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Full text of "Addresses of the Hon. W. D. Kelley, Miss Anna E. Dickinson, and Mr. Frederick Douglass : at a mass meeting, held at National Hall, Philadelphia, July 6, 1863, for the promotion of colored enlistments"

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I 3 1833 02799 2285 

Gc 973.74 AaIad 
,Kel.l.ey, W- D. 1814-1890, 

Addresses df the Hon, W. 
Kel.l_ey:» Miss Amna E. 
V Dick inson . - . 

All€n County Public Lfbraiv 

900 Webster Street 

PC Box 2270 

Fort Wayne, IN 46801-2270 





TiiK cf^olGaijy of colored troops having been ] 
demonstrated bj ruceut b:ittles in the South- i 
Tvest, several hundj'e'l gentlemen of Philadel- ■ 
}.hia adelrei^f J a raeinorial to the Secretary of ' 
War, asking authority to raise three regiments ; 
for three years or tlie war, from among the ! 
colced population of Pennsylvania. Permis- ' 
sion to this effect was promptlj'- given by the ! 
following communication from the Adjutant- j 
Genera Vs Cilice : — 



Washington, June 22J, 1SC3. 
Tno'JAs Webster, Es^., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

SiG : I am instructed by the Secretary of 
War to inform yon yon are hereby an- 1 
thorized, as the representative of your assoei- 1 
ate petitioners, to raise in Philadelphia, or tlie i 
eastern part of Pennsylvania, three Regiments 
of Infantry, to be composed of colored men, 
to be mustered into t;ie service of the United 
States for three years, or during the war. To 
these troops no bounties will be paid. 

They will receive ten dollars per month and 
cue ration, three dollars of which monthly 
l'<^y may be in clothing. 

The organization of these regiments must 
conform strictly to the provisions of General 
Order No. llu, Current Series, War Depart- 
ment, a copy of which is herewith. 

The prescribed nur.:ber of Commissioned 
OSceis will be r.pnoinled as provided in Gene- 
ral Orders Nos. 14o and 144, War Department, 
^^C3, copies of vdiich are herewith inclosed 
"Hd your especial attention invited thereto. 

An ofTicer will bo detailed to rnu-rter thesL- 
lro';r;i into service, by companies if necessary. 

it mast be distinctly understood tliat but 
cne regiment is to bo recrnited at a time ; 
dius, the on/.anization of the iirst regiment 
iJUiat De completed aiid the regiment mus^cral 
*"'o the service before thu lecruiting of the 
Eec-y-id is commenced. 

The troops raised t;rdor the fo:egoiug in- 

structions will rerdezvons at Cnnip Yi"ill'-";:a 
Penn. Cheltun Hills, near Philadelphia, v.-jiero 
they will be received and subsisted as soon as 
tbey are enlisted, and an officer will be assigned 
to duty at that post to take command of them 
on their arrival and make the necessary requi- 
sitions for supp'-lies. 

It is ei-cpeeted and desired that yen shor.M 
confer Vv-ith Major George L. Stearne, A. A. <••., 
U. S. Vols., and Recruiting Comndssioner for 
U. S. Colored Troops, now in your city, for the 
purpose of assisting yoii in this work. Yon 
will please keep him advised of your progi ess. 
I have the honor to be. 

Very Eespectfally, 

Your obed't serv't, 


Tlio better pi.ition of the colore 1 po;,)!'- lation 
of Philadelphia at once took a lively interest 
in the niDveraent, and the first regiment is in 
process of rapid completion. To bring the 
matter fairly before their bvethrcU, they re- 
solved to call a mass meeting at National ILilI. 
on th^ evening of July tjtli. That spacious 
hall was densely crowded with a mixed a'l- 
dience, in which were a large numlier of vro- 
men, and tho utmost enthusiasm prevailed. 

Tlie following gentlemen were selected a3 
olucers : — 

President— Rev. Stephen Smith. 

Viee-Presidents— Rev. Jonathan C. Oibbs, 

William Whipper, jjenj.amin B. ZAyiw Rev. 

.Jeremiah Aslier, Jac->b C. Wliite, Rev. J. B. 

Trusty, David B. Dowser, James McC. C-nm- 

mill. Rev. Jabez P. Campbell, Henry Mintou, 

Rev, James Underdue, Jolm P. r>urr. Rev. '.Vm. 

' J. Alsto:;. Samuel Vv'iliiams, John W. P.-.g;', 

James Drown, Henry Jones, Tbom.'^s Jonhin, 

■ AVi!'i-vm H. Riley, Rev. Jessec Loulden. Hei!ry 

W. 'v.-ropper, Tljoraas J. Dorsay, ^Vilkinsou 

' Jones, Robert Adger, Daniel George, John C. 

I Bewers, M. Bascom. 

Secretaries— Ebeu I>. Ua^;sei.t, Jn-ob C. 
! White, Jr., Oct.ivius V. Catto., 

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My fellow-citizen?, before proceeding to tlie 
consideration of tlie grave question wliicb 
brings us together, let me say that the Rebel 
army of Korthern Virginia is no more. [Ira- 
meuse cheering.] As an organization, it will 
never leave the soil of Pennsylvanir., though 
fragments of it may straggle across the Poto- 
mac. [Renewed cheering.] Henceforth Vir- 
gir'r. '■? dccTi-^^ted to freedom ! [Cheers.] West 
Virginia was freed by the suifrages of her pa- 
triotic men, and Virginia by the power of the 
United States. [-^pplau?;e.] Isever acain will 
the insolent aristocracy of the Old Dominion 
breed fair-ffkinned and blue-eyed cirls, or 
Stalwart black men, for the slave markets of 
the far South. [Long continued cheering.] 

Citizens of African descent, it is to you I 
would speak. Are you content to spend your 
lives as boot-blacks, barbers, waiters, and in 
other pursuits little, if any better than servile 
or menial, when the profession of arms — the 
terrible but glorious work of war — invites you 
to acknowledged manhood, freedom and honor ? 
[Applause, and cries of No, no.] 

After two hundred years of unmitigated op- 
pression. Providence has opened the v/ay for 
the Africo-Americau to prove his manhood to 
the world, and command the respect and grati- ; 
tude of those of liis fellow-citizens whose cu- 
pidity and prejudice have enslaved and de- 
graded him. "Will you not spring to arms and 
march to the higher destiny that awaits your 
race, though it may require your mangled 
bodies to strew the glorious pathway ? [Cheer- 
iug, and cries of Yes, yes.] Yes, you will. 
Lei it not be said that the Third United States 
Colored Volunteers, though a Pennsylvania 
regiment, contained but few or no Philadel- 
phians. But fill its ranks quickly. You will 
bear at its head the around which -freed- 
men and their descendants should most 
proudly rally. i 

The llag of Pennsylvania, the first common- 
wealth, kingdom or empire to abolish slavery . 
— the Commonwealth whose act of emancipa- i 
tion — a solemn expression of gratitude to God 
for the freedom he had vouchsafeil to its people i 
— antedates British emancipation more than 
forty years — is the one we ask j'ou to carry 
aloft. It is the symbol of our honor and great- 
ness. We cheei fully confide it to your hands, 
assured that you will carry it in triumr'h to . 
any point at which treason has raised its rebel- ' 
lious head, and under its folds prove to man- 1 
kind that each one of you is, in tlie sterner ' 
elements of manhood, a niatch for the haughti- I 
est aristocrat of the Confederacy. [Applause.] 

Old men, despite the disabilities under which ! 
you labor, some of you have accumulated ' 
wealth ; we do not ask you to enlist — we want j 

the young and vigorous. But when you go to 
your homes to-night do your duty — gathe: 
about you your aide-bodied sons, and let thtTii 
know tliat if they prove cowarils in this erand 
crisis of the history of your race, you will dis- 
inherit and denounce them. . Meiuers, you 
love your sons — but think yoti tliat you love 
them better than did the mothers of the brave 
white boys and men who have borne our ban- 
ners over so many terrible fields ? No, yon 
will not claim this ; gather, then, your sons 
around yoir, and spurn him who will not prove 
that when you sulTered the pangs of maternity 
it was to give birth to a man. And, girls, I 
have a word to say to you. The fellow who 
shrinks from the smell of gunpowder is very 
apt to be afraid of thunder. I have known 
such to creep into bed during a storm, and 
beg to be covered up closely. If, during this 
war, some spruce young dandy trotibles you 
with a tender question, let him know that you 
would rather marry the wooden leg and empty 
jacket sleeve of a war-worn hero than any 
man who might require you to tuck him up 
during every thunder storm. [Cheers and 

And now, white men and women, lot me 
have a word with you. Will you assist tlie 
Supervisory Committee in the work it has in 
hand ? Will you give to these brethren of 
the heroes of Port Hudson and MiUiken's 
Bend your broadest, fullest sympathy ? Will 
you potir in upon Congress memorials in over- 
whelming nunilwars, demanding that, as to pay 
and pension, they shall be treated as liberally 
as other soldiers are ? [Cheers, and cries of 
Yes, we will.] Will you watch over their 
widows with fraternal care, and see that their 
orphans are sectired such educational oppor- 
tunities as a great and humane Commonwealth 
should provide for the orphans of patriots who 
have lai'l down their lives in her cause and 
under her fiag ? [Renewed cries of Yes, and 
we will.] Yes, I am sure that in these re- 
spects you will be just, and I hope you will 
be generously magnanimous. 

In the gloomy days through which we have 
just passed, I have been buoyant with hope 
amounting to faith. Behind the dark and 
heavy cloud that hung so oppressively near 
us, I saw, in the rapidly developint: provi- 
dences of God, the sure promise of \ ietory and 
peace. During weary, sorrowing months and 
years of war, we have sighed for •' the coming 
man" who was to bring us these great bless- 
ings. We have not found him. Not Butler 
nor Panics, nor Premont, nor Grant, nor Rose- 
crans, nor Jleade — thoueh he has in''ested our 
quiet Gettysljurg with the combined glories of 
Matreuta and Solferino — has shown himself to 

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be the man ■jvhose genius and povrer "n-ere to 
deliver us from protracted war. To admit this 
i-: liut to a-iiuit tli't our groat soldiers are not 
ubiquitous. Doui^lson and Vicksburg, eacli in 
turn ; is'ew Orleans, Port Hudson, and Gettys- 
burg, have each Leenworthy the attention of a 
great General.. Shall vre then cease to hope 
for him whose coming Hope ho-s so long pro- 
phesied ? Oil, no 1 He waits our bidding. He 
is the Colored Man ! He has made Port Hud- 
sou the Thermopjhe of his race ; he occupies 
and surrounds Ivichmond ; he is ready to in- 
tercept Lee's stragglers in the Shenandoah 
Valley ; he occupies the strongholds of Ten- 
nessee ; he will give you Charleston, which is 
in his povrer, and, iu distant Tesas, he will 

'; respond with a joyous " Aye, aye," to your call, 
and run the Union flag to the top of everv stall 
; upon her prairies ; he holds at his mercy every 
: acre of Confederate territory ; as a chattel, ha 
i feeds, clothes and arms every rebel soldier ; as 
j a ma:;, assured of your sympathy, he will crush 
' every rebel stronghold. Yes, sneer at or doubt 
! it as you may, the negro is the " coniing man" 
; for whom we havewaiteJ. Give him the chanct^ 
; to attest his nature at all those points around 
; which our white brethren perish, in swamo 
I and hospital, and, throttling and crushing his 
I old oppressor, he will give us speedy victory, 
I and a peace that shall never again be dis- 
turbed by civil war. [Tremendous and long- 
i continued cheering.] 


The People of the United States have de- 
creed justice ; the Almighty has answered 
them with victory. (Applairse.) Month after 
mouth we have struggled with rebellion in 
arms ; month after month, through more than 
two years of war. Lave waited for decisive vic- 
tory in the East. In vain. Why ? We had 
wealth and strength, numbers and power, 
intellect and energy, in the North. No one 
questions the heroism of the men we have 
sent into the field ; men represented by that 
cue who, left dying on a battle-field of the 
West, was asked by a friend, " Do yott regret ?" 
answered, '• No ; I — we ail, are willing that our 
bodies shouM form the bridges and ladders, 
tliat the comincr thousands may cross and 
mount, to plant their vietoriotis banners on the 
shattered citadel and comjuered wall;"' and so 
died. (Sensation.) No one questions the hero- 
ism of these men, sent by the North to mar- 
tyrdom. We were unseltish, too ; those who 
stayed gave freely of treasure, as those who 
went of life. We had culture to put arrainst 
their ignorance ; schools against rum-shops ; 
churches against race-courses ; the brain of 
New England against the degradation of South 
Carolina. We have twenty millions against 
fight millions. ""Ve faiied. The South gained 
battles, won victories, trampled otir banners iu 
the dust ; demanded and received from the 
World the recognition of the courage and deter- 
mination of her soldiers. 

Yet to-night we are rejoicing over a victory 
^hich wipes otY all old scores of the army of 
the Potoumc. (Cbeers.) This Sotith, trium- 
phant through the hatred which is genius ; 
which in its stren_rth reminds one of the story 
of an old Scotch kiau\ who, seeing a great rob- 
ber, with his spleU'lid surroundings and the 
equipments of Lis band, turned to a knight, 
Paying, " What lacks that knave a king should 
have ?" " Sire," was the answer, " right and 
iegitimacj." So this South, chietly victorious 

through all this terrible conflict, aided by a'. ' 
despotism, almost recognized by the goveri \ 
ments of the earth — what has it needed thr. i 
beseems a nation ? It has needed the cornei \ 
stone of justice and the fottndatiou of liberty • 
To-night, \7ith its walls rocking to and fi-o, it \ 
supporters are flying from Gettysburg, with it i 
ruins falling on their heads. (Applause.) Th ; 
North stands triumphant, liecause the pcnpl ', 
have clambered up to the stand-point of free 
dom, and from thence have hurled their mis 
siles on the advancing hosts of despotism. Th 
President's threatened proclamation of Sepf era 
ber 22d, 1SG2; — the actual proclamation o 
Janttary 1st, 1^C3, has had the stamp and sea 
of everlasting endurance set to it, by the peo 
pie, iu the Mass. 54th and 55th, and the Pcuu 
sylvauia 3d United States Colored Volunteers 
(Long continued applause.) 

True, through the past we have advocatec 
the use of the black man. For what end ? Ti 
save ourselves. We wanted them as shields 
as barriers, as walls of defence. We woulc. 
not even say to them, fight beside ns. We 
wouM put them in the front ; their brains con- 
tracted, their souls dwarfed, their manhood 
\ stunted ; mass them together ; let them ilie 1 
I That will cover and protect us. Now we he".r 
. the voice of the people, solemn and sorrowful, 
: saying, "We have wronged you enough : yoa 
have stitfered enough : we ask no more at your 
j hands ; we stand aside, au'l let you fight loe 
i your own manhood, your future, your race.' 
'(Applause.) Ans:lo- Africans, we need you; 
I yet it is not because of this need that I a.-k 
' you to go into the ranks of the regiments forni- 
: ing, to fight in this war. My clieeks would 
crimson with shame, while my lips put the 
; request that could be answered, " Your sol- 
diers ! why don't you give us tlio same Imuu- 
■ ty, and the same pay as the rest ?" I have no 
reply to that, (Sensation.) 
j Eat for youiseives : because, alter ages of 

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have decreerl that. (Applause.) Xerse.^ 
scourdiig the Hellespont ; Canute comman'l- 
iug the waves to roll .back, are bat types of 
that folly which stands up and says to this 
majestic wave of piiblic opinion, "Thus far." 
The black man will bo a citizen, only by 
stamping his right to it in his blood. Now or 
never! You have not liomes ! — gain them. 
You have not liberty ! — gain it. You have not 
a flag! — gain it. Yon have not a country! — bo 
written down in history as the race who made 
one for themselves, and saved one for another. 
(Immense cheering.) 

watching and agony, your day is breaking ; 

because your hour is come ; becarse yon. hold 

the hammer whicli, upheld or falling, decides 

your destiny for M^oe or weal; because you 

have reached the point from which you must 

sink, generation after generation, century after 

century, into deeper depths, into more abso- 
lute degradation ; or mount to the heights of 

glory and of fame. 

The cause needs you. This is not our war, 

not a war for territory ; not a war for martial 

power, for mere victory ; it is a war of the 

races, of the ages ; the stars and stripes is the 

people's flag ot the world ; the worLi must bo 

gathered under its folds, the black man beside 

the white. (Cheers and applause.) Professor E. D. Bassett then read the fol- 

Thirteen dollars a month and bonnty are lowing address and resolution, which was 

good; liberty is better. Ten dollars a month adopted by acclamation: — 

and no bounty are bad ; slavery is worse. The "J/e« of Color, to Arms! Now or Never! 

two alternatives are put before you ; you make This is our golden moment. The Government 

your own future. The to be will, in a little of the United States calls for every able-bodied 

while, do you justice. Soldiers will be proud I colored man to enter the array for the three 
to welcome as comrades, as brothers, the black I years' service, and join in fighting the battles 

men of Port Hudson and Milliken's Bend, l of liberty and the Union. A new era is open 
Congress, nest winter, will look out through | to ns. For generations we have sufl'ered ttnder 
tlie fog and mist of Washington, and will see | the horrors of slavery, outrage, and wrong; 
how, when Pennsylvania was invaded and Phi- I our manliood has been denied, our citizenship 
ladelphia threatened, while white men haggled j blotted out, our souls seared and burned, our 
over bounty and double pay to defend their j spirits cowed and cruslied, and the hopes of 
own city, their own homes, with the tread of the future of our race involved in doubts and 
aimed rebels almost heard in their streets ; i darkness. But how the whole aspect of our 
black men, without bounty, without pay, with- I relations to the white race is changed ! Now, 
out rights or the promise of any, rushed to the | therefore, is our most precious moment. Let 
beleaguered capital, and were first in their ! us rush to arms ! Fail now, and our race is 
oflV.TS of life or of death. (Cheers and ap- j doomed on this soil of our birth. We must 
plau^e.) Congress will say, " These men are j now awake, arise, or be forever fallen. If we 
soldiers ; wo will pay them as siteh ; these i value liberty ; if we wish to be free in this 
men are marvels of loyalty, self-sacrifice, cour- I land ; if we love our country ; if we love our 
nee ; we will give tliem a chance of promotion." I families, our childi3n, our homes — we must 
History will write, "Behold the unselfish } strike now while tha country calls ; we must 
heroes; the ear/er martyrs of this war." (Ap- 1 rise up in the dignity of our manhood, and 
plause.) Yon hesitate because you have not i show by our own right arms that we are wor- 
nll. Your brothers and sistei-s of the South i thy to be freemen. Our enemies have made 
cry out, "Come to our help, we have nothing." I thu country believe that we are craven cow- 
Father! you hesitate to Send your boy to death; ! ards, without soul, without manhood, without 
the shave father turns his face of dumb en- | the spirit of soldiers. Shall we die with this 
tri-aty to you, to save his boy from the death ' st!!j;ma resting on our graves ? Shall we leave 
in litV>; the bondage that crushes soul and this inheritance of shame to our children? together. Shall your son go to his aid ? ' No ! a thousand times no ! We will rise ! The 
MfthiT ! you look with pride at the young j alternative is upon us ; let us rather die free- 
ti:.inly face and figure, growing and strength- ' men than live to be slaves. What is life 
eniiig lieside you! he is yours! your o^vn. i witliout liberty ? We say that we have man- 
Cicd gave him to you. From the lacerated j hood — now is the time to prove it. A nation 
h«*.Trt.-., the wrung souls of other mothers, ' or a people that cannot fight may be pitied, but 
coin--: the wail, " My cliild, my child, give me : cannot be respected. If we would be regarded 
bick my cliilfl!" Tlie slave-master heeds not; ; men; if we would forever silence the tongti6 
ll.> L'.tvrnment is tardy; mother! the prayer ; of calumny, of prejudice and hate, let us rise 
cotii.-.-; to i/o'i ; v>-ill you falter f j now and fly to armo ! We have seen that 

i<'nnc man! rejoicing in the hope, the cou- valor and heroism our brothers displayed at 
T'.'-. the will, the thevrs and muscles of young j Port Hudson and Milliken's Bend; though they 
d — the red glare of this war falls on i are just from the galling, poisoning grasp of 

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»..••■ f;ic.'3 and figures of other young men, i slavery, they liave startled the world by the 
Oi-t'irt.-d with sntferlnc:, -u-rithing in "agony, i most exalted heroism. If they have proved 
^^rifuhiutr th'-ir manacles and ch.ains — shout- } themselves heroes, cannot we prove ourselves 
i;-: '•viU; d.'-^p^iiriiig voices to you for help— ; men ? Are freemen less brave slaves? 
*'',''" ' " '*vithh..-ld .' (Cries of No ! No !) [ More than a million white men have left com- 
.,-.'''''*-' ^'•''I '■•- freed — with or witliout fortable homes and joined the annies of tha 
}'Vi. The coiiHcience and lieart of the people '\ Union to save their countrj' ; cannot wo leave 

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ours, and swell the hosts of the Union, to save | 
our liberties, vindicate onr maukood, and de- 1 
Sfi've v.'cll oi our LOiiiitry? I 

" 3Ien of color I All races of men — the Eng- 1 
li?hman, the Irishman, the Frenchman, the i 
Gf-nuan, the American — have been called to ; 
assert their claim to freedom and a manly 1 
character by an appeal to the sword. The ! 
day that has seen an enslaved race in arms ! 
lias, in all history, seen their last trial. We 
can now see that our last opponunity has come ! 
If we are not lower in the scale of humanity 
than Euglishnien, Irishmen, white Americans, 
and other races, we can show it row. 

" Men of color ! brothers and fathers ! we 
appeal to you ! — by all your concern for your- 
selves and your liberties : by all your regard 
for God and hi:manity ; by all your desire for 
citizenship and equality before the law ; by all 
your love for the country — to stop at no sub- 
terfuge, listen to nothing that shall deter you 
from rallying for the army. Come forward and 
at once enroll your lUimes for the three years' 
service. Strike now, and you are henceforth 
and forever freemen ! 

" Moreover, we, the colored people of Phila- 
delphia, in maj's meeting assembled, do most 
emphatically and unitedly express our firm 
belief that we not only ought, but may and 
will raise a full regiment of ten companies of 
eighty men each, of colored voltmteers for the 

United States service, within the nest t'^:u 
days, in our own city of Philadelphia." 

Ju'lcre Kelley then said : I have requ'v-'t'^d 
the Chairman to permit me to present to >ou 
the nest speaker. 

In this world of constant muta,tion it of' on 
happens that the bodies <>f dead men e:itttr 
availably into the estates of the living. IL.iii- 
let tells us that — 

" Imperi.ll Ca:-sarj dead aud tnr'^ed to clay, 
Jlay stop a Haw to keep the -wiad awav/' 

And the old English song says — 

"This bro'vrn jng that foams vn\h mild ale. 
Out of ■n-hich I now drink {■> swcet Kat^ o: the Tale, 
Wa? ouce T'jby Thilpot, a thirsty old soul 
As e'er drew a bottle or fathomed a bowl." 

But you all remember historic or poetic illm- 
tratinns of the fact that dead men's bodies are 
often of commercial value to the living. 

The speaker about to address you illu^trat-^s 
in his person the converse of that propositijn, 
How personal estate may convert itself iut^,- a 
man. He was a tJdng, a cliattel, part of the 
personal estate of Tliomas Aukl, a ilaryVcn.t 
planter, but under the inspiration of free-l-iu 
has been converted into an accomplished gen- 
tleman, a pungent and ilnished writer, and 
glowing and potent orator. I present to you 
Mr. Fbedekick Douglass, of Rochester; N. Y. 


Mr. Pkesidext and Fellow-Citizexs — I shall | 
not attempt to follow Judge Kelley and Miss 
Dickinson in their eloquent and thrilling ap- 
peals to colored men to enlist in the service of 
tiie United States. They have left nothing to 
bo desired on that point. I propose to look at 
the subject in a plain and practical comm^jn- 
sense light. Ther^j are obviously two vie^vs 
to be taken of such enlistments — a broad vit-w 
and a narrow view. I am willinir to take both. 
and consider both. The narrow view of this 
subject is that which re^picts the matter of 
dollars and cents. There arc those among us 
^'"ho say they are in favor of taking a hand in 
this tremendous war, but they add they wish 
to do so on terms of equality with white men. 
They say if they enter the service, endure all 
the hardships, perils and suflering — if they 
taake bare tlioir breasts, and ■with strong arms 
^nd courageon.^ hearts couiri^iit rebel cannons. 
iind wring victory from the jaws of death, they 
s^hould have the same pay, the same rations, 
the same bounty, and tlie s.ame favoral'le con- 
ditions every way afforded to other men. 

I shall not oppose this view. There is some- 
thing deep down in the soul of every man 
T'res^nt which as=:ent3 to tho justice of the 
claim thus made, and honors the manhood and 

self-respect which insists upon it. [Applause. ] 
I say at once, in fieace and in war, I am con- 
tent with nothing for the black man short of 
equal and exact justice. The only question I 
have, and the point at which I diil^r I'vaa 
those who refuse to enlist, is whether the -x*- 
lored man is more likely to obtain justice ^;nd 
equality while refusing to assist in putt'iig 
down this tremendous rebellion than he wruld 
be if he should promptly, generously and e.M'u- 
estly give his hand and heart to the salvatun 
of the country in this its day of calamity r.nd 
peril. Nothing can be more plain, uoth-.T;cr 
more certain than that the speediest and Test 
possible way open to us to manhood, e i ta'. 
rights and elevation, is that we enter this -t- 
vice. For my own part, I hold that it 
Government of the United States oilerod no- 
thing more, as an inducement to colored nieti 
to enliit, than bare subsistence and arms, cvii- 
sidering the moral etiect of compUauce r.','OU 
ourselves, it woubl be the wisest and -jeSt. 
: thing for us to enlist. [Applause.] There is 
■ something ennobling in the possession of anas. 
' and we of all other people in tiie world stand 
i in need of their ennobling iutiueuce. 
; The case pre-ented in tho present war, a'ld 
; the light in which every colored mau is bouiiJ 

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to view it, may be stated thus. There are two 
goverumeuts struggling now for the possession 
of arA endeavoring' to bear rule over the United 
States — one has its capital iu Riclimoud, and 
is represented hy Mr. Jeil'erson Davis, and the 
other has its capital at "Washington, and is 
represented by "Ilonest Old Abe"." [Cheers 
and long-continued applause.] These two 
governments are to-day face to face, confront- 
ing each other with vast anaies, and erappling 
each other upon many a bloody field, north 
and south, on the banks of the Mississippi, 
and under the shadows of the Alleghenies. 
Is'ow, the (^luestion for every colored man is, or 
ought to be, what attitude is assumed by these 
respective governments and armies towards 
^ the rights and liberties of the colored race in 
tbi: country ; which is for us, and which 
against us 1 [Cries of That's the question.] 

•Now, I think there can be no doubt as to the 
attitude of the Richmond or confederate so- 
verument. Wherever else there has been con- 
cealment, here all is frank, open, and diaboli- 
cally straightforward. Jeiferson Davis and 
his government make no secret as to the cause 
of this war, and they do not conceal the pur- 
pose of the war. That purpose is nothing more 
nor less than to make the slavery of the African 
race universal and perpetual on this continent. 
It is not only evident from the history and 
logic of events, but the declared purpose of 
the atrocious war now being waged against 
the country. Some, iuieed, have denied that 
slavery has anything to do with the war, but 
the very same men who do this atSrm it in the 
same breath iu which tliey deny it, for they 
tell you that the abolitionists are the cause of 
the war. ^'ow, if the abolitionists arc the 
cause of the war, they are the cause of it only 
because tliey have sought the abolition of 
slavery. View it in any way you please, there- 
fore, the rebels are fighting for the existence 
of slavery — they are lighting for the privilege, 
the horrid privilege, of sundering the dearest 
ties of human nature — of tra:Scking in slaves 
and the souls of men — for the ghastly privi- 
lege of scourging women and selling innocent 
children. [Cri./s of That's true.] 

I say this is not the concealed object of the 
war, but tlie openly confessed and shamelesslv 
proclaimed object of the war. Vice-rresideut 
Stephens has stated, with the utmost clearness 
and precision, the difference between the fun- 
damental ideas of the Confederate Government 
and those of the Federal Government. One is 
based upon tlie idea that colored men are an 
inferior race, who may be enslaved and plun- 
dered forever and to the heart's content of any 
men of a <li)ferent complexion, while the Fede"- 
ral Government recognizes the natural and 
fundamental e<iUality of all men. [Applause.] 

I say, again, we all know that this'jeiferson 
Davis government holds out to us nothing but 
fetters, cliains, auction-blocks, bludgeons, 
branding-irons, and eternal slavery and de- 
gradation. If it triumplis iu this contest, woe, 
woe, ten tliousand woes, to the black man!. 
Such of us ?.d ary free, in all the likelihoods 

I of the case, would bo given over to the mc.^t 
j excruciating tortures, while the last liope ^r 
I the long-crushed bondman would be exUn- 
i guished forever. [Sensation.] 
i Now, v.- hat is the attitude of the Washington 
government towards the colored race ? What 
I reasons have ■ne to desire its triumjih in the 
j present contest ? Mind, I do not ask what 
I was its attitude towards us before this bloody 
j rebellion broke out. I do not ask what was 
1 its disposition when it was controlled by the 
I very men who are now lighting to destroy it 
I when they could no longer control it. I do 
I not even ask what it was two years ago, when 
I McClellan shamelessly gave out that in a war 
i between loyal slaves and disloyal masters, he 
j would take the side of the masters against the 
slaves — when he openly proclaimed" his pur- 
pose to put down slave insurrections with an 
iron hand — when glorious Ben. Butler [Cheers 
and applause], now stunned into a conversion 
to antislavery principles (which I have every 
reason to believe sincere), proliVred his services 
to the Governor uf Maryland, to suppress a slave 
insurrection, while treason ran riot iu that 
State, and the warm, red blood of Massachu- 
' setts soldiers still stained the pavements of 
j Baltimore. 

I I do not ask what was the attitude of this 
j government when many of the oficers and men 
, wiio had undertaken to defend it, openly threat- 
: ened to throw down their arms and leave the 
i service if men of color should step forward to 
: defend it, and be invested with the dignity of 
I soldiers. Moreover, I do not ask what was'the 
' position cf this government when our loyal 
camps were made slave hunting grounds, and 
, United States olncers performecTthe disgusting 
: duty of slave dogs to hunt down slaves for 
. rebel masters. Tiiese were all dark and ter- 
; rible days for the republic. I do not ask yoa 
about the dead past. I bring you to the living 
present. Events more mighty than men, eter- 
nal Providence, all-wise and all-controlling, 
have placed us in new relations to the govern- 
ment and the government to us. What that 
government is to us to-day, and what it will 
be to-monow, is made evident by a very few 
facts. Look at them, colored men. Slavery in 
the District of Columlda is abolished forever ; 
slavery iu all the territories of the United 
States is abolished forever ; the foreign slave 
trade, with its ten thousand revoltiug abomi- 
nations, is rendered impossible ; slavery iu ten 
States of the Uniou is abolished forever ; 
slavery iu the five remaining States is as cer- 
tain to follow the same fate as the night is to 
follow the day. The independence of Hayti 
is recoj-nized : her Minister sits beside our 
I'rime Minister, Mr. Seward, and dines at his 
table in Washington, while colored are 
excluded from the cars in I'hiladelphia ; siiow- 
ing that a black man's complexion iu Wash- 
ington, iu tlie presence of the Federal govern- 
ment, is less otl'ensivo thau iu the c:ty oi 
brotherly love. Citizenship is no longer de- 
nied us under this governiac-ut. 

Under the interpretation of our rights hy 


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Attorney General Bates, vro are America-n citi- 
r.ens. "We can import goods, own and sail 
ihips, and travel in foreign countries Tvith 
American passports in our poukets ; and now, 
so far from there being any opposition, so far 
from excluding us from the army as soldiers, 
the President at Washington, the CaLiuet and 
the Congress, the generals commanding and 
the whole army of the nation unite in givinc; 
us one thunderous welcome to share with them 
in the honor and glory of suppressing treason 
and upholding the star-spangled banner. Tlie 
revolution is tremendous, and it becomes us 
03 wise men to recognize the change, and to 
shape our action accordingly. [Cheers and 
cries of We will.] 

I hold that the Federal government was 
never, in its essence, anything but an anti- 
slavery government. Abolish slavery to-mor- 
row, and not a sentence or syllable of the Con- 
stitution need be altered, 'it was purtiosely 
EG framed as to give no claim, no sanction to 
the claim cf property in man. If in its oricin 
.slavery had any relation to the government, 
it was only as the scaiioldir.g to the magnifi- 
cent structure, to be removed as soon al the { 
building was completed. There is in the Con- I 
Etitution no East, no West, no Xorth, no South, j 
no black, no white, no slave, no slaveholder, ; 
but all are citizens who are of American birth.' i 
Such is the government, fellow citizens, you \ 
are now called upon to uphold with your arms. | 
Such is the government that you are called | 
npon to co-operate with in burying rebellion 
and slavery in a common grave. [Applause.] ' 
Kever since the world began was a better chance ' 
offered to a long enslaved'and oppressed people, i 
The opportunity is given us to be men. \\ ith ■ 
one courageous resolution we may blot out the I 
band-writing of agt-s against us. Once let the ' 
I'lack^mau get upon his person the brass let- ! 
ters U. S. ; let him get an eaele on liis but- I 
jou, and a .musket on his shoulder, and bul- ' 
'••ts in his po<:-ket, and there is no power on tiie 
e.'^rth or under the earth which can deny that ^ 
'Chas earned the right of citizt;uship in tli,-- ' 
UUed States. [Latighter and applatise.] i ' 
'■■^.v again, this is our chance, and woe betidr- 
[^^ if we fail to embrace it. The immortal bard 
l^ath told us : 

"Th'Te is a tide in tho affairs of lapi:, 
v- liicli, taken at the dood, lead.-^ on to fortune. 
^':imt...J, all tlie voya-o of their life 
l-_bouud in shallo-irsTjnd in numerics. 
>^ e must take the current whou it bervcs, 
t'rlose our ventures." 

^ 1^0 not flatter yourselves, my friends, that 
• <^Q are more important to the government 

' than the government is to rou. You ^t'^nd 
but as tlie plank to the ship". This relK'li'iou 
can be put down witliout yonr help. Slaverv 
can be abolished by whit'e men ; but lile'-tV 
so won for the black man, while it may l^avl- 
him an object of pity, can never make him' an 
object of respect. 

_ Depend upon it, this is no time for hesita- 
tion. Do you say you want the same pa v that 
white men get ? I believe that the iustice and 
magnanimity of your country will speedily 
grant it. But will you be over nice about this 
matter ? Do you get as good wages now as 
white men get by staying out of the service '' 
Don't you work for less every day than whiie 
men get ? You know yon do. Do I hear you 
say you want black officers ? Very well, and 
I have not the slightest doubt that in the pr'.> 
gress of this war we shall see black officers, 
! black colonels, and generals even. Eat is it 
I not ridiculous in us in all at once refusinr to 
be commanded by white men in time of war. 
. when we are everywhere comma^ided by whiie 
j men in time of peace ? Do I hear you say still 
j that you are a son, and want your mother 
j provided for in 3'our absence ?— a husband, and 
i want your wife cared for ?— -a brother, and want 
I your sister secured against want ? I honor you 
; for your solicitude. Your mothers, your wives 
j and your sisters ought to be eared for. and an 
I association of gentlemen, composed of respon- 
j sible white and colored men, is now being or- 
I ganizei in this city for this very purpose. 
I Do I hear you say you offered your services 
to Pennsylvania and were refused ? I know 
: it. But what of that ? The State is not more 
i than the nation. The greater includes the 
lesser. Because tho State refuses, you should 
I all the more readily turn to the United States. 
' [Applause.] When the children fall out, they 
should refer their quarrel to the parent. " You 
came unto your own, and your* own received 
you not." But the broad gates of the United 
States stand open night and day. Citizenship 
in the United States will, in the end, secure 
your citizenship in tho State. 

Young men of Pliiladelphia, you are without 
excuse. The hour has arrived," and your pla'^e 
is in the Union army. Remember that the 
musket— the United States musket with its 
bayonet of steel — is better than all mere parch- 
ment guarantees of liberty. In your hands 
that musket menus liberty'; and should vour 
constitutional right at the close of this war be 
denied, which, in the nature of things, it can- 
not be, your brethren are safe while Vou have 
a Constitution which proclaims yotir ri'jht to 
keep and bear arms. [Immense cheerin:r. ] 

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. Headquarters of Commission for United States Colored Troop:: 
No. 1210 Clie£tniit Street, PMladelphia. 

The follo'^-irig is tlie official order autlioriziug tlie recruiting of Colored Troop; : 

Headquakteks of the Aiimy, -j 
-f ( Adjutant General's Ofice, r 

'WAsmxGTON, June ITtli, 1863. J 

• •. General Orders, Ko. ITS. 

. Mr.jor GEORGE L. STEARNS, Assistant Adjutant General United States Volunte^rs^ i.- 
lieiebv announced as Recruiting Commissioner for the United States Colored Troops. Subjec: 
to sucli instructions as lie may from tiino to time receive from tlie Secretary of \Yar. 

By order of the Secretary of War. 



Assistant A'Jjutant- General. 
To Major Gko. L. Steap-xs, Assistant Adjutant-General U. S. Volunteers. 

The undersigned is prepared to issue the proper authorization to colored men to enlist 
recruits for the armies of the United States. He will receive applications from thoso desir- 
ous of being made commissioned officers, and transmit the same to the Board of Inspection 
at "Washington, and Tvill l)e glad to give full information on all matters connected with thi.-: 
branch of the serviee to those who may seek it. 

The undersigned has the co-operation of a committee of sixty citizens of Philadelpbis. 
The agent of the said committee is R. R. CORSON, who is likewise the agent of the under- 

CAMP WILLIAM PENN, at Chelteu Hills, has been selected as the camp for instruction. 
and'.Lieut. Colonel LEWIS WAGNER placed in command of it. All recruits will be mus- 
tered in by companies of eighty men, and by squads, and immediately uniformed, equippsJ; 
and sent to the camp. 

Squads of m ;u will be subsisted until companies are completed by the committee o: 
citizc'us, at sucu localities as their agents may designate. 

Pajjors iu tlie interior of the State will copy this advertisement one time, and send a pap.: 
containing same, with bill, to these Headquarters. 

Communications by letter will be promptly answered. 


Major and A. A. G. Recri:itii:j Commissioner for U. S. Colored Volunteers. 

Ofnce of SupeiAnsory Committee for Recruiting Colored E-egiments. 

Ko. 1210 Chestnut Street, Pliiladelpliia. 

By the existing Militia Laws, the Governor has not the power to accept your servii'- 
for three months. You are, therefore, the more urgently invited to 

under the autliorization of the War Department. * 

Two Dollars premium is paid fur each recruit. 

Ton Dollars Bounty is also paid to each recruit 1'y the undersigned, upon the present;; 
tion of the master iu roll of each full company of eighty men. Proper persons are invited t 
call at tliese Headquarters for authority to r. emit. 


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FEB 96 

Bound -To-Pleasl" N. MANCHESTER 

INDIANA 46962 '