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Pursuant to a public notice, given by a committee appointed by Mr* 
Graham's class, a meeting was held at Masonic Hall, in Providence, 
March 4th, 1834, composed of a large number of individuals of both 
sexes, who had attended the lectures of Sylvester Graham, on [the 
Science of Human Life, and who approved of bis System of instruc- 
tion — at which meeting, resolutions reported by the Committee, con- 
sisting of Rev. Thomas Williams, James Scott, and Stanford Newel t 
were unanimously adopted, as follows : 

* 1. Resolved, That the Letures which Mr. Graham has delivered 
in this city, have not merely equalled, but highly exceeded the expec- 
tations we had foVmed respecting the nature, the [objects and impor- 
tance of his system. 

2. Resolved, That while we are deeply sensible of the misappre- 
hensions and misrepresentations that exist in respect to Mr. Graham, 
and his objects and sentiments, among persons who have not had an 
opportunity or an inclination to obtain information on these subjects ; 
yet, we are persuaded that the sentiments and practices which he incul- 
cates in his " Lectures on the Science of Human Life," accord 
with the fundamental principles of physiology, and the laws of our 
nature, resulting from our compound and wonderful existence. 

3. Resolved^ That in our judgment, the System which Mr. Graham 
scientifically and experimentally illustrates and enforces, is essential 
to the continuance and prevalence of the reformation which has hap- 
pily commenced and rapidly advances, with the progress of knowledge 
and virtue, liberty and happiness among mankind. 

4. Resolved, therefore, That' we cheerfully contribute our testimony, 
to sustain and extend the reputation of Mr. Graham, as a Public Lec- 
turer en the Science of Human Life, from a deep solicitude that our 


Allow men may receive as extensively as possible, the benefits which 
his instructions are calculated to produce, in reference to their material, 
mental, and moral capacities, obligations, interests and enjoyments. 

5. Resolved, That in acknowledgement of the benefits we have re- 
ceived from the Lectures of Mr. Graham, we are desirous of presen- 
ting to him some proper and permanent testimonial of our esteem, 
friendship, and cordial approbation of his character and conduct, as 
they have been publicly and privately exhibited, during his residence 
in this city. 

. 6.- Resolved, That we are persuaded that happy results will arise 
from a candid and rational experiment of the System which Mr. Gra- 
ham enforces ; of the good effects of which, in the economy of hu- 
man life, there are many living and grateful witnesses. 

7. Resolved) That the preceding resolutions be signed J>y the Chair- 
man and Secretary of this meeting, and presented to Mr. Graham, and 
also that they be published. 

A Committee was appointed to carry the fifth resolution into effect, 

by appropriating, under instruction, the amount subscribed. 

S. NEWELL, Chairman. 
WM. S. PATTEN, Secretary. 

At an adjourned meeting, holden at Masonic Hall, March 15, 1834, 
a beautiful silver Fruit Basket, and an elegantly bound copy of Dr. 
Noah Webster's quarto Dictionary, were presented to Mr. Graham, 
in fulfilment of the above fifth resolution. 

At the close of Mr. Graham's Course of Lectures in Brunswick, 
Maine, the meeting was called to order by Dr. Lincoln, and his Ex- 
cellency, Gov. Dunlap was called to the Chair. 

Professor Mussey, M. D., Prof. McKemo, M. D., J. Page, M. D. t 
L Lineda, M. D., S. P. Cushman, M. D., Prof. Newman, Gen. 
Afc B. Thompson, Humphrey Purinton and Charles Thompson, 
Eaqre., were appointed a committee to draw up resolutions expressive 
of As opinion which the meeting entertained concerning the lectures 
delivered by Mr. Graham. 

The committee haying fulfilled this duty, Prof. Mussey, as chairman 
of the Committee, reported the following resolutions, which were 

unanimously adopted, with the exception of one or two individual*, 
by the meeting, consisting of more than three hundred people. 

Resolved, That we entertain a high sense of our obligations to Mr. 
Graham for his Lectures on the Science of Human Life, in which 
the laws of the vital economy have been explained and elucidated by 
a great variety fc of original, striking and happy illustrations. 

Resolved, That in our judgment, the principles taught by Mr. Gra- 
ham, are founded on the organization and physiological condition of 
the human body, and that the universal extension of them, is essential 
to the completion of the reformation now in progress, and to the high- 
est earthly welfare of the human family. 

JOHN COBURN, Secretary. 
May Uth, 1834. 

The undersigned, Members of the Portland Medical Association, 
having attended Mr. Graham's Lectures on the Science of Human 
Life, are happy to concede, that many of his most valuable doctrines 
are peculiarly his own, and, so far as we know, are not to be found in 
Medical Books, as has been asserted by many who bave not attended 
his lectures. The assertion therefore, that Mr. Graham's Lectures 
are made up of materials already before the public, is, we believe, 

We regard his System as embracing the very best interests of the 
human race ; for we cannot doubt, that if his doctrines in respect to 
the diet and general regimen should be universally adopted, the cause 
of temperance and morality would be essentially promoted, and the 
physician's services rarely needed. 

His anatomical and physiological illustrations are entirely correct, 
and his demonstrations of the sympathetic relations of the organs of 
organic vitality are intensely interesting. 
Portland July 22, 1S34. 











OF. fllE 





"Ah! in what pcrila is vain life cnpag'd! 
What slight neglects, what trivial faults destroy 
The hardiest frame! of indolence, of toil ^ ^* 
\Ve die ; of want, of superfluity : ** 

Tho all-surrounding heaven, the vital air, 
Is big with death." 


1 No. 257 Hudson-Stiect. 



MxoC Sc*9 . // 








* mi 

u Entered on the 7th day of August, 1835, according to Act of 
Congress, by William Applegate, in the office of the Clerk of the 
Southern District of New York.* 



Several years have now elapsed since a public Lec- 
turer on the Science of Human Life, known as the 
** Rev. Sylvester Graham,*ventured to address the citizens 
of New- York on the interesting subject of Diet and 
Regimen. He endeavored to establish the proposition, 
that a law of relation existed between man, and every 
external object by which he is surrounded ; and that, 
as a consequence, the human body could only be pro- 
perly nourished by such materials as were adapted, by 
this law, to his organization ; the violation of which in- 
duced disease, in number and variety, which terminated 
in death, painful and premature. 

. > When we reflect upon the appalling fact, that sensu- 
ality is the prevaihgg vice of the age, and that Luxury 
reigns triumphant in the civilized world, will it appear 
surprising that the heterodox opinions expressed by the 
lecturer above alluded to, should have created an ex- 
citement in the minds of his hearers ? many of whom, 
most probably in the enthusiasm of the moment, em- 
braced, with ardor, a system that promised such inesti- 
mable benefits, only to relapse into their former habits, 
when the warmth of their zeal had abated : while others, 
deeply impressed with the simplicity and abstract beauty 
of a natural system of diet, and aware that, in point of 
economy, it offered the most powerful aid to the phi- 
lanthropist, devoutly adopted and rigidly adhered to it. 
The debauchee, and the glutton, too, in numbers, who 
were suffering with chronic maladies, startled at the 
prospect of a speedy termination to their mis-spent 
lives, resorted to an abstemious course of life as the 
only means of relief; some of these have persevered, 
and arc now restored to health, while the remainder, 
too far confirmed in unnatural habits to admit the con- 
tinuance of a reformation, have cither descended, or 
are fast approaching, to an untimely grave : and many 
more, though thev acknowledged the truth of tlv» ri^~- 


trines ailv.'inrcd, yet, destitute of that moral courage so 
indispensable in the art of self-government, framed to 
themselves, and adopted, various excuses for the non- 
observance of dietetic rules. The great mass of the 
populace, however, given up, as they were, to the con- 
trol of factitious appetites, could scarcely have been 
expected to listen to arguments proposed in defence of 
a system, the adoption of which would have deprived 
them of one of the greatest of their enjoyments, the 
gratification of the palate. But, there ware some, who, 
though they could not openly refute the positions which 
Mr. Graham was endeavoring to maintain, took advan- 
tage of every opportunity to frustrate his efforts, by in- 
sidious attacks on his character, and expressions of 
doubt as to the purity of his motives. They pointed 
out his faults, which they wilfully exaggerated and cen- 
sured, and labored, most uncharitably, to bring his doc- 
trines into disrepute, by attaching odium to his private 
character ; but, would it not have been more rational to 
have adopted that virtuous maxim, " principles — not 
men," and to have refrained from associating the opin- 
ions of any individual, on an important subject, with his 
peculiar, and, perhaps, educational or accidental traits ? 
" Reformers, in all ages, whatever has been their ob- 
ject, have been unpiticd martyrs, and the multitude haVe 
evinced a savage exultation in their sacrifice," from a 
principle of hostility to all innovations ; more especially 
if they strike at the root of habits of early association, 
however vicious or degrading. Whether their object be 
pure, or otherwise, they must receive the derisions of 
the multitude, and be contented to submit, in silence, to 
a misrepresentation of motives by the selfish, and to 
censure and abuse from the sensual and ignorant ; yet, 
if they persevere ' in their benevolent enterprises, shall 
they sink for want of assistance ? We may reasonably 
trust otherwise, while there arc, of the virtuous and en- 
lightened, thpsc who will sustain them in their noble ef- 
forts to support the cause of temperance, be its enemies, 
the slaves of appetite, never so busily engaged in ridi- 
culing its doctrines, and villifying its promulgators* 


It is to correct these erroneous prejudices that I have 
ventured to appeal to the public, by candidly stating the 
principal views of Mr. Graham, on the interesting ques- 
tion of health and disease ; and, if I fail in the attempt, 
I shall still have the satisfaction, myself, of realizing that 
my intentions arc upright, and my belief sincere ; and, 
under the circumstances that I offer my views and ex- ' 
periencc, I am unwilling to believe that they will not be ' 
properly appreciated. I feel, however, that my aid, in 
the advancement of so important an undertaking, can 
be but feeble ; and, for that reason, have preferred the 
selection of numerous extracts, from medical writers and 
authors of celebrity, to the production of a work entirely 
original, and unsupported by any other than my own 
authority. Relying upon theindulgencc of its readers. I 
confidently offer this little book for their perusal, with the 
hope that its defects may not be too severely criticized. 



"» . • ' 




f . 



"He has east nature off, which was his shield 
And nature casts him off, who is her shame." 

Whenever the mind is released from the restraint 
imposed upon it by prejudice and public opinion, it be- 
comes an instructive, although a melancholy occupation, 
to contemplate the situation of that wayward being — 
man; to observe his habits, to note his peculiarities, to 
investigate his social relations, and to contrast him, as 
he now is, with what he once was, and might have been, 
had he never deviated from the path of nature. 

When we perceive a being, endowed with intellectual 
faculties of so exalted a character as to entitle him to 
the highest rank in the scale of animate existence— a 
being who can render nature's productions subservient 
to his will, who is capable of continued enjoyment, and 
who knows no real obstacle to unlimited pleasure — is it 
not surprising that such a being should be a solitary 
sufferer ; that he, alone, of all the animated race should 
be unhappy ? Can we believe that the superiority of his 
mind, and his more delicate and beautiful organization, 
subjects him to suffering and pain, inflicts upon him nu- 
merous and complicated diseases, and yields him a prey 
to* the dominion of the wildest passions ? No ! philoso- 
4 phy never taught such a doctrine, reason rejects it, and 
a khowledge of natural laws, and their uniformity, forbids 
the conclusion. Compelled to abandon the idea, that 
Nature has 

•• on Man, aione, 
Partial, in canselcss malice, wantonly 
Ileap'd ruin, vice, and slavery ; his soul 
Blasted with withering curses ; placed afar 
The meteor happiness, that shuns his grasp," 


Where bhall we occk for the cuugc ? To what attribute 
the heart-rending scenes of suffering and disease that 
daily obtrude themselves upon our notice ? Shall we be 
told, by the victims of gluttony and intemperance, who 
submit to the worst of evils under a false impression that 
they arc the greatest of benefits — shall we be told by them 
that the same power which filled the world with every 
tiling calculated to gratify the wants of man, and to con- 
tribute to his Jjappincss, could have been so inconsistent 
and capricious as to counterbalance the pleasure he en- 
joys, with sickness and pain ? Or, rather, shall we not 
believe, that every deviation from a strict conformity 
with those laws which nature first prescribed for the pre- 
servation of man, is succeeded by a punishment, propor- 
tioned to the extent and duration of such transgression ? 
And should not every philanthropist, throughout the 
land, lend his aid to check the causes of human misery, 
when, in the .precepts and examples of the resolute and 
good, seems to rest our only hopes of the future re- 
demption of our almost fallen race ? Alas ! how often 
is it otherwise — how often do our pseudo-moralists weep 
over human frailties, lamenting the prevalence of vice, 
regretting that there is no remedy for crime, and igno- 
rantly asserting the palpable error, that man, intellectual 
man, is naturally a depraved being. 

Poets, of all ages, disgusted with the corrupt state of 
society, have delighted in the most romantic conceptions 
of primaeval simplicity, and the condition of man while 
yet in a state of nature. Whether the original inhabi- 
tants of the earth ever deserved the encomiums that their 
supposed innocence, happiness, and perfect state of 
health, have so often elicited, we, of the present age, 
may have no right to assert. But the traditions of al- 
most every nation seem to corroborate the belief, that * 
there was a time when man was free from disease, and a 
perfect stranger to vice. The corruption of his nature 
appears to have been the result of a gradual alteration 
in his habits of life, and a corresponding change in the 
climates of the earth, produced by some violent con- 
vulsion of nature. It has been supposed that this change 


occuired during a deluge, and that previous to that event 
there were no variations in the seasons. Deeply im- 
pressed with this belief, the poet remarks— 

" The Seasons since, have* with severer sway* 
Oppressed a broken world : the Winter keen 
Shook forth his waste of snows, and Summer shot 
His pestilential heats* Great Spring, before, 
Green'd all the year; and fruits and blossoms blueh'd* 
In social sweetness on the self-same bough. 
Pure was the terap'rate air ; aa even calm 
Perpetual reign'd, save what the zephyrs bland 
BreathM o'er the blue expanse; lor then, nor storms 
Were taught to blow, nor hurricanes to race ; 
Sound slept the waters ; no sulphureous glooms 
SwelFd in the sky, and sent the lightning forth; 
While sickly damps, and cold, autumnal fogs 
Hung not, relaxing, on the springs of life." 

Perhaps the conceptions of the poet owed their origin 
to a belief, that no Eden could have existed where ex- 
tremes of heat and cold, and sudden changes of climate, 
left the body a prey to those agents that are constantly 
tending to its destruction : what foundation he had for 
such belief a little observation will soon determine, since 
a warm and temperate climate seems more congenial to 
the feelings of man than the cold, damp, and changeable 
one in which he now exists. 

Coeval, almost, with the belief in a perpetually mild 
and salubrious atmosphere, was the opinion, so exten- 
sively entertained, of the simplicity of diet in the primi- 
tive ages. It is supposed that man originally subsisted 
on those productions of the earth which grew without 
cultivation, and required no artificial preparation to ren- 
der them adapted to the supply of his wants. From 
some unknown cause, however, a gradual change took 
place in the dietetic habits of the human race, followed 
by a consequent degeneracy ; and now, 

" These white, unblemished manners, whence 
The fabling poets took their golden age, 
Are found no more amid these iron times, 
These dregs of life.*' 


When Luxury, soft enervating Luxury, had once 
gained admission among the societies of men, she waved 


fi>' effects of Lvxtnrev 

her vampyre wiag, and killed her victims into a fafal 
security, while she employed herself in the accomplish- 
ment of their destructiem. As luxury prevailed, the fru- 
gal board, once spread with* naftare's* simple bounties, 
gave place to costly tables, loaded with sumptuous viands 
and delicacies culled from every clime. The humble 
cot, once the abode of innocence and peace, became 
abandoned for the splendid edifice, in which the votary 
of luxury immured himself, and would be shielded from 
the very air of heaven* Crowded cities next, with all 
their attendant vices, completed the rudn of the human 
family. And, front generation- to generation* even to- 
the present period, have we been* perpetuating and ma r 
turing a system, formed of the most loathsome vices, 
and fraught, not only with the most incalculable evils to 
ourselves, but to* our posterity,- to whom, in turn, we 
transmit more wretchedness, and propensities far more 
destructive to their future happiness than those that have 
been entailed upon us. 

When we revert to the primitive ages* we find a hardy 
race, blessed with- an almost incredible length of years, 
compared with those of modern longevity — a race of 
beings unused to superfluities* who asked no other food 
than nature presented, and quenched not their thirst with 
a beverage prepared by art. How sadly changed ! now 
we are bom diseased ; the vfc*y air that first expands our 
lungs is loaded with corruption ; the unnatural nourish- 
ment of our earliest periods proves often a prolific source 
of suffering ; swathed in bandages, and tfppttess£d with 
clothing, our bodies become enfeebled and deformed ; 
and, as We advance ii£ years, irrational restraint subdues 
our physieaf strength,, anc£ moreirtatkvnaJ education the 
energies of oiar minds' * «e*f ksttirieaf' a*fe sought after ; 
the appetite begins to fail? 88d those miserable pallia- 
tives, foreign spices and stimulating' fotfd, through igno- 
rance of their ultimate effects, are employed as restora- 
tives. These excite unnatural thirst * y inebriating drinks 
succeed, and when intoxication supeJVenes, our power- 
less limbs are laid upon a couch of do>wn, where broken 
slumber,, horrid dreams, c* nightmare's close embrace, 


cosspire to rob us of repose. Day after day we madly 
persevere in our destructive course, while languor, rest- 
- lessness, and irritability, with a Jong train of nervous 
diseases, characterize our condition, through years of 
suffering mxd of pain, until ibe almost welcome moment 
of our dissolutioa aaffiros. 

Whatever we may once have been, at a period more 
eg- less remote, it is certain, that as ^nation, luxury has 
aiow destroyed our health, perverted our morals, debased 
«onr intellects, and, in its prevalence and increase, the 
philosopher may foresee ,tbe downfall of a people, once 
lamed for thek intelligence, their virtue, and their free- 
dom. The duty we all owe to our fellow-beings, to so- 
ciety m general, and to the great cause of human eman- 
cipation from the domain of tyranny, should urge tis to 
iavestigate a question that involves* in its ultimate de- 
cision, the happiness of alL To a people, jealous of 
their liberties, and sver iready to defend them, no sacri- 
fices can be too great to maintain or secure them .; and 
the most superficial observation is alone necessary to 
convince a reasoning being that there sexists an intimate 
connection between luxury and ^slavery* Have not the 
annals of experience furnished iis with examples of the 
incontrovertible truth, that the liberties of a people are 
invaded or subverted, im proportion as they are luxurious 
.and effeminate ? 

Even a partial glance at the history of empires, and 
kingdoms, and republics, should satisfy the mind that 
their ruin and downfall have been caused by a degene- 
racy of manners, a looseness of morals, and a loss of 
physical vigor, induced during the prevalence of luxury 
among their inhabitants. The millions who accompa- 
nied the besotted Xerxes, in his far-famed expedition, 
enervated by sloth, and corrupted by luxury, did they 
not fail to enslave the hardy, vigorous, unpolluted free- 
men of Greece ? But, alas ! what the physical strength 
of their ^enemies could not perform, the arts and perni- 
cious customs, which they introduced, most rapidly 
executed. And Greece, from a too liberal use of the 
spoils and wealth of the conquered Xerxes, lost that as- 

A .. \. - • 


cendancy she had gained over surrounding nations ; the 
intemperance of her sons had paralyzed her strength, 
and diminished that ardent love of liberty consequent 
upon simplicity of life, and she yielded to the Roman 
arms. Next, Rome herself fell, when she had attained 
the height of her grandeur and opulence ; means that 
but served to facUitate the introduction of habits, most 
destructive to the happiness or freedom of her citizens. 
The Persian hosts, under the luxurious and effeminate 
Darius, submitted to the victorious arms of the Mace- 
donian hero, who, in his turn, fell a sacrifice to the 
treasures of the Circean cup ; while the wines of Capua 
eft Hannibal a prey to the arms of Scipio, who, but for 
this unfortunate indulgence, might have made imperial 
Rome a tributary to Carthagenian prowess. And, had 
the Spartans adhered to their diet of black broth, and 
never departed from the simple manners introduced by 
their lawgiver, what people could have overcome them, 
how could they have lost their freedom, or when would 
their existence, as a nation, have been destroyed ? 

tl Oh luxury, thou curs'd by heaven's decree, 

How ill exchang'd are things like these for thee I 

How do thy potions, with insidious joy, 

Diffuse their pleasures, only to destroy ! 

Kingdoms, by thee, to sickly greatness grown, 

Boast of a florid rigor not their own ; 

At ev'ry draught more large and large they grow, 

A bloated mass of rank unwieldy woe ; 

Till sapp'd their strength, and ev'ry part unsound, 

Down, down they sink, and spread a ruin round." 

A Republic cannot long maintain its existence, while 
its members are under the dominion of an artificial, ca- 
pricious appetite. To procure the means of gratification 
what crimes are not committed, what sacrifices of time 
and independence are not made ? And what is the re- 
sult ? A degraded and servile populace, with intellects 
benumbed, with bodies enfeebled, and morals perverted 
or destroyed. Morality can scarcely exist where the 
people are corrupted by the arts of civic life ; it is the 
offspring of Liberty and Health, and perishes in a nation 
where its parents are supplanted by slavery and disease. 

"Crime (says Shelley) is madness. Madness is 
disease. 'Whenever the cause of disease shall be dis- 


covered, the root, from which all vice and misery have 
so. long overshadowed the globe, will lie bare to the axe. 
All the exertions of man, from that moment, may be 
considered as tending to the clear profit of his species. 
No sane mind in a sane body resolves upon a real crime. 
It is a man of violent passions, bloodshot eyes, and 
swollen veins that alone can grasp the knife of murder. 
The system of a simple diet promises no Utopian ad- 
vantages. It is no mere reform of legislation, while the 
furious passions and evil propensities of the human 
heart, in which it had its origin, are still unassuaged. It 
strikes at the root of all evil, and is an experiment which 
may be tried with success, not alone by nations, but by 
small societies, families, and evert individuals. In no 
cases has a return to vegetable diet produced the slight- 
est injury : in most it has been attended with changes 
undeniably beneficial. 

" Should ever a physician be born with the genius of 
Locke, I am persuaded that he might trace all mental 
and bodily derangements to our unnatural habits, as 
clearly as that philosopher has traced all knowledge to 
sensation. What prolific sources of disease are not 
those mineral and vegetable poisons that have been in- 
troduced for its extirpation ! How many thousands have 
become murderers and robbers, bigots and domestic ty- 
rants, dissolute and abandoned adventurers, from the 
use of fermented liquors ; who, had they slaked their 
thirst only with pure water, would have lived but to dif- 
fuse the happiness of their own unpervefted feelings. 
How many groundless opinions and absurd institutions 
have not received a general sanction from the sottishness 
and intemperance of individuals ! Who will assert, that, 
had the populace of Paris satisfied their hunger at the 
ever-furnished table of vegetable nature, they would 
have lent their brutal suffrage to the proscription-list oi 
Robespierre ? Could a set of men, whose passions were 
not perverted by unnatural stimuli, look with coolness 
on an auto da fe ? Is it to be believed that a being of 
gentle feelings, rising from his meal of roots, would 
take delight in sports of blood? Was Nero a man of 


temperate life ? Could you read calm health in his cheek, 
flushed with ungovernable propensities of hatred for the 
human race ? Did Muley Ismael's pulse beat evenly, was 
his skin transparent, did his eyes beam with healthful- 
ness, and its invariable concomitants, cheerfulness and 
benignity? Surely, the bile-suffused cheek of Bonaparte, 
his wrinkled brow, and yellow eye, the ceaseless inqui- 
etude of his nervous system, speak no less plainly the 
character of his unresting ambition, than his murders 
and his victories. It is impossible, had Bonaparte de- 
scended from a race of vegetable feeders, that he could 
have had either the inclination or the power to ascend 
the throne of the Bourbons. The desire of tyranny 
could scarcely be excited in the individual, the power to 
tyrannize would certainly not be delegated by a society 
neither frenzied by inebriation, nor rendered impotent 
and irrational by disease." 

Other countries and former times may furnish us with 
examples, full, complete, and convincing; yet, why ap- 
peal to them, save as to the beacons that experience has 
planted on every shore and in every age, to warn deluded 
man of the covert rocks of luxury, on which his unfor- 
tunate progenitors have wrecked their liberties, and all 
that renders life endearing? While yet our own dear 
native land spurns the oppressor's rod, shall we not 
watch, with jealous eye, the slow insidious progress of 
luxury, lest she sap the foundation of our free institutions ? 

He who prophesies the loss of our national freedom, 
may be deemed an ill-omened bird; but, alas! it scarcely 
needs a wizard's foresight to predict the slow, but cer- 
tain downfall of those institutions, to establish which 
our forefathers have bled ; institutions which we all love, 
and in whose defence every sword would leap from its 
scabbard, and every arm be doubly-nerved. We fear 
no enemy from without — let us draw aside the flimsy 
curtain and exhibit an enemy within, more powerful, 
more confident of victory, more capable of achieving it, 
than the combined forces of European despots. 

Behold the perfidious foe — domestic luxury ! She has 
accomplished the ruin of other states — she seeks the 

effects or LtrxtratYr 15 

sub version of our own. Do we .perceive it? It has been 
lamented. Do we apply a remedy? Now. We would 
rather wear her chains, and toil for her advancement, 
than be debarred from banqueting at he table. She 
offers largely, she promises like a queen,imt she fulfils 
like a traitor. The ignis-fatuus is not mcle false. Like 
the bee she has sweets, but like the bes too, she can 
sting. Her grandeqr is aur debasement,her reign out 
downfall. Would wk be happy ? She mst be aban- 
doned. Would we be free ? She must ke destroyed* 
As a hypocrite, she should be exposed ; * a tyrant, she 
should suffer for her enormities. 

There was a time when the philanthrdpsts of Europe, 
when the ardent apostles of liberty in evdrr clime, hailed, 
with rapturous delight, the land of theffrte ! There was 
a time when the pure and holy, of al mtions, looked 
upon our country as an earthly paradse, as the focus 
from whence the light of freedom and Inowledge would 
radiate to every pprtion of the globe, ;n4 arouse, from 
the:^ sleep of ignorance and the supintness of slavery, 
those miserable wretches who had lot every attribute 
of man, save the external form. The! have been de- 
ceived, wofully deceived. Knowledi emanates not 
from us to enlighten other climes, ancliberty is but a 
word in the mouths of brawling demapgues to mislead 
and betray a' passionate and besottedtnultitude. The 
only free constitution that governs ma has become the 
tool and the sport of political gambler^ and the people, 
themselves, have degenerated mto spejulators and idol- 
tors of gold. Gold ? Place it within fceir reach — with 
what avidity they grasp, with what finhess they hold it. 
All nobler sentiments, all generous oipulses subside, 
and leave but one desire to fill the he^t, one all-absorb- 
ing despicable desire, the love of goM To over-reach 
their neighbors is the height of thef ambition. The 
ties of consanguinity, the rites of hjspitality, and the 
common sympathies of our nature wftgh nothing in the 
scale of wealth. Our polar-star is g4d. We steer by 
it in the voyage* of life, and the last iacant gaze of th6 
dying moment is turned upon the gliiering go<L 


Is it the rare sordid love of gold that prompts the 
unceasing efforts to obtain it ? Oh no ! it is the love of 
enjoyment ; ad how often, in the pursuit of the means, 
do we lose tin opportunity. Yes ! the plain, unsophis- 
ticated repub]caris, in a land where all are free and 
equal, pant ail pine for wealth — not for its own sake, 
they are not liserly, but they do love to lord it over 
their fellows : hey admire splendor and ornament ; they 
love to wear litter dresses, to liver in better houses, to 
keep better ttfles, and to drink better wine than their 
neighbors ; ajl the republicans are proud, too ; they 
are pleased Then they can exhibit splendid equipages 
and numerous servants, and when they can move in cir- 
cles that are tf>1 infested by the spawn of poverty. And 
they will tell rt,too, that there is no danger in all this. 
Happy they ! tto storm is brewing, but it will not de- 
scend upon tier heads — its wretched victims are the 
multitude — the jaunt and pining sons of penury, whose 
necks will yet become footstools for the minions of 
wealth. Famm shall be the portion of their wives and 
little ones. Tb poor republican shall toil for the rich 
one from the &t dawn of light to the going down of 
the sun ; he shd bless his benefactor for the dry crumb 
of bread, and anight he will sleep so sweetly ! yes, his 
sleep will indeei be sweet, and fortunately so, else life 
were not enduible. Is the prophetic warning false ? 
The groans andears of the old world too plainly speak 
the irrevocable oom of the new. 

Though tfye ceek crimsons with shame when we re- 
flect upon the drraded condition of the nation, and the 
heart is wrung ith anguish for the sufferings of its 
people, there is prospect of its regeneration, there is 
a hope of the lture happiness of its citizens : that 
prospect, that hpe lies in the equal dissemination of 
knowledge. It i the potent wand that can convert an 
enslaved and wrcched land into a terrestrial paradise* 
Bestow on the suering many an enlightened and liberal 
education — giving them a knowledge of nature and of 
themselves, how strange the metamorphosis ! plenty 
usurps the place o poverty; bloated intemperance fades, 


and the mild and blooming cheek of health delights the 
t eye ; the miserable, vicious, filthy, drunken beings, who 
lived but to cast an odium upon nature, are seen no 
more in the happy, virtuous, intelligent, and temperate 
freemen, who are the pride and boast of their truly fa- 
vored home. 

Individuals, it is true, are often unable, by the utmost 
vigilance, to guard against a degree of affliction, or a 
series of misfortunes — occurrences often unavoidable, 
but most frequently arising from ignorance or an obsti- 
nate adherence to ancient prejudices. Society is gene- 
rally the author of its own misery — a condition neces- 
sarily dependant upon its imperfect organization ; and 
when man once consents to follow the simple dictates 
of nature, and to obey those laws so admirably adapted 
to the preservation of his health, liberty, and happiness, 
then disease and suffering will no longer be referred to 
a blind fatality. Then, and then only, will the millenium 
of the poet be realized, and phrenologists cease to de- 
clare, that vice is the result of man's organization. 

To communicate to my friends what I conceive to be 
a proper course of life, shall be my task, and I do it 
with a sincere belief that rational beings need but a 
knowledge of the truth, to return to the long-neglected 
and almost forgotten path of nature. When the advan- < 
tages derivable from a simple system of regimen are 
explained, I am confident of the co-operation of the en- 
lightened portion of the community, and trust, that a 
reformation once begun will never terminate until its 
object be accomplished. 

Setting aside the painful consequences of luxury and 
intemperance, the immense amount of money squan- 
dered to pamper depraved appetites, deserves our serious 
consideration. It has been calculated, by rigid econo- 
mists, that two hours, each day, devoted to labor, would 
be sufficient to procure all the necessaries of life ; the 
remaining eight, or tea, might be employed in literary 
pursuits, or in the acquisition of useful knowledge. But: 
now, there seems to be a continued struggle* among alt 
classes to accumulate wealth, and hence results its una- 



qual distribution, and the privations of many to augment 
the splendor of the few. The great majority of man- 
kind are obliged to toil incessantly to procure a meagre 
subsistence, while those who perform no manual labor 
live in luxury and magnificence. While the present 
state of things endures, the rich will always oppress the 
poor, because they hold in their possession the means 
of maintaining their power. 

It has long been our boast that the people elect their 
representatives, and that universal suffrage gives the 
poorest citizen equal power with the richest. Such is 
the ostensible object, but, however easy it may be in 
theory, we all know how difficult it is in practice. Who 
nominate our officers ? The rich. What class of citi- 
zens generally fill those offices ? The wealthy. Does 
every man vote according to the dictates of his judg- 
ment, and with a sincere desire to benefit his country ? 
Let the many ignorant besotted beings, who are led in 
droves to the polls, to vote for some wealthy candidate, 
while under the influence of liquor, answer the question. 
Do the multitude of laws annually framed by out repre- 
sentatives, have a tendency to benefit the poor, or to 
secure them from the usurpations of the wealthy ? Di- 
rectly the reverse. Our laws are enacted by the rich, 
and made, almost exclusively, to benefit their interests. 
While the poor continue to expend their trifling incomes 
for the most pernicious luxuries, they will remain igno- 
rant, and thus neglect the only means calculated to ele- 
vate them to an equality with their opulent neighbors. 

The evils of luxury are almost incalculable. From 
this prolific source we derive our diseases, our deformi- 
ties, our poverty, and our slavery. Avarice, and the 
basest passions, are generated and nourished wherever 
it exists ; while crime and misery are its legitimate off- 
spring. It may be asked, if mankind are in this wretch- 
ed condition, why have philosophers, and statesmen, 
and men of science, neglected to warn the people of 
their situation, or failed to perceive it ? Their condition 
has been observed, and deeply lamented ; but few have 
dared, unassisted, to stem the wild torrent of intempe* 


ranee, which is fast overflooding the world ; and still 
fewer have had the courage to contend with the bigotry, 
the prejudices, and the appetites of the populace ; but 
now, when a simultaneous movement is making through- 
out the land to arrest the devastating course of intem- 
perance, a feeble individual may raise his voice, and 
exert his influence, and do much to promote the general 
good. Man is not a being so utterly devoid of reason, 
nor so blindly devoted to the gratification of artificial 
appetites, as to refuse an attentive audience to modest, 
benevolent advice. It is the duty of those who have 
observed, who have practiced, to set a rational example 
to their fellow-beings, and to convince them, by every 
argument they can use, that the present mode of life 
must be abandoned, ere man can become free, virtuous, 
and exempt from bodily suffering. 

" Wherever our influence can be felt, it must be ju- 
diciously exerted. It must reach the young — who enter 
upon life with a blind deference for their seniors, and 
imbibe their habits long before they are able to weigh 
the tendencies which they exert. It must descend to 
the poor — who are ever ready to copy the manners and 
practices of those above them. It must spread round 
to the crowds of imitators, whose most anxious care is 
to live like other people, and who deem it a very import- 
ant study to find out what is customary, without even 
troubling themselves to ask whether it be right or wrong. 

" Every man is a member of some little brotherhood, 
in which his influence will be felt, his actions imitated. 
It is here, that even the humblest may do much. Not 
by ill-timed and boisterous denunciations against all who 
may feel the importance of the subject less deeply than 
himself — but by a meek and unostentatious, yet firm 
and consistent rejection of those daily and nightly in- 
dulgences, which lead to the misery we deplore. He 
must remember that they whom he would gam over are 
not so wicked as they are weak ; and that it is not in 
the severe capacity of a judge that his labors are re- 
quired, but in the more endearing character of a friend. 
His strongest persuasions must be those of practice. 


There is 4 no lecture so eloquent as the silent lesson of 
a spotless example.' He may not witness sudden and 
miraculous conversions to his faith — he may even some- 
times hear the coarse taunt of the scorner against both 
his faith and his works. 

" And now, is it a hard thing that we ask each other 
to perform ? There are those who never fear to do that 
which they are conscious is wrong — shall we be afraid 
to do that which we know to be right ? Martyrs have 
calmly laid their heads on the block, for opinions, the 
truth of which many will always deny — shall we hesitate 
to protest against habits, the baneful consequences of 
which all acknowledge ? Men waste time, and talent, and 
money, in schemes, which, though successful, end in 
vexation and vanity — are we unwilling to make an effort 
for the happiness of those about us, which, even if un- 
successful, will bring us the reward of self-approbation ? 
We love to remember what our fathers did and suffered, 
in the ages gone by, and we extol the holy and the bold 
achievements which secured to us a lovely heritage — 
shall our children look back to our day, and find nothing 
to reverence in us ? Shall we not, at least, bequeath 
them lessons of purity, examples of temperance ? These 
may not win for us the page of history — the orator may 
not sound our praise in high places — nor the poet re- 
member us in his glowing anthem ; but the small, sweet 
voice of the moralist will testify of us — the blessings of 
them that were ready to perish may rest upon us — we 
shall have that within which passeth show." 

Could we look upon the infant while calmly reposing 
in its mother's arms, and believe that it was born with 
vicious propensities, with unconquerable passions, un- 
controllable appetites, we might, indeed, despair of the 
reformation of the human family, and all that could be 
said in defence of temperance would be an absolute 
waste of words ; but no reflecting mind can believe it, 
and the prospect of man's regeneration will kindle the 
v enthusiasm of every ardent lover of virtue. 

Let any intelligent individual Purvey the state of so- 
ciety, and he will soon discover that there is an alarming 


amount of suffering exhibited among its members. Or, 
let the circle of his acquaintances limit his investigations, 
and he will arrive at a similar conclusion. ' He will find 
many of them laboring under severe diseases, some of 
which are of the most loathsome characters, and bespeak 
a people familiar with the worst vices of civilization. 
Unless he content himself with ascribing natural con- 
sequences to supernatural interference, he will, most 
probably, inquire, what is the origin of such a variety 
of maladies, such intense and protracted suffering, and 
the frequent instances of untimely deaths that every 
day occur ? 

To answer these questions would require time and 
experience, and would afford, to the inquirer, abundance 
of materials for meditation. The mind must first realize 
the truth of the fundamental maxim, " that every effect 
is preceded by a cause." Is it more rational to suppose 
that a man could become diseased without the agency 
of some material cause, than to imagine that he could 
break his leg and conscientiously refer the event to a 
supernatural cause ? Should he be injured either by a 
burn or a wound, would he be puzzled to account for 
the injury ? If he be troubled with a severe cough, will 
he not, naturally, ascribe it to improper exposure du- 
ring damp weather ? And would he not be disposed to 
laugh, if we should say that his cough was the result of 
a mysterious dispensation of Divine Providence? If, 
then, the simple suppression of perspiration can induce 
consumption, with every prospect of lingering death, 
may not our daily excesses produce derangements of 
other organs, terminating in diseases equally dangerous, 
equally fatal ? If the use of improper articles of diet, 
and the habits of civil life, may not be cited as the cause 
of bodily infirmities, to what shall we attribute the va- 
riety of ailments that constantly afflict mankind ? If any 
other cause can be assigned, it will settle a question 
that involves the happiness of the living, and of millions 
yet unborn. 

The reader might consider it too presuming, if I 
should assert that the " Graham System of Living" was 



the only one calculated to secure* to the human family, 
the full possession of health, vigor, and a calm contented 
tnind ; but, I unhesitatingly offer it as my opinion, sup- 
ported by many facts, that a healthy infant, untainted by 
hereditary disease — living in a mild, salubrious climate ; 
its muscular system invigorated and developed by natu- 
ral exercise 5 its mental faculties properly cultivated 5 
its diet of the most simple kind, in such a condition as 
nature presents it, unaltered by fire, and unadulterated 
by foreign ingredients 5 a calm and uniform temper pre- 
served ; and a strict attention to sleep, cleanliness, and 
clothing, and all other circumstances connected with the 
welfare of the being — such an infant might arrive at ex- 
treme old age, without experiencing an hour's illness, 
and with his faculties but little impaired. I do not say 
that such would invariably be the result, but I have not 
the slightest reason to doubt it, and, with this conviction, 
I am solicitous that the experiment should be fairly tried, 
before it is pronounced chimerical, or rejected because 
it denounces some of the fancied pleasures of life. 

Lest I should be accused of ignorantly recommending 
a system of living, fraught with more evils than it is 
calculated to remedy, I deem it a duty to warn any one, 
who may be induced, by these remarks, to adopt it, that 
he will experience, for a limited time, a diminution of 
strength, (arising from the abstraction of a variety of 
powerful stimulants ;) if he has been more than usually 
addicted to the pleasures of the table, he may be over- 
come by debility or sickness ; but, should he ascribe 
these effects to the real cause, and persevere for a few 
months, he will find his health materially improved. It 
would be irrational, however, to expect, that where the 
system has been laboring under severe chronic com- 
plaints, that any course of living would effect an imme- 
diate cure; when it has taken years to derange and 
break down the animal machinery, it is not the work of 
a moment to repair it ; but why despair ? It is not diffi- 
cult to effect a cure ; a rigid self-denial and steady perse- 
verance are alone requisite to restore the most wretched 
invalid to an enviable state of health* 


If any man suppose that his enjoyments will be a- 
bridged by the plan I recommend, he is laboring under 
an unfortunate mistake ; his appetite will become more 
uniform and natural ; he will acquire a high relish for 
unstimulating food and drink, while his activity of body 
and energy of mind will compensate him for his abste- 
miousness. Let one of our modern epicures, whose 
organs of taste have long been excited by high-seasoned 
food and stimulating drink, adopt this Pythagorean re- 
gimen, and he will find that the plain, nutritious articles 
of diet prescribed, are quite insipid ; let him continue, 
for a few months, until the healthy susceptibility of his 
nerves is restored, and he will perceive that his frugal 
fare is not only palatable, but agreeable. " He will find, 
moreover, a system of simple diet to be a system of 
perfect epicurism. He will no longer be incessantly oc- 
cupied in blunting and destroying those organs from 
which he expects his gratification. On a natural system 
of diet, old age would be our last and our only malady ; 
the term of our existence would be protracted ; we 
should enjoy life, and no longer preclude others from 
the enjoyment of it ; all sensational delights would be 
infinitely more exquisite and perfect. On a natural sys- 
tem of diet, we should require no spices from India ; no 
wines from Portugal, Spain, France, or Madeira ; none 
of those multitudinous articles of luxury for which every 
corner of the globe is rifled, and which are the causes 
of so much individual rivalship, such calamitous and 
sanguinary national disputes. 

" Let not too much, however, be expected from this 
system. The healthiest among us is not exempt from 
hereditary disease. The most symmetrical, athletic, 
and long-lived among us, is a being inexpressibly infe- 
rior to what he would have been, had not the unnatural 
habits of his ancestors accumulated for him a certain 
portion of malady and deformity. Can a return to na- 
ture, then, instantaneously eradicate predispositions that 
have been slowly taking root in the silence of innume- 
rable ages ? Indubitably not All that I contend for is, 
that from the moment of the relinquishing of all unnatu* 


ral habits, no new disease is generated ; and that the 
predisposition to hereditary maladies gradually perishes 
For want of its accustomed supply. 

" Man, and the animals whom he has infected with his 
society, or depraved by his dominion, are alone diseased. 
The wild hog, the mouflon, the bison, and the wolf, are 
perfectly exempt from malady, Mid invariably die, either 
from external violence, or natural old age. But the do- 
mestic hog, the sheep, the cow, and the dog, are subject 
to an incredible variety of distempers : and, like the 
corrupters of their nature, have physicians who thrive 
upon their miseries. 

" What is the cause of morbid action in the animal 
system ? Not the air we breathe, for our fellow-denizens 
of nature breathe the same uninjured ; not the water we 
drink, if remote from the pollution of man and his in- 
ventions, for the animals drink it too ; not the earth we 
tread upon ; not the unobscured sight of glorious nature, 
in the wood, the fields, or the expanse of sky and ocean : 
nothing that we are or do in common with the undis- 
eased inhabitants of the forest. Something then wherein 
wc differ with them ; our habit of altering our food by 
fire, so that our appetite is no longer a just criterion for 
the fitness of its gratification. Except in children there 
remain no traces of that instinct which determines, in 
all other animals, what aliment is natural or otherwise." 

" It has long been affirmed," says Dr. Paris, " with 
an air of much confidence, that the management of our 
diet requires not the aid of reason or philosophy, since 
Nature has implanted in us instincts sufficiently strong 
and intelligible to direct us to what is salutary, and to 
warn us from such aliments as are injurious. We may 
here observe, that man has so long forsaken the simple 
laws which Nature had instituted for his direction, that 
it is to be feared she has abandoned her charge, and left 
him under the control of that faithless guide and usurp- 
er, to which civilization has given dominion. Appetite, 
which expresses the true wants of the system, can no 
longer be distinguished from that feeling which induces 
us to prefer one species of food to another, and which 


entirely depends on nabit and certain associations. That 
the natural relations which subsist between the qualities 
of food and the impressions made by them on the 
senses, are changed or destroyed by the refinements of 
artificial life, is a fact supported by too many powerful 
arguments to refute : how many kinds of aliments, ori- 
ginally disagreeable, become pleasant by habit; how 
many substances, naturally agreeable, become disgusting 
from the creation of certain prejudices." 


The primitive inhabitants of the earth, we are in- 
formed, lived to a very advanced age. The father of 
the human race lived 930 years ; his son, Seth, 912 ; 
Enos, 905 ; Cainan, 910 ; Jared, 962 ; Methusaleh, 969 ; 
and Noah, 950. These men possessed strong and vi- 
gorous constitutions, procured their subsistence from 
the fruits of the earth, and lived strictly in conformity 
with the laws of life ; and being the original inhabitants 
of the globe, whose constitutions were not impaired' by 
debauchery and unnatural habits, there is nothing im- 
probable in the account. Among the lower order of 
animals are many species, whose existenee appears to 
be almost as protracted. Fishes are said to live nearly 
a thousand years, and many varieties of birds, several 
centuries. Is it then improbable that man, in primaeval 
times, whose vital energy far exceeded that of all other 
animals, should have lived such a length of years?* 
Whatever may have been the cause of antediluvian lon- 
gevity, the term of existence began to diminish sensibly 
after the flood. Shemrlived but 600 years ; Salah, 433 ; 
Serug, 230 ; Nahor, 148 : and mankind have gradually 
degenerated, through successive ages, until they have 
arrived at the present standard. In modern times, how- 
ever, we have seen Peter Zoten reach the age of 185 
years ; John Rovin, his countryman, 172, and his wife, 
164 ; Thomas Parr, of Shropshire, England, 152, and 
Jlenry Jenkins, of Yorkshire, 169. Now to what causes 
are we to attribute this extraordinary longevity of mo- 


76 10NGEVITY. 

dern times, even if we doubted the antediluvian account? 
And would we be justified in asserting that no one of 
the present generation could attain such longevity by 
proper management ? 

The most eminent writers on longevity agree, that 
those who have exceeded one hundred years, have en- 
joyed a good constitution from nature ; that they did 
not attain their growth until a very advanced period of 
life ; that they have been laborious, sober, careful to 
observe the strictest regimen, and kept their appetites 
and passions in the most complete subjection. Among 
these may be cited the memorable Henry Jenkins, who 
died at the age of 169, and whose epitaph, inscribed by 
Dr. Chapman on his tombstone, contains these words : 
" Though the partial world despised and disregarded his 
low birth and humble state, the equal eye of Providence 
beheld and blessed it with a patriarch's health and length 
of years, to teach mistaken man these blessings are en- 
tailed on temperance, a life of labor, and a mind of ease !" 

Longevity is frequent among the various orders of the 
religious, whbse statutes confine them to a moderate 
diet, and oblige them to abstain from wine and the use 
of meat. The primitive Christians of the East, who 
retired from persecutions into the deserts of Arabia and 
Egypt, lived heathfully and cheerfully on twelve ounces 
of bread per day, with mere water ; with this diet, St. 
Anthony lived 105 years ; James the Hermit, 104 ; Ar- 
•enius, 120; St Epiphanius, 115; Simeon, the Sty lite, 
112; and Romauld, 120. 

According to the author of a very curious little work 
entitled " An Apology for Fasting," 152 hermits, taken 
in all ages, and under every climate, produced a sum 
total of 1 1,589 years of life, and, consequently, an ave- 
rage of 76 years and a little more than three months 
for each ; whereas the same number of Academicians, 
the one-half belonging to the Academy of Sciences, and 
the other to that of Belles-Lettres, gives only 10,511 
years of life ; consequently, 69 years, and a little more 
than two months for the mortal career of each. Now,, 
it is well known that hermits, in general, confine them- 


selves to a vegetable diet, and that of the most simple 
kind. The philosopher Xenophilus> who lived to a very 
great age, was of the Pythagorean sect It is well 
known, also, that those philosophers who held the trans- 
migration of souls, denied themselves the use of animal 
food, because they imagined that killing an animal would 
be to assassinate another self. 

In the days of David, the average duration of life was 
seventy years ; that is, in seventy years, a population 
equal to that then on the face of the globe, descended' 
to the grave. Thus have they continued to degenerate 
even to the present time, until the average duration of 
human life has diminished to thirty years ! A mistake 
has thus been cherished, by many authors, with respect 
to the meaning of the Psalmist ; they contend that the 
term of existence is not shortened. Facts, however, 
are at variance with this assertion, as may be proved by 
any one who will examine our. annual bills of mortality. 
Of all new-born infants, one out of four dies the first 
year. Three out of Jive only attain the fifth year, and, 
before the twenty-second year, one-half the generation 
is consigned to the grave. In our large cities, however, 
one-half die before they reach the tenth year. Such a 
mortality, it is evident, cannot take place without a 
cause, more or less remote or obscure, which a proper 
investigation would speedily reveal. If this alarming 
mortality is occasioned by something which man cannot 
avoid, something not connected with his own actions,, 
why is that the ravages of death are more extensive ia 
large cities, and in this country than in many others ? 


How frequently we find that ignorance remains con- 
tented with ascribing all the ills of life to a Being, whom 
it inconsistently alleges to love His creatures, while He 
yet capriciously selects a number on whom His wrath 
descends, and whom He precludes from the enjoyment 
of all the pleasures of existence. What would* be our 
opinion of a parent who could wantonly inflict upon hift 


child the direst calamities, the most intense ! and pro- 
tracted suffering — and that child, too, one whom he had 
dearly loved, possessed, perhaps, of every amiable and 
endearing quality ? Universal indignation would be the 
reward bestowed upon the unnatural father. But the 
♦wilfully ignorant of mankind, unwilling to believe that 
they are the authors of their own misfortunes, charge 
them to a Supreme Intelligence, whose impartial eye 
looks upon all mankind with more than a Father's love. 
What right have we to seek for supernatural causes, 
when natural ones, amply sufficient to account for an 
event, may be produced ? 

Before we give our assent to the proposition that a 
Supreme Intelligence is the author of our numberless 
diseases, it must first be proven that no connection can 
be traced between disease and imprudent habits ; do we 
not invariably find that the drunkard is afflicted with 
maladies that none but a drunkard ever feels ? do the 
abstemious, temperate partakers of nature's bounties 
die of apoplexy? did we ever hear of laboring men 
writhihg and groaning with gouty pangs ? have we any 
knowledge that Russian serfs or European peasants 
complain of dyspetic symptoms ? who but the sedentary 
e&hibit the hectic flush of consumption ? what class of 
people have the fewest diseases, the inhabitants of the 
city or country ? among whom do we find the greatest 
instances of longevity, the poor or the rich ? do sickly 
parents generally give birth to healthy children ? are 
there no diseases peculiar to the seasons ? do not damp, 
marshy places engender fevers ? is there no difference 
in the bill of mortality in various countries ? and lastly > 
do we not all have occasion to observe, in the course 
of time, that many of our friends produce pulmonary 
affections by improper exposure ? 

" In man, the most artificial of all animals, the most 
exposed to all the circumstances that can act unfavora- 
bly on his frame, diseases are the most numerous ; and 
so abundant and diversified, as to exhaust the ingenuity 
of the hosologist, and fatigue the memory of the phy- 
sician; Perhaps nosological catalogues would afford 


the most convincing argument that man has departed 
from the way of life to which nature had designed him;, 
unless, indeed, it should be contended that these afflic- 
tions are a necessary part of his nature, a distinction from 
animals of which he will not be very likely to boast. 

" The accumulation in large cities, the noxious effects 
of impure air, sedentary habits, and unwholesome em- 
ployments ; the excesses in diet, the luxurious food, the 
heating drinks, the monstrous mixtures, and the pernicious 
seasonings which stimulate and oppress the organs, — the- 
unnatural activity of the great cerebral circulation, ex- 
cited by the double impulse of our luxurious habits and 
undue mental exertions, of the violent passions which agi- 
tate and exhaust us, the anxiety, chagrin, and vexation, 
from which few entirely escape, and then re-acting on 
and disturbing the whole frame ; the delicacy and sensi- 
bility to external influences, caused by our heated roomsj. 
warm clpthing, inactivity, and other indulgences, are so 
many fatal proofs that our most grievous ills are our own 
work, and might be obviated by a more simple and uni- 
form way of life." 

If it be admitted that the dietetic doctrines herein 
taught are founded upon correct principles, those whe 
make such admission, and neglect a reformation, have 
much to answer for. Is there any reasonable difference 
^ between the man who shortens his life by intemperate 
eating or drinking, provided he be not ignorant of their 
effects, and he who terminates a miserable existence by 
the sword or the pistol ? Have we a right so to conduct 
as to become the victims of disease ? Do we not owe a 
duty to ourselves, to the community at large, and to our 
families, that renders it criminal when we voluntarily 
disable ourselves from fulfilling such obligations ? Is a 
man justified in calling his friends around a bed of 
sickness, robbing them of their natural repose to minister 
to his wants, and afflicting their minds with his situation, 
when he might have avoided it ? And even if we have, 
with the most virtuous courage, corrected the abuses of 
our own lives, have we accomplished our duty ? Is it 
virtuous, is it just to transmit, to posterity, the diseased 


with which we, ourselves, are afflicted ? Does it not de- 
volve upon us as an imperative duty, to our progeny, to 
educate them in such a manner, that they may be capa- 
citated to enjoy all the happiness, of which, by a per- 
fection of their nature, they are susceptible ? Are we 
not accountable for the health, morals, and happiness 
of our offspring ? If so, are we not bound to teach them 
the truth with regard to their habits ? 

If, as I contend, health may be preserved, and lon- 
gevity insured, by an attention to certain rules, and a 
strict conformity with natural laws, are not the causes 
which produce so desirable an end worthy the deliberate 
investigation of rational beings — beings who are capa- 
ble of appreciating the value of time, and the pleasura- 
ble benefits that accompany such blessings ? Yet I am 
fully aware that to attempt, in detail, a description of 
the proper course to be pursued, in order to preserve 
health and ultimately to insure longevity, is to essay an 
arduous enterprise, and still more discouraging, with 
little hope of success : for, how id it possible that beings 
should suffer or enjoy but by comparison ? and how can 
they be expected to compare the state of debility, lassi- 
tude, and disease, whicji they now endure, with that 
state which can only be anticipated by considering it in 
a negative point of view, or as the result when all pain 
and sorrow should be abstracted ? Nevertheless, if de- 
monstration be required of the retrograde condition of * 
man with regard to the extent of his life, and his bodily 
health, I will not refer to the ages that are past and 
gone, though replete with proofs ; but point you to the 
differences that exist now, among the same nations, the 
same tribes, and even the same families, placed under 
different circumstances. 

In the subsequent pages, I intend to give a general 
Outline of Nature, including the organic and inorganic 
kingdoms, and the laws which govern them., In so do- 
ing, I disclaim all attempts at originality ; simply P*Qr 
sentii^g to the public a series of facts, in a connected 
form, compiled from the best authors* $md suited to the 


comprehension of those who may have been debarred 
from the advantages of a professjonal education* Such 
information cannot fail to be useful to the reader, even 
if he be not disposed to profit by the other portions of 
the work ; and, for that reason, considerable matter will 
be introduced, not absolutely essential to the elucidation 
of the prominent subject. It may be necessary for the 
reader frequently to refer to that part which treats of 
the structure and functions of the human body, to un- 
derstand the remaining portions of the work ; but the 
advantage derived from such references will more than 
counterbalance the trouble by rendering him more fa- 
miliar with that important study, the animal economy. 
At the end of the work will be found an explanation of 
such technical phrases as may not be explained in the 
text. The subject of the present volume is one that 
embraces the whole science of morals, and that pecu- 
liarly interesting branch of knowledge, which teaches 
the art of self-preservation. But this subject, so exten- 
sive in its ramifications, and so endless in its details, is 
merely sketched or outlined in the present volume ; and 
the intelligent reader will find no difficulty in filling up 
the outlines, either from his own experience or observa- 
tions. It is a matter of the deepest astonishment and 
regret, that those who have called themselves philoso- 
phers, should have wasted whole years in the most tri- 
fling pursuits, in vain attempts to solve abstruse and 
speculative problems, while tne subject under conside- 
ration, though intimately connected with the welfare of 
man, has been treated with unmerited neglect and con- 
tempt ; but let such philosophers remember, that " the 
proper study of mankind is man," 



Even during its wildest reveries, the mind shrinks 
back appalled from a contemplation of the universe, in 
its boundlessness, its sublimity, and its duration. From 
the minutest atom to the rolling orb whose inexhaustible 
supplies furnish us -with heat and light, every natural 
object excites our surprise and elicits our admiration. 
So boundless, indeed, is the universe, that human ima- 
gination is inadequate to the task of conceiving its 
limits : nor can it realize that period when matter had 
not a definite existence. 

Every thing that can be perceived by the senses — 
every thing that can be either heard, seen, tasted, or 
felt — every thing belonging to the animal, vegetable, 
and mineral kingdoms, — all have received the general 
appellation of matter. 

" Matter j in its elementary state, consists of incon- 
ceivably minute atoms, so small that the corpuscles of 
vapor, heat, and light* are compounds of them ; and so 
solid that they cannot possibly be broken or abraded by 
any concussion of violence whatever. The express figure 
of these primary atoms is various ; there are round, 
square, pointed, jagged, as well as many other shapes. 
These shapes, however, are not diversified to infinity ; 
but the atoms, themselves, of each existent shape, are 
infinite or innumerable. 

"These infinite groups of atoms, flying through all 
time and space, in different directions, and under differ- 
ent laws, have interchangeably tried and exhibited every 
possible mode of rencounter; sometimes repelled from 
each other by concussion, and sometimes adhering to 
each other from their own jagged or pointed construc- 
tion, or from the casual interstices which two or more 
connected atoms must produce, and which may be just 
adapted to those of other figures, as globular, oval, or 
square. Hence the origin of compound and visible bo- 


. dies ; hence the origin of large masses of matter ; hence, 
eventually, the origin of thef world itself." 

The ultimate particles or molecules, of which iftftttt* 
consists, are called atoms, because it is thought that th^y 
are not susceptible of division. These atoitts are eft* 
dowed with a power of reciprocal attraction, by irhteh 
two or more of them, when placed in juxta-position, 
unite together. This force or property of atoms is 
called cohesion, or cohesive attraction, and its power may 
be estimated by the force which it requires to Separate 
the particles of a body, as in iron or marble. 

Although two atoms, when placed at insensible dis- 
tances from each other, exert an equal force to approach 
and unite, yet all large bodies attract smaller ones ; and . 
this attraction has been distinguished from cohesion, by 
the term gravity, or the attraction of gravitation. A 
stone thrown into the air will invariably descend toward - 
the earth ; and the velocity with which it descends wiB 
be proportioned to the number of atoms it contains : at, 
in other words, a large stone is attracted more forcibly 
to the earth than a smaller one ; the power required to 
separate the stone from the surface of the earth, after 
it has fallen, is called its weight, and this, also, depends* 
upon the number of particles it contains. If bodies 
smaller than the earth are attracted to its surface by tile 
force of gravity, the earth itself is attracted toward a 
larger body, the sun, by a similar power ; and some phi- 
losophers have even imagined that the sun and all th& 
planetary bodies are attracted to, and revolve around 
- another sun, of far greater magnitude, whose fires have 
long since been extmguished or exhausted. 

As matter never had a beginning, so it never ceases 
to exist. It may be dissipated by heat, but it cannot be 
destroyed. Water may be evaporated, but its ultimate 
particles are not annihilated. Wood and coals, con- 
sumed in the fire, may disappear ; but this apparent de- 
struction is a simple change of form or composition. 
The atoms themselves exist, and enter into the compo- 
sition of other bodies ; hence matter is said to be in- 




The celestial bodies, including the fixed stars and the 
solar system, are the largest masses of matter of which 
we have any knowledge. The discoveries of the tele- 
scope have shown that the heavens are filled with innu- 
merable stars, whose distances aire greater than human 
imagination can conceive, or human ingenuity calculate* 
The nearest fixed star is four hundred thousand times 
farther distant from our earth than the sun ; and it is 
believed that there are some whose distance is so im- 
mense that their light has not yet reached us. It is 
supposed that the fixed stars are centres of innumerable 
worlds, which revolve around them, as our earth revolves 
about the sun : they are easily distinguished from the 
planets by their less luminous appearance, and by shining 
with a twinkling light. Although the number of fixed 
stars visible to the naked eye, at any one time, does not 
exceed a thousand, yet it is supposed that the number, 
within the range of telescopic discovery, amounts to 
upwards of seventy-five millions. 

With our solar system, astronomers are. best ac- 
quainted : it consists of the sun, and twenty-nine planet- 
ary bodies, eleven of which are called primary, and 
eighteen, secondary planets. The primary planets move 
round the sun as their common centre ; while the secon- 
dary planets revolve round the primary, which they ac- 
company in their revolution about the sun. The ^primary 
planets are situated, with respect to their distances from 
the sun, in the following order : Mercury, Venus, the 
Earth, Mars; Vesta, Juno, Ceres, Pallas, Jupiter, Saturn, 
and the Herschell planet, or the Georgium Sidus, Of 
these, our Earth is accompanied by one moon, Jupiter 
by four, Saturn by seven, and the Herschell planet by 
six. These moons are the secondary planets, which 
shine, as do also the primary, by reflected light. 

The Sun is the largest body of which we have any 
definite knowledge, being fourteen hundred thousand 
times larger than the earth. It is a solid, dark body, 
not materially different in constitution from the earth, 
encompassed by a fluid mass of luminous matter, which 
furnishes us with light and heat. 


The Asteroids, Yesta, Juno, Ceres, and Pallas, jure 
the smallest planets in the solar system, and are confi- 
dently believed to be the remains of 1 an ancient world, 
(which formerly revolved in the wide vacancy between 
the orbits of Mars and Jupiter) torn to pieces by some 
violent convulsion of nature. 

The most wonderful bodies with which astronomers 
are acquainted, are comets. They are known to belong 
to the solar system, as the returns of some of them have 
been calculated ; they revolve round the sun in orbits 
wonderfully eccentric ; sometimes descending with ex- 
treme rapidity from the far distant regions of the sys- 
tem, displaying a long and luminous train, and after 
remaining visible for a time, again fly off. 

The most interesting, however, of the celestial bodies, 
is the planet we inhabit. The Earth revolves around 
the sun at the mean distance of ninety-five millions of 
miles. It completes this revolution in a year, and turns 
on its axis in a day, or 24 hours. 

The other planets, belonging to the solar system, pre- 
sent little of interest to claim our attention in a brief 
astronomical sketch, and the reader is referred to other 
works for a detailed description. 


The original formation of the earth is involved in 
impenetrable mystery, and vague conjectures are the 
only evidences we have of its origin or its age. So 
many theories of its origin have been discussed by geo- 
logists, that the mind is bewildered in their contempla- 
tion, and' unable to decide as to their truth or falsity. 

It is usual, in describing the globe, to invent, or adopt 
some theory that has been already invented, to account 
for its origin : but which, of the numbers that have been 
framed, shall we select ? Shall we believe, with Burnet, 
that the earth was once a level plain ; that all substances 
were disposed around the centre of the globe, according 
to their specific gravities, water every where occupying 
the surface ; that the oily portions, floating on the top, 


formed a fertile crust, on which the antediluvian gene- 
rations lived in perpetual spring ; and that the deluge 
broke through this crust, (whose raised edges form our 
present mountains) changing the axis of the globe, and, 
consequently, the temperature of its climates ? Shall we 
imagine, with Descartes, that the earth was originally a 
small sun, covered with an opaque crust, which, by 
•mking down, gave birth to the mountains ? Or, with 
Leibnitz, that the whole mass of the globe has been vi- 
trified ? Shall we adopt the hypothesis of Whiston, that 
the earth was a comet, which had forsaken its track to 
revolve in the orbit of a planet, and that another comet 
enveloped it in its tail, and deluged it by raising its wa- 
ters ? Shall we agree with Ray, that earthquakes heaved 
up the mountains, while the fluid and solid substances 
were separating, and that the earth emerged from the 
waters of the sea ? Shall we adopt the wild opinion of 
Buffon, that a comet fell obliquely into the sun, detach- 
ing the 650 part, which separated into fragments, forming 
the several parts of our solar system, and which, by 
their rotary motion, acquired a spheroidal shape ? Shall 
we concur with Franklin, in the opinion that all matter 
existed as an elastic aeriform gas, irregularly diffused 
throughout space ; that part of this air, condensing, 
formed the exterior crust of the globe, in whose interior 
is contained nothing but air ? Or, shall we not rather 
confess our ignorance, and admit that either of these 
theories may be true or false ? 

Speculations are unprofitable when facts cannot be 
adduced to support or refute them ; yet the propensity 
to account for every phenomenon seems to be a desire 
inherent in the human mind, and we rest satisfied with 
the theory if it has no other merit than that of ingenuity. 
Perceiving something objectionable in the various theo- 
ries which have been promulgated from time to time, 
and so strenuously supported by their respective advo- 
cates, I venture to hazard an opinion. 

I contend that space does not exist ; that the ultimate 
atoms or elementary constituents of matter, have been 
continually in motion from all eternity f and were onco 


held in solution by caloric, or the matter of heat These 
atoms, constantly approaching and receding from each 
other, gradually aggregated together — hence their une- 
qual diffusion in caloric. The equilibrium once dis- 
turbed, fresh accessions of primary atoms to the millions 
of nuclei thus formed, increased their bulk, until the 
myriads of worlds, which we now see, were perfected ; 
and these immense masses of matter, or worlds, kept 
asunder from each other by the antagonistic principle 
of caloric, continue the original motion of the primary 
atoms by revolving or moving around a common centre 
(their respective suns) to which they are attracted, and 
of which they would become a part, were it not for the 
intervention of the repulsive principle of caloric. 

Thus the origin of the world : its own constituent 
atoms, while yet in a liquid state, attracted to their indi- 
vidual nucleus, or centre, by the force of gravitation, 
gave to the earth a globular shape, which its rotary mo- 
tion preserved. This mutual attraction gradually forced 
to the surface those portions of caloric which the ap- 
proximation of the atoms had displaced. Thus the in- 
terior of the earth became more dense. The external 
surface was still a liquid mass, a portion of which the 
disengaged caloric converted into an elastic gas, consti- 
tuting our present atmosphere. Successive depositions 
of this liquid matter produced the various earths and 
primitive rocks. The lapse of ages witnessed other 
important changes. The unequal distribution of caloric 
was in direct opposition to its natural tendency to diffiise 
itself throughout all matter ; and volcanoes became the 
outlets of its excess. To these volcanic eruptiods may 
be attributed the present irregular appearance of the 
external crust of the earth, diversified by mountains, and 
valleys, and immense collections of water. At length 
succeeded the phenomena of vegetation and animal life* 


The external crust of the earth, so far as it has been 
amined. is composed of various substances, denomi- 


nated minerals, which are arranged in layers or strata. 
These minerals are divided into five classes. 

The first class contains the primitive rocks, such as 
granite, gneiss, mica, slate, limestone, &c. Their tex- 
ture is more or less cyrstalline, and they are totally des- 
titute of organic remains or petrifactions. 

The second class contains the transition or interme- 
diate rocks, composed of the newest of the primitive 
and the oldest of the secondary rocks. Their texture 
is partly crystalline and partly earthy, and some of them 
contain petrifactions. 

The third class comprises the secondary rocks, whose 
texture is more or less earthy, being fragments of primi- 
tive rocks united by some cement. They are supposed 
to have been formed after the primitive rocks, containing, 
and sometimes almost wholly composed of animal and 
vegetable remains. 

The alluvial deposites constitute the fourth class, and 
are formed by the disintegration of rocks and simple 
minerals, combined with decomposed animal and vege- 
table remains. The alluvial deposites consist of gravel, 
sand, clay, loam, peat, bog iron ore, &c. and compre- 
hend a very large portion of the earth's surface. 

The fifth class is composed of volcanic productions. 

Nine simple minerals, quartz, feldspar, mica, horn- 
blende, lime, argillite (common slate), gypsum, talc, and 
chlorite, are supposed, by geologists, to be the elemen- 
tary substances of which all rocks are composed. Quartz 
and feldspar are the most common as well as the most 
abundant materials which compose the solid masses of 
our globe. Of the highest and most extensive moun- 
tains upon the earth, they are the principal, and, to some 
extent, the only ingredients. They enter largely into 
the composition of the various soils, the fertility of 
which depends upon their proper mixture. 


Earth, air, fire, and water, were once thought to be 
jsimple elementary substances ; but the experiments of 


modern chefcnistyry, prove that three of these supposed 
simple substances are compounds of several others. 
Thus, water is a compound of two gases, oxygen and 
hydrogen—atmospheric air is composed of several dif- 
ferent gases, oxygen, nitrogen, &c.-ear*A contains clay, 
lime, silex, &c 

There are, at present, fifty-three elementary sub- 
stances, not including the imponderables ; which last are 
three in number — caloric, light, and electricity, and are 
called imponderables because their accumulation in any 
body, or their subtraction from it, neither adds to nor 
diminishes its weight* ' The elementary bodies include 
four gases — oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine ; 
eight non-metallic bodies-— carbon, sulphur, phosphorus, 
boron, selenium, iodine, bromine, and fluorine; and 
forty-one metallic bodies, — platinum, gold, mercury, 
lead, &c. Future discoveries, it is more than probable, 
will considerably reduce the number of elementary sub- 
stances, by proving that some of them, now considered 
as simple are compound bodies ; so that the whole num- 
ber may not, in reality, be more than three or four. 

Thus we see that the whole earth, including animals 
and vegetables, is formed by the different proportions 
and arrangement of fifty-three simples or elements ! 

The atoms, arranged in various ways, produce various 
modifications of matter ; upon this depends the color, 
odor, taste, and other properties of bodies. 

The proportion of atoms creates a considerable dif- 
ference in the nature of compound bodies. For exam- 
ple, one atom of common quicksilver or mercury com- 
bined with one atom of chlorine gas constitutes calomel ; 
another atom of chlorine gas, added to the calomel, 
changes it into corrosive sublimate, a fatal poison. The 
diamond is pure carbon ; the addition of a little oxygen 
converts it into charcoal. Water is a compound of 
two gases, oxygen and hydrogen ; by the addition of 
carbon it becomes sugar. A comparison between three 
familiar articles — sugar, starch, and alcohol — will illus- 
trate the present point. One hundred parts of each, 


Of Sugar* 
Oxygen, - - - 50.80 
Carbon, - - - 41.85 
Hydrogen, , - - 6.35 


Of Starch, 
Oxygen, ... 49.68 
Carbon, - - - 43.65 
Hydrogen, - - 6.77 

Or Alcohol 
Oxygea, - - - 34.70 

Sarbon, - - - 53.17 
ydrogen, - - 13.04 



An excess of one element, or a deficiency of another, 
may alter a nutritious article of diet into a deadly poi- 
son. Many of our most active medicines are com- 
pounded of the same elements which enter into the . 
composition of the air we breathe, the water we drink, 
and the food we eat. 

Caloric, or the matter of heat, by diffusing itself 
among the primary atoms, renders bodies solid, liquid, 
or gaseous. When these atoms are closely compacted, 
and but little caloric between them, they produce those 
kind of substances which are called solid, such as stones 
and metals ; when the atoms are loose, and move about 
among themselves, with a larger quantity of caloric in- 
terposed, they become liquid, as water, oil, &c. and a 
still greater quantity of caloric converts them into va- 
pors and gases. 

« In one mode of combination, the primary atoms 
form earth ; in another, air ; and in another, fire. Ar- 
ranged in one way, they produce vegetation and irrita- 
bility ; in another, animal life and perception. 

" The world, thus generated, is perpetually sustained 
by the application of fresh tides of elementary atoms, 
flying with inconceivable rapidity through all the infinity 
of space, invisible from their minuteness, and occupying 
the posts of those that are as perpetually flying off. Yet 
nothing is eternal or immutable but these elementary 
seeds or atoms themselves. The compound forms of 
matter are continually decomposing and dissolving into 
their original corpuscles ; to this there is no exception : 
minerals, vegetables, and animals, are in this respect, » 
all alike, when they lose their present make, perishing , 
for ever, and new combinations proceeding from the 
matter into which they dissolve. But the world itself is 
a compound though not an organized being ; sustained 
and nourished, like organized beings, from the material 
pabulum that floats through the void of infinity. The 


world itself must, therefore, in the same manner, perish ; 
it had a beginning, and it will have an end. Its present 
crasis will be decompounded ; it will return to its origi- 
nal, its elementary atoms ; and new worlds will arise 
from its destruction." 


Caloric, or the matter of heat,* is a subtle material 
fluid, pervading all bodies. It is die most abundant, as 
well as the most important of natural agents.. It per- 
forms a conspicuous part in every phenomenon of na- 
ture, and to its influence is man indebted for almost 
every blessing he enjoys. 

Caloric is the mighty antagonist of all other forms of 
matter ; , it insinuates itself between their particles, and 
overcomes the tendency which they manifest to unite 
aad form an impervious solid. It is called ah imponde- 
rable substance, because a body undergoes no apprecia- 
ble change of weight, either by its addition or abstrac- 
tion ; and this arises from the fact, that the atoms of 
ponderable matter have a mutual tendency or inclination 
to cohere together, while the particles of caloric neither 
attract each other r nor are they attracted by any other 
particles of matter, hut seek to diffuse themselves equally 
through all bodies, as the particles of water pervade a 
sponge. The tendency, which caloric manifests to pre- 
serve an equilibrium, "produces all the important opera- 
tions which we daily witness. Winter and summer, 
spring and autumn, the cooling breezes and refreshing 
showers, and various other phenomena depend upon the 
operation of this principle or tendency of caloric. Ex- 
amples of this tendency to equilibrium all of us have 
witnessed. If the hand be placed upon a cold bar of 
iron, particles of caloric leave the hand and enter the 
iron, until both possess an equal temperature. If the 
iron be; thrtist among, burning coals, it becomes equally 

* Phttwophartt to avoid ooafaaibn. have adopted the word Caloric to signify 
the eaeae of heat ; or, in other words, the term hc at is used to express the 
sensation we experienoe on touchiof a hat hody, aad the term Caxooic implies 
the $auJo of that exaaaisrai 

Q^ " 


rqd-hot, and if plunged in a basin of cold water, it parts 
with its excess of caloric to the water. If a red-hot 
ball be suspended in the air, it radiates its caloric until 
the surrounding atmosphere and the ball acquire the 
same temperature. 

But all substances do not part with their caloric, nor 
receive it from other bodies m the same space of time. 
" If one end of a rod of iron be held in the fire, a hand 
grasping the other soon feels the heat coming through 
it. Through a similar rod of glass the transmission of 
heat is much slower, and through one of wood it is 
slower still. The hand would be burned by the iron, 
before it felt warmth in the wood, although the inner end 
were blazing." Those bodies which allow caloric to 
pass freely through them are called conductors, and those 
which do not give an easy passage to it are called non- 
conductors. In proportion to the density or weight of 
bodies, is the power of conducting caloric. All heavy 
bodies, such as the metals, conduct it with great rapidity ; 
while lighter substances, such as wood and charcoal, 
(and air, when not in motion,) conduct it very slowly. 
We judge of the comparative warmth or coldness of 
bodies by the sensation they excite when touched by the 
hand ; but " the sense of touch is a very fallacious test 
of heat and cold ; and hence, on applying the hand to 
various contiguous objects, we are very apt to form 
wrong notions of their temperature. The carpet will 
feel nearly as warm as the hand ; a book will feel cool, 
the table will feel cold, the marble chimney-piece colder, 
and the candle-stick colder still ; yet, a thermometer ap- 
plied to them will stand in all at nearly the same eleva- 
tion. They are all colder than the hand ; but those that 
carry away caloric most rapidly, excite the strongest 
sensation of cold. 

" The phenomena that may be ascribed to the agency 
of caloric, and which may therefore be enumerated as 
its effects, are numerous. With respect to animals, it 
is the cause of the feelings of cold, agreeable warmth, 
and burning, according to its intensity. It excites the 
system powerfully, aid without a eerttfiit degree of it, 




the vital actions would entirely cease. Oyer the vege- 
table world its influence is obvious to every eye. By 
its stimulus, co-operating with air and moisture, the seed 
bursts its envelope, and yields a new plant, the buds 
open, the leaves expand, and the fruit arrives at maturity. 
With the declining temperature of the seasons, the cir- 
culation of the sap ceases, and the plant remains torpid 
till it is again excited by the stimulus of caloric." 


Having considered the origin, structure, and ele- 
mentary composition of the earth, we ascend in the 
scale of nature to the first link in the chain of life. 

All bodies upon the surface of the earth are divided 
into organic and inorganic. Vegetables and animals 
are called organic, because they are so constructed that 
certain parts or organs perform particular functions ; or, 
in other words, their constituent elements are so ar- 
ranged as to produce the phenomenon of life. Minerals 
are termed inorganic, because their particles are not so 
arranged as to perform any particular functions, being a 
mere aggregation of homogeneous particles. The dif- 
ferences between organic and inorganic bodies are very 

Organic beings have their origin from similarly or- 

Sanized beings — they grow and are nourished by food — 
leir parts or organs are developed by exercise and in- 
crease in bulk — and, finally, they die. 

Inorganic bodies, on the contrary, have no birth — 
they are not nourished by food — they grow by accretion, 
or the addition of particles to their external surface — 
they are not developed by exercise, but are wasted by 
friction and use — they do not die, but are worn or de- 
stroyed by extraneous agents. 

The first division of organized beings, comprises the 
different varieties in the vegetable kingdom. The study 
of vegetable nature is rendered interesting by reason of 
its close relation with animal life. Vegetables furnish 
us with most of the necessaries and many of the luxu- 


ries of life, such as food, clothing, and fuel ; they also 
furnish us with materials for building, and constructing 
the various implements of art 

Vegetables are insensible organized bodies. They 
are called insensible because they hare no nervous sys- 
tem. They originate from seeds, roots, or slips, and 
are nourished from the soil in which they grow. When 
a plant originates from seed, the process is called ger- 

If we examine a bean, or any similar seed, we will 
find, after removing its covering, or skin, that it can be 
separated into two halves, each of which is called a 
cotyledon or seed-lobe. Between these lobes may be dis- 
covered a small sprout, which is called the germ, and is 
the point from which the life and organization of the 
future plant originates. In the germ, two parts, the ra~ 
dicle and plumula may be observed. The radicle is first 
protruded, and descends into the earth, constituting the 
root of the plant The plumula expands into a tint of 
young leaves, and with the young stem, if there be any, 
rises into the air. The cotyledons or seed-lobes afford 
nourishment to the young plant, until its organization is 
so far advanced that it may draw materials for its growth 
from other sources. • The seed of the herbs are not di- 
vided into lobes. Moisture, a certain degree of warmth, 
and the presence of aii^ are indispensable to the germi- 
nation of the plant ; but light retards the process. A 
seed germinates most perfectly, if placed a few inches 
under ground, and loosely covered with earth; the 
ground is warmed by absorbing the rays of the sun, and 
while its porosity gives free access to the air, it excludes 
the light, and is moistened by occasional showers. 

Vegetables are nourished by water, earth, light, and 
air, and between them and animals there exists a striking 
analogy of the digestive functions, The root supplies 
the place of a stomach by imbibing nutritious juices 
' from the soil, which, under the name of sap f ascends 
through the wood in a distinct system of tubes called 
the common vessels, which are distributed in minute ra- 
mifications over the surface of the leaves. , The sop, in 


its passage through the leaves, which are the lungs of a 
plant, becomes fully exposed to the action of light and 
air, experiencing a change which adapts it to the wants 
of the vegetable economy. The sap then descends 
through the inner layer of the bark, in another system 
of tubes called the proper vessels, yielding to the plant 
peculiar juices, and supplying materials for its growth 
and nourishment. 

The temperature of the air alone limits the extent of 
vegetation. It is most luxuriant in the tropics, and least 
abundant in the polar regions. Vegetation experiences 
no other obstacles than extreme cold and the absence 
of humidity. To the want of moisture may be ascribed 
the perpetual sterility of the sandy deserts under the 
equator. Plants vegetate in eternal snow, upon the 
borders of hot springs, and in the craters of volcanoes. 
The lichens and mosses, almost destitute of roots, 
Sourish upon the driest rocks ; the sea-weeds, fuci and 
ulvae, live in the bosom of the ocean, and the cryptoga- 
mic plants ramify upon the dark vaults of mines, and the 
walls of the deepest caverns. 

Vegetables are chiefly composed of oxygen, carbon, 
and hydrogen ; but the narcotic or poisonous are found 
to contain a small portion of nitrogen as a constituent 
principle. Potassa, soda, lime, magnesia, silex, alumina, 
sulphur, iron, &c. are sometimes found in small quanti- 
ties, although they are supposed to be frequently the 
product of decomposition. 

From various experiments, it is rendered probable 
that water and air are the chief substances that afford 
nourishment to vegetables — the earth being only the 
medium of its conveyance to the roots. In the hot- 
houses of the Edinburgh botanical garden, two plants, 
species of the fig tree, have been suspended in the air 
for nearly ten years, during which time they have con- 
tinued to send out shoots and leaves. Sprigs of pep- 
permint were found, by Saussure, to vegetate in pure 
distilled water. Tillet has raised gramineous plants in 
pounded glass, by feeding them with water. Braconnot 
has found mustard-seed to germinate, grow, and produce 


plants that came to maturity, flowered, and ripened their 
seeds, in litharge, flowers of sulphur, and very small un- 
glazed shot. Duhamel and Bonnet supported plants with 
moss, and fed them with water, the fruit and flowers of 
which were highly flavored and odoriferous. Hyacinths 
and other bulbous plants are daily raised in saucers or 
bottles of water. Van Helmont planted a willow tree, 
weighing fifty pounds, in a certain quantity of earth, co- 
vered with sheet-lead ; he watered it for five years with 
distilled water ; at the end of that time the tree weighed 
one hundred and sixty-nine pounds three ounces, and 
the earth in which it vegetated was found to have suf- 
fered a loss of no more than three ounces. 

The relations existing between vegetables and the di- 
gestive functions of the human body will be explained 
in another part of the work. 


Animals are sensible organized beings. They are 
called sensible because they possess nervous systems. 
u They are at first attached to a body similar in form to 
their own, but which was developed before them— in a 
word, to a parent. So long as the offspring has no in- 
dependent existence but participates in that of its parent, 
it is called a germ, or embryo ; this primitive adhesion 
to a similar being is a rule without exception. 

" Kvery organized being re-produces others that are 
similar to itself, otherwise, death, being a necessary 
consequence of life, the species would become extinct. 

" The developement of organized beings is more or 
less rapid, and more or less extended, as circumstances 
are more or less favorable. Heat, the abundance and 
species of nutriment, with other causes, exercise great 
influence, and this influence may extend to the whole 
body in general, or to certain organs in particular' : and 
thence arises the impossibility of a perfect similitude 
between the offspring and parent." 

Animals, being destitute of roots to absorb nourish- 
ment from the earth, have been supplied with an internal 



tube, or alimentary canal, open at both extremities, in 
which their food is placed, digested, and appropriated 
to the renovation and growth of the body. They derive 
their nourishment only from substances which have once 
possessed life. 

" In the polypus we find only the essential parts of 
animal existence. The simplicity of its organization is 
such, that it may be turned inside out, and the external 
be made the internal surface ; the phenomena of nutri- 
tion, which are the whole life of the animal, go on, from 
the close analogy between the two surfaces. There is 
no organ especially allotted to the reproduction of the 
kind. Moisture, oozing from the internal surface of the 
digestive tube, softens and digests the aliments which it 
finds there ; the whole mass draws in nourishment from 
it ; the tube then spontaneously contracts, and casts out 
the residue of digestion. The mutual independence of 
parts is absolute and perfect : cut the creature into many 
pieces, it is reproduced in every piece, for each becomes 
a new polypus, organized and living, like that to which 
it originally belonged* The polypi enjoy, in a higher 
degree than plants, the faculties of feeling and of self- 
motion ; their substance dilates, and lengthens, and con* 
tracts, according to the impressions they receive. Ne- 
vertheless, these spontaneous movements do not suppose, 
any more than those of the mimosa (sensitive plant), 
the existence of reflection and will. 

" From this first degree of the animal scale, let us 
now ascend to worms. We have no longer a mere 
animated , pulp, shaped into an alimentary tube, — but 
contractile fibres, nervous ramifications, and imperfect 
respiratory organs, exhibiting an organization further 
advanced, and more perfect : sensibility and contractility 
are more distinct ; the motions are no longer absolutely 
automatic ; there are some that seem to suppose choice. 
The worm, too, may be divided (though Hot so often as 
the polypus) into many pieces ; each will become a se- 
parate and perfect worm, with a head and tail. 

" The crustaceous tribes, and among them the lobster, 
discover, a mdre complex apparatus of organization. 


Here you will find distinct muscles, an external articu- 
lated skeleton, distinct nerves, a Spinal marrow, and 
a brain and heart : these two organs, though imperfect, 
assign the animal to an order much above that of worms. 
The phenomena of life are linked together by a strict 
necessity : it is no longer possible to separate the crea- 
ture into two parts, each of which may continue to live. 
If you take off a claw, another will eventually supply 
its place, but the animal cannot be mutilated, so as to 
injure the central organs, without destroying life. 

" If from white-blooded animals we go on to the red 
and cold-blooded, such as fishes and reptiles, we see 
this power of reproduction becoming more and more 
limited, and life more involved in organization. In fact, 
if you cut off a part of the body of a fish, the tail of a 
serpent, or the foot of a frog, the separated parts are 
either not supplied at all, or very imperfectly reproduced. 
All these creatures maintain, with the medium in which 
they live, relations of more strict dependence. Gills in 
these, lungs in others, are added to a heart, nor are less 
essential to life. However, the action of these chief 
organs is not so frequent, nor of momentary necessity 
for the continuance of life. The serpent passes long 
winters, torpid with cold, in holes where he has no air, 
without breathing, without any motion of life, and to all 
appearance, dead. These creatures, like all reptiles, 
are able to breathe only at long intervals, and to sus- 
pend, for a time, the admission of air, without risking 
their existence. Here, the vital powers are distinct and 
strong, and differ from those of the more perfect ani- 
mals, and of man, by very slight shades. The heart 
and vessels of the fish feel and act within him without 
his consciousness : further, he has senses, nerves, and & 
brain ; muscles and hard parts, by the action of which 
he moves and changes his place, adapting himself to the 
relations that subsist between the substances around him 

and his own peculiar mode of existence. 

44 We axe come* at last, to the red and warm-blooded 
animals, at the head of which are the mammiferee and 
man. They are entirely alike, save some slight differ* 


eftces in the less essential organs. There is none that 
has not the vertebral column, four limbs, a brain which 
fills exactly the cavity of the skull, a spinal marrow, 
nerves of two sort, five senses, muscles partly obedient 
to the mil, partly independent in their action ; and a 
long digestive tube coiled upon itself, furnished at its 
mouth with agents of saliva and mastication ; vessels 
and lymphatic glands, arteries and veins, a heart with 
two auricles and ventricles, and lobular lungs* None 
of their organs live but while they partake in the gene- 
ral action of the system, and while they are under the 
influence of the heart : all die, irrecoverably, when they 
are separated from the body of the animal, and are in 
no way replaced."* 



As everything connected with the history of man 
must be peculiarly interesting to ourselves, a brief de- 
scription of his organization and habits, and the varie- 
ties of his race, cannot fail to attract our attention* 

In modern times, philosophers have endeavored to 
create a belief that man was designed, by nature, to go 
on all fours, and that he was naturally furnished with a 
tail, which has unaccountably disappeared during the 
pro g ress of civilization, and that mankind are, in fact, 
only a better kind of monkeys. Such degrading com- 
parisons, having excited a proportionate disgust, induced 
many of our ablest naturalists to vindicate the superi- 
ority of man, and to assert that the erect attitude is pe- 
culiar to himself. 

Without resorting to the reports of travellers, who 
have never met with any individuals of a nation who 
had adopted the attitude of Quadrupeds, the general 
mechanism of the skeleton will furnish conclusive evi- 
dence that the erect attitude which man assumes, is the 
natural one. 

* A, Motatnd. 


" The foot of man is very different from that of the 
monkey ; it is large ; the leg bean vertically upon it ; 
the heel is expanded beneath ; the toes are short* and 
but slightly flexible; the great toe, longer and larger 
than the rest, is placed on the same line with, and cannot 
be opposed to them. This foot, then, is peculiarly well 
adapted to support the body ; but cannot be used for 
seizing and climbing, and as the hands are not calcu- 
lated for walking, Man is the only true bi-manous (two 
handed) and bi-ped (two footed) animal. 

" The whole body of Man is arranged with a view to 
a vertical position. His feet furnish aim with a more 
extensive base than that of any other of the Mammalia. 
His pelvis is wider, hence a greater separation of the 
thighs and feet, and that pyramidal form of the body so 
favorable to equilibrium. 

" Were he to desire it, Man could not, with conve- 
nience, walk on all fours ; his short and nearly inflexible 
foot, and his long thigh, would bring the knee to the 
ground ; his widely separated shoulders and his arms, 
too far extended from the median line, would ill rapport 
the upper portion of the body. His head is also heavier 
than that of quadrupeds, both from the magnitude of 
the brain and the sma linens of the cavities or *tmue* of 
the bones ; and yet the means of supporting it are 
weaker, for he has neither cervical ligament, nor are his 
vertebra (back-bones) so arranged as to prevent their 
flexure forwards; the result of this would be that he 
could only keep his head in the same Kne with the spine, 
and then his eyes and mouth being directed toward the 
earth, he could not see before him i in the erect posi- 
tion, on the contrary, the arrangement of these orgaqs? 
is every way perfect. 

"Man, then, is formed for an erect position only. 
He thus preserves the entire use of his hands for the 
arts, while his organs of sense ate most favorably site* 
ated for observation. 

" Although there appears to he but one human spe- 
cies, since all its individuals can couple promiscuously? 
«o as to produce a prolific offspring, ^e yet remark ro 


it certain hereditary conformations, which constitute 
what are called races. Of them there are three which 
are eminently distinct in appearance : they are, the 
White or Caucasian; the Yellow or Mongolian; the 
Negro or Ethiopian. 

« The Caucasian race, to which we belong, is distin- 
guished by the beautiful oval form of the head ; and it is 
this race which has given birth to the most civilized na- 
tions, and to those which have generally ruled over the 
others. It has some differences in the shade of the 
complexion, and in the color of the hair. This race is 
called Caucasian, because tradition and also the lineage 
of nations, would appear to trace it to the group of 
mountains situated between the Caspian and the Black 
seas (on the borders of Europe,) from whence it has 
radiated in every direction. 

" The Mongolian is known by its prominent cheek 
bones, flat face, narrow and oblique eyes, straight and 
black hair, thin beard, and olive complexion. It has 
formed vast empires in China and Japan, and has some- 
times extended its conquests on this side of the Great 
Desert ; but its civilization has remained stationary. 

" The Negro race is confined to the south of Mount 
Atlas ; its complexion is black, its hair woolly, its skull 
compressed, and its nose flattish ; its prominent mouth 
and thick lifts make it manifestly approach the monkey 
tribe ; the people which compose this tribe have always 
remained in a state of barbarism."* 


A chemical analysis of the human body demonstrates 
only a few elementary principles ; but we are yet igno- 
rant of the manner m which these elementary atoms 
combine in the formation of blood, or in the transforma- 
tion of the blood into muscles, nerves, bones, tendons, 
ligaments, and all the varied tissues of the body. Water 
enters into the organization, and constitutes three- 
fourths, while oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, lime, 

* Regno Animal, par M. le Cher. Carter, torn, '- 

59 6f atfcWM! OF *AIT. 

iron, phosphorus, and a few of the neutral salts, constitute 
the remaining fourth of the elementary tissues. The 
primitive tissues of the body are reduced to three— the 
cellular, the muscular, and the nervous. 

The cellular tissue may be considered as the frame- 
work of the body. It is composed of numberless small 
fibres and lamin&, variously interwoven, so as to form 
little cells that communicate with each other, but vary- 
ing in shape and size. If we could remove every other 
portion of the body, the cellular tissue would present 
the appearance of a transparent sponge, of the size and 
shape of the body, which its elasticity retains within 
certain limits, when condensed, this substance forms 
the principal bulk of the tendons, ligaments, nails, and 
hair ; when indurated by the accumulation of earthy 
matter, bones are the result; as a thin membranous ex- 
pansion it serves as sheaths for the muscular fibres ; 
rolled into cylinders, it forms those tubes called vessels. 
It fills up the interstices between the muscles and other 
parts which lie near together ; it gives the whole surface 
of the body a beautiful rounded outline, and is found in 
abundance wherever there is any necessity for accom- 
modation to variations of capacity or pressure. 

The muscular, or fleshy tissue, is an arrangement of 
parallel fibres, easily recognized as the red or fleshy por- 
tions of the animal. When these fibres are examined 
attentively, they will be found to be thus arranged : a 
small fibre is enveloped in cellular tissue ; another is 
likewise enveloped, and the two, lying parallel with each 
other, are both surrounded by cellular substance. When 
a bundle of these are completely enclosed and separated 
from the rest, in a cellular sheath, they constitute what 
is called a muscle. 

The nervous tissue includes the brain, spinal marrow, 
and the nerves proceeding from them. It is composed 
of medullary matter, a soft, whitish, pulpy substance, 
which has the power of transmitting impressions that 
are made on it, from one part to another. Its proper- 
ties, and the nervous functions, will be more fully de- 
scribed hereafter. 

¥tt£ osseous -thrsxEJt* SSt 

*$ThtiS the whole body consists of solids and 
The solids, when unravelled, consist of fibres, of 
nae>, and of molecules. The fluids are so abundant, that 
when they evaporate by exposure to the air, nearly all 
parts of the body, except the skeleton, lose from one- 
half to two-thirds of their original bulk, and some parts 
even more. The several solid parts of the body are 
then kept literally soaked during life in the fluids, which 
have, for a principal constituent, simply water." 


" The skeleton is the bony frame-work of the human 
body , which, by its hardness and form, retains in its 
proper shape the whole fabric ; affords points for the 
attachment of muscles ; and protects many of the viscera. 

" The number of the bones is commonly the same in 
every middle-aged person, but they are less numerous 
than in the infant, from several of them having been 
originally formed in pieces. There are two hundred 
and eleven bones, not including those of the tympanum 
and the teeth. 

u The bones, under every modification of shape aod 
mechanical arrangement, are constituted by precisely 
the same elementary matters, the principal of which are, 
an animal and an earthy substance, in intimate combi- 
nation. The earthy matter gives to bones their hard- 
ness and want of flexibility," 

The skeleton is divided into the food, the trunk, and 
the extremities. Th^ head includes the skull and the face* 
The skull is a large bony cavity, composed of eight 
bones, united together by sutures. A suture is the union 
of two bones, whose edges are usually serrated like the 
teeth of a saw. The skull is formed of eight bones- 
one os frontis or bone of the forehead j two varietal or 
side bones j one occipital or posterior bone or the head j 
two temporal or temple bones } one ethmoid bone, so 
called because it resembles a sieve, situated at the root 
or top of the nose, and enclosed in the os frontis $ and 
one sphenoid or wedge-like bone, at the base or bottom 


of the skull. The skull contains the brain, and gives 
passage to the spinal marrow, through a hole situated in 
its lower part, where it proceeds from the brain and goes 
through the back-bone. 

There are fourteen bones of the face, the arrangement 
of which is so complicated as not to be easily described ; 
they are united by sutures, and, when taken together, 
give the general shape and constitute the features of the 
countenance. Of the fourteen bones of the face, two 
belong to the upper jaw, and are called the superior 
maxilla ; one constitutes the lower jaw, and is called the 
inferior maxilla ; two cheek bones, (ossa malarum); two 
ossapalati, or palate bones, which form the roof of the 
mouth ; two ossa nasi, or bones of the nose, which are 
sq applied to each other as to form a strong arch called 
the bridge of the nose ; one os vomer, a bone which se- 
parates one nostril from the other ; two vtferior spongy, 
also belonging to the nose ; and two unguiform bones, 
belonging to the eyes. In addition to the bones already 
mentioned, there is one belonging to the tongue, eight 
small ones to the ear, and thirty-two teeth. The head 
is placed on the top of the back-bone or vertebral column. 

The trunk is constituted by the spine Tor back-bone), 
the thorax (or chest), and the pelvis (or nips). 

The back-bone is the .chief support of the trunk, and 
is composed of twenty-four vertebra, placed one above 
another, so as to form a kind of pillar or column. There 
are seven vertebrae to the neck, called cervical ; twelve 
to the thorax, called dorsal; and five to the loins, called 
lumbar. The spinal column rests upon a bone called os 
sacrum, which is germinated by the os coccygis, corres- 
ponding to the tails of animals. The vertebra increase- 
in size from above, downwards, so that the vertebrae of 
the loins are larger, thicker, and stronger than those of 
the back and neck. A vertebra consists in a body, in 
seven processes or protuberances, and in a hollow for 
lodging the spinal marrow. The body of a vertebra is 
a solid cylindrical piece of bone, united to the bodies 
of those above and below, by a strong elastic substance 
called cartilage or crristle. The processes, both behind 

the ogSEGtrg sirsTKii 55 

and at the side of the vertebrae, are arched over, and so 
connected as to form a hole or canal, beginning in the 
first bone of the spine and terminating in the one at the 
extremity of the column. This canal contains the spinal 
nerve or marrow; between the vertebrae, on each side 
of the body, are smaller holes, through which branches 
of the spinal nerve are sent Out to different parts of 
the body. 

The thorax (or chest) is a large cavity containing the 
heart and lungs, and separated from another cavity, the 
abdomen (or belly) by a muscular membrane, called the 
diaphragm or midriff. The thorax is formed by the 
union of twenty-four ribs (twelve on each side) with the 
dorsal vertebrae behind, and the sternum (or breast-bone) 
in front* Fourteen of the ribs are joined to the breast- 
bone by means of cartilage or gristle, and are called 
true ribs, while the remaining ten are called false ribs, 
because their cartilages are not united with the sternum 
or breast-bone. 

Two bones, the ossa' irmominata, usually termed hip- 
bones, by uniting behind with the bone at the bottom of 
the spinal column, and connected in front with each 
other, form a sort of basin, called the pelvis. This basin 
constitutes the floor, the diaphragm the roof, and the 
lumbar vertebrae behind, with the skin, fat, and muscles 
in front, the walls of a large cavity called the abdomen 
or befly. This cavity contains the stomach, intestines, 
liver, kidneys, &c. 

The limbs of man are called his extremities. The arms 
are the upper extremities ; each of which consists of 
thirty-two bones : this portion of the skeleton, on either 
side of the body, is divided into the shoulder, arm, fare- 
arm, and hand. 

The shoulder consists of two bones, the clavicle or 
collar-bone, and the scapula or shoulder-blade. 

The arm extends from the shoulder to the elbow, and 
has but one bone in it, the os humeri. 

The fore-arm is placed between the elbow and the 
wrist, consists in two straight parallel bones, the ulna 
and the radius ; the ulna is on the same side with the 


little finger, and the radius is on the same side with the 

The hand consists of ' carpus,metacarpus, nnd phalanges, 
and has, in its composition, twenty-seven bones. The 
carpus or wrist, is composed of eight small irregular 
bones, arranged in two rows. The metacarpus is situ- 
ated between the wrist and the bones of the fingers and 
thumb. It consists of five bones, one for the thumb 
and one for each finger. Each finger has three bones 
in it called phalanges, and the thumb two : the relative 
size of eacn bone may be seen by bending the fingers. 

The lower extremities are the thighs, legs, and feet, 
consisting of sixty bones, thirty on each side. The os 
femoris is the only bone in the thigh, and extends from 
the trunk to the leg. It is the longest, largest, and the 
strongest bone in the skeleton, and is connected above 
with one of the hip-bones, by means of a large round 
head, which is received into a socket of corresponding 
size, forming the hip-joint. 

Two parallel bones, the tibia and the fibula, form the 
leg, and extend from the thigh to the foot. The tibia is 
at the inside of the leg, and the fibula or shin-bone is at 
the outside. Between the upper end of the tibia and 
the lower end of the thigh-bone, is placed the patella or 
knee-pan, in a cavity called the knee-joint. 
9 The foot terminates the lower extremity. It is di- 
vided into tarsus, metatarsus, and phalanges. The tarsus 
or ankle, is composed of seven distinct bones, the os 
colds, the astragalus, the naviculare, the cuboides, the cu- 
tmforme externum, medium, and internum : the os calm 
projects behind to form the heel. The metatarsus has 
five bones f and is situated between the ankle and toes. 
The great toe has two phalanges, and each of the other 
toes have three. Eight little bones are occasionally 
found, called sesamoid, two at the bottom of each great 
toe. and two on the under surface of each thumb. 

The bones are tied together by means of firm, white, 
fibrous substances, called ligament*. Their strength 
may be estimated, when it is recollected that the execu- 
tioner has beta obliged to cut them with a knife, in 


* i . * 

order to assist in the disarticulation of the bones, while 
four horses have been employed to tear asunder the 
limbs of a criminal. 

The surfaces of those bones which move upon one „ 
another, are covered by a smooth, white, and polished 
substance (cartilage or gristle), which is moistened by a 
fluid called synovia, from its resemblance to the white of 
an egg. This synovial fluid is applied to prevent fric- 
tion, and answers the same purpose which oil does-^fr" - 
machinery. By this arrangement, when we raise an 
arm or lift a leg, the bones move easily upon one an- 
other ; without which provision, every movement of the 
body would be attended with a harsh, disagreeable noise, 
the motions themselves would be executed slowly, and 
the constant rubbing of the bones together would soon 
destroy their usefulness. 

Cartilage may be recognized by its whiteness, its 
flexibility, its elasticity, and by a hardness only a little 
inferior to that of the bones. Wherever two bones are 
not united by sutures, cartilage is always found between 
them. The septum which divides one nostril from the 
other, at the lower part, is cartilage. It is also found in 
the space between the ribs and breast-bone, in the wind- 
pipe, in the internal ear, and elsewhere. 

All the bones, with the exception of the teeth, are 
covered by muscles, fat, and skin. 


Muscles are the red, fleshy parts of animals ; the 
redness is owing to the blood which they contain. The 
, muscles are bundles of fleshy fibres, surrounded by their 
appropriate sheaths, or envelopes of cellular substance. 
The ultimate muscular fibre, or that which is not sus- 
ceptible of division without a breach of substance, is a 
series of globules, resembling the globules of blood de- 
prived of coloring matter, and adhering to each other ; 
or it may be compared to a string of globular beads. 
Each muscular fibre (accompanied by a nerve, artety, 
and vein,) is covered with cellular tissue, and a bundle 



of them, arranged in a parallel manner, and enveloped 
in thicker layers of cellular membrane, constitute a 

The muscles effect locomotion by alternately approxi- 
mating the different bones, to whose surfaces and ex- 
tremities they are attached. They are divided into 
voluntary and involuntary. .The voluntary muscles are 
ijnder the influence of the will, and are generally such 
as serve for locomotion and speech. The involuntary 
are independent of the will, and are concerned in the 
functions of digestion, respiration, and circulation. The 
voluntary muscles are sometimes called the muscles of 
animal life ; by their means we maintain a relation with 
the world around us, and are enabled to express our 
thoughts and sensations, and to procure materials for 
the growth and nourishment of the body ; while the in- 
voluntary (sometimes called hollow or organic muscles) 
are directly concerned in converting those materials into 
the several tissues of the body. They are plentifully 
supplied with nerves and blood-vessels. 

Muscles are generally much thicker in the middle than 
at their extremities. Every muscle consists in a belly 
and two extremities ; the middle or fleshy portion is its 
belly, and the extremities are the two ends, one of which 
is tne head or origin, and the other the tail or insertion* 
The muscle, which is thick and fleshy in the middle, 
gradually tapers toward each end until it terminates in a 
strong, compact, white, and shining cord, called a tendon 
or sinew. The end of the tendon which is termed its 
origin, is attached to the bone that remains stationary, 
while the other end (its insertion) is fixed to the bone 
which it is designed to move.. In speaking of the at- 
tachments of a muscle, anatomists say that it arises from 
that bone which remains stationary when the muscle 
contracts, and that it is inserted into the bone which it 

The most singular, and, at the same time, the most 
important property of the muscular fibre, is its contrac- 
tility. Whenever we move a limb, the muscle contracts ; 
it shortens, swells in the middle, and becomes hard. If 


we wish to raise the arm, for example, the following are 
the phenomena which occur. A muscle called the Del- 
toides, because it is shaped like a triangle, has its head 
or origin attached, partly to the collar-bone, and to the 
shoulder-blade, and is inserted in the os humerus, or bone 
of the upper arm. At the moment when we will to 
raise the arm, the muscle is stimulated by the nerve 
which communicates between it and the brain ; the mus- 
cle immediately swells in the middle, and its two ends 
are brought nearer to each other, drawing the arm with 
it toward the head. The arm being now raised, we de- 
sire to bring it back to its original position — this is ef- 
fected by two other muscles which draw the arm down- 
wards. Upon this single property of the muscular fibre, 
to wit, contractility, depends the strength of the body, 
and the power to execute all the complicated motions of 
which the organs are capable. The rapidity with which 
contraction may take place, is manifested in speaking, 
in running, and in playing upon a stringed instrument ; 
and its strength by the immense ourdens that some per- 
sons can raise and bear. 

The contractility of a muscle depends upon the stim- 
ulus applied to it. Whether this stimulus be a nervous 
fluid, or electricity, or any other agent, physiologists 
have not yet decided. It is certain, however, that the 
nerves are the chief agents in transmitting this stimulus, 
whatever it may be, to the muscle. If the nerves going 
from the brain to a voluntary muscle be divided or com- 
pressed, in any part of the course, the will has no fur- 
ther power over the muscle while the nerves are in such 
condition. If the arteries be tied so that the muscles 
are not duly supplied with blood, or, if the veins be tied 
to prevent its return from the muscles, their contractility 
is soon extinct. 

After a stimulus has been applied for some time to a 
muscle, its contraction ceases, even though the stimulus 
continues to be applied. This is not only the case with 
mechanical and chemical agents, but may be observed 
in all the natural operations of the system. No matter 
how strongly we may desire to perform any voluntary 


action, we cannot continue to perform it beyond a cer- 
tain length of time* If, however, we allow the muscles 
to rest for a given time, they will be able to renew the 
action as vigorously as before. If the muscles of the 
legs be much exercised by walking, or those of the arms 
by manual labor, they become fatigued ; their contrac- 
tions take place but slowly, and are performed with evi- 
dent pain ; hence the necessity of sleep to recruit their 
exhausted energies. 

The voluntary muscles are obviously designed to carry 
into effect such resolutions of the brain as may be ne- 
cessary for the preservation and welfare of animal ex- 
istence. The duties thus imposed upon them are not 
only conducive to the healthy performance of other 
functions, but are absolutely necessary to themselves. 
The oftener a muscle is exercised, the stronger it be- 
comes, and increases in size, within prescribed limits. 
Men who exercise much, in the open air, are generally 
observed to be very muscular, with large and powerful 
limbs, and capable of enduring much fatigue. By exer- 
cising the muscles, the blood circulates more freely in 
the minute blood-vessels that ramify upon the external 
surface of the body. Digestion, respiration, secretion, 
and nutrition, are thus performed more perfectly ; the 
general health of the body is increased, and the mind, 
itself, becomes clear and active, and more capable of 
governing the body. 

The shortening of a muscle in order to bring any two 
organs nearer to each ojher, or to bring two portions 
of the same organ together, is called contraction ; or, in 
other words, when the atoms which compose a muscle 
approach each other more closely in any one direction, 
on the application of a stimulus, the muscle is said to 
possess contractility. Whatever excites this muscle to 
contract, is called a stimulus. The stimulus (to the vo- 
luntary muscles) is received directly from the brain ; the 
nerves are the agents which transmit it. The nerves are 
distributed in such abundance to every muscle, that the 
muscles of the thumb alone are supplied with more ner- 
vous influence than the largest viscera, as the liver, for 


instance. The nerves enter the majority of muscles by 
several trunks, the branches of which are so minutely 
distributed and ramified throughout the cellular sub- 
stance, that they soon become invisible from their mi- 

The involuntary muscles, which are not under the 
control of the will, are hollow organs, designed to pro- 
mote the growth and nourish the system of the indi- 
vidual to which they belong, and are mostly excited to 
contract by their contents. This system includes the 
alimentary canal, (excepting its superior and inferior 
extremities,) the heart, bladder, and the innumerable 
vessels concerned in the circulation of the blood, in nu- 
trition, secretion, and exhalation. They are under the 
influence of the nerves of organic life. 


In order that the subsequent pages may be better un- 
derstood, I have introduced the following chapter from 
Horner's Anatomy. 

" There are two remarkable modifications of life : one 
is common to the vegetable and to the animal, and the 
other is the exclusive attribute of the animal. Under the 
first modification are included assimilation (or the con- 
version of food into nutriment) and excretion (or throw- 
ing off from the system the useless matter) which, though 
exercised under apparently different circumstances in 
animals and in plants, are probably essentially the same 
in both. This modification is termed, by Bichat, organic 
life* By the second modification of life, the animal has 
a more extended sphere of existence than the vegetable, 
is put into a certain relation with all the objects that 
surround him, is made the inhabitant of the whole world, 
and not, like the vegetable, confined for ever to the place 
of its birth. By it the animal feels, and is conscious of 
external objects, reflects upon them, moves voluntarily, 
and can communicate, by the voice, his wants and ap- 
prehensions, his pleasures and his pains. The functions 
thus included, are termed, by Bichat, animal life. 


" M. Bichat thinks the division of life into animal and 
organic, fully warranted by their differing much from 
each other in the exterior shape of their respective or- 
gans, — in their mode of action, — in the duration of their 
action, — in the effects of custom or habit on them, — in 
their relation to the moral part of man, — and in their 
vital force. 

" One of the most prominent differences in the two 
lives, is the symmetry and duplicity of the organs of 
animal life, and the irregularity in shape of those be- 
longing to organic life. The impression of light is re- 
ceived by two organs exactly alike. Hearing, smelling, 
touching, are likewise performed by organs having their 
congeners on the opposite sides of the body ; and even 
tasting, though apparently performed by one organ, has 
that organ divided into two equal and symmetrical parts, 
thus making it like the other organs. The whole exte- 
rior surface of the body is indeed manifestly divided 
into two equal parts, marked off from each other by the 
fissure in the nose, the upper lip, the chin, the spinous 

I>rocesses, &c. The brain and spinal marrow, as be- 
onging to animal life, consist of two halves, presenting 
corresponding arrangements in the developement of ca- 
vities and prominences, and so on, and in similar nerves 
to the organs of locomotion and of voice. 

44 The organs of organic life are marked, on the con- 
trary, (with some few exceptions) by the character of 
striking dissimilitude in their two halves, as manifested 
m the liver, the spleen, the stomach, the intestines, the 
heart, and the great vessels belonging to it. 

44 Another difference between organic and animal life 
exists in the mode of action of their respective organs. 
Each of the organs of animal life being double, our 
sensations are the more exact, as there exists between 
the two impressions, from which they result, a more 
perfect correspondence. We see badly when the images 
transmitted to the brain are derived through eyes of un- 
equal strength. Without knowing this law as theorists, 
we instinctively show its influence in shutting one eye 
while looking through a convex glass, whereby we pre- 


vent a confusion of images, arising from two impressions 
of unequal force, concerning the same body : when one 
eye is weaker than the other, we squint involuntarily, 
and it finally becomes a habit, in order to avoid the con- 
fusion of perception from two unequal images on the 
brain. This accounts for squinting, both in early life, 
from some congenital cause, and for that squinting which 
is the result of inflammation in more advanced hfe. A 
little reflection on this head will satisfy us ; for, as a sin- 
gle judgment or perception is, for the most part, formed 
from the two impressions, one on each eye, how is it 
possible that this judgment can be accurate, when the 
same body is presented at the same moment with vivid 
or faint colors, accordingly as it was painted on the 
strong or weak eye ? 

" The ear is subjected to the same law as the eye. If, 
in the two sensations composing the act of hearing, one 
is received upon an organ better developed than the 
other, and more discriminating in its functions, it will 
leave an impression more clear and distinct ; but the 
brain being affected simultaneously by the unequal im- 
pressions, will be the seat of an imperfect conception. 
This case constitutes a false ear in music, and from the 
impressions being continually confused, prevents the in- 
dividual from judging rightly between harmony and 

"A similar reasoning has been founded by Bichat 
upon the structure of the nose, mouth, and organs of 
touch. He believes, also, that the brain, itself, as the 
seat of the mind, may become the cause of error in our 
ideas, when the two halves of it are not perfectly alike ; 
for example, if one of the hemispheres be more strongly 
organized than the other, better developed every where, 
and more susceptible of a vivid impression. This har- 
mony of action also exists in the organs of locomotion, 
and of voice ; and any thing which interrupts their 
symmetry, destroys the precision with which their func- 
tions are executed. 

" Opposed to this harmony in the shape and functions 
of the organs of animal life, the most striking differ- 


ences may take place between the organs of organic 
life, without much disturbance in the general result. For 
example, in disparities of the kidneys, of the lungs, of 
the salivary glands, &c. their functions are not, by any 
means, the less perfectly performed. 

"Another very striking difference in the two lives 
may be observed in the duration of their action. All 
the excretions proceed uninterruptedly, though not uni- 
formly. Exhalation and absorption succeed each other 
incessantly ; assimilation and disassimilation follow the 
same rule. On the other hand, every organ of animal 
life, in the exercise of its functions, has alternations of 
activity and of complete repose. The senses, fatigued 
by long application, are, for the time, disqualified from 
further action ; the ear is no longer sensible of sounds ; 
the eye is closed to light ; sapid bodies no longer excite 
the tongue ; the nose is insensible to odors ; and the 
touch becomes obtuse. Fatigued by the continued ex- 
ercise of perception, of imagination, and of memory, 
the brain has to rgcruit its strength by a state of com- 
plete inactivity for some time. The muscles, relaxed 
by fatigue, are incapable of further action till they have 
been permitted to rest ; hence the necessary intermis- 
sion, in every individual, of locomotion and voice. 

" Another striking difference between organic and ani- 
mal life, is found in the epoch and mode of their origin.* 
Organic life exists from the first moments of conception ; 
but animal life does not commence till after birth, when 
exterior objects are established in a certain relation with 
the individual. It is more than probable that the func- 
tion of the eye, the ear, the tongue, and the nose, does 
not exist in such a manner as to communicate their se- 
veral sensations in the foetus ; and that the enjoyment 
of a sort of indistinct sense of touch, arising from its 
striking against the parieties of the womb, is the only 
circumstance which can give the latter any idea of its 
existence. The organic life, on the contrary, of a foetus, 
though not so complicated as afterwards, is still remark- 
able for the promptitude and vigor of some of its func- 
tions, particularly of assimilation ; and, in a very short 

Animal and organic life. 65 

time after birth, all the organs which it employs reach 
their highest degree of perfection, and thus present a 
very different case from the organs of animal life. 

44 The distinction of the two lives is further kept up 
in their manner of ceasing in old age. Natural death, 
says Bichat, is remarkable in terminating animal life al- 
most entirely, a long time before it does organic life. 
The functions of animal life first cease successively. 
The sight becomes dim, confused, and finally is extin- 
guished. The ear receives the impressions of sound 
indistinctly, then faintly, and afterwards they are entirely 
lost upon it. The skin becomes shrivelled, hardened, 
loses many of its vessels, by their obliteration, and is 
only the seat of an obscure and indistinct touch ; the 
hair and beard become white and fall from it. The nose 
loses its sensibility to odors. Of all the senses, the 
taste remains the longest, and exhibits the last effort of 
animal fife. 

44 Tfire powers of the mind' disappear along with those 
of the senses. The imagination and the memory are 
extinguished r (he latter, however, under striking circum- 
stances. The old man* forgets, in an instant, what was 
said to him, because his external senses, being weaken- 
ed, do not confirm, sufficiently, the impressions on his 
mind ; he is, however, able to recollect the transactions 
of early life, and sometimes retains a vivid impression 
of them. Locomotion and voice also participate in 
the decline of the other organs of animal life. 

44 If we now consider- that sleep retrenches one-third 
of the whole duration of animal life; that nine months 
of it are first lost in gestation ; and the* extinction of. 
our senses is the inheritance of old age; it will be seen 
how great is the difference between the whole duration 
of animalj and of organic life." 

When physiologists speak of the organs of animal 
life, they mean those which put the individual in relation 
with surrounding objects, viz. — the brain, spinal marrow, 
the organs of hearing, sight, smelly taste, and feeling 
and the voice, together with the voluntary muscles, ot 
those which move the limbs. On* the contraiy, the or. 


gans of organic life, are those which are not controlled 
by the will, viz. — the heart, liver, stomach, intestinal canal, 
arteries, veins, kidneys, Afc. fyc. 

The nerves of animal life are those which proceed from 
the brain and spinal marrow, and communicate the im- 
pressions which they receive directly to the brain ; and 
which convey the different orders of the brain to the 
organs under its control. 

The nerves of organic life are those not directly con- 
nected with the brain, but engaged in the several func- 
tions of nutrition, circulation, excretion, &c. 


The study of the nervous system is of the utmost 
importance, and is justly considered as a fundamental 
part of the study of the whole animal economy. The 
nervous system consists of the medullary substance of 
the brain, (which is divided into the cerebrum, or brain 
proper, and the cerebellum, or little brain,) of the me* 
dulla oblongata, and spinalis ; and of the same substance 
continued into the nerves, and thus distributed into every 
part of the body. 

Nerves are long, white, fibrous cords, distributed upon 
the organs of sense, the viscera, muscles, and every part 
that is endowed with sensibility 

In the course of the nerves a number of knots occur, 
generally of an oblong shape and grayish-red color, 
called ganglions, which some writers have considered as 
so many little brains, and, consequently, the source of 
new nervous energy. 

In their course through the body, the nerves commu- 
nicate with each other, and constitute what is called a 
plexus, from which branches are distributed to every 
part, and the junction of the minute filamentary ends 
of these branches is termed an anastomosis. 

The most important use of the nerves is to convey 
impressions, which are made upon their sentient extremi- 
ties, to the brain ; the perception of these impressions, 
by the brain, is termed sensation. 

rum nervous system. 67 

The nervous system is divided into two portions — the 
nervous system of animal life and the nervous system, 
of organic life* 

The nervous System of animal life consists of the 
spinal marrow or spinal nerve, which extends through 
nearly the whole length of the cavity of the vertebral 
column } of the brain, which entirely fills the skull ; and 
of thirty-nine pair of nerves and their branches — nine 
pair of which proceed from the brain, and thirty pair 
from the spinal marrow* 

The spinal marrow is placed within the vertebral ca- 
vity, and extends from the first vertebra of the neck to 
the first or second vertebra of the loins. In its length 
it does not quite fill the spinal canal, and its diameter is 
much smaller. It is surrounded, like the brain, with 
three membranes. Like the brain, also, its substances 
of two kinds, cmeritipus (of the color of ashes), and 
medullary (resembling marrow); but the order of their 
position is reversed from what occurs in the brain. In 
the brain, the medullary matter is surrounded by the ci- 
neritious ; in the spinal marrow, the cineritious is en-, 
veloped by the medullary. The spinal marrow is formed 
by six columns of nervous matter ; the two anterior or 
front columns for voluntary motion, the two middle for 
respiration, and the posterior for sensation. 

The use of the spinal marrow is to send out from its 
sides thirty pairs of nerves, which are principally dis- 
tributed to the muscles of voluntary motion, and to the 
external skin. • 

The spinal marrow, as it enters a large hole at the 
bottom of the skull, gradually enlarges for about an inch 
in length, which portion is called the medulla oblongata. 
At the top of the medulla oblongata is a large project- 
ing body, formed by processes from the cerebrum and 
cerebellum, called the Pons Varolii. 

" The brain is a pulpy body of very irregular figure, 
having a number of projections and depressions, corres- 
ponding partly with the irregularities of the skull, and 
partly produced by convolutions and cavities in the brain 
ltaelf. The brain is generally described as consisting 


of four principal divisions, called cerebrum, cerebellum. 
Pans Varolii, and medulla oblongata* 

The cerebrum completely fills the upper part of the 
cavity of the cranium or skull, being several times larger 
than the other three parts collectively. It is divided 
into two equal parts, called hemispheres, which are sepa- 
rated vertically by the falx, a • membrane which dips 
down from the skull. This vertical separation does not 
extend through the whole depth of the cerebrum in its 
central part, but it divides it completely Before and be- 
hind. (The cerebellum, or little brain, is situated imme- 
diately under the cerebrum, in the back part of the skull. 
The other portions of the brain have been described in 
the preceding paragraph*) 

" From the lower part of the brain proceed nine pairs 
of nerves, most of mem from the medulla oblongata, 
some from the cerebrum, but none from the cerebellum. 
These nerves are white cords, consisting mostly of me- 
dullary matter. 

"The first pan: are the olfactory nerves ; they proceed 
to the organ of smelling, and are distributed to the mem- 
brane which lines the nasal cavities (or nostrils.) They 
&re so organized, that odors, by coming in contact with 
this membrane, excite such conscient action in them, 
and the brain, as constitutes the sensation of smelling. 

44 Behind the olfactory nerves are the optic. These 
are the nerves of vision ; they pass througn holes in the 
back part of the sockets of the eyes, and through the 
thick strong coat of the eye-ball. Here they expand 
each into a semi-transparent, pulpy membrane, called 
retina. Rays of light passing through the anterior trans- 
parent coat, and through the humors of the eye-ball, fall 
upon the retina, and excite that conscient action in the 
optic nerves and brain which constitutes seeing. 

" The third pair of nerves are distributed to the mus- 
cles which are attached to the eye-baH, and roll it up* 
jvards and downwards, inwards apd outwards. 

44 The fourth pair of nerves are so small that they ap* 
pear like sewing thread : they are exclusively appro* 
printed to a small muscle of the eye. 


44 The fifth pair of nerves are the largest nerves that 
arise from the brain ; they have a very extensive distri- 
bution about the scalp, face, and mouth — going to mus- 
cles, membranes, glands, skin, &c. It is important to 
mention that the immediate organ of taste is a branch 
of the fifth pair of nerves : this branch, which is distri- 
buted to the tongue, is called the lingual or gustatory 

~" The sixth pair of nerves are small, and pass to cer- 
tain muscles of the eye. 

44 The seventh pair of nerves comprises two distinct 
cords on each side, which have very different destina- 
tions ; and have, therefore, been considered, by several 
.anatomists, as different nerves. One of these nerves is 
-appropriated to the interior of the ear, and is the proper 
auditory nerve. The other is principally spent upon the 
face, and has been called the facial. 

44 The eighth pair of nerves is often called the par va- 
gum, on account of its very extensive distribution. This 
nerve sends branches to the muscles which constitute, 
in part, the organs of respiration and voice ; it also 
sends important branches to the nervous system of or- 
ganic life. 

44 The ninth pair of nerves are chiefly distributed to 
the muscles about the neck and mouth.** 

To recapitulate : the first pair of nerves is distributed 
to the organ of smelling ; the second to the organs of 
sight ; a branch of the fifth to the oqgan of taste ; one 
of the seventh pairs to the organs of hearing ; and the 
thirty pair of nerves from the spinal marrow are largely 
distributed to the organ of touch or feeling. 

44 The sense most extended is that of the touch, which 
is enjoyed by all parts of the surface of the body ; the 
others are thought, by very respectable physiologists, to 
be only more exalted modifications of it, and are sus- 
ceptible of more delicate impressions. 

44 The sense of touch is the most important of all, and 
the least liable to error in its reports. To exercise it, 
it is necessary for the body, under examination, to come 

* Knowlton. 

/ . ,. _. 


in contact with ours : hence its operations are so mcf* 
chanical, that but little is left to the imagination, and 
they, therefore, serve to verify and to correct the im- 
pressions on the other senses, more particularly those 
on the eye. It is the sense of touch by which we learn 
accurately the dimensions of bodies, and the figures of 
such as are hard. The hand, or any other part, by being 
applied to them in various directions, informs us whether 
they are flat, round, or angular. A greater or less de- 
gree of pressure informs us whether they are soft or 
Hard, and by rubbing, we ascertain whether they are 
rough or polished. The resistance they make to motion, 
teaches us whether they can or cannot be moved, and 
their being impelled against us, shows the momentum 
with which they act, as well as its direction. Our ideas 
of heat and cold are also derived from this source. It 
is not asserted that all parts of the surface of the body 
enjoy equally the sense of touch ; on the contrary, this 
sensibility is more or less active, according to the or- 
ganization of the part, and as its nerves are more or 
less numerous and exposed ; hence we find it most ex* 
quisite and perfect in the ends of the fingers. Man, 
from the nudity and the delicacy of the texture of his 
skin, derives, from this source, a discrimination and re- 
finement, in regard to the nature of bodies, much supe- 
rior to what many other animals possess. 

44 The sight enables us to distinguish the color, the 
quantity and the direction of tfre rays of light which 
proceed from a luminous body ; or, in other words, to 
ascertain its situation, size, and figure. In each, how- 
ever, of the latter, we are exposed to great deception ; 
for the rays of light, by falling on a mirror, or any othp 
plane reflecting surface, before they reach the eye, will 
induce us to believe the body to be in that direction. 
Bodies which are near reflect more rays of light than 
such as are distant ; we thus estimate distance by the 
eye ; but it happens, continually, that some bodies na- 
turally reflect more rays than others : in consequence 
of which a very luminous body, at a great distance, will 
frequently be thought to be much nearer to us, than such 


as are more within our reach. Mistakes of this kind 
can only be corrected by the sense of touch, and our ha- 
bitual reference to it, and continual experience, finally 
enable us to form prompt and just decisions. The eye. 
however, infinitely exceeds the touch in the rapidity with 
which it communicates ideas, and also in the extensive- 
ness of its application in a single moment. It is, there- 
fore, an organ of the first utility in making .us acquainted 
with surrounding objects. Man does not possess it to 
that comparative perfection that some other animals do ; 
he can neither see so far as the vulture or eagle, nor so 
minutely as the fly ; yet his ingenuity has enabled him 
to excel both. For, with the telescope, he examines 
worlds in the immensity of space, which, under common 
examination, are either invisible, or form mere point* in 
the heavens. And, with the microscope, he sees the 
texture of the most minute atom. 

" The ear, along with the powers of articulation, en- 
ables the whole human family to make a common stock 
of the knowledge which each individual may possess. 
As connected with the preservation of the individual, it 
is much less important than the eye or the touch ; yet, 
by cultivation and by studying its most minute and deli- 
cate impressions, an endless source of instruction and 
amusement has been opened to us, in the intonations of 
language, and in the enrapturing strains of harmony. It 
eminently qualifies man for the social state, occasionally 
warns him of danger, and allures* him to such things as 
are useful to his subsistence. 

" In regard to the taeie and smell, they make us ac- 
quainted only with such objects as are necessary to our 
subsistence. They are enjoyed too imperfectly by man, 
for them to become a fruitful source of his intelligence. 
As they principally lead us to filling the stomach, and to 
debasing the intellectual man into the beast, that eats 
and dies ; the wisdom of nature is as fully demonstrated 
in the imperfection which she has put upon these senses 
and our inability to improve them, as in the exalted and 
varied degrees to which she has carried the others. The 
keenness of the scent of the hound, and the discrimi- 


nating nicety of the bee, by opening sources of enjoy-* 
ment merely physical, would have degraded instead of 
elevating us, by engrossing our time and ingenuity in 
the developement of pleasures incompatible with our 
constitutions and destinies."* 

44 The nervous system of organic life consists of two 7 
chains of ganglions situated within the body, one on each 
side of the spinal column ; and or the infinite number 
of small nerves which proceed from these ganglions. 

44 The ganglions are little reddish or grayish bodies* 
of a texture which has nothing in common with that of 
the cerebral substance, being rather spongy than pulpy* 
These bodies, as well as the nerves which issue from 
them, possess but a very low degree of sensibility* Bi- 
chat has shown that they may be powerfully irritated in 
a living animal without the animal exhibiting signs of 
suffering ; but if you irritate a nerve from the brain or 
spinal cord, the animal instantly cries out and struggles. 
I think it more than probable that what little degree of 
sensibility the organic system possesses, is owing to the 
many twigs which it receives from the animal system. 

44 Hence the lungs, heart, stomach, liver, spleen, bow- 
els, in short, all those organs which receive the principal 
part of their nerves from the organic system, possess but 
a low degree of sensibility, especially in a healthy state. 
We do not feel the blood peur into the heart ; we do 
not feel the contents of the bowels moving downwards ; 
we do not, feel any of the healthy actions of those or- 
gans contained in the two great cavities of the body— 
the thorax, and the abdomen. 

"The ganglions, strung along on each side or the 
spine, from the upper, part of the neck to the lower part 
of the pelvis, are united with each other, directly by a> 
nervous cord that proceeds straight along from one gan- 
glion to another. Each ganglion gives off several 
nerves, and these nerves, ( prpceeding from the ganglions 
on each side of the spine, form several important plex- 
uses; and from these plexuses proceed nerves to the 
thoracic and abdominal viscera. And although several 

* Dr. Horner.. 


of the viscera, as the heart, stomach, and bowels, are 
muscular organs, they cannot be excited into action, or 
stopped,. by any thinking going on in the head; or, to 
use the more convenient, but less correct language- of 
the schools-, these muscular organs are not under the 
control of the toill :■ hence they are called involuntary 

"In their healthy state, the nerves of organic life have 
*o sensibility : and hence they are also called the nerves 
of vegetative life ; because the functions of the organs 
depending on them for nervous energy, are, in their 
healthy state, performed without the consciousness of 
the animal. But these nerves are capable of being irri- 
tated into a state of excessive irritability and diseased 
sensibility, which is utterly incompatible with their 
healthy and peculiar* susceptibility ;. and, consequently, 
incompatible with the healthy performance of the func- 
tions of those organs which depend on them for ner- 
vous energy. • 

" Unhappily for man, almost every circumstance and 
influence in civic Kfe, tend to the developement of pre- 
ternatural instability and diseased sensibility in their 
nerves. All undue excitements and exercises of the 
mind r and of the passions ; all excessive indulgences of 
the appetites^ improper qualities and quantities of food ; 
the debilitating habits of indolence and effeminacy ; -the 
various customs and circumstances of artificial life, such 
as appertain to habitation, clothing, locomotion, the pre- 
paration of food, &c. &c. — all act upon the stomach to 
disturb its function*, and to impair the health of its ner- 
vous and muscular tissues."! 



The Adeps or Fat is* an oily secretion from the blood 
into the cells of the cellular membrane, and is generally 
estimated at about one-twentieth of the entire weight 
of the bo<fc. It is found beneath the skin ; in the- in- 
terstiemer magcles*; in the bones, and surrounding most 

* Knowltoa. t Grtham. " "* 

10 -*****•** 


of the internal organs. In chemical composition, fat 
differs from all other parts of the body by the absence 
of nitrogen. Its uses are not well understood. By lu~ 
bricating the solid parts of the system, it may serve to 
facilitate their movements ; to diminish pressure, in ex- 
posed parts, as the bands and feet ; to prevent an undue 
sensibility of the skin, by protecting the nerves ; by dis- 
tending the skin, it rounds the outlines of the body, and 
conceals those bony and muscular projections, which 
render very lean persons so destitute of beauty ; by be* 
ing a bad conductor of caloric it may serve to retain 
animal heat. 

A moderate quantity of fat is not only natural but 
necessary to the perfection of the system; an undue 
accumulation, on the contrary, is unnatural and injurious 
to the healthy performance of the various functions. 
The active and laborious, although very muscular, sel- 
dom experience any inconvenience, from excessive fat. 
The indolent^good-natured, well-fed epicure, if free from 
anxiety and care, will frequently acquire an enormous 
amount of fat, especially if his other habits be accom- 
panied by that of sleeping much during the day. 


The food which we eat, after being received into the 
stomach, is converted, firstly, into a pulpy mass, of the 
consistence of paste, secondly into a milky fluid, and 
subsequently into blood; the blood, during its circula- 
tion through die system, loses, successively, various 
portions of its substance, which are deposited, by the 
proper vessels, into the several tissues of the body, be- 
coming constituent particles of muscles, bones, arteries, 
nerves, &c. After remaining a certain time in the sys- 
tem, these particles wear out, or become useless, and 
another set of vessels remove them into the blood, from 
which they are at length expelled, in a liquid form, by 
the proper organs, either by the skin, as perspiration ; 
by the kidneys and bladder, as urine ; or by the lungs, 
as vapor, Constantly losing, by these processes, con- 


siderablo portions of the body, it is necessary that the 
stomach should be regularly supplied with both liquid 
and solid food to repair the waste, and the necessity for 
this new supply is made known to the individual by 
those peculiar sensations called hunger and thirst. 


Digestion is the process of converting alimentary 
substances into arterial blood : all animals are fucnished 
with organs of digestion, which act upon the food pre- 
sented to them, change its qualities, and convert it into a 
Aew substance adapted to their nourishment and growth. 
. The otfgans of digestion consist in an uninterrupted 
canal,. extending from the lips to the inferior extremity 
of the intestines; and of numerous glandular bodies, 
placed all along its track, for pouring their secretions 
into it. This canal is called the alimentary canal, and is 
divided into six parts, — the mouth, the phdrynx, the oeso- 
phagus, the stomach, the small intestine, and the large 
intestine. The alimentary canal is lined, from one ex- 
tremity to the other, with a very delicate skin, called the 
mucous membrane, because it secretes a fluid which has 
received the name of mucus. The mucous membrane 
is a continuation of the skin of the face, from which it 
may be distinguished by its redness, as on the lips, and 
in the mouth. Its surface is constantly moistened by 
the mucous fluid to protect it from the air and the food 
which come in contact with it, and alpo to facilitate the 
passage of the aliment and excremeiititious matter. 

The glandular organs are the salivary glands, the pan- 
creas, the liver, the spleen, and a number of muciparous 
glands. Glands are organs destined to secrete or alter 
some particular fluid, as, for example, the salivary glands 
secrete the saliva or spittle, and the liver secretes bile. 

The functions of digestion are arranged as follows : 

1. The prehension or seizing of food. 

2. Mastication (or chewing.) 

3. Insalivafion (or mixing the food with the saliva.) 

4. Deglutition (or swallowing.) 


5. The compound action of the stomach 

6. The action of .the duodenum. 

7. The action of the small intestine. 

8. The action of the great intestine. 

9. The expulsion of the fecal matter, 
10. Animalizatioiu 


As man does not suck up his nourishment like plants, 
by means of roots, he is furnished with organs of loco- 
motion which enable him. to move from one place to an- 
other and select such food as may be, with propriety, 
introduced into the stomach. In a perfect! [j natural 
condition his senses would be the judges of the whole* 
some or injurious nature of aliments. The sight would 
direct him to the food ; the hands would «eize and ap- 
ply it, first to the nose, and then to the mouth ; if the 
odor was grateful to the nostrils, and .the taste agreea- 
ble, it would be instinctively eaten. From successive 
abuses, however, the organs of sense have become so 
habituated to various kinds of food, originally disagree- 
able, that they are incompetent to decide upon its fitness. 
Even now we are warned from poisonous plants by the 
odor and the color, without resorting to the taste ; and 
if we accidentally meet with an article of food to which 
we have not been accustomed, provided it has not been 
subjected to the action of heat, the organs of sight, 
smell, and taste will enable us to judge pretty accurately 
whether the article is wholesome or not. 

The hands are the chief instruments of prehension ; 
and a consideration of their mechanism, by comparing 
it with that of other animals, would afford sufficient data 
to decide the long-agitated question, whether man is or» 
ganized to live upon flesh or upon fruits. 


The food, after having been seized by the hands, is 
introduced into the mouth. Its mechanical division by 


the teeth is called mastication, or chewing. The food, 
divided by th6 front teeth, is moved about from side to 
side, by the lips, the tongue, and the motion- of the lower 
jaw, and is divided into still smaller portions by the 
back teeth; during this division* it is intimately mixed 
with a vital solvent called the saliva or spittle, -and being 
pressed successively between the surface of the tongue 
and the roof of the mouth,- its contact produces the im- 
pression on the gustatory nerves which constitutes the 
sense of taste, the intensity of which is proportioned to 
the minuteness of division which the food has under- 
gone. During mastication the mouth is shut behind by 
Ine curtain or the palate. 


Tksalivation is the process by which food is mixed 
with the saliva. This is a highly important function, 
and on its faithful performance depends the proper di- 
gestion of aliments received into the stomach. All solid 
rood taken into the mouth should be deliberately chew- 
ed, and never swallowed, until, by mixture with the sa- 
liva, it had become sufficiently moist to descend into the 
stomach without requiring drink to wash .it down. 

The mucous membrane which lines the mouth, gives 
origin to numerous small glands, which are continually 
pouring the fluid they form into the mouth ; it is this 
mucous fluid which gives to the spittle its frothy appear- 
ance. Fluids are also pouring into the mouth from the 
salivary glands, which are six in number, three on each 
side of the heck ; two of them under the ear, are called 

£irotid glands ; two under the lower jaw, the submaxiU 
ry glands.; and two under the tongue, the sublingual 
glands. When pressed upon during mastication, the 
saliva is forced out, and becomes intimately blended with 
the food ; hunger, and the sight of aliment, will often 
provoke a copious emission of this fluid. 

The saliva is a transparent viscous fluid, of conside- 
rable service in digestion ; it is composed principally of 
water, albumen, mucilage, and the various salts which 


they hold in solution. Its uses are important : it in* \ 
creases the taste of * the food ; by mixing with the ali- 
ment, it changes it into a soft and pulpy mass, which is 
the first process of chymification ; it absorbs oxygen 
from the air, which combines with the fpod ; it allays 
thirst by moistening the mouth and fauces. 


Deglutition is the action of swallowing. Simple as. 
it may seem, this is a very complicated process. The 
food, after having been minutely divided, is collected to- 
gether on the surface of the tongue, and pushed back- 
wards toward the palate, which it raises; the larynx 
(upper part of the wind-pipe) rises at this instant, and 
its opening is covered by a valve called the epiglottis — 
this valve always covers the larynx to prevent the food 
from entering the wind-pipe. The surrounding muscles 
and the tongue press the food over this cavity, and it 
drops into the pharynx (upper portion of the oesopha- 
gus ;) the larynx descends, the epiglottis rises, and the 
wind-pipe opens to receive the air ; the pharynx con- 
tracts and forces the aliment into the oesophagus. The 
oesophagus is that portion of the alimentary canal com- 
monly called the meat-pipe or gullet. By the muscular 
contraction of the oesophagus, the food is carried along 
its cavity until it -reaches the stomach ; the moment it 
enters this organ, the termination of the oesophagus 
contracts to prevent the food from returning, '. Along 
the whole of this tube the mucous follicles are very 
abundant, and pour out their fluids as they are pressed 
by the food, which is thus enabled to slide easily into 
the stomach. 



After that portion of the alimentary canal called the 
oesophagus passes out of the thorax (or chest) into the 
abdomen (or belly) the alimentary canal becomes con- 
siderably enlarged*,: forming a sac or bag, capable of 


holding from two to six pints, and is familiarly known 
as the stomach. The stomach has two openings ; that 
which leads to the oesophagus is called the cardiac ori- 
fice, and that which communicates with the intestine is 
called the pyloric orifices Each of these orifices is sur- 
rounded with muscular fibres, whose contractile powers 
prevent the food from returning into the oesophagus,, 
and retain it in the stomach until it has undergone the 
necessary change. 

The stomach is composed of several membranous 
coats. Its outer coat is the peritonei ; the inner coat is 
called the mucous or villous coat — it has received the 
latter name from its resemblance to velvet, * Between 
these two coats is the muscular. The stomach is very, 
largely supplied with* nerves and blood-vessels; and its 
villous coat, which is a continuation of the mucous or 
lining membrane of the mouth, is studded with the ori- 
fices of numerous glands, which pour into the stomach 
not only the lubricating mucus, but a peculiar fluid, 
which is supposed to be the chief agent in chymifica- 
tion, called the gastric juice. Innumerable experiments 
have been tried with a view of determining whether di- 
gestion is the result of fermentation or mechanical tritu- 
ration, or whether it is owing to the solvent properties 
of the gastric juice. The majority of physiologists in- 
cline to the latter opinion, although some recent experi- 
ments have been made which justify the. conclusion that 
digestion is. the result of nervous influence. How far 
this opinion is correct it is impossible to decide, and the 
theory of the gastric juice, being the one which has re- 
ceived the most general sanction, will be adopted in the 
present section. 

The moment the stomach is stimulated by the presence 
of food, its cardiac and pyloric orifices contract, and 
fluids, of various kinds, flow rapidly into it. The ali- 
ment remains in this situation, without apparent change, 
for about an hour, exposed, during that time, to the 
combined action of the gastric juice, muscular power, 
nervous influence, and increased temperature of the sto- 
mach. The gastric juice dissolves the food and com- 


pletely changes its nature. • That portion of the food, 
lying nearest to the pyloric orifice, gradually loses its 
original properties, and becomes converted into a soft,, 
pulpy, homogeneous substance** of a greyish color, and 
slightly acid taste, called chyme* If the chyme is pro- 
perty prepared, the pyloric ring relaxes, and the muscu- 
lar coat of the stomach propels the food into the duo- 
denum for second stomach ;) but if any portion of food r 
not well digested, presents itself at the pyloric orifice 
for a passage into the duodenum, the musculo? fibres of 
the pylorus violently contract, and the food is carried 
back to undergo a more complete digestion. If it be 
again presented at the pylorus, in an improper condition r 
it is again worked back, and is only permitted to pass 
the orifice, either when it is perfectly converted mta 
chyme, or successive attempts to pass have rendered the 
pyloric orifice insensible to its stimulus. 

The function of the stomach is to convert food into 
chyme. That it may be enabled to perform this mora 
perfectly, it is necessary that the aliment should be mi- 
nutely divided, mixed with the saliva, and reduced to the 
consistence of paste ; large pieces of food, swallowed 
without chewing, remain a long time in* the stomach*, 
causing considerable uneasiness, and frequently gene- 
rating Targe quantites of gas. The solid food should be 
of a certain consistence, that the individual may be 
obliged to chew it before swallowing; 

Although solid food is. converted into chyme, liquids, 
such as water and ardent spirits, pass out of the stomach 
without experiencing aay alteration, and are soon mixed 
with the blood. Milk coagulates (or becomes solid) 
and separates into two portions, previous to digestion. 
Soup, and other liquids, holding in solution nutritious 
matter, are difficult of digestion. $ they dilute the gastric 
Juice and weaken its power.: they are not digested until 
the water which they contain is absorbed, that is to say, 
until it passes out of the stomach ;' and the solid por- 
tions of such preparations are converted into chyme. 
Oil, melted butter, and liquid fat, obstinately resist the 
action of the gastric juice, which latter*, being of the 


nature of water, cannot readily penetrate nor combine 
with their substance. 


The small intestine is divided into three portions — 
the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum* That portion 
of the intestinal tube, which commences at the pyloric 
orifice of the stomach, and extends for about the breadth 
of twelve fingers, is called the duodenum. It is in this 
portion of the alimentary canal that the chyme is con- 
verted into chyle. Its diameter is much greater than that 
of the jejunum and ileum. A duct from the liver called 
the hepatic duct, and another from the gall-bladder called 
the cystic duct, unite and form a common duct, or tube, 
which, 'with the pancreatic duct, enter the duodenum by 
one common orifice. 

The hepatic duct of the liver, and the cystic of the 
gall-bladder, convey, into the duodenum, a viscous, bitter, 
and yellowish fluid, called bile : and the pancreatic duct 
conveys a fluid resembling the saliva. 

The liver is the largest glandular body in the human 
frame, containing a great number of blood-vessels, par- 
ticularly veins. The use of the liver is to secrete bile, 
a fluid of the utmost importance in chyfifieation. The 
gall-bladder is a reservoir for the bile. 

The pancreas is the largest of the salivary glands ; it 
is that portion commonly called the sweet-bread. It is 
a long, tapering, glandular body, of a dull white color, 
tinged with red. Its use is to secrete the pancreatic 
fluid, which is analogous to the saliva. 

The food in the stomach is changed into chyme. The 
chyme, on quitting the stomach, enters the duodenum, 
where a considerable portion of it is converted into a 
fluid resembling milk, called chyle ; those portions of the 
chyme which are not converted into chyle, are of no use 
to the body, and are called excrementitious matter. 

Shortly after (he thyme enters the duodenum, the 
pancreatic fluid and the bile are poured into the same 
organ ; they penetrate the chyme, render it fluid, and 



parate the nutritious portion (or chyle) from the excre- 
mentitious matter. The albuminous and saline particles 
of the bile combine with the chyle, and are carried 
with it into the blood ; but the oily, colored, bitter parts 
of the bile, envelope the excrements, and impart to them 
stimulating qualities, with which they are thrown out of 
the body as useless. The function of the duodenum is 
to convert the chyme into chyle. It is known that this 
is effected by the pancreatic and biliary fluids ; but in 
what manner they operate to separate the chyle from the 
excrement, it is absolutely impossible to determine in the 
present imperfect state of knowledge. 


The duodenum is the commencement of the small in- 
testine — the remaining portions are the jejunum and the 
ileum ; but these divisions are arbitrary. On the inner 
surface of the jejunum and ileum may be observed a 
multitude of minute orifices ; these are the mouths of 
numberless small vessels called lacteals, whose function 
it is to absorb the chyle and convey it into the blood. 

After the alimentary mass has passed from the duo* 
denum into the jejunum, (which is effected by the neri- 
stalHc or worm-like motion of the intestinal canal,) its 
fluid or chylous portions are taken up or absorbed by 
the inhaling mouths of the lacteals. But the chyle is 
not all absorbed by the lacteals of the jejunum i the ali- 
mentary mass, carried, by the peristaltic motion of the 
canal, into the ileum, loses, successively, those portions 
of chyle not previously absorbed, until it reaches the 
commencement of the large intestine, where nearly all 
that remains is excrementitious* 


The great intestine, though much shorter than the 
small, is larger in diameter : it is divided into three por- 
tions — the c&cum, the colon, and the rectum. It may be 
considered as a kind of reservoir for containing tl# ex- 


crementitious matter during a certain time, to prevent 
the individual from the constant necessity of parting with 
it. The alimentary mass, after leaving the small intes- 
tine, enters the ccecwn, Ibsing what little portions of 
chyle may have remained, and is then propelled into the 
colon, in the cells of which the excrementitious matter 
is thickened, hardened, and moulded ; and, by the peri- 
staltic action, it is pushed into the rectum, which is the 
termination of the alimentary canal, in the cavity of 
which it accumulates, until the distension it produces 
announces the necessity of relief. 



The lacteals and lymphatic vessels, after leaving the 
intestinal canal, unite and form, at the upper part of the 
abdomen or belly, the thoracic duct. The lymphatic ves- 
sels convey the lymph, which is the old worn-out matter 
of the system ; ana the lacteals convey the chyle, which 
is the nutritive matter, to supply the place of tne lymph, 
into the thoracic duct. Tne thoracic duct ascends 
along the right side of the spine, passes behind the gul- 
let and wind-pipe, and enters the left subclavian vein ; its 
contents soon reaching the heart, mixed with the blood. 

The blood, changed by mixing with the chyle and the 
lymphj enters the heart : it is then propelled into the 
lungs, through the pulmonary artery. This blood, which 
is of a dark red color, circulates in the numerous air- 
cells of the lungs, is there exposed to the action of the 
air which we inhale, and is cnanged from a dark red to 
a bright scarlet color. It then returns to the heart 
through the four pulmonary veins. The heart contracts, 
forces the blood into a large artery, called the aorta ; 
which artery, as it leaves the heart, becomes smaller and 
smaller, sending off branches to every part of the sys- 
tem, and these branches, constantly diminishing in size, 
send off still smaller branches, which at length, from 
their minuteness, are called capillary vessels. These 
vessels deposite, in the several tissues of the body, par- 
ticles of blood, which become bone, muscle, or nerve. 


as they are deposited in cither of those organs. The 
blood, passing out of the arterial capillaries, enters the 
veins. The veins commence where the arteries termi- 
nate, and increase in size, until they are all collected 
into two large trunks, the ascending and descending 
vena cava, which both empty the blood they contain into 
the heart, and which blood is again propelled into the 
lungs to be purified by the contact of atmospheric air* 

The blood which circulates through the body is of 
two kinds : that which circulates in the arteries is of a 
bright scarlet color, and is called arterial blood ; that 
which circulates in the veins is of a dark red color, and 
is called veinous blood. That which circulates in the 
arteries is applied to nourish the body, but that which 
circulates in the veins is unfit for that purpose. 

The heart is a hollow muscular organ, enclosed in a 
membrane called the pericardium, and is situated between 
the lobes of the lungs, in the thorax or chest. It is di- 
vided into four cavities or apartments — two of which 
are called auricles and two ventricles. The dark red 
blood of the veins enters the right auricle of the heart, 
from which it flows into the right ventricle ; the right 
ventricle contracts, and forces the blood into the lungs 
through the pulmonary artery (incorrectly so called.) 

The dark red blood of the veins undergoes important 
changes in the lungs. The lungs are two large spongy 
bodies, one on each side of the heart, above which they 
are united. They are composed of a multitude of mi- 
nute air-cells, which are formed of very thin membrane? 
that communicate with each other in such a manner that 
the air we breathe may find its way into every one of 
them. The trachea or wind-pipe, when it enters the 
chest, divides into two branches, one going to each lung, 
which branches are again subdivided, opening into the 
air-cells. The dark red blood, having entered the lungs, 
through the pulmonary artery, comes in contact with 
the air which we breathe, and which has descended 
through the wind-pipe, and found its way into the air- 
cells of the lungs. Atmospheric air is composed of 20 
parts of oxygen, 79 of nitrogen, 1 of carbonic acid, and 


some aqueous vapor. A portion of the oxygen unites 
with the carbon of the dark red blood; the Wood, de- 
prived of its carbon, assumes a bright scarlet color : it 
receives from the oxygen a portion of caloric, so that its 
heat is one degree higher than that of the dark red or 
veinous blood ; it parts with a portion of its scrum or 
watery part ; its odor becomes more sensible, and its 
taste more distinct. The air, when expired, or breathed 
out, is found to have suffered a considerable change. It 
has lost two parts of its oxygen, and, instead of one part 
of carbonic acid that was inhaled or breathed m. three 
parts are breathed out* The two parts of oxygen, having 
united with a definite proportion of the carbon of the 
veins, are thrown out in the form of carbonic acid. So 
necessary is it that the dark red blood should be deprived 
of its carbon, that the suspension of breathing for a few 
moments will destroy life. A large quantity of aqueous 
vapor, called pulmonary transpiration, is thrown off from 
the lungs with the expired air. The dark red blood, de- 
prived of its carbon, and converted into the bright scar- 
let of the arteries, passes through the four pulmonary 
veins into the left auricle of the neart ; from the left au- 
ricle it flows into the left ventricle, from which it is pro- 
pelled into a large artery called the aorta. This artery, 
divided and subdivided until its minute ramifications are 
almost invisible to the naked eye, distributes the blood 
to every portion of the body. The arterial blood, when 
it enters a muscle, loses those portions which are analo- 
gous in composition to the muscle ; and, as it circulates 
through the bones, and various other organs, similar 
phenomena occur. The arterial blood then flows into 
the veins ; the veinous blood, loaded with impurities, re- 
ceives the chyle or nutritive matter, and the lymph or 
worn-out matter, the whole of which empties into the 
heart, and is then propelled into the lungs for purification. 


Certain particles of matter, after having remained a 
certain time in the system, become worn-out, that is to 



say, they are no longer fitted to fulfil the duties origi- 
nally imposed upon them, when they became constituent 
portions of the living body. Appropriate organs are 
appointed to remove them from the body, while other 
organs supply their places with new particles derived 
from the food, after it has undergone digestion. The 
organs, which are appointed to remove these worn-out 
and useless particles, whose further stay in the body 
would be injurious, are three in number, viz. the skin, 
the lungs, and the kidneys. 

The skin is composed of three layers, the cuticle, the 
rete mucosum, and the dermis or true skin. The cuticle 
is an insensible, horny covering, which may be cut or 
torn without causing pain or bleeding, because it pos- 
sesses neither nerves nor blood-vessels. It is that por- 
tion of the skin which peals off when the hands have 
been blistered. It covers the whole body, being thicker 
in some places than in others, particularly in the palms 
of the hands and on the soles of the feet. Wherever 
a part is pressed upon, the cuticle thickens, to defend 
the soft parts below it from the effects of pressure ; the 
cuticle covering the hands of the mechanic or laborer 
will be found thicker and much harder than that of the 
merchant or clerk. Corns on the feet merely result from 
a thickening of the cuticle to preserve the parts below 
from the effects of the pressure of the shoe. The cu- 
ticle serves to blunt the exquisite sensibility of the true 
skin, to keep it moist, and to protect it from injury. It 
is also called the epidermis. Between the cuticle and 
dermis or true skin, is the rete mucosum, a mucous sub- 
stance, deposited in a net-like form, which connects the 
cuticle with the dermis, and serves to protect the nerves 
and vessels of the latter. In the European the rete mu- 
cosum is white or brown, and, in the Negro, it is black. 
Immediately below the rete mucosum is the dermis, or 
true skin, composed, almost wholly, of nerves and blood- 
vessels. So abundant are these, that you cannot punc- 
ture the skin with the point of the finest needle without 
causing pain or drawing blood. It is this skin which is 
the seat of touch, but its most important use is to climi- 


nate, through its multitudinous pores, tlie worn-out land 
useless matter of the system. When the body is cool, 
and resting from exercise, this worn-out matter passes 
off . in the form of insensible perspiration, at all times, 
averaging a pound during 24 hours. But, when the 
body is heated or excited by exercise, this perspiration 
may be observed on the skin in large drops, and is then 
called sweat. When this perspiration is checked, it fre- 
quently gives rise to coughs, colds, and consumption. 
The skin sympathizes with the lungs and kidneys ; that 
is, when a smaller quantity of perspiration than usual, 
passes off through the skin, the matter discharged by 
the lungs and kidneys is proportionally increased : thus, 
in winter, the perspiration is diminished and the kidneys 
secrete a larger quantity of urine. In summer it is di- 
rectly the reverse. It will be shown hereafter how im- 
portant it is that perspiration should continue uniformly 
and uninterruptedly. 

The perspiration from the lungs has been already de- 

The kidneys axe two organs situated on either side of 
the spine, in the abdominal cavity , and shaped like a kid- 
ney bean ; they secrete the urine. A long membranous 
canal, called the ureter^ conveys the urine from the kid- 
ney to the Madder. The urine is an excrementitious 
fluid, removing, from the body the superfluous wafer, 
saline substances, animal and earthy particles, and other 
noxious substances for which nature has not provided 
an outlet. 



Maw, with every advantage of knowledge, facility of 
intercourse, and adaptation to circumstances, is the most 
wretched creature that ever saw the light. Continually 
seeking happiness, he is unhappy ; inventing new modes 
of pleasure, he is miserable ; desirous of preserving 
health, he is diseased ; a lover of virtue, he is vicious ; 
an advocate of mercy, he is cruel ; a friend of liberty t 
he is tyrannical ; an admirer of truth, he is false and 
deceitful: in short, he who fancies himself elevated 
above the brutes of the field and the fowls of the air, in 
only superior in point of intellect ; his morals are evi- 
dently inferior, and, when drunkenness and debauchery 
subvert his reason, where is his superiority.,. Other ani- 
mals kill only to sustain their own existence ; but they 
neither destroy their own species nor injure each other, 
except in self-defence. Man, who prides himself upon 
benevolence and reason, exterminates millions of his 
race, and rejoices at his victories ; he destroys the lower 
order of animals to gratify his palate, and torments those 
whom he has Ho occasion to injure, while many he even 
kills for amusement. Peevish, fretful, and discontented, 
he is angry with his companions for thinking otherwise 
than himself, and will even persecute and murder his 
brethren for opinion's sake. 

If we seek for the cause of misery and crime, we 
may trace it in man's unnatural habits ; thence originate 
the malignant passions which disgrace the human cha- 
racter ; wars, miirders, tyranny, and revenge are the re- 
sult; and that overweening selfishness which induces 
one individual to promote his own comfort at the ex- 
pense of another's enjoymennt, springs from the same 
source. Man is so organized that he derives pleasure 
from every action destined to preserve his own existence 
or that of the race. Naturally, the mind is exquisitely 
sensible to agreeable impressions. The introduction 


of food into the stomach is attended with the most de- 
lightful sensations ; yet we do not eat for that purpose 
alone, but also to preserve life. Sleep is delicious ; but 
pleasure is not the object of sleep — it is a wise provision 
to restore expended energies. The intercourse of the 
sexes is a source of intense gratification ; the object, 
however, is the reproduction of the race. Had Nature 
neglected to render these actions agreeable, the human 
family would long since have been extinguished. Every 
action that naturally contributes to our pleasure is bene- 
ficial ; the odor of flowers, their brilliant hues, and ad- 
mirable forms ; the mastication of delicious food ; the 
pleasure of gentle exercise ; and, lastly, sleep ; all con- 
tribute to the health and preservation of the individual. 
But, when the laws of relation are violated, when the 
nostrils are offended by the vapors of putrefaction; 
when disagreeable and stimulating substances are intro- 
duced into the stomach ; when the body is long inac- 
tive ; and when the sleep is disturbed, or indulged in at 
improper periods ; disease and premature death is the 
unavoidable consequence. Every violation of Nature's 
laws is attended with a penalty proportioned to the ex- 
tent and duration of sucn transgression. If we would 
be perfectly happy, and enjoy all the pleasure that human 
beings are capacitated to enjoy, we should live in exact 
conformity with those laws instituted for our govern- 
ment ; because man is not more independent of them 
than other animals, while their observance is inseparably 
connected with his welfare. 


AIR. *• 

The invisible, colorless, elastic fluid that we breathe, 
is called atr. Its importance to health and life is so 
great, that, although men may subsist for several days 
without partaking of food and drink, yet the suspension 
of breatning for a few minutes will infallibly destroy 
life. At the moment an infant is born, the atmospheric 
air rushes into its lungs, to fill the vacuum caused by the 
expansion of its chest ; and fepm that moment, sleeping 

90 AIB. 

or waking, until the period of dissolution arrives, the 
atmosphere constantly finds its way into the lungs, and 
is as constantly expelled. 

Atmospheric air is chemically composed of 20 parts 
of oxygen, 79 of nitrogen, said 1 of carbonic acid, 
holding in solution a large quantity of watery vapor. It 
is the oxygen gas, alone, which is essential to the ex- 
istence of animals ; the nitrogen, although constituting 
more than three-fourths of the atmosphere, merely di- 
lutes the oxygen and diminishes its stimulating proper- 
ties, in the same way that water, added to ardent spirits, 
weakens its stimulating power. The oxygen, when tn-~ 
spired, unites with the carbon of the blood, which is ex- 
fired or thrown out in the form of carbonic acid. A 
human being requires a gallon of fresh air every minute, 
dying equaUy if deprived of air, or if confined to the 
same. 1 he oxygen of the atmosphere not only purifies 
the blood, but furnishes the body, with its heat ; so that 
in the coldest weather the living body maintains a tem- 
perature scarcely inferior to that which it possesses in 
summer. ' No substance will burn in an atmosphere de- 
prived of oxygen. A piece of wood, if lighted, is con- 
sumed by tne union of oxygen; that is, the oxygen 
unites with the wood, giving out its latent caloric, or 
heat. Candles, burning in an apartment, deprive the 
air of oxygen : hence the necessity, in a room where a 
fire is burning, or lights, that it should be frequently 
ventilated, and the air renewed. 

To render the air fit for respiration, it is necessary 
that every 100 gallons should contain 20 of oxygen, al- 
though this amount may be diminished to 7 or 8 without 
causing death ; but in such cases the breathing is labo- 
rious, panting, and attended with a sense of suffocation ; 
in short, asphyxia ensues, even while the air still con- 
tains a certain quantity of oxygen, of which the lungs 
cannot entirely deprive it. If a number of persons be 
collected together in a confined apartment, where the 
air cannot be easily renewed, the quantity of oxygen 
diminishes rapidly, while that of carbonic acid as ra- 
pidly increases. The carbonic acid, being heavier than 

AIR. 01 

air, sinks to the lowest part of the atmosphere, producing 
death wherever it is breathed by a living animal. Hence 
a bed should never be placed on the ground, in a small 
room ; hence the pit is the most unhealthy part of a 

In crowded assemblies, theatres, or churches, those 
who are congregated together, not only injure each 
other by depriving the atmosphere of its oxygen, but 
they alter its composition by the combination of those 
substances exhaled from their bodies. The carbonic 
acid from the lungs, the perspiration, and other animal 
emanations, become putrid while in the atmosphere, ar. 
3xe the source of the most fatal diseases. We inhale 
the atmosphere to purify the blood and carry off those 
particles which are poisonous to the system, and yet, in 
crowded places, we are continually breathing an atmos- 

{ there, corrupted by the emanations from ulcerated 
ungs, decayed teeth, and perspirable matter: can we 
wonder, then, that it has been said, that large towns are 
the graves of the human species ? 

Examples of the fatal effects produced by breathing 
impure air, are every where abundant. The jail and 
hospital fevers are owing to this cause. In the lying- 
in-hospital at Dublin, 2944 infants, out of 7650, died in 
the year 1782, within the first two weeks after their 
birth, that is, nearly every third child. Almost all of 
them died in convulsions, foaming at the mouth, with 
their jaws closed, and their thumbs drawn into the palms 
of their hands. The attending physician, observing 
that their faces were swelled and looked blue, as if they 
had been strangled, concluded that the rooms were too 
confined, and that the infants had not a sufficient quan- 
tity of pure air to breathe. The rooms were enlarged 
and ventilated ; the consequence was, that not one child 
died where they had formerly lost three. 

The most melancholy case is that of the 146 English- 
men, who were locked up all night in the Black Hole, a 
dungeon in Fort William, at Calcutta ; the dungeon was 
only eighteen feet square, partially under ground, with 
only one small window to admit the air and light : they 

92 AIR. 


entered at eight o'clock in the evening ; very soon A 
profuse perspiration commenced, followed by a high fe- 
ver and raging delirium, with cries of air, air, water, 
water. At six o'clock in the morning, only 23 had any 
vestiges of life, 123 having died under the most horrid 
of all tortures, that of slowly increasing suffocation. 

Even when not totally deprived of its oxygen, the at- 
mosphere is rendered unfit for respiration on account 
of the large amount of carbonic acid exhaled from the 
kings and skin, which is a poison to all who breathe it. 
Carbonic acid is generally known as fixed air, or choke 
damp. It is frequently found at the bottom of old wells, 
where it may be known by its extinguishing a candle or 
other ignited substance. It is totally unfitted for com- 
bustion, extinguishing flame almost immediately. The 
burning pungency of champagne, beer, and porter, is 
owing to the carbonic acid which they contain. Soda 
water owes its peculiar biting taste to carbonic acid. 
The fumes of burning charcoal are well known to be 
injurious to the lungs, and numerous instances have oc- 
curred in which they have caused immediate death by 
suffocation. The oxygen of the atmosphere, combining 
with the ignited charcoal, which is mostly composed of 
carbon, forms carbonic acid, in the same way that it is 
formed when (he oxygen combines with the carbon of 
the blood. If charcoal be burned at all, great care 
should be taken to ventilate the apartment, either by ad- 
mitting air from without, or providing some vent, as a 
chimney or pipe, to carry off the fumes. 

Every individual, who values health, should spend at 
least two hours in the open air each day, and longer if 

Eossible. In our variable climate, where we sometimes 
ave the four seasons in one day, it is absolutely neces- 
sary that the body should be exposed to the influence 
of external air, to diminish that morbid sensibility to 
the changes of weather, so prevalent among the inactive 
inhabitants of our large cities, and which is so often a 
prolific source of the most dangerous diseases. It is 
well known that those who spend much time in the open 
air are but little affected by the changes of weather. 

AIR. 93 

while those who are much confined to their Apartments, 
sensibly feel all the variations of heat and cold, humidity 
and dryness, and the least exposure to wet or damp may 
bring on a severe attack of inflammation of the lungs, 
or consumption. Children, who are early inured to we 
external air, if they are accustomed to an extreme sim- 
plicity of diet, experience no more inconvenience from 
changeable weather than domestic cattle. Parents, 
however, from mistaken fondness, are fearful to expose 
their children to the influence of the atmosphere, as if 
they considered them so many pieces of polished steel, 
which would rust by such exposure. 

To all who can make it convenient, I would strongly 

recommend the advice of Dr. Armstrong — 


** Ye who amid this feverish world would wear 

A body free of pain, of cares a mind ; 

Fly the rank city, shun its turbid air, 

Breathe not the chaos of eternal smoke, 

And volatile corruption, from the dead, 

The dying, sick'ning, and the living world 

Exhard, to sully heaven's transparent dome 

With dim mortality. It is mot air, 

That, from a thousand lungs, reeks back to thine, 

Sated with exhalations rank and fell, 

The spoil of dunghills, and the putrid thaw 

Of nature. * * * * . 

While yet you breathe, away ! the rural wilds 

Invite*4he mountains call you, and the vales; 

The woods, the streams, and each ambrosial breeze 

That fans the ever undulating sky." 

A little reflection upon one of the most singular phe- 
nomena in the economy of nature, will explain the prin- 
cipal reason why the country air is more salubrious 
than the city. Vegetables give off, during the day, the 
pure oxygen so necessary to the existence of animals. 
Animals breathe in and.feed on this oxygen which plants 
disengage, at the same time throwing off carbonic acid 
from their lungs. During the night, vegetables absorb 
and fe£d on this carbonic acid, which was thrown off 
from the lungs of animals. Thus, by a beautiful reci- 
procity of action, plants feed on the noxious gas which 
would otherwise be destructive to animal life, and an; 
mals consume the vital air which is generated in its 
stead. All who have sallied forth at sun-rise in the 
country, can recall to mind the delightful sensations 

they experienced while inhaling the morning air, rich 
with the odors of a thousand plants, invigorating the 
body* and soothing the mind. At no other period of 
the day does the air smell so sweet, nor do we derive 
half the pleasure from breathing it at any other time 
that we do in the morning. It is the oxygen that plants 
are elaborating, which renders the morning air so pure 
and exhilerating. At each succeeding portion of the 
day the atmosphere becomes more, and more impure, 
and unfit for respiration ; hence the night-air becomes 
injurious. It has been observed that all very old men 
were early risers ; and no one, unaccustomed to it, can 
realize the delightful vigor imparted by breathing the 
morning air. To the absence of vegetation in cities, 
may be ascribed the insalubrity of their atmosphere, al- 
though, when they are so located as not to impede the 
free circulation of air, currents of wind carry away the 
noxious exhalations from living bodies, where they are 
soon decomposed by the ordinary operations of nature. 
In close cities, during the warm months, when there is 
scarcely a breath of air stirring, fatal epidemics are ge- 
nerated, and sweep off great numbers of the population. 
But the country has still another advantage over the 
city. The country people live far mow simply; they 
have fewer delicacies ; their tables are not so frequently 
loaded with sumptuous viands ; their exercise is greater; 
they are not so dissipated ; nor are they so often de- 
prived of their necessary sleep. 

Inhaling the fresh air early in the morning will inva- 
riably impart a ruddy tint to the complexion. Exposure 
to the fresh air increases the circulation of blood in the 
minute vessels of the skin, which gives to the skin that 
beautiful vermilion hue, which has long been an emblem 
of health. Nevertheless, there is a great difference be- 
tween this roseate tint of the complexion, and that cir- 
cumscribed redness which struggling nature implants in 
the face as an indication of internal distress, and which 
marks the secret progress of that fell destroyer of the 
human race, consumption. Of this latter class, how 
large a portion of *nur population is composed, A se- 

AIR, 95 

elusion from the air invariably causes paleness, from the 
same cause that plants become white, when excluded 
from the light and air in a dark celler. 

It has been often remarked, that American females 
lose their beauty at an early age ; that they fade and 
wither almost in the very dawning of existence : they 
become sallow, and lose that animated expression which 
formerly beautified their countenances, while their eyes, 
sunken and lustreless, and their irritable dispositions, 
too plainly speak the ravages of their unnatural habits, 
and their almost entire devotion to the duties of domestic 
life. This is unjust, if not to themselves, at least to 
their children, on whom they can confer no greater be- 
nefit than bestowing good constitutions. They and their 
children, if they are desirous of preserving health and 
beauty, should go abroad as much as possible in the 
open air. Nothing is of more importance, I may also 
add, than admitting fresh air into the chambers of the 
sick, no matter what may be the disease. 


All food is either of animal or vegetable origin, the 
different varieties of which may be arranged as follows : 

1. Animal food, such as the flesh of quadrupeds, of 
birds, and fishes ; sometimes the germs of animals, as 
eggs ; and the animal secretion called milk, subsequently 
converted into butter and cheese. 

2. The germs or seeds of vegetables, such as wheat, 
rye, barley, oats, beans, peas, cnesnuts, walnuts, &c. 

3. The seed-vessels of vegetables, such as apples, pears, 
peaches, grapes, strawberries, blackberries, &c. 

4. The roots of vegetables, such as potatoes, parsnips, 
beets, carrots, turnips, radishes, &c. 

5. The leaves of vegetables, such as cabbage, lettuce, 
spinmuge, &c. 

6. Infusions, of animal and vegetable substances, as 
soup ; of vegetable substances, as tea, coffee, &c. 

7. Fermented liquors, such as the various descriptions 
of wine, ale, beer, porter, cider, &c. 


8. Distilled liquors, as brandy, gin, and spirits* 

9. Water. 

10. Narcotic substances, as tobacco and opium. 

11. Condiments, as pepper, mustard, &c. 

By studying the habits of man, with regard to diet, 
we are unable to arrive at any definite knowledge of the 
natural food of his species. His present mode of living 
is altogether artificial. Dr. Paris says, that " there is 
scarcely a vegetable which we at present employ, that 
can be found growing naturally. Buffon states that our 
wheat is a factitious production, raised to its present 
condition by the art of agriculture. Rye, barley, and 
even oats, are not to be found wild ; that is to say* 
growing naturally in any part of the earth, but have been 
altered, by the industry of mankind, from plants not now 
resembling them even in such a degree as to enable us 
to recognize their relations. The acrid and disagreea- 
ble apium graveolens has been thus transformed into de- 
licious celery ; and the colewort, a plant of scanty leaves, 
not weighing altogether half an ounce, has been im- 
proved into cabbage, whose leaves alone weigh many 
pounds, or into a cauliflower of considerable dimensions, 
being only the embryo of a few buds, which, ip their 
natural state, would not weigh many grains. The potato, 
again, derives it3 origin from a small and bitter root, 
which grows wild in Chili, and at Monte Video. If there 
be any who feel sceptical on the subject of such meta- 
morphoses, let him visit the fairy bowers of horticulture, 
and he will there perceive that her magic wand has not 
only converted the tough, coriaceous covering of the 
almond into the soft and melting flesh of the peach, but 
that, by her spells, the sour sloe has ripened into the de- 
licious plum, and the austere crab of our woods into the 
golden pippin ; that this again has been made to sport 
in endless variety, emulating in beauty of form and color, 
in exuberance of fertility and in richness of flavor, the 
rarer productions of warmer regions a*id more propi- 
tious climates." 

Cultivation alters the whole aspect of nature. Plants, 
in a wild state, when removed and cultivated in our gar- 

i ALIMENT. 97 

dens, become what naturalists call monsters. M. Virey 
observes, " that by suppressing the growth of one part 
of a plant, we may respectively give rise to an increased 
developement in others; thus are some vegetables ren- 
dered eunuchs, or are deprived of seeds by obliteration, 
or only propagate themselves by slips ; such a condition 
is frequently produced by culture, continued through a 
long succession of generations ; this is the case with 
the banana, sugar-cane, and other fruits, that have care- 
fully been made to deviate, through a long series of 
years, from their original types, and having been con- 
tinually transplanted by slips, suckers, or roots, at length 
only propagate themselves in this way. Cultivation 
converts single into double flowers, by developing the 
stamens into petals." 

Our domestic animals are also unlike the wild ones 
of the same species. The deviation has become at last 
so great, that the original stock from which the animals 
descended is doubtful. In the hog, the sheep, the cow, 
and the dog, we can no longer recognize the form and 
color of the wild ones from which they are descended. 
The spaniel and the hunting dog are both descended 
from the savage wolf, yet there is such a total change 
of form, color, habits, and disposition, that it would 
scarcely enter the mind that the dog and wolf belong to 
one and the same species. 

Since both vegetables and animals are altered by cul- 
tivation, it is scarcely possible to decide upon the natural 
food of man, except by comparing his structure with 
that of wild animals. That he was not intended to sub- 
sist on animal food, we infer from his organization ; the 
form of his teeth, and the structure of his alimentary 
canal, clearly indicate that he is not adapted to the de- 
vouring of flesh. The ourang-outang, and other ani- 
mals of the monkey tribe, are strictly frugworou*, that 
is to say, they feed upon fruits. By comparing them 
with man, we find that the shape of the teeth, and that 
of the alimentary canal, are remarkably similar in both ; 
hence it is reasonable to conclude that man is likewise 
a fruit-devouring animal. 



" Not to mention the braxy of Scotland, (which is 
putrid mutton, the sheep having died of the rot,) it is 
notorious that game and venison are seldom relished 
till they are i high, 9 or, in honest and faithful language, 
till they arc a mass of putrefaction, and disengaging, in 
abundance, one of the most septic poisons that the 
chemist knows of," 


Much controversy has existed between dietetic wri- 
ters, respecting the natural food of man. Some assert 
that he was formed to live upon a diet purely vegetable ; 
while others contend that his diet should consist of ani- 
mal and vegetable food. We are told, " that, in the 
golden age, man was as innocent as the dove ; his food 
was acorns, and his beverage, pure water from the foun- 
tain. Finding, every where, abundant subsistence, he 
felt no anxieties, but lived independent, and always in 
peace, both with his own species, and the other animals. 
But he no sooner forgot his native dignity, and sacrificed 
his liberty to the bonds of society, than war, and the 
iron age, succeeded that of gold and peace. Cruelty, 
and an insatiable appetite for flesh and blood, were the 
first fruits of a depraved nature, the corruption of which 
was completed by the invention of manners, arts, and 
sciences. Either immediately, or remotely, all the phy- 
sical or moral evils, by which individuals are afflicted, 
and society laid waste, arose from these carnivorous 
practices." -■"■ ; 

Whether such a state of exalted temperance, pure 
liberty, and blissful peace ever existed, it is difficult to 
decide ; but science, ever striving to develope the har- 
mony and simplicity of nature's laws, proffers its aid to 
dispel our doubts, and decide the question. " Compa- 
rative anatomy teaches us that man resembles frugivo- 
rous (fruit-devouring) animals in every thing, and car- 
nivorous (flesh-devouring) in nothing ; he has neither 
claws wherewith to seize his prey, nor distinct and 
pointed teeth wherewith to tear the living fibre. A 


Mandarin, of the first class, with nails two inches long, 
would probably find them alone inefficient to hold even 
a hare. After every subterfuge of gluttony, the bull 
must be degraded into the ox, and the ram into the we- 
ther, by an unnatural and inhuman operation, 4hat the 
flaccid fibre may offer a fainter resistance to rebellion 
nature. It is only by softening and disguising dead 
flesh, by culinary preparation, that it is rendered suscep- 
tible of mastication or digestion ; and that the sight of 
its bloody juices and raw horror does not excite intole- 
rable loathing and disgust. Let the advocate of animal 
food force himself to a decisive experiment on its fitness; 
and, as Plutarch recommends, tear a living lamb with his 
teeth, and, plunging his head into its vitals, slake his 
thirst with the streaming blood ; when fresh from the 
deed of horror, let him revert to the irresistible instinct 
of nature that would rise in judgment against it, and say, 
Nature formed me for such a work as this ! Then, and 
then only, would he be consistent." 

Comparative anatomy teaches us that carnivorous ani- 
mals are so constructed that animal food is not only the 
appropriate stimulus to their organs, but that they could 
not long exist in a healthy state with any other diet. 
The herbivorous animals, also, have a digestive appara* 
tus suited to a purely vegetable diet ; an apparatus that 
would not answer for the digestion of animal food. If 
man was destined to devour the flesh of animals, might 
we not, then, reasonably infer that his organs would 
correspond with his aliment X Or is man a "proud ex- 
ception to all natur's laws," that he should not be in- 
stinctively impelled, in common with other animals, to 
seek a species of food adapted to his organization I It 
is true, that man has monopolized the right of breaking 
the laws of nature — but he has paid the penalty of his 
transgression. If every horrid form of loathsome dis- 
ease — if violent and premature death— if the vice, and 
misery, and suffering that surround us, do not indicate 
that the vengeance of nature has been prompt and ter- 
rible, it proves that there may be effects without legiti- 
mate causes. 


Dr. Lamb infers from the teeth, stomach, and intea 
tines of man, that his natural food is vegetables. Other 
anatomists have maintained the same opinion. 

Baron Cuvier, universally acknowledged as the best 
natugaLUt the world ever produced, and whose know- 
"~W!ge of comparative anatomy renders him competent 
to decide, remarks : — " The natural food of man, judg- 
ing from his structure, appears to consist of the fruits, 
roots, and other succulent parts of vegetables : his hands 
offer him every facility for gathering them ; his short, 
and but moderately strong jaws on the one hand, and 
his canini being equal in length to the remaining teeth, 
and his tubercular molares on the other, would allow him 
neither- to feed on grass nor to devour flesh, were these 
aliments not previously prepared by cooking." 

There are sixteen teeth in each jaw. The middle 
teeth, being four in number, are called incisores ; the 
next two, one on each side, are termed cuspidati, (in 
common language, canine teeth, or eye-teeth ;) then, 
counting backwards, the next four, two on each side 
are called bicuspides ; and the remaining six, three on 
each side, (being the double teeth) are called molares. 

Dr. Bell observes, in his work on the Teeth — " I* 
appears that the structure and uses of the teeth are more 
perfectly equalized in the human subject than in any 
other animal. It is true that in some tribes of animals, 
whose habits require the greatest possible extension of 
the office of a particular class of the teeth, a corres- 
ponding developement of that class is found to take 
place, to a much greater degree than in man. 

" Thus, in the carnivora, the cuspidati are greatly elon- 
gated and strengthened, in order to enable them to seize 
their food and to tear it in pieces ; in the rodentia, or 
gnawing animals, as in the beaver, for instance, the iw- 
cisors are remarkably long, and exhibit that extraordi- 
nary developement which their peculiar habits demand, 
and in the graminivorous animals, the ruminantia espe- 
cially, the molares are found to occupy the most con- 
spicuous situation. But, in each of these instances, the 
other kinds of teeth are found to be proportionably of 


less importance, and, in some cases, are actually want- 
ing. In man, on the contrary, every class appears to be 
equally developed, to a moderate, though a sufficient 
degree, and to exhibit a perfection of structure which 
may be considered as being the true type from which 
all others are mere deviations. It becomes, therefore, 
a question of some interest, and perhaps no less diffi- 
culty, to what food the structure which has just been 
demonstrated is particularly adapted. The opinion 
which I venture to give has not been hastily formed, nor 
without what appeared to me sufficient grounds. 

44 We may be led, by a careful examination of the 
structure of the different organs, and by an analogical 
comparison of them, as they exist in man, with the same 
organs in those animals which most nearly resemble 
him in structure, but which are still found in a perfectly 
natural state, to a plausible supposition, at least, of what 
were originally his natural habits; and which would 
have still continued so, but for those changes which have 
arisen from the possession of reason. 

44 With this view of the subject, it is not, I think, go- 
ing too far to say, that every fact connected with the 
human organization goes to prove, that man was origi- 
nally formed a frugivorous (fruit-devouring) animal, and 
therefore probably tropical, or nearly so, with regard to 
his geographical situation. This opinion is principally 
derived from the formation of his teeth and digestive or- 
gans, as well as from the character of his skin, and the 
general structure of his limbs. It is not my intention 
now to go farther into the discussion of this subject 
than to observe, that if analogy be allowed to iiave any 
weight in the argument, it is wholly on that side of the 
question which I have just taken. Those animals whose 
teeth and digestive apparatus most nearly resemble our 
own, namely, the apes and monkeys, are undoubtedly 
frugivorous; but as, from their organization, they are 
necessarily tropical animals, and without the gift of 
reason, by which they might have overcome the differ- 
ence of temperature by artificial means, they remain 
still restricted to their original food, and confined to the 


vciy limited climate to which their structure peculiarly 
adapted them. The reasoning powers of man, on the 
contrary, have enabled him to set climate at defiance* 
and have rendered him, in all cases, more or less an ar- 
tificial being." 

The celebrated Professor Lawrence adds his testis 
mony in the following words : — 

" The molar teeth, being the instruments employed in 
dividing and preparing the food, must exhibit, in figure 
and construction, a relation to the nature of the aliment. 
They rise, in the true carnivore or flesh-devouring ani- 
mals, into sharp-pointed prominences ; and those of the 
lower shut within those of the upper jaw ; when the 
series is viewed together, the general outline may be 
compared with the teeth of a saw. These animals are 
also furnished with long, pointed, and strong cuspidati, 
or canine teeth, which are employed as weapons of of- 
fence and defence. The herbivorous animals are not 
armed with these terrible canine teeth; their molares 
have broad flat surfaces, opposed, in a vertical line, to 
each other, in the two jaws. 

" The articulation of the lower jaw differs in the two 
cases as much as the structure of the teeth, In the 
carnivora it can only move backwards and forwards ; all 
lateral motion (that is, from side to side) being pre- 
cluded by the rising edges of the glenoid cavity : in the 
herbivora it has, moreover, motion from side to side. 
Thus we observe, in the flesh-eaters, teeth calculated 
only for tearing, subservient, in part at last, to the pro- 
curing of food, as well as to purposes of defence ; and 
an articulation of the lower jaw that precludes all late- 
ral motion. In those who live on vegetables, the form 
of the teeth, and the nature of the joint, are calculated 
for the lateral or grinding motion. The former, having 
rudely torn and divided the food, swallow it in masses, 
while, in the latter, it undergoes considerable comminu- 
tion before it is swallowed. The teeth of man have not 
thg slightest resemblance to those of carnivorous animals, 
except that their enamel is confined to the external sur- 
face. He possesses, indeed, teeth called canine, but 

AftlMAL FOOD. 105 

thfcy do not exceed the level of the others, and are ob- 
viously unsuited to the purposes which the correspond* 
ing teeth execute in carnivorous animals. In the free- 
dom of lateral motion, the human lower jaw most nearly 
resembles that of the herbivora. 

44 The teeth and jaws of man are, in all other respects, 
much more similar to those of monkeys, than of any. 
other animals. A skull, apparently of the ourang- 
outahg, in the Museum of the College, has the first- set 
of teeth ; the number is the same as in plan, and the 
form so closely similar that they might easily have been 
mistaken for human. In most other simiae, or animals 
of the monkey kind, the canine teeth are much longer 
and stronger than in us ; and so far these animals have 
a more carnivorous character. 

44 The length and divisions of the alimentary canal 
are very different according to the kihd of food. Iii 
the proper carnivorous animals the canal is very short; 
the large intestine' cylindrical, and the ccecum not larger 
than the rest. The form of the stomach, and the dis- 
position of its openings, are calculated to allow a quick 
passage of the food. In the herbivora, the whole canal 
ifc long ; and there is either a complicated stomach, or 
a very large ccecum and a sacculated colon : the stomach, 
even where simple, is formed so as to retain the food 
for a considerable time. 

"■ " Thus we find, that, whether we consider the teeth 
and jaws, or the immediate instruments of digestion, the 
human structure closely resembles that of the simiae 
(monkey-kind); all of which, in their natural state, are 
completely herbivorous.' ~ 

4 ** That man is not, by nature, destined to devour ani- 
mal food; is evident from the construction of the human 
frame, Which bears no resemblance to wild beasts, or 
birds of prey. Man is not provided with claws, or 
talons, with sharpness of fangs, or task, sbwrell adapted 
to tear and lacerate ; nor is his stomach so well braced 
and muscular, nor his animal spirits so warm, as to en- 
able him to digest this solid mass of animal flesh* On 
Ae contrary, nature lias made his teeth smooth, hi* 



mouth narrow, and his tongue soft ; and h$s contrived, 
by the slowness of his digestion, to divert him from de- 
vouring a species of food so ill-adapted to his frame 
and constitution. But, if you still maintain that such is 
your natural mode of subsistence, then follow nature in 
your mode of killing your prey, and employ neither 
knife, hammer, nor hatchet ; but, like wolves, bears, and 
lions, seize an ox with your teeth, grasp a boar round 
the body, or tear asunder a lamb or a hare, and, like 
the savage tribe, devour them still panting in the agonies 
of death, 

" We carry our luxury still farther, by the varieties 
of sauces and seasonings which we add to our beastly 
banquets, mixing together oil, wine, honey, pickles, 
vinegar, and Syrian and Arabian ointments and per- 
fumes, as if we intended to bury and embalm the carcases 
on which we feed. The difficulty of digesting such a 
mass of matter, reduced, in our stomachs, to a state of 
liquefaction and putrefaction, is the source of endless 
disorders in the human frame." 

Having proved that Nature, in constructing the human 
frame, never intended that man should eat flesh, we find 
these arguments strengthened by the testimony of those 
who have abstained from animal food, and who declare 
it to be exceedingly pernicious. That animajl food is 
unnecessary may be abundantly proved ; that it is injuri- 
ous may be demonstrated with equal facility. 

" As, in every period of history (says Dft. Lambe) it 
has been known, that fruits and vegetables alone are 
sufficient for the support of life, and that the bulk of 
mankind live upon them at this hour, the adherence to 
the use of animal food is no more than a persistence in 
the gross customs of savage life, and evinces an insen- 
sibility to the progress of reason, and to the operation 
of intellectual improvements.* 

The monks of Monte Santo (Mount Athos) never 
taste animal food, — they live on vegetables, olives, and 
cheese. In the year 1806, one of the fraternity was in 
good health at the great age of one hundred and twenty 


" The four most ancient order of priests, the Rahans, 
the Bramins, the Magi, and the Druids, confined them- 
selves to vegetable food, as did also the Athenian prince, 
Tripfolemus, who established the Eleusinian mysteries, 
and prohibited by law all injury to animals." 

"The Indian Bramins (says Dr. Clarke) neither 
kill nor eat any sort of animal ; and it is certain they 
have not done it for more than two thousand years." 

Djt. Hecquet, who died in Paris, 1773, had not eaten 
any meat, nor drank any thing stronger than water, for 
thirty years. He was the Sangrado of Cervantes. 

Andrew Fordyce, a surgeon of London, rigidly ab- 
stained from the use of flesh-meat. His oldest acquaint- 
ances do not recollect of his tasting animal food. 

Sir Richard Phillips, Sheriff of London, main- 
tained that the human frame was not intended to be 
nourished by animal food. At the age of 21 he aban- 
doned the use of meat. In some of his published, let- 
ters, signed " Common Sense," he says— «.' from that 
day I date my lease of life. It now exceeds thirty years 
since I have tasted animal food. It was early prophe- 
sied that a vegetable diet would kill me, but, to the sur- 
prise of my friends, I am now enjoying vigorous health.** 

Mr. John Tweddell, in one of his letters, thus re- 
lates his own experience :— " I no longer eat flesh meat, 
nor drink fermented liquors. As for the latter, it is be- 
cause I do not believe that they can ever be good for the 
constitution, and still more especially with a vegetable 
diet. With regard to the flesh of animals, I have many 
times thought on the subject. I am persuaded we have 
no other right than the right of the strongest, to sacri- 
fice to our monstrous appetites the bodies of living 
things, of whose qualities and relations we are ignorant 
Different objections which struck me, as to the proba- 
bility of goodTrom the universality of this practice, have 
hitherto held me in indecision. 

" I doubted whether, if this abstinence were universal, 
the animals which we now devour, might not devour, in 
their turn, the fruits and vegetables reserved for Out 
sustenance. I do not know whether this would be so, 


but I do not believe it : it seems to me that their lum- 
bers would not augment in the proportion which is ap- 
prehended. If, on the one hand, we now consume with 
our teeth, on the other, we might then abandon our in- 
ventions and schemes for augmenting the means of 
propagation. Let Nature follow her own course with 
regard to all that lives. I am told they would destroy 
each other : in the first place the two objections cannot 
exist together ; if they would destroy each other, their - 
numbers would not be excessive. And what is this mu- 
tual destruction to me ? Who has constituted me dictator 
of thp realms of Nature? Why am I umpire between 
the mistress and her servants ? Because two chickens 
fight till one dies, am I obliged to worry one of them to 

Erevent the engagement ? Exquisite and well-imagined 
*' On the other hand, let precautions be adopted against 
famine, when experience shall have shown the necessity 
of them; in the mean while, we are not called upon to 
bury in our bowels the carcases of animals, which, a few 
hours before, lowed or bleated ; to flay and to dismem- 
ber a defenceless creature ; to pamper the unsuspecting 
beast that grazes before iis, with the single view o? 
sucking his blood and grinding his bones ; arid to become 
the unnatural murderers of beings, of whose powers 
and faculties, of whose modes of communication and 
mutual intercourse, of whose degree of sensibility and 
extent of pain and pleasure, we are necessarily, and fun- 
damentally ignorant." 

" I have wandered (says the celebrated Dr. Jackson) 
a good deal about the world, and never followed any 
prescribed rule in any thing ; my health has been tried 
in all ways, and, by the aids of temperance andhard 
work, I have worn out two armies in two^wars, and pro- 
bably could wear out another before my period of old 
age arrives. I eat no animal food) drink no wine or 
malt liquor, or spirits of any .kind;. I wear no flahnel, 
arid, neither regard wind nor rain, heat nor cold." \ r 
"The Brazilians, (says Sir John Sinclair) when 
first discovered by the Europeans, lived the most natu^ 

animal rooK f o& 

ral, original lives of mankind, so fr^uehtlyVlescfibed 
in ancient countries, before laws, or property, or arts, 
made entrance among them : they lived without labor, 
farther than for their necessity food, by gathering fruits, 
herbs, and plants ; they knew no drink but water ; were 
not tempted to eat or drink beyond common thirst or 
appetite ; were not . troubled with either public or do- 
mestic cares, nor knew any pleasure but the most simple 
and natural." l 

. When Captain Cook visited the New Zealanders, he 
observed that among all those who crowded around him, 
young and old, men and women, not one appeared to 
have any bodily complaint ; not the slightest eruption 
could be seen upon their skins ; and when they received 
a wound it healed without applications, in a remarkably 
short space of time. Water, as far as could be ascer- 
tained, was the universal and only beverage ; and flesh- 
meat was not in use among them. 

" The chief fpod of the Japanese is rice, pulse, fruits, 
roots, and herbs ; but mostly rice, which they have in 
great plenty ,and perfection." 

Burkhart, in describing his journey through the de- 
serts of Arabia, says — ■" The frugality of these Bedouins 
(Arabs of the Desert) is indeed without example. My 
companions, who walked at least five hours every day^ 
supported themselves for four-and-twenty hours, with a 
piece of dry black bread, of about a pound and a half 
in weight. I endeavored, as much as possible, to imi- 
tate this abstemiousness, being already convinced, from 
experience, that it is the best preservative against the ef- 
fects of such a journey." 

The much-abused Epicurus, the founder off the Epi- 
curean system of philosophy, together with his pupils, 
rigidly abstained from the use; of animal food. Pytha- 
goras, who lived to a very advanced age, as did also 
his follower, the philosopher Xenophilus, used no ani- 
food, because they believed that killing an animal was 
in effect killing another self, believing, as they did, in 
the transmigration of souls. Most of the ancient Gre- 
cian philosophers abstained from flesh-meat. The black 


broil of the Spartans is familiar to most readers ; and 
a more hardy, braver people never existed. It was a 
maxim of the ancients?, that "none could understand 
God and his works, and enjoy perfect health and long 
life, but those that abstain from flesh, wine, and vices, 
bounding their desires according to the ends and neces- 
sities of nature." 

The primitive Christians of the East, who retired 
from persecution into the deserts of Arabia and Egypt, 
lived healthfully and cheerfully on twelve ounces of 
bread per day with mere water ; with this diet, St, An- • 
thony lived 105 years; James the Hermit, 104; Arse- 
nius, 120; St. Epiphanius, 115; Simeon, the Sty lite,' 
112 ; and Romauld, 120. 

"Abstinence from animal food (says Shelley) sub- 
tilizes and clears the intellectual faculties." 

"Vegetable aliment, (says Dr. Citllen) as never 
over-distending the vessels, or loading the system, never 
interrupts the stronger motions of the mind, while the 
heat, weight, and fulness of animal food are an enemy 
to its vigorous efforts." 

Sir Isaac Newton, while composing his celebrated 
treatise on Optics, confined himself to a vegetable diet. 

Br. Franklin, in his early days, confined himself to 
a vegetable diet, and he mentions that his progress in 
study was proportionate to that clearness of ideas, and 
quickness of conception, resulting from. great tempe- 
rance in diet. 

" The large majority of mankind (says the Journal 
of Health) do not eat any animal food, or so sparingly, 
and at such long intervals, that it cannot be said to form 
their nourishment. Millions in Asia are sustained by 
rice alone. In Italy, and southern Europe r generally, 
bread made of the flour of wheat or Indian-corn, with 
lettuce and the like mixed with oil, constitutes the food 
of the most robust part of its population. The Lazza- 
roni of Naples, with forms so active and finely propor* 
tioned, cannot even calculate on this much; coarse 
bread and potatoes is their chief reliance. Hundreds 
of thousands, >ve might say millions, of the Irish, do 


not see nesh-meat or fish from one week's end to the 
other ; potatoes and oat-meal are their articles of fqod : 
yet where shall we find a more healthy and robust popu- 
lation, or one more enduring of bodily fatigue, and ex- 
hibiting more mental vivacity ? What a contrast between 
these people and the inhabitants of the extreme north, 
the timid Laplanders, Esquimaux, and Samoideans, 
whose food is almost entirely animal !* 

" The result of my own observation and experience 
(says Dr. Rickeson) both on my own constitution and 
those of others, has led me to believe that a vegetable 
diet is most consistent with, and conducive to ease, 
health, and longevity; for I have generally observed 
such to enjoy the most uninterrupted health, to be sub- 
ject to the fewest diseases, the mildest symptoms, and 
the least mortality ; while, on the contrary, I have fre- 
quently remarked that those who live much on animal 
and highly seasoned food, are oftener indisposed, and 
peculiarly liable to both inflammatory and putrid disor- 
ders, attended with violent symptoms and great mortality. 
Indeed, I think I foresee the time, and that perhaps ere 
long, when men will endure the heat and fatigues of 
labor, without much animal food, with nearly as great 
certainty, success, and improvement of their health, as, 
within a few years, they have found they can do with- 
out Spirituous liquors." 

u A too frequent use of animal food (says Dr. Wil- 
lich) disposes the fluids strongly to putrefaction, and, I 
believe, in some sanguine temperaments, communicates 
to the mind a degree of ferocity. Even a child will 
refuse the breast, when its nurse has eaten too much 
animal food. Those who eat great quantities of meat, 
and little bread or vegetables, must, necessarily, acquire 
an offensive breath." 

" When the stomach (says Dr. Cullen} is repeat- 
edly overcharged with full meals of animal rood, it will 
lose its natural tone, by such frequent plenitude and 
over-distention ; and its contents being indigested, tbe 
chyle obtained from it will be crude, impure, and insuf- 
ficiently elaborated. The several secretions being alio 

112 ANIMAL #bOD/ 


unduly performed, a foundation will be laid for chronic: 
diseases, especially the gout and scurvy, dropsy and hy-* 
pochondriacal disorders." 

"The use of swine's flesh (says Dr. Clarke) in 
union with ardent spirits, is, in all likelihood, the grand 
cause of the scurvy, which is so common in the British 
nation, and which would probably assume the fo*m and 
virulence of a leprosy, were our climate as hot as that 
of Judea." 

" From whatever cause (says Dr. Leake) the stomach 
is deprived of its natural digestive faculty, it may be 
laid down as a general rule, that a spare diet, and ab- 
stinence from animal food, will afford relief.* 

" Animal food (says Dr. Tcrnbull) when prema- 
turely and excessively used, as is too frequently done 
with children, tends to bring on too early a maturity, to 
exhaust the system, and, of course, to induce, in the 
same proportion, a rapid decay. Excess of animal food 
makes men fat and plethoric ; and disease is the una- 
voidable consequence of this state of repletion ." 

" Animal food (says Dr. Paris) is too highly stimtir 
lant — the springs of life are urged on too fast; and 
disease necessarily follows." 

" Animal food (says Dr." Jones) excites, by its Stimu- 
lating qualities, a temporary fever after every meal, by 
which the springs of life are urged into constant, pre- 
ternatural, and weakening exertions. Persons living oft 
it chiefly, are subject to acute and fatal disorders, as 
scurvy, malignant ulcers, inflammatory fevers, and cor- 
pulency. We seldom see those who indulge much in 
this diet remarkable for longevity/' 

" There is no disease, (says Shelley) bodily oi» 
mental, which adoption of vegetable diet and pure water 
has not infallibly mitigated, wherever the experiment lias 
been fairly tried. Debility is gradually converted into 
strength, disease into healthfulness : madness, m all its 
hideouSjVariety, from the ravings of the fettered maniac, 
to the unaccountable irrationalities of ill-temper, that 
make a hell of domestic life, into a calm and considerate 
*venne«& of temper, that alone might offer a certain 


pledge of the future moral reformation of society. But 
it is found easier, by the short-sighted victims of disease, 
to palliate their torments with medicine, than to relieve 
them by regimen." 

w The facility (says Dr. Kendall) with which animal 
food is to be procured in cities, in comparison with an 
uncivilized state of things, is another cause of the ex- 
cess in which it is consumed. It is said excess^ for there 
is but one voice on this subject. All kiiow that animal 
food is consumed, by every Briton that can purchase it, 
in a degree at once not only unnecessary, but actually 
destructive to the health of himself and calamitous to 
the comiftunity* 

" That it is unnecessary to his sustenance, is evident 
from the health and strength of those, who, from habit 
or necessity, do not partake of it in any proportionate 
degree. Animal food is said to give strength 5 yet thg 
most laborious class of the people eat Of it the least* 

" With respect to the health of body and mind : to 
the first, animal food is likely to prove destructive, by 
inducing, besides other evils, plethora and all its conse- 
quences'; and to the mind the favorableness of the Ve- 
getable is matter of general belief." 

A general objection to abstinence from animal food 
arises from the feaf expressed, that animals would in- 
crease too rapidly ; but we know that in India the law 
forbids the destruction of animal life, yet neither the ox 
nor the sheep increase in such a ratio as to excite alarm. 
Horses, which are not destroyed eith&fr in Europe or in 
America, are not likely to become so numerous as to 
overrun those countries. 

The ground employed to fatten dud nourish animals 
sufficient for the consumption of one family, would, if 

!>roperly cultivated, yield enough to support five fami- 
ies ; and hence, if population should ever increase to 
the extent that has been apprehended, the rearing of 
animals would be a serious evil. 

Animal food is a powerful stimulus to the whole sys- 
tem ; it increases the circulation, excites a temporary 
fever, and facilitates perspiration. The constant repe- 



tition of such unnatural stimuli, at length wears out the 
system, and those who have been much addicted to their 
use, either die prematurely, or linger through a misera- 
ble existence f afflicted with the most distressing chronic 

"The effects of animal food on the moral character is 
one of the most deplorable evils arising from its use. 
It communicates to some minds a coarseness and fero- 
city of disposition, and renders the temper irritable and 
petulent; the passion of anger is either induced or 
strengthened by its use. We all know that those ani- 
mals which feed on flesh, are savage, cruel, and fero- 
cious ; on the contrary, those which feed on vegetables 
are mild and inoffensive. What a contrast between the 
tiger, renowned for his cruel, savage, and treacherous 
disposition, and the inoffensive lamb, which we have 
adopted as the emblem of innocence ! So universal was 
this belief among the ancients, that they have ascribed 
the origin of wars to the destruction of animal life. 
Indeed, if a people religiously abhorred the idea of 
shedding the blood of an innocent animal, can we be- 
lieve that their voices would ever rise in shouts of ex- 
ultation over the smoking ruins of a city, whose streets 
were deluged by the blood of its inhabitants ? Thousands 
who now use animal food, would abandon it for ever, if 
they were obliged to* slaughter the innocent victims 
themselves ; and even when they are slaughtered, every 
process and art of cookery, and the addition of stimu- 
lating spices, must be employed, to overcome the disgust 
which naturally arises from the idea of devouring the 
dead flesh of animals. The cruelty of destroying ani- 
mal life has been feelingly portrayed by that elegant 
descriptive poet, Thomson : — 

"for, with hot ravine fir'd, ensanguin'd Man 

Is now become the lion of the plain, 

And worse. The wolf, who, from the nightly fold 

Fierce drags the bleating prey, ne'er drunk her milk, 

Nor wore her warming fleece : nor has the steer, 

At whose strong chest the deadly tiger hangs, 

E'er plough'd for him. They too are temper'd high, 

With hunger stung and wild necessity ; 

Nor lodges pity in their shaggy breast. 

But man, whom nature form d of milder clay, 


With ev'ry kind emotion of the heart, 

And taught alone to weep : while, from her lap, 

She pours ten thousand delicacies, herbs, 

And fruits, as numerous as the drops of rain, 

Or beams that gave them birth : shall he, fair form, 

Who wears sweet smiles, and looks erect on heav'd, 

E'er stoop to mingle with the prowling herd, 

And dip his tongue in gore ?" 

" You ask me (says Plutarch) for what reason Py- 
thagoras abstained from eating the flesh of brutes ; for 
my part. I am astonished to think what first induced 
man to taste of a dead carcass ; or what motive could 
suggest the notion of nourishing himself with the loath- 
some flesh of dead animals." 

" The moral effect of aliment (says Jean Jacques 
Rousseau( is clearly evinced in the different tempers of 
the carnivorous and frugivorous animals. The former, 
whose destructive passions, like those of ignorant man, 
lay waste all within their reach, are constantly tormented 
with hunger, which returns and rages in proportion to 
their devastation ; this creates that state of warfare or 
disquietude which seeks, as in murderers, the night and 
the veil of the forest ; for, should they appear on the 
plain, their prey escapes, or, seen by each other, their 
warfare begins. The frugivorous animals wander tran- 
quilly on the plains, and testify their joyful existence by 
frisking and basking in the genial rays of the sun, or 
browsing with pleasure on the green . herb. The same 
effect of aliment is discernible among the different spe- 
cies of men ; the peaceful temper of the frugivorous 
Asiatic is strongly contrasted with the ferocious dispo- 
sition of the carnivorous European." 

" The particular effects (says Dr. Turnbull) of this 
difference of aliment on the human body, we have an 
opportunity of contemplating in the habits of certain 
votaries who exclusively use each. Thus, those tribes, 
as the Tartars, who live solely on animal food, possess 
a degree of ferocity of mind, and fierceness of charac- 
ter, which form the leading features of all carnivorous 
animals. On the other hand, an entire diet of vegetable 
matter gives to the mind a gentleness, softness, and 
mildness of feelings, as appears from the Gentoo." 

110 _ ..... ANIMAL FOOD. 

"When children (says Bernardin de St. Pierre) 
are barbarous towara innocent animals, they will sooijl 
become the same toward men. Caligula/ before im- 
bruing his hands in human blood, had made a practice 
of destroying flies. It may be said, that the moral be- 
havior of man to man commences, in some measure, 
with that of an infant toward insects. Never, therefore, 
let a child acquire a truth by means of a vice ; nor ex- 
tend ha understanding at the expense of its heart. Let 
it not study the laws of nature in the pangs of sentient 
beings ; but rather in the succession of their enjoyments,." 
i "Most animals (says Dr. Waterhouse) live in 
amity.; but man is the enemy of all ; and, unlike those 
ferocious .creatures who kill from motives excited by 
want and hunger, man kills every thing for sport, aver- 
sion, fear, superstition, wantonness, and often for the 
mere sake of seeing that dead which was living in en- 
joyment. In consequence, he destroys the natural circle 
of existence, and reduces countries, which he inhabits. 
to deserts, like the once fertile kingdoms of Assyria. 
Babylonia, Nineveh, Judea, Syria, &c." 

The Encyclopedie Methodique observes, that the 
" man who sheds the blood of an ox or sheep, will be 
habituated more easily than another to witness the effu- 
sion of that of his fellow-men ; inhumanity takes pos- 
session of his soul ; and the professions whose object 
is to sacrifice animals for the purpose of supplying the 
supposed necessities of men, impart, to those who ex- 
ercise them, a ferocity which their relative connections 
with society but imperfectly serve to mitigates" 

The Abbe Gallani ascribes all social crimes to ani- 
mal destruction ; thus, treachery to angling and en- 
snaring; and murder to hunting and shooting; and he 
asserts, " that the man who would kill a sheep, an ox, or 
any unsuspecting animal, would kill his neighbor but 
for the law." 

" Among the Wallachians, (says Dr. Alexander) 
though there is no positive institution to the contrary, 
yet the women never destroy the Jife of any creature. 
'Whether this custom were founded by some of theqr 


ancient legislators, or whether it originated from acci- 
dental circumstances, is uncertain ; but however that be, 
nothing can be more suitable to the gentleness and ti- 
midity which form the most beautiful and engaging part 
of the female character." 

" Nothing can be more shocking (says Pope) or hor- 
rible, than ,one of our kitchens sprinkled with blood, 
and abounding with the cries of creatures expiring, or 
with the limbs of dead animals scattered or hung up 
here and there. It gives one an image of a giant's den 
in romance, bestrewed with the scattered heads and 
mangled limbs of those who were slain by his cruelty." 

"India, in fact, (says Ovington) of all the regions 
of the earth, is the only public theatre of justice and 
tenderness to brutes, and all living creatures ; for there, 
pot confining murder* to the killing of man, they reli- 
giously abstain from taking the life of the meanest 

" Pythagoras (says Richerand) believed that a purely 
vegetable diet conveyed into the blood bland and mild 
principles, — because blood, procured from vegetable 
chyme, was not so stimulating, excited the organs less, 
rendered it easier to observe the laws of temperance, 
the original source of virtue. 

i' The carnivorous species are marked by their cou- 
rage, their strength, and their ferocity; and savages, 
-who live by hunting, and feed on raw, bloody, and pal- - 
pitating flesh, are the most ferocious of men. 

" In France, in the midst of those scenes of horror 
which we have witnessed, and from which we have suf- 
fered, it was observed that butchers were foremost in 
the massacres, and in all the acts of atrocity and bar- 
barity. It has been said that the habit of slaying ani- 
mals had familiarized them with the shedding of human 

J>lood." . 

" The Gentoos (says M. be Page) rear numerous 
-herds of cattle ; but such is their veneration for these 
animals, on account of their useful and patient services 
to man, that to kill, or even maim one of them is deemed 
a capital offence. ,, 


That animal food tends to make man savage and fe- 
rocious, there can be no doubt ; but that it makes him 
44 strong and courageous, is fully disproved by the in- 
habitants of northern Europe and Asia, the Laplanders, 
Samoiedes, Ostiacs, Tungooses, Burats, and Kamts- 
chatdales, as well as by the Eskknaux in the northern, 
and the natives of Terra del Fuego in the southern ex- 
tremity of America; which are the smallest, weakest, 
and least brave people of the globe, although they live 
almost entirely on flesh, and that often raw. 

44 Vegetable diet is as little connected with weakness 
and cowardice as that of animal matters is with physical 
force and courage. That men can be perfectly nourish- 
ed, and their bodily and mental capabilities be fully de- 
veloped-in any climate, by a diet purely vegetable, admits 
of abundant proof from experience. In the periods of 
their greatest simplicity, manliness, and bravery, the Greeks 
and Romans appear to have lived, almost entirely, on 
plain vegetable preparations: indifferent bread fruits, 
jand other produce of the earth, are the chief nourish- 
ment of the modern Italians, and of the mass of popu- 
lation in most countries of Europe : of those more 
immediately known to ourselves, the Irish and Scotch 
may be mentioned, who are certainly not rendered 
weaker than their English felloe-subjects by their freer 
use of vegetable aliment. The Negroes, whose great 
bodily powers are well known, feed chiefly on vegetable 
substances ; and the same is the case with the South-Sea 
Islanders, whose agility and strength were so great, that 
the stoutest and most expert English sailor had no 
chance with them in wrestling and boxing." 

44 All the rack and the ingenuity of cruelty and torture 
have been exhausted, to supply the cravings of a de- 
praved and degraded appetite, and one which human 
nature might well be ashamed of ; the bull may be no 
longer baited for this purpose, but pigs are still whipped 
to death ; lobsters are boiled alive ; cod are crimped ; 
and eels are skinned, writhing in agony ; not to mention 
geese, which are duly nailed to the floor by their webbed 
feet, that they may repose and fatten; turkeys are 


crammed and finally bled to death under the tongue ; 
hares are hunted, and die in fevered inflammation, or it 
may be, duly inoculated with the poison of hydrophobia, 
from dogs excited to madness by the chase. Now all 
these practiced cruelties, though they may blanch the, 
codfish, or tinge the lobster with ruby, excite inflamma- 
tory action in the animal suffering them, and inflamed 
surfaces evolve poisonous matter." 

Animals, who kill each other for a supply of nourish- 
ment, exercise no such cruelty. " They are impelled 
(says Combe) to inflict death in the most instantaneous 
and least painful method ; the tiger and lion spring from 
their cover with the rapidity of the thunderbolt, and 
one blow of their tremendous paws, inflicted at the) 
junction of the head with the neck, produces instanta- 
neous death. The eagle is taught to strike its sharp 
beak into the spine of the birds which it devours, and 
their agony endures scarcely for an instant. It has been! 
objected, that the cat plays with the unhappy mouse, 
and prolongs its tortures ; but the cat that does so, is 
the pampered and well-fed inhabitant of a kitchen ; the 
cat of nature is too eager to devour to indulge in such 
luxurious gratifications ; it kills in a moment, and eats. 
Man is not so merciful toward the lower creatures. But 
he does not, with impunity, add one unnecessary pang 
to the death of the lower animals. The brutal butcher 
who inflicts torments on calves, sheep, and cattle, while 
driving them to the slaughter, and who bleeds them to 
death, by successive stages, prolonged for days, to 
whiten their flesh — is necessarily excluded from all the 
enjoyments attendant on the supremacy of the human 
faculties ; he, besides, goes into society under the influ- 
ence of the same base combination, and suffers at every 
hand animal retaliation, so that he does not escape with 
impunity for his outrages against the moral law." 

If the arguments adduced be true, that is to say, if 
the use of animal food be unnatural ; iftit be unneces- 
sary ; if it be injurious to the bodily health ; if it affects 
the intellect ; and if it arouses and excites all the bad 
passions of human nature, what excuse can those who 


eat it urge in their defence ? They certainly will not 
confess a weakness of mind which precludes the fulfil- 
ment of a resolution to abandon it ; and they cannot, 
with any appearance of reason, advocate the taking of 
life which they have not the power to restore. 

Abstinence from animal food not only communicates" 
calmness and gentleness to the disposition, but it con- 
tributes, in a wonderful degree, to personal beauty. It 
is scarcely possible tQ imagine the effect which a well* 
regulated vegetable diet and moderate exercise, produce 
in the developemcnt of a finely-moulded form and beau-* 
tiful countenance, provided such education be adopted 
in infancy ; more especially if the mental faculties are 
gradually and properly cultivated. 

" The nations that subsist on vegetable diet (says Stf. 
Pierre) are, of all men, the handsomest, the most ro^ 
bust, the least exposed to diseases and violent passions; 
and they attain the greatest longevity. The Brami&s 
of India, who frequently survive a century, eat nothing 
bat vegetables. From the Pythagorean school, Epami- 
nondas issued forth, so renowned for his virtues ; Ar- 
chytas, so celebrated for his skill in mechanics ; and! 
Milo of Crotona for his strength. As vegetable diet 
has a necessary connection with many virtues, and ex- 
cludes none, it must be of importance to accustom 
young people to it, seeing its influence so powerfully 
contributes to beauty of person and tranquility of soul. 
The children of the Persians, in the time of Cyrus, and 
by his orders, were fed with bread, water, and cresses j 
and Lycurgus introduced a considerable portion of the 
physical and moral regimen of these children into those 
of Lacedaemon. Such diet prolongs infancy, and, of 
course, the duration of human life." 

44 Like other hermits (says the author of a Year in 
Spain) the Hermano Mayor wore a large garment of 
coarse cloth, girded round the middle with a rope, and 
had a hood for the head. Yet there was something in 
his appearance which would have enabled one to have 
selected him out at once from a whole fraternity. He 
had a lofty and towering form and features of the very 


noblest mould. This man was such a one as, in any- 
dress or situation, a man would have turned to look at 
a second time ; but, as he now stood before me, in addi- 
tion to the effect of his apostolic garment, his complexion 
and his eye had a clearness that no one can conceive, 
who is not familiar with the aspect of those who have 
practiced a long and rigid abstinence from animal food 
and every exciting aliment. It gives a lustre, a spiritual 
intelligence to the countenance, that has something in it 
saint-like and divine." 

The effect of vegetable aliment in beautifying the 
complexion is simply and forcibly expressed in the first 
chapter of the book of Daniel. Daniel, and three of 
his companions, were carried as captives to Babylon ; 
and were selected, from among the other prisoners, to 
stand in the king's palace : to render them fleshy and 
fair, the king ordered them a certain portion of his meat 
and wine. 

" But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not 
defile himself with the portion of the king's meat, nor 
with the wine which he drank ; therefore he requested, 
of the prince of the eunuchs, that he might not defile 
himself. And the prince of the eunuchs said unto Da- 
niel, I fear my lord, the king, who hath appointed your 
meat and your drink : for why should he see your faces 
worse liking than the children which are of your sort '( 

"Then, said Daniel, prove thy servants, I beseech 
thee, ten days : give us pulse to eat and water to drink. 
Then let our countenances be looked upon before thee, 
and the countenances of the children that eat of the 
portion of the king's meat : and as thou seest, deal with 
thy servants. 

" So he consented to them in this matter, and proved 
them ten days. And at the end of ten days their coun- 
tenances appeared fairer and fatter in flesh than all the 
children which did eat the portion of the king's meat." 

This simple narrative is so much in accordance with 
the known principles of diet, that it requires no comment. 

" It has been observed by travellers, that no where 
are fairer complexions to be found than in those parts 



of England, Ireland, Scotland, and Germany, where the 
living is almost exclusively vegetable. Some, I know, 
have attributed this to climate ; but an abundance of 
facts can be produced, which prove that diet also has 
considerable influence. 

" It has been ascertained that the teeth are uniformly 
best in those countries where the least animal food is 
eaten. In those parts of Ireland, Scotland, England, 
and Germany, where the common classes subsist almost 
entirely on bread, potatoes, and other articles from the 
vegetable kingdom, they have fine white teeth ; and, in 
other districts, where any considerable quantity of ani- 
mal food is used, the teeth are perceptibly less sound 
and beautiful." 

Almost every one is familiar with the history of Cas- 
par Hauser, the unfortunate youth who was confined in 
a narrow apartment, and never saw but one human being 
from the time of his remembrance -until he quitted his 
dungeon, a period of 17 years. During that time he had 
tasted no other food but bread and water. When he 
was first observed, meat was offered to him, the very 
sight and smell of which powerfully convulsed his whole 
frame, and he rejected it with visible horror ; but eagerly 
swallowed some bread and water. 

His senses were remarkably acute, and he possessed 
pn extraordinary memory. With the acuteness of his 
senses his memory declined, and both were singularly 
coincident with a change of diet. Caspar observed, in 
regard to his hearing, that " its acuteness had been con- 
siderably diminished since he had learned to eat meat." 
Professor Daujuer, of the Nuremburg Gymnasium, 
remarks : " after he had learned regularly to eat meat, 
his mental activity diminished, his eyes lost their brill- 
iancy and expression, and his vivid propensity to con- 
stant activity was also diminished. The intense appli- 
cation of his mind gave way to absence and indifference ; 
and the quickness of his apprehension was considerably 

The testimony which I have produced will be all- 
sufficient to convince the liberal and intelligent of the 


prejudicial tendency of animal food, and the beneficial 
effects resulting from a vegetable diet. But if they still 
persist in the barbarous custom of countenancing the 
destruction of animals, without being able to prefer the 
argument of necessity, let them at least select those 
kinds of animal food which are the most wholesome, 
and which are cooked in the best manner. 

Reason and experience emphatically exclaim, " eat 
no animal food ;" but if it is used at an, let it be eaten 
as seldom as possible, avoiding high-seasoned meat, and 
abstaining from animal food during the warm months of 
summer. Dinner is the only meal at which it is at all 
admissible to eat flesh. Not more than one kind, how- 
ever, at a meal, should be indulged in, and that either 
roasted, broiled, or boiled — boiling is the most proper 
method, rendering the meat less stimulating, although 
depriving it of a portion of its nutritive properties ; but 
frying, a very common mode of cooking, is highly cen- 
surable, " the heat being applied through the medium of 
boiling oil, or fat, which is rendered empyreumatic, and 
liable to disagree with the stomach." Baked meats, by 
the retention of their oil, and its empyreumatic nature, 
are liable to produce the same effects. Meat should 
never be served with made gravies, nor with seasonings 
of any kind, unless it be a very small quantity of salt. 
The flesh of young animals, such as veal, lamb, and 
young pork, should not be eaten. As a general rule, all 
substances, whether fruits, vegetables, or animals, are 
not so wholesome nor so digestible when young, as after 
they have arrived at maturity. 

Beef is the most wholesome, and the most nourishing 
kind of animal food ; it should be but slightly cooked. 
Mutton is the most digestible of all flesh-meat, and 
is highly nutritious. Next to beef, it deserves a prefer- 
ence. The fat, however, should be avoided ; it is more 
difficult of digestion than that of any other animal- 
Pork is the most indigestible of animal aliments ; from 
the great quantity of oil it contains, it is only by the 
robust, and those who take much exercise, that it can be 
safely used. Its too frequent and long-continued use 


produces ft gross habit of body, occasions foulness oP~ 
the stomach and bowels, and frequent disorders of the 
skin. Salted, smoked, or dried, it is rendered still more 
unwholesome. The weakly and consumptive should 
abstain entirely from ham. 

All species of game, as venison, rabbits, and hares, 
are very heating or stimulating, and not so well adapted 
to the stomach as the flesh of domestic animals. 

Poultry is preferable to many kinds of animal food. 
The hen is probably the best, and approaches, in mild- 
ness, more nearly to vegetables. The turkey ranks 
next, but the accompanying stuffing should be avoided. 
Geese and ducks are injurious articles of diet ; their fat, 
in particular, -is extremely indigestible. 

Fish are less nutritious than flesh, although not so 
stimulating. From their strong tendency to putrefac- 
tion, it is not safe to use them, except in moderate 
quantities. The jockeys who waste themselves at New- 
market, are fed almost wholly on fish. It is difficult of 
digestion, and the fat of fish is, perhaps, still more in- 
soluble in the stomach than that of quadrupeds, and 
much disposed to turn rancid. Eels, from the quantity 
of oil they contain, seriously disturb the digestive 

AH shell-fish should be avoided ; they are extremely 
indigestible, particularly crabs and lobsters. Lobsters 
have been suspected, from their peculiar effects upon the 
stomach, skin, and throat, to contain some poisonous 
principle. We have, likewise, numerous instances re- 
corded of death from eating muscles, also attributed to 
some poisonous qualities ; but, it is more than probable, 
that their indigestible nature was the true cause. Oys- 
ters, whether cooked or otherwise, are very indigestible. 
When eaten, in the raw state, they are swallowed with- 
out chewing, imposing an additional duty upon the 
stomach while converting them into chyle. The quan- 
tity of mustard, pepper, salt, and vinegar, usually ac- 
companying oysters, should condemn them as improper 
articles of diet ; and they are likely to produce the bad 
effects attributed to other highly concentrated forms of 

, 1—4 * Ji ** '% Vt t%> 


nourishment. By cooking there is a great change pro* 
duced in their albuminous principle, increasing weir ia- 

Eggs also contain much nutriment in a small space, a 
great objection, as will be shown hereafter, to any kind 
of food : when they are boiled hard, they are almost as 
indigestible as bullets. 

Those who choose to eat animal food may make a 
judicious selection, from the various kinds, with con- 
siderable advantage to their bodily health. But, once 
more, I repeat my advice, and sincerely, too— eat no 
animal food, whether it be flsh, flesh, or fowl. 


Milk is a fluid secreted by peculiar glands, knd de- 
signed to nourish animals in the early part of life. It 
is separated immediately from the blood in the udders, 
or the breasts of female animals. When milk is first 
drawn, it has the appearance of a white, opaque liquid, 
with a mild saccharine taste, and aromatic odor. After 
standing a short time, it commences to separate spon- 
taneously into three distinct parts, cream, curd, and whey. 
The cream, when deprived of its impurities by churning, 
constitutes butter. The curd, when pressed, salted, and 
partly dried, is cheese. 

It has been customary, from time immemorial, to 
speak loudly in praise of milk ; some have called it the 
wine of youth ; it has been eulogized in pastoral poetry, 
and prosaic writers have delighted to celebrate its vir- 
tues. Consecrated by time as the fountain of health, 
and hallowed by a thousand associations of rural sim- 
plicity and primaeval innocence, it may appear temerity 
in me, to detract from its celebrity, or to question its 
utility : nevertheless, I am firmly convinced that it is by 
no means a wholesome article of diet. 

Milk is the natural food of infants, until, by the growth 
of their teeth, they are enabled to masticate soUd ali- 
ment. It was, perhaps, necessary vhat infants should 
thus be supplied with an aliment which contained much 

126 MILK. 

nutriment in a small compass, and might be easily as- 
similated, while their digestive organs were imperfectly 
developed. The young of animals, if nourished by 
milk, always abandon it after a certain period ; but mo- 
thers generally wean their children, either from motives 
of necessity, or to suit their own convenience* 

It has been already observed that the saliva, or spittle, 
is necessary to a healthy digestion, and is always mixed 
with the food during the process of chewing. The in- 
fant, in the act of abstracting nourishment from its mo- 
ther's breast, is forced to exercise its lips and tongue, in 
such a manner that the saliva flows into the stomach 
along with the milk. But when cow's milk is used as a 
drink, or eaten with bread, very little of the saliva, if 
any, is mixed with it. It is a common complaint with 
those who use it that it makes them feverish; and 
weakly persons cannot partake of it at all without boiling. 
It frequently produces acidity of the stomach and cos- 
Hveness. This latter effect is the result of its concen- 
trated form of nourishment. 

It may be well, at this time, to protest against all 
concentrated aliment. Both vegetable and animal food 
contain a certain portion of matter which is called nu- 
tritious, that is to say, its elements are precisely similar 
to those which compose the body, and, consequently, 
are all converted into blood by the process of digestion* 
But the remaining portions, which cannot be assimilated, 
are evacuated from the bowels as excrementitious. Now, 
from a knowledge of this fact, an alarming error has 
extensively prevailed, viz. that, if the nutritious portions 
of food could be separated from the excrementitious, 
they would be far better adapted as articles of diet than 
the two portions combined. Hence arrow-root* tapioca, 
and sago, have been, lately, much employed as fifcod for 
the sick, with what advantage medical practitioners have 
. begun to perceive. ThPj fact is, that all food requires 
a certain bulk, or, in ot^ier words, that an article of diet 
may be wholesome, i\ is necessary that it should con- 
tali, not only the nutritious particles of matter, but also 
those wfctch eanr^ ot nourish the body. Sugar, honey, 

■ ■ I 


MIL*. 127 

starch, and molasses, are concentrated aliments. Sugar, 
for example, if pure, is composed of oxygen, carbon, 
and hydrogen ; these three elements enter into the com- 
position of the human body : consequently, an ounce 
of sugar, if digested in the stomach, would be entirely 
converted into chyle, leaving no residue to be evacuated 
from the bowels. Now we all know that if we eat a ? 

certain portion of sugar, the stomach appears cloyed, 
nausea ensues, and a strong propensity to vomit. This 
does not result from any thing intrinsically injurious in 
the sugar, but because sugar is the nutritious particles 
of matter separated from a vegetable, and thus present- 
ed to the stomach in a form highly obnoxious. Jt is 
owing to the same cause that all confectionary, all oils, 
and fat, are so exceedingly pernicious. 

Magendie concluded, from his experiments on ani- 
mals, that they could not live on non-azotised substances, 
that is, on substances which contain no nitrogen. A 
dog, fed on sugar, rapidly emaciated, and died in a few 
days, his eyes being very severely affected. Another 
dog, fed on fine wheat bread, did not live beyond the 
fiftieth day ; and & rabbit or guinea-dig, fed on the best 
wheat alone, die of starvation within a fortnight. An 
ass fed on rice boiled in water, does not survive above 
a fortnight. 

Magendie was evidently wrong in his conclusions : 
in the first place, he tried his experiments upon a dog, 
whose natural food is flesh. In the second place, he 
tried them upon a rabbit, whose natural food contains 
a very limited amount of nourishment. In the third 
place, he chose all the most concentrated articles of 
diet ; his wheat was not in the condition that it grew, it 
had been deprived of its bran, or covering; and 'the 
sugar was procured by art, there being no such article 
in nature. Hence those who deprive their wheat of its 
bran, potatoes of their skin, or any fruit of its natural 
covering, are rendering such food more concentrated, 
besides depriving the articles of their natural stimulating 
qualities when applied to the alimentary canal. Hfld 
Magendie selected such non-azotised substances as are 


found growing naturally, he would have arrived at quite 
a different conclusion* 


u Whew tmlk has been allowed to remain at rest, for 
a few hours, a thin layer is formed upon its surface, of 
a substance having a thicker consistence and apparently 
a more unctuous or fatty nature than the fluid upon 
which it swims. This is the cream which has separated 
spontaneously from the other parts of the milk, and, 
from its lightness, has risen to the surface. The sepa- 
ration of the cream is influenced by heat, and by expo- 
sure to the air. 

" Cream is highly nutritious, but not a proper article 
of food. Taken in any quantity into a stomach, the 
digestive powers of which are slow and imperfect, it is 
apt to produce heart-burn, a sense of oppression, and 
other uneasy sensations. 

"On its first separation, cream is not to be considered 
entirely pure ; it still containing a portion of the other 
ingredients of the milk ; when these are removed from 
it by agitation, or the process of churning, the oil ap- 
pears in its proper form, constituting the well-known 
substance, butter?* 


As an article of diet, butter is decidedly pernicious, 
even when fresh, and, if used at all, snould be eaten very 
sparingly. When it has undergone that change which 
is termed rancidity, there cannot be a more injurious 
substance introduced as nourishment into the stomachr 
It was not used as food in ancient times. 

" From many incontestible proofs (says Dr. Foth- 
ergill) that butter, in considerable quantities, is inju- 
rious, it is less used in many families. It is found, by 
many, to be very difficult of digestion, especially when 
toasted before the fire, or fried, as well as in sauces. 

* Journal of Healtn. 


BUTTER. 129 

Many people, apparently robust, and whose organs of 
digestion are strong, often find themselves much disor- 
dered by large quantities of butter. Nothing more 
speedily and effectually gives the sick head-ache, and, 
sometimes, within a very few hours. After breakfast, 
if much toast and butter have been used, it begins with 
a singular kind of glimmering in the sight; objects 
swiftly changing their apparent position, surrounded with 
luminous angles, like those of a fortification. Giddi- 
ness comes on, head-ache and sickness. These are cir- 
cumstances that often happen to people who are inat- 
tentive to the quantity of butter they eat at breakfast." 

" Whatever has a tendency to produce rancidity in 
butter (says the Journal of Health) either by too long, 
keeping, exposure to heat, or to the operations of cook- 
ery, as in frying, baking, or burning, renders it, in the 
same degree, injurious to the system. Nothing can be 
more detrimental to the stomach than fried, or burnt 
butter; it renders digestion difficult and painful, and 
causes various uneasy sensations, which last for many 
hours. What is termed sick head-ache, is particularly 
liable to be induced by butter rendered acrid in the pro- 
cess of cookery. Subsequently to a meal at which any 
substance fried in butter, or hot buttered toast has been 
made use of, the person often experiences a singular 
kind of dizziness of sight, objects swiftly changing their 
apparent position, and appearing surrounded with lumi- 
nous points and angles. Giddiness succeeds, with head- 
ache and sickness. The same symptoms, or, at least, 
heart-burn, acrid eructations, sickness and oppression 
of stomach, are very liable to be produced by pastry^ 
and various cakes, in the composition of which butter 
or any other species of fat enters : by persons who value 
health and comfortable feelings, such articles will never 
be eaten fresh." 

" As a wholesome aliment (says Dr. Hall) butter 
should be fresh, and free from rancidity, and not fried 
or burnt ; otherwise, the acid being disengaged by age 
and fermentation, as well as by fire, it will disorder qS- 
gestion, render it difficult and painful, excite acrid em- 


130 BUTTER, 

pyreumatic belchings and introduce much acrimony into 
the blood." 

" Butter (says Dr. Whitlaw) is an article in very 
general use throughout the whole of Europe, and con- 
sidered as a wholesome and nutritious substance ; so 
much so, that few persons will admit it can be injurious 
to health, eaten in any quantity, or that its quality, how- 
ever deteriorated, can give rise to severe disease. But 
experience has led me to form a very different estimate 
of its effects on the animal economy ; and I am happy 
to find my opinions corroborated by the testimony of a 
very able physician." 

fn a Dictionary of Medicine, by Dr. Macauly, of 
Edinburgh, on tike use of butter, he observes, that 
" when used as a sauce, or cooked or baked into paste, 
it is in this way that it is too often used to excess ; and 
though it does not produce effects that are immediately 
apparent, it lays the foundation of stomach complaints 
of the greatest obstinacy. Its use is also apt to give 
rise to diseases of the skin very difficult to cure. Per- 
sons laboring under stomach complaints should not use 
much butter, especially when heated, as in buttered 
toast, muffins, &c. ; and those subject to inflammatory 
and gouty affections, should be sparing of the use of 
butter in all its forms. It is a bad part of the manage- 
ment of children to pamper their palates by frequently 
indulging them with butter, as it is apt to give rise to a 
gross and unhealthy habit of body, characterised by the 
frequent appearances of boils and other sores, discharges 
from behind the ears, &c, or eruptions on the head, and 
other parts of the skin. Its inordinate use also occa- 
sions too great fullness of the system ; and in the nu- 
merous nervous and inflammatory diseases of children, 
it is the high fed and plump children that are most fre- 
quently the severest sufferers." 

" Butter (says Dr. Rickeson) when used very hotj 
fried) or in the least burnt, is far from being wholesome ; 
it is very oppressive and unfriendly to the stomach, not 
iinfrequently impairing the faculty of digestion, and oc- 
casioning giddiness, head-ache, and sickness at the 


stomach ; symptoms often, though erroneously, imputed 
to other causes." 


" After the separation of the cream, or oily part, 
from the milk, the remainder spontaneously coagulates 
into a soft, but somewhat consistent mass, in which the 
serous portion of the milk is still contained. Soon, 
however, the coagulum becomes acid, when a separa- 
tion takes place between the curd and the whey. 

" The curd is most generally obtained by artificial 
means. Notwithstanding its nutritive properties, espe- 
cially when it contains a considerable quantity of the 
cream, it is nevertheless much more difficult of digestion 
than fresh milk. The principal form, however, in which 
curd is eaten, is when it has been deprived, by pressure, 
of nearly all the watery parts, and dried — constituting 
the well known substance, cheese. But it is seldom that 
the curd alone is made use of in the manufacture of 
cheese, hence the qualities of this latter differ according 
to the greater or less amount of cream which enters 
into its composition. 

" Cheese made entirely from curd is extremely indi- 
gestible, and adapted only to the most robust stomachs. 
As a general rule, indeed, all kinds of cheese are diffi- 
cult of solution in the stomach, and as an aliment, can, 
with propriety, be made use only by the healthy, the 
strong, and the laborious, especially those who are of 
temperate habits, and are engaged in active employ- 
ments in the open air. We are now speaking of cheese 
in its recent state, or which has been prepared and pre- 
served in such a manner as to undergo but little change. 
In general, however, cheese acquires, with age, new 
properties, becoming more stimulating and less nutri- 
tious. This arises from a spontaneous decomposition 
in it, by which a certain amount of ammonia and some 
other salts are developed. It is this which gives to it 
its peculiar sharpness, and, in some measure, its taste 
and smell. In such condition, cheese can, with, jafety, 

132 CHEESE. 

be made use of only in very small quantities, as a con- 
diment along with other food. The idea entertained by 
many that a portion of old cheese, taken with the des- 
sert, aids digestion, is perfectly absurd. 

" Certain epicures, and individuals of certain northern 
nations, prefer cheese which is advanced very nearly 
into a state of putrefaction. When in this state, there 
can be but one opinion with regard to its pernicious ef- 
fects. Divested almost entirely of its nutritive proper- 
ties, and disgusting at once to the taste and smell of all 
in whom these senses have not been completely vitiated, 
it should be banished by every person from his list of 
eatables; it is fit only for the use of those nations, 
wherever they may exist, whose habitual beverage, we 
are told by a sapient writer, is composed of train oil. 
Almost the same remarks may be made in regard to 
cheese replete with various insects. 

" Cheese, though most commonly used in its raw 
state, is, by many persons, toasted, that is, heated over 
the fire, so that a portion of its oil is separated and 
fried, while Jthe other parts acquire a tougher consist- 
ence. Though we will not say that cheese, thus pre- 
pared, is absolutely indigestible, yet it is so to a very 
great degree, while it is liable to produce painful sensa- 
tions of the stomach, sick head-ache, acrid eructations, 
feverish heat of the skin, and disturbed sleep." 


Butter-milk is well known as the watery sour milk 
separated from cream in the process of churning. If 
perfectly fresh, and procured from milk, the whole of 
which has been employed in churning, it constitutes a 
very cooling and refreshing drink. If drunk, however, 
in large quantities, it is apt to disorder the stomach. 


Honey is a substance collected by bees from the nec- 
torea qC flowers, It is supposed to consist of sugtuy 


mucilage, and an acid. Its effects on some constitutions 
are very peculiar, producing an uneasy sensation in the 
stomach, flatulence, and disorders of the bowels. Like 
other concentrated forms of aliment, it is improperly 
used as food. 


" Happy the man, who, studying nature's laws, 
Through known effects can trace the secret cause : 
He feeds on fruits, which, of their own accord, 
The willing ground and laden trees afford : 
Simple his beverage, homely is his food, 
The wholesome herbage and the running flood." 

That vegetable food is the most wholesome, and the 
best adapted to fulfil the requisitions of nourishment, 
has been already abundantly proved. In the present 
state of society, by far the largest share of vegetable 
food is derived from the farinaceous seeds or grain, 
such as wheat, rye, &c. To be used exclusively, they 
are too nutritious, and hence require to be accompanied 
with potatoes, and other vegetables which contain a 
less amount of nutriment in a given space. From 
analysis, by experienced chemists, it is found that 100 

pounds Of Nutritive matter. 

Wheat, contain 85 lbs. 

Rice, " 90 « 

Rye, " 80 " 

Barley, " 83 " 

French beans, " 92 « 

Peas, " 93 " 

Lentils, " 94 " 

Broad kidney beans " 89 " 

It will be seen from the above table that a very large 
proportion of nutriment is contained in the vegetable 
seeds. The seeds are intended to afford nourishment 
to the young plants that grow from them, and, conse- 
quently, a considerable portion of nutritious matter 
was necessarily crowded in a small space* It will very 
readily occur to the mind that the exclusive use of such 
concentrated aliments would be very unfriendly to the 
digestive powers of the human stomach ; hence 1$$ qgr 


cessity of a due admixture of the farinaceous seeds and 
the less nourishing vegetable substances. By comparing 
the above table with the amount of nutritious matter con- 
tained in the roots and leaves of vegetables, we will per- 
ceive that the seeds contain nearly four times as much 

nutritious matter; 100 pounds Of Nutritive matter. 

Potatoes, contain 25 lbs. 

Beets, " 14 " 

Carrots, " 10 " 

Turnips, " 4 " 

Cabbage, " 7 " 

Greens, " 6 " 

Butcher's meat, averaging the various sorts, contains 
only 351bs. of nutritious matter in a hundred. Those, 
therefore, who adopt the vegetable system, need not be 
apprehensive of starvation, since the majority of vege- 
table substances contain a larger amount of nutriment 
than animal food. 


Of all the farinaceous seeds, the preference is justly 
given to wheat. When manufactured into bread, it has 
long received the appellation of the staff of life. So 
useful and necessary an article of diet is bread, that 
those nations which have no farinaceous seed, make 
something in imitation of, or as a substitute for it. Not- 
withstanding, however, that wheat contains so large a 
proportion of nutritious matter, the ingenuity of man 
has succeeded in divesting so minute a seed of its co- 
vering or bran, and grinding the remainder into a fine 
white flour. Of the injurious tendency of this mode of 
preparing flour, I shall speak hereafter. 

When we consider that nature has furnished us with 
an alimentary canal, six and thirty feet in length, it must 
be obvious that it was designed to fulfil some other more 
important function than the mere change of food into 
chyle. The first six feet of the canal can accomplish 
that object, while the remaining thirty are appropriated 
to the removal of those particles of food from the body 


which are incapable of affording nourishment. Hence 
nature never intended the stomach for the reception of 
highly concentrated food. Indeed, Nature seldom pro- 
duces highly concentrated aliment ; it is generally pre- 
pared by art. Had Nature intended that man should 
have removed the bran from wheat, or the skin from a 
peach or a potato, previous to mastication, would she 
not have provided him with an apparatus suitable to the 
performance of such a duty ? 

Dr. Parwin says, that the art of feeding mankind on 
so small a grain as wheat, appears to have been disco- 
vered, in Egypt, by the immortal Ceres. To the art of 
cultivation wheat is indebted for its nutritive properties. 
Farinaceous seeds are ground in a mill, and, after the 
bran has been removed, the residue is called flour. Flour 
is composed of mucilaginous saccharine matter, conside- 
rable fecula or starch, and' an adhesive gray substance 
called gluten. The mucilaginous saccharine matter is 
composed of gum and sugar ; and the gluten is a gluey 
substance, much resembling an animal substance which 
is the basis of the muscles and other solid parts. All 
vegetables are called farinaceous from which meal or 
flour can be obtained. 


Of wheat bread, there are three varieties ; in the first, 
all the bran is separated ; in the second, only the coarse, 
and, in the third, none at all. The bread, made of flour 
from which all the bran has been separated, is that most 
commonly used, but bread, made of flour from which 
none of the bran has been separated, is the most whole- 
some. Bran operates as a stimulus to the intestinal 
canal, by increasing its peristaltic or worm-like motion, 
and, for this reason, always keeps the bowels open, thus 
obviating the tendency to costiveness produced by the 
use of bread made from superfine flour. The mucilage 
it contains, also soothes the bowels, preventing any irri- 
tation that might result from the particle? or scales of 
bran. _ To those who adopt the vegetable regimen, it 


would be well to say, that the neglect of the " Brown 
Bread," as an accompanying article at their meals, is a 
serious evil, and is, in fact, a breach of the fundamental 
principles upon which the system is founded. 

" The flour of wheat (says Dr. Paris) contains three 
distinct substances; a mucilaginous saccharine matter, 
starchy and a peculiar substance, possessing many of the 
properties of animal matter, termed gluten. The ten- 
dency of starch upon the bowels is astringent. Bread, 
therefore, which is made of the whitest flour is apt to 
render them costive ; but this is counteracted by the 
presence of bran, the scales of which appear to exert a 
mechanical action upon the intestines, and thus to excite 
them into action. I have already stated, that there are 
many bodies which have the power of thus acting upon 
the inner coats of the intestinal canal, and of increasing 
its peristaltic motion." 

" Bread (says Dr. Mease) made from unbolted wheat- 
en flour is to be preferred to white bread." 

" The ancients (says Dr. Scott) considered that 
bread most wholesome and nourishing which was made 
of flour retaining the whole of the bran which is con- 
tained in the wheat. Hence the Greek wrestlers used 
no other bread than that made with coarse unsifted flour, 
and this they considered was so strengthening and nou- 
rishing, that they called a brown loaf coliphium, which 
imports strength of limb. It would be well then if those 
who suffered from irregularity of bowels made use of 
this kind of bread only." 

" In the bran of the wheat (says Dr. Tryon) is an 
oily quality, which is of a sweet, friendly nature. The 
bread made of this mixed with the flour, will not only 
be sweeter, and keep longer moist, but is easier of di- 
gestion — gently loosens the bowels, and, if plentifully 
eaten, will free the passage from gross phlegmy matter, 
and strengthen more than the fine bread." 

" Of the two sorts of bread (says the Art op Long 
Life) viz. the fine white bread, and the coarse brown 
bread, the latter is the most easy of digestion and the 
most nutritive. This is contrary to the general belief 


but is proved by the fact, that a dog fed on the former, 
with water, both at discretion, does not live beyond the 
fiftieth day ; but if fed on coarse bread with water, pre- 
cisely in the same manner, he preserves his health* A 
rabbit or Guinea-pig, fed on the best wheat alone, dies, 
with all the symptoms of starvation, commonly within 
a fortnight, and sometimes sooner." 
" If you set any value on health, and have a mind to 

! preserve nature (says Tryon in his Way to Health, pub- 
ished in 1691) you must not separate the finest from the 
coarsest flour, because that which is fine is naturally of 
an obstructive quality ; but, on the contrary, the other, 
which is coarse, is of a cleansing and opening nature) 
therefore that bread is best which is made of both to- 
gether* It must be confessed that the nutritive quality 
is contained in the fine flour, yet, in the branny part, is 
contained the opening and digestive quality, and there 
is as great a necessity for the one as the other, for the 
support of health. By what has been said, we may 
gather that the eating of fine bread is inimical to health, 
and contrary both to nature and reason ; and was at first 
invented to gratify luxurious persons, who are ignorant 
both of themselves and of the true virtue and efficacy 
of natural things." 

Of the two kinds of bread, the unleavened (a simple 
mixture of meal and water) is preferable, if prepared 
from the unbolted flour ; but that made with the fine white 
flour, such as crackers and pilot-bread, is always of . a 
viscid indigestible nature, unless mixed with butter or 
lard to render it more friable and porous, in which case 
it is still more prejudicial. Bread should not be eaten 
until it is at least twelve hours old. 

" The bread (says Mr. Graham) should not be eaten 
until at least twelve hours after it comes from the oven, 
and it is better at twenty-four hours old ; and if toasted, 
it should not be buttered before it is quite cold : and no 
warm cakes — buckwheat nor any other kind, should be 
brought upon the table at any time*" 

" New bread (says Dr. Turnbull) contains much 
indigestible paste ; and, its fixed air not being entirely 




expelled, it becomes extracted in the stomach, and pro- 
duces flatulence, cramp, and indigestion. This effect is 
easily prevented, either by keeping the bread till stale 
or toasting it." 

" Hot bread (says Dr. Rickeson) is not so healthy as 
cold, being more indigestible, and very apt to clog and 
oppress many people's stomachs: indeed, there have 
been instances of persons being thrown into violent 
colics, and of some who have been thought to have lost 
their lives, by eating hot bread, rolls, or short-cakes, with 
a large portion of stale or rancid butter. Stale bread 
is, also, thought to be more wholesome than that which 
is newly baked. 9 ' 

" Bread (says Dr. Paris) should never be eaten new ; 
in such a state it swells, like a sponge, in the stomach, 
proving very indigestible. Care should also be taken 
to obtain bread that has been duly baked. Unless all 
its parts are intimately mixed, and the fixed air expelled, 
it will be apt, in very small quantities, to produce asces- 
cency and indigestion." 

" New baked bread (says Dr. Willich) always con- 
tains much of an indigestible paste ; whickis remedied, 
either by allowing it to dry for two or th&riE days, or by 
toasting it. Stale bread, in every respect, deserves the 
preference ; and persons troubled with flatulency, cramp 
of the stomach, and indigestion, should not, upon any 
account, eat new bread, and, still less, hot rolls and 

" Bread (says Dr. Mease) should be light, and none 
other must De touched. There is no excuse admissible 
for heavy bread. No wheaten- bread should be eaten 
unless twenty-four hours old. Economy and health 
unite in proscribing fresh bread as an article of diet ; 
for, however palatable, it is highly injurious to the sto- 
mach, and tries its powers more than almost any other 
of the causes of disease. During the years of youth, 
when the natural vigor of the stamina is daily deriving 
an accession of strength, — or, in constitutions enjoying 
greater powers of the stomach than are absolutely re- 
quired for the purposes of digestion, fresh bread may be 


eaten witn impunity for years 5 but I will venture to as- 
sert, that every meal, in which it is taken, will detract 
some little from the powers of that organ ; and that, in 
time, it will show its effects*" 

Besides bread, there are several other preparations in 
which flour is the chief .ingredient, such as pudding, 
short-cake, pancake, &c. Some cakes are rendered 
brittle, or, as it is called, short, by an admixture of su- 
gar, and fat, of butter, and of sugar and starch. When 
it is intended that the cake shall present an exceedingly 
spongy or porous appearance, white of gum, gum water, 
isinglass, and other adhesive substances are employed. 
But all such preparations are more or less injurious ; 
they are only intended to please the palate, while the 
stomach is the Sufferer. 

" The most digestible pudding (says Dr. Paris) is 
that made with bread and boiled ; flour or batter pudding 
is not so easily digested ; and suet pudding is to be con- 
sidered as the most mischievous in the whole catalogue. 
Pancake is objectionable, on account of the process of 
frying imparting a greasiness to which the stomach is 
not often reconciled. All pastry is an abomination." 

u Indeed (says Dr. Willichj all pastry, whatever, is 
unwholesome, especially when hot." 

44 All kinds of bread, rolls, and cakes, (says Dr. 
Rickeson) containing nftich shortening, and the different 
kinds of unfermented pastry are very difficult of diges- 
tion ; and, if eaten hot, particularly offensive to certain 


Rice is very easily digested, but is seldom made into 
bread ; it is generally boiled or stewed. It probably 
nourishes a greater number of human beings, than all 
other grains put together, being the principal food of 
the inhabitants of the East, who use some condiment 
with it, such as curry powder and spice, to obviate its ' 
tendency to confine the bowels. On this latter account 
it should never form the only article eaten at a meal, but 


should be taken in conjunction with potatoes, or some 
less nutritive food. It is, however, a very wholesome 
grain, when used in that way. 


Rye, more than any other grain, is strongly disposed 
to ascescency ; hence it is liable to ferment in the sto- 
mach, and to produce purging, which people, on first 
using it commonly experience. 

Bread made wholly of rye, on account of its dispo- 
sition to ascescency, fermentation, and flatulency, is not 
S roper, at any time, as an article of diet, for those af- 
icted with nervous or dyspeptic symptoms. 

Rye is, at best, a dangerous article to be used in the 
manufacture of bread. It is liable to be diseased by a 
black, curved, morbid excrescence, like the spur of a 
fowl, commonly called ergot or spurred rye. This dis- 
ease appears to be caused by an insect which penetrates 
the grain, feeds on its substance, and deposits a poison 
m its place. 

" Bread which contains some of this poison, neither 
ferments nor bakes well, and is glutinous and nauseous. 
The bread, when eaten, produces intoxication, lassitude, 
a sense of something creeping on the skin, weakness of 
the joints, with convulsive movements occurring peri- 
odically. Of those so affected, some can only breathe 
in an upright posture, some become maniacal, others 
epileptic, or tabid, and some have a thirst not to be 
quenched ; livid eruptions and cutaneous ulcers are not 
uncommon. The disease continues from ten days to 
two or three months or longer.** 

Dr. Whitlaw, who was employed by the Legislature 
to ascertain the cause of the great mortality m New- 
York, in 1811 and 1812, remarks — "When ground 
down with the flour, or used in distillation, it proves a 
mortal poison, and, at times, has proved a pestilential 
scourge to Europe : it has been equally fatal in America, 
and is supposed to have been the chief cause of the 
plague in London. In 1811 and 1812, a great number 


of lives were lost from the spurred rye being used as 
food, and liquor distilled from the rye. The great mor- 
tality was confined to New-York and Vermont. Up- 
wards of twenty thousand victims fell a sacrifice to the 
ravages produced by that dreadful poison." 


It is more than probable that the common maize or 
Indian corn, will, in a great measure, supersede the use 
of wheat Being less nutritious, it is a better article, of 
diet ; the greatest evil, however, attending its use, is, 
that it is seldom eaten unless warm, and then with a 
large quantity of butter. If unbolted Indian meal be 
procured, let it be cooked either as cakes, or hominy, 
and eaten cold, and a more innocent, wholesome grain 
cannot be used. When cooked in the form of cakes, 
and eaten hot, with melted butter, it is apt to produce 
heartburn, acrid eructations, &c. and to aggravate bilious 
disorders. Owing to the comparatively small propor- 
tion of gluten which Indian meal contains, it cannot be 
made into bread unless combined with some other flour. 


This grain constitutes the principal food of the in- 
habitants of Russia, Germany, and Switzerland. In the 
winter season it is much used in the United States. It 
is somewhat liable to ascescent fermentation in the sto- 
mach, and is supposed to occasion itching and cutaneous 
eruptions. Eaten hot, in the form of griddle-cakes, and 
swimming in butter, few articles are more pernicious. 


Barley is a a very wholesome and easily digested 
grain. It is principally used to thicken soup ; and a de- 
coction of it is a favorite drink among the sick. 

Oats are less nourishing, but more stimulating than 
wheat. In Scotland, and in some of the northern «oun- 


ties of England, oats form the chief bread of the inha- 
bitants. Fifty years ago, they constituted the only- 
bread-stuffs of a fourth part of the population of Great* 
Britain. They are a very wholesome grain. 


Both peas and beans, from the great amount of nu- 
triment they contain, are only fit for strong stomachs ; 
in persons of weakly habits, they are liable to fermen- 
tation. Peas require to be well chewed to assist in their 
digestion. They are farinaceous. 

The young green bean is a useful auxiliary to the 
more concentrated forms of food ; but when shelled, 
particularly if it be old, it is very heating, and should 
be used by none but those who take much exercise. In 
weak stomachs, beans are liable to produce flatulency, 
heartburn, and pain in the bowels. 


Chesnuts, it is thought, were the first species of nuts 
used by man. They are farinaceous, containing some 
sugar, and considerable nutriment. They are the best 
articles of the nut kind, if boiled. As a general rule, 
however, all the nut kind, including walnuts, almonds, 
filberts, hazel-nuts, &c. are difficult of digestion, not 
only from their hardness, but the quantity of oil they 
contain, which, by becoming rancid in the stomach, gives 
rise to the most distressing sensations, heartburn, acrid 
eructations, &c. 


Of the many delicious fruits which enrich our or- 
chards, very few are natives of our climate. The great 
majority of them had their origin in Asia, but, by care 
and cultivation, man has succeeded in producing them 
in great perfection, in our colder regions. Of all the 
va^*tie& of aliment, none are so* grateful to the taste, 

FRUITS. 143 

none so refreshing in their season, as ripe fruit. In the 
whole vegetable or animal kingdoms, what luxuries can 
compare with the luscious peach, or the juicy apple ? 
They need no cookery to develope their peculiar sweets. 
At all times and at all seasons they are welcome, and it 
would be far better for mankind if they were more ge- 
nerally used as food at their meals ; instead of which, 
though the stomach be filled to repletion at their stated 
periods of eating, they indulge most largely in the eating 
of fruit between meals, probably to allay the heat and 
thirst produced by their stimulating diet, which they are 
well calculated to effect from their mild subacid and 
juicy composition. They are particularly valuable to 
those who are habitually costive. Fruits should never 
be eaten unless perfectly ripe ; and native fruits are, at 
all times, preferable to those of foreign growth. When 
fresh and ripe fruit disagrees with the stomach, it is evi- 
dent that the body is not in a healthy condition. Those 
who are accustomed to drink fermented liquors are pe- 
culiarly liable to be affected by its use. 

Apples are the most wholesome and the most valuable 
fruit that we possess. If they are very sour, they should 
be boiled, roasted, or baked, by which means much 
saccharine matter is developed. When ripe, they are 
easily digested, and afford a most agreeable repast. The 
common crab-tree is the parent of all the great variety 
of apples now cultivated. 

rears are more delicately flavored than apples, and 
are a very wholesome fruit. The juice of pears, when 
fermented, forms a liquor called perry. 

The Quince is considerably too acid for eating, unless 
well cooked, and rendered sweeter by addition of sugar. 

The Peach is a wholesome and delicious fruit, and 
never, if perfectly ripe, and in moderate quantities, dis- 
agrees with the stomach. 

Apricots, when ripe, are easy of digestion, and are 
considered an agreeable and nutritious delicacy. 

Plums are mildly laxative and nutritious ; but, being 
generally sour, they are used as preserves. When dried, 
and imported, they are called prunes* 

144 FRUITl, 

Cherries are rather more difficult to digest than the 
other fruits, and should be eaten in moderation, par- 
ticular care being taken to masticate them properly. 

The Persimmon is a well-known fruit of an astringent 
nature, which grows in great abundance in the southern 
and western states. 

Of foreign fruits we have the orange, the lemon, the 
pine-apple, date, prune, cocoa-nut, &c. They are not 
as wholesome as our native fruits, being more particu- 
larly adapted to the warm climates in which they are 

The Water-melon is a very cooling and refreshing fruit 
in the summer-months ; but, being of a watery nature, 
it very soon ferments in the stomach, and, if eaten in 
large quantities, is followed by diarrhoea, cholera, &c. 

The Musk-melon is a very delicious fruit, but is ob- 
noxious to some constitutions, bringing on spasnjs, 
colics, &c. For this reason, many people eat them with 
pepper, salt, and other spices. < 

The Cucumber belongs to the same class of fruits, 
and is decidedly one of the most pernicious and dan- 
gerous articles of diet in common use. It is eaten in 
a green and unripe state, which alone would constitute 
a serious objection to its use. It contains an acrid 
principle, which is very unfriendly to health ; it is quite 
destitute of any nourishing qualities, and is scarcely 
soluble in the stomach: and yet, this unripe, watery, 
indigestible production is esteemed a luxury. All who 
value health and comfortable feelings will find it to their 
advantage to avoid the cucumber. 

Pumpions are a well-known, innocent, and wholesome 
fruit, in great favor with Americans, constituting one of 
the best vegetables for making pies. 

Of strawberries, gooseberries, raspberries, blackberries, 
grapes, Sfc. it is unnecessary to say much ; they are all 
more or less cooling and aperient, and, if ripe, are per- 
fectly innocent and wholesome. 

Dried fruits, such as raisins and Jigs, from the great 
miantities of saccharine matter which they contain, 
should be used moderately* Dried apples and peaches, 


stewed with sugar, are agreeable and wholesome addi- 
tions to the table. 

Whatever fruit is eaten uncooked, should be sound, 
fresh} and ripe* 

Vegetable root£. 

. The Potato is a farinaceous root* and one of the most 
invaluable vegetables in our possession. It is a native 
of Peru, and was first brought into Europe, by Sir 
Francis Drake, in I486. Its introduction, as an article 
of food,- " received, for more than two centuries, an un- 
exampled opposition from vulgar prejudice, which all the 
philosophy of the age was unable to dissipate, until 
Louis XV* of France, wore a bunch of the .flowers of 
the potato in the midst of his court on a day of fes- 
tivity ; the people, fhen> for the first time, obsequiously > 
acknowledged its ^usefulness* and its cultivation, a* an 
article of food, soon became, universal." It is, at pro* 
sent, held in high estimation all over Europe, and in this 
country. It is the principal food of the Irish peasantry 
and of the Lazzaroni <of Naples. Without any addition 
but salt, it affords a most agreeable repast, and is the. 
best substitute for bread. It has not the disadvantage, 
of being too nutritious, and, if properly cooked, ltf 
easily digested. The proper mode of cooking potatoes 
is but litfle understood by the majority of people : they 
should be boiled, without paring their skins, until they 
are thoroughly cooked ; the water must then be poured 
off, and the potatoes again set oyer the fire, a sufficient 
length of time to dry them : they should neither be de*. 
prived of their skins nor mashed — in either case they 
are more difficult of digestion. The young potato i*, 
not so digestible as the old, and should be avoided. 

. The Sweet Potato is more nutritious, and pej&aps, a?; 
wholesome a vegetable as the common potato \ ., 
Beets contain much of the saccharine principle ; they* 
are easy of digestion and very nutritious. 

Carrots are not easily digested, and often disagree 
with weak stomachs, and those of a bilious habit. u 



Parsnips are sweet and nutritious, and m high esteem 
as articles of food. 

Turnips are mildly laxative, softening, and cleansing, 
and, on the whole, are accounted salubrious. If not 
well cooked, however, they are apt to prove flatulent. 

Onions are acrid and stimulating, and posses very little 
nutriment. Dr. Cuixen says r that they generally pro- 
dace flatulency, thirst, head-ache, and febrile symptoms, 
in those of bilious constitutions. They communicate 
a very disagreeable fetor to the breath 

Garlick is nearly allied to the onion in its general 
qualities. This root has a pungent acrimonious taste, 
and a peculiarly offensive strong smell. The odor of 
this root is very diffusive; so much so, that the urine, 
perspiration, milk, &c of those who eat it are strongly 
impregnated with its volatile particles. As an article of 
diet, it is still more prejudicial than the onion. 

The Radish is an extremely pungent root, not very 
nutritious, and difficult of digestion. If eaten at all, it 
should be eaten with salt to correct its bad properties. 

The Horse-Radish is a powerful and acrid stimulant, 
th$ odor of which is highly volatile and pungent. It id 
only used as a condiment, but, in the smallest quantities, 
it is prejudicial. 


Cabbage is a vegetable very difficult to digest, con 
taining an inferior amount of nutriment, and so much 
disposed to fermentation, that even a moderate quantity 
Will produce flatulencies in persons of sedentary habits. 

Lettuce is a garden vegetable containing very little 
nourishment, and has been supposed to contain a prin- 
ciple somewhat resembling that obtained from opium ; 
it is soporific, and has been recommended to those who 
pass; steeplees nights. 

Spinach and Sorrel are much used as greens. They 
serve, in some measure, to correct the bad effects re- 
sulting from a too full diet of animal food during the 
summer months. 

SOUP — TEA 14? 

. Celery, Parsley, and, Water Cresses, are gently ape- 
rient and carminative; as such they may be useful to 
correct the bad properties of flatulent vegetables. 

Asparagus is esteemed a luxury in many parts, but it 
contains very little nutriment ; all vegetables, however, 
of that description may be judiciously combined with 
those containing much nutriment in a small space. 


All decoctions of animal food, composed, as they 
mostly are, of very heterogeneous substances, are far 
from being healthy articles of diet. Watery food, inr 

general, is difficult of digestion, and the nourishment 
erived from soups, is performed with much labor to 
the stomach. 


The tea-tree is a narcotic plant, produced in great 
abundance in China and Japan. The leaves are ga- 
thered at different seasons of the year ; and hence it 
has been supposed that the varieties of Tea called green 
are gathered before the leaves are fully ripe, and the 
black when they are matured. However this may be* 
it is certain that green tea is much more injurious in its 
effects than black. 

Tea is a luxury of modern times. It was first intro- 
duced into Europe by the Dutch, in the year 1610. It 
was imported from Holland into England, in 1666, by 
the lords Arlington and Ossory ; soon after which then? 
ladies brought it into fashion among people of distinct 
tiom At that time it sold in London for thirteen dollars 
per pound, although it only cost eighty-eight cents- at 
Batavia* It maintained that enormous price, with very 
little variation, for nearly fifty years longer : black bo* 
hea was the only tea then used. Toward the year 1715 
green tea came into pretty general use, and in the yea* 
1776 nearly 6,000,000 of pounds were consumed in 
Great Britain* They now consume 23,000,000 annually* 

148 TEA. 

The late Dr. Cullen haa experimented upon its nar- 
cotic qualities, pronouncing it deleterious as an article 
of diet ; adducing, in proof, that the increase of nervous 
diseases, according to . the bills of mortality, has cor- 
responded annually, throughout Europe, with the in- 
creased consumption of tea. Other physicians have 
maintained the same opinion, while others have beep 
loud in its praise. It has only been in use among the 
common people during the last fifty or sixty years. 

Tea is a stimulating, narcotic, astringent, and aro- 
matic infusion ; its activity depends upon its fragrant 
volatile principle. It increases and aggravates all ner- 
vous disorders ; it produces palsies, tremors, dropsies, 
and a host of other diseases, which are making rapid 
strides toward reducing our population into a fretful, 
peevish, and hypochondriacal class of people. 

44 It is difficult (says Dr. Eickbson) to account for so 
general use of an article brought so far, unless it be im- 
puted to a predilection for foreign things, and to mere 
custom or fashion ; for, it will be admitted, that tea pos- 
sesses no very nutritious qualities, nor any very agree- 
able taste, more than may be ascribed to its constant 
and habitual use ; it being now established upon un- 
doubted authority, that all the different kinds are die 
produce of one and the same plant ; and that the differ* 
erice depends only on the soil, time of gathering, and 
method of preparing it. 

44 It is supposed that tea contains a volatile, cordial, 
or reviving principle ; which, if admitted, is nothing in 
favor of its wholesomeness for common use j for powers 
of a stimulant nature, when long continued, are sure to 
be followed by ai* atonic or debilitated state of the 
the stomach ; and, finally, of the whole constitution." 

44 Tea, (says Dr. PfiReivAt) when received into the 
jgtomach, is highly debilitating and relaxing, and the im- 
moderate use of it is attended with' the most pernicious 
effects. It ip curious to observe the tevolution which 
hath taken place, within this centuty, in the constitutions 
of the people of Europe. Inflammatory diseases more 
jwely occur ; and, in general, are much less rapid and 

TEA. 149 

violent in their progress, than formerly. This advanta- 
geous change, however, is more than counterbalanced 
by the introduction of a numerous class of nervous ail- 
ments, in a great measure unknown to our ancestors ; 
but, which now prevail universally, and are complicated 
with almost every other distemper. The bodies of men 
are enfeebled and enervated ; and it is not uncommon 
to observe very high degrees of irritability, under the 
external appearance of great strength and robustness. 
The hypochondria, palsies, cachexies, dropsies, and all 
those diseases which arise from laxity and debility, are, 
in our days, endemic every where ; and the hysterics, 
which used to be peculiar to the women, as the name 
itself indicates, now attacks both sexes indiscriminately. 
It is evident that so great a revolution could not be ef- 
fected without the concurrence of many causes ; but, 
among th^se, I apprehend, the present general use of 
tea, holds the first and principal rank. The second 
place may, perhaps, be allotted to excess in spirituous 
liquors. This pernicious custom, in many instances at 
least, owes its rise to the former ; which, by the lowness 
and depression of spirits it occasions, renders it almost 
necessary to have recourse to what is cordial and ex- 
hilerating. And hence, proceed those odious and dis- 
graceful habits of intemperance, with which too many 
of the softer sex, are now, alas ! chargeable. 

44 Green tea is much, more sedative and relaxing than 
bohea ; and the finer the species of tea the more debili- 
tating and pernicious are its effects, as I have observed 
in others, and experienced in myself." 

44 A moderate use f says Dr. Willich) of fermented 
or distilled spirituous liquors, is far less prejudicial to the 
constitution, than the habitual and excessive drinking of 
warm liquors. Tea, the common favorite among all 
ranks, if taken regularly twice a-day, and in large quan- 
tities, is attended with bad consequences. It thoroughly 
relaxes the coats of the stomach, weakens the bowels, 
predisposes them to flatulency, upon the least occasion, 
and destroys all the energy of the digestive organ. The 
relaxation which tea occasions in the first passages, ren- 


ders it peculiarly hurtful to females of lax fibres, a thin 
blood, and irritable habits. To enumerate the great 
diversity of nervous symptoms, attending its abuse, in 
such constitutions, would lead me too far from the pre- 
scribed limits ; but so much is certain, that the vapors, 
arising from liquors, drunk very hot, like tea, weaken the 
lungs, and dispose their votaries to frequent colds and 
catarrhs, which readily make a transition into consump- 
tions. Hypochondriac and hysteric people, however, 
are much deceived in the efficacy of tea, as a diluent 
drink; for all the evils -arising from relaxation, a weak 
stomach, and flatulency, under which such persons usu- 
ally labor, are, by the habit of drinking tea, increased 
to a most alarming degree. The cold stomach, which 
they propose to warm by it, is a mere phantom of the 
brain ; for this sensation of cold is nothing but relaxa- 
tion, which, instead of being removed by hot liquors, is 
increased by every repetition of them. 

44 It would be a great proof of patriotic spirit, in this 
country, if the use of this exotic drug were either alto* 
gather abandoned, or, at least, supplied by some indige- 
nous plants of equal flavor and superior salubrity. It 
would, undoubtedly, be more conducive to our health, if 
we would altogether dispense with the use of warm li- 
quors, at least when in a healthy state." 

44 All nervous disorders (says Dr. Lease) are aggra- 
vated by the use of tea : and it is equally unfit for chil- 
dren, and those of lax fibres, especially the first, whose 
fluids bear a much larger proportion to the solids of the 
body than in adults." 

44 Tea (says Dr. Buchan) will induce a total change 
of constitution in the people of this country. Indeed, 
it has gone a great way toward effecting that evil already. 
A debility, and consequent irritability of fibre, are be- 
come so- common* that not only women, but even men 
are affected with them. That class of diseases, which, 
for want of a better name, we call nervous, has made 
almost a complete conquest of the one sex, and is making 
hasty strides toward vanquishing the other. Did women 
kllfrw the train of diseases induced, by debility, and how 

TEA. 151. 

disagreeable those diseases render them to the other sex, 
they would shun tea as the most deadly poison." 

" Avoid (says Dr. Willich) the excessive use of hot 
drinks, such as coffee, chocolate, and tea, particularly 
the last, in which the inhabitants of this country indulge 
more than in any other beverage. I scarcely dare ven- 
ture to impeach this favorite solace of our morning and 
evening hours ; but, with all due deference to the happi- 
ness of the domestic circle, I consider it my duty to de- 
nounce the too liberal use of this liquor as not a little 
prejudicial to the fairness and purity of the skin. Tea, 
taken hot, and in immoderate quantities, not only has a 
tendency to weaken the organs of digestion, but causes 
fluctuations and congestions in the humors of the face, 
and frequently brings on a degree of debilitating per- 
spiration. If the tea be made too weak, it will operate 
merely as warm water, and, as such, relax the coat and 
membranes of the stomach ; if made too strong, it will 
give an unnatural heat to the body, prove a dangerous 
stimulus to the nerves, occasion palpitations of the heart, 
a general tremor, cramps, and a number of other com- 
plaints, which it is needless to enumerate. That these 
effects do not take place during the first months or yearn 
of indulging ourselves in the intemperate use of strong 
hot tea, is no argument to controvert the position ; they 
will, either sooner or later, unavoidably follow." 


Nothing certain is known with regard to the first use 
of coffee. It is said that an Arabian goa£-herd first ob- 
served that his kids appeared extremely lively after 
browsing under the tree, so much so, that they were 
wakeful and capering all the night after. He mentioned 
this circumstance to the prior of a neighboring monas- 
tery ; the prior deemed it a lucky opportunity to try its 
effects upon the monks, who were all apt to be nodding 
at their morning prayers. It was next resorted to by 
some Mahomedan dervishes, to keep them a* uke all 
night while at their devotions. From Mecca, it found 


its way into Cairo. Thevenot, the French traveller, im- 
ported it from Persia into France. The Greek servant 
of an English Turkey merchant, introduced it into En- 
gland, where he opened a house for the sale of it. The 
coffee-plant is a native of Arabia Felix. 

Coffee is an astringent, stimulating, narcotic* and aro- 
matic beverage. The berry possesses a peculiar bitter 
principle ; but the nature of its fragrant volatile proper* 
ties, developed by roasting, has not been ascertained* 
Strong coffee produces sleeplessness, acidity of the sto- 
mach, dyspepsy, tremors, and paralytic affections, dis*- 
ordering the skin, and causing troublesome eruptions. 
Slare affirms that he became paralytic by the too liberal 
use of coffee, and that his disorder was removed by ab- 
stinence from that liquor. Celsius, the celebrated 
Swedish astronomer and natural philosopher, destroyed 
himself by the excessive use of coffee. Voltairk 
became nervous, and reduced himself to a mere skeleton 
by this indulgence. It was formerly found that tea wag* 
the principal agent in producing nervous disorders, but 
since strong coffee has partially superseded the use of 
tea, universal complaints are brought against this new 
enemy and destroyer of health and life. 

" It is rare (says Dr. Rickeson) to see great and 
constant drinkers of strong tea and coffee, somewhat 
advanced in life, who have not some symptoms of weak- 
ness, tremors, or indigestion : wherefore, it is judged, 
that the great number and increase of paralytic, nervous, 
and hypochondriac disorders, are, in part, to be attri- 
buted to the frequent and excessive use of those articles, 
drunk in a hot and strong state. 

" In delicate habits (says Dr. Percivai,) coffee often 
occasions watchfulness, tremors, and many of those 
complaints which are denominated nervous. It has even 
been suspected of producing palsies ; and, from my own 
observation, I should apprehend not entirely without 
foundation. " 

" If drunk too strong (says Dr. Willich) it affects 
the nerves ; and, by its penetrating property, often occa- 
sions tremors of the hands and sleeplessness ; but, in> 

cnocoLATr. 153 

some phlegmatic and indolent individuals, it is apt to 
excite sleep. 

" An immoderate use, however, of this decoction, is 

{irejudicial to the healthy, and destructive to the diseased* 
t debilitates the latter still more by causing great undu- 
lations in the blood, tremor of the limbs, giddiness, $nd 
a certain insupportable timidity. It leads people of a 
sanguine temperament, and particularly females, to the 
long train of fashionable nervous diseases." 


Chocolate is a kind of cake, or hard paste, com- 
posed of the ground pulp of the cacao nut, vanilla, flour* 
eggs, and arnatto, a dying drug of South America* 
Mixed with water, these ingredients are formed into a 
paste, and, while hot, are put into tin moulds, and soon 
congeal. As a drink, chocolate cannot be recommend- 
ed ; its nutriment is too concentrated, and it coptsins 
an oil difficult of assimilation. The cacao-nut makes a 
preferable infusion, but stffl, there is no drink *o vaJuap- 
ble as pure, soft w^ter. 

I 'I 1 ■!■ ! 


No greater curse could have been inflicted upon SO* 
ciety than the introduction of fermented and distilled 
liquors. The substitution of these beverages for pure 
water, is a most deplorable evil to mankind j and QUr 
daily conviction of its tendency should urge us to be 
unremitting in our efforts to check the wide-spread apd 
overwhelming progress of intemperate habits* 

The misery and crime which have sprung from tjiis 
source alone, is without example. Murders, robberies, 
and criminal indulgences, naturally result. Poverty fifts 
increased with fearful rapidity; and none but the suf- 
ferers themselves can realize the loathsome horrors of 
a drunkard's home. Not one solitary benefit springs 
from the nse of fermented or distilled liquors. How* 
many evils flow from it r let our criminal calenders, oy* 


poor-house records, and our physicians' diaries, exhibit 
to the world. 

In the present volume, I have not space enough to 
exhibit the baneful effects of these liquors to the extent 
that they should be depicted. Were all the facts de- 
tailed that are known at present, every rational man 
would shun the social glass with horror, if not to pre- 
serve his own health, at least to discountenance a prac- 
tice which is the parent of so much vice and wretched- 
ness. Rather than swell the volume into a larger size 
than first proposed, I must remain contented with a 
simple outline of the present section. 

Under the head of fermented liquors, I shall treat of 
Wine. Fermented liquors and distilled liquors are con- 
sidered under different heads, because Wines are the 
simple product of fermentation, whereas distilled liquors, 
or ardent spirits, are Wines divested of their saccharine 
and mucilaginous properties. ' 

Chemists give the name of Wine to all liquors that 
contain alcohol as the result of fermentation. Thus, 
beer, cider, mead, &c. are Wineg. 

Alcohol, it is well known, is the intoxicating ingre- 
dient of all liquors, whether vinous or spirituous. The 
relative strength, or power to produce drunkenness, de- 
pends upon the quantity of alcohol which a liquor con- 
tains. Wine may be procured from all vegetables that 
contain sugar ready formed, as the sap of trees, the 
juices of plants, and all ripe succulent fruits. The 
strongest Wines are obtained from the juice of grapes. 
When newly expressed, and before it has begun to fer- 
ment^ this juice is called must; it will not then produce 
intoxication: but it contains a very large quantity of 
sugar, which undergoes decomposition, and two new 
compounds are formed, one of which is alcohol, arid the 
Other carbonic acid. Sugar is composed of carbon, oxy- 
gen, and hydrogen; 45 parts of sugar are capable of 
furnishing 23 parts of alcohol and 22 parts of carbonic 
acid. During fermentation, the sugar is decomposed : 
that is, its elements, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, sepa- 
rate from each other. A portion of the carbon and oxygen 


unite, forming carbonic acid; while the remainder of the 
carbon and oxygen, together with the whole of the Ay- 
drogen, unite with each other and form alcohol. The 
juice of the grapes, however, contains other ingredients 
besides sugar, such as tannin, or the astringent princi- 
ple, together with various salts and acids. These, and 
the alcohol, constitute Wine. When these ingredients 
are removed from the Wine, by distillation, we have ar- 
dent spirits. Every hundred gallons of ardent spirits is 
composed of 53 gallons of alcohol, and 47 gallons of 
water. And a huijdred gallons of pure Madeira wine, 
contains 22 gallons of alcohol, and 78 of mucilage, 
acids, water, &c. but, most generally, a larger quantity 
of alcohol is added to the wine, to preserve it from 
spoiling. Here we see that the difference between ar- 
dent spirits and wines is owing to the larger quantity of 
alcohol which one of them contains. A single ounce 
of pure alcohol will extinguish life instantaneously ; how 
injurious must those articles be, which contain so large 
a proportion of it, when daily used. 

The strongest wines, such as Lissa, Madeira, and 
Port, contain from 20 to 25 gallons of pure alcohol in 
every hundred gallons of the wine. Cider, 8 gallons, 
and Beer, 6 gallons. In the same proportion that they 
contain alcohol are they to be avoided. 

" Wine and other intoxicating liquors, when used in 
small quantities, quicken the action of the heart and 
arteries ; but in proportion as this state is more or less 
frequently induced, do we sooner or later exhaust the 
vital powers. The best medical writers testify that the 
moderate use of fermented liquors is not only unneces- 
sary, but is decidedly injurious to persons in health ; and 
the degree of injury inflicted on the constitution is pro- 
portioned to the strength, of the liquor and the frequency 
of its use." 

44 Wine (says Dr. Rickeson) is a powerful stimulant, 
the loop continued use of which rarely fails to induce 
debility. Hence great wine-drinkers, somewhat ad- 
vanced in life, are generally low spirited, and often af* 
flicted with & long train of hypochondriacal symptoms, 


and incurable diseases, particularly the gout. Those 
who indulge in wine and strong liquors, are, also, often 
afflicted with that painful and excruciating disorder, the 

Eavel, which rarely yields to the power of any medicine 
therto discovered." 

" Though spirit (says Dr. Carrick) is the most per- 
nicious liquor, being the strongest and most concentrated 
poison, all other strong liquors, — wine, beer, cider, &c. 
are injurious in proportion to their strength or the quan- 
tity of alcohol they contain. Madeira, Sherry, and Port, 
contain nearly half their bulk of brandy. The man 
who drinks his bottle of wine, drinks a pint of brandy 
in it ; and the lady who takes two or three glasses of 
wine at dimmer, swallows half a glass of brandy in each 
of them. There are whole nations where fermented 
liquors are unknown or not used ; yet, in those countries, 
there are laborious occupations, and strong and healthy 
people — an irresistible proof that such liquors are not 
necessary for man." 

*Tbe copious use of wine, (says Dr. Willich) 
ihoqgb not to the degree of inebriation, is yet exceed- 
ingly debilitating to the stomach, as it checks digestion, 
ang excites diarrhoea, if white wine, and obstructions, 
if port wine be the favorite liquor : it makes the fibres 
dry and rigid, and the pbeeks and the whole surface of 
the body turn sallow-~a synmtom of bad digestion : the 
powers of the body and mind are enfeebled, and dropsy 
or gout ; or sudden death, are the consequences/ 1 

"If the diseases (says Dr* Bell) produced by excess 
in wine drinking, be less violent and acute than those 
from ardent spirit, they aire in greater number, and more 
complicated in the first than the latter case. The ardent 
spirit drunkard, if he survive the first shocks given to 
his constitution, may sometimes, though rarely, attain to 
an old age, in the tolerable enjoyment of his faculties. 
The tippler in wine subjects himself to such a complexity 
of diseases, that he sinks under them, in the shape of 
gout, dropsy, or inflammation of the brain : or if he sur-> 
yWe for any number of years, his life may be called ^ 
J6% disease— gout, or rheuipatism, or gravel." 



*< The idea (says Dr. Garnet) that wine and other 
spirituous liquors assist digestion is false. Those who 
are acquainted with Chemistry know that food is har- 
dened and rendered less digestible by this means." 

"The lesser quantity of fermented liquors (says Dr. 
Fothergill) we accustom ourselves to, the better* 
People cannot be too cautious to shun the first glass." 

" Vinous liquor (says Dr. Beddoes) acts as a two- 
edged sword. By its first operation it promotes indi- 
gestion ; its second depends upon the change into vine- 
gar which wine, however genuine, always undergoes in 
the stomach." 

" It is often proposed (says Dr. Harris) to substitute 
for ardent spirits, either vinous or malt liquors, as being 
♦less injurious. It should be recollected, however, that 
alcohol is contained in, and is the principle of, all intoxi- 
cating drinks." 

" when a man (says Dr. Darwjw) who has not been 
accustomed to strong liquors, drinks a quart of wine 6? 
ale, he loses the use of his limbs and understanding ; 
he becomes a temporary idiot; and though he slowly 
recovers, is it not reasonable to conclude that the peiv 
petual repetition of so powerful a poison must at length 
permanently affect him r" 

" Fermeiited liquors (says Dr. Hall) keep up a con- 
stant fever, which exhausts the spirits, heats and inflames 
the blood, disposes to numberless diseases, and occa- 
sions a premature old age* Liquors that are adulterated 
with a mixture of ingredients of the opiate kind, which 
are poisonous in their quality, hurt the nerves, i&lax 
and weaken the stomach, and, in a short tinje, spoil its 
digestive powers." , 

" Many of the habits of civilized society (says Dr. 
Armstrong) at once tend to produce chronic diseases 
pf the arterial system ; but, fcmong the most common 
causes of these diseases, may be enumerated the use of 
ardent spirits among the lower classes, and of wine and 1 
rich diets among the higher." 

" Wine (says an eminent author) raises the imagina- 
tion, but depresses the judgment. He that resigns his 


reason is guilty of every thing he is liable to in the ab- 
sence of it. A drunken man is the greatest monster in 
human nature, and the most despicable character in 
human society ; this vice has very fatal effects on the 
mind, the body, and the fortune of the person who is 
devoted to it : "as to the mind, it discovers every flaw in 
it ; it add* fury to the passions, and force to the objects 
that are apt to inflame them. Wine often turns the 
jpx>d~n*tured man into an idiot, and the choleric man 
into an assassin ; it gives bitterness to resentment, makes 
vanity insupportable,, and displays -every little spot of 
the soul in its utmost deformity/* 

D*. Hauler abstained from wine from an early pe- 
riod of his life ; his only beverage was water ; and he 
delighted to represent the unfitness of the climate of 
Berne for the culture of the grape, as a signal advantage 
conferred by nature on his country. 

" From the time at which Dr. Darwin first came to 
Litchfield, he avowed a conviction of the pernicious ef- 
fects of all vinous fluid on the youthful and healthy 
constitution ; an absolute horror of spirits of all sorts, 
and however diluted." 

44 One of the first indications of mischief (says Dr. 
Beddoes) from wine taken habitually in moderate quan- 
tity, when it may be supposed to act as a restorative, is 
a sense of dissatisfaction and being ill at ease expe- 
rienced some hours afterwards. The young and sparing 
votary of Bacchus cannot be expected to present the 
Moated form and scarlet countenance ; or to tremble all 
over on first rising, and exhibit to every spectator, in a 
lack-lustre eye and cheerless morning visage, the effects 
of his evening's libations. But what the veteran drinker 
is unable to conceal, the other will be sensible of in a 
proportionate degree. He will probably awake hot, 
restless, and heavy. The early sun will sfcem an intruder. 
He will shake off his drowsiness reluctantly, dress with 
langour, and be indifferent about food. The mouth will 
feel clammy, and the stomach uneasy until revived by a 
morning dram, or the stimulant operation of warm tea 
or coffee. After stretching and yawning till the limbs 


are properly awake, he will eagerly close with any 
scheme which promises to raise emotions, or to relieve 
that listlessness which dinner and the circulation of the 
glass are required completely to dissipate-" 

Beer, according to Herodotus, was invented by the 
Egyptians. Tacitus mentions that it was in use among 
the Germans, in ancient times ; and Moses, also, speaks 
of inebriating liquors, drunk by the Hebrews, which it 
is supposed were beer. 

Beer is made from malt and hops. Barley, or some 
other grain, is steeped for two or three days in water ? 
the water is then drained off, and the barley spread upon 
the floor about two feet thick, where a spontaneous heat 
is generated, and the barley begins to grow, by shooting 
out its roots. The process of germination is then 
stopped, by spreading the grain thinner, and, by the 
subsequent operations, it is converted into malt. -The 
malt is then ground in a mill, and subjected to a process 
called mashing^ and a liquor procured which is termed 
sweet wort. This liquor is boiled with hops, and then 
cooled in shallow vessels, where it is suffered to ferment: 
the fermented liquor is beer. 

There are few liquors manufactured which are subject t 
to worse adulterations than beer. The pernicious ef- 
fects of such beer must be very manifest, when we con- 
sider that most of the adulterating ingredients are poi- 
sonous substances. Quassia, wormwood, cocculus 
indicus, hartshorn shavings, Spanish juice, orange pow- 
der, ginger, grains of paradise, opium, liquorice, henbane, 
cherry laurel, copperas, capsicum, and mixed drugs, are 
some of the substances seized from the London brewers, 
as appears from the records of the House of Commons. 
Sulphate of iron, alum, salt, and extract of gentian root, 
are added, by some of the publicans, to give a frothy 
appearance to beer when poured from one vessel to 
another .; this is called beer heading. Sulphuric acid is 
often added, to give new beer a taste resembling that 
which is 18 months old. Various other articles, such - 
as capsicum, coriander seed, ginger root, and orange 
peel, are frequently employed to give pungency and 


flavor to bad beer. Mr. Accum says, that the present 
entire beer of the London brewer is composed of all the 
waste and spoiled beer of the publicans, the bottoms of 
buts, the leavings of the pots, the drippings of the ma- 
chines for drawing the beer, the remnants of beer that 
lay in the leaden pipes of the brewery, with a portion 
of brown stout, bottling beer, and mild beer. He says 
that opium, tobacco, nux vomica, and extract of poppies, 
have been likewise used to adulterate beer. 

Beer contains about 7 per cent, of alcohol, when un- 
adulterated. . It possesses narcotic properties, which 
are, most probably, imparted by the hops. Many me- 
dical writers have spoken loudly against its use, some 
of which testimony deserves consideration. 

" Malt liquors, (says Dr. Macnish) under which title 
we include all kinds of porter and ales, produce the 
worst species of drunkenness, as, in addition to the in- 
toxicating principle, some noxious ingredients are usually 
added, for the purpose of preserving them, and giving 
them their bitter. The hop of these fluids is highly 
narcotic, and brewers often add other substances to 
heighten its effects, such as hyoscyamus (or henbane,) 
opium, belladona (or deadly nightshade) cocculus Indi- 
ces (a poisonous Indian berry,) lauro cerasus (cherry 
laurel,) &c. Malt liquors, therefore, act in two ways 
upon the body, partly by the alcohol they contain, and 
partly by the narcotic principle. In addition to this, the 
-fermentation which they undergo is much less perfect 
than that of spirits or wine. After being swallowed, 
this process is carried on in the stomach, by which 
fixed air is copiously liberated, and the digestion of 
delicate stomachs materially impaired. 

" Persons addicted to malt liquors increase enor- 
mously in bulk. They become loaded with fat : their 
chin gets double or triple, the eye prominent, and the 
whole face bloated and stupid. Their circulation is 
clogged, while their pulse feels like a cord, and is full 
. and laboring, but not quick. During sleep the breathirig 
is; stertorous. Every thing indicates an excess of blood, 

" ie blood, in such cases, is more dark and sizy than in 


the others. In seven cases out of ten, malt liquor 
drunkards die of apoplexy or palsy. If they escape 
this hazard, swelled liver or dropsy carries them off. 

" The effects of malt liquors on the body, if not so 
immediately rapid as those of ardent spirits, are more 
stupifying, more lasting, and less easily removed. The 
last are particularly prone to produce levity and mirth, 
but the first have a stunning influence upon the brain. 
and, in a short time, render dull and sluggish the gayest 
disposition. They also produce sickness and vomiting 
more readily than either spirits or wine." 

" Malt liquors (says Dr. Buchan) render the blood 
sizy and unfit for circulation : hence proceed obstruc- 
tions and inflammation of the lungs. There are few 
great beer-drinkers who are not phtisical — brought oh 
by the glutinous and indigestible nature of strong ale. 
Those who drink ardent spirits, or wine, run still greater 
hazard : these liquors inflame the blood, and tear the 
tender vessels of the lungs to pieces." 

" Strong beer (says Dr. Beecher) has no power to 
allay intemperate habits : it will finish what ardent spirits 
has begun, with this difference — that it does not rasp the 
organs with quite so keen a file, and enables the victims 
to come down to the grave with more of the good-na* 
tured stupidity of the idiot, and less of the demoniac 
phrenzy of the madman. Wine has been prescribed 
as a means of decoying the intemperate from the ways 
of death, but habit cannot thus be cheated out of its 

" A very considerable proportion (saysDfc, Johnson) 
of the middling and higher ranks of society, as well as 
the lower classes, commit serious depredations cm their 
constitutions, when they believe themselves sober citi- 
zens, and totally abhor debauch. This is by drinking 
ale, or other malt liquors, to a degree far short of in- 
toxication, indeed, yet, from long habit, producing a 
train of effects that embitter the ulterior periods of ex- 
istence. Corpulency, obesity, hebetude, vertigo, apo- 
plexy, and other affections of the head, are known to 
result from the abundant use of malt liquors ; but it & 



not generally suspected that they have a peculiar ten- 
dency, independently of the adulterations which too 
often enter into their composition, to produce effusions 
of water in the cavities of the chest, and to predispose 
to those numerous organic affections of the heart itself, 
which, of late years, have forced themselves on our at- 
tention beyond any thing known in former periods* 

" Malt liquors assuredly give a greater degree of ful- 
ness to the blood-vessels than any other species of drink, 
while, in common with the latter, they paralyze the ab- 
sorbent system, and render torpid many of the salutary 
secretions. The heart is thus called upon for unusual 
exertions, which eventually injure its function or struc- 
ture ; while the equilibrium between exhalation and ab- 
sorption on the serous membrane of the chest is de- 
ranged, and dropsical effusions in the pericardium or 
bags of the pleura, ensue. 

" The beer-bibber, then, has probably little reason to 
exult over the dram-drinker. If he escapes ascites, 
(dropsy of the abdomen) he runs the risk of hydrotho- 
rax (water of the chest), a much worse disease ! If he 
have an immunity from disorders of the liver, he becomes 
predisposed to derangements of the heart ! If he expe- 
rience not emaciation and tremors, he too often becomes 
overloaded with fat, and dies apoplectic ! If he be not 
so liable to maniacal paroxysms of fury, from the fire 
of ardent spirits, his intellectual faculties become sod- 
den, as it were, and stupidity ensues." 

Cider, and other fermented liquors, modified by the 
various salts and acids which enter into their composi- 
tion, are deleterious in proportion to the quantity of al- 
cohol which they contain. Soda water and other drinks, 
whose pungency is owing to carbonic acid, are decidedly 
injurious, inasmuch as fixed air is not, under apy cir- 
cijmstaaces, friendly to the stomach. 



Wines are converted into ardent spirits by the pro- 
cess of distillation ; that is to say, that various ingre- 


dients are removed from fermented liquors, leaving the 
alcohol in a more concentrated form. 

Among the most powerful class of stimulants and poi- 
sons, ardent spirits claim a conspicuous station. They 
are not introduced into the stomach as capable of af- 
fording nourishment, but merely to rouse into temporary 
action ; an action, invariably succeeded by a corres- 
ponding debility. Ardent spirits derange every portion 
of the living tissues, first exciting them to increased 
action, and, subsequently, inducing a state of relaxation, 
which eventually terminates in functional derangement. 
Every drop of alcohol is an absolute poison, and ardent 
spirit is but diluted alcohol. When introduced into the 
stomach, it is speedily taken up by the absorbent ves- 
sels, carried into the circulation, hurried rapidly from 
one organ to another, first exciting and then paralyzing 
them ; until, at length, it is taken up by the excretory 
vessels and unceremoniously expelled, either by means 
of the pulmonary exhalants, or the depurating vessels 
of the skin and urinary apparatus. 

These are the effects of ardent spirits when drunk in 
so small a quantity as not to produce inebriation. That 
they are powerful poisons is evident from the effects 
they produce when intoxication ensues. By their nar- 
cotic operation upon the nerves and brain, the drunkard 
is reduced to the condition of an idiot, or elevated to 
that of a frenzied madman. The eyes lose their lustre, 
and become inflamed and watery. The whole counte- 
nance exhibits an idiotical appearance, and the resolu- 
tions of the mind are weak and vacillating, or performed 
with indecision. The muscles lose their contractility, 
and the individual either sinks powerless upon the 
ground, or staggers from place to place, with scarcely 
strength enough to preserve an equilibrium. 

A perseverance in these habits of debauch is followed 
by a long train of evils. The liver becomes diseased, 
wd elaborates an insufficient quantity of bile, the quality 
of which is often impaired, giving rise to bilious com- 
plaints : frequently the liver is enlarged and indurated, 
and its blood-vessels, in a great measure, obliterated. 


Sometimes a collection of serum in the cellular mem* 
brane of the abdomen marks the devastating course of 
intemperance, and the drunkard dies of dropsy. At 
other times, the lungs are inflamed, and tubercles form 
in their structure ; weakened by their exertions to purify 
the blood, which an unnatural stimulus hurries through 
the air-cells of the lungs, consumption is developed, and 
the mis-spent life of the inebriate is terminated by this 
lingering disease. Or, it may be, that the unnatural and 
rapid circulation of an impure blood through the tender 
vessels of the brain, causes an extravasation of blood, 
or a compression of the medullary portion of the brain, 
and he is suddenly destroyed by an apoplectic attack. 
If he escapes these diseases, acute inflammation of the 
stomach, or dyspepsia in some of its aggravated forms, 
speedily produce death. That dreadful disease, delirium 
tremens, is peculiarly the drunkard's. 

If the drunkard falls a victim to these loathsome dis- 
orders, let not the tippler, or the temperate drinker who 
boasts of never having been intoxicated, think that they 
escape. Thousands are destroyed by alcohol who were 
never drunk. But let us take the tippler, who is only 
occasionally igtoxicated^yet regularly and daily resorts 
to the bottle, and we shall see if his boasted immunity 
jfrom disease is founded in truth. 

The first sensible effect of ardent spirits on the tippler 
is a loss of appetite, succeeded:? by a general debiKty 
and emaciation of the body. A dry husky cough and 
occasional head-ache are his morning: companions. The 
nervous system is shortly affected, indicated by tremors 
of the hands, faltering speech, and suddens, startings 
when a door is unexpectedly opened or any simi&i event 
occurs. The complexion assumes a sallow and* sickly 
hue, or becomes unnaturally red, and the skin is coT5er- 
ed with eruptions or blotches. The muscles of the face- 
are spasmodically affected, and the joints become stifF 
#nd weakened. He loses his former animation, and hte • 
intellectual faculties are manifestly impaired. In short, 
dyspepsia, pleurisy, epilepsy, or some inflammatory dis- 
ease, terminates his existence, while his life is embit- 

WATEtt. 165 

tered by frequent attacks of rheumatism, gout, hypo- 
chondriasis, palpitation of the heart, melancholy, mad-, 
ness, and a host of other diseases, which would swell 
the catalogue to a frightful extent. In an age of ge- 
neral reform, the abuse of ardent spirits has received 
universal condemnation, and time would be ill-spent to 
devote a larger space to the consideration of a subject, 
concerning which there can be but one opinion among 
sensible men. It would, therefore, be a useless task to 
quote the authority of able writers to prove a position 
^vhich is self-evident, namely, that ardent spirits are per- 
nicious, in any quantity, during health, and that they are 
unnecessary, to say the least, as a medicine in disease. 


Learn temperance, friends, and hear, without disdain, 
The choice of Water. Thus the Coan sage 
Opin'd, and thus the learn'd of ev'ry school. 

" No warmer cups the rural ages knew, 
None warmer sought the sires of human kind* 
Happy in temperate peace ! Their equal days 
Felt not th' alternate fits of feverish mirth 
And sick dejection. 
Blest with divine immunity from ails, 
Long centuries they liv'd ; their only fate 
Was ripe old age, and rather sleep than death. 
Oh ! could those worthies from the world of gods 
Return to visit their degenerate sons, 
How would they scorn the joys of modern time, 
With all our art and toil improv'd to pain." 

So far has civilized man deviated from the paths of 
nature, that we find him rejecting, as unpalatable, so in- 
valuable a beverage as water, and supplying its place 
with a variety of artificial liquors, not one ofwhich can 
subserve the purposes for which water was designed. 

Were water the universal beverage, those beastly 
habits of intemperance which have been productive of 
so many crimes, so much poverty and misery, would 
not disgrace human nature. "Honest water (says 
Shakspeare) is too weak to be a sinner, it never left a 
man: i' the mire." How few recollect this simple eulogy 
of an inestimable liquid. 

We have the unqualified testimony of the most did* 
tinguished philosophers and medical authors of ancieiit 

166 WATER* 

and modern times, that water is the most salubrious 
drink of which we have any knowledge. 

From the time of Hippocrates to the present day, a 
period of more than two thousand years, a mass of tea* 
timony has been accumulated, which is overwhelming in 
its arguments, conclusive in its nature, and presenting 
the experience of some of the most disinterested phi- 
lanthropists who have ever labored for the welfare of an 
ungrateful world. 

Hippocrates himself, who has been styled the " fa- 
ther of medicine," who lived to the age of 90 yearsj and 
who had divine honors paid to him by the Grecians, as* 
serts, " that water is the only fitting drink of man." 

Galen, the venerable successor of Hippocrates, who 
published over 750 scientific works, and lived to the age 
of 140 years, advocates still more strenuously the opinion 
of his predecessor, recommending water as a remedy in 

Pliny, the celebrated naturalist, and one of the most 
learned of the ancient Roman writers, remarks — " It is 
a great absurdity that mankind should bestow so much 
trouble and expense in making, artificially, such a variety 
of liquors, when nature has presented to their hands a 
drink of so superior a quality as water." 

Herman B<erhaave, a distinguished lecturer on the 
Theory and Practice of Medicine, at Leyden, says — " If 
drink be merely required for allaying thirst and dryness, 
and diminishing the tenacity and acrimony of the fluids, 
then is cold water, when limpid, light, without smell and 
taste, and obtained from a clear running stream, the best 
drink for a robust man." 

Frederick Hoffman, professor of Physic at Halle, 
and deservedly esteemed one of the best writers on 
medicine, says — " No remedy can more effectually se- 
cure health and prevent disease than pure water. It 
proves agreeable to all ages, and hence we conceive the 
reason why the drinkers of water, provided it be pure 
and wholesome, are more healthy and long-lived than 
such as drink wine or malt liquors, and wfyy it generally 
gives them a better appetite. Those who drink nothing 

WATER* 167 

but water are observed to have whiter and sounder teeth 
than others. Add to this, that drinkers of water are 
brisker and more alert in all their actions, both of mind 
and body, than such as use malt liquors." 

Sir John Floyer, an eminent English physician and 
medical writer, who was honored with knighthood as the 
reward of his talents, remarks — " The water drinkers 
are temperate in their actions, prudent, and ingenious.; 
they live safe from those diseases which affect the head, 
such as apoplexies, palsies, pain, blindness, confusion, 
deafness, gout, convulsions, trembling, and madness." 

" As water (says Dr. Baynard) is, in chief, the uni- 
versal drink of all the world, both animal and vegetable, 
so it is best and most salubrious ; for, without it, no 
plant nor creature could long exist." 

Dr. Arbuthnot, a celebrated wit, physician to Queen 
Anne, and companion to Pope, to Swift, to Gay, and to 
Parnell, observes — " Water is alone the proper drink of 
every animal." 

Dr. Wallis, a celebrated English medical writer, 
poet, and satirist, says — "Water is the most eligible 

" Pure water (says Dr. Leake) is the fluid designed 
by nature for the nourishment of all bodies, animal or 
vegetable. Water-drinkers are observed to be more 
healthy and long-lived than others. In such the facul- 
ties of the body and mind are more strong ; their teeth 
more white; their breath more sweet, and their sight 
more perfect than in those who use fermented liquors 
and much animal food" 

Dr. William Cttllen, an eminent Scotch physician 
and medical writer, remarks — " Simple water, therefore, 
as nature affords it, is, without any addition, the proper 
drink of mankind." 

Dr. Gregory, a distinguished medical writer, says — 
" The sole primitive and mainly natural drink is water ; 
which, when pure, whether from a spring or river, has 
nothing noxious in it." 

Dr. Zimmerman, author of the well-known work, en- 
titled "Zimmerman on Solitude^" and physician to 

168 WATER. 

Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, says—" Soft water 
is the most suitable drink for man, since fermented li- 
quors are rather the product of art than of nature." 

44 Water (says Dr. Cheyne) was the primitive ori- 
ginal beverage ; and it is the only simple fluid fitted for 
diluting, moistening, and cooling ; the ends of drink ap- 
pointed by nature. And happy had it been for the race 
of mankind, if other mixed and artificial liquors had 
never been invented. It has been an agreeable appear- 
ance to me to observe, with what freshness and vigor 
those who, though eating freely of flesh-meat, yet drank 
nothing but water, have lived m health, indolence, and 
cheerfulness, to a great age." 

44 Water drinkers (says Dr. Saunders^ arc, in gene- 
ral, longer livers, are less subject to decay of the facul- 
ties, have better teeth, and more regular appetites, than 
those who indulge in a more stimulating diluent for their 
common drinks." 

Faust, physician to the reigning Count of Schaum- 
burg Lippe, declares that 44 cold water is the most proper 
beverage for man as well as animals — it cools, thins, and 
clears the blood — it keeps the stomach, head, and nerves 
in order — makes man tranquil, serene, and cheerful." 

44 As water (says Dr. Parr) is the most ancient, so 
it is the best and most common fluid for drink, and 
ought to be esteemed the most commodious for the pre- 
servation of life and health." 

Hufeland, physician to the King of Prussia, a pro- 
fessor of distinguished reputation, and editor of a me- 
dical journal, says — 44 The best drink is water, a liquid 
commonly despised, and even considered prejudicial. I 
will not hesitate, however, to declare it to be one of the 
greatest tneans of prolonging life." 

44 Health (says Dr. Ramsay) is much injured by those 
who are frequently sipping strong liquors, though they 
are never intoxicated. It is a good general rule never 
to drink any thing but water." 

44 General Jackson (says Dr. Barker") was once 
asked if soldiers required ardent spirits? He replied* 
that he observed in hard duty and excessive cold, those 


WATER. 169 

performed the one aftd endufed tlte othc* better who 
drank nothing but water" 

" The more simply (says Dr. Paris) that life is sup- 
ported the better, and he is happy who considers water 
the best drink. 

Dr. Kirk maintains, that " every recent experiment 
demonstrates, most clearly, that men, when exposed to 
Bxtremc cold and wet, endure the fatigue longer, and! 
with less injury, upon simple water on!y$ than whert sup- 
plied with spirituous liquors." 

" It is now before the worid (says Professor Edgar) 
as the result of a multitude of experiments, that the 
human constitution can endure longer, and more easily, 
intense heat and cold, hard labor, and severe privation, 
with water as the only drink." 

" Pure water (says Dr. Hoffman) is the best drink 
for persons of all temperaments : it promotes a free affltd? 
equable circulation of the blood, cm which the due per- 
formance of every animal function depends. Water 
drinkers are not only the most active and vigorous, but 
the most healthy and cheerful." 

" Water (says Dr. Garnet) is the only liquo? tfraf 
Nature has provided for animals; and whatever she 
gives is best. We ought to distinguish the real wants 
of nature from the artificial calls of habit." 

Londe, an eminent French physician, states, «*that ? 
water is, of all drinks, that which, by its constant use f 
is best fitted to aid in prolonging; the life of man." 

" Water (says Dr.'Rostam) is the most natural dririfc, 
that of which man made use m times of primaeval man- 
ners. ^Abstemious persons are not pale and weak as 
supposed — this effect only occurs when water is drunk 
to excess. Those who take it in moderation, enjoy, to 
a very high degree, the faculties, as well moral as mtei- 
lcctual, and often attain advanced age." 

Dr. Mosely, in speaking of the diseases incident to 
warm climates, says — " I aver from my own knowledge 
and experience, as well as from the knowledge and ob- 
servation of others, that those who drink nothing but 
water, or make it their principal drink, are but little af- 


170 WATER* 

fected by die climate, and can undergo the greatest fa- 
tigue without inconvenience.' 9 

Dr. Johnson tells those who go to hot climates, that* 
44 in short, the nearer you approach to a perfectly aque- 
ous regimen, the first year at least, so much the better 
chance have you of avoiding sickness ; and the more 
slowly and gradually we deviate from this afterwards, so 
much the more retentive will we be of that invaluable 
blessing — health !" 

44 We ought (says Dr. Wiluch) to drink only when 
we are thirsty, and to desist when thirst is quenched ; 
but this is seldom the case, because many of our liquors 
stimulate the palate. Pure water, therefore, is an ines- 
timable beverage, as it will not induce us to drink more 
than is necessary." 

George Ernest Stahl, a German Professor of 
Chemistry, of considerable celebrity, strongly advocated 
water as a drink exclusively. 

Albert Hallbr, an illustrious poet, physiologist, and 
natural historian, who lived 75 years, and who was con- 
sidered the most acute, various, and original genius that 
had appeared in the medical world since the time of 
BoBrhaave, abstained from wine from an early period of 
his life ; his only beverage was water ; and he delighted 
to represent the unfitness of the climate of Berne, for: 
the culture of the grape, as a signal advantage confe&&f 
by nature on his country, 

" Mr. Thedan, Surgeon General, ascribes his long 
life, of more than eighty years, chiefly to the daily use 
of a large quantity of water, wmch he drank for upwards 
of 40 years. Between his thirtieth and fortieth year, 
he was a most miserable hypochondriac, oppressed with 
the deepest melancholy, tormented with a palpitation of 
the heart, indigestion, &c. and imagined that he could 
not live six months. But from the time he commenced 
this watery regimen, all these symptoms disappeared ; 
and, i in the latter half of his life, he enjoyed better 
health than before." 

Dr. Jackson, head of the Medical Staff in the British 
West Indies, drank nothing but water> and confined him- 

^ WATURi 171 

self to a vegetable diet. By this means he attained an 
advanced age. 

Sir Isaac Newton, when composing his celebrated 
treatise upon Optics, confined himself to water and a 
vegetable diet; to this abstemious mode of living has 
been ascribed his great age, 85 years. 

The illustrious John Locke, author of the " Essay on 
the Human Understanding," died in the 73d year of his 
age ; his common drink was water, which he justly con- 
sidered was the cause of his life being prolonged to so 
great an age, notwithstanding the original feebleness of 
his constitution, and the distressing disease, the asthma, 
under which he labored for many years. 

President Edwards, a divine of high intellectual 
attainments, and a successful author, drank nothing but 

Dr. Franklin, the celebrated American philosopher, 
drank nothing but water for a great number of years, 
and was termed the American Aquatic, for refusing to 
partake of the malt liquors usually drank by his fellow- 
workmen in a London printing office. 

Dr. Rush, so well known as an able writer and me- 
dical practitioner, declares that he was exposed to con- 
siderable degrees of heat and cold, and had used violent 
muscular exertions, and yet found pure water adequate 
to the supply of all his wants. 

Tournefort mentions a Venetian consul, a resident 
of Smyrna, who lived to the age of 118 years, and never 
drank any thine: but water. 

" The robust and hardy warriors of antiquity drank 
nothing but water. Sampson, whose drink was only 
water worn the limpid brook, is a memorable example of 
uncommon bodily prowess, maintained by abstinence 
from all intoxicating drink — an abstinence to which his 
moifier had also vowed herself." 

Alexander Selkirk, who, for four years and four 
months was the only inhabitant of the island of Juan 
Fernandez, used no drink but water, and assured Dr. 
Baynard that he was three times as strong then as he 
ever was before. 

173 WATER. 

Webb, the noted pedestrian, who was remarkable for 
vigor of body and mind, lived wholly on water for his 

Coii. Hasket, the American pedestrian, accomplished 
a distance of two thousand five hundred miles, on foot, 
during the summer months, in 70 days, living exclusively 
on bread and water, and gained two and a half pounds 
in weight* 

I might go on to enumerate John Wesley, John 
Fletcher, Sir William Jones, Demosthenes, Mahomet ; 
Euler, the celebrated mathematician ; Boyle, the Father 
of modern Chemistry ; La Place, the natural philoso- 
pher ; and the great philanthropist, Howard ; together 
with a host of the most eminent literary and philoso- 
phical men that ever existed, but why waste time to 
Srove a self-evident, an incontrovertible fact, viz. that if 
fature had intended that man should quench his thirst 
with any other beverage than water, that beverage would 
have been provided for his use. If the testimony ad- 
duced be insufficient to convince any individual capable 
<pf reasoning, then is that indiviyidual most culpably ig- 
norant, and obstinately wedded to habit and pr&udice. 

It is not, however, among these individuals alone that 
we must look for examples of abstinence. In various 
parts of the world, whole families, tribes, and even na- 
tions, quench their thirst with water, and yet exhibit as 
.abundant an amount of intellectual attainments, and 
Jvigor of bodily strength, as the bloated wine-bibber or 
the fashionable debauchee. 

" Strange as it may appear (says the Journal of Health) 
at is not the less correct, that the large body of the la- 
boring classes, in those countries, and in Italy, make 
water their common drink. Wine, however abundant 
it may be, is a beverage of comparative luxury to such 
persons. The thousands of fishermen and Lazzaroni 
pf Naples, whose solid aliment is. bread and maccaroni, 
and, of late years, potatoes, and whose constant drink is 
Jirater, exhibit a strength and symmetry of frame, and 
ease Qf movement, together with a vivacity of feeling, 
of which their richer fellow-citizens and the noblemen, 


drinkers of wine, may well envy them the possessfott/ 
The hardy Arabs of the desert have no other habitual 
drink than water ; but yet, what drinkers of wine or 
porter could undergo the fatigue and exposure to which 
they are habitually subject? Water is the constant, and 
we may add, only drink for millions of the inhabitants 
of Asia and Africa, to whom nature, in many parts of 
those continents, has been by no means niggardly, in 
physical power and symmetry of form," 


Tobacco is a very active narcotic. In the year 1 559 
when Jean Nicot was ambassador at the court of Lis 
bon from Francis II. he received, from Hernandez d< 
Toledo, a Spanish gentleman, a small quantity of To- 
bacco. Jean Nicot sent some of this to Catherine de 
Medicis, who used it in the form of a powder. The 
Cardinal Santa Croce, on returning from his embassy 
at the Spanish and Portuguese courts, carried die plant 
to his own country. Sir Walter Raleigh introduced it 
into England on his return from America, and it soon 
came into general use throughout the civilized world. 
It met, however, with considerable opposition from the 
public functionaries, who attempted to discourage its 
use by legislative enactments. 

James the first wrote a philippic against it, entitled a 
" Counterblaste to Tobacco," in which he says that the 
smoking of it is " a custome loathsome to the eye, hate- 
full to the nose, harmefull to the brain, dangerous to the 
lungs ; and, in the black stinking fume thereof, nearest 
resembling the horrible Stygian smoke of the pit that is 
bottomlesse." In 1604, James the first endeavored, by 
means of heavy imposts, to abolish its use in England, 
and, in 1619, he commanded that no planter in Virginia 
should cultivate more than 100 pounds. 

" In 1624, Pope Urban VIHth. published a decree of 
excommunication against all who took snuff in church. 
Ten years after this, smoking was forbidden in Russia, 
under pain of having the nose cut off. In 1653, the 

174 To*AC*d. 

Council of the Canton of Appenzel cited smokers be* 
fore them, whom they punished, and they ordered all 
innkeepers to inform against such as were found smoking 
in their houses. The police regulations of Berne, made 
in 1661, was divided according to the Ten Command- 
ments, in which the prohibition of smoking stands im- 
mediately beneath the command against adultery ; this 
prohibition was renewed in 1675, and the Tribunal in- 
stituted to put it into execution (the Chambre au Tabac) 
continued to the middle of the 18th . century. Pope 
Innocent the Xllth., in 1690, excommunicated all who 
were found using tobacco in the church of St* Peter at 
Rome. In 1719, the Senate of Strasburgh prohibited 
its cultivation, from an apprehension that it would di- 
minish the growth of corn. Amuranth the IVth. pub- 
lished an edict which made smoking Tobacco a capital 
offence ; this was founded on an opinion that it rendered 
thepeople infertile." 

The chemical composition of Tobacco exhibits two 
substances, Nicotin and an Essential Otf, both of which 
are poisonous in the extreme. The Nicotin was ob- 
tained by Vauquelin from tobacco. Its use is sometimes 
attended with syncope, cold sweats, and death. It im- 
mediately affects the nerves by exciting them to action ; 
an effect shortly followed by a paralysis which induces 
a disposition to sleep. 

The Essential Oil is still more powerful. Kcempfer 
ranks it with the strong vegetable poisons. A drop of 
this oil put on the tongue of a cat, produced violent 
convulsions, and killed her in the space of one minute. 
A thread dipped in the same oil, and drawn through a 
wound, made by a needle in an animal, killed it in the 
space of seven minutes. Fontana made several ex- 
periments upon pigeons with the oil of tobacco. A 
small drop applied to the naked muscles of a pigeon, 
produced vomiting and syncope. 

These effects result from the separated principles of 
tobacco; it remains to be shown that tobacco in its 
natural condition is also a powerful vegetable poison. 
Vumer*>**« *Aco*ded medical experiments attest this fact* 


Even applying the moistened leaves over the stomach 
has been known to extinguish life. 

" The effects of tobacco (says Dr. Macnish) are 
considerably different from those of any other inebriating 
agent. Instead of quickening, it lowers the pulse, and, 
when used to excess, produces languor, depression of 
the system, giddiness, confusion of ideas, violent pain in 
the stomach, convulsions, and even death. Its essential 
oil is so intensely powerful, that two or three drops in- 
serted into a raw wound, would prove almost instantly 
fatal. In whatever form it is used, it produces sickness, 
stupor, bewilderment and staggering, in. those unaccus- 
tomed to its use. There is no form in which it can be 
taken that is not decidedly injurious and disgusting. The 
whole, from snuffing to plugging, are at once so utterly 
uncleanly and unnatural, that it is incredible in what 
manner they ever insinuated themselves into civilized 

M I have long witnessed (say« Dr. Agnew) in a variety 
of cases, the deleterious effects produced by the^on- 
stant use of that strong narcotic, such as vertigo, indi- 
gestion, flatulence, &c. and which must necessarily be 
die irreparable concomitants of the application of such 
a narcotic stimulus to so large a portion of the nervous 
and secreting surface, either in substance or vapor." 

"In whatever form (says Professor Hitchcock) it 
may be employed, a portion of the active principles of 
the tobacco, mixed with the saliva, invariably finds its 
way into the stomach, and disturbs or impairs the func 
tions of that organ. Hence, not unfrequently, those 
who are accustomed to the use of tobacco labor under 
dyspeptic symptoms. They experience at intervals a 
want of appetite — nausea — inordinate thirst — vertigo — 
pains and distensions of the stomach — disagreeable 
deep, and are more or less emaciated." 

It is difficult to account for the attachment manifested 
to a weed, the taste and smell of which are loathsome 
in the extreme. Indeed, the Jilthiness of the practice is 
so disgusting, that it is astonishing to find welt-bred peo- 
ple smoking and chewing in company — puffing their 


abominable exhalations of tobacco smoke in the faces 
of those who dislike it, and inundating the floCfrSy car- 
pets, and other places with floods of saliva. 

44 Consider (says Dr. Clarke) how disagreeable youi* 
custom is to those who do not follow it An atmos- 
phere of tobacco effluvia surrounds you whithersoever 
you go; every article about you smells of it; your 
apartments, your clothes, and even your breath. Nor 
is there a smell in nature more disagreeable than that of 
stale tobacco, arising in warm exhalations from the hu- 
man body, rendered still more offensive by passing 
through the pores, and becoming strongly impregnated 
with that noxious matter which was before insensibly 

There are three modes of using tobacco, smoking, 
chewing, and snuffing. Chewing is not only the most 
filthy and disgusting of the three modes, but is likewise 
the most destructive to health. 

44 By chewing (says Dr. McAlister) all its deadly, 
powftrs are speedily manifest in the commencement of 
the practice. In this mode, too, its nauseous taste and 
stimulant property excite and keep up a profuse dis- 
charge from the mucous follicles and salivary glands. 
When we reflect that large quantities of saliva, strongly 
impregnated with this poison, and even particles of the 
substance itself, are frequently swallowed, what, I ask, 
is the probable condition of such a person's digestive 

44 The chewing* of tobacco (says one of the ablest 
physicians in Massachusetts) is not necessary or useful 
in any case that I know ok" 

44 This is the worst way (says Dr. Macnish) for the 
health in which tobacco can be used. The waste of 
saliva is greater than even in smoking, and the derange- 
ments of the digestive organs proportionally severe* 
All confirmed chewers are more than usually subject to 
dyspepsy and hypochondriasis ; and many of them are 
afflicted with liver complaint, brought on by their im- 
prudent habit" And many instances of the fatal ef- 
fects of chewing have been recorded by medical writers. 


" I once lost (says Dr. Rush) a young man of seven- 
teen years of age, of a pulmonary consumption, whose 
disorder was brought on by the intemperate use of 

Dr. Tissot ascribes sudden death, in one instance, 
to excessive smoking. 

J. Borbhi witnessed the dissection of a man who 
had been excessively addicted to the pipe, and it was 
found that his brain was indurated and shrivelled. 

" The great virtues of a pipe (says Dr. Jones) taken 
in the morning fasting, are extolled by many, ' because, 9 
say they, ' it pumps up a quantity of cold phlegm from 
the stomach !' Not to insist that nothing can be taken 
out of the stomach but by vomiting i let it be observed 
that the substance which is forcibly hawked up by many 
who have acquired this most disgustful habit, is the mucu$ 
secreted by the tonsils to lubricate and defend the oeso- 
phagus ; together with the saliva which is secreted by 
the glands. And this mucus and saliva are not less re- 
quisite in their respective places than the blood itself; 
as they are not only absolutely necessary for the defence 
of the parts already mentioned, but also for the import* 
ant purpose of digestion. Every medical man knows 
well, that the saliva which is so copiously drained off by 
the infamous quid, and the scandalous pipe, is the first 
and greatest agent which nature employs in digesting 
the food." 

" Id no sense (says Dr. Macnish) except as affording 
a temporary gratification, can it be justified or defended. 
tt pollutes the breath, blackens the teeth, wastes the sa- 
liva which is required for digestion, and injures the com- 
plexion. In addition to this, it is apt to produce dys- 
pepsia, and other disorders of the stomach; and, in 
corpulent subjects, it disposes to apoplexy. At the pre- 
sent moment, smoking is fashionable, and crowds of 
young men are to be seen at all hours walking the streets 
with segars in their mouths* annoying the passengers. 
They seem to consider it manly to be able to smoke a 
certain number, without reflecting that there is scarcely 
•a old woman in the country who would not beat then 



to nought with their own weapons, and that they would 
gain no sort of honor were they able to outsmoke all 
the burgomasters of Amsterdam." 

The most unnatural and detestable mode of using to- 
bacco, is in the form of snuff. In this manner it exerts 
all its pernicious qualities ; the brain is directly subjected 
to its influence, and, as a consequence, the memory be- 
comes enfeebled, and the intellectual faculties impaired. 
The olfactory nerves suffer in a proportionate degree ; 
hence the sense of smelling is partially destroyed. The 
complexion is ruined by its use — the skin being tinged 
of a pale brown color. Fleshy excrescences frequently 
form in the nostrils, and threaten the patient with suffo- 
cation ; and abscesses are produced by its use in the 
siuuses of the maxillary bones. It renders the hearing 
dull, and makes the eyes weak and watery. Almost 
invariably the voice is altered, and the organs of speech 
more or less directly affected by its use. Particles of 
the snuff find their way into the stomach, subjecting that 
organ to the influence of a powerful narcotic ; hence 
heartburn and other symptoms of indigestion proceed 
from snuffing. Even using it with butter as an ointment 
for the cure of scald head, has produced vertigo, vo- 
miting, fainting, and convulsions. 

Many females are in the disgraceful habit of chewing 
Scotch snuff. At first used to cleanse the teeth, it soon 
becomes an indispensable habit; and respectable fe- 
males find themselves under the necessity ol continuing 
a practice which self-respect denounces as not only 
loathsome but indecent. 


Opium is the concreted milky juice of the head of the 
poppy. This violent poison is so extensively used, in 
the form of pills, paregoric, laudanum, &c. and its ef- 
fects on the constitution are so alarming, that it becomes 
a source of the deepest regret to witness the daily-in- 
creasing predilection for this noxious drug. Opium, like 
tobacco, is a powerful narcotic. Four or five grains of 

opium. 179 

opium, introduced into the stomach, prove a powerful 
poison, producing vertigo, tremors, convulsions, delirium, 
stupor, stertor, and, finally, fatal apoplexy. 

The narcotic principle of opium has been obtained 
in a separate state, and has received the name of mot- 
phia. Morphia is a vegetable alkali, first extracted from 
opium in 1817, by Serturner. It acts with great energy 
on the animal economy. A grain and a half taken at 
three different times, produced such violent symptoms 
upon three young men of 17 years of age, that Ser 
turner was alarmed lest the consequences should have 
proved fatal. 

Opium acts directly upon the nervous power, diminish- 
ing the sensibility, irritability, and mobility of the system. 
It acts as a sedative, disposing more or less to sleep, 
while its stimulant powers have been thought to produce 

Opium is sometimes used in the form of pills ; some 
times it is mixed with alcohol to form a tincture well 
known as laudanum ; and, to the laudanum, camphor 
and benzoic acid are added to make paregoric. 

Among females, many of whom would consider them- 
selves irretrievably disgraced to be detected in drinking 
alcoholic fluids, laudanum and paregoric are resorted to, 
to produce an excitement analogous to intoxication. So 
extensively prevalent has this habit become, that apothe- 
caries find the sale of laudanum and paregoric almost 
daily increasing. 

" We have, indeed, (says Professor Hitchcock) few 
genuine opium eaters among us ; but the laudanum and 
paregoric phial are considered almost indispensable ip 
every family. Nor does the mother hesitate, night after 
night, to quell the cries of her infant child by adminis- 
tering increasing doses of these poisons, and thus almost 
infallibly to ruin its constitution. The nervous invalid 
also resorts to this remedy for allaying the irritation of 
his system and procuring repose. And more especially 
does the delicate votary of fashionable life make this 
her nightly resort, on returning at midnight from the as- 
sembly, the dance, or the tea party, ' all soul within and 

180 ontit. 

» •« 

all nerve without 1 And nearly all these persons, nume- 
rous as they have become among us, are probably igno- 
rant that they are thus destroying themselves and their 
children. But if they will not listen to the following 
awakening warning, coming from high medical authority, 
they are irretrievably ruined." t 

" Howeyer repugnant to our feelings as rational beings 
may be the vice of drunkenness, it is not more hurtful 
in its effects than the practice of taking laudanum." — 
44 This is not the language of exaggeration or speculative 
fear. We speak from a full knowledge of the facts* 
We repeat it — the person who gives himself up to the 
habit for weeks (he may not reach to months, or, if he 
pass these, his years will be but few and miserable,) of 
daily measuring out to himself his drops of laudanum, 
or his pills of opium, or the like deleterious substance, 
call it tincture, solution, mixture, potion, what you will, 
is destroying himself as surely as if he were swallowing 
arsenic, or had the pistol applied to his head. The fire 
of disease may for a while be concealed — he may smile 
incredulous at our prediction ; but the hour of retribu- 
tiQQ irill come* and the consequences will be terrible." 


Condiments are those substances which are taken 
with the food, either to give it sapidity, to correct its 
bad qualities, or to promote its digestion. They are 
usually divided into the saline, the sweet, the acid, the 
spicy or aromatic, and the oleaginous. 

Salt is the chief saline condiment, and is held in re- 
pute by all nations ; its utility, however, is questionable : 
it is a stimulant of no little power, and operates upon 
the digestive organs in promoting gastric and intestinal 
secretions. It should be used very sparingly, although 
it would be advisable to eat a small portion with our 
food, owing to the tendency which some articles mani- 
fest of becoming rancid in the stomach ; and also with 
animal food, to preserve the fluids from thatputrescency 
which the free use of flesh is said to occasion. 

BXEBCUM5. 18f 

Sugar should be used under no circumstances; by 
those who are troubled with acidity of the stomach, or 
whose digestive organs are not in the best condition. 
Those in health should use it very sparingly, for reasons 
already stated in the remarks on concentrated aliments. 

Vinegary in small quantities, is useful to correct the 
disposition of animal food to putrescency, and of ve- 
getables to flatulency* The smaller the quantity usedv 
however, the more favorable to health. 

Pegper, mustard, ginger, and other aromatic spices,, 
are highly injurious, being some of the most powerful 
of the class of artificial stimulants. 

Salad ail labors under the same objections that have 
been urged against all other oils and fat ; it is exceed- 
ingly difficult of digestion, liable to rancidity, and it is 
a highly concentrated aliment. 


A partial glance at the condition of the two great 
divisions of society, the sedentary and the laborious, 
will satisfy the mind at once of the beneficial effects of 
exercise. Among the former class, dyspepsia, con- 
sumption, and numerous diseases of the nerves, exhibit 
the fatal effects of inactivity and luxury. Let us con- 
trast the sedentary clerk with the active farmer, and the 
importance of exercise to health will be rendered more 
obvious. The clerk is generally tall and thin, his com- 
plexion pale or sallow, his muscular strength compara- 
tively feeble, and his capability of enduring fatigue is 
Swroportionably diminished. On the contrary, the active 
armer is well-proportioned, his chest broad, his stature 
short, and his limbs large ; his complexion exhibits the 
ruddy tint of health, his muscular powers are great, and 
his capability to endure fatigue proportionably increased. 
This difference, however, does not depend solely upon 
exercise, since the fresh air, more simple diet, and other 
eauses, are accesspry in developing a strong constitution. 
In writing upon the prepnt subject, it is necessary to 
consider mankind as they are, not as they were. Man, 


undoubtedly, if we may judge from the nudity of his 
akin, was designed, by nature, to inhabit a warm climate : 
hence, we must suppose him originally destitute of 
clothing, and, probably, of any thing approximating to 
a dwelling. The advantages which he then possessed 
over his successors in modern days, were two-fold* In 
the first place, his external skin was freely exposed to 
the contact of the atmospheric air, and the blood which 
circulates in its small capillary vessels underwent a pu- 
rification analogous to that which the whole mass is 
subjected to in the air-cells of the lungs ; add to this, 
that the pores of the skin were not obstructed by in- 
spissated perspirable matter, as is now the case from the 
auantities of clothing which envelope our limbs. In 
le second place, the organs of motion were not im- 
peded in their natural actions, either by ligatures orby 
superfluous covering. 

In those days, exercise must have been performed in 
the most natural, easy, and agreeable manner. There 
were then no artisans confined in narrow apartments, 
and in constricted positions, with some of their limbs 
unusually developed, while others were emaciated from 
inactivity. There were then no mechanical employ- 
ments which could interfere with a proper developement 
of all the muscular organs. 

In those days of simplicity, man walked forth into the 
open air, enjoying the cool breezes and odors wafted 
from a thousand plants. The land, diversified by val- 
leys and hills, afforded an agreeable variety of move- 
ments, in descending the one and surmounting the other. 
When hungry, he plucked his food from the trees, and, 
. when thirsty, drank from the limpid brook. His exer- 
cise being moderate, and performed with a perfect free- 
dom of motion, at the same time that it did not amount 
to painful exertion, man then reaped all the benefit from 
exercise which the structure of his bodily organs ren- 
dered necessary. Let those who would enjoy the ad- 
.vantages of exercise, imitate such habits as far as is 
.consistent with custom and convenience ; and they will 
'. ibfXhe jrho would enj% health and comfort must 


religiously consider it a duty, imperative under all cir- 
cumstances, to take that kind of exercise every day in 
the open air, and for such a length of time as experience 
shall have demonstrated to be most salutary and agree- 
. able to his habit of body. It is to be lamented that this 
is not always practicable ; but yet, those unfortunate in- 
dividuals whom stern necessity compels to labor at some 
sedentary occupation during the day, may still enjoy a 
share of those pleasurable feelings arising from active 
exercise in the open air by rising at an earlier hour. 

Among the great variety of animals eqdowed with 
locomotive organs, not one can be found which prefers 
a life of inactivity. The young lamb and kid sport and 
frisk about the green fields with apparent delight. The 
child has every disposition to active exercise ; so much 
so, that it will almost leap from its nurse's arms ; a dis- 
position restrained as much as possible by the customs 
of civilized life. While some portions of society toil 
too much, others labor too little ; but the advantage is 
undoubtedly on the side of those who labor too much* 

Exercise is beneficial in various ways. . It facilitates 
the circulation of the blood through the different or- 
gans, increases the peristaltic action of the intestinal 
canal, and promotes a free perspiration. It iifvigorates 
and strengthens the muscles, and materially improves 
the condition of the excretory vessels. The intellectual 
faculties are benefitted by exercise ; the mind becomes 
more clear, the judgment more sound, and the memory 
more retentive. It obviates, to some extent, the effects 
of over-feeding, a practice which the luxury of modern 
times has rendered very common. 

The most natural exercise, and the most conducive 
to health, is walking* By this mode of exercise every 
limb is duly called into motion, and moving about from 
place to place diverts the mind and makes the exercise 
more agreeable. Indeed, it is not advisable to indulge 
in any species of exercise that is not productive of 
pleasure ; when real fatigue ensues, we should desist, 
. for : a time, from exertion. Riding and . gymnastic ex- 
•crcisep contribute to strengthen the body , and pjpj^Qte 

184 sleep. 

the general heakh : but no kind of exercise should su- 
persede walking, occasionally varied by a leap or by 
running. As much time as possible should be spent in 
the open air, not less than two hours out of twenty-fotir 9 
and as much longer as the daily vocations of the indi- 
vidual will permit. Many who now slumber till break- 
fast, might arise at the dawning of day, and walk five 
or six miles into the country, with inconceivable advan- 
tage to their health. Those unfortunate beings who are 
debarred from the benefits of exercise by reason of the 
number of hours which they are obliged to devote to 
the procurance of a subsistence, should, in justice to 
themselves and their offspring, devote a portion of the 
Sabbath to exercise in the open air, which could be ef- 
fected without doing violence to their devotional feelings. 


Sleep is that peculiar state of the body in which the 
brain-, and muscles, and other organs of sense and ef 
voluntary motion, have ceased to perform their appro- 
priate functions ; while digestion, absorption, secretion, 
respiration, circulation, and nutrition, are still actively 
engaged in recruiting exhausted energies, and repairing 
organic losses. Sleep merely suspends that portion of 
life which serves to keep up with outward objects air 
intercourse necessary to our existence ; while life itself 
is preserved by the continued action of those organs 
whose office it is to remove the worn-out particles of 
the body, and to supply the waste occasioned by their 

The organs of sense and of motion, from long-con- 
tinued excitement, at length become insensible to the 
impressions of their appropriate stimuli; to restore 
them to their former condition, nature has established a 
period of repose, corresponding, in duration, to that of 
their exertion ; and this state of existence constitutes 

After being awake for sixteen or eighteen hours, we 
experience ft, sensation of fatigue and weakness; o«r 

SLEEP. 185 

motions become difficult, our senses blunted, and the 
mind loses its activity. We anxiously retire from the 
noise and bustle of business, to seek, in the gloom and 
stillness of night, that voluptuous enjoyment which na- 
ture demands for the restoration of bodily strength and 
mental power. Choosing that posture which requires 
the least effort to sustain it, our muscles gradually relax, 
and permit the limbs to fall into the most easy and na- 
tural position ; we lose, in succession, all the senses, 
and when, at length, we are no longer conscious of ex- 
istence, we are asleep. 

During sleep, respiration becomes less frequent ; the 
circulation diminishes ; the pulse is slower and weaker ; 
insensible perspiration, urine, and other impurities of 
the blood, are separated in smaller quantity ; the secre- 
tions are less abundant, and digestion less rapid, while 
absorption and nutrition proceed with augmented energy 
and activity. 

In this state we continue for &ix or eight hours ; and, 
if sleep has been perfect, the stimulus of light through 
pur semi-transparent eye-lids, the impressions produced 
by sound upon our organs of hearing, the accumulation 
of urine and faecal matter, the influence of habit, and 
every thing that can affect the senses, assist in dispelling 

The'proper period for retiring to rest is shortly after 
light is withdrawn ; but this must be regulated by the 
previous occupations of the day. Nature evidently de- 
signed the silence and obscurity of night as the most 
favorable time for repose ; wl^en the last rays of the 
setting sun have ceased to render external objects per- 
ceptible to the sight, and the senses are no longer under 
the influence of external impressions, the brain gradually 
becomes unconscious of material sensations, and while 
the means of enjoyment would be limited, indulges the 
propensity to sleep, which the return of light dispels, 
and the body is invigorated and refreshed, while the in- 
tellect is active and acute. 

The quantity of sleep necessary to health gradually 
diminishes from birth till death. Children require longer 


186 SLEEP* 

sleep than the aged, because the function of nutrition 
predominates in youth, and, during sleep, nature is en- 
gaged in the growth of the body. From six to eight • 
hours is the greatest portion of time that should be al- 
lotted to sleep ; every moment spent in bed after a cer- 
tain period debilitates rather than refreshes, and the 
continued habit of wasting the sweetest portion of our 
existence in sleep, entails a punishment upon the slug- 
gard, equalled only by the enormity of the crime. 

Whatever need he may have of longer repose, a man 
who has determined to rise at a certain hour, will inva- 
riably awake at that time, so much is the habit under 
the influence of the will. 

Sound, refreshing sleep can only be enjoyed, when 
the mind is exempt from care, anxiety, and passion ; and 
the indulgence is more delicious in proportion as the 
physical powers have become exhausted by suitable 

Sleep is disturbed by difficult digestion, and prevented 
by the excitement of stimulating drinks. If the stomach 
be oppressed with food, it hinders the falling of the dia- 
phragm ; the chest dilates with difficulty ; the blood, ar- 
rested in its circulation through the lungs, stagnates in 
the right cavities of the heart, and a painful sensation 
succeeds, as if an enormous weight lay upon the chest, 
which threatens to produce immediate suffocation ; the 
most horrid images are presented to the mind, and we 
awake with a start, to escape from some imminent dan- 
ger : and this distressing situation, known as night-mare, 
invariably produced by impeded circulation through the 
lungs, has been attributed to lying on the back, a position 
that those afflicted with night-mare undoubtedly seek, 
because it favors respiration. 

There is no error more common nor more culpable 
than the improper regulation of our sleeping apartments. 
Our bed-rooms, instead of the narrow contracted dun- 
geons, in which we now pass a feverish existence, in the 
excess of filth and impurity, should be commodious am 
well-ventilated during the day. The pernicious custon 
of sleeping .upon feathers should not be tolerated durin* 

SLEEP. 187 

any season of the year ; but, a well-stuffed hair, moss, 
or straw raattrass, is an admirable substitute, while a 
similar pillow is always to be preferred to one of feathers. 
Neither should bed-curtains be allowed, as they prevent 
a free circulation of the air, and counteract the benefits 
arising from a well-ventilated apartment. 

As nearly one-third of our existence is spent in the 
bed-room, it is highly important that it should be sup- 
plied with fresh air; for this purpose the windows may 
be left open summer and winter, provided that a current 
of air is not permitted to blow upon the bed. We 
should retire early to # rest, taking care that the stomach 
ia not oppressed with'food, and mat we do not retire too 
soon after the last meal. We should be cautious to 
divest ourselves of all tight wearing appatel, lying on 
one side, with the muscles relaxed as much as possible. 
The quantity of bed-clothes should be so regulated as not 
to create an undue warmth. If these precautions are 

{)roperly observed, a short sleep will recruit the ex- 
lausted powers, and we shall awake, at the return of 
day, with a mind fresh and vigorous, and our bodily 
strength renewed. 

Nothing, prbbably, tends more powerfully to produce 
premature old age than disturbed and unrefreshing sleep ; 
yet, how many of the customs of civilized life are pro- 
ductive of sucn results. The sallow face and emaciated 
form of the unhappy student, who leaves his bed early, 
and who burns his lamp late, tell a tale of sorrow : ex- 
cited during the day, and disturbed by feverish dre#ms 
at night, he withers beneath the blasting touch of con- 
sumption, and a premature grave yawns to receive him. 
* Dreaming is a diseased action of the nervous system, 
occasioned either by a disordered stomach, or by a 
morbid irritability of the brain ; in a perfectly healthy 
condition, the sleep of an individual would be, to him, 
a state of non-existence. Dreaming is the certain cri- 
terion of ill-health ; it is not subservient to the well-being 
of the animal, as other healthy actions are ; and do we 
not know that intemperate and diseased persons are 
more liable to dream than temperate and healthy ones ? 

188 SLEEP. 

do we not also know that the laboring man sleeps 
soundly, while the indolent one passes a restless night, 
afflicted with distressing dreams ? 

Physiologists have not satisfactorily accounted for the 
phenomena of dreams, and it is unimportant, or at least 
unprofitable, to peruse their speculations. All that is 
known upon the subject, may be reduced to two general 
rules ; when the entire brain apd nervous system are in 
such condition as not to be sensible of impressions, then 
there is a total exemption from dreams ; but when the 
senses are unconscious of impressing agents, and the 
brain in a state of activity, then dreams occur, and ap- 
pear to be realities. It is also true that certain condi- 
tions of the organs will influence the nature of the 
dreams. A superabundance of the seminal fluid pro- 
vokes libidinous ones ; the dropsical patient dreams of 
waters and of fountains ; while he who is suffering with 
an inflammatory affection, sees all things tinged with 
red ; and the epicure, whose stomach is overloaded with 
food, dreams of a hideous spectre squatted upon his 
breast. Of the phenomenon of somnambulism, we 
shall say but little ; urged by certain states of the brain, 
individuals have been known to rise in their sleep, and 
perform many actions to which they had been accus- 
tomed, sometimes conversing rationally, and yet, when 
awakened from their situation, perfectly unconscious of 
what they had said or done in their sleep. Functional 
derangement is probably the cause of such actions ; or 
they may be occasioned by some one of those causes, 
such as the continued practice of lying too long in bed, 
and disturbed or deficient sleep, which have been known 
to produce idiotcy and madness. 

But how shall we reprobate the practice of wasting 
the sweetest portion of the day in slumber ? Where find 
words to censure the sluggard, who consumes in sleep 
those hours that should be devoted to activity? The 
sweetness and freshness of the morning air, the beauty 
of the landscape, irradiated by the golden beams of the 
rising sun, the tuneful warblings of the birds, and the 
renewed life and vigor of all animated and natural ob- 

SLEEP. 1 89 

jects, give an interest and value to the morning hours, 
unequalled by any subsequent portion of the day, and 
should prompt every rational person to enjoy it. 

*' Falsely luxurious, will not man awake, 

And springing from the bed of sloth, enjoy 

The cool, the fragrant, and the silent hour 

To meditation due and sacred song ? 

For is there aught in sleep can charm the wise t 

To lie in dead oblivion ; losing half 

The fleeting moments of too short a life ; 

Tota} extinction of the enlightened soul ! 

Or else, to feverish vanity alive, 

Wilder'd, and tossing through distempered dreams ! 

Who would in such a gloomy state remain 

Longer than nature craves, when every muse, 

And every blooming pleasure, wait without 

To bless the wildly devious morning walk ?" 

Thus sung the poet, Thompson, and all who are in 
the habit of early rising, will feel and acknowledge the 
truth of the sentiments which he so beautifully expresses* 
Indeed, there is one point upon which dietetic writers, 
however much they may diner in other respects, uni- 
versally agree, that all persons, remarkable for their 
longevity, nave been very early risers. So beneficial is 
its influence upon the health, that it should be recom- 
mended to those who pursue this system of diet and 
regimen, to rise at day-break, and take gentle exercise, 
in the open air, at least an hour previous to breakfast. 


It has been truly remarked, that " cleanliness is the 
mother of virtues ;" a maxim which seems to have been 
forgotten by thousands of our population. Many think 
that they perform their duty, if they wash their face and 
hands once a day, and change their linen once a week. 

Should we stroll through tne streets and alleys of our 
large cities, and visit the tenements of their inhabitants, 
we would be surprised to find that many of them were 
such receptacles of filth. In passing through the va- 
rious avenues of a city, the nostrils are offended with 
the putrid emanations from decayed animal matter, tho 
noxious exhalations from decomposed vegetable sub- 
stances, the insufferable effluvium of slaughter-houses, 


and the floating particles of matter that fill the air from 
innumerable manufactories. Many of the houses, too, 
are in the most filthy condition ; the floors, stairs, walls, 
areas, &c. appear as if they had never been cleansed ; 
the beds and bed-rooms are in a similar condition, and 
the tenants themselves stand as much in need of ablu- 
tion and purification as their apartments. The purity 
of the atmosphere being thus impaired, is it surprising 
that the small-pox, and the typhus and yellow fevers, 
whose very existence owe their origin to filth, should 
have become so prevalent among mankind ? 

44 When the saline and animal elements left by the 
perspiration are not duly removed by washing or bath- 
ing, they at last obstruct the pores and irritate the skin. 
And it is apparently for this reason, that, in the eastern 
and warmer countries, where perspiration is very a*- 
pious, ablution and bathing have assumed the rank and 
importance of religious observances. Those who are 
in the habit of using the flesh-brush daily, are at first 
surprised at the quantity of white dry scurf which it 
brings off; and those who take a warm bath for half an 
hour at long intervals, cannot fail to have noticed the 
great amount of impurities which it removed, and the 
grateful feeling of comfort which its use imparts." 

The body should be completely washed from the head 
to the feet as often as circumstances will allow. The 
tepid bath is undoubtedly the best adapted to all consti- 
tutions. As to sponging and the flesh-brush, they should 
only be resorted to when it it is Hot convenient to bathe. 
Swimming, in pure water, is not only beneficial as an 
exercise, but it is also useful to cleanse the skin. In- 
deed, to keep up a free perspiration it is necessary that 
the pores of theskin should be perfectly unobstructed. 


The opinion has been already advanced that man 
originally employed no external covering to his skin. 
Removed, however, from a warm climate, he has found 
it necessary to clothe his body as a protection against 


the variations of temperature^ and the extreme cold of 
northern latitudes. Nature, in this respect, ceases to be 
our guide, and prudence would dictate that philosophy 
should direct us, not only in the choice of apparel, but 
also in the quantity. 

With regard to the choice of apparel, our selections 
must be regulated by situation, age, and habit of body. 
As to linen, it is an improper substance to be worn next 
the skin, conducting heat too rapidly from the body, 
and causing the pores of the skin to be clogged with 
perspirable matter. For the youthful and vigorous, cot- 
ton garments are the most suitable, but for the aged and 
infirm, flannel deserves the preference. Those who are 
exposect ; to sudden and frequent transitions of tempera- 
ture, as from a warm room to the cold air, will find 
flannel a very comfortable and salutary article of dress. 

Experience alone can teach us how to proportion the 
quantity of clothing to the peculiar habit of body, or to 
the temperature of the atmosphere. Clothing should 
be so regulated as to preserve, if possible, an equal 
temperature of the body throughout the year, and the 
quantity should always be diminished or increased as 
the weather becomes warmer or colder. 

Next to protecting the body from the vicissitudes of 
climate, particular attention should be bestowed upon 
the construction of our wearing apparel ; and while it 
is so constructed as to exhibit the graceful proportions 
of the body, it should be sufficiently loose to permit a 
perfect freedom of motion. Ligatures and bandages, 
when used to alter the shape, or to compress any por- 
tion of the human frame into a smaller compass, are 
injurious to bodily health, and destructive to beauty. It 
is not a little surprising where the first inventors of 
corsets acquired their ideas of symmetry and proportion. 
The diabolical purveyors of tne inquisition could not 
have invented an engine of torture more calamitous to 
mankind, nor more destructive to life, than the corset. 
The evils of tight-lacing are as manifest as they are 
numerous, and deserve the serious consideration of all 
who are interested in the welfare of the species. 


It is a common remark, that those who have narrow 
chests, arc consumptive. Now, the very object of tight- 
lacing is to reduce the dimensions of the chest, and this 
pernicious custom, when commenced in early youth, adds 
but another victim to the list of premature deaths. By 
this means, the lungs are prevented from expanding as 
they would otherwise have done, the blood is imperfectly 
purified, and a foundation is thus laid for consumption, 
dyspepsia, and bilious disorders. The shoulder-blade 
is projected, the spine distorted, and the complexion as- 
sumes a pale and sickly hue, or is unnaturally flushed. 
These effects are produced in a proportionate degree, 
by all belts and bandages. 

Not content with distorting the waist, the votaries of 
fashion believe that they improve its beauty by reducing 
the size of the foot. By wearing tight shoes, the toes, 
which in infancy were well-formed and flexible, become 
flattened and almost motionless, by some of them being 
pressed on the top of others. The nails often grow 
downward into the flesh, which they painfully inflame, 
while the continued pressure and friction of the shoe 
produces those uncomfortable excrescences called corns. 

The cravat should never be worn in warm weather, 
since it increases the sensibility of the part which it 
covers to the impressions of cold, and renders the indi- 
vidual liable to various diseases of the throat ; and by- 
wearing it too tight, instances of fatal apoplexy have 
been known to occur. Garters, and all otner ligatures 
which impede the free circulation of the blood, should 
always be avoided. 


In addition to the causes already adduced as tending 
to impair the vital functions and shorten the period of 
life, many others connected with the propagation of the 
species, such as the improper management of infants, 
and the lewdness and licentiousne 
would be improper to discuss at 1 
work, might also be cited. 


Many think that if a man adopt a vegetable diet, he 
is therefore necessarily a Grabamite. Nothing can be 
more erroneous. If such an individual, whose diet is 

{>erfectly unexceptionable, should fall a, victim to disease, 
et us first inquire whether he fulfilled all that is requisite 
to preserve health ; whether he paid proper attention to 
cleanliness of person and of clothing, took exercise in 
the open air, kept regular hours, and exerted a proper 
control over his passions. If such is ascertained to be 
the fact, then may we conclude that there is something 
faulty in the system itself — but not till then. It has 
been objected that a majority of those who pursue this 
mode of living, are remarkably small and thin. That 
many of them are so is not denied, but it must be recol- 
lected that they were mostly invalids who adopted it* with 
the view of a restoration to health ; but an individual 
cannot be found, who, having followed this plan strictly, 
has not increased in weight. 

Those who are desirous of longevity, need scarcely 
be told that a good-natured cheerful disposition contri- 
butes wonderfully to that end. Melancholy people are 
not only unhappy themselves, but cast a gloom on all 
around them ; eventually their health is seriously im- 
paired, and life shortened. A perfect tranquility of 
mind, and an equable temper, are the natural results of 
temperate living in children ; but in the adult, the mildest 
diet sometimes fails to soften the fierce passions of his 
breast. Anger, fear, grief, and other passions seriously 
disturb the nervous system, and, in many instances, have 
produced sudden death. Anxiety, care, and chagrin, 
and more particularly that unconquerable restlessness 
and dissatisfaction, a loathing of life and its pleasures, 
which are so painfully manifest in many unhappy indi- 
viduals, exert a powerful influence upon the brain, which 
frequently terminates in idiotcy or madness. 

Sound* perfect teeth are absolutely necessary to a 
good digestion. To preserve them from the conse- 
quences resulting from an accumulation of tartar, they 
should be cleansed every day with pure soft water, and 
a good tooth-brush ; the brush should be passed over 



the inside of the teeth as well as the outside. There 
is no need of using any dentrifice to cleanse the teeth, 
for all acids corrode the enamel, and powders destroy 
it by friction ; soft water will make the teeth perfectly 
white and clean, and can do them no possible injury, u 
the gums bleed when the brush is passed oyer the teeth, 
have the tartar immediately removed ; or if any of the 
teeth are decayed, instant application should be made 
to a dentist, in order to have such as were necessary, 
extracted, and cavities in others, filled* 


For the benefit of those who are undecided or wa- 
vering, or who have but little conception of the advan- 
tages resulting from the plan of living proposed in the 
preceding pages, I subjoin the following testimonials 
from respectable individuals, whose experience is the 
only answer necessary to refute the charges preferred 
against- a system, the truth of which, it is to be hoped, 
will one day be universally acknowledged, and the plan 
itself extensively practised. 

That the return to a natural mode of life will not only 
prevent disease, but also cure those disorders which 
have not too far progressed, admits of abundant proof: 
this great truth, theoretically promulgated, has now been 
demonstrated by experiments of the most unequivocal 
nature. The individuals who have subscribed their 
names to the subjoined testimonials, are referred to in 
proof of the assertion ; and, if necessary, many others 
might be cited. 

Some of these individuals had been afflicted with ob- 
stinate chronic maladies for years ; they had employed 
able physicians, and tried various remedies for the cure 
of their disorders, but with little or no success. Des- 
pairing of ever effecting a restoration to health by the 
aid of medicine, they adopted the plan of living which 
Mr. Graham had recommended, and abandoned their 
medical prescriptions. From the moment that they 
commenced this course of regimen, a gradual change 
took place in the state of their health, which they finally 
recovered, much to the surprise of their relatives and 
acquaintances, who had confidently predicted that they 
would not long survive the experiment. A few of those 
who had thus happily regained their health, carelessly 
relapsed into their former habits, and a recurrence of 
the diseases which had been removed, eventually fol- 
lowed ; no relief could be obtained, until they resumed 
their temperate mode of life. Among these disorders 
the most conspicuous were consumption, dyspepsia, and 
a variety of nervous ailments and bilious complaints. 


New-York, Dec. 12th, 1834. 

In compliance with your request, we very willingly annex 
our names b o those which you have already received, in testimony of the benefits 
resulting from the anti-stimulating system of Dietetics as taught by Mr. Graham. 
We have followed this plan of living for the two years past, with very manifest 
advantage to our health and happiness, and we confidently recommend its adop- 
tion, especially to those persons who lead sedentary lives, or who are afflicted 
with chronic disease ; being, at the same time, confident that all men would be 
benefitted by practicing the gcnerul doctrines of this system. 

80LYMAN BROWN, 4 Park-Place. 

ELEAZAR PAUMLY, 11 Park-Place. 

J. PARMLY, 1 1 Park-Place. 

JOHN liCJRDKLL, CD Chambers-street 

JOSEPH PERKINS, 4 John-street. 

ELIHU BLAKK, 7 Park-Place. 

WILLIAM MITCHELL, 124 Canal-street. 

THOMAS D. EARLE, 121 Canal-street. 

DANIEL PIKE, 1G6 Broadway. 

DAVID I. B URGER, corner of Pell and Mott streets. 

New- York, October 10th, 1833. 

For the sake of human happiness I venture to speak the 
truth, however heterodox my opinions may seem, when compared with those 
that are now prevalent among such individuals as are esteemed the most en- 
lightened, in their moral and political views. My dietetic experience, then, has 
most satisfactorily proven to my own, as well as to the minds of several friends 
who have been induced, by my representations, to try, to a great extent, the 
plans which I had adopted, that the plainest kind of food, and that which com* 
prises the least variety at a meal, is, beyond a doubt, calculated to insure an 
exemption from either physical or mental lethargy, or disease ; and further, 
that a comparison of the effects that generally ensue from the use of vegetable 
and animal aliments, entitles the former to a high and decided preference : — 
while, to speak in more particular terms, I feel at liberty to refer yourself and 
others to my own immediate experience of rive years, during which period I 
adhered strictly to a vegetable diet, to the exclusion of all articles generally 
considered as stimulants ; my food consisting often of the coarsest bread, made 
from unbolted flour, or, of rice, potatoes, and such farinaceous vegetables as the 
season afforded. And it may be proper here to remark, that I did not commence 
this abstemious course on account of any diseased condition of the "system, 
but purely from conscientious scruples; not only with regard to the injustice ^ a |c 
and cruelty of destroying animal existence, without being able to prefer the ar- 
gument of necessity, but also in consideration of the injurious effects produced 
by the undue stimulation, resulting from the use of animal food, upon the moral 
and intellectual state of mankind, of which prejudicial tendency I had become 
convinced from a critical, and, I think, an impartial perusal of several scien- 
tifical works of acknowledged merit. And, indeed, independently of the bene- 
fits that I have derived in an economical point of view, my subsequent expe- 
rience has fully confirmed me in the conclusion, that I was neither premature 
nor injudicious in the adoption of sentiments, thus far favorable to temperance, 
which, if you can admit my version, is " the only point where human bliss 
stands still, and tastes the pood without the fall to ill.'" 

LAVINIA D. WRIGHT, 65 Bowery. 

New- York, October Gth, 1838. 
. »$ir — 

As you wish me to inform you respecting my experience in 
living on a vegetable diet, I can only say that my experience is all in its favor 


I have lived very strictly on vegetables for five years during the last twelve, 
and can assure you that my health is much better, and my strength far greater, 
than when I used a mixture of animal food ; and I am thoroughly convinced 
that when this subject is rationally and philosophically investigated (if ever that 
time should arrive) that truth will be found on the side of the vegetable system, 
and the adoption of that system would tend greatly to tiie melioration of the 
condition (both physical and moral) of mankind. With regard to drinks, I 
ould observe that I use only pure water, which is the only natural beverage of 
human race. AMOS POLLARD. M. L). 

[I subjoin the following remarks from Dr. Everett.] 

New- York, December 10th. 183 1. 

In compliance with your request to state my opinion of the 
comparative value of a diet of animal or vegetable food, to persons in delicate 
health, I would say, that from observation of the effects of the two systems on 
myself and friends, the result shows that a decided preference should be given 
to a diet regulated by the principles laid down in your work. Animal food does 
not appear to be a suitable article rot the consumption of persons of sedentary 
habits, and particularly those who are predisposed to, or laboring under, pul- 
monic affections. This class of persons will find that the evils arising from 
confinement to the house, and neglect of exercise in the open air, will be much 
Jess apparent from the use of a vegetable diet, than one composed, even in 
part, of animal food. WILLIAM EVERETT, 4 Mott-streeu 

New- York, December 15th, 1834. 

I cheerfully add my testimony in favor of the system taught 
by Mr. Graham, being convinced that its adoption conduces to the health and 
happiness of our species. A vegetable diet may, from my own experience and 
observation, be recommended to all who prefer tranquility of mind to a heated 
and disordered circulation, which, in every instance, may be said to arise from 
irregularity of living, a free use of animal food, and an indulgence in stimulating 
drinks. WILLIAM SHARROCK, Bleecker-street. 

. Sir- 
Unhesitatingly do I give my testimony in favor of the well- 
tested principles of Mr. Graham. There can be no serious mistake in them, 
for they are founded in the immutable laws of nature. Nearly four years un- 
deviating practice, together with the daily observance of their effects on multi- 
tudes, have placed them beyond the shadow of a doubt. Go on — Truth is all 
powerful and must prevail ; and, while the " despisers are wandering and per- 
ishing," be yours the consolation of having done what you could to enforce 
these powerful truths on a degenerated world. 

ASENATH NICHOLSON, cor. of Broadway and Wall-st. 

1 New- York, December 13th, 1834. 

We, the subscribers, being desirous of promoting the health and happiness of 
mankind, annex our names to the testimonial offered for our approbation, be- 
lieving, not only from observation, but also from experience, that the principles- 
of diet and regimen, as taught by Mr. Graham, are conducive to health. And 
that ourselves, and many of our friends, have experienced the benefits arising 
from a total abstinence from all artificial stimuli. And further, that we believe 
that the general adoption of a vegetable diet would tend, in a remarkable de- 
gree) tc Meliorate the condition of mankind, both physical and moral. 

HARVEY SPENCER, 22 Cliff-street. 

JOSEPH W. HARRISON, 985 Division-street. 

TEMPLE FAY, 180 Franklin-street. 


GURDON DAVISON, 165 Bowery. 
KVANDER D. FISHER, 341 Grand-street. 
SAMUEL HISCOX, 53 Vesey-street. 
HARIOT WHEELER, 261 Bowery. 
LEWIS SEYMOUR, 33 Mott-street. 
FRANCIS J. SMITH, 195 Madison-street. 
WILLIAM TUNIS, 69 Mulberry-street. 
CALDWELL G. WHITE, 88 Broadway. 
WALTER P. DOE, 193 Pearl-street. 
HORACE GREELY, 20 Nassau-street. 
JOSEPH T. SANGER, 194 Pearl-street. 
JOSEPH TITCOMB, 196 Broadway. 
JOHN SNIFFEN, 156 Riv in gton- street. 
JOSEPHUS N. CRAIN, 201 Walker-street. 
KBEN WHITNEY, 380 Pearl-street. 
GEORGE CRAGIN, 176 Thompson-street. 
MARY E. CRAGIN, 176 Thompson-street. 
RICHARD CUNNINGHAM, 159 Bleecker-streot* 
JOSHUA GEER, 193 William-street. 
ELIZA WHITTELSEY, 239 Madison-street. 
EDMOND VAN YORX, 89 Clinton-street. 
CORNELIA BURR, 217 Canal-street. 
ABBY ANN BURR, 217 Canal-street. 
D. W. BELL, 249 Broome-street. 
GEORGE M. TRACY, 116 William-street. . 
STELLA L. TRACY, 116 William-street. 
ANDREW LUKE, 352 Broadway. 
ASA R. LOWELL, 352 Broad wav. 



f. •*■ 


Acute disease, sudden and violent. 

Anthropophagi, cannibals ; men who devour human fle*h. 

Auricle, one of the superior cavities of the heart. 

Blanched, bleached or made white. 

Chronic disease, of gradual commencement and of long 

Chyle, the nutritious fluid separated from the food for 

the formation of the blood. 
Chyme, the pultaceous mass formed by the digestion 6T 

the food in the stomach. 
Congenital, belonging to the same race or kind. 
Corpuscle, a small body ; a particle of matter* V 
Crasis, constitution. \ 

Crimped, shrunk by compression. 
Crustaceans, having a crust-like shell or covering. 
Cuisine, kitchen or cookery. 
Depuration, the act of cleansing ; purifying 
Edible, eatable. 

Elaborating, forming with labor or precision. 
Empyreumatic, smelling as if burned. 
Eructations, belchings. 
Focal, excrementitial. 
Fauces, a cavity behind the tongue, &c. 
Follicles, small bags ; applied to glands, as the salnraiy 

glands, Ace. *** > , 

Graminivorous, feeding on grass. 
Herbivorous, feeding on herbs. 
Homogeneous, uniform ; of a like kind. 
Hypochondriacal, affected with lowness of spirits* 
Lacteals, small vessels that convey the chyle to the 

Lamina, thin plates. 
Lotophagi, men who subsisted on the lotus, a fruit which 

was said to be so delicious, that those who once 

tasted of it, forsook all other desires. 
Lymphatics, small vessels that convey the lymph, &c. 
^to the blood-vessels. 
Mammalia, that class of animals which suckle their young. 


Median line, the middle line, or that fine which sepa- 
rates the right and left portions of the body. 

Molecules, atoms, or the smallest divisible parts of matter, 

JHVr&irf, diseased. 

Narcotic, stupifying. 

Ophisophagi, men who feed on serpents. 

Parieties, side-walls. 

Physiology, a discourse on natural objects. 

Plexus, a number of nervous cords woven together. 

Ponderable, weighty. 

Pulmonary, belonging to the lungs. 

Ruminantta, a class of animals which chew the cud. 

Secretion, a separation of certain particles from the blood. 

Sentient, feeling. 

Septic, relating to putrefaction. 

Septum, a partition. 

Stimulus, that which imparts increased action to an 

Tissue, a particular arrangement of nervous or muscular 
fibres in the organs. 

Troglodites, men who live in caves. 

Tympanum, the drum of the ear. 

Vacuum, a space void of matter. 

Vascular, consisting of vessels, as the arteries, veins, &c. 

Ventricle, one of the inferior cavities of the heart. 

Viscera, the internal organs, including the intestinal ca- 
nal, liver, spleen,, lungs, pancreas, &c. 



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