— .1 E 513 .5 6th AN ADDRESS Copy 1 ox THE OCCASION OF DEDICATING THE MONUMENT TO LADD AND WHITNEY, MEMBERS OF THE SIXTH REGIMENT, M. V. M., KILLED AT BALTIMORE, MARYLAND, APRIL 19, 1861. DELIVERED AT LOWELL, MASSACHUSETTS, JUNE 17, 1865. By JOHN A. ANDREW, GOVERNOR OF THE COMMOil WEALTH. BOSTON: WRIGHT & POTTER, STATE PRINTERS, No. 4 SPRING LANE. 18 65. AN ADDRESS ON THE OCCASION OF DEDICATING THE MONUMENT LADD AND WHITNEY, MEMBERS OF THE SIXTH REGIMENT, M. V. M., KILLED AT BALTIMORE, MARYLAND, APRIL 19, 1861. DELIVERED AT LOWELL, MASSACHUSETTS, JUNE 17, 1865. By JOHN A. ANDREW, GOVERNOR OF THE COMMONWEALTH. '^ BOSTON: WRIGHT & POTTER, STATE PRINTERS, No. 4 SPRING LANE. 18 6 6. ^~^\-i ADDRESS. On the 18tli of February, 1861, Jefferson Davis, in the pride of his arrogant pretension, not yet tanght to believe that the Yankees would fight, encouraged in his insolence by the mild loyalty which then pervaded "Washington, ^ew York, and the great cities of the IS'orth, defied their manhood by the exclamation : " The day of compromise is past, and those who now resist us shall smell Southern gunpowder and feel Southern steel." On the 12th day of April, the day when the cannon of treason opened on Fort Sumter, the rebel Secretary of War shouted from the rebel capital at Montgomery: "The war has now commenced; within a month the Confederate flag will float over the dome of the Capitol at Washington, and in the month of May we will dictate terms of peace in Independence Hall, in Philadelphia." And the "Eichmond Whig," reiter- ating this threat, recorded in its conservative col- umns the testimony, that " from the mountain tops and valleys to the shores of the sea, there is one wild shout of firm resolve to capture Washington City at all and every human effort." Before Mr. Buchanan had left the White House, the enemies of our government had ah-eady seized and appropriated more than thirty miUions of dol- lars of public proj)erty of the Union, which, before the Union struck a blow in return, had swelled to forty millions of dollars by the seizure of Gosport navy yard and the arsenal at Harper's Ferry. By the seizure of the mint at Kew Orleans; by the seizure of the arsenal, at Little Rock — accomplished by the strong' hand, notwithstanding Arkansas had refused to secede from the Union; by the dishonest and treacherous transfers made by Secretary Floyd of 115,000 stand of improved rifles and muskets from Springfield armory and "Watervliet arsenal to the different arsenals at the South; by the seizure of the arsenal at Mount Yernon, Alabama; by the military capture of Fort Moultrie and Castle Pinckney, of Fort Pulaski and Fort Morgan, of the forts near JS'ew Orleans, and of at least three different revenue cutters belonging to the revenue service of the Union; by the capture of the navy yard and the defences of Pensacola; by taking possession of the posts, the fortifications and munitions pertaining to the department of Texas, through the treason of General Twiggs ; by filing on the " Star of the "West " more than ninety days j^rior to the assault on Sumter; and by the induction of Jefferson Da^ds at Montgomery two weeks before the inauguration of President Lincoln; by all these the secessionists had signahzed, with proofs man- ifold and unequivocal, their determination to break down the government and fulfil the threats of Da\ds and of the " Eichmond Whig," to bully the ^N'orth into abject submission to the wildest demands of rampant Slavery, or else to light the torch of desolating war. The earliest, manifest, overt act of war, com- mitted in pursuance of the treasonable conspiracy of which the adoption by South Carolina of the "ordinance of secession" was the formal begin- ning, was perhaps the firing on the " Star of the West," on the 9th day of January, 1861. The passage of the ordinance by South Carolina was on the 20th day of December, 1860. But the beginning of the war of the rebellion is usually dated from the 12th day of April, 1861, that being the day when, after long and uninterrupted prepa- ration, the batteries of the rebels opened upon Fort Sumter. On the 15th day of April the President of the United States called upon this Commonwealth for two regiments of militia, and on the next day the call was enlarged to a requisition for a brigade of four regiments, which was assigned to the command of Brigadier-General Benjamin F. Butler, in whose stead, after that ofiicer became a Major-General of volunteers, was detailed Brigadier-General Ebene- zer W. Peh-ce. On the 17th, the Sixth Regiment 6 of Massachusetts Yolunteer Militia, commanded by Col. Edward F. Jones, marched for "Washington by railroad, and two others, the Third, (Col. D. "W. Wardrop,) and Fourth, (Col. A. B. Packard,) moved b}^ sea. On the 18th the Eighth Hegmient marched under Col. Munroe; on the 20th, the Third Battalion of Rifles under Major (now Major-Gren- eral) Devens; and the Fifth Infantry, (Col. Law- rence,) and Cook's Battery of Light Artillery on the early morning of the 21st. Capt. Dodd's company of rifles, as a reinforcement to Devens' Battalion, marched May 1st. Thus rapidly and efficiently was the call of the government responded to by the militia of Massachusetts, and the capital of the nation and Fortress Monroe, which was of far greater military value than Washington, were rescued from muninent danger, at a period when the consequences of ages were crowded upon the efforts of an hour. The events which the transactions of this day, and this Monmuental Shaft are intended to com- memorate, are those which on the 19th of April, 1861, the anniversary of the battle of Lexington, signalized the march of the Sixth Regiment of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia through the City of Baltimore, on its Avay to the rescue of the iSTational Capital. By the memory of those events, preserved by historical tradition after this column shall have dissolved to dust, the men of the Sixth Kegiment will be forever associated Tit^ith the heroism of the Commonwealth, — with the earlier and the later glories of her more fortunate patriotism. The regiment as it was organized for active duty, contamed four companies from the City of Lowell, viz.: — Companies A, C, T> and H, commanded respectively by Captains George M. Dickerman, Albert S. FoUansbee, James "W. Hart and John F. Noyes ; one from Groton, Company B, commanded by Capt. Eusebius S. Clark j one from Acton, Com- pany E, commanded by Capt. Daniel Tuttle; two from Lawi'cnce, Companies F and I, commanded by Captains Benjamin F. Chadboume and John Pick- ering; one attached from Boston, Company K, commanded by Capt. "Walter S. Sampson; one from Stoneham, Company L, commanded by Capt. John H. Dike; one attached from Worcester, com- manded by Capt. Harrison W. Pratt. Its field officers were Col. Edward F. Jones of Pepperell, Lieut. Col. Benj. F. Watson of Law- rence, Major Josiah A. Sawtell of Lowell; and its commissioned stafi" were, Adjutant Alpha B. Farr, of Lowell, Quartermaster James Munroe, of Cam- bridge, Paymaster Pufus L. Plaisted, of Lowell, Surgeon ]N"orman Smith, of Groton, and Chaplain Charles Babbidge, of Pepperell. The regiment reached the City of Baltimore, in the State of Maryland, at noon on the 19th of April. Seven of its companies passed unmolested 8 from the railroad station at which it had arrived from Philadelphia, to the station from which it was to proceed to "Washington. The progress of the cars that contained the fonr remaining companies, — Companies C, D, I, and L, — was checked near the bridge over a sluice-way in Pratt Street, by obstruc- tions thro^vn upon the track, separating them from the main body of the regiment. Thus delayed, these companies dismomited from the cars, and began an orderly march along the liighway, which was presently interrupted by a shower of missiles thrown by the hands of a mob surging around them. Then came a scattering discharge of fire-arms from upj)er windows of houses on the street, as well as from among the mob on the pavement ; and four soldiers fell dead or mortally wounded. The fire of the rebels was at last returned by the troops by order of their officers, and the combat became general. The little column, hardly tAVO hundred strong, steadily pressed its way forward through the mob, and rejomed the main body, but with a loss of more than thirty wounded, in addition to the four killed. That evening, the Sixth Regiment entered the City of Washington, and was quartered in the Senate Chamber of the Capitol, — the herald of those mighty hosts which since have gathered to defend it. The treasonable menaces, the Ordmances of Se- cession, the acts of violence and incipient war, which followed the choice of Presidential Electors in 1860, and cnlminated into flagrant rebellion upon the accession of Abraham Lincoln to the Presi- dency, had attracted the anxious observation of mankind. DS^ever in the history of civilization had interests so manifold, so transcendent, been involved or threatened by the internal disputes of any nation or people. The mdustry of thirty millions of human beings, bond and free, the j)eace, happi- ness and welfare of every household of our conti- nental Republic, the business of the busiest and richest people under the sun, the strength of Republican Grovernment, the validity of Democratic ideas expressed in civil institutions, the success of Liberty, seemed trembling in the balance, where, poised against each other, were the struggling hope of continued peace, and the dismal presage of civil war. With the fortunes of the American Union were involved, by reason of the intimate com- plexity of all human relations in the social and political organization of modern times, the pros- perity, if not the fate, of many nations. The peo- ple of Massachusetts numbered about a million and a quarter of the population of the Union. From the earliest settlement of the country, they had been distinguished in two different, if not opposite ways, which supei-ficial men are apt to think not 10 consistent with each other. I mean in the direc- tion of Industry, and in the du^ection of Ideas. Given to much toil, they vakied gain as an instru- ment of comfort, progress and human development. Devoted to ideas, they worshipped Almighty God in a spirit of reverence, which recognized among the sublime truths of his revelation, the immortal nature conferred on the humblest as well as on the loftiest of manldnd, and they perceived that the glory of the civil State, as well as the Justice of Heaven, demanded the maintenance and security of the inalienable rights of men. In view of the part that people and their fathers had borne, in establishing the original character of American institutions, in securing American Inde- pendence, in founding the !N^ational Government, in creating and directing the great currents of opinion; in view of all the interests and responsi- bilities' which pertained to them, their duty and necessity of intelligent and independent judgment, and of fearless action; the occasion impressed itself upon the people of Massachusetts, stirred heart and conscience, fired every disinterested emotion, stimulated every heroic purpose, and fomid them ready, when the hour struck, to march once more in the cause of liberty and the rights of manMnd, patient to follow, and prepared to lead. Convinced, if I had doubted it before, by events and conversations of which I was personally a wit- 11 ness at Washington, in the month of December, 1860, of the certain coming of the war which ensued, there seemed but two causes of anxiety, with which one needed be disturbed, who beheved m the care of Providence, the safety and the happiness found in the ways of duty, even though rugged and severe. The first ground of apprehension was, that the bolt might fall before the inauguration of President Lincoln should place the symbols of power into his faithful hands. The second gi'ound of appre- hension was, that it might fall upon us, finding no competent body prepared with approj)riate organi- zation, and military array, adequate to maintain the fii-st shoct of arms, and to hold the keys of power and the points of strategy, (whose loss might become fatal to the cause,) while the great body of the people, for the first time truly conscious of the exigency, could be rallied for resistance. The General Court and the Volunteer Mititia of Massachusetts, promptly cooperated in the needful work of preparation. And when the electric sum- mons of the 15th of April came to our citizen soldiers, citing them to the field, a brigade was ready to march, almost like veterans from their garrison ; and even the very exigency of an inter- ruption of the means of transportation through Maryland, contemplated in the month of January before, was seasonably met, according to the sug- gestion at that time made by Lieut.-General Scott, 12 by providing for the transit of troops by water carriage down the Susquehanna, and around to Annapohs, within one day's forced march, of Washington. The tragedy, the triumph, the glory of these four intervening years, the terrible and the consoling experiences they have w^rought, are too near to us in time, and then' scenes and emotions are in too vi\id and distracting contact yet, for their portrayal by pencil, tongue or pen. But removed from their immediate presence, the poetic sense will hereafter perceive them in their more just proportions. It is not the photograph, with its rigid severity of out- line and superficial accuracy, but the work of imaginative art which produces in truest reality the forms of beauty illmninated by the inspiring soul. It is not for me to attempt to separate the be^vil- derin^ masses of transactions and emotions through which we have lived, nor to rise above the influ- ences of those recent events which at present con- trol alike the imagination and the reason. But while I confess the impossibility of "executing such a task in any manner becoming the occasion, I may testify to the impressions stamped forever on our memories and on our hearts by that great week in April, when Massachusetts rose up at the sound of the cannonade of Sumter, and her militia brigade springing to their arms appeared on Boston Com- 13 mon. It redeemed the meanness and the weariness of many a prosaic hfe. It was a revelation of a pro- found sentiment, of manly faith, of glorious fidelity and of a love stronger than death. Those wore days of which none other in the history of the war became the j)arallel. And when on the evening of the anniversary of the battle oY Lexington, there came the news along the wires that the Sixth Regi- ment had been cutting its way through the streets of Baltimore, whose jDavements were reddened with the blood of Middlesex, it seemed as if there descended into our hearts a mysterious strength and into our mmds a supernal illumination. In many trjnng experiences of the war we have watched by starlight as well as sunlight the doubtful fortunes of our arms. But never has the news of \dctory, decisive and grand, — not even that of Gettysburg, on which hung issues more tremen- dous than ever depended on the fortunes of a single battle-field, — so lifted us above oiu'selves, so trans- formed our earthly weakness into heavenly might, by a glorious transfiguration. The citizens of yes- terday were to-day the heroes whom history would never forget; and the fallen brave had put on the croA\m of martyrdom, more worthy than a hundred mortal diadems. Their blood alone was precious enough to wipe out the long arrears of shame. The great and necessary struggle was begun, ■without which we were a disgraced, a doomed, a 14 ruined people. "We had reached the partmg of the ways ; and we had not hesitated to choose the right one. Oh ! it is terrible, beyond expression terrible, to feel that only war, with all its griefs and pains and crunes, will save a people ; but how infinitely greater than the dread and the dismay with which we thought of war, was the Aope of that salvation. It was on the first day of May that Massachusetts received back to her soil the remains of these, her children, over whom we rear this momunent. One of the dead still sleeps at Baltunore. The mangled bodies of the other three, transported hither under charge of one of their fellow-soldiers, reached the State capital just before sunset, where they were received by the Governor of the Com- monwealth, and were escorted through streets draped in emblems of mourning and lined by thou- sands of citizens with uncovered heads and moist- ened eyes, to the " Yassal tomb " beneath the ancient " King's Chapel." On the way they were borne past the State House over the same ground where twelve days before they had stood to receive the flag which they swore to defend, and which they had died defending. Of these three martyi's, the name of but one was known — that of Su]\rN:ER Henry ^N^eediiam, of Lawrence. The rolls of the regiment were cut oif with its baggage, in the struggle at Baltimore. But had not this accident occurred, they might 15 have failed to a£ford means of identifying the re- mains; for in the haste of the original assembling and movuig of the regiment they had escaped careful revision. Some men had discarded the implements and clothing of peace, and fallen mto the ranks, on its march across the city, the very hour of its departure. In those early days, when the nation was wavering between life and death, we did not waste time on forms. "We were asked to send two regiments of troops as soon as we could. We did send five regiments, and more, sooner than the country had believed was possible to any State; but in accomplishing that, we neglected formali- ties which would have been mdispensible under an exigency less tremendous. Therefore it was, that two of the three corpses, — the same two wliich have mouldered into these ashes, in the presence of which we stand — ^lay before us that May evening, without a name. Later in the night, imder the direction of officers of the Head-quarters' staff of Massachusetts, and in the presence of the Mayors of the cities of Lawrence and of Lowell, these bodies were identified, and the names of Luthee Ceawpoed Ladd and Addisoi^ Otis "Whitxey, two young mechanics, both of Lowell, were added to that of iN'eedham. And, completing the four, is the name of Chaeles A. Tayloe, whose residence and family even now remain unkno^vn. 16 To complete the historical record of the humble men who thus, by a fortunate and glorious death have made their names imperishable, let us re\dew the brief stories of thek lives. They are quickly told. They are simple in incident; and they are characteristic of ^ew England. Little is kno^vn of Taylor, except that his trade was that of a decorative painter. The most careful inqmi-ies of his officers have failed to discover his residence or liis origin. On the evening of April 16th he presented himself at Boston, in the hall where the regiment was quartered, and was enrolled as a volunteer. He appeared to be about twenty- five years of age. His hair was light; his eyes blue. After he fell on the pavement at Baltimore on the afternoon of April 19th, his brutal murderers beat him with clubs until life was extinct. Needham was born March 2d, 1828, at Bethel, a little town lying under the shadow of the White Mountains, on the banks of the Androscoggin River, in the County of Oxford, in the State of Maine. About 1850 he came to Lawrence, in Massachusetts, and engaged in his trade there, as a plasterer. After he fell mortally wounded at Balti- more, he Avas removed to the Infirmary, where he lingered until April 27th, when he died. His remams lie at Lawrence, where his wife and child reside. 17 Luther Crawford (son of John and Fanny) Ladd was born at Alexandria, near the Merrunack River, in the County of Grafton, in the State of N"ew Hampshire — where his parents still reside — on the 22d day of December, 1843, being the anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrims. Addison Otis (son of John F. and Jane B.) "Wniitney was borh October 30th, 1839, at Waldo, in the comity of the same name, which borders on the Penobscot River, near where it joins the sea, in the State of Maine. Both died unmarried. Tliese brief lives offer no incidents that are not common to most of the ingenuous young men of 'Ne^Y England. Born of honest parentage, the 3^outh of both Ladd and "Wliitney was passed by the side of the great rivers, and the sea, and the mountains of ISTew England, and was nurtured in correct principles and fair ambition, by the teaching of free schools, until, arrived at manhood, and attracted by the opportunities of the great mechanical establishments of the eastern counties of Massachusetts, they came to Lowell, and were employed, the first in a machine shop, the second in the spinning-room of one of its manufactories. Their companions in toil and in social life testify to their exemplary habits, their amiable disposition, and their laudable industry. And thus they were engaged, constant in work, hopeful of long life, and confident of the 18 success which is everywhere in ^ew England the fruit of free and honest labor, when the sudden summons reached them to take up arms for their country. They never faltered for one moment in simple-hearted patriotism, and loyal obedience. At Lowell, on the 15th day of April, they dropped the garb of the artisan, and assumed that of the citizen-soldier. Four days afterwards at Balti- more, their mortal bodies, bruised and lifeless, lay on the bloody stones of Pratt Street, the victims of the brutal mob. Both "Wliitney and Ladd were young, and moved by a dauntless enthusiasm. "Whitney was but twenty-one years of age, and Ladd was only in his eighteenth year. "Whitney joined the Lowell City Guards (Co. D, of the Sixth Kegiment,) in the summer of 1860. He attended muster with the regiment that year, and was discharged early in the winter of 1861, because he was learning a trade, and could ill afford the time and expense of membership. On the call of the Governor on the regimental commanders, in March, 1861, to ascertain how many men in their commands would be ready for active service in case they should be needed, Whitney promptly came forward, and signified his willingness to obey the summons. He signed the rolls of the company with the understanding that if it should not be wanted he should be discharged. On the evening 19 of April 15th, when the order came for the regi- ment to get ready to leave the following day, he was among the first to put on his uniform. In company with a comrade, he left the armory about two o'clock' during the night of the 16th, for the purpose of procuring his photograph in the early morning, and he w^as at his company post promptly at the time appointed. In passing through Baltimore he was on the left of the first section, and while marching through Pratt Street, near the bridge, w^as seen to fall. Some of his comrades, thinking he had stumbled, tried to assist him, but finding he was dead, they left him where he fell. A bullet had pierced his right breast, passing down the body, causing instant death. The shot was undoubtedly fired from the upper window of a house. The coat which he wore was found stripped of every' button, cut ofi" by the mob. The place in the coat where the bullet entered is plainly visible, saturated with his blood. The precise manner of the death of Ladd is known by the bullet-holes, of which there are several, through the coat and the overcoat he wore, and by their gory stains. He is reported to have cultivated a strong taste for historical reading, and from his earliest boyhood to have entered with ardor into the study of our national affairs. He enlisted in the City Guards, at Lowell, three months before his death, on the occasion of the 20 appearance of the General Order of that year from the Commonwealth Head-quarters, already alluded to, and known as Order l^o. 4; and he expressed his desu-e to jom that company most likely to be called to active duty. By his youth he was legally exempt from military service ; and his friends would have dissuaded hmi at last from assuming its hard- ships and perils. But he met their persuasions by an appeal to the flag of his country whose fortunes he declared that he would surely follow. And when the fatal bullets had smitten him and he lay struggling with death, of a sudden the vision of his country's flag seemed to flash before him, as a momentary glory and delight, and exclaiming aloud, with his dying voice, " All hail to the Stripes and Stars ! " the soldier-boy ended his brief campaign. The public opinion that permitted this tragedy derives its interpretation from public documents and ofiicial action which leave no doubt of the value of the Massachusetts Militia to the Union cause, no doubt of the danger their service averted, no doubt of the urgent necessity of that very march through Baltimore, no doubt that it was the hinge on which turned the ultimate fate of Maryland, and perhaps of the Union. Our Militia were ready not a day too soon, nor were they an hour too late. The people of Baltimore, so tele- graphed the Mayor, to myself, on the 20th of April, regarded the passage of armed troops of 21 another State through then- streets, as an invasion of their soil, and could not be restrained. The Governor of Maryland and the Mayor of Baltimore represented to President Lincoln that the people were exasperated to the highest degree by the pres- ence of the troops, and that it was not possible for more soldiers to pass through Baltimore. They remonstrated against the transit of more soldiers, and they required that the troops already in the State be sent back to its borders. In reply to the Mayor of Baltimore the Governor of Massa- chusetts telegraphed: " I am overwhelmed with sur- prise that a peaceful march of American citizens over the highway to the defence of our common capital should be deemed aggressive to Balti- moreans. Through ^ew York their march was. triumphal." The loyal people of the Union shared this sur- prise, and exhibited it through the public press, in public meetings, in cordial response to the Presiden- tial proclamation, and by promptly raising troojDS for three months' service. The affair of the 19th of April was observed throughout the country with inexpressible emotion. The patience and valor of the Sixth Regunent excited the emulation of their comrades everywhere. By the 11th of May, the forces under General Butler, from differ- ent States, within what was then termed the mili- tary department of Annapolis, enabled hun to 22 occupy with a cletacliinent of his command, Federal Hill, in the corporate limits of Baltimore, for the purpose, among other tilings, of enforcing respect and obedience to the laws of the United States. And on that day, the Governor of Maryland issued his Proclamation for four regiments of the IMary- land Militia to serve as three months' volunteers, either within the limits of Maryland or for the defence of the Capital of the United States, subject to the orders of the Commander-in-Chief of the Army. The effort to prevent the transit of the loyal vol- unteers soon terminated; but the same temper of mind which excited the attack on the Sixth Regi- ment, and would have forbidden to the nation the .movement of troops for its own necessary pro- tection, over highways common to all the peo23le, had possession for the time of the Legislature at Annapolis. On May Ittth, 1861, the General Assembly of Maryland passed Resolves declaring that — " the war now waged by the goyernment of the United States upon the people of the Confederated States is unconstitutional in its origin, repugnant to civilization and sound policy, subversive of the free principles upon which the Federal Union was founded, and certain to result in the hopeless and bloody overthrow of our existing institutions." That— " the people of Maryland * * * sympathize deeply with their Southern brethren in their noble and manly determination to uphold and defend the great American principle of self-government." 23 That— "the State of Maryland * * * registers her solemn protest against the Avar which the Federal government has declared upon the Confederate States of the South, and our sister and neighbor, Virginia, and announces her resolute determination to have no part or lot, directly or indirectly, in its prosecution." That— " the Senators and Delegates of Maryland do fervently beseech and implore the President of the United States, * * in the name of God and humanity, to cease this unholy and most wi-etched and unprofitable strife." That— " the State of Maryland desires the peaceful and immediate recog- nition of the independence of the Confederate States, and hereby gives her cordial consent thereunto." On June 22cl, 1861, the same Assembly passed Kesolves "earnestly desiring and requesting" its Senators in Congress "to urge and vote for an immediate recognition of the mdependence of the Goyermnent of the Confederate States of Ame- rica," declaring, also, " that the right of separation from the Federal Union is a rio^ht neither arismo: under nor prohibited by the Constitution, but a sovereign right, independent of the Constitution, to be exercised by the several States uj^on their own responsibility;" and "in favor of the re- cognition of the Southern Confederacy and an acknowledgment of its government." But meanwhile the struggle between secession and the Union had been going on among the j^eoiDle. Time for reflection, oiDportunity for debate, had 24 been gained. By vigorous national measures the tide of evil had been stayed; and Maryland, which might like other States have been hurled into dis- union by precipitate legislation, had been saved. The next legislature earnestly began to retrieve the past. In December, 1861, by an order of the House of Delegates of the General Assembly, its Committee on the Militia was instructed "to confer with the Governor of Massachusetts and learn the condition of the widows and orphans, or any dependents of those patriots who were so brutally murdered in the riot of the 19th of April." The Chairman of the Committee, John Y. L. Findlay, Esq., of the Baltimore 43ar, in his communication to the Governor, reciting that " the loyal people of Maryland, and especially of the city of Baltimore, after long suffering, are at length able through a Union Legislature to put themselves in a proper relation to the Government and the country," stated that "in effecting the latter, they feel their first duty is to Massachusetts. They are anxious to wipe out the foul blot of the Baltimore riot as soon as it can be wiped out, and as soon as possible." In his reply to this communication the Governor informed Mr. Findlay that he had addressed the Mayors of Lawi^ence and Lowell on the subject of his inquiries, and added — "The past cannot be forgotten, but it can and will be forgiven; and in 25 the good Providence of God I believe that the day is not distant when the blood that was shed at Baltimore by those martyrs to a cause as holy as any for which sword was ever drawn, shall be known to have cemented in an eternal union of sympathy, affection, and nationality, the sister States of Maryland and Massachusetts." Upon the receipt from the Mayors, of the infor- mation desired, it was promptly communicated to the Maryland Committee. On the 5th of March, 1862, an Act was passed by the General Assembly of Maryland, by which after a preamble setting forth that "whereas the Sixth Kegiment of Massachusetts Volunteers on their way to defend the National Capital were brutally attacked by a mob in the streets of Baltunore on the 19th of April, 1861," and "the State of Mary- land is anxious to do something to efface that stain from her hitherto untarnished honor," the sum of seven thousand dollars was appropriated and placed at the disposal of the Governor of Massachusetts to be disbursed by him for the relief of the families of those soldiers who were then killed or disabled' by their wounds. This magnanimous Act was suitably acloiowl- edged by the General Court of Massachusetts, in Kesolves approved on April 30th, and transmitted to the Governor of Maryland, and by him laid before the General Assembly of that State. 26 These Resolves declared that "the people of Massa- chusetts will welcome with sincere and cordial satis- faction this evidence of the generous sympathy of the people of Maryland, which will tend to restore and strengthen that Idnd and fraternal feeling which should ever exist between the citizens of the different States of the Union." The fund thus appropriated was distributed under the dh^ection of the Governor, to the sur- viving families of l^eedliam, Ladd and "Whitney, and to seventeen of the woimded, by an informal commission, composed of Messrs. John JN'esmith, the Lieutenant-Governor, and James M. Shute and Gerry W. Cochrane, members of the Executive Council, whose discriminating and benevolent care deserve our grateful recognition. Maryland at last had attained a firm position against secession, and in general support of the JSTational Government. But the regeneration of the State was yet incomplete. The General As- sembly had in December, 1861, appointed a Com- mittee "to proceed forthwith to Washington and request an interview with Major-General McClellan and solicit the adoption of some plan to prevent the admission of fugitive slaves within the lines of the army." In March, 1862, they had "seen with concern, certain indications at the seat of the general gov- ernment of an interference with the institution of 27 slavery in the slaveliolding States," and bore solemn testimony against "a policy so unwise and mis- cliieyons." During that session, they made formal appeal to the people of the l^orthern States " to discontinue by every means in their power all attempts to revive the agitation of slavery." They called upon the Korth "to rebuke in an unmistakable manner those of their Eepresenta- tives in Congress who are wasting their time in devising schemes for the abolition of slavery in the rebellious States." And they announced that they "witness with great regret the efforts which are now making for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia." But Maryland was not singular in her reluctance. As yet the pohcy of the Nation was undefined. Nor did it reach the dignity of positive justice, clearly pronounced, until by the great Proclamation of Liberty, the Government- became anchored to an immortal thought, and decreed Emancipation. By that act the President ascended a height more lofty than Federal Hill. He rose to the serene heights of Zion, received light and knowledge and power from an Eternal Source, fixed by a word the moral judgment of mankind in sympathy with our national cause, secured the verdict of histoiy and the prayers 28 of the good in every land, and humbly awaited " the gracious favor of Almighty God." Among the early results was the conversion of Maryland, despite her former legislative resolves, to a free Commonwealth. The Proclamation, pow- erless to emancipate the slaves in loyal States, had not unlocked the fetters of the Maryland slave. But by magnetic sympathy its idea had seized the minds of those who controlled the State, and a new constitution, of which the policy of Emanci- pation was the soul, became the consequence. The new constitution, framed by a convention which met the 27th of April, 1864, was introduced by a declaration of rights, the first article of which is in these significant words : — " We hold it to be self-evident that all men are created equally free ; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalien- able rights, among which are life, liberty, the enjoyment of the proceeds of their own labor, and the pursuit of liappiness." The tAventy-fourth article of the declaration reads : — " That hereafter, in this State, there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except in punishment of crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted ; and all persons held to ser- vice or labor as slaves are hereby declared free." And the thirty-sixth section of the third article of the constitution declares: — " The General Assembly shall pass no law, nor make any appro- priation to compensate the mastei's or claimants of slaves emanci- pated from servitude by the adoption of this constitution." 29 Submitted to the adjudication of the people, this charter was adopted by their vote, and became the constitution of Maryland, taking effect on the first day of N^oyember in the year 1864. 'No hand of menace or threat of vengeance was ever raised by Massachusetts. She fulfilled her duty to the country by the march of her militia. She maintained her fidelit}'^ to the Union and to her sister Commonwealth. She awaited the time when History should become the vindicator of her conduct and avenge the blood of her children. N^or was the waiting vain. No sweeter triumph could have blessed her. The slaughter of her sons was disavowed and atoned for. The Government of the State called out four regiments to march shoulder to shoulder with our militia whose recall it had at first demanded. Secession was replaced by resolves and deeds in support of the war for the Union. Our own doctrines and principles con- cerning human liberty, so long denounced and despised, were embodied by the people of Mary- land in their fundamental law. And finally, in her ratification on February 3d, 1865, of the Amendment of the Constitution of the United States abolishing slavery throughout the Union, Maryland led by her example Massachusetts her- self. From the hour when your martyred brethren fell in Pratt Street, the redemption of Maryland — the salvation of one of the "Old Thirteen," 30 whose ancient fame is one with ours — and the emancipation of her bondmen, were secure. The result came hke the fulfihnent of prophecy. It was the working of the wisdom and the love of God overruling the devices of men. Friends and Fellow-citizens: — The limits of the occasion forbid me to invade the j^roper domain of history. I must not try to recount the story of the regiment during its three months of ser\ice, nor even allude to the incidents illustrating the careers of the organizations which composed our militia brigade. I seek not to divert your thoughts from the transactions around which centre the interests and emotions of this hour of commemoration. Ages shall elapse before eloquent tongues shall cease to discourse on the ever new and varying attractions of the heroic themes fur- nished by the deeds of all the soldiers of the Union. But this hour is sacred to the memories of the 19th of April, to the action and passion of that day in Baltimore, to the relation borne by the events of that day to those which surrounded and followed them, and to their significance in the grand drama of wliich they formed the introduction. Let this monument, raised to preserve the names of Ladd and Whitney, — the two young artisans of Lowell, who fell among the first martyrs of the great rebellion, — let this monument, now dedicated 31 to theii* memory, stand for a thousand generations ! It is another shaft added to the monumental col- umns of Middlesex. Henceforth shall the inhabi- tants of Lowell guard for Massachusetts, for patriotism, and for liberty, this sacred trust, as they of Acton, of Lexington, of Concord, protect the votive stones which commemorate the men of AprU, '75. Let it stand, as long as the Merrunac runs from the mountains to the sea; wliile this busy stream of hmnan life sweeps on by the banks of the river, bearing to eternity its freight of destiny and hope. It shall speak to yoiu- children, not of Death, but of Immortality. It shall stand here, a mute, expres- sive witness of the beauty and the dignity of 3^outh and manly prime consecrated in unselfish obedience to Duty. It shall testify that gratitude will re- member, and praise will wait on the hmublest, who, by the intrinsic greatness of their souls, or the worth of their ofierings, have risen to the sublmie peerage of Yutue.