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Full text of "Address at the unveiling of the Confederate monument, at Raleigh, N.C., May 20th, 1895"

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of the 


Monu.ment , 






of t^e 

e3nitset0itp of iSonfi Carolina 

Collection of Bott^ Carolimana 
W^i0 booh tDa0 pte0enteti 


T/i7s fooofc must not 
he taken from the 
Library building. 






Confederate Monument 


NIAY 20rt-L, 18©S. 

By Col. Alfred Moore Waddell. 

LkGwin Bros., Printers ami Binukks, 


Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Nortii Carolina at Chapel Hill 



I salute you wifli uiit'eiiiiied emotion, luj^ counti'ymeii 
and countrywomen, upon tlie return of tliis liistoric day 
whi(di you liave assembled here to leeonseerate liy a 
new act of piety and patriotism. Tt niaiks an epoch in 
our annals. It is indeed a monumental day, and one 
upon whi(di the women of Xorth Carolina, who havp 
wi'ouii'ht lonii' and unceasingly, and have waited for its 
dawnina,-, may reverently repeat the words of the Psalm- 
ist and say, ''This is the day whi(di the Lord hath 
made; we will rejoice and be glad in it." 

A year ago, in the pi'esence of thronging thousands, 
and witli imposing ceremonies whi(di were crowned by 
splendid oratory, yon laid the corner-stone of this 
structure, which now, in finished beauty, stands senti- 
nel in the western gateway (d'your C'apitol. 

The work of the artist and the artisan is done. Be- 
neath their transfoi'uiing ton(di this column, rough hewn 
from tlie ribs of the everlasting hills, with base tirm-set 
and summit lifted high, now towers before you in majestic 
and graceful proportions. So the genius of Christian 
civilization shajjes the homely virtues of a brave and 
true people into the nol)le edifice of free government. 

It is dumb granite, but it is not voiceless to us and 
will not be to our children, for it will be a perpetual 
appeal to their pride and patriotism. It is inanimate 
stone, but instinct with glorious memories. It is a silent 

fi't^iiiofial. fuit if is also an Hli»(|iieiit liistoiy. a]i<l a t<'ii([t'r 
jHtPiii. 'I'lit' pnt-iii t-acli lieaj't aiiioiiu' ymi will tiaiislate 
'■■<v irsf'ir. Mint- lu- rli«' !,isk r(»(lay in ti-acp in l>ri<-f (Mir 
•iin' tilt- lii^tdiy. n\' wliidi no (lf><ftMi(laiif of a ('oiif^'fl 
I'satf soldier cmh lioiioi- ;il>ly remain in i^noi-aiu'c. ami |o 
whicli lipcaiiiior, witlion: alKlicaiini: his ina]ilioo(l and 
-•■if iPS]»(M'r. !»•' iinlitl't'i (Mil 

A <list iiiuiiislied srlndar and sraresnian of rlie South. 
'.\ ho has ipcpiitly inadf a vahiabU' contrihut ion to liis- 
ii iiical litt'ia f iire, says : 

■' The estal>lisltnH'Tit <>( truth is never v\-r(>ng-. Ilistury, as written, if 
.'icepted in futdie \'ears will cunsit;!! the South to infainv. If she were 
■..uiltv of i"el)^'llion or treason, il she adopted ami elung' to l)arl:)arisms, 

'eiiti.i' -ii:^, :iiid uiiiiioi-ali'LU's. llieH Iili [iL'oi-ii- \\ i.i '-e ^IolIil-^, as it \>.-'^ tl , 
vvitli tile tallied shirt of Xessus, fatal to honor, to ener^-\'. to nol)le develop- 
.Meiit, to ti'ue lite." 

And a leccnl in*\\ spaixT a\ I'itej- says : 

■ ' for indi'struetilile vilalitx' and sul )iinie assurance, the ii is I okhai lie is 
■ ';e most ma;4'niiieent of all the famil\- of falseli ods." 

Now. tin' accp])t('d hisioi'y of the lati' war. like rlie 
jiivvions histoiy ol' the rnited States, has l)een written 
'\\' Xortheiai men. ami a Sontheinei'. readinu if. eanmit 
help I'ecallino \\li;ir 1^'ronde said aliont histoiy generally: 
nann-Iy. that if seemed to him ■'like a ehild's liox(d' 
JefteM's with ^\lli(dl \\c can s}>e|l any word \\>' ]»least'. 
We lia\e (»nly to s<dect su(di ]ettt:'rs as we want, arranue 
i liem as we like, aw-jj say nothir.ii al)ont those wlii(di do 
liot suit onf imrpose."" 

If has seemed to me that I conld imt hettt-i- employ a 
idief ]»art of the hoiii' allotted t(» me to-day than l>y 
-peakinu' — in kimlness and (diarity, but with camhtr ami 
leiirlessness — the plaifi nnvarnislit'd trntli concei'iiinu- 
; he canses of and the it-spon ability for the war in wliicdi 
r he iiKMi to w hose memory this monument is erected, were 
sacrificed, if this is not an occasion for vain reu'rcts or 
I'ittei' levilinu- land it is noti. neither is it a time foi 

'false spTiriiiiPiiT or a sii])])ressi<)ii (tf the truth, and it is 
bt'cause tlif truth is (Mthcr inilvUcwii. oi is a inattf^r of 
iiidilference to many of this ,i!;eiipraf ion, that ] fntd it to 
i)e a duty 1o fJtein to speak as T shall. 

Let no man say tliat in dist'hargin<i: this duty I am 
diu'ginii' 11}) sectionalism, and tryin<2; to revise tlie animos- 
ities of flu^ past. f uttei'ly disclaim any such desire or 
intention, and ! could n(»t if I would, for they are thinos 
now buried, it is to be hoped. f(»rever; l)ut 1 cannot for- 
upt that f(*r thirty years i»ast. my countrymen, my kins- 
men and my friends have been pilhu-ied l)efore the 
\V(»rld as Iiim*raiit. l>a]'bai ous, rrriel traitors and relx'ls, 
^\•ho, without the slightest justilication or excuse, souulit 
to destroy the best ,<i'(*verinnent under the .sun, and 
deluged a continent in blood. The charge is still made 
and reiterated in c<uiversation, in scIkjoI l)(*oks. in mao-- 
azine articles, in public speeches, in public records, and 
in pn1)lished hist(»ries. It is a monstrons perversion 
of the truth, which self-respect and a decent regard for 
rlie memor^'of our heroic dead, compels us to denounce. 
And now t(t the facts an(i the }»ro(d'. 

This day one hundred and twenty years ago the 
men of Mecklenburg — first of all Americans. desr)ite 
the doubting Thomases — renounced allegiance to 
the British crown, declared themselves a free and inde- 
pendent people, and afterwards with their compatriots 
ulorionsly maintained, on many a bloody field, the 
declaration thus gloriously made, A year later the 
(Ireat Declaration made by all tlie colonies proclaimed 
them to be. not a nation or union. l)ut free and inde- 
pendent States. They made a treaty of alliance with 
France in 1778, and again in 1782 with the Netherlands 

•And ill its;! with Swedi'ii. in t'licli of wliicli i\'icli Statn 
was iiaiiit-d a ])a]-ty to it. (JrHar I'riraiii, in rli<' final 
tivatv i>f jieace" ill 178;!. ackiiowlrd^rd and iianind tliein 
si'r><(ti)ii as fi't't\ sovprt'iuii and indcjipiidi'iit Staffs. 
Tlipy Hiitcrrd infi) a (■<"ni])acr (»f ii«i\('innit^nr with t';i(di 
otlu'i' whi(di tht'V i-iMimI .\rti(dHS()f ( 'niif<Mh'rat ion. in 
wliicdi, whilf it was (hMdar<'d to 1>*' a ]i»'iiM'r (lal u()\t'rn- 
nu*nt. it was also rxju't'ssly dfMdaird that *'\\r\\ Stat*-' 
ivtaint'il its sove'reiuiit y. riiMMh)iii. and iinh-jifiidi'iici^ 
Tht^y afteTwaivIs seMM-Mh'il fiiuii and dt'sii-oyfd that '•prr- 
])(dnal'" u'ovrinnK'iil. and ]»ro])ose'd :i ni'w ud\''innit'nt. 
from A\hi(di. w Ikmi fonin^d. the dfchi ra I ioti (d' [tfrpt't nit y 
was (hdi licra t>dy dropiMMl. W'ht'ii thf cotnt'iition to 
i'()rni that uovciaimi'iit hist met in ITS?. ;ind wjiiji'only 
:i niiiiorit y <d' States was rt'|ii'est'ntf(|. rlif liist attt'iiii»r 
was iiiadt' to coininit the didcuatt's to a dfidaration 
ill fa\i»i' of a ndiiniiiii uovfiaiiiK'nt as cont i-a-<lis- 
rinunisJKMl from a fcilcral union, and a rt'S(dntion was 
pass<Ml to that tdfcf-r l)y a \dt»' of mdy six Stati's; hiit 
as soon as a full dpl^narion asse-mhlrd this rt'solnfioii 
was ol)jpct('d to. it'coiisidt'it'd and ri'S(dnd<'(| l)y ;i iinani- 
nioiis \die, and tin' tith' •'Tin' 1 nitcd Sratfs"" was 
retained. The man who o])jc('ted w;is ()li\er l^^llswoith. 
of ( S)nnecticiit. who was aft<'rw ai<ls Chief .Justice of the 
Supreme ('oiii't of the Tnited States, and his words \\(Me 
•• 1 projjose, and tlier«d'(n'e move, to expimu'e the word 
"Natioiml"" and jdace in room (d' it. " i:o\ einmenf of 
tlie United States" — wlii(di was a.ureed to nnani nioiisly. 
Astoimdinii' to I'elate. the ;iruniiieiit of those who have 
(leni<Ml tlie riuht (d' a State to secede has lieen la]-,utdy 
l)uilt on t his resol ntioll irliich icas iniaii iiinnisl i/ rrsci iith'if 
hi/ tli(' coil rent ion. and on the l*reanilde to the Coiistitii- 
tion w lii(di says " We. the jieople of the I'nited States/* 

whicli tlK\v ('((iistiiH' ti) mean, not tli»- jkm»J)1p of tlie sev- 
t^ral States, but the nu\ui'eoate people of tlie whole 
country as one nation — a political entity which never 
had any existence. A writer on this subject. 
aftei' .sliowin<i' how and why the words " We, the people 
(d" the I'nited States'' were used, calls attention to the 
aniazinn' fact that Edward Everett, in a speech on the 
4th of .Inly, 1801, had said that '"the States are not named 
in the Federal Constitntion,'' in face of the fact that in 
the second clause of Article I. each State is mentioned 
by name; and also calls attention to a similar statement 
of ]\rr. iNIotley in the London Times in 1801, that "the 
name of no State" is mentioned in the whole document, 
and that "it was not ratified by the States" but "1)y 
the people of the whole land in their aggregate capacity 
acting through conventit)ns," when there stands the ex- 
press x^i'^'vision of Articde VII " that the ratilication of 
the conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the 
establishment of this Vonst\tu[\(m bet iceeu the States so 
ratifijing the same!"' 

The State of Virginia, in sanctioning the call of a 
Convention in November, 1780, and appointing delegates 
with Washington at their head, ex})ressly stipulated 
that the new Constitution should be ratihed, not by the 
legislatures of the States, but by the States themselves 
— that is to say, by conventions in each State — and this 
was done by the several States, at different times, between 
Novend^er 1787, and May 29th. 1790, and not by the 
people of the whole land in their aggregate capacity. 

As has been well said : "Every iota of the Constitu- 
tion was decided upon and found a place in tliat written 
instrument by a vote of the States, each State having 
one vote. No fact should be more perfectly notorious 

(f.r \TeTI known tlian tliis. fcr it stands out erei ywfipfr-^ 
f>n tlie very t'a<'p of tlie itruceedino-s of the Convention 
wliicli framed the Constitiif ii^n.'' And \'iruiiiia in rati 
fying the Constitution, announeed, tliat tlie ]io\vers. 
y,ranted therein miuht We lesnnied wliene^vej- tlie same 
sliould he iH-iverted to- tlie- injury or oijpre.ssion of the 
people. New Yoi-lv.. in I'atifyina'. made the same decln 
j'ation. and e;ie|i deidared that every ]»ower not u'ranteMl 
remained to tlie States. North Carolina, for several 
reasons, <)]ie of wiiieh u;is tlie selfish and sectional 
spii-it manifested l>y Massadmsetts and other New Kni;' 
land States^ i-efused to a<'cede to the new u-oveinnienr, 
ami remained, as she had always heeii. a separate, sov- 
ereign and independent State, for nearly two years, until 
Noveml^er 21st, J 780, Avhen. I)eing ])ersuaded that her 
donbts and fears were not well founded, she joined tlie> 
eleven ratifying States, Kliode Island held hack until 
May 20th, 1700, and then expressly reserved the right 
to withdraw whenever, in her opinion, her interests 
requij-ed it. 

The idea that the l^)nstitution was (►rdaim'd by the 
wlnde i)eople (d' all the States acting as (»ne aggregate 
nation was never suggested until nearly fifty years after 
its adoption, and the pretence that theie was any riglif 
to interfei-e with the separate sovereignty of. much less 
to coerce, a State in i:ny wa}', if it liad been mad<^ would 
have been instantly repndiated, and. if insisted upon. 
W(uild have dissolved the Convention then and tliej-e. 
The Constitntion id' the I'nited States was to be the 
supreme law of the land, by mutual agreement of the 
States, l)nt no sn(di grant of power as that (d' <'(.ercing a 
State was contained in the (Constitution, and all powers 
not gi-anted were I'eserved to the States, or to the pe(»ple. 

The States created a ii'overiiment of limited powiTs and 
the limits vvere detiiied in the instrument creatin.ii' it. 
and yet, notwithstandinii' this un([uestional)le tint h. tiieif 
has been from the l)ei;innini;- a persistent, and linally a 
violent and successful effort to transform it into a con- 
solidated nation. 

The antaii'onism of interests between theXoitli and the 
South, which had existed from the beu-innina'. and 
whicli was the great source of anxiety to patriots of thar 
day, increased with the ever-increasing wealth and 
power of the North, and with this ever increasing power 
ami wealth came (naturally, if you choose, ) a growing im- 
})atience of any restraint u}»on their action, and a stronger 
temptation to disregard those provisions of the Consti 
tution which had been put into ii for the protection of 
the minoriry and the ])i'eservation of the equality of the 
States. This tendency was increased by tlie fact tliat. 
by the acquisition of territory the Federal (iovernmenr 
had l)ecome the creator of States, instead of being, as at 
the beginning, their creature — a fact which explaiiied. 
l)ut did not justify, the claim of the right of coerciou 
over the original parties to the coin])act. l)ur it is ever 
to he remembered that a large [)art of this teri'itory was 
given by the South — that the North reaped all the l)en- 
ehts from it — that every concession (d" any kind which 
w^as made, was made by the South — that in every war. 
the Revolution, the war of 1812, the Florida and Indian 
wars, and the war wdth Mexico, she furnished largely 
more than her proportion of soldiers and claimed far 
less than her proportion of pensions— and that in all the 
legislation of Congress conferring trade bounties, or 
commercial or financial benefits, the North was alwavs 


r lie Ix-iH'ticinrY. tlit^ Soiitii iit'vtT. Still rlin Sdutli i-h - 
iii:iiliiMl nidt'iilly l(»y;il h) llie rilioli. 

It is iiii])(»ssilil<'. (if ('(Mii^e*, oil nil occMsioii lii>:t' tliis. 
lo uivr ;i dt^.'iilcd liistoiy of the cxi'iits iijioii wliicli 
tlie'sp lit'iHTal st:i I cinciilN ;is to tlic ]>ro!i-i-e'ss of the uTeat 
stni,ii;u'le ai-n l»asc(l. and I shall, t ln-refoi'H. not attfm]>f 

1(1 ( |( ) S( >. 

SiiHicc it to say that all prott'sts and wai niiiiis w t'l'p i.u'- 
iiored.or siipcrfd at. 'I'lie leirislatiires of fonrtfeMi Noitli- 
f-ni Stales niilliru'd acts <d" ('oiiu'te'ss \\lii(di had IttnMt 
passed in plain ]>nisi;anct' n\' the ( "oiistil iit ion. a jiidu- 
nient of t h»^ Siipifnit^ ("oiiif was openly and insolently 
delied. and ••tlie K^uisla t lire i>\' a Staff whose olHeers ha<l 
l)een guilty (d' a lawh^ss (Ldiance of constitutional 
a iitlioiily. denounced tlie act (d' the liiuliest jiidiidal tri 
biinal Iviiown to the law as an act of ail»itiary ]lo^ve)•. and 
tlierefore null and void."" A'itiipeiatioii exhausted 
itself ujioli the Court — the execution (d' the law 
was openly resisted, and })ul>lic sentiment in New 
Eiiiiland sustained those who thus acted. b^inally. 
iindei' the intluence of this hostile si)irit. a Ixxly of 
armed men invaded the State of A iruinia. stu'zed Har- 
per's Fen-y. wliere there was a u-o\ernnient aiseiial. and 
attemi)ted to execute their pu]'])ose of inaipuuratinii' a 
servile insurrection with its accom})animents of r.apine 
and murder. The leader of that insurrecti(Ui was 
apotlieosized at tlie ]S'oiili, and his name was an inspira- 
tion to the Xorthern army duriiiu' the war. The next 
year, for the first time in the history <d' the I'nited 
States, a Pi'esideiit was elected ex(dusively ])y one sec- 
tion of the country — that is to say, tlie one u'leat evil of 
whi(di the franiers of the Constitution were most in 
dread — that which they declared had been the ruin of 


III] }ir»'vi(us i<']iiil)lics — namely, a iiiaJDi'ily const Hnt i ntj 
<i fa(fi<ni — \\:\d at last lipeii i-ealiztMJ. it lias bpeii justly 
Itronouuced *" the most terrible faction the world has 
ever seen." Its true chai'acter was not only not denied. 
Itut was oj)enly iti^oclaiint'd by its leaders, one of tlie 
most distiniiuisht^d of whom said : 

" No man has a right to l)e surprised at this state of tilings. It is just 
what we have attempted to bring about. It is the first sectional party 
ever organized in this etiUntry- It does not know its own face, and calls 
itself national ; but it is not national, it is sectional. The Republican 
piarty is a partv of the N<irth pledged against the South." 

Thus the "irre^jressible conflict" was precij^itated. and 
the Southern States were left no choice but to submis- 
sively accept the change Avhich destroyed all hope of 
preservinii' the equality and riiihts of the States under 
the Constitution, or to seek peace and safety 1)y with- 
drawing' from the bnion. 

They chose the latter alternative. In doing so were 
they guilty of treason, or rebellion ( If so, against 
wlioni t Their allegiance was not given to any govern- 
ment, but to the Constitution of the United States, and 
they never violated it, but. on the contrary, only seceded 
because others violated it to their injury and threatened 
ruin. Did Virginia, and New York, and Khode Island, 
when they expressly reserved the right to withdraw 
from the Union, mean to say that they reserved the right 
to rebel and commit treason t What did Massachusetts 
mean when, in 1803, her legislature "Resolved that the 
annexation of Louisiana to the Union transcends the 
constitutional power of the Governmeut of the United 
States," and that "it formed a new confederacy to which 
the States united by the former compact are not bound to 
adhere" ? Could there be a ]ilainer declaration of the 
right of a State to secede i 


And \\li;i( (lid the liaitf^ud Coin cut i( -M. at which rlie 
New Kimlaiid Statps \v<m<' ,u'atliPi>'(l in ISl."). Tiieaii )>y 
I heii' dechil'al i(»li : 

■'That in cast.'-; of (Ic'libL-ratf, daiv^xTnus and pal]iat>!L- infraL'tions nf the 
i'<aistitutii>ii. Ai' ii-iTiNi: I iiK :-.( ivi I: I i(;\i \ 111 Ml} SiAir lih'Tty <>i 
•iiL- pL'i.plc, it IS nut nnly the n.^ht Imi tlic (hity mI' such State t<« intcrpi st- 
■Is aiitlioritv I'lir their |in>t(.'cti<>n in the manner best ealeiihited to seenre 
*::at end." 

And that : 

' When eir.i.'i\!.4\-neies oeenr wliieli are either lie\-ond tile reaeli i>t judiieal 
■.riliunals, or too prL'ssin^- to adnnt ol dehi\- ineHknt to tlieir foi'ins. States 
which have no common umjiire, nuist he tlieir own nidj^'csand execute their 
' '\\n decisions." ? 

J(»lii] (^iiijicv A(hniis. in a IctiPi- (d' OHcciiiliei' :)(»th. 
iS-JS, ill I'ciiai'd to that iiiovi'iiKi'iir. said : 

■■ That their oliject was, and had been lor severad vears, a dissolution of 
■-lie Union and the estahlishmLiit ol a separate Cont'edeTation he knew 
trom une((uivocal evitleuce, althou,i;h not ))roval)le in a court ot law ; and 
that in ease of a civil war, the aidof (ireat I'.ritain. to effect that puri)ose. 
would be assuredly resorted to, as it would be iiidis])ensablv necessary to 
"lieir desii;-ns." 

Was Joliii (^)iiiii('y A(hmis a slaii(hM'<'i' id' liis own ])(^o^ 
jde, ()]• w.vre Mn^y uuilty. as lie })hiiiily allt'ut'il. of a 
i ieas()ual)]e dt'siiiu to subvert tlu^ ui >vei]iinHnt in a time of 
il.ii'e distress, and ask tlie assistance of (ireat I'ritain in 
The accomjilishnieiit of their imijiose ( Yet tliese aie 
rh(^ |)eoj)le M ho liave ci'ied the lond(-st aliout Sontheiii 
lebels and traitoi's, wlieii tlie plain and undeniable trutii 
id' liistoi'y is, I hat nullification and secession were l>oiai 
and nui'sed in N(^w Kniilainl. 1 a]ii)eal to writei-s and 
records of that section foi' the vei'ilication of tfiis state- 
ment. Fi'oni tliese it will api)eaj' that, beoinninu' in 
1780. Avitli the excitement over .lay's treaty, and re- 
l»eated in 17U2, ]71)4. 170(5 to 180(). and from ISO.") to 
bSlf), there was a concerted })lan of secession and dis- 
union—a plan which John Qnincy Adams said : 

•'Was so far matured, that the proposal had been made to an individual 
to }.ermit himsell, at the proper time, to be placed at the head of the mili- 
tary movement, which, it was foreseen, would be necessary to carry it into 


'IMit' l»i()ui';i}ilH'i' ol' Daniel WebsteT. wjio is now one of 
T lie Senafois from Massnchusetts, after ailniirrinu' that 
" nnfortunately tlie facts were against '" Mi'. \\V])ster's 
argument that the ('onstitntion was not a eom}ta('t be- 
tween the States, goes on to say : 

•• When ih'j Cuiislitutiun was adopted bv the votes of States at Philadel- 
phia, aud accepted by the votes of States in popular conventions, it is safe 
to say that there was not a man in the country from Washington and Ham- 
ilton, on the one side, to George Clinton and George ^Mason on the 
other, who regarded the new system as anything but an experiment entered 
into bv 'he States, and from which each and every State had the riglit to 
peaceably withdraw, a right which was verv likely to be exercised." 

And yet, this same biogi-apher, who, u-Jieii irr/fiiKj 
liistorij. is compelled to pen this candid paragraph, is 
the author of a Force Bill against the Southern people, 
and a representative of the extremest views of Massa- 

There are at least three extraordinary facts which will 
arrest tlie attention of the future student of American 
history in connection with secession. One is that, not- 
withstanding the right of a State to secede was disputed, 
and, after acrimonious discussion, was finally fought 
over for four years, still, when the struggle ended, 
although tliree different amendments w^ere added to the 
Constitution of the United States to secure the freedom, 
and the civil and political rights of the negro race, there 
was no amendment adopted, or offered, denying the 
right of secession : and that, therefore, so far as any 
declaration in the Constitution is concerned, it remains 
just as it was before the war. 

Another — and it borders on the absurd — is that out 
of the forty-four States of the Union, there are just nine 
of the seceding States, two border States, (West Virginia 
and Maryland) and one of the Western States (Nevada, 


■Aliicli was adiiiittt'd diiiiim' the wai) wliose ( 'oiislit ii- 
riolis how deny tlir liullt of secession. 

'I'lie third extra(»rdinaiy fact is that. alMioiiLih rhe 
Nortlieru |ieo|(h' uiiaiM iiioiisl y and vehenienrJy de- 
iionnced secession as tn'a^i'ii and relieliion. )'ef wiien he 
who was chai'actei'i/ed as ihe arch iiailor ;ind rebel was 
'■aiif nred. and after procecdiims hail lieeii l»eLinn auainst 
him. tlie ,ud\erninent abandoned iheni for some other 
reason than c'emency to him. 

( )f conrse these t hinu- ha \ e Ixmmi aeconnted for in one 
way or another. Imt there has always lie. mi ami always 
will be a 1»(di(d' that the trne explanation of them will 
iie fonnd in the fntnre history of the (•(.nntry. 

Now. ;i few \\'« n'ds a b< III t the oilier Liieat '■ crime ■■ ( d' 
the Southern jieojile, which shocked the moral sense of 
Hieir Xorthern brethren and caused them to visit them 
with iii-e and sw(n(l. and lay waste theii' honies. 

Slavery existed in Massacdinset Is. and the sla\e trade 
in its most ciaud form, was condncted by hor jieople for 
a hundred years Itefoi-e 'Soith Caiolina bc^'anie a State. 
Som(^oflli(^ laru'est fortunes in ]Nfn\ Kniilaml t(»-day 
w(M'e bast'd n|ion it. Tlu'y not only im]iorfed neui-oes. 
and ex}iorte(l tliem aiiaiii. but they sold Indians als(). 
and. Worse still, white slaves. Mis. Karle. a New En,u- 
lande]-, who wrote a book entitled ••('nstonis ami 
Fashions in ()ld New I^iiizlaml."' says amoni^- other 
thinus of the same kind; ••! have ne\ au- seen iti any 
Soiithei'ii m'wspa]»e]s ad \ei-tistMiients (»f m'uro sales 
that surpass in lieartlessness and viciousiu'ss the adver- 
tisements of our New England jtapeis of the Kiuhtt cnt h 
('eldlll'y. Ne,<4ro children wei'e sold />// tlic jionnd, (IS 
ofhrr ii/rrcJi<iii(J/.s('." p]ven .bunitlian Kdwards owned 
slaves, ami 'deft, amoii^u- other [>ro|it-rty. a iieuro boy."" 


Wlieii Tlioiims ,lriV(M'S(»ii was ixMiiiiiiu' liis iiKlicriiiHiiT 
au'aiiist ( Jroru'c ( lie 'Tliiid. in tlic 1 )('claiati<)ii <>f IikIh 
peiidence. ]u^ put in as one of the outi'aut'.-; tlif I'oi'ciim 
of the slave ti'ade nu tlie ('olonies, but it was stricken 
<)nt. not only for the sup})osed benefit of the Sonthei'ii 
^^tates. bnt becanse it i-etiected on the slave tradei's of 
Massachnsetts and Rhode Island, whose slave shi])s 
infested tlie seas in the ti'afhc. Maiyhind, \'iiiiinia, 
North Carolina, Sontli Carolina and (leoi'i^ia had all 
passed laws either piohibitin^' the importation of slaves, 
or iniposinu' a very heavy tax per head on them. In 
178(t the North Carolina law was passed, ini])osinu' a 
dnty of five })ounds pei- head, which was very nearly thr' 
valne of a slave at that time, l)nt the next y^-ai' the New 
P^n^land ami extreme Sonthern States cond)ineMl. and a 
compromise was inserted in the Constitntioii l)y which 
rhe slave trade was })rolon_ii-ed until 1808. As a domestic 
institution, slavery existed in every State except one 
when the Coirstitution was adopted, and it was expressly 
])i'ovided for in tjiat instrur:ient. The Su}>reme (%)urt 
of the I'nited States, in many cases, solemnly declared 
that tile protection of the ri<i-lit of propei'ty in slaves 
"was a fundamental article, with(Uit the adoption of 
whicli the Tnion would not have l)een foi'iiied.'' When 
the Northern States, in ISol, were openly and defiantly 
nullifying the Constitution and the laws on this subject, 
Daniel Webster said : 

"I do not hesitate to say and repeat that if the Northern States refuse 
wilfully and deliberately to carry into effect that part of the Constitution 
which respects the restoration of fugitive slaves, and Congress provide no 
remedy, the South would no longer be bound to observe the compact . A 
bargain broken on one side is broken on all sides." 

Indeed, no sane person ever raised any question as to 
the provision of the Constitution. It was admitted, but 
was contemptuously repudiated by Northern States. 


Hhil es|)t-'('i;illy by rlie Nrw England Sfart's. while to 
sliil'r I'espoiisiliilit y ;ni<l f\cirH tlin syiii]i;ir]iy (if foi'eiiiii 

liMtidlls. rllt'y tilled tl|.' ;iil' with false dies ;is to the 
■■;i,i:,UJ>'ssi(iiis of till,' slave powtM'." altliouuh the South 
had l)een in tlie iiiiiM >ii t y e^-ei- sijiee the u(>\"ei-in)ieiir was 
formed. Tlie ti'iu' feeliiiLi- was exjii'essed l)y William 
riiHeii Uixajit ill the followiiiu- seiite]ic<\ contained in 
his History (d' tin,' I'lnteil State's, pnolisiied since the 
war : 

•• \\\'l>stur would lint, nr ciiulil Tidt, .^et,' that the qtR'stinn was not simph- 
iif tlie nwiKTslii]) (it' hUiL-k niL-n. Imt of the supix-niacy nf an ill-h<irn, ill- 
liix-d, UTUMhicated ami brutal haiidlul of slavfholdcrs <iver a people of a 
lii,t;"her strain of lilood, with eeiitui'ies of ^'entle 1 ireedin.t;', and a hi,i^h 
de,i;'ree of moral and intelleetual traini".^;' be'liind them," 

And when the Sontli tinally soULihr a se-jiaration 
fi-<im such insolent and treache](Uis associate--, they 
"cried lia\'oi- aiul let slip the dous of wai'"' ii|ion he]-. 
deiiouiH'inu' he)' withdrawal as tieason ajid a slave- 
holdei'"s rehtdiion, and Jinally convert itiu' it fr(uu a war 
fo]- tlu' i»resei\af ion of the I'nioii into a fanatical ciii 
sade fo]- tile abolition of slavei'v. and the aihancement 
(d the ne^'ro to the fullesl privileucs (»f Anu'rican citi- 

So inu(di for this topic, wliicli. like that (d' secession. 
I have me'rely toiiclied npon. and which would reqriire 
for its just and full treatnuMit, a Inindred speeclu^-. The 
South did not ,u'o to wai' foi' slavery. As has been said 
a thousand times it was the occhs/oh. not the cause of 
the war. ft was an institution, li'iiaranteed ami tu'o- 
tect(Ml by tln^ roiistitntion, as exclusively within tlie 
control of the States, and wlieii th<^ eijiiality and re- 
served rights of t!u' States were attacked by interfei'- 
ence with it, there was just u'rouml to beliexe tiiat other 
I'esei'ved and uiiaranteed rii;lits would be assailed, ami 


tlip equality of tlie Stat^^s destroyed. T1ier(4ore the 
Southern jjeoith:" r(-soi't.-'<l to the only remedy whi'-h had 
ever been suirii'ested, even l)y New England, and that 
was secession. 

They sought peace and not a quarrel — they asked that 
there might be no violence or blood-shed, l)ut a separa- 
tion and an equitalde and honoral^le adjustment of all 
interests. But it was not to be. Tliey were forced to 
defend their liberties and their homes, and the Confed- 
erate S<_)ldier api)eared — to attract the admiring gaze of 
the world, and win an immortality of fame, but alas I 
only to suffer and be strong in a h(q)e]ess struggle. 

He needs no vindication from mortal lips. Taught 
from his childhood, as all xlmerican youth had been, 
that in any event and under all circumstances, his first 
allegiance and whole duty was to his State, her call for 
his services was his all-sufficient justilicati<in. as it was 
his proudest badge of citizenship. He did not hate, but 
]iad always loved the Union, and would have been ready, 
as his fathers always were, to give his fortune and his life 
in its defense against a foreign foe ; but he loved his 
State more, and to her appeal his heart lea^ied respon- 
sive and his hand grasped the sword. 

Who shall frame in fitting words the story of his 
career'!' Courage on the battle field isthe common attri- 
bute of good soldiers everywhere, and if that constituted 
his only claim to admiration, he would be but an ordi- 
nary figure on the page of history. 

But it is the moral aspect of liis career that is sublime. 
It was his magnificent str^iggie against overwhelming- 
odds for the preservation of constitutional liberty, for 
the right of self-government, for all, indeed, that was 
sacred in his heritage that has made him a hero and „ 


fii;iit\ 1- for :ill \\]\u\ And rliis iiinuJiiHcpiit strng.o:]^ w:is 
iiKidc. in»i only nuaiiist (»\ erw litdiiiiiiLi' forces, and iv- 
•^olll•<•os. and f(|ni])niHiits. !)ut in ;) country l>lockadi'd at 
every jioit. ui'adnally stri])i)ed of tin' coniiMoiH'st jueans 
of snUsislenci". njiable to pay him for his services, ami 
iinallv ifdnci'd to ra,us and staivation. Still, thi'oniih 
(,iit it alh cvrii to the last nionifni. hf stood iidlt'xil>h'. 
]iatiHnl, (dict'rl'nU self-saiTilicini:.. l>ra\ •■ ;iiid trne. W'ho' 
(•;iii withhold from <n(di \ii'tut's lie' trilmtt^ of ]»i'aise. 
.'iiid honor, and r>'--|nM't. and who that hath the smi 
I dam fa man da r<' ca 1 1 i Indi' nosscssoi' ;i traitor ^ 

.Inst as at tli'' forniation n\' fli<' I'nioii Xoi'tli ("ai'idinai 
lifhl lia(d< ami I'ld'ascd accession to ii. so ;it the foinia 
tioii of llif ( "on IVdrrac} . with characteristic conserva- 
tism, she \\ithlield Ina- nssent, in the lio])e id' an annca 
l)le adjnstment. nntil the jwocla mat ion (d* tlie newly 
deeded sectional {'resident, calliimon hei' for troops to 
war oil her Southern sisiej-s, fell uiioii hei' ears, and 
lii'ed jna' sonl. ( )n this same hi^^toric day. :!4 years a.u'o, 
sh(^ auain ileclared hei- imlepeinh'nce. nnd uirded herself 
fo]- battle. The war (dond l)itrst. ami for four years its 
pitiless iieltinu' Fidi n])oii hf-r jteojile, Il(t\v did they ac 
(]nit themse|\fs in the coidlict '. Did they ]»]'()ve them 
selves \\drihy (d* their l\e\<iliit iojciry sires ^ For airswer 
1 turn, not to the testimony of any commandini:' (tfficer, 
livinii' oi' dead, i'^'deral or ( 'onfederate. — not even tn 
that ntterance of the stainless Lee. in the last agonies of 
Ajipomattox : *"(iod l)less old ^'orth Caiidina.*" I point 
to the inscrii>tion on that stone, "First at 3^-^ Bethel, 
last at ikTHAiiNdl^." CO(^U'^t^<^^ky^^i^^ 

I appeal to the recoms. written alike by friend and 
foe. T tender her poll-list of voters of 1861— 118, (»()<). 
and the total of her Confederate rank and tile — 125, Odo. 


I point to tlie fact tliat sli^^ contributed nearly one-tifth 
of the tsoldiei.s dt' tlie (-onfederate army — tliat slie lost 
one-fourtli of those killed in ])attle — fliat sin- lost UKtrn 
than one-fourth of those who died of wounds — tliai 
she lost one-third of those who died of disease. 

I cite the appalling and unprecedented fact that at 
Uettysburii', her ever-memorable Twenty-Sixth Regiment 
lost 90 per cent, of the mt-n carried into action. 

I put in evidence the fa<'t that, on several l)attle fields 
of Virginia, she left more <lead and wounded than all 
the Southern States coiid)ined. 

I remind you that lici- Thirt3^-Secon<l Kegimenr 
floated the standard of the Confederate States at tlic 
farthest ]ioint North whi<'h it ever reached. 

I proudly show that one of her sons, conmianding a 
Confederate shi]), was the only man who carried the 
Confederate flag around the world. 

And, finally, I show that when the end came, and her 
banners were furled, V)oth at Appomattox and at (Ireeus- 
V)oro, she stacked twice as many rifles as anj* othei 
State of the Confederacy. 

This is the answer, the glorious answer, which North 
Carolina makes to those who ask where she was and 
what she did during the war between the States. To 
every call of duty — whether to stain with )>leeding feet 
tlie rough line of march, or to labor in the trenches, or 
to lead the way into the flaming hell of battle, or to 
cover a retreat — her steady answer always was "Adsum." 

Shall I recite the times, and the [)laces, and the 
deeds? Ask me to condtJise j^ears into^^an hour, a 
volume into a word, a prolonged and thi'illing tragedy 
into a brief sigh. 

Go, listen to the Atlantic breeze that sings in the pint 


f(>it'j>rs fidiii tli«' \'ir,iiini;i }i<'iiiiisi(];i t<> tlin ca}»fs cf 
l''l(iri(l;i : un. sit hpsidr rlir untrr.v of any nf tlif ui't-nf 
rivfts of t lif S(.iit li. ;iml In'ar llifii \ ui(N'> as. nisliiim 
i liioiiuli rocky ]>as>>i's, oi- ulidiuii- uramlly r(i)diiL:li 
lowland St ificlit's. rliey seek tlic sea ; ,u». stand U}»i »ii rlie 

heiiillfs of Cellietel _\ Ikid^'e, ofSollMl MitUlltaill. ol file 
t 'I lie hi I Is U llicll o\ e|-|ool< r lie valley of t ll e Shelia lid o;i || . 

or I lie steeji asc'eiiT (d' Lookout — aiid to liiiii tliar liarh 
eafs to hear, from lirt^e'ze and stieani. aye. and fioni tie 
\ eiy ro(d<.- will conie a tril'iite id' prai-e and liouoi- to 
riie Old North Stale. 

She boasts iiol : she never did of any < f h^!' a(diieve- 
liiellts. So far Irniii it. she has lievel preserved the ?iie- 
niolials of tliein, which of her l>eo]tle ate careful t<» keep 
of llieir ow n. hut has l>e(ui content to snlwritute fo] then! 
a sacred shrine in her o\\ n hetirt. to w hich. w heii unkind, 
]ieii;hl)or'< sneer. (»r degenerate sous disliotior hei'. she 
turns with uiafitmh" and honest ]iride. May (lod for 
ever bless and ]U('ser\"e lier ! 

I invoke, too. His choicest lilessiiu^s upon you. ()li. 
wiunen of North Carcdina I win* lia\e jnti'sued with un- 
nau\i;inu- zeal and dtnotion the nolde dcsiu-n \vhi( h i> tlii-- 
day nccoiiiplished, and upo]] whiidi you may n'ow look 
witli su]ireinest satisfa<'ti(ni. Vou havi- not erected this 
lljonuniellt exclusively to the ( ^ ill fi^deia te l>i.'ad of our 
own State. iKU' do \\<' confine our lo\ iu,u frihutes to them 

W'e eiiduace in the w i(h' sweep <i{' our affectionate re 
inendu'aiK'e all wlio laid down tlndr li\'es in defence of 
the riulits and liberties of the Southern States and j^eo- 

From the cold blue lakes upon the Canadian border to 
where the warm waves lap softly upon the yellow sand;:? 


of the (riilf. on a rli(»usaii(l hill-sides and in a thousand 
vallnys they sleep — some l)eneath inonuments like tliis. 
some in i)rivate cemeteries, thonsaiids. alas I innnknown 
graves. We love and honor the memory of all alike. 
Tliey deserve sindi tribnte if mortal men ever did. and 
never was it paid more sincerely than now and here. 

Stand then, bronze image of liini who wore the gray ! 
Tlion canst not meet with calmer mien than did he tlie 
sunshine and the storm. Xot more enduring is thy granite 
base than the love on which he rests. Thou art a tri- 
umph of Ai't ; he was God's gift to his country. Thou 
shalt perish, but he shall live forever in the hearts of 
his people.