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NOVEMBER 15, 1838. 



-v,^ of Co;,-v. 



This Address was prepared under many disadvantages, and 
may seem unworthy of publication ; yet I do not feel at liberty 
to refuse a compliance with the request of my fellow citizens, 
at whose desire it was written, and whose patience was so laud- 
ably manifested during its delivery. It has no literary preten- 
sions, except as a statement of facts; in this point, I have used 
the utmost caution to secure correctness ; and 1 think no essen- 
tial error will be detected. The materials have been gathered 
from various sources. My acknowledgments are particularly 
due to John P. Bigelow, Esq., Secretary of State, and the gen- 
tlemen connected with his office, — to Doct. Joseph Stone, 
Town Clerk of Hardwick, — and to the several Clergymen of 
that town, — for access to documents under their charge, and 
facilities in pursuing my investigations. 

Hardwick is situated on the western border of Worcester 
County, midway between New Hampshire and Connecticut, and 
seventy miles from Boston. It contains about 20,000 acres of 
land, which is well described by Whitney, in these words : — 
" 'J'he face of the town is rather rough, hilly, and uneven ; al- 
though there are no very great and remarkable hills. The soil 
is, in general, deep, loamy, and very fertile. The lands pro- 
duce all kinds of grain in sufficient plenty for the inhabitants ; 
but they are best adapted to grass and pasturage. Here vast 
quantities of butter and cheese are made, and most excellent 
beef fatted for the market. All kinds of fruit trees flourish 
here." — Hist. Worcester County, p. 175. 

The population has been nearly stationary, — large numbers 
emigrating annually. The following table exhibits the number 
of inhabitants at seven different periods. 















There are in the town a sufficient number of grist-mills, saw- 
In 1801, a portion ol (he town was taken off at the incorporation of Dana. 

mills, and shops of various mechanics, to supply the wants of 
the inhabitants. From the " Statistical Tables" published by 
order of the General Court, for the year ending April 1, 1837, 
I extract the following additional particulars, respecting this 

" Boots manufactured, 5000 pairs ; shoes, 5000 pairs ; value 
of boots and shoes, .'<14,500; males employed, 20 ; females, 8. 

" Tanneries, 2; hides tanned, 1500; value of leather tanned 
and curried, *5250; hands employed, 6; capital invested, §4500. 

" Paper Mills, 2 ; stock manufactured, 55 tons; value of pa- 
per, $5600; males employed, 6; females, 2 ; capital invested, 

" Manufactory of Chairs and Cabinet Ware, 1 ; value of 
chairs and cabinet ware, 81000; hands employed, 2. 

" Plough Manufactory, 1 ; ploughs manufactured, 150 ; value 
of same, 8900; employing one person. 

" Straw Bonnets manufactured, 300 ; value of same, $500. 

"Palm-leaf Hats manufactured, 75,000; value of same 

As these facts in regard to the size, situation, description, in- 
habitants, and productions of the town, have no special connex- 
ion with its history, I assign them a place in the preface. In 
the Appendix, other facts are inserted, which perhaps may be 
interesting to the inhabitants of the town. 



Your Committee of Arrangements have requested me 
to address you on this very interesting occasion. I know 
not how I can more acceptably, or with more propriety, 
perform that service, than by presenting a brief historical 
sketch of the Town of Hardwick. To such a sketch, — 
imperfect indeed, yet the best which I coidd prepare in 
the brief time allowed, — permit me most respectfully to 
ask your attention. 

In one respect, this was a frontier town when it was 
settled by the English. A line of towns, extending across 
the Province, had been established on Connecticut River; 
but with this exception, the whole country on this side 
of Hudson River was then a wilderness ; and on a direct 
line to duebec or to Montreal, there was not a single En- 
glish settlement. Yet the power of the Indians had been 
previously crushed to such an extent, that the inhabitants 
of this Township were never molested by them.* 

Indeed, I am not aware that even before the settlement 
of this town, more than one battle was fought between 
the English and the Indians, on any spot afterwards em- 
braced within its territory. On the 2d of August, 1675, 
Captain Edward Hutchinson, of Boston, Captain Thomas 
Wheeler, of Concord, about twenty armed horsemen, and 
several of the principal citizens of Brookfield. were at- 
tacked and defeated by a party of Indians, at a place 
called Meminimisset, and described as being eight or ten 

* For a single exceplioii, see Appendix, under tlic nanjc of Eleazer 


miles northwest from Brookfield. The party, when at- 
tacked, were attempting to pass between a hill on the 
east side, and a swamp on the west, so that they could 
only ride in single file. For reasons* which I have not 
now time to mention, 1 am satisfied that the place thus 
described is less than a mile south of the present resi- 
dence of Colonel Stephen Fay, in New Braintree ; and 
this place, you are aware, has been within the territorial 
limits of Hardwick. 

In this battle, eight men were killed, including three 
inhabitants of Brookfield. Others were mortally wounded. 
Among them was Captain Hutchinson, who died at Marl- 
borough on the nineteenth day of the same month, and 
was there buried. He was son of the famous Ann Hutchin- 
son, and ancestor of Governor Thomas Hutchinson. Cap- 
tain Wheeler also was wounded, but rescued from death 
by the heroic exertions of his son Thomas, who himself 
was very severely wounded. The father thus relates the 
matter: — " He endeavored to rescue me, showing him- 
self therein a loving and dutiful son, he adventuring him- 
self into great peril of his life to help me in that distress ; 
there being many of the enemies about me, my son set 
me on his own horse, and so escaped a while on foot 
himself, until he caught an horse whose rider was slain, 
on which he mounted, and so, through God's great mercy, 
we both escaped." f 

The English, who survived the conflict, fled to Brook- 
field. The Indians pursued, invested the town, and in a 
few days destroyed every building in it, except the forti- 
fied house. The settlemeut was entirely broken up, and 
the town was abandoned for several years. Although 
this battle was not attended by the loss of many lives, 
yet as it led to results so important in the history of our 
early settlements, I have thought it pardonable to 
notice the fact that it occurred on a spot, once a part of 
our territory. 

This township was purchased of the Indian proprie- 
tors, more than one hundred and fifty years ago. By a 
deed, dated December 27, 1686, " John Magus, Lawrence 

Nassowanno, attorneys to Anogomok, Sachem of the 
tract of land called Wombemesisecook, James and Simon, 
sons and heirs of Black James, Sachern of the Nipmug 
country, for divers good causes and considerations, — ■ 
especially for and in consideration of the sum of twenty 
pounds current money of New England," conveyed to 
"Joshua Lamb, Nathaniel Paige, Andrew Gardner, Ben- 
jamin Gamblin, Benjamin Tucker, John Curtis, Richard 
Draper, and Samuel Ruggles, of Roxbury (Mass.), a cer- 
tain tract or parcel of land, containing by estimation, 
twelve miles long, north and south, and eight miles wide, 
east and west, situate, lying, and being near Quabaug, 
commonly known by the name of Wombemesisecook." * 

The bounds of this tract of land are vague and indefi- 
nite, like those in Indian deeds generally, of like ancient 
date. They are expressed thus: — "Bounded southerly 
upon the land that Joseph Dudley, Esq. lately purchased 
of the Indians, easterly the southermost corner upon a 
pond called Sasagookapaug, and so by a brook which 
runneth into said pond, and so up northerly unto a place 
called Ueques, and so still northerly until it meets with 
a River called Nenameseck, and westerly by the river 
until it comes against Quabaug bounds, and joins unto 
their bounds, or however otherwise butted and bound- 
ed," (fccf 

It would be difficult, if not impossible, at the present 
day, to trace these lines, except the single one formed by 
Ware River, then called Nenameseck. It is evident, 
however, from the Proprietors' Records, that they claimed 
from Rutland (now Barre), on the north, to the Chicka- 
pee River on the south ; embracing besides Hardwick, 
almost the whole town of Ware, the northeasterly corner 
of Palmer, and so much of Warren as lies north of the 
Chickapee River. 

The original proprietors seem not to have made 
this purchase with an expectation of immediate profit. 
There is no evidence that they made any eff"ort to settle 
this Township (or Leicester,! which they purchased about 

I* " Variously written, Wombisiscook ; Wambemcsiscook ; Womberasi- 

t The Deed is inserted in the Appendix, B. 

i It appears by an instrument dated February 23, 1713, recorded in the 
Middlesex Registry of Deeds, B. xvii. p. 27, that tlie original purchasers of 


the same period), for many years. Indeed, the larger 
part of them were dead, before either of these places 
was settled. The earliest document known to exist 
(except the Deed) concerning the settlement of this 
town, is the appointment of an agent, who was empow- 
ered to employ a surveyor, " to view, and consider, and 
mark out the said lands, as butted and bounded in said 
Deed, to take an account of the waste land, ponds, as 
well as other land therein fit for settlement." It bears 
date, February 20, 1726-7,* and has the following sig- 
natures: — Joshua Lamb, for himself; Nathaniel Paige 
and Christopher Paige, as heirs to Nathaniel Paige ; Sam- 
uel Green and Edward Sumner, as assigns to Andrew 
Gardner's heirs ; Caleb Seaver, one of the heirs of Benja- 
min Gamblin ; Benjamin Tucker and Samuel Davis, as 
heirs to Benjamin Tucker; Benjamin Smith, on behalf 
of John Curtis's heirs; Richard Draper, for himself; and 
Joseph Ruggles, for the heirs of Samuel Ruggles." Only 
two of the original proprietors were then living, — Lamb 
and Draper. 

An effort was made the same year to obtain from the 
General Court a grant or confirmation of this territory. 
Colonel Joshua Lamb, Deacon Richard Draper, and Cap- 
tain Samuel Green, were appointed (May 30, 1727) a 
committee to present a petition. The House of Repre- 
sentatives granted them " the contents of six miles 
square ; — provided the Petitioners make no further 
claim to the land within mentioned." f This was but 
little more than a third part of the original purchase. 

Leicester were Joshua Laiub, Samuel Ruggles, Benjamin Gamblin, Benja- 
min Tucker, Jonathan Curtis, Ralph Bradhurst, Richard Draper, Andrew 
Gardner, and Nathaniel Paige. Before the township was settled, they ad- 
mitted so many associates as to make " twenty full and equal shares and 

* For many years before the "New Style'' was established by law, in 
1752, some commenced the year on the first of January, and others on the 
twenty-fifth of March. To prevent confusion and uncertainty, it was the 
usual custom to make double dates between these two days. Thus in the 
text, the date answers to February 20, 1726, according to the old style of 
reckoning, — commencing the year March 25th; and to February 20, 1727, 
according to the present or new style of reckoning, — commencing tlie year 
January 1st. In the remainder of this sketch, I shall omit the double dates, 
conforming them to the present method of dating. It must not be forgotten, 
however, that in all dates, previous to 1752, eleven days must be added, in 
order that they may correspond with present dates ; for example, from Feb- 
ruary, 20, 1726-7 to March 3, 1839, is 112 years. 

t General Court Records. 

.And even this the Council were unwiUing to grant, and 
non-concurred with the House. 

Previously to this time, several persons had commenced 
a settlement here.* And the petition for a grant was 
partly at least designed by the proprietors to protect them- 
selves against such encroachments. They sent also an 
agent " to warn tliem oft' from making any further im- 
provement," but empowered him to "agree with those 
persons that have made a pitch upon said land for the 
present year, as he and they shall agree, as our tenants." 

At a meeting, July 25, 1728, the proprietors took fur- 
ther measures to secure their property. They asserted 
their " honest and just title and right to the said land," 
appointed Joseph Ruggles to be their Clerk, and " Cap- 
tain Samuel Green, Mr. Nathaniel Paige, and the Rev. 
Mr. Timothy Ruggles," a committee to survey six miles 
square within their claim, to make a plan of it, and put 
it on record. They were also empowered to agree with 
the inhabitants respecting their improvements, and " to 
make an allotment of forty or fifty lots, one for a minis- 
ter, one for the ministry, and one for a school ; and the 
others to be disposed of as the proprietors shall hereafter 
order and agree." 

Between this date, and June 15, 1732, (a period of al- 
most four years, ) the Proprietors' Records are lost. But 
from the Records of the General Court, it appears that 
another petition was presented by a Committee of the Pro- 
prietors, September 24, 1729, wiiich was rejected. In 
November of the same year, other persons f attempted to 
obtain possession of the land embraced in the Deed, or a 
part of it. The proprietors remonstrated, and were suc- 

The next petition was presented June 15, 1731, and 
rejected the next day. The succeeding day (June I7th) 
another petition was presented for " eight miles square," 
only two thirds of the purchase. But even this scanty 
justice was denied the proprietors ; for their petition was 
rejected, December 31, 1731. The next day, (January 1, 

It is not certain whether these encroacliinents were made within the 
present limits ol' Hardwicli, or on other territory embraced in the original 
Deed. There are some reasons for believing that the disputed territory was 
below Hardwick, perhaps in Ware, or possibly as far south as Palmer, 
t See Appendix, C. 


1732,) a petition was presented for " six miles square," 
the court having manifested such a resolute intention to 
grant no more. This passed both Houses, but the Gov- 
ernor refused his signature. It was renewed June 15, 
1732, and at length was fully granted on the usual con- 
ditions, namely, that the proprietors should "within the 
space of five years settle and have on the spot sixty fami- 
lies, the settlers to be none but such as are natives of 
New England ; each settler to build a good and conve- 
nient dwelling-house, of one story high, eighteen feet 
square, at the least, and clear and bring to four acres fit 
for improvement, and three acres more well stocked with 
English grass ; and also lay out three shares throughout 
the town, each share to be one sixty-third part of the said 
tract, one share for the first settled minister, one for the 
ministry, and the other for the school ; and also build a 
convenient meeting-house, and settle a learned and ortho- 
dox minister, within the term aforesaid."* 

Having, after such tedious delays, and at such a sacri- 
fice of nearly two thirds of their purchase, obtained a 
grant, the proprietors held a meeting December 27, 1732, 
at which time they admitted four associates, namely, Jo- 
seph Haskell, Ebenezer Pierpont, Samuel Willis, Esq., 
and Colonel William Dudley, each for one share. The 
number of shares, now twelve, was never afterwards 
increased. At this time, all the original proprietors were 
dead, and the heirs of each one owned a single share. 

At an adjourned meeting, (February 21, 1733) the pro- 
prietors voted to divide their land into lots, reserving 
three mill-seats for their own benefit. These were sub- 
sequently granted to individuals, on condition that they 
should erect good mills, keep them in repair twenty 
years, and grind for the inhabitants for the usual toll.f 

* From this time tlie township took the name of Lambstown, by which it 
was known until its incorporation. 

t A grist-mill was erected about 1735, owned by Mr. John Wells, and 
stood on the Great Meadow Brook, near the spot where the paper mill now 
stands. Another was soon afterwards erected on the same brook, near the 
present residence of Mr. Orin Ti-ow, and was owned by Mr. Joseph Rug- 
gles. Probably about the same time another was erected on Moose Brook, 
where the " Old Furnace" afterwards stood. The Great Meadow Brook 
was for many years a division of the town into two sections for certain pur- 
poses. One Constable was elected on each side of this brook, and in war- 
rants for town meetings, each was required to notify the inhabitants in his 
section, that is, on his side of the brook. 


They also voted " that ten acres of land be reserved near 
the centre of said tract, to set a Meeting-house on, and 
for a burial-place,* and a training-field." Another vote 
was passed, authoriznig each proprietor to propose five 
settlers for admission, to make up the number [sixty] 
required in the grant. Tiie price fixed on each settler's 
lot was five pounds to be paid when the lot was drawn, 
"towards defraying the charges of surveying, &c., and 
the further sum of ten pounds each, for the building a 
Meeting-house, and settling a Mmister, within the space 
of three years after his being admitted." The lots were 
partly drawn, June 12, 1733. 

The territory originally granted was altogether on the 
westerly side of Ware River. But in answer to a peti- 
tion presented June 15, 1733, the General Court granted 
another tract, on the opposite side of the River, bounded 
south by Brookfield, and northeasterly by Braintree-six- 
thousand-acres, so called. I know not precisely how far 
eastwardly this grant extended. There was one range of 
lots, however, east of the present residence of Mr. Perez 
Cobb. It remained under the jurisdiction of Hardwick 
until 1751, when it was united with the six thousand 
acres, and a part of Brookfield, at the incorporation of 
New Brain tree. 

At a proprietors' meeting October, 30, 1733, provision 
was made for building " a good Cart Bridge over Ware 
River, — against the highway lately laid out towards 
Brookfield." This was near the same spot where the 
present Bridge stands, east of the " old furnace ; "f and 
was in the immediate vicinity of the principal settlement 
in the town. A large portion of the lots first laid out 
were near tiie River ; and when the additional grant was 
obtained, it was immediately laid out. These intervale 
lands possessed peculiar attractions, and were eagerly 

* The ancient burial place on the east side of the Common, is the same 
which was laid out in conseq-uence of this vote, or rather, a portion of the 
same. It was the only place of burial near the centre of the town until 
1815, when another was purchased about a quarter of a mile north of the 
Meeting-house ; in which are many handsome monuments 

t There have been two furnaces in Hardwick. The one was erected 
about 1760, on Moose Brook, near the River. The other was erected 
about twenty-tive years ago, on the River, not far from a hundred rods above 
the mouth of Great Meadow Brook. Both have been discontinued and 
destroyed. Yet the villages near which they stood, are still denominated 
the " Old Furnace " and " New Furnace." 


sought by those who were commencing the work of im- 
provement. And it is by no means surprising that such 
should have been the fact. For although the more ele- 
vated lands may now be ecjual, or even superior in value, 
it must not be forgotten that all was then an uncultivated 
waste ; and each settler was obliged to subdue seven 
acres of land, besides building a house, in three years, on 
penalty of forfeiting his lot. 

The first definite provision, of which I find any trace, 
for the support of public worship, was made at a pro- 
prietors' meeting, December 27, 1733, precisely one year 
after the first legal arrangement for commencing a settle- 
ment. Thus anxious were they to secure the benefits of 
public worship. It was voted " that the proprietors pay the 
sum of forty eight pounds, which is to be raised equally 
out of each whole share, to help pay a minister for preach- 
ing the Gospel amongst the inhabitants there, for one 
year after the second day of May next. Also voted that 
the settlers, both resident and non-resident, pay fifteen 
shillings each, as their equal part and projiortion of a fur- 
ther encouragement for a minister to preach the Gospel 
for said year ; and that Mr. Timothy Ruggles be desired 
to procure some suitable person to serve them for the 
same." Similar votes passed for several succeeding years. 
The proceedings had, in conformity with these votes, I 
shall have occasion to notice further, in another place. 

For several years, the settlement of this town progres- 
sed slowly. Some of the individuals, who drew lots as 
settlers, failed to make the required improvements, and 
the lots were forfeited, and assigned to others. Five lots 
were thus declared forfeit at a single meeting of the pro- 
prietors, July 21, 1736. And when we consider the char- 
acter of the more elevated lands, it need not surprise us, 
that some of the settlers had not perseverance enough to 
accomplish the work they had commenced, but abandon- 
ed their posessions in despair. It has been a frequent 
and a true observation, that the hilly lands in Hardwick 
are very excellent, when subdued ; but that it exhausts 
at least one life to subdue them. Yon, who have come 
into possession of well cultivated farms of this character, 
can scarcely realize the amount of labor which has been 
expended to bring them into their present condition. 


But it was labor well bestowed, and you are now reaping 
the rich fruits of it. 

Notwithstanding all discouragements, the settlement 
was effected before the expiration of the time prescribed in 
the Grant. A petition was presented to the General 
Court, November 29, 1736, by " Benjamin Smith and 
sundry other inhabitants of lands lately granted to Joshua 
Lamb Esq. and others, at a place called Lambstown, 
setting forth that they have fulfilled the conditions of a 
settlement, being arrived to the number of sixty inhabi- 
tants,* and performed what was enjoined on them as to 
subduing and improving the lands, and have called and 
settled a minister, praying that they may be incorporated 
into a township, for the reasons mentioned." Tliis peti- 
tion was granted so far as to authorize the inhabitants to 
elect town officers, to hold office until March 25, 1738, 
and to " agree upon methods for tlie support of the minis- 
try, and defraying other charges." "Mr. Benjamin Smith, 
one of the petitioners," was directed to notify the inhab- 
itants to meet for this purpose. Accordingly a meeting 
was holden, February 9, 1737, which may be regarded as 
the first town meeting. At this date the Town Records 
commence. I shall quote the proceedings of this meeting 
entire; as it gives us definite information, to a certain 
extent, who were then inhabitants. Voted, 

" 1. That Mr. Benjamin Smith be the Moderator of said 

2. That said meeting be adjourned to the house of Na- 
than Carpenter, on said day. 

3. That Samuel Robinson be Town Clerk. 

• If this sixty families, — tlie number required in the grant, — the 
greater part must have become inhabitants during this year. Deacon Joseph 
Allen moved into the town in the early part of the year ; and he says there 
were but twenty-three families in the place. 

" In thirty six I came into 

This then a wilderness : 
Great hardships we did undergo, . 

Our wants did daily press. 

"The families were twenty three. 

That then did here belong : ' , , 

They all did hardships bear with me, 

But now are dead and gone." 

Last Advice and Farewell of Deacon Joseph Allea to the Church and 
Congregation of Hardwick. Printed at Brookfield, 1795. pp. 51. 8vo. 



4. That Benjamin Smith, Joseph Allen, Samuel Rob- 
inson, Stephen Griffeth, and Benjamin Haggles be Select- 

5. That John Wells be Town Treasurer. 

6. That William Maccoye, Benjamin Ruggles, and Ex- 
perience Johnson be chosen Asssessors. 

7. That George Abbot and Ichabod Stratton be Con- 

8. That all the remaining town officers be chosen by 
holding up of hands. 

9. That Thomas Perry and Benjamin Andrews be tid- 
ing men. 

10. Thai Josiah Barret and James Aikens be surveyors 
of highways. 

11. That Dudley Jordan and John Hunt be fence- 

12. That Phineas Powers and Samuel Church be hog- 

13. That this meeting be adjourned to the 23d of this 
instant February, at thp Meeting-house, at ten of the clock 
on said day." 

Such are the proceedings of the first town meeting. 
All other business was postponed until the adjournment. 
At that time, it was voted, " that every settler shall pay 
for seven acres of improveable land, for every settler's lot." 
It will be remembered that every settler was bound, by 
the terms of the grant, to subdue and improve this quanti- 
ty of land within a limited time. And this vote seems 
designed to provide that, if any had hitherto neglected to 
perform their duty, others should not suffer by their ne- 
glect. The former vote of the proprietors was founded 
on the same principle, requiring each settler, '' resident or 
non-resident," to pay fifteen shillings for the support of 
public worship. Personal property was not then taxed 
here, nor, I believe, for several years afterwards. All 
settlers were considered to have a common interest in the 
township, and all were required to share equally in the 
public burdens. 

Until this time, public worship had been supported by 
the joint contribution of proprietors and settlers ; to wit, 
£48 by the proprietors, and 15s. each, by the settlers, 
amounting in all to £93, supposing the immber of set- 
tlers to be sixty. But after town privileges (to a certain 


extent) were granted to the inhabitants, the proprietors 
seem to have made no farther appropriation. The burden 
was heavy upon the inhabitants, and they petitioned the 
General Court for liberty to tax all the land in the town- 
ship, whether improved or not, and whether owned by 
resident or by non-resident proprietors. Such a proced- 
ure was not unusual, at that day. Frequent petitions of 
the same character were granted by the Legislature. In 
regard to this town, the intervention of legislative aid 
was the more necessary from the fact, that of the twelve 
shares of the " propriety," as it was termed, less than 
one whole share was holden by the inhabitants. Unless 
I greatly mistake, Deacon Christopher Paige, and Mr. 
Benjamin Smith, were the only proprietors who became 
settlers ; and of these, Deacon Paige owned no more than 
half a sliare, and Mr Smith, one ninth part of a share. 
Moreover, I am not certain that more than one of the 
non-resident proprietors had sons residing here, at that 
period. Rev. Timothy Ruggles, of Rochester, Massa- 
chusetts, had sonsand nephews in town. But though by 
inheritance, grant, and purchase, he had acquired posses- 
sion of much land, he had only one vote in proprie- 
tors' meetings ; and even in this he was subject to be 
overruled by the numerous joint heirs of his father's 
estate. Hence it may be concluded, that the inhabitants 
had not much personal influence over the proprietors, and 
an appeal to the General Court became the more necessa- 
ry. Accordingly, the town voted, June 30, 1737, " that 
Mr. Christopher Paige be the man to go to the General 
Court, to get the town incorporated, or the land taxed." 

It does not distinctly appear whether the petition for 
liberty to tax the land was granted or not. But it is cer- 
tain that the proprietors procured a delay of incorporation 
for one year beyond the period which seems at first to 
have been contemplated.* The inhabitants became im- 
patient ; and at two meetings, October 19, and November 
2, 1738, resolved on another effort for incorporation, and 
liberty to tax the lands of all proprietors. Their agent, 
Mr. Christopher Paige, presented their petition, December 
8, 1738. A committee of the proprietors remonstrated. 
But on the 15th day of the same month, the petition was 

* General Court Records, December, 1737. 

granted ; a lax of llirce half pence per acre on all the land 
in the township was authorized to be assessed annnally 
for three years, to be applied " one half thereof to the 
Reverend Minister therefor his better encouragement and 
more comfortable support, the residue for building and fin- 
ishing a handsome Mceting-honse, for the better accom- 
modating the inhabitants in attending the public worship 
of God ;"' and the agent was empowered to bring in a bill 
for the incorporation of the township. This Bill* having 
passed both Houses, received the Governor's approval, and 
became a Law, January 10, 17:^9. t 

I have thus traced, as accurately as I could, the events 
connected with the purchase, settlement, and incorpora- 
tion of this town. I have entered into more minute de- 
tails on this ]5art of my subject than I otherwise should, 
because I supposed these events were less generally known 
by my fellow citizens, than those of more recent date; 
and because many of the materials, from which I have 
compiled this sketch, thus far, being in a perishing condi- 
tion, I thought it advisable to use them pretty thoroughly, 
before they shall disappear entirely. 

In pursuing the history up to this point, I have omitted 
some events, which deserve notice. Some of the more 
important, I shall now mention. 

It will be recollected that in December, 1733, the pro- 
prietors made provision for the support of a minister, in 
this place, and desired Rev. Timothy Ruggles to procure 
one. Accordingly Rev. Ephraim Keith was employed for 
one year, commencing May 2, 1734. He was a native 
of Bridgewater, and graduated at Harvard University in 
1729. I suppose him to have been a grandson of Rev. 
James Keith, the first minister in that town. Concerning 
his success, I have no knowledge. As the Church was 
not organized until more than a year after his departure, 

* See Appendix, D. 

t At this time tiie township received the name of Hardwicke, and it was 
thus written for many years. The final letter has since been omitted, and 
in conformity to the almost universal custom, I have written Hardwick, in 
this sketch. Hardwicke, however, is undoubtedly the ori£;inal name. This 
name was probably given in compliment lo Lord Hardwicke, an English no- 
bleman. But if the whole vocabulary had been searched for the purpose, it 
would have been difficult to find a name more accurately descriptive of the 
character of this township ; for it imports a place favorable for husbandry 
and the raising of cattle. See Rees's Encyclopedia. 


no record probably exists in respect to his labors in Lambs- 
town, except what is contained on the Proprietors' Records. 
1 find no evidence that Mr. Keith remained here after 
the expiration of his first engagement. Nor do I know 
that any other ])reacher was employed, during the subse- 
quent year. But about the first of July, 1736, Rev. Da- 
vid White commenced his labors here. He was born in 
***** Con. in 1710, graduated at Yale College 1730, 
ordained November 17, 1736, and remained Pastor of the 
Church until he deceased, January 6, 1784.* On the day 
of his ordination, a Church was organized, consisting of 
twelve members, all males. Twenty-seven were added 
in the space of one year. The following is an extract 
from the Church Records. " November 17, 1736. A 
church was gathered and embodied in Lambstown, and 
the members publicly invited and chose Mr. David White 
to be their Pastor. Accordingly the same day Mr. David 
White was ordained Pastor of the Church of Christ in 
Lambstown, by prayer and laying on the hands of the 
Presbytery. The names of the men that solemnly en- 
tered into a Church state in Lambstown, that before were 
members of other Churches : — Christopher Paige, George 
Abbot, Thomas Perry, Joseph Allen, John Wells, John 
Kidder, Richard Church. The names of the men that 
entered into a Church in Lambstown, which before were 
not members of other Churches, but were then received 
into the Church: — Eleazer Warner, Nathan Carpenter, 
Experience Johnson, Samuel Robinson, Samuel Gillet." 
On the third day of the next month, "Mr. Christopher 
Paige and Mr. Joseph Allen were chosen to the othce of 
Deacons, by a majority of the votes of the Church." 

Whether it were the usual custom, at that period, to 
exclude females from participating in the organization of 
a Church, or not, it is certain that several females were 
here, when this was organized, who did not become mem- 
bers until two or three months afterwards, although they 
were then members of other Churches, in good standing. 

Mr. White's salary was small, never amounting to two 
hundred dollars per annum, equal perhaps, on an average, 

* During his ministry, he baptized 1275 persons, married 316 couples, and 
received into the full communion of the Church 411, besides 77 who took 
the " half-way Covenant," by which means they attained the privilege of 
haviDg baptism administered to their children. 


to four hundred dollars now. Yet on this sum, together 
with presents, and the fruits of his own industry, he man- 
aged to support his family, and to give botii his sons a 
public education. His talents were respectable, but by 
no means splendid. His success in giving satisfaction to 
his people, through a long ministry of nearly half a cen- 
tury, depended not so much on the energy of his mind, 
as on the meekness, simplicity, and purity of his heart. 
He lived in a troublesome period, both political and eccle- 
siastical. Near the close of his life the Revolution occur- 
red ; and he shared the trials and distresses of his people. 
But he lived to witness the conclusion of hostilities, and 
the Independence of his Country. At a much earlier pe- 
riod, the elements of the ecclesiastical world were violently 
agitated. About the year 1740, a " new light," as it was 
called, was discovered. Parties were forined in various 
Churches, who bitterly contended with each other, freely 
bandying the epithets of fanaticism, on the one hand, and 
formality, or legal righteousness, on the other. Some 
Churches were rent asunder. And this Church did not 
entirely escape the ravages of the storm which swept 
through the land. A portion of its members withdrew, 
and were styled "New Lights," or more generally " Sep- 
arates." They erected a meeting-house, and established 
a regular meeting.* Mr. White and his Church mani- 
fested much forbearance, laboring with their dissatisfied, 
separating brethren, but never using the rod of excom- 
mimication. The effect of such measures was favorable. 
The separate party, as such, dwindled and became ex- 
tinct ; some of its members removed from the town, and 
others were reconciled to the Church ; their meeting-house 
was demolished, and Mr. White had the happiness to be- 
hold again a state of harmony and peace in his parish. 
Thus, though he encountered storms during the journey 
of life, the evening of his days was calm and serene, and 
his sun went down in a clear sky. His wife, (who was a 
niece of Thomas Wells, Esq., of Deerfield,) had closed 
her pilgrimage about six months previously.t 

* Their preacher's name was Roberts. But of his history I am entirely 
ignorant, except that he labored in Hardwick occasionally for several years. 
The Deacons of this Church were Samuel Robinson and James Fay. Deacon 
Robinson had previously holden the same office in Mr. White's Church, and 
had been dismissed on his own request. Further notice of him and of Dea- 
con Fay may be found in the Appendix. 

t Mrs. White was left an orphan at a very early age, in Pennsylvania. 


Mr. White had four children, three of whom survived 
him : — Thomas Wells, born 1739, graduated at Harvard 
University 1759, and removed to Vermont about 1784; — 
Sarah, born 1741, married Rev. Lemuel Hedge of War- 
wick, 176 1, and had four sons, one of whom is Levi Hedge, 
LL. D., of Cambridge ; — Susanna, born 1743, married Mr. 
Jonathan Danforth 1770, and died November 14, 1779, 
leaving one son, Samuel, who removed to Vermont, and 
two or three otiier children who died in early life ; — John, 
born 1745, graduated at Harvard University 1765, removed 
to Worcester, where he spent the remainder of his life. I 
believe not a single descendant of Mr. White now resides 
in Hardwick. 

In what year the first meeting-house in this town was 
erected, I have not been able to ascertain. But the inhab- 
itants assembled in it, for their first town meeting, Febru- 
ary 9, 1737. It was probably neither very large, nor very 
elegant. The bills allowed, for materials and labor, 
amounted to less than fifty pounds. Indeed, it was not 
entirely shingled,* until after the inhabitants had deter- 
mined, the next year, to build a new meeting-house. It 
was afterwards sold at auction for sixteen pounds, old 
tenor, to James Robinson. It stood on the Common, 
about midway between the two present meeting-houses. 

The erection of the next meeting-house was a subject 
of much contention. In January, 1738, the town voted 
to build a new meeting-house, " fifty four feet long, and 
forty feet wide, and twenty two feet between joints, and 
set two feet from the ground;" also voted, " that the new 
Meeting-house be set on Gamblings lot, on the east side of 
the Great Meadow brook. "f Tliis location of the house 

Her education was among Quakers, whose principles she adopted, and re- 
tained for several years. She had an uncle, Thomas Wells, Esq., of Deer- 
field, and she resolved to visit him. She came to Boston by water, and 
fortunately found her uncle there. He carried her to Deerfield, and thence- 
forth, until her marriage, she remained a member of his family. She mani- 
fested her gratitude, lor his many kindnesses by giving his name to her first- 
born son. The uniform testimony of (hose who enjoyed her acquaintance, 
is, that she was one of the excellent of the earth, remarkable as well for her 
intelligence, as for her virtuous and Christian deportment. 

' The town voted, August 8, 17.38, to " finish shingling the old Meeting- 
house, and finish the seats, and make forms as shall be needed, and build the 
Minister's Pew." 

i This lot, about one mile southeasterly from the meeting-house, was, for 
many years, the residence of the late Tinjolhy Paige, Esq., and is now owned 
by Mr. Joel S. Marsh. Being on the brow of a hill, and commanding an 


was followed by a protracted struggle between the cast 
and west sections of the town. The proprietors, who 
appear as yet to have contributed nothing towards the 
building of any meeting-house in the town, voted, Sep- 
tember 7, 1738, that they were "willing that a new Meet- 
ing-house be built, provided it be set on the spot of land 
already agreed upon by the proprietors and settlers." 
They also appropriated three hundred pounds towards de- 
fraying the expense; being one half the amount of the 
ten pounds each, which the settlers had agreed to pay for 
building a house and supporting a minister. As the Pro- 
prietors' Records from the next meeting imtil 1743, are 
lost, it is not known what further part, if any, they took 
in this contention. 

The great objection to placing the meeting-house on 
"Gamblin's lot," was, that it subjected the inhabitants of 
the west part of the town to so much additional travel. 
Apparently with a design to obviate this objection, a pro- 
ject was started to dismember the town, and cut off this 
portion altogether. The town voted, June 1739, that they 
were " willing and ready to set off the west part of the 
town, beginning at Rutland corner, (now the west corner 
of Barre,) and so to run a straight line to Muddy Brook, 
where the road runs over said Brook to go to Ciuoben,* 
and then to run by said Brook to the south line of the 
town, and said land to be laid to duoben." By con- 
sulting the map of the town, you will perceive that the 
portion thus willingly voted off, is more than a third part 
of the territory now embraced in the whole town. There 
were some, even in that day, who had more regard for the 
accomplishment of some favorite object, than for the pre- 
servation of union. But several intiuential individuals 
entered their protestf against this measure. The next 
year, these proceedings were reversed, and the town voted, 
July 29, 1740, to " set the Meeting-house on the ten 
acres, on which the old Meeting-house stands ;" also 
voted, " that whereas this Town have stated a place to 
set the new Meeting-house on, which will accommodate 

extensive prospect in every direction, it was a more eligible site for a nieet- 
ing-house than that which was finally selected, on every account, except 
that it was not so near the centre of the township. 

• Now Greenwich. 

t *' Detest " is the word used on the town Records, which, 1 doubt not, 
expresses the precise state of feeling which existed. 


that part of the town next to Quoben, as well as other 
parts of the town, that the vote that was passed in this 
town the last year, whereby they signified that they were 
ready and willing to have a part of this town set off to 
Q,uoben, be void and of none effect." But even this did 
not entirely end the difficulty. At a subsequent meeting 
in the same year, the town elected a Committee residing 
in other towns, to determine where the meeting-house 
should stand, — their determination to be final; and also 
appointed Mr. Eleazer Warner, from the east section of 
the town, and Mr. John Wells from the west, to represent 
their several interests to the Committee. The house was 
raised during the summer of 1741, and placed within ten 
feet of the old one, on the present Common. The final 
location of the house was unsatisfactory to the inhabitants 
on the east side of Ware River ; and they soon renewed 
the efibrts, which they had previously made, for a separa- 
tion from Hardwick, and a union with Braintree six thou- 
sand acres, and which proved successful about ten years 
afterwards.* The meeting-house, however, was finished, 
in process of time, and stood until the present house was 
erected ; after which it was sold and removed. 

The first notice of a school, which I have found, is in 
1744 ; when the town voted " to get a School-master for 
the town, to begin in the first of September, and to con- 
tinue eight months, and to remove four tiuies." In the 
same year, the town was divided into five school districts. 
Three years afterwards, (1747) the town voted ten shil- 
lings to Mr. Eleazer Warner, " for preventing the town 
from being presented for want of a school." But a school 
had been kept in town before this time ; and it was prob- 
ably by proving this fact, that Mr. Warner was successful. 
William Thomas taught the school, between 1744 and 
1746, so long, that he received seventy-two pounds, eigh- 
teen shillings, for his services. Thomas Ruggles also was 
employed, at least eight and a half weeks, before October 
1747 ; he was again employed in 1748. Some of the 
other masters, named on the town Records, are, Hum- 
phrey Peirce in 1749 and 1750; Dea. Joseph Allen, Dea. 

* Half a century later, to wit, in 1801. the town was a2:ain dismembered, 
and the northwest portion shorn otf, at the incorporation of Dana. Mean- 
time several hundred acres on its western border had been claimed by Green- 
wich, which claim was finally established and allowed. 



John Cooper, Dea. John Freeman, Dea. John Bradish, Jo- 
seph Satford, Stephen Fay, Doct. Joel Car|)enter, Stephen 
Fisk, Lemuel Hedge, and Tliomas Wells White, between 
1750 and 1760; Jona Fay, John White, and Ebenezer 
Washburn, between 1760 and 1773.* It is doubtful 
whether school-houses were generally erected in town be- 
fore 1790; in which year the town voted "to raise five 
hundred pounds for the purpose of building school-hou- 
ses." Five years previously, (17S5) the town had voted 
" to have the grammar school kept in four parts of the 
town, — an equal proportion in each part, viz. at Edward 
Ruggles's, Col. Timothy Paige's, David Allen's, and John 
Paige's,! on condition of their finding a suitable room and 
fire-wood for said school, free of cost to the town." 

The schools in this town have for many years been 
generously supported. From 1798 to 1823, (twenty five 
years,) the sum of five hundred dollars was raised annu- 
ally ; for six years afterwards, five hundred and eighty 
dollars ; then six hundred dollars ; and at present, the sum 
raised is one thousand dollars, besides one hundred and 
thirty seven dollars, voluntarily contributed for the same 
purpose. This amount is expended in the eleven districts, 
into which the town is divided. A high-school has been 
supported for several years, under the charge of Rev. John 
Goldsbury. A large proportion of the scholars in that 
school belong to this town, and the expenses attending it 
are defrayed by individuals. 

I am not aware that any event occurred in this town, of 
much interest, from the period of its incorporation until 
nearly twenty years afterwards, except those already men- 
tioned. A minister had been settled, anew meeting-house 
erected, after a long contention, and schools established. 
The inhabitants, during the time not thus occupied, seem 
to have been busily and quietly engaged in cultivating 
their lands, taking no very active part in the political 

* Thomas Ruggles was son of Rev. Timothy Ruggles ; afterwards studied 
medicine, and located himself at Rochester, his native town. Of Hum- 
phrey Peirce and Stephen Fisk I have obtained no information. Lemuel 
Hedge is the same whom I have already named as a minister in Warwick. 
All the others were inhabitants of Hardwiek. 

t The places here indicated are now occupied by Mr. Anson Ruggles, 
Mr. Augustus Warner, Captain Moses Allen, and the Widow of Captain 
Benjamin Paige. 

■ 23 

movements of the day, nor even electing a Representative 
to the General Court. 

Some few votes, however, in regard to their municipal 
affairs, may be mentioned, as throwing some light upon 
their condition. 

At a meeting, April 23, 1739, the town voted, " that 
droves of cattle shall not be brought into town under the 
penalty of ten shillings per head, for the man to pay, that 
taketh them in, or yardeth them, or salteth them, or is in 
any wise instrumental in such affair." A similar vote was 
passed the next year, increasing the penalty to fifteen shil- 
lings, and excepting from its operation " milch cows, and 
working oxen." They did not proceed quite so far, in the 
abatement of this nuisance, as the inhabitants of Leices- 
ter, under similar circumstances. Mr. Washburn, in his 
history of that town, says they not only imposed a fine of 
ten shillings per head, for all cattle so taken in to be pas- 
tured upon the common lands, but voted that "all rams 
running at large should hQ free -plunder, and any one who 
should take such might have them for his own."* 

The prudent habits of our ancestors may be discovered 
from some of their early votes. Mr. White, their minis- 
ter, being a feeble man, and frequently unable to supply 
the Pulpit, the town had occasion to hire assistance for 
him. A case of this kind occurred in 1741, when the 
town instructed Mr. George Abbot " to go to Mr. Frink, 
and see if he can hire him for a reasonable price, and if 
not, to hire another, the best he can and cheapest." 
Again, in May 1746, the town authorized their Treasurer 
to expend ten pounds, " to employ a Deputy to use his 
best influence to prevent a Province Tax from coming 
this year : provided he find a man that will effect the mat- 
ter, or have nothing for his trouble." 

In May 1744, the town voted " to build a horse bridge 
over the River near Cannon's." This was Cornelius Can- 
non, who lived on the spot now occupied by Mr. Rufus 
Sargeant, in New Braintree. There was formerly a road 
from this place to the present residence of Mr. Read S. 
Ruggles. The bridge mentioned in this vote was the second 
erected over Ware River. That which is near the "new 
furnace " was not built (at first) until more than twenty 

years afterwards. Muddy Brook was crossed at different 
" wading places," described in the ancient location of 
highways. Great Meadow Brook was crossed also at a 
wading place near the former residence of ]\Ir. Jonathan 
Danforth, until two years after this period, when an ar- 
rangement was made with Mr. Joseph Ruggles to build 
a " Cart-way " across the Brook, one half the present 
width of the bridge. The miserable condition of the roads 
at that period was graphically described by Gen. Ruggles, 
in a petition he presented to the General Court in 1754, 
for an abatement of the fine which had been imposed on 
the town for not sending a Representative. Among other 
things, he said, the inhabitants "must be at the expense 
of some thousands of pounds upon their roads, before they 
■will be brought to be as good as most of the roads in the 
Province are by nature."* At the time when this state- 
ment was made, and for some years afterwards, not a 
chaise, or pleasure carriage of any description whatever, 
was owned in the town. 

In February 1747, compensation was allowed to officers 
for " warning out " an individual from " being an inhabi- 
tant." This course was afterwards pursued in regard to 
other individuals, and was, at that time, the legal method 
of avoiding the expense of maintaining paupers. When 
individuals entered the town, who were suspected as. 
likely soon to become chargeable, they were warned out, 
and sometimes carried out, by officers. Yet notwithstand- 
ing all these precautions, it was found necessary to make 
provision for a pauper, who had previously been an inhab- 
itant. The first record on the subject is dated March 7, 
1748. At that time, the town was called upon to decide, 
whether they would "raise money to maintain Hannah 
Maccoye, sent to this town for that intent." She was 
found to be an inhabitant, and was supported accordingly 
until 1765. The next pauper named on the Records 
(except a few children who received some temporary as- 
sistance) is widow Zeruiah Pratt, who, together with her 
daughter Temperance, became chargeable in 1763. The 
mother remained a pauper more than twenty years, and 
the daughter about fifty years. Meantime the number in- 
creased ; and although this town has not been so severely 

" .See Appendix, E. 


burdened as many others, yet for several years, the annual 
expense for the maintenance of paupers has been about 
eleven hundred and fifty dollars.* 

The town seems to have felt inclined, on one occasion, 
to enter into a speculation in the article of paupers. Who 
first suggested the idea, or advocated the measure, does 
not appear on the Records. But the following vote was 
passed. May 9, 1791. 

" Voted, that the town will receive one third part of the 
poor persons supported by the Commonwealth, and they 
hereby otfer and agree, on their part, to support said poor 
persons, with suitable lodging and boarding, for the term 
of ten years from and after the time of contracting, pro- 
vided the Commonwealth will pay them five shillings per 
week for adults, and two shillings and six pence per week 
for children, and their proportion of one hundred pounds 
per annum for doctoring said poor, the money to be paid 
quarterly ; and will remove said poor from Boston at their 
own expense." I find no evidence that their offer was 
accepted, nor any further action on the subject, by the 

So far as I can understand the Records, the meeting- 
house, erected in 1741, had very few. pews in it, but was 
chiefly filled with seats ; those on one side of the house 
being occupied by males, and those on the other, by fe- 
males. In 1750, a somewiiat difficult task was assigned 
to a Committee. They were directed to seat the meeting- 
house anew : that is, to assign a particular seat to each 
individual ; and were directed to place " the highest pay- 
ers in the highest seats, — having respect to age and other 
qualifications, except such as have pews." 

Chairs were freely used in the house, and at one time 
became somewhat troublesome ; for the town voted, March 
4, 1751, " that the chairs standing in the allies be ordered 
into the place left behind the women seats, and to stand 
nowhere else." 

One place, however, in the rear of the seats occupied 
by the females, was afterwards rather unceremoniously 

* Durins the present year, an experiment has been commenced, which 
will probably diminish the expense to the town, and at the same time con- 
duce to the comfort of the paupers. A farm has been purchased, (formerly 
belonging to the late Mr. Moses Wheeler,) on which all the paupers have 
been placed, under the charge of a Superintendant or Warden. This plan 
has been in operation so short a time, that its results can only be anticipated. 


encroached upon by certain young men, who built a pew 
there for their own use, witiiout Hberty from the town. 
This was an act of indecorum not to be overlooked. And 
it was voted, March 4, 1754, "that the town refuse to let 
the young men that have built a seat in the women's side 
galleries to have it there. Voted, that the same persons 
have liberty to build their seat on the men's side galleries." 

One or two circumstances in regard to the Church, dur- 
ing this period, may be noticed. Two Deacons were 
elected immediately after its organization ; and in 1746, 
another was appointed, to wit. Captain Samuel Robinson, 
who held the office only a short time. At a Church meet- 
ing, March 2, 1749, it appears by the Record, that " Dea- 
con Samuel Robinson desired the Church that he might 
lay down his office of Deacon in said Church ; which de- 
sire the Church complied with." The next month, April 
13, 1749, " Deacon Paige's desire of laying down the office 
of Deacon was mentioned to the Church, and a major part 
thereof complied with and gratified him in his desire, and 
dismissed him from said office of Deacon." Deacon Al- 
len was left alone. And of him it may be remarked, as a 
very unusual circumstance, that he held the office of Dea- 
con fifty-six years and nine months. There is no record 
of any election to fill the vacancy occasioned by the re- 
signation* of two Deacons ; yet from other circumstances, 
I feel confident that Mr. John Cooper was elected. 

Having thus gathered up a few fragments, I resume the 
narrative. In 1754, the town, for the first time, elected a 
Representative. And if they had delayed this matter 
long, they made amends by at last sending a strong man, 
viz., Timothy Ruggles, Esq., more generally known as 
Brigadier Ruggles. It is impossible for me, on this occa- 
sion, to give even a sketch of his life and character. A 
mere enumeration of a few facts must suffice. He was 
the eldest son of Rev. Timothy Ruggles of Rochester, 
Mass., where he was bornf October 20, 1711; graduated 

* I am not aware that any other person ever resigned, or was discharged 
from the office of Deacon in this Church, (who continued to reside in town,) 
except Deacon Henry Fish. He was elected April 18, 1819, and resigned 
May 20, 1830, " on account of bodily infirmity and advanced age." 

t The time of his birth has been wrongly stated in other publications. 
This is given according to a certificate from the Town Clerk of Rochester. 


at Harvard University, 1732; commenced practice as a 
lawyer in his native town, but soon removed to Sandwich, 
and thence to Hardwick before March, 1754. He was 
Representative from the town of Rochester one year, 
1736, from Sandwich eight years, from 1739 to 1752, and 
from Hardwick fifteen years, from 1754 to 1770, in all 
twentyfour years.* He was Speaker of the House in 
1762 and 1763 ; elected Counsellor in 1764, but declined 
the office ; and appointed Counsellor, by mandamus, in 

1774. He was appointed Justice of the Peace and Quo- 
rum for this County, in 1754; Justice of the Inferior 
Court, in 1757, and Chief Justice of the same Court, in 
1762 ; which office he held until he left Massachusetts in 

1775. He was President of the Congress at New York, 
in 1765, but refused to sign the petitions which were there 
drawn up ; for which he was reprimanded in his place by 
the Speaker of the House of Representatives, February 
13, 1766-1 The reasons which he assigned for his refusal 
met with a better reception from his townsmen, who vot- 
ed,J that they were " sulficient to justify his conduct." 
They did not lose their confidence in him for some three 
or four years afterwards. He finally abandoned his prop- 
erty and his country, rather than prove disloyal to his 
King. But no persuasions could ever induce him to bear 
arms against the land of his birth. His services would 
have been gladly accepted on either side, in the conflict 
which resulted in the Independence of America. He had 
proved himself a valiant soldier, and skilful commander, 
in the French War, which he entered, in 1755, with the 
commission of Colonel, and in which he was Brigadier 
General, from 175S to 1760. Both the Kmg and the 
Provincial Legislature testified their approbation of his 
conduct, by very substantial acknowledgments. 

To this meagre sketch of General Ruggles's life, I only 
add, that it was doubtless through his influence, that the 
" Fair " was established in Hardwick, in 1762 ; and that he 
probably contemplated making this a Shire-town, when 
he attempted, in 1763, to have a new County established, 
taken partly from Worcester, and partly from Hampshire. 

*■ He represented this towQ longer than any other individual, except the 
late Timothy Paige, Esq., who was elected Representative for seventeen 
successive years, from 1805 to 1821. 

t See Appendix, F. { March 3, 1766. 

In the French War, of which I have spoken, many of 
our townsmen were engaged. At this late day, it is 
probably mipossible to ascertain the precise number. But 
iVom an examination of the Muster Rolls, now on file in 
the ofilce of the Secretary of State, I have obtained the 
names of sixteen commissioned othcers, and about one hun- 
dred and twenty non-commissioned ofiicers and privates.* 
Yet even this list is imperfect, as the documents for one 
or two years cannot be found. Many of these served 
more than one campaign, and some through the war. 
This was a large number to be furnished by a town, 
which, after tlie close of the war,f contained only two 
hundred and thirty nine white males, over sixteen years 
old. Considerably more than one half the eflective force 
of the town was engaged. 

Time will not permit me to give the full list. I will 
only name the officers. Gen. Ruggles served through the 
whole war. So also did Capt. Samuel Robinson. Capt. 
Paul Mandell, with almost his whole company, marched 
against Crown Point, in 1756, and served about two months. 
Upon the news of danger at Fort William Henry, in 1757, 
Capt. Joseph Warner immediately marched, with his 
company, for its defence. After proceeding, however, as 
far as Kinderhook, he was directed to return. With this 
exception, the whole number 1 have mentioned joined the 
army. Capt. William Paige commanded a company 
through the whole campaign of 1759. Dr. Joel Carpen- 
ter and Dr. Challis Safford were Surgeons, one for one 
campaign, the other for two. Samuel Robinson jr. was 
adjutant in Col. Ruggles's Regiment in 1757, being then 
only eighteen years old. Nathan Stone, Joseph Ruggles, 
and Philip Satford were Lieutenants, and Ezekiel Pratt, 
Noah Mandell, and Ezra Leonard, Ensigns. 

To these should be added one more, — Capt. Ebenezer 
Cox. He was born in Dorchester, but in early life re- 
moved to Wrentham. He entered the army at the com- 
mencement of the war ; and his name is borne on a Muster 
Roll, as Lieutenant, in 1756. He was promoted to the 

* The list of names may be ibiind in the Appendix, G. 

t The census, taken in 1764, is as follows : —houses, 153 ; families, 161 ; 
white males, over sixteen years old, 239; under sixteen, 259; white fe- 
males, over sixteen years old, 251 ; under sixteen, 256 ; negroes and mulait- 
toes, 3 ; Indians, 2 ; total, 1010. 


rank of Captain, in which ofRce he served with reputation 
to the close of 1762. He removed liis family to Hard- 
wick, in 1760, and here he died, in 1768. Some patriotic 
poet celebrated his valor, in the following epitaph, in- 
scribed on his tombstone, now standing in the old burying 
ground : — 

" In memory of Capt. Ebenezer Cox, who died March 
the 2d, 1768, in the 42d year of his age. 

"Beneath this stone a noble Captain's laid. 

Who, for his King and Country, well displayed 

His courage, that no terrors could disarm. 

Nor, when he faced the foe, his fear alarm. 

But now he's conquered ; and the silent grave 

Can boast that power the French could never have. 

Under his care, his soldiers were secure ; 

Equal with them all hardships he 'd endure. 

In six campaigns, intrepid trod the field. 

And to the Gallic power wonid never yield. 

But now he 's gone, we hope, where wars do cease. 

To spend a whole eternity in peace." 

Between the French War and the commencement of 
Revolutionary hostilities, only few events appear on the 
Records, which seem to require notice. The Fair was 
established by an Act of the General Court, June 12, 
1762.* It was an unusual privilege to be granted, at that 
period. The Fair attracted much attention, and multi- 
tudes flocked to it from all the region round about. It 
was holden twice a year, in May and October, when cat- 
tle, and various articles of manufacture and merchandise 
were exhibited, bought, and sold. Wrestling, and various 
trials of strength and skill, were practised ; and sometimes, 
it is said, pugilistic encounters were witnessed. It was 
uniformly under the direction of a Superintendent, Clerk, 
and from two to four Constables, elected at the annual 
town meeting. Drummers also were sometimes appoint- 
ed. James Aiken was Superintendent, until 1771 ; after 
which, Thomas Robinson was elected, until the Fair was 
discontinued, by vote of the town, in 1775. 

In this period, the meeting-house for the separate 
Church was erected. The proprietors of the township 

* The Act is inserted in the Appendix, H. 


gave the land in 1761. The house stood on the easterly- 
side of the old road from the former residence of Doctor 
Convers Cutler to the road from Hardwick to Ware ; the 
spot is now owned by the heirs of the late Daniel Rng- 
gles, Esq., and is nearly southwest from the house of Mr. 
Beals Thomas. The Society had long before held reli- 
gious meetings, but had no ineetiiig-house, until this was 
erected. It stood but a short time, after which it was re- 
moved, or destroyed. 

In September 1767, the town voted to build a new 
meeting-house. The land on which it was erected was 
purchased of John Rowe, Esq., of Boston, for six pounds, 
tiiirteen shillings, and four pence. I mention this fact, to 
show the value of land at that time. It adjoined the Com- 
mon, on the north, had been improved as a field, and meas- 
ured one acre and a half. It was bought for less than 
fifteen dollars an acre. 

The house was erected by Deacon Joseph Allen, and 
Mr. Joseph Saiford, who agreed to " finish it in a work- 
manlike manner, only for the benefit of the money they 
can raise by the sale of the pews." It is said the con- 
tractors lost money in the operation. However this be, 
the house was erected, and, unlike those which had pre- 
ceded it, was entirely finished before it was occupied. 
It apj)ears to have been completed before the close of the 
year 1771. The town paid tlie diflerence between the cost 
of the steeple and an ordinary porch ; and also paid for 
the Bell, which, however, was not purchased until 1803.* 

While the contractors were engaged in this work, they 
requested liberty " to build a pew — above the west gal- 
lery," which, at first, the town refused; but afterwards 
voted, " to grant the undertakers of the Meeting-house 
the privilege of building a pew over the west Gallery, 
providing they make it tight and close ; and the town re- 
served the privilege of having an officer to sit in the pew, 
to oversee the boys." I know not the recent history of 
that pew ; but according to my best recollection, an otficer 
would have been as profitably emjiloyed there twenty-five 
or thirty years ago, as in any other part of the house. 
The apiirehensions expressed in the vote were not alto- 
gether unfounded. 

* Martin Kinsley, Esq., gave his services lour years, as Treasurer, towards 
the purchase of the Bell. 


The town purchased of the contractors, or undertakers, 
the first pew on the west side of the pulpit, as a ministry- 
pew, for twenty-six pounds, thirteen shilHiigs, and four 
pence; and the pew directly in front of the pulpit, (be- 
hind the Deacon's seat,) for twenty pounds. Since my re- 
collection, this pew was regularly occupied by several 
aged gentlemen, who supposed they could hear the 
Preacher more distinctly there, than elsewhere. Hence 
it probably took the name of the " Deaf Pew," by wiiich it 
was long denominated. 

The "body of seats," so called, (six on each side the 
centre aisle,) was holden as the property of the town, and 
a committee appointed to assign the several seats to indi- 
viduals. Some amusing circumstances occurred in rela- 
tion to this matter, of which I shall mention only one. 
An individual was notified, that his place was allotted in 
the sixth seat, that is, the rear one. He appeared well 
satisfied ; and on entering at the front door, the next Sab- 
bath, as he passed up the aisle he carefully counted, one, 
two, three, &.C., until he came to the front seat, of which 
he very deliberately and complacently took possession, 
much to the consternation and annoyance of certain others, 
to whom that post of honor had been assigned. 

Having completed the house, of which our ancestors 
were justly proud, (for it was then one of the most ele- 
gant, and is now one of the largest, in the county,) they 
took some measures for its preservation, which their less 
hardy descendants might not altogether approve. They 
voted, March 2, 1772, "that there be no stows carried 
into the new Meeting-house, with fire in them." How 
long this prohibition was enforced, I know not. It is cer- 
tain, however, that foot-stoves were generally used in the 
house, more than thirty years ago. But the larger stoves, 
designed to make the whole house comfortable, were not 
introduced, until within the last ten or fifteen years. At 
the present day, it would be regarded as a painful sacrifice 
of bodily comfort, to sit, in the midst of winter, without 
any fire in the house, to listen to a sermon one or two 
hours long, and other services of corresponding length ; — • 
but the men who were preparing, and prepared, to march 
barefooted in the snow, and lodge on the cold ground, in 
defence of their liberties, could easily undergo such a 
slight inconvenience. 


I shall detain you with only one more ciicumstance in 
regard to this meeting-house. No separate seats appear to 
have been assigned for the singers, until after this house 
was erected; and the first proposition to assign such seats 
here was rejected. But in 1779, " the west division of 
the front seat, and the first and second seats in the divi- 
sion of the side gallery next adjoining," were granted for 
their use. 

In regard to the singing, a few remarks may be indulged. 
For the last quarter of a century, this town has enjoyed 
the benefit of very excellent sacred music. At the time, 
however, to which my remarks refer, I know not so well 
the character of the music. I speak rather of the words, 
and the method of singing them. In 1765, Tate and 
Brady's version of the Psalms was introduced, by vote of 
the Church. Probably, President Dunster's revision of 
the New England version had previously been used. In 
1791, Watts's Psalms and Hymns took the place of Tate 
and Brady, by vote of the town. Other changes have 
been made since. 

An important change, in another respect, was made in 
1770. The Church then " voted, with respect to the pre- 
sent method of singing in public worship, that one half 
of the portion that shall be sung shall be read, line by 
line, as has been the former practice in this Congregation, 
sung in some old tune; that the other half shall be sung 
without being thus read, sung in some new tune ; that 
the Psalm or Hymn that shall be appointed to be sung at 
the Communion Table shall be read, line by line, and 
sung in some old tune, so called."* The change, thus par- 
tially made, became entire, at a later period. But it was 
exceedingly disagreeable, at first, to many ; and of some, 
it is said, they would leave the house, while Hymns were 
sung without being read line by line, in the manner to 
which they had so long been accustomed, — returning 
when the singing was concluded. Thus dilficult it often- 
times proves to overcome the influence of deep-seated 

Having thus brought the narrative to the period of the 

' One hymn was sung in this manner at the Celebration, in the " old 
tune " called St. Martin's. It was " read, line by line," by Deacon Josiah 
C. Chandler, formerly an inhabitant of Hardwick and Deacon in the Church. 


Revolution, I shall relate a few circumstances which oc- 
curred in this town, in respect to that momentous affair. 
But my remarks nnist necessarily be brief. 

In 1766, the town expressed the utmost abhorrence of 
certain disorderly and riotous proceedings in Boston, 
which involved the destruction of much property belong- 
ing to the King's officers ; and instructed their Represen- 
tative to vote that the town of Boston should remunerate 
the sufferers. But they cautiously appended an additional 
instruction, that he " should take due care that the dama- 
ges be justly stated and estimated, and no more be voted 
to any person than the loss he really sustained." 

After 1770, the town no more elected General Ruggles 
Representative, being convinced that, in the approaching 
contest, no reliance could be placed on him for assistance; 
and they did not choose that he should longer act as the 
leader of the King's party in the House, — for such he 
confessedly was, before he ceased to be a member. Yet 
for two years they did not elect any one in his stead ; 
because, as they afterwards asserted, " the Representative 
body have not heretofore had that regard paid to them, 
which we earnestly wished for, and had just reason to 

But in 1773, they were excited to action. They then 
voted, " that our rights and privileges are infringed upon." 
Paul Mandell, Esq. was elected Representative, and Will- 
iam Paige, Stephen Rice. Daniel Warner, Thomas Rob- 
inson, Asa Whitcomb, Ebenezer Washburn, and Edward 
Ruggles were appointed to give him instructions. The 
right to instruct public servants was not questioned at that 
day. It certainly was not questioned in this particular 
instance ; for the Representative, and the Committee who 
instructed him, were inspired by the same ardent patriot- 
ism, and the same stern resolution to resist oppression to 
the last extremity. The Instructions were full and am- 
ple ; — much too long to be now quoted entire. A single 
extract may sufficiently indicate their spirit. " We recom- 
mend to your vigilance, wisdom, and integrity, the im- 
portant concerns of this aggrieved, and oppressed people ; 
taking it for granted that a regard to your own honor and 
interest, as well as a regard to the honor and welfare of 
those who have chosen you to represent them, will make 
you truly attentive to every thing that shall tend to secure 


us in a free and full enjoyment of all our Constitutional 
rights ; carefully guarding against and vigorously oppos- 
ing (as you would never betray your constituents, nor 
prove unfaithful to your trust,) every thing and every at- 
tempt, that shall naturally tend to destroy our ancient 
privileges ; and that you will never give up that right into 
the power of others, which the law of God, Nature, and 
Nations, hath invested us with." 

In 1774, the same Representative was elected, and 
William Paige, Stephen Rice, and Doctor John Paddle- 
ford, appointed to instruct him. He was solemnly charged 
to do nothing which could "possibly be construed into an 
acknowledgement" of the power of "Parliament, for al- 
tering the government of the Massachusetts Bay ;" and 
that he should " pay no regard, nor act in any manner 
whatever, with the Council appointed by mandamus from 
his Majesty ;" and in case the Court should be dissolved, 
as was apprehended, he was empowered to unite with the 
other members in a Provincial Congress, and thus endeavor 
" to preserve the liberties of North America." 

From the moment in which the first blood was shed in 
this controversy, the King's name was omitted in the 
transactions of the town, and their meetings were no lon- 
ger called by his authority. The last Warrant in his 
name, on record, is dated February 25, 1775 ; that for 
the April meeting is not recorded ; the next is dated May 
15, 1775, and requires the Constable to warn the inhabi- 
tants " agreeable to the Constitution." 

At the meeting thus warned, the town elected William 
Paige, Stephen Rice, and Jonathan Warner, delegates to 
the Provincial Congress at Watertown, " to consult, delib- 
erate, and resolve upon such further measures as under 
God shall be effectual to save this people from impending 
ruin ; and to secure those inestimable liberties derived to 
us from our ancestors, and which it is our duty to preserve 
for posterity." 

Previously, however, to this time, other measures had 
been adopted, to assist in the work of delivering this Coun- 
try from political bondage. In August ;1774, the town 
appointed " fifteen men for a Committee of Correspon- 
dence,* nine of whom being met shall have power to act, 

* Elsewhere called " Committee ol Correspondence, Inspection, and Safety." 


to correspond with the Commiitee of the other towns 
within this Province, respecting the important matters re- 
lating to our civil and political rights and privileges, as 
may be necessary from time to time ; and to agree to such 
measures as may be thought most proper to be taken, in 
order to frustrate and disappoint the purposes of wicked 
and designing men to deprive us and our posterity of our 
just rights and privileges." 

The power exercised by this Committee was not exactly 
unlimited, because they reported their proceedings to the 
town, from time to time, for approval. But in the general 
confusion which then prevailed, they exercised, to a cer- 
tain extent, both judicial and executive authority. And 
from the known patriotism, and resolution, and energy of 
the individuals elected, we may be certain that they did 
not execute their work negligently. A few months after 
the first appointment of this Committee, the town voted 
to approve their resolve to " have no dealings with the 
Tories, except grinding for them." And a short time af- 
terwards, a vote was passed, " that the late proceedings 
of the Committee of Correspondence, with respect to the 
Tories, are satisfactory to the town." What these proceed- 
ings were, does not distinctly appear on the Records ; but 
I venture to say, they were anything but pleasant to the 

The number of Tories was not great in this town. 
Some of the most obnoxious were General Ruggles, Dan- 
iel Oliver, and Gardner Chandler ;* but these left the place 
at an early period, and their estates, having been confis- 
cated, were settled by Colonel Timothy Paige, the agent 
appointed by the Government. It is indeed remarkable 
that General Ruggles, with his vast personal interest, 
should have had so little influence over the minds of his 
relatives. Benjamin and Edward Ruggles were his broth- 
ers ; Thomas Robinson was his cousin ; Paul Mandell 
married his sister ; yet all were among the most firm and 
unyielding patriots in the town. Indeed, when General 
Ruggles left home to attend a session of the " Mandamus 
Council," so called, and a multitude assembled at the 

* Daniel Oliver was a lawyer, and lived on the place now occupied by 
Mr. Elliot B. Trow. He was son of Governor Oliver. Gardner Chandler 
was (probably) son of Gardner Chandler, Esq., of Worcester, then Sheriff 
of the County. He married Elisabeth Ruggles, 1772. 


bridge, near the '-'old furnace," to prevent him from cross- 
ing, his brother, Captain Benjamin Ruggles, was one of 
the nmnber, and was chief speaker on the occasion. Af- 
ter using other persuasions and expostulations in vain, 
Benjamin, with much solemnity, assured his brother, that 
if he persisted in proceeding to Boston, he would never 
be permitted to return. The Brigadier's warlike spirit 
was roused. " Brother Benjamin," said he, " I shall 
come back, — at the head of five hundred troops, if neces- 
sary." "Brother Timothy," was the reply, "if you 
cross that bridge, this morning, you will certainly never 
cross it again — alive." The General waved his hand 
with a military gesture, and proceeded at a deliberate 
pace ; the crowd gave way, and he crossed the bridge, — 
and crossed it for the last time. He never returned ; and 
the two brothers saw each other no more in this world. 

I said there were few Tories in town. Perhaps half a 
dozen, besides those whom I have named, are mentioned 
on the Town Records. I believe they all departed early, 
except one ; and he was entirely forgiven afterwards, 
however dissatisfied his townsmen might have been with 
his opinions for a time. He sustained several town offices, 
and not long ago died here, having lived nearly a full 

Before Mr. Chandler departed, a singular vote was 
passed respecting him. The town had named him as one 
whom they considered " unfriendly to the common cause 
of liberty." At the same meeting, it was " voted, that as 
Gardner Chandler has now made some acknowledgments, 
and says he is sorry for his past conduct, that they will 
treat him as a friend, and a neighbor, as long as he shall 
behave himself well." 

In all this confusion, I believe no mob executed " Lynch 
Law " in this town. There was at least an appearance 
of legal procedure, in all cases. Once, to be sure, there 
were strong indications of popular fury. An individual 
had uttered very imprudent language in town meeting ; 
and as he went out of the house, some persons attempted 
to seize him. This was noticed by Mr. Thomas Robin- 
son, a firm friend of liberty, in defence of which he ulti- 
mately sacrificed a large estate. He caught the luckless 
individual by the shoulder, and ran with him to the 
pound, which then stood near the present residence of 


Major Gardner Rnggles, and closed the gate behind them. 
The populace pursued, and surrounded the inclosure. Mr, 
Robinson addressed them, and endeavored to persuade 
them to disperse quietly ; and at Icngtii assured them, that 
however much he disapproved the offending individual's 
conduct, he would not see him abused, but would defend 
him to the last extremity. Being a man of giant form and 
strength, and known to be fearless and resolute, no one 
cared to attack him ; and he succeeded at last in convey- 
ing his charge to a place of greater security, and finally to 
his home in safety. 

In September 1774, the town appointed "a committee 
to draw up a Covenant that may bind them to abide by 
whatever a majority of the town may think proper to 
vote."* This Covenant was subsequently read and ap- 
proved in town meeting, and very generally subscribed by 
the citizens. Had any one refused to attach his signature, 
it would have been regarded as sufficient evidence that he 
was " unfriendly to the common cause o.f liberty." 

In November 1774, the town approved the proceedings 
of the Continental Congress. They also appointed a 
Committee " to post up in some public place the names 
of those persons, who shall hereafter sell or consume Bo- 
hea or India Tea;" and another Committee "to observe 
the conduct of all persons in this town, touching the ob- 
servation of the determinations of the Continental Con- 
gress." You will have no doubt that the last named 
Committee performed their duty vigilantly and faithfully, 
when you learn that their Chairman was Deacon Joseph 
Allen, and his associates, Jonathan Warner, Thomas Has- 
kell, William Paige, Thomas Robinson, Paul Mandell, and 
John Paige. 

In April 1775, immediately after the intelligence ar- 
rived that hostilities had commenced, the town voted 
" that Lieutenant Timothy Rugglesfbe put under guard, 
and also John Rion, until said Ruggles shall satisfy all the 
men that now live at Brigadier Ruggles's house for their 
labor, and see that they go out of town forthwith, and 
see that the arms and ammunition now at Brigadier Rug- 

* About the same time a Covenant was ill 
then at Boston, and sent to Hardwick lor sig 
Appendix, I. 

t Son of General Ruggles. 


gles's house are delivered up ; and then he is confined to 
his farm, not to go out of it excepting on Sabbath days, 
fast days, or some other pubHc days ; and that he pay the 
guard for their trouble in taking care of hun." 

The next month, the town voted to take possession of 
the guns found at Brigadier Ruggles's " and to return them 
when they shaU think proper." They also " voted that 
Lieutenant Timothy Ruggles have liberty to go to Boston, 
and reside there if he pleases." He declined the offer, 
and remained in the prescribed confinement about six 
months, when the town voted that he " be set at liberty." 

But it was not by such means alone that the inhabitants 
of this town manifested their patriotism. It is an easy 
matter for large majorities to pass votes, instruct Repre- 
sentatives, appoint Committees, and even confine a few 
individuals of the minority, or appropriate their posses- 
sions. But a more sure test of devotion to a cause is af- 
forded, when property and even life itself are hazarded in 
its defence. 

The Continental Congress recommended that the Pro- 
vince taxes should be paid to Henry Gardner, Esq., of 
Stow, whom they appointed Receiver General, instead of 
Harrison Gray, Esq., the King's Treasurer. This town 
readily responded to the recommendation,* approved all 
the proceedings of the Congress, and directed the Con- 
stables to pay the taxes to the Receiver General, agreeing 
to indenmify them for any loss they might thus incur. 
Thus did they pledge their property to the cause of liberty. 

Before the commencement of hostilities, the town took 
effectual measures to guard against impending dangers, 
and to be ready for action, whenever it should become 
necessary. The officers of the militia, in a body, resigned 
the commissions which they held under the King's au- 
thority ; and in September 1774, the town appointed offi- 
cers for the two companies which were previously organ- 
ized. They also organized a Company of " Minute Men," 
whose duty it was, to march at a moment's warning, " up- 
on any sudden invasion, for the defence of our country." 
And when the summons came, there was no backward- 
ness nor faltering manifested. Intelligence of the Lexing- 
ton battle reached Hardwick late in the evening of the 

• November 17, 1774. 


memorable 19th of April, 1775. Before sunrise the next 
morning, this company, with full ranks, was on the march 
to Boston. 

The town had oflered to pay the " minute men " for 
their services, in case they should be called out for action. 
But this they were too patriotic to allow, while others 
were not paid. They proposed at a town meeting, Janu- 
ary 2, 1775, "that if the town in general would provide 
themselves with arms, and be equipped as they be, and 
endeavor to acquaint themselves with the art military, it 
would be satisfactory to them, without any other pay." 
Whereupon the town voted, " that all between sixteen and 
seventy years of age, be equipped with arms and ammu- 
nition equal to the minute men, by the first day of Feb- 
ruary next ; " also voted, "that all above forty years of 
age meet at the training field on Monday next at nine 
o'clock in the forenoon, to choose their oliicers." When 
thus assembled, they organized two companies of " alarm 
men." Of one company, Deacon Joseph Allen, then sixty 
seven years of age, was elected Captain ; and of the other. 
Deacon William Paige,* about fifteen years younger. 
These proceedings are entered on the town Records, and 
the officers probably had no authority except such as they 
derived from the town. Thus while this town contained 
not much more than twelve hundred inhabitants, five mil- 
itary companies, averaging about fifty men each, were 
prepared for service, before the first blood was shed in the 
contest ; — one for action in any sudden emergency ; two 
for more regular service, in such detachments as circum- 
stances might require ; and two of old men, to defend 
their hearth-stones at the last extremity, and to sacrifice 
their lives, if necessary, in defence of their families. 

When the hour for action came, our ancestors were rea- 
dy, and did not flinch from the struggle. I cannot go into 
particulars, on this subject ; nor need I, if I could. It may 
suffice to say, that they finniished their alloted quotas of 
men, provisions, and clothing. There is no evidence 
within my knowledge, that they failed to do so, in a sin- 
gle instance. One or two facts may sufficiently indicate 
the extent of the services and sacrifices demanded of them. 
In one year, the town adopted measures to induce "one 

* The same who had served as Captain in the French War. 


seventh part of the male inhabitants, — from sixteen years 
old and upwards," to "engage in the Continental ser- 
vice for the term of three years, or during the war." To 
encourage voluntary enlistments, to complete this number 
the town voted,* " to allow fifty dollars to each soldier that 
will enlist into the Continental service for three years, or 
during the war, and to supply them with the necessaries 
of life at prime cost;" and appointed Captain Daniel War- 
ner, to pay the bounties, and " Captain Daniel Warner, 
and Captain Timothy Paige, a committee, to supply the 
soldiers with the necessaries of life." The enlistment not 
being complete, the deficiency was supplied by dividing 
the companies of militia into small sections, and requiring 
each section to furnish one soldier. It must not be for- 
gotten that both before and after this engagement of " one 
seventh part of the male inhabitants, — from sixteen years 
old and upwards," very many of the inhabitants were in 
the army, for longer or shorter terms. 

During a portion of the war, it is not easy to determine 
from the Records the precise sum of money, which tht 
town was obliged to pay. But in 1780, the amount paic 
for soldiers' wages, provisions, and clothini';, was about 
fifteen hundred dollars ; and in 1781, nearly eight hundred 
dollars were paid, for provisions and clothing only. 

Such were some of the sacrifices required and made ; 
and they may serve as a specimen of many more. And 
to make the case the more aggravated, we must not for- 
get that the currency was in a miserable condition. No 
man knew, when he received money, whether he could 
dispose of it again for half its apparent value. It depre- 
ciated so rapidly, that it was almost impossible for the im- 
agination, even, to keep pace with it. Some idea of the 
subject may be formed, from a vote of the town July 28, 
1780: — "voted to give to each soldier one thousand 
pounds, which is esteemed equal to twelve pounds in sil- 
ver money." One dollar in silver was equal to eighty 
three dollars and a third in paper.f 

" May 29, 1777. 

t The late Daniel Ruggles, Esq., informed me some years ago, that hav- 
ing served in the army three months, he received his pay in paper money. 
He kept it some little time, hoping its value might increase; but it contin- 
ued to depreciate rapidly, until at last, he paid the whole amount for an 
article which might have been purchased for twenty-five cents in silver. 
Indeed the paper money at last became utterly worthless, and was never 


These facts may serve as a specimen of tlie sacrifices 
made in the cause of liberty. For such sacrifices we are 
bound to respect and venerate our ancestors, and to keep 
their patriotism in perpetual remembrance. 

I have not the means to give the names of all who 
served in the war of the Revolution.* But I cannot per- 
suade myself to leave the subject entirely, without nam- 
ing the small remnant that yet survive. Not knowing, 
precisely, their comparative ages, I shall name them in al- 
phabetical order ; Sylvanns Brimhall, Jeremiah Campbell, 
Adonijah Dennis, John Gorhani, Theophilus Hastings, 
Timothy Hathaway, Samuel Hinkley, Zenas Phinney. 
Samuel Spooner, and David Whipple. 

I shall notice very briefly the action of this town, in 
respect to the organization of a new Government. In 
January 1778, " after reading the articles of Confedera- 
tion and perpetual Union of the United States in Ameri- 
ca, the town voted, unanimously, to give their Represen- 
tatives of the great and General Court, instructions to 
vote to confirm the same." But" though they were thus 
unanimous in favor of Union and Liberty, they were by 
no means pleased with the particular Constitution, or 
Frame of Government, formed in Massachusetts, in 1778. 
When it was submitted for their consideration,! they sig- 
nified their disapproval by a vote of one hundred and forty 
to sixteen ; and, the next year,t voted unanimously ia 
favor of having it revised. 

Nor were they entirely satisfied with the Constitution, 
adopted in 1780, which remained imchanged for the space 
of forty years. When assembled>§i to express their judg- 
ment concerning it, they suggested several amendments, 
some of which I shall mention. A considerable number 
were founded on a single principle ; to wit, that the power 
of the Government was removed further from the people, 
than was desirable. A manifest anxiety is discoverable, 
on the part of this town, to have the Government chiefly, 
if not entirely, in the hands of the House of Representa- 
tives. They saw no necessity for a Senate ; and could 
not abide the idea of having the Senate control the House, 
by an absolute negative. If there must be a Senate, they 

* An imperfect list may be found in the Appendix, K. 

t April 6, 1778. i May 11, 1779. § May 25, 1780. 


proposed that it shoiilil liave power to prevent the passage 
of any law "but lor a given time, and at llie expiration 
of said time, if non-agreed, that both houses meet, and by 
a majority decide the controversy." On the same prin- 
ciple, they objected to the Governor's power to prevent 
the passage of a law, by refusing his consent. Indeed, 
they disapproved the idea of having a Governor; but if 
they must have one, they would have him invested with 
as little power as possible. And they therefore proposed, 
that " if the inhabitants of this State shall see meet to 
choose a Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and Council, 
they should by no means have power over the militia ; 
but the militia shall be under the order and direction of 
the General Court; and they, or either of them, shall not 
prorogue, adjourn, or dissolve the General Court, without 
their request ; and that they by no means appoint any of- 
ficers, either civil, judicial, or military." 

Other amendments were proposed, which have since 
been substantially adopted. For example, in regard to 
the qualification of voters, they urged that the possession 
of a certain amount of property, or income, ought not to 
be required, because " every male, being twenty-one years 
of age, ought to vote in all cases." In regard to the sup- 
port of public worship, they objected to compelling a man 
to pay a tax for preaching, which he did not hear, or ap- 
prove ; and urged, that " a person that does not attend 
the public worship of God at any place, ought not to be 
taxed in the place where he lives." They even objected 
to the paragraph in the Bill of Rights, which declares 
that "all men are born free and equal," and proposed an 
amendment. Had they then become recreant in the cause 
of liberty ? or while they were yet exposing their lives, 
and expending their substance, to secure it for themselves, 
were they unwilling that others should enjoy the same 
blessing ? Far from it. They objected to the article, not 
because it asserted more than they were willing to con- 
firm, but because it did not appear to them sufficiently 
definite and distinct. They proposed that it should be 
amended thus, — "all men, v^hites and blacks, are born 
free and equal ;" and gave this reason, — " lest it should be 
misconstrued, hereafter, in such a manner, as to exclude 
blacks." Believing that God hath created of one blood 
all men who dwell on all the face of the earth, they gave 


their testimony that all were naturally entitled to equal 
rights and privileges. Nor should tliey be accused of fas- 
tidiousness in this matter. Their apprehensions, to a cer- 
tain extent, were well founded. Some did thus miscon- 
strue the Constitution, not many years afterwards. The 
subject came before a legal tribunal for adjudication ; and 
the decision was first made and recorded in oiu' own 
County, that slavery cannot exist in Massachusetts. 

I now approach a portion of our history, over which, 
for obvious reasons, I shall pass lightly. In 17S6, a dis- 
satisfaction, which had been for some time increasing un- 
der the intolerable burdens* which almost crushed the 
people, tenninated in open rebellion. This town, like 
many others in this and the western Counties, united in 
the effort to obtain relief by resisting the Government. 
One of the most able and active ofhcers in the " Shays' 
army," was a native and inhabitant of this town. Doubt- 
less a majority of the inhabitants were of the same party, 
and many of them joined the army. But I have not in- 
vestigated the matter very closely ; nor do I desire to do 
so. It is sufhcient to know that, however improper was 
the course they pursued, there were strong temptations, 
and some may think sufficient causes. I am willing to 
believe, that though their conduct was not justifiable, most 
of them were honest, and conscientious. It is certain 
that they afterwards became quiet citizens, and supporters 
of the Constitution and Government of our common Coun- 
try. Very few votes are on record concerning this mat- 
ter. There are two, however, which I shall quote, as 
they manifest a good state of moral feeling, and have the 
appearance of constitutionality. On the Sth of January 
17S7, the town elected " a committee to petition the Gen- 
eral Court, — that Captain Shattuck and others lately im- 
prisoned at Boston may be liberated ; and that the Courts 
of Common Pleas and General Sessions may be suspended 
till a new election." And on the 29th day of the same 
month, it was voted, " to choose a Committee to repair to 

* The public debt in Afassachusetts was more than £3,000,000, while the 
rateable polls were but little more than 90,000 ; being an average of 100 
dollars to each poll. Besides, the several towns were deeply in debt, on ac- 
count of the supplies and bounties furnished to soldiers. See Minot's His- 
tory of the Insurrection. 

Cieneral Lincoln's and Shays's army, in order to accom- 
modate matters, if possible to prevent the shedding of 

That I may here close all notice of warlike proceedings, 
I remark that, in the war of 1812, this town furnished a 
few soldiers; but the number was small. A majority of 
the inhabitants disapproved both the war, and the preced- 
ing demonstrations of hostility. I find only two votes, 
however, having direct reference to this subject. These 
I shall quote, because both express the views entertained 
by the town, in a constitutional manner, and because one 
manifests a generous spirit on the part of the majority. In 
September 1808, the town " voted to petition his Excel- 
lency the President of the United States, to suspend in 
part or the whole of the Law laying an Embargo ;" and 
appointed " Timothy Paige, Esq., Mr. Jeduthun Spooner, 
Colonel Stephen Rice, Captain Thomas Wheeler, and Mr. 
Jason Mixter, a Committee to make a draught of the 
abovementioned petition, which was accordingly done, — 
and the town voted to accept the same." This petition 
was not recorded. Another town meeting was holden 
July 26, 1812, " to take into consideration the critical and 
alarming situation of our Country, and to adopt measures 
in concert with our brethren of this and the rest of the 
United States, which they in their wisdom shall think 
best adapted to remove the calamities we feel, and to 
avert those which we fear." Under this article in the 
Warrant, the town appointed a committee to consider the 
subject, and ordered their Report to be placed on record ; 
but I have not been able to find it. This Committee em- 
braced a portion of both political parties, — four individ- 
uals from the majority, and three from the minority ; — 
to wit, William Cutler, Esq., Samuel Eastman, Esq., 
John Hastings, Esq., Colonel Stephen Rice, Captain John 
Raymond, Mr. Jeduthun Spooner, and Mr. David Whip- 
ple. As no further action was had by the town, in its 
corporate capacity, in relation to the war, I may here dis- 
miss that subject entirely. 

A rapid glance at the ecclesiastical affairs of the town 
from the period heretofore spoken of, is all which time 
will permit, on this occasion. 


Before the death of Mr. White, several ineffectual at- 
tempts had been made to settle a colleague. One, being 
very unusual in that period, deserves notice. In 1779, 
the town took the lead in desiring the settlement of Rev. 
Joel Foster,* and requested the concurrence of the Church, 
which was refused. The town persisted for a time ; but 
at length the project was abandoned. 

Various candidates were employed, for the space of five 
years and a half, after Mr. White's decease, without suc- 
cess. Once, indeed, an individual. Rev. Medad Rogers, 
was engaged, and a day fixed for his ordination. The 
people assembled, but the Council refused to proceed. It 
may be safely concluded, however, that nothing criminal 
was proved against Mr. Rogers ; for two weeks afterwards, 
the Churchf renewed their call, in which the town con- 

At length. Rev. Thomas Holt, having received a unan- 
imous invitation, was ordained,J June 25, 1789. His sal- 
ary was only three hundred dollars per annum. Finding 
this sum too small for a comfortable support, he requested 
a dismission, which was granted ; and his connexion with 
the Church and Society terminated, March 27, 1805. Dur- 
ing his ministry, he admitted 65 persons into the Church, 
baptized 191, and married 177 couples. He was subse- 
quently settled in that portion of Ipswich, which is now 
Essex, where he remained from January 25, 1809, until 
April 20, 1813. After that period he was occasionally 
engaged in missionary labors ; but his residence was in 
Hardwick, until his death, February 21, 1836, at the age 

• Mr. Foster graduated at Dartmouth College, 1777 ; was ordained at New 
Salem, June 9, 1779 ; dismissed, for want of an adequate support, January 
21, 1S02; installed at East Sudbury, (now Wayland,) September 7, 1803; 
in which town he died, September 25, 1S12, aged 57. " He possessed excel- 
lent pulpit talents, and was specially gifted in prayer." 

2 Mass. Hist. Coll. iv. 62. 
1 By a vote of 40 to 7. 

t The services at Mr. Holt's ordination were as follows : — 
Introductory Prayer, Rev. Charles Backus, Somers, Cod. 

Sermon, Rev. Benjamin Trumbull, North Haven, " 

Consecrating Prayer, Rev. Josiah Dana, Barre, Ms. 

Charge, Rev. Nathan Fiske, Brookfield, 

Fellowship, Rev. Danic I Foster, New Braintree, " 

Concluding Prayer, Kev. Joseph Appleton, Brookfield. " 

Rev. Daniel Toralinson, Oakham, Ms., Kev. John Willard jr., Meriden, 
Con., and Rev. Joseph Blodgett, Greenwich, Ms., were also members of the 
ordaining Council. Rev. Mr. Fiske was Moderator, and Rev. Mr. Foster, 


of seveiity-lliree years. He was the son of Daniel and 
Mary Holt, born at Meriden, Connecticut, November 9, 
1762, and graduated at Yale College, 1784. He married 
Sarah, daughter of Rev. Ebenezer Chajilin of Sutton, by 
whom he had seven children ; five of whom, with ilieir 
mother, yet survive. 

The successor of Mr. Holt was Rev. William Brigham 
Wesson ; who was ordained* October 30, 1805, and con- 
tinued in the ministry until June 30, 1824, when at his 
request he was dismissed. During his ministry, he ad- 
mitted 254 persons into the Church, baptized 440, and 
married 211 couples. He was born in Hopkinton, May 
29, 1777; but in early life removed to Atliol, with his 
parents, William and Mary Wesson; and graduated at 
Williams College, 1802. He married Azubah Maria, 
daughter of Abner and Alice Graves of Athol, who yet 
survives, with four children. After his dismission, Mr. 
Wesson continued to reside in Hardwick, until his death, 
May 9, 1836, at the age of fifty-nine years. 

As the Church and Society was divided into two dis- 
tinct branches, before the settlement of a successor to Mr. 
Wesson, I may here close my notice of it. 1 shall merely 
add the succession of ministers, in the two branches. 
Rev. John M. Merrick was ordained over that portion 
which retained the old meeting-house, August 27, 1828, 
and dismissed, March 1832. Rev. John Goldsbury, the 
present pastor, graduated at Brown University, 1820, and 
formerly settled at North Bridgwater, was installed, July 
4, 1832. The other branch of the original Church and 
Society erected the brick meeting-house in 1828. Their 
first minister, after the separation, was Rev. Martyn Tup- 
per, who was ordained, April 16, 1828, and dismissed, 
April 29, 1835. His successor, Rev. Edward J. Fuller, 
was installed, November 3, 1835, and dismissed, March 22, 
1837. The present pastor. Rev. William Eaton, gradu- 

* At Mr. Wesson's ordination the services were as follows ; — 
Introductory Prayer, Rev. Daniel Toinlinson, Oakham, Ms. 

Sermon, Rev. Joseph Lee, Royalston, " 

Consecrating Prayer, Rev. Joseph Pope, Spencer, " 

Charge, Rev. Ephraim Ward, Broolvfield, " 

Fellowship, Rev. Thomas Mason, Northfield, 

Concluding Prayer, Rev. Joseph Blodgett, Greenwich, " 

Rev. Joshua Crosby, Greenwich, (now Eniield,) Rev. Ezekiel L. Bascom, 
Gerry, (now Phillipslon,) Rev. John Fisk, New Braintree, and Rev. Thomas 
Snell, Brookfield, were also members of the ordaining Council. Rev. Mr. 
Ward was Moderator, and Rev. Mr. Snell, Scribe. 


ated at Williams College, 1810, and formerly settled at 
Charlotte, Vt., was installed, September 6, 1837. As all 
these gentlemen are still living, I forbear to go farther into 

A Baptist Society has long existed in this town. It 
was organized November 16, 1797. The Church in con- 
nexion with it was instituted, September 16, 1801. Rev. 
Ebenezer Burt, the first settled pastor of this Society and 
Church, was ordained, June 20, 1798. He is still living ; 
but was dismissed from his pastoral office, November 19, 
1827. During his long-continued ministry he baptized 
and admitted into the Church 134 persons ; and married 
75 couples. The second pastor, Rev. Joseph Glazier, was 
installed, August 2, 1831, and dismissed, April 1835. The 
present pastor. Rev. Nelson B. Jones, entered upon the 
ministerial office. May 1837.* This Church and Society 
have uniformly held their meetings near the south-west 
corner of the town. The first meeting-house was erected in 
1801. In 1832 a new and commodious edifice was erected, 
which is highly creditable to the zeal and enterprise of 
the society. 

For a long period, there have been in Hardwick many 
individuals, professing a belief in the final salvation of all 
men. The Universalist Society, however, as such, is of 
recent date. It was organized in 1824. Both before and 
since its organization, this society has had occasional 
preaching, according to its ability and opportunity. Rev, 
John Bisbe labored here frequently, while he resided in 
Brookfieid. He was born in Plympton, graduated at 
Brown University in 1814, was ordained in Brookfieid, 
removed thence to Hartford ; and having preached there 
a few years, removed to Portland, Me., where he died, 
March 8, 1828, at the age of 26 years. He was regarded 
as an uncommonly eloquent and powerful speaker, an 
honest man, and a Christian. His wife was a daughter of 
Constant Ruggles, Esq., of this town, and is now the wife 
of Daniel Jackson, Esq., of Plymouth. One daughter also 

" The whole number of baptisms in this Church is 214. By Mr. Burt 
134; by Mr. Glazier 42 ; by Mr. Jones 7; by other persons 31. This does 
not include those who have been admitted into the Church by letters from 
other Churches. 


Since Mr. Bisbe's removal, Rev. Joshua Flagg, Rev. 
John H. WiUis, and Rev. John Pierce, have at ditferent 
times preached to this Society. The present preacher is 
Rev. Oilman Noyes. He graduated at Dartmouth College 
in 1830, and resides in Spencer, preaching to this Society 
once a month. The meetings of this Society are holden 
in the Town House. 

Before I close, a few miscellaneous topics demand a 
passing notice. 

This town enjoys a healthy atmosphere, and a very 
large proportion of its inhabitants have lived to old age. I 
have taken some pains to ascertain the number of deaths in 
town, during the last forty-nine years. Before that period, 
the Records are so imperfect, that nothing satisfactory can 
be gleaned. But from the commencement of Mr. Holt's 
ministry, the Ecclesiastical and Town Records combined 
afford tolerably accurate details. So far as I can ascer- 
tain, the whole number of deaths for the last forty-nine 
ye^rs has been 1122. Of this number 202, more than a 
sixth part of the whole, have attained the age of seventy 
years or upwards.* The average number of deaths yearly 
is a fraction short of 23. The greatest number in any 
one year was 55, in 1803, when the canker-rash prevailed, 
(as it did also in 1795, 1796, and 1802,) and was very fa- 
tal to children. The next greatest number was 49, in 
1814, when a malignant fever prevailed. It is remarkable 
that in 1810, when the spotted fever was so fatal else- 
where, though more than CO cases of it occurred in this 
town, the whole number of deaths in that year was less 
than the average for 49 years. I know not that the town 
has been visited at any other time with a fatal epidemical 
disease, until the present year ; in which the number of 
deaths, thus far, has been greater in proportion to the num- 
ber of months,f than in any year since 1814. On the 
whole, your location must be regarded as very favorable 
to health and long life. And when you thank God for 
his numerous blessings, let not this be forgotten. 

One more fact I mention with much gratification. So 
far as I can ascertain, not a single individual, born in 

" See Appendix, no. iii. 

1 The number of deaths, previous to November IS, has been thirty-two. 


Hardwick, has ever suffered death for a capital crime.* 
And I may mention in this connexion, that no murder was 
ever known to be commuted in this town.f 

In reviewing the lives and conduct of our ancestors, we 
find much which demands commendation, — some few 
things which may excite a smile, — but nothing which 
need tinge our cheeks witii a bhish of shame. Let us 
keep their virtues in perpetual remembrance ; and thank 
God for making us children of such fathers. 

Of those who commenced the settlement here, not one 
remains. Most of those who were active, dm-ing the first 
fifty years of our history, have also departed. They sleep 
in the grave, — all that was mortal of them, — chiefly in 
the enclosure near this house, which was originally de- 
voted as a burial place, by the proprietors of the town- 
ship. I exceedingly regret that a few individuals have 
manifested a disposition to appropriate it to other purposes 
entirely. I know not how some persons may feel on this 
subject. But my fathers sleep in that ground ; and I 
would gladly preserve their remains from indignity. In 
regard to most of my fellow citizens, I may say your fa- 

* The only native of Hardwiek ever convicted of a capital offence, was 
Captain John Wheeler, an officer who distinguished himself in ttie Shays 
Insurrection. He was convicted of treason, April 9, 1787, but afterwards, 
April 30, 1787, fully pardoned, and thenceforth lived a quiet nnd peaceable 
life. He had before perilled his life in the war of the Kevolution, and being 
successful, was accounted a patriot. Partaking of the delusion which so 
extensively prevailed in 1786, he again resisted the constituted authorities, 
at the hazard of his life. He was unsuccessful, and was adjudged to be a 
traitor. Yet he was, doubtless, as honest and conscientious in the one case 
as in the other ; and is by no means to be classed with murderers, burglars, 
and others, whose crimes are pronounced capital, and justly so, in the statutes. 
t Mrs. Mary Crowell, wife of Mr. Joshua Crowell, aged 82 years, was 
killed by her' daughter, Mrs. Hannah Spooner, January 27, 1807. Mrs. 
Spooner had long been insane, though not considered dangerous to the safety 
of others. But on the evening of the day before mentioned, unnoticed by 
others in the same room until too late, she inflicted a wound upon her moth- 
er's head, with an axe, which was almost instantaneously fatal. From this 
time, she was carefully guarded. Yet she succeeded, notwithstanding the 
care of her friends, in destroying her own life, December 16, in the same 
year. She had a brother, Thomas Crowell, who was also insane, but being 
inoffensive, was for many years allowed perfect liberty. At length it was 
judged prudent to confine him at night, lest he should do some damage by 
fire. This precaution proved unavailing; for on the night of January 22, 
1812, he communicated fire to the house. It was not discovered until it 
had progressed so far that the family had scarcely time to escape, without 
their clothes. The house and all its contents were consumed, and the un- 
fortunate maniac perished in the flames. 


thers sleep there, and it becomes you to watch over them. 
They who converted a howling wilderness into fruitful 
fields and pleasant gardens, sleep there. They sleep there, 
who labored, suffered privation, and freely perilled their 
lives in contests with savage beasts and more savage men, 
that we might enjoy plenty, and liberty, and peace. Of 
all which they once possessed, they withheld nothing 
from us, but that small spot of ground, where, with their 
fellow-laborers and fellow-snlferers, their wives and their 
children, they might rest in peace till the resurrection. 
Let us not grudge them this scanty pittance. They gave 
us their houses and lands; — do not deprive them of their 
graves. Let not their ashes be scattered to the four winds, 
nor their bones be thrown out, to be trampled under foot by 
the unthinking multitude. Let not that spot of ground, 
already shorn, on three sides, of its original proportions, 
be further desecrated. Let it rather be neatly and sub- 
stantially enclosed, and planted with trees and shrubbery. 
It will then be a pleasant retreat for meditation, an orna- 
ment to your village, and a perpetual monument of your 
respect for the memory of your ancestors. 

Fellow citizens: — Our ancestors have departed, and 
they will no more return to us. But we shall soon go to 
them. When another hundred years shall have rolled 
away, not one of us will remain on the earth. Some ear- 
lier, some later, but all of us before that period, must close 
our eyes in death ; and the places that know us will know 
us no more. Let us so itnprove the remnant of life, by 
obedience to the divine precepts, that we may enjoy the 
approbation of our own consciences, while we live ; and 
that our posterity, if they shall hereafter assemble on a 
similar anniversary, may not have occasion so much to la- 
ment our vices, as to applaud our virtues. While we con- 
tinue in the flesh, let us trust in God, and be grateful to 
him for every blessing which he bestows. And although, 
by a universal and invariable law of nature, we know that 
the earthly house of the tabernacles we now inhabit must 
dissolve, and the dust return unto the earth as it was, — 
let us evermore rejoice in the belief that the spirit shall 
return unto God who gave it, to dwell forever in a build- 
ing of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the 



A. Page 6. 

Extracts from a " Narrative of the Indian Wars," <^'f., "by 
William Hubbard, A. 31., Minister of Ipsioich." Boston, 

"July 28, 1675, Capt. Wheeler was sent to assist Capt. 
Hutchinson witli a parly of 20 horse, to treat further about the 
peace, who going first to Quaboag or Brooi<field * * • they 
obtained of those Nipnets the promise of a treaty upon the 
2d of August. * * * But finding no Indians, so secure were 
they, that they ventured along further, to find the infidels at 
their chief town, never suspecting the least danger, but when 
they had rode four or five miles that way, they fell into an am- 
bush of two or three hundred Indians, ♦ * * eight of them 
being shot down upon the place, whereof three were of Brook- 
field, and three mortally wounded, whereof Capt. Hutchinson 
was one." &-c. — pp. 78, 79. 

Certain troops which soon arrived from Springfield, " did 
the next day march up to a place called Meminimisset by the 
Indians, where Capt. Hutchinson and Capt. Wheeler were 
assaulted," &.C. — pp. 83, 84. 

Extracts from " Capt. Thomas Wheeler's Narrative of an 
Expedition with Capt. Edward Hutchinson into the Nipmuck 
Country, and to Quabnag, now Brookfield, Mass. first pub- 
lished 1675." Republished in N. llamp. Hist. Coll. ii. 5-23. 

"From thence [Brookfield] the same day, (being August 1,) 
we understanding that the Indians were about ten miles north- 
west from us, we sent out four men," &,c. — p. 6. 

" At length some of the chief Sachems promised to meet 
us on the next morning about 8 of the clock upon a plain 
within three miles of Brookfield ; * * * but the treacherous 
heathen intending m.ischief, (if they could have opportunity,) 
came not to the place. • * * But the three men who belonged 


to Brooktield were so strongly perswaded of their freedome 
from any ill intentions towards us, — that the said Captain 
Hutchinson who was principally intrusted with the matter of 
Treaty with them, was thereby encouraged to proceed and 
march forward towards a swanipe where the Indians then were. 
When we came near the said svvampe, the way was so very bad 
that we could march only in a single file, there being a very 
rocky hill on the right hand, and a Thicke swampe on the left. 
In which tliere were many of those cruel blood-thirsty heathen, 
who there way laid us, waiting an opportunity to cut us off; 
there being also much brush on the side of the said liill, where 
they lay in ambush to surprise us. When we had marched 
there about sixty or seventy rods, the said perfidious Indians 
sent out their shot upon us as a showre of haile, they being (as 
was supposed) about two hundred men or more." — pp. 7, 8. 

From these testimonies, it appears that the battle occurred 
at a place called Meminimisset, (or Winnimesset,) about ten 
miles, according to one account, or seven or eight miles, ac- 
cording to the other, from Brookfield ; between a hill on the 
right hand, (or east side,) and a swamp on the left. The name 
and description of the place, and its distance and direction 
from Brookfield, clearly indicate the spot mentioned in the 
Address; and I am not aware that any other place can be 
found, combining all these characteristics. 

B. Page 7. 
Copy of the Deed, as recorded in the Proprietors' Records. 

" Know all men by these presents, that we, John Magus, 
Lawrance Nassowaimo, Attorneys to Anogoniok, Sachem of 
the tract of Land called Wornbemesisecook, James and Simon, 
sons and heirs of Black James, Sachem of the Nipmug coun- 
try, for divers good causes and considerations us thereunto 
moving, and more especially for and in consideration of the 
sum of twenty Pounds currant money of New England to us 
in hand paid by Joshua Lamb, Nathaniel Paige, Andrew Gard- 
ner, Benjamin Gamblin, Benjamin Tucker, John Curtis, Rich- 
ard Draper, and Samuel Ruggles, of Roxbury, in the County 
of Suffolk, in New England, the receipt whereof we do hereby 
acknowledge ourselves therewith to be fully satisfyed, content- 
ed and paid, have given, granted, bargained, sold, eliened, 
enfeoffed, and confirmed, and by these presents do fully, freely, 
and absolutely give, grant, bargain, sell, allien, enfeoffe, and 
confirm unto the said Lamb, Paige, Gardner, Gamblin, Tuck- 
er, Curtis, Draper, and Ruggles, their heirs and assigns, a cer- 


tain tract or parcel of land, containing by estimation twelve 
miles long, north and south, and eight miles wide, east and 
west, scitiiate, lyiiiir, and being neer Qnribaiig, commonly 
known bv the name of VVombemesisecook, being bulled and 
bounded southerly upon the land that Joseph Dudley Esqr. 
lately purchased of the Indians, easterly the soulhermost 
corner upon a pond called Sasagookapaug, and so by a brook 
which runneth into said pond, and so up northerly unto a place 
called Deques, and so still northerly until it meets with a River 
called Nenameseck, and westerly by the River until it comes 
against Quaboge bounds, and joins unto their bounds, or how- 
ever otherwise butted and bounded, together with all and sin- 
gular the rights, commodities, liberties, priviledges, and appur- 
tenances, whatsoever to the land belonging, or howsoever 
otherwise appertaining : To have and to hold the said tract or 
parcel of land, scituale, containing, and bounded as aforesaid, 
to the said Lamb, Paige, Gardner, Gamblin, Tucker, Curtiss, 
Draper, and Ruggles, their heirs and assigns, in common ten- 
nancy to their only use, benefit, and behoofe forever. And the 
said John Magus, Lawrance Nassowanno, attorneys as afore- 
said, James and Simon, heirs of Black James as aforesaid, do 
covenant, promise, and grant from themselves, heirs, executors, 
and administrators, to and with the said Joshua Lamb, Na- 
thaniel Paige, Andrew Gardner, Benjamin Gamblin, Benjamin 
Tucker, Richard Draper, *and Samuel Ruggles, their heirs 
and assignes, that ihay will warrant and defend the above 
granted and bargained land, and every part and parcel thereof, 
with their and every of their appurtenances, from all and every 
person and persons whatsoever, claiming any right or title 
thereto, or interest therein, from, by, or under us. In witness 
whereof the said John Magus, Lawrence Nassowanno, attor- 
neys as aforesaid, James and Simon, have hereunto set their 
haEids and seals this twenty-seventh day of December, Anno 
Domini one thousand six hundred and eighty-six, annoq. R. 
Rs Jacobi Secundi Angliee, &.c. Secundo. 

Signed, sealed, and deliv- John MACiis,t (seal) 

ered in presence of 

Lawrence X Nassowanno, (seal.) 

John Gardner, James X his mark. {seal.) 

Samuell Mav. Simon X his mark. (seal.) 

Anogomog X his mark. (seal.) 

* The name of John Curtis is here omitted. 

f As I cannot give a fac-simile of the original marks, without having new 
types cast, I use the common cross in each case. It will be perceived that 
John Magus wrote his name. 


" John Magus, James, and Simon, Indians, subscribers of 
this instrement, personally appearing acknowledged the same to 
be their act and Deed. June 25, 1687. 

William Stol-ghton. 
" Received and Recorded, May 7th, 1723, in the Records of 
the County of Hampshire, Book N. D. Page 237. 

Per John Pvnchon, Regt." 

C. Page 9. 

It appears by the records of the General Court, Nov. 27, 
1729, that there was presented " a petition of Isaac Burr, John 
King, and sundry others, shewing that they are settled upon a 
certain tract of land bounded easterly by Brookfield, southerly 
and westerly by Brimfield, and northerly by Coldspring, by 
admission of the Reverend Mr. Timothy Ruggles of Roches- 
ter, and others, a committee of the proprietors of said land, 
(as they call themselves,) praying that they may have the grant 
and authority of this Court for settling on said land, and be 
exempted from the conditions they have entered into with the 
said Committee." An order of notice was issued ; the parties 
heard by counsel ; and the petition was rejected. Hence it is 
evident that the proprietors claimed as far south as the Chickapee 
River, which was then the north line of Brimfield ; and though 
they were at last confined to much more contracted limits, 
their claim was so far allowed to be just, that the land was for 
a time refused to others. 

D. Pace 16. 

" Anno Regni Regis Gear git 2d, S^c. ]2mo. 

" An Act for erecting a plantation in the County of Wor- 
cester, called Larabstown, into a township by the name of 

" Whereas the plantation of Lambstown, so called, in the 
County of Worcester is competently filled with inhabitants, 
who labour under divers inconveniences and difficulties for 
want of a power of enjoying and exercising town's privileges 
among them, and have addressed this Court setting forth the 
same, and praying for relief therein. 

" Be it enacted by his Excellency the Governor, Council, and 
Representatives in General Court assembled, and by the au- 
thority of the same, that the said plantation of Lambstown 
inclusive of the additional, lying and being on both sides 
Weare River as the same is hereafter bounded and described, 
be and hereby is constituted and erected into a separate and 
distinct township, by the name of 

" The bounds of said township being as follows ; viz. Be- 
ginning at the East bank of Ware River at the north west 


corner of a tract of land laid out to James Hovey ; from tbenca 
extending southerly as that line runs to Brookfield bounds; and 
from thence easterly as Brookfield bounds run, to the south- 
westerly corner of Brantree six thousand acres ; and from 
thence extending northwesterly bounding northeasterly on said 
six thousand acres till the line comes to Ware River, and so 
over the River the same course till it comes to the corner of 
Brantree grant, and there strikes on Rutland Line. Then 
running N. 39° W. 1760 perch ; then S. 40° W. 1800 perch ; 
then S. r 30' W. 1030 perch; then E. 2° 30' N. 1005 perch to 
Ware River. 

" And that the Inhabitants thereof be and hereby are vested 
and endowed with equal powers, privileges, and immunities 
which any of the Inhabitants of any of the other towns of this 
Province are or by law ought to be vested with. 

" Provided nevertheless, that the Inhabitants of said Town 
do within three years from the publication of this act erect and 
finish a suitable and convenient Meeting house for the public 
Worship of God among them, they having already an orthodox 
minister settled among them." 

The foregoing is a copy of the original Bill, or act of Incor- 
poration, on file in the office of the Secretary of State. The 
Act was consented to, or approved, by the Governor, January 
10, 1739. On the following day, an order of Court was passed, 
which is copied below. 

" Ordered, That Mr. Christopher Paige, a principal Inhabi- 
tant of a new Town lately erected at a plantation called 
Lambstown in the County of Worcester, by the name of Hard- 
wicke be and hereby is fully authorized and empowered to as- 
semble the freeeholders and other qualified voters there, on the 
first monday in March next, in some convenient publick place 
in said Town, in order to their chusing a Town Clerk, and 
other Town Officers for the year then next ensuing." 

E. Page 24. 

In 1754, Geii. Ruggles presented a petition to the General 
Court, for the remission of a fine, which had been imposed on 
the town in 1751, for not sending a Representative. The peti- 
tion was granted. The reasons urged, which I copy from the 
original, on file in the Secretary's office, were the following : 

"That the Inhabitants of said Town less than twenty years 
before that time first began the settlement thereof, and in gen- 
eral went on said lands in poor and low circumstances, and by 
means of the exceeding roughness of said lands they are to this 
day obliged to expend yearly large sums in making and repair- 

ing their highways, and even this year are at the expense of a 
hundred pounds Lawful money for that purpose, and must be 
at the expense of some tliousands of pounds upon their roads, 
before they will be brought to be as good as most of the roads 
in the Province are by nature, beside several large Bridges they 
are obliged to build and maintain; as also their crops of In- 
dian corn having been for several years cut short to that degree 
that they have been obliged to buy and bring from the Towns 
upon Connecticut River near half the Corn necessary for their 
subsistence; as also at that time there were not much above 
eighty families in said Town, many of which were extremely 
poor ; and before and ever since the Inhabitants of said Town 
are obliged to be at a great expense for the support of several 
poor and indigent persons; for which reasons your memorialist 
in behalf of said Town, most humbly prays for the remission of 
the aforesaid fine." &lc. 

Some of these reasons, I apprehend, were pretty highly col- 
ored, for the purpose of making out a case; particularly in 
regard to the number of paupers, and the number and poverty 
of the inhabitants. 

F. Page 27. 

The reprimand administered to General Ruggles, by the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, Feb. 13, 1706, as 
entered on the General Court Records, was in these words: — 

" Brigadier Ruggles, the House last evening voted, that with 
respect to your conduct at the late Congress at New York, 
you were guilty of neglect of duty, and thereupon ordered, 
that you should receive a reprimand from the Speaker of this 
House. Therefore 

" Sir, in discharge of my duty as Speaker of this House, 
and in pursuance of their order, I do reprimand you accord- 
ingly. Sir, it gives me very sensible pain, that a gentleman 
who has been heretofore in such high estimation in this House, 
should fall under their publick censure. 

" I hope. Sir, that by your future conduct, you will not only 
regain the good opinion this House have heretofore entertained 
of you ; but also the good opinion of all those whose displeas- 
ure you may have fallen under on this occasion." 

A vote was then passed, permitting him to have the reasons 
which he offered In justification, printed in the Journal. But, 
Feb. 19, "Brigadier Ruggles (according to order,) laid upon 
the table his reasons lor his conduct at the Congress at 
New York, which being read, after a debate the question 
was put, whether the paper offered as containing his rea- 
sons be printed in the Journal of the House? It passed in the 

He afterwards caused his " reasons " to be published in the 
" Boston Post-Boy and Advertiser," May 5, 17G6, now in the 
Boston Atheiiium. They were briefly these: — 

1. Because the procepfliiiss did not indicate so much " duty 
and loyalty to the best of Sovereigns," as to meet his approbation. 

2. Because he judged it more proper, that such petitions and 
remonstrances should be signed by the Speakers of the Repre- 
sentative bodies. 

3. Because some of the Provinces were not represented, and 
the representatives of others were not empowered to sign. The 
signing, therefore, could not be general. 

4. Because " a matter of so great importance to the Colonies, 
and of so delicate a nature as the open and avowed claim of an 
exclusive riaht of taxation (however true) to be asserted in ad- 
dresses to the King and Parliament, for relief from an Act made 
by this very Parliament, was a measure I could not bring my- 
self to adopt " 

5. Because the petitions or addresses would have been more 
graciously received, if signed by the Speakers of the Represen- 
tative bodies. 

Having rendered his reasons, (of which I have given the sub- 
stance,) he closed, by appealing to his past services, as follows: — 

" Mr. Speaker, This honorable House have adjudged my 
reasons insufficient to support my conduct; and I feel the weight 
of their indignation. I have, Sir, more than once trembled 
under a sense of my own insufficiency to support the dignity of 
the high trust, with which my country unasked has honoured 
me ; and to answer their just expectations in the discharge of 
them. Their candour has heretofore estimated my services 
rather by the integrity of my heart than the clearness of my 
head ; this uprightness they have not only been pleased to ac- 
cept, but bountifully to reward. When this house honoured me 
with this appointment, in undertaking it I promised myself the 
same indulgence. I have exercised the same freedom of judg- 
ment, I have attended the duty with the same diligence, I have 
been actuated with the same love to my country and its liber- 
ties, I have acted with the same singleness and uprightness of 
intention, and with the same ardent desire to serve the publick 
weal, which I have ever made the rule of my conduct: But 
alas! I meet with a very difTerent reward." 

G. Page 28. 

The following is a list of individuals belonging to Hardwick, 
who served in the French war, commencing in 1756. The 
list is imperfect, as the muster-rolls, from which it is compiled, 
are not complete. I have thought it proper, however, to pre- 


serve the names of so many as I can, and therefore publish an 
incomplete list, rather than none. Those who are known to 
have served more than one campaign, are distinguished by a 
star. [*] 

*Ruga!es, Timothy, Esq 


Ayres, Eliphalet 

*Cox, Ebenezer 


Bacon, James 

Mandell, Paul 

Barr, David ^ 

Paige, William 


Benjamin, Abel 

*Robinson, Samuel 


Billing, Daniel 

Warner, Joseph 


*Billiiig, Samuel 

•Robinson, Samuel, jr. 


Blair, Edward 

Carpenter, Joel, Doct. 


Bridge, Samuel 

*Safford, Challis, Doct. 


Bruce, Jotham 

Ruggles, Joseph 


Butterfield, Jonas 

•Safford, Philip 


Carpenter, Isaiah 

Stone, Nathan 

*Chamberlain, Joseph 

*Fay, Jonas 


Church, Elisha 

Leonard, Ezra 

*Church, Richard 

Mandell, Noah 

Church, Samuel 

Pratt, Ezekiel 

Church, 'J'iraothy 

Aiken, John 


Cobb, John 

*Aiken, Solomon 


Cobb, John, .jr. 

Billing, Elisha 

*Cobb, Lemuel 

Bowker, Silas 


Cummins, Ebenezer 

Farr, Jonathan 


Cummins, Elijah 

*Fay, Stephen 


Curtis, Ebenezer 

Hastings, Daniel 


Dean, James 

Newton, Silas 


Dean, Silas 

Newton, Timothy 


Dexter, Samuel 

*Safford, Ebenezer 


Doty, Zurishaddai 

Winslow, Samuel 


Ehvell, Joshua 

*Chase, Henry 


Elwell, Thomas 

♦Clarke, Isaac 


Farr, Joshua 

Cobb, Elisha 


*Fay, John 

Gitchel, David 


Forbush, Aaron 

*Higgins, Joseph 


Foster, Edward 

Knowltou, Jacob 


•Freeman, Thomas 

Lyscomb, Ebenezer 


•Freeman, Watson 

Mirick, Nathan 


Gilbert, Solomon 

Steele, Samuel 


Goddard, Benjamin 

Whipple, Benjamin 


•Gorhani, Stephen 

Winslow, Seth, jr. 


Green, Larkin 
Harrington, Samuel 

Abbott, Timothy 

Haseltine, Simeon 

Aiken, David 

Haskell, John 

Atwood, Samuel 

•Haskell, Zechariah 


Hastings, Jacob 
Hedge, Elisha, jr. 
Hinds, Joseph 
Hinkley, Seth 
Howe, Sylvanus 
Johnson, Thomas 
Jordan, Dudley 
Jordan, Edmond 
Mann, Benjamin 
Marble, David 
Marble, Nathan 
•Marsh, Amos 
McSvvain, John 
Negus, John 
Nichols, Joseph 
*Nye, Caleb 
Ott, Peter 
*Paige, John 
Paige, John, jr. 
*Paige, Jonas 
Parkus, Daniel 
Patrel, Joseph 
Pike, Timothy 
Powers, Abraham 
Powers, William 
Raymond, Benjam 

Raymond, John 
Rice, Ephraim 
Rice, Oliver 
Rice, Solomon 
Robinson, Leonard 
Ruggles, AVhiting 
*Sauge, Timothy 
Simonds, Joel 
*Sprout, Nathaniel 
Stuart, Samuel 
Stuart, Seth 
Warner, Daniel 
Warner, Elijah 
Warner, Silas 
Weeks, David 
Weeks, Holland 
Weeks, Thomas 
Whipple, James 
Whipple, Paul 
*Whitcomb, Asa 
Whitcomb, Nathaniel 
Whitcomb, Nathaniel, jr. 
White, Thomas 
*Winslow, James 
Winslow, Nathaniel 
*Winslow, Shubael 

H. Page 29. 

" An Act for setting up a Fair in the Town of Hardwicke, 
in the County of Worcester. 

" Be it enacted by the Governour, Council, and House of 
Representatives, that henceforth, there may be kept a Fair in 
said Hardwicke on the third Wednesday and Thursday of May, 
and on the third Wednesday and Thursday of October an- 

" And be it further enacted, that the said Town of Hard- 
wicke be and hereby are enabled, at a meeting called for that 
purpose, to choose proper officers to regulate said Fair, until 
the annual meeting in March next, and to be chosen thereafter 
annually, in the month of March, during the continuance of 
this act. 

" And be it further enacted, that no bargain and sale, made 
at any of the said Fairs, shall be deemed valid and effectual 
in the law, unless the same be made between sun-rising and 

"This act to continue and be in force for the space of seven 
years from the first day of July next, and no longer." 


This act was passed June 12, 1762. It seems afterwards to 
have been renewed, as the Fairs continued until 1775, when 
they were discontinued by vote of the Town. In 1785, the 
Town petitioned to have the Fair re-established ; but the peti- 
tion was not granted. 

For several years, there has been a " Cattle Show " in Hard- 
wick, in the month of October annually, which though differ- 
ent, in very many respects, perhaps answers all the valuable 
purposes of a Fair. 

I. Page 37. 

The " Association " drawn up, and sent to Hardwick, by 
General Ruggles, was published by himself in the " Boston 
Evening Post," December 26, 1774 ; from which paper, now 
in the Boston Athen^um, I have copied it. He published also 
a letter, in which both his loyalty and his wit are conspicuous. 
My limits forbid me to insert it. 


" We the subscribers being fully sensible of the blessings of 
good Government on the one hand, and convinced on the other 
hand of the evils and calamities attending on Tyranny in all 
shapes, whether exorcised by one or many, and having of late 
seen with great grief and concern the distressing efforts of a 
dissolution of all Government, whereby our Lives, Liberties, 
and Properties are rendered precarious, and no longer under the 
Protection of the Law ; and apprehending it to be our indis- 
pensable duty, to use all Lawful means in our power, for the 
defence of our Persons and Property, against all riotous, and 
lawless violence, and to recover, and secure the advantages 
which we are intituled to, from the good and wholsome Laws 
of the Government ; Do hereby associate and mutually cove- 
nant, and engage to and with each other as follows. Namely 

" 1st. That we will upon all occasions, with our Lives, and 
Fortunes, stand by and assist each other, in the defence of his 
Life, Liberty, and Property, whenever the same shall be at- 
tacked, or endangered by any Bodies of Men, riotously assem- 
bled, upon any pretence, or under any authority, not warranted 
by the Laws of the Land. 

" 2ndly. That we will upon all occasions, mutually support 
each other in the free exercise, and enjoyment of our undoubted 
right to Liberty, in eating, drinking, buying, selling, commun- 
ing, and acting, what, and with whom, and as we please, con- 
sistent with the Laws of God, and the King. 

" 3dly. That we will not acknowledge, or submit to the pre- 
tended authority of any Congresses, Committees of Correspon- 


dence, or other unconstitutional Assemblies of Men ; but will 
at the risque of our Lives, if need be, oppose the forceable ex- 
ercise of all such autiiority. 

" 4thly. That we will to the utmost of our Power, promote, 
encourage, and when called to it, enforce obedience to the 
rightfull Authority of our most Gracious Sovereign King George 
the third, and of his Laws. 

" Sthly. That when the Person or Property of any one of us 
shall be invaded or threatened by any Committees, mobs, or un- 
lawful Assemblies, the others of us will upon notice received 
forthwith repair, properly armed, to the Person on whom, or 
place where such invasion or threatening shall be, and will to 
the utmost of our Power, defend such Person and his Property, 
and if need be, will oppose and repel force with force. 

" Gthly. That if any one of us shall unjustly and unlawfully be 
injured in his Person or Property, by any such Assemblies as 
before-mentioned, the others of us wdl unitedly demand, and if 
in our Power compel the Offenders, if known, to make full repar- 
ation and satisfaction for such injury; and if all other Means of 
Security fail, we will have recourse to the natural Law of Re- 

"In witness of all which we hereto subscribe our Names this 
day of " 

Soon after this " Association " was sent to Ilardwick, and 
before it was published, a copy of it came into the possession 
of the Committee of Correspondence, who immediately trans- 
mitted it to the Provincial Congress, then in session at Concord. 
A resolve was thereupon passed, which I copy from their Jour- 
nal, recently published under the supervision of William Lin- 
coln, Esq. 

" Whereas, it appears to this Congress, that one or more 
members of the lately appointed unconstitutional council in this 
province, now residing in Boston, has sent to the town of Hard- 
wick, a paper purporting to be an association to be entered into 
by those persons who falsely assume the name of friends to gov- 
ernment; calculated to counteract the salutary designs of the 
Continental and Provincial Congresses, to deceive the people into 
agreements contrary to the welfare of this country, and tending 
in its consequences to hinder an amicable accommodation with 
our mother country, the sole end of those Congresses, and the 
ardent wish of every friend to America : it is therefore recom- 
mended by this Congress to the several committees of corres- 
pondence in this colony, that they give notice to the Provincial 
Congress, tliat shall meet in this province on the first day of 
February next, and the earliest notice to the public, of all such 

combinations, and of the persons signing the same, if any should 
be enticed thereto, that their names may be published to the 
world, their persons treated with that neglect, and their memo- 
ries transmitted to posterity with that ignominy, which such 
unnatural conduct must deserve." 

K. Page 41. 

The following list of soldiers, furnished by Hardwick, in the 
War of the Revolution, is exceedingly imperfect, — especially 
in regard to those who served for short periods. The names of 
those who engaged for three years or during the War, and who 
are termed " Continental Soldiers," are gathered partly from a 
certificate in the office of the Secretary of State, signed by 
" Jonathan Warner, Timothy Paige, John Hastings, Select- 
men " of Hardwick ; and partly from the accounts of the sev- 
eral Regiments, lodged in the same office. The names of those 
who served for short periods are gathered, partly from the Town 
Records, and partly from the testimony of aged inhabitants. I 
regret that it is not more complete. As I have not the means 
to know the precise rank of each, I insert no titles; — but 
merely remark that Jonathan Warner was General of militia, 
whose aids were Moses Mandell and James Paige 2d, and that 
Barnabas Sears was Major of militia. 

Continental Soldiers. 

Bernard, Joseph 
Blancford, David 
Chesemine, Benjamin 
Cobb, John 
Doty, Moses 
Edson, Cushman 
Elwell, Jabez 
Evan, Daniel 
Fay, Aaron 
Fuller, John 
Gault, Thomas 
Glazier, Benjamin 
Glazier, William 
Gorham, John 
Gorham, Josiah 
Hedge, Elisha 
Hunt, Joseph 
June, Thomas 
Lemoine, Benjamin 
Mandell, Amos 
McMuUen, Edward 
Mirick, William 

Nye, Isaac 
Packard, Abisha 
Perkins, Josiah 
Pike, Elisha 
Pike, Joseph 
Plant, John 
Ranger, Samuel 
Rixford, Henry 
Roberts, Josiah 
Robinson, John Walker 
Rockwood, Ebenezer 
Ryan, Deimis 
Ryan, John 
Stanwood, Jonathan 
Stetson, Robert 
Stewart, Jonathan 
Terry, Jacob 
Wheeler, John 
Wilder, Shubael 
Winslow, William 
Wright, Silas 


Aiken, John 
Brimhall, Sylvanus 
Campbell, Jeremiah 
Conant, Luther 
Dennis, Adonijah 
Gorham, Stephen 
Harrington, Lemuel 
Haseltine, Simeon 
Haskins, Samuel jr. 
Hastings, Theophilu 
Hathaway, Timothy 
Hedge, Asa 
Hedge, John 
Higgins, Henry 
Hinkley, Samuel 
Hunt, John 
Lock, Josiah 
Mandell, Moses 

Soldiers who served for shorter periods. 

Paige, James 2d 
Paige, Timothy jr. 

Parker, Luther 
Phinney, Zenas 
Ruggles, Daniel 
Sears, Barnabas 
Spooner, Samuel 
Spooner, Zephaniah 
Sprout, Nathan 
Sprout, Samuel 
Warner, Daniel 
Warner, Jonathan 
Warner, Jonathan 2d 
Wellman, Levi 
Whipple, David 
White, Thomas Wells 
Willis, Joseph 
Willis, Silas jr. 




Jonathan Warner, from 1781 to 178.5, and from 1791 to 1797. 
Samuel Eastman, from 1819 to 1821. 

General Warner was transferred to the Executive Council 
from 1795 to 1797. General Ruggles was elected a Counsellor 
in 1764, but declined accepting the appointment. He probably 
supposed he could more effectually advance the King's interest 
in the House, than in the Council. 

Representatives to the General Court.* 

1754 Timothy Ruggles 1757 Timothy Ruggles 

1755 Timothy Ruggles 1758 Timothy Ruggles 

* The town was not represented until 1754 ; nor in those years, since that 
period, which are omitted in the list. 


1759 Timothy Ruggles 

1761 Timothy Ruggles 

1762 Timothy Ruggles 
176IJ Tiniothy Ruggles 

1764 Timothy Ruggles 

1765 Timothy Ruggles 

1 766 Timothy Ruggles 

1767 Timothy Ruggles 

1768 Timothy Ruggles 

1769 Timothy Ruggles 

, »^Q i Timothy Ruggles 
\ Daniel Oliver 

1773 Paul Manclell 

1774 Paul Mandell 

1775 Stephen Rice 

1776 William Paige 
.^._ j Stephen Rice 

I Jonathan Warner 

1778 William Paige 

1779 William Paige 

1780 William Paige. 

Under the New Constitution. 

1780 Jonathan Warner 

1781 Timothy Paige 

1782 Ichahod Dexter 

1783 Ichabod Dexter 

1784 Stephen Rice 

1785 Jonathan Warner 

1786 John Hastings 

1787 Martin Kinsley 

1788 Martin Kinsley 

1790 Martin Kinsley 

1791 Martin Kinsley 

1792 Martin Kinsley 

1794 Martin Kinsley 

1795 Martin Kinsley 

1796 Martin Kinsley 

1798 Jonathan Warner 

1799 Jonathan Warner 

1800 John Hastings 

1801 John Hastings 

1802 John Hastings 

1803 John Hastings 

1804 John Hastings 

1805 Timothy Paige 

^^'^ \ Seth Pierce 

1807 Timothy Paige 

1808 Timothy Paige 
lono} Timothy Paige 
^^^•^ \ John Hastings 

jg JO I Timothy Paige 

( Jason Mixter 
ISll I Timothy Paige 

( Jeduthun Spooner 
'i Timothy Paige 
i Jeduthun Spooner 
Timothy Paige 
Jeduthun Spooner 
jgj^f Timothy Paige 
( Jeduthun Spooner 
' Timothy Paige 
Jason Mixter 





( Jason Mixter 

1817 Timothy Paige 

1818 Timothy Paige 

1819 Timothy Paige 

1820 Timothy Paige 

1821 Timothy Paige 
1823 Joseph Stone 

1826 Samuel liilling 

1827 Samuel Billing 

1829 Samuel Billing 

1830 Moses Allen 

1832 Moses Allen 

1833 Scotto Berry 
1835 Samuel F. Cutler 
1837 Jason Mixter 

! Moses Allen 
Gardner Ruggles 

Delegates to the Provineial Congresses. 
Oct. 1774, 1st, at Concord, Paul Mandell, Stephen Rice. 



Feb. 1775, 2d, at Cambridge, Paul Mandell. 
May 1775, :?d, at Watertown, William Paige, Stephen Rice, 
Jonathan Wariier. 

Delegates to Conventiims. 

Aug. 1774, at Worcester, Paul Mandell, Stephen Rice, Jona- 
than Warner, John Bradish. 

Sep. 1770, at Cambridge,* William Paige, Jonathan Warner, 
John Hastings. 

Oct. 1779, at Concord, Timothy Paige. 

Feb. 178S, at Boston,t Martin Kinsley. 

Nov. ISiO, at Boston,^ Timothy Paige, Joseph Stone. 

Committees of Correspondence, Inspection, and Safety. 

1774. Benjamin Ruggles, Constant Mirick, Paul Mandell, 
Joseph Allen, William Paige, John Bradish, Jonathan Warner, 
Daniel Warner, Stephen Rice, Ezra Leonard, Timothy New- 
ton, Thomas Robinson, Seth Paddleford, Josiah Lock, Joseph 

177.5. The same individuals reelected. 

1776. William Paige, Thomas Robinson, Samuel Dexter, 
Samuel Billings, John Bradish, Daniel Warner, David Allen, 
Abraham Knovvlton, Gamaliel Collins. 

1777. William Paige, John Bradish, Thomas Robinson, Ste- 
phen Rice, Timothy Paige, Barnabas Sears, Samuel Dexter, 
David Allen, Timothy Newton. 

1778. Daniel Warner, Elisha Billing, Thomas WHieeler, 
Isaac Fay, Denison Robinson, Timothy Newton, Zebediah 

1779. David Allen, Samuel Dexter, Aaron Barlow, Ephraira 
Cleavelaud jr., James Paige jr. At a subsequent meeting, the 
following gentlemen were added to the committee : — Daniel 
Warner, Ezra Leonard, Elisha Billing, John Hastings, Timothy 
Paige, John Haskell, Thomas Robinson, Timothy Newton, 
Jonathan Warner, Ephraim Pratt. 

1780. Daniel Egery, Oliver Allen, Isaac Fay, John Haskell, 
James Wing. 

Judges of the Court of Common Pleas. 
[The persons, whose names are starred, are dead.] 

Apl. 19, 1757, *Timothy Ruggles; Ch. Just, from 1762 to 1775. 
May 27, 1799, *Jonathaa Warner ; died, 1803. 

* For framinp: the Constitution of Massachusetts. 

t To act on the Federal Constitution. 

t For revising the Constitution of Massachusetts. 

Justices of the Peace. 

Apl. 19, 1754, *Tiinothv Ruggles, and quorum. 

Jan. 13, 1768, *Daniel Oliver 

Sep. 25, 1775, *Paul Mandell 

Apl. 7, 1787, *Jonathan Warner ; through the Com. Feb. 13, 

June 25, 1789, *Martin Kinsley; removed to Hartford Con. 
Feb. 4, 1802, *John Hastings 

May 9, 1803, *Timothy Paige; quorum, Aug. 29, 1816. 
Feb. 3, 1808, *VVilliara Cutler 
Mar. 9, 1811, *Daniel Ruggles 

Nov. 18, 1812, Snrauel Eastman ; removed from the County. 
Feb. 21, 1814, Thomas Wheeler; removed to Greenwich. 
Jan. 22, 1819, Samuel Hinkley 
June 16, 1821, Jason Mixter 

Feb. 17, 1824, Samuel F. Cutler; removed to Amherst. 
Feb. 25, 1826, Gardner Ruggles 

Jan. 22, 1828, Samuel Billing ; removed to Bangor, Me. 
Jan. 29, 1829, Joseph Stone 
Jan. 26, 1830, Ebenezer Perry 
May 14, 1831, Joseph Knox; removed to Wisconsin. 

♦Timothy Ruggles, grad. H. U. 1732, rem. from the town. 

*Daniel Oliver, " H. U. 1762, " 

*Seth Paddleford, " Y. C. 1770, " afterw's LL. D. 

Pelatiah Hitchcock, " H. U. 1785, " 

♦Luke Brown, " H. U. 1794, 

•Elisha P. Cutler, " W. C. 1798, 

Samuel Eastman, " D. C. 1802. 

Joseph Knox. 


Jedediah Rice, d. Apl. 4, 1756. 

Joel Carpenter, d. 

Challis Safford, d. about 1775. 

Jonas Fay, rem. to Bennington Vt. 

Isaac Robinson, rem. to Chesterfield, 1773. 

John Paddleford, grad. Y. C. 1768; rem. 

Charles Doolittle, d. June 12, 1785, aged 36. 

Arthur Rawson, d. Dec. 22, 1796, aged 38. 

Lucius Doolittle, d. Dec. 1, 1831, aged 71. 

Cyrus Washburn, rem. to Vernon Vt. 

* In this and the succeeding pages, some contractions are used ; b. for 
bom; d. for died; mai. for married; dau. for daughter ; rem. for removed; 
grad. for graduated. 


William Cutler, d. Feb. 9, 1832, aged 78. 

Convers Cutler, d. Nov. 1, 1831, aged 70. 

Joseph White, rem. to New Bedford. 

Elliot Beckwith, d. Mar. G, 1814, aged 53. 

Elias Pennimaii, d. Feb. 9, 1830, aged 81. 

David Billing, d. 1833, aged 62. 

Joseph Stone, \ v ■ j ■ ■ ^ . 

Stephen K. Wardwell, ] ''^'"g' commenced practice here 1814. 

Deacons in the first Church. 

Dec. 3. 1736, Christopher Paige, resigned Apl. 13, 1749 ; d. 

Mar. 10, 1774. 
Dec. 3, 1736, Capt. Joseph Allen, d. Aug. 18, 1793. 
Apl. 30, 1746, Capt. Samuel Robinson, resigned Mar. 2, 1749; 

rem. to Bennington. 
John Cooper, (Probably from 1749 to 1769.) 
Nov. 9, 1769, Capt. William Paige, d. Feb. 14, 1790. 
Apl. 28, 1774, John Bradish, rem. to Cummington. 
May 12, 1785, Ebenezer Willis, d. Feb. 5, 1813. 

" " " Nathaniel Paige, rem. to Athol ; d. Feb. 1817 
Aug. 16, 1810, Joseph Allen, d. Nov. 11, 1822. 
Aug. 10, 1812, Maj. James Paige, d. Feb. 18, 1818. 

" " " Benjamin W. Childs, rem. to Barre ; d. 1838. 
Apl. 18, 1819, Henry Fish, resigned May 20, 1830. 

" " " Josiah C. Chandler, rem. to Prescott. 
Mar. 10, 1824, Elijah Amidon, rem. to Belchertovvn. 

" " " Anson Winchester, rem. to Mendon, N. Y. 

Deacons in the Baptist Church. 

1801, Daniel Lamson, dismissed, 1806. 

" Seth Willis, " 1811. 

1806, Benjamin Rider, " 1814. 

1811, Eseck Brown, " 1812. 

1812, Enos Newland, " 1814. 
1817, Henry Higgins, " 1833. 

" Joseph Metcalf, " 1829. 

1829, John Pepper 
1833, John Chamberlain 



Solomon Aiken, son of John Aiken ; b. July 15, 1758 ; grad. 
D. C. 1784 ; ordained in Dracut, June 4, 1788 ; minister there 
about twenty years. Dead. 

David Billing, son of Asahel Billing; b. 1771; physician in 
Hardwick ; d. 1833. 

Eli Carpenter, son of Doct. Joel Carpenter ; b. Dec. 12, 
175G ; physician in Goshen, Con. His mother was Mary, dau. 
of Rev. Benjamin Ruggles, of New Braintree. 

Edward Dean, son of Paul Dean; b. Nov. 1, 1778; physi- 
cian in Vermont. Dead. 

Joseph Dean, son of Paul Dean; b. Jan. '2.5, 17!)t); physician 
in Vermont. Dead. 

Jonas Fay, son of Stephen Fay; b. 1730; physician in Hard- 
wick, and in Bennington, Vt. Dead. 

John Field, son of George Field ; b. Jan. 5, 1780 ; grad. W. 
C. 1807 ; minister, a few years, in N. Wrentham ; afterwards a 
missionary. Dead. 

Horace Gleason, son of Nathaniel Gleason ; b. Aug. 30, 
1801; grad. W. C. 1828; lawyer in Boston. 

Thomas Russell Holt, son of Rev. Thomas Holt ; b. June 
30, 1799 ; commenced practice as a lawyer, in Wintonbury, Con- 

Zephaniah Jenney, son of John Jenney ; b. about 1755; 
physician in Maine. 

Christopher Jacob Lawton, son of Jacob Lawton ; b. Oct. 2, 
1778 ; minister in Vermont. 

John Lawton, son of Jacob Lawton ; b. Aug. 14, 1780 ; min- 
ister in Vermont. 

Sanford Lawton,* son of John Lawton ; b. about 1798 ; 
grad. Y. C. I8'J5; ordained minister; but has devoted his at- 
tention chiefly to teaching ; has been Preceptor of the Acad- 
emies in Dudley, Monson, and Westfiold. 

William Andrew Mandell, son of the late Daniel Mandell ; 
grad. A. C. 1838. 

George Mixter, son of Jason Mixter, Esq. ; b. 1815 ; grad. 
Y. C. 1836 ; removed to Wisconsin. 

* Not born in Hardwick ; but of an ancient Hardwicli family. The father 
returned there, when tliis son was very young, after a temporary absence. 

Christopher Paige, son of Dea. William Paige ; b. June 12, 
176-2 ; grad. D. C. 17S4 ; minister in PittsfieiclfN. H. 1789; in 
Roxbury, N. H. 1810 ; d. Oct. 12, 1822. His wife was the 
widow of Rev. Elijah Fletcher. His son, Elijah Fletcher 
Paige, grad. H. U. 1810, and d. in Virginia, 1817. 

Reed Paige, son of Col. Timothy Paige ; b. Aug, 30, 17G4 ; 
grad. D. C. 178() ; minister in Hancock, N. H. from Sept. 21, 
1791 until his death, July 22, 181C. " He was justly esteemed 
a learned, pious, able, and faithful minister, a good citizen, an 
honest and upright man." — Farmer's Gaz. N. H. Art. Haniork. 

Winslow Paige, son of John Paige; b. 1765; A. M. at B. U. 
1828 ; minister in Schaghticoke, Florida, and Gilboa, N. Y. ; 
d. 18:58, leaving two sons, — John Keyes Paige, grad. W. C. 
1S07; Clerk of the Sup. Court in New York ; — Christopher 
Alonzo Paige, grad. W. C. 1812: Reporter of the Court of 
Chancery in New York. Joseph C. Y. Paige, son of John K. 
Paige, grad. W. C. 1838. 

George Washington Paige, son of Col. Timothy Paige ; b. 
Aug. 24, 1775; physician in Colchester, N. Y., where he d. 
Sep. 10, 1834. 

Timothy Paige, son of Timothy Paige, Esq. ; b. Mar. 6, 
1788; lawyer in Southbridge, where he d. Nov. 16, 1822. 

Joel Paige, son of Moses Paige ; b. Jan. 25, 1793; physician 
in Ovvego, N. Y. 

Asa Paige, son of Moses Paige ; b. Dec. 9. 1801 ; physician 
and apothecary in Troy, N. Y. Dead. 

Lucius Robinson Paige, son of Timothy Paige, Esq. ; b. Mar. 
8, 1802 ; minister in Cambridge. 

William Powers, son of Phineas Powers; b. July 15, 1734; 
physician in Woodstock, Vt., where he d. at the age of about 
ninety years. 

Thomas Rice, son of Col. Stephen Rice ; b. 1782 ; grad. Y. 
C. 1803; lawyer in Boston and Marlboro' ; rem. to Vermont. 

Moses Robinson, son of Capt. Samuel Robinson ; b. Mar. 
15, 1741; A. M. at Y. C. 1789; Governor of Vermont, 1789; 
afterwards Representative and Senator in Congress, from the 
same State; d. at Bennington, May 26, 1813. 

Jonathan Robinson, son of Capt Samuel Robinson; b. Aug. 
24, 17.-i6; A. M. at D. C. 1790; Chief Justice of Vermont 
1801; Senator in Congress from the same State 1806; d. at 
Bennington, Nov. 3, 1819. 

Isaac Robinson, son of Samuel Robinson 2d ; b. Jan. 20, 
1747 ; physician in Hardwick and Chesterfield ; rern. to Vermont. 

Warner Robinson, son of Thomas Robinson jr. ; lawyer in 
Alexander, N. Y., where he d. Jan. 22, 1827, at the age of 

about thirty years. 



Alfred Stearns, grad. W. C. 1812 ; lawyer ; dead. 
William Thomas, son of Amos Thomas; b. Sep. 18, 1739; 
physician in Brookfield, where he d. at an advanced age. 

Wright Warner, son of Capt. Daniel Warner; b. Sep. 11, 

1773 ; lawyer in Vermont. 

William Augustus Warner, son of Gen. Jonathan Warner ; 
b. 1797 ; grad. H. U. 1815 ; lawyer in Boston, where he d. 
Dec. 1831. 

Ebeuezer Washburn, son of Ebenezer Washburn , b. Oct. 
25, 1772 ; minister in Connecticut. 

Cyrus Washburn, son of Ebenezer Washburn ; b. Nov. 5, 

1774 ; physician in Ilardwick, and in Vernon, Vt. 

Thomas Wells White, son of Rev. David White ; b. Aug. 
12, 1739 ; grad. H. U. 1759 ; merchant ; rem. to Barnard, Vt. 
where he died. 

John White, son of Rev. David White; b. June 11, 1745; 
grad. H. U. 17C5; clerk in a public office, Worcester, where 
he died. 

Shubael Winslow, son of Thomas Winslow ; b. about 1738 ; 
physician in Brimfield, where he died. 

John Goldsbury jr., son of Rev. John Goldsbury, b. in Rayn- 
ham, Oct. 5, 1822, and for several years resident in Hardwick, 
is a member of the Freshman Class, Harvard University. 

Brief personal notices. 

James Aiken, a native of Scotland, here in 1736, d. Aug. 10, 
1775, aged 82 ; had sons, Solomon and John ; and dau. Mercy, 
who mar. Dea. William Paige, and d. Feb. 19, 1823, aged 102 
years, 1 month, and 4 days. 

David Aiken, nephew of James, mar. Hannah Simonds, July 
18, 1705, who d. 1837, aged 96. 

Dea. Joseph Allen, b. in Weston, 1709, rem. here in 1736, 
and d. Aug. 18, 1793; mar. Mercy Livermore, and had sons, 
David, b. Aug. 18, 1738, and Joseph, b. Dec. 21, 1748. He 
was much employed in the public business of the town, and 
Deacon in the Church from its organization in 1736, until his 

John Amidon, here in 1738; his son John b. 1744, d. 1825, 
aged. 81. 

Samuel Billing rem. here from Sunderland, 1740; mar. dau 
of Daniel Warner, and had sons, Elisha d. 1803, aged 76 
Daniel, mar. Mary, dau. of Capt. Benjamin Ruggles ; Nathan 
Samuel, rem. to Bennington, Vt. ; and Asahel mar. Elizabeth, 
dau. of James Robinson, d. 1838, aged 100. 

Nathan Carpenter, here in 1737, and d. Aug. 12, 1770, aged 
69. His son Gideon was father of the late Elijah Carpenter. 


Samuel Dexter rem. here from Rochester about 1737 ; had 
sons, Joseph ; Samuel d. 1824, aged 89 ; Ichabod d. 1797, 
aged 59; Job, b. March 8, 1741, and d. 1827; Benjamin, b. 
Nov. 17, 1747. 

Paul Dean rem. here from Taunton, and mar. Mary Whit- 
comb, Dec. 4, 174.5 ; d. 1767 ; his son Paul, b. Oct. 20, 1746, 
mar. Elizabeth Ruggles, and d. 1828. Another son, Seth, was 
father of Rev. Paul Dean of Boston. Mr. Dean's widow mar. 
Dea. Daniel Spooner, 1780, and d. 1822, aged 94. 

James Fay, formerly of Westboro', was here early, and d. of 
small pox, 1777. He was Deacon in the " Separate Church." 
His son Daniel d. 181.5, aged 86, and was father of Timothy, 
who mar. Olive, dau. of Ezra Leonard, 1775, and Hannah Bas- 
sett, 1780, and d. 1831, aged 81. 

Stephen Fay, formerly of Westboro' and probably brother of 
James, was here early, and about 1765 rem. to Bennington, Vt. 
He was father of Dr. Jonas, and of Mary, who mar. Moses 
Robinson, (afterwards Governor of Vermont,) in 1762. 

Stephen Gorham rem. here from Yarmouth about 1750; was 
in the French war three years, and a short time in the war of 
the Revolution. He mar. Sarah Freeman, 17.58, and had eleven 
sons ; one of whom, John, still lives in Hardwick. 

Roger Haskell, perhaps son of Joseph Haskell, d. Dec. 21, 

1750. His dau. Rebecca, b. Mar. 29, 1743, mar. Granger, 

and still living, is the mother of Daniel Granger. 

Walter Hastings d. 1792, aged 88. His son, the late John 
Hastings, Esq., was b. Sep. 1743, and d. May 29, 1829. 

Elisha Hedge was father of Elisha, and of Rev. Lemuel 
Hedge, who grad. H. U. 1759, mar. Sarah, dau. of Rev. David 
White, 1761, and d. at Warwick, Oct. 1777, leaving sons, 
Lemuel, grad. H. U. 1784; Abraham, a physician in Windsor, 
Vt. ; Levi, grad. H. U. 1792, and connected with the Univer- 
sity, as tutor and professor, 37 years ; Samuel rem. to Wind- 
sor, Vt. 

John Hunt, here in 1737, kept a tavern where Dr. Wardwell 
now lives, and d. of small-pox, Feb. 14, 1778. His son Moses 
was b. Oct. 28, 1756. 

E.\perience Johnson might have been father of Zebediah, 
but of this I am not certain. He was here in 1736, and several 
years afterwards. 

Dudley Jordan, here in 1737, and d. Apl. 26, 1750. He was 
celebrated as an expert gunner, and once alarmed the town by 
discharging his gun at a catamount three times in very rapid 
succession. He mar. Mary Haskell, 1739, and had children, 
Susanna b. 1741, mar. Abraham Knowlton, and d. 1816; Philip, 

b. 1743; Mercy, b. 1745, mar. Capt. John Raymond, and d- 
1833; Sarah, b. 1747; Dudley, b. 1750, and died l»20. 

James Lavvton, here about 1750, d. Sept. '24, 1787, aged 73. 
He had sons, James d. 1806 ; Jacob ; John b. 1754, recently 
rem. to Monson ; Israel, b. 1758, removed to Vermont. 

Ezra Leonard mar. Olive, dau. of Benjamin Smith, June 1, 
1737. This was the first marriage ever celebrated in town. 
They had sons, Benjamin, b. 1741; Nathan, b. 1744; David 
b. 1747; Levi, b. 1749; Ezra, b. 1757; and dau. Sarah and 
Mercy, twins, b. 1751, mar. Samuel Whipple and Jonathan 
Flint; Olive, b. J 753, mar. Timothy Fay. 

Paul Mandell, Esq. rem. here from Dartmouth, in 1749, and 
d. Sep. 16, 1809, aged 80. He mar. Susanna, dau. of Rev. 
Timothy Ruggles of Rochester, 1746, who survived until Dec. 
16, 1813, when she d. aged 92. They had six children ; Han- 
nah, b. Jan. 10, 1747, mar. Gen. Jonathan Warner, and still 
living; Susanna, b. Nov. 16, 1749, mar. John Stone ; Maj. Mo- 
ses, b. Dec. 16, 1751, d. 1826; Paul, b. Oct. 31, 1753; Barna- 
bas, b. 17.55; d. 1758; Mary, b. Oct. 3, 1759, mar. John Doty. 
He was a distinguished citizen, and much employed in public 
affairs. — Rev. David J. Mandell of Gardiner, Me. is grandson 
of Maj. Moses Mandell. 

Constant Mirick, one of the earliest inhabitants, d. Mar. 17, 
1792, aged 91. He had sons, William, b. Apl. 22, 1728; Na- 
thaniel, b. May 22, 1730, d. Feb. 9, 1799 ; Constant, b. Sep. 
13, 1740; dau. Sarah, b. Sep. 30, 1732, mar. Ens. Timothy 
Newton, and d. Oct. 16, 1803; Alice, b. Aug. 29, 1737, mar. 
Zebediah Johnson. 

Dea. Christopher Paige, son of Nathaniel Paige, one of the 
purchasers of the township, b. in Bedford, 1691, rem. here in 
1733, and d. Mar. 10, 1774, leaving sons, Christopher, b. 1721, 
d. Dec. 3, 1772 ; (Rev. Abraham Paige is a descendant through 
this branch;) Dea. William, b. 1723, a captain in the French 
War, and much engaged in public business, d. Feb. 14, 1790;* 
George, b. 1725, d. May 8, 1781 ; Col. Timothy, b. 1727, an 
active and useful citizen, d. Aug. 22, (26 on the grave stone,) 
1791; Jonas; Dea. Nathaniel, b. 1736, d. Feb. 1817; John, b. 
1738, rem. with his son. Rev. Winslow, to New York, where 
he d. about 1809. Dea. Paige left dau., Joanna, mar. Benja- 
min Farley of Bedford ; Lucy, mar. Seth Lincoln of Western, 
(now Warren,) and was grandmother of Rev. Sumner Lincoln 
of Gardner; Elisabetli, b. 1743, mar. Solomon Green, son of 

* Kev. James Foster of Cicero, N. Y., is a son of Dea. William Paige's 
dau. Rebecca, who was b. Oct. 8, 1749, and mar. John Foster of Rochester, 
Oct. 6, 1768. On that day, three of Dea. Paige's children were married ; 
Dea. William, to Mercy Raymond; Dea. James, to Thankful Raymond; 
and Rebecca, as above slated. 


Doct. Thomas Green of Leicester, d. Apl. 1, 1802; she was 
mother of Rev. Archelaus Green of Virgil, N. Y., whose son 
Hiriun is also a minister. 

Dea. Paige had an elder brother, Nathaniel, b. 1680, lived in 
Bedford, d. IMar. 2, 1755. Two of his grandsons, John and 
James, rem. here about 1755 ; John mar. Mary Cutler of Lex- 
ington, and d. Oct. 31, 1789, aged 56; James mar. Anna, dau. 
of Capt. Joseph Warner, and d. Jan. 18, 1817, aged 8'2. 

Timothy Paige, Esq., son of Col. Timothy Paige, b. Feb. 16, 
1757, mar. Mary, dau. of Thomas Robinson, and d. Oct. 29, 
1821. A large portion of his time, for the last twenty-five years 
of his life, was devoted to the transaction of public business. 

Thomas Perry was here in 1736, and lived in the southeast- 
erly part of the town ; but I have not succeeded in obtaining 
any particulars concerning him, or his family. 

Phineas Powers was here in 1737. His children were, Will- 
iam, b. 1734; Stephen, b. 1736; Abraham, b. 1738; Mary, b. 
1740; Sarah, b. 1744, mar. Moses Whitcomb ; Thomas, b. 
1747 ; Mercy, b. 1749, mar. William Fuller. 

Benjamin Raymond rem. here from Rochester in 1760, and 
d. Oct. 3, 1779. His widow, Mary, d. May 26, 1806, aged 86. 
He was engaged in the French War. He had sons, Benjamin, 
who died in early life, and Capt. John, who d. Oct. 4, 1816, 
aged 72. His dau. Joanna mar. Asa Whitcomb ; Mercy mar. 
Dea. William Paige jr. ; Thankful mar. Dea. James Paige ; 
Mary mar. James Lawton ; Deborah mar. Stewart Southgate. 

Col. Stephen Rice rem. here from Brookfield before 1773; 
was an active citizen, and d. 1831, aged 95. 

Thomas Robinson rem. here from Rochester about 1740 ; 
mar. Mary, dau. of Eleazer Warner, 1744, and d. Jan. 4, 1802, 
aged 84. His widow d. Aug. 7, 1812, aged 88. Their chil- 
dren were, Denison, b. Sep. 18, 1746, mar. Mellicent, dau. of 
Rev. Robert Cutler of Greenwich, and had sons, Josiah Ouin- 
cy, a merchant, Thomas, a lawyer, and Robert Cutler, a physi- 
cian, all in Adams, Ms. ; — Thomas, b. Feb. 10, 17.53, mar. 
Rebecca, dau. of John Paige, rem. to Onondaga, N. Y., and 
had many children, among whom were Warner and Denison, 
lawyers; — Mary, b. Dec. 3, 17.58, mar. Timothy Paige, Esq., 
and d. Mar. 29, 1836. 

Mr. Robinson was an ardent patriot, and cheerfully devoted 
his property to his country, — sinking from riches to poverty, 
for the sake of liberty. He was one of the grand Jurors, who 
refused, Apl. 19, 1774, to be impannelled, if Peter Oliver, the 
King's Chief Justice, should be present. He had four brothers 
here ; James, who mar. Elisabeth, dau. of Benjamin Smith ; 
Joseph; Samuel; Denison. 

This family descended from Dea. Thomas Robinson, who 
was of Scituate in 1G43, and rem. to Boston in 1652, mar. wid- 
ow Mary Woody, dau. of Mr. John Coggan,* and d. ](i65, leav- 
ing sons, John; Thomas, b. 1652; James, b. 16.54; Joseph, b. 
1656. Thomas mar. Sarah, dau. of Edward Denison of Rox- 
bury, and d. June 1700, leaving sons, Thomas, b. Nov. 5, 1677, 
d. Feb. 15, 1729; James, b. Mar. 15, 1690, mar. Patience, dau. 
of Samuel Ruggles of Roxbury, rem. from Boston to Roches- 
ter, and thence to Hardwick. He was father of Thomas Rob- 
inson, above named, and his brothers, and d. here, about 1770. 

Capt. Samuel Robinson was here in 1736, mar. Mercy, sister 
of Ezra Leonard, and rem. to Bennington, Vt. about 1765. He 
was one of the most active inhabitants during that period; com- 
manded a company, through the French War ; was Deacon in 
the first Church, and afterwards in the " Separate Church." 
His son Leonard b. July 16, 1736, mar. widow Mercy Newton, 
and was father of Samuel Leonard Robinson. Capt. Robin- 
son's sons, Moses and Jonathan, are named elsewhere. 

Rev. Timothy Ruggles, though not a settler, was one of the 
most active individuals in advancing the settlement. He was 
son of Samuel Ruggles of Roxbury, an original proprietor, b. 
Nov. 3, 1085, grad. H. U. 1707, settled in Rochester, and d. 
1769. He had an uncle Thomas Ruggles, grad. H. U. 1690, 
minister in Guilford, Con., and d. June 1, 1728. He had also 
two brothers, who were ministers; Samuel, b. Dec. 3,1681, 
grad. H. U. 1702, settled in Billerica, and d. Mar. 1, 1749; 
Benjamin, b. July 4, 1700, grad. Y. C. 1721, settled in Middle- 
boro', and afterwards in New Braintree, and d. May 12, 1782. 
His sister Patience, b. Nov. 9, 1689, mar. James Robinson.' 

Rev. Mr. Ruggles had eight sons, six of whom rem. here ; — 
Gen. Timothy, of whom I have spoken in the address, and who 
d. at Roseway, N. S. 1798, aged 87 ; his dau. Mary mar. Doct. 
John Green of Worcester, son of Doct. Thomas Green ; — 
Capt. Benjamin, b. May 19, 1713, an active citizen, d. Oct. 11, 
1790: his dau. Mary mar. Daniel Billing, and d. 1835, aged 
97 ; Samuel, b. July 5, 1715 ; Joseph, b. June 23, 1718, d. Jan. 
28, 1791 ; his dau. Anna, mar. Jonathan Danforth, and d. Mar. 
4, 1824, aged 69; Edward, b. Aug. 30, 1723, mar. Lucy Spoon- 
er, had sons, Daniel, Edward, Constant, and Nathan, and d. May 
21, 1778 ; John, b. Sep. 2, 1731. He had also two dau., one of 
whom, Susanna, b. Jan. 6, 1722, mar. Paul Mandell, Esq., and 
rem. here. 

* This Mr. Coggan " set up the first shop" or store in Boston ; he li 
on what is now the corner of State and Washington Streets, north of the 
State House. — See Snuins Hist. Boslaii. 

Benjamin Ruggles 2d, b. 1726,d. Oct. 21, 1795, and Whiting 
Riiojgles, b. 1733, d. Aug. 8, 1796, were sons of Rev. Benja- 
min Ruggles, of New Braintree. 

Roland Sears was here early ; his son Barnabas served in the 
Revolution. The family rem. to Greenwich. 

Benjamin Smith mar. Experience, dau. of John Curtis, one 
of the purchasers, and thus became a proprietor in the town- 
ship. His dau. Olive mar. Ezra Leonard, and Elisabeth mar. 
James Robinson. Mr. Smith is reputed to have been the first 
settler, and d. at the house of his son-in-law Leonard, aged 
about 100. 

Ichabod Stratton, here in 173G, and d. Oct. 31, 1762. He 

had a son Ichabod, and a dau. mar. Elwell, and was 

mother of David Elwell. 

William Thomas, one of the earliest settlers, perhaps father 
of Amos, d. May 22, 1747. His wife, Patience, d. Oct. 27,1746. 
Amos Thomas, an early inhabitant, d. July 31, 1754. He 
had several children; Elisabeth, b. July 4, 1738; Abigail, b. 
Mar. 3, 1741, mar. Maj. Samuel Beals; Olive, b. Dec. 1, 1742; 
William, b. Aug. 6, 1744; Amos, b. Apl. 6, 1746; Joseph, b. 
May 24, 1748; Daniel, b. May 5, 1750; Mercy, b. Apl. 6, 
1752 ; Isaac, b. July 13, 1754. 

Daniel Warner rem. here from Hatfield with two sons, Jo- 
seph and Jonathan, and a dau., wife of Samuel Billing, and d. 
Mar. 12, 17.54, aged 88. His son Joseph was a Captain, and 
rem. to Cummington, 1774, leaving two children here, the late 
Capt. Elijah Warner, and Anna, b. Nov. 1, 1747, mar. James 
Paige. Jonathan, son of Daniel Warner, d. May 28, 1763, 
aged 59, leaving a large family. Among them were Capt. Dan- 
iel, b. Dec. 22, 1734, and when advanced in years rem. to Ohio ; 
Mary, b. Feb. 23, 1737, mar. Zurishaddai Doty ; Lydia, b. Nov. 
3, 1740, mar. Doct. Challis Satford, and Doct. Jonas Fay ; Sa- 
rah, b. Nov. 1, 1742, mar. Thomas Wheeler, and Capt. Elijah 
Warner, and d. 1837; Gen. Jonathan, b. July 14, 1744, d. Jan. 
7, 1803, a very active and useful citizen ; Rhoda, b. Nov. 17, 
1754, mar. Robert Mclntyre, and Jonathan Lynds. 

Eleazer Warner, (probably a grandson of John Warner, who 
was b. 1616, and rem. from Ipswich to Brookfield in 1660,) was 
a very early and active inhabitant. He was frecjuently engaged 
in the wars with the French and Indians. On one occasion, he 
was followed by an Indian from Canada to Hardwick ; they met 
in the forest, and exchanged shots ; Mr. Warner escaped unhurt, 
but the Indian was killed. Mr. Warner had a very large family, 
and d. 1770, aged 94. Of his children, Warham d. in New 
Braintree about 1815, and Mary mar. Thomas Robinson, d. 
Aug. 7, 1812, aged 88. 

John Wells, here in 17:3(3, an active citizen, d. 1746. His 
dau. Submit, b. May '-i, 174-2, mar. Capt. Elijah Warner. 

Dca. Thomas Wheeler rem. here from Brookfield, and d. 
Jan. 1769, aged 74. He had two sons; Thomas mar. Anna 
Warner, d. July 10, 1804, aged 65, and was father of Col. 
Thomas Wheeler ; Daniel mar. Betty, dau. of Lieut. William 
Hollovvay of Marlboro', d. Jan. 10, 1813, aged 84, and was fa- 
ther of Capt. John Wheeler. There is reason to believe that 
this family descended from Capt. Thomas Wheeler of Concord. 
See page 51. 

Dea. John White, probably father of Rev. David White, d. 
Nov. i:J, 1750, aged 87. 

Capt. Benjamin Willis, perhaps son of Samuel Willis, Esq., 
a proprietor, d. 1756, leaving a large family of dau. and one son, 
Lemuel, who d. Apl. 25, 1829, aged 82. The late Dea. Benja- 
min W. Childs was grandson of Capt. Willis. 

Bill of Mortality. 

According to the Records, 1122 persons died in Hardwick 
between Jan. 1, 1790, and Nov. 15, 1838. Of these, 202 at- 
tained the age of 70 years and upwards. Hence it appears that 
1 in every 5J- (very nearly) has lived threescore years and ten. 
And, as may be seen by the subjoined schedule, 1 in every 10 
has lived fourscore years and upwards. 

Under 70 920 

Between 70 and SO 90 

80 " 90 83 

90 " 100 27 

Over 100 2 


Of the two who completed a century, Mercy, widow of Dea. 
William Paige, d. in 1823, aged 102 years, 1 month, and 4 
days; and Lieut. Asahel Billing d. 1838, whose age probably 
did not vary one week from 100 years. Mrs. Paige came here 
with lier father before 1736 ; and Mr. Billing, with his father, 
in 1740. 

Ekr.vta. — Page 22, line 4, for Jona Fay, read Jonas Fay. Page GO, af- 
;r the name of each Lawyer, read " removed from town." 






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