrft'll, had yon monnted me, yon could ncver liave hod me in 
your power ; but go on, for oven if yon order a mountain to root itself 

;put and go with you, it would do it, on account of your dntifnhicss to 
your mother." The youth tlien wcnt with ber to bis mother, who 
said, *^ You are poor and bave no property, and it is difficult for yon 
to collcct wood in the day and to watch at night ; go forth therefore 
and scll the cow." He asked her, *^ For how mudi shall I scll her I'* 
She replied, ** Fojr three dlnArs, but not witliout consuUing me 
(first)." The price of a cow at that tiine wos three dtiiurs. The 3'outh 
wcnt witli the cow to the market, and God sent to him an angel, 
in order to show His creatures His power, and to try the youtb's 
dutifulncss to his mother; '' verily, God is knowing and aware."^ 
The angel asked him, *' For how nmch will you sell this cow ?" and 
ho replied, ** For three dinArs, but I make the condition with 
you, of my mother bcing pleased with the biirgain." The angcl said, 
** I shall give you six dinàrs, if you do not consult your mother,'* 
The youth replied, ^' Even if yon give me the weight of the cow in 
gold, I shall not take it without my motlicr's consent." He then 
rotumed to his mother and informed her of the price, u{K>n which 
^he said to him, ** Return and sell her for six dinàm, but deiiendcnt 
on my consent." He therefore went again to the market, and the 
angel came and osked him, '^ Have you consultcd your mother ?" 
The youth replied, *' She luis orclered me not to reduce tiie price to 
anything less than six dtnSrs, but that too on the condition of con* 
sulting her." The angel then said to him, ^< I shuU give yoa 

1 AUEar'Au IV*89. 

288 AD-DAMtars 

twelvo dinftrs, providcd you do not cousult yonr mother." The 
youth, howevery refosed, and rotarniug to bis mother inf onned ber 
of it. Sbe said, ^* Tbe person Mrbo comcs to you is an angel in tho 
guise of a buuian bcing to try you ; if bo comcs to you (again), 
ask bim, * Do you order us to soli tbis cow or not ? * '* Tbe youtli 
did as be was told^ and tbe angel replied, ^* 60 to your motber and 
teli ber, ^ Keep tbis cow, for Moses will buy ber f rom you, on 
account of tbe murdered man out of tbe Beni-Isnt'ìl, and do not scll 
her for less tban ber skin full of dtnàrs.' " Tbey tberefore kcpt back 
tbe cow, and 6od decreed for tbe Beni-Isrft'il to kill tbat very cow» 
in compensation to tbe youtb for bis dutifulncss to bis motber and 
out of Uis kindness and mercy, (wbicb buppened in tbis way): — 
Tbe Beni-IsnVil kept constantly asking for a dcscription of tbe cow, 
until tbis very cow was described to tbem. 

Tbe letirned differ in tlieir opinions as regards ber colour. Ibn- 
*Abbàs says tbat sbe was intensely yellow ; Kutàdab says tbut sbe 
was of a pure unmixed colour ; wbilst al-»Uasan al-Basrt says tbut 
sbe was of a yellow colour inclined to black. But tbe first opinion 
is tbe correct one, for (tbe word) fdki^ (pure) is not used witb bluck 
but witb yellow. One says, " 5» lijjUi (intensely yellow), uW Ia òj-«I 
(pitcb-black), ^s;Iì^*aI (intensely red), j^ìÌj»ìa\ (brigbt green), and 
Ò^uH^J (excessi vely wbite)." 

Wben tbey slaugbtered ber, God ordered tbem to strike tbe 
body of tbe murdered man witb some part of ber, regarding wbicb 
also tbere is a difEerence of opinion. Ibn-'AbbAs and tbe general 
body of tbe commentators state tbat tbey stnick it witb tbe bone 
next to tbe en.siform cartibige (al-^urfiaf and a/-^i<(lr<{/), wbicb is 
in front. Mujabid and Sa'id b. Jubair stato (tbut tbey stnick it) 
witb tbe root ( ^ajO) of tbe tiiil, because it is tbe first part to be 
created and tbe last one to perish, and tbe part on wbicb peoplo 
mount. Ad-Pabh&k says (tbat tbey struck it) witb tbe tonguc, 
because it is tbe instrument of speecb. 'Ikrimab and al-Kalbi say 
(tbat tbey struck it) witb ber rigbt tbigb ; but some say, witb one of 
tbe limbs witbout specifying wbicb one. Tbey did tbat, u^ìon wbicb 
ibe murdered man rose up in a living condition by tbe order of God, 
bis jugular veins tbrowing out blood. He said, ^^ Sucb a one killed 

•^ • 

9ay1t aIì-9ataw1n 289 

nio/' and foli down and dicd on the dame spot. His propcrty was de- 
olured as nnlawf ul to be iuhcrited by the murderer, and it is said in 
histor}' that no niurdcrer has inhcrited, after the person on whoae 
: account the cow was shinghtercd. The naine of the murdored man 
was ^Amil ; — so aI-Bagaw*l and others state. 

A7.-Zaniakhshart and others state that it is rehit-cd tliat thcre 
wus aniong tlie Beni-IsrA'il an old pious man who had a lioifer ; 
he took it to a thtcket and said, **0 God» I leave hor in Thy 
cluirge for my son» until he grows np. ** The son then grew up and 
was dutiful to his mothcr, and the cow also attained tlio age of 
youthfulness and was the niost boaatiful and fiittest of cows. The 
orphan and • his mothor chaffcred (for the cow's pricc), until they 
sold her for her skin full of gold, the price of^a cow at the time 
being (only) three dtnftrs. Az-Zamakhshari and others state that 
the Beni«Isrà*tl wero in search of a cow of the description which 
was given to them, for forty years. It is said in a tradition rogard* 
ing the Prophet as having said, ^' Had they presented any cow and 
slaughtcred her, she wonld bave sufficed the purpose, but they were 
hard on theniselves, and God was therefore hard on them, for prying into secrets is an unlucky thing. " 

It is reluted al)Out one of the khalifahs tliat he (once) ordered 
an oflicer of his to proceed to a certain people and cut down thoir treea 
and dcsftroy thoir houses. The oificer wrote btick and askod, ^^ AVith 
which of the two tbings am I to begin ? '' The khalifah therenpon 
stud, '^ If I teli yo a (to begin) with the cutting of the troos, yon 
would ask me, * With which kind of trees ani I to bogin first ? * " 

It is related rcgarding ^Uniar b. ^Abd-al-^Axix that he wrote to 
ono of his ofiicers saying, *^ If I ordcr you to givo sudi a one a $hàt 
(goat or sheop), yon would ask me, ^ A shcep or a goat ? ' If I make 
that point clcar, you would ask me, ^ A male or a f emale ono ? ' If I 
inform you that, you would ask me, * A black or a white one ? ' If 
therefore I order you to do anything, do not refer the mattor to me 

(Supplementary information in connection with the legai aspect 
of this subject.) If a person be found murdered in a place and the 

290 AI>-DA)ltllt*8 .] 

*inurderer be not known, and there be presnmptive (incomplete) 
evidenoe (lawiK) against a persona-— presnroptive (incomplete) evidenoe 
being what forces on the mind the eonviction of the trnth of the 
-prosecntor'is statement, for instance, shoold a partj of persona bave 
met in a house or in a desert and then separated from' the mnrdered 
person, it is almost certain that the mnrderer was one of them, or it 
a mnrdered {lerson be found in a qnarter of a town, the inbabitants 
of which wore ali bis enemics, without the mixture of any other 
persons (among them), the mind is strongly inclined to the bclief 
that they killcd him,-— and should the nexi-of-kin of the mnrdered 
man complain, the complainant ought to take fif ty oaths (in support 
of the eharge) against the accnsed, bnt if the complainants are 
'ficvcral persons, the fifty oaths ought to be divided among them» 
After this, if the eharge be one of nnintentional murder, the expia- 
.tory mulct should be taken from the paternal relations (the would-be 
heirs) of the accused person, but if tlie eharge be one of intentional 
.jnurder, it sliould be taken from the property of the accused ; there 
is, however, to be no retaliation (of slaughter), according to the state- 
ment of many of the authorities, whilst *Umar b. *Abd-aPAztz states 
tliat there ought to be retaliation ; — so Màlik and Ahmad say. If 
there be no presumptive (incomplete) evidenoe, the statement of the 
. accurfcd made on oath should be nccepted, but as to whether he should 
take one oath or fifty oaths, there are two opinions, one of tlicm bcing 
rthnt one oath should be taken as in other suits, and the other that 
lìfty solcmn oaths should be taken, as the caso is one of blood. 
According to Abù-Hanìfah, presumptive evidenoe has no \vcìght, 
nor is a case (complaint) to begin with the complainant taking the 
oath, but should a mnrdered person be found in a qnarter of a town 
' or a village, it is for the Imam to select fifty respectable (pions) per- 
8ons out of the inbabitants (of the place) and to administer to them 
the oatJi to the effect that iliey did not murder bini, and that they 
bave no knowledge of the murder, and after that to take the blood- 
wit from the inbabitants. The ground for beginning a prosecntion by 
administering an oath to the complainant on finding prer^umptìve 
evidenoe is what ash-Shafii relates, on the authority of Salii b. 
^Abi-Khaithamah, namely, that 'Abd-Allàh b. Sahl and Mu^aisah b. 

9AYÌT al-9ayawIn 291 

l'Ali wcnt out io Kliiiybnr, and having bccomc sc|ianitc<I for 
loood^ary piirposo, 'Abd-AUàh was niurdcrcd, ui)on wluch 
iuìhaIi b. Man'Ady 'Abd-ar-Bahmon, the brotbcr of tlio murdcrcd 
I, and Jluwai^h b. Mas'ùd wcnt to the Propilei and iuCornicd 
of the murder of 'Abd-AU&h b. Sabl. The Prophct thereupon 
.'d tlieniy ^* Will you tuke fifty oiiths and establi^h the right of 
r friend'8 blood?" They replied, "We did not witness the 
•der, nor were we prcsent thcrc. " The Prophet said, " In that 
5, the Jew8 will extrieate thoni.selves from yonr chargo by takiiig 
' oatlis." They said, " AiM>stle of Go<l, how c«n we nceopt 
ouths of an unbelieving {ìeople ?'' li is a.ssci*t^d that tho Propliot 
1 the niulct for hiin hìniself. 


Al-Bagawt utates in Ma^dlitn at-Tanzil that the ground for the 
[once in the tradition that the Propilei cominenced by asking the 
iplainanis to take the oaih is thai their side was Uic strong one 
1 the presuinpiive evidonce (they had), wliich consistcd in the 
^ thai 'Abd-AII&h b. Sahl was found mnrdered in Khavliar, and 
') thcre was open enmiiy lieiw^een the Holpers and the people 
Khaybar ; ii was ihercfore mosi probable ihai they killod him, 
Ist an oath is always an argnmeni for tho sirong side. Bui in 

absence of any presumpiive evidonce the side of the aecuBod ia 

jtrong one, bccause originally he is in a state of innoconce, aiid 

ìfore bis stateineni on oath is to he accepted. 

(Properiies.) Al-Kuzwtni states ihai, if a tcsiiele of a ealf l)e 

l and drunk after l>oing burni, ii will excite the veneroal delire 

lei as an aphrodi.siac. If its [wnis he dried and fìnoly |>owdorcd 

i dirhani wcighi of the ]K)wder swallowcd, ii would aci as a 

g aphrodisiac for even an old iinpoteni person ; if ii l)e jiowdoroJ 

Ile powder sprinkled over a half-boiled ogg, wliieh is then .sip}>cd, 

by little, li will grcatly increasc the sexnal iK)wer. Anothcr au- 

y states ihai, if a iesiicleof a calf be dried and drunk powdor«^d, 

excite the sexual desire and aci as an a])hro4lisiac. If ita 

bc burni, powdered, and drunk, ii will prove beneficiai in tooth- 

md if ii be drunk mixed wiih oxymel, ii will provcni enlarge- 

>f the spleen. 

292 ad*dam1rP8 

(Intori>retation of it in a dream.) In a dream a caU means à 
male child. If it be roasted, it indicate» saf ety f rom danger, on 
account of the narrative about Abraham. God has said, *' Nor did 
he dekiy to bring tlie roastcd calf • But when he saw that their 
hands reached net thereto, he conld not nnderstand them, and har« 
boured f ear of them. Tliey said, ^ Fear not. ' '' ^ 

(Ooucludion.) The Banù-'Ijl is a largo and fanioas tribe among 

the Ambi), tracing their origin to ^Ijl b. Lujaim, wlio lised to be 

reckoned among foola for this reason : — He had a swift conrser, and 

having been (one day) asked, *^ Evcry swift conrser has a name» 

what is the nauie of your borse ? '' he replied, *' I bave not yet 

named it. " He was thercfore told to name it, whcrenpon ho pulled 

out one of its eyes and said, ^' I bave named it the one-eyed. " An 

Arab poet says abont him :»» 

*< Uanù-'I jl reproaohed me wiih the defeot of their forefather, 
But waa them a greater f ool among men thaa 'I jl ? 
Did not their aneestor pali out the eye of his ooaner, 
Whereby proreibs on foUy became corrent «moiig meu in oonneotioo 
with his Dame? ** 


f^ff^si^ì (al'^Ajamjaniali). — ^A strong she-camel. Al-Jawhart 
says that it is like al-^athaìnthamah and quotes :— - 

** The swift tbe-oamels vied one with another in running like sand-gronses, 
Qniok t»vellÌDg strong she-camcls (^ayiim/irincf /), in the darkness of the 

ei*?-^ j»! (ìtmni'^Ajldn). — A ccrtain well-known bird ; — so aU 
Jawharl says. 

jjT ' (a/-*-4/iJz).— The bare, the lion, the cow, the ox, the 
volf, a she-wolf, the kite, a maro (of a mean breed), the hyena, a 
wild she-ass, the scorpion, the borse, and the dog. 

er^ QAdas). — ^Tlie nmle, bcing so named on account of the 

cry employed in chiding it to urge it on. A poet says : — 

'*When I load my clothes on a mole, 
On that which is between an ms and a borse, 
l oare not (as to) who goes and who sita.*' 

1 Al-Kuran XI.72-70. 

^ayIt al-9ATaw1n 293 

.*Àda$ Ì8 also the driving of a mule. Yazid ))• Mu&irrig says : — 

'^O mole Cadi»), man 1iat6 no sorereigntj orer thee, 
ThoQ «ri Mfe, and this <m« tliai thon carriest il (alio) free.'* 

hyé^\ (id"^ Udh/df). — ^A certain delicate wliite ìnsect (small 
Mtmal), to wbich the finger» of girla are likened. 

* C-» 

f*^\ (aìm^Urbuj). — ^Tho hunting dog; — so it is said in oZ- 

j }j^ (^Ardr). — Like katam ; the name of a certain cow. It ì^ ^d 


in a proverb, ** ^Arar became slain for Kahl/' both of which were 
cows tliat smote each other vrith tbeir homs, until they (both) dicd« 

fjii^ I (al^^ArÌit).—J^ kid ;— so it b said in al-Mmlàhldl. The 
art. 4/^?'l (a kid) has bcen already givcn nnder the lettor g • 

m ^ i^ 

i^AjT*^! (al-'^AtJadtyaJì), — ^Oamels on which kings ride. Al- 

Jawharl says that they were certain canicls that nsed to be dccked 
or adomed for an-Nu'mftn. 


^y^U (al'^Irhadil). — Like sil/ady quasi-coordinate to jirdatJ. 

A serpent that blows but does not hnrt. It has been nientioned 
already under serpents {aUhayi/àt). AU^arbadaJi » Ul-nature or evil 

diipositìon^ froin which is taken ^.j^^^j (a inischievous or annoy- 

ing man) ; — so Ibn-Kataibah and otliors say. 

* o 

J^J^^ (al-'Irba^) and u^W^*^» (aZ-*/rMff).— Cows strong in 
the breast ; — so Ibn-Sidiih says. 

uv*-' ' (aWIrs). — ^A lioness. PI. a^rài. Malik b. Khuwailad 

al-Khan'à} says : — 

**▲ lion Btrong and powerful, having near hia den, 
In IlaVmtain (two sides of the valley), wlielps and lionesaea {fCpU)V 


LMliyL}\ {al-^Uraihi^h — A certain broad insoct like the 
bcetie al-ju^aU 




certuin broad inscct. 

UuJ I (a/-^^#4*M). — Large hodgchogs, being so naiiied, oa 

dcconnt of thcir frequcntly going forwurdd and backwards) at night. 

■■ ■ ■ -^■^— — 

i^UaJi (al^^Aisas). — ^Tlie wolf Cs^^Wl), wliicli hasbcen aircady 
descrìbod under the lottcr 3 . 

<^ì*UaìI (al'^Asdlul), — Emaciated canicU. Sing. ^us-hùL 

J'imAÌ I (al-^Isbdr). Fcm. Hsbdrali. — ^A whclp (cross-brcd) be- 
twcen a hyena and a wolf. PI. ^asabir. 

(Lawfulness or unlawfulness.) It is unkiwful to eat it, becauae 
it is an offspring of an aniikial which is kiwfnl and that which i» 
nula wf ni to be eaten. ' 

jjimA}\ (al'^ Uilnìr). — ^The offspring of a dog froin a shc-wolf, and 

al'Usbdr nicans the offspring of a wolf or that of a hyona from a 

vrolfy as has been mentioned above. Al-Jawharì says under Jj^ 

that al-Kuniait says :— 

''In the «ame manner that when a shc-byena is sluag up by a huater. 
The wolf feeda ber family.'» 

by which he alludes to the f act that, when a she-hyena is hunted, 
if she happens to bave a young one from a wolf, the latter always 
feeds it till it grows up. This has been already mentioned in the art. 


^^LmjJì (aPil#/aifc).«<— Any bold beast of prey. It also means 
the male oetrich. Some say that it means the fox ; — ^so Ibn-Sidah 

ìjaJ I (al-'^Azzah), — ^Tlie female young one of a gazélle ; from . 

it, it is taken as a pro^ier name for a woman ; — so al-Jawharì says. , '\ 


Cl}\ (aprila).— The fornaio of iocusts. The art. òl^l 
(locusts) has been already given under the lettor ^ . ■ \ 



9ATÌT al-^atawìk 295 


J^^\ ((oU'^Asantìaj). — ^Like ^amallas. Tbis word al^ means 
the male ostrioh {a^'Miin)^ which has bcen already given under th« 
btter -* . 

^T^'IaìI (a^* l/«AarA').— a she-camel that has gono tea months 
from the day that she was oovered by a stallion and has ceased to he 
a makhdfl. She retains this name till she brings forth and also after 


that time. Dnal ^uiharàwdn. PI. ^ishar. There are no words (in the 
language) of the measure ^Aaì that bave their plural of the mea- 
snre JUI bnt ^u$harà\ pL HihoTi and nu/aià\ pi. ni/d$. 

(Information.) The Shaikh Abù-'Abd-AIlAh b. an-Nu'm&n 
^fà in Kxiàh al'MusiaiiUMn hi'hkayr aUotiàm^ in the tradition regard- 
ing the plaintive cry of the trunk of the date-palm, before (to) which 
Uie Propilei used to address bis sermon (exhortation), (that it was 
like) the continuous yeaming ory of al^^ithàr (she-eamels). This ira* 
dition is related by many of the Ciompanions of the Prophet, among 
whom may be mentioned JAbir b. *Abd-All&h, Ibn-*Umar, from 
whose version al-Bokhiri has extracted it, Anas b. Malik, 'Abd« 
Allah b. 'Abbis, Salii b. Sa'd as-SA4dì, Abù-Sa'td al-Khudrì, Barìdah, 
Unini-Salamah, and al-Mnttalib b. Abl-Wad&'ah. Jftbir says in hia 
version (tradition) tliat the trunk of the palm having cried a plaiu'* 
tive cry like a child (boy), the Prophet embraced it. It is al^o said. 
in his version, '* We hcard from that trunk a cry like that of *iVulr 
(she-camels).'' In the version given by Ibn*'Uniar it is said, ^^When 
tlie pulpit was first adopted, the Prophet removed to it, upon whicb 
the trunk cried a yeaming cry, whereupon be went to it and rubbed 
it with his hand.'' In some of the versions, it is said (that the Pro* 
phot said), ^* By liim in whose band my soul is, had I not touched it, 
it would bave continued doing so till the Day of Resurrection,** out 
of gricf on account of tlie Apostle of God (parting from it). ^Mien* 
ever al-Uasan used to relate tbis tradition, he used to cry and say, 
^^ servants of GK>d, even the wood ycarned out of a longing for the 
Prophet, on account of his dignity, whilst you are more entitled to 
long for a meeting with him." ^dlì}^ (a followcr of) ash-Shafi^ has 
pnt this occurrence in verse :«— 

~ 1 

296 AD-DAMtBi'B 

«The dAte-palm tnink yearoed for him out of % great deaire Aod fonJ* 

neii for bim, 
And produeed repeatedly a sound like that of pregnant camels ; 
H« iberefore bastened to embrace it, upon wbicb it beoame rilent lin* 

BTery man in bis time bai wbai he is aocnstomed to." 

Tho yearning of the date-palin irank for him and the sahitation of the 
atone* to him were miracles not proved to have been pcrformed for 
any of the prophets bnt him. 

igJ^Mì (aU^Uifitra). — À ccrtain species of locusts of a black 
coloar rescmbling the boetles oJr-hlianàjiB. i 

(Lawfnlness or unlawfulness.) It is lawful to eat them. AbA- 
^Anim al-'Abbiìdl relutes regarding Abù-T<ihir Az-Ziyikdi as having 
said, *^We used to consider them nnlawful and give decisions accord- 
ii^gly) until the Ust&dh Abù'l-llasan al-Masarjisi came to ns and said 
that they were lawf al, upon which we sent a bag of them to the desert 
and asked the Badawis regarding them ; they replied, * These are the 
blessed locusts.' The statement of the Arabs in the matt^^r was there* 
Core accepted." 

j>, u ^ 
jyJùjJ\ (aWUffìir).^ — [The sparrow or any passerine bird.] 

Ibn-Hasht]|^ spells it in IGtàb al^ardHb vxC sh-Shmlhudh as ^affùr, 

Fem. *uffùrah. A poet says : — 

^'like a ben*qparrow in the hand of an infant whioh givet to it to drink, 
Out of the fonntains of death, whilst the infant amusee iteelf and playe." 

Its sobriquets are abiV^fa^w^ afrd-mu(iWir, a2riUmitr<&him, and abiU 

^amzah says that it is called ^u/tfur, beeause it was disobedient 
iij^^ and fled (^). There are several species of it, one of which 
Ì8 in the habit of prolonging its voice with a quavering and is pleased 
with its own voice and beauty ; it will he described heroafter. ^U^ftìr 

i A^j^jJ I ^•aL«3, This is in allusion to a particukr stone that used to 

Minte the Prophet before bis assumption of the prophetie oliioe, supposed by 
tome to be the Black Btone and by others to be a stone in the Street now known 
M the Street of the Stone (^/^sJ I Jlij ) iu Blakkah. i rù$$er domesUcM, 

J% is eaUed in *Omàn fa/pùr. 

PatIt al-9atawIn 


*farfdr (the chirping sjNirrow) in the si^ecies which when called 
rem (the cali), the ilcHcriptive epithet being derived froin a#* 
tr } (chirping). Urfàr al-JannaJi (the passerine bini of Paradise) 
the swallow. Botli of these binls have been alroacly dcscriljcd 
litler tlicir proper lett^'rs. Ab to aWti^fàr ad-duA and al-lHiytUt (tlie 
itic sparrow), there is a divcrr^ity in its nature, which oonsists 
[In its portaking both of the nature of the aninials of prey, for it eats 
,llieat and does not feed its young ones with its bill, and that of a/- 
[ioAd/i'm, for it possesses neither a claw nor the lieak of a rai^acious 
bird, When it alights on a brandi, it puts forth three of its toea 
tnd keeps back the hindinost one, whilst ali other kinds of birils 
^ìdvance two of their toes and keep liack two of thein. It oats gmin 
land Icavos, and its male is di.stinguished by a black lieard, which it 
possesses in the sanie way that a man. a ram-goat^ and a oock do. Of 
ali Uie binls on the earth, whethcr of proy or others, there is none 
jmore affectiònate to, and fonder of, its young one tlian the simrrow, a 
proof of which is fonnd in its plucing its young ones and making its 
'nest, in inhabited places under roofs, out of foar of the birds of prey. 
^Wlicn a city is descrted by its poople, s|)arrows also Icavc it, return- 
ing to it when the i)eoplc return. The siiarrow does not know liow 
to walk, but it liops about. It is mudi given to troading the fenuile, 
flometimos as many as a hundrod tiines in an honr, on which account 
its lifo is short, for it niostly does not live more tluin a year. Its 
young one is so mudi accustoined to fly (a long distance), tluit when 
called, it rcsiM>nils to the cali. Al-Jàhi4 stiites, " I bave board tliat 
it lias rcturned from the distance of a loague.'* 

Another of its species is Ui/tfàr ask'dujLwk (the H{)arrow of the 
thorns), wliose general place of resort is a thorn-hedge or enclosure. 
Aristotle asserts that there exists enmity between it and the ass, 
because if an ass has a galled back, it scratches it among the tliorns 
tò which tliis s|)arrow resorts and tlius kills it, and soinetiines if the 
ass brays, its young ones or its eggs fall down from the nest ; for 
tliis reason, whenever this s^iarrow sees an ass, it fhips its wings 
over the ass's head and eyes and worries it with its flying al)out and 

I 'Iliis word is given as ijxr^ t , which is ovidently a mistraiìtcrìption. 

198 AD-DAMtRr» 

Another t>i)Ocics of passerine birds is aUjailharah (the lark), whioh \ 
yrill be descrìbed Iiereafter under the letter J • The other speoies ^ 
are fyut&n^ which has been ulrcady described under the lettor j^y aU 
bìtlbul (die bulbul), af^fa^w^ al^hummarah^ al^^andalib (the night» 
ingale), al^makàM^ c^f^fàfir^ at^tunawwip (the bottlo-nested simrrow), 
a^-iMi/% al-iaràkish^ and aUl^uWak^ which are ali described in their 
proper places. 

It is related in al'Adhkitfà^ by Ibn-al-Jawzl that à nian shot 
at a sparrow, but failod to hit it» when another man said to hiin, *^ Yoa, 
bave act^id wcll/' upon which the first man became angry and 
asked bini, *^ Do you mcan to ridicule me? " He replied, ^^ No, bu^ 
I meant that you acted well towards the sparrow when you did 
not hit it." 

I bave seen in ono of the marginai notes ((J^^^l) that al« 
Mutawakkil once shot at a s|)urrow and did not sucoeed in hitting it>> 
upon whioh it flew away. Ibn-Hamdàn thoreu{K>n said to liim^ 
** Well doue I " Ai-Muta wakkil asked bini, ** How bave I dono 
well 7 " upon which he replied, *^ Because you acted well towards 
the s{)arrow/* 

It is related regarding al-Junaid as having said, ^* Muhammad 
b. Wahb has infonned me reg-arding one of bis friends that he went 
to the pilgrimago with Ayyùb al-Jammal (the camel-man), and that 
he related, ^ When wo entered the desert and went f rom ono station to 
another, a sparrow kept hovering over us, upon which Ayyùb raised 
his head towards it and said, ^* Thou hast come to me bere !" Then 
taking a piece of bread, he crumblcd it in the palm of his band, 
whereupon the sparrow alighted on his band and sitting on it ate it ; 
be then poured out some water for it which it drank, and he then. 
said to it, ^'Now doi)art," upon which the sparrow flew away» 
Wlien the next day carne, the simrrow returned, and Ayyùb repeated 
his action a« on the previous day. This tbiiig contiuued to happen. 
every day till the end of the journey. Ayyùb then said to me (to. 
his companion), ^^ Do you know the caso of this si»arrow ?" I (he) 
replied, *^ No," upon which Ayyùb said, '* It iLsed to come to my. 
house every day, and I used to act towards it in the manner you 
bave seen me doing ; when we carne forth on the journey, it followed 




[m, desirìng ns to net towards it in the manncr I used to do at 
jfcome." • " 

Al-Baiha^l and Ibn-*A»&kir relate, tracing their authority to 

^'AbA-Hàlik, wlio salii, ** Solomon the son of David happened to i»aaa 

\\x^ a oock-Bparrow wliicli was going round about a hen-siMirrowi 

iopon wliich ho asked his oomiianions, ^ Do you know what the cock* 

(tparrow in saying?' They said, ^Oprophct of Ood, what is he 

laying V Soiomon sidd, ^ He is demanding hor in marriage and 

8|iying to her, ^^Ifarrymc, and I shall locate thee in whichever 

palaco in Damascus thoa wislicst.'* He knows that the jialaces in 

.Damascus aro bnilt of stoncs, and that he would not he able to locate 

jjer in any ofthem, bnt every demandcr in marriage is aliar.'** 

Thero will he another narrative like this related nnder the Icttcr \S 

[In the art. iX^Ui I. Solomon nsed to knòw what the btrds addrcssed 

pne to another, in their speix^h, and nsed to interpret to mcn thcir 

' intentions and wishes, as has been already mentioned under the Ictter 

1 in the art. ^j^hfU t . Qod has said as having been said by Solomon» 

** yo folk I we bave been taught the speech of birds." ■ He 

likewise knew the speech of other animals boside thcm, and in fact 

of ali the created beings. 

(Information.) Muslim relates regarding ^AMshah as liaving 
said, when a child out of the Helpers lM>th of whose paronts wero 
Muslims died, ^' It is blesiseil and happy, — a siHirrow out of the 
sparrows of Paradise t" The Prophet said the following or other 
words (to that cffect), " God has created for Paradise (some) poople, 
' whom He created for it wliile yet they were in the loins of thcir 
fathers, and He has created for the Hell-fire (some) people, whom He 
created for it while yet they were in the loins of their fathers.*' Some 
peoplo, however, find fault with this tradition as I)eing the version 
given by Talbah b. Yahyà, he being the (only) one who has said 
it ; but the corrcct thing is that it is authentic ; it is given in the 
fhMìi of Muslim. But the Prophet has prohibited us to 1)0 in a 
hurry to decide, or he said that before he had knowlodgc of the 
fact that the infants of Muslims are in Paradise ; — so some {loople 

1 Al-9ar*àii XXYIIie. 

300 AD-DÀMiufs 

say, bili it cimnot be true, becsiuse tho chapter o£ the Mount (j^^O 
was a ]&Likkan one and sliowé what the beliof then was, or *A'ishaI] 
decided by the fatth of the parents, and it may be pos8Ìble for the 
parenta to be hypocritcs, in which case the child woald of coarse be 
the child of (two) nnbelievers. 

Ibn-^ni* rebtes in the biography of ash-Sharid b. Suwaid ath- 
Tha^afi tliat the Prophet said, ** Whoever kills a simrrow . nnneccs- 
sarily, will find it on the Day of Jadgment complaining to Go<J 
against bini and saying, * Tour servant killed me nnnecessarily for ne 
use/ ** It is said tliat thcre is another tradition, namelyi that one of the 
Benchers (f^^ IJaI) having become a martyr in the cause of religion, 
his mother said to hiin, *^ I congratulate you, a sparrow out of the 
Bparrows of Paradise ; you bave abandoned friends and flcd to the 
Propiiet of 6od and bave (now) been killed in the cause of God,'' 
npon which the Prophet asked ber, ^* Wliat has given you that in« 
fonnation ? Percliance he used to say things which did not profìi 
him and to prevent (being dono) that which did not injure him." 

Al-Bailia^ relates in ash-Shi^b regarding Màlik b. DinAr tu 
having said, ^^ The recitcrs of the Kur'àn of this age are like a man 
who set up a trap, and a sparrow coming there alighted on it ; it then 
addresscd the trap saying, * Why do I see thee hidden in the dust?^ 
Tlie trap roplied, < For humiliating myself.' The sjKirrow asked, 
' Why art thou bent ?' The trap replied, * Owing to the long timc 
devoted by me to the worship of God.* The sparrow asked, * What 
is this gniin in thy moutli ? ' The trap replied, * I bave madc it a 
preiNiration for those who bave becn fasting.' Wlicn the sparrow 
advanced to take the grain, the trap foli on its ncck and strangled it, 
upon Avhich the sparrow said, * If the servants (of Gt)d) stningle in 
the nianner of thy strangling, there is surely no good in thcm 
to^y/ " 

It is rclated also in the same hook, on the authority of al-Husan, 
that LuVmdn said to his son, " my son, I bave liftcd stones and 
iron and ali kinds of hcavy things, but liave not found anything 
heavier than a bad neighl>our ; and I bave tasted ali kinds of bitter 
things, but bave not found anything l)itterer than poverty. my 





iòn, do not sond un ignorant messenger ; i£ you eunnot (ind a wìse 

^ifòbe» be yournelf your own messenger. my son, 1)e>vare of fulse« 

hoodi for it is eagerly dosiredlike the flesh of the spnrrow, hnt is 

iure in a sliort timo to eause its ntterer to bo hated. my son, go 

l-"* io tunerals, but do not go to a wedding, (or fanenils will remind yoa 
' oE the future worhi, whtlst a wedding will make you desirous of this 

>k ' worhL my son, eiit not to over-siitiation, for your throwing the 

^ * lu|)erfluous food to a dog would lio lietter for you thaii your oating it. 
my son, bcoome neither swoet, (in which ease) you will lie swal- 

. : lòwed up, nor bitter, (in whieh ctise) you will be thrown away (out 

of the moutli)." I bave seen it related, in one of the collcctions (of 

narratives), on the anthority of al-Uasan, that Lukinan said to bis 

son, ^* my son, know that none will come to you (tread your carpet) 

but he who has noed of you or he who is afraid of you. As to tlio 

latter, ask bini to sit ncar you and appear checrful l>eforo bini, but 

beware of defaming or accusing liim when bis Imck is tnrnod, and as 

to the one who is in necd of you, be courteous to bim with a sincere 

heart and commence to givo bini before he asks, for if you necessitate 

bini to ask you for what he wants, you will take away from liis 

modesty (the elevated part of bis check) doublé of what you will 

give bim, (on account of the sliame attendant on asking). Tho fullow- 

ing lines are recited in respect of this tbing: — 

Mf you give ma on mj asking with mj uiouih (faoe), 
Truly, you gire me, bat take from me m well.' 

; my son, be humblc towards those who are ncsir and distnnt to you 
(in relationHbip), hold back your ignonmco from both the gcnerous 
and the ignoble, visit your relations, and let your lirctbron be sucb 
as will not find fault with you nor you with them, when you part 

. .- from them or they from you." 

This reminds me of what one of my sbaikhs has relatod, namely, 
that Alexander once seni a messenger to one of the Easteni kings with 
a mossage. Tlie messenger then returned with a return message which 
created a suspicion in Alexander's mind regarding one of the lettera 
in it. He therefore said to the messenger, " Woe betide you I 
Verily, kings bave notbing to fear, unless their confidential fricnds 
Bwerve ; you bave come to me with a mossago which is quito 

302 ad-damìrt's 



correct as rognrdtf the words and plainness of cxprcnsion ; bnt thoro| 
18 a Ictter wanting in it. Are you 8nre aironi it or is therc anyl 
doubt?" The messenger roplicd, "I am certain." Thoroui^nl 
Alexander ordered the words of the niessage to he written down, ^ 


letter by lettor, and to be taken to the king by another mes^enr . 

ger, 80 that it inight be read ont and translated to bini. Wheo': 

he read ont the letter and oanie to that letter, the. king rejceir^ 

.ed it and aaid to the tmnslator, ^* Place your finger .(band) on thntt 

letter," and ordered hiin to scratoh it out, which he did. The king 

then w*rote to Alexander, '^ Tlie head of a kingdom is tlie right 

nndcrstanding of its king, and the head of a king in the truthfu] 

tongne of bis messenger, because he (the messenger) 8i>eaks (a thing) 

as coming from hiin (the king's tongne) and carries (whnt he hears) 

to bis (the king's) car. I bave now cut off what was not a part of 

my words, since I bave no power of cutting off the tongne of your 

^messenger/' AVhen the messenger carne with it to Alexander, ho 

^called the first messenger and asked bini, ^^ What led you to introduco 

•«n extra letter, by which you desircil to cause a rupture botween two 

kings ?** The messenger replied that it was due to a sbortcom- 

-ing in bis judgment of the i)erson to whom be was sent. Alexander 

then said, "You bave not exerted yoursolf but for yourself ; certainly 

not for US. Wben you lost what you bad hoped for, you tricd to 

bave your revenge on high and dangerous persons/' Alexander then 

ordered bis tongne to be cut off, uiK>n which be retired backwards. 

Tahyà b. Kbàlid b. Barmak bas said, " Tliere are tliree tliings 
' which indicate the wisdom of men, — a present, a messenger, and a 
letter." Abtf 1-Aswad ad-Du*alt, having heard a man recite : — 

'<If you hmye oeed of anythiug, 
Bend a cleyer mcasenger, but give him no Instnictions.'* 

.8aid, ** Tlie composer of tbcse lines bas exprcssed this lisidly. Doos a 
. messenger bave knowledge of the ìnvi.sible ? If be givcs him no 
ìnstructions, bow is be to know what thorc is in bis mind ? Why 
; did he not say tbus ?: — 

*U yon send a messenger on any basiness, 

l^ake him tboroughlj uaderstaiid it and send him well-traincd, 

Aad omtt no iofitructions to him, 

9ATÌT a]>9ayaw1n 


IO olever or wìm he nay be; 
|If joo do noi foUow (tua «dvioe), blame bim noi 
^or bla noi knowing an inviaible Beerei.' *' 

[Tho anthor bere givcs from the HiHtory of Ibn-KIi. and othcr 
tho rcaaon tncntioncd by az-ZamakhHhar} fot losiiig onc of 

In al^^ìlyah by tho Hafij Abù-Nu'aìm, it is related in the kio- 

phy of Zain-aPAbidln thai Abfi-Hamzah ath-Thamaii* said, '' I 

(otice) ¥rith ^AU b. al-Husain, and sparrows were flpng round 

ni and making a noise. He asked, ^ AbA-Hamzah, do yoa knovr 

i tlieso sparrows aro saying V I ropHcd, * No,' upon which he 

dy * Thoy are declaring tho sanctity of God and asking for tJieir 

for the day.' " 

It is rehited in tlie two ^aMAs, the Sunan of an-NasA'i, ami ilio 
i* of at-Tirmidhi, ont of a tradition of Ibn-^Abbfts, on the autho- 
ty of Ulmyy b. Ka'b and Abt^Hnrainih, that tho Prophct saiil, 
^iitoses, having risen to preach to the Beni-Isrft'll, was asked, * Who 
the niost leamed man ? ' He replied, ^ I ani the most leamed man,' 
pon which Gk>d rcpriinandcd him for that, as no knowicdge liail 
et) rcached him, and informed him by inspiration, ' At the confln* 
enee of the two seas there is a servant out of niy servimts, who knows 
inoro than yen.' " In another version, it is said that Miwos, liaviiif; 
cn asked, " Do you know of any {ìorson l>eing more leanie<l tlian 
^oursclf ? " roplied, " No," upon wliicli God informed him l)y inspi- 
Vation, " Yes, our servant al-Khidr." Moses then a.sko<l liim, " O 
*Lord, how is ho to 1)0 fonnd ? " and God «lid, " Carry a fisli in yonr 
, basket, and whon you lose it, you will know tlìnt ho is thore." Moses 
Hhcronpon started with liis servant Yfl.sha* b. Nùn, carrying a fish in 
V basket, and proceeded, until they renehed a rock, whon thoj* laìd 
^down their lieads and went to sleep, upon which the fi:sh s]ip))ed out 
'of the basket, " and it took its way in tlio soa with a freo courso,"* 
*Voses and bis servant were surprised, but they proceeded the rcniain- 
'iler of that night and day until the morning, when Moses said to liis 
eervant, " • Bring us our dinners, for we liavo mot with toil from this 

> De Slane'B T. of Ibn-Kh.'e B. D. Voi III, p. 32:1 • In one of the 
oopiee ihis is giren an «l.YamAni. • Al-Kur'An XVII 1-00. 

4 » ■ 

304 • AD-]>AMÌRÌ*S 

journcy of ours ;' " ^ whiUt Moses had noi telt aiiy fatiguo uutil he 
liad {msMcd the jilace he \i'as ordcred to go to. His servant said, 
•* *Whttt thinkest thou ? Whcn wc rc3ortcd to the rock, then, veril}% 
1 forgot the fish.' *'* Moses said, *^ *This is what wo wcre searching 
Cor/ So tliey turiied back iipon thcir footsteps, Eollowing them 
up/** When they reached the rock, they found a man covered with 
acloakor who had covered hunselE with his cloak.. Moses there* 
upoiì siiiUited hiiii. Biit it is saiii in anotlier version that ho was fol- 
lowing np the track of the fisli in the sea. Al-Khidr then said, 
*' Sahitation to yon," * upon which Moses said, ** I am Moses," and 
al-Khidr asked, ^* The Moses of the ' Beni-IsrA^il ?" Moses rcplied» 
^' Yes." ^* Said Moses to him, ^ Shall I follow thee, so tliat thou niay* 
est teach me, from what thou hast heen taught, the right way ? ' said 
he, * Vcrily, thou canst never have imtience with me.'"* " Moses, 
I ])ossess the knowledge out of the knowledge of God which He has 
tauglit me and which thou knowest not, and thou (ìossessest the 
knowledge which God has taught thee and which I do not know," 
** He (Moses) said, * Thou wilt find me, if God will, patient ; nor 
will I rebel against thy bidding.' " • They two then iiroeeeded, 
walking on the sea-heach, and having sighted a vcssol, they spoke to 
the people in it and asked them to csirry them. The peojile of the 
vessel knew al-Khidr and thercfore took them both (on board) free 
of any fare. A s))arrow then caino tliere and alighting on the edge of 
the vessel sucked up one or t ^^o mouthf uls of water from the sea 
with its bill. Al-Khidr therefore said, ^^ Moses, my knowledgo 
and thy knowledge are as short of the knowledge of God as a mouth* 
ful of this siwrrow (is short of the quantity of water in the sea).'* 
In another version it is said, ^* My knowledge and thy knowledgo 
are like what this siNirrow has reduced from (the quantity of water 
in) this sea." Then al-Khidr went purposely to one of the planks 
of the vessel and pulled it out, ui)on which Moses said to him, ^^The 
people of the vessel have taken us free of fare, and thou hast inton-* 
ttonally made a hole in it, in order to drown its iieople." ^^ Said he, 

1 Al-Kur^àn XV11I.6U • Idem XVIÌU62. • Idem XVIII-63. 

« ^JLJim^jii/^*t— Amode of salataiion with the Jews. • Al-Eor'&n 

XyiII-66^66. • Idem XV1U.68. 

i^atìt al-9ayawIn 


A I not teli thee, verily» thou canst ncvor hnvo i^tienco >vìth me ? * 

A ho, *Robxike mo not for forgcttìng, and imi^so not on mo u 

U commnnd.'" » This first tliìng occnrrod through Moses tor- 

ting. So tìioy set out until thoy mot a boy playing willi olher 

ys, upon whìch al-Khidr seized tho l)oy with tlio topiuost imrt oE 

18 head and pnlled out his head witb his band. Moses tbcrcni>on 

id to hiin, ^* ' Hast thou killcd a puro person wìthout (his killuig) 

à person ? thou hast produced an unheard-of thing.' Said ho, ^ Did 

not teli theo, verily, thou canst not liavo patienco with me ? ' " * 

Ibn-*Uyainah says that this thing confinned (what al-Khidr had 

saitl). '*So they set out until wlien thoy caino to the people of a city; 

ànd they asked the people thereof for food ; but they refuscd to 

^entertain thein. And they found therein a wall which wanted to 

fall to pieces, and he set it upright. Said (Moses), ^Hadst thou 

pleased thou niightst certainly bave had a biro for this.' Said he. 

Lì This is the parting between me and thee. I will givo thee the 

ìnterpretation of that with which thou couldst not bave patience.' " * 

Tho Prophet said, " May God bave mercy on niy brotber Moses! We 

should bave liked biin to bave he d patience, so that God would bave 

; givcn US further inforniation of them t>vo.'^ In another yersion it 

. is said, *' Had Moses patience, God would bave infomied us of tbeir 

affair." It is related on the authority of Sa'id b. Jubair, wbo said, 

*' I said to Ibn-^Abbas that NawfA al-Bak&li assortcd that this Moses 

' was not the Moses of the Bcni-Isrà'il, but tliat he was another Moses, 

• upon which he replicd, *He lies, an eneniy of Goil. Ulwiyy b. Ka'b 

bns related to mo tliis tradition as well as tho whole narnitive of 

^ Moses and al-Khidr. He said, *^ A sparrow then carne thcre and 

aligbting on the edge of the vesscl sucked up a moutbful of water 

' from the sea, upon which al-Khidr said to bini, 'My knowledge and 

j^ tby knowledge bave not reduced anytbing out of the knowledge of 

U God but like what this sparrow bas reduced (the quantity of water) 

from this sea.* " ' " The learned say that the mcaning of the word 

ijaJ^ bere is not what is ap{)arent, but the meaning is tliat, '^ My 

knowledge and tby knowledge, wben compared with tho knowledge 

» Al-Kur»Au XVIII.71— 72. • Idem XVIII.73-74. • Idem 

X 7111-76— 77. 





r i 

306 ad-damIbPs ì 


of God, aro like the oomparison of what tliU sparrow has reduced :\ 
from thifl sea (with the sea itself)." I (the anihor) say that this ìb | 
near being intelligible, or in other wordg, the knowledge of these two, '\ 
in oompariflon (with the knowledge of Ood), was slight and trìfling. 

(Lawfalness or unkwfnlness). It is lawf al to eat it. *Abd- ' 
Allah b. 'Umar has said that the Prophet saidi ^^ Whoever ont of 
men kills a sparrow or anj other bird larger ihan it withont satisfy- 
ing its right, will he asked by God regarding it/' On the Prophet 
having been asked, " Apostle of God, what is its right ? " he 
replied, ^* That he shonld sknghter it and eat it and not (simplj) cut 
its head and throw it away/' An-Nasjìl has related it. 

Al-^Akim relates, on the anthority of Khàlid b. MaMàn, who 
had it from Abù-'Ubaidah b. al-Jarrà^, who said that the 
Prophet said, **The heart of man is like the sparrow, changing 
seven times in a day/* Ont of the orders in connection with the 
lawfulness or nnlawfnlness of sparrows, it may he mentioned that, 
notwithstanding the difference in their several species, they are to 
be considered as one species in the matter of profit ( ^^ t );« the dacks 
are to be considered as one species, the orane as one species, the 
bnstard as one species, the goose as one species, the domestio fowl as 
one species, and the pigeon (|»U^t ), which has been already trested 
of nnder its proper lettor, as one speciea 

Among other orders in connection with its lawfulness or nnlaw- 
fnlness, it may be mentioned that trnly it is not lawfnl to set it at 
liberty, bnt some say that it is lawfnl io do so, on account of what 
the 9Afi4 Abù-Nn^im has rela^d regarding Abù'd-Dardà*, namely, 
that he nsed to bny sparrows from boys and let them loose. Ibn-as* 
§al&b ^Jf^ that as regards snob as are obtained by chasing, there 
is a difference of opinion. As to aetting tame birds or beasts at 
liberty, it was one of the things done in connection with sawffib or 
Tows in the Time of Ignorance, and that is now absolutely cancelled.* 
The Shaikh Abù-Is|^A^ ash-ShlrAzl says in Kiidb 'UyHfi al^nasffil 
that the mute (dung) of sparrows is an nnexcusable thing, but it is 
well-known that there is the same difference of opinion about it as 
ibere is about the urine of animals the flesh of which is eaten. 

1 This is in aìluiion to the order thal it is not allowable to gire a profit 
for a thing in a thing of the sudo hind. • Al-]|[Qr*An Y-IOS. 





(Proverbs.) *^ Less intelligent than a sparrow.'* Uassàn says: - 

'<Thei« il no luurm in n people on necoant of their tal] stotares and 
larga rise, 
Witb bodief of mulei and the intellìgenee of iq[Murrow8." 

^'nab says : — 

**lf thej haar a loandAl, ihey fly with it joyfully from me, 
Bui what good thej bear, they bury ; 
They are like eparrowe in andentanding and strength ; 
It ibey are weigfaed with the lighteat feathera, they will be foand want- 
ing in weighi" 

'**Tbe sparrows of bis belly are crying," used when one is 
bnngry. Al*Àflma't states tbat alr^Oidjtr bere means ilio vìiesihieB. 
iAl- Jawhart statos tbat aUmaftr is intestine and is of tbe moasore 
iìaaI, its pinral boing ii{-»iti/)*4#i like ragtj\ pL nij^U/i^and al*ìnafàAn 
being tbe pinral of the plnraL It is tbas copied in aZ-i/uAibam, 
on tbe antbority oE Stbawaib; it is so nained on account oE tbe 
passage of food into it *^More given to treadingtbe f einale tban 
a sparrow/' 

(Properties.) Tbe flesb of sparrows is bot and dry and tougber 
tban tbat of tbe domestie fowL The best are fai ones and tbose 
caugbt in winter. Tbe eating of their flesb increases tlie seminai 
fluid and sexnal power, but it is injurious to persons originally of a 
^ nioiat constttntion; its injurious effect may, bowever, be aToide<l by 
tbe use of almond oil. It produces tbe yellow humour or bile and 
snits, as regards age^ the very old, as regards constitntion, tbose tbat 
bave a cold temperamenti and as regards season, tbe season of winter. 
Al-Mukbtàr b. *Abd(ìn stat^ tbat the eating of tbe flesb of sparrows 
is to be disapproved, because, if even a little part of their bones 
precedes any otber portion in eating, it produces fat in the guUet 
and intestines. If an omelet be made of young sparrows witb eggs 
nnd onions, and eafcen, it will increase tbe sexunl power, and wbilst 
Boups made of young sparrows increase tho secretion of humours, 
their flesb binds them, ospecially if tbe Sparrows are exces.<%ively lean. 
The most barmful of sparrows are tbose which aro fattened in 
bouses. Anotber authority states tbat, if die brain of a sparrow be 
tuken and added to ruo-water and a little honey and then dmnk ob 
an empty stomach, it will prove beneficiai in piles. If the dung of 
sparrows be mixed with the mucus of tbe teeth and then paintod over 



308 AI>-DAHtBf8 

varts, it will removo (pulì cut) thom, which is a tried romody. If . 

the brainof a sparrow be taken and melied with the oil of sesamo 

and givon to drink to a person who is fond of drinking date-wine, ]t 

be will hate it, wbicb is a tried wonden If tbe variety of the sparrow "" 

called *uffur ash-ihaxck be eaten roasted and salted, it will dissolve 

£tone in tbe bladder and kidneys. Mabi&rtsb states tbat, if a sparrow 

be slangbtered and its blood dropped on tbe flonr of lentilsi wbicb is 

tben made into bolnses (bnllets) and dried, tbey will excite tbe 

venereal desire, and iE one of tbese boluses be takeu and mixod witb 

olive oil and tbe mixtore be applied locally, tbe person nsing it 

not treading the ground, it will bave a bighly apbrodisiac efEect 

on bim. 

(Useful information.) Asb-Sb&fi^t states that there are four 
ihings wbicb increase tbe sexual power, namely, the eating of spar- 
rowB, tbe eating of the larger variety of myrobalan O^^ìlt tli^^ I ), 
the eating of pistachio nuts» and the eating of walnuts ; there are 
four things which increase intellect, namely, the avoidance of excess 
in speaking, the use of a tooth-stiok (for cleaning the teeth), the 
' company of pions men, and action accompanied with knowledge ; 
there are four things which strengthen the body, namely, the eating 
of fleah-meat, the smelling of scent, bathing several tìmes without 
previous sexual intercoiirse, and the weariug of linen clothes; and 
ihere are four things which weaken the body and render it snscep- 
tibie to disease, namely, excessive sexual iutercourse, excessive 
anxiety, excessive drinking of water on an empty stomach, and an 
excessive use of acid things. 

(Further information.) He who is given to excessive sexual 
indulgence and makes a habit of it, suffers from itching of the 
body and weakness of the body and sight, loses pleasnre in sexual 
intercourse, and soon becomes old ; he who puts off voiding urine or 
defecating when required by nature to do so, sufiers from weakness 
of the bladder, rougimess of the skin, a burning sensation in mictu- 
rìtìon, gravel, stono, and weakness of the sight ; he who rubs bran 
and salt to bis feet, becomes sbarp in bis sight and is cured of bis 
weakness ; and he who spits in bis urine and does so continually is 
safe from pain in the loins ; — so al-Kazwint says, copying it from 
Hippocrates ; he adds that he has tested and tried it. 

a caos- 


IkwI<i9 r 

ot spar- 
iti in liis 
Iron tuid 
ma ! — A 

08 ifi 

he skirt 
Book of 

b> biin, 
ice carne 
w in my 
d to me 
I, " Yoa 
." The 

ey are." 
>d, "Sii 
ny band. 
«1. "The 
ra of the 
.t me,' I 

a dream 
d soid to 
I," npon 
1 OD, and 
:arned to 

i if tliere 


810 AD-DAMtRl'S 

tail to U." Ja^far saicl» ** If it had a tail, the dinfirs would bave been 

J-ÀAJI (aWL^al). — ^The field-rat or ìhoms^ {al-juradh)^ wliich 
Las been already desoribed under tbe letter ^. PI. ah^i^làiu 

> o _— — — — 

^^jmJ\ {al'^lTf'ùt). — ^A certain small animai that has no good in 

it. Tbe Arabs state tbat it never makes water witbout raising ita 
hind leg, so as to make water in tbe direction of tbe fLtblah (Makkab), 
and ibat serpente eat it. 

ihhjA)\ {aWUraiìùtàli). — ^A certain broad insect It is tbe 
aame as al'-^uraihifàn ; — so al-Jawbarì sajs. 

4*^1 faM^fiwia/a/i).— A bitcb-fox. Tbe snbject of tbe fox 
lias been already treated of nnder tbe letter «^ in tbe first part (vol- 
ume) oE tbe book. 

À>jiJlÙJì (fl/.*^(im/»0.— Tbe male of the lizard aU'aflà'ah. 
Tbe dim. of it is 'ufiairif and *vfiaM/; — so al Ja wbarl says. 

(Information.) Ibn-*A(tyah says in regard to tbe coramentary 
on tbe words of God, *^ We said, * fire I be thou cool and a safety 
f or Abraham !' " ^ that it is related tbat tbe crow carried wood to 
the fire (ligbted) for Abraham, and that tbe lizard al'ioazagah (gecko) 
blew on the fire to make it bum, and so also the mule ; and it is 
related tbat tbe swallow, tbe frog, and al-afrafùt carried water to 
extingnish it. God therefore caused tbese to be in the state of 
protection and those to be snbject to misfortanes and injnry. 

One of the shaikhs has informed me that for ali kinds of 
feyers tbe words, '^Wesaid, '0 fire I be thou cool and a safety, 
safety, safety T" may be written on three pieces of paper, and the 
person snffering froni fever may drink the wasbings of one oE theui 
every day before breakfast or wben the fever attacks bim, in which 
case it will disappear by tbe order of God. It is a tried and 
wonderfnl remedy. It will be presently mentioned tbat the lizard 
aWaAà^ah is the same as as^sihUyah ; it is anspicions. 

1 Al-Eur'dn XXI-d9. 

» . » 


' 4 

9at1t al-qatawIk 311 

-. ^UuJl (aZ-<^f^r?).— Àl-l^zwtnt statos ia al-AslikéU thatUis 

ooe of the testaoeons animals, and that it is foand in India in stag« 

nant watere and ako in the land of Bàbil (Babylon). It ìb a vron- 

derfol animai ; it possesses a testaoeoos honse, ont of which it comes 

forth, and has a head, two ean, two eyes, and a month. When it 

'* antera ita house, men take it to be (only) a shell, and when it comes 

' ont of it, it crawls on the ground and draga ita house with it. When 

' the earth is dried up in summer, it becomes eontracted and compact. 

Ita smeli ia aweet and pleaaant* 

Among ita propertiea, it may be mentioned that fumigation with 
it ia beneficiai in epilepsy ; if it be burnt, ita ashes clean and brighten 
the teeth, and if it be placed on a bum cansed by fire and left there 
until the wound ia dried, it will undoubtedly bave a beneficiai effect 
on the wound. 

^ * 

i,UuJt (al-'Atdfj.—The lion. The author of aZ-iTdtmV spella it 
in the commentary on al-Hajjàj'a addreaa to the people of al-K{kfah 
aa aWt4àt. Some aay that aU^atdf (with a faihah) ia a certain 
apeciea of birda. 

Ujh^ì {aWUraf). — ^A largo viper. The art. uAìVI (the Tiper) 
haa been already given under the lettor t , 

i^l&AJ I (aZ-'ilrféE'a7i).* — ^A certain reptile larger than al^ioazagah 
(the gecko). It ia called alao aiiàyah in the sing. . Pia. odd^' and (xAàyiu 
*Abd-ar-Rahmàn b. *Awf aaya : — 

<<Like the cat aeeking the lizarda ^adàyàV 

Al-Àzhar! aaya that it ia a aleek little reptile much given to run- 
ning and going to and fro, and resembling the lizard tàmm aWa^^ but 
it is handaomer than it and non-malignant It ia named ihahìnat a/- 
arfi and shahniai uì'^amaL There are aeveral varietiea of it, white, 
red, yellow, and green, ali of them having black spots on them; their 
coloura depend on their placca of habitation, for acme of them live 
in aand and some of them near water and graaa. Some of them are 
quite tame with men. They remain in their holea for four months 
withont taating any food. Aa a part of ita nature, it may be men« 

& Called in «OmAn insildn and in Egypt n^ah--^Chakiiies oceìlatia. 

312 AD-DAMtRt'S 


tioned that it is fond of the snn in order to become sturdy and strong 
(by basking) in it. 

It is mentioned among the idle and fictitions stories o£ the Àrabs 
that when poisons were distribnted among animala, the lizard al* 
*adà*ah was prevented from being present at the time of tlieir distri* 
bation, nntil ali the poison was finbhed and every animai had taken 
its share according to its order of preoedenoe (in arriviug), so that 
none remained behind for its lot ; it is its nature Uiérefore to walk 
fast and then to wait, which, the Àrabs say, it does when it remem- 
bers, and is sorry for, its having lost its share of poison, 

Tliis lizard is called in Egypt oi'sifilitfah, which is unlawful to 
eat and which has been already described under the lettor u* • 

(Properties.) lE its right fore-limb and its loft .hind-limb tied 
in a mg are hung on the person of a man, it will bave a highly aphro- 
disiacal efiect on hìm. If they are tied in a black rng and hung on 
the person of one who is sufFering from quartan fever, he will be 
cured of it If its heart be hung on the person of a woinan, it will 
prevent ber from eonceiving while it is there. If it (this lizard) be 
oooked with the clarified butter of the cow till it is dissolved and 
ihen rubbed over one who is stung by a poisonons animai, it will 
cure hiuL If it be placed in a bottle which is then filled with olive 
oil and placed in the sun till the lizard is dissolved, that oil becomes a 
deadly poison. 

In a dream it indicates hypocrisy and the thwarting of secret in- 
tentions or designs. 

^/ÀjJ I (alr^Ufrf).^ — ^The young of a mountain-goat. It is said in 
a proverb, ^ More addicted to climbing a bill than an *ufr f (a young 
mountain-goat).'' AWifr^ a hoar (the male of the hog). AWifr also 
means a wicked or malignant man ; f em. ^ifrah* One says hj^ ^i^ 
in the same way that one says «s^^a» c^^^ (wicked or malignant). 


^S0^jkMÌ\ {aWIfrk). — ^The most powerful and insolent of the 

demons, the lettor «i» in it being an additional or servile lettor. 
Ood has said, " Said a demon of the genii, ' I will bring thee it. ' " * 

i Lane and Freytag givo this word ss aUgu/r, which is evidently the eor- 
rectfonn. • Al-Eur^àa XXVn-39. 

9at1t ai>9ATaw1k 313 

>;Abù-ItAJ&' al-*UtAridl and 'taà atli-Tha^ft read (tbe word •£.<>>' 

K in it as) fijìu ^ and the sanie thing is related regardìng Abù- 
t'Bakr as-^iddl^, wliilst a party (of anthoritie^) read it as^ . Ali 
^ these forma are dialectical varietiefl. Walib states iliat the name 
^'o( thÌ8 pariicalar ^i/rtt was Kawdhà, bnt some say tliat ii was 
^.DhakwAn, and Ibn-*Abbis states ikat it waa §akhr al-jinnt. 

I Tliere is a difFerence of opinion regarding the renson of Solomon 
^. sending for the throne of Dil^^ts. Katadah and others state tliat he 
ì did so, becanse he was astontshed witb its description when the 
I hoopoe described it to him as being very largo, and he therefore 
t wanted to take possession of it before al-Idl&in ooald protect ber and 
\, ber people. Tlie majority of aathorities state thnt Solomon knew 
^ that it would he illegal for him to take ber Uirone after she became 
j^ a llaslim, and therefore wanted to bave it before it couid become 
ì illegal for him to do so by ber embracing al-IslAm. Ibn-Zaid says 
'. that Solomon 's object in sending for it was to show ber the great 
k power which God Iiad endowed hiin witb and the mightiness of his 
^ dominion, in the miracle he would show in regard to ber throne. 

It is related that ber throne was macie of silver and gold set with 

rabies and other gems^ and that it was placed in seven rooms which 

l' had seven looks on them. In al-Kash/ toaU-ÌHitfda by ath-Tha'labl it 

'; is stated that ber throne was a largo and beuutifnl conch with the 

\' front part made of gold and set with rubies and green emeralds and 

; {ts back part made of Silver and ornamented with several kinds of 

L goms ; it had fonr Icgs, one of red ruby, another of a yellow geni 

,. (ji^ I tatjS Ij), the thìrd of green omerald, and the foarth of white pearls, 

:; and the panels of the conch were made of gold. It was placed by ber 

: order in the innermost (last) of the seven roonis, which were one within 

[ anotheri in the last of ber palaces, each room having a locked door to 

it Ibn-*Abbfts states that tlie throne of Bil^is was thirty by thirty 

cnbits and its height was thirty cnbits. Mii^til states that it was eighty 

by eighty cabits. Some say that it^ length was eight cnbits, its 

breadth forty cnbits, and its height thirty cnbits. 

Ibn-'Abbfls states that Solomon was of a grave disposition, and 
nothing was said (in bis presence) unless he asked abont it first. He 
0aw one day something sbining near him, and having asked as to 


814 AD-OAMtRfs 

ivhat it was, was told that it was the throno of Bilica, npon whioh 
•• He saidy * ye chief s I which of you will bring me ber tbrone before 
tbey oome to me resigned ? * Said a demon of tbe genti, ' I will bring 
tfaee it before tbou canst rise up f rom thy plaoe, for I tberein am strong 
and faitbfal' "> Solomon used to sit in tbeeoart of jndgment from 
moming to neon. Tbe latter part of tbe above verdea means, ** I am 
strong enongh to carry it and bring it, and I will not seize npon any 
part of it (for myself)/' ^^ He who had tbe knowledge of tbe Book 
said, *I will bring it to tbee before tby glance can torn.' *'* Al-Ba- 
gawt and otbers state, and tbe majority of antborities are also of the 
same opinion, that it was 'Asaf b. Barkbiyft who said that, and that he 
was trntbfal and knew tbe Most Great Name of God, in which any 
prayer roade is snre to be answered and in which anything asked for is 
snre to be given. Sa^d b. Jabair states that, ^'I will bring it tbee be- 
fore tby glance can tum," means, *' before tbe most distant one you 
can see can return to you/' Katftdah states that it means, '' before a 
person can come to you from tbe greatest distance of your sight." 
MujAbid states that it means the time during which an eye can continu« 
ally see and atthe end of which the sight is drawn away f rom it. 
Wabb states that it means, ** Extend the sigbt of your eyes, and before 
it can reach its greatest extent, I sball bring it before you/' Some say 
that the one who had the knowledge of the Book was Ast&m, and 
some say that he was Solomon himself. A learned man cut of the 
Beni-Isr&'il, wbose name is said to bave been Astùm and to whom 
God had given knowledge and understanding, said to Solomon, " I 
will bring it to tbee before tby glance can turn," upon which Solomon 
said, ** Bring it/' Tbe man replied, '^ Tou are a prophet and the 
son of a prophet, and uobody has more weight or iufluence witb God 
than yonrself. If you therefore pray to God for it and ask Him for 
it, it will come to you." Solomon Uiereupon said, '* You bave said 
the truth." As to the knowledge which he was given, it was the 
Most Great Name, in which the word implicati ve of the real senso is 
omitted. He therefore prayed in the Most Great Name of God, which 
is, '* Living and Self-subsistent One I our God and God of every- 
tbing I One God I Tbere is no God but Tbou I" Some say that it 
js, '* glorious and honoured One t" The earth thereupon split open 

I Al-Kur'An XXVII.88— 39. t Idem XXVII-40. 



Idi the Uurone, which then sank into ii and barai forth before 

lOD ; — so al-Kalbt says. Ibn-' Abbàs statea timi God seni angela, 

lifted np the throne from nnder the earth, furrowing the eartfa, 

rhièh then became perforated with the throne before Solomon. Some 

ij ihat it waa bronght in the air. 

fietween Solomon and the throne there waa a distanoe oE two 
mtha (journey) for one who woald do the jonmey diligently. 

And when he saw it aettled down beside him/'* he commenced to 
ithank God for hia favonr, in worda ir^ which there waa a lesson for 

lett and a meana of gaining (knowledge). ** Said he, ' Diagniae for 

Iher ber throne;' *'* by which he meant to teather diacerning power and 

,to cause ber increaaed aatoniahment. One party of antboritiea atate 

that the genii, when they felt that Solomon might marry Bil^. 

^loaed to him atories regarding the jinn^ for ber mother waa a 

fitinlya/i ; perhapa abe might bring forth a son to whom the kingdom 

might be tranaferred, in which caae they coald not free theuisolves 

>from Bubmiaaion to Solomon and after him to hia aon. They there* 

]fore apoke ili of ber to him and acted wrongfully towards ber before 

^hiro, so that they might canae him to renonnce ber. They aaid, 

**8he is neither wiae nor jndicious; ber feet are like the hoofa of a 

borse/' and aa some aay, ^Mike the hoofa of au aas, and abe baa long 

hair on both her lega/* He therefore toated ber intellect by diagnia* 

ing the throne and acqnainted himself with the atate of ber feet by 

[means of the court, where abe had to expose her lega. As to diaguis- 

Ing the throne, it waa dono by incrcasing (the precioua atonea) in 

'acme placca and decreaaing (them) in other pliicea. Thia ia a well- 

[known narrative given in booka on the commentary of the Knr'iin. 

-It ia related that when abe reaigned beraelf (to God), submitted her- 

[;ìelf (to Solomon), and acknowledged her injuatice to herself, he mar- 

I^Tied her and reatored to her her kingdom in al-Yaman. He naed to 

viait her home on the wind, once a month, and ahe gave birth to a 

aon, whom he nnmed David, bnt who died in hia lifetime. 

^- Some aay that he placed, that ia to aay, when he caused altera- 
Uona to be made in the throne, red atouea in the place of green onea 
^ànd green onea in the place of red onea. " And when ahe carne, it 
waa aaid, ' Waa tliy throne like thia ? ' She aaid, < It might be it/ "« 

i Al-^ur'&n XXVII-40. • Idem XXyiI.41. • Idem XXVII-42. 

^ I 

316 AD-DAuinrs 

Some gay thafc ghe knew it to bo hers, bnt gave tliem a dabious answer, 
in the same way tliat they bad tried to oonfound ber ; — so al«Mu^UI 
says. ^Ikriinah says tbat Bil^s was wise and^did not say, '^Yes/' 
for fear of telling alie, and did not say ^'No/' for fear of being fonnd 
fault witb, bat said, ** It migbt be it (as thongh it were so);'' from 
vrbich Solomon nnderstood ber intellect to be perfect, becanse she 
neither affirmed nor denied it (to be hers). Some say tbat she felt 
confased in the matter of the throne, becanse, when she desired to 
present herself before Solomon, she called ber people and said to 
them, *^ Verily, tbis is not a (mere) king, and wo bave no power 
to withsfcand him." Then she sent to Solomon saying, *^I am 
coming witb the kings of my people to see what your order is and 
what it is that yon invite ns to do in the matfcer of yonr religion.V 
Tlien she gave orders in regard to ber throne, which was of gold and 
Silver set with rubies and other precious stones. She bad it placed 
in the niidst of seven rooms witb seven locks, as has been already 
mentioned, and she appointed watchmen to gnard it and said to 
the person ivbom she bad appointed to sncceed ber, '' Take care of 
what is before yon ; let not anybody approach it, nor do you show 
it to anyljody, nntil I return." Then she proceeded to the presence 
of Solomon witb twelve thousand ^imyaritic kings fìrom al-Yaman, 
each one having under him several thousand men. *^ And when 
she carne it was said, ' Was thy throne like tbis ?' '' The state of the 
throne having confused ber, " She said, * It niight be it^' '' ^ *^ It waa 
(then) said to ber, * Enter the court' " * Some say that the court was 
a palace made of glass, which was as thongh it were water in 
transparency (whiténess). Some say that it was a court inside the 
house, and water, in which were placed a great many aquatic animala 
such as fish, frogs, and others, was made to flow under it Then 
Solomon's throne was placed in front of it, and the court looked to one 
who saw it, as thongh it were a tank of water. Some say that 
he bad the court built of this description in order to look at 
ber feet and legs without having to ask ber to expose them, 
and others say, in order to find out the extent of ber understanding, 
as she bad dono witb him in tlie case of the slavc-boys and girls,* 

1 Al-Kur'&n XXVII.42. » Idem XXVII.44. 3 See foot-note in 

Sale't T. of al-ffar'An on XXVIl-36. 



incident has been already given under tbe leiter ù in the art. 
U SolorooQ tlien sat on hts Uirone and called Bilkts; wlien 
F^me, ** It was said to ber, * Enter the court ; * and wheu sbe 
^It| sbe reckoned it to be an abysa of water, and sbe uncovered 
rgs,"» to wade tbrongb it to Solomon, wbo looked at ber and 
ight ber aa regards ber legs and feet to be tbe bandsomest of 
inkind, excepting for tbe bair on ber legs. Wben be saw that, 
tomed bis eyes away and called out to ber saying, ^* 'Yerily it is 
l^oònrt paved with glassi'"* ^* and not water.'* He thcn asked lior 
aooept al'Islàm, and sbe, baving seen tbe case oE ber ibrone nnd 
ii o( the court, accepted it. Some say that wben sbe reacbed the 
irt and tliougbt it to be an abyss of water, sbe said to berselF, 
iBolomon desires to drown me, whilst killing me would bave been an 
ner tbing for me to bear tban tbis;" bence ber saying, '^^I bave 
«ged myself,'"* meaning thereby, in tbought 

It 18 said that wben Solomon wanted to marry ber, be disliked 
6 large quantity of bair be bad seen on ber legs, and so asked men, 
TVbat w ili remove it?" Ibey replied, ^'A razor." But sbe snid. 
No iron is ever to touch me." He tberefore disliked (tbe idea of) 
/razor and said (to them) that it migbt cut ber legs. He next 
tsked tbe genii, and they replied, *' \Ve do not know." He tben 
sked tbe demons, wbo replied, '^ We sball dodge that for you, so 
t ber legs will become like wbite silver." They employed tbe 
uicklime and hot batb pian, which has become known oiily since 
en and was unknown before. Wben Solomon married ber, ho 
ved ber very much and confirmed ber in ber kingdom, and baving 
tdored tbe genii, they built for ber in tbe land of al-Yuman three 
stles, the' like of which in beauty and beight, people bad never 
reen before; they were Sailhin, BainAn, and QumdAn. Solomon used 
visit ber once a montb and stay with ber for three days, starting 
nd arriving in the moming, being berne on the wind from Syria 
al-Yaman and from al-Yaman to Syria. Sbe gave birth by hira 
a son, wbom he named David and wbo died in bis lifetime. 

Bilkts was the daughter of Sbaràhil of tbe offspring of Y&rab 
b, Kabt^n. Her father was a great king and was tbe forty-first in 

i Al-Jfur'àn XXyiI.44. • Ibid. • Idem XXVII-45. 




318 AD-DAUtBfs 


direct desoent as a king (from Tàrab), he beiag the last onie. ^ 
He was the king of the whole of al-Yaman and used to say to the . 
neighbonring kings, ** No one of yon is my eqaal ;'* he therefore : 
ref Qsed to take in marrìage their danghters. He married a temale .| 
ont of the genii, whose name was Bay ^nah bint as-Sakan, by whom 
he had a danghter, namely, Bil)^8, who was the only child he had. 
This is oonfirmed by what is said in a tradition, namely, the Prophet's ^ 
words, ** One of Bil^s's parente was a jinnV* When ber father diedi 
she was desirons of secaring the kingdoni for herself, and so asked 
her people to take the pledge of allegiance to ber. A portion of the 
people obeyed her, but another portion rebelled against her, and 
elected a man as a king over them. Thas the people were divided 
into two parties, each party taking possession of a part of al-Taman. 
Then the man who had beooine the king of one of the parties com- 
menced to l>ehave badly towards tlie people oE bis principality, so 
maoh so that he extended bis hands to the women of bis sabjects and 
committed immoral acta with them ; bis people therefore desired to 
depose bini, bot oonld not do so. When Bil^is saw this state of 
affairs, she was seized with indignatton and sent to bim ofFering berselE 
in marrìage to bim. He replied, '^Notbing deterred me hitherto from 
asking yoo in marriage bot fear of disappointment." She answered, 
**I do not want anythingfrom you; you are(my)eqaal in nobility,but 
collect my people and demand me in marriage from them/' He did ac- 
cordingly, and they consnlted ber, npon which she said, ^ I aocept 
(bim)/* They therefore married her to bim. When she came to bim 
in a procession and entered bis bridal chamber, she gave bim wine to 
drink till he became drnnk and powerless. She then cat bis head 
off, and going away darìng the night to ber house ordered bis head 
to be placed on the gate of her house. When the people saw that, 
they knew that the pretext of marrìage was only a trick and treachery 
on ber part. They then collectod round ber and elected ber a queen 
over tliem. It is related in a tradition, on the authority of 
Abù-Bakrah, who said that, when the news of the Pcrsians having 
elected a daughter of Kasrà as a queen over them reacbed tlie Prophet, 
he said, *' No people that bave handed the govemment over them 
into the hands of a woman will ever flourish ;** — so al-Bukhàrl has 

:^ 9at1t al-^tawIn 319 

* (Sopplemeniafy information.) Enow Uiat phydciaus attribate 

Lio the hot bath with (and) lime botti beneficiai and injnrioiis 

rpropertie& The foUowing are among its beneficiai efiects. It 

lopens ont the porefl(of the skin), relieyes the flabbiness of the 

k dtin, rerooves the wind, proteots the oonstitntion from diarrhcca and 

[molitore, clears the body ot dnst and perspiration, cnres itching, the 

f itoh, and fatigue, renderà the body soft, helps digestion, preparea 

the body for reoelving nonriebment, renderà oontracted and ahri- 

.velled limbi active and brisk, canses catarrbs and rheam to be- 

pome ripe, and ìb beneficiai in qaotidian f evers, bectic f over, qoartan 

fagne, and pblegmatic discharges after they bave beoome ripe. I 

(the anthor) say (that it is capable of doing ali this), if a clever pby- 

; sician reoommends it The foUowing are among its injarious effects : — 

It facilitates flabbiness in weak limbs, depresses the body, redaces the 

' internai beat, weakens limbs and mnscles, and decreases the sexnal 

'. power. The proper timo for its use is after exercise and before a 

' meal| exoepting in the case of those who snffer from exhaastion and 

are snbject to an excessive seoretion of bile. Beware of entering a 

hot bath*room and ooming ont snddenly while the body is hot ; the 

proper conrse is to go first into the dressing room gradoally and to 

ooyer oneselE with dean and f amigated dothes, and to avoid women 

for a whole day and night Sexnal interconrse in a hot bath is 

disapproved, becanse it gives rise to dropsy and other serious diseases. 

It is also disapproved for a person to drink cold water after hot and 

sweet food, fatigue, sexnal interconrse, a hot bath, and a meal, 

becanse it is highly injarions to do so. The best hot bath-rooms are 

those which are old and lofty, and oonlain fresh (sweet) water. 

As to lime, it is hot and dry. Al-Qasz&lt states in a^i^yd' tbal the 

application of lime before a hot bath is a prophylactic against leprosy, 

the washing of both feet with cold water in snmmer is a prophylactic 

against gont, and the voiding of nrine in a hot bath in the standing 

posture in winter is more usef ni than drinking medicines. He states 

tbat the leaning of one's back against a wall of a hot bath*room is 

disapproved. He means that the lime should he first applied to the 

body before pouring water over it, and then the hot bath is to be 

taken ; bnt it is necessary to use marsh*mallow before its application as 

a safeguard against its escharotic action, and then to wash the body 

320 AD-DAMtufs 

with coM water and dry it. lE, bowever, one cliooscs to apply lim 
in the first iustance, it would act as a prophylactic aj^ainst leprosy, ao 
cording to wbat al-(^azzillt and oUiers say. A little of it ought to hi 
taken on a finger and sinelt, then the following words onghi: to be 
uttered over it, ^ May God grant peace to Sulaim An b. Dawud I % 
vfhicìì onght then to be writtoiì on the right thigh, npon which the 
person using it will perspire bofore the application of the lime ; the 
perspiration is then to be wiped off and the lime to be rnbbed over the 
body, which onght to be done in a hot room to hasten perspiration. 
After that the following preparation onght to be nsed : — safflower or 
bostard saffron, seeds of marsh-melon, and rice-flonr, well-kneaded witli 
myrtle-water, appiè, and rose-water and then warmod in a vessel ; it 
is then to be rnbbed over the body mixed with honey. This has the '1 
effect of cleaning the body and actiug aa a prophylactic against thirty *' 
diseasea, snch as leprosy, lence, alphas, pimples or pustules, ve3icle9,i 
and others of a like natnre. Al-Kazwtut states that, il orpimentandl 
the ashes of vino be mixed with lime and the mixtnre rnbbed over the J 
body and then the body is washed several times with the floar oE barley ^ 
and beans and seeds of marsh-melon, the hair (on tlie body) wonld be- ' 
come so weak that it is hardly likely to return. The Imam, the very : 
learned Fakhr-ad-dln ar-R&zl says that, if lime be applied before or- 
pimenti itsometimes causes freckles, but.its injnrious effects mny be 
avoided by the application of rice (flour) and safilower, which in the 
case of persons with a hot temperament ought to be kneaded with the 
water of barley and rice, marsh-melon, and eggs, and in the case of 
persona with a cold temperament with the vrater of sweet marjoram 
or wild thyme ; it is necessary to mix with lime, aloes, myrrh, and 
colocyuth, of each a dirham in weight, as a safeguard against itching , 
and blisters. 

(Condnsion.) Màlik relates in al^Mu\oaUa\ out of a tradition of 
Abù-Hurairah, who said that the Prophet said, ^' I saw one night 
a malignant (^ifrit) jinni tiiivelling with me and coming in my 
direction with a bnming torch, and every timo I looked in that direc- 
tion, I saw bim. Gabriel thereupon said to me, * Shall I not teach 
yen the words which, if you utter, bis torch will be extinguished and 
he will fall prostrate with bis mouth on the ground.' " The Apostle 
of God replied, *^ Yes," npon which Gsibriel said to him, '^ Say, 'I take 


qayIt aIì-9àtìiw1n 


.wiUi the face of God the Benefioent and with His complete 

'whioh neither tlie pious nor the impioua enea can transgreas, 

\ evik which descend from the sky or which ascend to it or 

^•re oreated on the earth and come fortli ont of it, and from the 

ttlona of the night and day and from the accidente of ihe 

tipànd day, excepting snch as brìng good. Mercifnl God I ' '* 

idttion regarding the ^i/rU^ who carne saddenly npon the 

let with the object of diverting him from his prayer, and whom 

[Frophet strangled and wished to tie to one of the colamns of the 

[net b«8 heen already given under the lettor ^ in the art. is/r t • 

I (aU^Ifìo). — Ibn-al-Àthir says in an^NikAyah that it may 

^ >lt either with a hasrah or a fammàlu It means a yoang ass, 
lem. being Hf%oa1i. 


ii^UbJt (al'-^VItdb), * — [The eagle.] A certain well-known bini. 
a^jbuA, because it is of the fem. gender and because (the meaanre) 

18 specially the meaaare of the plands of fem. nouns, thus ^andl^^ 
Vnu^, and dhird^ pL adhru^ The pi. of mult is ^ikbdn ; and 
in is the pi. of pi. . A poet says : — 

'* Esgles (HtkàUn) on the day of battle go np to the sky and oome down." 

Its sobriqaets are abiVl-^uliyam^ ahù^Uhajjàj^ oM-kussàn^ abffd' 
\r^ and ahiVUlkoitliam. The sobriqnets of the female are uinm-^U 
^hkwàr^ umm'Oili-sJui'w^ umm4ilhahj timm-IatoA, and umm-al^haitham. 
[The Arabs cali it al'kdiir (one contracting its wings in order to 
^descend or alight), and it is (also) called al^khuddAf/ah (black) on 
jloooont of its colonr. It is a word of the fem. gender, but some 
ly that it may be applied to both the male and the female, the 
[ilistinction between the sexes being made kuown by means of the 
tlifying noun. 

It is said in al'Kdmil that the eagle is the lord of birds, and that 
;the vultare {an-nair) is their snperintendent Ibn-]Jafar says that 
the eagle is sharp in sight, and that on that account the Arabs say, 
7*8harper in sight than an eagle/' The female of it is called 


^) 1 InPaletitiDeitisagenerio name for ali the snuJler and larger eagles 
and buuaids, and is i^pplied to Buteo wìgarù and AgtiUa ehrysaetus. In EgypI 
tt li applied to Haliaihu aìòiciUa. 



322 AD-DAldBf8 


lajbtoaA. Al-Batalyawsl says in oihrSharf^ that al-Khalil says 1 
iMahoah and àmkwah^ spelt with both Vifatliah and a ka$rah^ m 
an eagle i\eifi of fUght. The eagle Ì8 (also) called 'a9ij:d' mug 
becanse it cornea from a distant place, bai it is net the same ^aniUt 
the oné a deseription of which will he given presentij. In this tei 
are explained the foUowing lìnea of Abù'1-^Alà al-Ma*rrl :— 

*^l Me that àH-^wM? ia too big a bird to be ohaaed; 
Oppoae him whom yon can cope with in oppoaitioii, 
And Botpeot ali frienda (brethren) aa being bad, 
And troBi net any heart with a aeoret. 
Had the oonatellation Gemini (or Orion) giyen them Information aboi 

It wonld not haye riaen ont of fear of beIng ohaaed. 
Uow many are the eyea that hope to aee me, 
Bnt at the aight of me the light of the eyea ia loat ! " 

The following linea are also ont of a poem of bis. in which h< 
haa expressed beantifally : — 

**If you deaire for a life (of eaae), aeek a middling one, I 

For on reaching the estreme, that which haa become long becomea ahort • | 
Full moona fili np the deficiency (in their atate) when they are new 
moona, | 

And diminution oTertakea them when they are fnlL" 

The f ollowing linea in the same senso are by Ibn al-^Afif at- 
Tilimsàni :— \ 


**0 you with the face of the full moon, wHl fortune help me? 
Throngh my miifortnne a line of hatr hai descended on your cheek. 
Yea, he haa gene to the estreme end in cmelty, 

But on reaching the estreme, tbat which haa become long becomea 

It haa been already mentioned before that the eagle when it 
ories eat says, ^ There is peace in being at a distance from men.'' 

There are two species of it, ^%ihàb (eagle proper) and zummaj. As 
to the eagles, there are some of a black colour, some of a peaoh (green) 
colonr, some of a reddish black colour, some of a white colour, and 
some of a red (chestnut) colour. There are some of them which 
dwell in moantains, some in deserts, some in thickets, and some 
round about cities. It is said that their males are birds delicate in 
bodies, not worth anything. Ibn-Kh. states at the end of the biogra* 


le K&ttb, " Alt the oaglcs are Eemaics, and tho 
thom is nnothor bird of a different specics ; Bonie 
reads them, which is one of the marreltom things. 
poot Bays, satiriEÌng a pcrson nnmed IbD-Say- 

bn-SaTTidah,) "Thon ut not other tban thelikeofthe 

n la known, bnt he hu & ttUter Duknown.* * " 
'B three eggs moatly and Imtchea them for tliirty 
:dB of prey, excepting it, lay two cggs and hat«;h 
daya. When the yonng onea ot the eagle come 
>ggs), it throwa away one o£ tlicin, hecunse it finds 
itll three of them, which is no on ncconnt of the want 
8 part. Ànother bird named kdtir al-'i4àm nnd 
'tt/i tftkes pity on the yoang ono which tho eagle 
ars ii. It ia a hahit of this bird to feed ali wandcr- 
young hirds. 

gle seises any prey, it doea not carry it immedintc- 
ut keeps on removing it from place to place, and 
down on any bnt elevated places, When it scizes 
r, it begins to eat first the little ones nnd tlicn tiikcs 

hottest, strongest in movcmonts, nnd ilrifMt in 
ali the hirds of prey ; ìt is lìght in ita wingii iind 
taking ita moming meal (perhpps) in al-'Iri^ nnd 
, (porhaps) in al-Yaman. Ita foathers, which are 
ik in wintor and its ornainont in snmmor. When it 
y to rìse np and blìnd, ita yoang oncs carry it on 
tako it from place to place. They the» search for 
in India, on the top of a moniitain, into which tlicy 
n place it in the raya o£ the ann, npon which ita 
11 off and new ones spring on it, and the dinincss of 
way. It then plunges ifcwlf (dives) into that spring, 
,nms to ita originai yonthful state. Colebmtcd ho 
the name thiu, whiiat De Slane give> it u Ibn-Slda in hia 
>. Voi. Ili, p. 805. ■ Lane'a Lex. art i^ài>. 


321 AD-DAUiRrS 

the prabes of Him Yfho is able to do anything, the inspirer of everyi 
being with (the knowledgo of) its rìght course ! 

At-Tawl^dì Btates that one of the wonderful things wiih whichl 

eagles are inspired b that, when they sa£Eer from (disease of) their | 

liversi they eat the livers of hares and foxes, upon which they becomo' 

well. They eat serpents excepting their heads, and birds excepting j 

iheir hearts, which senso is indicated by the f ollowing lines et Imrn'u'l- 

l^ifl : — 

'The hearte of birda, freah and old (bronght by it). 
To its youDg ones ia the nest, were as though jujubes and old bad dates.'* 

In the same senso are the lines of Tanifah b. al-'Abd. 

*Th9 hearts of birds at the bottom of its nest, 

Were as thoagh the stoaes of bad dates thrown away at some of the 

Bsishshùr b. Burd the blind, the poet, having been asked, '^ Had 
Gh>d given you the choice of being an animai, what animai wonld 
you bave chosen (to he) ? " replied, ^^ The eaglc, becanse it remains 
where bcasts of prey and qnadmpeds cannot reach it; the birds 
of prey tum away from it ; and it rarely goes in search of prey, but 
deprives ali preying animals of their prey." 

One of its characteristics is that its wings are always flnttering. 
*Amr b. Hazm says : — 

«((Afr&* has leftmy heart, as it were 
The wings of an eagle, which are oonstantly flatterìng." 

It is related in ^Ajd'ib al-niakhlùltdij under the head of stones, 
that the eagle^stone is a stono resombling the sced of tamarind ; if 
it he moved abont, a sound is board coming from it, but if it he 
broken, nothing is found inside it. It is found in the nost of 
the eagle, which brings it from India. If a man goes to take its 
nest, it throws this stono out to him, so that he may take it and return, 
as if it knew tliat men's search for it is on account of the properties 
it possesses. Among its properties are the property that, if it be 
hung on the person of one in difficult labour, she will be dolivered 
quickly, and the property that whoever places it under bis tongue will 
overcome bis opponents in argumentation and will remain in the 


9atIt aIi*qataw1n 325 

likkib o{ having bis want aocompliBlicd. A thing ressombliiìg tlùs will 
ih^ mentioned undor tlie lettor ci in tho art.,/«^t , 

The first ones to chase with it and to tniin it (Cor tlio cliaao) woro 
I^Uie people of Moroooo. It is related that Kaisar, the king of the 
^ Oreeksi sent an eagle afl a present to Kasrà, the king of Persia, and 
^wrote to him, " Train ii, for it will do what most of the si)ecies of 
f hawks cannot do.'' He therefore ordered it to be trained, which was 
:f iooordingly done, after which he chased with it and was pleased with 
\ IL He then caased it to be starved for the pnrpose of cliasing \nth 
'ry It| but it attacked a boy belonging to bis staff and killed hiui. Kasrà 
!« * thereapon said, ** Kaisar has committed a raìd on ns in onr country 
^ without any ariny." Easrà then sent him the present of a leopard 
:; or a lynx and wrote to hiuii ^^ I bave sent you what you may be able 
^- to kill gazelles and snob other wild aniinals with,'' bnt he conceal- 
^ ed froin hiin what the eagle had done. ISaisar was pleased with it, 
' ' because it answered the description that was given of it. Then, one 
i àtLjf not being watched, it seized one of bis servants as prey. He 
;. thereupon said, *' Easrà has chased us as prey, but we chased 
; ' him as prey before, so there is no harm in it." When Kasrà heard 
; of it, he said, <' I am Abù-Sàs&n." 

^ [The anthor bere quotcs f rom Ibn-Kb. the account given by al« 

'• Af ma'l regarding the intervicw he had with ar-RasIiid after Ja^for 

r was put to death. ^ The author then narratcs the different reasons 

given by bistorians for ar-Bashid's patting Ja^far to death and 

narratcs first the reason given by Abà-Mubammad al-Yazldi, namely, 

on account of (setting free) Yabyà b. ^Abd-AllAh aPAlawi.]* 

It is related in the History of the lord of Uam&h and other 
books tliat ar-Rashid could not bear romaining apart from Ja^&ir 
and also from bis own sister 'Abbàsab, tho daughter of 
al-Mahdi. He therefore said to Ja^far, ^^I shall marry ber to 
you, so that it may be lawful for you to look at ber, but you are 
not to touch ber." They then used to be present togethor in 
ar-Rasbid's sitting room, and when ar-Rasbìd used to rise up and 
leavo tho room, they two used to fili themselves with wine, and both 

1 De Slane'8 T. of Ibn-Kh/s B. D, Voi. I, p. 3ia > Idem pp. 308—309. 

326 AD^DAMtBrs 'i 

beiug yoong, Ju'far used to rise up, go to ber, and bave sexùal ini^ 
tercourse witb ber. After a tìme sbo conceived and gave birtb to a 
8on, bnt being afraid of ar-Hasbid, sbo sent away tbo baby in ebarge 
of some domestics in ber service to Makkab. Tbe afiEair tbus re-( 
mained eonceaied» nntil a qnarrel baving taken place between ber 
and one of ber f emale slaves, tbe latter oxposed tbe afiEair of the- 
cbild and gare information regarding tbe place of its concealmonti'; 
tbe name of tbe f emale slave wbo was witb it, and tbe omamcnts and , 
dotbes it bad witb it. Wben ar-Rasbid went to tbe pilgrimage, be, 
sent some one, wbo went and fetcbed tbe cbild and tbe domestics in 
obarge of it. Finding tbe afEair to be tme, be wreaked bis yen*, 
geance on tbe Barmakides. 

It is (also) said tbat ar-Rasbìd put Ja'far to deatb, bccanse tbe' 
latter bad amassed, and taken possession of , for bimself , tbe landed 
estates of tbe world, and wbenever ar-Rasbid travelled, be passed net 
an estate or a garden bnt was informed tbat it belonged to Ja'far. 
Tbis state of affairs continned, nntil Ja^far committed an injurious 
action against bimself, by sending for one of tbe X^libites and cutting 
bis bead ofiE, Intbont bis being ordered to do so. On account of tbat, 
ar-Rasbtd beld it lawfnl to sbcd Ja'far's blood. 

[Tbe autbor bere gives, as anotber reason, tbe incidcnt of ar- 
Rasbld baving received an anonymous memorial.] ^ 

Some say tbat tbe Barmakides desired to spread beresy and cor- 
rnpt tbe kingdom, and tberefore ar-Easbid bad vengeanco on tbcm 
and killed tbem. But I (tbe autbor) say tbat tbis statement is far 
from being true and tbat I do not believo in its trntbfulness. 

It is said tbat Masrùr related, '^ I board ar-Rasbtd, tbe year be 
performed tbe Pilgrimage, wbicb was tbe year 186 A. H., saying 
duriug bis act of circuiting the Ka^bab, ^ God, Tbou knowest tbat 
Ja^far is deserving of tbe punisbment of deatb. I ask for Tby 
blessing in putting bim to deatb ; favour me, tberefore, witb Tby 
blessing I * " Wben ar-Rasbid retumed to al-Anbàr, be sent Masrùr 
and Hammà Ja^far ; tbey went to bim and found a singer sing- 
ing to bim : — 

i De Slane'B T. of Ibn-Kh/s fi. D. YoL I, pp. 309—810. 





I noi ftt a diitanoe, for death wQl come to every man ; 
flMty tìbU him in the night or in the morning.'' 

p(m Masrùr said, '^ For ihat yery reason I bave come ; God 
rilj, caosed it to visU you. Answer the anmmons of the 
dor of the faithful." He, therefore, gaye away his prò- 
u in charity, manamitted his slaves, and declared ali per- 
i^against whom he had any claims to be free from thoin. 
r then took hhn to the house in which ar-Rashid was, and after 
ning him, shackled him with the shackles of an ass, and then 
ionned ar-Rashld, who said, "Bring me his head.'' Masrùr 
med to ar-Rashld twice (wìthoat executing the order), npon 
liioh the latter abnsed him and shonted at him. Masrùr then 
tered the room in which Ja^far was imprisonod, and cutting his 
d off brought it to ar-Rashid. This occnrred on the first (now 
lOon) day of Safar 187 A. H., Ja'far being at the time thirty-sevcn 
rs of age. His head was then impaled on the bridge and every 
lece (of his body) on a bridge, In which state thoy remained, until ar- 
fiashtd at the time of his starting for KhuràsAn passed by it and said, 
^ This (body) ought to be burnt," upon which it was burnt. After 
ntting Ja'far to death, he beset the Barmakides on ali sides and 
pursued them, and it was proclaimcd that ihere was no quartcr for 
them, excepting for Muhammad b. Kh&Iid b. Barmak, his son, 
and his party, on liccount of his knowing of their innocence. 

[The author bere gives the incident about ^Ulayyah bint al- 
Hahdl asking ar-Bashid his reason for killing Ja'f ar.] ^ 

Whon J^afar's body was impaled, Yazld ar-Ralkftshl happcned 
to seo it and said the foUowing linos : — 

**By God, vere it not for the fear of the slanderer, — 
And the eye of the Khalifah gleepeth not, — 
We would have circuited around your palm-trunk* and touched and kisfr- 

ed it, 
In the same way that men touch and kiss the (Blaok) Stone (of the 


Ibn-Yalìyà, I ne7er saw before you a aharp sword 
Having ite edge broken by a sharp eword. 

1 De Slane*s T. of Ibn-Kh.*8 B. D. 7ol I, p. 319. ft The poet on which 
Ja*far was cracified. 

328 AD-DAMtBi'S 

Lei aU the pleasurea and the world eay adieu 

To the etate of proqperitj (empire) of the Barmakidea !'' 

Ar-Baahld having heard of bis lines, cansed him to be prescnt betore 

him and aaked him, ** Wbat led yoa to do what yoa bave done, wben 

you bave board o£ our warnmg tbat nobody is to stand betore bis : 

body or to compose an elegy on bim P" He replied, ^^ He nsed to 

givo me every year a thousand dlnàrs/' Ar-Rasbld tberenpon ordered 

two tbonsand dìnàra to be given to bim and said (to bim), ^* You vrill 

always bave it from me wbile I am alive." 

It is rekted tbat a woman stood before tbe body of Ja^far, and 

fieeing bis bead banging, said, ^' By Qod^ yóa bave verily beoome a 

wonder to-day, f or in liberality you were an extreme." Sbe tben 

recited tbe following lines : — 

**When I saw the sword mixing with (the blood of ) Ja^far, 
And the Khaltfah's erier oried ont for the anrest of Ya^yà, 
I cried over this worid and became oertain 
That the end of man one day ia his separatlon from the worid; 
It (the world) is nothing bnt a dynasty after dynasty, 
It gives the fortunate one and panishea the af&icted one ; 
Whenit raises this one to a high position of govemment, 
It lowers the other one to the lowermost depth !" 

Tben sbe passed on, as tbougb sbe were vrind, and did not stop 

Wben Snfyàn b. 'Uyainab beard of Ja'far baving been put to 
deatb and of tbe misfortunes tbat bad befallen tbe Sarmakides, be 
tnmed bis face towards tbe fihUih and said, *^ God, verily, Ja^far 
provided me witb tbe provisions of tbis world, provide bim witb tbe 
provisions of tbe next world I " 

Ja'far was great in liberality and in giving gifts, and 
narratives regarding bim are well-known and recorded in cbronicles. 
None of tbe wazlrs over attained tbe position tbat Ja^far did in tbe 
service of ar-Basbtd, wbo nsed to cali bim bis brotber and take 
bim under bis doak. Wben ar-Rasbid pnt Ja^far to deatb, be kept 
his fatber Yahyà permanently in prison, Tbe Barmakides were 
bigbly liberal and generous, as is well-known regarding tbem. 
Tbe period during wbicb tbey beld tbe office of wazir to ar-Hasbtd 
'was seventeen years. 

9at1t al-9ataw1n 


[Ibii*l8^])c fltates timi az-Znbair b. 'Abd-al-Mnttttlib said witk 

io the serpont, on account of which l^uraish were afraid to 

the Ka*bah nntil the eagle snatcbcd it away, the (oUowing 

]^ weadered al an etgle detoending 
To a lerpeai (tUk'tku*bdn) which waa full of agiUUon, 
Wbioh WM makiag a hoìm with ita akin. 
And which repeatedly Jamped ; 
Whcn we wcnt to Ujr the foundation, it attacked (os), 
And we were frighieoed to boild, for it waa one to be dreaded. 
Whea we were afraid of driring it away, there carne 
Ad eagle which aoared in ito flight and then deacendcd* 
li eeiaed the icrpent and drew it to iteelf » 
And l«ft to US Uie boilding withont an obatacle. 
We then got np and coiiected togother to build it ; 
The foandattons and the earth of it belong to uè ; 
In the moming we raiaed ito fonodationn, 
When Olir prirate parto had cren no dothee on them ; 
The Lord h«e hononred the Bauù-La'ayy with it, 
Nor is ito originai poaseseion to pan away from thcm. 
The Banù-*Adl did, verily, coliect there (at one time), 
And at another time the Banù*Kilàb went repeatedly to it, 
Bat the Lord l&aa aesigned it to uà as a mark of hononr, 
And with God ia to be aought a recompenae." 

iiì-Abd-al-Barr reUtes in (U-Jaìnhul regarding ^Ainr b. Dtn&r as 
iving said that, when Kurai^h desired to build the Ka'liah, a seri^ent 
out of it and op^iosod theiu in their work of constructing it, 
which a white eagle carne there, seized it, and threw it in the 
Irection of Ajyftd.^ Tt is thus givon in some of the co[iies of 
Ì*TamMdy whilst in some simply a white bini is mentìoned* 

(Information.) Ibn-^Abbàs relates tliat SulainiAn b. Dàwud (the 
^rophet) having missed tlie hoopoe, called the eagle, the lord of birds 
rgnd the most prudent and boldest of them ali, and said to it, ^^ Bring 
'^me the hoopoe this moment," npon which the eagle lifted itself 
np towards the sky, nntil it clung to the extreme limit of the air and 
MW the world underneath like a saucer before a man ; it looked 
towards Uie cast and then towards the west, when it saw the hoopoe 
ràpptoaching from the direction of al-Yaman. It then criod out at 

< A place in the fiat marthy ground of MakluJi. 


380 AD-DAHtBt's 

it, npon whioh the hoopoe said to it, ^^I ask thee by the truth oE ^ 
Him who hos given thee power over me and strengthened thee, to ì 
have compassion on tne 1" The eagle replied, " Woe betide thee l < 
Verily, the prophet of God, Sulaiinàn, has sworn that he will either 
torment thee or kill thee." It then proceeded with the hoopoe, and , 
meeting on the way ynltnres and soldiers oat of birds, they f rightened 
the hoopoe and inforined it of Salaiinàn's threat. The hoopoe 
therenpon asked (thein), ^^ What ìs my posìtion and what am I (in 
regard to the affair), or has not the prophet of God made an 
exception (to bis oath) ?" They replied, " Yes, he said, ^ or he shall 
bring me obvious authority. ' ^ " The hoopoe said, " Then I am 
saved!" When it entered where Sulaimàn was, it raised its head 
and slackened it« tail and wings, ont of hnmiliation to Salaimàn, 
iwho asked it, ^^ Where hast thou beon abscnt, instoad of attending 
to thy work and being in thy place ? I shall surely torment thee 
with a severe torment or will surely slanghter thee." The hoopoe 
replied, " prophet of God, remember your standing (hereaf ter) in 
the presence of God, in the same manner that I am standing before 
you^" Snlaimàn's skin therenpon quivered, and he trembled, and 
then pardoned it. A narrative like this will he rclated under the 
lettor i in the art. am^^^ì, 

(Lawf ulness or unlawfulness.) It is unlawf ni to eat the eagle, 
because it possosses a talon. Thcre is a difforonce of opinion with 
regard to the question whether or not it is desirable to kill it. Ar« 
R£fii and an-Nawawt in (the chnpter) aUHajj have docidod that 
it is desirable to kill it, whilst in Sliarh aUMaliadhlliah it is docided 
that it belongs to the class of animals which it is neither desirable 
nor undesirable to kill, being of a class of animals which are both 
profitable and injnrious. I (the anthor) state that this is what has 
been decided by the KAdt AbùVTayyib at-Tubarl, and that it is to 
be depended upon. 

(Proverbs.) "More inaccessible than an eagle of the sky." *Amr 
b. ^Adt addressed this saying to Kasir b. SaM in the well-kuown narra- 
tive of az-Zabbà'. Ibn-Duraid says regarding it in bis Mak ferali :— - 

1 Al-Eur'àu XXVII-80. 

9ayIt al-9ATAw1k 331 

<*Al*Wft44^ (Jadhlniah) wm cut ahort of ber f or whom he had hoped 
[[ Bj the dimwn tword of the deoree of death, 
And <Amr then rote up to take hU blood-rerenge, 
And pat down f rom her her high •onoandinge ; 
He oaneed ei-Z*bbi' to descend by force, 
When «he wm higher Uuin the eagle of the «tmosphere (lateh) of the ekj." 

poethasgiven the eagle the position of thcatmosphore of the sk}% 

account of the inaccessibility to it, the word aldawh meoning the 

tosphoro botween the earth and tho sky, and so also tho word 

\ww. The story regarding it as narrated by the historians Ibn- 

ini, Ibn-al-JawzI, and others is as foUows, thcir statemeuts 

Keing ali mixed together in it: — 

. Jadhiinah al-Abrash was the king of al-Hirah and the sur- 
indhig towns ; he rnled for sixty years and possessod a grcat 
of authority; thoso ncar hini droadcd hiiu and thosc at a distanco 
ipcctcd him (from fear). Ho was the first one to bum caudles 
beforo him, the first one to use the catapnlt in war, and the first 
during whose time tho kingdom in the land of aPIràk was 
^nsolidatod. He attacked Mulaih b. al-Barà', who was the king of 
l-Hadar, which intervencs botwoon tho country of tho Grocks (ar- 
IBùm) and that of the Porsians and which is tho place that ^Adt b. 
IZaid montions in bis lines: — 

<« When the lord of al-Ha^ar bnilt it, 
And when the llgris and thA Khàbùr collected tkeir waters in it^ 
He bnilt it of marble and plast«red it with lime; 
In ita shelter birda made their neste; 
The evil accidente of fortune did not f rìghten him. 
Bui the kingdom passed away from him, 
And hi8 gate waa deserted." 

'Jàdhlinah killed him and drove away bis daughter az-Zabbà\ who 
irent over to the Greeks. Now, az-Zabbà' was wiso, learned, 
Arabie in hor specch, excoUent in exposition, grcat in authority, and 

rt in enorgy. Ibn-al-Kalbì statos that thero was none amoug 
sromen of her time more beautiful tlian she, and that her pro[)er 
SAmo was Ffiri'ah. She had such long hair that when she walked, 
ihe draggcd it behind her, and if she spread it, it covered hor, on 
which account she was named az-Zabbà'. 





332 AD-DAMlRfs '] 

He further states that ber f ather wos killed before tbe advent of , 
Jesus, tbe son of Mary. Her energy baving increased, sbe 
gatbered together men, expended a krge amount of money, and i 
retnmed to ber fatber's country and kingdom, from wbicb sbe < 
removed Jadbtmab. Sbe tben bnilt on tbe two banks of tbe' 
Eupbrates two cities opposite eacb otber, ono on tbe eastem side and ! 
the otber on tbe western side, and constrncted between tbem a ! 
passage nnder tbe Enpbrates. Wbenever ber enemies carne near 
her and nearly vanqnisbed ber, sbe nsed to retire into it and def end 
herself • Sbe dismissed ali men from ber service, and sbe was a 
virgin, bnt witbout any (carnai) desire for men. Now after tbe war, 
tbere was peace between ber and Jadbtmab, and bis mind baving 
induced bim to ask ber in marriage, be collected bis nobles and con- 
snlted tbem regarding it. Tbey ali remained silent, excepting Kasir, 
wbo was bb consin, and wise and clever. He was bis treasarer, tbe 
manager of bis affairs, and tbe sapport of bis state. He said, ** 
King, may yoa refuso to do a tbing tbat would occasion your being 
cnrsed 1 Verily, az-2l^bba' bolds men to be nnlawful (for ber) ; sbe 
is a virgin, but witbout any (carnai) desire for men, and bas no desire 
for wealtb or kindness, whilst sbe bas a spite (revenge) against you, 
and tbe rigbt of blood does not remain dormant Sbe bas now left 
you alone out of fear and caution, but malico is buried in tbe beart's 
core, wbere it lies in ambusb like fire concealed in flint (stono) ; if 
you strike tbe stono, it ligbts it up, and if you leave it alone, it re- 
mains bidden. Tbe King bas numerous equals nniong tbe daugbters 
of kings, and tbey will profit greatly tbrougb bini, wbilst God bas 
rendered your position sufficiently independent of (above) any desire 
(greed^ for any one inferior to you, and tbe Lord bas magnified your 
office. Tbere is nobody above you." It is tbus related by Ibn-al- 
Jawzt and otbers, but Ibn-Hisbàm, tbe commentator of ad-Durai* 
diyah^ and otbers state tbat it was az-2jabbà' tbat sent to bim 
to ask to be married to bim and to ofiEer berself to bim, in order to 
join bis kingdom to bers. His beart being inclined to ber proposai 
be consulted bis ministers, ali of wbom were of tbe opinion tbat 

it was a good tbing, excepting Kastr, wbo said, ^' King, tbis is 
a dodge for treacbery and a stratagem." He would not, bowever. 



^TÀT al-9ayaw1n 333 

io his advioe. Ibn-^isbàin states that l^aair waa noi actually 
in stataro bui inras simply callod by that name. 

Ibn^l-Jawset states that Jadhlinah roplicd» ^^ The right judgincnt 
hat yoa bave opined and said, bnt tho hoart is wiatf ul and yearns 
tor what it loves and is fond of , whilst overy man has his dcstiny 
[(Seóreod), to fleo from which thorc is no asylum of rcfugc." Ho 
nhon lent to ber a porson to ask ber in marriage and to teli ber oE 
ITÌoh tbings as might make ber desirous and inclincd to accept tho 
^proposal. His messenger then went to ber, and when sho board his 
[words and leamed his object, sho said, '^ I am plaased with your 
arrivai. " Sho then expressod to bim ber joy and ber great desiro 
|(or tho king, and after bononring bis messenger and raising his 
^ position, said to bim, ^^ I bad tarned away from this affair (marriage), 
poni of fear that I might not be able to get an equal, bnt the king 
rb abovo my position and I am below bis position. I tbcrefore 
tgrant what ho has asked and desire wliat he has proposed, 
'tnd wero it not that the most proper thing is for nien 
Ito movo in a business like this, I sbonld bave myself proceeded to 
^him and yisited bim with a valuable present for bim, consisting of 
[malo and femalo slaves, troops of borses, arms, wealtb, camels, 
fgoats and sheep, and otber tbings snob as clotbes, furnitnre, and 
hjowols in largo quantities.'' When bis messenger rotumed, ho 
|i(Jadhtmah) was pleasod with what be board in the shapo of ber reply 
'and was rojoieed at tho civility and attention, which wero enougb to 
;. passio tho minds of the most intolligent; be thonght that sho bad 
'aotod in that manner, on account of ber desiro (for bim), and his 
r mind was pleasod with it. Ho thereforo started that moment with 
[ sach men out of his nobles and tho chiofs of bis kingdom as ho 
'. ooald trast, Kastr bis treasuror being (also) ono of thom. He left 
behind, in oharge of his kingdom, ^Amr b. ^Adl al-Lakhmt, who was 
tho first ono out of tho tribe of Lakbm to rule over al-Hbiib. The 
poriod daring which ho reignod was ono bandred and twenty ycan, 
and ho it was wbom the genii bad carried away when be was a child 
and then rotamod. When ho grow np to be a yoang man, his mothcr 
pat round his neok a neck-rìng of gold and ordored bim to go on a 
visit to bb matemal anele Jadbimab. When the latter saw his board 

334 AD-DAMtni'S 

and the coUar round liis neck, he Baid, " *Amr bas passed the age m 
a neck-ring," which then became current as a proverb. Ibn-Hishàm 
states that he ruled for a hnndred and eighteen years. 

Ibn-al-Jawzl states that Jadhlmah having left hiin behind io 
charge of bis kingdom went to az-Zabba\ Having reached a villagé 
on the Euphrates called Nlfah, he halted there, then hunted, ate, and 
drank, and asked again for the connsel and opinion of his f rienda/ 
They remaìned qniet, bnt Kas!r opened the conversatioh by saying.i 
* King, how far can any resolutìon nnfortified with prudence lost?^ 
Do not trust in the elegance of a speech which bas no essential im-; 
port in it. Do not throw at good judgment love, for it will (then) 
become corrupt, or at prudence desire, for it will (then) become di?- 
tant. My opinion for the King is tliat he should bave firmness 
behind his business and take his caution with waketulness. Were 
it not that affairs come to pass through predestination, I should bave' 
conjured the King that he should not do it at alK" Thereupon,| 
Jadhlinah tumed towards the others and asked them, " What is your 1 
opinion regarding this aflPair ?" They replied in accordance with] 
what they knew of his desire for that affair, holding his opinion to \ 
be the right one and strengthening his rosolution, Jttdhtmah then ] 
said, " The right judginent is that of the general body and the correct ; 
thing is what you bave opined." Kaslr said, " I see that destiny Ì 
is striving in running a race with caution and will not oboy Kaslr," ^ 
which then became a proverb. 

Then Jadhfmah went on, and when he approached az-Zabtó"8 
place, he sent a message to inferra ber of bis arrivai, upon which l 
sbe expressed ber joy and great desire for bim, ordered provisions 1 
to be carried to bim, and said to the nobles and othèr men of ber ^ 
state and ber subjects, '^ Meet your lord and the king of your state." .; 
The messenger returned to bim with the reply and informed bim of 
what he had seen and heard. When Jadhlmah wished to go, he 
called Kaslr and asked bim, '^ Are you stili of the same opinion as ' 
before ?" He replied, " Yes, and my belief in it bas increased. Is '\ 
your resolution stili the same as before ? " Jadhlmah replied, " Yes, ^ 
and my desire for it bas increased." Kaslr then said, *^ Fortune is 
not a friend of bim who does not consider consequences," which then 

fUTiT ju^^tawIk 335 

rb. He fortlier said, " Perhaps the af&iir may mcnd 
> wholly loet, and the reat may then remaia in the 
ig, and with it he will bave power enoagb to follow the 
lOurse. I£ yoa tmat to yonr being possessed of a king- 

kindred, and allies, you will bave certainly taken 
rem yonr aathority and parted from yoar kindrcd 
aat tbem into the hands oE one Erom whoae stratagem 
-OD are nob safe. Bnt il yon mnst do ìt and EoUow 
ow Uiat) Uiey will meot yon to-morrow in onc body ; 

for yoa in two rowa, so that when yon will havc 
Idle part of them, they will gnther round yon in ali 
nrround yoa, they will then take possceaion oE yon, 
118 fall into theìr hands ; then tnke tliis al-'As&, otou 
by wbose feet cannot ho overtakon." Jadhìinah had 
isod to ran faator than birds, and vio with wìnds in 
which was called al-'À.s&. Koslr thereEore said to 
oe the affair aa I havo doscrìbod, monnt ber back, for 
}a ìE yoa seize ber forelock." Jadblmah heard hÌ3 
t on wìthont givìng a reply. 

blmah's messenger went away from as-Zablià*, she 
liers, " When Jadhlmah approacbes to-morrow, mcct 
(in a body) and arrange yourselves in two rows, one 
d one on bis left, and when he arrivoa at tho militilo 
lines, msh upon liim from ali dircctions, nntil you 
and beware ot bis escaping yon," 

went on with Kaslr on his right. When tho soldiors 
ody, they nrrangcd theinselves for bim in two rows, 
•ached the middle part oE the ranka, they rnsbcd npou 
irections, npon which ho knew that tlioy had taken 
im. Ho tbon tnmed towarda Kaslr, who was wniking 
d èaid, " KaaJr, you said the trnth." ^aatr said, 
^ near yon, perchance yon may be ablo to save your- 
," bnt he dbdained to take ber, and so the soldiers 
him.. When Kastr saw that Jadblmah had submitted 
affair and became certain of (bis) boing killcd, he 
i) himself together and jnmped on the back of al-*A8&. 



I ' 




336 ad-oamìki'h 

Ibn-Hìshàm statcs that Kosir advanced al-'Àsà towards Jadhl< 

• • • 

mah, bui the latter being at the timo too much engagcd in Jookih 
after himself to think of hcr, Kasìr himsclf moanted her and givin 
her the reins drove her on, upon which she flew with him in th 
manner that a cnrrent of wind flows. Jadhtmah looked at him 
"while she ^vas proceeding at a long distance with him'on hcr back. 

Whcn az-Zabba' looked at Jadhtmah froni her palace, she said 
to him, ** How beautiful you are as a bridegroom, who is being' 
brought to me for exhibition in a procession I" They then broughf 
him to az-Zabba^ and there wass none with her in the palace but 
virgin girls. She was scated on her còuch and round about her 
were a thousand female dlaves, everyone of tliem being differont 
froni anothcr in form and dress, and »he herself looking ainong them 
liko a moon surroundcd by atars. Ibn-HishAni shites that az-Zabljà* ) 
had allowed the hair on hcr pubcs to grow for a year, and that 
whcn Jadhtmah entered, she exposed tlie part to bis gaze and said, 
" Are these the effccts of a bride that you sce ?" He replicd, " Nay, 
the effects of an uncircumciscd slavc-woman (having a long clitoris).*' ' 
She then ordered him to he executed ; he was therefore made to sit : 
on the leather mat for execution. Some, howevcr, state that when 
he entered where she was, she ordered exceution leather mats to he 
produced, and they were accordingly sprcad ; she then said to her 
female servante, " Take your lord, the husband of your mistress, by | 
the band." They therefore took bini by the band and made him sit ; 
on the leather mats in suoli a place .that she might sce him and bear 
his words and he might sce her and bear her words. She then j 
ordered the slave-girls to cut the veins on the outside of his band, 
which they did, placing a basin before his hands. - His blood com- 
menced to flow in streams, and a drop of it having fallen on the \ 
leather mat, she said to her female slaves, *' Do not waste the blood 
of the king." Jadhtmah thereupon said, '* You need not grieve over 
blood which its own people bave shed." She said, '' By God, your 
^^.^^ blood has not satisfied (the claim of my father's blood), nor has the 
slaying of you cured (satisfied) my mind, but it ia only a little out of 
much," which then became current as a proverb. When ho died, 
she ordered him to be buried, which was 'accordingly done. 



Lmr, he nsod to go ont every day to tho back oF al- 
reh oE ne\n and to Eoltow ap the tmces of his matomal 
ìng ono day thoa gone ont, he saw a rider approacbing 
I ho waa rìding mnaing in the inanner that a (current 
rs. 'Àmr said to himself, "Às to the mare, she ìa Jadhi- 
bat aa to the rider, he is like n bcost. It ia for a (good) 
1-'AmA hns ooine," wbìoh thon becatne a proverb. Ho 
talr sDd aaked hìm, " ^V1lat ia thcro bebind you f" 
I, " Doatiny has lod the king, whethcr he willcd it or 
r nose and bis own." He then aaid to 'Àinr b. 'Adt, ** I 
9 luivo your rcvenge on az-Zabbà'." *Ainr aaked, 
it to bo obtained, when she is more inaccessiblc than 
tlie sky P" wbich thcn became a proverb. Ko^jr said, 
iny ndvìce to your onde, bnt bìa death deinandcd of him 
Id go there). By Go<t, I aball not sleep and refrain 
; revenge Cor bia blood, white the atara shine and tho san 
lU obtnin it, but you must cnt iny nose." But 'Amr 
ixcused, upon whicb Kiutr acized bis (own) nosn and cat 
iftin atntea tliat Koi^ìr suid to 'Àmr, " C'nt my nose and 
strike on niy back, ao oa to leuve marka on it, and then 
le to deal witb ber." 'Amr dìd so. Hìstoriana, how- 
liat 'Àmr refnsed to do it, and so he did it bimaelE ; it 
1 aaid (proverbially), " It wiia Eor n (good) reaaon that 
I noae." 

avrzt atatea that TStuAt Uioii fìed Erom 'Amr b, 'Adi aiid 
igfl to az-Zabb&', who woa told, " Tliia ia Ka^r, a consin 

Ina treuaurcr, and the manager oE liis Rtato-nfEaira ; he 
|ron to aeek refuge." She gave permission for bini to 
:ed bim, " Kastr, wbat haa brought yon to as, wlien 
f dangerons blood-revenge botwcen ns ? " He replied, 
oE grcnt kinga, I bave come to you for an affair Eor wbioh 
omcs to one like you. The blood-revenge whioh was dno 

of the king," incaning thereby ber ^itber, " demanded 
radhlmah, wbich it haa (now) found, whibt I bave come 

protection from 'Amr b. 'Adi, who aconaes mo of 
lib matornal nnclc, on aocoont of my advioe to bim to 


338 AD-DAHÌBf8 


come to you. He has theref ore cut my nose. o£E, seized my property J 
flogged me on my back, cut my eors off, separatcd me from my 
people, and threatcned me with deaih. Bcing therefore frightened 
of my life, I bave fled from him to seek yonr protection and to lean 
against the snpport of yonr power.** She said, " You are very wel-^ 
come ; you vrìlì havc the protection due to a neighbour and the seca-] 
rity due to one seeking protection.'* She then ordered quarters to be « 
provided for him, and he went to live there. She appoinited for him ^ 
a regnlar allowance for bis expenses, gave him presents, clotbes, and1 
aervants, and showcd him great marks of bonour. He remained fori 
it long timo without bis speaking to ber or ber speaking to him, but 
during that timo he tried to seek an opportunity of using stratagems i 
against ber. She was inaccessible in a strongly-built palace situated 
at the gate of the passage in which she used to dofend herself , so 
that nobody could overcome ber. One day Kostr said to ber, ^^ I 
have much wealtb and valuable treasures, such as wouid suit kings, 
in al-*Iràk ; if you allow me to go forth to aPIr&k, and givo me ' 
8omet1iing with the aid of which I may occupy myself in mercantile 
transnctions and which I may show as a reason for going to obtain 
my property, I sball bring out of it to you as much as I can." 
She therefore gave him permission and property with which ho pro- 
ceeded to aPIrftk. Tlien taking a considerable quantity of wealtb 
with him he retumed to az-Zabba*. He brought with him a largo 
quantity of curiosities and elegant tbings of al-^Irà^ and added 
considerable wealtb to the wealtb (she bad given). Wben he came 
to ber, ali that wealtb excited ber admiration and made ber rejoice 
over it, and bis position rose bigher in ber eyes. He then returned 
to aPIr&^ a second time and came to ber with more wealtb than on 
the first occasion, and he increased it many times in the sbape of 
jewels, the clotb of the kind called cd^kkazz^ cotton stuffs, raw silk, 
and silks. Her regard and liking for him, in consequence of it, in- 
creased, and bis position in her eyes l)ecame stili more honouruble. 
Tlius Kasir continued to try to attain bis object by such delicate 
attentions, until he found out the situation of the passage under 
the Eiipbrates and the road leading to it. He then went forth a 
thìrd time and brought with him more wealtb composed of curio- 

PayIt al-ipataw1n 33!) 

{ant tliiiigs tlian tie hnd iloiio on tìio prcvìous 
I jNMÌtioii tliercEoro rane no liìgti (iii licr ostiiiuition} 
to uak for liitt liolp in linr ini[K>rtunt niFitim, coiifìdod 
towitrild liiiii in n way o( fiiiiiiliarìty, and imj>o:M>il 
ilen of lior nfFaira. ^4r was a man ondowcd with 
lini] n gowl-tooking face, ami wa» limrn(>d and 
Ilo saiil io liim oue duy, " I wìhIi t<> go nn a milibiry 
niit a (wrtuin town in tho land of Syriii. Uo, tJicn^fure, 
(t bring ino hucIi iind .tiieli a iinnilair of voiitji oE 
iV08, and cl»tlifis." Ka^tr rp[ilied, " I havc in Hin tuwii 
idt a tliouì<and vainnls, a troa^iiro of wi-iillh, and ti 
is containing sucb and suoli tliings, wliilst 'Amr lias 
lE thcin. Had ho liad knowlodgo of tlioni, lio wonld 
ni and uited ttiom in waging var againi^ii tlio Qnoon. 
ooking oiit for tlicin like ono looking ont for tlie 
fortnno, nnd now I filiali go fortli dìsgaisod, so tliat 
>w RIO, and liring to tlie Queen atl tlmt togetlicr witli 
ikcd for." Silo tlicrcforo gavc liiin as nmoh wcnltb 
and said, " Ka-^ìr, tlie stato of the kiiigdoiii ìa 
liy tlic presencc of ijucli a ono as yoii, nnd by tbe 
10 a9 yon in ita stato iinprovod. J liiivo lioartl tbat 
brouglit to Jadblmab canic to yonr bands and wlint^ 
,vy froni bim wont (brougli yoiir liundit. J sball not 
Oli anytliing tbat iny band:) cun biy bold on, nor 
ep yon back froin rai^ing me." Onn of lii^r cliieE 
card tliia, »«!<!, " Vcrily, Im i^ a lìon in blu lurking 
xcitcd lioii ready to s|»ring {on ìia proy)." Wbeii 
I po.sition bc bcid in ber c4tÌinatioii and of ìna boing 
ber good gracos, ho said to biin»«<If, " Now is tbc timc 

reiit away froin ber to 'Ainr b. 'Adt and said tn bini, 
.V foiniil an opportunity (for n rovcngc) ngainst ar.- 
replicd, " Say and I sball obcy, ordcr and I sball 
l»ìr, for you are tlio pliysìoian to curo Hm iilcpr." 
[tìii and wcalt.Ii (ari! wantod)," ujMin wbicll 'Amr siid, 
ily ovor wliiit 1 iwshphs in all-pow^rfid." Hn ibr-n 

340 AD-DAMtBi's 

selected turo thoosand oat of bis strongest soldiers and generala odi 
o£ the people of bis state and mounted tbem on a tbonsand camels 
black sacks togetber with thoir arms, tying theui up f roin inside ti 

sacks. ^Amr was also one of tbom. Kaalr then led the horses, th 

• • • 

troopSy the arms, and the laden camels. 

Ibn-HisbAm states that he nsed to tmvel by night and remali^ 
in conceabnent durìng the day. ^Amr had been described (beforey 
to az-Zabba' in standing and sitting postures and as monntedj 
(on the back of a riding beast). Being dubions al)out the neirs 
regarding Kastr, she inade an enquiry about bini and was infonned^ 
^* He has taken the road to the little cave (a/-j2ut4>*xtV)/' • npon which shèi 
said, '^Perhaps (u*^ ) the little cave (uiay be attended with) calami* 
ties," which then becaino a proverb. The word u*»' in the proverb' 
has the senso of becamey and on that account the predicate is gtvcn 
withont a verb. .: 

When Kasir arrived, he went to az-Zabba', and as he had come 

on before the camels, he said to ber, ^' Stand up and look at the 

camels/' She thercfore climbed up to the top of the palace and kepi 

on looking at the camels laden with men. She said, '^ Ifasir, 

Why is the pace of the oamels slow ? 
Are they ourryiDg Btones or iron, 
Or exceasÌTely oold lead, 
Or men sitting on their ohests ? " 

Now Kaslr had given to ^Amr a description of az-Zabba' and of th< 
secret passage. When the camels entered the city, one of the gate- 
keepers at az-Zabba"s gate, who were Nabathoans, had a staff in hiì 
band ; he plunged it into a sack, and the rod having hit one of th< 
men, he let wind out of bis anus. The gate-keeper therefore said ii 
the Nabathean language, ^'Basbà basila!" that is to say, '^e^l 
evil I " Tinnir thereupon drew out bis sword, struck the gate-keepe 
with it, and killed him. 'Amr was mounted on bis borse and enterct 
the fort after the camels. Tlie men undid the sacks and appearo< 
in the city, and ^Amr stood at the gate of the passage. When az 
Zabbi' saw 'Amr, she knew him by his description ; she therefor 
sucked a poisoned ring she had on ber band and said, ^' By my owi 

1 Alao the uame of a oertain water. 

9ATÌT aih^atawIn 341 

tiy tbat of 'Amr." She then diod. Some aay tlut 
itìt bia Bword, 

Btates tliat when as-Zabbà' saw the camcU leaning 
irìUi tbeir loads, she anspected them, «nd iafortna- 
«en giveo to ber against Kàatr. Tbe large namber 
ir large loads together with tbe words of the in- 
iislr) inade an iinprassion od ber mind. Sbe Uicrc- 

« of Ihe oameli to be ilow." 

icf are ns given above, except tlie loflt one, wliicb ia 

ber Blavo-girls, " I see violent (red) dcath in the 
iiich tlicn bocamo a provcrb. Ho boa rclated the 
nd. 'Amr then took posscssion of ber conntry and 

az-Zabln' wos M&'ilnh, acoording to Mnhammod b. 
and Ta'^fib b. as-Sikktt, and Ibn-Jartr at-Tabarì 

of bis statement tbe following linea of n poct : — 

a lUUon betweoH an-Ht^' 
ipMMgeof otdV" 

) statement of Ibn-Dnraid, ber nanio wiis HaUùn, 
to Ibn-Hìshlm, Ibn-al-Jav»!, nnd otbcrs, ìt \vn3 
)cn already mcntioncd bofore. 

1 in an-Hihàyali by Ilm-nl-Àtblr that » party oE 
ferrod together rcgnrding the skill of the lliinù- 
; by means of binls and tboir description to tlrnt 
lem and said to thcin, " A fihe-cninel belonging to 
my ; will yon scnd witli ns some ono who will 
ly tbe flight of birda ? " Tliey tbereforo saìd to a 
> tbem, " Go with them." One of the jinn» then 

ride hehind bim, and they went away. An cagle 
inga Folded met tbem on tlie way, n|x>n which the 
and oried. They therofore a.<jkod bim, "0 boy, 
sr with yon ? " on<Ì he replied, " It boa foldod one 


\\ring uud raised the otkcr, aud sworn by God plainly thut you nrc 
noi a man, and tliat you do not want a sho-camcl." 

The othor proverbi aro, '' More given to flying thau an caglo of the 
sky." " More seeing than an eagle." " Moro pmdcnt than an eagle.". 
I£ it be a»ked as to \s'hat its prudence consists in, it is that ìt comes 
forth ont of an egg on the top of a high mountain, but docs not 
move abont until ali its feathers are oomplcte, for, if it moved aboat, 
it would fall. ^^More hearing than a young one of ah eagle." 
'^ Rarer or more inaocessible than an eagle of the sky." 

(A wonderful tliing.) Avcnzoar (Ibn-Zuhr) has copied from 
Arisfcotle that the eagle becomes the kite and the kite bccomos the 
eagle, thus changing the one into the other every year. 

(Properties.) The author of ^Ayn al-khawdjff statos that 'Utilrid 
b. Mnhammad »ay& thut the e;igle flies (rnns) away from aloes, and 
that wlien it Bmells it, it faintei. If a house be fumigated with the 
feathers of an eagle, the serpents in that house will die. Its bile is 
beneficiai in dimness of vision and in cataract (water) in the eyo, if 
nsed as a collyrium ; — so al-Kazwini stsites. 

(Interpretation of it in dreams.) A dream regarding an eagle 
indicates for a person engaged in a war, success and victory over 
his enemies. because it was (the name of) the Propliet's standard. 
For a (lerson near whom it alights in a dream, it indicntes chastise- 
ment. He who sees in a dream that he has come to be in possession 
of an eagle or a vulture or has obtained authority over it, will acquire 
glory, authority, aud victory over his enemy and will live a long Ufo. 
If the dreamer be one of the people given to ttiking pains and to 
strìving hard (in religious matters), he will become sepanited from 
men, keep aloof from them, and Icad a solitary life, not taking shelter 
with anybody ; if he be a king, he will make pcace with his enemies 
and be secure from their evil deeds and stratagems, and will be bene- 
fited by what he has with him in the shape of arms and wcalth, for 
the feathers of an eagle in a dream are indicative of arrows and also 
of wealth. Its young ones are indicative of bastards, the offspring 
of adultery ; — so Ibn-al-Mukri says. Al-Makdisi statcs that he who 
dreams that an eagle has struck him with its talons, will cxperìcnce 


'trouble in respect of bis wealth. Tho eatiug of the flesh oE an eagle 
• (in a dream) indicates oupidity. Soinetimes a dream aboiit it, tliat 
«{«io say, an eagle, indicates a fighting bellicose man from vrbom 
r neither a near person nor a distant one f eels secare. If it be dreamt 
off as being on the top of a house or over a hoase, it indicates the 
' angel of death. He who dreams of having monnted on the back 
of an eagle, if he be poor, will obtain wealth, bnt if he be one 
of the rich or noble persons, he will die, becanso in ancien t times 
the piotare of a dead man oat of tlie rich or nobles was represented 
by the piotare of an eagle. If a woman dreams of giving birth 
to an eagle, ber son will go to the king in bis service or for 
; wrestling. 

ùàaJì (aWAhiil). — A he-camd having small legs and a high 

hnmp ; when it walks with other he-camels, it falls short of their 
'. height, but when it lies down on its chest with them it looks higher 

than they, on account of the height of its hamp. On that aocoont 

: Tlia^abah says : — 

"I seni with them a^thìok o«mel, whtch when walking looks short and 
when lying down high.** 

JiÀAJt {aWIliàt), — A yoangshe-camel (JuilHi). It also moansa 

year's poor-rate out of camels and sheep and goats. A poet says : — 

"He took a year's poor-rate, and left not to uà any (camels') fur or 

(gOHts') hair ; 
How then would it haye beeo, had *Amr taken two years' poor-rate?" 


y^AAJI (al'^Akrab) *. — [The scorpion.] A cortain small animai 
oat of the creoping things, the same word being applied both to the 
male and the fornaio. It is the n. of an. of al-^^akàrib. ' The 
female is sometimes called ^ahrabah and ^akrabd*^ which is imperfectly 
declined. The dim. is formed as ^ultairab in the same way 
that the dim. of Zainab is formed as Zuyaiìiah. The male is called 
Uijiruhdn ; it is a small creeping tlìing having long legn, ))ut having 
a tail not like the tails of scorpions. A poet says : — 

i In *Omftn PHoìiurìts av§irtdì$ (Linn.), Nébo Jlatipe»t And a ap. of Buthttt. 


344 AD-DAUiRfs 

"Ab thoogh the pastare of yonr mother, when «he goes in the morning,; 
Were a female scorpton whieb a male eoorpion (^ufcrubàn) treads." 

Afatdn mu*ahrìà »» a place having icarpions in it. &udgi mu^ahrab » 
twUted hck of hair. 

Ita sobrìqueta are umm^Hr^at and umm^sliàhirah^ and ita nanV^ 
in Peraian is ar^ushkj aa haa been mentioned before. 


Some acorpiona are blaok, aome dark (green), and aome yelloW|l 

which are the moat deadly enea. The worat in inflicting pain are the] 

dark (green) onea. They are watery in their nature and bave a brgei 

ofEaprìng, reaembling (in that reapect) fiah' and the lizard afi-^fabb.] 

The death of the female of ali the varietiea of thia apeciea (of anima!)] 

occnra at the time of ita gìving birth toita yonng onea, for, when the'!. 

latter are properly developed, they cnt through the mother'a bellyj 

and come forth, npon which the mother dica. Tlie foUowing lineai 

of a poet are qnoted (in reapect of thia) : — 

^'A pregnant cae, whoae pregnanoy fate ia net able to bear ; • ' 

She diea, and the embryoa grow when ahe dies." ; 

Al-Jàbij doea not like thia atatement and atatea, '^ A man who can 
be truated informed me that he aaw a female acorpion* giving birth 
to ita young onea through ita mouth and carrying them on ita back, 
they being abont the aize of lice and a great manyjn nnmber." I 
(the anthor) aay that what al-Jahij holda to bo tme ia the correct 
thing. The acorpion ia very formìdable when it ia pregnant. It has 
eight lega, and ita two eyea are aituated on ita back. A wonderful 
thing in connection with it ia that it doea not atrike a dead person or 
a aleeping one, nntil aome portion of hia body moves, upon which it 
atrìkea him. It livea with the black beetlea called al-khandjis and is 
at peace with them. It aometimea atinga a viper, which tlicn dies. 
Scorpione (alao) aometimea ating one another, npon which they die ; 
— ao al-Jàbid ^ys- I^ is related in al-Kazwtni'a hook that, if a 
acorpion atinga a aerpent and if the latter manages to aeize and eat 
it, it ia cnred, or otherwiae it diea. The juriaconsult 'Umàrah al- 
Tamanl allndea to thia in hia linea : — 

<*If fortune leavea you not in peace, wage war againat it, 
And if yonr neareat frìenda aeire yen not, go to a distance ; 

I wDm of the fcebk, 

rtpen die frani th« poiwna of icorpionB. 

k hoopoe ihook the thione of Bilkli, 

t, ■ nt destMjed the djrke of Mk'rìb. 

b (jout) o«[dta1, Mve It 

«Ithont neeee^tj ; 

ciadtndM of night «od daj U « field of battie, 

rbleh uMil ne in OQwooted wt.ja." > 

ero qnotes from tlie Hiatory ot Ibn-Kh., out ot the 
nih b. 'Ali b. RaicUD, the incident of 'Umftrah'a 
1 an onvoy hy tho sovereign of Makkub to Egypt, 
Domposed n pocm in praiso oE tlic Dovereigii oE 
Ir, ont of wbicb the aathor gìres oaly the first 
as. The anthor then gives some Eurthcr pnrticu- 
tlie rcason of bis hiiTing becn pnt to dcath hy 
d-dtn, togetlior with tho lincs for whicb he was 
jurittconsnltfl of Egypt.* Tho antlioi-, hovfover, 
given by Ibn-Kh. for the execation of the oon- 
ad-dtn, nnmely, 529 À. H., is wrong, and givcs the 
9 A. H., which is tlie dato gVen by De Siane in 
> necessity tliereforo of goìiig over the antlior's 
tlie fomior »ìat« to l>o wrong.] 

e of tlie scorpion that, wbcn it stinga u liiiiiiiiii 
r froin hiin like a criiiiinHl fcarìiig piniiNbnicnt. 
t a wonderful vircuinBtance in connection with it 
swiin or move, if it ìs thrown info water, whcthcr 
ing or niiining. He fartbcr stafcs tlint scorpions 
>Ic8 for locDsts, because tliey aro vcry fond of cating 
of cntcliing tlicrn consista in cntangling a loeost 
icn introdncing it ìnto the holc of a scorpion, which, 
hangs ìteelf to it. If the common lock bo first ìn- 
)lo and thcii withdrawn, it will aUo follow it. It 
i stono and a clod of day. The foUowìng are some 
lui lines regarding tliis charactcristic of it : — 

'. of IbD-Kh.'s B. D. VoL li, p S69. I bave Blightl; «Itered 
hU tranalation to keep u ne&r u poBsìblc to the test. 

346 ad-oahìrì's 

*'I Bair ft Bcorpion on a stone. 
The atrikiag of which by it ia a habit of ita ; 
I aaid io it, *It ia only a atone, 
Whilat thy Datare ia aofter than ita.* 
It replied, 'You bave aaid the trath, bnt 
I want to let it know who I am.' " 

The mosfc deadly scorpious are found in two places, Shalirzùr?^ 
and 'Askar Miikram ; they are the acorpions of the kind oalledJ 
jarrdrdty which directly they sting, kill (the victim), as has boon j 
already mentioued bef ore ; they aometinied cause tlio flesh oE tlie ] 
victini to become scattered or pntrid and flaccid, so that no one can j 
approach him without covering bis nòse, out of f ear o£ its injurious ^ 
effects. A beautiful tliing in connection with the scorpion is that, \ 
notwitlistanding the smaliness of its size, it kills the elephant and 
the carnei by ineans of its sting. 

One of the spccics of scorpions is at-tayyàTah (the flying species), 
Al-Kazwlni and al-Jàhij state that this species mostly kills. 
Ar-Ràfi'ì states that al-'Abbftdi gives a view that it is valid to sell 
ants in Naslbin, bccause the stings of the scorpions a^-^^yamA 
are trcated there medically with thcm. This wìU also be given again 
under the head of Propertics in the art. J^iJ I , under the letter ui . 
Perhaps bis objcct in saying that is that ants are inixcd with the medi- 
cines with which their stings are treated. There are most deadly 
scorpions in Na.sibin. It is said that they carne originally froui 
Shahrzùr, and that one of the kings having besieged Nasibla and 
placed tliein in goblcts of the beverage called al-fulclid^ threw theni 
(into the place) by moans of catapulta. 

Al-Jàbid stntcs that there used to be in the house of Nasr b 

Hajjàj as-Sulanii scorpions which, when they stung, killed (the stun^ 

person). A guest of bis (one day) went to one of the people of the 

house, when a scorpion struck him on bis genitals, upon which Na&i 

said addressing him : — 

'*Wlien the reaideuta of my houae aleep, 

The Bcorpiona carry out the puniahment for breaking tlie religioiu la^^, 
If inen are DCgligent of thcir religiOD, 
For the acorpiona iu it atrike. 
Do Dot fcel aecure froin the orawling of a scorpion 
At night, if a sinner comraita a aiiu*' 



• theii weiit round about iiiaido the hou86 and said, ^' Thfòic scor- 
drink (poison) froni the Aeri)ent called asuml saUkh" and 
[t&n looking at a phice in the houne »iid, " Dig here." Thnt place 
i.was therefore dug, and there were two a^tooih found thore, onc a 
'Piale and the other a feniale. 

fS'^ At-T"l*^rant ami Abii-Yu'là ul-Mawsili rotate regarding 'A*i.shah 
.^M liaving said, ^* ^Alt b. Abt-Tàlil> hapi)ened to visit the Prophct 
iwhile ho wa8 praying ; so standing by hid side ho siìid bis pniyer. 
^Ih the nieantinie a scorpion canie there and first reachcd the phiec 
[Vbere tlie Prophet was praying ; then leaving bini, it went in the 
rdtftotion oE 'Ali, ìx\ìo\\ which the bitter struck it with bis shoc ami 
tJulled it. The Prophet did not observe any barai in its being killoil." 
f Aniong the authorities for tliis tradition is *Abd-Allàh b. §àlih, thi* 
|.wrìter oE al-Laith, who is a weak authority. 

Ibn-Majab relates, on the authority oE Ibn-llufiS tbat the Prophet 
ikillod a scorpion while he was in the act oE praying. It is also 
'.related in bis hook, on the authority oE 'A'isbab, who said, '* A scor- 
ì.pÌon stung the Prophet while he was in the act oE praying, u[u)n 
f which he said, ' May God curse tlie scorpion I It spares noithor a 
»person praying- nor one not pniying ; kill it thereEore lK>tIi in tho 
[ state oE ihràm and out oE it.* " 

; The Hàfi4 Abfi-Nu'aim relates in Ta'Akh Ispaltàn, al-Mustiig- 
^Krl in ad-Da^wàty and al-Baihakl in a^A-S/ii'i, on tho authority oE 
^'♦All b. Abl-'fàlib, who sjiid, " A scorpion stung the Prophet while ho 
I was in the act oE praying ; whon he finishod bis prayor, ho ssiid, 
1 • May God curse tho scorpion I Et spares noither a porson pniying 
jj^nor one not praying, neitber a prophot nor any othor porson, but it 
; fitings tliem ali.' Then taking bis shoe he killed it with it. He then 
i asked Eor some water and salt and commenced to rub thom over 

the stung part and to recite, " Say, * He is God alone ! ctc' "* and the 

two last cliapters^ oE the Kur'àn." 

It is related in Ta^Akli Ntsiijnti% on the authority oE ad-Dahhak b. 
Kais al-Filirf, who said, " The Apostle oE God having got up one 
night to pray, a scorpion Imppencd to sting bini on one oE bis Hngors, 

3i8 AD-DAMÌKftf 

upon which he said, *May God curse the scorpion I It hardly sparcs m 
body. * He then called for some water in a cup and having rocitM 
the CXIIth cliaptor of tlie Kur'&n thrice over it, pourod the wat«ir 
over his finger. After that the Prophet was seen on the pulpit with 
bis finger bandaged on account of the scorpion-sting." 

It is rclated in ^Aicdrif al-ma^&nf^ on the authority of 'A'isliah^ 
who said, '^ A scorpion having stnng the Apostle of God on the great 
toe of tlie left foot, he said, ^ Bring me that white thing which isj 
(nsed) in (inaking) doagh/ npon which we brought hini some salt i\ 
he pkced it ni)on tiie pahn of bis band and licked it three times,* 
and then placed the remainder òn the sinng part, upon which the 
pain in it ceased.'* 

Ibn-Abi-Shaibah relates, on the authority of Jàbir b. 'Abd- j 
AU&h, that tlie Prophet, who was preaching to mon with bis finger \ 
bandaged on account oE a scorpion-sting, said, ^^ You say that ' 
there is no hostility, when you are continually fighting with an 
enemy, until (at last) you will fight with Gog (Yàjùj) and Magog 
(Màjùj), having broad faces, small eyes, red-baired, * and they from 
every bummock shall glide forth,'^ and with their faces as though 
they were shields covercd with sinews one above anothcr." 

(A wonderful narrative.) It is related in the History ot our 
shaikh al-Yftfi'i, among the events of the year 509 A. H., that some 
nstrologers in the service of a certain king having told bim that he 
would dio at a cortain hour on a certain day in a certain year from a 
scorpion which would sting bim, when the mcntionod hour came, ho 
stripped himself of ali bis clothcs, cxccpting sudi as covercd bis 
nudity, and mounted a borse) after wasbing and clcaning it and comb- 
ing its luiir. He then went on its back into the sea as a prccaution 
against what bis astrologers had told bim. While he was in that 
state, the borse happencd to snecze, and there came forth cut of its 
nose a scorpion which stnng bini, and lie thereupon dicd. Prccau- 
tion was of no avail to bini against destiny. 

It is related, on the authority of Ma'rAt al-Karkht, who said, 
" We liave board that Dhfi'n-Nùn al-Minir! went cut one day with 

» Al-ffuHAn XXI.96. 

: woiikiug bis cloUies, and whìle he waa goiiifr, a scor- 

Inrgost thiiig i>08sible caiue towiir<Lt liìm. He w»^ 
«ivcly utniicl oE it Hiid wuglit tliu prutcctiou ut Goti 
wns snffioient to wsrd off ita evil. It apiirouchcd ao 

Uio Nile, upon whìch a frog canie out tmd oirrying 
croMfxl over U> tlie other side witti it. l»iù'ii-K&ii 
. HUido Fast iny breechc» and went iiito the wutcr uud 
Y watcliìng it uiiUl U caiue Ut Uie otlicr side, whcu 

die biiiik. It tken went ou bard, oiid I followcd it» 
f a trae havìng nuiny bninchea and giving mudi slraJe, 
Euir beiirdless bojr uslec]) under it, he bcing ìntoxicat- . 

I theranpon snid, "Tbere is no strength bui in Ood 1 
1)8 uoine froni tbe opjtoditc side to sting UiÌh yonng 
n SRW n greut dcr|>cnt (tantiln) nppronching wìtli 
ot killing tho }'oung nun. The scorpioii, bowevcr, 

and seizing ita brain killcd it ; tben rctuniiiig to tlie 
)d back to the other side on tlie Imck oE tbe frog.' 
iroupon rocited: — 
I The QIorioDt one protecta Uu>, 
iril thinga in the dark ! 
fjouT) eyet sleep kmj froro the LorJ, 
im thara eou)« to jaa manf favoura T 

n on hearing the word» oE DhA'n-Nùn wokc iip, u|wn 
;ter inEornied Idin ot tbe afFuir. He thcu hceiune 
tlirowing off the gnrb of giiicty, put on the clotbcs o£ 
l went about travellìng, ìn which eondìtion he dìcd." 

or naino of Dhù'n-NAn was Tbuwban b. Iliriilihii, but 
: it wos al-Faìd b. IbrSbìm. Tlie followingnre some 
; — " Tme love consiats in your loviiig wlint God love!", 
; whnt He liiitcs, in your seoking whnt plell^>e!i Him, 
1 things tliat would divert yoiir ntt«ntÌon froni Hini, in 
ig in regard to Uiin tho bhuno oE u uenourer, und in your 
self away Erom a siglit oE itsolE (youraelE) nnd iirninging 
the greatest of acreens (Erom God) is tlie siglU ot' (oncV) 
inging fur it, A j>erson baving knowledgc (of Goil), 
I tbis worid, is continmilly bptweeti gloHIiinition and 


350 AD-DAMTRt'H 

povcrty ; wlicu he remembers God, ho glories (in it), and whcn ho 1 
rcmembora hìs own self, ho considcrs himsolf poor. He is noi a man 
of undcrstanding, who oxorts himsolf in the matter of this world and 
neglects the affair of the next world, nor ho who is unwise (Ughi- ] 
witted) in placcs whcro ho onglit io show his forbearancc, nor ho i 
who is proud in places whoro ho ought to show his hnmility, nor ho ] 
w'hose abstincnco is missing in placcs of his covotonsness, nor ho j 
who is angry with the truth if he is told of it, nor ho who abstaìns i 
from what the intolligent dosire, nor he who dosiros what tho | 
intelligent abstain from, nor he who domands jnstice from othcrs ! 
on accenni of himsolf, nor ho who forget.s God in places of rcn- j 
«lering obedience to Him and remembers Him in placcs of want- ' 
ing Him, nor he who collccts knowlodge in ordor io discorn thcro- .; 
with bui in ovori>owered by his own dosires aft^r obtiiining it, nor 
ho who has no senso of shame in respcct of God noiwithstanding ) 
His bcneficeni aci of screening him, nor he who is nogligent of 
n^tnming thanks for His granting him happiness, nor he who lacks 
in strength to fighi with His enemy, nor he who adopts his mnnli- 
ness as his dress instead of adopting his ediicsition as liis coat of mail 
and his pioty as his dress, nor he who makes use of his learning and 
knowledge for affectìng clogance and gnicefulnoris in his assombly. 
J ì)eg of (ilod, the Great, pardon 1 Verily, words are many, and if yen 
do not cut thoin short, tliey will not c<mse," 

One of my shaikhs Ims rehit<)il to me reganling Dhft'n-Nùn as " 
baving nskcd a monk (hcrmit), " AVImt is the mcaning of love ?" : 
upon which ho replied, " Man is not ablc to Ix^ar two lovos, for lie 
who loves God, does not love othors, and lio who loves othcrs, does not * 
love God sinccrely ; think of your own stut**, as to out of which of ' 
thesc two kinds of men you are." Dhù'n-Niui siiid, "I then sjii<l, 
*Dcscribe love to me' He repHcd, *Lovc is vanisliing reason, droin 
ping toars, banishcd slcep, and cxcessive dcsiro, and tlie o1)joct of 
love does what he wishos.' Thesc words had thcir offcct on me, and 1 
kncw that they carne from a mine, and that the monk was a Muslim. 
I then parted from him, and one day while I was doing a circuit of 
the Ka*bah, I bcheld that monk (there); he had bc<iomc quitc lean. 
He said to me, * Abtì'1-Faid, the good condition is now comi)leto, 

( » 


the gate of coui])anion8hip is 0})en6d, and Qod lias conferred on ine 
Ibi benefit of al-Isllm and inade me bear what the earth and skies 
ire nnable to bear.' His soni bore the bnrden of God's love, whicli 
Ibe skic8| the earth, and the hard solid monntains are nnablo to bear, 
bot whioh Btrong men are able to bear in the beat of w.nys/' DlnVn- 
KAn then recited the follovring line» : — 

**0 Thon, the objeot of my asking and my desirc, 
Thy love hM» Terilj, rendered luy body lean luid fatigucd it ; 
Had what Ì8 in my heart of love for Theo (you) 
\" ' B«en in a hard rock, it wonld ha?e broken it." 

Dhù*n-Nùn also (then) said, ^' They (the Sùfis) are not living porson.s, 
plor dead ones, nor sober ones, nor dmnken onos, nor persons in n 
lettled placo, nor travelling ones, nor persons that havo conio to their 
•enies, nor persons thdt are throv^ii down, nor })orsons sound in liody, 
nor sick ones, nor slceping ones, nor wnking onos ; tliey are like the 
Fellows of the Cave in an intervening si)ace in the cavo, not knowin«; 
what vras going to be dono with tlieni, ^ as we tnnìcd theni towards 
the right and towardn the loft.'' " 

.' The Imam Abù'l-Faraj b. al-Jawzl states that Dhù'n-Nfm was 
lo his origin a Nubian and one of the pcople of Tkhintm ;' he went 
io Egyp^ and scttled thore. Some say that his namo wns al-Faid and 
that DhA'n-NAn was his titlc. The Imam AbQ'l-Kasim al-Kusliair! 
itatcs in his Risalah that Dhù'n-Nùn bccame cmincnt among mon 
given to this kind of dovotion and was the nniqno one of liis timo in 
Wrning, piety, knowicdgc, and stat^ ; his doatli took phico at Jìxsih, 
when there wcre two nights wanting to con)i>loto the month of 
DhftM-KaMah, 247 A. H. . Ibn-Kli. status that he was buried in tho 
léM^T Kai*ftfah. 

As to Ma'rùf, he was the son of Kais. al-Karkhì and was woll- 
known as one whose prayers wcre (always) Iieard. The i>eoplo of 
Bagdad say pmyers for rain near liis gnivo and say that Ma*rtìrs 
grave is a tried remedy (tirt/àjc = antidote). Sari as-Sakati was a 
!dÌ8QÌple of his. Ma'rùf was asked to make his will during the illness 
ot whìch lie died ; lie said, " When I die, givo niy sliirt away iiì 

» Al-ffur'ftn XVIII-17. • In Upper Egypt. 

352 AD-DAMhii'» 

clmrity, Eor I wisb to go out of tho world nakod, in tlie sanie mantieri 
that I entered ìt nuked.'' Ma^rùf happened one day to pass by « 
water-carrier who was saying, " May God havo niercy on bini whoj 
drinks !" He was fasting, but be advanced and drank, and thcn; 
bcing asked, ** Are yoa not fasting ?" replied, ^^ Yes, but I boped to^ 
obtain tbo benefit of tbe water-carrier's blcssing." He died in HOOJ 
A. H. . 

Az-Zaniakbsbari states in liabiUCl'-abrdr tbat it is auiscrtod that 
scorpions do not exist in tbe land of Uini^, and tliat tbe people of it: 
state tbat it is so, on account of a talisnian tbere, and tbat if a strange 
scorpion is tbrown (tbere), it dies inmiediately. Hiins is a woIIJ 
kuown city in Eastern Syria ; tbe word is an indeclinable one on 
account of its being a pro[)er noun of foreign origin and of tbe fenii- 
nine gender. It is one of tlie excellent cities, and it is rebited in a 
tradition based on stender autbority tbat it is out of tbe cities of 
Paradise. It was at first better known for its excellence tlian Danuts* 
cns. Atb-Tba4abi states tbat seven bundred of tliQ Propbot's Coin- 
panions aligbted tbere. 

(Information.) Tbe einpioynient of a cbarni for a scorpion* 
sting is allowable, on account of wbat Muslini bas rebited, on tlie 
antbority of Jàbir b. 'Abd-All&b, wbo said, '* A man baving beon ] 
stung by a scorpion, wbile wo wore seated witb tbe Apostle of God, ] 
said, ^ Apostle of God, cliarin it,' uix>n wbicb tbe Propbet said, *' 
^ Wbocvcr out of you is able to benefit bis brotber, let bim do so.' 
In anotber version it is said tbat tbe people of tbe bousebold (cU) of : 
*Umar b. Hazm carne to tbo Propbet and said, '' Apostle of God, j, 
tbere nsed to be a cbarm witb us, wbicb we used to eniploy for a scor* \' 
pion-sting, but yon bave now probibited tbe use of cbarms, " upon 
wbicb tbe Propbet said, " Sbow me your cbarms." Tbcy tberoforo 
did tbat, and be said, ^' I see no barnì in tbem ; wboevcr is ablo to ' 
benefit bis brotber, let biin do so." In anotber version it is said 
(tbat tbe Propbet said), '^ Sbow me your cbarms ; tbere is no barin' 
in cbarms in wbicb tbere is notbing (objectionable)." Cbarms are 
tberefore allowable, if tbere is in tbem a passage out of tbe Book 
of God or mcntion of His name, and tbey are probibited only, if tbey 



ro in Pcrsian or any othcr langaage, or conhiin word» the incaniiig 

o( whtcli !s not knowii, for fcar oE luaking allowable a tliing coutaiu- 

gan exprcssion of disbclìof. Thcre is a dift'crenco with rcgard io tlic 

^eiiftmiing dono by pcople possessing books of rcvelation (Gliristians 

fand Jo\Ts) ; AbA-Hanifah holds it allowable, whilst Malik holds it tu» 

^'dllapprovable for foar of its being sonicthing tliat they niay bave 

r altered (f rom tho originai). 

One of tbe tried ond useiul cbaruis ìs for tbo channcr io ask 
tho siong perdon as io where the pain has reached in tbe limb, thoii 
ìiù placo on the topniost part of it a. piece of iron, and io recite tbo 
diarni, repeating it over and over again ; wbile doing tluit, he is 
preM from above the seat of pain with tbe piece of iron, uutil 
^Ka drawt» down the poison to the lowermost liinit of the pain ; wbcn 
H the poison ih thus oollected, he is to stick that part unti! ali the 
kpoison dÌ84ippears. Any fiaccidity of the limb loft after that neod 
iToot be attended to. The cliarm is to he as Ibllows : — *' Peace up- 
on Noab among nien and upon Muhamnmd aniong apostles from ali 
^*(tho animals and things) hearing poison. Thoro is no animai that 
^walks between the sky and the earth biit niy Lord taketh them ali 
l>by their forelocks. In like manner he roqniteth bis servanti — the 
^doers of good actions. " * Verily, my Lord is on the right way ! ' " * 
oah I Noah I Noab said to yon, ' Do not eat those that remembcr 
^me, verily, my Lord knowcth ali things. ' Peace and salatation on 
irour lord Mahammad, bis people, and his Companions ! " 

I bave seen in the writing of Ibn-a.s-Salah in his lii/dali^ a 
[^charm for a scorpion-sting. He states that it is said that if a i>ersoii 
iEoharms himself with it, no scorpion will sting bini, even if he takes 
l-ìi in his band, and even if it does sting him, it will not inflict any 
Ifpàin (injury) on bini. [ The author bere quotes the cbarni, whicli 
(oonsists ot many gibberiàb words.] 

Dei^cription of a ring useful in a scorpion-sting, in bringing a 
'inadnuin to his senses, in epistaxis, and in pain in the eye, if it is 
Jhe result of a cold wind. — These names are to be inscribed on a red 
glass ring: — 

1 Al-Kur'ftn XI-69. 



For a scorpion-sting, it is to be dipped in clean water and to be plaoed 
over the stnng park For a roadman, he is to fix his sight continuali 
on the ring, upon which he will recover his senses by the order of 
God. For epistaxisy it is to be impressed on the forehead. For,| 
fever, it is to be impressed on a Icaf of the olive tree. For rhea* 
matism, it is to*be hnng on the person and also to be rubbed over 
the part affeoted with it* [The anthor bere gives some morog 
charms for fever and epistaxis and qnotes one for a serpent-bite from'| 

One of the learned men of ancient (Isiftmic) Umes says thalj 
ifvhoever says at the commencement of a night and the commencement 
of a day, **I bave tied the claw of the scorpion, the tongne of the ser- 
pent, and the band of the thief, with the formula, * I bear testimony' 
that thero is no deity bnt Ood and I bear testimony that Mnhammad ^i 
is the Apostle of Godi"' will be secnre from being stnng by a^ 
scorpion, bitten by a serpent, and robbed by a thief. 1 

M&lik and the general body of the relaters of traditions, ex-i 
cepting al-Bnkhàrt, relate on the authority of Abù-Hurairab, who ; 
said, '* A man carne to the Prophet and said, * Apostle of God,^ 

how mnch I bave suffered from a scorpion which stnng me laat j 
night I ' The Prophet replied, * As to yon, had you said whenl 
the evenìng set in, *^ I take refuge with the perfect words of God, I 
from the evil of ali created beings f it would not bave injnred; 
yon, if it had pleased God. ' " It is related in the KAmil of Ibn« 
*Adi in the biography of Wahb b, RAshid ar-Ralkkt, that the above-j 
raentioned man was Bilàl. It is related in the version given by| 
at-Tirmidhl, ** Whoever says three times when an evening sets in, <I; 
take refnge with the perfect words of God from the evil of ali 
created thingsl' will not be injured by the venom of a scorpion 
that night* '' Snhail states, *' Onr people used to say that every 
night ; one night, however, a scorpion stnng a slave-girl out of them,* 
bnt she did not experience any pain from it " He states that thii 
tradition is delivered on respectable anthority. The %x:ord$ of Ood 
are the Kur'ftn, and the meaning of their being perfect is that there is! 
no sbortcoming or defect in them, snch as exists in the words of meo; 
Some say that it means j>ro/t/aò{^ and iuffieient to renderono indepen* 
dent of ali other things with which refnge is songht. Al-Baiha^ 

PayXt al-9ayawJLn 


that thoy are called per/ect^ because it ìs not })ossiblo for 

iming or dofect to exist in the words of God, in the manner 

rhioh it exists in the words oE nien. He adds, '^ I have hcard 

vrding the Imam A^mad b, Hanbal that he nsed to cito this as a 

ìt o( the Kur^iin not havinjjr been created/' as will bo mcntioned 

fter under the lettor < in the art. ^^^ . 

AbA-'Uinar b. *Abd-aI-Barr relates in at'lamhtil regarding Sa^id 
UUnsayyab as having miid, "1 liavo Iieard that whoever says when 
é evening sets in, * Pence npon Noah nmong men ! ' woiild not be 
ig by a scorpione' 'Ainr b. Dinftr stntos tliat nmong the means 
ba adoptcd to prevent the scorpion from in juring anybody is to 
at night or during the d»y, *' Peace npon Noah among men l" 

In at-Tamhtd by Ibn-^Abd-a1-Barr, it is related in the biognipliy 
[^Tabyà b. Sa^ld al-AnsAri, in tlio twelfth out ot bis Baldgài^ that 

»AVahb said, **Ibn-Sam'&n has informed me, ^ I bave heard one of 

learned men say that, if a person is stang or bitten, that in to say, 
fi serpernt bites hiin or a scorpion stings bini, let the bitten or stnng 
non recite this verse, ^'He wns called tx), * Blessod be He who is in 

(ire, and he who is about iti and celebrated be the praises of God, 


The Shaikh Abù'l-K&!>iro al-Kushairi states, in bis connucntary 

the Kur*àn, tliat it is rehited in some of tlio commentarics that 
terpent and the scor[>ion came to Noiih and said, ^* Take iis ( into 

lark), " but Noah replied, *'I shall not t^ike you, because yoa 
a cause of misfortnne and injnry. " Tht*y then said, **Take ns, 
we give yon a pledge and ihat we shall not injure any* 

ly tliat tjikes your name. " Ho then made a covennnt with thero 
took thera. Whoevor, therefore, that is nfraid of their injurj'ing 
rccitos, wlien the evening sets in and when the moming dawns, 

Feace upon Noah in tlie worlds ; vorìly, thus do we reward those 
do vrcll ; verily, he was of our bolioving servan ts. * "« will not 

Ìnjur«ìd by tbem. He (al-Knshair!) then rclatcs, on the autho- 
of Ihn-'Abbàs, that Noah bniit the ark in two years ; its length 
3()0 cubitSy brcadth 50 cubits, and hcight 30 cnbits. It was 

Ili of teàk-wood, and ho madc in it three hohls ;— in the lowcr» 

fi. - 

1 Al-ffar'an XX VI 1-8. » Al-Kor'an XXXVl 1-77—79. 

356 ad-damìuì'b 

uiost Olle were the wild aniiuals, the auimais of prcy, and insecU, 
reptiles, and serpents ; in the second one, which was niso the middle 
one» ivere the beasts and the cattle ; and he himsclf together \vitb 
those that were with hiin and the necessary provisions went into the 
topmost hold. 

We bave been informed regarding the Shuikh, the ImAm, the 
Hàfi4 Fakhr-ttd-din 'Uthiutlu b. Muhumtnad b. 'UthinAn at-Tawrìzt, 
i?ho wtts a visitor to bououred Makkah, as having saidi ^* I nsed to 
read the Bcience of aUFarà^i^ (questiona relating to iuheritance) in 
Makkah with the Shaikh Ta^'d-din al-Hawrftnì, and while we werc 
fono day) seated, we saw a scorpion crawling. The Shaikh took 
it with bis band and connnenced to turn it about in his band. ] 
placed the book down froin niy band, upon which he said, * Read on/ 
bnt I rejdied, ' Not antil I loarn this useful inforination.' He said, 
^ It is with yon ; * so I asked bini, * What is it ? ' He said, ^ It ii 
an establisbed thing regarding the Prophet as having said, *^ Who< 
ever says when the inorning dawns and the evening sets in, * In th< 
name of God, with wbose name notbing on the earth or in the sk] 
causes any injary ! He hearetb and knoweth." is not injared by any 
thing." I said that at the boginning of the day. * " 

One of the tliings to, avert the evil of the serpent and tìu 
Boorpion is to reoite at the timo of sleeping three times, '* I seel 
refage with the Lord, wbose attribntes are high, from ali seorpioni 
and serpents l " ^ Feace npou Noah in the worlds ; verily, thus d< 
we reward those who do weli 1 ' "^ I take refuge with the perfec 
words of God froin the evil of ali created thin;;s 1 " 

(Information.) One says s^j^\ àxiùJ ^ aor.^^^, U^J an< 

lildJJ {tlie scorpion atunff Idm). ^j^^ and (also) (Ji^J—a pertoi 
that U stung. 

AbA-Dàwnd at-Tay&lisì says with regard to the saying of tb( 
Prophet, ^* A bolicvor is not twico stung in a holc," that the mean 
ing of it is that a believer is not pnnished for bis sins in this worl 
and then again in the next one. The person regarding whom tfa 
Prophet said this, was AbA-*Azzah al-Jninaht the poet, wbose prope 

1 Al-Kur'in XXXVII-TT— 78. 

9at1t il-hayaw1n 



was 'Amr. He wos niade a captive at the battio oE Badr, btit 
d no proporty. He tlierefore said, " Ai)ostle of God, I bave a 
\j (io support)/' The Prophet therenpon liberated biin for the 
of hU five danghters, on the condition of bis not retarning to fighi 
Ih the Musliiiis). He rctarned to Makkah and rubbing bis wbis- 
(ohoeks) said, ** I bave twice deceived Muhaininad." Tbcn in the 
r (of the battle) of Uhnd, ho retiirned with tlio iinbcliovors^ npon 
h the Prophet gaid, " God, let bini not escsipo (tbis timo)!*' Ti 
iqpeneil tliat noliody bocaino a captive but he. Ho thon said, ** O 
ìi^mnmd, I liave a fainily ; let me loose." Bnt tho Prophet said, 
k Wliever is not twice stnng in a bole/' and orderod bini to ììe slain. 
Ì8 above-mentioned tradition U relntcd by ash-Shafi't, Muslim, and 
MAjah. In somo versions of it the word ^aIj {is stuHg) Ì8 given 
th a fiammah on the f as infonnation, in whicb caso it would incan 
t a lieliever is cantious (pmdent), and is not deceived timo after 
e ; iìo does not takc any noticc of it. SomOi bowevcr, say that 
iè Prophet intended by it, dccoption with regard to the affairs of 
next worid and not tbis one. It is given in some versions with 
*hairah under the ^ as a probibition, that is to say, a boliever should 
t he neglectful, whicb may be appliod to the affuirs of both tbis 
rld and the next ono also, and confirms what ÀbA-DAwnd at-T^yA- 
has said. 

'An-Nasa'i relates in Afusnoul ^AH, on the anthority of Abù- 

okbailah, wbo said that he board *Alt say, " Sball I not inforni yoa 

the most excellent verse in the Book of God,*' and thoy rcplicd, 

es." He thon said "The verse is, * And what misfortunos Iicfall 

iui it is for what yonr hands bave oarnod ; but He pardons much.'^ 

le Aix)stle of God said to me, * ^Alt, what affliction or sickness 

ifalls you in tbis world is for what your hands bave oarnod. Bat 

is too kind to allot the pnnishment in the next world a socond 

me, and for whatever God pardons in tbis world. He is too kind and 

iving to deal out pnnishment, after His pardoniug.' " On tbis 

ant, al-WAbidi says that tbis is the most hopeful verse in the 

or'An, bccanse God has divided the sins of the believcrs into two 

iods ; onc kind He cfFaces with misfortunos, and the oihor kind Ho 

> Al-Kur'An XLII-29. 




368 AlHDAlliRrB 

parilous ; He h Glorious, Higli, nud Mercif iil, und docs noi turn agaiir 
(to the subject) after His pnrdoning. 

(Fnrther iiiforination.) One says, w/AaJ| aXa«.j QJig gcorpiori 

stunffhini) und i^ìàlA^J (jtlie serpent bit htm)j aor. *a«.U, U«J«| 
^ymlm =Bstunff or bilten. Hovv beautiful are the Ihies of un ancicnt 
poct : — 

''They said, * Yonr lover is stnng or bitten ;' and I aaked them, 

'By the Bcorpion of the cari of hair or by the anake of the hair V ^ 

They replied, * Yes, by the vìpera of the earth ;' eo I asked them, ^ 

*Ilow can the yipem of the earth reach the moon ?' " l 

In the case of the serpent the words «^«^a^ {it Mi)^ aor. u^^ «^^4) (Ul 
bit) aor. tA^^J, «^Kti (it bit) aor. i:^3, and t^iiticu^Sii (it bit \cith it$Ì 
nose) aor. jf^\ are also used. | 

[The author here quotes tlic foUowing lines as huving boen recita) 
ed to him by his shaikh, the Shaikh Jamàl-ad-din 'Abd-ar-Rahtm aU j 
Isnawi, and as having come to bini through a series of authoritiesl 
ending with the author of them, AbA-'Abd-AUàh Muhammad b. al- ^ 

Farrà* atl-Darir.] \ 


**0 handsome oue, why do not you bestow faroors \ 

Od meli who bave become mad from love (of you)V 
You bave wrìtten with the piok of the rose and the white of the lily {as* ! 
»A9Qn) \ 

On the table of your cheek iu golden splendour ; 
Verily, your look (Boorpiou) refuaed to allow me to pluck from it, 
And ita acorpion atnug me. 

How kind of him wheu he aaid, ' What la the beautiful part in me V 
Oh ! hpw aweet were thoae worda I 
I replied, *In my eyea, the whole of yen ia aplendid 
And ali yonr worda are aweet !' 

He tbereupon made a notch to the arrow and did not miaa me ; 
And when he aaw me dead, he waa pleaaed, 
And aaid, ' Ilow much he lived and how mach he loved me ! 
It waa hia love for me that fatigued him ; 
May God bave mercy on him ! 
And yet I know not what made me kill him.' '' 

Al-Harìrt gives the word %ùmìi as $awian in Durrat aU^aiowài. 
[The author here quotes oertain lines of Abù-Bakr b. al-Kii^iyah al* 
Andalusi, bcing reminded of them by the word as-sdsan ; they aro 




in thìs translntion as they are nnoonnoctod with the present 

^{hè Arabs say, ^' I nscd io think that the scorpion was more 

lent in stìnging than the hornot, and lo, he is (as vehement as) 

r(^^ I i 0)." Thcy also say " U g tjA I i (i, » which latter expression 

'^the ono which Sibawaih rejected when al-Kisà'i asked him (aboat 

the presence of Yahyà b. Ehàlid al-Barmakt. Al-Kis&'i said, 

ìe Arabs say that in the nominative case (c^j), whilst you give 

the objective case( v-^ ) •" Ya^yà then said to him, " You two 

ìtt whilst you are the hoadmen of yonr towns, " npon which ai- 

lì said to him, ** Here are the Arabs at yonr gate, from whom the 

ile of the two towns bave heard (it). Let theni be called and 

They wcre tlierefore called and asked, upon which thcy 

)d with al-Kis&'l. Yahyà thercnpon ordered ten thousand dirhams 

[Im paid to Sibawaih and sent him away immediately to the pro« 

of Fftrs, where he lived ontil he died in the year 180 A. H. at 

Tage of 33 years, bat some say at the age of 32 years. It is said 

ii the Arabs knew the position of al-Kisa'i in the estimation of 

-llashid, and therefore said tliat the correct expression was the one 

ken by al-Kis&'i, and that they tliemselves did not express it in tlie 

ijeotive case. Sibawaih said to Yahyà, '* Order them to say it in 

li way ; their tongnes will not obey them in saying it that way. " 

\ìÈ incìdent is given slightiy differently in particulars by Ibn-Kh. . *■ 

À author then gives some lines of Hàzim allading to ibis iliing.] 

;. (Lawf ulness or nnlawfnlness.) It is unlawful to eat the scorpion 
id also to sell it. It may be killed both in the state of ihràm and 
it of it. If it dies in a liquid, the fact that it renders that liqnid 
lean is a well-known thing, bnt some say that it does not render 
k'nnolean, as is the case with the lizard al-wazogah (gecko). Al- 
Ihat(àbt has copiod from Yahyà b. Abt-Kathir that, if a scorpion 
in water, it renders that water nndean, and adds that ali the 
[wTDcd mcn difFer from this opinion. 

(Proverbs.) A poet says : — 

'<Ho who Ì8 not (himself) a scorpion to be feared (by men), 
Has a scorpion creeping in between bis clothes. " 

1 Do Slane's T. Voi. II, p. 897. 


** In advice tliere is the stinging of scorpions." " More inimicai ti» 

a scorpion. " " The scorpion stinga vrhile iittering a cry, " appli 

to one who acts wrongEulIy in the guise of one complaining o£ ivron 

doing. " The scorpion has addressed itself to do evil to the viper, 

applied to one who contends with a pcrson grcater than hiinself 

doing evil, àj^JSM* meaning he addressed himself to do evil. " Mo 

given to trading than 'Alkrab ; " and '^ More given to putting off t 

payment of dcbts than 'Al^rab. " It was the name of a merchant 

al-Madinah, who used to trade most of ali the people, and was me 

given to procrastination (delaying the payment of debts), so mudi 

that bis procrastination became proverbiai. It happened that 

was indebted (once) to al-Fadl b. ^AbbAs b. 'Utbah b. Abi-Lahb, w 

was the most exacting of men in dealing with bis constitnents, ai 

60 people said, ^^ We shall now see what these two will do." Wh 

the goods carne, al-Fadl stuck to 'Al^rab's gate» tied bis ass thei 

and sat down reading the Kur'ftn. ^Al^rab delayed payment witho 

taking any heed of al-Fadl's action. Al-Fadl then gave up remai 

ing at bis gate and took to satirizing bis charactcr ; the following a 

some of the lines out of bis satire : — 

"Ever j enemy has his dodge in his fandament, 
Bui the injury would not affeot anybody else ; 
Verily, 'Akrab (a acorpion) traded In our market, 
And 'Àkrab the merchant ia not welcome. 
Every enemy ia dreaded f rom before, 
But a scorpion ia dreaded from ita hind part ; 
If the scorpion tuma back, we too turn round for ìt, 
And the aboe ia ready for it" 

His line, ^* If the scorpion tums back, we too turn round for it, 
reminds me of what tlie Shaikli Kamàl-ad-dtn al-Udfawt has sa 
in bis hook ap-T^W as-sa'idy namely, that the Shaikli TaMM-dtn 
Da]|^t][-aPld used to play at chess in the days of his youth, with t 
husband of bis sister, the Sbaikh Taki'd-dtn, the son of the Slinil 
JDiyà'd-dtn. (One day) the cali for tlie early night-prayer havii 
been cbantcd, they both got up and said their prayers. Then ( 
Sbaikh TaWM-dln b. Da>Hc.aPÌ<l said, " WiU you not return to t 
game ? " upon which his brothcr-in-law said : — 
'<If the scorpion tuma back, we too turn back for it, 
And the ahoe ta ready for it. " 

9Ay1t al-payawìn 


likli TaU'd-ilin tnmed nway from it with (liagust, and clid 
An play ai it until he dicd. 

iformation.) [Tho autbor qnotes froin the B. D. of Ibn-Kh., 

tho biographj of AbA-Bakr as-^iìll, the wcU-known wrìtcr, 

tory of the origin of the game of ehcss and the dci>cription 

game of ìiard^ with this differenco, however, that the author 

itatcs dirhams for grains of wbcat to be placed on the scpiarcs of 

|:*chc88-board as given by Ibn-Kh., in ^i.sMih's deninnd ns a 

ird for bis invontion f roni the King ShihrAin.] ' 

Ibn-Kh, ha8 missed some things in tho dcscription of the game 
[lMirc/9 naniely, that the twclve sqnarcs on the board are dividcd 
ito four divisions, according to the mini ber of the sesxsons of the 
ir, tliat the thirty picco» are bhick and white according to (the 
imber of) days and nights, that the dico are six-sidod to show 
\t the directions (of tlie wind) are six without a scventh onc, 
^t tlie dice whichever way they fall, taken above and below, 
m sevcn |K>inti3, whicli i.s the nninber of tho celestial spbercs 
[orbita), the nuinber of the earths, the numlier of the hcavcns, and 
16 numlter of the pianeta, and that tho moving of the pioccs 
1^ the part of the player is dependent on bis choice and good 
laying by the aid of bis reasoning power, in the manner of 
\%n intclligent i)erson who is given a little, nuiking use of it to 
the bcst advantage, whiist a person going boyond lK>nnd8 who is 
rgivon niuch, not making a good nse of it. The nm^d is a oombinatiou 
lOt tho order of dcstiny and preordination and a good use of its 
rplayor's choice, whiist the slntranj (chess) is entirely dependent on 
*tho choice of the player, bis reasoning power, and the good or Imil 
inanner of bis playing. The snbject of the superiority of chess 
over nani requires consideration. The word as-sìtranj is of the 
measure jlrdahlj wliich incans a large or hdky canieL Tt is allow- 
able to cali it adi-shipranj^ on account of its being allowable to censi- 
*dcr it as dcrived from al-nìnisliàtarah (halving), and (also) as-sitranj^ 
on account of its boing allowable to considcr it as dcrived from ai^ 

i De Slane's T. Voi. II f, pp. 09—71. 


3tì:S ad-damìrì's 

iaitir (bringing together) at tho tiihe o£ arranging the pieces ; — so il 
id said in Durì*at al-^atoxoàf. 

[The author here gives some linos descriptive of the game cEJ 

(Hint.) Tho playiug of tho game of chess is disapproved, in^ 
the mannor of one kocpiiig at a distanco from it as from an unclean:; 
thing ; but some say that it is unlawf iil and othors ' say that it isj 
allowable. The first opinion, however, is the correct onc. Malik,: 
Abù-Uanifah, and Abmad say that it is nnlawful, and outofour^ 
roligious doctors al-Ualimi and ar-Rfiyiinì agreo Ti'ith them. AI<: 
Baihaki relatcs that Mahammad b. Sirin, Hish&m b. ^Urwah b. az« > 
Zabair, Bahz b. Haklm, ash-Sha'bi, and Sa'id b. Jnbair nsed to 
play at chess. Ash-Shàfi'l states that Sa4d b. Jubair nsed to play 
the game of chess with bis back tarnod towards the board. Às- 
Sa'lùki relates (traditions) regarding ita allowableness, on the autho- 
rity of the commandcr of the faithful ^Umar b. al-KhattAb, Abfi'U 
Yasar, Abù-Hurairah, al-Hiisan al-Basrt, al-Kasim b. Mnhammad, 
Abù-KiUbah, Abù-Mijlaz,' *Ata\ az-Zuhrt, Rabt'ah b, ^Abd-ar-Rah- 
man, and Abù*z-Zinàd. The tradition regarding AbA-Hurairah 
playing at it is a well-known one in books of religious jurispradenco. 
A^-^ùli stutes in a volume he has compiled on the sabject of chess, 
" Abft-Hurairah, Al! b. al-Husain Ziiin-al-*Abidln, Sa'ld b. al-Musay- 
yab, Muhammad b. al-Muukiidir, al-A'mash, Najiyah, 'Ikrimah, Abù- 
Ish;\k as-Sabi'i, Ibrahlm b. Sa'd, and IbrAhim b. Talhah b. Abd- 
Alhlh b. Marmar nsed to play at chess. I bave mcntionod the autho* 
ritics for stating so about them, and given the proofs of thoso who 
differ about it, in words which would satisfy one's mind and remove 
ali ambignity (coufusion), in a velame which I bave specially devot- 
ed to the snbjects of chess and itarJ, and wliich contains about twonty 
quires (*^-«t/^) of sheets of papor ; — know that. 

Our religious doctors state that since the game of chess has in 
it the arrangement of battles (wars), the play of it rcsembles warring, 
and there is no positive prohibition of it provod as having come from 
tho Prophet. The strongest argument that those who say that it is 
unlawful urge is what is related on the authority of Ibn-^Umar, who 

^avIt al-pay&wìk i>G3 

skcd rcgardiiig cliess aiiid, " It m wur^io t1i«n tUt) gniiio 
lOy say that nan/ is untawful iind thcreFore cliesd ù 

also. The IinAm Tàj-ad-dln ns-Subk! ai\ya in reply tu 
, " Wo (lo not know tho opinion of Tlm-'Uiniir witli 
/ ; porliaps ho nscd to £i|>ctik oE it ns being UwFn), 
tpinion o£ cor roligions doctors ; tlicrefore, hewiiiso «lift*» 
what Ì9 kwEuI, ìt doc» not nccossarily EoIIow, whìeli- 

viowod, that it U anhtwEnl. Agnin, tlio quostioii U 
tho Qtmost oKcrci^o o£ tho Encultie» tot iU solution. 
Uinar iised to hoM tho doutrine oE it» bcing nnhiwtul, 
n oE nsh-Shftfi'l is known. As to thoso \rho say tliut tlic 

OuniiHinian oE the Prophot ia an argumcnt, thoy must 
e oondition that no otber Coinpanion'ii statement oppose^ 

statoniont in opposod Uy tlio tttatcìncnt oE a body of tho 
ipnuions, to the oEEect that it is allowablo. Àgain, the 
I oE thÌ3 tnidition has not boon gìvcn by any of tlic 
;he ninniEest nionniug bcing tliat chcsa ìa worso than 

or not it includcs a snbstìtnto (Eor an nntcccdcnt to 
plication thoroin). Ono of tho learncd nien has Kiid 
^oriio than nani, on tho condition that it is ìncluilcd in 

ButiE it iti not ao ìuclnded, wo do not know o£ uny of 
an liaving siid that in tliis state it ìs worsc tlian lutnl. 
Iie tnulitiun is rttjoctod outwiirdly by ali, the argumcnt 
onnd." AI-Ajnrrl relntes rogunlìng Abù-Hurairah as 
lat tho Apoctle of Ood said, " If yen happpn to pass 
ire continniilly playìng tlio giiiiios of cho.'iS and narJ, 
hem." ThU tnidition ìm, huwovor, delivcred on »lcndcr 
innae ninong tho aiithoriiioa for it ìs Sulainiftn al- 
■ding whoni Il>n-Mn*tii says that he i» not wortli aiiy- 
sthority) ; al-Bukh&rt says tlint he is of ulender credit 
I' on tniditiona, and that thercfore his relation of (any) 
t acccptablo (lawful) ; and Ibn-Hàtiin says, " I beard 
, ' Ho is rcjected as an authority on troditions, and I do 
iiy autliontic tradition rchitod by hini.' " 
playing oE choss bo joined divcrsion Eroni prayer aiid 
:ts nnlairEnlnoss tlicn is not on acconnt oE itself. It a 

. ] 



(only) disapprovable, provided one docs noi pcrsevcre with it., bat; 
if 006 porsevereg in playing it, it boconies a venial sin, as has beoni 
moniioned by al-Qazzali in the chapter on al'Taiobah (repentance) of 
al'lhifd\ but Ibn-as-SabbAg mcntions diflFercntly from it in a«A- 

As to the game o£ ^latvZ, it is truly speaking nnlawful, on 
account of the Prophet's Baying, *' He wlio plays the game of narA 
disobeys God and His Apostle, " and on account of bis saying, 
*' One who plays at Ì\v!i game of nani and then getting up says bis 
prayer, is like one who perfornis obligatory ablution (tor prayer) with 
pns and pig's blood, and then getting up says his prayer. " 

The following are some of tlie beautiful lines of the Imam, the 
very learned, the Hujjat-al-Tslàm AbA-Hamid a1-^azzàlt, embodying 

a simile : — 

"'Hie tcorpion (rìngleU) of ber forehead settled in the moon of ber 
ch€ckSt and Bhe thus became incomparable (for beauty). We bave seen the 
moon in the sign of the Scorpion \ but bere, for a wonder, the acorpion ia in the 
moon." I 

The date of his dcath and some incidente connected with his 

life bave bccn already givcn under the letter p in the art. (•U* I. 

[TIic author bere gìves some lincs of AbùU-Mahàsin Yùsuf b. 
ash-Shawwà' describing a boy, and also some other lines of bis.] 

(Propcrtics.) The author of ^Ayn al-khawdfi^ says that whcn 
a scorpion sccs the lizard al-ioazagali (gccko), it dies and drics up 
immediatcly. Some say that, if a scorpion be burnt and a house 
fumigatcd with it, the scorpions in it will run away. If it bc cooked 
with olive oil and placcd over a scorpion-sting, the pain in it will 
disappcar. The ashes of scorpions dissolve stono (in the bladdcr). 
If a scorpion be taken wlien there aro threc days wanting for the 
complction of a montJi, and placcd in a vessel, then a pound of olive 
oil be pourcd over it, then the top of the vcsscl be closed, and it be 
left alone until the oil extracts ali the essence (strcngtb) out of it, and 
then if it be applied to the person of one sufiEcring from pain in the 
back and thighs, it will provo beneficiai to him and strengthcn bim. 

> De 8kne*8 T. of Ibn-Kh.'is B. D. Voi. II, p. 623. 




•cod of Icitnco bc drunk with a drink, ilio drinker oF it will 
raro from tho stingiiig oE scorpions. If u piece of a nidish l>e 
mn on a ))ot, no scorpion cim cniwl over it witliout dying ini* 
liatoly. It the leaves oE lettuce he udded t<> oil nnd the oil thcn 
lied over a tscorptoii-ìiting, it will cure it. lE a scorpioii 1x3 
[ed with the chirified hutter oE tho cow and thcu upplied over a 
Btnng by a scorpion, it will rolieve tho paiu in it imnicdiatcly. 
biiHi5-Suwaidì Btiites that iE a seor[»ion ho phiccd in an earthon vcsscl 
id Uè top cIosed,aud the pot bc thcn phicod in an ovcn till the scor- 
ra in converted into ashes, and some of tho ashcs ho thcn givcn 
drink to one suffering from stono (iii the bhidder), it will benefit 
itm and dissolve the stono. IE a hoase be Eumigated with a .scorpion, 
^rpions will collect in it ; — so Aristotle says. but othcrs say thut 
^rpions will rnn away Eroni it. IE the sting (spino) of a scor[)ion be 
Tphcod in a nian's clothes, he will always reniaiii ili until it is ronioved 
[from theni. IE scorpions are ponnded fine and appi ;od over ascor- 
[pion-sting, the application will cure it. IE a scorpion Ealls into water 
tnd a porson drinks out oE it without knowing that, he will be covei-ed 
'(fiUcd) with utcers. If a house be fumigated with roil orpinient and 
ftho fat of a cow, scorpions will run away from it. AI-KaKwmi and 
ar-lhlHH state that he who drinks two mithkdh wei({ht of citron 
[iceds after reducing them to a fine (Kiwder, will ho eurod of a scor- 
pion-stiiìg, the bite of a serpent, and the stings and bites of othcr 
venomons animai» ; it is a wonderful and tricd remedy. It is 
rehited in ^AjcVib al-makìiliìkàt that if some rootlois of the olivo trco 
be hung on tho person of one who is stung by a scorpion, he will bo 
immcdiutely cured. Fumigating with the wood of pomegranato 
trees drives them away. The fat of a goat, the clarified batter of 
a cow, ycllow orpimont, the hoof of an ass, sulphur, sprinkling a 
house with water in which assafoetida h«is been steeped, and tlie plac- 
ing of scrapings (rind) of nidish in a house, — ali these tliings drive 
them away, which is a wonderful and also a tried thing ; — so it is 
mentioned in al-Muntakliab. It is said in aUMAjaz that a beaten 
(broken) radish, itfi expressed juice if held (in a vessel), its leavos, 
and the mountain-balm drive them away. If a radish cut into piecca 
[,^ be placcd on its hole, it will not venture to come out of it. It is (also) 


366 ad-dauIrì's *: 

said in it thal the saliva of a fasting por&on kills serpeots and scor 
pions. It is said in aUMuìUakliah that the saliva of a porson of i 
hot temperament (also) acts in the samo way. The sight of the sta 
Sulùi (in the Lesser Bear) renderà one secure f rom the stinging of 'i 
scorpion and froni a thief. This is mentioned by ar-Ra'is Abù-^Àlt \ 
Sina (Avicenna) in his rajaz verses, bnt some say that they wor 
composed by the son of the Shaikh of Hi((in. They contain prò 
perties which bave been tried and secrets ont of the science o 
medicine. [The antlior bere quotes them in full, but they ar 
oniitted in this translation on account of thcir great length.] 

(Interpretation of it in dreains.) A scorpion in a dream indicate 
a calumniating man. He with wliom a scorpion quarrels (in a dream] 
"wìll bave a quarrel witli a calumniator. Ho who seizes a scorpioi 
(in a dream) and throws it on his wife, bus sexual intorcourse wit 
lier in an unnatural way ; and he who makes it run after men, ì 
a man given to sodomy. He who kills a scprpion (in a dream) wi! 
lose his wealth, which will, however, return (subseqnently) to hin 
A scorpion in one's breeches indicates an immoral man who lui 
sexual intercourse with a woman in an unnatural way in hi 
breeches. He who eats (in a dream) the cooked flesh of a scorpioi 
inrill inherit wcalth, but if the flesh is uncooked (fresh), he will spca 
evil of an immoral man in his absence ; and this is the interpreti] 
tion in the case of ali uncatable animals, if thcir flesh is caten i 
dreams. A scorpion indicates a man whose tongue rovcals wh( 
there is in his mind. Scorpions in the belly indicate inimicai child 
ren. The alighting of a scorpion backwards (from behind) indicate 
a disobedient son. A dream regarding a scorpion sometimcs indi 
cates mischief with one who resembles a scorpion in the mattcr e 
his ringlet (curi) when his hair grows. 


42jb^AAÌI (al^^VlcruMn), — [The ear-wig.*] A certain small crccj 
ìng animai that enters the ear. It is long, yellow, and has man 
Icgs ; — so Ibn-Sidah says. 

i*Sce Lane's Lex. arK y/À^. 

> « 

9atAt al-^ayawIn 


I (aWAh/y—The fox. Humaid b.Thawr al-Hilàll soys:— 

though he were a foK thai had turned awaj fleeing, 
doga which (other) doga were foUowing."^ 

I (aPiiJk'ajb).*— [The magpic] Likc tha'lab. , It is also 
kumluih. Ite cry is called aWah^akaJi. It is a certjiin bird 
tiie aizo of a pigeon and roscmbling a crow in ap])caranoc ; ita 
aro bigger than those of a pigeon, and it is particolonred, 
ì and black ; it has a long tail and is aldo callod a2-^u'jbii'. It 
tako rcfage or sholter under a roof, but Iniilds its nest in 
places. Adultcry and treachery aro a part of its naturo, and it 
dcacrìbed to be thievish and deccitful . The Araba make uso 
>)roverbially in regard to ali thoso qnalities. Wlien the feniale 
laya cggs, it conceais them with the leaves of the dxdh (piane-) 
ont of f ear of the bat, f or directly the latter approaches the eggs, 
.becomo rotten, eorrupt, and altered. 

-Zamakhshari and others relate with regard to the commentary 
e words of God, *^How many a beast canuot earry its own provi- 
I Qod provides for it ;"* rcgarding Snfyàn b. 'Uyainah as having 
li,' *^There is not an animai that stores up its provision, excepting 
ioi tlie ant, the rat or mouse, and the magpie, " and rcgarding one 
e authorities as having said, ^' I bave seen the bulbnl collecting 
^ atoring up grain. '' It is said that the magpie posscsscs storca 
provision, but forgets tliom. It is a {Kirt of its nature that it is 
Qy given to snatching away omanìcnts. How many a nccklace 
snatched away suddenly from the right and Icft ! A poet 

X — 

\^\ì God bleaeoa aay Mrd, 

ìX%y He not blese the magpie I 
:^ Short ia tail and long in wings ; 

'VThenever it finde an opportnnity it eteals, 

I Lane's Lex. art. cAi^ . • Corvm pica. ThÌB naiae is applied in 

plaeei in 'OrnAn to the lìoMer-^Coracia» indica^ and in Pelretine the name 
whieh appeare to be a eomiption of this word, is applied to Garruhu 
ti (SjrUn jaj). • AUff ur*An XX I X.60. 


368 ad-damìuì's 

YThilst ii8 ivo ejes rcvolre in ita head, 

As though they were turo drops of qaieksilver. 

(Information.) Thero is a difforenco of opinion with rcgard to thv 
rca:ton of its being uained ^ak^aft* Al-JAhi j statcs tkat it is so eallod| 
becanse it is unkind (undutiful) io its yonug oucs, loaving tliem 
%vitliout uny food» from wliick it appoars tkat it is a spccies of crowS| 
for ali of theni do that. But some say that this namo for it is do- 
ri ved fiom ifci cry. 2j 

(Lawfulness or unlawfulness.) With regard to its lawfulnesS| 
tliorc aro two opinions, ono of whicli is that it may be eaten like the 
field-crow, and the other is that it is unlawful, which is the corroct 
one, according to ar^Ratofiah following al-6agawi and al-Bùshanjt, 
The Imam Ahmad having bccn asked rcgarding it replicd that, if iti 
does not eat a carcase, there is no harm in it. One of bis disciples» 
states that it does eat a carcase, and tlicrcfore, according to his| 
(Àhmad's) statement, it is unlawful. ^ 

(Information.) Àl-Jawharì states that the Arabs used, tako a bad ^! 
omen from it and its cry, for in the niatter of the auguration of evil, ^ 
they used to take the senso according to the namo of the thing they \ 
heard and the name of the thing they saw ; thus, if they board the cry \ 
of a magpic, they augured undutifulness or reCractoriness, and if they j 
heard an eagle, they augured from it pnnishment, and if they saw Uìo { 
trees called kliilàf {Saluc (eyypila of Linn.), which is the same as faffóf 
{S.bahyloìiica — Forsk.), they used to angur from them disagreement, 
cd^Udlaf meaning the opposite of agreement, and so also is the word i 
kìdliif meaning fof^Af spelt in the same wa}\ Ar-Rtìfi^! mentions an \ 
opinion dift'erent from the Uanìfi doctrine (in the mattcr of the ques- ; 
tion) whether or not one who starts on a journey and hearing the ciy \ 
of a magpie rcturns, bccomes an unbelievor (by bis action). Some 
say that he becomes an unbeliever, and I bave seen the same opinion 
also in the FalAwà (Decisions) of K&di Khan. An-Nawaw! states, 
*' He does not become an unbeliever simply on that account according 
to our doctrines." 

(Proverbs.) " More thievish than a magpie. " " More foolish 
tlian a magpie, " because it is like the female ostrich, which destroys 




eggs aud yoaDg ones and takca to the eggs of anotber. 
alludos to it in bis line» : — 

lk« th« learer alone of her own egge in the open traot off land 
|ÌJid the corerer of uioUier's eggs wiih her wingt. " 

[(Propcrtios.) Il its brain be placed on a piece of cotton-wool, 
is thcn stack on a part throngb wbicb an arrow or a tborn 
doep into tbe body, it will extract it eaaily. Its flesb is boi 
|dr}% prodacing a bad kind of cbyme. ■ 

(Inteq)retation of it in dreams.) A inagpie in a dream indicat«s 
ifo and nngrateful man. Ho vrbo dreams of a magi)ie talking 

him, will receive tbe news of a person wbo is absent (from 
ie)« A magpio indicates a storcr of corn desirous of a famine 


P\*AÌAÌI (aUUhatftfib). — A certain bird. Tbe word is not used 
ibepting in tbis diminutive form. 

^ICJl (aP (/X'itufA).— Like rummmu A male spider on tbe 
tbority of Kurà*. 

y. fJmJLAÌì (aWIkrìiììali). — ^A f emale bare. 

It is related in a tradition tbat a man said to *Umar b. al- 
[Iui((àb, '^ A f ornale bare ('ilru/iaA) baving come to me wbile I waa 
In tbe state of ihiràm^ I killed it. " ^Urnar replied, '* A yonng f ornale 
;{d or lamb is tbe penalty for it." 

^* ; L»JL} \ (al-^Ikrimah). — A temale pigeon. The name is alsd given 

a human bcing, as ^Ikrimab» the slave of Ibn-'Abbfts, one of tbe 
|i>ositories of knowledgo. Wbcn bis master *Abd-Allàb b. ^Abbas 
ledi ^Ikrimab was a slave and was not liborated by bini. Ibn-^Abbàs's 
«Ali b. <Abd-Allàh b. *Abb&s thercfore sold bim to Kbàlid b. 
^azld b. Mu^Awiyah for four thousand dinftrs. «Ikrimab therenpon 
lid to 'Ali, '* You bave sold your fatbcr's learning for four thou- 

id dinftrs. " He therefore asked Khiilid to rescind tbe bargain, 
id he accordingly did so, upon wbicb 'Ali liberated bim. 'Ikrimab 
id Kuthayyir (the lover of) 'Azssab, the poet, died on tbe sanie day 
tiì al-lladlnab in the year 105 A. H. . The funeral prayers were said 



370 AD-DAUtBt'S \ 

over them in the sanie place, and the people said, " To-day the moi 
learned of men and the greatest poet among men have died. " Ibn 
Kh. and others state that Kuthayyir (the lover of) 'Azzah was one o 
the poets and lovers ont of the Arabs, and belonged to the sect q 
al-Kaisànlyah» which is a division of the sect of ar-Ràfidts. The; 
helieve in the Imàmship (leadership) of Mu^Himmad b. 'Ali b. Ab] 
Tàlib, welUknown bj the name of Mnbammad b. al-Hanaflytl 
They say that he is residing on Monnt Badwà and has f orty f oUowei 
with him, and that nothing is known abont them. It is also said thi 
they are alive and obtain their sustenance, and that he will retar 
to this world and fili it >yith jnstice. Enthayyir (the lover of) 'Azsà 
says regarding it : — 

« A gnndioii (of the Prophet) who «hall net taste dealh tilt he le«d e 
the eaTtlrj preceded hj the standardt. He remaiiis coneealed and ioTisible fc 
a timei at Raijwà, having honey near him and water.'' ^ 

I (the anihor) say that the oorrect thing is that these lines wei 
oomposed by al-Himyarl. Ibn-Eh. states that the death of Mul^in] 
mad b. al-^anafiyah took place in 72 or 73 A. H. . 

^UJl (al-'Ilj). — ^A fat and strong wild ass and also a man ov 

of the nnbelievers ont of the Persians or foreigners. Pls. ^uliij^ a'24 
ma^lùjd\ and Hlajak. 


cUJl (fd-^All)* — ^An emaciatod tick. 

fjr^^ {aWUljHm). — ^A male frog. Some say that it means 
drake ; — so Ibn-Sidah says. 

^ilf I (aUUllàm). — ^The mnsket or sparrow-hawk (a/-M«/iaifc). 


%^j^^ t (aUJllawth). — Of the same measnre as tinnawr. Th 

jackal. The wolf • A certain small animai. A certain species of tb 
beasts of prey. 

Ibn-Rashtk states in Kitàh aUffarà'ib w'th-ShudhUdh that al 
Khaltl says that there is no word in the langnage of the Arabs i 

» De Slaa6*s T. of Ibn-Kh-'s B. D. Voi II, p. 677. • Aedjnter uììum. 

ratìt al-hatawIn 


the loUerscA and J are combined withoat Ìho Icttcr ^ 
the letter J, excepting the word al-Hllaiesh^ in which the 
precedei) the letter ^ ; it is the only word of tlie kind in 

1 (al'^Alhàny-^TAke al^karwdn. A male ostrich (ad^ 
^wbich has been already given before. 

t (aU^Aloi). — A thick tick, for in its first stage it is called 
lythen it becomes a haninaìiaJij then a halanìoli^ and lastly 
Hcre 18 one of the riddles of the ancicnt tinies, ** Is thcro 
^r»rate tax on ^alas {ticks^ secondary meaning lo/i^aC), if thejr 
A to fi ve camel-loads or more ? ** The reply is, " No, and if 
eollector knows of them, he is to tnm away f rom thcni." 

u£j I (aZ.*-AW>mfc-)—Ibn-'Atlyah States, " My fathor intormed 
t he had board one of the Icamed men in the East say that in tlie 
ocean there are certain long and thin fish rcsembling seqìonta 
èir colour and their movements, and that thcy are called al-^aldmàt^ 
.ose thoy are the signs of beìng near the land of India and places of 
from dangerous spots, on account of the length of that ocean 
the difficalty in its navigation. Some peoplo bave said tliat it is 
which is meant by the words of God, * And landmarks (ia»UiU) ; 
by the stars too are tliey guided.'^ " He adds, *^ One who has 
tliem has told me that thcy aro to ho fonnd in great nambcrs." 
fAbb&s statcs that al-^alanidt (in the verse) aro the signs to 
the roiuls by day and the stars to guide at night. Al-Kalbi 
that they are mountains, whilst Mnjahid and an-Nakha^i stato 
they are stars, some of which are ciilled ^aldniAt and some of 
ioh servo as a guide. 

34^ ' (cd^^llhiz). — A largo tick. It ia said in a tradition that, 

ieti the Prophet prayed againat Kurainh tbus : — " God, bring 
^m on them farainea like the faminofl of Joseph I" they a te the 
liokfi, But some aay that by al^^UJiiz ia bere meant camela* 
[r^^mixed with blood. 


» Al-ffur'an XVI.16. 


372 AD-DAMtut'S 

jilXil (aPJ7hrf).— Like al-hud-hud. The male of larkà (i 

jUil (aZ-*-^l/ajb).— [Leechea.] Oertaiu blaok and red woi 
fouud in water that oliug to the body and auck blood. Tbey ai 
une of the remediea for (diaeasea oQ the throat aud inflaromatoì 
(bloody) BwelHnga, ou account of their property of Buckiug blooìi 
in exceea iu auy peraon. Nouu of nnity *alakah. 1 

It 18 related in a tradition delivered by *Ainir that the bei 
of remedies are leeches aud cuppiug. j 

(>iÌAÌ I (al'^uUaih) ia the tree iu which Moaea aaw the fire i^ 
so Ibn-Bldah aaya. Some aay that it ia the aame aa the boi 
thoru (flWawiaj)^ which wheu it growa big ia called cU-siarìuid. ] 
ia aaid in a tradition that it ia the aame aa the tree of the Jéin 
{òj4^^y¥^)i And that it will not apeak, that ia to aay, when Jeai 
deaoeuda on the earth (agaiu) aud killa the Jewa, there will be n 
tree behiud which auy of them will conoeal but will apeak and aa; 
*^ Mualim, thia behind me ia a Jew/' upon which Jeaua will sU 
him, ezcepting the tree called al-^iarkad, which beiug oue of the 
treea will not apeak. 

(luformatiou.) Ath-Tha^labt atatea in the commentary e 
the worda of God, *^ * Bleaaod be He who ia in the fire, and he wl 
ia about it ! and oelebrated be the praiaea of God, the Lord of ti 
worldal Moaea! verily, I ara Qod, the raighty, wiae;'" » ou ti 
authority of Ibu-*AbbftH, Sa*ìd b. Jubair, aud al-Uaann al-Basi 
that it meausi ^ lloly ia He who ia in the fire, that ia to aay, Oc 
— oelebrated be Hia praiaea I " tlma meauiug Himaelf (iu the vera< 
The explanation of thia paaauge ia that He waa not iu it 
the way of the exiatence of bodiea (iu a thiug), but that ti 
Glorioua aud High (Qod) called Moaea and cauaed him to he 
Hia worda frum ita direction, and mauifeated to him Hia aupren 
power from it, ao that the tree waa the mauifeater of the wor 
ofGod, the High. Thia ia aa ia related to be writteu in ti 
Puntatenoh, namely, God carne from Mt Sinai, aboue froni Sa* 
and revealed (the Knr*Au) from the mouutaiua of Fur&n. £ 

i Al-?ur»An XXVIl-8— 9. 



from Ht Sinai wm Hi* sending Moses as an apostle 
|t| Eia sbining from Sà*fr was Bis sending Jesus from it 
apostle, and His revealing (the ]£ar*An) from the moontaina 
was sending the eleot one (Mn^ammad) as an apostle 
itt Fàràn Ì8 hononred Makkak Some say that the fire 
the liglU ut the Highty and Glorions Oue, and that it is 
by the word j^re, beoause Moses thonght that it was 
and the Araba are in the habit of using one of the two words 
he place of the other. Sa4d b. Jobairstates that it was fire it- 
whioh is one of the ourtaius screening God. Some say that 
be He who is in the fire," means His aiithority aud 
power, and that the eiplanation of, *^and he who is round 
mt itP' is that it refers to Moses and the angels. The meta- 
in the verse oonsìsts in ali those that were in searoh of the fire, 
that were proceeding towards it, and those that were near it, 
g blessed, and the meaning of it was, '* lilessed art thou, O 
and blessed are the angela who are near the firel'* Thia 
a greeting from God, the glorions and mighty, to Moses, as a 
k of respect for biro, in the same manner that God greeted 
ham through the lipa (tongues) of the angela when they 
ted him aud said, *' * God'a meroy and blessings upon yon, ye 
pie of the house I Verily, He is to be praìsed and glorified,^ "^ 
this God praised Hiroself through the medium of His action, 
ibe author) say that in the same manner, whcn a man (His 
ant) takes the narae of God or praises Hira, nobody takes 
'ut God Uimself, and nobody praises Him but God Himself, 
Mtuse God remembers His (own) self and praises it through the 
ium of His action, whilst man (His servant) is only a tool, 
no power of his own. God has said, *' Thou hast uothing 
with the affair at ali,"* and He has said, ^^And unto Him tlie 
airdothall return/'* The action of mania therefore to be 
^itributed to God, in relation to (his) being created and (his) 
ling brought into exietence. God has also said, *^*And God 
oreated you, and what ye make.' "« To man are to be attribnt- 
What he earns and his learning, for the purpose of his being 




I Al-Rar'&a XI.70. 

■ Idom in-123. « Llom Xl-123. 4 Idem 


374 AD-DAMiBra 


puuished or rewarded. One of tlie learued mei) says tlial; thì 
bleasiug refers to the fire irseli. With regard to the ezpresbion e 
Ood, '« Blessed be He who is ìd tlie fire (jtxji^^ ^jJiV tb 
Araba are ìq the habit of sajing, c^i àU t iJjO, u^<Jj(j , «XxUiJjb 
and «-^jby \irhicb are foor difterent diaiectioal ezpressionsi (t 
express *^ May God lless you /")• A poet says : — 

"You were blesaed aa a child, and you were blesaed whea yoa grew np, 
And you will be blessed in your old age wken you are hoary.'' 

With regard to the words, heard {comiiig) from the tree^ kno^ 
that tiie dootriue of the people of Trath is that God is iudepenj 
eut of any limits or words or plaoe or direotiou or time, for the 
are the sigiis of oreatiuu, whiist thej are His own oreatiou an 
possesstoii, and He -^ oelebrated be His praisesl — is too gloriou 
aud great to be desoribtid by meaos of auy direotions^or to be iimil 
ed by lueans of aoy deseriptions, or to be oompreheuded by tim< 
or to be held by any plaoes or regions. Since the Qlorious an< 
High God is of this deaoription, it wouid be absnrd for His pei 
Bonaltty to be desoribed as beìog speoially in any particula 
direction, or as having removed from one pU\ce to auother, or a 
haviug aUghted in any partioalar plaoe. 

It is related that when God spoke to Moses, he heard Hi 
words from ali directious, atid did nofc bear them from any ou 
partionlar direction, from which he koew them to be the words G 
God. If this is (once) proved, it is not allowable to desoribe Goi 
as alightiug in a (certain) plaoe, or desoeuding in n (pnrticulm 
looality, in the same manuer that He oaunot be desoribed ne beiuj 
an esseuce (spirit) or as being material, nor oau His words be dt 
Boribed by meuus of either lettera or voioe, whioh is opposed t 
the dootriue of the Hashwìyah seotion of the Hanbali schoo 
Bat He has His own desoriptiou, with which He oan be describec 
whioh keeps away from Hiin the miafortuoes of dumbness {i^j^ 
^AJIj) aud whateveris uusuitable for His glory aud perfeotiou 
and which does not admit of (His) divisiou aud separatiou throngl 
remo vai to hearts and pages (of books, etc). 

As to uuderstandiog and hearing, they exist in one place ti 
preferenoe to auother, and in one looality in prefereuoe to an 

9A.tÌT al-^tawIn 375 

tbe desorìptìoD of Qod'a petsonalitj oauuot be oom- 
reaohed, He haa Baid, " There in oauglit like Him, 
«anaod sees."^ Aa totheiin tk« words of God, 
nl3r,Iaraaod,eto. (*Wl "1 *fl J^j^Q)"* it is a pro- 
«d betveea the tabjeot oF a propoaition and tlie 

Dot metoDymioat, 
iuformation.) Tliere is a dìSareDoe of opiuioD wìtlk 

quMtiou whatker or Dot our Propliet Mu^ammad 
• Lord OD tbe oigbt of bis asoenaioD (to beaveu) 
mediam. IbD-'AbbAs, Ibn-Maa'ùd, Ja'far as*l§&dì^ 
tl-Ash'arl, aod a party of tbose wbo bave disoossed 
Id the opiDÌon tbat the Propliet talked with Qud 
Iìdid, whilst aaotber party holds tbe optoioD nbiob 

a thiug. 

also a difierenoe of opiaiou vith regard to tlie 

of holding tbe dootrìne of tbe pouibìlity of aeeiag 
he broaohan of the oewopiDious denyiogthe allow- 
te poaaibility, botb in tbis worid aud tbe oext odo, 

the SuddIb and the older authorities bnldJDgthe 
9 poaaìbility of aeeiug Him ìd both the worlda, aod of 

of aeeÌDg Him in the nezt oue. The learued of 
lient aud modem times difier io their optntooa with 

queatiou whether or Dot oor Prophet Mubammad 
'A'ÌBbal), Abù-Iiurairah, Ibn-Maa'lkt, and a party of 
oritiee decy it, whicb ia md by a party oF narratoni 
flta, bnt a party of the older nathorities bold aa 
16 dootrioe that the Prophet saw his Lord on the 
lOflQBÌott (to heaveii) with the eyes of bis own head, 
latement of Ibn-'Abb&a, Abfi-Uhair, Ka'b al-A1>bfir, 
hstt, aBb-Sh&fì't, and Abmad b. HaubaI, Ibn-Mae'fid 
,irah are alao aaid to bare Diade the statement, bnt 
u given above is their well-known opinion, whitat 
1 statement ia Ibat given by Àb(t'U!UaBan and a 
soiplee ; it io tbe correot one and ia the opinion of the 
F tmth out of the ohief ^fifta. 

in XLII-B. t Idem XXVU-9. 

i r-2 

376 ad-dauìrì's 

lbn-*Abbà8 states that Moses waa speoially seleoted (by Gb 
for talking to, Abraham for (having) sincere frìendsliip witb, aii 
Mnb^^o^niAd for (allowing) a sight of Himself io. A party of tM 
learned, bowever, hold the opiniou that it is a subject not to b 
waded tbrough, aud say that tbere is no absolutely ezclusive an 
strong proof of iti but that ratioually it is allowablei wbich hai 
been oonfirmed by al-^ur(abi and others. I (the author) say 
that the doctrine of the possibility of seeing God both in (his and[ 
the nezfe worids is allowable, oii aooouut of both rational and tra- 
ditional proofs. As to the rational ones, khey are known by thei 
words expreseire of the faot, and as to the traditional ones^ wo 
haye out of them the faot of Moses asking (God) to be shown 
a sight of Hira, aud the reason of His withholding it. Moses 
must bave known of ita possibility, for had he known of its impos« 
sibility, Ile wonld not bave asked God for it. It is impossible for 
Moses to have been ignorant of its permissiblenessi since it would 
be ueoessary for bim to be (also) ignorant of what is fit for Uod 
(to do) and as to what is inoousisteut and what is allowable, not-; 
witbstauding his high aud extreme position in prophetio capacity; 
80 much so that God seleoted hiin out of raen aud cansed 
him to bear His words withoat any medinm, whilst one oonricted 
of snob ignoranoe would be an nnbelieyer. We scek refoge with 
God from believing that (of Moses)! Another of these proofs is 
God*s obliging His servants with the sight of His faoe in the next 
world, as is said in His words, ^' Faoes on that day shall be bright, 
gazing on their Lord I " > If, therefore, it is allowable for them to 
see Him in the next worid, it is allowable for them to see Him 
in this world, in order to make the sight (of Him) equable in rela- 
tion to His orders. Another proof is the ooutinuous phain of 
tràditions regarding the Prophet, in the matter of seeing God in 
the future world, and its so happening as a mark of booour for 
the faithful. These are therefore tbe proofs of the allowableness 
of seeing God both in this worid and the next one. As to the 
proof addoced by ^A'isliah for the statement that the Prophet did 
not see God, namely, the words of God, ** Sight perceives ( Af;^}) 
Him not, but He peroeives men's sights,"* it is remote from being 

1 Al.j^ar&n LXX?-22-S3. « Idem VM08. 

VayIt al-9AYAwIn 


ig, for it 18 said tliat there ia a differeuoe between per- 

oompreheoaion («^'jòl) and soetog (j (^ 1)» so thai tlie 

^'of the verse woald be, ^ Sights (eyes) do noi perceive 

it is tosayi they do not oompreiietid Him, notwiHistaiidiDg 

[ng able to see Him ;'' — so Su^td b« Musayyab and others 

Ile fact of peroepiìon or comprehension ìa exclndod, noU 

iding the fact of seeiug, in the words of Qod, ** And wheu 

(wo hosts saw dj^j^) eaoh other, Moses' coinpanioiis said, 

Ij, we are overtaken (c;jf;^) ^* ^'^^^ ''®> ' ^^^ ^V " ^ ^'^^^ 
ty, '^thej will not overtake yoa.^' Agaiu, the word sigliti 

i) refers to ali| and is also capable of being applied to special 

NMif, thus the withholding of the sight (of God) is specially 

ided for the unbeh'evers, asGod has said about them, " Nay, 

Ijf from their Lord on that day are they veiied;"* whiist 

pili honour the faitlirnl or siich otit of thern as Me may wiah 

a sight (of Himself), as He has said, '* Faces on that day 

in be bright^ gazing on their Lordi"* In short, the verse 

^ted by ^A^'shah is not a proof, nor is it ciear and explicit in 

Sfinatter of waut of allowableneas of the sight (of God). 

*ére is therefore no argninent in it. There are many secret 

deep things in connection with this question, whicli we bave 

DÌtted bere, because that is not the object of wrìting thia 

ork ; whoever therefore wishes to verify this and other impor- 

tot questions, lei him read them in onr hook al-Jawliar aUfaAd^ 

which we bave giveu the difference of opinion (between the 

irties), the manifest and hidden statemeuts of the lenrned, and 

le opinion we bave seleoted and siipported. The hook is an 

iport4int pillar on the subject| and no atudent can be indt^pen- 

leiit of it; it is coroposerl of eight thick volames. 

(Further information.) The words of God, *^ Read, in the 
Savne of thy Lord I Who created man from congealed blood 

j^U ) I "* were the first chapter of the Kar'&n reveaied, as Ima 
been proved in the two ^'aM/is, out of a tradition of 'A'ìshah, 
The agreement between being created from congealed blood 
(od the one band), and being t^ught with the pen and being 

» AlKur'àn XXVl-61— 62. • Idem LXXXIII-lS. • IdemLXXV- 
ilS— 23. • Idem XCVl.1-2. 

378 ad^dauIbì^s 

tangbt knowledge (od the otker), lies in tlie faol tliat the lowesl 

of man'fl statee is tbat ot beiug congealed blood and the highest; 

tbat of beiqg a learaed man» aa'tkoogh God^ — whoae praisea bel 

oelebratedt— oonferred a favour ori raaii^ by removÌDg bim fronoil 

the loureet of stateli, which is tbat of oongealed blood, to thè! 

bighest oue, whioh is that of learuing (koowledge). 4: 

. Az-Zamakhshari ssys tbat, if it is askedi as to wby God boa' 
said, *^ from oongealed blood/' wbiist he bas been óreated from 
a luiqp of oougealed blood {'alakah)^ as in the words of God, ' 
"(Tben) from a olot, tliea from a lump of oongealed blood, ) 
eto./'» the answer is tbat the word ai'insdn (man) is bere in the iJ 
plural senso, as in the words of God, '^Verily, man is ini 
loss.'** He is the most generous, wbo possesses the qualityofi 
perfection in the matter of His beuevolence over ali beuevolent | 
persons, wbo grants favonrs to His servante whioh oaunot be 'j 
oonnted, wbo is forbeariug towards them and does not basten f 
to punisti them,* uotwithstauding their ingpratitude (disbelief), i 
their disowuing His favonrs, their doing prohibited things, and ] 
their leaving aside ordered things, wbo aooepts their repeu* i 
tanoe, and wbo forgives them after their oommitting heinona ' 
sins. There is no end, noris there an extremity,,to His bene* 
Tolenoe, as though there were no bonevolence left behind Hia 
benevolence, which bas granted immense advautages, sinoe He ! 
has said, ** He is most generous I Who taught the pen 1 Taught v 
man what be did not know 1"* He bas sbown the perfeotion . 
of His generosity, sinoe He bas tangbt His servante what they ' 
did not know, and has removed them from the darkness of igno- > 
ranco to the ligbt of knowledge, and has called attention to the 
ezoellenee of writing on account of the great advantages it pos- ' 
aesses which none but He can comprehend. The old sciences bave 
not been compiled, nor are the orders (decrees) fixed, nor are the 
histories and snyings of the ancients preaerved, nor are the 
revealed acriptures of God preaerved, but through the instrumeu- 
tality of writing. If it were not for it, the affairs of religion and 
this «rorld conld not bave been properly regnlated, and were there 
no other evidence for the subtle wisdom and the elegant arrange- 

X Àl-^ur'An XXIi.5 and KL-«9. • Idem OIH-S. • Idem XGV1-3--6. 



oC God tlian that of the pen and writing, it wouid bave been 

r(ForUier informatioii.) Tbe Sbaikh-ttl-Islilm, iho Sbaikb 
IM-dtn aa*Sabkt baving beau asked regarding tbe black lump 
igenled blood whiob caino oat oE tbe beart of tbe Propbet 
ohildbood, wben bis beart was split open, and tbe saying of tbe 
lli ** TbÌ8 is tbe fortune of Satan witb regard to yon/* answered, 
tt lamp of congealed blood is created by God in tbe bcarts of 
ii as a tbing to accept whatever Satan may tbrow into thcni. 
reinoved from its place in tbe beart of the Propbet, and thero 
ined nothing in its place to accept any ibing that Satan might 
^w into it. This is the meaning of the tradition. Satan never 
any lack (fortnne) in the beart of the Propbet. As to wbat 
l'angel took ont, it is a tbing in tbe naturai constitution of man. 
•ccepting tbing, wbich by its exi:stence would bave rendered an 
ipeacbment of bis beart possible, was removed." He was tlien 
:od as to wby God created tlìis accepting tbing (cb^), in this 
Ibnred organ, wben it was possi ble for Hiin not to creato it in it. 
^replied, ** Because it is one of the parts of tbe human body, and 
created it to perfect the human form ; there was therefore no 
3p for it, wbilst its removal was a divine favonr confcrred (on 
Propbet) after its creation." 

(Ijawfulness or unlawfulness.) It is nnlawfnl to eut leecbes, but 

allowable to sell tbomi on account of tbeadvantages tobe derivcd 

ini them. The selling of cochineal or kermes i.s made an exception 

I^Tin the matterof the disallowableness of selling creepinganiumls 

ìhardl)^ as has been already mentioned. 

i (Side-information.) There are two viows witb regard to the lump 
[oungeaied blood Qalahah)^ one of them being that it is undean, 

inse it is blood that has come cut of the womb like menstrual 
|oo<1, and the other one being that it ìs clean, because it is uns^hed 

il and therefore like the liver and the spleen ; — so it has been 
»pled by ÀbA-Unmid from as-§airaft and exph'citly confirmed by the 
Ihsikb Abù-Hàmid, al-Mahamili, and ar-Riìfi*t in a/-il/i//iay*r<?^ ; this 
tbe oorrect view, as is plainly stated in al'Miahdj. 

Àl'*alahah is fbriginally) the seminai fluid, wbich, wben it be- 
iw oonverted into thick blood, and wben it alters f urther, becomes 


380 AD-DAHlRfS 

VL lump of flesh^ being then calleda mu^giah, An-Nawawl statesi 
Sharh al'Muhadhdhab that the religious law has absolately decid 
that the lamp oE ilesh (al-mufyah) is cloan. But there are said to 
two views regarding it, the correct oae beiug the oppositeSoE what i 
gtven in Sharh al-Muhadhdhai, for ìt is either like a dead man, i 
regard to which there are two statoments in the uew statement, o^ 
like a part of him separated (from him), in regard to which there 
are two ways, both of which speak of it in an opposite way and 
decide it to he absointely nnclean. Ar-ttàfii states that there are 
two views regarding it, the correct one being that it is clean. Yesj; 
bnt according to the rale of ar-R:lfi't, it is conditional on the Inmp oE 
flesh and the lamp oE congealed blood being those oE man, but iE they 
are the (prodacts oE the) seminai flaid oE any other animai, they are 
unclean according to him. Both the Inmp of congealed blood and the 
lump oE flesh are worthier of being considered unclean than thel 
seminai fluid, which is shown by bis speaking over and over again of 
their uncleanness in ahMiali&jy notwithstanding bis decision in it 
in favour oE the cleanness of the seminai fluid. Onr shaikh states, 
^' You may refuso to hold the opinion that they are worthier of being 
considered unclean than the seminai fluid, because tliey are nearer 
the condition of an animai than it, and it is nearer the condition oE 
blood than they." 

(Proverb.) " More dinging than leeches.'^ 

(Propertios.) Leechos are useful for applyìng to sucti mcmbera 
of the body as are inaccessible (to the cupping glass), such as the 
corners oE the eyes, cheeks, and painful parts, bccause they serve 
the purposc oE cupping by their sucking out corrupt blood, especially 
in infants, women, and persons in comEortable circumstancea 
They also suck out corrupt blood Erom the eyelids and other parts. 
They may happen to lie in water, out of which when a man drinkf 
some, one of them may happen to ding fast in bis throat ; the 
way to remove it Erom the throat would he to Eumigate (the 
throat) with the hair of a fox, and when the smoke (of it) reacliee 
the leech, it will immediately fall down. So also, if the fumigation 
1)0 made with a hoof of a carnei, it will die, which is a tried thing ;— 
so it is mentioned in aUMnntahhah. Al-Kazwtni and the author ol 
{Adh-Bhalhirat aUhamidah state that if there he a leech in i\u 



may be gargled witli the vinegar oE mne and a dirbam 
(^of the flies that are found in beans, upon whicli the leech 
11 down. lE it be desired to extract blood Erom a special 
ita worm may be taken in a piece oE day and drawn near 
Trt» npon which it wili stick East to it and suck cut blooil f roiii 
en it is desired to causo it to fall away, salt water may be 
ha on it, npon which it will fall down immediately. The 
oE ^^1^1 aUkhawàf^ states that, if leeches are dried in tho 
e and theu rubbed fine with sal-ammoniac, and thcn painted over 
in which there is loss oE hair, hair will grow ou it Another 
tty states that, lE a house be fuinigated with leeches, bugs, 
[nitoeSj and other things like them will flee awuy Erom it. lE 
;are left in a glass flask until they die, and then rubbed into a 
paste, and then iE hair be removed from a part and the pasto 
ted over it, no hair will again grow on it. One of its tried and 
q1 properties is that, if some of the larger kind oE leeches, sach 
are found in rivers and damp places, are taken, fried with some 
olive oil, and then rubbed fine with vinegar nntil they become 
the consistenoy of an ointment, and theu if some of it be takeii 
a piece oE wool and used as a supposi tory by a person suftering 
piles, he will be cnred oE them. Some say that it will curo 
[tao suffering from the diseaso called al-hatà. ^ One of its wonder- 
1 properties is that iE a glass-merchant's shop ho Eumigated with 
V ali tlio things that are in tho shop will be broken. IE a Eresh 
loiat leech be taken and rubbed over the nullo orgau of generation, 
will cause it to become large without any paiu. 

(Interpretation oE leeches in dreams.) Ijeochos in droams havo 
e same signification ns worms, which is that of children, on 
account oE the words oE God, *^He created man from congcaled 
blood."* If one dreams that a Inmp of congealed blood has come 
féut Erom bis uose, or bis peuis, or bis anus, or out oE bis belly, or 
Ibis moutb, bis wife will abort beEore the complete formution of tho 
embryo. Some say that leeches, ticks, young ones oE ser]>enU {aiU 
ialam)^ auts, and other things resembling them, indicate enemies and 
oontemptible enviers. The following is an interpreted dream: — A 
man carne to Abù-Bakr as-Siddilk and said, **0 regent oE the 


t A ccrtAÌn diseaae io the buttook. 

• Al-Kurtn XCVI-2. 


Apostle of Godf I dreamt as if I had a bag or parse in iny han< 
and I was emptying out of it vfhai it contained, nntil tkere remaim 
nothing in it ; then there carne out of it a lamp of congealed blood/ 
AbA-Bakr therenpon said, *'Go away out of my presence." H^ 
tberefore went away from bis presence, and baving walked a h\ 
paces, a beast ktcke<I hiin and killed biin. Àbù-Bakr bavinj 
been iuforined of it said, *'I did not want bim to die in my presen< 
Tbe bag or purse signified tbe man, tbe dirbams bis life, and th^] 
lamp of congealed blood bis soni, on account of tbe words of Otùà^ 
**He oreated man from congealed blood/'**' 

V4UJI (al-^AUiàb). — ^À moantain be-goat; — so A^mad b«j 
Tabyà, tbe aatbor of IGtdb aUMadàlchil JVUlugaK^ says. \ 

i^jj^ì {at-^Umrùs). — ^A sucking lamb. ?I. ^amdrii. A poetj 
says:— ] 

"He waa like the wicked woU when he said, on one oecssioii, 

To a lamb (HttnrtUak)^ whilat he wm hougry and runniDg, J 

< Art ihon the one that abosed me, withoat a crime (of mine) ?.' *\ 

It repHed, < When did that happen? ' He replied, «Last y^ar.» ^ 

The lamb said, *Iam only just boni, but since yen deaire to aottrea- ' 

cheronsly towards me, 

Here I am, eat me, bnt may not the food be propitions to yen ! ' *' « 

orl^t (al-MtnaUfff). — ^A fierce wolf, and a ferocions dog,, 
As to tbe provorb, *^More datiful tban al-^Amallas/' be was a man 
wbowas dutifal to bis motber; he nsed to carry ber on bis sboul-' 
ders, and do tbe pilgrimage witb ber on bis back every year, on 
wbicb accoant bis name is employed proverbially, so tbat sons 
may take an example from bim in tbe matter of datifalness to tlieir 
motbers. I bave allnded to it in tbe foUowing lines of mine : — 

(The name of) al-'Amallaa ie employed in proverbe, 

In the matter of dutifulness, so that sona may take an example from himu 

Jh^ I (aU'Aniaithal).—T\ìei lion ;— so Abù-Zuid says in Kitdb ' 
allibi. From it tbis name was taken as a sobriqaet for *Abd-AUAh 
b. Kbulaid, the eloqaent puet. He used to make nse of pompous 
words and rare expressions. He was a writer and a poet in the 

1 AI-Enr'àn X0VI.2. 

PAtIt a]>9ATaw1n 


of *Abd«AlUh b. T^biri and was mach versed in the pare 
(of the Arabs). [The aaibor here gives some linea oom* 
jby him on 'Abd-Allàh b. T^hir, the incident reganling hia 
fg the band of 'Abd- Allah b. T^hir, and the date of bis death, 
aro ali also given by Ibn-Kb. •] ^ 

•Afoia'l states that the word al^^amaithal means otte who 
Km taitt and al-KhalU states that it means one Wi« u ilow and 
h hii garmCfUs like a gentU or quiet persan^ who i$ independent 

jUjJl (a^UiulikX—A (emale kid. PI. a'nuh and 'muh. 

It is related regarding al-Asma'i as having said, " While I was 
ig by the road to al-Taman, I saw a boy standing on the road 
ear-rings in liis ears, each of vhich had a gem in it, and with 
face shining from the lastre oC the gems. He was praising bis 
in some poetioal lines." — [The aathor here gives the lines, 
oh are omitted bere, on aoconnt oE their great length and on 
nt of their not being oonnected with the subject of the article.] 
^I approached him and salnted him, npon which he said, M shall not 
rn yoar salatation nntil yon pay my right, which is doe to me 
yoa.' I then asked him, * What is yoar right?' and he replied, 
am a boy of the religion of Abraham, the Friend (of Qod), and 
do not bave my morning and evening meals, nntil I go a mile or 
b milesin search of a goest.' I therefore accepted bis invitation, 
id be welcomed me. I then went with him nntil we neared bis 
pt| when he shoated oat, * sister,' apon which a girl replied to him 
a crying voice. He said to ber, 'Qet ap and prepare for oar 
C She said, ' Wait antil I givo thanks to Ood, who has broaght 
this gaest' She then got up and said a prayer with two bowinga 
the body as a thanksgiving to God. Tlie yonng man then mode 
enter Uie tent and sit down. Then taking a knife, he went to a 
amale kid and slaaghtered it. When I sat down in the tent, I 
ked at the girl, and foand ber the most beautifal of mankind in 
I kept on stealing glances at her, but she beeame aware of 
'pome of my glances and saldi 'Desist ; do not yoa know that it is 
^lated regarding the Prophet of al-Madtnah (Tayyibah) as having 

> De SUne'fl T. of Ibn-Kh/s B. a VoL li, pp. 55-^7. 

384 ad-damìbì's 

8ai(l» *'Tbe adultory of the two eyea is the sight."? As to mysel 
do not intend by this to reproach yoa, bat to teach yoa, so thaF 
may not again oominit a similar act.' When it was sleeping tU 
the boy and I slept outside the tent, and the girl remained inside.' 
and I heard till the oarly morning a chanting sonnd oE the IcCui 
nttered with the most elegant voice, and theu I heard some poeÓj 
linea recited with the sweetest pronunciation and in the 
Baddening tono. The lines were as f ollow : — 

''Mj lore refuses to remain oonoeoled, how long I bave trìed to hide it ! 
li Ì8 with me in the mormng, and it has alighted and pitehed ito tent; 
When mj desire (for the objeot of mj love) becomes excessire, my bèi 

becomes mad bj the reooUeotion of Him • 
If I desire mj lover to be near me, He oomes near me. 
And ahows Himself, bat I dio and then come to life again bj rememl 

ing Him ; 
Ile inakes me hsppj, so mnch so that 1 find pleasare and am cheerful.' 


AVhen it was morning, I asked the boy, ^ Whose voice was that ?' 
he replied, ^ That was my sister, and this is what she does evei 
night/ I said to him» ^ boy, yoa are fitter for this action ti 
your sister, becanse yon are a man and she is a woman.' Tlie boj 
thereupon smiled and said, ^ Woe betide you I Do not yoa knoi 
that some are fuvoured and some abandoned| and that some are neal 
(God) and some at a distance (f rom God) ?' 1 then said farewelj 
to them and went away/' 

(Lawfnlncss or unlawfulness.) It is lawfal, and it may b( 
given as componsation for a bare, if one in the state of tfirdm hn\ 
pens to kill it, on account oE its having been thus decided by thii 
Oompanions of the Prophet It is, however, not (considered) sai 
cient as a Siicrificial animai, on account of what is related by the twj 
Shaikhs (al-Bukharì and Muslim) and others, on the authority of al 
Barft' b. ^Izib, who ssiid, ** The Apostle of God preached to us on 
Day of Sacrifice (lOth o£ Dhtfl-Hijjah) after the prayer, saying, 'Wh( 
over has said this our prayer and observed this our rito of sacrifioé| 
has observed it correctly, but he who has performed the rite of 
sacrificing beforo the prayer, has not observed this religiòus ritor 
Upon this, Abù-Burdah b. NiyAr," who was a maternal anele of al« 
BarA' b. *Azib, *^ ssiid, * Apostle of God, I sacrificed my goat (or 
sheep) before the pniyer. I knew this to be the day for eating ana 



9àt1t ÀLm&TAVix 385 

visbed that my goat (or eheep) shoald bo the first 
itored in my lioase, I tberefore shnghtereil it and 

meal before coming to the prayer.* The Propbct 
lOtA (or sheep) was only a goat (or sheep) of meat, 
IRoe).' He then said, ' Apostle of God, I ha?e a 
1 I love more than tiro goats (or sheep) ; will Uiat 

a Boorìfice f rom me ?* The Prophet reptied, * Yes, 

oonsidered anfficìent for anybody else after yoa.' " 
led in the first part of ar'Raw^ah that al-*andk is 
e Urne of ita birth natii it begins to graze, and that 
•kid when ìt is weaned, lirea apart from its mother, 
;ing, wbich takes placa when it is fonr montbs old, 
i/r. It is said in Zujidt at-Tanbth and Dahà'i'lt cd- 
ndjb is a she-kid which has not yet completed a year 
similar defioition is copiod from at-Àzhart in Tahdhih 
it, bnt al-Azbarl's own statement does not agree 

ìlates, giviog antbeotio anthorities, and alao Abfi- 
d-6arr in al'Ittt'db, on the antbority of ^ais b. 
d, " When the Propbet and Àbft-Bakr fled, conceal- 
Erom ^araish), they happened lo pass by a slare, 
ig some sheep nnd goats, and asked biro for a drink 
ive replied, ' I bave no sheep or goats that can bo 
I is a she-kid, whicb conceived in the early part of 
low no milk left in ber.' The Prophet tliereupon 
d then bindiug ita legs, he rnbbed its ndder nntil it 
m the weigbt ofthe milk in it). Àbù-Bakr then 
and the Apostle of God milked in it, and gave tbo 
r to drink ; then mìlking again, he gave the milk to 
k, and then milkìng agaia he ùrank the milk him- 
therenpon eaid, ' By God, wbo are yon P I bave, 
ten one like yon I' The Propbet said, *Woald you 
, if I inform yon of it V and he replied, ' Yes.' The 
, ' I am Muhoinmad, the Apostle of God.' The postor 
the one that ^nraidb assert to be a Sabenn ?' and 
ed, 'Verily, they sny so.' Tbe pastor then eaid, ' I 
lat yon aro a propbot, aad that wliat yon preach 

. N3 

386 • ab-dauIrì's 

ìs ihe tmth ; I shall follow you/ The Prophet said ^ You will noi 
be able to do ihat at present (to-day)» bat when you learn of my hayìi 
iDg made myself publioly known^ come to ns/ '' i 

(End). AbA-Dàwud, at-Tirmidht, an-Nas&'t, and al-Hàkia 
retate, on the anthority of *Ainr b. Shu^aib, who had it fron 
hÌ8 father, who had it froin bis father (grandfather of *Amr), 
who said. *^ There was a man called Marthad b. Abi-Marthad. 
who nsed to carry captives from Makkah and take them U 
al-Madìnah, and there was an adolteroas woman in Makkal 
called 'AnàlJF, like katàm (in vowel marks), who was a friend 
of bis. Now, he had promised one of the captives in Makkah fa 
come to bim and to carry him. He related, ^ I came nntil I reached 
the sbadow of one of the walls of Makkah» on a moonlight night ; 
in the meantìme *AnÌL\ came there and perceived the dark sbadow hy 
ihe side of the wall. When she came near me, she said, ** (Who,' 
Marihad T and I replied, '' Marthad.'* She then said, '' Welcome t( 
you ; come along, sleep with ns to-night.'* I replied, '' ^Anà)[, Goc 
has declared adultery to be nnlawf ni,'' npon which she cried ont, *' C 
people of the tents, this man carries away your captives." There 
npon, eight men foUowed me, and I took the way of al-Khandamal 
and reached a caTorn. They too came there, and standing over th( 
cavern in which I was, made <water, which commenced to drop or 
my head, bnt God rendered them blind with regard to my position 
They then retnrned, and I too retumed to my friend and carried 
him ; bnt being a heavy man, I carried bim as far as al-£dhkhir, > 
whore I undid bis fetters and then continned to carry him, whicl 
fatigned me, nntil I bronght him to al-Madtnab to the Prophet 
I then said, **0 Apostle of God, shall I marry *Anà]c?" upoi 
which he remained silent and did not reply to my qnestion, nntil 
this verse was revealed, *' And the wboremonger shall marry none 
but a whore or an idolatress ; and the whore shall none marry bai 
an adulterer or an idolator."* The Apostle of God then said, *' 
Marthad, *The wboremonger sball marry «none but a whore or an idei 
atress ; and the whore shall none murry bnt an ad al ter er or an 

» Thas given in ali the coplet, but it is probablj a inistranscrìption oi 
AdhAkhir, the name of a pass between Makkah and al-Madlnah. • Al-Eur'Ai] 




;* therefore, do not marrj ber." ' " Àl-Khattàbt states that 

specially so with regard to this woman, becanse she was 

ibeliever, bat as to a Maslim whore, a marriago contract with 

l\ valid and not annnlled. Àsh-Shafi'f stiites that the meaning 

T: Tersa is that a whoreinonger does not wish or seek for 

ige bnt with a whore. Ash-Shàfii adda that reaembling this 

Said b. al-Masayyab has stated, namely, ihat this verse is 

igatod by the words of God, ** And marry the single aiuongst 

1**^ wbo woald be ont oE the single Maslims. 

(Proverbs.) *^ A she-kid will not sneeze (taì^at) in this case 

tir),**' an-naftt oE a she-kid being like aU^utds (the sneezing) oE 

It is like another proverbi ^* Two she-goats {^amdn) will not 

itte each other with their horns over it,*' which will be given in 

fU'proper place. 

u^j*' c3^ C-4»4* a*-arfi).*— [The badger.] A sinall beast, 
ler than the lynx and long in the back, that hunts everything» 

en birds. It is the same as at-tuffah^ whioh has been already de- 

ribed under the lettor «. 

^ It is said in Niliàyat aUgarib that KatAdah states that ^aìiàl^ al' 

is one oE the aniinals oE prey, and that it is a certain wild beast of 

rey larger than the cat and smaller than the dog. PI. Uinùft. It 

Biiid in a proverbi ^* He met with a badger/* and *' He approachod 
badger,'* |hat is to say, a ealamiiy. He ineans (thcreby) that it is 

animai with which [ìeople hant, if it be trained. 

' i^»MAÌ I {ah^iinhai). — ^The lion. Froin it the name is given to 

man. It is the measnre wUii Eroin cr>**^* • Al-*Un4bis out oE 
ll^araish were the sons oE Uinayyah b. 'Ab<l-Shanis the bigger ; 
fihey were six, nainely, Harb, Abù-Harb Sufy&n, Abù-SuEyau, *Ainr, 
iind ÀbA-'Anir, and were called by the name of the lion, the rest 
^being called al-A'yfts. 


I ^j,xiJ I (aZ-*-^ln*). — A strong and hardy she-camel. It is (also) 
éald lo Ije one whose tail has become fall or ampie (^a*ò u^j^l) ; 

» Al-]^ar*àii XXlV-3-2. t Meaning that blood-rercnge will not be 
Uken in this case. * In Palestine Mtks taxM, 


388 AD-DAMÌBr8 

a1-Jawhart says. AU^amah is also a nanne for the lion, being '. 
un epithet derived from al-^anùt ; — so Ibn-Stdah says. 


I (al'^Anbar). — [The sperm-whale.^] A oertain hirge fish 
from the skia of which shields are made. À shield is (alsp) called 
^oiilar. It has been already described under the letter y . 

Al-Bnkhàrl relates, on the anthoritj of Jàbir, who said, ^ The : 
AposUe of God sent ns, appointing over ns (as commander) Abù* , 
*Ubaidah, to meet the earavan of Koraish, and gave us as provision 
(on the way) a bag of dates, beside which we did not get anything 
else. Abù-^Ubaidah nsed to givo ns a date- at a time as food/' He 
(the rehiter of the tradition) says, ** I asked him, ' What did yen use 
to do with it ?' and he replied, ^ We nsed to suck it as a ohild does, 
and then drink over it some water, which nsed to be sufficient for ns 
the whole day nntil the night, and then we nsed to strike down leaves 
with onr sticks, moisten them with water, and eat them. It hap- 
pened that we then arrived on a sea-beach, where something of the 
shape of a broad sand-hill presentcd itself to onr view. We went to 
it and fonnd it to be the beast which is called aU^anbar (the sperm- 
whale). Abù-'Ubaidah thereapon said, *' It is dead ;" and then he 
said, ^ No, bnt we are sent by the Apostle of God, in the canse of 
God, and yen are forced by necessity ; therefore eat it*" We lived 
on it for a month, and we were three hundred strong ; otherwise they 
(the men) wonld nover bave become strong. Yoa might bave seen 
ns lading ont with bnckets the oil ont oE the sockots of its two eyes, 
and cutting pieces ont of it, each of the size of a drinking pot. Abù* 
^Ubaidah took thirteen men ont of us,and made them sit in (the socket 
of) its eye ; he took oue oE its ribs and making it stand np, monnted the 
largest camel with ns and passed under it. We then provided our- 
selves with its flesh as travelling provision, and when we arrived in 
al-Madlnah, we went to the Apostle of God and mentioned abont it 
to him, upoiì which he said, '^It was a snstenance which God took 
ont for yon. Have you any of its flesh with you, so that you may givo 
itasfoodto US?'* We then sent the Apostle of God some ofit, 
andhéateit*" This noctumal journey of Abfi-^Ubaidah is called 
Saryat aUKkahat^ and occarred in the month of Rajah 8 A. H. • 

1 Phyuter macrocephalus. 

PAtIt aIi-^atawIn 389 

*^^tlnuur b. al-KhatfAb and Iìoìé b. Sa4 were among the party with 

vV. ^ifl traditioQ is related to ns in alrQailàììilyài aa foUows : — ^The 

^IVophet tent Abù-'Ubaidah on a night-jonrney with a party com- 

fpoaed of the Refngees and Helpers, three hnndred strong, to the 

[eea-ooast| to a sobtribe of the tribe oE Jahainah* They were seized 

twith great hanger, npon which l^ais b. 8aM said, ^ Who will bny 

itroin me dates for a carnei (to be slaoghtered), he giving me the 

» carnei bere and I giving him the dates in al-Madtnah ? *Pmar then 

rkept on saying» ** What a wonder, that this boy who has no property 

['(of bis own) flhoald take a debt from another person ont of bis prò* 

'%pertyl'* He then found a man oat of the tribe of Jahainah, to 

\ whom he (llpiis) said, ^* Sell me a oamel, and I shall pay yon for it a 

' fMi4^(acamel-load) ^ of al-Mad!nah datea.'* The Jnbani replied, **I do 

\ taot know yon; who are yon ?*' fie repliedi ^* I am Ibn-Sa^d b. ^Ubàdah 

"b* Dalaim.*' The Johant said, "How well I know your genealogical 

' oonnection 1 " and added other words. He pnrcbased from him fi ve 

. camols (for slaughterìng), every one of them for a wuh of dates, the 

Badawl demanding from him the condition that they shoold be the 

stored-np and dried (bardened) dates ont of the dates belonging to the 

. Dalaim famtly, and ]£ais replying, ^^ Yes, '' to the condition. The 

, Badaw! then said, " Bring me witnesses/' The relater of the tradition 

says that ^is gave him as witnesses some mon ont oE the Helpers, 

\ with whom were some men ont oE the Refngees, and said, ^' I shall 

bring as witnesses wbomsoever you like.*' Àmong those who were 

broaght to witness the transaciion was ^ITmar b. al-Khattàb, who said, 

^^ I sball not bear witness to this transaction as a debt, when he has no 

\ jjproperty, and the property belongs to his father." The Juhant there- 

npon said, " By God, Sa'd will sarely not defrand (me) for the sake of 

\ % ioa$h of dates, whilst I see a handsome face and noble actions.'^ 

Wórds passed between ^Umar and Kais, nntil *Umar spoke roughly 

• to ^ais* Then taking the camels, he slanghtered tbem for them in 

three stations, a carnei every day. When the fourtb day came, his 

oommander prohibited him (Erom slaughtering any more) and said 

to him, " Do yon wish to violate yonr engagement, when yon bava 

no property of yonr own?" Àbfi-'Ubaidah came thero, and witb 

i Eqna] to 60 fà's. In al-^ijAz 330 ponnds and in al.'Irftk 480 poands. 


bim was ^Uinar ; he said, ''1 enjoin you not to slaughter (a carnei V \ 
iij)on which ¥aÌ8 said, **0 Abù-^Ubaidah, do yoa think tliat Àbù- 
Tb&bit (Sa^d), who pajs for oihers tbeir debts, takes upon hiinselE the 
bardens of others, and feeds people in a year of famine, will not pay ' 
for me (a debt of) a toash of date» incurred on account of men exert- ' 
iiig themselves in the cause of God ? " Abù-^ Jbaidah ' was near he* 
ooming lenient tovrards him, bnt 'Uniar kept on saying, ^^Enjoin him." 
He therefore enjoined Kais (not to slaughter a carnei). When the 
news of what had befallen the party in the shape of starvation j 
reached the ears of Sa'd, he said, *' If Kais is as I know bim, he will ; 
slaughter (camels) for the party." When Ksjiis carne back, Sa^d met 
bim and asked him» " What did you do in the matter oE the star- 
vation of the party?" and he replied, ^^I slaughtered (a cainel).''J 
Sa'd then satd, ** You acted rightly. What did you donext?" He! 
replied, "I slaughtered (a carnei)." Sa*d said, "You acted rightly;^ 
What did you do next?" He replied, "I slaughtered a carnei." SaM 
said, ^' You acted rightly. Then what did you do next?" He replied, 
*'Iwa8 prohibited (from slaughtering)." SaM asked hiin, "Who! 
prohibited you?" and he replied, "Abù-'Ubaidah, my comniander." 
Sa'd asked, "Why?"andhe replied, "Heasserted thatlhad no 
property and said, ' The property belongs to your father/ upon which 
I said to him, * My father pays the debts of people distant (in con- 
nection), takes up the burdens of ali, and f eeds (people) in a year of j 
fumine, and will he not do this for me ? ' " SuM thereupon said, j 
" There are those four gardens, from the smallest of which we coUect 
(cut) fifty tra^^s of dates." The Badawl then went with Kais, who 
paid to him bis (debt of) xoashSf gave him a beast to rido upon, and a 
Buit of new dothes. The Prophet having board of this action of 
^is said, "Yerily, it is cut of a generous heart I" 

Some say tliat the odoriferous ambergris (aZ-aii/«ar) comes cut 
from the bottom of the sea, is eaten by some of the beasts in it on 
account of its oiliness, is then vomited out by them, and found in a 
state like tlmt of a stono ; the larger masses out of it float on the sea, 
and are then thrown by the wind on the beach. It strengthens the 
heart and the brain, and is useful in hemiplegia, facial palsy, and 
thickness of phlegm. Ibn-Sidah states that ambergris comes out of 
the sea, and that the best kind of it is the ash-coloured variety, then 

|IA.y1t AI1-9AYAWÌK 


the blae varìetyi then the yellow, and then the black. He 

that it ifl mostly foand in the interior of the fish which eat it 

jwhieh die (in oonseqaenoe oE it). Some inerohants assert that 

' "~ on the East of Africa (ftaAr ashZanj) throws it up like 

'akoU of a man, the largest Inmp of it being a thonsand milhl:àls 

[irelghti and that it is mostljr eaten bj fish, which then die; the 

whioh eats it is called al-^anbar. 

(Lawfolness or nnlawfnlness.) Al-MAwardi aud ar-Riijant in 

ofZatdh state that there is no poor-rate tax on anibergris and 

, Abù-Tùsnf States with regard to them that a fifih is the tax 

\m. Al-Uasan, 'Umar b. 'Abd-aPAz!z, 'Abd-AUàh al-'Anbàrf, 

l^ state that it is necessarj to pay a fìftb as the tax on 

whiist ash-SbAfi'l argaes against them, on the strength of 

^ment of Ibn-^Abbàs with regard to ambergris, namely, that 

[ng which the sea throws np and is not foand in a mine, so 

inder it necessary to pay a fifth as a tax on it It is also 

r'related regarding him as having said that there is no poor^ 

on it. Jàbir related that the Prophet said, *' Ambergris is not 

^^ which saying therefore exdades the necessity of paying the 

ie tax on it. Al-M&wardt, ar-Rùyànt, and most of the juris- 

lU state that ambergris is clean. Ash-Shàfi^ states, ** I bave 

one who said, *I bave seen ambergris spring np in the sea, 

like the neck of a goat (or sheep)/ " Some say that it is erigi- 

\ plant having a diffusive odonr in the sea, and that there is a 

in the sea which seeks it, on account of its diffusive odonr, bnt 

Il poison for it ; when that beast eats it, it kills it; the sea then 

the beast out, npon which the ambergris Comes cut oE its 

f; The two (al-Màwardl and ar-RAy&nt) state in Kkdb as-Salam 

it isallowable to make payments in ambergris, but it is necessary 

[niéntion explicitly the vartety and weight of it, for ambergris is oE 

l{^ash-coloured, white, green, and black varietles, and unless the 

lety and weight are mentioned, it is not allowable* Ash-Shàfi't 

itesthat it is allowable to sell ambergris, and that the learned 

ite with regard to it that it is a vegetable product, whiist no part 

a vegetable substance is unlawfnl. He (further) states, ^'OneoE 

[ttiem (the learned) has informed me that having gene cut on the sea, 

was cast on an island, ^here he saw a tree like the neck of a goat 

392 AD-DAlltBrs 

(or sheep); he Eound the fralt of it to be ambergris. He relàtèd, 
* We lef t it alone, so that it miglit grow and then we might take ìt, btKt 
the wind blew hard and threw it into the sea.' ** Aflh-ShftfiM (alsó) 
stateè that fish and the beaste oE the sea swallow it when it first falla 
into the sea, beoanse it is then soft| and that when they swallow it, few 
òf them esoape (death), as it kills them on account of the excessivb 
heating property in it, and when a fisherman therefore takes & 
fish (in that condition) and finds it in ite belly, he thinks it to be a 
part of the fish, bnt it is really speaking the frait of a plant 

(Às to ite properties,) al-Mukhtàr b. ^AbdAn states thàt amber- 
grb is hot and dry, bnt is less so thah mnsk. The best kind of it ia 
the ash-colonred varieiy having a little oiliness in it It strengthena 
the heart and the brain, increases the nervoas fluid, is useful in 
hemiplegia, facial palsy, and thick phlegm, and produces courage, 
but it is injurious to persons suffering from pilcs; ite injnri- 
ous effecte may be warded off by means of carophor and the smeli- 
ing of cucumbers* It suite persons with a cold and moist consti- 
tution and old men. The best timo for using it is winten Some 
say that ambergris is (found) in masses like skuUs, the largest 
of them being a thousand mithkAls in weight, and that they come 
out of springs in the sea and float on the water, upon which birda 
alight on them, eat them, and die. Some say that it is the ex« 
crement of a certain beast, and others say that it is a part of the 
rubbish of the sea. The best kind of it is the ash-coloured variety, 
and the opposite of it the red-coloured variety. It has greasiness in 
it, on account of its having been swallowed by a fish, and it becomea 
free from it at the timo of ite rolling about in the sand. 

>^l (oI-'iliKar).— [The gadfly.] The blue fly. Some say that 
it means flies in an absolute senso. 

It is related in the two fiafiifiis^ on the authority of *Abd-ar- 
Ra^m&n b. Abl-Bakr a8*l^iddi]|p, in a long tradiUon of bis, conteih- 
ing an account of the miracles performed on account of as-^iddt^ 
the purport of which is that as-ipiddi\^ having had a party of guests, 
made them sit down in his place, and went away to the Apostle of 
God. He was rather late in retuming, and when he oame, he asked 
(his people), '* Have you given them their evening meal ?" On their 

PAtIt al-9ataw1k 


Ijiog, '* No/' he tnrned towards bis son 'Abd-ar-Rahm&n and said 
Unii ^ gadfly (^ant4ir),'* prayed against liim fcbat bis nose might 
oot| and reviled bim. In a version it is said, " WoifiV/' of the 
forra. He likened biro to it out of eontempt for bim. Somo 
f that he likened bim to the blue fly, on account of the severe in jury 
inflicts* In most of the traditions the word is given as ganthar^ 
iÌMintng tberebyp ** O base one/' 'Antarah was the name of a man, 
Siamely, *Antarah b. Bbaddàd b. Ha'&wiyab aPAbsì, one of the (cele- 
braied) borsemen, poeta, and lovers ont of the Arabs. He was one 
the (great) beroes of the Time of Ignorance and is proverbially 
bwn for bis ooarage« Slbawaib states that the e; in it is not a 
rvile(additiona]) lettor. 


k^ùU)\ (ai-«iltuia/tt>»— [Tbenightingale.] Thesameasoi- 

^azdr. PI. 'anàdil^ becanse it is first redaced to a quadriliteral word, 

[and f rom it the pi. and the dim. (^unaidil) are ormed. J «^^ Jf V * 

the huUml iinps. How beaatif ni are the lines of Ab&-Sa*ld al- 

|tMa'ayyad b. Maltammad aUAndalasì, the excellent poet, descriptire 

^of a tunbùr I* 

*'A ftaMr beantif al in fona, imitating 
Bj ita olear toond a Dightingale ; 
IVhen it driet, it spetks oat elearìy ; 
- It eoUecta in ito yariation of notes the notea of a fiate. 
So a]ao, wlioever Uvea ia the aociety of the learned aa an infant, 
Becomea when he growa tip a learned ahaikli. 

[The anthor bere gives some more lines of tbis poet, wbich are 
''^here omitted as tbey do not refer to the present snbjecL] He died 
;*in557A. H. . 

(Lawfulness or nnlawfnlnes&) It is lawful to eat it, becanse it 
Is one of the good tbings. 

In dreams, it indicates a clever son. 

J ùÀmJ I (al-* Andai). — A large-beaded carnei. The word is aliko 
^f- nsed botli for the male and the female. 


1 In I^gTpt Pkitomela hudnia, • A kiad of mandoUne wich chorda of 
'brasa wire, which la played with a plectnim.— Laae'a Lex. 

39* ad-dam1rì*s 

y*^l C«^'^nO.— [A she-goat] The female of the common 
goat Pls. a'nug and •««ita. 

Al Bnkbàrt and Abtì-Dlwud relate, on the authority of 'Abd- 
Alllh b. «Amr b. al-'ls, that the Prophet snid,,"There are forty (good) 
actions, the bigbest of which is the lending of a she-goat for milking; 
Jere is no performer of one of them, hoping for ita reward aad 
believing in the pronrise of it, whom God will not cause to enter 
Paradise." Hassin b. «Atljah, the relater (of the traditìon), on the 
anthority of Abtì-Kabshah, says, "We connted ali the actions nnder 
the lending of a she-goat for milking, snch as the retuming of a 
salotation, the blessing of a sneezer, thè removing of a hnrtf ni thing 
from a road, and òthers like those, bat we were not able to reach 
ghe namber of) fifteen of snob actions." Ibn-Battàl states that the 
Prophet has not,mentioned the actions in the tradìtion, but it is well- 
known that he nndoubtedly knew them, and tliat he did not men- 
tion them on account of an objeot, which is more beneficiai to us 
thanhis mentioning them, namely,— but Godknows best,— a fear that 
the special mentioning of them might lead to an abandonment of 
other ineans of kindnoss and doing good, whilst there bave been so 
many instructions inciting and urging(us) to do good and to acts of 
beneficence, given by the Prophet, that their nnmber cannot he 
connted. He (Ibn-Battàl) adda, "I bave board regarding one of 
the men of our times that he prosecnted a search after them in the 
(different) traditions, and found them to exceed forty in namber ; 
he then mentioned them (ali), to the last of them." 

I (the autbor) say that the word ooJJ in ^U;iC4*U 
(blessing a sneezer) may he written either with a Jk (as ^a^lw) 
or with a tr (as *a.4*-3 ), meaning praj/inff for a hle$iing ; the 
former refers to a meeting or unum (after separation), because the 
Arabs say, "Lb»* eamelt met in the patture^ound» 
Some, however, say, that the meaning of it is a prayer for bis Hmbs 
(*»-»jA), which is a name for the extremities. The lattor refers. 
to bis being blest with a good mode of life. 

The anthor of at-Targib waH-Tarhib states in the chaptor 
^a4à' iaioà'ij al-Muslimtn (Satisfying the wants of the Muslims), 
on the anthority of the Gommander of the faithfnl, «AH b. Abl-Tàlib, 



9Ay1t aIì-9ataw1n 395 

[wbo Mid tbat the AposUe of (hA said» *^À Maslìm bas thirty claiius 
bis brotber-Maalinit wbich tbe latter oannot be absolved froni 
^bol bj tbeir falfilment (|)aym6ni;) or pardon. (They are) : — 

l^v : 0) To pardon bis error, (2) to pity (bim) for bis weeping, (3) to 
[Oooooal bis nakedneflSy (4) to forgi ve bis slip at tbe timo of bis slip- 
!j)Ingi (5) to aocept bis apology, (6) to defend bim wben he is slan- 
dered in bis absence, (7) to be constantly giving bim advice, (8) to 
preserve bis friendship, (9) to gaard bis credit, (10) to visit bim 
itn bis illness, (11) to be present at bis deatb, (12) to comply witb bis 
reqoest, (13) to aocept bis present, (14) to givo a present (to bim) 
eqoal to bis present, (15) to tbank bim for bis favour, (16) to do a 
good action for bis belp, (17) to protect bis wife, (18j to accomplish 
llls want, (19) to intercede on bis behalf in tbe matter of a tbing he 
iiks for, (20) to aocept bis intercession, (21) not to disappoint (bim) in 
is object, (22) to bless (bim) at tbe timo of bis sneezing, (23) to seek 
òr bis lost animai or tbingt (24) to return bis salatation (greeting), 
(25) to consider bis conversation (words) pleasant, (26) to increase a 
'gitt for bim, (27) to believe in bis oatbs, (28) to belp bim, wbether be 
be acting wrongfally or baving a wrong dono against bim; as to 
[tho belp for bim, if be is a wrong-doer, it is to check bim in bis 
^Vrong-doing, and as to tbe belp for bim, if he is baving a wrong 
l^one against bim, it is to belp him in taking bis right, to befriend 
'bim, and not to be inimicai towards bim ; (29) to save him and not 
^to abandon him, and (30) to wish good for bim, in the sanie 
f nanner tbat one wishes it for himself. and to bato ovil for him, in the 
same manner tbat one hates it for himself." He then said, " I bave 
heard tbe Àpostle of 6od say^ ' If any of yoa sets aside any of the 
olaims of bis brother-Mnslinii tbe latter will demand it of him oii 
'tbe Day of Judgment.' " Then *Àli said, ^' If any of yoa omita to 
'bless bis brother-Muslim wben be sneezes, the latter will demand 
tbat claim from bim on the Day of Judgment, and it will be decreed 
In bis favour and against tbe former.'* These together with thosc 
oalonlated by Hassun b. *A(lyab come up collectively to more than 
forty (good) actions. 

(Information.) Abù'l-^&sim Snlaimàn b. Abmad at-Tabari re* 
lates in Kiidb ad^Da^wàt^ giving bis authorities, on tbe authority of 


396 AD-DAHtRfS 

Sawaid b. QmfLixh, Vlio said, '< 'Alt b. Àbt-Tàltb baviog been 
want of food, said to Fàtimab, ^If yoa go to the Propbet, (it Vi 
be better)/ So, sbe went to the Prophet, who was at the time ' 
Umm-Ayman, and knocked at the door, npon which the Pro] 
said to Umm-Àyman, * This knocking is, yerily» that of Farine 
She has come at a time, at the like of which she is not in the h 
oE coming to ns. Get np, therofore, and open th^ door for ber/ Ui 
Ayman therenpon got up and opened the door for ber, and k 
she entered, the Prophet said to ber, * Fà^tmab, you bave, ve 
4M>me to ns at a time at the like of which yon are not in the habi 
•coming to ns.* She said, ' Apostle of Qod, the food of these an 
js the celebration of the praises (of God), and the declaration of ( 
praises and boliness ; but what is onr food ?* The Prophet tfa 
npon replied, ' By Him who has sent me with the Trath, no fire 
been kindied in the houses of the peoplo of Mn^ammad for the 
tbirty days, bat we bave (now) received some sbe-goats ; if yon ¥ 
I shall order five of them to he given to yon, or if yon wìhIi, I e 
teach yon five expressions which Ghibriel has a short wbile 
tanght me.' She said, * Teach me the five (expressions) which C 
riel has tanght yon.' The Prophet then said, ^Say, *^0 Thoa, 
first of the first ones I Thon, the last of the last ones I 1 
possessing mighty power I Thon the pitier of the poor ! 7 
the Compassionato of the compassionato I '' ' She thon went ai 
came to 'Ali b. Abi«TAlib, and said to him, * I went away from 
to this world and bave bronght to yon the future world,' and i 
mentionod to him ali that had passed, npon which he said, ' 
best of yonr days, the best of yonr days I ' " 

In IGtdb fiafwat at-ta^towuf by the Hàfij Abù'l-Fadl Mnb 
tnad b. JAhir al-Makdist, it is related that Jàbir b. 'Abd-i 
baving (one day) come to the Apostle of God, the lattor said to 1 
"** Jàbir, bere are eleven sbe-goats in the house ; are they de 
to yon, or certain expressions which Gabriel has a little wbile 
tanght me and which will unito for you this and the future world 
JAbir replied, ''0 Apostle of God, I am in need, but these express 
are dearer to me." The Prophet thereupon said, *' Say, * ( 
Thon art the creator, the knowing I God, Thon art forgia 
and demont 1 God, Thon savest (men) from acts of disobedic 

id «ri meroifal 1 Gk>«I, Tbou art the Lord of the gr«at Throne ! 
God, Thoo art the beneficent, the libera], the merciful onet For- 
It« me (my siasX have meroy on me, render me soond and stronir 
^ nake me prosperoos, blesa me with the means of sustenance, direct 

?« in the right ooorse, aave me, grant me heallh, cover (wnceal) 
j fanlta, do not lead me astray, and cause me to enter Paradise, 
|g Thy meroy, Compassionate of the compassionate ones ! " Jàbir 
Mtted, « He continned repeating them, nntil I committed them to 
^emory. The Prophet then said. ' Leam them and teach them after 
rton.' Hethensaid, <0 JAbir, cpnvey them with yon.' I bare ao- 
yDordingly oonveyed them with me." 

It la related in the commenUry (of the l^nr'àn) of al-Kushairi 
other oommentarìes that, when Abraham fled for refui^e with his 
Iihmael and his (son's) mother Hàjir to Makkah. he happened to 
^ I by a party of the Amalekites, who gave Ishmael a present of 
iraahe-goats. Ali the she-goats of Makkah are their proireny 
pia resembles what has been already related regarding the pieeona 
Al the sacred precincts, nainely, that they are ali the progeny of the 
two pigeons which bnilt nests over the Prophet in the cave. 

;^.: (Fnrlher informatìon.) The Prophet said, «Two she-goats will 
ttot smite each other with their horns over it." The reason of 

^- fr^*.*^'*/^ *^^ * """""" ^"'" Khutmah, whose name 
«ras Af mft bmt Marwàn, ont of the Beni-Uniayyah, used to incito 
[people) against the Moslims, annoy them, and compose poema 
Igainst them. 'Umair b. *Adt therefore mode a vow to God that, 
K God cansed Hia Apostle to return safely from Badr, he wouli 
UII ber. When the Apostle of God returned from Badr, 'Umair 
Obcked ber in the middle of the night and killed her. He then 
folned the Prophet and said the morning prayer with hìm. When. 
flie- Prophet gotup to enter his assembly-room, he asked 'Umair 
h..'Adt, "Have you killed 'Asma'?" and he replied, «Yes; is 
pure anytbing due from me on account of slaying her?" u'pon 
»Uoh the Prophet said, «Two she-goats will not smite each other 
irltil their horns over it." The 6rst time this saying was heard. 

■ -., ' ^J*"*'* to a case in «hioh there wiU not h.ppen any diaconi or con^ 
•aUon.— Se« Lane's Lex. ut ^ 

398 AD-DAHtRÌ'S 

was {rem bis lips, and it ia one of the concise, novel, ani 
nniqne sayings, snob as bad never before been beard. 

Similar in tbis respect are bis sayings:—'* Tbe oven is beaied." 
*< He died npon bis bed/'* *' À believer is not stnng or bitten twic 
in tbe same bole." *' borsemen of God, moant." " Tbe cbild is fo 
the owner of tbe bed, and f or tbe adalterer tbere is disappointment' 
'* Every kind of game is in the belly of tbe wild a^s.''* " War i 
(finisbed by) a single act of deceif* ''Àvoid y'e tbe beautifii 
woman that Ì8 of bad origina' ' Verily, of wbat tbe (rain, or th 
season called) spring (d^ij) canses to grow, is wbat kills by inflation o 
tbe belly, or nearly does so."' '* Tlie Helpers are my compan 
and my anxiliaries."^ ^^ Nothing brings an injary npon a man but hi 
own band/' *'He is powerfal, wbo overcomes bimself at th 
timo of anger." ^* Tbere is no Information like that (acqaired) b 
sight" *^ Sitting in assemblies is to be witb confidence (not to revei 
secrets)/' '^ The ( giving witb tbe) npper band is better than tb 
(taking witb tbe) lower band." ^^ AfSiction bas for its agent speaking. 
^ Men are like tbe teeth of a comb." ''The abandonment of evil i 
(an act of) alms-giving." *^ What disease is tbere greater than nij 
gardliness ?" '* Actions are (to be jadged) by motives." ^* Modest 
(senso of sbame) in every respect (tbe wbole of it) is good.V ** A fab 
oatb leaves bonsea vacant (void)." '^The obiefof a tribe is thei 
slava" ^ Tbe excellence of learning is \>etter than the excellence e 
divine worship." ** In tbe forelocks of borses is tied good.'* '' Tfa 
qnickest of ali tbings is tbe panishment of an adulteress." *' Veri)] 
of poetry, tbere is wisdom."* ^ Health and leisare are two blessinj 
in respect of which many men are deceived." ^^The intentio 
(motivej of a believer is better than bis action." ^^-The intentio 
(motive) of a bypocrite is worse than bis action," *^ The chil 
belongs to tbe bosband." ^ Help in the accomplisbment of wanl 
by meansof concealment." ^' Every happy person is envied." ''(Tb 
practisers of ) guile and deceit are in Hell-fire." '^ He wbo givet i 
false advice is not one of us." *^One wbo is consulted is trusted. 

^ Meaning that the war ia nging. « He died a naturai death. * 8< 
Lane*! Lez. art ^[|i. « For tbe fonr different meanings of it, see l4inc'8Le 

art fùJL^ • Idem art.^^. • Idem art h^, ' Idem art. J^ 

• For the different readinga of it, see Lane's Lex. art. ^^ . 


/^Bepentanoe is retarning from sin." ** A person guiding (one) 
' to a good action ia like a doer of it** ^^ Tour love for a thing 
Ir renderà (yon) blind and deaf/* ^A loan has to be retnmed." 
And "The giving of aaaaranoe oE aafety inhibits slaying or assanlt- 
[ Ing una wares/' Tbere are similar otber sayings oE the Prophet. 
\ The Apostle of Qod apecially mentioned a ahe-goat in exclusion of 
.other kinda of goata and sheep, because a sbe-goat diaws near 
^«inother ahe-goat and then parta from it ; its smiting vilh (ita) 
, boms ìb not like the smiting with homs of rama and othera. 

Ibn-Duraid relates that when «Adi b. Uàtim killed 'Uthmàn, 
he said, ^ Two ahe-goata will not strike eacb other with their horns 
oyer it" Bnt when the battio of the Carnei took place, bis eye 
was puUed out, and he was told» *« Two sbe-goats will not anite each 
^ other with their homa over the murder of «Uthm&n/* upon which 
-he aaid, ** Yes, many eyes will (stili) be puUed ouL" Tbis narrative 
[ has been thus related by Ibn-Isb&l^ ad-Dimyati, and otbers. 

It is related, on the authority of Abù-Hunurah| who said, «* The 
speaker of trnth regarding what is believed to be true (cJj a^aJ l j ^U), 
'AbùM-l^im (the Prophet), informed me that the first dispute 
t to be decided on the Day of Judgment will be that of two sbe*goatS| 
*" (one) with homs and (die other) without boms.'' Tbis is related 
'by at-T<Lbarànt in his Mu*jam al-awiati but Jàbir al-Ju^fl| who is a 
^weak authority, is given in it as an authority. 

(Lawfulness or unlawfulness.) It is lawful. It roay be given 
as compensation or penalty for a gazelle, if a person in the state of 
\ifirdm kills the latter. The verification of it will be given under the 
lettor ^. 

(Proverbs.) The saying of the Prophet, " Two sbe-goats will not 
smite each otber with their homs over it/' has been already given 
above in the tradition. It means that even two weak ones will not 
meet each other in a fight over the affair, because smiting with 
homs is a work of stallion or ram-goats and sbeep and not that of 
.sbe-goats. It is said^ in allusion to any particular case, over 
: which tbere would be no difference or dispute. *« Such a man is 
more given to emitting wind from the anus with a sound than a 
sbe-goat." ** A sbe-goat, having every kind of disease," appKed to a 


L • 


' 4 

y 4 

400 AD-DAMiRt's 

man and a beast having many faalU, AUFas&ri states that a she** 
goat b sabject to ninety-nine diseasest 

In the following linea of a poet, the word al^^anz means a f amale 

eagle : — 

(«When a Iemale eagle (aZ-*a»i) hangs down from a lerel i^round 
In the forenoon, hungry and horering roand and round." 

(Properties.) If the bile of a she-goat he mized with sai* 
ammoniao and then applied over any part of the body after palling^ 
oàt the hair from it, no hair will over grow over it again. AristoQe 
states that if the bile of a she-goat he mixed with the eoinmon leek 
(kurràih) and then applied over a part from whioh hair has been 
pnlled out, no hair' will over grow over it again. If its shank he 
waslied (with water), and that water be gìven to one saffering from 
incontinence of urine to drink, it will core him of it. If anything 
be written with its milk, the writing will not show itselt, but if ashea 
are sprinkled over it, it will show itself. Hnrmns states that i£ the 
brain of a she-goat and the blood of a hyena, of each the weight of 
a dànabi be taken together with two grains weight of camphor and 
kneaded tx)gether, taking the name of any man, the spirit of love 
will be produced in that man, if it be given to him to eat. If one 
takes of its bile the weight of a rfanajfe, the sanie weight of its blood, 
and halt a ddnak weight of the brain of a black eat, and gived the 
mixture (oE Uiem) to eat to a man, the latter will lose ali sexual 
appetite and will not go near a womannntil its effect is nentralized, 
which can ho dono by giving him to drink the rennet of a female 
gazelle in the milk of a she-goat, both of them being warm (at the 

KfjXjJì [(aWUnAub). — A male locust. AU^tmìah is a dia- 
lectical variety of it Al-Kasà'l states that it is called al-'undab^ 
al-'undàb and aU'umiiib. Fem. 'undubah PI. of the masa 'anàdib. 

A poet says : — 

<« Heada of male locusta (aniiib) like drìed grape?." 
PI. of the fem. 'undùbàt. It is given in the hook of Slbawaih aa 

* ^ -»OJ 

A) IjiiiJ t (al-^ VnAuvD&naK). — A female locnst. PI. 'tindutrdnd^ 
The subject of locnsts has nlready been treated of under the lettor ^ . 

9a.t1t aIi-9ATaw1k 401 

i*AnÌde muarìb) and ij>U»taS (*Anì^' mìi$ribah),* 

l the words indioating do meaning. One of the anthoritiea 
it Ì8 a oertatn rare bird that lays eggs like monntaias, 
very Jìigh in ita flight. Some say. that it is so called, 
ere is rooiid its neck whiteness like a ring (oollar). Some 
is a certain bini found in the plaoe oE the setting of 

izwìnt stated that it is the hirgest of * (ali) birds in body 
nd that it seises an elephant in the manner that a kite 
i or monse* It used to he (fonud) in anoient times among 
to molest them, nntil one day having deprived a bride 
aments, the prophet Uanjalah prayed against it, npon 
d oarried it away to one of the islands of the oeean 
I Equator, an island to which no man can go, and which 
any animals like the elephant, the rhinoceros, the baflhla, 
id ali the other species of beasts and birds oE prey. At 
of its flyiug, a soand is heard coming from its wings 
ise of loud thander and a torrente It lives for two thoa* 
^ and pairs (takes a mate) when it is five handred years 
in it is the time for it to lay eggs, it becomes serìously ili. 
il Uien giires a long description of it. * 

>tle states in an^Nu^iU that ^ankd* tnìfgrib is sometimes 

d that oat oE its talons largo bowls for drinking are 

le mode oE seizing it is this : — Two bnlls are made to 

between them a calE is placed, ali of them being weighted 

ttaching big stones to them ; opposite the calf a small 

ùlt, in which a man hides himself with some fire with 

^ankéP then alights on the two bulls to snatch them away, 

once) it fixes its talons in the two bnlls or one of them, 

le to pulì the bnlls away on account of their being 

lown by means of heavy stones, and is (also) nnable to 

[on acconnt of a desire) to save its talons. Tlie man (in 

Ihereupon oomes ont with the fire, and bnms its wings. 

tle) states thàt ^al-ankc^ has a belly like that of a bui! and 

Chap. XX, Note 2S, Lane's T. of Tbe ThouBand and One NighU 

402 ad-dahìbì'b 

bones like those oE the beasta of prej, and that it is the lar^ 
(ali) the birds of prey. 

The Imam, the very learned AbA'l-Ba^* al-*X7kbarl sta 
Bharli al^Makdmdt (commentary on the assemblies of al-^ 
that in the land of the people of ar-Bass, there was a morà 
called Hakh, rising in the sky to the height of abont a mile ; tìm 
Qsed to be many birds on it, and there was also on it tlie bird 'aaJHJ 
which waa huge in sise with a face like that of a man and a reseiì 
blanoe to ali animala in it It waa one of the good birds. It nsed 1 
come to this mountain once a year and pick np the birds on it, bt 
being ataryed one of the years, and finding the birds scarcci it pouncc 
npon a boy and carried him away, and it then carried away a * gii 
npon which the people oomplained of it to their prophet ^anjalà 
b. $afwàn, who prayed against it A thnnderbolt therenpon fell on j 
and it was bnrnt. ^anjalah b. I^afwàn flonrished in the interri 
between the time of Jesus and that of Muhammad. Another anthi 
rity States that the mountain was called Fatb, and that aWanh^ wi 
so called on account of the length oE its neck. The people the 
killed their prophet, and God thereEore destroyed them. 

As-Suhailt states in al^Ta*Af xodUIUm regarding the words i 
God, *^And (how many) a deserted well and lofty palace I '' ^ that t] 
well was the well called ar-Rass and was situated in Aden; it belong< 
to a people out oE Thamùd, who had a just and upright king (rulic 
over them) called al*'Alas. The well used to snpply water to the who 
of the city, the surrounding open country, and ali the beasts, shee; 
goats, cows, and other aniipals that were in it There were mar 
reservoirs attached to it, and a great many men were delegated to lo( 
aEter it ; there were vessels oE marble, and many oE the reservoirs r 
sembled tanks ; men used to fili water out of them, whilst there we 
others Eor beasts ; there were men appointed to watoh over them al 
Men used to draw water night and day, going Eorwards and bad 
wards. The people had no other water , beside that The kinj 
perìod oE life became a long one, but when death did come, th< 
anointed him with oil, so that bis f eatures might remain. (unaltered 
and he might not get changed (in appearance). They used to do ih 

« AUfur'to XX1I.44. 




il of iheir dead, if they were persons ibat baci been kind to 
lien the king died, the affiiir beoame a difficnlt one vfìùi 
tliey were of opinion that iheir case bad become a dis» 
ione. Tbey therefore raised a dainour witb tbeir crying. 
dng tbis oorìfoflion on tbeir part as an opportanity, entered 
ly of tbe king niany days afker bis death, and informed tbem 
had not died, and tbat be wonld never die ; be added, '' I 
ily absented myself from yoa to see yoar action." Tbey were 
Oy deliglited at ibis» and be ordered bis principal people to place 
' between tbemselves and biin tbat be niigbt speak witb 
^from bebind it, so tbat tbe signs of deatlì inigbt not be 
In bis featnres. Tliey tbns set biin np as an idol bebind a 
fn, and be informed tbem tbat be wonld never eat, drink, or die, 
it be wonld serve as a deity for tbem. Ali tbis, Satan used 
tbroiigb bis monili (tongne), and many of tbem believed it 
true, wbilst some of ibem doabt«d it, but the nnml)er of the 
srs wbo denietl bim (to be a deity) was less than tbat of ibose 
)lieved in bim. Wbenever a (gooil) adviser ont of them 
be nsed to be reproved and coerced. Tbus infidelity spread 
ig tliem, and tbey took to worshipping bim. God iben seni to 
\\ a propbet, wbo used to receive tbe revelation in bis sleep 
never in bis waking state ; bis name was Hanjalab b. ^afwdn. 
[nforined them tbat tbe imago was (only) an idol, witbout any 
it, tbat Satan bad led them astray, tliat God, — celebrated be 
^raises I — never representoil Himself by means of a form, and 
it was not allowable to hold tbe king to be a partner witb God. 
^xborfred them, advi.sed tbem, and ^arned them of the power of 
Ir. Lord nnd His vengeance. Bnt tbey molested bim and treated 
inimically, fbougb be useil to exhort Hiem and givo ibem goo<l 
», nntil at hist they killt^d bim, and ibrew bim into a wcll. 
the vengeance of God descended on them ; they went to sleep 
night satisfied and satiated as regards water, bnt fonnd in the 
*ning tbat the water of the well htid sunk into the earth, and ita 
:et*rope wus nseless. They ali tlien screamed oiit, the women 
id children clamoured for water, and tbey and their cattle were 
[led witb thirst, so mach so tbat ali of them dicd and were des- 
They were suoceedod in tbeir land by the beasts of prey, and 


404 àd-damìri'b 

in their hoases by foxes and byenas, whilst their gardens beca 
cbanged into jujube trees and the thorn tnigacanth ; nothing^ 
to be heard in it but tbe humming sound of genii and the roaring 
lious. We seek refuge with God from His power, and from 
sistence in actions which deserve His vengeance t 

As-Snhailt states that as regards the lof ty palace, it was 
palace which Shaddàd b. *Ad b. Irain had buiU, the liko oE which 
never been buìlt among those that are inentioned. Its state (too' 
became like the state of this well, being converted into a wildemeg 
aEler its having been the abode of men and becoming desolate after 
its having been inhabited (by men) ; nobody is able to approodi 
it for miles» on account of the humming sound of genii and othér 
abominable sounds (in it), after the hnppiness, amplitude of meau 
of sustenance, and the arrangement of the people in it like a strioj 
of beads (which existed in it at one timo). They bave ali gone and 
not retumed I God has mentioned them in this verse by way of ai 
exhortation, a remembrance, and a warning against the result ol 
disobedience to Him and the evil oonseqnence of opposition to Him 
We take refuge with God from that ! 

Mubammad b. Isb&t relates, on the authority of Mubamma( 
b. Ka^b al-^radt, who said that the Àpostle of God said, ** Thi 
first one out of men to enter Paradise on the Day of Judgment vril 
be a black slave, the narrative regarding whom is this : — God sen 
a prophet (once) to a certain town, but none of the people of it, ex 
cepting that black slave, believed in him. Then the people of tha 
town ireated that prophet in an inimicai manner, and afte 
digging a well threw him into it, and then a largo stono over him 
That black slave used to go and collect wood, carry it on his back, ani 
sell it ; and then buying food and drink with its pricos he used'l 
come to that well and raise the stono (from over the prophet), Qo 
helping him to do that. He then used to let down with a rope tb 
prophet's food and drink, and then to resterò the stono to its propc 
place. He continued doing that as long as God wished ; then on 
day having gone out to collect wood as was his wont, he collectc 
the wood, tied its btindle, and finished doing that. When he desirc 
to lift it, he was overtaken by slumber ; be therefore lay down e 
his back and slept. God caused him to sleep for seven years. E 

hatIt al-qatawìk 405 

Md tarning to bis other side lay down again, upon whidi 

^(égain) canaed him to sleep for seven years. He then rose np 

Jlfted np the bundle and did not tbink that be liad slept bnt for 

ir oot of the day. He carne to the town^ and selling bis ban- 

rarebased some food and drink* He tben went to the well and 

for the prophet, hot conld not find bim, for tbere bad bap- 

to bis people what bappened, and tbey bad taken bim (oafc 

[die well), believed in biin, and tiiken bis word to be trae ; the 

ibet nsed to ask tbem regarding that black slave as to what 

done to bim, bat tbey nsed to reply, ' We do not know ; ' that 

^pbet tben died, after which God ronsed that black slave from bis 

tiep.^ The Prophet said, '* That black slave wiU be tbe first ona 

enter Paradise/* 

I (the aatlior) say that, beoanse it is mentioned in tbis tradition 

t tbey believed in tbeir prophet, wbòm tbey took out of the pit, 

ere need not be two meanings of tbe words of Qod, ** And the 

le of ar-Rass/'^ for God informed regarding tbe people of ar- 

ss that He bad entirely destroyed tbem ; bnt tbey may bave been 

éstroyed for the innovations which tbey adopted after tbeir prò- 

het, whom tbey bad taken ont of the pit and wboni tbey bad believ- 

d in. This may be taken as one view (of it). 

Ibn-Eh. States, '* I bave seen in tbe History of Abmad b. 'Abd- 
llah b. Abmad al-Fargànt, a settler in Egypt, thataPAztz b. NizAr 
w al-Mu'izz,* the lord of Egypt, bad coUected strnnge animais witb 
Im, sQch ns were not in a collection witb anybody else. Out of 
vbese animais was an ^anìtd\ abird that bad come to him from Upper 
!Ègypty it was of the length of a baldshdn (heron), but bigger than it 
in body. It bad a board, and there was a hood on its head ; tbere 
^ere several colonrs and points of resemblance to many birds in it." 

It has been al ready mentioned, on the anthority of az-Zamakb- 
sbarl, that al^anlUV having ceased to procreate, is now extinct in tbe 
world. It is related towards the end of Rabi^uH'^Lbràr in the chapter 
iip-fajfr (birds), on the anthority of Ibn-'Abb&s, wbo said that God 
breated in the ti me of Moses a certain bird called al^^ankc^t whicb 

^: • 

ft t Al-^ur'Aa XX \r.40. • De Siane in his T. of lbii.Kh.>8 B. D. gives 
Ihis name as Niz&r (entitled) «l-<Ax!s b. al-Mu*izz. 



. r 


bad foar ^ings on eaoh side and a faoe like that of a man 
Ood gave it a share of everything, and He created for it a mali 
mate like il. He tben told Moses in an inspiration, ^*I hatl 
created two wondertul birds and appointed, as tbeir ineans te 
snstenance, tbe wild animals wbicb abonnd round about Jertl» 
alem. I bave appointed tbem, as a tbing in addition to whai 
I bave already given tbe Beni-IsrA'iL" Tbey tben procreated, ani 
tbeir progeny became largo. Wben Moses died, tbese birds removec 
(from Jerusalem) and aligbted in Najd and al-Hijàz. Tbey nsed ooh 
tinually to eat wild animals, and snatcb away cbildren, antil Kb&li( 
b. Sinàn aPAbst ont of tbe Beni-^Abs assnmed tbe propbetic office 
wbicb was before tbe timo of tbe Propbet. Tbe people baving coni 
plained to bim oE the annoyance tbey received from tbe bird, fai 
prayed agaioat it, upon wbicb it ceased to procreate, and becaroi 

eztinct, so tbat it is not to be found in tbe wotld (now). 


In Kitàb cU^Bad^ by Ibn-Abl-Ebaitbamab, tbere is mentici 
made of Kbàlid b. Sinàn and bis propbetic mission. He stntes tba 
tbe angel delegated for bim was M&lik, tbe guardian of HelUfire 
One of tbe signs of bis propbetic mission was that be tarned away j 
certain fire called the fire o^tm'{/brtun^« (cili^^lj^) wbicb use^ 
to come ont of tbe desert and consume men and beasts, and whici 
tbey were nnable to tnrn away ; after that it never carne ont again 
Tbe commentator pf ai-Fu fHf by Ibn-aPArabi bas given a strangi 
narrative abput biu) after bis deatb, an allnaion to a part of whicI 
will be made in the art.^^AJ l . 

Ad-Dàra^ntni relates that the Apostle of 6od said, *^Theri 
was a propbet wbom bis people cansed to perish (or beheaded witl 
a sword »s Aai^ )** « meaning thereby Ehàlid b. SinAn. Another learn 
ed man states tbat bis daughter went to tbe Propbet, npon which hi 
spread ont for ber bis mantle-sbeetand said, ** Welcome to thedaugh 
ter of a good propbet I'* or words like tbese. Al-Kaw&shf, az 
Zamakbsbarì, and otbers state that tbere flonrisbed between tbe ti ine o 
Jesus and tbat of Mubammad four prophets, three of wbom were on 
of tbe Beni-Isra'il and one cut of Uie Arubs, niiniely, Kbalid b. Sinai 

\ The mode of his death Is given di£ferently in Mirkhond'f Uistoiy.- 
8ee Behatsek's T. Pi. I, Voi li, p. 227. 

H • ' 


9ay1t al^atìlwIk 


AI-Bagawt| however, siates that there was no prophet be- 
tho86 two prophets (Jesas and Mahammad). 

The IPldl al-Fàdil nsed to recite these linea often : — 

^^'If the e/et of Foriane regurd you with eonsideratioii, 
Bleep, for eli dangeroue placet tre then ttfe ; 
With li 7oa ma/ chete al-^ankà*, for it it then a net (io /onr htod), 
And with it joxl me/ letd tl-JawzàS for it it then a bridle (in /our hand).*' 

[^It haa been already etated in the art. yUUJl (the eagle) that it 

at bird whioh Abù*i- Ala* al-lfa^arrt means in hit linee : — 

*«lt it al-Umla^ too big to be ehated ; 
Oppote him, whom /ou cen oope with iu oppoaition/* 

(Proverba.) A calamitj QankéP mugirib) oarried him off (aoared 

[th him),'* applied to one regarding whom there is no hope lefL 

poet aaya : — 

•'Libenlit/, al-gàL, end al-^ankà*, the third, 
1^ N Are ntmea of thinga whioh tre net foand and never eziated." 

kéae linea will again be mentioned in the art. Jj^ I • 

(Interpretation of it in dreama.) An *anftà* in a dream indicates 
'^digniRed man, a heretic, one who doea not aaaociate with anybody. 
[e who dreama of an 'anfuC apeaking to him, will obtain wealth 
[meuna of anatenance) f rom a khallfah, and may perhapa become bis 
ttr. He who monnta an ^anfccC (in a dream), will overpower a per- 
having no eqnal. He who hnnta and aeizea it will marry a beanti- 
fol woman. An *ankd* may aoinetimea be interpreted to niean a 
^nrageout aon for one who haa aeized it in (a dream) and haa a 

^gnanl' wife. 

^ ^* .^— - 

f «t^jACxAJi {(d-'AnkabUt). — [The apider.] A certain amali animai 
i weavea a web in the air. PI. ^andkUp. Maac. ^ankab. Ita aobri- 
||neta are ahù-khaithamcLh and al/A-lta$h^am ; the aobriqnet of the 

Je ia wnin^kash^am. The meaanre oE the word ia «si^Uaì . 

It poaseaaea ahort lega and big eyea, each individua 1 having 
ight lega and aix eyea. When it deairea to aeize fliea, it alighta oa 
ihe ground and ia motionleaa in ita limba, and then contracting ita 
body ponncea on the fly, not miaaing it. Plato atatea that the grcedi- 
of thinga ia the fly, and the moat contented oE thinga ia the 
àpider. Thna God haa appointed the anatenance oE the moat oontent- 

408 AD-DAHtRt's 

ed of tbinga to be the greediest of things* Celebrated be the praisès] 
oftbe BouDtifal and Enowing Onel Tbis speoies is called oikA 
dhihàb (fly-catcbing spider). Tbere is a species (of the spider)! 
wbich is iuclined to be reddish in oolonr, has down on it, and fonr 
spines on its head, with which it wonnds (bites) ; it does not weave a 
web, bnt bniids its nest in the ground, and comes forth at nightj 
like the rest of the creeping things of the earth {aUhawàmm). Ano*] 
ther species of it is ar*rutaild\ which has been already /describedì 
nnder the lettor j. ] 

^^ . M 

Al-Jà^i j states that a yonng one of the spider is (even) more 
wonderfnl than a chicken, which comes into the world prepared to^ 
pbtain its noarishment and ready dressed in feathers, becaase the: 
former is, from the moment of its birth, able to weave (its web) with-; 
cut any instrnction or teaching, and to lay egga and batch them.; 
'When it is first born, it is a small worm, and af terwards it alters (in 
form) and becomes a spider, assnming the complete form in threeJ 
days* It takes a long timo over the act of treading ; when the male . 
desires to bave connection with the f emale, it draws some of the 
threads of its web from the middle of it, and when it does that, the 
female also does likewise, and the two keep on drawing near each 
other, nntìl they get entangled with each other, the belly of the male 
coming to be opposite to that of the female. This species of spiders 
is a wise one, a part of its wisdom consisting in its eztending the 
warp and then working the woof, beginning from the middle.^ 
It prepares a place for (holding) what it may seize as prey in another' 
place, like a magazine. When anything falls into its web and moves '] 
abont, it goes to it and weaves over it nntil it tires it; and when it 
knows it to bave become weak, it takes it to its magazin& If its prey ^ 
happens to makeaholein the web, it retarns to it and rej^airs it.' 
It does not take cut the snbstance with which it weaves from its inside, 
bnt from ontside the skin ; its month is bored thronghont its length. 
This species always weaves its web (house) of a triangolar sbape^and 
the capaci ty of the honse is just enoogh to conceal its body. 

(Information.) Ath-Tba'labt, Ibn-^A^iyah, and others relate, 
tracing the tradition to the originai relater of it, regarding 'Alt b« 
Abl-Tàlib as having said, ** Clear your houses of spiders' webs, for 
the leaving of them in houses gives rise to poverty.'' 




HATàT al-hatawak 


It 18 relaied in the MaràM of Àbù-Dàwnd, on tha antliorìly of 
^àsld b. Mazyadi that the Prophet aaid^^^Tbe spider is a devil ; 
Tore kill it." It is given in the Kdnùl oE Ibn-'Adt, in Uie bto- 
tphy of Maslamah h *Ali al-Ehashnt, on the anthority o( Ibn- 
[*tJniar» in these words : — ^The Prophet said, *'The spider is a devil, 
érhom Ood has transformed (into tliat form) ; therefore kill it." But 
it is a tradition delivered on stender anthority. Yasìd b. Masyad 
aUHamadAnt aft-^n^ànt ad-Dimash]^t had seen and met 'Ubàdah b. 
af-$&nìit and ShaddAd b. Àws ; he it was who said, ** By God, were 
Ood to threaten me that if I rebelled (against Him) He wonld 
imprìson me in the bath-room, it wonld he proper that no eye shonld 
remain dry on my acconnt." Having been once called upon to iake 
np the function of a kid!, he sat in the market eating, and thns saved 
himself from them. 

; Àbù-Nn*aim relates in ai^Pilyah^ in the biography of Mnjahid, that 

* he imi with regard to the words of Qod, " Wberesoe'er ye he, death 

J.will overlake yoa, thongh ye were in lofty towers.*'*: — " There was a 

oertain woraan among a people who flourished before you, and she 

had a servant in ber service. She happened to give birth to a girl, 

ànd so, said to the servant, ^ Get some fire f or ns,' upon which he went 

; ont and fonnd a man at the door. The man asked him, MVhat has 

Ithis woman givon birth to ?' and the servant replied, *To a girl' The 

rman therenpon said, * As to this girl, she will not die, nntil she will 

'bave committed ad al tory with a hnndred men ; this woman's hired 

^servant will eventnally marry ber, and ber death will he caused 

;throagh a* spider.' The hired servant said to himself, ^ By God, I do 

not wish to liave ber (as a wife), after she will bave committed adul- 

tery with a hnndred men. I shall therefore kill ber.* He then took a 

Iknife, ànd going inside ripped open the girUs nbilomen ; he^ then im- 

'•mediately went forth on the sea. The girPs abdominal wonnd was 

: stitched np, and she was treated medically and enred. She then 

grew np into a yonng woman, and became one of the handsomest 

women of ber timo ; she nsed to commit fornication, and happened 

to visit one of the coasts of the sea, where she remained committing 

. fornication. The hired servant remained awsiy as long as it pleased 

God, and then he happened to arrivo on that coast with a large 

» Al-Kar»aii IV.80. 


». » » 


410 AD-DAldlti's 

quantity of goods. He said to a woman oat of the people of the 
ooast^ * Searoh for me the handsomest woman ìq the town. I aliali 
marrj her.' She replied, * There is a woman here who is on^ of the 
handsomest of mankind» bnt she is a whore/ He said to her, * firing 
her to me.* So, she went to her and said, 'A man has arrived wilh 
a considerable qaantitjr of goods and said to me sach and snoh a 
thing, and I have replied by saying sach and sach a thing/ apon 
which she said, * I have given np prostitution, bnt if he^' wishes, I 
shall marry him.* He then married her, and she attained a very 
high position in his estimation; he loved her esoessively. While 
he was one day with her, he informed her.of his history, apon which 
she said, * 1 am that girl,' and showed him (the mark of) the slit in 
her abdomen. She then said, ' I nsed to oommit fornication, bnt do 
not know if I bave committed it with a handred men or less or more.' 
He said, * The man informed me that her death wiil be caased 
throagh a spider.* He therefore bailt for her a tower in the desert 
and made it a lof ty one. While they were one day in that tower, 
they saw a spider in the roof, npon which he said, ^ Tbis is a spider,' 
and she replied, ' What, wilI this one kill me P Nobody will kill it 
bnt myself.' She then caased it to move, npon which it fell down ; 
then going to it, she placeJ the great toe of her foot ou it. She 
then oroshed it, and its poison entered between the nail oE her toe 
and her flesh ; her foot then havihg mortified she died. God there- 
fore reveaied this verse, **Wheresoe'er yebe, death willovortake yoa, 
ihongh ye were in lofty towers." " Many of the commentators of 
the Kar'An state that this verse was revealed in regard to the atheists 
(hypocrites), who said in respect of the slain at the battio of Uhad, 
** Had they been with as, they woald not bave died, nor woald they 
bave been slain." God therefore replied to them by His words» 
*^ Wberesoe'er ye be, death will overtake yoa, thougli ye were in 
lofty towers." The towers (^j^l) here means foriz and cattle^ 
and lofty (i^^Ut) means eUvaUd and tali. Kat&dah states that the 
meaning of it is Jortifiad pcUaees ( Sì^am^j^^), ^Ikrimah states that it 
means pla$tered with gypium (/^a^a;^), Af&Jt being usk'^^*^\ 
(plattered with ffypsum). 

BufBcient for the spider is the glory and honour it had of weav* 
ing its web over the Apostle of God in the cave, the narrative regard- 

9ATJLT al-9ìtawIk 


ìAg which b a well known one in the books on oommentaries of the 
F^Var^Ao and the military expeditions and other books. It also wove 
a web over the cave which 'Abd-AlUh b. Unats entered, when 
the Prophet had aent him for the assassination oE Khiìlid (b. Safyàn) 
k Nahaib al-Hudhali at aPUranah. After ktlling hiin, he carried bis 
head and entered the oave, over which a spider then wove a web, and 
when the searchers after hiiu carne there and not finding anything 
tamed away on their way back, he carne out and went to the 
Apoetle of God, carrying the head with him. When the Prophet 
•aw bini, he said, ^* Yerily, the face bus become happy (successful)!" 

^ npon which he replied, **Yoarface, Apostle of God ;" and then 
phoing the head before him, he informed him of the ai&iir. The 
rProphet thereapon threw to him a stick he had with him and saiJ, 
t*Yoa wili go aboat movingyoar arm np and down in walking, 
with tbis stick in Paradise.'' Jt remained with him unttl he was 
on the point of deatb, when he instrncted bis people to bary it in 
bis shrond, which they aocordingly did. The period during which 

^ he was absent (on tbis business) was eighteen nights. 

In al'Pilp<^h by the Hàfij Abù-Nu^aim, it is related on the antho- 
f;rìty of 'Afa' b. Maisarah, who said, ^^The spider has twice woven 
r' webs over two propbets, over David when Goliath was in parsuit of 
him, and the Prophet when he was in the cave/' 

It is rehit^d in the History of the Im&m, the Hàfi4 Abftn-Kftbim 
\). 'Asàkir, that the spider also wove a web over the privato parts of 
Znid b. 'Ali b. al-Uasain b. 'Ali b. 'Abi-T&lib, when he wus era- 
cifiect naked in the year 121 A. H. • His body remained thus cru- 
òified for foar years ; they nsed to turn bis head away from the 
directioii of the Hblah^ bnt the piece of wood on which it was 

' ^xed used to turn back to the direction of the fublah. They then 
burnt tlie piece of the wood and his body. May God bave mercy on 
him t Many men had taken the pledge of allegiance to him, but the 
ofBcer in charge of al-'Iràk, Yùsuf b. 'limar, the cousin of al-Uajjaj 

:< b. YtHut atb-Thaljcail, waged war against him, vanquìshed him, and 
treated him in this manner. His (first) public appearance took place 
in the time of HishAm b. 'Abd-al-Malik, and when he came fortb, 
a largo party of the people of al-Eùfah came np to him and said, 

i* « JjVee yourself from (faith in) Abù«Bakr and 'Umar, and we shall 


412 'AD-DAMÌRÌ'8 i 

take the pl^dge of allogianoe to yoa ;" bnt he refused to do that,^^ 
and they therefore said, ^^In that oase, we renounce you." On^i 
that accoant they were called ar-Ràfidah (the Renoancers). As to ax».^ 
Zaidiyah (the Zaidites), they said, ^We shall not tura away froin:<< 
those two (khallfahs), and shall renoance him who renonnoes them ^ 
two,'* and then went f orth with Zaid, on which aoooant they were ^ 
<»lled az-Zaidiyah. Zaid related traditions on the aathority of his ; 
father Zain-al-^Abidtn and a party (of traditionists), and Abù-D&wad, , 
at-Tirmidht, an-Na^A*!, and Ibn Majah have related traditions on 
his autnority. 

(Supplementary information.) Ibn*Eh. states in the biography 
of Ya*kùb b. I^àbir al-Manjanl>[t that when he (Ibn-Eh.) was in Cairo, 
he carne across some qaires of paper containing his poems, and 
saw among them the famons distich which has been attribnted to 
several dìffereot poets, bat of which the real anthor is not known. 
[The anthor bere qaotes the distich and the linee coinposed by 
Ibn-^ftbir in reply to it]^ An allasion has already been madeto 
Ibn-^àbir's lines in the art. Ja^^L 

(Lawfnlness or unlawfnlness.) It is nnlawEal to eat it, on 
account of its being considered iillliy. 

(Proverbs.) ^* More skilled in weaving than a spider." ** Weaker 
tlian the house of a spider/' God has said, ^* The likeness of those 
who take, beside God, patrons is as the likeness of a spider, that 
takes to hiinself a honse ; and, verily, the weakest of hoases is a 
spider's house, i{ they did bnt know 1 Verily, God knows whatever 
thing they cali upon beside Him ; for He is the miglity, wise. These 
are parables which we bave strnck cut for men ; bnt none will under- 
stand them, save those who know (ìh^^^IaìI)."* God has nsed its house 
as a simile (parable) for one who takes beside God, a deity which would 
neither harm him nor he of use to bini. In the samemanner that the 
house of a spider does not protect it from either beat or cold, nor is 
sought by any one, are what they acquire of infidelity and what they 
adopt in the shape of idols, which would not defend them on the Day 
of Judgment (to-morrow) atalK ^^jJ^ì are ali persons who under- 

I De 81mi«*s T. of Ibn.Kh.'8 B. D. Voi. IV, p. 373. • Al-Kur'&n 



ibont Qod, the High^ nnJ Glorioiu, obeen'o obetlieace 
wp alooE 'frolli (uoU oO disobedience to Hiin; it Ì9 they 
1 Ùie trnt.h, beauty, aiid monti (odvantAge) oE theaa 
igaomnt oat oF ^nruiab osed tò aay tbat the Lord 
strack pnrsUles of tbe fly and the spider, and to 
; they did not know ihat parobles drow ont bidden 
:!d shapes. 

0.) If a spider 's web be placed on f resh wonnds on 
lurfooo or the body, it will protect tbem- vitlioat 
I Rtiy inflamniation (swelling). U it bo placed on 

it will stop it. If Silver tliat bua bacoine altored in 
vi with its web, it will olean it and mnka it shine. If 
mves ita web over a privy be hong on tbe peraon 
; froin Eever, He will be cared of it liy the order of 

tied in a rag and bang on tbe person of one snfforing 
gae, it will benefit hiin and drive away the Fever. In 
ler, if a spider be nibbed fine whìte it is alive, and 
rom fever is anointed with it, it wlll drive it away. 
amigatad with the green (moist) Icai-es of myrtle, 
1 away from it ; — so the autbor oE ^Aj/n al-khawdff 

atioD of it in dreams-) A spider In a dream indicates 
) recently renounoed tlie >world. Some say tbat it 
irsed woman, one who will dosert ber hnsband's bed. 
web of a spider (ìn a dream) indicate weaknesa in the 
ion, on account of tbe hononred verses (of tbe Kur'an) 
an given above nnder the beading of Provorbs. Some 
er in a dream indicates a weaver, and be who qaarrels 
ith a spider wìll qnarrel with a man wlio is a weaver 

>'XW). — A carnei advanced in age, one that bas passed 
wbiob it ta oalled ai-bdsil and al-khali/. PI. Hviadak. 
It is said in a proverb, " Ask tlie aid of one advanced 
DF let (it) alone," that is to say, ask the aid of persona 
^ and persons ot experience in tbe matter oE yoar 

- -^ Vi 




affair, for the jadgment of a person advooced in years is batter tban^ 
the jndgment and experience of a yonth (boy). 

Ja^IWI òj^ì {aUVdh al-inapàfU). — ^It has been already given 

at the beginning of ibis letter in the art. U^. Al-Jawharl 
States that a she-camel is so called when she has bronght forth, 
within ten days or fifteen days, after which she beoomes a mutjiL PI. 
matdfll and matàfih j, 

* UljAJ I (aU^AtcdàéT^. — ^À pregnant one ont of the beetles oalled 
aUlhanà/Ui so Abù-^Ubaidah says.* 

crj^ I (al-*t/«X — ^ certain species of sbeep, called kabsh *ù$. 

SjùjÌJì (ai'^Lmah).* — A certain insect that swims in water and 
looks like a black stono oE a ring ; it is smooth and round. PI. ^uwam. 

i}àjA) t (aU^Awhaky — ^Tbe monntain-swallow. It is a naine ap- 
plied also to the black crow, and tu a black and stoni carnei. Al^ 
^awhah means lanff or to//, nsed both in the masc. and fem. • 

JUil (aI*^Ald ì) — ^The sand-grouse, which will he described nnder 
the letter J. 

^JUJl (al'^Vllàm). — ^The mnsket or sparrow-hawk (a/-fia«/ia^)y 
which has been already' described nnder the letter y , 

j^y^ ——————— —^—. ^ 

^jj^l {pl''^Ayth'ù,m). — ^Tbe hyena ; — ^so al^awhart says, on 
ihe authority of Abà^^Ubaidah, but another anthority states that it is 
a fcmale elephant 

^*J l(a^•Jlyr). — ^The wild ass, aiid also the domestic ass. PI. 
a^yàr^ mafìfilrà\ and S/ytlr. 

Ibn-Màjah relates ont of a tradition oE ^Utbah b. ^Abd-AllAh as* 
Snlamt that the Prophet said, ** When one of yon goes to bis wi(^ 

> In Johnson'a Àrabio Diot. itia said to be <*a beeile carrjring dung- 
baOs.** • Tliii nanie is applied in «Onifiii to the tardine — CUpea Moambrùut. 

Lane itatei on ihe authority of the T&]-al-*ArÙ8 that it is a species off serpente 
in *Ooiiln, bui I bave noi heard of anj serpent of ibis name in *<>id&o. llie 
description given bj the author appHes to a water beetle, probably Dineuiei 
mrtui called in 'OmAn nasMàjal-mV. 



(peopIeX let hlm cover himaelf, and lot not either of them be in a state 
of nakedness like the nakedness of the two rìdgoa of innscles {aWat/^ 
fan) on either side of the back-bone." Al-Bazzàr has related it cut 
of a tradition of Àbù-Horairah, and a(-Tabarftnl has related it ont 
of a tradition of 'Abd-Allah b. Maa'ùd. An-Nasà'l relates in 'Ishrat 
aii-ni«d*| ont of a tradition of *Abd-Allah b« Sarjis, that the Prophet 
8AÌtl| ** When one of yon goes to bis wife (people)» let him throw 
over himself bis robe, and let not either of them be in a state 
of nakedness likè the nakedness of the two ridges of mnscles on 
either side of the baok-bone.'* Abù*]fansùr ad*Dailamt relates ont 
of a tradition of Anas that the Prophet saidt " Let not one of jon 
throw himself on bis wife (people) as an ass does, bnt let there he 
between them first kisses and soft words {roè^iiy* They asked him 
^ What is ar-raiùl ?" and he replied, '^ A kiss and soft words." 

; It is related in a tradition that, when God wishes ili of a man, 
He abstains f rom (pnnishing him for) bis sins, nntìl the Day of Jadg- 
ment shall come npon him, as thongh he were a wild ass, being liken- 
ed to a wild ass Coyr) on aoconnt of the greatness of bis sina. Some 
Bay that by *Ayr is here meant the mountain of that name in al-Madt« 
nab, which the Prophet nsed io hate, and which he mostly made nse of, 
in drawing similes from it for detestable things. The ^ayr of the eye 
Ì8 its lid. A poet says : — 

''They (the Ar&l^m, mentioned two yenies before,) hi^ve asserted that ali 
who bave hunted U19 wild ass are the boqb of cor paierDal ancles, and that we 
^ are the relations of them.*** 

'Abù-^Amr b. al-'Ala* said that he who knew the meaning of 
theae lines had passed away or diod. 

(Information.) It is related that when Khalid b. Sinan al- 
'Abst was on the point of death, he said to his people, *^ When I am 
bnried, there will come to my grave a herd of wild asses headed by a 
wild ass, which will strike my grave with its lioof, and when yon see 
that, dig the earth away from over me, npon which I shall come oat 
and givo yon information regarding the ancients, and those tbat are 
to come after me." When be died, %vbat he had told his people hap- 
pened, and they wished to take him ont, bnt some of his sons disliked 

« Lane'a Léz. art. 



416 ad-bamìbì's 

• 1 

Uantl saiJ, ^'We are afraid fchat ifc may be said o( us tbat we dng^ 
opt-n ibe gravo oE our father/' flad they dono tbat, be migbt bave^ 
come oat and given tbem tbe (proniised) inCoraiatioii. Bui Qod desir^l 
ed tbe reverse of it. It bas been already mentioned (before) tbat bis j 
dangbter carne to tbe Propbet« upoii wbicb be spretid cut bis mantle < 
for ber and said to ber, "Welcome to tbe daugbter of a good pro«:S 
pbet r' or sometbing like it. It is related tbat baving beard the1 
Propbet recite, " Say, *He is God alone !' " » sbe «aid, " My fatberj 
used to recite tbis." It is related tbat tbe Propbet said, '^ He was a^i 
propbet, wbom bis people destroyed." - *' 

A poet says satirizing a man : — , 

<<Were yon a sword, yen were a blnnt one, 
Or were yoa water, you were withoat sweetness, ì 

Or were yoa flesh, you were the flesh of a dog, 
Or were you a wild ass, yoa were a slow one ì** 

(Proverbs.) " Asses (ma*ìfilrd^) bite one another,*' applied to fools | 
figbting one with anotber. " A fat ass is S4ived (escapes f rom deatb)."-^ 
It is asserted tbat tbere were some lean asses wbicb died in a famine, ; 
bnt a fat one out of tbem escaped, wbicb fact is proverbially applied^ 
to vigilance before tbe bappening of a tbing, tbat is to say, "Escapes: 
(be saved) before yoa are nnable to do tbat" It is also applied to 
one wbo is saved from a detestable tbing by means of bis wealtb. \ 
^ An impediment came between tbe wild ass and its springing," ap- ' 
plied to one for wbom tbere is no bope lefk. A poet says : — 

**I ahonld resolve on doing an set of pnidence, were I able to do it, * e 
Bat an impediment lias come between the wild ass and ita springing.'' - 

[Tbe anthorliereqnotes from Ibn-Kb.'s B.D., from tbe biograpby i 
of Abù-Abmad al-Hasan b. ^ Abd-AUàb b. Said aPAskari, tbe incident ; 
regarding tbe stratngem practised by tbe ^àl^ib Ibn-*Abbàd to see ; 
Abft-Ahmad, the lines written by bim to Abù-Àl^mad, Abù-Abmad*s ; 
reply in verse, and Ibn-^Abbftd's astonisbment. He also quotes freni ' 
tbe same autbority tbe origin of tbe above lines.]* ^* Is ali tbe roasted ' 

meat of tbe wild ass, its veretnan (jo^j^) (only) ?"* It is said tbat ' 
a Fazàrl, a Tbalabt, and aKalbt, met togetber on a journey and ' 
roasted a wild ass. Tbe Fazàrl bappening to go away for some , 

1 Al-^oiàn GXII-1. t De Slane's T. Voi. I, pp, 382—883. 
• See FreyUg's Àrab. Prov. Tom. II, p. 84a 

9ATÌT al-9ATaw1n 


of bis, htB two companions ate ap the wild ass, leaving for him 
tram. When he oame back, tbey put it before bim and said» 
18 wbat we bava kepi for joxx»** He commenced to eat it, 
foond it difBooU to swallow, npon wbicb tbej two laughed. He 
»fore drew oiit bis sword and said, ** I shall, verily, kill yoa 
if botb of yoa do not eat it." One oE them refused to eat it ; 
ibe strack him with bis sword, and bis head became separated 
bis body; bis name was Mar^mah. His companion 8aid« 
tr^pAmab bas fallen," upon wbicb the Fazfiri said, *^ And you 
if yoa do not eat it,*' meaning thereby, ^^ If yoa do not eat it, 
(too) will bave yoar head thrown down.'' The tribe of Fazàrah 
'reproached for this, so mach so that Sàlim b. Dàrah says aboat 



••Do not trust a Fàs&rl with whom yoa are left alone, 
In regsrd to yonr she-camel,^ but tie ber veretrum ap witli thongs ; 
Do not trost him, nor oonsider younelf safe from bis aota of oppression» 
After bim irbo roaated the veretrum of the wild ass, 
Upon wbicb he aaid, * Yoa bave given yoar guest the verekum of the asa 

to eat, in order to obeat him ; 
May not Qod, the Creator, the Maker, gire yoa water to drink! * '* 

Ifòre vile than an ass/' Some say that the meaning of ^ayr bere 

a wooilen peg (of a tent), for its head is constnntly strack npon, 

t others say that the meaning of it is the a$s. [The aathor bere 

otes certain lines from a poet, which he bas also given at the end 

the Proverbs ia the art. uUHljt^^l nnder the lettor ^.] 

Kh&lid b. al-Walid said at the timo of his death, ^^ I bave mot 

and. snob armies in the fields of battio, and there is not a 

oe of the length of a span in my body in which there bas not 

n a sword-cut, or a spear-thrast, or an arrow-wonnd, bnt now 

ire I am dying a natnral death on my bed, in the mauner that 

ass does. May not the eyes of cowards be closed (sleep)l " 

^^aJI (al-*Ìr.)— [A caravan of camels.] Camels that carry pro- 

lìon of corn. It is allowable to givo it the pliiral form as Hyaràt. 
b said in a tradì tion that tbey ased to watch for the caravans 
hyaràt) of ^araisb. 


a It is poseible that the poet bere means by 

«1 n 

** your youDg 



418 AD-DAMtRfs 

(Information.) God has said, ^' ^Àsk then in the city whe 
we Dvere, and of the caravan in which we approached it, (for, yeriljrj 
we teli the trnth)."'^ Ibn-^Atìyah says that the city was Gai 
(Misr); — so Ibn-*Abbàs and others say. It is a metaphor meanid 
thereby the people of it^ and the same is the case with the word; 
caravan. This is the statement of the general body of leamed meo 
and it is the correct opinion. Abtfl«Ma*&lt states in at'Talkhi 
regarding one of the anthorities as having stated that it is a case' 
of snppression (of a word) and not that of a metaphor, a metaphor 
being a word borrowed to express a thing which is not (generally) 
expressed by that word, whilst the snppression of a word by apposi 
tion is not a metaphor. This is the opinion of Sibuwaih and 
others possessing jadgment (in this matter), and every case of snp-^ 
pression is not (necessarily) a metaphor. Abù'l-Ma'àll is inclined!^ 
to the opinion that the word in this verse is a metaphor and says 
that it is the statement of the general body of the learned|Or 
something like that One party says that they tried to indaco him^ 
(the Prophet) to ask inanimate objects and beasts the tmth, and ^ 
since he was a prophet it wonld not bave been an improbable thing t 
for them to inform him of it, bnt he (Abù'l-Ma'ali) states that even | 
if this thing he allowable, it is highly improbable. ; 

(Fnrther information.) The first one to nse the proverb, "Nei-*^ 
ther in the caravan nor in the company going forth to fight I" was i 
Abù-Snfyàn b. Harb, who said that nnder the f ollowing circnms- ^ 
tances : — When the camels of Knraish approached, while the Pro* J 
phot was timing their departnre from Syria, he snmmoned the j 
Mnslims to go forth with him. In the meantime Abù-Safydn 
approached so f ar as to come near al-Madtnah and was torribly "- 
afraid ; he asked al-Majd (Majdi — Ibn-Isb&lF) ^' 'Amr, '' Have you ': 
seen any one ont of the party of Mnhammad?" He replied, ^'I ^ 
have not aeen any one whom I remember, excepting two monnted ; 
men who came to this place,'' pointing to a place ; ** they passed ] 
on and went qnickly ;'* — the two spies of the Apostle of God. Abù- > 
Snfyàn therenpon taking some of the dnng of their camels rnbbed ' 
it and foond in it date-stones, npon which he exdaimed, ** These 
(camels) were fed at Yathrib (al-Madlnah), and the men were the 

1 Al-Eiir*t& XII-82. 



qatIt al-patawIn 


of Ma^ammad." He therefore tarned the conrse of bis 
intran away from the left of Badr. He had already seni a 
[e to Karaish regarding vhat he had dreaded, namely, an 
Olì the part of the Prophet, and Karaish had accordingly 
from Makkah ; bat nów Abù-S uf yàn sent them (another) 
ienage ìofomiiog them that he had saved (preserved) the caravan 
from being taken and ordering them to return. Karaish, however, 
Tased to return and proceeded to Badr, whilst the Banù-Zuhrab 
irned back on their way to Makkah, and Abù-Sufyàn meeting 
[them (on the way), said, "0 BanA-Zuhrahy neither in the caravan 
lor in the company going forth to fight I" They replied, ^' Tou sent 
■% word to l^uraish to return, but they bave gone on to Badr." 
lOod then gave victory to His Prophet, and none cut oE the BanA- 
'Zuhrah was present at the battio of Badr. Al-Asma4 states that ibis 
fproverb is applied to a man who is held in low and little repnte. 


iìjiJì^ (*Affr as-iardh). — ^A certain bird resembling the 

cri^Jt (aI-*Ì8).— Oamels of a white colour mixed with some 

what of a red colour. Sing. a^ya%. Fem. *aysd\ Some say that it 
means noble camels. How beautiful are the following words of an 
ancient poet I 

**It Ì8 one of the strange things, whioh are many in number, 
That the object of (one's) loTe should be near, and there should be no 

means of meeting him, 
L'.ke the camels in the desert being killed by thirst^ 
Whilst water is being carried on their backa** 

It is said in a tradition of Sawàd b. K&rib, ** The saddle-clotbs 
I were tied on the camels (al-'i«)." 

«• ^o# 

^UmajJi (aZ-*-4y«a*). — The f emale locust The su bject of locusta 
has been already treated òf in the art. òL^I under the letter g. 

.i- ^«AAJt (al'AylAm)w[ìd i^i^\ (al-^At/làn). — ^The male hyena. 

It is said in a tradition that the Friend (of God), Abraham, will 
desire to carry his father Azar so that he may pass on the Bridge, but 
he will look at him, and lo ! he will bave been transEormed into a 

499 AD-DAHtBfs 

dirty male hyena, aU'ayldm being a male hyena. The (^ and I io It ;. 
are servile lettera ;— so it is Buid in Nihàyat aU^aAl. 

fjH^ I (aWAì/tMin).—T!iìe hyena^ accordìng to Abù-*Ubaidftlu ■ 
It has beea alrei^dy mentioned before, Al-QanmwJ states thatit^ 
meana a f emale elephant. Àl-Akbtal says : — i 

<(They left Us&mah in the battle, as thoagh 
A female elephant (aJ^aìftkAm) had trodden over him with ber foot" :] 

— p 

■ I 

^jj I (aZ-*ilyn). — It is one o£ the homonymoas words. One of 
the lexicologiats who bave diacoarsed on the subject of homonym^ ; 
states that it Ì3 a certain bìrd, yellovv in .the belly and on ita back, ^ 
and about the size of a coUared tartle-dove. 


(>4ìaM {aUAyhal). — A swift she-oameL Abù-Uàtim states that 
a he-camel is not called ^ayhaU 


KÀj^^ (*Ayjaluf) — Like hayzabun. The ant, mentioned in the 
^ar'àn. The difference in the opinions of the learned regarding 
its name will he given hereafter under the lettor \a in the art. U4ÀJ ), 

uv* eli 1 (ibn^^Irs). — [The weasel.] • Its sobriqaets are abiVl* 

ì^vkm and abùH-wailìXh&b. It is the animai called in Persian t&z'CL. Pls. 
banàt''*irs and banù^Ura ; — so al-Àkhfash says. Al-Kazwinl states 
that it is a small ■ animai, and that it is an enemy of the rat ; it 
enters its hole and draws it ont. It is also an enemy of the croco- 
dile, for the crocodile has its mouth always open, and the weasel 
enters its month, goes down into its belly, and then eating its boweh 
and tearing them open, comes ont again. It is also an enemy ol 
the serpenti whicb it kills. When it is ili, it eats the eggs of th^ 
domestic fowl, npon which its illness passes off. 

It is related that a- weasel once pnrsaed a rat, npon which th( 
latter climbed np a tree, bnt it kept on pnrsuing it nntil the rai 
reached the top oE the branches, and no farther place for escape re 
mained for it. The rat then alighted on a leaf and biting off a side ol 

1 li perhaps means here a large oameL ^ In Egypt Mwlda subpalmat 
(Putoriui afrieanHi), and the same in Palestine, where it is known by the Arabi 
name fanundr. 

9ATÌT à1>9ATAW1n 


ìiaiig itsbif by the remiunder of it [Jpoki this, thè weasel screeched, 

itt female mate oame therb ; whén she reaohòd the bottom of the 

the male weasel oat off the leaf, a part of which was (alreadj) 

[tten off by the rat The rat thereapon fell down, and the weasel 

rUoh was at the botton of the tree seized it 

'Abd-al-Lat^f al-Bagdàdt states, ^^ ì think that it is the same 
nudmal as is oalled ad^^dalak, and tnat ita coloar and hair vary acoor* 
[dlng to the country (of ita reaidenoe).** tie atales ihat it is a part 
A ita nature to steal whatever articlea òf gold and silver it JSnds, 
In the same way that the rat does; and sometimes it attacks and 
[kills a rat, bnt the dread of the rat for the cat ia greater than that 
jfor it He also atatea that it ia largely fonnd in the hooaea of the 

E opto of Egypt He atates that it ia related, with regard to ita 
telligencè, that a min having aeised a yoang one of it, confined it 
In a cago in anch a place that ita motlier coald see it. When the 

l>^thtìf aa# li, ahé weht away àhd carne back with a dìnàr in ber 
toòtith and threW it bèfòrè the ihah, aa thòngh it wére the ranaom 
for ber Jròiing óne ; bat he did not let it off for ber ; ao, ahé went away 
(ai^in) andl carnè back With another dtiìAr. She did this àgain and 
libili, until the nùmber of dtnAra becamè five. Whén ahe aaw 

^{hàt he woold liot lei it otE, ahe went away and rétiirnòd with a rag, 
Ìd it to hint tbai ber find waS finiahèd, bat he piiid nò heed to her. 

f v^T ben ahe éaw that treatment òn bis pari, ahe weht back to a din&r 
ont of thoae dtnàra to také it, npon which thè man fearing that ahe 
Àiigbt také them away, let her yoiing one oàt for her. 

Under the lettor ^ in the art ò^r^ t , a tràdition of Dabft'ab bint 
ias-Zubair haa been alreiidy given, liamelyi that al-Mi^dàd b. al- 
l'^* Aawad having gene away for a nataral pdrpose, a field-rat brought 
f* ont of ita hole a dìnàr, then another, and kepi on conttnaally doing 
ihat, until it brought cut aeventeen dìnftra, after which it brought out 
^- à réd rag in which a dìnàr had remained (behind), ao that the number 
òf dìnftra waa eighteen. He went with them to the Apostle of God, 
and informed bim of it and aaid, ^^ Take the poor-rate out of them." 
The Frophet aaked bim, ** Did you put your band to the hole ?'' and 
il he replied, '* No," upon which the Frophet aaid, '* May God blesa 
you with them !'^ 

422 Aiy-BÀMtBfS 


Àl-Jabi4 states that the weasel ia a species oE the rat ani 
quotes the foUowing lines of a8h*Shaina^ma]|: : — 

Sfiata eame to my houBe,— 
A oompany after a company." 

He then aays : — 

•<And a weasel, which waa the chief of my hoaae, ? 

Aacended to the top of the atorey." 

He then describea it in the following linea : — | 

"The blae eoloar one aeea ; | 

In (the place of) the bUck of the eye , > ! 

Like that ia the colonr of the weaael, * i 
A doat-colonr having on the top of it a mixture of black and white.'' 

- * 

He deacribea it aa being of a doat-colonr and piebald and atatea that ! 
it ia a apeciea of the rat There are thirteen apeciea of it, which will j 
be deacribed in their proper placca. 

Ariatotle atatea in Nu^ùt dl-hayawàn (Deacriptiona of animala) ^j 
and at-Tawhidt atatea in aUImlinà^ wcCl-^mu^ànasaìi that the f emale f 
weaael ia impregnated through ita month and givea birth (to ita "' 
yonng one) from (under) ita tail. It ia aaid in Kifàyat aUmuiahaffi^^ 
that the weaael ia the aame aa a«-5ur'il6, and that it ia alao I 
called anTiims (ichnenmon), which (latter) ia a miatake, whilat the i 
former animai approachea it in: reaemblance. It ia difficalt to ^ 
make their atatement agree with that of al-J&hij, becaoae the \ 
ichnenmon ia not a apeciea of the rat, the correct thing being ; 
what al-Jàtìij ataieai namely, that the weaael ia a apeciea oE the rat. 
The Shaikh Katb-ad-din aa-Sanbà^ì atatea that weaaela are thoae 
animala that are fonnd in the honaea in Egypt; but what he atatea 
Ì8 detective, for weaaela are of aeveral apeciea, aa will be preaently 
mentioned on the anthority of ar-R&fi'i. 

(Lawfnlneaa or nnlawfnlneaa.) It ia nnlawfal to eat it, becanae 
it ia like the rat ; bat the well-known thing ia that it ia lawfnl, and 
it ia aaid in Sharh al-'MuIiadlidliab that it ia lawfal withoat any 
difEerence of opinion. There ia, however, a (different) view of it 
given by al-Màwardi, namely,' that it ia nnlawfal, whilst in ash* 
Sharh afi'^agtr both the viewa are given, and it ia atated that the 
apparent thing ia that it ia lawful, bnt thia qneation ia altogether 
omitted in ash^Sharh aUhahtr and ar-Ratofiah^ which ia moat 


Ti.' • 


9JLYÌT al-9àtaw1m 423 

^ Ui6 work of the oopyista, for otherwise, the context in 

woald not he complete withoat a mention of it being made. 

aoconnt, the Shaikh ^Izz-ad-din an-Nas&'t has written on the 

In of hi8 oop7 of it (flik^Sharh oUkaMr) in the same waj that 

iTOn in aih^SharlJL ap^fagir. Ar-Ràfi4 states in KitfJb alnHajj 

|chapter on the Pilgrìmage) that weasels are of several species. 

(làlt states that the weasel resembles the fox. The statement 

t^43hissàll leads to the inference that the weasel is the same 

ichnenmon, beoanse the latter resembles the fox in its teoth 

lin the length of its tail, though it is smaller than it in body. 

r l^àdt Abù'^Tayjib states, " I do not know of anj difEerence of 

iion among the religious doctors, with regard to the lawfulness 

weasel, for it does not obtain its nonrishment by means of its 

line tooth/* The anthor of aUBakr mentions the same thing, and 

well-known thing is that it is lawfnl, as is mentioned in asli-Sharh 

^fogtr and the well-known abridgements, sach as ai^Tanbìh^ a{- 

jU^ and al-HàuA a^^^agir. 

(Properties.) If its brain be nsed as a collyrium, it will prove 
leficial in darkness of vision. If it be drìed and dmnk with vine- 
*, it will prove beneficiai in epilepsy. Its flesh may be nsed as a 
mitico for pain in the joints. If its fat be applied to a tooth, it 
rill fall ofiE quickly. If its bile be drnnk while it is hot, it will kill 
^tlio drinkor of it) immodiatcly. If its blood be applied to scrofalons 
enlarged glands in the neck, it will dissipate them* If its blood be 
mtxod with the blood of a rat and dilated with water, and then 
sprinkled in a house, there will be strìf e among the peoplo of the house. 
'*If a weasel and a rat are buried (together) in a house, it will bave the 
fsame efEect as the blood. If its dung be placed on wounds, it will 
check bloeding. If its two fore-paws be taken and hung on the per- 
son of a woman, she will not conceive while they are on ber person. 

; (Interpretation of it in a dream.) In a dream it indicates mar- 
riage for an unmarried man with a young woman. 

tti M^ (• * (umm'^Ajldn). — A certain bird ; — so al-Jawhart says. 
Ibn-al-Athìr says that it is a certain black bird called hatoba^.^ Some 

» A apecies of lark. Forakal gires thU word as aH'kawha^-^AÌauda. f 






- j ? 

424 AD^DAHiRt* 8 

Bay that it is a oertain black bird that has a white tail and that mòvei 

abont ita tail mnch, being also called aì'fattdfy. 

^«^ -J^ ■ "^'^ 

i^f^ (ufnm'^Azzah).'^A female gazelle, and ^azxàh is it 

Cernale yonng one. 

Uo*(»' (iiimii-*17tai(/).— [A certain species of beetle.] A cer 
tain iosect, big in the head, dust-oolonred (8/^^i^), and having ( 
long tail and fonr wings* Wben it sees a bnman being, it stand 
on ita tail and spreads ont its wings; it does not fly. It i$ also ca]le< 
nàshirat hurdaihà. Boys play with it and say to it :— 

■^0 umm-'if iM^, ipread ont thy two wings, 
Tbea fly between thy two deserta ; 

Verily, the Amlr has come to ask for thy two danghters in marrisge, 
With hU amy, and is looking at thee I" 

So it is said in aUMurafpa^^ and this descrìption ot it makes \ 
possible that it is the same as umm-liubain^ which has been alread; 
described nnder the letter ^ • 

j I JHI^ 1 1» I (umm-al-^^tz(l9*).<»-*The same as the bird oM^sabaytar. I 
is mentioned in aì^Muhadhdhab^ in the chapter aUHudnak (trace] 
that the name of the killer (hamstringer) of (the prophet) $àlib's she 
carnei waa aPAizàr b. Sàlnf ; bnt it is a mistake in letters withon 
any donbt, and the name of the killer of ^àlil^'s she-camel wa 
Iffndàr, which is thns mentioned by historians, relaters of narrative 
and names, and lexicologists like al-Jawhart and others. It has beei 
also thns fonnd after search by an-Nawawt. 






jUlf (al-^dib) and CUJI (aZ-^ciM).— A certain vrell-known 
les of aqnatio bircb. 


cllAAil (aI-(?ui4/)*"~^® summer-crow. PI, gjdfàn. Some- 

168 a vallare having abandant plamage is thus caìled. It also 

neans hlaxik Umg hair. Ibn-Fàris states that it is tho largo crow, bai 

l-^Abdari aad othera oat of the imàms from among our religions 

^ootors state that it is a small black crow having the colour of ashes. 

(Lawfalness or anlawfalness.) Ash-Sha'b! permits the eating of 
16 large black crow, which lives on grains and vegetation, being like 
ìB partridge (in that respect). Abù-Hanifah states that ali kinds 
[of crows are lawfnl. Hishàm b. ^Urwah relatos onlthe aathorìty of 
&ither, 'Urwah b. az-Zabair, regarding 'A'ishah as having said, 
^*I am astonished at any one eating the crow, when the Prophet has 
[ordered it to be killed by any person (even) in the state of ihrdmj and 
[oalled it a transgressor (fdsik). By God, it is not one of the good 
i'things/' As to the doctrine of ash-Sh&fi^t, according to wlmt is given 
Jn ar^Rawfiahj the eating of al-gttdd/is nnlawfnl, bnt what is given by 
(in) ar-Ràfi^i is that it is lawfal, which is tho opinion depended uiK>n 
in al'Fatwà (the decisiop), as has been given by onr shnikh in a/- 

(Properties.) Al-Kazwint states that if one takes the fat of a 
fjpiddf and the oil of roses and anoints witli them bis face and then 
enters the presence of a sal(àn, he will bave bis want accomplished. 

\giJ^\ (al-^adht). — ^A lamb and a kid (as-saUilah). PI. ^Hlhà\ 

iike/a^/, pl./^{ ; hence the saying of the Commandcr of the faith- 
fai, ^Umar b. al-Khattftb, to the collector of the poor-rate tax, ^^ Ab- 
atain from them in respect of their lambs and kids (al-^idhà*) and do 
not take them from them." Al-Asma'l says : — 



i 'ri 

126 AD-DAMtBÌ'8 

'*Had i been a lamb or a kid of the irìbe of 'Ad or Iram 
Or LukmAn or Dhù-Jadan.'' » 

Khalaf al-Ahmar gives the word (in the above lines) as gudhayy otj 
the diminutive form ; — so al-Jawhari and othera say. 



yl>ìJt (ai-ffur^li).— [The crow.] • Well-known. It is thus 
named on acconnt of its black colour ; hence the words of God» ^^ Ancl 
some intensely black («>j«> vH^Lr^),"' in which both the words havej 
the same meaning. 

It is related in one of the traditions of Ràshid b. Sa^d that the^ 
Prophet said, ** God hates an old man with intensely black hair {aihrt 
shaihh al^arbtb).*' Rftshid b. Sa^d explains it as one who dyes hb< 
hair black. 

Pls. giirbdn^ agnhah^ agruh^ garàbin^ and giirb. Ibn-Màlik has 

coUected them in bis lines : — 


^ Al'gMfh U the plural of ^rdb^ then a^ribah 
And agrub and gurdbtn and ^i-òdn." ! 

Its sobriqnets are abU-héUim^ abù-jafjAdi/j abù^Ujarràh^ a&i>-Aa«; 

and obùH'-mtrkàL A poet says : — * 

''The crow nsed to walk acertain gait 
In the time of generations long past, 
But it envied the aand-gronse and dedred to walk like it, 
So, it was ridiculed (strack) by the wise, 

On which it loat ite own gait and made a mistake in the groose'a gait, 
For which reason it is called a prancer (a6^*i-mir j^{).*' 

It is also called t&n-aZ-o&ra^, ibn-barth^ and ibn-da^yah^ which is a ya- 
riety of at^udaf, 

There are several species of it, namely, the summer-crow (aU 
gudàf)^ the rock {az'zàti)^ al-akkal^ guràh cu-zarl^ al^atorak^ which 
species utters whatever it hears, and the crow with a white 
mark {al-gurdb al-a^^m)^ whichjspecies is rarely fonnd. The Arabs 
say proverbially, ^' Rarer than a crow with a white mark." The 

i *Ala8 b. al-Hftrith al-Hmyart, Dhù-Jadan, the first one to sing in al- 
Yaman. > In Egypt Corvìu affinis, 0. timonata, and (the red-legged crow) Fre* 
gUtt» graotUut. In Palestine 0. corax^ C. umbrinus^ and C* affinù. In *Om&n C. 
tpUndent and 0. tuttbriimg. • Al-Knr'àn XXXV-25. 


qatIt al-qatawIk 


ìaidy ** A virtaons woman among women b like a crow with 
mark among a hundrod crows/' At-Tabarànt has rclatcd 
( a tradition of Abù-Umàmah. In the version given by Ibn- 
fibah it ifl said that tho Prophet having been askod, "0 Apostlo 
what ìs al^rdb cd-a^^am ?" replied, '^It Ì3 a crow that hasono 
[lega white." The Imam Al^mad and al-Uàkim in bis Mustad" 
ite, on the anthoritj of *Amr b. aPAs, who said, " We werc 
te Apostle of God at Marr aj^Dahràn, mrhen we saw sevoral 
among which there was one with a white mark and with a rod 
fand red lega. The Prophet said, ^ No woman will enter Para- 
rat one who is rare like this crow among these crows.' " Tho 
Irities for it are anthentic, and it is given in as^Sunan aUkubrìi 
ìrNasà't. It is said in aUIhyà* that al-^^fam is ono which is toldte 
belici and others say that it means ono wliich is white in lite 
ingif but some say that it is one liaving bolli tlie Ugs white. Tlio 
)t of the Prophet was to express the rarìty of good and virtuoiis 
ien among womon, and the smallness of the numbcr of thoso 
^':will enter Paradise, because crows of this description among the 
il numbcr of crows are rare and few. 

It Ì3 said in the advice of Lakmtln to bis son, '^ Fcar a bad wo- 

ly for she will make your hair gray befoje it is timo for it to 

ime gray. Fear wicked women, for they do not load (cali any 

to good, and be on yonr guard with rogard to the bcst of thom." 

|*]^san said, *' By God, there is not a man who obeys bis wifo in 

matter of what she dcsires wliom God will not throw into HclU 

URs." 'Umar said, " Act contrarily to the wislios of women, for thcro 

[à blessing in doing so." Some say, ^' Consiilt thom and act con- 

itry to their advice." 

It is said in as-Sirah (Life of the Prophet), in the account oE the 
ing of (the well) Zamzam, that, whcn 'Abd-al-Muttalib dreamt 
it a speaker said to him, *' Dig Tibah," ho askod him, '* What is 
ih ?" and the speaker replied, " Zamzam." 'Abd-al-Muttalib 
ìen asked him, *' What is the land-mark of it ?" and he replied, 
^Betwixt chyme and blood,^ at the place of tho pecking of tho crow 

t The place of sLaughterìng animali between the two idola laàf and Nà'ilah. 

/ • ■ %.- 

428 • AD-DAMtRrs 

with a white mark ( ^^ H I y l>i I )." ^ As-Suhailt statèd thài 
is in ibis an allusion to the faot of the description of the penolf 
Ì8 to destroy the Ka^bah, namely» DhùVSawaill^tainy being 
that of the crow. Maslim relates on the anthoritj of Abù-Hùi 
that the Prophet said, ** DhùVSuwail^in, an Abyssiniai^,will 
troy the Ea'bah." It is related in al-Bukhfirf, oii thè autlioiil 
Ibn-*AbbfÌ8) regarding the Prophet as having àaid, *' I see him^ 
if he were black, with bis legs wide apart, and he will pali ont 
after stono ont of it (the Ka^bah)." It is said in the long tradii 
of Hadbaifab, *^ I see bim as thongb an Abysèinian, wide bet^ 
bis legSy baving blue eyes, flat-nosecl and big-bellied, and liift 
lowers taking it down to pieces, stono after stono, and càrrying 
throwing it into the sea." That is to say, the Ea^bab. Abù'l-Farai 
al-Jawzl bas mentiòned it* Al-Halimi states that this will hap^ 
in the timo of Jesus.» It is said in òne of the traditions, ^^Takel 
making the circnit of this House considerably, before it is lifted'ffl 
(to Heaven), for it lias been twice destroyéd, and will he lifted on tfa 
third occasiona' .J 

Another species of it is the night-crow (surdb àU'lail)i Al-JU^ 
states regarding it that it is a crow difEering from other crows i 
its qualities, which resemble those of the owl ; it is one of the noe 
turnal birds* (He states), *^ I bave board one of the tmstwortfi 
mcn say that this crow sees mnch at night/' 

Aristotle states in an^Nu^Ùt that there arò four species of croi 
namely, (1) the intensely black, (2) the parti-colouréd, (3) the od 
that is white in the head and tail (the rest of it being black), sléndj 
in body and living on grain, and (4) the oiie that is black, of il 
colonr of a peacock with lustrous plumage ànd legs of the coloi 
like that of coral, known by the name of az-zàg, (the rock 
Ali the kinds of crows are given to treading secretly ; the ma 
treads with its face towards that of the feinale, and does not return i 
its mate after that, from a want of gratitude on its part. The fema 
lays four eggs and (sometimes) five, and when the young ones con 

1 When «Abd-al-Muttalib snd his bob al-BArìth Mnt to dig the well, ih 
foaniacrow of this deBorìption peokinginthe place. * When he comesi 



moiher drives them awaj» becanse they corno forili exces* 
Igly, M they are (then) amali in their bodies, largo in their 
iUi their boaks devoid of any colonr, and their liinbs distant 
te another. Tho two parents on seeing the yonng one in 
ite loaye it, bnt God proyides nonrishment f or it in the flies and 
tioes to be found in its nest, nntil it becomes strong and its 
grow, npon which the two parents return to it. Tho 
the female is to batch the eggs, and that of tho malo to 
[^ber food. It is a part of its nature not to take any game that 
)d to it, but if it finds any carrion, it eats some of it, or dies 
Starvation ; it seeks for food bad things like the ignoble kinds 
trds. It is highly cautions and given to fleoing. Al-^uldf 
with the owl, and snatching its egg eats it. A wonderfnl 
in oonnection with it is that, when a human being wislies to 
its young onos, the male and the female birds carry each ono 
its feet a stono, and then hovering in tho air throw the stones 
[mi intending thereby to prevent him (from carrying out bis 

"AUJ&hid states that the author of Mantih aP4ayr says, " Tho 
is one of the ignoble birds and not one of the noble or good 
s ; it is in the habit of eating carrion and rnbbish. It is (either) 
msely black, as though highly bumt, like which among men aro 
^^Zanjis, for they are the worst of people in form and naturo, (or 
urti-coloured), (this) being like (the case of) thoso whose country 
^^Id and whom wombs bave not cookcd or ripened, or thoso whoso 
mtry is hot and whom wombs bave bumt; thus, the roasoning powcrs 
the people of Babylon aro higher than those of othcrs, and their 
irfection is greater than that of others, on account of tho temperato 
limate (oE that place) ; so, in the same manner, the crow that is 
ktensely black possesses neither intelligence nor perfcction, whilst 
l'e pied crow possesses much intelligence, but is more sordid than 
lè black one." 

The Arabs take a bad omen from the crow and bave derived from 
name (al'^urdò) the words al-gurbah (tlie state of being distant from 
*s home and country^ al-igtiràb (being distant from one*s liome and 
ìtrf/)^ and al-^arib {one who is distant fronn his home ami coiintrt/). 


430 AD-DAHlRfs :1 


(Information foreign io this sabject.) The nonn al-^urhah is com 
posed of several nouns indicating the sense of tbat nonn ; thna the J 
(in it) Comes from jAì (deeeit)^ jjji (decemng\ i^ ((xbseneé)/^ 
(sadness)^ aAì (yeJienienee ofgrìef)^ ij^ (inadvertenee)^ and Jji (ca^ 
thing tluU destroì/s) ; the j comes from jj (a calamity)^ ^òj (restrcdntj 
and (jòj{destruetion^ death); and the v cornea from (^j^. {ajlietianj 
wji (distress^ misfortuné)^ ^ji (calamity^ adversitì/\ and j \y. (perdi 
tion) ; and the s comes from eitjA (contempt^ heing eontemptxble\ Jj/^ 

(frigJUj anytldng tliat is terrible)^ ^ Ì9^^/)y ^^^ ^Sl^ (destruelim 
death) : — so Mnharamad b. IJafar says in as-Sultodn. '^ 

The pied raven (crow) of separation {guràb al-Aìayn al-alka^).-^ 
Al-Jawbarl states that it is the one in which there is blackness witl 
whiteness. The anthor of aUMujàlasali says that it is thus namea 
because it departed from Noah, when h.e sent it to look at (the fAÀù 
of) the water (after the flood). It then went and did not return 
on that account it is looked npon as a bird of bad omen. Ibn-Katai 
bah states, '* It is called a fàsik (a transgressor), according to mj 
opinion, on account of its disobedience, when Noah sent it to bring th( 
news of the earth ; it left off what it was ordered to do and alight 
ed on a carcase." *Antarah says : — 

<*TkoBe whose Beparation 1 was ezpeoting baye gone away, 
And the raven of separation has given Information of their parting.^' „ 

The anthor of ManUh ot^ayr says, '^ Crows aro one cut of th< 
species of transgressing animais (al'fawdsik)^ which aro ordered to b< 
killed both in the state of ihrdm and cut of it, that namo (al-fàsili] 
being derived for the crow from the name of Iblis, on account ol 
its contending with him in destructiveness, which is the business ol 
Iblis. That name is also applicd to ali (animais) which are highlj 
noxious, the originai meaning of the word al-Jisk being going beyonc 
or Old of a ildng^ and in religious law going out of {the bounds of 
obedienee (to God). 

Al-Jà^i4 states that the ravcn of separation is of two varieties 
one of them being small and known to be ignoble and feeble ; as U 
the other, it alights in the houses of men and in places in which the] 
may bave staid, when they go away from them. He further statei 
that every kind of crow is a crow of separation, if by it is mcant i 

iH 9At1t al-hataw1n 431 

bad omen» and not necessarily (only) the raven of separation itself , 
irhioh ia a amali pied kind of crow ; every kind of crow is called the 
orow of aeparation, becaaae it alights in men's places of habitation 
^"when they go away and part from them, and since this crow is not 
tòand bnt at the Urne of their separation and parting from their 
habitations, this derived for it from (the word) separation 

4 * 

AI-l£a)cdist states in Ka$h/ aJHuràr fi Kuhn aP4uyiìr waU-azMr^ 
with regard to the desoription of the raven of separation, that 
it is a blaok orow that croaks plaintively, in the manner of one who 
fi^if grieved and afflicted, and oroaks ont (the news of) the separation 
*'*of intimate friends and loving oompanions. When it sees a party of 
j^men ooUeeted together, it wams (them) of separation, and when it 
^r^.iees a flonrìshing house, it gives news of its becoming a wasto, and 
I; óf the demolition of its eonrtyards. It inf orms the alighter and dwell- 
^"er of the waste of honses and habitations, wams an eater of (bis) 
•:.: being ehoked with food, and gives the good news of the neamess 


- of halting stations to a traveller. It croaks with a sound in which 
^ there is grief, like a Caller to prayer chanting out the cali to 
pràyer. He gives the foUowing lines as if coming from the 

crow : — 


, i 


''I wail fòr the pMung away of my life, 
And I bave a righi to wail and to cry oat ; 
And I bewall whenever I see camels 
Being driren by the rider speedily to separation. 
The ignorant one treata me ronghly when he sees me, 
Wbilat I am dreased in monnùng clothes. 
And I say to him, *Bù admonished by my speeoh, 
For I advise.yon sealoosly ;' 

And bere I am like a preacher, whilst it is no inno?ation 
On the part of preaohers to wear black clothes. 
Do not yoa see me that when I see camels, 
I proolalm departure in every assembly. 
I wail over the remains of mansions, 
Bat notwithstanding their extent^ none bnt the damb inorganio things 

answer me ; 
I inorease my wailing in their snrronndings, 
On account of the beart-crnthing separation. 
O yen beavy in ears, wake np and nnderstand 

482 AD-DAÌitBi's 

Tho hint of one whom oamels are oacrying awaj ; 
Ther« ù nofe % witneMer of death ia the world 
Bat witaessing (hte deeth) for him hw also pommenped! 
And how many in the eToning and in the morning, 
Cali from near and from a distance 1 


And yoQ would hare been heard, had yoa called out ta a lifing being, 
Bat those whoinyoa cali have nolife In them." 

Its saying, ^* Wkilst I ain dressed in moaming clothes, ònd it is no 
innovation on the pari; of preachers io wear black cloÌ)ies,'^ indicates 
its being oE a black colonr, and ita saying, ^^Bnt notwith* 
standing their oxtent, none but the dumb inorganic things answec 
me ;" indicates that it is to be f onnd at the timo of the people ot, 
any places parting and separating from thom. Ab. to^ al-Makdisf a 
sajing, ^*It croaks out ( ij^ ) (the news of) the separatione of in- 
timate friends and loving companions/' the word ( ij^ ) is writ- ' 
ten with a ^ according to the general body oE lexicologists, and 
that is what Ibn-I^utaibah says, bnt others take it to be a mistak^ni 
Al-Batalyawst states regarding the anthor of al^Mantik that he* 
said (both) y [/*^ » {}^ and v Lr*^ ' ó^ (tìie crovy croaked)^ adding that 
the word with the letter ^ is better. Ibn-Jinnt (also) states similarly. ; 
The §fthib Bahà'd-din Zuhair, the wazir of the King as-$àlib 
Najm-ad-dìn AyyAb, the son of the King al-Kdmil Mnhamnuujl) has 
said beautifuUy on the snbject of parting (separation) in bis lines :— > 

<<Now at the hand of Parting do I fare ; : 

Fall badly, and it doth oppreas me sere ; ^ 

It e?er crayeth for me more and more. 
How longshall I these freqaent partinga bear? 
Absence ! wilt thoa then for aye remala P 
Thoa aaid'at : *1 ^now how ran the whole affair.' 
Nay ! wrong me not ; for nought that e'er I knew 
Ran on at aU, ezcept these tears I weep !^ x 

He has also composed enigmatical lines on the snbject of a lock, 
in which he has excelled : — 

<'A dingy soamp wom thin by freqaent aorapes, 
Ria habit atingy, keepiag **olo8a" and <' near '*; 
Tia atrange that nanght hia vigilance eacapea. 
And yei the rogne baa neither eye nor earj't 

1 Pahner»a T. of the Diw&a of fiahi'd-dtn Zahair, pp. 157 and 168. t Idem 



^»Hia poetioal compositions are excellent, hia poetry being calléd bj the 
; people giren to thia art easy and (jet) nnattainable. He waa in great 
Il favonr with the King aa-^àlih» and he never interceded (with him) 
^bnt to do good. Hia death took placo in 656 A. H. (1258 A. D.). 

It ia aaid tbat if a orow oroàka twice, it ia a bi^d aign, and that if 
t it croaka thricOi \ it ia a good aign, acoording to the nomber of the 
ì lettera (in the word expreaaing it). ^ Aa it ia dear-eyed and sharp* 
. lighted it ia called a^toavi bnt al-Jà^ij atatea that it ia thna called on 
k'aoconnt of ita being oonaidered a aign of bad omen, and that there ia 
f really no nnaonndneaa of eye (one-eyedneas) in it. Some, liowever, 
ì aay that it ia thna called by way of prognoatication of aecnrity* from 
^ity in the aame way that olr-barHyah (a desert) ia called aUmafàzaJi (a 
Iplaci of »afeiy\ and al^ycà ash-^himdl {the Ufi havd) ia called a/- 
\'yaidr (the Ufi or ea$e). 

The word tatayyur (anguring) ia derived from at-pnìfr (a Urd)^ 
iin regard to whether it paaaea coming from the right aide (al-bàrih) 
hst from the left aide {oi^ànih) or from before (ait-iul^tA) or from 
[behind (aUhci'^^* The crow ia held by the Araba the foremost 
[i>ne among inanspiciona omena, becauae of ita black colonr and 
iJ)ecanae of nothing having a more aerioua efEect on their caniela than 
ISt. It haa aharp eyea, ao thatfear ia entertained of them in the aame 
i^nanner thtft it ia entertained of the eyea of a amiter with an evi] 
. j^ye ; the Araba therefore hold it to be the foremoat one among 
jnanapicioua omena. Some aay that it ia called a^Moar (one-eyed) on 
account of ita keeping one of ita eyea alwaya cloaed owing to the 
[ aharpneaa (atrength) of ita aight ; — ^ao Ibn-al-A^ràbl aaya. A part 
^ of thia will be given under the heading of Proverba. 

(Information.) The anthor of aWAiharàt atatea that the nonn 

yi'^uTàb ia one of the homonyma, being appUed to snovo^ a piati of 

Itair^ aptekHzae or a stone^uttér^spickf the top (head) o/tìte hip^ and the 

erow itaelf. He adda, '' Abù-'Abd-Allah al-Muhallabt, that ia to aay, 

ÌTiftàwaih, thna aumamed on account of hia living in al-Muhallab'a 

i Jx (bad) haa two lettera in it and^AiL (good) haa three lettera in il. 
"• Aa antiphraaia. 

r» — r-i- 

' s 

' -^'^ 

' 1 



. . j 

tiine, recited to me the foUowing linea, on the aothority of Tha^lab as-j 
Goming from Ibn-al-A*ràbi : — J i 

* wonder for a wonder of wooders ! ' 

• 4 

Fife meanings {girbàn) for one (word) guràh.* *' j 

Aristotle states that the body of the raven of separation ìa black^ 
and ita beak and legs yellow, and that ita food consiata of both vege*! 
table anbstancea and fleah. 

It ia aaid in a tradition that the Prophet prohibited pccking like 
a crow (v!^'O*0» meaning thereby lightneaa in prostration, that' 
is to say» not being long enongh over it, bnt doing it in mnch the 
aame timo that a crow takea to place ita beak over a thing ont of 
which it wanta to eat* 

AI-Bnkhàri relatea in al-Adab^ al-Hàkim in aUMusiadraky al- 
Baiha^l in a9hr8hx% and Ibn-^Abd-al-Barr and othera also relate, on 
the anthority of ^Abd-All&h b. al-Harith al-Umawt, who had it from 
hia raother Raitah b. Maalim, who had it from ber father, who 
aaid, *^ I waa preaent with the Prophet at the battio of Honain ; he 
aaked me, 'What ia your name?' and I replied, *My name ia Qarab,* 
upon which he aaid, ^No, but yonr name ia Mnalim.' " The Prophet thua 
changed hia name, becauae the crow (al-g^uràb) ia an animai foul in ita 
actiona and foul in ita food; and on that account, the Prophet ordered 
it to be killed both in the atate of tArdm and out of it. It ia related 
in the Sunan of AbA-Dftwud that a man came to the Prophet, who 
asked him, " What ia your name ?" and he replied, " Aaram," upon 
which the Prophet aaid, " No, but you are Zar*ah." He thus 
changed hia name on account of their boing the acnae of cutting ( ^^ ) 
in hia originai name. 

AbA-D&wud atatea that the Prophet changed the names of aPAa, 
^Azlz, ^Aklah, Shaifàn, al-Hakam, Habftb, and Shihftb, and the name 
of the land callod ^Afrah, which he changed to Khudrah. He dia* 
liked the name of al-'Aa on account of the aenae of disobedience 
(^U^aaJI) in it, whilat the dcacriptive quality of a Belio ver ia obo- 
dionee (to God) ànd reaignation. He changed the name of *Aziz, 
becauae might (i^^^O ia a quality of God, whilat the characteriatic 
aigna of a worahipper (aervant of God) are humility and aubmiaaion. 
God will aay at the time of acme of Hia enemiea grinding teeth (from 

PatIt al-9ATAw1k 



iMe), *^ \Tast6 1 verily, thoa art tho mighty, the honourablo !* '*^ 

meaning o( ^A^lah is $everity and ffrossness^ wliilst the descriptive 

lity of a Believer is softness and simplicity. Tlie Prophet has said, 

Beliovers are soft and gentle/' The word BhaitAn is derived freni 

t meaning) gaing at a distanee from gooiL AI-Hakam is the 

e as a rider ( f^^ 0» ^^^ whose order cannot be disot>ejed ; this 

lescrìption is net fitting for any one bat God, the High, — colclimtod 

His praises I Al-^abàb is a naine of Satan. Ash-Shihab is a 

of fire, whìlst Hcll-fire is the punishmcnt from God (for sin- 

ers); it is of a buming and dostreyjng nature, and we ask o£ God 

ifety from it I As to ^Afrah, it is a descriptive quality of a land in 

nothing grows ; the Prophet changcd that namc to Khudrah 

n the sense of auguring greenness and vegefcation. 

It is related in the Sunan of AbA-Dàwud, an-NasiVi, and Ibn- 

klàjah, ont of a tradition of 'Abd-ar-Rahmàn b. Shibl, on whose autho- 

no other tradition is given in the six (principal) books (on tradì- 

iions), namely, that the Prophet prohibited any pcrson saying prayer 

from (doing like) the pcckingof a crow. Al-Ui\kim has rclated it in 

^,thcse words : — ** He (the Prophet) prohibited (the doing like) tho pcck- 

'ing of a crow and the strctching ont of a lion, bat a man mnst stay 

in tlìo place as a carnei does. He meant by the pecking of a crow, 

riightness in prostration and not remaining over it but jnst in the 

L'manner that a crow places its beak over a thing ont of which it 

'.wants to eat." 

Abu-Ya*là al-Mawsilt and at-Tabarflnt iu bis Afu^jam al-atosat 

relate, on theautliority of Salamah b. Kai<ir, that tho Prophot said, 

'^^ God will cause htm who fasts a day ont of a dosi re tx> plcase God, 

; to be distant from Hell-fire, like the being at a distanee of a crow, 

: which flics away whcn it is yctonly a young bird nntil it dies of old 

' ago/' Araong tho authoritics for thìs tradition is Tbn-Liihai^ih, 

rcgarding whom thcre is a difEerence of opinion. AbiVHurairah lins 

related a similar tradition as coming from the Prophet. The Imftm 

Abmad has related it in az-Zulid^ and also al-BazzAr, but thcre is an 

' authority in it whose name is not given. 

« Al-iriir»àn XLIV.49. 


• . • ' 


436 AD^DAìllBrS 

Under the letter j in the art. '*«^l b already given what has | 
béen rehited by 'ad-Dé^^t^^t, on the aathority of Abù-Umàniah,^] 
whó 8àid^ ** The Prophet called for his two shoes in order to weaV ; 
them ; he wolre otie of them, npon which a crow carne there and oar» t 
fying the other one away, threw it down, when.a jserpent carne forth • 
oot of it. The Prophet therenpon said, * Whoever believes in Ood ; 
and the Last Day oaght not to wear hb shoes beforo first shaking^ 
them.' '* One of the authorities in it is flishàm b.*^Amr. Ibn-Hibbin \ 
has mentioned it in ath-Tkikàti and it is an anthentic tradition. A] 
tradition similar to this has been already giyen in the art. it^^UJ I òj^HK *' 

The Imam A^mad relates in ar-2ii%j, regarding Ibn-^AÌibàà, ; 
that wheneyer a ci^òw croaked, he nsed io say, *^ O Ood, therè is n6 ] 
omén hot Thine, no goòd but Thine, and no God bnt Thon !" 

It has been i^laied to ns, on the anthority òf Ibù-Tabarseadh trith ; 
the iinthorities given by him lis far às al-Ùàkam b. ^Abd-Allàh b. }, 
Hi(tAn, on the anthority of az-Znlirì, Xvho had it froiii Abù-Wà^d, > 
%ho had it froih Bawb b. Habib, Vho said, <' While I was (ÒnoMaà^) j 
with Abù-Bakr, a crow was bronght iherè ; when lie saw it with lis ] 
two wings (entire), he praised Gòd and said, '* The Prophet ' 
hàs said, ** There is no game seized but throngh a shortcoming (òn its ' 
pari) in its cèlebratiòn of thè praises 'òf God; there is no plani ^^ 
that grows bui has an angèl hppointed for it by God, who connts thè : 
nnmber of its acts of celebration of the pruises of God, so that he majr j 
produce it on the Day of Judgnleht ; there is no troe bitten croni but i 
.through a shortcoming (on its pari) in its celebration of the praises \ 
of God ; and no disagreeablè thing overtakes a man but thròugh « ] 
sin of his ; how many of his sins are, hòwever, forgiven by Gòd I'' > 
i) crow, worship God.' He then set it free." A similar thing out 1 
of the sayings of ^Umar will he given in the art. ijj^ f. 

(Further ihformation.) Abù'l-Haitham states that it is said > 
thàt the crow sees under the earth'to the éxieni of the length of iti \ 
beak. The reasòh (philosòphy) of God sending a crow to Gain when ] 
he killed his brother Abel, aiid noi àny other bird or any wild animai, ': 
was that murder was a very extraordinary thing, because it was 
never observed before that time ; the sending of a crow was there- 

^. ^tXt AL-|LlTAWlN 437 

lor^ an appropriate tbing. Ghxl has said, ** Recite to them the story 

òl the tV'o sona of Adam ; troly when they offered an offering and 

It was aooepted (rom one of them, and was not aecepted f rom the 

[olKéirt tbat one said, * I will snrely kill thee ;' he said, * God only 

[aòcèptfl from those who fear. If thon dost stretch forth to me thine 

fhand to kill me, I will not stretch forth mine hand to kill thee ; 

r^rily, I fear God the Lord of the worlds ; verily, I wish that thon 

^ mayest draw npon thee my sin and thy sin, and he of the f ellows of 

kthe Fire, for that is tlie reward of the nnjust.' Bnt his soni allowed 

1 hlm to slay his brother, i^nd he slew him, and in the moming he was 

l'ot those who lese. And God sent a crow to scratch in the earth and 

Fshow him how he might htde his brother*s shame, he said, * Alas, for 

[me t Am I too belpless to become like this crow and bidè my brother's 

^shameP* and in the moming he was of those who did repent"^ The 

I oommentators of the Kur*àn state that Gain, who was an agriculturist, 

offered the worst and least valnable of what he had, and that Abol, whq 

was a sbepberd, took the l>est of bis sbeep and offered it. Now, the 

lign of aoceptance of the offering was tbat fire sbould oome and 

oonsnme the offering. The (ire took the sbeep which Abel had 

: offered as a sacrifice. Tbat sbeep used to graze in Paradise unti] it 

Vas sont down to Abraham as a ransom for bis son Isbmael. Cain 

was the eldost of Adam's cbildren. It is related tbat Adam had gone 

on the pilgrìmage to Makkah and^appointed Gain as the guardian of 

his children, bnt Gain sIcw Abel. When Adam retarned, he asked, 

.*• Whoro is Abel ?" upon which Gain replied, " I do not know. 

Adam then said, '^0 God, curso the land that bos drunk his blood 1 

Sinco tbat timo land has not boon in the habit of drinkins blood. 

« •^ 

]Then after that, Adam romained for a hnndrcd yoars witbont sniil- 

ing, nntil the augol of death carne to him and said, ^' Adam, 

T^Iay God prolong yonr Ufo and make yon laugh 1"* Adam askcd 

him, " What is ^ i*^ ?" and the angol rcplicd, " May He cause yon 
\tù langh I" It is related that Gain carried the body of his brother 
jAbel and went away nntil ^(t; stank, bnt he did not know what to do with 
it God then sent two crows thero, one of which killcd the othor 

i Al-Surtn V-80— 84. • fJiLj AJU | ^JUk . For the sereni meanìngs 
of the latter part of this phimee tee Lane's Lex. art. ^. 





438 AD-DAMilli'S , 

one, and tlien digging in tho eartU witli ite boak, it buried it. Gain 
then foUowed ite exiiniplo. The sonding of the crow wns therefore 
an act ot great wisdoni, naniely, to show the son of Adam how io i 
bury. That is the meaning of God's word», ** Then Ho killod him, 
and laid him in the tomb."^ 

Anas relutes tliat the Prophet said, " God has tavonred man 
with the property of stinking after (the departore of) jilie soni, and 
if it were not for that, an «intimate friend (lover) wonld not 
have bnried an intimate friend.'' Gain will be the first one ont of ^ 
the children of Adam' to be led to , Hell-fire. God has said, 
" ^ Our Lord, sliow ns those who bave led ns astray amongst the genii 
and niankind/"' Tliey were Gain and Iblis. Anas relates that the 
Prophet having been asked regarding Tuesday said, ^' It is the day 
of blood. On that day Ève menstrnated (for the first timo), and on that j 
day a son of Adam killed bis brother." MalkAtil states that before • 
tliat, the beaste of prey and birds used to associate with Adam and \ 
be happy in bis company, but when Gain killed Abel, birds and 
l wild animals flod from him, troes bocame prickly (possessed of 

thoms), fruite became sonr (acid), waters became saltish, and land 
becamo dnsty. Abù-Dàwud relates regarding Sa'd b. Abi-WakUs ! 
as having asked (tho Prophet), ^^ Apostle of God, if a man comes 
to me with a mischievoas object (in a rebellions spirit) and extends 
bis band to me, (what am I to do)?" upon which the Prophet replied, 
" Be like the better one of the two sons of Adam," and recited this 

(A wonderful thing.) Al-Kazwint has copied from Abù-Hàmid 
al-Andalnsl that on the Mediterranean (Black) sea in the direction 
of Spain, thcre is a stone-built charch oxcavated oat of a mountain, 
having over it a largo dome, over which there is always a crow, and 
that opposite the dome tliere is a mosqne which is visited by people ; 
it is said that a prayer offered in the mosqae is granted. A condi- 
tion is made with the Ghristian prieste to entertain hospitably ali 
Mnslims who visit that mosqae. When a visitor comes (to the 
mosqne), the crow introduces ite head inside a window on that dome 

1 Al-Knr'àii LXXX-Sl. • Idem XLI-29. 



pi and oroaks once, bat if two visitors come it croaks twice, and thiiB 
^: every. tóme that visìtors come, it croaku according to their nunilior. 
libo monka tliereupon bring food cnough for tho y'mUm. Timi 
!;ehnrch b known by the name of the Ohurch oE the Crow. Tlio 
' priests aasert that they always Beo a crow onthatdome, and timi 
• thcy do not know whonce it gota ito food and drhik. 

(Another wonderfu! thing.) Abù'I-Faraj al-Mu^àfl b. Zakarlyii 
. ftates in Kitàb al-^lalis wCl^AnU composed by him, '^ We U8cd to 
I lit with the Kàdt Ab&'l-Hasan. We carne (one day) as usuai and sat 
^- at bis door, where we fonnd a Badawl having some want also seatcd. 
^*A crow then happened to alight on a date-palm in the house ; it croak- 
> ed and flew away. The Badawl thereupon said, ^ This crow saya 
;, that the master of the house will die after seven days.' We then 
r drove him away ; so he got up and went away. Permission was then 
; received for ns f rem the ^dt ; so we went in and found him changed 
1^' in colour and in deep anxiety. We asked him, * What is the matter 
r (news) f and he replied, ^ I saw last night in a dream a person say- 

I ing :— 

•«0 mansioiM of 51-<AbbAd b. Zsid, 
( Farewell to yoor people snd yoar happinets I** ' 

On that account, I ani very sorrowful.' We then prayed for him 
and went away. When the seventh day f rom that day capie, he was 
buriod." The Ijadl AbùVTayyib atrTabarl states, "I bave board 
\ this narrative from the lips of our shaikb, the aforementioned Abù'l* 

(Another wondcrful thing.) Ya'kùb b. aa-Sikkit states that 
^. Umayyab b. Abl^s-I^alt used to drink (wine) on some days. A crow 
I happened to come (one day) and croaked once, upon which Umayyah 
, said, ^* May there be dust in thy mouth!" It then croaked again, upon 

which also Umayyah said to it, **May there be dust in thy mouth I " 
: He then turned to bis companions and said, "Do you know what 

this crow says? It asserto that I sball drink this cup and die. The 
: signal for it is that it will go to this heap of dust, where it will^wallow 
; a bone and die." The crow then went to the heap of dust and swal- 

lowed a bone, upon which it died. Then Umayyah drank the cup 

and died immediately. 

' ■ - * A. 

f -.^ 



440 AD-DAMtfii'B 

I (the author) saj that UmaTTah b. AbtV^alt, the utibelieVeri 
10 mentioned in aUMukktafor of al-Mùzant» aUUuhadHhab^ aod otber 


books in (the chapter) Kiiàb ash^ShcJìàddt^ and that the Prophet had 
beard hia poems, which contain wisdom, bis dochiration of the nnitjr 
(of God), and mention of the (prophetic) mission (of Mnbammad).| 
The name of Abù'a-^alt was 'Abd-Àllàh b. Babt'ah b. 'Awf J 
UmaTjah nsed to devote himself to aets of devotion (to Qod)' 
in the Time of Ignorance, to believe in the (adventof the prophetio) 
mÌB8Ìon (of Mobammad), and to recite some elegant verses in regar^ i 
to it. He was alive when al-IsUm was founded, bnt did not become; 
a Moslim. At-Tirmidhl, an-Nasà% and tbn-Màjab relate, on thej 
antlìority of ash-Sharld b. Snwaid, who said, ^^I rode one day behind' 
the Apostle of God (on the same carnei), and he said to me, ^Do you^ 
know any verses of Umayyah b. Abrs-^alt ?' I replied, ^Yes,* nponj 
which he said, ^ Recite them.' I then rccited to him a distich, and he j 
said, ^ Recite more,' nntil I recited to him a hundred distiches. The^ 
Prophet then- said, * He was very near becoming a Mnslim/ ** It is ^ 
said in another version that the Prophet said, " He was near becom* ;! 
ing a Mnslim by bis versesi* The Prophet said that, when he heard 
the following lines : — 

<<To lliee U due the praise and to Thee belong happioesa and favoan, ! 
our Lord ; 

lliere Is nothing higher than Thee in praiie, nor anythiag more glorious !" ' 

It is related in the Musnad of ad-Dàrimt, out of a tradition of ] 
*Ikrimah, on the authority of Ibn-^Abbàs, who said, " The Prophet 
considered Umayyah b. AbiV^alt to bave said the truth in the fol- ^ 
lowing lines ont of bis verses ; — 

'«Satnni and Tàaros are under Hìs right foot, 
Whilst an-Natr and Leo are waiting for the other one." 

The Prophet therenpon said, " He has said the tmth." He has 
said : — 

**The san rises at the end of every night 
Of a red eoloar, but in the morning la of a pink colour.** 

The Prophet therenpon said, " He has said the tmth/' He has 
said : — 



PàtIt al»9atawIm 441 

(Ùm Mm) rof 01^ and does nnfc riie fot ut at ito ease, 
la a stata of torment and nadar dAloalttea.** 

thereapon aaid, " Ho has said tho trotli." 

hihailt states in at'Ta^rtf u)a*l4Hdm with regard to the wordd 
^ Read to theni; the declaration of him to whom we hronght 
Ignai and who atepped awaj therefroin, and Satan foUowed him» 
was of those who were begoiled." * tliat Ilm-^AbbAs said t&at 
me was revealed in refereuce to Bai^Am b. B&^ùrft, and that 
UUh b* aPA^ said that it was revealed in reference to Umay- 
AbtV^alt ath-Tha^cafl, who had read the Pentateuch and tlie 
.Testament in the Time of IgnOrance, and who uscd to know 
"a prophet from among the Arabs was' likely to be sent. He 
^tore desired to pass for that prophet. When the Prophot was 
and the prophetic office passed away from Umayyah, he envied 
^rophet and becaine an nnbelieyor. He was the first one to 
'* In thy name, Qod I" (at the beglnning o£ every thing), 
|;]^araish having leamt it from him usod to write it in the Time 
[gnorance. Umayyah himself leamt it in a wonderful way, which 
%ientioned by al-Mas*ùdl. Umayyah who was nnder the proteo- 
(of God), and to whom genii usod to prosent themselves, wont 
(once) with a caravan belonging to Kuraish, and a serpont hap- 
ming to pass by them, they killed it. Anothor sorpent thercupon 
le to them demanding vengeance on account of tho first one and 
[d, /' Yen bave killed snch a one." It thcn strnck the ground with 
[rèed, upon which the catnels were scattered, and thoy were unablo 
^bring them together until after a great deal of troublo. When 
collocted them together, it came again and struck (the ground) 
Psecond timo, upon which the camels.were again scattered, and tliey 
were not able to collcct them until after midnijrht. It thèn came 
again and struck (the ground) a third timo, upon which tho camel«i 
^ere scattered again, and thcy were not able to collect thcin, until 
they were nigh perishing f roi^ thirst and fatiguc, being (at the time) 
in a waterless desert. They theref ore asked Umayyah, " Have you 
àny dodge ?" and he replied, " Perhaps." He then wcnt away until 
be passed a sand-hill, when he saw the light of a fire at a distance. 

» AUffur'àn VU.174. 

• ^:^Ò^ 

442 AD-DAMilifa 

He foUowcd it uutil he carne upon an old person in a teut. He com< 
plained to him of what had bòEallen himself and bis companions, Thaj 
old person was a jinni ; he replied, ^* Go, and iE the serpen) 
cornea to you again, say, *In Tliy name, God !' seven times.!J 
Umajryah then retnrned to them, who were on the point of perishingj| 
and informed them of it. When the serpent carne there again, the] 
said that, and it said, ^^ May yon perish on account of ypnr knowinj 
this I*' and went away. They then took their cainels. Àmong thei 
was Harb b. Umayyah b. *Abd-Shams, the grandfather of Mu^&wiyahl 
b. Abi-SnfyAn. The^tnni killedhim afterwards, out of revenge oik 
account of the above-mentionod serpent.' The following lines wero^ 
said abont him : — r, 

*^The graye of Harb is in a deaeri place, '•] 

And there It noi a graye near the grave of Harb.** ,'j 

'Atikah, the siater of this Umayyah b. Abt's-Ì^alt, became £ 
Muslim and gav^ an account of him, which is related by *Abd-ar-Raz| 
zà^ in his commentary of the Kur*An ; an account agreeing with it 
vrììl behereafter given in this hook under the lettor ui in the hri.j^w, 

(Lawfulness or unlawfulness.) It is unlawful to eat the parti* 
coloured noxious (transgressing) crow. As to the largo black kindj 
which is the monntain-crow, it is also truly unlawful, which has been 
so decided by a party of religious doctors. As to the field-crow, it ià 
truly lawf ul. The lawfulness or unlawf ulness of the magpie and al^ 
giuda/ ha3 heen already given. Abù-Hanifah states that ali kinds o^ 
crows are lawful. '] 

Al-Bukhàrt relates in his ^hth^ on the authority of *Abd-Allàh 
b. 'Umar, that the Prophet said, <^ There is no sin in killing fiye oi 
the animals, namely, the crow, the kite, the rat, the serpent, and 
any wounding or biting animai of prey." ^ It is related in the 
Sunan of Ibn-Mdjah and al-Baihakt, on the authority of ^A'ishah; 
who said that the Àpostle of God said, '^ The serpent is a transgressoi 
(noxious animai), the rat is a transgressor, and the crow is a trans- 
gressor." It is also related in the Sufutn of Ibn-Ma jah that Ibn< 
*Umar having been asked, " Can the crow be eaten ?'* replied, " Whc 

1 jjhJ I uaUJ )•— Any animai of prey as a lion. ly nx, leopard, wolf , and thi 
like.— See Lane'a Lex. ari.^A#. 



; qatìt al-9ayaw1n 443 

itf it, after the Apostle of Qod having said that it is a transgressor I" 
ró bne poflsesses a right of possession or ownorship over theso fivo 
bxioas animals ;— 00 it is copied by ar-Rafi'l in Kitàb Pimdn aU 
ikà*in%^ Olì the anthorìty of the Imam, and he has confirmed it. Ac- 
Drding to this, it 19 not. compulsory on a stealer or nsurper of thoiu 
lìf'retom them. 

P' (Proverbs.) A poét says: — 

' **He wbo ha» for a gaide a oro«r, 
ì'' la tare io be taken by it to the carcaseB of doga.*' 

^1 shall not do it until the crow becomes gray/' tiiat is to say, *^ I 
hall never do it/' beeanse the crow never becomes gray. 

\ The HAfi4 *Abù-Nu^aim relates in bis pUi/ah in the biography 

{ Safyàn b. ^Uyainah, on the anthorìty of Mis'ar b. EidAm, that a 

értain man having gone on a voyage on the sca, bis ship was \vreck-